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REMAINS 



HISTORICAL & LITERARY 



CONNECTED WITH THE PALATINE COUNTIES OF 



LANCASTER AND CHESTER. 



PUBLISHED BY 



THE CHETHAM SOCIETY 



VOL. LVIII. 



PRINTED FOR THE CHETHAM SOCIETY. 
M.DCCC.LXII. 



MICROFORMED BY 
PRESERVATION 

SERVICES 

DATE. J A.M. Q. 6 1989.. 




DATE 



Dfl 

t70 




COUNCIL FOB 1862-3. 

JAMES CROSSLEY, ESQ., F.S.A., PRESIDENT. 

REV. F. R. RAINES, M.A., F.S.A., HON. CANON OF MANCHESTER, 

VICE-PRESIDENT. 
WILLIAM BEAMONT. 

THE VERY REV. GEORGE HULL BOWERS, D.D ., DEAN OF MANCHESTER. 
REV. JOHN BOOKER, M.A., F.S.A. 
REV. THOMAS CORSER, M.A., F.S.A. 
JOHN HARLAND, F.S.A. 
EDWARD HAWKINS, F.R.S., F.S.A., F.L.S. 
THOMAS HEYWOOD, F.S.A. 
W. A. HULTON. 
REV. JOHN HOWARD MARSDEN, B.D., CANON OF MANCHESTER, 

DISNEY PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ANTIQUITIES, CAMBRIDGE. 
REV. JAMES RAINE, M.A. 
ARTHUR H. HEYWOOD, TREASURER. 
WILLIAM LANGTON, HON. SECRETARY. 




MAMECESTRE: 



BEING 



CHAPTERS FROM THE EARLY RECORDED HISTORY OF 

THE BARONY; THE LORDSHIP OR MANOR; 

THE VILL, BOROUGH, OR TOWN, 



OF 



MANCHESTER 



EDITED BY 

JOHN HARLAND, F.S.A, 



VOL. III. 



PRINTED FOR THE CHETHAM SOCIETY. 
M.DCCC.LXII. 



^rfnteU ig fjarls Simms anti (ffo. 



INTRODUCTION. 



IT is but right to warn the Reader that this does not pre- 
tend to be a History of Manchester ; but only a collection 
of the raw material for its early history, so far as that 
material has been found in a written or permanent form. 
The History of Manchester, both in ancient and modern 
times, yet remains to be written. 

The work, bearing that title, by the late Rev. John 
Whitaker (2 vols. 4to, London, 1771), consists for the most 
part of a general description of British, Roman and Anglo- 
Saxon polity, manners and customs, as they existed in Eng- 
land; with occasional local applications to the effect that 
such habits and customs "must have been" those of the 
inhabitants of Manchester, at the respective periods indicated. 
Moreover, it is an unfinished work, containing two only of 
the four books promised on its title-page, and terminating 
before the Norman Conquest. Hollinworth's Mancuniensis 
is a rough series of entries apparently intended for the com- 
pilation of annals ; but these jottings are defective and 
imperfect, besides in various cases needing verification. It 
is only in the seventeenth century, when these notes are 
made from his own observation, that they become valuable. 



J v INTRODUCTION. 

He died in November 1656 ; and the last of these entries is 
dated September 1 1 in that year, when he was a prisoner in 

London. 

Dr. Aikin's Description of the Country thirty to forty miles 
round Manchester (London, 4to, 1795), contains only seventy- 
one pages relating to Manchester, inclusive of a biography 
of John Byrom, M.A. Mr. J. Corry's History of Lanca- 
shire (2 vols. 4to, London, 1825), comprises its notices of 
Manchester in one hundred pages. Mr. Baines's History 
of Lancashire (4 vols. 4to, 1832), devotes two hundred and 
forty-eight pages to a history of the extensive parish of 
Manchester, including that of the town and manor, and 
various biographical notices and pedigrees of its eminent 
natives. Of later publications, the only one really ranking 
higher than a mere local Guide Book* is Mr. James 

* Some of the older Guide Books are worth consulting, in reference 
to local historical facts, customs and usages, places and persons. Among 
these may be enumerated: i. A Description of Manchester, by a 
Native of the Town. Printed and published by Charles "Wheeler, June 
1783. 2. The Charters of the Collegiate Church, the Free Grammar 
School, the [Chetham's] Blue Coat Hospital, and the last "Will and Tes- 
tament of the late Catharine Eichards [of Strangeways Hall]. Printed 
by T. Harper, 1791. 3. Aston' s Manchester Guide. Printed by 
Joseph Aston, 1 804. 4. A Picture of Manchester, by Joseph Aston, 
3rd Edit. 1826. 5. Metrical Eecords of Manchester, by the Editor of 
the Manchester Herald [Joseph Aston]. London, 1822. 6. A De- 
scription of Manchester and Salford. Anonymous. Printed by Leech 
and Cheetham, no date, but probably in 1815 or 1816. 7. The 
Antiquities of the Town, and a Complete History of the Trade of 
Manchester, with a description of Manchester and Salford. By James 
Butterworth. Printed by W. C. Leake, Manchester, 1822. Since 
1830 there have been many Guides and Handbooks to Manchester, but 



INTRODUCTION. V 

Wheeler's Manchester ; but this is avowedly a collection of 
statistics exhibiting the progress of Manchester in population, 
manufactures, wealth and importance, chiefly during the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries ; and it merely glances 
at the early history of the place. The work of largest and 
most accurate information, and of the highest authority 
relative to the history of ancient Manchester and its institu- 
tions, is that entitled A History of the Foundations in Man- 
chester, &c., chiefly by the late Dr. Hibbert-Ware, F.S. A. The 
work, still unfinished, is in four quarto volumes, of which 
the first three were published in 1834, and the fourth in 
1848. The first three volumes consist of four parts : i, A 
History of the Collegiate Church, which occupies the first 
volume and half the second ; the other half being devoted 
to 2, An Architectural Description of the Collegiate Church 
and College, by the late Mr. John Palmer, architect. The 
third volume includes part 3, The History of Manchester 
[Free Grammar] School, and part 4. A History of the 
Chetham Hospital and Library. Both these parts are by 
the late Mr. William Robert Whatton, F.A.S. &c. Vol. 4 
is by Dr. Hibbert-Ware, and is entitled The Ancient Parish 
Church of Manchester, and why it was collegiated ; and this 
history is brought down to 1422, the year of that collegia- 
tion. Its venerable and learned author proposed, in a second 
book of this supplementary volume, to continue the history 
of the Collegiate Church, with notices of the munificent 

they chiefly relate to the recent history and contemporary state of the 
town. 



vi INTRODUCTION. 

bequests made and sums expended, towards the erection of 
a new Collegiate Church and other buildings ; the founda- 
tions of six chantries, in addition to the one or two previ- 
ously existing; the alterations in the constitution of the 
collegiate body and staff of functionaries, as in 1527, and 
various other matters ; all which purposes were arrested by 
the decease of Manchester's ablest historian and antiquary. 
This valuable work, however, even if it were complete, 
prefers no claim to be a general history of the place ; but 
may rather be regarded as so many monographs relating to 
the parish church, two schools and a library. It contains, 
incidentally, many interesting facts connected with the 
general history of the manor ; and the fourth volume espe- 
cially is rich in notices of the early barons, the charter, and 
various grants, &c., then known to exist.* But most of the 
more important archives and documents contained in the 
present work were wholly unknown to Dr. Hibbert-Ware, 

1 There are many works which contain incidental notices of facts, 
events, persons and places, connected with the History of Manchester, 
an enumeration of which might be tedious to the reader. "We may 
name, however, Matthew Gregson's Portfolio of Fragments, relating to 
the History and Antiquities of the County Palatine and Duchy of Lan- 
caster. Folio. istEdit. Liverpool, 1817 ; 2nd, with additions, Liver- 
pool, 1824. The Natural History of Lancashire, Cheshire, fyc., with 
an Account of the Antiquities in those parts, by Charles Leigh, M.D. 
(Polio, Oxford, 1700). Baines's History, Directory and Gazetteer of 
Lancashire, 2 vols. Liverpool, 1824. Lancashire, its History, Legends 
and Manufactures, by the Eev. G. N. "Wright and Thomas Allen, &c. 
2 vols. 4 to, no date. But the richest mine of materials for the History 
of Manchester wiU be found in the publications of the CHETHAM 
SOCIETY, scattered through nearly fifty of its volumes. 



INTRODUCTION. Vll 

or had only been printed in an exceedingly inaccurate and 
imperfect form. The diplomas which he was chiefly careful 
to place on record, were those derived from the muniment 
chest of the Collegiate body, relating almost exclusively to 
the Parish and Collegiate Church. 

The grants, charters and records, which are comprised in 
the present work, have been chiefly transcribed by its Editor 
from the original parchments, or from early copies, and have 
never before been printed. They embrace a period from the 
Norman Conquest to the latter part of the fifteenth century, 
comprising about four centuries of the earliest and least 
known history of that Manchester which has at length won 
for itself a place of mark in the history of the world. It fol- 
lows from these facts that, while the latest published portion 
of the History of the Collegiate Church supplies all that can 
be desired as to the ecclesiastical history of Manchester in 
its earlier period, the present work, in its own distinct and 
parallel channel, carries the secular and feudal history of 
the place along its stream, so far as that history can be read 
in the written acts of monarchs, and of its own baronial 
lords. Side by side stand the warrior-lord and the clerkly 
priest. Each leaves his impress on the place ; and if the 
Cleric, as might be expected, has found an abler recorder, 
the Seigneur has not been left wholly without a scribe. The 
future historian of Manchester can neither ignore the acts 
which, in the spirit of the purest Lollardism, reformed the 
older church government and discipline in the parish of 
Manchester, nor close his eyes to the ancient archives 
now first rescued from the keeping of musty and fast-perish- 



viii INTRODUCTION. 

ing parchments, in the obscure depths of muniment chests 
which show how the Manor or Lordship of Mamecestre was 
held and ruled in ages past. 

It is of the very nature of such a collection of documents 
as the present, that they should be unconnected, broken in 
series, disjointed ; having little bond of union beyond their 
general relation to the same territorial possessions, and an 
interrupted chronological sequence. They form no flowing 
and continuous stream ; but rather resemble the fragments 
of rock and stone scattered along its course. Or, if a regular 
series of local annals be regarded as a sort of moving pano- 
rama of connected views, these scattered and insulated 
documents may be compared to rude photographs, taken at 
various and distant periods ; showing rather the extent of 
the changes of time than the identity of place. Such slight 
thread of connection as may be found is, however, offered 
to the Reader, on the assumption (however erroneous it 
may be in this instance) that an Introduction will be read 
before the text of the work which it ushers to the world. 

Of British Manchester, if such a place ever existed, there 
is no record of the slightest value. It is, perhaps, the safest 
course to regard the Mancenion of modern writers as a 
myth. The occupation of part of the site of modern Man- 
chester, as a Roman military station or fort, with a strong 
garrison, for a period of nearly three centuries, is, on the 
contrary, an historical fact, amply established by evidence. 
But this long period of our local history affords no materials 
for the present work. No written record, no inscribed stone, 
remains to tell the story, or even the name, of Roman Man- 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

Chester. All that we know is, that in certain Roman 
" Itineraries" the Road-Books or Distance Tables of that 
day a "station" is named on the site of modern Manches- 
ter ; but even there its name is variously spelled, and not 
only the significance but even the orthography of that name 
must remain in doubt. We do learn, however, by inscribed 
stones, that the garrison here consisted of the First Cohort 
or Regiment of Frisians, foreign auxiliary troops attached 
to the Twentieth Legion, which long occupied the Deva of 
that period, the Chester of our time. 

Of Manchester in the Saxon period we have really but 
two trust-worthy records. From the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 
we learn that in the autumn of A.D. 923 Edward the elder, 
son of Alfred the Great, having added the kingdom of 
Mercia to his dominions on the death of his sister ^Ethel- 
fleda, and being at Thelwall, in Cheshire, three and a half 
miles E.S.E. of Warrington, sent thence a body of Mercian 
troops to Manchester, to "repair and man it," in other 
words to rebuild it, environ it with walls, and themselves to 
constitute its garrison. One of the old chroniclers, evidently 
deriving his knowledge of the fact from this statement only, 
adds as his own comment in reference to Manchester, 
" which sore defaced was, in the wars with the Danes." But 
there is no record that can afford us the slightest glimpse of 
the state of Manchester between its Roman-Frisian occupa- 
tion and this rebuilding of it a century and a half before the 
Norman Conquest. For about five centuries of its existence 
the history of Manchester remains a blank. The twentieth 
legion is supposed to have finally quitted Chester about the 

b 



X INTRODUCTION. 

close of the fourth century ; and the next ascertained fact 
is this fortifying of Manchester in the beginning of the tenth. 
How it passed from Roman-Frisian rule into the hands of 
the Saxon or Anglian possessors of Northumbria ; how 
often it was subjected to the ruthless incursions of Picts and 
Scots on the one hand, and of Scandinavian Vikings and 
their followers on the other ; how utterly it was sacked and 
destroyed, dismantled or burned, must remain amongst 
the numberless hidden things of a remote past. The only 
other fact of its Saxon period is that recorded in the Domes- 
day Survey, that in the time of Edward the Confessor 
(1041-1066) that king held the hundred of Salford (of 
course including Manchester) in his own hands. 

The earliest fact relating to Manchester after the Norman 
Conquest is derived from the ancient record just quoted ; 
from which it appears that about A.D. 1086 there were two 
churches in that locality, St. Mary's and St. Michael's, and 
that they jointly held a carve or ploughland, free from all 
taxes and customs except the universal Dane-geld. The 
date of the constitution of the barony, or even of the manor 
or lordship, of Mamecestre, is unknown. A MS. (quoted 
P- 33) professes to give a list of the Barons of the County, 
holding their baronies of Roger de Poictou ; but this MS. 
appears to have no satisfactory authority for its statement. 
Again, an Albert Grelle or Greslet, a favourite of Roger de 
Poictou, and of course a Norman, is generally supposed to 
have been the earliest baron ; but it is not capable of proof 
that his possessions included the manor of Mamecestre. The 
first recorded fact connecting a Greslet with the place is, that 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

in 1131 Robert Greslet, the son of the Albert just named, 
gave his mill at Mamecestre to the Cistercian Abbey of 
Swineshead, Lincolnshire. On the other hand, two early 
records place the foundation of that abbey, one in 1134 and 
the other in 1 143 ! This confusion of dates pervades much 
of the early history of the manor and its lords. 

Various grants of lands in and near Manchester, by the 
Greslets, successive lords of the manor, are recorded ; chiefly 
in that ancient feodary the Testa de Nevill. But the first 
original documents connected with the manor, which are 
printed in the present work, are the two royal grants of a 
Fair in the manor of Mamecestre, made to Robert Greslet, 
the fifth in succession in Lancashire, in the years 1222 and 
1227 (Chap. V.) The first was a temporary and provisional 
grant made during the minority of Henry III. by the Regent 
of the Kingdom, Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent and Chief 
Justiciary of England. The second and governing grant, 
made five years afterwards, when the king had attained his 
majority and assumed the rule of the kingdom, extended 
the duration of the fair to three days, the Eve, Day and 
Morrow of St. Matthew the Apostle the 2oth, 2 1 st and 
22nd days of September. Careful and exact copies of these 
records are printed from transcripts made for this work 
from the Fine Rolls. 

As an indispensable preliminary to the notices of various 
feudal laws, customs and usages in the manor, Chap. VI. is 
devoted to a brief notice of the chief provisions of Mayna 
Carta, the Carta de Foresta, and the law-making generally 
of the thirteenth century, especially of that portion of it 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

which falls within the reign of Edward I. (1272-1307). 
The next Chapter contains a translation of such parts of the 
Testa de Nevill as exhibit the knights' fees and services held 
and renderable in the hundred of Salford, during the early 
period to which that ancient feodary relates. The entries 
include the grants and feoffments, the various sub-infeuda- 
tions, made by successive Greslets to their knights, free- 
holders and other tenants and retainers. It is not always 
possible to distinguish, amongst several Greslets of the same 
Christian name, the individual grantor; and hence consi- 
derable confusion and discrepancy in some efforts of former 
writers to give a connected account of these Greslets. They 
have been well described as Norman Veneurs or Hunters ; 
and we find that Thomas Greslet, the sixth of his family in 
succession, obtained a grant or charter of Free Warren in 
all his demesne lands of Manchester, as well as in another 
manor in Suffolk (Chap. VIII.) This royal grant (of the 
33 Henry III. July 1249) imposed a penalty of lot. on any 
one hunting or joining the chase over his lands without the 
leave and license of the lord of the manor. This grant has 
been printed from an official copy of the records in the 
Court of Chancery, preserved amongst the muniments of 
Sir Oswald Mosley at Rolleston.* On the death of this 
Thomas Greslet, leaving a widow whose maiden name was 
Christiana Ledet, three royal writs, of the nature of Escheats, 
were issued (Chap. IX.) ; of which one, dated i3th February 

* From this MS. the present Editor first published a copy and trans- 
lation of the grant, in the " Proceedings of the Historic Society of Lan- 
cashire and Cheshire" (vol. iv. p. 48). 



INTRODUCTION. 

1262, directs the king's escheator south of Trent to take 
and keep for the king, until he shall command otherwise, 
all the land and tenements of which the deceased baron was 
seised as of fee, on the day on which he died. A second 
(dated the 6th May following) directs the escheator to 
deliver to the widow full seisin of the manors of Swineshead 
and Sixhills (both in Lincolnshire), which the king had 
assigned to her for dower. The third, directed to the 
escheator north of the Trent, commands him to take and 
hold for the king the manor of Mamecestre, and to account 
for its issues and profits. This writ declares that the 
deceased Thomas Greslet held the manor of the king "in 
capite by barony ;" and that the heir [Robert, grandson of 
the deceased, being about ten years of age] is " in the king's 
hand" [as ward]. 

We now come to a period at which more details are 
afforded as to the possessions of the baron or lord of the 
manor ; the nature and extent of the tenures ; the rents and 
services due from the tenants, and many other particulars of 
great local interest. As a necessary introduction to this 
part of the work, Chap. X. has been devoted to a translation 
of the statute (4 Edward I. 1276) entitled " Extenta Ma- 
nerii" which is precise and minute in its directions as to the 
order and mode of surveying and estimating the value of a 
manor, or, to use the language of the time, " extending," 
or making an " extent" of, a manor. To the text of each 
chapter or clause of the statute has been appended (with 
some abbreviations) an explanatory commentary, attributed 
to Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, a Judge of the Common Pleas 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

in the reign of Henry VIII. from a scarce volume in the 
Editor's possession. 

We have seen that writs were issued, and doubtless post 
mortem inquisitions held, on the decease of Thomas Greslet 
the sixth baron. The like proceedings were taken on the 
death of Robert Greslet the seventh baron. Chap. XL con- 
tains copies and translations of no fewer than three royal 
writs, and as many returns (called variously Inquisitions 
and Extents), all made in the year 1282. The first inquiry 
was made by the king's escheator and a jury on Saturday, 
April 25 ; the second before the sheriff of Lancashire and a 
jury on Sunday, May 3 ; and the third before the sheriff and 
a jury on Saturday, September 12, 1282. A tabular sum- 
mary of the two first of these inquisitions, in juxta-position, 
showing the estimated value of each parcel of land, &c., has 
been added, so as to facilitate the examination and compa- 
rison of one with the other, and of both with later valua- 
tions. As affording the means of more clear comprehension 
of the general nature and provisions of the charter granted 
to the burgesses of Mamecestre, Chap. XII. has been devoted 
to a notice of the earlier royal and other charters to various 
Lancashire boroughs and towns. Amongst these, two docu- 
ments especially deserve attention, the ancient Custumal 
of Preston, which is without date, but is supposed to have 
been drawn up early in the twelfth century ; and the Custumal 
of the city of Chester, also without date, but which was 
probably prepared from the charters of Randle de Blunde- 
ville, Earl of Chester, early in the thirteenth century. These 
are two of the most remarkable documents ever printed in 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

reference to the municipal government of English boroughs 
under their feudal lords. The Editor regrets that at the 
time that portion of the work was sent to press not having 
access to the old copy of the Preston Custumal, kept in the 
muniment chest of the corporation of that borough, he was 
obliged to reprint its translation from a local history. He 
has since been favoured with the loan of this ancient and 
exceedingly curious document, and a careful collation has 
detected various errors and omissions in the printed version, 
which he has noted in the list of Errata et Corrigenda. The 
Custumal or Record of the Liberties of Chester was not 
known to the learned and venerable historian of that 
county ; no copy existing among the archives of the city 
corporation. The present Editor first discovered it among 
the charters to the corporation of Clitheroe ; it having been 
procured at some remote period from Chester, as the basis 
of various privileges and immunities granted to the bur- 
gesses of Clitheroe, in the charter of Henry d.e Lacy, Earl of 
Lincoln, about the year 1283; which grants to Clitheroe 
" all the liberties and free customs which the free burgesses 
of Chester have, and which at any time they have freely 
had, or have, or have used." The student of early English 
municipal law and polity should compare these documents 
with the other charters in the same chapter ; especially with 
that setting forth the liberties and free customs of the bur- 
gesses of Bristol, as granted by [King] John, while Earl of 
Mortaigne, to the burgesses of Lancaster, and with the 
Salford charter of 1230-31, granted by Randle de Blunde- 
ville, Earl of Chester, which is now for the first time accu- 



xv i INTRODUCTION. 

rately printed, from a careful examination of the original 
(preserved in the muniment chest of the Salford corporation) 
collated with an early and more legible copy, now in the 
Royal Borough Museum, Peel Park, Salford. The chapter 
containing these various charters closes the first volume. 

The second volume opens with the thirteenth chapter, 
containing in the original Latin, and in English, Thomas 
Grelle's charter to his burgesses of Mamecestre, dated the 
ist May, 1301. As the local Magna Carta, under which 
the manor and town were governed for more than five cen- 
turies, no pains have been spared to place on record a literal 
copy and a verbally accurate translation of this interesting 
and important diploma. It was transcribed, word by word, 
from the original, after minute examination of every letter 
under a magnifying glass ; the transcript was then collated 
with the exemplification or official copy of the charter made 
and enrolled in 1623, and the slightest deviations from the 
original text were carefully noted ; the old parchment char- 
ter was beautifully photographed, and forms the frontispiece 
to the first volume ; the printed text was revised by this 
photograph, so as to guard against any error of transcrip- 
tion ; and the whole has been copiously annotated, with due 
regard to the translation and suggestions of the Rev. J. 
Whitaker and the elaborate analysis of Dr. Hibbert-Ware. 
Further, it has been compared, clause by clause, with the 
corresponding provisions in the charter of the adjacent 
borough of Salford, granted about seventy years earlier ; 
and thus considerable light is thrown on the obscurer enact- 
ments and regulations of both documents. And lastly, the 



INTRODUCTION. XVII 

remarks on this charter, made by the learned authors of 
The History of Boroughs (Mr. Serjeant Merewether and 
Mr. Stephens), have been reprinted ; and every statement 
of authority having essential bearing on the subject has been 
embodied in this chapter, as environing the great central 
fact of the book. The fourteenth chapter treats of the 
circumstances under which the manor and its appurtenances 
passed by distaff from the family of Greslet to that of La 
Warre ; and a translation of the grant of the manor from 
Sir Robert Grelle Knt. to Sir John La Warre Knt. and 
Joan his wife (Grelle's sister), dated the i/j-th March 1309, 
is followed by some account of the La Warres, the new 
lords of the manor. In the same chapter will be found 
translations of such portions of the great De Lacy Inquisi- 
tion of 131 1 and of the Birch Feodary (of uncertain date) 
as relate to the barony, manor and neighbourhood of Man- 
chester ; also some notice of the alienation of the manor by 
John la Warre to the Abbey of Dore in Herefordshire, and 
its reversion to the alienator ; with other documents of the 
period. 

Chapter XV. comprises an official Survey of the Manor of 
Mamecestre, made for its then lord, in the year 1320; now 
first printed, and indeed till now unknown. Both a copy 
and a translation are given, as well as a tabular summary 
of the yearly value of every item in the Survey. This is an 
exceedingly important document, not only in itself, as pre- 
senting a picture of the state of the manor, its tenantry, and 
its franchises, customs, tolls and privileges, at that early 
period ; but also as affording a standard of comparison with 



xviii INTRODUCTION. 

the less detailed account in the Inquisitions of 1282, and 
with the still more full and complete statement contained in 
the Extent of 1322. There are thus brought under view 
three Inventories, as it were,' of the manorial possessions 
within the space of twenty years. Chapter XVI. com- 
prises the Extent, or Survey and Valuation of the Manor, 
according to the plan prescribed by the Statute for Extending 
Manors, given in an earlier chapter. This document is 
printed from a collation of various copies, chiefly of one 
made by Dr. Eeuerden, and of others from Harleian MSS. 
Both the Latin text and an English translation are given, 
and the various readings of different versions are distin- 
guished in foot-notes. A tabular summary of the Survey 
and Extent, in juxta-position, is added. Though these two 
Inventories were taken within the short space of two years, 
the form of taking them differs so widely as to add greatly 
to the interest of both. The Survey takes each township or 
district by itself; enumerates the various issues, rents, cus- 
toms and services collectable by the lord's bailiffs; and at 
the end of each township gives its total amount of yearly 
value. The Extent, on the other hand (following the order 
prescribed by the Statute), first sets down the tenure of the 
barony and manor, and the services &c. due from its lord 
to his lord-paramount, the Earl of Lancaster, or to the 
Crown. It then classes together all the items of the same 
kind under one head, irrespective of their position in the 
various townships or hamlets; and enumerates, succes- 
sively, all the Demesne Lands, the Pastures, the Demesne 
and Foreign Woods, the Pannage &c., the Mills, Fisheries 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

and Ovens, the Pleas and Perquisites of the Courts, the 
Farm &c. of the Chief and other Bailiffs, the Forests and 
Foresters, the Markets and Fairs, the Advowson of Churches, 
and the nominal Renders for Tenures in grants from affec- 
tion, as a red rose, a knife, a pair of gloves, a clove, or a 
pepper-corn. While the Survey shows the quantities of 
land under the various kinds of culture, in each township 
or niesne manor, the Extent sums up the total amounts 
under tillage, pasture, &c. throughout the manor. In this 
way the accounts are wholly independent, and yet elucida- 
tory, of each other. In this chapter an attempt has been 
made, from a statement common to both the Survey and 
the Extent, as to the limits or bounds of the demesne or 
lordship, to ascertain what these ancient boundaries were. 
This chapter closes the second volume. 

The third volume commences with a chapter (XVII.) 
which comprises various documents during nearly a century 
and a half (1325-1472), including portions of the account 
of the Ninths collected in 1340-41 ; the Lansdowne Feodary 
of 1349-51 ; and the Inquisition held at Preston in April 
1359, ^suiting in the decision that Mamecestre was not, 
and never had been, a borough, but only a market town. 
This last document is now for the first time printed (with a 
translation) from the Rolls of the Duchy Court of Lancaster. 
Then follows some account of Thomas la Warre, clerk, 
rector of Mamecestre and twelfth lord of the manor ; on 
whose death it passed again by distaff to the Wests, Lords 
la Warre ; and brief biographical notices are given of the 
successive lords of the manor of that family. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

The last chapter (XVIII.) contains another Inventory of 
the various tenancies and tenants of the manor, arid their 
respective rents and services ; being the Rental or Rent- 
Roll of Thomas West, Lord la Warre, in May 1473. This, 
of course, differs widely in character from the Inquisitions 
and Escheats, the Survey, and the Extent of the Manor, 
already noticed. It is simply an account of the yearly rent 
or render payable by each tenant; of the yearly value of 
such portions of the manor as are either in the lord's hands, 
or are usable by the tenants, as estovers, common of pasture 
or of turbary, &c. ; of the sac-fee and castle-ward payable in 
respect of each knight's fee or portion of one ; and, in short, 
it is the old form of what would now be a ledger account of 
rents due from tenants of various kinds to the landowner. 
It contains a unique account of all the burgage-holders in 
Mamecestre, and the number of burgages and half-burgages 
held by each, the yearly rent for a burgage being fixed at 
i id. and for a half-burgage at 6d. ; and it enables the reader 
to approximate to the number of burgages, that is, of 
dwellings, retail shops and wholesale warehouses, in Man- 
chester, nearly four centuries ago. This document is printed 
(the Latin text with a translation) from the original parch- 
ment Rental, a narrow Roll six feet eight inches in length 
and six inches wide, one side of which and half the other 
are filled with the entries. An exceedingly defective and 
inaccurate translation of this Rent-Roll was printed in 
Corry's History of Lancashire ; and it is now given fully and 
correctly for the first time. This chapter also contains a 
document without date, entitled the " Claim of Thomas West, 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

Lord la Warre, to Liberties &c. at Mamecestre." The bio- 
graphical notices of the Wests are continued to Sir Thomas, 
eighteenth and last baron of Mamecestre. His sale of the 
manor to John Lacye of London, on the i5th May 1579, 
and Lacye's re-sale of it to Nicholas Moseley of London and 
Hough's End, Manchester, on the 2jrd March 1596, are 
briefly narrated ; and, after some short biographical notices 
of the eleven Moseleys, successively lords of the manor, and 
of the principal manorial litigation during their rule, the 
text of the work concludes with a note of the sale of the 
manor by Sir Oswald Mosley, D.C.L., the present baronet 
and its last lord, to the Mayor and Corporation of Man- 
chester, on the fth May 1846. 

The extent to which the work has grown during compi- 
lation, has compelled the Editor to withdraw a collection of 
about three hundred and forty abstracts of grants, charters, 
feoffments, fines and recoveries, inquisitions post mortem, 
and escheats, relating to the manor or to its successive lords, 
which had been prepared for insertion as an Appendix at 
the end of the book. 

The nature of the work itself has precluded the Editor 
from discussing some of the many interesting questions 
raised by the documents now printed. Amongst these are 
the various land tenures, from the noblest knight-service to 
the most servile socage and villenage, with their boon 
labours, services and offerings ; the true nature of the vari- 
ous degrees of slavery or serfdom existing before and after 
the Conquest ; and the municipal law and polity of the 
older towns of England, and whence derived. 



INTRODUCTION. 

As a desirable addition to a book full of old local names, 
many of which have lost their significance to the modern 
reader, an attempt has been made to ascertain the true 
etymology and probable derivation of these names of places, 
within or near the manor of Mamecestre. For convenience 
of reference, they have been cast into the form of a Glossarial 
Gazetteer, an explanation of which is given p. 548. Lastly, 
facility of reference has been attained by a Table of Con- 
tents, which follows this Introduction, and by a copious 
Index at the end of the Work. 

There remains to the Editor the pleasing duty of tender- 
ing his thanks and those of the Council and the Society to 
those gentlemen who have contributed to enhance the value 
of this work by the loan of manuscripts, or by their judi- 
cious counsel and advice. To Sir OSWALD MOSLEY, Bart., 
D.C.L. &c., of Rolleston Hall, Staffordshire, the last lord of 
the manor of Manchester, their joint acknowledgments are 
due, for the liberality with which he has placed at their 
disposal, from time to time, various documents from the 
family muniment chest ; including especially the Grant of 
Free Warren, and the Inquisitions of 1282. Thanks are 
also justly due to SAMUEL KAY, Esq., of Manchester, for the 
courtesy with which he has aided in the search for these 
and other documents, and in the promotion of the general 
objects of the work. To STEPHEN HEELIS, Esq., of Man- 
chester, the Society are largely indebted for the loan of his 
manuscript of the Survey of 1320. To more than one 
MAYOR of MANCHESTER, and to JOSEPH HERON, Esq., the 
Town Clerk, the Editor desires to express his grateful acknow- 



INTRODUCTION, XX111 

ledgments, not only for the loan of the original parchment 
Charter of 1301, and its Inspeximus of 1623, from the 
Corporation Archives, but also for the liberality with which 
permission was accorded to the Editor to illustrate his work 
by an admirable photograph fac-simile of the Charter (by Mr. 
A. Brothers, of Manchester), which forms the frontispiece 
to Volume I. To the BOROUGHREEVE and CONSTABLES of 
SALFORD of many years ago, the Editor has now the oppor- 
tunity of offering his thanks for the loan of the Charter of 
that Borough from the Boroughreeve's Chest ; also to Mr. 
JOHN PLANT, Curator of the Salford Royal Borough Museum, 
Peel Park, for the loan of a copy or exemplification of that 
charter. To the Rev. G. J. PICCOPE, M.A., of Brindle, 
Chorley, Lancashire, the thanks of all interested in our local 
history are due, and are tendered in their behalf, by the 
Editor, for the loan of the original Rent-Roll of the Manor 
in 1473, without which the work would have been still 
more imperfect and incomplete. To JAMES CROSSLEY, Esq., 
President, the Reverend Canon RAINES, Vice-President, and 
WILLIAM LANGTON, Esq., Honorary Secretary, of the CHETHAM 
SOCIETY, the Editor must express his obligations for valu- 
able advice and suggestions, and for their general encou- 
ragement and aid, in the production of what must still, to 
some extent, be necessarily a fragmentary and incomplete 

work. 

J. H. 

Swinton, July, 1862. 



CONTENTS, 



VOLUME I. 

PAGE. 

CHAP. I. MAMECESTRB THE PLACE AND ITS NAME 1-1 

No certain remains of a British Town 2 

The Roman Station Ib. 

The Saxons and the Scandinavians 3 

The so-called British name " Mancenion " , 4 

Names in the Roman Itineraries 6 

Saxon Names of Manchester 7 

Norman and Early English Name 8 

British Names of Rivers and Streams 9 

CHAP. II. BEFORE THE CONQUEST 11-16 

Rhyming Chronicle of Robert Manning 12 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A.D. 923, and Translation 13 

Prevalence of Anglo-Saxon Names in the Manor 14 

CHAP. III. NORMAN TIMES DOMESDAY SURVEY 17-31 

Lancashire described under Cheshire and Yorkshire " Inter 

Ripam et Mersha" 20 

[Latin Text.} 

Domesday Survey of Salford Hundred Ib. 

Survey as to part of Leyland Hundred . . 21 

d 



XXVI CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

[English Translation.'] 

Survey as to Salford, Radcliffe, Mamecestre and Rochdale. . 22 

Survey as to part of Leyland Hundred 23 

Forests and Woods The hide of land 24 

Kemble's estimate of the hide, acre, &c 25 

Carucate, carve, or plough-land 26 

Dr. Whitaker on the Domesday Survey of Salford 27 

The five knights holding the Hundred of Salford 29 

Picture of Salford Hundred, circa 1086 30 

CHAP. IV. THE BABONY AND MANOR THE GRESLETS 32-43 

Barons and Baronies, what. 32 

The GRESLETS, Barons or Lords of Mamecestre 35 

i. Albert; n. Robert; in. Albert (Senex) Ib. 

iv. Albert (Juvenis) 36 

v. Robert, son of Albert Juvenis ..- 37 

vi. Thomas, son of Robert 39 

vii. Robert, grandson of Thomas - 40 

vin. Thomas, the last male Greslet Ib. 

A Manor; what constitutes one 41 

The Barony, Manor and Vill of Mamecestre 42 

The King's Writ to the Sheriff as to Robert Greslet, fifth baron 

of Mamecestre 43 

CHAP. V. GRANT OF A YEARLY FAIR 44-53 

[Latin Text and English Translation. ,] First Grant of a Fair, 

to Robert Greslet, fifth baron, A.D. 1222 46 

[Latin Text.] Second Grant of a Fair, A.D. 1227 47 

[English Translation. ~\ Ditto 48 

Statutes as to Fairs % 52 

Acres Fair its time changed ., 53 

CHAP. VI. THIRTEENTH CENTURY LAW-MAKING 54-64 

The great assembly at Runnymede 55 

Magna Carta its articles 56 

Charter of the Forests (1225-1299) 59 

Legislation of Edward I. (1272-1307) 61 



CONTENTS. XXV11 

PAGE. 

CHAP. VII. KNIGHT'S FEES AND SERVICE TESTA DE NEVILL... 65-86 

Feudal land tenures 65 

Knight-Service its appendages 66 

A Feodarium or Feodary. The Testa de Nemll one of the oldest 67 
[English Translation^ 

SALFORD HUNDRED 69 

Fees of Thomas de Gretley 71 

Drengages Eohert Gredle's Fees 74 

The Montbegon Fees 77 

Serjeanty in various places , ... 79 

Serjeanty without the Lime , 83 

Serjeanties rented by Robert de Paslewe Ib. 

Serjeanty changed into Knight Service 84 

Notices of Robert Greslet, fifth baron ... Ib. 

Thomas Greslet, sixth baron 85 

CHAP. VIII. GRANT OP FREE WARREN TO THOMAS GRESLET, 

SIXTH BARON 87-96 

[Latin Text.~\ Carta de Warenna pro Thoma Gresley 90 

[English Translation, ,] Charter of Warren (A.D. 1249) 91 

Grant of the Forest of the Honour of Lancaster 95 

Patent of Justicier of the Forest (1259) 96 

CHAP. IX. PROCEEDINGS ON THE DEATH OF THOMAS GRESLET, 

SIXTH BARON 97-103 

Escheats and Dower Thomas Greslet's wife and children 97 

[English Translation.] 

Writ to the Escheator to hold the deceased baron's lands 

(1262) 99 

Ditto, to deliver seisin to Christiana Ledet, widow of 

Thomas Greslet 100 

Ditto, to hold the manor of Mamecestre 101 

Inquisition post mortem or Escheat (1254) 102 

Peter Greslet, " Gustos" of the Church of Mamecestre Ib. 

Sir Gilbert de Barton's quitclaim of the township of Farnworth 

to Sir Thomas Grelle .. ...103 



xxviii CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

CHAP. X. THE EXTENDING OB SURVEYING OF MANORS -EXTENTA 

MANERII (4 Edward I., 1276) 104-126 

i. The Buildings. Sir A. Fitzherbert's Commentary 104 

n. The Demesnes : Commentary 105 

in. Foreign Pasture: Ditto 107 

iv. Parks and Demesnes : Ditto 108 

v. Foreign Woods Ib. 

Commentary thereon 109 

vi. Pannage, Herbage, &c Ill 

Commentary thereon 112 

vn. Mills and Fishings : Commentary , ; 113 

vin. Freeholders Ib. 

Commentary thereon 114 

ix. Customary Tenants : Commentary .......120 

x. Cottages and Curtilages: Ditto 123 

xi. Pleas and Perquisites of Courts : Commentary Ib. 

xn. Church Patronages : Ditto 125 

xin. Liberties, Customs, and Services : Ditto Ib. 

CHAP. XI. PROCEEDINGS ON THE DEATH OF EGBERT GRESLET, 

SEVENTH BARON INQUISITIONS A.D. 1282 127-177 

Kelease to Robert de Grelle of Common Pasture in Mamecestre 128 

[Latin Text.} 

Inspeximus (5 Henry VIII., 1513) 130 

Writ to the Escheator (12th March, 1282) 131 

The Escheator's Inquisition (25th April) 132 

Writ to the Sheriff (15th April) 137 

The Sheriff's Extent (3rd May) 138 

[ English Translation .] 

Inspeximus 139 

Writ to the Escheator Ib, 

The Escheator's Inquisition 140 

Writ to the Sheriff. 155 

The Sheriffs Extent Ib. 

Exemplification 162 

Tabular Summary of both returns 163 



CONTENTS. XXIX 

PAGE. 

[Latin Text.] 

Breve, 24th May, 1282 166 

Extenta, 12th September, 1282 167 

[English Translation.'] 

Writ to the Sheriff, 24th May, 1282 Ib. 

Sheriff's Extent, 12th September, 1282 168 

Ecclesiastical Taxation of Pope Nicholas IV. (1291) 177 

CHAP. XII. LANCASHIRE TOWN CHARTERS 178-207 

Preston Charter (? 1 100) 182 

Translation of the Custumal of Preston. (See also page xxxvi.) Ib. 
Clitheroe Charter (? 1147) 187 

Charter, circa 1283 Ib. 

Three Charters to Chester 188-9 

Custumal of Chester 189 

Lancaster Charter (? 1188) .... 195 

Liverpool Charter (1207) 198 

Charter of 1229 Ib. 

[Latin Text.} Salford Charter (1230-31) 199 

[English Translation] Ditto 200 

Wigan Charter (1246) 203 

Stockport and Macclesfield Charters 205 

VOLUME II. 

CHAP. XIII. THOMAS GRELLE'S CHARTER TO MAMECESTRE, A.D. 

1301. 209-246 

Copies and translations, and description of the original parch- 
ment 210 

[Latin Text.~] Carta [14th May, 21 Edward I.] 212 

[English Translation} Charter of Mamecestre ..218 

[Latin Text} Exemplification or Inspeximus of this Charter 

(18th Sept., 21 Jac. I., 1623) 240 

[English Translation} Exemplification or Inspeximus Ib. 

Translation of the Charter by William Heawood (1657) 241 

Ditto by Rev. J. Whitaker 242 

Thorough-Toll litigation in 1790 243 



XXX CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Merewether and Stephens's History of Boroughs .., 244 

Dr. Hibbert- Ware's Observations on the Charter 245 

CHAP. XIV. TRANSFER OF THE MANOR THE LA WARRES... 2 47-272 
[English Translation."] Grant of the Manor by Thomas Grelle, 
eighth baron, to Sir John and Dame Joan la Warre 

(1309) 248 

The La Warres ix. John 252 

x. Koger; xi. John; xn. Thomas 253 

Translation of parts of the De Lacy Inquisition (1311) 254 

Translation of parts of the Birch Feodary 257 

Tenants of the Duke of Lancaster Ib. 

Barony of Mamecestre 260 

Of the Duke or Duchy of Lancaster 261 

Fees of Eoger de Montbegon, Baron of Hornby ...262 

John de Grelle his grants (1334-1369) 266 

Alienation of the Manor to the Abbey of Dore 268 

Grant of a burgage by William, son of Peter de Mamecestre ...270 

CHAP. XV. SURVEY OF THE MANOR AND BARONY, A.D. 1320. ..273-358 

[Latin Text.} Supervisus 274 

{English Translation.} Eoll of Survey 292 

Tabular Summary of the Survey 353 

CHAP. XVI. EXTENT OF THE MANOR (15 Edward II., 1322). ..359-431 

[Latin Text.] Exten: Man: de Mamecestria (1322) 361 

[English Translation.} Extent of the Manor of Mamecestre 

(15 Edward II., 1322) 380 

Another version of the Extent of 1322 407 

[Latin Text.} 

Termini et Limites Manerii et Villatse de Mamecestre 407 

Supervisio Manerii de Mamecestre 408 

[English Translation} 

Bounds and Limits of the Manors and Vills [or Villages] 

of Mamecestre 411 

Survey of the Manor /. 

Tabular Summary of the Extent of 1322 414 



CONTENTS. XXXI 

PAGE. 

Boundaries of the Franchise of Mamecestre 422 

Petition of John la Warre (1321-22) 430 

VOLUME III. 

CHAP. XVII. DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472 THE WESTS ...433-475 
Abstracts of Documents in time of John la Warre, ninth baron. ..434 

The Ninths collected in 1340-41 437 

Abstracts of Documents (1343-1360) 439 

Lansdowne Feodary (1349-1351) 442 

Roger la Warre's (tenth baron) grant of Blakeley (1355).... 445 

Was Mamecestre a Borough or a Market Town? 447 

[Latin Text.] 

Inspeximus Hen: due: Lane: Ib. 

Letters Patent to Justiciers (8th March, 9th Duchy) Ib. 

Inquisicio apud Preston (33 Edward III.) ..448 

Exemplificatio, Liverpool (26th April, 9th Duchy) 449 

Litera Patenta ad ballivos, &c. (Preston 8th Jan., 9th Duchy) Ib. 
\English Translation^ 

Inspeximus of Henry, Duke of Lancaster 450 

Letters Patent to Justiciers (March 8th,1359) 451 

Inquisition at Preston (March, 1359) 453 

Remission of Fine (January 8th, 1360) 459 

Final agreement as to the Manor of Mamecestre and the Ad- 

vowsons of Mamecestre and Ashton (1358) 460 

Inquisition post mortem of Henry, Duke of Lancaster (1362-3). .461 

John la Warre, eleventh baron 463 

His grants (1375 1382-3) 465 

Inquisitions (1418-19) 466 

Thomas la Warre, clerk, twelfth lord 467 

His grants, &c. (1411-12, 1422) Ib. 

Collegiation of Mamecestre parish church 468 

Inquisition post mortem (1427) 471 

The Wests 472 

Sir Reginald West, thirteenth baron of Mamecestre 473 

His grants (1428-1430) Ib. 

Sir Richard West, fourteenth baron 475 



XXX11 CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

CHAP. XVIII. RENTAL OF THE MANOR (May, 1473) 476-532 

\Lalin Text.] Eentale Thome West 477 

[English Translation.] Rental of Thomas West (May 1st, 

1473) 492 

[Latin Text.] (On a loose paper, torn.) Valor Divisarum 

Mane' 514 

[English Translation] Valuation of Divers Things of Mame- 

cestre 516 

Claim of Thomas West, Lord la Warre, to Liberties &c. of 

Mamecestre 518 

[Latin Text] Thomas la Warre's Claim Ib. 

[English Translation] Thomas la Warre's Claim (s.d.) Ib. 

Inquisition post mortem of Richard West 519 

Thomas West, fifteenth baron 520 

Thomas West, sixteenth baron 521 

William West, seventeenth baron 522 

Sir Thomas West, eighteenth baron Ib. 

Sale of the Manor to John Lacye (1579) Ib. 

Ditto to Nicholas Mosley (1596) 523 

The MOSLEYS : 

1. Sir Nicholas Mosley, Knt 524 

2. Rowland, Esq Ib. 

Collyhurst litigation 525 

3. Sir Edward, Bart 526 

4. Sir Edward, 2nd Bart. .. Ib. 

5. Sir Edward, of Hulme, Knt 527 

6. Lady Bland (Ann, daughter of Sir Edward Mosley) ... Ib. 

7. Sir Oswald, Bart /. 

School Mills litigation 528 

8. Sir Oswald, Bart., of Rolleston 529 

9. Rev. Sir John, Bart, rector of Rolleston Ib. 

10. Sir John Parker, Bart., of Ancoats Ib. 

Market Right litigation 530 

11. Sir Oswald, Bart., D.C.L., of Rolleston Ib. 

Sale of the Manor to the Corporation (24th June 

1845) Ibm 

Concluding Observations 5 1 



CONTENTS. XXX111 

PAGE. 

GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER : 

Eev. Dr. Hume's Philosophy of Geographical Names 533 

British or Celtic Local Names (Rev. John Davies, M.A.) 534 

Friesic Local Names (Ibid.) .... 535 

Anglo-Saxon Names of Places (Ibid.) .... 536 

Danish or Scandinavian Local Names (Ibid.) , Ib. 

Anglo-Saxon Names of Places (J. M. 'Kemble) 537 

Local Names from Communities or Families (Ibid.) 538 

Scandinavian Local Names (J. J. Worsaae) 544 

Glossarial Gazetteer .. 548 



INDEX 607 



ERRATA ET CORRIGENDA. 



VOL. I. 

Page 15, line u, for "Irlam's" read, " Irlam." 

Page 29. The conjecture [within brackets] that a Warm, one of the five knights 
holding the manor or hundred of Salford, was a " Warin Banastre, Lord of Newton," 
has been found to have no warrant. A similar statement, page 33, from Kenion's 
MS., is erroneous. The first Banastre of this Christian name was a grandson of the 
Eobert who came in with the Conqueror. (Rot. Parl. vol. i. p. 2.) The Domesday 
Survey shows that about the year 1086 the hundred or manor of Newton was not 
granted out to any one, but was of the king's demesne. The statement from Kenion's 
MS. pp. 29, 33, 34, enumerating fourteen minor barons under Eoger de Poictou, is of 
no authority. 

Page 8 1, line 12, read "which he had claimed, the war being ended." [This cor- 
rection applies also to vol ii. page 264, line 22.] 

Pages 83, 84 and 161, for "Earl of Ferrers" read "Earl Ferrers." 

Page 99, line 5, for " commended" read " commanded." 

Page 140, note 79, and page 152, note 29. Some inaccuracies respecting the 
Byrons are due to errors in the Byron Pedigree in Baines's Lancashire, vol. ii. p. 617. 
More careful examination of the confused and uncertain pedigrees of the Byrons and 
the Hollands, (the latter perhaps the most perplexing of any ancient Lancashire 
family), leads to the belief that Joan, daughter of Sir Baldwin Tyas, was not, as 
stated, the wife, but the great grandmother of the Sir Eobert Holland, who was 
secretary to Thomas Earl of Lancaster. That Alice, wife of Sir John Byron the 
younger, was the grand-daughter [" consanguinea" which should be rendered "next 
of kin" rather than "cousin"] and heir of Eobert Bauastre, who was the last Baron 
of Newton of that name. She afterwards married John de Langeton. That Sir 
Eichard Byron was not the son, but the younger brother of Sir John Byron the 
younger, who died without issue. 

Page 161, note 44, for "Edward" read "Edmund." For "eight" read "eighth." 

Page 1 68, line 13, for " i3th" September read " i2th." 

Pages 182-186 contain the only version of the Preston Custumal which was at the 
time accessible to the Editor. He has since been favoured with an inspection of the 
original Latin document, and finds the errors and omissions of previous transcribers 
and translators so very numerous and important, that it has been necessary for him 
to supply a new translation throughout, as an easier task than to furnish a long and 
not always intelligible list of Errata. The following is believed to be a closely literal 



XXXVI ERRATA ET CORRIGENDA. 

translation. It has been furnished by the Editor to a " History of Preston Guild, by 
William Dobson and John Harland :" 

" These are the liberties of Preston in Aumundrenesse : 

1. So that they shall have a guild mercatory, with hanse, and other customs 
and liberties belonging to such guild ; and so that no one who is not of that 
guild shall make any merchandise in the said town, unless with the will of the 
burgesses. 

2. If any nativus [born bondman] dwell anywhere in the same town, and hold 
my land, and be in the forenamed guild and hanse, and pay lot and scot with 
the same burgesses for one year and one day, then he shall not be reclaimed by 
his lord, but shall remain free in the same town. 

3. The burgesses of Preston in Aumundrenesse shall have soc and sac, tol and 
them, and infangthef, and they shall be quit throughout all our land of toll, 
lastage, passage, pontage and stallage, and from lenegald and danegald, and 
grithewite, and all other customs and [ex]actions throughout all our land and 
dominion, as well in England as in other our lands ; and that no sheriff shall 
intermeddle within the borough of Preston in Aumundrenesse concerning any plea, 
or plaint, or dispute, or any other thing pertaining to the aforesaid town, saving 
the [pleas of the] king's crown. 

4. If any one wish to be made a burgess he shall come into court and give to 
the reeve [or mayor, prcefecto], izd., and shall take his burgage from the pretors 
[or bailiffs] ; afterwards he shall give to the pretors' servant one penny, that he 
may certify him to have been made a burgess in court. 

5. Also, when any burgess shall receive his burgage, and it shall be a void 
place, the reeve shall admit him, so that he shall erect his burgage within forty 
days, upon a forfeiture ; but if he does not erect it he shall be in mercy [i.e. shall 
be amerced, or fined] i2d. 

6. Also, when any burgess shall challenge his burgage against another, and 
shall prove it to be his right, and the tenant who holds it shall prove that bur- 
gage to have been held without challenge several [plures] years and days, and by 
name for one year and one day, shall prove himself to have been possessed 
thereof, and shall prove the same in court by the oath of two of his neighbours, 
or several witnesses, to have been so held ; he who has proved by these, may also 
make his own oath, and may hold it. Also he who shall by them so prove shall 
hold without contradiction of the claimant, whoever that claimant may be, for 
one year and one day within the sea of England. 

7. Also, if any burgess complain of any matter, and another challenge against 
him, the plaintiff for judgment shall name two witnesses, and shall have one of 
them at the day and term, and he may have any law-worthy person for witness 
and another burgess ; but the defendant against a burgess shall be put to his oath 
at third hand by his peers [i.e. shall have two witnesses besides himself]. 

8. Also, the amerciament in our court shall not exceed izd, unless for toll 
carried away, and then the amerciameut shall be i zs. 



ERRATA ET CORRIGENDA. XXXV11 

9. Also, a burgess shall be bound to come to no more than three port-motes 
yearly, unless he shall hare plea against him, and unless he shall come to 
one great port-mote he shall be amerced nd. 

10. The pretor of the court [bailiff or steward] shall collect the king's farm at 
the four terms of the year, and shall go once for the farm, and another time if 
he pleases, and shall take away \_deponet hostium, pull down or displace] the door 
of such burgage, and the burgess shall not replace his door until he have paid his 
debt, unless at the will of the pretor. 

11. Also, if any burgess shall buy any bargain or any merchandise, and give 
earnest, and he who sold shall repent of his bargain, he shall double the earnest ; 
but if the buyer shall have handled the goods, he shall either have the merchan- 
dise or 5*. from the seller. 

12. Also, if any burgess shall have drink for sale, he shall sell according to the 
assize {i.e. fixed price and measure] made by the burgesses, unless it shall be 
replaced by the tunnel [or funnel]. 

13. Also, a burgess shall not come to the pretor after sunset for any claim, if 
he is unwilling, unless the claim be made from a stranger. 

14. Also, a burgess shall accommodate his lord concerning his bargain, and the 
lord shall pay for it to him within forty days ; but if he doth not, the burgess 
shall not further accommodate him until he shall pay. 

15. Also, no one can be a burgess unless he have a burgage of twelve feet in 
front. 

1 6. Also, if a burgess shall sell for more than the assise, he shall be in mercy 
i2d., and he who bought, in nothing; the burgesses of the court aforesaid shall 
have duel [or] fire and water to make judgment. 

17. Also, if any one be taken for theft or breach of trust, and be condemned, 
he who is sued shall do justice. 

1 8. The burgess [? or pretor] of the said court may take for his toll, for one 
cart or cart-load twopence ; for one horse-load one penny ; and for a pack [or 
bundle, trusselus] on a man's back, one halfpenny ; and for a man's load or 
burden, one halfpenny ; for a horse sold, twopence ; for an ox or a cow, a penny ; 
for five sheep one penny ; for five swine, one penny. 

19. Also, if a burgess wound another, and they shall be willing to agree 
amicably, friends appointed between them may require for every hidden cut the 
breadth of a thumb, 4-d., and for every open or visible wound, 8d. ; and whoever 
is wounded may prove what he has lost by the wound, and the other shall pay 
him, and in like manner what the wounded has paid to the surgeon for healing 
the wound he shall repay ; and the arms shall be brought to him, and he shall 
swear upon his arms that he has been wounded, and such things have been done 
to him, so that, if his friends consent and approve, he may take what is offered 
to him. 

20. Also, if a burgess complain of another burgess that he owes a debt to him, 
and the other shall acknowledge the debt, the reeve or mayor shall command him 



XXXV111 ERRATA ET CORRIGENDA. 

to avoid the debt, and render the debt within eight days, upon pain of forfeiture, 
%d. for the first week, 12^. for the second, and so for every week until he shall 
render the debt. But if he shall deny the debt, and the plaintiff hath witnesses, 
the other may deny by third hand upon oath, and then the plaintiff shall be 
amerced izd. And if the defendant shall come with his witnesses, and the plain- 
tiff shall not come, the defendant shall be quit and the plaintiff in mercy ; and if 
the plaintiff shall not be able to come and shall place any one in his stead before 
the court, he may take [or receive] the defendant's oath. And that no plaint or 
forfeiture shall be set on any burgess in the court aforesaid, in other amerciament 
than in i2d., unless he shall [be] vouched to duel, and duel may be adjudged to 
him ; but if duel be adjudged to him and waged, he shall be in mercy 405. 

21. Also, if a burgess marry his daughter or grand- daughter to any one, he 
may marry her without the license of any one. 

22. Also, a burgess may make an oven upon his ground, and take for his 
furuage, for one horse-load [summa farine] of flour or meal, one halfpenny, and 
he whose meal or corn it shall be, shall find wood to heat the oven. 

23. Also, the burgesses shall not go to the oven, or to the mill, or to the kiln, 
[of the lord] unless they please. 

24. Also, if any one shall set another's kiln on fire, and it have one door, he 
shall give 40^., and if it have two doors, half a mark [_i.e. 6s. 8d.] 

25. Also, if burgesses, by the common council of the neighbours, shall travel 
for any business of the town, their expenses shall be rendered to them when they 
return. 

26. If any one cometh into our town, who ought to give toll, if he shall with- 
hold it beyond the market day, he shall be in mercy 1 2d. 

27. Also, a stranger may not participate in any merchandise with the burgesses 
of our town. 

28. Also, when any burgess shall be desirous to sell his burgage, his next of 
kin is to buy that burgage of him before any other, and when it shall be sold and 
he hath not another burgage, when the other shall be seised [i.e. hath taken pos- 
session] he shall give 4^. from the issue ; but if he hath another burgage, he shall 
give nothing. 

29. .Also, if a burgess shall be in mercy for bread and ale [not having sold 
according to the fixed weight or measure and price] the first, second, or third 
time, he shall be in mercy 12^.5 but if the fourth time, unless he pay a better 
[i.e. a larger] fine, he shall go to the cuck-stool. 

30. Also, if a burgess of the town die a sudden death, his wife and his heirs 
shall quietly have all his chattels and lands ; so that neither his lord nor the 
justices may lay hands on the houses and chattels of the deceased, unless he 
shall have been publicly excommunicated ; in which case, by the counsel of the 
priest and of the neighbours, they are to be expended in alms. 

31. Also, the wife of the deceased may marry whomsoever she please. 

32. Also, if any one shall demand a debt of another before the reeve [or mayor] 



ERRATA ET CORRIGENDA. XXXIX 

if he will not pay, the prctor shall render to the plaintiff his debt from the king's 
purse, and shall distrain the other by his chattels that he pay the debt, or he 
shall seize the house into his hands. 

33. Also, the burgesses shall not receive claim from the reeve [or mayor] on a 
market-day, unless the claim be made from a stranger. 

34. Also, a burgess gives no transit. 

35. Also, a burgess hath common pasture everywhere, except in corn fields, 
meadows, and hayes. 

56. Also, if a burgess shall strike the reeve [or mayor], or the reeve a burgess, 
in court, and shall be convicted, he shall henceforth be in mercy for the offence. 

37. Also, if the reeve [or mayor] shall strike any one out of court, he shall be 
in mercy, of his own acknowledgment. 

38. Also, if a burgess shall strike the reeve out of court, he shall be in 
mercy 40*. 

39. Also, if a burgess shall overcome another, if he confess it, he shall forfeit 
izd. ; if he deny it, he shall clear himself by his sole oath against witnesses; if 
beyond the court, nothing. 

40. Also, if any one bearing false coins shall be taken, the reeve [or mayor] shall 
render to the king the false pennies, as many as there are, and shall account in the 
rent of his farm for the goods, and deliver his body to our lord the king for 
judgment to be done, and his servants shall take quittance and have the pledges 



41. Also, it shall not be lawful for regrators to buy anything which shall be 
sold on a market-day to a regrator, until the vesper bell be rung in the evening, 
nor on any day of the week until that which he bought shall have been in the 
town for one night. 

42. Also, the aforesaid burgesses shall not go in any expedition unless with 
the lord himself, unless they may be able to return on the same day. 

43. If he shall be summoned when the justice of the town shall be in the expe- 
dition [or circuit], and shall not go, and shall acknowledge himself to have heard, 
he shall give amends i2d. ; if he denies to have heard the edict, he shall clear 
himself by his own oath ; but if he shall have essoin [excuse for non-appearance], 
to wit, either by siege, or his wife's lying in childbed, or other reasonable essoin, 
he shall not pay. If he is going [i.e. ought to go] with the person of our lord 
the king, he can not have essoin. 

44. Also, it is the custon of the borough that no burgess ought to be taken for 
an accusation by the lord or by the reeve [or mayor], if he have sufficient 
pledges. So of claim made of a burgess by any knight, whosoever the knight 
may be ; if duel be adjusted between the burgess and the knight, the knight may 
not change [mutare, ? fight by proxy], unless it be found that he ought not to 
fight. 

45. If the reeve [or mayor] command any burgess by another than his known 
servant, and he shall not come, he shall make no amends. 



Xl ERRATA ET CORRIGENDA. 

46. Also, no justice shall lay hands on the house or chattels of any deceased. 

47. Also, if any one call a married woman a whore, and complaint be made 
thereof, and witnesses be absent, he may clear himself by his own [or sole] oath, 
and if he cannot make oath he shall pay 35. ; and he by whom it was said shall 
do this justice, and he shall take himself by the nose and say he hath spoken a 
lie, and he shall be pardoned. There is the same judgment as to a widow. 

This is the law of Preston in Aumundrenesse, which they have from the Breton law." 
Page 187. The charter to IsTewcastle-under-Lyne is not lost, as supposed. An 
alleged copy and translation of it are printed in Dr. Lingard's "Charters of 
Preston" (1821), Preface, p. iv. But a more correct translation of it is printed 
from an Inspeximus in the archives of the corporation of Preston, in the "History of 
Preston Guild, by W. Dobson and J. Harland," pp. 79, 80. 

Page 196, note 60. William Earl of Gloucester died in 1183; not in 1173, as 
stated on the authority of Sir H. Nicolas. 

VOL. II. 

Page 213, note (a) 3rd line, for "censurius" read "censarius." 

Page 253, line 2nd, for "In 1397" read "In 1297." 

Page 267, line 7th, for " Owyt-acres-ford" read " Qwyt-acres-ford." 

Page 309, note 29. read " One Clayden was near Holt Town. The seat of a branch 
of the Clay dens was Tawnton or Tongton Hall." 

Page 310, lines 5th and i4th, for "Boterinde" read "Doterinde." 

Page 315, note 54, Bradford is not extra-parochial. 

Page 324, note 66, for the Latin read " de qualibet centena linea tela de Aylesham," 
fee., for every hundred [? pieces] of linen-web or cloth of Aylesham. 

Page 324, note 67, read " 2000 shaves or sheaves of garlic, a farthing." 

Page 344, last line, for " Rosden" read " Bosden." 

Page 348, note 57. There was also a "Hulme in Reddish" and one in Levenshulme. 

Page 393- After line 12, an entire line has been accidentally omitted. The clause 
should read "running through the midst of the lord's fee of Aldport, and the Gore- 
brooke, through the midst of Gorton," &c. 

Page 426, for "Litchfield Hall" read "Litchford Hall." 

Page 429. The supposition as to the identity of several streams named is erroneous. 
It is corrected in the Glossarial Gazetteer, at the end of the work. 

VOL. III. 

Page 464. The record named on this page appears to be a part of the Inquisition 
p.m. on Henry, the first Duke of Lancaster, printed p. 461. 

Page 474, line 20, should read " 39 marks, viz. 6s. 8d. at the four terms." 

494, line 14, for 3 d." read " 35. : " and line 22, for " io." read " iorf." 



MAMECESTRE. 

VOL. III. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 

As already stated, John la Warre, ninth baron of Mamecestre, had 
a son John, who (dying before his father in 18 Edward III. 1339- 
40) never held the barony. This John had married Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Robert de Holand, by whom he left two sons and 
two daughters: i. Roger, who in his father's lifetime married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Adam third baron de Welles, by whom he 
had a son John, great grandson of his namesake the ninth baron ; 
Roger succeeded to the barony on the death of his grandfather 
John ; 2. John, afterwards Sir John, of Bokhampton, Berks, who 
died 28 Edward III. 1354; 3. Catherine, married to Sir Warine 
Latimer, Lord Latimer and Braybrooke ; and 4. Eleanor, married 
to Sir Lewis Clifford, K.G., one of the chiefs of the Lollards : 
their son William left a son Lewis, who died s.p. 

To return to John la Warre the ninth baron of Mamecestre. 
On the 1 3th June, 14 Edward III. 1340, he accompanied the fleet 
of 250 sail, commanded by the king in person, which defeated the 
French navy in the harbour of Sluys. In 1342 he took part in 
the king's campaign against the French, and assisted at the siege 
and blockade of Nantes, where the English army wintered. On 

VOL. III. 3 K 



434 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

the a6th August 1346, he was at the battle of Cressy, in the first 
division of the forces commanded by the Prince of Wales (Edward 
the Black Prince), and which comprised eight hundred lords, 
knights and esquires, four thousand archers, and six thousand 
Welshmen. John la Warre died on the Eve of Ascension Day 
(May 9) 1347, in the 68th or 6gth year of his age. 

Amongst the other documents connected with the manor or its 
lord, in the life of this John, ninth baron, a few may here be put 
on record : 

By a deed without date, John la "Ware, lord of Mamecestre, gave to 
John Bybby two plots of land in the fee of Mamecestre. Witnesses : 
Tho. Marschall, John son of Matthew Cissor [the Cutter], John his 
brother, Tho. Cordy. [Seal a lion rampant.] 

In the pleas before the king at Westminster, Trinity term, 18 
Edward II. (June 1325) Roll 68, from Rutland, sets forth that by an 
assise and jury in the nth year of that reign (1317-18) Grerard de 
Braybrok and Lora [? Laura] his wife recovered their seisin of 20?. 
yearly rent issuing out of the manor of Brigge-Casterton, against John 
la Warre and five others, according to the charter of Thomas de G-relle 
made therein to them and their heirs, in this case pleaded and recited. 
(Abbrev. Placit. p. 352.) 

In 20 Edward II. (1326) John de la Ware is stated to hold for [pro] 
the abbot and convent of Dore, one acre of land in Albriton and the 
advowson of the church of that vill, parcel of the manor of Albrighton, 
co. Salop., the castle of Ewias Harold in the marches of Wales, the 
manor of Mauncestre, co. Lancaster, the manors of Swineshead and 
Woodhead, co. Line., the manor of Wykewar, co. Gloucester, and the 
manor of Wakurleye, co. Northampton. (Cal. Ing. p.m. vol. i. p. 333, 
No. 22.) 

In i Edward III. (1327) the king granted a license to John la Warre 
to demise to the abbot and convent of Dore, Herefordshire, the manor 
of Albrighton, with appurtenances, co. Salop, to have, &c., to the abbot 
and his successors to the end of ten years, paying therefore to the said 
John and his heirs forty marks [2 62. 135. 4*?.] yearly, for all services. 
(Abb. Rot. Orig. vol. ii. p. n.) 

In 3 Edward III. (1329) John la Warre claimed to have in his manor 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 435 

of Wakerle, view of frank-pledge, and that which belongs thereto; 
infangethef, gallows, the amending of the assise-breach of bread and ale, 
weyf, them, and tumbrel. And the said John, by Thomas Wyke his 
attorney, came into court and said that the manor of Wakerle, to which 
the said liberties belong, was formerly in the seisin of a certain Tho. de 
Grelle, who enfeoffed this John of the same manor with its liberties, to 
hold of him and his heirs for ever. That he (John) from the time of 
such feoffment, and the said Thomas and his predecessors, from time 
beyond memory, were seised of the said liberties so much as belonged 
to the said manor. And thereon John claims warrant to have the 
aforesaid liberties. John, being asked if he have [right of] pillory and 
tumbrel, saith that he hath tumbrel, but not pillory. Richard de Aide- 
burgh, who opposed the claim for the king, saith that the said John 
claimed to have view of frank-pledge, &c., and that among the articles 
which to that view belong, ought to be the assise-breach of bread and 
ale, any trangressors whereof ought to suffer judgment of pillory and 
tumbrel. But John had acknowledged that he had no pillory by which 
transgressors against the assise of bread could be punished in the 
manner due. And he therefore prays, for the king, that the view afore- 
said be taken into the king's hand. And further, that it be inquired 
into how much and in what manner John de la Ware, Thomas de Grelle 
and his predecessors were used to exercise the said liberties. The 
parties were ordered to come here on the Saturday after the Ascension ; 
on which day came John by his said attorney. Also came the jury, 
who say on their oaths that John, and in like manner Tho. de Grelle, 
and all the predecessors of Thomas, from the time to which memory 
doth not go, enjoyed the said liberties. And that John took in his 
time, of transgressors against the assise of bread and ale, delinquents in 
cases to which the judgment of pillory and tumbrel ought to be adjudged, 
to the amount of 2s. as they understand. And that John acknowledged 
that he had not the pillory, which is the judicial punishment for trans- 
gressions against the assise of bread and ale. And in like manner it is 
proved by oath that John punished this kind of transgressors by fines 
and amerciaments, in cases to which the judgment of pillory and tumbrel 
ought to be adjudicated. It is considered, therefore, that the said view 
should be taken into the hand of the king, and that the same John is in 
mercy. Afterwards John prayed to be allowed to have the view again, 



436 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

by fine, and offered the king 6s. 8d. to let him have it. And it is 
granted, by surety of "William de St. Maur. Therefore, as to the other 
liberties claimed by John, he may go without day {i.e. he is discharged] 
saving the right of the king. (Plac. de quo War. 3 Edward III., p. 

54i.) 

In 4 Edward III. (1330) John son of Roger la "Warre, made fine of 
six marks (4?.) to have license to enfeoff John de Cleidon, parson of the 
church of Mamecestre, of the manor of Alington, with appurtenances, 
&c. (All. Rot. Orig. vol. ii. p, 47-) 

In 5 Edward III. (1331) John de Honton, Escheator beyond Trent, 
is commanded to take the land of John, son of John la Warre, into the 
king's hand. 81 (H. p. 52). In the same year he made fine of five 
marks (3?. 6s. Sd.) to have license to enfeoff John de Cleydon, parson 
of the church of Mamecestre, in the manor of Wakerlegh, with appur- 
tenances, co. Northampton, which is in the hand of the king. (II. 
p. 60.) In the same year John son of Roger la Warre, enfeoffed John 
de Claydon, parson of the church of Maunnecestre, in the manor of 
"Wakerlegh, in Castle Ewyas Herald (Wales) with remainder to the 
said John, and in the manors of Middleton, Eokington, Isefeld and 
Porteslade, co. Sussex, with remainder to the said John. (Cal. Inq. 
p.m. vol. ii. p. 41.) 

The following is a grant of half a burgage in Mamecestre in 
January 1334 : 

Know all, &c. We John de la "Warre, lord of Mamcestre, have 
granted to Richard Ffauc' 83 and Cicely his wife one half-burgage which 
lies near [Pin] our manor, &c. These being witnesses : Sir John de Clai- 
don, parson of Mamcestre, William de St. Maur, John de Salford, John 
de Hulton, Henry Doterind, and others. Given at Mamecestre on the 
Saturday next after the Feast of St. Hillary, 7 Edward III. (January 

. 81 In the preceding documents, the John la Warre named has always been the ninth 
baron, son of Eoger, eighth baron. But here we have John, son of the ninth and 
father of the tenth baron ; who, dying in the life-time of his father and namesake, 
never held the barony. John, ninth baron, married Joan de Greslet. John, his son, 
married Margaret, daughter of Sir John de Holand. 

82 This is probably Kichard Faukes or Fawkes, and it may possibly have undergone 
subsequent corruption to Faux, or even to Fox. Or, if obscurely written, it may be 
Bichard Fferer (Ffer'.) 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 437 

13, 1334). (Penes Eev. Canon Eaines. A copy printed in Dr. 
Hibbert- Ware's Foundations, vol. iv. p. 97.) 

In 12 Edward III. (1338) John la Warre, son of Eoger la Warre 
and [of] Elizabeth his [first] wife, was found to have held the manor of 
Albrighton, co. Salop, the castle and manor of Ewyas Harald, and 
Keynchirche, co. Hereford ; and the manors of Middleton, Fokington, 
Porteslade and Isefeld, co. Sussex ; with remainder to the said John. 
(Cal. Ing. p.m. vol. ii. p. 85.) 

In 13 Edward III. (1339) John la Warre [ninth baron] fined 405. 
to have license that he might give and grant the manor of Albrighton 
to Eoger la Warre [? his son] and Elizabeth his wife, &c. (Abb. Eot. 
Orig. vol. ii. p. 134.) In the same year [Sir] Warin le Latymer fined 
five marks (3^. 6s. Sd.) for license to give to John la Warre [his wife's 
nephew] whatever he could grant of the manor of Cheleworth, co. 
Somerset, which was in the king's hand. (Ib. p. 133.) In that year 
John la Warre was found to hold for Warin le Latimer that manor of 
Cheleworth, Ewyas Castle in Wales, and the manor of Alington, co. 
Wilts, with remainder to the same John la Warre. (Cal. Inqr. p.m. 
vol. ii. p. 90.) In the same year John la Warre fined io/. for license 
to enfeoff John de Cleidon, parson of the church of Mammecestre, in 
the manor of Middleton, co. Sussex. (Abb. Eot. Orig. vol. ii. p. 134.) 

THE NINTHS COLLECTED IN 1340-41. 
In a parliament held in 14 Edward III. (1340) for the purpose 
of voting supplies for carrying on the wars with France and Scot- 
land, a subsidy was granted to the king, of the ninth lamb, the 
ninth fleece and the ninth sheaf, to be exacted for the two years 
next ensuing, to which all cities and boroughs were liable ; while 
foreign merchants, not dwelling in cities or boroughs, were assessed 
on their goods and moveables at no more than a fifteenth. To 
enforce this collection of ninths, another statute was passed in the 
15 Edward III. (1340-41), by which three commissions were 
issued, the first of which charged certain persons with the assess- 
ment and sale of the ninths and fifteenths. In Lancashire the 
assessors and venditors of the ninth of lambs, fleeces, and sheaves 
of corn, were the Abbot of Furness, Edmund de Neville, Richard 



438 MAMECESTEE. [CHAP. XVII. 

de Hoghton, and John de Radeclyve. In each hundred or wapen- 
take an inquest was held, and the following is the return for the 
hundred or wapentake of Salford : 

WAPEKTAKE or SALFOKD. Inquisition of the wapentake of Salford 
held at Preston on the Thursday hefore the Feast of St. Matthew the 
Apostle [24th February] in the fifteenth year of the reign of King 
Edward the Third from the Conquest [1341] hefore the Abbot of Four- 
neys and his fellows, to inquire into the true value of the ninths and the 
fifteenths granted for two years to our lord the king in the county of 
Lancaster, assigned by the oaths of John de Assheton, Henry de Traf- 
ford, Henry de Workeslegh, Adam de Hulton, John de Hulton, Robert 
de Trafford, Richard de Radclyf, John de Aynesworth, Adam de Hop- 
wode, Adam de Leme, John de Heton, Robert de Pilkyngton, Richard 
de Rediche, Roger de Pilkyngton, John de Trafford, and Roger de 
West-Legh. "Who, being sworn and required by their oaths [to make 
return] of the true value of the ninth of sheaves, fleeces and lambs, 
the produce of the several parishes in the said wapentake, for the 
first year of the said two years, and of the rest of whatsoever articles 
touching that ninth, and of the true value of the fifteenth part of the 
moveable goods of the merchants and other men, with the exception of 
the citizens and burgesses not living by agriculture, 

Say on their oath that there are not in the said wapentake any city 
or borough, nor merchants or any other men, who ought to respond to 
the fifteenth. They say also that there are ten parish churches in the 
said wapentake, viz., the churches of Mamecestre, of Midelton, of 
Bury, of Flyxton, of Radeclyf, of Assheton, of Prestwyche, of Bolton, 
of Rochedale, and of Eccles. 



In the Verus Valor of 1292 the church of Mamecestre was rated 
at 80 marks (53^. 6s. 8d.) The ninths of the year 1340 were, 
however, founded on an assessment reduced from 80 to about 35 J 
marks : 

THE CHURCH OF MAMECESTRE, 

"Which was taxed at four score marks, whereas the ninth of the sheaves, 
fleeces and lambs of the same parish, coming near to the true value, 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 439 

were worth nine marks (61.) whereas the villages of Mamecestre ought 
to furnish twenty-two marks (14?. 13$. 4^.) ; Salford with Burghton 
ought to supply 52*-. ; Chetham los. ; Hulme, near Mamecestre, los. ; 
Chorleton los. ; Stretford 463. 8 d. ; and Eedwyche (Reddish) 525. 4$. 

The church of Asheton was taxed at fifteen marks (10?.) The 

ninth of the sheaves, fleeces and lambs, of the same parish, near the true 
value, are worth eight marks, Ss. lod. (5?. 15$. 6d.) 



The ninth fell far short of what had been expected, and the 
commissioners were so dissatisfied with the assessment of the 
parishes in the wapentake of Salford that they refused to accept 
the amount without the royal sanction. 

The said sworn men will assign no cause why the said ninth does not 
reach to the sum of the taxes of the said churches [i.e. in the Verus Valor 
of 1292] ; therefore the said abbot and his associates have protested that 
they cannot accept the sums which the aforesaid sworn men have pre- 
sented before in any manner, unless they should be authorised to accept 
them by the lord the king and his council. 



In 17 Edward III. (6th October 1343) Sir John la Warre granted a 
lease for their lives to Henry de Smythelee and Margery his wife and 
Henry their son, of six acres of pasture land in Blakelegh, to be made 
into arable land (of which Roger Avissone [i.e. Eoger, son of Avice,] 
formerly held two acres). Rent for the first thirty years 6s., or is. per 
acre ; afterwards 123. yearly, or 25. per acre. There are the usual cove- 
nants of re-entry in case of arrears, warranty and sealing. Witnesses : 
Sir John de Cleidone, parson of the church of Mamecestre ; John de 
Radeclif, Thomas de Wyke, John de Hulton, John de Wakerlee, and 
others. Given at Wakerlee [co. Northampton] octaves of St. Michael 
the Archangel [Monday, October 6, 1343] 17 Edward III. (From the 
Mosley Muniments at Rolleston Hall, co. Stafford.) 

In 20 Edward III. (1346) it was found that John de la Ware [ninth 
baron] held the manor of Mamecestre, Clayton, Chorlton with its mem- 
bers, to wit Barton, Withington, Flixton, half of Eomsworth and Pil- 
kington in the wapentake of Salford ; Cumersley [? Cuerdley] within 



440 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

the wapentake of Derby, the corn [" bladis"] of Wrightington and 
Worthington, within the wapentake of Leyland, and Brockels within the 
wapentake of Amounderness, for five knights' fees, and a yearly rent of 
4?. 25. 6d. (Keuerderfs MS.) 

In 21 Edward III. (1347) John la Warre [then deceased] and Joan 
[G-reslet] his wife were found to have held the manors of Mauncestre 
and Keuerdeley, co. Lane. ; Wakerle manor (extended), co. Northamp- 
ton; Burstal vill, two parts, co. Leicester; Wodheved manor, co. 
Eutland; manors of Swynesheved, Sixhill, Bloxham, and Ss. rent in 
Stannford, co. Line. ; and the manors of Middleton and Fokington, with 
Eleechinge and Porteslade, co. Sussex. (Inq.p.m. vol. ii. p. 136.) 

John la "Warre, ninth baron, died at an advanced age on the Eve of 
Ascension Day (April 9) 1347 ; and the above inquisition was held in 
that year, as was another on the Eve of Holy Trinity [Saturday, May 
27), in which the jurors found that John la Warre held nothing of the 
king in chief, but that he was possessed jointly with Joan his wife, of 
the manor of "Wodheved, co. Rutland, with which he had been en- 
feoffed by John de Claydon, rector of Mamecestre. 

In 22 Edward III. (1348) the king confirmed to Joan [formerly 
Greslet], widow of John la Warre, that she might impark her wood of 
Wakerley, &c. (Cal. Rot. Pat. p. 157.) 

In 23 Edward III. (1349) by a post mortem inquisition, Margaret 
[Holand], widow of John la Warre [son of John and father of Roger, 
ninth and tenth lords] was found to have held lands and tenements at 
Bochampton and Estburye and in the hundred of Chipinge Lamborne, 
co. Berks; the extended manor of Wykewarre, co. Gloucester; the 
extended manors of Brustlington, co. Somerset, Alynton, co. Wilts, and 
Isefeld, co Sussex. (Gal. Inq.p.m. vol. ii. p. 154.) 

In 27 Edward III. (1353) the king committed to John Beynyn of 
Henton St. George, the custody of one messuage, seventy-six acres land, 
and three acres meadow and pasture, with appurtenances in Henton St. 
George, and Craft, co. Somerset, which had belonged to John la Warre 
def ' [defunct], and which he held of the king in chief, as of the Marshal- 
sea of England, which were then in the king's hand, to have to the 
lawful age of the heir ; paying therefor yearly 605. (All. Hot. Orig. 
vol. ii. p. 226.) In the same year it was enjoined Walter Paries, the 
king's escheator in co. Northampton, that he should accept security 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 441 

from Roger, son and heir of John la Warre deceased [and tenth baron] 
for his reasonable relief; and also of the same Koger, of the manor of 
Wakerley, with appurtenances, which he held of the king in chief, by 
the service of one-fourth of a knight's fee, for giving him full seisin. 
(Ib. p. 227.) In the same year it was found by a post mortem inquisi- 
tion that Joan, widow of John la Warre [ninth baron], had held the 
extended manor of Wakerley, co. Northampton, and the manor of 
Swynesheved (with Burtofb, a certain tenement parcel of that manor), 
co. Lincoln. (Gal. Inqr.p.m. vol. ii. p. 182.) 

In 28 Edward III. (1354) it was found by a post mortem inquisition 
that John le Warre and John Ralee, knights, held seven acres land, &c., 
at Henton St. Greorge, as of the castle of Strogoyl; the manor of 
Hampstede Mareschal, with appurtenances, of fee ; one carve of land in 
Cras; the manors of Nettelcombe and Roudon, as of the manor of 
Hampstede Mareschal; all in co. Somerset. (Ib. p. 186.) 

In 34 Edward III. (1360) it was found by inquisition that John la 
Warre had held one messuage and one carve of land, &c., at Bochamp- 
ton, co. Berks. (Ib. p. 218.) 



We have next to notice the documentary facts occurring during 
the rule of Roger la Warre, tenth baron, grandson and heir of 
John, ninth baron of Mamecestre. In the 23 Edward III. (1349- 
50) this Roger did homage and had livery of the possessions which 
Margaret his mother held in demesne ; including (amongst former 
possessions of Thomas de Greslet) Withington, Worthingtou, 
Heton-subtus-Horwich (the forest), the manor of Stayning (from 
the Duke of Lancaster, and held by the Abbot of Whalley) and 
Charnock. Henry Earl of Lancaster died in 1346, leaving a son 
and heir Henry, who succeeded to the earldom in that year, was 
the second knight companion of the order of the garter (instituted 
1349), and was created Duke of Lancaster (the first of that title) 
on the 6th March, 1361. It was during his earldom of the county 
palatine and the early years of his dukedom and of the duchy, that 
the following Feodary was compiled : 

VOL. in. 3 L 



442 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

THE LANSDOWNE FEODARY OF 1349 [AND i35i.] 83 
The following Feodary of 1349 is from one of the Lansdowne 
MSS., and is often styled the Lansdowne Feodary. As it has 
been printed in the original abbreviated Latin in Baines's Lanca- 
shire (vol. iv. pp. 756-764) a translation only is given, and that of 
such portions merely as relate to the lords and the barony of 
Mamecestre : 

KNIGHTS' FEES. 1349- 
(From Lansdowne MSS. Cod. 559, fol. 23 [s.s.]) 
Knights' fees which were those of Henry late Earl of Lincoln, and 
which, after the death of the said earl, were those of Thomas late Earl 
of Lancaster, and now namely in the twenty- third year of Edward 
the Third from the Conquest [1349] are those of Henry Earl of Lan- 
caster, 84 Derby and Leicester, and Steward of England. 

SALFORDSHIRE. TOTTIFGTOF. 

MIDELTON. Roger de Midelton holds four carves and two oxgangs 
of land in Midelton, for one knight's fee. 

BUSY. Margery de Radclive and Henry her son hold four carves 
and six oxgangs of land in Bury, for one fee. 

CHADDERTON . Henry de Trafford holds two carves of land in Cha- 
therton, by the fourth part of one knight's fee, eight, &c. 

ALKBINGTON. Alice, who was wife of Adam de Prestwyche, holds 
the manor of Akkeryngton by homage and service, and there is there 
the twenty-fourth part of one knight's fee. 

PARTICULARS OF KNIGHTS' FEES, FORMERLY 

OF THE EARL OF LINCOLN, IN THE 

DUCHY OF LANCASTER.** 5 

******** 
BURY. Roger de Pilkyngton holds of the said Duke [of Lancaster] 

83 Compare the holders of the fees generally in this Feodary with those of the Testa 
de Nevill (chap. vii. p. 69 ante) and of the Birch Feodary (chap. xiv. p. 257 ante). 

84 Lancashire was not created a duchy, and consequently this Henry did not 
become Duke of Lancaster, till the 6th March 1351. 

85 This part of the inquest must have been taken two years after the former, the 
duchy not being created till 25 Edward III. (1351). 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 443 

one knight's fee in Bury in Salfordshire, which Adam de Bury formerly 
held of the aforesaid fees [of the late Earl of Lincoln] . 

MIDELTON. John de Eydale holds one knight's fee of the said duke 
in Midelton with members, which Eobert de Midelton formerly held of 
the said fees. 

CHADDERTON. Henry de Chatherton holds a fourth part of one 
knight's fee of the said duke in Chatherton, which Gilbert de Barton 
formerly held of the said fees. 

TOTTINGKTON . Henry Duke of Lancaster holds a fifth part of one 
knight's fee, of the aforesaid fee in Totyngton, which the Earl of Lin- 
coln formerly held. 

PARCELS OP THE FEES FOEMEELY OF 
THOMAS DE GEELLE. 

BARTON. The heir of Gilbert de Barton holds of John de la "Ware 
one knight's fee and a half in Barton with its members, which Gilbert 
de Barton formerly held of Thomas de Grelle, and he of the Earl 
Ferrers, and he of the king in chief. 

VARIOUS PLACES. Thomas de Lathum knight, Eobert de Holand 
knight, and Thomas de Sotheworth, hold of John de [la] "Ware one 
knight's fee, of which Thomas de Lathum knight [has] three acres of 
land in Childewall, one carve in Asphull, one carve of land in Turton, 
[half a carve of land in Childewall, half a carve of land] 86 in Brockholes, 
and the said Eobert and Thomas de Southworth hold one carve in 
Harewode in Salfordshire ; together with six and a half carves of land, 
making one fee, which Eobert de Lathum holds of the said John. One 
knight's fee in Dalton, Parbold and Wrightington, which Eobert de 
Lathum formerly held of the aforesaid fee. 

EUMWORTH AND LosTOCK. The heir of John son of Henry de 
Hulton holds of the said John a third part of one knight's fee in Eom- 
worth and Lostok, which Eichard Perpond formerly held of the said 
fee. 

PILKINGTON. Eoger de Pilkyngton holds of the said John a fourth 
part of one knight's fee in Pilkyngton, which Eoger de Pilkyngton his 
ancestor formerly held of the said fee. 

86 The clause in brackets is erased in the original. 



444 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

FEES OE LINCOLN. 

Henry Duke of Lancaster and all the tenants holding in demesne 
and by service, within the duchy of Lancaster, twenty- two knights' 
fees and half a fee, the fourth part and the twentieth part of one 
knight's fee, which the Earl of Lincoln formerly held within the said 
duchy, and he the Earl of Lincoln never held more, nor any parcel of 
the same, which same fee the said earl formerly held of the honour of 
Lancaster, as appears above by the above-named particulars and parcels. 

John de la Ware holds in demesne and by service five fees and a half 
and the twelfth part of one knight's fee within the said duchy ; which a 
certain Thomas de Grelley held, which same Thomas formerly held of 
the king as of his honor of Lancaster, as estimated twelve fees, to wit, 
within the said duchy to this day the said Thomas held five and a half 
fees and the twelfth part of one knight's fee, which the said John la 
"Ware now holds, as appears by the particulars and parcels above stated. 
And all the rest of the said twelve fees are held by the said Thomas in 
other various counties beyond the said duchy, to wit, where and by 
what parcels they [the jurors] are wholly ignorant. 

******** 

PEKDLETOF. The Prior of St. Thomas, near Stafford, holds of the 
said duke the tenth part of one knight's fee in alms, as it is said, in 
Penhulton, in Salfordshire, which the heirs of Eichard de Hulton 
formerly held of the said honor of Lancaster. 

LITTLE BOLTON. Eoger of Little Bolton holds of the said duke the 
sixteenth part of one knight's fee in Little Bolton in Salfordshire, which 
his ancestors formerly held of the honor of Lancaster. 

BBIGHT-MEDE. The heirs of Eobert de Holand knight and Nicholas 
Devyas hold of the said duke the eighth part of one knight's fee in 
Bright-Mede, a hamlet of the vill of Bolton, which their predecessors 
formerly held of the Earl Eerrers, and he of the king in chief. 

CEOMPTON AND BTJRGHTON. Eichard de Langley and Joan his 
wife hold of the said duke the fortieth part of one knight's fee in 
Crompton [and] Burghton, which Adam de Tetlowe held of the Earl 
Eerrers. 

PAECELS OE EEES, EOEMEELY 
THOMAS DE GEELLEY'S. 

Nicholas Langeforde knight holds of John la "Ware one knight's fee 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 445 

in Wythington, which Matthew de Haversegge formerly held of the 
said fee. 

Hugh de Worthyngton and John de Heton hold of the said John half 
of one knight's fee in Worthyngton and Heton-under-Horwich [the 
forest], which "William de Worthyngton formerly held of the said fee. 

The Abbot of Whalley holds the manor of Stayning of the duchy of 
Lancaster by half of one knight's fee. 

The Countess Durmund [d' Ormonde] holds the tenth part of one 
knight's fee of the fee of Lyncoln. 

The heir of Henry del Cherton holds the twenty-second part of one 
knight's fee in Chernok. 

[The remainder of this part of the Feodary is a copy of the 
Testa de Nevill, fol. 396. Vide p. 69 et seq. ante.~\ 

By his first wife, Elizabeth, Eoger la Warre had issue John la 
Warre, born before 1339, and Thomas la Warre, afterwards a 
priest, who in his later years, when rector of Mamecestre, founded 
the college. After the death of his first wife, Roger la Warre 
married for his second Eleauor or Alianora, daughter of Johu, 
Lord Mowbray, whose maternal great-grandfather was King 
Henry III. 

This Eoger la Warre, by an indenture in counterpart, dated Swines- 
head, co. Lincoln, Trinity Sunday, 29 Edward III. [May 31, 1355], 
granted to " our beloved Thurstan Holand, our kinsman" for life " our 
pasture of our park of Blakelegh, with the arable land of Bothumle 
[Bottomley], with the meadow in the same park thereto belonging, for 
feeding in the said pasture, his own cattle as well as those of others in 
the same place, on agistment, by his leave, and for the ploughing of the 
said land, and also for inclosing the end [caude] of the said park, as it 
was wont to be inclosed ; and also for assarting and approving of ten 
acres in Asshen-hurst, so that no covert be claimed as free, or destroyed, 
because thereof. And to these acres, and also to the said pasture, he 
may inclose as much as he pleases of a certain waste beyond the 
inclosure, in which wild animals may freely come and go. Saving to us 
and our heirs all the wood and sufficient pasture for our wild animals, 
and their issue, and sharing, by our leave [or will] in the profits 
accruing from the said wood and wild animals. So nevertheless that 



446 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

the said Thurstan may participate in, and have the mediety of, the 
pannage to his own use, whenever it falls [or happens, acciderit.~\ To 
have, &c., for the whole of his life. Paying therefor yearly to us and 
our heirs loos, sterling at the feast of St. Michael, and keeping the said 
park, as well in timber as in venison [or hunting, venacione] to the 
benefit of us and our heirs. [The usual warranty and sealing in coun- 
terpart; the seal bearing on a heater shield a lion rampant and the 
legend " .... gillv [sigillum] .... la Warre."] Witnesses : Tho. de 
Wyke, Eoger de Assewell, Tho. de Bothe, and others. Given at 
Swynesheved on the feast of the Blessed Trinity, 29 Edward III. 
(Rev. J. Booker's CJiapelry of Blakeley) 

The next few years are unmarked by any event of interest in 
the history of the manor and its lords, if we except the gallantry 
of Roger la Warre at the battle of Poictiers, September 19, 1356, 
where he claimed to be one of the captors of John, King of France, 
and in memory thereof afterwards bore in his coat of arms the 
crampet, cbape, or cross-guard of the French king's sword, as a 
badge of that honour, "a crampet, or." 

"We come next to notice certain fines for writs of agreement, 
&c., relating to the manor and to the advowsons of the churches, 
of which the following are entries in the rolls of the Duchy of 
Lancaster : 

Eighth year Duchy, 1358-9. Divers fines for writs de conventione 
and concerning lands in Culcheth, Mamcestre manor and the advowsons 
of the churches of Mamcestre and Assheton, &c. 

Ninth year, 1359-60. The duke on behalf of Roger la Warre. 
Commissioners appointed to inquire into the said Roger's petition, 
showing that he held the town of Mamcestre as a borough and mar- 
ket town, and enjoyed certain liberties there, and in the manor and 
hamlets, and that the duke's bailiffs had interfered to levy amercia- 
ments, &c. 

Tenth year, 1360-61. Pardon of a fine, pro Licentia Concordandi, as 
to the tenure of Mamcestre. 

Inquisition and letters patent touching the manor of Mamcestre as 
a market town and borough, with the hamlets thereto. 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 447 

WAS MAMECESTRE A BOROUGH OR A MARKET TOWN ? 
The last three entries in the above extracts from the Duchy 
Rolls relate to a most important question raised between the Duke 
of Lancaster (whose bailiffs had amerced certain resiants of Mame- 
cestre) and the Baron of Mamecestre, no less than whether that 
place was really a borough, with all the privileges of a free- 
borough, or only a market town, with the smaller privileges 
thereto appertaining. As the subject was one of great moment at 
the time, and is still not without its interest for the antiquary and 
the local historian, transcripts have been procured expressly for 
this work, of the duke's writ and commission to inquire respecting 
the petition of Roger la Warre, and of the inquisition held by the 
commissioners at Preston, in April, 1359, and their decision of the 
question. The whole of these documents are set forth in an 
Inspeximus, of which the following is a literal transcript : 

DUCHY OF LANCASTER. 

E Rotulo anno 4 ad 11 Ducatus Hen: due Lane 1356-1363. 
A. 3 a. No. 45 dorso. 

"1 DUX omib} ad quos T:c salfrn. In- 



la . . - ~ ,.,-. ~ 

J spexirn 1 tenorem Irajp. nraip dilcis T: 
fidelib} nris Thome de Seton Joni Cokayn et Rofo de ffaryngton 
dirca^ in hec 9ba: Henr Dux Lane comes Derb Lincoln T: Leic T: 
senescallus Angi dilcis T; fidelib} suis Thome de Seton Joni Cokayn 
T: Rog*o de ffaryngton saHm. Sciatis qd dilcs nob Reg's la Warre 
p peticoem suam coram nob T; consilio nro exhibita g a uit conque- 
rendo monst a uit qd licet ipe villam de Maincestre ut burgu T: 
villam mercatoria teneat ; ipe% T: antecessores sui dni eiusdem ville 
emendas assise panis T: Suisie fracte ac punicoem vitilario^ rnlcato^ 
de mlcandisis suis cont" assisam T; legem ac custuma regni Angf 
venditis ac theoloniu tarn quolibet die septimane q rt m die mlcati una 
cu aliis libtatib} ad burgu T: villam nil catoria ptinentib} net T: here 
debeat ipeq > ~t antecessores sui pdci huiusmodi lifttatib} usi sunt a 



448 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

tempe quo memoria non existit Ac in dca villa T; in maSio de 
Maincestre T; in membris T; in hamelettis eidem maSio ptinentib} 
lifctates de Infangenthef pacis fracte emenda^ panis T: cuisie fracte 
ac punicoem de carnificib} tannatorib} de mlcandisis suis cont a 
f!dcas assisam legem T; custuma venditis ac alias lifctates furcas 
put pullori T: tumbrell T: quantum ad illas lifttates ptinet ipe T: 
dci antecessores sui usi sunt a tempe j!dco. Bafti tamen nri p 
assisa panis T: Suisie fracta ac p pace fracta necnon p carnib} cont a 
assisam venditis residentes dcojp ville T: maSij aiflciauerunt T; 
eadem amlciamenta ad opus nrm minus iuste leuauerunt ut dicit 
in ipofc E/og 1 ! T; residenciu dampnu non modicu T; g a uamen ; Sup 
quo idem Hog's nob supplicauit sibi p nos remediu inde puideri. 
Nos volentes eidem Rog'o fieri in hac pte quod: est iustu, Assig- 
nauim 41 vos coniunctim T; diuisim ad inquirend p sacrm pbo^ i leg 
hoim ducatus pdci p quos rei vitas melius sciri porit si dcs Rogs 
dcam villa ut burgu T: villam ml catoriam teneat ipeq^ T: antecessores 
sup"dci eos sic tenuerunt T; libtatib} pdcis a tempe pdco usi sunt T: 
gauisi ut pmittit 1 T; inquirend de ofnib} circumstanciis dcas lifetates 
tangentib}. Et inquisicoem inde fcam nob in cancellar nram sub 
sigillis vris seu sub sigillo unius vrm T; sigillis eo^ p quos fca fuit 
sine dilone mittatis T: hoc breve ut ul?ius inde fieri faciam* 1 quod de 
iure fuit faciend. Mandauim^ enim vie nro ducat^ pdci qd ad 
ctos diem et locu quos vos vel un^ vrm ei scire fac ; venire faciat 
cora vob tot T: tales pbos T; leg hoies de balliua sua p quos rei vitas 
in fJmissis meli^ sciri po?it T; inquiri. In cui^ rei testimoniu has 
Iras nras fieri fecim^ patentes. T. me ipo apud Preston viij die 
Marcij anno ducat^ fi nono. Inspexim" 1 eciam tenorem inquisicois 
p f fatos Thomam Johem T: Rogm ptextu Ira^ nra^ Jdca^ capte T: 
in cancellar nra misse in hec 9ba: Inquis cap? apud Preston coram 
Thoma de Seton T; sociis Justic drii ducis die Lune in scda septi- 
mana quadragesime anno rr Edwardi ?cij post conquestu tricesimo 
?cio p sacrm Johis de Radeclif Otonis de Halsale Ro^i de Brade- 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, AD. 1325-1472 THE WESTS. 449 

shagh Henr fil Simonis de Bikerstath Rofcti de Trafford Ade de 
Hopwode Ro^i de Barlowe Join's del Holt Rofcti de Hulme Johis 
de Chetham Thome de Strangwas T: Jotiis del Scolefeld jur, qui 
dicunt p sacrm suu qd: Rog's la Warre miles dris de Maincestre 
uon tenet villa de Maincestre ut burgu nee antecessores sui illam 
villa ut burgu tenuerunt set dicunt qd idem Reg's t antecessores 
sui a tempe quo non extat memoria dcam villam tenuerunt 
tanquam villam mlcatoriam et qd ipe T: antecessores sui dfii 
eiusdem ville huerunt emendas assise panis T; Suisie fracte ac 
punicoem vitilario^ ml cato^ de rS candisis quibuscuqj cont" assisam 
legem T: custuma regni Angi vendit, ac theoloniu tarn quolibet die 
septimane cfm die nScati cum ofnib} aliis libtatib} ad villam 
mlcatoria ptinentib). Et dicunt eciam qd: idem Rog*s T; ante- 
cessores sui in pdca villa de Maincestre T; in maSio de Maincestre 
cu membris T: hamelettis eiusdem maSij silt in villa de Assheton 
in Salfordshire Wythington Heton Norrays Barton iuxta Eccles 
Halghton Heton cu Haliwall Pilkyngtou T: in hamelettis ea^dem 
villaj eidem manlio ptinentib}. Lifttates de Infangenthef pacis 
fracte emenda^ assise Suisie fracte ac punicoem de carnificib} tan- 
natorib} de m; candisis suis cont" ^dcas assisam lege T: custuma 
vendi? ac alias lifttates furcas put pullori T: tumbrel T: quantu 
ad illas libtates ptinet huerunt T; usi sunt a tempe quo non extat 
memoria. In cui^ rei testimoniu huic inquisicoi dci iuratores 
sigilla sua apposuerunt DaE apud Preston die T: anno sup"dcis. 
Nos aute tenore dca^ Irap nra^ ac tenore dee inquis ad requisicoem 
pfati Rog 1 ! la Warre tenore psenciu duxim^ exemplificand. In cui^ 
T:c T. duce apud castru nrm de Lylpull xxvj die Aprilis anno Ic 
nono. 

Ibid: No. 44. 

) DUX omib} balliuis 1 fidelib} suis ad 

mm ' \ quos 1c. Sciatis q* cum diics consan- 

guineus nr Ro^s la Warre dns de Maincestre nup in cancellar nra 

VOL, III. 3 M 



450 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

fecit quendam fine decem marcar^ p bri nro frendo de ten in 
Maincestre T; unu aliii fine quadraginta marca^ coram justic nris 
apud Preston p licencia concordand: de ten pdcis. Nos volentes 
eidem Rog'o inde face gram spalem pdonauim^ ei fines pdcos. It a 
qd p nos seu heredes nros inde non occone?: In cui^ T:c T. Duce 
apud Preston viij die Januarij anno T:c nono. 

p Iras ipius Ducis de priuato sigillo. 



DUCHY OP LANCASTEB. Roll E of the 4th to the nth year of the 
dukedom of Henry, Duke of Lancaster. 1356-1363. 87 (A. 3a. 
No. 45, on the back of the roll.) 

) THE DUKE to all to whom, &c., greet- 

la TOacte. } ing m have impected the tenor of 



our letters to our beloved and faithful Thomas de Seton, 88 John Cokayn, 89 
and Roger de .Faryngton, 90 directed, in these words : 

87 There is some error in the dates of common years, or at least they do not agree 
with the duchy years given in the text. The first year of the duchy was from 6th 
March 1351 to 5th March 1352 j consequently the fourth to the eleventh years of the 
duchy would be 1354-5 to 1361-62 

83 Thomas de Setone or Setou, the first of the three judges or triers in this case, 
was a lawyer practising for ten years before he was raised to the bench. He was one 
of the king's Serjeants in 19 Edward III. (1345), and as such was summoned to par- 
liament. Dugdale places him as a judge of the King's Bench in 28 Edward III. 
( l 354)i an d f the Common Pleas in 29 Edward III. (1355), without any date of 
appointment to either. He was certainly a judge of one of them in April 1354 (28 
Edward III.), for he was one of the triers of petitions in the parliament then held; 
and he was a judge of the Common Pleas in Michaelmas 1355 (29 Edward III.), for 
fines were then acknowledged before him; and it appears probable that he was 
appointed to this court between the previous Hilary and Trinity terms, as the list in 
the Yearbook omits his name in the former, and includes it in the latter year. On 
the 3rd July 1357 (31 Edward IV.) he was made Chief Justice of the King's Bench, 
in the room of William de Shareshull, then retiring ; but it would seem from the 
words "ad tempus," in the mandate, that it was at that time a mere temporary 
appointment. His name appears on fines up to Midsummer 1359 (33 Edward III.), 
so it may be inferred that up to that date he acted as a judge of the Common Pleas 
also ; especially as in the same year he is so designated, when he was admitted of the 
king's secret council. There is no doubt that he was Chief Justice of the King's 
Bench till the 34 Edward III.; when, on the 24th May 1360, Henry Green was 



CHAP. XVIL] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 451 

HENRY, Duke of Lancaster, Earl of Derby, Lincoln and Leicester, 
and Steward of England, to his beloved and faithful Thomas de Set 011, 
John Cokayn, and Roger de Farynton, greeting. Know ye that our 
beloved Roger la Warre, by his petition, before us and our council 
exhibited, grievously complaining, showed that it was lawful for him 
that he should hold the town \villam\ of Mamecestre, as a borough and 
market-town, and that he and his predecessors, the lords, had in the 
same town the amends [or fines] for the assise-breach of bread and ale, 
and the punishment of victuallers of the markets in respect of their 
merchandise, sold contrary to the assise, the law and the custom of the 
kingdom of England ; and toll, as well on every day of the week as on 
the market day, together with other liberties to a borough and market 
town belonging, has and ought to have ; and he and his predecessors, 
the aforesaid kind of liberties have used for a time to which memory 
does not extend. And in the said town and in the manor of Mame- 
cestre and in the members and in the hamlets to the same manor 
belonging, the liberties of Infangetheof, peace-breach, the amends of the 
[assise-] breach of bread and ale, 91 and the punishment of butchers 92 

appointed his successor. (Foss's Judges of England, vol. iii. p. 502.) As however 
the duke's writ in the text is dated in March 1359, and gives no judicial title to 
Seton, it is probable that he had then ceased to be Chief Justice of the King's Bench. 

89 (Page 450.) Of this John Cokayn we can find no notice; but he may have been 
father of Sir John Cokayne, a native of Ashbourne, Derbyshire, who was Recorder of 
London 1 8 to 22 Richard II. (i 394-1 397). He was raised to the office of Chief Baron of 
the Exchequer i5th November 1400, and i7th June 1406 a puisne judgeship in the 
Common Pleas was granted him, and he performed the duties of both offices for some 
years. Having sat on the bench nearly thirty years, he retired to private life in 1429, 
and died in 1438, leaving several children. (Foss's Judges of England, vol. iv. 

P- 33-) 

90 (Page 450.) Eoger de Faryngton was the younger son of Thomas Faryngton and 
Anne Worsley his wife, and brother of Percival Farynton of Northbroke ; of the younger 
branch of the old family. This Koger was knight of the shire from the 31 to 34 
Edward III., i.e. from 1357 to 1360 inclusive; so that he was a member for Lanca- 
shire at the time he sat on the bench of the Duchy Court at Preston, as one of the 
three or four judges of the Duke of Lancaster, to dispose of this and other causes. 

91 See note 15, p. 399 ante. 

92 By a statute of 51 Henry III. (1236) it is enacted: i. That a butcher that 
selleth swine's flesh measled, or flesh dead of the murrain, or that buyeth flesh of 
Jews and selleth the same unto Christians, after he shall be convict thereof, for the 



452 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

and tanners 93 for their merchandise sold contrary to the aforesaid assise, 
the law and custom ; and other liberties of gallows, pit, pillory, and 
tumbrel, 94 and as much as to these liberties belongeth, he and his said 

first time he shall be grievously amerced. 2 . The second time he shall suffer judg- 
ment of the pillory. 3. The third time he shall be imprisoned and make fine, and 
the fourth time he shall forswear the town. And in this manner shall it be done 
of cooks, and all that offend in like case. By the 3 and 4 Edward VI. cap. 19 (1550) 
if any butcher shall buy any fat oxen, steers, ronts [small oxen], kine, heifers, calves 
or sheep, and sell the same again on live [alive] he shall forfeit the same. But he 
shall and may at his pleasure buy any fat oxen (&c. as above) or any of them, out of 
any open fair or market, so that he sell them not again on live. By the 24 Henry 
VIII. cap. 9 (1532) any butcher killing a weanling, bullock, steer or heifer, under 
two years old, for sale, forfeited 6s. $d. 

93 The principal statute as to leather, its tanning, currying, tawing, &c., was not 
passed till the i James I. (1603). But the offences of tanners are probably indicated 
in the provisions of an act of 5 Edward VI. (1551) by which every one having the 
king's license to carry over sea any tanned leather may buy in open fair or market, so 
much as he shall be licensed to transport, on having the quantities endorsed on his 
license by the chief officer of such fair or market. If any one buy or ingross any 
kind of tanned leather, to the intent to sell the same again (except saddlers, girdlers, 
cordwainers and other artificers making wares of leather, buying such kind of leather 
as is necessary for being wrought by them) he shall forfeit the same or its price. But 
the said artificers may sell their wombs, shreds and necks, which they cannot occupy 
about their wares. 

94 The gallows and the pit, usually termed " Furca et Fossa," in ancient privileges 
signified a jurisdiction of punishing felons, i.e. men by hanging, women by drowning. 
Sir Edward Coke says that Fossa is taken away, but that Furca remains. (3 Inst. 
58.) Pillory (pilloria, from French pillerie, plundering, theft, extortion) is an engine 
of wood made to punish offenders by exposing them to public view, and rendering 
them infamous. The "Statute of the Pillory" is the 51 Henry III. (1266-7). By 
statute the pillory is appointed for bakers, forestallers, and those who use false 
weights, perjury, forgery, &c. (3 Inst. 219.) Lords of leets are to have a pillory 
and tumbrel, or it will be the cause of the forfeiture of the leet ; and a vill may be 
bound by prescription to provide a pillory, (2 Hawk. P. of C. y 73.) Tumbrel 
(tumbrellum, turUchetum, & trebuchet t French,) was originally a cart, but with a chair 
or stool upon it came to mean the cucking or ducking stool, called in Domesday 
" cathedra stercoris," or the chair of a stinking place. It was a chair or seat at the 
end of a long lever, placed over a pond or piece of water, and by elevating the land 
end of the lever, the chair at the other end, with its occupant, was plunged into the 
water ; this being the punishment by law for scolds and unquiet women. It was in 
use even in Saxon times, and was described as " cathedra qua rixosso mulieres sedentes 
aquis demergebantur" (a chair, sitting in which, brawling women were plunged over- 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 453 

predecessors were used from the time aforesaid. Notwithstanding 
which our bailiffs, for the assise-breach of bread and ale, and for peace- 
breach, also for butchers selling contrary to the assise, the resiants of 
the said town and manor have amerced, and the same amerciaments to 
our profit, unjustly [" minus juste"~\ have levied, as he says, not a little 
to the injury and grievance of him Roger and the resiants. Upon which 
the same Roger supplicates us for himself, that we provide a remedy 
herein. We, willing to do in this respect what is just to the same 
Roger, have assigned unto you, jointly and severally to inquire, by the 
oaths of honest and lawful men of the aforesaid duchy, by whom the 
truth of the matter may be better known, if the said Roger hold the 
said town as a borough and market-town. And if he and his prede- 
cessors aforesaid so held it, and were used to have the liberties aforesaid 
from the time aforesaid. And we desire that they may be permitted to 
inquire respecting all the circumstances touching the said liberties. 
And the inquisition therein made, to us in our chancery, under your 
seal, or under the seal of one of you, and the seals of those by whom it 
was made, to be sent without delay and this writ ; that afterwards we 
may cause to be done therein what of right should be done. We there- 
fore command our sheriff of our aforesaid duchy that at a certain day 
and place, which you or one of you shall make known to him, he shall 
cause to come before you all, such honest and lawful men of his baili- 
wick, by whom the truth of the thing in the premises may be better 
known and inquired into. In testimony whereof we have caused these 
our letters to be made patent. Witness me myself at Preston, on the 
8th day of March, in the ninth year of our duchy [1359]. 

We have also inspected the tenor of the inquisition by the aforemen- 
tioned Thomas, John and Roger, in pursuance of our letters aforesaid, 
taken, and sent into our chancery, in these words : 

INQUISITION taken at Preston before Thomas de Seton and his 
fellows, Justices of the Lord the Duke, on Monday in the second week 
of Lent, in the thirty- third year of the reign of King Edward the Third 
after the Conquest [March n or 18, 1359] by the oaths of 

head in water.) It was also a punishment inflicted upon brewers [brewsters, i.e. 
women-brewers] and bakers transgressing the laws, who were thereupon in such a 
stool plunged over head and ears " in stercore" stagnant and .stinking water. 
(Slount and Jacob.) 



454 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

John de Eadeclif Eoger de Barlow 

Oto de Halsale John of the Holt 

Eoger de Bradeshagh Eobert de Hulme 

Henry son of Simon de John de Chetham 

Bikerstath Thomas de Strangwas 

Eobert de Trafford John of the Scole-field 95 

Adam de Hopwode 

Jurors ; Who say by their oaths, that Eoger la Warre knight, lord of 
Mamecestre, does not hold the town of Mamecestre as a borough ; nor did 
his predecessors hold the town as a borough. But they say that the 
same Eoger and his predecessors, from a time to which memory goeth 
not, held the said town, as a market town y 96 and that he and his prede- 

95 Of these jurors, John de Eadeclif appears to hare been the eldest son and heir 
of Sir John Eadcliff of Ordsall knight, who died a year before this inquisition, this 
John succeeding him as head of that branch of the family. He married Margaret, 
cousin and heiress of Clementine, daughter and heir of Eoger de Chedell, but died 
s .p. Oto de Halsale was the son and heir of Gilbert de Halsale (? near Ormskirk), 
who died about 1322. This Oto survived till 1395. Eoger de Bradshagh of Haigh 
was the eldest son of Sir William Bradshagh and his wife Mabel, the daughter and 
heiress of Hugh Norris of Blackrod, and the heroine of the tradition of Mab's Cross. 

Eoger held Blackrod from the Earl Ferrers in 1322, and married a Margaret , 

who survived him, and by whom he had a son Hugh. Eobert de Trafford of Garratt 
was the third son of Sir Henry of Trafford and Margaret his wife. Eobert married 
and left three sons, Henry, Eobert and Nicholas. Adam de Hopwode, if we may 
rely on a pedigree obviously defective in its earlier part, was (perhaps) a son of 
Thomas; Adam was living in 1342 and 1359, and left a son Thomas, who was the 
father of Geoffrey, living 1369-1421. Eoger de Barlow of Barlow was the son of 
Eoger and his wife Alice, daughter of Sir Eichard Worsley knight. He married 
Alice, daughter of Thomas Entwistle Esq., and left a son, John, living 1396-7. 
Eobert de Hulme was probably the son of Eobert and the father of Laurence Hulme 
of Manchester, who was living in 1421. John de Chetham was probably one of the 
Chethams of Nuthurst, with whom the Christian name of John was a favourite one 
about this period. Thomas de Strangwas was perhaps one of three brothers, John, 
Thomas and Henry de Strangways, who in October 1385 entered into an engagement 
to serve Sir John Pondus, captain of Cherburg, to enter for the guard of the donjon 
of that place, for a year, receiving John 20 livres or 2oZ., Thomas and Henry each 20 
marks or 13?. 6s. 8dL, together with " sufficient victuals, such as are fitting for esquires 
of their condition.'-' Most of these jurors seem to have been resident within a few 
miles of Mamecestre, the three exceptions being Halsall, Bradshaw and Bickersteth. 

96 A market town (vill mercatorium) , is a town possessing a market by prescription 
or charter. Mamecestre clearly held its market by custom or usage beyond the 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 455 

cessors, lords of the same town, had the amends of the assise-breach of 
bread and ale, and the punishment of victuallers of the markets, for 
whatsoever merchandise be sold against the assise, law and custom of 
the kingdom of England ; and toll, as well on every day of the week as 
on the market-day ; with all other liberties to a market-town belonging. 
And they say also, that the same Eoger and his predecessors in the 
aforesaid town of Mamecestre, and in the manor of Mamecestre, with 
the members and hamlets of the same manor, to wit, in the town of 
Assheton [under-Lyne] in Salfordshire, Wythington, Heton Norrays, 
Barton near Eccles, Halghton, Heton- with-Haliwall, Pilkynton, and in 
the hamlets to the same towns in the same manor belonging, 97 the 

memory of man. A market (mercatus, from mercando, buying and selling) is the 
liberty by grant or prescription, whereby a town is enabled to set up and open shops 
&c. at a certain place therein, for buying and selling, and better provision of such 
victuals as the subject wanteth. It is less than a fair, and is usually kept once or 
twice a week. The market of Mamecestre was (and is still) held on Saturday. One 
market ought to be distant from another six miles and a half and a sixth of a mile 
(" Sex leucas (vel milliari) et dimidiam, et terciam partem diinidise.") (Bracton.) 
If one hath a market by charter or prescription, and another obtains a market near 
it, to the nuisance of the former, the owner of the former may avoid it [i.e. may make 
void or null the new market.] (i lust. 406.) Where a man has a fair or market, 
and one erects another to his prejudice, an action will lie. (2 Hoi. 140 ; i Mod. 69.) 
Formerly it was customary for fairs and markets to be kept on Sundays ; but by the 
statute 27 Henry VI. cap. 5 (1449) no fair or market is to be kept upon any Sunday 
or upon the Feasts of the Ascension, Corpus Christi, Good Friday, All Saints, &c., 
except for necessary victuals and in time of harvest. They ought not to be held in 
churchyards. (13 Edward I. cap. 6. 1285.) All fairs are markets; and the 
market must be in an open place, where the owner may have the benefit of it (4 Inst. 
272.) Persons that dwell in the country may not sell wares by retail in a market 
town, but in open fair or market. But countrymen may sell goods in gross there. 
(Stat. i and 2. Philip and Mary, 1554-5, cap. 7.) Every one that hath a market 
shall have toll for things sold, which is to be paid by the buyer, and by ancient 
custom may be paid for standing of things in the market, though nothing be sold ; 
but not otherwise. Proprietors of markets ought to have a pillory and tumbrel, &c., 
to punish offenders. (i Inst. 131 ; 2 Inst. 221.) 

97 Here are seven or eight vills or townships enumerated, all of which are called 
" members" of the manor of Mamecestre, with the hamlets thereto belonging. It has 
been already stated (pp. 41, 42 ante) that a manor may contain several vills, villages 
and hamlets ; but though we do not anywhere in the old law books find the term 
" members" applied to portions of mattors, the following passage from JBracton (lib. 
4, fol. 212) makes the matter clear : "A manor may exist by itself, without many 



456 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

liberties of Infangenthef, peace-breach, of the amends of assise-breach 
of bread and ale, and punishment of butchers and tanners as to their 
merchandise sold against the aforesaid assise, the law and custom. And 
other liberties of gallows, pit, pillory and tumbrel, 98 and so much as to 

buildings added together, or adjacent vills and hamlets ; it may also be a manor both 
by itself and together with many vills and many hamlets adjacent ; none of which, 
however, can be a manor by itself, but only a vill or a hamlet. There may also be a 
capital or chief manor by itself, and it may contain under itself many manors not 
capital \_i.e. many mesne or inferior manors], and many vills and many hamlets, as 
under one head or lord." Of the vills enumerated as " members" of the manor of 
Mamecestre, Ashton-under-Lyne, the principal, was a mesne manor, and also a 
separate parish of itself. The town is seven miles east of Manchester. Withington 
is a township in the parish of Manchester, three and a half miles south of Manchester. 
Heaton Norris is a chapelry in the parish of Manchester, six miles S.S.E. ; Haughton 
or Houghtorf, a township in the parish of Manchester, is six miles S.E. ; Heaton and 
Halliwell are now distinct townships, both in the parish of Dean, the former two 
miles west from Bolton, the latter two miles N.W. from Bolton. Pilkington is a 
township in the parish of Prestwich, six miles N.W. from Manchester. The manor 
must have included other townships or vills not here named. 

98 See notes pp. 231, 399, 452 ante. There are here enumerated a pair of capital punish- 
ments, and a pair of lesser penalties ; and of each pair one was usually applied to one 
sex, the other to the other. Thus the gallows, or hanging, was for male, the pit, or 
drowning, for female, criminals. The pillory was usually for male offenders, and the 
tumbrel or the ducking-stool (with the brank or iron bridle), for female delinquents, 
as prostitutes, drunkards and scolds. One seeming exception, the punishment of 
brewers by tumbrel, may be explained by the fact that women were almost the only 
brewers. Three different machines of punishment are often confounded, the cuck 
or cucking-stool, the ducking -stool, and the tumbrel. The first was simply a stool, on 
which the female offender was placed before her own door, or in the market-place ; 
the punishment consisting solely in this public exposure. The ducking-stool was a 
chair suspended over a pond, for plunging the delinquent in the water. The tumbrel 
was a wheeled cart, in which delinquents were carted round the town, and sometimes 
whipping was added. When a ducking-stool was placed on the tumbrel, and the 
culprit wheeled from her home or the market-place to the ducking-pond, then the 
machine took either name, or both. Mr. Ormerod, the historian of Cheshire, speaks 
of the cucking-stool as applied only to female scolds, and says that the ducking-stool 
was a distinct punishment, superseding it, and sometimes usurping its name. Cowel, 
in v. Thew, quotes Pi. in Itin. apud Cestr. 14 Henry VII. (1498-9) to show that in 
the manors of Bushton and Ayton delinquents against the assise of bread and ale were 
punished three times by amerciament, but the fourth time, " bakers by the pillory, 
brewers by the tumbrel, and scolds by the theme, that is by putting them upon a stool 
\scabelUm\ called a cucking-stool." At a court of the manor of Edgeware in 1552, 



CHAP. XVIL] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472, THE WESTS. 457 

these liberties belongs, they have, and have been wont to have, from 
time to which memory goeth not. In testimony whereof, to this inqui- 

the inhabitants were presented for not having " a tumbrel and cucking-stool." Du 
Cange, in v. Tumbrellum (French tombereau) describes it as an instrument used for 
carrying brawling and scolding women to be punished [castigandas], by which they 
were cast into water, immerged, and drawn out drenched and half-choked. Cowel 
says it was a cart, in which fornicators and adulterers, for disgrace, were carted 
around the city or borough. Bracton calls it "P&na Tymboralis" Fleta, " Pcena 
Tumbrelli." The laws of the Scottish burghs enact that if any one shall be in 
forfeiture, as to bread or ale, the baker shall be put upon the neck-stretch, which is 
called the pillorie ; the maltstress, breweress or brewster, or ale-wife (brasiatrix), upon 
the tumbrel, which is called the castigatory. So Fleta calls it " Timburale vel Casti- 
gatorium" Kitchin says that " Every one having View of Frank-pledge ought to 
have a pillory and a tumbrel." Blount says that the cucking or coke-stool, or 
tumbrel, was in use in the time of the Saxons, by whom it was called Scealfing-stol t 
(Scealfor, Anglo-Saxon, a diver). Somner, and Dr. Bosworth in his Anglo-Saxon 
Dictionary, render this term by " ducking-stool, a chair in which quarrelsome women 
being seated, are submerged in water." Blount adds that it was a punishment 
anciently inflicted upon [female] brewers and bakers [?] transgressing the laws, who 
were thereupon, in such a stool or chair, to be ducked and immerged " in stercore" 
in some muddy or stinking pond. In Domesday it is called " Cathedra stercoris" 
the chair of the dung-heap, or more correctly dung-pond. There is a curious passage 
which gives another etymology to the word, viz. goging-stool, which is found in a 
Latin MS. of the laws, statutes and customs of the free-borough and town of Mont- 
gomery temp. Henry II. In the original the word given for the delinquent is 
PandoxatriX) which may best be rendered ale-wife, i.e. a woman who both brews and 
sells ale. " If such ale-wife [or brewster] shall brew ale, and shall break the assise of 
our lord the king in the borough and town, as fixed and proclaimed, then she shall be 
amerced by the bailiffs at the will of our bailiffs, aud not by her peers [pares suos, 
i.e. by a jury] the first and second time ; and if she shall break the assise a third 
time, she must be taken by the head bailiffs and publicly carried or led to the place 
where the goging-stole is situate, and there she must choose one of two things, viz. 
whether she will go upon [ascendere] the goging-stole, or whether she will ransom or 
redeem herself from that judgment [illud judicinm redimere~] at the will of the 
bailiffs." As to other names for this stool, it is stated that a woman, convicted of 
being a common scold, shall be sentenced to be placed on a certain engine of correc- 
tion, called the trebucJcet (French trebuchet) castigatory, or cucking-stool, which in 
the Saxon language signifies the scolding-stool [?] ; though now it is frequently cor- 
rupted into ducking-stool, because the residue of the judgment is, that when she is so 
placed therein she shall be plunged in the water for her punishment. (3 List. 219 : 
Black. Com. 4 v. 169.) Though this punishment is now disused, the editor [of 
Jacob's Law Dictionary, Mr. John Morgan] remembers to have seen the remains of 
VOL. III. 3 N 



458 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

sition the said jurors have set their seals. Given at Preston, the day 
and year abovesaid. 

one on the estate of a relation of his in Warwickshire ; consisting of a long beam or 
rafter, moving on a fulcrum, and extending to the centre of a large pond, on which 
end the stool used to be placed. Some think cucking-stool a corruption from ducking- 
stool-, others from choking-stool : because by this mode of immersing in water one is 
almost suffocated. (Jacol.) In the Leet Book of Coventry in 1423, is an entry of 
" the coTcestowle made upon Chelsmore Green, to punish scolds and chiders, as the 
law will." In 1555 Mary Queen of Scots enacted that itinerant singing- women 
should be put on the cuck-stools of every burgh or town ; and the first Homily 
against contention, pt. iii. (published 1562) sets forth that " in all well ordered cities, 
common brawlers and scolders be punished with a notable kind of pain, as to be set 
on the cucking-stole, pillory, or such like." In Skene's " Regiam Majestatem" in the 
chapter on " Brewsters, or women who brew ale to be sold," if one such make evil 
ale, contrary to the use and custom of the burgh, and is convict, " she shall pay an 
unlaw (fine) of 8*., or shall suffer the justice of the burgh, that is, she shall be put 
upon the cock-stool, and the ale shall be distributed to the poor folk." An original 
cucking-stool, of ancient and rude construction, was preserved in the crypt under the 
chancel of St. Mary's, Warwick, where may still be seen the three wheeled carriage 
[? tumbrel], upon which was suspended by a long balanced pole a chair, which could 
readily be lowered into the water, when the cumbrous vehicle had been rolled into a 
convenient situation. This chair is still in existence at Warwick. Another cucking- 
stool, differently contrived, may be seen at Ipswich, in the Custom House j it appears 
to have been used by a sort of crane, whereby the victim was slung into the river, 
and is represented in the History of Ipswich (1830) and the Gentleman's Magazine 
(January 1831). At Kingston on Thames a woman was placed in the stool and 
ducked in the Thames for scolding, by order of the magistrates, so lately as April 
1745. The Editor of Mamecestre has seen, in a chamber in the Manchester Eoyal 
Infirmary, an old high-backed oak chair, with some carving, which he was assured was 
the ducking-stool formerly suspended over the Daub-holes or Infirmary Pond. The 
poet Gay describes such an engine in " the Dumps" : 

" I'll speed me to the pond, where the high stool 
On the long plank, hangs o'er the muddy pool, 
That stool, the dread of ev'ry scolding quean," &c. 

In his MSS. (written about 1780) Mr. Cole says that in his boyhood he saw a woman 
ducked for scolding at Cambridge. The chair hung by a pulley fastened to a beam 
about the middle of the bridge, in which the woman was confined, and let down under 
the water three times, and then taken out. The ducking-stool was constantly hanging 
in its place, and on the back panel of it were engraved devils laying hold of scolds, &c. 
Misson, in his Travels in England, minutely describes the cucJcing -stool and its 
operation. In some verses written early in the eighteenth century, we have its action 
thus pourtrayed : 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1 325-147 2. THE WESTS. 459 

"We also direct to be exemplified the tenor of our aforesaid letters, and 
the tenor of the said Inquisition, at the request of the aforenamed Roger 
la Warre, and the tenor of these presents. In testimony whereof, &c. 
Witness the Duke, at our Castle of Lyverpull, on the 26th day of April, 
in the ninth year, &c. [April 26, 1359.] 

Ibid. No. 44. 

) The DUKE, to all his Bailiffs and faithful 
dfor iaoger la E2iam, \ , ^ ,, 

) men, to whom, &c. Know ye that whereas 

our beloved kinsman [or cousin] Roger la Warre, lord of Mamecestre, 
lately made in our Chancery a certain fine of ten marks [61. 135. 4^.] to 
have our writ as to the tenure of Mamecestre, and one other fine of 
forty marks [26?. 135. 4^.] before our justices at Preston for license to 
agree as to the aforesaid tenure : We, willing to do special grace therein 
to the same Roger, have pardoned him the aforesaid fines. So that by 
us or our heirs he shall npt therein be troubled. In testimony whereof, 
&c. Witness the Duke at Preston, the 8th day of January in the ninth 
year, &c. [January 8, 1360.] 

By letters of the Duke, under the privy seal. 



" There stands, my friend, o'er yonder pool, 
An engine call'd a Ducking-stool : 

****** 

Down in the deep the stool descends, 

But here, at first, we miss our ends : 

She mounts again, and rages more 

Than ever vixen did before. 

So, throwing water on the fire 

Will make it but burn up the higher. 

If so, my friend, pray let her take 

A second turn into the lake, 

And, rather than your patience lose, 

Thrice and again repeat the dose. 

No brawling wives, no furious wenches, 

No fire so hot, but water quenches." 

For further illustrations of these engines and modes of punishment, see the Glossaries 
of Ducange, Spelman, Blount and Cowel, the Promptorium Pamilorum, and Brand's 
Popular Antiquities. 



460 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

It being thus formally decided that Mamecestre was only a 
market town and not a borough, it would no longer be free from 
suit to the county and wapentake. The result was in fact to reduce 
the Port-mote to a mere subsidiary court to the lord's Court- 
baron; and to set up again the jurisdiction of the wapentake of 
Salford, and that of the sheriff's tourn, within the town of Mame- 
cestre, in all cases except such as related to the lord and his 
tenants, which, according to ancient usage, would be determinable 
by the Court-baron. It may suffice to add that ultimately the 
several local courts merged into the half-yearly Court Leet, Court- 
baron and View of Frank-pledge, held about Easter and about 
Michaelmas; at which latter time the Boroughreeve and Con- 
stables of Manchester for the ensuing year were elected. 

Amongst other proceedings arising out of the Preston Inquisi- 
tion a final agreement was made in the Duke's Court at Preston, 
between Roger la Warre knight and Alianora [or Eleanor] his 
wife, plaintiffs or complainants, and John la Warre knight (the 
son of Roger's first marriage) and John Wyke, deforciants of the 
manor of Mamecestre and the churches of Mamecestre and Ashton. 
As copies of the original have been printed in its contracted form 
in Baines's Lancashire (vol. ii. p. 190) and at full length in Dr. 
Hibbert- Ware's History of the Foundations (vol. iv. p. 107), we 
need only subjoin a translation of this document : 

FINAL AGREEMENT AS TO THE MANOE or MAMECESTEE AND THE 

ADYOWSONS or MAMECESTEE AND ASHTON. 
(Rot. Ped. Fin. Hen. DUG. Lane. ann. 8 [1358.] In records of 

Chapter House at Westminster.) 

This is a final agreement made in the court of the lord the duke at 
Preston, on Monday, the morrow of St. Mary Magdalene [i.e. July 23] 
in the eighth year of the duchy [or regality] of Henry Duke of Lancaster 
[1358] before Tho. de Seton, Henry de Haydoke," John Cokayne, and 

99 Was this Henry de Haydoke a son of Gilbert de Haydoke, who in 1 344 obtained 
from the king license to inclose Haydock Park, and to have free warren in Bradley ? 
Henry, son of Henry de Haydok, gave to Eichard, son of Eoger de Assheton, 
land in Aston [? Ashton-in-Makerfield] in 23 Edward I. (1294-5). 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 461 

Roger de Faryngton, justices, and others of the faithful men of the lord 
the duke then and there present. 

Between Eoger la Warre knight and Alianora [or Eleanor] his wife, 
complainants [or plaintiffs], and John la Warre knight and John 
Wyke, 100 deforciants of the manor of Mamecestre with the appurte- 
nances, and of the advowsons of the churches of Mamecestre and 
Ashton. Upon which plea an agreement was entered into between 
them in the same court. To wit That the aforesaid E-oger acknow- 
ledges the aforesaid manor with the appurtenances and the advowsons 
aforesaid, to be the right of him John la Warre, as to which the same 
John and John de Wyke have it of the gift of the aforesaid E-oger. And 
for this acknowledgment, fine and agreement, they John and John have 
granted to the aforesaid Eoger and Alianor the aforesaid manor with 
the appurtenances and advowsons aforesaid. And they will return them 
in the same court, to have and to hold to the same Eoger and Alianor 
and to the heirs of him Eoger, of the chief lord of that [fee] by the 
services which to the aforesaid manor and advowsons belong for ever. 

(Signed) 

LANCASTB'. 

Tn 36 Edward III. (1362-3) an Inquisition post mortem as to 
Henry, the first Duke of Lancaster, found that his Lancashire 
possessions were the following ; here printed, as showing what the 
la Warres held of him as of his duchy, and as of his honour of 
Tutbury : 

Lancaster Castle and honor ; pleas of the county ; bailiwick of West 
Derby ; wapentake of Lonsdale ; town of Lancaster ; the river Lune 
fishery near Presthwait ; Overton manor ; Slyne town ; Skerton lands, 
&c.; Quernmore Park ; Wiresdale vaccary ; Bleasdale, Caldre, Grisdale, 
ditto ; Amounderness wapentake ; Preston, Singleton, Eiggeby vill 
with the Wray ; Hydil Park ; Cadilegh, Fulwood wood ; Kylaneshalgh, 

100 John Wyke, who is here associated with John la Warre as a deforciant of the 
manor of Mamecestre, was doubtless a relative of the Thomas de or del Wyke, who 
was presented by Joan, widow of Sir John la Warre, lord of Mamecestre, to the 
rectory of that place, on the death of John de Claydon, the rector (u Kalends 
September 21 Edward III. i.e. 22nd August 1347). Also of Thomas, son of Thomas 
del Wyke, who was presented to the rectory of Ashton-under-Lyne by Eoger la 
Warre, on the 4th Ides of May, i.e. i2th May, 1362. 



462 MAMECESTBE. [CHAP. XVII. 

Broughton, Mirescogh Park, Wiggehalgh, Baggerburgh, Clyderhoo 
Castle, Blakeburnshire wapentake, Ightenhull manor, Colne manor with 
members, Woxton, Penhulton vill, Chateburn vill, Accrington vill, 
Huncotes, Haslingden vill, Penhull chace, Troghden chace, Eossendale 
chace, Totington manor and chace, Hoddesden wood, Eachedale manor, 
Penwortham manor, Widnes manor, Ulleswalton manor, Eccleston vill, 
Leylond vill, Lyverpoll Castle, West Derby manor and Salford manor 
(both as of the honor of Tutbury), Hornby Castle and manor, Wer- 
ington maner and Laton manor. 

Fees in Co. Lane. Walton in Blakeburnshire, Crointon, Apulton, 
Sutton, Eccleston, Eainhull, Knowslegh, Torbok, Hyton, Maghull, 
Crosseby Parva, Kirkebye, Kirkedale, North Meles, Argameles, 
TJlneswalden, Bretherton, Hoghton, Claiton, Whelton-cum-Heparge, 
Wytherhull-cum-Bothelsworth, Hoton, Longeton, Leiland, Eukeston, 
Chenington, Chernoke, Walshewhitull [Welsh Whittle], Warton in 
Amounderness, Prees, Newton, Frekelton, Witingham, Ethelswike, 
Bura in Salfordshire, Middleton with members, Chatherton, Totinton, 
Mitton Parva, Wiswall, Hapton, Townlay, Coldecotes, Snoddeworth, 
Twiselton, Extwisell, Aghton, Merlay, Lyvesay, Donnom, Fobrigge, 
Merlay Parva, Eossheton, Billington, Alvetham, Clayton, Harewode, 
Crofton, Hornebye, Ulsdeston[?], Warton in Lonsdale, Grairstang with 
members, Thistleton, Prees, Kelgrimesargh, Bryninge, Merton Magna, 
Middleton in Lonsdale, Newton, Makerfeld, Lawton, Keinan [Kenyon], 
Erbury, G-oldeburne, Sefton, Thorneton, Kerdon, Halghton, Burgh, Lee, 
Fishwicke, Dalton in Furness, Stayninge, Midhope, Chernoke. 

Fees held of the honour of Tutbury. Hagh Parva, Bolton, Breight- 
met, Compton, Burghton, Childerwell, Barton in Salfordshire, Asphull, 
Brockholes, Dalton, Perbald, Withington [Wrightington], Lostoke, Eom- 
worthe, Pilkington, Worthington, Heton-under-Horewiche, Tildeslegh, 
Sulthethe [?], Eixton, Astley, Atherton, Sonkey, Penketh, Ines Blundell, 
Barton, Halsale, Windehulle, Lydegate, Egergarthe, advowson of the 
priory of Lancaster, the church of St. Michael on Wyre, Preston church, 
St. Mary Magdalen chapel, Chypin church, Eibcaster church, Whalley 
abbey. 

During the next few years. Sir Eoger la Warre was serving with 
the king's army in France. In 34 Edward III. (1360) he was 
taken prisoner. In 1362 he was summoned to parliament; and 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 463 

in 1364 he was again in the wars, serving in the retinue of Prince 
Edward. In 1368, Roger la Warre was sent to Calais with the 
Earls of Warwick and Salisbury, having under them 500 men-at- 
arms and 500 archers. In 1369, 400 Lancashire archers were 
required to accompany John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, to 
Aquitaine. By a will dated 28th April, 42 Edward III. (1368) 
Roger la Warre directed his body to be buried without pomp in the 
Abbey of Swineshead, co. Lincoln. He die<^ in 44 Edward III. 
(1370), leaving by his second marriage only a daughter, Joan or 
Joanna, who married Thomas, third Baron West. 

In 44 Edward (1370) it was found by inquisition that Roger la 
"Warre (tenth baron) and Alianora his wife had held in co. Lane, the 
manor of Mauncestre and the advowson of the church, the advowson of 
the church of Asheton, and the extended manor of Keuerdelegh, as of 
the honour of Hal ton ; besides other manors and lands in cos. Berks, 
Wilts, Leicester, Rutland, Somerset, Salop, Hereford, Northampton, 
Sussex and Lincoln. (Gal. Ing. p.m. vol. ii. p. 305.) 

In 50 Edward III. (1376) the Abbot and Convent of Dore, co. Here- 
ford, gave 205. for the confirmation of a grant made to them by John la 
Warre [ninth baron] of one acre of land with appurtenances in Albriton, 
co. Sussex, and the advowson of the church of the same vill. (Abb. 
Mot. Orig. vol. ii. p. 347.) 

XI. John, son and heir of Roger la Warre, and eleventh baron 
of Mamecestre, was twenty-six years of age in I37O, 1 when he suc- 

1 It is not easy always to distinguish Sir John la Warre, eleventh baron of Man- 
chester, from his uncle Sir John la Warre, of Bockhampton, Berks, who died however 
in 1360, according to one account s.p., leaving his estates to his brother Eoger. But 
in Blore's Rutland we find it stated (vol. i. p. 106) that in April 1360 this latter 
John was knighted at Paris ; that he was taken prisoner by John de Haubert ; and 
that he died on the 27th August, 44 Edward III. (1370), and by his will, dated 
Wakerley, 28th April, 42 Edward III. (1368) he directed that his body should be 
buried in the Abbey of Swineshead, co. Lincoln ; that his best horse should be his 
principal [i.e. mortuary'], without armour, according to the custom of mean people; 
that ioo?. sterling should be given to the poor in sums of not less than half a mark 
[6*. 8d.] at the discretion of his executors ; that the daughters of John la Warre, his 
grandfather and the lady Joan [Greslet] his wife, should be paid [?] ; that Alianor 
should have the vestments, books, &c. of his chapel ; and after payment of his debts 



464 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

ceeded to the barony; but at the time of his father's death he was 
with Prince Edward in France, and therefore his homage was 
respited till his return. Tn 1371, John being still absent, his 
brother Thomas de la Warre, a priest, was presented to the vacant 
living of Ashton-under-Lyne, on the death of Thomas del Wyke, 
by Sir Lewis Clifford his uncle (by marriage with Eleanor, one of 
the sisters of Sir Roger la Warre), who had wardship of the 
manorial estates of his absent nephew. 

A record without date, probably from some feodary, states that John 
la Warre and "William Botiller, knights, and their tenants, hold of the 
duke [duce] of Lancaster 2 nine knight's fees, and Ird and Jj-th of a fee, 
in the underwritten vills : Hagh, Little Bolton, Brightmede, Cromp- 
ton, Brighton, Barton (iu Salfordshire), Childwell, AspuLL, Brocholis (in 
Amunderness), Daltou (in Derby), Parbold, Wrightingtou (mLeylaud- 
shire), Eumsworth, Lostock, Pilkingtou, Withingtou, Worthington, 
Hetou-under-Horewich, Tildesley, Culchet, Eixtou, Astley, Atherton, 
Sonkey, Penket, luce Blundell, Barton (in Derby), Halsall, Wiudhull, 
Lydiate and Egerwith [Edgeworth] : Which fees, together with certain 
lauds aud tenements which are of the honor of Tutbery, the lord the 
duke granted to Eichard Earl of Aruudel, John Bishop of Lincoln, 
Eobert (?) de la Warre knight, John Buckland knight, John de Char- 
nols, Walter Power, Simon Simcox, John de Newmarch, and their 
heirs, by a fine iu the court of the lord the king before the justices at 
Westmiuster, on which a fine was levied by which each of the said fees 
was valued at 5^. yearly. And the said honor of Tutbery, together with 
the same fees, is held of the honor of Lancaster. (Dr. Keuerden's 
MSS. in Her. Coll. and Palmer's MSS. vol. D. p. 27.) 

and legacies, the residue of his goods should be divided in three parts ; one to be dis- 
posed of for the benefit of his soul ; another to Alianor his wife ; and the third to his 
sons Thomas, Edward and John. He appointed his sons John and Thomas his 
executors. 

2 As there was no Duke of Lancaster before March 1351, and as John la Warre, 
ninth baron, died in 1347, it is clear that the John la Warre here named was the 
eleventh baron, who ruled in the years 1370-1398, and that the Sir William Botiller 
was the son of Sir William Butler of Warrington and Sibilla his wife ; he married 

Elizabeth , and died in 3 Richard II. (1379-80), leaving two sons, Richard and 

John; Richard the eldest married a Joanna , and died s.p. 23 Edward IV 

(1482^3). 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1471. THE WESTS. 465 

On the return home of John la Warre, he did homage to John 
of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, for the following lands and estates 
in Lancashire places : Haigh, Little Bolton, Brightmet, Cromp- 
ton, Brughton, Barton in Salford (Barton-on-Irwell), Childwall, 
Aspull, Brockholes in Amounderness, Dalton in Derby hundred, 
Parbold, Wrightington, and Heton-subtus-Horwich. After being 
thus put in possession of his barony, John la Warre returned the 
same year to France. He subsequently granted to Robert de 
Holland the manor of Dalton, and one-sixth of the manor of Har- 
wood, to be held as of the manor of Mamecestre. He also con- 
firmed to Nicholas de Longford the manor of Withington, which 
he held by the service of helping to find one judge for the lord's 
court at Mamecestre. 

A short abstract of a grant of land in Mamecestre is given in 
the Harl, MSS. (Cod. 2112, fol. 171) as follows: 

Ego Johannes de la Warre, dns de Mamecestr dedi &c. Hawisie, 
atte Castle-hull, quand' plac' ter j cont' vigint' sept' pedes, sup 
Irke, et in lat' 50 pedes, a falda nra sup Irwell &c. Test' Thurstan 
de Holland, Rico de Radcliffe de Ordesall, Ran Ward, et aliis. 
Dat' apud Wakerley, a 49 Edward III. (1375). 

I John de la Warre, lord of Mamecestre, have given &c. to Hawise 
atte Castle-Hull, a certain plot of land containing twenty-seven feet 
upon Irke [bank], and in breadth fifty feet from our fold upon Irwell 
[bank], &c. Given at Wakerley, 49 Edward III. (1375). 

In 19 Richard II. (1396), Robert Collayne, chaplain [of Mamecestre], 
gave to Richard de Holand, knight, lands and tenements in Mamecestre, 
called Ousecrofb, Le Knolles, and Rype-feld [or Kyper-feld], which 
Robert had of the gift of Hawise, of Castlehull ; the said Richard to 
hold them for life. (Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 146.) 

In 6 Richard II. (1382-3) the king granted by patent that John de 
la Warre (eleventh baron of Mamecestre), lord of Wakerley, was not to 
be required to come to parliament during the remainder of his life. 
(Gal. Rot. Pat. p. 206 b.) 

Burke says that the special dispensation exempted him from 
attending any future parliaments, or serving the king in his par- 

VOL. III. 3 O 



466 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

liaments or otherwise, against his own good will. This exemption 
could hardly be in consideration of his age, for he could not be 
fifty at this time ; and he lived sixteen years afterwards. He may, 
however, have had some great physical infirmity, disabling him 
from active service. 

In 22 Richard II. (1398-9) by an escheat on inquiry before Eoger 
Brockels, escheator, it was found that John de la Ware knight [eleventh 
baron] held the manor of Mamecestre, together with the advowson of 
the church [of Mamecestre and also the advowson of the church] of 
Ashton-under-Lyne, of the lord the duke [of Lancaster] in chief, by the 
service of one knight's fee and one-fourth of a knight's fee ; and the 
manor of Keuerdelegh of the lord the duke, in chief, by the service of 
one-eighth of a knight's fee, as of his manor of Halton. (Dr. Keuer- 
den's MS. Chetham Library, p. 437.) 

About 1373 Thomas la Warre seems to have resigned the 
rectory of Ashton-under-Lyne, and to have been inducted into 
that of Mamecestre. John la Warre, eleventh baron, according to 
one account, had but one son, who pre-deceased him; but as we 
can nowhere find his wife named, we are inclined to accept the 
statement of Burke and others, that he died unmarried. He died 
2;th July, 1398 (22 Richard II.), and was succeeded by his 
brother Thomas la Warre, then rector of Mamecestre. There 
would seem to have been several inquisitions after the death of 
John la Warre : 

In 6 Henry Y. (1418-19) it was found that John de la Ware held 
the manor of Mamecestre with appurtenances, by homage and service, 
and 525. 6d. at the feast of St. John Baptist for castleward of Lancaster, 
and 41. 45. for sac-fee at the Nativity of the Lord [Christmas], the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin [March 25], St. John Baptist 
[June 24], and St. Michael [September 29] ; and by the service of five 
knights' fees and half a knight's fee and one fourth of a knight's fee. 
(Ifarl. MS. 2085, fol. 418.) In the same year it was found that he 
also held one carve of land in Ohorlton [Hardy] by the service of 20*. 
yearly at the four terms, and one carve in Hulme, by the service of 5$. 
at the four terms. (Dr. Keuerderfs MS. Chetham Library, p. 438.) 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 467 

Again, in the same year it was found that he held the manor of 
Keuerdeley with appurtenances, by service, doing suit to the county 
and wapentake, for all services. Also, that he held the manor of Dalton, 
by homage and service, and suit to the county and the wapentake, by 
the hand of Robert de Holand, who then held one-fourth of that 
manor. (Ib. p. 438.) 

XII. Thomas la Warre, clerk, rector of Mamecestre, was not 
styled baron, but master, as an ecclesiastic, and hence he was 
named twelfth lord of Mamecestre. The great event of his rule 
was the collegiating of the parish church. The following are brief 
records of some of the acts of this worthy priest-lord, the last 
male of his line : 

In 13 Henry IV. (1411-12) by an inquisition post mortem Sir John 
de Ashton held (by sub-infeudation) the manor of Ashton-under- 
Lyne, of Sir Richard de Kirkeby, by fealty and a rent of one penny 
which Richard was found to have held the manor of Assheton, with all 
its appurtenances, of Thomas Lord la Warre, lord of Mamecestre, by 
fealty and the service of rendering yearly 225. and one gos-hawk or 40^., 
as well as putary to the maintenance of the foresters of Horwich and 
Blakeley, or as it is termed " of his bailiwick of Mamecestre." (IUd.} 

In 9 Henry V. (1421) a patent was granted for the founding and 
endowing of the College of Mauncestre, by Thomas la Warre, clerk. 
{Gal. Rot. Pat. p. 268.) In the same year he had another patent for 
inclosing the way through the middle of his close of Offington, co. 
Sussex. (II. p. 272.) 

In 5 Henry VI. (1426-7) it was found that Thomas Lord la Warre 
was seised for the term of his life .... whereof are discharged [exspect:] 
John de Ashton and his heirs for ever, of the gift of one rod of park- 
land, of the manor of Mamecestre, in the field called Smithfeld, together 
with the church of Ashton. (Imperfect abstract in Keuerden's MS. in 
Chetham Library, p. 435.) 

As on the death of Thomas la Warre without issue, the manors 
and estates of which he was possessed would have descended to 
his heir-at-law, one of the Griffin family, a distant relative, to the 
exclusion of his half-sister Joanna, wife of Thomas Lord West, and 
her issue, Thomas la Warre appears to have vested his estates 



468 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

in trustees, in trust for himself for his life, and after his death 
for his half-sister Joan or Joanna (or it may be Jane, for all three 
are different forms of the same name) and her issue. The mode of 
accomplishing this alienation from the legal heir was termed 
' ' deforciando levatum" deforcing a levy, somewhat resembling 
the later process of levying a fine. In 12 Henry IV. (1410-11) 
Thomas Lord la Warre, clerk, did actually levy a fine of the manor of 
Wickwar, for the use of himself in tail, the remainder to Reginald 
West, son of Thomas West, by his wife Joan or Joanna, Thomas 
la Warre' s half-sister. 

The erection of the rectory of Mamecestre into a college, in 
other words the collegiating of the parish church, by Thomas la 
Warre, who was both lord of the manor and rector of the church, 
in the year 1421, is told so fully and clearly by Dr. Hibbert-Ware 
in his History of the Foundations (vol. iv.) that it is only necessary 
to name it here. The parish of Mamecestre was then of great 
extent; being from seven to nine miles from east to west, and 
from eight and a half to nine miles from north to south. Mame- 
cestre and Salford, separated only by the Irwell, formed a part of 
the north-westerly bounds of the parish. To the north of Mame- 
cestre were Chetham, Broughton, Crumpsall, Blakeley and Har- 
perhey. On the east were Bradford (and Beswick), Failsworth, 
Droylsden, Moston, Newton, Openshaw, Gorton and Denton, On 
the south, south-west, and south-east were Hulme, Stretford, Moss 
Side, Kusholme, Chorlton-Row [-on Medlock], Chorlton-cum- 
Hardy, Didsbury, Levenshulme, Withington, Burnage, Heaton 
Norris, Reddish and Haughton. 

The endowment of the old rectory of Mamecestre consisted of a 
carve of land in Kirkman's Hulme, granted to the church of 
Mamecestre prior to the Conquest ; of four oxgangs of glebe land 
in Deansgate, granted to the church by Albert Greslet (senex), 
third baron of Mamecestre ; and of the tithes of the whole parish, 
including those of its various hamlets. Thomas Lord la Warre, 
for the endowment of the new collegiate foundation, besides 
suffering a fine to be levied on the family estates of 200 marks 



CHAP. XVIL] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 469 

(1337. 6s. 8d.), gave five messuages and ten acres of land in 
Mamecestre., Aldport, Gorton and Heaton, being parcels of the 
manor, and also of the advowson of Mamecestre, to the warden 
and fellows and their successors for ever. These lands included 
i a. 34 p. of land, named the Baron's Hull and Baron's Yard, 
which was destined for the college house; 3 lop. of land between 
the " place" of Ralph Stanley knight and the Bull Oak (apparently 
a piece of ground between the Baron's Hull and the present 
church); 4 8J a. 13 p. of land in Nether Aldport (between the Irwell 
and Water-street); 5 a messuage and n|p. of land at Gorton 

3 The boundaries of the college and its yard are thus given in the grant (dated 
8th November i Henry VI. 1422): "Beginning at the foot of a common lode 
[or way] at the bank of a certain stream called Irke, near the burgage of Master John 
Wrightyngton, and so ascending by the aforesaid lode as far as to a burgage of 
Robert, son of John of the Holt, and so by the same burgage ascending by one bur- 
gage of Laurence de Hulme, and by the common oven of the town of Mamecestre, 
which John Challoner of Mamecestre holds ; and so by another burgage of the afore- 
said Laurence, and by the place [or plot] of Ealph Staneley knight, as far as to the 
Bulle oke; and so from the said Bulle oke descending by the Hunt Hull, which 
Edmund Parker holds, as far as to the midstream of the aforesaid water of Irke, near 
a certain bridge called Irke Brygge ; and so always ascending by the midstream of the 
aforesaid water of Irke as far as into the foot of the aforesaid lode, which was the 
first bound." [Dr. Hibbert-Ware supposes the " lode" to be the ancient lane still 
called "Mill Brow." The boundary, he thinks, then took a direction south 
of the present Long Millgate, as far as the angle formed by the intersection of a 
narrow road stretching east and west, named " a Vennel," now corrupted into Fennel- 
street. Near this angle, he conjectures, may have stood the mansion or "place" 
described as belonging to Ralph Staiieley knight. Then from that point he thinks the 
boundary line was diverted in direction from east to west, parallel with the Collegiate 
Church, as far as the " Bull Oke" on the south of the " Hunt Hull" or Hill, now 
Hunt's Bank. This bull-oak, where, according to ancient usage, bulls were baited by 
dogs, may very possibly have given to the surrounding ground the name of the Hunt 
Hull. From the Bull Oak the boundary line descended northward by the present 
Hunt's Bank to the Irk Bridge (near the confluence with the Irwell), and thence 
proceeded eastward up the midstream of the Irk to the old " lode" or Mill Brow.] 

4 " Ten perches of land extending from the aforesaid Bulle oke as far as to the 
northern porch of the said church of Mamcestre ; lying between the said Bull oke to 
the aforesaid place of Ralph de Staneley." [A plot coming up to the north porch of 
the church.] 

5 "Lying within these bounds, viz. : Beginning at the end of a certain hedge [or 



470 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

Green ; 6 and another messuage and 1 1^ p. of land at Heton. 7 The 

Inclosure] which begins upon the bank of the river Irwell, towards the west, and so 
following the said hedge by [or along] the limits of a certain field called ' The Accres,' 
towards the east, as far as into the highway which leads from Mamcestre to Trafford, and 
so following the said highway towards the south, for the breadth of a perch and a half 
of land, and thence descending towards the west, always of the same breadth, as far as 
opposite to a certain headland \_forere] of the said field called ' the Accres,' which 
abuts towards the south, and thence making an angle directly towards the south, for 
the breadth of half a perch of land, and from that angle descending athwart [or trans- 
versely] towards the west as far as to the said river Irwell, opposite the north end of 
the land of Edmund de Prestewych, lying on the west side of the same water, and so 
ascending the aforesaid river Irwell as far as to the end of the aforesaid hedge which 
was the first bound." [On this plot of 8^ acres 13 perches of land in Nether Aldport 
(which was formerly called " Lithake," and also Aldport Park) Dr. Hibbert-Ware 
observes that it would be somewhat difficult now to identify its minutely marked 
boundaries 5 but the site may be described generally as a margin of land between the 
Irwell and an ancient road (the present Water-street) leading to Old Trafford, which 
bank was intended to command a fishery for the use of the inmates of the college.] 

6 "Lying in a certain place called Gorton Grene, between the tenure [or holding] 
of John Bageley the elder, on the east side, and a certain gate [or outlet] which leads 
from the said Gorton Grene, as far as to Eedich on the south side." [This house 
and small quantity of land on Gorton Green would seem by no means to have been 
the only property at Gorton given by Thomas la Warre to his newly collegiated church. 
There is amongst the Mosley muniments at Eolleston a grant in 1422 by Thomas 
Bishop of Durham, John Henege, Nicholas Motte (clerk), Richard Lumbard (clerk), 
and Richard Fryth, which recites a fine in the Duchy Court at Lancaster of Thursday 
before St. Lawrence, 12 Henry IV. (August 6, 1411), by which Thomas la Warre, as 
deforciant of the manor of Mamecestre, acknowledged the right in the manors of 
Mamecestre and Keuerdeley and the advowson of the church of Mamecestre, to be 
the right of William Ronceby, clerk, as he held it of the bishop and others, of the 
gift of the said Thomas la Warre, who remits and quitclaims the same to the said 
bishop, &c., for ever. Afterwards William Ronceby, by a writing given at Swynes- 
head on the Feast of St. Matthew the Apostle 12 Henry IV. (September 21, 1411), 
released all his right and claim to the bishop, &c. By this grant the bishop, &c., for 
the good and lawful service, bestowed and to be bestowed by Robert of the Bothe to 
the foresaid Thomas la Warre, confirms to the said Robert of the Bothe and Douce 
[Dulcia] his wife, all our messuages, lands and tenements, rents and services, in the 
hamlets of Gorton and Grene-lowe-marsshe, in the vill of Mamcestre, within the metes 
and bounds of Ardewyke, Opynshagh, Aldewynshagh, Denton, Rediche, Levens-holme, 
and Grene-lowe-heth, parcels of the said manor of Mamcestre, except one plot of land 
in Gorton with a certain grange built thereon, and inclosed by a hedge, for receiving 
certain tithe of corn. To have, &c., to them and the heirs of Robert by the service of 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 471 

charter of collegiation was dated at Hey wood, 5th August, 1421. 
Thomas Lord la Warre only lived four or five years after com- 
pleting the collegiation of his parish church. He died in 5 Henry 
VI. (14267), and was buried in the abbey of Swineshead, co. 
Lincoln. He was found by the inquisition of 1427 to have died 
seised (besides manors and estates in other counties), of the manor 
of Mamecestre, which was then " fully extended" as follows : 

INQUISITION OF 1427. 

AsHTOisr. The advowson of the church. 

SHAEPLES. The hamlet and land there called "the Fouldes," con- 
taining 4,000 acres. 

1,000 acres held in the same place, called " Hordern Solyns." 

HETON WITH HALEWAL. 1,000 acres of land called "Egburden," 
in this vill. 

KETJEEDLEY. The manor, as of the manor of Halton. 

HETOF NOEEIS. Lands, &c. 

G-EENE-LOW-ETH. Three messuages, with lands there, denoted by 
metes. 

MAMECESTEE. Lands there called " Jonesfeld de Hulton" and 
" Ingelfeld," described by metes. 

A tenement there called " Over-draught-gate," by metes. 

A tenement there called " Nether- draught-gate," by metes. 

half of one knight's fee, and paying yearly 30?. i is. at the Feasts of St. Michael the 
Archangel and Easter, by equal portions. Remainder to Thomas brother of Robert 
and his lawful heirs in default, &c,, to revert wholly to the bishop, &c. The suit 
to Manchester mill is set forth, both for corn and malt ; and if they or the tenants of 
the messuages, &c., should grind at any other mill, the bishop, &c., have power to 
distrain on any part of the premises. Witnesses : John Buron knight, Edmund 
Trafford, John Radclyff the younger, and others. Given 27th May 10 Henry Y. 
1422.] (From the Mosley Muniments, at Rolleston.) 

7 (Page 470.) "Lying between land in the tenure of William Hanson de Heton 
[Norris] on the west, south and east sides, and the common way of the same place 
on the north side." [Dr. Hibbert-Ware says in reference to the two small bits of 
land in Grorton and Heaton, that " it has been conjectured that these gifts were 
incidental to one or two chapels of ease, which had been built for the accommoda- 
tion of the more distantparishioners of Manchester."] The five parcels of land, 
make up a whole of exactly ten acres, as stated. 



472 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

MOSTON. In this hamlet messuages and lands, &c., called " Bride- 
shaghe," near Bouker-leghe, indicated by metes. 

CURMESHALE. 8oo acres of land in the hamlet of Curmeshale, in 
Mamecestre, by metes. 

AsHTON-UNDEB-LiME. The manor, extended. (Esc. 5 Henry 
VI. No. 54.) 



THE WESTS. 

We have seen how the manor passed from the Greslets to the 
la Warres, and now it went, with the large family estates in Lan- 
cashire and other counties, to the Wests, who were thenceforward 
styled Lords la Warre. 

As " curious coincidences" we may notice that Thomas Greslet, 
the last baron of that race, gave a charter of liberties to the bur- 
gesses of Mamecestre ; and that Thomas de la Warre, the last lord 
of Mamecestre of that race, procured a charter, by which its 
ancient parish church was reformed and collegiated. There were 
eight Greslets, lords of the manor of Mamecestre, and (including 
the Wests, whose barony merged in that of de la Warre) there 
were eight la Warres, lords of that manor. When the male line of 
the Greslets failed, the manor was taken by the last baron's sister 
Joan to the la Warres, and when their male line failed, the manor 
was again taken by the last lord's sister Joan to the Wests. 

The Thomas West who married Joan la Warre was son of 
Thomas West, at whose death in September 1386, he succeeded 
as third baron West. He was summoned to parliament 2ist 
June, 3 Henry IV. 1402, and again 25th August, 4 Henry IV. 
1404. He died iQth April, 1405, and was succeeded by his eldest 
son Thomas^West (born in 1391), who married (in 1406 when he 
was only fifteen) Ida, daughter and coheir of Almaric Baron St. 
Amand; but, dying in France in September 1415, s.p. (aged 
twenty-four), he was succeeded by his brother Reginald West, who 
was summoned to parliament in July 1427, as " Baron de la 
Warre" in right of his mother Joanna, and the barony of West 



CHAP. XVII.l DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 473 

became merged in that of De la Warre, or, as it is now written, 
Delawarr. As to the manor of Mamecestre, a release having been 
executed by Nicholas Griffin of all his right and claim to it, in 
favour of Sir Reginald West, the latter, in 8 Henry VI. (1430) 
directed a letter of attorney to Sir Edmund Trafford and others, to 
take seisin of the manor for him. Neither Sir Thomas West, 
who married Joan la Warre, nor his son Thomas, who married Ida 
St. Amand, enjoyed the barony of Mamecestre. Thomas la 
Warre, the last male of his race, twelfth lord of Mamecestre, sur- 
vived them both, and when he died in 1426 or 1427, the barony of 
la Warre and that of Mamecestre devolved as remainder on his 
half-sister's second son, Sir Reginald West, who thus became 
thirteenth lord of Mamecestre. 

XIII. Sir Reginald West was born in 1394, and was about 
thirty-two years of age when he became the first lord of Mame- 
cestre of his family. On the 5th January 1428, 

By letter of attorney, he appointed Sir Edmund Trafford knight, 
William Chaunterell and Thomas Overton of Swynesheved [co. Line.] 
his attorneys, to receive seisin for him of and in the manor of Mame- 
cestre, with all and singular appurtenances ; also of and in the advow- 
son and patronage of the College of the Blessed Mary of Mamecestre 
aforesaid. And also of and in all other lands and tenements, rents, 
services and reversion, whatsoever, to be held of us, with their appur- 
tenances, in the vill and hamlets of Mamecestre, Gorton and Horewich 
in the said co. Lane. And also of and iu the rent and service of Robert 
de Both and his heirs for divers lands and tenements which he holds of 
us in Mamecestre and Gorton, together with the reversion of the afore- 
said lands and tenements, when it shall happen, except all and singular 
the lands and tenements, rent and service, with their appurtenances 
[held] by William Thirnyng knight, John de Meeres, John de la Launde, 
Roger Welby, Nicholas Motte, late parson of the church of Swynes- 
heved ; Thomas Barnaby, late parson of the church of Rothewell ; Simon 
Laffenham, William Auncell, John Overton, Thomas Bishop of Durham, 
John Henege, Richard Lumbard, late parson of the church of Holtham ; 
and Richard Eryth, feoffees of Thomas, late Lord la Warre, &c. Also 
excepting all lands and tenements, rent and service, in the hamlet of 

VOL. III. 3 P 



474 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVII. 

Curmeshale [Crumpsall] within the town of Mamecestre aforesaid, 
which to the aforesaid William Thirnyng, &c., by the said Thomas, late 
Lord la Warre and his legitimate heir, were lately given and granted. 
To remain thenceforward in the aforementioned bishop, by the name of 
Thomas Longeley, clerk, and Henry Longley his brother, and their heirs 
for ever, according to the force, form and essence of the same tripartite 
indented charter, conveyed to me the said Reginald la Warre and my 
legitimate heir by the said bishop, Henege, Lumbard and Fryth. Given 
at Mamecestre 5th day of January, in the 6 Henry VI. 1428. (Mosley 
Muniments at JRolleston.) 

In 8 Henry VI. (1429-30) the king confirmed to John la Warre, 
kinsman and heir of William Chauntemerle, one fair at the vill of Dul- 
wood, co. Derby. (Gal. Hot. Pat. p. 275.) 

On Mayday 1430, Sir Reginald, by indented deed or charter, gave, 
granted and confirmed to William Chaunterell, 8 sergeant-at-law, and 
Master John Huntyngdon, clerk, 9 the whole of his park of Blakeley, and 
all his lands, woods and tenements called Blakeley-feldes, with all woods 
and underwoods in the said park, lands and tenements growing and 
being, to them and their heirs and assigns for ever. Paying to Reginald 
and his heirs yearly for the first twenty years 39 marks, 6s. Sd. [39^ 
marks, or 261. 6s. Sd.] Afterwards 50 marks yearly [332. 6s. Sd.] There 
are covenants providing for contingencies, as if during the first twenty 
years, or afterwards, the said park should be seized into the hands of 
the king, &c.. Witnesses John de Stanley, John le Botiller, Roger de 
Longeford, Thomas de Assheton, knights ; Thomas de Stanley, Gilbert 
de Radclyf, Esquires ; and others. Given on Monday before the Feast 
of the Invention of the Holy Cross, in the 8 Henry VI. [Monday, May 
i, 1430]. (Mosley Muniments at Eolleston) 

Sir Reginald West died on the 2yth August 1451 (29 Henry 
VI.), aged about fifty-seven years. He had made one pilgrimage to 
Rome, and one, if not two, to the Holy Land. He left his son 
and heir Richard to succeed him at the age of nineteen. 

8 This name is variously spelled. Chaunterell may mean a little songster ; but the 
French compound Chaunte-merle sing or song thrush appears to be its original 
form. 

9 The first warden of the church, which had then been collegiated eight or nine 
years. 



CHAP. XVII.] DOCUMENTS, A.D. 1325-1472. THE WESTS. 475 

XIV. Sir Richard West was an active partizan of the house 
of Lancaster, in the Wars of the Roses, and was in the Tower of 
London when it sustained a siege by the Yorkists. In considera- 
tion of "his singular services/' he had, in 38 Henry VI. (1460) a 
grant of 40^. per annum during life, payable out of the issues of 
the manor of Old Wotton, co. Wilts, part of the possessions of 
Richard Duke of York, then attainted. When the White Rose of 
York flourished, Sir Richard resolved to quit England, and in 3 
Edward IV. (1463) he obtained a grant, authorising him to go 
beyond the seas, with twelve servants and as many horses, not 
exceeding the value of 405. each, and there to continue. He was, 
however, summoned to parliament from 38 Henry VI. to 12 
Edward IV. inclusive (1460-1473). He was twice married, but 
appears to have left issue only by his first wife, Catherine, daughter 
of Robert Lord Hungerford, viz. five sons and two daughters. 
(Collins.) There is a strange discrepancy as to the date of his 
death. In Sir Harris Nicolas' s Synopsis of the Peerage he is said 
to have been summoned to parliament as late as the i6th January 
1497 ; though (as Sir Harris remarks) he is stated on the authority 
of an Escheat to have died twenty -one years before, viz. loth March, 
16 Edward IV. 1476. (Esc. 16 Edward IV. No. 62.) The latter, 
which Collins adopts in his Peerage, is more probably the fact, and 
the writ of summons to parliament might have been continued by 
inadvertency to Richard, when it ought to have been altered to 
Thomas. Similar and even more perplexing discrepancies arise as 
to the age of his son Thomas, the dates of his two marriages, and 
the death of his first wife. 

It was in the lifetime of Thomas West, Lord la Warre, fifteenth 
Baron of Manchester and son of Sir Richard (and also during the 
life of Sir Richard himself), that a complete Rental was made of 
his possessions in the manor of Mamecestre, &c., on the i5th 
May 1473. This important and interesting document will receive 
due notice in the following chapter. 



476 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE EENTAL OP THE MANOR, Ac. 
IN MAY 1473- 

THE difficulty already referred to, in connection with the death of 
Richard West, Lord la Warre and fourteenth Baron of Mame- 
cestre, increases in connection with this document. It is entitled 
in the heading " Rental of Thomas West, lord of Mamecestre, son 
and heir of Lord la Warre, and Ellinor his consort :" and it is 
"made at Mamecestre, May i, 13 Edward IV.," which is in the 
year 1473. Yet in that year his father Richard appears to have 
been living and [?] baron of Mamecestre, and, at the earliest, died in 
March 1476, nearly three years after this Rental. Then, in Col- 
lins' s Genealogical Account of the Wests, Lords Delawar (vol. v. 
p. 22, ed. of 1756), we are told that Thomas was only eighteen 
years old and in France in 1474, and that he obtained special 
livery of his lands, though still under age, on the ist September 
1475, more than two years after the date of this Rental. "Ellinor 
his consort" only increases the difficulty; for he was twice mar- 
ried, first to an Elizabeth, by whom he had four sons and two 
daughters, and second to an Eleanor, by whom he had three sons. 
How can the second wife be reconciled with his being only seven- 
teen years of age at the date of this Rental ? Again, by his will 
of October 1524, it appears that his first wife Elizabeth had been 
buried in the church of the Whitefriars, London, on St. Peter's 
Day, twenty-three years before i.e. June 29, 1501; so that he 
could not have married Eleanor before the year 1502, and yet 
the name appears as "his consort" in this Rental of 1473. An 
assumption that for the i3th we ought to read the 23rd Edward 
IV. (1507-8) might remove all these difficulties; but, having stated 
them, we are compelled to leave the matter as we find it. 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 477 

We have been favoured by the Rev. G. J. Piccope, M.A., of 
Brindle, Chorley, with the loan, for the purposes of this work, of 
what appears to be the original Rent Roll, a long, narrow parch- 
ment, 6 feet 8 inches (three skins) in length, and about 6 inches 
in width. The whole of the recto side is covered with writing, 
which also extends about half way down the dorso (about 2 feet 
7 inches) ; so that the length of the written portion is upwards of 
9 feet in length. The entries are written on ink-ruled lines, with 
a margin at the beginnings of the lines for the names of places, 
by way of index ; while the margin at the ends of the lines is a 
blank column left for the amounts of the rents or payments. This 
parchment roll, 389 years old (1862), was for many years in the 
possession of its present owner's father, the late Rev. John Pic- 
cope, M.A., formerly incumbent of St. Paul's, Manchester, and 
afterwards rector of Farndon, near Chester. 10 As this roll has 
never been either wholly or correctly printed, we shall put on 
record both the original and a translation ; indicating variations 
from it in foot notes, as occurring in another copy, Harl. MSS. 
(cod. 21 12 fol. 166 b. et seq.), and occasionally noticing an imper- 
fect English version of a portion of it, in Corry's History of Lan- 
cashire (vol. ii. pp. 451-455). 



i de Man- 

cestr 9 , filij et hered Dm. de Laware et AlianorJ consort 9 
sue, fact 9 apud Mamcestr 9 predict 9 primo die Maij anno 
xiij regis Edwardi iiij to coram dci dm Thoma et alijs de 
consilio suo, tune ibidm exist 9 vt Inferi^ specific 1 * : 

Thomas Vallantiue tenet dum de Flixton cm ptin de Drio de 
Lewarre vt de diiio suo de Mancestr 9 in socag et r. eid: Drio p 
anii ad iiij r term viz. ad festfh nat: Drii, Pasche, Nat: sci Johis 

10 If it should prove to be the original roll, Mr. Piccope informs us that it is his 
intention to present it to Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart., as the last lord of the manor of 
Manchester. 



478 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

Bap?i et sci Miehis, p equales porcones redd: subscript et j putur: 
?iant et sect cur: de Mamcestr 9 , viij s ij d 

Radus Radcliffe armig* consanguin: et hered: Kadi Radcliffe 
milit tet de dco Dfio iiij p? dci Diiij de Flixton p ftiiciu pd: et r. 
p annu , xx d 

Allex Radcliffe de Ordishull ar: tet al: iiij p? die? Diu de diet 
Dfio p fuic: pd f r. p anfi ad t: pdic? xx d 

Johes Hilton de Farneworth iux? Bolton sup mores qui duxit in 
uxorem Johannam nup uxore Ade Lever de Mag: Lev r qui quid 
Adam tenuit de dco Dno p fuic: pd ij messuag: q Henr. Grondie 
et Ric: Halliwall (xviij d ) modo tenuit [sic] de dco Jofte Hilton ad 
termini! vite ux r sue que assignat sunt eid vx r p do? sua post 
mortem pd Ade solvend afiua? ad quatuor terminos pd iij s vj d 

Idm Johes Hilton tenet maSiu de Farneworth pd de dco dno p 
luic: pd et r. p anfi ad dc? c iiij 8 vj d 

Adm fastball tenet capiHe mess: suu cu ptinen: vat x 1 * p annu 
in ead villa p fuic: pd de dco domino, r. p ann vj d 

Ricus Sedon tenet un mess: et tria ten: ifcm cu ptinen vat v 
rScs p ann de eodem domino et r. p anfi ad terminos fc vj d 

Johes Lever tenet med maSij de pva Lev 1 cu ptinen p luic: xx me 
ptc feod mili? et sec? cur: vt sup de dco Dno et redit p ann ad die 
et j putur: ?ian? iij s iiij d 

Ricus Tempest miles med dci maSij cu ptinen: de dco Dno per 
fttic: pd cu dco Johe Lever et r. p ann ad die: terminos c.. iij s vj d 

Thurstanus Anderton tenet maSiu de Anderton cu ptinen in 
Salfordshire, de dco Dno in socag: et putur: siant et sect cur: et r. 
p anfi ad d. t ix s vj d 

Petrus Gerrarde mili? tenet Dum de Burnehill cu ptinen et 
advoc: ecciie eiusdem de dco Dno in socag: et putur sect: cur: et r. 
p ann ad d. t xv s 

Thomas dns Standley tenet Dum de Anlasargh cu ptinen de 
dco Dno in socag: et putur: et sec? cur: vt sup a et r. p ann iij s 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 479 

Ricus Sharplus de Sharplus iuxta Bolton super moras tenet un 
mess: et vj ten cu ptinefi ibm vai xj 1 * xiij s iiij d p ann de dco Dfio in 
socag: C r. p ann ad t. pd. et putur: ?antur: [sic] et sec? cur: xviij d 

Robtus Sharplus de ead tenet vnu mess: ibm cu ptineii vai xl s p 
ann de dco Dno p luic: pd et r. p ann ad d. t x d 

Ricus Holland de Denton tenet iij ten cu ptinefi in Sharplus pd 
vai x marc p ann de dco Dno et r. p ann ad d. t . x d 

Wiftmus Heaton tenet maSiu de Sunderland de dco Dno p uic: 
pd et r. p ann xij d 

Carolus Brereworth tenet vfi ten cu ptinefi in Meller in Black- 
burshire, de dco Dfio p idm fuic: et r. p ann ad terminos pd ... vj d 

Sonf lix s viij d 

Thomas Dns Standley tenet dum de Childwall pro med vni^ 

feod milit et r. p ann p sakfee ad quat r terminos iiij s vj d 

p ward cas v s 

Robtus Lathom et prior de Bruscoghe tenet [sic] Dum de 
Dalton et Pbald p med vni" 1 feod milit et r. p ann ad d. t. et p 

sakfee iij s 

C p ward cast v s 

Hugo Wortington tenet dum de Wortington p med vni^ feod 

milit et putur ?ian? et r. p ann iij s viij d 

et p ward cast , v s 

Ricus Kirkebie et alij tenent dum de Wrightington p d. feod 

milit et putur: vt sup et r. p ann iij s 

et p ward castr: V s 

Wiftmus Orrell tenet dum de Turton p fuic: viij ptis j feod 

milit et putur: vt sup et r. p ann . xviij d 

f p ward castr: xviij d 

Xpoferus Sotheworth tenet med dum de Harwood p <fuic. xvj 

ptf j feod milit et sec: cur: r. p ann iiij d ob. 

(; p ward castr: iiij d ob. 



480 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

Jones Traffourd mill? tenet at med ejdm diu p idm fuic: et sec: 

cur: vt sup a r. p anfi c iiij d ob. 

et p ward castr: ,.., iiij d ob. 

Elias Bradshaw tenet villam de Bradshaw p fuic: iiij ptf vni^ 

feod miltf f sec: cur: vt supr: r. p ami fc ix d 

et p ward castr: ix d 

Rofctus Hilton tenet dum de Halliwall p <fuic: x me pt vni^ feod 

mili? et putur: vt supr et reddit p anfi viij d 

et p ward castr: viij d 

Vx r Nicni Singleton tenet dum de Brockhall iuxta Bible p imc: 

xiijme pt^ j f eo et m ili et putur: vt supr et r. p anfi viij d 

et p ward castr: ix d 

Wiftmus Heaton tenet maSiu de Heaton sub fores? de dco Diio 

p fuic: x me pt vni^ feod mili? et putur, et r. p ami viij d 

et p ward castr: xij d 

Johes Atherton de Atherton armig r tenet dum de Lostocke p 
fttic: iii ptis j feod milil et putur: et sect: cur: de Mancestr: et r. 

p ann c xj d 

Kadus Radcliffe armig r tenet pceft eiusd diu p id <fuic: de dco 

Dno cu die: Johe et r. p ann , vij d 

et [cum Joh. Athertou] pro ward castri.., xiiij d 
Jones Hilton armig 1 tenet dum de Rumworthe de [dco] Dno cu 

ptinefi p idm fuic: et r. p anfi fc iijs 

et p ward castr: ij s iiij d 

Abbas de Cokersande tenet dum de Westehagton cu ptinefi de 

dco Dno p f uic: xl ptis j feod mill? et putur: et r. p anfi ij d 

et pro ward castr: , iij d 

Rofctus Hindley tenet vnu mess: et diuers: ten: cu ptiuen: in 
Asmall [vel Asinall] vat xx mar: p anfi de dco Dno p fuic: viij ptf 

j feod milit et r. p anfi ijd o b. 

p ward castr: ij d ob. 

Henricus Bradshawe de eadm tenet vn mess: cu ptinefi ibm val 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 481 

x mere: p arm, cu dco Robto Hindley, de dco Dfio p dimid Me: et 

r. p ami ij d 

p ward castr: ij d 

Thomas Gerrarde tenet dum de Aspinall [vel Aspmall] cu ptinen 

de dco Dno p idm <fuic: cu dco Rofrto Hindley r. p anfi viij d 

et p ward castr: , viij d 

Robtus Law tenet vnu mess: ifom cum ptinen vat. v. marc: p 
anfi de dco Dno p idm fuic: cu dco Roftto Hindeley et reddit p 

ann iij d 

et p ward castr: iij d 

Thomas Lathom de Knowsley tenet vnu mess: cu ptinen in 
Asmoll iure vS sue nup filij et hered Henr: Atherton de Pscott, 

de dco Dno p idm fuic: fc iij d 

et p ward castr: . , iij d 

Rodger Hilton tenet maner: de Middelswood in Hilton de dco 

Dno p fuic: xx me pt(f j feod: miltf f putur: f r. p ann iiij d 

et p ward castr: vij d 

Thomas Pilkington armig 1 tenet dum de Pilkinton de dco Dno p 

iiij pt j feod milit et putur: et r. p ann ij s viij d 

et p ward castri ii s iiij d 

Hered Henric: Radcliffe tenet maSiu voc: del Feld^ in Sharplus 

iux Turton de dco Dno p idm luic: f r. p anfi j d 

Thomas Bothe armig* tenet manerium de Barton f aft in socag: 

et r. p anfi , . j d 

Nichus Longforthe miles tenet dum de Whittington et Dides- 

burie p luic: j feod miltf de dco Dno et r. p anfi ix s 

et p ward castr: x s 

Soin" , -xxxvij 8 vj d ob. 

SonT ward castr: ... xliij 8 vij d ob. 

Jacobus Radcliffe de Radcliffe armig 1 tenet dum de Moston p 
idm Me: de dco Dfio et r. p anfi xj s vj d 

VOL. III. 3 Q 



482 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

Elias Prestwicbe tenet ma8iu de Hulme iuxta Manchester de 
dco Dno p idm luic: et r. p ann , . . . v 8 

Sonf xvj s vj d 

Jacobus Radcliffe de Radcliffe armig 1 tenet vn mess: cu ptinen 
iuxta Manchester, nup Henr: Langley, de dco Dfio in socag et r. p 
anii ad d. term xviij d 

Riciis Clayden tenet maSiu de Clayden p die? fuic: de dco Dno 
in socag et r. p ann V s 

Jones Biron arniig tenet meet ij mess: et ij boua? di terr: in 
Antecotes iuxta Mancestr: et molabt granu suu ad molen de Man- 
cestr: de dco Dno p idm luic: et in socag. et r. p ann iij 8 iiij d 

Henr: Trafford, fili et hered Thome TraiFord tet diusis mess: cu 
ptinen in Chorleton de dco Dno p idm luic: socag: et molaftit 
vt sup a et r. p ann '. vj s 

Bartinus Trafford, tenet ai mess: pd de dco Dno p idm fuic: et 
molabit granu suu ad molend pd f r. p ann iij s iiij d 

Idem Henr: Trafford tenet vnu ctm voc: Gatecote fielde de dco 
Dho p idem luic: f r. p ann ad d. t . ij 3 

Idem Henr: te} ij ai claus: voc: Glinfielde et Dogfielde in Man- 
cestr: jJd: de dco Dfio et p idm fuic: et r. p ann iiij 8 

Galfridus Hulme tenet vn clam terr: voc. Asshebie in Man- 
chester pd co? p est vj acr: terr: de dco Dfio p idm fuic: et r. p 
ann c x d 

Idem Galfridus tenet vfi clam terr: voc. Mylwardecrofte con? p 
es? xx acr: terr: de dco Dfio p idm fuic: r. p anfi v s 

Jofies Rudd tenet vn clam terr: con? p es? ij acr: terr: et r. p 
ann iiijd 

Elias Entwisle tenet vfi mess: cu ptinen in Chorleton de dco 
Dfio per idem luic: et r. p ann iij s iiij d 

Barten de Bamford tenet vfi mess: voc: le xl. acr: cu ptinen in 
Rissum de dco Dno p id fuic: et r. p ann xij d 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 483 

Joties Assheton chr [vel cir] tenet maSiu de Aysshton et al? 
Moston cu advoc: ecciie de Ashton pd de dco Dfio p idm fuic: 
socag: et r. p ami ,,.. j d 

Jacobus Radcliffe armig 1 tenet dum de Croneshall de dco Drio p 
idm laic: et r. p anh x s 

Joties Biron armig* tenet doiim de Clayton cu ptinefi de dco 
Diio p idm Me: feod mili? r. p anfi vij s 

Thomas Whitehead capeftus cantar: in ecctia de Mancestr p vno 
tento cu ptinefi in Grenelowe qd tenet de dco Dfio libe et r. p 
anfi xx s 

Idm dfis Thomas tenet vnam pcellam terr: in Mancestr: voc: 
Blakeacre de dco Dno lifee et r. p anfi ij s iiij d 

Joties Hilton armig de Fame worth tenet vnu mess: iuxta Man- 
cestr: voc: Harphaye de dco Dfio p idm fuic: socag: et r. p 
anfi xxvj 8 viij d 

Johes Mulnegate tenet vnu cim terr: voc: Blacklache in Man- 
cestr: fJd de dco Dfio p idm fuic: et r. p anfi iiij s 

Thomas Vlgrene [vel Ulgreve] tenet vfi pceft terr: voc. Penti- 
foxe in Mancestr: de dco Dfio p idm fuic: et r. p anfi iiij s 

Vx r Wiftmi Hilton tenet noie dote sue vna pcellam terr: voc. iiij 
acr: in Mancestr: j?d et de dco Dfio p idm fuic: et r. p anfi ... iiij 8 

Hered Jacobi Barlow tenet vfi ten libe in Estley de dco Dfio p 
idm luic: et r. p ann , vj d 

Geoorg Mancestr tenet vfi mess: cu ptinefi in Mancestr: voc: le 
Foris, de dco Dno p idm fuic: et r. p ann , iij s 

Joties Hilton de Farneworth tenet vn mess: cu ptinefi voc: God- 
dyriswike rbm de dco Dfio et r. p anfi xij d 

Joties Harrison tenet vfi mess: et viij acr: terr: cu ptinefi libe de 
dco Dno in Manchester pd p idm fuic: et redd: p anfi v s viij d 

Sonf vj li iij s xj d 

Joties Hilton de Farneworth armig 1 tenet vfi mess: cu ptineii et 



484 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

diusis ten in Denton de dco Dfio p fuic: socag: jpd et r. p 

anfi o xiij s iiij d 

Jones Biron armig* tenet villa? de Blackeley et Blakeley fielde, 
Pillingworth fieldf, cu ptinen nup ad xxviij 11 xij d p anfi, de dco 
Dno p <fuic: pd r. p anfi , xxxiij 11 vj s viij d 

Sonf xxxiiij 11 

Ird Johes Biron tenet villam de Gorton cu ptinen de dco Dfio p 
liiic: pd et r. p ann . xxx 11 xj s 

[Gorton] Sonf xxx 11 xj s 

Badus Radcliffe armig 1 tenet vnam pasturam in Horwiche de 
dco Dfio p Me: j)d et r. p anfi..,.. viij n xvj s viij d 

Edus Grinhalghe tenet iiij mess: in Horwiche voc: Horwiche 
Leighe nup ad iiij 11 v s iiij d , de dco Dfio p idm Me: et r. p 
anfi iij 11 xiij s iiij d 

Edwardus Hulme tenet vj mess: cu ptinen in Horwiche ^d voc: 
Okenley q? t. annor: et r. p anfi x 11 iiij s ij d 

Wittmus Heaton tenet tria mess: cu ptinen in Horwiche, voc: 
Ryddley wood de dco Dno p id fuic: f r. p anfi xx s 

[Horwiche] Som" ... xxiij 11 xiiij 8 ij d 

Dns Nichs Eainolde [vel Kamolde] tenet vn claus: pastur: voc: 
Ou Alteporte ad volunta? Diii et r. p anfi ad iiij anfi term pd... xl s 

Gardiafi ecciie de Manchestr: tenet vfi ptm ifem vocat Nether 
Alterport [sic] ad volunt Dfii et r. p ann Iiijs ijjjd 

[Alteporte] Sonf ... iiij u xiij s iiij d 

Xpoferus Bridd te} vii elm terr: voc: Clemenscrofte con? p 
estimaHj acr: terr: in socag: f r. p ann ijs 

Xpoferus Bexwick et Georg: Birche tenet [sic] vnu chn terr: 
ibm Smithfielde nup in tenur: Thome Pul te} p xv s p anfi et modo 
r. p ann x jj& 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 485 

Gardian ecciie de Mane: tenet vnu mess: super Le Hunt hill 
r. p aim xviij d 

Vx r Thurstani ChaloS tenet coiem fur: vj s viij d in Mancestr: ad 
voluntat Dni et j Intak viij d iac: ad finem ordij sui et r. p 
ami vij s iiij d 

Eadem vx r tenet vn grang: ibm et r. p ann iiij d 

Joftes Mulnegate te} vn cim terr: voc: Riddiugebruke ibm ad 
volunta? Dfii et r . p ann xx d 

Johes Rudd tenet vn ten ibm iuxta moleii iftm ^ r. p ann. xviij d 

Wilms Tunnlinson te} piscar: in aqua de Irk nuper in tenur: 
Johis Huntington p ij s p ann, modo r. p ann xij d 

Edus Prestwiche vn campu iuxta Le gaio} in Mancestr: ad volun- 
tat Dni et r. p ann ppter Georg: Mane: et Henric: Didesburie.. xj 8 

Jofees Hefelde te} vn cim terr: col ix. acr: di: terr: ad volunt 
Dni % nup solu r. p ann xj s et modo r. p ann xx s 

Hugo Gerthefilde tenet vn cim terr: ifcm voc: Hobcrofte ad 
volunta? Dni et r. p ann viij s 

Galfrid Hulme te} vij acr: terr: in Mancestr: ad voluntatem Dni 
et r. p ann xv s 

Idm tenet ij acr: terr: iuxta grang: suu voc: Dancrofte ad volun- 
tat Dni et r. p ann vj s viij d 

Idm tenet vn nouu appriu iuxta grang: suu f r. p ann iirj d 

Johes Patrik tenet vn crofte terr: ibm et r ij s 

Vx r Radi Standley chr. tenet vn plac: edific: iuxta colegiu ibm 
ad voluntat Dni et r. p ann vj d 

Jacobus Birdok tenet vn cim terr: voc. Choo in Mancestr ad 
volunta? Dni et r. p ann viij 8 

Thomas Farrar te} ai cim terre ibm ad voluntate Dni et r. p 
ann xj s 

Ricus Farrar te} vn ai cim in Le Choo ad volunta? Dni et r. p 
anii xij s 

Som a vj u xxij d 



486 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

Johes Foxe tenet tolnit [sic] et nundinaru de Mancestr: pd nup 
ad viij mar: p ann et modo di d r [sic] eid Johi ad terminu iiij 
annoru px sequent xx 11 Edi Trafford armig 1 pro iij 11 vj s viij d p 
ann iij u vj s viij d 

Bichardus Hill tenet moleii granat ifcm que nup solebat r. p 
ann x u f modo r vj u 

Hugo Bothe, Galfridus Newam et alij tet molen fulon ifcm et r. 
p anii xl s 

Bicus Oggdenn tenet vn mess: cu ptinen in Mane: ad voluntat 
Dni et r. p ann xxv 3 

Hadus Kenion de Newton tet vn nouu appr: in Newton ad 
voluntat Dni et r. p ann xvj d 

Yx r Petri Hakansawe tenet vn elm in Mancestr: ad voluntat 
Dni et r. p ann ... . vij s viij d 

Hugo Bothe tet ij clausis terr: in Mancestr: ad voluntat Dni et 
r. p anii . xvj s viij d 

Hugo Basingbie tet ij clausis terr: ibm ad voluntat Dni et redd 
p anii xiiij 8 

Kicus Ogden et Jofres Ogden tenet [sic] vn ctm terr: rem: 
[? ifom] ad voluntat Dni et r viij s vj d 

Johes Heighfield te} vii nou appr: iac: iuxta dcm cim die: Rici 
et Jom's et r. p anii iiijd 

Thomas Merler te} vii ctm terr: ifcm ad voluntat Dili f r. viij* 

Johes Bradforth te} ij clausis terr: ifcm ad voluntat Dni et r. xv s 

Johes Milnegate te} diusis terr: in Manchestr: de dco Dili p idm 
fuic: et redd p ann t. pd vj s 

Johes Patrik tenet vii cim terr: ifrm ad voluntat Dni et r. p 
ann viij 8 

Georg: Mancestr: tet vna ostrina ifcm f r. p anii yj d 



Sonf xvj u xvij 8 viij d 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 487 

REDD: BURG: 

Johes Trafford cfir tenet vfi pceft terr: was? iac: in Mancestr: 
iuxta le} bothes sup quam pcellam terr: vna shopp nup edifica? fait 

et r. p ann vj d 

Elias Prestwiche arg 1 te} vfi burg: lihe ibm et r. p ann xij d 

Ictm Elias tenet ai burg: iftm et r. p ann xij d 

Idm Elias tenet*di burg: ibm et r. p ann v d 

Johes R/udd tenet iij burg: et di lihe iftm et r iij s vj d 

Idm Jones te} iiij burg: nup Rob Basse, et r. p ann ad dc t.. iiij 8 
Dna Alic: Byron nup vx r Nichi Byron, tenet vn burg: lifee et r. 

p ann , xij d 

Thomas Whitehead capius tenet diusis burg: lifce et r. p 

ann , v s iij d 

Nichus Pilkington te} vn burg: ibm lifte ^ r. p anii xij d 

Johes Mylnegate te} vn burg: li'be ibm et r. p ann xij d 

Vx r Thome Hulme tet libe diusis burg: ifcm ^ r. p ann ... ij s vj d 

Johes Hilton de Farneworth te} diusis burg: iftm libe de dco 

Dni et r. p anfi v s vj d 

[In dorso Rotuli.'] 

Georg: Mane: tenet vn pceft terr: f vni^ peyvc [vel peyrc] 
et r xiiij d 

Elena Mancestr: tet vfi burg: nup Katerinse Johnson redd p 
anfi xvj d 

Eadem Elena tenet vn burg: nup Katerinae Johnson r. p 
anfi xij d 

Johes Patrick te} vfi burg, [nup] Wittmi Patrick red p anfi 
ad die: terminos xij d 

Idm Johes te} vn burg: nup Johis Raveald capeft r. p 
ann xij d 

Johes Platt tenet vfi burg: libe de dco Dfio r. p anfi xij d 

Johes Harrison diusis burg: ifcm et r iij s vj d 



488 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

Johes Haghfield te} vn burg: iftm de dco Diio et r. p anii... xij d 

Idem Johes te} at burg: ifcm de dco Dfio et r. p ann xij d 

Idm Johes te} di burg: ifom de dco Dfio et r. p ann vj d 

Ricus Tettlow te} diusis burg: ifcm nup Thome Clynton et reddit 

p ann ij s vj d 

Idm Ricus tet vn burg: nup Ricdi Woxhese r. p ann xij d 

Idm Ricus tet vn burg: [nup] Witmi Bebbye et r xij d 

Idm Ricus tet vn burg: nup Johis Galley r. p ann xij d 

Johes Deane te} ij acr: terr: in Mancestr: et reddit ij s 

Wiims Feirar tenet vn burg: rbm de dco Dno r. p ann ... xij d 
Idm Wiftins tenet vn grang: rbm de dco Dfio f r. p ann ad 

d. t xij d 

Ricus Tettlowe tenet vn burg: rbm nup Johis Crompton et redd 

p ann ad die? term xij d 

Johes Hulme te} diusis burg: et terr: ifcm et r. p ann iiij s 

Idm Johes tet vn pceft terr: voc: Ten? leaner [sic] et r. p 

ann , , xij d 

Wiftms Hunte te} diusis burg: vfi grang: et diusis terr: et r. p 

ann vij s iiij d 

Ricus Dowill te} ij burg: iftm de dco Dno et r. p ann ij s 

Nichus Strangwishe te} diusis burg: et terr: rbm, et r. p 

ann xij s ij d 

John Fleshewer tenet vfi burg: lifoe ifem r. p ann xij d 

Idm Johes te} ai burg: Irbe et r. p ann viij d 

Thomas Kaye te} iij burg: ihm lite et r. p ann iij s 

Johes Kaye tet vfi burg: iftm de dco Dfio r. p ann xij d 

Idm Johes te} vn shopa ifcm in foro r. p ann idm Dno . . . xij d 
Gilbertus Buckeley ten} vfi burg: et ij acr: terr: iBm C r. p 

ann ,.., iijs 

Nichus Winington te} diusis burg: et terr: if>m et r. p ann. vj s 

Johes Prowdelove tenet di burg: rbm libe et r. p ann vj d 

Johes Cannock te} di burg: ifcm et r vj d 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 489 

Jones Glover te} di burg: ifcm libe et r vj d 

Jacobus Bardisleye capeft te} diusis burg: et terr: if>m r. p 

anfi iij 3 

Oliverus Halle te} diusis cotag: et tre r. p anfi ij s iij d 

Gilda fete Marie ifcm te} diusis burg: r. p anfi ad d. ter: .. iij 3 

Hugo Chadocke te} iij burg: ifrm et r. p anfi iij 8 

Edus Bardisleye te} diusis burg: ifem C r. p anfi iij 8 ix d 

Bicfrus Galleye te} vfi appriu iuxta pon? acf de Irk, r. p 

anfi iiij d 

Vx r Bofeti Bothe tenet di burg: et r. p anfi vj d 

Vx r Bobti Wrighte te} ij burg: ibm et r. p anfi ad d. ter: ... ij s 
Wiftms Badcliffe te} diusis burg: et terr: ifom ac r. p anfi ad die? 

termini! ij 3 

Vx r Bofoti Smithehurst te} vfi burg: ifom et r. p anfi xij d 

Fd Wiftins Badcliffe p vri Intacke annex: dco burg: i'bm f 

reddit p anfi iiij d 

Bicus Holland armig 1 te} diusis burg: et terr: ifom et r. p 

aim v s vj d 

Idm Bicus te} vfi burg: nup Bidi Moore, f r. p anfi ad 

die. t a xij d 

Johes Badcliffe te} vfi burg: ifem et r. p anfi xij d 

Jacobus Cockers tenet ij burg: ifcm et diusis terr: et redd: p ann 

ad ij ter: c ij s 

Jacobus Vtley tenet vn burg: ifcm C r. p anfi ad ij ter: fc... xij d 
Bofctus Taylier te} diusis burg: et diusis terr: ibm f r. p ann ad 

ij terminos , , iij 8 

Hered Johes Boe te} diusis burg: et terr: ifem f r. p anfi ad 

ijt vj" 

Bofctus Chorleton te} vn burg: f di f r. p anfi ad d. t. ... xviij d 
Hugo Gartheside te} di burg: ifem in le Denesgate et red p ann 

ad d. ter: fc vj d 

Nichus Cordye te} di burg: ifcm et r vj d 

VOL. III. 3 R 



490 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

Wiftms Holland armig* te} diusis terr: ibm de dco Dfio f r. p 

ann iij s 

Oteus Wood tet vn burg: ibm et r. p ann xij d 

Vx r Nicn Corker tet vn burg: ibm et r. xij d 

Thomas Mason tet vn burg: ibm et r. p ann xij d 

Hugo Bridd tet j Intak ibm et r. p ann iij d 

Hered: Hugoni Wrightinton capeft tenet vnu burg: ibm r. p 

ann ad die: term: xij d 

Galfridus Massey cfrr tenet vn burg: ibm f r. p ann ad d. t. xij d 

Lawrence Whitehawghe te} di burg: et r. p ann vj d 

Oliuerus Albine te} di burg: et r. p ann ", viij d 

Vx r Johis Forenesse tet vn burg: ibm et r. p ann ad d. t... xij d 
Robtus Hopwood te} vn plac terr: iuxta cimitoriu f r. p 

ann viij d 

Ictm Robtus tet vn plac nup Rici Bird iuxta cimitoriu et r. p 

annum viij d 

Idm Robtus tet di burg: iftm et r. p ann vj d 

Johes Napleton tet di burg: ibm et r. p ann vj d 

Hugo Gartheside tet di burg: ibm iac; in Gonumtoncelane, nup 

terr:- Thome Chadwik de dco Dno r. p ann vj d 

Idm Hugo tet vn nouu appriu ibm in dco vico iuxta diet meet 

burg: cont in longitudine Ix ped et latitudine xl ped j d 

Vx r Robti Birche tet vn plac: terr: iuxta molin aqua? ibm et r. 

p ann , r viij d 

Jofies Hilton de Farneworth tet vn burg: vocat Brownes burg de 

dco Dno c xij d 

Thomas Whitehead capeft tet di burg: ibm r. p ann vj d 

Robtus Worseley tet di burg: iuxta pont ibm f r. p ann ... vj d 

Hered Rogeri Oldom te3 vn burg: ibm et r. p ann xij d 

Nichus Raveald capeft te} vn burg: ibm nup Mri Johis 

Huntington, vi} p meet nou plac iuxta cimitoriu iiij d ; ai med 

diet plac vj d ; p di burg: iac iuxta burg: Georg: Mancestr: 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 491 

vj d ; necnon p vn burg: iuxta pontem ex pte orientale pendent 
xij d ; ac p di burg: iacent ex pte occidentale die: pon? vj d \ ac p 
terr: iacen? iuxta diet cimitoriu versus burg: Rici Farrar vj d ; et p 

quad: Intakf iuxta grang: Galfrid Hulme viij d c mj s 

Ricftus Radcliffe tet vn burg: ifom et r , xij d 

Rofrtus Holineworth tet vn burg: et di ifrm r. p ann ... xviij d 
Henric Buckeleye tet ij gardinu iuxta Hulme's burg: C r. p 

ann vj d 

Wiftins Raveald tet quond pceft terr: iacent vlt" pontem de Irk 
et r. p ann iiij d 

Sonf viipiij 11 

Som" toHs Cxxxvij 11 xix s vj d 

De quibus in Redd resolut Dno Regi p ward castr: Lane: pro 
se et Tenen? suis, p ann lij s vj d Et in Redd resolut dco Dno 
Regi p qd Redd voca? Sakfee p ann mj u ij s vj d Et Rem: clar: 
vltr: [deest] 

[Here two lines and a half have been erased. This entry 
follows :] 

DALTON AND PERBALD. 

Prior de Burscoghe vj d ; Wiftins Orrell iun. xij d ; Ric Bradshawe 
de Letherland xij d ; WiUms Arowsmithe de Warringtou vj d ; Dns 
Lovell vj d ; Dalton vj d ; Edwardus de Lathom iiij s tet bova? terr: 
in Dalton f Pbald e homag: et fid vt p di feod milit % nup fuer: 
[? fuit] diet Roberti Holland e r. p ann ad termin Nat Dm, Pasche, 
Na? Sci Johis Babtist [sic] f Sci Miiis p sek iij s f p ward castr: 
Lane: term Naf: Sci Johis Babtist [sic] C putur: Men? viij s 

[This ends the Rental as written on this Roll. At the foot in 
dorso, which has been the outer part of the Roll when rolled up, 
is an old endorsement, apparently " Rente Tally of the Mano r of 
Mancestr." It has been re-copied in blacker ink and a modern 
hand.] 



492 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

RENTAL OF THOMAS WEST, 

Lord of Mancestre, son and heir of the Lord de Laware, and Alianor 
[or Eleanor] his consort ; made at Mamcestre aforesaid, the first day of 
May, in the thirteenth year of the reign of King Edward IY. [Saturday, 
May ist, 1473] before the said Lord Thomas, and others of his council, 
then and there being, as is specified below : 

[? So CAGE TENANTS.] 11 

ELIXTON. Thomas Yallantine 12 holds the lordship of Elixton with 
appurtenances, of the Lord de Lawarre, as of his lordship of Mancestre, 
in socage, and pays to the same lord yearly, at the four terms, viz. at the 
feast of the Nativity of the Lord, at Easter, at the Nativity of St. John 
Baptist, and at St. Michael [i.e. Christmas, Easter, Midsummer and 
Michaelmas] by equal portions, the underwritten rent, and one putary- 
serjeant, and suit of the court of Mamcestre 8s. 2d. 13 

Ralph Radcliffe Esq., kinsman and heir of Ralph Radcliife knight, 14 
holds of the said lord the fourth part of the said lordship of Elixton by 
the aforesaid service, and pays yearly 2od. 

Alexander Radcliffe de Ordishull [Ordsal] Esq. 15 holds another fourth 

11 The seventeen tenants or tenancies first entered on the roll, and the aggregate 
of whose rental is given therein as 59*. 8d., appear to be mostly socagers. In the 
survey of 1320 the corresponding tenancies appear to have been in the hands of Free 
Foreign Tenants or Out-Freeholders. (See p. 345 ante.) 

12 The Valentines were a family of great respectability among the lesser gentry. A 
Richard Yalentine, clerk, witnessed an Urmston deed 'in 1305. They were seated in 
the reign of Henry YII. at Beancliffe or Bentcliffe Hall, on the eastern skirts of the 
village of Eccles, on the site of which Bentcliffe House now stands. This Thomas 
was probably a relative of the Eichard of Bentcliffe, who married Anne, daughter of 
Edmund Hopwood and widow of Eichard Urmeston. The hall was the seat of a 
Thomas Yalentine in 1595, and it was still held in the eighteenth century by a 
descendant, Eichard Yalentine of Preston and Bentcliffe, high sheriff of Lancashire 
in 1713, whose descendants sold it. It was taken down about the beginning of the 
present century. 

13 Sari. MS. and Corry, 8s. 4<Z., which is probably the correct amount. Indeed 
the total of these items, il. 195. 8d., cannot be made, unless this be taken as 8*. \d. 
For Putary-Serjeant, see note 19, p. 338 ante. 

14 These two Eaphes, Knt. and Esq., were probably Sir Eaphe of Smithills, and 
Eaphe his son or grandson. 

16 This Alexander was the eldest son and heir of Sir John Eadclyffe of Ordahall 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 493 

part of the said lordship, of the said lord by the aforesaid service, and 
pays yearly at the aforesaid terms 2od. 

FARKEWORTH. John Hilton [or Hulton] de Farneworth, 16 near 
Bolton-on-the-Moors, who took to wife Joan, late wife of Adam Lever 
of Great Lever, which Adam held of the said lord "by the aforesaid 
service, two messuages which Henry Grondie (12^.) and Richard 
Halliwell (iSd.) now hold of the said John Hilton, for the term of his 
wife's life, which are assigned to the same wife for her dower, after 
the death of the aforesaid Adam, to be paid yearly, at the four terms 
aforesaid 35. 6d. 

The same John Hilton [Hulton] holds the manor of Farneworth 
aforesaid of the said lord by the aforesaid service, and pays yearly at 
the said &c 4s. 6 d. 

Adam Presthall holds his capital messuage with appurtenances, worth 
loZ. yearly, in the same vill, by the aforesaid service, of the said lord, 
paying yearly 17 6d. 

Knt. by his first wife, daughter of Hugh Standish of Duxbury Esq. He succeeded 
his father about 20 Henry YI. (1442), married Agnes, one of the two daughters of 
Sir William Harrington of Hornby Castle Knt., and became the ancestor of the 
Kadclyffes of Ordsall, Foxdenton, London, Hitchen, and other branches. He died 
in 1476, and was succeeded by his son William Eadcliffe of Ordsall Esq. 

There seems to be some omission or error respecting Flixton. If Vallantine 
held the whole of the lordship or demesne, we do not see how the two Eadclifies held 
each "one-fourth of Flixton." Perhaps the "dum" in Yallantine's case should be 
"dim" for dimidiam; so that instead of lordship, we may read "half." This would 
account for all the township; but then for his half Yallantine would be charged 
8s. 2d., while the other half only paid 3$. \d. 

16 John Hulton, or Hilton, as the name was variously spelled and pronounced (being 
derived from the Anglo-Saxon Sul, a Mil), was the son and heir of William Hulton 
of Farnworth by Margaret, daughter and heiress of Hugh Tildesley. He married 
before 1473 Joan, daughter of William Garnet and widow of Adam Levre, by whom 
he had no issue ; and secondly, Elizabeth, daughter of Pilkington, and their only 
child Alice married her relative Adam Hulton of Hulton Park. The license by dis- 
pensation for the marriage was dated 22nd May 1489. The post mortem inquisition 
on John Hulton was held in 1505-6. 

v There is a wearisome repetition in these entries legally necessary, no doubt, in 
a rent-roll ; but which we may avoid in this translation, referring the reader to the 
original, in which every entry is given at full. We therefore omit all such phrases 
as "holds of the said lord," "by the aforesaid service," "and pays yearly at 



494 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

Eichard Sedon [Seddon] one messuage and three tenements there, 
with appurtenances, worth five marks [3?. 6s. Sd.] yearly 6d. 

LITTLE LEVEE. John Lever, half the manor of Little Lever, with 
appurtenances, by the service of the twentieth part of a knight's fee and 
suit of the court and one putary-serjeant 35. 4d. 18 

Eichard Tempest knight, half the said manor with John Lever. 35. 6d. 

AtfDEETOiiir. Thurstan Anderton, the manor of Anderton, with 
appurtenances, in Salfordshire, in socage and putary-serjeant and suit 
of court 95. 6d. 

BTTRNEHILL. Peter G-errarde knight, the lordship of Eurnehill, 
with appurtenances, and the advowson of the church of that place, in 
socage, and putary, and suit of court 1 55. 

ANXASAEGH. Thomas Lord Standley, 19 the lordship of Anlasargh 
with appurtenances, in socage and putary, and suit of court ^d. 

SHAEPLTTS. Eichard Sharplus of Sharplus, near Bolton-on-the- 
Moors, one messuage and six tenements with appurtenances there, worth 
yearly nZ. 135. 4^., 20 in socage, with putary-serjeant and suit of 
court i&/. 

Eobert Sharplus, of the same place, one messuage there with appur- 
tenances, worth yearly 405., same service lod. 

Eichard Holland of Denton, three tenements with appurtenances in 
Sharplus, worth yearly ten marks [61. 135. 4^.] 105. 

SUKDEELAND. William Heaton, the manor of Sunderland, by the 
said service 1 2d. 

the four terms, or the aforesaid terms," all which may be reasonably inferred 
by the reader. 

18 H. and C. both make this rent 3*. 6d., and that of Sir Eichard Tempest the 
same. 

19 This Thomas, Lord Stanley, was steward to the household to Edward IY. in 
1474, and again in 1483; Constable of England for life; and was created first Earl 
of Derby by Henry VII. in 1485. He was twice married, ist, to Eleanor, daughter 
to Eichard Nevill, Earl of Salisbury, and sister to Eichard, Earl of Warwick, 
" the King-maker ;" and sndly, to Margaret, daughter and heir to John Beaufort, 
Duke of Somerset, widow to Edmund Tudor, Earl of Eichmond, and mother to 
Henry VII. 

20 H. has 61. 135. ^d. (10 marks); C. omits this value altogether. It is probably a 
mistake in the roll, for nl. 135. 4^. makes no even number of marks. 17 marks = 
nl. 6s. 8d., so that it is u marks. 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 495 

MELLEE. Charles Brereworth, 21 one tenement with appurtenances, 
in Meller in Blackburnshire, by the same service ..................... 6d. 

Total ..................... 2l. iqs.Sd. 

[? KNIGHTS' FEES.] 23 

CHILDWALL. Thomas Lord Standley, the lordship of Childwall, for 
half of one knight's fee, 23 paying for sakfee 48. 6d. and for castle- 
ward 55. 

D ALTON AISTD PAEBOLD. Hobert Lathom and the Prior of Brus- 
coghe [Burscough], the lordship of Dalton and Parbald, for the half of 
one knight's fee ; 24 sakfee 3*. and castleward 5$. 

"WOETHESTGTON. Hugh Wortington, the lordship of Wortington, 
for the half of one knight's fee and putary-serjeant, paying [sakfee] 
35. Sd. and for castleward 5$. 

WEIGHTINGTON. Eichard Kirkebie and others, the lordship of 
Wrightington, for half a knight's fee 25 and puture ; rent 3$. and 
castleward 55. 

TTJETON. "William Orrell, the lordship of Turton, for the eighth 
part of a knight's fee and puture ; rent iSd. and castleward iSd. 

HAEWODE. Christopher Sotheworth, 26 half the lordship of Har- 
wode, for the sixteenth part of one knight's fee and suit of court ; rent 
4%d. and for castleward ^\d. 

John Trafford Knt., 27 the other half of the same lordship, by the 
same service and suit of court ; rent \\d. and for castleward 



21 H. has Brereton; C. Brereworth. Mellor is four miles north-west from 
Blackburn. 

22 This class of tenancies corresponds with that in the survey of 1320 under the title 
" Knights' Fees," and it will be seen that the fees follow in the same order in both 
documents, at an interval of 153 years. (See p. 337 ante.) 

23 C. has "the moiety of the eighth part of a knight's fee," i.e. one- sixteenth. 

24 H. "the half of the eighth of two knights' fees;" C. "half of two-eighths of a 
knight's fee." 

25 C." for a knight's fee." 

26 This Christopher Southworth was knighted in March or April 1483. He mar- 
ried Isabel, daughter and coheiress of John Dutton, and died in 1502-3, leaving to 
succeed him Sir John Southworth, knt. 

27 This Sir John Trafford was knighted about 1444, and succeeded his father, Sir 



496 MAMECESTEE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

BEADSHAW. Elias Bradshaw, the vill of Bradshaw, for the fourth 
part of one knight's fee 29 and suit of court ; rent yd. and castleward gd. 

HALLIWALL. Robert Hilton [Hulton], the lordship of Halliwall, 
for the tenth part of one knight's fee and puture ; rent Sd. and castle- 
ward Sd. 

BEOCKHALL. The wife of Nicholas Singleton, the lordship of 
Brockhall [Brockholes], near Ribble, for the thirteenth part of one 
knight's fee 30 and puture ; rent 8^. and castleward gd. 

HEATON-TJNDEE-THE-EOEEST. "William Heaton, the manor of 
Heaton-under-the-Forest, for the tenth part of one knight's fee 31 and 
puture; rent Sd. and castleward i2d. 

LOSTOCKE. John Atherton of Atherton Esq., the lordship of 
Lostocke, for the third part of one knight's fee and puture, and suit 
of the court of Mancestre nd. 

Ralph Radcliffe, parcel of the same lordship, by the same service, 
with the said John 7^. [Together they pay] castleward i4^. 32 

RTJMWOETHE. John Hilton [Hulton] Esq., the lordship of Rum- 
worthe with appurtenances, by the same service ; rent 3$. and castle- 
ward 2S. \d. 

"WESTHAGHTOF [Westhoughton]. The Abbot of Cokersande, the 
lordship of "Westhaghton [Westhoughton] with appurtenances, for the 
fortieth part of one knight's fee and puture; rent 2d. and castleward 



Edmund Trafford in 1457. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Ashton, 
of Ashton-under-Lyne, knt., resigned his estate to his son Edmund in 1484, and died 
in 1488. 

28 (Page 495.) The Sari. MS. has an entry here : " On the first rolle shewed 
before us att Bolton, 2 of Maij 1662. Jo: Langley, Hen: Aswort; Commiss'rs." 
This shows that the Harl. MS. copy was not made from the roll furnishing our text ; 
for so far from the preceding entry of John Trafford Knt. finishing the roll, it does 
not even close the first skin of parchment ; there being three other entries below it 
on that skin. 

29 C. "the tenth part of a knight's fee." An error caused by copying a part of the 
entry as to Bradshaw and the latter part of the entry as to Halliwall, of which the 
former part is wholly omitted. 

30 H. " the fourteenth part." C. " the thirteenth part." 

31 JET. " the eighth part." 

32 H. gives the is. -zd. castleward as wholly paid by John Atherton. 

33 C. rent i\d. and castleward 2%d. 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 497 

ASMALL [ASPTJLL] Robert Hindley, one messuage and divers 
tenements with appurtenances in Asmall [Aspull], 34 worth yearly 
twenty marks [13^. 6s. 8^.], for the eighth part of one knight's fee; 
rent 2\d. and castleward 2%d. 

Henry Bradshawe of the same place, one messuage with appurte- 
nances there, worth yearly ten marks [61. 135. 4<?.], with the said 
Robert Hindley for half the service ; 35 rent 2d., castleward 2 d. 

Thomas Grerrarde, the lordship of Aspmoll [? Aspull] with appurte- 
nances, by the same service with the said Robert Hindley; rent Sd. 
and castleward Sd. S6 

Robert Law, 37 one messuage there with appurtenances, worth yearly 
five marks [3?. 6s. Sd.], by the same service with the said Robert 
Hindley ; rent %d. and castleward 3^. 

Thomas Lathom of Knowsley, one messuage with appurtenances in 
Asmoll [Aspull] in right of his wife, late daughter and heir of Henry 
Atherton of Prescott, 38 by the same service %d. and for castleward 3^. 

MIDDELSWOOD IN HELTON. Rodger Hilton [Hulton] the manor 
of Middelswood in Hilton, for the twentieth part of one knight's fee 
and puture ; rent 4^., castleward 7^. 39 

PILKINGTON. Thomas Pilkington Esq. the lordship of Pilkington 
for the fourth part of one knight's fee and puture ; rent 2s. Sd. and 
castleward 2s. 4d. 4:Q 

THE EELDES [on EOLDES] IN SHAEPLTJS. The heir of Henry Rad- 
cliffe, the manor called del Eeldes [of the Eields or Eolds] in Sharplus, 
near Turton, by the same service, rent .................................... id. 

BARTON. Thomas Bothe Esq. the manor of Barton and others 
[aZZ'], 41 in socage ................. . ............................................ id. 

WHITTINGTON AND DIDESBTJRIE. Nicholas Longforthe knight, the 
lordship of Whittington [Withington] and Didesburie for one knight's 

fee; rent ps. castleward 105. 

Total [Rent] ...... il. 17*. 

Total Castleward... 2l. 35. 



34 JZ". Esphull. s 5 H. and C. by the same service. 36 C. castleward 3^. G. 
Robert Lowe. 3a C. Henry Asheton of Prescote. 39 H. and C. both make rent 
id. and castleward 7$. 40 C. rent 25. 6d. ; castleward ^.d. 4I H. the manor of 
Barton and another. C. together with other property. 

42 In the Survey of 1320, for a similar series of military tenures, the totals were 
for sac-fee il. 4*., for castleward il. gs. &d. (See p. 345 ante.) In comparing the 
VOL. III. 3 S 



MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

MOSTON. James Badcliffe of Badcliffe Esq., the lordship of Moston 
by the same service i is. fid. 1 

HTJLME, NEAR MANCHESTER. Elias Prestwiche, the manor of 
Hulme 44 near Manchester, by the same service 5s. 

Total 165. 6d. 

[? SOCA&E TENANTS, NEAR MANCHESTER.]^ 

? THE BRERE-RIDING NEAR MANCHESTER. James Badcliffe of 
Badcliffe Esq., one messuage with appurtenances near Manchester, late 
Henry Langley's, in socage is. 6d. 

aggregates of the parts of knights' fees, as stated in the Survey of 1320, the Extent 
of 1322, and the Eental of 1473, we find differences that cannot be explained. Ee- 
ducing the amounts to decimals, they stand thus: In 1320, "53- knight's fees;" the 
portions enumerated only add up to 4^8094 fees. In 1322, "4^ knights' fees, one- 
fourth of a fee and one-fortieth of a fee," only amount, as the total of the various 
parcels, to 4*775, or less than in 1320 by 0-344 of a fee. In comparing the items, 
Sharpies, taken at i -24th of a fee in 1320, is altogether omitted in 1322; but this 
(decimally 0-416) if added, would exceed the total of 1320 by '0072. In 1473 there 
are some subdivisions of portions of knights' fees, as in Bradshaw and Harwood ; 
while other places appear to have changed from knight-service to an inferior tenure, 
as Barton, then held in socage, and Sharpies, held in socage and putary-serjeant. On 
the whole, however, the difference in the 153 years from 1320 to 1473, viz. rather 
more than half a fee (decimally 0-5416) is less than might be expected. 

43 H. 6s. 6d. 

44 H. demesne of Hulme. C. does not call it either manor or demesne. The 
following places are recorded in the old Court-Leet Books of the Manor, as doing suit 
and service at the Court Baron and Court-Leet of the Manor, at the Michaelmas or 
October court in 1651 : Ardwick Higher and Lower, Ashton-under-Lyne, Aspull, 
Bradford, Droylsden, Failsworth, Flixtqn, Gorton, Halliwell, Heaton (near Halliwell), 
Heaton Norris, Harwood, Hulton, Lostock, Moston, Openshaw, Pilkington, Prest- 
wich, Eumworth, Stretford, Turton, Westhoughton and Wrightington. In all twenty- 
three townships. The following thirty-one townships did suit and service at the 
Manchester Court-Leet in 1687 : Ardwick Higher and Lower, Ashton-under-Lyne, 
Aspull, Blakeley, Bradford, Bradshaw, Crumpsall, Coppull, Dalton, Droylsden, Fails- 
worth, Flixton, Gorton, Halliwell, Harwood, Heaton (near Halliwell), Heaton Norris, 
Horwich, Hulton, Lostock, Moston, Openshaw, Pilkington, Prestwich, Rumworth, 
Stretford, Turton, Westhoughton, Withington, Worthington and Wrightington. 
[The townships of Salford, Pendleton, Broughton, Cheetham, Audenshaw, Chorlton- 
on-Medlock, Hulme, are not named j perhaps some were included in the demesne.] 

45 These holdings correspond with those in the Survey of 1320, under the title of 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 499 

CLAYDEN. Richard Clayden, the manor of Clayden, by the same 
service, in socage 5s. 

ANTE COTES. John Biron Esq., the half of two messuages, and two 
and a half oxgangs of land in Antecotes . near Manchester, 46 and grinds 
his grain at the mill of Mancestre ; by the same service and in 
socage 3$. \d. 

CHORLETON. Henry Trafford, son and heir of Thomas Trafford, 
divers messuages 47 with appurtenances in Chorleton, by the same ser- 
vice, socage, and grinds (as above) 6s. 48 

Bartin Trafford, 49 other messuages there 50 by the same service, and 
grinds his grain at the said mill 3$. 4^. 

GATECOTE EiELD. The same Henry Trafford, one close called 
Grate-cote-field, 51 by the same service 2s. 

G-LINFIELDE [? CLAYDEN FIELD] AND DOGTIELDE, MANCHESTER. 
The same Henry two other closes called Grlin-fielde [? Clayden Field] 
and Dog-fielde, 53 in Mancestre, by the same service 43. 

ASSHEBIE [or ASHLEY]. 53 Greoffrey Hulme, one close of land, called 
Asshebie [? Ashley] in Manchester, containing by estimation six acres 
of land, by the same service lodf 4 

MYLWARDECROFTE. The same Geoffrey one close of land called 
Myl-warde-crofte, containing by estimation twenty acres of land, by 
the same service 55. 

John Eudd, one close of land, containing by estimation two acres of 
land 4d. 

CHORLETON. Elias Entwisle one messuage with appurtenances in 
Chorleton, by the same service 35. 4 d. 

"Free Tenants near Manchester." (See p. 307 ante) In the interval of a century 
and a half the tenants seem to have been reduced from freeholders to socagers. 

46 C. a moiety of Ancotes. 

4 ? H. the half of two messuages. 

.a 3*. 4& 

49 H. Bartrin Trafford. C. Bertrand de Bamford. 

50 .ZZ". the other half of the two aforesaid messuages. 

51 The Survey of 1320 calls this Gate-coter-fielde. 

52 H. Gling-feld and Doge-feld. C. does not name any of the three closes, but 
merely says "other closes." The Survey of 1320 gives the correct names, Claidene- 
fielde and Dogge-fielde. 

53 This is Asse-leie in the Survey of 1320. 

54 H. a yearly rent of a penny. 



500 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

THE FORTY ACRES, IN EISSUM [BTJSHOLME]. Barten de Bamford, 
one messuage called "The Forty Acres," with appurtenances, in 
Eissum 55 [Eusholme] by the same service 1 2^. 56 

ASHTON AND MOSTON. John Assheton knight \_chr.~], the manor of 
Aysshton and another, Moston [or High Moston ; " alf Moston"] with 
the advowson of the church of Ashton, by the same service, socage.. id. 

CRONESHALL [CRUMPS ALL]. James Eadcliffe Esq., the lordship of 
Croneshall 57 [Crumpsall] by the same service i os. 

CLAYTON. John Biron Esq., the lordship of Clayton, with appur- 
tenances, by the same service, [for one] knight's fee *js. 

GRENELOWE [IN G-ORTON]. Thomas "Whitehead, chaplain of a 
chantry in the church of Mancestre, for one tenement with appurte- 
nances in G-rene-lowe, which he held freely of the said lord 205. 

BLAKEACRE, IN MANCESTRE. The same Sir Thomas [Whitehead], 
one parcel of land in Mancestre called Blake-acre, freely 2s. 4<#. 58 

HARPERHEYE. John Hilton [Hulton] Esq. of Farneworth, one mes- 
suage near Mancestre, called Harper-heye, by the same service, 
socage il 6s. Sd. 

BLACKLACHE, IN MANCESTRE. John Mulnegate, one close of land 
called Black-lache, in Mancestre, by the same service 4$. 

PENTIFOXE, IN MANCESTRE. Thomas Ulgrene [or Ulgreve] one 
parcel of land, called Pentifoxe, in Mancestre, by the same service .. 4$. 

THE FOUR ACRES, IN MANCESTRE. The wife of William Hilton 59 
[Hulton] in the name of her dower, a parcel of land called " The Four 
Acres," in Mancestre, by the same service 4$. 

ESTLEY [? ASTLEY]. The heir of James Barlow a free tenement in 
Estley [? Astley] 60 by the same service 6d. 

65 Corry places this entry under Chorleton, and gives it as ten acres of land there 
called Eyffind." 

56 H. 2S. C. I2d. 

5 ? H. John Eadcly fife; Cromeshall. 

58 On reference to tlie Surrey of 1320 (p. 309 ante) it will be seen that Green - 
lowe, there called Grend-lawe, in Gorton, and Blake acre or acres, in Manchester, 
were then (as 153 years afterwards) held by a chaplain, as lands of the Chantry of the 
Blessed Mary in Manchester, at precisely the same rent to the lord of the manor, viz. 
il. 2s. 4d., of which the 2s. 4^. was for Blake-acres. 

59 H. William Hulton of Farneworth. 

60 H. Esterley. All the entries between the second Chorleton and Estley are 
omitted by Corry, who calls this place Esteley. 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 501 

LE FOEIS, IN MANCESTEE. G-eorge Mancestre, a messuage with 
appurtenances in Mancestre, called " Le Foris" [? The Markets or the 
Courts], by the same service 3$. 

GODDYEISWIKE. John Hilton [Hulton] of Farneworthe, one mes- 
suage with appurtenances, called Groddyris-wike there 61 i2d. 

MAITCESTEE. John Harrison, one messuage and eight acres of land 
with appurtenances, free, in Mancestre, by the same service ... 5$. Sd. 

Total 61 3s. nd. 

DENTON. John Hilton [Hulton] of Farneworth Esq., one messuage 
with appurtenances and divers tenements in Denton, by the service of 
socage 62 138. 4d. 

BLACKLEY, &c. John Biron Esq., the large vill \villatd\ of Blacke- 
ley and Black-ley field, and Pilling- worth fieldes, 63 with appurtenances, 
lately [rented] at 28?. is. yearly, 64 by the said service 33?. 6s. Sd. 

Total 341. os. od. 

GOETON. The aforesaid John Biron, the vill of Gor-ton, with ap- 
purtenances, by the said service 301. us. od. 

Total 301. us. od. 

HOEWICHE. Ralph Radcliffe Esq., one pasture in Hor-wiche, by 
the said service SI. i6s. Sd. 65 

Edward Grinhalghe, 66 four messuages in Hor-wiche, called Hor- 
wiche-Leighe, lately [rented] at 4?. 55. \d. by the same service. 3?. 135. 4d. 

Edward Hulme, six messuages with appurtenances, in Hor-wiche 
aforesaid, called " Oken-ley," for a term of years . lol. 43. 2d. 

61 G-oddyris-wike is called in the Survey of 1320 Gotherse-wike. The same rent of 
1 2d. was paid at an interval of a century and a half. 

62 All the entries between Estley and Denton are omitted by Corry. He calls the 
tenant of Denton John Halton, and puts Goddirswyke and Harperhey under the head 
of Denton. 

63 H. calls these places Blakeley, Blakeley Fields, and Pillingsworth Fields. 

64 H. lately at 28*. yearly. 
H. 8Z. 1 2*. 8d. 

66 H. Grynehaugh. C. Greenhaugh. 



502 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

William Heaton, three messuages with appurtenances in Hor-wiche, 
called " Eydd-ley-Wood," by the same service i Z. 67 

Total [of Horwiche]. 23?. 14. 2d. 

ALTEPOETE, [OE ALDPOET]. Sir Nicholas Eainolde 68 [or Eamolde] 
one close of pasture called Over Alte-porte, at the will of the lord. .. 2l. 

The Warden of the Church of Mancestre, one park there called 
Nether Alter-port [i.e. Lower Aide-port or Old-town] at will 69 2l. 135. 4^. 

Total [of Alteporte]... 4?. 135. 4$. 

CLEMENS CEOFTE. Christopher Bridd [chaplain], one close of land 
called Clemens-crofte, 70 containing by estimation two acres of land, in 
socage 2s. 

SMITHPIELDE. Christopher Bexwick and G-eorge Birch, one close 
of land there called Smith-fielde, late in the tenure of Thomas Pul, who 
held it for i5. 71 yearly, and now it pays yearly i2s. 

THE HUNT HILL. The Warden of the Church of Mancestre, one 
messuage upon the Hunt-hill is. 6d. 

[TEKANTS-AT-WILL.] 

COMMON OVEN IN MANCESTEE. The wife of Thurstan Chaloner, 73 
a common oven [or bakehouse, furni] 6s. 8d. in Mancestre, at the will 
of the lord, and one In-take Sd. lying at the end of her barn ... 7$. 4^. 

The same wife, a grange there , 4d. 

EiDDiNaEBEUKE. John Mulnegate, one close of land called Eid- 
dinge-bruke, 73 there, at will is. Sd. 

John Eudd, one tenement near the mill there i s. 6d. 

67 C. again copies the first part of Edward Hulme's entry, and tags to it the second 
part of Heaton's, so as to make Hulme's six messuages &c. be called Eidleywood 
instead of Okenley, and his rent iL instead of lol. 45. 2d. William Heaton's name 
is thus omitted. 

68 H. Sir Nicholas Eaynold. C. Master Nicholas Ramald. The same with Sir or 
Master Nicholas Eaveald, stated in the list of burgage tenants to be a chaplain. 

69 H. has Nether Alte-port, and gives the rent as zl. 13$. 
* H. Brydd: Clement Crofte. 

71 H. Smithiefield; Bexwike; Polter; 15^. yearly. 

72 H. Challenor. 

73 H. Bidding-banke. 



CHAP.XVIIL] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 503 

FISHERY IN THE IRK. "William Tunnlinson, a fishery in the water 
of Irk, late in the tenure of John Huntington [the Warden] for 2*. 
yearly, and now i2d. 

A FIELD NEAR THE G-ALLOWS, MANCESTRE. Edward Prestwiche, 
one field near the galloz 74 in Mancestre, at will, and he pays yearly 
because of [or by, propter] Greorge Mancestre and Henry Dides- 
burie us. 

John Hefield, 75 one close of land, containing nine and a half acres of 
land, at will, which lately paid a yearly rent of us. and now of.... 205. 

HoBCRorTE. Hugh G-erthefilde [or Grarthe-field] one close of land 
there called Hob-crofte, 76 at will &?. 

Geoffrey Hulme, seven acres of land in Mancestre, at will 15$. 

DANCROTTE. The same, two acres of land near his grange, called 
Dan-crofte, 77 at will , 6s. Sd. 

The same, a new approvement near his grange 4$. 

John Patrick, a crofte of land there 2s. 

The wife of Ralph Standley knight [c^r.], one plot for buildings, 
near the College there, at will 6d. 

CHOO. James Birdok [or Brideoke], one close of land 'called 
"Choo," in Mancestre, at will 8s. 78 

Thomas Farrar, another close of land there, at will us. 79 

Richard Farrar, one other close of land in Le Choo, at will 12$. 



Total 61. is. lod. 

MARKET TOLLS OF MANCESTRE. John Foxe, the tolls of the [? fairs] 
and markets of Mancestre, late at eight marks [5?. 6s. 8^/.] yearly, and 
now demised [? di d r ] to the same John, for the term of four years 
next coming, for 20?. by Edward Trafford Esq., for %l. 6s. Sd. 
yearly 3/. 6s. 3d. 80 

7* H. Le Galese. ? 5 H. Henfield. H. Hole-Crofte. V H. Corohouse. 
78 H. %d. ? 9 H. Thomas Farrall ; 8*. 

80 H. has here the title or heading "At the Will of the Lord, 1473." All the 
entries in the text between Nether Aldport and the tolls of the market and fair, 
are omitted by Cony. The latter he states thus : " The tolls of the fairs of 
Manchester were held by John Hayheld, as sub-tenant to Edward Trafford Esq., 
who held them from the lord at 3?. 6s. 8eZ. annual rent." With this closes the very 
imperfect and defective abridgment or abstract of the Eeutal of 1473 given by Corry, 
in his History of Lancashire, vol. ii. pp. 449-455. 



504 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

THE CoBN-MiLL. Bichard Hill, the grain mill there, which lately 
was wont to be rented at lol. yearly, but now pays .................... 61. 

THE FULLING-MILL. Hugh Bothe, Geoffrey Newman 81 and others, 
the fulling-mill there ........ ............................................... 2?. 

Eichard Oggdenn, one messuage with appurtenances in Mancestre, 
at will ..................................... ............................... 1.1. ^s. 

NEWTON. Ealph Kenion of Newton, one new approvement in 
Newton, at will .......................................................... is. 4$. 

The wife of Petre Hakansawe 82 [? Hacon's-sal] one close in Man- 
cestre, at will ......................................................... . ys. Sd. 

Hugh Bothe, two closes of land in Mancestre, at will ........ i6s. Sd. 

Hugh Basingbie, 83 two closes of land there, at will ............. 14$. 

Eichard Ogden and John Ogden, 84 one close of land there, at 
will ........................................................................ . Ss.6d. 

John Heighfield, one new approvement, lying near the said close of 
the said Eichard and John ....... ..... ................................... 4^. 

Thomas Merler, 85 one close of land there, at will ..................... Ss. 

John Bradforth, 86 two closes of land there, at will .................. 15$. 

John Milnegate, divers lands in Mancestre, by the same service... 6s. 

John Patrik, a close of land there, at will 87 ........................... 8$. 

George Mancestre, one singeing-house there 88 ........................ 6 d. 



Total .................. i6l. 175. Sd. 

BENTS or BTTEGAGES [&o. IN MANCESTRE] , 89 
A SHOP ON THE WASTE. John Trafford knight [chr.], one parcel 



81 H. Geoffrey Needham. ffl H. Hakanson. H. Basingley. 84 jy 
Olden. s 5 H. Thomas Master. ** John Bradford. 8 ? H. yearly 6d. 

88 H. omits this entry. The word we have rendered singeing-house is in the 
original "ostrina" literally purple, from ostrea an oyster. But it seems to be an 
error for ustrina (from tiro), a burning or conflagration (Apuleius) ; a place in which 
anything, and especially a dead body, has been burned (Festus) ; or a melting-house 
for metal (Pliny). But besides these meanings of classic times, the word had other 
mediaeval significations ; one of which is, a place where hogs are singed " ubi porci 
ustulantur." (See Ducange> in voce.) This seems to be the most probable meaning 
of ostrina in the text. 

89 Here H. has the title "Bents of Burgages, 1473." By a record of award of 
1461, of a jury of three knights, five esquires, and five gentlemen, it is declared 
" That every burgess within the town of Mamcestre have and of right ought to have 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 505 

of waste land lying in Mancestre, near the Bothes, upon which parcel 
of land one shop was lately built 6d. 

Elias Prestwiche Esq., one free burgage there 1 2d. 

The same Elias, another burgage there i2d. 

The same Elias, half a burgage there $d. 

John Eudd, three and a half free burgages there 35. 6d, 

The same John, four burgages, late of Eobert Basse 45 , 

Lady Alice Byron, late wife of Nicholas Byron, one free burgage 
there izd, 

Thomas Whitehead, chaplain, divers free burgages 5$. $d. 

Nicholas Pilkington, one free burgage there i2d, 

John Mylnegate, one free burgage there 1 2d. 

The wife of Thomas Hulme, divers free burgages there 2s. 6d. 

John Hilton [Hulton] of Farneworth, divers free burgages 
there 55. 6d*> 

{At the back of the Roll.] 
Greorge Mancestre, a parcel of land and one piece or [jpeyuc\ or 

peyrc'J* 1 perch is. 2d. 

Ellen Mancestre, one burgage, late Katherine Johnson's i2c?. 93 

The same Ellen, one burgage, late Katherine Johnson's 1 2d. 

John Patrick, one burgage [late] "William Patrick's 1 2dL 93 

The same John, one burgage, late John Eaveald's, chaplain i2d. 

John Platt, one free burgage 12*?. 

his entries and fronts longing and pertaining to his burgage in the said town. That 
is to say, to every burgage one front containing the breadth of the burgage [the 
Preston burgages had twelve feet of frontage] and so unto the channel ; the which 
entries and fronts the lord of the said town, his minister [officer], nor any other 
person may not on right take or have of or from the said burgage ; neither may not 
bigge [build over] them, but keep them clean unto the channel. Written at 
Mamecestre on Wednesday next after St. Michael's Day, the year of our Lord [Sep- 
tember 30] 1461." [Endorsed] "Mamecestre Burgesses: their houses to the 
channel. 1 46 1 ." ( Tr afford Muniments.) 
*> H. 5 s. 

91 This is a very obscurely written word, and being on the first line, in dorso, of 
the roll, it has been much soiled and frayed. It may be peyrc' for perch. The Harl. 
MS. has peyoq: of which we can make nothing. 

92 H. is. 4d. 

93 H. 6d. 

VOL. III. 3 T 



506 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

John Harrison, divers burgages there ... 3$. 6d. 

John Haghfield, one burgage there I2 ^- 

The same John, another burgage there J 2<Z. 

The same John, half a burgage there 6d. 

Eichard Tettlow, divers burgages there, late Thomas Clynton's. 25. 6d. 

The same Eichard, one burgage, late Eichard Woxhese's 1 2d. 

The same Eichard, one burgage [late] William Bebbye's i 2d. 

The same Eichard, one burgage, late John Galley's 94 i2d. 

John Deane, two acres land in Mancestre 2s. 

William Feirar, one burgage there 1 2d. 

The same William, one grange there 12^. 

Eichard Tettlowe, one burgage there, late John Crompton's 95 ... 12 d. 

John Hulme, divers burgages and lands there 4s. 

The same John, a parcel of land called Tenter-leaher 96 i2d. 

William Hunte, divers burgages, one grange, and divers lands. >js. ^d 

Eichard Dowill, two burgages there 2s. 

Nicholas Strangwishe, 97 divers burgages and lands there 1 2s. 2d. 

John Fleshewer, 98 one free burgage there i2d. 

The same John, another free burgage 8^. 

Thomas Kaye, three free burgages there 35. 

John Kaye, one burgage there 1 2 d. 

The same John, one shop there in the market-place \inforo] ... i2d. 

Gilbert Buckeley, one burgage and two acres of land there 35. 

Nicholas Winington, divers burgages and lands there 6s. 

John Prowdelove, half a free burgage there 6d. 

John Cannock, half a burgage there 6d. 

John Glover, half a free burgage there 6d. 

James Bardisleye," chaplain, divers burgages and lands there ... 35. 

Oliver Halle, divers cottages and land 2s. sd. 

The Guild of the Blessed Mary there, divers burgages 35. 

Hugh Chadocke, three burgages there 35. 

Edward Bardisleye, divers burgages there 35. gd. 

Eichard Galleye, one approvement near the bridge over Irk water, ^d. 

94 H. John Saley's. 95 H. Eichard Tytlow ; John Cronton. 

96 H. " Le Cher." w H. Stranwish ; doubtless Strangways. 

98 H. Flesher. Was Flesher or Flesh-hewer the old name for a butcher ? 
19 H. Brurdisley. 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 507 



The wife of Eobert Bothe, half a burgage 6d. m 

The wife of Robert Wrighte, two burgages 25. 

William Radcliffe, divers burgages and lands there 2s. 

The wife of Robert Smithehurst, one burgage there i2d. 

The aforesaid William Radcliffe, for one In-take, annexed to the said 
burgage there 4$. 

Richard Holland Esq., divers burgages and lands there 5$. 6d. 

The same Richard, one burgage, late Richard Moore's 12$. 

John Radcliffe, one burgage there i zd. 

James Cockers, two burgages there and divers lands 25. 

James Utley, one burgage there .... i2d. 

Robert Taylier, divers burgages and divers lands there 3$. 

The heir of John Roe, divers burgages and lands there 6s. 

Robert Chorleton, one burgage and half a burgage is. 6d. 

Hugh Grartheside, half a burgage there, in the Denesgate 6d. 

Nicholas Cordye, half a burgage there . 6d. 

William Holland Esq., divers lands there 35. 

Oteus [or Otes] Wood, one burgage there i2d. 

The wife of Nicholas Corker, one burgage there . i2d. 

Thomas Mason, one burgage there i2d. 

Hugh Bridd, one In-take there 3d. 

The heir of Hugh Wrightinton, chaplain, one burgage there ... i2d. 

Geoffrey Massey knight [c^r.], one burgage there 1 2d. 

Lawrence Whitehawghe, half a burgage 6d. 

Oliver Albine, half a burgage .< 8d. 

The wife of John Foreness, 1 one burgage there 1 2 d. 

Robert Hop wood, one plot of land near the burial ground Sd. 

The same Robert, one plot, late Richard Bird's, near the burial 
ground 8d. 

The same Robert, half a burgage there 6d. 

John Napleton, 2 half a burgage there Gd. 

Hugh Grartheside, half a burgage there, lying in Gronum-tonce-lane, 
late the land of Thomas Chadwik 3 6 d. 

The same Hugh, one new approvement there in the said street, near 

100 H. divers burgages, 6*. 1 H. Furness. 2 H. Mapulton. 3 //. Emo' 
taner lane ; Chadwyke. 



508 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII- 

the said half burgage, containing in length sixty feet, and in breadth 
forty feet i^ 

The wife of Eobert Birche, one plot of land near the water-mill 
there , %d. 

John Hilton [Hulton] of Farneworth, one burgage called Browne's 
burgage ... i2<#. 

Thomas Whitehead, chaplain, half a burgage , 6d. 

Eobert "Worseley, half a burgage near the bridge there 6d. 

The heir of Roger Oldom, one burgage there 120?. 

Nicholas Raveald, chaplain, one burgage there, late Master John 
Huntington's [the warden], 4 namely, for the half of the new plot near 
the burial ground \d. the other half of the said plot 6d. ; for half a 
burgage lying near the burgage of George Mancestre 6d. ; also for one 
burgage lying near the Hanging Bridge on the east side i2d ; and for 
half a burgage 5 lying on the west side of the said bridge 6d. ; and for 
land lying near the said burial ground, towards the burgage of Richard 
Earrar 6d. ; and for a certain In-take 6 near the grange of Geoffrey 
Hulme Sd., &c . 48. 

Richard Radcliffe, one burgage there 12$. 

Robert Holineworth, one burgage and a half burgage there... is. 6d. 

Henry Buckeley, two gardens near Hulme's burgage 7 6d. 

William Raveald, a certain parcel of land lying beyond Irk Bridge, ^d. 

Total SI os. 3d. 



Sum total itfl. igs. 6d. B 

Of which in rents repaid to the lord the king for the castleward of Lan- 
caster, for [Thomas "West] himself and his tenants, yearly .. 2,1. 12$. 6d. 

4 John Huntington, the first warden of the College, died nth November 1458. 
This Kental does not record the names of any of the then fellows of the College, at 
least as such (though various burgages are held by " the Guild of the Blessed Mary") ; 
but it names the following chaplains : Thomas Whitehead, chaplain of a chantry in 
the church of Mamecestre, called in the Survey of 1320, "the Chantry of the Blessed 
Mary ;" Sir Nicholas Rainold, Eamald or Raveald, chaplain ; John Raveald, chap- 
lain ; Christopher Bird or Bridd, chaplain ; and James Bardisley, chaplain. 

5 H. another burgage. 6 //. a square Intake. 7 H. Holmes Bridge. 
* H. 137?. i os. 6d. 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 509 

And in rents repaid to the said lord the king for that rent called sak- 
fee yearly 4?. 2$. 6d. 9 

And there remains clear over 131^. 4$. 6d. 

[After an erasure is this Entry :] 

DALTON AND PEKBALD. 

The Prior of Burscoghe 6d. ; William Orrell jun. i2d.- l Bichard 
Bradshawe ' of Letherland 12^.; William Arowesmithe of Warrington 
6d. ; Lord Lovell 6d. j 11 Dalton 6d. ; Edward de Lathom 45. He holds 
an oxgang of land in Dai-ton and Par-bald, for homage and fealty, as 
for half a knight's fee ; which was late the said Robert Holland's, and 
he pays yearly at [the four terms] for sak 35., and for castleward of 
Lancaster at the Nativity of St. John Baptist, and putary-serjeant. 8s. 12 



As with the Survey and the Extent of 1320 and 1322, we pre- 
sent a tabulated account of this Rental of 1473 : 

s. d. 

Flixton, Thomas Yallantine (? ) lordship 082 

Ralph Radcliffe Esq., ditto o i 8 

Alexander Radcliffe of Ordsal Esq., i ditto o i 8 

9 S. 4Z. 2*. 6%d. w H. 6d. 

11 This was Francis Lovel, at the time of this Rental ninth Baron Lovel of Tich- 
mersh (by tenure). He was created Viscount Lovel 4th January 1483. He was 
slain in 1487, and being attainted, all his honours (viz. the baronies of Lovel, Holland, 
Deincourt and Grey of Rotherfield) became forfeited. He seems to have derived 
these lands in Dalton and Parbold from the Hollands ; his ancestor John Lovel, fifth 
Baron Lovel, having married Maud, daughter or grand-daughter and heir of Robert 
Baron Holland. (Nicolas's Synopsis, vol. i. pp. 326 and 393.) 

12 After this last entry on the parchment roll, there is the following endorsement 
or entry on the copy in the Harl. MS. : 

" (The last Roll :) 

" Manchester : Examined with the ancient Rental of the lord of Manchester, and 
with which this Roll agreeth, the 1 2th day of September in the i9th year of the reign 
of King James, and the year of our Lord 1621. By us, whose names are subscribed 

(Signed) Henry Walmesley. 

George Peele." 

This is forty-one years prior to the certificate of the commissioners at Bolton, as to 
the first Roll, in this same Harl. MS., and the persons subscribing are different. See 
note 28, p. 496 ante. 



510 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

s. d. 

Faruworth, John Hulton, 2 messuages 036 

Ditto the manor 046 

Adam Presthall, capital messuage 006 

Richard Sedon, i messuage and 3 tenements 006 

Little Lever, John Lever, ^ manor 034 

Richard Tempest knight, 5 manor 036 

Anderton, Thurstan Anderton, the manor 096 

JBurnehill, Peter Gerrarde knight, lordship and advowson o 15 o 

Anlazargh, Thomas Lord Standley, lordship 030 

Sharpies, Richard Sharpies, i messuage and 6 tenements o i 6 

Robert Sharpies, i messuage o o 10 

Richard Holland of Denton, 3 tenements o o 10 

Sunderland, William Heaton, the manor o i o 

Heller, Charles Brereworth, i tenement 006 



2 19 8 

Childwall, Thomas Lord Standley, lordship, castleward 5 s o 4 6 

Dalton and Parbold, Robert Lathom and the Prior of Burscough, lord- 
ship, castleward 5* 030 

Worthington, Hugh Worthington, lordship, ward 55 o 3 8 

Wrightington, Richard Kirkebie and others, lordship, ward 5* o 3 o 

Turton, William Orrell, lordship, ward i*. 6d , o i 6 

Harwood, Christopher Sotheworth, ^ lordship, ward ^d o o 4^ 

John Trafford knight, 5 lordship, ward 44^ 004^ 

Bradshaw, Elias Bradshaw, the vill, ward gd 009 

Halliwall, Robert Hulton, lordship, ward %d 008 

SrocJioles, wife of Nicholas Singleton, lordship, ward yd o o 8 

Heaton-under-the-Forest, William Heaton, manor, ward i id 008 

LostocTc, John Atherton Esq. of Atherton, lordship, ward *]d o o n 

Ralph Radcliffe, parcel of the lordship, ward 7 d 007 

Humworih t John Hulton, lordship, ward is. ^d 030 

WesfhougMon^ Abbot of Cokersand, lordship, ward 3^ 002 

Aspull, Robert Hindley, messuage and tenements, ward 2%d o o 2^ 

Henry Bradshawe, messuage, ward id 002 

Thomas Gerrarde, lordship, ward %d 008 

Robert Law, i messuage, ward 3^ 003 

Thomas Lathom of Knowsley, i messuage, ward 3^ 008 

Middlewood in Hulton, Roger Hulton, manor, ward 7 d o o 4 

PilJcington, Thomas Pilkington Esq., lordship, ward 2*. 4^ ... o 2 8 

Del Feldes in Sharpies, heir of Henry Radcliffe, manor o o i 

Earton, Thomas Bothe Esq., manor, &c o o i 

WitUngton and Didsbury, Nicholas Longforth knight, lordship, ward IDS. o 9 o 

Total castleward il. 3$. 7^. j rent i 17 6^ 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 511 

*. d. 

Moston, James Eadcliffe of Eadcliffe, lordship o n 6 

Hulme, near Manchester, Elias Prest wiche, manor o 5 o 



o 16 6 

Near Manchester, [Br ere- riding] James Eadcliffe of Eadcliffe, i messuage o i 6 

Clayden, Eichard Clayden, manor 050 

Ancotes, John Biron Esq., | of 2 messuages and 2^ oxgaugs 034 

Chorleton, Henry Trafford, messuages 060 

Bartin Trafford, messuages 034 

Gatecotefield, Henry Trafford, i close 020 

Glinfield [Claydenfield] and Dogfleld, Henry Trafford, 2 closes o 4 o 

Ashby [Ashley'], Geoffrey Hulme, i close of 6 acres o o 10 

Milhvardcroft, Geoffrey Hulme, i close of 20 a 050 

John Eudd, i close of 2 a 004 

Chorleton, Elias Entwisle, i messuage 034 

The Forty Acres, Rissum, Barten de Bamford, i messuage o i o 

Ashton and Moston, Sir J. Ashton knight, manors and advowson o o i 

Crumpsall, James Eadcliffe Esq., lordship o 10 o 

Clayton, John Biron Esq., lordship 070 

Grenelowe [in Gorton], Thomas Whitehead, chaplain, tenement i o o 

Blalceacre, Manchester, Thomas Whitehead, parcel of land, " Blakeacre " 024 

Harpurhey, John Hulton Esq. of Farnworth, i messuage i 6 8 

Bladclache, Manchester, John Mulnegate, i close * o 4 o 

Pentifoxe, Manchester, Thomas Ulgrene, parcel of land o 4 o 

Four Acres, Manchester, wife of William Hulton, parcel of land 040 

Astley, heir of James Barlow, a free tenement 006 

lie Foris, Manchester, George Mancestre, a messuage o 3 o 

GoddyriswiJce, John Hulton of Farnworth, a messuage o i o 

Manchester, John Harrison, i messuage and 8 a. land 058 

6 3 ii 

Denton, John Hulton of Farnworth Esq., i messuage and tenements 013 4 

BlacTcley, fyc., John Biron Esq., the vills 33 6 8 

34 o o 
Gorton, John Biron Esq., the Till 30 n o 

Harwich, Ralph Eadcliffe Esq., i pasture 8 16 8 

Edward Grinhalghe, 4 messuages called Horewich Leigh 3 13 4 

Edward Hulme, 6 messuages called Oken-ley 10 4 2 

W illiam Heaton, 3 messuages called Eydd-ley-Wood i o o 

23 !4 2 



512 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

s. d. 

Over Aid/port, Sir Nicholas Eaveald, i close of pasture 2 o o 

Nether Aldport, the Warden of Manchester, i park 2 13 4 

4 13 4 

Manchester : 

Clemen' s-croft, Christopher Bridd, i close of 2 a 020 

Smith-fielde, Christopher Bexwick, i close o 12 o 

The Hunt-Mil, the Warden of Manchester, i messuage o i 6 

The Common-oven or bakehouse, 6*. $d. t the wife of Thurstan Chaloner, 

and i Intake 8 d 074 

The same wife, a grange 004 

Ridding -bruke [or barike~], John Mulnegate, i close o i 8 

John Eudd, i tenement near the mill o i 6 

Fishery in Irlc, William Tunnliu son o i o 

Field near the Gallows, Edward Prestwiche o u o 

John Hefield, a close of 9^ a i o o 

Hob-crofte, Hugh Gerthefilde, a close , 080 

Geoffrey Hulme, 7 a. land ,.. o 15 o 

Dan-crofte, Geoffrey Hulme, 2 a. near the grange of Dancrofte o 6 8 

Geoffrey Hulme, a new approvement near the grange o o 4 

John Patrick, a croft there ., 020 

Wife of Ealph Standley knight, a plot for building, near the College o o 6 

Le Choo, James Birdok, a, close called Choo 080 

Thomas Farrar, a close o n o 

Eichard Farrar, a close o 12 o 

Total 6 i 10 

Fair and Market Tolls, John Foxe 368 

Corn-Mill, Eichard Hill 600 

Fulling-Mill, Hugh Bothe, Geoffrey Newman, &c 200 

Eichard Ogdenn, i messuage 150 

Newton, Ealph Kenion, a new approvement o i 4 

Wife of Peter Hakansawe, a close 078 

Hugh Bothe, 2 closes o 16 8 

Hugh Basingbie, 2 closes o 14 o 

Eichard Ogden and John Ogden, i close 086 

John Heighfield, i new approvement , o o 4 

Thomas Merler, i close 080 

John Bradford, 2 closes o 15 o 

John Milnegate, divers lands 060 

John Patrick, a close 080 

George Mancestre, i singeing-house 006 

16 17 8 



THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 513 



Rents of [about 150] Burgages in Mamecestre [as in pp. 504-508] .... 

Sum total 137 19 6 

Deduct Rents paid by the lord 6 15 o 

Clear balance 131 4 6 

Such is the account which the Roll itself presents, as to totals ; 
which as usual differ from those which the addition of all the sepa- 
rate items would present. From the various items of burgage rent 
paid, at the rate of is. for a whole burgage and 6d. for half a 
burgage, there would seem to have been about 150 burgages in 
Mamecestre in I473. 13 



In the MS. volume (Harl. MS. Cod. 2085, fol. 525), which 
contains a copy of the Extent of 1322, there are some fragments 
of an account or Survey of the manor of Manchester, which are 
stated to be "in a loose paper, torne." They do not appear to 
belong to the Extent of 1322, though they immediately follow that 
account, but to some later Survey. They relate to the value of 

13 The following summary of the Rental of the Estates of Sir Edward Mosley Bart, 
in the county of Lancaster, in the year 1665, is printed in Corry's Lancashire (vol. 
ii. p. 458), apparently on the authority of Sir Oswald Mosley, the present baronet : 

RENTAL OF SIE E. MOSLEY. 1665. 

s. d. 

*Manor of Heaton Norris 149 8 o 

Manor of Withington and its members 402 i o 

*Berry [? Bury] lands 10 o o 

Old chief rents of Withington i 6 u 

*Tithes of Withington 211 2 3 

*Aldport Lodge ground 44 17 o 

Aldport Fields 53 r 3 

Manor of Manchester 212 o o 

Hough, or Old Hall Demesne.... j within f 3 

*Houeh's End >,,. ' < 140 o o 

I Didsbury. j 
*Tithes of Hough Demesne ) \ 10 o o 

Total i534 8 2* 

* The places and things marked thus were disposed of, some by Sir Edward Mosley, 
of Hulme, knight, and some by his grandson, Sir John Bland, Bart. 

VOL. III. 3 U 



514 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

divers things, rents and farms, to the holders of knights' fees and 
portions of knights' fees all different persons from those already 
named as holding such fees in 1322, and, so far as can be ascer- 
tained, the possessors or tenants towards the latter end of the 
fifteenth century probably about 1480-1485. Though the date 
is uncertain, this seems the fittest place for this fragment : 

(In a loose paper, tome.} 

Valor Diusaru ManS. 
De redd assia^ ibm p ann 
De novo redd ifcm 
De firma tolne? M 9 ca? f Nundina^ ibm 

De firma molend: pro nat. itim p anfi 06 : oo : oo 

De firma molend fullere? ift p anfi 02 : oo : oo 

De firma bosS ifcm voca? Blakeley &c. p anfi 24 : 06 : 07 

De firma pastura voca? Ou Aide Port p ann 02 : oo : oo 

De firma pastura vocat Nether Alport &c. p anfi ... 02 : 13 : 04 
De piites siue pqsi? Cur et Portmo? iftm non rco qd 
nulla Curia ten? fuer nuper ad io u 



Suma totalis oSis 132 



Inde reddi? resolu? duci Lan2 p ann 06 

Et in de2 reddi? vt ptici patet 04 

Et in feod Jom' s Trafford milite seS ifem 05 

Et in feodo Geo. Standley militf supvisor ifem 05 

Et in feodo Hug 1 Gartside rec ibm 06 

Et in feodo Th. Ratclyffe Ad [? As?] dci Dm o i 

Et in feodo HuP Gartside attorS Dni ad as? .. oo 



04 



15 

07 
oo 

00 

13 

oo 

13 



09 



oo 



oo 
oo 

04 

oo 

04 



[29 9 i] 
Feoda Militum. 

Dns de Standley p di feod: mil in Childwall debet horn) fid ad Cur 
de MauS, 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 515 

Dfis de Lovell p di feod mil qd ipemet et Pior de Burscough et 
[? Elena de] Tarbock de Dni in Dalton [et Parbold] . 

Hugo de Worthinton p di feod mit in Worthington. 

Ricus de Wrightington p di feod mit in Wrightington. 

Radus Orrell pip? feod mil in Torton. 

Ricus Holland, Jo. Trafford miles, et Elias Bradshagh p 8 ptf feodi 
mit in Bradshagh. 

Rob? Hilton p 10 pt> feod mil in Halliwell. 

Jas. Singleton p 13 pt feod mit in Brockholes. 

Rog 1 de Hilton p 10 pt feod mit in Hilton p 4 a pt in Rum worth et 
Lostock. 

Abbas de Cokersand p 40 pt feod mit in West Haughton. 

Tho. Ince and Rofet Hindley p 8 pt feod mil in Aspull. 

Tho. Pilkington miles, p 4 pt feod mit in Pilkinton. 

Jo. Leaver p Pua Leaver. 

Jo. Booth ar p di feod mit in Barton cu p?. 

Radus de Longeford ar p vfi feod mit in Whitington. 

Libli Tenen? ForinseS. 

Radus Radcliffe ar et Tho. Valentyne p medietate de Flixton in 

Serien? homag 1 et fidelita?. 

W s Radcliffe ar p medieta? de Flixton deb horn fid. 
Radus Ashton Jo. Hilton f Ri2 Redeworth p Farneworth horn fid. 
Jo. Hilton ar p Mosshulme in Farneworth horn fid. 
Galfrid de Farneworth p tenen? in Farneworth ho: fid. 
Ricus Tempest miles p Pua Leaver ho: fid. 
Tho: Gerard miles p Brynhill horn fid. 
Thurstanus Anderton p Anderton horn fid. 
pte is rent [i.e. torn] . 

Dfius Stanley 

Sharpies horn fid. 

Smytill horn et fid. 



516 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

Denton horn et fid. 

Prestwich p medie? maS de Holme horn fid. 

Jo: Ashton miles p Ashton horn et fid. 
Jo: Byron ar p Clayton horn fid. 



VALUATION OE DIYEES THINGS OF MANCHESTEK. 14 

Of rents of assise there, yearly 

Of new rents there 

Of the farm of the Tolls of the Market and Eairs there 

Of the farm of the mill for (?) nativi, there, yearly 6 o o 

Of the farm of the fulling-mill there, yearly ... 200 

Of the farm of the wood there, called Blakely, &c., yearly ... 24 6 7 
Of the farm of the pasture, called Oyer Aide Port, yearly . . 2 o o 
Of the farm of the pasture, called Nether Alport, &c., yearly 2 13 4 
Of the pleas or perquisites of the Court and Portmote there, 

not received [or reckoned] for no Courts have been 

held lately, at loZ. 

Sumtotalof ? 132 4 9 



Whereof the rent repaid to the Duke of Lancaster, yearly... 615 o 

And in tithe-rent, as by particulars appeareth 4 7 5 

And in the fee of John Trafford knight, steward there 5 o o 

And in the fee of G-eorge Standley knight, supervisor there.. 500 

And in the fee of Hugh Grartside, receiver there 6 13 4 

And in the fee of Thomas Radclyffe, assessor of the said lord i o o 
And in the fee of Hugh G-artside, attorney of the lord to the 

assessor o 13 4 

[29 9 i] 
KNIGHTS' EEES. 

The lord of Standley for half a knight's fee in Childwall, owes homage 

and fealty at the Court of Mamecestre. 
The lord of Lovell for half a knight's fee which he and the Prior of 

14 The reader may compare the various items in this account, with the correspond- 
ing entries in the Survey of 1320, the Extent of i32z, and the Rental of 1473. 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 517 

Burscough and [? Elen de] Tarbock [hold of the lord in] 

Dalton [and Parbold]. 

Hugh de Worthinton for half a knight's fee in "Worthington. 
Bichard de Wrightington for half a knight's fee in Wrightington. 
Balph Orrell for one part of a knight's fee in Tort on. 
Bichard Holland, John Trafford knight, and Elias Bradshagh, for the 

eighth part of a knight's fee in Bradshagh. 
Bobert Hilton for the tenth part of a knight's in Halliwell. 
James Singleton for the thirteenth part of a knight's fee in Brockholes. 
Boger de Hilton for the tenth part of a knight's fee in Hilton, and for 

the fourth part [of a fee] in Bumworth and Lostock. 
Abbot of Cokersand for the fortieth part of a knight's fee in "West 

Haughton. 
Thomas Ince and Bobert Hindley for the eighth part of a knight's fee 

in Aspull. 
Thomas Pilkington knight for the fourth part of a knight's fee in 

Pilkinton. 

John Leaver for Little Leaver. 

John Booth Esq. for half a knight's fee in Barton, with appurtenances. 
Balph de Longeford Esq. for one knight's fee in Whitington [Withington]. 

FBEE FOBEION [OB OUT-] TENANTS. 
Balph Badcliffe Esq. and Thomas Valentine for a moiety of Flixton, in 

serjeanty, homage and fealty. 

"William Badcliffe Esq. for a moiety of Flixton, owes homage and fealty. 
Balph Ashton, John Hilton, and Bichard Bedeworth for Farneworth, 

homage and fealty. 

John Hilton Esq. for Moss-hulme in Farneworth, homage and fealty. 
Geoffrey de Farneworth, for tenants [or tenements] in Farneworth, 

homage and fealty. 

Bichard Tempest knight, for Little Leaver, homage and fealty. 
Thomas Grerard knight, for Bryn-hill, homage and fealty. 
Thurstan Anderton, for Anderton, homage and fealty, 
parte is rent [or torn]. 

The Lord Stanley 

Sharpies, homage and fealty. 

Smytill [Smithells] homage and fealty. 



518 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

Denton, homage and fealty. 

Prestwich, for a moiety of the manor of Holme [Hulme], 

homage and fealty. 

John Ashton knight, for Ashton, homage and fealty. 
John Byron Esq. for Clayton, homage and fealty. 



CLAIM OF THOMAS WEST, LORD LA WARRE, 
TO LIBERTIES, &c., AT MAMECESTRE. 

(No date.) 

There being no date to the following document, which is taken 
from one of Dr. Keuerden's MS. volumes in Chetham's Library, 
it is not only impossible to assign an exact place to it, but it is 
quite uncertain whether it relates to Thomas, fifteenth Baron, son 
of Richard West (1457-1525)., or to his son Thomas, sixteenth 
Baron, who succeeded his father in 1525-26, and died in Septem- 
ber or October 1554. In either case it was probably later in date 
that the Rental of 1473, and it is therefore placed here : 
THOMAS WEST, LORD LA WARRES'S CLAIM TO 

LIBERTIES, &c., AT MAMECESTRE. 
(Keuerden's 4to MS. Chet. Lib. fol. 52.) 

Tho. West miles D s de la Warre cl: se hab: villam de Mame- 
cestre fore lib: Burg: villam mercat: ac emed: Ass: panis et ceru: 
ac puniend: vitellarioru de Mercaiidisis suis contra Ass: Theol: 
tarn quolibet die Sept: q die Mercati ac hab: in villa et infra maS 
suam cu membris et Hamelettis ejusdem maS sciit. in villis de 
Ashton in Salfordshire, Withington, Hey ton Noreys, Barton juxta 
Eccles, Halton, Heton cum Halwall, Pilkington, et in hamleH 
eorum lib: de infangth: pacis fractse, emend: Ass: panis et cer- 
uisise fractse, ac weif et stray, nee non Puniceu de Carnificibus, 
Tannatorum de Mercandisis, furcas, pillorium, et tumbrell: unam 
feriam per tres dies in vigii: et in die et Crast: S: Math: et lib: 
wareh. 

Thomas West, Lord de la Warre, claims to have to himself the vill 
[or town] of Mamecestre, to be [fore] a free borough, and a market 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 519 

town, with amending of the assise of bread and ale, and the punishing 
of victuallers, for their merchandise against the assise : Toll, as well 
on every day of the week as on the market day ; and to have in the vill 
and within his manor, with the members and hamlets of the same 
manor, to wit, in the vills of Ashton in Salfordshire, Withington, 
Heaton Norreys, Barton near Eccles, Halton [Haughton] Heton with 
Haliwell, Pilkington and their hamlets, liberties of infangethief, peace- 
breach, the amending of breach of the assise of bread and ale, and waif 
and stray, as well as the punishing of butchers and tanners, for their 
merchandise [or wares] ; gallows and pillory and tumbrel ; one fair for 
three days on the Eve, Day and Morrow of St. Matthew, and free 
warren. 



On the 24th May, 6 Henry VII. (1491), the king issued his precept 
to the Sheriif of Lancashire, requiring that he should by his writ bring 
before Ghiido Fairfax knight and John Vavasor, justices itinerant, 
Thomas West knight, Lord la Warre [fifteenth lord of Mamecestre] 
and Ralph Orrell late of Turton Esq. ; for that Ralph, the son of 
Robert, son and heir of James Lever, being under age, whose marriage 

belongs to the said Thomas [West] &c by writ of fieri facias ' 

against the said Thomas West, that he may be before us, &c. (An 
obscure and imperfect entry in Keuerden's MSS. in Chet. Lib. p. 458.) 

An inquisition post mortem of 17 Henry VII. (1501-2) found that 
Richard West, Lord de la Warre, held the manor of Mamecestre, with 
the hamlets of Withington, Denton, Openshaw, Clayton, Ardwic and 
Curmeshal, Moston, Nuthurst, Groderswic, Ancots, Blakeley and Grorton, 
and 40 messuages, 1000 acres land, TOO acres meadow, 200 acres pas- 
ture, in the aforesaid vills, of the king as of his duchy of Lancaster, &c., 
for five knights' fees; worth looZ. Also that Thomas West was the 
son and heir, and at the time of his father's death was twenty-four 
years of age. 



If Thomas West were born in 1457, as would appear by Collins, 
&c., and if, as this inquisition declares, he was twenty-four at the 
death of Richard his father, this would give the date of that death 
as in 1481, in the 20 or 21 Edward IV.; and it is inconceivable 



520 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

that Richard's post mortem inquisition should be held twenty 
years after his death. If from the date of this inquisition we assume 
the death of Richard to have occurred circa 1500, we find that 
his son Thomas would be born about 1477, and not 1457, as stated 
by Collins. But Collins makes the father die in March 1476, 
which would be nineteen years before the son was born ! On the 
other hand Burke gives the date of the father's death as 1497 ; 
according to which Thomas was born in 1473, the very year in 
which this Rental is stated to have been made. There is a strange 
confusion of dates pervading every account of the lives and deaths 
of these Wests. Subjoined are a few notes respecting their suc- 
cession, derived from Collins, in continuation of the account in the 
last chapter, pp. 472-475 : 

XV. Thomas West, eighth Baron de la Warre, and fifteenth 
lord of Mamecestre, is stated by Collins (vol. v. p. 29) to have 
been in his father's life time, when only in his eighteenth or nine- 
teenth year, in the expedition into France in 14 Edward IV. 
(1474), on which account he received 95^. us. for a quarter's 
wages, for four men-at-arms and thirty archers, who were of his 
retinue. (Rymer, vol. xi. p. 876 b.) He obtained a special livery 
of his lands ist September 1475, though then a minor. (Pat. 
1 6 Edward IV. p. 2, m. 6.) He was in great favour with Henry 
VII., whom he aided in obtaining the crown, and who in 1485-6 
gave him a large grant of castles, baronies, honours, lordships, 
boroughs and towns in Sussex, &c., which had fallen to the crown 
by the attainder of John Howard, Duke of Norfolk (Shakspere's 
" Jockey of Norfolk") slain in the battle of Bosworth Field. 
(Pat. i Henry VII. p. 4.) In 1489-90 he was made K.B. at the 
creation of Arthur Prince of Wales ; and in 7 Henry VII. (1491-2) 
was one of the chief commanders of the army then sent into 
Flanders in aid of the Emperor Maximilian against the French. 
In 12 Henry VII. (1496-7) he had a chief command of the forces 
raised for repressing the rebellion in Cornwall. In 2 Henry VIII. 
for his great services he was elected K.G. with the King of Por- 
tugal, and installed at Windsor nth May 1510. He attended 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 521 

Henry VIII. in his expedition to Therouenne and Tournay, and 
was at the battle fought i6th August 1513 between the English 
(allied with the troops of the Emperor Maximilian) and the French, 
named " the Battle of the Spurs f and for his valour there was 
made a knight banneret. He attended the Princess Mary, sister 
of Henry VIII., at her marriage with Louis XII. of France in 
1514, at Abbeville; having in his retinue thirty horsemen, well 
accoutred, and 26s. 8d. [two marks] per day was allowed him by 
the king to defray his expenses. He conducted the Emperor 
Charles V. from Gravelines into England in May 1522. By his 
will, dated 8th October 1524 (16 Henry VIII.) he made Eleanor 
his wife sole executrix, and settled most of his estates on his 
eldest son and heir apparent, Sir Thomas West and his heirs 
male ; in default to Owen West, his son (by his second wife) and 
his heirs male ; remainder to George and Leonard West, his sons, 
and their heirs male. He bequeathed to his daughters, Mary, 
Catherine and Barbara, to and for their marriages 500 marks 
[333/. 6s. 8d.~] each. It appears also by his will that "Dame 
Elizabeth, his first wife, was buried in the church of the White- 
friars in London, on St. Peter's day, and that twenty-three years 
were since expired from the date of the will." He was twice 
married ; first to Elizabeth, daughter of Hugh, and sister and heir 
of Sir John, Mortimer of Mortimer's Hall co. Southampton ; and 
secondly to Eleanor, daughter of Sir Roger Copley of Gatton, co. 
Surrey, knight. He died probably in January 15256, as the 
probate of his will is dated I2th February 1525-6. By the inqui- 
sition p. m. 17 Henry VIII. (1526) it was found that Thomas 
West knight held the manor of Mamecestre, the advowson of the 
church &c. of the king, as of his Duchy of Lancaster, by knight's 
service ; and that Thomas West, his brother [son] and heir, was 
of the age of thirty years. He was succeeded by his eldest son, 

XVI. Thomas, ninth Baron de la Warre and sixteenth Baron of 
Mamecestre. He died 25th September 1554, leaving no issue, 
and by an inquisition June 6 (i and 2 Philip and Mary) 1555, it 
was found that he died seised (inter alia) of the manor of Mame- 

VOL. III. 3 X 



522 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

cestre and the advowson of the church. In 35 Henry VIII. 
(1543-4) this Sir Thomas executed a deed of entail of the manor 
of Manchester, with its appurtenances, to himself for life ; re- 
mainder (in default of issue male) to his [half] brother, Sir Owen 
West knight and his issue male; remainder to the heirs male of 
Leonard West Esq. his [youngest] brother, remainder to the right 
heirs of Sir Thomas West, late Lord la Warre, his father. 
(Corry's Lancashire, vol. ii. p. 457.) He seems to have had the 
purpose and object of this deed, legalised and authorised by 
legislative enactment. By act of parliament of 4th November 
(3 Edward VI.) 1552, the manor of Manchester and advowson of 
the church, with various other estates, were settled upon himself 
in tail, with remainder in default of male issue to his half brother 
Sir Owen West, and his issue male ; remainder in default thereof 
to the heirs male of his late brother Sir George West ; remainder 
to the heirs male of Leonard West Esq., his brother; remainder 
to the right heirs of Sir Thomas West, late Lord la Warre his 
father. Under these circumstances, the next baron (not by writ 
but by patent) was 

XVII. William West (seventeenth Baron of Mamecestre), son 
and heir of Sir George West, second son of Thomas eighth Baron 
de la Warre, and half brother of Thomas the last baron. This 
William, having attempted to poison his half-uncle Thomas, was 
by an act of 2 Edward VI. (1548) disabled from succeeding in 
honours and estate. But he was created Baron de la Warre by 
patent 5th February 1570, aud was restored in blood. He died 
on the 3oth December 1595; and was succeeded by 

XVIII. Sir Thomas West knight, his son and heir, then aged 
forty, eighteenth Baron of Mamecestre, who was restored to the 
precedency of the old barony of La Warre. He was the last of the 
Wests connected with Manchester ; for on the I5th May (21 Eliza- 
beth) I579, 14 by indenture he and his son and heir apparent 

14 It seems strange that Sir Thomas West should be Lord of Mamecestre, and 
dispose of that manor and lordship in May 1579, more than sixteen years before the 
death of his father. It may be that in some partition of the estates of the Wests, 



CHAP. XVIIL] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 523 

William West, in consideration of the sum of 3,000^., did grant, 
bargain and sell to John Lacye, citizen and cloth-worker of London, 
and to his heirs and assigns for ever, " all the Manor, Lordship 
and Seignory of Manchester in the county of Lancaster, with its 
appurtenances, with all and all manner of Court Leets, Views of 
Frank Pledge, and all fines [? fairs], markets, tolls, liberties, cus- 
toms, privileges, free warren, jurisdiction, &c., to the same manor 
belonging/' It appears that John Lacy had lent to Sir William 
West and his son 3,ooo/., for which they gave as security the deed 
just cited, which contained a condition of redemption upon the 
repayment of the sum by a day named. The Wests failed to fulfil 
this condition, and Lacy, by a deed of 16 July, 22 Elizabeth 
(1580), appointed Christopher Anderton, gentleman, and Nicholas 
Mosley, citizen and cloth-worker of London (his own intimate 
friend), his attorneys, to take possession of the manor, which they 
did on the 6th August 1580. But there was some delay on the 
part of the Wrests; for it was not till the i6th July 23 Elizabeth 
(1581) that Sir William West, Lord la Warre, directed his letter 
of attorney to Nicholas Mosley and Lawrence Trafford to grant 
livery of seisin to John Lacy; and Jth August 1581 a recovery 
was suffered and a fine levied by Sir William West to John Lacy. 
Notwithstanding these proceedings, it appears by the Court Leet 
Books that Sir William West was still styled Lord of the Manor, 
and that John Lacy was not therein recognised as Lord of the 
Manor, till the Easter Court, igth April 1582. 

On the 23rd March 38 Elizabeth, 1596, John Lacye Esq. sold to 
his friend Nicholas Mosley Esq., citizen and alderman of London, 
and to Rowland Mosley, his son and heir apparent, and to their 

Lords la Warre, the father should have been content to enjoy the barony and estates 
of La Warre, and have conveyed to his son the lordship and manor of Mamecestre. 
This supposition might also account for the Eental of 1473 being taken as of Thomas 
West, " Lord of Mamecestre" in the lifetime of Eichard West his father, Lord la 
Warre. Indeed, in his complaint in the Chancery of the Duchy of Lancaster in 17 
Henry VII. (1501-2) he states that the manor of Mamecestre and the hamlets its 
members " had been settled on him and Alianor his late wife," and their heh-s male, in 
fee tail, &c. 



524 MAMECESTEE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

heirs and assigns, all the said Manor, Lordship and Seignory of 
Manchester, with all its appurtenances, as aforesaid, for the sum 
of 3,5oo/. 15 For about two centuries and a half the manor was 
held by the Mosleys, and a brief enumeration of the successive 
Lords of the Manor of that family, may fitly close this sketch of 
its documentary history. 

THE MOSLEYS, 16 LORDS OF THE MANOR. 

1. Sir Nicholas Moseley knight, second son of Edward Moseley 
of Hough End, Didsbury, gentleman, was Lord Mayor of London 
in 1599, tnree years after his purchase of the manor, and was 
knighted by Queen Elizabeth during his mayoralty. He rebuilt 
Hough End on the site of the old mansion, assumed for his motto, 
punning on the name, " Mos legem regit" (Custom or Precedent 
rules the Law), and thereon dropped the central e in his name, 
which has ever since been written Mosley. He was Sheriff of 
Lancashire in 1604, and lived at Hough End till his death I2th 
November 1612, aged eighty-five. He was succeeded by his eldest 
son and heir 

2. Rowland Mosley of Hough End, Esq. The chief manorial 

15 It lias been suggested as probable that Nicholas Mosley was the real purchaser 
in 1779, and that John Lacye was merely acting as his trustee. It is remarkable that 
in the transfer of the manor from the Wests to Lacye, Nicholas Mosley should be 
appointed an attorney to both parties, both to give and to take seisin and possession of 
the manor. But between 1579 and the sale by Lacye to Mosley in 1596, an interval 
elapsed of about seventeen years ; or, if we date from the recognition of Lacye as lord 
in April 1582, still there are fourteen years during which he acted as lord of the 
manor. Then the sale is for 500^. more than he gave for it, and on the whole we are 
inclined to think that Lacye for at least fourteen years was the real and lonafide lord 
of the manor. In an account of the Manor and Seignory of Manchester, furnished 
by Sir Oswald Mosley in September 1822 to Mr. J. Corry for his History of Lanca- 
shire, Sir Oswald states (vol. ii. p. 458) that "Since this period [23rd March 1596] 
the Manor and Seignory of Manchester, with its appurtenances, have continued in my 
family, and all the places named in the afore-recited Eental of Sir Thomas West are 
still held of the Barony or Seignory of Manchester by the respective annual payments 
therein mentioned j but some of them, on account of the smallness of the amount, 
have not been collected for some years." 

16 The Moseleys derived their name from their ancient abode in the hamlet of 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 525 

event in his life was the termination of a law-suit, commenced 
during his father's life. Sir Nicholas had attempted to enclose 
and cultivate what he deemed his waste of Collyhurst, then a 
wood two miles from Manchester, in which the burgesses had by 
prescription the right of " pannage 1 ' or pasturing their swine ; for 
which (according to the records of the Court Leet of October 3, 
1594) 6s. \d. was wont to be paid to the lord and id. to the swine- 
herd, towards his maintenance. On Sir Nicholas proceeding to 
inclose Collyhurst, William Radcliffe and other principal inha- 
bitants and burgesses commenced legal proceedings in the Duchy 
Court, to restrain him, and these were pending when he died. 
Ultimately, by an amicable decree on 2ist November, 15 James i. 
(1617), it was ordered that Rowland Mosley Esq., lord of the 
manor, and his heirs, &c., should enclose and improve the waste 
ground called Collyhurst, and have it free from common of 
pasture ; and that the inhabitants of Manchester notwithstanding, 
at all times when any infection of the plague should happen in 
Manchester, should have the right and liberty to erect and build 
cabins, for the relief and harbouring of infected persons, upon six 
acres of Collyhurst aforesaid next to Manchester ; and to bury the 
dead there. Also, that Rowland Mosley should convey and assure 
to William Radcliffe and others the inhabitants a yearly rent of 
lol.j for the use of the poor of Manchester for ever, to be issuing 
out of all the said Collyhurst land, payable at Lady Day and 
Michaelmas by equal portions, with clause of distress, &c. This 
rent-charge has been regularly paid to the successive borough- 
reeves of Manchester for the time being, and since the incorpora- 

Moseley, about four miles from Wolverhampton. But a branch of the family, for 
more than a century before the purchase of the manor, had been connected with 
Manchester, living at the old house called Hough End, in the township of Didsbury. 
In 1465 a Jenkyn Moseley lived at the Hough End. His great grandson Oswald, in 
1595, purchased the Garret Estate from Sir John G-errard bart. Oswald's younger 
brothers Nicholas and Anthony were woollen manufacturers, and for the promotion 
of their business Nicholas went to reside in London, and became the purchaser of the 
manor. Queen Elizabeth gave him some oak furniture for his new house at Hough 
End. 



526 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

tion of Manchester to the Mayor. Rowland Mosley died while 
High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1616; leaving (by his second wife) 
a son and heir, who succeeded him, viz. 

3. Sir Edward Mosley, created a baronet July 20, 1640, by 
Charles I., and as a royalist he suffered heavily in the civil war. 
His seat of Aldport Lodge was occupied by Lord Strange in the 
attack on Manchester in September 1642, and was burned down 
by the inhabitants, and never afterwards rebuilt. He is said to 
have lent the king 30,000^. ; he was taken in arms by Sir William 
Brereton at Middlewich, in March 1643; n ^ s estates were seques- 
tered, but restored to him in October 1647 on payment of 4,8oo/.; 
and he died at Hough End in 1657, * n n * s forty-second year; and 
was succeeded by his son, then eighteen years old 

4. Sir Edward Mosley, the second baronet of that name ; who 
in 1 66 1 obtained an act of parliament, confirming a sale made to 
him by Sir Thomas Prestwich and others of the manor of Hulme, 
and certain lands in the parish of Manchester. He built some 
additions to Hulme Hall, which for some time afterwards was one 
of the principal residences of the family. In April 1665, he 

.married Catherine, daughter of William Lord Grey of Wark, upon 
whom he settled his house and estate at Rolleston. His will, 
dated i8th October 1665, was the cause of much subsequent liti- 
gation in the family, which was ultimately terminated by an 
agreement or compromise. He died in the first year of his 
marriage, aged only twenty-seven years, without issue; and the 
title became extinct. His widow married Charles, son and heir of 
Dudley, Lord North, who resided with her at Rolleston. They 
had one son, who died without issue in 1734. During three years, 
October 1666 to October 1669, the records of the Court Leet of 
the Manor are wanting ; but at the latter date the Court is said to 
be held by "the Lady Anne Mosley and Edward Mosley Esq., 
executors of the will of Sir Edward Mosley Bart., lately deceased." 
Then at the Court Leet of October n, 1670, it is styled that of 
" Sir Charles North Bart, and of Catherine his wife " Oswald 
Mosley Esq. being then steward. These entries show that litiga- 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 527 

tion was pending; for by the will of Sir Edward (No. 4) the 
manor was bequeathed to his nephew Edward (No. 5), who 
nominally succeeded in 1665, but who did not really hold the 
manor till about 1672. 

5. Sir Edward Mosley of Hulme knight was the second son of 
Oswald, who was the eldest son of Anthony of Ancoats, the 
younger brother of Sir Nicholas, the purchaser of the manor. 
This Sir Edward was a barrister, a commissioner for the adminis- 
tration of justice in Scotland, and afterwards a judge in Ireland. 
By the family compromise the manor of Manchester was to be left 
to him and his heirs by the will of his uncle Edward, subject to a 
life interest in favour of his daughter Ann (afterwards wife of Sir 
John Bland), in case he should die without male issue; whilst the 
rest of the property including Hulme Hall and manor, Hough 
End Hall, and all the lands in Didsbury, Withington, Heaton 
Norris and Chorlton were still to remain at the free disposal of 
Edward Mosley Esq., who was then residing at Hulme Hall. All 
his sons died ; only one daughter survived, Ann, who married in 
March 1685 Sir John Bland, then a minor, who died in October 
1715. Edward Mosley, her father, was knighted 4th June 1689, 
and died four years afterwards (1693) in his seventy-seventh year. 
He was succeeded by his sole daughter and heiress 

6. Ann, Lady Bland, who having only a life interest in the 
manor, it did not descend to her son Sir John Bland. After the 
death of her parents and husband, she resided at Hulme Hall; 
and in her later years entrusted the chief management of the 
manor and Manchester estates to Sir Oswald Mosley l^art., her 
second cousin; who, under the will of her father, and by the 
family arrangement, succeeded to that portion of her property 
after her death. She died in her seventieth year, and was buried 
in Didsbury Church 3rd August 1734. The next Lord of the 
Manor was 

7. Sir Oswald Mosley (eldest son of Oswald Mosley of Ancoats 
Esq.), who was created a baronet by George I. in 1720, in the life- 
time of his father (who declined the honour on account of his age, 



528 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

being then eighty-one). On his father's death in 1726, Sir Oswald 
inherited both the Ancoats and Rolleston estates, and at the death 
of Lady Bland in 1734, he succeeded, under the will of her father, 
to the manor of Manchester. While managing it for his relative 
Lady Bland, he got into litigation with the burgesses. In 1693 
he set up a prescriptive right of charging a duty or toll of id. per 
pack on all goods called " Manchester wares," within the manor 
(not "the markets"); but this attempt was defeated, on the 
ground that prescription to charge the king's subjects ought to be 
founded on a benefit or recompense, which in this case could not 
be shown. 17 Another source of litigation was the Grammar School 
mills three mills on the Irk granted by Sir Thomas West, Lord 
la Warre, and Lord of the Manor in 1515, to trustees for the 
support of the Free Grammar School ; at which all the tenants 
and residents within the manor were compelled to grind their corn 
and malt. These mills had been in lease for some years to the 
grandfather and father of Sir Oswald, who had been subjected to 
much trouble and expense in defending his exclusive right. The 
lease having expired, the Feoffees of the Grammar School declined 
to renew it to Sir Oswald, and let the mills to other parties, whom 
they supported in exhibiting a bill against Sir Oswald, in the 
Duchy Court of Lancaster, for erecting a malt mill in Hanging 
Ditch, where malt was ground for the inhabitants of the town. 
Sir Oswald contended this malt mill had been erected by his 
ancestors, and that it was no infringement on the exclusive right 
of the School Feoffees; but in 1736 (two years after his becoming 
Lord of the Manor) it was decreed and ordered that Sir Oswald 
should discontinue the use of the said malt mill, and that all the 
inhabitants should faithfully observe the payment of the tolls and 
customs to the School Mills. By an act passed in 1759, the 
inhabitants of Manchester' were freed from their obligation to 
grind corn at the School Mills, malt only excepted. In 1732 Sir 
Oswald opposed a bill for erecting a workhouse to employ the poor 
of the parish, and it was lost. He erected a large building near 

17 See Warringtonv. Mosley, ist Holt 673, 674; and from Modern Reports 319. 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473. 529 

Miller's Lane for this purpose ; and after much opposition the 
guardians of the poor paid for the cost of the building. He also 
built an Exchange near the Market Place, which, becoming too 
small, was taken down in 1790. Sir Oswald died at Rolleston on 
the loth June 1751, and was succeeded in his titles and estates 
by his eldest son 

8. Sir Oswald Mosley Bart., who chiefly resided at Rolleston. 
It is stated in the privately printed Family Memoirs (to which 
work we gratefully acknowledge our obligations for many facts 
and corrections in these brief notices of the Mosleys) that he 
entered into a treaty with Mr. Egerton, of Tatton, for the sale of 
the manor of Manchester; and in January 1756 that gentleman 
paid him a visit at Rolleston Hall, for the purpose of concluding 
the purchase ; but it was then found that Sir Oswald had put it 
out of his power to sell, by the settlement which he had made of 
his estates, and the sale was consequently abandoned. Sir Oswald 
died 26th February 1757, in his fifty-second year, and was buried 
at Rolleston. Being unmarried, he was succeeded by his only 
brother 

9. The Rev. Sir John Mosley Bart., rector of Rolleston; of 
whose eccentricities some curious anecdotes are told. He died 
unmarried in May 1779, in his seventy-seventh year, and thus the 
second baronetage in the family became extinct. He was buried 
at Rolleston, and was succeeded in his Staffordshire and Lanca- 
shire estates (in pursuance of the will of his brother the last Sir 
Oswald) by his second cousin 

10. Sir John Parker Mosley, created a baronet 24th March 
1781. He was the fourth and youngest son of Nicholas Mosley, 
of Manchester, woollen draper and merchant. Sir John was for 
some years engaged in the hat manufacture in Manchester, and 
resided at Ancoats Hall before his accession to the estates. During 
his manorial rule the right to markets within the manor was con- 
tested. Taking advantage of an acknowledged want of market 
accommodation, Messrs. Chad wick and Ackers, two influential 
proprietors, erected upon a plot of their own freehold land in Pool 

VOL. III. 3 Y 



530 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

Fold, well situated for the purpose, a new market, with butchers' 
stalls, &c. Sir John Parker Mosley brought an action of trespass 
against them, which was tried at the Lancaster Lent Assizes 
1782, before Mr. Justice Willes and a special jury ; when a special 
verdict was given. Ultimately the Earl of Mansfield delivered 
judgment in the Court of King's Bench, in April 1782; to the 
effect that the Lord of the Manor being seised of a franchise for 
holding a market, the defendants erected about 140 stalls very 
near his market, taking no toll, but only rent for the stalls; by 
which the plaintiff sustained damage, as found by the verdict, to 
the extent of gol. a year. The court was of opinion that the 
plaintiff was entitled to recover. On this decision in his favour 
the New Market was immediately offered to, and purchased by, 
Sir John Parker Mosley, and continued to be used as a market 
during his life. His eldest son, Oswald Mosley Esq., of Rolleston 
and of Bolesworth Castle, Cheshire, died in Sir John's lifetime, 
27th July 1789, leaving two sons and two daughters, of whom Sir 
John took charge, their mother dying within three months after 
their father. Sir John died on the 2oth September 1798, in his 
sixty-seventh year, and was succeeded by the eldest son of his 
deceased eldest son 

n. Sir Oswald Mosley Bart., D.C.L., of Rolleston Hall, the 
present baronet and last Lord of the Manor of Manchester of his 
family. In 1815 he offered to the inhabitants of Manchester the 
manor and manorial rights for the sum of 9O,ooo/. ; which they 
met by a counter-offer to give 70,000^. After some negociation, 
both offers were rejected; and barely thirty years afterwards the 
acquisition of these manorial rights by the municipal representa- 
tives of the town was only obtained at a cost of considerably more 
than double the sum for which they might have been secured in 
1815. By an agreement, dated 24th June 1845, Sir Oswald sold 
the manor and manorial rights to the Mayor and Corporation of 
Manchester (the town having been incorporated by royal charter 
in 1838) for the sum of 200,000^., and they were finally conveyed 
to that body by deed dated May 5, 1846, just 250 years after their 



CHAP. XVIII.] THE RENTAL, A.D. 1473- 531 

first purchase by Sir Nicholas Mosley for 3,500/. Since their pur- 
chase the corporation of the borough, now the city of Manchester 
(by royal charter of the year 1853), nave possessed all the rights 
of " Lords of the Manor ;" but they have allowed quietly to lapse 
the half-yearly Courts Leet, with the appointments of Steward 
and Bailiffs, Boroughreeve and Constables, beadles, ale-tasters, 
dog-muzzlers, and all the merely feudal functionaries of the old 
manor. They exercise the right, however, of taking market-tolls, 
&c. ; while the governing powers formerly held by the borough- 
reeve and constables are vested either in the Mayor alone or in 
the Mayor and Corporation, that is, in the City Council and its 
various Committees. Several public charities, formerly entrusted 
for distribution to the boroughreeve, or boroughreeve and con- 
stables, for the time being, and thence called " The Boroughreeve' s 
Charities," are now administered by the Mayor, and styled " The 
Mayor's Charities." 

Thus we see that the ancient vill and market-town, denied even 
the privileges of a free borough, has at length become the second 
city in the United Kingdom. The old manor, governed feudally 
almost ever since the Conquest first by Norman hunters, as 
were the Greslets; then by brave warriors and sagacious coun- 
cillors, as were the La Warres, heroes of Crecy and Agincourt, 
and of the Battle of Spurs ; afterwards by the baronial Wests ; and 
lastly by the knightly Mosleys, who ennobled themselves by trade, 
rose to the highest civic rank in England, and count three baro- 
netcies amongst their tokens of royal favour, this old manor 
has at length, after seven centuries and a half, cast off the fetters 
of its ancient feudality, and is now ruled by the freest constitution 
ever given to a municipality since liberty dawned in England. 
The little, straggling village of the olden time, having first its 
castle and mill at the south end of Deansgate, and subsequently 
its church and market, baronial manor-house, its pillory and 
stocks, its corn and fulling mills, at the northern extremity of that 
old highway, its population consisting of two, or at most three 
hundred burgesses, their families and dependants (some of them 



532 MAMECESTRE. [CHAP. XVIII. 

the native serfs and neifs, the slave-like bondmen and bondwomen 
of their free neighbours), has now become the greatest manu- 
facturing place in the world ; the centre and capital of the largest 
spinning and weaving works known in the annals of civilization, 
a great hive of industry, enterprise, wealth and social power, such 
as could never have entered into the wildest dreams of a Norman 
Baron to conceive. If the ancient manor, with its village- rule and 
quaint customs, has passed away for ever, it has left in its stead 
a vast city, with half a million of people, busily engaged in the 
work of clothing the greater portion of the population of the world. 



533 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 



"Names of places in a great measure belong to the oldest and most primitive 
evidences of language, and they are of the highest importance in the history of nations 
and dialects." (Dr. H. Leo's Local Nomenclature of the Anglo-Saxons) 



All local names, like all proper or personal names, must originally 
have had a peculiar and appropriate meaning. Of course to ascertain 
this meaning, where it is now obscure, we must first identify the 
language to which the original name belongs. In England there are 
three great varieties of language, which are, in different degrees and 
proportions, the sources of the names of places, whether of land or 
water. This is equally true of the natural and the artificial divisions of 
the land, hill or valley, wood or plain, barony or manor, city, borough, 
market town or vill, village, hamlet, fold, or single homestead ; or 
whether the water be river or lake, stream or mere, ditch or pond. 
These three sources, in their generally recognised order of time, are the 
British, Celtic, or old Welsh tongue ; the Anglo-Saxon, including 
Anglian, Friesie, &c. ; and the Scandinavian, including Danish, Nor- 
wegian, Icelandic or Old Norse, and Jute. Very few local names are 
derived from the Latin, or from the Anglo-Norman or old French lan- 
guages. Before attempting to define the meaning of the various places 
named in the present work, we shall extract from the writings of 
authorities on the subject some striking passages as to the significance, 
in some one or more of these three families of language, of the names of 
places in England. 

The Eev. A. Hume, D.C.L., LL.D., &c., in his Philosophy of Geogra- 
phical Names (Liverpool, 1851), observes that " In every language the 
most prominent natural objects (such as mountain, river, plain, wood, 



534 MAMECESTRE. 

island, lake, spring), and the most necessary artificial ones (church, 
fort, house, bridge, town, inclosure), are interwoven with those of 
common qualities (age, number, height, colour, size, position, direction), 

and the whole effect is produced The number of places 

possessing the same name, or some slight modification of it, is very 
great. In the parishes, townships and villages of England, there are 16 
simple words, which occur 445 times, or at an average of 28 times each. 
These are Easton 13, "Weston 32, Norton 36, Sutton 39, Aston 24, 18 
Barton 21, Buckland 20, Burton 29, Newton 45, Preston 23, Stoke 60, 
Thorpe 23, Upton 25, Woolton 20, Winterborne 20. A similar remark 
applies to terminations, several of which occur hundreds of times. Prom 
a minute examination of a portion of an English G-azetteer, a calculation 
was made respecting the frequency with which some of the commonest 
terminations occur. From this it appears that there are 24 which occur 
at an average of about 250 times each. They are Bridge 48, Burn 
48, Bury 420, By 273, Caster 48, Dale 48, Field 156, Fleet 48, Ford 
324, Hall 60, Ham 672, Hill 60, Hurst 60, Kirk 48, Leigh 612, Minster 
48, Stoke 48, Stead 68, Thorpe 180, Ton 2784, Well 84, "Wick 204, 

Worth 192 From circumstances of locality, names of a 

certain class exist in groups, wherever they are found. Thus beck and 
fell, if not peculiar to Cumberland and Westmorland, are found most 
frequently there ; and in several of the hilly districts dale is a common 
termination. In the south-west of Scotland, wald is common, and the 

limits of ancient forests may be traced by the word lyne Almost 

all the Fields Sheffield, Macclesfield, Huddersfield, Wakefield, &c. 
are found within a fixed area. In Essex many of the places are Sails. 
In Cornwall a very large number take their names from Irish saints." 

BRITISH on CELTIC LOCAL NAMES. 

The Eev. John Davies, M.A., in a paper " On the Eaces of Lanca- 
shire, as indicated by the Local Names and the Dialect of the County," 
read before the Philological Society, December 21, 1855, from an exa- 
mination of various records and the ancient Welsh literature, arrives at 
the conclusion that "besides the Cambrians who remained in the 
country as slaves, a large Celtic population was blended with the 

18 Aston and Easton (and Eston might have been added) all mean the East tun or 
dwelling ; the other three, the West, Forth and South tm. 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 535 

Teutonic stock, and became * as Saxons.' It is a necessary inference, 
that a Celtic element would gradually penetrate into the language of 
the conquering race, and affect it in proportion to the numbers and 
influence of those who adopted the Saxon cause, and became mingled 

with the Saxon population." From the Lancashire dialect he 

deduces two facts " i. That a large Celtic population must have been 
left in the county after the establishment of the Anglo-Saxon rule ; and 
2. That this population was the Welsh or Cymraic race. Very few 
words are found that belong exclusively to the elder or Gaelic branch 
of the Celtic stock, and probably even these were common to both 
divisions of this class of languages at the time of the Saxon invasion." 
Mr. Davies then takes a number of the names of natural objects and of 
places in Lancashire, as mountains and hills, rivers and valleys, towns, 
villages and hamlets, and shows that, when analysed, they prove to be 
of Celtic origin, by their significance when thus resolved into the old 
Welsh or British tongue. He adds that " The number of Celtic names 
of towns and villages in Lancashire, that have survived the great torrent 
of Saxon invasion, is a proof of the strength and extent of the barrier 
that opposed it. The Celtic local names of the county are conclusive 
evidence of the fact that a Celtic race once inhabited it." Mr. Davies 
gives various examples showing that " many names of hills [in Lanca- 
shire] have been derived from a Celtic source, and that they belong to 
the Cambrian division of the Celtic class of languages. The names of 
the rivers and brooks of Lancashire are chiefly Celtic." 

ERIESIC LOCAL NAMES. 

Mr. Davies, after showing that the Batavians and Eriesians were 
kindred tribes, often included in or synonymous with the general name 
of Saxons ; and that the old Eriesic tongue is nearer to modern English 
than any other branch of the German stock ; says that where any 
considerable number of Eriesic words are found, we may infer a Saxon 
or Eriesian immigration. Of this, he adds, Lancashire local names offer 
some remarkable illustrations. There are two Frieselands or Eriesian- 
lands in the county ; one near Blackrod, and the other in the south- 
east. They may possibly have drawn their names from settlements of 
Eriesians out of the Eriesic cohort that garrisoned for many years 
[about three centuries] the city of Manchester when a Roman station. 



536 MAMECESTRE. 

ANGLO-SAXON NAMES or PLACES. 

" Few local names in Lancashire (observes Mr. Dayies) end with terms 
expressive of the union of unrelated families, in the formation of what 
we now call a town or municipality ; such as borough (Anglo-Saxon 
byrig, burg, a fortified town) ; thorpe, Old Norse, thyrping (an assem- 
blage) ; thorp (a town) Fries, thorp (a town) ; or byr, by, properly the 
town or village, as distinct from the castle. They are usually formed 
from words expressing objects in natural scenery, as wood, shaw, lea, 
mere, hill, law (Goth, hldw, a tumulus ; Old High German and Old 
Saxon hleo, the same) ; holt (a wood, Pries, holt, Germ, holz) and moor; 
or of words indicating a single homestead with its in closure, such as 
ham, worth, bodel, sail, cote (cot, a poor man's house), and ton, originally 
an inclosed place or homestead. Of exceptions, Bilborough is the only 
instance I know in the north of the county [Littleborough] ; a few are 
found in the south, Bury, Duxbury, &c. [Musbury, Didsbury, Pendle- 
bury, Roxbury in Oldham]. Thorp and Byr do not occur, I think. 
[Thorpe, a hamlet in the township of Thornham, four miles from Koch- 
dale; and Thorpe Green, a hamlet in the township and parish of 
Brindle, six miles south-east from Preston. Gaw-thorpe Hall, near 
Padiham.] By marks the Danish towns, and is found about six or 
seven times." 

As to DANISH or SCANDINAVIAN LOCAL NAMES, Mr. Davies observes 
that " the track of the Northmen, as permanent landholders in Lanca- 
shire, is in the north-east near the point where the great high road from 
Yorkshire leads to Colne ; and thence across the county and along the 
whole of the west." 

Finally, Mr. Davies draws the following (amongst other) conclusions : 
" That upon the whole, probably no county in England felt the effects 
of the Norman Conquest less than Lancashire. The old records show 
that the names of the ancient families were almost universally pure 
Anglo-Saxon, with a slight sprinkling of Celtic. There is a trace of the 
Norman in the south (as in Darcy Lever and a few other places) ; but 
along the whole of the east and north of the county the Saxon or Danish 
landholder seems to have held in peace the ancestral manor-house he 
had dwelt in before the Conquest, "We may infer, therefore, that the 
race whose genius and energy have swelled the resources of England to 
so great an extent, is not much indebted to Norman influences. It is 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 537 

chiefly of Anglian blood, with a considerable mixture of Saxon and 
Scandinavian ; blended, probably, in an equal degree, with that of the 
Cambrian race." (The Races of Lancashire, by the Eev. John Davies.) 

ANGLO-SAXON NAMES or PLACES. 

(From Mr. J. M. Kemble's Preface to vol. iii. of his Codex 
Diplomaticus ^Evi Saxonici.) 

The Anglo-Saxon (like most G-erman) names of places, are nearly 
always composite words, that is, they consist of two or more parts : the 
second of these is generally a name of wide and common signification, 
as -ford, -fleet, -ham, -wic, -tun ; while the first is a kind of definition, 
limiting this general name to one particular application, as Oxna-ford, 
Big-fleot, Domraham, Sand-wic, Stan-tun. The few words which are 
not compounds, are either contracted forms, as Bath, for cet hdtum 
lathum (called the hot bath) ; Bury, for St. Edmund's bury : or they 
were such as were strikingly impressed upon the natives of a particular 
locality, although themselves of a general character; as Chester: or 
lastly, they are names so altered by the Saxons themselves from British 
originals, as to have lost their national form and character; thus 
Lunden, Eoforwic. 

The former portion of these compounded names may be classed under 
various heads : thus names of animals, as Eox-hyl, Oteres-sceaga, Befer- 
burne, Swines-heafod ; of birds, as Lafercan-beorh, Eneda mere, Hafoces 
hyl, Hraefnes hyl ; of trees, as Beorc-leah, Ac-leah, JEsc-leah ; of fishes, 
as Eixa-broc, Lax-pol ; of minerals, as Sand-tun, Ceosel-burne, Salt- 
broc. 

Others again have clearly reference to mythological or divine per- 
sonages ; to names recorded in the old creed, or in the epos of our 
forefathers ; and these furnish the most conclusive evidence that the 
mythology current in Germany and Scandinavia flourished here also. 
Thus we have W6dnes die, Wodnes beorh, Wodnes byrig, Wodnes feld ; 
perhaps also Wodnes treow, "Wodnes stede, Wodnes ford; also the 
Won-hlinc, the W6n-ac, the Won-stoc ; perhaps the Wotan-hlinc, the 
Wot-treow, &c. Of Thunor, we have Thuuresfeld. Sseteres byrig, 
like Sseteres-dseg, seems to speak for the existence of some deity yet 
unknown to us. Behrtan wyl, leaves no doubt about Beorhte, the 
goddess of wells. Hnices thorn, appears to refer either to Woden in the 

YOL. III. 3 Z 



538 MAMECESTRE. 

form of Hnikarr, or to some supernatural being connected with that 
particular superstition. Scyldes treow is probably a reference to "Woden 
in his form of Scyld, a name never to my knowledge borne by an indi- 
vidual. So Hnsef, Beowulf, and Grendel reappear in local names. 
When we consider that the names of animals which most frequently 
occur may all have some connection with the worship of certain gods, 
or with the old poem of Eeynard, we find the traces of such connection 
in our local names by no means scanty. 

The last general division that it seems proper to mention contains the 
names of individuals and families, as Offan ham, Cuthredes treow, 
Heardinga ham, Billinga h6 ; and those of particular classes or traders 
or manufacturers, as Sealter broc, tannera hoi, ceorla graf, sethelinga 
ham, witena leah. 

The nature of the second word in these compounds is necessarily 
somewhat different. It is in short the description either of a natural 
feature of the country, a hill, a stream, a ford ; or of an artificial con- 
struction, -feld, -acer, -ceaster, -tun, -burh, -ham. 

LOCAL NAMES FROM THOSE or COMMUNITIES on FAMILIES. 
(From Mr. Kemble's Saxons in England.) 

In this able and learned work, the accomplished writer at some length 
shows that one of the smallest divisions of land, held by a community in 
common, was the mearc, mark, or march ; a plot of land, marked out 
and bounded by defined signs, on which a number of freemen settled for 
purposes of cultivation, and for the sake of mutual profit and protection. 
It comprised a portion both of arable land and pasture, in proportion to 
the numbers enjoying its produce. In the second and more important 
sense of the word, the Mark was a community of families or households, 
settled on such plots or marks of land. The Mark was a voluntary 
association of freemen, who laid down for themselves and maintained a 
system of cultivation, by which the produce of the land on which they 
settled might be fairly and equally secured for their service and support. 
All the freemen of one Mark recognised amongst themselves a brother- 
hood or kinship, were governed by the same judges, led by the same 
captains, shared in the same religious rites, and were known to them- 
selves and their neighbours by one general name, probably derived 
originally from some single family, or hero, occasionally claiming 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 539 

descent from the gods themselves. Thus Harlings and Waelsings, 
names connected with the great epos of the Germanic and Scandinavian 
races, are reproduced in several localities in England ; Billing, the noble 
progenitor of a royal race of Saxony, has more than one enduring 
record; and Mr. Kemble believes that all the local denominations of 
the early settlements have arisen and been perpetuated in a similar 
manner. The Harlings or (Anglo- Saxon) Herelingas, are found in 
Norfolk and Kent, and at Harlington, in Bedfordshire and Middlesex. 
The Wselsings reappear at Walsingham (Norfolk), "Wolsingham (Nor- 
thumberland), and Woolsingham (Durham). The Billings, at Billinge, 
Billingham, Billinghoe, Billinghurst, Billingden, Billington, and many 
other places. These local denominations are for the most part irregular 
compositions, of which the former portion is a patronymic in -ing or 
-ling, declined in the genitive plural. The second portion is a mere 
definition of the locality, as -geat, -hurst, -ham, -wic, -tun, -stede, and 
the like. In a few cases the patronymic stands alone in the nominative 
plural, as Totingas, Tooting (Surrey), W6cingas, Woking (Surrey) ; 
Meallingas, Mailing (Kent) ; Wetheringas, Witering (Sussex). In a 
still smaller number the name of the eponymus replaces that of his 
descendants ; as Eurnes burh, Einsbury ; Wselses ham, Walsham (Nor- 
folk), the progenitor *of the Wselsings. In some local names, -ing 
denotes the genitive or possessive, which is also of the generative case, 
as -ZEthelwulfing lond (i.e. ^Ethelwulf's land), the estate of a duke 
^thelwulf, not of a family called ^Ethelwulfings. So Eolcwining lond 
and Wynhearding lond, imply the land of Eolcwine and of Wynheard, 
not of families. Wool Bedington, Wool Lavington, Barlavington, are 
respectively Wulf bgeding-tun, Wulnafing-tun, Beorlafing-tun, the tun 
or dwelling of Wulf b&d, Wulf laf, and Be6rlaf. Changes for euphony's 
sake must be guarded against as sources of error. Abingdon (Berks) 
is not from Abingas, but ^Ebban dun, from -ZEbba (masc.) or Jbbe 
(fern.). Dunnington is not Duninga tun, but Dunnan or Dumnas tun. 
Mr. Kemble notices a surprising distribution of some particular names 
over several counties, as ^Escings in Essex, Somerset and Sussex ; 
Alings in Kent, Dorset, Devon and Lincoln ; Ardings in Sussex, Berks 
and Southamptonshire ; Arlings in Devon, Gloucester and Sussex; 
Banings in Hertford, Kent, Lincoln and Salop ; Beadings in Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Surrey, Sussex and the Isle of Wight ; Berings in Kent, Devon, 
Hertford, Lincoln, Salop and Somerset; Billings in Beds, Durham, 



540 MAMECESTRE. 

Kent, Lancashire, Lincoln, Norfolk, Northamptonshire, Northumber- 
land, Salop, Sussex and the Isle of Wight. 

In an appendix (A) Mr. Kemble gives a long list of patronymic 
names, believed to be those of ancient Marks, of which the first part is 
derived from his own great collection of Anglo-Saxon charters the Codex 
Diplomatics, and other original authorities ; and the second contains 
names inferred from the actual local names in England at the present 
day. The total number of the latter is 627 ; but counting the same 
origin, repeated in various forms in different counties, the whole number 
reaches 1329; being thus distributed as to counties: Lancashire 26, 
Cheshire 25, Kent 60, Lincolnshire 76, Norfolk 97, Northumberland 
48, Suffolk 56, Sussex 68, Yorkshire 127. Of these, 190 (very nearly 
one-seventh of the whole) stand alone, without any addition of wic, 
ham, tun, &c. In Lancashire there are four such (Billinge, Melling, 
Pilling and Starling). Of the 190, 140 are found in the counties on the 
eastern and southern coasts ; and 2 2 more in counties easily accessible 
through our great navigable streams. These Mr. Kemble conjectures 
to have been the original seats of the Marks so named ; and the settle- 
ments, with the terminations of wic, ham, &c., to have been filial 
settlements or colonies from them. In looking over a good county map, 
we are surprised by seeing the systematic succession of places ending 
in -den, -holt, -wood, -hurst, -fald, and other words which invariably 
denote forests and outlying pastures in the woods. These were all. in 
the Mark, and within them we may trace with equal certainty the 
hams, tuns, worths and stedes, which imply settled habitations. Kemble 
lays down as a rule, that the ancient Mark is to be recognised by fol- 
lowing the names of places ending in -den (neuter), which always 
denoted pasture, usually for swine. Denu (fern.) a valley a British 
and not a Saxon word is very rarely, perhaps never, found in compo- 
sition. As an example he cites an ancient court called the Court of 
Dens, at Aldington, Kent ; 25 -dens subject to it he enumerates as still 
existing, out of 32 it formerly included, and near these are 28 -hursts 
and 5 -folds. The following is Mr. Kemble's list of the various localities 
in Lancashire which seem to have been the seats of the old Marks : 

Patronymic. Present Local Name. Hundred. 

jEceringas Accrington Blackburn 

^Elcrmgas Alkringtou Salford 

Aldingas Aldingham Lonsdale 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 



541 



Patronymic. 
Billingas 
Blecingas 
Fedringas 



Mellingas 

Penningas 

Pillingas 

Pilcingas 

Rifingas 



Steorlingas 

Totingas 

Wseringas 

Weningas 

Wittingas, or Hwittingas 

Widingas 

Weordingas 

Wrichtingas 



Present Local Name. 
Billinge and Billington 
Blatchingworth 
Farrington 
Gressingham 
Haslingden 
Melling 

Pennington, near Ulverston 
Pilling 
Pilkington 
Rivington 
Shevington 
Starling 
Tottington 
Warrington 
Wennington 

Whittingham, Whittington 
Withington 
Worthington 
Wrightington 



Hundred. 

West Derby and Blackburn 
Salford 
Leyland 
Lonsdale 
Blackburn 
West Derby 
Lonsdale 
Amounderness 
Salford 
Salford 
Leyland 
Salford 
Salford 
West Derby 
Lonsdale 
Amounderness 
Salford 
Leyland 
Leyland 



It could hardly be expected of Mr. Kemble that he would do more 
than indicate a few striking examples in each shire, as gleaned from 
looking over the county maps. The writer, after a closer inspection, 
some years ago, added considerably to Mr. Kemble's list of supposed 
sites of Anglo-Saxon Marks in Lancashire. In the following list, 
although some of the names are the same, no locality specified by Mr. 
Kemble is included : 

Present Local Name. 

Addington 

Adlington 

Alkincoates 

Baldinstone, Walmsley 

Barking Yeat, Caton Moor 

Baxenden, near Haslingden 

Bevington Bush,nr. Liverpool 

Billing, near Blackburn 

Brining, near Kirknam 

Chipping, near Ribchester 

Dumplington, near Barton 

Hacking Hall, near Whalley 

Heskin, near Standish 



Patronymic. 
Addingas 
Adlingas 
Alkingas 

Baldingas or Baldwingas 
Barcingas 
Baxingas ? 
Befingas 
Billingas 
Briningas 
Chepingas 
Dumplingas 
Hsecingas 
Hsescingas 



Hundred. 

Lonsdale 

Leyland 

Blackburn 

Salford 

Lonsdale 

Blackburn 

West Derby 

Blackburn 

Amounderness 

Amounderness 

Salford 

Blackburn 

Leyland 



542 



MAMECESTRE. 



Patronymic. 


Present Local Name. 


Hundred. 


Hsecingas 


Higginshaw, near Oldham 


Salford 


Hyndingas 


Hinding House, Leathwaite 


Lonsdale 


Holingas 


Holling Bank, near Blackburn ) 






Ditto, near Haslingden / 


ac urn 





Hollinghead Hall, Darwen 


Blackburn 





Holling House, Furness 


Lonsdale 




Hollinghurst, nr. Manchester 


Salford 







Hollings, near Preston 


Amounderness 




Hollings, near Haslingden 


Blackburn 





Hollings Green, near War- 




* 


rington 


West Derby 





Old Hollings, near Lancaster 


Lonsdale 





Hollingsworth, nr. Littleboro' 


Salford 


. , 


Hollins, near Burnley 


Blackburn 





Hollinwood, near Oldham 


Salford 


19 


Holling Yate, nr. Haslingden 


Blackburn 


Holdingas, or Huldingas 


Houlding Hall and MiU, 






Ditto, near Haslingden 


Blackburn 


TJntingas 


Huntington Hall, near Bib- 






ch ester 


Blackburn 


Ypingas, or Ha3pingas 


Ippings, near Accrington 


Blackburn 


Mellingas 


Melling, near Lancaster 


Lonsdale 


Mellingas 


Melling, near Wray 


Lonsdale 


Muldingas 


Moulding Waters 


Leyland 


Penningas 


Pennington, near Leigh 


West Derby 


Piceringas 


Pickerings, in Balderston 


Blackburn 


Pla3singas 


Pleasingtou, near Blackburn 


Blackburn 


Bedingas 


Biding, in Furness 


Lonsdale 


Biddingas 


Bidding, in Furness 


Lonsdale 




near Whalley 


Lonsdale 


Scsefingas 


Shaving Lane, Worsley 


Salford 


Scsedingas 


Sheading, Scar Moor 


Blackburn 


Sladiugas 


Slading, near Littleboro' 


Salford 


Staniugas 


Stayning, near Blackpool 


Amounderness 


Stoningas 


Stowning, near Wray 


Lonsdale 


Thorpingas 


Thorping Stye, Furness 


Lonsdale 


Tippingas 


Tipping, in Clayton-le-Dale 


Blackburn 


Weningas 


Wening (river) 


Lonsdale 


Wittingas 


Whittingham, near Kirkby 






Lonsdale 


Lonsdale 



19 The names of these thirteen places may all some of them certainly have been 
derived from the Hollin or Hollins, the Lancashire name for the holly. 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 543 

Taking Mr. Kemble's twenty-six names and the forty-six just enu- 
merated, we have seventy-two names in Lancashire alone, supposed to 
be derived from the old Marks. Of these, twenty-three retain the 
patronymic alone, without any local termination : Barking, Billinge, 
Billing, Brining, Chipping, Hacking, Hesking, Hinding, Holling, 
Houlding, Ippings, Melling, Pilling, Reding, Bidding, Shaving, Shead- 
ing, Slading, Starling, Stayning, Stowning, Tipping and Wening. These 
numerous local names are supposed to have existed from the settle- 
ment of the Saxons in Lancashire, about the fifth century. 

Mr. Kemble suggests that a belt of places, having names terminating 
in syllables denoting a wood, or pasture in woods, will be found to 
surround and inclose a number of other places having terminations 
indicating settlement and habitation. But in a county presenting the 
peculiar features of Lancashire, the Mark, or boundary land, would less 
frequently be wood or forest, and more often moss and moor, hill-brow 
and clough, than in those southern counties which fell more immediately 
under Mr. Kemble's observation. Still the few instances in Lancashire 
where woods yet remain, seem to attest the accuracy of his views. Thus 
within Haslingden, Dearden Fold, Lower Fold, Baxenden, Bentley 
wood, Healey wood, Burnley wood, Stonehouse Fold, Hargreaves Fold, 
and Holine Fold will be found Eawtenstall, Higher and Lower Booths, 
Crawshaw Booths, Habergham Eaves, &c. Within Todmorden, Wals- 
den, Ramsden, and the moors and heights of Blackstone Edge, &c. 
are found Blatchingworth (one of the old Marks), Littleborough, Hol- 
lingworth, &c. Perhaps the most remarkable instance in the county, 
however, is the township of Ainsworth, a little north-west of Middleton. 
It contains one thousand and twenty-one statute acres, and lies within 
a complete belt of woods, amongst which the following are copied from 
the ordnance six-inch maps : Deeply Hill, New Close, Birtle Dean, 
Cleggs, Black Dad, Windy Cliff, Dobb, G-elder, Bamford, Carr, Jowkin, 
Ashworth, Holt, Eainshore, Blomley, Fordoe, and Green Booth woods, 
with various dens, as Naden Dean, Cheesden, &c. Within this belt lie 
Ashworth, Lee Holme and Wolstenholme, Old House, Grimescroft, 
Millcroft, &c. 



We purposely abstain from quoting Dr. Heinrich Leo's Local Nomen- 
clature of the Anglo-Saxons, because it is confessedly based on the two 



544 MAMECESTRE. 

first volumes of Kemble's Codex Diplomatics, &c., which comprise almost 
wholly local names in the southern counties of England. Nor do we 
cite Dr. Whitaker's observations on local names from his History of 
Whalley, as the names are chiefly those in that extensive parish, lying 
outside the boundaries of the manor and the barony of Mamecestre. 



LOCAL NAMES. 

(Prom The Danes and Norwegians in -England, &c. By J. J. Worsaae.) 
" The north, mighty in its heathenism, poured forth towards the east, 
the west and the south its numerous warriors and shrewd men, who 
subverted old kingdoms, and founded new and powerful ones in their 
place. It was by Danish and Norwegian fleets that Normandy and 
England were conquered, and kingdoms won in Scotland, Ireland and 
North Holland; whilst Norwegians settled on the .Faroe Islands, and 
discovered and colonised Iceland. In all these voyages, proportionally 
few Swedes took part. [The Danes were the chief invaders of England, 
the Norwegians of Scotland.] Erom the close of the eighth century the 
numberless barks of the Vikings were found in all the harbours and 
rivers of England ; and for about three centuries the Danes were the 

terror of the Anglo-Saxons The massacre of the Danes in 

England by the Anglo-Saxons, on St. Bridget's Eve, i3th November, 
1 002, was confined almost exclusively to the south of England; since 
towards the north, and particularly in Northumberland, the population 

was chiefly of Danish and Norwegian extraction After many 

sanguinary battles the Danish conquest of England was completed, and 

for about one generation Danish kings wore the English crown 

Under the name of Northumberland was comprised (at least by the 
Danes and Norwegians) all the country to the north of the rivers 
Mersey and Humber, from sea to sea, and up to the Scottish frontier. 
Covered by the Danish "Five Burghs" [Stamford, Leicester, Derby, 
Nottingham and Lincoln, and also by Chester and York], it was here 
that the greater part of Danish England lay [and the Danes possessed 
as their northern capital the city of York, which they called Jor-vik, 

pronounced Yor-vik.] An Icelandic Saga, written one hundred 

and fifty years after the Battle of Hastings (1066) says that " Northum- 
berland was mostly colonised by Northmen ; for after Lodbrog's sons, 
who conquered the country, had again lost it, the Danes and Norwe- 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 545 

gians often harrassed it ; and there are still many places to be found in 
the district that have names taken from the Scandinavian tongue, such 

as Grimsby, Hauksfliot [Hawkfleet] and numerous others A 

close inspection of even a common map of England will soon show that 
there are not a few names of places in the north, whose terminations 
and entire form are of quite a different kind from those of places in the 
south. Even in Kent, Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk, Anglo-Saxon names 
of places begin already to be mixed with previously unknown names, 
ending in -ly (Old Northern, lijr, first a single farm, afterwards a town 
in general), -thorpe (0. N. Thorp, a collection of houses separated from 
some principal estate, a village), -thwaite (O. Sc. thveit, tved, an isolated 
piece of land), -n&s, a promontory, and ey or oe, an isle; as in Kirby 
or Kirkby, Risby, Upthorpe, &c. As we approach from the south the 
districts west of the Wash, such as Northamptonshire and Warwick- 
shire, the number of such names constantly increases, and we find, 
among others, Ashby, Rugby, and Naseby. As we proceed further 
north, we find still more numerous names of towns and villages, having 
in like manner new terminations ; such as -with (forest), -toft, -beck, 
-tarn (Sc. tjorn or tjarn, a small lake, water) -dell, -fell (rocky moun- 
tain), -force (waterfall), -haugh, or -how (Sc. haugr, a hill), -garth (Sc, 
garthr, a large farm) ; together with many others. These endings are 
pure Norwegian or Danish. It is not very easy to point out the meaning 
of every name of a place that has a Danish or Norwegian termination ; 
the original form having been partly corrupted by later differences of 
pronunciation, and partly changed by the ancient Scandinavians having 
often merely added a Scandinavian ending to the older [Celtic or Saxon] 
names, or at most remodelled them into forms that had a home-like 
sound to their ears. Still there are names enough of places whose sig- 
nification is quite clear." 

Worsaae compiled and printed a " Tabular View of some of the most 
important Danish -Norwegian names of places in England, extracted and 
collected from Walker's maps, London 1842." He gives the common 
endings of local names, viz. -by, -thorpe, -thwaite, -with, -toft, -beck, 
-naes, -ey, -dale, -force, -fell, -tarn, and -haugh; but does not include 
other Scandinavian endings, as -holm, -garth, -land, -end, -vig, -ho 
(how), -rigg, &c. These he enumerates in 21 English counties, of 
which we give the totals only : In Kent, north-east of Watling Street, 

VOL. III. 4 A 



546 MAMECESTRE. 

6; in Essex n; Bedfordshire 4; Bucks 3; Suffolk 10; Norfolk 44; 
Huntingdonshire i ; Northamptonshire 53 ; Warwickshire 3 ; Leices- 
tershire 87 ; Eutland 8 ; Lincolnshire 292 ; Notts 36 ; Derbyshire i r ; 
and Cheshire 6. The six northern counties, forming the ancient king- 
dom of Northumbria or North-humber-land, show an extraordinary 
number of these Scandinavian names: Yorkshire, East Biding, 109 ; 
West Biding, no, and North Biding, 186 ; total 405. Lancashire 49, 
Westmorland 158, Cumberland 142, Durham 23, and Northumberland 
22. In the 21 counties Mr. Worsaae finds 1373 Scandinavian name- 
endings; to which the six northern counties contribute 799, the other 
15 counties only 574. Add Lincolnshire to the six northern counties, 
and their aggregate is 1091, leaving only 282 for the other 14 counties. 
In Lancashire he finds the numbers as follow : -by 9 times, -thwaite 
14, -with 2, -naes 2, -ey 2, -dale 13, -fell 7; total 49. The endings he 
has not found in the map of Lancashire are -thorpe, -toft, -beck, -force, 
-tarn, and -haugh. He has probably overlooked that portion of the 
lake district (Lonsdale North of the Sands, including Higher and 
Lower Furness) which is within Lancashire ; and in that case these 
endings may have been included by him under Cumberland and West- 
morland. But there are certainly in almost all parts of Lancashire 
many small inclosures called tofts, though they are not to be found in 
the county maps. Also many leeks, all north of Lancaster, amongst 
which may be named the following: Bains-beck, Craig-beck, and 
Harton-beck, all falling into the river Hindburn ; Corkley-beck brook, 
near Wetherlam (tautological in Sc. and A. S.) ; Tower-beck, into 
Coniston Water ; Hole-beck into Morecambe Bay ; Meer-beck, into the 
Duddon arm of the bay ; Sand-beck and Fisher-beck, into the Lune, 
&c. The waterfalls or forces are not usually named in maps, but Force 
Bank (in Tatham) is in Greenwood's Map of Lancashire. Colwith 
Force is on the Lancashire and Westmorland border, and so is Skelwith 
Force. There are also many tarns among the hills of the north, as 
Seathwaite, Blind, and Lever's Tarns, near Coniston ; the Three Tarns 
and Bletham Tarn, near Hawkshead ; Beacon Tarn, near the south end 
of Coniston Water; Standen Tarn, near Dalton in Furness; Much 
Urswick Taixi; Tarn Green, on the Winster; Blea Tarn, near Scot- 
forth ; and Tarn brook, into the Wyre, near the Yorkshire border. Of 
names ending in -liaugJi, not many are to be found ; the principal being 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 547 

Higher and Lower White-haugh, near Tockholes. But if, as Mr. 
Worsaae intimates, the Scandinavian JiaugJi or haugr be the same with 
how, then there are several Lancashire places bearing this name, 
especially in the Lake district, as How-head and How-thwaite (near 
Coniston Water) ; How-barrow (near Cartmel) ; How-clough (near 
Chipping, &c. "We must distinguish these from a similar name Haw 
or Saws (Scand. hals, a neck), which seems to have been overlooked by 
Mr. Worsaae. It means a narrow passage like a throat, or a narrow 

-t t/ 

connecting ridge, like a neck. Haws Bridge, Kendal (a stream between 
walls of rock) is an instance of the former ; and Esk Haws, Borrowdale, 
and various other mountain passes, of the latter meaning. In Lanca- 
shire are Haw, Haw Dunnerdale, and the neighbouring Hawses ; Haw- 
thwaite (near Broughton in Furness), Haw-coat (near Furness Abbey), 
Satter-haw; also Haws (near Bolton-le-Sands), Moor-Haws (Cartmel 
Fell), Sandscale Haws (near Duddon Sands), &c. Worsaae observes 
that the Scandinavian colonization has clearly been greatest near the 
coasts, and along the rivers : it had its central point in Lincolnshire, 
and in the ancient Northumberland, or land north of the river Humber. 
The table shows that the names ending in -by, -thorpe, -toft, -beck, 
-naes, and -ey appear chiefly in the flat midland counties of England ; 
whereas farther north, in the more mountainous districts, these termi- 
nations mostly give place to those in -thwaite, and more particularly to 
those in -dale, -force, -tarn, -fell, and -haugh. This difference, besides 
the natural character of the country, may have partly arisen from the 
different descent of the inhabitants. It may reasonably be supposed 
that part at least of the last-mentioned names are Norwegian, viz. those 
ending in -dale (as Kirk-dale, Lang-dale, Wast-dale, Bishops-dale) ; in 
force (as Aysgarth-force in Yorkshire, High-force and Low-force in the 
river Tees, and in the stream called Seamer-water) ; in -fell (Old Nor- 
wegian jJWZ; as Mickle-fell, Cam-fell, Kirk-fell, Middle-fell, Cross-fell) ; 
in -tarn (Old Norw. tjorn, or tjarn, a small lake) ; and in haugh (as in 
Eed-haugh, Kirk-haugh, Green-haugh, and Windy-haugh, in Northum- 
berland). Exactly similar names are met with to this day in the moun- 
tains of Norway ; whilst they are less common, or altogether wanting, 
the flat country of Denmark. Places whose names end in -tarn 
(pure Norwegian) are found only in the most northern counties of 
England, and those in -haugh (which must also from the form be Nor- 



548 MAMECESTRE. 

wegian) are found exclusively in the present Northumberland, and 
within the Scotch border. Still the greater part of Scandinavian names 
and places in England are Danish. Of the 1370 names of places in the 
table, above 600 end in the Danish -by, whilst no other name exceeds 
280, and even this number is reached only by the ending -tkorpe, also 
certainly pure Danish. The number of places in the table could be 
much increased if we were to include all the Scandinavian appellations 
used by the common people in many parts of the north of England. A 
hill or small mountain is there called hoe or how (Hoi in Jutland, Sow 
or Hyo] ; a mountain ridge, rigg ; a ford, watTi ; a spring, Jcell ; a holm 
or small island, holm ; a farm (Danish Gaard") garth, &c. Thus on a 
very low calculation Mr. Worsaae computes in round numbers the 
clearly recognisable Scandinavian names of places in England at 1500. 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 

In this Gazetteer of the names of places mentioned in the various old 
documents printed in this work, the plan pursued has been to give the 
modern name of the place first, in small capital letters, if it be a parish, 
township, village or hamlet ; in ordinary small letters, if it be only a 
fold, farm, field, or other small place within some known township, and 
then to indicate that township, and its parish. After the modern name, 
the various old forms it has borne, are given in chronological order. In 
the loose and fluctuating orthography of successive generations and pe- 
riods, some clue may be afforded to the original signification of the local 
name, by the grouping together of these different forms, and at the same 
time indicating the most ancient. Instead, therefore, of referring to the 
documents in which such forms respectively occur, by name or initial 
letters, it has been thought better in each case to specify the year-date 
of the documents containing such forms. It will be seen that cer- 
tain dates are those of particular records or documents ; so that the year 
1086 will be recognised as the date of the Domesday Survey (Chap. 
III.) ; 1230 as that of the Testa de Nevill (Chap. VII.) ; 1231 as that 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 549 

of the Salford Charter (Chap. XII.) ; 1262 as that of the Escheats, &c. 
(Chap. IX.) ; 1282, the year of several Inquisitions p. m. (Chap. XI.) ; 
1301 the date of the Manchester Charter (Chap. XIII.) ; 1311 that of 
the great De Lacy Inquisition (Chap. XIV.) ; 1320 the Survey (Chap. 
XY.) and 1322 the Extent of the Manor (Chap. XVI.) ; 1351 the later 
date of the Lansdowne Feodary (Chap. XVII.) ; 1359 the year of the 
Preston Inquisition (Chap. XVII) ; 1362 as that of the Inquisition p.m. 
on Henry first Duke of Lancaster (Chap. XVII.) ; and 1473 as that 
of the Eental of the Manor, under Thomas la Warre, i5th Baron of 
Mamecestre (Chap. XVIII.). There remains the Birch Feodary (Chap. 
XIV.), which has no date, and indeed seems to have been compiled from 
documents and records of various dates from the close of the 1 3th to 
the middle of the 1 4th century. It is therefore indicated by the letter 
B. As all the years quoted are of the nth* century or later, having 
therefore four places of figures, the first figure, invariably denoting " one 
thousand," is omitted in all these dates ; so that 086, 282, 322, and 473, 
will respectively indicate the years 1086, 1282, 1322, and 1473 of the 
Christian era. The letters " s.d." denote the document cited to be 
without date, and in all probability, therefore, anterior to the year 
1300. The letter I. prefixed to the year-date, denotes an Inquisition. 
In some instances, a few small places within the parish, township or 
village, are named with dates. Then the etymology and derivation of 
the local name are considered, first in its separate syllables or parts, for 
most place-names are compounded of two or more elements ; and next, 
as to the significance of the entire and compound name. The language 
from which a part or the whole of the name is believed to be derived is 
indicated by initial letters in parenthesis, as {A) Anglo-Saxon, (~B) 
British, (0) Celtic, (F) Friesic, (JV) Anglo-Norman, and (8) Scandi- 
navian, including Danish, Norse or Icelandic, Norwegian and Sueo- 
Grothic, or old Swedish. The words of such languages, showing the 
significance of the name, are printed in Italic letters. A hyphen before 
or after a part of a word, shows which part is taken. Lastly the meaning 
of the entire local name is stated or suggested, according to authorities, 
or in the opinion or conjecture of the Editor. Generally, British and 
Celtic names are cited from the Rev. John Davies ; Anglo-Saxon from 
the works of the late J. M. Kemble, of Dr. Heinrich Leo, or from Dr. 
Bosworth's "Anglo-Saxon Dictionary;" Scandinavian from J. J. Wor- 



550 MAMECESTRE. 

saae, and Anglo-Norman (of which there are very few) from Kelham's 
" Dictionary of the Norman or Old French Language." The Editor 
regrets that, from various causes, so large a number of the deriva- 
tions are merely conjectural ; and can only hope that this attempt may 
be more successfully carried forward by abler philologists hereafter. 



Abbey, the, in Gorton. Abbaye del, 320. Allay e, (N) the Abbey. 
There are no remains of any religious house ; but an elevated part of the 
township still retains the name of " the Abbey Hey." 

Acres, Aca's or Ackers the ; fields in Manchester, on the site of St. 
Ann's Square and the adjacent streets. Aca the clerk, held one land, or 
piece of land, of the demesne of Mamecestre, 230. Accres the, 420, 
422, 686. Ackers the, 569, 619, 622, 634, 679. Over Ackers, in the 
Deansgate, 559. A close called the Over Ackers, 586. Over and 
Nether Acres, 586. The Further Acars and Acres, 599. The Ackres 
middens, 593, 604. Acres middings, 670. A plot of ground called the 
Ackers midding, 679. Ackers stile and ditch, 60 1. Ackers ditch, on 
the North side the field, 637, 639. Ackers Ditch, 639, 686. Ackers 
Barn, 637, 639, 670. Acres, 660. Acres gates, 670, 772. Acres stile, 
670. Old Acres, 732. Acres Court, the more easterly of two entries 
from Market Street to St. Ann's Square, on the site of Exchange Street, 
73 2 > 75 1. The late Dr. Hibbert - Ware, noticing the pronunciation 
about the close of the eighteenth century to be Ackers and not Acres, 
derives its name from Aca or Ace, a clerk to whom a Robert Grreslet 
gave some land [" unam terram"] in Mamecestre. The doctor suggests 
that this land was the same with " the Four Acres," " the Nether Acres," 
and "Acres Field," which became the site of Aca's or Acres Fair, 
covering the present St. Ann's Square and the neighbouring lands. 
The Four Acres, White Acres, Over and Nether Acres, &c. seem to 
denote fields so named. It is more probable that the place has its 
name from JEcer (A) pi. cecras, fields, lands, any thing sown, acres ; 
than from any individual possessor of one or more fields. 

Addewelleghe, site unknown, 320. This name occurs with other lands 
in pure alms, and is stated to be held by the Abbey of Whalley. It is 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 551 

not to be found in the Whalley Abbey GoucTier Book. Can this name 
be a corruption of " Ad "Whalley ;" or is it a strange abbreviation of 
Cad-wal-leghe (Cadwal's ley) ? See Cadishead. 

Alders the, in Gorton. Olres del, 320. The plural of Air, Alor (A), 
the alder tree (alnus). The Lancashire forms are Olres, Oilers, and 
Qwlers. Dr. Bosworth says the alder tree is a sort of birch, called in 
the north of England filler and Alter ; and that it is quite distinct from 
JEUen the elder tree (Sambucus). In composition, Air-holt is an alder- 
holt or grove. 

Aldport, a district in the S.W. of Manchester, the oldest part of the 
ancient town, during Roman occupation. Aide-port s.d., 322. Aide 
and Aid Pare, 282. A1-, Aid-, and Aide- -port and -porte, 320, 322. 
Aid-port Nether (also called Lithake), 422. Alter-port Nether, 473. 
Alte-porte Over, 473. Alport Stead, 557. Aid-port Lodge, or New 
Park, 567, 588. Alporte Lodge, 599. Alporte Parke or Nether 
Alporte, 599. Alporte, 619. Alporte Lane, 662, 772. Opert Lane, 
686. From Aid (A), old, and Port {A), town or strong place the old 
town or fortress. The late Mr. John Just held that port sometimes 
meant the guarded passage over a ford, and that such was its application 
in the cases of Aid-port and Stock-port. There were two divisions of 
Aldport, Over Aldport, a close of pasture in 473 ; and Nether Aid- 
port, a park in 473. Park is from Pearroc (A), a place inclosed with 
paling. 



a township in the parish of Prestwich-cum-Oldham, 
five miles N.N.E. of Manchester. Alkinton, 230. Alkrington, 311. 
Alcryn-ton, 320. Alkerington, 322. Alkeryngton or Akkeryngton, 
349. Alkrincton and Altcrington, (J5). tiering as (A), the proper 
name of a family or tribe in^the mark, and tun (A), an enclosed or 
fenced place, farm, dwelling ; afterwards a cluster of dwellings, a town. 
The dwelling-place of the family of the ^Elcrings. ( J. M. Kemble.} 

ALLEETON, a township in the parish of Childwall, five miles S.E. of 
Liverpool. AHer-ton, 320. Air, alor (A), the alder tree, and tun (A), 
a habitation or dwelling-place. 



552 MAMECESTKE. 

ALT, a hamlet and subdivision of Knott Lanes, in the parish, and three 
and a half miles north of, Ashton-under-Lyne. Alte, 320. Alt (J9), 
an eminence ; also high, lofty. In the same neighbourhood are Alt 
Edge, a hamlet four miles N.N.E., and Alt Hill, a small village three 
miles north, of Ashton-under-Lyne. 

ANCOATS, anciently a hamlet, now a district, the N.E. part of the 
township of Manchester. An-cotes s.d., 230, 295, 302, 304, 305, 320, 
322, 331, 332, 373, 405, 428, 432, 433, 544. Ane-kotes, 230. Han- 
cotes, 318. An-cottes, 320, 322. Anne-cotes, 331. Ante-cotes, 473. 
An-cots, 514, 534, 535, 581. An-coates, 610. The following places 
are named as within Ancoats : Stanigate s.d., 305. Clay-Crofts s.d., 
305. The Brod-grene s.d., 305. Brad-grene, 305. Bridge-furlong, 
305. Ring-hed or Ring-herd del Shorteys, 305. Bex-wyke-forth 
[ford], 305. Smithy-stede, 305. Le Wal-banc, 305. The Kiln-londs, 
305. The Holy-cayding, 302. Acri-deg, s.d., Medyl-croft, s.d., Stain- 
landis, s.d., the Short-home, s.d., Short-croft, s.d., Shiter-flat, in the Long- 
Mere, s.d., the Knot s.d., Hard-acre, s.d. The Rev. John Whitaker, 
on the authority of Bede, says that Anna was a common appellation for 
men among the Saxons. Coates, probably from Cotes (A), cottages, 
small dwellings. The cots or dwellings of Anna. 

AisTDEBTOisr, a township in the parish of Standish, four miles S.S.E. 
of Chorley. Ander-ton, 230, 282, 319, 320, 322, 473. Derivation 
uncertain ; perhaps Andrew's tun. 

ANLEZAEGH, or ANGLEZAEK, a township in the parish of Bolton-le- 
Moors, five miles S.E. of Chorley. Anlas-ar 320. Anlas-argh, 322, 
473. Dr. Whitaker derives the last syllable of this word from Ur, 
Ergh, ArgJi (S), Arf (Swed.), land ; and he gives, as other instances of 
it in composition, Brett-argh, Batt-arghes (now Batterax), Ergh-holme, 
Stras-ergh, Siz-ergh, Feiz-er, and Groosen-argh. Most of these places 
were once in Anglo-Danish occupation. The Rev. John Davies regards 
the first part of the word Angles-argh as doubtless from the name of the 
tribe or people. The second (and he adds to the places above-named 
Kellam-argh and Mans-argh) he says is probably the Old High German 
Haruc, Old Norse Jiorgr (A), hearh, genitive Jiearges, a heathen temple 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 553 

or altar. The Old Norse hdrga shows that it meant primarily a woody 
hill or lofty grove. 

APPLETON, a township with "Widnes, in the parish of Prescot, six and 
a half miles W. S.W. of Warrington. Aple-ton, 320, 322. Apul-ton, 
362. Prom Appel, JEpl (A), apple, and tun. 

Aquonsbothely, in Horwich. Aquons-bothel-y, 222. Aquo S. 
Bothe-ley, 322. Aquorts? Accon's (a proper name) ~botliel, botel or 
lotl (A), a dwelling-place, and leak (A), a field. The field of Accon's 
dwelling. It was a piece of wood-pasture, constituting with Little 
Hordern (an adjoining plot of moorland) one vaccary or cow-gate. 

AEDWICK, a chapelry in the parish of Manchester, and adjoining 
Manchester township on the S.E. Atherd-wic s.d. Atherys-wyke 
and Ader-wyk, 282. Ard-wycke, 320. Ard-wic and Erd-wyke, 322. 
Arde-wyke, 411. Nether Ard-wick, 522. Erd-wic by Irwell, 534. 
Ard-wic, 544. Her-wic, 556. Ard-wick Inferior, 564. Ard-wick 
Lower, 598. In more recent times the township has been regarded as 
in two divisions, Higher and Lower Ardwick. Prom JZttiered (A), 
a proper masculine name, and wic (A), a dwelling-place of one or more 
houses; ^Ethered's dwelling. "^Ethered's well" occurs in an Anglo- 
Saxon Charter in Kemble's collection. 

Ashcroft, in Heaton Norris. Asche-crofte, 320. This was a small 
hamlet in the N.E. of Heaton Norris, the site marked by the words 
" The Ash," a little north of Lancashire Hill, on Johnson's Map of the 
Parish of Manchester. JEsc (A), an ash tree, and Croft (A), a small 
enclosed field. 

ASHLEY, a district in Manchester, part of the site of which is still 
named Ashley Lane. Asse-leche (then woody) s.d. Asse-leie, 320. 
Asshe-elde (two acres), 367. Ash-ley and Asshe-bie, a close in Man- 
chester, 421, 473. ? Est-ley, 473. Ashley Lane, 510, 594. The 
Ashe-leys, 596. Assh-ley Fields, 60 1. Prom ^sc (A), probably pro- 
nounced Es~h), an ash-tree, and leag, legh, leak (A), a field or ley; the 
Ash-field. 

VOL. III. 4 B 



554 MAMECESTRE. 

ASPITLL, a township in the parish and three miles N.E. of "Wigan. 
Asp-el, 230. Asp-ul, 230, 322. Asp-ull, 322. Asp-ull and Asp-oil, 
320. Asp-hull, 351, 362. Esp-hull, 473. ? Aspin-all, Asmoll, and 
Asmall, 473. Hasp-nil, 557. Asp-all, 625. Prom ^Esp (A), the 
aspen-tree, and Jiul (A), a hill. The Aspen-hill. 



, a parish and township seven miles east of 
Manchester. In many old documents the name " Ashton" alone occurs ; 
and then it may be i. the Ash-town, or 2. the East-town. It is not 
always easy to assign the name correctly ; and " Ashton" without addi- 
tion, may mean Ashton-under-Lyne, or Ashton-on-Mersey, or Ashton- 
in-Makerfield, or even Urmston (i.e. Orm-est-ton). Under No. i we 
place Hais-tun, s.d. Asshe-ton subtus Limam (or under-Lyme), 309, 
320, 322, 341, 347, 359, 427, 473. Assh-ton, 320. Ash-ton, 311, 
427, 473. Ayssh-ton, 473. Under No. 2, Ast-on 230, 282. Orm- 
eston, 230. Amongst small places in Ashton are : Osel-lache and Osel- 
birche (part of the boundaries between Ashton-under-Lyne and Man- 
chester), selves- croft, s.d. (? Oswald's or Ousel's), Ashton Mere or 
More, 429. Bygog, 374. From JEsc (A), the ash, a sacred tree 
among the Anglo-Saxons, and of very common occurrence in the 
boundaries of their charters. 20 (J. M. Kemble.) 

ASTLET, a chapelry in the parish and three miles east of Leigh. 
Aste-ley and Haste-ley, 320. Ast-ley, 322, 362. Est-ley, 473. 

20 Amongst local names, many are naturally derived from trees, and other products 
of the vegetable kingdom. In Lancashire and its borders, from the Ash (cesc) are 
Ash-hurst, Ash-ton, Ash-ley, Ashworth, &c. From the Oak (ac) Acton and Agden, 
Oakden, Ogden, Oakenhurst, Oakenclough, Oakenroyd, &c. From the Alder (air, 
alor), Ollerton, Owler Bottom. From the Elder (Elen), Ellen-brook, Eller-brook, 
&c. From the Birch (birce, lyre) Birch, Birches, Birk-dale, Birch-ley, Birchen 
Bowers, &c. From the Apple (appel), Appleton. From the Aspen (JEsp), Asp-hull. 
From the hazel (hcesl), ? Hassall ; Hazlehurst, the Hazles, Hazel-grove, near Stock- 
port. From the Nut (hnut, hnot}, Nuthurst. From the Sallow (salig), Salford, 
Salley. From the Thorn (thorn) , Thorn-ham, Thorn-ley, Thorn-ton, Thorny-thwaite, 
Thorney, Apes-thorn, &c. From Fern (fearn), Farn worth, Fearn- acres, Ferny- 
halgh, Fern-ley. From the Rush (rusce, rics, rise}, Rusholme, Eushford, Kishto^ 
Eixton, &G. From Sedge (sege, secg), Sedge-ley. From Moss (meos), Moston, 
Mosley and Mossley, Moss Yeat, Moss Side, Mus-bury, &c. From Grass (gars), 
G-arstang, Gressingham. From Wheat, Whitacre, Whitefield, &c. Of local names 
compounded with Wood, there are too many for enumeration. 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 555 

From East (A) and ley (A), the East Field or ley. It is probable that 
this place and "West Leigh (now Leigh) were so named in respect of 
their relative geographical position. 

Aston Hurst, in Blakeley. Aston and Asten Hurst, 322. From 
East (A), tun (A), and hyrst (A), a hurst, copse or wood. (Kemble) 
The late Mr. J. Just held that kurst or Tierst means an acclivity, com- 
monly on the sides of a stream, covered with brushwood, affording fuel ; 
whence Tiersta (A), a fagot or firebrand. The East-town Copse. 

ATHERTOF, a chapelry in the parish of Leigh, seven miles N.E. of 
Newton-le- Willows. Ader-ton and Hader-ton, 230, 362. ? JEtJiered's 
tun or dwelling. 

ATTDEN SHAW, a division of the parish of Ashton-under-Lyne, four and 
a half miles east of Manchester. Ald-en-shade, s.d. Alde-wyn-shagh, 
411. Alden-shaw, 523 ; Aden-shaw, 587. Among places named as in 
Audenshaw are Cetel's or Ketell's croft, s.d. Mychel-dike, s.d. 
Osuelve's lache and Osell lache, s.d. (? Oswald's or Ousel's). [For 
these last two names see also under Ashton-under-Lyne.] Groren 
and Gored broke, s.d. Banck-broke, s.d. Grod-head, s.d. From 
Aldewyn {A, a proper masculine name, meaning " old conqueror"), 
and Sceaga (A), a shaw or wood, a marsh. The late Mr. J. Just 
stated that shaw (both A and Dan.), means a cleared space or open 
ground surrounded by wood, and not the wood itself. Its usual 
meaning is a thicket, grove or small wood; and it is apparently from 
scead, scadu, a shade ; so sceadu-geard was a shaded enclosure, a grove 
or wood. " Under the shawe of the wood" (Morte a" Arthur) seems 
to mean under the shade, shelter or cover of the wood. As to the 
conversion of Aldewyn into Auden, it is in strict conformity with 
Lancashire euphony, which usually changes AL into AU or AW, at 
least in pronunciation, as Salford, pronounced Sawford ; Salley, Sawley ; 
Kersal, Kersaw. Indeed this deepening of A into AU is not peculiar 
to Lancashire, ex. gr. Raleigh Rauley ; Gralway, Gaulway. 

Bank the, ? in Manchester ; site unknown. Boncke the (a rod of 
land near the Pordu-rudinge), 320. Bancke the, or Knolls Bancke, a 
field in Strangeways, 60 1. From Sane (A), a bank or hillock. 



556 MAMECESTRE. 

BARLOW, a hamlet in the township of Chorlton-cum-Hardy, in the 
parish and five miles south of Manchester. Bar-lawe, 320. Bar-low, 
322, 336. Bar-lowe Mosse, 557. From Bar (A), a boar, or Bar (A), 
bare, and lawe (A), a detached and conical hill, or Meowe (A), a small 
hill or tumulus. The Boar-hill or the bare little hill. 

Baron's Hull and Yard, Hunt's Bank, Manchester, 422. The hill 
and the court-yard of the barons of Manchester, on the site of Chetham's 
Hospital and Library. They comprised, in 422, la. 32p. of land. Prom 
Hul (A), a hiU. See also Hunt Hull. 

BAETON-ON-!EWELL, a township in the parish of Eccles, five miles 
W.S.W. of Manchester. Bar-ton, 230, 262, 282, B. 320, 322, 346, 
351, 359. 362, 432, 437, 473. Barton-super-Irwell, 322, 351. Barton 
in Salfordshire, 362. Barton Ford, 322. Prom Bar (A), a boar, also 
bare; the Boar or bare town. Swynton, the swine-town, is in the 
same parish. A Barton was also a manor house, or its demesne lands ; 
and it was further a name for a poultry-coop. (Halliwell's Diet.) The 
old family of Barton, of this Barton, bore, in their coat of arms, four 
boars' heads, in allusion to this place, where they were long seated, and 
whence they probably derived their name. 

Bend-, Bent-, Berchen-, Bernet-, Bond-, Brere-, Grler-, or Pordu- 
riding. A ridding or cleared plot of land ? in Manchester or Salford, 
site not known. Brend- or Bent-ruding, 320. Bernet-riding or 
ruding, 322. Berchen-ridings, 322. Brere-rydinge, 320. Borid- 
ridinge, 320. Grler-ruding, 322. Pordu-ruding, 320. It is believed 
that all these various forms denote the same place. Whether it be the 
bent, or burnt, or birchen, or borid, or briary riding, cannot now be 
told. "We incline to the Briary clearing, anomalous as that may seem. 
In the Collegiate Church charter of 1578 is a place named the " Grreate 
Brearre-ridinges," and in that of 1635, the " Greate Breare Eydings," 
both described as in Salford; and both charters name also the Little 
Brier Eidings or Biddings. 

BESWICK, a small extra-parochial township adjoining that of Man- 
chester to the east. Bex-wyk, s.d., 148, 461. Bex-wyke-forth (a ford 
over the Medlock near Ancoats), 305. Bex-wicke, 322. Beck-wic 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 557 

.(" as far as the Medlock"), 424. Ber-wick (? error for Bexwick), 460. 
Bex-wicke (" in Manchester, lying upon the bank of Medlock water"), 
461. Bex-wicke Bridge, 552. The Eev. J. "Whitaker thinks it was 
Beiti's wic ; Betti being a common Anglo-Saxon appellation for a man, 
according to Bede. But it seems more probable that the name of the 
original possessor was Becce or Becca ; the possessive of which would 
be pronounced and in time spelled Beck's- or Bex-, whence the transi- 
tion to Bes- is easy and natural. There were two old Manchester 
families Beck and Bexwick or Beswick ; possibly from a remote common 
ancestor. 

BIRCH, or Birch Chapel, a hamlet in the township of Rusholme, in 
the parish and two and a half miles S.E. of Manchester. Byrches, 320. 
? Bercles, 322. The Byrche, 596, 603. Erom Birce (A, pronounced 
Birch), the Birch tree. 

BIECLE or BIETLE, a township with Bamford, in the parish of Mid- 
dleton, four miles W.S.W. of Eochdale. Berkot-Hill, 311. ? Bercles, 
322. This seems to show that Bircle is the better modern orthography. 
Birk is a Lancashire form of Birch, from Birce, Byre (A), the birch 
tree. 

Bird Shaw, ? near Bowker Ley, in Moston; site not known. 
Bruyd-schawe, 320, 322. Brid-shagh and Birde-schaghe, 322. Bryde- 
shaghe and Bruydshawe, 322. Bryndstone (? error "near Blakels 
Park"), 322. Bride-shagh, near Bouker-leghe, 322. Brid is a Lan- 
cashire form of bird. But the above may be only various spellings of 
Bradshaw, which see. The Bird or Broad Wood-clearing. 

Black Brook the, rises in or about Levenshulme, and passes through 
Heaton Norris, &c., to Chorlton-on-Medlock. A modern name of ob- 
vious meaning. Polluted by manufacturing residua, the stream is to 
this day of black dye and foul odour. 

BLACKEOD, a chapelry in the parish of Bolton-le-Moors, four and a 
half miles S.E. of Chorley. Blake-rode, 230. Black-rode, B. Erom 
Blac, Blcec, Bleac (A), black or bleak, or Blake (Lancashire), yellow, 
and rod (A), cross, or rod (A), rood or rod of land. 



558 MAMECESTRE. 

Blake-acres ; chantry lands in Manchester, site not known. Blake- 
acres, 320. Blake-acre, 473. The black, bleak, or yellqw acres. The 
Yorkshire proverb " as blake as a paigle" means as yellow as a cowslip. 

Blake-lache, ? in Blakeley Park; site not known. Blake-lache, 320,. 
322. Black-lache ("in the Park"), 322. Black-lache ("a close in 
Manchester"), 473. Prom 'Blake, yellow, and Lache, a northern 
word for a muddy hole or bog, a miry hollow. Its more modern 
spelling is Leach. 

BLAKE-LET or BLACK-LET, a chapelry in the parish and four miles 
N.KE. of the township of Manchester. Blakel-legh, s.d. Blake-ley, 
262, 282, 311, 320, 430, 473, 501. Blake-lee, 282. Blake-le, 320. 
Blake-ly, 322. Blake-legh, 322, 343, 355. Blake-ly Park, 322. 
Blakel, 322. Blake-ley Pields, 430. Blacke-ley Field, 473. Blacke- 
l e J> 473- Blake-ley, 623. The derivation of the first syllable (as in 
the three last names) is doubtful. If from Mac, bltsc, bleac (A), it may 
mean black, dark, or gloomy; and the Rev. J. "Whitaker adopts this 
meaning. If from blaece, it means bleached, pale, white ; or bleak, 
cold, bare, naked. And it may mean dark yellow. Ley, from Leak 
(J., licgar to lie), a lea; it originally denoted meadows lying fallow 
after a crop. (J. M. Kenible.) 

Blew-stone, or Mere-stone, in Eeddish. Blew-stone ("at Reddish"), 
322. This was the name of a field on the confines of Reddish; on a 
waste patch near which lay till lately a huge blue boulder; probably 
one of the old meres or boundary stones of the demesne or manor. 
(See Mere Stone.) Prom Sleo (A), blue. The Blue Stone. 

BoLTOisr-LE-MooKS or G-EEAT BOLTON, a market-town, parish and 
township eleven miles N.W. of Manchester. Bothel-ton, 230, B. 
Bolton B. 341. Prom Botl (4), an abode or dwelling and tun; or 
perhaps from ~Boihe (A), a shop or shed. The Rev. J. Davies says that 
Sold or Bodel was the Priesic and Old Saxon form of Bootle, and that 
the name of this place was written in Domesday Book, Bodel-ton. Por 
centuries afterwards it kept the form Bothel-ton. 

BOLTON, LITTLE, a chapelry in the parish of Great Bolton, separated 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 559 

from the north of Great Bolton township by a rivulet. Little Bolton, 
35i, 362. 

Booths the, in Manchester market-place. Bothes, lez, 473. The old 
name for the shops or stores for goods in the Market-stead or place. 
Afterwards a building was erected, which, comprising shops, &c., on the 
ground floor, had a large chamber above, used for a court-house, 
sessions-house, and town hall. The whole building retained the old 
name of The Booths. From Bote (A), a small cot or shed ; Botl (A), a 
dwelling. 

Bosse- or Bossel- Clough, near Strangeways, between Chetham and 
Manchester; site not known. Bosse-clou, 320. Bossole- and Bossel- 
clou, 322. ? From Bos, Bose (-2V), a wood, or from Boschayle (-ZV), a 
thicket or wood ; whence our adjective " bosky ;" and clofen (A), cloven. 
A wooded clough. A clough differs from a den or dene, in having no 
alluvial flat at the bottom ; but merely a stream or water-course, with a 
steep acclivity on both sides, covered with brush- wood and low trees. 
(J. Just.) 

Bottomley, ? in Blakeley, site not known. Bothum-le, 355. From 
Botm (A), a bottom, and leak (A), a lea or meadow in fallow. 

Bowkerley, ? inMoston, site not known. Bouker-leghe, 427. From 
BowJcer (A), a washer, or Bowk, BowJced (A), crooked. 

Boysnape or Boylesnape, a wood in Barton-on-Irwell. Boy-snape, 
Boye-snape, Boyle-snape, and Wyld-snape, 322. ? From Boys (-ZV), a 
wood, and ? Snced (A), a small bit. ? a small wet or marshy thicket, 
or wood. 

Brade-lache, ? now Bradley-bent, at the lower end of Hollin-wood ; 
site not known. Brade- lache, 320. Brod-lach ("two burgages in 
Manchester"), 588. From Brdd (A), broad or large, and lache (Lane.), 
a miry hollow. In Grorton, Droylsden, and the neighbourhood, Mr. J. 
Higson says lache usually implies a hollow containing water. But in 
wet seasons all hollows will have water in them. 



560 MAMECESTRE. 

BEAEFOED, a township in the parish and two miles east of the town- 
ship of Manchester. Thirty-one acres of Bradford are now inclosed in 
the Philips Public Park. In modern times Bradford is generally 
coupled with the adjacent extra-parochial township of Beswick. Brad- 
ford, 262, 282, 320, 322, 331, 332, 340. 347, 357, 358, 359, 363, 417, 
424. Brade-ford, 282, 359, 361. Brad-ford wood, 322. Bradford 
manor, 535, 559. Bradford mill (water corn-mill), 359, 363, 417. 
Prom Brad (A), broad, wide, large, and Ford (A\ a ford; i.e. the 
broad ford, probably as distinguished from the neighbouring narrow 
ford, which was superseded by Beswick Bridge. 

Bradley-brook, between Clayton and Oldham. Brad-le-broke, 320. 
Brad-legh-broke, 322. Grad-ley-broke, 322. Brad-legh-brocke, 322. 
The broad-ley brook. 

BEADSHAW, a chapelry in the parish and three miles N.N.E. of Great 
Bolton. Brad-shawe, 320, 322. Brad-shagh and Brad-sha, 322. 
Brade-schagh, 351. Brad-shaw, 473. J?romJ3rdd (A), and scead (-4), 
a wood-clearing. See also Birdshaw. 

BEEIGKHTMET, a township in the parish and two miles E.N.E. of the 
township of Great Bolton. Bright-mede B., 351, 362. Prom firiht 
(A), bright, and meed (A, from mawan, to mow), a meadow. This name 
reminds the reader of the poet's "gay mead." 

Brend-lache, or Brend-lack, " six acres of the waste of Salford, newly 
approved ;" site not known. B. The burned lache or miry hollow. See 
Brade-lache. 

Brend Orchard the, between Aldport and the old rectory of Manches- 
ter in Deansgate. It was also called Ose- Croft and "Walle-grenes, 
which see. Brende-orcharde, 320. Brand- or chard, 322. Brand-, 
Brend-, Brond- and Brund-orchard, 320, 322. Brend-orchert, 320, 322. 
From Brend (A), burned. It was customary to burn the sods in order 
to enrich the soil. Orchard from wort (A), a vegetable or green, and 
yard or garth (J.), an inclosure; literally a herb-yard or vegetable- 
garden. 



GLOSS ARIAL GAZETTEER. 561 

Brere-hey, in Cuerdley. Brere-hey, 322. Prom Brcsr {A), briar, 
and hceg, Jiaga (A), a hedge or inclosure. The briary-hey or inclosure. 
There was a Brere-riding in Butter worth. 

BBIKDLE, a parish and township four miles north of Chorley. Burn- 
ul, 230. Brun-hull, 262, 282, B. Bron-hull, 282. Burne-hulle, 
Burn-ell and Burn-ill, 320. Burn-hil and Burn-hull, 322. Burne- 
hill, 473. From Burn (A), a stream, or Brun (A\ brown, and kul 
(A), a hill ; the brown hill, or the hill by the stream. 

BEOCHOLES, a hamlet in the parish and two and a half miles N.E. of 
Preston. Broc-hal and Brok-hale, 230. Broke-hole, -holes, and -holies, 
320. le Broc-hol, 322. Brock-holes and Broc-hels, 322, 341, 351, 
473. Brock-hall, near Bible, 473. Prom broc (A), a badger, and 
holes. The family of Brocholes bear three brocks or badgers in their 
coat of arms. 

Brodned or Bredned ; a plot of moorland in Horwich. Brod-ned and 
Bred-ned, 322. ? From Bredan (A), to weave, bend, fold or braid: 
making brodan as the past participle. The -ed may be an abbreviation 
of heved (-4), head. The bent or folded head. 

Brokes the; or, the Brochol; site not known. Brokes le, or le 
Brochol, 320, 322. Prom Broc (A), a brook, or Broc (A), a badger. 
The Brooks, or the Badger-holes. There was a place called The Brokes, 
near Ordsall and Pendleton. 

Broomyhurst, 120 acres of wood near Barton-on-Irwell. Brome- 
hurst, Bromy-hurst, 320, 322. Bromi-hurst, 322. Bromy-hurst heath, 
322. From Brom (J.), broom, and hurst, kyrst, herst (A\ a thicket or 
acclivity covered with brush-wood, and in this case with broom. 

BKOTJGKETON, a township in the parish and two miles N.W. of the 
town of Manchester. Burghe-ton, 320. Burgh-ton and Burgh-ton de 
Salforth, B. Burgh-ton, 322, 341, 351, 362. The BurJi (A), or lurgli 
tun ; the castle or fort dwelling. 

. Bull-oke the, south of Hunt's Bank, Manchester. 422. This was 

VOL. III. 4 C 



562 MAMECESTRE. 

the oak to which the bull was chained for baiting. Bullock- Smithy was 
probably the Bull- Oak Smithy. 

BUKNAGKE, a township in the parish and four and a half miles S.S.E. 
of the township of Manchester. Bron-age and Bron-adge, 320. 
Bronn-rigge, 322. Bronn-egge, or Broun-egge, 322. Gren-egge 
(? error), 322. From Brun (A), brown or Burn (A), a stream, and Ecg 
(A), an edge. The brown-edge, or the Burn or Stream Edge. 

Burnhull, see Brindle. 

BUET, a market-town, parish and township nine miles N.N.W. of 
Manchester. Bury, 230, 311, B. 341, 349, 351. Bura in Salford- 
shire, 362. From Burk (A), a town, fort, or castle. 

BTJTTERWOETH, a township in the parish and four miles E. of Roch- 
dale. Butter- worth, 311. From Butter (^4), butter, and worth (A), 
a farm, or estate, generally an acquired property. (J. Just.) 

CADISHEAD, a hamlet in the township of Barton-on-Irwell, eleven 
miles W.S.W. of Manchester. Cad- wale-sate, 230. Cadwal-sete, 230. 
Cade- walis- set, before 247 (Whalley C. B. pp. 519-521, and 253.) 
Cade-wals-hed, B. Cadwalle-head, 322. Cadwalla was the name of a 
British king, who with Penda, defeated Edwine, Saxon king of 
Northumbria, slew him at Hatfield Chase, A.D. 633, and "laid waste all 
Northumberland." The old orthographies of the place suggest, for the 
first part of the word, a proper name in the possessive case Cadwall's, 
as the name of the owner of the place as early as 1230. Or, leaving 
Cad or Cade unexplained, the latter part of the word, which looks like 
Anglo-Saxon, may read wall-seat or well-head, meaning a spring. But 
Cad may be a corruption of Cold, and then we have Cold-well head. 
See Cold-wall clough. 

Castle-Hill, in the grounds of Singleton Lodge, Prestwich, four miles 
north of Manchester. Castle Hill, 375. See also Fo-, How- and 
Low- -caster. 

CASTLETON, a township in the parish and including the southern part 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 563 

of the township of Rochdale. Castle-ton and Caple-ton, 311. There 
was an old fort or castle here. 

Causeway the, ? Peel Lane, near Manchester. Cawsay and Cause 
the, 320, 322. From Caussie (N}, strewed with chalk and flint, 
Causeway, a highway or bank for a footpath, raised in marshy ground. 

Cawt, ? in Manchester; site not known. Cawt, 473. Etymology 
not known. 

Cemetery the, or Burial ground, Manchester ; site unknown. Cimi- 
torium, 473. This mediaeval Latin term, for Ccemeterium, a Christian 
burial-place, has for Anglo-Saxon equivalents By rig en-stow, Leger-stow. 

CHADDERTON, a township in the parish of Prestwich-cum-Oldham, 
seven miles N.N.E. of Manchester. Chathyr-ton, s.d. Chader-ton 
and Hader-ton, 230. Chathir-ton, 262. Cheder-ton, 282. Chatter- 
ton, 301. Chader-tone, 309. Chadre-ton and Chadre-den, 311. 
Chather-ton, 351, 362. Chadder-ton B, 542. Among places named as 
in Chathyr-ton, s.d., are : Lone-sege, Romes-den, Henne-rode, Ytheyt, 
and Blichis. The variations in orthography between Chad and Chath 
are probably due to the last letter being the Anglo-Saxon -3 or th. 
Ceadde and Cedde (A), were forms of a man's name, and were pro- 
nounced Chad, Ched. ? The tun or dwelling of the Chads, the old 
Anglo-Saxon possessors. 

Chadesworth, ? an error for Shoresworth, which see. 

CHARLOCK. There are two adjoining townships of this name, both 
in the parish of Standish, Charnock-Heath or Heath- Charnock, two 
and a half miles S.E. of Chorley, and Charnock-Eichard, two miles S.W. 
of Chorley. In the latter is the hamlet of Charnock Green. Chern- 
ok, 351. Chern-oke, 362. ? Prom cerran (A, pronounced cherrari), 
to turn or change, and ac (A), oak. The changed, turned, or perhaps 
blighted, oak. 

Chat Moss, an extensive morass, chiefly in the parish of Eccles, near 
Manchester, stated to be five miles long from east to west, and three 



564 MAMECESTRE. 

miles broad from north to south ; having an area of six thousand statute 
acres. Chat Moss and "Watt Moss, 322. It is supposed to have 
derived its name from its owner St. Chad, Bishop of Mercia, who was 
seated at Chester in 669 ; Ceadde's Meos (A), Chad's Moss or morass. 

Cher the, a parcel of land in Manchester. Le Cher, 473. ? From 
Ceor (A), the same as Ceorl, a churl or peasant. Perhaps the same 
place with "Le Choo," which see. 

CHETHAM or CHEETHAM, a chapelry in the parish of Manchester, a 
mile and a half JST.E. of that city. Chet-ham, 230, 320, B. 322, 341, 
473, 486. Chet-am, 662. From Cedde, Ceot (A, pronounced Chet), 
a Saxon male name, and Mm, home, habitation. 

CHILDWALL, a parish and township four miles E.S.E. of Liverpool. 
Childe-wale, 230. Childe-welle, 230, 262, 282, 362. Childe-walle, 
230, 262, 282. Childe-wall, 320, 322, 351, 473. Child-wall, B. 
473. Childer-well, 362. From Glides (A, genitive of did), the 
child's, or die (A), cold, chill, and weall (A), a well or fountain. 

CnoELTOisr. There are two places of this name near Manchester, 
a township in the city, formerly called Chorlton Roe and Bow, now 
Chorlton-upon-Medlock ; but the one chiefly noticed in this work is 
Chorlton- cum-Hardy, a chapelry in the parish and four miles S.S.W. of 
Manchester. Cherel-ton, s.d. Cherle-ton, 230. Chorle-ton, 320, 
B. 341, 346, 389, 473. Choller-ton, 320, 322, 574. Chorel-ton, 322. 
Chorl-ton, s.d., 148, 322, 334, 336, 419. Chorl-ton hagh, 334. From 
Ceorl (A), a churl, countryman or husbandman ; and tun : the churl's 
abode. 

Choo the, a close of land in Manchester, site unknown. Le Choo, 
Chow and Cho, 322. The Choe and Chor, 341. Choo and the Choo, 
343) 473- ? From Ceo (A, pronounced Chow), the chough or crow; or 
from Sco, Sceo (A\ Sckou (F), a shoe. But this is mere conjecture, 
and there seems no fitness or connection in either term. 

The Church-lode, Cuchen- or Kerken- -lode ; in Cuerdley, site not 
known. Cuchen-lode and Kerken-lode, 322. ? From Cucen, Cucon 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 565 

(A), quick, lively ; and lode, lad (A), from Icedan, to lead or carry, a 
ford, or a way: The two forms above occur in diiferent MSS. of the 
same date. If one should have dropped an H, then they would agree, 
as the Churchen or Kirken lode ; the ford, way, or road for carters 
(lodes-men) to the Manchester church. 

Clayden, near Holt Town, Manchester; and Clayden Field there. 
Clai-deu, Clai-dene and Cley-dene, 320. Clay-den, 473. Clay-den 
("near Manchester"), 473. Clay-don, 585. Hope-woode-Cleye-dene 
("a cottager's place in Clay-den"), 320, 578, 598, 635. Clai-dene- 
fielde, 320. Cleyn-feld, 349, 359, 369. Grlayn-field, 434. Grlin- 
field and GUing-feld, 473. Glayden-fieldes, 567. Cley-den Hall ("in 
the town of Manchester, the house of Eichard Cleyden"), 558. From 
Clceg (A), JLlai (F\ clay, and dene (A), a vale or a swine-pasture. 
The various corruptions of Clayden Field, noted above, show how ortho- 
graphy was tortured, when pronunciation from oral tradition was its 
chief guide. 

CLAYTON, once a manor, a hamlet in the township of Droylsden, 
three miles east of Manchester. Clai-ton, s.d. Cley-ton, s.d. Clay- 
ton, s.d., 230, 320, 322, 330, 346, 360, 362, 401, 415, 425, 473. Cla- 
ton, 473, I. 501. Cley-ton or Clay-ton, 581. The following places 
are named as in Clayton : Har-dens.^., Crone-shagh-broke, 401. From 
Clceg (A), clay, and tun (A), dwelling. 

Clement Croft, ? a close in Manchester, site not known. Clemens- 
crofte, 473. Clemence-crofte, 573. Clement's Crofte (bought by 
John Hartley of Eobert Langley), 638. Clement, a proper name, 
introduced into this country with Christianity or later. Croft (-4), a 
small enclosed field, still called a croft in Lancashire. 

CLIFTON, a township in the parish of Eccles, five miles N.W. of Man- 
chester. Clif-ton, 230, B. Clyf-ton B. From Clif, Clyf (A), a cliff, 
and tun (A), habitation. 

CLITHEEOE, a borough, market town and chapelry in the parish of 
"Whalley, ten miles N.N.E. of Blackburn. Clider-how, 147- From 



566 MAMECESTRE. 

Cled-dwr (B), the hill or rock by the water, and how (A), hill, a later 
addition. (Dr. WUtalcer.') 

Cnoles the. See Knolls. 

Coldwall Clough, between Strangeways and Crumpsall. Colde-walle- 
clowe, 320. Oad-wal- (and wall-) -clou, and Cold- waller-clou, 322. 
This clough was one of the boundaries of the demesne in 322. ? The 
cold well clough or Cadwal's clough. If in the clough there was a 
wooded acclivity or hurst, Cadwall's or Cold- well hurst might become 
Cola- or Colly-hurst, which see ; also Cadishead. 

COLLTHTJEST, a hamlet in the township of Newton a mile and a half 
N.E. of Manchester. Coli-hurst s.d. Cola-hurst and Coly-hurst, 322. 
Cole-hurste, 459. Colyers ("a common so called"), 553. Colyhurst 
Foold, 556. Coly-hurste, 558, 577, 587, 594. Coli-hurst, 568. 
Coly-hurst, 585. Colly-hurste, 570, 587, 604. Coli-hurste, 596, 602. 
Colli-hurst, 603, 610, 618. Colly-hurst, 6iT, 616, 625, 651, 670. 
Colly-hurst foote, 626. Amongst places named as in Collyhurst are : 
The Quarry and Four Lane ends, 651. The Walke Lane and Four 
Lane ends, 666. ? Prom Col (A), a peak or sharp hillock, and Jiyrst 
(A\ a wooded place. Or perhaps a corruption of Cadwall or Coldwall 
hurst. 

COPPTJLL, a chapelry in the parish of Standish, six miles N.N.W. of 
Wigan. Copp-hul, 282. From Cop (A), a cope, cap or top, and Tiul 
(A), a hill ; the hill cap or top. 

Corderodes, between the Irk and Coldwall clough, site not known. 
Corde-rodes, 320. Cordi-rode, Card-wode, Cordi-rodes and -redes, 322. 
? Coro-house, 473. ? From Cors (-6), a marsh or bog, or Corody (i.e. 
an allowance from a religious house for the maintenance of one of the 
king's servants) ; and rode, royd or ruding, a clearing or ridding. The 
marshy, boggy road or ridding. 

Corohouse, a close near the grange of Hulme, Manchester ; site not 
known. Coro-house, 473. Orthography and etymology doubtful. 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 567 

Crok-hus (A), is a saffron house or yellow dye house; Corn-Tins (A), a 
granary. It may mean a corody-house. 

Cornbrook, a stream which rises between Grorton and Openshaw, 
flows through Ardwick, Chorlton-on-Medlock and Hulme, and falls into 
the Medlock at the place named from the stream, Cornbrook, near 
Hulme. Corn-broc, s.d. Corne-broke, 320. Corn-broke, 322. Corn- 
brook, 322. Prom Cor-aun (jS), the narrow stream or water. (JRevs. 
7". WJiitaTcer and J". Davies.) 

Cringle-brook, in Burnage Lane or Slade Lane, between Levens- 
hulme and Heaton JSTorris. Cringel-broc, s.d. Kryngel-broke, 320. 
From Crymbig (A), crooked, or Crymbing (A), bending or curving. 
The winding brook. 

CKOMPTON, a township in the parish of Prestwich-cum-Oldham, ten 
miles JST.E. of Manchester. Cromp-ton, 320, B. 351. Comp-ton, 362. 
Crompton is seven or eight miles north of Crumpsall; the origin of 
which latter name seems to have been the proper name Curme (A), and 
sal, sale (A), a hall. By metathesis Curme becomes Crume, and Crum- 
ton must be pronounced Crump-ton. Curme's dwelling. 

CKTJMPSALL, a township in the parish and two miles north of the city 
of Manchester. Curmi-sale, 262, 282. Cormi-sale, 282. Curme- 
sale and Curme-salle, 320. Curm-shall, -shal, and -shale, 322. Curm- 
shal moor or waste, 322. Curme-shale I. 427. Crone-shall, 473. 
Crume-sale, 478. Crume-shall and Crumi-shal, 502. Curm-shal, 501, 
517. Crom-sall, 581. Prom Curme (A, proper name), and sal (A and 
S), sale, salle (-/V), a hall or mansion, Curme's hall. Another 
instance of metathesis, by which Curme becomes Grume; as thorpe 
becomes throp. 

CUEEDLET, a township in the parish of Prescot, four miles west of 
"Warrington. [Or it may be, CTJEBDALE, a township in the parish of 
Blackburn, three and a half miles east of Preston.] Keuerde-ley, 282, 
322, 347, 419, and Inq. 427. Keuerd-le, 282 and 320. Keuer-legh, 
Keuerd-ly, Keuerd-le, Keuerde-legh, and Keuerd-dale, 322. Kynerde- 



568 MAMECESTEE. 

le, 3 OI J 37- Keurd-ley woods, 322. Cumers-ley ("within the 
wapentake of Derby"), 346. ? From CuJiyrd (A), a cow-herd, and 
ley. The cow-herd's ley. 

CTJLCHETH, a township in the parish of Winwick, six miles N".E. of 
Warrington. Kulchit and Culchit, 230. Often corruptly called and 
written Kilshaw, whether as personal or local name. Probably the first 
part of the name Culc is the remnant of some Anglo-Saxon proper 
name, with heiS (A), heath. 

CUNLIFFE, a hamlet in the township of Hushton and parish of Black- 
burn, and three miles N.E. of Blackburn. Cunde-clive and Conte-clif, 
282. Cunde-cliffe, 320. From Cund (A), known ; also, a kind, sort, 
or likeness, or Cyna (4), cleft ; and Clif(A, from Cleofian to cleave), a 
cliff. The well-known or cleft rock. 

DALTOK, a township in the parish and five and a half miles W.N.W. 
of "Wigan. [There are two other places of this name in the county, 
one in the parish of Burton-in-Kendal, and the other a parish called 
Dalton-in-Eurness.] Dol-ton, 230. Dai-ton, 230, 282, B. 320, 322, 
351, 362, 473. Dal-wy, B. ? Prom Dcel (A), dal ($), a dale, and 
tun. The dale dwelling. 

Dan-croffc, ? a grange in Manchester, site not known. Dan-crofte, 
473. ? Daniel's croft or field. Or it may be Dane or Dane's croft, or 
the Dean's (pronounced Dane's) croft. 

Deansgate, a street in Manchester formerly from Aid-port, or Brend- 
orchard, to Smithy-bank, near Cateaton-street. Denes-gate le, 389, 
430, 487, 490, 502. Deynes-gate the, 498, 502, 533, 552. Danys- 
gate the, 525. Deans-gate, 555 (et passim), 593 ("an ancient way"), 
611 &c. to 625. Deanes-gate, 572, 580, 594, 598. Denis-gate, 561. 
A pump in Deans-gate, 591. The fact that it is nowhere called Denis- 
gate till 1561 disposes of one hypothesis, that it was St. Dennis or 
Dionys' gate. It is more likely to have been the Dean's gate or way, 
than the Danes' gate. 

Dene more, or Dean Moor, in the parish of Dean, two miles S.W. of 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 569 

Bolton. Dene-more, 320. From Den, denu (A\ an enclosed vale or 
grove, or a swine-pasture ; and mor (-4), moor, waste, heath. 

DEISTTON, a chapelry in the parish of Manchester, three miles S.S.W. 
of Ashton-under-Lyne. Den-ton, 282, 320, 322, 473, and I. 501. 
Den-ton waste, 322. From Denu (A), a vale, dale or den; often used 
as a termination in the names of places situated in a valley. Or it may 
mean a swine-pasture. 

DIDSBTJBY, a chapelry in the parish and five and a half miles south of 
Manchester. Didis-burie, s.d. Diddes-burye and Dittes-burye, 320. 
Dites-bery and Dites-bury, 322. Diddes-burie, 473. Dides-bury, 591. 
Dites-bery moor, 322. Didis-ford (the ancient name of the Mersey 
ford between Didsbury and Northen), s.d. ? From Didde or Ditte (A), 
a proper name, and Burk, Byrg (A), a town or fort ; or perhaps Mr gen 
{A), a tomb or burial-place. 

Dog-Field, a close in Manchester, site not known. Dogge-feld, 320. 
Doge-feld, 349, 369, 473. Dog-fielde, 473. Dodge-meadows, 567, 
626. Apart from its obviously-suggested meaning, it may possibly be 
from Doeg (A), a day, or from Docce (A), a dock plant. Feld (A), 
shows the original significance, a piece of land, the trees on which have 
\)Q&& felled and the land levelled and enclosed from the wood. There is 
a Dog-ford near Oldham, and a Dog-house in Withington. There was 
a Dob-field in Ordsall or Pendleton in 634. 

Draught-gate, tenements in Manchester, site not known. Over 
Draught-gate 427. Nether Draught-gate, 427. ? From Draf (A], 
driving (part, of drifan to drive), or from Dreah (A, part, of dreogan to 
work, to drag). The higher and the lower cart-way or driving-way. 

DBOYLSDEN, a township in the parish and four miles east of Man- 
chester. Drils-den, s.d., circ. 290, 300, 414, 416, 425. Driles-den, or 
Drylis-den, or Dreveles-den, or Droyls-den, or Drils-den, 581. In old 
documents the following places are named as in Droylsden : The terri- 
tory of Herde-low, s.d. Sunderland, s.d. Synderland, 425. Hasted- 
or Hustude-clogh, s.d. Cote-shut-gate, s.d. Staned-ings, s.d. A 
clough called Hore-done Hirne, the boundary between Drilsden and 

YOL. III. 4 D 



570 MAMECESTRE. 

Ashton-under-Lyne, 425. Ose-lache, 425. Long-lache, 425. Driles- 
den More, 429. From Dreol (A), a proper name, and denu (A), a 
swine-pasture. Dreol's den. (Rev. J. WJiitaJcer) 

EC OLE s, a parish and village four miles west of Manchester. The 
village is in the township of Barton-upon-Irwell. Eccles, 230, 
320, 341. Amongst places in Eccles are, Monithornes, 320, 322, and 
Dauntesey's Warthe, 704. ? From Eglwys (_B), Eglise (N), Ecclesia 
(Latin), a church. The church here is very ancient. 

EDGEWOBTH, a township in the parish of Bolton, six miles N.N.E. of 
Bolton. Egge-wrth, 230. Egg-worth B., 535. Eger-garthe, 362. 
From Ecg (A), an edge, and weorth, worthig, wyrth (A), a land, farm, 
way, or estate. The edge of the farm or way. 

Egburden or Egbertdene, two plots of moor in Horwich. Another 
place of this name is in Heaton-with-Haliwell. No. 1 Egbert-dene or 
Hag-head; also Egbe-dene, Egber-dene and Egbur- dene, 322. No. 2 
Egbur-den or Wythen~rod, 322, 427. From Egbert (A), a proper 
name (derived from JSce, eternal, eght, equity, and fieohrt, bright), and 
den, or dene (A), a vale. No. i may be Egbert's dene or swine-pasture ; 
No. 2 may be really "the edge of Hordern." 

Emo-taner-lane, ? in Manchester, site not known. 473. ? An error 
for G-onum-tonce-lane, which see. There was a tannery, with a Tan- 
ners' yard near Long Millgate, and a Tanners' Bridge over the Irk. 

Esecroft or Osecroft, in Manchester, near Aldport. Ese-croft and 
Ose-croft, 322. From JEst, Ost (A), the East, and Croft (A), a small 
field or inclosure. See also Ose-croft, Brend-Orchard and Wall-grenes, 
all names for the same place. 

Esterley ? a free tenement in Manchester. Ester-ley, 473. The 
Eastern or Easter ley. See Astley. 

Eston, see Ashton and Urmston (Orme-eston). 

FAILSWOBTH, a township in the parish and four miles N.E. of Man- 
chester. Failes-worthe, s.d., B. Fayles-worthe, s.d., 581, 624. Fails- 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 571 

wrthe, 230. Feyles-worth, 68 1. Among places named in Failsworth 
were the clough, s.d., and the rivulet, s.d. ? The possessive of Faile or 
Fayle (A), a proper name, and worth (A), a farm or acquired land. 

FALLOWEIELD, a hamlet in the township of "Withington, five and a 
half miles south of Manchester. The wood of Fallu-feld, 317. Fallow- 
feld, 535. Among places named as in Fallowfield are: Dyche-flat, a 
plot in the wood of Fallu-feld, 317. Huchun-bothum-lache [? Higgin- 
bottom-lache], 317. Hey- stone, 317. Mekel-dyche, 317. Fallow, 
from Fealga (A), a harrow, and feld (A\ field. Fallow meant land 
ploughed and harrowed, but left unsown. This Fallowfield must be 
distinguished from that a little north of Heaton Park. The township of 
Little Heaton was formerly called " Heton-super-Faghfeld," and till the 
eighteenth century " Heaton Fallowfield." (Rev. J. Booker.} ' * ? 

FABNWORTH, a chapelry in the parish of Dean, three miles south of 
Bolton. [There is also a hamlet of this name in the township of 
"Widnes, parish of Prescot, five miles west of Warrington.] Farin- 
worthe ("a vill"), s.d. Farn-worthe and Forn-word, 282. Fame- 
worthe, 320, 473, 591. Farn-worth, 322, 473. Feme-worth, 557. From 
Fearn (A), Fern, with which this chapelry was once covered, and worth 
(A), a piece of land, farm, estate. From the growth of fern therein 
many places of England take their names, as Farringdon or Farndon, 
Berks, the ferny-dun or hill; Farnham, Surrey, the ferny-home or 
dwelling. 

FLIXTON, a parish and township, seven miles S.W. of Manchester. 
Flix-ton, 230, B., 320, 322, 346, 473. Flixe-ton, 320. Flux-ton, 
320, 322. Flyx-ton, 341. Possibly from Fleax,flex (A), flax, and tun. 

Flowery Lache, a plot of land in Manchester, site not known, held in 
1514 by Sir John Bothe of Sir Thomas la Warre. Flouri- and Flori- 
-lache, 322. Flori-lache, 564. Flower-lach, 514. From flouron 
(N),fleur (French), a flower, and lache (A), a miry hollow. 

Focastle or Fowecaster, ? an error for Lowe -caster, which see. Fo- 
castell, 320. Fow-caster and le Lowe-casters, 322. 



572 MAMECE8TRE. 

Folds the, in Sharpies, a township in the parish and three miles north 
of Bolton. Fouldes le, I. 427. Fouldis del, in Sharpies, 473. Feldes 
del, in Sharpies, 473. From Fold (A), an inclosure for cattle, probably 
also with dwellings for the neat-herds ; a cluster of houses ; a sheep-pen, 
a stable. Or from Feld (A), a field or open piece of land. In 473 "a 
email mesne manor, called Del Fields or Folds/' 

Foris le, a messuage in Manchester, site not known. Foris le, 473. 
The plural of Forus (Latin), which means both a market-place and a 
place where magistrates administer justice. The Cheap or "West Cheap, 
the principal market of old London, was rendered in Latin by forum. 
Probably in Manchester the termforis applied to the building which 
consisted of booths or market-shops below and of a large room for the 
sessions of magistrates above. 

Forty Acres the, a close of land in Eusholme, a township two and a 
half miles S.S.E. of Manchester, 473. There was also a " Forty Acres' 7 
in Gorton in 564. 

Four Acres the, a parcel of land in Manchester, site not known, 473. 
Though this name in modern English is obvious, it should be remem- 
bered that JScer (A), meant also and perhaps primarily a field, a piece 
of land irrespective of its area, any place sown ; and even sown corn. 
A farmer or ploughman was called cecer-ceorl or escer-mon. 



r, a hamlet in the township of Chadderton, parish of Prest- 
wich, and two and a half miles west of Oldham. Fox-den-tone, 282. 
Fox-den-ton, 320. Fox (A), den (A), tun (A). The habitation by the 
fox's den. 

Frith Ford the, over the Irwell, near Barton Ford. Frith Ford le, 
322. From Frith (? B), a wood, or (A), free, peaceable; and for d 
(A), a passage or roadway, especially across water. 

G-allows the, in or near Manchester, site not known. Galoz and 
G-alese le ("a field near the," Manchester), 473. From G-alga, gealga, 
(A), a gallows, gibbet, or cross ; a later form was G-alwes (pronounced 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 573 

galooze). The old timber frame consisted of three posts, so placed that 
the horizontal cross-pieces at the top, from which the ropes were sus- 
pended, formed an equilateral triangle /\ Three criminals could 
thus be hung at once. 

Gate-cote- [or coter-] Meld, in Chorlton-on-Medlock or Manchester, 
site not known. G-ate-coter-feld, 320. G-ate-cote-field, 366, 473. 
Cate-cote-field, 369. Yatte-coutes-Feldes and Gatley-Cout-Feldes, 
567. ? From Q-eat (4), gate, and cot a (J.), a cottage; or from Gat, 
gcet (A), a goat, and cote (A), a pen. Gat-ley is the goat-field. 

G-avel Field, ? in Manchester, site not known. Gavel-feld, 349 or 
359. ? From Gafol, gafel (A), tax, tribute, rent ; gafol-land was land 
given on condition of paying some contribution. In later times a gavel 
was a sheaf of corn (not wheat) before being tied up. Cotgrave has 
Javeller, to swathe or gavell corn ; to make it into sheaves or gavels. 

Gler-ruding. ? an error for Brere-ruding, which see. 
Gling-feld, 473. ? an error for Clayden Field, which see. 

GLODWICK, a hamlet in the township of Oldham and parish of Prest- 
wich, one mile S.E. of Oldham. Glo-dyke, B. ? From Q-elodan (A), 
brothers; or Gleaw (A), prudent, strong, wise, as in Gloucester, 
formerly Gleaw-ceaster. 

Gonumtonce Lane, in Manchester, site not known. Gonum-tonce- 
lane, 473, In one copy of the Eental of 473 it is called Emo-taner- 
lane; but the former is the spelling in the original roll. The first 
two syllables of both are exceedingly obscure. The third may be town's 
or tanners', and there was a Tanners' Bridge over the Irk. 

Gore Brook. This stream rises in Audenshaw, and passes through 
Gorton, Kirkmanshulme, Eusholme, &c. Gorre-brocke, 320. Gore- 
brocke, 320. Gore-broke, 322. 6for (A), not only means gore, clotted 
blood, but also dirt or mud. The derivation, aided by tradition as to a 
combat with the Danes, is generally assigned to the former meaning, 



574 MAMECESTRE. 

when " Gorton-brook flowed with blood ;" but the latter meaning is 
quite as probable. 

G-OBTON, a chapelry in the parish and three miles E.S.E. of Manches- 
ter. Gor-ton, 282, 320, 322, 422, 428, 473. Gorton Grene, 422. 
For derivation, see Gore Brook. Or the place may derive its name 
from another signification of the same word Gor (A), a triangular plot 
of land. 

Goose Lache, ? in or near "Withington, site not known; but it 
was one of the bounds of Platt. Gose-lache, s.d. Gosi-lache, 334. 
Prom Gos (A), goose, or G-ost (^), gorse ; the goose or gorsy lache 
or leach, or miry hollow. 

Gotherwick, or Goderswick, a messuage in Farnworth or Manchester, 
site not known. Gothers-wicke and Gotheres-wicke, 320. Gethes- 
wyke and Gothers-wyke, 322. Gode-wic, 428-9. Goders-wick, 473. 
G-od-dyres-wike (" a messuage in Farnworth"), 473. Gode-wike, 492. 
Goders-wic, I. 501. Gothers-wick, 556-7. ? From Godard (A), a 
proper name (of God, god or good, and aerd, nature), and wic (A), a 
habitation, Godard's dwelling. 

Granges, in various places. Grange a, in Manchester, 473. Grange 
a (" called Dan-crofte"), 473. Grange (-ZV), a farm, barn, or granary ; 
a small hamlet. 

Greenlow or Grindlow, in Gorton. Grende-lawe (" chantry lands"), 
320. Gren-low, s.d., 473. Grene-lowe, 473. Grene-low-lache, 5.^.317. 
Gren-law-more, 282. Green-lo-marsh, 322. Grene-lowe-mersh, 334. 
Green-lowe-marsh, 411. Grene-lo-in-erth, 322. Grene-lou-heth, 322. 
Grene-lowe-heth, 411. Grene-low-eth, 427. Grene-law-crosse, 334. 
Grene-law-acre, 334. Grin-lowe, 694. From Grene (A), green; and 
Maw (A), a heap, small hill, rising ground; a barrow or tumulus. 
These two elements are compounded with lache or leach, moor, marsh, 
heath, cross and acre. 

Guild Houses or Teild-Houses in Eusholme or "Withington, near 
Goose-lache. Gylde-houses, s.d. Gilde-houses, s.d. Yheld-house 



GLOSS ARIAL GAZETTEER. 575 

ditch, 317. Yheld-hous-Mosse, 317. Yeld-houses in Rysholme, 
535. There was also a Guild-house, in Manchester or Newton 
(named in Collegiate Church Charters), 578, 635. Prom Grild, geld 
(-4), a society or brotherhood, with payment for mutual support (of 
gyldan, to pay), The chief if not the only guild in old Manchester 
.was " the guild of the Elessed Mary," to which these houses may have 
belonged. For other notices of the Guild-houses see the B/ev. J. 
Booker's History of Birch CTiapelry. 

Hag-head, a plot of moor in Horewich, also called Egbe-dene, which 
see. Hag-heved, 322. Prom .fifey, Tiaga (A), a hedge, sometimes a 
small enclosed field, or even a house. Hawthorn is the haga-tkorn, or 
hedge-thorn. 

Hag Moss, or Hog Moss, site not known. Hag or Hog Moss, 322. 
Prom Saga (A), a hedge or inclosure. The Hedge or inclosed Moss. 

Hall Pield, in or near Manchester. (? Pool Street) site not known. 
There was a Halle Feld in Busholme. Halle-feld, 322. 

Halliwell, a township in the parish of Dean, two miles N."W. of 
Bolton. Hali-wall, 320. Halli-wal, Hali-well and Halli-wel, 322. 
Hali-wal, 349, 473. Halli-wall, 473, Prom Halig (A), holy and 
weall (A), a well or spring. The Holy "Well. 

Hall land the, a plot in Gorton or Manchester, site not known. Hall 
land, or land of the hall, 282. A Halland was a certain quantity of 
land, as in a grant of 325 occur " one halland with a plot of meadow ;" 
" one halland, with meadow appertaining ;" and " two hallands." 

Hall or Hulme Moss, ? near Davyhulme Hall. Hal Moss and Hulme 
Moss, 322. Both Hall and Hulme will apply to Davyhulme, in the 
township of Barton, seven miles W.S.W. of Manchester. Meos (A), 
moss, or morass. 

HALSALL, a parish and township three miles JST.W. of Ormskirk. 
Hal-sale, 230, 362. ? Prom Hal (A), a proper name, and sal, sale (A), 
a hall. 



576 MAMECESTEE. 

Har or Hare Moss, site not known. Har- and Hare-Moss, 322. 
From Har (A), hoar, gray. 

Harpurhey, a township in the parish and two and a half miles 
N.N.B. of Manchester Exchange. Harpour-hey, 320. Harper-hey, 
473, 496, 572. Prom Hearpere (-4), a male harper (fern. Tiearpestre). 
The Harper's hey or inclosure. 

Hartwell Sike, in Heaton ISTorris. Hart-well-sicke, 320. Hert- 
mill-sich, 320. Prom Heart (A), the hart, and Sick (A}, a furrow, 
gutter, or small water-course. The Hart-well rill. The hart is often 
compounded in local names with water, as Heort-ea, the hart-water, 
Hartle-pool, Heort-ford (Hertford), &c. 

HABWOOD, a township in the parish and two miles N.E. of Bolton. 
[Great Harwood is a chapelry four and a half miles N.E. of Blackburn, 
and Little Harwood is a township two miles north of Blackburn ; both 
in the parish of Blackburn.] Hare-wode, 230, B. 351, 362. Hare- 
wood, 322. Har-woode, 320. Har-wood, 473. Prom Har (A), 
hoar, gray, or Har a (A), a hare. 

HATTGHTON or HALGHTON, a township in the parish and six miles 
S.E. of Manchester. Halgh-ton, 320, 359, 362. Hale-ton, 322. ? 
Prom Halig (A), holy, or Haugk, which Camden says is a northern 
name for a meadow lying in a valley, or Halgh, a modification of how 
(A) } hill, with a strong Lancashire aspirate. Nut-halgh has become 
Nuttall, Nuthow, and Nutto. (Dr. WUtaJcer.) 

Heath the, in Cuerdley, Heth le ("in Keurdley"), 322. Prom 
HetJi (A), a heath. 

HEATON. There are several places bearing this name in the county ; 
four townships in the hundred of Salford (for which see Note 8, p. 296). 
These are 

1. HEATON, township in parish of Dean, two miles west of Bolton. 

2. HEATON G-EEAT, township in parish of Prestwich, four miles north 

of Manchester. 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 577 

3. HEATON LITTLE, township in parish of Prestwich, five miles north 

of Manchester. 

4. HEATON NORBIS, township and chapelry, in parish and six miles 

S.S.E. of Manchester. 

1. Heaton, is often called in ancient writings Heton-cum-Halliwell ', 
both townships adjoining and being in the same parish. It is also called 
Heton-subtus-Horewich and If eton-under-the- Forest, being within the 
ancient limits of the forest of Horewich. It is probably this Heaton 
that is meant in the following documents: H. under, &c., 320, 322, 
473. H. subtus, &c., 322, 351, 362. H. cum or near, &c., 427. H. 
cum Haliwal, 459. 

2. Great Heaton, in Prestwich, formerly called Heaton Reddish 
(Eev. J. Booker's PrestwicJi). He-ton, B. 

3. Little Heaton, also called Heton-sur-Eaghfeld and Over Heaton- 
super-Eaghfeld or Eawghfeld. Heton-on-Faugh-field, 523. Hey- 
ton-upon-Eagh-feld, 559. He-ton-in-Eaugh-field, 571. Over-Heaton- 
upon-Fagh-feld, 578. Mr. Booker says that this township was called 
Heaton-Eallowfield till 150 years ago. We have not met with any 
proof of this, and should rather derive the name from FaJi (A}, shining, 
bright. 

4. HEATON, or HEATON NOEBIS, is the most frequently named in 
the old documents relating to the manor of Manchester. Probably the 
following all refer to this township: Heton, 230, 282; its bounds, 
320, 322, 349, and temp. Edward III. 422. Heton Norrays, 282, 359, 
Norres, Norreis, and JN~oreis, 320, 322. Heaton JSTorris, 349. Heton 
Norris, 427, 523. Hey ton Non-eyes, 320. Heaton Norres, 322. 
Heyton Nores, 559. Heton "Woode (in Heaton Norris), 320, 322. 
Heton Mos (in Heaton Norris), 320, 322. 

5. HEATON in Lonsdale, a township with Oxclifie in the parish of 
Lancaster, two and a half miles W.S.W. from Lancaster. 

Heton, 320, 322, B. 

Heton- Strang- ways, 592 (site unknown). 

The derivation of the common name of Heton or Heaton is from Hea 
(A), high, and tun {A). The Noreis, Norrays or Norres, was the name 

VOL. III. 4 E 



578 MAMECESTRE. 

given to one of these townships from its early dwellers, a family of Nor- 
wegians or Northmen. 

Heywood the, in Cuerdley, 322. From Hag a (A), the hay or hedge, 
or Jiea (A), high. The inclosed, hag, or high wood. 

HTITDLEY, a chapelry in the parish and three miles S.E. of "Wigan. 
Hende-ley, 320. In-ly and Inde-legh, 322. From Hynd (J.), the hind, 
the female of the hart; or Hind (^4), behind, or hinder. The hind, 
hinder, or back ley or field. 

Hob- or Hole- Croft, a close in Manchester, ? afterwards the Walkers' 
Croft, Hunt's Bank. Hob-crofte, 473 (" a parcel of land in the middle 
of Hobcroft sufficient for twelve tenters"), 437. Hob is a contraction 
of the proper name Eobin ; crofte (A), a small inclosed field. 

Hollinhead, ? in Tockholes ; site not known. Hollin-hed, B. From 
ffolen, Holeyn (A), the holly, " hollin" being still the Lancashire form ; 
and Heved (A), head. 

Holme's Bridge, in Manchester, site not known; 473. Some bridge 
over the Irk or the Medlock, named after its builder or owner. 

Holt the, in Heaton Norris. Holt del, 320. Holt (A), a small 
thicket, or wood of timber-trees. The bird now called the woodcock, 
the Anglo-Saxons named the Tiolt-Tiana or holt-hen. 

HOOLE MUCH, a parish and township seven miles S/W. of Preston. 
HOOLE LITTLE, a township in the parish of Much Hoole, six miles S.W. 
of Preston. Hole, 230. From Hole (A), a hollow place, a den. 

Hope the, an estate or small manor in Pendlebury. Hope the, B. 
Hope (? $.), the side of a hill, or a slope or low ground amongst hills. 

HOPWOOD, a township in the parish and two miles north of Middleton. 
Hope-wood and Hoppe-woode, 320. Manor of Hopwood, 438. See 
Clayden. From Hoppe (A), a leap, or Hope ($), a slope, or Jiopu (A), 
the privet. 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 579 

Hopeworth Forest, ? an error for Horewich Forest, which see. Hope- 
worth Forest, 282. 

Hordern. Several places in the forest or moor of Horewich bore 
this name. Hordern Great, or Wild Boar clough, (" a plot of moor in 
Horwich"), 322. Hordern Little, or Hader-lee ("a plot of moor in 
Horwich"), 322. Hordern-Solines, or Harder-Solines (" a plot of moor 
in Horwich"), 322. Hordern- and Harder-solines, 322. Hardnerne- 
solynes, 322. Hordern-solynes, 427. From Hord (A), a hoard or 
treasures, and am {A), a secret or hiding-place, a store-house. Hordern, 
a store-house of money or treasure. Solen (A), plural of Sol, miry, 
dirty places. 

HORWICH or HOREWICH, a chapelry in the parish of Dean, five miles 
W.N.W. of Bolton. Hope-worthe forest, 282. Hore-wich and Hers- 
wiche, 322. Hore-wich, 428. Hor-wiche, 411, 473. Hore-wyche 
Forest, 320. Hore-wich Forest, 322. Hore-wiche Forest, 320. Hore- 
wiche Leighe ("a plot of wood in Hor-wich") Hore-wich Wood, 322. 
From Hor, (A), hoar, gray, and wick (the Old High German form of) 
WIG (A ), a dwelling. Though the names of many Lancashire places end 
in wick, but two or three terminate in wick (pronounced witcJi). It 
would seem that the Anglo-Saxon form WIG and the Friesic wik greatly 
predominate, the Old German form being only found in a few places 
north of Manchester, as Prestwich, Horwich, &c. Mr. Jabez Allies, in 
his Antiquities of Worcestershire, gives many local names therein, 
ending in wick and wick ; and observes that " almost all these places 
are connected with high ridges of ground, or dorsal elevations, which in 
ancient times would be considered the most advantageous places for 
residence." Certainly both Prestwich and Horwich are on high ridges 
of land. 

Koran END or HOTJGH'S END (pronounced Hooze end) a hamlet in 
the township of Chorlton-cum- Hardy, four miles S.S.E. of Manchester. 
Hough's End Clough. See Note, vol. ii. p. 430, as to its etymology. 
Sir Oswald Mosley in the Family Memoirs derives it from Hof (A), a 
house or dwelling, and lEnde (A), a boundary ; and it is a bound 
between the townships of Withington and Chorlton- Hardy. Another 
derivation is from the Danish HoogJi, a hill or rising ground. Mr. 



580 MAMECESTRE. 

Kemble gives Ho, ffoo, originally a point of land formed like a heel or 
boot, and stretching into a plain, perhaps into the sea. The most 
probable derivation is the end or corner of the little hill or mound. 

Hules or Hulles the, in Manchester, site not known. " The ditch 
called the Hules towards Broerhulton" [near Trafford], s.d. Hulles 
the, 282. The plural of fful, Hula (A), a hill. 

HULME. Several townships and hamlets still bear this name, and 
others formerly bore it, in which it can scarcely be recognised. Omitting 
the Hulme near Winwick, as beyond the limits of our work, there are 
i, HTJLME, a township in the parish and adjoining the township of 
Manchester on the S.E. 2. LEYEKS-HULME, a township in the parish 
and four miles S.E. from Manchester. 3. HTJLME, or HULME HALL, a 
hamlet in Reddish, in the parish and five miles S.E. from Manchester. 
This place is sometimes called " Hulme in Reddish," or " Hulme near 
Stockport," and in the Collegiate Church Charters of 578 and 635 it is 
termed " Hulme near Stopforde." 4. KIRKMAN'S HTJLME, a hamlet in 
a detached and insulated portion of the township of Newton, in the 
parish and three miles S.E. from Manchester. 5. DAYY HTJLME, a 
hamlet in the township of Barton, in the parish and seven miles W.S.W. 
from Manchester. This is often called in old documents " Hulme, near 
Flixton." 6. JEWELL HULME or HAM, now Irlam, a hamlet in the 
township of Barton and parish of Eccles, eight miles W.S.W. from 
Manchester ; where there is a ferry over the Irwell. A mile south is 
another hamlet called Irlam Green, Hulme (doubtful which), 418. 
]$To. i. Hulme, B. 320, 334. Hulme, near Aldporte, 320, 322. Hulme, 
near Manchester, 292, 311, 341, 419, 473. Holme, 581. No. 5. Hulme, 
near Flixton, 311, 320, 322. Davy Hulme, 558. All these Hulmes or 
Holmes are from Holm (A*), a river island, a green plot of ground en- 
vironed with water, and just rising above it ; and consequently often 
overflowed. (J~. Just.} Hence, from being level and green, meadows, 
especially near rivers, are to this day called holmes or homes. (Dr. 
Bosworth's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary.) Leven's holm, the Kirkman's or 
Church-man's holm, the Rush or rushy holm, Davy or David's holm, &e. 

HULTON. There are three adjoining townships of this name, distin- 
guished as i. Over or Great Hulton, three miles S.S.W. of Bolton. 2. 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 581 

Middle Hulton, three miles south of Bolton. 3. Little Hulton, a 
chapelry four miles south of Bolton. All three townships are in the 
parish of Dean. Hil-tone and Hul-ton, B. 320, 322. From Hul, Hula 
(A), a hill. The Hill tun or dwelling. 

Hundersfield, an ancient chapelry and division in the parish and 
four miles N.E. of Rochdale. Hundres-feld, 311. Its old name was 
Honor's feld, the field of Honore, the Anglo-Saxon of the Homan name 
Honorius. (Dr. WhitaJcer.} But it may have been Hundred's feld 
(A), the field of the Hundred; whether of so many men, or of the 
hundred-man or centurion, or of the division of a county. 

Hunt Hull or Hill, now Hunt's Bank, from Manchester to Strange- 
ways. Hunt Hull, 422. Hunt Hill, 473. Hunt Loode (lode or 
cartroad), 515. Hunt's Bancke, 552, 555. Hunt's Bank, 562, &c. 
Hunte's Banke, 604. Hunt's Bancke, 625. From Hunta (A), a 
hunter, and Hul (A), a hill. The Hunter's Hill. It was close by the 
Baron's Hull (which see), and was probably the place where the Norman 
baron, his friends and retainers, assembled for the hunt. 

Ince, a township in the parish and two miles west of Wigan. Ins, 
320. Ince and Yns, 322. ? From Tnce (A), an inch. 

INCE BLTJNDELL, a township in the parish of Sefton, eight miles north 
of Liverpool. Ines Blundell, 362. Probably Blondel, a Norman proper 
name. 

Ingelfield, a field in Manchester, site not known. Ingel-feld, 427. 
? From Ing, Inge (A), an ing, pasture or meadow ; or Ingle, a corner. 

Intacks, in various places. Intak one (" near a barn in Manchester"), 
473. Another, "annexed to a burgage," 473. A third, "near a 
grange," 473. Intack [in-take] in the north of England means an 
inclosure, part of a common field planted or sown, when the other part 
is fallow. (HaUiweU's Diet.) 

Irk, the river, which rises near Eoyton, about two miles from Oldham, 
and flows to Middleton and Heaton, and thence running in a southern 



582 MAMECESTRE. 

direction, falls into the Irwell at Hunt's Bank, Manchester. Hirke 
and Ircke, 320. Irk, 322. Irke Brygge, 422. Irk Bridge, 473. 
Irk ("three fisheries in"), 473. "A "Whitore pit in the Irk, near the 
"Wheat-mill dam," 68 1. From IwrcJi (_B), the roebuck, probably from 
bounding along a hill-course. Many streams in Wales were so called. 
(Rev. J. Dames) 

IELAM, a hamlet in the township of Barton and parish of Eccles, eight 
miles "W.S.W. of Manchester. It was formerly called Hulme (which 
see) ; also Irwell-hulme and Irwell-ham, from which the present nane 
comes by elision. Irwell-hume and Irwil-hulme, 320. Irwel-ham, 322. 
The Jiolm (-4), water-meadow, or Mm (A), dwelling by the Irwell. 

Irwell, the river, which rises near Derplay Hill, in the township of 
Cliviger, a little above the village of Bacup ; flowing in a western course 
till it meets, at Tottington Higher End, with a rivulet which takes its 
rise at Cridden Hill, and is by some considered to be the source of the 
Irwell. The united stream then proceeds southerly to Bury, and a little 
south of that town joins the Boch ; deviating to the west it is soon 
increased by meeting the rivulet from Bolton at Farnworth. It then 
changes to a south-easterly direction, till, reaching Manchester, it re- 
ceives the Irk (at Hunt's Bank) and the Medlock (a little north of 
Hulme Hall, and nearly opposite Ordsal Hall) . Then, becoming navi- 
gable, it again runs in a south-west course, and flowing under the 
Bridgewater canal at Barton Bridge, finally pours its waters into the 
Mersey at Flixton, about nine miles from Manchester. It divides 
Manchester from Salford, the latter township being inclosed between the 
river and the Bolton canal in a sort of peninsula, of which Salford 
Crescent is the neck. Ir-well, 320, 322. Ir-wel, 322. Ir- well fishery, 
282. From Ir (J3), fresh, vigorous, and Gwili (B, becoming will in 
composition), river or winding thing : the fresh winding stream (Rev. 
John Dames). From Ere (A), hoar, and weal (A), spring: the hoar 
spring. (Dr. WhitaJcer.} The former seems the more probable 
derivation. 

Jones' Field, Manchester, site not known. Jones Feld, de Hulton, 
427. ? John's, Joan's, or Jones Field. 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 583 

Keeper- Cliff, ? in or near Manchester, site not known. Kiper- and 
Kyper-clif, 262. ? From Cyperen (A), coppery; but more probably 
the English word keeper. 

Keeper Field, ? in or near Manchester, site not known. Kepir-Feld 
and Keper-Feld, 232. Keper-feld and Hyper-feld, 322. Kyper-feld, 
396. ? From Hype (A), a heap; also the hip or thigh; but more 
probably keeper. 

KEESAL or KEESALL, a hamlet in the township of Broughton, or a 
township with Broughton, in the parish and three miles N.W. of Man- 
chester. Kere-shel, s.d. Ker-shall ("a Cluniac cell"), 144. Ker-sal 
("hermitage"), 199. Ker-shal (" hermitage"), 200. Kere-shale, 230. 
Kere-shall, B. "The lordship, manor, and cell of Kyr-sall or Kyr- 
sawe," 540. Ditto, ditto of Ker-sall, 548. Ker-sawe or Ker-sall, 
537,588. Ker-sall, 558, 587. Kerk-sawe or Kerk-sall ("manor"), 
588. Kirk-sagh, Ker-stal or Ker-staw and Ker-sal More, 588. 
Amongst places named as in Kersal are : A close of one acre called 
Bottoms Wood, 616, 659. A close of la. ir. called the Middle Michael 
Meadow [? mickle, large], 623, 659. A close called the Great Eed 
Stone, 659. Kersall Mill, 702. A close of 2a. called the Shippon 
Flat, 612. The Great Field, 3^a., 612. Three closes near the Great 
Field, called the Bonkes, 612. A lane from Madge Well to Moor Yate, 
623. Kersal, ? from Cyrice (A), or KirJc ($), church, and sal (-4), 
hall, or cella (A), a cell. There was an old Cluniac cell here, dependent 
on the monastery of Lenton, co. Notts ; and the residence of the Byrom 
family here has long borne the name of Kersal Cell. There was s.d. a 
Kirk-sagh near the Medlock, in Newton or Failsworth. 

Kerr, Kerres, or Kerroc ; ? in Cuerdley. Kerroc and Kerres, 322. 
? Carr, Carrs, (A), and CarrocJc (Northern dialect), which see. 

KETJEEDELET, see Cuerdley. 

Kirkmanshulme, a detached hamlet in the township of Newton 
[Heath], in the parish and three miles S.E. of Manchester. Cur-mes- 
holme, 320. Kir-mons-holme, 322. Kirk-mans-hulme, 590. ? From 
Cyric-man (A\ Kirkman, Churchman, or Parson, and 'holm (A), a river 



584 MAMECESTRE. 

meadow. In all parts of Lancashire old local names relating to church 
have the form K, not only those on the coast, which are clearly Scan- 
dinavian, but others inland; as in this instance, Kirkham, Kirkland, 
Chadkirk, &c. 

Knolls the, ? in Strangeways, site not known. Cnolles and Cnoles 
le, 322. Knolles le, 396. Knolles (" a plot of land, wood and pasture"), 
408. Knowles the, ("near the "Walkers' Croft, Hunt's Bank"), 586. 
Knowles Bancke and Knowles Clough ("closes in Chetham"), 546. 
Little Knowles and the Bancke ("two fields in Strangeways"), 60 1. 
Prom Cnol, plur. Cnolles (A), a knoll or small hill, a top, cop, or sum- 
mit. There was s.d. a Knol in Ancoats. An eminence in Higher 
Broughton is still called Stony Knolls. 

LANCASTER, a borough, market town, parish and township, eleven 
miles north of Grarstang and fifty-three from Manchester. Lan-caster, 
188, 199, 286. From Al (B), chief, and Afon, Ann, Un (B), a river. 
(Alun is the name of a river in Wales.) The castle on the chief river. 
(Rev. J. Davies.) 

Lestold, a plot of meadow and pasture in Horwich. Lest-old, 322, 
Orthography questionable ; derivation not known. See Lostock. 

LEVENSHTJLME or LEVENSHOLME, a township in the parish and four 
miles S.E. of Manchester. Levens- holme, 320. Lyvenis-holme, 322. 
From Leof, Leofne (A), lord, master ; or from Llefn (/?), smooth ; the 
lord's or the smooth river-meadow. 

LEVEE. There are three adjacent townships of this name near Bol- 
ton: i. Great Lever, in the parish of Middleton, two miles south of 
Great Bolton; 2. Little Lever, in the parish and three miles S.E. of 
Great Bolton; and 3. Darcy Lever, a chapelry in the parish and three 
miles east of Bolton. It is No. 2 that is chiefly named in this work. 
Lofre Little, 230. Levyr and Levre, 282. Little Lever and Little 
Levre, 320. Lefre, 322. Little Lever, 322, 473. ? From Leofra (A), 
more precious or desirable. Or it may be a proper name. " D'Arcy 
Lever" is one of the very few Norman names in Lancashire. The Rev. 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 585 

J. Davies says that Lever is probably from Lie (J9), a place, and vawr 
(B), great, the great place. 

Litheak, one of the names of Aldport Park, or Nether Aldport, in 
Hulme, Manchester. Lithe-ak, 282. Prom Lithe (A), pliant, and Ac 
(A), oak; the lithe, pliant or supple oak. 

LIVERPOOL, a borough, market town, parish and township, thirty-six 
miles west of Manchester and two hundred and five from London. 
Liver-pul, 207, 229. The derivations of this name are purely conjec- 
tural. ? From Lyr (5), the sea, the pool of the Mersey ; or from Liver 
or Lever, a sort of cormorant ; or from LitJier (and there is a township 
of Litherland five miles north of Liverpool) ; and Pull (A), a pool. 

Little Moss, site not known. Letel-Mosse, 320. Little Moss, 322. 
There are probably several small mosses in the county bearing this name. 

Longest Hawton, ? site not known. Long-est Haw-ton and Long- 
est-how-baie, 322. Is this Long East-Houghton, in contradistinction 
to "Westhoughton ? Halgh (says Kemble) is a modification of how (4), 
a hill, with a strong Anglo-Saxon guttural. 

LONGFORD, a hamlet in the township of Stretford, three and a half 
miles S.S.W. of Manchester. Long-forde, 320. The meaning is obvious. 

LONGWORTH, a township in the parish and five miles N.N/W. of 
Bolton. Longe-worthe, 320. Long-worth, 322. The long wortUg 
(A), farm, land or property. 

LOSTOCK. There are two places of this name, i. A hamlet in the 
township of Barton and parish of Eccles, four miles S.W. of Manchester, 
and 2, a township in the parish and four miles west of Bolton. It is 
the former that is chiefly referred to. Lest-oc and Lest-ok, 230. 
Lost-oke, 320, 349, 362. Lest-oc and Lost-oc, 322. Lost-ock wood, 
322. Lost-ocke, B. 473. Lostok, 351. Lostock, 322, 473. ? From 
leak (A), a ley or .field, and stoc (A), a place or trunk. Or, from lost 
(A), lost, and ac (A), an oak. 

VOL. III. 4 F 



586 MAMECESTRE. 

Lowcaster, or Castle Hill, in Singleton Lodge grounds, Prestwich, 
(Also called How-caster.) Lowe-casters le, 322. From Hldw (A), a 
mound, natural or artificial. The hill-fort, castle or station. 

LYDIATE, a township in the parish of Halsall, four miles S.W. of 
Ormskirk. Lyde-yathe, 230. Lyde-gate, 349, 362. ? Prom Lida 
(A), a pestilence; or Lie (A), a corpse, and geat (A), a gate. The 
corpse gate. The roofed gateway to a church-yard under which the 
bearers placed the bier, was and is still called the lych-gate or corpse 
gate. 

LTME, LIME, LYNE or LIKE the. Some unknown boundary line. 
Lima, 322, I. 427. Lyma, temp. John. Lime, 230, 322. Lyme, B. 
Lyme Park, 581. Linea, 322. Lyne, 473. For etymology and deri- 
vation see Note 28, p. 37, and Note 66, p. 74. It should be added that 
besides the more extensive Lyme Park in Cheshire, there was a Lyme 
Park in Werneth, near Oldham, where probably a solution of the name 
Ashton-under-Lyme should be sought. The Rev. Dr. Hume observes 
that in the south-west of Scotland the limits of ancient forests may be 
traced by the word lyne ; and in Dr. Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary, to 
lyne is to measure land with a line. 

MACKEBJFIELD, an ancient fee incident to the Barony of Newton, in 
which district are Ashton-in-Mackerfield, Newton-in-Mackerfield (or 
en-le- Willows), Culcheth, G-olborne, Haydock, Winwick, &c. Maser- 
felde, in Anglo-Saxon CJiron. and Bede A.D. 642. Maker-felde, 230, 
362. From Mag-er (Gael), and. f eld (A), a great cultivated plain. 
(Rev. Edmund Sibson.^) 

MANCHESTER, the second city in England, situated at the confluences 
of the Irk and the Medlock with the Irwell, one hundred and eighty-six 
miles N.N.W. of London, thirty E. of Liverpool, and fifty-three S.S.E. 
of Lancaster. Eor its supposed British and Roman names see Chap. I. 
of this work, in which will also be found notices of its Saxon name 
Mame-ceaster ; while its Anglo-Norman and English name for centuries 
is that giving title to this book Mame-cestre. Proofs of this occur 
on almost every page throughout the work. 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 587 

Marshal Field, or Master-Field, in Manchester, site not known. 
Maister-felde, 320. Mare-shal feld, Marstis-feld, Mancstu-hold (? 
error), 322. Marshal-feld, 514 [it was then held by Sir John Bothe 
of Sir Thomas la Warre] ; 564. ? From Maister (A), the most or 
largest ; the master ; or Mare-schall (JV), a horse-keeper. A "William 
le Mareschal held a plot of land in Deansgate, and also a burgage in 
Manchester in 379. Whether the real meaning be the largest field, the 
master's field, or the marshal's field, must remain a question. 

Medlock, the river, which rises in Saddleworth, Yorkshire, runs in a 
south-westerly direction, and after having been increased by several 
brooks, empties itself into the Irwell in Hulme, Manchester, near the 
Bridgewater canal, to which it is a feeder. Mede-lac, s.d., 334. Mede- 
loke, 320. Mede-lake, 322. JfromMed (J5), complete, full, and llwch 
(JB), loch ( Gael.), lake or pool. The full lake or pool. (Rev. J". Davies.} 

MELLOE, a township in the parish and four miles N."W. of Blackburn. 
Meller in Blackburnshire, 473. From Maelawr (B\ a mart or market. 
(Rev. J". Davies.) 

Mel-shaw-Lache, ? between Stretford and Chorlton-Hardy. Mel- 
sche-lache, 320. Mel-sthel-lache and Mel-stho-lache, 322. Mols-frel- 
lache and Men-shal-lache, 322. Mars leach, 322., [This last was the 
recent name of a small stream passing through Chorlton-Hardy, and 
giving name to a hamlet therein, now called Martledge. Mr. J. Higsonl\ 
The varying and perplexing orthography will only permit the suggestions 
of the Mill-shaw, the Minshull, the Mickle, or the Mersey Lache. 

Mersey, the river, is formed by the junction of the streams Etherow 
and G-oyt, near Marple, Cheshire, whence it flows westward, and near 
Stockport is joined by the river Tame, and thence it becomes the boun- 
dary between Lancashire and Cheshire to the sea at Liverpool. Mer- 
see, 320. Mer-sye, 320. Mer-se, 322. ? From Mercia or meres (A), 
boundaries ; and ea (A), water. The water-mere or river boundary of 
the old kingdom of Mercia, on the north, separating it from the kingdom 
of Northumbria. 

Mere Brook, which falls into the Tame near its confluence with the 



588 MAMECESTEE. 

Mersey. Mere-broke, 320, 322, The boundary brook, it being one of 
the meres or bounds of the demesne or lordship of Manchester. [Mr. 
J. Higson, of Droylsden, says this is now called the Black Brook near 
its source, and Cringle Brook, lower down.] 

Mere Clough, between Reddish and Heat on Norris. There is another 
Mereclough near Roy ton, named in a deed of 320. Mere-clou and 
Mere-clowe, 320. Mere clou, 322. From Meare (-4), a mere or 
boundary, and Cleofa (A), a clough or cleft rock or hill. 

Mere Shaw Clough, near the Irk and Alkrington. Mere-schaghe- 
cloue, 320. Mere-sham-ton (? error), 322. See Mere Clough. This 
would seem to be the clough of the boundary Avood-clearing. 

Mere-stone the, or Blue-stone, on the boundary between the demesne 
of Manchester and the township of [Reddish. Mere-stone and Blew- 
stone, at Reddish, 322. See Blew-stone. The meaning obvious. 

Mickle- Muckle- or Milk-wall- [or Nicker and Nicko] Ditch, a 
brook which rises between Grorton and Denton, passing between Grorton 
and Reddish and Grorton and Levenshulme, and enters the Grore Brook 
near Birch Church. Michel-ditch, 320. Muchil-dich, 322. Mikel- 
diche, 320. From Micel, mucel (A, pronounced mickle, muckle), great, 
much, and Die (A}, a ditch, trench, or moat. The great ditch. This 
may have been the Milk- wall- ditch, and was corruptly called the Nicko 
or Mcker Ditch. 

MIDDLETON, a parish, market town and township, six miles W.N.E. 
of Manchester. Midel-ton, 230, 341, 351. Midle-ton, 313, 338, 
342, B. 432, 437. Myddle-ton, B. Middle-ton, 362. The middle 
tun or habitation ; ? midway between Manchester and Rochdale. 

Michel or Muchel Mede, in Cuerdley. Michel-mede and Muchel- 
mede, 322. The large meadow. 

Middle Brook, ? in Manchester, site not known. Midle-broc, 587. 
Meaning obvious. 

Middle Wood, in Hulton. Midel-woode, 320. Midle-wood and 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 589 

Middle- wood, 322. Middels- and Mi dies-wood in Hulton, 473. Mean- 
ing obvious. 

Milkwall Slade, afterwards Slade, in the townships of Withington and 
!Rusholme. Milke-wal-slade, 320. Milk- wall- slade, s.d., 577. Mylk- 
walle-slade, 580. Milke-walle-slade, 584. Milkwall-slade, 588, 616. 
The Slade estate (24a. in Eusholme and 20. in Grorton) was bought in 
584 by Edward Syddall, yeoman, from Ralph Slade. The present house, 
Slade Hall, was built in 585. From Sl&d (A), a low, flat, marshy 
ground. The milky-well, or mickle-well, flat or slade. 

Milne Furlong, ? site not known. Mila-fesharh (? error), 230. 
Milne-furlange, 230. From Miln {A}, a mill, &&& furlong (A), furlong ; 
formerly a square as well as a long measure of land. 

Milne-Biding the, in Heaton Norris. Milne-ridyng and Mil-riding, 
282. ? From Hredding (^), a ridding or clearing, especially of timber 
or land. The mill clearing. 

Mill- ward- Croft. There were two crofts so named in Manchester, 
sites not known ; one perhaps in Grarrett. Miln-warde-crofte and Mil- 
ward-croft, 282. Muln-ward-croft, 322. Myl-warde-crofte, 473. The 
Mill-wardes Croffces were bought by Walter Nugent of Ealph Hulme, 
gent., in 611. From Mylen-weard, mylen-wyrd (A), one who takes care 
of a mill, and Croft (A), a small inclosure near a building. The mill- 
keeper's croft or little field. 

The Misies or Musics, in or near Strangeways, Manchester. Misies 
le, 320, and 322. Musie le, 322. ? From Meos (A), or Mousse 
(French), a moss. 

Monithornes, in Eccles. Moni-thornes, 320. From Monig (A), 
many, and thorn (A), in the plural ; many thorns. 

MORTON, a hamlet in the township of Barton and parish of Eccles, 
five miles west of Manchester. Maun-ton, 277. Mawyn-ton, 292. 
Maun-ton, B. 320, 322, 589, 599. Mounlon (? error), 322. Mane- 
ton, 322. The monks of Stanlawe, afterwards of Whalley, had a grange 



590 MAMECESTRE. 

or farm in Monton in 277. Hence the name may have been Monk-tun ; 
or it may be from Mawan (A), to mow. 

MOSTON, a township in the parish and four miles N.E. from Manches- 
ter. Mos-ton, 320, 322, 427, 473, 501. The habitation by the Moss. 

Moss-SiDE, a township in the parish of and two miles S. from Man- 
chester. [There is also a hamlet of this name in the township of Droyls- 
den, four miles east of Manchester, on the western edge of Ashton 
Moss.] The Mosse-Side, 585. Many small places on the borders of 
the Lancashire Mosses have this name. 

Moss Ditch, in Crumpsall. Mosse-dyche, 320. Moss-dich and 
Mose-dich, 322. The ditch from the neighbouring moss. 

Mossy Halgh, in Farnworth. Mosi-halughe in Farnworth, 320. 
? Prom Haugh, how, (&?.), a hill. The mossy-hill. 

Nether Draught-gate, site unknown. See Draught-gate. 

Nether Wood, in Cuerdley. Netherwood, 322, From Nether (A), 
lower, down. The lower wood. 

New Carr, a plot of pasture in Cuerdley. New Carr and New 
Morres, 322. Either meaning obvious. 

New Field, in Heaton Norris. Newfelt, 320. Meaning obvious. 

New Ham or Holme, ? site not known. Newhume, 320. Newham, 
322. Either meaning obvious. 

New. Flecks, a plot of pasture in Cuerdley. New Flecks and New 
Plecke, 322. From Pl&c (A), a street, open place, or plot. 

NEWSHAM, a township with Goosnargh in the parish of Kirkham, 
nine miles N.N.E. of Freston. News-am, 230. From Niwe (A), new, 
and ham (A), a home or dwelling. 

NEWTON HEATH, a chapelry in the parish and two miles N.E. of 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 591 

Manchester. New-ton, s.d., 320, 359, 473, 577. Among places named 
in Newton, are: Shite-fald-clogh, s.d. Black-lach, s.d. Kirk-sagh s.d. 

NEWTON-IN-MACKERFIELD, formerly a borough, now a chapelry, in 
the parish of Winwick, five miles north of Warrington. Newton-in- 
Makerfield, 362. See Mackerfield. 

Nicker or Nicko Ditch, see Mickle Ditch. 

North Deyne or Dene, in Prestwich. North dene in Prestwich, 320. 
[T)eyne Hall, the ancient residence of the rectors of Prestwich, was 
taken down in 1837.] The north dale or small vale or shelter. , 

Nuthurst, an estate in Most on. Nuthurst and Nuthurste, 320. 
Notehurst, 322, Nuthurst, I. 501, 623. Nuthurst Mosse, 320, 322, 
(? now Hale Moss). From Hnut (A), a nut, and Hyrst (^4), a little 
wood or thicket, inclosing nut trees, hip, and haw bushes, &c. ; the nut 
wood or copse. Nutshaw (the nut wood-clearing), is the name of a 
hamlet in the parish of "Whalley. 

Oaken Ley, a plot of wood (afterwards six messuages), in Horwich. 
Oken-ley ("a plot of wood in Horwich"), 320, 322, ("six messuages in 
Horwich"), 473. Meaning obvious. 

OLDHAM, a chapelry in the parish of Prestwich- cum- Oldham, seven 
miles N.E. of Manchester. Old-ham, B. 322. Old-ome, 320. From 
Aid (A), old, and Mm (A), a dwelling, 

Openshaw, a township in the parish and three miles east of Manches- 
ter. Opyn-sawe, Open-sawe, Opin-schawe, Opin-shale, and Open-sae, 
282. Opon-schaghe, 320. Open-shagh, Ope-shawe, and Opene- 
schaghe, 322. Open-shaw, 473, and I. 501. Open-schagh Moor, 322. 
The open shaw or glade in the wood. 

ORDSAL, a hamlet in the township of Salford and parish of Manches- 
ter (formerly a mesne manor), two miles west of Manchester. Horde- 
shall (" manor of"), 251. Ord-shall, 302. Ord-sall and Frd-sale, 311. 
Oard-sall, Urd-sale, Horde -shall, B. Orde-shall, 34, 33<>- Ord-sall, 



592 MAMECESTBE. 

358. Orde-salle, I. 375. Ord-shall, 473. Ord-sal, 589. From Orde 
(A}, a proper name, or Ord (A), a point or edge ; the first or original : 
and sal (A), a hall. The hall of Orde, or at the point or edge [of the 
river Irwell]. 

Osecroft, near Aldport, Manchester, one of the several names for the 
Brend-orchard, "Wall- Greens, or Ese-croft (which see). Ose-croffc and 
Ese-croft, 322. Ouse-croft, 396. From Ost, JEst (A), East. This 
East Croft was east of Aldport. If it be Ouse, it is the Saxonised Usa 
from Use (B), water, a stream ; the river croft ; and it bordered the 
Irwell. 


Over Draught Grate, in Manchester; see Draught- Grate. 

Oxwell or Oxwall ; the head of this place was between Manchester 
and Chetham. Ox-walle, 320, 322. Oxe-wall, 322. The Ox- well 
or spring. 

PAKBOLD, a township in the parish of Eccleston, four miles west of 
Standish. Par-bold, 230, 322, B. 351, 473. Pare-bolde and Pro- 
bold, 230. Per-bald, 282, 349, 362, 473. Per-blat, 320. Par-bald, 
322, 473. ? From Pera (A), a pear, and lold, lolt, lotl (A), village or 
house. Or from Paro (Old High Grerman), a hilly grove, and botl, a 
dwelling. 

PENDLEBTTBY, a township in the parish of Eccles, four miles N".W. of 
Manchester. Pen-nil-burie, 230. Penne-hul-bury and Pen-ul-bury, 
B. Pen-dil-burie, 320. Pen-ul-bery, 354. From Pen (B), a head 
or hill, Hul (A), a hill, and BurJi, By rig (A), a town, castle, or fort. 
The old significance of Pen being lost, Hul was suffixed by later dwellers ; 
both terms meaning the same thing in diiFerent languages. The name 
as a whole, and freed from surplusage, probably indicates a fort on a hill 
or headland. 

PEKDLETON, a chapelry in the parish of Eccles, two miles "W.N/W. 
of Manchester. [There is another chapelry of this name in the parish 
of "Whalley, named from Pendle Hill.] Pen-il-ton, Pen-nel-ton, 230. 
Penne-hul-ton, B. Pen-hul-ton, 351. Pendle-ton, B. From Pen 
(B), a head or hill, Hul (A), a hill, and tun. 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 593 

PENKETH, a township in the parish of Prescot, three miles west of 
Warrington. Penk-et, 230. Penk-eth, 362. ? Prom Penig, peninc 
(A), a penny; or Pang (A), poison, and lieih (A), heath. Or the first 
syllable may be Pen (), a head or summit. 

Pentifox or Penlifox, a parcel of land in Manchester, site not known. 
Pent-i-foxe, or Pen-li-foxe, 473. Can this be some corruption of Pen- 
tice [i.e. Pent-house] or Pentecost ? 

Peyfin or Peyten Gate, near Eeddish and Heaton Norris, site not 
known. Pey-fin-gate, 320. Pey-tenen-yate, 322. ? From Pefen (A), 
a proper name (as Pefens-ea, Peven's Isle, now Pevensey, Sussex) ; or 
from Penniga (F), to pay, qr.d., a toll or pay-gate. Mr. John Higson, 
of Droylsden, states that this neighbourhood now bears the name of 
Pink-pank-lane ; the second syllable of which seems merely a jingle in 
imitation of some lost form. One of the old spellings suggests Peat- 
Ingate. There were two Pin-gates, near Ordsall and Pendleton. But 
the derivation is altogether obscure. 

PILKIN GTOF, a township in the parish of Prestwich-cum-Oldham, six 
miles N.W. of Manchester. Pilkin-ton, 230, 322. Pakin-ton, 230. 
Pilkyn-ton, 282, 359. Pilking-ton, 282, 320, 322, 346, 349, 362. 
Pylking-ton, 301, B., 351. Pilkering-ton, 311. Pilken-ton, 473. 
The tun (A), or abode of the Pilkmgas, an old Saxon family or mark. 
Tradition says that a Pilkington fought under Harold's banner at the 
Battle of Hastings. 

Pillingsworth Fields, ? in Blakeley. Pillings- worth Fields, 473. 
? The land, farm or estate of a Pilling, and the fields appurtenant. 

PRESTON, a borough, market town, parish and township, twenty- two 
miles south of Lancaster, and thirty-three N.KW. of Manchester. 
Preston, s.d., 179, 328, 359, 362. From Preost (A), a Priest, and tun. 

PBESTWICH, a parish with Oldharn, and a township, four miles 
N.N.W. of Manchester. Prest-wyche, 230, 301, B. 341. Prest-wich, 
Prest-wick, B. Prest-wyke, 291. Of places named in Prestwich are 

VOL. in. 4 G 



594 MAMECESTRE. 

North Deyne, 320 ; Boden (whence Booden Lane), 340. From Preost 
(A), a priest ; and there are various names of places in Lancashire into 
which this word enters, as Pres-cot, Pres-ton, Priest-Hutton, near Lan- 
caster, and perhaps Prees-sall, near Garstang. WicTi (Old Germ.) is 
equivalent to wic (A), wik (F), a dwelling or place of abode. The 
retention of this form, instead of the Anglo-Saxon or Eriesic, shows that 
a different tribe stamped their speech upon the names of Prest-wich, 
Hor-wich, &c. 

Pull or Pool Green, ? in Barton (where are Pull Moss and Pull-Fold). 
Pulle-grene and Pulle-grenes, 322. From Pul,pol (-4), a pool, whence 
a reed was called a pull-spere. The Pool green. 

Pyecroft, in Manchester, site not known. Py-croft, Pye-croft, 322, 
514, 564. It was held in 514 by Sir John Bothe of Thomas Lord la 
Warre. ? From Pye (N), worse, or Pi, Pie (_ZV), a well ; or from Pye 
, the magpie, and croft (A), a small field. 



BADCLIFFE, a parish and township, seven and a half miles N."W. of 
Manchester. Bade-clive, 086, 282, 320. Eade-clyf, 341. Bad-cliff, 
B. Bat-cliffe, 517. Usually supposed to be Bed-cliff, from the red 
sandstone. But perhaps from Hade (A), a road or way, and clif(A), a 
cliff; the cliff-road, or road by the cliff. The old form was Olive, as 
Bade-clive ; Cunde-clive, now Cunliffe. 

Badley or Bidley Wood, in Horwich, site not known. Bade-ley and 
Byde-ley, 422. Bydd-ley wood, in Horwich, 473. The ridded or 
cleared ley in the wood, or the wood by the cleared ley. There was a 
Badley or Bodley, near Ordsall and Pendleton. 

Bakes the, ? in Heat on Norris. [There was also a hamlet called 
Bakes, in the township of Great Lever, a mile and a half south of 
Bolton.] Bakes the, 320. ? From Haca, race (A), a rake, or reac (A), 
a reek or smoke. But Hake, in the north of England, has several other 
meanings, as a rut, crack, or crevice, a mine or quarry, a narrow course 
or path. The last is perhaps the most probable meaning. A narrow, 
steep path near Keswick, by which the Countess of Derwentwater fled, 
is still called " The Lady's Bake." 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 595 

BEDDISH, a township in the parish and five miles S.E. of Man- 
chester. Be-diche, 230. Bedich, B. 523. Be-dyche, Bedishe, and 
Be-dyshe, 320. By-dich, B. Bedish 322, 578. Bed-wyche, 341. 
Beddish, 559. It has been supposed that this was called the red ditch, 
from some battle between the Saxons and the Danes. But the old 
etymologies are more in favour of the reed or reedy ditch. 

Bede-broke, near Crumpsall, site uncertain. Bede-broke, 320. Bed- 
broke, 322. There was Bed-broc near "Werneth. The reed or reedy 
brook. 

Bidding Bank, a close in Manchester, site not known. Bidding- 
banke, 433. Biddinge-bruke (? error), 473. The clearing bank. See 
also " Bank the," and Bydern Brook. 

BIVIN aTON, a chapelry in the parish and six miles N."W. of Bolton. 
Bu-win-ton, 230. Buh-win-ton, 230. Bo-win-ton, 230. Boving- 
ton, Bovinge-ton, and Bugh-yn-ton, B. Boving-ton, 394, 408, 430, 
475? 5 IT > 5 2I > 53 8 - Places named in Bivington are Chapel Croft, 475. 
Little Boving-ton, 511. ? From Euh (^4), rough, and Winton (A), the 
old name of Winchester. Or from jRofen (A), riven, cleft. (Refian A, 
to rob or spoil). The high peak which appears to give the place its 
name was formerly called Ryven Pike ; now Bivington Pike. Pic, Pig 
(_B), is a pointed end or beak ; Pike or peak has long meant in England 
the pointed or peaked top of a hill. So this hill's name doubtless meant 
the cleft or split summit or hill, and that of the town at its foot, the 
dwelling by such cleft peak. 

BTXTON or BISHTON, a township in the parish and three miles E.N.E. 
of Blackburn. Bix-ton, 230, 362. From Eix (A), a rush. The rushy 
tun or dwelling. 

BOCHDALE, a parish and market town, eleven miles N.N.E. of Man- 
chester. Beced-ham, 086. Batche-dale, 311. Bache-dale, 362. 
Boch-dale, B. Boche-dale, 341. ? From Boch, Boach or Bache, the 
river, of Racu (A), a flood. Or from Eakud (Old Saxon), a baronial 
seat. At the Domesday Survey a Saxon thane held Bochdale. The 
modern name is simply the dale or vale of the Boch. 



596 MAMECESTRE. 

ROYTON, a chapelry in the parish of Prestwich-cum-Oldhani, two 
miles north of Oldham. Ry-ton, B. Ry-ton, Ruy-ton, 581. ? From 
Rige, Jtyge (A), rye, or RiJi (A\ hairy, rough ; and tun. 

RTJMWOBTH, a township in the parish of Dean, a mile and a half 
S.~W. of Bolton. Rum-he-worthe, 230. Rome-worthe, Reme-worthe, 
282. Rom- worth, 351, 362, B. Rume-worth, Rum- worth, 320. 
Rum-worth, 322. Roms- worth, 346. Rom-worthe, 362. Rum- 
worthe, 473. ? From Rum (A), roomy, wide, broad, open, spacious; 
and worihig (A), land, a farm or estate, &c. The broad land or farm. 
The wide street or way. 

RFSHOLME, a township in the parish and two miles S.S.E. of Man- 
chester. Ryss-ham ? 316. Rys-um Bridge, 320. Ryss-um, Riss- 
um, 473. Ris-holm, 564. Ris-hulm, 546. Ris-ham, 581. Ris- 
holme, 588. ? From Rise (A), a rush ; also the marshy ground where 
rushes grow (J~. M. Kemble). Rusce (A), probably soft, marshy ground. 
(J5.) The rushy holm, flat, or river meadow. A rivulet which rises in 
Audenshaw, runs in a south-westerly course through part of the parish 
of Manchester, and through the township of Rusholme, and falls into 
the Mersey near Stretford, bears the name of the Rush. There still 
exists Rush-ford. 

Rydern Brook, ? in Manchester, site not known. Rydern-broke, 
320, 322. There was a Ryton (Ruyton) Brook. ? From Ryden (J.), 
the red rape or darnel; or Ruding, Ryding (A), a clearing. 

SALFOED, a borough, market town and township in the parish of 
Manchester, from which city it is separated by the river Irwell, so as to 
form a western suburb of Manchester; anciently approached thence 
only by one bridge, called the Salford Bridge, nearly on the site of the 
Victoria Bridge. Now it is connected with Manchester by three prin- 
cipal and some smaller bridges. Sal-ford, 086, B., 320, 322, 341, 
Sale-forde, 230, 320. Sal-forde, 320. Salt-ford, 230, 282. Sal-fforde, 
231. Sal-forthe, B. Sal-forth, 506. From Sal (A), black, dark- 
coloured; or from Salh, Salig (A), a sallow or willow; scarcely from 
Sealt (A), salt. The ancient orthographies seem to point chiefly to the 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 597 

willow ford, or the dark ford. Sal (Old High German), Sele (A), a 
seat or dwelling, a hall (JRev. J". Dames) . But " Sal, as a prefix, never 
means hall or guest-chamber; but always a sallow-tree or willow, as 
Salford." (Mr. J". Just.) 

Salter-gate or Salters-gate, ? between "Withington and Heaton Norris, 
site not known. [Mr. J. Higson, of Droylsden, says it is now Thome- 
ley Lane ; but ? whether Burnage or Slade Lane is not more in the line. 
There was also a " Saltes-gate, near Beswick and Bradford, s.d.~\ Salter- 
gate (the bound " between Withington and Heaton"), 320. Salter-yate 
and Salters-gate, 322. See Note 76, p. 428. ? Prom Saltern, (A), a 
salt -pit, or place for salt, and G-eat, gat (A), a gate, cattle-way or en- 
rance ; or gath (A), a going. Or from Sealtere (A), a salter ; the Salters' 
Road or the way to the salt-pits. 

Salt-lode, ? in Cuerdley, site not known. 322. ? The way for carts 
laden with salt from the Cheshire wyches. 

Samland, a plot in Manchester, site not known. Sam-land, 282. 
From Sam (A), semi, half. A half-land, a land being that piece of 
unploughed ground which lies between the furrows in a ploughed field. 

Schirer, water of, ? near Manchester, site not known. Schirer 
("midstream of"), 334. From Scir, scyr (A), a divider, a shire or 
division. Or from Scira (A), pure, clear. Thus scyre water, a pure 
water ; Scir lurna (Sherburne), a clear river. It has been suggested 
that this may probably be the old name of Shooter's Brook. 

Sharpen-ley, a plot of moor in Horwich. Sharpen-ley and Sharp- 
dale, 322. From Scearp (A), sharp, sour, and leak, a ley or field. The 
sour-field. May not Sharpies (q.d. Sharp leys) be another form of 
Sharpen-ley ? 

SHABPLES, a township in the parish and three miles north of Bolton. 
Chappies, 230. Sharp-les, 320, 327, 427. Sharp-lus, 473. For deri- 
vation see Sharpen-ley. 

Shaw the, and Shaw Head, in Heaton Norris, site not known. 



598 MAMECESTRE. 

Schawe the, 320. Schawe-hede-le, 320. The head of the shaw, or 
wood-glade or clearing. 

SHOLYEB, a hamlet in the township and parish, and three miles N.E. 
of the town of Oldham. Chol-ler, B. ? From Sciol (-B, pronounced 
shol), head, and vawr (B), great. (Rev . John Davies.) The hamlet 
takes its name from a hill. 

Shoresworth, an estate including a mansion and sixty acres in the 
manor of Ordsal and township of Pendlebury. ? Chades-worth, 230. 
Soresworthe, Shores- word, Shores-worde, 282. Schores-worth, 320, 
Shoresworth, B. 589. Showers-worth ("in the vill of Pendlebury"), 
599. From Shore, Sore (A\ a deep dell, issuing from a dene or bottom, 
and running very abruptly into the surrounding hilly ground, as at 
Helmshore. (Mr. J. Just.) 

Slive Hall, ? in Pendlebury, site not known. Slive-halle, 230. ? 
From Slifan (A), to cleave, to split. 

SMITHELLS or SMITHILLS (also called Smithells Dean), a hamlet in 
the township of Halliwell and parish of Dean, five miles N. W. of Bolton. 
Smithells Hall is in this hamlet. Smyth-el, 320. Sultoc [? error], 
Smith -ell, 322. ? From Smtede (A), smooth; or Smith (A), a smith, 
carpenter or workman ; and leak (A), ley ; or hill. 

Smith Field, or Smithy Field, a close in Manchester, site not known. 
Smithin-feld, Smythe-feld, 322. Smith-feld, 427. Smithie-field, Smith- 
fielde, 473. From Smith, Smithe (A), smithy or smith's forge or work- 
shop. 

Sohacre, a plot in Manchester, site not known. Soh-acre, s.d. ? Soc- 
acer (A), the exempt or privileged acre; or, Sloh-acer (A), the slough 
acre ; or perhaps Sour Acre. 

Sporthe, or Sperthe, the, ? site not known. Sporthe le, Sperthe the, 
282. ? From Sprit (A), sprouted, budded; or from spyrd (-4), a 
measure of ground containing six hundred and twenty-five feet or one 
hundred and twenty-eight paces ; the old Eoman stadium. 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 599 

SPOTLAKD, a township in the parish, and forming part of the town, 
of Eochdale, to the north. Spot-land, 311. From the stream or river 
Spod or Spodden ; the land by the Spodden. 

STOCKPOBT, a borough and market town, partly in Cheshire, and 
partly (Heaton-Norris, &c., north of the Mersey) in the parish of Man- 
chester, in Lancashire, six miles south of Manchester. Stoke-port s.d. 
Stop-ford, 334. From Stoc, stocce (A), a stock, trunk, block or stick ; 
also a place ; hence Stoke, Woodstock, &c. The town-place. There 
seems also to have been a ford over the Mersey here. 

STRAIN GEWAYS, a hamlet in the township of Chetham, parish of Man- 
chester, and adjoining Manchester on the north. Strang-wich and 
Strang-wish, v.d. Strang-was, 320. Strang-ways, 322, 547. Strange- 
wayes, 556. Strang-wayes Halle, 546. Strang-waies, 541, 545, 590. 
Strang-wayes ("manor, mansion and demesnes"), 5*4? 5 6 9- ? From 
Strang (A), strong, rigid, and wag (A), way. The strong, stiff, or 
hard ways. " This name marked the line of a Eoman road, meaning 
' the way of the stranger.' " (Rev. Edmimd SibsonJ) 

STBETFOBD, a chapelry in the parish and four miles S/W. of Man- 
chester. Stret-ford (a " vill ") s.d. Strete-forde, 230. Stret-forde, 
320, Stret-ford, 341. From Street (A), a street, way, or road, and 
Ford (A), a ford or way through shallow water. " Street " in any 
local name marks the site of a Eoman road. At Stret-ford was an 
ancient ford over the Mersey. 

Stretford Erook, in Stretford. Stret-forde-broke, 320. Stret-ford- 
broke, 322. This would be the brook by the ford at the old Eoman 
road. 

Sunderland, a small manor ? in Clayton, Droylsden. Sunder-land, 
473. Synder-land, 564, 574. In Danish districts Sunder-land would 
mean the Southern lands ; elsewhere, it denotes land sundered or set 
apart for special purposes. ( J. M Kemble.) This must be distinguished 
from Cinderland (a name borne by several places in Lancashire), which 
is probably from Cynder (B), the principal or head land. 



600 MAMECESTRE. 

Tame, the river, rises in the wild moors of Saddleworth, Yorkshire, 
enters Lancashire at Mossley, and thence forms the boundary line from 
Cheshire, running in a S . W. direction through Staleybridge to Ashton- 
under-Lyne, Denton, Haughton and Eeddish, and soon afterwards 
joining the Mersey at Stockport. Tame, 320. Prom Tom, Taw (.5), 
Tame, Thame, a river or stream, whence the Thames, the Tamar, &c. 
The British words also mean quiet, still, applied probably as charac- 
teristic of the stream so named. 

TAKBOCK, a township in the parish of Huyton, four miles S.S.~W. of 
Prescot. [Little Tarbock is a hamlet within this township.] Thor- 
boc, 230. Tor-boc, 362. ? From Twr (J5), Tor (A), a tower, rock, or 
peak, and beacn (A), a beacon. Probably a beacon tower. 

Tenterleaher, a parcel of land in Manchester, site not known. 
Tenter-leaher, 473. ? Prom Teon, teohhian (A, to stretch, to pull, to 
draw; whence teltre, A, a tenter-hook), and leaker, ? fields ; perhaps 
the tenter-fields or bleach-crofts. 

Thorl Clough, ? near Greenlowe, Grorton. Thorl-cloughe, 334. 
Erom. Thirlen (A), pierced or perforated; thyrel (A), a hole; the 
pierced or bored clough. 

THORSTHAM, a township in the parish of Middleton, three miles south 
ofE/ochdale. Thurn-ham, 338. Thorn-am, 342. Quitaker (" in the 
hamlet of Thornham"), 338. Meaning obvious. 

TILDE SLET, a township in the parish of Leigh, twelve miles west of 
Manchester. Tildis-ley, Tydes-ley, 230. Tildes-legh, 362. From 
Titian (A), to till. ? The tilled ley, The s is not accounted for, but 
the not distant township of Worsley was formerly called the Wbrked- 
ley, and was sometimes spelled Workeds-ley. 

Tin Croft, ? in Manchester, site not known. Tinne-croft, Tynne- 
croft, 322. Erom Tin (A), tin, or Tynde (A), inclosed. The Tin 
croft or inclosed croft. 

TOCKHOLES, a chapelry in the parish and four miles south of Black- 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 601 

burn. Tock-hole, B. ? From To-haccan (A), to hack in two, to cut 
down, and Hoi (A), a hole or bottom. The cut or hacked hollows. 



, a township in the parish of Prestwich-cum-Oldham, adjoining 
Middleton on the south. Tange, 230. Tong-more ("in Prestwich"), 
569. ? From Tung (A}, tonge (F\ the tongue; or Ton, Tang (4), 
tongs ; or perhaps the tun-weg or town- way. 

TOTTI^GTON, a royal manor (of the honour of Clitheroe), consisting 
of Tottington-Higher-End, a township five and a half miles north of 
Bury, and Tottington-Lower-End, a chapelry two and a half miles 
N.W. of Bury, and both in the parish of Bury. Totin-ton, 230, 262. 
Toting-ton, B. Totyng-ton, 341. Places in Tottington in 307 : To- 
ting-ton frith, Mose-bery Park, Eoland clogh, Eagged Birch, Ugge- 
den-broc, Holle-holme. From Totingas (A), the name of a community 
or mark, and tun (A), their dwelling-place. 

TRAITORD, OLD, a hamlet in the township of Stretford and parish of 
Manchester, two miles S.~W. of Manchester. [Trafford Park and 
demesne, the ancient seat of the Traffords, is in the township of Barton 
and parish of Eccles, about five miles west of Manchester.] Traf- 
furthe, B. Trat-forde (? Stret-ford), B. Traf-forde, 320. Traf-ford, 
322. ? From Treow, tryw (A), a tree; or Threo, tliry (A), three ; or 
Threat (A), a swarm, band, or troop; or TJirydda (A), third, and 
Ford {A), a ford. The Tre"e or Troop ford, or the three fords or third 
ford. 

Turf Pits, the, between Heaton Norris and Eeddish, " where the lane 
ceases to be the boundary." ( Mr. J. Higson of Droylsden.) Turre- 
pittes, the, 320. From Turf (A}, turf or peat, and Pyt (A}, a pit. 

TURTON, a chapelry in the parish and four miles north of Bolton. 
Tur-ton, 230. Ter-ton, Tor-ton, Tur-ton, 282. Tur-ton, B., 320, 322, 
473. Tour-ton, 322, 351. Places in Turton in 1297 : Birch- Wode, 
Eed-clogh head, a fosse and a torrent. From Twr (B), Tur, tor (A), a 
tower, and tun. The tower- dwelling. Turton Tower is still a tall 
tower of four storeys, with an embattled parapet. 

III. 4 H 



602 MAMECESTRE. 

Twart Ford, or Twantir Ford, ? a plot of land in Manchester or 
Ardwick, site not known. Twantir-ford, 282. Twart-ford, 322. 
? From TJiweorh (A), athwart, crooked; the crooked or skew ford. 

UNSWOETH, a hamlet in the township of Pilkington and parish of 
Prestwich, three miles S.S.E. of Bury. Undes-worth, 320, 322. 
? From Uhde (A), a proper name, in the possessive case, and weortk 
(A), a farm or property. 

UEMSTOIS', a township in the parish of Flixton five miles S.W. of 
Manchester. Est-ton [? Orme-est-ton, or Orme's ton], 230. Ormes- 
ton, B. From the Scandinavian proper name Orme, for Wurm, 
? Orme's tun or Orm-East-town. There are also in Lancashire 
Orme's-kirk, and Orme's-gill, near Furness. 

Walleby or Watteby, ? in Cuerdley, site not known. Watte-by, 
Wai-bye, 322. ? The WaU or Well ley or field. 

Wall Greens, another name for the Brend Orchard, or the Ese or 
Ose Croft, Manchester (which see). Walle-grenes, 320. Walle- 
greene, 322. The first syllable, according to its derivation from one 
or other of several Anglo-Saxon words, may mean the wall, the well or 
spring, the weald or wood, or the field greens, most likely the Well 
or Spring Greens. 

WaU OP Well Lode, in Cuerdley. Walle-lode, Walle-led, 322. The 
Wall or Well cart-road or ford. 

Warche, Ward, or Warthe, the, ? a pasture in Cuerdley. [There 
was a Warthe, in Ordsall or Pendleton, in 634.] Warche, Warde, the, 
282. Warthe, the, 320. Warche-ley-side, 322. Warch-bisi-bee (? 
error), 322. ? From Wearc (A), work ; or Wprd, weard (A), a guard 
or keeper. Derivation doubtful ; but probably the same meaning as 
Garth, yard. 

WAETOIT, a chapelry in the parish and three miles S.S.W. of Kirk- 
ham. Ware-ton, B. ? From War (A), seaweed, or Ware (A), 
merchandise, and tun. 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 603 

Werneth, an estate or district (including the hill called Werneth 
Lowe) in Oldham. Wern-yt, s.d. Wern-eth, B. Places named as 
in "Werneth, are : the Red-broc, Stani-broc, the Bred-lew, Brad- 
ley, Bred-lew-clogh, and Lam-clogh, all s.d.; and Bright-docke, 320. 
?*From weorn (A), decayed, and hetJi (A), heath ; or " from gwern (B), 
a watery or swampy meadow ; also the alder-tree, which grows in such 
places." (Rev. J. Davies.) 

WESTHOTJGHTON, a chapelry in the parish of Dean, five miles north 
of Leigh. "West-halgh-ton, 320. West-halch-ton, "West-hough-ton 
and West-hal-ton, 322. West-hough-ton, 473. Weste-hag-ton, 473. 
From Halig, halic (A), holy, or Haugh (A), a valley-meadow. Pro- 
bably called West Houghton to distinguish it from Little Houghton, a 
hamlet in the township of Worsley; or from " Long-Est-Halghton," 
which see. 

"White Acres or "Whitacres, eighteen acres of land in Manchester, 
site not known, (given by Albert Grrelle to the Monks of Swineshead 
Abbey, Lincolnshire.) "Wyth-acres, 230. Whyte-acre, 320. Qwyt- 
acres-ford, 334. ? From Withig (A), the withy or sallow-tree. It 
may be the Withy-acres, the Wheat-acres, or the White-acres. 

White Field or Wych Field, site not known. Wich-feild, B. Whit- 
field, 514. Whit-feld, 535. If Wich field be correct, it may be from 
the Wych (A) or mountain-ash. 

White Moss, an extensive morass near Aldington, but partly in the 
townships of Blakeley and Moston. Whit, White, Whyte-Moss, 322. 
Meaning obvious. 

Wickleswick or Quickleswick, an estate, formerly a hamlet, now 
covered by Trafford Park ; the name still preserved in Wickleswick 
Wood in that park. Whikels-wike, Wykeles-wike, 320. Wiggles- 
wyke, Wychles-wike, Whickels-wicke, 322, Wikel-wicke, Wickels- 
wicke, 577, Whitle-wick, 591. ? From Quice (A, pronounced Quitch), 
quitch-grass, leaks, leys or fields, and wic, a dwelling or cluster of 
dwellings. 



604 MAMECESTRE. 



, a borough, market-town, parish and township, twelve miles 
north of Warrington. Wig-an, 246. ? From Wigan, wiggan (.4), to 
war, to fight. Wigan and its neighbourhood have been the fields of 
several battles between the Britons and the Saxons. 

Wild Boar's Clough or Great Hordern, a plot of moorland in 
Horwich. Wild-bores-clou, Wyld-bur-floure (? error), 322. The 
Wild Boar's Clough. (See also Hordern.) 

Wilderhurst, a plot of woodland in Horwich. " Wilder Lads " is 
the name for a pile of stones on one of the summits of Horwich Moor.] 
Wilder-hurst, 322. ? From Wild-deor (A), a wild beast, and hurst (-4), 
a wooded incline. 

Windle, site not known. [There was a Windle-hey in Salford.] 
Wynd-ul, Wynd-el, 230. Winde-hulle, 362. The winding or windy 
hill. 

Withenerod or Egburden, a plot of moorland in Horwich. Withene- 
rod, 322. ? From Withig (A}, the withig or sallow. ",Withen-greave " 
was the old name of Withy-grove. The withy covered rod, roodland, 
or clearing. " From Gweithin (j&), the woods." (Dr. Whitaker.) 

WITHINGTON, a township in the parish and three miles south of 
Manchester. Wythin-ton, 230, 282, 320. With-ton, 230. Wything- 
ton, 230, 282, B. 334, 349, 351, 359. Withen-ton, 282, 322. Wityng- 
ton, 282. Withing-ton, 282, 320, 346, 349, I. 501. Whittin-ton, 322. 
Whiting-ton, 322. Whything-ton, B. Withy-ton, 349. Whitting-ton, 
473. Wythin-tone-howe, 320. Within-ton-clou, 322. Whittin-ton- 
houe, 322. Among places named in Withington, are: Dou-child, 
s.d.; Mere-clogh, s.d.; Yard-rume, s.d. Quit-croft or Whit-croft, 080. 
Tele-broc, 080. Gros-lache, 317. Hont-lone [? Hout or Hut] del 
Plat, 317. G-rene-lowe-lache, 317. Kem-lache, 317. Toll-lache, 
s.d. Thorn-diche, s.d. Wynner-hey, 319. Yheld-house-diche, 317. 
From Withig (A), a withy ; wifhen (a tree frequently mentioned in old 
boundaries); or from Wittingas (A), the name of a Saxon tribe. or 
mark. 



GLOSSARIAL GAZETTEER. 605 

Woodhey, a pasture in Cuerdley ; also a plot in Heaton Norris. 
Wode-heye, Wod-heye, 282. Wethe-hey, 320. The Wood or Withy 
inclosure. 

WOOLSTENHOLME, a hamlet in the township of Spotland and parish of 
Rochdale, three miles N.W. of Rochdale. Wolf-stanes-the-ton, 311. 
? Erom Uulfus (A), a man's name, tun and holm; or from 7Z/*in the 
possessive case, stan (A), stone, and holm. Wulfstan's ham or holm, or 
the Wolf stones holm. 

WOBSLEY, a township in the parish of Eccles, six miles W.N.W. of 
Manchester. Workes-legh, Wors-ley, B. Worse-ley and Worked-ly, 
322. May not Worked-ley be the origin of Wardley (part of the same 
estate), and the old " Worsley " be still the same ? See p. 392, where 
both Worked-ley and Worse-legh are named. The worked or tilled 
ley. 

WORTHINGTON, a township in the parish of Standish, four miles north 
of Wigan. Worthen-ton, 230, 473. Worthing-ton, 282, 320, 322, 346, 
362. Worthyng-ton, 351. Worting-ton, 473. ? Prom Worthig (A), 
a worth, farm, or estate, a street or way ; or Worth Ing (-4), the Farm 
Meadow, tun or dwelling. 

WKIGKLEY HEAD, a hamlet in Failsworth. Wrige-ley-hede, 320. 
Wigge-le-heved and Wriggle-ved, 322, Prom Hricg (4), a rigg or 
ridge; leak (A), a field; and heved (A), a head. The Ridge-field 
head. 

WKIGHTINGTOF, a township in the parish of Eccleston, five miles 
N.W. of Wigan. Wrothin-ton, Wrottinge-ton, Writtin-ton, Wittering- 
ton, 230. Writhin-ton, 282. Writhing-ton, 282,320,351. Wrightin- 
ton, 322, 473. Wrighting-ton, B. 320, 346, 362, 473. ? From Wrotan 
(A), to root up ; or from the Wrottingas, a Saxon mark- community, 
seated there. 



INDEX. 



Abbey hey, Gorton, 313, 550. 

A ca the clerk, 38, 77,550. 

Accres (the), 38, 470, 550. 

Accrington vill, 462. 

Ackers, Mr., 529. 

Acre, Lancashire and statute, 28. 

Acres fair, 38, 52, 550. 

Acton Burnel, statute of, 62. 

Acton, John de, 249. 

Adewelleghe, 295, 550. 

Advowsons of churches, value of. 154, 
170, 294, 404, 463. 

-^Ethelbert's code of laws, 54. 

Aghton, 462. 

Agistors and agistment, 124, 301. 

Agricola, 1, 8. 

Ague, cause of the ancient prevalence of, 
385. 

Aids, exaction of, 180, 306-7. 

Akke, Richard, nativus, 313. 

Albemarle, William de Fortibus earl of, 
account of, 49. 

Albini, Sir Philip d', account of, 50. 

Al brighten, manor of, co. Salop, 434, 437. 

Albriton, co. Sussex, 434, 463. 

Aldeburgh, Richard de, 435. 

Aldeparc, 142, 156. 

Alders or Oilers (the), 313, 551. 

Aldport, 4, 316, 348, 394, 397, 551 ; notice 
of, 423; heath land in, 382, 383; pas- 
ture in, 386, 413; wood of, 94, 389; 
Over- and Nether-, 502, 516; -fields, 
513; -lodge, 513, 526. 

Aldsargh, manor of, 338. 

Ale, assise of, 231, 399, 400. 

Alfred the Great, ix, 14; laws of, 54. 

Alington, manor of, co. Wilts., 436, 437, 
440. 

Alkrington, 77, 260, 262, 396, 551; manor 
of, 254, 442. 

Allerton vill, 352, 353, 551. 

Hugh de, 259. 



Alreton, Richard de, 91. 

Alte, Alt-edge, Alt-hill, notices of, 349, 

552. 

Altekar, perambulation of, 60. 
Alvetham, 462. 
Amounderness, 20, 34, 440. 
Ancoats, 309, 351, 391, 392, 499, 552. 

Henry de, 247. 

Ralph de, 38, 70, 75. 



Anderton, 68, 73, 265, 346, 397, 401, 494, 

517, 552; account of, 347. 

Christopher, 523. 

Thomas de, 346. 

- Thurstan, 494, 517. 

William de, 154, 160, 343. 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ix, 7, 12, 13; 

extract from, 17. 
Anielesdale, Robert de, 68. 
Anlasargh, 397, 494; accounts of, 347, 

552. 

Annals of Peterborough, 35. 
Antoninus, Itinera of, 6. 
Appleton, in Prescot, 388, 413, 462, 553. 
Aquonsbothely, in Horewich, 387, 553. 
Arable land, value of, 325, 381, 382, 411. 
Arden, ancient forest of, 94. 
Thomas de, 27. 

Walter de, 202. 

Arderne, Walkelyne de, notice of, 204. 
Ardwick, 145, 157, 351, 391, 392, 553; 

ancient name of, 94; heath in, 384, 

412; messuages in, 385; villeins or na- 

tivi of, 313. 
Argameles, 462. 

Argentine, Richard de, account of, 50. 
Argoil, coarse cream-of-tartar, 317. 
Arms and armour, 234, 336. 
Arowesmithe, William, of Warrington, 

509. 

Arrest and attachment, 231. 
Arundel, Richard earl of, 464. 
Ashecrofte, in Heaton Norris, 330, 553. 



608 



INDEX. 



Ashes, burned, 390. 
Ashley, 310, 499, 553. 
Ashton-under-Lyne, 30, 333, 334, 396, 

398, 438, 455, 467, 472, 500; notices of, 

349, 554; church of, 154, 177, 295, 359, 

404, 439, 446, 460, 463, 464, 466, 467, 

471, 500. 
Ashton, Gilbert de, 344. 

Henry, of Prescot, 497. 

John de, 406, 438, 467; account of, 

349. 

John, knt., 518 S 

Ralph, 517. 

Robert de, 384, 391; account of, 

348. 

Roger de, 259. 

Thomas de, 474. 

Aspull, in Wigan, 75, 260, 398, 405, 443, 

462, 464, 465, 497, 517; account of, 

342, 554. 

Assarted lands, 146. 
Assewell, Roger de, 446. 
Asshenhurst, 445. 
Assise (of bread and ale) 231, 399-400; 

forfeiture for breaking, 201, 231; rents 

of, 144. 

Astley, 392, 462, 464, 500, 554. 
Aston, Thomas de, 153, 155, 157, 160, 

168. 

Astonhurst, 555; heath in, 384, 412. 
Aswort, Hen., 496. 
Atherswic; see Ardwick. 
Atherton, 462, 464, 555. 

Henry, of Prescot, 407. 

John, of Atherton, 496. 

Audenshaw, 470, 555. 

Auncell, William, 473. 

Austurcum, ambiguous meaning of, 74. 

Avissone, Roger, 439. 

Aylward, Orme son of, 76. 

Aynesworth, John de, 438. 

Bageley, John, the elder, 470. 

Baggerburgh, 462. 

Bailiff, 404; duties, &c., of, 296-300, 397; 
rank of, 131. 

Bailiwicks, upper and lower, 35, 39; ex- 
tent and divisions of, 298-99. 

Baines's Lancashire, iv, xxii, 23, 59, 72; 
extracts from, 11, 13. 

Bake-house; see Oven. 

Bake-stone, value of a, 324. 

Balschagh, John de, 255. 

Bamford, Barten de, 500. 

Bertrand de, 499. 

Banastre, Robert, of Hyndeley, 327. 



Banastre, Warm, baron of Newton, 29, 33. 

Banester, Adam de, 260. 

Bank (the), near Parr's wood, 330, 331, 

555. 

Bardisleye, James, 506. 
Barlow, 397, 403, 556. 

Jamesj SCO. 

Richard de, 330. 



Roger de, account of, 454. 

Barnaby, Thomas, parson of Rothwell, 
473. 

Barnsley, Simon de, 295, 404. 

Barony, definition of a, 32-33. 

Baron's hull or hill, the, 37, 45, 469, 556. 

Barritt, Thomas, antiquary, 394. 

Barton-upon-Irwell, manor of, 39, 71, 
152, 161, 260, 334, 380, 385, 392, 397, 
405, 414, 439, 443, 455, 462, 464, 465, 
497, 517; notices of, 154, 343, 556; 
extents of, 148, 158; arable land in, 
382, 411 ; ford at, 394; halmote of, 399, 
403; mill of, 393; pasture in, 388. 

Barton, Edith de, 71, 78, 149. 

Gilbert, 39, 103, 260, 443; account 

of, 71. 

William de, 260. 



Basingbie or Basingley, Hugh, 504. 
Basse, Robert, 505. 
Basset, Gilbert, 36, 37. 

Isabel, 36. 

Sir Philip, 102. 



Thomas, 36. 

Bawd wen, Rev. W., 23, 28. 

Baxter's (William) Glossarium, 4; his 

etymological procedure, 5. 
Beasts or cattle in forests, 390. 
Bebbye, William, 506. 
Bedford, near Mamecestre, 392. 
Bees; see Honey. 

Bent, meaning and use of the word, 427. 
Berchenridinges, 556; arable land in, 

412. 

Bercles; see Birches. 
Bere wicks, 22, 31,78. 
Bernetruding, 556; rent of, 382. 
Berwyk, Patrick de, 59. 
Bethum, Robert de, 261. 

Thomas de, 59. 

Bexwick, Christopher, 502. 
Bexwycke, 556. 
John de, 307. 



Richard, chaplain, 307. 

Beynyn, John, of Henton St. George, 

440. 

Bibbye, John, 349, 434; notice of, 350. 
Bikerstath, Henry son of Simon de, 454. 



INDEX. 



609 



Billingsgate, customs of, 321. 

Billington, 462. 

Birch, George, 502. 

Birch Feodary, xvii, 549; translation 
from, 257-66. 

Birche, Robert, wife of, 508. 

Birches, 557; tenants of, 397. 
Alexander de, 266. 

Bircle or Birtle, in Middleton, notices of, 
256, 557. 

Bird, Richard, 507. 

Birdok or Brideoke, James, 503. 

Biron; see Byron. 

Bischop, Sir John, knt., 249. 

Black-brook, 557; see Cornbrook. 

Blackburn, church of, 177; hundred of, 
20, 27. 

Blackburne, John de, 91. 

Blacklache, 395, 414, 424, 500, 558; heath 
in, 412. 

Blakeacres, 558; rent of, 309, 500. 

Blakeburne, Adam de, 260, 266. 

Blakeburn shire wapentake, 462. 

Blakeley, 316, 393, 501, 558; wooded park 
of, 94, 142, 156, 390, 396, 426, 445, 467, 
474, 516; heath in, 383, 412; pasture 
in, 386, 439; -feldes, 474, 501. 

Blakerode, 80, 258, 264, 557. 

Hugh de, 80, 264. 

Bland, Sir John, bart., 513, 527; Ann 
lady, his wife, account of, 527. 

Bleaching ground in Crumpsall, value 
of, 383. 

Bleasdale, 461. 

Blew-stone, in Reddish, 558. 

Blod-wite or blood-fine, 220. 

Blois, Stephen earl of, 34. 

Bloxedene, Hugh de, 309. 

Bloxham, manor of, co. Line., 440. 

Blundell, Sir William, knt., 59, 68. 

Blundeville, Randle de, earl of Chester 
and Lincoln, xiv; his charter to Sal- 
ford, xv, 85, 199-202; to Chester, 188. 

Bochampton, co. Berks., 440, 441. 

Boc-land, tenure of, 54. 

Bode, sergeant's-, a custom of distraint, 
398. 

Bolton, 258, 462, 509, 558; a modern 
parish, 30; church of, 438. 

, Little, 259, 261, 444, 464, 465, 558. 

Richard de, 259. 

Roger de, 82, 261, 265, 444. 

William de, 81, 264. 

Bondage, definition of, 145. 

Bonders, definition of, 292. 

Bondi, definition of, 19. 

VOL. III. 



Booker's (Rev. J.) Chapelry of Blakeley, 
446. 

Book of Furness, 35. 

Booth, John, 517. 

Bordarii, 23, 147; definition of, 19. 

Borid-ridinge (the), 307, 556. 

Borough, origin of the, 3, 179. 

Boroughbridge, battle of, 359. 

Bosoleclou, Bosseclou, 395, the name ex- 
plained, 423, 559. 

Boterude or Boterinde, Henry, 310; see 
Doterind. 

Boterword, 72. 

Bothe, Hugh, 504. 

- Robert, 72, 470, 473, 507; Douce 
his wife, 470. 

- Tho., 72, 446, 497. 
Bothelton; see Bolton. 

Bothes (the), in Mamecestre, 505, 559. 
Bothum, Elias de, de Denton, 391. 
Botiller, John le, 474. 

- William le, 160; notices of, 153, 464. 
Bottomley, 559; arable land of, 445. 
Boudoun, Richard de, 247, 248. 
Boukerleghe, 472, 559. 

Boundaries of Mamecestre, 394-97, 422- 

430. 

Bowdon, Thomas, of Bowdon, 345. 
Boyesnape or Boylesnape, 388, 414, 559; 

wood of, 391. 
Bracebrugge, Sir Geoffrey de, 139, 140, 

155; account of, 141. 

Robert de, 36, 75. 
Bracton on the carucate, 27. 
Bradelegh-brook or Bradley bent, 395, 

396, 427, 560. 

Brade-lache or Bradlech, 395, 426, 559. 
Bradeschagh or Bradshaw, township of 

Bolton, 340, 397, 404, 496, 560. 
Elias, 517. 

Henry, 497. 

- Richard, 509. 

Robert de, 255. 

- Roger de, 258, 454. 

Bradford, near Mamecestre, 143, 156, 
560; heath in, 382, 383, 412; meadow 
land in, 386, 413; pasture in, 386; 
wood of, 390, 414. 

Bradforth or Bradford, John, 504. 

Braybrok, Gerard de, 434. 

Bread, assise of, 231, 399. 

Breightmet, 258, 262, 444, 462, 464, 465, 
560. 

Brendlache, 260, 560. 

Brend -orchard or Osecroft, 394, 397, 422, 
465, 560; arable land in, 382, 412. 

4i 



610 



INDEX. 



Brerehey, 561; pasture in, 388. 
Brererydinge, 395, 424, 498, 556. 
Brereton, Sir William, 526. 
Brereworth or Brereton, Charles, 495. 
Bretherton, 462. 
Brewers, punishment of, 456, 457; see 

Ale, assise of. 
Bridd or Bird, Christopher, 502. 

Hugh, 507. 
Bridge-toll, 218. 
Bridshagh or Bruydshawe, 396, 426, 472, 

557; heath in, 383, 412. 
Brigge-Casterton, manor of, 434. 
Brighton, 464. 
Brindle or Burnhull, 68, 73, 265, 333, 

334, 397, 398, 494, 561; changes of 

name of, 347. 

Bristol charter, xv, 195-97. 
Britain, early, 1-2. 
Brockholes, 75, 260, 397, 398, 405, 440, 

443, 462, 464, 465, 496, 517, 561; ac- 
count of, 341. 

John de, 405. 

Roger, 466. 

Brodned, 561; pasture in, 387, 413. 

Brokes (the), 561. 

Broomy hurst, 343, 389, 397, 405, 413, 

414,561; wood in, 392. 
Broughton, 258, 260, 262, 396, 439, 444, 

462, 465, 561; notice of, 425. 
Broune, Roger le, of Ines, 340. 
Brunhull or Brynhill, 143, 156, 517. 
Brunne, Robert de; see Mannyng. 
Brustlington, co. Somerset, 440. 
Bryninge, 462. 
Buckeley, Gilbert, 506. 

Henry, 508. 

Buckland, John, knt., 464. 

Buckstalls or deer-hays, 387. 

Budelescumbe, Robert de, 249. 

Buildings, survey of, 104-5. 

Bull oak (the), 469, 561. 

Bura (Bury), in Salfordshire, 462. 

Burgage tenure, 294; account of, 219; 

rents of, 504-8. 
Burgh, 462. 
Hubert de, xi, 46, 47; account of 

48-9. 

John de, 40, 128. 

Richard de, 68. 



Burh or byrig, 3, 13, 15, 179. 

Burnage, 562; pasture in, 326, 330, 389, 

411. 

Burnhull, Thomas de, 59. 
Burnell, Alan de, 334, 346, 347. 
Burstall vill, 440. 



Burscough priory, 338, 347, 404, 495, 

509, 517. 

Burtoft, in Swinesheved, co. Line., 441. 
Burton wood, perambulation of, 60. 

Sir John de, 249. 
Burun; see Byron. 
Bury, 15, 70, 254, 257, 262, 442, 462, 513, 

562; church of, 177, 438. 
Adam de, 59, 70, 77, 262, 266, 443. 

Edward de, 262. 

Eward de, 77. 

Henry de, 254, 255. 

Robert de, 38, 75. 

Busli or Bussel, "Warin, baron of Pen- 

wortham, 29, 33, 34. 
Butchers, punishment of, 400, 451. 
Butler, Theobald, baron of Weeton, 34. 

Thomas le, 249. 

Butterworth, 255, 562. 

Bybby; see Bibbye. 

Byrches; see Birches. 

Byron, baron of Rochdale and Toting- 

ton, 33, 34. 

lady Alice, late wife of Nicholas, 



505. 

Sir John, 128. 

John de 155, 160; account of, 152. 
John de, 255, 326, 327, 330, 344, 



349, 351, 384, 389, 391, 411; account 

of, 140, 238. 

John son of Henry, 332, 406. 

John esq., 499, 500, 501, 518. 

Richard de, lord of Clayton, 128. 

Richard de, 204, 259, 327, 330. 

Cadilegh, 461. 

Cadishead (Cadwallehead), 79, 263, 404, 
562. 

Cadwal clough, 395, 425, 566. 

Csesar's Commentaries, 6. 

Caldre, 461. 

Calverhey, pasture in, 388. 

Calverley, pasture in, 387. 

Camden's Britannia, 4, 33. ' 

Camp- field, 53. 

Cannock, John, 506. 

Capon wray (Coupynwra), Adam de, 59. 

Cardwood, heath in, 412. 

Carpenter, Edwin, 79, 263. 

Carpentry, a form of petit serjeanty, 79. 

Carrs (the), in Cuerdley, 386. 

Carta de Foresta, 63, 87, 88; account of, 
58-9. 

Cartmel, William Marshall baro de, 33. 

Caruca, in Domesday record, caution re- 
specting, 23. 



INDEX. 



611 



Carve, carucate or ploughland, 22, 23, 24, 
25,27,30,145. 

Caster, Chester, as terminations, 9. 

Castle Field, 2. 

Castle hill, 396, 425, 562. 

Hawise de, 422. 

Castleton, 28, 255, 562. 

Castle ward, 380, 497; definition of, 85, 
293. 

Catterall, Ralph de, 153, 160. 

Cawsaye or Cause, 395, 424, 563. 

Cawt, 563. 

Cemetery (the), 563. 

Censariis, notes on the word, 213-14, 227. 

Ceorls, Saxon freemen, 121. 

Cetewale, 317. 

Chace, definition of, 88. 

Chaderton, 71, 254, 257, 442, 443, 462, 
563. 

Alexander de, 309. 

Geoffrey de, 150, 155, 159, 238, 250, 

255, 266; account of, 141, 

Henry de, 443. 

Richard son of Geoffrey de, 309. 

Roger de, 255, 307. 

Roger brother of Alexander, 309. 

- William de, 309. 

Chades worth; see Shores worth. 

Chadocke, Hugh, 506. 

Chadwick and Ackers, Messrs., 529. 

Chadwik, Thomas, 507. 

Chalkleghe, John de, 249. 

Challoner, John, 469. 

Chaloner, Thurstan, 502. 

Champeneys, John, 249. 

Charnock, 441, 445, 462, 563. 

Chamois, John de, 464. 

Charters Chester, xiv, 188-89; Cli- 
theroe, xv, 178, 187; Lancaster, 178, 
195; Liverpool, 178, 198; Macclesfield, 
205; Manchester, xiv, xvi, 40, 178, 
209-46, 335, 549, early translations 
of, 241-2; Newton, 178; Preston, xiv, 
178,182; Salford,199; Stockport, 205; 
Wigan, 178, 203. 

Chathurn vill, 462. 

Chatmoss, 392, 563. 

Chauros or Chores worth, Paganus, 203. 

Chaunterell, William, serjeant-at-law, 
473, 474. 

Cheleworth, co. Somerset, 437. 

Chenington, 462. 

Cher, the, 564. 

Chernok; see Charnock. 

Cherton, Henry del, 445. 

Cheshire, early boundaries of, 20. 



Chester, 2, 11, 180, 204, 322; charters to, 
188-89; custumal of, xiv, xv, 190-95. 
Randle de Gernouns earl of, 35. 

Randle de Blundeville, earl of, 188. 
Chesterfield, co. Derby, fair at, 313. 
Chetham, 79, 259, 263, 395, 564; ninths 

of, 439. 

- Geoffrey de, 266, 350. 

- Henry de, 79, 81, 263, 264. 

Humphrey, purchases Turton, 340. 

John de, 307, 454. 

Chetham's hospital, school and library, 
37, 45, 156. 

Childwall, 72, 75, 154, 160, 260, 333, 334, 
337, 397, 398, 404, 443, 464, 465, 495, 
516; account of, 352-53, 564; yearly 
value of, 169; church of, 177, 337; 
value of the advowson of. 154. 

Childcrwell, 462. 

Childwite, penalty of, 218. 

Chipinge Lamborne, hundred of, 440. 

Chocton, 160. 

Cholle, abbreviation of Chollerton, 331. 

- Matilda de, 330. 

Chollerton or Cholreton; see Chorlton. 
Chorlton, 259, 260, 309, 396, 397, 403, 
499,564; value of the advowson of, 439. 
Adam de, 81, 264. 



Gospatric de, 81, 264. 

Richard de, 70. 

Robert de, 70. 

Robert, 507. 

Thomas de, 309, 383, 384. 

Chorlton-cum-Hardy, 81, 264, 331, 466. 

Chorlton-hagh, 267. 

Chow or Choo, le, 503, 564; arable land 

in, 382, 412. 
Churches of St. Mary and St. Michael, 

x, 22, 26, 27, 31, 44, 45. 
Church of Mamecestre, 36, 40, 76, 337, 

446, 463; taxation of, 177; value of, 

404, 438; warden of, 502, 508. 
Church patronage, 359; law of, 125. 
Chypin church, 462. 
Cissor, Matthew, 434. 
Clayden, near Ashton, 309, 499, 565. 
John de, 436, 437, 439, 440. 



Richard de, 309. 

Richard, 499. 

Clayden field, 310, 499, 565. 

Clayton, 396, 439, 462, 500, 518, 519, 565. 

Clayton hall, Droylsden, 309. 

Clemenscrofte, 502, 565. 

Clifford, Sir Lewis, K.G., 433, 464. 

Clifton, 81, 259, 264, 565. 

Robert de, 81, 264. 



612 



INDEX. 



Clifton, William de, 73. 

Clitheroe, 34, 178, 181, 206, 565; castle 

of, 462; charter of, xv, 187-95. 

Ilbert Lacy, baro de, 33. 

Cljnton, Thomas, 506. 

Cnolles or Knolles, le, 465, 566; arable 

land in, 382, 412. 
Cockers, James, 507. 
Cockersand abbey, 341, 405, 496, 517; 

notice of, 342. 
Cokayne, Sir John, notice of, 451. 

John, 450, 460. 

Coldecotes, 462. 

Coleley, 413, 

Co-liberti, definition of, 19. 

Collayne, Robert, 422, 465. 

Collegiate church, 445, 467, 468, 473, 

508; boundaries of the college, 469. 
Collins's Genealogical account of the 

Wests, 476, 519, 520. 
Colly hurst, 566; enclosure of, 525; heath 

in, 384, 412. 
Colne, 462. 

Common, right of, 107-11, 124. 
Compton, 462. 
Coppull, 566. 
Cordy, Tho. 434. 
Cordye, Nicholas, 507. 
Cordirode, 395, 424, 566; heath in, 383. 
Corelli/or coterelli, cottagers, 310. 
Corker, Nicholas, wife of, 507. 
Cornbrook, 397, 422, 567; etymology of, 

10. 

Corohause, 566. 
Corry^f History of Lancashire, iv, xxii, 

477, 503, 524. 
Cotarii, definition of, 19. 
Cottages and curtilages, 123. 
Couet and Blesedale, boundaries of the 

forest of, 59. 
Court leet, 235, 333, 498. 
Courts-baron, 146, 152, 235, 333, 334, 

335, 398, 465. 
Coverts, 390, 391. 
Cowgate, 386. 
Cowherds, 402. 
Cranesley; see Barnsley. 
Cras, 441. 
Creon, Guy de, 36. 
Cressy, battle of, 434. 
Cringle-brook, 567. 
Crofton, 462. 
Crointon, 462. 
Crompton, 259, 262, 444, 464, 465, 567; 

notice of, 307. 
John, 506. 



Crosseby parva, 462. 

Cross-street, 38. 

Crouchback, Edmund, first earl of Lan- 
caster, 40. 

Croxtath park, 60. 

Crumpsall, 145, 157, 392, 396, 414, 472, 
500,567; etymology of, 314; moorland 
in, 351, 383, 391, 412. 

Cuchenlode, 386, 564. 

Cucking stool, 456, 457-58. 

Cuerden, John de, 404. 

Cuerdley, 380, 381, 384, 385, 386, 391, 
393, 403, 414, 439, 440, 463, 466, 467, 
471, 567; accounts of, 149-50, 159, 
388; arable land in, 41 1 ; meadow in, 
413. 

Culcheth, 343, 346, 446, 464, 568. 

Cunliffe or Cundeclive, notice of, 142, 
568. 

Adam de, 142, 155. 

Robert de, 266, 346. 

Roger, 346, 347. 



Curmesholme; see Kirkmanshulme. 
Curtilage, 123; definition of, 105. 
Customs, 22, 24, 125, 147, 390. 
Customary tenants, description of, 120- 

123. 
Custumal, definition of, 244. 

Dalton, 75, 153, 160, 261, 265, 338, 352, 
397, 404, 443, 462, 464, 465, 467, 495, 
509, 517; notices of, 339, 568. 

Dancrofte, 503, 568. 

Danegeld, x, 23, 191, 192, 218; account 
of, 22. 

Danelagh, area of the, 3. 

Danish or Scandinavian names, 536, 
544-48. 

Davies's Races of Lancashire, 5, 9; quo- 
tations from, 534 et sqq. 

Davy-hulme, 580. 

Deane, John, 506. 

Dean moor, notice of, 307. 

Deansgate, etymology of, 568. 

Debt, law of, 220, 228-29. 

Deer, 61. 

Deer-leap, 387, 390. 

De Lacy; see Lacy. 

De la Warre, family, 252, 433, 445, 460, 
463, 464, 467, 474. 

John ninth baron, 40, 153, 247, 

251, 260, 261, 271, 272, 312, 350, 
352, 353, 384, 404, 433, 436, 437, 
439, 440, 443, 444, 463; account of, 
252-53; arms of, 249; grant of the 
manor to, 248 et sqq.- alienates it to 



INDEX. 



613 



abbey of Dore, 268 et sqq., 359; peti- 
tions Edward II., 430; Joan or Joanna 
his wife, 40, 247, 440, 441; John his 
son, 433, 436, 440. 

John eleventh baron, 257, 337, 433, 

437, 445, 460, 461, 463-67; account of, 

- Roger eighth baron, 436, 437. 

Roger tenth baron, 433, 437; ac- 
count of, 253; documents and facts 
connected with, 441-63. 

Thomas twelfth baron, 338, 445, 

464, 466, 467-71, 473; account of, 253- 
254; see also West, family. 

De L'Isle, Brian, account of, 49-50. 

Demesnes, 105-7, 143, 386; definition of, 
94. 

Dene (a valley), in composition, 15. 

Dene moor, etymology of, 568-69. 

Denton, 143, 156, 385, 397, 403, 414, 501, 
518; notices of, 348, 569; waste of, 
351,352,391; heath in, 384, 412. 

Derby, wapentake of, 20, 24, 27, 352, 380, 
381; manor of, 462; boundaries of the 
wood of, 60. 

vice-comites de, 33, 34. 

earls of; see Stanleys. 

- William Ferrers, earl of, 85, 266. 
Deyne hall, Prestwich, 348. 
D'Evias, Nicholas, 258, 340, 444. 
John, 334, 340, 404. 

. Michael, 262. 

Didsbury, 329, 397, 403, 497, 569; -moor, 

394. 

Henry, 503. 

"Diem clausit extremum," description 

of writ so named, 99. 
Disseisin, definition of, 327. 
Dogs, lawing of, 123. 
Dogfielde, 310,499,569. 
Domesday Boole, x, 16, 24, 26, 28, 30, 42, 

45; date of, 548; account of, 17-21. 
Donnom, 462. 
Dore abbey, co. Hereford, 268, 359, 434, 

463; alienation of manor of Mameces- 

tre to, 268-271. 
Doterind, Henry, 310, 436. 
Douglas river, 339. 
Dowill, Richard, 508. 
Drakelaw, co. Derby, tenure of, 83. 
Draught-gate, etymology of, 569. 
Drenches or Drenges, 19. 
Drengage or thanage, 68, 72; account of, 

74. 

Droylsden, notice of, 569. 
Dulwood, co. Derby, 474. 



Durham, Thomas bishop of, 470, 473. 
Durmond; see Ormonde. 

Earls palatine, rank of, 33. 
Eccle-, 295, 404, 438, 570; value of 
church of, 177. 
Adam de, 259. 
Anicia or Alicia de, 348. 
William de, 70. 



Ecclesiastical taxation of Pope Nicholas 

IV., 177. 

Eccleston vill, 462. 
Edge, in composition, 15. 
Edgeworth, 79, 259, 260, 263, 464, 570. 
Edward the Elder, ix, 7, 13, 14. 

the Confessor, 17, 18, 22, 24, 27. 
I., 57; legislation in his reign, 61- 

64; his writ of military summons 
against Llewellyn prince of Wales, 127. 

II., 28. 

III., 433. 

the Black Prince, 434. 
Egbedene and Egburden, 388, 413, 471, 

570. 

Egergarthe, 462. 
Egerton, Mr., of Tatton, 529. 
Eland or Yeland, Adam de, 43. 

John de, 255. 
Ellale, Grymebald de, 59. 
Emecote, Ralph de; see Ancoats. 
Emotanerlane, 570. 

Entwisle, Elias, 499. 

Robert de, 80, 263. 
Erbury, 462. 
Escapia or escapes, 151. 

Escheats and escheators, xiii, 99, 549. 

Esecroft or Osecroft, 570; see Brand- 
orchard. 

Esne, a serf class, 121. 

Essoin, definition of, 228. 

Estbury, co. Berks., 440. 

Esterley, 570. 

Eston, 68, 74, 76, 570. 

Henry de, 347. 

Robert de, 74. 

Thomas de, 141, 146. 

Ethelswike, 462. 

Eukeston, 462. 

Everton, Sir John de, 294, 295. 

Evias; see D'Evias. 

Ewyas Harald, castle of, 434, 436, 437. 

Exancestre, 9. 

Exchange, 529. ... 

Extenta manerh, statute of, xvm, bl; 
account of, 104-126. 

Extwisell, 462. 



614 



INDEX. 



Eyas, definition of, 76. 

Failsworth, 80, 263, 570. 

Fairfax, Guido, knt., 519. 

Fair, Acres-, 38. 

Fairs and wakes, 44-53, 401 ; see Market. 

pleas and perquisites of, 333-36. 

Fallowfield,571. 

Farrar, Richard, 503, 508. 

Thomas, 503. 

Faringdon, co. Hants., 51. 

Farnworth, 103, 143, 156, 345, 397, 493, 

517,571; notice of, 346. 

Adam de, 103. 

Geoffrey de, 517. 

Faryngton, Roger de, 450, 461; account 

of, 451. 

Fauconberg, the lords, 348. 
Faukes or Fawkes, Richard, 436. 
Fealty, definition of, 308. 
Fee, definition of, 293. 
Feirar, William, 506. 
Felde, the, 413. 
Feodary, definition of, 67. 
Ferrers, vicecomes de Derby, 34. 

earl, 70, 71, 262, 443, 444. 

William de, earl, 83, 345: account 

of, 84. 

Ferries, 394. 
Fillenale, a custom, 303. 
Fines, 120, 235. 
Fineux, quotation from, 333. 
Fisheries, 113-14, 148, 316, 392-94, 

503. 

Fishwicke, 462. 
Fitz-Ailward or Fitz-Eward, Orme, 36, 

339, 349. 
Fitzherbert, Sir A., extracts from his 

Boke of Surveying, 105-126. 
Fitz-Nigel, William, 29, 36. 
Fitz-Parnell, Robert, earl of Leicester, 

203. 

Fitz-Seward, Henry, 36, 344. 
Fitz-Warine, Fulke, notice of, 203. 
Fleechinge, co. Sussex, 440. 
Fleetwoods, barons of Penwortham, 34. 
Fleming, Michael, baron of Glaston, 34; 

of Furness, 34. 
Flemings, early dwellers in Mamecestre, 

315. 

Fleshewer, John, 506. 
Flintoff's Rise and Progress of the 

Laws in England, 55, 61. 
Flixton, 76, 259, 397, 439, 492, 493, 517; 

accounts of, 344, 345, 571; church of, 

177,438. 



Florence of Worcester, quotation from, 
13-14. 

Flourilach, 383, 412, 571. 

Fobrigge, 462. 

Fokington, co. Sussex, 436, 437, 440. 

Foldes in Sharpies, 471, 497, 572. 

Ford, in composition, 15. 

Fords of Barton and Frith, 394. 

Foreign pasture, 107-8; woods, 108-11; 
tenants, 345, 517. 

Forests, 151, 159-60, 401, 414; defini- 
tion of, 30; laws of 87-8, 95-6; peram- 
bulation of, 59-60; rhymed oath of 
the inhabitants of, 160; see Carta de 
Foresta and Woods. 

Forestel, definition of, 22. 

Foresters, duties &c. of, 151, 301-304, 
401-403. 

Forestalled, 400. 

Foris, le, 501, 572. 

Foriswrth', Robert de, 70. 

Forty Acres (the), in Rusholme, 500, 
572. 

Four Acres, the, 52, 500, 572. 

Fowcaster or Focastle, 571; see Castle 
hill. 

Foxdenton, 150, 159, 572. 

Foxe, John, 503. 

Frank chace, 88. 

pledge, 333. 

Freeholds and freeholders or freemen, 
19, 65, 114-20, 146, 307, 389, 499; 
tenures of, 330-32. 

Free warren; see Warren. 

Frekelton, 462. 

Frisians, 2, 11. 

Frith ford, 394, 572. 

Fryth, Richard, 470, 473. 

Fulling mill, 10, 315, 393, 504, 516. 

Fulwode wood, 461; bounds of, 59-60. 

Furnage; see Ovens. 

Furness, abbot of, 437, 438; Michael 
Fleming, baron of, 34. 

John, 507. 

Robert de, 34. 

Gabel, meaning of, 197. 
Galleye, Richard, 506. 
Gallows, the, 452, 456, 503, 572. 
Gamel, a Rochdale thane, 22, 23, 27, 28, 

29. 
Garstang, 462. 

Paulinus de, 59. 

Gartheside, Hugh, 507, 516. 

Gates, time of closing, 173 ; number of 

in Mamecestre, 175. 



INDEX. 



615 



Gate, Richard of the, 331. 

Gatecoterfielde, 310, 499, 573. 

Gaunt, John of, 465. 

Gavel-bit, 192; see Gabel. 

Gavel-field, 573. 

Gerard, Sir Peter, 342, 494; Sir Thomas, 

497,517. 
Gernet, Matthew, 59. 

Roger, 68, 81, 202; notice of, 204. 
Gernouns, Randle de, earl of Chester, 35. 

Ralph, 49; account of, 50. 
Gerthefilde, Hugh, 503. 

Gilbert son of Reinfrid, notice of, 82-3. 
Glaston, Michael Flemingus baro de, 34. 
Glerruding; see Brererydinge. 
Glodwick, 259, 573. 
Gloucester, Robert and William, first 

and second earls of, 196. 
Glover, John, 506. 
Gloves, 406, 407. 

Godefridus, vice-comes de Derby, 33, 34. 
Godelmynges, a prepared leather, 318. 
Gohopton, 414. 
Goisfrid, 23, 28, 29. 
Goldeburne, 462. 
Gonumtonce-lane, 507, 573. 
Goose lache, 574. 
Gore brook, 316, 332, 393, 573. 
Gornertie, Roger de, 264. 
Gorton, 145, 157, 314, 351, 391, 414, 469, 

473, 501, 574; villeins or nativi of, 

310-13; corn mill of, 315, 316, 393; 

heath land in, 384, 385. 
Gorton green, 470. 
Gospatric, S47. 

Gotherswike, 310, 315, 392, 501, 574. 
G oysters; see Agistors. 
Grammar school, 528. 
Grange, 574. 

Grayne gatt, a service, 258. 
Gregory, popes of the name of, 250. 
Grendacre, 386, 413. 
Grendelawe, 309, 574. 
Greenlowe, in Gorton, 500. 
Greenlow-heth,'3S4, 412, 470, 471, 574. 
Green-lo marsh, 383, 470, 574. 
Grenlawe-more, 143, 156, 574. 
Grene-lowin-erth, 412, 574. 
Grelle, John de, 266, 267. 

Robert, 351, 391, 394. 

Grelleye, Robert, 310. 

Gresle, William de, 83. 

Greslet, Albert, first baron, x, 55. 

Albert, senex, third baron, 29, 33, 

34, 75, 76, 338, 344, 349; account of, 

35-36. 



Greslet, Albert, juvenis, fourth baron, 75, 
76, 77, 262, 265, 341, 343,346; account 
of, 36-37.' 

Hawise, widow of Robert seventh 
baron, 128, 269. 

Peter, son of Thomas sixth baron, 
337. 

Robert, second baron, xi, 73, 74, 



75, 77; account of, 35. 
Robert, fifth baron, xi, 42, 43, 45- 

47, 51, 68, 75, 77, 84, 85, 342; account 

of, 37-39. 

Robert, seventh baron, xiii, xiv, 

43, 101, 102, 127, 128, 152, 162, 265, 

269; account of, 40. 
Thomas, sixth baron, xii, xiii, 71, 

73, 84, 90-94, 97, 98, 101, 102, 261, 337; 

account of, 39-40, 85-86. 

Thomas, eighth baron, 129, 175, 177, 



178, 251, 266, 268, 269, 326, 353, 435, 
441, 443, 444; account of, 40-41; his 
charter to the burgesses of Mameces- 
tre, xvi, 209-46. 

Grennegge, 413. 

Grey, William lord, of Wark, 526. 

Griffin family, 467. 

Nicholas, 473. 

Grimesbottom, 329, 394, 429. 

Grindlache, 396, 574. 

Grinhalghe, Edward, 501. 

Grisdale, 461. 

Grise-brook, 396, 426. 

Grith-sergeant; see Bailiff. 

Grondie, Henry, 493. 

Guild houses, 574. 

Guild of the Blessed Mary, 506, 575. 

Guilt-bitt, a payment, 192. 

Guyse or Guise, John, 251. 

Guide books, iv, vi. 

Hagh parva, 462. 

Hagheved, 388, 413, 575. 

Haghfield, John, 506. 

Hagmoss, 389, 575. 

Haigh, 464, 465. 

Hakansawe, Petre, 504. 

Hale, vill of, 60. 

Hall land, 145, 157, 575. 

Halle, Oliver, 506. 

Hallefeld, 385, 413, 575. 

Halliwell, near Bolton, 341, 398, 401, 

405, 455, 456, 496, 517; notice of, 575. 

Richard, 493. 

Halmoss or Halemoss, 392, 427, 575. 
Halmote, 159, 335, 399, 403, 404; notices 

of, 149, 332. 



616 



INDEX. 



Halton or Halghton, 381, 397, 403, 455, 

462, 463, 466, 576. 
Hakale or Halsall, 462, 464, 575. 

Oto de, 454. 
Ham, 3; in composition, 15. 
Hampstede Mareschal, manor of, 441. 
Handforth or Honford, Richard son of 

Henry de, 344. 
Hanging bridge, 508. 
Hanse, meaning of, 198. 
Hapertas, a cloth, 317, 318. 
Hapton, 462. 

Har- or Hare-moss, 391, 414, 576. 
Harderlee, 413. 
Hardersolines, 388, 413. 
Harewett, William de, 265, 347. 
Harewood or Harwood, 75, 260, 333, 334, 

340, 397, 398, 404, 443, 462, 465, 495; 

notice of, 576. 

. Alexander de, 38, 75, 77, 345. 

Harpour, William, 384. 

Harpurhey, 384, 500, 576. 

Harrison, John, 501, 506. 

Harrison's account of the Mamecestre 

rivers, 304. 

Hartlelmry, co. Worcester, 168. 
Hartwellsicke, 329, 576. 
Haslingden, 462. 
Haversege, etymology of, 72. 
Matthew de, 38, 39, 72, 231, 344, 

445. 

Hawise, of Castlehull, 465. 
Hawks, 61, 76, 134, 143, 146, 151, 301, 

349, 389, 402, 403, 406, 407. 
Hay or hey, a fenced enclosure, 22, 328; 

in composition, 15. 
Haybote, 328, 392. 
Haydoke, Henry de, 460. 
Heath land, 382-85, 412. 
Heaton, 76, 79, 161, 260, 394, 399, 401, 

403, 411 ; description of four townships 

so named, 296, 576-77. 

Adam de, 80, 153, 263. 

John de, 341, 405, 438, 445. 

- William, 260, 494, 496, 502. 
Heaton, great and little, 576, 577. 
Heaton Norris, 152, 154, 380, 382, 385, 

389, 392, 396, 412, 414, 455, 513, 577; 

notices of, 147, 158; bounds of, 296; 

arable land in, 325; wood and moss in, 

392. 

Heaton in Lonsdale, 260, 306, 577. 
Heaton-under-the-Forest, in Dean, 341, 

346, 397, 405, 406, 441, 445, 462, 464, 

465, 496, 576, 577. 
Heaton -with-Haliwall, 455, 471, 577. 



Hefawood, William, his translation of the 

charter, 241-42. 
Hefield, John, 503. 
Heighfield, John, 504. 
Heinfare, definition of, 22. 
Henege, John, 470, 473. 
Henry III., 33, 46, 47, 48, 49, 58, 85, 

93. 

Henton St. George, 440, 441. 
Herbage and pannage, 11 1-13, 381. 
Heriots, 119-20, 234. 
Herswyche, 413. 
Hert, William, of Orrell, 340. 
Hertmillsich, 394. 
Heth, the, 388, 576. 

John del, of Kenyan, 340. 



Heton, 577. 

Heton-Strangways 577. 

Hey wood, 388, 413, 578. 

Hibbert- Ware's Foundations of Man- 
chester, v-vii, xvi, 38, 42, 53, 74, 82, 
90, 94, 245-46, 268-71, 469. 

Hibbert's (Dr.) Customs and Usages of 
a Manor, 349. 

Hide, measure of land, 24, 25, 29, 30. 

Hide or Hyde, John de, notice of, 348. 

Hill, Richard, 504. 

Hilton; se& Hulton. 

Hindley, 578. 

Robert de, 342, 405. 



Robert, 497, 517. 

Hobcrofte, 503, 578. 
Hock day, 320. 
Hoddesden wood, 462. 
Hoghton, 462. 

Richard de, 438. 
Holineworth, Robert, 508. 
Holland family, 352. 

Margaret, 440. 

Richard de, 422. 



Richard, 494, 507, 517. 

Robert de, 258, 262, 334, 337, 338, 

340, 353, 404, 433, 443, 444, 465, 

467. 
Robert, 260, 509. 

- Roger Fitz-Robert de, 340. 

Thurstan, 350, 445. 

Hollinhead, 578. 
Hollinwood, 427, 428. 
Holme's bridge, 578. 
Holt, the, 578. 

Hugh of the, 331, 407. 

John of the, 454. 

Robert son of John of the, 469. 

Holy Cross, exaltation of the, 168. 
Holyn-Fare passage, 34. 



INDEX. 



617 



Homage tenure, description of, 307-8. 
Honey, 301, 322, 323, 389. 
Honorsfield, 255; see Hundersfield. 
Honour, high court and tenants of, 

293. 

Honton, John de, 436. 
Hoole, Much- and Little-, 578. 
Hope (the), 578. 

Hope worth, 579; see Horewich, forest of. 
Hopwood, 578. 

Adam de, 438, 454. 

Robert, 507. 

Thomas, 310. 

Hordern, Great-, 579; Little-, 387, 579. 

- Solyns, 471, 579. 
Horewich, 384, 387, 414, 473, 501, 502; 

notice of, 579; forest of, 94, 95, 151, 

300-2, 390, 401, 467. 
Horewichley, 388, 402. 
Hornby, Roger de Montbegon baro de; 

see Montbegon. 

castle and manor, 462. 
Horse-load; see Load. 
Hospitallers, knights, 347. 
Hoton, 462. 

Hough and Hough's End, 430, 513, 579. 
Housebote, 328, 392. 
Hull, the baron's, 4, 469. 
Hulles or Hules, le, 143, 156, 580. 
Hulme or holme, in composition, 15. 
several townships of the name. 348, 

580. 
259, 260, 299, 343, 348, 397, 405, 

439, 466, 498, 518,580; -hall,-526, 580; 

-moss, 414. 

Edward, SOL 

Geoffrey de, 259. 

Geoffrey, 499, 503, 508. 

Gilbert de, 259. 

John, 506. 

Laurence de, 469. 

Robert de, notice of, 454. 

Thomas de, 380. 

Thomas, 505. 

Hulton, 4, 259, 260; three townships of 

the name, 580-81. 

- Adam de, 155, 348. 

David de, 168, 266, 345; notice of, 

141. 

Henry de, notice of, 345. 

Jarverth de, 69, 78, 262, 263. 

John de, 261, 436, 438, 439, 443, 496; 

notice of, 292. 
John, of Farn worth, 500, 501, 505, 

508; notice of, 493, 517. 

Ralph de, 259. 

VOL. III. 



Hulton, Richard son of Jarverth de, 71, 

154,238,261; notice of, 69. 
Richard son of Richard de, 260, 

334, 341, 342, 344, 345, 346, 405, 406, 

444; notice of, 260. 

Robert, 496, 517. 

Roger, 497, 517. 

William, 500. 
Hume's Philosophy of Geographical 

Names., extract from, 533-34. 
Huncotes, 462. 

Hundersfield, 581; see Honorsfield. 
Hundred (the), how constituted, 30. 
Hungerford, Robert lord, 475. 
Hunt hull or hill, 469, 502, 581. 

William le, 350. 

Hunte, William, 506. 

Hunt's bank, 294, 581. 

Huntyngdon, John, warden of Mame- 

cestre, 474, 503, 508. 
Hyde, John de la, 351. 391. 

Ralph de, 267. ' 

Hydil park, 461. 
Hyperfeild, 412. 
Hyton, 462. 

Ightenhull manor, 462. 
Ina, king of Wessex, 12. 

laws of, 14. 

Ince, 581. 

Richard de, 342, 405. 

Thomas, 517. 



Ince-Blundell, 462, 464, 581. 

Infangthef and Outfangthef, 398; defi- 
nitions of, 296. 

Ingelfeld, 471, 581. 

Inheritance, land of, 226. 

Inn charges, 300. 

Innocent IV., pope, 98. 

Inquisitions, 68, 127 et sqq., 453 et sqq. t 
549. 

In tacks, 581. 

Irk river, 2, 304, 316, 392, 393, 395, 396, 
422, 503; etymology of, 10; account 
of, 581-82. 

Irlam or Irwellham, 343, 397, 405, 580, 
582. 

Irwell river, 2, 304, 316, 393, 395, 397, 
422; account of, 582; etymology of, 9, 

Isefeld, co. Sussex, 436, 437, 440. 

Iseni, Adam de, 82. 

Itinera, 6, 7. 

Jew, fee for burial of, 319. 

John, king, xv, 32, 43, 55, 56, 57, 195, 197. 

Johnson, Katherine, 505. 

4K 



618 



INDEX. 



Jonesfeld de Hulton, land so called, ,471, 

582. 
Judges of the Court of Mamecestre, how 

constituted, 398. 

Kark, weight of the, 317. 
Karleton, William de, 73. 
Kaye, John, 506. 

Thomas, 506. 

Kelgrimesargh, 462. 

Kelham's Domesday Book Illustrated, 

17. 
Kemble's Saxons in England, 3, 25; 

extracts from, 538-43; Codex Diplo- 

maticus, extract from, 537. 
Kenion, Ralph, 504. 
Kenion's MSS., 33, 34. 
Kenyon, 462. 

Keperfeld, 143, 156, 382, 422, 465, 583. 
Kerdon, 462. 
Kerkenlod, 413, 564. 
Kerres, 413, 583. 
Kerroc, 385, 583. 
Kersal, 82, 265; account of, 583. 
Keuerden's (Dr.) MSS., 35, 46, 71, 72, 

76,91,97,269,361. 
Keuerdley; see Cuerdley. 
Keynchirche, co. Hereford, 437. 
Kiddle, explanation of, 393. 
Killet, Gilbert de, 59. 
Kiperclif, 143, 156, 583. 
Kirkeby, 60, 462. 

family, 339. 

Sir John de, 339, 404; account of, 

169. 

Sir Richard de, 467, 495. 

Kirkedale, 462. 

John de, 261. 

Kirkmanshulme, 295, 404, 580; etymo- 
logy of, 26, 583. 
Knights' fees, 37-38, 65-67, 69, 70, 71, 

83, 160, 169, 337, 404, 442, 495, 516. 
Knives, 407. 

Knolles, 584; see Cnolles. 
Knot- or Cnut-lanes, 349. 
Knowsley, 60, 95, 462. 
Kylaneshalgh, 461. 

Lacy (De), Inquisition of 1311, 254. 
Henry de, earl of Lincoln, 181, 254, 

256, 257, 442, 443, 444; notice of, 150; 

his charter to Clitheroe, xv, 187. 
Henry de, of Cromleywellbotham, 

255. 

Ilbert, baro de Clitheroe, 33, 34. 

John, 523, 524. 



Laffenham, Simon, 473. 

Laghmote, 336, 399; explanations of, 

200, 219, 335. 
Lake, fine linen, 317. 
Lancashire not in Domesday, 20; lords 

paramount in, 34; created a duchy, 

442. 

Lancaster, 206, 584; first named a bo- 
rough, 178; its charter, 195-98. 

priory of, 177. 

Edmund Crouchback first earl of, 

101, 150, 152; rent-roll of, 172-73. 

Henry earl of, 441. 

Henry duke of, 257, 261, 441, 442, 

443, 444; Lane, possessions of, 461-62. 

Robert de, 68. 

Roger de Poictou (called) earl of, 34. 

Thomas earl of, 257, 293, 359, 380, 

442. 

William de, baro de Ulverston, 34. 

William de, baro de Netherwires- 

dal, 34. 

co. Lincoln, 40. 



Langeforde, Nicholas, 444. 
Langley, Henry, 498. 

Jo., 496. 

Richard de, and Joan his wife, 444. 

Langtoft, Peter, his French Chronicle, 

12. 

Langton, Stephen, 55. 
Langtons, barons of Newton, 34. 
Lansdowne Feodary, 337, 353, 442. 
Lastagium or lastage, explanation of, 

191, 2f8. 

Lathom, Edward de, 509. 
Richard son of Robert de, 38, 337, 

342. 
Robert de, 39, 72, 153, 160, 261, 

266, 337, 339, 341, 347, 352, 404, 405. 

Robert, 495. 

Thomas de, 260, 261, 334, 337, 338, 

353, 443. 

Thomas, of Knowsley, 497. 

Latimer, Sir Warine, lord Latimer and 

Braybrooke, 433, 437. 

- Alice wife of William le, 100. 
Latymer, Thomas le, 100. 
Laton manor, 462. 
Launde, John de la, 473. 
La Warre; see De la Warre. 
Law making, 54 et sqq. 
Law or Lowe, Robert, 497. 
Lawrence, four saints of the name, 152. 
Lawton, 462. 

Leaping, explanation of, 387. 
Leases for lives, 384. 



INDEX. 



619 



Ledet or Ledette, Christiana, xii, 85, 97, 

101; account of, 100. 
Lee, co. Lane., 462. 

family, 349. 

or Lea, Henry de, 59, 155, 162, 168; 
account of 138-39. 

Leech, modern form of Lache, 430. 

Leicester, Thomas earl of, 245, 247. 

Leme, Adam de, 438. 

Lenton priory, co. Notts, 82, 265. 

Leo's (Dr. Heinrich) Local Nomencla- 
ture, 543. 

Leofwine, Swaine son of, 347. 

Lestoc, 36, 585; pasture in, 389. 

Lestold, 584; pasture in, 388. 

L'Estrange; see Strange. 

Levenshulme, 397, 580, 584. 

Lever, 333, 398, 584; Darcy-, 584; Great-, 
493, 584; Little-, 76, 343, 397, 494, 517, 
584, description of, 346. 

Adam, son of John de, 142, 146, 

148, 155, 157, 158; notice of, 345. 

Ellis or Elias de, 142, 155, 168, 331, 

343, 406. 

Joan wife of Adam, 493. 
John, 494, 517. 

Ralph son of Robert son of James, 

519. 

- William de, 334; notice of, 346, 
Lewknor, co. Oxon., 47. 
Ley, in composition, 15. 
Ley land hundred or wapentake, 20, 23, 

34, 440; vill, 462. 

Liberties, customs and services, 125-26. 
Limam, infra et extra, 397; notes on, 37, 

, 74 ' 
Lincoln, earls of, 70; see Lacy, Henry de, 

John bishop of, 464. 

Lindeshay in Lancaster, co. Lincoln, 39, 
40, 73. 

Litheak, 142, 470, 585; etymology of, 423. 

Little Moss, 396, 426, 585. 

Liverpool, etymology of, 585; castle, 462; 
charters of, 178, 181, 198, 206; cus- 
toms-tolls of, 322, 323, 324. 

Molyneux castellanus de, 34. 
Llhuyd, Humphrey, 11. 
Llhuyd's Adversaria^ 10. 
Load, horse- and man's-, 323, 324. 
Lodge, the, 423. 

London, customs and tolls of, 317-25. 
Longchamp, Henry de, 45. 
Longesthawton, 382, 585. 
Longesthowebon, 412. 
Longford near Mamecestre, 327, 585. 
Joan de, 41 1 . 



Longford, Sir John de, 326, 330, 389, 41 1 ; 
notice of, 327. 

- Nicholas de, 261, 330, 334, 403, 405, 
465; notice of, 344. 

- Ralph de, 517. 

Roger de, 474. 
Longley, Henry, 474. 

Richard de and Joan his wife, 262. 

Thomas, 474. 
Longton, co. Lane., 462. 

John de, 389. 

Longworth, 398, 401, 585. 
Lonsdale, 20 ; wapentake of, 306. 
Lord, John, 352, 391. 

Lostock, 75, 261, 333, 334, 398, 401, 405, 
443, 462, 464, 496, 517; accounts of, 
341, 585; wood of, 391, 414. 

Lovell, Francis lord, 516; account of, 
509. 

Lowcaster, 425, 586. 

Lumbard, Richard, 470, 473. 

Lydegate or Lydiate, 462, 464, 586. 

Lyme or Lime, meaning of, 37, 74, 586. 

Lymere, a cloth, 317. 

Lyvesay, co. Lane., 462. 

Macclesfield, charter of, 205, 206. 

Madox's Baronia Anglica, 32. 

Maen, meaning of, 9. 

Magna Carta, 63; account of, 55-58. 

Maghull, co. Lane., 462. 

Maiot, William son of, 314; meaning of 

the word, 314. 
Makerfeld, 462, 586. 
Malene, 414. 

Mam or Mame, in composition, 7-9. 
Mamecestre, Wluric of, 76. 
Mancestre, 501, 503, 504, 505. 

- George, 501, 508. 

Mancenion an untenable name, viii, 4-6. 

Manchester, 586. 

Mancunium, 2. 

Mancstuhold, 412. 

Mancton, 412; see Monton. 

Manige, meaning of, 8. 

Mannying's (Robert) Rhyming Chroni- 
cle, extract from, 12. 

Manor, the, 32 et sqq., 386, 455, 513, 519; 
explanation of the word, 41-42. 

Manors, extending of, 104 et sqq. 

Mantio, city of, 6. 

Manwood's Forest Laws, 30, 95. 

Mare, John de la, 266. 

Maresa, William, the younger, 43. 

Mariden, church of, 40. 

Marigium, 191. 



620 



INDEX. 



Maritagium, 312. 

Mark or march, 3, 538-43. 

Markets, the, 44, 336-37, 404, 454-55, 

529; tolls of, 145, 336, 401, 503. 
Marschall, Tho., 434. 
Marshall, William, baro de Cartmel, 33. 
Marshalfeld, 383, 587. 
Marstisfeld, 395. 
Maskerel, Thomas, 266. 
Massey, Geoffrey, 507. 
Mason, Thomas, 507. 
Massy, Hamo de, 82, 265. 
Maunsel, John, provost of Beverley, 91, 

204; account of, 92. 
Maxima Csesariensis, province of, 4. 
Mayor, derivation of, 180. 
Meadow land, 385, 386, 413. 
Meat, diseased, 400. 

Medlock river, 304, 316, 393, 587; deri- 
vation of, 10. 
Meeres, John de, 473. 
Meles, north, 462. 

Meller, in Blackburnshire, 495, 587. 
Melsche lache, 37, 396, 429, 587. 
Melver, Richard de, 266. 
Melwel, a fish, 320. 
Merchants, statute of, 62. 
Mere-brook, 396, 429, 587; -clough, 396, 

428, 588; -shaw clough, 426, 588. 
Mereshamton, 396. 
Merestone, the, 588. 
Merewether and Stephens' History of 

Boroughs, xvii; extract from, 244*-45. 
Merlay and Merlay Parva, co. Lane., 462. 
Merler or Master, Thomas, 504. 
Mersey river, 4, 14, 329, 393, 394, 396, 

422, 587. 

Merton Magna, co. Lane., 462. 
Mesne lords, 334. 

Michel- or Muchel-mede, 386, 413, 588. 
Middle brook, 588. 
Middleton, 70, 254, 257, 261, 262, 442, 

443, 462, 588; church of, 177, 438. 

co. Sussex, 436, 437, 440. 

Adam de, 68, 79. 

Robert de, 70, 83, 261. 

Roger de, 79, 254, 258, 259, 262, 

263, 442; notice of, 77. 
Mide, Richard de, 60. 
Midelwoode, 342, 398, 405, 497, 588. 
Midhope, co. Lane., 462. 
Milafesharh, 37, 76. 
Milkewalslade, 309, 589. 
Mills, 113-14, 143-44, 223, 308, 309, 314, 

315, 316, 329-30, 350, 392-94, 504, 516, 

528. 



Mill brow, 469. 

Millstones, 312, 314. 

Milne-furlong, 589. 

Milnegate, Hugh of the, 350. 

John, 500, 502, 504, 505. 

Milneridyng, 147, 158, 589. 

Milneward croft, 143, 156, 382, 412, 499, 
589. 

Mirescogh park, 462. 

Misies or Musies, the, 395, 424, 589. 

Mitton Parva, co. Lane., 462. 

Molyneux family, 34; Adam de, 59. 

Monithornes, 295, 404, 589. 

Monk family, 34. 

Montagu family, 34. 

Montalt, Roger de, 92; account of, 93. 

Montbegon, Adam de, 77, 262. 

Roger de, 33, 34, 262; notice of, 

77. 

Montfort, Simon de, 202; account of, 
203. 

Monton, 258, 397, 405; notice of, 343, 
5S9. 

Moore, Richard, 507. 

Moorland, 351; see Turbary. 

Moreton, Eustace de, 264; notice of, 82. 

Mortimer, Hugh de, notice of, 49. 

Mortmain, statute of, 62. 

Mosley family, 34, 90, 129, 243, 523; ac- 
count of, 524-531 ; rental of their Lan- 
cashire estates, 513. 

Mosley Muniments, xii, 90, 439, 470, 
474. 

Moss ditch, 396; notices of, 425, 590. 

Mossy-halgh, 590. 

Mosshulme in Farn worth, 517. 

Moss-side, 590. 

Moston, 309, 315, 392, 397, 472, 498, 500, 
590. 

Hugh son of Richard de, 391. 

Richard de, 238, 351; notice of, 

239. 

Motte, Nicholas, 470, 473. 

Mountlou, 382. 

Mowbray, Eleanor daughter of John 
lord, 445. 

Mucegros, Robert de, 92; notice of, 93. 

Muchil-dich, 396; notices of, 429, 588. 

Mulcture, 223; see Mills. 

Municipal privileges, 181-82, 218. 

Murage, a toll, 218. 

Names, value of, 4, 533 et sqq. 
Napleton or Mapulton, John, 507. 
Nativi,311, 312, 516. 
Neifs, 19. 



INDEX. 



621 



Nennius, 1. 

Nether draught-gate, 590. 

Netherwiresdal, William de Lancaster 

baro de, 34. 

Netherwood, 388, 413, 590. 
Nettelcombe, co. Somerset, 441. 
Neville, Edmund de, 437. 

Ralph de, 67; account of, 51. 

New carr, 388, 590. 

Newcastle-under-Lyne, 187. 

New-field, 590. 

Newholme, 405, 590; notice of, 343-44. 

Newmarch, John de, 464. 

Newman or Needham, Geoffrey, 504. 

New morres, 413. 

New plecks, 388, 413, 590. 

Newsham, 590. 

Newton, 462, 504; barony of, 33, 34; 

hundred, 20; township, 26, 295, 404; 

charter of, 178. 

- Gilbert de, 75. 
Newton-in-Makertield, 591. 
Newton heath, 248, 590. 
Nigel, 23, 28, 29. 
Ninths, 437. 

Nisus, explanation of, 76. 

Nonetide, 221. 

Norrnans in England, 3, 4, 14, 17, 180. 

Normanville, Thomas de, 162; account 

of, 130. 
Norres, Alan le, 93. 

Hugh le, 80. 

Robert le, 93, 331. 

William, 36, 76. 

North, Sir Charles, and Catherine his 

wife, 526. 

North-dene and -wood, 348, 591. 
Notton, Gilbert de, 38, 71, 77, 78, 79, 80, 

262, 263. 

- William de, 82, 265. 
Nowell, Hugh de, 259. 

Nuthurst, 309, 392, 396, 397, 591 ; Great- 
and Little-, 427; -moss, 396, 427. 

Oath of the forest, rhymed, 160. 
Offington, co. Sussex, 467, 
Ogden or Olden, John, 504. 

Richard, 504. 

Okeden, Adam de, 350. 
Okenley, 388, 413, 501, 591. 
Oldham, 4, 259, 396, 591. 

Richard de, 259. 

Oldom, Roger, 508. 
Old parsonage, site of, 36. 
Oilers or Alders, the, 313, 551. 
Olres, Thomas of the, 313. 



Openshaw, 143, 145, 156, 157, 315, 392, 
591; notice of, 351; heath in, 384, 
385,391,412,414. 

Ordsall,259,345,591. 

Orhull, Richard de, 68. 

Orme son of Ailward, 76, 265. 

Ormeston; see Urmston. 

Ormonde, countess d', 445. 

Orrell, Nicholas, 340, 

Ralph, 517, 519. 

William, 495, 509. 

Osbert, Walter son of, 68. 

Osecroft, 592; see Brand-orchard. 

Outon, 412. 

Ovens, 144, 223-24, 315, 392, 393, 469, 
502. 

Over ton manor, 461. 

John, 473. 

Thomas, of Swynesheved, 473. 

Oxgangs, 27, 145, 150, 383, 384-85, 405. 

Oxwall, 396; situation of, 425, 592. 

Page, Adam, 331. 

Palmer's Siege of Manchester, 423. 

Pannage, 111-13, 151, 301, 326, 389, 391, 

525; description of, 227-28. 
Parbold, 72, 75, 153, 160, 261, 265, 338, 

353, 397, 404, 443, 462, 464, 465, 495, 

509, 517; notices of, 339, 592. 
Parks, definition of, 89; rent of, 143; 

valuation of, 108. 
Parker, Edmund, 469. 
Parliament, barons of, 32. 
Paries, Walter, 440. 
Parmentary, a kind of cloth, 317. 
Passagium or passage, a toll, 191, 218. 
Passelewe, Robert de, 83. 
Pasture, 326-27; 381; definition of, 149; 

rent of, 386-89, 413. 
Pateshull, Hugh de, 84. 
Patrick, John, 503, 504, 505. 
Patronage, church, 125. 
Pavage, a toll, 218. 
Peele, George, 509. 
Pemberton, 342. 
Pembroke, William Mareschal the 

younger, second earl of, 57. 
Pendlebury, 80, 259, 264, 592. 
Elias de, 36, 76, 78, 263, 264; notice 

of, 80. 

Robert de, 406; notice of, 347-48. 



Pendleton, 71, 78, 261, 262, 444, 592, 
Penhull chace, 462. 
Penhulton, 444, 462. 
Penieston or Penyton, William de, 78, 
262. 



622 



INDEX. 



Penketh, 462, 464, 593. 
Pentifoxe in Mancestre, 500, 593. 
Penwortham, 68, 73, 462; barons of, 33, 

34. 

Perambulation of forests, 59-60. 
Pereson or Peretson, William, 307. 
Perponte Richard de or le, 39, 68, 73, 

341,443. 
Robert, 261. 

- Thomas de, 36, 40, 75, 262. 
Personal injuries, forfeitures for, 222. 
Pesage and pesarius, 192, 318, 323. 
Petrie's Monumenta Historica, 7, 13. 
Peutinger Table, 6. 

Peverell family, 34. 

- William, 80, 264. 

Peyore or Peyvre, notice of, 92-93. 

Peytenenyate, 396,593. 

Piccope, Rev. G. J., 477. 

Pickford family, 349. 

Pilkington, 161, 255, 261, 333, 334, 342, 

398, 405, 412, 439, 443, 455, 462, 464, 

497, 517; value of, 169; accounts of, 

342-43, 456, 593. 
, Alexander de, 38, 68, 75, 155, 161, 

168, 263; notices of, 79, 141, 154. 

Margaret, 394. 

Nicholas, 505. 

Robert de, 438. 

Roger de, 40, 238, 255, 258, 260, 

261, 262, 267, 306, 334, 342, 384, 405, 

438, 442, 443; notice of, 73. 

Thomas, 497, 517. 

Pillingworth fieldes, 501, 593. 

Pillory, 452, 456; statute of the, 399, 

452. 

Plaint, explanation of, 188. 
Platt, John, 505. 
Pleas and perquisites, 123-25, 219, 332, 

333-36, 394-97, 399, 404, 411, 516. 
Plegemund, archbishop, 13. 
Plessetis, John de, account of, 91-92. 
Plottesob'ie, John de, 267. 
Poictou, Roger de, x, 23, 24, 28, 33, 34, 

35, 78; account of, 20. 
Pontage, a toll, 192, 218. 
Pordurudinge, 330, 556. 
Porteslade, co. Sussex, 436, 437, 440. 
Portmote, 335, 336, 399, 404, 460, 516; 

explanations of, 146, 219, 
Posse comitatus, 101-102. 
Power, Walter, 464. 
Prees, co. Lane., 462. 
Presthall, Adam, 493. 
Presthwait, 461. 
Preston, 60, 447, 593; ancient custumal 



of, xiv, xv, 178, 182-87, 206; church 

of, 462. 
Prestwich, 80, 263, 518, 593; church of, 

177, 438. 
Adam de, 254, 262, 263, 442; notices 

of, 77, 80, 238, 348. 

- Alice de, 259, 260, 442. 

Edmund de, 470. 

Edward, 503. 

Elias, 498, 505. 

John de, 238; .notice of, 239. 

Nicholas de, 267. 

Ralph, notice of, 162. 

Sir Thomas, 526. 
Prisage, a prerogative custom, 218. 
Procuration, indenture of, 398. 
Prowdelove, John, 506. 
Ptolemy the geographer, 6. 
Pul, Thomas de, 70, 502. 
Pullegrene, 389, 413, 594. 
Puncherdoun, Robert de, 266. 
Purprestures, 59. 
Puture and putary-serjeant, 299-300, 

303-304, 337, 338, 497, 498. 
Pycroft, 383, 412, 594. 
Pyoine, 317. 

Queen-hythe, customs of, 322. 
Quernmore park, 461; bounds of, 59. 
Ouia emptores, statute of, 61, 63, 115, 

119. 

Quinbe, John de, 249. 
Qwo warranto, statutes of, 62, 63. 

Radchenistres and Radmanni, 19, 352. 
Radcliffe, 16, 22, 24, 27, 31, 258, 594; 

church of, 438. 
Adam de, notices of, 292, 310, 

350. 

Gilbert de, 265, 474. 

Henry de, 442, 497. 

James, 498, 500. 

John de, 259, 267, 422, 439, 454. 

John, 507. 

Margery de, 442. 

Ralph, 492, 496, 501, 517. 

Richard de, 155, 168, 255, 265, 438; 

notice of, 142. 

Richard, 508. 

Robert de, 341, 345. 

Simon, 80. 

Thomas, 516. 

William de, 68, 80, 82, 258, 260, 

263, 334; notices of, 79, 343, 346. 
William, 507, 517, 525. 



Radelee, 413, 594. 



INDEX. 



623 



Rainford in Prescot, 36, 338. 

Rainhull, co. Lane., 462. 

Rainolde, Ramolde, or Raveald, Sir Ni- 
cholas, 502, 508. 

Rakes (the), meaning of, 331, 594; Sir 
Geoffrey of, 331, 406. 

Ralee, John, 441. 

Raveald, John, 505. 

Nicholas; see Rainolde. 
- William, 508. 

Rectory, the, 394, 423, 468. 
Red brook, 395, 425, 595. 
Reddish, 81, 260, 264, 396, 439, 595; 
mill of, 394. 

Matthew de, 81, 264. 

Richard de, 260, 438. 

Redeforde, Richard de, 345. 
Redeworth, Richard, 517. 
Reeve, 185, 219, 224-25, 231. 

Henry the, 310; note on, 311. 
Regnold, king, 13. 

Relief, definition of, 233-34. 
Remeworth, 160; see Rumworth. 
Rents and rent-services, 117, 146, 147, 

148, 150, 157, 235, 406. 
Rental of the manor, xxi, 476 et sqq., 

549. 

Resiants, 44. 

Ribbleton, in Preston, 341. 
Ribcaster church, 462. 
Richard of Cirencester, 6. 
Ridding bank, 595. 
Riggeby vill, 461. 
Rilandes, John de, 168. 
Rivington, 75, 79, 81, 258, 262, 263, 264, 

341 ; account of, 595. 
Rixton, 462, 464, 595. 

Alan de, 68. 

Rochdale, 22, 24, 28, 29, 31, 255, 462; 

notice of, 595; barons of, 33, 34; church 

of, 177, 438. 
Roe, John, 507. 

Roman stations, viii, ix, 2, 5, 8, 11. 
Ronceby, William, 470. 
Ros, Robert de, 92; account of, 93. 
Rosden, Geoffrey de, 344. 
Rossendale chace, 462. 

Adam de, 250. 
Roudon, co. Somerset, 441. 
Royton, 259, 596. 

Rudd, John, 499, 502, 505. 
Rudde, Robert, 310. 
Ruhwinton, 36; see Rivington. 
Rumworth, 39, 73, 154, 261, 333, 334, 

398, 401, 405, 439, 443, 462, 464, 496, 

517; notices of, 341, 596. 



Rusholme, 500, 596; -bridge, 332. 
Rushton, 462. 

Henry de, 266. 

Ruyding brook, 383, 502, 595, 596. 
Rydale, John de, 443. 
Rydeley, 387; -wood, 502, 594. 
Rypefeld; see Kyperfeld. 

Sac or sake, 193, 293, 296-97, 380. 

St. Amand, Almaric baron, 472. 

St. Maur, William de, 436. 

St. Michael on Wyre, church of, 462. 

St. Thomas, prior of, 261, 444. 

Salford hundred or wapentake, x, xii, 

17, 20, 24, 85, 352, 380, 381, 438; 

Domesday survey of, 20-23, 27-31; 

forest of, 30; population of, 31; rental 

of, 28. 
borough, 85, 260, 393, 395, 439, 

596; charter of, xv, 199-202, 206, 209, 

549; market of, 44 

manor, 462. 

- Henry de, notice of, 309-10. 
John de, 436. 



Salfordshire, 261, 442, 455. 

Salle or sale, in composition, 15. 

Salsbury, Robert, 261. 

Saltaries and saltatorium, 387. 

Saltergate, 330, 396, 428, 597. 

Saltlode, 386, 597. 

Saltmarsh, Stephen de, 249. 

Samland, 143, 156, 597. 

Samlesbury, Roger de, 38, 75, 77, 345. 

Saule Wardes-croft, 412. 

Savoy, Amadeus de, 40; account of, 

175-76. 
Saxons, 3, 7, 42; local names due to 

them, 14-16, 536, 537-43; their land 

measures, 25. 
Scavage, 317, 318, 320. 
Schirer, water of, 597. 
Scolefield, John of the, 454. 
Scot and lot, 21 8. 
Scot-ale, 218, 302-3. 
Seals and signets, note on, 211. 
Sedon, Richard, 494. 
Sefton, co. Lane., 462. 
Segrave, Gilbert de, 202; notice of, 203, 
Senare, Robert, 249. 
Serieantv, 300, 332, 338; explanation of, 

69. 

Services, 125-26, 293. 
Seton, Thomas de, 453, 460; account of, 

450-51. 

Seuda or selda, note on, 214-15. 
Sharpdale, 413. 



624 



INDEX. 



Sharpenley, 387, 597. 

Sharpies, 77, 347, 397,401, 471, 494,517; 

notice of, 345, 597. 

Adam de, notice of, 345. 

Richard, 494. 

Robert, 494. 

Shaw, in composition, 15, 331. 

the, 332, 406, 597. 

Shawhead, notices of, 331, 597-98. 

Sholver, 598. 

Shops, 227, 504. 

Shoresworth, 80, 156, 259, 264, 265, 598. 

Alexander, 351, 391; notice of, 352. 

Robert de, 155, 168; notices of, 70, 

142. 

Shuttleworth, manor of, 255. 
Silvse; see Forests. 
Simcox, Simon, 464. 
Simeon of Durham, 14. 
Singeing house, 504. 
Singleton, 461. 

James, 517. 

Nicholas, wife of, 496. 

Sixle or Sixhill, manor of, co. Lincoln, 

xiii, 100, 440. 
Skerton lands, 461. 
Slivehall, 37, 76, 598. 
Slyne town, 461. 

Smithehurst, Robert, wife of, 507. 
Smithells, 345, 347, 397, 406, 517; ac- 
counts of, 348, 598. 
Smithfield, customs of, 320, 322. 
Smithyfeld, 382, 412, 467, 502, 598. 
Smythelee, Henry de, wife and son, 439. 
Snoddeworth, co. Lane., 462. 
Soc, socland, socmen, 19, 54, 113, 193, 

297, 403, 492, 497, 498. 
Sohacre, 598, 
Sonkey, 462, 464. 
Southworth, Christopher, notice of, 495. 

Thomas de, 260, 337, 443. 
Spices, 325. 

Sporthe, le, 147, 158, 598. 
Spotland, 255, 599. 
Spurs, 346, 406. 
Stallage, a toll, 192. 
Stanlaw, abbey of, 40. 
Stand, near Mamecestre, 343. 
Stanley, earls of Derby, 337, 338, 494, 

495. 

lord, 517. 

George, 516. 

Sir John, 338. 

John de, 474. 

Ralph, 469, 503. 

Stannford, co. Lincoln, 440. 



Stayning, manor of, 441, 445, 462. 

Steward, office of, 235. 

Stockport, 599; charter of, 205, 206. 

baron, 34. 

Sir Robert de, 205. 

Stoke, Geoffrey de, 247. 
Strange, lord, 526. 

John le, notice of, 93. 

Strangeways, 395, 422, 599. 

Nicholas, 506. 

Thomas de, 267, 454. 



Stray cattle, 124-25, 390. 

Stretford, 34, 82, 265, 396, 422, 439, 599; 

-brook, 599. 

Henry de, 82, 265. 

Hugh de, 82, 265. 

Strogoyl castle, 441. 
Subinfeudation, 70, 71, 293. 
Sugeye, 342. 
Sulthethe, 462. 
Sunday, 239; law of, 220-21 . 
Sunderland, manor of, 494, 599. 
Surward, Richard, 85. 
Sutton, co. Lane., 462. 
Swane, 79, 263, 347. 

Adam son of, 332. 

Walter son of, 68. 

Swineshead, co. Line., xiii, 100, 434, 440, 

441, 445; abbey of, xi, 35, 36, 77, 295, 

463, 471. 
Symondes wood, 60. 

Tagun, Award, 70. 

Tail, tenants in, explanation of, 349. 

Talbot, Sir Edmund, 349. 

Tallage, 180, 236-37. 

Tame river, 396, 422, 600. 

Tandel, a measure, 321. 

Tanners, offences of, 452, 

Tarbock. 600; see Torbock. 

Tatham, William de, 59. 

Tawnton or Tongton hall, 309. 

Taylier, Robert, 507. 

Tempest, Richard, 494. 

Tenants at will, 502-4. 

Tenterleaher, 506, 600. 

Tenures, servile, 24, 147, 312, 403. 

Testa de Nevill, xi, xii, 36, 37, 38, 39; 

date of, 548; account of, 67-8; extracts 

from, 69-84. 
Tetlaw, Adam de, 258, 259, 262, 444. 

Richard, 506. 

Teutonicus, Baldwin, 34, 238. 

Thanes, 121. 

Theam, definition of, 297. 

Thelwall, near Warrington, ix, 7, 13, 14. 



INDEX. 



625 



Them, 398; definition of, 297. 

Theow; see Thralls. 

Thirteenth century, why memorable, 54. 

Thirnyng, William, 473. 

Thistleton, co. Lane., 462. 

Thol or theolonium, 191; definition of, 

297. 
Thomson's Historical Essay, extract 

from, 57. 
Thorl-clough, 600. 
Thorneton, co. Lane., 462. 

Simon de, 84. 

Thornham, 600. 
Thorough toll, the, 243. 
Thralls, a serf class, 121. 
Tib, etymology of, 10. 
Tildesley, 462, 464, 600. 
Tinnecroft, 382, 412, 600. 
Tockholes, 600. 
Toeny, Roger de, 29. 
Tol, 398. 

Toll, custom of, 316-325. 
Toll lane, 38. 
Tolls, market, 503. 
Ton, in composition, 14-15. 
Tonge, 82, 264, 601. 

Gilbert de, 82, 264. 

John son of Elias, 258. 

Torbock, co. Lane., 462. 

Ellen de, 339, 404, 517; notices of, 

338, 340. 
Tottington, co. Lane., 77, 255, 257, 261, 

262, 442, 443, 462; notice of, 601; 

manor and chace, 462. 
Townlay, co. Lane., 462. 
Toxtath, forest of, 60. 
Trafford, 259, 262, 265, 267, 397, 601; 

arable land in, 382. 

Edward, 503. 

Sir Edmund, 473. 

Henry de, 68, 237, 254, 258, 259, 

264, 265, 267, 271, 309, 334, 337, 403, 

404, 442; notices of, 81, 168, 238, 249- 

250, 340. 

Hugh de, 265. 

John de, 438, 495, 504, 516, 517. 

Lawrence, 523. 

Rihard de, 266, 267. 

Robert de, 267; notice of, 454. 

Thomas and others, 271. 

Tresham, Henry de, 249. 

Troghden chace, 462. 

Tronage, 318. 

Tumbrel, punishment of the, 399-400, 

452-53, 456-58. 
Tunnlinson, William, 503. 



Turbary, 328, 329, 351, 389, 391. 

Turf pits, the, 396,601. 

Turton, 75, 153, 160, 260, 339, 397, 404, 

443, 495, 517, 601. 
Tutbury, honour of, 461, 462, 464. 
Twantirford, 145, 157, 602. 
Twartford, 412. 
Twisleton, co. Lane., 462. 

Ulgrene or Ulgreve, Thomas, 500. 

Ulleswalton manor, 462. 

Ulneswalden, co. Lane., 462. 

Ulric of Mamecestre, 36, 76. 

Ulsdeston, co. Lane., 462. 

Ulverston, barons of, 34. 

Umfrevil, Robert de, 266. 

Umoch, Alexander son of, 36, 76, 343, 

346. 

Undesworth, 333, 334, 398, 602. 
Urdesale, manor of, 265. 
Urmston, 76, 258, 265, 389, 413; notices 

of, 344, 602; etymology of, 4, 15. 

Adam de, 82, 265. 
Urswick, Sir Robert, 339. 
Utley, James, 507. 

Vacearies, 151, 386, 387. 

Valentine, Richard, 344. 

- Thomas, 492, 517. 

family, notice of, 492. 
Vavasor, John, 519. 
Vavasours, 222, 334. 
Venison, 301-2. 
Vennel, a, 469. 

Vernon, Sir William de, account of, 

202-3. 
Vert, 301. 

Verus Valor of 1292, 438. 
Vesture of oaks, 389. 
Vill and villata, difference between, 295. 
Villani, definition of, 19. 
Villeins and villeinage, 121-22, 147, 229- 

230, 232, 310-11, 403. 
Villers, Paganus, baro de Werington, 

or Warrington, 33, 34, 262. 

Robert, 262. 

Vivian, Hugh de, 43. 

Wakes; see Fairs. 

Wakerley, co. Northampton, 272, 434, 

435, 436, 439, 440, 441. 
Walbye in Warr., 413, 602. 
Walke-mill and walkers; see Fulling 

mill. 

Walle-greene, 602; see Brend-orchard. 
Walle-lode, 386, 413, 602. 

4L 



626 



INDEX. 



Walmesley, Henry, 509. 

Walsche, Richard le, notice of, 338. 

Walter, Theobald; see Butler, Theobald. 

Walton in Blakeburnshire, 462. 

Wanton, William de, 249. 

Warche or Ward, le, 149, 159, 602. 

Warchbisbee, 413. 

Warchleyside, 388. 

Ward, Kan., 465. 

Warin, 23, 28, 29. 

Wariner, Robert le, 249. 

Warre; see De La Warre. 

Warren, free, 87-96, 110-11. 

Warrington, hundred of, 20; manor of, 

462; tolls of, 322; barons of, 33, 34. 
Warthe, le, etymology of, 330-31. 
Warton in Amounderness,261, 462, 602. 

in Lonsdale, 462. 

Waste, the, 504, 

Watch and ward, 173-75. 

Water-street an ancient road, 470. 

Watteby, le, 386. 

Wattmoss, 414. 

Wfeeton and Amounderness, barony of, 

34. 

Welby, Roger, 473. 
Welles, Adam third baron de, 433. 
Welsh, Richard, 404. 

chronicle, extract from, 11-12. 

- Whittle, co. Lane., 462. 
Weregilds, 222. 
Werneth, 259, 603. 
West family, 34; account of, 472-75, 

519-523. 
Reginald fifth baron, 254, 468, 473. 

Sir Richard, lord de la Warre, 348, 
475, 476, 519. 

Thomas third baron, 254, 463, 467, 

468, 472. 

Thomas, lord de la Warre, 475, 
519; claim of liberties, 518; rental of, 
337, 476 et sqq. 

West Derby; see Derby. 
Westhoughton, 342, 397, 405, 496, 517, 

603. 

West-Legh, Roger de, 438. 
Westminster, second statute of, 62; 

third statute, 63. 
Weyland or Werlond, William de, 99, 

100. 

Whaley, Hugh de, 91. 
Whalley, abbey of, 40, 255, 258, 295, 404, 

441, 445, 462; church of, 177. 
Whatton, Mr., errors of, 46, 51, 52. 
Wheeler's Manchester, v. 
Whelton-cum-Heparge, 462. 



Whitaker, Rev. John, iii, xvi, 4, 5, 10, 
26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 213, 214, 242, 243, 
544. 

Whitehawghe, Lawrence, 507. 

Whitehead, Thomas, 500, 505, 508. 

Whitmoss, 389, 392, 413, 414, 603. 

Wichfield (? Whitefield), 259, 603. 

Wick, in composition, 15. 

Wickleswick, 343; notices of, 344, 603. 

Wickwar, co. Gloucester, 250, 434, 440. 

Widows, laws respecting, 233, 400. 

Widnes, manor of, 462; barons of, 33, 34. 

Wigan, 604; charter of, 178, 203-5, 206. 

Wiggehalgh, 462. 

Wildboresclou, 387, 604. 

Wilderhurst, 387, 413, 604. 

William the Conqueror, 17, 18, 32, 65. 

Wince brook, meaning of, 426. 

Windehulle, 462, 464, 604. 

Wind-fall wood, 143. 

Windmills; see Mills. 

Wine, assise of, 400. 

Winington, Nicholas, 506. 

Winton, statute of, 63. 

Wiresdale, barony of, 34; vaccary, 461. 

Wiswall, co. Lane., 462. 

Witingham, co. Lane., 462. 

Withenerod, 388, 604. 

Withington, 38, 72, 74, 82, 147, 152, 157, 
160, 169, 261, 333, 334, 352, 391, 396, 
398, 403, 405, 439, 441, 445, 455, 464, 
465, 497, 517; notices of, 344, 456, 604. 

tenants of, 326, 389, 397; rental of, 

513; Thomas de, 75. 
clou, 396, 397. 



Withy-hey, situation of, 330. 

Wodheved, co. Rutland, 440. 

Wogay, Sir John, 249. 

Woods, 328, 389-92; see Forests. 

Wood, Oteus or Otes, 507. 

Woodhead, co. Line., 434. 

Wood-heye, le, 149, 159, 605. 

Woodstock, 93-94. 

Woolstenholme, notices of, 255, 605. 

Woolton, Much- and Little-, 353. 

Workedley, 392; see Worsley. 

Workhouse, the, 528-29. 

Worsaae's (J. J.) Danes and Norwe- 
gians in England, extract from, 544- 
48. 

Worsley, 78, 259, 392, 605. 
- Henry de, 438. 

Richard de, 78, 168, 263; notice 



of, 79. 
Robert, 508. 
Worth, in composition, 3, 15. 



INDEX. 



627 



Worthington, 160, 333, 334, 397, 398, 

404, 440, 441, 445, 462, 464, 495, 517; 

notices of, 339, 605. 

Hugh de, 445, 495, 517. 

William de, 40, 73, 154, 160, 334, 

339, 404, 445. 

Worthington, Copphul, 169. 
Woxhese, Richard, 506. 
Woxton, 462. 
Wray, the, 461. 
Wrekin, etymology of, 5. 
Wrighte, Robert, wife of, 507. 
Wrightington, 72, 75, 160, 261, 265, 397, 

404, 440, 443, 462, 464, 465, 495, 517; 

notices of, 153, 339, 605. 
Geoffrey de, 160. 

- Hugh, 507. 



Wrightington, John, 469. 

Richard de, 517. 

Wrigleyhead, 396, 427, 605. 
Wychliswyke, 405. 

Wyke, Thomas de, 435, 439, 446, 464; 
notice of, 461. 

John, 460; notice of, 461. 

Wyldeburflowre, 413. 
Wyldsnape, 413. 
Wylinton, Sir John de, 249. 
Wynewic, William de, 68. 
Wythacres, 36, 77, 295, 603. 
Wytherhall-cum-Bothelsworth, 462. 

Yardfridus, baro de Widnes, 33. 
Yate, Richard of the, 332. 
Yorkshire, ancient extent of, 20. 



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Communicated by the Rev. F. R. RAINES, M.A., F.S.A. 

A History of the Ancient Chapel of Denton, in Manchester Parish. 
By the Rev. JOHN BOOKER, M.A., F.S.A. 

A Letter from John Bradshawe of Gray's Inn to Sir Peter Legh of 
Lyme. Edited by WM. LANGTON, Esq. 

XXXVIII. Bibliographical Notices of the Church Libraries of Turton and Gorton 
bequeathed by Humphrey Chetham. Edited by GILBERT J. FRENCH, Esq. 

XXXIX. The Farington Papers. Edited by Miss FFARINGTON. 

1856-7. 

XL. The Private Journal and Literary Remains of John Byrom. Vol. II. 
Part I. 

XLI, The House and Farm Accounts of the Shuttleworths of Gawthorpe Hall. 
Part II. 

XLII. A History of the Ancient Chapels of Didsbury and Chorlton, in Man- 
chester Parish, including Sketches of the Townships of Didsbury, Withington, 
Burnage, Heaton Norris, Reddish, Levenshulme, and Chorlton-cum-Hardy: 
together with Notices of the more Ancient Local Families, and Particulars re- 
lating to the Descent of their Estates. By the Rev. JOHN BOOKER, M.A., F.S.A. 

1857-8. 
XLIII. The House and Farm Accounts of the Shuttleworths of Gawthorpe Hall. 

Part III 
XLIV. The Private Journal and Literary Remains of John Byrom. Vol. II. 

Part II. 
XLV. Miscellanies : being a selection from the Poems and Correspondence of the 

Rev. Thomas Wilson, B.D., of Clitheroe. With Memoirs of his Life. By 

the Rev. CANON RAINES, M.A., F.S.A. 

1858-9. 

XLVI. The House and Farm Accounts of the Shuttleworths of Gawthorpe Hall 
Part IV. 

XLVII. A History of the Ancient Chapel of Birch, in Manchester Parish, in- 
cluding a Sketch of the Township of Rusholme : together with Notices of the 
more Ancient Local Families, and Particulars relating to the Descent of their 
Estates. By the Rev. JOHN BOOKER, M.A., F.S.A. 

XLVIII. A Catalogue of the Collection of Tracts for and against Popery (pub- 
lished in or about the reign of James II.) in the Manchester Library founded 
by Humphrey Chetham ; in which is incorporated, with large Additions and 
Bibliographical Notes, the whole of Peck's List of the Tracts in that Con- 
troversy with his References. Edited by THOMAS JONES Esq. M.A. Part I. 

1859-60. 

XLIX. The Lancashire Lieutenancy under the Tudors and Stuarts. The Civil 
and Military Government of the County, as illustrated by a series of Royal and 
other Letters ; Orders of the Privy Council, the Lord Lieutenant, and other 



of tfjc Cljcttjam anctt>. 

VOL. 

Authorities, &c., &c. Chiefly derived from the Shuttleworth MSS. at Gaw- 
thorpe Hall, Lancashire. Edited by JOHN HARLAND, Esq., F.S.A. Part I. 

L. The Lancashire Lieutenancy under the Tudors and Stuarts. Part II. 

LI. Lancashire and Cheshire Wills and Inventories from the Ecclesiastical Court, 
Chester. The Second Portion. 

1860-1. 
LII. Collectanea Anglo-Poetica : or, A Bibliographical and Descriptive Catalogue 

of a portion of a Collection of Early English Poetry, with occasional Extracts 

and Remarks Biographical and Critical. By the Rev. THOMAS CORSER, M.A., 

F.S.A., Rural Dean; Rector of Stand, Lancashire; and Vicar of Norton, 

Northamptonshire. Part I. 
LIII. Mamecestre: being Chapters from the early recorded History of the Barony, 

the Lordship or Manor, the Vill Borough or Town, of Manchester. Edited 

by JOHN HARLAND, Esq., F.S.A. Vol. I. 
LIV. Lancashire and Cheshire Wills and Inventories from the Ecclesiastical Court, 

Chester. The Third Portion. Edited by the Rev. G. J. PICCOPE. M.A. 

1861-2. 

LV. Collectanea Anglo-Poetica. Part II. 
LVI. Mamecestre. Vol. II. 

LVII. Chetham Miscellanies. Volume the Third. Edited by WILLIAM LANGTON, 
Esq. : containing 

On the South Lancashire Dialect. Edited by THOS. HEYWOOD, Esq. 

Rentale de Cokersand : being the Burser's Rent Roll of the ABBEY 

of Cokersand, in the County Palatine of Lancaster, for the year 1501. 

Printed from the Original. Edited by the Rev. F. R. RAINES, M.A., F.S.A. 

The Names of all the Gentlemen of the best callinge w th in the countye 

of Lancastre, whereof choyse ys to be made of a c'ten number to lend vnto 

her Ma^ e moneye vpon privie seals in Janvarye 1558. From a manuscript 

in the possession of the Rev. F. R. RAINES, M.A., F.S.A. 

Some Instruction given by William Booth Esquire to his stewards 
John Carington and William Rowcrofte, upon the purchase of Warrington 
by Sir George Booth Baronet and William Booth his son, A.D. MDCXVIII. 
Communicated by WILLIAM BEAMONT, Esq. 

Letter from Sir John Seton, Manchester y e 25 M'ch, 1643. Edited 
by THOMAS HEYWOOD, Esq., F.S.A. 

The Names of eight hundred inhabitants of Manchester who took the 
oath of allegience to Charles II. in April, 1679. Communicated by JOHN 
HARLAND, F.S.A. 

The Pole Booke of Manchester, May y e 22 d 1690. Edited by W. 
LANGTON, Esq. 

1862-3. 
LVIII. Mamecestre. Vol. III. 



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