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A JOURNAL. FOR THE 


NORTHEASTERN FARM 


FA FV1 I LY 



rrr,-f " 








JANUARY 1, 1955 


In the Still of a Winter’s Day 



















































































227293 



j By LEONA M. SHERMAN 


The well-bred early birds make the most money. 
When they arrive at the farm ? they need the best 
brooding and rearing a farmer can provide. 


is always difficult for me to 
know when I get the biggest 
thrill — when we get the baby 
chicks, when we house a beau¬ 
tiful flock of pullets or when 
I find the first egg. To me, 
there is no other experience 
lite like taking the fluffy little 
chicks out of their boxes and putting them 
in their new home. Each time I realize anew 
how helpless and fragile they are and feel 
my responsibility in connection with their 
care. 

It takes time and experience to make a 
good poultryman. One cannot be slipshod 
and careless. You have to give a lot of atten¬ 
tion to detail. In spite of the fact that the 
uninitiated think it is easy to raise chickens, 
on the contrary it involves a lot of work, stick- 
to-itiveness and good chicken sense. When I 
first came to the farm, I thought there was 
not much to keeping hens, only throwing a 
little grain to them and gathering the eggs, 
but I certainly have found out differently. 

Plan for the Best Breeding 

The first essential in good chicken manage¬ 
ment is planning ahead. The chicks really 
ought to be ordered six months ahead; there 
usually is a discount for doing this. Next, 
never let price dominate the decision as to 
where to buy baby chicks. Find a reliable 
hatcheryman, study his records and his busi¬ 
ness. Find out if his stock is pullorum clean; 
there is a state list to which you may refer. 

I like to buy chicks from good vigorous 
stock and of good breeding. Such chicks will 
be bred to lay, they will have good body size 
as grown pullets, have livability, good egg 


size, and will be relatively free from disease. 
I say relatively because it- is absolutely im¬ 
possible to have any chickens entirely dis¬ 
ease resistant. When I first kept chickens, I 
shopped around a few years for places to buy 
them but, for 10 years or more now, I have 
bought my chicks at the same place. Although 
they cost somewhat more than some, as baby 
chicks, I have had good results. Besides, I 
have been able to go and pick up the chicks 
myself and be back with them in a few hours. 
I especially like this way of doing because 
then the chicks are on the road only a short 
time, and they get off to a better start. 

They say that you cannot expect to raise 
more than 90 per cent of the chicks brooded. 
I have always had better luck than that, un¬ 
less something unusual happened. In fact, 
last year, I lost only one per cent, and the 
year before, only half a per cent. I think new 
discoveries in nutrition and the use of anti¬ 
biotics in the feed have been great helps. 

When the Chicks Arrive 

When you plan to have your chicks arrive 
depends upon your own particular conditions 
and circumstances. It seems best to us to have 
them come during the middle of April; that 
is for central New York State. This is a little 
late to get the best egg prices from the pullets 
in the Fall, but I keep my yearling hens over 
until December, so I make up for my loss 
then. The April chicks do better as the weather 
gets warmer. It is generally conceded that 
spring-hatched chicks are slightly superior 
and, if you have room so that they can be put 
on range, so much the better. It is often a 
good thing to start out with more chicks than 
you think you need. According to statistics, 


an average of five to 25 per cent die during 
the first three or four months. This has not 
been true according to my experience, I am 
glad to say. 

It is never a good thing to overcrowd the 
chicks. You are only heading for trouble if 
you do. They will be slower in developing, and 
have more disease, more runts and more 
cannibalism. In order not to overcrowd, al¬ 
low a square foot of floor space for every three 
chicks; two is even better. If the chicks are 
not to be put on range, but kept in confine¬ 
ment, they will need more room as they grow 
older. 

Clean the Brooder House 

After the planning on the new chick flock 
is done, the first thing to do is prepare the 
brooder house. We move ours near the other 
farm buildings to hook up with electricity. 
However, the farther away from the old hens, 
the better. It should be 150 feet anyway, but 
the more isolated you can rear your chicks, 
the less disease they will have. This is especial¬ 
ly true of leucosis, and for the first two weeks 
it is more important than ever. 

See to it that the brooder house is rat proof 
and that there are no cracks that can let in 
drafts. Check the roof to see that it does not 
leak. It seems like we are always having to 
put new window panes in the windows. 

If you thoroughly cleaned your brooder 
house after using it last season, you are lucky. 
If not, the job has to be done now from ceiling 
to floor. This is a job that you cannot slight. 
It is not a pleasant one, but it is very 
important. All the old accumulation of dirt 
must be scraped or dug off. Then, the whole 

(Continued on Page 29 ) 

THE RURAL NEW-YORKEE 



2 












Mastitis in the Dairy Herd 

It’s too much to lose — $300 a year 
on the average dairy farm —from a 
disease that can he better controlled. 

By H. G. HODGES 



A black strip plate should be used for controlling 
mastitis. In the hands of the veterinarian it is 
a good diagnostic aid. In the hands of the milker 
it helps stimulate Ictdonm and also detects 
abnormal secretions. 


HE dairy farmer is experiencing 
an economic squeeze as a re¬ 
sult of lowered income and 
no corresponding reduction in 
costs. The inefficient dairy 
cow does much to neutralize 
;he savings achieved through other efficien¬ 
cies. The true harvest on a dairy farm comes 
through the milk can. The healthier the dairy 
cow. the more bountiful the harvest. Freedom 
from dairy cattle disease helps insure a profit 
even when adverse economic trends exist. 

Economic Loss From Mastitis 

What bovine mastitis costs dairymen in this 
country is not easy to estimate. Research 
workers state that the disease reduces milk 
production of affected cows by as much as 
25 per cent. In addition to reduced milk pro¬ 
duction, the milk produced by a mastitis cow 
is often of inferior quality and not salable. In 
herds where mastitis examinations were made 
for the first time under the New York State 
Mastitis Control Program during the year 
1953-54. it was found that around 30 per cent 
of the cows had udders that were classed as 
clinically abnormal, nearly 16 per cent were 
revealing abnormal secretions and 12 per cent 
were infected with Streptococcus agalactiae, 
not to mention infection by other mastitis- 
causing bacteria. It is estimated that the milk 
produced by one-fourth to one-third of the 
cows of our herds is reduced by at least 25 
per cent. Include an estimated 65 to 70 
thousand cows sold each year because of 
ruined udders long before they are past the 
age of economical production, and the loss 
from unsalable milk, to say nothing about 
costs of treatment, and it isn’t difficult to esti¬ 
mate an annual loss in New York State alone 
of 20 to 25 million dollars. 

This is an average of approximately $300 
per dairy farm in New York State. A far better 
idea of what mastitis costs the average dairy¬ 
man can, however, be obtained when we look 
at savings made at dairy farms where mastitis 
is being effectively controlled. The savings 
that these dairymen report tell the story much 
more conclusively. In a large 100-cow institu¬ 
tional herd, the average production per cow 
was increased approximately 1,000 pounds, or 
S35 to $40 per cow per year following the in¬ 
troduction of a successful mastitis control 
program with no other change in feeding or 
other herd management practices. 

Cause of Mastitis 

Streptococcus agalactiae is the bacteria usu¬ 
ally mentioned as a specific cause of bovine 
mastitis. Actually, mastitis is a disease asso¬ 
ciated with as many as a dozen types of bac¬ 
teria. Here, as in many other ways, the nature 
and control of mastitis is different from 
tuberculosis or brucellosis where only one 
disease-causing organism is the cause of the 
disease. This makes the control of mastitis 
much more difficult than either tuberculosis 
or brucellosis. 

Mastitis is not a new disease or a new 
problem. It has been with us for a long time. 
In 1888, the noted European bacteriologist, 
Bernard Bang, under ‘’Causes of Mastitis in 
Cattle,” wrote, “It is obvious that cleanliness 

December 18, 1954 


in the stable is of greatest importance.” In an¬ 
other place he refers to “defective milking 
associated with disease of the tips of the 
teats” and gives us another factor the “droplet 
of milk beneath the orifice of the teat when the 
teat is distended with milk or immediately 
after milking.” Professor Emeritus Dr. D. H. 
Udall, New York State Veterinary College, a 
pioneer in mastitis control in this country, 
states in his textbook, “The cause of mastitis 
falls under two main groups, the badly in¬ 
fected cow, and insanitary stable and milk¬ 
ing hygiene, with special reference to the pro¬ 
tection of the udder.” Present knowledge per¬ 
taining to bovine mastitis emphasizes even 
more emphatically the statements of Bang 
and Udall. 

Failure to provide good herd management 
and good sanitation, with particular reference 
to care and use of the milking machine are 
apparently paramount predisposing factors in 
the cause of mastitis. It must be recognized 
that the cow lives in the midst of many types 
of bacteria which, if they gain entrance into 
the teats, can cause bovine mastitis, or garget. 
Injury to the teats, no matter how slight, 
makes it easier for these bacteria to pass 
through the teat end and into the udder. 

Work done by Dr. J. M. Murphy, veterinary 
bacteriologist at the New York State Veterin¬ 
ary College, Cornell University, Ithaca, em¬ 
phasizes a resistance to mastitis that some 
cows have and others do not. One study de¬ 
termined definitely that a special strain of 
Streptococcus agalactiae known as “Cornell 
Strain 48” would grow and multiply in cows’ 
milk immediately after being drawn from the 
udder when the milk and bacteria were sub¬ 
jected to as near identical conditions outside 
of the udder as occurs within the udder. This 
indicates that the so-called bactericidal action 
—an inhibitory factor in milk—does not re¬ 
strict growth of Streptococcus agalactiae or¬ 
ganisms in the udder. This in itself emphasizes 


the importance of so handling the cow 7 that 
mastitis bacteria do not gain entrance into 
the udder. In another research project, Dr. 
Murphy introduced Strain 48 into the ends 
of the teats but not completely through the 
sphincter muscle. Pie found that, whereas some 
cows did not accept the infection and the 
mastitis bacteria deposited in the teat orifice 
were washed away by the milking operation 
within a few days, other cows always became 
infected when challenged. After the infection 
had been established in the non-re istant 
cows’ udders for a few weeks, the infection was 
removed by treatment which was introduced 
without invading or disturbing the teat orifice. 
Then, when the udders were proved to be free 
from infection, the same experiment was re¬ 
peated. It was found that the susceptible cows 
always became reinfected. This work indicates 
a number of possibilities. It indicates that cer¬ 
tain cows may have some sort of a defense 
mechanism in the end of the teat that protects 
the udder from mastitis infection. It also indi¬ 
cates that if the infection gets into the udder 
it can develop and cause trouble. A very im¬ 
portant aspect of this study is the fact that 
mastitis infection in the non-resistant cows 
was removed when treated, but they became 
infected again when exposed to infection. This 
is proof enough that it takes more than treat¬ 
ment alone to control mastitis. 

The dairyman is confronted with no more 
complex or difficult disease than that of bovine 
mastitis. It is a disease that must be attacked 
from a herd standpoint and not from an in¬ 
dividual cow standpoint. 

There is a research laboratory at Ithaca and 
six field laboratories located in widely sepa¬ 
rated areas of the State. Each laboratory is 
staffed by a field veterinarian, laboratory 
technician, and other personnel needed to pro¬ 
vide mastitis control service to dairy farmers 
and veterinarians within the State. 

(Continued on Page 22) 


A clean , clipped udder usually means less trouble from 
mastitis. It is one of the worthwhile dairy cattle manage¬ 
ment points that results, ivith good breeding and feeding, 
in such records as made by the fine Ayrshire cow shown 
below. Owned by Mr. and Mrs. George Lamouret of 
Cherry Valley, N. Y., Strathglass Brown Peg has a 305- 
day, 2x milking record of 18,287 pounds of milk and 874 

pounds of butterfat. 

























Get the facts on HIGH-YIELDING, BETTER-PAYING 



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PASTURES • COVER CROPS 


FUNK G CORN 


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contains important informa¬ 
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learn how Hoffman’s clean, hardy, dependable 
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A. H. HOFFMAN, INC. 

Box 31 D, Landisville (Lancaster Co.), Pa. 





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Dept. RN-II5, Fryeburg, Maine 



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132 CIRCLE ROAD, DANSVILLE, N. Y. 


^STRAWBERRIES 

XT ‘ 


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BOX 20-A, INDIANA, PA 


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KARRIS WORTH STAR—Best Early Hybrid 


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SEND FOR OUR FREE CATALOG 
Get complete details about North Star and a lot of 
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8 Moreton Farm, Rochester 11, New York 

1955 CATALOG now Aeadtj 


Midwinter 

The month of Jaunary has three 
major interests for the garden- 
minded: care of house plants; see¬ 
ing that the winter birds are well 
fed; and planning the spring and 
summer garden. 

Let us start with the window 
garden which should be flourishing 
at this time. The cardinal rules for 
success in house-plant care, in order 
of importance, are: regular, careful 
watering when the plants need 
moisture; proper light; and the right 
temperature. Feeding is less im¬ 
portant, assuming that a good pot¬ 
ting soil was used. 

Potted plants should be watered 
when they show the first signs of 
wilting. Do not allow the soil to be¬ 
come soggy, neither allow it to be¬ 
come bone dry. Watering is done 
preferably during the forenoon and 
with tepid water. Some plants, of 
course, will not need daily watering. 
As far as possible, give pot plants 
the morning sun and a temperature 
not higher than 70 degrees nor low¬ 
er than 50 degrees. During the latter 
half of the month, a pick-up meal 
may be in order for flowering plants. 
Use one of the standard perparations 
made for this purpose or prepare 
your own liquid stimulant by dis¬ 
solving three ounces of 5-10-5 com¬ 
mercial fertilizer in a gallon of 
water; apply it sparingly. 

I wonder how many readers grow 
the Echeverias — those lovely Mexi¬ 
can succulents with thick leaves of 
varying colors, some deep green 
edged with red (this is my favorite, 
incidentally), some gray with a vio¬ 
let tinge. The blossoms, yellow and 
scarlet, are borne in panicles on long 
stems and last well. Echeveria 
hoveyii is a choice little hybrid with 
narrow, flat leaves of gray-green 
striped with pink and white and 
bearing a short spike of pale red 
flowers. 

Echeverias require a rather sandy 
soil: equal parts of sand and loam, 
one part leafmold, a bit of bonemeal 
and the same of ground limestone. 
And be sure to mix plenty of finely 
broken flower pots in the mixture to 


Gardening 

plants very sparingly during the 
provide good drainage. Water these 
Winter, just enough to keep the 
leaves firm. Give them all the sun¬ 
shine possible, for it will deepen 
their lovely colors. 

All pot plants demand fresh air 
during the Winter, but drafts must 
be carefully avoided. Windows at 
the opposite end of the room or in 
a directly adjoining room should be 
opened wide for at least 15 minutes 
daily when the weather is fair. Most 
plants need moist air, too (remem¬ 
ber the plants in Grandmother’s 
sunny kitchen indows — how they 
flourished in the always-moist air). 
In the hot, dry atmosphere of our 
modern homes, this poses something 
of a problem. However, there are 
two ways to meet it. One is to keep 
a dish of water constantly on radia¬ 
tor or stove; the other is to spray 
the plants all over once a day with 
clear water. This is more work, of 
course, but it brings such an amaz¬ 
ing response that it seems worth the 
trouble and time it takes. 

Pruning is essential, too, in order 
to keep plants trim and shapely. Nip 
and pinch in the way you want the 
plants to grow. Also, remove all 
leaves the moment they show a yel¬ 
low tinge; and the same applies to 
faded flowers, of course. 

January — and the arrival of the 
seed catalogues! To be leisurely per¬ 
used in the cosy, warmth of a winter 
fireside. What interests us most at 
this time are those seeds which 
must have an early start in the house 
—such as petunias, dwarf dahlias, 
geraniums, tomatoes, green peppers, 
etc. Tuberous begonias should be in¬ 
cluded, also, since they may be 
planted in the eoldframe a month 
ahead of outdoor planting time, or 
six weeks ahead if you have a hot¬ 
bed. We like to send in a prelimin¬ 
ary order for these items so as to be 
sure to have them on hand in plenty 
of time. Then, with more time, we 
plan the main seed order to go in 
later. Be sure to include in the latter 
at least one or two of the exciting 
new novelties listed each season. 

Maine Ethel M. Eaton 



New Potato High in Vitamin C 


New York farmers may in the 
future grow potatoes that retain 
twice the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 
in winter storage that their potatoes 
do now. After nine years of experi¬ 
mentation, a new high vitamin C va¬ 
riety has been produced at the U. S. 
Plant, Soil and Nutrition Laboratory 
in Ithaca, N. Y. This news was re¬ 
cently released by Dr. W. C. Kelly, 
professor of vegetable crops at 
Cornell, who directed the research. 

Potatoes may lose as much as 60 
per cent of their ascorbic acid con¬ 
tent during a six-month storage 
period, Dr. Kelly reported. The rate 
of loss is largely due to variety, time 
and temperature in storage, not to 
the growing season or locality. Vita¬ 
min C is the vitamin that prevents 
scurvy, a disease characterized by 
loosening of the teeth, inflammation 
of gums, hemorhages, brittleness 
of bones, slow healing of wounds 
and loss of vigor. The disease is rare 
in America. The vitamin, which can 
be synthesized by animals but not 
by human beings, is believed neces¬ 
sary for regulation of body meta¬ 
bolism, protection of the body 
against poisons, and for forming and 
maintaining substances that bind 
body cells together. Citrus fruits and 
tomatoes are especially high in con¬ 
tent of vitamin C. It is of value to 
the potato industry and to proper 
nutrition in our country that pota¬ 
toes, used so much in our diets, have 
optimum amounts of vitamin C. 

In attacking the problem from the 
variety standpoint, more than 300 


kinds of potatoes were analyzed for 
ascorbic acid over a period of three 
years. Crops were harvested shortly 
after the first frost; they were then 
tested for content of the acid. After 
a 120-day storage period at 40 de¬ 
grees Fahrenheit, the potatoes were 
again tested to find out how much 
of the acid had been retained. Of 
the varieties tested, Menomine had 
a high retention factor — about 14 
milligrams of ascorbic acid to 100 
grams of fresh weight. 

As a result of this finding, a defi¬ 
nite breeding program was initiated 
in 1950. A Menomine seedling which 
transmitted the high ascorbic acid 
characteristic was crossed with the 
Katahdin variety to produce a po¬ 
tato with twice the ascorbic acid con¬ 
tent of any variety now in produc¬ 
tion. Dr. Kelly has said that the 
upper limit of ascorbic acid content 
in potatoes is not yet reached. The 
present task, he says, is to combine 
the high ascorbic acid feature with 
potatoes’ other desirable commercial 
characteristics. 

The || 

Rural New Yorker | 

VolTcV No. 5827 

Published Semi-Monthly by The Rural 
Publishing Co., 333 W. 30 St., New York 
1, N. Y. Price 50c a Year. Re-entered as 
Second Class Matter September 6, 1945, 
at the Post Office at New York, N. Y., 
under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

Cover Picture by—Bo & Joan Steffanson, 
West Hartford, Conn. 

————— ' ' - 


4 


THE RURAL NEW-YORKER 

























































with my new John Deere Power Steering Tractor" 


"No more tired arms at night ivith 
my new John Deere Model "70” 
Power Steering Tractor,” says Mr. 
William Kaufman, of Mt. Morris, III. 
"I have 300 head of steers and haul 
manure about three days a week. 


Poiver Steering really takes the work 
out of loading. Now, I can load the 
spreader from any angle . „ . turn the 
tractor wheels easily, even when the 
bucket is full.” 


V HATEVER your job, the hy¬ 
draulic muscles of John Deere fac¬ 
tory-engineered Power Steering will 
save you time and effort every time 
you take the wheel. You'll enjoy 
new freedom from steering effort and 
driver fatigue—in deep sand or mud 
. . . over rough ground or on hill- 


AAanure loading is a big job made easy on the Kaufman farm (above). New John Deere Power Steering 
helps Mr. Kaufman stay fresh for pleasant evenings with his family. 


sides . . . working with heavy front-mounted equipment . . . simple, compact, and quality-built to give years of depend- 
in extreme as well as average conditions. able service. 


More than Ever, St’s the 
"Family” Tractor 

A John Deere is the one tractor your wife, son, daughter, 
or an elderly member of the family can handle just as easily 
. . . just as surely as you, yourself. 

The James Bundy family, of Stronghurst, Illinois, enjoys 
the added tractor utility that John Deere Power Steering 
brings to farm families everywhere. With 470 acres to farm 
and no outside help, Mrs. Bundy does a lot of the field work. 
Much of their land is sandy, and manual steering was diffi¬ 
cult. But it's a different story with their new John Deere 
Model "60" Power Steering Tractor. 

"It's easy for me to handle this tractor, even with 
our heavy cultivator,” says Mrs. Bundy. "No more 
aching shoulders at the end of the day. Any woman 
can drive a John Deere Power Steering Tractor.” 

John Deere Power Steering is optional equipment on 
Models "50," "60," and "70" Tractors. It is an integral 
part of the tractor—not an attachment. The entire unit is 


Make a date with your John Deere dealer to try this out¬ 
standing feature in the tractor of your choice. See for your¬ 
self how John Deere Power Steering will save you time and 
effort on every tractor job. 



Above: Mrs. James Bundy turns sharply into a soybean field. She handles 
the tractor and heavy four-row cultivator easily—thanks to John Deere 
Power Steering. 



JOHN DEERE 

Power Steering Tractors 


Send for FREE LITERATURE 

JOHN DEERE • Moline, Illinois ® Dept. T37 

Please send me free literature describing 
John Deere Power Steering. 


Name- 


R.R.- 


-Box- 


Toun- 


-Staie- 


I 








































9 © & 




ft 


WRITE TOD A ¥! 

New colorful catalog features CRAIG OATS— 
ERIE BARLEY—HYBRID CORNS— NARRAGAN- 
SETT ALFALFA—BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL— a! 1 
grasses, clovers, potatoes and other standard 
form seeds. For top farming efficiency get highest 
yielding seeds—tested and guaranteed by 
DIBBLE-—specialists in farm seeds only for 
64 years. 

CLIP & MAIL THIS COUPON TODAY! 



, EDWARD JP. 

DIBBLE 

SEEDGROWEk 


Box B,Honeoye Falls, N. Y. 


EDWARD F. DIBBLE SEEDGKOWER 
Box B, Honcoye Falls, N. Y. 
Please send new 1955 catalog 


Name 


Street or R.F.D. 


( Post Office- 


State- 



sssiisii 

HARVEST QUEEN 
Harris’ New Muskmelon 


HARRIS SEEDS 

If It's QUALITY You Want—- 

PLANT HARVEST QUEEN 

A Market King or Queen of Colorado type melon bred at 
Moreton Farm for resistance to fusarium wilt. 

The medium size, oval fruits have fine-textured, very firm, 
deep orange flesh with-a delirious, sweet, musky flavor and 
the quality remains excellent for 5 or 6 days after picking. Be¬ 
cause of the small seed cavity, the meat is almost solid ins de. 
Better Order Early! Our Supply cf Seed Is Limited 
SEND FOR OUR FREE CATALOG TODAY 
It contains a lot of other vegetables and flowers out¬ 
standing for quality. 

If you grow for market, asn tor our Market 
Gardeners’ and Flo'ists’ Catalog. 

JOSEPH HARRIS CO., Inc. 

11 Moreton Farm, Rochester 11, New York 

1955 CATALOG mnv Amdij 


BURPEE'S Seed Catalog 

Offers Al! the rss_____ 

New and Better 7~7 

Flowers and Vegetables/ 

Created by Burpee “ v ' “* 


The 

Burpee Catalog 

helps you grow big- 1 
ger, better and more 
delicious hybrid vege¬ 
tables, cut food coses. 

128 Pages, Over 500 Pictures, 

Many in Natural Color 
It tells the plain truth about 
the best seeds that grow— see 
famous Burpee Hybrids, both 
bowers and vegetables. More 
valuable than a $2 book, but ^ 

FREE ! Money-saving specials' 

Send Postcard , Letter 
or this Coupon TODAY. 

r -- “ *- 

t W. ATLEE BURPEE CO. 1 

I 4 t 6 Burpee Bldg.. Philadelphia 32, Pa. , 

| Send new Burpee Seed Catalog Free | 

I Name. 


| St. or R. D. 

‘ P. O. State. 

□ Commercial Growers— If you grow Vege- 

lah.es 


seeds in large quantities, check here for 
Burpee's Blue List Wholesale Catalog, free 
if you are a market gardener or florist. 


BURPEE SEEDS GROW 


BLUE SPRUCE 

COLORADO: excellent 6 year 
transplants, 8 to 12 in. tall 
Blue-green to marvelous blue 
color. Compact and sturdy. 

Postpaid at planting time. FREE Evergreen Catalog 

2 °' A ’ iEMBtiS 





NEW 
GRAFii 


New Interlaken SEEDLESS. Better than 
California. Deliciously sweet, fine flav¬ 
ored. Entirely seedless. Very early. Ri¬ 
pens August 15. N. Y. Exp. Sta. origin. 
$1.75 each, 2 for $3.25 Postpaid. Also 
other new grape varieties. 


. .DWARF FRUIT TRIES 

ht&Ms Ideal * or * 10me gardens, full siz 
^ fruit in little space, bear 2nd o 
3rd year. Also berrtss, small fruits 
new shade trees, ornamentals, roses 




New Hardy English walnut. Carpathian 
strain. Rapid grower, bears early, very 
productive, beautiful shade tree. Also 
Chinese chestnut. All stock guaranteed. 

CATALOG FREE 

J. MiOer Nurseries 

565 WEST LAKE RD., CANANDAIGUA, N. Y. 



TRAWBER 3 Y PLANTS 

Write for catalog, fully describing all 
varieties, with best methods of growing 
them. Satisfaction Guaranteed. 

J. H. SHIVERS, Box R-55, Allen. Mil. 



EVERGREENS 

Quality seedlings and transplants for Christmas trees 
and forest planting. Write for Spring 1955 price list. 

Clearfield Bituminous Coal Corp 

DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS 
INDIANA, INDIANA COUNTY, PENNA. 


FREE •1955 Plant Catalog 

Be thrifty, have bumper crops with our hardy field- 
grown Cabbage, Onion, Lettuce. Broccoli, Cauliflower, 
Tomato, Eggplant. Pepper and Potato Plan's. Satis¬ 
faction guaranteed. PIEDMONT PLANT CO. 

P. 0. BOX 684, GREENVILLE, SO. CAROLINA 



, SEED: CLEANER * GRADER 


GRADES WHILE IT CLEANS 
Removes dirt/ stems, and unwanted 
weed seeds. At same time separates 
cleaned seed into TWO GRADES. 

Breed up your seed. Make 
planting easier — stand evener — 
plant only choice kernels of uniform 
size. IMPROVE YIELDS. 

VAC-A-WAY cleans oats, wheat, 
barley, soybeans, clover, lespedeia, 
alfalfa, etc. 

ti» CUSTOM sizes. Electric, gasoline, and hand models. 

TOUR DEALER OR WRITE_ 


FARM 


1 W HANCE MFC. CO.. Westerville, Ohio 


VAC-A-WAY SEED CLEANERS 


TREAT-A-MATIC SEED TREATEI 


FOR SALE — CERTIFIED BLIGHT RESISTANT 
SEED POTATOES. THEY BEAT ANY OTHERS 
FOR YIELD. ALSO CERTIFIED KATAHDINS. 
THOMPSON FARMS. CLYMER, NEW YORK 


Write far Our Free 1955 Descriptive Price List on 
j Cabbage. Tcirr'o. Potato. Pepper and other Vege- 
i table Plants. DIXIE PLA NT CO., Frank li n. Virginia 

I F’ RmivD STRAWBERRY PLANTS 

FREE CAT A LOG. REX SPROUT, SAYRE, PA. 


Looking Back 

The Farm 

HIRTEEN inches of snow 
covered the ground at Fort 
Kent, Maine, as 1954 began. 

It was Friday, and at 
Chasm Fails, New York, 
the temperature went down 
to 10 degrees below zero. It 
was cold all over the Northeast as 
farmers began a year of work and 
unusual weather. Large eggs were 
worth 52 cents a wholesale dozen 
at New York, 48 at Boston; fancy 
broilers brought 27 cents a pound at 
the Philadelphia market. Rochester 
milk was $4.70 a hundredweight for 
January. At East Aurora, N. Y., on 
the 16th, Joseph Basko sold 37 Hol¬ 
stein cows at auction for an average 
of $320 a head. President Eisenhower 
urged flexible price supports, mod- 
I ernized parity, greater farm exports 
and insulation of surplus crops in a 
message to Congress. The tempera¬ 
ture at Fort Kent, Me., went to 35 
below the same day. Over a half mil¬ 
lion people attended the Pennsyl¬ 
vania Farm Show. 

February began cold, but it soon 
warmed up and became one of the 
Northeast’s warmest February's. The 
temperature at Danbury, Conn., 
reached 77 on the 16th. A haif loot 
of snow fell over the Mid-Atlantic 
States on the eighth. Early in the 
month choice weights of hogs were 
bringing up to $26.75 at Eastern N. 

Y. livestock auctions; good N.’Y. State 
steers were $20 a hundred-weight. 
Dust Bowl farmers asked Federal 
aid’to chisel fields to stop their soil 
from blowing. Dairy farmers grew 
restive as dairy price slashes were 
rumored. The U. S. Department of 
Agriculture reduced its interest on 
crop loans from four to 3 J 4 per cent; 
it said farmers could grow as much 
wheat as they wanted, too, so long as 
it did not mature for grain. Two 
chicks hatched from a single egg in 
West Haddon, England. Chicago sci¬ 
entists announced the earth was at 
least 41/2 billion years old. 

Five full weeks of warm weather 
had fruit trees blooming early in 
March. The flow of maple sap was 
good and spring work was ahead of 
usual. There was no ice on Lake On¬ 
tario on the second day of the month. 
On , the 8th, the N. Y. State Senate 
decided to protect the cormorant; on 
the 16th it decided to protect 5,000 
acres of preserve on the Moose 
River by forbidding the installation 
of the Panther Dam. March corn 
was worth $1.53 at Chicago and oats 
75 cents. Wheat was $2.30 a bushei 
and soybeans climbed to a six-year 
high of $3.59. The temperature went 
up to 101 degrees in Laredo, Texas, 
early in the month and down to 11 
below at Greenville, Me., at the end. 

On the first of April, butter 
brought 62 cents a pound on the N. 
Y. wholesale market. Large white 
eggs were 44 cents a wholesale dozen. 
Potatoes were planted in south Jer¬ 
sey early in the month and pastures 
greened in southeast Pennsylvania. 
Plowing was started in New York; 
maple sap was still running. On the 
5th, there was no snow on the ground 
except on the hills. A dust storm 
blew into the air in Kansas; in 
Seneca County, N. Y., though, fra¬ 
grance of wet English violets wafted 
into a farm home. On the 19th, a 
15-year-old Randall, N. Y. boy, on the 
farm only two years, died of his own 
will rather than return to the city. 
Peaches, pears and cherries were in 
full bloom in the Hudson Valley at 
the end of the month. 

May was cooler than usual, and a 
lot wetter. Floods occurred in New 
England and there were small tor¬ 
nadoes. On the 10th in Ellington, 
Conn., three tobacco sheds were 
razed by twisters and the barn of 
the Polozej family demolished. 
Eastern Massachusetts had five and 


Year in Review 

a half inches of rain in 12 hours; 
there was a snowstorm in the other 
end of the State. The Northeast early 
in May was generally too wet to 
work; farmers got behind. The Iruit 
set was questionable. Weather fa¬ 
vored scab development; there was 
abundant spraying of fruit trees. 
Corn was not yet in the ground in 
upstate New York by the 17tli. Pas¬ 
ture and hay crops did well every¬ 
where, though, and New Jersey was 
shipping lots of chard, radish, spin¬ 
ach and asparagus by the middle of 
the month, Swedesbovo, N. J.. aspar I 
agus brought up to $7.00 a 12-bunch I 
crate. Common slaughter cattle were I 
worth $13-i4 in eastern New York;! 
milk brought $3.23 for the month. I 
On the 14th, 300 Eastern Pennsyl j 
vania dairymen asked for a hearing! 
on the Case Committee Report. Grass 
was going into the silos, corn was 
planted and field work progressing. 

The first of June, potato planting 
in Aroostook County, Me., was 
severely delayed by wet weather; and 
in New Jersey, the strawberry crop 
was small but excellent in quality. 
Winter grains were heading and 
some sweet cherries were picked in 
Pennsylvania. Apples were sizing well 
in New York and blueberry picking 
had started in New Jersey by the 
14t.h. The temperature at Randolph, 
Vt., shot up to 95 degrees on the 
22nd. Two days later, 42 eggs hatched 
out in a Standish, Me., dump from 
the warmth of the sun. New Jersey 
blueberries were bringing 35 cents 
a wholesale pint the middle of the 
month. Eggs were down to 41 cents 
a dozen. Milk production ran heavy 
and many schemes were suggested to 
solve the surplus problem; New York 
milk was at $3.28 for the month. 

Pennsylvania farmers began to 
harvest a record wheat crop early in 
July, the hay crop there was good. 
Down in Maine there were floods 
again, yet Long Island went wanting 
or water on its crops. They picked 
apples and peaches in New Jersey by 
the 12th. The oat harvest began in 
southeast Pennsylvania. By the 12th. 
too, potatoes were dug on Long 
Island. The new UfeDA Foot-and- 
mouth Disease Laboratory on Plum 
Island began operation. 

Aroostook County, Me., still had 
trouble early in August: rains came 
and it was too wet for cultivation 
and spraying. But upstate New Y'ork 
potatoes were injured by dry, hot 
weather. The army worm began to 
crawl, and N.Y. State grain and hay 
fields were badly damaged. Tempera¬ 
tures went over 100 degrees in New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania; forest fires 
broke out. Sweet corn, potatoes and 
•pastures limped along. It grew cooler 
by the 9th and haying in New Eng¬ 
land looked up for the sun. Soaking 
rains covered Pennsylvania; Cue can¬ 
nery tomato harvest there was under 
way by the 10th. Hudson Valley 
Dutchess apples were worth $2.50 a 
bushel; Pennsylvania peaches were 
up to $4.00. Orange County, N. Y., 
carrots were bringing to $1.25 a 
bushel hamper; Long Island sweet 
corn was worth three cents a whole¬ 
sale ear. During the month the U. S. 
Congress compromised on a flexible 
price support plan. Rain came and the 
Northeast held its breath; on the 
31st, Hurricane Carol struck. 

September began with hurricane 
cleanup and repair. Pennsylvania, of 
all the Northeast States, suffered the 
least from the hurricane, and corn 
there was going into silos. In Nev? 
England, silage corn was a tangled 
mess, and all over the Northeast 
people were picking up apples blown 
off trees. In a few days they had 
more to pick up: Hurricane Edna 
roared through the region on th e 
11th. In Maine, seven inches of rain 
fell in a single day; Aroostook pota- 

THE RT RAL, NEW-YORKER 






























































toes were hit by water again. Plow- < 
ing for winter wheat got underway 
in New York; some was sown by the 
13th. By the 20th, ensiling of corn 
was 60 per cent done in New York; , 
peach and pears were nearly har- j 
vested and cabbage was growing 
good. The third cutting of alfalfa 
turned out better than the second. 
Buckwheat was under harvest in 
southeastern Pennsylvania by the 
middle of the month; some farmer's 
took off for the fairs. On the 21st a 
big wind blew many apples off trees 
in the Ontario fruit belt. 

Potatoes in Aroostook County, Me., 
showed considerable rot by the first 
of October and it was still raining in 
New England. Maine had shipped 
only 25 per cent of its 1953 carlot 
numbers by October 1. Long Island 
potatoes were worth $2.50 a cwt. on 
the N. Y. markets, but Idaho bakers 
were bringing $5.00. Dairy farmers— 
1,500 of them—met in Oneonta, N. 
Y., in protest against milk price 
drop; asked for government coopera¬ 
tion. By the middle of the month, 
eggs were down to 40 cents a dozen. 
Winter rye went in after harvest of 
corn; the grape harvest was at its 
peak in the Western New York- 
Pennsylvania fruit belt. Pullets were 
housed and woodpiles replenished. 
Cows were beginning to calve in 
number and the price of October 
milk climbed a little, to $5.28 in 
Rochester. Cornell listed its cost of 
production at $5.41. 

Snow came soon to the Northeast 
early in November; on the 4th Mt. 
Pleasant, Pa., reported 15 inches. 
Cows were kept in the barn and there 
was hurry to get all the pullets in the 
laying houses. Woodcutting and 
lumbering went on in the cold and 
the snow, but field activities were 
brought to a halt. At the end of the 
month, 4-H’ers held their Congress in 
Chicago. Corn picking was still be¬ 
ing done in Pennsylvania, and some 
hardy vegetables continued to move 
to market; Long stand Danish cab¬ 
bage was worth two cents a pound 
and N. Y. State Eiba onions three. 

Early in December snow fell on 
the cranberry bogs of Massachusetts; 
the region was cold. Temperatures 
averaged freezing. There were plenty 
of pullets laying well at a time when 
egg prices were poor. Sheep were 
bred and there was some farrowing 
of pigs. Turkeys remained for the 
Christmas market at prices below! 
last year’s. The farmers’ percentage 
of parity hovered, about 88 per cent; j 
there was no hurray for the news 
that farm prices were stabilizing. At 
Christmas time, snow covered some 
of the Northeast; work was limited on j 
farms to chores and winter work. It 
was cold again by the end of the year 
and farmers and all rural people 
looked again to the big change of the 
new year. J. N. Bodurtha 


BETTER TO BE SAFE 



Of Hiram Q. Boggles 
Are correctly suspended. 
He didn’t wear goggles! 




HERE'S THE “OC-6”, with an Oliver 20-inch brush plow breaking new land. 


Be sure it's a farm crawler 
...an OLIVER CRAWLER 


Lots of interest in crawlers these days 
—and it’s easy to see why. They go 
where other tractors can’t, when other 
tractors can’t. They push through the 
mud to get out your corn, walk over 
the ice to spread your fields, roll over 
muck or sand, plow on steep hillsides, 
work the roughest land—nothing stops 
’em. 

But, be sure it’s a farm crawler you’re 
getting. Like the full three-plow Oliver 
OC-6” above. Here is no makeshift, 
but a rugged machine just made for 
farming—with those famous farm fea¬ 
tures that put Oliver tractors years 
ahead in design. You won’t v/ant to be 
without them. 

Your choice of fuels, gasoline or 
diesel. Six forward speeds, two reverse. 
Hydraulic control. Three-point hitch, 
plus tool bar attachments. Independ¬ 
ently Controlled Power Take-Off. 

See what we mean? These are farm 
features, on a farm crawler. That’s 
Oliver! 

The Oliver Corporation, 400 West 
Madison Street, Chicago 6, Illinois. 

"Finest in Farm Machinery ” 


See your OLIVER Dealer and Work-Test the Crawlers! 



AND HERE'S THE OLIVER “OC-3.” An economically 
priced, two-plow crawler with an extremely rugged build, 
and the versatile ability to work under all conditions. Tread 
widths for every job—68, 60, 42, 32 inches—high clearance 
for your row crops. A wonderful second tractor.. .especially 
with Oliver front and rear-mounted equipment. 


Beth Wilcoxson 


January 1 , 19 JO 


7 



























r 




MAINE TO CALIFORNIA 



* americca’s 


best-testing 
sweet corn! 



DEVELOPED BY 

RGBSOK SEED FARMS 

LEADING BREEDERS OF 
HYBRID SWEET CORN 


Here’s the tenderest, most 

delicious, sweet corn you ever 
tasted! An Illinois customer 
writes . . . “Your Seneca 
Chief is the best sweet corn we 
have ever eaten . . . it’s tops I” 
Ears are 8 Vi" long with 12-14 
rows of deep, narrow, tender 
kernels. Holds in eating 
condition on stalk longer than 
any other variety. 
Excellent for freezing. 





C-UK SEES CATALOG, 
IT’S DIEFEREHT! 

Our new seed catalog describes hundreds 
©f vegetable, flower, and farm seeds, in¬ 
cluding our new Golden Honey Cream 
Watermelon. It’s written in a chatty, 
informal manner with lots of helpful 
gardening hints. 


I ROBSON QUALITY SEEDS INC 
BBC? 502 I ALL, N. Y. 

g □ SPECIAL TRIAL OFFER 1 ___ 
m I enclose $1. Send me 1 lb. £j 

£ of Seneca Chief Hybrid Sweet Corn gj 

g □ 2 lbs. $2.15 □ 5 lbs. $3.45 □ 10 lbs. $6.30 g 




for 

*5 

MUSSER FORESTS 


• • 

3 to 5 yr. healthy, selected trees, 6" 
to 16" tall. 5 each of: Colorado Blue 
Spruce—Norway Spruce—Austrian 
Pine — Scotch Pine — Concolor Fir. 

Postpaid at planting time 
Write for Free Evergreen Catalog 




MULTIFLORA ROSE 

The living self-repairing fence. For ornament, erosion 
control, windbreak, snow fence, other uses. A rapid 
grow r. 'Ralso from seed. Free planting guide 

WOODLOT SEED CO., NORWAY 37. MICHIGAN 



Diamond Jubilee CATALOG 
64 Pages in FOIL COLOR 

Send postcard for our FREE Cata¬ 
log today. Packed with Ornamen¬ 
tal and Flowering Shrubs and 
Trees, Fruit Trees (Dwarf and 
Standard), Berries, Shade Trees, 
Roses, Evergreens in all their gor¬ 
geous color. Contains a wealth of 
"HOW TO" suggestions for best 
results. Diamond Jubilee SPE¬ 
CIALS give you More for Your 
Money. KELLY plants ore depend- 


DWARF FRUIT TREES 


2 YR. 



Produce fine, top quality fruit 
in little space. Bear 2nd year 
after planting. Extra vigorous. 
APPLES: Cortland, Double 
Red Delicious, Northern Spy, 
Red McIntosh and Yellow De¬ 
licious. PEARS: Bartlett, 
Clapp’s Favorite, Duchess, 
Seckel. CHERRIES: Meteor, 
North Star. 


KELLY BROS. NURSERIES, Inc. 
30 Nia 



MM DATA 

NOTEBOOK and 
'55 SEED mmi 

Both are FREE! Farm 
Facts Pocket Note¬ 
book contains many 
valuable facts with 
space for day - to - day 
notes. New ’55 Seed Guide 
tells all about new seed varie¬ 
ties. Get yours today. Write 
card or letter to 

A. H. HOFFMAN, Enc, 

Box 3SR, Lcndisville, Pa. 



“KING OF THE EARLIES” 

Big solid, scarlet fruit, disease 
resistant, heavy yielder. Ideal for 
table or canning. Send 125 SEED 
postal today for 125 seed FE’gSgTSf 
and copy of Seed and Nursery Ca f <nog. ■ ™ C. 


J.H.SHUMWAY SEEDSMAN, Dept. 428 Rockford, ILL. 



Nut and Shade Trees. Grape 
Vines, Flowering Shrubs, Ever¬ 
greens, Dwarf Apple Trees (on 
Mailing 9 and 7 stock). Over SO 
years growing and distribution 
service to planters guarantees sat¬ 
isfaction. FREE 60-page catalog 
illustrates, describes complete nur¬ 
sery line, reasonable prices. Write. 
Bountiful Ridge Nurseries, Bx Rlla, Princess Anne.Mrt. 


Evergreen Lining-Out Stock 

TtftaNSPUilVTS and SEEDLINGS 


PINE, FIR, SPRUCE. CANADIAN HEMLOCK, 
ARBORVITAES, in vhrieb. For growing Christmas 
trees. Ornamental landscape. Hedges, Windbreaks, 
Forestry, duality stock low as 2c each on quantity 
orders. Write for price list. 


TREES 


LOW AS 

2Qc 


Sl.'NCREST EVERGREEN NURSERIES, 
DEPT. RNY. BOX 305, HOMER CITY, PA. 

PE A C H 
and 

APPLE 

Cherries, Pears, Plums, Nut trees. Strawberries, Blue¬ 
berries, etc. Grapes 10c. Shrubs, Evergreens. Shade 
Trees. Roses 25c up. Quality stock can t be sold lower. 
Write for FREE color catalog and $2.00 FREE bonus 

information. TENNESSEE NURSERY CO., 

BOX 16, CLEVELAND. TENNESSEE 


QUICKLY DESTROYS WEEDS, stumps. Split rocks 
with modern kerosene burner. 800.000 users. Free 
I bulletin. SINE. RN-2. QUAKERTOWN. PENNA. 



MQRtTC-N H Y F p * D T n ’A A TOES 


-HARRIS SfilDS 

TAKING THE COUNTRY BY STORM! 

We bred Moreton Hybrid for Northeastern conditions but are get¬ 
ting reports from all parts of the country on its p rforni nee. Here 
is what Market Gardeners say: • Tract cally 100'i germination; 
plants bigger and sturdier than other varieties " — "Fine early 
crop and picked right through the summer." — "Fruits are large 
size, smooth, solid, fine color and excellent quality.” 
see OUR 1955 CATALOG FOR PRICES OF SEEDS & PLANTS 
SEND FOR OUR FREE CATALOG TODAY 

It you grow for market, ask for our Market 
Gardeners’ and Florists’ Catalog. 

JOSEPH HARRIS CO., INC. 

10 Moreton Farm, Rochester 11, New York 

1955 CATALOG turn Amdi] 



LONG ACRES 


Nature has a system of checks and 
balances by which no plant or ani¬ 
mal is allowed to become too domi¬ 
nant. Whenever we interfere with 
that, Old Man Trouble comes to 
roost on the ridge pole. Here is a 
case in point. During the Alaskan 
gold rush, thousands of dogs were 
taken North to pull the sledges of 
the miners. Among them were some 
Great Danes and St. Bernards. Some 
of those dogs must have gone wild 
and mated with the wolves. Last 
year, a giant wolf spread terror 
through several counties of Minne¬ 
sota until it was killed. This year, 
another giant wolf is causing the 
people in several counties of upper 
Michigan to stay indoors at night. 
Of late years, a number of towns¬ 
people bought big lots along the 
country roads south of the city for 
several miles and built homes. Many 
of these people keep tame rabbits 
for pleasure and profit. For nearly 
two months now, some huge, wild 
animal has been raiding those rabbit 
pens a'nd even killed a pet goat that 
had been tied outside. It has been 
seen a number of times but always 
at night. Some people describe it as 
a giant cat but the footprints are 
those of a very large dog. They 
measure four by six inches, so it 
must be some heavy animal. It seems 
to stay in about the same locality 
iless than a mile from our home. 

| Throughout this whole community, 
people do not go walking along the 
road at night. 

It is astonishing how God's little 
ones manage to adjust themselves 
to modern conditions. This is a 
densely populated county of small 
farms. Yet, we have always with us 
such wild animals as rabbit, skunk, 
fox, mink, coon and weasels. The 
deer seem to have learned that deer 
hunting is not allowed in these 
southern counties, so now we have 
three small herds of deer In this 
county. A little to the north, there 
is a state forest preserve and there 
a black bear comes out to the road 
to watch the cars go by. In pioneer 
days, wild turkeys were very nu¬ 
merous in this section. Last Spring, 
the State turned loose 50 wild 
turkeys in that forest preserve. I 
note, though, that the quail have 


vanished. A few years ago, quail 
were very common and during the 
Summer I often saw a number of 
them running along the grape rows. 
No longer do we hear the cheery 
call of bob-white. 

Here is a thought from the grass 
roots to take with you into the 
new year. We never learn anything 
by talking. You learn a great - deal 
by listening out you will notice that, 
where there is one listener, there 
are a hundred who talk too much. 
In my opinion, at least half of the 
troubles of this world are caused 
by people who talk out of turn. 

This was a great year for corn 
borers; many of the stalks broke 
over with the ear lying on the 
ground. The picker did not get that 
corn. By the way, here is something 
for you farm boys. Local fishermen 
have discovered that the corn borers 
make ideal bait, and a local sporting 
goods store has been selling them 
at 50 cents a dozen. If you need a 
little change, just take a sharp knife 
to the corn field, split the stalks and 
let it be known that you have corn 
borers for sale. For some reason, the 
fish will bite at a corn borer much 
quicker than at angle worms. That 
seems to be another example of how 
nature balances things. The corn 
borer was extremely prevalent this 
year but, in spite of it, the Corn 
Belt matured a tremendous crop. 

I note another odd thing that, 
years ago. anything crossbred was 
considered worthless. Today, almost 
all Corn Belt farmers raise hybrid 
corn and feed a lot of it to cross¬ 
bred hogs. The hog feeders are work¬ 
ing toward a long, lean animal in¬ 
stead of a fat, short one. That is 
what the butcher trade demands. It 
has reached the point where a cross¬ 
bred hog breeder can sell breeding 
stock faster than the men who rely 
upon purebreds. So. away goes an¬ 
other thing which, a few years ago, 
was considered law and gospel. 

Here we are, once again in an¬ 
other year, so I close with this wish 
for you and yours. May the New 
Year be one of the best you have 
ever had and all through the year 
may the good Lord take a liking 
to you. L. B. Reber 

Berrien County, Michigan 


i .. 

Plum Fruit Set 


I have one six-year-old Green Gage 
plum tree that is just covered every 
year with blossoms. The plums get 
about the size of an average thumb 
in size and then drop off. I have 
never picked a ripe plum yet off this 
tree. Could you advise me as to what 
might be wrong? h. j. p. 

Warren Co., N. J. 

The cause of pre-mature fruit drop 
of plums can be due to: a lack of a 
suitable pollenizing variety for com¬ 
patible pollen to insure fruit set and 
development; a need for additional 
nitrogen to encourage fruit setting; 
unfavorable weather during blos¬ 
soming, reducing or preventing fruit 
set; and killing of the young fruits 
by the curculio insect. Just which 
one of these is the contributing fac¬ 
tor in your situation is difficult to 
'determine. Commonly, where a 
single plum prune tree is growing 
and fruit drop occurs, a second plum 
tree of another variety should be 
planted to insure pollination and 
fruit set. Until the new tree becomes 


of blossoming age, you may wish 
to secure a blossomed branch from 
a plum tree of. another variety and 
place it in your present tree to pro¬ 
vide a pollen source. A milk bottle 
tied in the tree makes a good vase. 
Plum trees of low vigor exhibiting 
short shoot growth, orange or red¬ 
dish cast to the bark and small light 
green leaves need additional nitro¬ 
gen to improve tree vigor and en¬ 
courage fruit set. A suggested rate 
is one-eighth pound of ammonium 
nitrate per year of tree age applied 
each year around the tree at the 
drip line of the branches. A mature 
plum tree should produce eight to 
12 inches of new shoot growth an¬ 
nually. Fruit dropping caused by 
curculio injury can be reduced by 
applying a spray containing meth- 
oxychlor soon after petals have 
fallen, when shucks are splitting, 
and again about a week later when 
the shucks haven fallen. l. d. t. 


S 


THE RURAL NEW-YORKER 












































































The last vestige of what were sup¬ 
posed to be the most rigorous con¬ 
trols over planting in the history of 
the price support program went into 
the discard and at the same time 
Agriculture Secretary Benson moved 
to discourage surpluses by lowering 
certain price support levels. The 
American Farm Bureau Federation 
was thoroughly unhappy when Ben¬ 
son eased up on the 1955 planting! 
controls and served notice that itj 
would appeal to Congress for legisla-l 
tion forcing the Secretary to get 
much tougher in the future. 

Benson had already dropped the 1 
“cross-compliance” provision from 
the 1955 price support program. As 
he had first announced it last June, 
this particular provision would have! 
forced farmers to comply with ail 
crop allotments, even with respect 
to crops for which they did not seek 
price support help, in order to get 
supports on any other crop. Then in 
September, Benson announced that 
acres diverted from price supported 
crcps under any program could not 
be used for planting potatoes, sweet 
potatoes, commercial vegetables and 
dried beans. It was this provision 
that Benson dispensed with in a De¬ 
cember action bitterly opposed by 
the Farm Bureau. 

The Farm Bureau did not make 
any public statements after the first 
easing, but spokesmen did say after 
the December freeing of diverted 
acres that vegetable and potato grow¬ 
ers would be hurt. The organization 
was very much in favor of the “total 
control” package first adopted, and 
then discarded by Benson, and it 
will now proceed to ask Gongress to 
make it mandatory for the Secretary 
to dictate the uses to which diverted 
acres can be put. 

Price support levels on oafs, barley, 
rye and grain sorghums were drop¬ 
ped from 85 per cent of parity to 70 
per cent in a move to discourage! 
farmers from planting these crops on 
acres idled by acreage allotments and 
marketing quotes. 

* * 

Meanwhile, the Farm Bureau will 
itself be on the defensive. The Na¬ 
tional Grange has once again started 
a drive to end all connections be¬ 
tween Farm Bureau and the Exten¬ 
sion Service. The new effort rises 
out of Agriculture Secretary Ezra 
Taft Benson’s recent memorandum 
forbidding USDA employees to en¬ 
gage in certain activities for private 
farm organizations. The Grange cri¬ 
ticises this memorandum because it 
makes no mention of this Extension-, 
Farm Bureau connection. 

Roy Battles, speaking for the- 
Grange, put it this way: “The abuses! 
have existed almost entirely in the! 
relationships between the Extension! 
Service and the Farm Bureau. In 
some States these two groups are 
practically synonymous. Where this 
is the situation, farmers who do not 
belong to the Farm Bureau receive! 
little, if any, help from Extension 
workers. Likewise, 4-IT members i 
from non-Farm Bureau fmailities of-! 
ten cannot receive their premiums. 
Women in these areas are not per¬ 
mitted to sing, or are unwelcome, 
in Extension choral groups unless 
their Farm Bureau dues are paid. 
This is an intolerable situation.” 

Battles acknowledges that both 
the Farm Bureau and the Extension 
Service in many States have made 
sincere and effective efforts to “end 
this sort of thing,” and so the Grange 
has remained “patient.” But, “it is 
now time . . . that the Extension 
Services completely terminate the 
use of public funds for the benefit 
°f a private group—the Farm 
Bureau.” 







mm 


.y.v.v.w.sv.w.y 




¥o make farming a better-paying business*•• 


THREE YEARS before the Spaniards sank the 
battleship Maine in Havana harbor, the first V-C 
Fertilizers were supplied to American farms by a 
group of small manufacturers who had gotten to¬ 
gether and formed a company based on a new idea 
in the production and distribution of commercial 
plant food. 

For economy and convenience, V-C factories 
were to be located near the farms they served, and 
yet each factory was to benefit from the scientific 
research, skill, experience and facilities of a large 
organization. 

In 1895, the V-C aim was to make farming a 
better-paying business, by supplying farmers with 
better fertilizers at reasonable prices through reli¬ 
able, dependable dealers. V-C could prosper only 
if the farmers prospered. 

Sixty years later, this simple aim still guides 
V-C policy. With its network of 34 fertilizer fac¬ 
tories, its phosphate rock mines, its superphosphate 
producing units, its research laboratories and its 
staff of technical experts and agronomists, the 
V-C organization serves farmers from the Rocky 
Mountains to the Atlantic and from Canada to 
the Gulf of Mexico. 

Today there is a V-C Fertilizer for every crop 
on every soil. Each V-C Fertilizer is a rich, mellow 7 
blend of better plant foods properly balanced to 
supply the needs of the crop for which it is 
recommended. 

Through the years, V-C has constantly tested 
and developed new methods and new materials to 
bring more and more profit-making crop-producing 
power to the farms of increasing thousands of V-C 


customers. And the price of V-C Fertilizers has 
remained low compared to other things the farmer 
buys. 

Yet, fertilizer is only part of the story of V-C’s 
partnership with the farmer and the soil. V-C has 
constantly striven to develop new markets for farm 
products. V-C uses cotton cloth and kraft paper 
from farm pulpwood to make millions of bags each 
year. V-C uses nicotine extracted from tobacco 
in the manufacture of insecticides, the most famous 
of which is Black Leaf 40®. V-C research has 
created a new textile fiber from corn, known as 
Wicara®, now found in luxurious apparel for the 
whole family at fine stores everywhere. V-C uses 
other farm products in countless ways. 

In the years ahead, Virginia-Carolina Chemical 
Corporation will continue to rally every resource to 
the job of making farming a better-paying business. 



January 1 , 1955 


Harry Lando 


9 





































worth more- 


mi 


No guesswork with ROYSTER'S... 
6 plant foods GUARANTEED 



AU- crops » 
A these 

tS SEH^ PLI 

P HOSP for ^ 
POTASH for he: 


i yicTd 
iuattty 


C AtCU»W for * 
SUlfORfo^' 
**©»«*«» 


and snap 


When you fertilize with Royster’s, you know what goes under your 
crop. There’s no guesswork. No harmful ingredients. No hit-or-miss 
furnishing of the 6 plant foods so essential for bigger yields, lower 

unit costs. Royster guarantees all six: 
nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash 
PLUS calcium, sulfur and mag¬ 
nesium — in chemically - controlled 
amounts. Consult your Extension 
Service or Experiment Station or 
write us for correct amounts 
and proper analysis for 
your soil. Order 
yours early. 


22 factories and 13 sales offices conveniently located to serve farmers in 20 states 

F. S. ROYSTER GUANO CO., NORFOLK, VA, 

SALES OFFICES IN THIS AREA: 

Baltimore, Mnrvfnmd . Lyons, N. Y. • Toledo, Ohio 


At the Vegetable and Potato 
Growers Meeting 


National farm news was made last 
month in Syracuse during the 46th 
Annual Convention of the Vege¬ 
table Growers Assn, of America 
when the members met at the Onon¬ 
daga County War Memorial jointly 
with the New York State Vegetable 
Growers, the Empire State Potato 
Club, the National Assn, of Green¬ 
house Vegetable Growers and the 
national and state Women’s Auxilia¬ 
ries of the vegetable growers. 

The opening session of the gather¬ 
ing was an informal reception staged 
by the New York State growers and 
the Women’s Auxiliary of that group. 
Local and national leaders were in¬ 
troduced. The reigning national 
vegetable queen, Miss Elaine Ker- 
nan of Bridgeton, N. J., presented 
the queens from the eight States 
who were competing for national 
honors this year. 

Greetings were extended by Presi¬ 
dent John Wickham of Cutchogue, 
L. I., on behalf of the state vegetable 
men. Principal speaker of the ses¬ 
sion was Dr. H. C. Thompson, pro¬ 
fessor emeritus of Cornell, who has 
spent the past three years in Latin 
America working on a vegetable im¬ 
provement program there. Dr. 
Thompson stressed the need for 
further expansion of the program 
which has been set up for experi¬ 
ment there. He also brought home 
the fact that much of the import 
and export trade in Latin America is 
with the United States. They are a 
huge market for manufactured goods 
and one that cannot be ignored or 
neglected. 

The Canadian side of the picture 
was presented by E. G. Paige of the 
Department of Agriculture in Otta¬ 
wa. In his topic, “Neighborly Trade 
in Vegetables,” Mr. Paige pointed 
out that the short growing season in 
most of his country and the need 
of green vegetables for health have 
increased the imports from 134 
million pounds in 1930 to 714 million 
pounds in 1953, or an increase of 
433 per cent in the 23 years. The 
dollar value of these imports from 
the United States was just under 30 
million dollars. Understanding and 
widespread friendship between the 
two nations have helped to keep this 
exchange on a satisfactory level, 
with, few inconveniences of travel 
and trade between the two. 

The potato growers had an op¬ 
portunity to hear about l’ecent ad¬ 
vances in cultural practices from 
Dr. M. W. Meadows of Cornell. The 
advantages of using irrigation in 
spite of the high initial costs were 
pointed out by Dr. Meadows, and 
were supported by the findings of 
many who have used it recently. He 
also compared the relative advan¬ 
tages of hand and mechanical pick¬ 
ing. A discussion of potato disease 
control and the importance of recog¬ 
nizing these diseases was the topic 
of Prof. R. S. Dickey, also of 
Cornell’s Extension Service. 

A visitor from Maryland, F. 
Ridgeley Todd of Fruitland, spoke 
on legislation in the potato industry. 
Mr. Todd, a director of the VGAA, 
advised delegates to let their legis¬ 
lators know what they desire and 
emphasized the necessity of various 
groups having a voice in legislative 
matters. Growers should be con¬ 
sulted before laws are made that 
will affect them. 

Potato men were encouraged to 
hear Prof. L. H. Davis, Cornell mar¬ 
keting specialist, say that he believes 


the stage is set for the orderly mar¬ 
keting of the balance of the north¬ 
ern potato crop this year. There is 
little change in per capita consump¬ 
tion of this staple although there 
are price fluctuations. The increased 
population should make some future 
difference, especially if there are 
adequate industry promotion pro¬ 
grams. 

S. H. Wittwer of Michigan State 
recommended cool temperature treat¬ 
ment of tomato plants for better 
flowering and later setting. 

Dr. Robert Sweet of Cornell spoke 
on“ Modern Weed Control Methods.” 
He emphasized the importance of 
getting the proper amount of the 
chemical for the most effective weed 
control. He also warned against 
using the new chemicals without 
first consulting with someone who 
has a knowledge of them. 

Prizes for homemade labor-saving 
devices were awarded by Dr. John 
Carew, first place going to Lot L. 
Smith of Columbus, Ohio, for a 
corn-topping device. A transplanting 
device developed by Roy Fitkin of 
Sylvania, Ohio, took second place. A 
Central New Yorker, Danesi and 
Patane Onion Farms of Canastota, 
took thii’d place with an onion weed 
sprayer. 

The culmination of the four-day 
pi'Ogram was the banquet in the 
Hotel Syracuse at which the national 
queen for the next year was chosen. 
Selected for experience in the vege¬ 
table business, as well as for her 
beauty and other abilities, was Miss 
Beverly Bishop of Wisconsin. Her 
maid of honor is Miss Ann Michael 
of Ohio. New Yoi'k State was repre¬ 
sented by Miss JoAnn Eaton of 
Hubbardsville, daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. Fi'ed Eaton. 

Each of the oi'ganizations elected 
officers for the coming year during 
their business sessions. Taking over 
as president of the New York State 
Vegetable Growers will be Huested 
Myei's, Jr., Selkirk, N. Y. The vice- 
pi’esidents this year will include 
Austin Avei’y of No. Syracuse, Henry 
Marquart, Jr., of Cherry Creek, Otis 
Davis of Prattsbui'g, Don Shoemaker 
of Webster, and Stuart Allen of 
Waterville. Re-elected to office as 
secretai’y-treasurer was William B. 
Giddings of Baldwinsville. Mr. Gid- 
dings had also sexwed as a co- 
chairman of the convention with 
Harold J. Evans of Georgetown. 
Elected to the executive committee 
of the vegetable men wei’e Elmer 
Agle of Eden, Donald Bradley of 
Elmira, Kenneth Bullard of Schuy- 
lei’ville, John Young of Glen Head, 
and Frank Turk of King Fen’y. 

Newly elected head of the Empire 
State Potato Club is Philip Luke of 
Fulton. Wilbur Van Maaren of 
Honeoye Falls will continue as vice- 
president and Leon Mehlenbacher of 
Wayland as secretai’y-treasurer. 

In the national organization James 
D. Swan of Delevan, Wisconsin, takes 
over as president. Paul Ruetenik, 
Vermilion, Ohio, is first vice-presi¬ 
dent. John Wickham, retiring New 
York State president, was named as 
general sectional vice-president. Mr. 
Evans, well-known for his continued 
activity in the potato industi’y, was 
unanimously re-elected as vice- 
president of the potato section of 
the VGAA. Permanent secretai'y of 
the group is Joseph Shelly of 
Washington, D. C. 

Dorothy S. Porter 



10 


THE RURAL NEW-YORKER 








Lift Trucks for Fruit Handling 


Four years ago the first lift trucks 
were used in Michigan orchards. 
The experimental work done at that 
time proved that the use of these 
machines saved time, money and 
labor. They also helped maintain 
quality, reduced congestion and had 
other advantages too numerous to 
mention. 

At the conclusion of the experi¬ 
mental work it was predicted that 
within five years the fork lift truck 
would become an almost indispens¬ 
able piece of equipment on many 
fruit farms. This prophecy has al¬ 
ready become a fact, and far-reach¬ 
ing changes in handling methods 
have been brought about. For ex¬ 
ample, refrigerated storages are 
now built with high ceilings to ac¬ 
commodate the high stacking that 
is possible when lifts are used. Pack¬ 
ing houses and processing plants are 
constructed on ground level so that 
material can be shuttled from one 
place to another with lifts. 

■ Most of the fruit grown in Michi¬ 
gan is moved on pallets. The savings 
effected in this way mean money 
in the growers’ pockets. One pro¬ 
ducer saved $40 a day during a 25- 
day apple harvesting season. It was 
found that the use of a lift reduced 


get out a second edition. Growers 
were quick to recognize the advan¬ 
tages of mechanized fruit handling 
operations. Single copies are avail¬ 
able on application to the Michigan 
Station, E. Lansing, without charge. 

Today the lift truck is considered 
an essential piece of equipment by 
most growers who produce a con¬ 
siderable amount of fruit. There are 
more than 300 on-the-farm refriger¬ 
ated storages in Michigan; and in 
most cases the owners either have, 
or are contemplating the purchase 
of, a lift. There are at least a dozen 
manufacturers of lift equipment, and 
many models are available. Fruit 
growers have little difficulty in 
choosing a unit that will serve their 
needs. A well made gasoline-engine- 
powered unit with a capacity of 
2,000 pounds, which is able to lift 
its forks to a height of approximate¬ 
ly 10 feet, usually proves satisfac¬ 
tory. Growers should buy from a 
reliable concern that is in a position 
to give service in case mechanical 
adjustments become necessary. To¬ 
day Michigan fruit growers are using 
fork lift trucks to: 1—Unload fruit 
as it comes in on orchard trailers; 
2—Move and stack fruit at loading 
docks; 3—Service grading and pack¬ 



This lift truck was in use at a large fruit farm in Fremont, Mich., to 
service an apple grading and packing line. One man and a lift kept the 
line supplied with orchard run fruit, then moved the packed fruit away 

and loaded it onto outgoing trucks. 


the cost of loading cherry lugs from 
56 cents per 100 lugs to less than 
five cents per 100 lugs. On many 
fruit handling jobs one man and 
a fork lift can do work that required 
fi’om five to 10 men when the same 
job was done by hand. The fork 
lift truck has also gone a long way 
toward solving the acute labor 
shortages which often existed on 
fruit farms. 

While the dollar and cent advan¬ 
tages are very significant, the in¬ 
tangible benefits are often just as 
important. Fork lift trucks take 
much of the hard exhausting work 
out of fruit handling. The manager 
of one of the apple orchards in 
which a lift was used stated that, 
although the apple crop was handled 
with less help than was formerly re¬ 
quired, none of the men in the crew 
worked as hard as they had in 
former years. At the end of the 
season he remarked: “The lift is the 
best man I ever had. It never gets 
sick, does not mind working over¬ 
time, and never gets tired or talks 
back.” 

The results of the experimental 
work done in 1951 were published in 
the form of Special Bulletin 379, 
“Fruit Handling With Fork Lift 
Trucks” Michigan State Agricultural 
Experiment Station, East Lansing, 
Michigan. The interest in this sub¬ 
ject was so great that the first print¬ 
ing of the publication was soon ex¬ 
hausted, and it became necessary to 


ing lines; 4—Move fruit into and out 
of farm storages; 5—Load out-going 
trucks; 6—Handle empty containers; 
7—Handle building materials, fer¬ 
tilizers, spray materials; and 8—Per¬ 
form countless other jobs that re¬ 
quire lifting and moving heavy 
equipment and material. 

A large percentage of Michigan 
grown cherries, peaches, pears, 
apples and small fruit crops are 
moved on pallets as unit loads to¬ 
day. The fork lift truck is rapidly 
taking its place in orcharding. 

S. H. Levin & II. P. Gaston 


Books on Fruit Growing 

Fruit Nutrition, 

Norman Franklin Childers. .$10.00 


Deciduous Orchards, 

W. H. Chandler. 6.50 

Fruit Science, 

Norman F. Childers. 6.00 

Modern Fruit Production, 

Gourley and Howlett. 6.50 

Hormones and Horticulture, 

Avery and Johnson. 6.00 

Plant Regulators in Agriculture, 

H. B. Tukey. 5.50 

General Horticulture, 

Thos. J. Talbert. 4.00 

Growing Tree and Small Fruits, 
Auchter and Knapp. 3.72 


For Sale by The Rural New 
Yorker, 333 West 30th St., New York 
1, N. Y. (New York City residents, 
add 3% Sales Tax.) 


January 1, 1955 



Royster gives bigger yields because 
your crops get a balanced diet 




How much you net for your effort this year will depend a lot on 
your choice of fertilizers. You want, you need a fertilizer that’s 
top-quality in every respect. A fertilizer 
like Royster’s — with 6 plant foods guar¬ 
anteed in chemically-controlled amounts 
in every bag. Royster’s 6 plant food diet 
could easily mean the difference be¬ 
tween an average yield or real bumper 
crops and top profits. So don’t be dis¬ 
appointed at harvest time—see 
your Royster dealer 
NOW. You can’t 
buy a finer 
fertilizer. 


22 factories and 13 sales offices conveniently located to serve farmers in 20 states 

F. S. ROYSTIR GUANO CO., NORFOLK, VA. 

SALES OFFICES IN THIS AREA: 

Baltimore, Maryland * Lyons, N. Y. • Toledo, Ohio 


11 































Plow Yoor Level Best 


With an Allis-Chalmers tractor-mounted, two-way, spinner-type 
plow, you ride level . . . plow level. At the ends of the field, simply 
spin the plow — alternate from right to left-hand moldboards. 

On contoured slopes, you turn all furrows uphill to hold soil 
and water. The “uphill” tractor wheel runs in the furrow, giving 
the operator a more level ride. 

With a two-way plow you eliminate dead furrows and back 
furrows . . . keep your fields level . . . uniformly plowed from 
side to side. You work closer to field boundaries with these fully 
mounted, hydraulically lifted plows. 

Allis-Chalmers spinner plows pull from a single, forward hitch- 
point. They’re free-swing to dodge obstructions. They work with 
SNAP-COUPLER on the CA, WD and WD-45 Tractors . . . 
simplest quick hitch you have ever seen. 

SNAP-COUPLER is on Allis-Chalmers trademark. 

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you act NOW, you 
I get a big, 2 wai 



This Teat DILATOR 


CANNOT Absorb Infection! 

Holds milk duct in normal shape for correct healing. No 
other device does this like scientifically-shaped, smooth, 
flexible BAG BALM Teat DILATORS. Will not dissolve, 
come apart or snag tissues. Packed 25 in medicated BAG 
BALM ointment. Fluted Dilator carries it in. At your 
dealer’s, where you get KOW-KARE, KALF-KARE, 
BAG BALM. 

DAIRY ASSOCIATION COMPANY 
Lyndonvilie 76, Vermont 


New Jersey Fruit Meeting 


The 80th annual meeting of the 
New Jersey State Horticultural So¬ 
ciety was held in Atlantic City De¬ 
cember 6-8. 

Insecticide Reports 

At the Apple Insect and Disease 
Session, Dr. Clarence H Hill, Asso¬ 
ciate Entomologist at the Virginia 
Station, reported on studies and ob¬ 
servations in Virginia apple orchards 
designed to determine if codJing 
moth is building up resistance to 
some of the current insecticides, 
such as DDT and parathion, similar 
to the resistance to lead arsenate de¬ 
veloped by codling moth. He re¬ 
ported that there has been no con¬ 
clusive evidence of resistance to 
either DDT or parathion up to date, 
with colonies of codling moth reared 
on apples sprayed with low dosages 
of those insecticides since 1949. The 
consensus regarding any increase in 
the amount of codling moth injury 
during recent years is that it has 
been due to the relatively hot, dry 
summers and failure to spi'ay at the 
proper time rather than to the resist¬ 
ance of codling moth to the insecti¬ 
cides used. 

Dr. B. F. Driggers of the New Jer¬ 
sey Station presented some interest¬ 
ing data on European red mite con¬ 
trol on apples. An application of 
petroleum oil emulsion (2y 2 per cent 
actual oil) during the green bud or 
early delayed dormant period fol¬ 
lowed by Ovex or TEPP at pink bud 
and petal fall gave excellent control 
until midsummer, whereas the mite 
population was large enough to be 
serious by June 15 on trees receiv¬ 
ing a green bud or delayed dormant 
oil spray only. The amount of Ovex 
recommended was *4 lb., and the 
amount of TEPP y 2 pint of 20 per 
cent material in 100 gallons of water. 

Dr. R. H. Daines of the New Jersey 
Station, reporting on the relation of 
spray schedules to fruit finish and 
yield of apples, presented data show¬ 
ing that Red Delicious, Golden Deli¬ 
cious and Stayman sprayed with Cap- 
tan had superior finish than the same 
varieties sprayed with sulfur, ferbam, 
or Glyodin. The yield of Red Deli¬ 
cious and Stayman sprayed with a 
mixture in which Captan was the 
fungicide also was higher than mix¬ 
tures in which other fungicides were 
used. Ferbam caused such sevei'e 
russetihg of the fruit in 1952 and 
1953 that it was discontinued entirely 
as a fungicide on Golden Delicious 
in the 1954 spray tests. Increasing 
the amount of wetting agent used 
with Captan increased both foliage 
injury and fruit russeting of Red 
Delicious in 1954. A combination of 
Captan and wettable sulfur used on 
Red Delicious caused more foliage 
injury and fruit russeting than wet- 
table sulfur or Captan alone in com¬ 
bination with the same insecticides. 
The addition of parathion to spray 
mixtures containing Captan and sul¬ 
fur increased the amount of fruit 
russeting. 

Chemical Thinning and Pre-Harvest 
Sprays 

Dr. David G. White of Pennsyl¬ 
vania State University, and at pres¬ 
ent Visiting Professor of Horticul¬ 
ture at Rutgers University, in discus¬ 
sing growth regulators used to thin 
and reduce pre-harvest drops of 
apples, mentioned 17 variables which 
independently or through interaction 


with one another may affect the re¬ 
sults. These variables include temper¬ 
ature, light intensity, humidity, con¬ 
centration and amount of material 
used, method of application, spray 
coverage, number of applications, 
tree vigor, variety, amount of bloom 
and stage of fruit development. In 
connection with stage of fruit devel¬ 
opment, Dr. White referred to the 
fact that most recommendations for 
using growth regulators on apples 
are based on the number clays after 
full bloom or before the estimated 
harvest date. In view of the varia¬ 
tion in the rate at which the fruit 
develops between one year and an- 
other, recommendations based on the 
number of days after bloom or be¬ 
fore harvest are not very reliable. 

Peach Session. 

Referring to chemical thinning 
of peaches, Dr. Loren D. Tukey 
of Pennsylvania State Univer¬ 
sity said that a lot is to 
be learned before definite recom¬ 
mendations can be made. The most 
promising material at the present 
time is Chloro-IPC, not to be con¬ 
fused with the weed killer known as 
IPC. Suggestions on time of aplica- 
tions vary from shuck fall to 30 days 
after full bloom and the concentra¬ 
tion of Chloro-IPC in different tests 
has varied from 100 to 300 parts per 
milion. It was suggested that grow¬ 
ers who wish to try Chloro-IPC for 
peach thinning do so on a small scale 
using TOO to 150 parts per million 
after the shucks have fallen up to 
about 30 days after full bloom. 

Pre cooling with cold air or ice 
water to remove orchard heat rapid¬ 
ly delays ripening and generally re¬ 
sults in higher market prices for 
peaches. More and more buyers are 
demanding pre-cooled peaches. Pre¬ 
cooled peaches do not have as high 
quality as “tree-ripened” peaches, but 
the latter are limited to locally grown 
fruit. Pre-cooling will retard ripen¬ 
ing in transit but may be of little or 
no advantage if local markets are 
available. Tests conducted with El- 
berta peaches in Pennsylvania indi¬ 
cate that fruit harvested at a firm to 
hard ripe stage developed better 
quality if held at a temperature of 
65 degrees to 75 degrees for two or 
three days and then stored at 32 de¬ 
gree to 40 degrees than similar fruit 
cooled immediately after harvest and 
then held at a ripening temperature. 
Peaches ripened before being held at 
32 degree to 40 degrees were still 
marketable three weeks after harvest. 

In the business meeting of the 
N. J. State Horticultural Society, 
Thomas S. DeCou of Haddonfield 
was elected president, succeeding 
Charles H. Nissley of New Bruns¬ 
wick; Alvan C. Thompson of Borden- 
town was elected vice pres.; and Ern¬ 
est G. Christ and Arthur J. Earley, 
both of New Brunswick, were re¬ 
elected secretary and treasurer re¬ 
spectively. 

Charles H. Nissley received a spe¬ 
cial award from the New Jersey Can- 
ners’ Association in recognition of 35 
years of service to the New Jersey 
vegetable industry and 21 years of 
leadership in the New Jersey Ten 
Ton Tomato Club. Joseph G. Han¬ 
cock of Bridgeton was the tomato 
yield winner for 1954 with 23.41 tons 
per acre, and William C. Moore, also 
of Bridgeton, was high man in the 
quality class. A. J. Farley 



19 . 


THE RURAL NEW ORKKR 






















































PENNSYLVANIA FARM NEWS 






1 






Two Angus that finished 1st and 
2 nd in that breed went on to take 
the grand and reserve grand titles 
for all breeds at the recent 22nd 
annual Junior Live Stock Show at 
Pittsburgh. Grand championship win¬ 
ner was Robert Swiantek (17) with 
his 1,000-pound steer which he fat¬ 
tened as a FFA project out of Trini¬ 
ty High School, Washington County. 
Reserve grand championship went 
to Edward Duncan (12), 4-H’er of 
Butler, Butler County, with his 1,005- 
pound steer. Swiantek had grand 
champion in 1951 and reserve grand 
champion in 1952. He also took first 
honors in beef fitting and sheep fit¬ 
ting. Showing a Southdown, he fin¬ 
ished third in the grand champion¬ 
ship class in lambs, in which the 
grand championship went to Leanne 
Shober, 4-H’er, of Berlin, Somerset 
County, with a Southdown. The lamb 
reserve grand championship went to 
Leanne’s brother, Jack Shober, with 
a Hampshire. Swiantek’s sister, Bar¬ 
bara Jean, FFA member, had grand 
champion pen of lambs, Southdowns. 

In Herefords, the breed champion¬ 
ship went to George Stahl (18), 4- 
H’er of Somerset, Somerset County. 
Hereford reserve title went to Mai*- 
shall Hoffman (16), 4-H’er of 
Greensburg, Westmoreland County. 
Terry Shaffner (13), 4-H’er of Oak 
Hall Station, Centre County, took 
the Shorthorn top title. Earl Cross 
(19), another 4-H’er of Boyers, 
Butler County, got Shorthorn reserve 
honors. 

Swiantek’s grand champion steer 
and Miss Shober’s top lamb each 
sold for 50 cents per pound. All of 
the 221 steers averaged 29.1 cents 
per pound, and all 166 lambs, 24.82 
cents. Harold Pfeiffer, Columbus, 
Ohio, was auctioneer. 

Rex Shaffner of Oak Hall Station 
took first place in beef showmanship 
in all breeds and was first in Angus. 
Herman Blakely, Shelocta, Indiana 
County, was top Hereford showman, 
and Dick Yarian, Sharon, Mercer 
County, top in Shorthorns. 


A four-week course in livestock 
farming will be offered at the Penn¬ 
sylvania State University from 
February 2 to March 2, 1955. Sub¬ 
jects covered will include classroom 
and laboratory instruction in the 
judging, feeding, breeding and 
management of beef cattle, sheep, 
swine and work horses, and in dis¬ 
ease prevention. Instruction will also 
be given in pasture and grassland 
management, and farm slaughtering. 
A four-week intensive course in 
general farming will also be offered 
curing the month of January im¬ 
mediately preceding the livestock 
farming short course. 

Anyone 16 years of age or older, 
who has a good common school edu¬ 
cation, may apply for admission to 


these courses. Farm experience is 
desirable but is not necessary. For 
additional information and an appli¬ 
cation blank, write to David R. 
McClay, Director of Short Courses, 
College of Agriculture, The Penn¬ 
sylvania State University, State 
College, Pa. Advance registration is 
required. 


So many requests for information 
and details about the Pennsylvania 
State solar poultry house (cf. The 
Rural New Yorker, Feb. 6, 1954) 
have come to the poultry depart¬ 
ment at Penn. State University, State 
College, that a conference and 
demonstration are going to be held on 
it January 4-5 at the University. 
White Leghorn pullets were housed 
with only 1.9 square feet of space 
each in 1952, and in 1953 with only 
1.3 square feet. Now the space is 
down to less than a foot to a bird 
and the production and livability of 
the bii’ds is so good that the whole 
arrangement invites inspection. De¬ 
tails of the conference may be ob¬ 
tained from Glenn 0. Bressler of j 
Penn. State’s poulti'y department; j 
he will also receive reservations for 
special banquet and breakfast tick¬ 
ets. The new solar house, if proved 
practical for commercial poultrymen, 
could lower their building and 
equipment investments, per layer, 
quite remarkably. 


. W. S. Hagar, State Secretary of 
Agriculture and Chairman of the 
State Farm Show Commission, has 
announced that an all-time record 
total of horses, sheep, swine, dairy 
and beef cattle has been entered for 
the 1955 Pennsylvania Farm Show, 
Harrisburg, next January 10-14. 
Standing as an accurate reflection of 
the importance of the State’s largest 
single agricultural industry, the 
dairy cattle department has the 
largest number of entries. Each of 
the six leading dairy breeds will be 
represented—Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, 
Guernsey, Holstein, Jersey and Milk¬ 
ing Shorthorn. Beef cattle entries 
also are at a record high, including 
130 head of 4-H Club baby beeves. 
This is 55 more than the number 
entered for the 1954 show. The beef 
breeds include Aberdeen-Angus, 
Hereford and Shorthorn. 


Paul Allen Tate (18), Maheffey, 
Clearfield County, freshman at Penn¬ 
sylvania ‘State University, has been 
named winner of the 1954 $400 Esso 
Standard Oil 4-H Scholarship. The 
award was based on high scholastic 
standing and 4-H achievement. Tate 
will receive $100 a year for four 
years. He already has $1,183 saved 
up from 4-H project earnings. Fea¬ 
turing capons, he completed 10 pro¬ 
jects in five lines of work over an 
eight-year period. N. M. Eberly 



AY 

V. 1 • 


K-v - • <e 


: PR - 


—'-**■ * ...... .... . ... , . .. & . . 

Robert Swiantek, Washington, Pa., icon grand championship honors at the 
recent 22nd annual Pennsylvania Livestock Show, held in Pittsburgh, with 

his highly finished Angus steer. 




UP-DATE 


rOUR TRACTOR 


WITH 


kW POW’R 
PRODUCTS 

For 

better than standard 
performance 



“M&W Add-POW’R PISTONS 
give me extra horsepower .. 

“With Add-POW’R Pistons in my tractor I can work more 
land in less time, plow bottom land faster, deeper and 
smoother, and go right through without pulling the engine 
down,” says H. W. L., Bloomington, Illinois. There’s good 
reason for this extra power with MandW Add-POW’R 
Pistons. Larger diameter gives you the greater displacement 
that means a larger tractor engine in power capacity . . . 
3 to 12 more horsepower for any tractor. Aluminum alloy 
piston construction (less than half the weight of smaller cast 
iron pistons) gives unbelievable smoothness in engine opera¬ 
tion, improves tractor fuel economy. MandW gives you 
balanced higher compression ratios to boost tractor operating 
efficiency. Individual weight-balancing eliminates vibration. 
Chrome plated rings resist scuffing and acid, provide positive 
oil control, give full compression without power-wasting 
blowby—get hundreds of extra hours of tractor field service. 

Power-up with economy-proven Add-POW’R Pistons and 
slip-in sleeves. Add-POW’R Pistons give your tractor up to 
20% more power than when it was new! See your tractor 
dealer today. 

Tractors UP-DATED With M&W 9-Speed Trans¬ 
mission ... Mow, Hoe, Cultivate, Spray Faster 

Here are four more work-selected field speeds to help Farmall 
owners cut tractor operating costs and time on every job 
(6, 7p2, 9, 11 mph). When you’re puffing fight equipment, 
MandW Nine Speed lets you shift to a higher gear ... do 
the job faster and use less fuel. In addition, you save your 
tractor, too. New MandW Nine Speed Transmission pro¬ 
vides positive lubrication of the pilot bearing . . . stops road 
gear clash and costly breakdowns. Transmission failure? 
Remember, it costs little more to put in an MandW Nine 
Speed, instead of repairing the same transmission. Don’t 
put off seeing your tractor dealer about MandW Nine 
Speed Transmission for Farmalls, Do it today. 

HOW TO GET MORE OUT OF YOUR PRESENT TRACTOR 

Send a postcard with your name and 
address for this big 32-page Power Story 
book. 


M&W TRACTOR PRODUCTS 

M&W GEAR CO. * 2804 GREEN ST. • ANCHOR, ILL. 




Cottontail Repellent 

Gnawing, Girdling Damage to Your Valuable Trees, 
Shrubs, Blueberry Bushes, etc.. Prevented all Winter 
by BEAN’S COTTONTAIL REPELLENT. Quart $1.75 
paints, sprays 50 young trees. Gallon $5.75 Postpaid. 

F. R. BEAN COMPANY, SC0TTSV1LLE, N. Y. 


10.000 GALLONS 
BATTLESHIP GRAY 
Exterior Paint, suitable for metal or wood, perfect 
condition, packed in five-gallon steel cans. Cancella¬ 
tion on large Marine order. Price $1.00 per gallon 
Check with order. F.O.B. RAHWAY. NEW JERSEY 
COMMERCIAL CHEMICAL CO., RAHWAY, N. , 


January 1, 1955 





















r 



MYERS 

WATER SYSTEMS 

Really Do Pay Off! 




BOOST PRODUCTION 

Plenty of water, 
always handy, 
Kelps meat ani¬ 
mals fatten up faster, dairy cows 
give more milk and hens lay more 
eggs. With lots of easy-to-get water, 
there’s less work in keeping barns 
and coops clean and free of damag¬ 
ing insects and disease. 



SAVE COSTLY LABOR 

An automatic Myers 
water system not only 
assures an ample sup¬ 
ply of water for peak 
production, but it 
aiso relieves you of tiresome and 
costlv pump-and-carry hours every 
dav. These hours can be used effec- 

j 

lively to push break-even operations 
into the profit columns. 



PROTECT 

YOUR 

INVESTMENT 


A small fire, unchecked, can wipe 
out in a few disastrous minutes the 
results of years of work. Water un¬ 
der pressure supplied by a rugged 
Myers pump keeps small fires under 
control until fire-fighting equip¬ 
ment can reach the scene. 

See your nearby Myers dealer today 
for a convincing demonstration of 
Myers superiority. See for yourself 

why ... 

More Buyers Buy Myers ! 

The F. E. Myers & Bro. Co., 

Depi. R-l, Ashland, Ohio 

Myers 

WATER SYSTEMS 

POWER SPRAYERS AND WATER SOFTENERS 



n 



Farm Youth Winners 
at 4-H Club Congress 



Tvjo of the national forestry winners 
at the 4-H Club Congress last month 
were, left to right, Arnold B. Smith, 
Perkinston, Miss., and Duane J. Hor¬ 
ton, Sherburne, N. Y., shown with 
J. C. McClellan, AFPI chief forester. 



Karen Fladoes (left), Kelvinator Institute director, greets the national 
food preparation whiners at the 4-H Congress. The winners (left to right) 
are Gloria King, Rapid City, S. D.; Sara Catherine Chestang, Britsol. Fla.; 
Lois Clark, Lockport, N. Y.: Patricia Ann Mowdy. Decatur, Miss.; Wanda 
Keller, Middletown, Md.; Mary Janice Hillier, Excelsior. Minn.; Ruth 
Temple, Zebulon, N. C.; and Janice Paulick, Tooele, Utah. 




G. Lawrence Schmidt, 18, Leeds, N. Y., is presented with a $300 Henry Field Crops winner Raymond Wilkie, 
Ford II college scholarship by Dewey F. Barich, left, Ford Motor Company, Tiverton, R. 1., won S300 scholarship, 

sponsor of the program. donated by International Harvester. 


These nine young men, honored for outstanding work in connection with the 4-H Tractor Program, are shown 
with John J. Leu, vice-pres. of American Oil Co., the sponsor. They are, left to right, front row: Robert 
Southworth, No. Bangor, N. Y.; Bruno Hutter, Southbury, Conn., (also a national winner); Mr. Leu; Harold L. 
Thompson, Pembroke, N. H.; and David Ira Allen, Jacksonville, Vt. Back row: Arthur Marshall Jr., Middle- 
town, R. I.; Marvin Hedstrom, Stockholm, Me.; Myron Rudy, State College, Pa.; John A. Johnson, Skillman, 

N. J.; and Harvey E. Peck, Shelburne Falls, Mass. 



Carolyn Rick, 18, Ithaca, N. Y., receives a scholarship 
check for $300 from Foioler B. McConnell, president 
of Sears, Roebuck and Co., as one of eight national 
winners in the 1954 National 4-H Home Improvement 
Awards Program. 



Bruce Bean, Warner, N. H., right, and next to him, 
David S. Totten, Neshanic Station, N. J., winners of 
$300 scholarships from the Tractor and Implement 
Divison, Ford Motor Co., for proficiency in poultry 
raising, receive carving instructions from Chef Wagner. 


THE RURAL NEW-YORKER 

















Price Spreads on Dairy Products 

Senate Committee reports substantial 
increase in spread over 3-year period . 


Last month, the Senate Agriculture 
Committee, through its chairman, 
Senator George W. Aiken of Ver¬ 
mont, released its first report on 
“Price Spreads—Milk and Dairy 
Products” (summarized in The Rural 
New Yorker, Dec. 18, 1954, p. 748). 
The following are pertinent quoted 
excerpts from the Committee’s Re¬ 
port: 

“***The price spread or marketing 
margin is the difference between the 
price paid by the consumer at the 
retail-store level and the price re¬ 
ceived by the farmer for an equiva¬ 
lent quantity of products. On the 
average this should***include all 
costs of processing, transportation 
and distribution, any profits received 
by marketing agencies, and any taxes 
paid by these agencies. 

“Since the end of World War II 
there has been a gradual increase in 
the gross margin between prices re¬ 
ceived by farmers for milk and prices 
paid by consumers for the several 
dairy products. The widening of mar¬ 
gins following the lifting of all price- 
control regulations in late 1952 has 
been particularly marked. ***In the 
case of butter, for example, the in¬ 
crease in gross margin from 1951 to 
June 30, 1954, was 10y 2 cents per 100 
pounds of milk equivalent. Over 
half (52 per cent) of this occurred 
between the farm price and the 
wholesale price and the remainder 
(48 per cent) occurred between the 
wholesale price and the retail price 
to the consumer. The increase in 
gross margin for the same period for 
American cheese was 61 cents per 
100 pounds of milk equivalent, 25 
per cent of which occui'red at the 
farm to wholesale level and 75 per 
cent occurred at wholesale to retail 
stage. (Ed.—The increase in gross 
margin for evaporated milk, as taken 
from the statistical table in Report, 
was 56 y 2 cents per 100 lbs. of milk 
equivalent over the same period; and 
for fluid milk 64y 2 cents). For evap¬ 
orated milk, 14y 2 -ounce cans, 27 per 
cent occurred at the farm to whole¬ 
sale level and 73 per cent occurred 
at wholesale to retail level.*** 

“The farmers’ share of the con¬ 
sumer dollar in the farm food market 
basket has steadily decreased since 
1951. (Ed.—A second statistical table 
in Report shows that the farm value 
of a quart of milk in 1951 was 11.2 
cents, or 51 per cent of the retail 
price of 21.9 cents; for the first six 
months of 1954 the farm value of a 
quart of milk was 10 2 cents, or 46 
per cent of the retail price of 22.3 
cents. The farm value of a pound of 
butter in 1951 was 57.7 cents or 71 
per cent of retail price of 81.4 cents; 
for the first six months 1954 the farm 
value of a pound of butter was 48.5 
cents, or 65 per cent of retail price of 
74.3 cents. The farm value of a pound 
of American cheese in 1951 was 33.7 
cents, or 58 per cent of retail price 
of 58.3 cents; for the first six months 
1954 the farm value of a pound of 
American cheese was 27.7 cents, or 
47 per cent of retail price of 58.4 
cents.) 

“***The committee decided to as¬ 
certain through actual examination 
of records of processors, wholesalers, 
and retailers of milk and dairy prod¬ 
ucts the reason for the constant in¬ 
crease in price spread. After a de¬ 
tailed pilot-accounting study of a 
representative independent processor 
in the State of Wisconsin, the com¬ 
mittee sent staff members to five 
other representative milk-producing 
States, namely, New York, Minnesota, 
California Washington, and Tennes¬ 
see.*** 

January 1 , 1955 


“The problem was to determine 
why the processing, distribution, and 
merchandising margin on milk and 
dairy products has been widening 
since 1951; to ascertain the percent¬ 
age increase which has occurred in 
the price spread and to determine 
how much of this increase was the 
result of increased cost of operation 
and what percentage was attributable 
to greater profit taking.*** 

Of 10 pi’oeessing plants included 
in the survey, seven increased their 
margins by 7.7 per cent to 27.9 per 
cent, while only three processing 
plants decreased their margins. 
These three plants had sales volumes 
of less than the average of ail plants 
studied. Of the seven plants having 
increased margins, only one was 
found to have had increased expenses 
sufficient to account for the entire 
increase in margin. The remaining 
six plants increased their profits by 
amounts ranging from 29 to 100 per¬ 
cent of the total increased margin.*** 

“The committee had been in¬ 
formed in previous studies that the 
reason for the price spread increase 
was because of substantial increases 
during the past several years in wage 
rates, transportation charges, taxes, 
and other items, and that price 
spreads were up because costs were 
up and not because of industry 
profits. This conclusion was not 
borne out from actual examinations 
of records.*** 

“All of. the firms included in the 
study showed profits on dairy proces¬ 
sing operations each year, except one 
processor who showed a loss in 1952. 

“The above survey covered proces¬ 
sors of dairy products. All were inde¬ 
pendently owned and operated con¬ 
cerns as distinguished from national¬ 
ly owned organizations and cooper¬ 
atives.*** 

“It is believed this survey presents 
an average picture of independently 
operated processing plants in the 
dairy industry in the United States. 

“The committee is continuing its 
study on milk and dairy products by 
obtaining accounting information 
from approximately 50 processing, 
distributing, and merchandising units 
of national organizations by question¬ 
naire and a supplemental report will 
be submitted upon completion of this 
inquiry.*** 

“It is strongly recommended that 
the majority of processors of milk 
and dairy products throughout the 
country reexamine their operating 
costs and their profit-and-loss state¬ 
ments and take some action to re¬ 
duce the margin spread in prices and 
to prevent a further spread of this 
margin. Such action, in the opinion 
of the committee, would inure to the 
benefit of both the farmer and the 
consumer of dairy products; would 
tend to promote a greater demand 
and use of milk and dairy products 
by the American public, thereby re¬ 
ducing Government holdings on such 
commodities, and appropriate action 
on price spreads would result, in the 
long run, to the benefit of the whole 
dairy industry. 

(Ed.—It is imperative that the 
dairy farmer know as much about the 
milk business as anyone else, par¬ 
ticularly since he has the most im¬ 
portant stake in it. Anyone can ob¬ 
tain a copy of the full report of the 
Senate Agriculture Committee by 
writing to the U. S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C., re¬ 
questing a copy of Senate Report No. 
2509, “Price Spreads—Milk And 
Dairy Products”. There is no charge.) 



Harvesting Capacity 



HAY HARVESTING UNIT—will pick 
up, chop and load 2 tons of dry hay 
in 12 minutes. 



CORN HARVESTING UNIT—gives 
you a choice of 14 different lengths 
of cut—from V4" to 5 Vt" 



MOWER BAR UNIT—with 6-ft. mowef 
bar—cuts a full 72-inch swath. 


FOX—with 24 years experience building forage 
harvesters — now brings you its most efficient model. 
With it—because of its 6-foot mower bar (full 72 
inches) you can mow, chop and load tons more grass 
silage every working day, without increasing tractor 
speed. 

if you’ve been harvesting 200 tons of grass silage 

a day—with the new FOX you can harvest 240 tons in 
no more time and with no more effort. Or, if you’ve 
harvested grass silage at the rate of 2 acres an hour, 
with the new FOX you can step that up to close to 
21/2 acres. 

This new FOX has many other improvements to 

make forage harvesting faster, easier, more economi¬ 
cal. NEW AUGER FEEDER that pulls forage on to feed 
apron and centers it into feeding rolls without bunch¬ 
ing; NEW EASY LIFTING MECHANISM adjusts 
quickly to convenience of operator—finger-tip control; 
NEW SINGLE DRIVE MECHANISM for all harvest¬ 
ing units. Speeds up attaching and detaching; NEW 
ONE-PIECE FEED APRON speeds flow of forage into 
feed rolls. 

ALWAYS LOOK AT FOX FIRST BEFORE YOU BUY ANY FORAGE 
HARVESTER—MAKE IT YOUR BASIS OF COMPARISON. 

Note and compare these FOX FEATURES: SAFE 
CYLINDER-TYPE CUTTING MECHANISM 
mounted in a one-piece frame—gives a positive, clean 
cut; cannot get out of line and stones cannot wreck. 
The safest cutting mechanism built. EXTRA-DUTY 
WELDED FRAME for added years of life; QUICK- 
CHANGE FEATURES that enable one man, in 10 
minutes without tools, to change to Pick-Up, Mower 
Bar or Row-Crop Harvester. KNIFE SHARPENER 
that quickly sharpens knives on the machine. These are 
but a few of the features that have made FOX the 
standard of comparison. There are many more. As you 
examine the FOX part by part—as you see it operate— 
you'll realize that “in a Fox you get MORE of every¬ 
thing.’’ 

SO—SEE YOUR FOX DEALER FIRST. Have him 
show you the many points of FOX superiority. We’re 
certain you’ll agree the NEW 1955 FOX FORAGE 
HARVESTER is the greatest machine of its type 
ever built! 


FOX RIVER TRACTOR CO, 

The Pioneer of Modern Forage Harvesting 
4715 N. Rankin St. 


FREE BOOKLET 



APPLETON 


FOX 


WISCONSIN 


FREE—“NEW WAYS TO MAKE MORE PROFIT FROM FORAGE”— 

An information packed, how-lo-do-it booklet to help you slash labor 
costs and save more of the meat-making, milk-producing nutrients 
nature puts into grass, corn and sorghum crops. Send for your copy 
today. 


FOX RIVER TRACTOR CO. Dept.4715, Appleton, Wisconsin. 
I.want to make more profits from my forage crops. Send me your new 
book on Forage Harvesting □ 

Also, send detailed information on the New Fox Forage Harvester □ 


Name. 


Address. 






Town—-- 



State 

•' ; 



My dealer's name is 




15 




































Published Semi-Monthly By 

Rural Publishing Co., Inc. 333 West 30th St., New York 1, N. Y. 
John J. Dillon, Publisher, 1899-1950 

EDITORIAL AND EXECUTIVE STAFF 

William F. Berghold, Editor and Publisher 
William A. O'Brien, Business Manager 
Rtjbsell W. Duck, Managing Editor M. G. Keyes, Publisher's Desk 
James N. Bodurtha. Field Editor Persis Smith, Woman and Home 

Henry G. Hardwick, Jr., Circulation Manager 
H. B. Tukey Donald F. Jones 

C. 3. Platt H. A. Rollins 

George L Slate B. K. Sommers 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES: 

50 Cents a Year, SI .00 for 3 Y'ears; in New York City 31.00 a Year. 

Foreign countries in the Universal Postal Union. S2.06 a Year. 

Entered at New York Post Office as Second Class Matter. 

"A SQUARE DEAL" 

We believe that every advert;:--: ment in tais paper is backed by a respon¬ 
sible person. We use every possible precaution and admit the advertiting of 
reliable houses only. But to make doubly sure, we will make good any loss 
to paid subscribers sustained by trusting any deliberate swindler, irrespon¬ 
sible advertisers or misleading advertisements in our columns, and any 
such swindler will be publicly exposed. We are also often called upon 
to adjust differences or mistakes between our subscribers and honest, 
responsible houses, whether advertisers or not. We willingly use our good 
offices to this end, but such cases should not be confused with dishonest 
transactions. We protect subscribers against rogues, but we will not be 
responsible for the debts of honest bankrupts sanctioned by the courts. 
Notice of the complaint must be sent to us within one month of the time of 
the transaction, and to identify it, you should mention The Rural New 
Yorker when writing the advertiser. 


We Start With a Clean Slate 

O NCE again the slate is clean. Many of our 
older readers will recall how the school 
boy of many years ago wiped the completed 
problem from his slate. In a measure, each of 
us does the same thing at the turning of the 
year. The old year is gone and done with; its 
problems may easily be erased. But, even as 
the lad of long ago wiped his slate clean only 
to make way for new problems, so shall we, 
ere the year has well begun, face the need 
for new decisions and the challenge of new 
situations. That which we did last year may 
not have been good enougn to meet our ex¬ 
pectations. Conditions in the year before us 
may give the problem an entirely new setting. 
In any case, of one thing we are all certain: 
there will be sufficient need for hard work 
and good judgment. 

It is one of mankind’s special gifts that, 
consciously foresaking the past, yet building 
upon the memory of it, he is able to fashion 
success out of failure or refine his success 
into even greater measures of achievement. 
Along with that gift of qualified forgetfulness, 
he is given, as though to spur him on, the 
“hope that springs eternal in the human 
breast.” 

There is no man living who can completely 
prognosticate the fortunes of the New Year, 
for such power fortunately is not given to man. 
Of charts and educated guesses we shall have 
many, some more accurate than others. It re¬ 
mains for each individual to evaluate them in 
the light of his own problems. But, most valu¬ 
able of all, will be his own judgment based 
upon that which his past experience has taught 
him. 

Planning and forethought along with a 
goodly measure of common human under¬ 
standing, a judicious memory of the past to 
guide him, and faith in the wisdom and mercy 
of his Almighty, can prepare a man to meet 
the problems which lie before him with a 
greater measure of confidence in himself. 
They will help greatly to make his New Year 
a happy and blessed one. 

1955 Pew isylvania Farm Show 

HE 1955 Farm Show, being held in 
Harrisburg, Pa., January 10-14, will be 
dedicated to the Pennsylvania State University 
at State College. The members of the Farm 
Show Commission declare: “We are proud to 
pay tribute to the State University and to 
share in the launching of a year-long 100th 
Anniversary celebration which it plans to 
conduct during the year of 1955.” 

Both the University and the Farm Show 
were founded by farmers for the edu¬ 
cation and welfare of farmers and for 
the advancement of Pennsylvania’s agri¬ 
culture. The Pennsylvania State Univer¬ 
sity and its great College of Agriculture 
were active in founding the Farm Show in 
1917 and have assisted generously each year 
since that time. Known at first as “The Farm¬ 
ers’ High School of Pennsylvania” (1855-62), 
then as the “Agricultural College of Penn¬ 


sylvania” (1862-1874) and “The Pennsyl¬ 
vania State College” (1874-1954), the Land 
Grant institution expanded its activities over 
the years until it became, in name as well as 
in fact, a university, one of the largest in the 
United States. 

Tribute to the University at the 1955 
Farm Show will include formal dedication 
at the official opening, an historical presenta¬ 
tion in the annual Rural Talent Festival on 
Tuesday evening of Farm Show Week, special 
exhibits and decorations, and presentation of 
the University’s accomplishments in agri¬ 
culture from 1855 to 1955 through resident 
instruction, research and extension services. 

There will, as usual, be hundreds of displays 
of new and improved farm machinery and 
equipment; feed, seed and fertilizer exhibits; 
a great cattle show and lively 4-H competition 
— and many other features that have always 
contributed to make the Pennsylvania Farm 
Show one of the best of its kind in the United 
States. 


A Farmer Is Governor 

HIS month, Pennsylvania’s first Demo¬ 
cratic Governor in 16 years — only the 
third in a century — takes office for a four- 
year term. He is George M. Leader, former 
State Senator and a prominent poultryman, 
hailing from York County. 

Governor Leader is faced with many vexing 
State problems. There is a budget crisis, and 
thus there is need for a completely revised 
tax program. He must come up with some 
relief for, or adequate replacement of, the 
anthracite coal industry. There is, as there is 
always, the problem as to how to solve the con¬ 
stantly increasing school costs. And, though 
it has not been mentioned very prominently, 
the new Governor must face up to the farm 
price problem in milk and eggs, both of which 
loom large in Pennsylvania agriculture. 

But, above and beyond all that, Mr. Leader’s 
assumption of office will furnish a real test of 
a farmer’s ability and capacity for statesman¬ 
ship. In recent years here in the Northeast, 
few men of agriculture have been chosen for 
gubernatorial posts. Mr. Leader is a farmer 
and his roots are in the soil. Fortunately, he 
is young and, perhaps equally fortunate, he 
has the reputation of being a stubborn Penn¬ 
sylvania Dutchman. 

All these are good qualities and Governor 
Leader will neea to avail himself of them to 
the fullest. We hope he will bring great credit 
both to his ancestry and background. 


A Cow-Barn Commissioner 

EW YORK dairy farmers look with a 
good deal of hope to Daniel Carey of 
Groton, who has just been appointed Com¬ 
missioner of Agriculture and Markets by 
Governor Harriman. 

And they have reason to be hopeful. Mr. 
Carey is a real cow-barn farmer. He has been 
a dairyman all his life, owning and*operating 
a large farm in Tompkins County. A Cornell 
graduate, he was for many years a director 
of Eastern Milk Producers Co-operative and 
later served as assistant to U. S. Secretary of 
Agriculture Brannan in Washington. Not 
only, therefore, does Mr. Carey possess the 
necessary background of living that qualifies 
him for a complete undertaking of the dairy 
farmer s problems, but he has also had recent 
practical experience with the intricate busi¬ 
ness of milk marketing so as to enable him to 
know how to tackle a job promptly and ob¬ 
tain quick results. 

Today, more than at any other time in re¬ 
cent years, these qualities are of extreme im¬ 
portance, not so much in the possession of 
them, as in the degree in which, and the di¬ 
rection toward which, they are exerted. 

The new Commissioner must realize he faces 
a monumental task. The New York dairy 
farmer is in no mood to be trifled with. He 
has been pushed around by Washington, 
neglected by Albany. The price of milk is low, 
the cost of production is high. The dairyman 
gets little but noise and newspaper headlines 
from his so-called leaders, neither of which 
can be used for food or for bank deposits. 

Because the farmer is looking for — and 


demands — action, the opportunities pre¬ 
sented to the new administration in Albany, 
and io Commissioner Carey particularly, are 
limitless. With a view to taking time by the 
forelock, The Rural New Yorker wrote to 
Mr. Carey last month, asking for a statement 
of his views on several milk issues and offer¬ 
ing him sufficient space in these columns for 
his reply. We had hoped that his statement 
could be published in the same issue as our 
inquiry, which appears on page 24. In his 
brief reply, also on page 24, Mr. Carey has 
requested deferment. We hope that this de¬ 
ferment will be of a temporary nature only, 
and that he will see his way clear to expound 
his views fully and forcefully in our next 
issue. 

Daily farmers want to know where the new 
Commissioner stands, and what action he is 
going to take and how soon. They have a right 
to this information and the Commissioner is 
under a duty to furnish it. There is every rea¬ 
son to believe that Mr. Carey is willing and 
anxious to fulfill this obligation and explain 
his program, even though it may be in tenta¬ 
tive form. By doing so, he will obtain the full 
support and confidence of his fellow dairy¬ 
men, which are his for the asking, and then 
move ahead to give the New York dairyman 
the small place in the sun which has been so 
long denied him. 


What Farmers Say 

POULTRY FARMER PROTESTS 

I do not see where Secretary of Agriculture 
Benson can get much satisfaction out of the 
farm vote on November 2. 

If Mr. Benson had been on the national ballot 
the iast election and was depending on the farm 
vote for election, I am sure he could have used 
those 500 eggs sent to him by a poultrywoman 
to buy a ticket back home, as she suggested he 
do. 

The administration seems to get a kick out 
of the new flexible farm price law. Such a law 
is not necessary as the old law of supply and 
demand is the same thing. Short crops, high 
prices; surplus crops, low prices. We don’t need 
a law for that. 

But, under the flexible law, if Secretary Ben¬ 
son's actions up to date are any criterion, the 
minimum of the new flexible price will be the 
maximum price farmers can expect. I am willing 
to go along with no price supports on what eggs 
I produce, but I also want to buy my poultry 
feed with no government supports and, for Secre¬ 
tary Benson to expect a pat on the back from egg 
and poultry producers for pulling such a glaring 
boner, he is crazier than I thought a politician 
really could get. 

I voted for Eisenhower in 1952 on a statement 
he made to the Dakota farmers when he stated: 
“Why not 100 per cent parity?” We really thought 
he meant it and he got the family votes. But in 
less than two years he has removed government 
supports from some farm products and reduced 
others. Under the present egg price situation and 
government supported grain prices, we egg pro¬ 
ducers are right back to the 1933 situation as 
far as profits are concerned. Yet Washington did 
not reduce the minimum labor wage law — there 
were too many votes there. 

It is definitely time for a change and, poli¬ 
ticians being what they are, what can we change 
to? More of the same? Not me. I do not expect 
to vote for another politician until I have definite 
assurance that that politician means exactly what 
he says. Is there such an animal alive? 

Pennsylvania e. r. 


Brevities 

“The Lord will give strength unto his people; 
the Lord will bless his people with peace.” — 
Psa. 29:11. 

With the advent of cold weather, heating units 
and stoves are now going full blast. It is 
therefore well to remember that misusing kero¬ 
sene to start fires is the No. One killer in rural 
homes. 

The fourth annual Beef Cattlemen’s Short 
Course will be held at Cornell University, Janu¬ 
ary 24-28, 1955. Those desiring to attend should 
drop a line to Professor J. I. Miller, Wing Hall, 
Ithaca. 

On Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, farm ma¬ 
chines in excess of 13 feet in width cannot be 
legally moved on public highways in New York 
State, except for less than two miles after 10:00 
a. m. On other days the time limit is sunrise to 
sunset. 





16 


THE RUSAL NEW-YORKER 

















Qei all 4 KINDS OF POSITIVE TRACTION 



or tandem hitches of heavy equipment 
or hard-pulling deep tillage fools. Cor¬ 
rect weight distribution and forward 
hitch point insure full grouser grip. You 
hove reserve traction for tough spots. 

...Plu<L 



2. Non-packing traction. On the 

popular 16-inch track shoes, the 5-6 
plow TD-9, for example, has 14 square 
feet of plank-like track support. You get 
the "go early” flotation that prevents 
harmful soil compaction. 



3. Special-duty traction. Exclusive 
IH ball-joint mounting and front stabil¬ 
izer design assure the track-to-ground 
contact for profitable rough-and-tumble 
land-clearing, material-moving and con¬ 
servation work. 



4. Emergency traction. Not even 
sand, snow, "pot holes ’ or slippery "cov¬ 
er” stops these tracks. Sixteen-inch TD-9 
tracks, for example, have 674 square 
inches of puil-bracing grouser grip, all 
the time, to prevent cosiiy delay. 


these exclusive MAJOR ADVANTAGES 

only from an 


INTERNATIONAL 



Vou get a fast work-start hot or cold —because the International 
diesel engine starts and warms up seconds fast— to deliver fuil- 
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24 ‘ B wheel-controlled offset, deep-disks 28 acres daily, on 
only 18 gallons of low-cost fuel. Micrometric fuel pump precision 
and tornadic fuel-air mixing turbulence give you fuel economy 
second to none—plus clean combustion, smooth idling! Interna¬ 
tional crawler advantages are available in seven models—33 to 
155 drawbar horsepower. 


Get a close-up look at International crawler traction. 
Measure all the other major advantages. Prove to 
yourself that the International crawler you need beats 
anything else on tracks. See your nearby IH dealer 
for a demonstration. 



INTERNATIONAL 

HARVESTER 


International Harvester products pay for themselves in 
Airmail Tractors . . . Motor Trucks . .. Crawler Tractors 
freezers—General Office, Chicago 1, Illinois. 


use—McCormick Farm Equipment and 
and Power Units ... Refrigerators and 


DIESEL CRAWLER 



Beat 'vrog-pond” conditions, take hardest puils or pushes as they 

come with this weather-beating power. International diesel gov¬ 
erning gives you maximum horsepower at rated engine speed as 
well as maximum overload lugging power. Here’s timely pest-control 
—the TD-6 hustling the heavy speed-type sprayer over muddy, 
hilly orchard. Oil goes special delivery through drilled passages to 

keep International diesel engine bearings properly lubricated_ 

efficient one-system cooling controls temperature, aids combust ion, 
guards oil film strength. 


CM . 

wu* t tJ i 


u- y >'.V * _ 


u£gf 



y-mm 


, ..Vi \VC. -• * 

. , ' i l - I 


Send 

for 

FREE 

catalog 


international Harvester Company 

Box 7333, Dept. RNY-1, Chicago 80, [[tinois 

Please send me free materia! checked: 

□ Internationa! TD-6 and TD-9 crawler catalog. 

CD McCormick combination tool bar-do7.er carrier catalog. 

□ McCormick No. 24-B offsei disk harrow. 


Narr e_ 


- □ Student 


Address_ 
P. O_ 


- Stc*e_ 


i farm - T - acres. Principal crop _ 

My IH dealer is_ 


January 1, 1955 










































































■mm 


NOBODY TRIES TO MAKE A RECORD WITHOUT DRIED BEET PULP! 

“YEAR ROUND PASTURE” 


MO WAT, WILSON & CO 


Detroit 35, Michigan 






m 

j ^ : 

' 


The 1954 International Grand Champion 

This is Janice Hullinger, 16-year-old 4-H girl of Manly, Iowa, with her 
Aberdeen-Angus, Shorty, that was grand champion steer at the 1954 Inter¬ 
national Livestock Exposition, Chicago. This 1,110 -pound Angus, which was 
first named Junior Champion, brought $16,650 at auction ivhen it was sold 
on December 2. This price of $15 a pound ivas the second highest price 
brought for a grand champion steer in the history of the International. 


CITRUS 


BEET PULP 


Champion Steers at the 
International — 1900-1954 


The breed winners of the fat 
steer classes for grand champion¬ 
ship honors and their selling price 
per pound liveweight, since the 
International was started in 1900 at 
Chicago, Ill., were as follows: 

1900 — Angus (A.), selling price 
per pound liveweight, $1.50; 1901— 
Hereford (H.), 50 cents; 1902— A., 
56 cents; 1903 — H. x A., 26 cents; 
1904 — A., 36 cents; 1905 — A., 25 
cents; 1906 — H., not sold; 1907 — 
Shorthorn (S. H.),24 cents; 1908—A., 
26 x /2 cents; 1909 — A., 18 cents; 
1910 — A., 60 cents; 1911 — A., 90 
cents; 1912 — A., 50 cents; 1913 — 
A., not sold; 1914-1915, no shows 
(foot and mouth disease); 1916 — 
H. x S. H., $1.75; 1917 — S. H., $2.10; 
1918 — A., $2.50; 1919 — H„ $2.62; 
1920 — A., $1.75; 1921 — S. H. x A., 
$1.10; 1922 — S. H., $1.25; 1923 — A., 
60 cents; 1924 — H., $1.40; 1925 — 


A., $3.00; 1926 — H., $3.60; 1927 — 
S. H. x A., $2.35; 1928 H., $7.00; 1929 

— A., $8.25; 1930 — A., $2.50; 1931 

— A., $1.27; 1932 — H., $1.25; 1933 — 
A., $1.30; 1934 —A., $3.00; 1935—A., 
$3.00; 1936 — A., $3.00; 1937 — S. H., 
$2.35; 1938 — A., $3.35; 1939 — H., 
$1.35; 1940 — H., $3.30; 1941 — A., 
$3.30; 1942-43-44-45 no show, (World 

War II); 1946 -S. H., $10.50; 

1947 — S. IT, $8.00; 1948 — A., 
$10.50; 1949 — H„ $11.50; 1950 — H., 
$12; 1951 — A., $6.75; 1952 — S. H., 
$4.55; 1953 — H., $20. 

The 1954 Grand Champion steer 
was an Angus, owned and exhibited 
by the 16-year-old 4-H Club girl, 
Janice Hullinger of Manly, Iowa. 
The steer weighed 1,110 pounds and 
sold for $15 a pound, liveweight, 
bringing a total price of $16,650. 

R. w. D. 


more bulky 

more spongy 
soaks up more water 

Aids The Digestion Of 
Ail Other Feeds 1 


There lies the tale of why Dried Beet Pulp aids in the digestion 
of all other feeds. Dried Beet Pulp swells in the rumen . . . 
allows digestive juices to circulate freely for faster and more 
complete digestion of the entire ration. 

And remember . . . rodents and insects leave Dried Beet Pulp 
strictly alone. It stores and keeps safely. 


FEEDERS —There’s a fresh, new crop of Dried Beet Pulp now 
ready for you. Ask your feed dealer to supply you with this 
palatable, digestible feedstuff that makes all other feeds more 
profitable. 

DEALERS —Dried Beet Pulp is a flexible feed . . . fits easily into 
any beef or dairy ration. Insist on Dried Beet Pulp in the feeds 
you now carry. Add it to your custom mixes. Formulas, infor¬ 
mation and quotations are yours free, if you’ll write, phone or 
wire direct today. 


I have about 100 acres of stone-free 
tillable land, 40 acres of permanent 
pasture and 30 acres of woods. I plan 
on raising beef cattle. Have seeded 
down some of the tillable land por- 
I tion with birdsfoot trefoil and brome 
grass. 

I am thinking in terms of a small 
but good purebred beef cattle herd, 
supplemented possibly by a few year¬ 
ling steers to feed hay during the 
Winter and then put on grass and 
fatten them during the next Spring 
and Summer. I should plan to sell 
the steers as grass-fattened cattle in 
the Fall. 

This plan raises several questions 
as follows: (1) Is it business-like, 
sensible and practical? (2) How 
many head can the property carry, 
say over a 10-year average? (3) If I 
sold the progeny of the cows as 
weaned calves, what would the sales 
price average per head over a 10-year 
period? (4) If I sold the progeny as 
yearlings what would they sell for 
on the average, and what would the 
operating cost be as compared with 
carrying calves to weaning age? 
(5) Where does one market calves, 
yearlings and grass-fattened steers 
on a small scale in the northeast sec¬ 
tion of the United States? d. c. l. 

The basic manner in which you 
have outlined your prospective beef 
cattle operations sounds comprehen¬ 


sive and practical. Relative to the 
questions you have asked: (1) Your 
plan sounds satisfactory. (2) You 
actually have only 70 acres of pro¬ 
ductive land for the use of your beef 
herd. Naturally the productiveness of 
the land would be a big influencing 
factor. However, on the average, it 
has been shown, five productive acres 
per beef cow and calf is a good 
general figure. (3) It would be im¬ 
possible to state the exact price your 
cattle would sell for the next 10 
years either as weaned calves or fat 
steers; in general, the future market 
outlook is strong. (4) I believe that 
your question about possible profit 
could best be answered on the basis 
of past returns. In this respect, more 
profit has been made for the past 
two years by selling milk through 
veal calves, carrying them up to 
weights of at least 150 pounds, than 
by either selling market milk, or fat¬ 
tening the calves later as steers. 
(5) Relative to marketing in the 
Northeast, there are various places 
depending upon the age and grade. 
It would be best to consult your local 
county agricultural agent regarding 
possible near-by markets for just a 
few head. In the case of selling a 
truckload of calves or fat steers a 
good market is the Producers’ Live¬ 
stock Cooperative, Buffalo Stock- 
yards, Buffalo, N. Y. 

THE RURAL, NEW-YORKER 


m 




Here’s proof that Dried Beet Pulp absorbs more water than 
other feed ingredients. We took equal amounts of the four feeds 
pictured, added equal amounts of water to each. Notice how 
the Dried Beet Pulp soaked up the water . . . how it swelled 
twice as much as the next best. 


You guiti 2ways 

with 

CAF-STAR 


O You actually SAVE MONEY 
© You grow HEALTHIER CALVES 

Feeding calves whole milk is wasteful when 
CAF-STAR does a better job and saves you mon¬ 
ey. For Free copy of new Calf Raising Program* 

SEE YOUR DEALER TODAY 

or write direct to Dept. R11 

DAWNWOOD FARMS AMENIA, N. Y. 

— am i as i in ii min i , i , * r "" 


COWPOX-RINGW0RM 


* Gall Sores, Skin Abrasions 


*BIu-Kote dries up cowpox 
lesions, controls _ secondary 
infection. Germicidal, Fungi- I 
cidal, protective wound dress¬ 
ing. Quick drying .. deep pen¬ 
etrating. 4 oz. bottle $1.00 at 
drug and farm stores or write: 

H. W. NAYLOR CO. • MORRIS, N. Y. I 




Dr. Naijtor's 

BLU-KOTE 


STEELand ALUMINUM BUILDINGS 

EASY TO ERECT 
Garages Look Like Wood 
SECTIONAL BUILDINGS 
FOR ALL PURPOSES 
Shipped Anywhere 

e 

WRITE FOR FOLDER 
JOHN COOPER CO. 301 2nd St.. Hackensack, N.J. 


A Beef Cattle Operation 


18 










































BETTE* LIVING 

45,000 dairymen in Now York and 
Western Vermont have found that 
the way to a better herd, and better 
living, is through artificial breeding 
to NY ABC sires. 

These dairymen know that only 
cows with top inheritance can make 
the most of their good management 
and feeding practices. 

If you live in New York or Western 
Vermont, and are not yet one of the 
45,000, see for yourself how NY ABC 
can bring higher herd income and 
better living to your farm. Consult 
your local NY ABC technician, or 
write: 


York 


Artificial Breeders' Cooperative, inQ, 

BOX 5?8-B ITHACA, NEW YORK 


2-WAY bargaining power 

IgliSi nHB 

UNDER Alt CONDITIONS! 


When times are good, 
farmers make good profits 
with Milking Shorthorns. 

When times are tough, you 
STILL make nice profits. 

That’s true because, even inwm«i i iRnwjiiBiiiwii'wciffii'iiWii 

hn»h ee vr?, n ?.«n 11 £ are v i" “^-supply and prices drop oil 
doth, jou still have both barrels loaded! You have 50% 
bargaining power than specialists. Under AVER- 
AGi, farming conditions. Milking Shorthorns will give 
more pront because they convert home-grown feeds and 
roughage into meat, milk, and butterfat most econom- 

riT T AT Sr e - t b^ e oJ nt fl?, s , t i ng ' indisputable facts about 
Dl-AL-PI RPOSE Milking Shorthorns. Either sub¬ 
s',,'' 3 .. 1 ’. 6 ,0 MlU ” ng Shorthorn Journal, 6 months, $1.00: 
82.00 per yr.; 3 yrs., $5.00; or write for FREE Details, 
AMERICAN MILKING SHORTHORN SOCIETY 
313-00 S. Glenstone RN-5, Springfield, Missouri 




REGISTERED GUERNSEYS 

One month to mature age, 200 
head to select from. Let us quote 
on your requirements. 

FORGE MILL FARM 

R. F. D. 4, NEWBURGH, NEW YORK 


WE OFFER SELECTED 

Hereford Steer and Hereford Feeder Calves 

For delivery after Jan 1st. These calves if purchased 
in lots of 20 or more will be* delivered to any point 
in New York State at no charge. 

ZENDA FARMS CLAYTON, N. Y. 

_ CLINTON MALDOON, Manager _ 

Reg. Polled Herelords 

BULLS READY FOR SERVICE 
OPEN AND BRED HEIFERS 
Modem Bloodlines. T. B. and Bangs Accredited Herd 
BATTLEGROUND FmRMS 
FREEHOLD, NEW JERSEY PHONE: 8-2224 

- HEREFORDS FOR SALE - 

Bulls, Serviceable Age. Bred Heifers and Cows. 

Also Some Young Heifers Not Bred. 
HAMILTON FA RM. GL ADSTONE. NEWJERSEY 

REAL MILKING SHORTHORNS « SINCE i 93 6 
Horned, Polled! M. Calves make dandy Oxen. Steers, 
4-H, or Sires. Foundation units, yearlings, beauties! 
O. HENDRICKSON. Greenlawn Farm, Cobleskill. N.Y. 


ABERDEEN ANGUS BULL 


REGISTERED, 3 YEARS OLD. HALTER BROKEN. 
RALLY FARM BREEDING. ACCREDITED HERD. 
GLENORTON _ FAIRFAX. VERMONT 

TWO YOUNG ABERDEEN-ANGUS BULLS AND A 

Few Heifers. Sunbeam and Bandolier Breedinq. 

C. C. TAYLOR ._LAWTONS. NEW YOR K 

REGISTERED HEREFORDS—Heifers and bred cows, 
some with calf at side. One 3 yr. cld san of M. W. 
Larry Domino 89. T.B. and Banos accredited herd. 
WINDROW FARM. MOORESTOWN, N. J. 

Phone: MOorestown 9-1124 

_ RABBITS 

RAISE RABBITS 

FULL TIME BUSINESS 
OR WELL PAID HOBBY 

Thousands of Raisers Needed To Meet 
The Tremendous Demand For MEAT 
-FUR—LABORATORY—BREEDING 

Know the Facts Illustrated Book 

Describing25 Breeds, Breeding and Care, 
Markets, Etc. 10 Cents. We Are Association 
- r Breeders who want t J see you start right! 

American R abbit Assn. 38. ARBA Bldg. Pittsburg, Pa. 

RAISE GIA NT CHI NC H IL LAST F or Food, F ur and 
Profit. Free literature. Hartman. New City, N. Y. 

_ DOGS _ 

I 13 «z>^k.o 3 ^s* ® Boxers 

PUPPIES THAT SATISFY. Best Bloodlines. Excellent 
Individuals. DR. J. M. THURBER, ITHACA. N. Y. 

Fed. Smooth Fox terrier Pups ntV'vl,!'.,"” 

COLLIE PUPPIES: Championship Breeding. Beauties. 
$30: $35. PLUMMER McCULLOl- 



ip Brf 
JUGH. MERCER. PA. 


Old Fashioned English Shepard Pups. Farm and Com¬ 
panion Dogs. Nellie Hillman, R. I, Vincentown, N. J. 

SHEPHERD PUPS — DANDY FOR STOCK! 
GREENLAWN FARM. COBLESKILL, NEW YORK 


PEDIGREE AIRDALE PUPPIES 


HOLLAND DAIRY FARMS, Clarksburg, W. Va. 

--REGISTERED ENGLISH SHEPHERD PUPS- 

From re”I heel driving stock, born low heel strikers 
Males $15; Females $12. $1.00 extra for reg. papers. 
JOSEPH WINKLER. HANKINS, NEW YORK 


-SHELTIE (Miniature Collie) PUPPIES- 


Champion pedigree. A.K.C. registered, wormed, in- 
noculated, ASTOLAT KENNELS. Kunkletown 3, Pa. 

_ CHINCHILLAS _ 

For Foundation Quality Giant Chinchillas Write 
HORNER’S RABBITRY. Monmouth Beach I, N. J. 

GOATS 


MAKE MONEY raising dairy goats—orortuce healthful 
milk. Monthly manazine $1 vearlv: sample 20c. 
DAIRY GOAT JOURNAL. COLUMBIA A2I. MO. 

January 1, 1955 


’ 4-H Baby Beef and Fat 
1 Lamb Safe at Hatfiefd, 
Pennsylvania 

“Gus,’’ 1100-lb grand champion 

Angus, owned by Delano P. Muse, Le¬ 
high County, Pa. topped the 14th an¬ 
nual Bucks-Montgomery-Lehigh Tri- 
County Sale, held last month at the 
Fairgrounds Bazaar in Hatfield. The 
grand champion was purchased by 
Lehigh Valley Shrine Club of Allen¬ 
town at $1.46 per pound. This price 
compared to 66 1 cents per pound for 
the 1953 grand champion. 

The grand champion pen of iambs 
weighing 175 pounds, shown by 
Wells Hunt, Jr. of Norristown, Mont¬ 
gomery County, sold for 60 cents a 
pound. The reserve champion pen of 
lambs weighing 295 pounds, exhib¬ 
ited by James Minnich, Pottstown, 
Montgomery County, sold for 36 
cents a pound. The reserve grand 
champion, a Hereford. “Royal”, 
weighing 970 pounds, the entry of 
Glen Klippenstein, Bryn Athyn, 
Montgomery County, sold for 86 
cents a pound. 

The Bucks County champion, an 
Angus, shown by Leonard Myers, 
Quakertown, weighing 1,030 pounds, 
sold for 43 cents. 

Total weight of the 71 baby beeves 
in the sale was 71,530 pounds, and 
total sales $28,433.83. Total weight 
of the lambs in the sale was 2.870 
pounds and total sales $836.75. 

The average price per pound of 
the baby beeves, with the grand 
champion and reserve grand cham¬ 
pion included, was 39.75 cents; with¬ 
out the tops, the average was 37.42 
cents a pound. Last year’s averages 
were 34.12 and 33.64, respectively, 
The average price per pound of the 
pen of lambs with the grand cham¬ 
pion and reserve grand champion 
included, was 29.16 cents, 

M. R. Depper 


American Farm Bureau 
Elects 

At the 36th annual meeting of the 
American Farm Bureau Federation, 
held in New York City December 
12-16, Charles B. Shuman was elec¬ 
ted president to succeed Allan B. 
Kline. Mr. Shuman operates a 200- 
acre grain and livestock farm in 
Sullivan, Illinois. George C. Dudley, 
Litchfield, Conn., was elected to the 
Bureau’s board of directors; Herbert 
Voorhees, Trenton, N. J., and Wilson 
Heaps, Street, Md., were reelected. 
Attendance at the meetings was 
about 8,000. Roger Fleming, secy- 
treas., announced American Farm 
Bureau membership at 1,609,461 
families. New York State had 77,157 
members in 1954. 


sHEEP 


REGISTERED OXFORDS 

2° YOUNG ewes BRED TO BEST RAMS; 10 
NICE EWE LAMBS: THREE TOP RAMS 
LAWRENCE L . DAVEY, MARCELLUS, N. Y. 


REGISTER ED 


SHROPSHIRE, SUFFOLK AND OXFORD 
YEARLING RAMS AND EWES FOR SALE 
Excellent Breeding, Reasonably Priced 

VAN VLEET _BROS.,_LODI, NEW YORK 

SHEEP: io Grade- Cheviot Ewes and One Registered 
Yearling Ram. K EIKOUT FAR MS^ NASSAU. N Y. 
Mammouth Suffolk Bred Ewe Sale, January II (955 
500 Outstanding Bred Ewes, 200 Registered Suffolksl 
50 Suffolks not registered, 150 Columbias not regis- 
10° Blackfaced Ewes. Write for Catalogue. 
BOB STONE CORDAGE CO., CHARITON, IOWA 


SWINE 


©YORKSHIRES® 

WRITE FOR PAMPHLET AND PRICES. 

W f, REASONER&SON R t D 4 Watertown. N.Y 


HEREFORD HOGS 


TOP BREEDING STOCK ALWAYS A V AILABLI 
LARGEST HERD IN EAST 
„ ROYAL OAK FARM 

2902 DUNLEER RD„ _ BALTIMORE 22. MD 

Registered Berkshlres 

FALL BOARS AND GILTS 
PROMPT SHIPMENT 

SIR WILLIAM FARM, HILLSDALE, NEW YORi 


WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA BERKSHIRE SALI 
46 — HEAD BRED GILTS — 46 
23 —©YOUNG BOARS AND FALL GILTS — 2 
SATURDAY FEBRUARY 12. I :00 P M 
MERCER AND GROVE CITY ROAD 

__ For Further Information Write — 

CHA RLES_WOODS._Secretray, MERCER, PA 

Registered Yorkshires - 

YOUNG SERVICE BOAR 
BRED AND OPEN GILTS 
SIR WILLIAM FARM,_HILLSDALE, NEW YORI 


MAPLEHURST DUROCS: April Pigs, Either Se 
RUSSELL F. PATTINGTON, SC I PI O CENTER. N.’ 


PIG CIRCULAR FREE. REG. HAMPSHIRE SWINI 

THAC H I IIT7 MIDDLETOWN. MARVLAN 

Spotted Poland China Pigs, Service Boars, Bred Gilt 
Vaccinated Pure Breds. Shipped with doctor’s heall 
certificate. C. W. HILLMAN, VINCENTOWN, N. . 


REGISTERED HEREFORDS 


A , , 7> \ X-1.4- ^ Iicncrunuo - 

August and September Farrowed Boars and Gilt 
CARROLL F. HUNT, STEWARTSTOWN, PJ 


Articles of Interest 

Sn Coming issues 

e Hybrid Corn—Our Greatest 
Field Crop 
By D. F. Jones 

• In the Concord Grape Belt 
By Robert Dyment 
a From Brush to Good Crops 
By Wm. S. Stempfle 
9 Bees Are Valuable Pollina¬ 
tors 

By Roger A. Morse 
9 Crossbred and Purebred Hogs 
By Russell W. Duck 

9 Steer Gains With Hormones 
By John Quinn 

9 High Feed Value in Rice 
Germ 
A Report 

9 Blood Spots in Eggs 
By C. S. Platt 
9 Chickens as a Sideline 
By Roscoe Brumbaugh 


November Milk Prices 

The prices paid for 3.5 per cent 
milk by co-operatives and dealers re¬ 
porting for the month of November 
1954 are as follows: 

Per 100 Lbs. Per Qt. 

Lehigh Valley Co-op... .$5.56 $.118 


Erie County Co-op. 5.56 .118 

Monroe Co. Producers.. 5.10 .108 
Hillsdale Prod Co-op.... 5.00 .1063 

Suiiivan Co. Co-op. 4.74 .10 

Mt. Joy Farmers’ Co-op. 4.73 .10 

Crowiey’s Milk Co. 4.695 .0999 

Bovina Center Co-op.... 4.655 .099 

Delaware Co. Co-op_ 4.655 .099 

Arkport Dairies . 4.63 .0985 

Chateaugay Co-op. 4.63 .0985 

Conesus Milk Co-op. 4.63 .0985 

Fly Creek Valley Co-op. 4.63 .0985 

Grandview Dairy . 4.63 .0985 

Rock Royal Co-op. 4.63 .0985 

Rose Lake Dairies. 4.63 .0985 

Sheffield Farms . 4.62 .0983 

Dairymen’s League _ 4.52 .096 

Fat, freight, bonuses and other differ¬ 


entials and charges vary, and the actual 
return is more to some and less to others, 
especially in the case of dealers and co¬ 
operatives owning more than one plant. 
The Market Administrators’ prices are: 
New York $4.63; Buffalo $5.41; Rochester 
$5.37. 

Cost of production in New York State for 
November, 1954, was $5.42 per cwt. of 3.5 
per cent milk. This is in accordance with 
an analysis made by Dr. L. C. Cunningham. 
N. Y. State College of Agriculture, Cornell 
University. 


High Holstein Records 

Two registered Holsteins, one in 
New Hampshire and the other from 
the State of Washington, have re- ! 
cently completed their third produc- ! 
tion records of over 1,000 pounds of ; 
butterfat in one year on official test, ■ 
a feat seldom attained. U. N. H. Mike 
Marian, owned by the University of 
New Hampshire, produced her three 
records in succession, the first, 1,019.7 
pounds of butterfat, at five years two 
months; the second, 1,007.6 pounds, 
at six years four months; and the 
last, 1,056.1 pounds, at seven years 
five months. She was milked twice 
daily for all three tests. 

From the west coast, Chinook Im¬ 
perial Catherine, owned by State 
College of Washington, has made 
1,048.7 pounds of butterfat at five 
years eight months, 1,160.8 pounds 
at six years nine months and 1,040.6 
pounds at eight years two months. 


Book Note 

The 1955 Ford Almanac — By 
John Strohm. Agricultural informa¬ 
tion for the man of the soil, from 
suburban gardener to big-time farm¬ 
er, is packed in the 1955 Ford 
Almanac. This 208-page book, spon¬ 
sored by the Ford Motor Co., is rich¬ 
ly illustrated and filled with the 
latest scientific information on soils, 
livestock, fertilizers, crops, farm ma¬ 
chines and a wealth of “how-to-do-it” 
features. 

For sale by The Rural New 
Yorker, 333 West 30th St., New York 
1, N. Y. Price $1.00. (New York City 
residents add three cents sales tax). 

D. 



the silo that always makes 
news. A durable, translucent plastic roof 
cap for Marietta silos permits filtered 
sunlight to enter the silo and provides 
a well lighted storage and work area. 
It s a great new Marietta exclusive that 
proves again Marietta is a different silo 
. . . Marietta is the best silo. 

Look at all the facts, features and 
figures of a 1955 Marietta and see for 
yourself why most farmers want to own 
the silo that s “first class for grass". , 
and always returns first-class profits. 


/ , MARIETTA concrete silos . . . \ 

farmer’s profit partner for 38 years J 

SEND THIS COUPON 
TODAY and see why 
Marietta is the finest 
m the field. 


CONCRETE CORPORATION 

Marietta, Ohio 

__ _ -•?«. 



j BRANCH 1 Rocc Rd - af Pulaski Hwy., Baltimore 21, Md, * 
‘OFFICES I Box 5,92 < Charlotte 6, N. C., Hollywood, Fid. 

, Nashville, Tenn., Jamestown, N. Y. 

808 BARKER: 


Please send me your silo catalog and full details 
on the easy ABC financing plan. 



Name. 


Address- 
City_ 


^ State_ 


SAFE • FAST © SURE 
TREATMENT . . 


For sore, scab, injured, obstructed 
teats. Flex-O Medicated Teat Dilators 
—by their antiseptic, gentle dilating 
action—provide soothing relief, resist 
infection and promote clean, rapid 
healing. Keep teat canal OPEN in its 
normal shape until healed. Also for 
hard milkers. 


FIT ALL SIZE TEATS 


pTWO SIZE DILATORS 

Regular — tor avenge leal) 

Large — for larger teals 

«SBHB»SSSEiB>CI) 

48 Dilators.... $1.00 
24 Dilators.65 



At your dealer, or postpaid. 

DAIRY REMEDIES CO 

MONTCLAIR 3, NEW JERSEY 


medicated 

TEAT DILATORY 


The ONLY cloth-covered 


dilators that contain NO WIRES 




WITH YOUR TRACTOR 


Why wait for a power 
failure. Protect your farm 
and family NOW with this 
low cost stand-by gen¬ 
erator. Operates from 
tractor or gas engine, 
complete with approved 
safety switch. 


LOWESTINCOST 20YEARWARRANTY 



19 





































































































































































■HARRIS SUDS 


HUSKIER PLANTS 


MORE FLOWERS LONGER STEMS 


NEW MULTIFLORA 
SWEET PEAS 


That's what you get when you plant the new Multiflora Sweet Peas. 
If you have had disappointing results with sweet peas in recent years, 
we urge you to try them. 

5 to 6 large, waved, fragrant florets are produced on long stiff stems. 
The plants are vigorous and disease resistant and produce blooms over 
a. long period. More fully described in our new catalog. 

SEND FOR OUR FREE CATALOG TODAY. 

If you grow for market , ask for our Market Gard¬ 
eners’ and Florists’ Catalog. 

JOSEPH HARRIS CO., Inc. 

9 Moreton Farm, Rochester 11, N. Y. 

— 1955 CATALOG itmv Madij — 


EXTRA DIVIDEND 

us EXTRA 14of \% 

For Period Ending Dee. 31, ’54 


deposits made 
0n or Before Jan. 14 
^Dividends From Jan. 1 


BONUS DIVIDEND 
DAYS EVERY MONTH 

Next Dividend Payable March 31 

Save More, Make More, ^ 

Start saving today! Open your account 
by mailing coupon below with $1 or more. 

WE PAY POSTAGE BOTH WAYS 

Serving the Thrifty Since 1850 

ASSETS OVER $69,000,000.00 

MAIN OFFICE 
100 State St. 
bany 1, N.Y. 

Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 


Enclosed is $- 

o savings account 


_Please open 

for me end mail 
passbook to address below. 

□ Send Banking by Mail Information 


DIRECT TO YOU... EASY TERMS 

Genuine Rockdale Mon¬ 
uments and Markers 

Full Price $14.95 and 

Satisfaction or MON 
BACK. We pay freight. 

Compare our low prices. 

WRiTE FOR FREE CATALOG 
ROCKPiJi e MONUMENT CO. 

- 9!0 JOLIET, ILL 


kill ’em 
with 


WISCONSIN 

ALUMNI 

RESEARCH 

FOUNDATION 


warfarin 


STRAWBERRIES. 


Allen’s 1965 Berry Book tells best 
varieties for home and market, 
and how to grow them. Free copy- 
Write today. 

W. F. ALIEN COMPANY 
72 Evergreen Ave., Salisbury, Maryland 


STRAWBERRY PLAINTS 

BLUEBERRY, RASPBERRY and ASPARAGUS 
IN ALL POPULAR VARIETIES. 

A Free Catalogue Full of Facts. No Fakes. 

H. D. RICHARDSON & COMPANY 
WILLARDS, BOX 8, MARYLAND 


Nome. 


Address- 


Town. 


. Slate. 


Kidney Slow-Down 
May Bring 
Restless Nights 

When kidney function slows down, many folks 
complain of nagging backache, headaches, dizzi¬ 
ness and loss of pep and energy. Don’t suffer 
restless nights with these discomforts if reduced 
kidney function is getting you down—due to such 
common causes as- stress and strain, over-exer¬ 
tion or exposure to cold. Minor bladder irritations 
due to cold or wrong diet may cause getting up 
nights or frequent passages. 

Don’t neglect your kidneys if these conditk ns 
bother you. Try Doan’s Pills—a mild diuretic. Used 
successfully by millions for over 50 years. It’s amaz¬ 
ing how many times Doan’s give happy relief from 
these discomforts—help the 15 miles of kidney tubes 
and filters flush out waste. Get Doan’s Pills today ! 


CHAIR CAME and BASKET MATERIAL 

Liberal Discount to Home Bureau Groups, Churches, 
Schools. Genuine Chair Cane, Round Basketry Reed, 
Bases in stock. Seat Weaving Instructions, Catalogue, 
Samples 35 cents. Basketry Instruction Book 60 cents. 
FOGARTY, 205 RIVER ST.. TROY, N. Y. 

FANCY FLORIDA ORANGES: Vi box $5.20; box 
$8.75: bu. basket $6.00. TANGERINES: </ 2 box $5.60; 
box $9.60. GRAPEFRUIT: Vi box $4.80; box $8.20; 
bu. basket $5.50. GRAPEFRUIT PINK: Vi box $5.25; 
box $8.90‘ bu. basket $6.15; TEMPLE ORANGES: 
Vi box $6.00; box $10.00. EXPRESS PAID. 
JAMES AKER, CLERMONT, FLORIDA 


- FANFOLD PHOTOS -— 

Now by Mail Roll Developed, 8 Brilliant En¬ 
largements in Album Form All for 35c Coin. 
MA1L-P1X, BOX 7100. ELKINS PARK, PA. 


- PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH COOK BOOK - 

Containing 260 Plain Recipes. $1.00 Postpaid. 
BAILEY SHIELDS, P. 0. Box 168, Huntingdon, Pa. 


YOUR LEATHER JACKET RENOVATED EXPERT- 
LY. FREE CIRCULAR. BERLEW MFG. CO., 
DEPT. 18. FREEPORT NEW YORK 


-WANTED: AMERICAN GOLD COINS- 


GIVE DETAIL AND PRICE IN REPLY. 

A. E TU8CONE, 298 Broadway, PROVIDENCE, R. I 


WOMEN'S GROUPS: Earn 
$250 or $500 Cash, 
plus 24 wood 
card tables 

Your members simply 
sell adv. space on the 
table tops to local mer¬ 
chants who gladly cooperate. 3 different proven plans to pick 
from. Please note No risk, nothing to pay, not even freight 
charges. Write for full details to 

F. W. MATHERS, DEPT. NY, MT. EPHRAIM, N. J. 


Change of Address: 

The Post Office Department no longer 
forwards magazines or newspapers which 
are incorrectly addressed. We request 
that you report any change of address 
directly to us at least three weeks in 
advance. In any reauest for change of 
address, or in any commumcatioi/ regard¬ 
ing your subscription, kindly clip the 
name-ancl-address label from your latest 
issue of THE RURAL NEW-YORKER: 
the key numbers on this stamp enable 
us to locate your subscription auickly 
and to give you better service. 

THE RURAL NEW-YORKER 
333 W. 30th St., N. Y„ 1, N. Y. 


HOW I RELIEVE MY 


IS 


ATTACKS IN 

Will Share Secret 


Friends, if you’ve been up ail night with an 
asthama attack that made you choke, wheeze 
and gasp for breath, you’ll want to hear how 
I won my fight against asthma suffering. Yes, 
let me tell you how even little things, like 
changes in the weather drove me into violent 
fits of asthmatic coughing. Find how my 

life was almost ruined by the torture of 

asthama attacks that left me too weak to 
go out. . .too afraid to remain home alone. 
Then let me tell you in plain, simple every 
day language how I quickly, easily and safe¬ 

ly found glorious relief from the racking mis- 
ery of asthma. Learn how I got F AST 

HELP FOR ASTHMA. Yes, friends, by writ¬ 
ing today, you receive absolutely free and witn- 
out obligation, a letter from me. . .telling how 


I won my fight against asthma suffering. How I 
found relief so great. I now devote my time 
sharing my secret with people who suffer as 1 
once suffered. To hear from me just send your 
name and address to 

CLARA BAILEY, APT. 10-D 
8 W. 45th St., New York 36, N. Y. 

You’ll receive my heart warming, inspirational, 
letter telling my secret. . .the secret that may 
bring relief to you. Learn WHAT TO DO 
WHEN ASTHMA STRIKES! You are buying 
nothing. . .nothing will be sent C-.O.D. My 
information is FREE. 


The Eternal Round 


New England homes were built with care; foundations laid were strong 
and fast 

With granite quarried from the land — New England homes were built 
to last. 

Around each square and solid house, in lofty grace the elm trees grew 
With roots that burrowed deep in earth — New England folk put roots 
down too. 

And when the plow threw up the stones from stubborn fields, in Spring 
and Fall, 

These hardy farmers placed each one to make themselves a boLindary wall. 
Thus, having lived, they’d lie at last, deep-bedded in familiar loam. 

But, always, in some well loved place within a heart’s view of the home. 
Maine — Beulah Henderson Smith 


New Year; New Frocks; New Multi’s 


314 


2699 


2714 


EASY 

TO-MAKE 


314 _ Sails and Flying Fishes in Marine Colors: Two brightly colored 
boats 5 by 7-in., two flying fish 4 by 6 inches in marine blue and deep sea 
green to transfer directly in color onto cushions, curtains, runners. Hand¬ 
some in a man’s or hoy’s room too. 20 cents. 

2212 — Smart, Casual Double-breasted Jumper with sweetheart neck¬ 
line, flattering flared skirt makes an attractive ensemble teamed with col¬ 
lared blouse. Sizes 10 to 20. Size 16: Jumper, 3 x /4 yds. 39-in. Blouse, 214 yds. 
35-in. Both for 25 cents. 

2714 — Simple, Comfortable Collared Housedress: Sew-easy to maki 
with side panels, tie sash, and handy patch pockets. A real household stand¬ 
by! Sizes 12 to 44. Size 18: 4% yds. 35-in. 3 yds. edging. 25 cents. 

2699 — Soft Slimming Lines For Up to Size 46. Distinctive large-si/e 
dress v/ith V-neckline, shoulder tucks, easy skirt with its own three-quarter 
sleeved bolero. Sizes 12 to 46. Size 18: 4% yds. 39-in. 25 cents. 

105 — Twenty Cute Little Poodles — Four Colors — to iron directly 
onto materials: a multicolor in pink, light blue, grey and black; sizes 21a 
to 5 inches. Use on children’s clothes, on aprons, linens, blouses. Very 


gay. 20 cents. 


Carol Curtis Needlework Guide 25 cents. 

Fall-Winter Fashion Book 25 cents. 

Please Print Y r our Name, Full Address and Style Numbers; do rot 
forget to include sizes! Send orders to The Rural New Yorker, 333 Wes!: 
30th St, New York 1, N. Y. (Tax only for N. Y. City residents: send lc 
tax on 20c orders; 2c tax on 4/V to 50c orders; 3c tax on 80c to $1.00 o-de-rt 


20 


HIE RURAL NEW YORK’ 


















































































































































Cranberry-Mince for Twelfth Night 



Cranberry-Mince Pie is a matter for “drooling”! The holly-leaf trim as a 
Lotdei is entirely optional but makes a seasonable Jaunary 6th dessert for 

Twelfth Night. 


"Coimtry Flavor Cook¬ 
book"—! 90 Reci pes 

“Father wasn’t fussy about foods; 
he was just particular.” 

So states a New Hampshire farm 
boy, now grown and reminiscing. 
Today this son could say the same 
about himself. In fact, he does so 
in a score of ways in a book of reci¬ 
pes gathered over years of good eat¬ 
ing and good judgment. The author 
is Haydn S. Pearson. 

“Country Flavor Cookbook,” the 
name of this collection of 190 reci¬ 
pes, holds not only the savor of 
rural cooking but the savor of rural 
living. To use a homely phrase, Mr. 
Pearson’s heart is not in his 
stomach; his heart is in the farm 
homestead — and on every page of 
his new book. Thus, along with each 
recipe (one to a page), is a personal 
short story about it. The reading is 
as delightful, and as satisfying, as 
the food he knows and enjoys so 
well. 

In such groups as Breads, Cakes, 


Cookies, Casseroles, Muffins, Pies, 
Puddings, Rag Bag, etc., the recipes 
are bound together in looseleaf style 
on excellent paper with print easy 
on the eye. In addition, there are 
scattered throughout the book 
special pages of boyhood memories 
that have nothing to do with cook¬ 
ing, but have everything to do with 
life in the country: Sofa in the 
Kitchen, Kindling for Winter, Parlor 
Organ, Horse Blankets, The Lamp¬ 
lighter, Dunking Artistically, also his 
own observations on the seasons of 
the year. Some of these are humor¬ 
ous, others a philosophy; all are 
little homilies of a warm and mov¬ 
ing nature. 

If you would like to try Mother 
Pearson’s Indian Pudding, Grand¬ 
ma’s Brown Sugar Apple Crumble, 
Blanche’s Scrumptious Sour-Cream 
Pie, Poor Man’s Fruit Cake, real 
Strawberry Shortcake Biscuit or any 
of the other 185 tasty dishes, the 
book can be purchased direct from 
Haydn S. Pearson, Greenfield, N. H., 
price $3.50. p. s . 


Any month of Winter is fine for 
Cranberry-Mince Pie. The sample 
shown in the picture, with its holly- 
leaf border, is just in season for a 
Twelfth Night dinner, the sixth of 
January. It’s a pretty pie, and pretty 
grand to eat. Here is the recipe. 
(The holly-leaf trim is not necessary, 
but a nice decoration for a special 
occasion). 

Cranberry-Mince Pie 

Use 3 tablespoons quick-cooking 
tapioca; 1 cup sugar; % teaspoon 
salt; 2 cups fresh cranberries; % cup 
water; IV 2 cups moist mincemeat. 

Make pastry for a two-crust 9-inch 
pie, shaping, with extra pastry, 15 
to 20 pastry holly leaves for edging. 
Keep out a few whole uncooked cran- 
berires. 

Combine tapioca, sugar, salt, 2 cups 
cranberries, water and mincemeat in 
saucepan. Cook and stir over medi¬ 
um heat until mixture comes to a 
boil. Cool, stirring occasionally. 

Roll half the pastry V 8 inch thick. 
Line a 9-inch pie pan and trim pas¬ 
try at edge of rim. Roll remaining 
pastry Vs inch thick and cut several 
2-inch slits or a fancy design near 
center. Fill pie shell with fruit mix¬ 
ture. Moisten edge of bottom crust. 

To adjust top crust, fold pastry in 
half or roll loosely on rolling pin; 
center on filling. Open slits with a 
knife. (Well-opened slits are im¬ 
portant to permit escape of steam 
during baking.) Trim top crust, let¬ 
ting it extend i/ 2 inch over rim. To 
seal, press top and bottom crusts to¬ 
gether on rim. Then fold edge of top 
crust under bottom crust. Press 
edges together on rim, using tines 
of fork. 

Bake in hot oven (425 degrees F.) ! 
45 minutes, or until syrup boils with 
heavy bubbles that do not burst. 
Bake the pastry holly leaves sepa- | 
rately; recipe is below. 

Before serving, arrange baked 
pastry holly leaves around edge of 
pie, overlapping leaves slightly to 
form a holly wreath. In the center 
of the pie, arrange whole cranberries 
and two or three pastry leaves in a 
cluster to resemble a sprig of holly. 

Pastry Holly Leaves 

Use pastry recipe for a one-crust 
Pie. Roll pastry V 2 inch thick and cut 
holly leaves about 1 to IV 2 inches 
long. (Make pattern from paper, 
then cut out pastry leaves with a 
sharp knife.) Brush lightly with 
cream. Bake on a cooky sheet in a 
hot oven (425 degrees F.) 8 to 10 
minutes, or until very lightly 
browned. 

•January 1, 1955 


I 






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HOW TO MAKE MORE MONEY FROM 
YOUR FARM 

W ★ Have you heard of this plan farmers 
are using to make more profits with 
layers, yet also get 2 months’ va¬ 
cation every year ? 

★ ★The six steps farmers say almost 

guarantee success on the one man 
chicken farm? (Farmers are earning 
$9,000 a year from chickens alone.) 

★ ★ How do farmers on bargain-priced. 

formerly abandoned farms manage in 
2 years' time to support a family on 
comfortable 1955 standards of living? 

★ ★ Can the practical farmer make money 

from fads like earthworm culture, or¬ 
ganic farming, trace elements, etc. ? 
Some time you've asked yourself: If I 
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the resulting thousands of opportunities for bette 
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FIND OPPORTUNITY TODAY, you learn a! 
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the small businesses which State Governments will 
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“I always spend too much 
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In his new book. Where to Vacation on a Shoe¬ 
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Whatever your plans might btv—to tour the magnifi¬ 
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HOW TO TRAVEL 

— AND GET PAID FOR IT 

There s a job waiting for you somewhere: on a 
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The full story of what job you can fill is in 
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Takes You Traveling. Whether you're male or female 
young or old, whether you want a life-time of paid 
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witii names and addresses and full details about the 
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countries to head for 

You learn about jobs in travel agencies (and as 
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. travel possib.hties for tiiose who know stenography. 

"Can a man or woman still work his or her wav 
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to Get a Job That Takes You Traveling on a money- 
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I Mail to Harian Publications, ■ 

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j I have enclosed $. (cash, check or money g 

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K B 

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21 




































SURE 

STEP 


> I 


Mastitis in the Dairy Herd 


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(Continued from Page 3 

Several thousand herds have been 
worked with. In many of these herds, 
bovine mastitis has been reduced to 
the point where it is no longer a se¬ 
rious economic loss to the dairy 
farmer. This not only saves cows, but 
also helps to improve milk quality 
and results in a more efficient, eco¬ 
nomical operation of the dairy farm. 

Diagnosis of Mastitis 

Through the cooperation of dairy¬ 
men’s veterinarians and consulta¬ 
tions and assistance of field veterin¬ 
arians, these field laboratories pro¬ 
vide diagnostic service and guidance 
toward the control of bovine mastitis. 
Diagnosis consists of a physical ex¬ 
amination of the cow’s udder and her 
secretions, and collection of milk 
samples which are analyzed at the 
laboratory for different types of bac¬ 
teria that are associated with mas 
titis and can, under certain condi¬ 
tions, cause the disease. 

Physical examination of the udder 
and its secretions is made in much 
the same manner as the annual phy¬ 
sical examination oi dairy cows re¬ 
quired for production of milk sold 
within New York and metropolitan 
New Jersey milk sheds. A veterinary 
examination of the udder alone is, in¬ 
cidentally, a sufficiently complete di¬ 
agnosis of mastitis to enabie the es¬ 
tablishment of an effective control. 

Environmental Controls 


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We have new and better methods 
of attacking the problem, but ail of 
our theories are founded on good 
sanitation, good dairy herd manage¬ 
ment, careful diagnosis, and judi¬ 
cious treatment. 

Following is a series of environ¬ 
mental factors listed in relation to 
their importance in the control of 
bovine mastitis: Proper use of the 
milking machine. All-round good 
herd management is a must if we 
succeed in the control of bovine mas¬ 
titis, but “use of the milking ma¬ 
chine’ - stands at the head of the list. 

It means a machine in good mech¬ 
anical. condition, equipped with clean 
inflations, in good repair and prop¬ 
erly used. Without ail three of these, 
the control of mastitis cannot De sat¬ 
isfactory. Frequently a dairyman who 
is utilizing good diagnostic and treat¬ 
ment practices, and. maintains other 
good management practices, fails in 
his efforts to control mastitis simpiv 
because he does not adhere strictly 
to good milking practices. 

It is also imperative that the entire 
system is kept in good mechanical 
condition and that the vacuum is cor¬ 
rect for the machine used. 

Provide two sets of inflations and 
use each on alternate weeks. No 
matter how thoroughly you clean the 
rubber parts after each use, they 
will gradually absorb a certain 
amount of milk fat. This fat reduces 
the elasticity of the inflations, cuts 
their efficiency and results in im¬ 
proper milking. Fatty deposits con¬ 
tain many types of bacteria, some oi 
which may cause mastitis. This can 
be removed by boiling the rubber 
parts once a week in a solution of 
two tablespoons of lye in a gallon of 
water. Put the parts in an agate-ware 
container, cover with the lye solu¬ 
tion and boil them for 15 minutes. 
Let them stand until cool, then dis¬ 
card the solution. Wash and rinse 
the parts and store them in a cool, 
dry, dark place for a week. Two sets 
of inflations used every other week 
and maintained in this manner last 
longer and milk better. 

Maintain a clean vacuum system. 
Faulty vacuum systems are respon¬ 
sible for many outbreaks of mastitis. 
It is imperative that the degree of 
vacuum be correct for the milking 
machine, used. Excessive or insuffi¬ 
cient vacuum causes slow milking 
and irritation to the teats and udder. 


Vacuum lines clogged with foreign 
substances are a frequent cause of 
improper vacuum levels and thus a 
predisposing factor for mastitis. A 
vacuum line should be cleaned rout¬ 
inely at least twice a year, and more 
often if necessary. Occasionally a 
line is so badly plugged that the only 
remedy is to take it down and clean 
it, or better still, to replace it with 
new pipe of at least one-inch dia¬ 
meter. For barns milking more than 
12 cows, one-inch galvanized pipe 
should be used for vacuum lines. 

Veterinary service. Accurate diag¬ 
nosis and properly selected treat¬ 
ments are next in importance. 
Treatment by or under the supervi¬ 
sion of a veterinarian gives best re¬ 
sults. No matter how efficient diag¬ 
nosis or treatment is, these are fre¬ 
quently of little permanent value be¬ 
cause the dairyman fails to protect 
the cow from reinfection. 

Dipping of teats in an antiseptic 
solution after milking. At the end 
of the milking operation the end of 
the teat is slightly dilated and also 
a small droplet of milk remains on 
the teat end. Removal of this resid¬ 
ual milk by dipping the teat ends in 
a 200 to 250 parts per million chlorine 
solution, a 2 per cent oil solution 
(soluble pine oil)—1 tablespoonful in 
1 quart lufce-warm water—nr ordin¬ 
ary rubbing alcohol, washes the milk 
from the end of the teat, acts as a 
disinfectant, and removes an attrac¬ 
tion for flies during the summer 
months. 

Stall bed of adequate size and 
clean. Teat injuries of any kind make 
the danger of mastitis infection more 
imminent. 

Provide clean yards, lanes, and 
pastures. Paved or properly graded 
yards, lanes, and pastures—tree 
from mud and trash—aid in keeping 
teats and udders clean and reduce in¬ 
jury and exposure to bacteria-iaden 
filth. 


Mastitis-free replacements. Prop¬ 
erly raised first-calf heifers are the 
safest replacements. Regard all 
purchased replacements as poten¬ 
tially dangerous. This is particularly 
true of cows that have milked one or 
more lactation periods. Examine re¬ 
placements very carefuly for mastitis 
and other diseases before purchasing. 
Bovine mastitis is being controlled 
in many dairy herds in New York 
State to the point where it is no 
longer a serious economic problem. 
In these herds veterinary and labor¬ 
atory diagnosis accompanied with 
correctly selected treatments by or 
under the supervision of the dairy¬ 
man’s veterinarian, are oasic factors 
of success. But the dairyman who 
succeeds in the control of mastitis 
knows that he and he alone 
must insure the success of mastitis 
control in his herd through good 
management and sanitation. 



& UAC 

“Certainly I promised a sound farm 
policy, and an exhaustive investiga¬ 
tion is now being made. I can promise 
a definite decision being reached be¬ 
fore next election.” 

TfiF RTTRAT, NEW-YOItKEK 


22 























































































































































































At the Mid - Atlantic Farm Show 






HERE were 178 head of 
dairy cattle exhibited at 
the second annual Mid-At¬ 
lantic Farm Show pre¬ 
sented at Atlantic City, N. 
J., December 4-8. Part of 
the concrete flooring on 
the main level of Convention Hall 
was removed for the installation of 
an aluminum staircase down to the 
basement where the cattle were tied. 
Goats brought in by the Garden State 
Goat Association were exhibited in 
the basement, too, and the 118 head 


Goldie Supreme Posch was senior 
and grand champion Holstein female 
at the Mid-Atlantic Farm Show. She 
is owned by Forsgate Farms, James- 
burg, N. J. 

of Hereford and Angus steers en¬ 
tered in the 4-H Beef Show were also 
there. With display booths set up by 
livestock associations and a pipeline 
milker with bulk cooling tank instal¬ 
led by one of the large dairy equip¬ 
ment manufacturers, the floor gave 
every appearance of a busy barn on 
a livestock farm. One difference, 
though, was the availability of car¬ 
toned milk from an automatic dis¬ 
pensing machine. Some of the 25,000 
visitors to the five-day show stopped 
to drink a carton of milk for a dime. 

Young people’s activity was stres¬ 
sed. again this year. A chorus of 400 
4-H voices was assembled on the 
stage of the large auditorium to 
open the events on Saturday, and 
later a 16-year-old Riverhead, L. I., 
girl. Shirley Downs, was chosen to 
represent Mid-Atlantic agriculture in 
radio and television appearances. 
Fifteen 4-H girls were given cooking 
prizes by a gas company—Betty Fis¬ 
cher of Lincoln Park won the dessert 


Sherwood’s 1,032-pound Hereford, 
Chino, for the premier honors. Sher¬ 
wood’s steer was champion Hereford; 
the reserve Hereford champion was 
shown by Carol Drummond. Other 
winners in the various light, medium 
and heavy steer classes were Robert 
Sherwood of Magnolia and Joseph 
Germanio of Belleplain. Phyllis Potts 
of Monmouth was chosen best show¬ 
man; Ruth Louise Propst, Middlesex 
County, had the prize records and 
story. Jean Stellatella’s was the best 
first-year 4-H project. The best 
county 4-H beef herd was from Mon¬ 
mouth County. Elmer Olsen had the 
highest scoring 4-H project for the 
beef year; his champion steer 
brought $1.30 a liveweight pound in 
the 4-H beef sale. 

In the open classes for dairy cattle 
•—there were no 4-H classes—Haw¬ 
thorn King Regal, owned by Vincent 
E. Sutliff, Gaithersburg, Md., was 
senior and grand champion Holstein 
bull. Forsgate Farms’ Goldie Su¬ 
preme Posch was grand champion 
Holstein female. In the Jersey 
classes, Beau Sir Chance Volunteer, 
shown by John Stiles & Sons, Mt. 
Airy, Md., was grand champion bull; 
J. Wilfred Runkle’s Malaga’s Noble 
Grace, from Monrovia, Md., was 
champion Ayrshire male ana Her¬ 
cules Bonnie, owned by William 
Attix, Cheswold, Del., was champion 
Ayrshire cow. The Guernsey bull of 
Lloyd Westcott, Clinton, N. J., was 


Chino ivas champion Hereford steer 
of the 4-H show. Fed, fit and shown 
by Charles Sherwood, Magnolia, 
Camden County, N. J., he weighed 
out at 1,032 pounds. 


Hercules Bonnie was senior and 
grand champion Ayrshire female. 
Shown by William Attix of Ches¬ 
wold, Del., she was also best 
uddered Ayrshire. 

award with a Dutch apple cake; and 
five boys—Clarence Stang, Dorrance 
Hall, Robert Platts, James Snover 
and Robert Hoffman—received 
awards from the Purebred Dairy 
Cattle Association. The Future 
Farmers of American had apple and 
egg grading contests again; The Glass- 
boro N. J., chapter won the apple 
contest and Princeton the eggs. 
Francis Abrams of Mt. Holly was the 
best individual egg grader. FFA boys 
received pullet rearing awards from 
the N. J. Poultry Association; Wil¬ 
liam Twaddell, Medford, and Frank 
Gromlich, Lafayette, were awarded 
State Grange scholarships. Robert 
Linaberry of Columbia, N. J., was an¬ 
nounced the winner of the FFA effi¬ 
cient dairy production contest. 

In the 4-H beef show, Big Eric, the 
1242-lb. Angus steer of Elmer Ol¬ 
sen, Monmouth, N. J.. was selected 
by Judge John Christian, University 
of Connecticut, as grand champion. 
Walter Zimmerer’s 1080-lb. Angus, 
Malldo II, was reserve champion. 
Both these steers beat out Charles 


grand champion; and Red Cross 
Noble Ruth, owned by Francis Ginn, 
Dickerson, Md., was champion Guern¬ 
sey cow. The two-year old Brown 
Swiss bull from Active Acres Farm, 
Princeton, N. J., was grand champion. 
In the Brown Swiss female classes, 
Owanamassie Meridian’s Clover, 
owned by Jack Smith of Far Hills, 
was grand champion. George Trim- 
berger of Cornell University and C. 
Hilton Boynton of the University of 
New Hampshire placed the dairy 
cattle classes. 

In poultry and egg competition, the 
Tri-County Auction Market Associa¬ 
tion, Hightstown, won the case-lot 
prizes for large white, large brown 
and medium brown eggs; Flemington 
(Continued on Page 31) 


About 20 different varieties of 
rabbits were shoivn by Wesley Kloos. 
No. Branch, N. J., in an excellent 
4-H exhibit. Here he holds a 11-pound 
White Flemish Giant, the heaviest 
of all domestic rabbit breeds. 


January 1, 1955 



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Keep Teat Open 

Keep St Healing 

Keep It Milking 


To maintain unrestricted milk flow and provide 
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Dilators act as medicated surgical dressings to the 
teat canal in the treatment of Sore Teats, Scab 
Teats, Bruised Teats, Obstructions. 


Contain Sulfathiazole 

The medication is IN the Dilators and is released 
slowly for prolonged antiseptic action. Dr. Naylor 
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to delicate lining of teat canal, keep end of teat 
open in its natural shape while tissues heal. 

EASY TO USE . . . Simply keep a Dr. Naylor 
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milks free by hand. Smooth, waxed tip for easy 
insertion. Fit either large or small teats. 



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Revel DeWitt, Delhi, N. Y. 

John A. Hirschfeld, Amsterdam, N. Y„ 

R. D. 1 

George Johnston & Sons, Voorheesville, 

N. Y. 

Burpee’s Garage, Vergennes, Vt. R. D. 1 
Jones Tractor Sales, Waitsfield, Vt. 

Hardy A. Merrill, Bellows Falls, Vt. 

W. S. Mitchell, Newport, Vt. 

Burrill Saw & Tool Works, Ilion, N. Y. 

D. W. Coulter, Inc., Walton, N. Y. 

181 Delaware St. 

Henry C. Morse & Son, Prattville, N. Y. 

C. H. Bassett, Valley Falls, N. Y. 

Ivers J. Knapp, Whallonsburg, N. Y. 
Thomas C. Norman, Saranac Lake, N. Y. 
Winnie’s Garage & Implement Co., 

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Hathaway’s Farm Equipment Co., Inc., 
Burlington, Vt. 232 St. Paul St. 

Ralph C. Beck, Mechanicville, N. Y. 

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Hallsvillc Farm Supply Co., Fort Plain, 

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Charles II. Monroe, Poultney, Vt. 

Steele & Mitchell Garage & Implement, 
Little Falls, N. Y., R. D. 2 
Provost's Farm Supply, Stephentown, 

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Charles C. Holden & Son, Ticonderoga, 
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Grantier Hardware & Implement Co., 
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Swanton Tractor Sales, Swanton, Vt. 
Harold E. Marvin, Nassau, N. Y., R. D. 2 

CANANDAIGUA, N. Y. BRANCH 

Harvey M. Foster, Barton, N. Y. 

Walter J. Hol.oway, Lodi, N. Y. 

Floyd F. Taylor, Black River, N. Y. 
Raymond 1. Mitchell & Sons, Avoca, 

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Wilson Bros., Bath, N. Y. R. D. 3 
Edwin R. Winter, North Collins, N. Y. 

Riester’s Farm Machinery, Auburn, N. Y. 

Dunning Ave. 

Morton Garage, Morton, N. Y. 

Collins Farm Supp y, Burke, N. Y. 
Fairville Garage, Newark, N. Y., R. D. 2 
J. Sturtz Sales & Service, Lowville, 
N. Y. 

Wm. B. Wendt & Sons, Sanborn, N. Y. 
William F. Wolfe & Son, Lyndonville, 
N. Y. 

Leonard’s Garage, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Mabie Bros., Kirkville, N. Y. 

Miner Farm Equipment Service, Oriskany 
Falls, N. Y. 

Fillmore Mill, Fillmore, N. Y. 

L. W. Bennett & Sons, Victor, N. Y. 
Roy C. Canham, Medina, N. Y., R. D. 2 
Joseph Matuszek, Campbell, N. Y. 
Harman & Almeter, Strykersviiie, N. Y. 
Chautauqua Tractor & Implement Service, 
Falconer, N. Y. 

Harold & Eunice Saxton, Cochocton, N. Y. 
R. D. 3 

Leon Havens, Wheeler, N, Y. 

Onondaga Valley Mills, Syracuse, N. Y. 
207 Milburn Drive 

J. Robert Allen, Tyrone, N. Y. Box 7 
Espensclieid Farm Lumber & Building 
Supp.y, Alton, N. Y. 

Elmer Maki, Newfield, N. Y. 

Richard P. Kemp, Dansviile, N. Y., 
K. D. 3 - 

L D Wales & Son, Norwich, N. Y., 
R. D. 2 
Philip L. Bailey, Cuyler, N. Y. 

Mark J. Davin, Avon, N. Y. 

George R. Dorr, Dexter, N. Y, 

Gerald C. Karcher, Akron, N. Y. 

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Walter J. Bowen & Sons, Lockport, 
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Burt I. Brown, Cassville, N. Y. 

Lyons Trading Post, Little Valley, N. Y. 
Rose Hill Sales & Service, Geneva, 
N. Y„ R. D. 3 

Bishop & Turk, Pennellville, N. Y. 
Brown & Saunders, Franklinville, N. Y. 
Coryn Farm Supplies, Canandaigua, N. Y. 

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Harold Halpin, Endicott, N. Y. 

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Harry Leon, Andover, N. Y. 

Malone Bros. Garage, Oswego, N. Y., 
K. D. 6 

Paul & Wansor, LeRoy, N. Y. 124 W. 
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Socketts’ Farm Service, Darien Center, 
N. Y. 

Ray Thilk Sales & Service, Wilson, N. Y. 
Chestnut Road 


10 Top Milk Issues 

The R . N. Y. seeks Mr. Carey's views 
on milk situation as he assumes office 
of N. Y. Agriculture Commissioner. 


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On December 11, The R.N.Y. wrote 
to the Hon. Daniel J. Carey, newly 
appointed Commissioner of Agri¬ 
culture and Markets of New York 
State, requesting his views on the 
following issues in the present milk 
crisis: 

“1. Do you not agree that there is 
immediate need for the New York 
State Department of Agriculture and 
Markets, through its Commissioner, 
to take a more active and aggressive 
position in the administration and 
provisions of the Federal-State Milk 
Marketing Order? This is a joint 
order which to dairy farmers means 
an order in respect of which the 
Federal and State Agriculture De¬ 
partments have equal rights and 
responsibilities The “follow the 
leader”, “do nothing” policy that has 
been followed by the State Agricul¬ 
ture Department since the adoption 
of this joint regulation has left much 
undone and therefore leaves just that 
more to be desired and to be 
achieved. 

2. What are your views on the Re¬ 
port of the New York Milkshed 
Committee, popularly known as the 
Case Committee Report? Do you ap¬ 
prove all its recommendations, or 
part, and in any event are you in fa¬ 
vor of a hearing on these recom¬ 
mendations so that at least an oppor¬ 
tunity can be afforded for a full dis¬ 
cussion of the pros and cons, from 
which can emerge a mature and 
beneficial decision? If you are in 
favor of such a hearing, would you, 
in your capacity as Commissioner of 
Agriculture and Markets, initiate the 
same, and how soon? 

3. What are your views on: (a) the 
present Class I-A price: (b) the pres¬ 
ent Class I-A pricing formula; (c) 
the present Class I-C price; and (d) 
the present Class III price? Is any 
one of them too high or too low, and 
what would be your suggestions for 
the necessary revision, if any? In 
view of the intensive promotion by 
milk dealers to develop consumer 
purchases of non-fat dry milk, a Class 
III product, for fluid consumption, 
do you believe that this non-fat dry 

! milk, sold for human fluid consump¬ 
tion, should be priced higher than 
Class III? 

4. The uniform price of 3.5 per 
cent metropolitan market milk in the 
201-210 mile zone was §4.47 in Oc¬ 
tober and $4.63 in November. The 
cost of production for October, as 
estimated by the New York State 
College of Agriculture, was $5.41; 
and for November, $5.42. Your sug¬ 
gestions on how best and how quickly 
the farm price of milk can be 
brought up at least to the farmer’s 
cost of production, w r ould be appre¬ 
ciated. 

5. Are you in favor of the present 
Federal flexible price support pro¬ 
gram? What is your opinion on the 
disparity between dairy price sup¬ 
ports and feed grain price supports? 

6. In any producer referendum on 
amendments to the Federal-St ate 
Order, both the Agriculture Market- 
ing Agreement Act of 1937, as 
amended, and the Agriculture and 
Markets Law of New York permit a 
cooperative to vote its contract mem¬ 
bership as a unit either for or against 
an amendment. Do you believe that 
this is consistent with democratic 
principles? Do you think it strength 
ens or weakens cooperative member¬ 
ships, both quantitatively and quali¬ 
tatively? And do you think it ad¬ 
versely affects producer participation 
in order activities? 

7. There has been a great deal of 
discussion for the past 20 years as to 


whether Sections 258 c and 258-j of 
the Agriculture and Markets Law are 
of more benefit to producers, or to 
dealers. Do you favor or oppose the 
repeal or amendment of either of 
these licensing sections, and why? If 
your answer is in the affirmative, do 
you plan to offer any bill or bills for 
consideration and possible adoption 
by the 1955 Legislature? 

8. There has been even more dis¬ 
cussion in recent years on the price 
spread. Last Summer, the House Ag¬ 
riculture Committee made public a 
report on the fluid milk price spread. 
This past week the Senate Agricul¬ 
ture Committee, after investigating 
milk manufacturing operations in 
New York and elsewhere, reported 
an ever-widening price spread on all 
manufactured milk products, and 
urged that processors “reexamine 
their operating costs and their profit- 
and-loss statements and take some 
action to reduce the margin spread in 
prices and to prevent a further 
spread of this margin”. Are you con¬ 
vinced of the merit of these findings 
and what do you suggest can be done 
by you, as Commissioner, as soon as 
possible, to remedy this inequity? 
Do you believe that the powers 
vested in you under Section 256-a of 
the Agriculture and Markets Law to 
audit the books of milk dealers and 
cooperatives could be exercised to 
the benefit of producers in this re¬ 
gard and, if so; do you intend to ex¬ 
ercise these powers upon taking of¬ 
fice and make public your results, as 
provided for in Section 256-a? 

9. In this same connection, your 
opinion of the activities of the New 
York State Temporary Commission 
on Agriculture, known as the Erwin 
Commission, would be most helpful. 
Do you think that this Committee 
could and should be revitalized so as 
to conduct a full-scale investigation 
of the spread, instead of the white¬ 
wash “study” previously made, im¬ 
plemented where necessary by its 
powers of subpoena? 

10. Once again, milk advertising is 
very much an issue The 1954 Demo¬ 
cratic platform advocated “aggres¬ 
sive measures to stimulate consump¬ 
tion of dairy and other New York 
food products”. How do you think 
this can best be achieved: (a) by a 
milk advertising program financed by 
the State: (b) by an amendment to 
the Federal-State Order providing for 
deductions from producers’ milk 
checks; or (c) by “the establishment 
of modernized terminal produce mar¬ 
kets in large urban areas to help cut 
down the price spread”, as advocated 
in the 1954 Democratic platform? 
Along the same lines, do you think 
that the installation of fluid milk 
vending machines and/or the legaliz¬ 
ing of gallon jugs would be of any 
aid in increasing the producer’s share 
of the consumer’s dollar? 

Dairy farmers are not in a pleasant 
mood these days. They feel the cost- 
price squeeze getting tighter and 
tighter and they look to government 
to get them out of that straitjacket 
into which they believe—and with 
much good reason—government has 
placed them. 

Nor can this cost-price squeeze be 
regarded as something novel or tem¬ 
porary. It represents a long-range 
trend that began some 20 years ago, 
and was but temporarily suspended, 
first by World War II and later by 
the Korean War. Any economy that 
relies for its stimulation on a war¬ 
time emergency is not a healthy eco¬ 
nomy. Usually—and this is the situa¬ 
tion with milk—the reason is that it 
has been a neglected economy. Here, 


then, is there presented an opportu¬ 
nity to engage in a drastic program 
of complete overhauling and stream¬ 
lining. Not only is the opportunity 
presented; it is the only way in 
which the dairy industry, as we know 
it, can possibly survive. A competent 
public official can go a long way, 
even alone, to bring about the neces¬ 
sary reforms. 

It is therefore our judgment that a 
statement from you at this time in 
answer to these specific questions— 
and as full as you desire to make it— 
would be a constructive force for 
good in this milkshed, and of great 
interest to ail dairy farmers in the 
State. In addition, it could well fur¬ 
nish a firm basis of farmer support 
that is always needed by any com¬ 
missioner of agriculture who is de¬ 
termined to initiate every possible re¬ 
form, to adopt sound, constructive 
measures, and in general to do as 
good a job as he knows how to do 
for the benefit of his fellow dairy¬ 
men. 

Let us assure you of our best 
wishes for every success in your new, 
most responsible post. Having been 
acquainted with The Rural New 
Yorker for many years, you surely 
know that The Rural New 
Yorker will support to the fullest 
a commissioner of agriculture who 
performs his task with intelligence, 
industry, imagination and fearless¬ 
ness, and, most important, with the 
best interests of farmers at heart.” 


By wire dated December 15, Mr. 
Carey replied: 

“Suggest that you not reserve space 
in your paper for complete explora¬ 
tion of my views on milk problems at 
this time. Will not be Commissioner 
until January first. Letter will follow 
this telegram.” 

Mr. Carey’s letter, dated December 
16, read as follows: 

“I appreciated receiving your letter 
of December 11 pointing up many of 
the pertinent problems in the miJk 
situation today. You really covered 
the waterfront (i.e. I infer that you 
pose these issues as being of a con¬ 
troversial nature). I also recognize 
the importance of these problems 
both from a State and National 
standpoint. 

“It seems to me that there are at 
least two things involved in answer¬ 
ing your letter. First, that a well 
developed program which is well 
thought out and recognizes the many 
angles involved is tremendously im¬ 
portant. Secondly, I do not become 
Commissioner of Agriculture and 
Markets until January 1 and feel the 
time inappropriate for me to take a 
definite stand on such controversial 
issues. After January 1, I would be 
more than pleased to sit down with 
you and discuss any or all of these 
problems at length. I am sure coop¬ 
eration on the part of the many in¬ 
terests in this milkshed will bring 
lasting results.” 



NTER 


O W E N ' 
PEN) FIELD 
, i= OX 


21 


THE RURAL NEW-YORKEk 
























































































Five good reasons 
CRAINE can give you. # « 



Free-Choice Feeding of 
Phenothiazine 

Does the free-choice administra¬ 
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parasites? J. l. w. 

That the free-choice administra¬ 
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siderable protection to lambs which 
have been exposed to heavy on¬ 
slaughts of the intestinal wireworm 
and the common stomach work, was 
shown by a second year’s observa¬ 
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Agriculture Station, Beltsville, Md. 

Four lambs on a contaminated 
pasture, with access to a mixture of 
phenothiazine and salt in the ratio 
of one to nine, gained eight pounds 
more per animal during the 24-week 
experiment at Beltsville than did 
four lambs on a similarly contamin¬ 
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Scouring, which is the prominent 
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anemia, which is a typical symptom 
of stomach work infection, were not 
manifested by the medicated lambs, 
although both symptoms were pres¬ 
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there was one dead, and another 
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the experiment. The untreated lambs 
polluted the pasture with large num¬ 
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autopsy the worm counts provided a 
further index of the protection 
afforded by the medication: the 
treated animals harbored only one- 
fourth as many wireworms as the 
controls did and only one-third as 
many stomach worms. Moreover, car¬ 
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lambs on phenothiazine and “medi¬ 
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watered only once daily. Water in¬ 
take affects production from high 
producing cows more than it does 
low producers. 

Cows will, if allowed free access 
to water, ingest from four to six 
pounds for each pound of milk they 
produce. This is not astonishing 
when it is considered that their milk 
averages containing over 87 per cent 
water, and the animal tissues are also 
high in moisture. The figure includes 
water consumed in their feed and in 
the water which they drink. When 
cows are watered, free access, from 
automatic bowls, they drink about 10 
times each 24 hours, about one-third 
of this during the night. When auto¬ 
matic drinking cups are not available 
for the cows, they should be watered 
at least twice dailv 


Feeding Sudan Grass Seed 

Could you please tell me if we 
could grind a little Sudan grass seed 
in our dairy feed to substitute for the 
linseed meal. Has this seed any feed 
value as a dairy feed?, c. a. g. 

Sudan grass has the following nu¬ 
tritive value: digestible protein, 9.2 
per cent; total digestible nutrients 
(t.d.n.), 48.4 per cent. This compares 
with the average nutritive value of 
corn of 6.6 per cent for digestible pro¬ 
tein; and 80 per cent t.d.n. It also 
compares with old process linseed 
meal with a digestible content of 
almost 31 per cent and about 77 per 
cent t.d.n. You can see, therefore, 
that Sudan grass seed is not suited 
to substitute as a protein concentrate 
in the daily feed. However, it can be 
substituted for part of the corn meal 
if desired, but it would take almost 
twice as much on a pound for pound 
basis to supply the same amount of 
digestible nutrients. 




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Watering Dairy Cows in 
Winter 

Does it increase milk production 
to have water available during the 
Winter for high producing dairy 
cows and, if so, about how much, per¬ 
centagewise? c. m. s. 

A recent report from the Ohio Sta¬ 
tion, Wooster, shows that when high 
producing dairy cows have free ac¬ 
cess to water in automatic drinking 
cups, they give from three to four 
per cent more milk than if they are 
watered twice daily. High producing 
cows, which are classed as those 
making from 40 to 60 pounds of milk 
daily, will give from six to 11 per 
cent more milk than if they are 


CatHe Gnaw Wood 

My cattle gnaw wood and boards 1 
whenever they can. What is wrong 
with them? mrs. j. b. 

When cattle gnaw wood and 
boards it is an indication of a phos¬ 
phorus deficiency. When such a 
deficiency exists, it cannot be cor¬ 
rected immediately, but the best 
method is to add 20 pounds of 
steamed bone meal to each ton of 
their grain feed. In addition, keep 
available at all times a good com¬ 
mercial mineral mixture containing 
a high proportion of calcium and 
phosphorus. You should also ques¬ 
tion whether or not your pasture, 
hay and silage fields are properly 
supplied with phosphorus. Applica¬ 
tion of superphosphate to the soils 
may increase your crop yields and 
also correct the nutritional deficien- | 
cy in your cattle. 



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easy. I would not have believed, had 
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Dairy fnan s 

FAST h 


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Profitable 19-Year-Old Producer Reproduces Again 


Crusader’s Joyce of Windy Top, a registered Ayrshire cow owned by William 
Hoellerich of Old Chatham, Columbia County, N. Y., had this, her 15th, 
calf early in August after having produced 179,151 pounds of milk and 7,412 
pounds fat in 14 previous lactations. She ivas born in 1935 on the farm of 
B. L. and M. M. Byington in Charlotte. Vt. Her highest record, 15,739 pounds 
milk and 734 pounds fat, was made at 11 years of age. 


You can’t lose by trying. It is 
sent to you on 30 days trial. You 
receive a $3.50 special truss as a 
gift for making this trial. 


Write for descriptive circular. 
It’s free. Just address Physician’s 
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SURE BEATS 
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USE ONLY THE 
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hastraI§£ 

and Elastrator rings with yellow 
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$7. AT DEALERS or postpaid. 

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Dept. P-2 151 Mission St., San Francisco, California 

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cal ves, kids, lambs—and 
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iar — 1.00 at your deal¬ 
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Morris 12, N.Y. 



January 1, 1955 


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25 











































































Poultrymen’s Meeting In 
Syracuse , January 19—20 


The Poultrymen’s League of Cen¬ 
tral New York, which is composed 
of poultrymen of the counties of 
Cayuga, Cortland, Jefferson, Madi¬ 
son, Onondaga, Oswego and Wayne 
is holding an exposition at the New 
York State Fair Grounds January 
19-20. Central New York is an im¬ 
portant poultry section and accord¬ 
ing to the 1950 census the sale of 
poultry and poultry products in these 
counties amounted to more than 12 
million dollars. The league is receiv¬ 
ing the cooperation of the County 
Agents and the Poultry Committees 
of the seven counties and the expo¬ 
sition is expected to be of interest 
to poultrymen throughout the State. 
A full-scale trade show will be part 
of the exposition and will give 


poultrymen an opportunity to see 
what is new in the way of equipment 
and supplies. Milan R. Tucker, Box 
655, Auburn, N. Y. is chairman of 
the trade show and will be glad to 
hear from anyone who is interested 
in exhibiting any product. 

The aim is to have a poultry show 
for poultrymen, and the theme of the 
show will be problems of marketing. 
This is a grave time for poultry 
farmers. For many months now 
prices received have been less than 
the cost of production and there is no 
sign of improvement. Many farmers 
do not know whether to buy chicks 
or not, and undoubtedly there are 
many who do not have the money to 
buy chicks. The educational part of 
the program will attempt to answer 


some of the questions in a way that 
will help farmers to make decisions 
for the coming year. Speakers will 
be encouraged to really face up to 
the problems and let the chips fall 
where they may. Among things'to be 
discussed will be the efficiency of 
present marketing arrangements. Al¬ 
so of interest will be a study of 
farmers who have been able to mar¬ 
ket their products at prices above 
the market, even in these times, and 
in this, it is hoped to have one 
of the new egg vending machines on 
display. It has been noted that some 
poultry and turkey farmers who have 
developed good retail outlets have 
been receiving almost twice as much 
for their products compared to farm¬ 
ers who sell at wholesale. While 
poultrymen have been concentrating 
on improving their production effi¬ 
ciency, their share of the consumers' 
dollar has been growing less and less. 
It well may be that survival in the 
future will depend upon how well 


farmers can control the marketing of 
their products. Also, it is hoped to 
have a discussion of price supports 
and their effects upon eastern farm¬ 
ers, especially those sections which 
forbid farmers to raise grain for their 
own needs. 

The Poultrymen’s League was 
formed two years ago when the City 
of Syracuse passed a poultry code 
which would have made it impossible 
for farmers to sell poultry in Syra¬ 
cuse. After a long and bitter fight 
during which the League received 
the support of every poultry organ 
ization in the Northeast the code 
was rewritten and the worst features 
were dropped. The experience was a 
lesson to all in the value of united 
action. The present officers of the 
League are as follows: Raymond 
Sachs, Camillus, president; Viv. 
Lamb, Oswego, vice-pres.: Carl 
Schwarzer, Manlius, sec.; and Don 
Ward, Syracuse,-treas. 


Northeastern Poultry 
Co-op. Meets 

The second annual meeting 
of Northeastern Poultry Coop¬ 
erative Assn, Trenton, N. J., 
was recently held in New York 
City, with only two members 
absent. After hearing the cus¬ 
tomary statements on finances 
and statistical reports, which 
showed a healthy growth and 
operation, Paul L. Coates of 
Coatesville, Pa, was elected to 
succeed Kingsley Brown of 
Willimantic, Conn., as presi¬ 
dent. Howard A. Richards of 
South Easton, Mass., succeeded 
Coates as vice-president and 
Gerald M. Luff and Dr. Alfred 
Van Wagenen were re-elected 
treasurer and secretary respect¬ 
ively. New members of the Ex¬ 
ecutive Committee are John B. 
Randall, Jr., Springfield, Mass., 
replacing' Albert Cohen, Wood¬ 
ridge, N. Y., and Lester W. 
Brinker, Doylestown, Pa., re¬ 
placing K. M. Souders, Coates- 
ville, Pa. Clayton H. Stains, 
Fiemington, N. J., was chosen 
to continue as chairman of the 
executive committee. 

Pullets Reared on 
All-Mash Ration 

My pullets were reared on 
an all-mash ratiop. What would 
you suggest feeding them now? 
They are just coming into pro¬ 
duction and ai'e laying quite a 
few soft-shelled eggs. j. f. 

New Haven Co., Conn. 

In view of the fact that you 
have reared your pullets on a 
complete all-mash ration, I 
would suggest continuing the 
same feeding schedule, but 
using a complete egg-mash 
from now on. The soft-shelled 
eggs you notice are more or 
less normal for young pullets 
just coming into production. I 
think you will note in another 
six weeks or so that the num¬ 
ber will be greatly reduced. 



you at laying eggs”? 



JANUARY 

1955 


HEALTHY CHICK NEWS 


Do You Think These Figures Are Accurate? 

(4 sq. ft. per layer most profitable) 


Two years ago we had one pen of 450 
pullets housed where we normally house 
600 to 700 birds. These 450 pullets had 
4 square feet of floor,space per bird. 
They were the last we housed and that’s 
why there were so few in the pen. They 
R5d a top production of 95%, they were 
over 90% for about 5 months, and in 
August they were still laying 85% and 
were starting their 9th month of produc¬ 
tion. Archie Fortner, foreman of our trap- 
nest farm, says that birds housed with 
this much room make more money than 
birds that are more crowded. He ought 
to know. He’s been at it for over 40 years. 


When I saw an article recently telling 
about experiments run where birds are 
crowded in one bird for each square foot 
of floor space and using special equip¬ 
ment, I got to thinking about it and 
have come up with the following table. 
The article on the experiment said that 
production on the crowded birds which 
had 1 square foot of floor space was 50%. 
I would expect that this is about correct. 
Another thing Archie says is that when 
you crowd pullets, you carry out more 
dead ones, and eventually you get down 
to the same number of birds anyway, so 
why not put in fewer to start with? 



Pen 

No. 

Sq. Ft. 

Per Hen 

No. 

Hens 

% Pro¬ 
duction 

% Annual 
Mortality 



Per Day 



Egg* 

Egg 

Value 

Feed 

Cost 

Profit 

Over Feed 

Deprecia¬ 

tion 

Profit 

1 

4 

750 

90 

15 

675 

$27.00 

$11.75 

$15.75 

$ 4.26 

$11.49 

2 

3 

1000 

80 

17 

800 

32.00 

14.00 

18.00 

5.71 

12.29 

3 

2 

1500 

65 

20 

975 

39.00 

20.25 

18.75 

8.63 

10.12 

4 

1 

3000 

50 

25 

1500 

60.00 

39.00 

21.00 

17.46 

3.54 


EXPLANATION: These figures assume 
that you and I have 4 pens each 100 feet 
by 30 feet making them 3000 square feet 
each. In pen one, we allow them 4 square 
feet and have 750 pullets. Pen two, 3 
square feet and 1000 pullets. Pen three, 
2 square feet and 1500 pullets. Pen four, 
1 square foot and 3000 pullets. The next 
column gives the percent production we 
expect from each pen. I think this is 
accurate but if you think it’s wrong you 
could work up your own set of figures. I 
think the next is probably accurate on 
mortality although I would expqct the 
crowded pen to show a higher mortality 
than this particularly if the birds get to 
picking, or if they push one another 
around to the point where many birds 
starve to death. The next several columns 
are on a per day basis. It shows the num¬ 
ber of eggs this number of birds will lay 
per day, the egg value at per egg, feed 
cost at 5<■ per pound. I have figured 30 
pounds of feed per hundred birds per 
day for pen one, pen two—28 pounds, 
pen three—27 pounds, and pen four— 
26 pounds per hundred birds per day. I 
have figured the profit over feed costs and 
then I have figured the value of the birds 
at the end of the year at 50(' per bird and 
subtracted this from what the pullets 
were worth at let’s say $2.50 per bird 


when they were housed which gives a 
depreciation per day for each of these 
pens. When you figure it out this way, 
you get the profit that is shown in the 
last column. 

From these figures, if I’m right, I 
would conclude that White Leghorns 
should be housed at 4 square feet per 
bird. You might say that pen 1 would 
not lay 90% more than 2 or 3 months 
and maybe that’s right, but I could 
counter by saying that pen 4 would not 
lay as high as 50% very long either. Of 
course they might get up to better than 
50% if quite a few birds died off early 
and thereby cut the number and there¬ 
fore the competition among the birds. 

As I see it the whole secret here is 
competition among birds. You can de¬ 
beak them and everything else and still 
competition counts. They’ve got to get 
lots of feed and water whenever they 
want it to give you maximum results. 

To fill up a house with 3,000 birds 
you’ve got to have a lot more brooding 
facilities and buy a lot more chicks and 
you’ve got to risk a lot more money. 
Therefore I see no logic in crowding 
pullets in the laying house. 

We as breeders constantly crowd our 
birds in the brooder house and in the 
laying house in order to find the birds 


that can stand adverse conditions the 
best. We do this so that when you buy 
them and give them exceptionally fine 
conditions, then you get very high pro¬ 
duction, and excellent livability. 

We Are Trying Awfully Hard: We are 
working like fury here trying to produce 
a better and better bird every year. We 
have a complete set of IBM machines. 
All of our records are on cards, we can 
do the work much more rapidly, and we 
have much more complete information 
by using the IBM machines. While I 
think we have improved our birds a lot 
during the last 15 years, I think we’re 
going to improve them at a faster rate 
during the next 10 years. I certainly hope 
that we can sell you chicks and prove to 
you how we can improve the birds that 
we sell to you. I’d like to invite you to 
be one of our customers and I hope that 
as time goes on I can help keep you well 
informed on the poultry business and 
bring up arguments, many of them de¬ 
batable, for you to think about, and I 
think if you’re well informed you’ll make 
more money with your poultry. 

Sincerely yours, 

(3- ‘S<z&c*c£ 

P. S. I’ll try to answer your questions 
whether you buy chicks from us or not. 



I would certainly like to sell you 
chicks and hope you'll send the 
coupon at the bottom of this ad 
fo us for our catalog which I think 
you will find instructive. 


* 

I 

I 

E 

I 

I 

I 

I 

4 


mail coupon for free catalog - - - - - 

BABCOCK POULTRY FARM, INC. 

Route 3R , ITHACA, NEW YORK 

Please send us your free 48 page catalog and latest issue of Babcock s Healthy 
Chick News. 

Post Office...-. State . 


1 

I 

I 

8 

I 

I 

I 

8 

Ji 


26 


THE RURAL NEW-YORKER 









































Self Vaccination for Newcastle 



iiVSS immunization tech¬ 
niques for Newcastle dis¬ 
ease prevention by spray, 
dust pump and drinking 
water methods have now 
been d e v e 1 op e ed by 
scientists. The methods 
offer an opportunity to save much of 
the former cost and labor of New¬ 
castle vaccination. A moi'e important 
advantage of mass administration of 
vaccine, however, is that the possi¬ 
bility for human error or abuse in 
handling the vaccine is reduced. The 
birds vaccinate themselves by breath¬ 
ing or drinking. 

The spray method is recommended 
for use on birds three weeks old or 
older and the drinking water method, 
where an early initial vaccination is 
necessary, for chicks three . days to 
three weeks old. The dried virus, in¬ 
tranasal type of Newcastle vaccine, 
widely used by eye and nose drop 
methods, is the kind prescribed for 
both new techniques. It is alive, but 
harmless. 

The new methods are easy to use 
and require little preparatory work. 
When using the drinking water 
method, however, disinfectants can¬ 
not be used in the water until the 
vaccination is completed; all water 
founts must be free from any disin¬ 
fectant residue. The vaccine is ad¬ 
ministered through water simply by 
mixing it into a given amount of 
water and supplying it to chicks after 
they have been water-starved for 
about four hours or overnight. 

The spray method can be used 
wherever birds are in a building 
which can be closed to prevent drafts. 
Windows and doors must be shut, 
ventilating fans must be turned off 
and any other large openings closed 
temporarily. With this done and the 
vaccine put into a special sprayer— 
or an ordinary, inexpensive dust 
pump or gun will do, the vaccine is 
sprayed throughout the house. The 
sprayer produces a very fine mist 
which evaporates quickly, leaving 
the virus suspended in air. As the 


virus settles to the floor, the birds 
breathe in an effective amount of it. 
The building should be kept closed 
for 15 minutes after spraying. The 
dust pump should be reserved ex¬ 
clusively for immunization purposes. 

Experience has shown that 10,000 
birds can be vaccinated in less than 
30 minutes by the spray method. The 
immunity produced by it has been 
found stronger than that produced 
by any other method employing the 
Hitchner strain of virus. The im¬ 
munity caused by the spray method 
is as great as that found in birds 
recovered from a severe natural out¬ 
break of Newcastle disease. In one 
flock given a single spray vaccination 
at three weeks of age, the immunity 
resulting was about 2,000 times 
greater than that usually following 
a carefully administered eye drop 
vaccination. 

Through spray vaccination, the vac¬ 
cine virus enters the birds by the 
route most commonly taken by a 
natural infection. The birds breathe 
in the vaccine which has been 
sprayed throughout the house and 
the virus lodges deep in the respira¬ 
tory tract. This exposes a larger area 
of sensitive tissue to the vaccine than 
do eye or nose drop, intramuscular 
or drinking water methods. It is be¬ 
lieved responsible for the greater 
antibody response which follows. Be¬ 
cause of the greater strength of im¬ 
munity produced by suitable spray 
vaccination, when properly done, and 
its importance as extra protection 
against a severe Newcastle exposure, 
the drop and drinking water methods 
are recommended only as supple¬ 
ments to spray vaccination in areas 
where baby chick vaccination is ad¬ 
visable. The drinking water method 
is said to produce immunity com¬ 
parable to that from the drop 
methods. 

A recommended, up-to-date New¬ 
castle vaccination schedule is as 
follows: For broilers, in areas where 
baby chick vaccination is advisable, I 
vaccinate at day-old or older by the 


mi ■< 



V 


HUBBARD'S NEW HAMPSHIRES 

the bird that meets 
today’s need for 

PROFITS 

... more eggs at less cost 
higher livability without pampering 

This year you need proven profit-making values in the in¬ 
heritance of every chick you buy. Hubbard’s New Hampshires, 
Balanced Bred for 34 years, give fast, uniform growth and early 
maturity—fixed qualities of heavy egg production, large egg size, 
resistance to leukosis, high livability through the laying year. 

NEW HEAVY EGG PRODUCER — Hubbard’s Leghorn Cross, for 
growers interested in eggs only. They inherit vitality from cross¬ 
breeding, mature at 5 months. Large egg size, superior shell 
quality, low feed consumption. 

We take full responsibility for safe, on time delivery of healthy 
chicks, backed by our Guarantee of Full Satisfaction to 30 days 
of age. 

FREE CATALOG! Get all the facts on these 2 profit-bred birds. 

HUBBARD 

Box 12, Walpole, N. H. Tel: Walpole 73 







mmmmmmmm. _ w .. _ 

American Scientific Lab., Inc., Madison, Wis. 

In the drinking water method of Newcastle vaccination, the chicks immu¬ 
nize themselves as they quench their thirst. 


The money is in that extra few 
cents in market prices. Like 
other Marshall customers, you 
too can put yourself in position 
to top the market and make 
better profits in ’55. 



AT MARSHALL'S YOU GET... 

Only the Best Strains 
Disease Resistance by Exposure 
Chicks By Modern Methods 
Service By Trained People 

FOR HIGH EGG PRODUCTION . . 

WHITE LEGHORNS — Famous Bab¬ 
cock Strain. World’s laying- test record 
holder. Random Sample Test Winners. 

R. I. REDS — One of nation’s top 
strains, improved by us. Proved by cus-' 

tomers. Top Red pen (1954) West N. Y. Test. 

RED-ROCKS — Great dual-purpose 
cross. Disease-resistant; lots of eggs, 
top meat prices. Automatic sexing. 

FOR FAST LOW-COST MEAT . . 

MARSHALL’S MEAT STRAIN — More 
meat per pound of feed — proved by 
official and field tests. 

WHITE ROCKS (Arbor Acres)—Usual¬ 
ly considered best white meat strain in 
U. S. A. Tops New York market. 


Pick your breed and 
hatching date and better 
order early. Catalog. 

MARSHALL BROTHERS 

R. D. 5-0, Phone 46336 
ITHACA, NEW YORK 


/"MOUNT HOPE CHICKS ^ 

Pay Old or Started from our own ROP Sired 
Blooi,tested Breeders. Also Heavy Breeds. 

PELLMANS POULTRY FARM 
W. S. PELLMAN, Prop., Box 53, Richfield, Pa. 


FARMS 

Branch Hatchery, Lancaster, Pa. 

GET $2 to $3 MORE 

per case , with 

STERN’S 

Longevity 

LEGHORNS 

iimmmiimmiimmi’- 



uiimmii 


= “A Blue Chip Stock” = 

| NOTED FOR MONEY - MAKING = 

= PERFORMANCE = 

“ Ask yourself this question: Does it H 
“ cost me any more to raise pullets this H 

— year that lay larger eggs and in “ 

— greater number than the strain I have — 
S3 been relying on? The answer is, “of — 
IS course not!” Then, why not do as — 
~ hundreds of other management-mind- 33 
“ ed poultrvmen have done—and depend 31 

— on STERN’S “Longevity” LEGHORNS = 

— to help you earn more from your H 

— baby chick investment. H 

■3j Remember! Before you buy your — 

— baby chicks bear in m;nd that your — 

SI present strain of birds must Increase — 
n their egg production more than 10 — 

IS percent to equal the net dollar return H 
“ which our customers get year-in and H 

— year-out from STERN’S “Longevity” IS 

— LEGHORNS. ~ 

SI WRITE TODAY FOR LITERATURE, — 
= PRICES AND OPEN DATES! ■= 

5iiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimmiiiiiiiimiiii? 

Get the Full Story On: 

• STERN’S WHITE ROCKS — Tops for Meat and 
Eggs! 

• STERNS WHITE CORNISH CROSS — Match¬ 
less Meat Quality! 

• STERN S NEW HAMPSHIRES — The Best 
“All-Purpose” Bird Today! 

• STERN’S SEX LINKS — None Better in This 
Egg Strain Class! 

U.S. - N.J. Approved and Pullor- 
um Clean Leghorns, Straight Run 


and Sexed Heavy Breeds. 


STERN BROS. 

SOUTH VINELAND, NEW JERSEY 


HEN' 
CHICKS 

BOM 2 to S YEAR 010 ] 

L LEGHORN 



I 10 Free sensational cut-price 
9 ” ,,T “ mo V * LBES mid chicks 

*“ u. S. APPROVED PULLOR1JM Cl FAN 


WITH 
EVERY 


Lederle Lab., Pearl River, N. Y. 
Using vaccine dust in an inexpensive dust pump or gun is an efficient and 
economical method of immunizing birds to Newcastle disease. 

January 1, 1955 


10 Extra Chicks At No Additional Cost 
builds healthy chicks that really pay off 
weekly. 100‘i live delivery. Shipped F. 

BARRED & WHITE ROCKS. 

NEW HAMPSHIRES. S. C. REDS, 

WHITE WYANDOTTES. 

WYAN X HAMPS. ROCK X HAMPS, 
HAMP X ROCKS, CO R N IS H X H A M PS, 
CORNISH X ROCKS, DELAWARE X 

HAMPS. WHITE AMERICANS. 

LARGE TYPE LOP OVER COMB 

WHITE LEGHORNS. 

BROWN LEGHOHRNS, AUSTRA- 
WHITES. ANCONAS, 

WHITE-BLACK MINORCAS. 

WH. & BL. GIANTS, BRAHMAS.... 
S. L. WYAN, AUSTRALORPS. 

BUFF ROCKS. BUFF ORPINGTONS, 
COLUMBIA ROCKS. 

MT. HEALTHY HATCHERIES 


U. S. APPROVED PULLORUM CLEAN 

Chicks Shipped Any Time. Mt. Healthy special egg breeding 
— both on the market and at the nest. 200.000 big fluffy chicks 
O.B. our hatchery. Order now. Don’t delay. 



PRICES PER 

100 


Non-Sexed Pullets 

311.95 $19.90 

Cockerels 

$11.95 

<55 Per 100 

+ S' -Jv LEFT OVERS 




ALL HEAVIES, NO 

12.50 

19.90 

13.90 

LEGHORNS, GOOD 
CHICKS. NO SEX 

13.95 

29.90 

3.95 

GUARANTEE. N O 

EXTRA CHICKS. 

14.95 

31.90 

3.95 

WHITE PEKIN DUCKLINGS 

16.95 

14.95 

26.00 

18.00 

12—S3 75 50—$13.50 
25—$7.25 100—$25.00 

21.90 

13.90 


DEFT. R 

MT. HEALTHY, OHIO 


27 






































BABY CHICKS 

We have some of tlia 
finest White Leghorn 
baby chicks you have 
ever seen—also Rhode 
Island Reds and Red 
Rock Sex Links (black 
pullets), as well as 
all the other popular 
breeds They are from 
the leading egg lay¬ 
ing strains in Ameri¬ 
ca Get in touch with 
us at once — tell us 
the quantity — breed 
— sex — and the 
da.e you want them — 
then we will tell you 

what an amazing )>argain_we will give you for 
these highest quality 1955 baby chicks. Phone, 
write or wire us today. Avoid the Spring KUSH 
with its high prices. 

STARTED PULLETS 

We have thousands of 
the nicest White Leg¬ 
horn Started Pullets 
ever put on the mar¬ 
ket - 4-6-8-12 weeks 

of age — fully fea¬ 
thered out and ready 
for immediate deliv¬ 
ery. The same is true 
of our Red Rock Sex 
Links (black pullets) 
also our Rhode Island 
Reds, as well as the 
other popular breeds, 
and they are priced 
lower than you could raise them yourself. All our 
breeders are from the leading egg laying strains 
in America. Write, wire or phone us today. 
Aoid the Spring Rush. 

STARTED CAPONS 

There’s money in Capons. They always bring 
the highest prices on the market. Why not try 
some this year? We have some dandies 4-6-8 
weeks of age, ready for immediate delivery. 
Write today for our low prices. Avoid the 
Spring Rush! 



FROM U. S. APPROVED-PULLORUM CLEAN 
BREEDERS — OF COURSE 


Wherever you live — you are a neighbor of Stnmy- 
lirook. By parcel Post. Railway Express, by Air or 
by our own fleet of trucks, we get them to you safe 
and sound 100 % alive, we guarantee. 

LET US SEND YOU OUR PICTURE STORY 
OF SUNNYBROOK — WRITE US TODAY. 

SUNNYBROOK 

POULTRY FARMS 

A. HOWARD KINGAR 

Box 2 Phone 8-1611 HUDSON, N.Y. 



PROFIT- 

MAKING 

LEGHORNS 


Here's How to Protit; 

• Buy Quality 
Chicks, Market 
Quality Eggs. 

• Start Checks 
Early, Get More 
Eggs When Prices 
Are Highest. 

• New! Free Catalog! 
e Order Now — Save with Discount 

Alien H. BULKLEY & Son 

OUR 40TH YEAR 

140 Leghorn Lane, Tei. 30-M, Odessa, N.Y. 


Chamberlin 



VT. - U. S. 
APPROVED 
PULLORUM 
CLEAN 



BARRED ROCKS 
RED-ROCKS 

For Meat—Our Meat-Bred Barred 
Rocks arc hard to beat for broilers 
or hormonized fryers. Live better, 
grow faster. 

For Eggs—Our Red-Rocks (Sex- 
Links) have hybrid v.gor — are 
ideal for commercial egg produc¬ 
tion. 

Chicks straight-run or sexed. Order 
Early! Circular free — write today. 

Chamberlin Poultry Farms 

R.F.D. 6 W. Brattleboro. Vt. 


Mattern’s Reliable Chicks 


Our 34fft Year Proven Qualitv 
NICHOLS NEW HAMPSHiRES, ARBOR 
ACRES WHITE ROCKS, MATTERN’S 
COLUMBIAN CORNISH X NEW HAMP¬ 
SHIRES (CROSS), BABCOCK WHITE LEG¬ 
HORNS. Write for Circular and Prices. 
Telephone 2114 
MATTERN’S HATCHERY 
r 5 , BEAVER SPRINGS, PA. 

tolmanTwhite rocks 

AVERAGE 4.7 lbs. AT 10 WEEKS 

— 2nd heaviest entry in 1954 Mass. C. 0. T. contest. 
These chicks (a random sample from our 10,000 
breeders) are the same quality our customers receive. 
Order now for Broilers, Roasters, Hatching Eggs, 
or Market Eggs. Sexed Pullet Chicks $22 per 100 
(in lots of 50 or more). Circular Free. 

JOSEPH TOLMAN & SON , DEPT. F, ROCKLAND, MASS. 
—Bali Red-Rocks and Ball Leghorns — 

(pure, undiluated Babcock strain) are bred for long 
distance egg production. The sustained high egg 
production and good livability of these birds really 
pay off when the squeeze is on egg and poultry prices. 
Our Dominant White Crosses (mostly Cornish, New 
Hampshire, and Barred Rock) make broad-breasted, 
white feathered, yellow-skinned broilers with a mini¬ 
mum of feed. Write for free catalogue, telling 
about our 11,000 bird farm and modern hatchery. 
Truck delivery to many areas. 

BALL POULTRY FARM 

ROUTE R, OWEGO, TIOGA COUNTY, NEW YORK 

I- DON’T SACRIFICE YEARLING HENS! - 

Free bulletin tells how to keep layers five years. 

Learn why grain fed birds are profitable. 
SINE, RN-7, QUAKERTOWN, PENNA. 


28 


drop method, or at three days to 
three weeks of age by the drinking 
water method; follow with a single 
spray revaccination four weeks later. 
If baby chick vaacination is not 
necessary, a single spray vaccination 
when the birds are about three weeks 
old is all that is necessary. For re¬ 
placement flocks’, in areas where baby 
chick vaccination is advisable, vaccin¬ 
ate at day-old or older by the drop 
method, or at three days to three 
weeks of age by the drinking water 
method. Follow with spray revaccin¬ 
ation four weeks later. No additional 
revaccination is necessary unless the 
birds are held over for a second year; 
then they should be revaccinated by 
the spray method during the first 
molt. If baby chick vaccination is not 


done, make an initial spray vaccin¬ 
ation when the birds are about three 
weeks old and follow with a spray 
revaccination at 16 to 20 weeks. No 
further revaccination is necessary 
unless the birds are held over for a 
second year. For maximum protec¬ 
tion of breeders and layers, immuni¬ 
zation can be made every six months; 
a temporary decrease in egg produc¬ 
tion may result, however, when 
healthy susceptible birds are im¬ 
munized. 

The recommendations given in this 
article are for use with the methods, 
equipment and intranasal-type New¬ 
castle vaccine which have been care¬ 
fully tested and proved to be effec¬ 
tive. 


Those Broody Hens 


Broody hens have become almost 
extinct. Yet the trait of broodiness 
is a persistent one, and rightfully 
so; without it, and the modern de¬ 
vice of artificial incubation, the 
species would become extinct. The 
White Leghorn breed has had a long 
history of freedom from broodiness. 
Ye.t, despite this reputation, one can 
get White Leghorns today that show 
considerable broodiness, particularly 
if they come from a strain cross. 

Any crossing of strains or breeds 
may result in an increase of broodi¬ 
ness. Why? Because the tendency to 
broodiness is brought about by two 
independent pairs of genes, those 
minute particles of inheritance, un¬ 
seen but not unknown. These pairs of 
genes, when existing alone, are not 
operative but, as soon as they are 
mixed, nature goes on a rampage 
from the reproductive point of view. 
She wants more eggs hatched, so the 
hens become broody. What makes 
matters worse, the genes function on 
a dominant basis: this means that 
broodiness develops even when the 
trait is impure, so to speak. Farmer 
A may have a non-broody stock with 
one type of gene, and Farmer B non¬ 
broody stock with the second type of 
gene. As long as they do not cross 
their lines everything will be fine, 


Inheritance of 

Of the 72 billion eggs hens are now 
laying every year in the United 
States, three billion of them break or 
spoil. This annual loss, often running 
higher to five per cent results large¬ 
ly from weak, porous shells. Weak- 
shelled eggs have long been an in¬ 
dustry problem, and scientists at the 
Agricultural Research Center, Belts- 
ville, Md., have been working with 
poultry breeders to solve it. 
i A hen inherits her ability to lay 
j eggs of desirable shell quality. The 
j hereditary characteristic is compar- 
j atively difficult, though, to breed 
; into and maintain in strains to al¬ 
ways produce eggs with strong, thick 
shells. 

In a breeding program to improve 
egg shell quality, the first step is to 
select hens that are laying the right 
kind of eggs. This means testing the 
shells. The trouble with this is that 
for practical farm purposes common 
tests, such as measuring thickness, 
weighing the shell or checking its 
strength, require breaking the egg. 

Now, poultry geneticist J. P. Quinn 
and associates of the U. S. Depart¬ 
ment of Agruculture have found a 
less drastic method than breaking 
the eggs and it holds promise for 
commercial use. They determine egg 
shell quality by checking moisture 
loss after 14 days of incubation. 

| This test merely makes use of the 
fact that eggs with strong, thick 
shells lose moisture less rapidly than 
• those with thin, porous shells. Con- 


but let some male birds fly over tne 
fence and, lo and behold, the next 
year a lot of broodiness will appear 
in all stock resulting from the cross¬ 
mating. 

What can one do about it? The 
ideal is to obtain stock properly bred 
so that broodiness is out of the 
question. Next best is the old-fash¬ 
ioned remedy of removing the broody 
hen from the nest and placing her 
in a cage. She should be fed ample 
mash and plenty of water, with grain 
on the light side, to encourage a re¬ 
newal of egg production. She should 
be returned to the pen after a week’s 
confinement in the cage. Hormone 
treatments have been used success¬ 
fully; diethylstilbestrol, when in¬ 
jected in the breast muscle of broody 
hens has been effective in bringing 
them back into egg production and 
hens thus injected can be left in 
the pens. 

While broodiness is a troublesome 
trait, it does not necessarily inter¬ 
fere too much with the total egg pro¬ 
duction of a fowl unless it recurs 
again and again. After one broody j 
period, a hen often will lay at a i 
higher rate of production than she 
did before her broodiness began. 
Here the process of nature seems to I 
make up for lost time. C. S. Platt 


Shell Quality 

sequently, actual loss can be deter¬ 
mined. by weighing the eggs at inter¬ 
vals or by candling them to deter¬ 
mine the size of the air cell. This 
method gives results as accurate as 
those obtained by breaking the eggs. 
Furthermore, by making selections 
at incubation time, a breeder can im¬ 
prove shell quality in his flock with¬ 
out interrupting his program in other 
respects. Culling out the thin-shell 
eggs in the incubator assures that 
the chicks hatched will have thick- 
shell inheritance: their mothers laid 
thick-shelled eggs. 

Starting with hens of medium shell 
quality, the scientists were aole to 
breed two widely diffei'ont strains— 
one producing good shells, the other 
producing poor shells—in about two 
years. 



“I do too think it was a nice idea, 
Honey! It’s just that hens are 
different from cows.” 






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for 

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FOR KINGSIZE PROFITS USE KINGSIZE BIRDS 

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Write for price list and literature. 
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— ANCONA CHICKs — 

THE BREED THAT LAYS MORE 
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Also 3 to 4 Week Old Started. Catalog Free. 
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iiaoDitB, Pigeons to New 

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Oent. 20 Live Poultry Terminal, long Inland Citv N Y 


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PEKIN DUCKLINGS. HILLPOT TURKEY FARM, 
BOX I, FRENCHTOWN. N. J. PHONE 29-J. 

DO YOU WISH TO SAVE $20.00 hundred on bal¬ 
anced bred great laying White Leghorn pullet chicks? 
83°, o laying for months. Write:' TRAIL’S END 
POULTRY FARM, RFD, G O R D 0 N SV1LLE, VA. 

- WHITE HOMER PIGEONS $3.00 PAIR -- 

O. E. HENDRICKSON, COBLESKILL, N. Y. 


ANNUAL 

POULTRY ISSUE 


February 5th 

The Annual Poultry Issue of The 
Rural New Yorker (February 5) 
will contain a wealth of information 
of interest to all poultry-raisers. It 
will be read and saved in more 
than 310,000 farm homes in the 
Northeastern States. 

Breeders and hatcheries, who are 
seeking new customers, will find it 
profitable to have an advertisment 
in this big outstanding issue. Copy 
and instructions must reach us not 
later than Monday morning, Janu¬ 
ary 24, to catch the Poultry Issue. 

THE RURAL NEW-YORKER 
333 WEST 30th STREET 
NEW YORK 1, N. Y. 


THE RURAL NEW-YORKER 
















































































































Nationally known for resistance to leukosis, large 
chalk-white eggs, low feed consumption, less broodi¬ 
ness and flightiness, uniform development, vigor and 
persistence and MORE POULTRY PROFIT. 

It’s Net Earnings that Count 

Honegger Leghorns won the 1953 Calif. Net Earnings 
Test making a net egg profit over feed costs of $7.90 
per bird. In the Calif. Random Sample Tests, 
Honeggers hold a three year average of third place 
with $6.15 above feed costs per chick! 

For complete details see or write your Honegger 
Associate Hatchery. 

FREE CATALOG ON REQUEST 


KORNBAUS POULTRY FARM 
GENESEO, NEW YORK 

BROOKSIDE POULTRY FARM 
WILLIAMSON, NEW YORK 

SAAR I AND KOSKINEN 
TRUMANSBURG, NEW YORK 

GOLDEN EGG HATCHERY 
SPRUCE STREET, R, D. 4, 
LAKEWOOD, NEW JERSEY 

VANCREST FARM 
HYDE PARK, NEW YORK 




c 


oro 


WHITTAKER’S 


l-.. 1%i 


NEW HAMPSHIRES 


WHITE CROSS 


Winners Last Year! 
Leading This Year! 

Latest reports show that our pen of NEW HAMP- 
SHIRES IS LEADING ALL PENS OF HEAVY 
BREEDS at the New York Random Sample Test. 
In this same Test last year, Whittaker’s New 
Hampshires won an overall first place among the 
Heavy Breeds by showing an individual profit 
of $3.42 on each pullet housed. This consistent 
progress is proof that our breeding program is 
constantly going forward toward the production 
of better chicks. 

You Can Make This Your Big- 
Profit Year If You Order 
WHITTAKER’S CHICKS NOW! 

Write for FREE Folder and Price List. 

WHITTAKER’S POULTRY FARMS 

B °X 25, STRATHAM, N. H. 



HIGHLY EFFICIENT FOR 
COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION 

Chapman White Leghorns make high flock averages 
of large white eggs, are disease-resistant, and have 
low laying-house mortality. Small birds, very efficient 
feed convertors. Customers report 4 to 4'/ 2 lb. feed 
intake per doz. of eggs . . . 240-250 eggs yearly 
flock averages. Make a nice profit on your poultry 
with Chapman White Leghorns. Free folder and 
prices — write today. 

CHAPMAN FARMS 

244 W ARREN ST.,_GLE NS FALLS, N. Y. 

NEW BOOK 

Free l 

Read all about my 
Big-New Improved 

ANGQNAS 

1955 white egg 
machines. Lots of 
large white eggs 
at less cost per 
dozen. Write to — 

RAYMOND S. THOMAS. Route 2, SALTILLO, PA. 






New Illini Whites; New Barrel-Chest 
Pfcds® Cornish Crosses; Austra-X-Whites; Wyan- 
dotte-X-Rocks; Hamp-X-Kocks; Minorca- 
X-Leghorns, etc. Produce fancy market 
eggs and broilers. U. S. Approved. Pull- 
■"-."Sfei'^fiorum Passed. Catalog Free. Standard 
Hatcheries, Box 826-A Decatur, ILLS. 

January 1, 1955 


Here Come the Chicks! 

(Continued from Page 2) 

house must be scrubbed. I put lye 
water on the floor, using three 
ounces of lye to a gallon of water. 
Slosh it around good and up on the 
sides of the building, too. Wear rub¬ 
ber gloves and boots for this work. 
After this is done, we spray the 
whole thing with carbolineum. 

After the house itself is all slick 
and clean, we start in on the equip¬ 
ment—feeders, water cans, roosts, 
etc. Everything gets a scrubbing and 
a dose of disinfectant. 

Check the Equipment 

When you are cleaning your equip¬ 
ment, it is a good time to check and 
see if there is anything you need. 
There should be four feet of feeder 
trough for each one hundred chicks, 
when they are small, more later. I 
like to watch them eat and see if 
they can all get a chance. At first, I 
put little sticks alongside the trays 
to make it easier for them to reach 
the food. There should he two one- 
quart fountains for each 100 chicks. 
Later on, you can take out the small 
fountains and use three or five-gallon 
ones. 

I I like to use peat moss for the first 
bedding of the chicks. It is very ab¬ 
sorbent and does not mat down. It 
is easier to keep stirred up. But I 
have learned to order it several 
weeks before I need it because, once 
when I went to use it, I found it 
was damp inside the bale and I had 
to bring pans of it in the house to 
dry it out. So, now, I order it early 
and open it up to see if it is all right. 

We always put some building pa¬ 
per on the floor under the brooder 
and extend it out a foot or so. Then, 
we scatter the peat moss around 
about three inches deep. 

Start Brooders Early 

About a week ahead of time, we 
set up the brooder, and then it is al¬ 
ready to run for two or three days. 
We can get it regulated before the 
last minute. Of course, the chicks 
under it make heat but, in our clim¬ 
ate here, we usually have to run it 
as high as it will go at first. You 
cannot depend on the reading of 
the thermometer up under the 
brooder. I always have an extra one 
and fasten it on the curtain of the 
brooder so that I know what the tem¬ 
perature is a couple of inches above 
the floor. The first week, that needs 
to be 95 degrees F. Then, each week 
it can be lowered a little, but you 
need to use your judgment, accord¬ 
ing to the weather and the way the 
chicks behave. When the heat is all 
right, they will be in an even circle 
all around the edge of the brooder. 
If they are crowding, they are either 
too warm or too cold. 

I put papers down over the litter 
the first few days, until the chicks 
learn to eat their food instead of the 
bedding. When the chicks arrive, they 
find the finest chick grain and the 
finest grit (used sparingly) scattered 
around on these papers. It is fun to 
see them scratch and go for it, even 
at first. By feeding them only coarse 
ground grain the first two days, in¬ 
stead of mash, I have entirely 
avoided the trouble of their pasting 
up. After that, only starting mash is 
fed for six weeks, and then grain is 
used again, about one third as much 
as they eat of mash. 

Cannibalism never starts with my 
chicks. They are not over-crowded to 
begin with, but as soon as they are. 
three weeks oldd, I start giving them 
green stuff to eat. I like tender 
young dandelions best. If you have 
a wire sun, porch to let the chicks 
run in, it is a big help. 

listen To The Chicks 

It is not safe to remove the brooder 
before the chicks are six weeks old 
and I do not usually put mine out on 
(Continued on Page 31) 


HALL BROTHERS 

SILVER HALLCROSS 



meh 

DOLLAR "DRIVE" 


on the 


with the 


LET’S GET DOWN TO FACTS! The ‘Dollar Drive” is as important in 
chicks as it is in individuals but in chicks it cannot be acquired — it 
has to be BRED into them. The profit potential of your business is no 
greater than the profit potential of the chicks you buy. Why pay for 
only ordinary chicks to produce at a loss or at a minimum of profit? 
Remember — when you BUY THE BEST YOU PRODUCE THE BEST. 
Every penny saved in your purchase of chicks is a dollar lost in your 
ultimate profit. Since 1911 Hall Brothers have specialized in CHICKS 
WITH THE DOLLAR DRIVE — Chicks whose one purpose is to pro¬ 
duce dollars for you. And . . . they do it! Satisfied customers 
throughout the country can tell you so. Time after time Hall Brothers 
Chicks win top honors in Egg Laying Tests Throughout the Country. 
There must be a reason — there is! 

LET’S GET DOWN TO FACTS! LOOK AT THE RESULTS FROM 
RECENT EGG LAYING CONTESTS. SEE WHAT HALL BROTHERS 
SILVER HALLCROSS CHICKS CAN REALLY DO! 

23rd WESTERN NEW YORK EGG LAYING TEST 

Hall Brothers Silver Hallcross were the FIRST CROSSBRED PEN 
IN CONTEST. Produced Larger Egg Size than the average in 
the contest. LAID 13% MORE EGGS THAN THE AVERAGE. 
Mortality zero. 264 eggs per bird in 50 weeks. 

43rd STORRS EGG LAYING CONTEST 

Hall Brothers Silver Hallcross BEAT CONTEST AVERAGE by 
21.85 eggs and 26.94 points per bird and BEAT CROSSBRED 
AVERAGE by 18.26 eggs and 22.52 points per bird. 

YOU CAN HAVE CHICKS WITH “DOLLAR 
DRIVE’’ AND PRODUCE EQUAL RESULTS IN 
PROFIT IF YOU BUY HALL BROTHERS SILVER 
HALLCROSS CHICKS. 

WRITE TODAY FOR FREE 32 page catalog, 
illustrated in full colors, of all Hall Brothers 
Superior Breeds and Crosses. 

ORDER CHICKS NOW FOR EARLY DELIVERY. 

I-.---—--- 

l HALL BROTHERS HATCHERY, INC. 

j BOX 60, YALLINGFORD, CONN. 

| Geniiemtm Please send me your Catalog by return mail. 

| Nome _____ 

| Address____ 

| City __ _ _State _ 

I SA 




Produced S3,82 Net Income 


per bird over feed and chick costs 
at 1953 N Y. Random Sample Test. 

Hawley Leghorns had hen-housed average of 220.1 
eggs per bird (32.4 eggs per bird ABOVE test aver¬ 
age), and tied for lowest laying house mortality 
(only 4%). Remember, these are Random Samples of 
Hawley chicks (same as our customers receive) and 
Hawley chicks and good management you should be 
able to equal these results. Write today for free 
literature and prices. Also hatching Metcalf’s White 
Americans — the great new white broiler chicks. 


HAWLEY POULTRY FARM 

WARREN W. HAWLEY & SONS 
ROUTE l-D, BATAVIA. NEW YORK 


BALL POULTRY FARM 

Hatching year around Babcock strain Leghorns and 
Bail Red Rocks for egg production. Dominant White 
crosses for the meat producer. A visit to our farm is 
the best way to see how good these birds are. See 
our 11,000 layers, our new 3-story 100' x 40' brooder 
house, a 100 x 28' laying shelter which is ideal for 
summer layers, our modern hatchery where Ball chicks 
are hatched in spic and span Robbins incubators. 
Truck delivery to many areas. Write or call today 
for prices and early order discounts. 

BALL POULTRY FAJ? M,. ROUTE R, 

OWEGO, TIOGA CO., NEW YORK Phone: 1176 


PEDIGREED SINCE I 9 I & 



iMitHTIR 

—mazara-1 

Buy Parmsnter Chicks Now 
for SURE Profits! 

Parmenter Chicks are no gamble. We know they 
produce; contest records for the last 30 years 
prove they produce and Parmenter owners all 
over the country will tell you that PARMENTER 
Cleans PROFIT when it comes to chicks. 

Replace below-quota old hens now with Par¬ 
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next season's high-egg-price period. 

Choose any of our 5 breeds or crosses. Par¬ 
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SEND FOR FREE CATALOG AND PRICE LIST 

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484 KING STREET, 


FRANKLIN, MASS. 

—Ml Ifl—W I ■—■Til 11 ■ *1 


- MAKE MORE MONEY FROM POULTRY! - 

America’s leading poultry magazine tells how. Each 
issue packed with latest advice, helpful ideas. Bargain 
rates: 9 months 25c; 48 months $1. Subscribe TODAY. 
POULTRY TRIBUNE. Dept. 20, MT. MORRIS, ILL. 


29 






































































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FREE BOOK 

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Contains much helpful in¬ 
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WATERPROOTTAPER — DUPLEX 



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YOU, too, can easily 

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We Wish All Our Good Friends 


A HAPPY NEW YEAR 


The Editor of Publisher’s Desk 


Our family have been subscribers 
to your farm paper for over 40 years 
and, needless to say, we consider it 
the most worthwhile paper of its 
class in the country. I read your 
Publisher’s Desk article in the De¬ 
cember 4 issue regarding the F. T. C. 
investigation of insurance companies. 

! I think that my method of dealing 
with this type of trashy mail should 
be published for the benefit of all 
of your readers. I have received 
over 50 of these invitations to the 
“kill” in the past year and a ma¬ 
jority of them have “Ah’ Mail Reolv 
Requested” on the outside of the 
envelope. I simply remove the air 
mail envelope, seal it and drop in 
the mail box. It costs the insurance 
company seven cents to get this 
; empty envelope returned, so my ex¬ 
pense to them this season has been 
between three and four dollars. Can 
j you imagine what would happen to 
this racket if 30 million people 
would do this? b. s. 

Pennsylvania 

The Commercial Travelers Mutual 
Accident Assn., Utica, N. Y., has 
written us its views on the charges 
made against it and other health 
and accident insurance companies by 
the Federal Trade Commission. As 
to the three advertising misrepresen¬ 
tations charged by the F. T. C—1, 
that policy is non-cancellable; 2, 
that policy provisions are not as ad¬ 
vertised; and 3, that benefits do not 
cover pre-policy diseases, the compa¬ 
ny states: 1, it has never tried to 
imply that its policy was non-can¬ 
cellable; 2, to explain policy pro¬ 
vision in minute detail would run 
into exorbitant advertising cost; 
and 3, no health and accident 
company pays for pre-existing dis¬ 
eases. 

The company states that it has at 
all times been willing to cooperate 
with the F. T. C. in the betterment 
of insurance advertising practices, 
and that it received its copy of the 
most recent F. T. C. complaint 23 
hours after the story had been re¬ 
leased to the press. 

A subscriber shipped lampi'eys to 
a Long Island laboratory last Sum¬ 
mer. The Railway Express used 
every effort to get all to their des¬ 
tination alive, but due to circum¬ 
stances beyound their control, they 
were not always successful. The 
laboratory could not pay for the 
shipments that did not arrive in good 
order and the shipper asked us to 
help him recover from the Express 
Company for the “dead on arrival” 
lampreys. In reply to our inquiry 
the laboratory explained fully that 
the problem was very serious. Air 
freight refused to handle the ship¬ 
ments, so they must go by express, 
which meant using two or three rail¬ 
road lines. If a payment were made 
for losses, the express company 
might refuse to carry any further 
shipments. The subscriber saw the 
point and promptly wrote us that 
he knew the experiments were ap¬ 
proaching completion, and he would 
certainly prefer to supply the re¬ 
maining lampreys, as he seemed to 
have the only source of supply near 
enough to the laboratory. We were 
very glad to help to bring about 
an understanding of the whole situ¬ 
ation. We want to point out that 
sometimes people can work out their 
differences easily when the whole 
situation is understood. We thank 
the laboratory and our reader for 
their appreciation of the situation. 


Certainly you deserve great credit 
and gratitude for your fine work, 
exposing dishonest advertisers who 
have cheated honest folks every¬ 
where. (It is rare indeed to find a 
voice, these days raised in defense 
of poor victims, but here it is, in 
The Rural New Yorker, and here it 
has been for 44 years, retrieving over 
a million and a half dollars to vic¬ 
tims about to be cheated of it, and 
also exposing (and thus ending) the 
trickery of many who by fraud, had 
defrauded the public, and then dis¬ 
appeared). With reference particu¬ 
larly to contests. I believe contes¬ 
tants should be sent as much pub¬ 
licity in regard to winners and the 
answers as is used in putting on the 
contest. e. m. c. 

We thank E. M. C. for his apprecia¬ 
tion of the work we are doing in an 
effort to give information, help and 
advice to our subscribers. As for con¬ 
tests, we believe some rigid rules 
should be set up on the many that 
are being promoted. In one case we 
are told the contestant did not re¬ 
ceive a prize or notification as to 
winners, but the material sent in 
was used on the radio. It is to be 
remembered, however, that there is 
considerable duplication of ideas. 
One thinks a thought is original with 
her, but the same idea or thought 
comes to others as a natural reaction 
to the question. However, we agree 
that contests are too long drawn out. 
We do not know the remedy, but 
there must be one. 

In June of 1953 I mailed an elec¬ 
tric fence controller, costing $17, 
to the Jim Brown Stores for repair. 
Within two weeks they wrote and 
asked for $5.25 to repair it. I sent 
the money by check immediately. I 
have never received my controller 
back. I have written the company 
several times without reply, but fi¬ 
nally they wrote that they would try 
to find the controller. No offer was 
made to return my money. Later 
letters have been ignored. What 
happened to this concern? I con¬ 
sidered it a reliable and dependable 
company? w. e. b. 

We wrote the firm in May, and 
they stated their records showed 
the Fencer had been returned to 
the customer in September 1953. 
They promised to check the com¬ 
plaint. They again assured us that 
the Fencer had been returned. An 
affidavit from the Post Office showed 
that it had not been received by our 
reader. We requested the firm to 
send us necessary information to en¬ 
able tracing the package, but they 
replied that they never insured 
parcels and could nut help further. 
The conclusion seems to be that the 
Fencer has been lost in the mails 
and without receipts no further in¬ 
vestigation can be made. We regret 
that the matter had not been brought 
to our attention earlier, but after a 
year it is almost impossible to trace 
shipments, especially if changes 
have been made in company per¬ 
sonnel. 

At a meeting in New York a few 
housewives were asked to tell what 
they thought of utilities advertising. 
Many sensible suggestions were 
made. One was that utilities get 
salesmen “who will take no for an 
answer, then close the door and let 
me finish my housework.” 


30 


THF RURAL NEW-YORKER 























































Jersey 4-H Boy Wins Honors 


Richard F. Craig, Jr., Ludlow, 
Hunterdon County, is one of the big 
prize winners in the Garden State 
this year. He is an 11-year-old mem¬ 
ber of the Hunterdon County 4-H 
Club, and his 4-H animal, Glenburnie 
Radiant Sungift, is a purebred Guern¬ 
sey. He started the show season with 
a first prize ribbon in his class in 
the Hunterdon County 4-H Dairy 
Show, held in connection with the 
county Pomona Grange picnic, at 
Flemington fair grounds. Then he 
won the grand champion award and 
five other ribbons in the State 4-H 
Dairy Show at Flemington Fair. His 
animal was also in the State Guern¬ 
sey Show, where he won the grand 
champion award in the 4-H division, 


and second prize in the open class. 
At the Trenton Fair this year, he 
came in second in the open class. 
In both the 1953 and 1954 State 
Guernsey Shows, Richard’s entry 
won the Mulhocaway Farm trophy 
for the Best 4-H Animal in the Show. 
Last year, with this animal he took 
the same prizes at both the State 
4-H Dairy Show at Flemington, and 
at Trenton Fair, then went on to the 
National Guernsey Show at Waterloo, 
Iowa, where he came second in the 
4-H Show, and fourth in the open 
class. His animal was exhibited in 
the International Dairy Show in 
Chicago and won first in her class 
in open competition. 

D. M. Babbitt 



Richard F. Craig, Jr., of Ludloio, N. J., a 4-H Club member, and his senior 
yearling heifer, Glenburnie Radiant Sungift, were heavy winners on the 
1954 New Jersey shoio circuit. Guernsey judge, Roy Patrick of Salem, 

New Jersey, is shown with Richard. 



Mid-Atlantic Farm Show 

(Continued from Page 23) 

Auction Market won the medium 
white class. In the carton-egg classes, 
L & S. Jersey Egg Receivers, Inc., 
Toms River, took first prize for 
large whites; Pine Beit Eggs, Inc., 
Lakewood, placed first in the medium 
white class. The premier exhibitor of 
poultry was Stephen Costa, Minitola, 
N. J., who showed a trio of Araucana 


Jersey’s 100-Bushel Corn Club, the 
sample fiom Corn King Robert 
Lecher was featured. On his Moms 
County farm this year, Lecher pro¬ 
duced an average of 184 bushels of 
N. J. No. 7 per acre; he had an aver¬ 
age of 22,200 plants per acre and 
used the fertilizer equivalent of 200 
pounds of nitrogen, 159 of phos¬ 
phorus and ninety-nine of potash. 
The Vo-ag Corn King was Leon Rude 
of Sussex High School; he grew 162 




fowl along with a dozen of their blue 
eggs. The birds, from South America, 
are sometimes called “Easter-egg 
birds,” because of the tint to the 
shells of their eggs. 

In the Mid-Atlantic Hay Show, 
some 44 samples of baled hay slices 
were shown under bright lights. It 
was an attractive display and also, 
with the “Quality Hay Story” that 
went with it, an educational one. The 
substance of the story’s argument 
was: “High quality legume hay, with 
pasture and silage, is the key to eco¬ 
nomical meat and milk production 
for the Mid-Atlantic farmer.” The 


bushels of N. J. No. 8 to the acre. 
The 4-H King was Leslie Rea, Jr., 
Cape May County; he had 157 bush¬ 
els of N. J. 7 from an average acre. 
For the 98 New Jersey farmers who 
produced a hundred bushels of corn 
to the acre this year, the number of 
plants per acre ranged from 10,010 ' 
to 22,200. 

The Mid-Atlantic Farm Show is 
put on by the N.J. Department ol 
Agriculture in cooperation with 
Maryland and Delaware. j. n. b. 


Here Come the Chicks! 


results of a New Jersey hay survey 
were presented in an agreeable man¬ 
ner so that one could well see and 
accept that alfalfa has some 240 per 
cent as much protein as timothy 
does. The hay story also showed 
how curing methods affect grade of 
hay: 17 per cent of normal hay 
graded U. S. No. 1, while 22 per cent 
of crushed hay, 30 per cent of arti¬ 
ficially cured hay, and 47 per cent of 
crushed and artificially cured hay 
graded No 1. In the competition, 
Robert Lawrence, Holmdel, N. J., 
won the alfalfa class, Hominy Hill 
Farm, Colts Neck, the alfalfa-grass- 
Harry Blackwell, Penington, the 
mixed hay; Chester Slachecki, 
Smyrna, Del., the annual hay; and 
L. B. Westcott, Clinton, N. J., the 
grass hay. The Hominy Hill alfalfa- 
grass hay was the grand champion 
sample; Slachecki’s annual lespedeza 
was reserve champion. 

In the showing of corn from New 


(Continued from Page 29) 

range until they are eight. If you 
begin getting them used to roosting 
in the brooder house, you do not have 
any trouble with their piling up after 
the heat is taken away. 

Last, but not least, listen to your 
little chicks talk. When they are con¬ 
tented and happy, they make a soft 
peeping noise which I like to hear. If 
they peep with a shrill insistence, 
and a high tremulous tone, they are 
hungry or cold, or something else is 
wrong and you had better investigate 
at once. 

This is one reason that I like to 
have the brooder house near enough 
so that I know what is going on. A 
good key word for the poulti’y busi¬ 
ness is watchfulness. You cannot 
turn a flock of chickens loose and 
expect them to shift for themselves. 
You have to give them consistent, 
watchful and affectionate care. 


Books on Soils and Crops 


Forage and Pasture Crops, 

W. A. Wheeler.$8.00 

Tree Crops, A Permanent 
Agriculture, 

J. Russell Smith. 6.00 

Soils and Fertilizers, 

Firman E. Bear. 6.00 

Diseases of Field Crops, 

James G. Dickson. 6.00 

Fundamentals of Soil Science, 

Millar and Turk. 5.50 

Field Crops and Land Use, 

Cox and Jackson. 5.50 

Grasses and Grassland Farming, 

H. W. Staten. 5.00 

Farm Wood Crops, 

John Preston . 5.00 

Practical Field Crop Production, 

Ahlgren, Snell, et al . 5.00 

Developing Farm Wood Crops, 

John Preston . 4.50 


For sale by The Rural New 
Yorker, 333 West 30th St., New York 
1, N. Y. (New York City residents, 
add 3% Sales Tax.) 


DEALERS WANTED 

Make winter a high-profit season with Rite- 
Way’s new one-man Chain Saw! Sells FAST by 
demonstration—farmers see for themselves how 
light and easily it handles, and what a tre¬ 
mendous job it does! Three full horsepower at 
the cut! The blade has a 360-degree swivel, 
locks instantly in any position—no other saw 
its size has this! New magnesium alloys make 
the Rite-Way light—yet tough and rugged! Ex¬ 
clusive automatic oiling system . . . complete 
roller-bearing mounting . . . narrow guide bar, 
centered for balance . . . easy-to-sharpen three- 
S! y ™ aw chain! Exclusive franchise and 30-DAY 
FREE TRIAL to responsible parties. 

WRITE TODAY TO DEPT. R-A 

Rite-Way Dairy Div., Package Machinery Co, 

EAST LONGMEADOW, MASSACHUSETTS 


Subscribers 9 Exchange 

Rate of advertising in this department 20e per 
word, including name and address, inser¬ 

tion, payable in advance. When box number ia 
used, figure five words for the box number. 

Copy mast reach as Monday, 10 A. M 
12 days in advance ol date of issue.. 

This department is for the accommodation of 
subscribers, but no display advertising or adver¬ 
tising of a commercial nature (seeds, plants, 
livestock, etc.) Is admitted. 


HELP WANTED 

SMALL, psychiatric hospital wants female 

practical nurses or attendants. BOX 731, 
Rye, New York. 


WANTED: Poultryman, working brooding 

foreman. Likes to start and grow chix! 
Responsible, capable, bonus, profit-sharing 
incenuUves, future. Write experience and 
starting salary. BOX 5109, Rur al New Yorker! 

PRACTICAL nurse or attendant for mild 
mental patients, good working conditions. 
Live in preferred. Hi ’ " 

Chester, N. 


- -- __ng 

Y. WE 9-?42Q P ° int HOSPUa1 ' P ° r{ 


SITUA TIONS WANTED 

WE are suppliers for dairy farms, first class 
milkers, tractor men, general farm workers. 
Ellinger s Employment Agency, 287 Greenwich 
St,, New York 7, N, Y. BArclay 7-0619, _ 

FARM Manager: All branches: percentage 
basis. BOX 5102, Rural New Yorker. _ 

SUPERINTENDENT: Gardener. experience 

greenhouse, wants position on private es¬ 
tate. Best references. Wife available, no 
children will go any where. State all facts 
m first letter. James Bresmon, 523 Steamboat 
Road, Greenwich, Conn, _ 

MAN seeks work, baritone singer, popular 
songs houseman, gardener; 35, white, single. 
Penn s ylvania. BOX 5101 ,_Rural_New_Yorker. 

FARM and dairy help for machine and hand 
milkers. Tractor men, yard men, also poul¬ 
try and al kinds of labors. Quinn Employment 
Agency, 70 Warren St ., New York 7, N. Y. 
YOUNG married man wants to manage small 
fa J m or herd. Agricultural college 
graduate, farm experience. Want living char¬ 
ters and privileges. References. Write W. J. 
Bramgan, R. D, Blairstown, New Jersey. 

FARMS FOR SALE. TO RENT. ETC 

SUNNY Southern Jersey: New list, all types of 

farms and country homes mailed free. New 
waterfront, Le Gore, Realtor. Vineland. N. J. 

DELAWARE, mild Winters, low taxes. Homes, 
farms^ businesses. H. L. Wallace Realty, 
R. 1, Farmingt on, Delaware. 

WANTED: All types real estate and businesses 
for sale, New York State and northern 
Pennsylvania location. Telephone or write 
Werts Real E s tate, Johnson City , New York. 
SOUTH CAROLINA dairy farm: Now in profit- 
nation, year round pastures; milk 
price $6.20 cwt this summer. 836 acres, near 
Charleston. On deep waterway, 8 miles from 
°ee an - £ a Y ed highway. De Lavel pipe line 
milker. Price $90,000 without herd or equip- 
Yorker Terms arran ged. BOX 5011, Rural New 

COUNTRY homes for summer or retirement- 
three rooms up. Build it yourself or have 
us do it. We supply the materials, etc for 
concrete homes. Lots for sale. Terms. Rain- 

New Ym-k ’cfty 1 ! 6 BUSh ' N ' Y ' 70 mil6S fr ° m 

^M^^OGA SPRINGS: 50 acres, near corner 
ot South Broadway. New development. Ideal 
for motels. Two miles from post office. Also 
Aiiof , Parcels at bargain prices. Mrs. 

Dillon, licensed real estate broker, 
145 Union Ave., Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

MAN wants acreage for trailer rent or buy 
Pennsylvania. BOX 5103, Rural New York er! 

WANTED: Small house agout $3,000. BOX 
5107, Rural Ne w Yorker. 

FLORIDA: Two bedroom home, and also a 
store building; $5,000 for both, some terms. 

7 1 Texas McAdo °’ 3102 w - 7th - Fort Worth 

WANTED: Moderately priced" small house or 
camp with acreage, brook, electricity; with¬ 
in 50 miles west or northwest of Hartford 
New n 'Yorker ful1 Particulars. BOX 5104, Rural 

WAj^BD - to~SuyTTFarnn 4 or 5 rooms, with 
small apple orchard, 10 or 20 acres; 80 
Yorker r ° m N 6W York - BOX 5110, Rural New 

_FRUITS AND FOODS 

AVERY’S Golden Wildflower honey: 5 lbs. 

$1.75 10 lbs. $3.35 prepaid. 60 lbs. $8.50 not 

prepaid. H. J. Avery, Katonah, New York. 

C ° 1V 1P Honey: Big chunks clover comb: 5 lb. 

W-95. (5 lbs. Extracted $1.65. six pails 
N4 00) y k prepaid ’ Charles Peet. Marathon, 


WASSAIC State School, female ward atten¬ 

dants, 18 years or over, $2940 to $4005 per 
year less maintenance (six days per week). 
For information, write Director, Wassaic State 
School, Wassaic, New York. _ 

WORKING manager wanted: To run excellent 

dairy farm. No investment, profit sharing 
basis. Write experience and references. BOX 
4904, Rural New Yo rker. 

WANTED: Middleaged couple or single man: 

willing to board self. Small dairy farm, new 
apartment; no outside work. State wages. Jos. 
O. Canby, Langhome, Pa. _ 

FARM Hand: Assistant to capable farmer. 

Under 40. Permanent position with future. 
Experience with livestock, farm implements, 
ground work and chores essential. Three room 
unfurnished cottage with refrigerator, stove, 
oil burner, near Trenton, New Jersey. Write 
in detail stating age, experience, salarv ex- 

S ected, and size of family. BOX 5000, Rural 
ew Yorker. 


coior added, irom grove direct to you ex¬ 
press prepaid, delivery guaranteed. One bu=hel 
oranges $5.50: one bushel grapefruit $5.00; one 
bushel mixed $5.25; half bushels $3.50. Add 
50 cents west of Mississippi. Dillingham Groves, 
Largo,_Florida._ 

TREE ripened oranges or grapefruit or mixed 
v. to , orde I,-- Express free. Bushel $5.15; y, 
Park 6 fif'^d U Corliss ’ Box U24 - Winter 


WALSINGHAM Groves, Largo Florida ready 
stop.: Oranges per bushel $5.50; \ 2 bushel 
„ Ml3 5 ed per bushel $5.25; V 2 bushel $3.25. 
£225 fPult per bushel $5.00; \ 2 bushel $3.25. 
'Ilfs in season per bushel $5.75; y 2 
?? -73 ’ Express paid. When express runs 
tocher than average New York express add 
additio nal express. 

S ^CKED Goose: whole bird $1.30 pound, post- 
Ontario A N er ¥ e weight 7 P° uncis - J- Connor, 


YOUNG man or boy for general farm work. 

Prefer no smoking. Russell Peters, Callicoon, 
New York. _ 

D-AIRYMAN-Farmer: Milking parlor, loose 

housing, registered Holsteins, apartment. 
Bucks County, Penna. BOX 5106, Rural New 
Yorker, _ 

COUPLE: Man for maintenance and carpenter 

work. Wife to help housework. Fisher, 
Delsea Drive, near Butler Ave., Vineland, 
New Jersey. _ 

MOTHER’S helper: $150 per month, private 

room and bath. New house, latest appliances. - 
N. Y. suburbs. Reply Mrs. L. S. Abernathy; 

2 Ivy Hill Road. Lawrence Farm, East 
Chap paqua, N. Y. _ 

GARDENER and caretaker: Couple or man 
for small estate in New Canaan. Comfort-* 
able apartment available. Man experienced in 
gardening and some carpentry, painting, etc. 
Part-time services of woman for laundry, light 
housekeeping for small adult family. Write 
giving previous experience, present earnings, 
etc, to BOX 5105, Rural New Yorker. __ 

EXPERIENCED middle age landscape gardener 

for small nursery in Penna. Good working 
conditions. Write stating salary and experi¬ 
ence. Open April 1st. BOX 5100, Rural New 
Yorker, __ 

SAWYER: For Ireland mill-electric power. 

Good working conditions, $78 week. Must 
know this mill. Burma Road Lumber Co., 
P. O. Box 39, Bergen Station, Jersey City, 
New Jersey. __ 

MARRIED man for dairy farm. Experienced 

hand and machine milker and general farm¬ 
ing. Good wages and house. Fred Weissmann, 
Harpursville, N. Y. near Binghamton, N. Y. 
Tel. Harpursviile 5-1161,__ 

ASSISTANT herdsman for purebred Hereford 
and Yorkshire farm. Some field work. 
Opportunity for experience. 3-room apart¬ 
ment. No children. Edgar Wilcox, Manager, 
Powisset Farm, Dover. Mass. Dover 8-0164, 

EXPERIENCED Sawyers: Right hand Lane 

mill. Electric power. Steady and good work¬ 
ing conditions. Donatoni Brothers, Rockaway, 
Ne w Jersey. ___ 

SOBER, dependable man on small poultry 

farm. Excellent board. Give full particulars, 
references. Coventry Poultry Farm, Route 2, 
Coventry. Conn, _ 

WOMAN: 20-40, housekeeping, care of two 

children. Live in. Start $25 weekly. Write 
Mrs. J. Kenneth Shepard, Ridge Acres, 
Darien. Conn, _ 

WANTED: Single man for vegetable gardens, 

flowers, lawns, and general maintenance on 
small estate. Excellent wages for good man. 
Fenwick Farms, Augusta, New Jersey. 


DAIRYMAN Wanted January 1st. Must be 
able, willing and capable to care for large 
herd of Jerseys. References will help. Good 
living quarters. Write Meadowby Farms Inc., 
Columbus, New Jersey. 


5 Pounds mixed, $2.00. Peanuts in shell' 5 
Windsor, Vir ginia^ 11 postpaid - Joy A cres, 

BUTTERNUT and hickorynut meats: Pound 
S 2 ; 35 * 2 pounds $4.50; 5 pounds $10. Apple 

WeUsvilli! W p e a t . ) P ° Und $2 ’ 10 ’ R ’ L ’ Harman, 

HEW, Honey: Our famous choice clover New 
Y ° r ks finest: 5 pounds $1.65; 6-5’s $7.98 

postpaid 3rd zone. 60 pounds $9.00 F. O B 
Sold by ton or pail. Howland Apiaries, Berk¬ 
shire, .New York. 


v*? COUNTRY BOARD _ 

SBBINGER^ private Hospital, Johnson City, 

N. Y., offers good maternity care; unwed 
mothers cases kept confidential. 


,5 


MISCELLANEOUS 


STRAW and all grades of hay delivered sub¬ 

ject to inspection on arrival. J. W. 
Christman, R. D. 4, Fort Plain, N. Y. Phone: 
4-8282, _ 

WANTED: Civil and Revolutionary war pistols, 
revolvers, powder flasks, bullet moulds, any 
condition. Robert Ellis, R. F. D. 1, Derry 
New Hampshire. _ 

TOBACCO: Pipe, 4 lbs. $2.00; Natural leaf for 

chewing or smoking, 10 lbs. $6.10; Second 
grade $4.50, postpaid. L. Pulliam, Patesville, 
Kentucky. 


CHATTERBOXES Wanted: State year, con¬ 
dition, price. Clifford Hill, Mount Royal, 
New Jersey. ___ 

WANTED: Antique cars, any condition. Fass, 

5 Howell Place, Newark, New Jersey. _ 

HAY for sale: Trefoil mixed with timothy, 

$20 ton at farm; will deliver within 150 
miles; also seed for sale trefoil or timothy ail 
size lots. Med-O-Dale Farms, R. F. D. 2, 
Altamont, N. Y. 


FOR Sale: 1 2-horse farm wagon, 1 2-horse 
spring wagon, 1 2-horse sulky plow, snow 
scraper, 1 pair heavy bob-sleds. E C. Bryan, 
Woodmont, Conn. 


WANTED: Old postage stamps, envelopes, 
collections. E. R. Hendriks, Spring Valley, 
New York, _ 

FOR Sale: Homespun yarn. Mrs. Charles 

Sag e , Carthage, New York. _ 

WANTED: Small A. C. electric power unit, 
1,800 W. Write to Henry Wessels, Otisville, 
New York, _ 

WANTED: Large used farm bell, state con¬ 
dition, price. John Klements, Huntsburg, 
Ohio.__ 

WANTED to buy: United States coins. Dr. 
Stewart Gay, Monticello, New York.__ 

WANTED: 400,000 feet standing poplar tim¬ 
ber. Edward Schiller, Lambertville, N. J. 


January 1, 1955 


31 




























































































































































RAYNER’S 1955 CATALOG 

Points the Way to REAL PROFITS with 

YIELDING BERRY PLANTS 


As SUCCESSFUL GROWERS tell It: 


• “I am writing you to compliment you 
on the wonderful strawberry plants we 
purchased from your company last year. 
We have had a wonderful crop from 
them, and our customers come back 
for more and more of those delicious 
berries as they call them.” — T. 
McELROY, PEARL RIVER, N. Y. 


• “I received my Premier plants on April 
26 and planted them at once. I take 
this opportunity to thank you for the 
beautiful, strong, healthy plants. I have 
bought many strawberry plants before, 
but these were extra beautiful. All 
plants are growing nicely. You may 
rest assured that I will place my order 
with vou again next year.” •— NICK 
KIKINA, WALDEN, N. Y. 


i “I received 1,000 Sparkle plants in 
fine condition. They are doing the best 
of any strawberry plants I have ever 
planted in the ten years that I have 
raised them. Thanks for the fine plants.” 
—JAMES HUFF, BURNHAM, MAINE. 


i “Last Spring (1954) I purchased Poca¬ 
hontas and Robinson plants which I set 
out under your directions. It is hard for 
me to describe the difference in growth 
of these varieties. The Pocahontas re 
extremeiy vigorous and have a ma ted 
row approximately 2-3 ft. wide. The 
plants are at least a foot high and have 
a dark green healthy appearance. Several 
neighbors with considerable strawberry 
experience have marvelled at this bed, 
and I am sure I have interested buyers 
in this area. I think this will be a big 
seller and I'm sure my bed tops any in 
this area.” — ROBERT P. DUDLEY, 
RIVERSIDE, PA. 


“The plants I received on the order I 
placed with you were far better than 
I have received from any other company. 
You will be hearing from my friends 
and also from mo again and again.” 
— GEORGE E. GRAUBNER. ROSS- 
MAYNE, OHIO. 


RAYNER’S Big 1955 
Illustrated Catalog 

9 FULLY DESCRIBES “N E W” 
STELEMASTER Premier, Temple, 
Sparkle, Robinson, Catskill, Fair¬ 
fax, Fairpealte, Redstar, Armore, 
Empire, Red Rich, Big Joe, Fair- 
land, Pocahontas, Dixieland, and 
many other favorites. 

• HOW TO GROW THEM. 

• HOW' TO SELECT varieties that 
are best for your climate. 

• WHEN TO PLANT. 

• HUNDREDS OF valuable hints 
on bigger profits GROWING 
BERRIES. 


STRAWBERRIES 

Blueberries Raspberries 


ASPARAGUS 

All the Best-Known Varieties. . .all are the superior Rayner Plants, assured 
by 29 years experience, backed by honest effort and the most modern 
production methods. 

Rayner's New Virus-Free Strawberry Plants are all healthy, sure to grow stock. 
Parent Plants originally furnished us by the U. 5. Dept, of Agriculture to 
supply better and more productive Strawberry Plants for the American 
Farmer and Gardener. 

FruitTrees-Regular & Dwarf-Nut Trees-Ornamentals 
Shrubs - Holly - Rhododendrons - Evergreens, Etc. 


★ ★ * 



"We want to express our sincere 
thanks to the thousands of Rural 
New Yorker readers who order 
our Berry Plants year after year 


“JACK” 

H. J. W. RAYNER 


“BOB” 

S. H. RAYNER 



Rayner’s 

STRONG, HEALTHY 
PLANTS 


Rayner’s Good Vigorous Plants are an im¬ 
portant essential in profitable Berry Grow¬ 
ing, Rayner’s Plants are founded on the 
vital “healthy foundation” ■. . all packed 
with pep and vitality . . . and priced to 
SAVE YOU MONEY! 



See Our Booths 537-538 at Penna. Farm Show 

Send Coupon 7oday 

E C gj&hg 

SALISBURY 50, MARYLAND 

OUR 29TH CONSECUTIVE YEAR ADVERTISING IN THE RURAL NEW- 
YORKER WHO GUARANTEE DELIVERY OF PLANTS AS ADVERTISED — 


RAYNER BROTHERS 

SALISBURY 50, MARYLAND 

Send at once your FREE ILLUSTRATED 1955 CATALOG listing leading varieties 
of Berry Plants, Shrubs, Fruit Trees, Ornamentals, etc. 


NAME 


ADDRESS 


CITY 


P. O. BOX 
OR ZONE 



STATE . 

i mm-am ■» as mb mi an m am r% mi XaaaaBaiiHBa aa « aaaaaa ar 'mwavaa m m * 





































JANUARY 15, 1955 


A Good Family Cow 










































































YOU GET UP TO 20% LONGER WEAR 
AT NO EXTRA COST WITH 



FIRESTONE TRACTOR TIRES 


y |"any tractor tires may appear to 
be the same, but it is the extra 
service you get from the tire that will 
make a big difference in your farm 
costs. 

Like farmers everywhere, you will 
find that Firestone Tractor Tires are 
the longest wearing tires money can 
buy. And, one of the reasons for this 
extra long wear is Firestone’s tough 
tread rubber compound. It doesn’t cost 
you a penny more; yet it gives years 


of extra service. You get greater draw¬ 
bar pull because the tread bars retain 
their sharp biting edge longer. The 
new tread rubber compound resists 
rapid wear on hard surfaced roads and 
hard soil. It also gives better perform¬ 
ance in all kinds of tough stubble. 

Compare before you buy! Let your 
Firestone Dealer or Store show you 
why Firestone Tractor Tires last 
longer, pull better and do more work 
for your tire dollar. 


Always Specify ?”frt$tOnt Tires 



Get More 
Winter Traction 

with ?lr**fon« 

Tires on Your Car 
and Truck 


TOWN & COUNTRY 


SUPER ALL TRACTION 


The Town and Country is the 
greatest mud, snow or ice 
passenger tire ever built. A 
quiet highway tire as well as a 
traction tire. 

The Super All Traction truck 
tire takes hold and moves the 
load in mud, in snow, or on 
wet or icy roads. 


Enjoy the Voice of Firestone on radio and television< every Monday evening over ABC 


Copyright 1955, The Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. 


i 


Costs of Apple and 
Peach Production 

I am engaged in the appraisal o 
an extensive fruit operation in thf 
northern part of New Jersey ii 
which apples and peaches are th< 
crops raised, and I am wondering 
whether there are any figures avail 
able which would give average cost; 
of apple and peach production. 

On the West Coast we have vel} 
accurate information on the cost in 
production of oranges, broken dowf 
by cost per field box, which enable; 
one to make a rather accurate ap 
praisal of an orchard, but I have not 
as yet been able to secure any figures 
on apples and peaches. j. p. m. 

New Jersey 

In 1946, Wright and Johnston 
(Michigan Agricultural Experiment 
Station, E. Lansing, Michigan) pub 
lished two circular bulletins cover 
ing apple and peach costs: Cir. 201- 
Peach and Cherry Costs in Michigan; 
and Cir. 202—Apple and Pear Costs 
in Michigan. 

Apple costs per bushel, orchard 
run fruit, were $1.55 in 1943, based 
on a yield of 108 bushels per acre. 
Packing costs for this period were 
47 cents per packed bushel, or a total 
cost of production per packed 
bushel of $2.29 when 17 cents per 
bushel is added for shrinkage and 
10 cents per bushel for selling costs. 

Peach costs per bushel, orchard 
run, were $2.20 in 1943, based on a 
yield of 74 bushels per acre. Pack- 
ling costs ranged from 44 cents to 50 
cents per bushel, or a total cost of 
production per packed bushel from 
$2.64 to $2.70. This does not include 
the selling costs of about 20 cents 
per bushel. 

Cost of production at the present 
time is probably slightly higher; 
there are no figures for 1953 or 1954. 

For both apples and peaches, the 
cost per bushel is reduced with in¬ 
creases in yield. For example, apple 
costs per bushel in 1943, orchard- 
run, for yield of under 80 bushels 
per acre were $2.71; for 80 to 149 
bushels per acre, were $1.41; for 150 
bushels per acre or over, were $1.10. 
High yields, not just during one year, 
but consistently, are necessary fol¬ 
low production cbst per bushel. 

According to the Department of 
Agriculture Economics, Cornell Uni¬ 
versity, Ithaca, N. Y., labor accounts 
for about one-half the cost of produc¬ 
ing apples. 

Unlike the citrus region of Cali¬ 
fornia, there are possibly additional 
factors other than cost of production 
that determine the success of an or¬ 
chard: regularity of bearing as in¬ 
fluenced by environmental factors 
such as spring frosts, winter cold, 
and availability of moisture; fruit 
quality as influenced by russeting', 
coloring, and size; age of the trees 
and distribution of trees in a ro¬ 
tation cycle. There are other factors, 
but these are a few of the major 
ones. l. d. t 




Tried shingling the roof 
With no safety device; 

Roof pitch was steep 
And so was the price. 

Beth Wilcoxson 

THE RURAL NEW YORKER 


34 
























































Hybrid Corn — 

Our Greatest Field Crop 

It’s remarkable to have corn that provides so well for dis¬ 
ease resistance and high yields. 20th century hybrids 
bring an abundance of feed and food to America. 


By D. F. JONES 


ROSSING different breeds of 
livestock and different varie¬ 
ties of plants usually gives a 
stimulus to increased produc¬ 
tion. This is due to greater 
hardiness, more disease re- 
a better ability to survive under 
unfavorable conditions; the ability to take full 
advantage of favorable environmental factors 
also operates effectively. The mule, a sterile 
hybrid from the horse and the ass, has long 
been used and valued for its sturdiness and 
adaptability. Breed crosses in cattle, sheep, 
swine and poultry are being used in increas¬ 
ing numbers. 

Hybrid corn is the outstanding example of 
the value of crossing selected strains to ob¬ 
tain a maximum amount of hybrid vigor. 
Since hybrid corn has come into use, larger 
yields are obtained each year on reduced acre¬ 
age. The same method of hybridization is ap¬ 
plied to other crops, too, notably onions, 
tomatoes, squash, cucumbers, asparagus, grain 
sorghum and castor beans. 

Crossing does more than utilize hybrid vigor 
to the largest degree: it establishes a high 
degree of control over heredity. This is ob¬ 
tainable in no other way and it is possible 
only because the plants or animals can be 
closely inbred before crossing. It has long 
been known that inbreeding brings together 
a high concentration of inherited tendencies 
both good and bad. But it has been known, 
too, that it nearly always leads to reduced 
vigor and slower growth. By selecting in in- 
bred families for superior germplasm, it is 
possible to establish closely bred strains that 
are sufficiently vigorous and productive to be 
maintained as foundation lines. Then, by 
crossing these inbred lines it is possible to 



sistance and 



Crossing two inbred strains of corn (left and 
Tight) restores latent size and superior yield. The 
Tesults are the uniformly vigorous, high yielding 
hybrid plants ( center ) which also mature ears in 
a considerably shorter period of time. 


January 15, 1955 


combine the superior germplasm and get, in 
addition, maximum hybrid vigor. The cross has 
to be made new each generation and cannot 
be used for further propagation. The founda¬ 
tion inbred lines are fixed and constant in 
their breeding behavior, though, and can be 
maintained indefinitely. They will give the 
same superior result every time they are 
crossed in the same combination. 

Two Crosses Needed 

With corn and most animals, it is necessary, 
to make two successive crosses to build up 
vigor and productiveness to such a degree as 
will make the final cross fully productive and 
commercially practicable. This method has 
been called double crossing and is applied 
to corn and to poultry in the following way: 

Closely inbred strains are produced by con¬ 
tinuous self-fertilization, brother-sister ma¬ 
tings, or less intense systems of inbreeding. 
These result in decrease m size and reproduc¬ 
tive ability for the first five or six generations. 
This finally comes to a halt, though, and the 
inbred strains become uniform in size and 
growth rate; they remain constant for all 
measurable characters thereafter. Inbred 
strains of corn now in the 45th generation of 
continuous self-fertilization have shown no 
appreciable change in the last 35 years. Height 
of plant has been reduced from 10 or 12 feet 
to five to six feet, on the average. Yields of 
grain are down from 80 to 100 bushels per 
acre for the original varieties to 15 to 25 from 
the inbreds out of the same varieties. 

All inbred strains of field corn are so weak 
and unproductive that the first crossed seed 
cannot be used for general farm planting. The 
seed is too expensive and too small and irregu¬ 
lar in size to work well in farm planters any¬ 
way, and the seedlings grown from these 
small seeds are slow in starting. It is difficult 
to get a satisfactory stand in the field and to 
get the plants off to a good start ahead of 
weeds. For these reasons, it is necessary to 
cross two of the first crosses again. The double- 
cross was first produced at the Connecticut 
station in 1917. It was tested for five years 
and proved so outstandingly productive that 
commercial seed was grown by George S. 
Carter at Clinton, Conn., in 1921. A few years 
later the method was taken up in the midwest 
corn states, first by Marian T. Meyers in Ohio, 
James R. Holbert in Illinois and Henry A. 
Wallace in Iowa. From these small beginnings 
grew our present hybrid corn industry that 
supplies seed for nearly all of the 86,000,000 
acres planted to corn each year in this 
country. Farmers pay more than $100,000,000 
for the seed every year. 

The Double-Cross Method 

The double-cross method is also being used 
with poultry. Four inbred lines are used to 
produce the final hybrid chick. The inbreds 
may all be from the same breed but usually 
are from different breeds. Leghorns, Rhode 
Island Reds, New Hampshires, White Wyan- 
dottes and Plymouth Rocks are most gener¬ 
ally used. 

Crosses of inbred chickens have the same 
advantages over breed crosses that hybrid 
corn has over varietal crosses. Breed and 
varietal crosses have hybrid vigor, but they 
lack the exact control over heredity that in¬ 



Photos: Conn. Experiment Station, New Haven 


The latest improvement in the production of hy¬ 
brid corn is the use of pollen sterile varieties. 
They eliminate expensive labor of detasseling. 
Here Dr. D. F. Jones looks into some of his trial 
hybrids at the Connecticut station. 

breeding and close selection make possible. 

Unfortunately, large animals are so costly 
and difficult to maintain as individuals under 
close inbreeding that the same methods can¬ 
not be used with cattle, sheep and swine. For 
these, a modified inbreeding and crossing pro¬ 
gram is being practiced with considerable 
success. Exactly the same principles apply to 
all animals and plants. If uniform inbred 
families can be produced, and they are suffici¬ 
ently vigorous and productive to be main¬ 
tained, hybrids can be successfully produced 
from them. 

In Denmark, swine crosses are used ex¬ 
tensively and in America the Minnesota crosses 
are finding favor. In Italy, crosses between 
Brown Swiss and Holstein dairy cattle are 
becoming increasingly popular. Where the ani¬ 
mals are kept indoors all year, as in southern 
Europe, hybrid animals are less subject to 
disease. 

In Italy and Japan, hybrid silk worms are 
used exclusively. With these, it is just as easy 
to make crosses as to propagate them in any 
other way. People soon learn that crosses of 
selected inbred strains are much more disease 
resistant and productive than ordinary kinds. 

Plant Pollination Methods 

While all domesticated animals can be 
crossbred, only a few cultivated plants are so 
constructed in floral parts that they can be 
easily cross pollinated. Corn is probably the 
plant best naturally constituted for cross 
pollination; the male and female flowers are 
placed on different parts of the plant. The 
pollen-bearing tassel is at the top of the plant 
where it can be easily pulled out before pollen 
is shed. The usual method of producing hybrid 
seed is to plant the pollen parent in two rows 
and the seed parent in six rows between the 
two pollinator rows. As soon as the tassels 
appear above the leaves, and before any pollen 
(Continued on Page 38) 


35 


































Floyd Burris of Silver Creek, Chautauqua County, N. Y., examined his fine crop of Concord grapes before picking time. Most of the crop he shipped 

to a nearby plant for processing. 


The Concord Grape Belt j 

One of the world’s most productive grape areas is concentrated 
along the south shore of Lake Erie in western New 
York, Pennsylvania and northeastern Ohio. 


By ROBERT DYMENT 



HAT is the Grape Belt and what 
is the grape belt story? 
Thousands of New York State 
residents who drive to Cleve¬ 
land and points west via Route 
5 or U. S. Highway 20 each 
year pass through the grape area, but few, 
perhaps, realize the importance of what they 
see or pass through. 

One of the largest Concord grape areas in 
the United States is concentrated in western 
New York, northwestern Pennsylvania and 
northeastern Ohio. Called the grape belt, the 
region runs three to 10 miles wide for almost 
60 miles along the southern shores of Lake 
Erie. It is estimated that more than 80 per 
cent of all our frozen grape juice is packed 
here in this belt. Silver Creek, N. Y., is usu¬ 
ally considered the buckle end of the belt on 
the east and Painesville, Ohio, the strap end 
on the west. The best known regions are in 


Erie County, Pa., and Chautauqua County, 
New York. 

Snow Crop, Welch's, Snow Kiss, Fairmont, 
Libbys are a few of the grape juices packed 
in the belt. Some of the most modern and up- 
to-date processing factories to be found any¬ 
where in the world are situated in its heart. 

Establishment of the Grape Business 

The history of the Concord grape industry 
was made by many men. But a good sample 
of it can be taken from the story of the Welch 
Grape Juice Company, probably the largest 
grape processing plant in the area. In 1869, 
Dr. Thomas R. Welch invented the process of 
preserving unfermented fruit juice; with that, 
he pioneered a great industry of canned and 
bottled fruit juices. Before his time, most of 
the world's grapes were used to make wine 
and, in protest against the serving of wine 
at communion, Dr. Welch, working in his 


Vineland, N. J., kitchen, produced the world's! 
first processed juice. His discovery 85 years! 
ago marked the founding of the Welch Grape! 
Juice Company. 

Dr. Welch’s son, Dr. Charles B. Welch, like! 
his father a dentist, developed the business? 
into a company with nation-wide sales. Inj 
1897, it moved to its present home in West-1 
field, N. Y. 

In 1945, the controlling interest of the I 
Welch Grape Juice Company was sold to J. M.l 
Kaplan. The National Grape Cooperative:, 
Association was organized the same year;! 
it cooperates with the Welch Company in pro-! 
cessing and marketing members’ grapes. 

According to the “History of the Grape In-| 
dustry” by Walter Jack, Ephraim Bull of Con-1 
cord, Mass., a century ago first noticed an! 
unusual grapevine growing among other vines! 
from refuse seeds. His observation, then propa-| 
(Continued on Page 49) 


Typical of scenes in the N.Y.-Pa.-Ohio Concord grape belt is this fine vineyard of 15 acres of grapes oioned by William Hartwig in North East, Pa- 


36 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 

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WITH THE 
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^Estimated drawbar horsepower. 



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BETTER HYBRIDS FOR THE NORTHEAST 

% 

Plant Robson Hybrids This Year—Write for Catalog 


ROBSON skps, me 


This colorful, fully illustrated 
seed catalog- is your’s for the 
asking. It contains useful plant¬ 
ing suggestions for your field 
and garden crops. 

MAIL THE COUPON TODAY 

_ _a- - -—. 

Please Send Me 1955 Catalog: 
name .. 

ADDRESS . 


P. L. ROHRER & BRO., INC. 


BOX 70A, SMOKETOWN., LANCASTER COi., PA. 


BLUE SPRUCE 

COLORADO: excellent 6 year 
transplants, 8 to 12 in. tall 
Blue-green to marvelous blue 
color. Compact and sturdy. 

Postpaid at planting time. FREE Evergreen Catalog 


MUSSER FORESTS, 


Indiana. Pa. 


LOW AS 

25c 


2-YEAR 
FIELD- 
GROWN 

Flowering shrubs, evergreens, shade trees 25c up. 
Fruit trees low as 20c. Nuts, blueberries, strawberries. 
Grapes 10c. Quality stock can’t be sold lower. Write 
for FREE Color Catalog and $2.00 FREE bonus 
information. TENNESSEE NURSERY CO., 

BOX 125, CLEVELAND, TENNESSEE 


“KING OF THE EARLIES 

Big solid, scarlet fruit, disease 
resistant, heavy yielder. Ideal for 
table or canning. Send 125 SEED 
postal today for 125 seed KT®pE* 
and cooy of Seed and Nursery Catalog. I l»EE 

R.H.SHUMWAY SEEDSMAN, Dept. 428 Rockford, ILL. 


Due to greatly increased yields and high disease and wind resistance, 
hybrid corn has saved many American farms from being foreclosed. Here 
are field corn ears on a promising experimental hybrid variety grown at 
the Mt. Carmel, Connecticut, station. The stalks of the variety are strong 

and sturdy. 


FREE CATALOG 

Describes our New Virus-Free 
STRAWBERRY Plants. Foundation 
Stock originally supplied by U. S. 
Dept, of Agriculture. For the repro¬ 
duction of Better Plants. Blue¬ 
berries, Raspberries, Grapes, Fruit, 
Nut and Shade Trees, Shrubs. 
WRITE: RAYNER BROTHERS, 
SALISBURY 29, MARYLAND 


STRAWBERRIES 


are idea! family income projects. One- 
tenth acre yields 650 — 900 quarts. 
Allen’s Berry Book tells best varieties 
and How to Grow Them. Free copy. 
Wnte today. 

W. F. ALLEN COMPANY 
72 Evergreen Ave., Salisbury, Maryland 


STRAWBERRY PLANTS 

BLUEBERRY, RASPBERRY and ASPARAGUS 
IN ALL POPULAR VARIETIES. 

A Free Catalogue Full of Facts. No Fakes. 

H. D. RICHARDSON & COMPANY 
WILLARDS, BOX 8, MARYLAND 


WALTHAM 29 

New Broccoli for a FALL Crop 


■HARRIS SEEDS 

MONEY MAKING FALL CROP 

Its high yields, fine quality, attractive appearance and frost 
resistance make Waltham 29 a good seller in any market. 
After the center head is cut, a second crop of attractive, 
tight budded side shoots is produced. 

Waltham 29 is the result of years of breeding at the Mass. 
Experiment Station and is getting more popular each year. 
Equally good fresh or frozen. 

SEND FOR OUR FREE CATALOG TODAY 
If you grow for market, ask for our Market 
Gardeners’ and Florists’ Catalog. 

JOSEPH HARRIS CO., Inc. 

15 Morelon Farm, Rochester 11, New York 

1955 CATALOG jww Amdij 


tassels before pollen is shed. This 
results in varying amounts of self- 
fertilization which drastically de¬ 
creases yield in the final crop grown 
from this seed. Detasseling is ex¬ 
pensive and a difficult job to do 
properly. It means extra help at a 
time when other crops require at¬ 
tention. If the weather is unsuitable 
it may not be possible to get the job 
done at all; this results in consider¬ 
able loss to the seed producer. The 
extra labor is hard to find and may 
he difficult to manage. 

For all of these reasons, it was 
highly desirable to work out some 
method to avoid detasseling. For¬ 
tunately, it was found at the Connec¬ 
ticut station that there is a pollen 
sterile condition in corn that occurs 
naturally and that can be used to 
sterilize the tassels without other¬ 
wise altering the plants. This con¬ 
dition of no pollen production can 
be incorporated in most of the in- 
breds used as seed parents. The 
method is now being widely used and 
has resulted in the production of 
better hybrid seed. It removes the 
danger of self-pollination and dam¬ 
age to the seed producing plants. 
It requires very exact control over 
the breeding methods, however, in 
foundation seed production and can¬ 
not be used without full knowledge 
of the principles involved. The 
principal difficulty with the method 
is to regain normal pollen produc¬ 
tion in the final crop. This is being 
done satisfactorily and much of the 
hybrid seed now being planted is 
produced on plants that do not need 
detasseling. 

Ohviouslv. a method of preventing 


the production of hybrid seed. The 
same vigorous growth, abundant and 
long keeping quality in the flowers 
will come if the sterile pollen charac¬ 
ter can be found. For all of these 
reasons, hybrid vigor is being used 
with many domesticated animals and 
cultivated plants to increase control 
over their heredity and to give in¬ 
creased production. 


Books on Soils and Crops 

Forage and Pasture Crops, 

W. A. Wheeler.$8.00 

Soils and Fertilizers, 

Firman E. Bear. 6.00 

Diseases of Field Crops, 

James G. Dickson. 6.00 

Fundamentals of Soil Science, 

Millar and Turk..'.. 5.50 

Field Crops and Land Use, 

Cox and Jackson. 5.50 

Grasses and Grassland Farming, 

H. W. Staten. 5.00 

For sale by The Rural New 
Yorker, 333 West 30th St., New York 
1, N. Y. (New York City residents 
add 3% Sales Tax.) 


The 

Rural New Yorker 


Vol. CV 


No. 5828 


Published Semi-Monthly by The Rural 
Publishing Co., 333 W. 30 St., New York 
1, N. Y. Pr-ice 50c a Year. Re-entered as 
Second Class Matter September 6, 1945, 
at the Post Office at New York, N. Y., 
under the Act of March 3, 1879. 


Cover Picture Ly—Carl Mansfield Photos 
Steubenville, Ohio 


SELECTED 

Northern Grown, Hardy 
Oats, Corn, Barley, 
Soy Beans, Clover, 
Pasture Mixtures, 
Special Grasses, Etc. 


ADAPTED 

We Grow Only The 
Best Seeds--Approved, 
Recommended Varieties 
--A II Tested, Tried 
and True To Name. 


ROBSON 

“adapted 

HYBRIDS 


Hybrid Corn — Great Field Crop 


(Continued from Page 35) 

is shed, the tassels are pulled out. 
Detasseling machines travel down 
the rows elevating the tassel pullers 
at the right height for convenient 
pulling at a speed that enables all 
the tassels ready for pulling to be 
removed speedily. 

It is usually necessary to go over 
the fields alternate days for a period 
of 10 days or two weeks; sometimes 
it is for a longer period. In rainy 
weather it is impossible to use de¬ 
tasseling machines and it is neces¬ 
sary then to go on foot, bending over 
the plants to reach the tassels. This, 
of course, increases the labor cost 
considerably. 

Detasseling is also hard on the 
plants. One or more leaves are often 
pulled with the tassel, or they are 
injured in such a way that they no 
longer function. Smut and other in¬ 
fections often start where these 
leaves and tassels are broken. Many 
leaves are broken and damaged by 
the machines and by passing laborers. 
All of these factors reduce the yield 
of seed harvested. Moreover, it is 
seldom possible to remove all of the 


pollen production makes possible 
production of hybrid seed in many 
crop plants that cannot otherwise be i 
emasculated economically. The gene¬ 
tic method of sterilizing pollen-pro¬ 
ducing flowers was first used with 
the onion, then with corn, and is 
now being extended rapidly to the ; 
grain sorghums and a number of [ 
vegetable ci’ops. 

One of the most interesting .de- j 
velopments is being made in flower a 
production. At the Connecticut sta- ,1 
tion, a sterile pollen condition has I 
ben found in petunias. Hybrid pe- | 
tunia seed has been produced and | 
sold by seedsmen for several years I 
and the plants have exceptional H 
vigor; they bloom freely over a long I 
period. Sterile flowers, i. e. lacking I 
normal pollen, set little or no seed 1 
and produce more flowers; they also I 
stay fresh over a much longer period. 1 
The sterile pollen condition makes 
possible the production of hybrid 
seed more easily. Since the petunia 
is naturally self-fertilized, the flowers 
will have to be hand pollinated, but 
the sterile pollen will make this 
much easier to do. 

Other flowers can also be used for 


SEND FOR ROHRER’S 

FREE SEED CATALOG 


NEW 

1955 

ISSUE 


38 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 











































































See the new FORD TRUCKS 


4 












NEW Payload Champ of the Pickups! New Ford 
F-100 6 J/ 2 -ft. Pickup, GVW 5,000 lbs., now takes 
payloads up to 1,718 lbs., 132-h.p. Short-Stroke V -8 
or 118-h.p. Short-Stroke Six engine. 


Money-making POWER! Important longer-life engine advancements! 

The onl y full line of p roved , modern short-stroke engines in an y trucks! New work-saving? 
money-saving CONVENIENCE! New Money-making CAPACITIES! New reasons 
why Ford Trucks are gaining new buyers faster than any other trucks! 














NEVE'savings in ai! three areas! TRIPLE ECONOMY! 


Money-Making 
power saves gas! 


Only Ford gives you the gas-saving 
efficiency of proved, modern short- 
stroke design for every engine! Ford’s 
ultra-modern, overhead-valve engines 
—four V-8’s and one Six — cut piston 
travel, cut internal friction, save gas. 
And new engineering in valves, heads, 
crankshafts, electrical systems and 
cooling results in still greater 
durability, longer engine life! 


3 

3 

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Money-Making 
convenience saves work! 


Ford’s Driverized Cab sets new com¬ 
fort standards for ’55. New full foam- 
rubber seat and seat back in the 
Custom Cab*. Work-savers . . . like 
smoother Fordomatic * with new faster 
starting, low gear “step down” for all 
light duty series . . . Power Brakes* 
even for half-tonners . . . Power 
Steering* for most big jobs —makes 
driving much easier. * Modest extra cost. 


a 

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Money-Making 
capacity saves trips! 


New axle capacities, new stronger 
frames and springs, coupled with 
Ford’s high-payload construction, 
make Ford Trucks better load car¬ 
riers than ever. Ford’s new 14-ton 
Pickup, for example, has one of the 
biggest payload capacities of any 
Pickup: 1,718 lbs. Top payload ca¬ 
pacities in over 190 models, up to 
60,000-lb. GCW tandem-axle giants. 


NEW big-load Money Maker of 
the light duty line. New Ford 
F-350 9-ft. Express, GVW 7,700 
lbs., now handles over 114 tons 
of payload. New Fordomatic 
Drive and Power Brakes at 
worth-while extra cost. 


NEW Ford F-500 12-ft. Stake 
. . . sales leader of the In¬ 
formers, year after year! 14,000 
lbs. GVW with payloads up to 
8,504 lbs. New stronger 914- 
inch deep frame on 154-in. 
wheelbase. Choice of V-8 or Six. 


NEW higher power and com¬ 
pression in all light and heavy 
duty series Ford Trucks! Shown: 
F-600 designed for low-cost 
mounting of special bodies 714 
to 16 ft. 16,000 lbs. GVW. 
Choice of two V-8’s. 


NEW Ford F-800 BIG JOB. 

GCW 48,000 lbs., choice of two 
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Short-Stroke Cargo King V-8. 
Master-Guide Power Steering 
that cuts steering effort up to 75% 
available at modest extra cost. 


NOW AT YOUR LOCAL FORD DEALER 


January 15, 1955 


39 







































































Now You Can Grow EARLY Tomatoes 

u "°Ub.E«ch. 


TOP TOMATO 
NEWS FOR 1955 

The Early Tomato you have always 
wanted! Big, smooth, round fruits 
ripen deep red all over, right to the 
stem—no green tinge anywhere. 
Biggest early tomatoes ever—solid, 
meaty, extra delicious. The plants 
have so much hybrid vigor they 
grow faster, sturdier, bear heavier. 
The seeds are costly but worth far more 
than they cost. They surpass all ordinary 
early tomatoes—bear all season long. 

For limited time we’ll mail 10 Seeds FREE; send stamp 
for postage. Or for more plants, 70 Seeds postpaid $1. 

Burpee Catalog also FREE —vegetables, flowers. 

W.ATLEE BURPEE CO 477 Burpee Bdg. Philadelphia 32,Pa. 


BURPEE SEEDS GROW 



Diamond Jubilee CATALOG] 
64 Pages in FULL COLOR 

Send postcard for our FREE Cata¬ 
log today. Packed with Ornamen¬ 
tal and Flowering Shrubs and 
Trees, Fruit Trees (Dwarf and 
Standard), Berries, Shade Trees, 
Roses, Evergreens in all their gor¬ 
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"HOW TO" suggestions for best 
results. Diamond Jubilee SPE¬ 
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SWEET! DELICIOUS 

CHINESE 

CHESTNUTS 


An ornamrntal tree that pro¬ 
duces delicious nuts. Fast 
grower. Usually bears 2 yrs. 
after planting. Nuts as deli¬ 
cious and slightly larger than 
extinct American Chestnut. 
Plant 2 or more trees for pol¬ 
lination. 

KELLY BROS. 

NURSERIES, INC. 


18 to 24' 
TREES 


2 FOR 



31 MAPLE ST. 


DANSVCLLE, N. Y. 


FRUIT TREES 

Berry Plants, Grape Vines, 
Flowering Shrubs, 

Shade Trees, Evergreens, 
Hedging, Roses 

Hardy, Thrifty, Fibrous Rooted 
Trees and Plants 

SEND FOR CATALOG. IT CONTAINS A 
SPLENDID ASSORTMENT TO SELECT FROM 
AT VERY REASONABLE PRICES. 

WILSON NURSERIES 

Thomas Marks & Son 
WILSON R. F. D. I NEW YORK 


GROWING SINCE 1910 
Repeat Orders Produce Results 



10 Colorado Blue Spruce 

4 yr. transplanted, 3 to 6 

in. tall — only $1 postpaid; 22 

only $2 postpaid! Another Bargain; 

20 Evergreens, $3 postpaid; all 4 yr. 
old transplanted 4 to 10 in. tall. 

Five each: American Arborvitae, 

Douglas Fir, Red Pine, Norway 
Spruce, ali 20 for $3. (West of Miss. 

River add 25c.) FREE illustrated | 
price list of small evergreen trees. 

ALL TREES GUARANTEED TO 
LIVE. 

WESTERN MAINE FOREST NURSERY CO. 

DEPT. RN-135, Fryeburg, Maine 




Get BIGGER YIELDS 
from every acre 


BOOKLETS 
TELL HOW! 


Send for these 2 booklets today. 
Contain useful, helpful information 
and practical suggestions for grow¬ 
ing better crops, getting bigger 
yields. Handy pocket notebook 
contains many pages for your notes. 
Seed Guide tells ali about new 
seed varieties. Write today. 

A. H. HOFFMAN, &ne. 

Box 31-S, Landisville, Penna. 


JHRISTMAS TREE 


PLANTING STOCK. SCOTCH PINE A SPECIALTY. 
WE GROW MILLIONS. QUALITY STOCK AT 
LOW PRICES DIRECT FROM GROWER. WRITE 
FOR COMPLETE PRICE LIST AND PLANTING 
GUIDE. 

Suncrest Evergreen Nurseries 

DEPT. RNY, BOX 305, HOMER CITY, PA. 


FREE *1955 Plant Catalog 

Be thrifty, have bumper, crops with our hardy field- 
grown Cabbage, Onion, Lettuce, Broccoli. Cauliflower, 
Tomato, Eggplant, Pepper and Potato plants. Satis¬ 
faction guaranteed. PIEDMONT PLANT CO. 

P. 0. BOX 684, GREENVILLE, SO. CAROLINA 



9 • 


to 5 yr. healthy, selected trees, 6" 
1 16" tall. 5 each of: Colorado Blue 
pruce—Norway Spruce—Austrian 
ine — Scotch Pine — Concolor Fir. 

Postpaid at planting time 
/ rite for Free Evergreen Catalog 


Box20 - A miESMiB 


IMPROVED Sweet Corn Hybrids 

Leading commercial hybrid varieties bettered each 
year by rigid selection and careful crossing of the 
inbred parents. Free descriptive list. 

Huntington Brothers 

BOX R, WINDSOR, CONN. 



TRAWBERRY PLANTS 

Write for catalog, fully describing all 
varieties, with best methods of growing 
them. Satisfaction Guaranteed. 

J. H. SHIVERS, Box R-55, Allen, Md. 


WORLD’S FINEST STRAIN 

300 African Violet Seeds — only $1.00. Free expert 
growing instructions. Free starting medium. NORTH 
NURSERY, 1907 Main St., Niagara Falls 13, N. Y. 


Latham Red Raspberry Plants: $7-100; Indian Sum¬ 
mer Reds $8-100. Strawberry Plants: Superfection 
and Gem everbearing $4.60-100; Premier $2.75-100, 
postpaid. MacDowell Berry Farm, Ballstoit Lake, N.Y. 



SWEET SPANISH. CNSON PLANTS 


■HARRIS SEEDS 

Do You t *Rnow Your Onions?" 

Then you know that Sweet Spanish, grown from our plants 
produce the mildest, sweetest, largest onions you have ever 
eaten. Mature bulbs often weigh a pound and will keep 
for months in a cool dry place. 

You know, top, that only fresh plants produce a good crop. 
Our plants are shipped by overnight, refrigerated plane from 
our Texas grower the same day they are pulled. 

We ship these plants to points east of the Mississippi and 
north of Virginia between April 25th and May 10th only. 
SEND FOR OUR FREE CATALOG 
If you grow for market, ask for our Market 
Gardeners’ and Florists’ Catalog. 

JOSEPH HARRIS CO., INC. 

14 Moreton Farm, Rochester 11, New York 

1955 CATALOG now Amdij 



Irmgard Pilz of Hamburg, Ger¬ 
many, has recently arrived in the 
United States to be recognized as 
one of six naiional prize winners in 
a conservation essay contest, spon¬ 
sored by the National Grange and 
American Plant Food Council. Fif¬ 
teen thousand young people wrote 
esj^ys in the contest on the subject 
of “Building Fertility to Cut Farm. 
Costs.” The 18-year old German frau- 
lein wrote her essay last Summer 
while she was on the Nebraska farm 
of Mr. and Mrs. Roy Glandt as a farm 
youth exchangee. 


The major project of the Grange 
Young Adult program in New York 
State is the annual Leadership 
Ti'aining School. Following is a mes¬ 
sage regarding the past year’s school 
by Bert Morse, Chairman of the 
State Grange Young Adult Commit¬ 
tee, Morrisville: ‘United by the strong 
and faithful tie of agriculture, we 
mutually resolve to labor for the 
good of our Order, our Country and 
Mankind.” This quotation from “The 
Grange Initiate” briefly and ade¬ 
quately sums up the feeling which 
prevailed throughout the New York 
State Grange Leadership School re¬ 
cently held at the State Agricultural 
and Technical Institute at Morris¬ 
ville. 


Beatty H. Dimit, Pennsylvania 
State Grange Master, reports that 
from letters and inquiries received,* 
there is apparently some confusion 
regarding the time and method of 
installing State Grange officers. By 
amendments adopted by the State 
Grange at its York Session in 1950, 
the Pennsylvania State Grange Con¬ 
stitution provides that both Pomona 
and Subordinate officers shall be 
elected at a regular meeting during 
the last quarter of the Grange year 
which ends September 30. It is 
further provided that they shall be 
installed at the first regular or 
special meeting after the State 
Grange Session. Subordinate Grange 
officers may be installed by any 
Master, Past Master or Fifth Degree 
member. Pomona Grange officers may 
be installed by the Worthy Master of 
a State Grange, his Deputy or other 
qualified person approved by the 
State Master. These regulations em¬ 


bodied in the Constitution and By- 
Laws of the Pennsylvania State 
Grange govern election and instal¬ 
lation procedures. 

Berks County Pomona Grange No. 
43, meeting recently in quarterly 
session in Perry High School, Shoe- 
makersville, supported its Worthy 
Master, Thomas J. Merkel, in his 
stand on the wheat referendum set¬ 
up and on the establishment of 
school authorities. Merkel, in his 
quarterly address, advocated a 
change in the voting rules for the 
wheat referendum to permit all 
farmers affected to vote on the sub¬ 
ject, regardless of how few acres 
they have planted to the crop. He 
also called for a study of the school 
authority set-up under which at 
present, he said, an authority can 
borrow as much as it deems neces¬ 
sary without permission of the tax¬ 
payers. 

Harmony Grange No. 1692 of 
Northampton County won first place 
in the three-year Community Service 
Contest and as an award, received 
a black ebony gavel and gavel block. 


Hookstown Grange No. 1980 of 
Beaver County, Pa., won first place 
in the 1954 Community Service Con¬ 
test and at the recent State Grange 
Session was awarded a plaque and 
$200 in Government Savings Bonds. 
The presentation was made by Na¬ 
tional Lecturer Edward F. Hotter. 
Among the outstanding projects car¬ 
ried out in the Hookstown commun¬ 
ity was the purchasing of a home and 
office and the securing of a doctor 
for this rural, community which had 
previously been without medical ser¬ 
vice. The erection of a Grange and 
community ball, the holding of a 
large annual community fair, boy and 
girl scout troops, 4-H Club and many 
other worthy activities carried out 
by this Grange. 


Narragansett Grange No. 1 of 
Wakefield, R. I., recently held its 
third annual bazaar and supper. An 
entertainment followed the turkey 
supper. The South County Ambu¬ 
lance Corps, a group of volunteer 
men, presented a demonstration 
showing the latest technique in 
handling and care of the sick and in¬ 
jured to and from hospitals. d. 



Big Beans, Big Pof-afroes 

Can you tell me the weight of the 
largest potato ever grown? Also its 
circumference? I would like to learn, 
too, the length of the longest snap 
beans ever grown? 

I realize that size and weight do 
not have much to do with quality or 
usefulness in crops, but it would, 
nevertheless, be of value to me to 
have the information on biggest 
beans and potatoes. h. b. 

New York 

The size and weight of the largest 
potatoes and snap beans ever grown 
are not on record with the U. S De¬ 
partment of Agriculture. Neither do 
the State Colleges have the records, 
nor the American Potato Yearbook, 
nor the N. Y. State Vegetable Grow¬ 
ers’ Assn. 

Perhaps, about the beans, you 
have in mind the “yard-long” ones 
advertised in some seed catalogs. 
These certainly have big pods, but 
they are not really beans at all: they 
are cow peas. 

There is plenty of size to potatoes 
and beans in literature and legend. 
“Jack and the Beanstalk” is a good 
indication that there have been very 
large beans. Up in Aroostook County, 
Maine, the local potato enthusiasts 


publish picture postcards showing a 
potato loaded onto a trailer behind 
a tractor, and the potato is bigger 
than the tractor. 

Perhaps Rural New Yorker gard¬ 
eners and growers have records on 
big beans and big potatoes. If they 
have and will let us know about 
them, we will be glad to publish the 
weights and .sizes of the largest 
ones. 



“Will you be passing the woodpile?” 


40 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 







































































Coming N. Y. Fruit 
Meetings 

Plans are now complete for the 
program of the 100th meeting of the 
N.Y. State Horticultural Society in 
Rochester, N.Y., at Edgerton Park, 
Jan. 19-21, and also for the Kingston 
Meeting and Trade Show of the So¬ 
ciety, to be held at the armory in 
Kingston, N. Y., January 26-28. 

The Rochester program starts at 
10 o’clock Wednesday morning, Jan. 
19, with a discussion of the outlook 
for fresh and processed fruits; re¬ 
ports of officers; and a special ad¬ 
dress by Don Rubel, Foreign Service, 
U.S. Dept, of Agriculture, on “For¬ 
eign and Canadian Trade”. In the 
afternoon the Western N.Y. Apple 
Growers Assn, holds its annual meet¬ 
ing, featuring as a speaker Sam Dil¬ 
lon, Hancock, Md., large-scale grower 
and shipper of fruit. On Thursday 
fruit diseases will be discussed by 
specialists, and the economic hand¬ 
ling of fruit by a panel of experts. 
Friday morning will be given over 
to a discussion of insect control by 
New York and nearby-state special¬ 
ists. A small fruits session will be 
conducted Thursday with several out- 
of-state speakers. 

At the first session of the King¬ 
ston Meeting on Wednesday morning, 
Jan. 26, the possible effects of new 
pesticides and fungicides on yield 
will be discussed by Ed Glass of 
Geneva. Economical insect control 
will be next on the program with 
talks given by specialists from Gen¬ 
eva. Dr. A. D. Pickett of the Depart¬ 
ment of Entomology, Kentville, Nova 
Scotia, will review the rather remark¬ 
able results obtained with a modi¬ 
fied schedule in that area. The after¬ 
noon will be devoted to a discussion 
on marketing problems by Ed Lead- 
beater, president of the N.Y. and N. 
England Apple Institute, a review of 
the apples on sale in Hudson Valley 
markets, and a new system of con¬ 
trolling mice in the orchard. The 
evening session will be conducted by 
the Eastern Area Labor Co-opera¬ 
tives. Persons who hire workers 
should be at this meeting which will 
take up everything from farm work¬ 
ers to the new Social Security pro¬ 
gram. Thursday morning Dr. A. B. 
Burrell of the Geneva Station will 
talk on his trip to the west coast. 
Scab control programs will be 
handled by Dr. Pal miter. In the af¬ 
ternoon the outlook for fresh fruits 
will be discussed by Ben Dominick. 
Clyde Lewis of Chazy Orchards will 
talk about the possibilities of bag¬ 
ging to increase sales, and a panel of 
Valley growers will talk about reduc¬ 
ing costs of growing and packing 
fruit. The Friday morning session 
promises to be a very interesting one, 
with a discussion on thinning by Dr. 
Burrell and Dr. Hoffman of Cornell 
University; and a thorough discussion 
of the possibilities and practices of 
irrigation by Dr. J. R. Magness, 
USDA, and three growers from the 
Hudson Valley who have had experi¬ 
ence with irrigation. 


Books Worth Having 

A History of Horticulture, 

U. P. Hedrick.$7.50 

Farm .Management, 

Black, Clawson, etc. 7.25 

The New Garden Encyclopedia, 

E. L. D. Seymour. 5.00 

The Old Country Store, 

Gerald Carson. 5.00 

Living on a Little Land, 

George P. Deyoe. !... 4.50 

Financing the Farm Business, 

I. W. Duggan & R. U. Battles.. 4.50 
Land for the Family, 

A. F. Gustafson, etc. 4.00, 

Out of the Earth, 

Louis Bromfield . 4.00 

Managing a Farm, 

Sherman Johnson . 4.00 

For sale by The Rural New 
Yorker, 333 West 30th St., New York 
1, N. Y. (New York City residents, 
add 3% Sales Tax.) 

January 15, 1955 



The Oliver 100 PTO Operated Spreader 


Here’s where you’re glad 


it’s an OLIVER Spreader 


You’ve got a heaping load back there—but no 
worries about plugging up. This is an Oliver 
Spreader...there’s no top bracing to block the 
load. And because it’s an Oliver, it will spread 
at any rate you want: from a thin top dressing 
to a heavy blanket of manure. And Oliver’s 
Mill Mechanism really breaks up those straw- 
packed chunks. 

Say you come to a low spot. Mud. Again 
you’re glad it’s an Oliver ...carefully balanced 
to increase your traction... with a 15 " clearance 
that won’t let you bog down. 

Now you’re back in the lot; you want to un¬ 
hitch for a while. Once more, Oliver makes it 


easy. You can unhitch now, hitch up later, 
without a bit of lifting or fooling with jacks. 
Oliver’s "snap-on” hitch does the trick—at 
any drawbar height. 

One more piece of good news: Oliver makes 
a spreader in the exact size and type you want. 
Choose from the 100 (extra-large load, PTO 
operated), the 17 (large load), or the 11 (handy 
load). But choose an Oliver —you’ll always be 
glad you did! 

The Oliver Corporation 
400 West Madison Street 
Chicago 6, Illinois 
Finest in Farm Machinery ’* 





HERE'S ANOTHER PLACE you’ll be happy you 
have an Oliver Spreader—and this handy Oliver 
HF-9 Hydraulic Loader mounted on your Oliver 
Super 66, 77 or 88 tractor to round out the team. 
Your loading goes faster—first, because you’ve 


got a shorter lift over Oliver’s low-line spreader 
box; second, because the underslung framing leaves 
nothing on top to interfere with the loader. Write 
for full information on the HF-9 Hydraulic Loader, 
and the Oliver Spreader of your choice. 


See your OLIVER Dealer for the Best in Spreaders 


41 


A 






















FSH FARM FACTS NOTEBOOK 
and NEW 1955 SEED GUIDE 

No farmer should be without this help¬ 
ful notebook! Full of essential informa¬ 
tion on seeds, planting, etc., plus many 
blank pages for your notes. Also ask for 
colorful new 1955 Farm Seed Guide— 
with full facts on ; all popular 
new seed varieties. 


This year, give your crops a “headstart”... 
plant Hoffman Quality Farm Seeds. Hoffman 
seeds germinate rapidly into healthy, husky 
plants that pay off at harvest time with bigger 
yields, bigger profits. 

Hoffman seeds have set the standard for 
quality for more than 56 years. Only clean, 
sound, first-rate seed is sold,— seed you can 
plant with confidence. 

If you haven’t yet discovered how much 
better quality seed can be, let Hoffman Quality 
prove itself to you next planting time. You’ll 
find the Hoffman program of selecting, clean¬ 
ing and testing means big dividends in better 
crops, fewer weeds—more cash return on your 
investment in time, money and hard work. 

Hoffman has all the seeds you need—Clover 
... Alfalfa ... Oats . . . Rye Grass . .. Ladino 
... Soybeans... Birdsfoot Trefoil... Pasture 


Grasses...plus others adapted to your locality. 

MORE CORN PER ACRE. To step up your yield 
of top-notch corn, plant the Funk G Hybrid 
developed for top production in your area, 
your climate, your soil. 

Year after year —for 18 years —Funk G 
Hybrids have been tested and re-tested at a 
Hoffman Proving Ground, under growing 
conditions just like yours. 

This means that when you plant the recom¬ 
mended Funk G variety, you are planting the 
Hoffman seed that has the maximum bushel- 
per-acre potential for your soil, your season. 

This year, grow FUNK G HYBRIDS. See 
your local Hoffman agent, or write to our corn 
men here. They will gladly recommend the 
right “G” number for husking or silage in 
your area. 


A. H. HOFFMAN, Inc., Box 31 

Landisville (Lancaster Co.), Pa. 

Please send me FREE Q Farm Facts Notebook 
I~1 New 1955 Farm Seed Guide 


Name. 


AHHrpss 



Town 

State* 






WANT TO EARN EXTRA MONEY? A few select territories are still open for the appointment of Hoffman farmer- 
agents to take orders for Hoffman farm seeds and Funk G corn. No investment required. For details write to Dept. A. 


the mountains, but I remember one 
that was really funny. There were 
many lumber camps in those days, 
and one old lumberjack came to 
camp rather late in the evening one 
Sunday night, and found a small 
bear with his head in the garbage 
barrel, eating scraps of meat. I do 
not know what the old timer thought 
the bear was, but he just • walked 
up and give the bear a good kick 
in the pants. The bear backed up a 
bit, let out a whoop and ran down 
the path toward the woods. The 
lumberjack came in the house, look¬ 
ing pretty white around the gills in 
fright, and said: “Gee whiz, boys, 
some one was mussing around in 
the garbage out there, and I gave 
him a kick in the pants. I hope he 
don’t know who done it, for after I 
sober up, I don’t want any trouble 
with anyone.” 

In years gone by, there were many 
trappers here in the Adirondacks, 
and their catch of fox, mink, fisher, 
bear, martin, coon and other furs 
brought a fair price, and brought in 
some cash to pay taxes, etc. with. 

I list some prices in those days for 
comparison. Tea 40 cents lb.; beans 
dry, five cents lb.; salt pork 10 cents 
lb.; flour $4.50 to $5.50 barrel, 25-lb. 
sack 65 to 75 cents; white sugar eight 
cents to 10 cents lb.; crackers (the 
old thick ones) $3.50 barrel; coffee, 
three lbs. $1.00. 

Most everyone raised a pig, bought 
in the Spring for around $2.00. 
Back hillers generally killed a beef, 
also several, deer, as in those days 
there were no game wardens and 
also very few deer. Hunters ran deer 
with dogs, - and started hunting in 
September. 

The old days have gone, and it is 
well. When we hear the younger set 
bemoan the fact that they would 
like the good old times, I smile and 
wonder. Would'' they like to chop 
wood at $1.00 a cord, and walk four 
miles a day to do it, or get $2.00 an 
hour with light work, as many do 
now? No, the good old days are. just 
good to think about; rather let us 
have the better 1954 days. And may 
the 1955 days be brighter and 
happier, and also all the years we 
travel on. E. F. Keith 


Essex County, N. Y. 

Articles of Interest 

In Coming Issues 

• Brooding the Chicks 
By Carl O. Dossin 

• Trouble Shooting in the 

Poultry Flock 
By R. F. Warne 

• Turkey Management Prob¬ 

lems 

By Morley A. Jull 

• Better Hatching Eggs 
By Robert R. Parks 

• Chronic Respiratory Disease 
By E. F. Waller 

• The Guinea Bird 
By David R. Green 

• Niacin Requirement of 

Chicks 

By G. F. Heuser 

• We Bought Some Geese 
By Elizabeth Bowlby 

• The 1953-54 Egg Laying Tests 
By C. S. Platt 

• Lime—the Soil’s Wheelhoese 
By B. A. Brown 

• Bees Are Valuable Pollina¬ 

tors 

By Roger A. Morse 

• The Clover Root Borer 
By C. R. Weaver 

• Steers in the Feed Lot 
By R. W. Duck 

• High Feed Value in Rice 

Germ 
A Report 

• Steer Gains With Hormones 
By John Quinn 

• Hog Worms, Unlimited 
By J. James 

• Undermined by Termites 
By Louis Pyenson 

All these articles are scheduled to 
appear in the ANNUAL POULTRY 
ISSUE of February 5, 1955. 


The Old and the New 


Here in the mighty Adirondack 
Mountains there used to be many 
small farms where many families 
used to eke out a living by hook or 
by crook. That was back in the early 
1890’s. There were small fields then 
where crops were raised and sheep 
grazed, and where cattle browsed 
out a meager living. Where there 
were small meadows, there now is 
timber. Where there were once 
frame houses or log cabins, only the 
old cellar bottoms remain and some 
of them have trees a foot through 
standing therein. 

Much water has passed down the 
streams since people lived in those 
far back places. They were rugged 
men who carried on in those days 
and their lives were not too pleasant 
at times. I have in mind one family 
that had a bee to build a cabin made 
of spruce logs and, with the neigh¬ 
bors working hard with hands, axe 


and oxen, the house was completed 
in one day, without cost. 

Sheep used to graze on about all 
of the farms here in the mountains, 
and butter was made and sold at the 
stores in large balls. Eggs were 
brought to store for merchandise 
but no cash paid for them. They were 
at around 10 cents a dozen, and 
butter about the same a pound. Wood 
sold for $3.00 a cord, and the fine 
white birch was almost unsalable 
at any price. Now, white birch sells 
for around $25 a cord for furniture 
making. 

I recall one man who settled in 
the back country and built a log 
house. The first Winter, there was 
no floor in the house. He cut kiln 
wood for the making of fuel and 
killed deer for his meat. He man¬ 
aged to bring up a family of 10 by 
so doing. I know another man who, 
when Winter hit the mountains, had 


no money and no job. He built a 
sled, a good large one, and on this 
he placed an axe, a draw shave and 
what is known as a shaving horse 
for shingles. He then traveled at 
least three miles back into a cedar 
swamp and shaved shingles all day, 
packed them on his sled at night, 
and returned to the cabin. He sold 
the shingles for enough to keep 
going and, when Spring came, he did 
as he had done for 50 years, tilled the 
back fields and got along. 

One man I was always interested 
in lived in the shadows of towering 
mountains, that is, well up in under 
where bear were quite plentiful. In 
the early days there was a bounty 
of $10 on a bear, and this man caught 
many a bear for bounty. The hide 
of the bear then sold for about $25. 
When a bear was caught, and that 
was quite often, the trapper had 
about a month’s pay, as the work¬ 
ingman then received $1.00 a day 
for 10 hours labor. 

Many stories could be told about 


^Hoffman 

€/ EA DU 


FARM SEEDS and FUNK G CORN 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 

































If you want all of Ford’s fine features in a bigger, 
more powerful tractor, then you’ll want to see and 
try a new 800 Ford Tractor. With a powerful new 800, 
you can pull three plows with ease—do six days* plow¬ 
ing in four ... all at a low cost per acre! You’ll find 
dozens more advantages in the 800 series, including 
Ford’s new 5-speed transmission . . . comfortable Rest- 
O-Ride seat ... an advanced hydraulic system with 
3-point linkage . .. live power take-off* controlled from 
the regular clutch pedal . . . and much more! So look 
’em over. It’s worth a trip to your Ford Tractor dealer’s! 

*Standard equipment on model 860 


Full 2-Plow Power 

—wtfh new fe^futesf 


Full 3-Plow Power 

- the work ify/ 


Plenty of power for most farm jobs, with real oper¬ 
ating economy . . . that’s the new 600 series Ford 
Tractor. For Ford’s “Red Tiger” engine is designed 
and built to provide high power output with excep¬ 
tionally low fuel consumption. And you’ll find just 
the combination of tractor features you want in the 
three different models available. And all the advanced 
600 models have step-ahead features for faster, easier, 
better farming. See them now! 


TRACTOR AND IMPLEMENT DIVISION, FORD MOTOR COMPANY, BIRMINGHAM, MICHIGAN 



January 15. 1955 


43 




































EDWARD F. DIBBLE SEEDGROWER-HoneoyeFalk-NY- 



Harris’ New Sweet Corn, WONDERFUL 


■HARRIS SUDS 

“IT’S WONDERFUL!!” 

Try it and you'll agree that Harris’ new early midseason 
hybrid is the sweetest, most tender corn you’ve ever eaten. 
The small, thin-skinned, deep, creamy yellow kernels have 
a richer flavor than any we have bred to date. All the ears 
do not mature at one time and its tenderness and sweetn ss 
are retained for several days when not picked promptly. 

e predict that home gardeners will have no other once 
they have tried "Wonderful" and that it will be a boon 
to Market Gardeners with "fussy” customers. 

SEND FOR OUR FREE CATALOG TODAY. 

If you grow for market, ask for our Market Gard - 
eners 9 and Florists 9 Catalog . 

JOSEPH HARRIS CO., Inc. 

12 Moreton Farm, Rochester 11, N. Y. 

1955 CATALOG um Awdij 



NEW 
GRAPES 


lew Interlaken SEEDLESS. Better than 
alifornia. Deliciously sweet, fine flav- 
red. Entirely seedless. Very early. Ri- 
ens August 15. N. Y. Exp. Sta. origin. 
1.75 each, 2 for $3.25 Postpaid. Also 
!her new grape varieties. 


fffDWARF FRUIT TREES 


Ideal for home gardens, full size 
fruit in little space, bear 2nd or 
3rd year. Also berries, small fruits, 
new shade trees, ornamentals, roses. 



lew Hardy English walnut. Carpathian 
train. Rapid grower, bears early, very 
reductive, beautiful shade tree. Also 
hirvese chestnut. All stock guaranteed. 



CATALOG FREE 


J. Miller Nurseries 

565 WEST LAKE RD„ CANANDAIGUA, N. Y. 


£££^STRAWBERRIES 


Our New Virus-Free Strawberry 
I Plants. Foundation stock originally 
supplied by U.S. Dept, of Agricul¬ 
ture. For the reproduction of Better 
Strawberry Plants for the American 
'Farmer and Gardener. Ail healthy 
_ sure to grow stock. Also Blueberries, 

Grapes. Baspberries, Shrubs, Shade Trees, Fruit & 
Nut Trees, Ornamentals. Write today for Free Catalog. 
RAYNER BROTHERS, SALISBURY 5, MARYLAND 



Evergreen Lining-Out Stock 

TRANSPLANTS and SEEDLINGS 

PINE, FIR, SPRUCE, CANADIAN HEMLOCK, 
ARBORVITAES, in variety, for growing Christmas 
trees. Ornamental landscape, Hedges, Windbreaks, 
Forestry. Quality stock low as 2c each on Quantity 
orders. Write for price list. 

SUNCREST EVERGREEN NURSERIES, 
DEPT. RNY, BOX 305, HOMER CITY, PA. 



MALONEY 


TREES 

Write now for FREE Color Catalog! Big 
values in Fruit Trees, Berries, Grapes, 
Shrubs, Roses, Perennials, Evergreens. 
Sturdy, strong rooted stock, guaranteed 
to grow and true to name. Our 71st Year. 

Maloney Bros. Nursery Co. 

33 CIRCLE ROAD, DANSVILLE, N. Y. 


C3~ACHsO XMAS 

TREES 


Turn wasteland into profit. 
Our famous Christmas Tree 
Growers' Guide fells you 
how Write for free copy. 

^iiMUSSER 


OR FOREST TREES 


FORESTS, INC.) 

BOX 20- A, INDIANA, PA I 



FRUIT TREES, STRAWBERRY, RASPBERRY 
AND BLUEBERRY PLANTS 


Nut and Shade Trees, Grape 
Vines, Flowering Shrubs, Ever¬ 
greens, Dwarf Apple Trees (on 
Mailing 9 and 7 stock). Over 80 
years growing and distribution 
service to planters guarantees sat¬ 
isfaction. FREE 60-page catalog 
illustrates, describes complete nur¬ 
sery line, reasonable prices. Write. 
Bountiful Ridge Nurseries, Bx RI25, Princess Anne,Md. 





AND 4 PKTS. OF SELECTED GARDEN SEEDS! Regular Price 15c Per Pkt. 




© 


JUNG'S WAYAHEAD TOMATO 

Big, smooth, ripe tomatoes 
produced “in abundance, 
often ripe by July 4th. 

Rapid Red Radish— often 
ready to use 20 days 
after sowing. 

Tender Core 
Carrot —Grows 
6 to 7 inches long. 

Stump rooted. Superb 
flavor, practically core- 

’ All Cream Lettuce 

Wonderfully crisp 
and tender. 


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The National Creameries Associa¬ 
tion and the American Butter Insti¬ 
tute have served notice that they will 
ask Congress for a complete review 
of dairy price support and Federal 
marketing order programs. 

Secretary Benson was scheduled at 
the start of this session to present 
Congress with a summary of the vari- 
ous methods of supporting milk 
prices, together with estimates of 
the cost of the various methods, and 
perhaps his own ideas about how the 
different “gimmicks” might work or 
fail to work. Earlier, Benson ap¬ 
pointed a committee to study Federal 
milk marketing orders, but appointed 
only people with well-established 
views. So it was no surprise that the 
final report of this committee merely 
reflected the viewpoints with which 
the individual members started. 

The Association and Institute will 
suggest that Congress make its own 
“unbiased” study of the entire prob¬ 
lem. They will appose the so-called 
self-help plan advanced principally 
by the National Milk Producers Fed¬ 
eration. This would involve a gov¬ 
ernment grant of $500 million to get 
things rolling. Dairy farmers would 
set up a corporation, with the $500 
million representing the beginning 
finances, and would buy up dairy sur¬ 
pluses. These surpluses would be dis¬ 
posed of as best as could be done 
without breaking private markets, 
and any losses would be made up 
through taxes on the dairy farmers, 
themselves. Thus the term “self- 
help.” 

The two groups will argue that 
Congress would probably not want to 
give up any of its taxing power to 
private individuals. They will cite 
dangers in giving so much power to a 
board on which the public and the 
government are not represented. 
They will express doubts as to the 
legality of price-fixing by private pro¬ 
ducers. And they will argue that 
dairy farmers would net much less 
under this plan. The Association and 
Institute will advance a self-help plan 
of their own, under which small de¬ 
ductions will be made by milk hand¬ 
lers, the proceeds to go into a giant 
kitty. This amount of money, which 
might go as high as $40 million a 
year on the basis of a very small de¬ 
duction, will be used to further re¬ 
search into new dairy products, bet¬ 
ter marketing methods, and giant 
promotions to increase consumption. 

The two groups will ask for a 
sweeping study of Federal milk 
marketing orders. They are not op¬ 
posed to the orders as such, but claim 
that administration by the Depart- 



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FOR YIELD. ALSO CERTIFIED KATAHDINS. 
THOMPSON FARMS. CLYMER, NEW YORK 


Write for Our Free 1955 Descriptive Price List on 
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table Plants. DIXIE PLANT CO., Franklin, Virginia 

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ment of Agriculture has given rise to 
abuses, among which are unrealistic 
pricing resulting in greater produc- 
tion while discouraging consumption, 
monopoly milk markets, too wide a 
spread between fluid and manufac¬ 
turing milk prices. They will tell 
Congress that the dairy problem can¬ 
not be considered by itself, that in 
large part the troubles of dairy farm¬ 
ers and the various dairy programs 
rise from Government action in other 
directions. For instance, they will 
say, butter lost much of its market 
during the war when the government 
drastically limited production of 
butter in favor of expanded fluid 
milk supplies and thereby turned 
many people permanently to lower- 
priced margarine. Price support pro¬ 
grams for crops often involve diver¬ 
sion of millions of acres, and farmers 
will produce something on these 
acres, they will argue. The effect has 
been to further increase dairy pro¬ 
duction and the dairy surplus. Also, 
the very necessary conservation pro¬ 
gram in itself dictates diverting mar¬ 
ginal acreages to pasture. 

Harry Lando 


Liberty Hyde Bailey- 
Pioneer 

Dr. Liberty Hyde Bailey, world re¬ 
nowned botanist, horticulturist and 
agricultural expert, died at his home 
in Ithaca, N.Y., on Christmas Day. 
He was 96 years of age. 

Born in South Haven, Mich., Dr. 
Bailey decided at an early age to 
spend the first 25 years of his life 
learning, the next 25 years practicing 
a vocation, and the last 25 years do¬ 
ing “whatever I like best”. He was 
graduated from Michigan Agricul¬ 
tural College in 1882, served as as¬ 
sistant to Dr. Asa Gray, Harvard bot¬ 
anist, was later appointed Professor 
of Horticulture at Michigan and in 
1888 was installed in the same ca 
pacity at Cornell. In 1903 he became 
Dean of the College of Agriculture 
at Cornell, resigning in 1913. From 
then until his death Dr. Bailey was 
never at rest. The author of more 
than 50 books, and the editor of many 
more, he also found the time and 
energy to travel some quarter of a 
million miles collecting more than 
275,000 plants, heading many socie¬ 
ties, writing poetry and lecturing- 
all the while working to improve 
rural life. In 1935, he presented to 
Cornell the Bailey Hortorium which 
houses one of the world’s largest col¬ 
lections of plants and plant lore. Also 
to his credit was the editing of the 
Cyclopedia of American Agriculture 
and of the Standard Cyclopedia of 
Horticulture. 

Liberty Hyde Bailey was truly a 
pioneer in every sense of the word- 
in agriculture, in science and in rural 
living. He leaves behind him a heri 
tage that demands further pioneer¬ 
ing. He would have wished it so. 


Thomas Marks Honored 

The Protestant Episcopal Diocese 
of Western New York has just pre¬ 
sented to Thomas Marks, well known 
nurseryman of Wilson, N. Y., the 
Bishop’s Award for Meritorious Ser¬ 
vice to Church and Community. He 
was invested with the honor on De¬ 
cember 26, five days after Mr. Marks 
celebrated his 85th birthday. 

Born in Ontario, Canada, Mr. 
Marks settled in Wilson in 1910 and 
shortly thereafter set up his nursery 
in the management of which he is 
still active with his son, Edward. All 
his life Mr. Marks has been active in 
agriculture and in community life. 
He is a past president of the Farm 
Bureau and has been president of the 
Wilson school board for the past 20 
years. He is also president of the 
Wilson Free Library and is treasurer 
of St- John’s Church. 

THE RURAL NEW YORKER 


44 
















































Hews From New Jersey 

Last year’s combined harvested 
acreages of all New Jersey crops, of 
which all acreage estimates are made, 
were six-tenths of one per cent under 

1953, and the total value of produc¬ 
tion from this acreage was five per 
cent below the previous year. Corn, 
small grains, hay, soybeans, pota¬ 
toes and sweet potatoes, known as 
the staple crops, were 1.4 per cent 
below 1953 in acreage. The value of 
these staple crops amounted to 47 
per cent of all crops produced in 

1954. The value of commercial vege¬ 
tables dropped from $52 to 47 mil¬ 
lion. Apples, peaches, grapes, and 
cranberries were off eight per cent in 
value. Small grain yields in the Gar¬ 
den State in 1954 topped all previous 
records. Not only was barley yield 
per acre a new high, but the har¬ 
vested acreage and total production 
were new high records for this crop 
in New Jersey. It is likely that the 
restrictions on wheat acreage were 
an influence on increasing 1954 bar¬ 
ley plantings. Last year’s soybean 
crop was slightly below ’53 in acre¬ 
age, but higher than any other year 
and gave a production the highest 
since records began in 1938. By con¬ 
trast, New Jerseys’ potato acreage 
was the smallest since records began 
in 1866. Our corn crop was fourteen 
per cent above average, but three per 
cent below the 1953 crop in total val¬ 
ue. Reduced yields were largely due 
to the unprecedented two-months 
drought of last June and July. 


Each year in December the Ex¬ 
tension Service, in cooperation with 
the Hunterdon County Poultry Assn., 
holds a Poultry Outlook Conference 
to give poultryme the outlook for 
the coming year. It is dene by using 
a panel of local poultrymen, feed 
dealers and hatcherymen, moderated 
by the Extension Economist, Dr. 
Frank Beck of Rutgers University. 
The panel prepares a budget for a 
2,590-bird family plant in which 
probable egg and feed prices are used 
as a basis. At this year’s conference 
which was held at the Flemington 
Auction, the panel found that during 

1954 the egg prices were actually 44 
cents per dozen instead of 50 as es¬ 
timated a year ago and that feed 
prices were $84 instead of 880 as 
included in the 1954 budget. Tnis left 
a labor income of 60 cents per bird 
instead of the $1.72 labor income es¬ 
timated by last year’s panel. This 
year’s panel estimates that egg prices 
will prevail slightly higher and 
should average approximately 48 
cents per dozen for the year and that 
feed will remain the same at $84 per 
ton. The panel’s optimistic attitude 
toward egg prices is based on less 
eggs going to market during the lat¬ 
ter half of the coming year. The es¬ 
timated labor income per bird for 

1955 is approximately $1.20. 


Governor Meyner was the speaker 
at the annual dinner meeting of the 
E. B. Voorhees Agricultural Society 
at Rutgers held at the University 
Commons last month, with W. An¬ 
drew Cray of Stockton, president, 
presiding. The Governor told the au¬ 
dience that research, planning and 
leadership are the keys for the fu¬ 
ture development of the agriculture 
of the Garden State. Three citations 
for service to agriculture were 
awarded to Isaac Sherwood of Cam¬ 
den County, a graduate of the live¬ 
stock short course in 1928 and two 
staff members of the College of Ag¬ 
riculture, Dr. Charles H. Connors, 
Professor of Ornamental Horticulture 
and Enos J. Perry, extension dairy 
specialist. 

The 1955 Farmers Week at Trenton 
to be held on January 24 to 29 will 
comprise approximately 60 sessions 
representing nearly 40 agricultural 
organizations. The highlight of the 
week will be the Agricultural Con¬ 
vention on Tuesday, January 25. 

D. M. Babbitt 


CntMu»»ll«AM|TIMEMulCOSTS 

milk TOUGH. FAST-WORKING 

JOHN DEERE 
Loaders and Spreaders 




John Deere Tractors, and the 
No. 50 for John Deere “50,” 
“60,” “70,” and for “A,” “B,” 
and “G” Tractors that have the 
“live” power conversion pump. 
All are tops for fast, easy load¬ 
ing—all outstanding for long 
life. 

Two Long-Life Spreaders 

No matter what size of feed¬ 
ing or dairy operation you 
have, there is a rugged John 
Deere Spreader to fit your 
needs exactly—the King-Size 
120-Bushel Model “N” or the 
regular 70-Bushel Model “L.” 
The 120-Bushel Model “N” 
Spreader has PTO-driven beat¬ 
ers. This means you can spread 
the year around — in any 
weather. The conveyor is 
ground-driven—a feature that 
insures an even spread at any 
tractor speed. The 70-Bushel 
Model “L” is ground-driven. 
It is a proved performer that 
has made an enviable record 
for long life, good work, and 
economy of operation. 


Three Rugged Loaders 


There is a John Deere Loader 
to fit all John Deere “Live” 
Power Tractors—the No. 30 
and No. 40 for all 1-2 plow 


Power Steering 


J OHN DEERE Loaders, with 
“live” hydraulic muscles, and 
John Deere Spreaders which 
spread at speeds up to 6 mph, 
cut manure-handling time and 
costs to rock-bottom. What’s 
more, they are made to last ex¬ 
tra years under the toughest 
jobs you give them. 

“Live” power in John Deere 
Loaders means you don’t have 
to stop and shift into neutral 
while raising or lowering the 
bucket. Double hydraulic rams 
provide plenty of power for 
lifting the heaviest loads. The 
boom rises fast and smoothly 
—without balking or bucking. 
And because John Deere Load¬ 
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abundance of strength in every 
part, they will give you 
good, dependable performance 
throughout their long life. 


Power Steering for 
John Deere ‘‘50,” 
“60,” and ”70” Trac¬ 
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hard work out of 
steering and maneu¬ 
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steering is “almost as 
easy as dialing a 
phone." 


See Your 

John Deere Dealer 





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JOHN DEERE 


January 15, 1955 


4 































Hard, Smooth — Non-Porous 

The water test proves that VIBRA- 
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ter like ordinary concrete staves. 
And—a stave that won’t absorb wa¬ 
ter is less likely to absorb corrosive 
silage juices, too! 


Your farm 
deserves a 


. CRAINE 
6-CELL TILE 


First because it lasts 


Acid-Proof 

Tile stave is absolutely 
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seals all joints, to produce 
a silo that can never be 
damaged by silage acids. 


Built for the Ages 

Sturdy door frames are 
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gaskets, smooth and flush 
on the inside, to form part 
of a perfect wall. 


Reinforced 

After tile staves are in 
place, close-spaced steel 
hoops are adjusted for 
proper tension. Skilled 
Craine crews erect silo 
fast — and right. 


See your Craine Dealer . . . 
or mail coupon for details, 
photos and prices. Five 
great Craine Silos to choose 
from—one is best for your 
farm! 


CRAINE, INC., 125 Toft St., Norwich, N.Y. 

Please send me facts on silo checked below: 

□ Concrete □ 6-cell Tile □ Tile Block 

□ Triple Wall □ Wood Stave 

I Plan to use it for EH Corn EH Grass EH Other . . 

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- NEW BRUNSWICK, N. J. 


0 EPT. F 1 


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8295 Field Bldg. 

315 Westport Rd„ Kansas City 11, Mo, 



46 


Our Health Is Our Responsibility 


Part XI 

A complaint often lodged against 
comprehensive medical plans is that 
physicians should not work for sala¬ 
ries, but it is an argument which 
usually has little appeal for the con¬ 
sumer. It is difficult for him to 
understand why a man of integrity 
would not do his very best whether 
he is salaried or self-employed. 

A contention that holds more 
water is that these plans are sub¬ 
ject to abuses. First, it is said that 
it is too easy for doctors to neglect 
patients. This, theoretically, is true, 
but then so is it under any other 
system. Perhaps this issue of abuse 
by physicians is best summed up in 
a quotation from The New York 
Academy of Medicine’s Medicine in 
the Changing Order : “The compel¬ 
ling facts, however, are that abuses 
are possible under all methods of 
physician remuneration, whether by 
fee-for-service, capitation, or salary. 
Hence no valid statement can be 
made that this or that form of re¬ 
muneration is the best per se. Here 
lies one of the great advantages of 
voluntary non-profit prepayment 
plans (as compared with compulsory 
medical insurance) — they permit 
wide local experimentation in work¬ 
ing out the system best adapted to 
a given time and place.” 

Secondly, it is felt by -many that 
patients will abuse such a compre¬ 
hensive program. There is great 
fear that, with the financial barrier 
completely removed, the consumer 
will be ceaseless in his demands on 
the physician. It is envisaged that he 
will call up at all hours and that 
he will want attention for the most 
minor ache or pain. Again, this state 
of affairs is admittedly possible. 
Proponents of these plans claim that 
this fear never really amounts to 
much, that this is an area where 
health education can help the 
physician and subscriber understand 
each other, and that the initial rush 
on medical services is from a back¬ 
log of conditions that legitimately 
deserve correction. 

One of the most valid criticisms 
of the prepayment idea for compre¬ 
hensive care is that it costs so much. 
It is quite true that, for a man to 


get complete protection for his en¬ 
tire family, the necessary premium 
would most likely be beyond his 
reach. And here is another reason 
why these plans have had most of 
their success in industrialized areas. 
In these instances, health insurance 
has been a matter for collective bar¬ 
gaining. The result has been that the 
industry or firm buys either all or 
a sizable portion of the premium for 
each employee. Once more this 
leaves the rural population unable 
to enjoy a service that is relatively 
easily had by the city population. 
This does not say that prepayment 
medical plans are impossible in the 
country. On the contrary, such plans 
have been organized on a cooperative 
community basis once the people 
have become convinced that the pro¬ 
duct is worth going after. 

Another thing that makes prepay¬ 
ment easier for the factory worker is 
that he is on a payroll, and is ac¬ 
customed to payroll deductions. His 
premium can be collected every pay 
day with a minimum of trouble. Our 
self-employed farmer, though, is an¬ 
other matter. It is not easy to set 
up a simple procedure of premium 
collection in rural areas. The ques¬ 
tion then arises: can farmers budget 
for medical care? The New York 
Academy says, “Among farm and 
village groups, on the other hand, 
cash income is irregular and diffi¬ 
cult to assess. Yet the farmers do 
budget for other things—they pay 
dues to the Grange or to a farmers’ 
union, they pay taxes, they support 
their churches, they buy equipment 
on the installment plan. Once they 
become convinced that assurance of 
medical and hospital care is worth 
their planning and their budgeting, 
they can work with their local or¬ 
ganizations to arrange schemes of 
prepayment that will best suit their 
own circumstances.” 

In the same way that farming 
communities have gone after and 
brought in medical personnel, have 
built hospitals and schools, and have 
formed cooperatives to solve agri¬ 
cultural problems, so can they form 
an organization which will provide 
them with the best in comprehensive 
medical care. It depends only on 
their will. R. L. Johnson 



Young People’s Party 


Recently I had the pleasure of at¬ 
tending, as a guest along with five 
other adults, a party held for the 
young people of the Sunday School 
of the little mountain church in 
Barkersville. The party was held in 
an upstairs room of the parsonage. 
In Winter it sometimes serves as a 
meeting place when the church can¬ 
not be heated because of extreme 
cold. 

The adults had prepared food and 
transportation for the occasion. It 
is possible that they intended to help 
entertain the youngsters. They need 
not have worried about the enter¬ 
tainment, however. Although the 
oldest youngster there was just 
under 16, the evening went off as 
well as if it was directed by pro¬ 
fessionals. A 14-year old boy acted 
as master of ceremonies and started 
with the old game called musical 
chairs. Every youngster took part 
in each game. His patience with the 
young or bashful children was amaz¬ 
ing. There was not an idle moment 
during the entire evening. After 
lunch was served, a corn popper was 
produced by one boy and corn was 
popped for all. When the evening 
ended, all turned in and cleaned 
the floor before departing for home. 

Too often, people of my generation 
get the idea that our generation was 
unique in its ability to provide 
wholesome entertainment. They 


seem to feel that he present gener¬ 
ation is a total loss so far as social 
life is concerned. When they see the 
lurid headlines about some juvenile 
delinquents, they seem to think the 
present generation is beyond saving. 

I wish that the Barkersville party 
could have been televised. Never in 
my youth did I attend a party better 
managed or in which every young¬ 
ster had such a good time. Anyone 
who could have witnessed it would 
feel a thrill as to our coming gener¬ 
ation. Whether it is because of radio, 
television or the movies, or in spite 
of them, I do not know, but I sus¬ 
pect it is in spite of them. 

W. B. Taylor 

Schenectady Co., N. Y. 



“1 hear her DHIA rating is slipping!” 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 


















































You get both in 1955 Chevrolet Advance- 
Des ign trucks! These are the trucks that 
have everything it takes to tackle tough 
farm hauling jobs day after day. 

Their advanced features save you hours 
and dollars—and driving effort, too. And 
they’re built to stay on the job for a good 
many years to come. Chevrolet trucks, you 
know, are famous for outhauling, outsaving, 
and outlasting the others! 

Here are some sound and sensible reasons 
why America’s first-choice truck is a better 
choice than ever for you right now. Your 
Chevrolet dealer will be happy to give you 
all the facts. . . . Chevrolet Division of 
General Motors, Detroit 2, Michigan. 


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Brawny "Thriftmaster 235 ’ engine. Rugged 
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optional on 2-ton models at extra cost. 

COM FORT MASTER CAB 

Big one-piece curved windshield. All-steel 
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long-life chassis 

Sturdy, single-unit tubular steel rear-axle 
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NAME- 

ADDRESS- 



The Parson is writing this in a 
new study; after eight years at The 
Old Stone Church, he has left it to 
undertake a new pastorate at Holm- 
del. In retrospect, he asks himself 
why some men remain in one pasto¬ 
rate for many, many years, while 
others, like himself, leave a church 
which they have come to love and 
assume a work of which they know 
practically nothing. In fact, the Par¬ 
son had convinced himself that the 
Old Stone Chuch would be his last 
pastorate. 

In the final analysis it came down 
to this: the Old Stone Church had 
prospered wonderfully. A friend re¬ 
marked that the Parson had seen the 
church grow from the condition of 
a beautiful, decaying monument into 
a thriving church. It was so. But 
that was just the point! Where eight 
years ago it had little to attract a 
Pastor, it was now in a condition to 
offer a very desirable pastorate to 
any one of a great number of men. 
Its buildings were in fine condition, 
its congregation increased many fold, 
and it could offer a salary twice what 
it was able to offer in those days. 
Therefore, the conviction became 
vei’y strong that, what the Parson 
had set out to do, was done. “One 

planteth, another watereth,.”. 

While it is not at all easy to leave 
one’s friends and a church that one 
has come to love, it is at times a duty 
in the Parson’s calling. 

As for the new work, there is first 
of all, in point of age, the Baptist 
Church founded in 1668. There will 
probably be some who would not 
agree on the date, but the Rev. John 
Sherman who studied the matter 
carefully wrote, “Baptisttown, now 
Holmdel, being near the center (of 


territory from Upper Freehold to 
Middletown Village) and the place 
where the greatest number of wor¬ 
shippers were settled, naturally be¬ 
came the center of religious opera¬ 
tion. The first house of worship and 
parsonage were built here, and here 
all the pastors lived until 1826. This 
was called the ‘Upper Congregation’ 
in contrast with the Tower congre¬ 
gation’ of the neighboring village. 
Their records were one until 1836. 
The territory was known as Middle- 
town.” In 1836, the two congregations 
separated, the other retaining the 
original name. It would seem that, if 
these records are correct, a simple 
retention of the original name by one 
group has confused the early history 
of the original church in this area. 

The other major portion of the 
present pastorate is the Reformed 
Church founded in 1732. When the 
day came wherein neither church 
could well carry on the work, the 
people banded together under arti¬ 
cles of federation. It was planned 
that neither church should lose its 
identity, for each had a long and 
honorable tradition. So this year the 
Parson preaches at the Reformed 
Church where all worship; and, next 
year, God willing, he will preach at 
the Baptist church where all will 
gather. 

A third group, undenominational, 
has come to be affiliated with the 
church in the years since federation. 
The Parson can scarcely identify 
himself to closely with any denomin¬ 
ation now, for he must need be 
Pastor, impartially, to all three. 

There may be in the future, as 
there must undoubtedly have been 
in the past, problems peculiar to 
such a situation that will demand 
solution. However, with a backgxxmnd 
of 17 years of federated work, there 
should be no problems which mutual 
trust and good will cannot solve. 

Rev. Andrew A. Burkhardt 


Care of Peach Trees 

We have 20 peach trees that were 
loaded with fruit last year, but did 
not bear a single peach this year. Do 
peaches come every two years? And 
is there anything I can do to insure 
a good yield next year? j. r. 

The lack of fruitfulness of your 
peach trees this year was probably 
due to a late spring frost which killed 
the blossoms during bloom. As you 
recall, this past Spring was cool and 
frosty. Peaches, characteristically, 
bloom each Spring. Also, it may be 
that the fruit buds were killed by low 
winter temperature, in which case 
many buds would not open, and those 
that did open would not set as fruit. 

The trees should be pruned in the 
Spring just before new growth 
starts, and sprayed periodically 
throughout the growing season. For¬ 
tunately, there are new available 
general purpose spray mixtures es¬ 
pecially adapted for your situation. 
A friend of mine has beer, remark¬ 
ably successful with applications 
made: 1—before bloom; 2—after 
bloom; 3—Memorial Day, and 4—the 
Fourth of July. He called it his “Hol¬ 
iday Spray” and guaranteed only 
that it would give “on? less worm 
per fruit.” 

In addition to pruning and spray¬ 
ing, fertilizers should be applied in 
the Spring just alter the last snow 
has melted and the frost has gone 
from the ground. Apply a 4-16-4 
analysis fertilizer with additional ap¬ 
plications of nitrogen, as sodium ni¬ 
trate or ammonium nitrate, so that 
annual growth in length is from 10 to 
20 inches. Pruning and fertilizer ap 
plications should be balanced to pro¬ 
duce the desired type of growth. 
Both the amount of pruning and the 
amount of nitrogen stimulate growth. 
Generally, nitrogen will be the ma¬ 
jor concern. l. d. t. 


Winter Fun 
on the Farm 


Down in Lancaster County, Penn¬ 
sylvania, there is certainly one ideal 
spot for wint'er sports. The farm 
pond, on the Snavely Garber farm, 
and its side slopes, shown below, 
provide plenty of opportunity to test 
one’s skill on sled and on skates. In 
the background on top of the hill is 
the Clair Witmer farmstead. At the 
right here, Mr. Garber takes his 
family, dog and all, for a brisk 
sleighride across the flat lands 
adjoining the farm. 


Photos by 

Grant Heilman, Lititz, Pa. 







i v i L^f* j j iJS r M i 


lt T , i \ ) , 



48 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 





































How Myers 
Power Sprayers 




In Weed Confro/-FOR GREATER YIELDS 


In wet weather or dry, you can keep 
stubborn weeds out of rows without 
cultivating. On fields, too, the new 
chemical weed killers can be applied 
with the boom-fitted Myers GP. And 
the same sprayer, equipped with a 
gun, can be used to clear out unwant¬ 
ed brush. 



In Livesfoek-PEST CONTROL 

Protect livestock and poultry from 
lice, mites, ticks and flies. The GP’s 
automatic pressure regulator makes 
it easy to switch from low-pressure 
weed spraying to the high-pressure 
application of insecticides to ani¬ 
mals, barns and coops. 



In Orchard —DISEASE CONTROL 

Get top-quality fruit finish through 
regular applications of spray mate¬ 
rials. The Myers GP, fitted with high- 
pressure guns, gives over-all cover¬ 
age from treetop to trunk. Just right 
for the spraying requirements of a 
moderate-sized orchard. 

There’s a Myers for 
every farm-spraying job 


^MyeST 


Myers 

POWER SPRAYERS 

WATER SYSTEMS AND WATER SOFTENERS 

' : . ' . 

The F. E. Myers & Bro. Co., Dept. R-l, Ashland, O. 


The Concord Grape Belt 

(Continued from Page 36) 

gation of the vine, plus help by- 
farm newspapers, by Horace Greeley 
in The New York Tribune and other 
enthusiasts, developed and popular¬ 
ized the Concord grape for the table 
and for juice. 

Early Interest in Grapes 

The early farmers of Brocton, 
Chautauqua County, N. Y., were in¬ 
terested in grapes a third of a cent¬ 
ury before the Concord grape con¬ 
tributed its influence. Deacon Elijah 
Fay, whose old home stands not far 
from the village of Brocton, was also 
a pioneer of the grape industry. A 
Catawba vine set out by him a 
century and a quarter ago near his 
house is still productive. Fay, who 
was regarded reverently as Deacon 
Fay, brought, the Fox variety with 
him when he migrated from Massa¬ 
chusetts to Chautauqua County. This 
grape did not do so well, though, so 
he secured Catawba and Isabella 
grape roots and set them out in 1824. 
The results were gratifying. Soon 
the grape industry in Chautauqua 
County prospered with the establish¬ 
ment of a winery at Brocton. 

Enthusiasm spread westward. 
Farmers accustomed to meager re¬ 
turns for labor of general farming 
were sold on the idea of great re¬ 
turns from grapes. Grape growing 
enthusiasm spread from Chautauqua 
to Erie County, Pa. and into the 
Ohio counties of Ashtabula, Lake 
and Cuyahog. 

Lake Erie Shore Vineyards 

Commercial grape growing in 
Ohio also clusters along the southern 
shore of Lake Erie. Most of the Ohio 
vineyards are located on lake plains 
and on two low sand and gravel 
ridges paralleling the lake shore 
and closely adjacent to it east and 
west of Cleveland. 

About 80 per cent of the grapes 
grown in Ohio are Concord. East of 
Cleveland and in Pennsylvania and 
New York, the percentage is higher. 
Thousands of tons of Ohio grapes are 
shipped annually to grape factories 
in Pennsylvania and western New 
York. 

The topography of the grape belt 
itself is comparatively level, but the 
land then rises from the lake shore 
abruptly to uplands two to four miles 
southward. The influence of Lake 
Erie on the climate protects vine¬ 
yards from early and late frosts for 
about five miles inland. 

The Chautauqua County, N. Y., 
grape area, of which the lake shore 
townships in Erie County, Pa., are 
a part, is one of the most famous in 
the nation. Development of the com¬ 
mercial grape vineyard has been very 
rapid there. In 1891, the majority of 
the vineyards was set and setting 
has been going on ever since by 
spurts according to the market varia¬ 
tions of the grape industry. 

Big Business in Grapes 

E. C. Steele, vice president and gen¬ 
eral manager of the Red Wing Com¬ 
pany, Inc., Fredonia, N. Y. states: 
“Our company has been in business 
since 1913 and has processed Concord 
grapes since that time. Our tonnage 
has steadily increased over the years. 
I feel safe in saying that the finest 
Concord grapes in the country are 
raised in the belt along Lake Erie in 
western New York and northwest¬ 
ern Pennsylvania. This is also, I be¬ 
lieve, the largest single Concord 
grape producing area in the country. 
The total Concord grape production 
in the United States amounts to 
175,000 to 200,000 tons annually; bet¬ 
ter than 50,000 tons are raised in this 
area. Twenty years ago, considerable 
tonnage was shipped to the fresh 
market. This outlet for Concord 
grapes now has gradually died out, 
hovewer, and more and more tonnage 
is moved into the hands of proces- 



Higher yields, fewer trips with wider, more even spreading 






“ This one tears it 
to pieces!” 


New Holland's 130-bu, 
Spreader shreds the densest 
chunks of matted material 

This big, trip-saving P.T.O. 
spreader is the easiest-handling, 
toughest-built rig you ever saw. 

Exclusive Uni-Lever Control 
gives a choice of 4 apron speeds, 
independent control of apron and 
beaters (no throwback in clean¬ 
out) . . . right from the tractor! 

Special Metalife primer inside 
and out and dense Georgia pine 
flooring treated with Pentacote 
add extra years of service. All- 
steel flared sides are built for fast, 
rough power loading. 

Your New Holland Dealer is 

ready to show you this great new 
spreader. See him soon! 

The New Holland Machine Co., 
a subsidiary of The Sperry Corp. 



“I think the New Holland 130-bu. 
Spreader is so good we ought to 
have another,” says William 
Russell, who works on McDonald 
Farms, Cortland, N.Y. “It spreads 
evener than any other spreader I 
ever used. This one tears it to 
pieces!” Even spreading over a 
wide area and high load capacity 
can cut your trips to the field by 
as much as 50%. Take a minute 
and figure out the savings a big 
New Holland could bring you. 



Converts to self-unloading forage 
box! With extension sides and 
double end-gate, the New Holland 
Spreader converts to a forage box 
which will unload up to 3^2 tons 
of silage automatically . . . can 
be used at silo or in Green 
Feeding programs (see diagram). 



New Holland 


"First in Grassland Faming" 


New Holland, Pa. • Minneapolis • Des Moines • Kansas City 
Columbus • Charlotte • Lockport, III. • Brantford, Ontario 


January 15, 1955 


49 































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sors. Single strength bottled grape 
juice is the largest single outlet, but 
frozen concentrated grape juice is in¬ 
creasingly more popular. Another 
outlet is to wineries for the manufac¬ 
ture of wine. A fourth outlet is to 
manufacturers of preserves and jel¬ 
lies. Jellies and jams made out of 
Concord grapes have a far superior 
flavor to those made out of other va¬ 
rieties of grapes. 

More than 260 growers in the grape 
belt belong to the Keystone Coopera¬ 
tive Grape Association in the town 
of North East, Penn. Cooperative 
members’ vineyards border along 
Lake Erie from Westfield, N. Y., to 
Painesville, Ohio. A. D. Elabarger, 
sales manager, says: “Within the past 
two years the cooperative has con¬ 
structed an additional cold storage 
compartment* with a capacity of 420, 
000 gallons for grape juice, bringing 
our tank storage to a total capacity 
of 1,500,000 gallons.” Bedford Prod¬ 
ucts,Inc., Dunkirk, N. Y., was started 
at the lowest point in the depression, 
March, 1933, and today operates three 
plants. Buell H. Bedford, president, 
explains: “Frozen concentrated 

grape juice has now reached a large 
volume and is responsible for a very 
bright outlook for the growers of 
grapes in the belt.” F. W. Bedford, 
Sr., chairman of the board, with 
more than 50 years experience in the 
grape industry, reports: “We fill 
practically all the requirements of 
Snow Crop concentrated grape juice; 
80 per cent of all the concentrated 
grape juice in the country is proces¬ 
sed in this belt of western New York, 
northwestern Pennsylvania and 
northeastern Ohio.” 

The Sunshine Packing Company of 
North East, Pa., is one of the largest 
frozen food processors east of the 
Mississippi. According to George 
Welch, head of the research depart¬ 
ment, more than a million cases of 
grape juice concentrate will be put 
up this year alone, with most of the 
juice coming from the grape belt 
area where the plant is located. He 
states: “We pack 24 different labels 
for grape concentrate and a fleet of 
48 modern refrigerated trucks is 
available for delivery or pickup of 
finished or raw products. The com¬ 
pany employs 1,100 persons during 
the peak of the season; 400 individu¬ 
als are maintained on a full-time 
basis.” 

Under the direction of its presi¬ 
dent, Fred L. Rahai, Sunshine has 
developed a completely mechanized 
operation employing the most mod¬ 
ern machinery and plant facilities. 

Westfield Planters, Grape Belt 
Preserves, Westfield Food Products 
are a few of the other companies con¬ 
nected with the grape industry in 
this belt. 

There are other grape areas, in 
New York around the Finger Lakes 
in the central part of the State, and 
also near Sandusky and Port Clin¬ 
ton in Ohio. But most processors con¬ 
sider these as separate, regions, 
rather than combining them with 
the continuous belt running along 
the southern shores of Lake Erie. 



THE RURAL NEW YORKER 



















Laying Brick 

Will you please give me a bit of 
information about building a brick 
chimney with common house bricks? 
Should bricks be dipped in water, or 
just water-sprayed, or no water at 
all? I expect some freezing weather 
at night. How about three parts sand, 
one part cement, V\ or Va dry lime to 
one cement? The lime will help re¬ 
tard the quick setting of plaster. 

Jefferson Co., N. Y. J. R. 

Bricks are wetted in hot dry 
weather. They are sprinkled until 
they look wet all over their surfaces. 
They must never be soaked to the 
saturation point. 

In cold weather, bricks are laid dry; 
in fact, they should be warmed be¬ 
fore laying. The mortar is made with 
hot water and hot sand. If you anti¬ 
cipate freezing temperatures before 
the mortar is thoroughly set, your 
work should be enclosed with a tar¬ 
paulin and the air temperature main¬ 
tained above freezing with high-watt 
light bulbs. 

A good mixture for chimney work 
is one part Portland cement, one part 
masons hydrated lime (slaked over¬ 
night), and five or six parts of sand. 


Pump Loses Its Prime 

You have helped so many people, 
I wonder if you could help us. 

We have a 105-foot driven well 
with a one horsepower jet pump. 
The first year we had wonderful ser¬ 
vice from the pump, but now every 
once in awhile, usually after we have 
flushed the water closet, the pump 
loses its prime. I’ve pulled up the 65 
feet of piping once and cleaned it 
all, and cleaned the foot valve, too. 
I keep thinking that air gets in some¬ 
where and causes an air bubble that 
I seem to be able to blow out, either 
by mouth (on a faucet connection on 
the water tank), or by increasing the 
pressure on the pump itself. 

Have you, in your experience, 
come across a problem such as this? 

Ulster Co., N. Y. m. p. r. 

Two possible sources of trouble 
come to mind when a pump loses its 
prime: 1—The foot valve is not seat¬ 
ing properly; if cleaning does not 
bring improvement, then perhaps a 
new one is indicated. 2—A leaky 
joint; try plugging the pump dis¬ 
charge, fill the line nearly full of 
water, attach a tire pump to the fit¬ 
ting on the water pump and put the 
pressure up to about 80 pounds pres¬ 
sure; check all joints for leaks; 
unions are particularly apt places to 
look, especially if it is not a gasket 
type union. 

You might check the pressure con¬ 
trol valve. It may not be tight 
enough to start the pump. 


Size of Reservoir for Water 
Supply 

For a water supply to my house 
and chicken houses, I plan to put a 
length of plastic pipe to a spring 
about 1,000 feet away. The spring is 
about 200 feet higher than the level 
where the house stands. How big 
should the supply tank at the spring 
be, and what size of pipe would be 
necessary at this distance for a mod¬ 
erate water supply? o. w. 

Wisconsin 

The size of the reservoir at the 
spring should be enough to store at 
least 24 hours’ requirements, assum¬ 
ing there is a flow at all times to 
meet daily needs. To figure your daily 
needs, allow about 50 gals, per per¬ 
son per day for all household uses— 
drinking, cooking, laundry, toilets, 
bathing. You would need between five 
and nine gallons per 100 chickens, de¬ 
pending on whether they are cooped. 
Multiply the number of gallons you 

January 15, 1955 


wish to store by .1337 and you will 
have the cubic foot volume of the 
tank. For example, a reservoir three 
feet wide, three feet deep and five 
feet long will store a 24-hour supply 
for six persons and 500 chickens. 

With a 200-foot drop from the 
spring to the house, you will have 
about 85 lbs. pressure ignoring pipe 
friction; this should be more than 
adequate. A 3%-inch plastic pipe 
would allow ample flow. 


Footings for Concrete Blocks 

I plan to build a home, one story 
high, 24x26 feet, or perhaps larger, 
made of cement blocks, with no cel¬ 
lar. How deep down from the ground 
level should the footing be? Also, 
how many courses of blocks should 
extend from ground level up for 
walls? Since the floor is made of con¬ 
crete, how many inches should ex¬ 
tend above ground level outside to 
avoid dampness? Also, how many 
inches deep should the floor be in¬ 
side to be strong and to last. 

New Jersey m. j. m. 

In your area the footings should 
extend no more than 30 inches below 
grade for frost protection. If the soil 
is light and well drained, you may 
be safe at 24 inches deep 

The floor slab should be at least 
eight inches above grade. If you 
plan to have eight foot ceilings you 
require 12 courses from floor level to 
ceiling. 

The floor ought to be about four 
inches thick. A good mixture is one 
part Portland cement, two parts sand 
and four parts concrete stone 
(crushed stone or graded gravel). 

To lay the blocks, you would find 
it easier to make the mortar of one 
part mortar cement and two parts 
clean brick or masons sand. 


Whitewash Formula 

Could you give me some infor¬ 
mation on how to whitewash (out¬ 
side) hollow tile chicken coops? I 
have tried several methods, but after 
a few rains the whitewash comes off 
in patches. J. o. 

New Jersey 

Soak 2i/ 2 lbs. of casein in one gal¬ 
lon of hot water until softened. Dis¬ 
solve iy 2 lbs. of trisodium phosphate 
in one-half gal. of water, add to the 
casein solution and stir well. Make a 
thin paste of six lbs. of whiting and 
12 lbs. of hydrated lime by stirring 
vigorously into 1% gals, of water. 
After the two solutions have cooled, 
add the casein-trisodium phosphate 
mixture slowly to the whiting-lime 
mixture; stir constantly during the 
process. Just before using the mix¬ 
ture, add % gal. of cold water con¬ 
taining IV4 pints of formaldehyde, 
stirring vigorously. This whitewash 
mixture should be used up in one 
day. It does not keep well. 


Siding on Stucco 

I have a stucco house and we 
would like to replace it with insu¬ 
lated siding, or asbestos siding. 
Which would be the better siding to 
use? m. s. 

New York 

The asbestos siding normally has 
better durability. It may also be pre¬ 
ferable from an appearance stand¬ 
point. It may be painted, if desired; 
is is more fire-resistant. The “insu¬ 
lated” siding would provide more 
thermal insulation. 




for econom y!’’ 


Homer I. Thomas, West Brattle- 
boro, Vt. says: “I feel that a really 
fine barn is always cheapest in 
the end. That’s why I selected 
Rilco. With these precision-made 
rafters, five men had the whole 
barn and milk house framed in 
2 days . . . and I call that real 


economy!” Rilco Rafters are 
laminated from kiln-dried West 
Coast Douglas Fir, with strong 
waterproof glues; and are shaped, 
cut to length and drilled at the 
factory. They are delivered with 
all connection hardware, ready 
for quick and easy erection. 





more space!" 


Adolph Ritz, like most other 
successful farmers, has a lot of 
machinery to keep in shape. So 
when he decided to build a ma¬ 
chine shed, he picked the Rilco 
Type 50 Utility Building—and 
got a post-free building with 
100% usable floor space. “My 


Rilco building was cheaper than 
metal,” says Mr. Ritz. “Also, 
I like Rilco construction for 
strength. It gives me a roof that 
is straight and true.” For a new 
Rilco catalog showing all of our 
many types of farm buildings, 
mail the coupon below. 



For your protection 
and convenience, sold only 
through your 
local lumber dealer. 



riico 


GLUED 

LAMINATED 

RAFTERS 


□ Two-Story Barns 


RILCO LAMINATED PRODUCTS, Inc. 

601c Brooks Bldg., Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

• Please send new free Rilco Barn Catalog and infor¬ 
mation on following farm buildings. 

□ One-Story Barns □ Machine Sheds □ Hog and Poultry Houses 


Name__ _________ 

A ddress ______ 

Tmnn _ State. 


51 








































Published Semi-Monthly By 

Rural Publishing Co., Inc. 333 West 30th St., New York 1, N. Y. 
John J. Dillon, Publisher, 1899-1950 


EDITORIAL AND EXECUTIVE STAFF 
William F. Berghold, Editor and Publisher 
William A. O'Brien, Business Manager 
Russell W. Duck, Managing Editor M. G. Keyes, Publisher's Desk 
James N. Bodurtha, Field Editor Persis Smith, Woman and Home 

Henry G. Hardwick, Jr., Circulation Manager 
H. B. Tukey Donald F. Jones 

C. S. Platt H. A. Rollins 

George L. Slate B. K. Sommers 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES: 

50 Cents a Year, $1.00 lor 3 Years; in New York City $1.00 a Year. 

Foreign countries in the Universal Postal Union, $2.06 a Year. 

Entered at New York Post Office as Second Class Matter. 

“A SQUARE DEAL” 

We believe that every advertisement in this paper is backed by a respon¬ 
sible person. We use every possible precaution and admit the advertising ol 
reliable houses only. But to make doubly sure, we will make good any loss 
to paid subscribers sustained by trusting any deliberate swindler, irrespon¬ 
sible advertisers or misleading advertisements in our columns, and any 
such swindler will be publicly exposed. We are also often called upon 
to adjust differences or mistakes between our subscribers and honest, 
responsible houses, whether advertisers or not. We willingly use our good 
offices to this end, but such cases should not be confused with dishonest 
transactions. We protect subscribers against rogues, but we will not be 
responsible for the debts of honest bankrupts sanctioned by the courts. 
Notice of the complaint must be sent to us within one month of the time of 
the transaction, and to identify it, you should mention The Rural New 
Yorker when writing the advertiser. 


If This Be Cooperation . . . 

T HE new year has not gotten off to a good 
start for New York dairy farmers. Backed 
to the wall with lower and still lower milk 
prices, concerned to no small extent at 
Washington’s discrimination in the matter of 
price supports, and opposed at every point 
in their attempts to better their own position 
themselves, they had hoped that, this time 
perhaps, their so-called leaders might be 
stirred to do something really constructive 
for producers. So they came — 4,000 of them 
— to the mass meeting in Syracuse on Decem¬ 
ber 29 with high hopes. (Story on page 65.) 

They knew that the Dairymen’s League had 
been calling most of the signals. They knew 
that tinkering with the Class I-A price would 
not prove half as productive as getting out 
the axe on the Class III price. They were aware 
that the cooperative leaders and the dealer 
representatives could just as easily sit down 
and work out a “super pool’’ idea without first 
going through the motions of a producer mass 
meeting. Nevertheless, they responded hope¬ 
fully to the meeting called, with the idea that 
somehow something really good might evolve 
from the meeting. 

They were disappointed and disgusted. 
Worst of all, they were completely disillu¬ 
sioned. What they had feared might be the 
case turned out worse than they imagined it 
could. 

From beginning to end, the Syracuse meet¬ 
ing was an insult to the intelligence of every 
dairyman. Little was said that everybody did 
not know already, and nothing whatever was 
done. Even the “super pool” plan that had 
been so widely publicized (and which at its 
best, according to the chairman, would have 
added a maximum of $12.50 to each of the 
next four milk checks) was watered down 
to nothing. 

But the bitterest pill that they were forced 
to swallow was to sit there and watch the way 
the meeting was deliberately rigged so as to 
prevent discussion. No one could be heard 
from the floor, nor was any discussion per¬ 
mitted on any resolution. It looked as if the 
boys in charge — the so-called farm leaders — 
were so used to applying the bull whip that they 
could not drop out of character even for this 
public meeting. 

And some of the bull whippers had the au¬ 
dacity to thank dairymen for their “construc¬ 
tive participation” and to call this Syracuse 
fiasco “cooperation in action.” If that was co¬ 
operation — if that was the kind of market¬ 
wide service for which these cooperatives re¬ 
ceive three to four cents on every hundred¬ 
weight of milk made by members — we are 
living in a complete fog of ignorance and 
false propaganda. 

But fogs have a way of eventually dissi¬ 
pating themselves. And it would not be hard 
to imagine that, becoming aware that this 
Syracuse meeting was only one of the pieces 
of a spurious bill of goods peddled by the 
bogus leaders, producers generally would rise 
up in revolt. They want cooperation, but they 
do not want the kind that was ladled out to 
4,000 of them last month in Syracuse. 


Corn—Then and Now 

HEN white men first landed on this 
continent, they found the native 
Indians growing a grain that was different 
from anAffhing they had ever seen before. 
This crop came to be known as maize, now 
in America commonly termed corn. 

Even in those early days of its cultivation, 
corn grain had already taken a prominent 
place in the Indian diet. It formed a natural 
balance for their high protein foods, such as 
game and fish. When pounded into a coarse 
meal, mixed with water and baked as a cake, 
it was not only nutritious but also highly 
palatable. Corn soon found its way into 
European countries, but the climate there was 
generally not well suited for its cultivation. 
For that reason it has never assumed a promi¬ 
nent place in farming anywhere but on the 
American continent. Here it has been, is now, 
and promises to continue to be, our greatest 
field crop. 

In terms of comparative acreage, for the past 
several years corn has averaged approximately 
87 million harvested acres, as compared with 
about 70 million acres for wheat, 12 million 
acres for barley, and around 40 million for 
oats. During this period of time these acres 
have yielded well over three billion bushels 
of corn a year, as compared with some one 
and one-quarter billion bushels each for wheat 
and oats, and 300 million bushels of barley. 
In addition to this yield, there is a tremendous 
production of corn that is converted to silage. 
The production of corn for grain, as well as 
for silage, is constantly increasing in the 
Northeast. Today New York ranks first among 
the North Atlantic States in the growing of 
silage corn, while its production of corn for 
grain is exceeded only by that of Pennsylvania. 

It is a far cry from the old Indian maize to 
the high-producing hybrid corn of today. This 
transition from the open-pollinated corn with 
its great variation in vigor, production, type 
and disease resistance is due largely to the 
scientific studies and investigations of plant 
scientists, of which one of the most renowned 
is Dr. D. F. Jones of the Connecticut Station. On 
page 35 of this issue there is an interesting 
story by Dr. Jones on the production of hy¬ 
brid corn, and a discussion of his latest work 
on the sterile method of producing it. The lat¬ 
ter eliminates much of the hand labor formerly 
involved, and lowers the production costs 
of our greatest American crop — hybrid corn. 


Return of the One-Room School 

TV/f OST modern schools are constructed of 
steel, brick and mortar. Many of them 
are single-storied buildings that spread out 
over large acreages. All of them are expensive 
and all of them crowded. There are still one- 
room country schools in the small towns and 
villages, but large centralized schools have 
for the most part supplanted them. For many 
years, factories of the mind have been run¬ 
ning wild with full-blown sails. 

Now, pendulum-like, school architecture 
seems to be swinging back toward small build¬ 
ings in the form of, not school houses, but 
house schools. Both new and old schools on 
Long Island, where there have been great 
population increases, are too crowded for 
proper instruction of boys and girls. So, houses 
in. residential developments are being pur¬ 
chased-by school districts and used as prim¬ 
ary classrooms, to be sold later as homes when 
the towns can afford standard school construc¬ 
tion or.when the need for enlarged classroom 
space is relieved. In this way there is a hedge 
both on time and money, and suitable class¬ 
rooms are meanwhile provided in good sur¬ 
roundings. In El Paso, Texas, a plan of bunga¬ 
low schools has worked well. First and second 
grade children there attend school in buildings 
like their own homes and in their neighbor¬ 
hoods; two-bedroom houses, with inner par¬ 
titions left out, are used for primary class¬ 
rooms. Young children cross no major traffic 
artery to reach their schools; they are prac¬ 
tically in their backyards. The cost of these 
El Paso bungalow schools was about $430 per 
pupil. Construction of equal space in a stand¬ 
ard school would have cost about $800. Resi¬ 
dents in the area have found what they think 
to be a most satisfying and economical way 


of housing their primary school children and 
they believe that their own home properties 
have been increased in value by the develop¬ 
ment of well-kept nearby schools. The El Paso 
school tax rate has been reduced from $1.35 
to $1.32 per $100 valuation in the last two 
years. 

One cannot tell a book by its cover, nor a 
school by its shell, but the prospect of one- 
room primary schools seems in the best classic 
tradition of education — not just for living but 
for life. Farmers on the outskirts of cities 
with increasing populations would do well to 
make sure their school boards have considered 
these house schools for the grammar grades 
before voting on huge appropriations for 
modern educational factories of the mind. 


What Farmers Say 

NO FARMERS’ POSTERS ALLOWED 

I am a dairy farmer. I went to the Syracuse 
milk meeting last month, hoping that our co-op. 
leaders, seeing that farmers had been holding 
a lot of protest meetings on their own, had finally 
decided it was about time they did something 
that could be seen in the farmer’s milk check. 
I believed what I read in the papers: that the 
four groups were going to take action so that 
the I-A price for the next four months would be 
pegged at the December level. 

So I got together some figures and made up 
three posters to display at the meeting. These 
posters showed that the price received by Akron, 
Ohio, farmers in October was $4.60 a cwt. and 
that during the same month Borden’s milk was 
sold in Akron stores for 33 cents per 2-qt. con¬ 
tainer, i.e. 16y 2 cents a qt. 

The point I was trying to bring home was that, 
if Borden’s could operate on a store spread of 6.7 
cents a quart in Akron (difference between con¬ 
sumer price and farmers’ blend price), why 
couldn’t they do the same in New York City? 
For their October milk, New York dairymen re¬ 
ceived a blend price of $4.51 — 9.6 cents a quart, 
and the average store price was 24 cents — a 
spread of 14.4 cents. It seemed to me then — and 
it still seems to me — that those Akron figures 
showed that New York dealers could well afford 
to pay us farmers more for our I-A milk. 

But, when I got to the meeting and tried, to 
put up my posters, I was told by a Mr. Farley of 
the Dairymen’s League that he wouldn't permit 
it. He was backed up on this by two League 
directors, Mr. Sexauer and Mr. Pratt. Yet, when 
I got into the hall, there were plenty of banners 
on the stage wall. Why wasn’t I allowed to put 
up mine? Was it because the League, being a 
stooge for Borden’s, didn’t like the idea of any 
publicity being given to Borden’s more economi¬ 
cal operations in other markets? Or was it be¬ 
cause nothing was actually supposed to be ac¬ 
complished at the meeting except to delude farm¬ 
ers into thinking that the “big boys” were try¬ 
ing to do something for them? 

I’d like to say that in my opinion the Syracuse 
meeting was a complete flop for dairy farmers 
and most of the men I spoke to afterwards felt 
just as I did. L . K< 

Madison County, N. Y. 


Enclosed is my check for $2.00 to cover a seven- 
year renewal subscription. My cousin sent in the 
first subscription for me as a birthday remem¬ 
brance in 1947 shortly after I acquired 60 acres 
in the country. 

I prefer The Rural New Yorker to any farm 
journal I’ve seen and received, and that includes 
several others I now receive regularly. Your 
periodical contains more down-to-earth infor¬ 
mation of practical value to a rank beginner than 
any other. Its several departments are interesting 
and instructive and the editorial page continues 
to bespeak Mr. Dillon’s character and personality. 

Pennsylvania E . c . 0 . 


Brevities 

“Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know 
them.” — Matt. 7:20. 

The less tender cuts of beef are just as nu¬ 
tritious and palatable as the more expensive cuts, 
provided they are slow cooked with moist heat, 
and are properly seasoned. 

The use of 50-pound paper feed bags is a re¬ 
cent development in the livestock and poultry 
feed trades. Drying out of feeds is retarded and 
flavor, color and aroma of the feed are preserved 
in the multiwall paper bags. 

Cows on test in the New York State Dairy Herd 
Improvement Association (DHIA) have an 
annual average of nearly 10,000 pounds of milk 
containing 360 pounds of butterfat in 305 days. 
This compares with 6,900 pounds of milk and 
250 pounds of butterfat for all New York dairy 
cows. 



52 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 
















MOUNTED MACHINES FOR ROW CROPS! 

Mount this JXB cultivator frame on your ZB tractor and you're 
set for all your row crop jobs from planting through the last 
cultivation. Cultivator tools, planter and fertilizer attachments 
mount quickly on the same beams. MM Uni-Matic power gives 
you smooth, safe hydraulic control of all your mounted machines. 
See the built-in safety features. 


NEW WORLD CHAMPIONS! 

MM Uni-Huskors placed 1st, 2nd and 3rd in 1954 
International Mechanical Corn Picking Contest. 


POWER FOR 3-BOTTOM PLOWING! 

Three MM Hi-Klearance bottoms hitched to the powerful ZB tractor—that’s real 
plowing! Hi-Klearance means you have a lift of 7 to 10 inches for easy turns and safe 
transport. "Choice of gasoline, LP gas or tractor fuel engines lets you use your 
lowest cost fuel. 

step up to ZB power and 

GET THESE B1GGE 

-PLOW PR0F1 


MAKE THIS HEAVY-DUTY, 

QUALITY-BUILT 3-PLOW MIV1 ZB YOUR NEXT POWER BUY! 

To step up your farming profits, step up your power first! With the bigger, 
huskier 3-plow capacity of the Minneapolis-Moline ZB tractor, you'll cut 
days off your field time . .. dollars off your fuel bills. Shorter job times let you 
do every job when field and crop conditions are just right. .. helps you boost 
yields and profits on every crop. 

PROFIT BY THE NEWEST IN TRACTOR ADVANTAGES! 

See and drive the ZB—you’ll prove it’s the most advanced 3-plow tractor in 
the field! Start with the centerline steering, the trim Visionlined design, the 
big-capacity Uni-Matic hydraulic system, the new high platform. Add the 
money-saving advantage of picking gasoline, LP gas or tractor fuel engines, 
the many easy maintenance features, the choice of 3 front end types. Point 
after point, you’ll discover the ZB is built to pay better and last longer, on 
your toughest 3-plow jobs! 

Get the money-making ZB facts! Mail the coupon for a free 20-page color 
folder. Then see your MM Dealer for a demonstration on your own farm. 

Minneapolis-Moline "'$}$&&&& u 



SPEED FOR QUICK CHORES! 

You’ll appreciate the quick starting and easy handling of the ZB 
tractor on jobs like manure spreading. The ZB’s 12-volt electrical 
system makes winter starts push-button easy. Here the ZB zips 
along with the MM LS-300 Spreader—lowest built spreader in its 
big-capacity class. 



MATCHED MACHINES FOR EVERY JOB! 



luiiiuuinnu 




wo- -rm aw 0 ? 


Minneapolis- Moline 


DF FT. 91 


MINNEAPOLIS 1, MINNESOTA 

I’d like fo have all She facts on the ZB tractor and how its 3-plow power con pay off 

for me. Please send me the free 20-page illustrated color folder. I form .. 

acres and am especially interested in the engine checked beiow. 


( ) GASOLINE ( ) LP GAS ( ) TRACTOR FUEL 

( ) SMALLER TRACTOR ( ) LARGER TRACTOR 


Name_ 

RFD_Box 


Your row crops go in 4 rows at a trip when you hitch the ZB to this MM PX Planter. 
This is the Planter that has become so popular one MM Dealer alone sold 60 of 
them in one season. The ZB gives you a perfect match for a complete line of big- 
capacity MM machines. 


Post Office. 


State. 


B 


January 15, 1955 


53 


































' YES, LACK OF \ 
VITAMI N"A''CAN > 
RESULT IN ROUGH 
COATS, SWELLED JOINTS/ 
NIGHT 8LINDNESS, 
7N, LOW DISEASE J 
l )\ RESISTANCE / 


THAT'S VERY 
IMPORTANT 


MINE, TOO 
BUT I’VE FOUND 
A NEW SOURCE 
OF NECESSARY 
VITAMIN "A" 


'TELL ME THE SECRET 
OF YOUR FINE DAIRY 
HERD, BILL. MY HAY'S 
SO POOR THIS 
V YEAR / 




r you don't * 
MEAN TO TELL 

ME ROW-RARE 

IS SO 

TERRIFIC... J 


f YES, NEW KOW-RARE 

WITH ITS POWERFUL 
VITAMIN "At PROMOTES 
GROWTH GUARDS 
AGAINST DISEASE, HAS 
HIGH DIGESTIBILITY 
AND POTENCY . YOU 
OUGHT TO GET 
V ROW-RARE RIGHT 
AWAY A 



I WILL. I'VE SEEN 
WHAT KOW-RARE’S 

DONE FOR YOU 


GET KOIW-XARE IN THE 50 LB. DRUM. ^ 
IT'S MUCH CHEAPER... CUTS COST FROM 554 
TO 36<S A POUND AND WILL HELP CONVERT 
W^HIGHCOST FEED INTO BIGGER J 
l-'-TSA__ MILK CHECKS 


Get New Improved KOW-KARE At Your 
Dealer's, where you buy KALF-KARE. 

Write for FREE Cow Book 

Useful, easy-to-undersiand, illustrated, 24 pages. 
“Care and Feeding of Dairy Cattle." Written by a 
Dairy Authority. Send postal to: 


DAIRY ASSOCIATION COMPANY 
Lyndonville 9, Vermont 



PATZ BARN CLEANERS 

Have nation wide reputation for mono 
years of trouble free operation than 
any other make. Simple, rugged, inex¬ 
pensive. Long lasting exclusive heavy 
steel individual hook chain, no welds, 
no rivets, no weak spots to corrode and 
break. A few trade ins of leading makes 
very reasonable. Investigate before you 
invest in any cleaner. Silos and Silo 
Unloaders. Easy terms. Free literature. 
No obligation. No salesmen will call. 
Dealers Wanted. 

FRANK NOLD, ROME, N. Y. 



BIG SAVINGS on your FEED 

Mixes perfect blend in 10 min., 5 
sizes, 700 to 4000 lbs. capacity. 
Gives years of trouble-free service. 

World’s Largest Selling 
Mixer I WRITE for cat* 
1 alog today! 

Brower Mfg. Co., Box 3101, Quincy, III. 


EASY 

TERMS 


Costs 



... full hydraulic pressure at ANY engine speed 
YETTER Continuous-Running HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 


Makes your plow puSI 
up to 40% easier! 

Save time and money with an easier-pulling plow! Drawbar 
tests prove a Yetter-equipped plow pulls up to 40% easier 
than those with ordinary rolling coulter and jointer. Many 
users plow in ONE GEAR HIGHER . . . finish 5 acres in 
the time normally required for 4. 

YOU PLOW CLEANER with Yetter Disc Coulter-Joint¬ 
ers. Efficient SLICING ACTION cuts and throws surface 
trash into the furrow. Any picked up by the blade is caught 
by the deflector and also thrown into the furrow. Clean 
plowing kills corn borer . . . increases yields. 
GUARANTEED TO WORK on your plow. Efficient 1- 
blade design — it takes a single blade disc type coulter to 
work successfully on modern mounted plows! 


Gives full pressure even when engine is idling . . . because it runs in¬ 
dependently of transmission and P.T.O. Ends stopping, clutching and 
shifting — saves hundreds of movements — controlled from tractor 
seat or ground. Fits many old and new tractors. WRITE FOR DETAILS. 


KEEP ROLLING WHEN IT'S WET AND MUDDY! 

YETTER WHEEL CLEANER peels off 
mud and trash from front tractor wheels. 

Adjustable for sidewall and tread. WRITE: 


YETTER MFG. CO., 521 Main St., Colchester, III. 


GOOD FARM EQUIPMENT SINCE 1930’ 


y 


Hi 


Crossbred and Purebred Hogs 

Some farmers have great success with 
established breeds of swine. Others 
make more headway with crossbreds. 
Which breeding program is better? 

By RUSSELL W. BUCK 


UFFICIENT experimental 
evidence is now available 
from various state stations 
to show conclusively that 
when properly used both 
crossbreeding and criss¬ 
cross breeding are desir¬ 
able and profitable methods for pro¬ 
ducing market hogs. On the other 
hand, not ail farmers or breeders ap¬ 
prove the practice. On farms where 
crossbreeding hogs does not prove 
satisfactory, it is usually due to using 
inferior transmitting individuals as 
one or both of the parent crosses. It 
cannot be too strongly emphasized 
that, for successful crossbreeding, the 
foundation females, whether regis¬ 
tered or gr-ades, must be of good type 
and inheritance. The boars used for 
the top cross must likewise be of 
good individuality, of proved desir¬ 
able bloodlines and superior trans¬ 
mitting ability. Grade or unregist¬ 
ered boars should never be used for 
commercial crossbreeding purposes; 
whenever hogs of mixed breeding 
and unknown ancestry are used as 
foundation animals, they usually 
carry undesirable latent characters in 
their germ cells, and these may be¬ 
come manifest in the resultant off¬ 
spring. To be successful, crossbreed¬ 
ing must follow a definite, effective 
plan and pattern. When it does, it is 
both practical and profitable. 

Purposes of Crossbreeding 
The purpose of crossbreeding pigs 
is to obtain more rapid and econom¬ 
ical gains than either regular grade 
or purebred pigs make. In addition, 
the breeder desires increased pro¬ 
lificacy, vigor and health in the cross¬ 
breds, with a consequent increase in 
number of pigs raised to weaning 
age. Also, by crossing certain types 
and breeds, the general market type 
and breeding potential of the cross¬ 
breds may be improved over both of 
the foundation animals. As an illus¬ 
tration, the bacon type hog, such as 
the Tamworth, usually does not 
command the best price in American 
hog markets. However, when Tam¬ 
worth boars are crossed with the 
lard type breeds, such as the Duroc, 
the pigs produced may be market 
toppers. Then, too, the crossbred 
gilts from this type combination are 
usually more prolific than their lard 
type female parents. 

In this instance, each of the ori¬ 
ginal parents has contributed some 
desirable characteristics with which 
the other was not endowed. It an¬ 
swers one objection sometimes raised 



The carcass from the Minnesota No. 
1 and No. 2 cross (shoivh ) carries 
excellent finish with a comparatively 
small proportion of fat. There are 
large meaty pork chops and an un¬ 
usually long side-of-bacon piece con¬ 
taining a high proportion of lean 
meat. 

against crossbreeding, that to be de¬ 
sirable it is necessary for the cross¬ 
breds to be superior in all respects to 
the best parent that entered into the 
foundation cross. In no way do these 
assertions mean that all crossbreds 
are superior to all so-called pure¬ 
bred or registered hogs. It must also 
be noted, as mentioned, that experi¬ 
mental work has shown that only the 
best kind of registered sires should 
be used, and preferably either good 
type registered or high grade sows 
and gilts of another breed. Conse¬ 
quently, this means that most of the 
seed stock for successful crossbreed¬ 
ing work should be obtained from the 
breeders of superior registered stock. 
Crossbreeding does not mean the 
curtailment of our present breeds of 
hogs; on the contrary, it will increase 
the demand for good registered seec] 
(Continued on Page 60) 




Photos: University of Minnesota, St. Paul 


The Minnesota No. 1 and* No. 2 breeds of hogs are especially well suited 
for crossing ivith any breed. They have been carefully inbred and selected 
for type improvement. The resultant offspring from crossing the No. 1 and 
No. 2 themselves {shown) are smooth, broad and deep throughout, es¬ 
pecially in the region of the most valuable carcass cuts. 


54 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 






















































































































































DAIRY CATTEe 


REGISTERED GUERNSEYS 

One month to mature age, 200 
head to select from. Let us quote 
on your requirements. 

FORGE HILL FARM 

R. F. D. 4, NEWBURGH, NEW YORK 

R EAL MILKING SHORTHORNS • SINCE i?36 
Horned, Polled! M. Calves make dandy Oxen, Steers, 
4-H, or Sires. Foundation units, yearlings, beauties! 
0 . H ENDRICKSON, Greenlawn Farm, Cobleskill, N.Y. 

BEEF CATTLE 


Rcq. Polled Herefords 

BULLS READY FOR SERVICE 
OPEN AND BRED HEIFERS 
Modern Bloodlines. T. B. and Bangs Accredited Herd 
BATTLEGROUND FARMS | 

FRE EHOLD, NEW JERSEY _ PHONE: 8-2224 

-■ HEREFORDS FOR SALE - 

Bulls, Serviceable Age. Bred Heifers and Cows. 
Also Some Young Heifers 


HAMILTON FARM. 


Not Bred. 
GLADSTONE, NEW JERSEY 


REGISTERED H EREFORDS— Heifers and bred cows, 
seme with calf at side. One 3 yr. old son of M. W. 
Larry Domino 89. T.B. and Bangs accredited herd. 
WINDROW FARM, MOORESTOWN, N. J. 

Phone: MOorestown 9-1124 __ 

" WE OFFER SELECTED 

% 

Hereford Steer and Heifer Feeder Calves 


For delivery after Jan 1st. These calves if purchased 
in lots of 20 or more will be delivered to any point 
in New York State at no charge. 


ZENDA FARMS CLAYTON. N.Y. 

_ CLINTON MA LD 0 0 N , Man ager_ 

REG. POLLED HEREFORDS 

Six excellent type heifer calves 4 to 8 months old 
of CIRCLE M and COLONEL DOMINO Breeding. 
Reasonably Priced. 

NELSON SCHAENEN 

BASKING RIDGE. N. J,_Tel. Bern. 8-0620 

-- ABERDEEN ANGUS BULL - 

REGISTERED, 3 YEARS OLD. HALTER BROKEN. 
RALLY FARM BREEDING. ACCREDITED HERD. 
GLENORTON, _FAIRFAX, VERMONT 

TWO YOUNG ABERDEEN-ANGUS BULLS AND A 
Few Heifers. Sunbeam and Bandolier Breeding. 
C. C. TAYLOR._LAWTONS, NEW YORK 


SWINE 


• YORKSHIRES# 

WRITE FOR PAMPHLET AND PRICES. 

W E REASONFR A SON R f . t> 4 Wntertnwn. N.Y 

WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA BERKSHIRE SALE 
46 — HEAD BRED GILTS — 46 
23 — YOUNG BOARS AND FALL GILTS — 23 
SATURDAY FEBRUARY 12, 1:00 P. M. 

MERCER AND GROVE CITY ROAD 
For Further Information Write '— 
CHARLES WOODS, Secretray, MERCER, PA. 

Registered Berkshires 

FALL BOARS AND GILTS 
PROMPT SHIPMENT 

SIR WILLIAM FARM, HILLSDALE, NEW YORK 


- HEREFORD HOGS - 

TOP BREEDING STOCK ALWAYS AVAILABLE 
LARGEST HERD IN EAST 
ROYAL OAK FARM 

2902 DUNLEER RD„ BALTIMORE 22. MD. 


MAPLEHURST DU ROCS: April Pigs, Either Sex. 
RUSSELL F. PATTINGTON, SCIPIO CENTER, N.Y. 


FREE CIRCULAR: REG. HAMPSHIRE SWINE 
Since 1934. C. LUTZ, Middletown I, Maryland 


- REGISTERED HEREFORDS - 

August and September Farrowed Boars and Gilts. 
CARROLL F. HUNT, STEWARTSTOWN, PA. 


Spotted Poland China Pigs, Service Boars, Bred Gilts, 
Vaccinated Pure Breds. Shipped with doctor’s health 
certificate. C. W. HILLMAN, VINCENTOWN, N. J. 


Registered Yorkshires 

YOUNG SERVICE BOAR 
BRED AND OPEN GILTS 
SIR WILLIAM FARM, HILLSDALE, NEW YORK 


20 BRED GILTS. Also Service Boars. Sired by the 
1953 Ohio Jr. Ch. Clifford LeVan, R. I, Milton, Pa. 


For Sale: YORKSHIRE SERVICE BOARS & Weaned 
Pigs. PINELMA FARM, LAWRENCEVILLE,' N. Y. 


DOGS 


Sobers • Ooxcrs 

PUPPIES THAT SATISFY. Best Bloodlines. Excellent 
Individuals. DR. J. M. THURBER, ITHACA, N. Y. 


Fed. Smooth Fox Terrier Pups N 


COLLIE PUPPIES: Championship Breeding. Beauties 
$30: $35. PLUMMER McCULLOUGH, MERCER. PA 


- PEDIGREE AIRDALE PUPPIES - 

HOLLAND DAIRY FARMS, Clarksburg, W. Va 


RABBITS 


RAISE RABBITS 

A FULL TIME BUSINESS 
OR WELL PAID HOBBY 

Thousands of Raisers Needed To Meet 
The Tremendous Demand For MEAT 
-FUR—LABORATORY—EREEDING 

Know the Facts Illustrated Book 

Describing 25 Breeds, Breeding and Care, 
Markets, Etc. 10 Cents. We Are Association 
of Breeders who want t a see you start rightl 

American Rabbit Assn. 38, AREA Bldg. Pittsburg, Pa. 




SHEEP 


- REGISTERED - 

SHROPSHIRE, SUFFOLK AND OXFORD 
YEARLING RAMS AND EWES FOR SALE 
Excellent Breeding, Reasonably Priced 
VAN VLEET BROS., LODI, NEW YORK 


Sell 


Surplus Stock 



M ANY breeders have found that 
a little advertisement on this 
page is a sure way of finding 
customers for any stock they have for 
sale. You can tell 310,000 farmers 
and breeders about your stock with 
an advertisement on this page. Tell 
these 310,000 readers about the stock 
you want to sell and you will find 
that many of them are looking for just 
what you have for sale. Write for our 

SPECIAL LIVE STOCK 
ADVERTISING RATE 

The Rural New-Vorker 

333 We si 30 th St., Mew York 



•January 15. 1955 


E®storn N.Y. Livestock 
Auctions 

Prices for week ending December 
31, 1954, as reported to N.Y. State 
Department ©f Agriculture and Mar¬ 
kets. 

The cattle market held generally 
steady. Demand was moderate, sup¬ 
plies increased. Prices per cwt: 
Angus feeder calves—heifers $18- 
23.50; steers $22.50-27. Dairy type 
heifers for slaughter—good grade 
$14-16; Medium $12-14; Common 
$8.50-11. Slaughter cows—Good $12- 
12.50; Medium $10.50-11.50; Cutters 
$9.00-10; Heavy Canners $8.00-9.00; 
Light Canners $7.00-8.00; Shelly Can¬ 
ners $7.00 and down. Slaughter bulls 
—Good $14.50-15.50; Medium $12.50- 
14; Common $11-12.50. 

The calf market was strong for 
veals, steady for bobs. Demand was 
active, supplies increased. Prices per 
head: Choice veals $70-80; Good $55- 
64; Medium $44-55; Common and 
Culls $35-45; Bobs (over 85 lbs.) $15- 
26; Bobs (65-85 lbs.) $9.00-14; Bobs 
(under 65 lbs.) $9.00 and down. 

The hog market remained firm. 
Demand was moderate, supplies were 
steady. Prices per cwt.: Choice 
Weights $18.50-20; Heavy Weights 
$17-18; Heavy Sows $12.50-14; Heavy 
Boars $9.00. Small pigs $3.50-12 
apiece. _ 

Lancaster Livestock 

Market 


Prices and quotations supplied by 
Pennsylvania State Marketing Ser¬ 
vice, as of January 3, 1955. 

Dry Fed Steers — Prime $28-30.50; 
Choice $24-27; Good $21-23; Medium 
$20-21; Common $18-20. 

Cows .— Choice $13.25-14; Good 
$12.50-13.25; Common & Medium 
$9.00-12.25; Low Cutter & Cutter 
$9.00-12; Canners $8.00-8.75. 

Dry Fed Bulls — Good & Choice 
$18-22; Cutter, Common & Medium 
$12-14; Good to Choice Bolognas 
$14-16. 

Feeder & Stocker Cattle — Calves 
(400-500 lbs.) $20-26; Good & Choice 
(500-800 lbs.) $22-25; Common & 
Medium (500-800 lbs.) $12-18. 

Vealers — Choice & Prime $30-32; 
Good $22-27; Medium $15-18; Cull & 
Common $8.00-14. 

Hogs — Local Lightweights $16-18; 
Good & Choice (160-180 lbs.) $18-19; 
Good & Choice (180-200 lbs.) $19.50- 
20; Good & Choice (200-225 lbs.) 
$19.50-20; Good & Choice (225-250 
lbs.) $19-19.50; Good & Choice (250- 
270 lbs.) $18.50-19; Good & Choice 
(270-300 lbs.) $18-18.50; Good & 
Choice (300-350 lbs.) $17.50-18; Good 
& Choice (350 lbs. up) $17-17.50; 
Sows $13.50-17. 

Sheep — Choice Spring Lambs 
$22-23; Medium to Good Lambs $17- 
20;'Common Lambs $8.00-13; Ewes 
(all weights) $3.00-7.00. 



Write for full information. 


Sam Daniels Mfg. Co. 

HARDWICK, VERMONT 


DANIELS 

CHUNK FURNACES 

BURNS THE LARGEST 
CHUNKS 


• FLOWING HEAT 


• ECONOMICAL 


Ideal for farm home, ski 
lodge, or school. Steady, 
even heat. 


I 


NEWi MODEL C 


Orchardkraft 

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mention dealer’s name. 

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GASPORT, NEW YORK 



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CHAS. M. COX CO., 177 Milk Street, Boston 
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YOUR 
NEEDS. . 



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48' L. 
11' H. 


Quickly, easily and cheaply re-erected. Per¬ 
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Write for Illustrated Circular 
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HEARING 

If so, you will be 
happy to know how 
we have improved the 
hearing and relieved 
those miserable head 
noises, caused by ca* 
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thousands of people 
(many past 70) who 
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CATTLE CLIPPER BLADE SERVICE: Ground $1,00 
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55 
















































































































































Castleton, N. Y. girl won first cooking contest at age 8 


Toesi-Ager Wins 28 Awards in County Cooking Contest 


Mark handles that loving cup 
with care as he and little Dean look 
over the rest of sister Sandra’s 
prize awards. Sandra Jordan is 
only 16 years old, yet she’s already 
won 213 prizes for her cooking 
skill. She took her latest awards 
just last year—28 ribbons at the 
Schaghticoke County Fair. 

Like many an older prize-win¬ 
ning cook Sandra thinks good in¬ 
gredients are important to cooking 
success. That’s why she uses 
Fleischmann’s Active Dry Yeast. 
“It always rises fast,” she says. 
“And it’s so easy to use.” 

Sandra isn’t the only prize-win¬ 


ning cook who depends on Fleisch¬ 
mann’s Active Dry Yeast! Out of 
more than 9,000 prize winners sur¬ 
veyed, over 98 % use Fleischmann’s. 
And here are some reasons why. 
They find it’s easy to use and al¬ 
ways rises fast. They like the way it 
keeps for months right in the cup¬ 
board. When you bake at home 
you’ll like Fleischmann’s too. You 
can get it in handy strips of three. 
Make sure you get Fleischmann’s 
Active Dry Yeast. 



NATURAL 

§f IS LiS^iTWEBGHT 


DENTAL PLATE 



Made from your old one 
returned 


New Process Saves 
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Priced ' 

Low As 


New Professional 
Method makes beautiful per- 
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30 DAY MONEY-BACK TRIAL 

YOU can have gorgeous, natural-looking, perfect- 
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orMin idfi aafifclCV Just 3end name and ad * 

uLriU StU CVlUNlllf dress for interesting de¬ 
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your new plate for 30 whole days to be sure they re 
EXACTLY whatyou want. If not delighted, Clinical 
returns every cent you’ve paid. Write immediately. 

CMN'CAL DENTAL LABORATORY. Dept. 69-A 
_335 W. MADISON ST.. CHICAGO 6. ILL. 

SION JVWWP HELP? 


TURN TO EBUROL 

A SCIENTIFIC OINTMENT FOR HOUSE¬ 
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ON BURNS, SUPERFICIAL WOUNDS, IN¬ 
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HANDS AND MANY OTHER MINOR SKIN 
IRRITATIONS. 

* Used in Medical Profession 15 Years 

tcimTAHAV l ONLY $1.00 (Postpaid USA) 
icNQ \ 00A Yi For a Generous 2 oz. Jar 
If Not Satisfied, Your Money Returned 

Bischoif Chemical Corp. Box 12, Ivoryton, Conn. 


Happy SsISie Day 
When Backache 
Gees Away.... 

Nagging backache, loss of pep and energy, head¬ 
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TABLES and 
CHAIRS 

Hundreds of Styles—Factory Prices 


Folding 

Non-Folding 


r 


Send For 
Catalogue 



NORTH BRANCH CHAIR CO. 


Dept. 8 


''-I’ins 1, Mi't 


FANCY FLORIDA ORANGES: Vi box $5.20; box 
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box $9.60. GRAPEFRUIT: '/ 2 box $'.80: box $8.20; 
bu. basket $5.50. GRAPEFRUIT PINK: </ 2 box $5 25; 
box $8.90; bu. basket $6.15; TEMPLE OR NGES: 
i/ 2 box $6.00; box $10.00. EXPRESS PAID. 
JAMES AKER, CLERMONT, FLORIDA 


- BIG MONEY- 

Selling waitresses, beauticians, others, guaranteed 
uniforms $3.98 uji. Dacrons, Nylons, Cottons. Sizes 
9-52. Free Uniform and Gift Plans. Full, part time. 
Experience unnecessary. Free full color catalog. 
UPLAND UNIFORMS, 

208 EAST 23rd, DEPT. BF-5, NEW YORK 



RHODE ISLAND RED WATERMELON 


-HARRIS SUDS 

Grow Watermelons in the North? 

SURE! IF YOU PLANT RHODE ISLAND RED 

Not only is it early enough to ripen in short seasons, but 

the firm, delicious flavored, red flesh is of the fin st quality. 
The vines make vigorous growth and produce good cr ps of 
a.tractive medium s ze, oval, green and white stripe : melons. 
Rhode Island Red is one of the most exciting "vegetables" 
we have offered in many a year. 

SEND FOR OUR FREE CATALOG TODAY 
And see for yourself how many new and better vegetables 
and flowers are available this year. 

If vou grow for maiket, ask for our Market 
Ca i defiers' and Florists’ Catalog. 

JOSEPH HARRIS CO., INC. 

13 Moreton Farm, Rochester 11, New York 

1955 C ATALOG iww /teachj 


5o 



Pattern 

This pattern, that I knit in fleecy wool, 

I can revise at will, change stitch or hue, 

According to my wish, adapt the new 
Or old, as long as it seems beautiful. 

If only life were simple as a strand 

Of yarn, tucked deftly into ordered space; 

I cannot wield events, put years in place, 

I merely hold the needles in my hand. 

Pennsylvania — May Carleton Lord 


Collection of Winter Dishes 


Hot bread for breakfast is always 
popular; but for Sunday morning in 
cold weather we like to be a little 
frilly, since there is more time for 
preparation. Here is one of our 
favorites, which we call Frosted 
Pineapple Scones. 

Use 2 cups sifted enriched flour; 
3 teaspoons baking powder; 1 tea¬ 
spoon salt; V 4 cup sugar; V 4 cup 
shortening; 1 egg, beaten; V\ cup 
pineapple juice; 1 cup drained, 
crushed pineapple. 

Combine and sift dry ingredients. 
Cut or rub in the shortening until 


Two Good Old Recipes 

Black Bean Soup 

One pint of dry black Mexican 
beans; two quarts cold water; bones 
of cold roast; salt and pepper; two 
teaspoons currant jelly. 

Place beans in kettle with bones 
from roast (beef, mutton or poul¬ 
try). Bring to a boil, skim well and 
simmer for four or five hours. Re¬ 
move bones and press beans through 
strainer as the skins are tough. Re¬ 
turn soup to kettle and bring to a 
boil; add jelly and serve. 

Raspberry Cake Filling 

Beat the white of an egg, add one 
cup of sugar and one cup of pre¬ 
served fresh raspberries (or straw¬ 
berries). Strain juice off first. Beat 
mixture well and spread on cold 
cake. Pearle Goodwin 


mixture is crumbly. Mix beaten egg 
with pineapple juice and add to the 
dry mixture. Add crushed pineapple 
and stir only until the flour is well 
moistened. Using two silver forks, 
drop batter on greased baking sheet, 
shaping into bars about 4 V 2 inches 
long and an inch wide. Press sides 
smooth. 

Bake in a pre-heated hot oven. 425 
degrees F., for 15 minutes. Frost at 
once with a confectioners’ sugar 
icing, flavored with lemon extract. 
Makes about one dozen scones. Most 
delicious! Ethel M. Eaton 


Baked Appies De Luxe 

There are, of course, any number 
of ways to serve baked apples, but 
here’s one that we especially like: 

Wash and core sufficient tart, juicy 
apples to provide one for each per¬ 
son. Peel the skin from the top of 
each apple about one-third of the 
way down, and place apples close 
together in a baking pan, peeled end 
up. Fill the cavities with strawberry 
preserves (raspberry or apricot may 
be used) mixed with chopped nut 
meats, letting the preserve run over 
the sides of the apple where it is 
peeled. 

Bake uncovered at 400 degrees F. 
for 25 to 30 minutes or until the 
apples are easily pierced with a 
toothpick. Serve either hot or cold, 
with either whipped or plain cream. 
We prefer them warm — not hot — 
with cream poured on. e. e. 



Photo: Daisy Welch, Pennsylvania 

Mr. and Mrs. Peanut and Family Gathered for a Trip 
These parents and their four children are a prize-winning doll group origin¬ 
ated by Miss Daisy Welch, Bradford, Pa., who also creates tiny folk from 
acorns and walnuts for head and body. Though only three inches (or less) 
tall, they have taken first place at the world’s largest doll show, traveling 
to exhibits here and abroad, with their crepe paper clothing, wooden legs, 
faces drawn in India ink, rope ravelings for hair. Miss Welch, who started 
on nut dolls when she was a shut-in, now gets about in a motor wheel chair 

to help other invalids. 


THE RURAL NEW YOUKEii 











































































Cotton Bedspreads from 


New Widths 


“Silks and satins, buttons and 
bows”, as the song says, belong to 
the distaff side of the family. And it 
takes farm living to teach a woman 
pretty quickly what’s practical, and 
what isn’t, in the house. Women who 
sew their own, wash their own 
curtains, drapes, covers and spreads 
know what is good, and pretty too. 

For years, countrywomen have 
been buying good sturdy fabrics like 
cotton, color-fast washable cotton 
that is guaranteed not to shrink 
more than one per cent, made in 36 
colors, and not expensive. Now the 
123-year-old Indian Head Mills offer 
something new: their fine cottons in 
54-inch widths—just what is needed 
to make tablecloths, spreads, slip 
covers, cafe curtains, draperies. 

This new offering, as always be¬ 
fore, has no “wrong side”, so there 
is no waste in cutting or sewing. It 
comes in 12 new colors: yellow and 
pale yellow, brown, pink, light gray, 
red, coral, blue, emerald green and 
forest green, wine and beige. White 
too, of course. 

The bed is so emphatic a piece of 
furniture in a sleeping room, that 
much of the appeal of the room it¬ 
self is bound to depend on the bed¬ 
spread used. Color, of course, gives 
the keynote and the spread’s colors 
should harmonize with the walls and 
floor covering. 

The two solid plain tones on the 
bed, shown here, are good with the 
pattern in the wallpaper. Both tones 
can then be picked up elsewhere in 
the room. Simple lines everywhere 
create a sense of restfulness. And 
this last is naturally the essence of 
an attractive bedroom. p. s. 





Indian Head Mills, New York, N. Y. 

This attractive bedroom catches the eye, awake or asleep, through the quiet 
lines but delightful effect of the bedspread, made at home, from the new 
54-inch width washable, color fast cottons in harmonizing colors: pale, 
yelloio and light gray, as an example. 



From the Little Brown 
House 

They tell us everyone, at least 
once in a lifetime, has to got to 
the hospital. So here I am in my 
§econd week in a hospital that is 
friendly and more home-like than 
most. 

This West River Valley is for¬ 
tunate in having a small, well equip¬ 
ped establishment of only 18 beds 
and two or thi'ee private rooms. 
There is an annex where one can 
come as a guest for a Winter or for 
the remaining years of one’s life. 
Perhaps Vermonters are getting 
healthier as there are only eight 
guests in the annex, and several 
empty beds in the main part. I have 
no doubt that human beings are 
now learning to care for themselves 
as well.as for their stock. 

The time of rest here has helped 
me so much that I feel I shall soon 
be going home. Since this is being 
written in December, I wish all of 
you a Happy New Year. And I thank 
the many friends who have sent 
cards and letters during my illnes. 
They are a happiness. 

Mother Bee 


Boston Poultry Show 

Farm women not too far from 
Boston, Mass., may like to take 
advantage of the cooking school 
demonstrations to be given during 
the afternoons of Wednesday 
through Saturday, Jan. 19-22, in 
Boston’s Mechanics Building. 

Miss Eleanor W. Bateman, mana¬ 
ger of the New England Branch, 
Poultry and Egg National Board, will 
conduct a series on the “hows and 
whys” of the latest improved meth¬ 
ods in kitchen and cooking skill with 
chicken and turkey on the above 
dates in connection with the 107th 
Boston Poultry Show. 


Amazing Offer... for Rural New Yorker Readers! 





THIS^ 

is what 
you see 
with the 

Powerhouse 


Genuine 

COATED 

Lenses 


This is what you see 
with the naked eye^ 


Save $7. 

.98 


case 

F.T.i. 


Direct from 
Importer 
to You! 


TIMES AREA 
MAGNIFICATION 


See Up to 20 Mites Away! 


This attractive case is made of supple-soft genuine leather, fiinisned 
in a golden tan with harmonizing stitching and snap closure. Protects 
your POWERHOUSE against rain, dust, grime. Yours ABSOLUTELY 
FREE with order for new POWERHOUSE B noculars with coated lenses! 


Lifetime bargain for Rural New Yorker Readers! 
THORESEN -- world's greatest importer of German 
binoculars — brings you famous, nationally adver¬ 
tised POWERHOUSE Binoculars at an unbelievably 
low price! NOT another crude model! NOT a toy NOT 
4 . . 5 . . . 7". . . but 16 TIMES AREA MAG¬ 

NIFICATION! It’s the pride and joy of every red 
blooded hunter, fisherman, sports enthusiast! Thoresen 
and only Thoresen brings it direct to you for a mere 
4.98. 


TRIUMPH OF GERMAN 
OPTICAL INDUSTRY 

The POWERHOUSE is made in Germany—world’s 
outstanding producers of quality optics — the finest 
Cameras, Telescopes, Microscopes, and Binoculars. 
German know-how and superb workmanship are re¬ 
flected in the many features of the famous POWER¬ 
HOUSE. Here are a few: 1. Great Structural Strength 
without tiring weight. Only 9% ounces in all. 2. 
Aluminum centre-post focusing gives you over 25 
steady positions for sharp viewing. 3. Easy adjust¬ 
ment for elose-apart or far-apart eyes. 4. Firm, non¬ 
slip grip. 5. Beautiful, crisp design as illustrated in 
reduced size above. 6. Jumbo center wheel gives 
effortless focusing. 7 High luminosity gives you 
viewing even in moonlight. 

January 15, 1955 


4X, 40 Coated, Precision-Ground Lenses 
for Super Viewing 

The powerful lenses are the crowning achievement 
of the 99 year old firm. Far different, indeed, from 
the moulded plastic kind stamped out by the million. 
Each objective lens is coated and polished to high 

tolerances, then checked for accuracy. This takes 
much longer, costs 20 to 30 times more! But it's 

worth it! You get CRYSTAL-CLEAR viewing. Your 

eyes don’t suffer the strain of excessive distortion 
and ghost images so common in ordinary binoculars. 
Were you to spend $25.00 we could not give you 

better quality lenses! 


Magic of American Dollar 
Makes This Value Possible 

In less than 18 months THORESEN has sold close to 
500,000 binoculars — making it the greatest im¬ 
porter of German binoculars in the world! This im¬ 
mense volume, plus the magic of the American dollar 
enables us to buy a far less — sell for less! Get 
your 4X 40 POWERHOUSE now at our low intro¬ 
ductory price of 4.98, tax paid, including handsome 
leather carrying case. SEEING IS BELIEVING! 


Try Powerhouse at OUR risk! 

One look thru the POWERHOUSE will convince you 
of Its superb quality. That's why we want to send 
one to you on FREE TRIAL for 5 days. Use it on 
hunting or fishing trips. Use it at races — on trips -— 
for bird watching. Always have a ringside seat at 
boxing matches! Then — if you don’t think this is 
the GREATEST binocular value of the last 10 years, 
return it for full refund— no questions asked! 

LIMITED OFFER! 

Order at once 

Only about 100,000 POWERHOUSES can be pro¬ 
duced this year, due to the high manufacturing 
standards. To be fair to all, we are forced to place 
a limit of ONE binocular per reader. Send coupon 
today to ensure yours! 


THORESEN’S 

352 Fourth Avenue, Dept. I85-A-60, New York 10, 

N. Y. CANADIANS: Order direct from our Montreal 
plant: THORESEN CO., 45 St. James St., West, 
Dept. US-60, Montreal I, Clue. Same price and 
guarantee. (No extra for Tariff). i 


H ■§ ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ ■■ Hi S* M Hi M ■■ ■§ Ml HI ■■ M ■■ M IB HI ■ 

! Rush for FREE TRIAL! 

I THORESEN’S, Dept. 185-A-60 

352 Fourth Ave., New York 10, N. Y. 
I RUSH 1 POWERHOUSE with leather 
* case at $4.98, on 5 day FREE Trial— 
Money Back guarantee. 

I □ $4.98 enclosed. Send all charges 
I prepaid. 

I □ Send C.O.D. plus postal charges. 

I Name ..... 

1 Address .. 

2 Town State 

CANADIANS: Save Tariff. Send or¬ 
ders to Tnoresen Co., 45 St. James St., 
, West, Dept. US-60, Montreal 1 ,Que. 


■‘JHiiu ( wan .lAiriKi KH7’ 


57 


imiiimmm 





































OUR PAGE for BOYS and GIRLS 


Their Original Contributions 




Arranged 


by Elsie Unger 



THE LEGEND ^ -flcuvld 
AND THE MAM 


TITLE PAGE SKEiCH: Karen Larkin, 18, Massachusetts 



Drawn by Nellie Galaske, 17, Massachusetts 


Leaves have stopped falling. 

Now cold winds are squalling. 

No children play in the leaves, 

No small birds nest in the eaves. 
Geese have gone —- south, 

Squirrels hunt for their nuts; 

Beavers fix their dams and huts — 
Everyone is ready for Winter. 

— Eric Havill, 10, New York 


COTTAGE ON THE HILL 

There is a little cottage 
Just beyond the hill; 

This handsome little cottage 
Is just beside the mill. 

All round the lawn is hedging. 

And greens of many kinds; 

Every time I look at it 
I wish that it were mine. 

— Virginia Brandon, 11, Pennsylvania 


THE THREE L’s 

Life. Liberty and Love ,— 

May you have the first, 

Cherish the second. 

And gain the third. 

— Kathleen Quick, 17, New Jersey 


LINES FROM OUR LETTERS 

HORSES, PIANO, THE WATER 

I have been reading Our Page for quite 
*■ some time and enjoy it very much. My 
hobbies are horseback riding, swimming, 
and playing the piano. I like horses very 
much and some day I hope to have one 
of my own. I would like to hear from 
anyone who likes horses or owns one. I 
am in the eighth grade in Junior High 
School. —Jeanette Schilling, 13, New Jersey. 


THOMAS, A TRULY NATIVE AMERICAN 

I am a Vermont reader of The Rural 
New Yorker. I have several hobbies includ¬ 
ing collecting gun shells, guns, pictures of 
birds, deer horns and all the information 
on airplanes. It might interest Nancy Bowen 
of Vermont, as long as she reads about 
Indians, to know that I am part Indian— 
of St. Regis in the northern part of New 
York State. I hope to have many pen pals. 
— Thomas Edson, 15, Vermont. 


JUST TEN HOUSES IN CYNTHIA'S TOWN 

I have just started reading Our Page and 
1 think it is very nice. I live in the country 
on a farm. I have one calf, a hound dog 
and chickens. I like horses very much and 
like to ride our neighbors’ horses, too. I 
collect horse pictures and would like to 
trade pictures with you. There are not many 
boys and girls here in my little town, for 
there are only 10 houses. I would like to 
hear from foreign countries as well as the 
States. — Cynthia Brickley, 14, Pennsyl¬ 
vania. 


A LUCKY CLOVER FROM MAINE 

I like Our Page very much. I belong to 
the Lucky Clover 4-H Club. This is my 
fifth year in club work and I take cooking, 
sewing, dairying and freezing for my pro¬ 
jects. I also live on a farm. I would like 
to hear from boys and girls anywhere in 
the world. — Cynthia Ward, 13, Maine. 


AN ALL ROUND GIRL IN F. H. A. 

For quite a while we have gotten The 
Rural New Yorker and the first place I 
turn to is Our Page. I think it is the finest 
way possible to obtain new pen pals, so 
I hope to get a few that way. I am a 
senior in high school and my main in¬ 
terests are the outdoors, hiking, bike riding, 
politics, reading the classics, listening to 
music, espec’ally opera and popular, and 
cooking. I belong to the F. H. A. and would 
like letters from anyone. — Theresa Batson, 
17, New York. 


MARY PLAYS AN E-FLAT HORN 

This is my first letter to Our Page, after 
reading it for about a year. I like it very 
much. My hobbies are sewing, reading, 
stamp collecting and listening to popular 
music. I played an E-flat French horn in 
our school band. I would like to hear from 
boys and girls all over the world. Please 
try to enclose a picture. — Mary Conway, 
15, Pennsylvania. 


NEW READER FROM PENNSYLVANIA 

This is the first time I have written to 
Our Page; I have been reading it for al¬ 
most three months now. I live on a 63-acre 
farm and we have about 300 chickens, also 
two horses, three cows, 29 pigs, a dog and 
a cat. I. would like to hear from boys and 
girls from all over. Please send a picture? 
— Odessa Conway, 13, Pennsylvania. 


4-H BOY LIKES MUSIC AND ART 

I have been reading Our Page for some 
time and enjoy it very much. I live on a 
farm and have an 11-year-old sister. I take 
piano and violin lessons and I also enjoy 
art, swimming and 4-H work. I am in the 
eighth grade this Fall. I would enjoy re¬ 
ceiving letters from boys and girls my age 
anywhere. — Waldtraut Goetze, 13, New 
York. 


LOVES CLARINET AND LETTERS 

After reading Our Page for three years, 
I have finally gotten enough nerve to write! 
I live on a 300-acre farm near a small 
town. My chief interests are athletics, danc¬ 
ing, music, animals, sewing and reading. 
I am a sophomore in high school and play 
the clarinet which I love. I would really 
enjoy hearing from some of you boys and 
girls. — Margaret Bishop, 15, Vermont. 


REVIEWED BY KAREN LARKIN, 18, 
MASSACHUSETTS. 

Charles The Great you may have heard 
of in history — or Churl, as he was called 
by those who hated him. Mostly he is 
spoken of as Charlemagne. He was the first 
man to bring the western world under 
Christian rule. 

Young Charles had great physical strength 
and a very strong will to serve him well 
through his life. He belonged to the age 
of swords, lances and battlefields. He lived 
in what history called the Dark Ages and 
he was always thirsting for new things to 
learn. He was the first man after the 
Roman downfall to put into practice most 
of the skills the Romans had forgotten. 



TITLE PAGE SKETCH 
Elizabeth Hallows, 16, Massachusetts 


REVIEWED BY ELIZABETH HALLOWS, 
16, MASSACHUSETTS. 

Anyone who loves nature will love this 
book. It is a collection of the world’s great 
nature stories. Edwin Way Teale has spent 
many hours reading many books to bring 
you this wonderful volume, which has in 


RUTH HAS TWO HORSES 

This is the first time I have ever written 
to Our Page although I have read and en¬ 
joyed it for many years. My favorite sports 
are horseback riding, swimming and tennis. 
I also enjoy all types of dancing. I live on 
a 100-acre farm and have two horses of 
my own, one of which I am now in the 
process of training. I am a sophomore in 
high school and would enjoy hearing from 
boys and girls near my age. Please send 
your picture. — Ruth Shepard, 15, New 
Jersey. 



STRAWBERRY ROAN 
Drawn by Donya Mussel Is, 16, Massachusetts 


He taught these things to his people, the 
Franks. 

These skills went from the palace to the 
church and then to the homes. They be¬ 
came legends and were made into songs 
which set a trend for the next four cent¬ 
uries. He was a powerful man and a great 
one. 

Harold Lamb, the author of this book, 
has made this Charles the Great live again 
in these pages. Though a great deal of re¬ 
search he gives you an authentic portrait 
of the man who was Charlemagne. 

This book can be found in your lending 
library or book store. 


it more than 180 separate stories, the 
works of 87 different authors. 

“Green Treasury” takes you around the 
world and through centuries of time. Marco 
Polo writes of the famous falcons of the 
Kublai Kahn; you come upon great dis¬ 
coveries in natural history and learn of new 
continents. There is first an account by a 
Spanish explorer of birds migrating to 
America. You will find also such writers 
as Izaak Walton, W. H. Hudson, Henry 
David Thoreau and Reginald Ferrer. 

Read and enjoy the Edge of the Edge 
of the World, The Jungle River, Stars of 
the Gobi Desert, World’s Greatest Water¬ 
works, Stalking at Dawn, The Python, The 
Bay of Butterflies, Army Ants, The Condor 
and a great many other stories, all about 
birds, animals, insects, storms, the sea, river 
life and the whole variety in nature her¬ 
self. 

This is a wonderful book to get from your 
library or from your local bookstore. 


EVERYTHING THAT GOES WITH A FARM 

Will you be my pen pal? I am in the 
tenth grade in school and like reading, sing¬ 
ing, dancing, drawing and horses. I live on 
a farm about 13 miles from town and we 
have everything that goes with a farm. In 
our family I have two brothers, two step¬ 
brothers and two step-sisters? father and 
step-mother. I hope some day to own a 
horse but 1 don’t know if I’ll ever get one! 
I would like letters from anywhere. — 
Helen Fewkes, 15, Delaware. 



Editor’s Message 

Here we are in another new year. I hope you all have a happy 
• and interesting one and that you continue to keep up the high standard 
of Our Page. 

I notice that some of you are forgetting to include your age when 
you write for the Page. The age group helps everyone to find his or 
her pen friend. You choose, and others choose you, largely according 
to your age. 

Also when sending mail for me to readdress, be sure you write 
the State, as well as the person’s name, on the outside of the inner 
envelope. It is an almost impossible task to look through my huge 
address book, and in every State, to find it. 

The files are a bit low on poetry and we could have more drawings. 
Here is your chance to show your skill. Fill up the mailbag next month 
and start off the new year with a bang. — Elsie Unger. 



Letters to persons whose names appear 
under this heading should be put into a 
stamped envelope with the name and the 
State of the person for whom the letter is 
intended on the outside of the envelope. 
This would then be put into an outer en¬ 
velope and addressed to Elsie Unger, 333 
West 30th St., New York 1, N. Y. The 
address will be completed and the mail 
forwarded. Be sure to check with your 
Post Office for mail going outside the 
United States. Unstamped letters will not 
be mailed. 

New York: Otto Wolf, 14; Patricia Covey, 
13; Marilynne Kohaite, 13; Frances Schmoll, 
13: Sharon Foltman, 11: Patty Von Linden, 
13; Hendrika Duits, 13; Beverley Venne, 
17; Beulah Barcroft, 16; Irene Stetson, 18; 
Waldtraut Goetze, 13. 

Pennsylvania: Priscilla Gill, 13; William 
Stewart, 18; Brenda Hess, 12; Mary Moyer, 
13; Gretta Richard, 13; Cynthia Brickley. 
14. 

New Jersey: Rose Hildebrault, 12; Ruth 
Shepard, 15; Jeanette Schilling, 13; Kathleen 
Quick, 17. 

Maine: Cynthia Ward, 13; Ann Ruest; 
Claire Chamberland, 13. 

Vermont: Margaret Bishop, 15; Thomas 
Edson, 15. 

Connecticut: Nellie Galaske, 17; Judy 
Harakaly, 13; Mildred Harakaij', 14; Helen 
Harakaly, 15; Elsa Voit, 16. 

Delaware: Helen Fewkes. 15: Clarissa 

Anderson. 15. 

Massachusetts: Jacqueline Lanthier. 11: 
Joanne Whalen, 13; Lorine Bolin, 15; Janet 
Hoddi, 15. 

New Hampshire: Mauran Snow, 13; 
Patricia Grossman. 12. 

Michigan: Kay Weber, 8. 

Ohio: Dolly Piatt, 14. 

New Zealand: Nola Jackson, 19, 

British West Africa: Salaam Arata, 
Omakewu Lagor, Yesufu Ladegro, Alufa 
Salami, Aratanyin Sola, Alufa Olonssola. 
Abudu Omakewu, Audu Rawoso, S. A. 
Salemano, Abudu S. Waki, A. S. Amosah, 
K. E. Ganeya, Mahamashi Kamarah, Sede- 
catu Omansale. Florence Bellswnyin, John 
Onssi, Arata Alemsh, Wosil Htafo, Sale B. 
Matulagas, Awawa Far. 

(These boys and girls are of high school 
age.) 



WHO SWIPED MY ACORNS! 
Drawn by Ivan Sabin, New York 


FIVE YEARS A READER 

For more than five years I have been a 
reader of Our Page. I would like to thank 
the Editor for her fine job of arranging the 
Page each month. I think it is a wonderful 
opportunity for a shut-in to make friends 
all over the world, just through letters. I 
live on a 32-acre farm and am a member 
of a 4-H club. The Lucky Clovers. I had 
a garden for a 4-H project. We raise goats, 
chickens and guineas; we have a cat, 
dog and one Angus steer. My hobbies are 
sports, letter writing and collecting almost 
anything. I would like to have boys for 
pen pals, as well as girls, and please en¬ 
close a snapshot. — Alicia Ritz, 13, Penn¬ 
sylvania. 


HOME AND HOBBIES 

We live on a 53-acre farm and my hobbies 
are square dancing, slow dances, writing 
letters and all kinds of needlework. I like 
to cook, make some of my clothes, collect 
photographs and to ice skate. There is a 
trout stream in the back of the farm. 
Please write to me; I hope you can en¬ 
close a snapshot. — Anne Trudeau, 17, 
New York. 


OTTO, SOPHOMORE, COLLECTS STAMPS 

This is the first time I have written to 
Our Page. I am a sophomore in high school. 
My chief interests are stamp collecting, 
baseball, dancing and swimming. I would 
like to hear from boys and girls of my 
own age. I would also like a picture of 
you if possible. — Otto Wolf, 14; New York. 


53 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 







































New Fashion Book, 1955 
Now Ready for You 



“If Winter comes”—and it is here 
—“can Spring be far behind?” No, in¬ 
deed! 

And if Spring comes before we 
know it, -we shall wish we had 
planned the Spring sewing ahead of 
time. So here is the new Spring- 
Summer Fashion World, our pattern 
book just off the press! 

The new 1955 Fashion World is 
in color, illustrating scores of up-to- 
the minute designs for every age and 
size in your family of girls and 
women. 

You’ll find invaluable suggestions 


for your first Spring outfit, for de¬ 
lightfully feminine clothes to make 
you feel just fine! See too the special 
half-size patterns designed for the 
shorter fuller figure, plus the pano¬ 
rama of children’s and young folks’ 
play clothes, and the all-occasion 
cottons that form the backbone of 
your wardrobe this year. 

Only 25 cents for this fashion 
guide! Sew and save! 

Send coins or stamps to The 
Rural New Yorker, 333 West 30th 
St., New York, N. Y. 


Food for Winter Birds * 

Birds peck many a meal from 
climbing vines and berry-bearing 
bushes. Bittersweet, with its orange- 
yellow seed vessels splitting open, 
offers its nourishing fruit. As poison 
ivy twines around tree trunks, the 
grayish-white berries are picked off. 
No wonder we find it growing in all 
States of the United States. 

Far into the Spring, we see birds 
under the grapevines picking up the 
dried grape seeds. Hedges along the 
roadsides or in our yards are a- ! 
twitter with hungry visitors. When 
food is scarce and hard to find, 
bushes and vines offer their fruits 
above the white snow blankets. 

Nature is taking care of her 
own. I. E. Drinkwater 


Nice Sewing, Layette, Peacock Filet 

2197 — Attractive Flower-Pot-Pocket Bib-top Apron with sweetheart 
neckline, distinctive new pocket of tulip applique, gay ric-rac trim. It’s fun 
to make and to wear! Small, medium, large and extra-large sizes. Medium: 
2-% yds. 35-in. 9 yds. ric-rac 25 cents. 

2899 — Large-size Separates to Mix-match include smartly flared skirt, 
shawl-collared, three-quarter sleeved bolero, mandarin collared blouse. 
Sizes 12 to 42. Size 18: Bolero and Skirt, 3 yds. 54-in. Blouse, l-% yds. 35 
or 39 in. 25 cents. 

324 — Complete Baby Layette Included in This Pattern! Adorable 
kimona, sleeping bag, sacque, shirt, dress, scalloped jacket, bib and sleeve¬ 
less jacket: all trimmed with tiny French knots. 20 cents. 

2911 — Season-spanning Shirtwaist Style to usher in the Spring; delight¬ 
fully easy and pretty, sewn in a washable fabric with feminine flared skirt, 
cap sleeves. Sizes 12 to 40. Size 16: 3-% yds. 35-in. 

313. — .Peacock Filet Crochet Chair Set! In peacock design. It is hand¬ 
some as can be in pure white chair back and arm set. You’ll love making it 
as the pattern gives a large dot-and-space filet chart, plus instructions. 
20 cents. 

New Spring-Summer Fashion World: 1955 Pattern Book —25 cents. 

Carol Curtis Needlework Guide — 25 cents. 

Please Print Your Name, Full Address and Style Numbers; do not 
forget to include sizes! Send orders to The Rural New Yorker, 333 West 
30th St,., New York 1, N. Y. (Tax only for N. Y. City residents: send lc 
tax on 20c orders; 2c tax on 40c to 50c orders; 3c tax on 80c to $1.00 orders). 




WHEN YOU BAKE 

(jwe Cjomufy a {jmil / 


USE THE BEST BAKING POWDER 
MONEY CAN BUY! 


Davis 



DOUBLE ACTING 




BAKING P0WDER1 


Baking with Davis “double 
action” means super-lightness 
. . . fine texture. You’ll be de¬ 
lighted! Send for easy baking 
QUICK-MIX Charts. R. B. 
Davis Company, Dept. RN- 
31, Hoboken, N. J. 

By the Makers of Cocomalt and Swel 


:b: 



SEWS LEATHER 

AN 33 TOUGH TEXTILE 
U&E A MACHINE 

With SPEEDY STITCHER Auto¬ 
matic Sewing Awl, anyone can 
quickly and skillfully sew or re¬ 
pair anything made of LEATHER, 

CANVAS. NYLON. PLASTIC, or 
other heavy materials. Sews firm, 
even lock-stitches like a machine 
Gets into hard-to- 
reach places. Speci¬ 
ally made for heavy 
duty sewing on 
LUGGAGE. FOOT¬ 
WEAR. RUGS, AWN¬ 
INGS. SAILS, 

SADDLERY. UP¬ 
HOLSTERY. OVER¬ 
ALLS. AUTO-TOPS. 

SPORTS GEAR, and 
other tough sewing 
jobs. Here's the handiest tool you’ll ever own. 
Will save you many times its small cost. Comes 
ready for instant use . complete with bobbin of 
waxed thread and 3 different types of diamond- 
pointed needles. Easy-to-follow directions will 
make you an expert in minutes Extra needles 
and waxed-thread always available Save money, 
send $1.98 for postpaid delivery. If C O D . $1.98 
plus postage. MONEY BACK GUARANTEE. 
SPORTSMAN'S POST 

366 Madison Ave., Dept. A92 New York 17 


JJ i 


PILES 

If you suffer the miseries of itching-, 
bleeding or protruding piles, read 
this report from Mr. John D. Bushee: 

“I will never forget 
the Page Company as 
long as I live. I am 
58 years old this year. 
Good luck to every¬ 
body that uses Page 
Palliative Prepara¬ 
tions.” John D. Bushee, 

PPPF YOU may have a generous 
ri\E.C supply of Page’s Palliative 
Pile Preparations absolutely free. 
Send your name and address for your 
free supply TODAY- 
E. R. PAGE CO., Dept. 48 B2, Marshall, Mich. 




SEND FOR THIS BOOKLET 


This booklet shows how you 
can have crystal-clear, pa¬ 
latable water in your home. 
Diamond Iron Removal 
Filters take out all iron and 
other foreign matter. Costs 
little — worth a lot. 

Oshkosh Filter Cr Softener Co. 

L Oshkosh. Wisconsin 


D0NT LET 
mi y WATER 

ruin Washday/ 


FARM WIVES 

What are you doing with your spare rooms? 
Add interest, fun and income to your summer. 
Earn $1500 or more. Exchange ideas with city 
folk who want to spend their vacations with you. 
Write for details of our plan, which is approved 
by the National Grange. 

FARM VACATIONS & HOLIDAYS, Inc. 

Dept. 16 • 500 Fifth Avenue 

NEW YORK 36, NEW YORK 



[ Kettre? 

S I’m Going to 
MMave Some Fua t 

■ In 8 more years I’ll be 65. Then 

■ I’m going to do a lot of things 

■ I’ve wanted to do all my life — 

J visit my brother, for example. 

I might even retire. In fact, I 

■ can retire — on the comfortable 

■ income I’ll be getting from my 
J Farmers and Traders retirement 

■ policy. 

■ You can do it too — if you start 

■ noiv. And you protect your family 
B at the same time — all with one 

■ low-cost policy. 

*pmmMail the Coupon for Detailsmma^ 

jf FARMERS AND TRADERS jj 
LIFE INSURANCE CO. 

Syracuse 1, N. Y. 

“ R-17 ® 

jj Gentlemen: 

Please send, without cost or obligation, g 
complete information about your Retire- E 
ment and Family Income Plans. 


Name .Age_ R 




WOMEN’S GROUPS: Earn 
$250 or $500 Cash, 
plus 24 wood 
card tables 

Your members simply 
sell adv. space on the 
table tops to local mer¬ 
chants who gladly cooperate. 3 different 
from. Please note No risk, nothing to pav, not even freight 
charges. Write for full details to 

F. W. MATHERS, DEPT.NY. MT. EPHRAIM, N. J. 


January 15, 1955 


59 


































































LIME CREST NON-SKID BARN CALCITE 
saves labor and time ... helps prevent falls 


Lime Crest Non-Skid Barn Calcite helps protect livestock from 
injury by providing safe, slip-proof surfacing for barn floors 
and runways. It improves the fertilizer value of manure by 
providing calcium and trace minerals for mineral-rich ferti¬ 
lizer. And Barn Calcite makes barns more attractive by pro¬ 
viding a clean white floor surfacing. Last but not least, Barn 
Calcite’s safe practical surface is low in cost, easy to apply. 



SEE YOUR DEALER FOR BARN CALCITE NOW 
or write for literature and free sample! 

LIME CREST PRODUCTS 

ore made by Limestone Products Corporation of America 

DEPT. L-1 NEWTON, NEW JERSEY 

WORLD'S LARGEST PRODUCER OF CRYSTALLINE CALCITE PRODUCTS. 

Makers of CALCITE CRYSTALS — the 3-in-I calcium supplement for poultry; LITTER-KEPE — the ideal 
conditioner for poultry litter; LIME CREST Trace Mineral Pre-Mixes — for formula feeds. 


FEED FLOWS FAST 

with amazing new 



pmwMh 

samp 

PATENT PENDING 


Power Scoop with lightweight gas engine 
power. Also runs on yA' rated hand drill or 
Yi h.p. motor. 

Feed, grain, shelled coin, even stoker coal 
flows up to 600 bu/hr from this 11 ft., 27 lb. 
portable 4 in. auger. Does the work of many 
shovels . . . costs the same as four. Guar¬ 
anteed in writing. 

$25.95 plus freight, Taylorville, Ill. 
(Ready for hand drill, with handle and swivel 
mounting bracket) (Motor mount, pulley & 
belt, $4.00) 

ALSO AVAILABLE 



5-ft. extension, $12.00 
hopper, $3.50 
motors, gas engines 
& hand drills 


Write for facts and dealer name 
or order direct from 


TUDOR & JONES 

WEEDSPORT, NEW YORK 


WHAT’S YOUR CHAIN SAW WITHOUT A 
CHAIN? No matter how good and powerful 
your motor, it’s the chain that does the job. 
For top performance install genuine 
OREGON® Chipper Chain, the chain that 
outsells all others because it cuts fast in any 
timber, stands up to hard use, is easy to file 
right. Let your chain saw dealer show you 
the advantages of OREGON®-IZING your 
saw with OREGON Chipper Chain and 
OREGON Accessories: Or write Dept. 45, 
Oregon Saw Chain Corp., 8166 S. E. 17th 
Ave., Portland 2, Oregon. State saw make, 
bar length. 



Medicated 
Extremely FLEXIBLE 
SMOOTH Polyethylene 


BAG BALM 
TEAT DILATORS 


Used by leading veterinarians. Swiftly 
heal teat injuries. BAG BALM Teat 
Dilators maintain correct shape of milk 
duct during healing. Extremely smooth 
Polyethylene, easily bend without sore¬ 
ness. . . . Cannot absorb pus infection. 
Packed in BAG BALM Ointment. Fluted 
Dilator carries it in. At your dealer's. 



24 helpful illustr. pages. "Care 
and Feeding of Dairy Cattle.” 

DAIRY ASSOCIATION CO. 
lyndonville' 76,'Vermont 


BAG BALM 


WRITE fOR 

FREE Cow Book 


TEAT DILATORS 


yp- 


COLEMAN PRUNERS 


For easier, faster, smoother cutting, use t 
rugged Coleman Pruner. Deep hook preve 
slipping. Cuts l%" branches. Made of i 
piece chrome alloy steel. Light, strong, Ic 
lasting. 20"—$5.25, 25"—$5.50. 30"—$5. 

NEW Coleman Briar Hook 
Handy for thinning raspberries, roses—ci 
ting suckers on lilacs or fruit tre 
Reaches into narrower places. Strong oi 
piece chrome nickel steel. Priced at only : 
See your dealer. If he can’t supply y 
order direct—items shipped postpaid 

receipt of check or money order for pro] 
amount. Satisfaction Guaranteed. 




COLEMAN TREE PRUNERS, Mfrs. 
DEPT. R, TIOGA CENTER, N. Y. 


60 


Crossbred and 

(Continued from Page 54) 

stock for suitable foundation cross¬ 
breeding blood. It has also been an 
incentive for the breeders of regis¬ 
tered hogs and their various associa¬ 
tions to improve their animals by 
more careful selective breeding pro¬ 
grams. 

Competition for Crossbreds 

Breeders of registered hogs were 
quick to recognize that in order to 
successfully compete with the im¬ 
proved efficiency and economy of 
gains obtained with crossbreds, they 
would have to institute constructive 
breeding programs which would re¬ 
sult in producing superior type pure¬ 
bred hogs. This work was instituted 
several years ago by the National As¬ 
sociation of Swine Records, Chicago, 
Illinois, and laid the foundation for 
the so-called registry of merit, which 
is based on production records. The 
various breed associations have used 
these plans and programs, in accord¬ 
ance with what has seemed most 
suitable for the particular breed con¬ 
cerned. 

The requirements for obtaining a 
registration certificate based on pro¬ 
duction for individuals in all of the 
hog breeds are fundamentally the 
same. In addition to these general 
requirements, members of the Hamp¬ 
shire Swine Registry, Peoria, Illinois, 
have recently promulgated a program 
leading to the production of boars 
and females with the designation of 
Certified Meat Hampshires. The pri¬ 
mary object of the program is to ob¬ 
tain boars of superior transmitting 
ability in terms of productivity, effi¬ 
ciency and economy of gain, com¬ 
bined with improved carcass quality. 
The foundation of this program is the 
certified litter. For certification, a 
litter must qualify in the Hampshire 
production registry program. This 
means eight pigs raised to a 56-day 
weaning time, with a total weight of 
275 pounds for litters out of gilts and 
320 pounds for litters out of sows.. 
The litters shall contain no pigs with 
swirls (circular hair on body) or 
hernias, nor any ridgling boars 
(those with only one testicle); at 
least 50 per cent of the pigs in the 
litter must meet the breed color re¬ 
quirements for registration. Then 
two pigs from the litter must be 
slaughtered, at weights between 180 
and 230 pounds, and both of them 
must meet specified carcass standards 
for length of carcass, fatback thick¬ 
ness and area of loin eye muscle. 
Both pigs must also meet high stand¬ 
ards for rate of gain, equivalent to 
200 pounds or more at 180 days of 
age. 

When a Hampshire boar has 
sired five such certified litters out of 
different sows, not more than two of 
which are full sisters or dams and 
dauguters, he will upon application 
be officially rated as a Certified Meat 
Sii'e. The constructive influence of 
this program will become increasing¬ 
ly manifest as larger numbers of 
these qualified boars become avail¬ 
able for use by farmers and hog 
breeders. 

At the Ohio Station, Wooster, W. 
L. Robinson used a plan of cross¬ 
breeding in which Poland China, 
Hampshire and Du roc sires were ro¬ 
tated on successive generations of 
crossbred and crisscrossed sows se¬ 
lected from the herd. The founda¬ 
tion females used were good type 
Durocs. Two cycles of the rotation 
with a fall and spring litter in each 
| generation were completed; these 
pigs were compared with purebreds. 
The records show that, out of 19 
crops of pigs, in 15 of them were 
more crossbreds than purebreds 
saved per litter, up to 180 days of 
age. The average was 0.7 per litter in 
favor of the crossbreds In 18 of the 
19 pig crops, the crossbreds gained 
more rapidly than the purebreds. 
The total average increased weight 


Purebred Hogs 

per litter for the crossbreds at 180 
days of age was 206 pounds. 

A report from the Iowa Station by 
J. L. Lush, P S. Shearer and C. C 
Culbertson includes results with 
crosses made with the Landrace and 
Poland China, as well as Durocs, Po 
land Chinas and Yorkshires. The 
data involve 1,015 pigs farrowed in 
108 litters. The crossbred pigs aver¬ 
aged about three and one-haif 
pounds heavier at weaning time than 
the purebreds. Their later gains were 
sufficiently greater so that they av¬ 
eraged attaining a market weight of 
225 pounds per head 12 days earlier 
than purebreds comparably fed and 
handled. The average feed required 
by the crossbreds to reach a weight 
of 225 pounds was about 27 pounds 
less per head than for the purebreds. 

It should be noted that in all of 
these controlled tests a well planned 
program was followed. Only the best 
of the crossbred gilts was saved for 
replacements; then they were bred to 
either unrelated registered boars of 
good type and breeding or to regis¬ 
tered boars of a different breed than 
those used in the original parent 
cross. Crisscrossed again, only the 
best crossbred or crisscrossed gilts 
were retained for breeding replace¬ 
ments; none of the crossbred or 
crisscrossed boars was ever used for 
breeding. 

The Minnesota Breeds 

The present demand by consumers 
was anticipated several years ago by 
station workers at the University of 
Minnesota and, in 1936, six Tam- 
worth females were mated to a 
Landrace boar. The following year 
some additional animals of each 
breed were added to the breeding 
herd. The resultant offspring, based 
on careful selection and suitable com¬ 
binations of inbreeding, have become 
fixed both in type and character¬ 
istics. These hogs and their com¬ 
parably bred offspring are now a 
recognized breed known as the Min¬ 
nesota No. 1; they are eligible for 
registration in the Inbred Livestock 
Registry Association, University 
Farm, St. Paul, Minn. The color of 
this breed is red, with occasional 
black spots. The body is exceptional¬ 
ly long, with a consequent longer 
side-of-bacon piece. The top line is 
level instead of being arched, thus 
making for larger pork chops. The 
ham is meaty and thick. These hogs, 
therefore, are heavily fleshed in the 
region of the most valuable cuts. 
The herd average for the past 10 
years at the Minnesota Station was 
9.3 pigs born alive per litter; average 
weight at 168 days was 211 pounds. 
An average of 313 pounds of feed 
produced 100 pounds gain up to a 
slaughter weight of 200 pounds. 

In 1941, a carefully selected York¬ 
shire boar with an outstanding R.O.P. 
record was bought and mated at the 
Minnesota Station to 13 Poland China 
females belonging to two different 
inbred lines. The resultant progeny 
and some later Poland China addi¬ 
tions have since been closely bred 
with no further outside introduc¬ 
tions. These hogs are now also fixed 
in type and characteristics and are 
known as the Minnesota No. 2. These 
selected hogs and their descendants 
are eligible for registration in the 
same association as the Minnesota 
No. 1. These inbreds were developed 
to use in crossbreeding. By repeated 
tests it has been demonstrated that 
the Minnesota No. 1 and No. 2 can 
be crossed to very good advantage 
for the production of market topping 
slaughter hogs. The outstanding breed 
characteristics of the No. 2 are large 
black and white areas of hair. The 
general body and carcass characteris¬ 
tics are about the same as the No. 1, 
although the animals are a little 
higher off the ground than the No 1. 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 
































Good Roughage Cuts Costs 

I am feeding my dairy cows a com¬ 
paratively high level of grain in try¬ 
ing to step up their milk production. 
The cost of the extra grain more than 
offsets the additional milk made, 
though. How about using more rough- 
age? 1 have plenty of good quality 
hay. What are the latest findings on 
this matter? t. m. m. 

Berks County, Pa. 

Feeding dairy cows heavily on 
grain is not necessarily the most 
profitable way for a farmer to in¬ 
crease his milk output. A recent re¬ 
port from the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture (USDA) and the Mich¬ 
igan Lansing Station shows that 
greater dependence on high-quality 
forage can materially reduce feeding 
costs, which normally account for 
half or more of the total cost of milk 
production. Grain feeding has in¬ 
creased about 25 per cent among U.S. 
dairy herds in the past seven years. 
This has added considerably to milk 
production costs on these same 
farms. National average milk yields 
have shown an increase of 1.44 
pounds for each pound of increase 
in grain fed, up to the animals’ pro¬ 
duction limits. To USDA dairy nu¬ 
tritionists, this means that the grain 
has been supplying more than 
enough cow nutrients for the extra 
milk, and that forage contributed 
little to the increased milk output. 
They believe that approximately 
similar increases could have been 
obtained at less cost if more nutrients 
had been derived from good forage. 
The Department researchers point 
out, however, that the savings pos¬ 
sible through feeding more pasture, 
hay and silage depend a great deal 
on the quality of this forage; as it 
has to have a high level of total di¬ 
gestible nutrients (t.d.n.) in order to 
make it more than just a cow filler. 

Furthermore, studies made by 
U.S.D.A. scientists show that income 
over feed costs and rate of milk pro¬ 
duction are more favorable to dairy 
farmers when the quantity of good 
forage is about two and one-half 
times the weight of grain fed. The 
cost of producing milk rises sharply 
when forage makes up only a little 
more than half the cow ration, as is 
practiced on some farms. Both USDA 
and state scientists are looking for 
better ways to produce, prepare and 
use high-quality forage. This work 
includes development of better 
grasses and legumes, improved for¬ 
age mixtures for various areas, and 
better methods of grazing, harvesting 
and handling these crops, that will 
produce and hold a high level of 
t.d.n. Studies are likewise being 
made on fertilizers and irrigation 
projects in the growing of forage 
crops, and on the effects of these 
practices on milk production. This 
progressive research has shown, for 
example, that good pasture mixtures 



of grass and legumes give heavier 
yields and provide more protein than 
either grasses or legumes by them¬ 
selves. Liberal fertilization is profit¬ 
able, as it helps to produce good for¬ 
age crops and increase the t.d.n. per 
acre. In fact, the combination of fer¬ 
tilization with good grazing and cut¬ 
ting practices has increased pasture 
yields from 50 to 100 percent in field 
tests. 


Steers Fattened in 
Stanchions 

Can steers be fattened in stan¬ 
chions in a dairy barn just as well as 
they can be in an open shed? What 
would be considered a good average 
daily gain on yearling beef type 
steers on full grain feed? How long 
would they need to be kept on feed 
in order to finish with a commercial 
grade of good, assuming they were 
classed as good feeder steers when 
put on feed? c. p. l. 

Steers will make just as good gains 
when stanchioned as they will when 
fed in a shed and feed lot, provided 
they are well bedded and properly 
fed. We have encountered several 
instances where'dairymen have used 
an old barn and equipment for steer 
fattening purposes with good results. 
A satisfactory daily gain on good¬ 
doing yearling steers on full feed 
would be about two and one-half 
pounds daily, while three pounds per 
head daily is not unusual. The cattle 
would need to be kept on a full 
grain feed from 120 to 180 days to 
finish as commercially good when 
sold. In the interests of economy it 
is advisable to use good roughage 
abundantly during the first part of 
the fattening period, increasing their 
grain allowance toward the latter 
part of the period. 


- 








ORDINARY OINTMENT BASE TRIBI0TIC OINTMENT BASE 


Cross-section of udder photographed shortly after ointment bases (with dyes added ) were instilled. 


Better control of MASTITIS with 

TRIBI0TIC 

OINTMENT 

Penicillin-Di hydrostreptomycin-Bacitracin 


Sore-Mouthed Sheep 

I have heard that the disease 
known as sore mouth in sheep and 
lambs is transmissible to human 
handlers. Is this true? j. b. k. 

Sheep that develop blisters on the 
mouth, gums or tongue should be 
handled cautiously. They may have 
contagious ecthyma (soi'e mouth), a 
virus disease which can spread to the 
caretakers who are woi'king with 
them. Several cases have been re¬ 
ported recently. Laboratory em¬ 
ployees handling live virus vaccine 
also have picked up the infection. 
This disease usually affects only sheep 
under a year old. The soreness may 
interfere with eating and thus slow 
down weight gains. Since the disease 
can spread rapidly to the rest of the 
flock, segregation of sick animals and 
prompt veterinary care are recom¬ 
mended. Sore mouth in sheep and 
lambs therefore should not be 
treated by laymen because of the 
danger of possible infection. 


EXCLUSIVE SPREADING BASE 

in Tribiotic Ointment 
rapidly spreads the medication 
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the great difference in spreading 
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• Remember! There is no substitute 
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• Rapid spread 

• Wide germ-killing range 

• Effective action 

• Safety 

• Economy of treatment 

• Ease of administration 



There was a good showing of Brown Siviss dairy cattle at the 1954 Mid- 
Atlantic Farm Shoiv at Atlantic City, N. J., December 4-8. Herds from New 
Jersey, Delaware and Maryland were represented. Here Ben Michaud of 
Active Acres Farm, Princeton, N. J., stands with some of his farm’s oxen 
cattle and from George Hill’s Little Hill Farm in Branchville, N. J. 


SUPPLIED: Single-dose tubes, each 
containing 100,000 units procaine penicillin G, 
50 mg. dihydrostreptomycin base 
as sulfate and 5000 units bacitracin. 


Available from Your Druggist or 



Other Animal Health Products Supplier Philadelphia 2. Pa. 



January 15, 1955 


61 






















GET OUTSTANDING CALF REARING 


Jf wi * h 

I ALBEU#C t 
CALI* REARING' 


PLAN 


^he key to profitable dairying 
lies in the development of 
healthy, high producing herd re¬ 
placements. And the best way for you to get such herd replace¬ 
ments in through the tested program offered by Carnation— Albers 
Calf Rearing Plan. 


Albers program is more than just a way of feeding. Is is a proved 
Plan for the development of superior heifers— a program that has 
developed more world champion milk and butt erf at cows than 
any other calf rearing plan ever conceived. 


Almost as important to you as the final result is the economy and 
simplicity of Albers remarkable program. Here, for the first time, 
is a calf rearing plan that eliminates milk or liquid feeding of any 
type in 3 to 5 weeks. From then on, the calf grows safely and 
steadily on low cost dry feeds and roughages. 



months 

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ht tQNUNTRAUO RA’> 
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Try the Aibers Plan with your herd and prove to 
yourself how profitable this remarkable plan can 
be. See your dealer today or write for the FREE 
Booklet, "Albers Six Months Calf Rearing Plan." 


ALBERS MILLING COMPANY 


Dept. 157 314 Fairfax Bldg./ Kansas City 5, Mo 


Please send my FREE copy of the booklet, 
"Albers 6 Months Calf Rearing Plan" 


ame 


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IF YOUR CALVES ARE NOT CONTENTED, SWITCH TO 
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Fox lasting relief your rupture must 
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Consult Your Doctor. 



SOFT, FLEXIBLE, and fits neat as 
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TIME, MONEY, DISAPPOINTMENT. 
Write for my FREE booklet today. 


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Dept. RN-A, Hagerstown, Maryland 


SAVE ON YOUR MOLASSES NEEDS — USE 

SWEET-MOLASS (dry form) 

FOR ALL LIVESTOCK 

Open Franchise for Dealers & Salesmen 
SWEETALL MFG. COMPANY 
DEPT. 1950, WILLIAMSTOWN. N. Y. 


DEALERS WANTED 

Make winter a high-profit season with Rite- 
Way’s new one-man Chain Saw! Sells FAST by 
demonstration—farmers see for themselves how 
light and easily it handles, and what a tre¬ 
mendous job it does! Three full horsepower at 
the cut! The blade has a 360-degree swivel, 
locks instantly in any position—no other saw 
its size has this! New magnesium alloys make 
the Rite-Way light—yet tough and rugged! Ex¬ 
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centered ’for* balance . . . easy-to-sharpen three- 
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WRITE TODAY TO DEPT. R-A 

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Unusual Values—All Sizes 


Coveralls ..$1.501 

Matching Pants and 
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only 50<*. Include* 50<i 
Postage—No C.O.D. Used 
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P. O. BOX 385, 
GLOVERSV1LLE, N. Y. 


- FANFOLD PHOTOS - 

Now by Mail Roll Developed, 8 Brilliant En 
largements in Album Form All for 35c Coin 
MAIL-PIX. BOX 7100, ELKINS PARK. PA 



Livestock Need Good 

Teeth 

Like human beings, animals need 
their teeth examined occasionally, as 
well as a general physical check-up, 
if their bodily functions are to per¬ 
form efficiently. Quantity and quality 
of their feeds are important, but it 
is equally vital for the animal to 
chew and shred this food so that it 
can be digested properly. 

Dental troubles in dairy and meat- 
producing animals are of three prin- 



Dairy cows need frequent physical 
check-ups, including a dental inspec¬ 
tion, for good health. This healthy 
Milking Shorthorn female, Grassy 
Lane Princess, owned by O. M. 
Edwards, icon senior and grand 
championship honors at the 1954 

New York State Fair, Syracuse. 

cipal types. They include difficul¬ 
ties associated with teeth shedding, 
with injuries from biting on hard 
objects, and with anatomical irregu¬ 
larities such as misshaped jaws, un¬ 
opposed teeth and more teeth than 
normal. Symptoms of dental diffi¬ 
culties include: frequent drooling; 
slow, deliberate chewing, indicating 
pain; and sudden drawing back from 
cold water while drinking. It takes a 
veterinarian but a short time to 
check the teeth of animals. 

Scottish Highland Cattle 
in America 

The largest shipment of Scottish 
Highland cattle yet made to the U. S. 
has recently arrived. Twenty-one 
young bulls have gone to Montana 
for the members of the U. S. Scot¬ 
tish Highland Cattle Breeders’ Asso¬ 
ciation. The shipment comes largely 
as a result of two visits, one paid 
to Scotland last year by Stanley 
Sloan, Forsyth, Montana, vice-presi¬ 
dent of the U. S Scottish Highland 
Cattle Breeders’ Association, and the 
other paid- to the United States last 
Spring by T. H. L. MacDonald, presi¬ 
dent of the Highland Cattle Society 
in Scotland. Besides the calve§ 
which are going to Montana, 
some are consigned to Ray Carr, 
Valentine, Nebraska, president of 
the Scottish Highland Cattle Breed¬ 
ers in the United States. 

This noted breed of Scottish cattle 
is famous for hardiness and for su¬ 
perior grazing. Color varies from 
reddish to brindle on rather long, 
shaggy hair. The breed is horned. 
In addition, animals of this breed 
have the ability to produce fine 
grained quality of meat on grass 
and roughage alone. The flavor of 
their meat is considered to be of 
the best; they achieve good dressing 
percentages when finished on forage 
alone. The English markets consider 
beef from this breed of cattle to 
rank well up at the top, as compared 
with meat of any other beef breed 
They are somewhat slower in ma¬ 
turing than the other beef breeds 
and are comparatively small in size, 
with the mature females averaging 
from 900 to 1,000 pounds and the 
bulls some 200 or 300 pounds 
heavier. They cross well with all 
other breeds of cattle. b. i. s. 



# Great for Chaps, Cuts, Wire Snags, 
Windburn, Sunburn and beneficial 
massage of Caked Bag. Soothing, anti¬ 
septic-on-contact. Spreads right, STAYS 
ON. Get BAG BALM at your dealer’s. 

FREE Cow Book; "Care and Feeding 
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DAIRY ASSOCIATION COMPANY 

Lyndonvilie 49, Vermont 


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KEEP 
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PRIME IN A 

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WOOD-ACID-RESISTANT 
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Factory, creosote provides a 
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help your Unadilla stand up 
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Unadilla can be factory-creo¬ 
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Send for catalog and facts on 
Easy Payment Plan. 

Unadilla Silo Co., Box C125, Unadilla, N.Y. L 


UNADILLA SILOS 



a m a zing new 
air com pres 


The new Model 336 Farm’riField detachable- 
tank unit is the last word in portable air 
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sprays paints, etc. Low center of gravity. 
10-inch rubber tired wheels. Bigger compres¬ 
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more air in less 
time! y 2 HP motor. 
See it at your dealer 
or write for liter- 
ature to THE 
CAMPBELL- 
HAUSFELD CO., 
221 Railroad Ave., 

FARM N FIELD Harrison, Ohio. 


CAMPBELL-HAUSFELD 




62 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 


























































































From Scrub Brush to Good Crops 

A lot of hard work and sound manage¬ 
ment have put a rundown Steuben Co., 
N. Y., farm back into high production. 

STRONG strain of pioneer foot trefoil), 20 to 25 acres each of 
blood must surge through oats and wheat, and 30 acres of al- 
the veins of Donald Leon- falfa on the farm. One ton of lime 
ard, Savona, New York, (the pH is now about 6) and 400 
What else could prompt pounds of 0-20-20 are applied every 
him to buy 250 acres of four years. This, plus an occasional 
scrub brushland and thin dressing of hen manure, maintains 
woods? What else to make him cut the land in a high state of produc- 
and hew a farm out of this and build tivity. 
a profitable beef and poultry busi- 

ness? It took the pluck of a pioneer. ^ * 1 * 0 * s Constructed 

The exciting adventure started in In 1947, Leonard built a 150-ton 

1940 with the purchase of the 250 concrete pit silo into one of the grav- 
acres of land from a several-thousand eliy knolls near the barns. The first 
acre tract owned by the Kenka Power cutting of grass now goes into the 
Company in the Lamoka Valley of 15x54-foot lyMe in the ground. Cattle 
central Steuben County. Abandoned feed through a moveable rack at the 
20 years earlier, the barns on the face of the silo. Formerly the grass 
land had long since been removed 


was chopped, but this year half the 
pit was filled with long grass. This 
saved half the cost and, if the long 
grass keeps and feeds out well, there 
will be no chopping of grass again in 
the future. 

Molasses to seep down through the 
stack is poured over the top of the 
. silage; then sawdust is spread to a 
depth of five inches. There has been 
no spoilage so far and grass silage has 
proved to be the cheapest and most 
nutritious feed on the place. Second 
cuttings are put up as hay; aftermath 
is grazed. Leonard does not own ex¬ 
pensive machinery. He considers it 
cheaper to hire grain combined, hay 
baled and grass chopped than to buy 
machines to do the jobs himself. 

Starts Hereford Herd 

As with everything else on the 
farm, the Hereford herd had a small 
beginning. It started with the pur¬ 
chase in 1941 of three cows and three 
calves. When the production of the 
farm warranted, Leonard bought a 
carload of calves each year from the 


Virginia sales. He kept part and sold 
part, and now the herd numbers one 
hundred head. 

Over the years, three-quarters of 
the calf crop was sold to dairy farm¬ 
ers who had a surplus of hay and 
grain. Some dairymen wanted beef 
bulls for breeding yearlings. There 
was a ready market, of course, for 
the steers fattened for slaughter too. 

Last year, Leonard decided that 
the beef price decline (calves selling 
for $250 three years ago are now 
$100) would make it difficult to profit 
with grades; so he sold 60 grade 
cows and bought 26 registered first- 
calf heifers. The goal now is a herd 
of seventy-five top quality cows that 
will be a credit to the owner and an 
asset to the community. Leonard has 
bred his cows to good, registered 
Hereford bulls, with the result that 
calves from his Don Anita Farm have 
won championships at the Steuben 
County 4 H Beef Show the last two 
years. 

The Poultry Enterprise 

The development of the poultry 


and two houses on the place were 


New “200” Side Rake. Front is carried on trac¬ 
tor, rear on close-coupled wheels. Rakes clean 
on uneven ground, makes even windrows 
around corners. Side-stroke reel reduces hay 
travel, moves hay gently, saves leaves. Models 
for Case Eagle Hitch, other 3-point hitches, 
regular drawbar. Hydraulic or hand control. 

New Side-Mounted Mower cuts clean on side 
slopes from 30 degrees down to 60 degrees 
up. Finger-tip control with two hydraulic rams 
lifts cutter bar, also raises inner shoe to clear 
stumps or stones. No interference with draw¬ 
bar, Eagle Hitch, or regular hydraulic control. 
Built especially for Case "VAC-14” Tractor. 


Bath Photo. Studio, Bath, N. Y. 

Continuous use of thick fleshed, 
Hereford bulls has resulted in a 
superior herd of beef cattle for Don 
Leonard, shown with a herd sire on 
his 250-acre beef and poultry farm 
in Steuben County, N. Y. 


A Building Program Is Launched 


a shambles. The land had been 
rented until it could produce no 
more; then it was left to grow up to 
brush. 

Leonard’s original plan was to 
almost as soon as the title was ac- 
build a house on the knoll overlook¬ 
ing two lakes on the property. But, 
quired, he bought a tractor and 
started to clear land. Then, as now, 
Leonard worked at the M. J. Ward 
and Son Feed Mill in Savona, and the 
land clearing was done at night. 
School boys helped, a different one 
on each night, since work went on 
until one and two o’clock in the 
morning. It took seven years to 
clear the land. 


In 1941, a barn was built; another 
was added in 1944. The two old houses 
were completely rebuilt. A two-story 
hen house was erected in 1945, and 
last year a 2,000-bird pole-type house 
equipped with automatic feeders and 
waterers was put up. Now, with the 
completion of a 30x72-foot brooder 
house, Leonard expects a respite in 
the building program. It has pretty 
much dominated life at his Don 
Anita Farm for the past 15 years. 

Simultaneous with the building of 
the barns and renovation of the 
houses, more fields were cleared; 
brush was burned, trees and hedge¬ 
rows were removed and land was 
put under the plow. So depleted was 
the soil that the first year oats 
yielded only 15 bushels, wheat 12. 
A mere four tons of hay were har¬ 
vested from a ten-acre field. 

The fertility problem was solved 
by spreading 100 tons of lime over 
a five-year period and liberally fer¬ 
tilizing all the farm fields. Oats now 
yield up to 80 bushels, wheat to 55; 
some 300 tons of hay are harvested 
each season. There are 70 acres of 
permanent pasture (mostly birds- 


America’s Finest Balers 


See your Case dealer for full information 
on hay machines, forage harvesters, new 
combines, corn harvester, diesel tractors. 
Get demonstration on your own farm. Ask 
about Case Income Payment Plan—buy 
machines now, pay when your money 
comes in. 


CHECK THE FOLDERS YOU WANT 


Also write in margin other machines 
that interest you. Mail to J. 1. Case Co., 
Dept. A-715, Racine, Wis. 

□ “200” Side Rake □ “130" Baler 

□ ”SM” Mower □ "140" Baler 

□ Eagle Hitch □ “E-2” Elesator 

Mower 

Student?__ 1 farm_acres. 

Name _ 

Addres s __ 


130 


Wew Sow-cost baler for family 
farms. One man hooks up and 
operates it. Lightweight and 
compact—easy load for small 
tractor. Fewer parts—easy to adjust and lubricate. 
Positive timing of needles and knotters. Makes 
square, evenly-packed 14x18 bales up to 42 inches 
long. Air-cooled 2-cylinder engine. 


" 140 " 


Bales big tonnage, twine-tied 
to stay tied. Ground-drive pick¬ 
up gathers hay gently at any 
speed, saves precious leaves. 
Air-cooled 4-cylinder engine. Both balers use wagon 
loader or diverter that delivers bales out of way for 
next round. Electric starting equipment available. 


January 15, 1955 


13 


































WE OFFER A 

MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE: 




Complete Treatmen 


Where you buy famous 
KOW-KARE, BAG BALM 
L and BAG BALM / 

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KALF-KARE 

• REDUCES incidence of 
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• STIMULATES up to 20 % 
faster growth. 

• PROMOTES smooth, 
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• HELPS ASSURE strong, 
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ADD to Milk or Milk Saver during first 8 weeks. Con¬ 
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(Aureomycin*) Hydrochloride, Vitamin B-12, Pectin. 

^Trademark 


Write for FREE KALF-KARE Folder, brief, 
quick, easy-to-understand information. 


DAIRY ASSOCIATION COMPANY 

Lyndonville 40, Vermont 



*'H’s all right if you like antiques. But personally, give m© 

Bethlehem Fence.” 


If you’re going to build or remodel a home in the country you might like to read Principles of Modern Design for 
Country Living as a guide to your preliminary thinking. It's a booklet prepared by a rural research organization 
as an outline of various important considerations which should be taken into account before starting to build. Writs* 
for your free copy to Publications Department, Room 1020, Bethlehem Steel Company, Bethlehem, Pa. 


enterprise is muoh the same story as 
for the fields and cattle. Starting in 
1943 with three hundred birds, the 
flock was gradually increased; now 
there are 3,500 layers. Leonard had 
1,000 birds when working alone, but 
increased to 1,500 eight years ago 
when he hired a man. He added 2,000 
more when the pole house was built 
in 1952. Incomewise, the beef and 
poultry are in good adjustment and 
both contribute equally lo the profit 
of the whole farm business. 

The Leonards are actually less con¬ 
cerned with making money than they 
are with living a useful life. More 
than many, they give generously of 
time and effort to community, church 
and farm affail's. Don, for instance, 
has long been a member of the Farm 
Bureau beef and poultry committees 
and president of the Steuben County 
Farm and Home Bureau and 4-H 
Association. He is also chairman of 
the County Farm Family Life Insur¬ 


ance Company and has been a school 
board member for ten years. In a 
very real sense, too, the Leonards are 
devoted to the church. Don serves as 
trustee and sings in the choir; Mrs. 
Leonard is superintendent of the 
youth department. Carol, their 16- 
year-old daughter, plays the organ. 

The Leonard home with its lakes 
and scenic vistas is a favorite spot 
for summer picnics and winter skat¬ 
ing parties; countless groups have 
made merry there. The hospitality of 
Don Anita Farm has been extended 
far beyond the local community. A 
recent foreign guest was Gisela 
Bockholt, a German exchange stu¬ 
dent who lived with the family while 
attending the local high school. 

In fifteen short years the Leonards 
have converted wooded wilderness 
into a productive farm. They also 
built a solid place for themselves in 
the business and social life of the 
community. William S. Stempfle 


New Anthrax Vaccine 


A new type of vaccine is being em¬ 
ployed by veterinarians in an effort 
to control an anthrax outbreak 
which has recently killed more than 
1,800 cattle in southeastern Louisi¬ 
ana. Identified by the technical name 
of Sterne strain, the vaccine was 
originally developed in South Africa 
where it was used with exceptionally 
good results on 40 million cattle and 
sheep during the past 10 years. Made 
from a modified organism, the vac¬ 
cine is non-virulent and incapable of 
causing anthrax or other severe com¬ 
plications. Previous large scale trials 
included one in an anthrax outbreak 
last year in Arkansas, during which 
not a single animal vaccinated with 
the Sterne strain died of the disease. 

Anthrax kills by attacking the 
animal through its blood stream. The 
disease has made its first strong 
showing in Louisiana in almost 20 
years. It is transmitted either 
through food or the bite of an insect, 
and heavy infestations of the black 
horse flies this past Summer are 
blamed by Louisiana veterinarians as 
the real source of the present out¬ 
break. 

Extensive immunization, using the 
new .vaccine, is currently being car¬ 
ried on in Jefferson parish near New 
Orleans, by veterinarians, Dr. Frank 
Douglas and Dr. Tom Melius. Ac¬ 
cording to Dr. Melius, it is difficult 
to determine the immediate effects 
of the vaccination programs because 
they were not instituted until tiie out¬ 
break was firmly established in that 


area. In his initial report. Dr. Melius 
indicated that the Sterne strain vac¬ 
cine could be administered to dairy 
cows without apparent loss of milk 
production. One of the disadvantages 
of the older type of anthrax vaccine 
is that is causes severe reactions in 
the vaccinated animal. 

Anthi’ax is caused by the organism 
Bacillus anthracis. This organism 
forms highly resistant spores which 
can remain alive in soil for 25 years 
or more. The disease usually starts 
when a feeding animal uproots the 
dormant spores. Flies biting the in¬ 
fected animal spread anthrax to 
healthy members of the herd and to 
adjoining pastures. Incubation pe¬ 
riods for the organism may vary. If 
the infection is transmitted through 
the mouth, the animal may die from 
one to two weeks later. Death occurs 
five to seven days after the animal is 
infected by an insect bite. Anthrax 
can attack any warm-blooded animal 
but humans, canines and swine have 
the highest resistance; cattle, horses 
and sheep are most susceptible. The 
average outbreak lasts from three to 
four weeks, and quarantines usually 
are imposed for periods of six to 
eight weeks. Unlike most animal di¬ 
seases, anthrax gives no advance 
warning, or so-called advance symp¬ 
toms. A cattleman can inspect an 
infected animal in the morning v/itli 
out knowing it harbors the deadly 
organism, and return the same eve¬ 
ning to find the animal dead. 


To Avoid Livestock Injuries 


Enough livestock are bruised, 
crippled and killed on their way to 
market daily to furnish the meet 
needs of half a million people every 
day, according to C. W. Hammans, 
the Ohio State University marketing- 
specialist. He says careless handling 
of livestock results in losses of about 
a hundred tons of beef, lamb and 
pork every day. That means lower 
prices for the farmer who produces 
the meat and higher costs for the 
consumer; bruised meat cannot be 
eaten and requires extra labor to trim 
out. Most bruising occurs in the 
high-priced cuts. About 51 percent of 
the bruises on hogs are in the hams; 
45 percent of the cattle bruises are 
in the loins. 

These losses from bruising and 
crippling are largely due to careless¬ 
ness. To prevent them, Hammans 
urges handlers driving animals to 
use a canvas slapper instead of 
clubs and canes. Broken boards and 
protruding nails from fences, door¬ 
ways, trucks and farm loading chutes 


are common sources of injury. 
Farmers can reduce these losses by 
removing machinery and junk from 
feedlots and barnyards. They also can 
cut losses by dehorning their cattle. 
The easiest way to do this is to stop 
young calves’ horn growth with 
caustic. Haulers are urged to use 
sand on truck beds. It helps to keep 
cattle from slipping and falling. Ani¬ 
mals also need protection from the 
weather when they are hauled. In 
Summer, provide shade and ventila¬ 
tion; in Winter, use a hooded truck 
or a canvas over the front end and 
the sides of the truck rack, and over 
the top of the front third of the rack 
Also provide plenty of bedding over 
the sand base. Livestock travel best 
on a light fill, so farmers and haulers 
should avoid heavy feeding of ani¬ 
mals before loading. Finally, load ani¬ 
mals carefully, do not hurry them 
up chutes and through narrow doors, 
drive carefully and avoid sudden 
stops. 


64 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 






































Keep feat 

OPEN 

Keep it 

HEALING 

\ Keep it 

MILKING 


Don't Let Sore Teats, 

Scab Teats — Bruised Teats 

Close the Teat Canal 


To maintain unrestricted milk flow through the 
canal cf injured teats, use Dr. Naylor's Medi¬ 
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canal and keep end of teat open in its natural 
shape while tissues heal. 


ANTISEPTIC 

Dr. Naylor Dilators act as an internal dressing 
to the teat canal. Contain SULFATHIAZOLE — 
the medication is IN the Dilators and is re¬ 
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directly at site of trouble . . . easy to insert, 
fit either large or small teats. 

EASY TO USE. Simply keep a Dr. Naylor 
Dilator in teat between milkings until teat 
milks free by hand. 





IMPORTANT INFORMATION 
FOR CUSTOM MIX AND 
HOME GRAIN FEEDERS 


Home grains simply cannot be fed 
alone to livestock — profitably — no 
matter how plentiful they may be on 
a farm. Even many supplements fail 
to provide all the essential Minerals 
and Vitamin D needed for growth, 
development, production and reproduce 
tion. Now, especially, with the heat 
and drought conditions of last Sum- 
mer forcing many dairymen to supple' 
ment the ration, proper and adequate 
MmerahVitamin fortification is a must. 

SEND FOR BARKER’S 
CUSTOM MIX BOOKLET! 

Contains formulas. Shows how and 
why you save money and use less feed 
when you fortify with BARKER’S 
MINERALS Sc VITAMINS. No cost 
or obligation. See your BARKER 
DEALER for complete Custom Mix 
Service. 


PIPE SMOKERS: BROKEN STEMS REPLACED 
UTTER PIPE FACTORY, OLEAN, NEW YORK 


January 15, 1955 


Syracuse Milk Meeting 

Approximately 4,000 farmers at¬ 
tended the milk meeting in Syracuse, 
N. Y., on December 29. The meeting, 
called by the Dairymen’s League, was 
sponsored by the League, Eastern 
Milk Producers Cooperative, Mutual 
Federation and the Bargaining 
Agency. It was held in the Lincoln 
H.S. auditorium, with the overflow 
crowd gathering in the Civic Theater 
and the Onondaga Hotel. 

It had been previously announced 
that the reason for the meeting was 
that Washington had twice turned 
down petitions to freeze the Class I-A 
(fluid) price, first at the November 
level for December through March, 
and later at the December level for 
January through April. Apparently, 
it was figured that, with a mass pro¬ 
ducer sentiment behind a fixed I-A 
price, the dealers would be more in¬ 
clined to pay the extra price for each 
of the four months in question. 

Chairman of the meeting was 
Ernest C. Strobeck, Dairymen’s 
League president. He announced at 
the outset that, because of the num¬ 
ber of items on the agenda, no one 
would be recognized from the floor. 
He outlined the steps already taken 
by the cooperatives in their attempt 
to obtain a favorable I-A ruling from 
Washington. J. Thomas Cribbs, presi¬ 
dent of Eastern, explained that his 
organization believed that there were 
many other factors in the Federal 
Order, beside the I-A price, that 
needed consideration, but that East¬ 
ern supported the present movement 
to obtain some temporary relief. He 
stated that it was Eastern that first 
suggested the idea of an emergency 
petition to peg the I-A price. Dr. 
Kenneth Shaul, Mutual president, 
stated that the meeting was aimed at 
the idea of obtaining at least tem¬ 
porary price relief during the barn 
feeding season. After some explana¬ 
tion, a resolution was offered by Sey¬ 
mour Rodenhurst, League vice-presi¬ 
dent, to the effect that the coopera¬ 
tives and the dealers meet, with 
Commissioner of Agricuiture Carey 
as mediator, and endeavor to agree 
on the amount to be paid for fluid 
milk utilization over and above the 
Federal Order's minimum I-A price 
for each of the Tour months in ques¬ 
tion. the fund to be administered and 
disbursed to producers by the Market 
Administrator; in other words, a tem¬ 
porary “super pool”. The resolution 
carried. 

Another resolution, introduced by 
William Storie of the Bargaining 
Agency, called for a hearing to re¬ 
view and revamp the I-A pricing for¬ 
mula and other provisions of the 
Federal Order. This, too, was ap¬ 
proved. 

Many of those present, however, 
expressed surprise that no discussion 
was allowed on either resolution by 
anyone. 

At this point in the meeting, a 
dairyman stepped up to the micro¬ 
phone uninvited, criticized the way in 
which the meeting was being run, 
and asked why something was not 
being done about the low Class III 
price. The dairyman, Tony Petrus, 
Copenhagen, N. Y., received a round 
of applause from the audience but 
was ignored by the chairman. 

Other speakers were James Young, 
Bargaining Agency president, Harry 
Smith. Eastern Director, and Grover 
Guernsey, League official. 

The meeting, lasting an hour and a 
half, was concluded at 3 p.m. It was 
then, however, that the real producer 
sentiment began to express itself. 
Many protested against the “gag 
rule” tactics, claiming that “the word 
‘co-operative’ was blasphemed to¬ 
day.” Several farmers, when told how 
much a I-A price, frozen at the De¬ 
cember level, would net them—five 
cents in January, 10 cents in Febru¬ 
ary, 16 cents in March, and 25 cents 
(Continued on Page 71) 




THE 

IT 

IUI 

1 

s 

T 

□ 

E 

LI 

r 

or 

cr 

rn 

u 

s 

] 


U 

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Why is Florida Citrus Pulp causing so much 
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it Florida Citrus Pulp is a carbohydrate 
concentrate, high in T.D.N.* and low in 
fiber content. It has proven milk stimulat¬ 
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It can be fed wet or dry, stores well and is 
available all year round. Facts prove you 
get better milk production at lower cost by 
feeding Florida Citrus Pulp. 


TOTAL DIGESTIBLE 
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For complete information, 
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Please include your feed deal¬ 
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Chickens as a Sideline 


As of today—indeed for some time 
past, the poultry business could 
hardly be considered a satisfactory 
sideline except in rare instances of 
superior management and good luck. 
There is reason to believe, however, 
that conditions may soon change. 
This has happened before and per¬ 
sistence and hard work usually seem 
to bring their accustomed rewards. 

This is a brief account of a man 
who has 1,300 laying Rhode Island 
Reds, works five days a week in the 
office of a steel plant, looks after a 
mother past 75 years of age, and is 
father of a motherless boy of eight. 
How truly these chickens are a side¬ 
line with Peter H. Sigler, Glen Gard¬ 
ner, N. J., we shall see as we relate 
his activities in more detail. 

When Mr. Sigler stopped at my 
little roadside stand to buy some Red 
Astrachan apples, I mentioned that 
I noticed he passed our place regu¬ 
larly every noon. He then told me 
he had to go home to gather the 
eggs, taking this time out of his lunch 
hour. He also spoke of his young son, 
and wtih a broad smile declared that 
his mother was so fond of that old- 
fashioned early variety of apples she 
intended to can apple sauce for win¬ 
ter use. This brought to mind remarks 
I had heard made by young women 
to the effect that canning of any kind 
was too much trouble, and here was 
a spry woman of 76 years undertak¬ 
ing the selfsame task with enthusi¬ 
asm. 

Mr. Sigler’s experience dates from 


boyhood when he helped his father in 
the care of a flock of about the size 
he now maintains. The town grew up 
around them, but the chicken houses 
are still there and no one seems to 
mind. There is also a good-sized yard 
(actually a miniature race-track and 
hurdles) for the exercise of the rid¬ 
ing horse and pony that are stabled 
there for the benefit of father and 
son, who get much of their recrea¬ 
tion by riding about the countryside 
together. The boy, Jeffrey, and his 
mount have taken a number of blue 
l’ibbons and prizes at horse shows. 

As may well be expected, every¬ 
thing about the Sigler place is well 
organized and planned for the elim¬ 
ination of waste effort, a natural re¬ 
sult of the limited time the owner 
has available for the care of his 
flock. But the son is doing nis share, 
too, and growing apace, as a fine boy 
should. 

I should like to conclude with a 
bit of sentiment which, in view of all 
the circumstances, I trust will be 
found not out of place here. While 
Mr. Sigler’s venture in poultry may 
not be very profitable at the moment, 
his chief business of developing and 
preserving the home life that re¬ 
mains to him is going extremely 
well. In fact, it seems to me the 
cheerful, hopeful attitude toward 
life which is evidenced by this trio 
of father, son and grandmother is 
the very epitome of success. 

Roscoe Brumbaugh 


See the NEWPAPECS at your dealer’s soon. 

Papec Machine Company , Shortsville , N. F. 

PAPEC FORAGE HARVESTERS 




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Blood Spots in Eggs 


Blood spots in eggs are one of the 
tribulations of the poultryman; they 
seem to be a perpetual problem. In a 
recent survey of egg quality made at 
the Hunterdon County Egg Laying 
Test in Flemington, N. J., when eggs 
were broken open in March and Au¬ 
gust it was noted that three per cent 
of them had large blood spots and 
another nine per cent had small ones. 
Generally, these small blood spots are 
not taken into consideration when 
eggs • are candled: they cannot be 
seen unless the egg is broken open 
in a plate or saucer. Many of them 
are about the size of the head of a 
pin. These small blood spots are a 
potential problem, however, because 
the presence of blood spots, small or 
large, can be traced to the source of 
stock, in the survey, not a single pen 
had eggs completely free of blood 
spots. In most cases the percentage 
was low, but there were individual 
pens where as many as one egg in 
every four had them. 

Where this condition occurs the 
stock is the cause of the trouble. No 
one has yet been able to produce 
blood spots by scaring the hens, giv¬ 
ing them a particular feed or subject¬ 
ing them to peculiar environment. It 
is inherent in the bird to produce 
eggs with a small quantity of blood. 
Presumably, they get into the egg at 
the time of ovulation, or when the 
yolk of the egg is dropped from the 


ovary into the oviduct. An apprecia¬ 
tion of this process is needed to 
understand just what takes place. Ac¬ 
tually, the egg-producing organs of 
the hen are in two distinct areas. 
The yolks are produced in the ovary, 
which releases them. They may drop 
into the body cavity and collect there, 
but under normal conditions they 
drop into what is called ihe funnel or 
opening of the oviduct, a separate or¬ 
gan. This picks up the yolk and car¬ 
ries it along out of the body for lay¬ 
ing. In the process the albumen and 
shell are deposited around the yolk. 
Apparently the blood comes, as has 
been suggested, at the moment when 
the yolk breaks away from the 
ovary. 

There is nothing anyone can do 
about the number of blood spots 
even if it seems to be excessive. One 
thing, though, we know for sure: 
the eggs with blood spots are pro¬ 
duced by particular birds. Where 
cages are being used or where one 
is trapnesting, the birds can be lo¬ 
cated and removed. This eliminates 
the problem, for the flock will not 
produce any more blood-spot eggs; 
the individuals responsible have been 
removed. On a commercial scale this 
culling is impossible, so there is 
nothing to do but candle out the eggs 
and hope for better results in the 
next flock of pullets. C. S. Platt 



To Prevent Air Sac Disease 


The question of which came first, 
the sick chick or the infected egg, ap¬ 
parently has been answered in the 
case of chronic respiratory (air sac) 
disease. It appears to be the egg. The 
answer may lead to prevention and 
possible eradication of the disease 
which has cost poultrymen millions 
of dollars annually. 

Researchers have traced the infec¬ 
tion to the ovary of the breeder hen 
and, after working with several hun- 
• dred thousand chickens under vari¬ 


ous conditions, have arrived at the 
following preliminary conclusions as 
to the best methods of attacking the 
disease: (1) Treating all breeder 
hens with terramycin in oil suspen¬ 
sion injected at the base of the head. 

(2) Similarly treating newly hatched 
chick sbefore shipment to farms or 
before placement in brooder houses. 

(3) controlling related ailments such 
as Newcastle disease and infectious 
bronchitis. 




66 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 











































"Whaf Is Wrong With 
My Pullets?" 

Will you please give me your opin¬ 
ion of the all-mash laying ration I 
am using with my pullets? it con¬ 
sists of ground corn 800 pounds; 
ground wheat 200: ground oats 200; 
ground barley 200; and 500 pounds 
of a commercial mixing mash con¬ 
taining 36 per cent protein. I use 
some buttermilk over the mash, just 
enough to dampen it. I am giving 
them all they v/ill eat and they have 
plenty of eating room at the hoppers. 
But they are laying only 70 per cent; 
last year at this time my pullets laid 
at 90 per cent. I would like to have 
your opinion on why they are not 
laying better. w. h. s. 

Wayne Co., N. Y. 

Your all-mash mixture for laying 
pullets seems entirely satisfactory; 
therefore, their feed has nothing to 
do with the results you are getting. 
Personally, I would consider 70 per 
cent production reasonably satisfac¬ 
tory but, in light of your experience 
of last year with 90 per cent, I can 
appreciate your disappointment. 

I had one pen of pullets last Win¬ 
ter at our Poultry Research Farm 
that laid better than any other group, 
and the result was not in the least 
expected. It happened to contain a 
larger number of high-producing 
birds than all the other pens, and 
this tendency was in evidence within 
a few weeks after the pullets were 
housed, yet they were taken off range 
at random and not selected to pos¬ 
sibly be a superior group. 

Such factors as the breeding of the 
flock, its general health and vigor, 
date of hatch and feeding methods 
during the rearing period will affect 
the rate of production achieved in 
any given group of birds. These al¬ 
ways are variable. 


Excessive Wafer Drinking 

My pullets are now over 14 weeks 
of age; they have been continuously 
on the same all-mash diet. Recently 
they have been drinking e icessive 
amounts of water; consequently their 
Jitter is always wet and dirty. What 
would you suggest to correct this 
condition? f. j. f. 

Steuben Co., N. Y. 

Your pullets being reared on an 
all-mash diet probably have reached 
an age when their diet should be 
changed. To illustrate: the mash 
mixture probably contains about 20 
per cent protein, which would be 
right for young chicks. Now they 


are over 14 weeks of age and you 
are continuing them on the same 
diet. From the protein angle alone, 
they should be getting only a 15 or 
16 per cent protein mash. It is also 
conceivable that the chick mash may 
contain more salt than would be de¬ 
sirable for the older birds. Either 
excessive salt or excessive protein 
would have a tendency to make the 
birds drink more water. Therefore, if 
you will change to a mash more suit¬ 
able for developing pullets, most of 
your difficulties should be corrected. 
All-mash diets are often likely to be 
a definite cause of heavy water con¬ 
sumption, with a resulting wet litter, 
unless the diets are carefully and 
suitably designed. If the situation 
does not correct itself with the 
change of diet, I would suggest you 
change to a standard grain and mash 
feeding, using equal parts of each. 


Lights for Layers 

How much light, should layers 
have, both, natural and artificial? 
Should their feeding schedule be 
changed? What are your suggestions? 

New Jersey k. j. s. 

Laying fov/ls should have not less 
than 14 hours of light, both natural 
and artificial, a day. During the win¬ 
ter season the lights should be 
turned on at two or three o’clock in 
the morning to provide the proper 
length of light No harm will be done 
the chickens if the total hours of 
light amount to more than the 14 rec¬ 
ommended. The feeding schedule 
when lights are used need not be 
changed. Dry mash should be con¬ 
stantly available- grain should be fed 
in the late afternoon at the rate of 
12 to 14 pounds a day per 100 birds. 
Three square feet of floor space per 
bird is the proper allotment. 


Baking Soda for Picking 
Waterfowl 

Do you think that adding baking 
soda and rubbing it over waterfowl 
such as ducks and geese for picking 
and dressing them helps get rid of 
feathers and under down? How 
about water temperature? 

Northampton Co., Pa. j. m. s. 

. Baking soda in the water un¬ 
doubtedly makes plucking of both 
ducks and geese easier. This is true 
regardless of water temperature; the 
recommended temperature of the 
water is, however, 143 degrees F. 
The carcass must be immersed sever¬ 
al times for the water to penetrate 
into the feathers. 



y- ** o ' c-xv .M t&X SgWMjSv] 

Ernest Grant, Elmira, N. ’ Y. 


Everything must he ready for the baby chicks’ arrival. These thrifty New 
Hampshires owned by John Sterling, Horseheads, N. Y., are kept warm by 
both an electric brooder and an infra-red light bulb. The feeder extends 
under the brooder so the chicks can eat either within the hover or without, 

as they prefer. 

January 15. 1955 



HUBBARD’S NEW HAMPSHIRES 


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STERN’S 

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LEGHORNS 


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Ask yourself this question: Does it 
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year that lay larger eggs and in 
greater number than the strain I have 
been relying on? The answer is, “of 
course not!” Then, why not do as 
hundreds of other management-mind¬ 
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on STERN’S “Longevity” .LEGHORNS 
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baby chick investment. 

Remember! Before you buy your 
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present strain of birds must increase 
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R.F.D. 6. W. Brattleboro, Vt. 


DON’T SACRIFICE Yearling Hens! Free Bulletin — 
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feeding profitable. SINE, RN-7, Quakertcwn, Pa. 





BABCOCKS 

Healthy Chick Hews 

by Monroe C. Babcock 

WET FLOORS ARE 
GOOD, NOT BAD! 

Are your pullets 
walking around on 
wet floors? Don't 
worry about it! If 
you can get your 
birds up to 80% 
to over 90% pro¬ 
duction you'll probably have wet litter. 
There are only two disadvantages of wet 
litter: (1) You may slip and fall. (2) You’ll 
get more dirty eggs because the pullets 
have dirty feet. 

To combat wet litter I would suggest stirring 
up the litter if possible. Keep clean litter in 
the nests. Spread clean litter in front of the 
nests every few days. When it gets too wet 
pitch the top layer over near the water 
troughs and throw in more new litter in 
front of the nests. Throw some of the scratch 
grain in the litter in front of the nests so ihe 
birds will help stir the litter. Scratching also 
helps clean their feet. 

Feed lots of mash, all they’ll eat. 10 Lbs to 
12 Lbs of scratch per 100 layers per day in 
the winter. Have plenty of water space. 
Water should be deep enough to allow 
birds to get their wattles wet when they 
drink. 

You'll enjoy reading our chick catalog. 
Please send for it today. 

BABCOCK POULTRY FARM, INC 

Route 3R, Ithaca, N. Y. 



Mattern’s Reliable Chicks 

Our 34th Year Proven Quality 
NICHOLS NEW HAMPSHIRES, ARBOR 
ACRES WHITE ROCKS, MATTERNS 
COLUMBIAN CORNISH X NEW HAMP¬ 
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HORNS. Write for Circular and Prices. 

Telephone 2114 
MATTERN’S HATCHERY 
R 5, BEAVER SPRINGS, PA. 


BALL POULTRY FARM 

Hatching year around Babcock strain Leghorns amt 
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Truck delivery to many areas. Write or call today 
for prices and early order discounts. 

BALL POULTRY FARM, ROUTE R, 

OWEGO. TIOGA CO.. NEW YORK Phene: 1176 


— ANCONA CHICKS — 

THE BREED THAT LAYS MORE 
LARGE WHITE EGGS ON LESS FEED 
Also 3 to 4 Week Old Started. Catalog Free. 
SHRAWDER’S ANCONA FARM, Richfield 9, Pa. 


■ ■ 1 




67 

























NEW ENGLAND NOTES 


New England’s 1954 apple crop in 
the commercial apple counties 
amounted to 6,275,000 bushels, about 
one-fifth smaller than the 1953 crop 
but practically the same as the 10- 
year average. Connecticut was the 
only New England State with a 
larger apple crop than last year. Ver¬ 
mont and Connecticut were the only 
States where the crop was above av¬ 
erage, and the Maine crop was the 
most below last year and the aver¬ 
age. 

The Eastern Aberdeen Angus Fu¬ 
turity will hold its first showing 
during the 1955 Eastern States Expo¬ 
sition at est Springfield, Mass., next 
September. This will be the first 
futurity show for any breed ever 
held in the Northeast. Junior yearl¬ 
ing and summer yearling classes for 
both bulls and females will be 
offered. Nominations for the show 


animals dose on May 1. Blanks may 
be obtained from the Eastern States 
Exposition. 


The annual Agricultural Trades 
Show is scheduled for January 18-20 
at the Armory in Lewiston, Maine. 
Meetings of orchardists, dairymen, 
poultrymen, florists and vegetable 
growers will be held. Displays of the 
latest equipment and machinery for 
farmers and homemakers will be 
featured. Everyone is welcome. 

Dates for the 48th annual Farm 
and Home Week at the University of 
Maine have been set for Monday 
evening, April 4, through Thursday, 
April 7. Maine farm people are circ¬ 
ling those dates on their calendars to 
reserve them for this important 
event. 


C. L. Davis, Pittsfield, Somerset 
County, Maine, is the sixth Holstein 
breeder in Maine to qualify for the 
Progressive Breeders’ Award. The 
herd averaged 538 pounds of fat and 
13,710 pounds of milk in 311 days on 
twice-a-day milking last year. 

Joseph Eldridge, Winterport, has 
been elected president of the Penob¬ 
scot County (Maine) Poultry Im¬ 
provement Assn. Other officers are 
Roger White, Brewer, vice-pres., and 
William Jinks, Bangor, secy.-treas. 

Maine leads all other New England 
states in commercial broiler produc¬ 
tion, with a total output in 1954 ex¬ 
pected to reach about 31 million 
birds. This is about eight per cent 
above the previous year. 


Annefriede Oltmanns, 17-year-old 
farm girl from Germany, is living on 
the Harold Littlefield farm in Milton, 
Vermont, for a year under the spon¬ 
sorship of the National Grange. The 
Littlefield family consists of a daugh¬ 
ter and two sons, in addition to Mr. 
and Mrs. Littlefield. Annefriede is 



Red Rose Feed gives your chicks 

3-way life insurance 


Early Nutrition for a Fast Start 

Your chicks need a good, fast start. Red Rose Chick Starter 
insures it with “early nutrition”—Vitamin B12, antibiotics, plus 
a tested growth stimulant. These valuable nutrients help chicks 
gain weight fast... maintain well-conditioned vigor and energy. 

Quick Recovery after Vaccination 

Red Rose TC Feed is the short-term diet to help overcome 
post-vaccination slumps and reduce infection. TC contains 
increased levels of Vitamins A and D, plus antibiotics in one 
palatable ration. It keeps birds eating and helps maintain 
natural body vigor. TC is your first line of defense against 
respiratory ailments. 

Keep Coccidiosis under Control 

When the danger signs of Coccidiosis threaten . . . fast action 
with R.ed Rose' Coccidiosis Control Ration saves chicks. It 
contains more than three times the level of medication of pre¬ 
ventative feeds; a mixture that reduces the severity of disease and 
allows your flock to build up immunity without heavy losses. 


Send for Poultry Kit' 

Helpful egg production book, facts in “First Aid” Nutrition 
and Red Rose TC Feed . . . free at your Red Rose Dealer or 
send 25c to: John W. Eshelman & Sons, Lancaster, Pa. 


Rose 



GUARANTEED FEEDS 

SbheJlntaH, * SONS 


JOHN W. 


ESTABLISHED 1842 


MILLS: LANCASTER, PA. • YORK, PA. 
CIRCLEVILLE, OHIO • TAMPA, FLA. • SANFORD, N. C 



Get 3-way life insurance for your new chicks—see your Red 
Rose Dealer for Red Rose Chick Starter, TC Feed and Cocci¬ 
diosis Control Ration. 


Distributors from Maine to Florida / 
Ohio to the Atlantic 


one of 30 young Germans living on 
American farms this year with 
Grange sponsorship. 

Paul Doyle, Orleans, is the new 
president of the Vermont Dairy 
Supervisors Assn. Karl Brown, 
Brookfield, is vice-pres.; Francis 
Halnon, Williston, secy.; and William 
Leamy, Burlington, treas. 

Five farmers whose farms have 
been in their families for 100 years 
and whose community and civic ac¬ 
tivities denote outstanding leader¬ 
ship have been awarded Century 
Farms Awards by the Vermont Farm 
Bureau and State Grange. They are 
Leonard Wales, Wevbridge; Martin 
B. Lawrence, Stamford; Dan D. Bur- 
ditt, Pittsford: Wendell I. Goodrich, 
Cabot; and Lisle Bean, Glover. 

Vermont’s Union Agricultural 
Meetings and Show—now called the 
Vermont Farm Show—will be held at 
Barre, February 8-11. Commissioner 
of Agriculture Elmer E. Towne is the 
new chairman of the Show, replacing 
the late Commissioner Stanley G. 
Judd. Manager of the Show is H. V. 
Shute. director of the division of 
markets, Montpelier. 

Frank Bishop, Springfield, is the 
new president of the Vermont Dairy 
Herd Improvement Assn. Other new 
officers are Howard Varney, Tun¬ 
bridge, vice-pres.; Margarette Adams, 
Burlington, secy.; Fenwick Estey, 
Bristol, treas.; Carey Howlett, Brid- 
port, auditor; and William Leamy, 
Burlington, clerk. 


What is considered the largest 
shipment by air of a single breed of 
dairy cattle ever made by one con¬ 
signor was the recent movement of 
126 purebred Guernsey cattle from 
Miami, Florida to Bogota, Colombia, 
South America. Included were four 
bulls and 122 heifers from nine farms 
in five states. New England shippers 
included Flying Horse Farm, South 
Hamilton, Mass.: Langwater Farm, 
North Easton, Mass.; Wethersfield 
Farm, Danvers, Mass.; Lush Acres, 
Farm, Rehoboth, Mass.; Beaver 
Brook Farm, Wilmington, Vermont; 
Great Elm Farm, Dover, N. H. 

The Massachusetts industry can 
point with pride to the accomplish¬ 
ments of the broiler committee com¬ 
posed of Ray Connor of Boxford, 
chairman; Jules Kroeck, Mass. Dept, 
of Agriculture, Boston; Homer E. 
Rowell, Groveland; Robert C. Cobb, 
Jr., of Littleton; Edward Asack of V/. 
Bridgewater; Fred P. Jeffrey; Russell 
Sturtevant, Halifax; Raymond Ger¬ 
ard, Framingham; and Paul Swan¬ 
son, Chelmsford. 

Poultry, turkeys, pigeons, goats, 
and other farm animals will be on 
display at the 107th Boston Poultry 
Show and Country Life Exposition 
at the Mechanics Building, Boston, on 
January 19, 20, 2,1, and 22. 


The annual meeting of the Connec¬ 
ticut Poultry Association will be 
held at the Hotel Statler in Hartford 
on January 17. This is a change in 
date from the one originally an¬ 
nounced. 

John W. Manchester 



68 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 

















PROGENY 
TESTED 

TURKEY POULTS 

for 

HIGH LIVABILITY 
LOW FEED COST 
FAST GROWTH 


BROAD BREASTED BRONZE 


DeWitt’s 5-D 

(Formerly Lee & Smith) 

Wonderful 

Conformation 

brings 

Premium Prices 




BROAD BREASTED WHITES 


A. O. Smith B. B. Whites 







The PERFECT Bird 
for Retail and 
Custom Trade 

Wahkeen Whites 

The small white with the 
breast of the BB Bronze 


Write for our FREE CATALOG 

Catalog explains our Progeny Testing Pro* 
gram which guarantees you the Big 5 Profit 
Factors. Amazing low prices if you order 
NOW- 



OeWitfs 


PHONE 2133, 


ZEELAND 

HATCHERY, INC. 

ZEELAND, MICH. 




PENNA.-U.S. 

APPROVED 

PULLORUM 

TYPHOID 

CLEAN 


FREE 

CATALOG 



For Greater Profits 

Broader Breasted 
Poults From Our 
Own Breeders. B.B. 
Bronze White Hol¬ 
lands, Small Whites. 
Largest Breeder Pro¬ 
ducer of Pa. - U. S. 
Pullorum - Typhoid 
Clean Poults. 


Linesviile Hatchery 


BOX 14. 


LINESVILLE, PENNA. 


New England's Largest Breeder offers 
exhibition style Massive Market Type 
White Emden & Gray Toulouse Gos- 
lihgs, over 12 pounds 10 
f fRet \ weeks. Easiest, Fastest, 
(f ntal°9/ chea Pe$t to grow—live 
y longest, fewest diseases; 


GOLDEN EGG GOOSE FARM (R-1R) Hampton, Conn. 


f MOUNT HOPE CHICKS 

Day Old or Started from our own ROP Sired 
Blooiitested Breeders. Also Heavy Breeds 

PELLMANS POULTRY FARM 
W. S. PELLMAN, Prop., Box 53, Richfield, Pa. 


ed I 

Li 


67 RARE & COMMON VARIETIES CHICKS. EGGS 
Free handsome catalogue, colored pictures showing 
Lakenvelders, Polish, Hamburgs, Andalusians, Sussex, 
Turkens, Cornish, Houdans. Minorcas, Leghorns, 
Rocks, Buttercups, Langshans, Anconas, Brahmas. 
Live arrival all eastern states guaranteed. 
MURRAY MCM U RRAY, Box B5I, Webster City, Iowa 



BUSH I LEGHORNS 

Wh, Buff, Br, also AustraWhs, HampWhs 
Hamps, Reds. Wh, Barred Rocks, Wydts 
Buff, Wh, Bl. Minorcas, 26 surplus breeds 
bloodtested AAAA $8.79; Pullets $13.85 
Heavies $5.99; Leftover* ~t.99, fob, catalog 

BUSH HATCHERIES 23. Clinton, Mo 


BELTSV1LLE POULTS AND EGGS 


PEKIN DUCKLINGS. HILLPOT TURKEY FARM, 
BOX I, FRENCHTOWN, N. J. PHONE 29-J. 


ANNUAL 

POULTRY ISSUE 

February 5th 

The Annual Poultry Issue of The 
Rural New Yorker (February 5) 
will contain a wealth of information 
of interest to all poultry-raisers. It 
will be read and saved in more 
than 310,000 farm homes in the 
Northeastern States. 

Breeders and hatcheries, who are 
seeking new customers, will find it 
profitable to have an advertisment 
in this big outstanding issue. Copy 
and instructions must reach us not 
later than Monday morning, Janu¬ 
ary 24, to catch the Poultry Issue. 

THE RURAL NEW-YORKER 

333 WEST 30th STREET 
NEW YORK 1, N. Y. 


Disease Immunity in 
Poultry 

Immunity is a common word in 
the language of most poultrymen 
today. Hundreds of thousands of 
dollars are lost or gained each year 
by poultrymen because of the pres¬ 
ence or absence of immunity in their 
flocks. Immunity as a word is often 
misused and misunderstood. The 
dictionary defines immunity as “the 
condition of not being susceptible to 
a given disease, either naturally or 
by inoculation against it.” 

Most poultrymen are involved in 
some way with inoculation as a 
means of developing immunity to 
certain diseases. Some poultry breed¬ 
ers are attempting to develop strains 
of poultry that have a natural im¬ 
munity. This method involves the 
attempt to locate disease-resistant 
families of poultry. A paradox exists 
with this practice of breeding in 
that a truly resistant strain cannot 
be developed unless the strain is in 
contact with the disease. 

The establishment of natural im¬ 
munity may be the best from the 
long term viewpoint. But it may be 
costly and probably should be left 
to those who have the means of 
meeting that cost. For most poultry- 
men, a good method of clean man¬ 
agement should be followed. For 
many diseases, actual physical in¬ 
oculation of the poultry may be the 
easiest and the cheapest until other 
means can establish immunity. 

Immunity is not an absolute con¬ 
dition; it is subject to alteration in 
its virulence. This refers to the rela¬ 
tive ability of a disease-inducing or¬ 
ganism to cause a deviation from the 
normal health of birds. The result 
may be only a mild upset, or a 
severe condition which might lead 
to death. The final condition of the 
flock as the result of an invasion of 
a particular disease is dependent 
upon the amount of disease-inducing 
organisms present, the known dos¬ 
age, the virulence of the organisms, 
and the many environmental factors 
present on a farm and within the 
poultry houses. 

There are different ways in which 
immunity can be developed. They 
may result in lifetime immunity 
under certain conditions and in other 
instances may last for only a short 
time. Cases have been reported 
where flocks undergo a natural out¬ 
break of a disease and are assumed 
to be therefore immune, but suffer 
later from an outbreak of the same 
disease. 

Immunity is important to poultry- 
men. They must acquire all the 
known facts concerning it in regard 
to any particular disease. All vac¬ 
cines do not confer lifetime im¬ 
munity, and some poultrymen not 
fully acquainted with the facts, or 
misinterpreting them, expect more 
of them than is possible. The Re¬ 
gional Laboratories in New York 
State can help with particular prob¬ 
lems; the local county agricultural 
agent has the location of the nearest 
laboratory. Use these laboratories, or 
those in your particular State, and 
chances are that in the long run they 
will eliminate costly mistakes in 
immunization. R. R. Stockbridge 



THINK NOW about your 1955 needs. Ask for our 

Free 16 Page Illustrated Book which shows our early 
order DISCOT'XT and Management Practices of 36 
years Breeding Improvement. We have the Mt. Hope 
Strain White Leghorns, New llampshires. Bar. or Wh. 
Rocks. White Crosses, also Rock-Red -or the Red-Rock 
(hex-link). We give year around service and pay 
all postage. C. P. LEtSTER HATCHERY. 
BOX ^N, MC ALISTERVILLE, PA. 


—Ball Red-Rocks and Ball Leghorns — 

(pure, undiluated Babcock strain) are bred for long 
distance egg production. The sustained high egg 
production and good livability of these birds really 
pay off when the squeeze is on egg and poultry prices. 
Our Dominant White Crosses (mostly Cornish, New 
Hampshire, and Barred Rock) make broad-breasted, 
white feathered, yellow-skinned broilers with a mini¬ 
mum of feed. Write for free catalogue, telling 
about our 11,000 bird farm and modern hatchery. 
Truck delivery to many areas. 

BALL POULTRY FARM 

ROUTE R, OWEGO, TIOGA COUNTY, NEW YORK 


DO YOU WISH TO SAVE $20.00 hundred on bal¬ 
anced bred great laying White Leghorn pullet chicks? 
83% laying for months. Write: TRAIL'S END 

POULTRY FARM, RFO. G 0 R D 0 NS VI LLE, VA. 





MYOCITIN 




FOft THE CONTROL OF C(RD* 

*(Chrenic Respiratory Disease) 

RESPIRATORY INFLECTIONS 

OP POULTRY 


Iff! 

WM 


NOTE: 

The combination of two 
potent anti-biotics (Procaine Penicillin and 
Dihydrostreptomycin) in MYOCITIN is more 
effective against a wider range of infections 
than when these antibiotics 
are used separately 


2 ANDERSON BOX COMPANY 

Indiana 

Product of Wick & Fry Laboratories, Cumberland. Indiana 


I 



PROFIT¬ 

MAKING 

LEGHORNS 


Here’s How to Profit; 

Buy Quality 
Chicks, Market 
Quality Eggs. 
Start Chicks 
Early, Get More 
Eggs When Prices 
Are Highest. 


• New! Free 

• Order Now 


Catalog! 

— Save with 


Discount 


Allen H. BULKLEY & Son 

OUR 40TH YEAR 

140 Leghorn Lane, Tel. 30-M, Odessa, N.Y. 



PICK THE 2-WAY WINNER 


Hall Brothers 

SILVER HALLCROSS 

The "made-to-order” 
bird for eggs AND 
meat. In recent West¬ 
ern N. Y. Test Silver 
Hallcross was the 
HIGHEST cross-bred 
strain for entire coun¬ 
try with 111.77 eggs per 
bird in 123 days—90.87% 
production. 

WRITE FOR CATALOG 
AND CONTEST RECORDS 

HALL BROTHERS HATCHERY, INC. 
Box 60 Wallingford, Connecticut 

NEW BOOK 

Free! 

Read all about my 
Big-New Improved 

ANCONAS 

1955 white egg 
machines. Lots of 
large white eggs 
at less cost per 
dozen. Write to — 

RAYMOND S. THOMAS. Route 2. SALTILLO. PA, 

New Illini Whites; New Barrel-Chest 
Cornish Crosses; Austra-X-Whites; Wyan- 
dotte-X-Rocks; Hamp-X-Rocks; Minorca- 
X-Leghorns, etc. Produce fancy market 
eggs and broilers. II. S. Approved Pull¬ 
orum Passed. Cataloq Free. Standard 
Hatcheries, Box 826-A Decatur, ILLS. 




cAfSSgps' 

CHICKS 


Whether you produce MARKET EGGS, 
MEAT, or HATCHING EGGS — you can 
increase your profit margin by starting 
with Clements Maine-Bred Chicks. We 
offer the breeds and crosses that have 
proven most profitable. 

RED-ROCKS (Black Sex-Link Pullets) 

famous for stamina, livability, and 
steady egg production. 

WHITE LEGHORNS — 

efficient egg producers — more eggs per 
bag of feed means greater net profits. 

RHODE ISLAND REDS — 

favorites for high egg production. 

WHITE ROCKS — 

1st choice of many commercial broiler 
growers — fast growth, high livability, 
efficient feed conversion, top meat quality. 
Pullets in demand for hatching egg 
production. 

They’re backed by 41 years breeding ex¬ 
perience and the reputation of Maine’s 
largest hatchery. 

Maine-U. S. Approved — Pullorum Clean 

Write or phono (Winterport 190) for infor¬ 
mation and prices — 

CLEMENTS CHICKS, INC. 

ROUTE 25, WINTERPORT. MAINE 


Bred to Increase Your Profits 


—YOU NEVER SAW SUCK- 
BROILERS and ROASTERS as 

Garrison's 2 Meat Champions! 

Don’t order your next lot of broiler chicks until 
you’ve investigated Garrison’s NORCROSS and 
BROAD WHITE CROSS. Winner of 1954 cham¬ 
pionships in New Jersey and Pennsylvania 
Chicken-Tomorrow contests! Write for catalog. 
SPECIAL: Send 10c for new book, “How to 
Run a One-Man Broiler Business.” 

EARL W. GARRISON 

Specialist in Meat Strains, BRIDGETON 13, N.J. 


CAPONS 


5-WEEKS OLD 
$60.00 PER 100 
F.O.B. BUFFALO 
Also pullorum clean chicks for eggs or meat, includ¬ 
ing Ames In-Cross Hybrids and Peachblow Crosses for 
both meat and eggs. Full information upon request. 

SCHWEGLER’S HATCHERY 

207 NORTHAMPTON,_ BUFFALO 8, N. Y. 


LOOK 


I 10 EXTRA SENSATIONAL CUT-PRICE 
I M n VALUES * e & g d CHICKS 

U. s. APPROVED PULLORUM CLEAN 


WITH 

EVERY 


0 Extra Chicks At No Additional Cost. Chicks Shipped Any Time. Mt. J?, , U ?L ooo bUr nuffv ch cb 
luilds healthy chicks that really pay off - both on the market and at the nest. 200 000 big fluffy clucks 
veefcly. 100% live delivery. Shipped F.O.B. our hatchery. Order now. Don t delay. 


3arred & Wh. Rocks, Reds, 
Yy'andottes. llampshires. 


Wyanhamps, Rockhamps, Hamprocks, 
Cornishhamps, • Cornishrocks, 
Delawarehamps, Arbor A. Wh. Rocks.... 

Large Lop Comb White Leghorns. 

Brown ,Leghorns, Austra- 

Whites, Anconas. Minorcas.. 


S. L. Wyan. Australorps, 

Buff Rocks, Buff Orpingtons. 

MT. HEALTHY HATCHERIES 


PRICES PER 
Non-Sexed Pullets 

$11.95 $19.90 

100 

Cockerels 

$11.95 

QJ» p er 100 

1 .UUleft overs 

12.50 

13.95 

19.90 

29.90 

13.90 

3.95 

ALL HEAVIES, NO 
LEGHORNS, GOOD 
CHICKS. NO SEX 
GUARANTEE. N O 

EXTRA CHICKS. 

14.95 

31.90 

3.95 

WHITE PEKIN DUCKLINGS 

12—$3.75 50— $13.50 

14.95 

21.90 

13.90 

25—$7.25 ICO—$25.00 

DEPT. R 

MT. HEALTHY, OHIO 


69 


January 15, 1955 


* W- «.*jL 




























































































give your machinery 


28 % 



with a concrete implement shed! 

* Farm studies at the University of 
Missouri show that proper storage 
lengthens machinery life approximately 
28 %! This means savings of hundreds of 
dollars in machinery replacements alone, 
plus substantial cuts in repair costs. 

For the best protection against rain, 
wind, rust, snow and fire, build an im¬ 
plement shed of concrete and concrete 
block. Use Lehigh Portland Cement in 
the footings and floor. Lay up the blocks 
with Lehigh Mortar Cement. The shed 
will go up fast, pay for itself in a few 
years—and it’s there to stay. 

Your Lehigh Dealer can show you how 
to save time and money on this and 
other concrete work. See him next time 
you’re in town. 



3 men and a boy can build a 20' 
x 40' implement shed like this 
with these materials: 

FOR FOOTINGS & FLOOR: 

19 cu. yds. ready-mixed concrete 
or 

113 sacks Lehigh cement 
10 cu. yds. sand 
14 cu. yds. grave] 

FOR WALLS: 

27 sacks Lehigh Mortar Cement 
3 cu. yds. mortar sand 
1196 8" x 8" x 16" regular 
concrete block 

95 8" x 8" x 16" corner,return 
block 

19 8" x 8" x 8" comer return 






LEHIGH 


PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY 

Allentown , Pa. 








Ml 


Double Your Yield 


yg* 


Take in more money this year by 

getting more bushels or tons to the acre. 
That’s Dept, of Agriculture advice. Hun¬ 
dreds of thousands of farmers are doing 
this by soil testing. So can you! 

You’ll do even more than get big¬ 
ger crops—you’ll build up your soil 
for years to come instead of drain¬ 
ing its vitality. In just two weeks 
your Sudbury Soil Test Kit will 
pay for itself many times over. 

J 


Save Money Too! 


You’ll save up to $15 an 
acre on fertilizer. Every 
$1 spent pays back 
up to 12 dollars in ex- 
1 tra yield. So reliable 
Jt is used by county 
agents, ag colleges. 
_ Over 400,000 
Now in Use 

Easy As Reading 
A Thermometer 

No Knowledge 
of Chemistry Needed 
Takes only 10 minutes, costs less than 10c a test. 
Shows right formula for each field: nitrogen, phos¬ 
phate, potash, lime. Lifetime welded steel chest. 
Makes hundreds of tests. Only $29.95! 

SEND NO MONEY— We’ll mail your 
Kit C.O.D. plus postage, if desired. 

ms ma ESI Or send check and we’ll prepay, 
t OggS, saving you $1.91 to $3.55 postal 
iS%££^ ees and Include valuable free 
■ a »“ B ™book,“OurLandandItsCare.” 

Fjjey PavmDirta Hyouwish.Ietthe Your money back 
T a pj r money you save on if you don’t yet 

fertilizer pay tor your Kit —see coupon. bigger yields! 


RUPTURED ? 


Protective fold 
Under 


Wrinkle-Free Form Fit 



Reinforced 

Stitching 


New DELUXE 

RUPTURE 

EASER* 


Soft 

Flonnet^^ ^ 

Focing on vjj 
Leg Strops 

Needs No Fitting! 

Finest quality strong, firm fitting, washable support of 
dove-gray Sanforized material. Gives wonderful comfort and 
relief. Adjustable back lacing. Adjustable leg straps faced 
with soft flannel. Snaps up in front. Broad flat groin pad— 
firm enough for safety, soft enough for comfort. No steel 
or leather bands. Invisible under light clothing. Also used 
ag after-operation support. Give hip 
< 2*98 S measure, state whether rupture is right, 
¥ J % left, or double. We prepay postage ex- 

cept COD’s. Delay may be serious . . . 
Order Today! 

PIPER BRACE CO. 811 Wyandott* 
Dept RV-15L. Kansas City 5, Mo. 


RIGHT OR Ltrr , 

$&9B 

DOUBLE , 



IS 6 ERI 


BigisEai 


aillBBSRBSBI 

g Sudbury Laboratory, Box 757, South Sudbury, Mass. 

B Send me the Sudbury Soil T-st Kit as marked below 
n I I Enclosed is S29.95; I I Send Kit C.O.D. 

„ I_I send Kit postpaid. I_I $29.’ 


send Kit postpaid. 


$29.95 plus postage. 


Name. 


R. D. or St. 


f P.0. Zone.... State.. 

■ I I Send on Easy Payment Plan—I’ll pay mailman $4.95 „ 

■ 1 — I plus postage, then 4 monthly payments of $6.75 each ■ 

■■■■•■■■■■aBBBaliRiaiiRiaaa 

Dealers: Write for Special Offer 


10,000 GALLONS 
BATTLESHIP GRAY 
Exterior Paint, suitable for metal or wood, perfeoi 
condition, packed in five-gallon steel cans. Cancella¬ 
tion on large Marine order. Price $1.00 per gallon. 
Check with order. F.O.B. RAHWAY. NEW JERSEY. 
COMMERCIAL CHEMICAL CO.. RAHWAY. N. J. 


EAT ANYTHING WITH 
FALSE TEETH! 



If you have trouble with plates 
that slip,rock, cause sore gums—- 
try Brimms Plasti-Liner. One application 
makes plates fit snugly without powder or paste, 
because Brimms Plasti - Liner hardens perma¬ 
nently to your plate. Relines and refits loose 
plates in a way no powder or paste can do. 
Even on old rubber plates you get good results 
six months to a year or longer. YOti can eat 
ANYTHING! Simply lay soft strip of Plasti- 
Liner on troublesome upper or lower. Bite 
and it molds perfectly. Easy to use, tasteless, 
odorless, harmless to you and your plates. 
Removable as directed. Money back if not 
completely satisfied. Ask your druggistl 


BRIMMS PLASTI-LINER 

THE PERMANENT DENTURE RELINER 


PATENTS 


Write for information on 
what steps an inventor should 
take to secure a patent. 


942 


PATRICK D. 

Columbian Bldg., 


BEAVERS 

Washington 1, 


D. C. 


PUBLISHER'S DESK 


The reassuring information you 
sent me concerning the Jersey 
Company was most welcome. I had 
no idea that so much effort on your 
part would be required to answer my 
question. It is valuable, and as far 
as I know, a unique service Publish¬ 
er’s Desk renders to Rural New 
Yorker subscribers. I have sub¬ 
scribed for a friend and recom¬ 
mended the paper to numerous ac¬ 
quaintances, but this is no adequate 
return for the expense required to 
get the information I asked for. 
Gratitude in the form of appreciation 
and good wishes could never result 
in the issue of one number of The 
Rural New Yorker. In one of 
Shakespeare’s plays a prologue or an 
epilogue is spoken by “Dame Rumor” 
whose dress material is. figured in a 
design of tongues and her labor that 
of “stuffing the ears of men with 
false reports.” The idea has given me 
many uneasy thoughts. It is to be 
hoped that for many years to come, 
Mr. Editor, you may continue a 
source of help and comfort not only 
to the wronged, but as in my case, 
to the apprehensive also. c. h. 

New Jersey 

Any time we cannot help we are 
even more disappointed than a 
reader. When we are successful, we 
are happy. This request was fairly 
simple as we quickly located the 
address needed. 

The enclosed article was printed 
in the Oivego Gazette. The couple 
named in it, bought chickens from 
farmers in this section and gave 
worthless checks. I thought this 
might be of interest to you and other 
Rural New Yorker readers. You see 
I read Publisher’s Desk too. 

New York w. r. a. 

A Mrs. Rosenberger was arrested 
in Houston, Texas, on a New York 
fugitive warrant, charged with pass¬ 
ing worthless checks. The charge 
alleges that Mrs. Rosenberger gave 
a worthless check for $3,150. The 
check was drawn on a Newark Valley 
bank. The indictment charges that 
Mrs. Rosenberger borrowed part of 
the money from the bank in return 
for a mortgage on property taken 
from relief clients. She kept the 
cash, but gave the check. She will 
face the charges in New York. Her 
husband, Cecilo Rosenberger, is also 
being held in Houston on a Federal 
warrant charging transportation of 
stolen property across State lines. 
There is no charge against him in 
New York. This couple willTio doubt 
find the way of the transgressor is 
hard. 

The enclosed clipping was taken 
from a Washington, D. C., paper and 
appears to decide what to do with 
goods sent which were not ordered. 
You refer to this frequently and this 
item seems to give the remedy. Your 
readers will profit if they follow this 
advice. c. h. p. 

New York 

According to the news report re¬ 
ceived, “the Federal Trade Com- 
! mission this week announced that 
Betty Phillips, Inc. of Newton, Mass., 
has promised to stop ‘representing 
that persons to whom it sends un¬ 
ordered greeting cards are obligated 
either to return them or pay for 
them.’ The Commission said this 
company had threatened to take 
‘drastic action’ against people who 
didn’t pay for products they received 
by mail without asking for them. 
Such threats mean nothing, accord¬ 
ing to - FTC decisions in this and 
Other cases of the kind. Anyone who 
is sent something he did not order is 
free to throw it in the wastebasket, 
but he shouldn’t use it unless he pays 
for it.” 


Best’s Insurance Digest carried the 
following article headed: “Warning 
on mail solicitation. An extensive 
mail solicitation of registered auto¬ 
mobile owners in California (includ¬ 
ing corporations) by the Automobile 
Owner’s Association, Inc., of Kansas 
City, Mo., has resulted in the issu¬ 
ance of a warning to the California 
public by Insurance Commissioner 
John R. Maloney. According to the 
Commissioner, “the recent mail so¬ 
licitation, like previous .solicitations, 
attempts to sell a limited form of 
accident policy to ‘careful automo¬ 
bile drivers.’ The mail solicitation is 
obviously sent to all registered 
automobile owners regardless of 
their accident records or even 
whether they possess driver’s licenses, 
and the automobile owner himself 
apparently decides whether he quali¬ 
fies as ‘a careful driver’ merely by 
signing an application by whose 
printed terms he certifies that he 
has not had an automobile accident 
in the past 12 months. This time, 
however, ‘free’ cash prizes are being 
offered to the winners of a drawing 
among persons who respond to the 
advertisement and who fill in an 
entry blank by whose printed terms 
the entrant also certifies that he 
has not had an automobile accident 
in the past 12 months. Neither the 
Automobile Owner’s Association, 
Inc., nor the Automobile Owner’s 
Safety Insurance Company (-which 
issues the policy) is licensed by the 
State of California warns Com¬ 
missioner Maloney.” 

For many years I have read your 
Publisher’s Desk and have tried to 
profit by it. What do you know about 
the Universal Training Service? A 
man called and talked to my daugh¬ 
ter, age 17, about a Civil Service 
course. When he came to the money 
question he asked me to listen. 
When I asked a question, he snapped 
me up and I did not like his attitude 
a bit. He insisted we had to decide 
right then and there. I told him I 
had just lost my husband and had 
little money, and could not afford to 
lose any. He insisted I could not lose 
and every cent would be returned if 
my daughter failed to pass a Civil 
Service Test after 14 weeks of train¬ 
ing. A good friend has repeatedly 
told me not to decide anything in a 
hurry, but this agent insisted that 
I didn’t need any time to decide 
whether my daughter deserved a 
better job. I had laryngitis and I 
could not argue with him. He read 
the questions to my daughter and 
she wrote the answers. I foolishly 
signed the paper. I am usually quite 
wary of salesmen, but he outsmarted 
me. Will I be forced to pay the ad¬ 
ditional fee of $49? I cannot afford 
any additional expense. If there is 
anything you can do I will greatly 
appreciate it, you know that. 

New Hampshire c. e. w. 

The salesman used the usual 
“pressure approach,” which is a 
mean trick. The contract plainly 
states refunds are allowed only if 
the lessons are completed and the 
student fails in the Civil Service test. 
There are a number of “ifs” in the 
contract. We print this letter, as it 
is one of the cheap salesman methods 
of the kind of thing we have fought 
so long. Do not trust the person 
who wants you to sign without think¬ 
ing. Tell him to come back next day, 
or next week, or never. 

[All letters to Publisher’s Desk 
Department must be signed with 
writer’s full name and address 
given.] 


70 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 



































Countryman's Journal 

I can still hear it from boyhood 
^ a ys—hear the hollow, muffled thud 
of an axe in the woodland. On a wint-. 
er’s day, if the weather were sunny 
and bright, the sound of the axe 
seemed in keeping with the Weather 
Man’s good mood; on a gray day 
when the clouds had stretched a 
stratus curtain between earth and 
sky, the sound was deeper and 
seemed to have a carrying, echoing 
quality. 

No one knows when the first axe 
was conceived in a man’s mind, but 
doubtless that epochal day goes far 
back in history. It may be, as some 
claim, that the invention of the wheel 
is the greatest single idea ever con¬ 
ceived, and certainly down through 
the centuries, it is the wheel which 
has taken great burdens from mens’ 
shoulders. 

But the axe is also one of the 
world’s great inventions. It was an 
important tool in prehistoric days 
when ancient man chipped stone to 
fashion a rude cutting edge; it was an 
epochal step in civilization when man 
learned to make steel and to fashion 
tempered material into tools for vari¬ 
ous uses. Today, the axe is still a 
vital implement, although the power 
driven saws do much of the work in 
the woods. 

Years ago a lad was always glad 
to hear Father say on a Saturday 
morning, as we finished an honest 
breakfast of cereal, eggs, fried pota¬ 
toes, toast, strawberry jam and per¬ 
haps a few gingersnaps or a piece or 
two of apple pie; ‘Son, let’s go up 
to the lot and get at the wood supply 
for next year.” It took 10 cords or 
so for our farm’s supply. Any man 
who can remember the days on the 
hoihe farm when woodburning stoves 
were used, can remember the un¬ 
conscionable appetites of the big par¬ 
lor stove, the gleaming kitchen 
range, and perhaps the small stoves 
in the bedrooms that were lighted in 
the late afternoons to take the chill 
from zeroish nights. 

A man’s axe is a very special tool, 
as special as a favorite hoe or pitch- 
fork. A good axe has a certain ‘feel’ 
to it; the weight must be just right, 
the handle must feel good in one’s 
hands. Some men favored a fairly 
heavy head while others claimed they 
could put up more wood in a day’s 
chopping with a lighter weight. A 
double-bitted Hubbard, Hurd, or 
Michigan axe, was a favorite with pro¬ 
fessional wood choppers. Father’s fa¬ 
vorite was the Hubbard hollow- 
ground, with a tapered edge, and he 
favored a four-pound weight. For 
years I had a Niagara Boy’s Axe that 
weighed three pounds. On winter eve¬ 
nings Father enjoyed making his 
own helve for me. As I recall, he 
used hickory, and spent peaceful, 
pleasant hours smoothing down the 
handle with a piece of broken glass. 
When it was perfectly shaped and 
smooth as satin, he rubbed it with 
oil and set it aside in the attic for 
what he called “curing.” 

In the woodland a man can find 
quietness and surcease from the ten¬ 
sions and pressures of life. The 
drained reservoirs of heart and soul 
are refilled as chickadees come 
around to chant and woodpeckers tap 
a staccato drum roll. Hour by hour 
the pattern of bark chips grows on 
the snow or brown-sodden leaves; 
hour by hour the pile of future fuel 
increases. And when the gray-purple 
shadows begin to crawl down the hill¬ 
sides in the afternoon, and a man 
shoulders his axe and heads down 
across the pasture, he feels that the 
“olden light in the kitchen windows 
and his day's work in the woods are 
Part of the deep satisfaction of living 
that a man experiences as he travels 
his path of years. 

New Hampshire H. S. Pearson 
•January 15, 1955 


Syracuse Milk Meeting 

(Continued from Page 65) 

in April—argued that a lot more than 
that was needed to keep them going. 
Others could not understand why the 
cooperatives had not suggested a pre¬ 
mium on the Class III price, instead 
of the I-A price, since today more 
milk is utilized by the dealers in 
Class III. 

The general feeling appeared to be 
one of disappointment and disgust 
at the way the meeting was handled, 
the deliberate prevention of any pro¬ 
ducer participation of any sort, and 
the absence of any specific results, 
other than vague resolutions that 
promised nothing now, and not much 
more later. w. f. b. 


Subscribers’ Exchange 

Bate of advertising in this department 28c per 
word, including name and address, each inser¬ 
tion, payable in advance. When box number is ; 
used, figure five words for the box number. | 

| Copy most reach as Monday, 10 A. M 
12 days in advance oi date oi issae.. 

! This department is for the accommodation of 
1 subscribers, but no display advertising or adver- 
I tising of a commercial nature (seeds, plants, 
i livestock, etc.) is admitted. 


HELP WANTED 


SMALL psychiatric hospital wants female 
practical nurses or attendants. BOX 731, 
Rye, New York. 


WASSAIC State School, female ward atten¬ 
dants, 18 years or over, $2940 to $4005 per 
year less maintenance (six days per week). 
For information, write Director, Wassaic State 
School, Wassaic, New York. 


WORKING manager wanted: To run excellent 
dairy farm. No investment, profit sharing 
basis. Write experience and references. BOX 

1904, Rural New Yorker. __ 

EXPERIENCED middle age landscape gardener 
for small nursery in Penna, Good working 
;onditions. Write stating salary and experi¬ 
ence. Open April 1st. BOX 5100, Rural New 
Worker. 


WANTED: Poultryman. working brooding 

foreman. Likes to start and grow chix. 
Responsible, capable, bonus, profit-sharing, 
incentitives, future. Write experience and 
startin g salary. BOX 5109, Rural New Yorke r. 
YOU’LL hardly find 50 men and women as 
ready to cooperate with each other: as will¬ 
ing to render outstanding service to sellers 
and buyers; as ethical and businesslike,_ as 
our representatives. If you want to get into 
real estate with folks like that and can work 
full time, write for test questions. Strictly 
commission. New York and New England 
only. Four Effs Realty. Box 264-RNY, Man¬ 
che ster, New Hampshire. __ 

ACTIVE woman 30 to 55 for housework in 

owner’s home, all modern conveniences; 
large dairy farm eastern N. Y. State. Own 
room, excellent food. Good wages. Permanent. 
No cooking. Give date of birth, qualifications 
and telephone number. References required. 
BOX 5206, Rural New Yorker. _. 

YOUNG colored man or boy for general farm 

work. Prefer no smoking. BOX 5207, Rural 

New Yorker. _ 

EXPERIENCED dairy farmer, extra help pre¬ 
ferred. nice house, good wages. BOX 5208, 

Rural New Yorker. _ 

HOUSEKEEPER: Protestant home. salary. 

suburban Philadelphia. Care for children, 
prepare meals, straighten up. Will furnish 
transportation. References required. Arthur 
Hoch, 730 Yale Ave„ Swarthm ore, Penna. 
MARRIED milking machine operator wanted, 
two time milking with pure bred Guernseys. 
Please supply references with first inquiry. 
Brookberry Farm, Winston-Salem, North 
Carolina. _______ 

DEPENDABLE, sober man, 18 to 55, help 

owner, small poultry farm. Excellent board. 
Give age, experience, references, salary. 
Coventry Poultry Farm, Route 2, Coventry. 
Conn. ___ 

WANTED: Good plain cook and general 

housekeeper. Nice position. Three in family, 
husband, wife and 2-year-old child. New 
Canaan, Conn. References necessary. Salary 
open. BOX 5200, Rural New Yorker. _ 

SINGLE, middleaged, reliable; to manage 
small farm; references. If satisfactory, life¬ 
time job. St. Mary’s Manor, Penndel, Pa. 

Nea r Trenton. _ 

EXPERIENCED sawyer: Right hand Lane 
mill. Electric power. Steady and good work¬ 
ing conditions. Donatoni Brothers. Rockaway, 
New Jersey. _ 

MAN and wife for job on farm raising and 
preparing roasting chickens for retail sale 
on the premises. Excellent pay for capable 
and responsible couple. Three-room furnished 
apartment supplied. Experience not necessary. 
Roger Olcott, 403 West Center St., Manchester, 
Conn. _. 


SITUATIONS WANTED 


WE are suppliers for dairy farms, first class 
milkers, tractor men, general farm workers. 
Ellinger’s Employment Agency, 287 Greenwich 
St.. New York 7. N. Y, BArclay 7-06 19._ 

FARM Manager: All branches; percentage 

basis. BOX 5102, Rural New Yorke r._ 

FARM and dairy help for machine and hand 
milkers. Tractor men, yard men. also poul¬ 
try and al kinds of labors. Quinn Employment 
Agency, 70 Warren St., New York 7, N. Y. 
POSITION: Livestock farm, Herefords pre¬ 
ferred. Experienced all phases farm work 
and soil conservation service. Age 35, married, 
children. BOX 5212. Rural New Yorker. 

CONSCIENTIOUS man, wide experience es¬ 
tate work, farming, gardening, manage¬ 
ment. Permanent. BOX 5012, Rural New 
Yorke r._ 

RETIRED, middleage, tool maker, machinist, 
and wife, desire position as caretakers ox- 
light work, good living quarters, main requi¬ 
site more than large salary. BOX 5201, Rural 

New Yorker.__ 

RELIABLE single man, 61, desires position: 

caretaker, gardener. BOX 5202, Rural New 
Yorker. __ 

AN experienced teacher wants rural position. 
BOX 5203, Rural New Yorker. __ 

POULTRY farm position wanted by Christian 
married man, 31. Some experience. BOX 
5204, Rural New Yorker. _ 

f ARMS FOR SALE. TO RENT. ETC 


FREE Catalog. If your copy is more than 
three months old, better ask for another. 
We’ve added several new offices and made 
numerous revisions. Listings of all kinds, 
prices, sizes. New York to Maine. Four Effs 
Realty, Box 264-RNY, Manchester, New Hamp¬ 
shire. _ 

COUPLE wants small farm, or acreage, house 
unnecessary, within 50 miles Philadelphia. 
BO X 5209, Rural New Yorker. _ 

DAIRY farm, 150 acres, 9-room house and 
bath, extra good modern barn 80 feet; team, 
all tools, sugar trees and timber. Price $100 
acre. Write owner. Herman Metzger, R. R. 3, 
Cuba, New York. _ 

EQUIPPED chicken farm, 3,000 capacity, five 
room dwelling, 30 acres, tractor and truck 
available, $125 per month. BOX 5018, Hillside 
Station, Bridgeport. Conn. _ 

CENTRAL Florida! Your place in the sun. 

Retirement homes, small farms, acreage 
opportunities. Write H. E. Howland (formerly 
of Cayuga County) care Fred B. Arnold, 
Realtor, 411 E. University Ave., Gainesville, 
Florida. _ 

20-ROOM house plus 4-room bungalow, 
furnished completely; $7,000 cash; terms. BOX 
5210, Rural New Yorker. _ 

SIX dairy farms. 200 to 500 acres, stock, 
tools optional. Sunset Acres Farms, West 
Brookfie ld, Mass, _ 

VIRGINIA farm, pleasant home, climate, satis¬ 
faction. Write owner. A. Burkett, Wakefield, 
Virginia. _ 

316 ACRE dairy: 73 Holsteins including 
young stock, many pure bred: good milk 
market. 250 aci’es tillable, 200 acres Birdsfoot 
trefoil. Good barn, silo, two tractors, equip¬ 
ment good; 8-room house, modern bath and 
kitchen, pavement, school bus. Located 
Chautauqua County, N. Y. Settle estate, must 
sell $57,000. For appointment, information. 
L. S. Crocker, realtor, 146 Temple St., 
Fredonia, N. Y, Telephone .2-7771. _ 

FIVE rooms, bath, furnished; $6,000, Housman. 

General Delivei-y, Jacksonville Beach, 
Florida ._ 

FOR Sale: 160 aci-e dairy, poultx-y and cash 
crop farm, at preesnt 60 head stock, 1,500 head 
poultry and about 3,000 bushels potatoes; nice 
12-room farm house, bath, hardwood floors, 
furnace heat, deep well, large drive-thru 
dairy barn, water buckets, two silos, milk 
house, double deck poultry house, potato 
storage building approximately 6,000 bushels. 
Price bare $22,000, equipped with stock, poul¬ 
try, etc. at fair appraisal value. Write for 
more complete details. Craine & Miner, 
realtors, Sherburne. New York ._ 

TO buy or sell. Farms, homes, acreages, busi¬ 

nesses. Auction or private sale. Write for 
free list. Potts Realty Inc., R. D. 3, Somer- 
ville. New Jersey. 


FRUITS AND FOODS 


AVERY’S Golden Wildflower honey: 5 lbs. 

$1.95; 10 lbs. $3.75 prepaid; 60 lbs. $9.50 not 
prep aid. H. J, Avery, Katonah, N. Y. _ 

TREE-Ripened oranges and grapefruit, no 
color added. From grove direct to you ex¬ 
press prepaid, delivery guaranteed. One bushel 
oranges $5.50; one bushel grapefruit $5.00; one 
bushel mixed $5.25; half bushels $3.50. Add 
50 cents west of Mississippi. Dillingham Groves. 
Largo, Florida. 




— - • • Ui gtcxpcil Uit Ui ilii 

to order. Express free. Bushel $5.15; y 2 
bushel $3.35. L. F. Corliss, Box 1124, Winter 
Park, Florida. _ 

WALSINGHAM Groves, Largo Florida ready 

i -..5° sh „ lp: Oranges per bushel $5.50; »/ 2 bushel 
$3.50. Mixed per bushel $5.25; y 2 bushel $3.25. 
Grapefruit per bushel $5.00; y 2 bushel $3.25. 
Tangerines in season per bushel $5.75; >/ 2 

bushel $3.75. Express paid. When express runs 
higher than average New York express add 
additional express. 


NEW Honey: Our famous choice clover New 

Yorks finest: 5 pounds $1.65; 6-5’s $7.98 

§ ostpaid 3rd zone. 60 pounds $9.00 F. O. B. 

old by ton or pail. Howland Apiaries, Berk- 
shire. New York. 


COUNTRY BOARD 


SPRINGER Private Hospital. Johnson City, 

N. Y., offers good maternity care; unwed 
mothers cases kept confidential. __ 

BOARD and Room: Country home, improve¬ 

ments; $15 week. Otsego County. BOX 5211, 
Rural New Yorker. 


_ MISCELLANEOUS _ 

STRAW and all grades of hay delivered sub¬ 

ject to inspection on arrival. J. W. 
Christman, R. D. 4, Fort Plain, N. Y. Phone: 

4-8282._ 

WANTED: Old postage stamps, envelopes, 
collections. E. R. Hendriks, Spring Valley, 
New York. _ 

WANTED: Large used farm bell, state con¬ 

dition, price. John Klements, Huntsburg, 
Ohio. _ 

WANTED to buy: United States coins. Dr. 
Stewart Gay, Monticello. New York. __ 

WANTED: 400,000 feet standing poplar tim- 
ber. Edward Schiller, Lambertville, N. J. 

WANTED: Electric sign flasher, new or used, 

6 cir. or over (motorized preferred) state 
condition. E. C. Puder, 3831 Bristol Pike, 
Croyd on, Pa. _ 

LOOM, four harness, six treadle: weaves rugs 
or fabric to 34 inches. Bench, shuttles. 
Asking $100. Alberta Richart, R. 1, Box 465, 
Newton, New Jersey. 


MAN and WIFE 

to I Work at Lodge 

Used by house guests of 
large Corporation, woman 
as housekeeper and man 
as chauffeur. Good salary, 
living quarters and partial 
maintenance. Located Cen¬ 
tral New York. 

BOX 5205, 

The Rural New Yorker 
KILL CHIMNEY CREOSOTE 

Down draft and fire risk, at once and 
forever. Mailable metal product. Money- 
back guaranty. For information write 
manufacturers: — 

BOSTON MACHINE WORKS CO. 

7 WILLOW ST., DEPT. B, LYNN, MASS. 
— REDUCES ALL FUEL BILLS — 

STEELand ALUMINUM BUILDINGS 


SUNNY Southern Jersey: New list, all types of 
farms and country homes mailed free. New 
waterfront. Le Gore, Realtor. Vineland. N. J. 
DELAWARE, mild Winters, low taxes. Homes, 
farms, businesses. H. L. Wallace Realty, 
R. 1. Farmington, Delaware. _ 

WANTED: All types real estate and businesses 
for sale, New York State and northern 
Pennsy vania location. Telephone or write 
Werts Real Estate, Johnson City, New York. 


EASY TO ERECT 
Garages Look Like Wood 
SECTIONAL BUILDINGS 
FOR ALL PURPOSES 
Shipped Anywhere 
• 

WRITE FOR FOLDER 
JOHN COOPER 60. 301 3n«l St.. Hackensack. N.J. 

— ■!... » .. . -i i ■ 




YOU, too, can easily 

INCREASE MAPLE 
SYRUP PROFITS! 


KING SAP BAGS cost 30% less 
than buckets. Easy to empty; wash 
in family washer. Store 1,000 in 
space needed for 25 metal buckets. 
Made of extra heavy “KRENE” 
plastic . . . guaranteed 5 seasons! 
Repair like an inner tube. Can't blow 
t off tree. Hold 13-15 quarts; expand 
when full or frozen. Purer, sweeter, 
cleaner sap. Sheltered tap hole lets 
sap run earlier and later ... up to 
20% more! KING SAP BAGS come 
packed 100 to carton, with FREE 
Storage Rack and FREE Repair Kit. 
Prices: 1-99, 84c; 100-299. 81c; 
300 up, 79c, .Use only SOULE 
Hookless Spouts, $8.00 per 100. 



GEO. H. SOULE CO., Inc. 

St. Albans, Vermont 

Makers of KING EVAPORATORS, Tree Tappers, all 
syrup Making Utensils including Lithographed Maple 
Syrup Cans. 


'The Best Stave Being Made' 

THAT’S WHAT THE EXPERTS ARE SAYING 
ABOUT THE STAVES IN THE CONCRETE 
AND STEEL 

COROSTONE SILO 

HERE’S WHY: BECAUSE ITS STAVES ARE 

Corrugated and Vibrated 

IN INDIVIDUAL MOLDS 

Yes, Grade A aggregate and 
premium cement are care¬ 
fully vibrated in heavy steel 
molds for closer tolerance, 
maximum density and 
strength. The corrugations 
give you modern designed 
“T” Beam Action. And you 
get a silo which fits together 
more perfectly for better 
appearance and longer life. 

You’ll be surprised at its 
low cost. Find out how a 
j Corostone Silo can make 
more profits for you. 

★ 

Send for FREE descriptive 

folder TODAY. 

—— —— __ __ _ 

UNIVERSAL STEEL SILO CO. 

| BOX 528-R WEEDSPORT, N. Y. j 

| Please send me free booklet on Universal Silos. ) 

| NAME . . . ! 

I ADDRESS . » 

I I 

I CITY . £ 

U —- A 




EXTRA MONEY 

Selling EXCLUSIVE 
PARAGON Cushion Shoes 


No. 574 
Lo-Line 
2 Eyelet 
Crushed 
Grain 


Even If Now Employed 

Enjoy your own lifetime, inde¬ 
pendent shoe business without 
investment. Steady repeats. To 
($4.00 pair advance commissions. 
Big bonus. Make $50 and more 
a week in full or spare time. 115 
latest smart styles. Magic cushion. 
Easy to start. Write for FREE 
OUTFIT today! 

PARAGON SHOE COMPANY 
79 Sudbury St., Dpt.8, Boston 14, Mass. 


When you write advertisers mention 
The Rural New-Yorker and you’ll get 
a quick reply and a “square deal. ” See 
guarantee editorial page 


51 


71 





























































































































































NORMAN BUNTING 


We, at Buntings’, have always valued very highly our reputation, which was gained 
through a continuous search for neioer and better methods of growing, packing and ship¬ 
ping top-quality Strawberry plants. We are one of the largest groivers and shippers of 
Strawberry plants and Asparagus crotons in the country. We believe our staff of experienced 
men and modern machinery are second to none in the business. 

Clayton Bunting, a life-long plant enthusiast, is the President and General Manager of 
our firm, supervising the general operation. Norman Bunting is in charge of our Straivberry 
production, devoting his entire time and experience to this phase of the business. Carl 
Marcus, formerly with the United States Department of Agriculture at Beltsville, Maryland, 
is now a full-time associate ivith us in the field of research and Straivberry development. 
These experienced men are supervising our staff in a constant, sincere effort to bring you 
the finest Straivberry plants available. 



CARL MARCUS 


BUNTINGS’ NEW GROWING METHODS ASSURE HIGHEST QUALITY, DISEASE 
AND INSECT-FREE STRAWBERRY PLANTS. THE RESULT.... fl super STRAIN! 




A large section of one of our farms properly screened for the sole purpose of growing 
disease-and insect-free Strawberry plants for transplanting in open fields in our nurseries. 


BECAUSE OF THE MEASURES OUTLINED BELOW WE BELIEVE 

Our Strawberry Plants to be Substantially Free of Virus and Other Diseases 

Special care and attention to our nursery fields is only half the story of BUNTINGS’ propagation of healthy, well-rooted Strawberry plants. Our Screenhouse, 
pictured above, has been constructed to be sure our planting stock is substantially free of all harmful insects, diseases and soil organisms. The construction con¬ 
sists of an extra fine mesh screen over a wooden framework. 

The program begins in a special greenhouse where plants are grown in fumigated soil to be sure that they are free from virus or other d sease. Each plant set 
is a first generation runner from a virus indexed parent plant. 

Plants are then placed in the screenhouse in chemically treated soil under the extra fine mesh screen and are again protected from disease-carrying insects and 

harmful soil organisms. Growth is very vigorous and plants mult plv rapidly during this period 

When the growing period is completed within this house, they are dug and later transplanted in chemically treated fertile soil on our growing fields, where 
during the growing season we spray the foliage of the plants often enough to make it next to impossible for insects to attack the plants or for disease to appear to 
any measurable degree. The chemical treatment of the soil on our farms again affords additional protection. Growth obtained, followmg program outlined above, is 
except,onally vigorous and so far advanced from any regular method that plants are correctly referred to as a SUPER-STRAIN. This strain of Strawberry plants is 

passed on to our customers who receive the benefits in exceptionally heavy yields of highest quality berries. 


Order Direct 
from this 
Price List. 


PRICE 






25 

50 

100 

250 

500 

1000 

5000 

BIG JOF, LATE. 

.$1.35 

$2.25 

$3.60 

$7.20 

$11.25 

$18.00 

$85.00 

CATSKILL, MIDSEASON. 

. 1.30 

2.20 

3.50 

6.85 

10 95 

17.50 

77.50 

EMPIRE, MIDSEASON. 

. 1.35 

2.25 

3.60 

7.20 

11.25 

18.00 

85.00 

FAIRFAX, EARLY. 

. 1.30 

2.20 

3.50 

6.85 

10.95 

17.50 

77.50 

FAIRLAND, EARLY. 


2.20 

3.50 

6.85 

10.95 

17.50 

77.50 

FAIRPEAKE, LATE. 

. . . . 1.30 

2,15 

3.40 

6.80 

10 65 

17.00 

75.00 

MIDLAND, EARLY. 

. 1.35 

2.25 

3.60 

7.20 

11.25 

18,00 

85.00 

POCAHONTAS, MIDSEASON. 


2.25 

3.60 

7.20 

11.25 

18.00 

85.00 

PREMIER, EARLY. 

. 1.30 

2.20 

3.50 

6.85 

10.95 

17.50 

77.50 

RED STAR, LATE. 

. _ 1.40 

2.35 

3.80 

8.55 

11 85 

19.00 

90.00 

ROBINSON, MIDSEASON. 

. 1.20 

2.00 

3.20 

6.40 

10.00 

16.00 

70.00 

SPARKLE, MIDSEASON. 

. 1.30 

2.20 

3 50 

6.85 

10.95 

17.50 

77.50 

STELEMASTER, EARLY. 

. 1.50 

2.50 

4.00 

8.00 

12.50 

20.00 

95.00 

SU PERFECTION, EVERBEARING. 

. 2.25 

3.75 

6.00 

12.00 

18.75 

30.00 

140.00 


27 ADDITIONAL VARIETIES OF STRAWBERRIES OFFERED 


OFFERING a general line of nursery stock, 
including Fruit Trees (both regular and dwarf), 
Asparagus, small fruit plants, nut trees, ever¬ 
greens, roses, flowering shrubs and vines, every 
page in natural color of fruits and flowers. 


CLAYTON BUNTING 


BUNTINGS" NURSERIES INC. 

BOX 28 SELBY VI L LE, DELAWARE 
Please send a copy of your free catalog. 


NAME . 

STREET or R.F.D,* 


CITY 


STATE 






































JLV 

OR THE NORTHEASTERN FAR M FA M ! LY 



A JOURNAL. 





.V^ 





FEBRUARY 5, 19 




With Hope for a Better Yea 


r 




























































SAVE MONEY AND SET 
MORE WORK DONE 


with NEW 


Tire$tone 


m 1 W' 


TRACTOR TIRES 


N o other tractor tire has so 
much to offer. First you save 
on your farm operating costs with 
a low price, and you save again by 
getting much more work done. 

The Firestone "Deep Tread” 
gives deeper soil penetration. The 
deeper curved bar center bite and 
big, powerful shoulders give maxi¬ 
mum drawbar pull in any soil 
condition. 

You get longer tire life because 
the Firestone "Deep Tread” has 
more tread rubber than other tires 
in its price range. You save with 
many extra hours of service. 
Compare before you buy! 

Get the full story and the low" 
price for your tire size at your 
nearby Firestone Dealer or Store. 


Other Sizes 
Proportionately Low 


ONLY 


65 

SIZE 

9-24 


Plus Tax 



Plus Tax 

Scse 6.00-16 

Exchange if your ©Id tire 
is recappafaSe 

Other sizes 
proportionately l o>v 


SAVE on Truck Tire Costs With 
the NewTTr«$t©tteTransport B-112 


The new heavy duty Firestone Transport 
B-112 is the longest-mileage, low-priced tire 
money can buy. It is built for all types of farm 
service. 

Your Firestone Dealer or Store will be glad 
to give you the new low trade-in price on your 
truck tire size. 



Enjoy the Voice of Firestone on radio and television every Monday evening over ABC 


Copyright 1955 , The Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. 


How to Drive a Well 

I am thinking about driving a 
well. Could you give me some in¬ 
structions on how to go about it?- 
Do I have to add water as I drive 
pipe? How can I tell when I hit 
water? The ground is loam topsoil 
with clay, then gravel underneath. 

Livingston Co., N. Y. e. w. r. 

A shallow well may successfully be 
driven in porous, light soil having no 
rock formations. 

A first step in the job is to dig a 
hole a couple of feet and no longer 
than necessary for the digging pro¬ 
cess. This hole reduces, by the 
amount of its depth, the length of the 
pipe that will stand above the ground 
during the driving. A crowbar, or 
soil auger, to start the hole will as¬ 
sure a plumb or truly vertical in¬ 
stallation. A well point is needed 
that is suitable for the type of soil 
you have. Give this information to 
your supplier when you purchase the 
equipment. 

Special drive well type couplings 
are required to couple the lengths of 
pipe together and to the well point. 
Pipe thread compound is applied at 
each connection to assure a water¬ 
tight joint (these couplings are es¬ 
sential because they are constructed 
to withstand the heavy strain on the 
threads during the driving). The first 
length of pipe is coupled to the well 
point with the special coupling. The 
top or driving end of the pipe is 
capped with a malleable iron cap de¬ 
signed for this particular purpose. 
The cap is screwed on without the 
use of threading compound because 
it must be removed and attached to 
each successive length of pipe. 

The job requires a second man to 
hold the pipe straight and steady and 
to give the pipe a turn after each 
blow of the driving maul to keep it 
turned up tightly. The presence of 
water will be observed at the air 
vent hole in the drive cap. 

The pipe size may be one and a 
half to to inches for driving a well 
up to 25 feet deep. 

The top of the pipe, when the 
driving is completed, must be care¬ 
fully protected from contamination 
by surface water seeping down 
along the outside of the pipe. A con¬ 
crete platform about four feet square 
with the surface sloped toward the 
edges is needed to protect the well. 
Before the concrete sets, a groove 
about one and a half inches deep 
and one inch wide is made around 
the pipe. This is subsequently filled 
with asphalt cement to create a pli¬ 
able seal. 

Consideration must be given pro¬ 
tection against freezing. A stand 
pump with a four foot “set length 
will do the job. If this equipment 
is used, the pump dealer will inform 
you what size drive pipe you require. 

Another method is to keep the top 
of the well pipe below the frost line 
and house it with a pump house; or 
run a horizontal length, below frost, 
to an inside pump location, b. k. s. 


BETTER TO BE SAFE 



He ought to he tied 
To Mom's apron again 
Till he learns not to go 
Into the bull’s pen. 

Beth Wilcoxson 


74 


THE RURAL NEW-YORKER 
















The house is clean, the stove hot , the guard up, paper on the floor, feeders and fountains filled 
as White Leghorn chicks begin life and growth on the Leader Farm in York County, Pennsylvania. 


easily, and that it be free from dust and molds. 
Many poultrymen use materials they have on 
the farm or that they can get for very little 
cost. Crushed corn cobs, cut straw, and wood 
shavings are among these good litter materials. 
For those who must buy litter, there are many 
kinds available to give satisfactory results. 

Chick guards are located from 18 inches to 
two-feet away from the outer edge of the 
hover. These guards frequently are made of 
corrugated cardboard about one-foot high; 
sheets of metal may also be used. Some poul¬ 
trymen use poultry netting covered with bag¬ 
ging. The guards are used to keep the chicks 
close to the source of heat and also to cut 
down on floor drafts. 

Feed and Water 

Feed and water, with the chill taken oft it, 
should be available for the chicks as soon as 
they are put under the hover. The first feed 
may be put on paper, on chick box tops or 
on egg case flats. If the feed is given on flats, 
only new ones should be used. Old, torn flats 
may have been on many different farms and 
could be a source of disease. 




Importance of the Growing Period 


The quality of the pullets housed in the Fall 
depends on the care given them during the 
growing period. If the chicks are not already 
started or ordered, make plans at once to do 
so. In making plans for Spring, figure the num¬ 
ber of pullets needed to fill the laying houses 
next Fall. Decide whether all the pullets will 
be raised in one brood or in several. When 
several broods are raised, the time between 
starting dates is dependent upon the availa¬ 
bility of equipment and also on the vaccin¬ 
ation program. 

It is important to order enough chicks to 
permit rigid culling both during the growing 
period and at housing. If straight-run chicks 
are ordered, plan for two and a half chicks 
for each pullet layer. When sexed pullets are 
ordered, plan to start at least 25 per cent 
more than needed to fill the laying pens. Some 
poultrymen start an even greater number of 
chicks than suggested to allow for more rigid 
culling and selection. 


In addition to the flats, have at least two 
four-foot chick feeders for each 100 chicks. 
Also, provide at least one one-gallon fountain 
for them. As the chicks grow, increase the size 
and number of feeders and fountains. By the 
time the chicks are old enough for the broiler- 
size feeder, there should be about 10 feet of 
feeder space for 100 chickens. Five four-foot 
feeders work out nicely for a brooder house 
with 200 pullets. Be sure to clean up and store 
aw r ay the equipment as soon as it is replaced 
by larger sizes. Proper care and storage of 
equipment greatly lengthens its period of use¬ 
fulness. 

The Feeding Program 

Chicks are started on many different feed¬ 
ing systems. For starting replacement chicks, 
a common practice is to give them scratch 
grain and grit for the first day or day and a 
half. This decreases the pasting up which oc¬ 
curs in young chicks under some mash pro¬ 
grams. Broiler growers, however, do not fol¬ 
low this program. They figure that the little 
pasting up which might be prevented by 
scratch and grit is offset by the loss of a day’s 
growing period. They figure that mash, pellets 
or crumbs get them off to a faster start. Most 
of the feeds used during the starting and grow¬ 
ing period have one of the coccidiosis pre- 
ventatives in them. 

The Vaccination Program 

The vaccination programs followed by poul¬ 
trymen vary a great deal. It is, of course, com¬ 
mon practice to vaccinate only against diseases 
prevalent in the area. Where Newcastle is a 
problem, it is good to immunize the birds by 
(Continued on Page 115) 


Cleaning and Disinfecting 

All cleaning and disinfecting should be done 
and repairs to buildings and equipment made 
well in advance of the date the chicks arrive. 
The practice of brooding more than one lot 


Far Away Hill Poultry Farm, ureenwicn, jn. x. 

The first few days in the lives of chicks are critically important. Warmth, water and feed are 
essential to survival and growth. For early feeding, these chicks benefit from a new idea in feeders: 
a loiv 24x40 -inch box into which is set a xoelded wire screen on top of the mash. There is no waste 

and the chicks get the feed they need easily and surely. 


How good the pullets will he at housing time depends 
greatly on the care the chicks receive now and this 
Spring. The growing period should hare the 
poultry man’s most watchful attention . 


By CARL O. DOSSIN 


EALTHY, mature pullets from 
stock bred for high egg pro¬ 
duction are indispensable to 
profit in the poultry business. 
Plans must be carefuly made 
_ to have full laying houses dur¬ 
ing tluTperiods of high egg prices. Successful 
poultrymen operate their business at capacity 
year after year; one cannot step into business 
one year and out the next, hoping to hit the 
good years and miss the poor. 

Poultrymen should be conscious of the im¬ 
portance of having chicks bred for livability, 
high production and egg quality. Breeding has 
an influence on the number, size and shape 
of eggs laid and also on shell texture, freedom 
from blood spots and interior quality. 

It costs little more to raise a pullet capable 
of high production than it does a low produc¬ 
ing one. The only difference is in the cost of 
the chick. It takes about the same investment 
in land, buildings and equipment, the same 
amount of labor and feed to raise pullets, re¬ 
gardless of their potential for egg production. 
It takes just as much feed for the maintenance 
of a low producer as it does for a good one. 
The little extra feed that a high producer eats 
is used in the production of eggs. 


of chicks on the same litter is followed by some 
poultrymen, but the majority is using clean 
litter for each new lot of chicks. It is doubtful 
that any poultryman ever got into trouble 
because he was too clean. Carelessness has, 
however, caused difficulties. 

The brooder stove should be operating at 
the right temperature when the chicks arrive. 
Many poultrymen use thermometers to adjust 
the heat at the start but later let the comfort 
of the chicks be the guide as to regulation of 
the stove. For best results, one does not main¬ 
tain temperature just according to rules; 
different lots of chicks and different seasons 
of the year cause behavior and response to be 
different. The chicks should form a uniform 
ring around the outer edge of the hover at 
night. If they crowd in underneath it and are 
noisy, they are not comfortable. If they tend 
to bed down too far away from the hover, the 
chances are that it is too hot. 

Litter for the Chicks 

Many different kinds of materials give ex¬ 
cellent results as litter. The main require¬ 
ments for jitter are that it be light, not pack 


February 5, 1955 


<o 















Lime—Wheelhorse of the boil 

Calcium applied to the soil in the form of lime may not produce 
immediate spectacular effects, but over the years no other element 
exerts such beneficial influence on the successful production of crops. 

By B. A. BROWN 


T least 15 different elements are 
necessary for the growth of 
plants, and it cannot be truly 
said that one of them is more 
essential than another. Each 
one is necessary. But, when 
one considers that calcium is an element 
needed by plants in large quantities and also 
that it is the most important means of main¬ 
taining favorable physical and chemical soil 
conditions, its unequaled importance becomes 
apparent. Calcium is, or should be, the pre¬ 
dominate non-acid element on the very fine, 
active soil particles. It is the chief buffer 
against soil acidity. When it is added to soils 
in the form of lime, its immediate effects on 
plants may not be spectacular; but, over suc¬ 
ceeding years, no other element exerts such 
great influence, on crop production. 

Lime Decreases Acidity 

The very fine particles of soil are the ones 
which hold nutrient elements for plants. These 
extremely small particles are classified as clay, 
silt, and organic matter or humus. The sands 
and gravels are of little importance except for 
promoting passage of air and water through 
soils. Each tiny particle of clay has the ca¬ 
pacity to join with and to hold chemical ele¬ 
ments such as calcium (from lime), both cal¬ 
cium and magnesium (from dolomitic lime), 
potassium (from potash salts and manure), 
and hydrogen (from various acids). 

Since acid, or hydrogen carrying, com¬ 
pounds are formed from nitrogen fertilizers 
and also from the natural decay of organic 
materials, acids are prevalent in most farm 
soils. Hydrogen in the acids has the power to 
replace non-acid elements like calcium, mag¬ 
nesium and potassium. When this occurs, the 
replaced elements are dissolved in the soil and 
are carried to lower soil levels if rains bring 
water content above the saturation point. Thus, 
in humid regions like the Northeast where 
rainfall is usually heavy enough to more than 
saturate soils, many chemical elements in the 
soil water are likely to be carried (leached) 
below the root zones of most plants. 

Forms of Lime 

Strictly speaking, lime is in the same chemi¬ 
cal form as lump or quick lime. In this form, 
it is disagreeable to handle and, if not kept in 
a tight container, will unite with carbon diox¬ 


ide and water from the air. When it unites with 
carbon dioxide, lime becomes carbonated like 
ground limestone; when it joins with moisture, 
it becomes hydrated and is chemically the 
same as hydrated lime. Because of its cheap¬ 
ness, effectiveness and ease of handling, most 
lime added to soils is ground limestone. Even 
the finest particles of ground limestone are 
relatively coarse and must disintegrate before 
becoming chemically fine enough to join with 
acids and other compounds in the soil water. 

Hydrated lime is already chemically fine 
and reacts at once with soil acids. When quick 
action is necessary, hydrated lime is more 
effective than ground limestone. In less than 
a year, however, acidity of a soil will be re¬ 
duced the same by ground limestone or hy¬ 
drated lime. 

Soluble salts like nitrate of soda or muriate 
of potash added to moist soil are almost imme¬ 
diately dissolved in soil water. Their effects on 
plants are visible in a few days. In contrast, 
ground limestone (even after breaking down 
to chemical fineness) and hydrated lime are 
much less soluble and their effects on soils 
and plants may not be detected for weeks, or 
even months. Because of this relative slow¬ 
ness, it is commonly recomended that lime 
be put on very acid soils a few months to a 
year before planting crops. 

Penetrative Effects of Lime 

It is customary to mix lime with soil by 
harrowing it in. It is also a practice to spread 
lime on the surface of untilled grasslands. Re¬ 
sults of experiments and the experience of 
farmers have shown that both methods are 
effective in promoting better growth of plants. 
But, if equal amounts of lime are applied, that 
mixed with the soil will, during the next few 
months or years, have a much greater effect 
than that spread on the surface. This greater 
short-time effect occurs because all of the 
mixed-in lime comes immediately into contact 
with soil. In other words, the chances of the 
basic calcium from lime soon replacing the 
acid hydrogen on a clay particle are much 
greater when the lime is mixed -with the soil. 
On the other hand, the lime applied to the 
surface will counteract acidity of a thin upper 
layer of soil to a greater extent than mixed-in 
lime will change any part of the whole plow 
layer. This is because the lime is concentrated 
at or near the surface, making calcium the 


dominant element there and making a thin 
layer entirely sweet. But it has little or no 
effect for quite a while on the acidity a few 
inches below the surface. Lime mixed in the 
plowed layer is not likely to affect the sub¬ 
soil beneath it for a considerable time either. 

In both methods, the change in acidity be¬ 
low the level where lime is in contact with the 
soil and the lapse of time before such changes 
occur are closely correlated with the amounts 
of lime spread on the land. Thus, if one adds 
only a little lime, he should not expect much, 
if any, effect below wkere'it is placed in or on 
the soil. Conversely, if one limes liberally, 
acidity will, in time, be reduced far more 
deeply into the soil than where the lime was 
placed. 

Practical Considerations 

It was stated that the various liming ma¬ 
terials are much slower to act than soluble 
fertilizers. Limes and their products do not 
move rapidly through soils. Even heavy 
amounts of lime applied on the surface do not 
move dowmward more than a couple of inches 
a year. Thus, if land is plowed a few years 
after surface liming, much of the soil turned 
up will be iust as acid as it was before the lime 
was added. If lime-loving crops are planted, 
the results are likely to be disappointing. 

The more completely the furrow is turned, 
i. e. the flatter the furrow slice, the farther 
down surface-applied lime will be after plow¬ 
ing. If another plowing precedes planting, then 
the lime plowed under by the first plowing 
will be returned to. or near to, the surface. 
This would not do most crops much good. It 
is important, therefore, that consideration be 
given to the procedures one follows in tillage 
and planting operations. If none of the plow 
layer of a soil is more than slightly add, 
though, it will make little difference to the 
growth of crops the next few years wherever 
the lime is placed. Plowing it under, however, 
hastens downward movement — possibly, it 
should be remembered, to levels below the 
root zones of many plants. 

Should Lime Ever Be Plowed Under? 

Because the greatest immediate and ulti¬ 
mate effects of lime on the root zones of soils 
come when it is harrowed in, harrowing in 
should be the common practice. Sometimes, 
though, subsoil of unlimed land is so acid 

( Continued on Page 86 ) 




In Connecticut, and Most of the Entire Northeast, Limed Soils Grow More Feed and Food. 


Red top is more tolerant of soil acidity than several other kinds of hay 
and pasture grasses. Yet it failed to grow in an experimental pot of un¬ 
limed Hartford soil (left). Tvjo other pots of the same soil grew red top 
well with the addition of common limestone, calcium carbonate, at rates 
proportional to 500 to 1.000 pounds per acre. 


The foreground experimental plot of Japanese millet in Windsorville, 
Conn., had no lime applied to it. Plants that got started at all did not 
do well. But millet on the same soil in the background grew strong and 
abundantly: the equivalent of 1,500 pounds of hydrated lime per acre was 
applied here. Both plots were fertilized exactly the same otherwise. 

THE RURAL NEW-YORKER 


76 










By MORLEY A. JULL 



ILLIONS of American housewives and 
millions of consumers in their 
families should be grateful for bar¬ 
gain prices of turkeys last Thanks¬ 
giving and Christmas. The cost of 
turkeys was to most families’ liking. 
The civilian per capita consumption of turkey 
increased from an annual average of two and 
six-tenths pounds during the five-year period, 
1935-1939, to an annual average of five and one- 
tenth pounds during the three-year period. 
1950-1952. The 61 million turkeys raised in 
1954 amounted to six per cent more of heavy 
varieties and 16 per cent more of the light 
varieties than were raised in 1953. 


New Turkey Varieties 

The Broad-breasted Bronze has been the out¬ 
standing member of the heavy varieties for 
many years. Recently, though, broad-breasted 
strains of the White Holland variety have been 
successfully developed; there are also other 
newly named white varieties, including the 
Broadwhites, White Americans, and Lancaster 
Whites. 

The trend toward turkeys with white plum¬ 
age results from the fact that, in these varie¬ 
ties, the few pinfeathers that may be present 
on dressed birds are less conspicuous than in 
the dressed Bronzes. The popularity of Belts- 
ville Small Whites for broiling, frying and 
roasting has increased during recent years. 
Among the new medium-sized strains of 
turkeys should be mentioned the Jersey Buffs, 
developed by the poultry department of 
Rutgers University, and the Maryland Medium 
Whites, developed by the University of Mary¬ 
land. 

Up to a decade ago, one of the most glaring 
weaknesses of turkey husbandry was the low 


level of egg production and fertility in breed¬ 
ing flocks. T*his meant that the cost of produc¬ 
ing poults was very high. It was so high, in 
fact, that a grower’s investment in poults 
represented a high share of the total cost of 
growing his turkeys. 

Fertility and Hatchability Are Improved 

In 1942 in the State of Washington and in 
1943 in New York, studies of the economic 
factors involved in producing poults were 
made. The breeding flocks w T ere of the Bronze 
variety. In both states, it was found that, for 
each 100 eggs incubated, an average of only 
53 salable poults was hatched. No w’onder 
that, for those times, the cost of poults was 
high. 

Thank goodness that during the last 15 years 
progress has been made in breeding for in¬ 
creased egg production, fertility and hatcha¬ 
bility as well as in the formulation of better 
balanced diets and improved methods of 
management. The entire industry has taken 
on a new look. 

Since turkeys compete directly with chick¬ 
ens, eggs and red meats in providing animal 
products for human diets, it is interesting to 
note that during the past 15 years the per¬ 
centage increase in the per capita consumption 
of the following animal products was turkey 
98, chicken 58, eggs 32, pork 26, beef and 
veal six. 

High Egg Production Is Important 

The key to securing high egg production 
in turkey hatchery flocks rests with the pedi¬ 
gree breeder. As with chickens, so with 
turkeys: the heritability of egg production is 
relatively low and progeny testing is neces¬ 
sary. Eight years of breeding Beltsville Small 



Growing healthy turhey poults means attention 
to essential details. This well-feathered Bronze 
poxdt is typical of the birds raised and developed 
on the Esbenshade Turkey Farm, Paradise, 
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. 

Whites for higher egg production at the Agri¬ 
cultural Research Center in Beltsville. Md., 
resulted in an increase of from 64 to 104 eggs 
for the laying period to June 1 each year and 
of from 80 to 146 eggs for a nine-month lay¬ 
ing period. 

With the Maryland Medium Whites at the 
University of Maryland, it has been the policy 
to select breeding stock from families of dams 
which lay at the rate of 70 per cent or better 
and whose eggs give a hatch of 70 per cent or 
better. During two months of this year’s breed¬ 
ing season, the average egg production was 
about 42 eggs, and the hatch of all eggs set 
was 68 per cent. During the past few years, 
egg production, fertility, and hatchability of 
fertile eggs have all steadily increased. 

( Continued on Page 114 ) 



g yw ~M H Jg Many a poultryman is doing his own breed- 

~m a 33~'W * / \/• ri § db d* J-T® I T*/ | I § 3 /) £* ing when, actually, he could buy chicks of su- 

B \_P BJLBsBs 3 y JL B\y -B-. 3 Bd 33j\Jr *3 perior breeding for little, if any, more than 

% / he is spending in carrying on his own small 

WAOMl? breeding flock. Breeding is a mighty expensive 

By R. r. WAKiMfc business, in time and in investment of capital. 


N analyzing conditions on poultry 
farms to determine the cause of 
troubles which arise, it is our cus¬ 
tom to check over fundamentals to 
find out whether one or more of the 
real poultry essentials is missing, 
the first step of trouble shooting in the 
flock and in a great majority of cases 
uncover the cause of difficulty. 

Poultrymen are always interested in new 
developments. In fact, as a whole, they are 
more receptive to new ideas than any other 
farm group. The rapid progress which has been 
made by the industry in the past few decades 
could not have been accomplished without a 
willingness to adopt new and improved 
methods. Perhaps, however, poultrymen are 
too frequently overzealous in departing from 
tried and true methods to test something high¬ 
ly advertised and ballyhooed in the press. 
They may be led to expect unreasonable or 
impossible results. 

The so-called miracle drugs, and other in¬ 
gredients and supplements to rations, along 
with different types of building construction, 
viz. the California and other cage systems, 
have led poultrymen not only to spend 
money on many things still unproved or un¬ 
adapted to their particular farm but, even 
more serious, caused them to forget many of 
the oldtime fundamentals of good poultry 
management that have stood for decades. The 
oldtime poultryman knew many things which 
some of our present-day poultrymen never 
dream of and which are important in the suc¬ 
cess of any poultry business. A poultryman 
oaust know birds and he must like them. He 



poultry 
it will 


is not just a factory superintendent watching 
over a lot of machines. 

Start with the Chicks 

In buying chicks, the first essential for a 
poultryman to consider is quality. It takes only 
a little more growth, just slightly better liva¬ 
bility, and less than one extra egg per pullet 
per year to pay the difference between chicks 
of only average breeding and pullet chicks of 
superior breeding. The source of supply should 
be producing the type of chicks needed to pro¬ 
duce profits. This, of course, applies to those 
who produce their own chicks, as well as to 
those who buy them. 


Whether you buy chicks direct from an out¬ 
standing first breeder or. from a reliable re¬ 
producer of a good strain, or breed them your¬ 
self, be sure that you get the kind of chicks 
you need, chicks that are free from pullorum 
infection and chicks which have inherited 
high egg production or outstanding meat 
quality. 

Space the Chicks Need 

We recommend at least seven square inches 
of hover space per chick under coal, wood and 
oil brooders, but 10 square inches under gas 
or electric brooders. 

(Continued on Page 116) 



Where range is not available, pullets may be reared successfully on properly constructed wire 
platforms like this one at the Owlkill Poultry Farm, Eagle Bridge, N. Y. The thrifty White 
Leghorns have plenty of room to move around and are easy to feed, xoatch, and care for. 


February 5, 1955 



































[JlBBLE’S 




SIX OUTSTANDING VARIETIES 
FOR BETTER YIELDS 

t, Stiff Strawed, Early Varieties: 

CERT. CRAIG 
MOHAWK, CLINTON 

TALL, MIDSEASON VARIETIES: 

DIBBLE’S HEAVYWEIGHT 
CERT. ADVANCE, AJAX 

ALL TREATED—READY TO SOW 

COLOR CATALOG 


Write BOX B 




EDWARD F. DIBBLE SEEDGROWER-HoneoyeFallcNY- 


AND 4 PKTS. OF SELECTED GARDEN SEEDS! Regular Trice 15c Per Pkt. 


JUNG'S WAYAHEAD TOMATO 

Big, smooth, ripe tomatoes 
produced in abundance, 
often ripe by July 4th. 

Rapid Ited Radish— often 
ready to use 20 days 
after sowing. 

Tender Core 
Carrot —Grows 
6 to 7 inches long. 

B3B Stump rooted. Superb 
flavor, practically core- 

lp.CS, 

AH Cream Lettuce 

Wonderfully crisp 
and tender. 



But to introduce JUNG'S QUAL¬ 
ITY SEEDS and Nursery Stock 
we will mail you a trial pkt. 
of Jung's Wayahead Tomato, 

Tender Core Carrot, All Cream 
Lettuce, Earliest Radish and a 
large pkt. of 

SUMMER GLORY FLOWERS 

that bloom from early summer 
'til hard frosts . . . All for 
10c; in Canada, 25c. In addition we 
will send our New, Full Color CATALOG 
loaded with bargains in seeds, plants, 
shrubs. Coupons for rare premiums in 
' each catalog! Send 10C 1 odaj’l 

J. W. JUNG SEED CO. Dept. 735, Randolph, Wis. 




<\ ff-. 


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COLEMAN PRUNERS 


For easier, faster, smoother cutting, use this 
rugged Coleman Pruner. Deep hook prevents 
slipping. Cuts l%" branches. Made of one 
piece chrome alloy steel. Light, strong, long 
lasting. 20"—$5.25, 25"—$5.50, 30"—$5.75. 

NEW Coleman Briar Hook 
Handy for thinning raspberries, roses—cut- 
tina suckers on lilacs or fruit trees. 
Reaches into narrower places. Strong one- 
piece chrome nickel steel. Priced at only $2. 
See your dealer. If he can’t supply you, 
order direct—items shipped postpaid on 
receipt of check or money order for proper 
amount. Satisfaction Guaranteed. 


i COLEMAN TREE PRUNERS, Mfrs. 
\ ; DEPT. Ft. TIOGA CENTER, N. Y. 


mm 


BOOKLETS 
TELL HOW! 

Send for these 2 booklets today. 
■f hi Contain useful, helpful information 

I ffio ffman | | afK j practical suggestions for grow- 

-—fli )Rg better crops, getting bigger 

I yields. Handy pocket notebook 
! contains many pages for your notes. 
| Seed Guide tells all about new 
| seed varieties. Write today. 

A. H, HOFFMAN, Inc. 

Box 32-T, Landisville, Fenna. 


SCOTT’S HYBRID CORN 

IS HARD TO BEAT! 

Folks who plant Scotts keep coming back 
for more because they always get a 
healthy, vigorous stand of top producing 
corn under a wide variety of soil or cli¬ 
mate conditions. 15 leading early, medium 
and late maturing varieties to choose from. 
Send postcard for latest price list on seed 
corn, alfalfa, clover, grasses, grains and 
other crops ... rece.ve FREE, a 2 year 
subscription to Crop News and Views. 

SCOTT FARM SEED CO. 

365 MILL ST., MECHAN ICSBURG, OHIO 


m 


• • 

3 to 5 yr. healthy, selected trees, 6" 
to 16" tall. 5 each of: Colorado Blue 
Spruce—Norway Spruce—Austrian 
Pine — Scotch Pine — Concolor Fir. 

Postpaid at planting time 
Write for Free Evergreen Catalog 


MUSSER FORESTS 


Box 20-E 





TREES * SHRUBS 

RAISE THEM FROM SEED 
$$$$ for you in Christmas Trees, ornamentals, 
timber and others. Seeds normally produce 
seedings in a few days or weeks. Transplant 
from garden or seed bed when conditions of 
soil and weather most favorable. For price 
List and FREE Planting Guide Write to 
WOODLOT SEED CO., Norway 37, Mich. 

Latham Red Raspberry Plants: $7-100; Indian Sum- 
mer Reds $8-100. Strawberry Plants: Superfection 
and Gem everbearing $4.60-100; Premier $2.75-100, 
postpaid. MacDcwell Berry Farm, Baliston Lake, N.Y. 


TiJ^STRAWBERR ies 


Our New Virus-Free Strawberry 
I Plants. Foundation stock originally 
‘ supplied by U.S. Dept, of Agricul¬ 
ture. For the reproduction of Better 
Strawberry Plants for the American 
'Farmer and Gardener. All healthy 
sure to grow stock. Also Blueberries, 
Grapes, Raspberries, Shrubs, Shade Trees, Fruit & 
Nut Trees, Ornamentals. Write today for Free Catalog. 
RAYNER BROTHERS, SA LIS BURY 5, MAKYLAN D 

Evergreen Lining-Out Stock 

TK/$iySPLflKTS and SEEDLINGS 

PINE, FIR, SPRUCE, CANADIAN HEMLOCK, 
ARBORVITAES, in variety. For growing Christmas 
trees. Ornamental landscape, Hedges, Windbreaks, 
Forestry. Quality stock low as 2c each on quantity 
orders. Write for price list. 

SUNCREST EVERGREEN NURSERIES, 
DEPT. RNY, BOX 305, HOMER CITY, PA. 

Dwarfed MSsig Trees 

Japanese Bonsai Method. Seed for 200 trees — 10 
varieties — evergreen, fruit, flowering. Ancient ex¬ 
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Moneyback guarantee. Only $2.00 complete. NORTH 
NURSERY, 1907 Main St., Niagara Falls 23, N. Y. 




I 


lit*' 


mem 

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m 


PRIMA 
All America 




DONNA PETUNIA 

Award Winner 1955 


HARRIS SUDS 

We’ve Waited Years for Prima Donna 

Well worth waiting for is this new luminous rose-pink F-l 
hybrid petunia. The vigorous plants grow only id" high but 
spread to 24", so a few plants cover a lot of space. The 
gracefully fringed and ruffled 3 W flowers are produced early 
and abundantly throughout the summer. (Illustrated in color 
in our,hew catalog.) 

. SEND FOR OUR FREE CATALOG TODAY 

It" describes and illustrates the best of the new flowers and 
vegetables and gives helpful cultural directions. 

If you grow for market, ask for our Market 
Gardeners’ arid Florists’ Catalog. 

JOSEPH HARRIS CO., Inc. 

16 Moreion Farm, Rochester 11, New York 

1955 CATALOG now Arndt j 


To Get a Head Start 

on the Garden 

February is none too early to start ideal for such use, either in combina- 


next Summer’s garden; in fact, there 
is work that must be done now to 
insure the success of some plants 
whose seeds germinate very slowly. 
For instance, are you planning on 
petunias? And is there a more satis¬ 
factory or popular annual? It has 
been said that the petunia is to the 
American gardener what ice cream is 
to the American child. And it might 
be added that it comes in as many 
flavors and forms! 

There are only two things that 
make the petunia seem anything like 
a problem to handle: 1. Its seeds are 
exasperatingly tiny, with shells of 
case-hardened steel; 2. Seed of the 
best varieties is expensive. However, 
both of these objections can be over¬ 
come without too much difficulty. 
Make no mistake, petunia seed takes 
its own time about germinating. It is 
so small that you cannot nick it, as 
you do morning glory seed, for in¬ 
stance, so an early indoor start is 
requisite for success. If only a few 
seeds are sown, use large flat pots, 
such as are used for planting bulbs; 
if a larger quantity, use wooden flats. 
In either case, cover the bottom with 
some coarse material, such as gravel 
or coal ashes, to insure proper drain¬ 
age. On top of this, place an inch 
and a half of good top soil, well pul¬ 
verized. Tamp this into place and 
cover with half an inch of very finely 
sifted soil composed of equal parts of 
good loam, sifted peatmoss and 
sharp sand. This mixture provides a 
medium which will not pack and is 
sufficiently rich in plant food. Scatter 
the tiny seeds over the surface. In 
order to do this thinly and evenly, I 
kill two birds with one stone by mix¬ 
ing the tiny seeds with a disinfectant 
to prevent damping off of the little 
plants, and the white powder shows 
where the seeds fall on the soil. No 
covering is necessary; simply press 
the soil down firmly with a small 
block of wood or a brick.(I use Seme- 
san for the purpose of disinfecting 
the seed). 

As to watering: if the porous pots 
are used, they may be watered by 
standing them in a larger dish filled 
with water until moisture reaches the 
surface; if flats are used, water copi¬ 
ously so that the whole box becomes 
saturated, before planting. Allow it 
to stand until the surplus has drained 
off and the top surface is dry enough 
to sow the seed. Whether pots or 
flats are used, the soil should never 
be allowed to become completely dry. 
When the soil of the latter looks dry, 
water thoroughly with a fine spray. 

After sowing, cover the pots or 
flats with a pane of glass, then with 
paper to exclude light which is not 
necessary for germination. In fact, 
many seeds sprout more quickly 
when covered, for then better condi¬ 
tions of moisture and temperature 
prevail. After the seed has germin¬ 
ated, however, the seedlings must 
have plenty of light lest they de 
velop into weak, leggy plants. When 
the tiny plants have developed two 
or three true leaves, prick out into 
other flats, spacing from one-and-a- 
half to two inches apart, depending 
on how soon outdoor beds will be 
ready. Never crowd the seedlings. If 
the weather is not too cold, the little 
flats may go in the cold frame. 

As to the petunia types, there are 
three “neat” growing kinds for bor¬ 
der use quite apart from purely hor¬ 
ticultural classifications. These are: 
gem—about 6 inches; dwarf—about 
12 inches; and bedders, more or less 
upright to 18 inches or more; and 
these types include several types of 
blossom. Edgings, border fore¬ 
grounds and mass plantings are all 
possible. And, of course, window 
boxes without petunias are unthink¬ 
able. So-called “balcony” types are 


tion with the dwarf, upright varieties 
or in tumbled masses by themselves. 

I have grown them both ways, and 
both ways they are lovely! 

And petunias, being hardy, go 
right on blossoming after frost. In 
fact, every Fall, when the time comes 
to dismantle the boxes—usually in 
early November—in order to dress 
them for the winter with evergreens, 
the petunias are still fresh and 
green, and I always hate to throw 
them into the compost pit! I have 
tried cutting them back and taking 
them into the house, but without 
much success. 

Petunias combine well with other 
plants, too. For instance, petunias 
and verbenas of harmonizing colors 
intermingle effectively in a bed with 
an upright accent, such as a standard 
fuschia or polyantha roses, at stra¬ 
tegic points. When petunia plants 
come into bloom, application of a 
liquid fertilizer is advisable and 
again at midsummer. All faded blos¬ 
soms must be promptly removed, of 
course, for petunias just love to set 
seed which must never be allowed 
if you want a long season of bloom. 

There are other annuals which 
should also be planted now for suc¬ 
cessful performance later. Geran¬ 
iums, for instance, whose seeds are 
as exasperatingly small as those of 
the petunia; and dahlia seeds need 
an early start, especially the tall- 
growing kinds. Both dwarf and tall 
growers may be very successfully 
grown from seed. I especially like 
the Coltness single hybrids and Un¬ 
win's dwarf hybrids, also mixed 
dwarf pompons, all of which may be 
started indoors. In planting, follow 
the same general rules as given for 
petunias. 

1 always like to start a few annual 
asters in the house, transplanting the 
seedlings first to a second flat, then 
to the cold frame and finally to the 
beds where they are to bloom. In this 
way I have fine, sturdy plants, for the 
more often aster plants are trans¬ 
planted, the better the root growth is 
developed. Annual asters were never 
more varied or beautiful than they 
are today and, with the exception of 
petunias, nothing to my mind makes 
a better long-season display in the 
borders. 

If you do not have a c-oldframe, 
which most gardeners consider prac¬ 
tically indispensable, here is a suc¬ 
cessful substitute which is easily as¬ 
sembled. This is practical, however, 
only in the case of a few pots or small 
flats. Take a wooden box 18 inches or 
so square and eight or ten inches 
deep and cover with a pane of glass 
fitted to slide back and forth for ven¬ 
tilation and temperature control. 
Keep the seedlings in this and set 
tire whole thing outside in a shelt¬ 
ered, sunny spot for several hours 
during the warmer part of the day. 
You will be amply repaid by the im¬ 
provement in the little plants. How¬ 
ever, be sure to bring container and 
contents indoors when the afternoon 
temperature begins to drop. 

Maine Ethel M. Eaton 



THE RURAL NEW YORKER 


78 




































































AGRICO Pays Best, In Check After Check 

f 


77 



BERT SCHILLINGER (right) and son, DUNCAN, of Scottsville, N.Y 


"111 22 Extra NET PROFIT Per Acre on 
Potatoes With AGRICO, in Side-by-side 
Check Against Just-as-good’ Fertilizer!” 

T HESE days, it takes top yields and quality to show a good farm profit, 
and that’s where AGRICO, The Nation’s Leading Fertilizer, can do a real 
job for you. Take the word of Bert Schillinger, of Scottsville, N. Y., who writes: 

"We’ve used Agrico for 12 years, but several times have tried fertilizers said 
to be 'just as good as Agrico’, always with results like we had in 1954. 

"We divided a 12-acre field, and on 6 acres plowed down 1200 lbs. AGRICO 
FOR POTATOES 5-10-10 per acre, also applying 1300 lbs. per acre of same 
with the planter. On the other 6 acres, we applied another make fertilizer, 
6-12-12 analysis, in the same way and at the same rates as the Agrico 5-10-10. 

"The Agrico yield was 542.64 bu. per acre, of which 514.24 bu. were No. 
Ones. The 'just as good’ fertilizer yielded 462.4 bu. per acre, of which 438.08 
bu. were No. Ones. 


TOPBRESS WHEAT NOW-IT PAYS WELL! 

17 Bu. EXTRA Per Atre! 

Topdress Fall-seeded grain this Spring. Try it, 
even if you fertilized last Fall. Percy A. Barbur, 
of Greenwich, Rt. #2, N. Y., says: 

“Early last Spring, we topdressed our wheat 
with 200 lbs. AGRICO FOR TOPDRESSING 
10-6-4 per acre on 10 acres, omitting topdress¬ 
ing on part of the field. The entire field had 
received 400 lbs. Agrico 5-10-5 per acre at 
seeding the previous Fall, so this was a test of 
Spring topdressing, and we figured if any fer¬ 
tilizer would pay extra, Agrico would. 

“It paid off, all right! The topdressed area 
yielded 43 bu. per acre— 17 bu. MORE than 
without topdressing. At $1.85 per bu., the extra 
yield gave us $25.29 extra NET profit per acre 
over topdressing cost!” 

*53012 EXTRA PER ACRE ON ONIONS!* 

Remember, there’s an Agrico for each crop. As 
to onions, John Gasienica, of Pine Island, 
N. Y., writes: 

“Before sowing yellow globe onion seed, I 
broadcast side by side on my muckland 1000 
lbs. per acre of a well-known 5-10-10 fertilizer 
I’d been using and 1000 lbs. AGRICO FOR 
TRUCK 3-9-12 per acre. On Oct. 1, while 
screening for market, we found that the Agrico- 
grown onions were much better keepers, had 
much better color, heavier skins, and 8% less 
shrinkage. 

“As a result, Agrico gave us 1506 lbs. MORE 
marketable onions per acre — worth $30.12 
EXTRA per acre. Agrico makes a profitable 
difference, especially in the quality.” 



JOHN GASIENICA, and his wife, 
FRANCES, of Pine Island, N. Y. 



PERCY A. BARBUR (right) and son, 
BLOIS, of Greenwich, N. Y. 


"In other words, Agrico gave us 76.16 bu. MORE No. Ones per acre, 
worth $91.39 extra, at $1.20 a bu. 

"But that’s not the whole story. Agrico cost us $19.83 LESS per acre, 
and adding this to the $91.39 extra yield, gives us $111.22 total EXTRA 
NET PROFIT per acre on the Agrico side.” 

“$5312 EXTRA PER ACRE ON THIS CROP!” 

You, too, can be money ahead by insisting on Agrico this Spring. As 
John B. Finn, of John Finn & Sons, Pinelawn, N. Y., says: 

"Yield and quality of our potatoes had been dropping, so we decided 
to try Agrico. We planted 40 acres with 3000 lbs. per acre of AGRICO FOR 


Left to right, HENRY 
FINN, VINCENT FINN, 
JOHN FINN, PAUL 
ENGLER, of Pinelawn, 
N. Y„ with VINCENT 
FINN, Jr., foreground. 


LONG ISLAND 5-10-5 and 40 acres with another 5-10-5 fertilizer 
we had been using, also at 3000 lbs. per acre. To make it a thorough 
comparison, we applied the two fertilizers side by side in two fields. 

"What a fertilizer this Agrico is! It outyielded the other 5-10-5 by 47 
bu. MORE No. l’s per acre, worth $56.40 extra. Agrico cost us a 
little more per ton, but it repaid the difference plus $53.17 EXTRA 
NET PROFIT per acre. The potatoes had better size and shape—further 
proof that Agrico has the extra plant-feeding efficiency that means extra 
profits for the farmer .” 



Cash in on the all-important DIFFERENCE Agrico makes in extra yield, 
extra quality—EXTRA NET PROFIT. There’s an Agrico for each crop—great 
crop-producers, all! Get Agrico NOW—see your A.A.C. Dealer this week. 




Produced only by The AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL 

Baltimore, Md. • Buffalo, N. Y. • Three Rivers (Phoenix), N. Y. • 


CHEMICAL Co. 

Carteret, N. J. 


February 


5. 


1955 


79 














IROQUOIS 

New Wilt-resistant Muskmelon 


HARRIS SUDS 

A CROP TO BE PROUD OF! 

We take no credit for the attractive young gardener, but the fine 
crop of melons Mary Ann is picking was* grown from Harris Seeds. 

Iroquois was bred at Cornell* University for resistance to fusarium 
wiit. In the process there emerged a medium to large* melon with 
solid, fine grained meat having a superb sweet musky flavor. Attrac¬ 
tive in appearance and with a firm rind, it matures in mid-season and 
produces heavy yields. Unexcelled for home use, roadside stands or 
market. Further details in our catalog. 

SEND FOR OUR FREE CATALOG TODAY 

If you grow for market, ask for our Market 
Gardeners’ and Florists’ Catalog. 

JOSEPH HARRIS CO., INC. 

18 Moreton Farm, Rochester 11, New York 

1955 CATALOG now Arndif 


I ,SEND FOR ROHRER’S 

FREE SEED CATALOG 



This colorful, fully illustrated 
seed catalog is your’s for the 
asking. It contains useful plant¬ 
ing suggestions for your field 
and garden crops. 

MAIL THE COUPON TODAY 

Please Send Me 1955 Catalog: 

NAME ... 

ADDRESS ... 


P. L. ROHRER & BRO. f INC. 


BOX 70-B, SMOKETOWN, LANCASTER CO.,PA. 



BURPEE S Seed Cafaioq 

Offers All the 


Offers AH the 
New and Better 
Flowers and Vegetables 
created by Burpee 


Burpee Catalog 

helps you grow big¬ 
ger, better and more 
delicious hybrid vege¬ 
tables, cut food costs. 

128 Pages, Over 500 Pictures, 

Many in Natural Color 
It tells the plain truth about 
the best seeds that grow—see 
famous Burpee Hybrids, both 
flowers and vegetables. More 
valuable than a $2 book, but 
FREE! Money-saving specials. 

Send Postcard. Letter 
or this Coupon TODAY. 

r - . 

I W. AT LEE BURPEE CO. 

I 478 Burpee Bidg.. Philadelphia 32. Pa. j 

| Send new Burpee Seed Catalog Free ] 

1 Name. ! 

I 1 


| St. or R. D... | 

| P. O. State . J 

J | 1 Commercial Growers—If yoy grow Vege- J 

| I I tables or Flowers for sale and buy I 
■ seeds in large quantities, check here for s 
J Burpee’s Blue List Wholesale Catalog, free J 
I if you are a market gardener or florist. I 


BURPEE SEEDS GROW 



FREE CATALOG 

Describes our New Virus-Free 
STRAWBERRY Plants. Foundation 
Stock originally supplied by U. S. 
Dept, of Agriculture. For the repro¬ 
duction of Better Plants. Blue¬ 
berries, Raspberries, Grapes, Fruit, 
Nut and Shade Trees, Shrubs. 
WRITE: RAYNER BROTHERS, 
SALISBURY 29, MARYLAND 


FRI/fT TREES 

Berry Plants, Grape Vines, 
Flowering Shrubs, 

Shade Trees, Evergreens, 
Hedging, Roses 

Hardy, Thrifty, Fibrous Rooted 


Trees and Plants 

SEND FOR CATALOG. IT CONTAINS A 
SPLENDID ASSORTMENT TO SELECT FROM 
AT VERY REASONABLE PRICES. 

WILSON NURSERIES 

Thomas Marks & Son 

WILSON R. F. D. I NEW YORK 

GROWING SINCE 1910 
Results Produce Repeat Orders 



Orchardlcraft 

POWER PRUNE! 


NEW^ MODEL C 


New Features • New Performance 

Offers many advantages not available on 
other pruners. New air-cushioned action 
(pat. pending) eliminates shock when limb 
is cut; Air-powered valves require only 
slight finger pressure to operate; no oiler 
needed; simple trouble-free, freeze-proof 
valves. Cuts faster, easier, won’t slip off 
limb, works in narrower places, cuts limbs 
up to I'A" diam. Write today for free 
folder on pruners and orchard supplies — 
mention dealer’s name. 

JOHN L. BACON CORP. 
GASPORT, NEW YORK 



in. tall — only $1 postpaid; 22 
only $2 postpaid! Another Bargain: 

20 Evergreens, $3 postpaid; ali 4 yr. 
old transplanted 4 to 10 in. tall. 

Five each: American Arborvitae, 

Douglas Fir, Red Pine, Norway 
Spruce, all 20 for $3. (West of Miss. 

River add 25c.) FREE illustrated 
price list of small evergreen trees. 

ALL TREES GUARANTEED TO 
LIVE. 

WESTERN MAINE FOREST NURSERY CO. 

DEPT. RN-215, Fryeburg, Maine 



CHRISTMAS TRIES 


Turn wasteland into profit. 
Our famous Christmas Tree 
Growers’ Guide tells you 
how. Write for free copy. 


OR FOREST 
TREES 


rnmiom 


20-B 



2-YEAR 

FIELD- 

GROWN 


LOW AS 

25c 


Flowering shrubs, evergreens, shade trees 25c up. 
Fruit trees low as 20c. Xuts, blueberries, strawberries. 
Grapes 10c. Quality stock can't be sold lower. Write 
for FREE Color Catalog and $2.00 FREE bonus 
nformation. TENNESSEE NURSERY CO.. 

BOX 125, CLEVELAND, TENNESSEE 



are ideal family Income projects. One- 
tenth acre yields 660 — 900 quarts. 
Allen’s Berry Book tells best varieties 
and How to Grow Them. Free copy. 
WWte today. 

W. F. ALLEN COMPANY 
Ave., Salisbury, Maryland 



CRAIG, Ajax, 
Clinton, Mohawk 
Beaver and 
Swedish Star 


Write Dept. R-3 
For Frices 

REPRESENTATIVES 
WANTED IN 
UNASSIGNED 
TERRITORIES 


• Certified 

• Selected 


ROCHESTER 1, N. Y 


More About Muskmefons 

In a recent issue of The 
Rural New Yorker was a question 
by C. L. H. on the difficulty of grow¬ 
ing melons successfully in the North¬ 
east. I read it with interest, and with 
a little surprise, too, because I have 
been growing big, edible muskmelons 
in my garden in eastern Pennsyl¬ 
vania for the last five or six years. 

It was on a tour through Indiana 
in 1.948 that I noticed melons for 
sale at a roadside stand run by an 
elderly farm lady. When I saw them, 
I realized they were the same kind 
grown by my father many years ago 
—Heart of Gold. So I bought four 
melons from the lady. One of the 
melons was ripe enough to eat along 
the way; and it was so good that I 
saved the seed to bring home. The 
following Spring, I planted the seed 



Heart of Gold muskmelons grow well 
on sandy loam for L. A. White in 
Stroudsburg, Pa. Vines are pruned 
after the first melons form. The larg¬ 
est melon here iveighed over nine 
pounds. 

and had wonderful melons of almost 
perfect flavor. 

Seed was saved from the crop— 
actually it came from the largest 
melon that ripened first—and this 
seed was planted the following year. 
I have continued to select seed and 
have grown the melons since then. 
In 1953, I had a good melon that 
weighed nine pounds and seven 
ounces. The first year the largest one 
weighed about four and a half 
pounds. 

My soil is a sandy loam. I dig holes 
about 18 inches deep as early in the 
Spring as the ground can be worked; 
then I fill them up with hog manure. 
Meantime, I plant my melon seeds 
in paper milk cartons cut in half and 
set them out in a cold frame. I plant 
about six seeds to the carton and 
thin out to two plants when the seed¬ 
lings are about three inches high or 
when I set them out in the prepared 
hills. The hills are spaced about four 
feet apart. The bottoms of the cartons 
are sheared off just before setting 
them in the hills. Then the plants 
are watered thoroughly and mulched 
a little to hold the moisture. 

When the plants start to slioot 
runners out, they are trained in the 
rows, which are heavily mulched with 
straw just before this. Then, when 
the first two or three melons appear, 
the end of the vines beyond them is 
snipped off to make sure all the 
strength of the plant goes to those 
melons left on the vine. 

Last year I failed to grow any 
melons because of illness. But I am 
in hopes the seed saved from the 
1953 crop will grow in 1955, and I 
look forward to having my favorite 
crop again next season. I would be 
glad to send C. L. H. some musk¬ 
melon seed if he would like some. 

Pennsylvania l. a. w. 


Books on Fruit Growing 

Fruit Nutrition, 

Norman Franklin Childers. .$10.00 


Deciduous Orchards, 

W. H. Chandler... 6.50 

Fruit Science, 

Norman F. Childers. 6.00 

Modern Fruit Production, 

Gourley and Howlett. 6.50 


For Sale by The Rural New 
Yorker, 333 West 30th St., New York 
1, N. Y. (New York City residents, 
add 3% Sales Tax.) 


YOU, too, can easily 


INCREASE MAPLE 
SYRUP PROFITS! 



KING SAP BAGS cost 30% less 
than buckets. Easy to empty; wash 
in family washer. Store 1,000 in 
space needed for 25 metal buckets. 
Made of extra heavy “KRENE” 
plastic . . . guaranteed 5 seasons! 
Repair like an inner tube. Can’t blow 
oft tree. Hold 13-15 quarts; expand 
when full or frozen. Purer, sweeter, 
cleaner sap. Sheltered tap hole lets 
sap run earlier and later ... up to 
20% more! KING SAP BAGS come 
packed 100 to carton, with FREE 
Storage Rack and FREE Repair Kit. 
Prices: 1-99, 84c; 100-299, 81c; 
300 up, 79c. Use only SOULE 
Hookless Spouts, $8.00 per 100. 



GEO. H. SOULE CO., Inc. 

St. Albans, Vermont 

Makers of KING EVAPORATORS, Tree Tappers, all 
syrup Making Utensils including Lithographed Maple 
Syrup Cans. 


Strawberry Plants 

Spring and everbearing varieties. Catalog free 

W. E. BENNING, CLYDE, N. Y. 


IMPROVED Sweet Corn Hybrids 

Leading commercial hybrid varieties bettered each 
year by rigid selection and careful crossing of the 
inbred parents. Free descriptive list. 

Huntington Brothers 

BOX R, ;-; WINDSOR, CONN. 


FREE *1955 Plant Catalog 

Be thrifty, have bumper crops with our hardy field- 
grown Cabbage, Onion, Lettuce. Broccoli, Cauliflower, 
Tomato, Eggplant, Pepper and Potato plants. Satis¬ 
faction guaranteed. PIEDMONT PLANT CO. 

P. 0. BOX 684, GREENVILLE, SO. CAROLINA 


STRAWBERRY PLANTS 


BLUEBERRY, RASPBERRY 
IN ALL POPULAR 
A Free Catalogue Full of 
H. D. RICHARDSON 
WILLARDS, BOX 8, 


and ASPARAGUS 
VARIETIES. 

Facts. No Fakes. 

& COMPANY 

MARYLAND 


STRAWBERRIES 


Northern Grown — State Inspected. 30 Standard and 
Everbearing varieties including the new ‘ Blaze.'’ The 
latest in Raspberries inciud.ny Durham off season also 
Gatineau and Madawaska very early. Blueberries, As¬ 
paragus, Write for free catalog and planting guide. 
WALTER K. MORSS & SON, BRADFORD, MASS. 


World’s Finest Strain 

300 African Violet Seeds—only $1.00. Free expert 
growing instructions. Free starting medium. NORTH 
NURSERY, 1907 Main St., Niagara Falls 13, N. Y. 


EVERGREENS: Christmas tree planting stock. Seed 
lings & transplants. Free price list & planting guide 
FLICKINGERS’ NURSERY, Box 4, SAGAMORE, Pa 


MAKE $75 - $200 WEEKLY — Dealers, Farmers, 
agents, demonstrate, take orders, new proven national¬ 
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and NITROGEN NUTRIENTS. Full-part time. Pros¬ 
pects everywhere. CAMPBELL CO., Rochelle 31, III. 


FOR SALE — CERTIFIED BLIGHT RESISTANT 
SEED POTATOES. THEY BEAT ANY OTHERS 
FOR YIELD. ALSO CERTIFIED KATAHDINS. 
THOMPSON FARMS. CLYMER, NEW YORK 


QUICKLY DESTROYS WEEDS, stumps. Split rocks 
with modern kerosene burner. 800.000 users. Free 
bulletin. SINE. RN-2. QUAKERTOWN, PENNA. 


Evergreen Seedlings and Transplants 

Send for free price list. NEUNER’S EVERGREEN 
NURSERY, 368 Either Road Pittsburgh 2, Pa. 


LIST — Surplus EVERGREENS at Low Prices. 
U N AD ILLA NURSERY, JOHNSON CITY, N. Y. 

Strawberries: Kardinal King, largest, sweetest berry that 
g rows . Cat , fre e. Surmyside Nursery, R.2, Bangor, _Pa. 
Bearing Age Blueberries, Strawberries & Fruit Trees. 
Free cat alog. Commonfieids Nurseries, Ipswich, Mass. 

CERTIFIED STRAWBERRY PI AMS 

F REE CATALOG. REX SPROUT, SAYRE. PA . 
Write for Our Free 1955 Descriptive Price List on 
Cabbage, Tomato. Potato, Pepper and other Vege¬ 
table Plants. DIXIE PLANT CO., Franklin, Virginia 


SO 


THE RUSAL NEW YORKEB 

... 










































































Questions on Fruits 


Starting Sweet Cherries 

What would you recommend as a 
good way for starting sweet cherry 
trees? We planted four sweet 
cherries last Fall. ' j. c. g. 

Sweet cherries should be planted 
in a well-drained soil. When plant¬ 
ing, dig the holes about six to eight 
inches larger in diameter than the 
spread of the tree roots. Put about 
two to three inches of top soil in the 
bottom of the hole, insert the tree, 
and alternate between filling the 
hole with top soil and packing the 
soil tightly around the roots. If 
planting in the Fall, slope the soil 
away from the tree to avoid water 
collecting in the hole and freezing 
the roots. In the Spring apply a 
starter solution containing one of 
the new general purpose fertilizers 
or ammonium nitrate (one and one- 
fourth pounds per 100 gallons) at 
the rate of 10 gallons per tree, just 
before new growth starts. Subse¬ 
quent fertilizer applications should 
be at the rate of one-eight pound of 
ammonium nitrate per year of tree 
age per year and placed around the 
tree in a circle at the dripping edge 
of the branches. If dry weather pre¬ 
vails during the summer months, it 
would be a good idea to water the 
trees, about 10 gallons per tree per 
application. 

In the Spring before new growth 
starts, prune the tree, cut the main 
leader back about one-third just 
above a bud. Select three or four 
lateral branches around the tree 
about eight to 12 inches apart; the 
lowest lateral should be from 20 to 
24 inches above the ground. The re¬ 
maining branches are pruned off, and 
the selected laterals headed back 
about one-half their length. In 
general, leave the tree alone until 
bearing commences, removing only 
broken or damaged wood, or make 
thinning out cuts as necessary. 


Spring-Pruned Raspberries 

With reference to the article in 
The Rural New Yorker (March 20, 
1954), “Ground Pruning of Rasp¬ 
berries”, this was a disservice to the 
tune of about 25 quarts of Latham 
raspberries lost to the experiment. 
I cut off as directed and got a lot 
of nice green leaves but no berries. 
Had a beautiful crop of Lathams on 
the ones I left alone. r. a. h. 

It appears that R. H. used the 
wrong variety (Latham) for his 
ground-pruning experiment. Latham 
fruits only in the Summer and does 
not bear a Fall crop like the Durham 
variety. The Durham variety, as dis¬ 
cussed in The Rural New Yorker 
article, always comes through with an 
early fall crop and, by ground-prun¬ 
ing early in the Spring when the 
plants are still dormant, the yield is 


greatly increased. An early spring 
pruning is important. Other varieties, 
like September and Indian Summer, 
have been suggested for trial but are 
not as satisfactory as the Durham va¬ 
riety. The Durham variety is avail¬ 
able from most nurserymen in the 
Northeast, so we suggest that you try 
this again, using this variety. 

r. f. c. 


Water Core of Apples 

One of my apple trees has wonder¬ 
ful apples, but many of the apples 
when cut look like they were frozen. 
What can be done? l. w. 

This frozen-like appearance of the 
apple fruits and subsequent rotting 
on the tree are similar to the descrip¬ 
tions of a non-parasitic disorder 
called water core. It is what is called 
a “physiological disorder”, character¬ 
ized by a glassy, watei'-soaked appear- 
ance. Some varieties are more sus¬ 
ceptible than others, such as Tomp¬ 
kins King. The trouble is especially 
severe or common during seasons of 
intense sunlight and high tempera¬ 
tures, similar to that experienced in 
many areas in Pennsylvania last 
year. Unfortunately, there is no 
known control. Fortunately, though, 
the high temperatures of last year 
were not the usual. You should have 
some good apples next year. 


Worms on Walnuts 

For the past two years we have 
bad army worms severely attack our 
walnut trees. Is there anything we 
can do to prevent them from con¬ 
tinuing to ruin our trees? a. b. 

The insect that usually feeds upon 
the leaves of the walnut tree is the 
walnut caterpillar. Eggs are laid on 
the under sides „pf the leaves during 
July and the worms feed during Au¬ 
gust and September. These insects 
are easily controlled by spraying 
with lead arsenate or DDT at the 
time the insects first begin to feed. 
Any insects that crawl up die trunk 
of the tree can be stopped by putting 
on bands of sticky material, such as 
the Tanglefoot sold in most garden 
supply stores. 


Controlling Bark Scales 

I would like to know how to con¬ 
trol bark scales on the trunks of ap¬ 
ple trees. The bark is rough and full 
of insect eggs. n. c. 

Bark scales can readily be con¬ 
trolled in the delayed dormant spray 
by using a miscible superior oil (95- 
99 per cent actual oil) at the rate of 
two gallons of oil to 100 gallon's of 
water. Delayed dormant is w r hen the 
leaves are showing about one-half 
inch of green. This spray will also 
do much to control red mite and red 
bug eggs. 



This new briar hook is very handy for thinning raspberries and rose bushes, 
also cutting the suckers on lilacs and fruit trees. It is 28Vi inches long, and 
is made of one-piece chrome nickel steel. 

February 5, 1955 



How you can hit 
real pay dirt * with the 
world’s most popular spreader 


YOU MAY BE AN EXCEPTION —but most 
farmers lose from /<x to % of the profit 
possible from barnyard manure. Good 
management plus modern New Idea 
equipment can easily double profits from 
manure. 

There’s No Mystery About It 

Here’s how to handle manure for top 
profits: (1) Capture the liquid portion 
with plenty of bedding and paved feed- 
lots. (2) Spread manure as soon as pos¬ 
sible after it is produced. Use equip¬ 
ment designed to really spread. (3) Put 
manure on fields growing your highest 
income crops. 

Why New Idea Is First Choice 

One of the main reasons why there are 
more New Idea spreaders on farms to¬ 
day than any other make is their ability 
to spread thinly and uniformly. For 


highest value, manure should be spread 
thinly and frequently — 4 to 5 tons per 
acre. 

Staggered U-shaped shredding teeth, 
rotating at high speed, tear up even the 
toughest, hardest-packed manure. 
Cleverly designed distributor paddles 
lay the finely shredded manure down in 
a wide, even pattern — a pattern which 
extends several feet beyond the width of 
the spreader. 

You Have a Complete Choice 

Because you have your choice of 4 
spreader sizes at your New Idea 
Dealer’s, you needn’t over or under¬ 
equip your manure handling operation. 
Pick the spreader to fit your farm from 
among the 65 bu., 75 bu., and 90 bu. 
ground-driven models, or the big 120 
bu. PTO job. 


*$WAP Now during “Trade-In Bays” 
at your New Idea Dealer’s! 

He’s making real deals on new. New Idea spreaders 

Your old machine will never be worth more. Catch your 
New Idea dealer while he’s in a trade-in mood. Hit pay dirt 
by saving money right now! Swap your way up to a new. 
New Idea spreader during New Idea Trade-In days! 


Nl3E I EM* 

FARM EQUIPMENT COMPANY 


DIVISION 


flVCO 


DISTRIBUTING CORPORATION 


Dept. 1429, Coldwater, Ohio 


81 




























Fertilizer Facts 


What is the best method of fer¬ 
tilizing the small grain crop? 

The National Joint Committee on 
Fertilizer Application says: “The 
fertilizer and the seed should be 
drilled simultaneously with the grain 
drill, which places the fertilizer close 
to and in partial contact with the 
seed. This method has been found 
superior to separate application, 
whether broadcast or drilled. For 
fall-planted grain in the warmer 
areas, all of the phosphate and 
potash should be applied with the 
grain drill attachment at time of 
seeding but at least a part of the 
nitrogen should be withheld for top 
dressing in the Spring.” 

How many pounds of plant food 
are used up by crops of small 
grains? 

On the average, a 40-bushel wheat 
crop removes in the grain alone ap¬ 
proximately 47 pounds nitrogen, 21 
pounds phosphoric acid and 12 


pounds of potash. The straw of such 
a crop contains about 20 pounds 
of nitrogen, six pounds of phos¬ 
phoric acid and 55 pounds of potash. 
Since wheat crops are unable to re¬ 
cover from the soil all of the plant 
food added as fertilizer, a 40-bushel 
wheat crop consumes the equivalent 
plant food in 600 pounds of a 10-10-10 
fertilizer. Just about the same 
amount of plant food is used by a 
60-bushel oat crop, or a 50-bushel 
barley crop. 

What is the difference between 
normal superphosphate and concen¬ 
trated superphosphate? 

Normal superphosphate contains 
18 to 20 per cent available phos¬ 
phoric acid while concentrated 
superphosphate contains 40 to 50 
per cent available phosphoric acid. 
Both are made by treating phosphate 
rock with sulffiric acid. Normal 
superphosphate, in addition to the 
phosphoric acid, carries approxi¬ 


mately 20 pounds of calcium and 12 
pounds of sulfur in the form of 
gypsum. Concentrated superphos¬ 
phate is like normal superphosphate 
but, since the gypsum is removed, it 
has a higher percentage of available 
phosphoric acid. 

Can corn stalks or straw be con¬ 
verted into valuable organic matter? 

The corn stalks from a 100-bushel 
corn crop plus 120 pounds of ni¬ 
trogen (the amount of nitrogen in 
600 pounds of ammonium sulfate or 
400 pounds of ammonium nitrate) 
can add more organic matter to the 
soil than a four-ton sweet clover 
crop. If the nitrogen is omitted, how¬ 
ever, bacteria slowly break down the 
carbonaceous material, such as corn 
stalks, with most of the carbon lost 
to the air as carbon dioxide. The 
organic matter coming from sweet 
clover is more ideally distributed 
throughout the soil than that com¬ 
ing from corn stalks or straw be¬ 
cause of the deeper root system 
associated with the legume. 


This year, plant the Funk G Hybrid test-proved to be the 
biggest yielder in your area ... to out-grow and out-pro¬ 
duce other varieties on your acres! 


With every kernel of Funk G seed corn you plant, you 
harvest the benefits of years of intensive, selective breeding 
... breeding that proves its worth with extra bushels of 
solid, mature ears, extra tons of nutritious silage. 

And with Funk G Hybrids, you get the 5-Star Advantages: 
★ Faster starting * More disease resistance ★ Greater 
standability * Better drouth resistance * Greater insect 
resistance. 


See your local Hoffman agent, or write our corn men here, 
for the right "G” number for husking or silage in your 
locality. 


BIGGER YIELDS, BETTER CROPS with HOFFMAN FARM SEEDS 


How much nitrogen is returned 
by a good legume crop? 

A four-ton sweet clover crop, 
turned under, returns to the soil 
about 180 pounds of nitrogen. A 
two-ton red clover crop, plowed 
down, returns about half this 
amount. If the hay is removed there 
will be little or no nitrogen actually 
added to the soil. Two tons of hay 
carry off about SO pounds of phos¬ 
phoric acid and 70 pounds of potash 
— the plant fbod contained in 100 
pounds of normal superphosphate 
plus that in 110 pounds of muriate 
of potash. 

How many plant food elements are 
required for normal plant growth? 

Most scientists agree that there 
are 15 essential plant food elements: 
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, car¬ 
bon, hydrogen, oxygen, calcium, 
magnesium, sulfur, manganese, bo¬ 
ron, copper, zinc, iron and molyb¬ 
denum. The first three (nitrogen, 
phosphorus and potassium) are 
known as the primary plant food 
elements, and manganese, boron, 
copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum 
as the trace or minor plant food 
elements. Carbon, hydrogen and 
oxygen come from the air, the 
water and the carbon dioxide re¬ 
leased through the decomposition 
of organic matter. 

When was the first chemical fer¬ 
tilizer made in the United States? 

Just a little more than a century 
ago. The birthplace of the fertilizer 
industry is Baltimore, Maryland. 
Records show that the plant was 
started in 1849 but that no fertilizer 
was manufactured until 1850. Of 
course, some fertilizer materials 
such as guano and nitrate were pre¬ 
viously imported from foreign 
countries. The best records available 
indicate that ground bone was first 
used as fertilizer in the United 
States in 1825. It was not until 1835, 
however, that Escher suggested 
treating bones with acid to increase 
the Solubility of the phosphorus 
which they contain. 

Does soil reaction (degree of 
acidity of alkalinity) influence the 
availability of plant food elements 
in the soil? 

It certainly does. Most of the plant 
food elements are quite readily 
available between pH 6.5 and pH 
7.0. Remember that pH 7.0 is neutral. 
Under 7.0 is on the acid side; over 
7.0 is alkaline. 

Can hay and pasture crops be fer¬ 
tilized in the Fall with results 
equally as good as spring applica¬ 
tions? 

Most of our agricultural authori¬ 
ties feel that fall applications are 
equally as effective as those made 
in the Spring. Where heavy appli¬ 
cations of nitrogen are involved, 
recommendations usually specify 
holding back most of this particular 
plant food until Spring, in order to 
safeguard against possible loss by 
leaching. However, the other two 
plant foods, phosphoric acid and 
potash, are not easily lost .from the 
soil and can go on in the Fall. In the 
Fall it is usually easy to get on the 
land. Fall applications also keep the 
sod vigorous and lessen winter in¬ 
jury. Then, too, with the job out of 
the way more time will be available 
for the many rush jobs in the 
Spring. m. mc v. 


Plant the seed that pays off at harvest time! This year, 
plant Hoffman Quality Seed . . . clean, hardy, first-rate 
seed that gives you that "headstart” against the weather. 

Hoffman has all the seeds you need —Clover, Alfalfa, Oats, 
Rye Grass, Ladino, Soybeans, Pasture Grasses, and all 
others adapted to your area. 


Hoffman seeds help take the risk out of farming! Let them 
prove what Quality seed can do for you! 


mt FARM FACTS NOTEBOOK 
and NEW 1955 SEED GUIDE 


Fancy seeing you here!. . . 

THE RURAL NEW YORKER 


A. H. HOFFMAN, INC. 

Landisville (Lancaster County), Penna. 

WANT TO EARN EXTRA MONEY? A few select territories are still open for 
the appointment of Hoffman farmer-agents to take orders for Hoffman farm 
seeds and Funk G Corn. No investment required. For details write to Dept. A. 


Every farmer should have a copy of this Farm 
Facts Notebook. It's Filled with important infor¬ 
mation to help you grow better crops, get better 
yields. Contains many pages for notes. Also, 
get Free copy of our new Farm Seed Guide with 
information on all new seed varieties. Write 
A. H. Hoffman, Landisville, Pa., Box 3 2. 



























Wanted for Farming! 

More Honey Bees 


A study recently concluded at Cor¬ 
nell University shows that over 95 
per cent of the insects of value for 
pollination in the Ithaca area and, 
presumably, much of the Northeast 
are honey bees. In past years, 
bumble bees and wild bees were 
more important pollinators. As fields 
were made larger, hedgerows done 
away with and farming intensified, 
though, nests and food supply for 
these wild pollinators were de¬ 
stroyed. They died or moved else¬ 
where. 

Pollination is the main service per¬ 
formed by the honey bee. But many 
men keep bees for the honey they 
produce. There are about 600,000 
beekeepers in the United States. To 
make a living from bees requires 
that one have 500 or more colonies 
in groups of forty or fifty placed a 
few miles apart. It is, of course, al¬ 
most indispensable to the tree fruit 
grower to have bees. 

The farmer who gives up a small 
plot of land in some remote corner 
of his farm to a beekeeper can be 
sure his clovers will receive adequate 
pollination. They will be more apt 
to reseed year after year. A farmer 
half a mile or more from a bee yard 
often finds his permanent pastures 
and hayfields do not contain an 
abundance of clovers; reseeding is 
necessary. Having bees about surely 
does not make reseeding of fields 
unnecessary, but clovers do reseed to 
a greater extent when there’s plenty 
of bees nearby to visit all the flow¬ 
ers. For example, red, alsike, white 
Dutch and other clovers have 100 to 
200 flowers on each head. Each 
flower is capable of producing a seed 
but it must be visited to do so. To pro¬ 
duce the maximum amount of seeds 
there must be 100 to 200 bee visits 
per head. There can be, of course, 
many hundred heads per square 
yard. An Ohio extension specialist 
says there are about 400,000,000 indi¬ 
vidual florets in an acre of alsike 
clover and 216,000.000 in an acre of 
red clover. For each to produce a 
seed, of course each must be visited. 
The honey bee has no way of know¬ 
ing which florets have been visited 
and which have not. This means 
some florets receive many visits 
while others may receive a few or no 
visits at all. 

One author estimates that the pro¬ 
duction of 500 pounds of alfalfa seed 
per acre requires that honeybees 
visit and pollinate 38 million blos¬ 
soms. Another states that, when bees 
were not present in fields, red clover 
produced only 0.49 seeds per head 
and Ladino clovers produced about 3. 
When one colony of bees per acre 
was present, red clover produced 61.5 
seeds per head and Ladino produced 
149. In Texas, fields of vetch with no 
honey bees within ' two miles pro¬ 
duced only 410 pounds of seed per 


acre. Fields with one-tenth to one 
colony of bees per acre within one 
mile made 713 pounds and fields with 
one and a half to three colonies per 
acre within half a mile produced 
1,277 pounds of seed. That the yield 
reached even 410 pounds per acre on 
the fields which were without honey 
bees nearby "was due to pollination 
by wild bees and by wind and rain. 
Bees will fly as far as four or five 
miles to a feed supply, but that dis¬ 
tance of flight is rare. 

Present haying methods, and often 
pasturing methods, remove many of 
the flowers before they ripen. But, 
no hay field blooms at exactly the 
same time and, in many instances, 
there is time for mature seed to form 
before harvest. This is especially true 
of birdsioot trefoil. With this plant, 
the seed pod shatters as soon as the 
seed is ripe; other plants are better 
at retaining their seed. Some fields 
of birdsfoot trefoil which are still in 
production in this area were planted 
in the late 1930’s under the C.C.C. 

In pastures where close grazing is 
not practiced, the clovers have a good 
chance to reseed if they receive 
enough bee visits. But even where 
pastures are closely grazed one will 
find some bloom, even if it be only 
that around the heaps of manure 
where the animals do not eat closely. 
Each head in bloom is capable of pro¬ 
ducing 10 to 200 seeds, but only if it 
receives a large enough number of 
bee visits. Red clover is good evi¬ 
dence of this. A root-eating insect 
destroys the plants, but still we see it 
reseeding. Red clover reseeds best 
in the vicinity of bee yards. 

The Soil Conservation Service has 
taken an interest in providing bee 
pasturage for beekeepers and also 
for fruit and seed ci*op farmers. As 
a part of a whole farm plan it may 
recommend special plants of good 
nectar supply for land classes VII 
and VIII. Usually the crop plants of 
a farm provide sufficient bee pastur¬ 
age, but there are sometimes gaps in 
the continuity of feed supply. When 
there are, special plantings are re¬ 
commended. On the fruit and dairy 
farm of Ralph Easterbrook in Wor¬ 
cester County, Mass., for instance, 
SC§ Technician Roscoe Johnson 
found that a small planting of sweet 
clover would provide for a complete 
bee pasturage, with the other farm 
crop plants, throughout the food¬ 
gathering year of the bees. So Mr. 
Easterbrook put it in and it has 
worked out successfully. 

Our present farming methods are 
doing away with wild bee popula¬ 
tions. Unless our beekeepers begin 
to get larger honey crops than they 
have been getting over the past few 
years, we may very well see a de¬ 
cline in the honeybee population. 

Roger A. Morse 



This beeyard insures a good set of clover seed in the vicinity year after 
year. Farmers for half a mile around find plenty of clovers in hayfields 

and pastures. i 


February 5, 1955 

VC. „ .*• a. 



Will the milk can 

Every day, research in agriculture 
tends to outmode old farming meth¬ 
ods and equipment by developing 
new and more efficient ways of 
doing things. 

One important and revolution¬ 
ary change taking place fast in 
dairy farming areas is the bulk 
tank method of handling milk. In¬ 
stead of using the old familiar milk 


be next to go? 

cans, the farmer now stores his 
milk in tanks. The trucker pumps 
the milk from the tanks and trans¬ 
ports it in tank wagons. 

This bulk tank method of han¬ 
dling milk has definite advantages. 
It’s cheaper and easier to handle 
the milk this way and it keeps the 
milk cleaner. It may well spell the 
doom of the old milk can. 



WHAT’S BEST IN 
MAINTENANCE? 


Gulf Multi-Purpose Gear Lubricant 


Here is a high-quaiity gear lubri¬ 
cant, perfect for all conventional 
transmissions and differentials. It 
eliminates the problem of keeping 
three, four, or even more different 


lubricants on hand. Gulf Multi- 
Purpose Gear Lubricant is non-cor¬ 
rosive. Available in 5-gal. cans, 
14- and 55-gal. drums; SAE grades 
80, 90, 140. 



You farm better when 


you farm with GULF! 


Gulfpride H.D. — the high detergency motor oil—keeps en¬ 
gines clean and reduces engine wear. 

Gulf Ail-Purpose Farm Grease -saves you the expense and 
bother of keeping a number of separate greases on hand. 

THRIFTY FARMERS GO GULF 


t 


r* 


8 
























Diamond Jubilee 



ALOG 


64 Pages in FULL COLOR 


Send postcard for our FREE Cata¬ 
log today. Packed with Ornamen¬ 
tal and Flowering Shrubs and 
Trees, Fruit Trees (Dwarf and 
Standard), Berries, Shade Trees, 
Roses, Evergreens in all their gor¬ 
geous color. Contains a wealth of 
"HOW TO" suggestions for best 
results. Diamond Jubilee SPE¬ 
CIALS give you More for Your 
Money. KELLY plants are depend- 
oble and top quality._ 


INTERLAKEN 


The NEW Seedless Grape 


Golden yellow berriee 
have delicious tangy 
flavor. Very sweet. Eat 
them whole. ABSO¬ 
LUTELY SEEDLESS. 
Hardy, Disease free. 
Ripens August 15 — 
September 1. 

ROMULUS — Similar 
to Interlaken but 
ripens 2 weeks later. 



postpaid 


KELLY BROS. NURSERIES, INC. 
32 MAPLE ST., DANSVSLLE, N. Y. 



FARM DATA 
NOTEBOOK and 
'55 SEED GUIDE 

Both are FREE! Farm 
Facts Pocket Note¬ 
book contains many 
valuable facts with 
space for day-to-day 
notes. New ’55 Seed Guide 
tells all about new seed varie¬ 
ties. Get yours today. Write 
card or letter to 

A. H. HOFFMAN/ Inc 

Box 32R, Landisville, Pa. 


CHRISTMAS TREE 

PLANTING STOCK. SCOTCH PINE A SPECIALTY. 
WE GROW MILLIONS. QUALITY STOCK AT 
LOW PRICES DIRECT FROM GROWER. WRITE 
FOR COMPLETE PRICE LIST AND PLANTING 
GUIDE. 

Suncrest Evergreen Nurseries 

DEPT. RNY, BOX 305, HOMER CITY, PA. 


FRUIT TREES, STRAWBERRY, RASPBERRY 
AND BLUEBERRY PLANTS 


Nut and Shade Trees, Grape 
Vines, Flowering Shrubs, Ever¬ 
greens, Dwarf Apple Trees (on 
Mailing 9 and 7 stock). Over 80 
years growing and distribution 
service to planters guarantees sat¬ 
isfaction. FREE 60-page catalog 
illustrate*, describes complete nur¬ 
sery line, reasonable prices. Write. 
Bountiful Ridge Nurseries, Bx R2I5, Princess Anne.Md. 



6 RHODODENDRON 
and £ AZALEAS 

Hybrid seedlings from red flower¬ 
ing stock. 2 yr. transplants 4" to 8", 
in individual plant bands. Abun¬ 
dant roots, large leaves. Postpaid 
at planting time. Send for our FREE catalog. 

20-B n 


MUSSER FORESTS, 






STRAWBERRIES 


Allen’s 1965 Berry Book tells best 
varieties for home and market, 
and how to grow them. Free copy- 
Write today. 

W. F. ALLEN COMPANY 


72 Evergreen Ave., Salisbury, Maryland 



DWARF 
FRUIT 

TREES 

16 VARIETIES 

Apples, Pears, Peaches, Cherries 

Ideal for home gardens, require little space. Produce 
high quality, full size fruit 2nd year after planting. 
Our trees are budded on hardy, vigorous Mailing stock. 


MALONEY 


Maloney Bros. Nursery Co. 

34 CIRCLE ROAD DANSVILLE, N. Y. 


3LU£BBm‘ES 


Write now for FREE Color Catalog! Big 
values in Fruit Trees, Berries, Grapes, 
Shrubs, Roses, Perennials, Evergreens. 
Sturdy, strong rooted stock, guaranteed 
to grow and true to name. Our 71st Year. 


A KID! EC. Cortland, North- 
ArrLEJ. ern Spy, Mc¬ 
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PF A pc.Bartlett, Seckel 
rtMKJ.ciaDBS Favorite 
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PEACHES:,” a 1 e Haven 


$3.25 


EACH 

POSTPAID 


Clapps Favorite! ( 3 for $8.95 


Red 


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CHERRIES: M^or,North 


REPLACED FREE 
IF THEY FAIL 
l TO GROW. FREE 
PLANTING GUIDE, 


Write for our FREE CATALOG of Fruit Trees, 
Berries, Grapes and Ornamental Trees. 


J. Miller Nurseries 

565 WEST LAKE RD., CANANDAIGUA, N. Y. 


Blueberry Plants 

WHOLESALE & RETAIL 

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Onedozen large assorted 2 year plants 
Early Midseason & Late Varieties 

GALLETTA BROS.—BLUEBERRY FARMS 

475 S. Chew Read Hammenton, N. J. 


I WANT EVERY READER 

of this Paper to have my big new 

M EARLIANA TOMATO 


1 »s 


“KING OF THE EARLIES’ 

Big solid, scarlet fruit, disease 
‘S resistant, heavy yielder. Ideal for 
t table or canning. Send 125 SEED 

yS&BBm postal today for 125 seed ETHSCIT 
and copy of Seed and Nursery Catalog, f l»EE 

R.H.SHUMWAY SEEDSMAN, Dept. 428 Rockford, ILL 


EVERGREENS 

Quality seedlings and transplants for Christmas trees 
and forest planting. Write for Spring 1955 price list. 

Clearfield Bituminous Coal Corp. 

DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS 
INDIANA, INDIANA COUNTY, PENNA. 


TREES loc 


PE AC H 
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Cherries, Pears, Plums, Nut trees. Strawberries, Blue¬ 
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Write for FREE color catalog and $2.00 FREE bonus 
information. TENNESSEE NURSERY CO., 

BOX 16. CLEVELAND. TENNESSEE 



TKAWBERRY PLANTS 

Write for catalog, fully describing all 
varieties, with best methods of growing 
them. Satisfaction Guaranteed. 

J. H. SHIVERS, Box R-551, Allen, Md. 


HEALTHFUL — PROFITABLE — FLAVORFUL 

10 big different packets finest Herb seeds. Growing 
instructions — recipes — All complete for only $1.00. 
NORTH NURSERY 

1907 MAIN ST., NIAGARA FALLS 13, N. Y. 



BUTTERCUP — Famous for flavor 


41ARRIS SEEDS 

WE’VE BEEN SNOOPING THIS WINTER! 

•'*. . at the Supermarkets, that is, and have been im¬ 
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shopper's baskets. Apparently they’ve discovered that: (1) 
Buttercup's thick, dry flesh has smooth texture and extra fine 
flavor; (2) The inside is almost completely filled with deep 
orange flesh; (3) They are just the right size for a family; 
(4) They keep well in storage; (5) They are excellent for 
freezing. We have an especially fine strain of Buttercup. 

SEND FOR OUR FREE CATALOG 
You’ll like our honest descriptions, candid illustrations and 
helpful cultural notes. 

If you grow for market, ask for our Market 
Gardeners’ and Florists’ Catalog. 

JOSEPH HARRIS CO., INC. 

17 Moreton Farm, Rochester 11, New York 

1955 CATALOG mw Aeadij 


Latest in Weed Control 


The annual Northeastern Weed 
Control Conference was held Janu¬ 
ary 5-7 in New York City. This an¬ 
nual meeting brings together the 
leaders in scientific investigation of 
methods for controlling weeds in 
farm crops. While a considerable 
portion of the discussions is high¬ 
ly technical, nevertheless, a great 
deal of practical value is brought out 
in the course of the talks. 

In the presentation of their papers 
dealing with various subjects rela¬ 
tive to weed control, the speakers 
necessarily use long, technical chem¬ 
ical names for the herbicides discus¬ 
sed. However, in this report we 
will use the more common trade 
names because they represent the 
trade designation under which vari¬ 
ous products can be obtained. Some 
of the newer herbicidal chemicals 
have not as yet been placed on the 
market, and these must therefore be 
discussed by their chemical names. 
They are especially significant be¬ 
cause of their promise with respect 
to weed control. 

In an interesting report relative to 
nw classes of herbicides, L.H. Han¬ 
nah of the Monsanto Chemical Com¬ 
pany brought out that many work¬ 
ers have reported that annual 
grasses are becoming a serious prob¬ 
lem in most cultivated crops. He 
stated that last December a leading 
weed specialist reported: “So far, 
there has been no new herbicide that 
will take annual grasses out of corn, 
and there is not likely to be one 
soon, since both types of plants be¬ 
long to the grass family”. 

But Annual Grasses Can Be Killed 

Nevertheless, even as this state¬ 
ment was being made, certain com¬ 
pounds were already doing the job. 
Certain amides of chloroacetic acid, 
including a-chloro-N, N-diallylace- 
tamide and a-chloro-N, N-diethylace- 
tamide show promise as pre-emerg¬ 
ence herbicides for the solution of 
this problem. It appears that one will 
soon be able to eliminate weedy 
grasses from among certain other 

grasses, as well as broadleaf crops 

without injury to the crop. The 

a-chloroacetamides selectively elim¬ 
inate various foxtail species, in¬ 
cluding giant foxtail, crabgrass and 
certain other annual weedy grasses 
without damage to cultivated agro¬ 

nomic and horticultural crops. 

One of the outstanding new hei'bi- 
cides, Dalapon, which is active on 
grasses, has recently been intro¬ 
duced by the Dow Chemical Com¬ 
pany. A discussion of this herbicide, 
with emphasis on its translocation, 
was presented by Professor P. W. 
Santelmann of the University of 
Maryland and Professor C. J. Wil¬ 
lard of Ohio State University. Dala¬ 
pon w T as found to be easily translo¬ 
cated through living quackgrass 
rhizomes. Translocation occurred 
very well when shoots 12 to 18 cm. 
tall were treated at concentrations 
of 50,000 parts per million (p.p.m.) 
or higher. When the mechanism of 
translocation was studied by using 
dark periods before treatment in or¬ 
der to deplete the leaves of photo- 
synthates, it was found that Dalapon 
probably is translocated with photo- 
synthates in plants, but that thi§ is 
not the only means of translocation. 
Dalapon was found to enter the leaf 
rapidly, enough entering in five min¬ 
utes to damage the treated leaf. 
Within 30 minutes after treatment, 


enough had entered to be subse¬ 
quently translocated out and to kill 
the untreated shoot, but it took at 
least three hours for this transloca¬ 
tion to occur. 

f 

Weed Killer Moves from Leaves 
to Tough Roots 

Amizol is the trade name used by 
the American Chemical Paint Com¬ 
pany for the chemical 3-amino-l, 2, 4- 
triazole. Work with this product was 
reported by A. H. Tafuro, R.H. 
Beatty and R. T. Guest. They stated 
that Amizozl had been tested in the 
greenhouse and in extensive field 
trials for the past three years for 
growth-regulating properties. When 
this material is sprayed onto plants, 
it is absorbed by the roots and aerial 
parts of plants and is translocated 
within the plants. They stated that 
three years’ work on Amizol in the 
southern and southwestern part of 
the United States has shown that 
this chemical is an excellent cotton 
defoliant with the unique property 
of inhibiting regrowth. This chemical 
has shown promise for use as a herb¬ 
icide on some perennial broadleaf 
weeds and grasses, such as Canada 
thistle, milk weed, quackgrass, 
Bermuda grass and nut grass. Work 
in Georgia indicates that Amizol 
translocates through the root system 
of nut grass beyond the first nut for¬ 
mation. It has also been reported in 
Georgia that Amizol translocates 
through Johnson grass root systems 
when applied to the foliage. Work 
done at the American Chemical 
Paint Company’s research farm dem¬ 
onstrated similar translocation Ol 
A mizol into the quack grass root sys¬ 
tem from foliage 'application. From 
tests conducted on Amizol it was 
found that no injury was observed 
on either corn, soybeans or tomatoes, 
when they were planted seven days 
after Amizol had been applied to the 
soil at both four and eight pounds 
per acre. Plants outgrew any effect 
of discoloration within two to three 
weeks. Coi’n, soybeans and tomatoes, 
planted 14 days after 12 and 20 
pounds per acre of Amizol were ap¬ 
plied to the soil, produced no injury 
although moderate to severe injury 
developed in crops planted three 
days and seven days after Amizol 
was applied at these rates. 

Urea Requires Special Agitation 

Proper application of urea herbi¬ 
cides in conventional spray equip¬ 
ment has been more difficult than 
application of many other weed 
killei’s due to low solubility. This 
has made it desirable to formulate 
them as wettable- powders. L. E. 
Creasy and C. E. Wilson, Jr., of E.I. 
du Pont, reported that mechanical 
agitation is generally preferred and. 
where present, is usually adequate. 
Observation and consideration of 
basic principles make it evident that 
the mere presence of a mechanical 
agitation assembly does not neces¬ 
sarily assure adequate agitation. A 
common cause of poor mechanical 
agitation is the operation of the agi¬ 
tator at slower than normal speeds. 
This often occurs when the pump 
capacity is greatly above that re¬ 
quired for spraying and the power 
unit is operated at a reduced speed. 
Air agitation should be avoided. It 
is not considei’ed effective for agi¬ 
tation of wettable powder formula¬ 
tions and has the serious drawback 



84 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 



















































of inducing excessive foaming. In 
extreme cases, the wettable powder 
may be carried into the foam as bur¬ 
den and result in inaccurate applica¬ 
tions. 

Modern Adapted Equipment 
Is Needed 

In their talks concerning available 
equipment for applying various 
kinds .of solubles, emulsions, and 
wettable powders, Professors E. D. 
Markwardt and W. W. Gunkel of 
Cornell pointed out that the equip-; 
ment needs for spraying herbicides! 
have greatly changed since farmers! 
first started applying 2-4-D. A simple,! 
inexpensive sprayer with a small 
gear pump seemed to be adequate! 
then.However,as new chemicals were; 
found which required higher rates 
per acre and were abrasive or corro¬ 
sive to the equipment or caused, 
nozzle and strainer clogging, the 
need for better equipment increased. 
Growers and custom operators de¬ 
manded more durable, less trouble¬ 
some equipment and, also, equip¬ 
ment that could be used for a greater 
variety of spraying jobs. The equip¬ 
ment industry responded with better- 
valves, strainers, pressure regulators,! 
pumps, nozzles, booms and mounts. 
They used metals and synthetic 
rubbers that better withstood the 
action of the chemicals and had a 
longer life. Hardened steel nozzles 
lasted longer when spraying abras¬ 
ive sprays and a more uniform ap¬ 
plication was possible. The inexpens¬ 
ive pumps which were adequate for 
five or 10 gallons per acre of 2-4-D 
sprays wore out rapidly when used 
with some of the more abrasive 
spray materials. Many growers be¬ 
gan to see the need for equipment 
and particularly a pump that would 
have a longer life when used with 
wettable powders. It placed greater 
emphasis on the need for the grower 
to select carefully a pump that would 
meet his needs. Factors that must be 
considered in selecting a pump for 
a sprayer are: type of materials to 
be used; spraying pressures re¬ 
quired; capacity of the pump, based 
on width of boom, speed of travel, 
rate per acre applied; and cost. 

R. W. Duck 


Soil Conservation in 





"a 

•j 






VIKCI.NJA-CAROUIU CHiMICAl CORPORATION 


fSRTiUZERS 






"Your Grandfather sold 


Pennsylvania 

The Soil Conservation Program as 
it is being administered in Pennsyl¬ 
vania today, especially since Ezra 
Taft Benson turned its administra- 
tion over to the states, has become 
a mere political racket and an out¬ 
right swindle that benefits only the 
politically appointed bureaucrats in 
the offices. 

The State here has taken all func¬ 
tions away from our duly elected 
repi'esentatives, except one, i. e., the 
election of the county chairman for 
soil conservation, a man we never 
see and who is unknown to us, and 
turned them over to the clerks — 
some of them females appointed by 
their husbands to their jobs — of the 
marketing administration. These 
people have not the slightest knowl¬ 
edge of soil conservation, or even 
farming, but they can and do nullify 
some of the best decisions made by 
the Soil 'Conservation technicians. 

When a farmer has carried out a 
successful program on his land and 
has done a lot of hard work and 
spent many of his hard-earned dol¬ 
lars on it, he is confronted with a 
lot of impossible red tape and in¬ 
significant technicalities by which 
fie is deprived of some, and in some 
cases, all of the promised benefits. 

Formerly, our elected representa¬ 
tive (all farmers) came out, looked 
over the work done and would make 
their recommendations and author¬ 
ize the work to be done for the next 
year. But, since the clerks took over, 
everything is done only on paper 
and the farmer must go to the mar¬ 
keting administration office, hat in 
hand, and cowtow to the clerks. 

A fine situation, indeed. 

Tioga Co., Pa. h. l. d. 


¥C FERTILIZERS!" 


V-C FERTILIZERS are known and trusted 
by this young man starting out in business. 

Ever since he can remember, his father 
and grandfather have been selling V-C Fer¬ 
tilizers and more and more good farmers in 
his neighborhood have been buying and 
using these better fertilizers. 

For 60 years, in many communities in 
many states, Virginia-Carolina Chemical 
Corporation has been making and holding 
friends . . . agents and dealers like John 
Smith & Son . . . and good farmers every¬ 
where who try V-C Fertilizers and then 
keep on buying and using V-C Fertilizers. 

More than 5,000 reliable dealers have 
been supplying their customers V-C Ferti¬ 
lizers continuously for at least 10 years. 
Many of these dealers have handled V-C 
Fertilizers for 30, 40 or 50 years and longer,. 

Such well-established loyalty among so 
many fine folks is a mighty sound endorse¬ 
ment for V-C Fertilizers. It means that year 


after year V-C practical farm experience, 
V-C scientific research and V-C manufac¬ 
turing skill continue to provide better and 
better fertilizers for every crop on every soil. 
It also means that when you buy V-C 
Fertilizers, you are getting an honest and 
dependable product manufactured and sold 
by people who value your friendship and 
your confidence. 

See your V-C agent or dealer today. He 
is a good man to know and do business with. 



SOfh ANNIVERSARY 


v 


February 5, 1955 


35 




































Lime — Wheelhorse of the Soil 


to Farm with 


You get more plant food for your money, you? 
crops get extra growing energy that pays off in 
highest-quality yields and bigger profits when 
you farm with energized Vertagreen. 

Every year thousands of farmers report new 
crop records, amazing growing results with 
Vertagreen. Extra strength, perfectly blended 
Vertagreen feeds crops completely, helps carry 
them through dry weather and provides real 
growing power from planting right through to 
the harvest. 

And Vertagreen actually costs you less in the 
long run. See your friendly Armour agent today. 
Ask him for Vertagreen in the analysis especially 
prepared for crops and soils in your section. 


ORDER NOW! 


Be sure. Have Vertagreen on hand 
when you need it. Get your order in 
now. Prompt delivery may be difficult 
on late orders. 


ARMOUR FERTILIZER WORKS 


Ray Barta 


with 


Science’s New Midget Miracle, 
PRESTO Fire Extinguisher 
So reported RAY BARTA of Wisconsin. 
Many others “cleaning up” 
so can YOU! 

A MAZING new kind of lire extinguisher. 

Tiny “Presto" does job of bulky extin¬ 
guishers that cost 4 times as much, are 
8 times as heavy. Knds tires fast as 2 
seconds. Fits in palm of hand. Never 
corrodes. Guaranteed for 20 years! Sells 
for only 83.08! Show it to civil defense 
workers, owners of homes, cars, boats, 
farms, etc., and to stores for re-sale— 
make good income. H. J. Kerr reports 
$20 a day. C. Kama, $1,000 a month. 
Write for FREE Sales Kit. No obliga¬ 
tion. (If you want a regular Presto to 
rise as a demonstrator semi $2.50. Money 
back if you wish). MERLITE INDUS- 

Sciencc’s T * ,ES ’ Dtpt - 62 ’ 1,4 East 32nd St ” 
New Midget T , , 

Miracle Mopa Company, Eta., 

"‘PRESTO” Montreal 1, P. Q._ 


New York 16, N. Y. IN CANADA: 

371 Dowd St.. 


Without obligation, write for 
information on steps to take 
to secure a Patent, 

JOHN N. RANDOLPH. Beg. Pat. Atty. 

231 COLUMBIAN BLDG.. WASHINGTON I. O. G. 


PATENTS 


-LEE—GOODRICIh 

AND OTHER t FADING BRANDS 

TIRES 

ilMttZiP 1 WHOLESALE 

TO “ s 

NO SECONDS 

We are wholesale tire dealers and cater 
to farm trade. Save money on car. 
truck and tractor tires. Write for prices 
SPECIFY SIZE, PLY & TREAD DESIGN. 
Sold on a "MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE 

EMPIRE TIRE CO. 

2564 Bedford Ave. Brooklyn 26, N. Y. 


Cottontail Repellent 

Gnawing. Girdling Damage to Your Valuable Trees, 
Shrubs. Blueberry Bushes, etc.. Prevented all Winter 
by BEAN'S COTTONTAIL REPELLENT. Quart $1.75 
paints sprays 50 young trees. Gallon $5.75 Postpaid. 
F. R. BEAN COMPANY. SCOTTSVILLE, N. Y. 


(Continued from Page 76) 

that toxic elements accumulate there 
and prevent plants from rooting as 
deeply as they naturally would. In 
such cases, plowing lime under or 
placing it on the plow sole decreases 
subsoil acidity more quickly than 
disking it in. If some lime is deeply 
placed, just as much should be 
disked in. The acidity of soil near 
the surface, where all young plants 
must start and below which roots of 
many plants never penetrate must 
be counteracted. 

So-called ‘plow pans’ are some¬ 
times formed by frequent tillage 
operations at the same depth; they 
retard or prevent the passage of 
water, air, and the roots of plants. 
Where they exist, plow-sole applica¬ 
tion of liberal amounts of lime may 
be the most practical way of open¬ 
ing the subsoil and thereby improv¬ 
ing drainage, aeration, and the 
growth of crops. Gypsum, a carrier 
of calcium which does not change 
the acidity of soils, may be more 
effective than lime on impervious 
hardpans. 

Effects of Lime 

For over thirty years, the writer 
and his associates have been study¬ 
ing the penetrative effects of lime 
in fine sandy loam soil on the 
Agronomy Farm at the Storrs (Con¬ 
necticut) Experimental Station. A 
few statements based on findings 
and results illustrate the general 
principles of lime as related to farm 
soils and crop production. 

Untreated soil at the station is 
naturally acid—pH 5.2—and requires 
about four tons of limestone per 
acre to reduce acidity of the plow 
layer to a pH of from 6.6 to 6.8. As 
with most soils in humid regions, 
the subsoil is not so acid as the plow 
layer and it becomes less acid as 
depth increases. Alfalfa, a deep- 
rooted, lime-loving plant, grows very 
well if the plow layer is limed to 
low acidity, that is, above pH 6.3. In 
fact, alfalfa has been successfully 
grown when only one ton of lime¬ 
stone per acre was mixed with the 
upper two inches of this acid soil. 
This is an illustration of the tenet 
that it is unnecessary to lime the 
whole plow layer to low acidity. It 
should be understood, however, 
that this is a hand-to-mouth practice 
and not generally recommended. 

The importance of time in lime 
penetration is shown by the results 
on some permanent grassland plots 
at the Connecticut Station. After two 
years, limestone spread on the sur¬ 
face at two tons per acre decreased 
acidity of the second inch of soil; 
after five years, it had the fourth 
inch and, after eight years, the sixth 
inch. For many years, the surface 
layers were less acid than the 
deeper ones. After eighteen years, 
however, the surface inch had again 
become more acid than the one below 
it. Thus, in less than a generation, 
the natural processes of increasing 
acidity overcame the neutralizing 
effects of lime on the upper inch of 
soil. For actual farming conditions, 
it would have been a good practice 
to add another two tons of lime 
after eight or ten years. 

Amounts of Lime 

The rate of lime’s penetration and 
its effectiveness in deep soil levels 
can be hastened if more lime is 
spread. For example, where four 
tons of limestone per acre were 
added in our grassland experiments, 
decreased acidity was always found 
deeper than it was on the plots 
which received only two tons. At the 
end of a two-year period, those 
greater depths were three instead of 
two inches; after five years five in¬ 
stead of four inches, and after eight 
years eight instead of six inches. Be¬ 
sides greater penetration, the four- 
ton application kept the near-surface 


layer of soils neutral for a much 
longer period than the two tons did. 

During the same lengths of time, 
eight tons of limestone per acre de¬ 
creased the acidity to still greater 
depths than did the four tons. Eight 
tons is an impractcial amount to ap¬ 
ply at one time, though, especially on 
the surface. Much of such a large ap¬ 
plication is ineffective for several 
years because, even during wet 
weather, soil water becomes satur¬ 
ated with soluble products of lime¬ 
stone decomposition. The remaining 
lime must await absorption by the 
soil or downward movement of the 
lime in solution before it can itself 
dissolve. It would be a better prac¬ 
tice to space such heavy amounts 
over a period of years. 

The results of another experiment 
at Storrs illustrate the penetrative 
effects of mixed-in lime. During a 
15-year period, limestone at eight 
tons per acre was mixed with the 
plow layer. Tests of samples taken 20 
years after the first liming showed 
that the acidity of the upper six 
inches of subsoil had been decreased 
so much by the downward movement 
of soluble lime products that they 
had the same reaction as the tilled 
layei*. Furthermore, the acidity of 
even the third foot was reduced to 
a measurable extent. 

If lime is spread unevenly on a 
soil, unevenness will persist until 
the patches with more lime are 
moved and mixed with those with 
less lime. Unless the soil itself is 
moved by wind or water, there is 
very little lateral movement of lime 
by natural forces. Tillage operations 
do not move soil more than a foot 
or two. One can see these facts il¬ 
lustrated every time areas of a field 
with acid soil are skipped in spread 
ing lime. The growth of the crop is 
just as uneven as the distribution of 
the lime. Because of the persistent 
effects of lime, it may take 25 or 
more years for a haphazardly limed 
field to approach uniformity again. 
And, during all that time, the un¬ 
limed or scantily limed areas are 
either not producing to capacity or 
are not successfully producing crops 
at all. 

Overliming Is Not Common 

Quite frequently one sees warnings 
against overliming soils. Such warn¬ 
ings are based on knowledge that 
certain minor nutrient elements are 
somewhat less available to plants in 
soils limed to above neutrality, that 
is, above pH 7. Under such circum¬ 
stances, boron and especially manga¬ 
nese are the elements most likely to 
be deficient. In the writer’s exper¬ 
ience, however, dry weather or low 
soil moisture is much more potent 
than excessive liming in rendering 
boron unavailable. And, if a carrier 
of boron is added for the few crops 
which obtain too little boron during 
dry periods, there is little need to 
worry about overliming. 

The availability of manganese is 
reduced more by liming than boron 
is. On the other hand, manganese 
is usually much more prevalent in 
soils. Since light sandy soils contain 
less manganese and are more easily 
overlimed, one should be careful in 
liming them. The point to emphasize 
here, however, is that there is little 
danger of injury to crops from liming 
if the usually recommended amounts 
are spread evenly. In fact, it is 
probable there are a thousand acres 
of underlimed land to every over¬ 
limed acre in the Northeast. 


86 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 





























LOOK HOW MUCH it pays to package in film made of BAKELITE Polyethylene 



Data supplied by The Dobeckmun Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

“Apple sales went up 34% 

Orange sales went up 52%’’ 


That’s the experience of but one of 
many big supermarkets... after mer¬ 
chandising fruit packaged in film 
made of Bakelite Polyethylene. 

A very important point for growers 
and shippers to remember is that 
packaging in polyethylene bags dras¬ 
tically cuts waste at the retail level. 
Premium prices at the grower level 
are better protected. 

A second and just as important 
advantage is the ability to create 
brand identity at the grower level. 
It has been well indicated that re¬ 
tailers, even though they do their 


own pre-packaging today, would 
prefer to buy fruit already packaged 
in polyethylene (and obviously at a 
higher unit price than growers re¬ 
ceive for bulk shipments). 

Throughout the country, there are 
suppliers of packaging bags made of 
film produced from Bakelite Poly¬ 
ethylene. See your own local sup¬ 
plier and get the facts. And remem¬ 
ber, when you specify film made of 
Bakelite Polyethylene, you know 
the resins used are of uniform high 
quality assured by Bakelite Company, 
largest producer of polyethylene. 



BAKELITE COMPANY, A Division of Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation hHn 30 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 


S7 


February 5, 1955 









WORLD RECORD YIELD HYBRID SEED CORN 
DEVELOPED AND FIELD-PROVED IN YOUR AREA 


Genuine PFISTER SILAGE HYBRIDS 

Give you a PLUS FACTOR . -. 






PFISTER HYBRIDS give you 


Sometimes you have to hand it to the research boys. Take silage, 
for instance... 

During the past 10 years great strides have been made, and P.A.G. 
now makes available a wide variety of hybrid seed- field-proved 
especially for silage...hybrids that mature at just the right time 
(even in cool and short season areas)... with just the right amounts 
of sugar and moisture content for proper acid action and succulent 
palatable feed. ..heavy populated stands of thick leaved plants with 
tall, solid stalks and good quality ears. 


Distributed by L« P. GUNSON & COMPANY 

Rochester 1, New York 


With Genuine Pfister special silage hybrids you get a 
bonus...after your silo is filled, any uncut areas not 
used for silage, are top yielders in shelled corn...to 
feed or to sell! 


For more information on 
specific hybrids especially 
developed for ensilage 
in your locality, or for any 
other seed corn requirements, 
see your local Genuine 
Pfister Hybrid dealer. 


GENERAL OFFICES 
AURORA, ILLINOIS 


At Nut Growers’ Meeting 


The Northern Nut Growers Asso¬ 
ciation held its 45th annual meeting 
recently in Lancaster, Pa., an area 
well known to nut culturists. The 
fertile soils and moderate climate 
provide favorable growing conditions 
for many nuts. Some of the largest 
and most successful nut tree plant¬ 
ings in the East are nearby. 

Chinese chestnuts, now attracting 
much attention from nut grower's, 
were featured at the meeting. Spe¬ 
cial attention was given to the ques¬ 
tion of seedling trees versus named 
varieties. The widespread distribu¬ 
tion of seedling trees by nurseries in 
recent years has made their useful¬ 
ness a lively topic at gatherings of 
nut growers. 

Chinese Chestnuts 

E. Sam Hemming, of Easton, Md., 
has raised large numbers of seedling 
Chinese chestnuts in recent years. 
The seed nuts are planted in nurs¬ 
ery rows in the Fall as soon as har¬ 
vested and before they dry out. The 
nuts are set two inches deep in rows 
three nuts wide with seven feet 
between the rows. They are covered 
with two inches of sawdust, then 
four to five inches of soil over the 
sawdust. The soil is removed in the 
Spring leaving the sawdust as a 
growing season mulch. If the chest¬ 
nuts are not planted in the Fall, they 
may be stored over winter at 32° 
F. in polyethylene bags or in tin cans 
with a hole the size of a 20-penny 
nail in the lid. Nuts so stored ger¬ 
minate well when planted in the 
Spring as soon as the weather per¬ 
mits. 

Mr. Hemming stated that one-year- 
old seedlings transplant better than 
two-year-old trees and these in turn 
transplant better than older trees. 

A few nurseries are now selling 
budded trees of named varieties of 
Chinese chestnuts that have been 
grown in recent years. These, like 


McIntosh apples, or Elberta peaches, 
are all alike and perform uniformly 
well. Commercial growers who are 
starting large chestnut orchards in 
Georgia are using some named va¬ 
rieties: Nanking, Meiling, Ruling 
and Abundance are considered to be 
the best varieties available. 

Grower Plantings 

The extensive nut plantings of W. 
W. Posey, Eden, Pa., consist of 115 
acres mostly planted to chestnut 
seedlings raised from seeds of his 
own selections; these came from 
seeds imported from China. Near 
York, Mr. Posey has several thousand 
more chestnuts. Among them are 
thriving trees of the Japanese 
chestnut raised from seeds of the 
100-year-old Stein trees near Man- 
heim. Some were cropping heavily. 
John Rick of Reading is another en¬ 
thusiastic nut tree planter with a 
large collection of many kinds of 
nuts. His Oriental and American per¬ 
simmons were of much interest. 

At Lemasters. Fayette Etter is 
growing the best collections of nut 
trees in the Northeast. His 15-acre 
orchard is closely planted, but poor 
varieties are discarded as soon as 
their lack of merit becomes evident. 
His knowledge of nut tree varieties 
is extensive and thorough. In his 
territory are thousands of seedling 
Persian (English) walnuts. Mr. Et¬ 
ter has seen most of these and from 
them has selected four which he con¬ 
siders outstanding. Some promising 
seedlings of Abundance chestnut 
and a collection of hickories and 
native persimmons were other feat¬ 
ures of interest. 

The officers elected for 1954-55 are 
George L. Slate of Geneva, N. Y., 
president; Gilbert Becker of Climax, 
Mich., vice-pres.; W.S. Clarke, Jr. of 
State College Pa., treas. - and Spen¬ 
cer Chase of Knoxville, Tenn., secy. 

G. L. Slate 



Chain Saws for the Woodlot 



Here is a dependable light chain sa?o that will take either an 18- or 22-inch 
blade. The cutting chain is easily sharpened and it is automatically oiled 
during operation. Guide bar is adjustable for easy notching or quick felling. 



This powerful new lightweight chain saw, designed especially for volume 
production cutting with a one-cylinder, two-cycle, five horsepower economy 
engine, zips through even the toughest timber up to 4JA feet in diameter. 
It has an automatic one-Yiand rewind type starter, an automatic centrifugal 
clutch that requires no controls, and an automatic oiler that lubricates the 
chain, sprocket and bar, also a dustproof, rainproof ignition system. 

THE RURAL. NEW YORKER 


88 
















































































































Why Doesn’t Red Clover Last? 


Maybe ifs due to the root borer ; Control 
means a longer life for seedings and 
possible spectacular increases in yield. 



OW come my red clover 
dies out after the first 
cutting? That is a good 
question. Red clover, a 
perennial, should live 
many productive years. 
Yet, many seasons, it 
recovers slowly, if at all, after the 
first cutting of the first harvest 
year. The plants become unthrifty 
and the stand diminishes. Few 
red clover plants live into the 


second harvest year. 

Root diseases and insects are 
almost completely responsible for 
the short life of the clover plant. 



The pupa (left) and the adult 
root borer are shown within their 
tunnels in a red clover root. 


An insect, the clover root borer, 
tunnels in and destroys the root. 
While doing so, it provides an 
entry way for disease organisms. 

A recent survey in Ohio indi¬ 
cates that the average red clover 
field supports over a half-million 
borers per acre. IF is estimated 
that the State of Ohio alone grows 
over 750 trillion borers a year. 
Even in these days of billion-dol- 
lar budgets, 750 trillion root 
borers is a difficult figure to 
imagine. But, 750 trillion root bor¬ 
ers in a single line would reach 
four times the distance to the 
moon. The root borer is present¬ 
ly distributed throughout the 
world wherever red clover is 
grown. 

The adult of the clover borer is 
a brown beetle; the larvae is a 
white grub one-sixteenth to one- 
eighth inch long. The adult beetles 
fly to first-year fields in the early 
Spring, about the time that spit- 
tlebugs appear. The beetles lay 
eggs from which the white larvae 
hatch. By the time of the second 
cutting, the feeding of both forms 
usually is severe and the ability 
of the plant to survive and grow 
is diminished. The beetles over¬ 
winter in the old field and move 
to new fields in the Spring. 

Present recommended control 
measures in most states call for 
the application of one and one- 
quarter pounds of gamma isomer 
of benzene hexachloride (BHC) 
or one and one-half pounds of 
actual aldrin per acre. The appli¬ 
cation should be made so that the 
insecticide is placed on the soil. 
Dry forms of it are usually more 
cmcient than as sprays. The ap¬ 
plication can be made any time 
between August of the seeding 
year and late April of the first 
harvest year. 

Recently at the Ohio Agricul¬ 
tural Experiment Station agron¬ 
omists and entomologists have de¬ 
veloped a new and more efficient 
method of seeding legumes as 
well as a better control of the 

February 5, 1955 


clover root borer. The method 
consists of band seeding legumes, 
placing an insecticide in the soil 
with the fertilizer used at the time 
of seeding. 

The band seeding method for 
legumes is briefly as follows: with 
oats or in summer seedings, the 
oats and fertilizer are run down 
the same spout of the grain drill. 
Rubber hose or tubes are at¬ 
tached to the short tubes from 
the clover-grass seed box. The 
clover seed is dropped nine to 12 
inches in back of the disks of the 
grain drill and directly over the 
fertilizer band. The seed tubes 
need to be held firmly back of the 
disks so that the openings of the 
tubes are two to three inches 
above the soil. The principle ag¬ 
ronomic advantage gained from 
the method is a good start for 
legume seedings which can com¬ 
pete more efficiently with the 
companion grain crop. 

Besides the agronomic advant¬ 
age gained, the band seeding 
method may be used to supply 
insecticides to red clover seedings 
for control of the clover root 
borer. This eliminates the need for 
a special operation for application 
of the insecticide since the entire 
job is done with the regular seed¬ 
ing. 

To prepare the insecticide-fer¬ 
tilizer mixture, add three-fourths 
pound of actual aldrin to the 
amount of fertilizer to be used 
per acre (for example: mix one 
and one-half pounds of 50 per 
cent aldrin with 300 pounds of 
3-12-12 fertilizer if the clover is 
to be band seeded with oats). Af¬ 
ter the clover has been band 
seeded, the insecticide remains in 
a band in the root zone of the 
clover plant. The insecticide is 
stable in the soil and remains ef¬ 
fective until the next year (the 
harvest year) when the root borer 
adults enter the field to lay their 
eggs. Results with this new band 
seeding method have been effec¬ 
tive in experimental plots at 
Wooster and show promise of be¬ 
ing a generally effective control. 

Control of the clover root borer 
often results in spectacular yield 
increase in second cuttings and 
an increased survival of the red 
clover plants. Sometimes, however, 
the diseases which attack the 
roots of red clover are so severe 
that, even though the root borer 
is controlled, the plants do not re¬ 
main vigorous through the sec¬ 
ond cutting. C. R. Weaver 



The roots on these red clover 
plants have been tunneled by 
clover root borers. As a conse¬ 
quence, they have become infected 
with disease organisms. The 
plants will die. 

89 



XPErT.S agree that, along with 
the selection of good, clean 
seed, two other factors play a big 
part in the kind of crop you get at 
i harvest: seeding at the proper time 
and at the proper rate. And you can 
make sure of getting your crop in 
when soil and moisture conditions 
are just right and of seeding in just 
the right quantity with a high¬ 
speed John Deere "FB-A" Fertilizer 
Grain Drill. 

With the Model "FB-A," you can 
place uniform quantities of all seed 
in just the right amount to take ad¬ 
vantage of available soil moisture, 
assuring earlier germination, better 


development, and more rapid plant 
growth. Moreover, with the "FB-A," 
you can place fertilizer in any rec¬ 
ommended quantity as you plant— 
make valuable plant food immedi¬ 
ately available to the foraging roots 
of hungry young plants. A special 
attachment for the Model "FB-A' 
makes it possible, also, to sow grass 
seed in one operation with planting 
grain and fertilizing. Another attach¬ 
ment makes it possible to band-seed 
grasses and legumes directly over 
the fertilizer. 

Assure yourself of better crop 
yields through better planting with 
a John Deere Fertilizer Grain Drill. 




The sturdy construction of the 
"FB-A" Fertilizer Grain Drill means 
it will stand up under season after 
season of long, hard service. It's 
built to make new savings for you in 
seed, fertilizer, labor, and mainte¬ 
nance costs. Fill out the coupon at 
right for your free folder on this 
popular John Deere Grain Drill. 



JOHN DEERE 

MOLINE, ILLINOIS 


^yjorFRBE Liter* 


SEE YOUR 

JOHN DEERE DEALER 


ature 


JOHN DEERE • Moline, 111. * Dept. W37 

Please send me a free Illustrated 
folder on the John Deere "FB-A" Ferti¬ 
lizer Grain Drill. 


Name— 


R.R.- 


- Box- 


H 

i! 
i j 

!! 

i! 


Town . 
State — 

































Pindar Bros. Named 



1954 New York 
DeKalb Corn Champs 



The Pindar Brothers, of Middleburg, Schoharie County, New York, 
took the State DEKALB CORN Championship when their selected 
5-acre contest plot turned out a crib-busting yield of 156.46 
bushels per acre. Formerly, big growers of hops, the Pindar 
Brothers had a total of 80 acres of DEKALB CORN last year. Their 
selected 5-acre contest plot was planted May 20th and treated 
with commercial fertilizer. Congratulations, Pindar Brothers, for a 
fine job of farming. 

89 NEW YORK FARMERS FROM 2 5 COUNTIES AVERAGE 
101.18 BUSHELS PER ACRE IN THE 1954 SELECTED 
5-ACRE DEKALB CORN GROWING CONTEST 

An average of over 101 bushels of corn, made up of yields from 89 dif¬ 
ferent New York farmers from 25 counties, certainly shows why IT 
PAID THESE FARMERS TO RAISE DEKALB CORN. Yes, DEKALB is 
known as a "Great Yielding Corn"...that’s why for 15 straight years, 
MORE FARMERS HAVE PLANTED DEKALB THAN ANY OTHER CORN. 

COUNTY WINNERS IN THE 1954 DEKALB 
SELECTED 5-ACRE CORN GROWING CONTEST 


COUNTY 

NAME 

YIELD 

COUNTY 

NAME 

YIELD 

CAYUGA 

W. T. Wilson 

138.4B 

ONONDAGA 

L. M. Ripley 

107.58 

CHAUTAUQUA 

Lester Ingham 

89.84 

ONTARIO 

White Farm Co. 

128.90 

CHEMUNG 

Ralph Tanner 

95.53 

ORLEANS 

Lorenzo Winkley 

98.13 

CHENANGO 

L. D. Wales & Son 

106.06 

OSWEGO 

Glenn A. Hardcastle 

155.20 

COLUMBIA 

DUTCHESS 

Irving Fleming 
Overbrook Farm 

133.55 

94.00 

RENSSELAER 

Vernon Ketcham 

113.82 

ERIE 

Robert Consier 

95.33 

SCHOHARIE 

Pindar Bros: 

156.46 

GENESEE 

Arlon Waite & Son 

117.50 

SENECA 

W. H. Caple 

77.46 

HERKIMER 

Elden Brown 

96.40 

TOMKINS 

Lawrence C. Howser 

88.98 

LIVINGSTON 

R. C. Henderson 

141.13 

TIOGA 

Charles P. Leasure 

126.50 

MADISON 

Robotham Farms 

108.42 

WASHINGTON 

William J. Connor 

100.15 

MONROE 

Alan Wais 

99.89 

WYOMING 

J. Raymond George 

119.48 

ONEIDA 

Browka Bros. 

113.87 

YATES 

Herbert B. Fuliagar 

89.1? 


DEKALE AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION, INC., DEKALE, ILLINOIS 

Commercial Producers and Distributors of DeKalb Seed Corn and DeKalb Chix 


MAKE GRAIN 
HANDLING 
EASIER 




ELEVATORS 

Write for complete specifications 
and low prices. 

J. W. HANCE MFG. 00. 

WESTERVILLE, OHIO 


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Electric Powered 
GRIND-STONES 

Quick . . . Convenient 
Fast Cutting . . . 

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heaviest work — 

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Power Drive 
Simple . Quick 
Positive 
Troubleproof 

S. RALPH CROSS & S0?4S, INC. 

*20 MAYFIELD ST., WORCESTER. MASS. 


Brocton, N. Y., Grape Cooperative 


While I read with interest Robert 
Dyment’s article, “The Concord 
Grape Belt”, in The Rural New York¬ 
er’s January 14th issue, I was sorry 
that the author did not devote more 
space to the development of the 
Grape Cooperative under the guid¬ 
ance of J. K. Kaplan. 

The first step, which took 19 full 
years to accomplish, was the build¬ 
ing of the Brocton grape industry, 
not the least of which was the found¬ 
ing of National Grape Cooperative 
Association. 

A second step to help provide 
some security for the growers came 
in 1945 when Mr. Kaplan bought the 
then milked-dry remains of the Welch 
Grape Juice Co., and established new 
management, new laboratories and 
products, new engineering and a 
progressive sales force. All of this 
set a new pattern for the Concord 
grape business and placed the now 
combined Brocton and Welch com¬ 
pany in the forefront of the industry. 

The third step in an ever-growing 
concept called for complete owner¬ 
ship of the industry by the farmers 
themselves. So, in 1952, Mr. Kaplan 
turned over this $15 million com¬ 
pany, 95 per cent of which was his 
own, to the members of the National 
Grape Cooperative Association. The 
company’s net earnings are now set 
aside in the form of an “ownership 
certificate” to each grower for every 
ton of grapes he delivers to the 
plants. By this simple means, appi'ox- 
imately one-third of the company’s 
original valuation is already owned 
by the farmers. Thus also, in the 
short space of a few years, National 
Cooperative steps over from its orig¬ 
inal role as a bargaining group (on 
prices paid by Welch) and into the 
role of ownership of the biggest busi¬ 
ness of its kind in the world. 

Nor is that the whole story. The 
employee organizations were recog¬ 
nized, thus paving the way for a 
joint cooperative program for greater 
productive efficiency, embracing 
workers, managers and farmers. 


Here, too, to the surprise of the 
skeptics, production was better than 
ever, to so great a degree that wage 
and salaried employees received 
$339.000—or plus 12.88 per cent of 
their straight-time earnings—as their 
share of the greater production (over 
and above their union wage) or an 
average “bonus” of $424 each. Need¬ 
less to say, the great opportunities 
thus afforded towards great coopera¬ 
tion between farmers and wage earn¬ 
ers paves the way for higher quality 
and lower price to the consumer, 
upon whose buying ability all pro¬ 
ducers so much depend. 

To the experienced, the nation’s 
press has buried a great story. This 
just cannot be because of lack of 
reader interest. For the writer, as 
one of its explorers, has been called 
upon to speak of it before a number 
of organizations: Rotary, church, 
farmer, worker, consumer, schools 
and colleges. Without exception, 
each audience listens v/ith rapt at¬ 
tention and asks many questions, not 
the least of which is how come they 
never heard of it before! 

Contrast this with the tawdry story 
of the Dairymen’s League treatment 
of its farmer members, so carefully 
recorded by The Rural New Yorker 
all through the years and on which 
audiences are rather well informed. 
Here is something to inspire farm¬ 
ers to do things for themselves, even 
as have the grape growers but for 
whose self-grown abilities this could 
not have been achieved. For their 
abilities, too, have been consistently 
underestimated by the professionals 
who thus manage to make a better 
living out of farming than the farm¬ 
ers themselves. 

It is these reasons that this story 
deserves special treatment by an in¬ 
dependent voice of the farmers like 
The Rural New Yorker, for in it 
lies true inspiration for our farm 
people. E. J. Lever 

Pennsylvania 




WANTED: STANDING TIMBER FOR SAW LOGS 
OAK, ASH, TULIP. MAPLE — RADIUS 80 
Miles cf Nanuet, New York. Reply to — 

A. H. LADENBERGER, 

HUDSON VALLEY LUMBER CORP.. Nanuet. N. Y. 


BUSINESS BITS 


Farmer’s Handbook — Based on 
national average yields, it is esti¬ 
mated that one acre of wheat would 
feed 10 people for 52 days, according 
to an article in the new, 1955 edition 
of the Farmer’s Handbook and 
Almanac, published by B. F. Good¬ 
rich Company, Akron, Ohio. The 17th 
edition of this booklet, just off the 
press, includes 64 pages of useful 
and interesting information for the 
farmer. Work-saving hints, harvest 
time tips and farm safety practices 
are all included, as well as a gesta¬ 
tion table and a chart of common 
commodity weights. Free copies of 
the booklet may be obtained by writ¬ 
ing to the Advertising Department, 
B. F. Goodrich Company, 500 S. 
Main St., Akron, Ohio. 


Rayner’s Berry Book — This at¬ 
tractive nursery catalog will be of 
interest to every commercial berry 
grower and home gardener. It illus¬ 
trates and describes all the popular 
varieties of strawberries and also 
includes blueberries, flowers, orna¬ 
mentals and fruit trees. A chapter 
devoted to planting instructions lists 
the varieties best suited for each 
area. It may be had without charge 
by writing ’Rayner Bros., Salisbury 
50, Maryland. 

Past experience should be a guide 
post, not a hitching post. — Vice- 
Chancellor Williams, A. and , M. 


Articles of Interest 

In Coming Issues 

• The Revolution in Farm 

Buildings 

By Deane G. Carter 

• Farm Flocks and the Dog 

Problem 

By Russell W. Duck 

• That Wonderful Home- 

Cured Pork 
By Mrs. H. E. Chrisman 

fe. Wild Animal Troubles 
By Harry L. Smith 

e Steer Gains with Hormones 
By John Quinn 

• Hog Worms, Unlimited 
By J. James 

• Birds — The Farmer’s Best 

Friends 

By Walter S. Chansler 

e New Chestnuts for Old 
By James E. Lawrence 

e Bleeding Disease in Chicks 
By J. K. Blether, D. C. Shelton 
and G. C. Anderson 

9 Better Hatching Eggs 
By Robert R. Parks 

® The Guinea Bird 
By David R. Green 

• Niacin Requirement of 

Chicks 

By G. F. Heuser 

® We Bought Some Geese 
By Elizabeth Bowlby 


90 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 





































What to Look for in Paints 


It would indeed be a great benefit 
to all readers if you could advise us 
as to what to look for in a paint. 
There are a great many paints at 
varying prices and the chemical 
breakdown varies, too. 

Here is a breakdown on three 
Faints, all priced at $6.00 a gallon, 
two are good, and one not so good 
(my opinion): 

1. Pigment 60 per cent; vehicle 40 
per cent. Pigment: Titanium magne¬ 
sium 50.5; basic sulphate of white 
lead 14.5; zinc oxide 26.5; titanium 
dioxide 8.5. Vehicle: Linseed oil 79; 
driers 4: mineral spirits 17. 

2. Basic lead sulfate 7' zinc oxide 
21: titanium dioxide 7; titanium cal¬ 
cium 12; magnesium silicate 16; raw 
linseed oil 17; heat treated oil 10; 
driers 4; mineral spirits 6. 

3. Pigment 35 per cent; vehicle 65 

per cent. (This is the one I question). 
Pigment: Titanium dioxide 10; titan¬ 
ium pigment 61: magnesium silicate 
15; calcium carbonate 14. Vehicle: 
Processed linseed oils 22; alkyd resin 
24: vegetable oils 35; thinners and 
driers 19; special emulsifiable vehicle 
30. c. A. B. 

Pennsylvania 

Most experts agree that white 
lead paint is of the highest quality. 
It provides an opaque pigment and 
makes a tough elastic coating when 
mixed with linseed oil. As it weath¬ 
ers, it reduces to a chalk-like sub¬ 
stance which sheds off at a very slow 
pace. This “chalking off” in effect is 
a self-cleaning process. It also makes 
an excellent base for repainting. A 
good white lead and oil paint proper¬ 
ly mixed and applied to a dry surface 
will not blister or peel. It will give 
many years of protection and pleas¬ 
ing appearance. It actually looks bet¬ 
ter six months after it is put on than 
six days after painting. 

For a priming coat on new wood, 
mix three parts white lead, four parts 
linseed oil, two parts turpentine. For 
the body coat, mix two parts white 
lead, one part linseed oil and one 
part turpentine. For the finish coat, 
mix one part white lead and one part 
linseed oil. If boiled linseed oil is 
used, no drier is needed. If raw lin¬ 
seed oil is used, drier should be 
added at the rate of one pint for 
each 100 lbs. of lead in each of the 
above formulas. 

Since the proper mixing of lead 
and oil paint is a tedious job and 
must be done thoroughly and care¬ 
fully, the best procedure for the 
amateur painter is to purchase a 
good quality ready-mix paint. In ad¬ 
dition to saving time, better results 
will be had if a colored paint is de¬ 
sired. In ready-mix paint the color is 
mechanically mixed with the basic 
materials and also stands up better— 
does not fade as rapidly—than in the 
lead and oil paint because it is a 
harder paint. 

A good ready-mix paint will, have 
at best 30 per cent (by weight) of 
the pigment composed of lead. The 
formula on the label will refer to 
the lead as basic carbonate white 
lead, basic sulfate white lead or 
white lead. The balance of the pig¬ 
ment should be zinc oxide, zinc sul¬ 
fide or leaded zinc oxide. Titanium 
dioxide is also used as it has excel¬ 
lent hiding powers. The vehicle is 
composed of a drying oil and a vola¬ 
tile thinner. The drying oil is lin¬ 
seed oil. The thinner is turpentine or 
mineral spirits. At least 67 per cent 
of the paint, by weight, should be 
pigment. A good general ratio of pig¬ 
ment to vehicle is not less than 60 
per cent pigment, no more than 40 
per cent vehicle by weight. 

Cheaper paints contain transparent 
pigments in excessive quantities. The 
more common ones are magnesium 
silicate (talc), silica (quartz or sand), 

February 5, 1955 


barium sulphate, and calcium car¬ 
bonate (chalk) kaolin (china clay). 
Many of these are used to provide 
bulk or body; as such, they are adult¬ 
erants. 

Cheap liquids or vehicles in paints 
may be identified under such labels 
as “paint oil”, oriental oil, fish oil, 
“boiled oil” (other than linseed). 
Water in a paint may be labeled as 
“emulsified solution”, “collodial solu¬ 
tion”, or “aqueous body agent.” No 
more than a trace of water should be 
found in good exterior paints. Cheap 
paints contain as much as 35 per cent 
water. Titanium-calcium and Litho- 
pone should not be used in exterior 
paints of high quality. 

In reviewing two of your formu¬ 
las, they contain insufficient lead sul¬ 
phate. too much zinc oxide and too 
much titanium magnesium. The third 
or poorest formula is indeed inferior. 


It has no white lead or zinc oxide and 
contains well over half chalk and 
silicate. The 30 per cent “Special 
Emulsified Vehicle” may very well 
mean the vehicle is about 30 per cent 
water. The alkyd resin is a cheap 
binder. 

To sum up, the best paints will ap¬ 
proach the following formulas: 

Pigments: White lead 80-90 per 
cent; zinc oxide 10-20 per cent; Ti¬ 
tanium pigment (dioxide or magne¬ 
sium) 5' per cent. 

Vehicle: Linseed oil 80-90 per cent; 
Turpentine or Mineral spirits 10-20 
per cent; Japan Drier 5 per cent. 

B. K. Sommers 

I have received your very fine re¬ 
ply to my question on paint. It is 
most complete and I can easily see 
you went to great lengths to obtain 
this information, for which I am very- 
thankful. This finally settles a point 
which several of us have been debat¬ 
ing about for years; also I can see 
where I might have saved money m 


the past had I known what you so 
clearly explained to me and nr 
friends. 

Yours is a wonderful service which 
even money cannot buy. Thank yo: 
again. c. a. b. 



burning my britches behind me!” 


DOWFUME W-85 


ff gas attack’’ on 
root-d estroying 


pests 


• • • 


assures 


healthy plant 


grow 


tli.. 


for high quality, 
high profit 


crops 


• • • 



Dowfume W-85 , applied undiluted , is ideal for low-cost over-all 
and row treatment before planting. 



$$$& ifer*.-J 

Good stands of healthy plants are result of Dowfume W-85 
treatment. 





Uniform, full-fleshed strawberries like these are grown in Dowfume 
W-85 treated soil. 


Nematodes, wireworms and garden centipedes don’t 
have a chance when Dowfume® W-85 is injected into 
field soil before planting! This high-strength ethylene 
dibromide soil fumigant penetrates into those levels 
where crop roots take up fertilizer and moisture— 
and where soil pests can spell the difference between 
a profitable crop and a poor one. Dowfume W-85 
controls root-attacking pests—gives your crop a chance 
to develop the healthy root systems essential for maxi¬ 
mum crop production. 


Why take a chance with infested soil! You’ll find it 
pays to plant strawberries, potatoes, melons, beans, 
cucumbers, lettuce and other summer crops in soil 
treated with Dowfume W-85. It is designed for low-cost, 
large-scale field use. Your Dow dealer can give you 
local recommendations for its use and assist you in 
buying or building simple injection equipment. Treat 
your cash-crop acreage this season with Dowfume 
W-85. THE DOW CHEMICAL company, Agricultural 
Chemical Sales Department, Midland, Michigan. 


you can depend on DOW AGRICULTUR IL CHEMlCALS 



91 































the sKo 
that makes a 
difference 
because... 


I NEW 

| TRANSLUCENT f 'Sf7o-£/?e' 

Q allows filtered sunlight to 
j* light up storage and 
working areas 


"Dry Tamp 1 * 

HIGHER-STRENGTH STAVES 

manufactured with more 
material and 33% less water 


SWiNG-IN REFRIGERATOR- 
TYPE REDWOOD DOORS 

easier feeding, safer climbing 


With Marietta you see the difference in 
silos ... in looks, in dependability you real¬ 
ize the difference in labor-saving and time- 
saving convenience. You’ll pocket the dif¬ 
ference in cash savings from better feeding. 
laKe advantage of rich spring grasses . . . 
oruer the silo that s “First Class”—for grass. 
THE Ivn MARIETTA . . . since 1916 
selling the durable silo 
farmers are sold on. 



ERANCH '■ Roce Rrf - °* Puloski Hwy., Baltimore 21, Md. 
r,rr, r n, 5192, Charlotte 6, N. C., Hollywood, Fla. 

OFFICES . Nqshville, Term., Jamestown, N. Y. 

BOB BARKER: 

1 

t Please send me your silo catalog and full de- 
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Nome_ 


| Address- 
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GROW 
YOUR OWN 
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WITH 

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There is no satisfaction comparable — no ex¬ 
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''Chief" do the heavy work. 


POWER HOUSE ON WHEELS 


With a few implements you 
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Before you buy, check 
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Consult Y’our Doctor. 


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BATHE, SWIM, WORK, SLEEP and 
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Forest Preserve 

The able report, made by Miss 
James, on Fay Welch’s speech to the 
Izaak Walton League, should be of 
interest to all taxpayers of New 
York State who read the December 
18 issue of The Rural New Yorker. 
I think there are some points on 
what might be called the other side 
of this perennial controversy which 
might also be of interest. 

New York State is not the only 
State that has large forests owned 
or controlled by a unit of govern¬ 
ment. At least 14 other states have 
public forest areas that are larger 
than the Forest Preserve. Fercent- 
age-wise, even neighboring New 
Hampshire has almost twice as much 
land in her public forest as we 
have in the Preserve. The forests in 
these other states are used, and con¬ 
sequently enjoyed, to a greater ex¬ 
tent than are ours. 

About 15 per cent of the Forest 
Preserve is located within a quarter 
of a mile of a road. It is this 15 per 
cent that gets the use. The great ma¬ 
jority of the people do not want to 
tramp through the woods; instead 
they want campsites and conveni¬ 
ences. For instance, at John’s Brook 
Lodge, a location that is just about 
a three-mile walk over a good trail 
from the road, only 1,420 people 
registered during the summer 
months of 1951. At Fish Creek 
Ponds Campsite, which has all the 
conveniences and is easily accessi¬ 
ble, 40,000 people registered during 
the same period. During the past 
Summer, it was not at all unusual to 
see “No Vacancy” signs posted out¬ 
side of the campsite and lines of cars 
waiting to get in. Yet surrounding 
these campsites are thousands of 
acres of state-owned land which can- 


—Another Side 

not be utilized in expanding because 
it would require the cutting of trees, 
which is specifically prohibited. 

Much the same situation exists in 
regards to the hunting on the state 
lands. The same 15 per cent of the 
land gets all the hunting pressure. 
Very few hunters want to walk 
several miles with all their camping 
gear and realize they may have to 
walk that same distance again with 
their bucks as well. Many of the 
more remote areas of state land 
have roads to them, but the public 
is not allowed to drive over them 
even though they have been built 
with tax money. 

Very few people seem to realize 
what it costs a year to keep these 
two million acres of state land for¬ 
ever wild and relatively unusable. 
The State pays taxes on .the land 
the same way the farmer does. It 
also has to pay for protecting and 
looking after this land. The annual 
bill runs to almost $2,000,000. 

The “forever wild” program makes 
it very difficult to improve the high¬ 
ways that are located in the Pre¬ 
serve. A public road that crosses a 
portion of state land cannot be 
widened or straightened without a 
constitutional amendment for each 
road. The road from Long Lake, in 
Hamilton County, to Newcomb is a 
good example of this hardship. It is 
a very crooked and narrow piece of 
blacktop road that should be one 
of the main arteries of travel. In the 
last year it has deteriorated tre¬ 
mendously and should be rebuilt. 
The money has been available to do 
this job but, because the road goes 
across state land, the people will 
have to put up with the road for at 
least three more years, sinc Q that is 


the length of time it will take for a 
constitutional amendment to be 
passed. And this is only one of the 
roads in the Adirondacks that are in 
the same situation. 

There are many pieces of state- 
owned land that are completely en¬ 
circled by land that is privately 
owned and posted. These pieces are 
of little use to anyone except the 
people who own the surrounding 
land. It would seem that is would be 
good business to exchange some of 
these lots for comparable portions 
of privately owned lands that are 
contiguous to present state holdings. 

The Federal Government and 47 
other States have managed to find 
ways to handle their forest problem 
without leaving a devastation be¬ 
hind. It would seem that the people 
of New York State could, too. Con¬ 
servation should mean wise use, not 
locking up. John Stock 


Mabel James’ piece on our State 
Forests in the December 18 issue of 
The Rural New Yorker reminds us 
readers to be constantly vigilant 
and on guard against greedy persons 
who want to cut the people’s Adiron¬ 
dack forests for big profits. Our 
Adirondack Forests guarantee our 
water supply, nail down our topsoil, 
prevent water run-off in Spring, 
prevent floods that sweep precious 
topsoil into the ocean, keep our 
wells and reservoirs well filled, keep 
our rivers controlled and steady. 
Italy, China, the Near East and 
other countries, where mountain 
forests were cut down, stand as a 
dire warning to us. As Mabel James 
truly said: “the Adirondack (Forest) 
wilderness is the wonder and glory 
of New York State.” May God long 
preserve it for the people. 

Frank Denny 





When Lincoln left the capital, 

For destination far and dim, 

There were four others, gone before, 
Awaiting him. 

His weary eyes took little note; 

His country’s troubles on his head, 
His thoughts confused, how could he 
know. 

Men thought him dead? 

And then a voice he’d never heard, 
Yet knew, said calmly,“Rest, my son,” 
And Lincoln slept at the command 
Of Washington. 

When he awoke, refreshed, he found 
Beside his couch the office chair 
He used in Springfield long ago, 

A lawyer there. 

The sight of that familiar thing 
Helped him to span the fearful space 
Between two worlds. It marked his 
new 

Abiding place. 

He stood beside it while those four 
Received him as old friends would do. 
He knew them all, yet scarce believed 
They knew him, too. 

He said, “This is the strangest thing! 
You are the ones I wished to see — 
Of all my fellow countrymen — 

Most fervently!” 

“Not strange at all,” the kindly voice 
Of Franklin answered him. “Your 

fears 

And hopes we’ve shared. Like calls 
to like 

Across the years.” 

“Yes, that should be self-evident. 

In view of all that you have done 
For common men. We’re proud of 

you!” 

Said Jefferson. 

Then spoke the stately Washington, 
Whom Lincoln’s soul had long re¬ 
vered, 


Declaring how his trials on earth 
To them appeared: 

“The state we sought to free and 
build 

Is still our first concern; your strife 
Preserved it, though it cost your own 
Unselfish life. 

“How can we be but grateful, then, 
Or fail to give you glad acclaim? 

We welcome you, and thank you in 
Our country’s name.” 

“We hated tyranny, but you 
Loved freedom more,” said Thomas 
Paine; 

“For. reaching lower, you achieved 
The higher gain.” 

“I’m deeply honored, gentlemen,” 
(The modest Lincoln bowed his 
head), 

“Though I believe your words com¬ 
mend 

Yourselves, instead. 

“ ’Twas you who cleared the land for 
me. 

Whenever I was lost in doubt. 

I followed your own footsteps ’til 
They led me out. 

“But I had further work to do. 

My hands were taken from the plow 
Before I reached the furrow’s end. 
I’m useless now.” 

And then the four all answered him— 
Or so it seemed to Lincoln’s ear— 
No two at once, yet all as one, 

In turn, and clear; 

Not one immortal soul has looked 
To earth and found its task complete. 
A leader’s mission marches on 
Disciples’ feet. 

We live because you kept alive 
Our struggles for the rights of men. 
And Lincoln-minded men ivill make 
You live again. 

Russell Pettis Askue 




Ui - * IP 


92 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 

uiiijj ,<• •\T£i: !(}•' 1 










































North Country School Fight 

Farmers resent "Iron Curtain” tactics 
of New York Education Department; 
decentralization pleas rejected . 


One of the most lively subjects in 
the North Country at this time is 
the centralization of schools. Some 
sections seem to be in favor of cen¬ 
tralization, others are about equally 
divided, and still other sections are 
nearly 100 per cent opposed to it. 
Yet the final results are usually the 
same-centralization. 

This condition seems to be brought 
about by a series of promises, 
threats, misrepresentations, confu¬ 
sion and constant elections. Usually 
the estimated cost is real low until 
after the votes are counted. After 
that, it seems too late to rectify the 
errors. From the standpoint of in¬ 
creased taxes, New York City usually 
pays the increase, so we’re told. The 
threats usually differ in many ways 
but the most common one is: if you 
don’t centralize, Albany will take 
away your State aid. Misrepresenta¬ 
tions and insults seem to be very 
popular and, when all these have 
failed, then confusion and constant 
elections put the finishing touch on 
it. 

From the daily paper we find that 
51 Franklin County districts are dis¬ 
solving, the same page containing 
pictures of the crowded conditions in 
Brushton High School as compared 
with the new Chateaugay central 
school. Actually the picture is not 
even that of the Brushton school and 
the teacher at the desk is not a 
teacher in that school. The Chateau- 
gay school is centralized, the Bom- 
bay-Ft. Covington school is central¬ 
ized only in name, no rural districts 
have been closed or no new building 
started after a year of civil war. 
After learning the truth, the voters 
in that district have twice voted 
down a site for the school and are 
scheduled to vote again soon. Not 
only that, but over 800 voters have 
petitioned Albany asking to be de¬ 
centralized. Mr. Berry, the local 
school superintendent, says that if 
Albany grants decentralization to 
that district, they would be swamped 
with similar requests from other dis¬ 
tricts. Evidently many others would 
like to do the same. 

The same newspaper story goes on 
to say that the people of .Brushton- 
Moira are preparing to centralize, 
with some opposition coming from 
the towns of Dickinson and Bangor. 
The truth is that, after circulating a 
petition to all taxpayers in the pro¬ 
posed centralized district, not enough 
of them would sign to warrant bring¬ 
ing it to a vote. As for the opposi¬ 
tion in Dickinson, it is reported that 
not one taxpayer signed. In the town 
of Bangor, they not only refused to 
sign but presented a petition to Al¬ 
bany to the effect that they did not 
ask or want to be a part of the pro¬ 
posed centralized district. This is 
what is meant by confusion and 
misrepresentations. 

It is an insult when school officials 
comment on the “backwoods”, “one 
horse”, “plank floor” rural schools. 
Many of America’s greatest men re¬ 
ceived their only education in the 
rural school and many had very little 
of that. As one official so nobly 
stated publicly, children educated in 
such schools are inferior to others 
v/hen they go out into the world. 
Men like Abraham Lincoln, Thomas 
A. Edison, Henry Ford, John D. 
Rockefeller and hundreds of others 
were no disgrace to humanity. But, 
as has been insinuated in the press, 
the “backwoods” children from the 
“one horse” plank-floored schools are 
getting accustomed to the metropoli¬ 
tan atmosphere and marble floors 
and are doing quite nicely. Many 
believe that the metropolitan at- 

February 5, 1955 


mosphere and the marble floors are 
scarcely worth going bankrupt for. 
As usual, those who are most con¬ 
cerned have the least to say. Dr. 
Dotter of the State Education De¬ 
partment warned the people of Ft. 
Covington: “You’ll be smart to avoid 
public meetings”. In other words, 
draw the iron curtain, or Albany 
curtain, and exclude all taxpayers 
and parents. 

Many feel that the benefits, if any, 
are real small compared to the ter¬ 
rific cost. In the past few years, in¬ 
dustry has gradually started a pro¬ 
gram of decentralization, claiming 
that the smaller units are more effi¬ 
cient and economical in peace and 
safer in war, realizing that one war¬ 
time blow might cripple a given cen¬ 
tralized industry. But, locally, we are 
being forced to herd small children 
into one building by the thousands 
midway between the St. Lawrence 
Seaway and Power Project and the 
Plattsburg jet base. 

The most serious of all objections 
is the socialistic trend in govern¬ 
ment as well as in education. Not too 
many years ago the school superin¬ 
tendents were appointed for a four- 
year term. Suddenly, without- reason 
or without consulting the voters, Al¬ 
bany announced that they would 
hold office for life, with a pension 
on retirement, presumably including 
casket and flowers. Under this setup, 
regardless of qualifications, charac¬ 
ter or conduct, the public must ac¬ 
cept who is appointed at Albany. 
They have no choice. 

With this socialistic trend becom¬ 
ing a reality, it would seem quite 
possible that, if and when the entire 
State becomes centralized, Albany 
would suddenly decide that all 
teachers and principals would like¬ 
wise be appointed from Albany on 
a similar basis. It is even possible, 
and probable, that they would decide 
to abolish all centralized school 
boards and appoint a supervisor 
from the Royal Family circle at Al¬ 
bany. There is no limit so long as 
taxpayers will allow it. Therefore, it 
would seem wise to think well before 
asking for moi'e dictation and regi¬ 
mentation from Albany. 

Using my own farm of 132 acres, 
milking an average of 20 cows, here 
are the tax figures: Land taxes $226.- 
20; school taxes $101.40 at present, 
but using the reported increase in 
other centralized districts as a guide 
(present tax multiplied by five) it 
would be $507; insurance on build¬ 
ings and equipment $198. Total di¬ 
rect taxes and insurance for one 
year would then be $931.20. 

In the past 20 years I would guess 
that at least half of the farms in this 
town have been abandoned, and the 
buildings torn down, burned or just 
fallen down. The land has been 
bought by the State at $4.00 per acre 
and reforested. Farmers remaining 
have found it difficult to pay the 
huge increase in taxes alone, and 
taxes are still going higher. This 
condition is common all over the 
country and if we are going to be 
bled to death, the sooner the rest of 
us quit, the better off we’ll be, 
Business people in the small rural 
communities depend almost entirely 
on rural business, mainly dairying. 
When the farm people are taxed to 
the point of bankruptcy, business 
people will likewise suffer. In other 
words, you can shear sheep once a 
year, but you can skin them only 
once. ' p. h. 

Franklin Co., N. Y. 


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93 




























Undermined by Termites? 

If the thrust of an ice pick goes deep 
in the sills of the house or the barn 9 
termites may be asking for treatment . 


^INE morning early in the 
Spring, Mrs. Brown was 
3 disturbed by shouts of her 
* young son to come look at 
the bugs coming out of 
the floor near the fireplace. 

■ —I She rushed into the living 
room and beheld an unexpected in¬ 
vasion. From a crack in the floor, 
there poured forth thousands of 
winged, ant-like creatures crawling 
and flying in all directions. She re¬ 
treated to locate her aerosol bomb. 
When she finished spraying, groups 
of the dead and dying creatures and 
their broken-off wings were scattered 


all over. “That is the end of them,” 
she thought. But she still had the 
good judgment and enough curiosity 
to put some specimens in a small jar 
and take them over to the “bug doc¬ 
tor” at the local agricultural college. 
There she learned that the speci¬ 
mens were winged male and female 
termites and that her battle was not 
over but just about to begin. 

As Mr. Smith was bringing in his 
cows for milking, one of them put 
her foot through the wooden barn 
floor. “Wood must have rotted,” was 
his thought. However, when he went 
to repair the break he found that 


much of the wood in that area, while 
sound looking, was actually full of 
galleries swarming with white ant¬ 
like creatures. That was Mr. Smith’s 
first introduction to termites. He, 
too, had the good judgment to go to 
his local state-employed entomolo¬ 
gist and get the facts. 

No Need for Alarm 

These incidents illustrate two 
common ways in which homeown¬ 
ers and farmers discover they are 
being sabotaged by subterranean 
termites. But once they know they 
have them, what next? Becoming 
panicky will not help the situation. 
Termites work slowly and many a 
house or barn has had them for years 
without any serious structural weak¬ 
ening. When found, act promptly, 
as Mrs. Brown and Mr. Smith did; 
and learn as much as possible about 
them — where they live, how they 
live, how they may get into your 
house, barn, or other wooden struc¬ 
tures, and then how best to tackle 
their eradication. 


Termites, like ants, are social in¬ 
sects living in colonies made up of 
various castes. The forms that fright¬ 
ened Mrs. Brown were the winged 
males and females, the reproductive 
forms that swarm out of their nests 
in late Winter or early Spring to 
pair off, mate and possibly start 
other colonies in favorable locations. 
These foi’ms rarely, if ever, start 
new colonies in a house, since favor¬ 
able conditions are generally lack¬ 
ing. Killing these forms does not 
help in the control of the termites 
one bit. It is the white forms that 
Mr. Smith uncovered—the millions 
of workers and nymphs left behind 
in the wood and soil—that are re¬ 
sponsible for past and future dam¬ 
age to the timbers. 

Simply replacing the riddled floor¬ 
ing and painting it with creosote or 
other disinfectant is not nearly 
enough. Termites establish their 
nest in the soil sometimes as deep as 
10 feet down to be near a constant 
source of moisture. From these 
depths, the sightless workers build 
winding passages upwards in all di¬ 
rections in search of wood for food 
while the queen stays below in her 
dark chamber attended by workers 
and nymphs. Any wood left in con¬ 
tact with the ground is an open in¬ 
vitation for the workers to come and 
get it. In fact, so numerous are the 
colonies in some areas of south¬ 
eastern New York that no wood can 
be left on or in the soil without it 
becoming infested. 

Locate Entrance Points 

But suppose the termites can no 
longer find dead roots and stumps 
on which to live. (This condition is 
common where new housing develop¬ 
ments have taken over formerly 
wooded or bushy areas.) This does 
not stop them; wood is wood as far 
as termites are concerned. So they 
turn to poorly constructed houses, 
sheds and other wooden structures 
that are near. Frequently, they are 
driven to hunt above the soil line, 
but they do not come out in -the open 
since they are too sensitive to dry¬ 
ing air currents and low humidities. 
They may come up through the in¬ 
side of hollow block foundations and 
through cracks and crevices in the 
concrete or masonry foundation, even 
through poor grades of concrete or 
poor concrete joints to get at wood. 
All else failing, they will build 'mud 
tunnels over masonry, stone or con¬ 
crete to reach wood. These tunnels 
leading from the ground to the wood 
or over other exposed areas are an¬ 
other telltale sign of the entrance 
points of termites which should be 
located before beginning control 
treatments. 

A common misconception about 
termites is that they make exit holes 
in wood and push sawdust out 
through them. Actually it just is not 
the nature of termites to leave any 
such evidence of their presence. 
There have been cases where beams 
were but hollow shells through which 
a finger could be pushed without any 
external evidence of termite damage. 
If you find holes and sawdust, you 
have powder post beetles, carpenter 
ants or some other type of wood 
borer. Ants are most often mistaken 
for termites but, with a little close 
observation, anyone can see the 
differences. 

One of the key activities of our 
subterranean termites is the con¬ 
tinuous traveling back and forth of 
the workers from their nest in the 
soil to the wood they are attacking 
both to bring food back to the colony 
and to acquire moisture for them¬ 
selves. The workers cannot live for 
more than a few days in dry wood 
without moisture. However, if the 
wood is moist or a leaky pipe or 
gutter keeps it so, the workers do 
not have to return to the soil; they 
can live indefinitely in the wood. 
This understanding leads logically to 
the most feasible means of eradica¬ 
ting termites, placing suitable physi¬ 
cal and chemical barriers between 
their colonies and the dry wood to 


A fruitful telephone year for rural America 

Thousands of telephone men and women helped 
1954 leave its mark on the land — planning and building, 
extending and improving rural telephone service. 


These are a few scattered examples of the job done by thousands 
of telephone men and women in 1954 to serve you better. 

Collectively, their work last year added almost a quarter of a million 
telephones in Bell rural areas. And these accomplishments are but an 
indication of the growth and improvements to come. bell telephone system 

\ 




I IN MISSOURI, Mrs. Clara Schindler is one of many farm, 
women serving rural customers throughout the nation. She 
is chief operator at Perryville and knows from firsthand 
experience the importance of being extra helpful when the 
rural call is extra important. 


£. IN IDAHO, telephone 
manager Albert McIn¬ 
tyre uses a snow tobog¬ 
gan to inspect a rural 
line over 10 miles from 
the nearest road. He 
catches trouble before 
it troubles you. 


0 IN WEST VIRGINIA, telephone manager 
Guy Douglass gets out in the field to 
help stake out a new branch lead to a 
rural line. It’s an important step in ex¬ 
tending rural service to more families. 


94 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 




















1 


be protected. This kills, as it were, 
two birds with one stone, the ter¬ 
mites already in the wood and those 
in the soil trying to get to the wood. 

Control Steps 

The first step in control is to 
determine how and where the ter¬ 
mites are getting into the building. 
This is not always an easy matter; 
a lot depends on how a building is 
constructed. It may even be neces¬ 
sary to get into crawl spaces to poke 
the wood and look for telltale mud 
tunnels. The second step is to make 
all necessary structural changes 
such as I'eplacing badly tunneled 
wood, eliminating all wood contact 
with the ground by resting all tim¬ 
bers on an elevated concrete base, 
replacing wooden foundation beams 
or pillars with metal ones, and seal¬ 
ing all foundation cracks and crevi¬ 
ces through which termites gain easy 
access to the wood. 

The final and most important step 
is to place a toxic chemical barrier 
in the soil all around the outside 
and inside of the building foundation, 
under crawl spaces, around entering 
service pipes, porches, stoops and 
other structures attached to build¬ 
ings. The chemical to use is chlor- 
dane in the form of an emulsifiable 
concentrate, the same readily-avail- 
able material that farmers and home- 
owners have been using so success¬ 
fully on their fields and lawns for 
wire worm, grub and ant control. On 
sandy soils, the chlordane is diluted 
with water to make a one per cent 
solution, but on heavier soils a two 
per cent dilution should be used. To 
make a two per cent dilution from a 
72 to 75 per cent emulsifiable con¬ 
centrate. one pint of this concen¬ 
trate is mixed , with five and a half 
gallons of water; to make the same 
dilution from a 40 per cencentrate. 
one quart is mixed with five gallons 
of water. To make one per cent 
dilutions, one-half of the chemical 
necessary to make a two per cent 
dilution is mixed with the same 
amount of water. 

Use a Chlordane Barrier 

Trenching operations are advisable 
to make a barrier of chlordane- 


treated soil next to the sides of 
foundation walls or other structures 
to be protected. Simply dig a trench 
one to three feet deep or down to 
the base of the footing and some 
eight to 12 inches wide. Apply the 
emulsion with the aid of a watering 
can fitted with a sprinkling nozzle to 
the bottom of the trench and to the 
soil as the trench is being refilled 
at the rate of one gallon pen linear 
foot. Where trenching is difficult or 
impossible, as under porches or 
crawl spaces next to the foundation, 
the same dilution may be soaked into 
the soil at the same rate as in trench¬ 
ing. Hollow-block footings or foun¬ 
dations should have holes drilled in¬ 
to them at one-foot intervals so that 
one gallon of chlordane-water emul¬ 
sion may be poured into each hole. 
Fence posts, stakes, trellises, wood 
steps, etc. may be protected by 
either trenching or soil drenching, 
whichever is most practical. 

Chlordane for producing a soil 
barrier poisonous to termites has 
many advantages over older chemi¬ 
cal soil treatments. It is easy to ob¬ 
tain and use, it kills the termites 
and does not drive them away to 
attack elsewhere, it stays effective 
up to five years and more, it does 
not harm the roots of foundation 
plantings when used as directed, it 
helps keep ants and other soil in¬ 
sects away from houses and buildings 
and it does not produce obnoxious 
odors. With reasonable safety pre¬ 
cautions, chlordane is not a danger¬ 
ous material to use. It is only one- 
half as toxic as DDT when taken 
orally; but it may be absorbed 
through the skin, so skin contact and 
wetting of clothing should be 
avoided. Rubber gloves should be 
worn in applying chlordane to the 
soils or wood. 

All the foregoing sounds like a 
lot of work to do away with the 
puny little termites, but half-way 
measures only prolong their destruc¬ 
tive activities. If you do not feel ade¬ 
quate to do the job yourself, an ex¬ 
terminator can do it for you. It is 
not anywhere near as costly as is 
damage done by the termites. 

Louis Pyenson 


High Feed Value in Rice Germ 


There is twice as much vitamin 
in rice germ as in either wheat germ 
or corn germ, reports Prof. Marinus 
C. Kik of the University of Arkansas. 
The high nutritive value of rice 
germ suggests its use in foods. The 
rice germ, or embryo,, remains as 
part of the bran when rice is pol¬ 
ished. This bran is used in the feed¬ 
ing of livestock, but little has been 
known of the nutritive value of the 
germ, Prof. Kik points out. 

Vitamin or thiamine, is neces¬ 
sary to maintain healthy nerves and 
good circulation of the blood. Ab¬ 
sence of this vitamin from the diet 
results in the disease known as 
beriberi and paralysis. Both wheat 
germ and corn germ are considered 
to be excellent natural sources of 
vitamin B, and protein. 

Prof. Kik, who has been conduct¬ 
ing research in the department of 
agricultural chemistry at Arkansas 
since 1927, reports that one gram of 
rice germ contains from 65 to 70 
micrograms of vitamin B„ as com¬ 
pared with 19 to 44 micrograms in 
wheat germ and 25 to 35 micrograms 
in corn germ. (A microgram is a 
millionth of a gram). Rice germ is 
15 to 17 per cent protein, according 
to the report. The protein contents 
of wheat germ and corn germ range 
from 18 to 35 per cent. Significant 
amounts of vitamin B L ,, niacin, inosi¬ 
tol, choline, calcium, phosphorus 
and iron were also found in rice 
germ. 

Prof. Kik separated the rice germ 
B'om the ,other components of bran 
with mechanical equipment of the 
same type as that used in the refi- 

February 5, 1955 


ning of wheat germ. The amounts of 
vitamins, minerals and amino acids 
(protein building-blocks) in rice 
germ were determined by chemical 
and biochemical analysis. 

When white rats were fed rations 
containing rice germ in place of 
milled rice, they grew more rapidly. 
The animals which ate milled rice 
plus .five per cent rice germ gained 
nearly 30 per cent more weight than 
those which lived on a plain milled 
rice diet, says Prof. Kik, and the 
rats which received all their pro¬ 
tein from rice germ grew 31 per 
cent more than the control group 
during the 10-week test period. He 
concludes these results show that 
rice germ has better nutritive values 
than milled rice when the diet con¬ 
tains 5.7 per cent total protein, the 
proportion used in these tests. 


Books on Soils and Crops 


Forage and Pasture Crops, 

W. A. Wheeler. 

$8.00 

Soils and Fertilizers, 

Firman E. Bear. 

6.00 

Diseases of Field Crops, 

James G. Dickson. 

6.00 

Fundamentals of Soil Science, 
Millar and Turk. 

5.50 

Field Crops and Land Use, 

Cox and Jackson. 

5.50 

Grasses and Grassland Farming, 

H. W. Staten. 

5.00 


For sale by The Rural New- 
Yorker, 333 West 30th St., New York 
1, N. Y. (New York City residents, 
add 3% Sales Tax.) 



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have the experience and the silos — to solve 
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Craine offers not one or two—but FIVE types 
of farm-proven silos. One of the five is best 
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choose the beautiful new 6-Cell Tile Stave Silo 
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Free literature. AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL, 
BOX R, HAMILTON, ILLINOIS 


PILES 

If you suffer the miseries of itching', 
bleeding or protruding piles, read 
this repo rt from Mr. John D. Bushee: 

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the Page Company as 
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‘GOOD FARM EQUIPMENT SINCE 1930" 


95 



























































Published Semi-Monthly By 

Rural Publishing Co., Inc. 333 West 30th St., New York 1, N. Y. 
John J. Dillon, Publisher, 1899-1950 

EDITORIAL AND EXECUTIVE STAFF 

William F. Berghold, Editor and Publisher 
William A. O’Brien, Business Manager 
Russell W. Duck, Managing Editor M. G. Keyes, Publisher's Desk 
James N. Bodurtha, Field Editor Persis Smith, Woman and Home 
Henry G. Hardwick, Jr.; Circulation Manager 
H. B. Tukey Donald f. Jones 

C. S. Platt H. A. Rollins 

George L. Slate B. K. Sommers 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES: 

50 Cents a Year, SI .00 for 3 Years; in New York City SI .00 a Year. 

Foreign countries in the Universal Postal Union, $2.06 a Year. 

Entered at New York Post Office as Second Class Matter. 

"A SQUARE DEAL” 

We believe that every advertisement in this paper is backed by a respon¬ 
sible person. We use every possible precaution and admit the advertising of 
reliable houses only. But to make doubly sure, we will make good any loss 
to paid subscribers sustained by trusting any deliberate swindler, irrespon¬ 
sible advertisers or misleading advertisements in our columns, and any 
such swindler will be publicly exposed. We are also often called upon 
to adjust differences or mistakes between our subscribers and honest, 
responsible houses, whether advertisers or not. We willingly use our good 
offices to this end, but such cases should not be confused with dishonest 
transactions. We protect subscribers against rogues, but we will not be 
responsible for the debts of honest bankrupts sanctioned by the courts. 
Notice of the complaint must be sent to us within one month of the time of 
the transaction, and to identify it, you should mention The Rural New 
Yorker when writing the advertiser. 

Milk and Dairy News 

“WE’RE EATING OUR FENCES, AND * * *” 

The dairy farmer received $3.91 a cwt. for 
his milk in 1954 and, according to the recog¬ 
nized Cornell formula, it cost him $5.45 to 
make every hundred pounds of that milk. In 
other words, he sustained a loss of $1.54 per 
cwt. His 1953 price was $4.22, against a cost 
of production of $5.48 per cwt. — a loss of 
$1.26. Thus, his loss in 1954 was 22 per cent 
greater than in 1953. 

If people — and that includes the so-called 
experts, too — wonder how dairy farmers can 
go on making milk at such a loss, farmers can 
easily supply the answer: “We can't go on 
much longer like this and, as to how we re 
doing it right now — well, we’re eating our 
fences.” 

Fortunately, many of them are doing some¬ 
thing else besides just eating their fences, or 
attending useless evangelist mass meetings in 
Syracuse. More and more, one hears talk of 
organization, of kicking the rascals out, of 
petitioning the Governor for cooperation (not 
aid). They regard the super pool program as 
a fraud and look with suspicion on the milk 
hearings scheduled to begin in Syracuse on 
February 8. 

Obviously, there is an end to every fence. 


THE SUPER POOL PLAN 

As the sole aftermath to the Syracuse milk 
meeting on December 28, the cooperative 
leaders and the milk dealers have decided on 
a form of agreement which, if finally adopted, 
would hold the Class I-A price at the January 
level of $5.38 for the months of February, 
March and April. This plan would net each 
farmer an average of $17 additional for each 
of these three months — less than 60 cents a 
day. 

To become effective, all the dealers must 
agree; and, at this writing, the required unani¬ 
mous approval has not yet been obtained. But, 
even if it is, it provides nothing more than a 
few crumbs — when what it needed is a whole 
loaf. 

If there were ever a case of the mountains 
laboring and bringing forth a mouse, the 
Syracuse meeting was it. No bigger dud has 
misfired in this milkshed for many a year and 
the super pool has added the final note of 
sounding brass. 


MILK HEARING ON FEBRUARY 8 

Washington has called a milk hearing be¬ 
ginning in Syracuse, at the War Memorial 
Building, on February 8, and later, on February 
14, at the Belmont Plaza Hotel in New York 
City. 

Three main proposals are to be discussed: 

1. To fix the Class 1-A price within a range of 
$5.28-6.24 per cwt. throughout the year (proposed 
by the Dairymen’s League and the Producers 
Bargaining Agency). 

2. To lower the Class III price by five cents 
per month for the period March through June 
(proposed by the Milk Dealers Assn.). 

3. To raise the Class III price to the midwest 


condensery level for the period September 
through December (proposed by Eastern Milk 
Producers Cooperative). 


MILK LEGISLATION IN ALBANY 

During the first month of the 1955 legisla¬ 
tive session, several milk bills have been in¬ 
troduced. 

There have been three bills offered to 
legalize the sale of fluid milk in gallon jugs; 
one by Senator Robert McEwen, St. Lawrence 
County, and Assemblyman Robert Main, 
Franklin County; another by Senator Henry 
Wise and Assemblyman Orin Wilcox, both of 
Jefferson County; and a third by Assembly- 
man Samuel Steingut, Kings County. 

Senator McEwen and Assemblyman Main 
have also introduced a bill to amend Section 
258-j of the Agriculture and Markets Law, 
under the provisions of which a producer 
cannot shift from one dealer to another unless 
the Commissioner of Agriculture is satisfied 
that the old dealer does not need the milk and 
that the new dealer can use a greater supply. 
The amendment seeks to shift the burden of 
proof to the Commissioner so that he must 
establish that such conditions do exist as to 
warrant disapproval. 

A repealer bill has been offered, also by 
Senator McEwen and Assemblyman Main, 
aimed at bloc voting by cooperatives on milk 
order amendments. At the present time, Sec¬ 
tion 258-n (4) of the Agriculture and Markets 
Law sanctions such bloc voting, a situation 
that has been much criticized with good reason 
by dairymen. To be completely effective, how¬ 
ever, a companion bill must also be offered in 
and passed by the Congress since the state law 
only affects voting on state milk orders. 

All these bills are good bills and deserve 
farmers’ support. 


Poultry Forecast for 1955 

T O write a 1955 forecast for poultrymen is 
a difficult • task, yet it must be done. To 
begin with, no one needs to be reminded that 
1954 was a poor year for the poultry farmer. 
Fortunately, this is now ancient history. With 
egg prices, as well as broiler, fowl and turkey 
prices, at levels not experienced for the past 
10 years and feed prices more or less main¬ 
tained at a top level, the producer of poultry 
products simply had no chance to make a 
profit. During the first half of 1954 the egg 
situation was not acute but, when the new 
crop of pullets came info production, the point 
of consumer saturation was reached. There 
were just too many eggs. If dnly someone could 
have drained off just a small portion of the 
total volume at the right time, the price struc¬ 
ture might have retained some semblance of 
respectability. However, Santa Claus was not 
around at the time and the producer was, as 
usual, left holding the bag, with the consumer 
walking off with the benefits of its contents 
in the form of low egg and poultry meat prices. 

What about 1955? Apparently, poultrymen 
are either a little skeptical, do not have much 
cash, cannot get credit, or are keeping over 
their old hens, because chick sales during this 
past November were 19 per cent less than 
in November of 1953. Personal talks with 
hatcherymen show a continuing cutback in 
chick orders. But, with the population of the 
United States increasing at the rate of one 
person every 12 seconds, there is reason to 
believe that this fact alone would take up the 
slack in the egg market eventually. 

If we begin 1955 with our usual number of 
chicks, the situation should show a real im¬ 
provement by this June, as it probably will 
take that long to liquidate the surplus poultry 
population carried over from 1954. After all, 
if more and more people buy more and more 
chicks, a period of adjustment must come to 
pass. Unfortunately, it hurts, but for one who 
can stand the pain, the period of convales¬ 
cence is invigorating. That has been true with 
poultry producers in the past and will be true 
again—perhaps at a lower level of adjust¬ 
ment, however, but at a level that will show 
some margin of profit for the average-to-good 
manager; others undoubtedly will drop out. 

Permanency is the keynote to success in the 
poultry business. Plan well; use good chicks 
and good feed; produce at an efficient level. 


And one more point: support all efforts to in¬ 
crease the consumption of poultry products. 
In this respect the poultry industry has been 
weak. With one of the best food products to 
offer the consumer, we have assumed that he 
would not have to be told about it. A change 
in this philosophy might add untold dozens of 
eggs and pounds of poultry meat to the 
national demand. This would help the poul- 
tryman directly for some years to come, and 
consequently he should support all efforts to 
increase the consumption of his products. 


Cattle and Hog Prices 

AT the recent meeting of the American 
National Cattlemen’s Association in 
Nevada it was the consensus that the price 
for top quality, well finished beef steers will 
hold approximately steady throughout 1955 at 
its present price of between $28 and $30 per 
hundred. The price for choice to prime steers 
may even advance some, with a possible slight 
drop during February and March due to in¬ 
creased marketings of well finished steers. On 
the other hand, as previously discussed in 
these columns, the price for the lower grades, 
particularly below good, has materially de¬ 
clined, and these grades will probably sustain 
a further lowering of price during 1955. 

One influencing factor which points to a 
favorable market for top grades of beef is the 
high level of employment at increasing wages. 
When people have the cash money, they buy 
the best quality beef that can be obtained in 
much greater amounts than when pocketbooks 
are not so prosperous. The thrifty housewife 
will find it much to her advantage to buy some 
of the cuts from the lower grades; they can 
be made just as palatable by proper cooking, 
and they are equally nutritious as compared 
with the superior grades of meat. 

The reduction in price for some grades of 
cattle will be further influenced by the fact 
that the pig crop duing 1954 was greatly in¬ 
creased over that of the past two years. As an 
illustration, hog slaughter in December was 
up 15 per cent over the corresponding month 
in 1953 and it is estimated that there will be 
15 per cent more pork marketed in 1955 than 
during the past year. The comparative prices 
of pork and beef, due to a short hog supply 
for the past two years, has caused consumers 
to purchase larger amounts of beef than usual. 
Thus, a new high for beef demand was at¬ 
tained in 1954, with a per capita consumption 
of 79 pounds, as compared with slightly under 
77 pounds for 1953. This increase in hog mar¬ 
keting supplies has resulted in a sharp decline 
in prices for all grades. Choice hogs weighing 
from 190 to 220 pounds have recently sold 
below $18 at the Chicago stockyards, the low¬ 
est price at which hogs have sold for more 
then two years. As marketing of fall pigs in¬ 
creases during the next three or four weeks, 
this price will, no doubt, decline still further. 
The spread in price between grades of hogs is 
not so great as in grades of cattle, because 
even old sows are relatively tender and their 
meat can be utilized to good advantage. 


What Farmers Say 

BONANZA FOR UPSTATE DEALERS 

*How is it that milk dealers in Oneonta, N. Y., 
can get away with a 27-cent price at stores when 
in Utica milk sells for 36 cents in a 2.-qt. con¬ 
tainer? Even in New York City you can buy store 
milk today for 24 to 25 cent. 

New York b. b. 

I Ed. — It has long been emphasized in these 
columns that fluid milk dealers in upstate New 
York markets are reaping a harvest. In those 
cities where there are no marketing orders 
(only Buffalo and Rochester have them), dealers 
pay producers not more than the I-C price for all 
milk sold as fluid. In November the I-C price was 
$4.83 a cwt., or 10.27 cents a quart. If the store 
price is 27 cents, as in Oneonta, the spread is 
16.73 cents. In Utica, where competition is un¬ 
doubtedly the reason for the lower price, the 
7.72-cent spread does not seem to be putting any 
dealers out of business.] 


“Withhold not good from them to whom it is 
due, when it is in the power of thy hand to do 
it.” _ Prov. 3:27. 


96 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 

















Here’s why no other tractor works ground like a NEW 



McCORMICX 


TRACTOR 


NEW FARMALL 200 . . . the bonus buy in 
features, pull-power and job range 

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cent more rated engine hp! The 200 gives you an un¬ 
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Fast-Hitch saves you valuable hook-up, transport and 
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gives you absolute implement control. Deep disk 24 acres 
daily with the 200’s Fast-Hitch tandem disk harrow! 



NEW FARMALL CUB fi gives you every big-fracfor feature 


The new Farmall Cub gives you the automatic hitching, hydraulic 
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And the Cub plus its Fast-Hitch, pull-type and mounted McCor¬ 
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built. The down payment is Cub-sized, too! 


□ 



Test drive the new Farmall that fits your farm. Just back 
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No other similar-sized tractor has the combination of efficiency 
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exclusive new Farmall Fast-Hitch. Exclusive Touch-Control 
with unequalled use-range. Exclusive Culti-Vision for full-cut, 
non-skip, hoe-close accuracy. Exclusive Farmall fuel and up¬ 
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Write for 
FREE 
Catalog 



International Harvester Company 

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Tell me more about the far advanced features that make the 
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| ! Farmall 300 Q Farmall 400 

Name_Q Student 

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Post Office_State- 

I farm_acres. Principal crops_ 

My IH dealer is____ 


February 5, 1955 


97 




































1-lb. DRIED BEET PULP 

Balances 1 2 /3-lb. good hay . . . . 
improves palatability and results! 

Cows need energy to milk heavily, beef cattle to make proper 
gains. Hay supplies energy, but'many feeders find hay short 
or of poor quality. The smart farmer boosts palatability of 
poor hay or stretches it with extra grain and Dried Beet Pulp. 

Here’s why: Dried Beet Pulp is highly nutritious (1-lb. bal¬ 
ances l 2 /^-lb. good hay). Moreover, Dried Beet Pulp is flexible 
. . . fits easily into any dairy or beef ration. For instance: 

100-lb. DBP=l6/-lb. hay 100-lb. DBP=600-lb. corn silage 
100-lb. DBP=92-lb. No. 2 yellow corn 

If your area suffers from a hay shortage or if hay is priced too 
high, feed Dried Beet Pulp as part of the daily feed to balance 
missing nutrients and heighten the taste. You’ll find it highly 
nutritious, palatable ... a good feed bet for high milk and 
beef production. 

FEEDERS: Your feed dealer can supply you with Dried Beet 
Pulp. See him and order a supply soon. 


NOBODY TRIES TO MAKE A RECORD VSITHOUT DRIED BEET PULP! 

“YEAR ROUND PASTURE” 


DEALERS: The best feeds contain Dried Beet Pulp. Does your 
present line? Suggest adding it to custom mix rations, too. 
\our customers will thank you. Free formulas, information 
and quotations will be sent if y ou’ll w rite, wire or phone us 
direct, today. 


If Ruptured 
Try This Out 

M odern .Protection Provides Great 
Comfort and Holding Security 

Without Torturous Truss Wearing 

An “eye-opening” revelation In aemible 
and comfortable reducible rupture protection 
may be yours for the asking, without cost or 
obligation. Simply send name and address, 
and full details of the new and different Rice 
Method will be sent you Free. Without hard 
flesh-gouging pads or tormenting pressure, 
here’s a Support that has brought Joy and 
comfort to thousands—by releasing them from 
russes with springs and straps, that bind and 
cut. Designed to securely hold a rupture up 
and in where it belongs and yet give freedom 
of body and genuine comfort. For complete 
information — write today! 

WILLIAM S. RICE, Inc. 
Dept. 64-D, Adams, N. Y. 



NO HORNS! 


One application of Dr. 
Naylor’s Dehorning 
Paste on horn button of 
calves, kids. Iambs—and 
nc horns will grow. Nc 
cutting, no bleeding. 4oz. 
iar—$ 1.0C at your deal¬ 
er’s, or mailed postpaid. 

H. W. NAYLOR CO. 

Morris- J2, N.Y, 



br's 


deHORNing 

. PASTE 


Kill CHIMNEY CREOSOTE 

Down draft and fire risk, at once and 
forever. Mailable metal product. Money- 
back guaranty. For information write 
manufacturers: — 


BOSTON MACHINE WORKS CO. 

7 WILLOW ST., DEPT. B, LYNN, MASS. 
— REDUCES ALL FXlEL BILLS — 


K-R-O KILLS 
RATS 
QUICKLY! 

RED SQUILL OR WARFARIN 
BUY IT AT ANY DRUGSTORE 


Steers in the Feed Lot 


Quality hay and roughage can cut the 
costs of fattening steers. In Ohio tests, 
good hay, compared to poor hay, had a 
feed replacement value of $180 a ton. 


By RUSSELL W. DUCK 



HEN steers are fattened in 
dry lot, the quality of hay 
allowed them is not often 
given enough consideration. 
This may be due to several 
factors, the principal one 
being that, when on a full 
grain feed, cattle eat comparatively 
small amounts of hay, regardless of 
its quality. For this reason, fattening 
steers are often fed the poorest hay 
on the farm. Then, too, in a bad hay 
year, such as the one just experi¬ 
enced, there is a great deal of poor 
quality hay on hand and one way to 
get rid of it is to feed it to steers. 
However, hay of this sort can be used 
to better advantage by feeding it to 
beef breeding cows, heifers or dry 
cows; it will need to be properly 
supplemented, nevertheless, with sil¬ 
age and high protein feed. Some re¬ 
cent tests conducted at the Ohio 
Station. Wooster, have shown that it 
it not desirable to feed poor quality 
hay to fattening steers. 

Feeds for the Steers 

The steers used in the Ohio experi¬ 
ments were good to choice commer¬ 
cial grade Hereford calves with an 
average initial weight of about 500 
pounds. They were fattened on full 
grain feed in dry lot until they 
weighed approximately 1,000 pounds 
apiece. 

The cattle were full fed by hand 
twice daily on corn-and-cob meal, and 
they were given all the hay they 
would eat. All lots had free access to 
salt and a mineral mixture consist¬ 
ing of two parts steamed bone meal, 
two parts ground limestone, and one 
part salt. Cod liver oil was mixed 
with the corn-and-cob meal in 
amounts to supply 2,000 International 
units of vitamin A per 100 pounds of 
bodyweight daily. It is well to note 
that, when steers are fed poor qual¬ 
ity hay not supplemented with vita¬ 
min A, their daily gains would prob¬ 
ably be less than those attained in 
this test. Water was kept constantly 
available to the steers. 

The poor quality hay fed in these 
experiments was late cut timothy. It 
was intentionally allowed to weather 
prior to baling and, practically de¬ 
void of color, it was yet sufficiently 
dry when baled so there was no mold 
or spoilage. The good quality hay 
was early cut, mixed clover and tim¬ 
othy; it was harvested without weath¬ 


ering. The proportions of clover an 
timothy varied a little each season, 
but timothy was always the predom¬ 
inating plant in the mixture. The 
corn-and-cob meal was whole ear 
corn ground in a hammer mill with 
a three-eighths-inch screen. The sup 
plemental soybean meal was solvent 
extracted: it contained from 41 to 
46 per cent protein. 

Poor Hay vs. Good Hay 

In two separate tests, one group of 
steers was fed poor hay, while an¬ 
other group of comparable steers was 
fed good hay. The steers were al¬ 
lowed all the hay and grain they 
would eat. The steers on the poor hay 
made an average daily gain of one 
and seven-tenths pound per head, 
while the steers fed the good hay 
made an average daily gain of two 
pounds. It is well to note that the 
steers on the poor hay consumed an 
average of only two pounds of it per 
head daily. The steers fed the good 
hay ate an average of three pounds 
daily. This additional hay consump¬ 
tion decreased the grain and supple¬ 
ment needed to produce each 100 
pounds of gain and resulted in con¬ 
siderable saving in feed costs. 

There was a saving of about 11 per 
cent in the protein supplement 
needed for 100 pounds of gain. High 
protein feeds are comparatively ex¬ 
pensive; consequently, this factor is 
significant when considering possible 
methods of lowering feed costs. The 
feed saving from the good hay 
amounted to 74 pounds of corn-and- 
cob meal for each 100 pounds of gain. 
When steer calves were fattened 
from a weight of 500 pounds to a 
final weight of 1,000 pounds, the sav¬ 
ing in grain on these steers amounted 
to a total of 370 pounds, plus 50 
pounds of high protein supplement. 
Due to their greater hay consump¬ 
tion, the good-hay steers used 33 
pounds of hay more than the poor- 
hay steers for each 100 pounds of 
gain. In other words. 165 pounds of 
good hay had a replacement value of 
370 pounds of corn-and-cob meal plus 
50 pounds of protein supplement 
when steers of this sort were fat¬ 
tened for a total gain of 500 pounds 
in dry lot. 

Corn Silage Feeding Values 

A test to find the comparative 
value of corn silage when fed with 
(Continued on Page 106) 



Quality of the hay used in fattening steers is an important consideration 
in efficiency and economy of gains. This Angus steer was highly and 
economically finished at the New York Station, Ithaca. He won grand 
championship hoiiors for the breed at the 1954 Neiv York State Fair. 


98 


r > 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 




























Keep Teat Open 

Keep It Healing 

Keep It Milking 


To maintain unrestricted milk flow and provide 
antiseptic protection is of first importance in the 
care of injured teats. Dr. Naylor’s Medicated Teat 
Dilators act as medicated surgical dressings to the 
teat canal in the treatment of Sore Teats, Scab 
Teats, Bruised Teats, Obstructions. 



Contain Sulfathiazole 

The medication is IN the Dilators and is released 
slowly for prolonged antiseptic action. Dr. Naylor 
Dilators provide gentle, non-irritating support 
to delicate lining of teat canal, keep end of teat 
open in its natural shape while tissues heal. 

EASY TO USE . . . Simply keep a Dr. Naylor 
Dilator in the teat between milkings until teat 
milks free by hand. Smooth, waxed tip for easy 
insertion. Fit either large or small teats. 


Large Pkg. (45 Dilators) $1.00 

Trial Pkg. (16 Dilators) 50< 
At drug and farm 
stores or by mail. 

H. W. NAYLOR CO. 
Morris 9, N. Y. 



How to keep your 
horse at work 


@ A ruBdown with Absorbine Wash 
right after work helps prevent galled 
shoulders, sore necks, stiffness across the 
back, shoulders and loins. Absorbine 
applied to a blemish or at the first sign 
of puffiness helps stop a more serious 
condition like ringbone or spavin. Does 
not remove hair nor blistef skin. Horse 
can be treated on the job. Only $2.50 
for a large bottle at all druggists. 

W. F. Young, Inc., Springfield, Mass. 

ABSORBINE 




MOORE MANUFACTURING CO. 


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FREIGHT 

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Why suffer from P/UN of 

ARTHRITIS? 

Get fast, soothing relief with SALI-SORB. This 
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ingredients. SALI-SORB is recommended by doctors 
• • . used by many hospitals . . . Send $1.00 for 
3 or. bottle. WESTWOOD PRODUCTS, 

BOX 294, WESTWOOD, MASS. 

February 5, 1955 


December Milk Prices 

The prices paid for 3.5 per cent 
milk by co-operatives and dealers 
reporting for the month of Decem¬ 
ber 1954 are as follows: 

Per 100 Lbs. Per. Qt. 

Lehigh Valley Co-op.... $5.47 $.116 
Monroe Co. Producers.. 5.05 .1074 
Hillsdale Prod. Co-op... 4.73 .1006 

Sullivan Co. Co-op. 4.50 .0957 

Mt. Joy Farmers’ Co-op. 4.49 .0955 
No. Blenheim Co-op.... 4.44 .0944 

Delaware Co. Co-op. 4.415 .0939 

Arkport Dairies . 4.39 .0934 

Chateaugay Co-op. 4.39 .0934 

Conesus Milk Co-op.... 4.39 .0934 

Fly Creek Valley Co-op. 4.39 .0934 

Grandview Dairy . 4.39 .0934 

Rock Royal Co-op. 4.39 .0934 

Rose Lake Dairies. 4.39 .0934 

Sheffield Farms . 4.38 .0931 

Dairymen’s League .... 4.27 .0908 

Fat, freight, bonuses and other differentials 
and charges vary, and the actual return is 
more to some and less to others, especially 
in the case of dealers and eo-operatives own¬ 
ing more than one plant. The Market Ad¬ 
ministrators’ prices are: New York $4.39; 
Buffalo $4.55; Rochester $4.71. 

Cost of production in New York State for 
December 1954, was $5.42 per cwt. of 3.5 per 
cent milk. This is in accordance with an 
analysis made by Dr. L. C. Cunningham, 
N. Y. State College of Agriculture. Cornell 
University. 


Eastern N. Y. 
Livestock Auctions 

The cattle market held generally 
steady, but with a slightly weaker 
undertone. Demand was moderate, 
supplies were steady. Prices per 
cwt.: Beef type heifers and steers— 
Medium grade $14-23; Common 
$12.50-13.25. Dairy type heifers for 
slaughter—good grade $14-18; Medi¬ 
um $12-13.75; Common $9.30-12. 
Slaughter cows—Good grade $12- 
12.75; Medium $11-12; Cutters $10- 
11; Heavy Canners $8.50-9.50; Light 
Canners $7.50-8.40; Shelly Canners 
$7.50 and down. Slaughter bulls— 
Good grade $14.60-15.60; Medium 
$13-14.20; Common $8.90-13. 

Many Families Save 
$250 to $550 Yearly 
With This Book 


Butchering, Processing 
and Preservation of 

MEAT 

A Manual for the Farm 
and Home 

By FRANK G. ASHBROOK 
Animal expert & biologist 
with U. S. Dept. of the 
interior. 



Here, clearly and simply explained, are easy ways 
for you to conquer the high cost of food . . . and 

eat better at the same time! For this famous hand¬ 

book is a complete step-by-step guide to the butcher¬ 
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or home table. Almost every edible meat is included 
— from domestic animals like cattle, sheep, poultry, 
to game and fish, both large and small. With big 
illustrations, concise directions, you learn meat 
characteristics . . . how to plan inexpensive, delici¬ 
ous meals . . . how to butcher hogs, cattle, sheep 

and lambs . . . how to preserve meat and fish and 

fowl . . . how to recognize different cuts . , . 

Whether your fresh meat comes from a farm, subur¬ 
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it was shot or trapped wild . . .or fished from a 
pond, river or ocean . . . you will find on these 336 
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hints ‘you need to make meat <j°llars go further. . . 
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Coupon brings you book on FREE TRIAL for 10 
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Rush me a copy of BUTCHERING, PROCESSING 
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FREE TRIAL. I will return it within 10 days 
and pay nothing—or keep book and send $4.50 
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NAME 


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SAVE! Enclose cheek or money order with 
coupon and WE PAY POSTAGE! 




RAISE MILKING SHORTHORNS 
tor GREATER PROFITS! 

With economic conditions tighten¬ 
ing up you NEED Cattle that 
have enabled farmers to put money 
in the bank for years and years. 

Milking Shorthorns are DE¬ 
PENDABLE. They've made 
money for your Grandparents and their Grandparents 
before them! That’s because they are the most PRACTI¬ 
CAL breed in existence. They convert home-grown feeds 
and roughage into milk, meat and butterfat most 
economically. Milking Shorthorns are BIG, STRONG, 
RUGGED. You get i% milk and greatest salvage value 
of all milk breeds. Their TWO-WAY bargaining power 
plus greater saleability of calves means greater security 
under ANY world conditions. Subscribe to MILKING 
SHORTHORN JOURNAL now! Published 
monthly. Only $1.00 for six months, $2.00 for 
full year. $5.00 for three years. Send money 
TODAY or write for FREE facts! 

AMERICAN MILKING SHORTHORN SOCIETY 
313-00 S. Glenstone RN-5, Springfield, Missouri 


FREE 

FACTS 


REGISTERED GUERNSEYS 

One month to mature age, 200 
head to select from. Let us quote 
on your requirements. 

FORGE HILL FARM 


R. F. D. 4, 


NEWBURGH, NEW YORK 


SHEEP 


GORRIEDALE PRODUCTION SALE 

H. H. WALKER & SONS 
(Woodbine Farms, Gambier, Ohio) 

February lOth 10 a. m. 

Fairgrounds Pavilion, Mt. Gilead, Ohio 

80 bred ewes—25-30 ewe lambs—10 
ram lambs Attend this sale for 
Top Registered Corriedales 


RUHL & PERKINS 


REG. SUFFOLK 


BRED EWE SALE — SATURDAY FEB. 12, 1955 
AT FAIRGROUNDS. MT. GILEAD, OHIO 
80 Head Suffolk Ewes Bred to Our Top Stud Rams 
RUHL & PERKINS, MT. GILEAD, OHIO 

Write for Catalogue 


REGISTERED 


SHROPSHIRE, SUFFOLK AND OXFORD 
YEARLING RAMS AND EWES FOR SALE 
Excellent Breeding, Reasonably Priced 
VAN VLEET BROS., LODI, NEW YORK 

FOR SALE — 20 GRADE BREEDING EWES 

L. M. COLBERT’S SONS, E. CHATHAM, N. Y. 

REG. SHROPSHIRE BRED EWES, Good Ones, 
Reasonable. R. C. MILLER, Rt.2, Ballston Lake, N.Y. 

RABBITS 


WHITE NEW ZEALAND 


For Foundation Quality 
HORNER’S RABBITRY, 

Giant Chinchillas 
Monmouth Beach 1, 

Write 
N. J. 



Barn Gleaner Too Expensive? 

Too complicated? 

Too hard to install? 

notan ACORN GUTTER PLOW 

It is a new idea at a price anyone can 
afford. It is the fastest, simplest, most 
economical and easiest to install barn 
cleaner you ever saw. 

Dealers: This machine will get those sales 
you have been losing. Why not inquire? 

BAY BARN EQUIPMENT 

BOX 62, CANANDAIGUA, N.Y. 
Distributors of Acorn Barn Equipment 



$ 6 « 


complete 


110 Volts 

The “Little Marvel’’ all-metal 
welder. 5-year written guaran¬ 
tee. Welds i/ 8 " metal or money 
back. Repairs tanks, tools, fen¬ 
ders, machine parts etc. Com- 
_ __ plete with everything — rods, 

unit, eye shield, directions. $6.45 plus 
50c postage. Flame torch accessory for 
soldering, cutting, brazing $3.95 com¬ 
plete with carbons, brass rods, flux. 

$2 deposit on C.O.D. Buy direct and save. 

ESSAY MANUFACTURING CO. 

DEPT. 93. QUINCY 69. MASS. 


DRAINS Cellars, Cisterns, Wash Trays 
IRRIGATES Your Garden, etc. 
TYPE “P” PUMP has 1,001 year ’round 
uses — house, garden, farm. Pumps 2400 
GPH; 360 GPH 75' high or 1500 GPH 
from 25' well. Use Vs to % HP motor. 
Motor coupling Included. DOES NOT 
CLOG OR RUST! Postpaid if cash 
with order. MONEY BACK GUAR¬ 
ANTEE. Centrifugal and Geer 
PUMPS In all sizes. 

LABAWCO PUMPS 
Belle Mead 19. New Jersey 


$695 



When you write advertisers mention 
The Rural New- Yorker and you’ll get 
a quick reply and a “square deal.” See 
guarantee editorial page. : : : 


Now It’s 2,000,000 First Services 

The New York Artificial Breeders’ 
Cooperative, Inc., has recently proces¬ 
sed its 2,000,000th first service 
breeding receipt since the founding 
of the organization in 1940. This 
breeding receipt was for a cow in the 
herd of Earl Moulton of Madrid, 
N. Y. The inseminator was Bernard 
Riley of Canton, one of NYABC’s 
185 local technicians. 

NYABC’s steady growth from 10 
cows a day in 1940 to a thousand a 
day this fiscal year is a tribute to 
thousands of member-dairymen in 
New York and Western Vermont who 
are building the kinds of herds they 
want by using NYABC sires. Make 
the NYABC program YOUR program. 


New 


'em 


York 


Artificial Breeders' Cooperative, Inc. 

BOX 528-B ITHACA, NEW YORK 


BEEF CATTLE 


ABERDEEN ANGUS BULL 


Registered. Enchantress Trojan Erica family, 3 years 

- -^ NEW - 


SAUNDERS. 


GARRISON, 


1W YORK 


- REGISTERED HEREFORD BULL CALF - 

K. F. Duke Domino No. 8678559. Calved June 1954 
KEIKOUT FARMS, NASSAU, NEW YORK 


POLLED HEREFORDS 


Bred and Open Heifers. BULLS Ready for Service. 
Gold Mine Breeding. Low Prices. We Deliver. 
SUNNY BROOK FARMS, AID, OHIO 


RAISE RABBITS 

A FULL TIME BUSINESS 
OR WELL PAID HOBBY 

Thousands of Raisers Needed To Meet 
The Tremendous Demand For MEAT 
-FUR—LABORATORY—BREEDING 

Know the Facts Illustrated Book 


Jk RAI 

Wi A FI 

W 

Describing25 Breeds, Breeding and Care, 
Markets . Etc. 10 Cents. We Are Association 
r of Breeders who want to Bee yon start right1 

American Rabbit Assn. 38. ARBA Bldg. Pittsburg, Pa. 


Pedigree and registered Red. White and Blue. Write 
for information. ANDREWS RABBITRY, 

16 APPLETON PLACE, LEOMINSTER, MASS. 

Giant Chinchillas: Unbelievable prices. Heavy produc¬ 
ing pairs & young pairs, Hartman, New City, N. Y. 


ELECTRIC WELDER AC or Dc 


REGISTERED HEREFORDS—Heifers and bred cows, 
some with calf at side. One 3 yr. old son of M. W. 
Larry Domino 89. T.B. and Bangs accredited herd. 
WINDROW FARM, MOORESTOWN, N. J. 

Phone: MOorestown 9-1124 


WE OFFER SELECTED 

Hereford Steer and Heifer Feeder Calves 

For delivery after Jan 1st. These calves if purchased 
in lots of 20 or more will be delivered to any point 
in New York State at no charge. 

ZENDA FARMS CLAYTON, N.Y. 

CLINTON MALDOON, Manager 


Reg. Polled Herefords 

BULLS READY FOR SERVICE 
OPEN AND BRED HEIFERS 
Modern Bloodlines. T. B. and Bangs Accredited Herd 
BATTLEGROUND FARMS 
FREEHOLD. NEW JERSEY PHONE: 8-2224 


HEREFORDS FOR SALE 


Bulls, Serviceable Age. Bred Heifers and Cows. 

Also Some Young Heifers Not Bred. 
HAMILTON FARM, GLADSTONE. NEW JERSEY 

TWO YOUNG ABERDEEN-ANGUS BULLS AND A 
Few Heifers. Sunbeam and Bandolier Breeding. 
C. C. TAYLOR,_LAWTONS. NEW YORK 

SWINE 


Selling 8 Bred Gilts 

in the all breed sale at Caladano, Feb. 12th. Bred 
to true foundation the N. Y. Senior Champion 1954. 
Martin Katler gave $2,600 for him. Also selling one 
fall boar sired by Proud Master Ace, N. Y. 1953-54 
Grand Champion Dan Sentry Queen 4th N. Y. Senior 
Champion 1954. A real herd sire. These are as good 
DUROC GILTS as will sell this Winter. 
EDGAR C. ANGLE, _ AFTON, NEW YORK 

N. Y. State Swine Breeders 4th Annual Winter Sale 
CALEDONIA EMPIRE LIVESTOCK BARNS 
CALEDONIA, N. Y. SAT., FEB. 12, I :00 P. M. 
Catalogs. W. B. STEWART, HUNT, N. Y. 
Auctioneer: Russ Hurlburt, Bliss, N. Y. 


^YORKSHIRES© 

WRITE FOR PAMPHLET AND PRICES. 

W. E. REASONER & SON. R.F.D. 4. Watertown. N.Y 


HEREFORD HOGS 


TOP BREEDING STOCK ALWAYS AVAILABLE 
LARGEST HERD IN EAST 
ROYAL OAK FARM 

2902 DUNLEER RD.. BALTIMORE 22. MD. 


REGISTERED BERKSHIRES 
BRED SOWS AND GILTS 
FALL BOARS 


SIR WILLIAM FARM, 


HILLSDALE, N. Y. 


WIESTS DUROCS 


Offers For Sale Meat Type: All Ages, All Sex. 
The Home of the RA Grand Champion 
Durocs Since 1914 

CHAS A. WIEST, WOMELSDORF, PA. Tel. 45-Y 


MAPLEHtJRST DUROCS: April Pigs, Either Sex. 
RUSSELL F. PATTINGTON, SCIPIO CENTER, N Y 


FREE CIRCULAR: REG. HAMPSHIRE SWINE 
Since 1934. C. LUTZ, Middletown I, Maryland 


REGISTERED HEREFORDS 


August and September Farrowed Boars and Gilts. 
CARROLL F. HUNT, STEWARTSTOWN, PA. 


Spotted Poland China Pigs, Service Boars, Bred Gilts, 
Vaccinated Pure Breds. Shipped with doctor’s health 
certificate. C. W. HILLMAN, VINCENTOWN, N. 1. 


20 BRED GILTS. Also Service Boars. Sired by the 
1953 Ohio Jr. Ch. Clifford LeVan, R. I, Milton, Pa. 


-TAMWORTHS: Registered or Unregistered- 

10 wks. old. TAMWORTH FARM, MILTON, DELA. 

DOGS 


Boxers • 33 outers 

PUPPIES THAT SATISFY. Best Bloodlines. Excellent 
Individuals. DR. i. M. THURBER, ITHACA, N. Y. 

Ped. Smooth Fox Terrier Pups 

Grove CitT. henna. 


COLLIE PUPPIES: Championship Breeding. Beauties. 
$30: $35. PLUMMER McCULLOUGH. MERCER, PA. 


PEDIGREE AIRDALE PUPPIES 


HOLLAND DAIRY FARMS. Clarksburg. W. Va. 


-SHELTIE (Miniature Collie) PUPPIES- 


Champion pedigree. A.K.C. registered, wormed, in- 
noculated. ASTOLAT KENNELS, Kunkletown 3, Pa. 

ENGLISH SHEPHERD PUPS: FARM RAISED. 
Wonderful with children. Ready to start driving cows. 
JULIA STRITTMATTER. SEWELL, NEW JERSEY 

GERMAN SHEPHERDS: BEAUTIFUL FEMALES! 

Registered. Reasonably Priced. Stud Service. 

A. G. SHEAFFER, R. 2, HOLTWOOD, PENNA. 


- TOY MANCHESTER TERRIER. 


Male 10 Months Old. A.K.C. Registered. 
Elizabeth Bells. Auburn Rd., Seneca Falls, N. Y. 

ST. BERNARD PUPS — A.K.C. REGISTERED 
EDWARD WHITE, ROUTE 4, ROME, N. Y. 

PED. AIREDALE TERRIER PUPS: Champ Blood- 
Lines. FRED WOOD, DANIELSON, CONN. 


HORSES AND PONIES 


WANTED TO BUY: A YOUNG RIDING HORSE 
CHARLES E. GORGOL, R. D. 2, RICHFORD, N. Y. 

_GOATS_ 

MAKE MONEY raising dairy goats—produce healthful 
milk. Monthly magazine $1 yearly; sample 20c. 
DAIRY GOAT JOURNAL, COLUMBIA A2I, MO. 


99 










































































































































No wonder women 
go crazy about 
dresses like THESE! 



—And No Wonder If’* Easy (Even in Sparer 
Time) to Make Good Money Jutt by 
Showing Them to Friends and Neighbors 

I am looking for women 
(aged 18 to 80) who have 
good taste in clothes and 
who would like to make 
extra money in spare 
time. I simply want you 
to wear and show our 
f ashionableNewYork styled dresses 
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the low prices—and write up the or¬ 
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MAIL COUPON FOR COMPLETE 
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mail, our New "Style Show’’ out¬ 
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Mrs. Vera Ward Stilson, Stylist 

SPSSSJSg* 

Anderson, Ind. YouSsFREE! 

Mail me your “Style Show” Equipment with 
actual samples of materials Free—no obligation. 
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My dress size is_____ 


Name. 


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City - Zone _ State .„ 



Davis 


DOUBLE ACTING 

BAKING 
POWDER 



Davis 
“double ac¬ 
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super-lightness, fine texture..* 
You’ll be delighted! Send for 
easy QUICK-MIX Charts. 
R. B. Davis Company, Dept. 
RN-32, Hoboken, N. J. 

By the Makers of Cocomalt and Swel 


Housework, 

Easy Without 
Nagging Backache 

Nagging backache, loss of pep and energy, head¬ 
aches and dizziness may be due to slowdown of kid¬ 
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CHAIR CANE and BASKET MATERIAL 

Liberal Discount to Home Bureau Groups, Churches, 
Schools. Genuine Chair Cane, Round Basketry Reed, 
Bases in stock. Seat Weaving Instructions, Catalogue, 
Samples 35 cents. Basketry Instruction Book 60 cents. 
FOGARTY. 205 RIVER ST.. TROY. N. Y. 

TAKE LARKIN ORDERS 

GENEROUS REWARDS. GIFTS FOR CLUB MEM- 
BERS. Write for Catalog. LARKIN COMPANY, 
DEPT, R. _ BUFFALO 10. NEW YORK 

- PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH COOK BOOK - 

Containing 260 Plain Recipes. $1.00 Postpaid. 
BAILEY SHIELDS, P. 0. Box 168, Huntingdon, Pa. 



Eggs and Chicken Lead Parade to the Table 


Recently my children were re¬ 
covering from the mumps. When 
they reached the stage where they 
could swallow soft food, I suggested 
a soft boiled egg. 

Then, jokingly, I continued: “Do 
you want it a little hard or watery?” 
My six-year-old son John looked at 
me seriously, then asked wisely: 
“Can’t you cook it just right?” 

Five minutes of boiling time, 
measured by the stove timer, will 
produce what we call a perfectly soft 
boiled egg. All the white will be 
cooked soft but firm, and the yoke 
will be soft, if you use graded large 
size eggs. Smaller eggs require less 
time. 

For hard boiled eggs I allow 15 
minutes of hard boiling. To poach an 
egg I use a slightly greased iron 
skillet two thirds full of boiling 
water. I drop the eggs directly in 
from the shell, simmer them a few 
minutes, then lift them out with a 
slotted spoon when they are just 
firm, and all white coated. 

It is easy to serve appetizing fried 
eggs, sunny-side-up — but cooked. 
Just before removing the eggs from 
the frying pan, place a cover over 
them for a few moments; but only a 
few moments, otherwise they get 
hard. 

I’ve been looking at four large¬ 
sized goose eggs and wondering how 


long to boil them. They must be 
cooked right; I can’t afford to waste 
them at 25 cents each. I’m thinking 
10 minutes might do it. Will know 
for sure later. It would be easier to 
scramble them or make an omelet 
but my family says “soft boiled, 
please.” 

P. S. — I boiled the goose eggs 
12 minutes, they weighed a good half 
pound or better. Luckily they turned 
out “just right”, soft boiled. 

Marie E. Martin 

Connecticut 


Our 40 Old Biddies! 

“Hens are selling for only nine 
cents a pound, liveweight”, said my 
husband to me, grimly. That was 
late last Summer and an insult to 
any fine, fat hen who had laid well 
and was just right for a delicious 
chicken dinner. 

So we did not sell our 40 elderly 
white ladies but had to dispose of 
them at home somehow, to make 
room for the spring pullets. This is 
my story, for we succeeded. 

Old hens make delicious gravy; 
the best, if cooked ahead of time 
with the extra fat skimmed off. 
Biscuits with that gravy, to coin a 
rhyme, are especially yummy in any¬ 
one’s tummy. Since we could not eat 
all 40 aging birds, we shared some 


with our married daughter, traded 
a few with neighbors for tires or 
farm supplies, gave to church bene¬ 
fits and our freezer could take a few. 
Yet hens still remained. For these 
we reverted to pre-freezer days: 
canning. And a neighbor and I made 
an event of it. 

I never can decapitate, not after 
having brought such pretty hens up 
from bright-eyed yellow fluffs 
through the young girl stage and 
dignified matronhood. 

Two women together is more fun 
and faster. The only biddy who 
bristled with pinfeathers like a hair¬ 
brush happened not to fall to me! 
The rest shed their feathers as we 
would our worries, and the first days 
saw the good old hens picked, 
singed, dressed, cut up, and left to 
cool completely. • 

On the second day the birds were 
firmly packed into jars — a jigsaw 
puzzle — and out came our old Con- 
servo pressure cooker. Finally the 
jars went onto shelves in both our 
homes. 

Result? We think that canning fine 
old birds gives better flavor than 
freezing them. Anytime that you 
come by, stop in for a chicken dinner 
on the Ward farm, and see for your¬ 
selves. Maybe a jar will still be on 
hand! Agnes A. Ward 

New York 



It’s Cold Out — and the Heat Is On — But Where? 



The healthful, even warmth of convection heating, popular in homes with 
convector radiators, now can be enjoyed ivith new-style heat distribution 
units — streamlined baseboard convectors such as shown in this attractive 

room. 


One of the newest of the hidden 
heat distribution units is the base¬ 
board convector, which doesn’t look 
like a heat distribution unit at all 
but does look like a wall baseboard. 

Styled for use with hot water or 
Steam heating systems, baseboard 
convectors are installed in rooms in 
place of the regular baseboard along 
the outer walls of the home. They 
are delivered in a neutral prime 
shade and may be painted to blend 
with the floor covering and walls. 
Baseboard convectors, taking almost 
no space, give free use of all areas 
of the room. 

The convection principle distri¬ 
butes warmth by air motion — a 
gentle cycle, scarcely noticeable, 
which gives the room uniform 
warmth from floor to ceiling. These 
convectors along outer walls protect 
against drafts which might otherwise 
develop through the coming in of 
cool air around windows. 


The American Spice Trade Asso¬ 
ciation reports that there are 50 
spices now available to American 
homemakers. 


100 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 



















































































Sugar in Its Place 

Baby spilled the sugar upon the kitchen floor; 

Mother said: “You must not do that any more!” 

Looking out next morning, everything was white; 

First of winter snow had come, heavy in the night. 

Baby said to Mother, pointing out to where 

Drifts were on the driveway: “I spilled the sugar there!” 
Oklahoma — Emuia K. Stealey 



132 — Schoolgirls Like Both These Easy-to-make Sweaters; the cro¬ 
cheted afghan stitch weskit is in the little girl sizes of 12, 14, and 16 (not 
Misses’ sizes); the knitted pullover in bright stripes for sizes 6, 8, 10, 12 
years. Complete instructions for both in pattern. 20 cents. 

2485 — Smart Suit with Boxy Bolero Jacket, slim skirt. Jacket has col¬ 
lar, choice of cuffed three-quarter or long sleeves. Sizes 10 to 20. Size 16: 
bolero and skirt, 3V& yds. 54-in. 25 cents. 

2038 — Simple Slimming Button-front Style with collar, cap sleeves* 
practical and flattering to those of you who want slenderizing lines. Sizes 
14 to 48. Size 18: Style shown, 4% yds. 35-in. 25 cents. 

2195 — Charming Subteen’s Dress with sailor collar, button-front, easy 
patch pockets and its own pretty petticoat for the new bouffant look. She’ll 
love it! Sizes 6 to 14. Size 8: Dress, 314 yds. 35-in. Petticoat, IVs yds., 35 
or 39-in. 25 cents. 

135 — Wonderfully Smart Empire Doily—This 16-inch diameter cro¬ 
chet piece to do in chartreuse, yellow, pink or white cotton crochet thread. 
Use for place mats (starched) or as a lamp table doily. Actual size detail 
in crochet instructions. 20 cents. 

Spring-Summer 1955—New Fashion Book 25 cents. 

Carol Curtis Needlework Guide 25 cents. 

Please Print Your Name, Full Address and style numbers; do not for¬ 
get to include sizes! Send orders to THE RURAL NEW YORKER, 333 
West 30th St., New York 1, N. Y. (Tax for N. Y. City residents only: send 
1 cent tax on 20 cents orders; 2 cents tax on 40 cents to 60 cents orders; 
3 cents tax on 80 cents to $1.00 orders.) 


Abraham LincoSn 

It has been truly said: “Though 
Washington gave us American In¬ 
dependence, Lincoln won us liberty.” 

Many lasting anecdotes sacred to 
Lincoln’s memory are built around 
the home: his step-mother, his early 
sweetheart, and later his own home 
and family. As we recall his comfort¬ 
ing words, “The Lord must have 
loved homely people, he made so 
many of them”, we are wondering if 
he would not have liked to apply 
their meaning to homey thoughts 
and people. The affectionate nick¬ 
names of Abe, Honest Abe, The Rail- 
splitter and others must have arisen 
from the home teachings of his boy¬ 
hood. 

Though his financial background 
could in no way compare with that 
of Washington’s, Lincoln rose to 
equal heights as a liberator. 

Lillian A. Burns 



Spice Or Herb? 


What is the difference between a 
spice and an herb? 

Botanically, spices are the roots, 
bark, buds, seeds or fruit of aromatic 
plants' which usually grow in the 
tropics. Herbs are the leaves of 
plants which grow only in the 
temperate zones. The Trade Asso¬ 
ciation now classes both types of 
products under the general term, 
spices. 

The average American spice manu¬ 
facturer blends about 16 different 
spices into curry powder. In India, 
where this spice blend originated, 
sometimes as many as 30 spices are 
used. 


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helped at once with soft, 
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8 Upper Cushions, $1.00 
10 Lower Cushions, $1.00 
or send $2.00 for both. 

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No Pastes! 


HEAVY FURNITURE ROLLS EASILY 


on Mrs. Demur's EASY-T0-TAP-0N 



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Simply tap these 
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these ball casters roll over floors and rugs 
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piece of furniture. 8 for $1.00, delivered. 
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Send for free catalog of gifts! 




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Newark 5, N. J. 



Free Catalog- Monuments from $14-95 

Monuments of rare beauty and artstic per¬ 
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savings. All carving, polishing and finishing 
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plant. Exclusive sale by mail direct to the 
consumer guarantee lowest prices. Prices in¬ 
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catalog of over 50 monuments. No obligation. 

Rockdale Monument Co., Dept. 911, Joliet, III. 


Free for Asthma 

If you suffer with attacks of Asthma and choke 
and gasp for breath, if restful sleep is difficult 
because of the struggle to breathe, don’t fail to 
send at once to the Frontier Asthma Company for 
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462 NIAGARA ST.. BUFFALO I. N. Y. 


ELASTIC STOCKING 
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save $3.00 to $5.00 a pair! 

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seamless, almost invisible. Write for FREE folder. 

ELASTOCK C0„ Dept. 820, CHELMSFORD, MASS. 


HEARING 

If so, you will be 
happy to know how 
we have improved the 
hearing and relieved 
those miserable head 
noises, caused by ca¬ 
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thousands of people 
(many past 70) who 
have used our simple 
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Treatment in the past 
16 years. This may be 
the answer to your 
prayer. NOTHING TO WEAR. Here are 
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be causing your catarrhal deafness and 
head noises: Head feels stopped up 
from mucus. Dropping of mucus in 
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understand words. Hear better on clear 
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If your condition is caused by catarrh 
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ball of the foot. Cushions the arch. 
Of soft, cool foam rubber and plastic. 
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246 Spencer Bldg., Atlantic City, N. J. 



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for free samp! 
rayons, sharkskins, etc. Satisfaction guaranteed, un¬ 
usual values. Rodkin, 179 Linden Blvd.. Bklyn., N. Y. 


MAKE YOUR OWN DRESS. 
BLOUSE, SUIT, Etc. Write 
es of fine woven and printed cottons. 



Sponge Out 

When the wastes of digestion are not promptly 
eliminated they FERMENT quickly. Stomach Gas, 
Nausea, Sour Stomach, Belching and similar dis¬ 
comforts of Indigestion result. 

The U. S. Dispensatory says: “In diseases of 
the stomach. Charcoal may be employed to ad¬ 
vantage not only to absorb fermenting gases, but 
also to overcome hyperacidity.” 

REQUA’S CHARCOAL TABLETS ARE DIFFER¬ 
ENT. They merely Absorb Gas and Sour Acid. A 
purely Physical Action ... no Chemical Action 
occurs as it is not a drug. Used successfully 
by thousands for 75 years, recommended by many 
doctors. Hospitals use them in cases of food 
poisoning and for post-operative gas. 

..What Doctor Says 

REQUA’S’charcoal TABLETS are a depend- 


Indigestion! 

able treatment of many types of food poisoning 
only too common today.” 

Dr. E. T. - N. Y. 

Don’t rely on sodas, alkalizers or harsh laxatives to 
help get rid of gas and heartburn. Use Nature's 
own purifier . . . CHARCOAL lOOG Vegetable 
Carbon containing no sweetner nor laxative. May 
be taken freely — not habit-forming. 

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were prescribed by my doctor. I have found them 
highly efficient and very helpful." — F. L. S., 
Nebraska. 

Get REQUA’S CHARCOAL TABLETS at your 

Di-ug or Health Store. 3'00 Tablets for $1.00. Or 
direct upon receipt of price. FREE BOOKLET: 
“The Value of Charcoal.” Write us today. REQUA 
MFG. CO., INC., Dept. R-2, Brooklyn 16, N. Y. 


February 5, 1955 101 

waft jABua sht 









































































OUR PAGE for BOYS and GIRLS 

Their Original Contributions Arranged by Elsie Unger 


Editor’s Message 

February, with its usual 28 days, has three important dates al¬ 
ways celebrated: the 12th, the 14th and the 22nd. I don’t need to tell 
you what they stand for. But the sentimental heart of St. Valentine was 
never as great in meaning as the heart of Abraham Lincoln; and surely 
Washington’s heart was in the welfare of the new nation which Lincoln 
later held “one and indivisible.” 

A fourth importance about February, of course, is that every 
four years it has 29 days; “twenty-nine, in fine,” as the old rhyme goes. 
Next year will be Leap Year again. I wonder how many of you have 
a birthday on February 29th! — Elsie Unger. 




Drawn by Joyce Schroo, 13, New York 


I LOVE TO WHISTLE 

I love to whistle ’cause it makes me merry. 
Makes me feel so very daring; 

I love to yodel everywhere X go, 

Yoda, lay-ee-o, lay-ee-o, lay! 

What I found out you’ll find is true: 

A whistle does so much for you. 

A whistle keeps all trouble away, 

Yoda, lay-ee-o. lay-ee-o, lay! 

— Joann Worthington, 12, Pennsylvania 


LIFE NEVER GETS BORING 

Life never gets boring, 

When you realize these things: 

The people who work as hard as they can 
Earn their money like every man; 

The people who get the money they need. 
Get many things as they succeed; 

The farmer who works hard in the hills 
Does his chores and at the sawmills; 

He sends his milk to the milk station 
To help provide for this big nation: 

He goes to bed and starts a-snoring 

He doesn’t find that life is boring! 

— Carl Hees, Pennsylvania 



HER PUREBRED MORGAN 

I am a junior in high school. My favorite 
hobby is my horse, a purebred Morgan 18 
months old. I’m using him as my 4-H pro¬ 
ject and we are both doing fairly well. 
I’m raising, breaking and training him my¬ 
self. It is fun and a lot of work. I also like 
tennis, writing horse stories, archery and 
anything that takes me outdoors. I would 
like to hear from anyone who likes horses 
or owns a horse. — Lois Driscoll, 15, Massa¬ 
chusetts. 


THE BIRTHDAY SURPRISE 

It was Susan’s birthday, but no one 
seemed to remember. She had gone half 
of the day through school and none of her 
friends had said, “Happy Birthday, Susan.” 
When school finally ended she ran for the 
school bus. The girls just said, “Hi” and 
turned away giggling. 

She went up the path to her pleasant 
farmhouse, the barns in the back freshly 
painted but unoccupied. Not even her 

mother or father had said anything about 
her birthday. As she entered the house, a 
cry of “Happy Birthday” rang out from 

every corner of the room. Susan stood there 
with her mouth open. Her friends showered 
her with gifts but her mother and father 
didn’t join in. 

When she had opened all her packages, 
she turned to look at her parents. They 
both stood up and told her to follow them 
out past the garden and down the path 

toward the barn. Her father opened the 
door and told her to walk over to the 
first stall. Inside was a beautful black mare, 
with a small colt beside her. 

Susan didn’t know what to say! She 
walked into the stall and put her face 
against the small one’s face; the colt nuzzled 
her face and made her laugh. 

After all her friends had gone home, 
Susan went quietly out to the barn. She 
said to herself: “I thought no one had re¬ 
membered. But, instead, they did and I 
had a beautiful and wonderful birthday sur¬ 
prise!” — By Lois Driscoll, 15, Massachu¬ 
setts. 



102 


BOOK REVIEW COLUMN: Drawn 

THE LAST HUNT: BY MILTON LOTT. 

REVIEWED BY ELSPETH HUNT, 19, 
Massachusetts. 

Once upon a time endless herds of buffalo 
roamed this continent from Canada to Texas. 
The herds were the life of the Indian tribes 
for they depended upon them for meat, and 
leather. To white men they represented only 
hides and robes. So white men went about 
slaughtering these beasts until they were 
practically wiped out. 

The Last Hunt is the story of this slaugh¬ 
ter, and of Sandy MacKenzie, Charlie Gil¬ 
son. Jimmy the half Indian, and Wood- 
foot, a man with a peg leg. 

Charlie was the man who was the big 
hunter. He thought that the more buffalo 
he had to his credit, the more respect men 
would have for him. Sandy, however, re¬ 
spected these wild beasts and felt that the 
loss of the buffalo was a loss to the country. 

Charlie was a real gunman; in fact, it was 
said that instead of the man wearing the 
gun, the gun wore the man. Charlie had to 
destroy everything he came in contact with, 
but in the end he finally destroyed himself. 

Sandy was wise and managed to adjust 
himself to life after thundering herds of 
buffalo were gone. 

Mr. Lott, the author, brings to life one 
of the most abrupt changes in the West. 
He tells of the musky smell of the buffalo 
and the despair of the Indians. His de¬ 
scriptions of the plains, the animals and 
the weather are beautiful. The reader lives 
with these hard, lean men and this violent 
page from the history of our country. 

You will find this book in your book¬ 
store of lending library. 



THE OLD CAMPAIGNER 
Drawn by Donya Musseils, 16, Massachusetts 


HAPPY HOME 

I am five feet tall and have two brothers 
and one sister. I love horses and dogs and 
wish to have pen pals both boys and girls. 
I live in a four-room house in the country 
and, as there are six of us, it is rather 
crowded, but we don’t mind a bit. — 
Patricia Chisholm, Pennsylvania. 


LOVES PEN PALS 

When The Rural New Yorker comes, the 
first thing I turn to is Our Page. I am in 
the tenth grade in school. One of my favo¬ 
rite hobbies' is writing letters and I would 
like to have many pen pals from anywhere 
in the world, both boys and girls. — Nancy 
Farabaugh, 15, Pennsylvania. 


BROTHER HOME FROM JAPAN 

I have been reading Our Page for a long 
time now and I like it very much. I have 
five sisters and two brothers. One of my 
brothers was in the Army and he went to 
Japan; he is home now. I would like to 
have some pen pals from all oyer the world 
from both boys and girls. I would appre¬ 
ciate it very much if someone would write 
to me. — Rose Hildebrandt, 12, New Jersey. 


by Ginger Martin, 17, Rhode Island 

KANGAROO: BY HENRY G- LAMOND 

REVIEWED BY VIOLET HASKELL, 15, 
Massachusetts. 

This is the story of one of the world’s 
most curious and timid animals. He is 
strangely constructed with short front legs 
or arms, powerful, long hind legs, also a 
powerful long thick tail which he uses to 
balance himself, or as a club. It. is a story, 
too, of Big Red or of two Big Reds, father 
and son. 

Kangaroos live in a mob. not a herd; 
a baby is a joey, the mother a doe; the 
father is a buck, a young lady is a flyer. 
Whereas we have always seen these 
creatures in a zoo, it is interesting to read 
about how they live in their native Aus¬ 
tralia; how they fight their natural ene¬ 
mies like the eagle, the dingo (wild dog) 
and, of course, man with a gun who likes 
this creature’s hide. 

A new baby ’roo is as big as the first 
joint on a man’s finger. He lives in his 
mother’s pouch until he is big enough to 
do for himself. His mother weighs about 
85 pounds and is about five feet tall. It is 
strange that such a good-sized animal 
should have such a tiny baby. 

The author tells about the Australian 
bush and all the animals who live there, 
about floods, bush fires and drought. You’ll 
like it if you love wild animals. 

You can find this book in your local 
store or library. 



SOMETHING’S FUNNY HERE! 
Drawn by Betty Dumont, 16, New York 

SKIPPED A CLASS 


I would like to have some pen pals, girls 
about my age. I am in the eighth grade in 
school. I skipped the seventh. My hobbies 
are collecting pictures of movie stars. I live 
on a farm. Hendrika Duits, 13, New York, 


CORNHUSKERS — HER BAND 

I love to write to various people in differ¬ 
ent places. I have quite a few pen pals 
now, but I would like to have more. My 
favorite hobby is music. I play in a hill¬ 
billy band called the Cornhuskers. Ever 
since I was a little girl, I have been read¬ 
ing Our Page. — Beverly Venne, 17, New 
York. 


ENJOYS SPORTS 

I enjoy reading Our Page and would like 
to have boys and gii'ls my age or older 
write to me. I will answer all letters. I 
live on a 60-acre farm and love to dance, 
write, swim and ride horseback. I hope 
some boys will write to me as well as girls. 
— Beulah Becroft, 16, New York. 



LETTERS WANTED 

Letters to persons whose names appear 
under this heading should be put into a 
stamped envelope, with the name and state 
of the person for whom the letter is in¬ 
tended on the outside of the envelope. This 
should then be put into an outer envelope, 
and addressed to Elsie Unger, 333 West 30th 
St., New York 1, N. Y.. care of The Rural 
New Yorker. The address will be completed 
and the mail forwarded. Be sure you have 
the correct postage for mail going outside 
the United States. Unstamped letters will 
not be mailed. 

New York: Jena Benedict, 13; Carolyn 
Davis; Elsie Olsen, 14; Judy Lewis. 13. 

New Jersey: Adelaide Johnson. 15; Stan¬ 
ford Allen, 15. 

Massachusetts: Lois Driscoll, 15. 

British West Africa: Peter O. Fergerson, 
12; Kwamena Fergerson, 13; Kioamen O. 
Fergerson, 12; Kwame O. Yamoah. 


JUDY WISHES SHE WERE A BOY 

I live on a 60-acre farm where we have 
cows, chickens, cats and a dog. My favorite 
sport is baseball. Many times I wish I were 
a boy instead of a girl. I would like to 
hear from boys and girls all over. — Judy 
Lewis, 13, New York. 


4-H AND A COLLECTOR 

I am in the seventh grade; my hobbies 
are collect'ng old coins and draw ng I am 
in a 4-H Club and live on a farm. I have 
five brothers and one sister. Will boys and 
girls from all over write to me? — Nelda 
Van Vleet, 11, New York. 



SCHOOL ACTIVITIES 

I have been reading Our Page for a long 
time but this is the first t.me I have 
written. I’m in the eighth grade and am 
quite active in school activities. I have been 
on the Student Council and was president 
of my class. I like all kinds of sports but 
tennis and softball are my favorites. I live 
on a farm. I would like to hear from boys 
and girls near my age. — Sandy Ellis, 13, 
New York. 


HORSES AND BLACK ANGUS 

This is the first time I have written to 
Our Page. I live on a 300-acre farm where 
we raise Black Angus cattle. My hobbies 
are horses. I love all sports, dancing and 
painting. I own my own horse and have 
entered him in the local horse shows. I 
would like to hear from boys or girls. 15 
years or older, who have the same interests 
as I. — Dorthea Holmes, 15, Pennsylvania. 


LIVES ON LARGE FARM 

I have been reading Our Page for a 
long time now, and I like it very much. I 
am a sophomore in high school and my 
favorite subjects are French, biology and 
English. I live on a 152-acre farm and my 
hobbies are horseback riding, collecting post 
cards and reading Our Page which I en¬ 
joy very much. I would like pen pals from 
all over the world, so please write to me. — 
Adelaide Johnson, 15, New Jersey. 



THE RURAL NEW YORKER 


























































Most of the 675,000 visitors to the 39 th Penn. Farm Show visited these con¬ 
venient and satisfying food booths. Farm groups sold ready-to-eat poultry, 
dairy, potato, apple and honey products. 


BY N. M. EBERLY 


NNSYLVANIA’S 39th An¬ 
nual Farm Show, biggest 
since these midwinter ex¬ 
positions were started, 
closed its five-day stand on 
January 14. Many new rec¬ 
ords were made and still 
closer ties were bound with the 
Pennsylvania State University to 
which the Show was dedicated this 
year as a prelude to Penn State’s 
forthcoming centennial celebration. 
Attendance for the week was 675,000, 
as compared to the 685,000 record 
set in 1952. 

Dairy Cattle Champions 

Championships in dairy cattle 
went to: Holstein—bull, Howard B. 
Weiss, Myerstown, Lebanon County; 
and cow, J. N. Earnshaw, Dimock, 
Susquehanna County. Guernsey—bull 
and cow, James D. Berry, Jr., Titus¬ 
ville, Venango County. Jersey—Bull, 
Falkland Farm, Schellsburg, Bedford 
County; and cow, Mrs. Richard Mc¬ 
Carthy, Hummelstown, Dauphin 
County. Ayrshire—bull, Gordon 
Nairn, Douglassville, Berks County; 
and cow, Raymond A. Seidel, Vir- 
ginville, Berks County. Brown Swiss 
—bull, Bertha E. Thompson, West 
Alexander, Washington County; and 
cow, Wade H. Kepner, Sharpsville, 
Mercer County. Milking Shorthorn—• 
bull and cow, Hazelbrook Farm, Bath, 
Northampton County. 

In the 4-H classes: Holstein cham¬ 


pion, Gaynel Henry. Newville, Cum¬ 
berland County; top showman, Fran¬ 
ces Kreitzer, Camp Hill, Cumberland 
County; top fitter, Mary Hoffman, 
Halifax, Dauphin County, Guernsey 
champion, also fitting and showing 
honors for the breed, Elsie C. Dodds, 
Chadds Ford, Chester County. Jersey 
champion, Merle E. Miller, Jr., Car¬ 
lisle, Cumberland County; top show¬ 
man, Peggy Jo McNelly, Rea, Wash¬ 
ington County; top fitter, Ken Men- 
elly, Punxsutawney, Jefferson 
County. Brown Swiss champion, Kay 
F. Wenrich, Hershey, Dauphin 
County; top showman, Marjorie L. 
Henricks, Butler; best fitter, Nancy 
E. Kennedy, Valencia, Butler 
County. Ayrshire champion, William 
Landis, Millersburg, Dauphin 
County; Abram Flory, Manheim, 
Lancaster County, top showman; and 
Raymond E. Fields, Grantsville, 
Dauphin County, best fitter. 

Guernsey breeders elected James 
B. Robertson, Paoli, president. 

Beef Cattle Champions 

Beef cattle championships wei'e 
distributed as follows: Shorthorns— 
females, Clarence Cross & Sons, 
Boyers, Butler County; and bull, Irl 
A. Daffin, Lititz, Lancaster County. 
Hereford—bull, Cairnwood Farm, 
Bryn Athyn, Montgomery County; 
and female, Valley View Farms, 
Harrisville, Butler County. Angus— 


bull and female, Mrs. E. H. Heckett, 
Valencia, Butler County. 

Livestock Sale Prices 

A top price of $1.51 per pound, as 
compared to $1.15 a year ago, was 
paid for the 4-H grand champion 
steer Hereford entry of Tommy 
Daugherty, 11, Kirkwood, Lancaster 
County. The reserve grand champian, 
a 980-pound Aberdeen Angus 
shown by Henry Yeska, Jr., Nazar¬ 
eth, Northampton County, sold for 
$1.05 per pound. The grand cham¬ 
pion 4-H pen of lambs, entered by 
Walter Augsberger, Rein holds, Lan¬ 
caster County, brought $1.35 per 
pound. All steers averaged 38.96 
cents per pound, and all lambs 33.27 
cents per pound. The steer average 
compared to 34,46 cents per pound 
at the 1954 show, w'hile the lamb 
average was up from 31.69 cents per 
pound a year ago. 

Sheep Awards 

Entries by Kenneth D. Moore, Nich¬ 
ols, N. Y., Bradford County, swept 
the Shropshire breed in the sheep 
division. He also had both ram and 
ewe Rambouillet champs in the fine 
wool breeds. 

Mr. and Mrs. Fred Fowles, Pros- 
pectville, Montgomery County, had 
champion ram and champion ewe in 
Cheviots; Mrs. Ford A. Cooper, Rey- 
noldsville, Jefferson County, took 
both top honors in Suffolks. The 
Hampshire champion ram was shown 
by Green Meadows Farm, Bareville, 
Lancaster County, and the top ewe 
by David E. McDowell, Mercer, 
County. Mr. and Mrs. H. J. Shearer, 
North Wales, Montgomery County, 
had both tops in Southdowns. Ford 
A. Cooper, Reynoldsville, had the 
champion Dorset ram; and M. C. 
Whitney, Susquehanna, Susquehanna 
County, the top ewe of the breed. 
Corriedale champions were: ram, 
Edward S. Hess, Bareville, Lancaster 
County; and ewe, D. E. McDowell. 
Breed champions in the fine wool 
sheep were: B-Type Merino, Waldo 
Barron, Slippery Rock, Butler 
County, both ram and ewe. C.-Type 
Merino, ram, Barron, and ewe, James 
A. Scott, Burgettstown, Washington 
County. 

David Sweigart, Elizabethtown, 
Lancaster County, had top lamb car¬ 
cass award. 

Fat sheep champions: Shropshire 
—Joanne Foreman, Manheim, Lan¬ 
caster County; Hampshire—Mary A. 




Fine Livestock Is Shown at the Pennsylvania Farm Show 

James D. Berry, Jr., Titusville, Venango Co., Pa., exhibited both Guernsey grand champions at the 39 th annual 
Penn. Farm Shoio held in Harrisburg, January 10-14. The bull is WYNO Beau’s Cherub, a five-year-old, and 
the cow, Nutshell King’s Virgil. E. S. Hess, Bareville, Lancaster Co., had one of the prize-winning Hampshire 
sheep. Lloyd Schmige, shepherd, put finishing touches on the ewe before taking her to the show ring. 

February 5, 1955 


K'sr 


"Great News 
for DAIRYMEN!'' 


HAY'S SO POOR MY 
MILK CHECKS ARE 
’WAY DOWN 


PC ED, POOR HAY 
LACKS VTAM!N‘'A''BOr 
NEW AOHHTAfifH AS 

vitamin"a: (T promotes 

GROWTH, GUARDS 
AGAINST INFECTION . 


Sometime Later 


KCWKAArS 

VITAMINX 
REALLY WORKS, 
FRED 




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HAS 4000 UNITS Of 
VITAMIN'XTO THE 
OUNCE PLUS ITS MINERALS 
AND TONIC DRUGS. HELPS 
ASSURE HEALTHY 
CALVES, TOO 

I 't-V ” 


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FRED,THOSE 
COWS LOOK 
GREAT) 


MY MILK CHECKS ARE 
GREAT,TOO! KOW-fUWs‘$ 
NEW VITAMIN'A*IS DI6ESTA6IE 
WITH HIGH POTENCY. BUILT UP MY 
FRESHENING COWS. TRY IT.' „ 





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Hess, Bareville. Lancaster County; 
Southdown — Walter Augsberger, 
Reinholds, Lancaster County; Chev¬ 
iot—Joanne Sheai'er, Bellefonte, 
Centre County: Dorset—Mary E. 
Yearick, Howard, Centre County: and 
Suffolk—Orvil Hosterman, Aarons- 
burg, Centre County. Augsberger 
also had grand champion wether. 

The champion ram fleece award 
went to George Bollinger, New 
Castle, Lawrence County, and the 
best ewe fleece award to Harr Stag¬ 
gers & Son, Graysville, Greene 
County. 

W. A. Thompson, Waynesboro, 
Franklin County, was elected presi¬ 
dent of the Pennsylvania Sheep and 
Wool Growers’ Assn. 

Swine Champions 

The Yorkshire grand champion, 
owned by L. E. Sentz, of Felton, 
York County, was sold to Dr. Arthur 
Bartenslager, Stewartstown, same 
j county, for $375. Forty Yorkshires 
averaged $164.12. Frank Rusler, 
Peach Bottom, Lancaster County, 
was elected president of Yorkshire 
Breeders. A price of $305 was paid by 
William A. Shelton, Nottingham, 
Bucks County, for the Hampshire 
grand champion, entered by Ford A. 
Cooper, Reynoldsville, Jefferson 
County. Forty Hamps. averaged $145.- 
13. Lee Mohney. Stoneboro, Mercer 
County, is the new Hampshire Breed¬ 
ers’ president. Model Queen, owned 
by Waldo Barron, Slippery Rock, 
Butler County, won the Duroc Jer¬ 
sey grand. Norman Brubaker, Sheri¬ 
dan, Lebanon County, was elected 
president of the Duroc Swine Breed¬ 
ers' Assn. The grand champion of 
Poland China swine was entered by 
Clifford A. Levan, Milton, North¬ 
umberland County. Poland China 
breeders elected Donald E. Lanins, 
York, York County, president. Ideal 
Lady, entered by J. Harold Little, 
Hanover, York County, topped all 
others in the Chester Whites. Ches¬ 
ter White breeders elected Harvey 
W. Hunt, Conemaugh, Cambria 
County, president. The grand cham¬ 
pion of Spotted Poland Chinas, was 
entered by C. Warren Leininger, 
Denver, Lancaster County. William 
M. Kauffman, York, York County, 
was named president of Spotted 
Poland China breeders. Wood Bro¬ 
thers, Mercer, Mercer County, had 
the grand champion Berkshire. 
Berkshire breeders named Clayton 
Winebark, Rochester Mills, presi¬ 
dent for 1955. 

Daniel Dietrich, Hegins, Schuyl¬ 
kill County, is the new president of 
the Tamworth Swine Assn, of Penn¬ 
sylvania. John Witter, Newmans- 
town, Lebanon County, was elected 
president of the Pennsylvania Co¬ 
operative Swine Breeders’ Assn. 

In vocational F.F.A. exhibits, 
breed championships were won by: 
Berkshire—Gerald Dotterer, Len- 
j hartsville, Berks County; Chester 
White—C. Richard Plastings, Kirk¬ 
wood, Lancaster County; Duroc Jer¬ 
sey—Walter Foose, New Bloom¬ 
field, Perry County; Hampshire— 
Leon Bankert, Felton, York County; 
Poland China—Donald J. Blough, 
Jonestown, Lebanon County; and 
Yorkshire—Richard Kreider, Leba¬ 
non, Lebanon County. 

Champion Draft Horses 

In draft horses, the Belgian stal- 
j lion and mare grand titles went to 
| Charles B. Orndorff, Waynesburg, 
i Greene County. Percherons—stallion 
| honors went to Marvyn E. Forwood, 
Delta, York County, and the mare 
title to the National Agricultural 
College, Doylestown, Bucks County. 

Grant Gordner and Ray Kessler, 
both Millville, Columbia County, 
won the heavyweight and lightweight 
horse pulling contests, respectively. 

John P. Bloom, Ebensburg, Cam¬ 
bria County, was renamed for a 
third term as president of the Penn¬ 
sylvania Horse and Mule Assn. 

Poultry Winners 

Among poultry winners were the 
following: George M. Anthony, 


Strausstown, Berks County, for best 
chick exhibit, best pullorum clean 
section, and best breeder’s section; 
best hatchery section, Pennsylvania 
Farm Bureau. Best waterfowl, a 
goose, Henry K. Miller, Lebanon. 
Best meat birds, Ted Stough, New 
Oxford, Adams County. Champion 
turkey, Harry T. Wentz, Ambler, 
Montgomery County; best turkey 
display, Konhaus Farms, Mechanics- 
burg, Cumberland County. Best male 
large fowl, Minorca, Cortez C. Hart¬ 
man, Bloomsburg, Columbia County: 
best female large fowl. Harvey C. 
Wood, Newton. N. J.; best trio, large 
fowl, Luther I. Trostle,, Loysville, 
Perry County. Best bantam male, 
Lynn E. Petrask, Pennbrook, Dau¬ 
phin County; best bantam female, 
Lloyd Claman, Myerstown, Lebanon 
County; best bantam trio, Charles 
Trimmer, East Berlin, Adams Coun¬ 
ty. Best turkey carcass, Harry Lam- 
parter, Mountville, Lancaster Coun¬ 
ty; and best display of dressed tur¬ 
keys to the same exhibitor. 

Gold medal winners in eggs: Best 
dozen whites, I. E. Artz, Hegins, 
Schuylkill County; best dozen 
browns, G. H. Snyder, Lehighton, 
Carbon County; best five dozen 
whites, E. E. Shumaker, Duncannon, 
Perry County; and best five dozen 
browns, G. H. Snyder. 

Honors for the largest and best 
vocational agriculture school egg ex¬ 
hibit went to Manheim Central 
Union High School. 

Katahdin Potatoes Win 

An exhibit of Katahdins won the 
grand championship in potatoes for 
Mrs. G. F. Krause, Slatington, Lehigh 
County; she won also in 1952. Eileen 
Hower, Nazareth, had the champion 
4-H potato display, and Robert Hille- 
gas, Friedens, Somerset County, the 
champion vocational exhibit. 

Mayor Earl T. Cherry of Correy, 
Erie County, was designated by the 
Pennsylvania Cooperative Potato 
Growers Assn, as the honorary may¬ 
or of Potato City for 1955. A Lehigh 
County team of Victor Geiger, Paul 
Creitz . and Lee Heintzelman, all 
Schnecksville, won the 4-H potato 
grading and identification contest. 

Small grain grand champions 
were: Wheat — Hans Fritz, Loch 
Haven, Clinton County. Nured va¬ 
riety; oats — James Sones, Hughes- 
ville, Lycoming County, Clinton va¬ 
riety; barley — Charles B. Womer, 
Bernville, Berks County, Wong 
variety. 

In the first such contest in the 
Show, John A. Wagner, Tamaqua, 
Schuylkill County, won first place 
in grass silage treated with sodium 
bisulfite, and then took the grand 
championship in finals competition 
with W. N. Horton, Clifford, Sus¬ 
quehanna County, who finished first 
in non-treated silage. 

Farm Crops 

For the best county exhibit of 
apples, the Gabriel Heister award 
went to the Franklin County Horti¬ 
cultural Assn., J. H. Knode, Cham- 
bersburg, secretary. For the best 
bushel basket, the State Horticutural 
Assn, award went to S. A. Heisey & 
Sons, Greencastle, Franklin County. 

Highest yield and highest quality 
(38 per cent U. S. No. l’s) in to¬ 
matoes were reported by Maryln 
Shambach, Middleburg, Snyder Coun¬ 
ty, who grew 20.69 tons per acre, in 
the 3-8 acres class. In the 1-3 acres 
class, Clarence H. Harnish, Lancas¬ 
ter County, did even better with 23.8 
tons per acre, 66 per cent of them 
U. S. No. l’s. Both won plaques given 
by the Pennsylvania Canners Assn. 
Pennsylvania Vegetable Growers 
elected Joseph Weinschenk, New 
Castle, Lawrence County, president. 
Philadelphia won the best county 
vegetable exhibit honor. 

H. K. Beard, Sheridan, Lebanon 
County, was elected president by the 
Pennsylvania State Beekeepers’ 
Assn. Sweepstakes in comb honey 
went to Merle P. Fisher, Grantville, 
Mifflin County, and in extracted 
honey to Lorraine Eshelman, Le¬ 
banon County. 


104 


THE RURAL NEW YORKER 















































In the Dairyman’s Corner 


WHO’S GOING TO HELP THE 

farmer? only the farmer 

HIMSELF? 

Whether we know it or not, dairy 
farmers are in the clutches of a 
money-hungry octopus whose greedy 
tentacles reach into every phase of 
dairy farming. In my opinion there 
is no farmers’ organizaton in New 
York State today that is, or can be, 
run solely for and by the dairy farm¬ 
ers. Let’s take the co-ops, for ex¬ 
ample. They depend on money that 
is taken out of our milk price before 
the blend price is even set; this is 
about four cents a hundredweight. 
The money is turned over to the 
Market Admnistrator to pay to the 
co-ops according to the size of their 
membership. Ths fund, in my opin¬ 
ion, is used as a whip over the heads 
of the co-ops, so if they get too far 
out of line, they can be snapped 
back by using technicalities to take 
co-op payments away from them. 

In some cases the milk dealers 
deduct one cent a hundredweight 
from farmers’ milk checks for the 
co-ops and this, too, is used as a whip 
by threatening to make the co-ops 
collect their own dues from their 
members. 

Fact No. 3 is that there are some 
co-op directors who put their own 
personal gains ahead of the job they 
are supposed to do for us farmers. 

Fact No. 4: there is no clause in 
the by-laws of any cooperative, to my 
knowledge, that states that the co¬ 
op shall be run for the benefit of the 
dairy farmers and by the dairy 
farmers themselves. According to 
the by-lav/s the directors have the 
sole power to run the co-op as they 
see fit. If any dairy farmer thinks 
this statement is false, all he has 
to do is to look at the by-laws of 
his own co-op. 

Put all these items together and 
you can see why there is no cooper¬ 
ative that can honestly represent the 
dairy farmers today. 

Of all the co-ops, the Dairymen’s 
League is doing the least for the 
farmer because they are on both 
ends of the milk business and their 
main interest is selling dairy prod¬ 
ucts, not dairy farmers’ welfare. In 
my opinion, the Dairymen's League 
is nothing more than an official 
spokesman for milk dealers. 

There are several ways in which 
the dairy farmer can help himself, 
and no one else but the dairy farmer 
can do this. They include efforts to: 

1. Attend all meetings and de¬ 
mand that the by-laws be changed so 
that once again the farmers can run 
their own co-ops. 

2. Demand that co-op payments be 
discontinued and that farmers sup¬ 
port their co-ops directly. 

3. Demand a hearing on the Case 
Committee Report. 

4. Demand that any farmer can 
quit any co-op on no more than a 30- 
day written notice. 

5. Demand that all directors and 
officers be nominated and elected to 
office by the delegates who in turn 
shall be nominated and elected at 
their local meetings by the members. 

6. Demand that the delegate body 
shall be the governing body of all 
co-ops. 

That is the only way the dairy 
farmer can get true representation 
from his cooperative. That is one 
plan. 

The other is for the dairy farmer 
to start a new organization that has 
no connection with the government, 
the milk dealers, or any existing co¬ 
ops. This new organization should 
be supported directly by the dairy 
farmers themselves. The goal of any 
new farmers’ organization should be 
to negotiate the price the farmers 
will get for this milk a year in ad¬ 
vance. Then let the milk dealers do 
what they want with it. 

If some of these steps are not soon 


taken by the dairy farmer, they will 
be hopelessly caugiit in the clutches 
of the milk octopus forever. 

Otsego Co., N. Y. Vance Bird 


PRODUCER REACTIONS TO 
SYRACUSE MILK MEETING 

Having only recently recovered 
from the 400-mile drive to the “Big 
4” mass milk meeting at Syracuse 
on December 29, I feel I must ex¬ 
press my reactions to that historic 
event. I hope this will act as a blow¬ 
out plug or safety-valve and allow 
my blood pressure to drop back to 
normal. 

The “Big 4” are to be congratu¬ 
lated on assembling the greatest 
number of dairy farmers at one 
place, at the same time, in history— 
and the congratulations stop pre¬ 
cisely there. 

The short hour-and-a-half meeting 
produced not a speaker or an idea 
worth more effort than a trip to the 
nearest tavern. The ruling of the 
august chairman that no speaker 
from the floor would be recognized 
and the almost forceful ejection of 
the one individual who tried to 
speak from the floor was in viola¬ 
tion of common sense and all dem¬ 
ocratic processes. 

The group of $10,000-a-year “lead¬ 
ers” on the platform seemed to be 
actively afraid of any speaker from 
the floor, as well they might have 
been. Almost any dairy farmer could 
have improved on the “please give 
us a few more pennies for our milk, 
Mi\ Dealer” resolution that was 
bulldozed through without discus¬ 
sion or debate. 

I was delighted to learn that the 
“leaders” of the “Big 4” were to 
meet the next day to discuss impor¬ 
tant matters: the Case Committee 
Report, the Self-Help Plan, etc. 
They might even inquire as to why 
this great industry, perhaps the 
greatest in the United States, has 
enjoyed a mild sort of prosperity 
during three brief periods only in 
the past 50, or so, years. If a compe¬ 
tent historian is present to advise 
them, they might learn that these 
infrequent and short periods of pros¬ 
perity coincided with three fair-sized 
wars. I feel sure, however, that they 
would not pursue this unpleasant 
topic further because, if they did, 
they might find a method of spread¬ 
ing the prosperity over the period 
between wars; only mildly, of course, 
say, to make the farmer labor-in¬ 
come 75 cents an hour (and thus 
allow’ us to conform, in spirit at 
least, to the present minimum wage 
law) instead of the 39 (or was it. 
29?) cents the chart indicated it to 
be at present. I would like to in¬ 
quire why the “Bigs” of the “Big 4” 
did not have their private meeting 
the day before the mass meeting so 
they would have some news for the 
boys that traveled 400 or more 
miles to attend the meeting. 

We. the simple producers, who 
were not permitted to speak out in 
meeting, have always suspected that 
real leadership in our industry is en¬ 
tirely lacking. We received complete 
and enduring confirmation of that 
fact on December 29, 1954, at Syra¬ 
cuse, N. Y. 

A Dutchess Co. Dairyman 



mf 

—.——- 

mm 

SsS 

CTglfj 



February 5, 1955 



|gjYOU ACTUALLY SAVE MONEY 
4£}you GROW HEALTHIER CALVES 




UA;. 

. 


- 

' 

imm : . 


SAY ABOUT CAF-STAft 

* 

We convinced ourselves on the value 
and benefits of CAf-STAR feeding by 
raisins two idensl-cl twin Holstein 
calves, one on wRt.e milk, the other 
on CAf-STAR. After 3V 2 months the 
one raised on CAF-STAR weighed 
257 lbs, or 57 lbs. more then the 
average. With proof like this It's 
needless to scy that we now raise all 
©hr calves on CAF-STAR. 

C. F. Swenson) Jr. 

Dutchess County, M. Y. 

After trying several other milk re¬ 
placements I found CAF-STAR to be 
the best—giving me the finest results 
and healthier calves at lowest cost. 

Floyd Brown, Jr. 

Bradford County, Penna. 




Having raised over 100 Jersey thor¬ 
oughbred calves with CAF-STAR over 
the past several years, t can recom¬ 
mend it very highly. As a matter of 
fact, my herdsman and I hove tried 
other feeds from time to time but 
found CAF-STAR leads them all. 

H. J. Eastman 

Windsor County, Vt. 





Anyway you figure it, you’re bound 
to gain when you raise your calves 
on CAF-STAR. Many experiments 
with identical twin calves, have 
shown substantial dollar and cent 
savings as well as weight gains when 
CAF-STAR was fed in place of 
whole milk. Yes, even at today’s low 
milk prices you will actually save 
money by feeding CAF-STAR. 

Made from Eastern milk and for¬ 
tified with all necessary vitamins, 
essential trace minerals, and impor¬ 
tant antibiotics (Aureomycin), 
CAF-STAR helps calves develop 
strong sturdy frames, build up re¬ 
sistance to disease and develop into 
outstanding milkers at the earliest 
possible age (2 years or less). 
Calves like its clean fresh smell, its 
palatability. 

MAKE THIS TEST You can prove 
the economy of feeding CAF-STAR 
by this simple comparison test. Feed 
one calf whole milk. At same time 
put one or two calves on CAF-STAR. 
Then compare feeding costs as well 
as weight gains and you’ll soon see 
why it pays to raise all your calves 
on CAF-STAR. 

CAF-STAR is sold by leading 
feed dealers in 25 lb. bags or paiis 
and 100 lb. bags. It’s easy to mix, 
easy to feed and calves thrive on it. 
Insist on CAF-STAR. 


FREE! New Calf Raising Program / 

DAWNWQOD FARMS, Dept. R-21 
A memo, N. Y. 

Please send me your 

□ New Calf Raising Program 
j j Calf Weight Record Chart & Weigh-Tope 

NAME__ 

ADDRESS_ 

DEALER'S NAME_____ 


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105 


llllllilllllllllllllllll 



























































CONTROL OF DIP¬ 
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i 1 


Steers in the Feed Lot 


(Continued on Page 98) 

hay to fattening steers was also con¬ 
ducted at the Ohio Station. This 
shows that when corn silage is fed 
with poor hay it increases daiiv gains 
by almost 20 per cent. Silage did not 
increase the gains, however, made by 
steer calves on full feed and hay. 

Concerning the value of silage 
when used with poor hay, it required 
412 pounds of corn silage, plus a full 
grain feed and hay as described, to 
produce each 100 pounds of gain. 
This amount of silage replaced 154 
pounds of corn-and-cob meal. 15 
pounds of protein supplement and 48 
pounds of hay. The monetary re¬ 
placement value of coni silage when 
fed with poor hay to fattening steers 
can therefore be readily computed, 
based on the prevailing prices of 
feeds. Let us assume that corn-and- 
cob meal is selling for $70 a ton, 
either linseed or soybean meal at $80, 
and poor hay at $15 a ton. At these 
prices the monetary replacement 
feeding value of corn silage would be 
about $30 a ton. 

It is well to note that, where silage 
is not available, the addition of trace 
minerals in the form of mineralized 
salt for steers fed poor hay produced 
average daily gains about as good as 
silage. Such small amounts of trace 
minerals are needed that it is best 
for most farmers to purchase them 
in a commercially prepared form. 
The trace mineralized salt used in 
the Ohio tests had the following per¬ 
centage formula; cobalt carbonate, 
0.016; copper car’bonate, 0.060; man¬ 
ganese carbonate 0.200; iron oxide 
0.260; potassium iodide 0.010; hypo- 
sulfate of soda 0.090; flake salt 99.- 
364. This mineralized salt v 7 as 
blended with the protein supplement 
in amounts to supply each steer with 
three ounces daily. 

Corn or grass silage and good le¬ 
gume hay, when fed liberally to 
steers, make a suitable ration for 
wintering the animals. The cattle 
will need only comparatively small 
amounts of hay. Steers on good qual¬ 
ity roughage alone will winter well 
and make average gams of about a 
pound per head daily. However, such 
gains will be principally as growth, 
especially for young cattle, rather 
than fattening. For the past several 
years, tests at the New York Station, 
Ithaca, have shown the real advant¬ 
age of wintering steers on good qual¬ 
ity roughage and then pastui'e fat¬ 
tening them either during the fol¬ 
lowing Summer or Fall. 

Whenever the fattening period ar¬ 
rives, one important question to be 
considered is how much corn silage 
to feed the steers in order to pro¬ 
duce the most satisfactory and econ¬ 
omical gains. Grass silage alone is 
not suitable for fattening purposes; 
it contains no grain. This question 


cannot be disposed of with just a yes 
or no, as there are many parts to it. 
Obviously, cattle will not -make as 
rapid gains, nor attain as high a 
finish, on limited grain feeding as 
they will on full feed. On the other 
hand, many local markets do not 
want highly finished cattle and con¬ 
sequently will not pay a sufficient 
premium price to make such gains 
profitable. The first need, then, is to 
investigate the market where the 
cattle are to be sold. Availability and 
price of feeds are two influencing 
factors. As an illustration, several 
years ago corn was cheap in price 
and it was plentiful; today it is still 
plentiful but it is high in price. The 
desired finish and comparative cost 
of feeds are the big items in figuring 
on what and how much to feed. It is 
also important to consider whether 
or not hogs will be used to follow 
the steers in fattening cattle. 

A study of many tests on feeding 
corn silage plus small amounts of a 
protein supplement, compared with 
less silage and grain, show that, on 
the average, when steers were fed a 
ration of corn silage, good hay, and a 
protein supplement, they made daily 
gain of slightly over two pounds per 
head. This compared with a half- 
pound greater average for compar¬ 
able cattle fed a full feed of shelled 
com. At the end of a four months’ 
fattening period, the grain-fed steers 
averaged selling for a little over six 
per cent more per hundred pounds, 
liveweight. than the silage fed cattle. 
In addition, when hogs followed the 
steers fed a full ration of shelled 
corn, they averaged producing about 
15 pounds of pork for each 100 
pounds of gain made by the corn-fed 
steers. Putting it in another way, the 
hogs gained about a pound and a 
half for each bushel of shelled corn 
fed to the steers. When hogs follow 
steers they should weigh about 60 
pounds when started and be taken 
out when they weigh around 125 
pounds- one hog to two steers is 
about right. In addition to the grain 
gleaned, the hogs should receive a 
protein supplement in a creep and be 
on good pasture, or else receive good 
quality alfalfa hay in slatted racks. 

The cost of gains is an important 
consideration and an average of many 
trials shows that, based on present 
feed prices, steers fattened on corn 
grain have a feed cost of about 26 per 
cent more than those fed only corn 
silage, hay, and a protein supplement. 
During the past several years, when 
almost any kind of cattle that had a 
half-way decent finish sold for a high 
price, it was almost impossible to lose 
money on a cattle fattening opera¬ 
tion. However, this is no longer true; 
today all of the economic factors in¬ 
volved must be carefully studied be¬ 
fore deciding what is best for the 
existing situation. 


Hog Feeding Program 


Would you please let me know if 
the following methods of hog feeding 
would be feasible: 1. Purchase oats 
and grind them, cook them together 
with meat scraps and bones, and feed 
as a sort of gruel. 2. Bring fresh cut 
forage crops to the hogs each day (in 
Winter have self-feeding hay racks). 
3. Finish off with home grown corn. 
Would a program like this have a 
good chance of success, or would 
purchasing a commercial hog feed be 
a superior plan, raising only the for¬ 
age crops and the corn to finish? 

New Jersey a. a. b. 

Using ground oats and meat scraps 
and bones as you suggest would not 
be practical or desirable. There is too 
much fiber in oats to fatten hogs, al¬ 
though it is a suitable grain for grow¬ 


ing gilts. The cost of preparation 
would also be in excess of the cost of 
purchased grain. As for your second 
question, it would be possible to 
bring in forage crops in the Summer 
and use self-feeders with alfalfa hay 
in racks during the Winter. In ad¬ 
dition to this, the brood sows and 
gilts as well as fattening hogs would 
need enough grain to keep them 
growing and gaining. They should be 
put on a full feed of corn and barley 
lor a sufficient time (all they wifi 
eat) to bring them up to market 
weights of 225 pounds for barrows. If 
you have limited acreage for growing 
grain, then it would be advisable to 
purchase a good commercial hog feed 
for the herd. 












THE RURAL NEW YORKEfi 


106 













































































WASHING TON OUTL 00 K 


BY HARRYLANDO 


Agriculture Secretary Benson 
painted a glowing picture of the 
outlook for farmei'S befoi’e the 
Senate Agriculture Committee. He 
said, “the realized per capita income 
of farm people from all soui’ces ac¬ 
tually increased six per cent from 
1947 to 1954,” and explained that 
while farm pi'ices were dropping, the 
number of people on farms was also 
dropping and off-fai'm earnings were 
increasing. 

In 1954, 18 per cent fewer fai'm 
workers produced 14 per cent more 
in terms of quantity than in 1947, 
peak year for net farm income. “This 
means that output per man was 
about 40 per cent above the 1947 
level and neai'ly double 1939, when 
World War II began.” While total 
farm income in this period was fall¬ 
ing 25 per cent, population was drop¬ 
ping 20 per cent, which meant a loss 
of only five per cent “per capita,” 
and the inci'ease in off-farm eaimings 
resulted in the six per cent net gain 
per ca'pita. 

Benson said it is essential that 
“we maintain fluidity” in our farm 
population because, as we increase 
efficiency, we can produce more with 
fewer workers on farms. “This re¬ 
sults in a higher living standard for 
our farmers as well as for our urban 
people. We see a great decade ahead 
for American farmers. American 
agriculture is still a good stable in¬ 
dustry and it always will be.” It 
still offers opportunity for young 
people, he added. 

On the near-term outlook for speci¬ 
fic commodities, Benson said that we 
have passed the peak in cattle num¬ 
bers and “we may expect continued 
stability in the cattle mai*ket.” Hog 
marketings will increase and prices 
will not be as high as the unusually 
high prices of last Spring, but next 
Fall’s prices should be about the 
same as last Fall, and “normal profits 
wall continue for efficient hog pi'O- 
ducei’s.” 

Milk consumption is going up 
while production appears to have 
leveled off. “We have approximately 
2,700.000 more consumers of daii’y 
products in this country than we had 
a year ago, and our population 
growth alone provides a new mai’- 
ket for nearly two billion pounds of 
milk each year, so the future for 
dairy farmers is bright. Prices at the 
end of 1954 averaged 86 per cent 
of parity, though supports were only 
75 per cent, and the market price 
was about the same as a year earlier 
with price supports at 90 per cent.” 
At this point, Sen. Thye (R., Minn.) 
broke in to point out that these wei'e 
average prices, including the ai’eas 
in which milk prices are kept high 
through milk marketing oi'ders. He 
said that prices for butterfat ai’e only 
at 75 per cent, of parity. 

“We can now foresee the end of 
the cost-price squeeze w T hich egg and 
poultry producers have faced during 
the last season,” Benson continued. 
He said that farmers have been 
bringing production into line with 
demand and prices should be “sub¬ 
stantially above those of last season.” 

Fruit and vegetable demand will 
continue large, and places should 
continue good, he predicted. 

Benson said that the price spread 
between the farmer and the con¬ 
sumer will continue wide because 
consumers are now buying “built-in 
maiu service.” New packaging, de¬ 
livery, freezing, pi’e-cooking and 
other work-saving choices done by 
food processors cost money, he said. 
This keeps retail food prices high, 
despite drops in farm prices. 

Marketing quotas, already ap¬ 
proved for wheat and cotton, plus 
those pi'oposed for rice and still 
waiting referendum, would take an 
additional 9 x /2 million acres out of 
production, over and above the acre¬ 
ages retired in 1954, Benson said. 


But the “1955 acreage allotment for 
the commei’cial coim pi-oducing area 
may be larger than the 1954 allot¬ 
ment. . .” 

Noting that passage of the new 
farm legislation had been recom¬ 
mended on grounds of reducing con¬ 
trols as well as increasing consump¬ 
tion, he said achieving the goal of 
reduced controls “will take time for 
some crops, such as wheat, where 
there are exceedingly large sur¬ 
pluses. . .” 

Over the long term, Benson said 
that gross U. S. population would 
l’each 185 million and gi'oss U. S. 
pi'oduction would reach $500 billion 
by 1965. He used cattle as an ex¬ 
ample of the opportunities thus pre¬ 
sented for U. S. agriculture. 

Cattle numbers were 94,700,000 on 
January 1, 1954, and will pi’obably 
now drop two to three million in 
the next couple of years. But we 
would need between 100 and 105 
million head in 1965 in order to feed 
beef to the then-existing population 
at the same rate people are eating 
beef today. By 1975, we will need 
over 110 million head of cattle, he 
said. 

Sen. James Eastland (D., Miss.) 
has charged the State Department 
with holding up disposition of our 
farm surpluses abroad. At a Senate 
Agricultural Committee meeting, 
Eastland quoted a “government 
official” as saying that the State De¬ 
partment had killed a deal with 
Brazil for 100,000 tons of our sur¬ 
plus wheat. He also charged that 
State had stopped sales abroad 
of U. S. dairy products after Den- 
mai'k protested. Assistant Secretary 
of State Samuel Waugh said friend¬ 
ly powei’s are advised of our surplus 
deals, but that they are not per¬ 
mitted a veto. He denied that State 
has been holding up sale abroad of 
our surpluses. Eastland was not con¬ 
vinced, and has promised a thorough 
probe. 


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Please send name of nearest dealer and 
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I I Series U water systems 
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Name _ 


Address. 


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Terms as low as 
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Write for free catalog today! 

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1061~33rd Ave. S.E., Minneapolis, Minn. 
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PICTURE THIS BEAUTIFUL 16 FOOT ALUMINUM "LIFE-TIME" GATE 

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February 5, 1955 


107 


























AnoSSier Outslandi 


• # ♦ 


Long-term 4 x Afo 
Federal Land Bank 
mortgage loans 
thru 

f 4 atlonal_Farrn_k 23 i! 

associations 

Low-cost 
operating loans 
thru 

n r< w<tiii-tinn Credit 

'AAsociataoqg 



chooses Cooperative Farm Credit 
to finance his farm business 

Mr. Donald L. Crooks, long famous for his prize¬ 
winning Reds, has won himself a high place among 
New England poultrymen. He has served as presi¬ 
dent of several poultry organizations, including the 
Massachusetts Record of Performance. During 1953, 
he produced 340,000 chicks, operating two farms: 
200 acres in New Braintree and his home farm in 
North Brookfield, Mass, which is shown above. Like 
so many leading farmers, Mr. Crooks finds Cooper¬ 
ative Farm Credit an every-ready source of the 
friendly, efficient credit service that can mean so 
much to successful, business farming today. 

See y our associations or write: 

DepK 3 -74, 3 10 State Street, Sprinsfie?d, MasJJ 

Federal land Bank and 

Production Credit loans 


cooP ERATIVE FARM C REDIT 


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* Please send information on Farmway 
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Poultry Enemy No . I 

Chronic respiratory disease causes poul¬ 
try men too much tension and trouble. Re¬ 
search is posted for its capture , the anti¬ 
biotics and good management for its cure . 


By E. F. 

HRONIC respiratory dis¬ 
ease continues to be our 
No. 1 disease problem on 
the Delmarva Peninsula 
and, if the reports I re¬ 
ceive from other concen¬ 
trated poultry areas are 
correct, it is the principal disease 
problem of the industry. 

During the past three years a 
great amount of work and money 
has gone into a study of this problem. 
As was to be expected, many of the 
first reports to be made were pre¬ 
liminary and fragmentary. Some of 
them seemed to be in conflict with 
each other and with what we were 
seeing in the field. I know we were 
credited with creating chaos where 
only confusion existed before. How- 



On the viell managed dairy and poul¬ 
try farm of Fred Michaudl in Gatlin, 
N. Y.. a block of wood hangs over a 
drinking fountain to prevent birds 
from roosting on the edge. It helps 
reduce possibility of CRD and other 
poultry diseases. 

ever, as more and more of these re¬ 
ports became available, some of them 
began to fit together like the pieces 
of a jigsaw puzzle. 

Some of The Problems 

I would like to review with you 
some of the things that have taken 
place and maybe some of the prob¬ 
lems that are ahead of us. Probably 
the first thing of real importance was 
the finding of the pleuropneumonia¬ 
like organism (PPLO; associated 
with this disease. I use the term “as¬ 
sociated with” since there is increas¬ 
ing evidence that more than one 
agent may be involved. This PPLO 
agent is found in the respiratory 
tract. 

PPLO has also been isolated from 
cattle, and only recently there is a 
report of this organism being in¬ 
criminated in a nasal infection of 
swine called infectious atrophic rhin¬ 
itis. It therefore appears that this 
organism is much more widespread 
than anyone realized. When it is in¬ 
jected into the sinus of a turkey, it 
will produce sinusitis. When in¬ 
jected into the sinus and trachea of 
a young chicken, it produces a mild 
respiratory infection. 

Some of our Canadian co-workers 
have reported the presence of an¬ 
other virus or virus-like agent in 
some severe outbreaks. This tends to 
confirm our own observations. We are 
able to produce typical field out¬ 
breaks by placing sick birds with 
broilers immunized against New¬ 
castle and bronchitis, but were not 
able to produce the same severe pic¬ 
ture with the PPLO alone. In ex- 



WALL'ER 

amining birds from field outbreaks, 
we frequently find Newcastle, bron¬ 
chitis or a bronchitis-like virus pres¬ 
ent, as well as the PPLO. We also 
find various bacteria, molds and yeast 
present in some of the yellow caseous 
deposits. 

Controls and Treatments 

Another thing that was learned 
quite early was that infected hens 
could produce infected eggs, and 
that some of the chicks would conse¬ 
quently be infected at hatching time. 
At first, this scared everyone, but no 
one to date has been able to show 
any real relationship between infec¬ 
tion in the breeder flock and in 
broilers produced from such a flock. 

It was only natural that antibiotics 
would be used in an attempt to treat 
or prevent this disease. They are fed, 
placed in the water, injected into and 
sprayed over the birds. Sometimes 
they appear a bring about an im¬ 
mediate and spectacular response, 
and in other cases the birds seem to 
get better in spite of the treatment. 

We have been using several drugs 
and antibiotics in the feed or water 
on a continuous basis to see if we 
could prevent CRD. For the antibi¬ 
otics we used 200 gms. per ton of 
feed, or an equivalent amount in the 
water. From this we obtained the 
usual weight gains and other benefits 
reported for high level antibiotics 
feeding, but their value as a pre¬ 
ventive against CRD is difficult to 
determine. In flocks where the inci¬ 
dence of the disease was low or the 
outbreak was mild, they certainly did 
not pay for themselves. On the other 
hand, in one badly infected flock of 
8,000 birds we had 26 per cent in¬ 
fected birds and 3.5 per cent con¬ 
demned birds at the time of slaugh¬ 
ter. In this flock the pens receiving 
the antibiotic in the feed showed 
only 12 per cent infection and none 
was condemned. Her-e the treatment 
was of considerable value. 

CRD In Laying Flocks 

CRD in laying flocks can be quite 
costly. We see too much of this even 
in our very mild winters. In one flock 
of 12,000 hens we saw production 
drop from a 70 per cent level to less 
than 400 eggs a day. This was ac¬ 
companied with a mortality of about 
12 per cent. We have had an oppor¬ 
tunity to observe and work with a 
flock of about 18,000 birds this past 
Winter. Various materials were in¬ 
jected in all the birds in certain pens, 
while others were left on controls. 
When it was all over, the mortality 
in the treated and the control pens 
was about the same. When the visibly 
affected hens were removed from tin 
flock, injected and then kept in a 
separate pen, we did get a satisfac 
tory response and the treatment was 
well worth the trouble. Several of 
our poultrymen have adopted this 
practice. 

Outbreaks usually take about eight- 
weeks to run their course. Egg pro¬ 
duction starts to drop even before 
symptoms are recognized. About the 
time that production is at its lowest 
point, the mortality appears. In some 
instances the spread has been rather 
slow so that the first pens to be af¬ 
fected are well on the road to recov¬ 
ery before the last pens becomes sick. 


THE MURAL NEW i'OiiJuLd 


108 



































































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John A. Hirschfeld, Amsterdam, N. Y., 
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George Johnston & Sons, Voorheesville, 
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Jones Tractor Sales, Waitsfield, Vt. 

Hardy A. Merrill, Bellows Falls, Vt. 

W. S. Mitchell, Newport, Vt. 

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Henry C. Morse & Son, Prattville, N. Y. 
C. H. Bassett, Valley Falls, N. Y. 

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Thomas C. Norman, Saranac Lake, N. Y. 
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Ralph C. Beck, Mechanicville, N. Y. 

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Charles H. Monroe, Poultney, Vt. 

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Provost’s Farm Supply, Stephentown, 

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Charles C. Holden & Son, Ticonderoga, 
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Grantier Hardware & Implement Co., 
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Swanton Tractor Sales, Swanton, Vt. 
Harold E. Marvin, Nassau, N. Y., R. D. 2 

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j Walter J. Holloway, Lodi, N. Y. 

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Raymond I. Mitchell & Sons, Avoca, 

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Edwin R. Winter, North Collins, N. Y. 
Riester’s Farm Machinery, Auburn, N. Y. 
Dunning Ave. 

Morton Garage, Morton, N. Y. 

Collins Farm Supply, Burke, N. Y. 
Fairville Garage, Newark, N. Y., R. D. 2 

J. Sturtz Sales & Service, Lowville, 
N. Y. 

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William F. Wolfe & Son, Lyndonville, 
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Falls, N. Y. 

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Supply, Alton, N. Y. 

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CenlroS N. Y. Poultry 
Exposition 

The first Central N. Y. Exposition, 
sponsored by the Poultrymen’s 
League of Central New York, was 
held at the State Fair Grounds 
January 19-20. Attendance was esti¬ 
mated at about 1,100 despite poor 
weather. Although exhibitors would 
have liked to have seen more people, 
nearly all of them reported many 
good, solid inquiries and they seemed 
well satisfied. The exhibits covered a 
wide range and came from six States. 

The Youth and 4-H program on 
Wednesday evening was quite suc¬ 
cessful and many a youngster went 
home with a big trophy and a beam¬ 
ing face. Just as pleased was Charles 
Herrold of Syracuse who won the 
adult cooking contest. He made an 
egg dish that no one had ever seen 
before and the judges gave him first' 
prize for it. “Now let my wife say 
something about my cooking,” he 
said. 

The committee had made an earn¬ 
est attempt to build a serious and 
constructive program and everyone 
agreed that the result was outstand¬ 
ing. There were several comments 
to the effect that nothing attempted 
before in the Northeast compared 
with it. Each subject was thoroughly 
covered from every point of view by 
people with a first hand knowledge, 
and then questions were asked from 
the floor. There is no doubt that what 
was said will be the basis for many 
a discussion in the days to come. 

On the wheat allotment panel, 
Francis Snow of Memphis put the 
case for controls. He said that, if we 
do away with them, we are asking 
for a depression like that of the 
’30’s. Others disagreed. One man said 
he had found that the government 
would look the other way if a man 
was ready to fight. Another said he 
had warned off the government men 
with a shotgun. The sentiment 
seemed to be against controls. 

William F. Berghold, editor of 
The Rural New Yorker, gave an 
interesting talk on the continuing 
and increasing importance of pro¬ 
ducer participation in marketing. 
He said that the farmer had con¬ 
quered the job of production, which 
was “yesterday’s challenge”, and that 
he is now faced with today’s chal¬ 
lenge”, the job of marketing. 

The next day there were two very 
interesting and informative panels 
dealing with egg wholesaling and 
egg pricing. The panel members 
seemed to feel that retail mark-ups 
were reasonable and in this they dif¬ 
fered with one of the previous speak¬ 
ers who had said that they were too 
high. Later there was considerable 
comment on the large # number of 
producers here in Central New York 
who were trying to bypass market¬ 
ing channels and sell directly, either 
at retail or to stores. Some said that 
this was the method of the future 
and the only way to survive. They 
said it made a difference of $3.00 per 
case. 

There was much interest in the 
outlook. One informed man with a 
good record for accuracy said he 
was sure that egg prices would be 
very high next Fall. At the same 
time there seemed to be resistance 
by producers to chick prices being 
asked. One man said, “They are 
asking a virtually bankrupt industry 
to subsidize hatchery-men and west¬ 



ern grain growers. 

Mr. Daniel Carey, the New State 
Commissioner of Agriculture, pledged 
the help of the State in solving all 
poultry problems. 





and BE 

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February 5, 1955 


109 




















































1954 saw the poultry business 
reach about the lowest ebb as far as 
profits are concerned that we have 
any records of. As the poultry busi¬ 
ness is a very short cycle business 
compared with any other agricultur¬ 
al enterprise, I feel that perhaps the 
last six months of 1955 may be one 
of the best periods that the industry 
has seen for many years. I do not 
feel by any means that this is a good 
condition, but I have to look at the 
facts as I see them. Many flocks of 
old birds have been sold off and in 
many cases layers hatched early in 
1954 have also been sold off. The 
sales of chicks both in the Fall of 
1954 and for delivery in early 1955 
v/as far below normal. There has 
appeared to have been a very large 
supply of eggs on the markets this 
last year, but I believe that by early 
Summer eggs will be in short supply. 
I will even go so far as to say that 
I believe that well-grown pullets will 
sell at a very decent profit. Being a 
hatcheryman I may be prejudiced, 
but I think that many poultrymen 
who have early-hatched birds would 
do well to sell these birds and use 
the money to grow pullets for 1955. 

It is a mistake, I think, to carry 
these birds along now and then have 
them going out of production, or at 
least low in production at the time 
when eggs will begin to show a 
profit. Many poultrymen will dis¬ 
agree with me on this, contending 
that these early pullets will be lay¬ 
ing small eggs at that time. That is 
true but small eggs at a profit are 
much better than large eggs that are 
breaking even or being produced at 
a loss. 

As to what I believe is ahead for 
poultry in 1955, it looks to me as if 
hatcherymen in general will have a 
rough year. Sales are bound to be 
down. Some poultrymen have gone 
so far behind that, even though their 
best judgment .tells tffem they should 
raise pullets this yefif. their finances 
will not allow it. Many poultrymen 
feel that the small grower has been 
hurt more than the large producer. 
This is not true: In many cases the 
large operator is in a far worse posi¬ 
tion than the small poultryman, es¬ 
pecially when the smaller producer 
has other sources of income. Some of 
these large producers are certain to 
fail and, in doing so, many of the 
smaller producers ,stay in business. 

At least for ttie^present, I feel that 
the expansion of the poultry busi¬ 
ness has reached its f>eak, and from 
now on will tend, to go the other way. 
There is little doubt that the num¬ 
ber of birds >per farm has increased 
tremendously in the pa|t few years. 
This year of 4955 will no doubt mark 
the turn in y the other ^.direction. A 
lot of this expansion l|as been with 
venture capital that l$SsTshown a loss 
for 1954. For thijs reason alone I feel 
that good sound family-size opera¬ 
tions will show a very decent profit 
for 1955 and even well into 1956 
O. S. Williams & Son 
Rushville, N. Y. 


high feed costs, have so depleted the 
finances and discouraged the inde¬ 
pendent broiler raiser that many of 
the old-timers are sitting back and 
leaving their houses empty, waiting 
to see what will develop during the 
coming year. In most areas many 
broilers are being raised on some sort 
of a rental or share-cropping basis. 

One thing we do know: there has 
been a tremendous drop in the num¬ 
ber of pullet chicks for replacement 
flocks during the last two months of 
this year, and it looks as though Jan¬ 
uary will be off considerably. We be¬ 
lieve that this reduction will result 
in a much shorter egg supply during 
the summer and fall months of 1955 
and much more favorable egg prices. 
In our opinion, poultrymen who 
have the courage to put in pullet 
chicks at this time will find a profit¬ 
able market for their eggs. 

In view of the lower replacement 
of laying flocks during the late Fall 
and early Winter, there may very 
likely be an extension of the hatch¬ 
ing season into the late Spring and 
early Summer, as poultrymen come 
to realize there has been a curtail¬ 
ment. The fall and winter market 
price of eggs has been very low and 
discouraging, especially in the Mid¬ 
west and some sections of the South, 
and these sections may see less re¬ 
placement than other areas. The 
lower market egg quotations and the 
keen competition for the sale of 
baby chicks have in many cases put 
a squeeze on the hatching egg pro¬ 
ducer whose costs have not been re¬ 
duced and who must have a satisfac¬ 
tory premium to meet his costs of 
production. This could well result in 
a shortage of hatching eggs in some 
areas for both broiler and egg pro¬ 
duction. A. B. Hall 

Hall Bros. Hatchery, 
Wallingford, Conn. 


out in 1955, they will have a 24-incn 
one! Marshall Brothers 

Ithaca, N. Y. 


What is the outlook? During the 
past four or five months, poultrymen 
have weathered a period about as 
rough as any they can remember. It 
is pretty well agreed that overpro¬ 
duction on layers and broilers, ac¬ 
companied by stiffer competition 
from red meat, has resulted in the 
situation we have today. However, 
we believe that the, worst is over. 
Both settings and placements of 
broilers for the country as a whole 
have shown substantial decreases for 
the last few weeks, and all reports 
would indicate improved prices by 
the middle of January. However, a 
long series of losses, resulting from 
low morket prices for broilers and 

110 


In my travels this year I can re¬ 
member a few poultrymen who 
weren’t griping. They were the ones 
who were using a gimmick a little 
different than the rest that, paid off. 
last year and will pay off every year. 

I am thinking mainly of those who 
were doing a little retail . marketing 
on the side. These poultrymen were 
getting those few extra cents. One of* 
our customers delivers around 75; 
cases of candled eggs each week in 
Buffalo. He grosses $1.50 per case out ; 
of which he charges a day’s time de¬ 
livering and a lady’s afternoons in 
candling. In addition to this tidy 
profit, he has a special bargain 
market for double-yolks, cracks and 
candle-outs. Another that comes to 
mind is located near suburban New 
York; he delivers cartoned eggs by 
the dozen. Although his volume is 
much less in these small deliveries, 
his profit per dozen makes his time 
well spent. His customers are willing 
to pay extra for fresh eggs they can 
identify with a good producer, and 
they will buy and use more eggs 
from him, also, than they would 
carry home in a grocery bag. 

It takes time out from the week to 
deliver eggs, time that could be 
spent caring for perhaps another pen 
of hens. But what are we working 
for—to see how many eggs we can 
produce or how good a living we can 
provide for ourselves and our famil¬ 
ies? If more individual effort had 
been made on marketing than pro¬ 
duction, we would not be in our 
present dilemma. There will always 
be a good living for those of us 
not afraid to ring a door bell, swal¬ 
low our pride and ask someone to 
buy our products. Perhaps the two 
poultrymen I mentioned won’t need 
the extra income this year to pay the 
feed bill, but if colored TV comes 


The optimists of the industry are 
now beginning to rear their ugly 
heads, and the hue and holler about 
hatching eggs being scarce next 
Summer is beginning to make head¬ 
lines. There are a great many factors 
in this hatching egg business that 
have been overlooked by some of 
these “silver lining” clairvoyants. 
The popular broiler chick of today is 
the White Rock, which is a pure 
strain, and any producer of broilers 
may select from a flock of pullets 
and convert easily into egg produc¬ 
tion in a relatively short time. Money 
seems to be one of our superfluous 
commodities Somehow, someway, 
the proposition of making a few 
extra dollars always intrigues a man 
with money. A broiler producer has 
a friend who has a friend who has 
some money he wants to invest, and 
presto! there is no shortage of hatch¬ 
ing eggs any longer. 

Looking ahead to the Summer of 
1955, if the lesson of the past year 
has had any impact on the producer 
of broilers, there should be a reduc¬ 
tion of at least 20 per cent of chicks 
placed for broiler production. How 
many times must the broiler pro¬ 
ducer be banged on the head before 
he will learn that broilers are not a 
desirable product when Thanksgiv¬ 
ing, Christmas and New Years roll 
around? If he has profited from his 
bitter experience of this past Fall 
and early Winter, he will not pro¬ 
duce broilers. 

It is our opinion at Featherland 
Farms that widespread publicity 
should be given to these important 
factors. If these offenders do not 
tone down on their predictions for 
1955, it is our opinion that there will 
not be a hatching egg shortage, but 
rather there will be an abundance of 
hatching eggs By some peculiar cor¬ 
relation, the things that we some¬ 
times expect to happen, never hap¬ 
pen. W. W. MacCulloch 

Featherland Farm Hatchery 
Sudbury, Mass. 


makes our heads swim. Right now, 
we are nearing the bottom of the 
dip and all of a sudden we'll get 
the wonderful feeling of going up 
again. 

It looks to me as though 1955 will 
be just as profitable as 1953. Also, I 
think that 1956 will not be as bad as 
1954 because enough poultrymen 
have really got nipped hard this year 
to keep them out of the poultry busi¬ 
ness permanently. Therefore, I don’t 
look for quite as much overexpan¬ 
sion a year from now as we had in 
the Spring of 1954. I believe if you 
have the money with which to buy 
your chicks and raise them, 1955 is 
going to be one of the best years you 
have ever had. 

Here is another suggestion I’d 
like to make. Usually birds that are 
raised at one square foot per chick 
frbm day-old to eight weeks and 
given plenty of room up to laying 
age grow into much nicer pullets 
than birds that are crowded. We 
have also found that, the more room 
you give a layer in the laying house, 
the more she will lay. Therefore, why 
not give your birds more room this 
year and buy a few less chicks? You 
may find you wili make just as much 
money than if you had bought more 
chicks. Right now. if you are short 
of cash, buying a few less chicks but 
buying enough to house one layer to 
each four square feet of floor space, 
even with White Leghorns, will be a 
smart piece of business. 

Monroe C. Babcock 
Babcock Poultry Farm 
Ithaca, N.Y. 


This is my thinking on “Whats’ 
Ahead for Poultry” in 1955: The 
hatch of pullets from October 1953 
to March 1, 1955 will be down 40 per 
cent. Feed prices will be about the 
same as in 1954. Fowl prices will be 
poor in 1955. I plan to keep every 
possible layer on hand from June to 
December 1, 1955. My advice for 
1955 is to get the facts, and do your 
Robert F. Ball 
Ball Poultry Farm 
Owego, N. Y. 


own thinking! 


I don’t know much about the 
broiler business. I try to follow the 
egg-producing end of it closely. The 
last few years we have been on a 
roller coaster, up and down until it 


We feel that the first few months 
of 1955 will be on the rough side for 
the egg producers, but starting about 
May, we can not see anything but 
blue skies—and it is very possible 
that it could come sooner. Just hang 
on, is our advice, and we will all get 
out of this mess You might say these 
conditions over the past months have 
separated the men from the boys. 

John & Allen Buckley 
Odessa, N. Y. 


-MimimmiiiimimimnniinmnimmninmiitinmminnimmmiinmmmmnnM; 


n 


If 1954 was not terrible for poultrymen, it was tough. Egg 
prices were lowest since 1941; for the first time on record, they 
did not rise from Spring to Fall. Fowl was the cheapest since 
1939. Broiler prices were 13 per cent below 1953 and turkeys 
were off at least five cents a pound. Feed and other costs were 
about as high as ever. There were just too many hens and eggs, 
and too many turkeys and broilers. Last year was a “great” year 
for the poultry and egg consumer. 

Will 1955 be a producer's year? Will the poultry pendulum 
make the profitable swing of a hopefully two-year cycle? 

The poultrymen whose predictions appear on this page 
seem to think so. One man will put the production push on 
eggs from June to December. Another thinks that 1955 will be 
one of the best egg years yet. A successful broiler producer 
sees too much optimism in his field, though, and predicts an 
actual surplus of hatching eggs. An eggman sees success for 
the poultryman who has the courage to put in enough chicks. 

The tail end of 1955 will be one of the best poultry periods 
in history, says another; “the family-sized operation will make 
a very decent profit.” According to one hatcheryman, energetic 
poultrymen made money last year at special markets. A chick 
producer sees “blue skies” after May. 

The feeling about “Poultry 1955” is one of confidence tem¬ 
pered with caution. All in all, say the experienced poultrymen 
who write on this page, 1955, particularly the latter half, will 
be an especially good poultry year. 


iiuiiimiiimmimuttiiuiimiBiiitMmiisaimiimimimmiimnimiimmmimmi? 

THE RURAL NEW YORKER 
















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February 5, 1955 


111 
























imiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimmimimiiimmiL; 


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Ask yourself this question: Does it ^ 
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course not!” Then, why not do as — 
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Is Government Financing to 
Blame for Broiler Slump? 


E best safety factor in 
the broiler business has 
been that the chick place¬ 
ment responded quickly to 
price differences. Last 
year was a poor year. We 
expected production cut¬ 
backs so that demand would be in 
balance with supply. The opposite 
happened. Production increased by 
as much as 15 per cent at a time 
when broilers were selling for less 
than cost of production. 

Many of the oldtimers kept ask¬ 
ing: “Why? Where was the money 
coming from? Why was the margin¬ 
al broiler grower always able to be 
financed? Where did the money 
come from for the new co-op ex¬ 
pansion? Who was financing all the 
new chicken houses? Why did the 
feed dealer who gave every indica¬ 
tion of being short of money sudden¬ 
ly take on the marginal accounts 
that more conservative financiers 
turned down?” 

U. S. Senator John Williams of 
Delaware, who did such a splendid 
job in exposing the rackets in the 
Bureau of Internal Revenue, has 
been identified with the broiler in¬ 
dustry for more than 20 years. He 
asked some of the same questions. 
He started investigating and found 
that loans were being made to the 
broiler industry by a number of 
government .financing agencies, in¬ 
cluding the Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation, Banks for Co-operatives, 
Intermediate Credit Banks through 
the Production Credit Associations, 
Federal Housing Administration, 
Veterans Administration, and the 
Farm Home Administration. We 
hear now that another new credit 
agency is being set up to extend 
loans to enable people to meet obli¬ 
gations which they are unable to 
take care of with other government 
agencies. Sounds like the finance 
company’s ad on the radio. “Borrow 
money from us to take care of those 
pressing debts!” This makes all the 
government credit agencies look 
sound except the last one. It sounds 
like large-scale legalized “kiting” 


checks or robbing Peter to pay 
Paul. Any way you look at it, it’s 
unsound and most of the people in 
our industry want no part of it. 

Government Money Loaned and Lost 

At. present there is no way of 
knowing the exact total involved, 
but a sum well over 200 million 
dollars is now outstanding in loans 
to the poultry industry. Much of 
this money was loaned at a time 
when the agricultural crop reporting 
agencies were advising that the poul¬ 
try industry should cut back produc¬ 
tion. 

About six or seven years ago a 
few immense operations started up 
with what appeared to be fresh 
money. Some of these individual 
operations involved more than half 
a million dollars. When it was 
rumored at the time that they were 
backed by government money, the 
idea seemed too fantastic to ac¬ 
cept, but that is just what did hap¬ 
pen. At that time the broiler busi¬ 
ness was a sound, thriving industry. 
This program of lending to the fav¬ 
ored few continued to expand and, 
when the industry stalled to lose 
money from overproduction, the 
machinery was all set up to loan in 
a big way, and the money really 
started to flow. 

The insidious thing about this pro¬ 
gram is that only a very few people, 
even in high government places, 
knew that it was happening. Such 
are the strange workings of a top- 
heavy bureaucracy. 

The broiler industry has always 
been able to get its own money for 
financing. The healthy growth was 
made on private capital. It seems in¬ 
conceivable, at a time when private 
financing was not interested because 
of overproduction, that government 
agencies should step in and further 
encourage overproduction. At a time 
when neither the flock owner nor 
the hatchery was willing to spend 
the money, it was government fi¬ 
nancing that enabled some hatcher¬ 
ies to start pullets and sell them to 
flock owners for an exorbitant price, 


the government agency guaranteeing 
the bill. The flock owners who were 
investing their own money had to 
compete with a surplus of hatching 
eggs that were produced by people 
who were not investing their own 
money. 

In some cases separate corpora¬ 
tions were set up on loans from 
government agencies. For example, 
a broiler-growing operation would 
be financed by a government agency 
and would buy feed from a privately 
owned fed company. This made the 
private company secure even if the 
broiler-growing operation lost money. 
The only people who suffered were 
taxpayers and the other broiler 
growers who were risking, and 
losing, their own money because of 
the artificial stimulation of produc¬ 
tion. 

Surplus Broilers Where 
Loans Made 

A glance at the geographical dis¬ 
tribution of the loans makes it ap¬ 
parent that the areas which received 
the largest amounts of money from 
government-guaranteed loans are the 
areas which are suffering most 
from overproduction. Bureaucratic 
financing, price supports or price 
controls are all economically un¬ 
sound in a normal economy. The 
broiler industry has successfully es¬ 
caped the trap of price supports and 
production controls, and it is ironical 
that now everyone in the industry 
is suffering from this third pitfall, 
government financing. This over¬ 
expansion harms everyone connected 
with the broiler business. The 
amount of money guaranteed by 
government agencies could account 
for more than the total increase in 
production in 1953 and 1954. 

The loans and low prices have 
caused losses far greater than the 
benefits derived by the few who have 
profited from this unusual arrange¬ 
ment. 

If you think Senator Williams is 
rendering a service to the industry 
and would like to help him clean up 
this mess, won’t you sit down right 
now and write to Secretary of Agri¬ 
culture Ezra Benson, telling him 
why you think this situation should 
be changed? Get in touch with your 
own United States Senator, too, and 
tell him how you feel about this. 

Pennsylvania G. C. Ellis 



1953-54 Egg Laying Tests 


|8 ' i! HE standard egg laying tests 
in the United States com¬ 
pleted a successful year 
September 15, 1954, even 
though no particularly out¬ 
standing records were 
—I made in them. Leghorns 
from the Darby Farm near Somer¬ 
ville, N. J., topped all entries in the 
country with a production of 4,163.90 
points, 3,834 eggs in the Storrs, Conn., 
test. This production was secured 
from 13 pullets, the required entry 
in all of the standard tests; per bird 
it was 320.6 points and 294.9 eggs. 
Points are derived from egg weight, 
one point being given for each egg 
of normal size, that is, one weighing 
two ounces. Larger eggs are given 
slightly more credit and smaller 
eggs are cut back from this stand¬ 
ard. The fact that the Darby pen 
had more points than eggs indicates 
that the eggs averaged better than 
24 ounces to the dozen. Table 1 
shows the 10 highest pens in the 
country. 

Of particular interest this year 
are the facts that the high pens were 
all fairly close in their records, that 
they came from different tests and 
that they were not centered in any 
one part of the country. The versa¬ 
tility of the chicken to produce eggs 
is evident when we consider that 
the 10 high pens were distributed 
geographically from Western New 
York near Buffalo down through 
Connecticut, Pennsylvania, New Jer¬ 


sey, as far south as Florida and west 
to Oklahoma. Well-bred birds will 
apparently produce just about the 
same regardless of- climatic condi¬ 
tions. 

The Random Sample Tests 
The random sample tests have 



Hen-of-the-Year honors for 1953-54 
go to this strong-bodied, high-produc¬ 
ing White Leghorn owned by the 
Williams Poultry Breeding Farm, 
Denison, Texas. In a 50-week period 
she laid 337 eggs for a score of 
368.15 points. Hers was the best per¬ 
formance in all last year’s official 
U. S. egg laying tests. 


gradually come into the picture and 
a comparison of some of their 
records is of interest. Table II shows 
the results of the New York Ran¬ 
dom Sample Test held at Horseheads. 
The emphasis in the random sample 
tests is on net income, and the pens 
are ranked on that basis. The Bab¬ 
cock Poultry Farm (Leghorns) of 
Ithaca, N. Y., had the high pen, 
with a return of $3.47 per pullet 
chick started. The average of all 
birds entered in the test was $2.32: 
the poorest pen had a 98-cent re¬ 
turn per bird. 

An appreciation of the random 
sample results cannot be had with¬ 
out an understanding of the rules 
governing their operation. In the 
New York test, hatching eggs are 
obtained from the flock owner. 
Representing his commercial grade 
of chicks, these eggs are hatched in 
a single incubator at Cornell Uni¬ 
versity. Fifty sexed pullet chicks are 
then picked at random from each 
man’s hatch and these are mixed to¬ 
gether and brooded in one common 
group; they are also reared together 
on range. At the age of 160 days, all 
the pullets are separated and housed 
in separate pens according to flock 
owners. The project closes when the 
birds are 500 days old. The results 
seem quite representative of what 
one can reasonably expect from com¬ 
mercial chicks bought from these 
farms. The fact that they are main¬ 
tained in small flocks should not be 
overlooked; this undoubtedly affects 
the results. But on a comparative 
basis the test does represent a fair 

THE RURAL NEW YORKER 


112 






















































method of sampling the quality of 
stock. 

Many Breeds Are Distinguished 

Several of the common breeds 
made up the 10 highest pens: White 
Leghorns, New Hampshires, Rhode 
Island Reds and White Plymouth 
Rocks. The fact that the test closes 
when the birds are 500 days old 
probably gives an advantage to the 
heavy breeds: the birds are sold 
and the project closed on or about 
August 1 each year. This is the time 
when Leghorns usually show to their 
greatest productive advantage. 

Two other types of random sample 
tests were conducted during 1953-54, 
one in California and the other in 
New Jersey. The California test is 
very much like the one in New York 
State except that the birds are kept 
to 546 days of age, rather than 500. 
In the New Jersey test, the sampling 
is done at the hatchery where com¬ 
mercial chicks are identified by 
official wingbands and then the 
owner raises the chicks at the home 
farm. From this sample — which is 


based on 30 pullet chicks — the 
poultryman selects 16 for the official 
pen entry. This type of test gives 
considerably more leeway, but it 
cannot be used in comparison with 
other random sample tests on a fi¬ 
nancial basis. In the California test, 
Leghorns of Heinsdorf & Nelson, 
Riverside, Cal., were high and in 
the New Jersey test the Leghorn en¬ 
try of the Eelman Poultry Farm, 
Paterson, N. J., took first place. 

During the past year, observation 
was made without points on egg 
quality in a number of the tests. 
Shell thickness was measured in 
every instance where egg quality was 
studied and the results showed little 
variation regardless of state location. 
Albumen quality was practically the 
same no matter where the observa¬ 
tions were made. As with egg laying 
records, the difference in egg quality 
between pens in the same test was 
quite pronounced, and it would ap¬ 
pear desirable ultimately to find 
some way whereby egg quality can 
be considered for points in the 
official pen scores. C. S. Platt 


Table I 

Ten Highest Pens — All Breeds — 1953-54 


Owner 

Darby Leg. Farm, Somerville, N. J. 
John M. Hall, Henderson, Tenn. 
James Steele, Wilson, Okla. 

Babcock Poultry Farm, Ithaca, N. Y. 
J. J. Warren, North Brookfield, Mass. 
Guy A. Leader & Sons, York, Pa. 

H. E. Norman, Richland, Ga. 

I-'orsgate Farms, Jamesburg, N. J. 
Summer Grove Egg Fra., Keithville, La. 
Darby Leg. Farm, Somerville, N. J. 


Breed 

Test 

Points 

Eggs 

W.L. 

Conn. 

4,168.90 

3,834 

W.L. 

Okla. 

4,075.15 

3,821 

W.L. 

Okla. 

4,050.25 

3,744 

W.L. 

West. N. Y. 

4.012.45 

3,866 

Cross 

Conn. 

3,991.15 

3.825 

W.L. 

Pa. 

3.961.85 

3,847 

R.I.R. 

Fla. 

3,949.90 

3,654 

W.L. 

N. J. Hunt. 

3,942.40 

3,768 

W.L. 

Okla. 

3.883.05 

3,621 

W.L. 

N. J. Hunt. 

3,879.80 

3,585 


Table II 


Ten Most Profitable Pens — New York Random Sample Test 

1953-54 (500 days) 


Breed 

W.L. 

N.H. 

R.I.R. 

R.I.R. 

W.L. 

W.L. 

N.H. 

W.P.R 

W.L.* 

W.L. 


Owner 

Babcock Poultry Farm, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Whittaker Farm, Stratham, N. H. 
Parmenter Reds, Franklin, Mass. 

Harco Orchards, So. Easton, Mass. 
Cornell Strain, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Honeggers’ Breeder Hty., Forrest, Ill. 
Flying Feather Farm, Andover, Mass. 

A. C. Lawton & Sons, Foxboro, Mass. 
Blender's Leghorns, Ferndale, N. Y. 
Roselawn Poultry Farm, Dayton, Ohio 


Net income Eggs per 
per pullet pullet chick 
chick started started 


$3.47 225.6 

3.35 203.2 

3.15 206.5 

2.83 191.7 

2.82 197.5 

2.80 190.2 

2.79 182.4 

2.74 188.4 

2.74 189.4 

2.62 186.1 


Average of all breeds entered 


2.32 177.4 


Table III 

Highest Bird in Each Standard Test — 1953-54 


Test 

Breed 

Okla. 

W.L. 

Conn. 

W.L. 

W.N.Y. 

W.L. 

R.I. 

R.I.R. 

Mo. 

R.I.R. 

N.J. 

W.L, 

Fla. 

W.L. 

N.Y.S. 

Cross 

Ariz. 

W.L. 

Cal. 

W.L. 


Owner 

Williams Pltry. Brdg. Farm, Denison, Texas 
Darby Leghorn Farm, Somerville, N. J. 
Fred Sehempf, Milford, N. Y. 

Costa’s Poultry Farm, Fall River, Mass. 
Capital Breeding Farm, St. Paul, Minn. 
John W. Drake, Skillman, N. J. 

Foreman Poultry Farm, Lowell, Mich. 

Hall Bros. Hatchery, Wallingford, Conn. 
Foreman Poultry Farm, Lowell, Mich. 
Cashman's Leghorn Farm, Webster, Ky. 


Points 

Eggs 

368.15 

337 

359.20 

327 

358.35 

327 

357.95 

329 

354.05 

326 

352.65 

335 

352.35 

327 

349.75 

319 

347.45 

325 

336.15 

308 


Isicybofing Goose Eggs 


About a year and a half ago I 
purchased a pair of geese. In March 
the goose started laying and laid 
about 45 eggs. She was in and out 
of the nest every day, turning the 
eggs, and, as we thought, starting to 
set on them. But she never did. 

I have been taking the eggs away 
from her this year and want to set 
them in an incubator. Can you give 
me any information as to how hot 
to set it, how often to turn and cool 
them and how much or how often 
they have to be dampened? j. f. 

Geese are not always too good at 
setting on their own eggs unless the 
first ones are removed. When the 
goose shows an inclination to set, 
she may stop laying for a period, but 
usually she will resume laying again 
and the second clutch may be left 
tor her to hatch. An incubator for 
goose eggs should be kept at a tem¬ 
perature of 302 degrees F. (machines 
without fan circulation), and the 
e £gs moistened once a day with 
warm water. ‘ 

February 5, 1955. 


Useful Poultry Books 


Hatchery Management, 

Hartman and Vickers. 4.00 

Diseases & Parasites' of Poultry, 

Barger and Card. 4.00 

Domestic Geese and Ducks, 

Paul Ives . 4.00 

Roberts’ Commercial Poultry 
Raising, 

Clarence S. Platt. 3.50 

Making Pigeons Pay, 

Wendell M. Levi. 3.00 

Successful Broiler Growing, 

Hoffman and Johnson. 3.50 

Egg Farming, 

Willard C. Thompson. 3.00 

A-B-C of Poultry Raising, 

J. H. Florea. 2.50 

Starting Right With Turkeys, 

G. T. Klein. 2.95 

How to Select the Laying Hen, 
Lamon and Kinghorne. 2.00 


For sale by The Rural New 
Yorker, 333 West 30th St., New York 
1, N. Y. (New York City residents, 
add 3% Sales Tax.) 



me mra mar meets 
today’s need for 

PROFITS 


... more eggs of less cost 
higher livcbility without pampering 


This year you need proven profit-making values in the in¬ 
heritance of every chick you buy. Hubbard’s New Hampshires, 
Balanced Bred for 34 years, give fast, uniform growth and early 
maturity—fixed qualities of heavy egg production, large egg size, 
resistance to leukosis, high livability through the laying year. 


NEW HEAVY EGG PRODUCER — Hubbard’s Leghorn Cross, for 
growers interested in eggs only. They inherit vitality from cross¬ 
breeding, mature at 5 months. Large egg size, superior shell 
quality, low feed consumption. 


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of age. 


FREE CATALOG! Get all the facts on these 2 profit-bred birds. 


HUBBARD 


Box 12, Walpole, N. H. Tel: Walpole 78 



FARMS 

Branch Hatchery, Lancaster, Pa. 




Produced $3.82 Net Income 

per bird over feed and chick costs 
at 1953 N.Y. Random Sample Test. 

Hawley Leghorns had hen-housed average of 220.1 
eggs per bird (32.4 eggs per bird ABOVE test aver¬ 
age), and tied for lowest laying house mortality 
(only 4%). Remember, these are Random Samples of 
Hawley chicks (same as oui* customers receive) and 
Hawley chicks and good management you should be 
able to equal these results. Write today for free 
literature and prices. Also hatching Metcalf’s White 
Americans — the great new white broiler chicks. 


HAWLEY POULTRY FARM 

WARREN W. HAWLEY & SONS 
ROUTE l-D, BATAVIA. NEW YORK 


Huested’s Poultry Farm 

100% Mt. Hope Leghorn Pullets..$34 per 100 

Red-Rock Cross Pullets.$28 per 100 

Heavy Breed Straight Run.$17 per 100 

HIGH PRODUCTION HIGH LIVABILITY 


Breeders from the best leading strains in 
America. All U.S. Approved Pullorum Clean. 

The Best Regardless of Price 


Huested’s Poultry Farm 

PHONE GREENVILLE 54254 

GREENVILLE, N. Y. 


- MAKE MORE MONEY FROM POULTRY!- 

Americas leading poultry magazine tells how. Each 
issue packed with latest advice, helpful ideas. Bargain 
rates: 9 months 25c; 48 months $1. Subscribe TODAY. 
POULTRY TRIBUNE, Dept. 20, MT. MORRIS. ILL. 


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WHITTAKER’S 


[ 


71 T 


NEW HAMPSHIRES 


WHITE CROSS 


] 


Leading the Field! 
GREATER PROFITS FOR YOU I 

Latest reports show that our pen of NEW 

HAMPSHIRES IS LEADING ALL PEN’S Or 
HEAVY BREEDS at the New York Random 
Sample Test. In this same Test last year. 

Whittakers New Hampshires won an over-alj 
first place among the Heavy Breeds by showing 
an individual profit of $3.42 on each puUet 

housed. This consistent progress is proof that 
our breeding program is constantly going for¬ 
ward toward the production of better chicks. 

You Can Make This Your Big- 

Profit Year If You Order 
WHITTAKER’S CHICKS NOW! 

Write for FREE Folder and Price List. 

WHITTAKER’S POULTRY FARMS 

BOX 25, STRATHAM, NEW HAMPSHIRE 



THINK NOW about your 1955 needs. Ask fo? cor 

Free 16 Page Illustrated Book which shows our early 
order DISCOUNT and Management Practices of 36 
years Breeding Improvement. We have the Mt. Hope 
Strain White Leghorns, New Hampshires. Bar or Wh 
Rocks White Crosses, also Rock-Red or the Red-Rock 
(hex-link). We give year around service and nay 
all Postage. C. P. LEISTER HATCHERY, 

^° x N, MC A LIST ER VILL E, PA. 

5-WEEKS OLD 
$60.00 PER 100 
F.O.B. BUFFALO 
Also pullorum clean chicks for eggs or meat, includ¬ 
ing Ames In-Cross Rybrids and Peachblow Crosses for 
both meat and eggs. Full information upon request. 


CAPONS 


SCHWEGLER’S HATCHERY 


207 NORTHAMPTON, 


BUFFALO 8, N. Y. 



MEET “KNOW-HOW” 
C HARLIE OSTRAND ER 

At MARSHALL’S Where you get the 
Best Strains, Best Methods, Best Service. 
Plan now for 
Top-of-Market prices. 

Buy Marshall Chicks this year. 

MARSHALL BROS. 

R5-D, Ithaca, N.Y. 

Phone 46336 


HEAD 

OF 

SERVICE 

DEPT. 




113 
























































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Poults and eggs available February thru July. We specialize 
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All eggs produced and hatched on our farm. 

Exclusive turkey hatchery and breeder farm. 

N. Y. ■ U. S. APPROVED AND PULLORUM CLEAN 

TIMERMAN TURKEY FARMS 

CLIFTON H. TIMERMAN, Owner 

Phone: Theresa 7235 LaFargeville (Jefferson County), N.Y. 


WOLFE’S Farm & Hatchery 

For the Very Best in Leghorns 

• Babcock-Contest Winners 
or 

e Mount Hope-World Famous 

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Each Pure — Each Up to Date 
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Milan, Bradford County, Penua, 


* New England Bred Chix at their Best 

• Rhode Island Reds, Silver Cross, * 
l Black and Golden Sex Linked • 
•Cross. Red—Leghorn and Leg-" 

* horn—(Red Crosses. *, 

• “NOT THE HIGH PRICE FARM” • 

IMcKinstry Farms, Chicopee, Mass.! 

DAY-OLD & STARTED CHICKS 

WRITE FOR CIRCULAR AND PRICES 

CLEAR SPRING HATCHERY 

BOX 49, MC ALISTERVILLE, PA. 


MUSCOVY DUCKS, GUINEAS, TURKEYS, BAN- 
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Vitalized’ Chicks & Started Birds for every Need 

Order MIDWOOD “vitalized” chicks this year for bigger profits. 
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JERSEY BLACK GIANTS GIANT—NEW HAMP CROSS 

NEDLAR NEW HAMPS ROCK—RED CROSS 

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For full information , write today to. 

K u MIDWOOD FARM HATCHERY 

MOUNT HOLLY, NEW JERSEY 
P. O. BOX 71-R, Telephone 7-0144 


Good Turkey 
Management 

(Continued from Page 77) 

Among 77 Broad-breasted Bronze 
breeding flocks in Oregon, it was 
found that in those flocks which laid 
less than 40 hatching eggs per bird, 
the cost of egg production was 40 
cents per egg; in flocks which laid 
more than 60 hatching eggs per bird, 
the cost of producing eggs was only 
28 cents per egg. 

For several years it has been the 
custom of some breeders and hatch¬ 
ery operators in the Northeast to 
secure early-season hatching eggs 
from turkey breeders in the West 
and Southwest. This practice is de¬ 
creasing, however, because it has 
been found that about three weeks 
of artificial lighting of our own hens 
prior to the time the first hatching 
eggs are wanted will stimulate egg 
production. Use 60-watt bulbs about 
10 feet apart and about six feet 
above the backs of the turkeys while 
on the roosts and artificially light 
the birds from 4:00 a. m. to normal 
daylight time. 

In order to secure as high fertility 
as possible when the matings are 
made up, it has been found bene¬ 
ficial to keep the tom breeders in a 
pen in which the temperature is 
about 65 degrees F. for five weeks 
: prior to the time that hatching eggs 
are to be saved. Artificial lighting of 
toms about five weeks prior to the 
breeding season stimulates the de¬ 
velopment of their reproductive or- 


(To be Continued) 


»«l l" 1 *"* 




You buy chicks 
from Parks' proven 
(locks without risk. Your Gran¬ 
dad, county agent, and leading 
poultry journals recommend 
them. Be sure you get our new 
catalog about 


WORLD’S --- 

oldest j- Lm mi Ec zs 

STRAIN Tells how we produce 
• these big rugged moun¬ 

tain grown birds. Also get the 
facts about two NEW and exclu* 
sive crosses out of our Barred 
Rock Hens. Remember our <33 — 

years of specialized breeding can JOE PARKS & SONS 

help YOU to make more money sirnnux on 

from eggs and meat. Write today! ALIUUNA, rA. 


PROGENY 
TESTED 

TURKEY POULTS 

for 

b-4 HIGH LIVABILITY 
LOW FEED COST 
FAST GROWTH 


BROAD BREASTED BRONZE 


DeWitt’s 5-D 

(Formerly lee & Smith) 

Wonderful 

Conformation 

brings 

Premium Prices 


BROAD BREASTED WHITES 


A. O. Smith B. B. Whites 


The PERFECT Bird 
for Retail and 
Custom Trade 

Wahkeen Whites 

The small white with the 
breast of the BB Bronze. 


Write for our FREE CATALOG 

Catalog explains our Progeny Testing Pro¬ 
gram which guarantees you the Big 5 Profit 
Factors. Amazing low price* if you order 
NOW. 


ZEELAND 

HATCHERY, INC. 

ZEELAND, MICH. 







PENN A.-U.S. 
APPROVED 
PULLORUM- 
TYPHOID 
CLEAN 



NEW BOOK 

Free l 

Read all about my 
Big-New Improved 

AN G 0 NAS 

1955 white egg 
machines. Lots of 
large white eggs 
at less cost per 
dozen. Write to — 

RAYMOND 3. THOMAS, Route 2, SALTILLO, PA. 



MOUNT HOPE CHICKS 

Day Old or Started from our own HOP Sired 
Bloodtesied Breeders. Also Heavy Breeds, 

PELLMAN’S POULTRY FARM 
W. S. PELLMAN, Prop., Box 53, Richfield, Pa 



For Greater Profits 

Broader Breasted 
Poults From Our 
Own Breeders. B.B. 
Bronze White Hol¬ 
lands, Small Whites. 
Largest Breeder Pro¬ 
ducer of Pa. - U. S. 
Pullorum - Typhoid 
Clean Poults. 


Linesville Hatchery 


BOX 14. 


LINESVILLE. PENNA. 


Rugh’s Wh. Hollands 

A Medium Size • Broad Breasted Strain 

Hens 12-16 lbs. Toms 20-26 lbs. 

For a trade demanding better 
than average, Family Sized turkey 
try our poults in 1955. 
Approved—Pollorum Clean. 

THE HUGHS 

Box 131 Elkton, Md. 


ed j 

IJ 


HEISDORF & NELSON “NICK GH!C” LEGHORNS 

First Place Central New York, California and Florida 
Random Sample Tests. Winner of every Three and 
Five Year offered in New York and California. 

Send for 48 Page Catalog. 

WEIDNER CHICKS, R. I, HAMBURG, N. Y. 


Turlateys Tliat Fay 

THOMPSON BR0ADWHITES 

LARGE & MEDIUM Strains • POULTS & EGGS 

LICENSED UNDER THOMPSON FRANCHISE 

Also BROAD-BREASTED BRONZE. 

Write for Folder and New Price List 
Quoting Sharply Reduced Prices. 

GOZZ1 Turkey Farm & Hatchery 

BOX R, U. S. ROUTE I, GUILFORD, CONN. 



BUSH l LEGHORNS 

Wh, Buff, Br, also AustraWhs, HampWhs, 
Hamps, Reds, Wh, Barred Rocks, Wydts, 
&:■•■! Buff, Wh, Bl. Minorcas, 26 surplus breeds, 
I i bloodtested AAA A $8.79; Pullets $13.85; 
Heavies $5.99; Leftovers .99, fob, catalog. 

BUSH HATCHERIES 23. Clinton, Mo. 


R0BART FARM BROAD BREASTED BRONZE 

| Poults with bred in vigor and livability. 15 years 
of selective and pedigree breeding have established 
a strain of top quality, profit producing Broad 
Breasted Bronze birds with outstanding records for 
livability and early maturity. 

Write for price list and literature, 
ROBART FARMS, W. WILLINGTON, CONN. 


67 RARE & COMMON VARIETIES CHICKS, EGGS 
Free handsome catalogue, colored pictures showing 
Lakenvelders, Polish, Hamburgs, Andalusians, Sussex, 
Turkens, Cornish, Houdans, Minorcas, Leghorns, 
Rocks, Buttercups, Langshans, Anconas, Brahmas. 
Live arrival all eastern states guaranteed. 
MURRAY MCM U R RAY, Box B5I, Webster City, Iowa 


GUINEAS 

THREE HENS AND ONE COCK $10: TWO HENS 
AND ONE COCK $8.00; ONE PAIR $6.00. 
DREXEL TURKEY FARM, EDGEMONT, PA. 


ANDY’S TURKEY FARM 

MASS.-U. S. PULLORUM CLEAN 
The Sign of Broadbreasted White Hollands. We have 
added Empire White Strain to our breeding flock. 
PLACE ORDERS EARLY 
POULTS AND HATCHING EGGS 
Write for FREE CATALOG and PRICE LIST 
Telephone Concord, Mass. 221 
CONCORD ROAD, CARLISLE, MASS. 


Double Breasted Bronze 

Lovelace Strain. Won Grand and Reserve Champion 
at Penna. Farm Show. These turkeys bring 4 cents 
premium on market. Also Keithley and Lyons Strain 
Poults. Poults January to July. 

WILA TURKEY FARM, _ WILA, PENNA. 


- PEAFOWL — BLUE, WHITE, BLACK - 

Shouldered. Guaranteed Purebred, Perfect Health. 
Pairs 1954, $30; 1953, $45 v heed this Spring. 

A. H. Chambers, Maple Lane Farms. Kingston. N. Y. 


BETTER BELTS: Specialists 9th year offer original 
excellent type. Stock introduced yearly from U.S.D.A. 
Experimental Station. Poults and eggs available from 
flock mating and special pen from station. 
Marston's Turkey Land, Hebron, Me. Tel. 6-2171 


GOSLINGS. WHITE OR TOULOUSE 


Sexed If Desired. Hatching Thousands. Low Prices. 
HI-LO FABMS HATCHERY, BRUNSWICK, OHIO 


DO YOU WISH TO SAVE $20.00 hundred on bal¬ 
anced bred great laying White Leghorn pullet chicks? 
83% laying for months. Write: TRAIL’S END 

POULTRY FARM, RFD, G O R D O NSVILLE. VA. 


INCUBATORS 

All Sizes. Electric. Big Hatches Goose, Guinea, Turkey, 
Duck, Chicken Eggs. Special Instruction for each. Cir. 
GOSHEN POULTRY FARM, Inc E, Goshen, Indiana 


BABY CHICKS $9.95-100 C. O. D. 


NEW HAMPSHIRES & WHITE ROCKS. Also three 
week old chicks 25 cents each. Price at Hatchery. 
HECLA POULTRY FARM, BELLEFONTE I, PA- 

GOSLINGS — MASSIVE EMDEN. Literature Free 

WARWICK GOOSE FARM, DENBIGH 2, VA. 


BELTSVILLE POULTS AND EGGS 


PEKIN DUCKLINGS. H ILLPOT T U R KE Y FARM. 
BOX I, FRENCHTOWN, N. J. PHONE 29-t. 


GRAY8ILLS LEGHORNS-EARLY ORDER DISCOUNT 

For more profit in ’55 order our Large Type Wh. 
Leghorns or Mount Hope Leghorns. Also Wh. Rocks, 
New Hamps. and Cross Breeds. Don’t delay. Write 
for free literature and prices today. 

DAY-OLD OR STARTED 

C. S. GRAYBILL POULTRY FARM & HATCHERY 

BOX 6, COCOLAMUS, PA. 


—ANCONA CHICKS— 

THE BREED THAT LAYS MORE 
LARGE WHITE EGGS ON LESS FEED 
Also 3 to 4 Week Old Started. Catalog Free. 
SHRAWDER’S ANCONA FARM, Richfield 9. Pa. 


114 


Ducklings: Giant Pekins, Runners, Rouens, Toulouse, 
China Goslings. Cir. Zetts Pity Farm, Drifting, Pa. 

THE R UR AIL NEW YORKER 


















































































































Grow the Chicks Well! 


(Continued from Page 75) 

the time they are 10 days old. This is 
done by putting the vaccine either 
in the drinking water or a drop of 
it in the eye or nostril. Vaccination 
for Newcastle is done again about a 
month before the birds are housed. 
Exposure to bronchitis — for im¬ 
munization to it—is made after the 
pullets are six or seven weeks old; 
the chicken pox vaccination comes at 
about 12 weeks. From four weeks to 
a month should be allowed between 
vaccinations for the different 
diseases. 

Too many chicks are overcrowded. 
This is true whether they are grown 
in complete confinement or on range. 
Chicks should have one square foot 
of floor space for the first 10 weeks 
in the brooder house. When raised 
in complete confinement, two square 
feet from 10 to 14 weeks and three 
square feet after that to maturity 
should be provided. 

There is a trend in the poultry 
business to grow pullets in com¬ 
plete confinement. This is particu¬ 
larly apparent where losses have 
been great from predatory animals 
or theft. Disease and parasite infes¬ 
tations from contaminated ranges 
also have forced some poultrymen 
into this method of rearing pullets. 
The labor problem seems to be less 
acute with confinement rearing and 
that is, of course, a real advantage. 
When pullets are raised this way, it 
is not necessary to have someone 
around in the evening to close the 
brooder houses or shelters and to 
open them again early in the morn¬ 
ing. Then, too, the caretaker need 
not be out in all kinds of weather to 
care for the birds. Good pullets can 
be raised in complete confinement, 
but the method requires additional 
buildings: growing pullets must have 
plenty of room. 

Ranging the Birds 

Most pullets are still range reared, 
however, and, in many instances, the 
ranges are overcrowded. One should 
plan to use a range with a good 
bluegrass sod or Ladino clover and 
have not over 500 birds to the acre. 
It is best to wait until wai'm wea¬ 
ther; if the pullets are transferred 


to range before good weather for 
growing grass or clover, the sod near 
the brooder houses or shelters may 
be destroyed. This causes bare spots 
and these can be a problem from the 
disease and parasite standpoint. 

The sides and backs of the shel¬ 
ters should be enclosed with bags or 
building paper. Then, when the 
weather is settled is the time to 
transfer pullets. As soon as the grass 
or Ladino clover gets much over four 
inches high go over it with a mower. 
Fresh, fast growing new growth is 
the most attractive to pullets. 

During the period that the pullets 
-are on range, feeders and fountains 
should be moved frequently to get 
them away from area of contamin¬ 
ation. Also, the scratch should be fed 
in a different area each day. If neces¬ 
sary to clean under the shelters, drag 
them a short distance, clean up the 
droppings and then put the shelter 
back on the same spot. If possible, 
have shelters spaced both ways about 
100 feet apart. To get the fullest 
benefit from range, do not locate 
two or three shelters in groups close 
together. By having them close, some 
labor may be saved, but it defeats 
the purpose of putting pullets out 
on range. '■ 

Some poultrymen feed growing 
mash in pellet form. The pellets are 
scattered on the range in a different 
area each day with a grain drill. 
This method of feeding eliminates 
investment in feeders and also the 
labor of filling them. In wet weather, 
pellets are not -fed; too many disin¬ 
tegrate before they are eaten. Only 
scratch is fed on these days. 

Examine some of the birds during 
the Summer for the presence of 
worms. If they have them, give the 
flock a treatment in the mash on 
range and, at housing time, give the 
birds individual treatment. 

When the flock is in about 10 per 
cent production, the birds should be 
housed. Grade the pullets and house 
them according to their development. 
Thin,^ leggy, crow-headed or crooked- 
breast birds and all the runts should 
be marketed for meat right away. 

Time spent in attending to the de¬ 
tails necessary for the successful 
brooding and rearing of pullets is al¬ 
ways reflected in good results ob¬ 
tained later in the laying house. 



Turning the pullets outdoors after brooding is an effective practice when 
the range has plenty of nutritious forage and the birds have adequate space. 
White Leghorns on George Anthony’s Berks Co., Pa.., farm had both last 
Shimmer when they were on a good clover range with ivell-spaced shelters. 



Give the Pullets a Break 


Give your pullets a break by pro¬ 
viding them with clean, pest-free 
housing, and adequate drinker, 
feeder and nest space, suggests Prof. 
H. C. Hutchings, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y. They will repay you 
with more top quality eggs. One nest 
for every five layers is a minimum 
for quality production. The nests 
should be filled with fine, clean 
litter. A few minutes spent each day 
in keeping nests clean will save 
hours otherwise spent in cleaning 
dirty eggs. 

Cleaning out all old litter and 
manure, and scraping and sweeping 

February 5, 1955 


out all caked material from the floor 
before washing and disinfecting the 
pen is a good procedure. Disinfectan