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A. Pages. 





Abraham Fur Co.250, 506, 674 

Acid-Phosphate, What Is.1454 

Acetylone for Power.1069 

Acid for Cutting Rust. 518 

Acid Phosphate, Use of.1022 

Acorns for Hogs. 39 

Acorns for Sheep. . .288, 446, 672, 776 

Acorns, Value of. 497 

Advertisements. Misleading.1126 

Advertising Farm Products..... .1690 

Advertising Plan . 485 

Afterbirth. Disposal of.1138 

Agbayun Synsepalum Dulciflcum. 1537 
Agricultural Building, N. J., 

Needed . 90 

Agricultural Dept., N. Y. ..695, 1885 
Agriculture, Federation at Am¬ 
sterdam . ; . 821 

Agricultural History Society ... 812 
Agricultural Meeting, Massachu¬ 
setts .402, 444 

Agricultural Reconstruction Work 315 

Agricultural Society N.Y. 130 

Agricultural Week at Trenton, N. 

J. 196 

Agriculture and Gov Smith..573, 613 
Agriculture at Columbia Univer¬ 
sity .1484 

Agriculture, Comment on.1653 

Agriculture, Federation of.15, 49, 183 
Agriculture in League of Na- 

tions .1617 

Agriculture in New Jersey. 6.8 

Alfalfa and Crimson Clover.1483 

Alfalfa as Pasture .1361 

Alfalfa Belt, N. Y.29. 74 

Alfalfa, Cultivating .1043 

Alfalfa, Failure of.1167 

Alfalfa for Horse.1428 

Alfalfa, Harrowing .1018 

Alfalfa in Connecticut .1124 

Alfalfa in Delaware .1025 

Alfalfa in Rotation.772, 1230 

Alfalfa, Old, Plowing .474 

Alfalfa, Seeding . 442 

Alfalfa, Thin .1774 

Alfalfa, Transplanting.. 914 

Alfalfa Under Adverse Conditions 163 

Alfalfa Weevil Experience.1218 

All-American Truck Co. 554 

Allegan Nursery .1706 

Allegheny Valley Hog Co.1902 

Allen Rug Weaving and Carpet 


Alpine Bellflower in House.22 1 

Alsike Clover Coming In.1151 

Alsike, Good Growth of.1175 

Alsike, Value of .276, 1307 

Aluminum for Kitchen Ware.... 686 
Am. Automobile Owners’ Assn... 506 

American Motors Corp. 458 

American Real Estate Co. 410 

Am. School of Poultry Husbandry. 506 
American Voting Machine Co.... 802 

America’s Greatness .1342 

Ammonia Sulphate on Grass. 731 

Andrews & Co. 870 

Anchor Manufacturing Co.14.8 

Angleworms, Talk About.1304 

Angola Tire & Rubber Co.. 1062, 1402 

Ants and Olive Oil.1378 

Ants. Destroying .304, 883, 1001 

Aphids, Controlling .1022 

Apples Aphids and Cold.785 

Apple, Baldwin, Types of.. 1548, 1604 

Apple, Big Baldwin .1003 

Apple Bloom, Spraying . 355 

Apple Buying for England.485 

Apple Cider, Future of. 522 

Apple Crop Outlook.1044 

Apple, Dwarf. 729 

Apple, Eclipse of .1604 

Apple Exports .1852 

Apple, Grime’s Golden .1689 

Apple Growers, Winter Work for.1816 

Apple Juice, Future of. 657 

Apple Maggots .127, 372 

Apple Market Situation.1525 

Apple, McIntosh .123, 319, 1484 

Apple, Newtown .726, 1177 

Apple, N. W. Greening .1678 

Apple, Oliver . 640 

App'e, Opalescent, in Hudson 

Valley .1677 

Applo, Opalescent, in N. J.1678 

Apple Orchard, Renting.1711 

Apple, Paragon, in N. J.1678 

Apple Pomace, Delydrating.841 

Apple, Rome Beauty .1151 

Apple, Rome Beauty, Memorial.. 1210 

Apple, Russot. Planting .32, 47 

Apple Rust Disease .1026 

Applo, San Jacinto .1347 

Apple Scab and Lime-Sulphur... 725 

Applo Scab, Dust Spray for. 808 

Apple, Senator . 640 

Apple Soliloquy . 812 

Apple, Stayman Winesap .1847 

Apple, Summer Rambo .1572 

Apple Syrup, Keeping .1766 

Apple Tree Borers .1070 

Applo Tree, Resting . 130 

Apple Trees, Injury to .1051 

Apple Tree, Value of .1572 

Apple Trees, Cut Back .483 

Apple Trees, Protecting .1849 

Applo Trees, Pruning .739, 844 

Apple Trees, Winter Injury to... 1780 

Apple Yield, Great .1725 

Applo, Western Beauty.1572 

Apples, Direct Sale of . 840 

Apples Fail to Set . 844 

Apples for New Hampshire. 133 

Apples for Oklahoma.1648 

Apples for Ozark Section.1648 

Apples for Virginia . 127 

Apples in Pits .1496 

Apples, Long-Keeping .1343 

Apples, Missouri .1545 

Apples, Mulching and Fertilizing. 1530 

Apples, Newtown . 594 

Apples, Nova Scotia .1751 

Apples, Parti-Colored . 317 

Apples, Storing . 165 

Apples, Thinning . 371 

Apples, What Varieties .1380 

Army Material, Sale of.415 

Arrowhead Farm, Year on. 513 

Art Craft Service .1402 

Ashes, Coal and Wood .1157 

Ashes, Value of . 643 

Ashes, Wood, as Fertilizer.1406 

Asparagus and Salt . 849 

Asparagus, Bed .1449 

Asparagus Bed, Planting . 521 

Asparagus Beetles .1051, 1153 

Asparagus, Fertilizing . 127 

Asparagus from Seeds . 939 

Asparagus, Hardy . 558 

Asparagus, Manuring .4. 177 

Asparagus, Planting .1078 

Asparagus, Reading Giant . 816 

Asparagus, Salt on .83, 685 

Asparagus, Varieties . 782 

Asparagus, W T inter .1848 

Asphalt Paint, Thinning .........1766 

Asthma, Causes of . 40 

Atlantic Art Co.1478 

Atlas Tire Co.1770 

Auto Accidents .1498 

Auto Bodies, Polish for .1766 

Auto Cooperative Ass’n .1118 

Auto Damaged by Cow.1236 

Auto Express . 1231 

Auto for Power . 647 

Auto Knitting Hosiery Co.1598 

Auto on Farm. 66 , 396, 596, 1782 

Auto Knitter Hosiery Co. 458 

Auto Light. Improving .428 

Auto, Original .1317 

Auto Trip in Central N. Y.1434 

Auto Truck Experience. 115 

Auto Truck for Farmer.1775 

Azaleas, Treatment of.367 


Back-To-The-Lander's Plans ...1046 
Back-To-The-Lander’s Problem... 117 

Back-To-The-Lander’s Year. 4 

Bagworm, Evergreen . 641 

Bakery Waste, Feeding. 665 

Baldwin Poultry Plant. 158 

Bankers’ and Agricultural Loans. 16*3 

Bank, Federal Land.1156 

Banks, Federal Land .733 

Barberry, Japanese .730 

Barber, H. L.718, 950, 1598 

Barley and Oilmeal, Feeding... .1894 

Barley, Feeding Value of. 896 

Barley for Cows . 60 

Barley for Pigs . 100 

Barley in Silage .1152 

Barley, Winter .1152 

Barn, Dairy, Building .1703 

Bam, Desirability of Stone.1464 

Bam Plan .545, 755 

Barn, Round, Door for .1320 

Barn, Small . 756 

Barnyards, Muddy .1798 

Battery, Charging at Home.526 

Beach Engineering Co.1738 

Bean Caterpillar .1266 

Bean, Gigantic New Guinea.674 

Bean, Goddard . 569 

Bean Growers, Trimming .265 

Bean, Lima, Willow Leaf. 217 

Bean, Nicaragua . 611 

Bean Rust and Blight . 908 

Bean Straw, Fee'ing .1834 

Bean, 1,200 to One . 850 

Bean Weevils . 123 

Bean Weevil, History of . 114 

Beans as Fertilizer .166. 256 

Beans, Canning .1237 

Beans, Fertilizer for . 726 

Beans for Cows .442 

Beans for Sheep .1004 

Beans, Hand Picking . 317 

Beans, Picking Over . 422 

Beans, Soy, as Manure . 209 

Beans, Soy, Crusting .1662 

Beans, Soy, for Cows .328 

Beans, Soy, for Hay .431 

Beans, Soy, in Corn .474 

Beans, Soy, in Indiana .303 

Beans, Soy, in Ohio .480 

Bean. Bonavost .1453 

Beans With Potatoes . 840 

Bedbugs, Controlling . 682 

Bedbugs, Treatment for.777, 778 

Bee Tree, Cutting .1167 

Beef, Holstein Steers as.669, 750 

Beef, Home Raised .1703 

Beef Scrap for Pigs . 538 

Beef Scrap for Poultry . 833 

Boef, Steer or Cow . 126 

Beekeeping as Side Line . 435 

Beekeeping, Profitable . 33 

Beer and Ice Cream .1400 

Bees and Sheep . 4 

Bees, Dysentery in . 272 

Bees, Feeding .590, 639, 671 

Bees Flying in Winter . 33 

Bees, Handling .1666 

Bees in Greenhouse . 2 

Bees in the City . 359 

Bees, Moving . 633 

Boes on Shares . 500 

Boes on the Farm .988, 1021 

Bees, Starting with.1847 

Bees, Swarming . 879 

Bees, Wild, Hiving .1304 

Beet Pulp and Human Nature.. .1296 

Beet Pulp, Feeding . 494 

Beet Sugar for Canning . 889 

Beet Sugar, on Long Island.1676 

Beets, Feeding Value of .1622 

Begonias from Seed .1689 

Belt, Expansion and Contraction 

of . 

Belt Troubles . 

Belting Questions . 

Berries, Canning . 

Berries, Cover Cron for . 

Berries, Properly Pruned . 

Berry Bushes, Pruning . 

Berry Seed Co. 

Betts and the Farmers . 










Betts, Chas. H., 14, 1028, 1132 

1275, 1386. 1421, 1585, 1610, 1690 

Betts, Election of .1752, 1793 

Big Four Grocery Co.1902 

Bird Nuisance ...1445 

Bird House Man .305 

Bird Houses in Trees . 5 

Birds, Age of . 1493 

Birds and Cats . 83 

Birds and Cherries .734,.774 

Birds, Feeding .1756 

Bittersweet as Ornamental. 356 

Blackberries, Planting .1678 

Blackberries, Propagating .1347 

Blackberry, Giant . 611 

Blackberry, Nanticoke .1047 

Blackberry Rust .1045 

Bloat in Live Stock .1284, 1314 

Blood Meal as Fertilizer . 181 

Blueberries, White .1483 

Boar, Feeding .1865 

Body Temperature .1007 

Bomberger, H. S.1259, 1326 

Bonds, Hold on to .1053 

Bonds, Registered .1340 

Bone, Ground, Heated . 210 

Bordeaux Mixture, Modified .... 2 

Bor J er, Hardy .1122 

Borers in Timber . 685 

Borers, Liquid Applications for.. 472 

Boxwood, Propagating .1303 

Boy, Farmer . 999 

Boy Problem . 309 

Boy, Teaching to Milk .1764 

Boys, in Camp .1446 

Bradley Bros.1706 

Bran, Filler in . 84 

Bread for Pigs .1800 

Bread From Winter Wheat. 34 

Bread Lines and Farm Help.776 

Broad, Moldy, as Fertilizer.1346 

Bread, Stale, for Feeding . 678 

Breeders’ Ass’n, N. Y. 151 

Brewers’ Grains, Feeding . 494 

Broad Street Tire Co.1526 

Bronx Egg Case Co.1902 

Brown Bros., Case Against .1884 

Brown, N. A. 982 

Brush Burner, Portable .1406 

Buckwheat as Forage .1361 

Buckwheat, Feeding. 

284, 724, 972, 1762 
Buckwheat Flour, Storing . 979 

Buckwheat Following Strawber¬ 
ries . 909 

Buckwheat for Live Stock.749 

Buckwheat for Cows....101, 246, 705 

Buckwheat Questions .1175 

Buckwheat, Sprouted .285 

Buckwheat. Wheat or Rye With. 1181 

Buddleia Variabilis .1159 

Buddleias Disappointing .1334 

Buffalo-Texas Oil Co.1038 

Building, Laying Out.1331 

Building, Old, Painting . 866 

Building on Rented Land .1296 

Bull Club .1190 

Bull, Handling .546, 1866 

BuU, Leading . 672 

Bull, Unruly .1557 

Bull, Valuable, Dies .1865 

BuU With Mange . 582 

Bulls, Co-operative Buying.1126 

Buckwheat Straw for Horses... .1464 

Burbank, Jr. 359 

Burdocks, Destroying. 1068, 1302, 1434 

Bush, D. F. 298 

Butchering in Massachusetts.... 653 

Butter, Amount in Milk .1505 

Butter and Oleo .1348 

Butter as Food .1458 

Butter, Best Keeping. 62 

Butter, Bitter . 149 

Butter, Crumbly . 64 

Butter, Dairy, Making .1896 

Butter Fat at 40 Cents Per Lb.. 1290 

Butter Fat, Increasing .1352 

Butter, Feeding for . 578 

Butter, Figuring .1357 

Butter, Keeping in Brine .1897 

Butter, Living Prices for . 889 

Butter, Making .64, 152 

Butter Making at Milk Prices.. .1839 

Butter Making, Home.1796, 1832 

Butter Making, Troubles .1470 

Butter Proportion to Milk. 548 

Butter, Renovating .976, 1728 

Butter, Storing.580, 1012, 1035 

Butter Strike, Old Time. 322 

Butter, Strong . 334 

Butter, White Flakes in .792 

Buttermilk Solidifying .1840 

Buttermilk, Value for Feeding. .1428 


Cabbage, Chinese . 816 

Cabbage, Club Root in.474, 664 

Cabbage, Frost Proof . 275 

Cabbage in Silo .1514 

Cabbage Plants, Frost Proof .... 5 

Cabbage Plants, Selling .1109 

Cabbage Report .270 

Cabbage Seed, L. 1. 36 

Cabbage, Selling . 855 

Cabbage Worms .1437 

Cabbage, Yield of . 166 

Calf Club Prizes .1283 

Calf, Costive .1736 

Calf, Dishorning .739, 1593 

Calf, Eggs for . 548 

Calf, Feeding.234, 748, 978, 1694 

Calf Heifer’s First .1703 

Calf, How to Raise . 104 

Calf, Keeping on Cow . 944 

Calf Meal, Homemade . 328 

Calf, Overfed . 978 

Calf, Paralyzed .104, 668 

Calf Rations .1248 

Calf, Stunted .1080 

Calf, Unthrifty . 246 

Calf with Blackleg .1395 

Calf with Dysentery.712 

Calf with Hemorrhage Septicemia 61 

Calf with In’igestion .708 

Calf with Infected Navel. 620 

Calf with Scours.102, 579, 829 

Calf with Tumor .1662 

Calf Without Milk. 

246. 448, 824, 946, 978, 1035 

Callicarpa Americana .1719 

Calves, Death of . 440 

Calves, Disposing of .1760 

Calves, Feeding .1164, 1354, 1894 

Calves, Freemartin .1622 

Calves, Grade, Selling .1892 

Calves, Pasteurized Milk for.... 862 

Calves, Registering .1558 

Calves, Ration for .1800 

Calves, Salting . 763 

Calves, Sick . 293 

Calves with Hemorrhagic Septice¬ 
mia .1394 

Calves with Ringworm . 754 

Calves with Scours.1004, 1593 

Camping in Car .1116 

Canada’s Plan for Soldiers . 183 

Canaries. Feeding and Care of... 699 

Canary Cage, Mites in.1425 

Canna Fiery Cross, 

879. 1159, 1485, 16*1 

Canna Roots, Storing. 1524 

Canned Goods, Tainted .1009 

Canning. Home . 684 

Cans, How Many in Bushel ....1237 

Canvas, Preserving . 120 

Canner, Candid Statement About. 1459 

‘Cannas, Seed From .1444 

Capons, Experiment with . 162 

Capons, Profitable .1284 

Capper, Senator . 784 

Caponizing, Trouble -with Leg¬ 

horns, Native and Foreign... .1472 

Caraway Seed, Selling. 34 

Carbon Remover . 312 

Cardboard, Waterproofing .1628 

Carnations, Spray for .1502 

Carrots, Feeding . 272 

Carrots for Horses . 98? 

Cars, Icing, Cost of.1152 

Cars, Fruit, Icing .1459 

Cat, Coughing . 800, 1519 

Cat, Vomiting .1476, 1519 

Cat with Catarrh . 102 

Catalpa for Timber . 162 

Catalysis, What Is?.1430 

Cats, Licensing . 738 

Cats, Worms in .1509 

Cattle Abortion . 63 

Cattle Abortion, Carbolic Acid 

for .1394 

Cattle and Tuberculosis Test.... 1006 

Cattle, Ayrshire, Sale.1056 

Cattle Banish Hay Press. 77 

Cattle, Bates Shorthorn.386, 618 

Cattle Bloat Remedy .34, 1394 

Cattle, Boarding . 22 

Cattle, Breachy . 864 

Cattle Breeders, Guernsey Meet. 1215 
Cattle Breeding, New Idea in... 1554 

Cattle, Breeding, Shipping .1760 

Cattle Buying, Co-operative.1390 

Cattle, Cross Breedig... .96, 386, 492 

Cattle Club, Guernsey . 944 

Cattle Club, Jersey .1004 

Cattle, Dishorning .768 

Cattle, Fouls in .976, 1057, 1361 

Cattle, French-Canadian .280 

Cattle, Grade, Improving .790 

Cattle, Hereford, Feeding . 22 

Cattle, Holstein, Prices .1352 

Cattle, Identifying .1590 

Cattle in Corn . 1202 

Cattle, Inbreeding .188, 1423 

Cattle; J. D.1286 

Cattle on Highway .1581 

Cattle, Red Polled ..280 

Cattle, Red Polled Association... 440 

Cattle, Sale of. 35 

Cattle, Sending Into Penn.......1728 

Cattle, Shorthorn .706 

Cattle, Shorthorn-Jersey Cross... 386 

Cattle, Shorthorn, Value of.1112 

Cattle Test, Fraudulent.1348 

Cattle, Trespassing .1140 

Cattle, Western, for Eastern Pas¬ 
tures . 96 

Cattle with Malignant Disease. .1325 

Cattle with Skin Disease.1314 

Cedars, Transplanting . 89 

Celery, Blanching .1645 

Celery, Blanching with Paper... 1298 

Celery Blight.166, 333,1493 

Celery for Retail Trade .1603 

Celery, Keeping .1642 

Celery, Not Blanching.1867 

Celery, Pithy . 13 

Celery Tonic .1430 

Cellar, Damp .1399 

Cement Cistern . 304 

Cement Floor in Henhouse.97S 

Cement Floor, Making .500 

Cement Tank for Maple Sap.568 

Cesspool and Well .1338 

Cesspool, Building . 889 

Cesspool, Improving ..1399 

Cesspool in Cellar .1358 

Celery, Blanching .1445 

Celery, Bleaching, Easy.1445 

Chantioler Poultry Farm. 802 

Chapman, B, L, ........1738 

Charcoal Burning . 140 

Cheese Company Fails .657 

Cheese, Cottage, 

334, 580, 944, 1035, 1356 

Cheese, Cream .. 580 

Cheese from Buttermilk ..1248 

Cheese Making, Profit in.1868 

Cheese Making, Returns from... 576 

Cherries, Grafting .1301 

Cherries on Native Stock .1177 

Cherries, Propagating . 642 

Cherry Stocks .1484 

Cherry Tree, Gum on .1819 

Cherry, Wild, Use of.680, 1027 

Chestnut Blight and Apples.467 

Chestnut for Kindling . 4 

Chester White Live Stock Co.... 1526 

Chestnuts, Illinois .368 

Chewing Gum, Tree . 47 

Chia, A New Sage.1537 

Chicago Terrotype Co. 902 

Chicago Portrait Co.1366, 1670 

Chick Feeds . 759 

Chick Brooders, Oil Burning. 502 

Chick Rations .1324, 1521 

Chicken, Bloated .1013 

Chicken Thieves .1236 

Chickenpox . 343 

Chickens, Poisoned .1597 

Chicks, Adopted . 760 

Chicks, Ailing .1321 

Chicks and Hens, Mashes for....1769 

Chicks, Baby. Shipping .586 

Chicks, Crossbred .1396 

Chicks, Brooding . 338 

Chicks, Buttermilk for . 715 

Chicks, Cannibal .760, 925, 948 

Chicks, Care of .1142 

Chicks, Clipping Wings of . . 868 , 925 

Chick, Crop Bound .1145 

Chicks, Crowded .1359 

Chicks, Diarrhoea in . 798 

Clucks, Early, Trouble with.404 

Chicks, Feeble . 980 

Chicks, Feeding . 551 

Chicks in Brooder. 543 

Chicks, Loss of . 980 

Chicks, Mites on .1396 

Chicks Pick One Another.. .833, 1036 

Chicks, Planning for . 73 

Chicks, Poor Hatch of ......901, 980 

Chicks, Potatoes for . 901 

Chicks, Small, Feeding .1401 

Chicks, Trouble with . 630 

Chicks, Unhealthy .1324 

Chicks, Winter-Hatched . 248 

Chicks with Gapes .1516, 1596 

Chicks with White Diarrhoea, 

1401, 1564 

Chicks with Depraved Appetite.. 924 

Chicks with Leg Weakness.. .404,925 

Chicks with Sore Eyes .1037 

Chicks with Throat Trouble.550 

Chicks with Weak Feet. 630 

Chickweed, Controlling . 592 

Chickweed, Smothering . 685 

Chicory as Coffee Substitute... .1577 

Child in Home . 697 

Children Sell Farm Products... .1002 

Children, Support of.1513 

Children, Training .533 

Chimney and Cellar Wall .1823 

Chimney, Cleaning .1269 

Chimney, Concrete .224 

Chimney, Dripping .428, 741 

Chimney, Inclination of .1518 

Chimneys, Leaning .1823 

Chipmunks Eat Peas .1485 

Chloride of Calcium and Chlo¬ 
ride of Lime . 312 

Chocolate and Almond Bars, Mak¬ 
ing . 728 

Chocolate, Milk, Making .1628 

Christmas Tree Farming,.. .370, 416 

Christmas Trees, Sale of.1791 

Chrysanthemums Outdoors.1719 

Church, R. L.1566 

Church, No Pews in . 888 

Churning Hard .103, 826 

Churning Troubles .944, 1035 

Cider, Alcohol in .*. 517 

Cider and Vinegar Questions.... 779 

Cider, Bottling .514, 1820 

Cider, Defective .1380 

Cider, Dehydrating .1780 

Cider from Cull Apples .1628 

Cider, Hard . 318 

Cider Problems .1330 

Cider Mill, Waiting Turn at....1849 

Cider Questions .1028 

Cider, Storing in Cistern. 391 

Cider, Sweet, What Is?.18S0 

Cistern from Well .. 172 

Cistern Ventilation . 42 

City and Country .696, 969 

City Man’s View .1534 

Civil War Debt . 83 

Curculio, Controlling .1443 

Class Magazine Pub. Co.1738 

Cleveland and Parkersburg Oil 


Cleveland, Frank P.250 

Cloth, Waterproofing . 646 

Clover, Alsike .1271 

Clover, Crimson, After Oats.772 

Clover, Crimson, Curing. 840 

Clover, Crimson, When to Seed.. 182 

Clover in the Silo.986, 1012 

Clover, Keeping Growing.1269 

Clover, Spring Seeded.. 12 

Clover, Sweet, as Pasture.1360 

Clover, Sweet, as Soil Builder, 

354, 415 

Clover, Sweet, Fails.476 

Clover, Sweet, for Hay.431 

Clover. Sweet, Growth of. 557 

Clover, Sweet or Alsike.1373 

Clover, Sweet, Seeding. 175 

Clover, Sweet, Varities. 408 









Clover, Thrashing . 607 

Clover with Rye.1265 

Cluthe, Chas. & Sons. 762 

Coal Ashes Around Trees. 9il 

Coal Ashes in Garden.12, 123 

Coal Dealer Talks. 646 

Coal Miner Talks. 722 

Coal, Poor . °'l 

Cohmeal for Cows.• •.••• 949 

Cockerels, Fattening, Fertilizer 

for Potatoes .. 

Cockerel, Ailing .I* 9 *, 

Cockerel, Crowing . 

Cockerels, Precocious .^ 9 » 

Cockerels, Selecting . 

Cockroach Remedies .. 

Cocoa and Cocoa Shells. 999 

Cocoanut Meal, Feeding. 1999 

Cole-Conrad Co. •••• . 9 “J 

College Education and Expense.. 134.4 

Colony Holding Corp. ■••••• ° 0% 

College Commencements, Acting ^ 

Ollt . QOfl 

Collins, Horace . 

Colorado, Life in. 

Colt, Breaking . ,{ 41 

Colt with Buck Knees. 9 £ 9 

Colt with Sprung Knee. 999 

Colts, Market for.... . .gYl 

Commercial Finance Corp. • • ;; * ’ ql 
Commission Law Amendments... 91 

Commission Man, Regulating.... 1859 

Compost, Mixing . . • • • • ■ • • • -- 

Concrete Blocks for Building... 

Consumer, Selling Direct to. 

Consumers’ Oil & Shale Co. 

Contract, Form of . ” „ 

Cooling Without Ice ....•••••••• . 9 ^ 

Co-operation Among Farmers.... 

Co-operation Dangers .. 

Co-operation, Fight .for^. . 

Co-operation, Growth of..... - 

Co-operative Hog C °' ‘ ‘' qi 

Co-operative Law, Attacks on... 

Corn alid^Cohmeal. . . .241, H04, 1S34 
Corn and Rye Hogging Down... 1464 

Corn and Wood Ashes. 

Corn, Ashes on. . .. .. 

Corn, Best Varieties ....{TSf 

Corn Between Strawberries.1166 

Corn Borers, Euragean,^ ^ 

Corn, Cost of Growing.1492 

Corn Crop, Cultivating. 999 

Corn Crop, N. Y.. . . 

Corn, Flint or Dent. bbb 

Corn Fodder in Straw. l99 V 

Corn for North. 

Corn for Silage. 

Corn from Zamboanaga. L 

Corn, Gold Nugget. 

Corn-Growing Hints .... 

Corn Growth, Freakish. 

Corn, Keeping Fresh. 

Corn, Long Island.... 

Corn, Luce’s Favorite. 

Corn, Mixing in Field. 

Corn, Moldy. Feeding. * 99 

Corn, New, for Hens.l 99b 

Corn, Nitrate on. 

Corn, Ruby Sweet . 

Corn, Seel, Care of... 

Corn, Seed, Importance <> f • vy.- 
Corn, Seed, Selecting........639, ljh*5 

Corn, Selecting and Storing.153U 

Com, Silo ..... 

Corn, Silo, k‘' 

Com, Sweet ..-415. 1307 

Com, Story of.... .1542, 1580 

Corn Suckers in Silage.... 1A9 “ 

Corn Tests in Connecticut. 999 

Corncob, Size of. 

Corncobs, Fertilizer Value of-1'ljj 

Cornell, D. B .1||S 

Cornmeal for Hogs............ • £? 9 

Cornstalks and Hay, Exchanging. 1354 

Cornstalks for Horses..... . 

Corporation and Co-operation.... < 99 

Corporation Dev. Co. 

Cotton High Priced.L ; 99 

Cottonseed for Cows. 

Cottonseed Questions. f" 

Country Milk Co. |31 

Cover Crop S for Hand" Cultivation. 1093 

Cover Crops, Use of. 19 

Cover Crop for Spring. 999 

Cover Crops, Seeding...... . 9 ” 

Cover Crops, Wheat and Rye as. 1265 
Cow Afraid of Woman.......... 1622 

Cow, Ailing.1400, 1514 

Cow, Bloating. 

Cow, Business. ‘ 9 ? 

Cow, Buying. ..........-t 99 * 

Cow, Change in Freshing Period. 1006 

Cow, Cost of Keeping. 334 

Cow, Currying.±252 

Cow, Dishorning. A99 ~ 

Cow, Drv, Feeding.• •*‘ 3 U 

Cow, Drying Off..237, 539,.1142, 1802 

Cow, Family, Feeding. •••• A ° 9 ’ 

Cow, Family, Managing.24, 1800 

Cow, Farmers . i~oa 

Cow, Farming . 

Cow, Feeding .. 

Cow Gives Bloody Milk. 1 999 

Cow, Green Feed for.1515 

Cow, Guernsey, Ration.......... 1JJ33 

Cow, Hard Milking.102, 107, 293, 452 

Cow, Irregular Breeding ■•■•••■•l ® 99 

Cow, Lame .. <13 

Cow Leaks Milk.1165, 1514 

Cow Leaks Milk.803, 983 

Cow, Management of . A9 * 

Cow, Mangels for... 9 ?~ 

Cow, Milking Quality of....1312 

Cow, Milking Shorthorn.18, 625 

Cow, Nivolette 2d. 920 

Cow, Old. Fattening. 101 

Cows on Pasture.. 

Cow, Paralyzed . 998 ’,?Sa 

Cow, Persistent Milker.. 

Cow, Poisoned .i*jll 

Cow. Record Ayrshire .1892 

Cow, Record Guernsey . 186 

Cow Records, Crooked .1548 

Cow, Rochette’s Princes. 746 

Cow, Rochelle’s Princess.746 

Cow Runaway . 763 

Cow, Shorthorn and Jersey Cross. 625 

Cow Shrinks Milk .58, 1703 

Cow, Sick .1762 

Cow, Situation .1465 

Cow, Stray, Keeping .1268 

Cow Test, Fraudulent .1*58 

Cow Test Tricks, 

1241, 1352, 1386, 1652 

Cow, Testing .. • • • 984 

Cow Testing Ass’n, Baraesville, 

Ohio .1080 

Cow, Thin . 668 

Cow, Tuberculous . 860 

Cow, Unprofitable . 862 

Cow, Unruly . 976 

Cow, Unsatisfactory .1058 

Cow vs. Pigs and Chickens. 142 

Cow, Vomiting . ; .1519 

Cow, Wampatuck Caroline. 18 

Cow with Abscess . 107 

Cow with Bad Quarter. 829 

Cow with Barn Itch. 668 

Cow with Caked Udder. 390 

Cow with Cowpox, 

198 , 332, 702 . 739, 754 

Cow with Defective Teat.1668 

Cow with Depraved Appetite.... 24 

Cow with Eczema . 754 

Cow with Enlarged Gland . 63 

Cow with Fistula. 668 , 763 

Cow with Foot Rot.102, 497 

Cow with Fungus Hematoides.. .1520 
Cow with Garget, 

237, 800, 829, 1357, 1394, 1400, 1567 
Cow with Hemorrhagic Septice¬ 
mia . 1668 

Cow with Hygroma.1394. 1520 

Cow with Indigestion. 104 

Cow with Infected Quarter.1668 

Ciw with Leaking Teats.1668 

Cow with Loose Teeth. 627 

Cow with Lump Jaw...1698 

Cow with Lump on Ud’er.1514 

Cow with Mammary Tumor.620 

Cow with Mammitis. .102, 1554, 1668 

Cow with Milk Fever.24, 548 

Cow with Obstructed Teats, 

754, 800, 1567, 1638, 1734 

Cow with Pink-eye.1394 

Cow with Ringworm.1760 

Cow with Skin Disease.504, 1593 

Cow with Superfluous Teat. 395 

Cow with Swollen Hock. 620 

Cow with Swollen Knees.4523 

Cow with Swelling.1567 

Cow with Swollen Udder. 668 

Cow with Tumor.674, 1284 

Cow with Weebles. 803 

Cow with Warts, 

104, 282, 685, 763, 1394, 1436, 1523 

Cow with Worms. 104 

Cows and Hogs, Care of. 663 

Cows and Tuberculin Test.1762 

Cows, Ayrshire, Feeding.1704 

Cows, Corn and Clover. 964 

Cows, Cross-Bred . 293 

Cows, Dry, Feeding.234, 1862 

Cows, Dual Purpose . 65 

Cows Eat Boards. 829 

Cows, Feeding on Pasture. 860 

Cows for Butterfat.1012 

Cows, Fresh, Feeding.101, 446 

Cows, Grain for . 54 

Cows, Grooming .1798 

Cows, High-Testing .1840 

Cows. Holstein, Feeding . 752 

Cows, Holstein, Figures .1554 

Cows, How Many .4560 

Cows in Calf, Shipping. 332 

Cows, Old, Fattening . 65 

Cows on Pasture ..1080 

Cows, Overfed . 882 

Cows, Particular Feeders .1760 

Cows, Record . 494 

Cows Shrink Milk . 64 

Cows, Skim-Milk for. 974 

Cows, Testing .. 98 

Cows, Two, Handling .1599 

Cows, Two, Handling .1899 

Cows with Catarrh .1799 

Cows, Working Away from. 907 

Cowpox ...1470 

Cream, Bad Flavor in. 660 

Cream, Bitter, 

192, 403, 494, 792, 1589 

Cream, Call for . 381 

Cream, Cold .. 1880 

Cream, Foamy .192, 1356 

Cream, Improving .1252 

Cream in Milk . 60 

Cream, Moldy . 978 

Cream, Price of . 987 

Cream, Questions About . 862 

Cream, Rancid . 64 

Cream Testing ...1829 

Cream, Trouble with.1058, 1138 

Creameries, Co-operative .463 

Crop Outlook in France and Eng¬ 
land .1392 

Crop Prices, Figuring . 848 

Crops for Soil Improvement.1572 

Crops in Rotation . 530 

Crown Tire & Rubber Co.718 

Crows and Red Pepper. 777 

Crows, Repelling . 908 

Cuba, Live Stock in.710 

Cucumber Beetles.... 1071, 1153, 1271 
Curculio, Handling... .594, 726, 1541 

Curculio in Orchard .1485 

Curculio on Cherries. 810 

Currants, Propagating . 308 

Currants, Pruning . 958 

Curril, J. M.1402 

Currier Pub. Co. 834 

Curtesy Right in Estate. 569 

Customers’ Association .1286 

Cyclamns, Growing . 212 


Dahlia Culture . 915 

Dahlia Seedlings.879, 1341 

Dahlias, Digging .1788 

Dahlias, Good Season for.1449 

Dahlias. Marketing . 376 

Dairy Conditions, Eastern.1725 

Dairy Farming from Trucking... 1730 

Dairy, Handling .1760 

Dairy Herd, Figuring on .1193 

Dairy Prices, Control of. 969 

Dairy Products, Using. 192 

Dairy Profit or Loss . 860 

Dairy Problem . 142 

Dairy Prospects . 878 

Dairy Show, National.1585 

Dairying in East. 18 

Dairyman, Should He Retire?.. .1004 

Dairymen Gain and Lose.788 

Dairymen, Letters from . 277 

Dairymen’s Ass’n, N. Y., 

1591, 1798, 1816 
Dairymen’s League Discussion... 785 
Dairymen’s League Goes Ahead.. 657 

Dairymen’s League Meeting.1859 

Dairymen’s League, New Plans 

for .613, 743 

Dairymen’s League, Suggestions 

for. 821 

Dam, Building .1202 

Dandelions, Cultivated. 816 

Davis, W. H.1034 

Davison, Carl E. 870 

Daylight Saving and Sleep Loss. 1133 

Daylight Saving .1416 

Daylight Saving, End of .1274 

Daylight Saving, Local Rules for. 1308 
Daylight Saving, Real Situation. 1161 
Daylight Saving Still a Menace.. 1724 
Daylight Saving Repeal Vetoed.. 1132 
Daylight Saving Plan, 

8 , 320, 437, 657, 736, 777, 812, 

838, 848, 941.1028 

Deed, "More or Less” in.1340 

Deed to Husband and Wife.1236 

Delp & Son. 458 

Denmark, Farming in .1186 

Deodorizing Compounds . 689 

Depressions, Panics and Farmers. 912 

Deutzia Gracilis. 730 

Diet Questions .1094 

Distillers’ Grains, Value of.240 

Distillery, Kitchen . 686 

Ditching, Price for.755 

Doctor, Family .1410 

Dodder in Clover.1181 

Dodder, Killing .1068 

Dodder in Clover.1454 

Dog, Airedale .1484 

Dog Eats Eggs.626, 1516 

Dog, Howling .1363 

Dog on Battlefield. 150 

Dog Law, New York. 657 

Dog Laws .1387 

Dog License Trouble. 736 

Dog Nature .1346 

Dog on Road...1236 

Dog, Salivated .719 

Dog, Sick .1620 

Dog Training Book Wanted.1296 

Dog, Untagged, Killing.1363 

Dog with Cough.1527 

Dog with Distemper. 627 

Dog with Ear Trouble.1619 

Dog with Polyurea. 800 

Dog with Skin Disease. 

244, 582, 1016, 1258 

Dog with Worms. 

Dogs and Sheep. 

Dogs Eat Their Young. 

Dollar, 35-cent . 

Dollar, 35-cent . 

Douglas Cristy Co. 

Drainage by Machine... 

Drainage, Enforced . 

Drainage Enthusiast ... 
Drink, Carbonating 
Duck Eggs in Incubator. 
Duck Raising, Story of 
Ducks and Water. 


303, 1716 





. 415 

. 957 



. 901 

.345, 500 
. 630 

Ducks, Wild, Domesticating... .1382 

Ducks, Wild, Feeding. 626 

Dunn Motor Works.1634 

Dye, Poor . 889 

Dynamite for Tree Planting.258, 913 
Dynamite in Horticulture. 122 


Earl Seed Company. 110 

Earthworms, Facts About. 730 

Easter Lilies, Caring for. 367 

Eastman Rubber Works.1842 

Easton Machine Company. .1706, 1902 

Eastwood Stock Farm. S70 

Economy Tire & Rubber Co.1146 

Education Department and Sani¬ 
tary Toilets ..1685 

Education for City Man.1814 

Education, Good Work in.1156 

Education, What Kind of.964 

Eels, Preparing .1486 

Egg Contests, Philosophy of- 180 

Egg Contest Summary. 6 

Egg Contest Winners.1090, 1769 

Egg, Large .1759 

Egg, Monstrous . 452 

Eggplant in New England. 816 

Egg Tester, Electric.. .671, 757, 948 

Eggs and 17-year Locusts.261 

Eggs Broken Internally. 583 

Eggs, Cleaning . 248 

Eggs, Cold Storage.485, 1753 

Eggs, Colt Storage, Marking.... 757 

Eggs, Duck, Hatching. 760 

Eggs, Fresh vs. Storage.1859 

Eggs, Hatching, Caring for.454 

Eggs, Hatching, Handling.1398 

Eggs, Infertile . 671 

Eggs in Winter. 68 

Eggs in Water Glass.760 

Eggs, Soft-shelled. 633 

Eggs, Storage, Sold as Fresh.... 934 
Eggs, Trouble with Hatching... .584 

Egg Sinks, Why a Fresh.1742 

Eggs, When Fertile. 924 

Elaeagnus Longipes .1185 

Elder Roots Clog Drain.1343 

Electric Power from River.1282 

Electro Importing Co.1526, 1629 

Enamel, Waterproof .1766 

Engine Batteries, Care of.1775 

Engine on Cement Floor.602 

Engineering Investments Co.... 202 

Erie Tire & Rubber Co. 834 

Europe Express Co.1738 

Europe, New Map of.1513 

Evergreen Hedges . 730 

Evergreen Wind-breaks . 642 

Evergreens as Ornamentals.1122 

Evergreens, Transplanting .1344 

Everlasting Flowers .1027 

Ewes, Ration for. 288 

Excello Tire & Rubber Co.108C 

Export Finance Corp. 506 


Face Powders .1098 

Fair, Trenton, N, J.1309, 1578 

Fairfield Hog Growers. 110 

Fairs, New York.1154 

Farm Accounts, Old-time. 684 

Farm, Americanism on.1610 

Farm, Big Ohio.1546 

Farm Boys, Education of. 103 

Farm Bureau Agents, New York. 1029 
Farm Bureau Federation.. .969, 1752 

Farm Bureau, National.1885 

Farm Bureau Organization.1585 

Farm Bureaus and Labor 

Unions .1691 

Farm Bureaus, National Organi¬ 
zation of .1490 

Farm Bureaus, N, Y, State.1111 

Farm Bureau vs. Saloon.1186 

Farm Bureaus Speak Out.1725 

Farm, Busy Day on. 136 

Farm, Buying without Capital.. 116 

Farm Conditions, Improving. 15 

Farm Crops, Cost of.34, 1041 

Farm, Elderly Man on.471 

Farm Girls, Ohio. 118 

Farm Help Problem.1608 

Farm, High Prices for. 911 

Farm Improvements, Specialized. 3 

Farm Interest at Albany. 485 

Farm Institutes, Early. 591 

Farm Investments.1296 

Farm Labor Investment.1490 

Farm Labor, Banker on.1778 

Farm Labor Bureau. 897 

Farm, Labor on.1666 

Farm Labor, Price of.1166 

Farm Land Valuation.1348 

Farm Lands, New York.1029 

Farm Lease Between Neighbors. 957 

Farm Legislation .,. 

Farm Loans, Aids to.... .1017 

Farm Loan Associations, Vir¬ 
ginia .1215 

Farm Loan Association, Value 

of .1709 

Farm Loan, Investing.1639 

Farm Machinery Arrangement,.. 6 

Farm Machinery, Barn.1358 

Farm Management Questions... .1192 
Farm Meeting in Erie County.. .1241 

Farm Mismanagement . 930 

Farm, Misrepresentation in Soil 

of .1296 

Farm Misunderstanding . 957 

Farm Mother’s Notes. 526 

Farm, Name for.1751 

Farm, New Scheme for. 697 

Farm, One-horse .681, 911 

Farm Organization . 767 

Farm Organizations, Starting... 1 

Farm Ownership in Iowa.1755 

Farm Politics .1158 

Farm Power Demonstrations... .1103 

Farm Problem .1342 

Farm Problem, Two Sides to.... 206 
Farm Produce, Direct Selling of. 906 
Farm Produce, Selling at Home. 1262 

Farm Products, Controlling. 301 

Farm Products, Cost of Raising. 1387 

Farm Profit, Rule of Six in. 934 

Farm Profiteer Again. 983 

Farm Profiteer Gives Figures.. .1150 

Farm Profiteer’s Figures.1296 

Farm Profiteer’s Side Lines.1531 

Farm, Selling and Buying.1716 

Farm, Shorter Hours on.1534 

Farm, Small .1666 

Farm, Small, Handling.1890 

Farm, South Jersey. 161 

Farm Tool, Cheap. 255 

Farm, Vermont .1042 

Farmer Voter and Primary.1161 

Farms, Wages in Idaho . 812 

Farm, Why Boys Leave. 998 

Farm Wife, Successful .1615 

Farm Without Capital. 355 

Farm Woman’s Car ..1804 

Farm Yard, Beautifying ..1090, 1174 

Farmer and City Man.716 

Farmer and City Press . ....1126 

Farmer and Employers’ Liability. 1875 

Farmer and Over-production.1680 

Farmer and War Prices. 277 

Farmer as Advertiser . 864 

Farmer as Profiteer.878, 934 

Farmer, Canadian, Speaks.1075 

Farmer Hires Adviser.1386 

Farmer in Politics.1349 

Farmer, Injustice to . 934 

Farmers, Advice to .1348 

Farmers and City Press. 320 

Farmers and Cut Prices.... 1505, 1617 
Farmers and Food Production.... 1850 
Farmers and Industrial Confer¬ 
ence .1691 

Farmers and Legislation.1102 

Farmers and Labor Unions.1792 

Farmer and Politics .1549 

Farmers and Strikes .1608 

Farmers and World Affairs . 899 

Farmers as Advertisers .1778 

Farmers, Big Questions for. 509 

Farmers’ Campaign in Nebraska. 1829 

Farmers, Certifying . 776 

Farmers’ Club. Old .1029 

Farmers-Consumers’ Carbide Co.. 1326 
Farmers, Corn Belt Organizing.. 1421 
Farmers’ Eight-Hour Day, 

485, 510, 1065 

Farmers, How Many . 969 

Farmers in N. Y. Legislature.... 48 

Farmers’ Income Tax . 573 

Farmers, Indiana, Organizing. .. .1349 

Farmers, Jewish, Meet .1817 

Farmers’ Markets . 876 

Farmers, Nebraska . 91 

Farmers, N. J., and Co-opera¬ 
tion .1773 

Farmers, Ontario, Organize .1075 

Farmers’ Picnic, Allegany Coun¬ 
ty, N. Y.1270 

Farmers, Poor . 878 

Farmers’ Real Estate Exchange. 1414 

Farmers’ Share, What Is?.1268 

Farmers Sneak Through Grange.. 1387 
Farmers’ Standard Carbide Co., 

346, 926 

Farmers' Union of Maine.1126 

Farmers Visit Cornell .1178 

Farmers Visit Geneva .1178 

Farmers, Voting Power of.1029 

Farmers Wanted . 697 

Farmers’ Wages .1126 

Farmers’ Week at Cornell. 380 

Farmers’ Week at Storrs. .1280, 1298 

Farmer’s Wife, Helping .1342 

Farmer’s Wife, Successful.1422 

Farming, Advertising . 848 

Farming, Boosting .1150, 1602 

Farming, Going Into .1666 

Farming in Dutchess Co., N. Y.. 624 

Farming in New England. 572 

Farming in New Hampshire. 

1261, 1291 

Farming in Sweden .1611 

Farming in West Virginia. 809 

Farming, New Jersey.321 

Farming of the Future . 434 

Farming, Trouble with.1666 

Farming, Trying . 646 

Farms, Abandoned .1562 

Farms and Farm Hands.1080 

Farms and Government Aid. 83 

Farms and Markets Investiga¬ 
tion .1549 

Farms, Buying on Contract.. .91, 885 

Farms, Cheap Eastern . 723 

Farms for Soliders, 

15, 135, 226, 637 

Farms, Hill . 837 

Farms, Rental Value of. 592 

Farmer’s Opinion .1446 

Farmers and Politics .1458 

Farm, Neighbors Undesirable. ... 1446 
Farmers, Western, Farm Bureau. 1459 

Farmer, County .Banner .1459 

Feeds, High Priced .1252 

Fence Aross Road .1236 

Fence, Backyard .1107 

Fence, Barbed Wire as .1584 

Fence by Railroad .159 2 

Fence, Fox-proof. 501 

Fence, Line, Problem .1774 

Fence Posts, Preserving .1090 

Fence Posts, Willow .1374 

Fence Problem .1592 

Fence in Public Institutions.598 

Fennel, Florence .. 816 

Fern, Unthrifty . 783 

Ferris, Geo. B. 926 

Fertility, High Priced .560 

Fertility in Weeds .1272 

Fertility Value in Feeds.217 

Fertility Value of Night Soil.... 937 

Fertilizer, Bones for . 726 

Fertilizer, Borax in .1332 

Fertilizer, Figuring . 845 

Fertilizer for Slatjr Loam .1713 

Fertilizer for Sweet Corn . 1878 

Fertilizer Investigations . 849 

Fertilizer Man at Cornell.1168 

Fertilizer, Meat Scrap as.1157 

Fertilizer Puzzle .1157 

Fertilizer Questions .1071 

Fertilizer Situation. Present.... 321 

Fertilizer, Truth About . 680 

Fertilizer, Filler in . 261 

Fertilizers, Standardizing .1275 

Fertilizing Meadow . 430 

Fig Tree, Trouble with .1533 

Figs in Dutchess Co,, N. Y.1712 

Finances, Family . 999 

Fire Extinguishers . 728 

Fish Bones. Softening .1250 

Fish, Cooking .1304 

Fish for Pond . 84 

Fish Mea.l for Pigs . 408 

Flagg, Jared .1038 

Flame Throwers for Weeds.1160 

Fleas and Filters .1489 

Fleas, Killing .1342 

Flies, Keeping Off . 1138 

Florida Climate .1383 

Florida, Farming in .1167 

Florida, Trip to..835. 912, 1036. 1058 

Flour, Homemade . 533 

Flour, Waste, for Swine . 619 

Flower Beds. Preparing.1122 

Flues. Cleaning .1098 

Flv Paper. Sticky .718, 1760 

Fly Pest . 694 

Fodder Cutter Carrior . 165 

Food Composition . 101 

Food Distribution Expense.1421 

Food, Government Sale of.1187 

Food Held by War Department. . 1186 
Food Situation and Middemen. . .1133 

Food Value, Scientific.1126 

Food. Who Is to Produce?.1077 

Forage Crops, Various. 400 

Fowl Cholera... 81 

Fowls, Ailing.502, 759 

Fowls, Nervous .1516 

Fowls, Washing . 120 

Fowls with Coccidiosis.1769 

Fowls with Roun. 68 

Fowls with Wasting Disease. 108 

Fowls with Worms.1702 

Fox Farming on Prince Edward 

Island . 215 

Foxhounds, Breeding .1361 

France, Farming in. 681 

France, Letter From .1000 

Franklin Paint Co.1366, 1598 

Freight, Delay in. 941 

Friedman, A.1118 

Frost and Fruit. 591 

Fruit, Best Varities.1501 

Fruit Bud Selections.3, 31 

Fruit Bud Sports. 307 

Fruit Buds and Cold Snap. 814 

Fruit Farm, Winter Work on... 33 

Fruit for Central Virginia.773 

Fruit for Home Garden.1075 

Fruit for Indiana. 207 

Fruit for Maryland. 173 

Fruit for Missouri. 222 

Fruit for New York. 1496, 1533, 1576 

Fruit for Northern N. Y.207 

Fruit for Southwestern N, Y.... 426 
Fruit for Western N. Y.1292 

Fruit Growers Become Dairymen. 1289 
Fruit Growers, Massachusetts ...1234 

Fruit Growers’ Problem. 302 

Fruit Growers, Winter Work for 75 

Fruit in Vegetable Garden. 565 

Fruit in Western N. Y.1077 

Fruit Notes, Missouri.1101 

Fruit on Sand. 212 

Fruit on Shallow Soil. 594 

Fruit on the Farm.1372, 1419 

Fruit Orchard of 100 Trees. 285 

Fruit Outlook .1070 

Fruit Pests .1124 

Fruit Thieves .1346 

Fruit Trees, Girdling .1067 

Fruit Trees, Hilling Up.1776 

Fruit Trees, Misfit .1042 

Fruit Trees, 100 on Every Farm, 

34, 76, 137, 162, 170 

Fuel, Winter .1416 

Fulwood, W. W.1086 

Furnace, One Pipe... 1544, 1572, 1662 


Garbage for Pigs.22, 56 

Gardner Nursery Co.1402 

Garden, Backyard .215, 363 

Garden, Cleaning Up.1445 

Gar’en Crops on Pacific Coast... 462 

Garden in Chicken yard. 724 

Garden, Interest in.1239 

Garden Fertilizers . 567 

Garden Notes .1485, 1651 

Garden Notes, Now England, 

1045, 1574 

Garden, Planning . 465 

Garden Soil, Treatment. 357 

Garden Truck on Eastern Shore.. 398 

Garden, West Virginia.219 

Gardening, Intensive .1855 

Gas, Poison .1876 

Gasoline Engine, What Ails?... .1570 

Gates, M. H,, and Family.1606 

Geese, Ailing .1523 

Geese and Pasture... 168 

Geese, Crossing .1700 

Geese, Fattening .1848 

Geese, Rhode Island . 589 

Geese, Success with.1224 

Ge’atin, Prepared . 728 

Gelatine, Composition of .1486 

Germany, Sentence of . 854 

Gilt and Bronze, Darkening.1880 

Girl and Hen. 1571 

Girl Scout Movement . 532 

Glucose Questions .1880 

Gluten, Value of .1138 

Glycerine Dilution.1340 

Goat, Angora, for Milk. 623 

Goat, Consider . 106 

Goat Experience . 150 

Goat, Fee’ing . 920 

Goat for Milk .623, 801 

Goat in New Hampshire. 402 

Goat in New Hampshire. 462 

Goats, Family of .1694 

Goat’s Milk for Butter.1508 

Goitre, Treatment of . 731 

Gold Coin Stove Co. 762 

Gold, Price of .....1098 

Goldfish, Care of .1524 

Godfisli, Diseased .1342 

Goose Eggs, Infertile .81, 168 

Gooseberries, Propagating . 308 

Goslings, Loss of .1142 

Governor and N. Y., Agriculture. 1617 

Grafting, Bridge . 908 

Grafting on Root Sprouts, 

1493, 1641, 1677 

Grain Crop, Preparing for. 838 

Grain Drill . 1676 

Grain Figures and Facts. 997 

Grains for Dairy Herd.1012 

Grain Harvesting Machinery ....1203 

Grain, Home Raised .1359 

Grain Smut . 430 

Grain, Thrashing Small Lots of.. 432 

Grain with Silage . 862 

Grain, Prioe Fixing . 622 

Grain with Alfalfa . 896 

Grain with Dry Forage.1588 

Grange Exchange, N. Y. 989 

Grange Hall, Wayne Co,, N. Y..1175 

Grange Lecturer, New . 969 

Grange, New York, Statement... 1490 

Grange, National, Meeting.1793 

Grange on Welfare Bills.1653 

Grantwood Realty Co.1810 

Grant, J. M.1038 

Grape Aphis .1153 

Grape, Barren . 168 

Grape Cuttings . 227 

Grape Growers and Prohibition.. 812 

Grape Juice, Future of. 425 

Grape Juice, Making .1267 

Grape Juice Production.....1178 

Grape Rot .1239 

Grape, Seedless . 646 

Grape Shoots, Pinching.1153 

Grape Situation, New York. 357 

Grape Training Methods.477 

Grapes, Bagging . 685 

Grapes for Northern N. Y.1347 

Grapes, Grafting ....1204 

Grapes, Hastening Ripening.1344 

Grapes, Mildew on .1642 

Grapes, Propagating . 308 

Grapes, Pruning .1204 

Grapes, Summer Pruning .1185 

Grapes, Training . 305 

Grapevine, Family .. .. 646 

Grapesvines, Noglected .1642 

Grapevines. Winter Care of.1642 

Grass, Seeding .1470 

Grass Under Trees .1419 

Grass with M'llet. 738 

Grasshopper Plague .1176 

Grasshoppers for Feed.1292 

Grasshopper Poison.1034,1124 

Grave in France . 323 

Greenhouse, Building .1494, 1541 

Groenhouse Diseases .476 

Greenhouse, Heating . 502 

Greenhouse, Inexpensive . 164 

Groenhouse, Lean-to.._.1406 

Greenhouse, Small, Building.364, 418 

Greenhouse, Small, Heating.1538 

Greenhouse Soil . 853 

Greis, Geo. R. 902 

Griddle, Greasing . 312 

Grinder, .Hand, Electric Power 

for .1320 

Grubs, White, Destroying. 734 

Grubs in Meadow .1457 

Guinea Fowls. Distinguishing... 456 

Guinea Pig, Sick. 582 

Guinea Pigs as Food.569 

Guinea Pigs, Raising.254 

Guineas, Raising .1084 

Gunson & Co. HO 


Hall, John . 182 

Hail Insurance Contract .1442 

Hardin, F. P.1226 

Harness Dressing . 728 

Harris Bros. Seed Co. 26 

Hartwell, A. M. 902 

Harvesting Machines . 391 

Harroun Motors Corp.1902 

Haupt, Herman G..... .1598 

Hawkwoed and Lime. 134 

Hay, Chopped, Storing .1025 

Hay Caps, Using.819, 897, 988 

Hay, Cow-Pea . 149 

Hay, Early Cut . 641 

Hay, Hustling from Field . 963 

Hay, Legume, Curing. 6 

Hay Loader, Operating.1067 

Hay, Measuring in Mow.1497 

Hay Rake, Old Fashioned.1342 

Hay, Rye . 607 

Hay, Shrinkage of .1373 

Haycocks, Rainproof .955 




Hearse as Rabbit House.1378 

Hedge Plants . 730 

Heat, Earth’s .1330 

Heating System . 1524 

Hedge, Treatment of .1604 

Heifer, Breeding . 922 

Heifer. Developing, 

238, 281, 442, 666 , 748, 790 

Heifer, Feeding .1278 

Heifer, Freshening, Feeding.1836 

Heifer, Ration for.1509 

Heifer, Freshening . 580 

Heifer, Weak . 1112 

Helium, Power from. 686 

Hemlock Spruce . 739 

Hemp Kills Quack Grass.1829 

Hen, Abnormal .1142 

Hen, Active .1521 

Hen and Brooder House.1255 

Hen, Broody, as Food. 686 

Hen, Crop-Bound .1437 

Hen Feeders, Economical .338 

Hen Feeding Hopper.600 

Hen Feeding Questions. 981 

Hen Lice and Sweet Flag.1224 

Hen Lice, Treatment of.407 

Hen Manure for Garden. 935 

Hen Manure in Greenhouse.1846 

Hen Manure on Frames.1876 

Hen Manure on Strawberries.... 472 

Hen Manure, Price of. 995 

Hen Manure, Using. 467 

Hen Manure, When to Use.1674 

Hen, Nervous .1285 

Hen, Oregon . 30 

Hen Pasture .1190 

Hen Ration.25, 201, 292 

Hen, Ration, Massachusetts.1707 

Hen Records, Private.1858 

Hen, Telling Age of.1284 

Hen with Digestive Trouble.715 

Hen with Scaly Leg.1786 

Hen with Tumor.1130 

Hen, Wonderful Wisconsin.1322 

Henhouse, Artificial Light in, 

25, 200, 206, 344, 631, 1662 

Henhouse, Building .1398 

Henhouse, Concrete . 630 

Henhouse, Concrete Floor in.1807 

Henhouse Construction .1322 

Henhouse, Disinfecting . 25 

Henhouse Droppings Board . 81 

Henhouse for 100 Birds. 6 

Henhouse, Fumigating .1668 

Henhouse, Lighting.1569, 1807 

Henhouse Plan . 670 

Henhouse, Plastering . 166 

Henhouse, Railroad Man’s. 108 

Henhouse, Spraying . 108 

Henhouse, Up-to-date . 868 

Henhouse, Water for .1321 

Henhouse Water Trough .1151 

Henroosts, Arranging . 900 

Henroost, Bossing . 912 

Hens, Ailing .1769 

Hens, Ailing, as Breeders.296 

Hens, Beef Scrap for. 924 

Hens, Blind .1382 

Hens, Breeding and Selecting... 1481 

Hens, Cannibal . 757 

Hens, Crowing . 148 

Hens, Drone, Testing Out.498 

Hens, Drugs for .1476 

Hens, Eearly Molters.1564 

Hens, Egg-Bound .1596 

Hens, Egg-Eating. .. .1365, 1486, 1632 

Hons, Eight-Hour Day for.1617 

Hens for Cold Climate. 799 

Hens Going Light.1700 

Hens, Grain for.1523, 1599 

Hens, India Wheat for. 981 

Hens, Inducing Sitting .761 

Hens in Village Lot. 297 

Hens, Lame . 343 

Hens, Laying and Late Molting. .1739 
Hens, Laying Ration for. . .799. 1521 

Hens, Laying, Selecting.1481 

Hens, Leghorn, Low-Tailed. 180 

Hens Losing Feather . 500 

Hens, Mash for.1739 

Hens, Minorca . 948 

Hens on City Lot. 981 

Hens, Poor Laying ... 69 

Hens, Quarter Mile of.1481 

Hen’s Ration, Balancing.1565 

Hens, Red, Famous .1673 

Hues Scratch Grain Mixture. 6 

Hons, Sick, Sour Milk for. 633 

Hens, Single or Rose Comb. 981 

Hens, Small Flock of. 868 

Hens, Sour Milk for.1807 

Hens, Tankage for.248 

Hens, Underhill Red .1806 

Hens, Water for . 343 

Hens, White, with Black Feath¬ 
ers .1322 

Hens with Co’ds . 25 

Hens with Diarrhoea.404 

Hens with Indigestion. 201 

Hens with Leg Weakness.1739 

Hens with Limbemeck .1382 

Hens with Liver Disease.1396 

Hens with Skin Trouble.1808 

Hens with Swollen Hoads. 869 

Hens with Twisted Necks. 297 

Hens, Young, as Breeders. 924 

Henyard, Parasites in .1510 

Henyard, Spraying in . 901 

Hens, Molting .1472 

Hens, What Ails These.1472 

Henhouse, Lighting .1468 

Herbs, Savory . 82 

Hercules Tire Co. 870 

Hickory. Improving .1883 

Hickox-Rumsey Co.1086 

Higbie, Geo. K., 

110, 346, 1526, 1634. 1670, 1842 

Hill Bros. 674 

Hired Man and Farmer.1149 

Hired Man, Feeding, 

1094, 1127, 1156, 1250 

Hired Man, Boarding.1716 

Hired Man, Square Deal for....1024 

Hired Man Talks .1716 

Hog Business, Starting . 660 

Hog Cholera in Massachusetts... 62 

Hog Cholera Problems . 604 

Hog Eats Hens . 665 

Hog Feeding Mixture. 946 

Hog, Lame.342, 977, 1436 

Hog Manure for Sweet Potatoes. 435 

Hog Pasture Farce. 748 

Hog Pasture, Preparing... 1190, 1510 
Hog Raising Corporation 586 

Hog Raising, Successful . 388 

Hog Questions . 702 

Hog, Shooting.1658, 1766 

Hog, Sores on .1520 

Hog with Ascites . 447 

Hog with Cough . 24 

Hog with Eclampsia.1199 

Hog, Worthless .1466 

Hogs, Ailing .1593 

Hogs and Dairy . 144 

Hogs and Garbage .1436 

Hogs, Berkshire, Prolific.1218 

Hogs, Breeds of . 232 

Hogs, Buokwheat for . 664 

Hogs, Butchering .1767 

Hogs, Fattening .1862 

Hogs, Fencing . 755 

Hogs, Fitting for Exhibition.1312 

Hogs Gnaw Trees .1302 

Hogs, Imported . 205 

Hogs, Inbreeding . 706 

Hogs in Corn .1202 

Hogs in Peach Orchard . 39 

Hogs, Jersey Red.1560 

Hogs, Lard or Bacon. 448 

Hogs, Live or Dressed.1511 

Hogs, Minerals for . 624 

Hogs, O. I. C. 616 

Hogs, O. I. C. and Chester White. 974 
Hogs, Pasturing .1466 



Hogs, Poland-China .1032, 1164 

Hogs, Purebred . 617 

Hogs, Rooting .1164 

Hogs, Rye for . lya 

Hogs, Selecting Breed of .1006 

Hogs, Slaughter Waste for.7U0 

Hogs with Black Teeth.247 

Hogs with Depraved Appetite... 504 

Hogs with Lice .447 

Hoid-up Game, New. 697 

Hollyhocks, Diseased .1485 

Home, Beautifying .1090 

Home Builders' Lnion . 902 

Home, Country .327 

Home Economics Committee. 128 

Home Environment . 964 

Home Making in the Country, 

873, 1007 

Honey in Tree .1577 

Honey Producers Meet .1827 

Honey Vinegar . 517 

Hope Farm Man at Old Home... 1238 

Hornet, European . 393 

Horse, Arsenic for . 763 

Hopkins, C. G., Death of.1616 

Horse, Balky . 390 

Horse Breeuing in East ....855, 920 

Horse, Carrots for . 669 

Horse Breeding Prospects . 893 

Horse, Cribbing.627, 756 

Horse, How to Feed....247, 282, 582 
Horse, Idle, Feeding.60, 153, 186, 284 

Horse, Kicking .1736 

Horse Lacks Appetite .1593 

Horse, Lame, 

198, 452, 627, 712, 719, 454, 1668 

Horse Loses Hair .1199 

Horse Meat for Foxes. 626 

Horse Meat for Hogs.446 

Horse, Oats and Brand for. 756 

Horse, Pawing .1199 

Horse, Peroheron . 253 

Horse, Rearing . 626 

Horse, Poisoned .1015 

Horse, Scouring . 627 

Horse, Stiff . 712 

Horse, Thin. 198, 447, 627, 1141, 1520 

Horse, Thriftless.582, 1799 

Horse, Tonic for . 61 

Horse, Weaving .1622 

Horse with Abscess . 754 

Horse with Arthritis.1520 

Horse with Bots.24, 188 

Horse with Catarrh, 

668 , 1476, 1519, 1567 

Horse with Collar Boil. 800 

Horse with Contracted Heels.... 102 

Horse with Cough . 829 

Horse with Cracked Heels. 629 

Horse with Depraved Appetite. .1199 

Horse with Diabetes.332, 1567 

Horse with Eczema. 829 

Horse with Enlarged Knee.754 

Horse with Farcy . 498 

Horse with Fistula, 

61, 150, 198, 1736 

Horse with Gleet. 102 

Horse with Grease Heel.1520 

Horse with Heaves.. .627, 1141, 1802 
Horse with Indigestion, 

102, 544, 719, 1476 

Horse with Injured Leg.1760 

Horse with Lampas. 803 

Horse with Lice . 390 

Horse with Lympliyngitis.1799 

Horse with Milk Leg. 660 

Horse with Moon Blindness. 104 

Horse with Ringworm. 198 

Horse with Scours. 343 

Horse with Scratches.1736 

Horse with Shoe Boil, 

244, 504, 626, 756, 788, 1476, 1520 
Horse with Skin Disease, 

„ 247, 719, 1393 

Horse with Sore Mouth.1799 

Horse with Spavin, 

102, 109, 1436, 1698, 1802 

Horse with Staggers.1325, 1433 

Horse with Stocked Legs. 332 

Horse with Star in Forehead.... 228 

Horse with Summer Itch.1364 

Horse with Sweeny .1364 

Horse with Thursh . 668 

Horse with Tumor . 452 

Horse with Thoroughpin. 982 

Horse with Urinary Trouble. 754 

Horse with Urticaria . 390 

Horse with Warts.1015 

Horse with Worms_102, 800, 1304 

Horseflesh for Hogs. 972 

Horseradish Culture . 1344 

Horses’ and St. John’s Wart_1593 

Horses, Feeding . 1393 

Horses, Old, Teeth of. 1361 

Horses on Small Farm. 601 

Horses, Three Abreast.1125 

Horses, Unruly.1269, 1393 

Horseshoeing on Farm. 788 

Horseshoeing License . 107 

Horticultural Meeting, N, J.1168 

Horticultural Society, Ohio.1210 

Horticultural Building, N, J. 

Needed . 276 

Horticultural Society, New York 

Hospital Garden . 370 

Hotbed Sash, Double . 32 

Hotbeds, Handling . 558 

Hot-Water Coil in Hot-Air Fur¬ 

nace .1479 

Hothouses, Inexpensive . 209 

House, Damp . 1399 

Housekeeping in Oregon.1300 

Houston Bank & Trust Co.. 1226, 1366 

Huckleberry Bushes, Killing_1176 

Husband’s Right in Wife’s Es¬ 
tate .. 1422 

Hybridizing, Discussion of.774 

Hydrangea, Big . 1577 

Hydrangea Hortensis .J159 

Hydrangea Paniculata Grandi- 

nora . 730 

Hydrangea, Propagating . 783 

Hygrade Auto Exchange. 346 


Ice Company, Community.1847 

Ice Cream, Making.236, 1114 

Ice Cream Tax.1035 

Ice Saw with Sprocket Chain.... 526 

Ice Substitutes for Milk. 941 

Ico Supply .Farm . 115 

Ice Supply, Freezing .1356 

Icebox, Iceless . 895 

Icehouse, Farm . 479 

Iceless Refrigerators.517, 1233 

Icehouse, Trouble with. 42 

Immigration Bill . 22 S 

Imports from Canada . 35 

Incubator, Disinfecting .498 

Incubator, Handling . 454 

Incubator Rooms, Location of... 828 

Incubator Troubles . 868 

India Wheat for Poultry. 981 

Influenza and Insurance Com¬ 
panies . 940 

Ink from Poke Berries.1628 

Insane, Caro of .1340 

Insects, Fighting .1128 

Int. Dry Milk Corp. 45S 

International Live Stock Show... 20 

Investments at Home.1110 

Iris Transplanting . 1334 

Irrigation Advice . 217 

Ivy, Burning Out . 380 

Ivy and Sheop . 975 


Job’s Tears . 1453 

Johnson City, N. Y.. Market... 1744 

Johnson, H. A. 950 

Johnstone Tire & Rubber Co. 634 

Justice, Jersey .1680 



Kale for Forage.1278 

Kale in Oregon . 614 

Kansas, Conditions in .1680 

Kapok, or Silk Cotton. 967 

Kerosene and Vegetation. 772 

Kerosene for Fowl in Food. 107 

Kerosene in Auto Radiator, 

120, 170, 396 

Kimball Tire & Rubber Co.1810 

Klumpp, Herman .1706 

Kingman & Hearty.346, 634 

Knickerbocker Harmony Studios'. - 674 


Labor, Organized . 559 

Labor Savers . 697 

Labor Situation . 776 

Laboratory Supply Co.1198 

Ladder for Farm Use.1483 

Ladder for Sidehill Trees.1538 

Ladder, Fruit .1545 

Lady, Wonderful Old.1498 

Lakeside Live Stock Co.654 

Lamb, Bloating .492 

Lamb, Paralyzed . 61 

Lamb, Price of .1435 

Lamb, Taste for . 1058 

Lambs, Dying ..*.1802 

Lancaster County, Pa.1387, 1418 

Lancaster, Pa., Market.1601 

Land, Blasting .1068 

Land Boom Scheme .1077 

Land, Clearing . 170 

Land Is Sour .1497 

Land, Old, Improving .1265 

Land’s Value in Man.1442 

Land, Poor, Improving . 430 

Land, Sandy, Improving. 512 

Land, Wet, Plowing .305 

Lard, Purifying . 314 

Lard, Strong .120, 1435 

Laundry, Community .1268 

Laundry, Co-operative .1011 

Laurel, Destroying . 641 

Lawn, Fertilizing .36, 1604 

Lawn, Making . 883 

Lawn, New, Seeding .1604 

Lawn, Spraying with Poison.... 34 

Lawn, Weedy.600, 726 

Lawyer’s Fees . 217 

Leak, Mending . 172 

Lease, Surrendering .957 

Leather Dust as Fertilizer. 818 

Lettuce Does Not Head.1645 

Lettuce Market . 831 

Leather Prices . 559 

Leaves, Value of. 30 

Leebold Candy Co. 634 

Lettuce in Frame . 357 

Lettuce Trouble . 181 

Lettuce, Trouble Cannas Seedling, 


Lewis, E, G.410, 1366 

Liberty Loan Figures. 884 

Lice in the Army .1532 

Lice in Henhouse . 978 

Lice, Linseed Oil for.1004, 1009 

Lice on Cattle.294, 576 

Lice on Horse.242, 1354 

Lice on Live Stock. 284 

Lice on Rabbits. 258 

Lice, Poultry . 322 

Light, Inexpesive .1662 

Lightning and Metal Roofs.1430 

Lightning Rod Agent.1156, 1296 

Lights of Home .1886 

Lilly, J. Frank.1118 

Lily Madonna .1205 

Lily of Valley, Forcing... 1640, 1849 

Lime and Potatoes.218, 1846 

Lime and Seeding .1356 

Lime, Applying . 768 

Lime, Chemical . 4 

Lime Company, Co-operative.1478 

Lime Compared with Fertilizer.. 840 

Lime for Orchard . 181 

Lime, Forms of . 643 

Lime in Orchard . 52 

Lime on Meadow .1331 

Lime on Sandy Loam .1713 

Lime on Strawberries .1093 

Lime on the Farm . 378 

Lime on Strawberries.4, 212 

Lime, Sorrel and Sour Soils.1076 

Lime Sulphur as Summer Spray.. 355 

Lime, Tenant’s Use of. 600 

Lime, What Crops for. 937 

Lime, When to Apply . 34 

Lime with Manure .1385 

Limestone and Potatoes. 767 

Limestone on Oats . 75 

Limestone on Sod .1214’ 1774 

Limestone or Brunt Lime. 777 

Linders, Ackhart & Co.1326 

Liniment, Making . 667 

Linseed for Pigs . 488 

Linseed, Value of . 618 

Lippman, Maurice.202, 1226 

Live Stock, Better. 920 

Live Stock Breeders’ Ass’n, N. Y. 340 

Live Stock by Truck.1866 

Live Stock Farm Rotation. 858 

Live Stock Grade and Purebred. .1560 

Live Stock Harvest Grain.1201 

Live Stock, Improving.1638 

Live Stock Partnership. 578 

Live Stock Prices . 490 

Live Stock Production and Repro¬ 
duction . 894 

Live Stock, Purebred and Thor¬ 
oughbred . 1396 

Live Stock, Purebred. Protecting. 1694 

Live Stock Self-feeder.1056, 1202 

Live Stock Show . 199 

Live Stock Show, Buffalo. 892 

Live Stock, Stray.1696 

Living, High Cost of.1241 

Lizards in Aquarium . 84 

Locusts in Pennsylvania.1070 

Locust Stumps, Destroying. 783 

Locusts Are Coming . 362 

Locusts. 17-Year . 464 

Loganberry Culture. 725 

Long Island, Crops on . 430 

Lcuse, Grain . 935 

Lubin, David, Death of . 86 

Lumber, Pulling Out .1167 

Lust, Benedict . 1402 


Mail and Farmers. 854 

Mail Box Signal .1686 

Mail Carriers and Holiday. 

„ „ , 467, 647, 731, 848 

Mail Routes, Rural, Fooling with 812 

Mail Route, Trouble on.1007 

Mail, Rural .1024 

Mail, Rural, in New York.1103 

Mailman, S. 1198 

Man, Afflicted . 667 

Man, Hired, Experience.1378 

Man Needs to Be Tamed.1107 

Manger, Concrete .1312 

Manure and Lime . 449 

Manure for Melons and Cucum- 

bers . 1265 

Manure for Strawberries.1580 

Manure in French Farming. 956 

Manure in Front Yard .1676 

Manure, Liquid, Spraving . 773 

Manure, Liquid, Use of . 908 

Manure on Rows . 255 

Manure on Strawberries .1676 

Manure, Ownership of..414, 442 1846 

Manure Pit, Building .1603 

Manure, Property Rights in. 217 

Manure, Spreading or Piling. 430 

Manure, Sterilizing . 477 

Manure, Storage for .1474 

Manure Storage Pit .1518 

Manure, Using to Advantage.... 255 
Manure, Value of .32, 514 

Manure with Shavings . 196 

Manurial Crops . 173 

Maple Product Prospects . 652 

Maple Products, Malting.257, 688 

Maple Syrup, Boiling .1718 

Maple Sugar, "Jure ”. 875 

Maple Syrup, Keeping .1009 

Maple Tree, Plugging . 319 

Maples, Pruning .1827 

Maples, Tapping .1827 

Mare, Lame .1476 

Mare, Pasturing .1141 

Market at Dayton, 0.1775 

Market Department, Investiga¬ 
tion of .1585 

Market, Story of .1743 

Marl, Shell, in Hudson Valley.. .1386 

Marker, Five-Row . 816 

Market, Roadside . 677 

Marketing, Co-operative .1215 

Marshall, E. B. 982 

Massey, W. F., Honor to.1504 

Matting, Painting.39, 84, 217 

McAlester Real Estate Co. 410 

McClave, Chas.1086, 1170 

McNeill, H.1478 

Meadow, Lining . 431 

Meadows, Reseeding . 123 

Mealy Bug, Controlling.1791 

Meat, Canning .1557 

Meat, Tainted .1435 

Meat, Curing . 713 

Meat, Curing in Summer .1010 

Meat, Keeping Without Smoking. 335 

Meat Market, Retail . 997 

Meat Packers Advertising.1610 

Meat, Salting . 34 

Meat Prices . 335 

Meat Situating, Facing.1121 

Meat, Tainted .1557, 1591 

Melancholy, Remedies for. 176 

Melons, Manure for . 911 

Melons, Sale of .1370 

Melons, Try a Few .1486 

Merchant and His Trade.1363 

Merchant Marine . 463 

Merchants’ Brokerage Co.1062 

Mice Damage Trees.89, 1678 

Mice, Field, Destroying.. .1264, 1360 

Mice in Orchard .1269 

Middleman’s Share .1374 

Middlings or Ground Wheat.1730 

Midwest Gulf Co.1286 

Milk a Life Necessity .1029 

Milk Accounts, Collecting .1753 

Milk, Acid, Talk About.1173 

Milk Adulteration.788, 1829 

Milk and Bacteria.1760 

Milk and Meat as Food. 838 

Milk and Cream, Testing.1829 

Milk as Public-Utility .1885 

Milk, Ash Value of.1558 

Milk at Sinclairville, N. Y. 838 

Milk, Bitter .490, 580, 668 

Milk, Black Specs in.1035 

Milk, Blood in.1284, 1802 

Milk Bonds for All. 277 

Milk Buyers, Bonding . 941 

Milk, Bloody .1470 

Milk Campaign in Boston.1829 

Milk Can Extortion .1829 

Milk, Canned . 517 

Milk, Clean .1558 

Milk Comments . 855 

Milk Committee Report.1309 

Milk Corporation ,Seasonal Varia¬ 
tion in .905, 930 

Milk, Condensed, Prospect for... 657 

Milk Consumers, Strike or.1793 

Milk Cost Factors .1602 

Milk, Cost of, 162, 531, 704. 830, ' 
1066, 1140, 1187 

Milk Cost Plus Profit. 917 

Milk Deductions ..1349 

Milk, Delayed Payment for .1505 

Milk Delivery in Large Cans.1680 

Milk Distributors, City. 59 

Milk Farmers, Canadian .1815 

Milk, Feeding for .440, 1728 

Milk Fever . 1470 

Milk Fight, Another. 49 

Milk, Figuring Price of. 997 

Milk, Food Value of. 765 

Milk for Chickens. 1599 

Milk, High Acid .1082 

Milk, High Testing .1504 

Milk, folding Up .1357 

Milk, Ill-Flavored . 978 

Milk, Impure.1617 

Milk Investigations .135, 277 

Milk Legislation at Albany .381 

Milk, Making in Colorado. 740 

Milk, Necessity of .985, 1019 

Milk, New Way to Deliver.1691 

Milk Notes, Bunch of. 437 

Milk, Onion Flavor in.824 

Milk or Meat Making. 929 

Milk or "Pop” . 1505 

Milk, Pasteurized, Separating, 

..... —— , . 395, 669 

Milk Pasteunzer. Van Aemam .. 380 

Milk Plan Discussed. 885 

Milk Plans Discussed. 885 

Milk Plans . 530 

Milk Plans, Discussion of.. .1053 

Milk Plans. Prizes for. 612 

Milk, Powdered .1222 

Milk Price Reductions. 573 

Milk Prices, Figuring,. 

695, 1133, 1691, 1840 

Milk Prices for June.941 

Milk Prices, Indiana. 1103 

Milk Prices, Trouble Over. 641 

Milk Producers, Docking.1187 

Milk, Prompt Payments for.1133 

Milk Question, Stirring Up.1793 

Milk Rations . 246 

' V.1364 

Milk, Selling' by Butterfat.1053 

Milk Separator, Cleaning.105S 

Milk, Separator, for Calves. 792 

Milk, Short Weight of. 1753 

Milk, Shrink in.. .1508 

Milk, Sour, for Hens. 633 

Milk, Sour, Value of. 1330 

Spraying . 620 

Milk Strike Developments. 91 

Milk Strike in Tioga Co.. N. Y.. 

Milk Strike Notes. 229 

Milk Strike, Story of. . . . . 1 S 3 

Milk Strikes and Women. 147 

Milk Test Frauds. 1274 

Milk Test, Trouble with, 

m ,, 396, 1133, 1187, 1215 

Milk Testing, Importance of_ 826 

Milk Tests, Fraudulent.1308 

Milk, Trouble with.1356 

Milk Wagon Drivers’ Strike. .. .1691 

Milk Wlth Grassy Flavor.1004 

Milking, Time for. 334 

Millet Hay.431. 548, 955 

Millet, Value of. 794 

Mills. F. B...." .846 

Milking, Regular .1840 

Mind Transfer Corp. 70 

Minister’s Right to Property.... 644 

Mirror. Scratched . 686 

Missouri, Life in.1166 

Mites on Fowls.1085 

Moccasin Flower . 995 

Mohawk Art Institute.!!.!l014 

Molasses as Stock Feed.1390 

Molasses Barrel, Cleaning.1SS0 

Molasses, Fee ring .i860 

Molasses for Pigs.’ _ 043 

Molasses for Live Stock. 467 

Moles Damaging Roots. 471 

Moles, Destroying .655, 779 

Monarch Paint Co. 103 S 

Moneywort in lawns.422, 593 

Moulbretias in Garden.1788 

Moon and Brush Cutting.1363 

Moon and Crops.10S3 

Moon and Farming.874, 964 

Moon and Weather. 848 


Moon, Planting by.600, 738 

Moore Seed Co.250, 1118 

Morning Glory, Clearing Out.... 1271 

Mortar, Cement .1338 

Mosquito Pest .694, 1123 

Mother’s Estate, Right in.1887 

Motor Speed Reducer.1317 

Mousetrap, Sure .1025 

Mulberry, French .1857 

Muskrat, White . 273 

Muskrats, Eating . 167 

Music without Teacher.732 

Munson, Visit from. 482 

Mushroom Growing Venture.1379 

Mushrooms, Income from.1176 

Muskmelons in Maryland.1176 

Muskrats Wanted . 911 


National Auto Protective Asso¬ 

ciation . 802 

National City Exchange. 586 

National Fancy Goods Co.. 1670, 1770 
National Food & Fur Association 70 

National Hog Co.1402 

Nations, League 0 f. 484 

Navy or Roads. 640 

New England Fruit Station.1029 

New England Situation.1374 

New Jersey as Farming State... 678 

New Jersey, Farming in. 638 

New Jersey Produce Co.1226 

New Jersey Tire & Rubber Co.. 762 
New London National Tire In¬ 
surance Co. 834 

New York as Milk State. 885 

Newspaper Honesty .1244 

Newspaper, Local, Using.1885 

Nitrate, Government . 302 

Nitrate of Soda, Use of. 512 

Nitrate on Corn. 474 

North Woods Farms.1146 

Numismatic Bank of Texas.674 


Oat Feed, Reground.1354 

Oat Hay, Feeding.1834 

Oat Straw, Feeding.1248 

Oat Straw, Value of.1769 

Oats and Barley for Feed. 400 

Oats and Peas for Hay.710 

Oats and Peas in Orchard.224 

Oats for Cows. 246 

Oats for Hay.1018, 1067 

Oats, Lime on. 75 

Oats, Sprouted .1257 

Oats, Treated, Feeding.1248 

Oats with Spring Wheat. 256 

Ocean Black Development Co... 70 

Oil, Filtering . 312 

Oil for Motor. 315 

Oil, Removing from Glass.1098 

Oil Testing .1098 

Oils, Lubricating . 120 

Old Dominion Realty Co.1366 

Oil, Colored, in New York. 62 

Onion Maggots . 741 

Onion Seed, Home-grown.319 

Onion Smut Remedy. 679 

Onions, Keeping . 164 

Onions, Planting . 734 

Onions, Thinning . 853 

Optimist, Confession of.! 1002 

Orange Grove, Cultivating.1511 

Oranges, Bud Selection in. 3 

Orchard, Bringing Back. 766 

Orchard, Caring for. 774 

Orchard Cultivation . 302 

Orchard, Farm . 594 . 608 

Orchard for Virginia.1687 

Orchard, Home . 565 

Orchard in Sod.1152 

Orchard Management . 219 

Orchard, Oats and Peas in.. 224 

Orchard of 100 Trees. 354 

Orchard on Ledge. 726 

Orchard Questions . 275 

Orchard Renting . 591 

Orchard, Rye and Oats in. 370 

Orchard Situation, European_1710 

Orchard, Small . 476 

Orchard, Thinning . 774 

Orchard, Unit . 426 

Orchard, Vermont . 693 

Orchards, Renting ..1408 

Otsego County Improvement As¬ 
sociation . 941 

Oxalis Tuberosa . 967 

Oxen as Motive Power. 96 

Oyster Shells or Bone.1264 

Oyster Shells, Using. 362 


Paint, Dried . 889 

Paint, Dried, Grinding.1167 

Paint for Old Wood. 1009 

Paint for Tin. 1766 

Paint, Luminous .1009 

Paint, Old .’. ’l380 

Paint on Apple Trees.1714 

Paint without Oil. 586 

Painting House . 734 

Painting Wagons .1424 

Palm. African Oil. 1537 

Pan-American Motors Corn.1810 

Pan Motor Co..26, 70, 155, 298, 1038 

Pandolfo, S. C.1902 

Parcel Post and Food Bags.... .1639 

Parcel Post Buying. 533 

Parchment, Smoothing .1254 

Parents, Support of. 649 

Parsley, Germinating . 435 

Passport, Getting .1363 

Pasture and Forage Crops. 440 

Pasture, Grain with. 946 

Pasture, Improving . 830 

Pasture, Permanent . 546 

Pasture Season, Lengthening.... 750 

Pasture, Supplementing .1590 

Pasture, Use of. 792 

Pasturing on Low Land...’.’.’1508 

Patton Tire Co. 634 

Pea, Cow, for Hay. 254 

Pea, Pigeon . 611 

Peach Borers. Controlling...!. . 1457 
Peach Breeding Experiments... . 1369 

Peach Crops Reports. 729 

Peach, Dewey .1185 

Peach, Early Rose.”.1185 

Peach, Father David’s.1302 

Peach, J, B. Hall.16S8, 1784 

Peach Orchard, Business of. 9S6 

Peach Outlook . 771 

Peach Orchard, Handling. 693 

Peach, Scientific Search for.1873 

Peach Trees and Cold Weather.. 608 
Peach Trees Do Their Own 

Work . 1374 

Peaches, Bushel of.1446 

Peaches, Dust Spray for.1071 

Peaches for Western Pa.. 1648, 1S67 

Peaches from Seed. 1501 

Peaches in Bushel Baskets.1273 

Peaches in Pennsylvania.1492 

Peanut Meal. Feeding.1S36 

Peanut Feed for Steers.1464 

Peanuts on Long Island. 807 

Pear Culture .1484 

Pear, New Hybrid. 352 

Pears, Kieffer, Heading. 567 

Pears for Canning Factory.1874 

Peas, Hen Manure on.256 

Peas, Success with. 604 

Peat Bogs, Farming in.1573 

Peavines for Silage. 284 

Pennsylvania. Conditions in.1679 

Peonies in Maryland..... 933 

Peony Culture .1271 

Peony Roots, Dividing.1816 

Perennials. Lifting .1122 

Pettijchn Pure Products Co. 634 

Pheasants, Raising .1293 

Philadelphia Produce Co. 834 



Philosophy in the South.1306 

Phosphates, Need of--• • • • 1J23 

Phospho Germ .333, 484 

Phosphorus, Need of.1186 

Phosphorus and Manure.1142 

Phosphorus -with Manure.1616 

Pip, Death of. 

Pig Feed, Unsuitable.1248 

Pig Feeding, Dry Lot. -286 

Pig Feeding Questions.1164 

Pig Feeding Schedule. ...... Jo2 

Pig, Paralyzed .1364, 1468 

Pig Rations... .330, 1080, 1112, 1138 

1508, 1515, 1588 

Pig, Scurfy .1364 

Pig, Sores on. 

Pig, Stunted .166® 

Pigh with Cough.• •. 

Pig with Depraved Appetite.... 260 

Pig with Scours.1364 

Pig with Skin Trouble.1515 

Pig with Throat Trouble.1591 

Pig with Weak Legs. 504 

Pigeon Manure . ’“U 

Pigeons, Damage by..... . 

Pigeons, Distinguishing Sex.1140 

Pigpen, Concrete . 

Pigs, Ashes for.1057 

Pigs, Barley for. 

Pigs, Beans for..... . i«4 

Pigs, Black Teeth in.1361 

Pigs, Buckwheat for. 

Pigs, Buttermilk for.1252 

Pigs, Carrying Over Summer- 668 

Pigs, Carrying Over Year.490 

Pigs, Cooked Feed for.1509 

Pigs, Coughing ... 

Pigs, Damaged Wheat tor. .... .1508 

Pile: Death of.800, 1141 

Pigs, Dry or Wet Feed for.752 

Pigs, Farming Out. •;••••••• ^ 

Pigs, Fattening.546, 665. 748 

Pigs, Feeding.152, 448, 663 

Pigs, Forage and Grain for. 974 

Pigs, Garbage for. 22 

Pigs, Growing, Feeding....1428 

Pigs, Growing, Weight of.183b 

Pigs, Hope Farm.1186 

Pigs, Horseflesh for.-• 

Pigs in Brooder. 

Pigs, Neglected .- 1 " 

Pigs, Ruptured . 1664 

Pigs, Three Litters a Year. 860 

Pigs, Thriftless .1893 

Pigs, Thumps in.“J” 

Pigs, Warming . 

Pigs, Weaning .1834 

Pigs, Water for. 794 

Pigs with Black Teetb. '19 

Pigs with Blind Staggers. 100 

Pigs with Indigestion. 61 

Pigs with Scours. ••••■•1'93 

Pigs with Worms.194, 663, 829 

Pigs, Young, Feeding.22, 54, 96, 540 

Pineapple, Canned . 312 

Pipe, Lead, for Water.604 

Pipe, Sediment in...739 

Pipes, Galvanized, Destroyed.. .1254 

Piston Rings, Trouble with.1320 

Plant Culture, Variations. 377 

Plant Lice, Killing.. 467 

Plant Lice, Soap for. 642 

Plant Quarantine . 130 

Plant Variation . 600 

Plants, House .. *U8 

Plaster Around Trees..- - -130' 

Plaster, Fertilizing Value of-1409 

Plow, Gang, with Tractor. 155 

Plow Point, Reinforcing.1625 

Plenty Food League.1459 

Plum, Imperial Epineuse. oil 

Plum, Pacific . 

Plum, Methley .1403 

Plums, New . 30i 

Plums, New, in Ohio. 4(2 

Poetry and Practice...1378 

Police Pensions and Dog Licenses 62b 

Police, State.134, 320, 342 

Police, State and Grange. 229 

Pomace for Hogs...1893 

Pomological Society, American.. 38 
Pond, Preventing Seepage from. 705 

Pony, Beach ..• • • •““ 

Popcorn Experience . 222 

Popcorn, Harvesting .1409 

Popcorn, Science of. '| 

Poplar for Building.1»33 

Pork, Bone Sour in...... . 330 

Pork Club, Young Peoples.1160 

Pork Does Not Keep....1256 

Pork Following Sauerkraut.1839 

Pork Prospects .. 613 

Pork, Shrinkage of. '*2 

Post Tractor Co. ••■••■••• 

Postmaster-General and Rural 

Routes .. °1' 

Potash, Alsatian . 11 ' 

Potash, American . 559 

Potash Deficiency . A ”i 

Potash, Domestic . 

Potash from Meal. '"i 

Potash, Need of - I®" 

Potato Association, Benefits of.. 1296 
Potato Beetles, Dusting.. .1153, 1271 

Potato Club, New Jersey.1042 

Potato Crop, Interesting.1502 

Potato Culture .. Viik'iloo 

Potato Deal, Retail.1414, 1482 

Potato Demonstration, New Jer¬ 
sey .. 

Potato, Freak . 59U 

Potato Lice ...... .•. '35 

Potato Meeting, New Jersey-1152 

Potato, Nancy Hall.1818 

Potato Scab .. 

Potato Scab and Lime. 483 

Potato Scab and Rot.• •.1583 

Potato Seed. Co-operative Grow ' u7g 

Potato Seed, Reiiable.1529, 15(1 

Potato Seed, Selecting. 218 

Potato Seeds, Handling.1074 

Potato Seed, Selecting. I'll 

Potato Seed, Treating. 564 

Potato Soil. Making..1496 

Potato Sprouts, Feeble-• ■ • • • -368 

Potato Wart Disease.1131. 1332 

Potato Water, Toxic Principles 
in «...••••••••••••••* •••••••• 

Potato with Seed Inside. 808 

Potatoes Above Ground. '31 

Potatoes After Lime. 600 

Potatoes After Rye.... . 90J 

Potatoes and Coal Ashes.449 

Potatoes and Lime. 767 

Potatoes and Limestone .1742 

Potatoes, Community Plan.1268 

Potatoes, Cost of Growing...... 523 

Potatoes, Early, in Maryland... 5 

Potatoes for Sow. 280 

Potatoes from Peelings.1492 

Potatoes in Succession. 1264 

Potatoes, Lime on.... .218 

Potatoes, Long Island. 7b9 

Potatoes, Mulched ..1334 

Potatoes on Eastern Shore of 

Virginia .1341 

Potatoes, Second Crop...... • • •1542 

Potatoes, Seed.36, 123, 512 

Potatoes, Sweet . 127 

Potatoes, Sweet, Keeping. 216 

Potatoes, Talk About..... 770 

Potatoes Under Coal Ashes.1266 

Potatoes Under Mulch.816, 1182 

Potatoes without Rotation.. v - • • 1360 

Poultry, Ailing .■ • • .. 

Poultry Anpliances, Handy.1786 

Poultry, Boy’s . 85 

Poultry Breeding Points.1359 

Poultry Breeds at Contests. 248 

Poultrv, Chemicals for.1382 

Poultry, Culling -- 

Poultry Damage in Hay field.... 1493 
Poultry Droppings Boards. 346 



Poultry, Express Rates on.1869 

Poultry, Farm Flock. 156 

Poultry Farm, One-man.1732 

Poultry Farming, Starting.1370 

Poultry Feeding Problems.1564 

Poultry Mash, Cheapening.1523 

Poultry, "Oregon” . 75< 

Poultry Plant, Building .1523 

Poultry, Mixed . 633 

Poultry, Mixed Grain for. 500 

Poultry on Shares. 980 

Poultry Problem .kVna’iarq 

Poultry Rations .1306, 1669 

Poultry Run, Cover Crop on.653 

Poultry, Scratch Feed for. 833 

Poultry Shipping Coop.1705 

Poultry Upstairs ..lo»9 

Poultry Water Supply.....1848 

Poultry, What Breed of!. 924 

Poultry with Colds.* 

Poultry, "Worms in.583, loib 

Poultry Farm Works.1443 

Poultry Questions .1452 

Poultrymen and Grain. 566 

Powder-post Borers . 514 

Power Applied to Tractor.1320 

Power from Brook. '55 

Power from Compressed Air. 42 

Price Fixing . 1°2 

Prices and Labor. 

Privet, California . '3U 

Privet, Regels . 73U 

Produce, Minimum Prices. 684 

Produce Selling Exchanges.212 

Production, Cost of. 776 

Production Meter Co.1810 

Prohibition in New York City... 1096 

Prohibition, National . 182 

Progress Paint Co.. 50b 

Property, Joint Ownership of.... .“0 

Protozoa . •••••• . 

Prudential Securities Co..... 1I7U 

Pruning Currants and Gooseber- 

. 642 

Pullets, 'Ailing . 1807 

Pullets Change Color.135J 

Pullets, Lame . 407 

Pullets, Mating .1521 

Pullets, Molting .1565 

Pulley and Belt. 

Pulley, Size of....1}H5 

Pump, Force, in Well.468 

Pump in Kitchen...1099 

Pumping from Spring.45U 

Pumping Problem . 5b8 

Putty, Greenhouse . 123 

Pyorrhea, Treatment of. 88' 


Quack, Killing Out, 

1123, 1371, 1544, 1845 

Quicksilver in Gold. 517 

Quicksilver on Gold. 728 

Quince Tree, Backyard.1343 

Quince Tree, Caring for.1454 


Rabbit Nuisance . 057 

Rabbit Trap .1524 

Rabbits, Ailing . 504 

Rabbits, Business in. 463 

Rabbits Fail to Breed. 242 

Rabbits for Home Use. 640 

Rabbits for Meat. ; .. 679 

Railway Educational Association 458 

Rain and Crops.1577 

Raisin Seed Meal. 98 

Ram, Age of. •••1515 

Ram, Fighting.288, 461, 703 

Ram, Hydraulic, Trouble with.. 450 

Ram with Standpipe. 866 

Rape for Hogs. 705 

Rape Seed Experience.1393 

Rape Seed, Harvesting.1218 

Rapid Transit Bonds.18 <0 

Raspberries Black Cap. 598 

Raspberries from Root Cuttings. 1583 
Raspberries, Propagating. .1347, 1678 

Raspberries, Protecting .1820 

Raspberry Culture .1687 

Raspberfy, Ontario . 806 

Rat Carrying Egg. 407 

Rat Poison and Hogs.1628 

Rat Carrying Eggs. 272 

Rats, Destroying .. 626 

Ration for Fresh Cow.56, 60 

Ration Needs Protein.. .64. 246, 444 
Ration with Alfalfa and Beets,. 1£34 

Ration with Alsike Clover. 60 

Ration with Corn and Oats.1862 

Ration with Pea Silage........ 18 

Ration with Too Much Protein. . 240 
Ration without Silage.246, 1800, 1836 

Raynor, J. W. 298 

Reader, Notes from.1254 

Red Cross, Work of. 1 

Reefer, E. J.1566, 1870 

Refrigeration, Electric . 686 

Refrigeration for Slaughterhouse. 1099 

Rennet, Keeping .1356 

Retinispora Plumosa . 730 

Rheumatism Treatment ....770, 1489 

Rhubarb Culture . 723 

Rhubarb, Dividing .1051 

Rhubarb, Forcing .1847 

Rhubarb, Winter .1867 

Rice, W. S. 586 

Richards, George L. ...... 

Ridgeley Protective Association. 1842 

Ringworm on Calf. 153 

Rising, David H.... .1598, 1706 

Rural New-Yorker in Far-away 

Places .1235 

Road Building . 463 

Road, Dirt..721, 848, 964, 1090, 1291 

Road Drag. King.l on 4 

Road Issue in Wayne Co., N. Y. .1505 

Road Problem . 848 

Roads, Better . 176 

Roads, Hill .1046 

Roads, Improving . 84 

Roads in Europe. 254 

Roads or Land Reclamation.767 

Robin, Defense of.1182 

Robin, Truth About.1300 

Robins and Strawberries.1038 

Robins in Florida.1167, 1347 

Robins, Scaring .1266 

Rochester Tire ft Rubber Co.... 158 

Rock, Chimney Top. 176 

Roof Paint . 518 

Roof Thatching .. 83 

Roosevelt, Death of. 86 

Roosevelt Memorial .1397 

Rooster and the Poet.1446 

Rooster, Lame . 156 

Rooster, White Eagle.1483 

Roosters, Young, as Breeders. . .1359 

Root Growth of Grains. 77 

Roots and Herbs, Selling.1723 

Roots in Dairy Ration. 580 

Rope, Preventing from Twisting. 1378 

Rope, Treatment of.1525 

Rose, American Beauty.1486 

Rose Bugs and Chicks.1022 

Rose Bugs, Killing. 932 

Rose Garden .1122 

Boses, Budding . 958 

Roses, Climbing .1123 

Roses, Mildew on.1131 

Boses, Fall Planting .1444 

Rosa Rugosa . 730 

Rose of Sharon. 730 

Rose, Microphylla . 783 

Roses, Pronagating . 4 

Rothamsted, Visit to.1441 

Roughage with Grain. 19 

Rubber Boots, Mending. 697 

Rubber Producing Vine. 611 

Rubber, Tying On. 732 

Rye as Cover Crop. 678 


Rye as Green Manure.1265 

Rye Bran, Value of. 238 

Rye, Dual-purpose Crop.1356 

Rye, Feeding in Sheaf.1354 

Rye for Cows.1730 

Rye for Pigs.1218 

Rye for Poultry. 761 

Rye, High, Eight Feet.1443 

Rye in Orchards. 25b 

Rye in Peach Orchard.1043 

Rye, Plowing Under.909, 1175 

Rye Prices . 612 

Rye, Rosen .1181 

Rye, Spring . 474 

Rye, Tenant’s Share of. 906 

Ryerson, F. C.298 


Sacks, Grain, Cleaning. 688 

Sage, Growing for Market. 890 

Salmon and Peas on Toast.1277 

Salt, Agricultural . 466 

Saltpeter in Meat. 62 

Sap Buckets, Care of.1378 

Sauerkraut with Milk. 5 

Saw, Circular, Fitting. 602 

Saw Rig, Changing. 626 

Sawdust, Burning .1488 

Sawdust for Fuel.1998 

Sawdust, Use of. 422 

Scale and Cold Weather. 4<2 

Scale, San Jose and Cold.222 

Scamp, Getting Best of.1108 

Schonbrun Bros.1706 

Schonbrun, Chas. 554 

School Attendance During Sick¬ 
ness . I 48 

School Attendance.1422 

School Authorities. 531 

School District, N. Y.1133 

School Lunches . 646 

School Matters . 277 

School Matters, Autocracy in- 15 

School, Rural, Conditions. 380 

School Sanitation, 

716, 1652, 1685, 1778 

School Tax Notice .1497 

School Teachers, Scarce . 940 

School Toilets, Sanitary .1422 

Schools and Daylight Saving.1046 

Schools in Delaware.1»*8 

Schools, New and Old.1996 

Schools, Physical Training in... 531 

Schools, Toilets in... 236 

Scrapple, Making . 155 

Scythe Tree . 304 

Seat for Lawn .1231 

Seed Beds, Sterilizing.1406 

Seeds, Free . 531 

Seeds, Saving .• • • • -642 

Seliger, B. .....950, I 61 O 

Septic Tank, Area Needed. 596 

Septic Tank Arrangement. 796 

Septic Tank in Cellar. 596 

Septic Tank, Liquid from. 889 

Septic Tank, Making . 

Septic Tank Plan .1317 

Septic Tank, Rainwater in. 596 

Service Auto Equipment Co. 158 

Sewage Disposal .1338 

Shaving, Effect of .1998 

Shavings in Manure . 4 

Sheep, Ailing . °44 

Sheep and Acorns . 672 

Sheep and Dogs .. • • • 244 

Sheep Associations, Co-operative. 1161 

Sheep, Caring for . 282 

Sheep, Cheviot . 542 

Sheep, Damage by _. .-••1700 

Sheep Damage, Dividing.242, 493 

Sheep, Dying .1015 

Sheep Farming Advantages. 758 

Sheep, Facts About . 90S 

Sheep Feeders .120~ 

Sheep, Frightened . 138' 

Sheep Growers’ Ass’n Needed.... 62 
Sheep Growers' Federation, .855, 1314 

Sheep, Hay for . 768 

Sheep in Connecticut . 6<2 

Sheep in Minnesota . '50 

Sheep in Orchard .Ill" 

Sheep in Orchard .1361 

Sheep in the East . 288 

Sheep Killed by Vandals. 865 

Sheep Manure, Value of. 106 

Sheep Manure and Ashes.• • • 162 

Sheep Manure, Value of.217, 4S3 

Sheep Meeting and Co-operation, 

N. Y.1161 

Sheep Notes, Adirondack .492 

Sheep, Oats and Peas for.. 240 

Sheep on Long Island . 54 

Sheep, Profitable . 244 

Sheep Shearing Record .1371 

Sheep, Talk About .1231 

Sheep Talk, New . •••■1432 

Sheep with Nodular Disease.544, 829 

Sheep with Sores .1519 

Sheep, Woman’s Flock of.1432 

Sheep, Worms in.. 198, 340. 493, 1199 

Sheer & Traiman . 71S 

Sheridan, Wm...1193 

Sheep in Clover Pasture.1441 

Shipley, J. W. 834 

Ships, Concrete .„ 15 

Shoddy, Why Use!.1414 

Shoes, High Priced . 682 

Shophanthus Hispidus .1537 

Shrubs for Yard . 593 

Shrubs, Propagating . 768 

Silage and Cow’s Teeth.1304 

Silage as Fertilizer . 600 

Silage, Corn and Soy Bean. 604 

Silage for Beef.• 

Silage for Horses .234, 548 

Silage for Sheep . 234 

Silage for Steers.1032, 1829 

Silage, Grain in . 1060 

Silage in Small Quantities.756 

Silage, Moldy . 4 

Silage, Peavine . 494 

Silage, Summer .1312 

Silage, Value of . 653 

Silage, Watering . 892 

Silage, Wheat and Rape for.756 

Silgae with Corn .1590 

Silage Without Ears.1560 

Silo, Alcohol in .1482 

Silo as Personal Property.1220 

Silo, Capacity of. 978 

Silo, Cistern . 592 

Silo, Clay Bottomed .792 

Silo Construction . 746 

Silo Corn Crop .1356 

Silo, Com Fodder in . 280 

Silo, Cora Grain .1696 

Silo Corn Outlook .1393 

Silo, Figuring Contents of.1290 

Silo Filling .1558 

Silo, Forage Crops in .1112 

Silo, Grass in . 328 

Silo in Barn . 896 

Silo Juice Analyzed.1482 

Silo, Juice from.694, 1004, 1308, 1368 

Silo, Large, Feeding from.1696 

Silo, Making Over.1026 

Silo, Painting .1662 

Silo, Pit . 755 

Silo Protection .1203 

Silo, Round or Square .1801 

Silo, Square . 978 

Silo, Stone . 666 , 978 

Silos, Tile, Defective .1710 

Silo. Too Big .1602 

Simonetti. H. D. 26 

Simplex System .1118 

Sink, Iron, Invention of.1384 

Skin Disease . 40 

Skin Disease, Epidemic . 667 

Skin Disease, Cure for. 777 

Skunk as Poultry Thief . 39 

Skunk Farming . 317 

Skunk, Talk About . 40 


Slaughterhouse Waste for Hogs.. 638 

Smith, Alfred E. 572 

Smith, O. L. 802 

Smith Standard Co. 762 

Smut of Cora and Oats.1577 

Snails, Destroying .1446 

Snow in June . 997 

Snow Plowing with Motor Truck. 1875 

Soap, Tar, Making .1628 

Soil Analysis .1306 

Soil, Improving .1265 

Soil Improvement in Virginia.... 954 

Soil, Potting, Renovating.1777 

Soil Puzzle . 845 

Soil, Sour, Improving . 845 

Soil, Sterilizing ...1406 

Soil Treatment After Plowing... 303 

Soldering Galvanized Metal.517 

Soldering Methods .. 686 

Soldier and Wedding .1246 

Soh’ier Farmers and Truth.1067 

Soldier, Letter from . 510 

Soldier, Tin . 132 

Soldiers and N. J. Farms.1076 

Soldiers as Farm Help. 66 

Soldiers, Bonus for .1046 

Soldiers, Credit of . 697 

Soldiers, Crippled, Work for....1246 

Soldiers, Cut-over Lands for. 573 

Soldier’s Grandchild, Scholarship 

for .I486 

Soldiers’ Insurance .1107 

Soldiers, Maimed .569, 684 

Soldiers Not Revo utionists. 135 

Soldiers on Farms, 

463, 969, 1028, 1156 

Soldiers’ Wants .1083 

Soot as Fertilizer.1157 

Sorghum Crop ...463 

Sorghum Waste as Fertilizer.... 430 

Sorrel and Wheat .1152 

Southern Motor Mfg. Ass’n.119S 

Southern Tire & Rubber Co. 506 

Sow Fails to Breed .. 662 

Sow, Farrowing, Handling.1164 

Sow, Feeding.662, 705, 746, 972, 1004 

Sow Loses Hair . 488 

Sow, Oil on ..._. . 332 

Sow, Poor Milking . 706 

Sow, Price of . 663 

Sow Prolific . 788 

Sow, Record . 648 

Sow with Diseased Teat.1325 

Sows, Ration for.194, 330, 640 

Sows and Pigs, Wintering. 100 

Sows, Brood, Feeding. 330 

Sows, Moving . 268 

Sows, Trouble with.. 748 

Soy Beans for Hay and Silage... 67 

Sparrow at Window Shelf.1756 

Spelt for Feeding.1360 

Spinning Wheels Wanted. 5 

Spiraea, Japanese . 67 

Spiraea Thunbergii . 730 

Spiraeas, Propagating . 642 

Spray, Dust . 938 

Spray Injury . 433 

Spraying Against Wind . 931 

Spraying Notes .1874 

Spraying Time Again . . .. 374 

Spraying Trees with Whitewash. 1819 

Spraygun Opinions . 372 

Spraygun, Power for . 462 

Spraygun, Use of . 31 

Spraying Problems . 353 

Spring House on Farm. 796 

Spring, Utilizing . 875 

Squash Borer .... . 963 

Squash Bug, Fighting:, 

807, 915, 933, 1022 
Squash Bugs and Buckwheat... .1269 

Squash Bugs, Trapping.1023 

Squash, Raising and Storing. 166 

Squash, Storing .1610 

Squashes. Storing . 77 

Squashes, Ton of . 532 

Squash Crops Not Large.1449 

Stable, Disinfecting .1284 

Stable Floor . 862 

Stable Lighting and Ventilating 

874, 906 

Stable Sanitation .1558 

Stable Ventilation .1660 

Stallion Owner’s Lien.1700 

Standard Carbide Co. 1870 

Stern, David .1118 

Steers, Clover Meal for.1466 

Stables. Lighting and Ventilat¬ 
ing . 824 

State as Dairyman . 657 

Stone Work, Old Time . 428 

Stones, Glittering .. 517 

Stones, Machine for Picking. 391 

Storage Cellars.1605 

Storage for Vegetables.1523 

Store. Small, Starting.776 

Stove Polish. 312 

Stover, Rusty, Improving. 42 

Stoves, Repairing.1S80 

Straw for Feeding.1278, 1892 

Straw, Plowing Under. 600 

Straw Stack, Burning.1486 

Straw to Cover Wheat.1776 

Strawberries and Acid Phosphate. 1643 

Strawberries Canned.1380 

Strawborries, Everbearing.1385 

Strawberries, Fa'l Set.1152, 1971 

Strawberries, Gnarly .1273 

Strawberries, Grubs in. 641 

Strawberries Killed bv Mulch... 774 

Strawborries, Late Set.1360 

Strawberries, Lice on. 641 

Strawberries, Lime on.4, 1488 

Strawborries, Liquid Manure on. 1372 

Strawberries, Manure for.1580 

Strawberries, Marshall, Setting.. 911 

Strawberries on Sod. 600 

Strawberries, Seedling. 6n<? 

Strawberry, Trouble with.1047 

Strawberry Crop and Tenant.... 643 

Srtawberry, Judith.1128 

Strawberry, Marshall.1128 

Strawberry Patch, Burning Over. 1409 
Strawberry Patch, Successful.... 1209 
Strawberry Plants, Heeling in... 1819 
Strawberry Plants, Increaso of... 1791 
Strawberry Plants, Layer and 

Potted .1307 

Strawberry, Plea for. 358 

Strawberry, Prolific.1077 

Strawberry Recipes. 877 

Strawberry, Renaming. 422 

Strawberry Weevil.770, 908 

Strike of Produce Handlers, 

1052, 1077 

Stucco, Application of.1686 

Stucco, Durability of.1583 

Stump Pu'ler, Hand. 356 

Stumps, Blasting.450 

Stumps, Destroying. 840 

Stumps, Destroying with Chem¬ 
icals . 573 

Stumps, Getting Rid of.216 

Suckers, Salting.1010 

Sugar from Potatoes.."1880 

Sugar, Shortage of.1848 

Sugar Situation.1421 

Sugar vs, Molasses...1766 

Sugar, Whv Short!."..1742 

Sulphur, Manure and Phosphate.. 1060 
Sumac, Destroying^.. .932, 1075, 1273 

Sumac, Use of.1027 

Sunflower Seed, Drying.1373 

Sunflower Seed, Drying.1780 

Sunflower Seeds, Feeding. 56 

Sunny Side of Barn. 5P8 

Swarts, H. D.26, 1014 

Sweden, Farming in. ,..1573 

Sweeney Auto and Tractor School. 1770 

Sweeping Powder .1766 

Sweet Clover in Orchard.1269 

Sweet Clover on Cut-over Lands.. 1051 

Sweet Cora Fails.1645 

Sweet Potato, Nancv Hall.1683 

Sweet Potatoes on Long Island.. 807 

Swimming with One Lesson.1342 

Swine, Cleanliness for.1466 

Swine Selection and Feeding. 56 

Syracuse Rubber Co.1670 

Syrup from Beets. 1887 

Syrup Making, Frugal.476 


Tallow, Scorched . 686 

Tanglefoot on Trees.1070, 1128 

Tank, Mending . 39 

Tankage, Composition of. 388 

Tankage, Garbage .1312 

Tankage, Low-Priced . 974 

Tanning Small Skins . 274 

Tar, Removing . 312 

Taylor, F. C., Co. 634 

Telephone Wires and Lightning. .1009 
Telephone Poles on Private Prop¬ 
erty . 649 

Temperature Records .1852 

Tenant Problem .1029 

Tenants Farm Owners.1512 

Tennessee Notes .1854 

Tent, Waterproofing.1254 

Texas Oil Exchange.1286 

Thanksgiving Story .1750 

Thanksgiving Thoughts .1741 

Thistles, Killing, 

1296, 1340, 1434, 1486, 1666 

Thomas, F. W. 982 

Thorpe, Walter F...70, 458, 554, 718 

Thrips, Treatment of.1485 

Tile for House.1317 

Tile, Hollow, for Building.. .569, 736 

Tiro Brokerage Corporation.950 

Toadstools on Lawn. 89 

Tobacco Following Corn. 755 

Tobacco Waste as Fertilizer.1497 

Toilets in District Schools.1107 

Tomato Experience Wanted.1577 

Tomato Grafted on Potato.1742 

Tomato Leaf Blight .933 

Tomato Plants, Blocking . 909 

Tomato Plants, Growing.422 

Tomato Prospects . 956 

Tomato Vinegar . 120 

Tomato Worm, History of.1153 

Tomatoes, Acid in.1009 

Tomatoes, Canned . 877 

Tomatoes, Cost of Growing. .207, 229 

Tomatoes Fail to Fruit.592, 1205 

Tomatoes, Frosted .1574 

Tomatoes on Trellis.477, 1182 

Tomatoes, Sex in.1723 

Tomatoes, Staking .1182 

Tomatoes, Training . 373 

Tongue Tied, Operating on. 264 

Tornado, Shooting Down .1333 

Toy Soldier Mfg. Co.1086 

Tractor and Farmer. 776 

Tractor, Buying . 302 

Tractor Costs . 642 

Tractor Demonstration.1187, 1232 

Tractor Demonstration at State 

Fair . .1782 

Tractor, Greenhorn on.1407 

Tractor, on, Greenhorn.1443 

Tractor, Small .1662 

Tractor, What Rental for. 75 

Tractors, Capacity of. 302 

Tractors, Experience with.1083 

Tractors, New England. 417 

Trap for Rabbits. 273 

Trap Nests, Questions About. .. .1733 

Tree Growing in Rock. 510 

Tree, Repairing .1544 

Tree Surgery .1814 

Trees and Vermin . 30 

Trees, Banding Against Insects.. 565 

Trees by Roadside. 414 

Trees, Dusting .1571 

Trees from Distant Nurseries. . .1678 

Trees, Girdled . 7°3 

Trees, Girdled by Wire. 373 

Trees In Crowbar Holes.1463 

Trees, Large, Moving.363, 13 f 5 

Trees, Memorial . 740 

Trees, Misfit.1103, 1496 

Trees on Boundary . 957 

Trees, Planting, with Shovel.... 1713 

Trees, Pulling Out .778, 1317 

Trees, Protecting .1820 

Trees, Removing . 653 

Trees, Roadside . 431 

Trees, Root-Pruned . 356 

Trees, Straightening .1464 

Trespass from Sportsmen.1007 

Trout, Raising .1091 

Tubercu’osis in Vermont .1557 

Tuberculosis Infection .1694 

Tunnels Under Hudson River. .. .1076 

Turkey, Ailing .1516 

Turkey Breeding .108, 200 

Turkey Carries Eggs....639, 760, 801 

Turkey Raising . 981 

Turkey Raising Essentials.1813 

Turkey with Catarrh . 406 

Turkey with Pip . 715 

Turkeys, Ailing .1166 

Turkeys, Death of.1145 

Turkeys, Leg Weakness in.1324 

Turkeys, Raising .1396 

Turkeys, Worm in .1324 

Turnips for Cattle. 654 

Turtle Rained Down .1524 

Turtles and Fish, Cooking. 778 


Uncle Ed’s Philosophy.1412 

Union Tire Co. 458 

United Food ft Fur Ass’n.,.458, 1286 
United Food & Fur Ass’n..1326, 1566 

U S. Film Corporation..1670 

Universal Shoe Co. 202 


Valparaiso Development Co. 718 

Valve. Rusty .1594 

Van Hoesen, R, W.1170 

Veal, Bob . 713 

Vegetable Cellar, Ventilating.... 481 

Vegetable Marrow, Growing.1848 

Vegetables and Frost.461, 511 

Vegetables After Rye. 909 

Vegetables, Canning . 478 

Vegetables. Mulching .1182 

Vegetables. Working with.1711 

Vermont Farmer’s Wife.1877 

Vetch, Trouble with.1393 

Vinegar from Apple Parings...6, 84 

Vinegar from Peaches . 34 

Vinegar from Pomace.1408, 1538 

Vinegar Questions .. 85 

Vinegar, Quick Process, with.... 806 

Vinegar. What Ails!.1408 

Vineyards, Handling . 875 

Violet Hill Kennels . 834 

Violin, Varnishing . 686 

Virdin, S. A.1566 

Vinegar, White Wine .1452 

Vitamines, Use of .985 

Vitamines, Storv of, 

1229, 1263, 1294.. 1333, 1383 
Voter, Age .1236 


Wadsworth, James W. 182 

Waeon, Low-Down .1711 

Wallpaper, Cleaning . 120 

Walnuts, Black. Rot of.319 

Walnuts, English, in Delaware.. 13 

War Insurance .162, 736 

Warbles in Cattle, 

896, 908, 1034, 1436 

Ward Pub. Co.1062 

Warts, Removing . 685 

Water, Clearing.271, 1338 

Water Course, Changing . 271 

Water Creature, Queer.1304 

Water Discolored.568, 728, 1098 

Water, Draining from House.... 1474 



Water, Filtering.755, 1489 

Water for Irrigation .1338 

Water from Springs. 758 

Water Glass, Cleaning Out.517 

Water, Hard . 728 

Water, Lifting .1524 

Water, Lifting from Small Spring, 


Water Lilies, Money in.1637 

Water, Piping . 604 

Water, Piping to House, 

1196, 1556, 1594 

Water, Piping Up Hill.1338 

Water Piping, Wood.1504 

Water Power Questions.758, 866 

Water Power, Small, Using. 913 

Water Problems.. .224, 264, 866 , 1474 
Water, Raising by Air Pressure. .1556 
Water, Raising to House.1125 

Water Reservoir from Drilled 

Well .1069 

Water Rights .1716 

Water, Rusty .1254 

Water, Sediment in . 314 

Water Supply, Farm .1282 

Water Supply Reservoir .758 

Water System for House, 

1317, 1378, 1474 

Water Tank . 472 

Water Wheel Construction. 165 

Water Wheel for Pumping.1317 


Water Wheel, Making .1338 

Water Wheel Questions.755 

Water with Iron Flavor.1518 

Weasels, Keeping Out .1085 

Weasel, Catching.... 1269, 1338, 1360 

Weed, No Use for..'.1444 

Weeder in Corn Belt. 931 

Weeds Along Fence . 105 

Weeds, Chemicals for .1176 

Weeds in Celery . 735 

Weed Killers on Roadway.1273 

Weeds, Smothering .738, 779 

Weeds, Value of . 722 

Weevils in Beans.167, 523, 560 

Weisbecker, Chas.1146 

Well as Cistern .1196 

Well, Driven.1282, 1594 

Well, Dug, Driving .1399 

Well in Quicksand.34, 317, 526 

Well, Making Safe. 424 

Well Point, Rust on .1766 

“Wellfleet-by-the-Sea” . 202 

Wells, Deep .1330 

Wells, Old, Utilizing .1317 

Western Sales Ageny.1706 

Wheat Acreage, New York.1502 

Wheat and Government. 276 

Wheat and Rye Reports.1561 

Wheat and Sorrel .1152 

Wheat Crop. Coming . 381 

Wheat Grading Complaint.1215 


Wheat, Damaged, for Poultry.. .1739 

Wheat Farmers, Two.1271 

Wheat, Feeding Whole .1560 

Wheat, Grain Loses on.935 

Wheat, Guaranteed Price of.1275 

Wheat Harvest.1041 

Wheat, High Cost of.1066 

Wheat, India . 981 

Wheat in Delaware .1370 

Wheat Land, King Drag for.1482 

Wheat, Manure on . 163 

Wheat on Corn Land.'..1262 

Wheat Price Guaranteed.1214 

Wheat Prices to Farmers. 838 

Wheat Prices, Save .1161 

Wheat, Salvage, for Poultry.1278 

Wheat, Selling .1515 

Wheat, Shrunken, for Poultry... 1523 

Wheat Situation . 836 

Wheat, Smut in .1153 

Wheat Stubble, Burning .1093 

Wheat Top-Dressing. .. .206, 653, 1674 
Wheat, Thrashing at Harvest.... 955 
Wheels and Centrifugal Force... 1125 

Whey for Live Stock.1032 

Whiting, H. M.762 

Whitney, W, B.1038 

Wheat and Bread Situation.1459 

Wheat, “Kanred” .1452 

Wheat Stubble, Burning.1093 

Wiard Mfg. Co. 298 


Witch Grass, Getting Rid of.... 908 

Wilbur Stock Food Co.1478 

Wilcox, James . 110 

Willey, W. E.1118 

Willow Cutting for Fence Posts. 1534 
Willow for Fence Posts... .1269, 1360 

Wills, Making .1242 

Wine, Sugar in .1009 

Winfleld Nurseries . 250 

Wires Above Road . 649 

Wires in Bara .1254 

Wires on Private Land. 432 

Wireworms, Controlling .1442 

Witch Grass in Nova Scotia.1330 

Witloof, Growing .S16, 1848 

Woman Suffrage Amendment.... 968 

Woman’s Land Army .1612 

Woman’s National Magazine.1226 

Women and Insanity .1858 

Wood Ashes, Analysis of.1003 

Woodchucks, Gasoline for .1449 

Woodpile, Ohio .1713 

Wood Preservative, Crude Oil as 84 

Wood, Pulp, Prices for. 560 

Woodchuck Skins, Tanning.1513 

Woodchuck Treatment, 

168, 1167, 1269, 1293, 1346 

Woodchucks as Food .1360 

Woodchucks Girdling Trees. 932 

Wool Associations . 484 

Wool Association Sale . 897 

Wool Eating Habit. 898 

Wool, Farmer’s . 308 

Wool, Grading . 360 

Wool Growers, New Jersey.493 

Wool Law Needed .1348 

Wool, Marketing .1053 

Wool, Orleans Co,, N. Y. 997 

Wool Outlook . 277 

Wool Prices . 83 

Wool Prices and Manufacturer.. 126 

Wool Production in U. S. 878 

Wool Sale, Cortland County.1220 

Wool Sales, Eastern N. Y.1004 

Wool Sale, Statement of.1290 

Wool Selling .115, 884 

Wool Situation . 1309 

Wool Situation, Ohio .1175 

Wool Situation, Remarks on....1775 

Wool, Small Lots of . 510 

Wool Substitutes, Truth About... 1531 
Wool, Wayne Co., N. Y., Selling. 1164 
Wooly Apartments, Controlling.. 1867 
Worms in Sheep . 493 


Yeast Cakes and Milk .1250 

Yeast Grains, Feeding Value of.. 578 


Zambo from Ecuador. 967 




Animals, Hospital for.. 

Antiques, Sale of. 

Ants, Destroying . 

Ants, Tartar Emetic for 

Apple Butter . 

Apple Dumplings . 

Apple Frosting . 

Apple Roll . 

Apple Recipes . 

Apple Sauce Cake . 

Apples, Dried, for Hens, 

Apples, Drying . 

Apron Made with Collar 

Apron, Oilcloth . 

Asparagus, Summer ..., 
Aspirin, Dangers of .... 
Aunt Jane Wins. 

, 918 
, 327 



Baby Bottle Holder.J162 

Baby’s Crib Cover .1586 

Bags, Removing Lettering from. 659 

Bannock .•••• *39 

Barbara’s Problem.13 1 , 324 

Barley Methods . 384 

Barley Muffins . 971 

Batter Pudding . 310 

Be of Good Cheer. 323 

Bean Loaf . 833 

Bean Soup, Black . 94 

Bean Soup, Cream of Lima. 94 

Beans, Baked, with Onion and 

Mustard . 384 

Beans, Boston Baked . 94 

Beans, Canning .1137 

Beans, Green, Drying .1427 

Beans, Lima, “Dry”..... 94 

Beans, Lima, en Casserole... .94, 95 

Beans, Lima, Hollandaise. 95 

Bedbugs, Remedy for . 857 

Beef Hash .17^6 

Beef Loaf .1746 

Beets, Cooking .1388 

Beets. Spiced .1‘27 

Bird Neighbors .1188 

Birth Certificate, Recording.1310 

Biscuit Pudding . 822 

Biscuits, Corn and Rolled Oat... 52 

Blackberry Recipes .1079 

Blueberries and Toast.1276 

Bologna, Making .1245 

Boys’ and Girls’ Column.1621 

Bran Coffee .1795 

Bread, Boston Brown. 94 

Bread, Best-Ever .1427 

Brea' 5 , Corn and Wheat.385 

Bread, Graham and Rye. 139 

Bread Pudding . 690 

Bread, Raising . 139 

Broad, Virginia Spoon . 136 

Bread, Renewing . 786 

Bread, Whole Wheat. 324 

Buckwheat Cakes.1055, 1440 

Buckwheat Muffins .1692 

Bulbs, Growing . 382 

Buns. Hot Cross . 5i4 

Burns, Creosote . 16 

Busy Day at the Farm, A. 136 

Butter, Price in England . 52 


Cabbage, Canning.1079, 1427 

Cabbage Pickle .1498 

Cabbage Rolls . 690 

Cabbage with Cream.1506 

Cake, Apple Sauce. 185 

Cake, Best-cver Layer.744 

Cake, Bread Crumb . 823 

Cake, Buttermilk . 185 

Cake, Chocolate .185, 1620 

Cake, Dried Apple . 943 

Cake, Fruit ..1795 

Cake, Icing . 942 

Cake, Maple . 943 

Cake, Pork Fruit . 943 

Cake, Spider . 136 

Cake, Sponge.139, 185, 537 

Cake That Will Keep. 943 

Cake, Thrift . 385 

Cake Without Eggs . 279 

Cakes, Economical .1657 

Cakes, Flannel . 823 

Calf and Children . 891 

Canaries, More About . 385 

Canary, Mites on .1755 

Candy Balls . 310 

Candy Baskets . 17 

Candy. Christmas .1861 

Canning Beets and Carrots.1217 

Canning Exports Needed . 970 

Canning Greens .1162 

Canning Hint .1310 

Canning in Two-quart Jars.1656 

Canning Peas and String Beans.. 1030 

Capons, Good and Poor .1284 

Carpet Dyeing.787, 856 

Carpet, Painting . 943 

Carpet, Removing Grease .1079 

Carrot Marmalade . 53 

Carrot Pudding . 53 

Carrot Salad . 63 

Carrots, in Various Styles. 53 

Carrots, Stewed . 53 

Cat and Child . 889 

Catsup from Canned Tomato.... 1619 


Celery Relish .1498 

Cemeteries, Rural .1162 

Cheese, Cup . 910 

Cheese Tart . 823 

Cherries, Warp with . 990 

Cherry Jelly .1463 

Cherry Recipes .1030 

Chilblain Cure.16, 279, 487 

Child, Feeding .1389 

Child Labor on Farm .1657 

Child Lives in Woods.1758 

Child Sub-normal .1755 

Children and Dogs . 141 

Children, Bringing Up . 230 

Children, Feeding .1350 

Children, Ill-Fed .1216 

Children of City Tenant and Farm 

Hired Man . 137 

Children, Punishing . 141 

Children’s Wages, What About 1 

1463, 1619, 1692,1831, 1860 

Chocolate, Milk . 17 

Chop Suey .1163 

Christmas Tree, Community .... 94 

Cider Jelly . 438 

Citron, Preserved .1656 

Clam Chowder . 732 

Clematis Paniculata on Porch... 873 

Clothing, Conserving, 

185, 278, 786, 856, 943 

Clothing, Inflammable .1656 

Coat, Making .1462 

Cocoanut Cookies .1276 

Cockroaches, London Purple for. 52 

Cocoanut Cookies . 185 

Cocoanut Cookies .1550 

Coffee Cake . 574 

Coffee Desserts . 310 

Collar from Chiffon Handker¬ 
chief .1425 

College Education . 659 

Community Leagues in Virginia. 278 
Cooker, Fireless, 

1242, 1506, 1726, 1727 

Cookery, Pressure . 787 

Cookies, Cottage Cheese. 17 

Cookies, Drop .1427 

Cookies, Fruit . 943 

Cookies, Molasses . 185 

Cooking, Looking Ahead in. 310 

Corn Belt. Notes from. 942 

Corn Bread. Tested . 615 

Corn, Canning.1427 

Corn, Canning on Cob.1350 

Corn Chowder . 732 , 1388 

Corn, Drying .1463 

Corn, Hulled . 1427 

Corn Meal, White . 385 

Corn Salad .1727 

Corset Cover .1055 

Courtesy Campaign . 658 

Cousin, Letter from .787, 857 

Crackers, Making .1189 

Crackers. Water . 970 

Cranberries and Prunes. 658 

Cucumber Pickles .1498 

Cucumber Relish .1350 

Culinary Discoveries .1630 

Currant Bread .1794 


Dairymaid Seeks Job. — 

Damson Preserve .1136 

Dandelions as Food . 691 

Demonstrator’s Strenuous Life... 1002 

Diabetics, Cookery for ..1030 

Dinner, A Beef Stew. 136 

Dinner, A Chicken . 136 

Dinner, Bacon and Hominy . 136 

Dinner in Woods .1755 

Dishes, Drying .1410 

Dishwasher for Farm Use.1310 

Dishwasher, Helpful.1635 

Dishwashers I Have Known.1507 

Dishwashing Discussed .1887 

Dishwashing Notes .1795 

Dolls. Dried Apple .1743 

Doughnuts, Tested . 139 

Doughnuts, Yankee . 279 

Dress at School .1692 

Dresses from Sacks . 278 

Dress of the Hour. 1726 

Dumplings, Fruit . 95 

Dye, Orange .1507 

Dyeing Recipes.1795, 1830 

Dyeing with Sumac .1794 

Dyes, Homemade.1656, 1S60 


Education Board, Rights of.1887 

Eggs, Keeping . 659 

Egg Sandwich . 787 

Elderberry Juice, Bottling.1507 

Elderberry Recipes .1311 

Embroidery, Simple. 615 



Farm, Vermont . 439 

Farm Woman’s Viewpoint.1162 

Farm, Young People on.1657 

Fig and Raisin Pudding.52 53 

Fig and Rice Pudding . 52 

Fig Cake . 52 


Fig Pudding, Steamed . 52 

Fig Recipes .N52 

Figs, Stewed . 52 

Filet Lace, Simplicity. 17 

Fish and Wild Animals, Cooking. 918 

Flowers, Dyeing .1162 

Flowers for the Farm Woman... 574 

Fly Plague . 942 

Food, Easily Digested .1587 

Frankfurter Sausage .1245 

Friends in Gray . 323 

Fruit, Dried, Use of. 384 

Fruit Juices, Bottled .1216 

Fruits and Vegetables, Dried, 

Uses of . 94 

Fur Cloth .1830 

Furniture Frauds .1550 


Garden Creed .1256 

Garden, Housekeeper’s . 382 

Garden Pleasures .1188 

Gelatin Substitutes . 970 

Gift Suggestions .1692 

Ginger and Sweet Flag. 615 

Gingerbread . 139 

Gingerbread Pudding . 310 

Gingersnaps . 185 

Girl on the Farm . 970 

Girls in Land Army .1726 

Girls. Whistling . 137 

Glastenbury Thom .1860 

Graham Nut Bread . 614 

Grain Sacks, More About. 615 

Grange Booth, Decorating .1277 

Grape Conserve .1079 

Grape Fruit Marmalade .1079 

Grape Juice, Bulletin on.1794 

Grape Paste . 744 

Graveyards, Rural .1587 

Greens, Wholesome . 486 

Griddle Cakes . 139 


Hams, Curing .1889 

Handicrafts, Old, Revived. 16 

Hand Cleaners . 1891 

Hands, Chapped . 574 

Hands, Washing .1506 

Harvey, Mary Turner .1255 

Hat, Straw, Cleaning. 438 

Head Cheese . 185 

Head Cheese, Danish . 384 

Heels, Rubber. 614 

Herbs for Garden . 278 

Hermits . 185 

Hired Man, Feeding.1163 

Home Economies .1498 

Home Industries .1726 

Home, Model .1726 

Home Notes, Massachusetts.1425 

Home, Spirit of . 919 

Home Yard, Ornamenting.1078 

Honey Recipes .1746 

Honey, Whey . 659 

Hosiery, Solving War-time Prob¬ 
lems . 17 

Housecleaning . 857 

House Decoration Economies.744 

Housecleaning . 184 

Household Accounts . 822 

Household Treasures . 971 

Housekeeper's Covenant .1007 

Housekeeper’s Day . 327 

Huckleberry Pudding .1188 


Illinois. News from .1137 

Immortelles, Dyeing .1388 

India Relish .1507 

Insurance, War Risk .786 

Ivy, Poison . 856 


Jackets. Quilted . 52 

Jelly, Peach and Apple .1388 

Jelly, Spearmint .1630 

Jelly, Starch . 942 

Jolly, Wild Cherry .1463 


Kindergarten at Home.1030, 1054 

Kitchen, Efficient . 1054 


Lace, Filet ._.278, 1277 

Lard and Soap Making. 185 

Lard, Purifying . 971 

Lard, Rendering .278 

Lattice Trellis . 383 

Leave, Taking . 95 

Left-Overs. Using . 690 

Lemon Butter .1388 

Lemon Pie. “Best Ever” . 382 

Lemon Syrup .1310 

Letter to a Cousin .1861 

Life, Spirit of.1424 

Liver Loaf .1746 

Locusts as Food .1054 

Lunch, School . 139 

Lunches, Warm School. 95 

M. Pages 

Marshmallow Frosting . 732 

Meat, Canning .1889 

Meat Curing . 278 

Meat Roll .1746 

Meat with Rice . 690 

Medicine Chest, Homemade. 822 

Mildew, Troublesome .1188 

Milk, Canning . 384 

Mocha Recipes . 919 

Molasses Cake . 537 

Molasses Cake, Coffee in ..1188 

Moths, Controlling .1310 

Moving Experience . 787 

Mulberries and Currants .1216 

Mushrooms, Canning .1506 

Music, Color .1216 

Mustard, French . 53 

Mutton, Spanish .1746 


Neighborhood Ways .1007 

Neighborly Spirit at South.1108 

Nickel, Polishing . 822 

Nightgown, Yoke for . 575 

Nurse, Training . 184 


Oatmeal Crackers . 139 

Oklahoma Notes . 383 

Olives, Vermont . 615 

Orange Juice, Value of .1310 

Oranjfe Peel, Candied . 53 

Orange Peel, Marmalade . 53 

Oregon Notes . 575 

Oyster Stew . 732 


“Packing,” How to Make . 385 

Paint Spots, Removing.1136 

Palmer, Rhoda .1276 

Pancakes, Dublin .1055 

Pandowdy. 310 

Pea Soup, Split . 94 

Peaches, Preparing .1276 

Peach, Vine .53, 1554 

Peanut Bronchitis . 230 

Peanut Cookies . 279 

Pear Chips .1079, 1656 

Pear Pudding .i486 

Peas, Canning .1189 

Pepper Relish .1727 

Pickles, Dill . 139 

Pickles, Good .990, 1060 

Pickles in Galvanized Bucket.... 1254 

Pickles, Mustard .1656 

Pickles, Mystery .1462 

Pickles, Sweet .1310 

Pie. Cream.1427 

Pie Crust, Made-over.1795 

Pimentos, Canned . 857 

Pineapple Cream . 732 

Pineapple Marmalade .1079 

Pineapple Preserve .1079 

Plants for Shady Places.1188 

Plants, Hardy, in Green Mts.659. 745 

Plants, House, New . 383 

Playhouse, Outdoor .1188 

Plums, Flowering . 822 

Policeman. Philosophic . 16 

Popcorn Balls . 384 

Popcorn Candies . 185 

Popcorn Pudding . 310 

Pork, Home Preparation of.1830 

Potatoes and “Toxic Quality”... 486 

Potatoes as Food .1242 

Potatoes, Escalloped .1277 

Potatoes, Ways of Using. 575 

Preserving Strawberry and Pine¬ 
apple . 918 

Prunes, Creamed . 745 

Prunes. Jellied . 95 

Prime Pudding. Norwegian. 95 

Pudding, Doughboy . 942 

Pud’ing, Indian . 385 

Pudding. Poor Man’s . 139 

Pudding, Raised .310, .822 

Pudding, Steamed . 139 

Pumpkin, Preserved .1350 

Pumpkin Pudding . 745 

Pumpkin Recipes .1830 


Rabbit Skins. Preparing . 787 

Rabbits, Cooking .1889 

Rag Carpet, Dyeing . S22 

Raisin Bread . 32 

Raspberry Recipes.1136 

Reading for the Young.1389 

Recreation for Young.231 

Red Cross, Work and Interests.. 94 

Refrigerator, Ice less.184, 895 

Relishes Worth Trying.1054 

Rennet. Vegetable . 614 

Rhubarb Marmalade .1311 

Rice and Cheese Pudding ....... 615 

Rice Pudding . 3S5 

Rhubarb and Fig Conserve.1079 

Rhubarb, Canning .1254 

Rhubarb, Ways with . 536 

Roaches. Borax and . 52 

Roast. Pot, with Noodles. 136 

Rose Beads. Making .1<17S 

Rose Jar Making.1078 

Roses, Pnining . 438 


Rug, Dyeing . 856 

Rug, Rag . 614 

Rugs, Burlap . 971 

Rugs, Knitted .1109 

Rugs with Mitered Corners. 856 


Salads, Summer . 1350 

Sausage, Baked . 745 

Sausage, Bologna . 16 

Sausage, Frankfurter . 16 

Sausage Making . 279 

Sausage, Mock . 95 

Sausage, Oxford . 16 

Sausage, Pork and Beef. ..\ 16 

Sausage Recipes, Pork. 16 

Sausage, Summer . 16 

Sausage, Virginia Beef ..’ 16 

School Lunches.311, 1350 

Scallop. Royal. 690 

School Tuition, Paying .1887 

Schools, New and Old.1255 

Schools, Rural . 438 

Scrapple, Making .16, 1245 

Shopping Experiences .1276 

Shortbread, Scotch .,1656 

Sink Drain, Cleaning .1766 

Soap, Making .’ 185 

Soldiers, Wounded, Inquiry About. 184 

Sowbugs, Killing . 486 

Spinning at Home. 856 

Spinning Wheel, Going Back to 

.the . i 3 7 

Spring Harnessing . 875 

Squash Custard . ’ 385 

Squash Muffins .'' 437 

Stable Ventilation . 875 

Stocking, Cutting Over . , .1425 

Strawberries, Canning.1030, 1163 

Strawberry Preserve .1079 

Suet Pudding . 732 

Sugar Camp, Supper in_658 

Sweater, Crocheting . 1310 

Swindle, New . 744 


Tapioca with Fruit . 970 

Tartar Sauce .| 615 

Taxes. Luxury .j'. 1586 

Teakettle, Crust on .1254 

Teeth, Care of . 918 

Tennessee Notes, 

744. 918, 1079, 1217. 1507, 1727 
Thanksgiving at Bear Valley... .1754 

Thanksgiving Dinner .1692 

Thrift Hints . 1054 

Thrift Stamps to Be Continued!! 1136 

Toast, Nourishing . 1746 

Tomato Catsup . 1727 

Tomato Marmalade .] 1311 

Tomato Paste .1136 

Tomato Pie . 1350 

Tomato Preserves .1317 

Tomato Preserves . 1311 

Tomato Sauce .690 

Tongue, Braised. .[.1746 

Trees of France . 744 


Vacation. Massachusetts .1586 

Vegetables. Curried . 690 

Vermont, Life in . 1351 

Vermont Notes .823, 1162 

Vine Peach .1727 

Vinegar from Apple Parings. .53, 279 

Vinegar, from Apple Parings_ 53 

Vinegar from Honey. 52 

Visitors, Army and Navy. 94 


Wallpaper, Cleaning .383, 574 

Walls, Decorating . 943 

Walnut Molasses Bars. 185 

War Baby, Boarding.1744 

War Savings Stamps. 786 

Warner, Susan .1162 

Water Systems, Oklahoma. 613 

Wedding, Land Army.1246 

Window Shades, Renovating, 

1031, 1163, 1189 
Windows, Double on Frozen Pits 94 
Wife Helps Husband Make Money 912 
Window, Sha J es, Renewing. .. . .1831 

Wire, Saving . 4 S 6 

Woman and Agent.1619 

Woman’s Day .1887 

Woman Farmer at Work. S 86 

Woman, Heart of.1422 

Women and Business Life. 856 

Women and Conservation. S 95 

Women and the Bal’ot_1692, 1755 

Women as Mail Carriers.1887 

Women in Trades. 137 

Women on Juries. 527 

Women Workers . 486 

Women Workers' Camp.1054 

Women’s Work in Oklahoma_ 823 

Woolworth, Estate of.786 


Yeast Cakes and Milk.1110 

Yeast for Bread and Buns. 625 

Yeast, Homemade .825, 1055 

Yoke, Wild Rose.1552 



Amerioa for Me. 970 

Angels .1056 

Be True .1162 

Christmas at Sea.1830 

Christmas Ballad .1794 

Climbing to Rest. 786 

Doughboy, How to Work.16 

Fairies . 614 

Fence or Ambulanoe.1030 


Fourth of July.1054 

From Songs of Seven. 658 

Gates and Doors.1860 

Happy Hills . 323 

Holy of Holies. 382 

Housekeeper . 744 

If All Who Hate Would Love Us. 1550 

If Hens Could Talk.1700 

Knitted Thoughts . 856 


Out in the Fields with God.1692 

Past and Present.1506 

Praise Ye the Lord.1310 

Purpose of Life.1136 

Rainbow .1188 

Resurgam .1216 

Sleep Well .1350 

Song in March. 486 

Song of the Plains. 942 


Spider and the Fly. 184 

Statistics Prove .1462 

Squeaking Chair .1887 

Thanksgiving .1726 

The Blint . 230 

The “If" of Spring. 574 

The Little Boys . 278 

The Strength of Little Villages. 52 
The Tear that’s Awa’. 94 


They Shall Not Pass.1242 

To a Phoebe Bird. 822 

Try This .1276 

Unguarded Gates .13S8 

Unknown Dead . 917 

Wanderlust . 438 

Which Shall It Bel.1755 

Who Knows ? .1586 

Young and Old.1078 






Agent and Farmer...,. 805 

Alfalfa and Phosphates.1123 

Alfalfa, Cossack, Plant of. 907 

Alfalfa, Cultivating .1043 

Alfalfa, Harrowing .1018 

Alfalfa, March Seeded. 

Alsike, Heavy Crop of...1175 

Apple, Baldwin, Long Island-1603 

Apple, Stayman Winesap.1847 

Apple Tree, Dwarf. <29 

Apples, Cluster of. 871 

Apple, San Jacfnto.1881 

Apples, Second Crop. 854 

Auto Express Truck.1281 

Auto, Original .I8i< 

Auto Truck for Farmer.1775 


Bahy, Prize Winning.1608 

Barber at Work..•••1755 

Barn Plan . 645 ■ '5® 

Barn, Rebuilding . 

Barn, Small . 

Barnyard Caucus .i^ 

Bean Board .. .. 

Beans, Soy, in Indiana.80d 

Bee Shipping Case. 

Bees, Fondant for. “ 

Bees, Hiving . 9 °° 

Bees in Winter. . . 88 

Bees, Making Start With.1845 

Bees, Keeping .. 5?” 

Bees, Working with. »12 

Belt, Idler on.1820 

Berries, Load of.ij8i 

Bird House Man. 305 

Bird Houses in Trees. ° 

Bittersweet on House. 851 

Blackberry, Phenomenal .7*5 

Blacksmith at Work- •••; -1709 

Boating and Flower Gathering.. lWf 

Borers, Fighting . 592 

Boy and Pumpkin.......15-0 

Boy Learning to Milk.1<54 

Boy Poultry Keeper....;.. »s 

Boy Scouts at Sodus, N. Y.1243 

Bovs in Alfalfa Field. 29 

Brush Burner, Portable.1406 

Building, Laying Out.1881 


Cabbage, Charleston, Wakefield. .187 

Cabbage, Chinese .1945 

Calf, Peggy 328 

Calf, Teaching to Dnnk. 765 

Calves and Boy. 1280 

Calves and Children. 985 

Canterbury Bells . 998 

Cat, Useful ..1304 

Cattle in Colorado.11° < 

Calf and Boy. i??: 

Cattle, Milking Shorthorn. 113 

Celery Blanched With Paper.. .1298 

Celery for Retail Trade.1602 

Charcoal, Burning... 140 

Cherries by Roadside. 591 

Cherry, Grafting.594 

Cherry, Royal Duke. 461 

Chick Brooder House.1255 

Child and Rooster. 732 

Child and Turkeys.1243 

Child, Danish, Ill-fed.1019 

Child Feeding Problem. 891 

Children and Cats.18<8 

Children in Garden. •••••• 

Children Selling Farm Products. 1002 

Chum, Barrel .1796 

Circus, Homemade . 53b 

Cistern from Well.1196 

Clothes, Hanging Dp.1243 

Clover in Bloom. 955 

Clover, Sweet, Fields of. 55 < 

Clover, Sweet, Specimens. 354 

Cold Frame, Planting... 560 

Cold Frame Sash, Handling..... 558 
College Commencements, Act- 


ing Out . 698 

Colt and Child.1243, 1423 

Cooling Food Without Ice. 913 

Co-operative Association, New 

Jersey .1773 

Com and Wood Ashes.1406 

Corn Crib, Wire Lined.1606 

Corn, Early Types.1570 

Corn, Freaks of Growth.1043 

Corn, Gold Nugget. 207 

Corn Husking Party. 136 

Corn, Keeping Fresh.205 

Corn. Luo.’, Fwcrlt.,^ ^ 

Corn Machinery . 839 

Corn Roast in Progress.1542 

Corn, Seed .1329 

Corn Shocks .1845 

Com Smut . 416 

Com Stripped by Birds.1205 

Cornfield, Studying .1434 

Cow, Ayrshire, Well Bred. 660 

Cow, Family ...1423 

Cow, Langwater Phyllis. 186 

Cow, Lenetta .1892 

Cow, Nebraska .1369 

Cow, Nivolette 2nd.905, 1393 

Cow, Pearl of Beaver Ridge.... 1173 

Cow, Red Rose.1022 

Cow, Rochette’s Princess. 746 

Cows, Foddering on Pasture.... 1570 

Cows in Pasture. 929 

Cows, Milking Shorthorn....... 1529 


Dahlia Types . 915 

Dahlias, Digging.1<88 

Dairy Herd, Purebred. ; -1291 

Daisies, Telling Fortunes with.. <38 

Dam Construction .1201 

Dolls, Dried Apple.1<48 

Dooryard Plan .1090 

Drainage Machinery . ...415 

Ducks in Backyard.1847 

Ducks, Wild, in Sodus Bay.1382 


Egg, Monstrous . 452 

Egg Tester, Electric. 671 

Eggs, Gathering . 301 

Eggs, Winter, Chart of.1571 


Farm Account Book, Old. 684 

Farm Bureau Federation.1091 

Farmer and Ballot Box.1161 

Farmer, Young . 1498 

Farmhouse, Old-fashioned.1886 

Farmhouse, Sheltered . 723 

Farmhouse, Vineclad .1065 

Farms, Unoccupied .1065 

Farms, Valley, in New Hamp¬ 
shire .1303 

Father Taking His Medicine.... 1410 

Fern, Boston . 208 

Fire, Open .1886 

Fireplace, Old . 428 

Flower Garden, Laying Out.... 11 <4 

Frost and Fruit. 591 

Fruit, Dehydrated . 841 

Fruit, Farm, Display of.1419 


Garden, Planning . 417 

Gates, M. H., and Family.1606 

Geese, Brown Cb’na.589 

Geese, Toulouse . 589 

Geese, White Embden. 589 

Girl in Auto. 1569 

Goat Farmer . 462 

Goats, Family of.1694 

Goats, High Bred. 150 

Grain, Cutting with Header-1067 

Grain Harvesting Machinery... .1203 
Grange Exchange, New York... 


Grange Hall in Wayne County, 

N. ..H74 

Greenhouse Plans .364, 1541 

Greenhouse, Small . 418 


Hay, Bunching . 955 

Hay in New Hampshire.1263 

Hay Loader at Work. 98< 

Hay, Method of Making. 953 

Hay, Pressing .• ••77 

Hay Rake, Revolving.1342, 1424 

Hearse as Rabbit House.1378 

Hen and Brood.J229 

Hen Caught on the Fly.1521 

Hen, Drone, Picking Out.498 

Hen Feeding Hopper. 500 

Hen, Famous Red.16 <4 

Hen, Oregon .. 30 

Hen with Scaly Leg.1786 

Hen, Wonderful .1322 

Hens at Dry Mash. 292 

Hons, Quarter Mile of.1484 

Hens, Underhill Red.16 <3 

Hog Lice, Treating.1660 

Hogs at Self-feeder. 232 

Hogs in Pasture. 205 

Hogs, Poland China... 616 

Honey, Removing Crop of.1021 

Horse and Colt. 63 < 

Horses on the Plow.16 <5 

Horses, Percheron .1407 

Horses, Refreshing .1289 

Horses, Three Abreast.1125 

House of Tile.......1317 

Hvdrangea and Girl. 1577 

Hydraulic Ram, Double Acting.. 1069 


Ice, Harvesting . 

Iceless Icebox .1238 

Iris, Handling .1334 


Ladder, Fruit . 

Ladder, Light .1483 

Ladder, Sideliill .-•.1538 

Lamb. Champion Shropshire-1760 

Lambs, Prize Shropshire.1464 

Lattice Trellis .. 383 

Leaf Curl. Spraying for.464 

Leeks, Well Grown. 35o 

Letter to Gyp Tire Co.1416 

Lettuce, Transplanting .1711 

Lice on Cattle. 5<6 

Lilacs in Bloom. ; .1090 

Live Stock Harvesting Gram... .1201 

Live Stock Poster.1588 

Live Stock, Self-feeder.15»8 

Live Stock, Start in.1492 

Locust, Adult . 464 

Locust Localities .464 

Loganberry, Box of...725 

Logging in New Hampshire.1291 


Mail Box Signal.1086 

Manure Pile in France. 955 

Manure Pit Plan.1603 

Maple Tree, Tapping.354 

Marker, Five-row . 807 

Market, Roadside . 677 

Markets, Open .1215 

Meat, Odd Cuts of. 520 

Melon Crop, Jersey.I486 

Milk, Ash In.•t"153j 

Moccasin Flower . 995 

Moulbretias, Group of.1<88 

Motherhood .llo< 

Motor Speed Reducer.....1317 


New Jersey as a Farm State.... 638 



Oat Fields . 76 

Onion Smut Treatment.679 

Onions, Cleaning in Field...-1711 

Onions Through Fanning Mill...1711 

Onions, Weeding . 931 

Orange Bud Sports. 3 

Orchard Under Tillage. 374 


Parson Goes Camping.1244 

Peach Pits, Father David.1302 

Peach Trees, Pollinating.1371 

Peaches, Harvesting .1266 

Peaches, Packing .1266 

Peas in California Garden.461 

Pear, New Hybrid. 352 

Pig, Contented . 142 

Pigs in Chick Brooder.455 

Pigs Sunning Themselves. 972 

Pigs, Tame .1745 

Plant Bed Tools. 209 

Plant Bed, Seeding. 206 

Plant Houses . 163 

Plum, Agen . 356 

Plums, Imperial Epinouso.352 

Plums, Pacific .. 352 

Plums Grown with Acid Phos- 

phate .1602 

Pony and Child. 118 

Pony, Beach .1540 

Popcorn Samples . 74 

Potato Meeting, New Jersey-1151 

Potato Seed Balls.1674 

Potato Seed, Good and Poor.... 368 

Potato Wart Disease.1332 

Potato with Seed Inside. 80S 

Potatoes, Fourteen in One.590 

Potatoes from Peelings.1492 

Potatoes, Seed. Selecting. 416 

Poultry Appliances. Handy.1786 

Poultry Drinking Vessel.1150 

Poultry in Wrong Houses.1291 

Poultry in Orchard.1017 

Poultry, Missouri .H66 

Poultry Ranch, New Jersey. <3 


Rabbit and Boy.1710 

Rabbit, Black Siberian. 679 

Rabbit, Flemish Giant. 679 

Rabbits, Home-grown . 639 

Rabbit Hutch . 678 

Rabbit Trap, Ingenious.1524 

Ram, Hydraulic . 450 

Ram with Standpipe. 866 

Raspberries, Laying Down.1820 

Raspberry, Ontario . 806 

Rats and Vitamines.1019 

Rats, White . ••••• 767 

Red Cross Hospital in England. 3i0 

Red Cross Workers. 1 

Rhubarb, Marketing .723 

Rhubarb Roots, Freezing.1847 

Road Drag, King.1804 

Roads, National . 640 

Rock, Chimney Top. 176 

Roses, Budding . 958 

Rooster in Harness.H49 

Rye, Fall. Plowing Under.1175 

Rye, Plowing Under. 909 


Saw, Circular. Fitting 
Schoolhouse, Country .... 

Seat for Lawn. 

Septic Tank Plan. 

Sheep and Boy. 

Sheep Camper .. 

Sheep, Cheviot . 

Sheep, Cortland Co., N. Y 

Sheep in Pasture. 

Sheep on Lawn. 

Sheep in Pasture. 

Sheep on Reynolds Farm. 

Sheep, Pair of. 

Sheep Shearer, Veteran... 

.... 602 
.... 54 

.... 450 
.... 542 
.... 721 


Sheep, Tame .1531 

Sheep with Four Lambs.1042 

Sheep with Mr, Reynolds.1554 

Sheep with Horns.1554 

Shrubs in Border..... 593 

Shrubs Protected by Evergreens. 1674 

Silos Protected in Winter.1206 

Silo, Rebuilt .1627 

Snowplow in Montana.1875 

Soil Levelers . 3 

Soldier, Crippled, Play Ball.1246 

Sorghum, Boiling . 463 

Sorghum Field . 463 

Sorghum Ready for Crushing... 463 

Spencer, Mrs. Mary.1498 

Spray Material, Mixing.353 

Sprayer, Knapsack .1022 

Spraying Orchard . 376 

Spraying Plant Enemies.1045 

Spraying Wholesale . 413 

Spraying with Hand Pump. 353 

Spring House Arrangement. 796 

Squash Bug, Stages of. 807 

Stable in Western Canada.1067 

Stable Lighting and Ventilating. 825 
Steam Roller for Soil Sterilizing. 1406 

Steers, Feeders .1436 

Strawberries, Harvesting.358 

Strawberries in New England... 1261 

Stucco, How Applied.1686 

Sugar Cane, Loading by Power.. 1406 
Sweet Com, Drying.1408 


Tank, Leaky .1196 

Tomato Plant, Setting. 807 

Tomato Worm and Pupa.1153 

Tomatoes, Frosted .1574 

Tomatoes in Greenhouse. 912 

Tomatoes on Stakes.461 

Tomatoes on Trellis.373, 1182 

Tomatoes, Sorting and Packing. 1675 
Tractors at N. Y. State Fair... 1782 

Tree Growing in Rock. 510 

Tree Protector, Wire.1820 

Tree, Root Pruned. 353 

Tree Surgery .1815 

Trees, Large, Moving. 363 

Turkey, Fine Gobbler.'..1813 

Turkeys, Bunch of.1561 


Vegetable Marrow, Heap of.1848 

Vegetable Storage Cellars.1605 

Vegetables, Bunching.1711 

Vegetables, Preparing for Mar- 

ket . 161 

Vegetables, Protecting . 511 

Venison from an Oregon Hunt... 1300 


Wagon, Low-down .1711 

War Baby .1747 

Wash, Boy . 887 

Water Lilies on Pond.1639 

Water Pumping Problems.1556 

Water Wheel Diagram. 755 

Water Wheel, Homemade.1338 

Water Filter . 755 

Water Tank on Silo.1290 

Well in Quicksand. 626 

Well, Making Safe. 424 

Wheat and Phosphates.1123 

Wheat, Harvesting .1532 

Wheat, Top-dressed .206 

Woman and Child. 509 

Woman’s Garden . 886 

Woman’s Land Army.1612 

Woman's Rights Meeting.1019 

Women Running Tractors. 887 

Woodpile, Large ...1<13 

Woodpile, Substantial . 31 

Wool, Grading and Weighing.. .1151 


Yoke. Wild Rose.1552 


Published Weekly by The Rural Publishing Co., 
r!33 W. 30th St., New York. Price One Dollar a Year. 


Entered as Second-Class Matter. .Tune 20, 1879. at the Post 
Office at New York, N. Y., under tho Act of March 3, 1879. 

No. 4515. 

Rural Red Cross Locals and Rural Re¬ 
Utilize a Great Organization 

N eighborhood groups.— what is to be¬ 
come of the thousands of Red Cross groups of 
war workers throughout the United States, especially 
those in the rural communities? These little groups 
of women war workers have done a wonderful work. 
At the same time they have afforded the means of 
social intercourse so badly needed in every rural 
neighborhood. Now that the war impetus for the 
Red Cross work is over, these neighborhood groups 

be returning from the great war. These spirited 
young fellows will demand more from the social and 
religious life of the country than ever before. Their 
ripened experience will not be satisfied by the usual 
Quiet, serene, don't-care, easy-going attitude of the 
rural communities they so recently left here in 

WHAT TO DO.—The rural social and institutional 
life must be improved—at once. The folks left be¬ 
hind to guard the “home front” must also he able to 
report a successful going over the top to the end of 
improving the rural world and making it safe to hold 
the men who have fought for Christian democracy. 

States and Canada have already been organized in 
this rural-uplift-through-information plan. There 
are other organizations into which these groups of 
workers may be gathered for the purpose of continu¬ 
ing a united effort for some good local cause. The 
Grange is a well-known and highly useful organi¬ 
zation that should be represented in every rural 
community in America. If no local Grange exists, 
the group of Red Cross workers may be merged into 
a local branch of this great farmers’ organization. 
A pa rent-teachers’ club might well be developed from 
the group, as well as a farm women's club, a co¬ 
operative buying and selling association, a ladies’ 

A Characteristic Rural War Aid Group. Xow Enlisted for Rural Service. Fin. J 

arc in c nger of disbanding. They ought to be kept 
Together. They may make the nucleus of a strong 
community organization in each rural district in 
which they c :ist. 

then, is the rural leader’s opportunity. Every rural 
preacher, teacher, superintendent, or any lay leader 
in the church or other social group ought to seize 
upon these local organizations before they disband 
and direct their efforts into the channels of recon¬ 
struction. And there is much reconstruction work 
to be done in rural America. The rural minister 
who merely sits on his job now is not about the 
Lord’s business. Thousands of young men will soon 

It is not too late to begin—it never is. The neigh¬ 
borhood Red Cross local may be transformed into 
an information group of people with the intent of 
learning the best means and methods of bettering the 
community. In very many cases the rural minister 
is in a position to take the lead. 

THE R.C.R.C. MOVEMENT.—Probably as good a 
channel to guide these local groups of workers into 
is the International Rural Church Reading Circle 
movement, which is non-sectarian, non-political, dis¬ 
tinctly rural in its plans and purposes, and free from 
all criticism as a money-making scheme. Member¬ 
ship in the R.C.R.C., as it is called, is absolutely free. 
Many rural community group* in both the United 

aid. etc. Whatever of the many possible turns may 
be taken, the one thought to be emphasized is the 
development of some sort of local organization from 
these neighborhood war-aid groups that sl\all become 
permanent and effective in the great work of rural 
reconstruction. garland a. bricker. 

New York. 

Conducting a Membership Compaign 

Building Up a Farm Organization 

S TATE WIDE CAMPAIGN.—Last Fall the execu¬ 
tive committee of the Mercer County Board of 
Agriculture of New 'ersey, realizing the urgent need 
cf increasing the membership of the Board in order 


to do more effective work, decided to formulate plans 
to build up the organization. About this time word 
was received from the Secretary of Agriculture urg¬ 
ing a State-wide campaign, and offering a prize to 
the county making the greatest gain in new members 
tor the Board of Agriculture. A new survey of the 
number of farmers in each county was taken and the 
greatest gain per capita of new members for the 
board used as a basis for competition between the 
counties. The executive committee of Mercer County 
decided to draw a line through the center of the 
county and have a contest between the northern and 
southern sections, the ladies taking the active part in 
managing the work in one half and the men in the 
other. As chairman of my half of the county, I want 
to tell a little about how we won the contest and 
helped bring the State prize to our county. 

GETTING TOGETHER.—Of course, I realized at 
the outset that I needed helpers throughout the coun¬ 
ty, but, because of the fact that I knew less than 10 
per cent of the farmers, it looked almost impossible 
to find the right workers. I finally decided to have 
the men come together for a dinner where they 
would become better acquainted with each other and 
learn about the aims and work of the board. The 
best way to reach the right men was one of my 
hardest problems. I threw aside the suggestion that 
1 use any single organization, such as Grange or 
lodge, or even use the already active workers of the 
board, as a basis for my group of workers, as being 
too limited. I simply visited each section or neigh¬ 
borhood in the county and asked several farmers 
whom they considered the best man to push the 
work in his district. I then selected my workers 
from the list secured by this method, visited each one 
and invited him to meet with the others for dinner. 
Thinking I might further insure getting the right 
men I asked each m^n to bring a near neighbor who 
would work with him. With the exception of three, 
all invited attended, an<l several brought friends. 
Thirty-seven men enjoyed a bountiful dinner (each 
paying his own expenses), became better acquainted 
with each other and with the work of the board, and 
proved by their record later to be the most eilicient 
band of workers in the campaign. Before leaving 
for their homes it was decided that each man pres¬ 
ent be chairman of the work in his own district 
COVERING THE COUNTRY.—I followed this up 
by visiting each chairman and tracing out for him 
ilie roads in his district, using a large detail map 
with a different color crayon for each section. Each 
district was "covered" by neighbors appointed by 
the chairman of that district, so that every road in 
the county was covered. We tried to have not over 
two hours’ work for each individual. At the begin¬ 
ning of each week of the two months’ campaign I sent 
postals to the several different chairmen urging them 
to their best efforts. These postals were short, snappy 
messages, one serving to open up competition be¬ 
tween the districts; another reminding them of the 
value of getting the junior members—the boys and 
girls we wish to keep on the farm. One gave an ex¬ 
ample of stick-to-it-iveness, and was sent to keep all 
of the men "on the job.” Each postal had a distinct 
message of its own, vital to the success of the drive 
for new members for the board. The last card was 
an appreciation of the hard work of the men. This 
organization did wonderful work; nevertheless, when 
the campaign was half over I began to realize that a 
good many people would be missed, so I went to 
work planning other ways to reach them. 

THE GRANGE HELPS.—I sent a letter to the sec¬ 
retary of each Grange and asked for Grange co¬ 
operation. The ladies of the other half of the county 
worked entirely through the Grange, so I urged our 
Grange members not to let the other side win, for if 
they did it would mean a defeat for the men of our 
Grange. Our Grangers responded and did fine work. 

I visited the different Granges and told them of the 
drive to bring them in closer touch with the work of 
the board. Since the campaign I have been very 
much pleased to see the way the Grange and the 
board have united for the betterment of agriculture 
in the county. Not content with the two organiza¬ 
tions mentioned above, I found other small ways of 
gaining members. Three men in different sections of 
the county held vendues or sales which attracted 
many neighbors. Before the time set for the sales I 
sent these men application blanks, and over 50 new 
members were gained by this method. Membership 
blanks were sent to local banks which deal mostly 
with farmers, to small post offices, stores, and a con¬ 
siderable number of names were gained in this man¬ 

have a good worker attend different public meetings 
of farmers, also Pomona Grange meetings and at our 


own farmers’ institutes had a large sign put up at 
the back of the platform: 

: I iie Mercer County Board of Agriculture. 
• Are you a member? 

At these institutes we always found time to have 
some interested person tell about the contest. We 
never over-emphasized it, however, but with a few 
good, sound remarks made the farmers realize that 
the names of all would help the board, and that the 
board in return would mean much in the future to 
farmers in the county. To help the people realize 
l.ght away some of the good things we hope to bring 
them, we arranged just before the close of the cam¬ 
paign for our biggest, all-day meeting, with I)r. 
Henry Van Dyke of Princeton, former Minister to 
Belgium, to talk in the evening on the war. All who 
signed were given free tickets to this lecture, which 
was extensively advertised. Farmers without tickets 
v. ere allowed to enter if they signed application 
blanks, which were approved by one of the dozen 
farmers and their wives (from all over the county) 
who acted as a reception committee. Almost 1.500 
attended this meeting, and before leaving they be¬ 
came better acquainted with each other and with the 
work and aims of the board. We feel now that with 
over 04 per cent of the farmers and their wives a 

Fondant Fed in Paper Plate Inverted Over Clustered 
Bees. Fig. 2 

united band of workers for the board, this board will 
make itself felt as a power for good for agriculture, 
end that the hard work of the campaign for new 
members has proven well worth while. 

New Jersey. earle dilatush. 

January 4, 1019 

moved at the end of the house so that the bees can 
more easily pass out. This saves some loss, for hun¬ 
dreds of bees are killed by flying violently against 
the glass, either because they see the light outside, 
or have become impatient of confinement. When 
the hive is so arranged that the bees can fly both 
outside and in, it becomes an easy matter to ex¬ 
clude them from the house when the plants are to be 
fumigated or when spraying is to, be done. The 
bees must not be allowed to fly in the houses at 
these times. 

to have the blossoms well fertilized, so that there 
must be plenty of bees, and they should be at work 
as soon as the first flowers open, for it is the early 
ciop which pays the best. Unless the colonies are 
strong and well cared for, they will become so de¬ 
pleted that the results will not be satisfactory. Al¬ 
though the cucumber blossoms yield pollen, they 
produce almost no nectar. In warm weather when 
Hit bees can fly outside they may get enough nectar 
iiom other plants. As a rule, though, it is necessary 
to do considerable feeding with honey, sugar and 
water, or a prepared fondant which may be pur¬ 
chased. The sugar and water plan is usually adopted. 
The syrup may be placed in feeders in the hives or in 
shallow dishes outside with sticks floating in them. 
Most commonly nine-frame hives are used, and they 
are likely to be of cheap construction. The average 
greenhouse man knows but little about the care of 
bees. He is usually satisfied to buy new colonies 
each season, although a few cucumber growers have 
become sufficiently expert in handling bees to carry 
them along year after year. A colony without much 
attention will last eight or 10 weeks, which is long 
enough to get off the crop. 

HIGH-PRICED BEES.—Sometimes the cucumber 
growers find it hard to get enough bees. This has 
been the case the last season, and from $12 to $20 
has been paid for colonies, which is double the 
prices charged a few years ago. Bees have been 
shipped to Boston from bee-keepers in Vermont, and 
even in New \ ork State. A grower has been known 
to pay as high as $150 for bees in a single season. 
All too often the colonies are not so strong as they 
should be, for the bee-keepers who provide market 
gardeners with bees have a way of making three or 
four colonies from one. The bees give no trouble to 
the men working in the greenhouse, a sting seldom 
being reported. 

have been made to use bees in fertilizing tomatoes 
under glass, but it has been found easier and just as 
satisfactory to fertilize the flowers by hand, for it is 
only necessary to rap the wires or strings on which 
the vines are trained with a paddle. Greenhouse 
men who grow strawberries under glass would be 
very glad if they could use bees, for the blossoms 
nave to be fertilized by hand every unny day. 
When bees have been used they have invariably 
caused the strawberries to be misshapen and have 
Lad to be given up. e. i. Farrington. 

Using Bees Under Glass 

/ T"'HE GREENHOUSE HIVE.—Bees have been 

A found indispensable when cucumbers are 
grown under glass. Of course it is possible to fer¬ 
tilize cucumber blossoms with a stick or a cemel’s- 
lmir brush in the way which was used when only 
a few plants were forced. But the expense is so 
great that cucumbers could not be grown under 
glass profitably if such practices were necessary. 
In all the immense cucumber houses near Boston, 
and in oilier places where the industry is well de¬ 
veloped, bees are sure to be found. In the smaller 
houses a hive is placed at each end. When there is 
an extensive range of houses a hive is placed every 
150 feet. Formerly the hives were set along the 
center aisle, and this plan is occasionally followed 
now. Experience has shown, though, that it is bet¬ 
ter, as a rule, to have the hives at an outside wall, 
so that the bees can fly both in the house and out¬ 
side. Very often the hive is set on the inside, but 
close to the glass, and a pane of glass is removed to 
allow the bees to fly outside. 

and Summer crops are being raised, though, it is 
1 ’referable to have the hives outside the house, but 
with a pane of glass removed at the entrance so that 
the bees can fly into the house. The bees will often 
leave the houses through the ventilators, but will 
again find their way back to the hive if the latter is 
outside the house. Sometimes a pane of glass is re- 

The Modified Bordeaux Mixture 

T^' < *R three years I have used a Bordeaux worked 
A out in Nova Scotia. This consists of any usual 
poison, but uses only three to four pounds of copper 
sulphate to each 100 gallons water. We also use 30 
lbs. of lime in this quantity of water. After the 
bloom I drop to one pound bluestone to 100 gallons 
water, with the 30 lbs. of lime as before. I think 
Nova Scotia possesses a climate which induces more 
fungous troubles than any other apple center in 
North America. Now my fruit has been, during 
each of these three years, about the best in Nova 
Scotia. I had 2,400 barrels in 1910, 1,700 barrels in 
Dl<, and l,d)0 barrels in 1918, so had a sufficient 
quantity to tell from. Our Prof. Sanders of Annap¬ 
olis (Nova Scotia) has proved that lime-sulphur at 
usual strengths—sometimes at least—works great 
damage in the set of apples. 

So much to the credit side of modified Bordeaux. 
But with all this lime it does not control oyster-shell 
bark louse. Prof. Sanders advises me to use for the 
splay light, after the bloom soluble sulphur, very 
weak, and with some lime, to control the bark lice. 

I also plan to use a cask of soluble oil on part of my 
orchard when the trees are dormant. I would advise 
gieat caution in using soluble sulphur as strong as 
makers claimed two or three years ago. 

Caxi any reader put me in touch with where to get 
that bluestone plus kaolin dust? The bluestone was 
dissolved and mixed with the kaolin and mixture on 
drying fell into finest powder. I would like to try 
this. The sulphur dust is very good for bugs, but not 
A1 at controlling spot. joiin buciianan. 

Nova Scotia. 


The Importance of Bud Selection 

Part I. 

A N IMPORTANT MATTER.—Bud selection has 
come to stay. Enough unbiased evidence has 
been accumulated to show that in many, if not all, 
vegetatively propagated plants, bud selection is as 
important as is seed selection for the improvement 
of plants. 

\ ARIATION IN PLANTS.—No two plants are 
alike. No two parts of a plant are exactly alike. 
In other words, variation in plant life is the rule 
and not the exception. A thorough appreciation of 
these fundamental and unmistakable facts of plant 
life are essential to the proper consideration of plant 
improvement These principles apply to plants 
propagated by budding, grafting or cuttings, as well 
as to plants grown from seed. No intelligent ob¬ 
server doubts these statements. They are self-evi¬ 
dent and proven beyond any shadow of doubt. They 
must be accepted without equivocation or mental 
reservation by those concerned in the work of plant 
breeding. The degree and frequency of variation in 
plants, or plant parts, depends upon the individual 
plant, the strain, the variety, and the species. Cer¬ 
tain species are more variable than others in the 
same genera. Varieties are not alike in the degree 
and frequency of variability, as is also the case with 
the strains within these varieties. The individual 
plants in a strain vary in their growth and behavior. 

ever hope to eliminate variability if it is universally 
present and active in plant life? We cannot. It is 
fortunate that we are not able to do so, because 
herein lies the basis for plant improvement through 
selection. We cannot eliminate variation in either 
seed or bud propa¬ 
gated plants, but we 
can control it. In the 
control of variation 
arises the necessity 
for, and the desirabil¬ 
ity of, seed and bud 
selection. While we 

have a theory to ac¬ 
count for the variation 
of seedlings, there is 
no generally accepted 
theory to account for 
bud variation. This is 
not an argu ment 
against bud selection 
any more than because 
we do not fully under¬ 
stand electricity we 

should not attempt to 
control and utilize it. 

If we haci waited for 
a generally accepted 
theory of electricity 
before using it, we 

would still be without 

telephones, trolley cars, electric lights, or the other 
almost numberless necessities based upon electric 
energy. While we may not agree as to how plant 
cells vary during cell division, as contrasted with 
fecundation, we now know that they do vary. These 
variations are frequently very striking and important 
to the propagator and grower of vegetatively propa¬ 
gated plants. 


citrus and other plants propagated by budding, 

grafting or from cuttings, some of the striking limb 
variations arising from bud mutations are frequently 
used in propagation and give rise to trees, or groups 
of trees or plants, differing from all other individ¬ 
uals of the variety in one or more constant and 
recognizable characteristics which are capable of 
perpetuation through vegetable propagation. If the 
strains arising from bud variations are of value 
they are often propagated commercially, and are 
usually classified as distinct varieties by propagators 
and others. The origin of -strains from bud varia¬ 
tions in vegetatively propagated plants is similar to 
the origin of strains in seed propagated plants. In 
the orange, or the apple, tree limb sports can be, and 
frequently have been, propagated by selecting bud 
wood from limb sports. The progeny of a limb sport 
will vary, in some cases much more than others, and 
through continued bud selection, based upon indi¬ 
vidual-tree performance records and intimate tree 
knowledge, commercially uniform strains can be 
isolated and developed. 

ers occasionally find a strange tree in their young 
orchards, differing from the other trees and ap¬ 
parently belonging to a different variety. In some 
cases these strange trees are simply individuals of 

Smoothing Irrigation Furrows. Fig. 3 

other established and well-known varieties. In such 
instances the mixture in the planting has come about 
as a result of carelessness in propagation. Again, 
the strangers may be seedlings, the development of 
stocks in which the buds have failed to grow. Or, 
•these trees may be the result of true bud variation. 
I feel very sure that such is the case much ofteucr 
than is ordinarily thought to be the case. Whenever 
a fruitgrower finds a strange tree in his orchard 
which cannot be identified as belonging to any known 
variety, my experience is that he immediately jumps 
to the conclusion that it is a seedling. In over one 
hundred cases that I have personally studied, this 
explanation of the appearance of an off-type tree 
has been the invariable rule. It is not strange, be¬ 
cause we have all 'been taught that this is the cor¬ 
rect explanation of variable trees. The propagators, 
the scientists, the teachers, and the neighbors have 
always, in my experience, said that these strange 
trees were seedlings. It must be so. It is not so in 
many cases. In fact I would say in most cases that I 

fruit varieties opens up within the reach of all. If 
we begin to look for bud variations and bud sports 
these observations will lend interest to and pleasure 
in the work of fruit growing. If we will accept the 
fact that limb variations often occur in fruit trees 
which can be propagated through bud selection, we 
then have a direct and forceful incentive for careful 
observation of trees, foliage, flowers, and fruits. If 
we believe that the valuable limb variations can he 
developed, with a reasonable degree of certainty, 
into strains and varieties, then how fascinating are 
the possibilities in finding valuable sports for the 
benefit of horticulture. a. d. shamel. 

On Left, Typical 'Navel Orange; on Right, Corrugated Sport. Fig. 4 

have investigated il is not so. These strange trees are 
often the result of bud variations. After I got some 
of the facts of bud variation through my head, and cut 
loose from the habit of calling every variable tree a 
seedling, I began to study intelligently the origin of 
some of the variable trees which are to be found in 
nearly every young orchard. I say young orchard 
because many growers either top-work or replant 
the extremely variable trees after the tree character¬ 
istics have become fully established. 

BUD SPORTS.—In my opinion the histories of 
the origin of many of our fruit varieties are of 
doubtful value because of the age-long tendency to 
call every available tree a seedling. No tree should 
be called a seedling unless it is positively known 
that such is the case. Nor should any variety be 
said to be of seedling origin unless it can be shown 
certainly that this is the absolute truth. If avo 
accept the fact of bud variation, then a wonderful 
and very practical field of plant improvement in 

Specialized Farm Implements 

F EW of us realize how methods and implements 
are modified by crops and conditions. For ex¬ 
ample, go into a section where potato growing is the 
chief business on a large scale, and you will find 
that the more enterprising farmers have developed 
certain methods and implements which are especially 
useful in that locality. In Southern New Jersey, 
where the land is level and easily worked, we have 
seen implements that Avere new to us giving great 
satisfaction to the farmers. In sex'eral cases they 
worked so well that AA’e were tempted to buy the 
machines, and Avhen putting them at work on our 
own farm avg found them next to useless, because 
the conditions Avere entirely different from those 
Avliich were responsible for the development of those 
machines. In this Axmy many useful implements 
have been devised, although their use is usually con¬ 
fined to certain localities. For example, the Depart¬ 
ment of Agriculture has issued a bulletin on the 
beet sugar industry of the United States. Sugar 

beet growing is noAV 
pretty much confined 
to the Far West where 
irrigation is practiced, 
and the two imple¬ 
ments which are pic¬ 
tured herewith give an 
idea of what AA'e are 
talking about in con¬ 
nection Avith local de¬ 
velopment. The im¬ 
plement shown at Fig. 
3 is used in smoothing 
out irrigation furrows 
in a sugar beet field. 
These big chunks of 
wood plow or crush 
through the soil and 
make passages for the 
water down along the 
rows of beets. The 
other implement shoAA's 
a float also used in 
the sugar beet country 
to level down the seed 
bed Avhere the beets 
are planted. Of course this irrigation tool would 
be of little use outside of the irrigating district, but 
the float looks as though it might have a use in 
man^ other parts of the country where land is fitted 
for drilled seed. 

Another instance of the way this development is 
made can be found in the irrigating ditches. Many 
years ago in Colorado the writer of this worked on 
an irrigated farm. Water was plentiful, and there 
Avas no need of saving it. It ran over the land in 
open ditches annually plowed out or dug, so that a 
large part of the Avater was wasted by soaking into 
the ground where there were no crops. Then as 
this Avater became more necessary efforts Avere made 
to stop this waste by the use of ditches lined with 
1 lank or concrete. This held the water and carried 
it from one field to another, so that it could not soak 
aAvay during its passage. As farming goes on, peo- 
ple will be obliged to make greater use of water,* 
especially in garden operations, and one great prob¬ 
lem of the future will be to provide a water supply 
and prevent it from being wasted. 

Leveling Seed Bed for Sugar Beets. Fig. 5 

npHE Government figures show that as compared 
A Avith last year the supplies of poultry run about 
SO per cent, Avith eggs about 90 per cent. Our own 
reports indicate that these figures are too high. We 
believe the supplies of poultry have fallen off at 
least 25 per cent, from last year. AAdiile the demand 
for meat and eggs is increasing. That is Avhy Ave 
feel sure that the business in breeding stock and eggs 
next Spring must Increase. The rush to get back 
into poultry-keeping has begun. During the past 
hard years we have advised those of our readers who 
could raise the needed capital to hang on and im¬ 
prove their flocks. 



Warm and Safe for 
Farm Family 

When the work takes you away for the day in barns or fields, or to town, the family will 
be safe and comfortable with IDEAL-AMERICAN heating, making the 
whole bouse as warm as June 

IDEAL-AMERICAN heating is the best paying, most 
economical equipment you can put on your farm. It is a 
permanent improvement and a wise investment—never wears out, 
always on the job, burns any fuel you have, and gives the most 
heat at the least cost. Thousands of farm homes which are Ideally 
heated do not know the terrors of the hard winters. 

You can buy an IDEAL-AMERI¬ 
CAN Radiator Heating Outfit for 
fewer bushels of grain than you 
could in 1916! Think it over! 

IDEAL Boilers 
will supply ample 
heat on one charg¬ 
ing of coal tor 8 to 
24 hours, depend¬ 
ing on severity of 
weather. Every 
ounce of fuel is 
made to yield Ut¬ 
most results. 

It means better health for the family, less 
labor for you, absolute comfort, and a hap¬ 
pier, easier life on the farm. 

— Not necessary to have 

rfj! j j water pressure. You get 

u/77\ b ac k the first cost even 
if you sell or lease, and 
you get big yearly fuel 
Ld savings; so why delay 
on a sure, high-paying 
v investment like this ? 

Call up your dealer today and ask him to 
give you an estimate for installing 
IDEAL-AMERICAN heating this week. 

It can be done in a few days in any kind of 
buildings without disturbing the family. 

Send for our Free Heating Book 

We want you to have a copy of “Ideal 
Heating.” It goes into the subject very com¬ 
pletely and tells you things you ought to 
know about heating your home. Puts you 
under no obligation to buy. 

Our IDEAL Hot 
Water Supply Boil¬ 
ers will supply 
plenty of warm wa¬ 
ter for home and 
stock at small cost 
of few dollars for 
fuel for season. 
Temperature kept 
just right by Syl¬ 
phon Regulator. 
Write (or booklet. 

Sold by all deal¬ 
ers. No exclusive 


Write to 

Department F*10 


The growing of crops depends on RIOLOGICAL rather than CHEMICAL phenomena. 
Make the soil fit for the development >!’ the essential bacterial life ami you have what is 
recognized as a fertile soli. Maintain til's fertility ami profitable crops will result. 

All organic matter in the soil, i. e., humus, manure or green crops turned under, must 
be broken down and transformed by these bacteria before it can be used by the plant. 


In order that these essential bacteria may exist and work. They cannot live under ncid 
conditions. An acid soil is of necessity bacterially dead, or, in other words, agriculturally 
dead. Dead soil can never be farmed at a profit. 


16% Phosphoric Acid 7% Barium Sulphide 

is a mixture of an alkaline salt of barium and phosphate of lime. Phosphorus and decay¬ 
ing organic matter are the two substances which constitute the key to profitable systems of 
permanent agriculture on most normal soils* Barium-Phosphate, in addition to supplying 
phosphorus in a most desirable form. 



Used in combination with manure or plowed under with green crops, Barium-Phosphate 
will produce profitable yields and build up the fertility of your land. 

It will pay you to write for our book which describes Barium-Phosphate and Ha uses. 

Witherbee, Sherman & Company, Inc. 

2 Rector Street, New York City 


When you write advertisers mention The R. N.-Y. and you’ll get a 
quick reply and a “square deal.” See guarantee editorial page. 

Applying Manure to Asparagus 

When is the best time to spread manure 
on asparagus bed? I am told not till 
ground freezes solid, say in February. 
Could it be spread now with as good re¬ 
sults? E. L. C. 

Gwynedd, Pa. 

The best time to apply manure to as¬ 
paragus is a question upon which some 
of our best authorities disagree. Some 
advocate putting on in the Fall or Win¬ 
ter. and some advise not to apply it until 
early Spring, just before growth starts, 
giving as their reasons that -when applied 
in Spring the plants will get the full 
benefit of the manure, as very little if any 
of the fertilizers will be lost by evapora¬ 
tion or excessively deep leaching into the 
soil. The latter argument seems the 
more reasonable, for it is a well-known 
fact plants cannot use any of the fer¬ 
tilizer when in a dormant state, and 
when manures are applied in the Fall or 
early Winter, particularly in sandy soil, 
and in localities where not much frost, 
occurs, the manure will leach badly and 
leachings will sink below the reach of 
the roots and be lost, whereas if ap¬ 
plied in Spring the plants will get the 
full benefit, as active growth soon com¬ 
mences, and the plants are then in the 
best possible condition to utilize it. K. 

Propagating Roses 

I have some beautiful tree roses, and 
wish to cut off some of this year’s 
branches and root them. How or when is 
the best time to do it, this Fall or in the 
Spring? And should I put the branches 
in sand or loam ? T. G. W. 

New York. 

We infer that these roses are Hybrid 
Remontants. Ripe wood cuttings may 
be taken in Autumn, and rooted in a 
cool greenhouse, but if you have no glass 
the easiest method is to root wood in the 
open ground in Summer. After flower¬ 
ing. take cuttings of ripe wood six or 
eight inches long; the shoots which have 
flowered are convenient for this. Trim 
off foliage, and set these in sandy soil, in 
a sheltered place in the garden, inserting 
in soil so that about two buds are ex¬ 
posed. Leave undisturbed until the fol¬ 
lowing Spring, when you will find most 
of them nicely rooted. They should be 
protected by some leaves or litter during 
the Winter. An easy way to propagate 
roses is by root cuttings, taken in the 
Fall, as soon as cool weather has checked 
their growth. This plan is very, satisfac¬ 
tory with varieties difficult to propagate 
from cuttings, such as the moss roses. 
Part of the roots may be uncovered and 
removed without digging up the whole 
plant. The larger roots are best, hut one 
not more than one-sixteenth of an inch in 
diameter may be used. Cut the root into 
pieces two to three inches in length, and 
pack between layers of damp moss in a 
perfectly clean box or large flower pot. 
If sphagnum moss cannot be procured, 
clean sharp sand may be used in its place. 
The box or pot must be well drained, and 
free from mold or disease germs. Put 
the receptacle in a cool cellar, where the 
cuttings may be examined occasionally, 
and water given if needed. If too slow in 
making buds they may be put in a warmer 
place; if too advanced they should be re¬ 
tarded. but they should he showing strong 
buds in Spring. The cuttings are then 
put in drills in the open ground, cov¬ 
ered two inches deep, and given clean 
cultivation. Good strong plants are se¬ 
cured the first season. A good many 
roses are propagated, under glass, from 
cuttings of green wood, during the first 
three months of the year, but this re¬ 
quires greenhouse conditions. 

A Back-to-the-l.aider's Vtar 

One hack to-the-lnnder begs to report 
that he has little to offer you which might 
make “good copy” at the close of this, 
his initial year. Ilis assets, optimism, 
patience, some knowledge of plant life, 
good working ideas of poultry, hogs, etc., 
a little real knowledge of the mechanical 
side of handling crops, reasonable amount 
of capital, a wife filled with the spirit of 
pioneer forebears and a desire to help win 
the war. Some of the above might be lia¬ 

I don’t know if we helped win the war, 
for the early potato crop was drowned, 
but the family ate nothing which had to 
be purchased except cornmeal, sugar and 
coffee. Milk, eggs and butter took the 
place of meat, and the water abounded in 
fish, etc. There were many failures due 
to ignorance or bad advice, or too much 
advice, or unusual weather conditions. 
Failure of a lumber company to deliver 
material for a suitable habitation for the 
family, embargo on the incubator, then 
on the live chicks, then on the feed, all 
contributed to diminish the asset patience. 

Turning over the weeds in IS acres of 
corn with a four-cylinder mule and a 
plow when you have punctured both feet 
with tenpeniiy nails and can’t wear shoes, 
and the horseflies, gnats and mosquitoes 
are singing “Hail Columbia” aud the 
sweat blinding you so that you have to 
trust to chance and the mule, makes you 
see the hole in the optimist’s doughnut. 

Negro labor was drafted to a dangerous 
degree, and the only help was that given 
free by some energetic* ad kindly neigh¬ 
bor. Chores were sometimes completed by 
midnight, weeds were pulled when the 
moonlight helped. Mjiny things were neg¬ 
lected and much unnecessary labor done. 
But the corn made, a late crop of Hoosiers 
was sold direct to the consumer, hogs and 

January 4, 1019 

poultry made good returns, aud if we can 
only profit by our mistakes of the past 
year we will make good in 1919. 

The family is more than contented with 
the new existence, and hardships and dis¬ 
comforts even add zest. If we fail it won’t 
be because of lack of backbone or team 
work. The children bring the Hope 
Farm Man home to dinner every 
week-end, and sometimes he has good 
tidings for us. and then again the 
reverse. I thank him for that tribute to 
Mr. Merrill, the County Demonstrator. 
It was my good fortune to have been in 
close touch with him during the last 
years of my residence in Bergen County, 
N. J., and the charm of his personality 
left an impression upon me at the begin¬ 
ning of our acquaintance which I have 
always retained. His tact, sympathetic 
intuition and unselfishness was a spur to 
me and to others to help our respective 
communities. albekt a. riohards. 


Shavings in Stable Manure 

We would like your suggestion as to 
the comparison of stable manure with 
straw for bedding and shavings for bed¬ 
ding. We are buying manure of the lat¬ 
ter variety to cover strawberries. We 
believe it is said to sour the ground. We 
would like to know its value (some of it 
fresh and some well rotted). f. b. 

Summit, N. J. 

The shavings contain considerable acid, 
and unless they are thoroughly soaked 
with the liquid manure, or lime is used 
with them, they will sour the ground. 
They are not well suited as a mulch for 
covering strawberries, since they pack too 
closely down over the plants. A mulch 
for berries should be coarse and open, so 
ns to prevent freeze and thaw during the 
weather changes, and not shut off the 
supply of air. 

Chemical Lime 

What is chemical lime? How does it 
differ from hydrated or burnt lime? 
What amount is advised per acre of each 
of these, as well as ground limestone? R. 

Dunkirk, N. Y. 

As we understand it. “chemical lime” 
is a trade name for refined lime so pure 
that it can be used in certain manufac¬ 
turing processes. It would not pay to 
use chemical lime for agricultural pur¬ 
poses. Limestone, when fully burned, 
loses its carbonic acid and becomes what 
is called burnt, stone, lump or quicklime. 
When this is ground fine and sprayed with 
just enough water to slake it fully, it is 
called hydrated lime. The usual “burnt” 
lime used by farmers is the lump or stone 
lime slaked by air or water. The usual 
proportions for use on soil would be 800 
lbs. of hydrated, 1.200 to 1.500 lbs. of 
burnt lime, and 2,500 lbs. or more of 

Chestnut Kindling Wood 

Dead chestnut, cut into kindling wood, 
finds a ready sale in the cities aud larger 
towns. From this neck of the Ramapo 
woods, four two-horse loads and two 
motor-truck loads are sold every other 
day in Paterson, at the rate of three bar¬ 
rels full for $1. The local blacksmith 
has set up a sawing outfit which anyone 
may use on payment of a fee. Four per¬ 
sons get their whole livelihood from this 
traffic. c. A. w. 

Pompton, N. J. 

Bees and Sheep 

Qo roy recent journey I saw more small 
k*- of sheep '■.ban I expected, but saw 
very few hive' of bees. Why do not more 
rural people keep bees? 

Pennsylvania. frank waring. 

The sheep are coming. Many small 
flocks will be kept to supply the family 
with yarn. To that extent we are going 
hack to “the good old days.” As for bees, 
the chief reason seems to be that people 
are afraid of being stung. 

Lime on Strawberries 

Is lime beneficial to strawberries on 
sandy loam? I am using hen dressing 
and acid phosphate. R. n. h. 


Lime has injured strawberry plants in 
every case we have observed. On our 
own soil the use of lime or wood ashes 
in reasonable quantities has stunted or 
stopped growth. We have often observed 
this in fields or gardens where a brush 
pile has been burned. The plants where 
this fire was made are never equal to 
those in the rest of the field. On the 
other hand, we have heard from a few 
growers ivho say they use wood ashes for 
fertilizing strawberries with good results. 
From our own experience we would never 
use lime on this crop. 

Moldy Silage 

I notice W. C.’s silo trouble, page 
1392. I have had the same experience, 
and have overcome it. W. C.’s silo is too 
large for the number of cows he keeps. 
The top of his silage dries out and then it 
heats till it becomes moldy. If he will 
wet the silage about once a week in the 
silo quite thoroughly, or as often as it re¬ 
quires, his trouble with moldy silage will 
stop. I think as soon as the weather be¬ 
comes colder he will not be troubled in 
any case. P. F. g. 

Clare, Mich. 


, “Frost-proof Cabbage Plants” 

Among “Brevities,” page 1384. this at¬ 
tracted my attention: “ ‘Frost-proof cab¬ 
bage plants.' That, is what some Southern 
dealers are offering. Is there any such 
thing? We say no!” This point is of 
such vital importance to growers of early 
cabbage that it vk-ould be thoroughly un¬ 

Undoubtedly under certain conditions 
cabbage plants can be grown that will not 
only withstand light frosts, such as would 
be disastrous to tender vegetables, but 
even severe freezes, without damage. In 
fact, it is the general practice in the 
trucking sections along the Atlantic coast 
from Norfolk southward, to plant cab¬ 
bage for the early crop in late Fall or 
early Winter. The land is usually thrown 
up in ridges, and the plants set on the 
south side near the base for protection 
from rigorous north winds. During spe¬ 
cially trying seasons like last Winter 
much of the crop is lost, but the success 
of average seasons justifies Hie practice. 

The cabbage plant is so constituted that 
when soft and watery by reason of rapid 
growth, such as might be secured in a 
well-conditioned hotbed, it is injured by 
frost almost as readily as tender plants 
like tomatoes; but when properly hard¬ 
ened off, or grown in cool weather, or 
even in warm weather on poor soil or 
with scant moisture supply, in fact any 
condition that produces a hard stem and 
tough, leathery leaf, will make the plant 
immune from serious damage even during 
quite severe freezes. This being the case, 
the growing of cabbage plants commer¬ 
cially for shipment has become a .business 
of considerable importance at certain 
points in Georgia and South Carolina, 
and probably other States, especially on 
the islands along the coast, protected 
from severe temperatures by surround¬ 
ing waters. 

The seed is sown in the Fall, in open 
ground, acres in extent at some points. 
The plants grow slowly through the mild 
Winter, sometimes being injured more or 
less in foliage during severe weather, and 
occasionally frozen outright, as happened 
with the greater portion last Winter; but 
wnen mild weather returns the disabled 
plants perish outright, and the rest speed¬ 
ily recover, and when Spring comes usu¬ 
ally millions of plants are shipped from 
these points to points North and West, 
where they are planted as early as the 
soil may be prepared, with fair assurance 
that they will not be subjected to lower 
temperatures than they withstood where 
grown. In appearance such plants would 
not compare at all favorably with bright, 
shapely plants ’.hat may be grown in hot¬ 
bed and cold-frame, but if they are good 
stock and the period after planting should 
prove cold and frosty, they would prove 
superior. It is possible that . combina¬ 
tion of weather conditions might greatly 
impair the frost-resisting qualities of 
these Southern plants. For instance, if 
warm, moist weather should prevail for a 
period in early Spring in the section 
where the plants are grown, and force 
rapid, soft growth, while the distant acres 
that are to receive them are icebouud by 
a late season, naturally much of their 
frost-resisting quality would be lost. 

Doubtless these Southern-grown plants 
at a moderate price are a great conveni¬ 
ence and profitable to many growers, but 
personally I think every trucker and gar¬ 
dener greatly increases his risks when he 
depends on someone else to raise his 
plants, and the South has no monopolv 
on frost-proof cabbage plants. Most 
growers know how to produce them fairly 
frost-proof by hardening hotbed-grown 
plants in cold frames. In a large way 
this is rather laborious and expensive, 
but apparently very few are aware how 
readily thoroughly frost-proof cabbage 
plants may be had in northern latitudes 
by wintering plants over in frames cov¬ 
ered with board shutters, instead of sash, 
in severe weather. When living near 
Harrisburg, Pa., I wintered them by thou¬ 
sands in that way. The seed wac sown 
about September 15, and the plant, set in 
cold frames the latter part of November. 
The plants were usually set very close, 
three in a bunch, the buncliet two inches 
apart and in three-inch rows. This 
packed them quite close, more than 1,000 
plants per frame 3xG ft. As severe weath¬ 
er came on they were covered with shut¬ 
ters. With some care as to ventilation or 
uncovering during mild weather, they 
came out in fine condition for early plant¬ 
ing in the Spring. During mid-Winter, 
when the ground was frozen and the shut¬ 
ters covered with snow, there were weeks 
together when no attention was required. 
Not all varieties of cabbage plants are 
well adapted to wintering over. Early 
•Tersey Wakefield is well adapted, while 
that splendid new variety, Copenhagen 
Market, is said to bolt to seed under this 
treatment. d. l. habtman. 


Early Potatoes in Maryland 

I was interested in article on Irish 
Cobbler on page 1377. I wish to plant 
early potatoes next season, harvest same 
and plant late cabbage and mangel beets 
on same plot, for chickens. Is this feas¬ 
ible? I have considerable hen manure 
saved up under shelter, but hen manure 
alone I have found makes white potatoes 
grow into vines; no potatoes. Please ad¬ 
vise how to proceed to realize on above 
plan. Do you think I can, here in Mary¬ 
land, at the foot of the Blue Ridge, get 
two crops as above outlined, in one sea¬ 
son, on the same plot, about two acres? 

Thurmont, Md. j. H. p. 

In Frederick County, Md., I suppose 


that you can get the early potatoes plant¬ 
ed before the end of March, and it would 
probably be July before they are ma¬ 
ture enough to dig. Having good strong 
cabbage plants ready to set then, you can 
make the cabbages if the soil is heavily 
manured and well cultivated, but can 
hardly do much with the mangels, and if 
wanted for chickens you would better 
plant the whole area in cabbages. The 
hen manure will be all right for the po¬ 
tatoes if you will mix it about equally 
with acid pho sphate of the 16 per cent 
grade. Hen manure alone will give you 
an excess of nitrogen and top growth rath¬ 
er than tubers. But it would be better 
to get a good commercial fertilizer for the 
potatoes and use the hen manure on the 
cabbages. You can make a fertilizer by 
mixing dried blood and acid phosphate 
equally, and using 1,000 lbs. of this per 
acre for the potatoes. Whether your soil 
will be in condition to prepare and plant 
in March you know better than I do. 
Here we can plant potatoes in late Febru¬ 
ary, but conditions in your mountain 
country are very different. If you can dig 
early potatoes in July I can see no reason 
why you cannot make the cabbages if you 
use varieties like Fottler’s Brunswick 
and Early Drumhead. Use the fertilizer 
in the furrows for the potatoes and set 
the cabbages in the same rows and then 
spread the hen manure along the rows and 
cultivate it in. If the cabbages late in 
the Fall seem inclined to be slow heading, 
run a shovel plow deeply between the 
rows, cutting some of the roots and they 
will head more rapidly. w. F. jiassey. 

A Tree Tenement 

t Here is a tree that holds eight separate 
bird-houses. The picture was made before 
the tree leafed out last Spring, else the 
houses would be difficult to photograph. 



(40 Pages in Natural 

A postcard will 
bring it. 51 
years* quality 
standard behind 
every sale 
whether "a pack¬ 
et or carload.” 

Write for 
your copy today 

America’s Largest Mail Order Seed House 


Vegetable Seeds—Flower Seeds—Clovers—Alfalfa—Timothy—Sudan. 
Seed Corn—Seed Wheat—Seed Oats—Plants—Seed Potatoes—Rape. 

It has always been our policy to supply the highest quality seeds 
humanly possible to grow, so that every purchase, no matter how 
small or how large, will, in results and satisfaction, continue to retain 
for us the good will and patronage responsible for our present Iarg 3 


“America’* Headquarter • for Field Seed*" 

Box 144 La Crosse, Wis. 

Fnr 9ivtv.fivo YaoPc thousands of farmers and gar- 
OlXiy riVC * CaiS deners have bought and planted 
vegetable and farm seeds, fruit and shade trees, plants 
and shrubs, that have been grown by 

The Storrs & Harrison Co. 

America’s Largest Departmental Nursery 

1200 acres of fruit and shade trees, evergreens,' shrubs 
and plants; 48 greenhouses for house and bedding plants, 
palms and roses. 

Our 1919 Seed Catalogue 

is a complete book of seeds, fruit trees, berry bushes, 
shade trees, evergreens for farm planting. Everything 
needed can be ordered from its pages; send for free copy. 


Box 615, Painesville, Ohio 

The Tree Tenement and Its Bird Houses 

ihe most interesting fact is that this tree 
and its houses is owned by a city man, a 
bachelor, who lives alone on the corner 
of a big lot. This lot is all fixed up for 
the pleasure of the children of the neigh¬ 
borhood. There are all kinds of play¬ 
things, among them a miniature fort and 
a cannon fastened to it. There is a big 
slab of slate tilted on a table on which 
the boys and girls are privileged to draw 
pictures as their childish ideas may dic¬ 
tate. There is a tiny little lakelet, too 
shallow # to drown anyone, but the boat 
may swim around in it. There are other 
queer devices meant for the unrestrained 
enjoyment of the youngsters, and out of 
one corner of the lot grows this bird- 
house tree. No feathered tenant of the 
place is ever disturbed by the boys. The 
place bears the name of Camp Glory, and 
on every sunny day the Stars and Stripes 
float from a tall substantial staff set deep 
in the yard. j. l. graff. 

Spinning Wheels Wanted 

I see occasional references to hand 
spinning wheels. Can you tell me who 
makes them or where they may be had? 

G. R. 

We know of no concern manufacturing 
these wheels now, and think many of 
them were made by local carpenters. If 
anyone knows of a factory or stock of 
these wheels we shall be glad to have the 

Sauerkraut with Milk 

Can you find a sauerkraut recipe that 
takes two tablespoonfuls of milk to so 
many pounds of cabbage? I have forgot¬ 
ten the amount of cabbage in this recipe. 
The sauerkraut is ready to use in two 
weeks after making. 

Are you having any speeches printed 
in the Record?” “No," answered Senator 
Sorghum; “I’ve decided that it’s a saving 
all ’round for me to throw them into the 
wastebasket myself .”—Washington Star. 

That s what Forrest Seeds are—tested and 
of known lineage, true to name. Our country 
location and low running expenses with no 
high priced catalogs, enable us to give you 
the best of seeds at very low prices. You 
can save 30$ eonsed your bill. 

Honest Seeds Square Dealings — Low Prices. Let us convince you. Write for catalog today 
FORREST SEEP CO,, Box 32, Cortland, N. Y. 


GARDEN /-JTTTUt'n' for_. 


Several New Features. -s- 

Based on our experience as the ■> 
oldest mail order seed concern and largest - 
grower of Asters and other seeds in America. 

••oO acres and 12 greenhouses in best seed grow- \ 
iug section. Our Guide is full of helpful informa¬ 
tion about planting, etc.—an invaluable aid to a 
successful garden. Illustrates and describes leading 
Vegetables, Flowers, Farm Seeds, Plants and Fruits 
This book, the best we have issued, is yours, ab¬ 
solutely free. 

Ask for your copy today before you forget. 


39 Stone Street, Rochester, N. Y. 

The Flower City 


Golden Orange, Flint. Giant, Ensil¬ 
age, Yellow Pride. 95 bu. sacked. 
8peclal prices oncar lots. Order Ear¬ 
ly. Kerry Vail, New Millard, Orange Co.. M.T. 

Cuiael Plnuar Unliulled white is best. $< Bu. Sow now 
0WBBI UlOYBl A BLOOMINGDaLE, Sciikskctady, N Y 



West Branch Sweepstakes and West Branch White Cap 
Yellow Dent, Grown by members of the undersigned As¬ 
sociation. All seed inspected by a representative of the 
Penn. State College before shipment. For prices write 


Have a Successful Garden^ 

Harris Seeds are used by the best market garden¬ 
er* because by careful selection and breeding we 
have wonderfully improved some varieties. Private 
gardens can obtain better results because all varieties are 
tested and the percentage that will germinate is marked on the 
label so you can tell iust how many will grow before you sow 
them. Harris is the Seedman who tells you the result of his - 
tests. Send for our free Catalog of Vegetable ,)L 
Field Anri Flnw<»r- ----- _ ^ 

and Flower 
Seeds — Find out 
about the Harris system 
and buy these superior 

seeds direct from 
our farms at whole¬ 
sale prices. 


Box 22 Coldwater, N. Y- 


Label on every Lot 
Tells how man 


According fo our tests 

98 percent 

of this seed germinates 


January 4, 1919 


Garden and Poultry 

The Egg-laying Contests 

The seventh egg-laying contest at 
Storrs, Conn., which closed Oct. 31, 1918, 
was in some respects the most remarkable 
contest yet held at Storrs. One pen laid 
more eggs than any pen had previously 
produced in all the seven years, and one 
individual hen laid more eggs than had 
ever been laid before at this contest. , A 
pen of 10 “Oregons,” entered by the Ore¬ 
gon Agricultural College at Corvallis, 
Ore., laid 2,352 eggs. 

In the last five years the poultry de¬ 
partment at Storrs has trap-nested 5.000 
hens, representing 30 different breeds and 
varieties, including birds from Canada 
and England, and the American birds 
from Oregon have outlaid them all. These 
“Oregons” are a cross of Barred Rock on 
White Leghorns, the progeny being mated 
to White Leghorns, until there is nothing 
to distinguish them in appearance from 
purebred Leghorns. Crossing breeds has 
never been advocated in this country, to 
any extent, but in England it is practiced 
extensively when breeding for utility pur¬ 
poses. In my English poultry magazine 
there are nearly as many advertisements 
of cross-bred pullets for sale as there are 
of purebreds. In poultry magazines 
in this country it would be difficult to find 
a single cross-breed offered. The per¬ 
formance of these “Oregons” raises a 
question as to whether we have not some¬ 
thing to learn in this direction. 

The best individual record was made 
by a White Wyandotte owned by Obed 
G. Knight. This hen laid 308 eggs. That 
is surpassed by only one official record 
made in the United States. At the Penn¬ 
sylvania contest a White Leghorn hen 
laid 314 eggs. This hen was raised in 
Maryland and bred from a Tom Barron 

So far only four American hens have 
reached or passed the 300-egg mark. 
They are as follows: 

White Leghorn. Delaware Contest, 314. 

White Wyandotte, Connecticut Con¬ 
test, 308. 

“Oregon,” Oregon Agricultural College, 

White Rock, Vineland Contest, 301. 

In this Storrs contest the best Barred 
Rock laid 204 eggs, the best White Leg¬ 
horn laid 233; the best R. I. Red laid 

The grand total for all the 1,000 birds 
was 15S,920. This was not so large an 
output as the previous year. It is about 
4% eggs less per bird. 

The average for all the 1,000 birds is 
158.9. This is a high average. It is gen¬ 
erally supposed that it requires about 100 
eggs in these days of high feed costs to 
pay for a hen’s keeping. What she lays 
above 100 can be counted as profit. On 
this basis these were very profitable hens 
to keep. 

In the next contest at Storrs there will 
be no English pens, for the first time 
since the contests were instituted. The 
reasons are that it costs now about $100 
to ship a pen of 10 birds from England, 
and a permit from that Government must 
be obtained; also, Storrs has to get a 
permit from our Government to import 
them; cargo space was needed too badly 
for other purposes, so Prof. Kirkpatrick 
was instructed to cable English entrants 
that their birds could not be received. 


No fair comparison can be made be¬ 
tween the Storrs and Vineland egg-laying 
record this last year, because the birds at 
Vineland have already been laying for a 
year. Their record is their second year’s 
laying, while the Storrs record is of pul¬ 
lets’ first-year laying. The total number 
laid at Storrs is 158,920; at Vineland 
129,499, or only 29,421 fewer than at 
Storrs. This is about 29% eggs 
less per bird in the whole year. JThese 
same birds at Vineland laid 101,875 eggs 
in their pullet year, showing a drop in 
their second year of 32,376. This drop 
in egg production I commented upon in 
an article published in the Dec. 7, 1918, 
issue of The R. N.-Y., page 13S9. In 
their pullet year at Vineland White Leg¬ 
horns won all the honors, taking first, 
second, third, fourth and fifth place. All 
these five pens laid over 2,000 eggs each. 

The winning pen, owned by J. Percy 
Van Zandt of New Jersey, laid 2.212 eggs, 
second place being taken by I\ G. Platt’s 
pen from Pennsylvania—record, 2.173, 
and third place by Shutts & Voegten, 
Lebanon, N. Y. 

Only one of the hundred pens laid less 
than 1,000 eggs. A pen of Buff Wyan- 
dottes laid only 897 eggs the first year, 
but the same pen laid 919 the second 

year. . 

The best pens of each breed, and their 
first and second year output is as follows: 

Barred Rocks. 

White Rocks . 

Columbia Rocks. 

White Wyandottes .... 

Col. Wyandottes . 

Buff Wyandottes. 

R. I. Reds. 

White Leghorns . 

Buff Leghorns. 

Black Leghorns. 

























A pen of White Leghorns owned by 
John R. Lander of Vineland made the 
best second-year record, namely, 1,776 

eggs; the first-year record of the same pen 
was 1,851. Leghorns in the second year 
made the seven highest records. When 
American poultrymen thoroughly under¬ 
stand the supreme importance of the 
male bird, and that the high-producing 
hen transmits her egg-laying qualities 
through her sons, not through her daugh¬ 
ters, and that, if a breeding pen of hens 
is worth $50 the male fit to go with it 
should be worth $25 (for he is the most 
important half of the pen), then we may 
expect big progress in the poultry indus¬ 

Feed for the Hens 

The New Jersey Experiment Station 
poultrymen say there are probably no 
better mixtures than a scratch grain ra¬ 
tion composed of five parts of corn, two 
parts of oats, two parts of barley and one 
part of wheat; and a dry mash mixture 
composed of equal parts of wheat bran, 
wheat middlings, ground oats, cornmeal 
and meat scrap. 

During the Winter about equal parts 
of grain and mash are given. During 
Summer and Fall the amount of grain is 
reduced. The following table shows the 
amount of grain to feed layers during 
the different months in the year, with the 
division between morning and night feed¬ 
ings : 

Daily Grain Division Bet. 

Ration per 


100 birds 

A. M. P. M. 






.... 12 


and 8 


.... 12 


and 8 


.... 12 


and 8 


.... 12 


and 8 

March . 

.... 12 


and 8 

April . 

.... 12 


and S 



and 6 




and 6 


.... S 


and 5 

August . ... 



and 4 

Sept. .. 

.... 5 


and 3 




and 3 

Poultry-house for One Hundred Birds 

Will you give me the dimensions for a 
chicken-house, shed-roof, for 100 B. P. R. 
and R. I. R. fowls, and the amount of 
lumber it will take? w. c. B. 

Madisouville, Pa. 

A poultry-house for 100 fowls of any 
of the larger breeds should have a floor 
space of about 400 square feet, and might 
well be 20 feet square. It should be high 
enough to give ample head room in any 
part of the interior, but need be no higher. 
A height of eight feet at the front, five 
feet at the rear, would be about right. 
As it might be difficult to get 20-ft. raft¬ 
ers, short ones might be spliced and sup¬ 
ported by posts in the center of the build¬ 
ing. A building of these dimensions 
would give maximum economy in lumber, 
with a depth that would make open-front 
ventilation practicable without drafts over 
the perches in the rear. The exact 
amount of lumber needed will, of course, 
depend upon the style of construction, but 
the most economical will be with walls 
of matched stuff in single thickness, 
boards placed vertically from sill to plate. 
Double boarding is unnecessary if all 
■walls but the front are air tight. The 
roof should be tight boarded and covered 
with a good grade of prepared, roofing. 
The floor may be of dry earth, boards or 
concrete, the latter being the most satis¬ 
factory. M. B. D. 

Notes from a Maryland Garden 

Our beautiful December is drawing 
towards its close, and as last noted we 
are now, December 20, still getting our 
daily supply of lettuce crisp and fresh 
from the open garden and have not 
touched that in the frames. Salsify is 
still growing, and the curled kale is in 
fine shape, while the spinach is growing 
so that there will hardly be any left for 
Spring, and we shall be obliged to sow 
again in late February. The White Celes¬ 
tial radishes got so overgrown and hot 
that last week we pulled them all and 
loaded them into a farmer’s wagon for 
his pigs, and the leeks are still growing. 

The high price of tobacco and cotton 
is reflected in my correspondence. When 
these staple crops of the South were low 
in price I got thousands of letters asking 
help in various ways, most of them want¬ 
ing to know what crop they could grow 
in place of cotton, their only idea seeming 
to be that they must grow a certain crop 
and gamble with the chances with com¬ 
mercial fertilizer to get the crop, not 
dreaming that by good farming with 
grain, legumes and live stock they could 
be independent of the cotton price or the 
boll weevil. Southern farmers have been 
mere planters for so many generations it 
is hard for most of them to learn real 
systematic farming. A certain notion in 
regard to crops gets prevalent, and all 
accept it without question or investiga¬ 
tion. For instance, it got abroad a few 
years ago that cow peas or clover would 
ruin the quality of the bright tobacco 
grown in North Carolina, and to some 
extent on the south side Virginia coun¬ 
ties. Then nearly every one of the to¬ 
bacco growers at once abandoned the use 
of clover or peas. This year a tobacco 
farmer, who sows Crimson clover every 
year, got the top price for his Gold-leaf 

tobacco, and perhaps others may learn 
to use their brain in farming. Here we 
have a trucking section. Our warm 
sandy soil is well suited to the production 
of vegetable crops for the Northern mar¬ 
kets and the canners, and by the liberal 
use of commercial fertilizers profitable 
crops can be grown. The result is that 
the general farming and stock feeding 
are neglected and the whole energy given 
to the small fruit and vegetable fields. 
While our farmers know well the value 
of cow peas. Soy beans and Crimson 
clover, they fail to take them into a sys¬ 
tematic farm rotation, but grow patches 
simply for hay. And they make the 
poorest of hay with them too. I have 
seen the past hot Summer cow peas mown 
and left for weeks on the ground to dry 
up in the sun, and when finally raked up 
the leaves, the best part of the hay, were 
all gone and a lot of sticks remained for 
hay. Crimson clover is treated in the 
same way, and allowed to bleach in the 
sun. instead of being cured in cocks, as 
all legume* hay should be, and gotten in 
while still somewhat limp. I once sent 
a sample of my cow pea hay to the editor 
of an agricultural paper. He was an 
Englishman, and paid it the highest com¬ 
pliment, as he thought, saying: “It is 
more like English hay than anything I 
have seen in America.” The leaves were 
perfectly cured, but still green in color, 
for the hay had been allowed to finish its 
drying in the barn, being got in before 
the leaves were dry and crumbling. 

In every Southern paper we see at 
times plans for all sorts of stakes and 
scaffolds for the curing of cow pea hay, 
and even the Washington department pub¬ 
lished directions for a sort of pyramidal 
frame to pile the hay on. In fact, the 
pea hay and all legume hay is as easy to 
cure as any hay, without any contrivance 
to spoil it, if we only remember that it 
should be cured in windrow and cock, and 
go into the barn before getting dry and 
crisp. Peas and Crimson clover rightly 
used in a good rotation with cotton and 
grain, will be the means for leading the 
South out of bondage to the fertilizer 
makers. The experience of some of the 
best farmers on this Eastern Shore of 
Maryland has shown that the soil can be 
brought up to a high state of productive¬ 
ness and never a pound of complete fer¬ 
tilizer used, only a carrier of phosphorus. 


Vinegar from Apple Parings 

If H. M., page 1337, will save, from 
time to time, and dry fruit parings, cores, 
etc., taking same care as of other dried 
fruit, leach with milk-warm water for 
about 36 hours in a warm place, about 
three pounds waste for one gallon water, 
keep in stone jugs or wooden kegs at tem¬ 
perature 75 to SO 0 F., he should have 
bright, fine-colored vinegar in a couple of 
months, if well managed. No metal con¬ 
tainers of any kind can be used. I am a 
practical vinegar maker of over 40 years’ 
experience. Thousands of tons are now 
used in about the way as above which 
used to be wasted. J. C. 

Manual of Vegetable Garden Insects, 
by C. R. Crosby and M. D. Leonard. A 
practical book giving life history and con¬ 
trol methods of the principal insects at¬ 
tacking truck and vegetable crops. It 
brings together in convenient form a mass 
of information ordinarily difficult of ac¬ 
cess, and includes many little-known in¬ 
sects now causing apprehension in various 
localities. Clearly written and freely il¬ 
lustrated; 391 pages; published by the 
Macmillan Company, New York; price 

“For the Land’s Sake, use Bowker’s 
Fertilizers; they enrich the earth and 
those who till it.”— Adv. 

Grow Trees That 

Trees from the Wood- 
lawn Nurseries are vigor¬ 
ous growers and bred-to- 
bear. Over 43 years suc¬ 
cessful growing expe¬ 
rience has been devoted 
to the production of thrifty 
strong rooted stock. We have the exclusive 
sale of the famous "Dr. Worcester ” Peach. 

The same time-proven dependability 
makes Woodlawn grown shrubs, flowering 
bushes and perennials safe investments. 
The moderate prices bring an individual 
and attractive garden within the most mod¬ 
erate means. 

Special Fruit Garden Offer. We offer a 
total of 149 plants, sufficient to supply the 
needs of one family, at a special combina¬ 
tion price. All the plants are sturdy Wood- 
lawn stock and require less care than veg¬ 
etables. Write for full particulars. 

Our illustrated 1919 Nursery List contains 
valuable planting and growing information 
as well as a catalog of select nursery stock. 
Mailed on request. 



880 Garaon Ave., Rocheater, N. Y. 


f COT]E 

Hulled and scarified white sweet clover is about 
^^k ten dollars per bushel cheaper than red. (Un- 
^^k hulled cheaper yet.) As itis a biennial, taking 
the place of red in the rotation and any 
amount better as aland builder, itis an eco- 
nomical substitute. Winter sowing is the 
best. Ask for samples and prices as well as 
our catalogue telling “How to Know Good 
Seed”. All other kinds of field seeds too. 

H 160 Main St. Marysville, Ohio 




pea 38 Hardy Tested Varieties 

Best for windbreaks, hedges and lawn 
planting. Protect buildings, crops, stock, 
gardens ami orchards. Hill’s Evergreens 
are Nursery grown and hardy every¬ 
where. Hill’s Evergreen book, illus¬ 
trated in colors, sent free. Write to-day. World’s 
largest growers. Eat. 1855. 

Box 2120 Evergroon Specialists 


Have Been the Standard for Over 

9 A Don’t waste time and 

uu I LirliYO. money with Inferior 

stock. $1000 per acre lias been made growing 
Strawberries and Raspberries. YOU can do 
as well with KNIGHT’S PLANTS. 

Write for FREE catalog today 


Lucky Boy Strawberries 

Biroer, Sweeter, and more pro¬ 
ductive than any other cverboar- 
injr strawberries. Fruits on 
sprintf set plants from June to 
November in the North and 
the year-round in the South. 
Our 20th Century Catalog 
fully describes this and 
more than fifty of the best 
standard varieties straw¬ 
berries, also other small 
fruit plants. Send postal 

R.R. No. 25, Salisbury, Md. 


-.-stalk: some had 

6. 10 neves from 50 yielded over 85 bushels per acre. 
This seed field, cured and selected, is now being test¬ 
ed. $5 per bush. HOLLYWOOD FARMS, Scottsburo, V*. 

For Sale SEED CORN- whAmt 

Produced 150 bushels ear corn per acre. Write for con¬ 
vincing sample. SB per hush. J. C0DDINGT0N, Glen Head, L. L 

For Sale-Fancy White Cap Dent Corn 

for seed. 84 pur bll. I>. BROWN & SON, Stanley, New York 

Cabbage, Celery, Onion Seed *1: 

lottery's Fruit and 

"iHlr Ornamental 

Grown in our upland nurseries (the largest in New York State), fresh dug, 
free from disease, propagated from bearing trees of known merit. Our 

Apple, Peach, Pear, Cherry, Plum. Quince, Small Fruits and Ornamentals are sold to you 
direct at cost plus one profit only. 35 years of active nursery experience is back of 
every tree—we grow our own stock and know we are sending just what you 
£*> order. Read the absolute guarantee in our Free Catalog; it shows we 
Saa* recognize our responsibility to the man who plants, and keep the quality up 
* and the cost down. 

Although there is a shortage of fruit trees this spring owing to the fact that 
the war has made it impossible to import as many seedlings during the past 
four years, those we have measured up to the Maloney Standard, and we 
will ship all orders in the order in which they are received. So we advise 
you to place your order early. 

Fredonia, Pa., Oct. to, tots 

Enclosed order is for the famous Hepting Orchard of which there are 
’ SOO flourishing young trees, all of the Maloney Pros. <0 Wells product, 
and the finest in this Community. Respectfully yours, R. IF. MOON. 

Small or large orders get the same attention. It will pay you to 
send for our Free Wholesale Catalog : it contains valuable infor¬ 
mation on fruit and shrubs and saves you money—write today. 

We Prepay Transportation Charges on all Orders for Over $4.00 

MALONEY BROS. & WELLS CO., 42 East Street, Dansville, N. Y. 

Bearing Age Trees a Specialty. Dansville’s Pioneer Wholesale Nurseries 
t&u ... (fl . 

Visit our 400-acre nurseries 



Arrangement of Farm Machinery 

I have carefully read the two articles 
in The It. N.-Y. which referred to belt¬ 
ing and shaft. I now come for more in¬ 
formation. My engine is 8 h.-p. gasoline, 
12-iu. pulley rated at 500 r. p. m.; fodder 
cutter, 12-in. pulley, to run at 500 r. p. 
m. Feed mill, 19-iu. pulley, to run at 125 
r. p. m. Grindstone, lS-in. pulley, to run 
at 50 r. p. m. The building to be used as 
a shop is 16 feet square, from 7*4 to 8 ft. 
high. If these machines were yours to 
use in this building, just what equipment 
would you consider necessary to give the 
most satisfactory results i F. D. H. 

Westwood, N. J. 

' It would be advisable to test your en¬ 
gine with a speed indicator, for frequently 
after a period of use the speed of an en¬ 
gine will drop off, making it necessary to 
adjust the governor to bring the machine 
back to its original speed. If you do not 
have a speed indicator it is probable that 
one could be borrowed from a local mill- 
man for the purpose. 

The following layout of pulleys could 
be used with your engine at 500 r. p. m. 
to give the various machines the desired 
speed : Belt the engine to a 24-in. pulley 
on the line shaft, giving the shaft a speed 
of one-half that of the engine, or 250 r. 
p. m. A second 24-in. pulley on the line 
shaft could be belted to the fodder cut¬ 
ter, giving that the desired speed of 500 r. 
p. m., and the feed mill, with its 10-in. 
pulley, running at 125 i.».p. m., would re¬ 
quire a 9^4-in. pulley to drive it. A 10- 
in. pulley could be substituted for this if 
there was difficulty in obtaining the 9*4- 
in. size, as the difference in speed would 
be little, and would make no great dif¬ 
ference in a machine of this kind. 

The grindstone presents the biggest 
problem, for with its 8-in. driving pulley, 
making but 50 r. p. m., a line-shaft pulley 
of only 1.6 in. would be required to drive 
it. This size is so small that it would be 
impracticable, even if obtainable, which 
it is not. The grindstone will have to be 
arranged either by using a larger pulley 
on the grindstone, say one 15 inches in 
diameter, which would permit the use of a 
3-in. pulley on the line shaft, or as the 
other alternative, a short jack shaft could 
be erected and the speed reduced by belt¬ 
ing first to that from the line shaft and 
from this to the grindstone. A 4-in. pul¬ 
ley on the line shaft belted to a 10-in. 
pulley on the jack shaft would drive this 
at 100 r. p. m., and a 4-in. pulley on the 
jack shaft belted to the 8-in. pulley of 
the grindstone would give this machine 
the desired speed of 50 r. p. m. If the 
first described arrangement were used it 
would likely give some little trouble frorp 
the belt slipping, because of the small pul¬ 
ley on the line shaft, and it might be well 
so to place the grindstone that it would 
be driven by a crossed belt, which would 
secure a somewhat better grip on the 
small pulley. 

Looking at it from a first-cost stand¬ 
point, probably 4-ply rubber belting of 
good quality will give you the best satis¬ 
faction for this work. At the belt speed 
indicated, about 1,500 feet per minute, 3- 
in. belting should carry the power of the 
engine easily, but a 4-in. can be run a lit¬ 
tle slacker without slipping, and will last 
longer. To obtain the lengths, the best 
way is to measure directly around the 
pulleys with a tape, and if a tape is not 
convenient, a strong, non-stretching string 
can be used for the same purpose and 
afterward measured. Belt lengths can 
also be worked out quite closely by the 
following method : Add the diameter of 
the driving and driven pulley together and 
multiply one-half of this sum by 3.1416. 
To this product add twice the distance be¬ 
tween the centers of the two pulleys, the 
result being the length of the required 

Three shaft-hangers should be used 
with the 16-ft. length of shafting re¬ 
quired, one approximately in the middle 
and one near each end. While speaking 
of the shafting, it might be advisable to 
use an 18-ft. length, letting one end pro¬ 
ject through the wall of the building, 
providing a place to belt to a pole saw or 
other outdoor machine. One and one-half¬ 
inch shafting is about as small as should 
be used, as it is more rigid than the small¬ 
er sizes, and because of this stiffness, if 
lined up properly, usually runs easier. 

As to the arrangement of the machines, 
that can best be done by yourself, plac¬ 
ing them where they will be most conve¬ 
nient to use, and where they interfere as 
little as possible with each other, doors, 
windows, etc., for with a line shaft as 
heavy as this driving such light machines 
special attention need not be paid to the 
location of pulleys, etc., to prevent twist¬ 
ing and springing of the shaft. The line 
shaft could perhaps be located over the 
center of the room, or if there is room for 
all of the machines on one side, it could 
be placed somewhat to one side, making 
the belts a little longer. R. H. S. 

An Oriental story tells of a man who 
was asked to lend a rope to a neighbor. 
Ilis reply was that he was in need of the 
rope just then. “Shall you need it a long 
time?” asked the neighbor. “I think I 
shall,” replied the owner, “as I am going 
to tie up some sand with it.” “Tie up 
sand!” exclaimed the would-be borrower. 
“I don't see how you can do that!” “Oh. 
you can do almost anything with a rope 
when you do not want to lend it,” was the 
reply.—The Christian Register. 



• 9 » 


Prepare With Good Seeds 

For The Victory Harvest 

With the coming of Victory America needs great 
crops. American farmers must this year produce the 
biggest crops in history, and big crops mean many 
extra dollars in profit for the grower. He will get high prices 
and labor will be plentiful. There must be no “Slacker Acres,” 
no crop failures, if human effort can prevent it. Good seed is of 
first importance. To be sure of the seed you plant—get 


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now In 





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Plumb; $2.25. A Practical Manual on thi 
subject. For sale by Rural New.Yorke 




January 4, 1010 

Farmers are receiving good prices for 
their products in this locality, as most is 
sold at retail. Farms here are small as 
a rule and practically but. a small propor¬ 
tion of produce is sold through the mid¬ 
dleman. Crops were good this year with 
the exception of buckwheat. Butter. 50 
to 65c per lb.; eggs, 65 to 80c; potatoes, 
$1.50 per bbl.; cabbage, 6 to 8c per head ; 
beans, marrowfat, 18c per lb.; chickens, 
42c per lb., dressed; 40c* alive; hogs. 22c 
dressed; buckwheat flour, $7 to $8 per 
100 lbs. w. C. R. 

Ulster Co., N. Y. 

From July 29 to August 14. Cobblers 
brought from 83.50 to $4. an average of 
about $3.65. We began digging Giants 
on August 15 and finished on October 24. 
They sold from $3.25. which was the low¬ 
est, to $3.60 a barrel of 165 lbs. which 
was the net price at the station. We sold 
Green Mountains to the local market here 
for $4. and seconds at $2 per bbl. At 
present they are a little lower. Corn 
from the field we sold for $1.35 
and from the crib at $1.50 per bushel of 
72 lbs. I am selling loose hay at the 
barn for $25 per ton. In the nearby 
towns it is selling baled as high as $40. 
Rye straw is about $18 per ton baled. 
There is no wheat on hand. It was sold 
for $2.20 and rye at $1.75 and $2 per bu. 
Apples were a short crop and very high. 
Sweet potatoes were also high, retailing 
in town for $1 a peach basket. Turnips, 
cabbage and onions have been very cheap. 
Our farmers are getting 8c a quart for 
milk, but many are going out of business 
on account of the high prices of mill feed 
and also the trouble to get help. _ Eggs 
are 75c a dozen. Poultry of all kinds is 
very high. At a sale near here last week 
cows 'brought from $135 to $195. Hogs 
have brought 26c a lb., dressed, but now 
are a little lower. Good heavy farm 
horses sell for $600 a pair. Mules are 
out of sight. We have had fine weather 
this Fall, but work is behind on account 
of scarcity of men. The labor problem 
is making us sit down and do some hard 
thinking, and we have not solved it yet. 
Men are getting from $3 to $4 a day and 
they do not make eight hours. We have 
had them drift along this last Summer 
and ask $60 a month and board. Per¬ 
haps if we should take the advice of our 
city cousins, we could run our farms in 
great shape. We use tractors, trucks and 
up-to-date machinery, but still there is a 
great deal of work which must be done 
by hand. C. A. J. 

Monmouth Co., N. J. 

The dairy outlook is a little brighter 
since the price of December milk has been 
given, but many auctions have taken en¬ 
tire dairies and much young stock has 
been sold. Hay is plenty, but silage corn 
was frosted before it could be cut, and 
farmers in this place were obliged to fill 
their silos alone for the want of help. 
Cows are from $40 to $150 for prime; 
dealers have been plenty, but feed so high 
but little is left for the dairyman. Help 
is the farmers’ great need, and if the 

To Insure 

Having Fertilizer Next 
Spring, Put It In Your Barn Right Now 

T HE demand for fertilizer this year far exceeds pro¬ 
duction. It is necessary to operate factories contin¬ 
uously and to ship every day from now until Spring. 
With labor scarce—traffic congested— 
those who do not order their fertilizer 
now may not be able to secure it. Under 
the present unusual conditions, a year’s 
business cannot be squeezed into a few 
weeks. Fertilizer must move steadily 
from our factories to the farm. There 
will be little or no improvement this sea¬ 
son in labor and transportation condi¬ 
tions because of the armistice. 

Order your fertilizer now, so that the 
dealer can bunch his orders and make up 
capacity carloads. When the fertilizers arrive haul them 
to the farm. Few dealers have enough storage space. Co¬ 
operate with the dealer. Keep the fertilizer supply mov¬ 
ing, and insure your supply for the Spring. 


Fertilizers pay better this year than ever. They bring 
back from $5 to $9 for every dollar invested. Is there any 
other investment so safe that pays so high a rate of in¬ 

The things that govern the value of 
your farm are its fertility—its producing 
power. By using V-C Fertilizers you 
bring more fertility to your farm, enabl¬ 
ing you to ship bigger crops and more 
live stock to market, without bankrupting 
your land’s fertility. It’s the cheapest 
way to get a better farm—you do not 
have to move, buy more machinery or 
hire more labor. You simply buy fertility 
by the ton, instead of land by the acre. 
Don’t delay ordering. This year you can obtain V-C 
Fertilizers containing all the potash your soil may need. 
Write us for the names of V-C dealers near you. 


New York City 
Baltimore, Md. 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Shreveport, La. 

Richmond. Va. 
Norfolk, Va. 
Alexandria, Va. 
Durham, N. C. 
Winston-Salem, N. C. 



Charleston, S. C. 

Columbia, S. C. 

Atlanta, Ga. 

Columbus, Ga. 
Savannah, Ga. 
Gainesville, Fla. 
Jacksonville, Fla. 
Sanford, Fla. 

Birmingham, Ala. 
Montgomery, Ala. 
Mobile, Ala. 
Memphis, Tenn. 

Mt. Pleasant, Tonn. 

Crops and Farm News 

Wheat, $2.20; oats, 70c; hay, $20 to 
$22 per ton; potatoes, from $1.30 to 
$1.75 per bu.; Alsike seed. $15 bu.; but¬ 
ter. 60c at store; eggs, 65 to 75e; cows, 
$100 to $150; calves, 17c; pork, $22 to 
$24 per 100 lbs., dressed. -Leading pro¬ 
ducts are wheat, oats and potatoes, which 
were a very good crop this year, hay 
being a small crop. Some peas raised 
for canning factory, which tvas a good 
crop this year, yielded from 4.000 to 4,600 
lbs. per acre; received $60 per ton, de¬ 
livered to factory. Cabbage, $15 per ton. 
Apples, from SOc to $1.50 per bu.; pears, 
$1 to $3 bu. G. H. B. 

Erie Co., N. Y. 

We have only Winter crops of root 
vegetables left, such as carrots, $2 to 
$2.50 per bbl.; parsnips, $2; round beets, 
$2; long beets, $1.75; black radish. $3; 
horseradish, $200 per ton ; turnips, $1.50 
to $2.50; potatoes, $4 to $4.50; celery, 
$1.50 to $2 doz.; eggs, $1 to $1.25, retail. 
Farm conditions are good, being close (15 
miles) to New York and Newark and 
other large cities and towns, everything 
sells. Wages are high, but roads are 
fine; manure is easy to obtain ; plenty of 
help of all ages, but higher in price. All 
farmers have auto trucks, costing from 
$2,000 to $5,000. There has been a ten¬ 
dency in the Fall to sell everything before 
cold weather came, on account of loss last 
Winter from frost, so that not over two- 
thirds of the usual supply has been stored. 
Also there has been a loss of one-fourth 
from warm weather conditions, vegetables 
not keeping, etc. G. s. H. 

Essex Co., N. J. 

The leading products in our district 
here are corn, hay, potatoes, tomatoes 
and sweet potatoes. Corn, $1.25 per bu.; 
mixed hay, $26 to $28 per ton; potatoes, 
85c per % bu. basket; tomatoes for can¬ 
ning. $25 per ton ; sweet potatoes, $1.35 
per % bu. basket, in Philadelphia mar¬ 
ket ; Alfalfa hay, $30 per ton; farm work 
practically done; crops very good this 
season. Prospects for next season, we 
think, very good. Feed prices have de¬ 
clined a little. Fertilizer and manure 
prices have advanced over last year; all 
stored crops have begun to move. Con¬ 
tracts for farm produce for coming season 
have not been made. H. c. I. 

Gloucester Co., N. J. 

eight-hour plan is to be put on farms and 
the high wages for labor continued, the 
farmer will feel be cannot bear the bur¬ 
den of long hours, and will only raise the 
crops or keep the cows he and his family 
can tend. 2. M. M. 

Broome Co., N. Y. 

Eggs, 55c; butter, 55c. ll'ogs, 17c; fat 
cattle, 12c per lb.; chickens, 25c; tur¬ 
keys. SOc. Potatoes, $1.25 per bu.; corn, 
$1.75; apples, SOc; oats, 90c; rye, $2; 
buckwheat, $1.25; wheat. $2. Wheat 
crop is looking well. Good horses, $100; 
average cows, $60. Fat lambs sold for 
15c per lb.; good ewes, $15 per head. 

Fulton Co., Pa. S. M. J. 

Following are about _ prevailing prices 
which farmers are getting for their pro¬ 
duce in the Rochester, N. Y., market: 
Wheat, $2,15 to $2.20; oats, 83 to 84c; 
potatoes, $1 loading stations; $1.15 to 
$1.25 on market; corn, $1.70 to $1.75 
per 56 lbs.; rye, $1.60 to $1.70 per 60 
lbs.; hav, $2S to $30 per ton; dressed 
hogs, $22 to $22.50 per 100 lbs.; strictly 
fresh eggs, from nearby farms, 90c to 
$1; cheese, at retail, 33 to 40c per lb.; 
apples, good No. 1 stock, $1 to $1.50 per 
bu.; butter, from nearby farms, 55 to 60c 
per lb. c. T. 

Milk. 3 per cent, per cwt., $3.94; but¬ 
ter, per lb.. 60c. Play, $2S to $30. Oats, 
per bu., S5c to $1; pork, per cwt., $20 
to $23; fowls, per lb., 22c; eggs, 70c; 
honey, extracted, 25c; comb, 30 to 35c; 
potatoes, $1 to $1.25; wheat, $2.25. 

Jefferson Co., N. Y. R. H. c. 

There will not be as many cows kept 
this Winter as usual, on account of a 
short bay crop. Farmers are selling quite 
a good many cows around here. Fall 
cows sell from $60 to $100. Spring cows, 
$40 to $50. The dairy business will be 
lighter the coming season. E. I. c. 

Delaware Co., N. Y. 

The dairymen in this locality are keep¬ 
ing their usual number of cows and are 
well supplied with hay and silage. I do 

not know of any cows for sale in this local¬ 
ity. Farmers seem to be quite satisfied 
with conditions at present. A. s. 

Delaware Co., N. Y. 

I think there will be as many cows kept 
in this locality as usual this Winter, and 
there seems to be plenty of hay and silage. 
Cows bring anywhere from $60 to. $100. .1 
do not see any reason why the dairy busi¬ 
ness for the coming season should he any¬ 
thing but good. II, C. Y. 

Chenango Co., N. Y. 

Franklin County farmers are largely 
interested in the dairy business. The 
price paid producers for December milk 
at stations in the 150-mile zone is 
$4.06 per 100 lbs. The Franklin County 
Farm Bureau Association w y as in session 
December 3 at Malone, with three prom¬ 
inent speakers in attendance, Hon. C. S. 
Wilson, New York State Commissioner of 
Agriculture; Dr. G. F. Warren of the 
State College of Agriculture, and Prof. J. 
Coryll, Assistant Director of Farm Bu¬ 
reaus for New York State. Hay sells 
for around $30 a ton. Potatoes, 85c per 
bu.; eggs. 55c; dressed chickens, 32c per 
lb.; dressed pork, 24c per lb.; butter, 65c 
per lb. Straw, $14 a ton. H. T. J. 

Franklin Co., N. Y. 

Harmonizing the Daylight-Saving Plan 

During the past year you have pub¬ 
lished several communications from far¬ 
mers opposing the “daylight saving law,” 
and giving some very excellent reasons 
sustaining their contention that it is not 
a desirable ruling for farmers. As. the 
owner of a practical farm, I am entirely 
of the opinion that it is not wise to start 
the working day an hour earlier, ending 
it. necessarily, one hour earlier, but as 
the arrangement so greatly benefits all 
other industries, especially being, of in¬ 
estimable value to workers in cities and 
towns, it seems the greatest pity that 
farmers, as a class, should oppose the 
law, when their objections to it can be 
so easily overcome, the remedy being 
simplicity itself. My men work nine 
hours, seven A. M. to five P. M., so when 
the law went into effect I made a new 
contract, engaging them from eight A. M. 
to six P. M. No one’s rights were inter¬ 
fered with and the plan worked harmon¬ 
iously. Personally. I hope the daylight 

saving law will be put in operation again 
next year. nielson t. Parker. 

Ulster Co., N. Y. 

Coming Farmers’ Meetings 

Ohio State University, Columbus, O., 
eight weeks’ Winter course, begins Jan. 6. 

Wisconsin Cheese Makers’ Association, 
Auditorium, Milwaukee, Wis., Jau. 8-10, 

New York State Federation of Agri¬ 
culture, annual meeting, Rochester, N. 
Y., week of Jau. 13, 1919. 

New Jersey State Dairymen’s Associa¬ 
tion. annual meeting, Trenton, N. J., Jan. 
14-17, 1919. 

Boston, Mass.—Poultry Show, Jan 14-' 
18, 1919. 

Western New York Horticultural So¬ 
ciety aud New York State Fruit Growers’ 
Association, joint meeting, Rochester, N. 
Y., Jan. 15-17, 1919. 

Third Annual New Jersey Agricultural 
Convention, Trenton, Jan. 13-17, 1919. 

New Jersey State Poultry Association, 
annual meeting and exhibition, the Arm¬ 
ory, Trenton, N. J., Jan 13-17, 1919. 

Jan 1S-26—National Western Stock- 
Show, Denver, Colo. 

Farmers’ Week, Hartford, Conn., Jan. 
20-24, 1919. 

Madison Square Garden, New York— 
Poultry Show, Jan 24-28. 

Connecticut Dairymen’s Association, 
Connecticut Sheep Breeders’ Assoeiation. 
Connecticut Poultrymen’s Association, 
Hartford, Conn., Jan. 21-22, 1919. 

New York State Breeders’ Association, 
Buffalo, N. Y„ Jan 29-31, 1919. H. B. 
Harpending, president, Dundee, N. Y. 

Connecticut Pomological Society, Con¬ 
necticut Vegetable Growers’ Association, 
Hartford, Conn., Jan. 23-24, 1919. 

Massachusetts Dairymen’s Association, 
annual meeting, Horticutural Hall, Bos¬ 
ton. week of Feb. 10, 1919. 

Feb. 8-15. — California International 
Live Stock Show, San Francisco, Cal. 

Omaha Inter-State Land Show, Munic¬ 
ipal Auditorium, Omaha, Neb., Feb. 12- 
22. 1919. 

Meeting of the Massachusetts State 
Vegetable Growers’ Association, to be 
held in Horticultural Hall, Boston, Feb. 
32, 1919. 




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Improve Quality 

Send for Crop Photograph Book 
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P d 

Raw Furs 

New York is now 
The World’s Fur Center 

New York, the greatest city in the world, is 
the center of the World’s Fur business. No 
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must eventually come to New York. 

Wo are the Fastest Growing Raw Fur House 
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highest market prices. 

Setid for our Latest Price List. It’s free. 

David Blusfein&Bra 

B05 West 2Z-StNewYork. 

Paint Bills 

BY USING Ingersoll Paint. 

PROVED BEST by 75 years’ use. It will 
please you. The ONLY PAINT endorsed 
by tb? “GRANGE” for 43 years. 

Made in all colors—for all purposes. 

Get my FREE DELIVERY offer. 

From Factory Direct to You at Wholesale Prices. 

Tells all about Paint and Painting for Durability. Valu¬ 
able information FREE TO YOU with Sample Cards. 

Oldent Ready Mixed Paint House In America—Estab. 1842 

0. W. Ingersoll, 246 Plymouth St., Brooklyn, W.Y. 

9/?n I . P 7 miles Scottsville, Va. Adapted 

obU-Acre rann A°*?v or ,. far m crops 

11.000 cash. 

Level. Good buildings. SO,500, 
HARRY VAIL, New Milford, Orange Co., N. V. 

Farm for 'Jalo fihnan harming pays around Salisbury, 
rdrin lOl oaic On63p We have good land and mild cli¬ 
mate. Address 8. I*. WOODCOCK, Salisbury, Md. 

Virginia Farms and Homes 


It. It. 4.IIAil 1 IN ,t CO., Iiu*,, Jtlcliniond, Va. 



ivivrcr.1 131 So. Parkway, East Orange, Now Jersey 


PLOWS Plows. $14.86 up. 
TOOLS " ‘ ~ ’ 

I lows, 814.85 up. 


I.u Orangeville, New York 

Two Excellent Vegetable Books 

By R. L Watts 

Vegetable Gardening.$1.75 

Vegetable Forcing.2.00 

For sale by 

The Rural New-Yorker 
333 VV. 30th St., New York 

Crops and Farm News 

Samples & 
Roofing Book 

No. 1 hay, Timothy, $28 to $30, at 
station ; No. 1 mixed clover, $25 to $28: 
vye straw, $15 to $18; shelled corn, $1.75 
per bu., 56 lbs.; oats, 70c; rye, $1.75 per 
bn., 60 lbs.; potatoes, $1.50 to $1.80 per 
bu.; calves, live weight, 16e per lb.; hogs, 
dressed, 22 to 25c; fowls, 28 to 30c per 
lb., live; butter, dairy, 70c per lb.; eggs, 
One; apples, $3 to $5 per bbl. ii. l. p. 
Greene Co., N. Y. 

The prices in our district are good. 
We are getting at our co-operative cream¬ 
eries from 90c to $1 for butterfat. Some 
tanners send to Philadelphia and receive 
lOVrC per qt for 4 per cent milk. Feed 
is very high; bran very scarce at $2.25 
per cvvt. ; middlings scarce at $2.50 per 
100 lbs.; gluten, $3; cobmeal, $2.90; 
cornmeal, $3.50; hominy, $3.20; cake oil 
meal, $3.25; rye middlings, $2.60; oats 
chop, $3.25, and the silos only filled half, 
because our corn crop was very short. 
This will leave only a small profit for the 
farmers. I had an extra good crop of 
apples, sold nearly $1,000 worth of apples 
from a small orchard of 160 trees 
Bucks Co., Pa. a. b. 

Farmers have corn all husked and Fall 
work all done. Grain is looking well. 
General farming is followed here. Wheat. 
$2.20: rye, $1.65; oats, 80c. Eggs. 75c 
per doz.; butter, 73c; milk is sold' by 
butterfat, which averages about $3.80 per 
cent; farmer receives 8.7c per lb., or 
about $3.70 _ per 100 pounds of milk. 
Corn fodder is scarce and high, bringing 
from 7 to 11c per shock. Weather is dry 
and farmers have to haul water. Labor 
scarce, charging from $2 to $2.75 per day. 

Bucks Co., Pa. w. h. w. 

This Fall was a very open one so far 
in this section. We had splendid weather 
all Fall, no killing frosts until Oct. 1st. 
Potatoes were dug this year without 
much difficulty, while last year many 
were frozen in the ground. Here in Mer¬ 
cer Co., Pa., the potato crop was fairly 
good, running from 100 to 200 bushels 
per acre. Along early in October quite 
a few sold for $2 per bushel, but they 
came down quite a bit later on. Most of 
what were sold brought from $1.25 to 
$1.50 wholesale and $1.75 to $2 retail. 
There were very few shipped out of this 
section by the carload. Practically no 
buyers around, and many growers * held 
their potatoes for a higher price, and 
have them stored in the cellar in pits for 
next Spring delivery. Very earlv pota¬ 
toes were a total failure, as they nearly 
all were struck with the blight.‘and the 
drought finished them. The Fall seeding 
of wheat is very promising in this sec¬ 
tion. With warm weather, plenty of 
rains and very little hard freezing it has 
made a wonderful start. Many farmers 
say it is the best seen for years. The 
drought badly hurt the new catches of 
clover last Summer. When some of the 
wheat was cut most of the little clover 
plants were almost burnt up. The later 
rains revived much of it, however, but 
still we doubt if next year’s meadows, 
especially new meadows, will be very 
heavy. Pasture has been good to a very 
late date. Stock is mostly in good condi¬ 
tion. Horses are very cheap and plenty. 
At many public sales good horses bring 
only from $59 to $100 and the poorer 
ones can hardly be given awav. Cows 
are in fair demand, and run from $40 to 
f^ T °t as many changing hands as in 
lormer years. Hogs are worth now 20c 
•™d there seems to 'be plenty of them. 
Chickens are a very scarce crop and are 
worth from 20 to 25c per pound. Butter 
o5c ; eggs, 60 to 65c. Feed is all high.' 
with hay at $20; straw around $10 in 
mow; ear corn, SOc; shelled corn. $1.75 
per bushel; oats around 75c; dairy feeds. 
$2.50 to $3 per cwt.; bran. $1.75; mid¬ 
dlings, $2.50. Corn has sold at public 
sales at from SOc to $1 per shock. Many 
public sales this Fall and quite a few 
farms being sold. p. 

Mercer Co., Pa. 

Creameries are paying League prices 
for milk; $4.08 for 3 per cent, and 10c a 
point over 3 per cent. Local stores are 
paying 60 to 65c for butter and selling 
| or 75c and upwards. Potatoes are worth 
from $1.15 to $1.50 per 'bu. Roof is slow 
sale at 12 to i4e per lb. Pork is quick 
sale from 22 to 24c. Seasoned stove wood 
worth $2.50 to $3 per cord. Oats are 
plenty, but few farmers selling any. Feed 
Prices continue high; corn, $1.70 per bu.; 
oats, SOc: meal or cracked corn. $3.10: 
hominy, $3.06 gluten, $2.70; cottonseed 
meal. $3; old process oilmoal. $2.95 • 
standard bran, $2.30. Ilav. $18 to $22 
Per ton in barn ; baled hay. $1.70 per 100 
lb ?;, Fa . rm help is still scarce, and men 
still asking $3 a day for unskilled labor. 
But now that the war is over and men 
coming back from camps and from France 
there will soon he plentv of help and 
wages will tend to adjust themselves by 
the law of supply and demand. This 
county is a center for the wood-acid fac¬ 
tories which produce wood alcohol, char¬ 
coal and acetic acid. The cessation of the 
call for products used in making muni¬ 
tions has suddenly lowered their price 
and their sale. The result is that many 
wood choppers who have been receiving 
$2 to $3 per cord for cutting wood are 
thrown out of employment, many fac¬ 
tories having stopped chopping wood for 
the present. These wood choppers are 
idle now. but will be ready for farm work 
in the Spring. I think the outlook for 
dairy and general farming in 1919 is good 
Delaware Co., N. Y. f. w b 












Plows Deep'ISP 8 !!!'^ 


Up Grade 

miEMLWW, 11L2S _ 


“In old timothy sod I pulled three 14-inch bottoms at an 
average depth of six inches, some of the time up a pretty 
steep grade. In stubble I pulled the same plows at an 
average depth of eight inches.”—Geo. W. Lee, Gladstone, N. J. 

Waterloo Boy reserve power insures a smooth, even job of plowing in 
rolling land or varying soil conditions. Its two-speed motor, 2V\ and 3 miles 
per hour, enables you to turn the furrow at varying speed for best results in 
any kind of soil; quick change of speed and 12-foot turning radius permits 
close work in irregular fields and at corners. 

The Tractor That Pays Its Way 

because it is the right size for the widest range of profitable operation- 
supplies ample power for the heavy work, economical power for the lighter 
work available for all work. Many Waterloo Boy owners are keeping 
their tractors busy most of the year—at draw bar or belt. 

Simplified onstruction makes it easy to operate; equipped with Hyatt 
roller bearings, dependable ignition device, patented fuel saving kerosene 
burner, automatic lubricating system and other features which insure many 
years’ service at minimum up-keep cost. 

Our illustrated catalog, aent free on request, gives full information 
with many viewa showing W aterloo Boy efficiency on farms. W rite for it 

JOHN DEERE, 5310 W. Third Ave., Moline, Illinois 

Men Can 
Carry the 
S H. P. 

A Dwarf in Size 
A Giant in Power 

Only 40 to 60 lbs. per H. P. 

Cushman Engines weigh only 40 to 60 pounds per horse¬ 
power, yet have plenty of surplus power, 
iinoo °nly about one-fourth as much as ordinary farm en- 
frj, ,, i.tP'i* , the Y are balanced so carefully and governed so accur- 

that they run much more steadily and quietly. They are also - 

irJ,7.™ os 5 “ U ^ ab ® t, a , rrn ©Hginfis in the world, on account of their Ea.vfn MrwMmm Inhin l»h 
improved design and better material and construction. easy to Move trom Jobto Job 

CUSHMAN Farm Motors 

4 Ohty 190 lbs., being only 48 Ib3. per horsepower. Besides 

, ° rd,n »ry jobs, it may be attached to any grain binder, saving a 

blnders anc^pot a to digg e rs. sav 1 n8 the cr °P’ Also it may be used on efrn 

8 , H obf’Aifo'mav°hI y ,?i 20 K ,b i*;’ £ einer onIy 40 Ib3 - per h - p- For aI1 medium 
jobs. ALo may be attached to hay presses, corn pickers, saw rig 3 , etc. 

1 5 w °'8h* only 780 lbs., being only 52 lbs. per horsepower For 

fee^^inde'rs^ st^U 3 threshm, a etc" h0le C ° rn shellers - ensila ^ cu «ers, large 

2 0 ^;, P W K eighs , only u 12 ?? Ib » • be! °e only 60 lbs. per h. p. For heavier 

duty jobs,such as shredders.shellers.grainseparators,heavy sawing.etc. 

Sn 3 cf r 0t wc ;y unevenly and lose compression. Every run- 

Thrntnf^ ted ^ r0 F dust £ nd properly lubricated. Equipped with 
inef'pnltT 2 ^ v ? r no r , C ar b u ret or. Friction Clutch Pulley and Water Circulat¬ 
ing Pump. Ask for Book on Light-Weight Engines. circular 

Cushman Motor Works 

4 H. P. on Binder 

This Is ths famous All-Purposs 
Cushman that has bssn usad on so 
many binders' Just as succsssful 
for all stationary jobs 

Delivered prices Quoted on 

THE E. BIGL0W CO., New London, 0. 

HIGHEST PRICES p. 1 A r ilvn 
Paid for all kinds of IVa W T Uf S 

I need large quantities of all 
kinds of furs, and it will pav 
you to get my price list. 
I especially solicit furs from 
all northern and central 
sections. Write for my price 
list and shipping ta*s today to 

P.O.Box M-2, East Liberty. O. 

Do All (lour TKreshmtS 




i The Koger is the idell combination thresher 
j —does ALL the work at low running cost. 

Threshes Peas and Beans 
From the Mown Vines 

\ Threshes peas, beans, wheat, oats, rye and barley. Also 

Nothing like it for unlve^l'usefulneM^and^^dtyof 00 ^°°' r Vhe ' hv$t 
Reid what Prof. Massey. H. A. Morcan, Director Tm°Sri! Guaramr-d to do all we claim, or can be returned. 

KO<fe KOGER°PEA AND W RFA r N riS iM 0 D'couc D f0r . freC booklet No°r °' ° th " “ 9Cr9 " y lboUt tbc 




More power, _ 

per gallon, from cheap 
kerosene than from high-priced gas¬ 
oline. Easy to start In any weather. 





SO Dajs 

Kerosene Engines 

Save big money on price and half on fuel. 
For all outdoor and indoor work. Thous¬ 
ands in use. All sizes and styles 
from U4H-Pto 22H-P Complete" 
mounted saw rips or saw frames 
separate, suitable for mounting 
on your own trucks. 

RoaIt Easy to understand— Ex- 

JT JL plains all you want to know 

about engines. Write for Present Low Prices. 

JDTTAWA MFG. CO„ 690 King St.^ 
Ottawa. Kansas 




are scientifically compounded so that I 
they feed the crops from Seeding 
time to Harvest. 

Write for particulars regarding “Scien¬ 
tific Compounding.” You will tind it an 
interesting and instructive story. »' e 
also have a full line of high grade Insecti¬ 
cides. Let us Quote you prices before 
you buy. 

AfiFMTS We want one reliable man in 
rv'each county to act as our gen- 
WAN1LU eral agent and appoint local 
agents for our products. Liberal terms to right 
man. Local agents wanted in each vicinity. 
Write for terms. 

Reading Chemical Co., Reading, Pa. 

GRIMM’S Maple Syrup Evaporators 

What the GRIMM EVAPORATOR has done for others— 
. ill do for you—fast and shallow boiling and tlie siphon, 
ich clarifies the liquid, produces QUALITY. YV e will 
bigger profits b- - 1 - 

it w 
m Rich 
o'art you on the road to 



_ JKShith Grubber .Co 


T HE 3 walls of Craine patent¬ 
ed silos insure strength, 
permanency and perfect sil¬ 
age; keep warmth in and cold out. 

“Crainelox” patent covering 
does away with bother of iron 
hoops and provides best insur¬ 
ance against wind and weather. 
Old stave silos can be made into 
new, permanent, 3-wali silos at 
one-half cost of a new silo. 

Send for Catalog, prices, terms 
and Agency Offer. 

Craine Silo Co., Inc. 

Box 110, Norwich, N. Y. 


Until 60 Days 

Here’s a Bet of tools everybody 
ought to have. See how easy it is to 
own them. Send no money with 
your order, just the coupon, then 
first payment 60 days after you re¬ 
ceive them and balance in five 60- 
day payments. If you don’t con¬ 
sider these splendid tools a wonderful 
bargain, send them back. 

20-Piece Tool Set 

Count them. 16-oz. ball pein 
Machinist’* Hammer; face of 
hammer and ball polished; has 12- 
in. good quality maple handle; 9-in. 
drop forged adjustable Auto 
Wrench; 6-in. black combination i 
Pliers with polished nose — when ' 
closed, teeth and jaws dovetail; 4-in. 
square shank Screw Driver with tem- 
“ pered steel blade 4 in. x 6-16 in. 

| wide; bent wire Screw Driver 
I for small bolts and screws; Drop 
forged double-end Alligator 
, Wrench which fits practically 
any nut, 6 high grade malic- i 
ableiron‘‘S”Sh«pe Wrenches [ 
which have openings X in. to 1 j 
' In.; 6-16x6>£ in. drop forged 1 
steel solid Drive Punch % in. 
x4M in. drop forged steel Drift 
or Pin Punch; in. X 6 in. drop 

forged steel Center Punch, X 
x6in.drop forged steel Chisel; 

' 6-in. round, tapered Rat— 

’Tail File: 8-in. 
fiat Mill File; 

. ing you the benefit of 

k yuu un me i>'ou w ; i 

r experience and particulars about tne i_----- --- --- . . 

ieea for PURE MAPLE PRODUCTS arc higher. The amply >s cx- 

—— hausted— the* demand 

is increasing rapidly. 
ORATOR will pro¬ 
duct* the beat quality 

Ask for catalog: 
” B " and state 
number ot trees 
you tap. 

Rutland, Vt. 


forged steel 
Cotter Pin Spreader] 
and Extractor; 6-16in.x 6 
Sn.with one end pointed: other 
end flattened to screw driver 
J/ thickness; double end offset Screw 
Driver for screws and bolts hard to 
get at with ordinary screw driver— ‘ 
made of 6-16 in. round drop forged 
steel; No. 12 patented wood (taper- 
foot) file handle, which fits and 
grips file—nickled brass ferrule. 

In addition, you get Kit of strong 
canvas duck. A pocket for every tool. 
Rolls up into handy bundle 13 inches long. 24 
inches x 18 inches when open. 

Send Only Coupon 

No money at all. The coupon brings the 
20-piece set and kit complete. Mail it today. 
If you don’t order Tool Set, tend anyway, 
for great Bargain Catalog of Furniture and 
Farm Equipment. Write for it today—now. 


4019 LaSall* St., Dept. 1644, Chicago 

' Send 20-piece Tool Set and Kit. If satisfactory, 
I will pay 86c in 60 days, balance in 6 payments of 
82c each every 60 days until price. $4.95, is paid in 
full. If not satisfactory, will return the set in 30 days 
and you will pay transportation both ways. 



Nearest Shipping Point • 



Countrywide Produce Conditions 

The old year is closing with rapidly 
decreasing movement of produce, although 
the volume is still much heavier than last 
year. There is no especial shortage of 
cars for loading, and nothing is being 
held back extensively for higher prices, 
except for more or less of a waiting at¬ 
titude on the part of some potato growers 
in the West. Prices generally are holding 
at about recent level and some lines, not¬ 
ably cabbage, apples, oranges and cran¬ 
berries. show gains or recoveries in value. 
Fruits and Southern vegetables are high. 
Beans and potatoes seem about the only 
leading lines that find difficulty in hold¬ 
ing their own. 


The potato outlook is fairly good. Ap¬ 
parently, according to latest figures, only 
about three-fourths as many remain to be 
shipped as at the corresponding time last 
year. The price is little higher than at 
that time last year, and according there 
is much less prospect of declines such as 
occurred toward the end of last season. 
The rather mild Winter has helped the 
market movement a great deal. The 
range in the West is 90c to $1.30 per 100 
lbs. from growers and $1.40 to $1.65, 
sacked, f. o. b., and in the East about $2 
per bu. City wholesale markets ranged 
$2 to $2:65 per 100 lbs., sacked. Eastern 
and Western prices came a little closer 
together, New York declining slightly and 
Chicago advancing. 

Price of cabbage advanced sharply in 
the East, best stock reaching $20 to $28 
per ton m bulk for large lots. Large 
Western * markets range $17 to $30. 
Choice onions hold about steady at $1.50 
to $2 per 100 lbs. for large lots, but small 
or inferior lots range lower. In Central 
California producing sections onions are 
much lower than potatoes, the best brown 
stock ranging $1 to $1.25 per 100 lbs. 
and ordinary as low as 60c. The stopping 
of Government buying hurt the potato 
and onion position in the West, some con¬ 
tracts having been cancelled, owing to the 
change in war conditions. No export de¬ 
mand for bulky foods is looked for, but 
considerable dehydrated or dried stock 
may be shipped across. 


On the other hand. Government buying 
has been the only salvation for the bean 
interest. There was a good deal of old 
stock held over in the city warehouses 
and the large new crop moves very slowly, 
except for the export of sixty to seventy 
million pounds through Government agen¬ 
cies. There is a lull in this buying just 
now. Over a million bushels have gone 
to Belgium alone since July. There is 
every reason to look for more of such de¬ 
mands later on. Prices are much lower 
than last year. Western growers receiving 
from $5.75 to $7 per 100 lbs. for colored 
beans and $7 to $8.50 for white stock. 
Eastern growers get mostly $7 to $8. Re¬ 
cleaned white stock, sacked, brings $9.50 
to $11 in city markets. 


Apples on the whole are holding firmly. 
Much of the unsold barreled stock is in 
Western New York, where choice Bald¬ 
wins from common storage bring $5 to 
$5.50. They sell in city markets at $5 
to $7 per barrel. Best grades Western 
box apples average about $3 in Eastern 
city wholesale markets. G. b. f. 




More for your money at Home. A better built and 
more durable engine. Shipment from stock in New 
York City. Repairs from stock in New ^ or v k '„ Cl ’^; 
Iii these days of slow freight, buy where >ou gt 
Quick service. Wo make saw outfits or enginea and 
separate saw benches or engines only. They \ lae h’’ 1 ' 
gasoline and kerosene. Wood now brings high Prices 
and quick purchasers. Get catalog telling you 
our engines. It’s free. Quick action saves you money. 

New York City 



202 Fulton Street 

Bigger Yields 

You know the conditions on your farm better 
than anyone else, but, “two heads are better than 
oneand a thousand are better still. 

The experience of successful market gardeners and the results of the 
latest scientific experiments have been condensed into our new book 

“Better Vegetable Growing” 

This book tells you how to plant, fertilize, cultivate, irrigate and market 
the crop successfully. Every important vegetable is covered in a separate 
chapter. A valuable “Planting and Reference” table will aid you when 
ordering your spring supplies. Whether you grow vegetables for the 
canning factory or the market you will find this book helpful. 

If you tell us the acreage of vegetables you raise your copy will be 
mailed free. Write today for this book, “Better Vegetable Growing.” 

_ Address Crop Book Department 


Subsidiary of the American Agricultural Chemical Co. 

51 Chambers Street. New York City 

E.Frank Coes Fertilizers 

DOMESTIC.—The “Lusitania Medal,” 
struck by the ex-Kaiser’s Government in 
celebration of the sinking of the ill-fated 
British liner, is responsible for the suit 
brought in the Supreme Court, New York, 
Dee. 19. by Armen P. Aleon to recover 
$1,500 from Raphael Constantian for al¬ 
leged injury to the “souvenir of the World 
War,” and “unjust suspicions” cast upon 
the plaintiff by agents of the Department 
of Justice. In his complaint, Aleon said 
he bought the medal in Holland for “the 
sole purpose of justifying the position of 
the United States in its war upon the 
German Government.” He said he lent 
the trinket to Constantian and that the 
latter organized a company for the manu¬ 
facture and distribution of replicas. In 
the process of making impressions the 
medal was broken. Agents of the De¬ 
partment of Justice learned of the matter 
and, according to Aleon, caused him con¬ 
siderable annoyance by inquiring how he 
came into possession of the medal and 
why duplicates were being made of it. 

Six men in an automobile held up Frank 
Brown, of Lynn. Mass., paymaster of the 
steel foundrv of the General Electric Com¬ 
pany. at Everett, Mass., Dee. 20, shot and 
seriously wounded him and escaped with 
the weeks’ payroll, reported to amount to 
$ 12 , 000 . ‘ 

Joseph M. G. Ivakay, president of the 
Verandah Chemical Company, with a 
plant in Verandah place, Brooklyn, was 
arrested by inspectors of the Health De¬ 
partment Dec. 20 on the charge of manu¬ 
facturing and selling drugs under a false 
and misleading label. Nearly 400,000 
tablets, which Health Department officials 
say were represented as ^aspirin tablets, 
were seized. Analysis c f 3 has 

shown them to contain only talcum pow¬ 
der cornstarch and a little salicylic acid. 

< )u the Government’s motion confessing 
technical errors in the lower court the 
Supreme Court Dee. 23 reversed the^ con¬ 
viction of Connul Kornmann in South 
Dakota under the espionage act and re- 

January 4, 1919 

manded the case for a new trial. Sim¬ 
ilar action against 28 defendants convict¬ 
ed under the act was taken recently. 

Arguments in the eases of Eugene V. 
Dobs of Indiana, James Paterson of Min¬ 
neapolis and Jacob Frohwerk of Kansas 
City, convicted under the espionage act, 
are set for Jan. 27. 

mond Stone of Vineland has been appoint¬ 
ed Superintendent of Farm Demonstra¬ 
tion for Bergen County, N. J., to succeed 
L. F. Merrill, who recently died. Mr, 
Stone’s appointment became effective 
Dec. 1. 

Stricter Government control of the meat 
industry without Government acquisition 
of the packing plants was advocated Dec. 

19 by IV. B. Colver, chairman of the Fed¬ 
eral Trade Commission, at the opening 
of hearings before the House Interstate 
Commerce Committee on the Administra¬ 
tion bill designed to deal with an alleged 
meat monopoly. ’ “There is not the slight¬ 
est reason at present why the industry 
should not remain in private hands,” said 
Mr. Colver. He added, however, that in¬ 
terlocked with the meat industry was 
ownership of transportation, stock yard, 
freight houses and other facilities, “so 
that competitors are practically helpless 
in carrying on the business.” 

WASHINGTON.—The war has cost 
the United States $55,087,256,051.11, ac¬ 
cording to the experts of the Senate Ap¬ 
propriations Committee. This estimate 
includes ten billions loaned to the Allies, 
and is based on the appropriations made 
by the first and second sessions of the 
65th Congress, with deductions for or¬ 
dinary civil appropriations, and including 
appropriations authorized although not 
expected to be expended before the end of 
the fiscal year of 1919. 

Official warning to the nation that pro¬ 
ceeds of the last Liberty loan have been 
spent, that expenditures for the fiscal year 
ending July 1, 1919, may even exceed the 
$18,000,000,000 estimated by Mr. Me- 
Adoo and that preparation must be made 
by the country to absorb another large 
bond issue before July 1 was issued Dec. 
19 by the new Secretary of the Treasury 
Carter Glass. 

Gross mismanagement and extrava¬ 
gance permeated affairs of the American 
International Corporation in building the 
great Hog Island shipyard at Philadel¬ 
phia, said Department of Justice investi¬ 
gators in findings made public at the 
White House Dec. 20. While no crim¬ 
inal responsibility is fixed, recommenda¬ 
tions were made for examination by a 
board of experts into the corporation’s 
expenditures. The investigators are G. 
Carroll Todd and Mark Hyman, Assis¬ 
tant Attorney General. The report says 
that officials of the corporation attempted 
to justify their position by explaining that 
they were forced to sacrifice economy for 
speed. They charged also that in giving 
them a second contract the United States 
Shipping Board had waived any alleged 
mismanagement. The increase from $21,- 
000.000, the first estimate of the yard’s 
cost, to $61,000,000 was not accounted for 
to the full satisfaction of the investiga¬ 
tors, says the report. 

The Senate passed Dee. 23 the revenue 
bill practical!" * the Fi¬ 

nance Committee wnu on*., ^important 
amendments. In the course of the final 
day’s deliberations the radical element 
in the Senate assumed the upper hand 
long enough to force back into the meas¬ 
ure the semi-luxury taxes and also to 
compel the inclusion in the measure of a 
tax of 100 per cent on campaign contri¬ 
butions in excess of $500 from any indi¬ 
vidual. firm or corporation, with heavy 
penalties for infraction of the proposed 
law. A special provision that every of¬ 
ficer and man of the United State naval 
and military forces shall be paid one 
month of extra salary at the time of his 
discharge was included. Almost the con¬ 
cluding act of the Senate Dec. 23 was 
the ratification in the open Senate of the 
Finance Committee's action in the matter 
of postal rates. The elimination of The 
zone system of charges for second-class 
mail matter, the pet measure of Post¬ 
master General Burleson, was accom¬ 
plished by a vote of 41 to 22, thus ratify¬ 
ing the previous action of the Finance 
Committee in this respect and of the Sen¬ 
ate Committee of the Whole. Under the 
bill as passed, first-class postage is re¬ 
duced from three cents per ounce to two 
cents, beginning July 1. 1919, while the 
zone system is abolished and a rate is es¬ 
tablished of l’i cents a pound for period¬ 
icals and newspapers destined for points 
within a radius of 20 miles of the point of 
publication, and 1% cents for greater 

My greatest success last Summer was 
with corn; 1% acres yielded 160 bu. on 
the cob (measured) of Hall’s Golden 
Nugget, and except for the early frost 
there would have been more. The frost 
hit it in patches, and there the crop was 
poorer. This corn has enormous kernels, 
and the ears are large, but do not mature 
as early as many varieties. I made the 
mistake of husking it too early, thinking 
it would dry in some wire cribs. One 
crib was three feet thick, another two 
feet. The corn in the former began to 
mold and I had to spread it out on a 
floor to save it. In the two-foot bin it 
dried well. Blackbirds took a great deal 
before it was harvested. Flocks of sev¬ 
eral thousand would come down like a 
black cloud and must have taken 15 per 
cent of the kernels. f. i. proctor. 



foods grown largely by the aid of commer¬ 
cial fertilizer. In the United States alone nearly 
seven million tons of fertilizer are used annually. 

The Fertilizer Industry performs a most 
valuable service in searching the four corners 
of the earth, gathering sulphur from Spain, 
nitrogen from Chili, phosphate from Florida 
and Tennessee, and potash from the West; 
in recovering waste materials from slaughter 
houses, factories and cities; in reaching up into 
the air and down into the bowels of the earth 
for newer and cheaper forms of raw materials; 
and then manufacturing the whole into a pro¬ 
duct, definite in composition and convenient in 
form, which can be transformed into essential 
life-giving foods. 

The machinery, buildings and equipment 

necessary to perform this great service represent an 
investment running high into the millions of dollars. 

Without fertilizer, agriculture would deteriorate. 

With more fertilizer, agriculture will improve. The use of fer¬ 
tilizer is rapidly becoming universal, and the best use for the 
greatest profit should interest every farmer wherever located. 

Have You Investigated the Possibilities? 

Old theories are being discarded. New fields for 

profitable use of fertilizer are rapidly developing. Have you 
thought of fertilizing that weedy, run-down pasture? Do you 
know that fertilizer can help you to avoid soft corn ? escape the 
Hessian Fly ? overcome drouth ? save farm labor ? get higher prices ? 
Study fertilizer. Let fertilizer make bigger profits for you. 

Write for our interesting bulletins on fertilizer usage 

Soil Improvement Committee 

of the National Fertilizer Association 

1432 The Mumey Bldg. 


932 Postal Telegraph Bldg. 




Christmas finally came to us with wet, 
rheumatic weather. Last year the season 
borrowed weather from close to the North 
Pole. This year we seem to be served with 
a brand peculiar to the Middle South. 
However, the weather is of small conse¬ 
quence when the home conditions are 
right. The children are all well again, 
there is an abundance of wood for the 
fireplace, the daughter is home from col¬ 
lege and the big turkey weighed 16 pounds 
dressed! I cannot say that we spent any 
great amount of money for Christmas 
presents. In these times it seems little 
short of a crime to spend money for lux¬ 
uries or for things which gratify just a 
passing whim. Thus-far this great nation 
has been raising and spending money— 
great oceans of it. Soon will come the 
harder job of paying our obligations, and 
we must all get ready for it. So as the 
old year passes out we are trying to esti¬ 
mate what the new year will bring to 

}»t Jjc * * * 

On the whole I think it will be a rea¬ 
sonably good year for people who are 
conservative and avoid plunging too 
heavily. I hear of farmers who say they 
will borrow money, rent extra land, in¬ 
vest heavily in fertilizer and m r mi re, and 
try to double their crops. Of c urse they 
know this is a gamble, but they figure on 
the same high prices which many of us 
obtained last season. I am not going to 
operate that way. My figures show that 
our farm income for 1918 was larger than 
in any year before, but they also show* 
that expenses were enormous—higher in 
every line than ever before. I can see 
no possible chance for these expenses to 
be lower. I think some of them will be 
higher. On the other hand, I can see 
half a dozen things coming which may 
cut dbwn the price of our products. Every 
farmer in New Jersey knows that he 
could not afford to raise our ordinary 
farm crops and sell them at the prices re¬ 
ceived a few years ago. That would 
mean bankruptcy—slow or rapid as the 
farmer had more or less capital. We may 
be dead sure that our expenses will keep 
up or increase, while it is a more than 
even chance that our prices will drop. 
That being so it seems to me a poor time 
to plunge. I shall stick to the crops 
which paid us and cut out the failures. 


The chief drone with us is potatoes. 
Our crop has not paid for the past four 
or five years, when we consider the real 
value of the labor. Very likely it is our 
own fault in some way, but we do not 
get potatoes enough to pay expenses. The 
cost of seed and fertilizing is heavier 
than for any other crops we plant, and 
there is more work involved. The work 
of planting, spraying and digging comes 
just when work on other crops would pay 
us better. Therefore we plan to cut the 
potato area down to just about enough 
for our own use and private trade, and 
put the rest of the potato land into sweet 
corn. We can plant an acre of sweet 
corn at 20 per cent of the money and 
labor cost required for an acre of pota¬ 
toes, the cultivation can be done for less 
than half cost and the picking for less 
than 25 per cent. I think one man who 
knows how can take care of five acres of 
sweet corn where he could handle one of 
potatoes. Many an acre of sweet corn 
in this county brought $200 in cash— 
with the feeding stalks extra. 

* * * * * 

You understand that this refers to our 
own farm and conditions entirely. On 
your soil and with your equipment the 
potatoes might pay much better. I do 
not know about that, but the point is 
that every man must settle such things 
for himself and in order to settle it he 
must have figures to show what crops 
cost and what they bring in. Such fig¬ 
ures show that, on this farm, potatoes do 
not pay as well as sweet corn and toma- j 
toes, and we are not here to uphold any 
old habits or methods which figures show 
to be parasites. I knew of a man who 
moved from Massachusetts to Kansas 
years ago. At his old home he made 
money raising strawberries. That was 
all he knew. So out in the Kansas 
prairie he plowed two acres of beautiful 
land and planted berries. He put in the 
best part of a year on them and they 
were wonderful—but there was no good 
market within 50 miles and no railroad 
for shipping. He lost nearly the entire 
crop. There was another man who was 
told that the pioneers need flatirons. So 
he bought about half a ton of them and 
lugged them out to Nebraska in the 
wagon, only to find that there was no 
sale! No farmer will succeed in the 
future unless he knows what crops pay 
him and cuts out the drones. 


Those of us who live inside of what I 
call the stuffed circle of humanity have 
got to consider these things. As prices 
of land rise we have got to find out what 
our soil is best adapted to, and learn 
how to produce that to best advantage. 
This “stuffed circle” covers a swing of 
125 miles around Trenton, N. J. Inside 
of that circle will be found, during the 
Summer season, more human beings than 
are to be found in any other area of 
equal size on this entire earth. I. hat 

seems like a large statement, but take 
down your map and mark such a circle 
around Trenton. Then figure out the 
population from the census and see what 
you get. Then try the same thing around 
any other point on the world’s map! 
You must remember that we have inside 
such a circle two of the largest cities in 
the world and many other great manu¬ 
facturing and mining towns. During the 
Summer we have also great swarms of 
visitors playing (and eating) along the 
Jersey and Delaware coasts. And also 
remember that during tbe growing season 
a good truck on a farm inside this circle 
is within a day’s run of any part of this 
great market. Thus our farming must 
of necessity be different from that of men 
who live farther back and cannot have 
direct service. We have got to find out 
what our soil will produce to the best 
advantage, and learn how to produce that. 

For instance, w r e know that the McIn¬ 
tosh Red apple will grow about to per¬ 
fection on our hills. That ought to be 
our line for development, for why should 
we spend time and labor growing potatoes, 
for which our land is not suited, when 
the same labor well applied will produce 
McIntosh, which sell at $7.50 per barrel? 
Consider the labor and expense required 
to produce a barrel of potatoes at $3 
compared with that of caring for a tree 
which will average four barrles of apples! 
Yet there are great stretches of land in¬ 
side this circle whei-e potatoes will pay 
better than anything else. There are 
other places where poultry, cows, truck 
crops, peaches or grain will take the lead. 
The point is that no one can afford to 
farm in a certain way just because his 
father did so. We have got to figure it 
out for ourselves, and be guided—not so 
much by habit as by figures. I met a 
man the other day who said there Avas no 
use asking boys to stay on the farm be¬ 
cause there was no room for them. If 
father had 100 acres there was room for 
only one boy. Now I have 100 acres 
here, and three boys could make room for 
themselvevs. The 15 acres on the lower 
level, near the brook, could be put under 
a system of irrigation and give a man- 
sized job for anyone. A good orchard of 
50 acres on the hills would keep anyone 
busy, and the 30 acres of timber on the 
western slope would give another boy all 
he could do if he really wanted to work. 
During this coming year and the years to 
follow, those of us who live inside this 
circle have got to find our best crops and 
concentrate on them. 


The pigs have paid us this past year, 
and we shall increase our herd. We shall 

keep several brood sow«, sell some little 
pigs and keep enough to take care of our 
waste and roughage so as to get about 
half their living out of it. Even with 
the present high pork prices my figures 
show that it does not pay to stuff a hog 
on grain and drive him to 250 pounds or 
more. We make more profit on lighter 
pigs, which get most of their food out of 
wastes from farm and garden and a small 
amount of grain. - As for poultry, they 
pay us since we cut down the number 
and started to breed quality. Every Fall 
we select 40 to 50 of the best and let the 
rest go. Our birds made a fair showing 
at the egg-laying contest, and the best 
part of it is that the pullets in this year’s 
test are superior to their mothers. Thus 
I feel sure that this strain of Reds is 
capable of steady improvement. Now we 
have a good many calls for stock and eggs, 
and I want to say frankly that we are 
not in the business of selling. I do not 
think it would be fair to other chicken 
breeders who, as I believe, have better 
stock than we have. I just turn over a 
few eggs to friends and stop there. If I 
did go into the business I should tell 
every customer clearly that I would give 
him no guarantee whatever. I know what 
the breeding pens are. On liis order I 
would take eggs from a certain pen, pack 
them carefully and ship. My responsi¬ 
bility would end right there. No guar¬ 
antee, no “come-back,” no making good. 
The buyer would understand this fully 
before he did any business, and would 
have to agree to it before he bought. It 
might seem like harsh treatment, yet in 
the end there would be far more satisfac¬ 
tion than in some of the deals where the 
seller agrees to do everything and then 
fails to make good. It would also shut 
off the class of buyers who seem to “kick’’ 
on general principles, thinking they will 
get a little more out of it by doing so. 

Looking back over the year’s figures I 
conclude that our truck has paid us well. 
There has not been any excessive cost of 
repairs and we average not far from 12 
miles of travel to a gallon of gasoline. 
The truck has helped us in many ways— 
aside from the one chief thing of getting 
the goods promptly into market. I do 
not know just how much work a farmer 
should have in order to make such a 
truck pay. On many farms there would 
not be work enough to pay fair interest 
on the investment. Yet our experience 
has been that a truck seems to create new 
business. Everyone on the farm seems 
to take an interest in keeping the truck 
busy and almost before you know it the 
farm is producing some new crop which 
makes freight for the truck. After this 

January 4, 1919 

year’s experience we should hardly care 
to try to get along without our gasoline 
freight car. h. w. c. 

Spring-seeded Clover 

I had a field in corn this year in which 
I planned to seed clover at the last culti¬ 
vation, which I tried with great success 
last year. A windstorm tangled the corn 
up so badly that this was impossible. 
This year’s clover field has been turned 
under, my Timothy fields are run out, and 
unless I can get a hay crop from this field 
that was in corn I am up against it. I 
prefer clover. Can I get a crop from a 
Spring planting? If so, would you advise 
straight clover or a mixed sowing? I have 
tried oats and peas for two years and 
have not been favorably impressed—very 
dirty, hard to cut (always down), woi’se 
to cure (always rains), and before fed 
out the mice have all the oats eaten out. 

Southern Connecticut. H. T. P. 

We should have advised a thin seeding 
of oats and peas with mixed clover seed 
but for your experience. The oats and 
peas, cut early, have usually paid us well. 
You can seed a mixture of Red, Alsike 
and Mammoth clover alone and get a fair 
crop in late Summer. We would sow 
five to six pecks of beardless barley with 
the clover seed. You can cut the barley 
early for hay without setting the clover 

Coal Ashes in the Garden 

I will have, next Spring, a considerable 
quantity of sifted coal ashes, which I 
would like to dispose of. I know that 
fertilizing value of this article is negli- 
ble, but would appreciate to know 
whether it would do actual harm to 
spread it on the garden, having no other 
place to dispose of it. Land is light and 
sandy already, so I would not need it 
for improving the mechanical texture of 
the soil. K. v. a. 

Nassau, N. Y. 

No harm, but a slight benefit. About 
the only plant food value in such ashes 
comes from the wood burned with the 
coal. This will furnish small quantities 
of lime, potash and phosphorus. The 
fine sifted ashes will work into the sandy 
soil and make it more compact, and better 
able to hold moisture. They would also 
work into a heavy soil and make it more 
porous and open. Thus they add to the 
power of the soil to regulate the surplus 
of air and moisture. The ash heap also 
makes a good absorbent for house slops. 
These will be held by the ashes, and the 
plant food they contain carried to the 




1ru ****n?H 

ssss SS-.® 5 ®?-- V'-5? ^ 



Does the Tractor 
Catalog Specify 

SPIREX Radiator? 


You want to know how well 
built is the tractor you think 
of buying. 

You want to know if it com¬ 
prises parts that have proved 
their worth in actual farm 

And for this reason, look well 
to the radiator. 

The radiator is the safeguard 
of your tractor motor. It must 
render a most unusual cooling 
service to keep from over¬ 
heating this big, internal com¬ 
bustion engine that works 
almost always at maximum 
load in the hottest seasons of 
the year. 

If the catalog specifies a 
Spirex radiator, you know it is 
one that has been tested on 
thousands of the best farm 
tractors built — that it has 
proved its superiority in actual 
farm service as a most durable, 
most efficient tractor radiator. 







Racine, Wisconsin 


Pithy Celery 

What is the cause and remedy for hol¬ 
low, tough celery, especially the outside 
stalks? F. s. 

Genoa, O. 

Celery sometimes becomes pithy by rea¬ 
son of too long season of growth, and oc¬ 
casionally is due to the nature of the soil 
in which it is grown. For late or Win¬ 
ter use the seed should not be sown much 
before the middle of April, and the plants 
should not be set out until about July 1, 
and in favored localities it might be well 
to defer planting out until the 15th of 
July or even till the first of August. If 
the plants are set out too early iu the sea¬ 
son, under favorable growing conditions 
they are apt to reach their maximum 
growth prematurely, and while the season 
is still favorable for continued growth. 
When this occurs the plants will com¬ 
mence to send up seed stalks, though 
such growth may not be far advanced, 
perhaps only noticeable by length of the 
base above the roots to the extent of a 
couple of inches or so, yet that is suffi¬ 
cient to make the leaf stalks pithy and 
render the entire plant unfit for table use. 
Celery delights in a rich, rather heavy 
soil, and when planted in such soils at the 
proper time, and properly cared for. it 
seldom fails to give a satisfactory crop. 
Celery will as a rule do well on almost 
any kind of soil provided it is made rich 
and put in good mechanical condition, yet 
it is a fact well known that occasionally 
some of the most solid kinds will become 
more or less pithy when planted on soft, 
loose soils, such as peat bogs, where the 
soil is composed mostly of leaf mold, 
whereas the same kinds will be much 
heavier and better when planted on heavy 
or clayey soils. The outside leaf stalks 
are never fit for table use, as the long 
season of growth makes them pithy long 
before the blanching process begins. It 
is only the heart stalks which are of 
more recent growth that will blanch and 
become crisp and sweet. The outer leaf¬ 
stalks are always pulled off and thrown 
aside when preparing the vegetable for 
table use or for market. K. 

English Walnuts in Delaware 

Two trees I have were grown from 
nuts planted by my brother, now deceased, 
and I am quite confident were never 
grafted (or budded). They are about 23 
years old and have borne a crop every 
year since I came here, in 1913, though 
they produce most heavily every other 
year, like apples. The nuts seems alike 
from both trees and are very fine. I have 
grown a few seedlings from selected nuts 
from my bearing trees for several years 
past, for local sale. Of course there is 
no certainty that such trees will produce 
nuts as fine as they were grown from, 
but purchasers are told that they are 
seedling trees, and they are certain of get- 
ing some very fine shade trees if they do 
not produce fine nuts. I have several on 
my lot at Westfield, N. J.. about seven 
years old. There are several trees in this 
section in bearing. One of my neigh¬ 
bors, John H. Herring, I understand, sold 
$30 worth of nuts from one tree this year. 
Tree quite old, ungrafted. 

If I had a farm in this section I think 
I would have a email grove of the trees 
on it, but whether it would pay is a mat¬ 
ter rather problematical. Like many 
other things it would be more or less of a 
gamble. It takes so long for them to 
come into bearing that many are deterred 
from setting them, fearing they will never 
live to see them reach maturity. 

Delaware. j. e. scott. 

My father planted in 1906 a grove of 
350 Pomeroy walnuts. They are just 
beginning to bear now, but it looks as if 
every tree would bear a different type of 
nut. We have one tree about 25 years old 
that bore one bushel of nuts tfiis year. 
The nut that it grew from was sent to 
my father from Washington. 

Kent Co., Del. JACOB A. ROOSA. 

Large Popcorn 

On page 1375 is an article on big pop¬ 
corn by A. Vail Smith. Connecticut, and 
cut of the ear of popcorn, natural size. 
Six or eight yea re ago I located in a small 
field of rice popcorn quite a large number 
of ears as large, and, if anything, more 
handsome and perfect that the ear shown 
in the picture referred to. So elated was 
I over what I considered a new and ex¬ 
ceptional strain of the rice corn that the 
following year I planted a little more 
than a quarter of an ncre, and raised, if 
anything, more beautiful stock than from 
the seed collected. This crop was thor¬ 
oughly cured, but, much to my disappoint¬ 
ment, when I came to test the corn for 
popping, only a small portion of it would 
pop. I therefore discontinued any further 
test, and used the balance of that year’s 
crop for feeding purposes. 

New York. Arthur cowee. 

R. N.-Y.—Mr. Smith writes us that 
this big-eared corn pops well. It seems to 
be the general belief that the explosion 
which makes the corn “pop” on being 
heated is connected with small kernels 
and lost in large ones. 



Piou/ing audijfrc 

Finish mg fhe job complete). 

Thorough cultivation 

/harrowing a f/ 

Quick vineyard plowing 

finished in two operations 

One Tractor and One Implement 
For All Orchard and Vineyard Work 



With this one outfit the orchardist and 
vineyardist can do practically all their 
work and one man can do much more 
work at less expense than ever before 

The Moline-Universal Tractor Attachor is 
made to work in connection with the Moline- 
Universal Tractor so that one man has control 
of both tractor and implement It consists of 
an attachor truck equipped with a power lift 
device and a pair of transverse bars to which 
can be attached the following equipment: 

Orchard Gang Plow. Offset Sulky, Straight 
Sulky, Orchard or Alfalfa Cultivators; Spring 
Tooth Harrow in two, three or four sections. 

Furrow Irrigator for orchard or vineyard work. 

Ridge Irrigator, Vineyard Gang Plow and 
Crust Breaker. 

Thus this one implement does away with 
all special tools which are used for only a few 
days out of the year. The Moline-Universal 
Tractor Attachor combines the main parts of 
all these machines such as wheels, axle, frame, 
lifting device, seat and control mechanism. 

The saving in expense is apparent. 

But the improved quality of the work 
which can be done with the Moline Universal 
outfit and the saving in time is of greater 

For orchard plowing the gang plow is used 
and the land is plowed as close as the branches 
of the trees will permit. Then the Offset 
Sulky or the Straight Sulky is attached in 
place of the gang plows and the last furrow 
or two are plowed out right up to the tree 
trunks. Plowing can be done away from or 
to the trees in this manner. After plowing 
the Orchard, the Cultivator or Spring Tooth 

Address Dept. No. 19' 

Moline Plow Company, Moline, Illinois 

Harrow can be readily attached for making a 
fine mulch. And if irrigation is practiced, 
furrows or ridges are quickly made by attach¬ 
ing this equipment. 

For vineyard work, Moline-Universal At¬ 
tachor enables a better quality of work to be 
done, and quicker and cheaper than ever 
before possible. The vineyard plow consists 
of a pair of right and left hand bottoms. 
These bottoms can be spaced wide apart or 
close together to suit any vineyard rows from 
6 to 10 ft. apart. In two operations, with the 
bottoms spaced wide and close together, all 
the land can be completely plowed between 
the rows. Then by using Spring Tooth Harrow 
and Furrow Irrigators the entire vineyard 
work can be finished completely. 

The Moline-Universal Tractor is especially 
well adapted to orchard and vineyard work, 
being light in weight, extremely powerful. 
All moving parts are fully protected from 
dust and many other features which other 
tractors do not have. Aside from this work 
it can be used for any farm work, including 
cultivation of row crops and for belt work. 

This Moline outfit will make you more 
profit. If you are interested in orchard or 
vineyard work, send for folder R. F. No. 84 
which explains in detail just how the Moline- 
Universal Tractor and Attachor are used. 

Manufacturers of Quality Farm Implements 
Since 186S 

Plows, (steel and 






Hay Rake* 

Hay Loader* 

Hay Stacker* 
Crain Drill* 

Lime Sower* 
Manure Spreader* 


Crain Binder* 
Corn Binder* 
Wagon* and 

Stephens Salient Six Automobiles 



JL Roofing Products 

- Afford best protection obtainable from fire, 
lightning and storms. Durable-rust-resistant. 

Made from Apollo-Kkystonk CopperSteelGalvanizedSheets— tlio 
t> a 1 % a highest quality Galvanized Sheets manufactured for Culverts, Silos, 

1 .inks, Hoofing, Spouting, and all exnosod sheet metal work. Look for the Keystone added below regular trade 
marks—it indicates that Cop — 1 1 ~ J 1 - ’ * — - ■ 

_ K ---- - rn VM V AkUJOkUUV nvmvu UVIV ,„ regl 

,-er Steel is used. .Sold by leading dealers. Kkxstonk Copper Steel Rooting i tn 
r ‘ a ' M specially unapieu for residences and publio buildings. Send for free "Better Buildings” booklet. 

AMERICAN SHEET AND TIN PLATE COMPANY, Geaeral Offices: Frick Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



529 So. Division Ave., Grand Rapids, Michigan 

’THE only 
. pruner 
made that cuts 
from both sides of 
the limb and does not 
bruise the bark. Made in 
all styles and sizes. All 
shears delivered free 
to your door. 

Write for 
circular and 


Kelly Duplex Mills require 25% less sn |U| Af)B 
power, do as much, or more, work as any >lr \ \ 
other mill of equal size. Grind ear 
com, shelled oorn, oats, wheat, kaffir 
com, cotton seed, com in shucks, 
sheaf oats or any kind of grain. For 
speed and complete grinding tho 

Has No Superior 

Easily operated. Novo* 
chokes. 7 sizes. Fully 
guaranteed. Any power. 

Especially adapted fop 
gasoline engines. FREE CATALOt 

DUPLEX MILL * MFG. CO., 8ox320 , Springfield, Ohl 




Any barn manure, fertilizer, lime, ashes, etc. 
Shreds into wide strips, without dogging or bunch¬ 
ing. Meets every requirement—Sell, on It, Merita 


Kemp-Ctimax is simple, durable, light draft. Double- 
solf sharpening teeth bolted to Inclosed Cylinder 
practically indestructible. Write for catalog and 
prices. Ask for “ Saving and Applicat ion of Mauure ” 
by the inventor of the Spreader. We have a good 
proposition for dealers. 


36 Swan Street, Batavia, N, Y. 


January 4, 

The Rural New-Yorker 


A National Weekly Journal for Country and Suburban Homes 

Established tsso 

Published weekly by the Rural Publishing Company. 333 West 30tb Street, New York 
Herbert "W. Collingwood, President and Editor. 

John J. Dillon, Treasurer and General Manager. 

Wm. F. Dillon, Secretary. Mrs. E, T. Rovle, Associate Editor. 


To foreign countries in the Universal Postal Union. $2.04. equal to 8s. 6d, or 
8% marks, or 10J£ francs. Remit in money order, express 
order, personal check or bank draft. 

Entered at New York Post Office as Second Class Matter. 

Advertising rates, 75 cents per agate line—7 words. References required for 
advertisers unknown to us , and cash must accompany transient orders. 


We believe that every advertisement in this paper is backed by a respon¬ 
sible person. We use every possible precaution and admit the advertising of 
reliable houses only. But to make doubly sure, we will make good any loss 
to paid subscribers sustained by trusting any deliberate swindler, irrespon¬ 
sible advertisers or misleading advertisements in our columns, and any 
such swindler will be publicly exposed. We are also often called upon 
to adjust differences or mistakes between our subscribers and honest, 
responsible houses, whether advertisers or not. We willingly use our good 
offices to this end, but such cases should not be confused with dishonest 
transactions. We protect subscribers against rogues, but we will not bo 
responsible for the debts of honest bankrupts sanctioned by the courts. 
Notice of the complaint must be sent to us within one month of the time of 
the transaction, and to identify it, you should mention The Rural New- 
Yorker when writing the advertiser. 

Here is my dollar; keep it coming. I was a sub¬ 
scriber to The R. N.-Y. years ago, when it was Moore’s 
Rural New-Yorker. D. D. T. Moore, editor and pub¬ 
lisher, Rochester, N. Y. It cost more than it does now, 
but it was not worth as much, which is saying a great 
deal, for it was a good paper then. He did not advocate 
farmers’ political movement then. albert russell. 


W E do not know of any other product which in 
the past 40 years has gone up in quality and 
down in price. Ca .11 you name one? Mr. Russell 
names The R. X.-Y. 

When Are You Going to Resign? 

L AST year, as readers will remember, we asked 
that question of Hon. Charles H. Betts, secretary 
of the Foods and Markets Commission. We told Mr. 
Betts at that time that the longer he remained in 
office the more votes he lost to the administration. 
Ilis answer was: 

"I shall never resign!” 

Perhaps the recent election convinced Mr. Betts 
that after all we had some idea of the effect of his 
olficial connection. At any rate the newspapers now 
print the following: 

Charles H. Betts resigned yesterday as Secretary of 
the New York State Food Commission. His resigna¬ 
tion was tendered at a meeting in the offices of the 
Federal Food Board, No. 0 East 57th Street. 

Mr. Betts stated that as the war is over he wishes to 
give his attention to his private business. 

A wise decision on the part of Mr. Betts! Had he 
made such a decision one year ago the result of the 
recent election might have been different. Who 


I T is a common occurrence for us to receive letters 
which contain serious charges against public men 
or people in business, or these letters will demand 
information on important public matters. In some 
eases the writers say, “I want you to print this or 
investigate it, but under no circumstances will I per¬ 
mit any use of my name!” Now a moment's thought 
should show anyone that The R. N.-Y. cannot carry 
any such thing through unless we have all the facts 
and the backing of those who complain. Suppose 
we went after some public man with a complaint, 
lie would promptly demand a full statement of the 
facts and the name of the party making the charges. 
That would be his right—it is what you would do 
in his place. Think of the position we would occupy 
If we could not give the source of our information! 
Now The R. N.-Y. is not afraid to tackle anyone or 
anything in a just and necessary cause. We think 
we have proved that statement in the past, but we 
must know all about it and have the full backing of 
those who want justice. The very first principle of 
any fight to obtain recognition or right is the willing¬ 
ness to stand up and be counted and if need be to 

take a hand right in the fight. 


Haven’t we beard something to the effect that it is 
not best to put new wine in old bottles? IIow about 
this new wine that is coming back into our midst? 
Have we made ready to store it and make the best use 
of it or are we going to try to pour it back into the old 
bottles and after awhile lose it? R. B. 

T HAT is written by a young farmer who has been 
in the army—and is now home ready for work. 
T he “new wine” he refers to is the spirit and new 
view of life which the soldiers will bring back with 
them. A good many of these soldiers were boys on 
the farm working for father as a sort of favored 
hired man. They were not paid much more than 
common laborers—some of them had no regular 
wages. They just lived with father and mother, in 
many cases from a sense of duty, having little to do 
with the farm management. Since they were drafted 
father has learned the value of his boy through being 
forced to pay higher wages for inferior help. Now the 
boy is a man, hardened and broadened and matured 


in the great school of the army. His ideas of life 
are changed and he has picked up new associations 
through contact with new and trained friends. At 
home the girl of his youth has waited for him and 
she too has grown. Perhaps she has taken some 
new job or learned the value of organization in the 
Red Cross. When these young people with their 
spirit and glory and knowledge come back to father’s 
farm it will surely be like “new wine,” which the 
plainest common sense will tells us cannot be kept in 
“old bottles!” It is doubtful if many older men 
need worry over what they can do for these young 
soldiers. It is more likely to be a case of what the 
young soldier will do to the older man. We have all 
got to realize that life can never again settle down 
into the old groove. We must all adapt our plans 
to suit the returning army, for “youth must he 


T HIS year hundreds of farmers are having The 
I i. N.-Y. sent to their tenant or hired man as a 
New Year’s present. We never had so many of these 
subscriptions before, and we greatly appreciate them. 
It will please us if we can do or say something that 
will give the owner and the worker a common ground 
for conference. One man in Maryland makes the 
following suggestion—a new one to us: 

To every employer I would say: “Subscribe for The 
R. N.-Y. for your hired man and if you see he is pleased 
then pay him living wages and you have a good man. 
If he docs not take any interest in The R. N.-Y. you 
would better get rid of him, for he will not take an 
interest in your place.” 

As a sort of Babcock test for the hired man Tiie 
II. N.-Y. may have a new value which we had not 
thought of. At any rate we stand ready to offer our 
services in 100,000 cases! All the case requires is a 
dollar aud a hired man’s name! 


I N a certain New York town recently a milk com¬ 
pany wanted to secure milk contracts from far¬ 
mers. As part of their plan they distributed circu¬ 
lars calling for a meeting. Below is a part of that 
circular exactly reproduced to show some of the 

At that time a number of the Company Officials from 
the New York office will address you. We will have 
lots of music, both vocal and instrumental. Refresh¬ 
ments will be served, also cigars for the men. flowers 
for the ladies. Come all and have a good time. We 
■want to meet you. 

Now possibly this company thought that these in¬ 
telligent dairy farmers would run for the chance to 
obtain free cigars, “refreshments” and flowers, and. 
under the excitement of this great liberality, sign 
almost any contract that might be presented. In 
years past it must he admitted that free men have 
handed over their rights and privileges and seen 
them go up in smoke—through cigars or other forms 
cf “good will.” We are living now in a new age, 
when men are beginning to realize that, they do not 
want free cigars and flowers, but they do want a 
large enough share of the consumer’s dollar to enable 
them to buy cigars and flow r ers if they need them. 
Acting upon this new spirit one farmer sent this 
circular and wrote on it, “Will you walk into my 
parlor , said the spider to the ftyt” We like to see 
people go back into the classics for inspiration! 


W E have had considerable discussion over that 
misfit tree case mentioned on page 1383. Sev¬ 
eral parties want to know just what the New York 
courts have decided as the measure of damages. So 
we repeat: “ The proper measure of damages is the 
difference between what the land is worth with the 
trees as they were at the time the defect is dis¬ 
covered, and what the land would have been worth at 
lhat time had the trees been true to name” We 
think that will stand hereafter, and that it is what 
growers and nurserymen must expect. The nursery¬ 
men will, no doubt, object to any such measure of 
damage as excessive. Yet why should a grower he 
compelled to stand the entire loss? Until a tree 
comes into bearing its value is prospective—a mat¬ 
ter of years—and when a man has come to he 50 
or over the years count up. There will always he a 
difference of opinion regarding the value of orchard 
land and the earning capacity of a tree. Some¬ 
times the nurseryman claims that the trees have not 
been well cared for, and that they have little value. 
If he can prove it he could obtain justice under this 
new measure of values, because if the trees were not 
well grown they could not add value to the land. 
The grower must remember that he will have no 
case unless he can prove without any question that 

the “misfit.” trees actually are the ones lie bought 
from the nurseryman. There have been cases where 
the grower had planted several lots of trees in the 
same orchard, and could not positively separate them. 

W E must not deceive ourselves into thinking 
that the war is all over and that a return to 
old-time conditions is coming at. once. Germany has 
been beaten and well stripped of her weapons, but 
it will be six months or more before peace can be 
formally declared. There will be a hard and stub¬ 
born contest when the peace congress meets, and it 
will naturally he hard to hold the Allied nations to¬ 
gether in an agreement over the fate of Germany. 
Until this is all settled there can be no return to 
business conditions as they were before the war— 
in fact, they can never come hack just as we knew 
them 10 years or more ago. We have many letters 
from readers who ask if they may not expect lower 
prices for fertilizer, machinery and other farm sup¬ 
plies. There is nothing in sight, to indicate any such 
reduction. The end of the war came unexpectedly, 
with the full power of the nation geared up to war 
work. No one was prepared to make a quick change 
in industry, and most supplies needed for the next 
season’s work had been contracted for. We cannot 
see any hope of readjusting prices for this season. 
The demand promises to be very heavy, and our ad¬ 
vice would he to make sure of the needed goods at 


A MONG the things which are surely coming to 
improved farming of the future is the produc¬ 
tion of certified special products. Every section has 
the soil and climate exactly suited for growing some 
special product to perfection. If a man wanted to 
grow a tine quality of salt hay he would not go to 
some rich and sweet upland pasture. Nor would he 
seed Alfalfa in a salt marsh. Every section has 
special crops, and the future of successful farming 
will mean hunting for the special crop of any locality 
and then learning how to grow it properly. Farmers 
on Long Island are giving a good illustration of the 
way this will work out. The dairy farmers of Cen¬ 
tral and Northern New York have found that Luce’s 
Favorite corn is the variety best suited for producing 
silage and filling the silo. Repeated tests have shown 
this variety superior. While it will produce a great 
crop of silage corn, the variety is not. sure to mature 
in that latitude, and farmers cannot depend on seed 
grown on their own farms. Now it has been shown 
that Luce's Favorite grows well nigh to perfection on 
Long Island. It may he said that Long Island farm¬ 
ers have found this seed grain best suited to their 
soil and conditions. Thus, while it. might seem at 
% first thought that Long Island could have but little 
connection with Delaware or Chenango County, N. 
Y., the fact is that island seed corn may make dairy¬ 
ing in these northern counties a safer and more 
prosperous business, provided there can be a clear 
understanding and confidence regarding this seed. 
A Suffolk Co operative Association has been incor¬ 
porated for the purpose of handling certified Luce’s 
Favorite seed corn, and thorough inspection, germin¬ 
ation and grading will lie carried out. We just refer 
to this now to indicate one of the things which will 
surely be worked out in enterprising communities. 
Farmers will hunt until they find the crop best suited 
to their locality. Then they will learn how to grow 
it properly and organize to dispose of it. 


This is a hide-raw-lick ram, said the sheep tick as 
lie bored into the skin of the head of the flock. 

Frost feeds on fat. Therefore it costs more to put 
meat on the hog in zero weather. 

It would be hard to find a fairer statement than the 
article by D. L. Hartman on frost-proof cabbage, 
page 5. 

Several readers write to tell us how happy they are 
to see the sheep advertisements outnumber those of the 
dog. The sheep men have hardly begun. 

Tiie woman follows the citizenship of her husband. 
If an Englishwoman marries an American she becomes 
one also. If an American marries an Englishman she 
becomes English. 

The Secretary of Agriculture announces that the Ag¬ 
ricultural Department will offer nitrate of soda to farm¬ 
ers during the coming season. The price will be .$81 
per ton —cash. What have readers to say about the last 
distribution ? 

One of the hardest things to overcome > among war 
injuries is the effect of shell shock. This is a nervous 
trouble caused by exploding shells. The victim does 
not show outward injury, but his spirit and nerve are 
broken and it is hard to repair them. We shall have 
many cases of agricultural shell shock in the next few 
years. Many men will find tiie shells of old habit, and 
prejudice shattered and it will shock them to try to 
get used to new conditions. 


New York Federation of Agriculture 

At a meeting of the Executive Council of the New 
York Federation of Agriculture, held at Albany, on Dec. 
13th, it was decided to hold the annual meeting and 
convention of the Federation at Rochester, X. Y., dur¬ 
ing the week of .Tan. 13, in conjunction with the joint 
meeting of the New York State Horticultural Society 
and the New York State Fruit Growers’ Association. 

The business meeting will be held in the evening of 
Jan 1G, at eight P. M., at the Seneca Hotel, and on the 
following day we will meet with the fruit growers at 
Convention Hall, morning and afternoon session. 

This arrangement will give the delegates an oppor¬ 
tunity to attend the great meeting of the Horticulturists, 
which will be worth going a great distance to attend, 
the fruit show in connection with that meeting being 
one of the best to be seen anywhere in this country, and 
lasting three days—Jan. 15, 16 and 17. s. J. T. bush. 

Farms For the Soldiers 

Many well-meaning folks are talking today about what 
a debt of gratitude we owe the returning soldier, and 
how well he deserves of the Republic. Well, what does 
it all mean? Is 'anything to come of it? I doubt my¬ 
self whether the returning soldier, in the best of physical 
health and with a keen mind, is afraid to tackle almost 
any odds. It is rather a question, I think, of our giving 
him a clear track in making a place for himself and 
helping him to 'be as strong a force as possible in build¬ 
ing up our life and business. In no place do we need 
him more than in the country. I cannot help but feel 
that the first step forward is to give every young fellow 
who has seen service and is competent to run a farm a 
chance to buy a farm on reasonable terms. Why not 
link up this idea of using war risk insurance as security 
for a loan, with the plan recently advocated of having 
the Farm Loan banks authorized to loan to returned 
soldiers half the purchase price of farms they wish to 
buy for a fairly long term of years without interest? In 
such cases the value of the property would be determined 
in much the same manner as farm loans are now 
issued by these Federal banks, and other simple but rea¬ 
sonable requirements would prevent the abuse of such a 
privilege. Would not this plan put many a young man 
in the way of becoming a farm owner instead of a ten¬ 
ant? Would it not clear the way for a much more 
satisfactory arrangement between father and son than 
now exists, and lead to a working partnership that 
would be much better for them both, and for the neigh¬ 
borhood in many cases? Would it not decide a good many 
young men who are returning to the farm with misgiv¬ 
ings to go ahead with energy and push plans for estab¬ 
lishing a paying farm business? Would it not enable a 
good many to equip themselves properly with stock and 
machinery at the outset and put them on the road to a 
comfortable living sooner than would otherwise be pos¬ 
sible? In camp life, the expression that struck me most 
strongly was the one we used in rounding up the strag¬ 
glers and in getting action. It was “Shake a leg! Wake 
up there and shake a leg!” Isn’t that what we need to 
do right now in order to make the most of the new 
blood and enthusiasm that is coining back to us? Won’t 
an investment like the one suggested above do the busi¬ 
ness? Can we afford not to capitalize the energy and 
enthusiasm and the ability that these young fellows 
have in putting farming on a better paying basis, both 
in actual cash and in giving a happier outlook to us 
and our children? Suppose we get busy and have some¬ 
thing practical done. Shake a leg! Why not? 

Maryland. reubex brigham. 

R. X.-Y.—As Mr. Brigham has been in the army he 
ought to know how the soldiers feel. We want their 
opinion, as well as that of older farmers. The chief ob¬ 
jection to the land scheme suggested by Secretary Lane 
is that it may create too many farms and thus give an 
over-production of food. There are already farms 
enough in the country if the land is worked reasonably. 
The best policy would be not to greatly increase the 
number of farms, but to give these soldiers a chance to 
buy some of the farms now unoccupied or half tilled. 

Confessions of a Back-to-the-Lander 

Your paper is very interesting, and has the right idea. 
I only wish I could afford to subscribe for all my city 
relatives, who think that all there is to the poultry busi¬ 
ness is picking up eggs, and often wonder what I find 
to do all day long. I had more or less the same ideas a 
few years ago, before I joined the back-tp-the-land 
movement, and believe the right idea is a better under¬ 
standing between the problems of the farmer and pro¬ 
ducer and the needs of the consumer, but the difficulty 
lies in educating the city man into an understanding 
of the troubles and perplexities of life in the country. 
You can find it out quick enough by doing. I have been 
a civil engineer and worked in responsible positions in 
difficult jobs, been an instructor at Princeton I’niver¬ 
sify, but nothing I have ever tackled has taken as much 
hard work, mentally and physically, as trying to farm 
it. with a very limited capital, and I can say that my 
respect for any man that has made a success of farming 
is profound. I haven’t a doubt that I can make more 
money at architecture in New York than I can down 
here. But nothing will ever induce me, in the way of 
financial returns, to give up living in the country. I 
like it and am going to stick and keep on learning. 

Long Island. w. E. B. 

Concrete Ships 

The other day a ship 320 feet long and made of 
concrete came sailing into New York Harbor. 
She carried over 25.000 bags of sugar which were 
“dry as a bone.” This ship was made on the Pacific 
coast in 60 days. They just set up a frame of steel 
and poured the concrete in. When it hardened, 
there was the ship! When you come to think of a 
big block of concrete, shaped like a boat, floating on 
the ocean, defying the hardest storms and carrying a 
great cargo, you wonder wliat is to happen next. 
Will it be a life preserver made out of brick? The 
concrete ship is a success and some of the concrete 
wonders worked out on land are nearly as remark¬ 
able. “What would you have said if, when you were 
a boy, someone had told you that a concrete ship 
would be made to float?” That is the question we 
asked of a middle-aged man. His answer indicates 
the wonderful progress in concrete making: “/ 
should have asked what concrete was!" 

Improving Farm Conditions 

Iu reference to “the bright side of farming,” appear¬ 
ing on page 1385, I notice one of your readers finds 
fault with your policy of everlasting “knocking” on 
prices of farm products and the prosperity of the farmer 
in general. I truly believe, like a great many more, 
that your journal does not mis-state or misrepresent one 
iota the situation and condition of the farmer as a 
whole. Your ceaseless and tireless efforts in this respect 
should meet with the approval and appreciation of 
every farmer, whether he belongs on the bright side or 
gloomy side. Keep up your splendid fight in behalf of 
their cause, and continue to educate and to enlighten 
the farmers as to their true economic importance. Your 
efforts will not be in vain, for the farmers will even¬ 
tually see things in their true light, and. in consequence, 
free themselves from the shackles of the parasites who 
are directly responsible for the unfavorable circum¬ 
stances they are in. Before this country entered the 
war farming in general was more or less discouraging. 
Conditions have improved somewhat since then, but 
they can be improved a great deal more, and this can 
only be accomplished as you have often advocated, by 
sending enough farmers to the State Legislature to make 
their power and influence felt iu the reactionary circles 
of those bodies. F. P. 

Bergen Co., N. J. 

Autocracy in School Matters 

In September, 1017. at a special school meeting in 
District No. 17. town of Denmark, Lewis Co., N. Y., a 
vote was taken on a resolution read by the superin¬ 
tendent to annul this district and annex it to District 
No. 1. Twenty-eight voted against the measure and 
five for it. This superintendent was a stranger who 
had just moved from another part of the State to 
District No. 1. When undertaking to close this school 
permanently, he professedly did not know the district 
boundaries, the number of school children residing in 
the district, nor where their homes were located. The 
argument put forth by him and the members of the 
board was that under the township law our tax would 
be less by having fewer schools. The sentiments of the 
voters showed plainly that whether the tax would be 
more or less the school should be kept open, and it was, 
during last year. When the township law was re¬ 
pealed, the superintendent had autocratic power, and 
as soon as the snow was gone a surveyor was sent to 
map District No. 17 joined to District No. 1. The 
superintendent issued a decree saying by his authority 
the two districts were one. 

District No. 17 has appealed repeatedly to the De¬ 
partment of Education at Albany through an attorney 
and representatives from the district. These appeals 
have amounted to nothing except to convince those in¬ 
terested of the utter disregard of the department for 
the needs and rights of country people. Our Winters 
are severe, with mercury being frequently from 20 to 
25 degrees below zero, and occasionally much lower. 
The snow is deep and roads badly drifted, making reg¬ 
ular attendance at school from some of the farms impos¬ 
sible for young children in Winter, and a matter of 
much loss of time and hardship to both children and 
parents at other seasons, from all of them. District 
No. 1 is a village district, with a heavy bonded indebt¬ 
edness which is spread over the forcibly acquired terri¬ 
tory. Last year, under the township law, our tax was 
about 300 per cent more than in 1916; this year it is 
nearly -100 per cent over that of 1916, and we have no 

City people are loath to believe conditions like the 
above can be forced upon people iu this supposedly free 
country. The Yew York Exening Sun published re¬ 
cently in its correspondence column a letter calling 
attention to this abuse which country dwellers are com¬ 
pelled to bear under the present school system, the 
editor making comment that “with the repeal of the 
township law this evil was corrected,” which it surely 
was not, as Section 129 of the education law shows. 
Unless the farms are to be depopulated we must have 
in this north country nearby schools; and as there is 
Considerable sentiment against autocracy at present, 
and favoring the return of forcibly annexed territory, 
would it not be a suitable time for the New York State 


Legislature to put down the autocracy within her bor¬ 
ders, and restore the stolen school districts? 

Lewis Co., N. Y. john m. lewis. 

Up-State Farm Notes 

of Secretary of State F. M. Hugo says the State troop¬ 
ers during the past year made 1,7S6 arrests for violation 
of the motor vehicle law, and only 83 of the persons 
were discharged. Improper license plates, lack of proper 
lights and reckless driving were the most frequent of¬ 
fenses up-State. In New York City in the last 10 
months $148,000 in fines has been collected, and 203 
persons committed to jail without the chance of paying 
a fine, while 171 others served sentences in default of 
payment of fines. Here the most common offense wav 
speeding. The coming year will probably see an increase 
or at least 60.000 motor vehicles in the State, bringing 
the total to approximately 460,000 ears, of which 365,- 
000 are passenger. 

OT R SMALL TOWNS IN WAR.—Skaneateles vil¬ 
lage, with a population of 4.619. has 35 commissioned 
officers upon its honor roll, some of them natives who 
have removed from the town, and 190 non-commissioned 
officers and men in the military and naval service. Five 
have died in the service. Pulaski has just dedicated a 
service flag with 150 stars; four gold stars and four 
silver ones. The flag is 10 by 15 feet, and was secured 
by the families of the men in the service. It is to hang 
from a cable across the entrance to the town’s main 

The State has lost the test case to decide whether it 
tad to pay $75,000 for damages caused by flooding farm 
and trucking lands in Cayuga County, near Port Byron, 
on September 15, 1915. Action was brought by Fred J. 
Saroney. of Port Byron, for about $900, and there were 
between 40 and 50 other claimants. Saroney’s case was 
to be a test case, to determine all. The damage was 
largely in onion and celery crops, and was caused by 
the Erie Canal’s overflowing and washing out large 
areas. The owners of the land claimed the trouble was 
due to mismanagement at the gates at Montezuma, while 
attorneys for the State claimed there was a cloudburst, 
and that there was no human prevention, claiming de¬ 
fense in the “act of God” clause of the law. The Court 
of Claims first gave Saroney a verdict, and when the 
State appealed the Supreme Court unanimously affirmed 
the award. 

TION.—At a two-day’s session in Syracuse, A. J. Sears 
of Cortland was re-elected president of the State Asso¬ 
ciation of Patrons of Industry. Others officers newly 
elected are : ,T. W. Cowan. Albany County, vice-president; 
Frank Stanton, Greenville, secretary; A. F. Barney, 
Belleville, treasurer; W. A. Genung, Ithaca, chaplain; 
J. A. Hall, Cortland, trustee. The 1919 convention will 
again be in Syracuse. F. E. Alexander, State Grange 
lecturer, spoke on matters of interest to both this order 
and the Grange. The association went on record as 
against the plan to consolidate with the Grange, after a 
lengthy discussion of the subject. Entertainment num¬ 
bers were contributed by Mrs. M. C. Howard and Rev 
Bradford of Cortland : by Mrs. and Miss Upton of Os¬ 
wego County. Mrs. Earl Wood and Mrs. Chas. Potts. 
Dean Howe of Syracuse University spoke on after-the- 
war topics. 

HOLIDAY MARKET NOTES.—Dressed turkevs 
were offered on the Saturday market at Syracuse for 65c 
per lb., though some of the 200 rigs registered took 45c 
before the session closed. Few live turkeys were offered. 
Hundreds of pounds of live chicken and fowl, ducks, 
rabbits and guinea hens were offered. Chickens brought 
o2 to 38c. fowls 2S to 30c, ducks 40c, geese 45c, rab¬ 
bits 25c. and guineas $1 to $1.50 a pair. Eggs dropped 
to 75 and SOc a dozen. Butter sold at 65 to 75c per lb 
Potatoes brought $1.15 and $1.25 per bu.. cabbage 60c 
per^doz. heads, extracted honey 30c per lb., apples 75c 
to $1 per bu.: new dry beans dropped to $6 per bu.; 
large red onions sold for $1 per bu., and small yellow 
ones at 50 to 65c per bu. Hickory nuts brought' $3.50 
per bu. Veal sold at 22c lb„ lamb 30c, wholesale. Nine 
live little pigs brought $5 each. Twenty-five loads of 
hay sold at $2(5 a ton. Christmas trees dropped to 25 
and 35c each; ground pine and cedar wreaths, 15 to 25c 

National Defense is enlisting the co-operation of the 
State in arranging a definite program of snow removal 
for the Winter. In the post-war period just beginning, 
motor trucks are to play an important part iu the move¬ 
ment of food stuffs. Already motor express routes have 
opened with two trips daily across the State, with sev¬ 
eral side or contributory routes. The value and prac¬ 
ticability of the service was severely tried out in last 
Winter’s extreme snows. The delivery of fleets of 
trucks by their own power from factories in the West, 
and the vast quantities of material delivered by army 
trucks across the State show the value of this new 
form of service. All improved highways' will be called 
on more or less to play their part in the movement of 
food stuffs and other needed stores, and are now asked 
for information concerning specific powers of snow re¬ 
moval ; v. hat co-operation can be expected, what ma¬ 
chinery and equipment is available, what preventive 
measures can be taken to avoid drifting of snow, and a 
report of just what was done last year iu the cause of 
continuous transportation. Farmers are concerned to 
know whether snow removal will be so conducted as to 
make hauling of farm produce by horses possible or not. 
In some places last year this was sadly interfered with. 

York State believes it offers better chances for soldiers 
who want jobs than other sections. The Onondaga 
County Farm Bureau is co-operating with the Federal 
Employment Bureau in placing returned soldiers on 
farms in the vicinity. Both agencies believe there are 
fine opportunities for men in agriculture next Spring 
and Summer. m. g. f. 




From Day to Day 

Doughboy, Now to Work 


Doughboy, dear boy, glad to see your 
• face, 

Your trim, sturdy figure. 

Full of youth, full of vigor, 

Stepping in your khaki, full of grace. 
Fighting up the sidewalk of the street, 
Smiling back at every one you meet; 

A pretty girl beside you ; 

With no one she’ll divide you. 

T.ove in every twinkle of her feet. 

Doughboy, dear boy, weeks ago your 

Caught us up and thrilled us, 

With pride and pity filled us. 

Seeing you in fancy off to France, 
Marching to the thunder of the guns. 
With thousands of our brothers and our 

All gallantly beside you. 

With battle smoke to hide you. 

Striking down the Empire of the lluns. 

Doughboy, dear boy, glad ’twas not your 

To cross the heaving ocean, 

To fall in your devotion, 

Or weeks and weeks lie wounded on a cot. 
Glad you ’scaped the horrors and the 

Glad you missed the cooties and the mud, 

So brave and safe and steady, 

Off with khaki and stand ready 
As toiler, just as soldier, to make good. 

—Joseph I. C. Clark, in 
New York Evening Sun. 

There is a philosophic policeman near 
this office who has discovered a great 
truth in boy nature. “What boys want.” 
he say6. “is excitement. They go and get 
into mischief because they think I’ll chase 
’em. If I don’t chase ’em there’s no fun 
in it. Give ’em something else that in¬ 
terests ’em. and they stay out of mischief. 
When I see them climbing a high fence 
or clambering over lumber piles where 
they’ve no business to be, I just tell ’em 
it’ll hurt them more than me if they fall 
off, instead of tryin’ to chase ’em off. and 
then they most generally quit.” There is 
a great truth in that, and there are many 
parents who mighty well bear it iu mind. 
All juvenile naughtiness is not to be 
blamed on monotony and repression, but 
there are many cases where these causes 
have much to do with it. Lively children 
on an isolated farm in Winter often pre¬ 
sent serious problems in family manage¬ 
ment. Perhaps some of our wise farm 
mothers can offer us better suggestions in 
this phase of family life than the profes¬ 
sional exponents of “child culture.” who 
rarely appear to consider the isolated 
farm family in their rules and methods. 


The chilblain season is here again, and 
no doubt there are many sufferers now 
hopefully trying new remedies, or going 
back to the old ones, with the expectation 
of more or less discomfort, if not actual 
pain, as long as cold weather lasts. Many 
people believe that chilblains are always 
a result of frost bite, but this is not the 
case; they may result from such exposure, 
but there are other contributory causes. 
Poor circulation and low vitality induce 
chilblains; anemic women and girls, or 
delicate children, are especially suscep¬ 
tible. The chilblain sufferer requires 
abundant nourishing food and warm cloth¬ 
ing that does not “bind” anywhere; tight 
shoes, tight belts or tight garters tend to 
increase the trouble. It also seems to be 
induced by warming cold hands and feet at 
a stove or radiator, and a chilblain suf¬ 
ferer will do well to warm the chilly ex¬ 
tremities by rubbing rather than by direct 
heat. When the trouble first appears it 
is often relieved by painting the affected 
surface with tincture of iodine.. Spirits of 
turpentine rubbed on also gives relief. 
Everyone has' a pet remedy, but no one 
remedy fits all cases.. Cold baths, fresh 
air, or anything that is likely to improve 
circulaton is beneficial. Some obstinate 
cases of chilblains in country dwellers are 
cured by installing a good heating sys¬ 
tem instead of stoves, warm floors and 
an equable temperature removing the 
trouble entirely. 


That suggestion of Dr. Crane’s on page 
1421, regarding the treatment of creosote 
burns, is a good thing to remember if one 
is handling creosote stain. He says that 
creosote should be washed off with linseed 
oil or denatured alcohol, before the burn 
is treated; washing with water does not 
remove it, and increases the burning ac¬ 

Old Handicrafts Revived 

Clipped wool embroidery is an old 
method of wool embroidery made new by 
present demands. To make, pull the wool 
iu the material, leaving loops. When the 
design is finished, clip closely and brush 
smoothly. This may be caught into the 
material or done on separate material, 
cut out at edges, turned and neatly whip¬ 
ped into place. This is quickly and eas¬ 
ily done. Any design may be used. One 
of white daisies with yellow center on a 
blue serge dress was very attractive. Then 
it is inexpensive; a small bit of wool 
goes far in this manner of embroidery. 
The most somber colors can be brightened 
in this manner. 

Another attractive trimming is a meth¬ 
od of basting stitch embroidery. First 
run three rows of even basting stitch, then 
zigzag under the stitching, keeping the 
thread even. If two colors are used the 
effect is almost oriental. This is an easy 
method of trimming house dresses, aprons, 
pillows, etc. 

Many know the trouble with getting a 
flat center for colonial rugs. I now quilt 
the centers of any heavy fabrics suitable 
for long wear, cut any desired shape. 
Bind neatly, then edge with rows of braid 
in the usual way. My best set with cen¬ 
ters of pink and blue wash cretonne 
edged with pink and blue braid is much 
admired. Then I have used bits of car¬ 
pet for centers. A set of hot-dish mats 
made in the same way, edged with three 
rows of blue and white braid put on 
straight, then one row put on in points 
or rickrack manner, is pretty and useful, 
and the cost is charged to the piece bag. 
One friend of mine has made such a 
pretty rug with plain quilted center, xised 
cotton between and laid a bold patchwork 
design on, whipped in place; then six or 
eight rows of braid. It is pretty and will 
last a long time for light wear; then it 
was such easy work. MRS. C. C. M. 

Sausage Recipes 

Pork Sausage.—This is a Virginia rec¬ 
ipe. To every 10 pounds of meat use 
three ounces of salt, one of black pepper, 

The Rural Patterns 

In ordering always give number of pattern 
and size desired, sending price with order 

9(129—Set of Boutfoir Caps—One size. 
Price. 10 cents. 

9279—Child’s Snow Suit, with Cap ami 
Mittens. Sizes 2 to 0 years. Price, 15 

one-half ounce of sage rubbed fine. Hav¬ 
ing all ingredients weighed, put a layer 
of the meat cut in strips, sprinkle the 
mixed seasoning over it, another layer of 
meat with more seasoning, distributing as 
evenly as possible. Bun twice through 
the grinder, and when it is put on the 
table it is surprising to see how quickly 
it vanishes. Ordinary pork sausage, 
smoked in bags, makes a desirable change, 
and keeps well. Pack the sausage meat 
in small bags of coarse, strong muslin, 
the size selected being that most conveni¬ 
ent for slicing; small salt sacks, well 
washed, may answer. Close the bags, 
and then smoke, just like ham, the 
amount, of smoking depending on the fam¬ 
ily taste. When used, split down the 
seam of the bag for convenience in cutting 
the slices, and fry like ham. 

Bologna Sausage.—Six pounds of lean 
beef; one pound salt pork; three pounds 
lean fresh pork; one pound beef suet; 
one ounce white pepper; one teaspoonful 
ground mace; three ounces salt; one tea¬ 
spoonful cayenne; one large onion chop¬ 
ped fine. Choi) the meat and suet sepa¬ 
rately very fine, then mix; add all the 
seasoning, and mix thoroughly. Fill into 
casings and tie 'into lengths, or use 
strong linen bags. Make a brine that will 
bear an egg; put the sausage into it. an.d 
let stand two weeks, turning and skim¬ 
ming every day. At the end of the first 
week throw away the old brine and put 
the sausage into new for the second week ; 
then smoke for a week. When smoked 
rub over the outside with olive oil, and 

store iu a cool, dark, dry place. If you 
wish to keep the sausage for any length of 
time, sprinkle the outside with pepper. 

Frankfurter Sausage.—Chop up pork, 
lean meat and fat (ham can be used) iu 
the proportion of four pounds lean to one 
of fat. To a pound of the mixture sea¬ 
son with salt, 11 grams; one-half gram 
saltpetre, two grams white pepper and 
one-half gram cloves. Mix the whole so 
intimately that “you cannot tell the fat 
pieces from the lean.” The more thor¬ 
ough the mixing the better the result. If 
the mixing is not free, you can add a lit¬ 
tle water, but do not overdo this. If too 
“waxy” from excess of fat, add lean; or, 
the other way. if too meaty. Use pig’s 
cases for the filling. Tie the sausage iu 
lengths desired. - .Hang the links well 
apart in the smokehouse. Tolerable heat 
will do them rightly enough, but if you 
want the deep rich tint of brown, you 
will have to finish them off over a brick 
fire. It is hard to fix the temperature, as 
the smokehouse in the open will be cooler 
than the one indoors. Test the state by 
running a quill in and examining the ex¬ 
tract by the taste, sight and smell. Some¬ 
times they are put iu bundles of 10 or 12 
folded together and pressed to flatten. 
Keep in a box under weight before putting 
in the smoke. 

Oxford Sausage.—One pound each of 
finely chopped veal, pork and beef suet. 
Mix through this one quart of bread 
crumbs, grated peel of half a lemon, a 
grated nutmeg, a sprig of savory, thyme 
and powdered sage leaves. Make in cakes 
and fry in very little hot butter. 

Pork and Beef Sausage.—For 10 
pounds of sausage use seven and one-half 
pounds of pork and two and a half of 
beef; grind fine, add two tablespoonsful 
of salt, one teaspoonful each of pepper, 
allspice, cloves and Sage. Heat all to¬ 
gether until scalding hot. Turn into 
stone jars that have been thoroughly 
scalded and aired, cover with cheesecloth 
and pour hot suet over the cloth. When 
any is wanted for use, take out and make 
into cakes and fry. 

Summer Sausage.—Use any recipe you 
like best, but use cloth casings made from 
muslin, casings to have a diameter of 
three to four inches, and length to fit a 
baking pan. Casings are easily made 
with sewing machine. Smoke the finished 
sausage to your heart’s content. After 
smoking let sausage dry sufficiently, which 
takes four or five weeks, depending on 
where hung to dry. The sausage should 
be fit for eating, which can readily be as¬ 
certained by cutting one through. When 
dry enough melt a quantity of paraffin— 
about one-lialf pound for a dozen sausages 
—put iu baking pan, then place the sau¬ 
sages therein and roll about in the hot 
paraffin, one at a time. Hang up iu a 
dry place and they will keep nicely and 

Virginia Beef Sausage.—Mix two cup¬ 
fuls of finely chopped raw beef, one and 
one-half cupfuls of fat salt pork minced 
very fine, two teaspoonfuls of powdered 
sage, a scant teaspoonful of pepper—the 
pork should furnish sufficient salt—and 
one tablespoonful of lemon juice. When 
thoroughly mixed pack it iu small round 
tin cans and set away to become hard. 
When wanted for breakfast slice three- 
fourths of an inch thick and either brown 
in the oven or fry in a hot, well-greased 

A Favorite Scrapple Method 

Since my residence in Central New 
York I have found so few people who 
know or use scrapple that I want to tell 
them of its good qualities and how I like 
best to make it. In my old home there 
Avere many Dutch cooks, and this was a 
favorite dish for breakfast. On the farms 
at butchering time these good cooks made 
scrapple in large quantities, packing it 
in large tin pans and putting a layer of 
fat over the top to keep it from spoiling. 
When made in such large quantities it 
sometimes loses flavor along toward the 






TXp Every Tree 

Millions of pounds 
of Maple Su£ar 
can be saved. 

Firs^Prize Maple Syrup- 
end. Sujaf*ha gibe e n_ made.b>' 


Our 1919 Booklet will tell you : 

How to make better syrup and 
sugar—How to save time in 
boiling and all about the New 
Perfection Heater . 

This booklet is free and every farmer 
should have one. Write for youra today. 
Syrup Cans,Sugar Pails and Sap Buckets 
will be hard to get next spring. If you 
order early,we can supply you at reason¬ 
able prices. 

Bellows Falls, Vermont 


-1 f———1F 

□ i 


January 4, 1910 


It Handy on 

For headache or neuralgia 
—for rheumatism—for sud¬ 
den colds or sore throats, 
Musterole offers quick re¬ 

Musterole has all the vir¬ 
tues of the old-time mustard 
plaster but is without the 
sting, burn or blister. 

It is a clean, white ointment 
made from oil of mustard and a few 
home simples and is easy to use. 

All you do is rub gently over 
the spot where there is pain or 

Almost instantly your pleasant¬ 
ly tingling skin tells you that good 
old Musterole has begun its heal¬ 
ing work. 

After the first warm glow 
comes a soothing, lasting cool¬ 
ness, but way down deep under¬ 
neath the coolness, Musterole has 
generated a peculiar heat which 
disperses congestion and sends 
your pain away. 

Try it for those many ills for 
which grandma used a mustard 
plaster. It quickly loosens up a 
cough. It reduces inflammation 
in cases of sore throat. It relieves 
bronchitis, neuralgia, lumbago, 
rheumatism, stiff neck, sore mus¬ 
cles, sprains and strains. It often 
prevents pneumonia. 

Keep a jar handy on the medi¬ 
cine shelf. 

Many doctors and nurses recommend 

30c and 60c jars; hospital size $2.50. 
The Musterole Co., Cleveland, Ohio 


Would not live 
without it" 

"It la hard forma to express In words wha% 
we think of our Kawnear. If people in gen¬ 
eral knew of the benefits derived, tnera 
wouldn't be an outdoor toilet In ex¬ 
istence. We certainly w ou Id 
not be without the Kawnear and 
•re recommending it to all our 
friends." EDW. R VOIGHT. 

Fair View. N. J. 

“Makes our 
home modern” 

"We live outside the city water 
and sewer limit and yet. with 
the Kawnear Toilet, we hove both 
accommodations so far as a toilet la 
concerned."—M. IS. GARDNER, Cherry 
Park Fruit and Poultry Farm, Aurora. Mo. 

30 Days’Free Trial 

Have the modern perfected Kawnear 
Cabinet in your own home on 30 days’ absolutely 
free trial. Then, if you are willing to give it up return 
it and the trial will coBt you not one penny. Sent fully 
equipped. Anybody ean set it up. No plumbing. No daily 
attention required. Guaranteed for lOyears. Odorless. Sani¬ 
tary. Endorsed by U. S. Govt, and State Health Board*. 


Buy Direct From the Maker 

Va>AA Rnnlf Send your name and address for free 
PiCC DUUH illustrated book and pictures in color 
and details of free trial offer. No obligations. Writetoday. 

federal Sash & Door Co. Dept. 478 i Kansas City. Mo. 

Farmers, Attention 

1st—Are you using Grange Exchange Feeds 
and Grains? 

2nd Do you know that we are offering mixed 
feeds that contain no by-products ? 

3rd—The Exchange State Brands of fertilizers 
are registered and with the guaranteed 
analysis we can assure you High Quality 
and Lowest possible price. 

4th—We have closed contracts with reliable 
firms to supply you with High Quality 
Farm and Garden Seeds, Spraying Mate¬ 
rials, Silos, Sowing Machines and we can 
supply you with anything else you want. 
Write for information. 

New York Grange Exchange, Inc. 

308 South Salina Street SYRACUSE, N. Y. 


A Woman’s Hardy Garden —Bu Mrs. 

H. R. El U .$1.75 

Old Time Gardens—Bp A. Af. Earle 2.50 
Flowers and Ferns in Their Haunts— 

By M. O. Wright .... 2.00 
Plant Physiology— By Duggan . . 1.60 

For sale by Rural New-Yorker. 3:53 W. 30th St.,N.Y. 



last, and so from the best recipes T could 
obtain I evoked an accurately propor¬ 
tioned one, but in a small quantity, bet¬ 
ter adapted to the size of my family. I 
like to make less at a time, and make it 
oftener, as I think it tastes better. 

Though I now live in town, this is a 
favorite cold weather breakfast dish, as 
it contains elements of nutriment espe¬ 
cially good for cold weather; the cornmeal 
and meat both are rich in fat, there; is a 
good percentage of protein, and, if served 
with syrup, the carbohydrates are suffi¬ 
cient for a balanced meal, if a tart fruit 
is served with it. Apple sauce or baked 
apple is excellent for this. 

I get a pound and a quarter of fresh 
belly pork, fat and lean in about the pro¬ 
portion of two to one, at 32 cents a 
pound. Head meat is most often used, 
but last Winter 1 found that in the end 
the expense was exactly the same, while 
the work was far more in using the head 
meat. I always had to buy more than I 
really wanted at one time, too, so I pre¬ 
fer the belly piece. I cook this until ten¬ 
der in a closely covered kettle, letting it 
cool in the liquor it cooked in, about a 
pint, or perhaps more. When this is cool 
1 put the meat through a food chopper, 
running the fat through first. Otherwise 
it won’t go through easily, if the knives 
are clogged with lean. 

Put the chopped meat back in the 
liquor and salt to taste. When actively 
boiling stir in two level cupfuls of corn- 
meal. sifting in slowly through the fin- 

stitches ; they will not hurt the feet. By 
devising a good fitting pattern, which any 
woman should be able to look at a stock¬ 
ing and do, it is easy to cut a neat-fitting 
stocking for the little folks from the leg 
of larger ones; sew seams with the over¬ 
cast stitch, opening seams and felling 
down. Also we worked out the same plan 
of re-footing some of those with feet well 
worn, they l*'ing cut down for the smaller 
children by putting new bottoms to the 
feet and doubling the heel for longer ser¬ 

This plan of overhauling the hosiery 
worked so well for us last Winter that 
T am carrying out the same plan this 
Winter, and just now there is a large 
pile washed and ready for mending. No 
doubt there are others who, like myself, 
have let half-worn hose accumulate, giv¬ 
ing little thought to the matter, and who 
might profitably utilize them as I have 
done. I know a friend who saved up 
enough worn stockings to make a quilt 
lining. This is one way of saving, but 
requires a large amount of sewing, while 
the lasting qualities might not be alto¬ 
gether satisfactory. airs, lillie york. 

Simplicity Filet Lace 

No. 14 hook is required. With crochet 
cotton No. 70, deepest part of scallop 
measures 4% inches. Start with chain 
33. adding one block each row for 13 
rows; then decrease one each till you have 
the original 11 spaces and blocks. Sim- 



;.**»*?: I 


gers. stirring constantly to prevent lumps. 
Again taste for salt, as it will probably 
need more. If too thick, add a little bit 
of boiling water. It should be about the 
consistency of cornmeal mush. Set it 
back on the stove to simmer 20 or 30 min¬ 
utes. I like best to place the kettle in a 
steamer and steam for two to three hours. 
This makes it very tender and fluffy. 
Then turn this into two greased bread 
tins and let cool. When cold fry thin 
slices a golden brown, and serve hot, 
either plain or with maple syrup. No fat 
will be needed in the frying pan, as it 
makes its own fat. A rather coarse corn¬ 
meal gives better results than the fine 
does. At an expense of 45 to 50 cents this 
gives several, four to six. hearty break¬ 
fast dishes to a medium-sized family. 
This amount will keep until used without 
the layer of fat over the top. 


Solving War-time Hosiery Problems 

Here they lie before my eyes; 10. 20 
30 pairs; all sorbs and sizes, mated and 
unmated; some white ones, others red, 
brown and black; eome of the 10-cent 
quality, and all the way from this to the 
real silk ones which the teacher-girlie left 
when she went to another position. Some 
are heelless, others toeless, and not a few 
are what might be classed as practically 
footless. Such is the quantity and qual¬ 
ity of the pile of hitherto discarded hos¬ 
iery which has been brought forth from 
closets, trunks and dresser drawers, and 
from which I plan to provide an ample 
supply of stockings for the family this 
Winter. Just a little patience and I 
shall tell how I did this very thing last 
Winter, when war conditions, short crops 
and limited means caused me to look 
about for ways of saving in the house as 
well as kitchen. 

First, after hunting up every stocking 
to be found, they were carefully washed 
and rinsed well so as to be soft; after be¬ 
ing ironed, I sat down in the rocker near 
a good light and sorted them as carefully 
as possible, comparing tops, length, and 
shade of color. Of course many pairs 
were mated, but there were others which 
by accident had been doomed as “un¬ 
mated” ; these were selected and mated 
to the best advantage. Needle, thimble, a 
ball of darning cotton, scissors and pa¬ 
tience gave results that were altogether 

For the “railroad” in the silk stockings 
the machine threaded with silk thread is 
the easiest and best way to mend ; merely 
fold and stitch close to edges of the rent. 
Holes in legs of ordinary hose are easily 
darned with the darning cotton. If holes 
are large in heels and toes I patch them, 
whipping patch down on both sides, leave 
edges plain and -ew down with short 

Filet Lace 

pie, very speedy and beautiful in white 
for pillow cases, towels, runners, etc. 
Very handsome in ecru No. 40 for buffet I 
and library scarfs. Gertrude siiockey. | 

Candy Baskets 

I saw in The R. N.-Y. a request for 
recipe to make candy baskets, so am send¬ 
ing a recipe I have. 

Take one cup sugar, one-half cup water, 
a pinch of cream of tartar and stir to¬ 
gether. Put on stove and boil (do not 
stir after it is on the stove), until it 
cracks when dropped in water. When it j 
is almost done it becomes Very bubbly. 
Pour it out on a buttered slab and grad¬ 
ually work it into a ball or lump by fold¬ 
ing the edges together in the center. 
When cool enough to handle, add one- 
fourth teaspoon culinary paste color, 
moistened with one-half teaspoon flavor¬ 
ing extract. Then pull and form into 
baskets, making each a different shape. 
Butter the hands occasionally while pull¬ 
ing. These quantities will make three 
small baskets. Keep colors and extracts 
together. With wintergreen flavor, use 
red coloring paste; with lemon use yel¬ 
low, with spearmint use green, with nut¬ 
meg use twice as much green as red and 
you will have gray; with orange use red 
and yellow; with cinnamon use helio¬ 
trope; with sassafras use very little yel¬ 
low, and with peppermint use no color 
at all. If you do not care to make bas¬ 
kets, the recipe can be used for candies. 
They may be cut into strips or formed 
into balls. 

Will some of the readers send cake and 
cookie recipes using no eggs? 

MRS. F. A. P. 

Milk Chocolate 

T note request for milk chocolate recipe. 
I prepare it as follows: One cup of sweet 
milk, one cup of sugar. Let this boil on 
the stove till it strings off the spoon. Beat 
this till warm and stir in chocolate or 
cocoa. Be sure to beat it well, so it will 
not be gritty. Pour in a greased pan. 
When almost cold cut in squares. This 
will answer for cake or candy. Flavor 
with teaspoon of vanilla. Another way 
is very good: One cup maple syrup: 
boil; let get hard, as above; beat till 
warm and stir in cocoa; pour in pan and 
cut iu squares. airs. b. r. 

Cottage Cheese Cookies—Six table¬ 
spoons unsalted shortening, one-fourth 
pound cottage cheese, one half teaspoon 
salt, one cup pastry flour, jam. Cream 
shortening, salt and cheese thoroughly to¬ 
gether. Add flour and blend well. Roll 
out very thin, cut in diamonds, place a 
hit of jam in the center, ford oyer and 
bake in -a quick oven until brown. This 
will make 30 small cookies. 

Standard QiiCoȣN.Y. 



Look for the 
‘Triangle Trade Mark 


Instant Heat When 

How convenient to quickly warm the 
cold spare room with a Perfection Oil 

Generous clean heat—8 hours of it— 
from one gallon of SO-CO-NY Oil. 

You can carry a Perfection Oil Heater 
from room to room. It warms without 
making work and litter. 

Buy one now for fall and winter use. 

Sold by hardware and general stores. 


“My, what a relief!" 

T hat rheumatic twinge doesn’t bother 
you long after you’ve had the aching 
part bathed with the old standby — 
Sloan’s Liniment. You just put a little on 
—it doesn’t stain the skin —gently pat it, 
and it penetrates, sending a warm , soothing 
glow through the tortured part. 

It stands alone in promoting quick relief from afttr-tftttt 
of exposure, lumbago, sciatica, muscle and joint strains, pain 
strains, and stijfnest, neuralgia. bruises. There's a success¬ 
ful record of 37 years back of Sloan’s Liniment. 


Horse or Cow hide, Calf or other skins 
with hair or fur on, and make them 
into coats (for men and women), robes, 
russ or gloves when so ordered. Your 
fur goods will cost you loss than to buy 
them and be worth more. 

Our Illustrated catalog gives a lot of 
Information. It tells how to take off 
and care for hides ; how and when we 
pay the freight both ways; about our 
safe dyeing process on cow and horse 
hide, calf and other skins: about the 
fur goods and game trophies we sell, 
taxidermy, etc. 

Then we have recently got out an¬ 
other we call our Fashion book, wholly 
devoted to fashion plates of muffs, 
neckwear and other line fur garments, 
with prices ; also fur garments remod¬ 
eled and repaired. 

You can have either book by 
i’our correct address naming’ 
both books if you need both. Address 

The Crosby Frisian Fur Company. 
571 Lyeli Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

Mackerel and Codfish 


In the Fishing Business for 100 years at 

Keep a big bottle ready for use—it may be any 
minute. The big bottle holds six times as much 
as the small one, so get the most for your money. 


XJL hi ment 
Kills Pain 

"What Will the 
Baby be Like?” 

A question every expectant mother 
asks a dozen times a day. Does she 
know that the answer largely depends 
on her own health, and that her own 
intestinal system, which is especially 
liable to constipation, must be kept 
clean or it will encourage the breeding 
of serious disease? There is sound 
medical advice to every prospective 
mother in a booklet called 

“The Days That Go Before” 
which will be sent on request, free, to 
any address. Write today — it may 
save your baby’s future. 

Nujol Laboratories 

50 Broadway. New York 


You cannot know how good fish is until 
you get selected goods freshly packed. 
We want The Rural New-Yorker’s sub¬ 
scribers to know our goods, and are 
making this “Special Offer” of goods 
delivered to you at your home. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed or 
We Refund the Money 

10-Ib. kit Babson Mackerel* $5.00 
5-lb. box Babson Codfish* $2.00 


Maple Syrup Makers 

One man can operate any size |. 
X. L- evaporator. Don’t require 
water in finishing up. 



A Woman’s Hardy Garden— By Mrs. 

H. R . Ely .$1.75 

Old Time Gardens—Bp A. M. Earle 2.50 
Flowers and Ferns in Their Haunts— 

By M. O. Wright .2.00 

Plant Physiology— By Duggan . . 1.60 

For sale by Rural New-Yorker. 333 W. 30thSt.,N.Y. 

When you write advertisers mention The R. N.-Y. and you’ll get a 
quick reply and a “square deal.” See guarantee editorial page. 



January 4, 1919 


This champion three-year-old it a 
notable example of perfect health. 
Her yearly record it 15,056 Ibt. of 
tnilk and 589.2 lbs. of butt erf at * 




Present - day 
prices for dairy- 
products are 
making dairy¬ 
men everywhere 
think more 
about the milk 
production o f 
their cows. 

The “poor-milker” is usually non-productive be¬ 
cause of some disorder of the digestive or genital 
organs that is sapping at her health and strength. 
Even apparently slight troubles of this nature usually 
lead to more serious ailments so common among 
dairy cows, such as Abortion, Retained Afterbirth, 
Barrenness, Scouring, Bunches, etc. 

A sick cow should be treated like a sick person—* 
with medicine that will correct the trouble. Kow- 
Kure is the most valuable and best known remedy 
for the prevention or treatment of cow ailments be¬ 
cause its medicinal properties act on the organs 
where disease originates. 

There will be no trouble about the milk flow of a 
healthy cow; keep yours healthy by having KOW- 
KURE on hand always. Druggists and feed 
dealers sell it, in 60c. and $1.20 packages. 

Free book, “THE HOME 
COW DOCTOR,” is yours 
for the asking. 


Lyndonville, Vt. 



Sent on Trial 
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Sheep, Doga and Poultry, sent free. 
Humphreys' Veterinary Medicinea, 156 
William Street, New York. 

FEEDS AND FEEDING, by Henry and 
Morrison. Price, $2.50. The best book on 
this subject. For sale by Rural New-Yorker 

Cure the lameness without scarring 
the horse. 

Fleming’s Spavin Liquid 

%2 a Bottle — special remedy for all soft 
blemishes—Boar Spavin.Thorouirhpin,Splint, 
Curb, Capped Hock, etc. Easy to use, only a 
little required and money back if it fails. 

Write for Fleming's FREE VEST-1- 


FLEMING BROS., Chemists 
300Union Stock Yards, Chicago, Illinois 


Farm drainage demands durable tile. Our drain tile are made of the 
.best Ohio clay, thoroughly hard burned — everlasting. You don’t 
P have to dig ’em up to be replaced every few years. Write for prices. 
Sold in carload lots. We are also manufacturers of the famous 
NATCO Silo, NATCO Corn Crib, NATCO Building Tile and NATCO 
Sewer Pipe. Send for the new editio i ofourbook/’Natcoon theFarm". 

National Fire Proofing Company, 1121 Fulfin Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Live Stock Matters 

Conducted By Prof. F. C. Minkler 

Dairy Opportunities in New> Jersey and 

I wish to ask your advice in regard to 
the best dairying county in New Jersey. 
I have run a farm for myself for two 
years in Delaware County. N. Y. I 
thought if I could get one in New Jer¬ 
sey. the seasou is much longer and one 
can raise more of his own grain for feed¬ 
ing : up there season is quite short, and 
often husk corn gets frosted before it is 
time to cut it. When I had the farm in 
Delaware County I did well, but my feed 
bills took almost all I got. so I gave it 
up. I understand that Connecticut is a 
line dairying section. Which do you think 
is better for a young man to make a 
start? if. J. F. 

New York. 

There are several districts in New Jer¬ 
sey peculiarly adapted to dairy farming. 
North Jersey, notably Sussex County, is 
in reality exclusively dairy largely be¬ 
cause there is an abundance of cheap pas¬ 
turage, likewise useful areas where the 
necessary grains and roughage can be 
produced: nevertheless the most success¬ 
ful dairymen in Sussex County buy a con¬ 
siderable amount of their concentrates, 

Milking Shorthorns for New England 

The milking Shorthorn dual purpose 
cattle, otherwise known as the red or roan 
Durhams, are sure to return to their 
own, where they reigned supreme until 
the introduction of cheap Western grains 
became a factor and the special purpose, 
dairy cow appeared. They are a large, 
rugged type of cattle, capable of convert¬ 
ing large quantities of pasture grasses 
and farm roughage into milk and beef at 
a profit. I find these cattle give as much 
if not more milk than other dairy breeds 
with which I am familiar, and they are 
much cheaper producers. They are sure 
of a place in American dairy history 
such as they have made for themselves in 
England, where they are the chief supply 
of milk and beef on the high-priced land 
of the tenant farmers. 

From England these dual purpose cat¬ 
tle were first introduced to New Eng¬ 
land. where there may be found some of 
the old herds still yielding big results. 
These farmers who stuck to their Short¬ 
horns are today receiving a neat sum for 
surplus stock, and there is a ready de¬ 
mand for bull calves at a fancy price. 
From these herds the Western beef cattle 
resulted and readily adapted themselves 
to extensive grazing and plenty of cheap 

Milicing Shorthorn Wampatuck Caroline. Owned bg Marsh Hill Farm 

depending largely upon Summer pastur¬ 
age for their most ecohomical milk pro¬ 
duction. Within certain districts in South 
Jersey, notably in Burlington. Salem, 
Cumberland and Mercer counties, dairy¬ 
ing is extensively followed, and while the 
land is more expensive it is likewise more 
productive and the major crops, notably 
grain and hay, that are harvested 
throughout this section will equal and in 
many cases surpass the yields of farm 
crops in the corn belt. It would be good 
advice for you to communicate with the 
county agents at Newton. N. J.; Mt. 
Holley, N. J.; Bridgeton, N. ,T.. and Sa¬ 
lem, N. J., asking them for information 
concerning possible dairy farms for sale 
and rental; while if you wish to advertise 
in local papers, the New Jersey Herald 
at Newton, the Burlington Gazette at 
Burlington, Salem Sunbeam at Salem, 
and the Trenton Times at Trenton, and 
the Weekly Nev's at Bridgeton, or the 
Elmer Times at Elmer, N. J., all circulate 
in the dairy districts. The dairy farmer 
in the New England States is coming to 
his own, and rather than rely upon condi¬ 
tions that prevail in any one district, let 
it be understood that the successful dairy 
depends largely upon the industry and in¬ 
telligence of the dairyman, and profits 
will be determined by his system of feed¬ 
ing. and will he limited to his success iu 
selecting useful animals that will pro¬ 
duce milk and reproduce calves. If you 
are in a position to do your own work, 
and if other members of your family can 
be released for such activities, you will 
find perhaps this method of dairying 
largely practiced in Sussex County. It is 
estimated that there is more milk pro¬ 
duced iu Sussex County than obtains in 
any other similar area in this country, 
and it would be worth your while to look 
into the possibilities of this community. 
The season, however, in South Jersey, as 
far as crop production is concerned, is 
much more extended, it being possible to 
get on to the land fully l>0 days earlier 
than is possible in Sussex County, aud 
consequently the yield and harvests are a 
great, deal larger. I would certainly look 
into the districts where dairying is be¬ 
lieved to be the common occupation of the 
farmers rather than isolate myself in 
some far-away district where land might 
be cheaper, and where costs of marketing 
would be greater, and where the demand 
for milk dven from a shipping standpoint 
would establish a less attractive price. 

grains, their milking qualities being neg¬ 

With the rise in price of both land and 
feed, also with the present scarcity of 
labor, the Western farmer again looks 
upon the East to supply him with the 
milking Shorthorn so that he may make 
two blades of grass grow where one grew 

The fact that Shorthorn bulls are re¬ 
peatedly the sires of steers winning over 
other beef breeds, and at the same time 
have numerous record of merit daughters, 
is proof that the milking Shorthorn, dual 
purpose cattle in America are coming to 
the front as they have done in England. 

Massachusetts. everett b. fox. 

Dairy Ration with Pea Silage 

I own eight head of milking cows. I 
raised corn, barley aud oats; can buy 
bran, cottonseed, oilmeal and gluten. 
IIow much of these grains must I buy. 
with the grain of my own, to make a good 
grain ration, and in what proportion 
shall I mix them? My roughage consists 
of mixed hay, clover and Timothy, and a 
large quantity of cornstalks. What is a 
good ration for cows before they freshen? 
Will it pay to buy a gas engine and cut¬ 
ting box to cut up the stalks? I can buy 
pea silage this Winter. What change 
should I make in my grain ration, feeding 
the pea silage once a day? When is the 
best time to feed pea silage, morning, 
noon or night? Is pea silage worth $3 
per ton ? r. a. f. 

New York. 

If you have a generous amount of corn, 
barley and oats, it would not be necessary 
for you to purchase any additional con¬ 
centrates other than cottonseed meal or 
linseed meal to balance this ration. Where 
oats are included in the ration it is not 
necessary to add very much, if any, wheat 
bran, although with dry cows there is an 
advantage iu including 5 per cent or 10 
per cent of bran in the ration towards the 
end of the gestation period. With clover 
hay and cornstalks for roughage, and 
provided pea silage is fed once a day. a 
useful grain mixture will be as follows: 
200 llis. cornmeal, 200 lbs. ground bar¬ 
ley. 200 lbs. ground oats, 250 lbs. cot¬ 
tonseed meal, 100 lbs. wheat bran. Mix 
these products together and feed a cow 
weighing from 1.000 to 1.200 lbs. one 
(Continued on page 22) 



Rough Fodder with Grain 

Will you advise me in the use of rough 
feed which I have so as to get the best 
results from dairy cows? I have mixed 
hay (Alsike clover and Timothy), clear 
Alsike, corn stover. Later will have bean 
pods. For grain ration I have corn, oats 
and barley. In what proportion should 
they be mixed and what additional feed 
do I need to make a balanced ration for 
the roughage? c. L. K. 

New York. 

Give cows a feed of the hay after chores 
in the morning. Cornstalks or bean pods 
at noon, hay in afternoon and after sup¬ 
per. Feed them what they will clean up 
this often, rather than to give them too 
much at once. The more roughage you 
can get them to eat, the less grain will 
be required for maximum milk produc¬ 
tion. Make grain ration one part corn- 
meal, one part ground oats, one part 
ground barley, one part oil meal and 1 y_> 
parts cottonseed meal. Add one per cent 
coarse line salt when you mix up grain. 

H. F. j. 





Many imported. All registered. Tuberculin tested. 
Milk records kept. Write for price and particulars 

on Herd Heading Bulls. Walnut Grove Farm.Washlngtonville, N.Y 

Mr.General Farmer! DairyShorthorns 

breed for you. Try them. We offer a trio for foun¬ 
dation. 2 heifer calves and a bull, unrelated, Choice¬ 
ly bred. First draft or check for S425 takes them. 
A few others. EDWIN EASTERBROOK, Interlaken, N. T. 

Ihcrdppn The beef breed for tneEast. Mature 
early, easy feeders. Send forillus- 

A n j- c; trated booklet with particulars of 
** U u ® the breed and stock for sale. 

Clarence W. Eckardt, 31 Nassau St., New York City 

Swiss Goats p n Iu sk k\\ a I' $40 

A few dry does. No milkers to sell. Only letters enclos¬ 
ing stamp answered. S. J. SHA11PLES, R 0. 5, .Norristown, Pa 

One Yearling Reg. Dairy Shorthorn Bull St, 

lied, little white. {1 00. RALPH BEADLE, Le Rot, N.V. 


Grand Champion Stock 



Foundation stock that will improve any herd. We 
are capable of tilling: your order. 

Prices reasonable. See ours—see others—tubs be 
convinced. Money refunded if not satisfied. 

SWEET BRIAR FARMS. Inc., Somerville, N. J. 


from half-ton grand champion ancestors. Send us your 
requirements and state how much you want to invest. A 
few boars ready for service. Satisfaction guaranteed. 



Uuroc-J ersey l.HTEER BREEDING. "Spring 
Boars ready for service. Bred Sows and Gilts. Octo¬ 
ber Pigs. Prices reasonable, f. B. CRAWFORD, Narth Eitt, F». 

Kinderhook Durocs A1 quality Fall pigs. 

All prices. One quality. Full Information on request. 

^11 nn V«itip I)111*BREDSPRING GILTSandSER- 
3UI1I1} Mile Uuruts VICK BOARS. Fall pigs of our 
September Litters. JA8. E. run ALSTYNE, Kinderhook. X. Y. 

Chester Whites 

Young bred sows for spring farrow, registered, bred to 
“Wondrous,” son of famons W. A.’s Wonder. Price, $60 
each. Also, choice fall boar pigs at S 20 each for quick 
orders. Registered free. VICTOR FARMS. Bellvale, N.Y. 


Lord Premiers 
Double 212878 

The outstanding son of Lord Premiers Successor. 
Heads our herd. He is being mated with very choice 
sows of the best blood lines for Spring pigs, that we 
believe will produce the very highest class type of 

DE'DVCIIIDPC Here is a splendid op- 
AA11 iAVaV^A1AaVA-iiJ portunity for a good 
foundation. tf'e are booking orders for them now. 
Some young Gilts, extra tine, ready to breed next 
Spring are offered now, at prices to sell, by Masters 
Autom Lad 283949. By Successors Duke 19th. 


Large Berkshfres 

Our customers write our ad vts. Letter from Chris 
Jurgensen, Wortendyke. N. J.: "Received boar 
and am very much pleased with him.” Iiighwood 
boars have size and scale. 

H. C. & H. B. HARPENDING, Box 15, Dundee, N.Y. 

Anedjo Berkshires 

Are bred for size and quality combined 

The big, mellow, easy feeding type, with neat heads, 
broad backs and E X T It A II E A V Y II A M S. 
Foundation herds, service boars, brood sows and pigs 

H. M. TERWILLIGER, Mgr. Anedjo Fann,Webster, Mass. 

Big Type Berkshires 

Public Sale of 50 Head 

on Feb. 22nd, 1919 


Atteud this sale if on the market for the very 
best and biggest hogs the breed produces. 

C. H. CARTER, Whitguem Farm, West Chester, Pa. 


DtilVIVljnilVElJ Don't buy a pig in a 

poke. Try our way, 
pay when you get the pig. Strictly high class regis¬ 
tered Berkshires, shipped C. O. D., subject to 
approval which guarantees what you pay for. Priced 
for quiek sale as follows : Three Month* old $ 20 . 00 ; 
Four Months old $25.00: Five Months $30 00- Tell us 
what you want und we will try and please you. 



Registered Berkshires 

A superb son of Successor’s Double. 

7 SOM S of top notch breeding. 

2i ko'a it I’IGS } s P r ‘ng farrow from above. 
Prices low. Write ior pedigree list. Also a few fine 
Dorset and Shropshire Sheep. 

J. C. Haartz, 10 High St.. Boston, Mass. 



Sired by RIVAL LONGFELLOW 20th, No. 238095 

and out of our great, prolific brood sows. 
We offer choice spring gilts and fall pigs, 
and invite correspondence. 


GEO. L BARKER, Sopt. ParksvIUe, Sullivan Co., N.Y. 

Springbank Berkshires 

Sows and Gilts bred for Spring litters that I 
am offering are bred to high class, boars. 
Semi for price and historic pedigrees. 

J. E. WATSON, - Marbledale, Conn. 

Reg. Ohester^Whites 

Service Boars. Bred gilts and August pigs. 

A. A. SCHOFELL, _ Heuveltou, X. Y, 

Reg. O. I. C. and Chester White Pigs 

EUGENE P. ROGERS, . Wayville, N. Y. 

Reg. Chester Whites 5 ^^* 

for saie. Ridgely Manor Farm, Stone Ridge, N.Y. 

For Sale-Reg. BigType Poland China Pigs 

Best Western blood. Shipped anywhere by Express. 
Write for prices and let me tell you about my pigs 

G. S. HALL, - Farmdale, Ohio 


Have you ordered that pair of Fall Pigs. The 
demand is strong. Our supply is limited. Do not 
delay. Write today. 

Txco Service Soars to offer 

H. GRIMSHAW North East, Pa. 


August and September pigs are registered at 8 to 10 
weeks of age. Now booking orders for vigorous, 
healthy stock of well known families at *20 each. 
Satisfaction guaranteed or money refunded. Cor¬ 
respondence and calls invited. LOCUST LODGE fARM 
G. W. Kuchler, La UkaNgkvilE, DUTCHESS Co.. N. Y. 

(VLt-.n Cholera Immuned. Sired by 
neg. r 01 ana uninas Half Ton boars from dams that 
weigh to 800. 30 Tops from 50 pigs for January Delivery. 

E. ROWELL, . Scottsburg, Virginia 

Ohoice Sow IPigsS 

Chester White, 3-mos.-old, at $18 each, or $38 per 
pair. Some of the best growthy stock we ever raised. 
Pedigrees free. Booking o-ders now for spring pigs 

and bred gilts. BRANORETH lAKE FARM, Brandreth, N Y. 

Reg. O. I.C.DFMss* a s d i?' 

strain. Priced to sell. BRUBAKER BROS., Miftlintown, Pa. 


Sow* bred to S. V. Schoolmnster. 

Sl’KINO Vtl.I.KY FA HU. Memphis, N. Y. 



Successor to Westview Stock Farm 
It. 1 \V luston-Sulcin, X. C, 


They grow over a pound a day if fed in 
ligently. Free circular. Guernsey Bu 


Box R - Bird-In Hand, 

Pure Bred Berkshire Shoats 

31 nos. old; not reg.; *8 each. D. 8. JOHN'S, Wadvworth, N.Y 

Sold on approval, snipped C. O. D 

DAVID WUNT, Huntington Mills, Pa 

DavLekipae FOR BREEDERS. 8 weeks old Either 
WClIVSnircS sex; S10 each. Trios not akin 

CLOVEBDALE FARM, Charlotte, N. Y. 

Registered BERKSHIRES 

Fall pigs—both sexes. Good Breeding. Excellent con¬ 
dition. Taking orders for Spring pigs Kpoehal strain. 

M11)1»LE H KOOK FARM, Allen hurst, N. J. 

Cat Rock Farm Berkshires 

We have some Extra fine sow and boar pigs, three to six 
months old. Also boars ready for service at very reason¬ 
able prices. 10 sows recently farrowed 133 pigs. Bred 
sows and gilts. Cat Koek Farm, Westwood, Muss. 


PIGS of both sexes. Good breeding. Excellent indivi¬ 
duals. Satisfaction guaranteed. 

TARBELL FARMS, .Smithville Flats, N.Y. 

Registered BERKSHIRES 

Will sell a few of my four-mos.-old Berkshires for 
$25 a pair. Mrs. F. C. DALE, Cold Spring, Putnam Co., N.Y. 

1 auI/c h | rnc Masterpieee-LongfeLIow 
> * vl tv O 11 II blood lines. Litters from 

eight to 14. Bred sows, gilts, service boars and pigs, either 
sex. Prices moderate. Jim. C. lireum, Gettysburg, Pa. 


considering breeding. 

Wo arc offering a fine lot of 
bred sows and September boar 
pigs at very reasonable prices 

TWIN BKOOK FiHM, NewvUle, 1*». 

L ARGE BERKSHIRES. Masterpiece and Baron Mayhell 
breeding. Large husky, spring boars. Herd headers. 
Bred gilts. Fall pigs. No kin. Best of quality. Cholera 
immuned. Bargains. BR00KSIDE STOCK FARMS. Pruspect, Ohm 

For Sale-One Large Reg. Berkshire Boar 

Papers furnished. Price, $76. 

Address II. BKUUEL, . Montvllle, N. J. 


Fresh Cows J?5 b W.",’VI For Sale 

1 00 Fresh cows, milking 40 to 60 lbs. per day. 1 00 
Cows due to calve November and December. They 
are large and in good condition. Will please the man 
that wants extra good cows, i 50 Grade heifers, an 
extra good bunch. 60 of them are due to calve in De¬ 
cember and January, balance from January on to 
spring. 60 Registered heifers, all ages, marked fine 
and carry a lot of good breeding, part of them due to 
calve in December and January. 20 Good registered 
bulls, all ages. 


Dept. “ R ”, 203-205 Savings Bank Bldg., CORTLAND, N.Y. 

Bell Phone 534. 


30 registered heifers, bred. 
26 registered heifers, not bred, 
registered cows, fresh and 
20 registered bulls, 
grade, fresh and 
20 stripper cows, 
at far m er's 
olstein heifer 
calves, $20 to $26 each, ex¬ 
press paid, in lots of 6. Come 
at once. We are o’—’-stocked. 
JOHN C. REAGAN, Tully, N.Y, 

Registered Holstein 

$75-Heifer Calves-$75 

$50,0110 IJ It E E I> 1 X G. Fine individuals and guar¬ 
anteed to please. Reg, Holstein Male Calves at prices 
too low to print. 122-acre alfalfa farm for sale. Write 


K. It. KIVK.MIt'Kt.'li, l'r*p. Stock bridge, N. Y. 

For Sale-Reg. Holstein 
Heifer and Bull Calves 

®. from $35 to $60 each from A. R. A. stock. 
Send for Pedigrees. Also 3 Duroe Boars, six 
mos. old, ready for Service. Price, $35 each. 

JOHN P. BARTLES, - Flemington, N. J. 

C O "W S For Sale 

Thirteen High (trade Holsteins for sale. All 
Five years old. Five fresh now, and eight due before 
Jan. 20. Address A. P. Fulton, Ferndale, X. Y. 

Reg. Holstein Service Bull 

Dam, an A. R. O. sister to a 40 lb. cow. Sire's 3 dams 
average 30 lbs. of butter in 7 days: over 18.000 lbs. of milk a 
year; fat above i°b. Young bull calves, mostly white. $60 
and up. Popular breeding. IRA S. JARVIS, Htrtwick Seminary, N T. 

Registered Yearling Bulls 

Sired by a grandson of the King of the Pontiacs from 
a 25.42 lb. dam, at popular prices. Write me what 
you want. D. F. MCLENNAN, 3U Union Bldg., Syracuse, N.Y. 

Purebred Reg. Holsteins 

All ages, either sex. Also High Grade Holstein Calves, 
either sex, $20 to 125 each. F. H. WOOD, Cortland, Xew York 

30 Head Pure Bred Holstein Heifers 

Harry Vail, New Milford, Orange Co., N.Y. 

Holstein-Friesian Bull Calves writlfor 

special offer. GATES HOMESTEAD FARM. Chittenango, N.Y 



Run mostly light. $75 and up. Top-notch 
breeding; every tiling guaranteed that leaves 
the farm, or money back. 


Washingtonville, Orange County, New York 



• • 

Sheep Prices Reduced 

During the Month of Nov. will sell high cla<s range 
bred yearlingewes. A and B grades, 816.50, others 
at 815. Send for circular or come and see these 
ewes. INTERSTATE LIVESTOCK CO.. Inc., Selkirk, N. T. 

For Sale-40 Shropshire Sheep 

1—2—3 year* old. Also 3 young Rams. All iti line condi¬ 
tion. \Y. RAYMOND 8ELLECK, Huntington, L. I. 

For Sale-Ten Ramboulllet Ewes 

1 and 2 years old. Ten Delaine Ewes, 1 to 3 years old. Ten 
Franco Ewes. 1 vr. old. All Recorded ai d shear 10 to 17 lbs. 

C. O. PATTR1DGE He SONS, - Ferry, N.Y. 

Airedales and Collies o r f ea a e i s i 

pups, grown dogs, and brood matrons. Large in¬ 
structive list. 5c. W. R. WATSON. Box 1745. Oakland. Iowa 


Registered Hampshire Sheep 

Rams and Ewes 


Ophir Farm - - Purchase. N. Y. 


Collie Pups 

The intelligent kind. 


Also Guinea Pigs 

Grove City, Fa 


Male; year old. Well bred. 

dog. *20. LEHMANN, 

Good, all-around 

Hillsdale, .V J. 


For Sale LtS Guernseys 


2 A. R. Cows, each.$500 

2 A. R. Cows, one at.$600 and one at 650 

1 Thoroughbred cow. 500 

2 Grade Cows, 5 yrs. old, sired by Lorier’s 

Masher, 16522, each. 200 

Above cows bred to herd sire, Jethro’s 
Masher of Forestdale, 39162. 

1 Thoroughbred Heifer, 2 yrs. old, sired by"! 

Yoeman’s King of the May. 600 

2 Heifers, 1 year old, from A. R. Cows, each 450 

1 Heifer, 1 year old. 400 

1 Heifer Calf from A. R. Cow. 250 

2 Bulls, a yearling and one 3 months, each.. 125 

1 Bull 10 mos. old from A. R. cow. 250 

1 Bull 2 mos. old, from A. R. cow. 150 

Above calves sired by Jethro’s Masher 
of Forestdale. 

1 Team Grade Percherons, 6 yrs. old. Broken 500 
I Team Grade Percherons,3 yrs.old,Unbroken 400 
1 Stallion, 1 year old.t, 150 


Get Guernseys 

If you want to increase your dairy profits you 
need to know about the cows whose average 
production, under tests supervised by State Ag¬ 
ricultural Colleges, is three times as great as 
the average of all dairy cows in the United 
•States. Ask for “ The Story of the Guernsey.” 



Oaks Farm Guernseys 

Bull born March 30,1918, traces six times to Imp. Gold¬ 
en Secret. His dam is now on official test and in 210 
days has milked 9105 lbs. of milk and 394 of fat. Buil 
nicely marked. Excellent individual. Price. $400. 

W. S. KERR, Mgr., - Cohasset, Mass. 

Stannox Farm! 

May Rose Guernseys j 

Offers some well bred bull calves out of A. R. ■ 
dams. Pedigrees and prices sent on request. : 

P. F. STAPLES. Mgr. - East Holliston. Mass, ■ 

uUlIiNolTo Young Bulls 

of splendid Adv. Reg. breeding. Guaranteed right 
in every way. The dams milk from 40 to 55 lbs. 
daily when fresh. Buy one of them and grade up 
your herd. Conld spare a few good cows. Write 
for prices and pedigrees. OHO W POST, Ensanore, N. T 

Thoroughbred Guernseys 

Bull calves, 3 to 12 month* old, of high clats breed¬ 
ing. sound constitution. Also some young surplus 
stock, all breed, for «a!e. Sale list on application. 

Superintendent “Girdle Ridge Farm". Box 425. Katonah, N.Y. 

Three-YearGuernsey Bull 

Golden Secret of Daisy Farm for sale. Also 
bull calf, one of his best sons. 

George Hopkins, Ballston Lake, N. Y, 


Harbor Hill Guernseys 

Send for Sale List of bnll calves from 3 to 12 mos. 
old. A. R. breeding with size and constitution. 

C. H. HECHLER, Box 60 Roslyn, N, Y. 


For Sale-Reg. Guernsey Bull Calves 

one 5-mos. old. 6 May Rose crosses, light fawn and white, 
clear nose; a beauty. A. JT. FELL, West Point, Pa. 

/"',,D.,H_ Eight mos.. $1 00. Fifteen 

Guernsey Dulls mos., $176 Fine individ¬ 
uals. May Rose sire. A. R. dams. TABER A MI6MIN, C.stile, H.T. 

GUERNSEY BULLSfSXl;.,, 1 ,!?' 

Prices Reasonable. SUNNY BBOOK FARM. Smithtown, N.Y 


HAMILTON irncrvc 
FARM el EKiJL X 9 

Several Grandsons of 


P 5012 HC—Out of R. of M. Dams. Priced to 



Sophie Tormentor Jerseys 

Lead the World for production at the pail. 

If you want to breed Jerseys with size, type produc¬ 
tion and prepotency, write us for literature, and 
description of a Hood Farm Sophie Tormentor bull, 
who has the prepotency to increase the size, improve 
the type and add to the milk and butter qualities 
of your herd. For prices, etc. 

HOOD FARM, - Lowell, Mass. 

“THE HERMITAGE,” near Centreville, Maryland 


Rich in blood of Raleighs. Eminents. Golden Lads, 
Flying Fox. Mohican, and Noble Oaklands. 


For Sale-Young Herd of Reg. JERSEYS 

consisting of eight heifers, bull and two calves. A 

bargain. Jones Jersey Farm. Sauquoit, N. Y. 



sell on the INSTALLMEXT plan. 200 head to 
select from. Herd established 1891. Send lOo 
for contract and price list. Address Dept. L 

THE 8HADYSIDE FARMS. North Benton. 0. 


5»c R U RAL N E W-Y O R K E R 


Look for this Trade-Mark 
on Tools and Cutlery 

This trade-mark has guided millions in 
their selection of tools and cutlery of every 
kind. For many years it has been known 
as an absolutely dependable symbol of 
quality. Look for it always and be sure. 


*'The recollection of QUALITY remains long after the PRICE is forgotten" 

Trade Mark Registered. ■ — E. C. SIMMONS 

The reading of this FREE 
book has shown thousands 
of other horse owners the 
way to permanently cure 
their lame and useless horses. 
It will, show you. It tells 
in plain language exactly 
how to diagnose and treat 
58 kinds of lameness—the 
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more than 250,000 


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Remedy is backed by a Signed Guarantee-Bond— 
your money refunded—if it fails to cure SPAVIN, 
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Write today for advice on any horse ailment, and 
get BOOK, sample of Guaranteed-Bond— ALL Free. 
TROY CHEMICAL CO., 324 State St., Binghamton. N. Y. 

Druggists Everywhere sell Save-the-Horse with 
CONTRACT or we send by Parcel Post or Express paid. 

Send us your Raw Furs 

We want all you can trap, and we’ll 
pay you w ell for them. The oldest and 
largest fur house in the world can offer 
you the highest prices. You don’t have 
to wait, either. When your furs come 
in, our check goes out immediately. 
We pay all express and mail charges on 
consignments of any size. 

Send us your name at once, for -price list 



436 West 28th Street New York City 

IWi ahiiMWHA ( ShTpmyI 


•'I like to do business with 
you, Mr. Brimber*” is what 
a large shipper recently 

This Is because It ha9 always been my policy to pay 
biarhest prices and for good measure give an oztrd 
liberal assortment. Get in touch with me. 

Ship your pelts quick, 1 iruarantee my prices will 
satisfy you or I will return your furs. Assortments 
made and checks are mailed same day shipments 
are received. 

free gsfistts-BS*^“jisggEsr 

Louis Brimberg so,N.v. 4$; 


A Woman's Hardy Garden— By Mrs. 

H. R. Ely .$1.75 

Old Time Gardens—Bp A. M. Earle 2.50 
Flowers and Ferns in Their Haunts— 

By M. O. Wright .... 2.00 

Plant Physiology— By Duggan . . 1.60 

For sale by Rural New-Yorker, 333 W. 30th St., N. Y. 

TT'NOW exactly bow much yon 
Tv spend for wnat you buy and 
exactly how much you take in for 
what you sell. Keep track of 
every account easily with Bick- 
more's Farm Account Book. En¬ 
ables you to file accurate income 
tax and helps you pruard your pro¬ 
fits. With the book we will send 
you a trial size lot of 

Bickmore’s Gall Cure 

—standard remedy for bruises, 
cuts, rope burns or any wounds 
on horses or cattle. Cures collar 
and saddle palls while the horse 
works—no lost time! Fine for 
chapped teats on cows. Heals 
mango and other skin diseases. 
Note the work-horse trademark. 

Send a letter now for Farm 
Account Book and Trial Size of 
Bickmore's Gall Cure. Please 
enclose 10c to help pav for post¬ 
age and packing:. Address, 


The book shows you 
bow to keep crop costs 
by lots; labor chargre9 
ajrainst crop; crop ro¬ 
tation records. Con¬ 
tains also a table to 
keep accurate record 
of your b r e e d i n gr— 
dates, etc. A 1 so a 
Workman’s Time Sheet 
and Wagre Table—saves 
a world of bother. Also 
pa ires for Inventory: 
table of standard 
tveisrhts of all farm pro¬ 
ducts. Also directions 
as to how to measuro 
land; corn on cob In 
cribs; hay In different 
style stacks, etc., etc. 

THE BICKMORE CO„ Box 181 Old Town, Maine. 

Warranted toGive Satisfaction 


Caustic Balsam 


A Safe, Speedy and Positive Cure for 
Curb, Splint, Sweeny, Capped Hock, 
Strained Tendons, Founder, Wind 
Puffs, and all lameness from Spavin, 
Ringbone and other bony tumors. 
Cures all skin diseases or Parasites, 
Thrush. Removes all Bunches from 
Horses or Cattle. 

As a Human Remedy for Rheumatism, 
Sprains, Sore Throat, etc.. It is invaluable. 

Every bottle of Caustic Balsam sold i9 
Warranted to give satisfaction. Price 
$1.75 per bottle. Sold by druggists, or 
sent by express, charges paid, with full 
directions for its use 13?" Send for descrip¬ 
tive circulars, testimonials, etc. Address 

The Lawrence-Williams Co., Cleveland, 0. 

Two Excellent Vegetable Books 

By R. L. Watts 

Vegetable Gardening ..... $1.75 
Vegetable Forcing ....... 2.00 

Clearly written, practical, convenient lor 
reference, covering outdoor and green¬ 
house vegetable work. For sale by 

The Rural New-Yorker 
333 W. 30th St., New York 

The International Live Stock Exposition 

Part I. 

The great International Live Stock Ex¬ 
position, perhaps the leading educational 
institution in the world for stockmen, 
added glittering stars to its enviable ser¬ 
vice record to the live stock feeders and 
breeders of this country at a show just 
held at Chicago. More than 8,000 entries 
are recorded ; representatives of farmers 
from every section of the country were in 
attendance. All evidenced an enthusiasm 
that it is difficult to describe, and were 
amazed at the marvelous achievements 
accomplished by the breeders in the way 
of combining beautiful form and finish 
with weight, scale and quality. The va¬ 
rious agricultural colleges and experiment 
stations, particularly those whose major 
interests are animal husbandry, demon¬ 
strated anew their leadership along lines 
of constructive breeding and intelligent 
feeding. Turdue University again crowned 
its efforts through the winning of the 
grand championship of an Angus steer of 
its own breeding, while the University of 
Illinois defeated all competitors in both 
the college and open classes in the barrow 

Not only does the record show that in¬ 
dividual competition in the open classes 
was unusual, but in the carload lots it 
was the conservative judgment of respon¬ 
sible judges that never in the history of 
the International had there been ex¬ 
hibited groups of animals in the carload 
lots that were as uniform in type and as 
outstanding in quality and finish as the 
lots competing for championship in these 
classes. It was a fat stock show with 
genuine merit and real competition. 

The veteran feeder and breeder, Dan 
Waters, entered three carloads of Short¬ 
horn two-year-olds that many believed 
could not and should not have been defeat¬ 
ed. yet the premier award was finally 
made to a group of S. M. S. Hereford 
yearlings. New records of prices like¬ 
wise were established, as the 30 carloads 
of fat steers were sold in open auction mar¬ 
ket at an average price of $27.47 per ewt. 
The grand champion steer, Fyvie Knight, 
brought the record-breaking price of $2.50 
per pound, while the champion carload 
brought 50c per pound. ' 

The International is a fat show. 
The breeding classes are especially strong, 
and to win a blue ribbon at this exposi¬ 
tion. especially the championship ribbon, 
entitles the holder to assert without con¬ 
tradiction that his animal represents the 
par excellence type as fixed and estab¬ 
lished by our foremost judges, while the 
breeder of such an animal is justly en¬ 
titled to the distinction of having devel¬ 
oped a type and established individuality 
in his animal to such a degree that its 
merit cannot be questioned. 

The show of draft horses did not equal 
in numbers the exhibition of other years, 
but as far as quality and individuality is 
concerned, it is doubtful if it has been ex¬ 
celled in any show either in this country 
or abroad. Incomplete as was the exhi¬ 
bition of Belgians, it is admittedly true 
that a large percentage of the foundation 
stock in Belgium has been destroyed, and 
clearly evident that this little country will 
be dependent largely upon American 
breeders for the breeding animals neces¬ 
sary to revive the Belgian horse industry 
in its native district. Without question 
the conservative American breeders of 
Belgians have molded and established a 
type that will not disappoint the Bel¬ 
gian farmer who still believes that the 
Belgian horses stand without a peer as 
far as beauty and conformation is con¬ 

The Pereheron show was distinctly 
American In origin. Very few exporters 
have risked making shipments, owing to 
the ravages of the submarine, and to the 
credit of the breed let it be said that 
there was in evidence a greater uni¬ 
formity in conformation and type than 
there has been displayed at any other In¬ 
ternational. A number of Pereheron 
breeders have over-emphasized fleshing 
qualities and have not paid enough atten¬ 
tion to soundness of limb or to the slope 
of pasterns. Y T ery commonly work horses 
arrive in the city evidencing a predom¬ 
inance of Pereheron blood that prove to 
be soft at the hocks, stubby in their stride, 
hazy in their vision and consequently a 
disappointment to the buyer who relied 
upon them for constant daily work. True 
enough, flesh has covered up a multitude 
of these sins; nevertheless it represents a 
serious condition that must be faced by 
breeders and importers who are supplying 
the breeding stock. It is doubtful if 
France will call upon the American breed¬ 
er for seed stock, since their far-sighted 
Government officials have scrupulously 
guarded their draft horse breeding inter¬ 
ests, and have not permitted useful breed¬ 
ing animals to he commandeered for army 
purposes. The classes were judged by 
Dean C. F. Curtiss of Iowa, E. B. White 
of Virginia, and Robert Graham of On¬ 
tario, Canada, with promptness and fair¬ 

Sirigmaster & Son of Keota, la., won 
single and grand champion honors with 
the stallion Mintral, while Delchester 
Farms. Edgemont. Pa., won the junior 
championship with the two-year-old. stal¬ 
lion Quanton. The latter was pronounced 

January 4, 1919 

by the judges as one of the best two-year- 
olds ever seen at Chicago, exhibiting un¬ 
usual weight for age, and paraded in ac¬ 
tion with a style and carriage of unusual 
merit. Mintral was shorter in leg, deep¬ 
er in body, a trifle shorter in his hack 
and somewhat cleaner in his hocks. 

The flashiest and perhaps the most at¬ 
tractive exhibition of horses was staged 
on Wednesday, when the Clydesdales were 
rated by Dean Curtiss. Here again the 
total number of horses on show was less 
than have been paraded during other 
years, but there was a marked absence of 
tail-enders. Fairholme Footprint, owned 
by F. Latlirop Ames, was again made 
senior and grand champion stallion, a dis¬ 
tinction seldom attained by any stallion 
at the International, but since his mother 
was made grand champion three years in 
succession he comes rightly by this dis¬ 
tinction, and, if I judge aright, he will 
add still further laurels to his disting¬ 
uished breeder, if opportunity is offered 
him to continue in the stud and make 
annual pilgrimages to our leading shows. 
Seldom does one see as much quality and 
refinement and finish as he evidences at 
every turn, and in action he is as precise 
and clean cut as a pair of scissors; how¬ 
ever, his greatest achievement was evi¬ 
denced in the display from Langwater 
Farms, of his progeny, and in the opinion 
of everyone his colts show wonderful pas¬ 
terns, sharp, clean bones, refined hocks, 
and in conformation they collectively rep¬ 
resent that scale and massiveness that is 
so eagerly sought after by our successful 
breeders. Fairholme Footprint could eas¬ 
ily win any any show ring in Scotland, 
and he promises to be the Baron’s Pride 
of this country. Fairholme Ruth by Gold¬ 
en Night was made junior and grand 
champion female, and. like Fairholme 
Footprint, _ was bred and owned by Rob¬ 
ert A. Fairbairn of New Jersey, Inas¬ 
much as both champions were bred at his 
Fairholme Farm, Mr. Fairbairn bears the 
distinction of being the one American 
breeder of horses that has bred both 
grand champions. 

The massive Shires with their abundant 
feather and enviable feet were greatly ad¬ 
mired by genuine horsemen, who were 
generous in their applause when the tvpes 
were designated. This breed of drafters 
has not been especially popular in Amer¬ 
ica owing to their excessive weight, cum¬ 
bersome traction and wiry, feathery legs, 
but in England few famous cart horses 
do not trace to such blood lines. In cer¬ 
tain sections of the West, sires of this 
breed have added substantially to the 
size of bone and the soundness of limb of 
many draft colts, _ and admittedly they 
are more popular in cross-breeding than 
in straight line breeding. The classes were 
judged by William Bell of Wooster, O., 
who designated Hording Bold Lion, 
owned by Truman’s Pioneer Stud Farm. 
Buslinell, Ilk. as senior grand champion 
stallion, and Royal Tulip, also owued by 
Truman’s, was designated as the female 
entitled to premier honors. 

The Suffolk Punch is gaining iu popu¬ 
larity in this country. Many of our 
stockmen appreciate their standard uni¬ 
formity in color and speak favorably of 
their docile disposition and their unusual 
feeding qualities. Eastern farmers are 
becoming attached to this breed, and the 
demand, if one is to judge from represen¬ 
tative sales, is iu a vigorous growing con¬ 
dition. The classes at Chicago were 
judged by Alex Galbraith, Edmonton, 
Canada, who awarded both championships 
to Hawthorne Farms, Lake County, Ill., 
on Hawthorne Standard and Hawthorne 
Fragrance, respectively. 

The six-horse teams have always been 
a favorite at the evening performance. 
Wilson & Co. have scoured the country 
for weighty Clydesdale geldings, and their 
turnout always brought the spectators to 
their feet. Swift & Co., with their well- 
matched Pereherons, gave the most thrill¬ 
ing exhibition, but the horses did not 
compare in type, action or quality, with 
the Clydes. An assembled six-horse team 
of Belgians was given third place by Dean 
Curtiss, who did the rating in the arena. 

The evening program was featured by 
a horse .show where roadster Thorough¬ 
breds and well-mannered saddle horses 
contested for the ribbons. These events 
were interspaced by wonderful parades of 
prize-winning live stock, and this spec¬ 
tacle alone was perhaps the most popular 
pastime of the evening program. 

Pork production has engaged the at¬ 
tention of a great many farmers during 
the past year, and a representative cen¬ 
sus recently completed in the State of 
Iowa, tabulated for the purpose of deter¬ 
mining the percentage of the increase of 
swine in the corn belt, shows more than 
9.000.000 are maintained on Iowa farms, 
suggesting an increase of approximately 
25 per cent during the past year. If 
this rate of increase obtains throughout 
the corn belt it is not difficult to suggest 
the reason necessitating an embargo on 
the shipment of market hogs to the Chi¬ 
cago yards. 

For the first time in the carload lot 
division a so-called bacon breed defeated 
the always popular lard hog. and an In¬ 
diana farmer won first prize on a careful¬ 
ly selected load of heavy Hampshires. 
The 51 head averaged 391 pounds, and 
were sold on the market at 22c per pound. 
It is the wrong season of the year for 
the breeding classes of swine to appear 
in their greatest strength. On most suc¬ 
cessful farms the mating season is on, 
and it is not feasible or practical to con¬ 
dition the breeding animals to such a de¬ 
gree as would enable them to present an 
attractive appearance iu the show ring. 





Products, Prices and Trade 


These prices and notes are believed to 
be fairly representative of the current 
of trade here: 


Price to producers in 150-mile zone 
from New York for 3 per cent milk is 
.$4.06 per 100 lbs. Retail prices at New 
York are: Grade A, bottled, 19 cents; 
grade B, bottled, 17 cents; loose milk to 
stores, 13% cents; loose milk by stores, 
14 cents. 


A drop of one cent on most grades is 
noted. The market remains strong on 
top qualities, but dull on stock showing 
Winter defects. 

Creamery, fancy lb. 68 @ 69 

Good to Choice . 65 @ 67 

Lower Gnules. 53 @ 58 

City made. 41 @ 45 

Packing Stock. 36 @ 43 

Prooess . 43 @ 54 


Whole Milk, fancy . 37 fl) 37J^ 

Good to choice..'. 35 @ 36 

Lower grades. 32 ® 34 

Skims, beet. 27 @ 28 

Fair to good. 18 ® 24 


Prices are several Cents lower on prac¬ 
tically all fresh grades, receipts being 

White, nearby, choice to fancy. 83 ® 85 

Medlnmtogood . 75 ® 80 

Mixed colors, nearby best. 71 ® 72 

Common to good. 63 ® 67 

Gathered, best, white. 78 ® 80 

Medium to good, mixed colors ... 63 @ 66 

Ijower grades. 48 ® 52 

Storage. 42 @ 52 • 


NatUe Steers. 1150 @16 25 

Bulls . 6 00 @12 00 

Cows . 4 00 @ 8 25 

Calves, prime veal, 100 lbs.15 00 @2100 

Culls. 8 00 @12 00 

Hogs.16 50 @18 00 

Sheep. 100 lbs. 6 00 @9 50 

Lambs .14 00 ®16 00 


Calves, choice. 27 @ 28 

Common to good. 23 @ 25 

Pigs. 22 @ 24 

Lambs, hothouse, head . 9 00 @14 00 


Sales are reported at: Fowls, 27 to 
35c; chickens, 28 to 30c; roosters, 22c; 
ducks, 28 to 33c; geese, 26 to 30c. 


Owing to the warm, sticky weather 
considerable stock was condemned by the 
health authorities. The market otherwise 
cleared up in better shape than at Thanks¬ 


Turkeys, best. 45 @ 47 

Medium to good. 30 @ 42 

Chickens choice lb. 48 @ 52 

Fair to Good. 34 @ 45 

Fowls. 25 @ 32 

Roosters. 23 @ 24 

Ducks. 40 @ 43 

Squabs, doz .. 2 00 @ 9 00 

Rabbits, pair. 35 @ 90 


Marrow, 100 lbs.10 00 @ 12 25 

Pea. 9 00 @10 50 

Medium . 9 00 @10 25 

California, small white,.10 00 @10 50 

Red Kidney. . 9 25 @12 75 

White Kidney.14 00 @14 50 

Lima, California.12 00 @12 25 


Apples—Baldwin, bbl. 4 00 @6 50 

York Imperial . 4 00 @ 7 50 

Ben Davis. 3 75 @ 5 00 

King . 4 00 @7 00 

Russet. 4 uo @ 5 50 

Greening . 4 50 @ 6 50 

Spy . 4 50 @ 8 50 

McIntosh . 6 00 @8 50 

Pears. Kielfer, bbl. 6 00 @8 50 

Cranberries, bbl.10 00 @22 00 

Strawberries, qt. 50 @ 90 


Butternuts, bu. 2 50 @ s 00 

Black Walnuts, bu. 1 75 @ 2 00 

Uickory nuts, bu. 4 0 U @6 50 


Potatoes—L. I., bbl. 4 50 @5 50 

State, 180 1 bs. 3 75 @ 4 25 

Maine, 180 lbs. 4 25 @ 4 50 

Virginia, late crop, bbl. 3 60 @4 00 

Bermuda, bbl. . 6 00 @ 8 50 

Sweet Potatoes, bbl. 4 00 @ 5 00 

Beets, bbl. 1 60 @ 2 50 

Carrot6, bbl. 150 @ 2 00 

Cabbage, ton.15 00 @25 00 

Lettuce, half-bbl. basket. 2 00 @4 00 

Onions. 100 lbs. 1 25 @ 3 00 

String Beans bu. 150 §> 5 50 

Squash. Hubbard, bbl,. 1 00 @ 1 50 

Cauliflower, bbl. 4 00 @10 00 

Ugg Plants, bu. 3 00 @ 4 50 

Spinach, bbl. 60 @ 1 50 

Turnips, rutabaga, bbl. 1 50 @ 2 00 

Parsnips, bbl ... # . 150 @ 2 60 

Salsify. 100 bunches. 5 00 @ 8 00 

Kale, bbl. 1 25 @ 1 75 

Chicory, bbl. 2 50 @ 3 50 


Hay. Timothy, No. 1. ton .3100 @33 00 

No. 2 . 28 00 @30 00 

No. 3 .25 00 @27 00 

Clover mixed.24 00 @3100 

Straw, Rye.17 00 @18 00 


Following are the Government prices 
on No. 2 red wheat at various markets: 
New York, $2.37%: Chicago, $2.23: St. 
Louis, $2.21. No. 3 Yellow corn at New 
York, $1.66. Oats, No. 3 white, New 
York, 7Sc; rye, $1.74. Practically no 
sale for buckwheat grain here, nominally 
$3.38 to $3.i»0 per 100 lbs. Producing 
points in Pennsylvania and New York 
report buckwheat as selling from $3 to 
$3.75 per 100 lbs Buckwheat flour at 
New York wholesales around $6.25. 

Retail Prices at New York 

These are not the highest or lowest 
prices noted here, but represent produce of 


good quality and the buying opportunities 
of at least half of New York’s popula¬ 
tion : 

Butter—Best prints .75 to 77c 

Tub, choice .72 to 74c 

Medium to good.55 to 65c 

Cheese .40 to 45c 

Eggs—Best nearby .85 to 95c 

Gathered, good to choice....70 to SOc 

Potatoes, lb. 3 to 4c 

Cabbage, head .10 to 12c 

Lettuce, head . 5 to 10c 

Onions, lb. 4 to 5c 

Dressed fowls, lb.40 to 45c 

Chickens, lb.50 to 52c 

Turkeys, lb.45 to 50c 

Leg of lamb, lb.32 to 48c 

Apples, doz.30 to 60c 

Philadelphia Markets 


Best creamery prints, 74 to 75c; tub, 
choice, 68 to 70c; packing stock, 40 to 


Nearby choice. 73 to 75c; gathered, 
best, 62 to 65c; lower grades, 50 to 52c. 


Fowls, 28 to 31c; chickens, 25 to 28c; 
roosters, 20 to 21c; ducks, 2S to 35c; 
guineas, pair, 75c to $1.10. 


^Turkeys, 43 to 45c; chickens, 35 to 
4oc; fowls, 33 to 36c; roosters. 27c; 
ducks. Spring, 3S to 42c; squabs, doz., $6 
to $S.25. 


Apples, bbl.. $4 to $6.50; cranberries, 
bbl., $10 to $1S. 


Potatoes. No. 1. bbl., $3 to $3.50; %- 
bu. bkt , 40 to 90c; sweet potatoes, bbl.. 

$3 to $4.50; cabbage, ton, $15 to $25; 
onions, 100 lbs., $1.25 to $2. 


Hay, No. 1. $32 to $33; No. 2, $31 to 
$32: No. 3, $25 to $26; clover mixed, 
$25 to $31. Straw, rye, $16 to $19; oat 
and wheat, $14 to $16. 

Buffalo Markets 

The Winter arrives slowly and is giv¬ 
ing the raisers of cold-weather crops a 
chance to keep in operation much later 
than usual. Only one or two severe 
freezes have taken place up to the middle 
of December, and much of the time the 
grass has grown and cattle could go 
readily to the fields with profit. Most 
vegetables are therefore plenty and 
rather low priced, potatoes now being sold 
by farmers at from 40 to 90 cents a 
bushel. Butter and eggs were seldom 
higher, the reports being that the reserve 
stocks are lower than for a long time. 
Beans have come down in the country, 
but not yet in the city, being still quoted 
at wholesale in the city as high as $6.90 
to $7.75 per bushel, while the farmers 
are offered only $4.25 to $5.50. 

It is becoming common to quote pub¬ 
licly potatoes and onions by the 100 
pounds, but the market offerings are still 
by the bushel. The city wholesale price 
is $1 to $1.30. with retail prices often 
running to $1.65. Sweets are $2.35 to 
$2.75 per hamper. Onions are still cheap 
hut firm, at 60c to $1.20 per bushel. 
Apples are firm and active at $1.25 to 
$2.25 per bushel for picked fruit and 75c 
to $1 for windfalls. Other tree fruits 
and small fruits, home grown, are out, 
but California malaga grapes are $2.30 
for 24-lb. box. This is higher than a 
year ago and puts retail prices up to 15c 
or more per pound. 


The extreme drop of Southern fruits 
holds except for a fancy orange, which is 
quoted^ at $10 to $12 per box, with others 
at $3.50 to $8; lemons are $5.50; grape¬ 
fruit $2.50 to $5.50, and limes. $1 to 
$1.25 per 100. Cranberries are scarce at 
$12 per barrel up. 

Vegetables are in good demand. Cab¬ 
bage is down to $1.25 to $1.75 per 100 
lbs.; cauliflower, $1.75 to $2.25; beets. 
60 to 85c; carrots, 50 to 75c; parsnips. 
$1.25 to $1.50 : spinach, 90c to $1.25 ; tur¬ 
nips, 50 to 75c for white and 60 to 75c 
for yellow. all_ per bu.; green and wax 
beans. $3 to $5.50 per hamper; Brussels 
sprouts, 15 to 18c per qt.; celery. 60 to 
90c per bunch ; lettuce. 50 to 75c per 2- 
doz. box ; endive, 14 to 15c per lb.: celery- 
cabbage and California lettuce. 10 to 15c 
retail per large head ; radishes. 20 to 30c 
per doz. bunches; Winter squash.- not 
very dry, $1.25 to $1.75 per 100 lbs. 

Butter is steady at 67 to 72c for 
creamery; 58 to 64c for dairy; 50 to 62c 
for crocks, and 42 to 45c for common. 
Cheese is firm at 36 to 38c for best do¬ 
mestic. JKggs are a trifle easier, but very 
high at 75 to 84c for hennery; 70 to 72c 
for State^aud Western candled ; 55c for 
storage. Poultry is quiet for dressed, bet¬ 
ter demand for live; 40 to 42c for dressed 
turkey; 25 to 34c for dressed fowl; 22 
to 35c for dressed chicken ; 25 to 26c for 
old roosters; 36 to 38c for ducks, and 27 
to 30c for geese. Rabbits are active at 
30 to 60c for cottontails and 50 to 90c 
for jacks, per pair. j. w. c. 

“How’s prohibition workin’ in Crim¬ 
son Gulch?” “All right,” replied Three- 
Finger San. “The boys are beginnin’ to 
realize that a man's conversation is jes’ as 
interestin’ when he’s sober an’ a heap 
more reliable.”—Washington Star. 

r time \\ 
on \ 

tank heater 

Cattle Va 
to Field v! 
with 1 
but one 

Saue j, 
when // 

Savetime . 

when cleaning 







_ herds 

showed James Cups Increased 
milk yield 254 lbs. per day mverage, 
saved $2.50 on labor and 49c on fuel per 
cow each winter—total of $20 moreprofit per cow. 

Lost aHired Matt? 

Saves Barn Work 

James Mor-Milk labor saving Barn Equip¬ 
ment makes barn work easy. The light run¬ 
ning James Carriers make chore time almost play 
time, turning the disagreeable task that heretofore 
has been shirked by all into a job that boys enjoy. 
James Scrapers make quick work of cleaning up 
cement floors; James Stanchions keep the stalls clean 

by lining up cows at the rear, bo 
that manure falls in the gutter and 
not on the standing platform; and 
the James Swinging Sure Stop 
Saves time and trouble when 
putting cows into stalls; 

The James Feed Truck or Feed 
Carrier saves much walking to and 
from feed rooms—makes unneces¬ 
sary the lifting of heavy baskets. 

James Drinking Cups save time, 
Save fuel and increase milk yields. 
Cow testing records show average 
Increases of 2% lbs. per cow per 
day—James Cups pay 200 fo and 
more a year on their cost. 

And so on with other James 
Equipment—stalls, steel pens for 
cows, calves and bulls, hogs and 
sheep, ventilators, bull staffs, mang¬ 
ers, swinging cranes, milk can 
carriers and horse stable fixtures. 

320 page book—“The James 
Way”—tells all about these James 
inventions and about James free 
barn plan service. Mail the coupon 
now; get full details how to cut 
barn work in half and make more 
milk—how James Equipment will 
solve your barn problems. 

J ames AVfg. Co. e 

Ft. Atkinson.Wis. 




JAMES MFC. CO. — Please send me your free book 
on barn planning, ventilation and equipment. • 
Also the James Barn Magazine (free). 

I have_cows. I hope to build_............ 

remodel _about_....____ Am interested ia ! 

Stalls ( ), Stanchions ( ), Carriers ( ), Drinking Cups ( ). | 

Ventilators ( ), Steel Pens ( ), Ball Staff ( ). | 

Name_.......... .......... ...._....____ J 

R- R. Sta.P. O_ I 

RN s-2A. R. F. D-- State_: 

J&sk* S«i«ty-Fir»t Bali Sufi. $3.50 f. o. b. Ft. Atkinson or Elmira. Par. Post, 
1st and 2nd zones, 11c: 3rd zone, J8c; 4th zone, 33c; 5th zone, 46c. 


Dairy Ration with Pea Silage 

(Continued from i>age 1.8) 

pound of this grain mixture for every 3 
lbs. of milk produced daily. If the row 
is dry I would leave out the cottonseed 
meal entirely, replacing this concentrate 
in the mixture with 100 pounds of oil 
meal. A dry cow should be fed from 
seven to 10 pounds daily of this ration, 
depending largely upon her condition of 
flesh. In addition I would give them all 
of the corn silage that they will clean up 
once daily, as well as hay morning and 
evening. If the clover proves too laxative 
it would be well to feed the clover hay in 
the morning after the grain ration, and 
the hay at night after the grain feeding, 
letting'them consume liberally of the stalks 
during the middle of the day. I would not 
feed more than 15 lbs. of the pea silage 
once daily, and whether or not this is fed 
morning or evening would depend entirely 
upon which arrangement could be worked 
out to the best advantage. It should be fed 
as promptly as it is received from the pit, 
as freezing would depreciate its useful¬ 
ness and make it relatively dangerous as 
a feed. Pea silage is well worth $3 a 
ton, or more, as it would add succulence 
to the ration. If the -cornstalks were cut 
they would be much more useful as bed¬ 
ding. and the cows would clean them up 
much better and they could be more 
easilv handled, but if the leaves are bright 
and nicely cured it is surprising how little 
waste will result from feeding whole corn¬ 

Boarding Cattle 

Will you please give me an estimate of 
the charge which should be paid for the 
board per week per head for dry Holstein 
cows, where the man boarding the cows 
furnishes the barn and bedding, and does 
the labor of feeding the cows, while the 
owner of the cows furnishes all the feed 
delivered to the barn? There would prob- 
ablv be about *20 cows. The man who 
furnished barn and bedding to get the 
manure. In other words, the labor, bed¬ 
ding and shelter furnished balance manure 
and how much cash? J- 

With commercial fertilizers selling at 
their present values, we are beginning to 
appreciate the use of barnyard manure on 
the farm. If the owner of 20 dry cows 
supplies all of the grain and hay. and pro¬ 
vided the cows in question are all mature 
and generously fed with a useful ration, 
the manure voided ought to compensate 
for the labor involved in the care of the 
cattle, especially if. the owner of the barn 
has oat or wheat straw that he is anxious 
to have worked over into manure. It 
would be appropriate to make a charge of 
50c per week per head, which will amount 
to about $50 per month for the 20 head. 
It is assumed that the cows will be main¬ 
tained for the larger portion of the tune 
in the barnyard and not confined all the 
time in the stable 

Garbage for Pigs 

Could I feed 12-weeks-old pigs gar¬ 
bage*' If so, how should the transfer be 
made? Mow is the best way to prepare 
and feed this refuse? G. G. d. 

Pigs 12 weeks of age that have been 
well grown and fed during the nursing 
period can be transferred to kitchen and 
refuse garbage with very little inconve¬ 
nience. The best arrangement would ob¬ 
tain in case some garbage were fed to 
these pigs previous to weaning, and also 
if the dam nursing these pigs were fed 
on some of this material previous to 
weaning. However, if the pigs have been 
separated from their mother it would be 
well to mix about 50 per cent of grain 
with the garbage during the first week or 
10 days. This would involve the feeding 
of about half a pound of grain per day to 
a pig weighing 50 lbs., and this would be 
supplemented with enough of the garbage 
to satisfy the youngster’s appetite. It 
would be well to drain off the liquids from 
this stale bread and cooked vegetables, and 
in this way do away with considerable of 
tlio "rpflsc. 

After the pigs reach a weight of 75 lbs. 
they can be fed all of the garbage that 
they will consume with relish, although it 
is verv important that they be given only 
such quantities as they will clean up with 
relish each meal. Stale material kept be¬ 
fore the pigs at all times will take the 
edge off their appetite, and they are very 
apt to have irregularities of the digestive 
svstem that would limit their growing 
propensities. The old policy of reducing 
garbage with large amounts of water is to 
be discouraged, for it is possible under 
such conditions that the young pigs would 
literally starve to death on a full stom¬ 
ach. Ilominy is clearly the most econom¬ 
ical and desirable grain supplement for 
garbage. Usually there is enough pro¬ 
tein, but there is a shortage of. carbo- 
Imlrates and hominy supplies this need 
to good advantage. Frequent feedings of 
the garbage—that is, three or four feed¬ 
ings per day—are more to be desired than 
two- feedings, with young animals. 

If you have a large number of pigs it 
would be to your advantage to decrease 
this material. This is accomplished by 
means of cookers, utilizing the tireless 
cooker idea, which involves the heating 
of the material intermittently in hour pe¬ 
riods for 24 hours. The grease will rise to 
the top and can be skimmed off and sold 
for the manufacture of soap and low- 
grade lubricants. 

An experiment was recently conducted 
at one of the New Jersey institutions ia- 


January 4, 1911* 

volving the feeding of pigs entirely on 
refuse from the table. The addition of 
grain failed to prove of value after the 
pigs weighed 50 or 75 lbs. Previous to 
this weight it seems to serve a useful pur¬ 
pose and was considered economical. 
These pigs are in good flesh and have 
splendidly developed frames and will eas¬ 
ily weigh 250 lbs. when 200 days old. A 
number of operations in swine feeding 
are to be carried out in connection with 
the various cantonments and it is clearly 
the best use that can be made of the ref¬ 
use material. Decreasing the material 
and drying it is an expensive proposition ; 
but-nevertheless there is such a demand 
for fertility units that a great deal of this 
material is used in this connection at this 
time. It would be well, no doubt, to 
finish out the pigs after they weigh 250 
or 300 lbs. by supplementing the garbage 
with a little barley. This will firm the 
flesh and make it possible to cure out 
sound rather than oily, which condition 
will prevail in case garbage feeding is 
continued throughout their growing and 
fattening period. 

Fattening Hereford Cattle 

Will you give me a balanced ration for 
a good bunch of Hereford cattle which 
weigh about 050 lbs.? I have the fol¬ 
lowing feeds on hand : Cottonseed, hom¬ 
iny, bran and ground barley ; for roughage 
I have good corn silage and Alfalfa hay. 
I am mixing the feeds now, 100 lbs. .of 
each, and feeding about 5 lbs. per head. 
Will it improve to add eornmeal, which I 
can buy now for $05 per ton? c. V. L. 

New York. 

C. Y. L. does not state whether it is 
desired to finish this bunch of steers, or 
whether he is simply going to feed them 
during the Winter and fatten them on 
grass next year. If they weigh but 050 
lbs. it is evident that they are yearlings, 
and in this reply I am going to assume 
that they are to be wintered on partial 
feed, rather than forced and fattened. If 

C. V. L. has an abundance of silage and 
Alfalfa hay, this in itself would prove a 
satisfying ration. I would not under any 
circumstances feed them any wheat bran, 
for it is too expensive, if we base its value 
on the digestive nutrients contained. A 
market animal of this age and weight 
would not require this product. Corn- 
meal is more desirable than hominy meal. 
Experiments show that one can afford to 
pay from 15 to 20 per cent more for the 
best grade of eornmeal, as compared with 
the prevailing grades of hominy meal. 
The ground barley would be especially 
useful for finishing the cattle. In fact, 
it firms the flesh and adds a finish not 
obtainable from any other source. Cot¬ 
tonseed meal should be fed in a quantity 
not greater than 2 lbs. per day for 1,000- 
lb. steers. This would meau that the 
steer weighing 050 lbs. should be fed not 
more than 1-2/10 lbs. per day, and if Al¬ 
falfa hay is available in abundance the 
amount of this concentrate might be still 
further reduced. There i6 a difference of 
opinion as to whether yearling steers 
should be maintained at approximately con¬ 
sistent weight during the Winter months 
or whether they should be fed in such a 
manner as to establish an increase in 
weight of about 150 lbs. during the five 
months. My own opinion permits the 
suggestion that a maintenance ration 
should be provided an- 1 that the bulk of 
this should be supplied oy means of the 
silage. Alfalfa hay, cottonseed meal and 
eornmeal. This would not require more 
than four or five pounds of this grain mix¬ 
ture per day, and what increase they 
would make in weight would result from 
growth rather than flesh. On the other 
hand, if this reader wishes to finish and 
fatten these cattle, I would limit their 
silage to 30 lbs. per day and gradually 
bring them up within 30 days to a full 
ration composed of hominy. 500 lbs.; 
eornmeal, 500 lbs.; ground barley. 500 
lbs.; cottonseed meal. 400 lbs. Unless I 
had sufficient barley to feed them through¬ 
out their fattening period I would not in¬ 
troduce any of this feed in the mixture 

until the last three weeks of the feeding 

Ration for Young Pigs 

Would you give me a good mixture for 
feeding this-Fall weaned pigs? Have 
been feeding scalded middlings with boiled 
small potatoes twice a day, and for three 
pigs about nine nubbins of corn at noon ; 
also a little salt and charcoal mixed in 
feed. l. ,t. ir. 

A useful mixture for feeding Fall pigs 
recently weaned would include some mid¬ 
dlings and possibly some boiled potatoes, 
but you should add to this mixture either 
some eornmeal or hominy; also some di¬ 
gester tankage. During cold weather it 
is necessary to supply growing pigs with 
feeds that are rich in fats and carbo¬ 
hydrates if it is desired that their gains 
should be regular and satisfactory. A 
useful mixture would be the following: 
100 lbs. eornmeal. 50 lbs. ground oats, 
50 llw*. ground barley, 50 lbs. wheat mid¬ 
dlings, 15 lbs. digester tankage. If the 
potatoes are boiled they should be prompt- 
y drained and should not constitute more 
than 20 per cent of the ration. Their 
purpose should be that, of an appetizer 
rather than a dependable source of diges¬ 
tible units. If you have small corn, this 
could supplement the above mixture. 
The feed should be mixed in the propor¬ 
tion suggesed and in a thick slop or mash 
and not thinned down with water. The 
pigs should be required to eat this ma¬ 
terial and not drink it, if the most rapid 
gains are desired. In a separate com¬ 
partment or box you should keep before 
the pigs at all times equal parts, by 
weight, of the mixture made up of salt, 
charcoal, bonemeal and rock phosphate. 
Give the pigs a dry place to sleep, and 
make sure that they are not pestered with 
lice nor infested with worms. Fall pigs 
have a habit of inviting these conditions, 
and if pestered in this way they cannot 
convert high-priced feeds into pork or 

It’s a 

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Dealers Evsrywhere 




January 4, 1919 

Management of the Family Cow 

no. in. 

Housing. —There is no way of keeping 
the cow cool in extremely hot weather, 
and this kind of weather is not conducive 
to high milk production. Neither is too 
cold weather good for the _coav._ The 
stable would best be from 45 to 50 de¬ 
grees F. and the cow should not be ex¬ 
posed to cold storms, and on cold days 
would best be kept inside. Many of the 
buildings housing one cow are large 
enough for many more, and they are apt 
to be too cold and drafty. If yon would 
have the cow* do well in Winter, stop up 
the cracks and keep her comfortable. 

Calving Period. —The heifer is bred 
to freshen when two to 2 Y 2 years old. 
As a general thing, when only one cow 
is kept, it is better to have her freshen 
in the Spring, going dry during a part 
of the cold weather. If two cows are 
kept they should by all means be. bred so 
that a constant supply of milk is avail¬ 
able from one or the other. As previously 
stated, the family cow should be a per¬ 
sistent milker, and should not'go dry less 
than three or four weeks or more than 
six weeks. Some cows dry oil with dif¬ 
ficulty, and in such cases cut the feed 
down and milk only once a day for a 
time, and then stop altogether. One can 
safelv stop milking when the co\v is giv¬ 
ing even two or three quarts and no in¬ 
jury will result. As a general rule, 
heifers and older cows should not be 
milked just before freshening. This is 
sometimes done to relieve udder disten¬ 
tion, but should only be resorted to iu 
case of extremely heavy milkers. 

Chore Routine. —The all-importaut 
point about caring for a cow* to get the 
most Out of her is to do the chores regu- 
larlv. Milking should he done at as reg¬ 
ular intervals as possible, as for example. 
6 A. M. and 6 P. M. To be sure of 
getting milk of best flavor no. feed should 
be given just before or during milking. 
Manv have an idea that cows will not 
stand being milked unless they are eat¬ 
ing. This is simply a habit that the 
owner gets the cow- into, and the cow not 
used to being fed at milking stands as 
we ll as any. The cow should be treated 
gently and milked quietly and quickly. 
Care should be taken to milk her dry., 
A green or careless milker will.soon turn 
the family cow 7 into a liability lather 
than an asset. After milking in the morn¬ 
ing. feed the grain and roots when they 
are available. Follow this with hay. 
Water the cow iu the forenoon, giving ail 
she will drink. In the middle of the day 
feed coarse roughage, such as cornstalks 
or straw, or if none of these are available, 
feed some more hay. On Avarm days this 
feed may be given out in the yard, i eed 
a little more hay in the middle ot the 
afternoon and follow 7 with more w atei. 
Plentv of Avater and plenty of hay given 
in small lots at frequent intervals help 
make milk cheaply. After milking at 
night feed grain again and give her some 
hay. Put her to bed on plenty of shav¬ 
ings. sawdust or straw. , 

Record Keeping. —If the keeping of 
records pays in large herds, and it oer- 
tainlv does, why should it not pay in case 
of the family cow? Would there not be 
more 7^0 iu it if it is known that the 
cow is producing well above the cost of 
feed? Another point to be gained is this. 
If there is a youngster in the family, 
there is nothing better to create interest m 
figures and actual business than to get a 
spring milk balance and let him weigh 
old Bossy’s milk every milking, and weigh 
her feed‘often enough so a close estimate 
of what she eats can be made. By taking 
market prices of her feed and her product 
the youngster can then calculate profit or 
loss above feed cost, and this is training 
well worth while, the kind that makes 
business men farmers and farmers busi¬ 
ness men. If a butterfat test of the cow s 
milk is desired and equipment is. not 
available, take a sample and send it to 
the State college to be tested. Many high 
schools now have the necessary equip¬ 
ment. In taking sample, take a certain 
amount of morning’s milk. and like 
amount of evening’s milk, mix together 
and fin a four-ounce bottle full to the 
stopper, add two or three drops of for¬ 
malin, if the milk must be on the road 
for some time. Under no conditions, do 
what many single cow oAvners have been 
know r n to do, namely, draw some milk 
directly from the udder into the sample 
bottle, because the first streams drawm 
test very low. while the strippings are 
almost like thin cream. H. F. judkins. 

ment. Prevent bots by keeping horses 
free from the eggs. The eggs may be 
singed off or destroyed by applying a five 
per cent solution of coal tar dip or car¬ 
bolic acid. There is no certain remedy, 
but capsules of bisulphide of carbou may 
do some good. Have them administered 
by a veterinarian. A. s. A. 

her bowels somewhat relaxed. Also, avoid 
milking a cow out clean for a few days 
after calving. Better let the calf suck 
for three or four days if the cow 7 is subject 
to attack. a. s. a. 


We have a cow fresh a short time ago, 
giving a good amount of milk. About two 
w r eeks ago she bloated. We had a veter¬ 
inarian to see her; he said it was inflam¬ 
mation and stoppage in last stomach. 
She will not eat, and we have tried her 
with almost everything we know of. She 
will eat only clover hay and little of that. 
Could you advise us w 7 hat to do for her? 

New York. A. L. 

The cow 7 should receive a physic, such 
as a pound of epsom salts in three pints 
of warm water to Avhich add a cupful of 
blackstrap molasses. Give this as one 
dose, very slowly and carefully, from a 
long-necked bottle. In all such cases it is 
wise to have the cow 7 tested with tuber¬ 
culin, as tuberculosis often causes chronic 
bloat and other mysterious derangements 
of the digestive organs. A. S. A. 

Milk Fever 

Can you tell me what causes cows to 
have milk fever, aud how can Ave prevent 
the disease? S. M. 


The exact cause of milk fever is un- 
knoAvn, but it is thought to be due to bac¬ 
teria in the udder, aroused to activity 
AA-hen the cow 7 calves. The animal loses 
the power of her hind legs and becomes 
unconscious. The inflation of the udder 
Avith sterilized air, pumped in by means of 
a special milk fever “outfit,” quickly 
proves remedial in most cases. A cow is 
much less likely to have an attack if 
"dried off” for six Aveeks before calving, 
and during that time is exercised daily 
and lightly fed in such a way as to keep 


A sow 10 months old, weighing about 
150 or 175 lbs., has a very comfortable 
pen and bed. I feed her middlings, ground 
oats and coru. She coughs until her 
tongue comes out, and wheezes, before I 
feed her in the morning, and this is the 
only time she coughs. She is in a pen 
Avith three others; she is an O. I. C. 
What can I give her? What ration shall 
I feed young pigs about tw 7 o months old to 
make them groAV? Also, what is best feed 
for fattening shotes? Should a boar be 
kept in separate pen, or run with sows? 

Connecticut. J. o. 

If you are feeding any meals they may 
be causing the cough. Feed the meals in 
the form of a thick slop made up with hot 
w 7 ater or milk. Add flaxseed meal to the 
ration if the slop is made Avith hot water. 
Ground oats should be screened for re¬ 
moval of hulls; otherAvise it is irritating 
to the boAvels. Cough simply is a symp¬ 
tom of irritation from one of many dif¬ 
ferent causes, so that Ave cannot state the 
exact cause in this case. Tuberculosis al- 
Avays is to be feared as the cause Avhen 
the coughing hog fails to thrive, and it is 
contagious and incurable. The mouth and 
tongue should be examined, as lodging of 
a sharp object often causes cough. The 
boar should not run Avith the sows. Milk 
should form the basis of feed for young 
pigs. Add wheat middlings and ground 
barley or rye, and also feed some corn and 
Alfalfa hay. Old hogs may have shelled 
corn, wheat middlings and digester tank¬ 
age from self-feeders. A. S. A. 

eaten two tow 7 els. a eauze undershirt, 
some small pieces of cloth, and when we 
detected her at her tricks she was busv 
on another shirt and had destroved both 
sleeves. She breaks out of the pasture 
every time she sees any clothes on the 
clothes line, and as I have never had a 
cow eat cloth before. I am at a loss to ac¬ 
count for her doine so. I have learned 
of two cows doine the same thine years 
ago, but the oivners did not know the 
cause. My cow 7 is salted twice a week. 
I have seen no ill effects from her stranze 
diet as yet. B. 

Such cases of depraved appetite or 
“pica” are quite common. In some in¬ 
stances gestation is the sole cause and 
the depravity ceases after the calf is born. 
In many cases, however, indigestion is 
the cause, and is aggravated by the for¬ 
eign objects eaten, including bones, rags, 
bark, earth, crockery, etc., and tubercu¬ 
losis sometimes is present. It alwavs is 
well to have a family cow 7 tested with tu¬ 
berculin to make sure that her milk is 
safe for use. Have this done. Allow free 
access to rock salt and allow a varietv of 
feed, including whole oats, oilmeal and 
Alfalfa. In some cases the addition of 
bone meal or precipitated phosphate of 
lime to the feed stops the craving for 
foreign substances. Cloth, linen, etc., are 
slowly digested and got rid of if not taken 
in excess, but as a steady diet would be 
likely to cause death. a. s. a. 

Depraved Appetite 

I have a Jersey cow that recently has 
shown a perverted appetite, and I would 
be glad to learn the cause for it. She has 

“Wiiat are you reading?” “A tale of 
buried treasure.” “Wasting your time on 
fiction?” “No. This is expert advice on 
how 7 to plant potatoes.”—Melbourne 

“And now, children Ave come to that 
important country, Germany, that is gov¬ 
erned by a man called a Kaiser.” said the 
teacher. “Can anyone tell me what a 
Kaiser is? Yes, Willie?” Please, ma’am, 
a Kaiser is a stream of hot water spring- 
in’ up in the air aud disturbin’ the earth.” 
■—Melbourne Australian. 



An old horse, always well fed, never 
seemed to look well, alw 7 ays rough hair, 
craved for water, drank three times as 
much as any horse should drink. Last 
Fall she Avas killed, and at the entrance of 
stomach I found a nest of white grubs, 
and in stomach, nearly at the outlet, an¬ 
other nest of red grubs. These grubs 
were fastened in the intestines. Could 
you tell me Avhat to do for such a horse? 

New York. w. c. av. 

The grubs or bots are larvae of the horse 
hot fly and come from the eggs or “nits” 
which may be seen adhering to the long 
hairs on a horse’s breast and legs during 
Summer. Bots are present in the stom¬ 
ach of every horse that pastures grass. 
They are suckers and it is their heads that 
adhere to the lining of the stomach. It is 
rare for them to cause noticeable derange- 

What We Daiiymen Know 



Cornucopia Dairies 
Darling, Pa. 

"We hove been using your Sucrene 
Dairy Feed and are satisfied it is the 
best molassea feed we have ever used 

At present we are feeding 300 cows and 
using nothing ^^^ruNGTON. 

Soring Grove Jersey Farm 
Greenfield, Ohio 
*T,manufacture from 4,000 to 5.000 P° u ^s 

. " week from cows that are all fed 

of S™cr’e a ne fi f« yearn hasTdpedto 

atS*-" 1 ”"' 11 )ACONITE. P..P, 





Results Prove Quality 

During the 18 years Sucrene Dairy Feed has 
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Sucrene fed cows on pasture give more milk than 
cows on pasture alone and are better pro¬ 
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All cows enjoy Sucrene Dairy Feed because of 
its variety, palatability and easy digestibility. 

r , 


Iff ttORIA, lit == 

4 25?“"’ lS.q° i 

Much Stronger in Digestible Protein F “ h d „ '±! 

Than Any Grain or Ordinary Ration centrates. The guaranteed 
analysis of 162 % Protein, 31% Fat, 46% Carbohydrates and 14% Fibre con- 
stitutes a scientifically balanced milk producing ration. It brings a substantial 
increase of milk flow, above the ordinary ration, when fed only with the usual 
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nutrients in correct proportions. 

High feeding quality in Sucrene Dairy Feed is secured by a proper combination 
of the following materials: Cottonseed Meal, Germ Oil Meal, Cocoanut Meal, Corn 
Distillers’ Dried Grains, Ground and Bolted Grain Screenings, Clipped Oat By- 
Product (for necessary bulk). Pure Canfr Molasses, Calcium Carbonate and Salt. 

We would like to give you the experiences of other dairymen with Sucrene Dairy Feed. Carefully 
prepared illustrated literature sent free on request. Fill out and mail us coupon or write ua a postal. 

American Milling Company, Dept. 5, Peoria, III. 

Sucrene Feeds for fill Live Stock and Poultry— 18 Years the Standard 

It costs less to make milk with Sucrene 
Dairy Feed. It costs less to keep cows in 
good condition. Order a ton from your 
dealer. If he can not supply you write us his 
name and we will see that you are supplied. 

Please send me illustrated literature on feeds 
■ checked below: ( 5 > 

Sucrene Dairy Feed 
Sucrene Calf Meal 
Sucrene Hog Meal 
Sucrene Poultry Feeds 
Amco Fat Maker for steers 
Amco Dairy Feed (25% Protein) 

My Dealer's Name.. 


® Mu Name. 




In answer to many questions about this egg- 
laying contest, the following facts are given: 

It is held at Storrs post office in connection 
with the Connecticut Agricultural College. The 
contest begins November 1. There are 10 pul¬ 
lets in each pen. All the birds receive uniform 
treatment. The houses are all alike, and the 
feed is the same for all. The contest continues 
for one year. The weekly records cover the num¬ 
ber of eggs laid for each pen in the current 
week, and also the total number of eggs laid 
since the first of last November. The contest 
will end November 1, at which time these birds 
will be removed, and another set of pullets en¬ 
tered for the next year. 

Record at Storrs, Conn., for week ending 
November 21. 1918: 




Merritt M. Clark. Conn. 



Samuel M. Monks, Conn. 



Glenhope Farm, Mass. 



Jules F. Francals, L. I . 



Laurel Poultry h arm. Quebec . 



Fairfield Poultry Farm's, N. H. 



Norfolk Specialty Farm. Ontario. 



Mich. Agricultural College, Mich. 



ltock Rose Farm, N. Y. 



J, H. Wilson, Methuen. Mass. 



Joseph M. Rothschild, N. Y. 



Ingleside Farm.N. Y. 



Ore. Agricultural College. Oregon. 



it. L. Smith, Maine . 



H. K. Wallace, Jr., Mass . 




S. Bradford Allyn.Mass. 



Albert T. Lenzen, Mass. 



Chickatawbut Farms, Mass. 



D. S. Vaughn, It. I. 



H. A Wilson. N. H. 



HollistonHill Poultry Farm, Mass.... 




A. A. Hall, Conn. 


Beulah Farm, Ontario. 

W. Bradley, Victoria, B. C. 

Herbert L Warren. Que., Canada 




A. B. Hall, Conn.. 

Kxmore Farms, Pa. 

James O. LeFevre, N. Y. 

Shadowbrook Farm, Conn. 

W m. L. Gilbert Home,Conn. 

Francis F. Lincoln, Conn. 

P. G. Platt, Pa. 

Sunny Crest Corporation, N. Y. 

L. K. lngoldsby, N. Y. 

B. S. Ells, N. J. 

Hollywood Farm, Wash. 

Bonnie Brook Farm, N. Y. 

W. E. Atkinson, Conn. 

Beck Egg Farm, N.J. 

Westwood Farm, N. Y. 

A. P. Robinson. N. Y. 

C. Rasmussen, N J. . 

Sunny Side Poultry Farm, N. J. 

Gustav Walters, N. J . 

R. Lindsey Ireland. Ky. 

E A. Ballard, Pa. 

Mount Hope Farm. Mass. 

Hilltop Poultry Yards, Conn. 

J Frank Dubois, Mass. 

Clifford I. Stoddard. Conn. 

George Phillips, Conn. 

J W Welch, Neb. 

M. T. Lindsay, N. Y. 

Mrs. J. L. Thuesen, Conn. 

Oak Hill Estate, Pa. 

Bert Horsfall, Quebec. 

Tarbell Farms, N. Y. 

Locust Grove Farm, N. J. 

Hopewell Farms, N. J. 

Rapp’s Leghorn Farm, N. J. 

D. Tancred, Wash. 

M. J. Quackenbush, N. J. 

The Yates Farm. N. Y. 

Herbert O. Maxham, R. j. 

W. B. Kieft, Ill. 

Kllwood Newton, Ccnn. 

C. S Green, N. J. 

Coleman Miles, Ill. 




































Mrs R. W. Stevens, N. Y. 



Laurel Hill B’arm. It. 1. 



Obed G. Knight, It. I. 



Merrythought Farm,Conn. 



O. L. Magrey, Conn. 



Shadowbrook Farm, Conn. 

Patrick F. Sullivan, Conn. 






H. P. Cloyes, Conn. 



Cook & Porter. Mass. 



K. Terry Smith, Conn. 




Chns. H. Lane, Mass. 



Ktjon Poultry Farm, N.J. 



Homer P. Doming, Conn. 



Hopewell Farms. N.J . 



Pleasantville Farms. N. Y. 



Laurel Hill Farm. It. I. 



Natick Farm. It. 1. 



Pinecrest Orchards, Mass. 



Jacob K. Jansen. Conn. 



Deer Brook Poultry Farm, N. H. 




Harvey A. Drew, N.J. 

F, W. Cumpstone, Conn. 






A, Schwarz. Cal. 




Blue AndalusianClub of America,N.Y. 




Agricultural College, Corvallis,Ore.... 




A. H. Penny, N, Y. 



Itobt. C, Ogle, N.Y. 



S. G. McLean, Conn. 



Glenhope Farm, Mass. 



Edward T. Tonissen, N. Y. 



Meadowedge Farm, L. I. 



Kirkup Bros, N. Y. 






























1484 8024 

Cold or Roup 

Wo have some sick chickens that we do 
not know what to do with. Their eyes 
get swollen and they cannot see. They 
cannot breathe through their nostrils. 
They gape all the time. We separated 
the first case from the rest, but still some 
other cases were noticed. We had some 
such cases last year, and one was cured. 
Would you tell us what to do? l. s. 

New York. 

As the cold damp season approaches 
fowls become subject to “colds” and ex¬ 
hibit the symptoms you describe. In some 
cases the germs of roup obtain a foothold 
and this disease becomes engrafted upon 
what otherwise would be simply a cold. 
The remedy is suitable quarters for the 
Hock where they will be free from those 
conditions which produce “colds,” cold 
drafts upon their perches, dark, damp, 
dirty buildings, etc, and where they will 
find an ample supply of p resh air through 
open-front buildings or other suitable 
means of ventilation, together with clean 
utensils from which to eat and drink, 
clean litter in which to scratch, and all 

the sunlight that there is in which to 
bathe. Affected birds should be promptly 
removed from the flock, and the causes of 
trouble, as suggested above, should be re¬ 
moved from their premises. m. b. d. 

Ration for Laying Hens 

Would you give me your opinion about 
the following mixture of feed for laying 
pullets? Owing to the high price of beef 
scrap I cut down same. Cracked corn, 
200 lbs.; wheat, 100 lbs.; bran, 200 lbs. ; 
middlings, 100 lbs.; cornmeal, 100 lbs.; 
ground oats, 100 lbs.; ground barley, 100 
lbs.; gluten, SO lbs.; beef scrap, 100 lbs. 
($3.26 per 100). I bought a ton of Mex¬ 
ican peas; they are buggy; cannot get 
them cracked. I am feeding them whole, 
a little at the time. Have J^ou any idea 
of their feeding value? I am getting 26 
per cent eggs of my March and April 
hatched pullets the last few days. Do 
you think I should get a higher percent¬ 
age? Of course, the egg yield is increas¬ 
ing slowly. F . K . 

New Jersey. 

Your mixtures are very good, though 
the gluten feed, if that is what you mean 
by “gluten,” may well be used in the 
same proportion as are the other ingredi¬ 
ents, or 100 lbs. each. One-eighth part 
beef scrap would give you good results. I 
am not familiar with “Mexican” peas. 
If these are peas and are readily eaten 
they should be a valuable addition to the 
ration, though they should not replace the 
foods mentioned above. A 26-per-cent 
egg yield from pullets as early in the sea¬ 
son as this (Nov.-Dee.) is very good, 
though it should increase considerably by 
mid-winter. m. b. d. 

Disinfecting a Henhouse 

I wish to clean and thoroughly disin¬ 
fect the walls and interior of a large poul¬ 
try house and a good-sized brooder house 
so that I may be sure that all insect life 
has been killed. I have recently pur¬ 
chased a small farm in the southern part 
of New Jersey on which this poultry 
plant is located, and I have every reason 
to believe that the former owner took 
very poor care of his chickens and had 
very little regard for cleanliness. I do 
not care to use whitewash as it rubs off so 
readily, but I would like to learn of some 
solution for disinfecting these houses. 

Pennsylvania. a. m. b. 

A liquid disinfectant that can be 
sprayed or painted upon the woodwork of 
a poultry house may be made from or¬ 
dinary commercial cresol. This is recom¬ 
mended by the Orono Experiment Station 
at Orono, Me., as one of the most satis¬ 
factory general disinfectants to use, and 
may be prepared as follows: Put 3 1/5 
quarts of raw linseed oil into a four or 
five gallon stone crock. In another dish 
dissolve 1 lb. 6 oz. of commercial lye, or 
“potash.” in as little water as can be 
used for the purpose, starting with one 
pint and adding more if needed, very 
slowly. Let this stand for three hours, 
or until the lye is fully dissolved and the 
solution is cold. Then add the cold lye 
solution slowly to the linseed oil, stirring 
constantly. Continue the stirring until the 
mixture forms a smooth liquid soap, per¬ 
haps for a half hour. Then, while this 
soap is in a liquid state, add. with con¬ 
stant stirring, S 1 /) qts. of commercial cre¬ 
sol. This will make a clear, dark brown 
solution that will readily mix with water. 
This is cresol soap ; two or three table¬ 
spoons of it to a gallon of water will 
make a powerful and convenient disinfec¬ 
tant solution for use through spray pump 
or with brush. If properly made, the so¬ 
lution will be clear. For special purposes 
it may be used in double this strength, but 
the above is sufficiently strong for gen¬ 
eral use if the poultry house has pre¬ 
viously been thoroughly cleaned. M. B. u. 


Why Artificial Lighting Stimulates 

The majority of reports seem to show 
that lighting the henhouse night and 
morning does induce the hens to lay more 
eggs during the Winter season. Why? 
What is the philosophy of it? The Cor¬ 
nell Experiment Station gives the follow¬ 
ing reasons: 

“The light appears to equalize the time 
between meals and to shorten the period 
of inactivity of the fowls during the long 
nights.^ The long nights of the late Fall 
and Winter months apparently cause the 
fowls to use a larger proportion of the 
night feed for bodily needs than would be 
the case under normal conditions in the 
Spring, when the days and the nights are 
of practically equal length. 

“At the time of the year when fowls 
lay the most eggs in New York State— 
the months of April, May and June—the 
days and the nights are approximately of 
equal length. Under these conditions 
fowls appear to assimilate their feed, se¬ 
cure the proper amount of exercise and 
form their eggs to best advantage. The 
latter part of December there are about 
lo hours of darkness and nine hours of 
daylight, whereas in the latter part of 
June the reverse is true—there are ap¬ 
proximately 15 hours of daylight and nine 
hours of darkness. 

“In other words, illumination attempts 
to imitate Spring conditions so far as the 
hours of activity and the regulation of 
feed supply is concerned.” 

Would-be Contrib.: “Can you use a 
poem on ’Our Daily Bread’?” Editor 
(without looking up) : "No; what we 
want on our daily bread is butter.”—Bos¬ 
ton Transcript. 

Add MQLfl] 

to rovigKest Feeds i 

Stock will 
Greedily Eat all 

straw, old hay, corn stover, 
fodder, ensilage, screenings, etc. 
Saves you the cost of expensive 
prepared feeds. The cost of 
Cane Mola is' very reasonable. 

Canc Mola 

(Not a Prepared Stock Feed ) 

adds palatability to whatever roughage 
you have on hand. Eliminates all feed 
waste. Everything cleaned up in double 
quick time. Successful dairymen and 
farmers are continually re-ordering in 
ever-increasing quantities. Live stock 
gain weight rapidly. Cows give more 
milk. Cane Mola is all digestible. Gov¬ 
ernment Experiment Stations endorse it. 


Hoisture 1201b 

JfoOTEIN 24 lbs — 

88 LBS. 


330 LBS 

1 Avikaci Ahawjis M 0 u* 

B**m of CANLHQIA- 

Write for Valuable 
Feeding Information 

We will send you 
our booklet and ex¬ 
pert advice on eco- 
n o m i c a 1 feeding. 
Cane Mola is sold in 
600-lb. barrels, or 
smaller sizes, if de¬ 

89-D Beaver St., N. Y. 

Distributors conveniently 
located throughout 
the U. S. 

S. C. Rhode Island Reds 

Trap-Nested 200-Egg Strain 
The World’s Famous Strain of Reds 

By trap-nesting and careful breeding we have bred a 
strain of S. C. Beds that have uo equal in size, shape, 
color, and egg production. Onr pen of S C. Reds in the 
191.-1918 North American Egg-Laying Contest laid 878 
eggs, which proved their laying ability. Our hen No. 3 
was the highest record S. C. Red hen in the contest: she 
laid 220 eggs and did not begin laving until thesixth week 
of the contest. Cockerels, to, $ 8 . tio and tlo each. Eggs, 
42. 43 and 45 per 15. 410 per 100. 418per200. Catalogue free. 
CHESTER COUNTY POULTRY FARM, H. 0. Ha. J. 7. P.ttslowa, Pt 

Light and Dark Brahmas, Barred Rocks, R. I. Reds 
W. Wyandottes 5V™ }'/* “or 1 .* Cockerels 

Catalog free. RIVEMALE POULTRY FARM, Box 1S5. Aivtnlalc. N. J. 

sale Pure Mammoth Bronze Turkeys 

Enormous Bone aml Frame. "Equal to the Best.’ 

FRANK ROSEBROUGH. " The Locusts," Brockport. New York 

For Sale-Pure Bred Mammoth Bronze TURKEYS 

from prize-winning stock. Large frame—good bone- 
beautiful plumage. Mil. IDA CIIVMBI.EY, Draper, Virginia 

Pure Mammoth Bronze Turkeys 

ctoolr t)a n l„ _ .1 ..... .......__ . ■ 



---— — prize 

stock. Reply, stamp. Mrs. PEARL CU0QEIACK, Skaaaatelas, N.Y. 

Bourbon Red T urkeys Hen S E s 6 

each. Lassie I). Taylor, West Alexander, Fa. 

P r K F. l) re o 

Rodman, Xtn York 

D C.IOEMAKER’S blue kibrov bovhhox red tckkevs 

■ Toms. $1 2 ; young hens. 88 . Will Exchange Guinea 
Tigs for Rabbits or Bantams. Ft., New York 

Pure Bred MammothEmdenGeese 

JIks. C. D. VAN A—STINE, - Weedsport, New York 

F or SALE-Illgh Grade BOV KHUN If KI» TI RKET8 
Toms, $ 10 . Hens, 98 }. M. KERN, Springvtlle, Indiana 

Barred Rock Cockerels 

Both light and dark. Also Parks’ heavy-laying strain 
nnd Parks’ heavy-laying strain crossed with Thompson’s 
for utility. Choice trios from the above strains Price 
ranging from $10 to$ 20 . Pens $18 to $35. Single 
cockerel. $3.50 to $1 5 . All birds shipiied on approval. 
I. H. BACORN, - Sergeautsville, N.J. 

Rhode Island Whites 

Strong, vigorous cockerels, *P5 each. Pullets, ready 
to lay, $3 each. All from pen of heavy winter 

layer*. O. G. L. L E W 1 S, Paoli, Penn a. 

Barron’s White Wyandottes r° c * prel8 forsa,e frora 

with records. E. E. 

stock i m ported direct 

LEWIS, Apaluidiln. New York 

ForSale-Wyckofl Strain S. C. W. Leghorns 

Cockerels direct. J. .VI. CASE, Gilboa, New York 




$ 6»= 

for the 

AH Liberty 

Steel Hatcher 

— H if Tko a._a;_ 



The greatest in¬ 
cubator value at 
any price. Built 
round with a cen¬ 
tral heater; nocold 
corners which 
D . . , .. ,, mean unhatched 

—— Perfect regulation of heat, ventilation and moisture, 
roomy chick nursery, visible egg chamber easily accessible, 
triple wall, water jacketed heat flume, sloping egg tray 
keeps small ends of eggs always downward-enables chicks 
to develop more perfectly. Economical to oper- <£ . OCT 
ate. So well-built it lasts a life-time. Priceonly «JxO«Ux> 
Order from this advertisement. Send check money or 
express order, we ship at once, f. o. b. Quincy, III. For 
Bhipment by parcel post include postage for 21 lbs. weight. 

ly y SAT?iFI°ED"after 30 DAYS’ TRIAL 

write us and we will refund all money you have paid We 
are responsible. In business in Chicago 46 years. Ask your 
banker. You also need our splendid Liberty Hover ” 70 
chick capmcity.oil heated,self regulating. Weighs 14 lb. 94.60 i.o.b. 
Quincy, III. For larger Incubators write today for special catalog 

B. F. Gump Co., 439 S. Clinton St., Chicago, IIL 


B r$i4 7 - 5 

Both are made __ 

Calif. Redwood. 

Incubator is cov- . 
ered with asbestos and gal- 
I vanized iron; has triple 
- walls.coppertank.nurs- 

«ry, eg*r tester, thermometer, ready to 
30 DAYS’ TRIAL—money back If 
not O.K. Write foi FREE Catalog Now. -rwr— 

Ironclad Incubator Co. Box 101 Racing 

Baby Chicks 
Eggs ho?ns w ’R e t 

Reds. B. P. 
Rocks. \V. Wyandottes. 
Trapnested, farm 
range heavy laying 
stock that will multi ply 
your poultry profits. 
Illustrated folder free. 
Write for it NOW. 

Galen Farms, 

Box 100 Clyde, N, Y. 

Ferris WhitcLcghoms 

A real heavy laying strain, trapnested 17 y^ars, rec¬ 
ords from 2u0 to 204 egrgrs. Get our prices on pullets 
and yearling hens, breeding males, eggs for hatching, 
and day-old chicks. We siiip C. O. D. and guarantee 
results. Catalog gives prices; describes stock, tells all 
about our farm and methods; results you can get by 
breeding this strain. Send for your copy now—it is 

nee - GEORGE B. FERRIS, 935 Union. Grand Rapids, Mich 

Single Comb White Leghorns Exclusively 


3,000 Breeders on free Farm Range. Now Booking orders 
for Baby Chicks, 1910 delivery. Get your orders in early 
for March and April Delivery as there will be a great 
shortage of baby chicks for 1919. 200 choice breeding 
cocks and cockerels 53 each while they last. Cir. Free. 
EDGAR K RIGGS, Box 75, Pleasant Yullej*, N. Y. 

Barron Leghorn Cocker-sis 

Good, big, husky, range-raised birds, with pedigrees 
from 240 to 284. We have over a hundred birds to 
choose from and will make you a good selection. 
All stock sold subject to customers approval, 




Bred For Business 

C C W 


Price list pamphlet with bargains. Largest poultry farm 
instate. SL’.VW CHEST I’Oll.TKV E*. 

A ini. Ka»C Aurora, N.Y. 

S. C. White Leghorn Cockerels 

Well grown, handsome birds. 200-284-egg stock. S3 to 
$10 each. Mattituck While leohorn Farm, Mattituck, N Y. 


$5 each 

Bred to Lay. Blue Rib¬ 
bon Winners. Cocker¬ 
els for sale. $3.50 ami 
CATAI.P 4 POCI.THY EAR*. It. D. 2, erttj.hursr, IV 

imtitox strain Pedigreed While Wyandotte 

Have made Record at Storrs. Eggs and Chicks for sale. 
Send for circular. O. G. KNIGHT, Bridgeton, U. I. 


Vibert’s 239 to 255-laying strain. Large cockerels, 
S4 and S5 each, p, EVERETT JON ES, Hillsdale, N.Y. 

S C R I Red Cockerels 

You will want one of them to improve the size and 
color of your flock. Satisfaction guaranteed. 

S. LAWRENCE JENKINS, - Monroe, New York 

For Sale-Partridge Rock Cockerels biding' 

Shipped on approval. C. W. HnrrLon, Mercer, Pa. 

White Wyandottes ! COCKERELS 

Strong, vigorous birds bred from high record, trap- 
nested stock. S5 each. A. L. VREELAND, Nutley, N. J. 

FEEDS AND FEEDING, by Henry and 
Morrison. Price, $2.50. The best book on 
this subject. For sale by Rural New-Yorker 

Make Your Hens Lay 

Send for and read our book on feeding raw bone. Rich In protein and all other 
egg elements. Get twice the eggs, more ferule eggs, vigorous chicks, earlier 
heavier fowls, bigger profits. ’ 





Makes bone-cutting simple, easy, rapid. Try It and see. Open hopper auto¬ 
call bone with adhering meat and e-ristle. Never clogs. Don’t 

IS, Milford, Maas. 

No money 
in advance 

matic feed. Outsail bone with adhering meat and gristle” ‘ 
buy until you try. Book free. F. W. MANN CO., Box 


January 4, 1019 



I want to tell you how much the new 
department ufider charge of Prof. Mink- 
ler adds to your paper. He is just the 
man for it too. Coupled with his educa¬ 
tion, he has a wide experience and good 
horse sense, and does not fall into the 
common error of thinking pigs can be fed 
bv the use of a few tables and pencil and 
paper. h. b. habpending. 

Dundee, N. Y. 

It is an encouragement to receive com¬ 
mendation for a source so highly quali¬ 
fied to express it. Other papers can get 
along with xiverage or even indifferent 
service. TnE R. N.-Y. must have the 
best to maintain its traditions, and noth¬ 
ing short of the best satisfies its ambi¬ 
tions. As Prof. Hinkler’s work develops, 
stockmen of all classes will grow to ap¬ 
preciate his knowledge and experience. 
There is room on our Eastern farms for 
more and better live stock, and Prof. 

. a inkier will help increase it. 

We appreciate the paper, and if it were 
two dollars a year you would find my 
name on the list just the same. D. R. D. 


It would be a pleasure to acknowledge 
all the kind words of greeting that come 
these days in countless numbers, but we 
must content ourselves with a general 
acknowledgment to all. Publisher’s Desk 
gets its share of the good washes. At no 
time in thirty-odd years have the words 
of cheer and encouragement been 60 cor¬ 
dial and spontaneous; but they do give 
us the best inspiration we have ever had 
in a purpose of better service for the new 

I note on page 1414 that H. D. Swarts 
of Scranton is at it again. He is an “old 
timer.” About 15 years ago I received a 
letter from him, offering two cents above 
market for eggs, f. o. b. my station. I 
sent him two cases. He made several 
promises to pay; finally sent me a note 
that was no good. After some months I 
sent the claim to a friend in Scranton. 
He wrote me that the postal authorities 
had taken Mr. Swarts just a few days 
before he received my letter. That is the 
last I heard of Mr. Swarts or my eggs. 

New York. j. h. s. 

The above letter confirms our invari¬ 
able experience that when we publish a 
complaint from a subscriber that a dealer 
has cheated him out of his produce, some 
other subscriber has had the same experi¬ 
ence. It would seem that Mi*. Swmrts 
received shipments of eggs as long as 15 
years ago for w*hich he failed to make set¬ 
tlement, and it wrnuld be difficult to esti¬ 
mate how much produce he has received 
in the meantime on this 'basis. At any 
rate, he would seem to be a good party for 
egg producers to avoid. 

The following clipping from the North¬ 
west on the Pan Motor Co., St. Cloud, 
Minn., shows how the money goes in 
stock promotion schemes: 

The Capital Issues committee in its 
statement to Congress declared its inves¬ 
tigations show that up to September 1, 
1918, the company had collected $3,945,- 
486; that assets of the company in cash 
and plant total only $1,665,100, or about 
42 per cent of the amount collected, and 
that the other 58 per cent went for organ¬ 
ization expenses and promoters’ profits. 
Of this 58 per cent the committee charges 
salesmen received $1,156,667, Mr. Pan- 
dolfo $553,752, while $569,967 went for 
advertising, salaries and other expenses. 

Here is nearly four million dollars 
squandered, and the large part of the 
people investing in enterprises of this 
kind can ill afford to lose the money. The 
Capital issues Committee have now rec¬ 
ommended to Congress the enactment of 
a national “Blue Sky law*,” We have ad¬ 
vocated such a measure for many years, 
as the “Blue Sky laws” of the various 
States do not seem to stop the robbery of 
inexperienced investors. The Publisher’s 
Desk warned its readers against this in¬ 
vestment scheme a year ago. 

On April 22 last I sent a check of $3.95 
to Harris Bros. Seed Co., Mt. Pleasant, 
Mich., for 1% bu. early seed potatoes, 
and two packets of garden seed at 10 
cents each. I mentioned on their order 
sheet to ship poatoes at once by Amer¬ 
ican Express to Trevorton, Pa ; I received 
the tw’o packets of seed by mail. I dian t 
hear from the potatoes until a long time 
afterw'ards; after it was too late to plant 
they sent me the shipping, or freight bill, 
that they had shipped the potatoes by 
freight to Fishers Ferry. This is not our 
shipping station : it is about eight or 10 
miles from us. and I gave them my ship¬ 
ping point plain on their own order sheet 

I never received the potatoes. I wrote 
to them three times regarding the pota¬ 
toes, and they never answered. What can 
I do about it? They owe me $3.75. 

Pennsylvania. f. w. p. 

We do not know that anything can be 
done in the case except avoid Harris 
Bros. Seed Co. in the future. We have 
the greatest sympathy with seed houses 
who had trouble filling orders under the 
adverse conditions existing last Spring, 
but w*e can eee no excuse for ignoring 
the customer’s letters and our letters in 
his behalf. 

The wholesale license of II. R. Simon- 
etti of this city has been revoked for an 
indefinite period by the Federal Food Ad¬ 
ministration, it was announced yesterday. 
The case centers about an interstate ship¬ 
ment of potatoes and therefore it was 
turned over by the local food adminis¬ 
trator to the State administrator, who in 
turn placed the matter with the Wash¬ 
ington authorities. 

At the hearing it was shown that J. R. 
Boggs & Co. of St. Paul. Minn., shipped a 
carload of potatoes to Simonetti on No¬ 
vember 15, 191S. Between the time of 
ordering the car and its arrival the price 
of potatoes dropped and on its arrival at 
Harrisburg the goods were refused by 
Simonetti on the ground that the potatoes 
were in bad shape and not up to contract. 
—Harrisburg, Pa., Patriot. 

This is the game often played by un¬ 
fair dealers—it is always easy to find 
fault with the quality of the produce 
when the market declines. In this case 
it was a dealer who made the shipment. 
Farmers too often do not make a fight 
for their rights. The Federal Food Ad¬ 
ministration is doing good work in these 
cases and w r e hope its services may be re¬ 
tained under peace conditions to war on 
crooked dealers and commission men. 

I wish to open up and speak my mind. 
Perhaps it may look radical to some, but 
will give me some satisfaction. I am 
what is termed a poor man with a family 
of four children; 12 years the oldest. 
For the last year have been accumulating 
some stock with a view* of going on a 
farm; have bought three registered heifer 
calves at three different times. They 
were shipped by express. The second one 
arrived about two months ago. and I went 
three different times to the express office 
to inquire over a period of two weeks, 
losing time to the amount of $23.10, and 
each time they told me the calf had not 
arrived. About a week later I dropped in 
and they had the nerve to tell me it was 
there the last time I called but they had 
misplaced the bill, and the charges were 
$7.20. which I paid. Last w r eek I had 
another one shipped from same shipper, 
Paul H. Stevens, Cortland, N. Y. I went 
to express office Saturday and they in¬ 
formed me the calf was not there yet. 
On Monday afternoon I got two postcards 
through the mail from the express com¬ 
pany. I did not go down Tuesday, as I 
eould not lay off. so went dow r n Wednes¬ 
day and lost a day’s time, and this is the 
bill they had: $4.64 for board, $3.96 for 
express, 20c war tax—$8.80. I think 
the Government would do well to weed 
out some of these lazy good-for-nothings 
and put in some business men to run the 
express company. The people might get 
better service. G. D. k. 


If bills were filed for all consequential 
damages sustained by the neglect and in¬ 
difference of express company employees, 
some remedy might be inaugurated by the 
express* company heads. As it is the cus¬ 
tomer has the experience and the loss in 
both time and money, and the company 
adds to its revenues and incidentally its 
dividends. In the case of a trunk that 
went astray, finally located at another 
station, the claim ■was made that two 
labels were on the trunk. Any school¬ 
boy would have made an effort to locate 
the party at the other address, if two 
were given, and express agerts are sup¬ 
posed to have at least an ounce of intel¬ 
ligence. Such negligence is not excusable, 
and should be paid for by the express 
company. There is nothing we can do in 
this case, but at least the circumstance 
should go on record. 

During the past two months the Amer¬ 
ican Railway Express has sent us 158 
vouchers for claims we have filed. These 
vouchers cover many of the old claims 
and some of the newer ones. By old 
claims we mean those filed prior to July, 
1918, ■when the consolidation was effected. 
We are woi*king hard on all the claims, 
and eventually they will be paid. The 
consolidation is bringing order out of the 
chaotic conditions that prevail in the 
claims bm*eau, but it is taking time. We 
refer to the payments so that those who 
have not had an adjustment may feel 
encouraged that there will be a settlement 
for them in the near future, we hope. 

for Contagious Abortion 

Don’t sell the aborters. Clean out the infection. Breeding 
animals are worth more than everbefore. Control of Abortion 
is doubly necessary. 

Every time a cow drops a calf—whether alive or dead—by premature 
birth or aborting, w hether the afterbirth is retained or not, her reproduc¬ 
tive organs should be flushed out once or twice with B-K. The Abortion 
infection develops in the uterus and vaginal tract. This infection causes 
Barrenness, Retention of Afterbirth and Calf Scours in addition to 
Abortion. Unless checked it is likely to run through your entire herd. 

B-K is a powerful non-poisonous antiseptic—-scientifically correct for 
this work. Used as a douche, it dissolves the slimy albuminous matter, 
kills the germs, stops discharges and controls the infection. B-K is much 
more effective than lysol, carbolic acid, Lugol’s solution, bichloride of 
mercury and coal tar disinfectants, all of which tend to coagulate or 
thicken the albumins. 

Contagious Abortion is being successfully controlled in many herds by 
following our simple plan with B-K. A well known breeder of registered 
stock says: 

“/ have been using B-K according to directions and the re - 
suits have been very gratifying. My cows have : every one passed 
the time for aborting and are calving all right in a natural wag. 

I had lost $1,500.00 on mg cows and feel that B-K has cleaned 
up the trouble entirety.”* 

B-K is sold by Dairy and Farm Supply Dealers, General Stores, 
Druggists, etc. If your dealer does not have it, send us his name. 

There are over “145 Farm Uses” for B-K 

FREE BULLETINS: Send for our valuable bulletin No. 52. on 
“Contagious Abortion,” also “145 Farm Uses” and our “Trial Offer.” 

General Laboratories 

2770 So. Dickinson Street Madison, Wisconsin 



Every Economy SUo Is equipped with the 
Storm Proof anchoring system that makes 
It absolutely permanent. Ensilage is al¬ 
ways fresh and sweet—It can’t spoil In an 
Economy Silo. Perfect fitting doors make 
the Silo perfecUy air- tight. Hoops form 
easy ladder. Built of long leaf Yellow 
Pine or Oregon Fir. You can’t buy a 
better silo. Also all sizes Water Tanks. 
Our motto is quality through and 
through. Factories at Frederick, Md. 
and Roanoke, Va. Write for catalog. 

ECONOMY SUO & MF6. CO., Dept. J, Frederick. Md. 






Own a machine of your own. Cash or easy 
terms. Many styles and sizes for all purposes. 

Write for Circular 

WILLIAMS BROS.. 432 W. State St., Ithaca, N. T. 

Standard Fruit Books 

The Nursery Book. Bailey. 1.60 

American Fruit Culturist. Thomas.... 2.60 

Citrus Fruits. Hume. 2.60 

California Fruits. Wickson. 3.00 

Plums and Plum Culture. Waugh. 1.60 

Fruit Ranching in British Columbia. 

Bealby . L60 

Farm and Garden Rule Book . 2.00 

Live Stock — Poultry 

Types and Breeds of Farm Animals. 

Plumb . $2.00 

Poultry Feeding and Management. 

Dryden . 1.60 

Swine in America. Coburn.2.60 

Diseases of Animals. Mayo. 1.76 

Principles of Breeding. Davenport.2.60 


RuralNew-Yerker. 333 W. 30thSt., NewYerk 

Loans to Farmers 

Long Time Low Interest 
No Commissions — No Renewal — No Worry 

Under the Federal Farm Loan Act, we will loan money to actual 
oc prospective farmers with which 

To buy or improve farm lands and erect buildings 
To buy live stock, fertilizers, and equipment 
To pay off existing mortgagee and debts 

We will loan you from $100 to $10,000. according to your needs and 
security. The interest rate is 6%%. The mortgage will be complete¬ 
ly “wiped out” at the end of 35 years by paying 6%% annually—5%% 
for interest and 1% on principal. Or you may pay off all or any part 
of the principal after 5 years. 

Write today for full particulars—if you live in any of the following 

Maine New Hampshire Vermont Massachusetts 

Connecticut Rhode Island New York New Jersey 


145 State Street, Springfield, Mass. 

When. Writing Be Sure to Give the Location of Your Farm 


Published Weekly by The Rural Publishing Co.. 
333 W. 30th St., New York. Price One Dollar a rear. 

NEW YORK, JANUARY 11, 1910. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter, June 26, 1879, at the Post 
Office at New York, N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 187J. 

No. 4510 

New York Alfalfa Belt 

Growth and Development of a Famous Crop 

Part I. 

writer investigated the methods by which Al¬ 
falfa was grown and disposed of in the annexed dis¬ 
trict of Syracuse, which contained considerable farm 
land, and in several of the surrounding towns. A 
large number of fields were examined and many of 
the leading growers of Alfalfa were interviewed. The 

farms that were visited Alfalfa has been grown for a 
long time. In several instances it has been from 20 
to 30 years, and in one for about 40 years. The 
areas vary with the size of the farm and the special 
line of farming. In some cases they comprise all the 
grass land of the farms. Some of the larger growers 
cut from SO to about 150 acres. There is a tendency 
to increase rather than diminish the area. It was 
S ad to miss Hamlet Worker, who departed this life 
August 16, 1918. He was a pioneer in the cultiva¬ 
tion of Alfalfa, and did more than any other man 

can be readily formed. The ground is also pretty 
free from foul plants. This is an important item. 
For, as one grower remarked. “Ye cant get weeds 
and Alfalfa together.” Alfalfa is usually sown with 
grain. In this way a crop is obtained the first year, 
which is not the case when Alfalfa is sov n bj itself. 
The grain protects the Alfalfa plants, which aie not 
\ ery hardy when they are young, from the scorching 
sun. and keeps down weeds which would come if 
there were no strong-growing crop to check them. 
Barley is probably the best grain with which to sow 

Fun in 

an Alfalfa Field in the “Good Old Summer Time ” Fig. 8 

results of this investigation, and of similar ones in 
1911 and 1914, were reported in The R. N.-Y. In 
the Fall of 191S much of the ground has been gone 
over again, and several other localities have been 
visited. As more Alfalfa is grown in Onondaga 
County than in any other county east of the Missis¬ 
sippi River, and as notes were taken in localities in 
which the crop is seen at its best, it is reasonable to 
suppose that the methods followed have been wisely 
chosen, and that, with such minor changes as differ¬ 
ences in soil, climate, and local conditions would sug¬ 
gest, they may be profitably adopted elsewhere. 


to bring this crop to the attention of farmers in this 
section. He was also an expert corn grower and 
breeder, was very successful with fruits and flowers, 
end was prominent in the Grange. He was a wise 
leader and a good friend. His son, R. C. Worker, 
who was associated with him. remains on the farm. 

SEEDING.—Nearly all of the seeding is done in 
the Spring. A very few growers think late Summer 
or Fall sowing might do well, and one prefers Au¬ 
gust if the Alfalfa is to he sown alone. Alfalfa al¬ 
most universally follows corn or potatoes. After 
either of these crops the land can be worked easily 
and a good seed bed, which is of vital importance, 

Alfalfa, but its use is not nearly as general as oats. 
Wheat is used to some extent, but this is partly to 
help supply the Government demand. Whatever 
grain is used, the seeding is light. In addition to 
grain most growers sow Timothy with Alfalfa. This 
because if the Alfalfa seeding is not fully successful 
something in the way of a hay crop is likely to he 
tbtained. Then, too, the Timothy helps fill the spaces 
between the small Alfalfa plants; it aids greatlj in 
curing the first cutting of the season, and it is be¬ 
lieved to make better feed for horses than Alfalfa 
alone. The later cuttings are more desirable for 
cows and young cattle. 


QUANTITY OF SEED.—So far as learned there 
has been no change in the variety of Alfalfa that is 
sown here. There is considerable difference in the 
quantity of seed used on different farms. The ten¬ 
dency appears to be toward heavier seeding than was 
common nine years ago. Of the growers recently in¬ 
terviewed only one uses as little seed as six quarts per 
acre. Some use one peck and several sow one-half 
bushel. One advocate of liberal seeding stated his 
view in the words: ‘‘No seed, no crop.” The impor¬ 
tance of thorough preparation of the land before 
sowing is generally recognized, and in some cases 
much care is used in covering the seed. 

RESEEDING.—Under favorable conditions an Al¬ 
falfa field can remain unbroken for many years. 
There is no rule as to the frequency of reseeding, 

- and there is a wide variation in the practice of 
growers. Some let. the field remain as long as the 
yield is good. Others plow when the land is wanted 
for some other crop in the system of rotation. As 
the plowing is hard, needing three horses or a tractor, 
it is not desirable to do it often: and on steep hill¬ 
sides, where it is difficult to cultivate corn or po¬ 
tatoes. it is an object to delay reseeding as long as a 
fair crop of hay is obtained. 

BREAKING UP THE SOD.—Average growers 
break up the Alfalfa sod once in from five to eight or 
rine years. Occasionally one is found who waits only 
four years. Many, in all, go to the other extreme 
and wait 10 or 12 years. It is said that there is one 
field in this vicinity which has been in Alfalfa con¬ 
tinuously for 20 years or more, but it is not now very 
productive. Apparently when a good stand is ob¬ 
tained in land that is well adapted to the crop, it 
should last about 10 years. Occasionally good land 
gives only a moderate crop the first two years that 
it is mown. W. A. Parsons, one of the largest grow¬ 
ers here, believes that such fields should have a 
longer test. lie holds that it requires at least three 
years for an Alfalfa seeding to reach its full devel¬ 
opment. The owner of a large stock farm advised 
the plowing of a recently seeded field in which the 
growth was small and weak, but his new foreman 
asked, and was given, permission to disk and manure 
it lightly. When this work was done the Alfalfa 
made a vigorous start and for several years it has 
given large crops. 

MANURING AND LIMING.—Much has been said 
and written about Alfalfa as a self-sustaining crop. 

It certainly gathers nitrogen from the air and ob¬ 
tains phosphorus and potash from lower strata of the 
soil than are reached by the roots of ordinary plants. 
Whether it can obtain these elements in sufficient 
quantity to enable it to produce large crops for an 
indefinite period seems to be an open question. After 
the late Mr. Worker sold his dairy business he told 
the writer that he should try to grow Alfalfa con¬ 
tinuously for sale instead of to feed on the farm. 
He believed it would do well for a while, but was 
not sure that it would do so permanently. It was 
his plan to use chemicals if they seemed to be needed. 
This was several years ago. No fertilizer has been 
used and the fields have not yet diminished their pro¬ 
duction. The majority of the growers interviewed 
enrich the land by manuring the crops which pre¬ 
cede the seeding to Alfalfa. Some manure the Al¬ 
la lfa until its third or fourth year, and then let it 
get its food from the air and the soil. In fields which 
have been down long some growers manure the thin 
places only, but a few manure the entire field lightly 
every year or two. One grower sells hay and buys 
manure. All agree that manure should be applied 
with a spreader in order that it may be scattered 
evenly over the field, and that it is better to use a 
small quantity frequently than to manure heavily at 
longer intervals. Lime, which is absolutely essential 
to the production of Alfalfa in many localities, is 
seldom used here for that purpose. The general 
opinion is that there is enough readily available lime 
in the soil to meet all the needs of the crop. Re¬ 
cently two farmers have limed some of their Alfalfa 
land, but it is too early to determine whether it will 
increase the yield. Inoculation, also, which is nec- 
cessary in some sections, is not required in this vicin¬ 
ity. The soil is well adapted to the plant, and with 
ordinary care a good stand and a large yield can be 

THE TIME TO CUT.—The time for cutting de¬ 
pends somewhat upon the number of crops which are 
to be taken during the season. If only two are to 
be gathered, the first cutting is delayed longer than 
it would be if there were to be three or four. Usu¬ 
ally the first cutting is early in June, when most of 
the plants have blossomed; the second six or seven 
weeks later; and the third and fourth, if there is 
one, according to the condition of the crop and the 
weather. Early cutting of the first crop favors a 


vigorous start and a large yield for the second crop. 
Very late cutting is not advised. Considerable growth 
should be left to protect the crowns and roots during 
the Winter. The grower who in 1914 said that the 
time for cutting should be governed in part by the 
moon is confident that this view is correct. He still 
holds that cutting in the last three or four days of 
the “old of the moon” is liable to injure seriously, 
and may utterly ruin, an Alfalfa field. He has ob¬ 
tained good crops for many years. J. e. R. 

The “Oregon” Hen 

M ANY of our readers have asked about the 
“Oregon”—the new “breed” or strain which 
led all the other pens in the Storrs egg-laying con¬ 
test. S?o at Fig. 9 we show a picture of one of 
these birds. This hen laid 272 eggs during the year. 
This bird looks more like a White Leghorn than any 
of the specimens in the pen now in the contest. The 
new birds are built lower than this one. and more on 
the order of a Dorking. As is now pretty well 
known, these “Oregons” represent a cross between 
the Plymouth Rock and the White Leghorn. Then 
(he White Leghorn blood was bred into this cross 
unti 1 the birds are pretty much of the Leghorn type. 

An Oregon Hen With Year's Record of 272 Eggs 

Fig. 0 

At any rate they have proved to be great layers, and 
are likely to show our breeders what can be done 
with cross-bred birds. 

Protecting Trees From Rodents 

RUIT trees most likely to be attacked by rodents 
are those that have been set out only one or two 
years. Damage done the first year is particularly 
harmful, owing to the trees not being established. 
They are therefore not able to supply the sap in 
abundance required to heal over the wound. It is 
particularly destructive to Fall-set trees to be bitten 
by rabbits during the first Winter, for the above 
reason. A large percentage of the trees so gnawed 

A tree is counted immune from attacks of rodents 
at five or six years after being set, although so much 
depends on the condition of the orchard, weather, 
food for rodents, variety of trees, and so forth, that 
no fixed age can be given. For the first five years 
after setting, protection is necessary. After that 
time if injury occurs it may be considered as rather 
accidental. As to the kinds of trees oftenest at¬ 
tacked, apple, pear, quince, peach, plum and cherry 
seem to be attacked in the order named. Cherry 
trees have seldom been injured with me. 

Here in the hills of Southern Illinois every known 
protector has been used (I suppose) with varying 
results. Some use cornstalks, which are good as 
long as they are kept in place. But the strings with 
which the stalks are tied soon rot, and pigs or other 
animals dislodge them. So, on the whole, they can¬ 
not be relied upon. Wire screen is used, but too 
often old screen is used, and this rusts out before 
one expects it to. Paper is good, but too often the 
strings with which it is tied are not cut in the 
Spring, and the papers interfere with the circulation 
of the sap, and in due time the very precaution taken 
to protect the tree kills it. 

By far the most satisfactory mechanical protec¬ 
tors 1 have ever used are cottonwood-veneer wrap¬ 
pers. I put these on with wire, which is held in 
place by a notch cut into the edge about half way 
up, and only hooked once to fasten it, so that it may 
be easily removed to look for borers, aphis and other 
insects. These wrappers last from one to five years, 
are cheap, handy and effective. 

January 11 , min 

Various applications and washes have been used. 
Each year someone has found a sure preventive, but, 
without exception, so far as it has come under my 
observation, all of these fail after a time. A good 
application against rabbits is to smear the tree with 
rabbit skin, or, better yet, cut open a newly killed 
rabbit and rub the trunk with the rabbit. This, of 
course, can only be done on a limited scale. 

Almost all of the applications lose their effect 
after a week’s hard freezing or heavy rains, and are, 
therefore, unsafe, for one is apt to neglect applying 
the remedy often enough. So far as I am able to 
judge, no wash or application is sufficient for one 
year, as claimed for so many of them. It is my 
opinion that no application not injurious to the tree is 
< ffective for six months, and in heavy rains or freez¬ 
ing it is not effective for six weeks. 

The best means that I know of for protecting the 
orchard trees from mice is to keep the orchard free 
from weeds, particularly at seeding time. A mow¬ 
ing machine will do this. Next is thorough cultiva¬ 
tion. If only a space three feet about the tree is 
kept absolutely clean of weeds, little if any damage 
v ill be done by mice. No form of wrapping ma¬ 
terial will keep out mice unless bound closely about 
the tree, which is sure to injure it. Mice can either 
burrow under or crawl over, and, when once inside, 
the wrapping is a protection for them which they 

Illinois. n. B bushing. 

R. N.-Y.—Wire in place of strings will hold the 
protectors. Last Winter trees 12 years old were 
/uined in our orchard. 

The Value of Forest Leaves 

I gathered about 70 barrels of leaves after the fashion 
suggested on pags 1289 and dumped most of these in a 
container which I called a compost heap, mixing them 
with layers of earth, with the idea of using the mixture 
in my 60x60 vegetable garden this coming Spring. I 
gathered these leaves mostly along a 150-yard section of 
a street opposite my house, and they are chiefly sugar 

The point I would make is there seems to have been 
very little written upon the use of leaves for fertiliza¬ 
tion, and I should be very glad if The R. N.-Y. would 
be instrumental in getting someone to write a mono¬ 
graph on the use of leaves, which would become a public 
document, corrected from year to year, as the. knowl¬ 
edge advances. g. w. l. 

Brookline, Mass. 

UR own experience in gathering dry leaves does 
not permit us to advise others to spend much 
time over the job. The leaves are too light and 
bulky. A “barrel” of leaves does not mean much. 
They should be valued by the pound or ton. like any 
other fertilizer, and any man who thinks he can pick¬ 
up and store a ton of leaves before breakfast has a 
great disappointment coming to him. Paul Serex, 
Jr., of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, has 
written a pamphlet on "The Plant Food Material in 
the Leaves of Forest Trees.” He shows how the 
leaves vary as to variety, season and soil. For in¬ 
stance, leaves of the maple taken on May 22 con¬ 
tained nearly 3.5 per cent of nitrogen, while leaves 
from the same trees on September 20 showed a little 
over 2 per cent. The loss in phosphoric acid was not 
so much, but the potash fell from 1.8 per cent to 1.2 
per cent. There was nearly as great a difference in 
maple leaves on a stony loam soil compared with a 
clay soil. As a rule, too, the leaves at the upper part 
of the tree contain more plant food than those on 
the lower limbs. 

One trouble with the forest leaves is the fact that 
they contain an excess of acid. Lime is needed in 
some form where they are used. White oak leaves 
seem to contain most of this acid, and such leaves 
should be well decayed and limed before they are 
used. A man may gather a great volume of dry- 
leaves and think he has a gold mine of fertility, but 
let him weigh all he can crowd into a bushel basket 
and he will see how little actual plant food he can 
gather in a day. As for the plant food value of 
leaves, the pamphlet by Mr. Serex gives analyses of 
24 different samples, including maple, chestnut and 
oak. One sample of maple leaves contained 3.48 per 
cent of nitrogen, 1 per cent of phosphoric acid and 
1.8 per cent of potash. Another of oak had 3.4 per 
cent of nitrogen, .93 per cent of phosphoric acid and 
1.5 per cent of potash. Still another of chestnut 
had 2.99 of nitrogen, 1.4 of phosphoric acid and 1.3 
per cent of potash. It was estimated that these 
leaves ran in plant food value from $3 to $6.50 per 
ton. After a careful estimate of labor cost, Mr. 
Serex says: 

The cost of collecting and handling would prob¬ 
ably be greater than the value of the leaves, thus 
mailing it inadvisable in most cases or farmers to 
spend their time in this way. 

That is the conclusion we came to after a good 
many experiments in gathering leaves. 


The Importance of Bud Selection 

Part 1I. 

I SOLATION OF STRAINS.—In the Washington 
Navel orange we have isolated 14 strains through 
hud selection. In a similar manner we have isolated 
14 strains of the Valencia orange, eight strains of 
the Marsh grapefruit, eight strains of the Eureka 
lemon and six strains of the Lisbon lemon. These 
strains have been isolated through the selection of 
buds from both individual trees and from individual 
limb sports. Other propagators have isolated almost 
innumerable strains of fruit and ornamental plants 
through bud selection. More than 400 strains of 
Chrysanthemums are known to have been isolated 
from bud sports. The most valuable variety of 
sugar cane in Hawaii originated as a bud sport. 
Many of our finest varieties of roses were propagated 
from bud sports. Over 50 strains of the Boston fern 
are in commercial use. Some of our best while and 
sweet potatoes are strains of standard vaiieties 
propagated from bud variations. Several valuable 
strains of the Twenty Ounce apple have been propa¬ 
gated from bud sports, as is the case with commercial 
strains of other apple, peach, pear, 
strawberry, grape, and other varie¬ 
ties. When one reaches the orna¬ 
mental plants the list of strains 
originating from bud sports is al¬ 
most endless. We have a list of 
more than 500 such cases at this 


—I do not want to belittle or dis¬ 
courage any study of crossing or 
seedling variations as a means for 
the improvement of plant varieties. 

What I do hope to accomplish is to 
point out clearly the equally profit¬ 
able and interesting work of plant 
improvement through hud selection. 

With fruit trees the raising of seed¬ 
lings and testing their commercial 
value is usually a long-drawn-out 
process and a more or less uncertain 
enterprise. The testing out of bud 
variations, on the other hand, is 
comparatively simple, and tire re¬ 
sults can be quickly secured if de¬ 
sired. by using the buds for top¬ 
working suitable fully-grown trees. 

The work of budding is extremely 
simple in most plants, and is a prac¬ 
tical work that appeals to those who 
like horticultural work. It is par¬ 
ticularly suited for training students 
and others and can he done either 
in the open or in the greenhouse, as 
the circumstances permit. 

STRAINS.—Experimentally, it is as 
interesting and important to propa¬ 
gate undesirable as it is to test the 
desirable strains. Commercially, it 
is important to propagate only 
standard and valuable strains. This 
distinction, the experimental as con¬ 
trasted with the commercial propa¬ 
gation of strains, is sometimes lost sight of. It 
should he emphasized, in my opinion, and kept firmly 
fixed in our minds. The commercial selection of 
parent trees, and limbs of these trees, should he 
based upon systematic performance records. By 
performance records is meant the record of nroduct- 
tion. tree and fruit characteristics, illustrations, and 
other data showing the behavior of the individual 
plants. The selection of the parent trees for propa¬ 
gation should be made in the light of adequate per¬ 
formance records, and with the aid of intimate tree, 
varietal and strain knowledge which is developed as 
a result of a close study of this subject by those who 
have a natural inclination for it. Commercially, the 
selection of bud wood for propagation should only he 
done by those who have been trained for this business. 
Amateurs should confine their efforts to experimental 
propagations. Every nursery firm engaged in propagat¬ 
ing fruit varieties should have trained bud selectors 
who are able to secure tree performance records and 
to secure reliable bud wood from the superior per- 
formancp-record trees. Fruit tree purchasers should 
demand, in fact they can only afford to secure, trees 
grown from carefully selected buds from superior 
parent trees. 

Fruit Growers’ Exchange, a co-operative organization 
of about 8.000 citrus growers, has established a de¬ 
partment of bud selection. The purpose of this de¬ 
partment is to furnish all nurserymen and all propa- 


gators of citrus trees reliable buds secured from 
superior citrus trees of the standard and com¬ 
mercially valuable varieties. In its first year it 
supplied more than 300,000 such buds. The buds 
were supplied at cost to the users and the quantity 
furnished was sufficient to make this department 
self-supporting. With renewed activity of planting, 
now that the war is over, it is likely that this de¬ 
partment will grow rapidly. The citrus planters, as 
a result of widespread demonstrations of the value 
of genuinely pedigreed trees, are generally demand¬ 
ing nursery trees grown from the buds supplied by 
Ibis department. With this object lesson freshly in 
mind. I am of the opinion that deciduous and other 
fruit industries should carefully consider similar 
measures for the improvement of their valuable 
varieties and crops. If further information con¬ 
cerning this work is desired we will be glad to co¬ 
operate by giving practical suggestions as to the 
organization of this work. 

PERFORMANCE RECORDS. —Individual milk 
cow records, by the use of the Babcock test, are be¬ 
coming more and more generally used by successful 
dairymen. There is just as much need for individual 

One Wan to Dodge the Coal Man. Fig. 10 

tree records in fruit growing as there is for indi¬ 
vidual cow records in dairying. The individual tree 
records serve a number of important purposes, in¬ 
cluding the discovery of superior trees for sources 
of bud wood, the location of ‘‘slacker” trees for top¬ 
working or their elimination by replanting, and the 
work of individual-tree care in pruning, fertilizing 
and related work. Furthermore, individual-tree per¬ 
formance-record work is pleasant, interesting and 
valuable in obtaining exact knowledge of tree and 
plant behavior. We will he very glad, when desired, 
to assist in planning for such work so far as lies in 
our power. a. d. shamel. 


A Discussion of the Spray Gun 


EJECTIONS OFFERED.—Some time ago there 
was an article in The R. N.-Y. which gave an 
idea of the spray-gun so different from our exper¬ 
ience that I wondered what was the matter. The 
story is not before me as I write, but if my memory 
is not at fault there were three main points against 
the gun. First, it was said to waste material: 
second, it did not cover the fruit thoroughly: third, 
it would not spray against the wind. Our experience 
with the first type of spray gun which was offered 
for sale is that it is economical of material: we can 
spray more tree surface more thoroughly with less 
material than with any other device we have ever 
used. It will cover the fruit more completely than 

any other device we have seen, except actual dipping. 

It will spray better against a moderate wind than 
any other device we have seen; but who wants to 
spray against the wind except as a makeshift to get 
a few trees sprayed in some shape so we can fool 
ourselves into thinking we have done something. 
Most of the spraying against the wind would be just 
as effective if plain water were used. There are 
certain points which must l>e observed if good or 
satisfactory spraying is to be done with any appa¬ 
ratus, and especially with a gun. First, we must 
have enough capacity in the pump to hold the pres¬ 
sure at the nozzle. Second, we must be able to start 
and stop spraying quickly. Third, we must be able 
to place the spray material where we want it without 
getting too much where there is already enough or 
where none is wanted. 

CAUSES FOR DEFECTS.—In the story in ques¬ 
tion it is said that when the gun is wide open the 
liquid comes out in a solid stream. This would indi¬ 
cate too low pressure or lack of capacity in the 
pump, probably the latter. There is little use trying 
to use a spray gun at less than 250 pounds pressure. 

If the spray is not fine enough to hang in the air 
several seconds with a “lifting” wind 
a disk with smaller holes should 
be used. The long distance spray of 
a properly used gun is not a stream 
of water, but of air carrying a large 
amount of mist. A stream of water 
will always bend downward, while 
the long-distance spray of a properly 
adjusted gun may bend to right or 
left or even upward. When the 
spray from the gun begins to fall 
like the water from a hose look at 
the pressure gauge. If that is all 
right and there is no downward drift 
to the air put in a finer disk. 

at least four makes of spray guns 
on the market, which I may call No. 

1. No. 2, No. 3 and No. 4. No. 1 I 
have used through two spraying sea¬ 
sons. No. 2 I have seen over the 
counter, but not in use. No. 3 and 
No. 4 I have seen “demonstrated” 
in booths at fruit shows. No. 1 is 
the original. No. 2 is made to be 
used with a well-known make of 
spray outfit. No. 3 and No. 4 were 
made to sell to owners of spray rigs 
of too small capacity to handle No. 

1. From the impression they gave 
at the “demonstration” I should not 
expect them to give good results. 
With an outfit capable of handling 
15 to 20 gallons a minute, as is 
claimed for some guns, we must 
have a way of shutting off quickly 
when the job is done. It is not pos¬ 
sible to turn the hand much more 
than a quarter turn without losing 
time or power or both. A quarter 
turn should carry us from full on 
to full off in a spray gun. The first 
time I took hold of No. 3 it was a 
little, loose, and slipped back each 
time I let go to take a new hold and 15 or 20 gallons 
would have been wasted at good pressure before the 
stream was shut off. In the orchard such a gun 
would be left turned on most of the time, and would 
probably waste more than a third of the mateilal 
passing through it. No. 1 and No. 2 each turn off 
with about a quarter turn: No. 3 and No. 4 with 
about two turns, unless the packing is a little loose, 
when it may take 20 or more. 

getting the spray material where it is wanted the 
spray gun excels. It requires some practice and 
experiment to get the material to the top of high 
trees. It will throw the material higher and farther 
than is possible with any other apparatus. It will 
not let the operator stand on the tank and spray 
straight up under the center of the tree, bv; it will 
reach all the large branches well enou h. The 
writer has never been able to see the advantage of 
the angle nozzle. When it is time to spray the apples 
are standing up and are of such a shape that the 
part of the apple around the stem can be best covered 
by a horizontal spray. Most of the scab infection 
comes on top of the apple, that is. around the blos¬ 
som end. To reach that we need a dropping spray. 
If our mist is fine enough we can fill the whole inside 
of the tree, and it will gently sift down over the 
parts that will catch the scab spores as they gently 
sift down through the tree. There are a number of 
pumps on the market with capacity enough for any 


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Green Hill, Pa., sept, 22 

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spray gun. Wo have an engine which was 
built by a nearby firm When it was 
thought 75 pounds would be all we would 
ever need for any kind of spraying. Last 
Spring we bought a new pump of good 
construction, bitched it to the old engine 
and had a rig which would keep the 
needle off the dial of a 50 to 325-pound 
gauge in actual spraying day after day. 
In this gauge the needle is out of sight 
below 50 and above 325 pounds. We 
find the spray gun ft most offectice instru¬ 
ment, but it must be used at high pres¬ 
sure and it must be so designed as to be 
opened and closed readily and so as to 
give a very fine spray whether open or 
closed. ALFRED C. WEED. 

Wayne Co., N. Y. 

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Dansville’s Pioneer Wholesale Nurseries 

January 11, 191!) 

of keeping good apples until early Sum¬ 
mer have caused most commercial grow¬ 
ers to stop planting russets, and the va¬ 
riety is disappearing, either by being al¬ 
lowed to die out or by being removed 
from the older orchards as they are re¬ 
newed. ALFRED C. WEED. 

Wayne Co., N. Y. 

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For fifteen years our advice concerning the seeding 
and care of Alfalfa meadows, and our seed for sowing 
them, have been standard — the best that wae to be 
had. The catalog tells how, and priceB the seed, 
not Turkestan, “Dwarf Alfalfa,” which we refuse to 
handle, but the best ot American grown seed, in¬ 
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RRIfecM Al Ffll FA Next to Hansen’s Siberian, 
UnlKilfl HLrHLrH the greatest variety grown 
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amounts of the Siberian. 

Lucky Boy Strawberries 

Bjirarer, Sweeter, and more pro- 
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Our 20th Century Catalog 
fully describes thin and 
more than fifty of the bent 
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R.R. No. 25, Salisbury, Md. 


Have Been the Standard for Over 

30 YEARS. 

One Hundred Farm Fruit Trees 

Regarding the 100 trees for the aver¬ 
age general farm home, will say it 
seems to me that about the following 
would not be badly balanced for this 
State, though changes might well be sug¬ 
gested : Apples, 40. distributed as fol¬ 
lows, which gives some sweet, and apples 
for about tlie whole season : Primate one, 
Yellow Transparent two, Red Astrachan 
two, Duchess of Oldenburg two, Pall Pip¬ 
pin two, Gravenstein three, Sweet Bough 
one, McIntosh three, Ilubbardston two. 
Sutton three, R. I. Greening three, Red 
Canada three, Roxbury Russet three, 
Baldwin 10. For pears: Clapp two, 
Bartlett four, Sheldon one, Bose one, 
Seekel one, Lawrence one. I should use 
mostly Oriental plums; though they are 
shorter lived, I believe one will get more 
out of a tree than the average farmer 
would get from tin* European. For the 
Japanese I would like three Abundance, 
three Burbank, two Shiro, and then a 
French Damson for preserving. Peaches 
probably would not go far astray in using 
about as follows: Two Greensboro, three 
Carman, two Mt. Rose, two Champion, 
three Belie of Georgia, two Slappey, and 
10 Liberia, or five Liberia and live Hale. 
In the cherries I should go rather lightly 
on the sweet cherry class in this State. 
One might try two Yellow Spanish and 
two Gov. Wood, and then two Early 
Richmond, two Large Montmorency and 
two Morello. For quince five Orange or 
Champions, either of which is good, and 
it would seem that five «>f either will be 

These, so far as I know, do fairly well 
on soils which one would plant to fruit 
in Ibis State. Many other combinations 
can be made which would uo doubt be as 
satisfactory as this. But this will furnish 
fruit through the season of these fruits 
very well, and where there are more than 
an ordinary farm family would want, all 
are of fair market value, so that the sur¬ 
plus might be well disposed of. 


Connecticut Agricultural College. 

Value of Manure 

Does it pay to buy manure from the 
cities at .>4 and $4..>() a ton? Does it pay 
better (labor costs included) to sow fer¬ 
tilizers and plant rye, vetch, etc.? E. g. b. 

Ye do not think the manure is worth 
the price as plant food. The quality is 
now very poor. Many good farmers spend 
great sums of money for this manure, and 
think it pays them. We think that rye 
and clover plowed under with lime and a 
small amount of manure added will give 
as good results as the heavy use of ma¬ 
nure. You can get hot arguments on both 

The grade of manure seems to he poorer 
eaeli year, until it seems like throwing 
money away to buy it. Is there any way 
ot computing the average fertilizing value 
of a ton of city manure? I low does it 
compare in cost with commercial fertil 

It is poorer. There is no way of com¬ 
puting its value accurately. Samples 
taken from same car will vary consider¬ 
ably. An ordinary sample of rich ma¬ 
nure is supposed to contain 10 parts of 
nitrogen, five of phosphoric acid and 12 
of potash, but many carloads fall far 
short of that. We hardly think it pays to 
buy manure as plant food, but it is very 
useful for furnishing organic matter and 
bacteria and for saving the soil. 


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69 varieties. Also Bmall Fruits, Trees, etc. Best rooted 
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Plant Physiology— By Duggan . . 1.60 

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Catalog and samples Free if you mention this paper. 

P. L. K0I1RER, • Sinoketown, Lancaster Co., Pa. 

When you write advertisers mention 
The Rural New-Yorker and you’ll get 
a quick reply and a “square deal. ” St 
guarantee editorial page. 


Planting Russet Apples 

There are four russet apples listed in 
the “Apples of New York”: English Rus¬ 
set. Golden Russet, Hunt Russet and 
Roxbury Russet. The questioner on page 
47 may refer t oany of these, but prob¬ 
ably to either Golden Russet or Roxbury, 
as these are the most widely grown com¬ 
mercially in Western New York. Golden 
Russet is by far the best of the group so 
far as quality is concerned, but is smaller 
than Roxbury and perhaps smaller than 
either of the others. Its keeping season 
is probably the shortest of any of the rus¬ 

The russet apples as a group are of 
small size, poor quality, and so placed on 
the trees as to be very expensive to har¬ 
vest. The principal reason for growing 
them is to have an apple which will keep 
a very long time in cellar storage. Golden 
Russet keeps about as long as Newtown 
Pippin, but is much smaller and poorer 
in quality than that apple. Roxbury Rus¬ 
set is the largest of the russet apples, but 
averages much smaller than Baldwin. It 
is probably at least twice as expensive to 
pick as Baldwin. In the Fall and through 
most of the Winter it is sour, hard and 
tough. In Spring and Summer it ripens 
and becomes dry, mealy and astringent. 
It is easy to keep it in good condition 
until Early Harvest, Astrachan and Yel¬ 
low Transparent are ripe. It makes a 
very high grade of cider, especially when 
stored a few months before grinding. The 
advent of cold storages and the possibility 

Double-glazed Sash for Hotbeds 

Will double-glazed hotbed sash keep out 
the cold at night sufficiently, or is addi¬ 
tional covering necessary? I wish to grow 
very early tomatoes, starting them about 
the middle of January. If further cover¬ 
ing is necessary, could it be another sash? 
My plan was to start the plants in one 
bed and later transplant, in which case 1 
should have at the beginning considerably 
more sash than necessary. This sash, I 
should think, could be used on top of the 
hotbed in use, thereby giving double pro¬ 
tection. By the time I transplanted, 
probably the weather would have moder¬ 
ated sufficiently to allow one to use one 
double sash only. If I can do without 
straw mats I certainly wish to do so. 
W hat is your advice on these matters for 
this locality? 

Hammonton X. J. 

Double-glazed sash are excellent for 
keeping the cold out of the hotbeds and 
cold frames, because the air space between 
the two layers of glass acts as an insu¬ 
lator. However, early plants, such as to¬ 
matoes, peppers and eggplants, require 
additional heat, which may be most conve¬ 
niently provided by means of a layer of 
horse manure about a foot and a half 
thick under the soil in which the plants 
are growing. Furthermore, since you are 
apparently a beginner in early plant pro¬ 
duction. I would urge you not to sow 
your early tomato send until Washington’s 
Birthday, at least. Cold weather is liable 
to occur during January and early in 
February, which would injure the devel¬ 
opment of the plants and cause unneces¬ 
sary inconvenience. In a month’s time, 
after sowing the seed, the seedlings will 
be ready to transplant to cold frames. 
Four or live weeks later these plants 
should have attained a good size, ready 
to gu to tin' field after the danger of frost 
is past. 

Incidentally, the double sash are not 
proving to be as good as we had expected 
them to be. A heated plant bed or little 
greenhouse is needed for the starting of 
the plants, and after the plants are trans¬ 
planted to the Cold frames, the weather is 
mild enough so that the single sash gives 
ample protection. The frames a re banked 
up with soil to exclude the air. and the 
edges of the boards are perfectly smooth, 
so that air cannot enter between them 
and the sash. On a few cold nights a 
covering of loose bay is laid over the cold 
frames. This method is in general use in 
Southern New Jersey near your home. 
In the vicinity of New York the truckers 
and market gardeners use homemade 
straw or salt meadow hay mats, or “wool¬ 
en" mats from the seedsmen. It. w. n. 

Orator : “Now I ask you people, is 
there anything anyone could like about 
the Kaiser?” Voice (somewhere in tin 
back): “Yes; a coffin!”—Cartoons Mag¬ 


Winter Work for Fruit Growers 

The opinion many farmers have of the 
way fruit growers spend their time during 
the Winter months is really interesting, 
judging from the many things recommend¬ 
ed to keep them employed, some even 
seeming to believe the health of many is 
in danger from lack of exercise. At least 
they must be considered an idle lot during 
part, of the year, according to some things 
printed and written. The fruit growers 
of some sections may be more lucky than 
here in the Hudson Valley. With us, 
however, any man working whenever 
weather will permit, with all available 
competent help (if he has any consider¬ 
able amount of fruit), considers himself 
a lucky man if he is abreast, of his work 
when conditions will allow spraying and 
cultivation to begin. 

I could point out a number of our best 
growers all through this section who have 
not been able to get over their entire 
planting with pruning, Winter protection 
against vermin, etc., any single year in 
the past ten. and as a direct result have 
sometimes sustained more loss in a single 


Sometimes bees are lost in Winter be¬ 
cause the owners neglect to keep the en¬ 
trance free from ice. No harm is done 
from a covering of snow, even if the hives 
are completely hidden, but if the snow 
begins to melt and then freezes on the en¬ 
trance board, there is danger that the bees 
will be smothered. E. I. fakrington. 





Good Prospects in Bee-keeping 

I find the bee men very confident of 
the future of the market. At a meeting 
of them in Buffalo last month one of 
them said in an address that he was not 
selling any bees, as they were worth more 
than ordinary purchasers were willing to 
pay for them. lie would not look at .$10 
for a hive, and intimated that even $25 
was not too much for what he called a 
“good” hive. As that seemed to be the 
views of all present it behooves all farm¬ 
ers to go to looking after their bees. It 
was held that high-grade extracted honey 
ought to sell at 30 cents a pound to the 
raiser. Much stress was placed on a 
package that looked well. One speaker 
at 00 per cent on appearance anyway. 

yV s 




A Straw Carpet to Protect the Bees 

Winter than could be made up by keeping 
stock or doing other work as a side line 
in five. 

If one were to start out any day in 
Spring and ask every fruit grower through 
our section if he has started his spraying, 
or some other job that should essentially 
be done just then, and about nine times 
out of ten you will get an answer some¬ 
thing like this: “No. I am not quite 
ready yet. I don’t know just why, either. 
We have been at it every minute it. was 
fit to be out (and let me say right here 
they generally think it fit to be out when 
many would not), but somehow we are 
not quite ready. We must sure get at it. 
however, tomorrow or next day.” 

We have certainly had the most favor¬ 
able Fall for work I have ever known ; 
plowing December 23 and 24, yet in my 
own case, when asked a few days ago if 
pretty well caught up. my answer was: 
“If the good weather would hold yet for a 
couple of months I believe I would be in 
pretty good shape for AY inter, and no 
trouble to find others who feel the same 

The truth is our fruit growers through 
this section are not Winter feeding stock 
or taking up other side lines for Winter 
occupation, simply because with the help 
available they are not able to do what 
ought to be done in connection with their 
business of fruit growing. 

Columbia Co.. N. Y. wm. 

at 90 per cent on appearance, any way. ! 
lie reported having paid 12 cents for an 
ounce of honey at a restaurant in Buffalo 
that day. 

Farmers find it hard to give the time 
to their bees that is needed to make them 
do anything. A farmer friend of mine 
has a number of colonies and used to get 
money out of them when he looked after 
them, but now, with so little help, he 
lets them take care of themselves and 
gets next to nothing out of them. He 
has a theory that they help the garden, 
where he keeps them. The family is fond 
of red peppers, and the plants are ob¬ 
tained from a raiser of them in a village 
some miles away. The raiser has no bees 
and gets few or no peppers, but. the 
farmer with bees raises immense crops of 
them every year. 1 planted some lately 
in a city garden, where bees are hardly 
known, and I got no crop whatever. 
Someone ought to work out the problem 
of bees fertilizing this or that crop, as 
the clover bumble-bee problem has been 
solved, and let us know what crops are 
especially benefited by honey-bees. 

Buffalo, N. Y. J. w. c. 

When Bees Fly in Winter 

It often happens that many bees are 
lost in the late Winter as a result of be¬ 
ing chilled when they take a cleansing 
[light on a warm day. If the bees alight 
on the snow, as scores of them are sure 
to do, they will quickly become torpid 
and never get back to their hives. This 
loss can be prevented to a large extent by 
covering the snow in trout of the hives 
with a thin layer of straw, hay or litter 
from the henhouse. If this covering ex¬ 
tends 10 feet in front of the hives, enough 
space will be covered. The bees alighting 
on this material will escape being chilled 
and will fly again. It is usually the mid¬ 
dle of January or the first of February 
before this plau need be put into use. 
After that time the bees are sure to come 
out in great numbers whenever the weath¬ 
er gets warm. 

SVlake it 

a Victory Harvest 

With the coining of Victory American farmers must p ro- TjtHal l 
duce the biggest crops ever and big crops mean many 
extra dollars in profit for the grower. He will get high _____ 

prices and help will be plentiful. There must be no Slacker afcf■ *.* 71~ 

Acres,” no crop failure, if human effort can prevent it. 

As They Gra 

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Feeds and Feeding, by Henry.$2.50 

Manual of Milk Products, by Stock¬ 
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Milk Testing, by Publow.00 

Butter Making, by Publow.00 

Fertilizers and Crops, by Van Slyke. 2.50 

Diseases of Animals, by Mayo. 1.75 

Productive Swine Husbandry, by Day 1.75 
Productive Poultry Husbandry, by 

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Productive Sheep Husbandry, by 

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Breeding Farm Animals, by Harper. 1.50 
The Farmer 11 is Own Builder, by 

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Vegetable Gardening, by Watts. • •. 115 

Vegetable Forcing, by Watts. 2.00 

(’boose Making, by Van Slyke. 1.75 

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Productive Bee Keeping, by I’ellett. 1.75 
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Injurious Insects and Useful Birds, 

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Vegetable Garden Insects, by Crosby 2 50 

The Potato, by Gilbert . 1.50 

The Strawberry, by Fletcher.1.75 

Productive Orcharding, by Sears... 1.75 

Celery Culture, by Beattie.00 

Bean Culture, by Sevey.60 

Livingstons Famous 


arc favorably known. ■ 
Manj-of the best sorts were 
Introduced by us. We grow L 
, more high-grade tomato 1 
, seed t han any other seeds- 
' man In the world. 

r Llvings<on’s Globe, finest pink, 
for slicing and shipping, pkt. 5c. 
i Livingston’s Stono, finest bright red. for canning and 
catsup, pkt. 5c. Both immense yielders. Try them. 
New 112-Page Catalog FREE 

Fully describes the best varieties of vegetables and flowe.j. 
Gives 300 tnie-to-nature illustrations and Quotes honest . 

I prices for quality seeds. Tolls when to plant and how to 
I grow big crops. Write for your FREE copy To-Day. 

I Livingston Seed Co. 324 High St. Columbus. Ohio I 


,, c best varieties only. 

Hardy grown, registered and pedigreed 
strains. Prices reasonable. Our rigid tests insure 
results. Our policy is to sell only seed of known 
quality. We carry a complete 

line of guaran- n r teed seeds. 

rn 171? Complete manual on growing, feeding and 
r KLL tare 0 f Alfalfa. Worth * $ * to you. Write 
today for your copy, also free samples and Disco catalog. 

Dakota Improved Seed Co., 

£79 Lawler St.. Mitchell. S. D. 


Hulled and scarified white sweet clover is about 
ten dollars per bushel cheaper than red. (Un¬ 
hulled cheaper yet.) As itis a biennial, taking 
‘ the place of red in the rotation and any 
amount better as aland builder, itis an eco¬ 
nomical substitute. Winter sowing is the 
, best. Ask for samples and prices as well as 
our catalogue tei'lng “How to Know Good 
Seed”. All other kinds of field seeds too. 


160 Main St. Marysville, Ohio 

For Sale SEED CORN .. 

Produced 150 bushels ear corn per acre Write for ron- 
vHieing sample. $5 per bush. J. C00DINGT0N, Glen Head, L. I- 

F. A R I. V 


Golden Or&iure, Flint. Giant, Ensil¬ 
age, Yellow Pride. $5 bu. sacked* 
Special prices on car lots. Order Ear¬ 
ly. Harry Vail, Hew Hillord, Grange Co., N.Y. 


V IvAk )j and Floral 



Culture, bv Sevev. 


Diseases of Poultry, by Salmon.50 

For Sale bv Tin:' Ufrai, New-Yorker 
383 W iUlth St., New York 

- For 70 years the leading authority ■“ 

Now on Vegetable, Flower and Farm fof 
r, . Seeds, Plants and Bulbs. Bolter , oiO 
Keady than ever. Send for free copy today. 

JAMES VICK’S SONS Rochester, N. Y. 

39 Stone StTeet ThaJFlow«r gitg 


A Woman’s Hardy Garden —By Mrs. 

H. R. Ely . $1.75 

Old Time Gardens —By A. 1if. Earle 2.50 
Flowers and Ferns in Their Haunts— 

By M. O. Wright .... 2.00 

Plant Physiology —By Duggan . . 1.60 

For sale by Rural New-Yorker, 333 W. 30th St., N.Y. 



Raise a SAFE CROP — 

There is a Steady Demand For Corn 

“Ovet 100 successful 
com grcwers helped us 
make cur Com Book 
thoroughly practical. 
Ask for your copy.” 

Hungry Europe will buy all the food we can ship this year. 

Large amounts of stock feeds are required to save the rem¬ 
nant of the live stock in addition to feeding the people. 

Meats of all kind* will be scarce and high-priced. You can profit¬ 
ably raise more stock on your own farm using corn and roughage. 


will help you make your corn crop more profitable. Successful farmers are 
raising big crops of hard corn with commercial fertilizer without stable manure. 
“People will suddenly wake up and realize that all these years they have been 
giving to stable manure a value which it did not carry and that with fertilizer 
properly handled and with cover crops, they will be able to get the same results 
with less labor, with more profit and with far greater satisfaction.” 

Herbert W. Collingwood, Editor, The Rural New-Yorker 
Make your plans now to increase your 1919 corn crop. Full instruct .is for testing the 
seed and a new plan to keep off the crows together with other helpful suggestions are found 
in our book, Com, the Foundation of Profitable Farming.” Your copy will be mailed with¬ 
out charge if you tell us the number of acres of corn you intend to plant this year. 

Address Crop Book Department 


Subsidiary of the American Agricultural Chemical Co. 

5 1 Chambers Street, New York City 


Cost of Farm Crops 

I believe one of the things which should 
be brought forcibly before the public is a 
concise, accurate cost account of farm 
crops. It will help materially to increase 
the very necessary keeping of accounts by 
the individual farmer, and will tend more 
than most anything else to educate the 
city man to the real fact that, at the pres¬ 
ent high cost of production, the farmer 
does not receive the enormous profits he 
is supposed to get on all the produce he 
raises. earle dilatusii. 

New Jersey. 

January 11, 1919 

between the tile and the oui6ide form. 
This must be tamped in well. This filling 
can be done best by putting in one or two 
joints of the tile, then fill to the top of 
these with concrete. Then put on one or 
two more joints of tile, filling this in as 
the ones first put in. Continue this to the 
top; this concrete should be somewhat 
lower than the bottom of the quicksand. 
C are should be taken not to shut off the 
source of the water supply. Gravel or 
sand or small broken stone can be used to 
lill in around the outside of the tile up to 
within about a foot below the quicksand, 
lour concrete should extend a foot lower 
than the quicksand. If this work is done 
properly the quicksand will never bother 
you. j h 

Fayette Co., Md. 

Trees for Every Rural New-Yorker Home 

Shade trees and evergreens will shelter your home from summer’s blazing heat and 
winter sch illinprpfile. I'lant our Norway Maples for shade oil the lawn or alone 1 the roadside. They 
are absolutely hardy and grow fast. Sizes from 7 ft. to 16 It. high—and even larger. 

Harrisons’ Fruit Trees are budded from mature wood in our own 
bearing orchards. They are healthy, vigorous and hardy 

Send toda> for our FREE 1919 Nursery Book 

Harrisons’ Nurseries 

'The World's Greatest Nurseries' 

Box 14 

Selling Caraway Seed 

There is a patch near our house that 
,always grows up to caraway seed. Last 
Summer I went out one evening and cut 
a little of it. When I came to shell it I 
found that I had about 15 lbs. of it. 
People tell me that it is worth from 50c 
to $1 a pound. The trouble seems to be 
to find a buyer. Can you tell me where 
I might sell it? If that price is right, 
that little patch is worth considerable 
money every year. p. r. 

Ilorseheads, N. Y. 

Seed of African caraway is quoted at 
ONc a pound. The native seed is not in 
great demand and brings much less than 
the foreign. It is used as a medicine and 
in cooking. The best way to find the 
value of your seed would be to send sam¬ 
ples of it to some dealer in botanic drugs. 

Spring or Fall Applications for Lime 

Let me know the best way to apply lime 
in the Spring or Fall. Is -it a good idea 
to spread lime on top and plow it under? 
Some claim it is best that way. Is it 
preferable to spread on top of plowed 
soil and work it in? j. r. 


By general agreement the best way to 
use lime is to scatter it on the rough fur- 

A Remedy for Bloat 

I read in Tiie R. N.-Y. about fa rmers 
losing cows from feeding apples, which 
causes bloating. I wish to call vour at¬ 
tention to a simple remedy I have used on 
a number of occasions. The cause of 
bloating may be apples, clover or other 
food. A few pounds of caustic lime slaked 
with water, and the milk of the lime run 
off into bottles, will keep in the barn in¬ 
definitely. A dose consisting of about a 
quart poured down the throat of the 
animal will relieve the trouble in less time 
tban you can. go to the telephone and call 
the veterinarian. I suggest that you re¬ 
print this simple remedy from time to 
tune. I have used it with success over 

Ot) yGsrs* tt ■p 

Westwood, N. J. 

B- N.-Y.—We have heard of this treat¬ 
ment. Several readers have also reported 
feeding raw cornmeal as a help in cases 
of bloat. 


• High and Constant pressure, A dependable engine and pump. Thorough 

_ agitation of ( liquid. Freedom from clogging. Rigid, simple construction, 

Iy^PRAYmAI feature the Ospraymo” machines. Foliage unspray ed breeds insects, scale, 
■ ^ J nil Of ‘•vl ( fungus, blight. Use a sprayer that covers. 

Sprayers for Every Need. Write for Free catalog showing complete line. 
FIELD FORCE PUMP COMPANY, Dept. 2. Elmira, New York 



Buy early — have 
seed tested. If it 
don’t please you, 
return it—we’ll refund your money—pay freight. 
The early buyer, in this year of seed scarcity—gets 
best qualities—lowest prices. If you need field seeds 
of any kind, write for free eatnlog and samples. 

Do it today Mention this paper. 

A. B. HOFFMAN, Inc. Landisville, Lane. Co., Pa. 

Our seeds are selected and cleaned to be 
w WEEDLESS and tree from dead grains. They 
will go much farther than ordinary field seeds, 
nearly always addin g enough to the crop to pay lor 
themselves. Samples and catalogue including 
"How to Know Good Seed" free. Write today. 
0. M. SCOTT & SONS CO. 260 Sixth St. Marysville, Ohio 

You Need 
Ibis Book 

in making up your 
garden planting list. 

From cover to cover, 
it teems with true- 
to-life pictures and 
descriptions of tho 
choicest vegetables. 

It is a safe guide in 
selecting varieties 
either for home or 

Gregory's “Honest — 

Seeds” have been the first choice of 
particular gardeners for 63 years. They are 
thoroughly tested for vitality and purity- 
carry blood lines long controlled 
by scientific plant breeding. 

Send for your copy today—free \ 

10 X 6 Elm st„ Marblehead, Masa. 

Meet Your Friends at Our Booth 


Means Prevention of 



Efficiency INSECTICIDES and FUNGICIDES at minimum cost. 

We Manufacture—Consequently Our Guarantee Stands for Something 

Bordeaux Mixture Vitrio Calcium Arsenate Blue Vitriol 

(Paste & Powder) 

Arsenate of Lead 

(Paste & Powder) 

(Bordo-Lead of f A mo^t efficient poison p P 
highest analysis) for the Least Expense) ... , 

Fish Oil Soap PARIS GREEN 1 0Uss) 

Write for literature and don’t overlook the fact that our DUST¬ 
ING MACHINE relieves a considerable part of your spraying labor 
problem. Write for our Dealer proposition to Dept. R. N.-Y 


Home Office: 


Factory—Brooklyn, N. Y. 


Columbus - - Ohio 

Norfolk - - - 
New Orleans 

Reproduced from the N. Y. Evening Telegram 

rows and harrow in thoroughly. This is 
oil the theory that lime is heavy and will 
naturally sink down through the soil, and 
that it is needed in the upper soil where 
the plant roots do most feeding. In some 
oases, for deep-rooted plants, farmers 
argue that the subsoil is sour and that 
lime is needed there. So, now and then, 
in the rotation, they put the lime on the 
surface and plow it under. In general, 
liming after plowing is best practice. 

Spraying Lawn with Poison 

If a man has a nice lawn around his 
house, and it is eaten by insects or worms 
so that it looks brown, can he spray it 
with a poison to kill them, after notify¬ 
ing his neighbors of this spraying? If'a 
cow should eat this grass and it poisoned 
her, would the man who owned the lawn 
be responsible for damage? w. a. s. 

Rhode Island. 

It is not likely that the spraying would 
do any good. The lawn has probably been 
destroyed by white grubs. These insects 
work underground and the spray would 
not reach them. If the lawn is very bad 
it will most likely be necessary to dig or 
plow it, and clean out the grubs by hand¬ 
picking or by letting poultry do ‘it. As 
for the.spraying, your neighbor’s cow has 
no business on your lawn if you do not 
want here there. To avoid responsibility, 
put up a notice that you have used the 
spray, and also notify your neighbor by 
letter that you have done so. 

Salting Ham and Bacon 

• P a F e 3322 K. J. S. recommends us¬ 
ing 10 pounds of salt for every 100 pounds 
of meat in curing bams and bacon, be¬ 
sides rubbing the meat thoroughly with 
sa t over night before packing. Meat 
salted like that will have to be freshened 
before cooking, and freshening takes the 
best palatableness away from the meat 
Our recipe for curing bams, shoulders and 
bacon calls for five pounds of salt to the 
hundred pounds of meat, two ounces of 
saltpetre, two pounds of brown sugar or 
one quart of molasses, and water to cover 
the meat. Our recipe also calls for the 
meat to be overhauled in three days, and 
after that every five days, in order to 
have tho meat pickle through evenly. AYe 
usually have an extra barrel to repack in ; 
the meat that is on top goes in the bot¬ 
tom of the empty barrel. After repacking 
the meat, stir up the brine thoroughly and 
pour it over the meat, put on follower 
and weight with a stone just heavy 
enough to keep the meat under the brine. 

\\e usually begin using the bacon after 
it has been in the pickle two weeks; it is 
the same as Scotch bacon, except there 
are no spices in the pickle. We often cut 
a ham in half so it will pickle quicker 
and when it has been in two weeks it is 
very nice boiled or fried. 

'W hen the meat is to be smoked we usu¬ 
ally pickle the bacon four to five weeks 
according to thickness; hams and shoul- 
<lei\si live to six weeks, according to size. 
W e have used our recipe for many years 
and cured and smoked thousands of 
pounds of hams, shoulders and bacon for 
our neighbors, as well as for ourselves 
and never had a complaint. 

Bristol Co., Mass, milton a. brown. 

Bread from Home-Grown Winter Wheat 

I have read from time to time articles 
on Winter wheat bread, and will give my 
experience with flour made from our home- 
grown wheat ground at a nearby mill. I 
could not make bread fit to eat with it 
alone, but mixed with Winter wheat flour 
that I bought, it made fine bread. I use 
no Spring wheat flour. The reason which 
I have considered to blame for my failure 
is that the flour is not old enough. If 
one could keep the flour for a year or 
two anyone ought to be able to make as 
good bread from Winter wheat as from 
Spring wheat flour. The mills that make 
flour by the wholesale store their flour for 
a time before putting on the market, so 
I have been told. Mrs. h. s. d. 

Sinking Well Through Quicksand 

This can be done successfully as fol¬ 
lows: Make a form something on the 
plan of a silo, long enough to reach 
through the quicksand, and somewhat 
larger than you want the well. Set it in 
position, work the quicksand out from 
underneath this form, lowering the form 
as you take the quicksand out at the 
bottom, until you get well through the 
quicksand ; then continue to dig the well 
as much deeper as you wish. When you 
have dug the well as. deep as you waut it, 
lower the vitrified pipe, a joint at a time, 
until you get to the top of the quicksand ; 
then make a good concrete mixture of ce¬ 
ment, good clean round sand and gravel, 
about four parts gravel, two of sand and 
one of cement. Shovel this concrete in 

Vinegar from Peach Parings 

Answering the inquiry of II. M. rela¬ 
tive to “Vinegar From Fruit Parings” on 
page 1337, I saved peach parings, poured 
cold water over them and boiled till soft 
enough to mash through a strainer, poured 
juice into bottles, tied gauze over tops, 
let stand and ferment, and after complete 
fermentation, poured off again very care¬ 
fully through a strainer into other bot¬ 
tles, avoiding stirring the sediment in 
bottom of bottles, and it was ready for 
use. I should think almost any other 
fruit parings that were not too hard to 
boil out the juice could be made into 
vinegar. I used some very excellent 
grape vinegar sent me this Summer to 
put up my spiced peaches, but I do not 
know how it was made, but probably by 
extracting the juice and letting it fer¬ 
ment. CARRIE M. LASH. 


Father: “You have been running 
ahead of your allowance. Richard.” Sou : 
“I know it, dad. I’ve been hoping for a 
long time that the allowance would 
strengthen up enough to overtake me.”— 
Boston Transcript. 




All Your Hogs 

Save a few and be sure of good meat for your 
own use when wanted. You can do it easily with 
the National Giant Smoke House. This wonderful 
Smoke House is portable, can be taken into base¬ 
ment or kitchen and operated same as a stove—or 
on the back porch, or in the yard—anywhere. 

Operates on Bawdust and cobs, and little hickory 
bark for seasoning. Gives you better, sweeter, 
cheaper meat than you’ve ever had before. Hund¬ 
reds in use all over U. S., Canada,Cuba, S. America. 


Positively the best way of smoking hams, bacon, 
sausages. Made in 3 sizes. Guaranteed. 

After smoking meats, use for Store 
house. Absolutely bug and mite proof. 
Keeps meat sweet all summer. Worth Its 
price many times—for this fea ture alone. 


Learn all about this wonderful 1 
new way of smoking meat. Book 
tells when to butcher, about stor¬ 
age, how smoke house operates, 
etc. Also gives prize-winning 
recipes for curing Hams, Bacon, 

Sausages at home. Write for 
book, get low prices today, sure- 

Portable Elevator Mfg. Co. 

258 McCIun St.,Bloomington,Ill. 



Applying lime to the land is 
a quick and economical way 
to improve the soil, and in¬ 
crease the yield. Solvay Pul¬ 
verized Limestone is ground 
to a fineness that makes it 
immediately available. It 
sweetens—it warms, it acts 
as a fertilizer by releasing the plant 
food locked in the soil. Finest 
ground, purest quality, highest 
percentage of carbonates. 

Get our FREE booklet 

About lime and how to 
use it. Free on request. 

506 Milton Ave. 
Syracuse, New York 

s olvay 

*>ui.vtRiii» 1 






Get this Big 
Money - Saving 
Book and sample of BROWN’S 
IZED FENCE, both free, postpaid. 

. See the quality and compare my LOW 
PRICES. Our prices beat all compction 
-our quality we let you prove before you buy. 

LOWEST PRICES—I Pay All Freight Charges 

Don’t buy a rod of fence this year until you get 
New Bargain Fence Book. Snows 160 styles. Also 
Crates, Lawn Fence, Barb Wire—all at startling low pricea. 
A postal brings sample to test and book free, postpaid. 

Department 459 CLEVELAND, OHIO 


Increase a Yield—Lowers Labor Cost 

Pays for itself many times over. One man and team 
opens furrow, drops ssed any distance or depth, drops 
fertilizer (If desired), covers up. marks next row. Au¬ 
tomatic. More accurate, dependable and quicker than 
hand planting:. Furrow opens and seed drops In plnin 
sitfht. Does not injure seed. Has long life, needs few 
repairs. Sizos for 1 or 2 rows. Protect your self aaainat 
uncertain labor and season. Investigate now. 

In Stock 

Mower Co. 

Box 840 
Utica, N.Y. 

When you write advertisers mention 
The Rural New-Yorker and you’ll get 
a quick reply and a “square deal.” See 
guarantee editorial page. 

Duty on Imports from Canada 

Will you tell me what the law is in 
regard to going into Canada and getting 
hay and grain? I mean in wagon-loads, 
for home use. r. l. h. 

New York. 

Such merchandise must be presented at 
the nearest custom house in the United 
States for entry and payment of duty if 
the merchandise is dutiable. If the mer¬ 
chandise does not exceed $100 in value 
no consular invoice is necessary. If it 
does exceed $100 in value a consular in¬ 
voice must he presented at the custom 
house at the time of making entry, or, in 
the absence of such invoice, a bond for its 
production is required. 

The Customs Regulations of 1915 (Ar¬ 
ticle 293) provide that merchandise un¬ 
conditionally free of duty, not exceeding 
$100 in value, and all merchandise where 
the duty does not exceed $10, may be ad¬ 
mitted at frontier ports on informal en¬ 
try, which entry must contain the address 
of the importer and have attached thereto 
a commercial bill covering the merchan¬ 
dise upon which the customs officer will 
make his return. 

If the merchandise is hay it will be 
subject to duty at the rate of $2 per 
ton, under paragraph 205 of the tariff act 
of October 3, 1913; if wheat or corn, it 
will be free of duty under paragraphs 644 
and 465, respectively; however, if such 
wheat contains screenings of commercial 
value, such screenings will be dutiable at 
the rate of 10 per centum ad valorem as a 
non-enumerated, unmanufactured article, 
under paragraph 385; if the merchandise 
is oats, it will be dutiable at six cents per 
bushel of 32 pounds under paragraph 192, 
or, if barley, it will be dutiable at the rate 
of 15 cents per bushel or 48 pounds under 
paragraph 188 of the said tariff act. 

The War Trade Board advises that if 
the merchandise were hay it would be 
covered by general import license PBF 3, 
but that an individual import license 
would be necessary if the merchandise 
were grain. 

Joint Ownership of Property 

Will you explain the difference between 
a joint deed and a single one; how I can 
tell the difference? For instance, if a 
man and wife have a joint deed, how 
should it read? Suppose John Brown 
has a deed which says to John Brown, 
his heirs and assigns forever. What 
kind of a deed is that? J. B. w. 

The joint deed is a deed made by two 
or more individuals as joint owners of 
property. A joint owner is one who owns 
together with one or more beside himself, 
a piece of property, the entire property 
belonging to both, and at the death of 
any of the owners, the title passes on to 
the survivors. The joint ownership or 
joint tenancy must be created expressly 
by a deed. A deed granting property to 
two individuals or more as joint owners 
would expressly so state. That is, ■where¬ 
by granting, etc., to John Brown and 
John Smith jointly, or as joint owners. 

A deed which says to John Brown, his 
heirs, etc., is merely a simple deed grant¬ 
ing an estate in fee simple. The most 
important part to understand in relation 
to joint ownership is that the property 
cannot be disposed of by any one of the 
joint owners. That is, if all of it belongs 
to each one; and- in the event of the 
death of any one of the owners, it passes 
on to the survivors, and the last survivor 
gets the title to the entire piece of prop¬ 

Sale of Cattle 

A sold to B a bunch of cattle for a 
stated sum, receiving $10 down, cattle to 
be delivered on a stated date by A. Be¬ 
fore this date B took two cows from 
bunch. On date of delivery one remain¬ 
ing cow was dead, but A was ready to 
deliver the same, B refusing to accept it. 
Under the circumstances was B lioldeu 
for purchase price? H. c. s. 

New York. 

One would have to know the exact un¬ 
derstanding between the parties to decide 
this question fairly. If it was the under¬ 
standing of the parties that the cattle 
would be delivered at a certain place on 
a day certain, then the contract was not 
executed until the cattle arrived at the 
place on that day; and if in the meantime 
one of them had died, the loss would in 
all probability fall on A, as title to the 
cattle would be in A till they were ten¬ 
dered to B at the time and place stated. 
Tendering or offering to B a dead cow at 
the time and place would not be a fulfill¬ 
ment of the contract It would seem a* if 
both parties waived part of the terms of 
the contract when B took the two cows, 
but undoubtedly both parties intended the 
contract to remain as before in regard to 
the balance of the cows. 

More Work 

—and Fuel 
Costs Less 
than Feed 

I N everyday use on hun¬ 
dreds of farms the Hu¬ 
ber Light Four has 
proved its ability to do work 
economically. Fuel costs 
less than horse feed. The 
Huber costs nothing when 
it is idle. Time that would 
be used to take care of 
horses can be used for work 
that pays. The Huber 
works steadily without rest¬ 
ing time. 

In a competitive demon¬ 
stration in Maryland a Hu¬ 
ber Light Four plowed and 
disced a plot of ground with 
611 gallons of kerosene, 
while nine other tractors 
required from 9 % to 12^ 

The Huber Light Four 
gives ample power for eco¬ 
nomical operation of a buzz 
saw, feed grinder, silage 
cutter, small thresher, corn 
husker and hay baler. 

Here is Huber Economy 

“I plowed 35 acres of blue grass 
sod at a cost in fuel and oil and 
labor at 86 cents an acre — and 
did the best work of any year since 
I’ve been farming.” C. L. Mitch, 
South Vienna, Ohio. 

“It costs $20 a day to work two 
men and twelve horses in our 
neighborhood. We do the same 
amount of work with our light four 
for $10.” W. S. Foster, Gilman, 

“With my Huber Light Four we 
filled six silos in 7^2 days. We 
fill a 16 x 32 Silo on 18 gallons 
of kerosene.” C. O. Malmquist, Road 
City, Minn. 

In the 5,000 pound class; pulls three 
14" plows; 12 h. p. at draw-bar; 
25 h. p. at belt; Waukesha four cyl¬ 
inder motor; perfex radiator; Hyatt 
Roller bearings; burns gasoline, kero¬ 
sene or distillate; center draft; two 
speeds 2)<£ and 4 miles per hour. 

Write for the name of your nearest dealer 
and “Doing the Impossible”, a booklet . 


624 Center Street Established over 40 Years MARION. OHIO 

Canadian Branch: Brandon, Manitoba 


of a 

You might be getting every year a half peck of 
wheat, 3 pecks of potatoes or 5 quarts of corn. 
No matter how green, tough, hard, big or deep- 
rooted the stumps may be, you can get them out 
quickly and cheaply with Atlas Farm Powder. 

‘ Wc blew out big oak stumps easily with Atlas Farm Powder.” 
writes Garacovc Farm, North East, Md. 

“I blasted the stumps on 160 acres with Atlas Farm Powder. The 
largest stumps were split to pieces easily,” writes Fred Laughlin, 
Foster, Mo. 

Ask your dealer for Atlas Farm Powder when 
you have land to clear, trees to plant, etc. Our 
120-page illustrated book, “Better Farming with 
Atlas Farm Powder,” will tell you how simple 
and easy it is to do the blasting. You will find 
the book worth dollars to you. But the coupon 
or a post card will bring it. Write now—before 
you forget. 

ATLAS POWDER CO., Wilmington, Del. 

Dealers everywhere. Magazine stocks near you. 

Wilmington, Del. 

■ Send me “Better Farming with At l 

( Farm Powder." I am interested 
explosives for the purpose before whi< 
I mark “X.” 

□ Stump B luting 

I D Boulder Blasting 
□ Subsoil Blasting 
□ Tree Planting 
□ Ditch Digging 
□ Road Making RN— 



^^.ddress __ 

Mas Farm Fbwdez 

The Safest Explosive; 

The Original Farm Powder 



January 11, 1919 


Money In Sirump Land 


I //. 0. Hunzicker, of Foster, JVash., 
•pulling a 2.',-inch fir stump with 
; deep tap roots out of hard ground. 

% ;i 

Weight, without cable, 171 pounds 

This man made #55 Land 
Worth #200 an acre 
Pulling Bigstumps by hand 

C LEAR your stump land cheaply—no digging, no 
expense for teams or powder. Your own right 
arm on the lever of the “K” Stump Puller can 
rip out any stump that can be pulled with the best inch 
steel cable. I guarantee it. I refer you to U. S. Gov¬ 
ernment officials. I give highest banking references. 


easy lever 

One man with ft *'K” can outpull 16 horses. Works 
by leverage—same principle as a jack. 100 lbs. pull 
on the lever gives a 48-ton pull on the stump. 
Made of best steel—guaranteed against break¬ 
age. Has two speeds—60 ft. per minute for 
hauling In cable or for small stumps—slow 
speed for heavy pulls. Works equally well 
on hillsides or marshes where horses 
cannot go. 

Write me today for special offer and 
free booklet on Land Clearing. 

Walter J. Fitzpatrick 

Box 34 
182 Fifth St. 

^ San Francisco, 

No Stumploo For The © 

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No. 17 Planet Jr. js the highest type of 
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Box 1107 V Philadelphia 

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Grow More Grain ~X_« 

Last year you produced more grain because “Food 
would win the war.” This year, Uncle Sam is 
asking for even greater grain production to help him 
establish a just peace and save the world from 
anarchy. Use a Crown Drill; put every grain where it will make th< 
best growth. The Crown force feed insures accurate seeding—can be 

regulated instantly. Powerful springs hold the discs to their work— 

prevent skips on hard spots. You can sow dent 
corn and kidney beans as well as small grains—no 
cracked kernels. The Crown fertilizer feed will 
handle dry or damp goods—instantly regulated. 
Drills are made in all sizes, both hoe and disc. 

Write at once for 1919 Catalog 

Crown Wheelbarrow Seeders make high-priced clover seed 
go farther. We also make Lime and Fertilizer Sowers and 
Traction Sprayers. 

CROWN MFG. CO, 112 Wayne St, PHELPS, N. Y. 

The Long Island Cabbage Seed Crop 

The growing of cabbage seed is one of 
the most important and most localized of 
the special crops grown on Long Island. 
Not all, but most American seed is raised 
within six miles of Mattituck, which is 
far out on the eastern end of the island, in 
the region where cauliflowers, seed corn 
and mealy potatoes have developed one of 
the most prosperous regions in the coun¬ 
try. The scarcity of food in Europe has 
made Denmark devote itself to food pro¬ 
duction and neglect cabbage seed, raising 
the price and giving an added stimulus 
to American seed production. The area 
is at present about 1,000 acres, and is not 
greatly increasing, because potatoes and 
seed corn can be depended upon for surer 
it smaller profits. 

Cabbage seed is nearly always raised on 
contract, the seedsman furnishing the 
seed and buying the product at a fixed 
price per pound. Cabbage seed is gener¬ 
ally raised on land where early potatoes 
have been secured, and the second year 
may be followed by late “flowers” or 
“sprouts,” making three crops in two 
years. If the variety is that of flat 
Dutch. Danish Ball or other late variety, 
the seed is sown about July 20, hut for 
Wakefield or other early sort the sowing 
may be as late as August 15. Some sow 
in beds and transplant, while others sow 
in the field and thin the plants to a suit¬ 
able distance. If sown in a bed, the plants 
are ready for the field in six weeks, when 
they are set in rows three feet apart, 
and closer than they would be if heads 
were to be marketed. The plants are 
given ordinary care until November 1, 
when they should be starting to head. 
The state of development most desired 
is that in which the shape of the head is 
formed, but before it has become solid. 
At this stage the seedsman sends a repre¬ 
sentative through the field to “rogue” the 
patch by cutting out all that are not of 
the type desired. The plants are now 
ready for the critical period of Winter 
storage. As five rows can be put in one 
trench, back furrows are plowed and the 
young cabbage placed root down, two or 
three abreast and crowded close together. 
As soon as this is done the plow is used 
to throw dirt against and on the cabbages. 
The asparagus ridger carries more dirt 
on the cabbages, and finally a shovel may 
be used to cover thin spots. No straw or 
stalk or marsh bay is used, the bank of 
earth being ample protection in this mild 

As soon as weather permits the laud to 
be worked in the Spring, furrows are 
plowed four feet apart, and preferably 
running east and west. The ridges are 
opened by running a plow along one side 
to expose the cabbages, which are then 
dug out with a fork and thrown into the 
furrows with the head to the west or 
southwest. If the cabbage has a firm 
head it is deeply slashed with a knife to 
let the sprouts get out. A furrow is 
then plowed on to the roots and ordinary 
cultivation given. The object in heading 
the cabbages west is that the high winds 
are likely to come from that way, and if 
the stalks come out toward the west and 
then turn up they will not so easily blow 

By July 15 the seeds are turning light 
red in the pods, indicating proper matur¬ 
ity. The stalks are cut with a cauliflower 
knife and laid down in small bundles like 
grain. When dry they must bo thrashed 
at once. Large growers use a small grain 
separator with less than the usual con¬ 
caves, the machines run slowly. The 
small growers spread a canvas and thrash 
with a flail, as they are easily separated 
from the pods. The seed is at once 
cleaned of pods with a fanning mill and 
spread in a dry place on cloth or paper to 
dry. In two weeks after thrashing it is 
ready to bag and deliver to the seedsman. 

It sounds easy, but the whole course of 
the crop is beset with dangers. Drought 
may prevent the germination of the seed 
or prevent the transplantation to the field. 
Late cabbage worms may injure the young 
cabbages, or a bad season and early Win¬ 
ter like 1017 catch most of them before 
they can be put in trenches. During the 
Winter deep freezing may kill many of 
the stored heads, or rot may spread in 
the trenches to such an extent that the 
grower has only .one-quarter the expected 
acreage. In June an unseasonable north- 

cast gale may blow the blossoming stalks 
fiat, or cabbage maggots cause the most 
promising to die just before maturity. 
Most dreaded of all, wet, foggy weather 
may cause the seeds to sprout in the 
pods, or a heavy thunderstorm on the dry 
pods may scatter half the seeds on the 

If none of these things does happen, a 
good crop may give 1,000 or even 1.200 
pounds of fine seed, but often the yield is 
cut down to 400 or GOO pounds, while 500 
is generally thought to be a fair crop for 
a 10-year average. In the years before 
the war a fair price was 40c to GOc a 
pound, but the war conditions sent the 
price to .$1 in 1017, and this year to se¬ 
cure an adequate supply $1.50 a pound is 
being paid. This seems large to the gen¬ 
eral farmer, but he must consider the cer¬ 
tain large outlay for labor and fertilizer, 
not less than $200 an acre, with the 
chance of a complete loss of crop. Even 
with such prices there is little increase in 
acreage, while the stand-bys, potatoes, 
cauliflowers and seed corn, are steadily 
increasing. h. f. button. 

Seed Potatoes 

On page 1377, in discussing early and 
late potatoes, a correspondent touches a 
vital point in potato growing, that of 
“harking back,” as the boys say, to the 
individual potato. For years my rule was 
to seleet from the best hills, when digging, 
those giving a maximum number of good 
size and minimum of small. Progress was 
slow, variation in yield too great, so I 
began with single specimens of uniform 
weight and shape. The first year yield 
varied, per potato, from 6 lbs. to 1G’4 
lbs. Discarding the lower yields and 
holding closely to type and uniform size, 
I found a marked advance in uniformity 
in production per potato, so much so that 
I am convinced that if growers would but 
follow this systematically a few years 
they would have foundation stock of su¬ 
perior value and greatly increased power 
of resistance to disease. The problem is 
not so much one of variety as health and 
vigor, the result of careful selection. Here 
the foundation must be the individual 
seed, and on this we can build what we 
please, provided we maintain a favorable 
environment. That this varies greatly 
with different strains of this same variety 
is a fact to be recognized when seeking 
largest production. For this reason it 
pays to lay the foundation by the single- 
specimen test, and then seek that har¬ 
mony of Conditions which will tend to give 
best returns. 

The same principle holds with corn, 
and all crops; yes, certainly with our 
fruit trees. It does not pay to fight na¬ 
ture, and wise is he who seeks and finds 
the right environment for his crops ahd 
establishes that harmony which leads to¬ 
wards prosperity. c. m. twitciiell. 

Fertility for Lawn 

I have recently moved into a new 
house; the yard has been filled so that 
the soil is not extra good and I want to 
get grass started in the Spring. I have 
had a coat of manure put on the yard, 
and was going to lime it, but a friend 
told me that I should not use the lime 
along with the manure. I knew that hen 
manure or sheep manure should not be 
used with the lime, but the manure that 
I have is from horses. Should I use the 
lime with the horse manure, and if so 
would it be better to put it on now or 
wait until Spring? B. N. M. 

Charleston, W. Va. 

We think this soil needs both lime and 
manure, and we should use both. It is 
true that when lime is mixed with any 
kind of manure, or most forms of organic 
matter, a certain amount of ammonia is 
set free. Scatter lime in a henhouse or 
where hen manure is stored, and you can 
quickly smell the ammonia, when this 
mixture is made. Above ground the am¬ 
monia thus set free is lost, as it escapes 
into the air as a gas. When the lime and 
manure are mixed together in the soil 
there is no loss. While much the same 
chemical action may take place the am¬ 
monia is held in the soil and not, as in 
the other case, lost in the air. Our plan 
would be tn give that soil a good coat of 
manure in the Spring, and spade it well 
into the ground. Then scatter on the 
lime and rake it well into the upper soil. 
It will also pay you to use a quantity of 
phosphate or boue along with the lime 
and manure. 



Warm rooms to get up in, a warm room for breakfast, warm 
rooms all day long for the women folk and children and a 
warm room to retire in—without fuss or muss, with just one 
fire to tend. 

Make no mistake—all “pipeless furnaces” are not NEW 
IDEA furnaces. They haven’t the patented exclusive NEW 
IDEA features that make this furnace a real investment. They 
haven’t the frameless feed door construction that never becomes 

loose or leaks dust, smoke, or gas; the hot blast that saves fuel; 
the smoke curtain; or the cup joints that mean added years 
of life. They haven’t the wonderfully scientific radiator that 
makes every possible unit of heat in the fuel useful. They 
haven’t these features because they aren’t made—as is the 
NEW IDEA—by the company that has specialized for over 
30 years and has developed such leaders in their fields as the 
Imperial Steam and Hot Water Boilers, the Imperial Super- 
Smokeless Boilers and the Superior Warm Air Heater. 

Don’t Wait! Enjoy the NEW IDEA This Winter 

It only takes a day to install the NEW IDEA. There is only one 
hole to cut. No pipes; no alterations. The cost is but little more than 
for one good stove. Burns coal, coke, wood or gas. 

Let us tell you where you can see the NEW IDEA in operation. 
Write TODAY for catalogue and complete information. Our heating 
engineers are at your service; their advice is absolutely free. 

Utica Heater Company, Box 50, Utica, N. Y. 

Some good territory is still open for selling agents. 

Note These 
NEW IDEA Features 

Frameless feed door 

Cup-jointed construction 

Smoke curtain 

Two-piece firepot 

One-piece ash pit 

Patented non-clinker grate 

Direct connected cleanout 

Hot blast feed door 

Large water pan 

Gas- and dust-tight radiator 

Burns hard coal, soft coal, wood or gas 

NEW IDEA Pipe less Furnace 

“The One You’ve Heard So Much About” 

Right Now 
You Can Have 
Every Room 

EVERY Room Heated 
The New 

Not next winter but NOW, you can have 
even, comfortable, healthful heat in every 
room of your house. Think of it! No 
stuffy, air-less rooms; no chilly cheerless 
rooms. Just solid comfort—an abundance 
of fresh, tempered, warm air in every 
nook and cranny—from one 



Countrywide Produce Situation 

Since the beginning of the year ship¬ 
ments have been steadily shrinking as 
compared with the December movement. 
Well below 1,000 cars of leading native 
fruits and vegetables moving in daily, but 
this amount is more than double the rate 
in early January of last year. Most, lines 
are clearing up in a fairly satisfactory 
way. Prices, compared with a year ago, 
are about 10 per cent lower for potatoes, 
one-third lower for onions, nearly one- 
half lower for cabbage and from one-sev¬ 
enth to over one-third lower for field 
beaus. Apples are one-fourth higher this 
season. Cranberries and celery, lately, 
have been much higher than a year ago. 


Some improvement in the potato mar¬ 
ket is observed in the North Central 
States, where the country’s greatest pro¬ 
ducing sections are being rapidly cleared 
up. and prices show disposition to advance 
in such markets as Chicago, S.t Paul and 
Minneapolis. No special change is noticed 
in such markets as Chicago, St. Paul and 
or in the Eastern and Southern States. 
In general, the wholesale prices East, 
South and the Middle West range from 
$2 to $2.60 per 100 lbs. Growers are get¬ 
ting anywhere from about $1 in Colorado 
and Idaho to nearly $2 in Maine and 
New York State. 

The statements on potato shipping sit¬ 
uation and markets, recently given over 
my initials, should be revised and brought 
to* date by the statement that: The stock 
of potatoes available for carlot shipment, 
as reckoned on the basis of the previous 
season’s shipping movement as compared 
with the total crop, is apparently only 
from one-half to five-eighths the amount 
waiting to be shipped at this time last 
year. It should be noted in this connec¬ 
tion that the stock of potatoes already 
shipped but still in the hands of_ the 
dealers, unsold, is estimated 10 to 15 per 
cent more than a year ago, but the gain 
in this report does not represent an amount 
large enough to be of permanent import¬ 
ance compared with the stock unshipped. 
The increase in dealers’ hands equals per¬ 
haps about a week’s total shipments at 
average rate. The statement of stock yet 
to be shipped must be taken with reserve. 
Last year more potatoes would have been 
shipped if prices had kept up. As it was 
many went to starch factories and to the 
live stock. This year, if prices make it 
worth while, it would not be surprising if 
as many potatoes finally came out as last 
season. In other words, there are nearly 
always plenty of potatoes if the prices 
warrant shipment. The practical con¬ 
clusion is that present conditions point 
to steady markets without a slump such 
as occurred last Spring. It will need 
fairly decent prices to bring out potatoes 
enough to meet the country’s require¬ 


A more satisfactory place seems to be 
working out for onions. The markets are 
slow, but seem able to handle the mod¬ 
erate amounts shipped, and prices do not 
show enough average difference from week 
to week. Growers receive anywhere from 
60c per 100 lbs. for lower grades in Cen¬ 
tral California to $1.75 for best grades 
at Connecticut Valley shipping points. 
Prices in the big cities range from $1.25 
to $2. but not much choice stock seems to 
be selling below $1.50. The amount in 
commercial storage appears to be light. 
Texas onions are not very likely to com¬ 
pete very severely at the end of the sea¬ 
son, owing to the small acreage planted 
down there. 

Cabbage is moving slowly, but at tol¬ 
erably steady prices, mostly $20 to $25 
per ton in bulk. 


Seldom in recent years has the stock of 
Eastern apples moved in such a satisfac¬ 
tory manner. It appears that about nine- 
tenths of the Baldwins in common storage 
have been shipped in Western New York. 
This means that the cold storage stock 
will come out rapidly, and it is hard to 
see anything but high prices the rest of 
season for stock of good keeping quality. 
Northwestern boxed apples are reported 
not keeping well, and for that reason they 
have not been so strong in city markets 
as barreled Eastern stock, although all 
apples average say 25 per cent higher 
than a year ago. 


The lack of demand for beans is the 
sorest spot on the market just now. 
Western growers have a big crop, some 
of it damaged by weather conditions, and 
all of it had to be moved except for a few 
by Government orders for export. The 
growers eomplair^ that the crop cost them 
a great deal more to produce than the one 
of the year preceding, while the price this 
year is 10 to 25 per cent lower, and few 
buyers at that. The various Government 
restrictions on profits of middlemen are 
said to have made dealers unwilling to 
buy and hold the stock, knowing that 
they could not make much anyhow, while 
they might lose a great deal. Or it may 
be the stock of old beans left over and the 
offering of low-priced foreign beans, which 
is at the bottom of the prevailing dull¬ 
ness. The export demand seems to be the 
only hope, together with a campaign to 
urge less eating of meat and more of the 
almost equally nourishing baked, beans. 
Hand picked white beans sell at $6.50 to 
$11 per 100 lbs. in leading city wholesale 
market centers. 

Celery reached sensational levels of $12 
to $15 ‘per crate in the rough at New 

York and m one or two other markets. 
Cranberries hold the surprising figures of 
$16 to $20 for best stock, and lettuce ad¬ 
vanced, owing to a freeze in California. 

g. B. F. 

Buffalo Markets 

The advancing Winter season finds a 
good display of all sorts of green stuff in 
the city markets and the general abund¬ 
ance keeps most of them at moderate 
prices, especially when compared with 
other things. Potatoes have advanced a 
few cents, both in city and country, and 
apples are stiff in price, being now quoted 
by the bushel mostly. Consumers com¬ 
plain that while apples were so plenty 
that they could not all be gathered the 
retail price is high. Butter remains 
about at the top, but eggs show signs of 
sagging. Poultry would have gone down 
if the receipts after Christmas had not 
been light. The promised increase of pork 
soon may affect poultry. Live fowls are 
quoted in the country as low as 22c. 

Potatoes are $1 to $1.30 per bu. and 
sweets $2.40 to $2.80 per hamper. Apples 
$1.75 to $2.25 for best and 75c for wind¬ 
falls. Onions are easy at 60 to 95c. 
Beans are dull, but not declining, at $6.90 
to $7.S0 per bu. It will take another crop 
to reduce them, and that the Western 
New York farmer will hardly undertake, 
after four failures. 

Vegetables are steady in price at $1.25 
to $1.50 per 100 lbs. for cabbage and the 
same for Winter squash. Seldom is either 
so low. Turnips at 50 to 75c per bu., 
with white inclined to be highest, are also 
low. String beans are $3 to $5.50; let¬ 
tuce. $2.35 to $3, both per hamper. Beets, 
75 to S5c; carrots, 50 to 75c; parsnips. 
$1.25 to $1.40; spinach, 75c to $1, all 

per bu.; Brussels sprouts, plenty at 15 
to 20c per qt.; celery, 70c to $1.30, for 
small to large bunch; Iceberg lettuce. 
$3.50 per crate; endive, 20c per lb.; 
cucumbers, $4 per doz.; peppers, $5.50 to 
$6 per case. 

Southern and other fancy fruits are 
quiet at $5 to $7 for oranges; $4.50 to 
$5.50 for lemons; $2.50 to $6 for grape¬ 
fruit. all per box; $1 per 100 for limes; 
$6.50 to $8 for pineapples, per box. 
Cranberries are lower, at $8 to $8.50 per 
bbl.; grapes, $2.25 per 24-lb. box of Cali¬ 
fornia Malagas. 

Butter is weak, but not declining, at 
67 to 72c for creamery; 56 to 62c for 
dairy; 50 to 61c for crocks, and 42 to 45c 
for common. Cheese is steady at 36 to 
38c for best full cream; 40c for brick; 
34 to 35c for limburger. Eggs are quiet 
at 67 to 76c for hennery ; 65 and 67c for 
candled and 55 to 56c for storage. 

Poultry is slow at 41 to 45c for dressed 
turkey; 26 to 35c for dressed fowl or 
chicken; 26 to 27c for old roosters; 25 
to 32c for geese and 40 to 45c for ducks. 
Live geese and ducks are about the same 
as dressed; other fowls about 3c higher 
for dressed. Rabbits are 60 to 75c for 
cottontails and $1.25 to $1.50 for jacks, 
per pair. 

Maple sugar is no longer quoted, but 
honey is 32 to 35c for fancy and 28 to 
30c for dark, per lb., extracted; 26 to 2Sc 
for comb. Market quiet. j. w. c. 

The American Pomological Society 

The report of the Boston meeting, is¬ 
sued this month, will be excellently illus¬ 
trated and will contain several papers of 
particular value to both amateur and pro¬ 
fessional pomologists. The regular mem¬ 
bership fee for the biennial period is $2; 

January 11, 1910 

for life. $25; for associate societies, $10 
and $5 respectively. Further information 
upon the subject of the society and its 
program of activities may be procured by 
addressing the Secretary. 2033 Park Road. 
Washington. D. C. The next meeting 
probably will be held in some Eastern 
center the latter part of 1919. It is ex¬ 
pected that New 7 York, Pennsylvania. 
Delaware, Maryland and the District of 
Columbia will be in the race for the con¬ 
vention. A feature of the 1919 session 
will be another student judging contest. 
Committees in charge of the several 
phases of the society work will soon be 
announced; in particular will an an¬ 
nouncement be made of the committee in 
charge of the score card, judging contest, 
exhibits, and of the State vice-presidents, 
who, now being elected in many cases un¬ 
der the new membership plan, will be 
held as the State center-posts around 
which the activities of the American Po¬ 
mological Society in each State will fo¬ 
cus, thereby making numerous locally 
organized agencies for the encouragement 
and promotion of our varied national 
pomological interests. These centers will 
also permit of making better arrange¬ 
ments for transportation of delegates and 
members to the meetings; of arranging 
for exhibits; of promoting the publicity 
work of the society ; of advancing the in¬ 
terests of district, State and national 
judging contests. All members receive a 
copy of the new report. 

Newedd : “Did you run short of flour, 
Helen? The pie crust doesn’t half cover 
the pie.” Mrs. Newedd : “I know', dear; 
your mother told me that you like your 
pie crust very short.”—Louisville Courier- 


The Plow With 


Grey Back 



Walking Plow 


Moline Chilled Moldboards are guaranteed 
to have a grey back and as hard a face as any 
other chilled moldboard. 

We will replace, free of charge f. o. b. fac¬ 
tory or branch house, on receipt of broken 
parts, any Moline Chilled Moldboard broken 
in actual field use. 

We do not guarantee against breakage in transit. 


W HEN you buy a Moline Chilled Plow you get 
the greatest possible value for your money. 
Moline Chilled Moldboards are warranted against 
breakage No other chilled plows carry such a guaran¬ 
tee. The grey back on every Moline Chilled Moldboard 
is soft and tough and adds great strength, yet the face 
is extremely hard and takes a fine polish. 

The reason we can do this is because we built a new 
factory in the East with modern equipment which en¬ 
abled us to adopt the newest and best methods of con¬ 
struction. We had a single and unswerving purpose—it 
was to build the most practical chilled plows that could 
be produced, in order to uphold our world-wide repu¬ 
tation as plow builders. 

As a result, Moline Chilled Plows combine all the 
features of modern plows, without any of the character¬ 
istics which have proven to be of disadvantage. Moline 
Chilled Plows have established a new standard. 

Not only in material but in design, shape, balance, 
ease of handling and light draft you will find in Moline 
Chilled Plows just what you desire most. 

* * * 

Th'e Moline Two-Way Sulky is exceptionally well 
adapted to hillside work. It is very light and will plow 
deeper than any other two-way plow. Read what H. A. 
Russell of the Cranfield Farm, Millbrook, N. Y., says: 

I must say that the Moline Two-Way Sulky gave very good 
satisfaction; it was in a field that 1 gave up with a walking plow and 
said that no man could plow. We used three horses and pulled 
out stones as large as a half bushel basket. 1 also hooked on stone 
that it would take two men to roll on a stone boat, and did not break 
n ?’ , e plowed about seven acres; some of it was on a steep 
hill where I thought no sulky plow would work. The field had 
been plowed at 12 years ago and was grown up with bushes." 

* * * 

In addition to these plows we build a complete line of horse and 
tractor plows with chilled or steel bottoms. If you need a plow of 
any description get a Moline. See your Moline dealer or write for 
a catalog, stating kind of plow desired. Address Dept. 19. 


Two Way 






Skunk as a Poultry Thief 

I differ somewhat, in regard to a skunk, 
with Frederick Megill, page 1377. I am 
on a farm with my father, and as a side 
line had two geese and a gander. From 
them I managed to save seven goslings, 
and had them in fine shape. I was think¬ 
ing what a nice dinner they would make 
for me and some of my friends for 
Thanksgiving and Christmas. But my 
friends or I never enjoyed those dinners, 
for about the 12th of September a female 
skunk came one night and took four of 
the goslings. The next night I put them 
in another place. But Mrs. Skunk was 
on her job, for she got the other three. 
Then the following night I put the three 
old ones in the coop where the skunk got 
the first four, and set some traps around 
the coop, and about three o’clock in the 
morning my Airedale pup began to bark, 
and upon going to my traps found Mrs. 
Skunk. So since that time I have had 
no use for a skunk. ’ p. a. 

Chazy, N. Y. 

Mending a Leaky Tank 

I would like to give D'. W. I., page 
1381, my experience with an attic tank. 
Our tank is 44 inches long, 28 inches 
wide and 26 inches deep. It is copper, 
and was put in 10 years ago last Fall. 
In less than four years it began to leak. 
I tried having it soldered without much 
success. I was then advised to paint the 
inside with cement and fine flour, two 
parts cement to one of flour. This was 
applied with a stiff brush, and was all 
right for about two years, when it took 
to leaking again. I then took the same 
preparation, wetted it to form a thick 
paste, and applied a very thin coat with 
a trowel. It has been perfectly tight 
since this last application. L. F. GUAY. 


Pasturing Hogs in Peach Orchard 

Would it be a good plan to pasture 
hogs in a peach orchard? L. u. M. 


We did not find it so with low-headed 
trees. The hogs root and dig around the 
trunks of the trees, hunting for grubs 
and borers. They gnaw and break the 
lower branches. With high-headed trees 
you can keep the hogs away by driving 
three stout stakes around the tree and 
stringing three or four turns of barbed 
wire around them. That keeps the hogs 
from rubbing, but they dig too much and 
will get a good share of the fruit. We 
have seen a hog rear on his hind legs, get 
a limb in his mouth and shake the fruit 
down. Hogs are useful in orchards of 
older apple trees, well staked, but we 
should keep them out of peach orchards. 

Painting Faded Matting 

Tell W. M. W., whose inquiry is on page 
1340, that faded matting can be painted 
with ordinary house paint. I had a rug of 
this material which was faded and spotted. 
I painted it a dark green and used it on 
the porch. It proved to be very satisfac¬ 
tory, and wore remarkably well consid¬ 
ering the wear and tear it had been given 
before I painted it. B. H. p. 


Answering the request for experience 
on page 1349, I would like to tell W. M. 
W. how we dressed over a faded erex 
matting for our piazza floor. My hus¬ 
band nailed the matting to the south 
side of the barn. I got some of the green 
paint often used on blinds. This I di¬ 
luted with turpentine and applied with a 
common paint brush to the matting. It 
was quickly absorbed; a second coat was 
needed, and a third would have been even 
better. However, it looks well and has 
not faded during the Summer. F. n. p. 


Country Hide Packer Hide 

Good hides make your cattle 
worth more money 

Leather tanners are very careful about 
the hides they buy. 

They want hides that are as nearly 
perfect as possible — hides that are 
without cuts and scores, and that are 
properly cured. 

There are two classes of hides on the 
market—“country hides” and “packer 

Country hides are those taken off by 
small butchers and farmers. Packer 
hides are those taken off by the packers. 

* * * 

To take a hide off correctly is not easy. 

Unless great skill is used the hide will 
be marred by cuts and scores. 

The packers have made a careful study 
of hides. They have trained experts 
who do nothing else but take them off. 

Hence, packer hides have few cuts 
and scores, and are uniformly and 
properly cured. 

Swift & Company sorts its cured hides 
into grades or classes, according to qual¬ 
ity and to the purposes for which they 
are best adapted. 

Some country hides are good; others 
are very poor. 

They usually have cuts and scores and 
are not cured so well. Some have also 
begun to deteriorate because of being 
held too long. Besides, they cannot be 

Swift & Company, U.S.A. 

A nation-wide organization owned by more than 23,000 stockholders 



graded so uniformly. In the same batch 
there are both good and poor hides. 

Because of this superiority of packer 
hides, tanners pay from two to five cents 
a pound more for them. If country 
hides were as good, tanners would gladly 
pay an equal price. 

This increased value of packer hides 
means that you get for your cattle from 
$1 to $3 or more per head, additional. 

Swift & Company does not deal in coun¬ 
try hides at all, and has no interest in 
their purchase or sale. It is the hide 
dealers and tanners who notice the differ¬ 
ence in quality, and pay accordingly. 

Swift & Company uses skill in taking 
off hides, not because it wants to see 
country hides bring lower prices—but 
because it is part of its policy to produce 
articles of the highest quality. 

* * * 

This is only one way the packer has 
increased the value of your cattle. Many 
other by-products have been improved 
in a similar way. 

Swift & Company is constantly on the 
lookout for new ways to improve the 
value of its products, and hence to make 
your cattle worth more money to you. 

When Swift & Company says that its 
profit on beef averages yi of a cent a 
pound, this includes the profit from the 
sale of hides. 

Acorns for Hogs 

Your article on acorns on page 1398 is 
of interest to me, as I have been trying 
English oak acorns in a feeding experiment 
on hogs the past Fall. Many years ago a 
ship-builder living in Duxbury, Mass., in¬ 
troduced the English oak, which became 
acclimated and is well established 
throughout the town. It comes into bear¬ 
ing when 10 to 15 years old, is a very 
heavy cropper, and bears a large, sweet 
acorn that makes a very good food for 
hogs, the animals preferring these acorns 
to corn. From a tree 12 feet high and 
eight inches in diameter I picked up in 
an hour 16 quarts of acorns. As the 
trees branch out quite close to the ground 
I was able to begin picking before the 
acorns were ripe. With the first frost 
they began to fall, and with very little 
time spent in the work I secured from 
day to day over five bushels which I fed 
to the hogs and brought them forward rap¬ 
idly. Care must be taken to feed some¬ 
thing laxative, like apples and stock feed, 
or constipation sets in, especially where 
hogs are confined. Imagine an acre of 
these trees surrounded by a 4-ft. fence. 
The trees, 15 to 20 years old, should 
yield from that time on for 50 to 100 
years food enough to carry a dozen hogs 
through the fattening season from Sep¬ 
tember 15 to November 15 at hardly any 
other expense to the owner. The oak tree 
itself is superior in every way to our red 
oak, the wood being heavier, and as good 
grain as our white oak. c. B. 

Dorchester, Mass. 

A Worthy New Member 

of the Famous 
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For more than 40 years “ACME” Tillage Tools have helped to 
make the American farmer the world’s most efficient producer of 
food stuffs. The best features in standard disc harrow construc¬ 
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The discs are so shaped as to enter the ground 
with a clean cut. The direct thrust of the axles 
is taken up on dust guarded ball bearings instead 
ofcast bumpers. These features make the draft 
light. Offset gangs do away with the middle 
ridge so objectionable to the careful farmer. 

1 he gangs can be set independently—the 
driver can hold the tool to its work on 
steep hillsides. Pressure 
spnngs make the discs “bite 
in” and prevent skipping of 
low spots. 

"Acme” Disc Harrow: 
Fore trucks, tongue or 
combination ofboth 
as desired. 
8 sizes, 
using two, 
three or four 


Order early so as to 
secure a full season’s 
use. Write today for 
circular and prices. 

r=L i Duane H. Nash Inc., *4i Elm St„ Millington. K. J. 

j With this wonderful new Lib- 
I bey Automatic Water Bowl. 

' Each bowl controls own water 
supply. Animal moves lever, 
ropening water valve, when it 
(starts to drink. Lever 
I swings back closing valve 
when animal stops drinking. 
No float tank required. Bowls 
may be put at different heights 
or in any stall or pen. Cannot 

overflow; cannot get out of order; 
. almost no water left in bowl. Most 

sanitary bowl ever sold. Prevents spread of con¬ 
tagious diseases. Increased milk yield quickly 
pays back cost. Saves labor; saves 
feed. Write today. If interested in 
Stanchions, Stalls, Carriers, etc., 
ask for General Catalog. Sent free. 


280 Marion St. Oshkosh, WIs. 


4in. to S ft. Through 
1 ll*M With a Folding h..l. 9 MEN With a 
A lYldll Sawing Machine DcdlO C Cross-cut Saw 
5 to 9 cords daily is the usual average for one man 

Our 1919 Model Machine saws faster, runs easier and wlB 
last longer than ever. Adjusted in a minute to suit a 
12 -year-old boy or strongest man. Ask for catalog Nok 
MC8 and low price. First order gets agency. 

Folding Sawing Mach. Co., 161W. Haniaoa St., Chicago. lH 



You Can Now Get a Pair! 

The trenches in Flanders are empty 
and it is no longer necessary to keep sup¬ 
plying the boys “over there” with U. S. 
“Protected” rubber boots. 

So, instead of making trench boots al¬ 
most exclusively as we have been doing, 
we have reverted to our before-the-war 
manufacturing program, and will soon 
make up the shortage that exists in the 
supply of heavy-service, double-duty 
U. S. “Protected” rubber footwear. 

Uncle Sam has furnished “our boys” 
with the best rubber boots that money 
can buy, and, in both the Army and Navy, 
there probably are as many U. S. “Pro¬ 
tected” rubber boots as all other brands 

Outdoor workers everywhere recog¬ 
nize the dollar-for-dollar value of “U. S.” 
quality. It means rubber boots of the 
sturdiest construction, reinforced where 
the wear is greatest, yet entirely com¬ 
fortable. Longer wear insures saving of 

Every pair of U. S. “Protected” rubber 
boots bears the “U. S. Seal”—trade mark 
tie largest rubber manufacturer in the 
world. Look for it. It is your protection. 

United States Rubber Company 

New York 

illiilttuilii ifflobtwe arl 

The Lowly Skunk Again 

A correspondent recently stated in these 
columns that a skunk can throw out ite 
scent only when its tail is raised until it 
forms a right angle witij its back. That 
that is the normal action of his skunkship 
I will agree. However, that a skunk can 
perform his defensive function without 
producing the aforesaid angle 1 know from 
observation, and my son knows from per¬ 
sonal experience. It was an interesting 
little episode while it lasted. 

A family of skunklets had wandered 
out from under my barn early in the Sum¬ 
mer and my boy and I had captured and 
confined them in a pen. They were in¬ 
teresting little fellows, and. having no 
fear, were harmless to handle. As Fall 
approached, my son, in his early ’teens, 
became ambitious to start a skunk farm. 
The live tame ones would do for a starter, 
and others could be caught and added to 
the number. Traps were set, and when 
the first one was caught the kid bravely 
announced his intention of testing the 
commonly accepted saying that a skunk is 
harmless if held by the tail. The victim 
was pulled from the hole and the young 
man got a firm hold on the tail. So far 
so good. I removed the trap from a front 
foot and —whisk. I threw myself over 

A Sociable Little Skunlc 

backwards and escaped while the disre¬ 
spectful kid laughed, until the skunk shot 
again and hit him squarely in the face. 
It was then my turn to laugh. Did IV I 
did. The boy was game and held onto 
that tail till he had dropped* it and its 
owner over the fence with its tame rela¬ 
tives. I did not keep count of the times 
that the skunk used its battery, but it 
literally emptied its scent sacs. The old 
saying is not true. 

At a recent exhibit of industries, war 
and otherwise, a local manufacturer of 
brushes had an interesting display of his 
products. The various animal and vege¬ 
table fibers used in making brushes were 
attractively shown. The courteous at¬ 
tendant kindly answered my many ques¬ 
tion born of ignorance of the brush busi¬ 
ness. A black and white bundle proved 
to be composed of skunk hairs, evidently 
from the tail, and I learned that they are 
used in the inside of badger shaving 
brushes. I was told that there is not 
badger hair enough to go around. Count 
one more for the skunk. w. H. ri. 

Some Causes of Asthma 

Referring to “Cures for Asthma,” page 
1234, I think I should point out one of 
the hidden causes my wife and I have dis¬ 
covered of this distressing malady. My 
wife is not particularly subject to the 
disease but, beginning several years ago, 
she would have moderate attacks at ir¬ 
regular periods, always beginning in 
rather violent form, and gradually sub¬ 
siding during two or three days. 

We finally associated these attacks 
with either of two tasks in the round of 
household duties; namely, sweeping a 
slightly used attic or dusting and arrang¬ 
ing our stock of books, magazines, pam¬ 
phlets and bulletins. This having been 
ascertained. I took up these two tasks my¬ 
self. Not being subject to the disease, I 
suffered no ill effects, but was surprised 
to find just the slightest hint of irritation 
in the respiratory organs, hardly enough 
to notice under ordinary circumstances; 
but this was not ordinary, and it raised 
the question, why? After studying the 
problem from every angle, I could find 
only one probable solution, which was 
that the little household pest variously 
known as silverfish, silver louse, silver 
witch, sugarfish, silver moth, and prob¬ 

January 11, 1019 

ably some other local names in various 
parts of the country, was at the bottom of 
the trouble. In this particular case they 
had established themselves in some num¬ 
bers between the shingles of the roof, 
living, apparently, on wood fiber, and 
where it seemed impossible to extermi¬ 
nate them. Also they had established 
themselves in limited numbers among the 
books and pamphlets, and in an attempt 
to exterminate them here the books were 
gone over at short intervals; such search 
might result in the capture of from one 
or two to a dozen. Rut how, you ask, can 
the presence of a few little insects of one 
kind or another bring on such a serious 
physical disturbance as asthma? 

Anyone who has elosely observed these 
quick little creatures, and they are widely 
distributed, probably over the whole coun¬ 
try, will remember that not only have 
they a silvery, metallic appearance, but 
that this metallic appearing covering 
comes off at a touch in the form of minute 
scales or powder. It is possible that these 
scales are being shed constantly in the 
course of their existence. At any rate, 
sweepings or dust collected where even a 
limited number of these insects are known 
to intrude, if examined in sunlight, will 
be found to contain these minute shiny 
particles, and from the very nature of 
origin these particles are probably ex¬ 
tremely light, floating in the air with the 
slightest disturbance. Thus they would 
be inhaled, cause irritation of the'respira¬ 
tory tracts and become one of the incite¬ 
ments to asthma, to those who are pre¬ 
disposed to the malady. 

There may or may not be error in some 
of the foregoing conclusions; but this is 
certain, that since we have carried ex¬ 
termination as far as possible and I at¬ 
tend to dusting where a few of the insects 
still may lurk, my wife has been immune 
from the dreaded attacks. 

I have before me Farmers Bulletin. No 
6S1. United States Department of Agri¬ 
culture. entitled “The Silverfish; an In¬ 
jurious Household Insect.” I quote two 
sentences to aid in identification : “The 
silverfish is often one of the most trouble¬ 
some enemies of books, papers, card labels 
in museums and starched clothes, and oc- 
casionally of stored food substances. * * * 
On account of its always shunning the 
light and its ability to run very rapidly to 
places of concealment it is not often seen, 
and is most difficult to capture, and being 
clothed with smooth, glistening scales it 
will slip from between the fingers, and is 
almost impossible to secure without crush¬ 
ing or damaging.” As to remedies, the 
bulletin suggests bits of cardboard spread 
with starch paste poisoned with arsenic. 
Personally we have not been successful 
with that combination, but have found 
bits of loosely-woven cotton goods like 
cheesecloth, heavily starched with starch 
poisoned with arsenate of lead, very ef¬ 
fective. The bits of cloth are, of course, 
dried after starching and then sequestered 
in dark places frequented by the “moths.” 
I might add that where insects have 
choice of foods, as with poison baits, ar¬ 
senate of lead is the most satisfactory 
poison 1 have ever used. 

Florida. d. l. iiartman. 

Skin Disease 

I have a form of what is called scabies, 
a small insect that is all over my body. 
I have expended nearly $400 upon physi¬ 
cians and various proprietary remedies; 
have used all sorts of washes from kero¬ 
sene to powder solution, but get no relief. 

New York. j. c. 

If. as you say, you have expended 
nearly .$400 upon physicians and for pro¬ 
prietary remedies, without help, you can 
readily see the futility of anyone prescrib¬ 
ing for you who has never seen you and 
can know nothing of your trouble other 
than what you are able to tell him. The 
first essential in treatment is correct 
diagnosis, and no reputable physician 
would even attempt to make a diagnosis 
of a possibly obscure trouble without 
seeing the patient. Common honesty 
woifld forbid that. You say that you 
have “a form” of what is called scabies. 
As scabies is but one affection with one 
cause, there are no forms of it other than 
plain scabies. Either you are afflicted 
with scabies or you are not. You can 
readily see the necessity of a correct 
diagnosis before treatment is instituted. 
Granting, however, that, the itch mite is 
responsible for your trouble and that you 
consequently have scabies to contend 
with, you should he able to rid yourself 
of it by scrubbing the affected parts with 
hot water and soap, using a coarse towel 
to remove the scurf skin over the female 
mite in her burrow. Sulphur ointment, 
should then be well rubbed in aud the 
procedure should be repeated at intervals 
until a cure is effected. To prevent rein¬ 
fection. boil all towels after using and 
give the underclothing worn the same 
treatment. Your trouble may have been 
that you have not guarded against rein¬ 
fection after treatment. The inite is not 
ordinarily difficult to dispose of. 

M. B. D. 

“Gimme a dollar’s worth of steak,” 
.said the customer. The butcher wrapped 
it up. “How much?” asked the cus¬ 
tomer. “.$4.90,” said the butcher.—Buf¬ 
falo Express. 

“Joiix.” said his wife, “do you spell 
‘graphic’ with one T or two?” “Well, 
my dear, you may as well use two if you 
are going to use any.”—Boston Tran¬ 



ACampaign to Protect You in BuyingY ourW atch 


alph Waldo Emerson, 

speaking in one of his essays 
of a distinguished man, said: 
“He is put together like a 
Waltham Watch.” 

This remarkable tribute to Waltham 
greatness is the result of the genius of 
many men whose inventive faculties 
have been concentrated for nearly 
three-quarters of a century to make it 
the wonderful time-keeping device it is. 

The buying of a watch is an investment 
in time-keeping. And time is the most 
valuable possession of man. 

You purchase a watch for one thing— 
to keep correct time for you—to tell 
it to you with dependability at any 
moment of the day or night. 

A good watch, therefore, must have 
something more than good looks — it 
must have good “works.” 

Millions of people imagine that the “ best ” watch 
is made abroad — or, at any rate, that its works 
are imported from there. 

Yet, in competitive horological tests at the world’s 
great Exposi ms, Waltham has not only defeated 
these watches of foreign origin, but all other 
watches as well. 

In a series of advertisements we are going to 
show Americans that there is a watch built in 
the United States whose time-keeping mecha¬ 
nism is more trustworthy than those of foreign 
make, — 

A watch that is easily and reasonably repaired 
because its parts are standardized,— 

Duane H. Church, famous inventor who filled the great shops at IValtham, 
Massachusetts, with exclusive Watch-making machinery that performs miracles 
of accurate and delicate work which the human hand could never equal. 

A watch that represents American leader¬ 
ship in mechanical skill,— 

A watch that has revolutionized the art of 
watch making and assured accurate and 
dependable time-keeping. 

We are going to take you through the 
“works” of a Waltham — lay bare those 
hidden superiorities which have led the 
horological experts of the greatest nations 
to choose Waltham as the watch for the 
use of their government railroads. 

When you have finished reading these 
advertisements, which will appear regularly 
in the leading magazines, you will walk up 
to your jeweler’s counter and demand the 
watch you want — because you will know 
how it is built and why it is superior to the 
foreign watch. 

Look for these advertisements. Read them. 





January 11, 19io 

Constant Clean Skimming 
with Fixed Feed Separators 

Even if you had the arm of a Hercules you 
could not make fixed feed separators skim 
clean 365 days in the year. But a ten year old boy, 
with practically no effort, can get every bit of 
butterfat with a Sharpies Suction-feed Separator. 
With a Sharpies, it is not a question of strength or 
guesswork, as no matter how you turn, the Sharpies 
skims clean. 



Cream separator 


Skims clean at any speed 


The Sharpies is more than a ma¬ 
chine—it is a simple scientific 
principle that no other separator 
in the world can use. It is the 
only principle ever invented that 
absolutely guarantees clean skim¬ 
ming at all speeds and at all times. 

Write for catalog to nearest 
office, addressing Dept. 12 


Sharpie a Milkers are ased on half a million cows daily 
Branches: Chicago San Francisco 

■ I'Mitiiiwi'i 11 iivimim 

T oronto 





Ex- Livestock Commissioner of the State of New Jersey 
is the most readable book on swine ever 
written and the only complete manual on 
the “mortgage lifter” for anything like the 
low price of $1.00, at which price the 
book was published in May, 1918. 

We have now a new heavy paper edition 
at a low price. 

Send 56 cents tor a copy, 
delivered to you, postpaid 

The Advanced Agricultural Publishing Company 

2-N West 45th Street, New York 


Quality Service Satisfaction 

Always look for our trade mark (as shown 
below) on the bag. It means protection to 
you. Hundreds of farmers in the East have 
come to recognize it as the mark of honest, 
square fertilizer goods and methods. 

(This trade mark means quality) 

Reading Bone Fertilizer Co., Reading, Pa. 

Ask your Write for 

dcater for booklet and 


Bone further 

Fertilizer. information. 

When you write advertisers mention The R. N.-Y. and you’ll get a 
quick reply and a “square deal.” See guarantee editorial page. 

Farm Mechanics 

Trouble with Icehouse 

Can you give me any information in 
regard to construction of icehouse? I 
have a building being used as one that 
was evidently intended for some other 
purpose when constructed. There is a 
concrete walL about one foot thick and 
three feet high at the bottom, on top of 
which is built a framework of 2x4 sided 
up on both sides, leaving air chamber of 
four. Tefet. The concrete wall projects in 
about six inches, so that in filling with 
ice there is not as much space for saw¬ 
dust at bottom as there is after the top 
of wall is passed. Bottom is ou hard, 
gravelly soil. The trouble I have is that 
the ice does uot keep, but melts very 
rapidly from bottom. No air can Teach 
it there, but it has good circulation over 
top. Can anyone tell me why ice will 
not keep? S. m. g. 

Medina, N. Y. 

The problem of keeping an ice supply 
is one of vital interest to the farmer and 
with the advantages to be secured by its 
use and the comparative ease and cheap¬ 
ness with which it may be stored it is 
surprising that the country ice harvest is 
not greater than it is. While there are 
many conditions that affect the keeping 
of ice, such as the location and shape of 
the icehouse and the material from which 
it is built, the chief factors are good 
drainage, sufficient insulation, close pack¬ 
ing and overhead ventilation. 

The lack of at least one of these factors 
is the probable cause of the melting in 
the case mentioned by S. M. 6. and as 
the gravel soil mentioned should furnish 
a reasonably good drainage it would seem 
probable that the lack of insulation was 
the principal cause. Heat passes through 
concrete much more freely than through 
wood. This fact cau he readily noted in 
any village having stretches of wood and 
concrete walks. After the first fall of 
snow in the Fall the concrete walks will 
be thawed clean, while the plank walks 
will retain their snow because the ground 
heat passes up through the concrete easily 
to melt the snow upon it, but is checked 
by the plank, even though it is only about 
half as thick. 

The above is given to show that the 
outside heat can pass in readily through 
the concrete wall at the base and because 
this wall projects into the building the 
sawdust or shavings insulation is thinner 
at this point, consequently the heat pene¬ 
trates easily to the ice pile and as it 
melts it settles down from above, making 
the melting a steady process throughout 
the Summer. The remedy in this case 
would be to make the ice pile smaller, so 
that there could be at least a foot of dry 
sawdust or shavings between the ice pile 
and the concrete wall. A layer of saw¬ 
dust equally thick should he spread on 
the floor and if in previous years it has 
been noted that the drainage is insuffi¬ 
cient the floor should be dug out and 
some tile laid in covered with clean gravel 
or cinders. Care should be exercised in 
forming the ice pile, chipping the cakes 
until they fit closely together, and filling 
all remaining spaces with ice chips or 
snow, making the pile as compact as pos¬ 
sible. This prevents internal air cur¬ 
rents from the ground up with its at¬ 
tendant loss by melting. 

The gables of the icehouse should be 
open, permitting thorough ventilation be¬ 
tween the roof and the ice pile, but these 
openings should be shaded so that the 
direct sun is not allowed to beat in upon 
the sawdust covering of the pile. If 
these four features, drainage, insulation, 
close packing and ventilation, arc at¬ 
tended to, ice can be safely kept in almost 
any kind of a shelter. K. H. S. 

Power from Compressed Air 

I wish to obtain information regarding 
the practical possibility of using com¬ 
pressed air, piped from 50 to 150 feet 
from engine and air pump, as power for 
operating milking machine, churn, sepa¬ 
rator, etc. Do you know of any such 
power use, and its general cost and plan 
of operation? ^ h. b. 

East Aurora, N. Y. 

I have never seen compressed air in 
use in farm practice for any purpose other 
than pumping water, and have not been 
able, through several letters of inquiry, 
to find any manufacturers making com¬ 
pressed air eugines for farm use. My 
opinion, though, would be that its appli¬ 
cation to farm use in the way suggested 
would be impractical. It presents several 
difficulties. Compressed air is very hard 

to confine, and calls for quite an expen¬ 
sive equipment of engines, pumps, etc. 
This is all on the producing end. On the 
power end, or application end, I do not 
see where anything is to be gained, either. 
A compressed air engine to operate a 
cream separator, churn or other light 
machine would cost as much as or more 
than would a gasoline engine for the same 
purpose, aud the only possible objection 
that I can see to the use of the latter 
would be the odor, which could be over¬ 
come by beltiug the engine to a liue shaft 
and placing a partition between the en¬ 
gine and the machines being operated. 
The milking machine, of course, is oper¬ 
ated by atmospheric pressure, aud is 
worked by exhausting the air from one 
side of the valves by means of suitably 
placed piping, and an air pump or ex¬ 
hausting pump, which may be placed at 
any poiut convenient—compressed air 
not being used at all. To my mind, 
if a system of individual motors 
was desired to operate the various ma¬ 
chines about the farm, and objection was 
made to the use of the gasoline engine, a 
central generating plant wired to electric 
motors at the points desired would be 
more economical and efficient than the 
one outlined; furthermore, it could be 
used for lighting, if electric lights are 
not already a part of the farm equip¬ 
ment. B. H. s. 

Ventilation for Cistern 

I am about to cover two wells and a 
cistern with cement, and wish to know if 
it is best to leave some ventilation, more 
than there will be with the iron pump. 
If so, what, how, and how much ventila¬ 
tion to give? w. H. H. 

Brighton, Ill. 

I know of no object gained by ventilat¬ 
ing the opening of a well, but the water 
of a cistern taken from roofs contains so 
much foreign matter that it rapidly be¬ 
comes foul unless frequently replenished 
or aerated. For that reason I should not 
seal the mouth of a cistern with concrete, 
but should leave a good-sized manhole 
through which the water could easily be 
reached, aud by means of which the cis¬ 
tern could easily be Cleaned. This man¬ 
hole could easily be raised a few inches 
above the surface of the concrete cover¬ 
ing and protected by a grate of heavy 
woven wire or of iron. This would admit 
air to the cistern and aid somewhat in 
keeping its contents fresh. SI. B. D. 

Improving Rusty Range 

I have a steel range that has been in 
use for about three years. The top and 
also parts of the sides and nickel are 
rusting, the top being the most affected. 

I have used different kinds of oils, such as 
paraffin and vaseline, but none seems to 
help only while using, as they burn off. 
What do you advise? L. T. 


I have talked with several hardware 
men, also my sister, who owns such a 
range. They tell me very little can be 
done, except to avoid dampness. Build 
a fire in it sii—oient to warm it twice a 
week at least in hot weather, and wash 
with a slightly oily cloth (any household 
grease free from salt) when cleaning. 
Use some good commercial cleaner on the 
nickel. If the rust continues too badly, 

I would suggest an application of a coat 
of sheet-iron paint, such as is used for 
stovepipes, though only as a last resort, 
as I would not like the looks of it so 
well as the plain steel, and I would uot 
put it on the griddles or center of the 

Cast iron is easier to care for, espe¬ 
cially if it is polished. Another objection 
to steel ranges is that they are not stand¬ 
ard, and if repairs are needed it is usually 
hard to get parts, impossible many times. 
My sister had all sorts of trouble because 
the shaker was broken and none other 
would fit. She used it a long time at 
great inconvenience, and when new grates 
were needed the stove, a very expensive 
one ($75, I believe, when stoves were 
comparatively cheap) had to be discarded 
entirely as the company had gone out of 
business. However, they are fine looking 
stoves, very convenient, good heaters, etc., 
so long as the parts can be secured. A 
neighbor whose house burned down last 
January at break of day, temperature 20 
degrees below zero, saved their range, 
though it had a new hot fire in it, because 
it was steel and not so easily breakable. 
It was yanked out of doors in a way that 
would have put a cast-iron stove on the 
junk heap, but came out all right, minus 
a drying rod. M. G. F. 


Notes from a Maryland Garden 

Our big bushes of Pyrus Japonica al¬ 
ways produce a few quinces, which we 
bi’ing into the house because of their 
fragrance. This past Summer we had an 
unusual quantity of the fruit, and of 
good size. The better-half then deter¬ 
mined that they should not be wasted, so 
she went to work and made them into 
marmalade, and everyone pronounces it 
the finest quince jam they have tasted. 
Hereafter we will get the pretty flowers 
as usual and will save the fruit for use, 

As I have drawn off the water from 
the pipes in the little greenhouse and am 
saving coal till February, all potted plants 
are in the dwelling windows, and the 
greenhouse has flats with pansy plants; 
they are doing finely in the unheated 
house and blooming, too. Hence the 
greenhouse is not entirely desolate. In 
fact, there are many things one could have 
in Winter in an unheatcd greenhouse in 
this climate, for, with double-glazed 
sashes, there will 'be little freezing, and 
the bulbs would bloom, and Phlox Drum- 
mondii and mignonette, too. Amateur 
greenhouse gardeners are apt to overdo 
the heating, and in that way damage 
some things more than cold would. 

Spiraea Thunbergii is generally the first 
of the species to bloom in the Spring. 
Just now it has concluded that Winter 
is over and today (Dec. 24) is blooming 
its little white flowers, and the buds on 
the Forsythias are dangerously swollen. 
Tomorrow is Christmas Day, and though 
it is drizzling today, there seems no pros¬ 
pect for a white Christmas. The weather 
prophets of my boyhood told me that the 
direction of the wind on Dec. 21 would 
indicate the character of the Winter. 
Here on that day the wind was southeast, 
and I suppose that we are to have a mild, 
rainy Winter. We are entitled to a mild 
one after the terror we had last Winter, 
when for a month the water pipes, buried 
too shallow for Manitoba weather, froze 
in the streets, and water had to be car¬ 
ried by hand from a neighboring well. 

Next week I shall make out my entire 
list of seed for the season and will have it 
in the hands of a seedsman early in Janu¬ 
ary. I have followed this practice for 
years, and find it the best plan. Some 
kinds of seed may not be on hand, but 
the seedsman makes note of this and sends 
them later. As we put in the extra early 
peas in late January or early February, 
it is very necessary to order early. Then 
the Prizetaker onions are to be sown in 
the frame in late January, and some 
beets and radishes, too, under the glass, 
and we cannot do these things unless we 
have the seed at hand. Then, too, there 
often happens a failure' of some kind of 
seed, and the stock in the hands of seeds¬ 
men will be very short, and the people 
who defer sending for seed till they want 
them for planting will often get disap¬ 
pointed. The early gardener, like the 
early worm, catches his object. 

Having been disabled all Summer, I 
find that 6ome of my salsify did not get 
thinned, and it is wonderful to note that 
the roots crowded together have lost very 
little in size as compared with the part 
that did get thinned. In fact, salsify 
does not seem to need thinning more than 
two inches apart, or even less. Salsify 
and leeks are still growing, for the weath¬ 
er we have had during November and 
December has suited them better than 
the earlier temperatures. Salsify, sown 
here as early as is practiced in the North, 
will be apt to run to seed, while sown in 
June it gets it growth in the most suit¬ 
able weather for its perfection. 

One day last week I took up some sal¬ 
sify for the kitchen. At dinner time my 
daughter announced, “You will have to 
eat veal oysters today, for the oyster 
plant got scorched.” We are better off 
than the city dwellers and the people in 
the interior, for we get the oysters fresh 
from their shells in their own liquor, and 
not plumped up in ice water, and though 
the oyster plant reminds one very much of 
the oyster flavor, the real oysters are far 
better, of course. w. F. massey 

“Do you believe that a college educa¬ 
tion helps a boy in business life?” “Sure 
I do. My son was a champion sprinter 
at college, and now he has a position as 
bank runner.”—Baltimore American. 

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It is a good investment because it actually pays for itself. 

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Send for Free Booklet 
“To Have and to Hold Power”—a simple, 
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Manufactured by 

McQuay-Norris Manufacturing Co. 

2878 Locust St. St. Louis, U. S. A. 

a Penny 

See what a bargain yon are offered here ^ 

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Mun son 
last Army 
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a fine shoe that 
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Special tanning pro¬ 
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IJAU/I Send today Just yourname and ±Q 
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LEONARD-MORTON & CO., Dept. X866 Chicago 




Plows. SI 4.85 up. 


I.a Orangeville, New York 

MtullIS a patent patch for instantly mending leaks 
® in all u te n si Is. Sample pa c k age tree. 

COLLETTE MFC. CO., llept. 108, Amsterdam. N.Y. 

F.TPmpp Anpnfc SELL teas, coffees, pure 

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Any quantity, 1 pound up. Send for wholesale price list. 
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Get Your Farm Home from 
the Canadian Pacific 

T HE Canadian Pacific Railway offers a won¬ 
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or irrigated land up to fifty dollars an acre 0 

Twenty Years to Pay 

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Loans are made to approved set¬ 
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up to $2,000 in improvements. 

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back this loan at 6% interest. 

Why This Offer Is Made 

The Canadian Pacific is not a real 
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Lands Under Irrigation 

In Southern Alberta the Canadian 
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largest individual irrigation un¬ 
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on the same easy payment terms— 
‘prices range up to $50 an acre. 

The Canadian Pacific Rail¬ 
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until you have inspected it. 
To make this easy, special 
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Supt. of Colonization 

Canadian Pacific Railway 

914 First St. E. Calgary, Alberta 

111J111 1H111i11111111111111i ITTTTTT 

j M. E. THORNTON, Supt. of Colonization I 
914 First St. E., Calgary, Alberta I 

. I would be interested in learning more I 
I about: 

| □ Irrigation fanning in Sunny Alberta. I 
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Q Special railway rates for home I 

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Ford’s Seed Catalog 
in Your Farm Office 

will be a daily help in selecting seeds 
for the biggest and most profitable 
crops you can raise on your farm. 

Old Virginia Ensilage Corn 
Nectar Sweet Corn 
Glory Cabbage 

are only a hint of the profit-makers 
we have introduced. 

Every farmer and gardener ought 
to send today for a free copy of this 
booklet—write now for it. 


Box.24 Ravenna, Ohio 

BOOKS—Descriptive Catalog: of the 600 best books 
covering these activities—just out. Mailed for 3c. stamp. 
A. T. De La Mare Co. Inc. 438B West 37th St. New York. 


all sizes 



More for your money at Home. A better built and 
moro durable engine. Shipment from stock in New 
York City. Repairs from stock in New York City. 
In these days of slow freight, buy where you get 
Quick service. We make saw outfits or engines aud 
separate saw benches or engines only. They use both 
gasoline and kerosene. Wood now brings high prices 
and quick purchasers. Get catalog telling you about 
our engines. It's free. Quick action saves you money. 

202 Fulton Street New York City 

Stop That Rattling 

flnr Paolo nor stops rattle, locks windows, keeps out 

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THE 1XL NOVELTY COMPANY, 35 Cedar Laae, Highland Park, Pa. 


Live Stock Books 



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New Book 


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Ask lor Catalog Ho. 111. 

Kalamazoo Stove Company 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 

a Kalarocvzas 

v.:Direct to You 

Choice Seed Corn 

90-Day Improved YELLOW DENT 

Tested and germination absolutely guaranteed 

WOODFIELD’S FARM. Wycombe, Bucks Co., Pa. 

We are trying to furnish Red Clover entirely 
free from weed seeds and dead grains. The seed 
will go farther than ordinary seed besides adding 
greatly to the production. Ask for samples of 
Bed and other seeds and catalogue telling 
"How to Know Good Seed". 

0. M. SCOTT & SONS CO. 360 Sixth SL, Marysville. Obit 


DOMESTIC.—Four men and two 
women were killed and 19 injured by an 
explosion of shells Dec. 24 in a small 
building used for shell loading at the 
plant of the J. B. Wise Munition Com¬ 
pany, Watertown, N. Y. 

Five persons lost their lives and 27 
were injured when a St. Louis and San 
Francisco freight crashed into a passen¬ 
ger train at Norge, Okla., Dec. 25. The 
passenger train had been at a ^standstill 
for some time because of frozen pipes 
when the freight struck it, telescoping 
three of the coaches. 

By order of the Railroad Administra¬ 
tion, some hundreds of thousands of 
pounds of high explosive material, includ¬ 
ing TNT and picric acid, the property of 
the French and Italian Governments, has 
been towed out to sea from South Amboy, 
N. J., and dumped overboard, 35 miles 
from the Scotland Neck lightship. This 
plan has been adopted as the only practi¬ 
cal and immediate method of getting rid 
of 22S carloads of the material, which 
has been parked outside of Wilmington, 
Del., for some time awaiting transporta¬ 

The United States Government must 
pay $81,265 to the owners of the barken- 
tine Mabel I. Myers, sunk July 30, 1915, 
by the battleship Nebraska off Cape Cod. 

A final decree was filed in the United 
States District Court at Boston Dec. 24. 
The barkentine was bound for Boston 
from Barbados when run down by the 
Nebraska in fog. 

Five large business houses, including 
the Dominion National Bank, were de¬ 
stroyed Dec. 29 by a fire at Bristol, 
Tenn. The loss was estimated at $1,- 

Ten persons at least and possibly over 
that number were killed Dec. 30 when an 
acetylene gas tank blew up in the cellar 
of the Odd Fellows Building at Lebanon, 
N. J. The cause of the explosion is not 
known. Buildings for many miles around 
were rocked by the explosion, which left 
scarcely one unbroken glass pane in Le¬ 
banon. Windows in farmhouses six miles 
^-„..y were broken. 

WHEAT TRICES. — Legislation to 
make effective the wheat-price guarantee 
for the 1919 crop and at the same time 
to safeguard the Government against 
losses was recommended to Congress Dec. 
26 by the Department of Agriculture and 
the Food Administration. A memoran¬ 
dum sent to Representative Lever, of 
South Carolina, chairman of the House 
Agricultural Committee, made the follow¬ 
ing recommendations: 

(1.) Extension by Congress beyond 
June 1, 1920, of the date for the Govern¬ 
ment purchases of the 1919 crop. 

(2.) Continuance of the Food Admin¬ 
istration’s grain corporation, for creation 
of a new agency to buy. store, and sell 
1919 wheat that may he offered to the 
Government; and 

(3.) Possible legislative provisions to 
protect the Government against wheat or 
flour brought in from other countries dur¬ 
ing the period of effectiveness of the guar¬ 
anteed price, and also' to protect buyers 
of such wheat as long as the wheat is in 
this country and not consumed. 

The memorandum was compiled with 
the approval of President Wilson, and 
Secretary Houston, in submitting it. said: 
“The Government has made a guarantee, 
and it goes without saying that it must 
he made effective.” Regarding extension 
of the date of Government purchase, the 
memorandum said : 

“It will he impossible to carry out the 
guarantee, as it is intended by June 1, 
1920, and if producers cannot sell their 
wheat to the United States before that 
date and are loft with wheat on hand, it 
will be felt that the obligation of the 
United States has not been carried out 
in good faith.” 

“The Government Purchasing Agency,” 
the memorandum set forth, “must have 
ample funds to at all times purchase 
throughout the United States at the guar¬ 
anteed price such wheat of the 1919 crop 
as may be offered to it, and also provide 
storage facilities to take care of the same 
by lease or purchase of facilities now in 
existence or by building additional facili¬ 
ties, or both.” 

er’s report of condition in Belgium states 
that horses have practically disappeared 
from that country during the German oc¬ 

The New York State Department of 
Agriculture has issued an order prohibit¬ 
ing the shipment of peach and sweet cher¬ 
ry trees from Dutchess, Westchester, Nas¬ 
sau and Richmond counties to points out¬ 
side because “a dangerously injurious in¬ 
sect known as the oriental peach moth 
has been located and presumably distrib¬ 
uted” in those counties. 

new synthetic process of making glycerine 
by fermentation of sugar in quantity at 
low cost has been developed, AVliieli, Gov¬ 
ernment officials say, will revolutionize 
production. Information reached the Gov¬ 
ernment in the Spring of last year that 
Germany, by producing glyceriue through 
a fermentation process, was able to turn 
out explosives requiring great quantities 
of glycerine in spite of the scarcity of fats. 
The process was tried out on a large scale 
in a chemical plant at Aurora. Ill., and 
found to be commercially profitable. Then 
the secret was conveyed to Allied Gov- 

January 11, 2910 

ernments and to manufacturing chemists 
who proposed to undertake commercial 
exploitation of the process. 

The Capital Issues Committee of the 
Treasury, the Government’s war agency 
for the suppression of unessential secur¬ 
ity issues, announced Dec. 25 that it 
would suspend activities on Dec. 31 and 
remain inactive until dissolved unless 
called back into service by developments. 
Accompanying the announcement were 
warnings to the public both from the 
committee and Secretary Glass of the nec¬ 
essity for continued strict economy and 
guarding against worthless securities. The 
committee stated its intention of making 
a supplementary report to Congress rec¬ 
ommending a law to prevent impositions 
upon the investing public, and Secretary 
Glass said lie would ask the present Con¬ 
gress to enact such legislation immedi¬ 
ately. To illustrate the extent of the 
menace, (he committee said schools were 
being established to drill salesmen in the 
art of fraudulent promotion. 

On the basis of Mr. Hoover’s report 
the Food Administration has announced 
that hereafter 180,000 tons of supplies, 
including clothing, would be shipped to 
Belgium each month. As this program 
will require 160.000 deadweight tons of 
shipping in addition to the 340.000 tons 
now on charter to the relief commission, 
application for additional tonnage has 
been made to the Shipping Board. 

Compulsory adoption of the metric sys¬ 
tem by the United States is being urged as 
an Administration measure under the 
leadership of the Treasury Department, 
and Senator Shaffroth of Colorado has 
already introduced a bill to this effect. 
The National Association of Manufac¬ 
turers of the United States of America is 
decidedly opposed to it, as is also the 
American Institute of Weights and Meas¬ 
ures, this latter society having investi¬ 
gated the subject most thoroughly. In 
Great Britain the system has been under 
advisement for years, many feeling as¬ 
sured that to adopt a metric system would 
promote trade relations with the coun¬ 
tries using same, it being in use in the 
majority of the countries of Europe and 
South America. Every proposition to 
adopt it has been overwhelmingly defeat¬ 

Acid factories throughout Delaware 
County, N. Y., which have been running 
overtime and paying high wages since 
America entered the war, will close as the 
result of a Government order, owing to 
the great supply of acetate on hand. 
There has been a considerable reduction 
in the wages of woodchoppers and a fur¬ 
ther decrease is to be made at once. 
Prior to the war the acid factories in that 
section were doing little business, and 
several which had been abandoned were 
reopened when the war began. 

Concerted price fixing by any industry 
after the Government ceases to exercise 
price control Jan. 1 will be regarded by 
the Department of Justice as in restraint 
of free competition, it was stated Dec. 30. 
The explanation was made officially in 
answer to queries as to what happens to 
war time price fixing when the War In¬ 
dustries Board ceases to function. 

Coming Farmers’ Meetings 

New York State Federation of Agricul¬ 
ture, annual meeting, Rochester, N. Y., 
week of .Tan 13. 1919. 

New Jersey State Dairymen’s Associa¬ 
tion. annual meeting, Trenton, N. J., Jan. 
14-17, 1919. 

Trenton, N. J.—Poultry Show, Jan. 13- 

17. 1919. 

Boston, Mass.—Poultry Show, Jan 14- 

18, 1919. 

Western New York Horticultural So¬ 
ciety and New York State Fruit Growers’ 
Association, joint meeting, Rochester, N. 
Y„ Jan. 15-17, 1919. 

Third Annual New Jersey Agricultural 
Convention, Trenton, Jan. 13-17, 1919. 

New Jersey State Poultry Association, 
annual meeting and exhibition, the Arm¬ 
ory. Trenton, N. J.. Jan. 13-17, 1919. 

Jan. 18-26.—National Western Stock 
Show, Denver. Colo. 

Farmers’ Week, Hartford, Conn., Jan. 
20-24, 1919. 

Madison Square Garden, New York— 
Poultry Show, Jan. 24-28. 

Connecticut Dairymen’s Association, 
Connecticut Sheep Breeders’ Association, 
Connecticut Poultrymen's Association, 
Hartford, Conn., Jan. 21-22, 1919. 

New York State Breeders’ Association, 
Buffalo, N. Y„ Jan. 29-31, 1919. II. B. 
Harpending, president, Dundee, N. Y. 

Connecticut Pomological Society, Con¬ 
necticut Vegetable Growers’ Association, 
Hartford, Conn., Jan. 23-24, 1919. 

American Carnation Society, Cleveland, 
O., Jan. 29-30, 1919. 

Massachusetts Dairymen's Association, 
annual meeting. Horticultural Hall, Bos¬ 
ton, week of Feb. 10, 1919. 

Feb. 8-15. — California International 
Live Stock Show, San Francisco, Cal. 

Omaha Inter-State Land Show. Munici¬ 
pal Auditorium, Omaha, Neb., Feb. 12-22, 

Meeting of the Massachusetts State 
Vegetable Growers’ Association, to he held 
in Horticultural Hall, Boston, Feb. 12, 

Farmers’ Week, New York Agricultural 
College, Ithaca, N. Y., Feb. 10-15, 1919. 

Eminent Scientist: “I didn’t marry 
beauty, my boy; I didn’t marry wealth or 
position; I married for sympathy.” 
Friend : “Well, you have mine !”—Credit 





I N every new industry one manu¬ 
facturer eventually becomes the 
leader. In the tractor field, the 
Wallis has become “America’s Fore¬ 
most Tractor.” 

The Wallis weighs 1000 to 5000 
pounds less than tractors designed to 
do the same work. It has completely 
enclosed gears, including the final 
drive. It has a motor comparable, in 
quality of material and workmanship, 
with the highest type aeroplane en¬ 
gine—it keeps cool. The Wallis has 
high-grade, strong steel in place of 
coarse, heavy cast iron. It has all 
gears drop forged, cut and hardened. 
It has Hyatt Bearings throughout. 

These features add years to the life 
of a tractor. They make breakdowns 
and delays almost unknown. They 
enable you to do 30 to 50 per cent 
more plowing per gallon of fuel than 
with the ordinary tractor. 

In short, the Wallis is America’s 
Foremost Tractor because of its 
clean-cut “thorobred” appearance; 
because it plows an acre of ground at 
less cost than any other; and because, 
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true economy. 

Investigate the Wallis. Write us 
for name of local Wallis dealer and 
for the latest Wallis catalog. 


1267 Mead Street, Racine, Wiscons ; ~\ 

Branches and Distributing Points at: 

Minneapolis, Minn. Saginaw, Mich. Denver, Colo. 

Omaha, Neb. Kansas City, Mo. Bloomington, III 

Baltimore, Md. St. Louis, Mo. Columbus, Ohio 

Washington, D. C. Oklahoma City, Okla. Syracuse, N. Y. 

Toledo, Ohio Little Rock, Ark. Dallas, Texas 


Indianapolis, Ind. 
Sioux Falls, S. D. 
San Antonio, Texas 
Des Moines, Iowa 
Great Falls, Mont. 
Richmond, Va. 


January 11, 101!) 


Our nine Red hens came bach from the 
Vineland egg-laying contest in due time, 
and quickly fell into the usual Winter 
routine of mature liens—doing nothing. 
They are now “resting” after their ardu¬ 
ous labors at college, and later they will 
resume operations as a breeding pen. The 
figures representing their two years’ work 
are given below : 

Egg Record.. 

Polly . 

. 138 





Belle . 

. 358 



Queen . 

. 300 



Bettv M. 

...... 196 



Faith . 

. 168 



Hope .-. 

Charity . 

. 130 



. 146 



Success . 

. 104 



Rufa . 

. SO 



Polly anna . .. . 

. 349 



There were over 100 eggs laid outside 
the trap-nests. My notion is that Rufa 
laid many of these, but they cannot be 
fairly credited to her or any of the oth¬ 
ers. ' Some birds apparently always lay 
in the trap-nests, while others frequently 
lay outside. You may call it perversity, 
laziness, a “call of the wild,” as you 

* * * * * 

Charity died in August of this year 
from the effect of the heat. She was lay¬ 
ing well at the time and would have 
added 35 or more to her record had she 
lived. The pen finished with nine birds— 
second among the Reds. Had Charity 
lived I think they would have led. Now 
there are three regular groups in tins 
pen. Polly, Belle and Queen are sisters, 
and eloselv bred to a strain. Yet see how 
they vary. I should have discarded Polly 
on her first year’s record, yet see how 
she came back in her second year, while 
her sisters Belle and Queen proved the 
laziest of drones. Then Betty M., I 1 aitli 
and Hope are own sisters selected and 
bred carefully. Here we have a more uni¬ 
form performance, though Hope went 
back on her name. Then the last four 
birds came from another group of sisters 
—taken from our own stock. They were 
not well matured, and made a very late 
start the first year, but they all came 
back strong the second year, and look 
now as if they would be better yet for 
the third year. It has become evident to 
me that you cannot figure on the egg- 
laying power of a family of hens as you 
can on the milk production of a family 
of cows. Individuals vary too much, and 
I think these egg-laying contests have 
come to be as much a test of men as of 
liens. Let two men go into a flock where 
the birds are all of much the same breed¬ 
ing and let each man select 10 pullets. 
A man with the skill of Tom Barron will 
select birds that will beat any ordinary 
selection by 40 per cent. 


That is one thing which makes the 
present contest at Vineland particularly 
interesting. In our own case we put as 
good a Red cockerel as we could find with 
our 10 hens, and the plan was to start 
the third year with one pullet from each 
hen. It was not quite possible to do this, 
but we have 30 good pullets—all from the 
same cockerel. Of course we had no 
chance to make physical selections. These 
pullets seem to bo starting off very much 
as their mothers did, and it will be good 
to see how pullets bred in this way com¬ 
pare with those in other contests where 
there is a much wider range of selection. 
In our own pen I shall cut out Belle and 
Ouoen, and breed the rest to a son of 
Betty M. This bird is lighter in color 
than I like, but he is otherwise a good 
specimen, and surely his mother is a 
laver and a stayer. Yes, I shall include 
Rufa in spite of that bad first year. There 
is good stuff in her, and I feel sure she 
laid many eggs which could not be trap- 
nested. Then we have another pen of 
daughters and nieces of these birds headed 
by a bird of our own raising that looks 
like the son of an entire crate of eggs! 

Yes, I think the poultry business is due 
for a come-back this season. We can all 
of us raise a little more grain and prices 
ought to drop before next Winter. The 
world must have and will have more eggs 
and poultry. This war has forced most 
of us to cull and cut out the drones until 
the quality of most stock is higher than 
ever before. I am going on the principle 
that it is time to get back conservatively. 
It never was safe to gamble or plunge 
in the poultry business, and it is not safe 
to do so now. It is, however, a good 
time to get back into a reasonable busi¬ 
ness. For one thing many people have 
learned how to grow Spring wheat—by 
seeding early and using the right kind of 
seed. I have not advised Spring wheat, 
but I must confess that some of the re¬ 
ports we get are remarkably good. With 
Spring wheat and barley a farmer with 
a reasonable amount of good land can 
provide the grain for a good-sized flock 
of hens, and get more from them than any 
miller would pay! 


In fact that is what a lot of us have 
got to come to in the way of figuring. 
What does it cost to keep a hen or a cow, 
and what do they sell hay and grain for? 
Take our 10 hens for the two years, and 
how many of them paid? At present 
grain prices you cannot feed a hen two 
years for much under $4.75. Many of 


us hen men pay far more than that. If 
we count anything for care or risk hardly 
half of these 10 hens paid any profit, and 
yet I believe they were all superior to the 
average farm hen. You will find thou¬ 
sands of hens running about on our 
farms, eating their fill and bragging in 
high, shrill voices about their egg record, 
yet not laying as many eggs as “Queen” 
—who, I think, is queen of the drones. 
A hen must lay at least 250 eggs in two 
years and have many of them in the 
colder months in order to pay her way. 
A man with land must plan to produce 
more of his needful feed, and I think 
there will be more Spring wheat and bar¬ 
ley needed. We had a fair crop of rye, 
but it seemed impossible to get the quoted 
prices for small lots. I was offered $1.65 
a bushel, but we figured it was worth 
more than that for feed. So we crush 
rye and oats and corn together in our 
sweep mill, and have the basis for any 
kind of stock feed. By adding bran, oil- 
meal or cottonseed meal we suit it to any 
kind of stock. 


There are a good many farms in this 
country whose chief crops are Red hens 
and red-heads—that is some form of farm 
produce and children. Such people usual¬ 
ly know what to do with the farm pro¬ 
duce, but the future of the children be¬ 
comes a big problem. My red hens come 
back from their college experience and 
fall back into the regular life of the 
farm. We have their lives under full con¬ 
trol. We can make Queen into a royal 
chicken pie if we like, or wring Belle’s 
neck or end Hope’s hopeless case. When 
the children come back from school to take 
up some sort of life work we have a hard¬ 
er proposition. Perhaps if it were pos¬ 
sible to keep the child’s record as faith¬ 
fully as these hen records have been kept 
we 'might find that our children vary in 
efficiency as widely as those Red hens. 
Suppose -we did know it; would we have 
the courage and the power to treat our 
children on the basis of their needs rather 
than on their showing in public? Take 
the case of Polly and Queen. We would 
be inclined to. pet and pamper and feed 
the former, since she is a good layer, 
while Queen, having proved a failure, 
would be cast out, neglected or destroyed 
because she has not paid her way. 

Do you know that I see some cases 
where children are handled and treated 
in about the same way. and it makes one 
of the great tragedies of human life. It is 
particularly true where children are 
adopted or taken into the family. Some 
people think they must have a bright, at¬ 
tractive child, far above the average; one 
that they can brag about and show off. 
Somehow it never occurs to them that 
there is no real sacrifice in taking such 
children. Why. such little ones can easily 
find homes. There is competition for 
them. The true test of character will 
come in caring for the duller, Unattractive 
children who are doomed to disappoint¬ 
ment and failure unless they can have a 
fair chance. It is a fine thing to take the 
bright, capable children and dress them 
nicely and see them develop, as they often 
do, into extraordinary attraction and pow¬ 
er. It is a much finer thing to take the 
backward child or the one with a poor 
record and help put beauty into his mind 
and character. It is very much harder to 
do the latter, but as I go on through the 
world I see so many people who walk in 
the shadow and carry a burden because 
they were not smart and quick as children 
and so father and mother could not have 
patience with them. I wonder if you ever 
thought of that before. I have, and I 
have seen the tragedy worked out in life. 
There seems no use in our paying any 
great attention to Belle and Queen, ex¬ 
cept to get them fat and fit for a pie. On 
their record they deserve their fate, and 
must face it. Did you ever hear of human 
beings, including children, judged in the 
same way? I have. H. w. c. 

Cornstalks for Horses 

I see a lot of inquiries regarding feed¬ 
ing cornstalks, green or dry, so I will give 
you what experience I have had. On the 
shore here we have no fresh hay; it is 
all salt hay. Four years ago, when I 
came to this section, I did not like salt hay, 
so the first Winter I had to buy corn¬ 
stalks or salt hay, so I bought cornstalks, 
and they served till June. In June I 
started to feed green fodder corn; fed 
green fodder till September, then started 
on dry fodder again, and have been do¬ 
ing so ever since. I feed no grain of any 
kind except corn, and only three months 
of each year, March, April and May. 
That is plowing time. My horses are in 
prime condition all the time. The people 
who see my team wonder how I keep 
them so fat. I farm 35 acres all alone, 
and it is work for me and my team, 3.300- 
lb. horses. I cut all my fodder with hand 
silage cutter. I feed three bushel baskets 
of cut fodder at night, two in morning 
and two at noon. They get salt once a 
week, bran and mash once a week. What 
fodder they cannot eat goes under them 
for bedding, and then on manure pile, 
and just watch the corn and potatoes 
grow. I clean my horses morning and 
night. This is four years’ steady diet of 
corn fodder, and I would buy corn fod¬ 
der at $20 a ton rather than buy fresh 
hay at $20 a ton for my use, and I never 
feed more than two quarts of shelled corn 
at a feed, or six quarts a day for each 
horse. A. B. 

Manahawkin, N. J. 

Spray Materials 

are safe. The insects and diseases which damage your orchard 
and crops are often more hardy than the plant or tree affected. 
You want to be assured that the insecticide or fungicide you 
use will be effective and cause no injury to plants or trees. 
Guard your trees and make certain of best spraying results by 
using Orchard Brand Spray materials. 

The Orchard Brand line includes a spray material specially adapted to 
every need and, when properly used will guard against the liability of injury 
to plants. For dormant period spraying for San Jose Scale and other insect 
pests and fungous diseases. Orchard Brand B.T. S. or Lime Sulphur Solution 
are specially recommended. They are tested and known to be of highest ef- 

’ , _ . r _ . ,_ 1 l... 4U n In M/vnnt r* lx nm l on I oAMl non V In A ill PTIPII. 

Our Special Service Department is open to people everywhere 
who want reliable spraying information. Put your spray- 
ing problem up to our experts. 

An Investment of $12 
Saves $180 per Year 

Up untillastyearmany growers 
used three lines of hose and 

three operators on 
theirsprayers. These 
men spray about 30 
days each year and 
by investing $12 
for one 


they SAVED the labor 
of two men, or $160.00. 
Their spraying was 
done BETTER and the 
gun will last for YEARS. 
SOME investment? 
Hardia Sprayer and 
Hardie Orchard Guns 
have revolutionized spraying. 
Our catalog tells the whole story. 
A postal card brings it. Send today. 
, THE HARDIE MFG. CO., Hud.on, Mich, 
(l 31 Branches Kamai City, Mo., Ha*er»to wn, Md. 


System' ‘ 



Big Crop 

Send postal for my 
big new book now. Just 
off the press. Filled 
with amazing facts on 
Seed Selection. Tells 
r why planting pure, 
plump, strong grain 
adds hundreds —even thousands of 
dollars to crop profits. Also tells how 
to end the costly “dockage evil ” Get 
the Book NOW. A postal brings it! 

Seed Grader 
and Cleaner 

_ __|__y pas engine power. 

Cleans, grades,separates rankest mixtures of any 
grain or grass seed— 1000 bushels per day! Or 
it turns easy by hand. Cleans out dust, trash, 
wicked weed seed—separates poor, sickly grains 
that never grow—sacks the plumb, clean grain 
for need or market. Sold on 80 days’ free trial. Take un¬ 
til next Fall to pay. Or 10 r i off for cash. Write for 1* RLE 
Book— and special proposition. Maosoo Campbell, Pree, 

Manson Campbell & Sons Co. 

D*pt. 252 , D.trolt. 252 ( Kansas City, Mo. 

Dapt. 252 ■ Minneapolis, Minn. 


Breitwieser’s TOBACCO STEMS 

are put up in 100-pound bales, *1.8(1 per bale, or 5 bales, 
$6.50; 10 bales, *12.50; 20 bales. $25 ; F. O. B. ears; 

cash with order. II. A J. HKEITWIESER, Huffalo, N.Y. 


When you write advertisers mention 
The Rural New-Yorker and you’ll get 
a quick reply and a “square deal.” See 
guarantee editorial page. : : 

Save Your Crops 

From Bugs and Disease. Use 



the "Double Strength Material” for potatoes 
and vegetables. 

D A MTffc'V is tlle ideal tree and 8 eneral 

A .Tml.xi A VFzm. p Ur pose spray. We also 
carry Lime-Sulphur and a full line of spray 
material. Tell us your wants— our prices will 
interest you. 

AGENTS Wo want one reliable man in each 
x */aiuttxx county to act as our general agent 
WANlbU and appoint local agents for our 
products. Exceptional opportunity for the right 
man. We also want a local agent in each vicinity. 
Write for our terms. 

Readina Chemical Co.. Reading, Pa. 

Plenty of Nitrate 
in Chile 

The amount of Nitrate in 
the Chilean Deposits is 

720,000,000 Tons 

At present rate of world’s con¬ 
sumption, deposits will last for 

300 Years 

Shipping conditions are improv¬ 
ing. American farmers should 
learn the FACTS. Write for in¬ 

Chilean Nitrate Committee 
25 Madison Avenue New York 

Only $lgg 

Down After Trial 

Keep the New Edison Ambcrola-Edlscn’a jrreat phonograph 
with tiie diamond stylus—and your choice of records, lor only 
• 1.00. Pay balance st rate of only a few cents a day. free 
trial Inyour own homo before you decide. Nothing down. 
Write Today for our jN*w Edison Book and pictures, /res, 

F. K. BABSON. Eduoa Phonograph Did 9781Edi»on BIk. Chicago 



The Russet Apple 

Can you toll me if New York growers 
are planting the old Winter Russet ap¬ 
ple? J.L. 

I expect by Winter Russet the Roxbury 
Russet is meant, as that is the one most 
generally grown, though a few Golden 
Russets are still grown in some places. 
I say most generally grown; yet, as a 
matter of fact, I know of no one who has 
set a Russet tree in the past 10 years, 
and of course while there may have been 
a great many set without my knowledge, 
yet I feel sure few have been set in the 
Hudson Valley. For some reasons I re¬ 
gret this, because it seems like the passing 
of an old friend. There are surely few 
apples today in cultivation (regardless 
of the many valuable late additions to our 
list) that are better for either dessert or 
cooking than the Russet at its best. This, 
coupled with its great keeping qualities, 
make it one of the varieties that all good 
housewives thought a few must be stored 
in the cellar; otherwise arrangements for 
the Winter were not complete. 

Before the days of cold storage the Rus¬ 
set was also a money-maker. There came 
a time each year when its only competi¬ 
tors were Newtown and Lady Sweet, and 
prices (for the times) were good. Today 
its keeping quality is of minor impor¬ 
tance. Then, too, today a great many 
people value an apple by the amount of 
bright red color it carries, and while a 
few varieties like Greening, Fall Pippin, 
Grimes, Yellow Transparent, etc., sell 
well on markets where well known, most 
dull or poor-colored apples are at a disad¬ 
vantage on most markets. The Russet 
also seems rather capricious as to soil re¬ 
quirements ; under certain conditions it 
bears regularly and well, and fruit is good 
size. However, many times it is very 
shy, and fruit is small and irregular. 

With me a few trees of both Roxbury 
and Golden Russet (set for something 
they were not when they came into bear¬ 
ing) set 15 years ago, have not paid one- 
half as much per tree as Grimes and 
Winesap, both poorly adapted to our sec¬ 
tion, while compared with a number of 
other varieties of same age and under 
like conditions, the return has not. been 
over 10 per cent per tree. All have now 
been grafted. 

To sum up, then, under our conditions, 
the Russet has good quality, a fine keeper, 
tree a strong grower, under some condi¬ 
tions a good bearer of good fruit, but 
under many conditions a light cropper of 
ordinary fruit, with light, demand on 
many markets. Where it can be well 
grown it will always be a valuable, long- 
keeping variety for home use, but some¬ 
thing to go slow with in most sections on 
a commercial scale, and in many cases 
something to be laid on the shelf with 
other pleasant memories, wm. HOT AUNG. 

Columbia Co., N. Y. 

The Chewing Gum Tree 

A Summer issue of the Missouri Botani¬ 
cal Garden Bulletin states that one of the 
plants grown there under glass which al¬ 
ways attracts the attention of children as 
well as some older people, is the sapodilla, 
or chewing gum tree (Achras Sapota). 
It is a native of tropical America and the 
West Indies and is generally cultivated 
in the tropics. The wood, called by the 
natives “the wood of eternal life,” is very 
hard, with a perfectly straight grain, and 
is used for rafters in buildings, and the 
fruit, which resembles the persimmon 
both before and after it is ripe, is much 
relished. But it is the dried milky juice 
of the sapodilla tree which makes it of so 
much commercial importance. This juice, 
known locally as “chicle” (the native 
word for juice, now universally applied to 
the product of the sapodilla), is collected 
during the rainy season when it flows most 
freely. The native laborer makes a series of 
v-shaped incisions in the bark, being care¬ 
ful not to cut too deeply, and the milk-like 
juice flows into a canvas bag or other re¬ 
ceptacle at the base of the tree. Contact 
with the air speedily thickens it as well 
as changing it to a deep yellow hue. The 
thickened juice is collected daily and re¬ 
moved to camp, where it is boiled and 
kneaded to remove the superfluous moist¬ 
ure. By this time it is like fresh taffy 
and gray in color and is Teady to be 
molded into square blocks for Shipment. 

The raw product is imported into thie 
country from Mexico, British Honduras, 
Venezuela, Central America, and Canada, 
the latter being supplied from certain 
British possessions. After the chicle 
reaches the manufacturer it is first 
chopped into fine particles, then dried, 
and finally boiled down in vacuum pans 
to further purify it and remove any nat¬ 
ural moisture. Sweetening and flavoring 
ingredients having been added, the dough 
is kneaded, rolled, cut into strips, and 
wrapped in the regulation manner. All 
these operations are accomplished by ma¬ 
chinery. While originally the natural 
gums of spruce, sweet gum, tamarack, 
peach, and other trees were resorted to 
for the basis of chewing gum, and later 
paraffin was used, chicle seems to be the 
most satisfactory and h"s practically re¬ 
placed all other materials in the making 
of this popular confection. The chewing 
gum industry of the United States has 
grown to such proportions in the lust de¬ 
cade that it now exceeds each year by 
fseveral millions of dollars the value of ail 
syuthetic chemi^ls, dyestuffs included, 
imported annually befo* T the war. 



Heavy Stono 
Price $1.25 

Dependable Spark Plugs 

Avoid Substitutes 
Look for “Champion” 
On the Porcelain 

A VAST majority of car owners 
know from experience the wis¬ 
dom of getting the Champion Spark 
Plug especially designed and recom¬ 
mended for their type of car. 

For your protection, we suggest 
this caution—be sure the name 
“Champion” is on the porcelain as 
well as on the box. If it is not, 
you know it is not the genuine, de¬ 
pendable Champion Spark Plug. 

Most dealers call your attention 
to the name “Champion” on the 
porcelain when they recommend 
this make of plug. 

There is a Champion Spark Plug 
for every type of motor car, motor 
truck, tractor, motorcycle and 
stationary engine. 

Champion Spark Plug Company, Toledo, Ohio 

Virginia Farms and Homes 


It. 15. CHAFFIN A- CO., Inc., Ulclimoiid, Va. 


tire send for circular 


MUnt.1 131 Co. Parkway. Cut Orange, N.w Jersey 

Farm fnr'talaP.ho'in Farming pays around Salisbury, 
rdim Toroaieoneap We have good land and mild cli¬ 
mate. Address 8. P. WOODCOCK, Salisbury, Md. 

f\nr\ • fi 7 miles Scottsrille, Va. Adapted 

Ahll-flrrp harm 8h« e P. hogs, or farm crops 
cMJV nu Claim Level Good buildings. *8,BOO: 
$1,000 cash. HARRY VAIL, New Milford, Oraug. Cfc, H. I. 

Astern Canada's 

“Horn of Ploivtif" 

Western Canada for 
years has helped to feed 
the world—the same responsi¬ 
bility of production still rests upon her. 
While high prices for Grain, Cattle and Sheep 
are sure to remain, price of land is much below its value 

Land capable of yielding 20 to 45 bush¬ 
els of wheat to the acre can be had on 
easy terms at from $15 to $30 per 
acre—good grazing land at much less. 

Many farms paid for from a single year’s crop. Raising 
i§y\\ cattle, sheep and hogs brings equal success. The Government 
encourages farming and stock raising. Railway and 
Land Co’s, offer unusual inducements to Home Seek¬ 
ers. Farms may be stocked by loans at moderate interest. 
Western Canada offers low taxation, good markets and ship¬ 
ping; free schools, churches and healthful climate. 

For particulars as to reduced railway rate?, location of land, illus¬ 
trated literature, etc., apply to Supt. of Immig., Ottawa, Can., or 

O.G. RUTLEDGE, 301B. Genesee SU Syracuse, N.Y. 

Canadian Government Agent. 

GRIMM’S Maple Syrup Evaporators 

What the GRIMM EVAPORATOR haa done for others— 
itwiil do for you—fast and shallow boiling and the siphon, 
which clarifies the liquid, produces QUALITY. We will 
start you on the road to bigger profits by giving you the benefit of 
our experience and particulars about the BEST APPARATU8 made. 
Prices for PURE MAPLE PRODUCTS are higher. The supplv is ex¬ 
hausted—the demand 
la increasing rapidly. 

ATOR will pro- 
e the best quality 

Ask for catalog 
“B” and state 
number ot trees 
you tap. 

G. H. GRIMM ESTATE Rutland, Vt 

Works in any soil. Makes V-shap 
ditch or cleans ditches up to four fe 
deep. AH steel. Reversible. Adjustab] 
Wnte for free book and our propositio 

Owensboro Ditcher & Grader Co., In 
Box 334 Owensboro. Ky. 


and CROPS 

An excellent work 
on soils, manures 
and fertilizers, 
crops and practical 
farm information 
in general. Price 
$2.50. For sale by 


333 W. 30th St, New York 


January 11, 1919 

The Rural New-Yorker 


A National Weekly Journal lor Country and Suburban Homes 

Established iS50 

Published weekly by the Rural Publishing Company, 333 West 30th Street, Sew Vork 
Herbert W. Colling wood, President and Editor. 

John J. Dillon, Treasurer and General Manager. 

Wm. F. Dillon, Secretary. Mrs. E. T. Royle, Associate Editor. 


To foreign countries in the Universal Postal Union, $2.01, equal to 8s. 6<L, or 
8^ marks, or lOh; francs. Remit in money order, express 
order, personal check or bank draft. 

Entered at New York Post Office as Second Class Matter 

Advertising rates, 76 cents per agate line—7 words. References required for 
advertisers unknown to us , and cash must accompany transient orders. 


We believe that every advertisement in this paper is backed by a respon¬ 
sible person. We use every possible precaution and admit the advertising of 
reliable houses only. But to make doubly sure, we will make good any loss 
to paid subscribers sustained by trusting any deliberate swindler, irrespon¬ 
sible advertisers or misleading advertisements in our columns, and any 
such swindler will be publicly exposed. We are also often called upon 
to adjust differences or mistakes between our subscribers and honest, 
responsible houses, whether advertisers or not. We willingly use our good 
offices to this end, but such cases should not be confused with dishonest 
transactions. We protect subscribers against rogues, but we will not be 
responsible for the debts of honest bankrupts sanctioned by the courts. 
Notice of the complaint must be sent to us within one month of the time of 
the transaction, and to identify it, you should mention The Rural New- 
Yorker when writing the advertiser. 

This new subscriber, Mr. Carrigan, is a comrade of 
mine of the Civil War, and he is the father of Bill Car¬ 
rigan, the great baseball player and manager. I am in¬ 
troducing you to extra good company, and I believe and 
trust that'you will gain their good opinion. 

Maine. JOHN l. ham. 

ANY of our readers are baseball “fans,” and 
they have seen the great Bill Carrigan pick 
them off the bat behind the plate or drive in the win¬ 
ning run with his big bat. Farming is something of 
a ball game, and the farmer must go to bat with 
Bug and Blight, Bad Season and Bulldozing Busi¬ 
ness to pitch hot ones and curves and “spitters” at 
him. We shall all bat a little harder when we real¬ 
ize that we all belong to the same club as Bill Car¬ 


Regarding the change of time by the Government, 
would say that it was very unpopular here, and caused 
much adverse criticism. It was felt that it was an un¬ 
warranted monkeying with the fixed habits and customs 
of the people. If it were submitted to a popular vote, I 
think there would be a vast majority against it. It 
created so much bitterness that it surely will not be 
imposed upon us again unless the majority should vote 
in favor of it, which will never be done. b. 


UR investigations lead us to conclude that 85 
per cent of the country people would vote 
against the “daylight saving” scheme if they had a 
chance. There can be no question about this, and 
now that the necessity for any such scheme has 
passed, the law should be repealed before the time 
comes for changing the clocks. Admitting any pos¬ 
sible advantage for “daylight saving” as a war meas¬ 
ure, the war is now over, and we know it proved a 

disadvantage to the great majority of farmers. 


Your editorial on Secretary Lane’s land scheme (for 
disabled 6oldiers) was read in our Grange at the last 
meeting, and no thoughtful farmer could fail to be im¬ 
pressed with its force. I was reminded of Dr. Bailey’s 
comment on the hullabaloo that was made about “aban¬ 
doned farms” in this State, a few years ago. It was to 
the effect that they might better be left for the future, 
so long as there was so much land not farmed up to its 
capacity. When we were really crowded it would be a 
good thing to have some slack to take up, and the aban¬ 
doned farm question would solve itself. G. A. 

T seems that a good many Granges take statements 
in The R. N.-Y. as the basis of a discussion. We are 
glad to have this done, for that is the only way to get 
at the real truth of any matter. In the big changes 
which are surely coming to farming the great dan¬ 
ger is that we cannot get a clear understanding at 
the beginning. Unfortunately many of these great 
changes are not understood until the habits and 
social machinery which they produce or bring about 
are too firmly fixed to be easily remedied. Had 
they been more clearly understood at the beginning 
the condition of country people might have been bet¬ 
ter. So we are greatly pleased to have our state¬ 
ments analyzed and discussed. If we are shown to 
be wrong after such analysis we will admit it, and 
get on the right side. Do not, however, expect us to 
accept an opinion for a fact. 


The appropriation desired for the State Police De¬ 
partment for 1919 is over $864,000. Is the service ren¬ 
dered rural communities worth this immense sum? Do 
the farmers of the State really want the State police? 

Oswego Co., N. Y. c - H. h. 

HE best way to answer this question is to ask 
the farmers, and we herewith put the question 
up to them. With the present Legislature and mixed 
condition of the State government anything like a 
popular expression of opinion will receive attention. 
The fact is that this popular expression of opinion 
must be made a foundation part of all reforms. We 
have made a good beginning at putting a fork handle 
on the Legislature, now we must be able to state 
clearly just what our farmers want. Do you want 
to spend the best part of a million dollars on this 
State police force? Tell us, with a brief statement 
of your reasons, and we will collect and submit the 


evidence. This State police is supposed to protect 
rural neighborhoods. Therefore the country people 
should decide whether they want it or not. The R. 
N.-Y. offers its services in an effort to find out 

whether this million is well spent or not. 


T HE final tabulation of votes in New York State 
gave Smith for Governor 1,009.936 votes. Whit¬ 
man polled 995.094. There were 43,650 blank vdtes 
and 16,892 void—that is, improperly marked. The 
largest vote was polled by James L. Wells for State 
Treasurer, he receiving 1,028,752, or a plurality of 
1S8,975. Thus while Gov. Whitman lost by almost 
15,000 five other candidates on the Republican ticket 
won by an average of more than 120,000. On the 
\ ote for members of the Legislature the Republicans 

had a majority of over 125,000. 


T HE retelling of the Alfalfa story in this issue 
calls attention once more to the most valuable 
natural resource of New York State. That is not oil or 
timber or limestone or salt, but Alfalfa. There is 
greater prospective wealth in the Alfalfa lands which 
stretch through the limestone formations of Central 
New York than in any other product now lying in our 
soils. People who live outside of the Alfalfa belt 
cannot quite comprehend the wealth-producing power 
of this crop. Those who grow it do not always 
realize how they have been blessed. These farms in 
Central New York can produce as large crops of 
Alfalfa as any land in the world, and they are so 
situated that the returns for market or for feeding 
are higher than anywhere else in the country. As 
time goes on and more and more of this limestone 
land is seeded to Alfalfa the crop will bring untold 
riches to Central New York and, what is more, leave 
the soil stronger and more productive than ever. 
Grain farming has driven entire sections to poverty 
and depression. ^Alfalfa always leads in the other 


S OMETHING like 50 soldiers have already applied 
to us for information about farms. Some of 
these young men have lived in the country—others 
never saw farm work performed. Quite a few of 
them inquire about short courses at the agricultural 
colleges. The great majority of them seem to prefer 
a location in the East. Few if any are interested in 
the schemes for developing idle or waste lands in 
the Far West. As we talk with these young men it 
becomes evident that their service in the army has 
sobered them and given them a clear idea of the 
situation. Fifty years ago the soldiers of the Civil 
War had, many of them, an almost insane desire to 
rush into the cheap land of the W est—without ex¬ 
perience or capital, and without considering what 
would happen to both ends of the country through 
a sudden increase in the food production. We find 
little of this feeling among the soldiers who are now 
considering this land proposition. They understand 
what overcrowding and overproduction in agriculture 
will mean and they are not going to spend their lives, 
as many of their fathers and grandfathers did, pro¬ 
ducing so much food that only the middlemen and 
handlers could really prosper. What the nation needs 
of these young men is to have them take the good 
larms at present half cultivated or neglected and 
bring them back to good use. That will supply the 
world with food and the neighborhood with new and 
^ igorous life. 


How many fanners in the New York Legislaturef 
HERE was some delay in making out an exact 
list of occupations, as in some cases the soldier 
vote was needed to make sure. The following figures 
are taken from the manual: 


Merchant, 2; lawyer, 26; real estate, 5; batter, 1; 
druggist, 1; manufacturer, 1; accountant, 1; architect, 
1 ; banker, 3 ; business, 1; civil engineer, 1; farmer, 2; 
college professor, 1; contractor, 1; insurance, 2; book- 
keeper, 1; no occupation, 1. 


Manufacturer, 7; mining engineer, 3; banker, 3; re¬ 
porter, 1; politician, 1; contractor, 1; lauuderer. 1; 
farmer. 30; auctioneer. 1; oil producer, 1; reclamation, 
1; lumber, 1; automobiles. 2; lawyer, 47; salesman, 1; 
newspaper man, 2 ; school teacher. 2 ; shoemaker, 1; ac¬ 
countant, 1; real estate, 11 ; broker, 3; manager, -; 
advertising. 1; tailor. 1; dealer, 2; merchant, 2 ; printer, 
2; insurance, 5; business, 6; undertaker, 1; investiga¬ 
tor, 1; basket manufacturer, 1 ; dentist, 1; chemist, 1; 
bricklayer, 1. 

In this list we couut those who permit the word 
“farmer” to be printed with their names. Several 
men profess to have other occupations, but they own 
or operate farms. They never could have been elect¬ 
ed had they not agreed to support farm interests. 
This yetfr there are more actual farmers in the Leg¬ 
islature than ever before in the past 25 years. And 
that is not all. At least 15 men from rural counties 

were forced to give definite pledges in order to be 
elected. These men are of various occupations. As 
a rule they had served one term or more, and polit¬ 
ical custom of their county would give them another. 
The farmers respected this custom in an agreement 
that these men will support farm legislation. There 
are therefore at least 47 men in this Legislature 
who are either farmers by occupation or farmers by 
pledge. In at least half a dozen other cases old- 
time politicians who had betrayed agriculture re¬ 
peatedly were snowed under at the primary or in 
the election by farmers’ votes—and the men who 
take their places know who put them there and why 
they were sent! 

This work of putting more than 50 acknowledged 
friends of agriculture in the Legislature was done 
quietly and without help from the politicians. In 
many cases the farmers found it necessary to de¬ 
velop a new organization and oppose patronage, 
precedent and political habit. The most remarkable 
instance of this was in Sullivan County. There the 
farmers met and designated a candidate and then 
forced the politicians to support him. Strange to say, 
some of the hardest and meanest opposition came 
from men who should have been their leaders. Sev¬ 
eral great farm organizations voted to support the 
movement, yet their officials went up and down the 
State ridiculing the plan and doing what they could 
to defeat it. They succeeded in preventing the nom¬ 
ination or election of at least five farmers, but as 
things turned out they did the cause a great service 
by showing farmers what they can do through their 
own leadership. And so, at the end of round one, the 
farmers come up smiling. They have put 47 farm¬ 
ers by occupation or pledge into the Legislature, and 
they have learned how to do it. If the 47 fail to 
stand by their occupation or pledge we will guaran¬ 
tee that they will never go back, and that there will 
be 74 in the next Legislature who will stand. 


T HE 12 Federal Land Banks have loaned thus far 
$149,004,439 on farm property. This does not 
mean that any large number of farms have been 
brought under cultivation, or that many hired men 
or tenants have become land owners. Only eight per 
cent of this money was used to buy land and 10 per 
cent to erect buildings. About 70 per cent was used 
to pay off other mortgages or debts. Only seven per 
cent was used to buy live stock or implements. Thus 
the banks have been mostly used to refund old debts. 
These farmers have borrowed money from the gov¬ 
ernment at five and five and one-half per cent in 
order to pay obligations which cost them six per 
cent or more. That seems to be about all there is 
to it thus far! 


' 1 tried your plan of 100 apple trees on our Rhode 
Island farm. After the wild deer got through eating 
the bark it seemed the part of wisdom to defer further 
plantings until the State decides which class of citizens 
comes first, sportsmen or orchardists. w. b. welling. 

NOTHER correspondent says the only hope for 
the 100 trees would be to have a farmer who 
would take some interest in them. Some men seem 
to hate a tree for the space it occupies on the land. 
We have had men smash a harrow over a young tree 
and then look back and laugh, thinking they had 
done a smart thing. About the only cure for such a 
man is to have a woman or child in his family who 
will shame him into respect for a tree. As for a 
State that will put the sportsman above the or- 
chardist, there are various answers. The State may 
be as hidebound as a dead stump. The “sportsman” 
may be attending to his business day and night, or 
rhe orchardist may be afraid to say he knows what 
a tree is! 


Cow peas and cow peace go together. 

Apples, hogs, Alfalfa and a limestone soil—a good 

Every dog has his day—and many dogs also take the 

It seems to us that the crusade against the cat has 
simply produced—more cats. 

Turning over a new leaf for the new year is all right 
in its way, but turning over a few old leaves and sorting 
out the experience pays better. 

Tins looks good to us for 1919: Spring pigs grown 
on clover or Alfalfa and fattened on rape, sorghum and 
corn, with a little tankage or bran. 

Last year in New York State alone 969 people were 
killed in automobile accidents. It is claimed that ding 
fiends, drunken men and even insane people are per¬ 
mitted to drive cars. 

Those who stop to listen to all the small talk and 
scandal and trivial things may be said to drink the dish¬ 
water of life. When one come to prefer this to the real 
wine of life we have a case that is close to hopeless. 



Another Milk Fight Is On 

The Producers Are Standing Firm 

A NEW DEVELOPMENT—A milk fight suddenly 
developed in New York City on New Year's Day. 
The Dairymen’s League set $4.01 per hundred pounds 
as the price of milk for April. Dealers refused to 
pay more than $3.60. Neither side would yield on 
the last day of the old year, and the fight began on 
the first. Borden’s and Sheffield Farms reduced the 
price to consumers one cent a quart, and farmers 
stopped the delivery of milk. 

CONFLICTING REPORTS—And so the fight is 
on. At this writing it is only in the third day. Re¬ 
ports are somewhat conflicting; hut the city supply 
is growing less daily. That was also true of the 
first stages of the 191G fight, but on that occasion 
the dealers denied the scarcity and insisted for 
nearly a week that they would have a full supply. 
Now they admit the shortage already, hut announce 
that a full supply will come later from outside 

PROSPECTS OF SUCCESS.—So far the fight is 
being conducted on the lines adopted in the first 
light two years ago, except that in 1916 the fight 
was directed by the Commissioner of Foods and 
Markets under the authority of the State, while 
the present fight is directed by the executive com¬ 
mittee of the League. The plan adopted by the 
department, however, of bringing in all the milk 
possible and selling it to small dealers and stores, 
is being repeated, and the fact that the supply is 
already’ reduced one-half indicates that producers 
acted promptly on short notice and the prospect of 
success is most encouraging. 

Attorney of New York County is continuing his in¬ 
vestigation of milk and has announced that 
the Federal Attorney of the district is watching 
the proceedings and ready’ to take action if develop¬ 
ments warrant. In his first message to the Legisla¬ 
ture, delivered on the day’ the fight started, and of 
course prepared days before, Governor Smith said: 

The present high cost of milk is a public menace. 
It is unnecessary to describe the misery, disease and 
death that follow an inadequate milk supply. Thou¬ 
sands of poor people, and especially children, are de¬ 
prived of sufficient nourishment on account of the high 
cost of milk. There are three parties in interest, the 
producer, the distributor and the consumer. Each is 
entitled to have his interests safeguarded, but not at 
the expense of the others. 

I propose to appoint a commission composed of fair- 
minded representatives of these three interests to in¬ 
vestigate the methods of handling this important com¬ 
modity and the whole milk situation, and speedily to 
make recommendations as to possible legislation with 
the object of reducing costs of production and distribu¬ 
tion, so as correspondingly to reduce the cost to the 
ultimate consumer. 

PRODUCERS’ FIGHT.—Whatever may come 
later, this fight must be won by producers. They 
have taken into account the cost of production and 
made a price accordingly: now it is every producer’s 
duty to himself and his industry to insist on having 
that price for the month of January. If anyone is 
yet in doubt, we invite investigation of production 
cost. We all sympathize with poor city people, and 
especially poor children, when the cost of milk is so 
high that they cannot have a full supply, but neither 
the city. State nor Federal Government has ever 
done anything effective in the milk distribution 
1 roblem, except what the State did two years ago 
through the Department of Foods and Markets, and 
the department was quickly destroyed as a reward 
for its activities then. The city, through the Health 
Department, has always favored the dealers and 
tampered the dairy industry. During the war the 
Federal Government, while permitting and encourag¬ 
ing an increase in the cost of production by its sanc¬ 
tion of the high cost of feed, labor, and other sup¬ 
plies, insisted on a price for milk below the cost of 
production, while it allowed full cost plus a profit 
for all its factory supplies. One of these concerns 
1 just declared a dividend of 200 per cent. Even 
lie Government has no power to take property with- 
cut just compensation. On every thing the farmer 
buys the manufacturer sets his price. The farmer 
has an equal right to set the price on bis productions. 
What is more, he is going to do it. Governor Smith 
rightly speaks impartially for all interests, but he 
simply sanctions what farmers have already ap¬ 
proved. He is known to be friendly to an economic 
system for distribution, and his interest in the 
problem may be safely regarded as a distinct gain 
to the producers. 

THE PRODUCER’S STAND.—Avoid unlawful 
acts, but keep the milk at home and make up a 
supply of butter until the price is accepted by the 
dealers or the city’. They can well afford to pay 
the price and reduce the cost to consumers at the 
same time. With facilities, we will guarantee to dis¬ 
tribute at two cents a quart less than the dealers 
charge, and make money on the operation. 

A FIGHT NEEDED.—While it is a hardship for 
farmers to lose their income at this time, in some 
ways the fight is the best thing that has happened 
in two years. The experience must make it clear to 
everyone that there can be no fellowship, no com¬ 
promise and no fraternity with the milk trust. There 
were pacifists during the war; but practical men 
knew that we could have no peace until Gennany 
was licked. Now we can give her fair terms of 
peace. Just so we must fight the milk trust until 
it acknowledges its own defeat and the dominance 
of the producer in the milk problem. Then we can 
make the price to the consumer; and pay the dealer 
all he should have and no more. This was our 
original plan, confirmed and sanctioned by producers 
themselves. It was approved by small dealers and 
by consumers of all classes. It is the plan on 
which the first milk contest was fought and won. 
Now that the claws of the trust again show through 
•the silken hand we must fight to a finish. Under 
present conditions it had to come sooner or later, 
and for one we welcome the opportunity to fight it 
out now. 

We must and we will win this fight. 

Let us win it on a straight issue without eondi- 
'tion or compromise. We will co-operate with any 
authority, city, State or Federal, to reduce the 
cost of production and distribution; but we cannot 
assume all the burden. Remember what our boy’s 
did for democracy on the fighting line in Europe. 
This is our opportunity to do our part for the 
principles of democracy at home. 

A Statement of Principles 

New York Federation of Agriculture 

Our New York State agricultural law needs re¬ 
vision from beginning to end. No one is satisfied 
with it in its present shape. No one feels that the 
people of the State are getting results commensurate 
with the expense. 

We, therefore, ask Governor Smith to appoint a 
joint committee of legislators, farmers and con¬ 
sumers to revise the agricultural and food laws and 
transportation law relative to food distribution. This 
is essentially a farm function and practical farmers 
should predominate on the committee. The com¬ 
mission should have for its aim: 

I-—To eliminate all useless, contradictory provisions, 
legal jokers, and duplication of functions and services. 

II.—To organize the department on a strictly business 

HI.—-To make the administration of the department 
responsive to practical farm needs and accountable to 
public farm appeal. 

IV.—To stimulate the development of the agricultural 
industries of the State by the solution of distribution 
problems, as well as by the encouragement of increased 

We hold these principles to be fundamental : 
That an efficient and economic distribution of food 
is a public function; that both producer and con¬ 
sumer are benefited by efficient and economic dis¬ 
tribution; that a monopoly in food distribution dis¬ 
courages production; that a full supply of food can 
only be assured by making production profitable: 
and that the preservation of our system of inde¬ 
pendent farm freeholders is essential to maintain 
and safeguard the vigor, intelligence and ideals of 
our citizenship, and the stability of our free institu¬ 

We hold it. therefore, to be the duty of the State 
to provide the public facilities, such as transporta¬ 
tion, abattoirs, cold storage and terminal markets, 
with proper State supervision and control, to prevent 
speculation, monopoly and profiteering in our food 
supplies and other farm products, to the end that 
both the production and consumption of food may¬ 
be encouraged by a ready market, a full supply and 
prices established under the law of supply and de¬ 

Dairying being the greatest agricultural industry 
of the State and a full and regular supply of milk 
being a necessity to city consumers, we hold it to 
be the duty of the State to see to it that milk is 
distributed by an efficient and economic system in 
the interests of both producer and consumer. 

We favor an increased State appropriation for 
country district schools, and when the child completes 
its primary studies in the schools we would guaran¬ 
tee it a seat in a high school at a reasonable tuition. 

Since a surplus in a foreign market sets the price 
for the whole crop at home, if our surplus of food 
goes to feed the people of Europe, we demand access 
to the competitive markets of Europe, or if the pur¬ 
chases are made through a single governmental 
agency, then we demand that the price be fixed to 
cover the cost of production and a reasonable profit. 

To prevent monopoly and speculation iu farm 
products we demand a verified report for publication 

of all cold storage and other speculative holdings of 
food with a check system and penalty for false 

If any soldier elects to own a farm we believe the 
Government should encourage that ambition, but to 
reclaim vast areas of waste land and people it with 
Inexperienced farmers would be a calamity to the 
established farms, and an absolute cruelty to the 
men and families we aim to help. We look with 
disfavor on the colonizing propaganda, but we 
heartily approve wise provision for the boys who 
saved democracy. 

We oppose the tendency to multiply official public 
positions and to increase salary budgets in Govern¬ 
ment departments and in public institutions. 

We favor a continuance of the Federal system of 
inspection and grading of farm products as con¬ 
ducted during the war to protect shippers of pro¬ 
ducts sold for delivery or consigned to distant mar¬ 

We favor the enactment of Federal laws to estab¬ 
lish a competitive market for the purchase of meat 
animals and the sale of packer products. 

Up-State Farm Notes 

hunting licenses are now in the hands of all county, 
city and town clerks. The license buttons are light blue 
in color, and the fees are $1.10 for residents and $10.50 
for aliens. A non-resident angling license costs $2.50. 
Clerks are urged not to issue licenses to boys under 16 
years of age. With each license for 1919 the applicant 
will be given a small folder in a manilla envelope, in 
which to record the number of quadrupeds, birds and 
vermin killed under the 1919 license, and no 1920 
license will be issued without such record properly filled 
out. He will also be asked to state approximately his 
kill during 1918. The Conservation Commission de¬ 
mands this in orde ; r to ascertain the State’s resources in 
food and game animals, and to insure the enactment of 
wiser and better game laws. If a 1920 license should 
not be desired the holders of 1919 licenses are asked to 
report their kills in 1919 just the same. 

cedented number of orphaned children in the State 
there never was so much need of charitable work, and 
never before has there been so much done in the lead¬ 
ing cities up-State as during the present holiday season. 
Syracuse gave its needy ones near $3,000 and has in¬ 
stituted the idea of a charity or mercy chest with a once- 
a-year canvass of the city for funds for the work. The 
idea seems as promising as did the city’s war chest idea, 
which originated here and was copied so widely. The 
mercy chest seems wise, as it carries with it an education 
for the people in systematic giving and demands a sys¬ 
tematic distribution and study of the needs of the poor. 

is not hard for farmers to read the underlying purpose 
of a milk investigation such as the one now being held 
in New York, when disgruntled farmers who have re¬ 
fused to sign up with the Dairymen’s League are allowed 
to accuse the League of blacklisting dairymen not be¬ 
longing to the organization, and of using force, and 
driving them out of business. It was understood that 
Mayor Ilylan demanded an investigation of the distribu¬ 
tion and production of milk. The latter has been very 
thoroughly investigated several times. Why begin with 
it again? Why not give the public some facts about 
distribution that it has never been privileged to hear 
before, instead of rehashing these well-known themes so 
often? For instance, why not satisfy the public and the 
farmers as to who gets the cream of the average city 
milk? The average ultimate consumer gets milk testing 
3 per cent butter fat. or very little if any more. A 
large part of the milk going into the city at this time of 
year tests 3.4 to 4 per cent butter fat. The farmers are 
paid strictly according to their butter fat test of milk, 
and the consumer is thankful if he gets even a 3 per cent 
milk. What becomes of this valuable amount of fat that 
somewhere disappears on the route from producer to 
consumer? This is only one of mfiny points the public 
has much interest in. 

MARKET NOTES.—Last week cabbage sold at cars 
in Homer for $16 per ton, and potatoes at $1 per bushel. 
This week cabbage is $15 and potatoes SOc to $1. Buy¬ 
ers said they expected a rise before this, but it has not 
materialized. Ideal December weather prevails, with 
some snow, but no sleighing. A Fabius man a week ago 
tapped his sugar bush and had a good run of sap. 
Farmers with hard maples that have not been tapped in 
years are trying to locate second-hand buckets and 
equipment for sugar making for the coming Spring. The 
price of new tin or galvanized iron buckets is nearly pro¬ 
hibitive. So far this season three times as many apples 
have been released from State points as bad been a year 
ago now; lo,948 cars to date. A recent seven-day 
total shipment numbered 763 cars. Last year the move¬ 
ment averaged around 75 to 80 cars weekly, with but 
3.1S0 cars to this date. Record shipments of cabbage 
were made in December. 6.151 cars being released to 
date from State points. The season’s total of last year, 
ending April 30, was 6.551 cars. Wisconsin, long a fa¬ 
mous cabbage State, has averaged one-third of our ship¬ 
ments so far, and there are no other competitors in sight. 
New York has also led all States in onion shipments, or 
2.000 cars to date. Massachusetts and Ohio are the only 
competitors in onions, excepting the long-season States 
of California and Texas. State shipments of potatoes 
are 1,500 cars ahead of the total of one year ago. 

Dr. Payson Smith, Commissioner of Education of Mas¬ 
sachusetts, a State noted for its fine school system, at a 
convention of academic principals of the State, held in 
Syracuse, made a plea for Federal control of the schools. 
“The war has revealed,’’ he said, “as never before the 
many-sided character of our schools. The war has made 
it plain that education has to do with the development 
of the soul, as well as of the body. Millions of parents 
have reason to thank Secretary Baker and Secretary 
Daniels for their insistence that their boys be compelled 
to live under clean conditions, with the result that Per¬ 
shing has commanded the cleanest body of men ever 
known.’’ He urged a department of education in the Cab¬ 
inet. with an appropriation of $100.000.<XH> to start it. 
He recommended that all instruction be in English, and 
said that a national program would insure properly 
trained teachers. m. g. f. 



January 11, 1919 

Note Easy 

Smalt Payments 

60 Days 

CompIeteSetMission Furniture 

Don’t misg this stunning: bargain. 

7 pieces—seasoned solid oak—in rich 
brown mission finish, smoothly waxed. 

2 large Rockers, one with arms. 2 large 
Chairs, one with arms. 1 Table, 

1 Tabourette and 1 set of Book Ends. Ornamented 
with rich cut out designs. Seats upholstered in 
Imitation Spanish brown leather well padded. 

Mont comfortable, lasting and beautiful. Large arm chair 
anu large rocker 38 in. high; 25)4 in. wide. Arms genuine 
quarter-sawed oak. Seats 193^x18. Smaller rocker and chair 
have seats 17x16. Table is 24x36 in. and tabourette 17 in. 
high, has octagon shaped top about 12 in. wide. Book ends 

For Living Room, 
Parlor or Library 

i 'ust the right size to easily support large 
looks. Each piece full size. Set will furnish 
sitting-room, parlor or library. Without ques¬ 
tion the biggest furniture offer we ever made. 
Shipped from our Chicago warehouse or factory 
in western N. Y. State. Shipping weight, care¬ 
fully crated, about 200 lbs. 

Order by No. 110AMA9. Price $24.65. Pay 
nothing until 60 days. Then only $4.10. Balance 
$4.11 every 60 days. 

This set is made of solid glue block construction and 
absolutely not knock down furniture. Bead important notice. 
If not satisfactory after 30 days trial, return it and we pay 
freight both ways. Send only the coupon—no money now. 


Note — This great set comes with 
chairs ready to put right into your 
room, and sectional table which you set 
up in five minutes. Don’t compare this 
with so-called "knock-down” sets 
which come in 65 or 70 pieces for you 
to put together. No carpenter work 
for you to do on this Hartman Set—no 
chance of getting shaky furniture be¬ 
cause this set has the solid glue block 
construction. See if anyone else will 
guarantee to send you such a set at anywhere 
near our price. We will not sell the cheaper 
"knock-down” furniture and ask you to do a 
lot of work on it. Get the set that’s com¬ 
plete-ready to use—solid, reliable. 

42-Piece Aluminum Set HSrSer 51-Piece Dinner Set 

Will Not Scald, Rust, Chip or Crack 

Pay Nothing Until 
60 Days 

We guarantee every piece well 
made, of proper guage. Sanitary, 
light, very serviceable. This won¬ 
derful 42-piece “Longw.n” 
Aluminum Set consistBof: 9-piece 
combination double roaster with 
2 outer shells, inside pudding pan, 
6 custard cups with perforated 
pan holder. Two outer shells 
make an excellent roaster for 
chicken, steaks and other meats. 
Using perforated inBet and small 
pudding pan, it is a combination 
cooker and steamer. The 3 pans 
are also used separately over the 
fire as a cake pan, bake dish, 
pudding pan or for any purpose 
where open pans are used; 7-cup 
coffee percolator with inset (2 

g iece3); 6-qt. preserving kettle, 2 
read pans; 2 pie plates; 1-qt.and 
2-qt. lipped sauce pans: 1 ladle; 2 
jelly cake pans, with loose bot¬ 
toms, (4 pieces); 1 caster set; salt 
and pepper shakers; tooth pick 
holder and frame, (4 pieces); 1 
measuring cup; 1 combination funnel,(6piecee);3measuringspoons; 1 strainer; 1 sugar Bhaker; X grater; 1 cake turner; 
lemon juice extractor. Shipping weight, packed in special carton, about 10 lbs. Shipped from Chicago warehouse. 

Order by No. 415AMA15. Price, complete set of 42 pieces, $11.89, Pay only $1,99 in 
60 days. Balance $1.98 every 60 days. 

Pay Nothing Until 60 Days 

This beautiful 51-piece 
Dinner Set sent absolutely 
at our risk—to use on 30 
days’ approval, with a year 
to pay if pleased. Nothing 
topayuntil 60days.Pattem 
derived from the heavy gold 
treatment of King George 
period. Rich in appearance and 
with a border of trellis roses so 
heavy as to be almost incrus ted, 
yet fine in texture, setting off 
the beautiful Colonial Bhape. 

Materials are very durable, 
highly glazed and fired; declara¬ 
tion being placed on each piece 
before the final glazing is exe¬ 
cuted. Correctnumberof pieces 
toconstitute a complete service 
for 6 persons. There are 61 
jieces in all .consistingof 6—9V- 
n. Dinner Plates, 6—7j4-in.Pio 
Plates, 6—8X-in. Soup Plates, 

6 Cups, 6 Saucers, 6—fiii-in. 

Fruit Dishes, 6 Individual But¬ 
ters, 1—10)4-in. Meat Platter. 

1—13K-in.MeatPlatter,l Sugar 

Creamer? 1—f-X-in. Salad*Bowl, !—8X-in. Round Vegetable Dish, 1—8-in. Oval Vegetable Dish, 1—9)4-in. Round 
Fruit Bowl. We guarantee safe delivery, carefully packed. Delivered from our Chicago Warehouse. Shipping 

weight about40 lbs. Order by No. 325AMA12. Price $10.88. Pay nothing until 60 days. Then 
only $1.83, Balance $1.81 every 60 days. 




r avera 
75), 2 r 
4-in. en 

1 metal 

lls toilet pape 
uneled ventila 

hield. Cost less 
free. See what a c 

No. 299AMA52 
mly $3.00. Bah 


ns otmi t n 

Until SO Days 

a penny. Pick out what you want from the items on this page and send 
only th* coupon. When the article comes, use it 30 days on absolutely free trial. 
If not a\l you expect and an amazing bargain, ship it back and we pay freight both 
ways— he trial costs you nothing. If you keep it, make first small payment 60 days 
after ai rival—take a whole year to pay on the Hartman easy payment plan. This 
liberal < ffer made to let you prove without risk or cost the big values we give before 
you dec de to buy or not. This is the logical, sensible way to furnish your home and 
equip y iur farm. Deal with a house that trusts you and has a capital of $12,000,000 to 
back ev ry offer it makes. Just send the coupon—no money. Nothing to pay for 60 days. 

SUflndoor Closet 

You must actually put this 
wonderful, new sanitary conven- 
in your home to realize 
what a comfort it is. And to 
let you prove it we will send it 
for 30 day’s free trial—and this 
offer really means free. Don’t 
keep the closet unless 
you find it as servi¬ 
ceable as the costly 
toilets in the best 
equiped homes and 
city hotels. Put it 
where most con¬ 
venient. Connect 
ventilating pipe 
with outside flue— 
or directly through 
roof if there is no 
flue. No water 
connection to make. 
Automatically disinfect contents 
with powerful chemical. Made of 
strong sheet metal. Seat golden 
oak finished with hinged cover. 
Large inside galvanized retainer. 
With strong bail and close-fitting 
Need be emptied only occasionally. 

Accessories Included 

we send 6-month’s supply of chemicals 
family. (New yearly supply costs only 
toilet paper and bolder; four 2-ft. sections 
ventilating pipe; 1 enameled elbow; 1 

Cost less than 1 cent a week per person to use. 
a comfort it is. Keep it only if satisfactory. 

Price $17.85. Pay nothing until 60 
$2.97 every 60 days. 



$ 1 . 

disc; 1 
Try it 30 

days. Then 

home a 
Parlor £ 

kinds; s 


Construction Upholstered 


Sturdy frame; 
finished in handsome 
imitation Mahogany 
highly glossed. Seat 
leavy steel coil 
fastened to 
frame and 
by steel chan¬ 
nel bars. Back 
has four steel 
springs se¬ 
curely an¬ 
chored. Uphol¬ 
stered in imita¬ 
tion Spanish 
brown leath¬ 
er. Made on 

elegant lines—a chair you will be proud to 
own —and yours on our liberal terms. Height about 
37 in. Width 31 in. Seat from floor 17 in. Back 
from seat 27 in. Between arms 21 in. Seat 21x20 in. 
Arms 5x23 in. Shipping weight about 70 lbs. 

Order by No. 94AMA6. Price $11.75. Pay nothing; 
until 60 days. Then only $2.00. Balance $1.95 every 
60 days. 


For Anything You Order 

Hartman’s Great 
Bargain Catalog 

as 9 


Until 60 Days 

Full 3-Unit Complete 

Vernis Martin Bed 

Refined design—sanitary and sturdy, 3-unit construction. 
Special corner device on spring which gives utmost rigidity 
and perfect alignment. Oval side tubes, stronger than round, 

are another feature. Spring has 6-in. rise and 1 % in. band edge. A light weight 
high quality, handsome, cold rolled burnished steel bed complete. The steel sur¬ 
face is bright smooth and highly polished. Handsomely finished in Vernis Martin 
(gold bronze). Head end measures 49 in. high, foot 32 in. Full size bed 4ft. 6 in. 
wide. Lighter than iron. 1 1-16 inch continuous pillars. Bottom tube and 
fillers % inch. Shipping weight 75 lbs. 

Order by No. 155AM A3. Price $14.78. Pay nothing until 60 days. Then 
only $2.48. Balance $2.46 every 60 days. 

Kitchen Cabinet 

Send for this fine Kitchen 
Cabinet and use it 30 days at 
our risk. Learn for yourself 
how many steps it saves you, how 
it lightens your work. Built of 
satin walnut with beautiful brown 
effect. Wood knobs and handles. 

Large china cupboard with 
grilled wood doors, with crys¬ 
tal glass panels, 3utility drawers. 

Large sliding sugar bin. Ample work¬ 
ing space. Base top 21x42 in. Extensible 
bread board. 2 cutlery drawers. 2 slid¬ 
ing flour bins, each 50 lbs. capacity. 

Sturdy construction in every part. Made 
to last for years. Shipped from factory in 
central Indiana. Shpg. wt. about 175 lhs. 

Order by No. 475AMA7. Price 
$14.85. Pay nothing until60 days. Then 
only $2.50. Bal. $2.47 every 60 days. 

M§i?sticSeparators Majestic v Engines 

hows thousands of wonderful offerings for the 
id farm. 76 bargains in Rockers. 11 bargains in 
lites. 28 bargains in Davenports, 71 bargains in 

Dresser; and Chiffoniers. 22 bargains in Metal Beds. 

in Dining Tables. Then bargain after bargain, 
.s of them, in rugs, curtains, furniture of all 
oves, ranges, dishes, s :i verware, jewelry, clocks, 

washing machines, sewn machines, kitchenware—the 

offers ever mad l \xas engines all sizes and 

cream separators, grinding mills, fanning mills, tool 
grinders, teed grinders, general farm equipment, etc. This won¬ 
derful ca ftlog also fully explains the famous Hartman Farm 
Credit Pl/n, on which hundreds of thousands of farmers have 
furnished their homes and equipped their farms with labor-sav¬ 
ing machinery without feeling the cost. Our immense resources 
and long experince in merchandising are made to serve our 
customers to the utmost. Thus we make it easy to get the best 
merchandise at the lowest prices and on terms which spread 
the payments over an entire year. This is the modern, 
common-sense way to purchase. No need whatever to 
pay all (•)wn. Use your credit with Hartman. Get this 
Great Bargain Book. Hundreds of pages in actual colors. Post 
card brings it FREE, prepaid. Send for it today. 




to Pay 
60 tlays. 


Accept our 30 
days’ free trial 
offer on the Ma¬ 
jestic Cream Sep¬ 
arator and 
ee foryour- 
self how it 
adds to your dairy pro¬ 
fits. Easiest running, close 
skimming. You will see when 
Sou try it. Keep it only if the 
best separator you ever 
used. Thousands of farm¬ 
ers testify for it. 4 sizes, 
375 lbs. 

500 lbs., 

750 lbs.. 

1,000 lbs. 

No Mon¬ 

Before yon buy an engine get the 
engine that gives you full rated horse 
power at least cost for fuel. Sent on 30 
days’free trial. Nothing down. Welet 
theMajea tic prove i ts worth on your own 
farm. Then you decide for yourself 
Keep it only if satisfied it is the best 
engine of all. All sizes from 2 to 14 h. p. 

Free Book5 Iled . withiU8tth ? 

■ ■ facts you want 

about power on the farm and remark¬ 
able testimony from 501 farmers every¬ 
where. No money down. Bargain 
prices. Post card brings book free, 
also book of 601 testimonials. 

Pay Nothing 
Until SO 

Free Books 

Catalog quoting re¬ 
cord breaking prices, 
easiest terms ever 
made and book of 501 
testimonials that 
never was dupli¬ 
cated. Post card 
brings book free. 

NOTE—The books we send on the Majestic Separators and the 
Majestic Engines show the various parts of the mechanism and 
explain why these separators and engines give the most efficient 
results. Every farmer should get these books and see how the most 
approved scientific principles have been applied in design and con¬ 
struction. Everything told in plain language. The books of 
testimonials also give convincing evidence direct from farmers 
themselves. Send coupon or post card. 

To order any article direct from this ad, just mark, 
sign and mail the coupon • No money to send with order . 

4019 La Salle St., Dept. 1657 



4019 LaSalle Street 
Dept.1657 Chicago 

Send me merchandise marked X, it being understood that I am to have the use of it for 30 
days and it for any reason I do not want to keep it, I can return it at the end of that time and you 
will pay freight both ways. It I keep it, I am to make first payment 60 days after arrival. 

(ITTl’P m 11 onus omnnnt-a nnn.o , 1 ., ..n 

1 I I Vernis Martin Bed 

| 1—1 No. 155AMA3 

| 1 7-Piece Set 

1-J No. 110AMA9 

1 —| Upholstered Rocker 

1—1 No. 94 A MAS 

1 | I 61-Piece Dinner Set 

1 l—J No. 325AM A12 

n Sanitary Indoor Toilet 

LJ No. 229AMA52 

I—l Kitchen Cabinet 

1—1 No. 475AMA7 

1 1—1 Aluminum Set 

| 1—1 No. 415AMA15 

| 1 Information About 

1—1 Majestic Engines 

r“| Information About 

L! Majestic Separators 



Nearest Shipping Point..... .... 

□ Sand mo Hartman’s Bargain Book FREE. (If you don’t send this coupon a post card will do) 


©7 be RURAL N E W-Y O R K E R 

London Purple for Cockroaches 

I notice that on page 13S7 A. I. S. 
wants to know how to rid the kitchen of 
cockroaches. If the inquirer will try 
London purple the coackroachcs will 
leave. My house was badly infested with 
them, and I tried everything I read of in 
The R. N.-Y. and other papers. I bought 
a great many of the advertised prepara¬ 
tions, but none did any good. The roaches 
got more plentiful. Finally, learning that 
London purple would rid henhouses and 
nests of mites, I tried it in the house for 

them and fattened them nicely. I was 
told at first to use borax, and I did, one 
of the small boxes, one-half pound, I 
think. Three years ago I got a 5-lb. 
carton of borax. I threw it into each 
shelf of the cupboard, back of radiators, 
and kept at it. In a week the cock¬ 
roaches were as lively and numerous as 
ever, but I stuck light by the borax; 
used it freely every day. I made funnels 
of paper and blew it back of the kitchen 
wainscoting and back of the mop-boards in 
the other rooms. In two weeks they were 


From Day to Day 

The Strength of Little Villages 

The cities challenge across the land: “Lo, 
we are mighty ones; 

Our strength, our speed and our millions 
we are massing behind the guns 
The power of our man-made altars, the 
prowess of our sons!” 

But, oh, the little villages that lie below 
the hill, 

With green blinds and open doors and 
streets so peaceful—still! 

Their thoughts are on a far road in 
France or Italy, 

Their hearts are carried out o’ them as 
a full moon draws the sea. 

For it’6 work and give; it’s help and 
give; it’s wait and hope and pray— 

It’s “your boy and my boy” there, and 
“What’s the news today?” 

The cities challenge across the _ sea: 

“Watch ye our burthened ships. 
Accomplishment dwells in our midst today 
and praise is on all lips— 

Watch ye our mighty portals from whence 
world-traffic slips.” 

But, oh, the little villages all up and 
down the shore, 

They give their sons, they give their 
strength—and still their hearts give 

The needles click, the fingers fly for 
boys in blue and brown, 

For your boy and my boy from many a 
little town— ‘ 

For your boy in the trenches and my 
boy on the sea, 

For all they both are fighting for Free¬ 
dom and Liberty! 

And it’s, oh, the little villages all over 
this our land; 

So little but so mighty, as back to back 
they stand. 

Over their shining cottage doors the ser¬ 
vice flags float high, 

And out on every off-shore wind the 
prayers and blessings fly— 

And oh, ye cities, gird yourselves and 
put forth all your might 

Lest the strength of little villages sur¬ 
pass yours in the fight! 

Edna Valentine Trapnell, 
in New York Tribune. 


The New York health authorities re¬ 
cently arrested a Brooklyn chemist for 
making and selling aspirin tablets that 
consisted of talcum powder, cornstarch 
and salicylic acid. During the influenza 
epidemic aspirin has been used freely as 
a remedy, and also as a preventive in 
cases of incipient cold. The best authori¬ 
ties agree, however, that. aspirin should 
never be taken without the advice of a 
physician. It is a heart depressant, and 
may be extremely dangerous in individual 
cases, or when taken too -freely. It is 
one of many things better left alone, ex¬ 
cept when taken upon a physician’s re¬ 

One of our English friends, writing 
earlv in December, observed that butter 
was'then very dear, two shillings and six¬ 
pence a pound (about 60 cents). At that 
time we were paying 70 cents a pound for 
it in New York. Of course our English 
friend was rationed, and had to buy her 
butter on a card system, but as people of 
moderate means can only spend a certain 
amount on butter, many of. us have to 
ration ourselves when the price gets very 
high - 

The little quilted silk jacket, sleeveless 
or with long sleeves, still remains a spe¬ 
cial comfort to wear under one’s coat in 
Winter ; it does not pull out of shape or 
wear shabby as soon as the knitted wool 
spencer. If to be worn over light-col¬ 
ored blouses it should have a white or 
light-colored lining, if the jacket itself is 
black, but there are very pretty quilted 
jackets all white. These garments are 
very light, warm and inexpensive. I or 
babies’ wear quilted white silk coats come 
in full length to wear under the silk or 
cashmere outer coat in severe weather. 
Little sleeveless coats of brushed wool 
bound with broad silk braid _ in many 
bright or light colors are used like sweat¬ 
ers under a coat, or over a thin blouse in 
the house. Corduroy breakfast coats, 
made in all sorts of bright colors, are 
quite similar to the sport coats of the 
Summer; they are really a pretty and use¬ 
ful fashion, as they can be slipped over 
a thin house dress, and provide extra 
warmth when necessary. 


The following recipe for corn and rolled 
oat biscuits was among those sent out by 
the Food Administration; One and one- 
third cups corn flour, one cup ground 
oats, six teaspoons baking powder, one 
teaspoon salt, three tablespoons fat, one 
cup milk. Sift dry materials together. 
Work in fat well. Combine liquid and 
dry material, handling lightly. Boll or 
pat one-half inch thick and cut as 
biscuit. Bake in hot oven. The ground 
oats are prepared by putting rolled oats 
through the food chopper. All measures 
are level. In measuring the baking pow¬ 
der, level the spoon with a knife. Drop 
biscuits require less baking powder than 
rolled biscuits. 

the roaches, putting it in cracks and table 
and cupboard drawers where the roaches 
hid. The roaches soon disappeared. This 
was more than two yeai'6 ago, and they 
have not yet returned. Care must be 
taken not to get London purple into food, 
as it is a poison. mrs. j. h. 

Borax and Roaches 

Seven years ago cockroaches got into 
our home, and “increased and multiplied” 
exceedingly, the worst pest ever. I tried 
everything that was recommended as 
“good” for them, and it all agreed with 

growing scarcer, and a month saw the 
finish. Borax freely and persistently used 
will clear out the worst premises, for our 
home was a terror. I would have given 
anything to know what to do. I have 
been told that apartment houses become 
overrun. Borax is harmless, easily ap¬ 
plied and will work. Most of the roach 
powders are hard to use, and proved no 
good to us. I used nothing but borax at 
the time, and hadn’t for quite a while, for 
I was nearly discouraged. A 5-lb. carton 
isn’t a bit too big. It won’t spoil if not 
all used, and it got the roaches in a 12- 

January 11, 1919 

room house, every room inhabited. We 
use wood and stumps for fuel, too, and 
always thought we got the start from 
that source. E. G. T. 

Fig Recipes 

Fig and Rice Pudding.—To two cups of 
cooked rice add the well-beaten yolks of 
two eggs, a pinch of salt, one half cup of 
sugar, one and one-half cups of sweet 
milk and one teaspoon of vanilla. Put 
half of this mixture in a buttered pudding 
dish, add a generous layer of chopped figs, 
and add the remainder of the rice. Dot 
the top with bits of butter, bake for half 
an hour in a moderate oven and serve hot 
with a sweet sauce or with cream. 

Fig Cake.—One cup of sugar, three 
eggs, one cup of milk, two teaspoons of 
powdered cinnamon, three cups of flour, 
ono-lialf cup of butter, three teaspoons of 
baking powder, one-half teaspoon of salt, 
one teaspoon of vanilla extract, one-half 
teaspoon of grated nutmeg and one cup 
of shredded figs. Wash and dry the figs, 
then shred them. Cream the butter and 
sugar together. Add the eggs, well beaten, 
and beat for five minutes. Sift the dry 
ingredients and add to the first mixture 
alternately with the milk. Add the figs 
and flavoring and turn into a buttered and 
floured cake tin. Bake for one hour in a 
moderate oven. 

Steamed Fig Pudding.—One cup of 
chopped figs, one-half cup of chopped suet, 
three eggs, two aud one-fourth cups of 
soft bread crumbs, one-third cup of milk, 
one cup of brown sugar, and one teaspoon 
of salt. Cover bread crumbs with milk. 
Chop figs and suet together. Add other in¬ 
gredients, pour in buttered melon mold 
and steam for three and a half to four 
hours. Serve with the following sauce: 
One-half cup of butter, one cup of pow¬ 
dered sugar, three tablespoons of milk, 
and two tablespoons of jelly. Mix sugar, 
jelly and milk, and warm in double boiler 
or over hot water. Add to creamed butter 
slowly. Do not permit the sugar mixture 
to become hot—only warm. 

Stewed Figs.—Wash and dry one pound 
of figs. Put four tablespoons of sugar, 
one tablespoon of lemon juice, half a cup 
of water and a quarter of a cup of straw¬ 
berry jelly into a saucepan. When boiling 
add the figs, cover the pan and let stew 
gently until the figs are tender, turning 
often during the cooking. Serve cold with 
cream or milk. 

Fig and Raisin Pudding.—Soak one cup 
of bread crumbs in one cup of milk for one 
hour; stir into them three eggs, beaten 
very light, three tablespoons of powdered 
suet and three tablespoons of flour sifted 
with one tablespoon of baking powder. 
Have ready one-half cup of minced figs 

For the hoys 
in the service 

The Victrolas 
priceless service 
in home and camp 

Measured by every standard, what could be more valuable , more concretely useful , as well 
as more delightfully entertaining than the Victrola? 

Second only to the actual physical needs of the body is the imperative hunger of mind and 
Spirit for their essential “foods”—music, literature, inspiration, education, comfort and laughter. 
The Victrola is their tireless servant, bringing to them at any place, any time, the greatest art 
and entertainment of the whole world. 

Victrolas by the tens of thousands are in daily use by our military forces on land and sea. 
In more than 25,000 public schools the Victrola is helping to build Young America into a better 
citizenship. The Victrola has taught French to our soldiers, wireless to our sailors and avia¬ 
tors. In millions of homes the Victrola is educating, refining, uplifting our mighty democracy. 

Send the Victrola to the boys in camp to cheer and inspire them! Place it in the home 
for the benefit and pleasure of old and young folks. Prize it for its value , its usefulness, its ser - 

vice, as well as for its unlimited, wholesome pleasure. 

There are Victors and Victrolas in great variety from $12 to $950. 

Any Victor dealer will gladly demonstrate the Victrola and play any music you wish to hear, 
today for the handsome illustrated Victor catalogs and name and address of nearest Victor dealer. 

Victor Talking Machine Co., Camden, N. J., U. S. A. 

Write to u« 


One of Americas great contributions 
to the advancement of mankind 


and the same quantity of seeded raisins. 
Mix the fruit together, dredge well with 
flour and stir it into the pudding batter. 
Pour mixture into a large pudding mold 
with a closely fitting top, leaving an 
abundance of room in the mold for the 
pudding to swell. Steam for full three 
hours. Turn from the mold, set the pud¬ 
ding in the oven for five minutes and serve 
with a liquid sauce, helen a. lyxan. 

Carrots in Various Styles; French 

Will you give recipes for cooking car¬ 
rots in different ways, also a recipe for 
making prepared mustard at home? 

MRS, 11. D. K. 

Carrots are so wholesome that they 
ought to be used more liberally than is 
customary. To keep them crisp and un¬ 
withered for Winter use it is well to 
store them in boxes in the cellar, with 
dry earth sifted over them. As ordinar¬ 
ily served, they are boiled in salted water; 
in Winter, after peeling and splitting in 
half lengthwise, they will take two hours’ 
boiling, but new Summer carrots cook 
more quickly. The little Summer carrots 
are left whole, and seasoned with butter, 
pepper and salt or covered with cream 
sauce. The Winter carrots should be 
chopped fine, then seasoned as above, or 
served with sauce. Chopped boiled car¬ 
rots, mounded in the center of a platter, 
with well-browned pork chops laid around 
them, make an attractive and savory dish. 
It is quite common to mix green peas 
with chopped carrots, and this is a good 
way to use a few peas left over from a 
previous meal. 

Stewed carrots are nice prepared as 
follows : Wash and peel carrots, then cut 
across and lengthwise into little strips 
like matches. Cook in salted water, just 
enough to cover them; by the time they 
are done there will be very little liquid. 
Blend together a little flower and butter, 
then stir this through the carrots, cream¬ 
ing it into the boiling liquid, season with 
pepper and salt, and stir a little chopped 
parsley through the carrots. Serve in a 
hot dish, wth a sprinkling of chopped 
parsley over the top. 

Carrots are also nice when cut into 
dice, boiled in salted water, then tossed 
in the frying pan in hot butter. Have the 
butter bubbling hot, seasoned with salt, 
pepper and a ilttle sugar; stir the diced 
carrots until lightly browned, and serve 
with minced parsley over the top. 

For carrot salad, pare carrots and grate 
them—raw. Serve with any kind of salad 
dressing preferred. The grated carrots 
may be served on lettuce, on tomatoes, or 
both. When lettuce is not obtainable, 
shredded cabbage, as for cold slaw, makes 
a good substitute. 

Carrot marmalade is made as follows: 
Pare and grate carrots to make one pint, 
two cups sugar, two lemons. Use all of 
one lemon, grated, but only the juice and 
meat of the other. Cook carrots and 
sugar together gently about 20 minutes, 
remove from stove and add the lemon. 
Put in jelly glasses or fruit jars. 

Carrot Pudding.—Two cups flour, one 
cup raisins,-one cup carrots, grated raw, 
two eggs, one cup chopped suet, one cup 
milk, one teaspoon salt, two teaspoons 
baking powder, one cup sugar, vanilla or 
spices to flavor. Boil or steam. The car¬ 
rot makes the pudding lighter, and also 
gives richness of color. English house¬ 
keepers sometimes use grated carrot in 
boiled suet pudding as a substitute for 
eggs, an excellent pudding of this sort 
having grated carrot and grated potato 
in it. 

Excellent homemade “French” mustard 
is made as follows: Stir a tablespoonful 
of olive oil into four tablespoonfuls of dry 
English mustard. Add a teaspoonful each 
of paprika, sugar and onion juice. Add 
enough scalding vinegar to make a smooth 
paste, beat well, then set bowl containing 
it in a pan of hot water, cover to keep in 
the strength, and cook 15 minutes. Put 
away in corked jars or bottles; it will 
keep well. 

Vinegar from Apple Parings and Honey 

The following is the recipe for vinegar 
made from apple parings, requested by 
II. M.. on page 1337. .1 also inclose a 
recipe for honey vinegar! as we have tried 
both and found them excellent. 

Save all parings and cores of apples 
when used for cooking purposes; put 
them in a large stone jar; cover them 
with cold water; add about one pint of 
molasses or one pound of dark brown 
sugar to each Ahree or four gallons. Tie a 
piece of cheesecloth over the jar to keep 
out dust and flies. Add more apple peel¬ 
ings as you have them and any cold tea 
you may have left in the teapot after 
meals. Strain off the liquid once or 
twice before your jar is full of peelings 
and add more water to the peelings. Put 
the strained apple juice in a jug and it 
will be ready for use in a few weeks. A 
little more brown sugar added to the 
strained apple water will hasten the fer¬ 
menting, but it is not really necessary. 
This will make excellent vinegar, per¬ 
fectly clear. Peach peelings may also 
be added. 

For honey vinegar, to one quart of 
clear strained honey add eight quarts of 
warm water; mix it well together. When 
it has passed through the state of fer¬ 
mentation a white vinegar will be the re¬ 
sult, in many respects superior to “white 
wine vinegar.” This may be mixed in a 
stone jar; tie cloth over it; when it 
ceases to ferment strain it and put in jug 
or large bottles. airs. w. d. 


Candied Orange Peel; Marmalade 

Can you tell me how candied peel 
is made? . We use a large number of 
grapefruits, oranges and lemons, and 
would like to use the peel. Also, how to 
make Scotch marmalade. c. s. b. 

Orange peel is candied as follows: Cut 
the peel into quarters, then into long 
strips. Put in a pan, cover with cold 
water and bring to the boil; then drain. 
To the peel of six oranges allow one and 
a half cups of granulated sugar and a 
cupful of water; put these in a granite 
saucepan and bring to a hard boil. Add 
the orange peel and boil down quickly, 
taking care not to burn. When the liquid 
is almost cooked away take the saucepan 
off the stove and stir in a cupful of sugar. 
Stir until almost cold, pick apart with 
the fingers and lay on a plate. 

The following is a standard recipe for 
orange marmalade, but the real Scotch 
marmalade, according to recipes we have 
seen, includes some of the bitter Seville 
oranges: Slice thin, without peeling, one 



ihe Rural Patterns 

In ordering always give number of pattern 
and size desired, sending price with order 

0712—Bodice with 
Vest—34 to 42 bust. 

0717 — Two Piece 
Skirt with Pointed 
Tunic — 24 to 30 

Price 15 cents for 

9708A—Over Bo¬ 
dice with or without 
Loose Panel Back— 
34 to 42 bust. 

0710A — Conserva¬ 
tion Dress or Slip— 
34 to 44 bust. 

Price 15 cents for 

0078 A — Plain 
Guinipe—30 to 40 

9714 — Sleeveless 
Sport Coat—34 to 42 

0713 — Two Piece 
Skirt — 24 to 32 

Price 15 cents 
each for the coat 
and skirt, 10 cents 
for the und'erblouse. 

0050—Blouse with 
Side Closing—30 to 
44 hus^. 

0707—Skirt with 
Spiral Tunic—24 to 
30 waist measure. 

Price 15 cents for 

dozen oranges and two lemons, removing 
the seeds. Measure the juice and add 
enough water to make three quarts of 
liquid. But all in a stone crook, cover, 
and let stand over night. Turn into a 
preserving kettle and heat very slowly; 
boil gently until the peel is very tender. 
Measure, and add a pound of sugar for 
each pint of marmalade; boil until the 
peel is clear. It must be boiled down un¬ 
til it will form a jelly. 

The following is our own favorite recipe 
for marmalade, and the grapefruit used 
gives the slightly bitter tang characteris¬ 
tic of the Scottish product: Material re¬ 
quired. one orange, one grapefruit, two 
lemons, three pounds sugar, three pints 
water. Cut fruit into small pieces, re¬ 
moving seeds and “rag” from center of 
grapefruit. Put fruit in preserving ket¬ 
tle. add water, and let it stand over night. 
In the morning put the fruit on to cook, 
heating it slowly to the boiling point, and 
cook until tender. Then add the sugar, 
and boil until the marmalade is clear and 
thick. The original recipe called for 20 
minutes boiling, but this is not long 
enough, the marmalade being watery; 
when properly cooked the tender fruit is 
embedded iu a rich jelly. 

Look for the 
Triangle Trade Mark 

Solid Comfort 

Perfection Oil Heaters radiate 
cosy warmth through long fall 
evenings — take the bite from 
frosty mornings—drive out cold 
all day—all over the house. 

No smoke, no smell—no wood 
carrying, no litter. Instant, inex¬ 
pensive heat—8 hours of it—from 
a gallon of SO-CO-NY Oil. 

Sold by hardware and general stores. 


"What Will the 
Baby be Like?” 

A question every expectant mother 
asks a dozen times a day. Does she 
know that the answer largely depends 
on her own health, and that her own 
intestinal system, which is especially 
liable to constipation, must be kept 
clean or it will encourage the breeding 
of serious disease? There is sound 
medical advice to every prospective 
mother in a booklet called 

“The Days That Go Before” 
which will be sent on request, free, to 
any address. Write today — it may 
save your baby’s future. 

Nujol Laboratories 

50 Broadway, New York 

Mackerel and Codfish 


In the Fishing Business for 100 years at 

You cannot know how good fish is until 
you get selected goods freshly packed. 
We want The Rural New-Yorker’s sub¬ 
scribers to know our goods, and are 
making this “Special Offer” of goods 
delivered to you at your home. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed or 
We Refund the Money 

10-lb. kit Babson Mackerel, $5.00 
5-lb. box Babson Codlish, $2.00 



Horse or Cow hide, Calf or other skins 
with hair or fur on, and make them 
into coats (for men and women), robes, 
rugs or gloves when so ordered. Your 
fur goods will cost you loss than to buy 
them and be worth more. 

Our Illustrated catalog gives a lot of 
information. It tells how to take off 
and care for hides; how and when we 
pay the freight both ways ; about our 
safo dyeing process on cow and horse 
hide, calf and other skins; about the 
fur goods and game trophies we sell, 
taxidermy, etc. 

Then we have recently got out an¬ 
other we call our Fashion book, wholly 
devoted to fashion plates of muffs, 
neckwear and other fine fur garments. 

With prices ; also fur garments remod¬ 
eled and repaired. 

You can have either book by sending^ 
your correct address naming which, or 
both books if you need both. Address 

The Crosby Frisian Fur Company. 
571 Lyeli Ave., Rochester. N. Y. 

Comfort Indoor Closet 

Odorless—Sanitary— Germ-Proof 

Every home without sewerage 
needs one. No plumbing or run¬ 
ning water needed. Anyone can 
install. A boon to sick people. 

Placed in any room in house, in 
town or country. 10,000 now in use. 

U.S.Health Bureau Approves 

S»y9 : - "Chemical Closet compiles satis- I 
factorily with requirements of sanitary I 
system. Abolish cold outdoor closet. ( 

Puts warm ComfortToilet In your home, 
a guarantee of healthy, sanitary condi¬ 
tions. Has all the latest Improvements. Germ-life killed by 
chemicals. Emptied once a month. Needs no other atten¬ 
tion. State Boards of Health endoraelt. Third successful year. 

Representatives Wanted Needed! 

Meo now making $60 to $76 weekly. Exclusive Territory. 

Comfort ChimlctI Clout Co., 42 1 FactoriMBM«.Tolido,0. 

Farmers, Attention 

1st—Are you using Grange Exchange Feeds 
and Grains? 

2nd Do you know that we are offering mixed 
feeds that contain no by-products ? 

3rd—The Exchange State Brands of fertilizers 
are registered and with the guaranteed 
analysis we can assure you High Quality 
and Lowest possible price. 

4th —We have closed contracts with reliable 
firms to supply you with High Quality 
Farm and Garden Seeds, Spraying Mate¬ 
rials, Silos, Sowing Machines and we can 
supply you with anything else you want. 
Write for information. 

New York Grange Exchange, Inc. 

I 303 South Salina Street_SYRACUSE. N. Y. 


With The GRIMM Evaporator 

you will make bet¬ 
ter syrup with less 
fuel and labor than 
with any other sys¬ 
tem. Will last life 
time. Ma<!e in 23 
different sizes. 

W rite for catalogue and state number of trees you tap. 

Grimm Manufacturing Co., 

524 Champlain Ave„ N. W.« Cleveland. O. 

Cuticura Stops 
Itching and 
Saves the Hair 

All druggists; Soap 25, Ointment 25460,Talcum25 
Sample each free of “Cuticura. Dept. T .Boston.” 

When you write advertisers mention The R. N.-Y. and you’ll get a 
quick reply and a “square deal.” See guarantee editorial page. 



January 11, 191!) 

Double Champion 33rd , 211796, Grand Champion Boar at the New York State Fair & Eastern 
Berkshire Congress Show, Syracuse, N. V. 1918 

Put Your Own Price on the Biggest 
and Best Berkshires Ever Sold 
From One Herd in One Day 

PUBLIC SALE, FEB. 22nd, 1919 

In Heated Sale Pavilion 

PA O J Thirty bred sows and gilts, ten P A J 

DU neaQ open gilts and ten young boars 

Sows and gilts bred to Double Champion 33rd.’, L Gilts and boars 

sired by him. . , , 

Every bred sow and gilt will be in pig to an outstanding boar. 
Other herd boars include: Lord Mastodon 245560 the massive 700 
lb. Junior Yearling and his litter mate Premier Mastodon 245561, and 
Highwood Improver 12th, 194043, a 950 lb. hog. 

Send your name to be placed on the catalog mailing list, mention¬ 
ing the Rural New-Yorker. 

Send Mail Bids to H. B. Harpending, in my care. 




The Paying Com' 

The full producing cow—whether it be 
in milk or meat, is a healthy cow. No 
half-sick cow that doesn’t digest all 
she eats or has any other unseen ail¬ 
ment is anything but a loss. 

Nutriotone helps you get every cent 
out of your feed costs. It saves doctor¬ 
ing for indigestion, worms, abortion, 
scours —and many other ailments. 
It’s nature’s concentrated stock tonic 
—not a dope. Mixed with other feeds, 
it goes far. 

We have a Liberal Trial Offer. A 
postal brings it. 

W. D. Carpenter Co. 

Box 50 SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

Fistula *1*5" 

Approximately 10,000 cases are \ 
successfully treated each yea r With . 

Fleming’s Fistofornr 

.. __... mmJ ..tmv.ln • inn) n lit. 

1 ! 

I I • —-— — — — — 

I No experience necessary; easy and simple; just a lit- 
H tie attention every fifth day. Price $2.50 a bottle 
I your money refunded If It fails. Send for free copy of 
I Valuablo for its information upon diseases of horses 
Wi. and cattle. 197 paRes, 67 illustrations. Write todny. 

and cattle. 197 paxes, 67 illustrations. Write toany. 

■.. . n .. 300 Union Stock 

I Fleming Bros., Chemists Yard*. Chicago, m. 


[Upward CREAM 



On Trial. Easy running, easily 
H jflft jgcleaned. Skima warm or cold 
JHJK&P milk. Whether dairy is large or 
small,.get handsome catalogue 
and easy monthly payment offer. Address 
AMERICAN SEPARATOR CO., Box 5075 Balnbridge, N.Y. 

Plumb; $2.25. A Practical Manual on this 
subject. For sale by Rural New-Yorker 


Is largely a result of a healthy 
udder and teats. Any con¬ 
dition that makes a cow 
restless interferes with the 
milk flow and makes milking 

To keep the udder and teats 
always in the pink of condition use 
BAG BALM, the great healing 
ointment. A sure, quick remedy 
for Caked Bag through its sooth¬ 
ing and penetrating effect on the 
tissues. Great for any external 
hurt, chapping, cuts or inflam, 

A 60 c package it a good investment. 
Druggists and feed dealers sell it. 


Will reduce Inflamed, Strained, 
Swollen Tendons, Ligaments, 
or Muscles. Stops the lamenessand 
pain from a Splint, Side Bone or 
Bone Spavin. No blister, no hair 
gone and horse can be used. $2.50 a 
bottle at druggists or delivered. De¬ 
scribe your case for special instruc¬ 
ts and interesting horse Book 2 R Free. 
3S0RBINE, JR., the antiseptic liniment for 
ankind, reduces Strained, Torn Liga- 
ents. Swollen Glands, Veins or Muscles; 
sals Cuts, Sores, Ulcers. Allays pain. Price 
25 a bottle at dealera or delivered. Book “Evidence” fret. 

F. YOUNG, P. D. F., 88 Temple Street, Springfield, Mass. 

Live Stock Matters 

Conducted By Prof. F. C. Minkler 

Sheep on Long Island 

I have 20 acres of wild ground to clear 
and make into a farm. Would sheep do 
well if the bushes were cut off and a fence 
put around the ground, feeding the sheep 
some grass in the Summer and hay or 
cornstalks in Winter? Would they clear 
the ground and pay their way? IIow 
many sheep could I keep per acre? How 
much would it cost me to start in to 
keeping them? What kind of sheep would 
you advise, and what kind of fence? 

New York. L. A. T. 

The two problems that greatly discour¬ 
age sheep raising are, first, losses from 
dogs and predatory animals, and, second, 
the relatively high cost of fencing. True, 
breeding ewes are very high, grades sell¬ 
ing for about .$20 per head, but with wool 
and mutton at prevailing prices there is 
money in a small flock. 

On 20 acres of bush land I would start 
with 25 ewes. This makes a good unit to 
work with. It is assumed that the land 
is rough and well drained; also that the 
ground is not all shaded and that natural 
grasses are holding their own. Either 

about two tons dairy feed, 16 per cent 
protein. Would this be a good mixture, 
or what should be added? ir. M. 

Chester Co., Pa. 

1. Cocoanut oilmeal is not as palatable 
as digester tankage for swine; neither is 
the protein supplied as economical per 
unit of digestible nutrients. While the 
cost per ton is considerably less, it would 
be to your advantage to buy tankage 
rather than cocoanut meal, and with corn 
and oats forming the base of the ration. I 
would mix the feed in the following pro¬ 
portions: 500 lbs. corn, 200 lbs. ground 
oats, 70 lbs. digester tankage. While the 
oats are clearly the most expensive feed, 
it is important that young pigs that are 
to be developed to the weight of 400 lbs. 
should be given an opportunity to grow a 
big frame, and there is nothing that can 
compare with oats in this respect. After 
the pigs reach a weight of 150 lbs. the 
oats could be left out of the mixture, and 
if you expect to carry them on through 
this period of time they should have ac¬ 

Lunch Time for the Live Stock 

grade ewes of Shropshire, Hampshire, Ox¬ 
ford. Dorset or Southdown breeding will 
do well, if carefully selected and regularly 
culled. It will be necessary, however, to 
feed the ewes some grain in addition to 
the cornstalks. They cannot exist on 
fodder alone, although green, well-cured 
cornstalks are especially suited for sup¬ 
plying roughage for mature sheep. Equal 
parts of corn, oats and bran, supplemented 
with corn fodder or hay, would be well 
suited for a breeding flock. Two-hundred- 
pound ewes will require about one lb. of 
grain daily. 

As to fencing, woven wire is best 
adapted, and the 26-inch field fence is 
clearly the most economical. It will con¬ 
fine both the sheep and the lambs, which 
is quite important. If possible, the lot 
should be divided into two 10-acre areas, 
and the sheep changed every two weeks 
to insure luxuriant forage and good graz¬ 
ing. The lambs dropped ought to pay for 
the feed consumed, including pasture, and 
the lloece should be net profit. This ap¬ 
plies to a small flock, but docs not hold 
out with large droves. 

Feeding Young Pigs; Grain for Cows 

1. I have 10 young pigs about 10 weeks 
old; would like to keep them till Decem¬ 
ber. 1910, or January, 1920, and have 
them weigh from 300 to 400 lbs. llow 
' could this be done? I have corn, oats, can 
get cocoanut oilmeal. \N on Id this be a 
good mixture, and how mixed? I have 
no milk. 2. We have 12 cows, no silo ; 
good clover hay, corn fodder, corn on cob, 
oats; can grind grains. Have on hand 

cess to forage crops during the early 
Spring and Summer months. In this con¬ 
nection there is nothing more useful or 
less expensive to produce than Dwarf Es¬ 
sex rape. Six or eight pounds of seed is 
sufficient for one acre. The area can be 
pastured when the plants are eight or nine 
inches in height, and it is one of the 
most useful and palatable forage crops 
that can be grown. I would suggest that 
about one bushel of oats be seeded per 
acre with the rape,* which will add variety 
to the forage, and if the oats are allowed 
to head out and rattle off, they will re¬ 
seed themselves and produce a very excel¬ 
lent aftermath for late Fall feeding. 

2. With clover hay, ear corn, oats and 
dairy feed, one could mix up^i ration that 
would meet the demands of dairy cows 
of average production. I should prefer 
oilmeal or cottonseed meal to the dairy 
feed, and perhaps there would be an ad¬ 
vantage in securing some beet pulp to 
supply the succulence. Assuming that 
the cows are given all the clover hay that 
they will clean up twice daily, a useful 
grain ration from the ingredients at hand 
would result from the following mix¬ 
ture : Corn and col) meal. 500 lbs.; dairy 
feed, 500 lbs.; ground oats, 200 lbs.: cot¬ 
tonseed meal, 200 lbs. In case the beet 
pulp was added to this ration. I would 
feed each cow about 15 lbs. of the mois¬ 
tened beet pulp daily, which would re¬ 
quire the use of about 3 lbs. of the dried 
pulp. The cows should be fed in propor- 
(Continued on page 56) 



• • 



• • 

A. H. S. A. 16643 

Registered Hampshire Sheep 

Rams and Ewes 


Ophir Farm - - Purchase, N. Y. 

For Sale-TenRambouillet Ewes 

1 and 2 years old. Ten Delaine Ewes, 1 to 3 years old. Ten 
Franco Ewes, 1 yr. old. All Recorded and shear 10 to 17 ltis. 

C. O. PATTRID6E & SONS, . Terry, N.Y. 

For Sale-40 Shropshire Sheep 

1—2—3 years old. Also 3 young Rams. All in fine condi 

tion. \V. RAYMOND SEUECK, Huntington. 1,. I 



Grand Champion Stock 



Foundation stock that will improve any herd. We 
are capable of lining your order. 

Prices reasonable. See ours—see others—then be 
convinced. Money refunded if not satisfied. 

SWEET BRIAR FARMS, Inc., Somerville, N. J. 


cave a full line of 

White Pigs 

for breeding purposes, ranging from 10 wks. to 6 
nios. old, bred from registered sires and dams. Also 
a few Keg. Jersey cows, heifers and calves. Send 
stamp for Circulars. KDWAKD WALTER, 
Dept. R, Itox 116, West Chester, Pennsyl van I a. 

Chester Whites 

Young bred sow* for spring farrow, registered, bred to 
“Wondrous,” son of fainons W. A.'s Wonder. Price, $60 
each. Also, choice fall boar pigs at 620 each forquiek 
orders. Registered free. VICTOR FARMS. Billvale, N.Y. 

Choice Sow 3Pigs t R e e £ s d 

Chester White, 3-mos.-old, at $18 each, or $38 per 
pair. Some of the best growthy stock we ever raised. 
Pedigrees free. Booking orders now for spring pigs 

and bred gilts. BRANORETH LAKE FARM. Branrireth. N.Y. 


from half-ton grand champion ancestors. Send us your 
requirements and state how much you want to invest. A 
few boars ready for service. Satisfaction guaranteed 


S C h o i c e 
fall Pigs, 

either aex. Also bred gilt* and sows. One very 
fine 2-yr.-old boar. All registered stock. Write for 
prices and particulars. B. F. KELLAR, R. 0. 6, Kent, Ohio 


For Sale-Rcg.BiflTypc Poland China Pigs 

Best Western Blood. Shipped anywhere by Express. 
Write for prices and let me tell you about my pigs 

G. S. HALL, - Fanmlale, Ohio 



Successor to Westvlew Stock Farm 

If. 1 \Vinnton-Salem, N. C. 

Reg. Ohester‘\^7 r hites 

Service Boars. Bred gilts and August pigs. 

A. A. SCHOFELL, - Ileuvelton, N. Y, 

Kinderhook Durocs 2 S0WS! - 18 -® 0 * old 

All prices- One quality. 


A1 quality Fall pigs. 
Full Information on request. 
JERSEY ASS'S, Kinderhook, Ji. T. 


Boar* ready for service. Bred Sows and Oilts. Octo¬ 
ber Pigs. Prices reasonable. F. B. CRAWFORD, Mirth Eatl, Pi. 



They arrow over a pound a day if fed Intel- 
licrently. Free circular. Guernsey Bulls .[ 


Box R Bird-In-Hand. 

Re?. O. I. C. and Chester White Pigs 

ElHiENE P. KIMiKKS, - Wayville, N.Y. 

Two Reg. Cheshire Boars Ms: 

$*B each. If. D. 11VTTON, Canaatota, New York 

T ^“"4 Sow* bred to S. V. Schoolmaster. 

V_/■ SPRING VALLEY FARM, Meniphli, N.Y. 


sunnysiaeuurots view boars. Fan pigs of our 

September Litters. JAS. E. van ALSTYXF:, Klnderhnok, N. Y. 






Many imported. All registered. Tuberculin tested. 
Milk records kept. Write for price and particulars 

onHerdHeadino Bulls. Yi'alnutGroveFarm,Washlngtonville,N.Y 

MrGeneral Farmer! Dairy Shorthorns “profitable 

breed for you. Try them. We offer a trio for foun¬ 
dation. 2 heifer calves and a bull, unrelated, Choice¬ 
ly bred. First draft or check for S425 takes them. 
A few others. EDWIN EASTERBROOK, Interlaken, N. Y. 

\ lvppflpnii Thebeef breed for tneEast. Mature 
early, easy feeders. Send forillus- 

A -. g- .. ^ frau d booklet with particulars of 
y IA ® the breed and stock for sale. 

Clarence W. Kckardt, 31 Nassau St., New York City 

For Sale Hereford Females 

cows and heifers, all ages. 

Keikout Farms, - Nassau, N. Y. 

Swiss Goats Ju'W d“. p ‘ $40 

A few dry does. No milkers to **11. Only letters enclos¬ 
ing stamp answered. (j. J. SIIAKPLE8, It D. 5, .Nori liton., Pa 

Champion Berkshires 

We breed the large size prolific Berkshire, the kind 
with big bone, broad, thick backs, long deep thick 
hams. Write for circular showing photographs of 
our prize-winning boars, sows and barrows. Wc of¬ 
fer fall and summer pigs both sexes, boars ready for 
service and sows bred to our Grand Champion sires. 


Lowell, Mass. 


Our customers write our advts. Letter from 
L. B. Patterson, Statesville. N. C.: "Price tne a 
sow oi your Columbia breeding. The ones bought 
some time ago are doing finely." Our Columbia 
sows have averaged over eleven to the litter 
for years. 

H. C. & H. B. Harpending, Box 15, Dundee, N.Y. 



Don't buy a pig in a 
poke. Try our way, 
pay when you get the pig. Strictly high elaBS regis¬ 
tered Berkshire*, shipped C. <>. D., subject to 
approval which guarantees what you pay for. Priced 
for quick sale as follows : Three Months old S20.M; 
Four Months old $25.00 ; Five Months $30 00 Tell us 
what you want and we will try and please you. 


Anedjo Berkshires 

Are bred for size and qualify combined 

The big, mellow, easy feeding type, with neat head*, 
broad backs and E X T K A II E A V Y HAMS. 
Foundation herds, service boars, brood sowsand pigs. 

II. M. TERWILLIGER. Mgr. Anedjo Farm,Webster, Mass. 


Registered Berkshires 

A superb son of Successor’s Double. 

7 SOWS of top notch breeding. 

10 SOW PIC81 

21 HO AH I’IGS j s I )nn K farrow from above. 
Prices low. Write for pedigree list. Also a few fine 
Dorset and Shropshire Sheep. 

J. C. Haaetz, 10 High St.. Boston. Mass. 

Springbank Berkshires 

Sows and Gilts bred for Spring litters that I 
am offering are bred to high class boar*. 
Send for price and historic pedigrees. 

J. E. WATSON, - Marbledale, Conn. 


Service Boars, 20 Tried sows and gilts bred for 
early spring farrow. Open gilts. Pigs all ages, 
both sexes. Write for list or come and see them. 


North East, Pa. 


Berkshire shoats, weighing 60 to 100 lbs., from large, 
quick growing, regietered stock; sired by my half 
ton boar, Longfellow 213171. Prices, SIS to $25. 
R. W. WAGNER. Bn 222*, East Northport, N. Y. 

Registered BERKSHIRES 

Fall pigs—both sexes. Good Breeding. Excellenteon- 
dition. Taking orders for Spring pigs. Epochal strain. 

M1DDLKBUOOK l'AKM, Allcnhurst, N. J. 

Berkshires at Wiant Farms 

Iron Station, N. C. “ Received the Pig in good shape. 
It is doing line. Am pleased with it. H. W. LOKTISS.” 
Pigs of either sex to ship on approval, C. O. I). 

DAVID WIAJiT, . Huntington Mills, Pa. 

Cat Rock Farm Berkshires 

We have some Extra line sow and boar pigs, three to six 
months old. Also boars ready for service at very reason¬ 
able prices. 10 sows recently farrowed 133 pigs. Bred 
sows and gilts. Cat Kock Farm, Westwood, Muss. 


PIGS of both sexes. Good breeding. Excellent indivi¬ 
duals. Satisfaction guaranteed. 

TARBELL FARMS, Smithville Flats, N.Y. 

Regisfered Berkshire Boar 



Rival Branfords Lee, 5th. Kino animal. Will sell 
for 8125 if taken at ouee. M. H. HOPSON. Kent, Conn. 

Registered BERKSHIRES 

Will sell a few of my four-mos.-old Berkshires for 
$25 a pair. Mrs. F. C. DALE, Cold Spring. Putnam Co., N.Y. 


considering breeding. 

We are offering a fine lot of 
bred sows and September boar 
pigs at very reasonable prices 
TWIN BKOOK FARM, Newvllle, 1>*. 

L ARGE BERKSHIRES. Masterpiece and Baron Maybell 
breeding. Large husky, spring hoars. Herd headers. 
Bred gilts. Fall pigs. No kin. Best of quality. Cholera 
immuned. Bargains. BR00KSIDE STOCK FARMS, Prospect, Ohio 

"■"> nvl/ch ivnc Masterpiece-I.ongfoUow 
B * v IK3 II I IC O blood lines. Litters from 
eight to 14. Bred sows, gilts, service boars and pigs, either 
sex. Prices moderate. Jno. C. Hroum, G.ttjibur*, P». 

Rorltchirae FOR BREEDERS. 6 weeks old Either 
Del A9IIII ea sex; $10 each. Trios not akin 


One Large Reg. Berkshire Male 

ICmos. old. Ja«. Decker, Lafayette HUl^P.a, 


Holsteins In 

_ The Holstein-Frieslan breed of 

dairy cattle has been established in this country 
nearly 60 years and baa made good from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific. The breed ha* long been used to im¬ 
prove the dairy qualities of the cattle of Europe. It 
is in demand also in Canada, Mexico, Australia, New 
Zealand, South Africa, Japan, Argentine, Central 
America, and other countries, and holds all records 
for largest yield of milk and butter. They are large, 
strong, vigorous, prolific, and productive cattle, and 
succeed under all climates and conditions. 

If interested in 


Send for our b o o k 1 e t s—they contain much 
valuable information. 

AMERICA, Box 105, Brattleboro.Yt. 

Fresh Cows For Sale 

1 OO Fresh cows, milking 40 to 60 lbs. per day. 1 00 
Cows due to calve November and December. They 
are large and in good condition. Will please the man 
that wants extra good cows. I 50 Grade heifers, an 
extra good hunch. 50 of them are due to calve in De¬ 
cember ami January, balance from January on to 
spring. 60 ltegistered heifers, all ages, marked fine 
and carry a lot of good breeding, part of them due to 
calve inDecember and January. 20 Good registered 
bulls, all ages. 

Dept. “ R ”, 203-205 Savings Bank Bldg., CORTLAND, N.Y. 

Bell Phone 534. 


30 registered heifers, bred. 
25 regi8ter«d heifer*, not bred. 
25 registered cows, fresh and 
[springer. 20 registered bulls. 
{30 high grade, fresh and 
springers. 20 stripper cows, 
6-2-year-olds, at farmer’s 
prices. % Holstein heifer 
calves, $20 to $25 each, ex¬ 
press paid, in lots of 6. Come 
at once. We are overstocked. 
JOHN C. REAGAN, Tully, N.Y, 

For Sale-Reg. Holstein 
Heifer and Bull Calves 

@ from $35 to $60 each from A. R. A. stock. 
Send for Pedigrees. Also 3 Duroc Boars, six 
mos. old, ready for Service. Price. $35 each. 

JOHN P. BARTLES, - Flemington, N. J. 

C O W S For Sale 

Thirteen High Grade Holsteins for sale. All 
Five years old. Five fresh now, and eight due before 
Jan. 20. Address A. P. Fulton, Ferndale, N. Y. 

Registered Yearling Bulls 

Sired by a grandson of the King of the Pontiacs from 
a 25.42 lh. dam. at popular prices. Write me what 
you want. D. F. MCLENNAN, 311 Union Bldg., Syracuse, N.Y. 

sALE-Several 50-lb. Grade Holstein Cows 

due to calve in March. Also choice registered Heif¬ 
ers, in calf to32-lb. Bull. 1VOODFIELDS FARM, 
Dr. John N. Rosenberger, Mgr. .Wycombe, Bucks Co..Pa. 

Purebred Reg. Holsteins 

All ages, either sex. Also High Grade Holstein Calves, 
either sex, $20 to $25 each, f. H. WOOD, Cortland, New York 

For Sale—(21) Twenty-One Grade Heifers 

from one to two years old; partto freshen in spring. 
Wish to sell all in one lot. 

W. C. WHIPPLE, - Armonk, New York 


females A. R. O. backing. TERNON CL0U41H, F»rm», MUh. 

nlgnuraOBuOWS Carload Lots and single animals. 
Telephone Connection. 0. L. KAltLINGER, Jlonsey, N.Y. 

30 Head Pure Bred Holstein Heifers 

Harry Vail, New Milford, Orange Co., N. Y. 

Holstein-Friesian Bull Calves wrnffor 

special offer. GATES HOMESTEAD FARM. Chiltenango, N.Y 




frt cpHE dollar mark Is part of a Jersey b«- 
I -L cause she is a real money maker. Costs les* 
to keep than any other cow and her milk is worth 
mor*. Sh* gives tha prosperous touch to your 
farm. Compare Jersey but terf at record* with any 
other breed and you will not be satisfied with 
anything but Jerseys—tha profit breed. 

Ask Breeders for prices and pedigrea* and J*t 
st* send you valuable facts, free. 


880 West 23rd Street 

New York City 


For Sale Two Bull Calves 

8 and 4-mos. c'd. Dams in Register of Merit 
with over 500 lb*, butter as two-year-olds. 
If you want a good bull, write 

E. W. MOSHER, - Aurora, N. Y. 



Several Grandsons of 


P 5012 HC—Out of R. of M. Danis. Priced to 




Shetland Poniesi* H S.& 

herd in biggest Shetland Producing County in U. S 


For Sale LtK Guernseys 


2 A. R. Cows, each. $500 

2 A. R. Cows, one at.$600 and one at 650 

1 Thoroughbred cow. 500 

2 Grade Cows, 5 yrs. old, sired by Lorier’s 

Masher, 16522, each... 200 

Above cows bred to herd sire, Jethro’s 
Masher of Forestdale, 39162. 

1 Thoroughbred Heifer, 2 yrs. old, sired by] 

Yoeman’s King of the May. 600 

2 Heifers, 1 year old, from A. R. Cows, each 450 

1 Heifer, 1 year old. 400 

1 Heifer Calf from A. R. Cow. 250 

2 Bulls, a yearling and one 3 months, each.. 125 

1 Bull 10 mos. old from A. R. cow. 250 

1 Bull 2 mos. old, from A. R. cow. 150 

Above calves sired by Jethro’s Masher 
of Forestdale. 

1 Team Grade Percherons, 6 yrs. old. Broken 500 
I Team Grade Percherons,3 yrs.old,Unbroken 400 
1 Stallion, 1 year old. 150 




Do not delay to write us for prices 
and particulars of the few May 
Rose bull calves we are now offer¬ 
ing for sale, ages from one to eight 
months. They are a fine lot and 
are sired by PENCOYD’S GOLDEN 
SECRET 16550. Write for prices 
and get the kind of an individual 
that will produce a real dairy cow. 

Address: WALTER JAUNCEY, Supt. 

Williamstown, Mass. 

Get Guernseys 

Tabulations made by the U. S. Department of Agri 
culture show that the average income over cost of 
feed from one cow that produces 450 lbs. fat is equal to 
the average income over cost of feed from 20 cows that 
produce lOOlbs. each. Tbe average of all official Guernsey 
records is 450 lbs. fat. Learn more about these p. off table 
cows. Ask for our free booklet "The Story of the Guernsey. 




Have sold my farm and am now offering 
for sale, my entire herd of pure blooded 
and grade GUERNSEY CATTLE-9 
high testing, large producing cows, one 
year old heifer and one bull. Excellent 
opportunity to secure high class animals 
at a fair price. 

J. P. McQUEEN, Salem, New York 

Oaks Farm Guemse 


Bull born March 30,1918, traces six times to Imp. Gold 
en Secret. His dam is now on official test and in 210 
days has milked 9105 lbs. of milk and 394 of fat. Bull 
nicely marked. Excellent individual. Price, $400. 
W. S. KERR, Mgr., - Cohasset, Mass. 



Stannox Farm 

May Rose Guernseys 

Offers some well bred bull calves out of A. R. 
dams. Pedigrees and prices sent on request. 

P. F. STAPLES. Mgr. - East Holliston. Mass. 

GUERNSEYS Young Bulls 

of splendid Adv. Reg. breeding. Guaranteed right 
in every way. The dams milk from 40 to 55 lbs. 
daily when fresh. Buy one of them and grade up 
your herd. Could spare a few good cows. Write 
for prices and pedigrees. OTTO W. POST, Ensenore, N. Y. 


Harbor Hill Guernseys 

Send for Sale List of bnll calves from 3 to 12 mos. 
old. A. R. breeding with size and constitution. 

C. H. HECHLER, Box 60 Roslyn, N. Y. 

&it,iMi«ii,,,„iii,a,m„ai„n, aaaaaaanaaaalaa , lalaBB 


Prices reasonable 

WALLUM FARM, Wallum Lake, R. I. 

William Reed, Supt. Telephone, Pascoag 70 

Thoroughbred Guernseys 

Bull calves, 3 to 12 months old, of high class breed¬ 
ing, sound constitution. Also some young surplus 
stock, all breed, for sale. Sale list on apidication. 

Superintendent “Girdle Ridoe Farm”. Box 425, Katonah, N.Y. 

For Sale-Reg. Guernsey Bull Calves 

one 5-mog. old, 6 May Rose crosses, light fawn and white 
clear nose; a beauty. A. J. FELL, West Point, Pal 


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Feeding Young Pigs; Grain for Cows 

(Continued from page 54) 
tion to their daily milk yields, and when 
they are supplied with all of the hay find 
roughage that they will clean up with 
relish, an addition of 1 lb. of this grain 
mixture for each 3 or 4 lbs. of milk pro¬ 
duced daily will yield fairly good results. 

Sunflower Seeds for Horses and Hogs 

I noticed an article on the raising of 
sunflower seed and its uses. I put some 
in with my sweet corn, thinking I would 
raise a little seed for my chickens. I 
plowed up my strawberry bed about July 
5, drilled in corn and sunflower seed. 
On 1 y 2 acres I pulled a good crop of 
sweet corn at 25 cents per dozen, and 
shelled out 30 bushels of sunflower seed, 
large heads, beside a great deal to feed to 
chickens on the stalks, which produce 
many heads of various sizes which would 
be tedious to shell out. I stored the large 
heads for one week, setting them on their 
edges to dry or cure; then two small boys 
with a piece of lath thrashed them out, one 
head to the minute, in a tight wagon box. 
They made live hay-ladder loads 20 feet 
long to haul them to the shed to dry. I 
would like to know what I can feed this 
seed to, besides chickens and parrots. I 
have two horses and seven pigs, some of 
which I am feeding to kill in January. I 
feed middlings, turnips and small pota¬ 
toes, cooked, and corn on ear. Could I 
feed sunflower seed by having it chopped, 
and in what proportion? d. l. b. 


The practice of growing sunflower seed 
to supplement useful rations for poultry 
is growing in popularity, and within cer¬ 
tain districts in the Western States where 
the growing season is relatively short, 
sunflowers have been successfully pro¬ 
duced for silage purposes. It is claimed 
that the yield per acre is substantially 
greater than the yield of corn in this 
locality, and experience shows that there 
is very little difference in the feeding 
value of the silage. If it is desired to use 
the sunflower seed in the ration for either 
horses or swine, it would be necessary to 
grind the seed into a meal in order that 
digestion would be more complete. Other¬ 
wise a great many of the seeds would pass 
through the system entire. For horses, I 
recommend the following: Five lbs. of 
cracked corn, 5 lbs. of whole oats, 5 lbs. 
of ground sunflower seeds. If the horses 
are working they should receive 1% lbs. 
of this mixture for each 100 lbs. of live 
weight per day. In other words, if the 
work horses weigh 1.000 lbs. and are do¬ 
ing heavy work regularly, they should 
be fed as much as 12 y 2 lbs. of this grain 
mixture daily. It had best be supple¬ 
mented with a mixture of hay, inasmuch 
as Alfalfa or clover hay might prove too 
laxative. As far as the pigs are con¬ 
cerned, assuming that they weigh approx-’ 
imately 100 lbs., the following mixture is 
recommended : Ear corn. 100 lbs.; ground 

In every instance where potatoes are 
cooked for use in feeding swine, the so- 
called potato water should be drained off 
previous to the pulping of the potatoes, 
as there appears to be a toxic property in 
this water that makes the mixture unpal¬ 

Swine Selection and Feeding 

I have raised a few cross-bred pigs this 
year with good results, and am now plan¬ 
ning to raise pigs on a larger scale. 
Judging from reading articles in The R. 
N.-Y., it is more profitable to raise pure¬ 
bred pigs, and as I wish to start with 
proper foundation stock for a permanent 
business, I would like the following in¬ 
formation : What breed would you favor 
in raising swine? Is any particular soil 
(clay or sandy) more favorable for a pig 
farm? How many acres would be neces¬ 
sary to raise economically 100 pigs year¬ 
ly, disposing of same at nine or 10 
months? What crops and acreage of each 
would be necessary? Would you recom¬ 
mend single houses or a large colony 
house? Is there any publication relative 
to administering treatment to prevent 
cholera? t e. k. 

New Brunswick, N. J. 

You are right. It does pay to select 
pigs with some breeding and backing if 
most economical gains are to result. Scrub 
pigs do not make the best use of the food 
supplied, and when their carcasses are 
hung up in the cooler they do not evi¬ 
dence as large a proportion of edible meat 
as we find on the carcasses of pigs that 
have been bred up and selected primarily 
for meat production. It is not necessary 
that you have purebred registered ani¬ 
mals, but I would not select cross-bred 
animals unless both the sire and dam 
were of pure breeding, and I would not 
carry this beyond the first cross. There 
are differences in the characteristics of 
the various breeds of swine. They vary 
in color, conformation, type, age of ma¬ 
turity and in feeding and gaining pro¬ 
pensities. There are good and bad speci¬ 
mens in each breed. Rather than rely 
entirely upon the mere selection of the 
breed to be responsible for successful pork 
production, I would prefer choosing the 

January 11, 1919 

utility type of animal l’egardless of 
the breed, and depend upon those animals 
to convert my pig feed into pork promptly 
and at a profit. I would stick to the lard 
type rather than to the bacon type. Du- 
roe Jerseys, Chester Whites, Poland 
Chinas, or Berkshires are representatives 
of the lard breeds. The Jersey Red is 
popular in your section. If you will go 
over to the swine department at the Ex¬ 
periment Station at New Brunswick you 
will see the various specimens under the 
same conditions and be able to select the 
breed or type you prefer. While there is 
no particular type of soil particularly 
adapted for growing crops for swine, it 
is essential that it he well drained and 
productive and that it will yield generous 
amounts of any one of the following for¬ 
age crops: Rape, oats, peas, Soy beans, 
Sweet clover, Red clover and the various 
Winter grains, and, of course, corn. As 
far as area is concerned, it is conservative 
to estimate that one acre of established 
pasturage or forage crop will support the 
grazing requirements of 20 pigs weighing 
100 lbs. apiece; or of five brood sows 
with the average litters, and generally one 
ton of live weight of pigs can be pas¬ 
tured on one acre. Perhaps the most 
useful forage crop mixture is composed of 
Dwarf Essex rape, oats and Sweet clover. 
A bushel of oats, 5 lbs. of rape and 8 lbs. 
of white blooming Sweet clover is suffi¬ 
cient for an acre. The rape and Sweet 
clover should be mixed and seeded sepa¬ 
rately from the oats, and the entire com¬ 
bination mixture seeded as early in the 
Spring as is possible. It can he pastured 
as soon as the plants are eight or nine 
inches in height and should be supple¬ 
mented with some grain, preferably corn, 
hominy or barley. By all means I would 
recommend the use of the colony-house 
system. Some of the houses should be 
individual houses ; others might be large 
enough to accommodate four or five brood 
sows. It is necessary, however, to have 
the brood sow and her litter alone at far¬ 
rowing time and until the pigs are five or 
six weeks old. 

Cooked Garbage for Swine 

Do you know 7 of any way to cook gar¬ 
bage for swine feeding without killing 
the hogs? Some of us tried it. and the 
acid from orange peels and the tobacco 
killed quite a number of them. T. H. M. 

East Saugus, Mass. 

If you will send to the New Jersey Ex¬ 
periment Station for a copy of Circular 
No. 40, and ask the Animal Husbandry 
Department to send you a copy of their 
last bulletin on pork production, and to 
include a copy of the tentative report of 
the experimental work conducted at the 
State Reformatory at Trenton Junction, 
you will obtain some useful information 
concerning the feeding of garbage to 
swine. In the Seacaucus district just 
outside of New York City perhaps 50.000 
hogs are now on feed and are being sup¬ 
plied exclusively with collected garbage 
from the New York hotels. This material 
is collected in covered barrels, carted by 
trucks to their feeding pens, placed in 
large digesters wdiere it is cooked with 
jteam, the grease skimmed off and the 
idue thinned down with warm water 
d fed to the pigs in open troughs. They 
ave been able to reduce the losses very 
materially by means of diluting the swill, 
blit as a result of this practice they like¬ 
wise reduce the daily gains, inasmuch as 
the pigs are not supplied with enough dry 
matter to maintain their body weight, and 
increase in fiesli. Pigs’ stomachs are very 
small and require concentrated food. If 
they are supplied with a mass of thin slop 
they are always hungry, and it is difficult 
to make satisfactory gain. If, on the other 
hand, some other grain, such as cornmeal 
and hominy, is fed in addition to the gar¬ 
bage dilution, and where molasses also is 
added to the mixture, the gains have been 
larger. It is very probable that the losses 
from feeding garbage result from gas¬ 
tritis rather than poison. It is not un¬ 
common to find broken glass in the gar¬ 
bage pail, and as this material enters the 
pigs’ stomach it virtually slits the intes¬ 
tines and injures the walls of the stomach 
in such a manner as to produce inflam¬ 
mation which results in infection and 
winds up with gastritis. Raw garbage is 
fed extensively in the Asbury Park dis¬ 
trict, especially during the Summer sea¬ 
son, and does not entail as great losses 
from digestive disorders, although the ir¬ 
regular composition of the material makes 
it impossible to feed full rations without 
grain supplements. 

Ration for Freshening Heifers 

Will you give an explanation of what 
you think is the best feed to develop big 
udders on heifers that come in during 
March and April? c. A. s. 

I know of no particular ration that will 
have any special influence upon the 
velopment of the udder. A heifer due to 
freshen in March or April should be fed 
generously during the Winter months, and 
a useful ration would result from the fol¬ 
lowing mixturb: Cornmeal, 100 lbs.; 
wheat bran, 100 lbs.; ground oats, 100 
lbs. Assuming that the heifer will weigh 
000 lbs., it would be proper to feed her 
nine pounds daily of this mixture, and, 
in addition, all of the clover or Alfalfa 
hay that she will consume with relish. 
After the heifer is safely settled she 
should he fed liberally, and it is good 
practice to have them relatively high iu 
flesh at the end of their gestation. 



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January 11, 1919 

The International Live Stock Exposition 
Part II. 

The show of Duroc Jerseys was quite 
unusual in this respect, inasmuch as a 
number of the prominent breeders had 
Tull herds on exhibition. Brookwater 
Farm consigned 52 head of bred gilts to a 
sale held under the auspices of the Na¬ 
tional Duroc Association, and obtained 
an average of $428 per head on his entire 
offering, the highest-priced sow being his 
grand champion senior yearling, which 
was sold for $2,225 to Thomas Johnson 
of Columbus, O. Ira Jackson of Ohio 
won grand championship on his junior 
yearling boar, Jackson’s Orion King, while 

H. W. Mumford of Ann Arbor won grand 
championship on his senior yearling sow. 

The show of fat barrows was clearly the 
most attractive feature of the swine ex¬ 
hibit. The classification enables the ex¬ 
hibits of the Agricultural College to com¬ 
pete in the open classes, while the Clay 
Robinson specialties reassembled the col¬ 
lege entries for comparison by ages and 
in groups. 

Purdue University won first in both the 
open and in the college classes for the 
champion pen of five animals, on a pen 
of Berkshires under six months of age; 
they were as near alike as five peas and 
fitted to the minute. They lacked the 
weight and flesh displayed by their com¬ 
petitors, especially the Durocs, but the 
judge, Tom Patterson of Kentucky, 
seemed determined to emphasize uniform¬ 
ity rather than weight with quality. The 
grand champion barrow was a Chester 
White, bred and owned by the University 
of Illinois. There was a difference of 
opinion, naturally, concerning this award, 
ringside comment favoring decidedly the 
Duroc-Jersey barrow exhibited by the 
Pennsylvania State College. The Duroc 
weighed 750 'pounds and displayed a 
wealth of flesh and a depth of covering 
over the back, loin and ham that chal¬ 
lenged comparison. The Chester White 
was mellow with perhaps firmer flesh, 
■while the Poland China that was made 
reserve champion displayed more quality 
and scale. 

With the Berkshires the classes were 
larger and consequently competition 
sharper. W. S. Corsa, Whitehall, Ill., 
captured the purple ribbon in the male 
classes, and Hood Farm was awarded the 
grand championship in the female classes. 
There was evidence of marked uniformity 
and quality among the Berkshires, and 
the suggestion was made and supported 
that had the judge recognized and un¬ 
covered the clearly outstanding entry of 
Iowana Farms, a different tale would have 
been related in telling the story about the 
grand champion barrow. 

The chief attraction in Poland China 
circles was a mammoth boar weighing 

I, 040 pounds and exhibited by an Illinois 
breeder. It is doubtful if a smoother, 
more symmetrical animal has ever crossed 
the Poland China arena. It was pleasing 
to find that constructive breeders of this 
popular type are rapidly getting away 
from the pudgy specimens that have too 
frequently ruled the show ring. 

The Chester White exhibit was void of 
any outstanding individuals, with the ex¬ 
ception of the grand champion barrow, 
and it would appear to casual observers 
that greater attention should be paid by 
admirers of this breed toward developing 
a stronger and straighter back and a 
plumper ham. There was abundant evi¬ 
dence of the early maturing qualities usu¬ 
ally displayed by Chester Whites; never¬ 
theless the addition of refinement and 
symmetry would increase their popularity. 
A whole hog delivers a very attractive 
dressed carcass. 

Hampshire breeders received an added 
stimulus as a result of the awards in the 
carload lot division, and it is but fair to 
suggest that greater improvement has been 
manifested in the type of the belted hog 
than has obtained with any other breed 
during the past few years. Nevertheless 
one cannot overlook their ratty heads, nor 
reconcile the fact that they lack stretch, 
filling at the ham and uniformity and con¬ 
formation. Any breed supported by fol¬ 
lowers that pay more attention to an odd 
color mark than they do to genuine feed¬ 
ing and fleshing qualities must always be 
rated third class. There, were only a few 
Tam worths and Yorkshires, for the In¬ 
ternational is clearly a fat stock show, 
and a strictly bacon hog could scarcely be 
popular in such company. 

Sensation after sensation permeated the 
atmosphere in the sheep department. The 
champion wether, a Southdown fitt-d by 
Tom Bradbourn for Jess C. An ews of 
Stoney Point, Ind., was perhaps the ripest 
specimen of the fat stock show. His 
shoulders were as smoothly covered his 
back and loin, while his leg-o’mutton was 
full, plump and well rounded. His near¬ 
est competitor was a Shropshire wether 
fitted by the same genius, but the reserve 
champion went to an Oxford owned by 
Uncle Dix Stone. 

It is evident that the present valuation 
of wool is serving as a real stimulus to 
sheep raising, and could we inaugurate 
some efficient legislation that would pro¬ 
tect the flock of the small farmer from 
the ravages of predatory animals and 
dogs, we would soon find an increased 
number of flocks on the cheap waste lands 
in the Eastern States. 

At this show the criticism was made 
and was well sustained that fleece color¬ 
ing should be promptly abandoned, and 
exhibitors of Oxrords and Hampehires were 
the chief offenders. If the ochre is in¬ 
troduced to cover up black hairs in the 
fleece, it is at best a questionable prac¬ 

tice. and the spectators would greatly ap¬ 
preciate a discontinuance of this custom. 

With the fine and long-wool breeds 
there was keen competition, and one can 
but admire the character and refinement 
that is finding a permanent home in the 
Cheviots, the Doreets and the Rambouil- 
lets. The infusion of their blood i»s invig¬ 
orating the flocks of the Western ranges, 
and consequently the yield of wool per 
animal is being materially increased. The 
New England farmer who is concerned 
in increasing the production and income 
from his hilly land would profit from the 
experiences of the Ohio sheep farmers who 
are now realizing unusual incomes from 
their sheep-farming operations. 


Shrink in Milk 

I have a Holstein heifer which calved 
the first time January 1. 1918; three 
years old last Spring. When fresh she 
gave about 15 quarts daily. During the 
Summer while on pasture I did not feed 
her any grain and she averaged about 11 
to 8 qts. daily until the middle of Au¬ 
gust, when she dropped to about 4 qts. 
daily. This was due, I think to drought 
drying up the pasture. October 1 I start¬ 
ed feeding her cornstalks in addition to 
what pasture she could get. November 1 
I commenced feeding her corn and oat 
chop and bran at the rate of 8 qts. bran 
and 4 qts. chop daily. I also substituted 
clover hay for cornstalks. She gained 
until she was giving about G qts. daily. 
November 1G I stopped feeding clover hay 
entirely and started feeding good clean 
Timothy alone, for roughage, and con¬ 
tinued the grain ration as before. No¬ 
vember 18 she suddenly dropped to about 
a pint of milk daily and has gradually 
dried up until now she does not give a 
cupful daily. November 27 I changed 
back to cornstalks for roughage, but with¬ 
out any difference in the milk. The cow 
is not due to freshen until March 23 next. 
She is in good condition and has never 
shown any signs of being sick. Neither 
has she had access to anything to eat that 
might have caused her to dry up. I 
would like to know if the sudden change 
from clover to Timothy hay could have 

caused this condition? If so, will a 
change back to clover cause her to regain 
her milk? If this is not the case, what 
could have caused her to dry up so quick¬ 
ly? c. R. B. 

New York. 

It is the common experience of dairy¬ 
men that once a cow, especially if she is 
toward the end of her milking period, 
goes off feed and her milk flow is substan¬ 
tially reduced, it is practically impossible 
to bring her back into full flow of milk. 
In this case it is doubtful if the sudden 
change from clover hay to Timothy was 
entirely responsible for the low produc¬ 
tion ; especially should it be doubted if 
the grain ration was continued in full 
amount. There has been something irreg¬ 
ular throughout the entire lactation pe¬ 
riod of this animal, and one might easily 
assume that she was not a persistent 
milker. Any change from Timothy back 
to clover will not in itself revive the full 
flow of milk. The chances are that the 
heifer would best be dried off and placed 
in good condition as far as fleshing is con¬ 
cerned until she freshens again. The ra¬ 
tion you are feeding lacks succulence and 
protein. Beet pulp, especially if molasses 
is added, would substitute for silage, and 
if by chance you could get hold of some 
mangels and rutabagas you would stand a 
better chance of returning this heifer to 
an increased flow of milk. Dried corn¬ 
stalks and Timothy hay make a very in¬ 
ferior combination for use in feeding 
milch cows. Timothy hay especially is 
unpalatable and indigestible and re¬ 
quires a great deal of nutrients that must 
be obtained from other sources to com¬ 
plete digestion. In addition to the beet 
pulp and mangels, I would suggest that a 
1,000-lb. heifer be given 12 lbs. per day 
from the following mixture: Cornmeal, 
100 lbs.; hominy meal, 100 lbs.; ground 
oats, 100 lbs.; cottonseed meal, 50 lbs.; 
oilmeal, 50 lbs. In addition, give all of 
the roughage she will clean up with relish. 
Clover hay -would give the best results. 

_ F. C. M. 

Wanted: City Milk Distribution 

At the recent meeting of the Federation 
of Jewish Farmers of America the fol¬ 
lowing resolution was adopted: 

Whereas, It is the conviction of the 
Federation of Jewish Farmers of Amer¬ 
ica that the interests of the producers of 
milk and the consumers of milk in the 
City of New York, and in other large dis¬ 
tributing centers are common. 

And that the interests of both con¬ 
sumer and producer will be best con¬ 
served by a free and economic and effi¬ 
cient system of distribution conducted in 
harmony with the law of supply and de¬ 
mand ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That the Federation of Jew¬ 
ish Farmers of America at its tenth an¬ 
nual convention in the city of New York, 
held in the Educational Alliance building 
from December 7 to 10, 1918, emphasizes 
the principle that the economic distribu¬ 
tion of milk and other food products is 
the concern of all the people of the State, 
and to provide such a system of distribu¬ 
tion is a proper function of the State 1 , 
therefore, be it further 

Resolved, That we respectfully urge 
upon Governor-elect Alfred E. Smith and 
members of the Legislature that the State 
provide facilities to pasteurize and dis¬ 
tribute sufficient milk in the city of New 
York to establish such an economic dis¬ 
tribution, and to demonstrate the cost of 
the service, to the end that, having estab¬ 
lished an efficient system, and having 
demonstrated the proper cost of distribu¬ 
tion under that system, the State may, 
through its own service, secure the dis¬ 
tribution of milk from the farmer’s hands 
to the consumer’s doors at reasonable cost 
to the consumer, and maintain a steady 
market for the farmer at a price to cover 
the cost of production at a reasonable 

He (to taxi driver) : “Hey you! You 
haven’t given me enough change!” 
Driver: “Well, you can’t expect to hire 
a taxi, a driver and an expert accountant 
all for a quarter!”—Burr. 

“I told Henrietta that I was proud to 
see her vote just like a man,” said Mr. 
Meekton. “Did that please her?” “No. 
The choice of phrase was unfortunate. 
She said that if she couldn’t vote better 
than a man there would have been no need 
of her troubling about the ballot in the 
first place.”—Credit Lost. 


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The Case m i 

3 ulls 3 Plows in Hard Plowing— 

4 Plows Under Favorable Conditions 

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While rated at 27 horsepower 
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In fields where plowing is 
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Your field conditions will de¬ 
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high gear. 

A complete illustrated and de¬ 
scriptive catalog of all Case 
Kerosene Tractors will be sent 
gladly, upon request. 


Inc. 1554Erie St., Racine, Wi#., U. S. A. 


1 Weighs about 5.GOO pounds. 

Low and compact with short 
wheelbase. Turning radius 13% 
ft. Stays on all fours. 

2 Rated 15 horsepower on the 
drawbar and 27 horsepower 
on the belt, which is only 80 
per cent of its actual capacity. 

3 Four-cylinder Case valve-ln- 
head motor. Removable 
head. Motor Is set crosswise 
on frame, affording use of all 
spur gears. This conserves 

4 One-piece cast main frame, 
forming dustproof housing 
for rear axle, bull pinion shaft, 
transmission and the bearings 
for these parts. Also a base 
for motor. This construction 
brings rigidity and prevents 

5 Belt pulley mounted on the 
engine crank shaft. No gears 
used to drive it. Pulley is part 
of the tractor, not an extra¬ 
cost accessory. 

6 All traction gears are cut 
steel, enclosed and running 
in oil. No bevel gears, chain, 
worm or friction drive parts. 

7 Case Sylphon Thermostat 
controls cooling system and 
insures complete combustion 
of kerosene in the motor. Pre¬ 
vents raw fuel from passing 
by pistons and diluting oil in 
the crank case. 

8 Case air washer delivers 
clean air to carburetor. No 
grit nor dust gets into cylin¬ 
ders to minimize their effi¬ 
ciency and shorten their life. 

9 All interior motor parts lu¬ 
bricated by a combination 
pump and splash system. 
Speed governor, fan drive and 
magneto arc dustproof and 
well oiled. 


10 throughout. High tension 
ignition. Kingston carburetor. 
Radiator with a cast frame. 
Core, copper fin and tube: non- 
clogging type. 

The Family Cow and Her Troubles 

NO. IV. 



miii!iii!i uni; 

The average automobile owner gets 
more satisfaction out of owning a car if 
he understands how to make the more 
simple repairs and knows when the trou¬ 
ble is serious enough to let the expert do 
the tinkering. The same logic applies in 
owning a family cow, and the family cow, 
like the automobile, is likely to have her 

Milk Fever. —This is one of the less 
frequent diseases of the family cow, and 
yet one. that is most sure to result in 
death if the proper treatment is not 
quickly applied. It usually occurs within 
48 hours after calving, and with heavy 
milkers. Paralysis takes place, and the 
cow is unable to rise. The head is turned 
to one side and rest on the chest with the 
muzzle pointing towards the flank. Death 
usually occurs inside of 24 hours unless 
the udder is inflated with air. Special 
milk fever outfits can be purchased for 
this work, and by taking the necessary 
precautions and following directions, any¬ 
one can bring the cow out of an attack 
and have her on her feet within a few 
hours. For the one-cow owner this is one 
of the cases when it is best to call a vet¬ 
erinarian. There is little difficulty in 
recognizing the disease. 

Abortion. —Giving birth to the calf pre¬ 
maturely usually at the fifth or seventh 
month is known as abortion. The abor¬ 
tion may be accidental as the result of 
some injury. If this be the case, there is 
not so much to worry about except the re¬ 
sulting loss of milk. Abortion is usually 
of the contagious character, however, and 
in case of the family cow is usually con¬ 
tracted from an infected bull. Owners of 
family cows should make it a point to find 
out if the herds containing the bull that 
serves their cow are having trouble with 
abortion. If this is the case, take the 
cow to some other bull where the trouble 
does not exist. If cow calves premature¬ 
ly, douche her with a warm one per cent 
solution of lysol or creosol. A funnel 
and rubber tube are necessary. A douche 
should be given once in two days at first 
and twice a week as long as any dis¬ 
charges appear. The cow should not be 
used until discharges disappear. 

Tuberculosis. —This disease must be 
detected by the tuberculin test, conducted 
by a veterinarian. Where milk is used 
largely for infant feeding one should sat¬ 
isfy himself that the cow is free from 
tuberculosis, since authorities generally 
agree that children under five years of 
age may contract the bovine type of the 
disease through the use of the milk. The 
other remedy is to pasteurize the milk 
by heating it to 145 degrees F. and hold¬ 
ing for 30 minutes. 

Congestion of Udder. —This frequent¬ 
ly occurs after calving, and is not a cause 
for alarm, if milk can be drawn from all 
quarters. The ration should be smaller 
than usual and laxative feeds such as 
wheat bran and oil meal should be used. 
Relief in badly congested quarter can be 
brought about by rubbing it with hot lard 
or applying antiphlogistine. 

Garget or Udi>er Inflammation.— 
This is chronic with some cows. Injury, 
exposure to too severe weather or too 
heavy grain feeding may "bring it about. 
The udder or infected quarters sometimes 
swell and the milk is stringy or lumpy. 
Cut. the feed down for a time and give a 
pound of Epsom salts as a drench, also 
give an ounce of saltpeter a day for two 
or three days. This may be given in the 
graiu feed. 

Chapped Teats. —Occur in cold weath¬ 
er. The application of a little vaseline 
when the trouble is first noticed usually 
overcomes the trouble. 

Warts on Tf.ats. —If these become 
numerous, large or troublesome in milk¬ 
ing, remove them with sharp scissors and 
touch up each spot with a stick of caustic 

Lice. —-This is the most common pest 
of the dairy cow, causing the most trou¬ 
ble during the Winter months. The lice 
are found mostly on the forehead, throat, 
over the shoulder tops, on the tail and 
escutcheon. The cow becomes greatly ir¬ 
ritated and rubs hair off infected parts, 
is apt to get into poor condition and drop 
off in milk flow, l’rof. Lamson of the 
Storrs Experiment Station has recently 
found that raw linseed oil applied with a 
stiff brush is the cheapest and most ef¬ 
fective remedy. In applying the oil, rub 
it in lightly with the brush and keep the 
cow quiet and away from direct sunlight 
for a few hours to avoid any burning. 
The first application should be repeated 
in 10 days, and succeeding applications 
should be made once a month. The treat¬ 
ment should begin about the first of Octo¬ 
ber, before tbe lice appear, and under no 
conditions should one wait until tbe cow 
is badly infected before applying the oil. 

Flies. —Flies in Summer and lice in 
Winter! When does the cow get any 
peace? Flies in the one-cow dairy can be 
handled more practically than in the large 
dairy, although they are not an easy 
thing to control. Fly repellents are on 
the market, that if sprayed on the cow 
each day will help some. With one cow 
this can be done at small expense. 

Abnormal Milk. —Abnormal milk oc¬ 
curs very freqently in the one-cow dairy, 
and is more noticeable than in the large 
herd. Bloody milk is usually caused by 
the rupturing of a blood vessel in the 
udder. This may occur in one or all four 
quarters. In severe cases the trouble is 
not likely to be overcome until the cow is 
dried off. The blood vessel 'will then heal 

Food! To supply enough for hungry 
millions stricken by war is one of the 
most vital of all the problems confronting 

Production must be tremendously in¬ 
creased if the world is to be saved from 

Europe, despoiled and depopulated, has 
become a continent almost entirely of 

It remains for America to feed the world. 

Last year, meeting its obligation, America fur¬ 
nished to other countries almost twelve million tons 
. of foodstuffs. 

But the need increases. And in 1919 America 
alone is pledged to contribute twenty million tons 
to hungry humanity abroad. 

To accomplish the mighty task every acre must 
be made to produce its maximum capacity. 

The shortage in man power and horse power 
that menaces the undertaking can only be offset 
by mechanical power. 

We must have tractors. And with them we 
must have tractor tillage implements that fit the 
ground best—that have the built-in quality to with¬ 
stand the strains of racking service day by day. 

Oliver, as the world’s largest manufacturer of 
plows and other tractor implements, is deeply 
conscious of its responsibility in the emergency. 

And Oliver will rise to that responsibility even if 


January 11, 1919 

all right. Tho colostrum or milk given 
after calving is naturally abnormal and 
is not considered fit for use until after 
the sixth milking. When the cow is 
nearly dry, particularly if she has been 
milking for some time, she is prone to 
give milk that may be bitter or strong. 
The only remedy is to dry the cow off. 
The trouble will be overcome when she 
freshens. If abnormalities develop in 
milk or cream after it is drawn, such as 
a stringy or ropy condition, it is likely 
due to bacterial growth and a careful 
scalding of all utensils with which milk 
comes in contact will overcome the trou¬ 
ble. H. F. JUDKINS. 

Proportion of Cream in Milk 

Could you give me some idea of the 
approximate amount of cream I could ob¬ 
tain (by separator) from 40 quarts of 
Jersey or Guernsey milk? With milk at 
9c per quart, what would be a fair price 
for this cream, and what would be the 
approximate value of the skim-milk for 
poultry or hogs? II. S. 

Cottekill, N. Y. 

An average test for Guernsey and Jer¬ 
sey milk may be put at 5.4 per cent. 
Forty quarts milk weigh 86 lbs. 

86 X .054 = 4.644 lbs. of fat. 

The cream you would get from this milk 
with a separator would depend entirely 
on whether the cream screw was set for a 
high-testing or a low-testing cream. How¬ 
ever 30 per cent fat may be taken as a fair 
average for this purpose. The loss of fat 
in the skim-milk is so small it can be 

4.644 -f- .30 = 15.4S lbs. cream 

15.48 -t-2 = 7.74 qts. cream 

40 x .09 = $3.60 for milk 
3.60 -j- 7.74 = $0.46 per qt. for cream. 

With milk at 9e per quart you should 
get 40 to 45c per quart for this cream. 
The ekim-milk is worth 1 to 1% a quart 
for hog feeding, and double this 
amount for poultry. If cream was sold 
on butterfat basis to creamery you would 
have to get 65c per lb. of fat to break 
even, figuring the skim-milk at 2c per 
quart. h. F. J. 

Grain with Aisike Clover 

Will you make out a balanced ration 
with the following feeds? Corn and cob 
meal, ground oats, wheat bran and oil- 
meal. I have Aisike clover for roughage. 

Ohio. F. A. c. 

Feed all the Aisike clover your cows 
will clean up at least three times a day, 
possibly giving one feed after supper. If 
you have plenty of it, the more the cows 
will eat the cheaper milk you can make. 
Make grain ration two parts corn and 
cob meal, one part each ground oats and 
bran and 1% parts oilmeal. Add 1 lb. 
salt to each 100 lbs. feed. Feed a 1-lb. 
grain mixture to about 3% to 4 lbs. milk 
produced daily. H. F. j. 

Rations for Dairy Cows and Idle Horses 

Will vou tell me what I lack for a bal¬ 
anced ration for my Guernsey cows? I 
have poor stack hay, mixed clover, and 
corn silage that is very rich in corn. The 
corn was Learning and well eared and 
glazed, and it was put up without frost¬ 
ing. I also have straw, mixed oat, bar¬ 
ley and wheat. The cows are milking 
and will be in January and February. I 
also am feeding ground oats, barley and 
bran, mixed in equal parts, by measure, 
with about a teacup of oilmeal to four 
horses extra. I am feeding four quart* 
twice a day of the ground feed, and am 
feeding nothing but straw for roughage. 
Is the feed all right? I am short of good 
horse hay. The horses weigh about 1,150 
pounds and are not working. E. M. B. 

New York. 

For horses not working heavily your 
feed is entirely satisfactory. Give the 
cows at least two feeds of hay a day, and 
access to straw at the middle of day. 
Make the grain ration 200 lbs. ground 
oats or bran, 200 lbs. cottonseed meal, 
100 lbs. gluten feed. Add 1 lb. salt to 
each 100 lbs. feed. Feed grain at rate of 
1 lb. to about SVn lbs. milk produced 
daily. F * 

Ration for Fresh Cow 

Will you give me information on feed¬ 
ing a Jersey cow four years old next 
Spring, and due to calve in April? bhe 
only gives five quarts a day now, and 
has grown thin since putting her in barn; 
she has had lice, but I have got rad of 
them ; there is a thick mass of dandruff 
on her neck now and I would like to get 
rid of that. J. n. S. 


If cow has been freed from lice the 
scurfiness will soon disappear and leave 
the skin clean underneath. This condi¬ 
tion frequently occurs after lice treat¬ 
ment, and it is not of serious consequence. 

The grain needed for your cow depends 
on the rough feed you have on hand, and 
this is not stated. Assuming that you 
have mixed hay only, a ration of 100 lbs. 
wheat bran or ground oats, 100 lbs. cot¬ 
tonseed meal and 50 l'be. each of gluten 
feed and linseed oil would make a good 
ration. Buy the feeds and mix in pile 
with shovel on level floor; add 1 lb. 
course fine salt to each 100 lbs. feed. 
Feed a quart of grain to each 1 Y> to 2 
qts. milk produced daily. When cow 
dries off drop the cottonseed meal to oO 
lbs. in the ration and feed about 3 to 4 


qts. of grain a day to got cow up in shape 
for freshening. At calving time give a 
few warm bran mashes and gradually 
bring cow on to ration above mentioned. 

II. F. ,T. 

Dairy Ration 

Would you tell me how to feed my cow 
for milk? She is to freshen in April. I 
wish to milk her till March. I have some 
cornstalks, Alfalfa and hay and 150 bu. 
carrots. I am feeding one-fourth bushel 
of carrots morning and night. What 
grain should I buy, and how should I 
mix it? I am getting about 18 lbs. of 
milk a day now. R. K. L. 

New York. 

Continue to feed carrots as you are 
now doing. Get cow to eat two feeds of 
hay and one of cornstalks daily. A good 
time to feed the cornstalks is in the mid¬ 
dle of the day, or after supper. Make up 
a grain mixture of 100 lbs. bran or ground 
oats, 50 lbs. hominy or cornmeal, 50 lbs. 
cottonseed meal and 50 lbs. gluten feed. 
Dump in a pile on the floor, light feed at 
bottom. Add 1 lb. coarse fine salt to 100 
lbs. feed. Shovel two or three times over 
to mix, then put in bin. Feed a quart of 
grain for each 1% to 2 qts. milk pi*oduced 
daily. h. f. j. 

Barley for Milch Cows 

I have a chance to buy a number of 
tons of barley feed, but am told not to 
buy it to feed to milking cows, as it would 
dry them up. Have you heard anything 
about this? If it is all right to feed to 
cows let me know; and also what other 
feed to go with it to make a good ration 
for milch cows. w. B. 


Gi-ound barley is an excellent feed for 
dairy cows, making a good substitute for 
corn in the ration. If your roughage is or- 
dinai’y mixed hay, make the ration 200 lbs. 
ground barley, 200 lbs. cottonseed meal, 
100 lbs. gluten feed, 100 lbs. oilmeal and 
1 per cent salt. Feed a pound of this 
mixture to 3lbs. milk. n. F. J. 

One day some poor children were per¬ 
mitted to go over a farm, and when their 
inspection was done, to each of them was 
given a glass of milk. The milk was ex¬ 
cellent. “Well, boys, how do you like 
it?” the farmer said, when they had 
drained their glasses. “Fine!” said one 
little fellow. Then, after a pause, he 
added: “I wisht our milkman kep’ a 
cow.”—Credit Lost. 




PEACE stops fighting, but not feed¬ 
ing. Our armies, at home and abroad, our 
Allies and ourselves, must be fed. MORE food 
must be produced in 1919. Lack of fertilizer 
will cut down your production. Labor, cars, raw 
materials are all limited. Fertilizer factories 
must begin shipping at once , to move even a 
normal tonnage by planting time. 

Protect Yourself—See Our Dealer- 
Haul It Home Now 

Armour Fertilizer Works 

General Offices: CHICAGO 

Atlanta, Ga. 
Nashville, Tenn. 

Baltimore, Md. 
Greensboro, N. C. 
Louisville, Ky. 

Jacksonville, Fla. 
New Orleans, La. 

When you write advertisers mention The R. N.-Y. and you'll get a 
quick reply and a “square deal.” See guarantee editorial page. 



For a Greater Food Production 

. the shoulders of the American farmer will rest for years to come 
the duty of making our reserve supply of food equal to the demand. 
The woman of 1776 and 1863 bravely did her bit at the plow —helping to 
fill the labor ranks depleted by the country’s need for war—and now a 
world food crisis finds her volunteering to fill the man-gap in the fields. 

Armies might disband tomorrow, but the American farmer would still 
be on the firing line. It, therefore, becomes the obligation of every manu¬ 
facturer of farming machinery to see to it that his product reaches its high¬ 
est practical efficiency—that it is capable of being used by the type 
of labor on which we must depend for greater food production. 

c n 

' ^ - in —_ r _j s ■ i »- — - — - - 

T HE Remy Electrical System for starting, lighting, governing, 
and ignition has now made tractor operation by women a Simple, 
practical thing. The Remy System enables the farmer to use non- 
robust labor—keep up with field work—answer Hoover’s call for an 
army to feed the people over there. 


Tractor EqiApment Division 


Facto,U,I Anderson, Indiana Motor Equipment Div., Detroit 




Partial Paralysis 

I had a last Snrincr lamb that eot. sick 
and all that I could do for her did not 
give relief. Her back seemed to be par¬ 
alyzed, and she keeps her head held back 
over her shoulders. Her leas became stiff. 
Can you tell me what was the cause of it. 
and what causes such cases in sheep? I 
have had a number of such cases: the 
sheep live from three days to a week after 
becoming affected. B. K. n. 

We suspect that gadfly grubs in the 
ainuses of the head are the cause of the 
symptoms described, and intestinal worms 
may also be present. There is no remedy 
for grubs in the head, but they may be 
prevented by keeping pine tar daubed j 
upon the noses of sheep in fly time in ; 
Summer. If another lamb dies have a care- ' 
ful examination made b.v the veterinarian. ! 

A. s. A. 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia 

What was it that killed our eight- 
months-old calf? At morning feed the 
calf would not eat, acted as if she was 
thirsty, but did not drink freely. Next 
day her throat from the roots of her 
tongue down to her mouth between the 
jawbones was swollen up; tongue and 
throat kept swelling till the tongue was 
black, and on the sides looked like blood 
settling under the skin. Her nose bled 
and she coughed and expelled matter and 
blood. She died that, afternoon. Could 
you tell me what ailed her, and if it ie 
contagious among cattle we would be glad 
to know. We are disinfecting every place 
we know she went, and have put the cows 
in another pasture and away from the 
barn. A. T. 

New York. 

The calf died of a malignant contagious 
disease, and a qualified veterinarian 
should have been called in at once to de¬ 
termine whether it was hemorrhagic sep¬ 
ticemia or anthrax. It might be either 
one, but hemorrhagic septicemia would 
be the more likely of the two. There is 
no cure, hut vaccination is possible 
against both diseases. Blackleg is some¬ 
what similar, but the animal does not 
bleed from the nose and the swelling 
crackles when handled, as gas is present 
under the skin. A. s. a. 


Will you tell me what to do with my 
pigs? I have six pigs three months old. I 
have been feeding them sweet corn which 
was frosted just before it was matured. 
Before I fed the sugar corn I fed mid- 
* dlings and hominy, but I could not get 
feed of any kind from the mills and fed 
all sugar corn. I husked the corn and the 
pigs ate it all up greedily. They are all 
affected the same way; ears drooping and 
hardly any use of their hind parts; will 
not eat; sometimes lie on side and kick all 
four feet for a few minutes, then seem 
better after one of these spasms. Very 
little cough. We think it is indigestion. 
Do you think the soft sugar corn is the 
cause, and can you tell me a remedy? 

Pennsylvania. j. j. n. 

The soft corn no doubt is causing de¬ 
rangement of the digestive organs. Fits 
are a common symptom, and loss of pow¬ 
er of the hind legs often results. The 
pigs should be allowed free range on pas¬ 
tures and meadows and allowed Alfalfa 
or clover hay and milk, in addition to 
other ground feed, such as wheat mid¬ 
dlings, shelled corn and digester tankage 
from self-feeders. A. s. A. 


F EEDING wormy animals is wasting food. They eat 
more but they do not thrive. 

Every farmer wants to be up to the limit of production 
now while the hungry world is calling for food. 





Dr. Hess Poultry 


will help make your 
hens lay now 

Make every pound of feed you feed do its whole duty. 

Drive out the worms and condition your stock for 
growth, for work—for beef, mutton and pork, by feeding 
Dr. Hess Stock Tonic. 

Eliminate Waste and Increase Production 

Condition your cows for calving by feeding Dr. Hess 
Stock Tonic before freshing. Then feed it regularly to in¬ 
crease the flow of milk. It lengthens the milking period. 

It means healthy, thrifty animals free from worms. It contains 
Tonics to improve the appetite, Laxatives for the bowels, Vermifuges 
to expel worms, Aids for digestion, Ingredients which have a favor¬ 
able action on the liver and kidneys. 

The dealer in your town will sell you Dr. Hess Stock Tonic ac¬ 
cording to your needs and refund your money if it does not do what 
is claimed. Buy 2 lbs. for each average hog, 5 lbs. for each horse, 
cow or steer, to start with. Feed as directed and see how your 
animals thrive. 

Why pay the peddler twice my price? 

25-lb. pail. $2.25; 100-lb. drum. $7.50 

Except in the far West, South and Canada. 

Smaller packages in proportion. 

DR. HESS & CLARK, Ashland, Ohio 


I have a good eoven-year-old horse that 
has a fistula. At times it looks better, 
but is not cured. What would you recom¬ 
mend for treatment? T. M. 

You do not state the location of the 
fistula or describe the conditions present, 
but assume it involves the withers and is 
characterized by a swelling containing 
pipes and opening from which pus dis¬ 
charges. If so you will have to employ a 
veterinarian to freely open the abscess, 
remove dead or diseased cartilage or other 
tissue, and secure drainage from each pipe 
and pocket. Then he will swab the wound 
with tincture of iodine and pack the cav¬ 
ities full of antiseptic gauze or oakum 
saturated with a stimulating and disin¬ 
fecting solution. He may also give hypo¬ 
dermic treatment with a bacteriu. If you 
cannot employ a veterinarian, use a pro¬ 
prietary fistula remedy according to di¬ 
rections given by the maker. a. s. a. 

Tonic for Horses 

Some years ago I saw in one of your 
papers a tonic for horses. My farmer 
likes it very much. I have the ingre¬ 
dients: Ginger, nux vomica, iron, salt¬ 
petre, gentian. I have mislaid formula, 
so do not know quantity of each. Will 
you send me quantities? mrs. m. ii. c. 

Mix together equal quantities, by 
weight, of powdered saltpetre, copperas 
(sulphate of iron), nux vomica, gentian 
root and fenugreek, and of this give an 
adult horse half an ounce (one table- 
Bpoonful) in dampened feed night and 
morning for two weeks. Omit iron for a 
pregnant mare and increase other ingre¬ 
dients except nux. Colts take less doses, 
according to age and size. This is an ex¬ 
cellent tonic, but will not take the place 
of plenty of sound whole oats, wheat bran, 
ear corn }md good hay. a. s. a. 

Dr.Hess Instant* Louse Killer Kills Lice 


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New York 



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Raw Furs, Ginseng Roots, Golden Seal, Etc. 

412 West Broadway, New York City 

When you write advertisers mention The R. N.-Y. and you’ll get a 
quick reply and a “square deal.” See guarantee editorial page. 

Warm water once a day for the cows will show 
surprising results In the milk pail. Poultry MUST 
have wurni food If you want them to lay in winter, 
when eggs are high. Hogs eat more warm food; it 
digests easier, resulting in more rapid growth, large 
frames, covered with solid meat. Have hot water 
for scalding: boil spraying mix, render lard, boil 
sorghum or sap. beat water for stock, for wash day. 
preserve fruit, etc. 


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For batchers, sugar-makers, poultry- 
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Live Stock Notes 

Best Keeping Butter 

After butter has been made in the very 
best way, bow can it be best preserved 
»o that* it will keep fresh for a few 
months? With the farmer who sends his 
milk to tike cheese factory or condensery 
it would be convenient to make a supply 
of butter for his own use in the Spring 
before putting in his milk, as butter of 
a good quality is hard to get. S. B. 

New York. 

Butter of best keeping quality is made 
out of pasteurized sweeb cream churned 
sweet. To pasteurize the cream heat it 
in a vessel of water to 145 degrees and 
hold it there for 30 minutes. Churn the 
cream at this season of the year at about 
50 degrees. Salt at the rate of an ounce 
to one and one-quarter ounces to the 
pound. Pack the butter in stone crocks, 
salt the tops and cover tightly. Put away 
in the coolest place about the farm that 
can be spared for this purpose. Usually 
the cellar bottom is as cool as anywhere. 
Before packing the butter wash out the 
crocks and cover with a strong brine solu¬ 
tion to prevent possible development of 
mold. H. F. J- 

Saltpeter in Brine; Brooder; Milk Scale 

1. For the past few years we usually 
pickled our pork, using saltpeter. Now 
saltpeter cannot be purchased and I am 
wondering whether it is necessary to have 
saltpeter in the pickle. Is there a sub¬ 
stitute for saltpeter if necessary? Is 
there any other tried and proven method 
of pickling. 2. We have just completed a 
new henhouse accommodating 200 hens. 
We have purebred Barred Plymouth Rocks 
and would like to raise, counting all losses, 
about 2,500 chickens. Our henhouse has 
a concrete floor, and w r e could devote 
some space to hatching and brooding. 
What kind of brooders would you advise 
us to purchase, and if we were compelled 
to buy additional chicks, can you furnish 
us with names and addresses of persons 
or firms from whom such chicks could be 
purchased? 3. We are also interested in 
the milk scale and we would be glad to 
get your suggestions as to what to buy. 

Silver Bay, N. Y. F. S. 

1. While the use of saltpeter in meat 
preserving formulas has long been custo¬ 
mary, I know of no reason for consider¬ 
ing it essential. It is believed to add to 
the color of the meat and is in itself pre¬ 
servative, like salt. On the other hand, 
saltpeter is considered injurious to health 
by some authorities, as it doubtless would 
be if consumed in sufficient quantities, 
and it is altogether probable that it could 
be dispensed with if at all difficult to 

2. With a part of your henhouse tem¬ 
porarily partitioned off for brooding pur¬ 
poses, you would find the coal-burning 
brooder* stoves very convenient and prac¬ 
ticable. With these, flocks of several 
hundred chicks can be cared for together, 
and, by using low partitions between 
them, a number of flocks can be cared for 
in one large room. 

3. You will find numerous advertise¬ 
ments of chicks for sale in these columns 
as the hatching season approaches, as you 
will also those of manufacturers of dairy 
appliances who can supply you with milk 
scales. The ordinary spring scale with a 
dial which can be easily read is most in 
favor for the daily weighing of milk. 

M. B. D. 

Colored Oleo in New York 

I have had representatives of the big 
meat concerns call in my store and try to 
sell me tinted margarine and tell me 1 
can sell it on my license of 50 cents per 
month, and say I am within the law. I 
made a bet of a new hat with the agent 
that he is wrong in reference to the law. 
Can one, according to the law, sell any 
kind of oleo except the perfectly white 
kind, on a 50-cent a month license? 

New York. 

You win the hat, and should select a 
good one. The 50 cents per month to 
which you refer is not a State tax. It is 
probably a requirement of the National 

Government. , _ . . . , 

Section 38 of the New York Agricul¬ 
tural law, states, among other things : 

“No person by himself, his agents or 
employees, shall produce or manufacture 
out of or from any animal fats or animal 
or vegetable oils not produced from un¬ 
adulterated milk or cream from the same, 
the article known as oleomargarine or 
anv article or product in imitation oi 
semblance of natural butte" produced 
from pure, unadulaterated milk or cream 
of the same; or mix, compound with or 
add to milk, cream or butter any acids 
or other deleterious substances or any 
animal fats or animal or vegetable oils 
not produced from milk or cream, so as 
to produce any article or substance or any 
human food in imitation or in semblance 
of natural butter.” __ 

As if that were not enough, Section 39 
contains this: 

“No person shall coat, powder or color 
with annatto or any coloring matter what¬ 

ever, butterine or oleomargarine or any 
compound of the same, or any product or 
manufacture made in whole or in part 
from animal fats or animal or vegetable 
oils not produced from unadulterated milk 
or cream by means of which such product, 
manufacture or compound shall resemble 
butter or cheese, the product of the dairy ; 
nor shall he have the same in his pos¬ 
session with intent to sell the same, nor 
shall he sell or offer to sell the same.” 

That settles it beyond any question. 
You cannot legally sell tinted or colored 
oleo in New York. 

Sheep Growers’ Associations Needed 

J. E. Liekert, page 1417, is right. 
Westchester County, and all other coun¬ 
ties in the State of New York where 
sheep are grown should have a growers’ 
association. That question had been agi¬ 
tated by the sheepmen of Albany County 
for some time, and through the efforts of 
our energetic Farm Bureau manager, H. 
E. Crouch, a few of the sheepmen met at 
Albany on Jan. 15 last and formed an as¬ 
sociation. On July 3 a contract was 
signed with John E. McMurtry & Co. of 
New York to handle our wool at 69c flat 
on delivery. On July 9 wool was deliv¬ 
ered and graded at Albany, 14,000 lbs. for 
Albany County and 4.000 lbs. for Greene 

County, which county joined in the sale 
by request of Mr. Gilbert, County Farm 
Bureau Agent for Greene County. Al¬ 
bany County feels a just pride in the fact 
that all wools delivered graded one-fourth 
and three-eighths blood for the entire lot. 

Our association was formed so late in 
the season that many growers had sold or 
contracted to sell to local buyers for 65 to 
68c per lb. Our contract was for 69c on 
delivery, subject to adjustment on the 
Government scoured wool basis. On Oct. 
5 I received check on adjustment basis 
which made the amount received by the 
growers 75 and 77c net, making 7 to 12c 
per lb. above local buyers’ prices. There 
are 200 sheep breeders in Albany County, 
and we hope to make better membership 
next year. J. w. cowan. 

President, Albany County, N. Y., 

Sheep Breeders’ Association. 

Choice Ayrshire Sold 

The 19-months-old Ayrshire heifer Janet 
Armour 47619 has been sold to Samuel 
Davis by James B. Lawrence, of Genesee 
Co., N. Y. The price paid was $2,000. 
This heifer’s paternal granddam, Jean 
Armour, produced 20.176 pounds of milk 
and 912 pounds of butter on advanced 
regular test; at the advanced age of 14 
years she sold at auction for $4,000. 
Jean Armour’s dam, Sara 2d, was offi¬ 
cially announced by the Canadian govern¬ 
ment as having won more butter tests 
than any other living cow in the world. 
And Jean Armour’s daughter, Jean Ar¬ 
mour 3d, even eclipsed her mother’s rec¬ 

January 11, 1919 

ord when in the advanced register test 
she produced 21,938 pounds of milk and 
1,003 pounds of butter, and sold at auc¬ 
tion for $3,500. 

Control of Hog Cholera in Massachusetts 

Our association lias been instrumental 
in securing the reduction to four weeks 
from six of the quarantine on hogs which 
have been double treated for cholera. Our 
State Department of Animal Industry is 
the foremost in the country in percentage 
of hogs treated. Of the 112,000 hogs in 
the State, over 51,000 have been treated, 
with a loss in non-infected herds of less 
than one per cent. In contrast with 
other States Massachusetts is proud of 
its Department and our hog men are on 
the best of terms with the staff. 


Massachusetts Swine Breeders’ Asso¬ 

Coming Live Stock Sales 

Feb. 4-5—Holsteins, Purebred Live 
Stock Sales Co., Brattleboro, Yt. 

April 1-2—Holsteins, Purebred Live 
Stock Sales Co., Brattleboro, Yt. 

Jan. 8-10—Ohio Shorthorn Breeders’ 
Association, Shorthorns, Columbus, O.; 
P. G. Ross, sales manager. 

Fob. 18-21—Shorthorn Congress Show 
and Sale, Chicago, Ill.; F. W. Harding, 

March 7—W. C. McGavoc-k, Duroc- 
Jerseys, Mt. Pulaski, Ill. 

There’s No Other Calf Meal 

“Just As Good” 

I T is not surprising that thou- 

sandsof farmersand dairymen have 
stopped using milk in raising their 

calves. Thorough tests have proved conclusively that 
they can raise healthy, vigorous, well-developed calves 
toearly maturity on BLATCHFORD’S CALF MEAL 
at less than half of what it costs them to use milk. 


Calf Meal 

is a complete milk substitute con¬ 
taining in correct proportions all the food 
elements necessary for the proper de¬ 
velopment of the calf. 

There is nothing “just as good” as 

BLATCHFORD’S. It is the original complete milk 
substitute. Has been used successfully in America 
for 38 years. More calves are raised on Blatchford’s 
than on all other calf meals combined. 

In the United States alone 
more than 1,000,000 calves 
were raised on Blatchford’s 
Calf Meal last year. 

Whether you are raising heifer calves 

for your dairy herd, or raising beef, you need 
BLATCHFORD’S CALF MEAL. It means better 
calves and bigger profits. It means earlier matur¬ 
ity, it means that you can sell your milk at a 
profit instead of using it for feeding purposes. 

Get It At Your Dealer’s! 

Contains the necessary 
elements to reproduce 
the feeding value of the 
butter-fats of whole milk. 

Wvitf* (g\v “How to Raise the Finest Calves With Little or No 

¥V rite __ Milk.” If you have been feeding your calves milk 

you should be sure to read this interesting booklet. Sent free of charge. Just 
send a post card asking for it. Write today to 

In Business More Than 118 Years 

Dept. 4781 —Waukegan, 111. 


We also have interesting literature that may be had free for the asking on Blatchford’s Pig Meal, 
Lamb Meal, Colt Meal, Milk Mash, Egg Mash, Laying Mash. Just ask for what you want. Write at once. 

Products, Prices and Trade 


Those prices and notes are believed to 
be fairly representative of the current of 
trade here: 


Prices without special changes, but the 
market is a trfle more firm. 

Creamery, fancy lb. 68 @ 69 

Good to Choice . 65 @ 67 

Lower Grades. 53 @ 58 

City made. 41 a 45 

Packing Stook. 36 a 43 

Process . 43 @ 54 


Whole Milk, fancy . 37 ® S114 

Good to choice. 35 a 36 

Lower grades. 32 a 34 

Ski me, beet. .. 27 a 28 

Fair to good. 18 a 24 


White, nearby, choice to fancy. 83 a 85 

Medium to good.. 75 a 80 

Mixed colors, nearby best. 71 a 72 

Common to good. 63 a 67 

Gathered, best, white. 80 a 81 

Medium to good, mixed colors ... 63 a 67 

Lower grades. 48 a 52 

Storage. 40 a 53 


Native Steers.12 50 @18 00 

Bulls . 7 oo ail oo 

Cows . 5 00 @1200 

Calves, prime veal, 100 lbs. 17 00 @22 oo 

Culls. 9 00 @14 00 

Hogs. 15 75 @18 00 

Sheep. 100 lbs. 7 00 @10 00 

Lambs .16 00 @17 50 


Calves, choice. 27 @ 29 

Common to good. 23 @ 26 

Pigs. 22 @ 24 

Lambs, hothouse, head .10 oo @14 oo 



Nearby choice. 78 to 7.1c; gathered, 
best. 62 to 66c; lower grades, .10 to 52c. 


Fowls, 28 to 30c; chickens. 25 to 30c; 
roosters, 20 to 21c; ducks, 28 to 35c; 
guineas, pair, 75c to $1.10. 


Turkeys, 45 to 47c; chickens, 35 to 
44c; fowls, 33 to 36c; roosters. 27c; 
ducks. Spring, 38 to 42c; squabs, doz.. $6 
to $S.25. 


Apples, bbl., $4 to $6.50; cranberries, 
bbl., $15 to $20. 


Potatoes. No. 1, bbl., $3 to $3.50; %- 
bu. bkt... 40 to 90c; sweet potatoes, bbl., 
$3 to $4.50; cabbage, ton, $15 to $25; 
onions, 100 lbs., $1.25 to $2. 


and wheat, $14 to $16. 


Following are the Government prices 
on No. 2 red wheat at various markets : 

New York. $2.37U,; Chicago, $2.23; St. 
Eouis, $2.21. No. 3 Yellow corn at New 
York, $1.78. Oats. No. 3 white. New 
York, 7Sc; rye, $1.74. Practically no 
sale for buckwheat grain here, nominally 
$3.30 to $3.40 per 100 lbs. Producing 
points in Pennsylvania and New Y'ork 
report buckwheat as selling from $3 to 
$3.75 per 100 lbs. Buckwheat flour at 
New York wholesales around $6. 

Questions About Abortion 

One of the leading topics for discussion 
among our readers who are interested in 
live stock is that of abortion in cattle. 
We probably receive more questions about 
this trouble than about any other single 
disease, or, in fact, any other point con¬ 
nected with the cattle industry. Appar¬ 
ently this disease or trouble is wide¬ 
spread. It is gaining, and causes great 
loss in many herds. Those who have 
large experience with it are interested 
to learn all they can of newer develop¬ 
ments in its study, while many to whom 
the trouble is new are not well informed 
regarding origin and treatment. Many 
articles have been printed concerning the 
trouble, not one of the very best pamph¬ 
lets on the subject is Bulletin 296 of the 
Wisconsin Experiment Station at Madi¬ 


son. This is entitled “Contagious Abor¬ 
tion Questions Answered,” and was pre¬ 
pared by Dr. F. B. Hadley. The pamph¬ 
let is written in the form of a dialogue 
with leading questions about the disease 
and plain and brief answers. It makes a 
very clear statement about the trouble, 
what it is, how spread, how detected, and 
the best remedies or treatment in order to 
stamp it out or control it. This bulletin 
ought to have a wide distribution. It is 
not only sound in its facts, but written in 
such an interesting way that anyone can 
understand it. 

Enlarged Gland 

My cow, six years old, in fine condition, 
has a bunch in her throat about like a 
small egg, which sits between her jaw 
bones. At times she makes a noise not a 
cough but similar to it. This is a valu¬ 
able cow. What shall I do to remove 
bunch? e.b. 


Tuberculosis is to be suspected in this 
case and to make sure, one way or the 
other, you should have her tested with 
tuberculin. Any qualified veterinarian 
properly can apply the test, which is re¬ 
liable and harmless to an animal unaf¬ 
fected with tuberculosis. a. s. a. 

Used By Three 
of American 

That ProveTheir 
Worth In Every 
Field Test 


Sales are reported at: Fowls, 35 to 
38c; chickens. 30 to 32c; roosters, 22 to 
23c; turkeys. 35 to 42c; ducks, 33 to 35c ; 
geese, 24 to 28c. 


Some delayed turkeys had to be sold 
at a considerable discount, but good stock, 
here in time to meet the best New Year 
trade, went a little higher than at Christ¬ 
mas as a rule. 

Turkeys, best. 



Medium to good. 



Chickens obolce lb. 



Fair to Good. 









Ducks . 




. 32 


Squabs, doz— . 


9 50 

Babbits, pair. 

. 35 


1 00 


Marrow, 100 lbs. 


Medium . 

Red Kidney. 

White Kidney .. 

Llnm, California. 

10 60 @12 25 
9 110 @10 25 
9 00 @10 25 
9 25 @12 00 
14 00 @14 25 
12 00 @12 25 


Apples—Baldwin, bbl. 4 00 @6 75 

Tork Imperial . 4 oo @ 7 25 

Ben Davis. 4 50 @ 5 50 

King . 5 00 @ 7 00 

ltusset. 4 00 @ 5 50 

Greening . 5 00 @ 7 00 

Spy . 5 00 @ 8 00 

McIntosh . 6 00 @ 8 00 

Pears, Kteller, bbl. 5 00 @ 7 60 

Cranberries, bbl.14 00 @23 00 

Strawberries, qt. 30 @ 65 


Butternuts, bu. 1 00 @ 2 00 

Black Walnuts, bu. 1 50 @ 2 00 

Hickory nuts, bu. 2 5U @4 50 


Potatoes—L. 1., bbl. 

State. 180 lbs. 

Maine, 180 lbs. 

Virginia, late crop, bbl 

Bermuda, bbl.. 

Sweet Potatoes, bbl. 

Beets, bbl. 

.:3 50 

. 3 50 

@ 5 60 
@ 4 00 J 
@ 4 75 
@ 4 00 
@ 8 00 
@ 5 00 

6h 2 fill 

Carrots, bbl. 





Cabbage, ton. 






Lettuce, half-bbl. basket. 

. 1 





Onions. 100 lbs. 





String Beans bu. 





Squash, Hubbard, bbl. .... 

. 1 





Cauliflower, bbl.. 




Egg Plants, bu. 





Spinach, bbl.. 

Turnips, rutabaga, bbl. 

. 1 





. 1 





Parsnips, bbl . . 

. 1 





Salsify, 100 bunches. 





Kale, bbl. 






Chicory, bbl. 







Hay. Timothy, No. 1. ton . 





No. 2. 





No. 3. 





Clover mixed. 




Straw, Kye. 




Retail Prices at New York 

These are not the highest or lowest 
prices noted here, but represent produce of 

good quality and the buying opportunities 
of at least half of New York's popula¬ 
tion : 

Butter—Best prints.75 to 77c 

Tub. choice .72 to 74c 

Medium to good.55 to 65c 

Cheese .40 to 45c 

Eggs—Best nearby .85 to 95c 

Gathered, good to choice....70 to 80c 

Potatoes, lb. 3 to 4c 

Cabbage, head ...10 to 15c 

Lettuce, head .10 to 12c 

Onions, lb. 4 to 5c 

Dressed fowls, lb.40 to 45c 

Chickens, lb. 50 to 52c 

Turkeys, lb.45 to 55c 

Leg of lamb, lb.40 to 4Sc 

Apples, doz.30 to 60c 

Philadelphia Markets 


Best creamery prints. 74 to 75c; tub, 
choice, 08 to 69c; packing stock, 40 to 

Light Draft Tillage Implements 

Pfc© Success Sulkw Plow 

P&O Corn Planter 

o mrj (Simplicity 


Features (Ease ol Operation 

Simplicity. The founders of this company deter¬ 
mined upon the principle of simplicity and this feature 
has been applied in the building of all Imple¬ 

ments for more than three-quarters of a century. The 
I^k© Line is noted for this—the absence of super¬ 
fluous parts, and yet for the masterly provision for all 
needed and useful adjustments. 

Strength. Strength is obtained, first—by the weight and 
quality of material; second, by the scientific use of material, 
securing that strength, rigidity and freedom from trappiness for 
which P*^ Implements are noted. 

Ease of Operation. Ease of operation is secured by a 
combination of simplicity with the application of certain me¬ 
chanical principles which have been followed out in the con¬ 
struction of all PtO Implements. 

76 Years ol "Knowing How” 

Hammered Into Every One of Them 

The P*tO Line has been delivering the goods for over 76 
years. It is a line built upon the idea that quality must receive 
first consideration—must be maintained regardless of any other 
consideration. It is not only a real quality line, but is a complete 
line, consisting of Plows, Harrows, Planters and Cultivators in 
all standard styles and sizes. 

PfcQ goods are sold exclusively through the retail implement 
dealers, and we have agencies throughout the country. We 
shall be pleased to send our catalog describing the entire line of 
P£Q Tillage Implements or the PiO Tractor Plow Catalog to any 
address. If you are interested in Tractor Plows, Tractor Disc 
Harrows, Tractor Listers or any other Tillage Implements, it 
will pay you to study the PfcQ line before purchasing. 

Every Implement Carrying the Pfc© Trademark 
Is Backed By An Unqualified Guarantee 


PARLBV & 0REND0RFF CO., Canton, Illinois 

Largest and Oldest Permanently 
y # Established Plow Factory on Earth 

Stocks Carried At All Leading 
Implement Centers 


P<tO Little 

P£Q Wiggletail Cultivator 



Cream with Rancid Taste 

I have a Guernsey cow six years old, 
and for the past three months the cream 
is very rancid; when the butter is made 
it cannot be used. I have been feeding 
her three quarts of grain, consisting of 
bran, cornmeal and Alfalfa meal; also 
one peck of mangels and carrots mixed, 
twice a day. She will freshen in March. 
Can you suggest a remedy, and do you 
think*feeding the mangels and carrots has 
anything to do with it? «• d. s. 


One thing is certain; nothing you are 
feeding causes the rancid flavor.. Fre¬ 
quently a cow that has been, milking for 
some time gives milk that is abnormal, 
and hence the cream is abnormal. The 
trouble is not remedied until the cow 
freshens. If you note that the cream has 
this flavor as soon as separated from the 
milk, the cow is probably responsible.' If, 
however, the flavor is truly rancid, it 
would seem that you are holding the 
cream too long and at too high a teuipera- 
turc before churning it. If cow is to 
freshen in March, her production must be 
getting small by this time. This may 
necessitate the use of a small glass churn 
to churn the cream as frequently as it 
should be churned. If the cream just 
after separating does not have the rancid 
flavor, you can be sure that it is a matter 
of age. h. f. j. 

Dairy Ration 

Will you give me a good dairy ration? 
I am shipping milk to Providence and get¬ 
ting 93%c for 10 qts. now. 1 have oat 
hay, corn fodder, oat straw and hay, not 
very good; must buy all grain, and can 
get any kind I want. M. L. 


Get cows to eat all roughage possible 
by giving a feed of hay in morning and 
afternoon. At noon cows may have ac¬ 
cess to straw which they will pick over, 
and after supper give some corn stalks. 
Do not give too much at once. Make up 
a grain ration of two parts wheat bran, 
two parts cottonseed meal and one part 
gluten feed and one part linseed oilineal. 
Add 1 lb. salt to each 100 lbs. feed. 

n. F. j. 

“Feeds and Feeding,” a book which you 
can get from this oilice, price $2.50. We 
then start out with the roughage at hand, 
knowing that if no silage is available the 
cows will eat 20 to 30 pounds dry rough- 
age daily. If silage is at hand, figure 30 
to 40 pounds per head per day and 10 to 
15 pounds of hay. 

Head up three columns ns follows: 

Lbs. Feed 

20 mixed hay. 

2 cottonseed meal.. 

2 bran . 

1 gluten feed. 

1 oil meal••••«••• 

1 hominy 





















Lbs. Total 
It is impossible exactly to balance a ra¬ 
tion for these cows where corn fodder and 

tion for these cows where corn fodder and $2 cwt< and gvoun( i Alfalfa raea 
Timothy is the only roughage, since they | 2 (;o cw < . How much of this ration i 
are so low in protein, but so high in car- ^ f(i(1 p 0U nd of milk? 2. Will 
bohydrates and hence total digestible nil- ;|dv : se me ()11 | lomc butter-making' 

____ _..igestible 

trients. I therefore chose mixed hay to 
show how the problem is worked. A 
study of various feeds reveals the funda¬ 
mental fact that some are low, and some 
are high in protein. •Noting that the 
mixed hay is comparatively low, I started 
out with 2 lbs. cottonseed meal, our high 
protein concentrate next I added 2 lbs. 
of bran, largely to supply some bulk to the 
ration; followed this with 1 lb. each of 
gluten feed and oil meal, two more high 
protein feeds. By glancing over my figures 
I note I have the requirement nearly sup¬ 
plied, and upon adding I have 2.260 lbs. 
protein and 14.46 lbs. total digestible nu¬ 
trients, as against 2.312 and 35.13 the 
requirement. It now appears that feed 
low in protein but high in total digestible 
nutrients is necessary to meet these fig- 
pres, so hominy is chosen. This gives a 

result almost exactly like the require- 
ment. . , , , , 

To summarize, the figuring of balanced 
rations is (1) simply a matter of having 
tables at. hand, showing the requirements 
and analyses of the various feeds; (2) 
the knowledge that some feeds are high 
and some low in protein, that some are 
bulky, some heavy and some palatable 
and other not so palatable. It is there¬ 
fore simply a case of juggling figures un¬ 
til the requirement is reached. 

While you cannot make an exact bal¬ 
ance with*your roughage, you can improve 
your grain ration by making it two parts 
cottonseed meal, one part gluten, one part 
oilineal and two parts ground oats, and 
feeding at rate of a pound to 3% lbs. 
milk produced daily. n. F. J. 

Dairy Ration; Butter-making 

1. I have a good Holstein cow that 
gives 16 quarts of milk a day. Our rough- 
age consists of mixed clover hay and corn 
stover, which is limited, and we would 
like to make up the deficiency in grain. 
Will you give me a balanced ration from 
the list of grains which can be obtained 
at the local markets? Also middlings at 

nl at 

advise me on home butter-making l I 
skim the milk, as we have no separator, 
and would like the best methods to obtain 
first-class butter. J- 11 • K. 

Poland, Ohio. 

1. Feed cow two feeds of hay and one 
of straw daily. Make the ration two 
parts Alfalfa meal or bran, one part mid¬ 
dlings, one part oil meal, one part cotton¬ 
seed meal; add one pound salt to each 
3(X> pounds feed when mixing ration. 

2. During cold weather you can get 
good results by hand-skimming the milk. 
As fast as cream is skimmed off into 
cream pail, the pail of cream should be 
kept cold so cream will not sour. For 
very best results get a cedar cylinder 
churn and churn cream twice a week. 
Churn at least once a week at any rate. 
If vou like a high-flavored butter set 

January 11, 1019 

cream at 70 to 75 degrees F. for 32 to lb 
hours before churning. Do not let. it get 
too sour, but just enough so as it begins 
to taste sour. Cool to about 60 degrees 
F. and churn. Wash butter thoroughly 
in two waters. The temperature of the 
wash water should be about that of the 
buttermilk. Salt at rate of ounce to the 
pound and in the absence of worker, place 
butter in wooden bowl and work salt in 
with paddles. 

If you want to make a sweet cream 
butter, always pasteurize the cream in a 
vessel of water, heating cream to 145 de¬ 
grees F. and holding for 30 minutes, then 
cooling and churning after cream is thor¬ 
oughly chilled. Stir cream frequently 
during heating and holding process. This 
makes a mild-flavored butter that keeps 
well. Do not try to churn sweet raw 
cream, as it takes too long and butter¬ 
milk will test high. H. F. J. 

Crumbly Butter 

My butter sometimes gathers in little 
lumps and will not work together in a 
roll, but remains like crumbly bread. The 
more it is worked the more crumbly it 
gets. I have but one cow, a Jersey, make 
from seven to eight pounds a week, be¬ 
sides cream for table. What is the cause 
and how can I remedy it? J. T. M. 


It would seem that the only possible 
cause for the crumbly condition of your 
butter at working time is that you use too 
cold wash water. It is possible that your 
thermometer, if one is used, does not reg¬ 
ister accurately. At this season wash wa¬ 
ter should, as a rule, be warmed to about 
60° F. Water as it comes from the aver¬ 
age well is too cold. 

“I see they have just dug up a corner 
stone of a library in Greece on which was 
inscribed ‘4000 B. C.,” remarked a stu¬ 
dent to a Scotchman. “What do you 
suppose it means?” “It canna mean bu’ 
one thing,” answered the Scot solemnly : 
“Before Carnegie.”—Credit lost. 

Increasing Protein 

Would you advise what you consider a 
good balanced ration for milk production? 

I have corn on cob to grind, feeding 
stalks and fairly good hay; can get cot¬ 
tonseed, gluten, linseed meal and dairy 
ration at nearby mill. I would as soon 
not use cottonseed if I could get a good 
ration without. E. J. c. 

New York. 

Your roughage is all low in protein, and 
so is corn and cob meal. It is impossible 
to get the protein necessary into the grain 
ration without drawing on cottonseed 
meal. Make it 206 lbs. corn and cob meal, 
200 lbs. cottonseed meal, 100 lbs. linseed 
oilmeal and 100 lbs. gluten feed. Add 1 
lb. coarse line salt for each 100 lbs. feed. 

II. F. J. 

Shrink in Milk 

We are feeding cows mixed feed an k 
hominy half and half, one pound to every 
3pounds of milk; Timothy hay at 
noon and cut corn fodder mornings and 
evenings, all they will eat. Yet they are 
going down in their milk since they are 
off pasture. Can you help us to better 
this? We have oats and corn. Can we 
have this ground and by adding other 
meal make our own ration? Can you ex¬ 
plain the method by which we can bal¬ 
ance our ration for our cows, as we are 
anticipating enlarging our dairy and want 
to feed intelligently? F. C. M. 


There are two reasons why your cows 
have fallen off materially in milk flow 
since taking them from pasture. First, 
your roughage, Timothy hay and corn 
fodder, is not very palatable or nutritious, 
and there is no succulence in the ration, 
as the case with pasture grass, silage or 
roots, and second, the grain ration you 
are using is decidedly lacking in protein 
for the type of roughage you have. 

For average conditions a cow may be 
considered as weighing 1,000 pounds and 
giving 25 pounds of four per cent milk. 
This cow will require so much feed to 
maintain her body and so much more to 
produce milk. Feeding standards have 
been worked out in terras of digestible 
nutrients (i. e., protein, carbohydrates 
and fat) in feeds for cows varying in 
weight and giving milk of varying per 
cents of fat. For the 1,000-pound cow 
tiie figure is .70 pounds protein and 7.93 
pounds digestible nutrients for mainten¬ 
ance. A pound of four per cent milk re¬ 
quires .0045 pounds protein and .288 
pounds total digestible nutrients to pro¬ 
duce it; 25 pounds would therefore re¬ 
quire 1.612 pounds protein and 7.2 
pounds total digestible nutrients. This 
added to the maintenance requirement 
makes a total of 2.312 pounds protein and 
15.18 pounds of total digestible nutrients 
that must be fed to the cow daily. 

The next necessary thing is to have ait 
hand is a table showing the composition 
of various feeds in terms of digestible 
protein and total digestible nutrients. 
Such a table is . available ill Henry’s 

Cleveland Tractor 

The Cleveland Tractor does more than plow 

Your tractor, to be of real service and value to you, 
must do more than simply draw a plow. Plowing is only 
the beginning of what a tractor should be able to do. 

It should also be able to do everything else in the 
preparation of the seed bed—the discing and harrowing, 
the planting. And it should do these things in a way 
that will not injure the coming crop. 

The tractor should not only be able to draw the im 
piement easily, but it should not spoil the good work the 
implement has done. 

After the ground is broken. The Cleveland Tractor 
goes over it with the disc and the harrow, then goes 
over it with the seeder. 

The Cleveland rides on top of the seed bed; it does 
not sink into it and it does not pack the soil. 

The Cleveland ffoes over soft ground because it 
travels on its own endless tracks which it picks up and 
lays down as it goes along. 

These tracks have about 600 square inches of traction 
surface, so the pressure on the ground is only about five 

pounds to the square inch—therefore there is not enough 
weight on the ground at any one point to inflict damage. 

\Ve repeat. The Cleveland Tractor rides on top of 
the seed bed. It does not sink into it; therefore it does 
not have to wade or ivallow through it. 

And because it does not sink in, it does not have to 
push the dirt in front of it and pack it down in order to 

And because it is not obliged to push the earth in 
front of it and pack it down, the greatest possible amount 
of The Cleveland s power is available for accomplishing 
the work it has to do. 

This is one of the reasons why The Cleveland per¬ 
forms so much iCor\ on such a small amount of kerosene. 

These are but a few of 1 he Cleveland I ractor s 

many advantages. It is capable of performing almost end¬ 
less tasks in both tractive and stationary engine work. 

The Cleveland does its work. It does it well. It 
keeps on doing it. It is the tractor that does the work 
you want a tractor to do, in the way you want it done. 



.. ■ t 

—r -— 


maa M 

^Cleveland Troctor Co. 19009 Euclid Ave„ Cleveland, Ohio 

The largest producer of crawler type tractors in the world 



Live Stock Matters 

Conducted By Prof. F. C. Minkler 

Dual-purpose Cows 

I am interested in the dual-purpose cow 
and desire information on this subject. I 
have no cattle on the farm, except from 
October to May I generally have 20 to 25 
steers to fatten. I generally raise all the 
feed for these animals, with the exception 
of a few tons of middlings and bran when 
1 start them, and a few tons of cottonseed 
meal when I finish. These animals come 
pretty high now. This Fall I paid .$12.25 
for roan and red calves averaging 700 lbs. 
At these prices it would probably pay to 
raise part of the stock myself. Of course 
I do not intend to invest n. lot of money 
until 1 know what it may look like. 

l’ine Grove, Pa. h. ii. ii. 

I take it, by the dual-purpose cow you 
refer to milking Shorthorns. In this con¬ 
nection let me say that this type of meat 
and milk animal is rapidly gaining favor 
throughout the Eastern States, largely 
because there is a splendid market for the 
calves, and for the further reason that 
milking Shorthorns, after they have fin¬ 
ished their useful period as milkers, can 
be fattened up very quickly and their car¬ 
casses will bring almost as much as a 
choice steer in the prevailing markets. On 
the other hand, there is a discrimination 
against strictly dairy cows disposed of for 
beef, largely because the Jersey and 
Guernsey will dress out yellow, and many 
of the Ilolsteins and Ayrshircs are not 
fleshed up previous to being marketed. 
W hether or not it would be more econom¬ 
ical to establish a 'breeding herd of milk¬ 
ing Shorthorns for the purpose of produc¬ 
ing steers for feeding purposes, and would 
be more desirable and profitable than the 
prevailing custom of buying feeders 
through the stockyards, might be ques¬ 
tioned, and would depend entirely upon 
the amount of pasture land available, and 
upon the labor situation on your own 
farm. Choice feeders weighing from 700 to 
000 pounds are selling at Chicago at 
about 12c per pound. It costs practically 
another cent per pound in freighting and 
shipping these animals to New York or 
1 ennsylvania, but if one is fortunate 
enough to obtain good feeders and is will¬ 
ing to feed them the grain and roughage 
and silage necessary to grow and finish 
them, it is clearly evident that cattle 
feeding operations, especially in Lancaster 
Co., Fa., has substantially enriched the 
farmers who have persisted in feeding 
cattle. I would advise the purchase of 
these cattle during the months of Novem¬ 
ber, December or January, wintering 
them through on roughage and silage and 
very little grain and would not require 
them to make very much gain until turned 
out to pasture near June. If I chose 
yearlings weighing about 700 pounds I 
would winter them through another sea¬ 
son and run them on grass the following 
year, finish them on grain, chiefly corn- 
meal, cottonseed meal and silage, during 
the months of August, September, Octo¬ 
ber and November, thus selling the cattle 
early in the Winter at the Lancaster, 
Buffalo or Jersey City markets. 

Fattening Old Cows 

I have two old cows; one dry and the 
other giving a little milk ; have been feed¬ 
ing them each about 12 quarts of soft 
corn on the ear twice a day for the last 
throe weeks. I can only see slight im¬ 
provement in them, although the one 
which gives milk gives about four times 
as much as she did when I began feeding. 
I must fatten them to sell as I have not 
half enough hay for the rest of my stock; 
id cows, three horses. They are quite 
poor. w. i\ b. 

A useful ration for fattening a 13-year- 
old cow, utilizing the feeds at hand, would 
be: ( ornmeal, 70 lbs.; buckwheat, 20 lbs. 
and oilmeal, 10 lbs. These should be 
mixed and fed twice daily. If the cow 
has been fed soft corn for three or four 
weeks she can be started with six lbs. of 
this feed daily and the amount increased 

lb. daily until she is consuming up to 
32 lbs. She may be a poor feeder, due to 
age or condition, and it might not pay to 
feed her to a high or finished condition 
A. mess of carrots (15 lbs.) daily would 
stimulate her appetite; likewise, a few 
potatoes might add variety, but they are 
too watery for fattening purposes. In 
addition give the cow what hay she will 
clean up with relish in the middle of the 
f , / r J’,v‘ S8 s!l(1 K ai, is regularly on this 
feed (50 lbs. per month) I would not con¬ 
tinue feeding her, but rather put her on 
the market for cheaper beef. It is sel¬ 
dom a profitable adventure to feed out old 
cows, especially as W. O. B. says he i a 
far short of hay and grain. 

Do In Hours With a Tractor 
Work Thai lakes Days With Horses 

P LAN your time this year in hours of tractor work instead of 
days of horse work. Start this year’s work with a tractor and 
get your plowing done at exactly the right time and raise big 

ger crops. Do your work with less hired help, or farm more acres with tht 
same help. JLet an Avery tractor make you as much money in a ft 

THIS YEAR as you made in a day before, with horses. 


What You Get In An Avery Tractor 

You get a tractor with a “Draft-Horse" Tractor Motor 
built in our own motor factory especially for tractor 
work and only for Avery tractors. 

You get a tractor with a “Direct Drive" transmission that is the 
simplest tractor transmission system built and which delivers 
more of the power of the motor to the belt wheel and drawbar. 

You get a tractor with these exclusive and protected Avery feat¬ 
ures—renewable inner cylinder walls, adjustable crankshaft boxes, 

duplex kerosene and distillate gasifiers, double carburetor, practi¬ 
cally unbreakable crankshafts, round radiator, sliding frame 
transmission, universal self-cleaning, non-slipping lugs, etc. 

You get a tractor that is built complete in the three large Avery 
factories which insures one high standard of quality; a tractor 
that is backed by national tractor service through our branches 
distributors and dealers which insures prompt and permanent ser¬ 
vice — a tractor that 19 successfully used by farmers 
-- . 1( £ 

Write Now for the New 1919 

Avery Motor Firming, Tbreihinf and 
Road-Building Machinery CATALOG 

Get all the facts about the 
complete line of Avery 
Tractors, built in sizes for 
every size farm .with the small¬ 
est size tractor selling at only 
$550.00, f. o. b. Peoria — the 
Avery Motor Cultivator with 
which you can cultivate corn, 
cotton, etc., with motor power; 
and the complete line of Avery 
Grain Saving Threshers and 
Plows for every size tractor. 
Ask for the new 1919 Complete A very 
Catalog, also for free Avery Tractor 
CorrespondenceCourseand lOOQuea 
tionsaml Answers toTractorTrou- 
bles. All Free. See sample rrm- 
chinesat nearest Avery Pooler 

t in every state in the Union and 61Foreign Countries. 


Motor Farming, Threshing 
and^Road Building Machinery 




Akron Gun Lnmpn and I<nntcroa 
mnku beat, chcupont light, lino nun 
ollno. Simple, dependable, durable 
Permitted by lmmranco Comp omen 

Gives 400-Candls Power 

Abundance of bright, clear, aoft. 
«t«»dy light—restful to even. Fully 
guaranteed. Agents Wanted. All 
ornparo time. Outfit free. Kxclu- 
"jve territory. Write for price* and 
b REE catalog, bold at wholesale In 
_open territory. 



Hand Books on Patents. Trade Marks, eta, sent 
tree. Our 70 years of experience, eincientservico. 
and fair dealing, assure fullest vain,-ami protec- 
tlou to the inventor, Patents procured through 
us receive free notice In Scientific American. 

MUNN & CO., 617 Wool worth Bide., N. Y. 
Washington Olllce, 617 F St., Washington, D. C. 

Own Your Own 

Ensilage Cutter Outfit 

4- satisfaction in being equipped to fill your own 
silo—there’s real money profit in it. It pays in dollars to 
own your own 

P A P E C 

Ensilage Cutter 

You can fill when your corn is just right— neither too green nor too 
ripe. You can begin feeding from a full silo — not one a fourth 
empty as a result of settling. The individually owned Papec can 
actually earn $100 to $200 clear profit per 
silo per year—that’s the Papec Plan 1 And 
when you say ‘it’s a Papec," you have 
suid all that can bo said for an ensilage 
cutter. Write today for catalog; it proves 
whut we suy here. 

110 Main Street 
Shortsville, N. Y. 

Distribution made from 
25 different points in U. £>. 


I will sell by mail at 
just half price, as long 
as they last, my entire 
stock of five hundred 
Silos of a well-known 
make. These Silos are 
all new and first-class in 
every way. Why pay 
the salary and expense 
of a salesman ? Buy by 
mail and put that money 
in your own pocket. 


113 Flood Building 

Meadville .*. Pennsylvania 

Two Excellent Vegetable Books 

By R. L.. Watts 

Vegetable Gardening.$1.75 

Vegetable Forcing.2.00 

Clearly written, practical, convenient for 
reiorence, covering outdoor and green¬ 
house vegetable work. For sale by 

The Rural New-Yorker 
333 W. 30th St., New York 



The Auto Troubles of a Farmer 

Dry the Top. —Never fold the top 
while it is wet. If the car has been driven 
through the rain, keep the top up until it 
is thoroughly dry, because a wet or damp 
top folded up will mildew, which very 
quickly destroys the fabric. In folding 
the top take care to get each fold even 
and eliminate all wrinkles. The metal 
frame pieces should be Separated by rub¬ 
ber pads wherever they rub together, and 
the whole should he firmly secured by 
straps so as to prevent rubbing and rat¬ 

Hard Steering. —In cars which have 
the steering control levers running down 
through the center of the steering column 
it frequently happens that rust forms and 
makes steering a difficult matter. The 
remedy consists in taking out the rod and 
its tube member, cleaning off the rust and 

Wasted Current. —It should be made 
a practice not to throw on the ignition 
switch until the car is actually to be 
started. If the switch is turned on for 
some time before the car starts an appre¬ 
ciable amount of current is wasted, and 
the storage battery is correspondingly 
drained. Moreover, the ignition coil be¬ 
comes more or less heated and might he 

Bearing Adjustment. —In adjusting 
cup and cone bearings these parts should 
be so tight that play between wheel and 
hearing is removed and yet the wheel 
should turn freely without any suggestion 
of binding. If the cones are too tightly 
adjusted the balls are wedged in and 
quickly cut into the races. 

Use for Cut-out. —One use for the 
much-abused cut-out is that it may be 
used for determining the condition of the 
fuel mixture at night. By running the 
engine after dark and putting on the cut¬ 
out the occasional flame that issues there¬ 
from will indicate exactly the condition of 
the mixture. If the flame is blue or color¬ 
less the mixture is correct, whereas a red 
flame indicates an excess of air. 

Back Lasii in Steering Gear. —Back 
lash or play in the steering gear is a very 
common failing. On most types of worm 
and worm and wheel reduction gears, 
which are located at the bottom of the 
post, the shaft of the worm wheel is 
equipped with an eccentric bushing. By 
turning this bushing so that the gear teeth 
are forced into the proper mesh, the back 
lash may be taken up. 

Planetary Gear Noises. —Noisy ac¬ 
tion of the planetary gearset, such as the 
Ford uses, is generally caused by failure 
of lubrication or by wear. The most im¬ 
portant thing to watch in this connection 
is the oiling, and if this is properly main¬ 
tained there will be little trouble with 
noisy operation. 

Front Wheels. —The average owner is 
quite, likely to give the rear wheels all 
the attention they need and fail to look 
fully after the front wheels. The front 
wheels should he given careful inspec¬ 
tion at least once a month, particularly 
those of the type fitted with hall bearings 
of the cup and cone type. The cones wear 
rapidly, because they are subjected to 
heavy stresses in travel. 

Lost Motion in Springs. —In inspect¬ 
ing the springs attention should be given 
to the spring hanger and other subsidiary 
parts. Lost motion, usually side play, 
often develops in the spring hangers and 
shackles. Not infrequently the bolts 
which pass through the spring eye will be 
worn nearly through in the course of a 
season’s active running. Many cars have 
no lubricating equipment for these small 
parts and they wear out rapidly. 

Plug Leaks. —Many engines without 
detachable cylinder heads are still in use. 
These have valve plugs which frequently 
leak. This may be stopped by spreading 
ordinary paste stove blacking over the 
threads. Care should be taken, however, 
not to use too much paste. This treat¬ 
ment is preferable to the use of white lead 
because it makes removal of the plug 
when needed very simple. 

Care of Spring Leaves. —This is the 
time of year to apply anti-rust lubricant 
to the spring leaves. The best compound 
of this sort may he made by heating a 
pound of old India rubber and mixing it 
with half a pound of grease and half a 
pound of graphite. 

Avoid Tarred Roads. —Tar damages 
the best of car enamel and roads recently 
tarred should be avoided, even to a 
lengthy detour. The creosote and other 
chemicals in the tar composition quickly 
deteriorate enamel. At best it is not an 
easy matter to remove the tar. There are 
patented preparations for this, but for 
many small jobs an application of kero¬ 
sene will soften the deposit. 

Chalking Headlights. — The driver 
who permits his headlights to throw a 
glare ‘into the faces of other motorists or 
to blind pedestrians along the highway 
is worse than a road hog. He is fully 
heedless of the lives of all, including him¬ 
self and others with him in doing so. If 
one does not have a non-glare device for 
his lamps, one may be improvised by 
chalking the lower or upper half of the 
glass in the lamps, which will eliminate 
all of the objectionable glare and still 
have sufficient light to use for conserva¬ 
tive speed at night. The. chalk should, of 
couse, he put on the inside of the glass, 
where rain and fog cannot wash it off. 
Some Simple Rules for Saving Gaso- 

1.INE. . 

See that spark is correctly timed with 
engine and drive with spark fully ad¬ 
vanced ; a late tspark increases gas con¬ 

Have a hot spark, keep plugs clean and 
spark points properly adjusted. 

Don’t accelerate and stop quickly; it 
wastes gas and wears out tires. Stop 
engine and coast long hills. 

Avoid high speed. The average car is 
most economical at 15 to 25 miles per 

Pre-heat air entering carburetor and 
keep radiator covered in Winter weather; 
this will insure better vaporization. 

Keep needle valve clean and adjust 
carburetor (while engine is hot) to use 
as lean a mixture as possible. A rich 
mixture fouls the engine and is wasteful. 

Have carburetor adjusted at service 
station of carburetor or motor sales com¬ 
pany ; they will make ordinary adjust¬ 
ments without charge. 

Don’t let engine run when car is stand¬ 
ing. It is good for starter battery to be 
used frequently. 

Adjust brake bands so they do not 
drag. See that all hearings run freely. . 

Stop all gasoline leakages. Form habit 
of shutting off gas at tank or feed pipe. 

Don’t use gasoline for cleaning and 
washing; use kerosene or other materials 
to cut grease. 

Don’t spill or expose gasoline to air; 
it evaporates rapidly and is dangerous. 

t*. H. 

Crops and Farm News 

We are having fine Winter here; wheat 
looking line ; no snow yet. Prices are good. 
Wheat ,$2.15; corn, $1.25; oats, 70c; 
milk, $4.48 per 100, 4 per cent; eggs, GSc. 

Juniata Co., Pa. n. d. h. 

I am located in the southwestern corner 
of Juniata County, Black Log Valley, and 
am forest ranger for the State of Penn¬ 
sylvania on the Rothrock Reserve, which 
consists of about 20,000 acres. Mt. Union, 
16 miles west of me, is our chief market, 

where are located three large brick works, 
a large powder plant, a large extract 
works and a tannery. Mt. Union is a 
splendid market for all kinds of produce, 
and the prices are about as follows; Po¬ 
tatoes, $1.60 to $1.80 per bu.; apples, 
$1.50 to $2 per bu.; beef, 18 to 21c; pork, 
20 to 22c; corn, $2 per bu.; hay, $30; 
straw, $1S. Butter, 65 to 70c; eggs, 65 
to 70c. Chickens, 25 to 30c; turkeys, 
35c. Our chief industry here is lumber¬ 
ing. There is some wheat, corn and oats 
raised here, but not more than people need 
for their own use. Wheat looks very 
promising in this section. Cattle are in 
good condition and general conditions are 
very good. u. h. o. 

Juniata Co., Pa. 

Wheat. Government price; oats, 90c; 
rye. $1.90; corn, $1.80, 70 lbs., ear; 
buckwheat, $2; potatoes, $1.50; dressed 
beef, carcass, 24c; pork, carcass, 25c; 
veal calves, 14c, live weight; six weeks 
pigs, $12 per pair; butter, 60c; eggs, 
fresh, 60c; baled hay, Timothy, $40, ton 
lots; oat straw, $25; . rye straw, $20. 
Our main crops in this section consist 
mostly of hay, potatoes, wheat and corn. 
No dairies here. Not a great quantity of 
stock raised for food. Potatoes were a 
large crop this season; hay about half 
crop; wheat two-thirds crop; corn not 
over 70 per cent. Fall sowing has had an 
exceptional chance to root and at present 
is very promising. C. D. M. 

Clearfield Co., Pa. 

We are getting about $3.25 per bbl. for 
potatoes; rye, $1.55 per bu.; oats, 90c; 
buckwheat, $3 per cwt..; milk, 9c at the 
farm; cream, $8 for 40-qt. can. Light 
pork, $24 cwt. Beef in good demand. 
Common cows from $40 to $60; new 
milch from $80 to $100. Not much call 
for cows at present on account of scarcity 
of hay. Feed is still high; cottonseed, 
$3.40; gluten, $3.25; rye feed, $2.35; 
bran, $2.15; meal, $3 to $3.25; scratch 

January 11, 1919 

feed, $4.25. Eggs, 70 to 80c; not many 
for sale. Hay from $1.30 to $1.60 per 
cwt., according to quality. We had a 
large crop of oats; potatoes, fair crop; 
.hay, not half a crop; buckwheat, poor 
crop. s. G. F. 

Rensselaer Co., N. Y. 

Hay, potatoes and oats are chiefly 
raised here; some wheat. Oats a good 
crop; potatoes fair; hay a poor crop. 
Farmers have their plowing nearly done, 
and their thrashing all done. Help is very 
scarce; they want $3 a day and board. 
Potatoes, $1.50 at the cars; hay, $30 per 
ton. Butter, 60 to 65c; eggs, $1; pork, 
20 to 23c, dressed; milk, 12 to 15e qt.; 
oats, $1 per bu. That is what the farm¬ 
ers get. Bran, $2.40; brown middlings, 
$2.55; Avhite, $3 ; oats, $1; cornmeal, $4 
per cwt.; flour, $13.50. Most of the farm¬ 
ers keep cows and sell milk. Not many 
cows for sale; lots of horses for sale; 
cannot give them away. Many sheep 
around here; lambs, $10 to $12 each. 

Franklin Co., N. Y. G. H. E. 

Discharged Soldiers for Farm Help 

In reply to G. L., Brooklyn, N. Y., a 
city man, whose son, in getting out of 
military service, expects to take to farm¬ 
ing, I wish to say that while farmers 
prefer experienced help, there is sure to 
be a chance for a willing beginner. The 
U. S. Employment Service for the State 
of New York, and the Farm Labor spe¬ 
cialists of the New York State Food 
Commission, are now at the various 
camps on Long Island, tabulating and 
classifying the soldiers about to he dis¬ 
charged. There is a goodly proportion of 
experienced farm help among these men, 
and the New York State Farm Labor 
Bureau wants to get in touch with every 
possible employer of farm help, and the 
sooner the better. 

Agent in Charge. 

15 Pearl St., New York. 

— .N-»' ' ^ p ^ t o ,** 


** -V.** 

• •* 

T, . 90 V 

i&pz xs* ; 





The Tractor to Buy 

A RE you one of the many farmers 
■*** who need more power to handle 
the farm work properly? Do you have 

to work with less help than you need? 

If so, you need an International kerosene trac¬ 
tor. The size that gives you power for your 
heaviest load will handle all the work. Interna¬ 
tionals use only as much fuel as the load requires. 
They are made to work with farm machines— 
the kind you are now. using— and special hitches 
are provided for all kinds of field and road work. 
Their belt pulleys are large enough to prevent 
slippage, run at correct speed, and are set high 
enough to keep the belt off the ground. They all 
use kerosene or other low-grade fuels which 
means a big saving in operating expense. 

The Company to Buy From 

You know that we have supplied farmers with 
high-grade machines for nearly 88 years. You 
know that our tractors have furnished satisfactory 
farm power for more than 12 years. We have far 
too much at stake to market machines of any but 
the highest standards of quality. We expect to 

come back some day and sell you some other 
machines in the long list you see in this advertise¬ 
ment. In every sale we try to build for the 

Tractor Service Whenever Needed 

In line with this policy, we have developed a 
service organization which now consists of 89 
branch houses and many thousands of loyal local 
dealers, wide awake and attentive to the needs of 
their customers. Service is a very essential part 
of any tractor sale. When you buy an Interna¬ 
tional kerosene tractor you buy with it the assist¬ 
ance of an organization that brings a well stocked 
branch house or a live, local dealer within tele¬ 
phone call, fully equipped to keep your tractor 
working steadily. 

International Tractor Sizes 

International tractors, all using kerosene for 
fuel, are made in 8-16, 10-20, and 15-30 H. P. sizes. 
A line to the address below will bring you full 
information about all our tractors and about any 
other machines yon mention in the list shown in 
this advertisement. 

The Full Line of International Harvester Quality Machines 

Grain Harvesting Machine* 

Binders Push Binders 

Headers Rice Binders 

Reapers Shockers 


Tillage Implements 

Disk Harrows Cultivators 
Tractor Harrows 
Spring-Tooth Harrows 
Peg-Tooth Harrows 
Orchard Harrows 

Planting & Seeding Machines 
Corn Planters Corn Drills 
Grain Drills 
Broadcast Seeders 
Alfalfa & Grass Seed Drills 
Fertilizer & Lime Sowers 

Haying Machines 

Mowers Tedders 

Side Delivery Rakes 
Loaders (All Types) 

Combination Side Rakes 
and Tedders 

Sweep Rakes Stackers 

Combination Sweep Rakes 
and Stackers 
Baling Presses 

Belt Machines 

Ensilage Cutters 
Huskers and Shredders 
Corn Shellers Threshers 
Hay Presses 
Stone Burr Mills 

Belt Machines—Cont. 

Creatn Separators 
Feed Grinders 

Power Machine* 

Kerosene Engines 

Gasoline Engines 
Kerosene Tractors 
Motor Trucks 
Motor Cultivators 

Corn Machine* 

Planters Drills 

Motor Cultivators 
Binders Pickers 

Ensilage Cutters 

Huskers and Shredders 

Daiqr Equipment 

Cream Separators 

Cream Separators 

Kerosene Engines 
Gasoline Engines 

Motor Trucks 

Other Farm Equipment 

Manure Spreaders 
Straw Spreading Attach. 
Farm Wagons 
Farm Trucks 
Stalk Cutters 

Knife Grinders 
Tractor Hitches . 

Binder Twine 

International Harvester Company of America 



Soy Beans for Hay and Silage 

I have read with a great deal of in¬ 
terest an article on “Soy Beane for Hay 
and Silage.” In this article the author 
does not advise the growing of Soy beans 
with corn for silage. I beg to differ on 
the substantial grounds of two years’ 
very successful experience with Soy beans 
and corn grown together for ensiling, this 
accomplished here in Berkshire County, 
Mass., where_the growing season is very 
short, only 87 days between killing frosts 
in the season just passed. 

A brief sketch of our 1017 crop will be 
found in the Berkshire Farmers’ Bulletin. 
Our crop for 1018 was in every way con¬ 
siderably better than that of 1917. in 
that both corn and beans were more fully 
matured. Corn at time of ensiling was 
in advanced roasting to glazing stage, and 
many of the Soy beans were sufficiently 
matured to germinate. It would be pos¬ 
sible, I think, for us to grow our own 
bean seed if we planted them separately. 
Medium Green seems to be the only 
variety at all suitable for our conditions. 
One or two other varieties tried the past 
season failed to develop any beyond the 
blossom stage. While definite figures are 
lacking to show the increased feeding 
value of silage containing Soy beans. I be¬ 
lieve them to add very substantially to 
the silage, so much so that we are coming 
to consider them a very essential part of 
the crop grown for ensiling. 

s. Waldo bailey. 

The experience given is as follows: 

“Soy beans were grown with the corn, 
by us last season, as an experiment to in¬ 
crease the feeding value of silage. Tliev 
were mixed with the corn, in about the 
proportion of three quarts of beans. Me¬ 
dium Green variety being used, to five 
quarts of corn and sown with a horse 
planter in the usual way. A slightly 
:arger gauge in the planter was used thaii 
when corn alone is planted, and also to 
facilitate the more uniform dropping of 
the coin, which had been tarred to pro¬ 
tect it from crows. 

"The beans appeared above ground 
from one to three days before the corn 
and for a brief time kept ahead of it in 
growth. With the better weather condi¬ 
tions prevailing during late June and 
early July, corn came into its own, how¬ 
ever. and kept well above the beans 
throughout the remainder of the season 
The beans, though rather shaded by tin' 
corn during the last two months of 
growth, were not apparently seriouslv 
checked by this condition and by early 
September were well .podded with nearly 
mature beans. 

‘‘ Tbe vines attained a height of from 
~n. «*et on the low. heavier, poorly 
drained and indifferently fertilized por¬ 
tions of the field to four feet on the mel¬ 
lower and better fertilized soil. At no 
time during the season did their rank 
growth interfere with cultivation. Earlv 
in the season a two-row cultivator was 
frequently used, and as the crop became 
too high for this, a one-horse machine did 
the work successfully. Cultivation con¬ 
tinued up to about August 15th. when a 
cover crop of rye, rape and Red clover 
was sown and worked with a spike-tooth 
cultivator. This crop, notwithstanding 
the heavy shade, made a very good start 
before the corn was harvested. 

‘‘. At time of cutting, September 
,th< the beans stood in upright shape 
between the stalks of corn and occupied 
but little more space between the rows 
than corn usually does. Considerable 
doubt has been expressed as to whether 
a harvester could cut the two crops with¬ 
out troublesome clogging. While we cut 
our crop by the slower hand process, 
other conditions determining this course. 

I can see no reason why a good harvester 
in pioper working condition should not 
cut without any serious difficulty the two 
crops. If from storm or wind the beans 
should become bent or broken over be¬ 
tween the rows, then conditions would be 
such as likely to give some trouble. 

“Tn filling thp silo, if the cutter is of a 
size and capacity to take whole bundles, 
no extra work is required. In case the 
cutter is a small sized one. where bundles 
must be broken or worked apart some¬ 
what, then an increase in man power is 
called for, as the entangling bean vines 
make this work slightly more difficult. 

*A\ ith silage composed of well-matured 
corn and beans fed with Alfalfa hay. 
clover hay or oats and peas. I believe the 
grain problem can be reduced to its low¬ 
est terms or pretty nearly eliminated. 

•Who following ration, varied slightly 
to suit the needs of individual cows, is 
yielding us good results: 

35 lbs. corn and Soy bean silage. 

and pea hav. 

1 :5.7. 

“No special fertilization other than that 
to insure a good corn crop appears to be 
necessary to grow the Soy bean. Out¬ 
fields were given about eight cords of 
stable manure per acre. On a-part of 
them this was applied after plowing, and 
then well worked in with a disk harrow. 

On the remainder the manure was 
turned under. There was no noticeable 
difference in the crop in the two ways of 
treatment. At the time of seeding 200 
pounds per acre of a mixture composed 
by weight of one part nitrate of soda to 
four parts acid phosphate was drilled in 
with the planter. This last given to in¬ 
sure a good start because the fields were 
in a rundown condition, not having been 
plowed or fertilized for a considerable 
term of y,ears.” s. waldo bailey. 



hich is the best way to buy a 


see'whet'her he Ibum tTdo S g ° ^ him POint by poi "‘ » 

When you buy a furnace it is even more important that you find out what is under 

and economically, e you Wto find outfow fu”. h “ t ^ h ° USS pr0pe ^ 

N P- Sterling Furnace 

4i rnt — 





fr - 


11 A 



The One Register Furnace 

Has uncLr its blanket a high grade furnace—fire pot, dome, flues, etc., every part scientifically do 
SSd for theSiniorLa^ wil1 teU *>“ * hat the ™ has 


1 he drawing m the lower corner shows a cross section of the NP, and explains just whv the NP 
the a^rlfircuiatel 0 ^' Successful heatm S b y one register depends upon the rapidity with which 

A—Sterling construction insuring perfect combustion and saving of fuel. 

* . ,^ ra dome which heats air passing around it more 

quickly and to higher temperature with less fire. 

C—Outside air passages keep the air cool way to the bottom of 
s ° ma ke the air flow very swiftly into and thru 
thru the I regisfer^ >erS and ^ en pours it out with great force 

These outside air passages are vital Sterling features. Here are 
some others: a cool cellar, feed door large enough for chunks 
hea vy grey iron castings (no scrap used) special fire 
pot where natural gas and solid fuel are used, special three 
point, dust and gas proof joints, extra large air moistener. 
i hese and many other points you should know about fur¬ 
naces are explained in our free book “Heating the Whole 
One Register.” If you are interested in heat- 
ng joiirhouse m the best and most economical way, send 

modescribing this furnace which is made by 
the same firm who make 


The range that bakes a barrel of flour with one hod of coal 

Sill Stove Works Rochester, N. Y. 


7/i^Handsomest and Strongest 

SILO Made 

Craine triple wall silos harmonize with 
the finest farm buildings. Their smooth, 
handsome appearance is unmarred by 
ugly, bothersome, loose hoops and lugs. 

And this great silo is as strong as it is beautiful. 
It has an inner wall of closely fitted staves; 
a wall between of special heavy weather-proof 
felt; and the famous smooth-finished Crainelox 
covering. 1 h’s is a continuous, patented 
covering that provides strength to every 
square inch of the silo. 

This 3-vvall construction keeps _ 

warmth in and cold out; it is a 
real air-tight, frost-repelling and 
strongly supported silo. Once 
erected it stays put witnout 

Send for literature, early order 
discount and agency offer 

Craine Silo Co., Inc. 

Box 110 Norwich, N. 

Rebuild the Old 


Any homemade or 
stavejdlo/if twisted, 
tipped or collapsed 
can bo rebuilt into a 
beautiful new Craine 
wall silo at about 
half the price of a 
new one. All the old 
material (except 
can be used, 
e buy the hoops. 
b«end for our plan of 
rebuildin«r old silos. 

^ - --— i t ^ y -—- * * n . a • ivumiuiiig oia silos, f « 

Utility White LEGHORNS 

strain : line bred for the Inst 
eltneii >e;us !.>r egg production, late moulting, size 
and \ igor. Lay-old chicks and hatching eggs 
'yrsnle. (hrcuTar on request. 

BROAD BROOK FARM, Bedford Hills, \. Y. 


8 to 10 lbs. oats 
5 to 7 lbs. mixed 
2 lbs. cottonseed 
Nutritive ration 


;\ I £y°i Jn C toms weigh 18 to 25 lbs. in November. 
Booklet gives all details of care ami feed of breeders 
• imi young. I< ,-ee with each sale or sold for SI. 

I). E. (IKAY, - Grovelaud Station, N. V. 


iilTi a fvf oven i ta V t , tlle ®C!l producing propensities 
i i l ’V ?' 6 bird. Wliy not head your pen with 
a cockerel from a 237-251-egg-record hen made at 
-r i mlT** $1° and three at $15 delivered 
A. I. I.LNZEJi, . North Attleboro, Mas*. 

White Rock Cockerels sfii iirin til «»■! ■ '■ hatched 

Kggs and chicks. * -. - 1 u 

A rT ei ^. 1 * S5 and $8. 

1 hhl), Green Haven. .New York 

200,000 CHICKS For 1919 

raptu M itV-«iT50 A m°soT de Y~ 3l l n - to 11,00 < * ,lio,£ 

Keystone Hatchery, ~Dept fl/ Richard, Pa.' 

March Baby Chix 

1 S. C. Red and 
Barron Leghorn 

Kaise Early Broilers this 
year and_ make money, 
i ou can’t go wrong on 
our Chix, 

Price List ready 


- FROM thoroughbred matings 

White, Brown and Buff Leghorns. Barred Rocks, White Rocks 
K. I. Keds. White Wyandottes and Anconas 

tvl R v 0SE1V ^ NT chi . cks be your choice for 1919, they are all from free ranged 
tice bom disease, heavv layino- strains OITAT ITY ghtpkq f p 

that has been carefully graded for a mm.bS-ofySrs b ^‘experts for thetf 
heavy laymg Thousands of satisfied customers prove our merhs 

Quality is our Motto. Fair Dealing the Foundation of our Business 

•atiSw&f OT”am?"d! a, B£ki“-Td^ and 

Write for a copy of our big 1919 Catalogue it’s FREE 
Rosemont Poultry Farm & Hatchery, Bos 500, Ro.emonl, N. J„ Hunterdon Co. 

Calf Scours 

Save every Calf. High meat and milk 
prices make control of Calf Scours 
more necessary than ever before. 

Scpunng calves intricate a germ infection 
that is likely to run through your entire herd 
with serious losses. The loss of one calf is 
had enough, but nothing compared to your 
loss when the infection spreads, as it will 
unless checked. Then your year’s work in 
building up your herd is wasted and your 
profits lost. J 

c the powerful germicide and disin¬ 

fectant will promptly stop scours and finally 
banish it from the premises. B-K contains 
no poison, acid nor oil. When used internally 
it destroys germs, heals inflamed membranes, 
relieves irritation, restores healthy action. 
B-K may be given freely in milk and drink¬ 
ing water. 

. The B-K plan is simple and practical. It is 
giving wonderful results. Send for “evidence” 

F R v F i E BULLETINS: Send ^ our 
valuable bulletin No. 136, “Calf Scours.” 

1 orm a turn o n other farm uses and our 
I nal Offer. # If your dealer does not have 
13-K, send us his name. 


2771 So. Dickinson St., Madison, Wis. 

J3*K * p-K * \H$ • TJ-K 

Yearlings-White Cochin Bantams 

S3, pens. S5. Maple Lawn Poultry Yards, Seroeantsville.N.j! 

Hatchin? lm U° rt £? i .? arron strain Leghorns. Cir- 

Iiaimmig eular. W.E.ilKl.NHOX, Wallingford,Com,. 


Airedales and Collies Greatest 

pups, grown cogs, ami brood matrons Large in 
strn.-tive itst, 5c. W. R. WATSON. Box 1745 Oakland. Iowa 

Collie Puds kind. Also tiuiuea Pigs 

__ r n, drove City, 1‘u 

Champion Collie Pups EI Ud 


A Woman’s Hardy Garden—Bp Mrs. 

*1. H. hlV . . 

Old Time Gar dens-Bp /LA/. Earle 2.50 

FI S w V' r / * nd ,*; < “ rn » «n Their Haunts- 

Plf^i PK° ' W i r,i!h ' o V. • • * 2.00 
riant Physiology—Bp Duggan , . 1.60 

Forsale by Rural New-Yorker, 333 W. 30th St..N.¥. 

January 11, 1910 


Why Not Have Eggs When Eggs Are 

“You can’t make hens pay at present 
prices of feed.” This is a statement re¬ 
cently made to the writer by a friend who 
is considered a very successful dairyman, 
and who is manager of a big estate de¬ 
voted to several 'branches of farming, in¬ 
cluding poultry. This same man. when 
asked about his dairy work, said he could 
show fair profit notwithstanding the high 
<;ost of feeds and high-priced labor. These 
apparently contradictory statements made 
by a farming enthusiast point out a very 
vital factor in the success of any line of 
farming, and equally so of any other 
business. This man had for years writ¬ 
ten and talked on the merits of the dairy 
eow when carefully selected, bred, fed and 
managed. He had advocated the economy 
of home-grown feeds to reduce the ex¬ 
pense of keeping the cow. He had, in his 
frequent writings, urged the value of cash 
crops to supplement the dairy herd. But 
when it came to poultry he had no use 
for it on the general farm. Here, then, 
lies a big factor in the success of any 
farmer in his chosen specialties. If he 
likes a certain kind of stock or a certain 
kind of crop, he will be almost sure to 
succeed. If he does not, well, he would 
better let the other fellow raise it. 

For many rears it has seemed to the 
writer that the farmer with a small herd 
and with a few cash crops was just the 
person to make a good profit from poul¬ 
try, if he would devote a similar degree 
of’ studv and care to the fowls that he 
does to his cows. The farmer can grow 
much of the feed needed, and lie can mar¬ 
ket that feed through the birds at a good 
profit. Besides this, a considerable por¬ 
tion of the grain grown is a cull product 

not directly salable. 

Now, what about feed prices as com¬ 
pared with egg prices? During the past 
three years feed has just about doubled 
in price. During the same time the price 
0 f eggs has more than doubled. Labor, 
of course, has advanced, but on the farm 
much of the poultry work can be done by 
the children or other members of the 
family, without high-priced labor. 

The writer has always found good pro¬ 
fit from poultry on the farm. Last Spring 
I decided what would be the outcome 
from war-time poultry raising. Four hun¬ 
dred White Leghorn chicks were bought 
from a good practical breeder and were 
ordered to be hatched only from eggs com 
ing from yearling stock. One of. the ig- 
gest mistakes in poultry raising is m the 
use of pullets as breeders They are 
weakened by heavy production and ai 
often not sufficiently well developed to 

fhe e next° n imiSnSt fStor to goo^Ttock! 
The introduction.of the coal stove brooder 
is the biggest improvement in ieai | 
chicks vet brought into use. Provides 
steady * heat and allows the chicks to 
crowd nearer to or further away from 
the heat center as conditions require. Oae 
mistake that is often made 1'",“^”'- 
i,i<r the heat too soon, ''hen .June wea 
ther’eomes we are likely .g, think 
he-it should be needed, lhat was vum 
the^writer lost out last June, when as 
late as the twentieth there was «n ex 
ceptionallv cool day and night, a week o 
10 davs after brooder fires had been al¬ 
lowed go out. The results gave a loss 
of JO strong chicks, which were smothered 
bv Hacking on one anothei m the enor 
to find more heat. During the same e\ - 
nin- thT owner was toasting his shins 
efore a "lowing fire in the fireplace,, but 
S'd iot think abort his (anther eg. 

Such losses are just a part of thegam 
of chance and I determined that tne 
balance o£ the flock should have extra 

Ca Dood feed, with plenty of skim-milk to 
take the place of beef scrap and plenty 
of chance to exercise kept the chicks on 
« e gate from this time oil. When about 
SJht weeks old the cockerels could be 
identified, and were separated and placed 
in email houses to be forced tor the 
August hotel trade. This local trade gave 
a "ood market, and 85 cents each for bled 
•uni picked cockerels, brought down the 
cost of the remaining pullets very con¬ 
siderably. About August first the loss o 
the earlier supply of slum-milk made 
necessary the adoption of a dry mash 
mixture with 10 to 15 per cent of beef 
i n place of the dry masli without 
beef 1 scrap 1 that had proved useful so far 
We felt that rapid forcing was not 
necessary. Former experience had shown 
that Leghorns brought to laying condi¬ 
tions at six months of age and reaching 
LTt age early in November were more 
cemii as steady Winter layers than 
those which started laying earlier. One 
point of care wherein we feel part of oui 
success may be found was in eg 
housing for the Winter. « 
can be got accustomed to their win 
to, homes before cold weather comes 


they will settle down to business early in 
November and usually keep at it for the 
Winter. This former experience was ver¬ 
ified this year. On October 12th the 
birds were placed in one large room, for¬ 
merly a stable. They showed their usual 
restlessness for two to three weeks, but 
as cool, bright weather came on, about 
November 1st. the birds began- laying. 
On November 11th they helped celebrate 
peace by becoming six months of age 
the age when the owner felt, they should 
begin to pay their own way. One hun¬ 
dred and seventy pullets, which made up 
the flock after culling out eight or 10 un¬ 
dersized ones, were then laying 12 to l.> 
eggs per day and in a few days were up 
to 15 or 20. and from then the race for 
profit was well under way. 

\t this time the flock was well settled 
on* their Winter ration of mixed grains 

age early in November. Third, early 
housing for " inter in not too warm, open 
front, dry houses, the doors of which may 
be closed when the nights become cold. 
Fourth, plenty of dry litter in which to 
scatter the grain to encourage exercise. 
Fifth, liberal feeding of green food a 
variety of grains and a well balanced dry 
mash with not less than 20 per cent of 
beef scrap. Sixth, a good market for eggs 
where people are willing to pay good 
prices for strictly fresh, clean eggs, not 
over three days old when brought to mai- 
]. p t. CIIAS. A. PHELPS. 

Saratoga Co., N. A’. 

¥ ¥ Y ¥ Y 

Suspected Roup 

Will you tell me what, is the matter 
with mv chickens and what to do tor 

A spoonful a day 





Keeping the Hens Interested in Their Job 

and dry mash, and this with plenty of 
waste cabbage or cauliflower, plenty of 
water and active work in the littei, 
helped them set the music in tune that 
always accompanies, production. I he 
-ain was steady until it reached oo per 
of their number early in the early 
of December, while for . the latter 
of December it was a little better 

interview with the college experts 


had given the owner a “stunt” to measure 
up to, because they had declared that, a 
•JO per cent production from the sixth to 
the seventh month would be a good re¬ 
sult. The end of the seventh month, how¬ 
ever. showed a production of 2o% per¬ 
cent for the past 30 days, with a profit 
of $42.25 above the cost of feed, all feed 
being charged at cost prices, even that 
produced on the farm. 

What’s the secret of good egg produc¬ 
tion at a fair profit when eggs are usually 
scarce’ First and foremost, good stock 
from a laying strain of yearling hens 
Second, chicks that are well grown and 
vigorous and that come to six months ot 

them? They have one side of the head 
swollen just a little; seemed just pulled | 
around the eye; cold in the eye and eye 
watery. w. n.". 

Your description certainly indicates the j 
presence of chronic roup in the flock, the j 
disease subsiding in warm weather and re- | 
curring with the damp, colder season. 
You will probably be unable to rid your 
flock of it until you dispose of all atlectod 
birds, and possibly the whole flock, and 
restock with healthy birds. As the dis¬ 
ease is highly contagious, it is. of course, 
necessary to rid their quarters of the 
contagion by thoroughly cleaning and 
disinfection. It would be useless to put 
healthv birds into infected quarters and 
expect them to remain free from the dis¬ 
ease. It is possible that a thorough 
clearing out of all fowls that slimy any 
signs of the disease and a renovation ot 
the poultry quarters would suffice to free 
your flock from the infection at this stage 
of the trouble. Darkness, dampness and 
filth hold the disease; sunlight, fresh air 
and cleanliness combat it. M d - 

to make 20 kens lay! 


Mix it witk the mask! 

M IX just a tablespoonful of 
8 LEEKKNE—that’s all—in 
the wet mash and you’ve a real 
tonic for twenty hens. Or in 
dry mash, a half a package to a 
whole bushel of the feed. Do this 
and as sure as healthy hens lay 
more, you will get more eggs! 

Poultry, to he most profitable, 
must be given something besides 
ordinary food now and then and 
most of all . when winter shuts 
them off from Nature’s remedies. 
When putting money into hens, 
why not put in a little more and 
then got all the money you can 
out of them? 

Use Sleekene and watch the 
fine results! If your dealer can’t 
supply you. send his name and 50 
cents' and a full sized package 
will be sent postpaid. 

Made only by 

G. C. Hanford Mfg. Co. 

3C4 Oneida St., Syracuse, New York 

Y Y Y X 

FEEDS AND FEEDING, by Henry and 
Morrison. Price, $2.50. The best book on 
this subject. For sale by Rural New-Yorker 

Better and bigger crops are needed tins year. Get extra 
bushels from every acre by giving every seed a chance to 
“start off” right. Distribute the seed evenly at a uni¬ 
form depth. Give each grain an even chance at 
moisture and perfect germination. The 
Favrtrife Force Feed sows the grain in the soil at the bottom of the dull 
furrow No spilling on top or half way covering. No clogging or leav- 
”g empty toowf. All the seed sprouts .grows .wd npens evenly. 
Made m plain grain and fertilizer styles and in all sizes. 

F8l^^c^5 , Favorite Tractor Drills 

Adjustable Hitch for use with any tractor. Power lift enables oper- 

time and labor saver to the farmer. 

Send for the Farmers’ Favorite Catalog 

Farmers’ Favorite Grain Drills have been on the 
market for more than 50 years and are used in eve y 
grain growing country in the world. 

Call on your dealer and have him show and explain 
These and other special features and the ments 

the Farmers’ Favorite Gram Drill, which is sold 
under the strongest possible warranty. 

The American Seeding-Machine Co., Inc. 
Springfield, Ohio 



will soon pay for one of these 



and Heaters 

Keeps water at the 
riffht temperature 

riffht temperature 
day and ni)?htin the 
coideat weather and 

needs one. Price of lHeator o ®y er y Hen-House 
tafn complete SI.75 Ordor a NOw/ r AJ°S»^P to l nat iS. Foun " 
No. R and testimonials U ° N0W writ<s for circular 

* ®**rn n »or"u5!SlJ ,,,, * ,,e »* Write lor Offer. 




Vineland, N. J. 


This contest is now in its third year, 
the pens being occupied by selected pul¬ 
let progeny from the birds in these pens 
the two previous years—first as pullets 
and second as mature hens. 

It’s Easy to Raise CHICKS 

With the Guaranteed 



Make ihe test yourself at my risk. Use the 
brooder 30 days. If it proves unsatisfactory in any 
way ship it back at my expense and 1 7 vM mail 
■would you my check tor your money at once. 

The EUREKA burns coal or natural gas Is 

w, e ,w P c nS 'r V < e ? n f ? asy t° operate, but it raises the 
chicks. If I did not know it will please you I 
not dare give this unconditional guarantee. 

1 do know, because I designed it and build ii 
complete, in my own big stove works. 

Order now to insure prompt delivery 
tune will soon be here. 

500 chick size, $19 ; 1000 
chick size, $23. 


Write today for Booklet 


244 North Front St. 




Double the Weight 

weight and 8 rea t has been the de- 

priceperlb? f ° r theSe Poetical, 

ready - to - use caponizing 
tools that most dealers exhausted 
their stocks. The fact that the Pilling 
factory was working 100% on Gov¬ 
ernment orders for surgical instru¬ 
ments prevented us from refilling 
their shelves. 

But next Spring we shall be able to 
supply dealers who order early. Get 
I X,° p . r orc fer in now—any poultryman with 
[ f~ I - ll ug caponizing tools and our complete 
illustrated instructions can make each dol¬ 
lar s worth of feed produce four times as 

bZI free as with roosters * Capon 

G. P. PILLING & SON CO., Phila., Pa. 

Est. 1814 America's Pioneer Maker of 

Caponizing Tools 


1918 CHAMPION ^ 

Lays 304 Eggs per year 1 
In Egg Competition 

S. C. W. Leghorns White Wyandottes 
5. C. R. /. Reds 

“Worlds Champion Layers” 

Our Certified Contest Records are PROOF 

Victo !'y- ? m ' s - C.W.Leghorn lion, wins High- 
est Honors in American Egg Laving Contest at 
| Leavenworth, Kansas. Average 25 eggs j,,.,- month 
during coldest Winter known tor98years. Figureout 
for yourself how layers like these will increase your 
I !Vv’/ ,s - 1 ogether with her lour sisters, her pen laid 

lU.i egrgs,wmnmgr three silv er cups and high honors. 

Ama!!i ont % of l, t Ve Wyandotto hens in the preceding North 
American mlihc Laying Competition, won First Pri™««! 
Three Silver (Tups. These hens laid 1166 orrs, havintr thSSo 
hiRh individual records: 294-267-221-220 etrgs. Co iii? 
government supervision. ^ contest undei 

Our Champion Wyandotte hen "Liberty Bell” 1.M ■*,, 

okks. winning third prize and cup against 600 com^Utora 67 
Merely another proof of our success in breedimr Cm 
laycl-f Other competition winnings: ■ -Oo-osff 

Reds Highest awards, in thoir class. N A 

feMiaffir.! 1 ovui ' -°° ^ p-'.'Tn? 

__ 1st yr. 2dyr.Wk 

Garret W. Buck, N. J. 1956 1366 36 

A?tTn aS r H t nry -xP a i. 1548 1192 28 

Otto G. L uhrs. N. J. 1474 1245 20 

Wofl' P ‘V;. 1689 1488 40 

Harry H. Oher, N J . 1443 1.733 48 

Overlook Farm, N. J. 1199 12.91 32 

C. Ward, Me.. 1459 1381 19 

Woodside I< arm. R. 1. 1897 837 52 


Chester P. Dodge, Mass. 1635 1060 31 

Hollis ton Hill Ponl.Pm., Mass. 1985 1176 33 

Edward E. Murray, N. Y. 1573 1035 20 

Victors. Reichenbaeh. Pa. 1038 899 6 

Overlook J* arm, N. J. 1662 1137 IB 

Wilburtha Poultry Farm N.j.. 1214 994 0 
Deptford Poultry Farm, N. J.. 1447 1245 17 

T. J. Enshn. N. J. 1302 1111 1 

J. M. Jones, N. J. 1854 1272 27 


Thomas Coates, N Y.. 1445 1173 47 

A H. Faulkner, N. J . 14I2 1044 12 

Thomas Henry Pa.... 1322 1123 26 

Gablewood Poultry Farm, N. J. 1598 1288 32 

Lusscrolt Farm N. J. 1761 1266 33 

E.C.Moore. N. J.......^. . i 48 5 1215 31 

i. H. Matteson & Son. R. 1. 1410 1090 44 

Sunnybrook Farm, N. J. 1460 1263 26 

H. S. luthill, N. J. 1721 lags 38 


Lake Farm, R 1. 1513 1193 2 2 

Sunnybrook Farm, N. J . 1483 1223 17 

Wilburtha Poultry Farm, N. J. 1253 1069 23 


Clark and Howland, Vt. 1591 836 8 

W. P. Lamg, N. J. got qiq 47 

Mrs C. B. Elliott N. J. 1279 1009 11 

Belle Ellen Stock Farm. N. J... 1522 964 16 

H. W. Colling wood, N.J. 1425 1325 30 

Thomas W. Dawson, Pa. 1410 l°3l n 

Etjon Poultry Farm. N. J. 1479 1153 9 

Thomas Henry, Pa. i5-« 1193 35 

Miss A. S Macintosh, N. J. 1635 1345 21 

Underhill Bros., N.J. 4900 1275 40 

Woodland Poultry Yard, Pa_ 1082 891 30 


Avaion Farms, Conn. 1937 1451 41 

E. A. BaUard, Pa . 1843 1704 26 ; 

W'"T‘y l ' 0 'b England.... . 205! 1509 22 : 

dn 0 " I b ^® k Fa v^ N - J " 1425 1128 38 ; 

Broad Brook I< ann.N Y. 1698 1485 42 : 

Clover lawn Farm, N. J. 1734 1540 33 ■ 

W. J. Cockme. N. J. 1674 1409 34 1 

1 « < -' ol J j e 8* N< T*4. 1730 1489 26 1 

r? y Son. N.J. 1649 1362 32 S 

Uias pava 1, Jr„ N. J . 1728 1527 20 1 

D p x L s ^ ep ? 6 ' . 1714 1961 7 

R. 1<. A, R A. Earie N J. 1595 J250 37 2 

Harry G. Gardiner, N. J. 1772 1438 24 1 

w«n , c ( « re w" e Vi N ' J -N. 1772 1;!l ' 8 66 2 

Wells S. Hastings, Conn. 1749 1944 .>0 , 

B. Frank Grunzig, N. J. 1977 jq 89 30 1 

Henry E. Heine, N. J. 1522 1373 S« i 

Richard Heine, N. J. 4597 1141 97 p 

Heigl’s Poultry Farm, Oliio.... IgTg 1113 27 r 

Hilltop Poultry Yards.Conn.... 1774 1221 19 1; 

Hillview Farm, Mo. 1436 laso 24 1 • 

Holliston Hill Poul. Fm., Mass. 2114 1489 11 < 

Pinebeach PoujtryFarm,N.J.. 1412 434$ 38 o') 

R 1 r Ha i l, "^° t 1 Nl J . 1719 l 578 39 17 

John K. Lauder, N. J. 1051 177^ o () 

P?erl W T 11 MnH ltly Conu ' ,< 1867 1243 35 32 

ii red J. Mathews, N. J. 17**; i«iq •*» 

Mercer Poultry Farm, N. J. 1612 1445 25 

Merry thonght Farm, Conn. 1673 1331 43 29 

Li. M. Myers, N.J.. 1843 1490 24 01 

OakHill N FRttte S p« ,N ' J . 1851 146 * 40 23< 

Iff? f 7 ',1; 

Oakland Farm. N. J. . .: .: 1655 ^ fo B 

P G PhS? P Parry ' Pa .. 1295 ii ^ Platt,.Pa... 2173 29 22- 

Riverside Egg Farm. N. Y. 1815 1434 35 24J 

Joseph H. Ralston, N.J. 1914 4494 33 4.54 

Shadowbrook Farm, Conn. 1620 1243 28 115 

Sloan s Egg Farm, N.J. 1666 1462 36 {95 

Pmehnrst Poultry Farm, Pa— 1884 136S 50 289 

Herman F. Sonder, N.J. 1802 1456 34 272 

A. E. Spear, N. J. 1716 1376 inr. 

Sunnybrook Farm, N. J. 1353 4459 33 4-'., 

Teuacro J»ou 1 try Farm, N. J.... 1312 1260 32 200 

Tom s Poultry Farm, N. J. 1702 1474 31 973 

Training School, N. J. 1535 4494 on 7!, 

J. Percy VanZandt.N. J...":: 2212 1471 « ‘Is 

Shurts and Voegtlen, N. J. 2115 1282 44 297 

Gustav W alters. N.J........,,, 1883 1310 *is 191 

White House Fonitry Fm„ N. J. 1489 1452 20 ->19 

W. K. Wixson, Pa. 1950 1714 ™ 

Willanna Farm, N.J. 4945 4559 07 

Woodland Farms. N. J. isaG 1462 41 


H. G. Richardson, N. J. 444s 4009 on 

lvomy Singer, N. J. 4437 4999 7.. 

Monmouth Farms, N. J. 1407 1293 23 


F;J'n\r Pto \W. 1746 1398 37 

gred C. Nixon, N.J. 1753 122^7 44 

Sunny Acres, N.J. 1754 4233 9 

Egtfs Higher than Eve r- 

And You CAN getthem 

i:pr P p ,r t “ Js, 

food conservation, are inferior and do not produce results. They a-e not 

palatable, are coarse and hard to digest. 7 6 not 

Pratts Poultry Regulator 

rnakes good radons better, is an absolute necessity in inferior ones. " Guaranteed satisfactory or money back“ 
invigorates the so^he bird's'-Whi*«? 7^" 

Get a supply of Pratts Poultry Regulator from your dealer today Make 
erery hen lay now while fresh eggs are bringing big money. 

Big Poultry Book FREE on request 


Philadelphia Chicago Toronto 

k95 Buys 140-EggT| 

1- Champion 

Belle City Incubator 


' w^'JY at F’ Copper Tank, Double Users 0 

I H ’wY' Sjlf-Retralated. With S6.3S 

| Hot-Water 140 - Chick Brooder —both only $1S.95, 

Freight Prepaid 

& allowed on express. Guaranteed. 
My Special Offers provide ways to 
ear 7 ? extra money. Order Now, or 

Hatching Facts " 


’ T ., write for book.**Hatchin; 

i R.n- r u • Free and tei13 ji ™ r° 

| Belie City Incubator Co.. Box 

-—in, Pres. 

.48, Racine. Wis. 


S$f4 ! - 5 

Both are made of 
Calif. Redwood. 

Incubator is cov- hh 
ered with asbestos and gal- 
vanized iron; has triple ^ 

om, » a wa f[ 3 »c°ppertank,nnrs- 
er 3 r , egg tester, thermometer, ready to 
™«- n 3 ,9 DAYS' TRIAL-moneV blX if 
not O.K. Wntefoi FREE Catalog Now _ __ 

i^ncladJncMbatorCo.BoalQI RacIne.Wls 

Oil-Bin-tiin^ BROODER 

Blue Flame Wickless 
Oil Heated Colony Brooder 

Automatic Regulation 

i he Liberty Marvel is de¬ 
signed to meet the emer¬ 
gency in the existing coal 

Change Your Coal 

Burner Into a , 

Liberty Oil Brooder ^>1 



| expense. 

Brooding ’ 

50 I 

to { 

I 1000 
5 hiC , kS 

for less than 6c per day. Perfect 
faetion guaranteed or money back. Send 
for circular on “Scientific Brooding.” 

Liberty Stove Co.?&S^Vz 

Baby Chicks 
Eggs bonis':R e t 

**** Reds. B. P. 
Rocks, W. Wyandottes 
Trapnested, farm 
range heavy laying 
stock that will multi pi v 
yonr poultry profits 
Illustrated folder free. 
Write for it NOW. 


Galen Farms, 

Box 100 Clyde, N, Y. 

Ferris WhitcLcghorns 

A real heavy laying strain, trapnested 17 years rec¬ 
ords from 200 to 26f eggs. Get our Dries n. ., 

snd £ earli ,“s hens, breeding males, eggs for hatching^ 
results y r ! ? n < i 'i. <>kS ' We ship C. O. 1). and guarantee 
Catalog grives prices; describes stock, tells all 
about our farm and methods; results you can get bv 
free ^o '"" Strain ’ Se,ld for copy^ow-it is 
GE0SGE B. FERRIS, 935 Union, Grand K 

Irfic, Mich 





TotaIs . 161375 129499 2943 17431 


Write today for 
copy of ‘*Tho 
Story of tlio 200- 
Fkk Hen," con- 
l tainintr pictures of 
i our competition winners, 
plans of trapnest. feeding 
lormulas and other val- 
ua do information that 
will Increase your eirvr yield 

aSt o^«. doducted from you 

' THE PENNA. poultry farm 

Box P, Lancaster, P a . 




Chickens Sick?—Use Germozone 

GE°. H. LEE CO„ Dept. 463. OMAHA. NEB. 

Poor-laying Hens 

I have 40 R. I. Red pullets, hatched 
April 1st last, that started to lay Septem- 
bci 1st with about oue egg every other 
day through that mouth, and ifcvelsed 
only to about an average of six or seven 
eggs a day now. Just now, since lavinsr 
have been feeding a laying mash, fed 
3 st £ PI ] , ; n - h oaly to be eaten quickly! 
and then .3% quarts of cracked corn at 
night, h or awhile I fed mixed feed, but 
,-p. wa f so P () or that I discontinued it. 
1 hey have the dry mash before them all 
the time and oyster shells. n r 


i® impossible to say why two flocks 
that aie very much alike and are given 
the same care vary so much in egg pro¬ 
duction. there are doubtless excellent 
reasons which we sometimes express bv 

7 n l S :,s “heredity,” ••trans¬ 
mitted ability.” etc., without knowing ex- 
actly \yhat it is that is inherited and 
transmitted. As the composition of the 
proprietary feeds that you mention is 
known only to the manufacturers, I can- 
not say as to whether they are suited to 
the needs of the fowls or not. I much 
prefer to.mix the standard foods of known 
composition according to good formulas, 
f 1 “ o r e is then no question as to whether 
tood ot the right kind is being supplied. 

M. B. D. 


„ turns 
every egg 

Without opening incubator 

Best Construction 
simplest to Operate 

60—100—150 and 
200 Egg Sizes 

w Write for-Catalogue 


300 Grant Ave. , NUTLEY, NEW JERSE Y 



t l V0 9/^ S i t H , 0n0rS , and Outlayed 
the 2600 birds m the Five Miss¬ 
ouri Laying Contests (Under 
Uovt. Supervision) Including the 
,, .--jmrvaar *l^ mous English Laying Strains. 

Also made the remarkable winter 
??. on ‘ h reco . rd of 134 eggs in Jan. 
~~ Clr - Free - Large Catalog a dime. 

_ ^ L W. PARKS. Box Y ALTOON A, PA. 

Fw&jla-Pire Bred Mammoth Bronze TURKEYS 

bautifuipi e un,^. Ug M LVlD; 

Pure Mammoth Bronze Turkevs 

stock. Rep.y, stamp. Mr , PEAR "oodeba'cT. 


Single Comb White Leghorns Exclusively 


ISbfggSfi* tnfarfVT Ral1 ^- Booking 

for March and’ Anifl n , r* ,y ' Get 1 your order>i in earlv 

Edgar KHi27?l®t 8e tt ll ' tl,iIetlleyll * st - c ‘ r - A--® 

11 Box tpy Ple agant Talley, N. Y. 

Barron Leghorn Cockerels 

flom’>40 g to h Su ky w aU i ee ‘ raised birt , is ' Pedigrees 

choose f,o " 8 a„ 'n aV0 , over « hundred birds to 
aii i m W1 ^ m ake you a good selection 
All stock sold subject to customers approval' 


roSS-? „ “ efficient- S. C. W. 

Bred For Business LEGHORNS 

in Stated 

S. C. White Leghorn Cockerels 

| ™ ^own. handsome birds. 200-284-egg stock S3 m 

■ S1Q ei >cli- Matlitucli White Lephorn farm, Nlattituck, N. Y 

Tom Barron’s Leshorns ^ ar sast importer 

bsook rmitfntff. ifc.VMC 

ii j ii/,,,*_ j^ \»- „ ^ RockSj R. I. Reds 

* Cockerels 

Cataio^fiee. RIVERQXLE POULTR Y FARM, Box 165. Ri.rrdale N j! 

ForSale-Wyckolf Strain S. C.¥Ieehoriis 

C ockerels direct. J. M. CASE. Gilboa, New York 

Thoroughbred B P Rnpt ? arch Ia - vi ng pallets. S 3 . 

5 UUICU °. • • BUCK ei BRITON FARM. Darlington. Hd. 

Silver Penciled Rocks Nic ? 1 lar ? e cockerel and three 

Fn,t 8,0. c. 7 

, 'O.IFL.I.rLeds Nice large 

?L c ,^Ss! 

kibisox ItkVin Pedigreed White Wyandotte 

Barron’s White Wyandottes SSTffnSTt 

with records. R. E. LE WIS. A^alUhL, N, 

sale from 
ed direct 

ew York 


fc^fellDh 55 '^? strai «- Wxreo cockerels, 
and iSo each. D. EVERETT JONES, Hillsdale, N.y! 

D CT O Pred to Lay. Blue Rib- 
■ W ■ *X EH U 1, , on ., Winners. Cocker- 



1918 Winning Reds, 1916 

by Reds 

cockerels from best Rxv?« Sky ranee laisecl 

«ii? sS 


K ^ Vhi ‘ e ’ Hun ? ar >an Partridges 

Wild Turkeys, Pheasants, Quail, Rabbits, Deer, etc 

«/»rr dl ^ / or ® toc k>nff purposes. 

Ornamenta^Duc^s^jmd Geese ai Beaif t0 ? S ' ® W p" s ' 

Wm'/mACKENSEN^ i imi r and'lnimait 

■ i.J. ■^i.\CKE^SEN. Naturalist. Dept. 10, Yardley. Pa 

85 each 


Rhode Island Whites Single 

folay e '*3 e each CO An r f ,S ' $5 each / Fu'letsremiy 

Bred to Lay 

Selected Breeders 


chicks now for Feb. & Mar. DeliVv 
r?°* Also earl . v hatched ok Is 

Mount am View Pity. Fn»., Hopewell Jnct., N.Y* 

wilt. wmiMa I COCKERELS 

January 11, 1919 



smart schemes to do an ignorant man or 
a trusting woman out of the little they 



The following is an extract from the 
report of the National Vigilance Commit¬ 
tee of the Associated Advertising Clubs 
regarding the National Food and Fur 
Association of Milwaukee, Vis.. 

Our vigilance committee in Milwaukee, 
which has unusual facilities for having 
detailed and accurate knowledge of such 
a Milwaukee scheme, reported to us that 
it had known C. H. Rowan, who was at 
the head of this enterprise. . 

Mr. Rowan appears to bear tjf repute 
tion of being a very shrewd man wh 
operates in close co-operation with skilled 
lawyers, and our vigilance committee in 
Milwaukee was informed by the police, 
who know" Rowan, that he through the 
aid of his lawyers, evidently takes the 
necessary precautions to keep within the 

1)0 However,' even if . this and similar 
schemes, such as guinea pigs, rabbits, 
pigeons, etc., are advertised m such.a 
manner that their promoters do keep 
within the postal laws, this alone will not 
be sufficient to satisfy most publishers. 

It is well known that an adveitisei can 
so word his advertising matter so as not 
to violate the law, yet the net lesult ot 
his advertising can be the destruction of 
public confidence in advertising. 

The R. N.-Y. has persistently refused 
the advertiseing of all these pet stock 
schemes. Sometimes we have had only 
our suspicions to guide us, but the ex- 
travagent claims of profits to be made aie 
sufficient to cause distrust. 

I suppose that you have heard that 
Mr S. E. Pandolfo, president, and Mr. 
John Barritt. secretary, of the Pan Motor 
Co, St. Cloud. Minn., were indicted in 
the II. S. Court at Fergus Falls, Minn., 
about Nov. 15, on charges of using the 
mails in furtherance of a scheme to de¬ 
fraud. January 3d has been named as the 
date for a hearing. J - K - 


When we expressed our opinion in The 
R, N.-Y. about a year ago regarding this 
stock-selling scheme of Mr. Pandolfo, the 
gentleman threatened to sue us for libel. 
Libel .suit is the club that all promoters 
hold over the heads of publishers who de¬ 
sire to protect their readers from losing 
their hard-earned savings in promotion 
schemes of this kind. The United States 
Government evidently found sufficient 
evidence of fraud in the methods em¬ 
ployed to sell stock to warrant an indict¬ 
ment. Whatever the result of the fur¬ 
ther legal proceedings may be, w r e only 
hope that no readers of The R. N.-Y. 
have ignored our warning. 

Enclosed find some 
agine is “sucker bait. 

“literature” I im- 
These people have 

I wish that vou would investigate and 
show up Thorpe, the Syracuse man who 
was in automobile school and sarage 
“skin game” for several years, and who 
was tried last Spring for fraudulent use 
of the mails in connection with his com. e 
3 Section. Central New York is full 
of his former victims, and he is now do¬ 
ing business under several names, tbo 
principal one being that of “ T be Vestern 
Agenc-v” and listing farms on the cash 
in-advance scheme. He is very 
to keep his own name quiet, as it u ..uo 
well-known to stand publicity. He is 
great on blind ads. similar to the ones 
Inclosed, cut from Syracuse dailies. One 
of his schemes is to appoint local^agents 
to list farms for him, and collect 
from the agents for instructions, bond, 

ttC Hc has not caught me, although it is 
not his fault that he did not do so, as ne 
attempted to get me for the -Vo. 1 oe .. 
lieve him to be one of the smoothest and 
slickest crooks in Centra) New Yoik. i 
am very confident that / every land 
owner in the United States wouid taa; 
Tttf R N.-Y. a large oar of the crooks 
operating on the farmers would have -o 
go out of business. 0 

New York. 

The above report refers to the opera¬ 
tions of Walter F. Thorpe, who was fined 
$500 last May oy Judge Ray under in¬ 
dictment for fraudulent use of the mails. 
Evidently Mr. Thorpe has now adopted 
the listing fee scheme of D. B. Cornell 
& Co., Great Barrington, Mass. One 
faker is never above stealing the scheme 
of another. Judge Ray expressed our 
sentiments, regarding such rascals, when 
in sentencing Thorpe he said: 

You thought vou were safe because you 
were getsmall sums and the persons 
vou deaV. : with would either keep quiet 
from pri<? r - or not want to be subpoenaed 
before 'Grand Jury. In your anxiety to 
make money you say you relied on tbe 
advice of a lawyer. I don’t know who he 
is but I hope someone has given him a 
scolding such as I am giving you. 

sharp practices in dealing. with men 
and women through the United States 
mails must not be tolerated. I have rnoie 
respect for the man who with a heavy 
cudgel holds up someone and demands 
monev than I have for the man who uses 

agine is SUCher mm. 

rented for a few days or weeks a vacant 
store and are showing “shale so rich m 
oil it burns when a match is lighted and 
touched to it. These people are evident¬ 
ly intending to work the East, and n't 
is “bunk” you will probably wish to vain 
against them. 

The above refers to the prospectus aud 
operations of Consumers’ Oil and Shale 
Co. of Arizona. There seems to be no 
question that the shale rock in some of 
the Western States does contain large 
quantities of oil, but our information is 
that no process has yet been devised for 
extracting the oil economically enough to 
compete with the oil secured from wells. 
When the supply of oil from wells is ex¬ 
hausted, or if a more economical means 
of extracting the oil from this shale rock 
is discovered, it is then possible that the 
industry of extracting the oil from shale 
rock can be developed on a profitable 
basis, but, for the present, at least, invest¬ 
ment in anv of these concerns should be 
considered in the light of a speculation. 

If these were any good prospects that 
these companies formed for the pin pose 
of extracting oil from the shale rock were 
to become profitable in the near future, 
it would not be necessary for the promot¬ 
ers to go around giving demonstrations to 
secure investments from inexperienced 
people. There are plenty of practical 
men in the oil business with ample capi- 
tal w 7 ho would be glad to take advantage 
of the oil shale business, if they saw any¬ 
thing in it. 

The inclosed “dope,” I think, will be of 
interest to you and all . the K. w.-x. 
family, and think it should come Biule . 1 
the head of your Dun and Bradstreet 
better known as “Publisher s Desk.. This 
is the second one I have received m two 
davs, and I am sure they need the money 
from the farmers, as the banks would not 
want 2.000 per cent. G - H - 


The circular inclosed with the sub¬ 
scriber’s letter is an appeal from Mina 
Transfer Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pa., 
for investment in their stock. The idea 
is to run motor trucks between the large 
cities and operate an express business, 
and an instance is cited where 2,000 per 
cent profit was earned in operating a 
motor truck between Philadelphia and 
Washington. The logic of the situation, 
of course, is that if there are any such 
profits to be made, the nvomoters of this 
company should keei such a good thing 
for themselves. There is certainly no 
need to go to country neople for money 
to finance an undertaking that will prove 
such a money-maker as it is represented 
this will Ijecome! The real facts aie that 
these promoters are willing to try the 
fevperinifcnt if inexperienced investors will 
put up the money for them. No man of 
experience would venture a penny on such 
a proposition. From the tone of G. II. R. s 
letter he is no danger of swallowing any 
alluring “sucker bait.” 


E p AR ATO R Z - 1 

Puts a “Pay Streak” 
in the Dairy 

ALL the cream, ALL the time, from ALL 
the cows. 

—The foundation-principle in dairying for 
profit; first made 100%— possible by the 
“United States.” 

Having that achievement secure, all the in¬ 
ventive genius of the United States or S an_ 
ization has concentrated on time- and labor- 
saving features. 

Seven exclusive patents in eighteen months 
only suggest the story of the new United 

States Disc Separator. 

Besides Perfect 

—If easy washing is important; if 
easy running is desirable ; if dura¬ 
ble one-piece frame construction is 
an engineering achievement then 
you must investigate the new 
“United States.” 

See the United States dealer. 
Write for free descriptive literature 

Vermont Farm Machine Co. 

Bellows Falls, Vt. 

Chicago Portland, Ore. Salt Lake City 

Use tout 

Recently I clipped from a form papoi 
a puzzle, which I solved and returned to 
the Ocean Beach Development Company, 
Baltimore, Md. They wrote and told me 
til fit »SO lTr ing the puzzle entitled me to a 
lot at Ldantic City, Md., and sent me a 
deed for same, which cost me $7.50. Now 
they want me to pay taxes on this lot for 
Mve years, from 1918 to 1922 If you 
could' give anv information as to the re¬ 
liability of this company you would 
oblige me very much. M * M - 


This old puzzle fake scheme has been 
exposed time and time again in Pub¬ 
lisher’s Desk department. It is merely a 
plan to make the prospect believe he is 
getting something for nothing. The 
scheme always works the other way he 
pays something for nothing. No laud oi 
lots of value are ever disposed of in this 
way. M. M. would do well to consider 
his $7.50 lost and forget the transaction, 
except to profit by it in the futuie. 

' grind your FEED 

■ C- ' ^ 

Ward Work-a-Ford 

-n u onrrinO for leSS than thO COSt OI 

Gives you dnrri 'huflda the best engine in the world— 
?‘ 2 h. P. fl B °r < fhecar — and you might as well save 



THE WARD CO., 2040 M St., Lincoln, Neb. 

t c rmewa&SILOS 

T he 3 walls of Craine patent¬ 
ed silos insure strength, 
permanency and perfect sil¬ 
age; keep warmth in and cold out. 

“Crainelox” patent covering 
does away with bother of iron 
hoops and provides best insur¬ 
ance against wind and weather. 
Old stave silos can be made into 
new, permanent, 3 -wall silos at 
one-half cost of a new silo. 

Send for Catalog, prices, terms 
and Agency Offer. 

Craine Silo Co., Inc. 

Box 110, Norwich. N. Y. 

Get Silver’s b n o e o w k 


Now ready to mail. Learn how' 'Silver- 
ized Silage*' increases yield of farm 
Stock. Our printed matter covers al 
styleshand or power cutters. Send for it. 

The Silver Mfg. Co. 

364 Broadway, Salem, O 


CJOOL frftT 

SO O Buy* the New Butterfly Jr. No. C/-±. 
MO Light running, easy cleaning 
v w close ekimming, durable 


ftlbaUgh-Dover Co. 2171 M,r»hiIIBI. Chicago 

is a wonderful healing remedy unlike 
anything youeverused. ForGalled and 
Sore Shoulders. Barb Wire Cuts Wounds. 
Scratches. Split Hoofs, Sore Teats on Cows, 
it has no equal. I want you to , tr 5’ 
edy at my expense. 1 will send you a 

Sample Box FREE 

l n aant AF nlilPA VOU 

The annual business meeting of the 
Rural Savings aud Loan Association will 
be held January 13th, 1919, for the pur¬ 
pose of electing officers and directors for 

the coming year. M * n * keyes, 




e ngines 

It won't coat you a cent or place you 
undor any obligationa-just Bond - 
me your name and addresB. It a 
worth ita weight tn aDy 

farmer or dairyman. Write. 

C. G. PHILLIPS, Pros., 




_ . «• • gL « Ana* an/f 

Start Easy 

, 1 / rr p oo H«P. SO Days’ Trial. 
Money'^Back* Guarantee. Prompt shipment. 
Money oa Writa for present money saving 

Low Prices priceB Bm ] Free b A°Hv^ n'lJl? 
ETFTa wont to know.toot.w— 


For grinding corn in the ear and 
•mall grain. 

Has special crusher attachment 
which first breaks the ears of 
corn, which can be shoveled right 
into the hopper. Also Bone and 
Shell Mills and Bone Cutter#. 
Send for Catalog 

WILSON BROS.. Box, 5, Ea»ton, P«. 

“Well, Pat,” said the visitor, we 
must all die once.” “That’s plnvatt both¬ 
ers me,” replied the very sick mau. It 
Oi could die half a dozen times Oi would¬ 
n’t mind it.”—Rostou I ronscript. 


Money r* funded If not satisfactory 


NEW YORK 1 S3 Hudson A 

Slyke, Price. $2.50. The be*t general 
farm book For Bale by Rural New-Yorker 


We nfk yo, I r 0 loyal° a fd b ° y S “ Ven t0 fourteen Wrs. 

417 a™ P m ^? IN , G OUT BUREAU 

417 Broome Slrool NEW YORK 

100 Fine White Envelopes I 0 i“L f r , et "™ neatly 

Paid, only 75,■. Sample frog. A/HOwV^Pn^rSr'g, 


_ requirements. E. e. slscum. 141 B’wi/S r 

WAN JED—Two tenant men, March 1 for work 
on general farming and dairy farin'; must be 
sober, reliable and good workers; give references 
wtm Pxp ected in first letter w s 

HINCHBY, P, Q, Box 720, Rochester, N. Y.' S * 

.voung or middle-aged woman wanted 
m-v «an S ' St 111 i , I , OI,sework in author’s family sal- 
my $30 a month; no heavy washing- write fnii^ 
concernmg yourself; for right pe?fon an excem 

S Til nEY rt, TrT t,V viV" p ' easant surroundings. M 
s ’ tILDEN, Elm St.. Northampton. Mass 


tisomonta will ko undor n^^ A o r^’ 61 ^ I!ve H ? ock atlver- 
tt£ d ccSS^„ N " rSery fi d vertiaenKoits h vvill "not Z 

to'apoea'r'hi thcffollowin^weetps issuef*^** 3 * 


^ orchard! nenr 7 )iston°n| r ^^"““ercial peach 

be willing to work, Z^win'have ^im^rof’af 

sistance; good house- nc„.,i , y 01 a& * 

York City C ’ Hanover Square, New 

1 ARM MANAGER wants position 
Yorker. J °-‘> care Kural New- 

.Jh.r.ns.ny «> H S A « r , propetty 

Enquire of O. 

s~ ir¥„: 

ADVERTISER 1 ”, n i!o an<1 can tools. Write 

vim,USER .jQ42, care Rural New-Yorker. 

rional location; about 75 acrcg 
BRIAN, Dykemans, N. Y. 

Farm Help Wanted 

W bred rE came inS to “ a Jfc e £ perien <‘ f ' d with pure- 

"arvt SIRLEY 

0\ ERSEAS MAN. honorably discharged desires 


STRONG 1 llc l P 0 at; ‘; efor ? nce s. HORACE E.’ARM- 
N. j. ' T| ^ V arwick Avenue, South Orange, 

Situations Wanted 


W MM^?. liVe ’"• irc superin temrent or farm 

seys •fdvanc 1 i f rot^ I \ erlence \ vith Holsteins, Guern- 
c-ilves'- world record expert with 

niinn - ’ rn ? le ? an( * machinery, steam or <*as- 

f ,.» «Srten» : ,SS ! JC 


Thiel Is, N. Y. 

^ng^^aTsTS ma " ba I in » agricultural train- 
■ • H. CULLEN, Marshallton, Del. IPy ro 

Sr™™ 1 

Rural* New-Yorker!* 1 " ADVER ™ R R 4624, 




1 AR ¥ ^MANAGER, dairyman, breeder and gen- 


eral farmer; 21 years manager of large fn 

t** **■ t). or any branch nf nmtiomi _ 


<t to 0r , any branch of modern farming- onlv 

si^tessr- ad v E ktS& ss. 





vt appies wrue io c. j^yoder, aa 

F tolfep^tor^l 250 C Tbs m Steam Tnr- 

with boiler: reason for c "ir ca P a city; complete 
bargain price ?o “nick h m? ha ™ soId stock; 
D- EARL, Herkimer, C n. Y' '' Write RALPH 

FOR SALE-—"Portable lft tt t> /*< ■«. 

Engine; perfect condition'- P '/ :aso, j n( ' Badger”*”- & ™ s MS: 

: •“ -ass 

distribution- , 1 ' ibe production as well as 

-rini U V, a " sires Position. advertiser 
oOPl, care Rural New-Yorker. ' EUTISRE 


irlrT® 1 sak 

. . . , auy w ? rk "i registered herd. Jerseys and 

M Hfe4 G S,erience. ^"y; “ P ^ acttcal fa ™" r ’' 

» Ru^U^Y o^T 3 ADVErST « 

Illi SIPs 

kinds °o f f »« 

ADVERTISER 5040, care Rural New-Yorkm-" 86 ' 

ity and character. ADVERTISER .^nno abll ‘ 
Rural New-Yorker. USER o 000 , care 

Farms For Sale, to Rent, etc. | 

small n ,- of farm machinery; married 

and ab'ii t - y: n - erl,n " r(>fcr cnces as to character 

Address ADVERTISFR P TOM °" 3 not considered. 
Yorker. ekusER .,023, care Rural New- 

and references. LAUREL LOCKS FARM, Potts! 

town. Pa. 

RELIABLE man to run my poultry and fruit 

kinds of far 

u stock-, operating and repairing all 
. far ' a machinery; can furnish' reference 
IKES, Springfield Center. N. Y. 

_ , . . - mail ns working 1 foreman nn 

a dairy farm: house and wood furnished- go i 
opportunity for a practical farmer not afraid 
work: must <ro milking; state experience age 
salary expect,-d; only those having best refer' 

AnVERTIUM P : Pl ^n farm ,laai ' MoXown, N.'T 
1 U ' U M 1 R ,.030, care Ru rqJ New-Yorker. 

7 Kn ~?’. r ' 1 s ; f wort 1 1 y. middle-aged lady feol- 
fnn!-T l °r ' v,ut °)> who would like good home in 
work- wi» ,r ho acl !' lts ’ \° assist with light house- 

clotlies. BOX 12 Ke\ly Corners, < ' i N!!'Y ! ! ,Kl S ° 0tl 

Y ANTED—Middle-aged mail with married son 

•nan as working foreman and second’ 

man on -.> 0 -aere farm near Philadeljiliia- both 
men must he sober, industrious and careful 
workers willing and able to follow instructions 
•m,i k n n’ n°-° S ' ln \Plements and the farm in order' 

T ««£" ? ,ngS wh . ero the - v belong; to such a pair 
I offei permanent positions at good wages ui- 

rivil'S with heat, light and bath; appli- 
o,nits will please state ago, experience, all quali- 
fiiations, when you could start work, and -ill 
other pertinent information, including wages 
Doctor]: con Id non 

- ^^.^‘ke fun 
5028, e'are S Ru nil°Xew- Yorker . 8 ADVERP ^ER 


5 aHgasgS ;5 

in Mahoning”County, ^Ohlo'; 231 l airy . fa fi rm 
GEORGE ALDRICH nn references. Address 

Youngstown, Ohio ’ D °" ar Bank BId e- 

PURd’y 1 Vlonfg a ' bargain: no agents.” 1 ^ be 
f RI)Y, Montgomery, Orange Co., N. Y. R 2 



F ° S fon S ;rh^l V „ n d Veld^! afso^’ iVin ^ 

tom Oliver plows* price ~ i bot- 



a ~ k 


“ewR joh?T> g0h, f ° nt of business will 
ADVE Ruj E a R Jo 5 yr a ? e ^ ^VgUgyie. 


^n^oX^Hble^ondUion-^t 3 ? gar(len tractor 
aon for selling, n F f)\mn\' ri n anfl rea " 
R. I. & DAVISON, Pawtucket, 

my station, 10 -lb nails m °- 

$1.25; 165-lb. kegs iflcnsr’ lh “‘ 3 ’ . 8 '! b ’ palls - 
zene, 12 lbs st • ‘ , per J b., postpaid in 2 nd 

WILCOX, West D-a„by r,1 N Z0 ^’ S3 ’ 40 ’ R -^ C. 

0 Ohio*^^!^' Wit'fc tread p °wer, with, 
class condition- also one \mrsf r ’i complete i first- 

EASTERN Pennsylvania farm for sale- iri 
— ac r es ; 13 miles from Trenton. T v>^. 

Dresher, Pa. 

J. Roberts, 

G< fari ERA YCi: for dairyman with small capi- 

^ Sy. asrss^ x 

BiUehess 1 Co ^ 0 New r York Ge fift f v-ti m c lL ean ] ei ' y ; 
t^\*enty-fivo hundred cash or rent ^ witi/^nK 0 ^’ 
S3S. “''ERTISER 5024, d°l Rn“ 

Park, L. I. ’ L ‘ ox 146. Central 

is a m 5?"r ‘ j- v^’essisr 

rnf..l New-YoZ?- -ADVERTISER W ’ 


FARMER—College trained, backed bv 9 years’ 

estat Per o e r C fnrn e - SireS conneetio « with high-grade 
MeBRIDE ST? JaS^M^r S ° !iCi,e "-' 110 

l.. Li. SELTALR, Ma rumisco, Md. 

Cornell gasoline hrondo-’ i P . ?1,o: several 

HOMER POULTRY^ARM, Hom e eri’N $ 5 Y. enP h - 

F ^r^ EE N C ^ i ? 1 < i I1 C ^-tiye^y, « 
miles from D & ir R R ? coni , lition: six 
Inquire of LEO J. TILLAPAfoVcSle* 

sLued E Novembe EA ? 9 i 7 ; no’ 4 °° capa . city ’ iu - 
refused. J. GUY I.KSHKr'. Np^thtmi? 

WANTED—Practical farm 

TUER -mi" USe allowance for same. ADVER- 
uu-.R o031, car e Rural New-Yorker. 

RELIABLE, experienced man wants steady nosi-,?” f . ru l i or general farm; steady, capable 
lous ' best references. ADVERTISER 
503o, care Rural-Ne w-Yorker. RiZS>ER 

POSITION wanted as manager or working f irm 
foreman on gentleman’s Estate; practical I? 
perience in all branches of general ayrionit,,^' 

W honZ EI ^i nt ® M * 5 «J»ioned house for tea- 

ADVERTISER wo ’’ 75 ”i iIes New York Cirv. 
.vmnauiSER 5032, care Rural New-Yorker. ‘ 

' V.t, Ar E0R BAI -E to close estate; 150 acres -mod 

SS S^SmVJlSS: iwssr „.*S 

FOR SALE—200-aere farm In Greensville Co 

along Southern Railway, at James River Jet -’ 
i" a ?SL to .:Wer of all kinds; Sroomhouse.' 

poria, Va. 

peeted; could use more men, either single or 

ADVER^iseu St laundress and housemaid. 

■m>\ J.Mi.MJi 5020, care Ru ral New-Yorker. 

WANTED—Man who understands orchard* work 
sh i ”?I' Uling trimming, spraying and care of fruit : 

nlnn M v” preferred . w - C. WHIPPLE, Ar- , __ 

-_____ "t?' PRR —Position as superintendent or mana- 

W gond n!ukM* C eo 1 d etPnt farm I,lan: must be a stwk^r ha f m J R *' ,g an^nmnaglment^o^ live 

from New ° U -, Eong Tsla '"l. 00 miles 

.mi N , ' ork ; Family two adults and four 

rnn!‘,| 10 ") b ? f ''' eeu »ms two and 11 : no washing 
™ E d »J’ Uf mus f J'elp with mending, plain 
sewing and care of children; will be treated is 
"™ 4 . of ._ t . bp , family; only persons desiring perm'a- 

FARM ICR SALE—108 acres: 75 in cultivation- 
. V,a , . auce - timber and pasture; good soil: -ood 
niildings; spring water; plenty fruit; $°50O- 

easy forms. ROLL 0 SHOEMAKER R. F d' 
No. 1, Bangor, Pa. 

^Sl^ScTsA'.r^ = «» 

z, i:; 80 , r ”*" ^ 

Ts&tz tssss i?/ ^oioin 


JAY T. SMITH. Rupert,*>!.*'’ remit With order - 

^wSP^^fn 0 ^^ m °Tt ng raa ohine and 

large bam'and - ^ tho““ o-room house, maple svrup PETi'p * ru vr4'° n V a!s ° pnre 

^ aooessar.v buildings; price Mich. ‘ 1 PLJI -R HANEb, Farmington. 

v “ acre, niUbt sell on account of ^ipfenp^c• 
wnte owner, W. S. RICHARDSON. No. Eml 

p 2 ° pVowt ! 1 bargain! ° r - S ' 5S!s_ a “?-**“ Deere. 


* »uu uUiiU l/rrlr 

E. ROL TZAHN, Aspers. 

nent employment need apply wages $30 per 
Yorker. ADVERTIBER 5049,’ cure^Rural New- 

" fa mil v^Jih, middle-aged married man, with 
bred “hiws" t experience m earing for thorough- 

select herd °" t T 1 ' e ohar Ke of m.v small 

i ie<t herd of Duroc Jerseys; have ready for 

occupancy a fine nine-room house wh if 

m 2 deru improvements; 
rig,lt Piace for one who can also answer 

h«hRs ff? 8p0n<,enCe: ploase K iv e details as to 
!l®bif 8 ’ references, wages, etc. W. H. WIIIT- 
l, Enfield, Conn. 

WANTED—Experienced man for general farm¬ 
ing; married; good milker; good opportunity 

ANAN’I’ED—Single mail on poultry and fruit 
farm; no booze or tobacco; state farming e\ 

TISER °Kfu« gC and T> sa,ary expected. ADVBR- 
HM.R o048, car e Rural New-Yorker. 

WANTED—Girls for waitresses; year around' 
positions; $ 2 ° per month; board ami room fur- 
lu Mien. Address THE CLIFTON SPRtves 
SANITARIUM CQ., Clifton Spring, N. Y 

2K!£ 1? Ss,r? 

SS'r„“i N^TorS."'- ABVKm ''SEU 5K4. 

ST PEKINTENDENT, married, no children de 

Vifrn ’ist—M 0 -” 0,1 , Kent Ionian's estate and farm. 
Apnl 1st. _4 .tears experienee; able to build »nr 
estate up to first-class condition: only first-class 

l AR5r MANAGER wishes position on gentle 

man s estate by April 1st: life experienced all 
bram-l.cs; only larger position considered; per- 

ADVEinn"FR W Tna 7 est refprences: state wages. 
•un UrilsMl o03i, care Rural New-Yorker. 

PRAp,pTP . AE ’ experienced poultryman, with Cor- 
nell training, wants position to take charge of 
poultry plant and operate it; will consider work- 
nf g .,°f perce,lt age: preferably large plant: best 

TI< 5 ER r -i’u- S: dis< 'L iar g p d front army. ADVER- 
l ISEK .)04o, pare Ru ral New-Yorker. 

MAR , ,tlEI> American: farmer by birth, choice 
norflL e , xpe . r ’ enc, : : natural mechanic: age 4 fi- 
perfect health; just finished S months’ service 
in .France with U. S. Naval Forces- wilt i,„ lli 
orably discharged in few days; wishes einplov- 


Yorker. Am ER T!bER .AM4, care Rural New- 

W , A =*,L EI>_Dai I y farm to work on shares or 

position as farm manager; life experience- 
bay ^. thorough knowledge on dairy and grain 
woik, best reference: have a daughter college 
trained, experienced in milk testing and 1 general 

Rur“l N'ewlYofker ''. 088 ADVERTISER 5025, care 

FARM WANTED—Southern Vermont, Western 

Massachusetts or Eastern New York; about 50 
rv[fg p^iff pasture; buildings; now car- 
1_ p ?." s - team and equipment: must rent 

Rural New-Yorker. 0 ”’ ADVERT1SER 50X3. cure 

WANTED—To rent, one to five acres for term 
years in exchange for services; also to work 

crre 0 RS e ra I , N y ew P Yo e rker me ’ ADVERTISER 5022 • 

E( > R SALE-Five acres; heart Vineland poulirv 

houses ’“ho- Ia r in f hopses v capacity 600; brooder 
houses, 800, Cyphers incubators, feed house car- 

flffo t)10f10Mn • * O ul 

WA N T E D—Fa rm 

°«S D l5oT y . r ;tj P ff“T; h L5Vir s rt e „i;r 

JS6, °£. T rs - mL, - Ers *&&& p«Si: 

Bl »‘lE* 23c' ™ N Ib.T 10.” r ' p »,4 ? 1 ?S’^ni , 0 5 e ,i; : 

Ti % its 

JOY. KnoSCnii .. E !f c T° “°'° r - m - LK “' ; 

W fi™ 7 ^?~ R< l Pm a n garden tractor; must be in 

Bound Brook, N. P J. a ” d reasonnble - BOX 151. 

V0 J;y?T MACHINERY-One Iron Age planter- 

CloTt I !" 0V '° r dlg - er - largest size: one Little 
(.riant sprayer, brass tubinsr* one 1ft ft- 

used 'on* ° ar » er; aR in seo,r condition:' sprayf? 

GEO. “wDODWARJof^Danvdlle.* Me?”* reaUCtl ' 0n ' 

UOTTAGE CHEESE—Freshly made: parcel post 
prepaui second zone; pound package for mnr 
ter .dollar. BROADMEADOW ' farm, Ra,^ 

"cofoS 1 bS^XeTnaSr^ 

SoufhaSr N. P0I ' LTUT 

W «L N ,T K V~ Pid tF pre | s : second-hand: medium 

Sa?em’co h f l K!°* JAC0B BR0W?} ’ ER -“ 

1 OULTRYMAN with the experience, ability and 

brains to make plant pay, seeks position is 
working manager on living salary and m-ofit 
sharing basis: expert inciibator^ancT briber 
man; managed one plant 12 years Ameri«?aii- 
married. ADVERTISER 5040, care Rural New- 

good barn; poultry house for 1,000 liens: brood- 
as tog house: 3o0 peach trees: small fruit; 400 rose 
b ” a _.L p ???“ niaI , pla “ ts . shrubs: horse, wagons 


. on shares or to rent; poultry 

or dairy; must be stocked and equipped; have 
A-l references. BOX 354, Iliou, N* Y. 

2 ;, t .,4 P . RES ' x , l> w Jersey; good soil; about 20 

tillable good tor potatoes or truck; not sand- 

o?ithniRHnU s . h0 +\ ,Se ' bar 'J’ wa » on house autT other 
outhuildni„s, three miles to county seat: near 

several Summer resorts and one Winter resort- 


F( Nevv A v!!ilT 4 ig! v t '. !U ‘ ro t ar '!’ : 0,1 '"ain road from 
.. A , w roik to Asbury Park; everything sold at 

i”i, < 1 < l or j_ house -.. ,llodprn improvements, li rooms: FOR SALE—Car No. 2 second outtin- f , 

b. l\’YTi’iTrv 4 t t-. . ■«.^ — . A * u 

and iiecessary tools: two minutes from post of- 
R -. R - and trolley stations: commuting dis- 
tancc from New Vork; a money-making propo- 
p as y payments: good reason for sellim- 
P. VAN OORDT, Atlantic Highlands, X. J. 

FOR SALE OR RENT—About 20 acres muck 

land; also for rent eight acres upland: six 

Nanue't N^'y 0Utbuildings - w - BROWN, 

P0R BALE—Tornado feed cutter. 12 D 13 in 

„." 0 ?lr !iapo: Sharpies Tub. ‘A” separator? 5(X>- 

lb - cap: Blue Il.'n incubator, round' trav - , 300 
egg, cheap. BRUBAKER BROS., Miffltatown. 

Caminns, nl N “ Y.' 1VTWILD ^LFALFa'’fVrm; 

FOR SALE or exchange—One “Helping Henry” 

car 1 $‘> 0 - a pTl^^tr " 61 attachment for Ford 
oo i'k « ' Pll ot rotary washing machine. $ 5 : 20 
Tvwl?* white bpruce butter tub<* po n i. 
ol d ORCHARD FARM, Sharon Springs , N Y! 

FOlt SALE—Sixteen tons oat straw, $12 per ton- 

s ’\ t0 ' ls $27 per ton: 600 bu. oats peas 

«“ d baRpy ' S3 p er 100 f o. b : al! No. 1 g 0 X 
u 1 i ANY 1RYON, Carlisle Center. N. Y. 






blue bantam 
^ PEA 


* fiURPEE.5 

eopmiOM i»'h 4y 
IttMT, f tO VHiXJitr 

* the 


"W. Atlee Burpee Co., 

Seed Grower's, Philadelphia. 

>'H nv 

*n» l DU HPCL CO smuimN t VitlA 


Leading American Seed Catalog 

CROPS. Then GREENS and SALADS-Nature's tonic. 
And last but most delicious of all are *e VEGETABLE 
FRUITS! Burpee’s Annual is considered the leading A 
erican Seed Catalogue. It will be mailed to you (rce upon 
request. Write for your copy today. A post card wil o. 

Seed Growers, Philadelphia 

lurpees Annual is considered t 

Burpee’s Annual is a complete guide for the Flower or 
Vegetable Garden. For your convenience 
are grouped under four classes with an < 
to each. First comes ED1BL1 
Beefsteak. Then a chapter on 



L ' 1 

.A 1 



1 * u hi is l * < ■ <! Weekly by' The Rural Publishing Co., 
\\ ::mii St.T Neiv Yorl;. - * Price One Dollar a-Year. 

NEW ViiKK. .1 A X FA R Y IS. lillfl 

Entered as Second-Class Matter .Tune 20. 1870, at the Post 
Office at New York. N. Y.. umlir the Act of March 187 '. 

' / V • ) * J ** 

A Balanced Hatching Season 


Get Part of the Chicks Out Early ’ 

UIiAX\I\(; AtfEAD.— Probably very few poul- 
I ryiiit'ii realize 11 1 «» iicivniiiugc or necessity ’ of 
l>l.iiiiiinyr ;i season s 'hatching work so ms to procure 
(lip him,\ inniin ollioiencv <">l laluir.-au increased return 
in dollars a i irI routs, a slight relief froui theA’usli bf 
Spring work, and a general balancing*of tlie activi- 
f ies on llu‘ farm as a whole . r A few Suggestions may 
f’how (lu* poultry-keeper how lie can balance "the 
A\ork on his whole plant, to some extent A by phui- 
oing to balance his’hatching "season carefully? b-'-i 
SI Alt I rXG *FA IH.Y.—Ey Moiiig from one-quarter 
to one-third of his entire hatching iii late January 

or February a poultryman can plan to have one- 
third of his flock come inti) laying condition at a 
different time from the rest of his flock. The birds 
that arc hatched this early will start to lay in July 

than t<> keep over.yearling or old hens for breeding. 
He based ids opinion on the fact that it is cheaper 
?o raise January-or February hatciied • pullets to 
maturity, get sonic eggs, from them in the late Sum¬ 
mer or early Fall when eggs are starting to rise in 
value, allow tliyin to molt, and begin laying again 
iii (lie Spriiig-^-at which time they may he used for 
;breediiVg^?tl mn", to keep over, yearlings that will not 
•Fay so inaTij-feggs>is the pullets. and will molt longer 
(than will, the "pullets ^besides*..- I he yearlings, if sold 
for meat in the FijH will net adiandsiune little profit 
on the side; In addition to the pullets which may be 
used as breeders there are the cockerels, which will 
•have developed into excellent male birds for the 
breeding pens the following Spring; these may be 
utilized on the home jflant or may be sold as 

"W Fr,r,-( 1 1 tf)W N AOl X(» STOCK.—Ail advantage 
of early hatching cau be seen in the fact that by the 

FA It LA EROILFKS.—A very noticeable source of 
revenue may be found in the cull cockerels and pul¬ 
lets of tile early hatches- as early broilers. Just 
about the time that the market is beginning to want; 
broilers, the male birds of the January or February 
hatched chicks—and in some instances the females—■ 
are developed to such mil extent, that they are prime 
ior broilers. The poultryman can easily sell his 
surplus cockerels for tills purpose, realizing the top- 
notch price for them. A year ago, broilers brought 
SO and S5 cents a pound, and men who had early- 
batched stock at that time cleaned up quite a little 
from their surplus stock.- 

EFLIEA INC STRAIN.—As the general farmer is 
usually pretty busy with his planting and other 
.Spring work at the season when most of the hatching 
is usually done (March. April or May), hatching a 
quarter or a third of his flock early will get that 
much off his bauds and prevent a great part of his 

The Fowls at Work on a yen' Jersey Poultry It an eh. Vifl. JG 

or August, and will lay during the late Summer and 
early Fall. They will then go into a molt of about 
fix or seven weeks' duration, coming into laying 
again in the late Winter or Spring. The advantage 
of having them lay at this time may be easily seen, 
as it is in late Summer and early Fall that egg 
prices start to rise. This, then, serves to maintain 
an e\eu production, thus balancing tin* drop in pro¬ 
duction which is bound to occur with yearling or old 
hens. The length of time they will lay before they 
go into the slight Fall molt will depend a lot upon 
the season: in a particularly open or pleasant Fall 
they will lay a longer time than in a severe Fall 
before molting. 

FAR 1,V-1 1 ATCITFD ERFFDERS.—Farly-hatched 
pullets may also be used as breeders the following 
Spring, for they are more developed and are safer 
to breed from than are pullets hatched in March, 
April or May. Indeed, 1 recently heard an exper¬ 
ienced poultryman express the opinion that it would 
bo cheaper to use early-hatched pullets for breeding 
each year, and to dispose of all his old stock, rather 

time I lie hot dry weather of late Spring or Summer 
arrives, the young stock will have attained their 
growth to some extent, and will not be subject to the 
stunting influence which hot weather has ur>on 
glowing stock, lo bo sure, there are one or two 
disadvantages in hatching and brooding chicks early, 
such as the special care which may be necessary in 
severe cold weather, and the fact that there is no 
large supply of green food available at that season 
of the year. However, as to the severe cold, chicks 
can generally survive this kind of weather better 
than they can severe hot weather. With ordinary 
careful attention to the fires in the brooder stoves, 
there ought to be no difficulty in brooding chicks 
this early In the season. The rearing period will be 
comparatively free from any danger from the 
weather, for the reason mentioned above, namely, 
that they will be pretty well along before the hot 
days couie. As to succulence, this may be provided 
in the form of thinly sliced mangel beets, sprouted 
out tops, or grain which has been planted in the 

poultry work from conflicting with his other duties. 
Not only will the plan of hatching a certain propor¬ 
tion of his flock early relieve the farmer from much 
of the strain of the busy season, but the farmer will 
be able, before the rush comes on. to give the chicks 
lx'ttei attention and possibly raise a greater propor- 
tion of the hatch than he would if all his birds were 
hatched at the same time somewhat later. The farm 
flock, as a rule, does not receive a great deal of care, 
largely because the farmer does not think there is 
un\ thing in chickens." He keeps chickens because 
be has to; his folks before him kept them, so he 
keeps them. I sincerely believe if the farm flocks of 
the country were run on a business basis, as the 
dairy herd generally is. the farmer would take more 
interest in them and they would pay him a profit. 
A big step would be taken in this direction by be¬ 
ginning at this one point, namely, the hatching. 
Hatch (tic proportion recommended above in January 
or February and the test later in the season, March, 
April or May. This plan helps to balance the poultry 
work for the rest of the year and at the same time 



verves to dovetail poultry work into general farm 

CONVENIENCE IN Bli001>lNG.—Tile plan of 
hatching at different seasons rather than doing all 
his hatching at once serves the commercial poultry- 
man a good turn by lengthening his season so that 
hi^ heavy -work does not come all in a bunch. As 
the brooding is the work that requires the care and 
attention and intensive concentration, it is unwise 
jo bring off all tlie chicks at one time so that tlu\\ 
must be brooded at one time: it is rather the wiser 
plan to brood them in smaller groups and give them 
more attention than to try to brood too large a num¬ 
ber, and not give them the care they demand— 
especially at this time when it is so hard to get the 
help necessary to care for a large number of chicks. 
To be sure, there is the disadvantage of slightly 
•ower fertility at this season of the year, but this 
can be overcome somewhat by keeping the flock 
healthy, keeping them exercising properly, keeping 
them out as long as possible, and feeding them pro¬ 
perly. However, in spite of this slightly lower fer¬ 
tility, I believe it is worth the poultry man’s while 
to try a .certain amount of early hatching, for un¬ 
doubtedly he will make it up in the end. 

THE MAIN HATCHING.—However, by no means 
.,11 „f a poultryman’s hatching should be done in 
January or February. His main hatching ought to 
come off in March or April. As has been mentioned 
above, from one-quarter to one-third of a mans flock 
should be hatched early; the remainder may be 
hatched in March or April, as suggested, or part may 
be done then and part (a small part) in May. 1 he 
l a lter lengthens the hatch season somewhat, and is 
not as a rule advisable unless the hatches in March 
or April have been poor for any reason. The Spring 
months, March and April, are the natural months in 
which to hatch, for it is at this time that the natural 
instinct, for reproduction is the strongest, resulting 
in the greatest production of eggs of any season in 
the year, and the highest fertility. Birds that are 
hatched at this time will come into laying the latter 
1 : ,rt of October or first part of November and will 
generally continue until mid-Summer. 

THE END OF THE SEASON.—It is not advisable 
to hatch later than the middle of May. Many poul¬ 
try keepers do hatch in June, some getting good re¬ 
sults. some poor results. It has been my experience 
that chicks hatched in June do not do so well, due 
to the fact that they do not get a proper start before 
severe hot weather. Of course, there is the one ad¬ 
vantage, in this connection, that they miss all the 
poor weather such as is experienced in early Spring, 
however, they do not do well unless an abundance of 
shade and green food is supplied. Some advocate 
June hatching whore birds are being bred for the 
show, saying that they come into prime condition 
for late Fall and early Winter shows. For commer¬ 
cial purposes. I would say that it is not advisable 
as a rule to hatch this late, for the birds don't seem 
to get the start, and for that reason do not matuie 
the way they should. Another fact to consider here, 
too, is that, ordinarily, poorer results in hatching 
are obtained at this season than in the normal hat< h- 
ing season, due. probably, to the increase in the 
temperature of the air and the difficulty in regulating 

The advantages of balancing the hatching season 
may be easily seen and the effect upon a poultry 
keeper's business, or the receipts from bis flock, 
estimated. It has been pointed out that balancing 
jhe hatching season properly will affect the whole 
year’s plans for the flock, balancing the rest of the 
year’s work and insuring a more even distribution 
of labor and cash returns, and greater cash returns. 
A trial of this plan will convince. Try it. 


What Puts the “Pop” in Pop Corn ? 

I N legat'd to what puts the pop in pop corn. I am 
afraid that 1 can give you little more than specu¬ 
lation. 1 know of no one who has gone into the 
physical and chemical problems involved. It lias 
been found incidentally that pop corn lias a very 
tough outer skin or pericarp. Some crosses were 
made at this station some years ago between sweet 
corn and pop corn, and some nice-looking sweet corn 
strains were obtained from this material, but when 
it came to trying some of the ears on the table they 
were hopeless. Their tough skins made them most 
unpleasant to eat, as the skins got into one’s teeth, 
sweet corn at its best is bad enough in this respect. 

At one time I investigated the effect of removing 
this outer hull upon the popping of corn with the 
results shown in the accompanying photograph. 
Without the outer hull there is no popping. t$o it 


seems reasonable to assume that heat expands the 
volatile products in the seed (water, oil or any other 
volatile substances). These gases are held within 
the starch grains by the tough pericarp on the out¬ 
side of the seed until sufficient pressure is created 
to burst this hull. When this occurs the sudden re¬ 
lease of pressure expands the starch grains and the 
i esult is popped corn. 

The size of the seed lias considerable importance 
largely from the fact, 1 believe, that only a small 
sC »ed can become heated through evenly before erup¬ 
tion takes place. But also there is probably a phy¬ 
sical relation between the volume and the surface 
area. The larger seeds have less surface in propor¬ 
tion to the volume contained than the smaller seeds 
and therefore the total amount of expending force, 
which can be contained before bursting, is less. 

As you probably know from experience, the amount 
ol moisture in pop corn to insure good results is very 
important. Corn kept in heated stores or houses in 
, pen receptacles almost invariably becomes too dry 
i,> pop well. Corn must also be allowed to cure be¬ 
fore ns'ng. Generally it does not give good results 
i ,,til r t least a year old. Just what takes place in 
tliis curing process I don t know other than getting 
'own to the proper moisture content, l’ossibly time 
i- needed to toughen the outer hull. 

it is interesting to know that other seeds besides 
corn will pop. Broom corn seed will do this and 

The Upper Bunch of Corn Had Slcin Removed and 
Did Not Bop. Fiy. J7 

possibly some other grains as well. The principle in 
popping corn i