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Sherbornia 

An Open-Access Journal of Bibliographic 
and Nomenclatural Research in Zoology 


ISSN 2373-7697 [online) 

Volume 5[3): 167-202 
Date of Publication: 
17 December 2019 


Edward Griffith's “Animal Kingdom" (1824-1835): revised dates of 
publication and analysis of volumes, with special reference to the 
Mammalia and Aves based on wrapper contents 

Neal L. Evenhuis 

Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96817-2704, USA; email: NealE@bishopmuseum.org 


Abstract 

Study of the publication history and methods of issuance of Edward Griffith's Animal Kingdom 
was conducted and results presented. Earliest known dates of publication are given for the 44 
parts comprising the work, which was published from 1824 to 1835. These dates revise the dates 
given by Cowan in 1969, many of which were estimated or preliminary. Contents, pages, and as¬ 
sociation of plates with parts (if known) are presented. Copies with wrappers and contents intact 
allowed a detailed analysis of the original issuance of plates and pagination (before binding) of 
the some of the Mammalia parts and all of the Aves parts, which is presented. 

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C44A3AA9-A226-4042-AF01-8AF284DlB73F 


Introduction 

The English translation of both editions of Cu¬ 
vier's Le Regne Animal by Edward Griffith [herein 
referred to as "Animal Kingdom” (Fig. 1) see 
below for various full titles] was published in 
parts from 1824 to 1835 and comprised 16 vol¬ 
umes (the last volume being devoted to an index 
and overall taxonomic synopsis]. The original in¬ 
tent of this work was to issue volumes in quar¬ 
terly parts, three parts to a volume, and have 
volumes for all the major animal groups covered 
by Cuvier’s work: Mammalia; Aves; Reptilia; 
Pisces; Annelida, Crustacea, and Arachnida; Mol- 
lusca and Radiata; and Insecta. A supplementary 
volume (Vol. 11] on vertebrate fossil remains (a 
subject not treated by Cuvier in Le Regne Animal 
but elsewhere] was added. A total of 44 parts 
eventually made up the entire series including 
the last index volume. 

Due to delays in publication, the advertised 
quarterly time period was not always met and 

Citing this publication: 

pvenhuis, N.L. (2020) Edward Griffith's "AnimalKingdom" (1824-1835): 
revised dates of publication and analysis of volumes, with special refer¬ 
ence to the Mammalia and Aves based on wrapper contents. Sherbornia 
5(3): 167-202. 

© the Author(s) and this is an open access article distributed under the 
terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC-BY-NC-SA 
4.0), which permits the copying, distribution and transmission of the 
work as long as the original source is cited. 


THE 

ANIMAL KINGDOM 

ARRANGED IN CONFORMITY WITH ITS 
ORGANIZATION, 

BY THE BARON CUVIER, 

MEMBER OF THE INSTITUTE OP FRANCE. \c. tcc. icc. 

WITH 

ADDITIONAL DESCRIPTIONS 

or 

ALL THE SPECIES HITHERTO NAMED, AND OF 
MANY NOT BEFORE NOTICED, 


EDWARD GRIFFITH, F.L.S., A.S., 

CORIIESrOVDIXG MEMBER OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 
OF PHILADELPHIA, &C. 

AND OTItF.RS. 


VOLUME THE NINTH. 


LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR WHITTAKER, TREACHER, AND CO. 
AVE-MARIA.LANE. 

MDCCCXXXt. 

Figure 1. First title page of volume 9, Reptilia, of the Animal 
Kingdom. 


http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/dating/sherbornia/index.html 


167 









Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 


pagination and plates associated with parts were 
not always consistent from part to part. Because 
there are new names in both the text and the 
plates, and because multiple works using some 
of the same names and plates were being pub¬ 
lished contemporaneously by other authors, dat¬ 
ing of the text and plates of this work is critical 
to establishing priority. 

Research was conducted in an attempt to 
find the earliest dates of notices of publication 
for as many of the 44 parts as possible. Using ex¬ 
ternal evidence, notices of publication were 
found for 43 of the 44 parts. The remaining part 
(Part 26 of the Reptilia volume], for which no 
evidence has yet been found, is given an inter¬ 
polated date. Additionally, an attempt was made 
to establish the pages of text issued in each part, 
either based on wrapper contents when found, 
through external sources that gave contents of 
parts in reviews, or through examination of col¬ 
lation and signature marks. Results of this re¬ 
search are presented below. 

Methods 

Sources Used for Dating 

The following are the various sources used dur¬ 
ing this study including periodicals, online re¬ 
sources, bibliographies, reviews, and previous 
bibliographic research articles dealing with the 
subject. Some volumes of periodicals and news¬ 
papers were unavailable for examination, so the 
results of notices in this study are not exhaus¬ 
tive, but instead reflect the resources available. 
I follow the format of Evenhuis (1997) and 
Bousquet (2016) in listing as many sources as 
possible that gave dating information for each 
part. Some notices may say that a part will be 
forthcoming on a certain date. These are not in¬ 
cluded as a primary dating source but are in¬ 
cluded and annotated as stating such when a 
date has been confirmed from other notices or 
for informational purposes to indicate delays in 
intended versus actual issuance of an individual 
part. 

Periodicals and Recording Journals. Periodi¬ 
cals, primarily deriving from Great Britain and 
Ireland, were examined for notices of publica¬ 
tion, forthcoming publication of issues, or for re¬ 
views and notices that contained information 


on pagination and/or contents. Periodicals out¬ 
side of Britain and Ireland were also examined 
but rarely gave accurate or timely dates of pub¬ 
lication. For example, Ferussac’s Bulletin des Sci¬ 
ences (and later Bulletin Zoologique ) presented 
three reviews (listed below) that mentioned 
contents but otherwise did not give publication 
dates earlier than those found in journals pub¬ 
lished much closer geographically to where the 
work itself was published. 

The publisher Whittaker had his own peri¬ 
odical, his Monthly Magazine (sometimes re¬ 
ferred to in the literature as Whittaker's Monthly 
Magazine to disambiguate it from other simi¬ 
larly titled periodicals), which gave notice of 
new publications. It was originally thought 
when discovering its existence that it would be 
a treasure trove of information on the dating 
and publication of this work. However, this 
proved not to be true. For one, the publication 
was monthly, so advertisements placed in 
weekly or other more frequently issued period¬ 
icals and newspapers would often pre-date no¬ 
tices in the Monthly Magazine. Additionally, for 
unknown reasons, there were many issues in 
months during which parts of the Animal King¬ 
dom were known to have been issued but in 
which notices were not made by the publisher. 
Whittaker's large number of new titles could 
have been one reason (i.e., that the parts being 
issued were "just another title"), or subscriber- 
ship might have been stable enough for incom¬ 
ing revenue that no advertising was always 
needed to entice new subscribers. 

The following are the periodicals examined 
during this study for notices of the Animal King¬ 
dom and their respective abbreviations referred 
to in the text: Annals of Philosophy {An. Philos.); 
Athenaeum; Bent’s Monthly Literary Advertiser 
{Bent’s Mon. Lit. Advert.); British Critic and Quar¬ 
terly Theological Review {Brit. Crit.); Dublin Lit¬ 
erary Gazette {Dubl. Lit. Gaz.); Edinburgh 
Literary Journal {Edinb. Lit. ].); Edinburgh Re¬ 
view {Edinb. Rev.); Englishman’s Magazine Ad¬ 
vertiser {Engl. Mag. Advert.); Gentleman's 
Magazine {Gent. Mag.); Journal General de la Li¬ 
terature Etrangere (/. Gen. Litt.); Kaleidoscope; 
Literary Chronicle {Lit. Chron.); Literary Gazette 
and Journal {Lit. Gaz. & /.); London Literary 
Gazette and Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sci- 


168 


Sherbornia ( 2019 ) 


ences, &c. ( Lond. Lit. Gaz.); London Magazine 
(Lond. Mag.)] Magazine of Natural History (Mag. 
Nat. Hist.)] Monthly Critical Gazette (Mon. Crit. 
Gaz["Whittaker's”] Monthly Magazine (Mon. 
Mag.); Monthly Review (Mon. Rev.); New Monthly 
Magazine (New Mon. Mag.); Oxford Literary 
Gazette (Oxford Lit. Gaz.); Quarterly Literature 
Advertiser (Quart. Lit. Advert.); Quarterly Review 
(Quart. Rev.); Somerset House Gazette (Somerset 
House Gaz.); The Examiner (Examiner); The Met¬ 
ropolitan; Magazine (Metropolitan); The Scot’s 
Magazine (Scot's Mag.); The Spectator (Specta¬ 
tor); Universal Review, or Chronical of the Liter¬ 
ature of all Nations (Univ. Rev.); Westminster 
Review (Westm. Rev.). 

Online search of notices for the work was 
conducted on each periodical listed above. 
When a notice was found in a particular period¬ 
ical, as much of the series of that periodical 
available online was searched for other notices 
of the Animal Kingdom. This methodology was 
used for all the periodicals listed above. 

Newspapers. Newspapers were an important 
part of the publishing process as they reached 
many potential buyers, and advertising books 
being sold would reach an audience otherwise 
missed through targeted notices in recording 
journals. Ferdinand (2009: 445) noted that 
Whittaker in 1830 had provided testimony to 
the Commissioners of Inquiry into the Manage¬ 
ment of the Post Office, acknowledging that 
"there are many persons who would like to buy 
the books whom we know nothing of, and, con¬ 
sequently could not send our lists to, who would 
see them in the newspapers". Indeed, newspa¬ 
pers of the 1820s and 1830s were replete with 
notices of publication and publisher’s advertise¬ 
ments, sometimes taking up more room on a 
page than the day’s news. Examination, then, of 
newspapers, was conducted in this study in 
order to check for any notices by Whittaker of 
the issuance of parts of the Animal Kingdom. 

Access to online newspaper archives that 
have newspapers of the British Isles (newspa- 
perarchives.com; newspapers.com) allowed 
searches for and examination of scanned copies 
of newspapers that had publishers’ advertise¬ 
ments, notices of publication, or reviews of 
parts and volumes. Since the frequency of news¬ 


paper publishing was usually much greater than 
that of many journals (e.g., chiefly on a daily 
basis as opposed to weekly or monthly for jour¬ 
nals), a majority of the earliest publication dates 
found in this study derive from these sources. 
The following newspapers were examined dur¬ 
ing this study (abbreviated forms of titles used 
in parentheses): The Atlas (Atlas); The Courier 
(Courier); Kent & Essex Mercury (Kent & Essex 
Merc.); London Age (Lond. Age); London Chroni¬ 
cle (Lond. Chron.); London Guardian and Public 
Ledger (Lond. Guard.); London Herald (Lond. 
Herald); London Morning Post (Lond. Morn. 
Post); London Observer (Lond. Observ.); London 
St. James Chronicle and General Evening Post 
(Lond. St. James Chron.); London Standard (Lond. 
Stand.); London Star (Lond. Star); London 
Weekly Times (Lond. Weekly Times); Morning 
Chronicle (Morn. Chron.); Morning Journal 
(Morn.J.); New Times (New Times); Sunday Her¬ 
ald (Sun. Herald); Times London (Times). 

Online. The following online resources used 
during this study include bibliographic archives, 
digitized works held in libraries, search serv¬ 
ices, and online dating resources. Holdings for 
volumes examined are listed after each volume 
below: Google Books (GB [source library if 
known is given]); Biodiversity Heritage Library 
(BHL [source library is given]) Bodleian Library, 
Oxford University (Bodleian); Coan & Rabat — 
2,400 years of malacology (Coan & Rabat). 

Bibliographies. The following bibliographies 
were consulted for information on dating, con¬ 
tents, pagination, and numbers of plates per 
part or per volume. Note that listing of the Ani¬ 
mal Kingdom in a bibliography was sometimes 
entered under "Cuvier” because it was an Eng¬ 
lish translation of Cuvier’s Le Regne Animal: 
Anker (1938); Bohn (1864); Bousquet (2016); 
Daniels (2004); Engelmann (1846); Evenhuis 
(1997); Freeman (1980); Graesse (1861); 
Matthews (1925); Musgrave (1932); Pittie 
(2010); Sherborn (1922); Smith (1993); Whit- 
tell (1954); Zimmer (1926). 

Reviews. The following are contemporary re¬ 
views giving information on contents of parts or 
details on plates: Anonymous (1824a, 1824b, 


169 


Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 


1825, 1826, 1828, 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 
1833); Ferussac (1831,1836), Ferussac & Dejean 
(1825); Westwood (1835). 

Articles. Bibliographic research articles dealing 
with the dating of parts of the Animal Kingdom 
are few and some merely repeat the previous 
work of others. The following were consulted 
that had information helpful to the overall dating 
and/or production of the work: Cowan (1969a,b, 
1971a, 1971b); Evenhuis (1997); Dickinson etal. 
(2011); McDunnough (1918); Matthews (1919, 
1920); Petit & Coan (2006). 

Sources for Contents and Pagination 

As many physical and digitized (scanned copies) 
were examined as possible to determine con¬ 
tents and pagination; and also determine method 
of issuance and any variations in printings and 
publishing process. Only three physical copies of 
the complete work have been seen by me: USNM, 
BMNH and OXUMNH (for a list of abbreviations, 
see below). I personally have a copy of the two- 
volume Insecta portion that was bound some¬ 
time around 1872 (based on advertisements of 
books in the waste paper used in binding). The 
remainder of copies seen are the various copies 
available online, and sets that have been exam¬ 
ined by others upon request in libraries other¬ 
wise inaccessible to me. 

Terminology Used 

Throughout this paper, a number of printing and 
bibliographic terms are used to describe the 
work and its production. I follow McKerrow 
(1928) and Gaskell (1972) in use ofbibliographic 
terms and have referred to the more contempo¬ 
rary (to the work being studied) American Dic¬ 
tionary of Printing and Bookmaking (Anonymous 
1894) to put into context the terminology used 
by publishers and booksellers of the 1820s and 
1830s when describing the work. Some incorrect 
terminology in Evenhuis (1997) and Dickinson 
et al. (2011) is corrected and modified here. See 
the Appendix for a glossary of terms used in this 
paper. 

General Abbreviations Used in the Text and 
Tables 

The following general abbreviations (excluding 
those for media used as sources for dating men¬ 


tioned above) are used throughout this paper: 
BMNH = the Natural History Museum, London; 
OXUMNH = Oxford University Museum of Natu¬ 
ral History; USNM = United States National Mu¬ 
seum of Natural History; 8vo = octavo; in. = 
inches; pl(s). = plate(s); p(p). = page(s); Roy. = 
Royal; Vol(s). = volume(s); UI = University of Illi¬ 
nois, Urbana-Champaign. 


Background to the Work 

There is sparse evidence of how or exactly when 
this project was conceived or how it progressed 
throughout its 11-year publishing history. Cu¬ 
vier’s (1816) four-volume he Regne Animal was 
an epic work that proved to be the new stan¬ 
dard for classification of all animals. It was so 
highly acclaimed, that a second edition was pub¬ 
lished (Cuvier 1829-1830). One problem with 
both editions, however, was that they contained 
few illustrations. Felix Edouard Guerin (after 
1835 as Guerin-Meneville) recognized the need 
for illustrations to depict the animals discussed 
by Cuvier and began his Iconographie du Regne 
Animal (Guerin-Meneville 1829-1844), which 
was intended to complement Cuvier’s work, by 
depicting at least one species of every genus 
mentioned by Cuvier. Independently and con¬ 
currently, biologist Edward Griffith (1790- 
1858) realized the need for illustrations as well 
as an English translation of Cuvier’s work, and 
coordinated authors, translations, and artists 
and engravers for plates for his Animal Kingdom. 
George Bryom Whittaker (1793-1847) was 
contracted to publish the work. The work would 
be a faithful English translation of Cuvier's he 
Regne Animal, but also include original informa¬ 
tion and descriptions of new taxa of animals by 
the authors and invited specialists. In this fash¬ 
ion, they would advertise that the Animal King¬ 
dom as a "complete book of reference" ... 
"equally attractive to the scientific and general 
reader". 

The Publisher 

George B. Whittaker, son of the Rev. George 
Whittaker, had entered the publishing business 
in 1814, interning with Charles Law at his 13 
Ave Maria Lane business as Law & Whittaker. 
Within a short time, Whittaker obtained the 


170 


Sherbornia ( 2019 ) 


business when Law left and (in 1820) the firm 
was known as "Whittaker’s". Whittaker's 
brother, William Budd Whittaker, joined in 
1823, changing the business name to "G. & W.B. 
Whittaker” 1 , but keeping the location at Ave 
Maria Lane, which was in the same building 2 as 
the Stationer’s Worshipful Company where all 
published literature in England was legally de¬ 
posited to protect copyright. Within a decade, 
Whittaker had risen to become one of London’s 
leading publishers, second only to Longman’s 
and Co. in number of titles published per year. 
His prominence in business even led to his 
being made sheriff of London and Middlesex in 
1823. 

George Whittaker had made wise invest¬ 
ments obtaining copyrights of languishing 
books and turning sales around, thus accumu¬ 
lating substantial revenue allowing him to re¬ 
invest in the publication of various other works. 
One of these "other works" was the English 
translation of Cuvier’s he Regne Animal. Just the 
engraving of the extensive number of colored 
plates required for the work would be costly 
enough. Topham (2004), gleaning much infor¬ 
mation from the obituary of Whittaker in the 
Gentleman’s Magazine, indicated that Whittaker 
had laid out upwards of £7000 just for that. 

Whittaker’s publishing business, although 
producing a high volume of titles, was not with¬ 
out its financial difficulties. In 1825, an Ameri¬ 
can bookseller defrauded Whittaker by forging 
his name on bills that amounted to a debt of 
£270,000. The amount of the fraud and the dis¬ 
covery by his creditors of a failed investment in 
hops forced Whittaker to put the business 

1 Some Mammalia plates have printed at the bottom “Pub¬ 

lished by G. & W.B. Whittaker” and dates in year 1824 
although the plates were bound within volumes with title 
pages with “MDCCCXXVII” that had the publisher 
printed as “Geo. B. Whittaker”. The business name had 
changed between August 1824 (the latest published no¬ 
tice of a book for sale with “G. & W.B. Whittaker”) and 
September 1824 when notices in recording journals 
started to appear with “Geo. B. Whittaker”. Wrappers 
for the first three Mammalia parts have been seen in this 
study and all have “G. & W.B. Whittaker”. It is assumed 
(based on dating of the parts) that the change would be 
noticed in the wrapper to the fourth part. 

2 The National Archives (UK) has documents relating to the 

lease of 13, 14, and 15 Ave Maria Lane listing both 
Whittaker’s publishing firm and the Stationer’s Worship¬ 
ful Company as occupying the premises. 


ADVERTISEMENTS connected with LITERATURE Ahr& THE ARTS. 


as 


PAYNE’S STUDIES IN ENGLISH 
POETRY, 

New ready, pri« Ga. bound in 
emboued run, 

S tudies m English 

POETRY, with Biographical 
Slwfclua and Notrfl, explanatory and 
critical. By JohIji'ic PjiifjfK. of the 
Mansion Grammar School, Lctbcrhc&d, 

SojTtJ, 

London: Relfc and Flelcher, 17, CornhilL 


c 


Published Monthly, price or 
Stamped, price f»d, 

BURTON'S LITERARY 

REGISTER. The Literary Regia ter 


In lb vola, witli @14 EngraTings, 


C UVIER'S ANIMAL KING¬ 
DOM, Translated by E. GairriTH, 
P.A,S. and others. 


The Hmrril remaining * toe It reduced to the 
following price* 


Pcmy flro...„ .d«h, r »G*. 

Royaliro.coloumt ....at. IS*, SiG» 

Daily MO. linlLi proof .53- 18a. tt ^34, 
“Thii truly national work roMalcjf nine 
thouaaiH! luge* of Ittferpreiu, rluht hamlred 
and foiirtaui nrmvihga, li muipm In iti kind, 
and hut u mien on a man uE Lhe lori ty a verr 
severe ardent Of c ritieism , 1 f 


Whittaker and Co. A to Maria Lane. 


IT * 1 nuifi r4nnniP . u .._ 


Figure 2. Publisher’s advertisement in 1845 (from the 
Edinburgh Review ). 

under a trusteeship. With the new temporary 
management and financial assistance from the 
printer Robert Gilbert 3 eventually appeasing his 
creditors, by 1828 he was released from his 
creditors and continued his business in full 
force. It was also at this time (as can be seen 
below on the wrappers for the Aves parts), that 
Whittaker obtained partners to his publishing 
venture and the company changed its title to 
Whittaker, Treacher & Co. Amazingly, through¬ 
out this financial predicament, the production 
or timing of issuance of parts of the Animal 
Kingdom was unaffected. It is unknown how 
sales progressed throughout its printing, but in 
1845 an advertisement by Whittaker to sell 
stock at discounted prices said "little remained" 
(Fig. 2). By 1864, booksellers were still selling 
copies, but saying it was "scarce". Slater (1883: 
27) was the earliest reference found in this 
study to explicitly indicate it was "out-of-print 
and scarce". 

As noted above, the publishing firm’s name 
changed twice: from "G. & W.B. Whittaker” to 
"Geo. B. Whittaker” in 1824. A third change, to 
"Whittaker, Treacher & Co." in 1829, was when 
Whittaker brought well-known publisher 
Joseph Treacher, along with William Cumber 
Hood and David Gale Arnot, into the business 
partnership. 

At around the same time, the company in¬ 
troduced a new sales scheme to increase rev¬ 
enue and help sell some of the remaining stock. 
They initiated a cheaper monthly subscription 
in demy octavo and royal octavo and would "re- 

3 Robert Gilbert, founder of the printing firm of Gilbert & 

Rivington married Whittaker’s only sister, Anne, which 

no doubt helped with a request for financial assistance 

to keep the business afloat (Topham 2004). 


171 


















Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 


CUVIER’S NATURAL HISTORY. 

- 

ThU cUy ii published, price 4t. In demy 8vo, end 6a. la royal 8ro, 
embellUhed with Eight superior Engrtvlnf* by Landsocr tad 
other eminent engraven, 

No. I. 

To be continued Monthly, 

THE ANIMAL KINGDOM, described flltdar* 

ranged in conformity with its Organisation, lty the BA¬ 
RON CUVlEll. Translated* with Urge additional Dctcviptkuu 
of all the Species hitherto named, and nr many not before noticed, 
and with other original matter. By E. GRIFFITH, F.LS., C 
i HAMILTON SMITH, and E. PIOGEON. 

The Class Mammalia will form the first 3d Numbers, the Class 
of Birds about *7 Numbers, the Fishes and Insects each about ¥4 
Numbers* 

It will be so arranged, for the eonrenicnce of those who may 
confine their Zoological studies to eithor of the Classes, that each 
Class will make a distinct Work, aa well as one of the Senes of 
the •• Animal Kingdom." The Conduatoo will contain a Tabu¬ 
lar View of the System, a copious Index, and a general Termi¬ 
nology of the Science. 

The engraved Illustrations of this work are In a superior atyle 
of execution, by different artists of distinguished eminence ; arid 
among the rest, many are by Mr Landseer. Most of them are , 
from original drawings made from Nature, and sevrrml represent j 
l species iutogether new, or never figured before. The paper and 
type of this work are iu a corresponding style of exceUroce. 

. Printed for WuiTTAKaa, T a each* a, and Co. Ave-Matla 
Lane, London. 


Figure 3. Publisher's advertisement in May 1829 an¬ 
nouncing a new edition of the Animal Kingdom to be sold 
in monthly parts (from the Edinburgh Literary Journal ). 


publish" already published parts (at the time, 
this included only the Mammalia [the first 36 
numbers] and Aves [27 numbers]; and advertis¬ 
ing anticipated the inclusion of the other groups 
of animals yet to be completed or started). The 
first part appeared in May 1829 (Fig. 3). 
Whereas the original subscription plan had 
parts with 16 to 20 plates, the monthly sub¬ 
scription would have 6 or 8 plates. Advertise¬ 
ments for the monthly issues were found only 
from 1829 to 1830, and then they appear to 
cease, possibly due to lack of interest or the ex¬ 
tremely long wait to complete a group (the 
Mammalia with 36 numbers and one per month 
would take two and one-half years). The reason 
for this new edition in monthly numbers (as op¬ 
posed to quarterly for the original text and 
plates) could also have been because around 
that time separate English translations of Cu¬ 
vier's Le Regne Animal were to appear, one by 
M’Murtrie, the other under the coordination of 
the publisher Henderson. Whittaker might have 
feared that this potential competitor might beat 
him to the completion of the entire series and 
also take away subscribers since the issuance of 
parts was much more frequent. It is not known 
what impact, if any, either edition had on the 
subscribers of Whittaker’s Animal Kingdom. 


Henderson’s edition also came out in monthly 
parts and was eventually completed in four vol¬ 
umes in 1837 (see Evenhuis, 1997:176-177 for 
more details). 

Despite the possible lack of sales of the 
monthly subscriptions, the business seemed to 
thrive under this new partnership and contin¬ 
ued to publish several new book titles per year. 
All was apparently going well until Joseph 
Treacher suddenly died of cholera in September 
1833. The death was too quick for Whittaker to 
have planned for the possible loss of his partner. 
It was no doubt a severe blow to Whittaker; the 
loss of his partner was visibly evident in the 
sudden reduction of advertising (e.g., very few 
notices of new parts of the Animal Kingdom 
could be found from October 1833 until the 
spring of 1834). Treacher’s son, Joseph Skipper 
Treacher, entered the partnership soon after his 
father’s passing. The son (only 17 when his fa¬ 
ther died) was no doubt a partner only in keep¬ 
ing "Treacher" in the business name as there are 
titles keeping the "Whittaker, Treacher & Co." 
publishing name through 1837. Other titles in 
the mid 1830s have "Whittaker, Treacher & 
Arnot", so there must have been separate pub¬ 
lishing agreements for this difference or possi¬ 
bly separate publishing divisions. In any case, 
the Animal Kingdom changed the publishing 
firm’s title to "Whittaker & Co.” on the title pages 
of volumes starting in March 1834, the change 
coincidental with the resurrection of more fre¬ 
quent publishing notices of th e Animal Kingdom. 
The young Joseph S. Treacher did not remain in 
the business for long. Legal notices in the local 
papers told of the company’s dissolving the 
partnership with Treacher on 1 November 
1838 4 . 

The Authors 

On the authorship side of production of the 
work, Edward Griffith, a founding member of 
the Zoological Society of London, had envi¬ 
sioned complementing Cuvier's (1816) Le 
Regne Animal with an independent English syn¬ 
thesis on the subject and began a short-lived 
project in 1821 to that end. However, that first 


4 The young Treacher later studied at Oxford, graduating in 
1846 and was ordained the following year, eventually 
serving as Vicar of Stanford-on-Thames. 


172 










Sherbornia ( 2019 ) 


two volumes on the Carnivora (Griffith 1821a) 
and so-called Quadrumana (monkeys and apes) 
(Griffith 1821b) were said by some contempo¬ 
raries to not have been professionally done, and 
had garnered little enthusiasm in sales. No fur¬ 
ther volumes were ever published. 

Three years later, the translation project was 
resurrected with a working partnership of Ed¬ 
ward Pidgeon (1790-1834), as co-author of 
some volumes; and specialty assistance (for 
some volumes) of Charles Hamilton Smith, John 
E. Gray, and George R. Gray. Edward Griffith and 
his wife Harriet, the latter an artist, were in¬ 
volved with the drawings of some of the animals 
on the plates. They can be identified by the no¬ 
tation "Griffith” or "Griffths" to distinguish them 
from the artist "M. Griffith" [= Moses Griffith] 
whose plates were used in the Mammalia vol¬ 
umes. Harriet Griffith was the engraver for the 
later volumes of the General Zoology by Shaw 
(1800-1812) and continued by Stephens 
(1814-1826) and, since many of the plates of 
vertebrates in that series were reused in the An- 
imal Kingdom, Harriet Griffith may have played 
a significant part in arranging for the artwork 
used in this work. 

The subject of Pidgeon's contributions to the 
Animal Kingdom is a bit of a mystery. Gruber 
(2004) incorrectly indicated that, although Grif¬ 
fith was the overall editor and coordinator, Pid¬ 
geon was the main translator throughout the 
work 5 . In a 30 January 1835 letter to the editor 
of the Times London concerning the death of his 
friend, Griffiths (1835) explained the true con¬ 
tribution of Pidgeon to the Animal Kingdom. 
Some contemporaries had indicated in various 
reviews of the Animal Kingdom that Pidgeon 
was the translator of the work, but Griffiths 


5 Anonymous (1871) and Boase (1892), in their respective 
treatments of the passing of Richard Cuming (1777— 
1870), a founding member of the 1801 (third) Aurelian 
Society, biologist, paleontologist, collector, and 
founder of the Cuming Museum, stated that Cuming 
had translated the greater part of Cuvier’s Regne Ani¬ 
mal, to which the name of Edward Pidgeon is attached. 
Griffith’s (1835) defense of his partner was rather 
equivocal, and noted that his true participation was a 
bit different from that implied by his name being 
printed as co-author on title pages. Given the debated 
circumstances surrounding Pidgeon’s death, more 
work on Pidgeon is needed to clarify his true associa¬ 
tion with Griffiths and the Animal Kingdom. 


countered this, saying that he was not a trans¬ 
lator, but only a proofreader and, although the 
sole author of the supplementary volume on 
fossils (vol. 11), he had no part in the writing of 
vols. 3,4, and only a small bit of vol. 8. Although 
the workers associated with Griffith in this proj¬ 
ect were all labeled as "well-known", outside of 
geology and paleontology, Pidgeon was actually 
not well-known at all. This lack of celebrity may 
have led to an unfortunate end. In his last few 
weeks of life, a letter to a friend of Pidgeon’s was 
published in the Canterbury Magazine (Anony¬ 
mous, 1835) lamenting that he was forlorn and 
destitute saying he had no friends to speak to 
him and requested at least a book to read. One 
month later he took his life and left a note ex¬ 
plaining that he "quitted this world” because of 
disease from incurable penury, and "penury 
hopeless, from the pressure of disease .... I die 
because I can live no longer. Who wants a better 
reason?" 

Gruber (2004) noted that translating Cuvier 
was made complicated when Cuvier’s second 
edition of Le Regne Animal appeared starting in 
1829. Not only was this at around the same time 
as Whittaker's financial problems, this transla¬ 
tion change in scope was also in the middle of 
production of the Aves volumes. Despite Gru¬ 
ber's (2004) assertion of a complication in the 
translation, there appears to have been no sig¬ 
nificant delays in production as the parts con¬ 
tinued to be issued on a roughly quarterly basis. 
Whittaker had devised a split regarding where 
to start doing the translation of Cuvier’s second 
edition. Volumes 1-7 of the Animal Kingdom are 
a translation of the first edition of Le Regne An¬ 
imal (Cuvier 1816); volumes 8-15 (except vol¬ 
ume 11) are a translation of the second edition 
(Cuvier 1829-1830). An advertisement by 
Whittaker in 1825 for the latest part of the Ani¬ 
mal Kingdom and the newly published Re¬ 
searches on Fossil Osteology (another Cuvier 
translation into English) indicated that Cuvier 
was in close contact with the publisher Whit¬ 
taker and would keep him appraised of updates. 

The Artists and Engravers 

A number of artists and engravers were em¬ 
ployed at various times during the publication 
of this work. Early advertisements touted the 


173 



Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 



Figure 4. Plates depicting the "Cacajao” showing differences from the original deriving from a sketch made by Hum¬ 
boldt and published as pi. 29 in Humboldt &Bonpland (1811) (4a); and the lithograph copy made for Griffith’s Animal 
Kingdom (4b). 


artistry of one of the co-authors, Charles Hamil- 
ton-Smith. Griffith and his wife Harriet were 
also involved with the illustrating, engraving, 
and hand-coloring of various plates. Addition¬ 
ally, use was made of previously published 
plates that were redrawn and lithographed. Ad¬ 
vertisements for the Animal Kingdom state that 
some plates were drawn by Landseer (see 
below). Other plates, such as the one for Simia 
melanocephalus Humboldt (labeled the "caca¬ 
jao”), were originally sketched by Humboldt and 
published in 1811 in his Relation du Voyage 
(Humboldt & Bonpland, 1811) but were copied, 
lithographed, and hand-colored in England by 
contracted artists for the Animal Kingdom (see 
Figs. 4a and 4b for differences between Hum¬ 
boldt’s 1811 original and the 1824 copy in the 
Animal Kingdom ). 

James Basire engraved a number of plates, 
denoted by "Basire” or "Js. Basire”. There were 
three generations of Basires, all named James, 
so attribution to either of the three is difficult, 
if not impossible. The father (1730-1802) and 
son (1769-1822), if involved here, might have 


been engravers of earlier plates, e.g., those orig¬ 
inally done for Shaw’s General Zoology, which 
were re-used here. The grandson (1796-1869) 6 
would most likely have been the engraver for 
plates not found elsewhere and that thus were 
originals made for the Animal Kingdom. 

Charles Morgan Curtis (1796-1839), young¬ 
er brother of entomological author and illustra¬ 
tor John Curtis. Although like his brother, Charles 
M. Curtis was better known as an entomological 
illustrator (James F. Stephens employed him to il¬ 
lustrate his "Illustrations of British Insects"), but 
was the artist only for some of the bird plates 
used in the Animal Kingdom. 

Moses Griffith (1749-1819) engraved some 
of the plates (denoted by “M. Griffith”). Since the 
plates were printed after Moses Griffith died, he 
obviously had done the engravings much earlier. 
Indeed, some of the plates used by Edward Grif- 


6 Work must not have been all that good for the youngest 
James Basire after doing engravings for the Animal 
Kingdom. He was in bankmptcy court in 1847 (Anony¬ 
mous, 1847), and debtor’s prison in 1851 (Anonymous, 
1851: 33). 


174 





Sherbornia ( 2019 ) 


fith for the Animal Kingdom were taken from 
various other published works, including 
Shaw’s (1800-1826) General Zoology, for which 
Moses Griffith had engraved many of the same 
plates re-used in this work. 

Charles Hamilton Smith (1776-1859) illus¬ 
trated a number of the vertebrate plates 
throughout the production of the Animal King¬ 
dom. He is denoted on the plates in a variety of 
ways including "H. Smith." and C.H. Smith”. Al¬ 
though he provided a few plates dated 1824, the 
majority of his work seems to have been from 
1825 to 1829. Smith was also co-author of the 
Mammalia and Pisces volumes and authored a 
number of new taxa. 

Samuel Howitt (1757-1822), primarily a 
field sport enthusiast and painter of such en¬ 
deavors, was also well known for his work with 
animals. Many were sketched from life, from 
specimens in menageries, but also some studies 
were made from stuffed animals. Although he is 
well known for his drawings of mammals asso¬ 
ciated with Aesop’s Fables, his name is associ¬ 
ated with plates in the Animal Kingdom 
depicting birds. 

Landseers. There were two artists (father 
and son) with the surname Landseer. A review 
by Anonymous (1825) of the first few volumes 
of the Animal Kingdom stated that "the Land¬ 
seers" had illustrated some of the plates in vols. 
I—III. The father, John Landseer (1769-1852), il¬ 
lustrated some plates and is denoted by "Jo. 
Landseer”. Edward [Sir Edwin] Henry Landseer 
(1802-1873) was well-known as an animal 
painter and the illustrations he drew and etched 
for the Animal Kingdom are denoted by "H y 
Landseer”, "H. Landseer" or "H.L.". The illustra¬ 
tions by the latter are easy to spot among those 
in the Animal Kingdom as his style has a charac¬ 
teristic relaxed sketch-type look and (if present) 
the signature is large and flowing. 

John William Lewin (1770-1819), a natu¬ 
ralist and illustrator is denoted on plates in the 
Animal Kingdom simply as "Lewin”. Since he 
died before the project began, the plates used 
here were from originals made earlier and pos¬ 
sibly used elsewhere. Australian-based since 
1800, his illustrations used in the Animal King¬ 
dom are restricted to those species occurring in 
New Zealand and Australia. 


James de Carle Sowerby (1787-1871) illus¬ 
trated the Hawaiian Drepanis byronensis and the 
Angola vulture, both from BMNH specimens. He 
probably also produced the original illustration 
of tortoises for the Zool. which were re-used 
for the plate in the Animal Kingdom. 

Joseph Obadiah Westwood (1805-1893), 
well-known Oxford entomologist and a talented 
illustrator in his own right, was primarily tasked 
with copying 52 of the Insecta plates in Volumes 
14 and 15 supplied to him by Guerin from the 
latter's Iconographie. He also illustrated a num¬ 
ber of plates himself. 

John Christian Zeitter (1797-1862), a tal¬ 
ented German-born animal artist from England 
and copperplate engraver was the engraver of 
some of the Aves plates in the Animal Kingdom. 
In 1831, Zeitter married Lydia Ann Aiken, 
daughter of well-known sports painter Henry 
Aiken. 

Previous Dating Efforts 

Dating of the parts to the work has proven diffi¬ 
cult and most dates have been based on best es¬ 
timates derived from reading the intent of the 
publisher and extrapolating and interpolating 
dates when not found in the literature. 
Matthews (1919: 454) apparently had little to 
go on except the dates of the plates and stated 
with regard to the Aves volumes, in which he 
was only interested: "The title pages bear the 
date 1829, but the plates are dated, the dates 
ranging from Nov. 1827 to Jan. 1830. A few new 
names occur, so that a collation would be valu¬ 
able." Then, the next year, Matthews received 
some additional information (source not speci¬ 
fied therein) 7 and augmented his previous entry 
for Griffith stating: "About nine parts bound in 
three volumes which are listed on January 23rd, 
1830. Pt. 14 (1st of birds) December 1st, 1827; 
pt. 15, March 31st, 1828; pt. 16, August 6th, 
1828, with 18 plates; pt. 19, May 21st, 1829; pt. 
20 with 16 plates, August 15th, 1829; pt. 21, 
with 21 plates, October 31st, 1829. Further 
dates and contents of parts still desired.” The in¬ 
formation Matthews supplied is the most de¬ 
tailed at that time, but it is still incomplete and 
with one possible error (Part 16 with 18 plates 

7 The source is discovered only by reading Zimmer (1926); 

it was Charles Richmond. 


175 



Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 


Table 1. Comparison of plate numbers for parts of and whole series of the Animal Kingdom. 


Work 

Mammalia 

Aves 

Reptilia 

Pisces 

Annelida etc. 

Mollusca 

Insecta 

Fossils 

total 

Nissen 1966 

210 

160 

55 

62 + 121 

60 

60 

140+1 

49 

799 

Engelmann 1846 




60 

60 


140 



Evenhuis 1997 







140 



Graesse 1861 

200 



60 

60 

64* * 

140 



Whittaker 1837 

200 

180 

60 

60 

60 

64** 

140 

50t 

814 

"List of Plates" 

210 

160 

55 

62+|2] 

60 

60 

140 

49 

798 

Zimmer 1926 


260* 








Smith 1993 

210 

160 

55 

64 

60 

61 

140 

49 

799 

wrapper contents 


159 


67** 






Anker 1938 


160 









* typo for 
160 


** includes 
replacements 
for 3 plates 


** includes 
replacements 
for 3 plates 


tjncludes 
extra pi. 
meant for 
1844 2nd ed. 


fits better with Part 17 having 18 plates — see 
Table 3 for comparison of contents and dates]. 

Sherborn (1922: xli) gave only brief attention 
to dating of the entire work as he had little evi¬ 
dence of dates for the 44 parts nor did he have 
knowledge of how many parts made up the en¬ 
tire series since he had apparently not seen any 
parts with wrappers and based his dating on re¬ 
ports of publisher’s notices in the literature. He 
stated: "said to be a quarterly; pt. 1 issued Feb. 
1824 and pt. 25 out by 1830; advisable to use 
volume dates at present.” 

Zimmer (1926) noted that Charles Rich¬ 
mond was a source for some of Matthews’s 
(1920,1925) dating and repeated the details of 
parts and plates with a bit more detail. Anker 
(1938), like Mathews and Zimmer, was also con¬ 
cerned only with the Aves and gave a detailed 
description of its three volumes but, apparently, 
did not see Matthews (1920,1925) or Zimmer 
(1926) and stated: 

"The whole work was issued in parts in 1827- 
35.... According to the dates of publication given 
on them [the plates], they were published from 
November 1, 1827, to January, 1830, and the 
three volumes cited here would seem to have 
been completed at the end of 1829 or possibly at 
the beginning of 1830.” (Anker, 1938:115). 

Cowan (1969a) gave the most detailed research 
on the work but, without much external evi¬ 
dence to go on, made preliminary calculations 
on dates and contents with the caveat that they 
could be used as a basis for further work. 
Cowan’s work presented a wealth of informa¬ 
tion that indeed proved useful as a baseline of 


publication dates for the current study. To show 
the relative accuracy of Cowan’s estimates on 
dating, Table 3 compares dates found in the cur¬ 
rent study with his dates. Subsequent findings 
(Cowan 1969b, 1971a, 1971b) corrected some 
estimates but some incorrect assumptions (e.g., 
3 parts per insect volume) remained. 

Evenhuis (1997) provided dates of the two 
Insecta volumes based on Cowan’s research, 
correcting the parts per volume, and estimated 
pages per part based mainly on a 192-pages- 
per-part assumption. 

Note on Issuance of Plates 

Plates were normally issued in the parts with 
the relevant associated text. Plates were not 
numbered until 1831, starting with the plates in 
the Insecta volumes (14 and 15), followed 
chronologically by those in the Annelida, Crus¬ 
tacea, Arachnida (vol. 13), the Mollusca and Ra- 
diata (vol. 12), and the Pisces (vol. 10) volumes. 
Despite knowing the numbers of plates in vol¬ 
umes and in some parts (via listing totals in ad¬ 
vertisements and reviews), accurate dating of 
those plates has been found in this study not to 
be always possible, primarily because the con¬ 
tents of the plates in the original parts with 
wrappers do not correspond to their final place¬ 
ment in bound volumes. In addition to the initial 
publication of parts on the intended quarterly 
basis, republished parts were also issued as part 
of a monthly subscribership scheme (cf. Fig. 3); 
however, these parts had a separate numbering 
scheme and apparently were only published for 
less than two years (May 1829 through 1830, 


176 
























Sherbornia ( 2019 ) 


possibly into early 1831), so there should be no 
confusion regarding dating of plates that are 
found in the original quarterly issued wrappers. 

Other confounding circumstances concern 
the actual number of plates that were issued 
versus the ones that were instructed to be 
bound in the final volumes. Total plate counts in 
the final bound 16 volumes seems to vary from 
set to set with Nissen [1966] and Smith [1993] 
stating 799; the publisher stating 814 in an 
1837 advertisement (Whittaker, 1837), but the 
bookseller Junk (Antiquariaat Junk, 1998) stat¬ 
ing that the set they were selling in that cata¬ 
logue (with 797 plates) included the most in any 
set they had ever sold (cf. Table 1). 

One reason for the varying totals could be 
that the number of plates issued for a particular 
part may not have been the same from one part 
sold to another. Unfortunately, the contents of 
the parts of the Mammalia and Aves seen during 
this study are known only from one set of wrap¬ 
pers each. It would be critical to compare the 
same part to other sets with wrappers to under¬ 
stand better if the number of plates and con¬ 
tents of each varied from one to another. The 
numbers of plates per part appeared most often 
in Whittaker’s advertisements of the early parts, 
but disappeared toward the last couple of years 
and were also not present in advertisements 
that also included newer works the publisher 
was trying to sell in the same advertisement. In 
those cases, the actual numbers of plates in the 
part being noticed as published would be re¬ 
placed with phrases such as "numerous engrav¬ 
ings” or "splendid engravings” or no mention at 
all of plates. 

Another possible reason for this discrep¬ 
ancy is evident in the plates that were listed in 
the wrapper contents of part 1 (Mammalia), 
from the Bodleian Library. In that part, among 
the 18 unnumbered plates, there were seven 
(two of birds, two of fish, one of unnamed but¬ 
terflies, one squid, and one tunicate) that were 
not mentioned in the text nor instructed to be 
bound in any of the remaining (i.e., non-Mam- 
malia) volumes [the two bird plates were the 
only ones instructed in the Aves "List of Plates” 
to be bound in the Aves volumes]. It could have 
been that in the first part, the publisher (Whit¬ 
taker) wanted to attract as many potential sub¬ 


scribers as possible by inserting a variety of an¬ 
imals groups rather than restrict the plates to 
just Mammalia. Parts 2 and 3 contained only 
Mammalia plates, and all the Aves parts seen in 
wrappers had only Aves plates. It is uncertain if 
other parts in original wrappers contained ad¬ 
ditional plates (i.e., of taxa belonging to other 
Classes than that of the part) that were not as¬ 
sociated with any textual matter; however, one 
plate was not found among those issued with 
the Aves parts in wrappers (which totals 159 
plates) and must have been included in another 
non-Aves part since 160 plates are in the "List 
of Plates” in the preliminaries of the Aves sec¬ 
tion. Also, of the plates I have examined in the 
Insecta section, one plate (pi. 139) was unac¬ 
counted for and could have been one of these 
extra originally unnumbered plates only issued 
for marketability and not intended to be bound. 

In the case of plates not known from wrap¬ 
per contents, they can effectively only be dated 
from the earliest known date of the last part of 
each animal group. Thus, for example, in the 
Mammalia volumes, plates may have originally 
been issued in an early part but were bound into 
a later volume; or vice versa: a plate may have 
been issued in a later part but bound into an 
earlier volume. If they are not known from the 
part in which they were originally issued, but 
only from the bound volumes, one can safely 
only date such plates from the last part that was 
issued for that animal group. Also, plates from 
two-volume Classes can be placed among the 
parts that comprised the second volume if the 
dates on the plates are later than the date of 
publication for the last part in the first volume 
(e.g., as was done for the Insecta plates dated 
1832 in this study). 

I list the plates of the parts I have seen or for 
which I have received information as they occur 
in each part, but, without supporting evidence 
(correspondence, library stamps, etc.), cannot 
at this time verify with certainty whether they 
represent an original issuance of the part or a 
subsequent one. 

Additionally, not-before dates can be deter¬ 
mined for plates based on the dates they were 
completed. Virtually all of the plates are dated 
with a year and for Insecta also a month (and 
sometimes also a day) and it is possible that the 


177 


Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 





zwasctj 

gnffttfis Tr„„ 4 / m £,,^ <,/ £ 

3%> *™)*im/ 

M ' / f •* M's. pUt, h—.., y /.^ -/_ 

<r 

W'jfnoe* rL £ f <■ 



Figure 5. Set of proof impressions of 140 Animal King¬ 
dom Insecta plates belonging to J.O. Westwood deposited 
in OXUMNH . a. bound volume; b. Handwritten volume 
title, with supplemental information added by an uniden¬ 
tified person. Photos: Zoe Simmons, OXUMNH . 

dates are associated with dates upon which a 
plate could be sold. Since it was advertised that 
there were available for sale proof plates in 
demy quarto on India paper, it is possible that 
the dates on the plates were the dates on which 
the proof plates were pulled and sold separately 
from and before the plates sent to subscribers 
along with the text in the parts with wrappers. 
Advertisements from the publisher stated this 
could be done and the India paper proofs were 
sold at a much higher price than the other ver¬ 
sions sold. Although a set of 140 proof impres- 


Just published by Geo. />. TJ Whittaker. 3 


The EIGHTH PART of 

THE A N I IVI il L KINGDOM, 

Described and arranged In conformity with iLs OrgUlhiLllon, 

By ibt BARON CUVIER, &c,&c.frc. 

Wlih additional Dcwriplkms of all the Specie* hitherto named* of many not before 
r noticed, and other original Matter, 

By EDWARD GRIFFITH, F-L.5. and Others. 

U Quarterly Parts, containing about twelve ihoeu of Lc(tcT-iir«f Blld eighteen 
superior Engraving*, chiefly from living subjects. 

Demy dto. with early Impresikina of [he Plate*, on India Paper, price !Mr. cadi 
Part; In royal dvo. with the nates carefully coloured, 24 s* or plain ISj.j in 
demy Svo. plain Ik 

Figure 6. Advertisement of the eighth part of the Animal 
Kingdom showing its intended issuance of 12 sheets of 
letter-press with each part. Source: Publisher's advertis¬ 
ing pamphlet bound in “A topographical dictionary of the 
United Kingdom. 1826" via Internet Archive. 

sions of Insecta plates from the Animal Kingdom 
belonging to J.O. Westwood were found in the 
OXUMNH (see Figs. 5a,b], no evidence was 
found of a date of sale or receipt of any of those 



TH E 

ANIMAL KINGDOM 

ARRANGED IN CONFORMITY WITH 
ITS ORGANIZATION, 

BY 

THE BARON CUVIER, 

*r. At- \e 

WITH 

ADDITIONAL DESCRIPTIONS 

ov 

ALL THE SPECIES HITHERTO NAMED; OF MANY NOT BEFORE 
NOTICED; AND OTHER 

ORIGINAL MATTER; 

BY EDWARD GRIFFITH, l-.L.S. 



LONDON : 

PUBLISHED BY G. AN’D \V. B. WHITTAKER, 

AVE-MARIA-LANE. 


Figure 7. Example of an early wrapper of part of the An¬ 
imal Kingdom : wrapper cover of Part 1. 


178 














Sherbornia ( 2019 ) 



Putt XXI. 


AVB 6 ,—'Part & 


IHfc 

ANIMAL KINGDOM 


HES&fctirttl AMI AHilAKcElP 

IN CONFORMITY WITH ITS ORGANIZATION, 


THE BARON CUVIER, 

%f*mher <>/ tk*f t**{itx/r <,/ tiwn, 
itr. Jfr. Ac, 


WITH 

AI > D 1 T ION A L DESC H 1 FT IONS 


.4l,L THI. sTJCt H> HITHUATli SAXiilii («T MAST NOT HI.IMHK 
NOTICED i AND OTRIR 

ORIGINAL. NATTER. 

BY EDWARD GRIFFITH, F.L.S. 

AMU OTHSHS 


mum* 

PRINTED HIM WHlTTAJCTh, TMAOIIH, AND CO 

AVI -HilU'UM 


Figure 8. Example of the back of cover of the wrappers 
to the Animal Kingdom showing the anticipated date of 
the next part: wrapper back cover of Part 20. 


p ART XV. AVE 5 ,—Part s, 

THE 

ANIMAL KINGDOM 

DKSCRIREO A VO AftBAKCRD, 

IN CONFORMITY WITH ITS ORGANIZATION, 

IT 

THE BARON CUVIER, 

J/rnvV-r v/tfit Imdttiei* of France, 

X* Iff 


iriTU 

ADDITIONAL DESCRIPTIONS 

Att THE SFECir* IHIHCjiTO NAMED* OF MAXY Jil/T 0EFOBK 
vtmctD * a vo tmiKR 

ORIGINAL MATTEE; 

BY EDWARD GRIFFITH, F.L& 

JXO OTHERS 


LONDON: 

PUBLISHED BY DEO. B. WHITTAKER, 

AYS-MARIA-UJJ EL. 


Figure 10. Wrapper cover of Part 21 of Aves (Vol.8] show¬ 
ing labeling of animal group, overall series part number, 
and part within the group. 


TIIE 


CLASS AVES 


BARON CUVIER, 


SPECIFIC DESCRIPTIONS 


EDWARD GRIFFITH, F.LS., A S., $c. 

A VO 

EDWARD PIDGEON, E*<j. 

TMK ADDITIOKAL ITCCiEI IVtKBTKD IV TUK TEXT or CPYIEB 

BY 

JOHN EDWARD GRAY. E*j„ F.G.S.. <Jy. 


VOLUME THE T It I H t). 


LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR WHITTAKER, TREACHER, AND CO., 
AYE.HAltlA.LANE. 

MDCCCXXUt. 


Figure 9. Wrapper of Part 15 showing start of labeling of 
animal group, overall series part number, and part within 
the group on the wrapper covers. 


179 


Figure 11. Second title page showing the labeling of the 
volume for Aves (Vol.3). 



















Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 


Part XVII. AVES.-Pawt 4. 


TUB 

ANIMAL KINGDOM 

DtaCainR^ AJtD AHHA* 0 *B 

1Y CONFORMITY WITH ITS ORGANIZATION* 

UT 

THI BARON CUVIER, 

M' jttlftr p/* /A: Jiiti'ttufa a/ fhrera, 

$c. 4 ** 


WITH 

ADDITIONAL DESCRIPTIONS 

ov 

M.t THE SPECIES HITHERTO NAMED; OF MANY NOT UKFWI*. 
NOTICED; AND OTHER 

ORIGINAL NATTER. 

BY EDWARD GRIFFITH, F.LS. 

AND OTHERS. 


LONDON: 

?UBUSHED BY GEO. tt WHITTAKER. 
AfB.tlAIUA.LANA 


Figure 12. Wrapper cover for Part 17 (Aves Vol. 7) show¬ 
ing printer as "Geo. B. Whittaker”. 

plates. From the fact that the India paper proof 
plates were uncolored and expensive, it would 
seem that they may not have been as desired as 
hand-colored plates, even though the uncolored 
versions could be purchased as soon as they 
were ready and without having to wait for them 
to be issued along with the text in a Part. 

Notes on Pagination and Contents 

Determining the pages contained in each part 
without reference to originally gathered con¬ 
tents in a wrapper (see below for examples) can 
be both difficult and time consuming. Obvious 
discoloration from one part to the other or dif¬ 
ferent margins or type can give some indication 
of a set of signatures that make up individual 
parts but is fraught with uncertainty. Text gath¬ 
erings ("sheets”) consisted typically of a signa¬ 
ture of 16 pages. One publisher’s advertisement 
(Fig. 6) stated that each part consisted of 12 
sheets of letterpress. With each "sheet" being 16 


Part XVIII. AVES,— Part 5. 


THE 

ANIMAL KINGDOM 

DESCRIBED AJO> ARRANGED 

IN CONFORMITY WITH ITS ORGANIZATION. 

RV 

THE BARON CUVIER, 

|frfaJ«r It/ iftt Inti ftite </ printer, 

4*. fc, -fc. 


ADDITIONAL DESCRIPTIONS 

or 

-ILL THE STEC1M HITHERTO NAMED;OFMANV NOT BEFORE 
NOTICED [ AND OTHER 

ORIGINAL MATTER. 

BY EDWARD GRIFFITH, F.L.S, 

AKO OTHERS. 


LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR WHITTAKER. TREACHER, AND ARNOT, 
AVE-J 14 AJA.LANIS, 


Figure 13. Wrapper cover for Part 18 (Aves Vol. 7) show¬ 
ing change in printer to "Whittaker, Treacher, and Co.” 

pages, there were then 192 pages of letterpress 
that were advertised to be in each part. Cowan 
(1969a) attempted to discern pages for all vol¬ 
umes with an assumption that the first part of 
most volumes had 192 pages. This assumption 
apparently stemmed from Mathews (1925), 
perhaps relying on information supplied to him 
by Richmond. Evenhuis (1997) followed this 
pagination assumption in an effort to discern 
the pagination of the parts in the two Insecta 
volumes. However, Cowan (1969a) had previ¬ 
ously shown that the assumed 192-page count 
for the first part of each volume was not always 
correct. That was verified in this research based 
on the contents of parts of the Mammalia and 
Aves volumes that were bound as received in 
their wrappers (see further below). Aside from 
those anomalies, the 192 page-count for the 
first part of every volume subsequent to the 
Aves volumes seems to be correct. 


180 











Sherbornia ( 2019 ) 


Analysis of the Work 

The work was offered in three editions: demy 
octavo, royal octavo, and demy quarto, although 
the printed plates to each were from the same 
copperplate, thus the same size but with differ¬ 
ent margins. Bousquet (2016) mistakenly said 
there were only two (quarto and demy octavo). 
The demy quarto was only for the proof impres¬ 
sions of the plates, which were printed on India 
paper and sold separately from the letterpress. 
The demy octavo edition contained letterpress 
and uncolored plates; the royal octavo edition 
had letterpress and could be purchased with ei¬ 
ther colored or uncolored plates. 

Because the India paper proof impressions 
could be purchased separately from the "parts” 
that contained both text and plates, there is thus 
a potential that some plates may have appeared 
prior to the completed "part”. Without notices 
of receipt of those individual plates, dating of 
publication of those plates is not possible. No 
copies of individual demy quarto plates have 
been seen in this study. It is assumed here that 
their dates of issuance would be the same as the 
initial wrappers in which they were contained. 

The issuance of the work was initially in 
parts in colored wrappers: the Mammalia and 
Aves wrappers seen were brown. Initially, the 
wrappers gave no information of the contents 
or Part number (see Fig. 7) giving only the over¬ 
all title and publisher. By the time of the is¬ 
suance of Aves Part 15, the wrappers had 
printed on them the animal group, overall series 
part number, and part within the group (e.g., 
Fig. 9). There were no dates printed on the 
wrappers; however, the back cover of the wrap¬ 
per gave a date of when the next part would ap¬ 
pear (e.g., Fig. 8). After receiving all parts that 
constituted a volume 8 , title pages would be used 
in place of the wrapper. Except for the Fossils 
(Vol. 11) and Synopsis and Index (Vol. 15), there 
were two title pages, both of which differed 
slightly in wording and format from each other 
and from that on the wrapper. For example, the 
wrappers gave not only the overall part number, 

8 Most often this was three-parts per volume, but the first 
three parts of the Mammalia had text to go into other 
volumes and volume 5 of the Mammalia was made up 
of pages from two different parts. By the time the Aves 
parts appeared, the three-parts per volume rule was 
used fairly consistently. 


but also the part within the animal group. Thus, 
the wrapper for Part 21 for the Aves volumes 
(Fig. 10) has the following information printed 
across the top: the overall part number in 
Roman numerals (XXI), the animal group name 
(Aves), and the part number within the animal 
group in Arabic numbers (Part 8). In that fash¬ 
ion, and knowing that three parts made up a 
volume, a subscriber would know there was one 
more part (the 9th) needed to complete the 
third volume of the Aves. The first title page of 
each volume (e.g.. Fig. 1) lacked the information 
on overall parts and parts within the animal 
group and was intended as the title page of this 
volume within the entire Animal Kingdom series 
(thus the "Eighth Volume” overall). The second 
title page (Fig. 11) was intended as the title page 
within the volumes dealing with the Aves (thus 
"Volume the Third”). 

Bound Volumes, Separate Parts, and Dates of 
Publication 

The descriptions of dating and contents below 
are by part within volume. As volumes were not 
issued chronologically, parts are not listed suc¬ 
cessively, but as they were issued within each 
volume. Table 3 can be consulted for the details 
on each part in successive order. Dates in bold 
are the earliest found. 

Mammalia (overall vols. 1-5; overall parts 1- 
13). 

Example first title page (from bound copy of vol¬ 
ume 1): “The animal kingdom arranged in 
conformity with its organization, by the 
Baron Cuvier, member of the Institute of 
France, &c. &c. &c. with additional descrip¬ 
tions of all the species hitherto named, and of 
many not before noticed, by Edward Griffith, 
F.L.S., A.S., &c. and others. Volume the First. 
London: Printed for Geo. B. Whittaker, Ave- 
Maria-Lane. MDCCCXXVII.” 

Example second title page (from bound copy of 
volume 1): “The Class Mammalia arranged 
by the Baron Cuvier, with specific descriptions 
by Edward Griffith, F.L.S., A.S. &c. Major 
Charles Hamilton Smith, F.R.S., L.S. &c. and 
Edward Pidgeon, Esq. Volume the First. Lon¬ 
don: Printed for Geo. B. Whittaker, Ave- 
Maria-Lane. MDCCCXXVII.” 


181 



Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 


Title page of Mammalia Volume 5: “Synopsis of 
the species of the Mammalia, as arranged 
with reference to their organization, by Cu¬ 
vier, and other naturalists. With specific char¬ 
acters, synonyma, &c. &c. Volume the Fifth. 
London: Printed for Geo. B. Whittaker, Ave- 
Maria-Lane. MDCCCXXVII." 

Title page dates: Vol. 1: 1827, Vol. 2: 1827, Vol. 

3: 1827, Vol. 4: 1827, Vol. 5: 1827. 
Authorship: Edward Griffith and Edward Pid- 
geon are responsible for the translated portions. 
Sherborn in his Index Animalium gives author¬ 
ship of most of the new species to John Edward 
Gray and Charles Hamilton Smith to others. 
British anatomist and naturalist Joshua Brookes 
[1761-1833) is given authorship of the genus 
Lycaon in the text [Vol. 5, page 151) and by Sher¬ 
born in his Index Animalium, although it is 
equivocal if, in fact, he was the person respon¬ 
sible for the characters given there to make the 
name available. The names may have been 
made available earlier in the sale catalogue of 
his museum (Brookes, 1827) since that latter 
work is cited in the Animal Kingdom under the 
name Lycaon. 

Dating of the Parts 

Part 1, pp. i-lxxx, 1-204, 18 plates, 13 Febru¬ 
ary 1824 [Morn. Chron., Lond. Morn. Post); 14 
February 1824 [Lit. Chron.; says next part to be 
ready on 1 May 1824); 16 February 1824 [Lond. 
Observ .); 28 February 1824 [Somerset House 
Gaz.); February 1824 (Sherborn 1922: xli; Mon. 
Mag.); March 1824 [Univ. Rev.); 17 April 1824 
[Courier); June 1824 [Mon. Crit. Gaz.). 

Remarks. Wrappers and contents have 
been seen for the first three parts of the 
Mammalia (from a set in the Bodleian Li¬ 
brary of Oxford University); pagination 
and plate contents of these parts are 
based on this set. The Quarterly Review 
listed Part 1 in its list of new publica¬ 
tions for "October 1833 - January 1834", 
but a January 1824 is impossible since 
there are at least 12 plates issued in Part 
1 dated as "Feb y 1824". The London Mag¬ 
azine said the first part was "to com¬ 
mence on the 1st of February". The 13 
February date listed in the Morning 
Chronicle is treated here as the earliest 


date of publication until more solid evi¬ 
dence can be found for an earlier launch. 
The date of the next issue to be pub¬ 
lished given by the London Literature 
Gazette is presumably from the wrapper 
back cover, which has such information 
printed on each part (see, e.g., Fig. 8). 
Whittaker's own Monthly Magazine 
noted in the March issue that the first 
part was published in February (oddly 
without much fanfare). Cowan (1969a) 
did not give a source for his 29 February 
1824 dating, but I presume this is follow¬ 
ing Sherborn’s (1922) "February” and 
Cowan simply adding the last day of the 
month for February that year, which was 
the 29th. 

Part 2, pp. 205-352,18 plates [of Vol. 1], pp. 1- 
52 [of Vol. 5, Mammalia synopsis], 18 pis., 19 
June 1824 [Lit. Chron.); 26 June 1824 [Lit. Gaz. 
&/.); 28 June 1824 [Courier); 6 July 1824 [Kalei¬ 
doscope); July 1824 [Mon. Mag.); 1 August 1824 
[New Mon. Mag.); 7 August 1824 [Lit. Gaz.). 
Remarks. Part 2 comprised pages for 
both Vol. 1 and Vol. 5 of the Mammalia. 
The New Monthly Magazine gave 18 
plates as being in the first part; and the 
review in the Universal Review (Anony¬ 
mous, 1824b) gave a total of 38 plates 
for the first two parts, so that leaves 20 
plates for the second part. The negative 
review of Part 1 in the Monthly Critical 
Gazette (Anonymous 1824a) also gives 
the same plate count (18) but has the 
pages as "203-352". 

Part 3, pp. 1-160, 16 plates [of vol. 2], 28 Au¬ 
gust 1824 [New Times; Lond. Lit. Gaz.; the latter 
reviewed parts 1-3 on 11 September 1824); 1 
September 1824 [Lond. Morn. Post); 22 Septem¬ 
ber 1824 [Courier); September 1824 [Brit. Crit.). 

Part 4. [no text] [plate contents unknown], 26 
November 1824 [Morn. Chron.), 30 November 
1824 [Lit. Chron., Lond. Morn. Post), 1 December 
1824 [Mon. Crit. Gaz.); 6 December 1824 
[Courier); 21 December 1824 [Kaleidoscope); 
December 1824 [Mon. Mag.); January 1825 
[Scot’s Mag.). 


182 


Sherbornia ( 2019 ) 


Remarks. Part 4 of the Mammalia is an 
anomaly as the first two parts have all 
the pages of text for the first volume of 
the Mammalia. It is possible, then, that 
Part 4 was only an issue of plates and no 
text (or plates and possibly title pages 
for the completed volume 1). A tabula¬ 
tion of plates per the first three parts 
shows that 17 of the plates issued in the 
first three parts were bound in volume 
1. Nissen (1966) listed 25 plates as con¬ 
stituting the completed volume 1, leav¬ 
ing 8 plates yet to be issued. They may 
have been issued in Part 4, but this can¬ 
not be verified as they could have been 
issued in any one of the parts that made 
up the 4 main volumes of the Mammalia, 
and may have been issued in other Parts 
of the Animal Kingdom. 

Part 5, pp. 161-[???] [plate contents unknown], 
7 March 1825 [Morn. Chron.; Examiner ); 9 
March 1825 ( Lond. Mon. Post); 12 March 1825 
[Lit. Chron.); 19 March 1825 [Lond. Lit. Gaz.); 1 
April 1825 [Mon. Mag.); 2 April 1825 [Courier). 

Part 6, pp. [???]—513, 68 plates [for entire vol¬ 
ume 2; from Nissen (1966)], 18 June 1825 [Lit. 
Chron.); 25 June 1825 [Lond. Lit. Gaz.); 8 July 
1825 [Lond. Morn. Post); July 1825 (/. Gen. Litt.). 

Part 7, pp. 1—[172] [ofvol. 3], [unknown pages 
of vol. 5, Mammalia synopsis] [plate contents 
unknown], 17 September 1825 [Lond. Lit. 
Gaz.); 1 October 1825 [New Mon. Mag.). 
Remarks. As with Part 2, according to 
the review in the New Monthly Magazine, 
Part 7 is also split to contain pages for 
the main part of the Mammalia (for Vol. 

3) and pages for the Synopsis (Vol. 5). 
The pages for Vol. 3 could be interpo¬ 
lated as 1-172; however, there is not in¬ 
formation in the review to indicate 
exactly what pages were contained in 
Part 7 that pertain to Vol. 5. 

Part 8, pp. [173J-332, [plate contents un¬ 
known], 1 December 1825 [Times, Lit. Chron. 
records as published on 1 December 1825) 
[Lond. Lit. Gaz. and Examiner have "to be pub¬ 
lished 1 December"]; 11 December 1825 [Lond. 


Age); 13 December 1825 [Lond. Morn. Post). 

Part 9, pp. 333-468 + [2], [18 plates] (plate 
count from the notice in the Lit. Gaz. & J. and 
Lond. Mag.; 65 total plates for volume], 1 May 
1824 [Lond. Morn. Post); 15 May 1824 
[Courier); May 1824 [Lit. Gaz. & J.); 3 June 1825 
[Lond. Lit. Gaz.); June 1826 [Lond. Mag.); 19 Au¬ 
gust 1826 [Lond. Lit. Gaz.). 

Part 10, pp. 1-[184], [plate contents unknown], 
12 September 1826 [Morn. Chron., Courier); 23 
September 1826 [Lond. Morn. Post); September 

1826 [Ann. Philos.). 

Part 11, pp. [185]—344, [plate contents un¬ 
known], 24 February 1827 [Lond. Lit. Gaz.); 
February [Lond. Mag.). 

Remarks. A publisher's advertisement in 
the 22 December 1826 Courier said the 
11th part would be "ready" on 29 De¬ 
cember 1826. However, no notices in pe¬ 
riodicals or newspapers from December 
could be found in this study to corrobo¬ 
rate this date. 

Part 12, pp. 345-498 + [1], [52 total plates for 
volume], 12 May 1827 [Lond. Lit. Gaz.); 30 May 

1827 [Courier). 

Part 13, pp. 1-391 + [1], [no plates (Nissen 
1966)], 2 August 1827 [Lond. Times); 3 August 
1827 [Lond. Morn. Post). 

Remarks. Volume 5 of the Mammalia 
(which had no plates), essentially in¬ 
tended as a supplementary volume, was 
also visibly treated as such in the print¬ 
ing. The second title page (in Vol. 5 of the 
Mammalia) has a different title (see 
above); there is no volume number on 
the direction line as there was in vol¬ 
umes 1-4; the page numbers are placed 
on the inside bottom corner of each page 
as opposed to the normal outside top 
margin in the other volumes in the Ani¬ 
mal Kingdom; the pages are in a small 
font size equal to the signature marks; 
and the signature marks start with "2 C” 
as opposed to "B” and succeed from 
there. 


183 


Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 


Table 2. Comparisons of dating of the Aves parts. 


Overall 

Part 

Vol. 

Class 

Part 

Pages 

Pis. 

Matthews 
(1920) pis. 

Matthews 
(1920) date 

Cowan date 

Date in this 
study 

14 

6 

1 

1-184 

16 pis 


1 Dec 1827 

1 Dec 1827 

30 Nov 1827 

15 

6 

2 

185-360 

16 pis 


31 Mar 1828 

31 Mar 1828 

31 Mar 1828 

16 

6 

3 

357*-548 

16 pis 

18 pis 

6 Aug 1828 

6 Aug 1828 

5 Aug 1828 

17 

7 

4 

1-192 

18 pis 


— 

[Nov 1828] 

1 Nov 1828 

18 

7 

5 

193-384 

16 pis. 


— 

[Mar 1829] 

1 Mar 1829 

19 

7 

6 

385-586 

19 pis 


21 May 1829 

21 May 1829 

21 May 1829 

20 

8 

7 

1-192 

16 pis. 

16 pis 

15 Aug 1829 

15 Aug 1829 

6 Aug 1829 

21 

8 

8 

193-448 

21 pis. 

21 pis 

31 Oct 1829 

31 Oct 1829 

31 Oct 1829 

22 

8 

9 

449-690 

23 pis 


— 

23 Jan 1830 

10 Jan 1830 


Aves (overall vols. 6-8; overall parts 14-22) 

Example first title page (from bound copy of vol¬ 
ume 8): "The animal kingdom arranged in 
conformity with its organization, by the 
Baron Cuvier, member of the Institute of 
France, &c. &c. &c. with additional descrip¬ 
tions of all the species hitherto named, and of 
many not before noticed, by Edward Griffith, 
F.L.S., A.S., corresponding member of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel¬ 
phia, &c. and others. Volume the Sixth. Lon¬ 
don: Printed for Whittaker, Treacher, and 
Co., Ave-Maria-Lane. MDCCCXXIX.” 

Example second title page (from bound copy of 
volume 8): "The Class Aves arranged by the 
Baron Cuvier, with specific descriptions by 
Edward Griffith, F.L.S., A.S. &c. and Edward 
Pidgeon, Esq. the additional species inserted 
in the text of Cuvier by John Edward Gray, 
Esq., F.G.S. &c. Volume the Third. London: 
Printed for Geo. B. Whittaker, Ave-Maria- 
Lane. MDCCCXXIX.” 

Title page dates: Vol. 6: 1829, Vol. 7: 1829, Vol. 
8: 1829. 

Authorship: Edward Griffith & Edward Pidgeon 
are authors of all three volumes, despite 
the fact that Griffith (1835) said Pidgeon 
had little to do with Vol. 8. New taxa are 
authored by John Edward Gray, except 
new genera and species by William 
Swainson in the "Observations” (pp. 
677-690) in Part 22 [= the last part of 
Volume III of the Aves]. 


Wrappers have been seen for the nine parts that 
make up the three volumes (e.g., Figs. 9,10,12, 
13). A copy from the University of Illinois-Ur- 
bana (UI) on BHL has the three Aves volumes 
bound with all of the wrappers for the parts, 
thus the pagination and plates per part can be 
directly seen. The contents of each part were 
bound as received without reordering of plates 
or removal of the wrappers, and even include 
pamphlets from publishers that have been 
bound in. Also noted in this UI copy with wrap¬ 
pers, which was seen in most other bound 
copies, is that pages 357 through 360 of Part 15 
were reprinted and issued in Part 16 with addi¬ 
tional material on those pages. The back wrap¬ 
per of Part 15 says Part 16 was due in June 
1828. The actual publication was 6 August 
1828, a two month delay perhaps because of the 
reprinting of those 3 pages and resetting the re¬ 
maining pages in Part 16. The total plates in the 
UI copy is 159, which differs from the 160 listed 
by Nissen (1966) and other copies examined in 
this study; and a publisher's advertisement 
soon after completion of the whole work (Whit¬ 
taker, 1837) gives 180 plates for the Aves sec¬ 
tion. There were also 2 unnumbered plates of 
birds issued in Part 1 of the Mammalia, but 
adding that to the UI wrappers total gives 161. 
The "List of Plates” tallies 160 names of birds 
(since there were no numbered plates) and con¬ 
founding the numbering is the fact that two of 
the plates are instructed to be bound in two dif¬ 
ferent places in the text (viz., the Madagascar 
Roller in Volume 7; and Levaillant’s Darter in 


184 





















Sherbornia ( 2019 ) 


Volume 8). That would mean two copies had to 
have been issued for each of these plates to fol¬ 
low the instructions. However, in the UI copy, 
these two plates were not duplicated; however 
two others were (the Black-necked Swan [is¬ 
sued in Part 15 and Part 22]; and the Generic 
Characters of Birds. Order Passeres. Fam. 
Tenuirostres [issued in Part 20 and Part 22]]. 
These duplicates are not accounted for in the 
"List of Plates”. The actual issuance of the Aves 
plates remains a mystery. 

Another interesting bit of information 
that the wrappers give is that the publisher 
changed from "Geo. B. Whittaker” in Part 17 (1 
November 1828) (Fig. 12) to "Whittaker, 
Treacher, and Co.” in Part 18 (1 March 1829) 
(Fig. 13), i.e., in the middle of Vol. 7. This change 
apparently coincides with Whittaker being re¬ 
leased from his creditors (see above) and decid¬ 
ing to go into partnership with Joseph Treacher, 
William Cumber Hood, and David Gale Arnot. 
This was only a management change as the 
printer at the time remained the same and there 
appear to be no significant changes to the type¬ 
setting, fonts, paper, or layout. Nor was there 
any significant delay in issuance. The back of the 
wrapper for Part 17 states "The Eighteenth 
number of the Animal kingdom will be pub¬ 
lished in February 1829”. It appeared on 12 
March 1829, not any more of a delay than many 
of the other parts for which anticipated dates 
are noted on the back of the wrappers in this 
study. 

Dating of the parts 

Part 14, pp. 1-184; 16 plates, 30 November 
1827 ( Lond. New Times; Courier ); 1 Dec 1827 
(Lond. Lit. Gaz .); December 1827 ( Gent. Mag. 
[publisher’s advertisement]). 

Part 15, pp. 185-360, 16 plates, 31 Mar 1828 
(Lond. Lit. Gaz., Lond. Morn. Post); 12 July 1828 
(New Mon. Mag.); July 1828 (Quart. Lit. Advert.). 

Part 16, pp. 357*-360*, 361-548, 16 plates, 5 
August 1828 (Courier); 6 Aug 1828 
(Athenaeum); 9 August 1828 (Mon. Lit. Advert.). 
Remarks. As noted above. Part 16 contained 
reprinted/corrected pp. 357-360 [marked 
with an asterisk] of Part 15 as well as pp. 
361-548. 


Part 17, pp. 1-192,18 plates, 1 Nov 1828 (New 
Mon. Mag.); 29 November 1828 (Courier); 18 
December 1828 (Lond. Morn. Post.). 

Part 18, pp. 193-384, 16 plates, 1 Mar 1829 
(Mag. Nat. Hist., Examiner, Oxford Lit. Gaz., 18 
pis.); 9 March 1829 (Morn. Chron., Morn. Post, 
Courier, 16 pis.); 10 March 1829 (Mon. Lit. Ad¬ 
vert., 16 pis.); 12 March 1829 (Lond. Stand., 16 
pis.); April 1829 (Whittaker advertisement 
dated April bound in with Aves Part 6 saying 5 
parts of Aves published); September 1829 (Mag. 
Nat. Hist.). 

Remarks. There is a discrepancy in the 
listing of the number of plates to this 
part, with the Magazine of Natural His¬ 
tory, The Examiner, and the Oxford Liter¬ 
ary Gazette having an advertisement by 
the publisher stating 18 plates and later 
advertisements in the London Standard, 
Courier, Morning Chronicle, Monthly Lit¬ 
erary Advertiser, and the UI copy online 
with wrappers, which each have 16. The 
advertisements in the Magazine of Nat¬ 
ural History, The Examiner, and Oxford 
Literary Gazette may have perhaps been 
an originally intended number when the 
advertisement was typeset, or else there 
were different compositions of plates 
per sale (the latter seems less likely). 

Part 19, pp. 385-586,19 plates, 21 May 1829 
(Athenaeum and Lond. Lit. Gaz.); 23 May 1829 
(Standard); 28 May 1829 (Morn. Chron.); 30 
May 1829 (Times); 11 June 1829 (Lond. Morn. 
Post); September 1829 (Mag. Nat. Hist.). 

Part 20, pp. 1-192,16 plates [number of plates 
from UI wrapper and matches advertisement in 
Lond. Morn. Post., Lit. Gaz. & ]., and Morn. /.], 4 
August 1829 (Courier); 6 August 1829 (Lond. 
Morn. Post, Lond. Stand.); 15 Aug 1829 (Lond. 
Lit. Gaz.); 4 September 1829 (Morning /.). 

Part 21, pp. 193-448, 21 plates, 31 Oct 1829 
(Lond. Lit. Gaz.); 10 November 1829 (Bent's 
Mon. Lit. Advert.); 14 November 1829 (Morn.J.). 
Remarks. The advertisement in the 
Morning Journal says there are 22 plates 
in Part 21, which differs from the actual 
number of 19 found in the UI copy with 


185 


Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 


wrappers. This may have been an in¬ 
tended plate count when the advertise¬ 
ment was typeset, but changed between 
that time and when Part 21 was issued. 

Part 22, pp. 449-690, 23 plates, 10 January 
1830 ( Lond. Age); 19 January 1830 ( Lond. Morn. 
Post); 23 Jan 1830 (Lond. Lit. Gaz.) [back cover 
of wrapper to Part 22 says Parts 22 and 23 came 
out together]. 

Remarks. Matthews (1920) listed the 
Aves parts as: "About nine parts bound 
in three volumes which are listed on Jan¬ 
uary 23rd, 1830. Pt. 14 [1st of birds) De¬ 
cember 1st, 1827; pt. 15, March 31st, 
1828; pt. 16, August 6th, 1828, with 18 
plates; pt. 19, May 21st, 1829; pt. 20 with 
16 plates, August 15th, 1829; pt. 21, with 
21 plates, October 31st, 1829. Further 
dates and contents of parts still desired.” 
Research in this study found dates of 
publication for parts 17 and 18 that 
Matthews [1920) and Cowan [1969) did 
not find; as well as an earlier date for 
Part 22. They are given above and in 
Table 3. 

Zimmer [1926:154-155) stated that 
Matthews [1920) had received his dates 
from Richmond and repeated them with 
source information on the periodicals in 
which the publication of the parts was 
noticed. Despite the information deriv¬ 
ing from Richmond, a normally diligent 
bibliographer, there appears to be one 
error [probably a transcription error 
when the information was transmitted): 
Part 16, said to have 18 plates, fits better 
with part 17 having 18 plates — see 
Table 2 for comparison of contents and 
dates based on Matthews’s analysis of 
the Aves parts and those in this study 
from wrappers with contents intact. Pit- 
tie [2010: 195-196) repeated much of 
what Zimmer [1926) had noted for col¬ 
lation and dating. 

The numbers of plates for the Animal 
Kingdom given by Nissen [1966) appear 
to be based primarily on the printed 
"List of Plates" in the preliminaries to 
volumes; however, sometimes [e.g., for 


Reptilia [Vol. 9], Mollusca and Radiata; 
Annelida [vol. 12], and Crustacea, Arach- 
nida [Vol. 13]) they are listed as per part 
so, in those cases, were quite likely based 
on examination of contents in a wrapper, 
but unfortunately no sources of the 
copies with those wrappers are given by 
Nissen. 


Reptilia (overall vol. 9; overall parts 25-27) 

Nissen [1966) gave a tally of plates per part. 

When other evidence was not found in this 

study for plates per part, I follow Nissen's tally. 

First title page: "The animal kingdom arranged 
in conformity with its organization, by the 
Baron Cuvier, member of the Institute of 
France, &c. &c. &c. with additional descrip¬ 
tions of all the species hitherto named, and of 
many not before noticed, by Edward Griffith, 
F.L.S., A.S., corresponding member of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel¬ 
phia, &c. and others. Volume the Ninth. Lon¬ 
don: Printed for Whittaker, Treacher, and 
Co., Ave-Maria-Lane. MDCCCXXXI.” 

Second title page: “The Class Reptilia arranged 
by the Baron Cuvier, with specific descriptions 
by Edward Griffith, F.L.S., A.S. &c. and Ed¬ 
ward Pidgeon, Esq. London: Printed for 
Whittaker, Treacher, and Co. Ave-Maria- 
Lane. MDCCCXXXI." 

Title page date: Vol. 9:1831. 

Authorship: Edward Griffith and Edward Pid¬ 
geon are authors of the translated mate¬ 
rial. John Edward Gray is sole author of 
the “Synopsis", which comprises all of 
Part 27 of the Animal Kingdom and the 
last part of the Reptilia volume with sep¬ 
arate pagination [pp. 1-160). Aside from 
the "Synopsis”, there is no indication as to 
explicit authorship of new taxa, thus, I 
follow Sherborn in his Index Animalium 
in treating John Edward Gray as author 
of the new taxa, except where Thomas 
Bell is quoted for descriptive characters 
for names from his collection. 

Dating of the Parts 

Part 25, pp. 1-192, 17 plates, 8 August 1830 

(Lond. Age); 10 August 1830 (Bent’s Mon. Lit. 


186 


Sherbornia ( 2019 ) 


Advert.); 13 August 1830 (Courier)] 14 August 

1830 (Lond. Lit. Gaz.)] 16 August 1830 (Lond. 
Morn. Post, 17 pis); 1 September 1830 ( New 
Mon. Mag.)] September 1830 (Gent. Mag.] re¬ 
viewed); December 1830 (Mag. Nat. Hist.). 

Part 26, pp. 193-481, [20 plates], [December 
1830] (Cowan 1969a); February 1831 (Mon. 
Rev.). 

Remarks. The total of 20 plates of the 
second (Part 26) part of the Reptilia is 
interpolated here based on the remain¬ 
ing plates needed to make the total of 55 
plates for the Reptilia volume given in 
Nissen (1966) and verified in this study 9 . 
Notice of publication of Part 26 was not 
found in any of the journals examined so 
I follow Cowan (1969a) in estimating a 
December 1830 date. The Monthly Re¬ 
view reviewed the entire Reptilia volume 
in its February 1831 issue, so it is as¬ 
sumed publication was a few months 
earlier than Part 27 and a few months 
after Part 25 but still within 1830. Oddly, 
a check of all recording literature and 
newspapers from October 1830 to 
March 1831 had no notices or advertise¬ 
ments for Part 26. 

Part 27 ("Synopsis of the species of the class 
Reptilia”), pp. 1-110, 18 plates, 5 February 

1831 (Athenaeum)] 6 February 1831 (Atlas, 
Lond. Age)] 8 February 1831 (Lond. St. James 
Chron.)] 12 February 1831 (Lond. Lit. Gaz.)] 17 
February 1831 (Courier)] February 1831 (Mon. 
Rev.] Gent. Mag.)] 10 March 1831 (Mon. Lit. Ad¬ 
vert.)] 12 March 1831 (Edinb. Lit.J.) [plate num¬ 
bers from Lond. Lit. Gaz. and Mon. Lit. Advert. 
advertisements]. 

Remarks. The "synopsis" is bound with 
the main text and without separate title 
pages, but has separate pagination. 


9 A publisher’s advertisement soon after completion of the 
Animal Kingdom (Whittaker, 1837) lists 60 plates for 
the Reptilia volume, which is a mystery. If correct, it 
must include five plates (unknown as to what they de¬ 
pict) added subsequently to the “List of Plates” for this 
volume, which tallies to 55. No known copies have 
been seen having 60 plates. 


Pisces (overall vol. 10; overall parts 41-43) 

The Pisces parts were planned for volume 10 of 
the entire Animal Kingdom, but the appearance 
of the parts did not occur immediately after is¬ 
suance of the last Part of the previous volume 
(Vol. 9 on Reptilia). The work on translating the 
Pisces was delayed because of having to wait for 
the publication of the new material in Cuvier’s 
second edition of Le Regne Animal and this 
delay caused previous bibliographers some con¬ 
fusion in trying to account for dating of each 
part (e.g., Cowan 1969a attempted to date based 
on quarterly issuance of parts but could not 
place Part 43 after having given Part 42 a De¬ 
cember 1834 date, which was the estimated end 
of the publication of the entire work. Cowan 
(1969a) gave the printers for the 3 "parts" of the 
Pisces volumes as Gilbert & Rivington (part 1), 
Baylis (part 2) and no listing for part 3 (al¬ 
though the colophon in the last Part on copies 
examined in this study has the printer again as 
Gilbert & Rivington). 

First title page: "The animal kingdom arranged 
in conformity with its organization, by the 
Baron Cuvier, member of the Institute of 
France, &c. &c. &c. with supplementary addi¬ 
tions to each order, by Edward Griffith, F.L.S., 
L.S.S., corresponding member of the Acad¬ 
emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, &c. 
and others. Volume the Tenth. London: 
Printed for Whittaker and Co. Ave-Maria- 
Lane. MDCCCXXXIV.” 

Second title page: “The Class Pisces arranged by 
the Baron Cuvier, with supplementary addi¬ 
tions, by Edward Griffith, F.L.S., &c. and 
Lieut.-Col. Charles Hamilton Smith, C.H., 
K.W., F.R., L.S.S., &c, &c. London: Printed for 
Whittaker and Co. Ave-Maria-Lane. MDCC¬ 
CXXXIV." 

Title page date: Vol. 10: 1834. 

Authorship: Equivocal as to actual split of re¬ 
sponsibility. Cowan (1969a) gave author¬ 
ship of Part 41 to C.H. Smith. Griffith is no 
doubt responsible for the translated por¬ 
tions as well as some of the supplementary 
portions of all three parts. Smith drew many 
of the plates and is sometimes given sole au¬ 
thorship of the new taxa based on those 
plates. However, until dating of each plate 


187 



Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 


can be accurately ascertained, I follow Frick 
et al. (2019) in giving authorship of all new 
Pisces taxa proposed in the Animal Kingdom 
to "Griffith & Smith", which follows the sec¬ 
ond title page. 

Dating of the Parts 

Part 41, pp. 1-192, ["nearly 40"] plates, 3 May 
1834 ( Spectator ); 4 May 1834 ( Lond. Herald ); 
10 May 1834 ( Bent’s Mon. Lit. Advert.); 15 May 
1834 (Courier); 17 May 1834 (Athenaeum; Lond. 
Lit. Gaz., Lond. Morn. Post); 18 May 1834 (Lond. 
Age); 1 July 1834 (Metropolitan). 

Part 42, pp. 193-448, [exact plates unknown], 
4 May 1834 (Lond. Lit. Gaz.), August 1834 
(Bent's Mon. Lit. Advert.). 

Part 43, pp. [viii] + 449-680, [exact plates un¬ 
known], 5 October 1834 (Lond. Age), 11 Octo¬ 
ber 1834 (Spectator), 20 November 1834 (Lond. 
Morn. Post); 22 November 1834 (Athenaeum), 
November 1834 (Quart. Lit. Advert.). 

Remarks. Pagination of Part 41 was es¬ 
timated based on the review in The Spec¬ 
tator, which also states "nearly 40 
plates". With the pagination given for 
Part 43 in The Spectator, the pagination 
of the second part could be filled in. The 
number of plates listed for this volume 
varies in bibliographic works (cf. Table 
1); e.g.. Smith (1993) gave 64 and Nissen 
(1966) gave 62 (+ 2 replacement plates) 
(both of which no doubt included 62 
plates issued with the Pisces parts plus 
the two unnumbered plates of fish in 
Part 1 of the Mammalia). However, the 
accurate total is given on the wrappers 
of the work as 67, which includes 3 re¬ 
placement plates. Actual issuance of 
each plate including the replacement 
plates remains unknown. 

The Fossil Remains of the Animal Kingdom 
(overall vol. 11; overall parts 23-24) 

Cuvier did not cover fossils in his Le Regne Ani¬ 
mal and this volume (solely by Pidgeon) was 
conceived initially as a supplementary volume 
to the entire series. It fits in between volumes 


10 on Pisces and 12 on Mollusca and Radiata; 
although neither the Pisces nor Mollusca and 
Radiata were completed until after the Fossils. 

This volume is supplementary to the 
main translation volumes and does not have a 
printed volume number on the title page but 
was treated as volume 11 of the entire series. 
The signature mark beginning this volume is "* 
B" as opposed to the normal "B" for the other 
volumes, which is a further indication this was 
not treated as a core part of the English transla¬ 
tion as were the other volumes. A so-called "sec¬ 
ond edition”, 544 pages, 50 plates (the same 
collation as the original edition, with one extra 
plate) was published in 1844 and noted in a 5 
October 1844 advertisement in the Athenaeum. 

Title page: "The fossil remains of the Animal 
Kingdom, by Edward Pidgeon, Esq. London: 
Whittaker, Treacher, & Co. Ave-Maria-Lane. 
MDCCCXXX." 

Title page date: Vol. 11: 1830. 

Authorship: Edward Pidgeon. 

Dating of the Parts 

Part 23, pp. 1-192,19 plates, 10 January 1830 
(Lond. Age); 23 January 1830 (Lond. Lit. Gaz.) 
[back cover of wrapper to Part 22 says Parts 22 
and 23 came out together]. 

Part 24, pp. 193-544, 30 plates, 6 April 1830 
(Kent & Essex Merc.); 10 April 1830 (Bent's Mon. 
Lit. Advert.); 13 April 1830 (Courier); 15 April 
1830 (Lond. Times); 16 April 1830 (Lond. Morn. 
Post); 17 April 1830 (Lond. Lit. Gaz.); 1 May 
1830 (Edinb. Lit.]., New Mon. Mag.); 8 May 1830 
(Dubl. Lit. Gaz.). 


Mollusca and Radiata (overall vol. 12; overall 
Parts 38-40) 

Petit & Coan (2008) examined the contents, 
plates, and pagination for this volume and their 
results (except for earlier dates of publication 
obtained in this study) are followed here. 

First title page: "The animal kingdom arranged 
in conformity with its organization, by the 
Baron Cuvier, member of the Institute of 
France, &c. &c. &c. with supplementary addi¬ 


ns 


Sherbornia ( 2019 ) 


tions to each order, by Edward Griffith, F.L.S., 
A.S., corresponding member of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, &c. and 
others. Volume the Twelfth. London: Printed 
for Whittaker and Co., Ave-Maria-Lane. MD- 
CCCXXXIV." 

Second title page: "The Mollusca and Radiata. 
Arranged by the Baron Cuvier, with specific 
descriptions by Edward Griffith, F.L.S., A.S. &c. 
and Edward Pidgeon, Esq. London: Printed 
for Whittaker, and Co. Ave-Maria-Lane. MD- 
CCCXXXIV." 

Title page date: Vol. 12: 1834. 

Authorship: Edward Griffith and Edward Pid¬ 
geon are authors of the translated portions. 
John Edward Gray is author of the new taxa of 
Mollusca and Radiata (Zoophytes). Petit & Coan 
(2008) gave an excellent detailed account of the 
authorship of new taxa of Mollusca and are fol¬ 
lowed here. Thus, although Sherborn in his 
Index Animalium gave authorship of some new 
taxa in this volume to Griffith or Griffith & Pid¬ 
geon, John Edward Gray is here treated as au¬ 
thor of all new taxa. 

Dating of the Parts 

Part 38, pp. 1-192, Mollusca pis. 1-39, Radiata 
(Zoophyte) pis. 1-20, 6 October 1833 [bond. 
Age). 

Remarks. Petit & Coan (2008) listed the 
Mollusca plates for Part 38 as 1-39. The 
remaining plate would have to be one for 
zoophytes and is listed as such here. 
Petit & Coan (2008) also noted a replace¬ 
ment of three of the Mollusca plates (28, 

36, and 37 that were issued in Part 38) 
because the original images were re¬ 
versed. Those corrected plates (indi¬ 
cated with an asterisk (*) in the "List of 
Plates" in the preliminaries to the bound 
volume) would then have had to be is¬ 
sued in either of the two subsequent 
parts. Since Nissen (1966) recorded the 
plates per part for the Mollusca and Ra¬ 
diata volumes (most likely from seeing 
parts in wrappers) and he gave no plates 
for Part 39,1 have followed that here so 
that these remaining Mollusca and Radi¬ 
ata plates were thus issued in the last 


(40th) part to the volume 10 . There is a 
discrepancy, however. Nissen recorded 
60 plates total for the 12th volume. A 
tally of the actual plates in the "List of 
Plates" is 61 [plus the three cancels for 
plates 28, 36, and 37], which was the 
tally recorded by Smith (1993) and 
Grasse (1861) who also added the three 
cancels to the total making 64 (see Table 

13 - 

Part 39, pp. 193-384, [no plates issued, see Re¬ 
marks to Part 38], 26 December 1833 (Times). 

Part 40, pp. i-viii, 385-601, Mollusca pis. 28*, 
36*, 37*, 40-41, 1 March 1834 (Spectator)] 3 
March 1834 (bond. Morn. Post); 4 March 1834 
(Courier); 6 March 1834 (Times)] 8 March 1834 
(bond. bit. Gaz., Athenaeum)] 16 March 1834 
(Sun. Herald)] 30 March 1834 (bond. Age)] 
March 1834 (Quart. Rev., Quart, bit. Advert.)] 
April 1834 (New Mon. Mag.). 


Annelids, Crustacea and Arachnids (overall 
vol. 13; overall parts 35-37) 

After his initial estimate (Cowan, 1969a) of 
dates of publication and association of parts 
with animal groups, Cowan (1969b) added in¬ 
formation on volume 13 based on wrappers and 
contents of parts 35-37 held in the Hunterian 
Museum, Glasgow. 


10 Nissen (1966) listed 40 plates for Part 38 and 20 plates 
for Part 40, but the publisher’s advertisement in the 
Times London for Part 39 gives 20 plates. The discrep¬ 
ancy could be either that Nissen made a mistake, or 
that the publisher’s advertisement was wrong. Given 
the fact that other early advertisements by the pub¬ 
lisher of a given part had plates listed that were differ¬ 
ent than what reviewers of the contents recorded leads 
me to believe that the advertisements may not have al¬ 
ways been correct (possibly the publisher had “in¬ 
tended” to issue a certain number of plates but the 
actual number changed after the early advertisement. I 
thus lean more toward reviewers and others recording 
the actual contents of parts received as being more ac¬ 
curate. In this case, I follow Nissen in placing the 20 
plates in Part 40. Given that there were three correc¬ 
tions to previous plates mentioned by Petit & Coan 
(2008) in this part, the plates intended for Part 39 may 
have been delayed to Part 40 in order to allow the cor¬ 
rections to be inserted. 


189 



Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 


First title page: “The animal kingdom arranged 
in conformity with its organization, by the 
Baron Cuvier, member of the Institute of 
France, &c. &c. &c. with supplementary order 
by Edward Griffith, F.L.S., A.S., corresponding 
member of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, &c. and others. Volume the 
Thirteenth. London: Printed for Whittaker, 
Treacher, and Co., Ave-Maria-Lane. MDCC- 
CXXXI." 

Second title page: "The Classes Annelida, Crus¬ 
tacea, and Arachnida, arranged by the Baron 
Cuvier, with supplementary additions to each 
order by Edward Griffith, F.L.S., A.S. &c. and 
Edward Pidgeon, Esq. London: Printed for 
Whittaker, Treacher and Co., Ave-Maria- 
Lane. MDCCCXXXIII." 

Title page date: Vol. 13: 1833. 

Authorship: Edward Griffith & Edward Pid¬ 
geon. New taxa of arachnids are attrib¬ 
uted to G.R. Gray. 

Remarks. Sherborn listed one new 
genus and two new species (on pi. 20, 
and p. 539) from this volume in his Index 
Animalium, attributing them to G.R. Gray, 
the author attribution on the plate. Al¬ 
though Sherborn does not list in his 
Index Animalium any new taxa of Crus¬ 
tacea in this volume, one plate (pi. 17, fig. 

2) has the caption Nika cannelata, the 
name of which De Grave & Fransen 
(2011) attributed to "Griffith & Pidgeon", 
which is followed here. 

Dating of the Parts 

Part 35, pp. 1-192, 8 plates, 9 March 1833 
( Bent’s Mon. Lit. Advert.); 11 May 1833 
(Athenaeum ), June 1833 (Gent. Mag.). 

Part 36, pp. 193-384, 25 plates, 4 May 1833 
(Lond. Lit. Gaz.), October 1834 ( Edinb. Rev., 
Westm. Rev.). 

Part 37, pp. 385-540, 27 plates, 22 June 1833 
(Lond. Stand.); 30 July 1833 (Lond. Lit. Gaz.); 10 
August 1833 (Bent’s Mon. Lit. Advert.); October 
1833 (Edinb. Rev., Westm. Rev.). 

Remarks. The plates per part were given 
by Nissen (1966) and were corroborated 
by the wrapper contents given by Cowan 


(1969b); however, the exact association 

of each of the plates with a particular 

part remains unknown. 

Insecta (overall vols. 14-15; overall parts 
28-34) 

Cowan (1969a) made the first concerted at¬ 
tempt to establish estimated dates for parts 
based on the formula of quarterly publication of 
each part. At the time, he only had a few re¬ 
sources to go on and his table of estimated pub¬ 
lication dates holds up well, except for a few 
errors in association of parts with animal group 
and the absence of some parts that have since 
been found. He later (Cowan 1971b) gave evi¬ 
dence of publication and authorship of some of 
the Insecta plates by Guerin, of which J.O. West- 
wood had obtained proofs, which he used for 
making copies that were used in the Animal 
Kingdom. Westwood subsequently obtained a 
complete set of 140 proof impressions of In¬ 
secta plates from the Animal Kingdom, which 
are contained in a specially bound volume in the 
OXUMNH (Figs. 5a,b). The handwritten title 
page indicates that Westwood had illustrated 
over half of them, and that 52 were from 
Guerin’s Iconographie, and gave the other deri¬ 
vations of another six plates in the set. 

A number articles have specifically dealt 
with the dating and plates of the Insecta parts, 
possibly prompted by Westwood (1835) having 
given information on use of some of Guerin's 
plates from his simultaneously published Icono¬ 
graphie du Regne Animal (Guerin-Meneville, 
1831-1844), a fact that requires some research 
to determine which work had priority of the use 
of the same names on the same plates (but num¬ 
bered differently in different works by different 
authors). 

The total number of plates cited by most 
bibliographers is 140. A plate 139 is not among 
those in the "List of Plates", but there is an extra 
plate labeled as "83*” in the "List of Plates” 
which makes for a total of 140 plates. Nissen 
(1966) gave the total as 141, but may have in¬ 
cluded the additional unnumbered plate of but¬ 
terflies contained among the plates issued in 
Mammalia Part 1. 


190 


Sherbornia ( 2019 ) 



Trictenotoma. ChLUJbrni. GUGmy. 




FiTctrnotoma ChiUtmii GlUmy. 


1 J 1 0*3 


f\ + 


'I 

J 

/ 


J. 0. ChLUtren. Esq 1 . 


Coll, J. 0. ChUdreru EsqT 


Figure 14. Examples of Insecta plate 5 depicting original and corrected plates of Trictenotoma childreni Gray, a, 
Plate 5, original plate, uncolored; b. Plate 5*, corrected plate, colored. Arrow points to tarsomeres that are corrected 
in pi. 5*. See text for more details. 


Example first title page (from bound volume 

14) : "The animal kingdom arranged in con¬ 
formity with its organization, by the Baron 
Cuvier, member of the Institute of France, &c. 
&c. &c. with supplementary additions to 
reach order by Edward Griffith, F.L.S., A.S., 
corresponding member of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, &c. and 
others. Volume the Fourteenth. London: 
Printed for Whittaker, Treacher, and Co. Ave- 
Maria-Lane. MDCCCXXXII.” 

Example second title page (from bound volume 

15) : "The Class Insecta arranged by the 
Baron Cuvier, with supplementary additions 
to each order by Edward Griffith, F.L.S., A.S. 


&c. and Edward Pidgeon, Esq. and notices of 
new genera and species by George Gray, Esq. 
Volume the Second. London: Printed for 
Whittaker, Treacher and Co., Ave-Maria- 
Lane. MDCCCXXXI." 

Title page dates: Vol. 14: 1831; Vol. 15: 1832. 
Authorship: Authorship of new taxa proposed 
in these volumes has been confused over the 
years, some being attributed to Griffith, Griffith 
& Pidgeon, George Robert Gray, or even John Ed¬ 
ward Gray. Cowan (1969a) clarified the author¬ 
ship of new taxa proposed where textual 
descriptions of depicted new species in both 
volumes should be attributed to George Robert 
Gray, as indicated in a note on p. 780 of Vol. 15. 


191 







Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 


Dating of the Parts 

Part 28, pp. 1-192, 19 pis., 23 April 1831 

(Lond. Lit. Gaz number of plates from notice); 

24 April 1831 (Lond. Weekly Times ; 19 pis.); 1 

May 1831 (Lond. Age]) 9 May 1831 (Courier). 

Part 29, pp. 193-384, pis. 5, 19, 21-41 [plates 

from Cowan (1971b)], 2 July 1831 ( Athenaeum; 

Courier, 23 pis.); 3 July 1831 (Lond. Age, 23 pis.); 

16 July 1831 (Courier)] 1 August 1831 (Quart. 

Lit. Advert.)] August 1831 (Engl. Mag. Advert., 23 

pis). 

Part 30, pp. 385-570, [38 pis.], 8 October 1831 

(Athenaeum), 15 October 1831 (Lond. Lit. Gaz.). 
Remarks. My personal copy of the In- 
secta plates possesses a cancel that has 
not been recorded previously. In my 
copy (which was bound in the 1870s and 
may have been purchased at the same 
time or possibly a short time before), a 
plate 5* is used in place of plate 5 (the 
latter of which was issued in Part 28). A 
comparison of plate 5 and plate 5* 
shows that, in plate 5, one leg of the bee¬ 
tle was drawn with only five tarsomeres. 

It was corrected in plate 5* to four tar¬ 
someres (cf. Figs. 14a, b). There is no ev¬ 
idence as to when plate 5* was sent to 
subscribers or buyers, but the publica¬ 
tion year at the bottom of the plate is the 
same for both (1831) and could have ei¬ 
ther been added to the plates in a subse¬ 
quently issued part (less likely) or added 
later after the Animal Kingdom was com¬ 
plete (since the plate is not among those 
listed in the "List of Plates" for the In- 
secta volumes although another extra 
plate (83*) was listed. Plate 83* is of a 
different species than that on plate 83, 
and is not a correction, as is plate 5*. 

Cowan (1971a) mentioned briefly 
that he had seen Part 29 in the Oxford 
Museum and (Cowan 1971b) listed the 
plates that were found in that Part. 
These plates have been found but no 
wrapper to Part 29 was found during 
this study, and, if seen by Cowan, may 
have been discarded after Cowan’s 1971 
research. 


The number of plates for Part 30 is 
here interpolated as 38 based on the 
number of plates dated as "1831” (81) 
and subtracting those that are known to 
have been issued for 
Parts 28 and 29. The placement of plates 
in bound volumes has no bearing on date 
of issue as the "List of Plates” (essentially 
an instruction to the binder) lists plates 
dated as 1832 to be bound in volume 14, 
the last part of which came out in 1831. 

Part 31, pp. 1-192, [plates unknown], 1 Febru¬ 
ary 1832 (Metropolitan). 

Part 32, pp. 193-384 [plates unknown], [be¬ 
tween 1 Feb 1832 and 22 June 1832]; July 
1832 (Mon. Rev.)] 9 August 1832 (Lond. Morn. 
Post). 

Remarks. The earliest date found for this part 
is the July 1832 review of Parts 28-32 in the 
Monthly Review. However, the next Part (33) has 
been recorded as early as 22 June 1832. Since 
parts came out chronologically, I have interpo¬ 
lated the publication date for Part 32 as issued 
sometime between 1 February 1832 and 22 
June 1832. 

Part 33, pp. 385-576 [plates unknown], 22 
June 1832 (Lond. Guard.), 2 August 1832 
(Courier, Morn. Chron.), 5 August 1832 (Lond. 
Age)] 8 August 1832 (Lond. Lit. Gaz., 
Athenaeum)] 10 August 1832 (Bent’s Mon. Lit. 
Advert.)] 20 August 1832 (Lond. Morn. Post.)] 29 
August 1832 (Times). 

Part 34, pp. 577-796, 681*-684*, 20 pis., 17 
November 1832 (Lond. Lit. Gaz., Athenaeum)] 
23 November 1832 (Lond. Morn. Post)] Decem¬ 
ber 1832 (Metropolitan - , review). 

Remarks. As opposed to most parts of 
the Animal Kingdom that were made up 
of three parts per volume, volume 15 
comprised 4 parts. This assumption of 
three parts per volume led Cowan 
(1969a) to a miscalculation on parts and 
pages for the Insecta volumes. Volume 
15 contains an inserted signature of four 
pages printed as 681*-684* (dealing 
with the "Eleventh Order of Insects”, the 


192 


Sherbornia ( 2019 ) 


"Rhiphiptera” and placed between pages 
680 and 681 in bound copies I have 
seen) that had to have been issued at the 
time the title pages for volumes 14 and 
15 were issued (= Part 34), which means 
the pages were an additional four pages 
to the pages issued in Part 34. Associa¬ 
tion of plates with parts 31-33 is un¬ 
known, but the review in the 
Metropolitan (Anonymous 1832) gave 
20 plates as issued for Part 34.1 interpo¬ 
late 39 plates for the first three parts of 
the second volume (see Table 3), which 
was calculated by subtracting 101 (= the 
known 81 plates for volume 1 plus the 
20 for Part 34) from the total 140 for 
both volumes. 


Index and Synopsis (overall vol. 16; overall 
Part 44) 

This volume is divided into three sections. The 
first has 119 Roman numeraled pages and is an 
overall synopsis of all the animals treated in the 
other 15 volumes; the second section, with 282 
Arabic numeraled pages, is the index to all the 
scientific names of animals in the other 15 vol¬ 
umes; the last section (pp. 283-328) is an an¬ 
notated list of the authors quoted in the entire 
work. 

Title page: "A classified index and synopsis of the 
animal kingdom arranged in conformity with 
its organization, by the Baron Cuvier, member 
of the Institute of France, &c. &c. &c. with sup¬ 
plementary additions to each order, by Ed¬ 
ward Griffith, F.R.S., S.A. & L.S., corresponding 
member of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, &c. and others. London: 
Printed for Whittaker and Co., Ave-Maria- 
Lane. MDCCCXXXV." 

Title page date: Vol. 15: 1835. 

Authorship: Edward Griffith. 

Dating of the parts 

Part 44, pp. i-cxix, 1-328, [no plates], 1 Febru¬ 
ary 1835 ( Metropolitan ); 1 March 1835 ( Lond. 
Age)\ 10 March 1835 [Lond. Morn. Post)-, March 
1835 [Bent’s Mon. Lit. Advert.). 

Remarks. This volume strays from the 
typical printing format in a number of 


ways. There is only one title page since 
this volume deals with all the groups 
dealt with in the previous 15 volumes. 

The first section (pp. i-cxix) is entitled 
"Conspectus of the entire animal king¬ 
dom" and lacks a direction line at the 
bottom, and has signature marks begin¬ 
ning with "a 2". The second section, enti¬ 
tled "Index to the animal kingdom" (pp. 
1-328); in place of the volume number 
on the direction line at the bottom of the 
first page of each signature, there is the 
abbreviation "Cuv. Index" (for pages 1- 
282) and "Cuv. Table of Authors” (for 
pages 283-328). The signature marks 
begin with "B”. There are no new names 
in Vol. 16, all names listed therein refer¬ 
ring to those in the preceding 15 vol¬ 
umes. 

Acknowledgments 

Henry S. Barlow (Genting, Malaysia) kindly sup¬ 
plied travel funds to allow the author to exam¬ 
ine the Cowan bibliographic research archives. 
Zoe Simmons (Oxford University Museum of 
Natural History) is kindly thanked for examin¬ 
ing the sets of the Animal Kingdom held in the 
Museum library and finding a complete set 140 
proof impression plates of Insecta from the An¬ 
imal Kingdom in demy quarto having originally 
belonged to J.O. Westwood. Martyn Low (Singa¬ 
pore) is thanked for providing some early pub¬ 
lished notices for parts of the work. Valerie 
McAtear (Entomological Society) is thanked for 
her attempts at locating the 52 plates donated 
by Westwood to the Royal Entomological Soci¬ 
ety of London library in 1835. Gene Coan and 
Murray Bruce are kindly thanked for their re¬ 
view of the manuscript, and Robert Cowie is 
thanked for editing; all three made a number of 
important corrections and suggestions that sig¬ 
nificantly improved the manuscript. 

References 

Anker, J. (1938) Bird books and bird art. An out¬ 
line of the history and iconography of de¬ 
scriptive ornithology based principally on 
the collection of books containing plates 
with figures of birds and their eggs now in 
the University Library at Copenhagen and 


193 


Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 


including a catalogue of these works. 
Levin & Munksgaard, E. Munksgaard, 
Copenhagen, xviii + 250 pp. 

Anonymous (1824a) [Review] The Animal king¬ 
dom, arranged in conformity with its Organ¬ 
ization. By the Baron Cuvier, &c., &c., &c. With 
additional Descriptions of all the Species hith¬ 
erto named, and many not before noticed, and 
other original Matter; by Edward Griffith, 
F.L.S. and others. 18 plates, 8vo. pp. 203. 
Monthly Critical Gazette 1: 53-54. 

Anonymous (1824b). [Review] The Animal king¬ 
dom, arranged in conformity with its organi¬ 
sation, by the Baron Cuvier, &c., &c., &c. with 
additional descriptions of all the species hith¬ 
erto named, of many not before noticed, and 
other original matter; By Edward Griffith, 
F.L.S. and others. 18 plates, 8vo. Parts 1 and 
2: 38 plates. The Universal Review l(July), 
591-597. 

Anonymous (1825) Art. XLV. Analytical notice of 
books. The animal kingdom described and 
arranged in conformity with its organisation, 
by the Baron Cuvier. With additional descrip¬ 
tions of all the species hitherto named; of 
many not before noticed; and other original 
matter. By Edward Griffith, F.L.S. and others. 
Vol. I—III. 4to and 8vo. with numerous plates. 
The Zoological Journal 2: 406-408. 

Anonymous (1826) Review of New Books. The 
Animal Kingdom described and arranged, in 
conformity with its Organisation, by the 
Baron Cuvier, &c. With additional Descrip¬ 
tions and other Original Matter. By Edw. 
Griffiths, F.L.S., and Others. Part IX. London, 
1826. Whittaker. The London Literary 
Gazette and Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sci¬ 
ences, &c. 1826(500): 513-515. 

Anonymous (1828) Review. The Animal King¬ 
dom, described and arranged in conformity 
with its Organisation, by the Baron Cuvier, 
Member of the Institute of France, &c., &c., &c. 
With additional descriptions of all the Species 
hitherto named, of many not before noticed, 
and other original Matters. By Edward Grif¬ 
fith, F.R.S. and Others. 8vo. pp. 166. Gentle¬ 
man’s Magazine, 1828(7): 41-43. 

Anonymous (1829) [Review]. Griffith, Edward, 
F.L.S., and others: The Animal Kingdom de¬ 
scribed and arranged, in conformity with its 


organisation, by the Baron Cuvier. With addi¬ 
tional Descriptions of all the Species hitherto 
named; of many not before noticed; and other 
original matter. London. 8vo, many plates. 
Parts I. to XV. Magazine of Natural History 1: 
275-277. 

Anonymous (1830) [Review]. The Animal King¬ 
dom, arranged in conformity with its organi¬ 
zation. By the Baron Cuvier; with additional 
descriptions of all the Species hitherto 
named, of many not before noticed, by Ed¬ 
ward Griffith, F.L.S. &c and others. 5 vols. 
8vo. Many plates. London, Whittaker & Co. 
The Athenaeum 1830: 535-536. 

Anonymous (1831) The Animal Kingdom, de¬ 
scribed and arranged in conformity with its 
Organization. By the Baron Cuvier. Trans¬ 
lated, with large additional Descriptions of all 
the Species hitherto named, and of many not 
before noticed, and with other additional 
matter. By Edward Griffith, F.L.S., A.S., and 
others. Parts XXV., XVI., and XXVII., compris¬ 
ing the class Reptilia. 8vo. London: Whit¬ 
taker, Treacher, and Co. 1831. The Monthly 
Review 1831: 404-416. 

Anonymous (1832) The Animal Kingdom de¬ 
scribed and arranged, in conformity with its 
Organization. By the Baron Cuvier. Trans¬ 
lated with additional Descriptions of all the 
Species hitherto named; of many not before 
noticed; and other Original matter. By Ed¬ 
ward Griffith, F.L.S., and others. Parts XXVIII. 
to XXXII. London: Whittaker and Co. 1832. 
The Monthly Review 2(3): 317-330. 

Anonymous (1833) [Review]. Cuvier’s Animal 
Kingdom. Translated, with supplemental 
mater, by E. Griffith, F.R.S., &c. Parts 35 and 
36 (Annelides and Crustacea). London: 
Whittaker & Co. The Athenaeum 1833: 295- 
296. 

Anonymous (1835) The fate of genius. Canter¬ 
bury Magazine 2: 54-56. 

Anonymous (1847) Bankrupts. The Jurist 
11(569): 497-498. 

Anonymous (1851) Saturday, Jan. 25. Orders 
have been made, vesting in the Provisional 
Assignee the Estate and Effects of the follow¬ 
ing Persons:—(On their own Petitions). The 
Jurist 15(734): 33. 

Anonymous (1871) [Biographical Memoirs.] 


194 


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Richard Cuming, Esq. Journal of the British 
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Anonymous [1894) American dictionary of 
printing and bookmaking. Containing a his¬ 
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Old and rare books. Antiquariaat Junk B.V., 
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Boase, F. [1892) Modern English biography con¬ 
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Volume I. A-H. Netherton and Worth, Truro, 
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Bohn, H.G. [1864) The bibliographer’s manual of 
English literature containing an account of 
rare, curious, and useful books, published in 
or relating to Great Britain and Ireland, from 
the invention of printing; with bibliographical 
and critical notices, collations of the rarer ar¬ 
ticles, and the prices at which they have been 
sold. By William Thomas Lowndes. New edi¬ 
tion, revised, corrected and enlarged; with 
an appendix relating to the books or literary 
and scientific societies. In six volumes. Vol. 
I. —A-C. H.G. Bohn, London, xii + 576 pp. 

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Brookes, J. [1827) Brookesian Museum. The Mu¬ 
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Coan, E. & Rabat, A. [2018) 2400 years of mala¬ 
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de base a l'histoire naturelle des animaux et 
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Cuvier, G.C.L.F.D. [1829-1830) Le regne animal 
distribue d’apres son organisation, pour 
servir de base a l’histoire naturelle des ani¬ 
maux et d’introduction a I’anatomie com¬ 
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Daniels, G. [2004) Bibliography of Australian en¬ 
tomology 1687-2000. Volume 1. A-M. Pri¬ 
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195-589. 

Dickinson, E., Overstreet, L.K., Dowsett, R.J. & 
Bruce, M. [2011) Priority ! The dating of sci¬ 
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the literature and its reviewers. Aves Press, 
Northampton, UK. 319 pp. + CD ROM. 

Engelmann, W. [1846) Bibliotheca historico-nat- 
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Naturgeschichte, welche in Deutschland, 
Scandinavien, Holland, England, Frankreich, 
Italien und Spanien in den Jahren 1700-1846 
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786 pp. 

Evenhuis, N.L. [1997) Litteratura taxonomica 
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of the books and prints ofDiptera taxonomy 
from the beginning of Linnaean zoological 
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containing information on the biographies, 
bibliographies, types, collections, and 
patronymic genera of the authors listed in 
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publication dates, original and subsequent 
editions, and other ancillary data concerning 
the publications listed herein. 2 vols. Back- 
huys Publishers, Leiden. 871 pp. 

Ferdinand, C.Y. (2009) Newspapers and the sale 
of books in the provinces, pp. 434-447. In: 
Suarez, M.F., Jr. & Turner, M.J. (eds.). The 
Cambridge history of the book in Britain. Vol¬ 
ume. V. 1695-1830. Cambridge University 
Press, Cambridge. 

Ferussac, A.E.J.P.F.F. d’A. (1831) 186. The Animal 
Kingdom, etc. Le regne animal decrit et dis¬ 
pose d’apres son organisation, par le Baron 
Cuvier; traduction a laquelle on ajoute des 
descriptions detaillees de toutes les especes 
auxquelles on a donne des noms, et vde 
beaucoup d’autres non encore nominees, et 
beaucoup de documens originaux; par E. 
Griffith et autres. 3 e partie, 27 e livraison, les 
Reptiles; avec 18 grav. In-8°; prix, 12 sh; 
grand in-8°, 18 sh.; avec les fig. color., 1 
pound 2 sh. Londres, 1831; Whittaker, Trea¬ 
cher and Co. (Voyez le Bulletin, Tom 0, no° 
0). Bulletin des Sciences Naturelles et de 
Geologie 25: 332-333 [misprinted as 232- 
233], 

Ferussac, A.E.J.P.F.F. dA. (1836) [Deuxieme Sec¬ 
tion]. 58. The Animal Kingdom, etc. Le Regne 
animal distribue d’apres con organisation, 
par le B on Cuvier, avec des Supplements a 
chaque ordre. Trad, en anglais par Ed. Grif¬ 
fith, F.L.S. Vol. XII (part. 38, 39 et 40 de l’ou- 
vrage). Mollusques et Radiaires, par Ed. 
Griffith et Ed. Pidgeon, Esq. Roy. In-8° de 601 
p. et 61 grav. et color. Londres, 1834, Whit¬ 
taker. (Voy. le Bullet, des Sc. Nat., 1825, t. VI, 
n° 220). Bulletin Zoologique 1835(2): 73-74. 

Ferussac, A.E.J.P.F.F. d’A. & Dejean, P.F.M.A. 
(1825) Zoologie. 220. The Animal Kingdom, 
etc. Le regne animal decrit et classe suivant 
son organisation, par le baron Cuvier, avec 
les descriptions additionnelles de toutes les 
especes connues jusqu’a ce jour et d’autres 
dont il n’a pas encore ete fait mention; par 
Edw. Griffith et autres. Roy. in-8,, parties I a 
IV. Londres, 1824 et 1825; Whittaker. Bul¬ 


letin des Sciences Naturelles et de Geologie 6, 
236-239. 

Freeman (1980) British natural history books 
1495-1900. A hand list. Dawson, Kent, UK & 
Archon, Hamden, Connecticut. 437 pp. 

Frick, R., Eschmeyer, W.N. & Van der Laan, R., ed¬ 
itors. (2019) Eschmeyer's catalog of fishes: 
genera, species, references. Version 7 Octo¬ 
ber 2019. Available at: http://re- 

searcharchive.calacadfemy.org/research/ic 
hthyologie/catalog/fishcatmain.asp/ (last 
accessed 23 October 2019). 

Gaskell, P. (1972) A new introduction to bibliog¬ 
raphy. Oxford University Press, New York & 
Oxford, [v] + 438 pp. 

Graesse, J.G.T. (1861) Tresor de livres rares et 
precieux ou nouveau dictionnaire bibliogra- 
phique contenant de cent mille articles de li¬ 
vres rares, churireux et recherches, 
d’ouvrages de luxe, etc. avec les signes connus 
pour distinguer les editions originales des 
contrefagons qui en ont ete faites, des notes 
sur la rarete et le merite des livres cites et les 
prix que ces livres ontatteints dans les ventes 
les plus fameuses, et qu’ils conservent encore 
dans les magasins des bouquinistes les plus 
renommes de TEurope. Tome deuxieme. C-F. 
R. Kuntze, Dresde [= Dresden]. 648 pp. 

Griffith, E. (1821a) General and particular de¬ 
scriptions of the vertebrated animals, 
arranged conformably to the modern discov¬ 
eries and improvements in zoology. [Vol. I]. 
Order Carnivora. Baldwin, Craddock & Joy, 
London, v + 295 

Griffith, E. (1821b) General and particular de¬ 
scriptions of the vertebrated animals, 
arranged conformably to the modern discov¬ 
eries and improvements in zoology. Order 
Quadrumana. Baldwin, Cradock & Joy, Lon¬ 
don. vii +143 pp. 

Griffith, E. (1835) [Letter to the editor concern¬ 
ing the death of Edward Pidgeon]. The Times 
London 1835(30 January): 1. 

Gruber, J.W. (2004) Griffith, Edward (1790- 
1858). Oxford Dictionary of National Biog¬ 
raphy. Available at: https://doi.org/ 
10.1093/ref:odnb/11595. (Last accessed 
5 March 2018). 

Guerin-Meneville, F.E. (1829-1844). Icono- 
graphie du regne animal de G. Cuvier, ou 


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representation d’apres nature de I’une des 
especes les plus remarquables et souvent 
non encore figurees, de chaquegenre d’ani- 
maux. Avec un texte descriptif mis au cou- 
rant de la science. Ouvrage pouvant servir 
d'atlas a tous les trades de zoologie. 50 li- 
vraisons. Published by the author, Paris. 
450 pis. 

Matthews, G.M. (1919) Appendix B. Dates of or¬ 
nithological works, pp. 443-477. In: 
Matthews, G.M., Birds of Australia. Volume 7, 
pt. 5. H.F.G. Witherby, London. Pp. 385-499 
+ i-xii, pis. 363-470. 

Matthews, G.M. (1920) Dates of ornithological 
works . Austral Avian Record 4 (1): 1-27. 

Matthews, G.M. (1925) Birds of Australia. Bibli¬ 
ography of the birds of Australia. Books used 
in the preparation of this work, with a few bi¬ 
ographical details of authors and collections. 

H. F. & G. Witherby, London, viii + 149 pp. 

McDunnough, J. (1918) Dates of issue of the 

plates of Guerin’s Iconographie du Regne An¬ 
imal (Lepid.). Entomological News 29: 378- 
380. 

McKerrow, R.B. (1928) An introduction to bibli¬ 
ography for literary students. Clarendon 
Press, Oxford, xv + 359 pp. 

Musgrave, A. (1932) Bibliography of Australian 
entomology 1775-1930 with biographic 
notes on authors and collectors. Royal Zoo¬ 
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viii + 380 pp. 

Nissen, C. (1966) Die zoologische Buchillustra- 
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160. 

Petit, R.E. & Coan, E. (2008) The molluscan taxa 
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197 


Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 


Appendix 

Glossary of Terms Used 

Blank - An unprinted leaf that forms part of the 
bound book. 

Cancel - If a mistake has been found after print¬ 
ing that might be corrected by the deletion 
of a single leaf, another leaf with the correc¬ 
tion is sometimes printed and can be used 
to replace the incorrect one. The deleted leaf 
is termed cancelled and the substitute leaf 
is a cancel. This happens most often in 
plates, in the Animal Kingdom, at least three 
instances of incorrect plates have been 
known to involve cancels (see under Mol- 
lusca below for more details). 

Cancelled - A leaf that has been deleted and re¬ 
placed by a cancel (see cancel above more in¬ 
formation). 

Collation - The descriptive assemblage of a 
book; in descriptive bibliography, often 
using a shorthand notation of the sequence 
of signature marks, blanks, cancels, etc.; in 
most other bibliographies, giving only a 
summary of page numbers and plates in a 
sequential order. Also the process of gather¬ 
ing the signatures (and sometimes plates) 
into a proper order before binding. 

Colophon - The statement, usually at the end of 
the work, giving the name and address of the 
printer. The term derives from the Greek 
"KoAocpoov”, meaning "finishing touch". 

Demy Octavo - A final size of a page after folding 
that roughly equals 5.5 in. x 8.5 in. 

Demy Quarto - A final size of a page after folding 
that roughly equals 8.625 in. x 11.750 in. 

Direction line - The line at the bottom of the 
page of text that presents the signature mark 
at the bottom right and sometimes addi¬ 
tional information at the bottom left (e.g., in 
the Animal Kingdom, the Mammalia volumes 
have "Vol. I", "Vol. II", "Vol. Ill", etc.) to aid in 
binding. This was no doubt necessary in the 
Mammalia as plates issued in some of the 
parts issued in 1827 were instructed to be 
bound to face pages in volume one, for 
which its three parts of text were complete 
in the summer of 1824. Thus, buyers had to 
wait three years before they could receive 
the "List of Plates” with instruction on 


where to bind throughout the five volumes; 
the plates were originally issued in twelve 
parts from February 1824 to May 1827 (the 
thirteenth part did not have plates in it to be 
bound but the part may have contained the 
last set of plates needed to be bound in other 
volumes). 

Engraver - The person responsible for readying 
the artwork for printing through transfer¬ 
ring the artwork to stone or metal for final 
inked printing. The process used for the An¬ 
imal Kingdom artwork was intaglio engrav¬ 
ing on copper plates. 

Gathering - 1) The process of assembling signa¬ 
tures into a stack for binding; 2) The gath¬ 
ered signatures before binding (the final 
stack sometimes also referred to as "fold and 
gathereds" or "F and Gs". Dickinson et al. 
(2011) used gathering as their preferred 
term for signature but the two are distinctly 
different. 

India paper - A thick, opaque, absorbent paper, 
originally from China, made from hemp and 
rag fibers, which was used for printing 
proofs from engravings. Possibly because of 
the absorbency, hand-coloring was not done 
on the printed illustrations on this type of 
paper for the plates of the Animal Kingdom 
(Freeman, 1980). 

Insertions - Material inserted into a gathering 
before binding; plates and other non-letter¬ 
press material are termed "insertions". 

Leaf - both the recto and verso of a bound or 
folded and cut sheet of a book. Equals two 
pages. 

Letterpress - The printed textual portion of a 
book that is eventually folded and gathered 
to be bound; as opposed to plates, which are 
called insertions. Title pages may or may not 
be a part of the letter press, depending if 
they were or were not issued for more than 
one issue or part of a multi-part work that 
were published at different times. 

Intaglio - An engraving process for artwork that 
employs cutting depressions into a hard sur¬ 
face, where the ink is held in the depres¬ 
sions. The plates in the Animal Kingdom 
were made using this process on copper 
plates. 

Octavo - A type of folding resulting in a signa¬ 


ls 


Sherbornia ( 2019 ) 


ture of 16 pages [Evenhuis (1997) incor¬ 
rectly had this as 32 pages]. 

Page - Either the verso or recto of a leaf (printed 
or blank). 

Plate - Artwork printed separately from the let¬ 
terpress, sometimes on different paper. In 
the case of the Animal Kingdom, three types 
of plates were offered to buyers: uncolored 
or colored on plain paper in octavo; or proof 
plates on India paper in quarto. According 
to Freeman (1980) the plates for the Animal 
Kingdom on India paper were uncolored. 
Plates conventionally do not have signatures 
to guide the binder to proper collation for 
binding. Printers insert and bind plates into 
a book either by plate number and at the 
end of the letterpress, or inserted into spe¬ 
cific places in the text following instructions 
to the binder. 

Preliminaries - The front matter of a book pre¬ 
ceding the main text containing the title 
pages, preface, forward, and other sections, 
usually distinguished from the main text by 
roman numeraled pagination and differently 
styled signature marks (usually using a 
lower case alphabet). 

Proof plates - Printed plates taken out before the 
binding process. 

Proofs - The first printing used for checking be¬ 
fore final printing. 

Quarto - A type of folding resulting in a signa¬ 
ture of 8 pages [Evenhuis (1997) incorrectly 
had this as 16 pages]. 


Recto - When bound, the right-hand side page of 
a book (almost always an odd numbered 
page). 

Royal Octavo - A page size after folding that 
equals roughly 10.00 in. x 6.25 in. 

Sheet - the single piece of paper used for print¬ 
ing. The size associated with the type of sig¬ 
nature (e.g., octavo, quarto, etc.). 

Signature - The folded set of pages printed onto 
the sheet. In the case of the Animal Kingdom, 
the text and plates were both printed in oc¬ 
tavo (16 pages per signature); whereas the 
proof plates on India paper were in quarto 
(8 pages per signature) (see also Gatherings 
above). 

Signature mark - A mark (usually) at the bottom 
right of a page on the direction line used to 
assist the binder and gatherer in assembling 
the book signatures in the correct order. In 
the Animal Kingdom, lettered signatures 
were used with the main text starting with 
an uppercase "B” and continued through the 
alphabet omitting "]", "V”, and "W". After hav¬ 
ing run through the alphabet, the next series 
of signature marks would be indicated as "2 
A", 2 B”, etc. The preliminaries started with a 
lower case "b”. 

Verso - When bound, the left-hand side of a page 
of a book (almost always an even numbered 
page). 


199 


Sherbornia 5 ( 2019 ) 


Table 3. Dating of the parts of Griffith's Animal Kingdom. 


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Table 3 (continued). 


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Table 3 (continued). 


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