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THE 


VETERINARIAN 




OE, 


MONTHLY JOURNAL OF VETERINARY SCIENCE, 

FOR 1848. 


VOL. XXI.—VOL. I. THIRD SERIES. 


EDITED BY 

MR. PERCIVALL, 

IN COMMUNICATION WITH M. LEBLANC, EDITOR OF THE 
“ CLINIQUE VETERINAIRE,” AT PARIS. 


Ars Veterinaria post medicinam secunda est.— Vcgetius. 


LONDON: 

PRINTED BY COMPTON & RITCHIE, MIDDLE STREET, CLOTH FAIR. 

PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS, 

PATERNOSTER ROW. 


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THE 


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VETERINARIAN. 


VOL. XXI, 
No. 241. 


JANUARY 1848. 


Third Series, 
No. 1. 


EFFECTS OF CHLOROFORM ON THE HORSE. 

THE conversation the other evening, after the Council meeting 
had broken up, turning on the probable effects of chloroform, it 
being just about the time that publicity was given to Professor 
Simpson’s experiments, Mr. Goodwin, Y. S. to the Queen, 
informed those present that he had a horse—lame from navicular- 
thritis—at the Royal Mews, which he would be happy to make the 
subject of any trial of the kind. Accordingly, a day was fixed, 
and Messrs. Wilkinson, A. Cherry, Henderson, and Percivall 
attended, to witness an experiment promising to be of an unusually 
interesting character. 

The animal, a fine sleek-looking bay carriage horse, evidently 
lame, came snorting and prancing out of his stable, full of health 
and vigour, and was led at once into the riding school. Though 
naturally quiet and good tempered, still, from his present buoyancy 
of spirits, it required some courage on the part of the strangers 
present to approach him. Such being the case, it became a ques¬ 
tion how or in what manner the chloroform was to be applied, so 
that he might effectually inhale its vapour. After some pro and 
con observations and suggestions, it was determined to send for a 
common leathern muzzle, and to affix to such parts of it as were 
(when the muzzle was on the head) directly opposed to the nostrils, 
two pieces of sponge, each of sufficient magnitude to imbibe an 
ounce or more of liquid chloroform. This was done, and the muzzle 
so fitted up, put on. Every thing being adjusted about the head, 
chloroform liquid from a bottle was poured first upon one sponge, 
afterwards upon the other by Mr. Percivall, out of a bottle con¬ 
taining three ounces of the fluid, until about two-thirds of the entire 
quantity, an ounce upon each sponge, had disappeared. The opera¬ 
tion of pouring being finished, the groom, who had hold of the 
cavesson, by which the animal for fear of accident had been secured, 

VOL. XXI. B 






2 


EFFECTS OF CHLOROFORM ON THE HORSE. 


with a view of rendering the inhalation more effective, of his own 
accord at this time pressed the muzzle upwards, and so forced the 
sponges against the nostrils, a compression which caused the liquid 
to drop out from below; scarcely, however, had this been done 
twice, when the animal, who had that moment been manifesting 
some increased vivacity, all at once threw up his head, became 
vertiginous, staggered from side to side, and in a moment after¬ 
wards reared up, and, in convulsion, reeled backward from the 
middle of the school, where he had been standing, against the 
panelled side of it behind him, striking his head against the panels 
with a force truly tremendous, frightening every person around 
him. The groom, holding the rope of the cavesson, exerted himself 
to save the animal, and in his efforts, fortunately perhaps for the 
horse at the moment, hauled cavesson, and bridle, and muzzle 
together off the animal’s head, the only hold remaining being the 
retention of the snaffle bit within the mouth, and that was owing 
to the clenching of the jaws. At this period the horse had the 
aspect of one momentarily struck with tetanus. There was the wild, 
senseless, ghastly stare; the stiff outstretched limbs: the body 
remaining supported by its hind quarters against the boards. And 
now the animal was pricked about the neck and body with a 
pin, but evinced not the slightest feeling; nor did even his lips 
exhibit more than a convulsive twitch when they were likewise 
punctured. His pupils were dilated. His pulse was distinct 
though weak at the jaw, and was not in the first instance acce¬ 
lerated, though it rose considerably afterwards. Not more than 
half a minute elapsed after the sponges were pressed against his 
nostrils before the animal shewed himself affected by the chlo¬ 
roform ; and in the next half minute he was in convulsions. In 
consequence of the muzzle having come off in the act of reeling, 
total insensibility did not continue longer than about a couple of 
minutes. From that time the pulse gradually but rapidly increased 
in frequency, quickly becoming 60,80,100, and 120; while all the 
time consciousness and sensibility were found returning, and along 
with it unnatural heat of skin over every part of the body. In 
about five minutes after sensibility had returned, the animal 
appeared and proved sufficiently recovered to have his bridle and 
cavesson adjusted, and to be walked slowly round the school. In 
half an hour afterwards he had returned to his stable, and was 
eating with his wonted appetite his noon feed; nor did he appear 
aught the worse in any respect whatever from the experiment that 
had been practised on him. The chloroform liquid used, which 
proved of excellent pure and effective quality, was obtained from 
Mr. Hooper, chemist, Pall Mall East. 



LAMENESS AND POLL-EVIL CAUSED BY ENTOZOA. 


3 


Application of Chloroform to Animals. 

An interesting and most successful experiment with this bene¬ 
ficent agent was tried on a lame horse, belonging to Mr. Reid, 
Drem, East Lothian. Dr. Robertson and Mr. F. Imlach, from 
Edinburgh, Dr. Lorimer, from Haddington, and others were present. 
About two ounces of the chloroform were poured on a piece of 
flannel cloth, below which was a sponge, the whole being placed in 
a tin case, which was tied over the horse’s nose, and surrounded 
with a flannel bag. In three minutes and a half the animal fell 
over, and in five minutes it was perfectly insensible. When in 
that condition, Mr. Cockburn, veterinary surgeon, Haddington, 
performed the usually painfirf* operation of cutting the nerves of 
sensation in both of its fore feet. On cutting the second nerve the 
poor beast made a slight movement, shewing the chloroform was 
beginning to lose its effect; but a second application of another 
ounce allowed the other two remaining nerves to be cut without a 
quiver. In twenty-five minutes from the commencement the 
animal was again on its legs, now perfectly sound. 


AN UNUSUAL KIND OF LAMENESS AND POLL-EVIL 

CAUSED BY ENTOZOA. 

By F. P. VINCENT, M.R.C V.S ., Devizes. 

AN unusual kind of lameness having fallen under my observa¬ 
tion, I take the liberty of detailing the case for the pages of The 
VETERINARIAN. I must apologize for the somewhat decomposed 
state of the accompanying perforans tendon. 

Aug. 20 th, 1845.—Mr. S. Akerman, a large farmer of Patney, 
near this town, applied to me respecting the lameness of a grey 
colt, of the cart-horse breed, rising three years. It appeared to be 
a sprain of the flexor tendons, about two or three inches above the 
fetlock joint. As the colt was at grass in a water meadow in 
which there were many drains, it was considered likely to have 
been caused in crossing one of them. He was taken up, bled 
locally, physicked, &c. Some time subsequently the liquid blister 
was put on, and repeated two or three times at proper intervals, 
and the animal became free from lameness. 




4 LAMENESS AND POLL-EVIL CAUSED BY ENTOZOA. 

May 23c/, 1846.—He had been put to work a few days, and 
again became lame ; was rested again, and similar treatment to 
the foregoing was resorted to; and, subsequently, as the ailment 
still remained, he was fired: but it proved ineffectual. It was 
repeated with severity, and long-continued rest enjoined. 

Sept. 20 th .—Visited my patient and found him turned into 
a meadow quite lame, and the leg enlarged. He was, by my 
desire, again confined, and absolute rest for some months insisted 
upon. 

Oct. Ylth .—Saw the colt—free from lameness. 

March 5th, 1847.—After this long interval I was requested to 
see the grey colt once more. The son of my employer informed me 
that his father, disliking to see the colt confined, shortly after l 
last saw him, as he seemed to go sound, had had him turned into 
a meadow, and that the lameness soon re-appeared. I believe he 
was then submitted to the inspection of a neighbouring farrier, as 
the shoulder bore marks much resembling those of the firing-iron 
lightly used. Be that as it may, I was told that he became so exces¬ 
sively lame that it was imperative to take him into a farm-yard ; 
where I found him so dreadfuly crippled as to be able to put his 
toe only to the ground, carefully avoiding the pressure upon the 
posterior parts of the leg which bringing the heel down must neces¬ 
sarily inflict. It was then arranged that the horse should be sent 
to my stables. 

The leg had become much enlarged from often-renewed lame¬ 
ness. I discovered fluctuation and swelling midway between the 
knee and the fetlock. I introduced the lancet, and a considerable flow 
of fluid resembling discoloured synovia followed. It afforded relief 
for some days. I now first began to suspect that there was proba¬ 
bly ulceration of the sheath, which a post-mortem examination fully 
verified. I now despaired of any remedy; but it occurred to me 
that unnerving might possibly be a fair experiment I performed 
that operation immediately below the knee, removing two inches 
or more upon each side. The horse, afterwards, walked perfectly 
well. Previous to this I had purchased him, as he was ordered to 
be destroyed. I was solicitous to try the experiment, but it proved 
to be a costly affair. 

During the time the incisions were healing, to my great mortifi¬ 
cation a large soft tumour formed upon the poll. It was freely laid 
open. A flow of glairy fluid resembling linseed oil ensued, accom¬ 
panied by a great number of small flat bodies—together they would 
have filled a common egg-cup; they were quite white, compact— 
even tough, and so much alike—although not perfectly so—so like, 
in fact, the fluke-worm in shape, that I doubted whether they were 
not of that family. It they were the production, by disease, of any 


LAMENESS AND POLL-EVIL CAUSED BY ENTOZOA. 5 

of the tissues or fluids of the body, they were surprisingly uniform. 
The poll-evil was treated in the ordinary way, and after some 
weeks had elapsed the horse was lent to a farmer, who used him 
for his keep, and he informed me that he worked very well and 
was free from lameness. He had him about tenjdays. One shoulder 
was bruised by the collar, and a soft tumour formed, similar to that 
upon the poll. With an accumulation of evils^like these, I found 
that the subject of my experiment was likely to be much ,f more 
plague than profitand with some reluctance, therefore, I had him 
destroyed. Upon examining the tumour upon the shoulder, it was 
found to contain the same linseed oil-like fluid, and a few of the 
same white bodies as were in that of the poll. Upon dissecting 
back the perforatus tendon some days after death and exposing 
the perforans, the latter exhibited disease of so peculiar a cha¬ 
racter that I attempted a coloured drawing of it. The tendon 
itself was, as you will observe, greatly thickened, and had lost 
much of its density. Upon cutting through its body, in its centre 
was a cavity containing ash-coloured pus; but the most striking 
object, and one of great curiosity, presented itself about three 
inches above the fetlock, in the original seat of the lameness. 
It resembled the hip, the fruit of the dog-rose, embedded in the 
tendon, slightly projecting, and covered by the enveloping mem¬ 
brane, giving to that membrane a bright red colour, made up, in 
part, of minute red bloodvessels visible enough to the ^eyesight. 
This bright colouring was circumscribed to a line, and principally 
contributed, together with a projecting roundness of form, to afford 
it the resemblance before alluded to. Below, there was a faint 
blush of redness extending downwards and over one-half of the 
tendon—the affected side ; above, and on the other half, it was of 
its natural colour. Upon cutting into it, my surprise was much 
heightened in beholding another of the previously described white 
bodies emerge, accompanied with fluid. It was encased in a dense 
cyst, the interior of which was smooth and glistening; it was 
three-fourths of an inch in length. Situate beneath, and rather on 
one side of it, I found two others. Two or three inches below, upon 
the same side of the tendon, a soft protrusion was also seen. It 
was cut into, and found to form a canal of communication with the 
interior of the part before described, where these bodies were depo¬ 
sited. In the course of this canal the tendonfwas fflabby to the 
touch. No opening could be discovered by which these parasites 
(for such, I am informed, they were) obtained their entry; the 
lower swelling merely feeling very soft. My previous suspicion, 
upon opening the tumours of the poll and shoulder, that they were 
organized bodies, became greatly strengthened. In further con¬ 
firmation of the fact, I placed one of them in the hands of a scien- 


6 


VETERINARY EDUCATION. 


tific gentleman of this town, who, possessing a powerful microscope, 
examined it, and stated that it was unquestionably an organized 
body, although it was too much decomposed to delineate. Upon 
inspecting one that had been steeped in spirit with an ordinary 
microscope, and upon raising, with the point of a penknife, what 
appeared to be the anterior part, an oval opening, having every 
appearance of a mouth, was distinctly discernible. I much regret 
that, until I discovered these bodies in the tendons, my attention 
was not—I own it with some shame—sufficiently excited to prompt 
me to an examination of them, otherwise the quantity contained in 
the poll would have afforded me abundance of specimens. It has 
been observed that “ life may be supposed to attach to the most 
simple form of organizationand with respect to the various tis¬ 
sues and organs of the body in which parasitic animalcules may 
become located, what part can we presume to claim as inaccessible 
to their peculiar habitude and mode of existence 1 

%* We have received the flexor tendon, and find it such as 
Mr. Vincent has described. Altogether, the case is singular and 
curious; and we return Mr. V. our best thanks for so valuable a 
contribution to veterinary pathology.— Ed. Vet. 


VETERINARY EDUCATION. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian .” 

Sir,—I SHALL ask no excuse for intruding on your valuable time, 
believing myself to be, although not a veterinary surgeon, as enthu¬ 
siastic in the advancement of the profession as the gentleman who 
subscribed himself “ An Admirer of the Veterinary Art” in your 
last number. 

That the veterinary profession must depend upon its members 
for its advancement or otherwise there can be no doubt; that it is 
necessary that they should be men connected with the literary 
world, I have some doubt; because a man fully employed in 
business has not much leisure time for writing : still, if there exists 
both capacity and time, so much the better, not only for himself, 
but the profession at large. I write only as I feel, and, if in error, 
trust I shall be pardoned. 

Your correspondent observes, that he believes it unnecessary for 
a man in business to be made acquainted with what he calls the 
inferior portion of the practical part of the profession. I may be 




VETERINARY EDUCATION. 


7 


mistaken in my opinion ; but I consider there is not a portion of the 
practical part of the profession that is at all inferior, and I agree 
with the old saying, that if a thing is worth doing at all, it is worth 
doing well. 1 contend, that it is not any disgrace to put on the 
leathern apron and examine a foot, as to lameness, which I consider 
not only a most important matter, but a great credit to the party 
doing so; and the thinking portion of his employers will come to 
that conclusion, and evince more satisfaction at receiving his opi¬ 
nion as to the seat of lameness, after his having done so. I am 
not alluding merely to the subject above, but to all cases connected 
with the horse. 

To the pupil or young practitioner, especially, I say, get tho¬ 
roughly acquainted with the practical portion of every operation 
that comes under your notice, and, my word for it, you will never 
regret it. 

I know many men of large country practice, who, if they had 
their time to go over again, would not be without the practical 
knowledge in connexion with operations, however supposed infe¬ 
rior. I recollect a circumstance which came under my notice about 
twelve or thirteen years ago, and which I hope I shall never forget. 
I requested a gentleman, one of the brightest ornaments in the pro¬ 
fession, to look at a horse which had met with an injury in the 
bottom of the foot, where a division had commenced between hair 
and hoof. It was an agreeable surprise to me to see Mr. John 
Field (for he was the operator to whom I allude) take off his coat, 
tuck up his shirt sleeves, and begin to remove the disconnected 
parts. My impression was then, and is now, that even he (Mr. 
Field) could not have had the same operation performed by direc¬ 
tions so well as he did it himself. And though young in business 
at the time, I was forcibly struck with the necessity of all parties 
engaged in the profession being fully acquainted with the practical 
portion of all operations. 

As I have an objection to any thing anonymous, T beg to enclose 
you my card, and to subscribe myself 

An Admirer of Progression in the 
Veterinary Art. 

Borough, Dec. 2, 1847. 

P.S.—I beg to state that the case mentioned above, although an 
extreme one, did well. 




8 


THREE CASES OF DISEASE IN SOWS. 

✓ r 

By W. A. Cartwright, M.R.C.V.S ., Whitchurch. 

I.—Case of Inversio Uteri in a Sow. 

On the 9th of November, 1847, I was sent for to Viscount 
Combermere’s farm-yard (Park View) to see a sow, two years 
old, that had farrowed eight fine pigs. She commenced farrowing 
about half-past eight, A.M., and was not above an hour in labour, 
and afterwards all was thought to be going on well. She was 
seen about one, P.M., apparently doing well. At half-past one, a 
large tumour, the size of a man’s head, was seen protruding out of 
the vagina, and soon afterwards the whole of the uterus was in¬ 
verted. The parties present could not put it up, and I was sent 
for. I saw her about half-past three, P.M., but found she had died 
a short time before. 

Post-mortem examination .—The whole of the uterus, which 
was hanging out behind her, I cut off close to the body, and laid 
on a table for examination. The length of the vagina cut off was 
one foot; its width, five inches. The length of each curved horn 
was twenty-seven inches, and averaged about five inches in width. 
The whole of the horns, except a very small portion towards the 
Fallopian tubes, were completely inverted, and its mucous mem¬ 
brane was thickened, in many places abraded, and of a dark venous 
hue. About the middle of the right horn there was a complete 
transverse rupture four inches in length. There was a great 
quantity of blood behind her, in her bed, and I have no doubt the 
cause of death was haemorrhage from its inner surface and the 
rupture. 

Observations .—I really do not know a more difficult or embarrass¬ 
ing case to be called into than one of inversion of the uterus in the 
sow. It is a very different affair to that in the mare or cow. 
There, even if there should be twins, there is in a great measure 
nothing more than a single sac to re-invert; but here , there are 
two horns of an immense length, branching out on each side from 
the vagina itself. In consequence of the foetuses lying in different 
places, the interior parts of the horns form somewhat irregular sacs, 
varying in diameter, something similar to the cells in the large 
intestines of the horse. From the size of the vagina, it is my opi¬ 
nion only one of the horns can become inverted at a time, since 
there would not be room for them both to pass through at once. 
Now, from the particular structure of the interior of the cornua. 


CASE OF SPINAL DISEASE IN A SOW. 9 

and from their great length and size, it must be seen that it is a 
very difficult business to re-invert them, especially when one has 
such an irritable and restless subject to operate on. I conceive 
that the best plan to re-invert them would be, to have, for such a 
case as the present, a wooden staff or pessary, at least thirty inches 
long, with a bevelled bulbous end thereto, similar in shape to that 
of a constable’s staff. We should apply the bulbous end of this 
staff to the extremity of one of the horns, and gradually force it up 
into the interior of the horn, pressing in at the same time its sides. 
In so doing we must be particularly careful not to apply too much 
force, otherwise we shall rupture its tender tissue. In the case 
before mentioned, the great bulk of the muscular fibres was cir¬ 
cular, and the rupture was not across them, but seemed as if the 
cellular membrane connecting a bundle of fibres was merely torn. 
From the fibres of the muscles lying in this circular direction, of 
course there would be, by using undue force, more danger of 
rupturing the uterus than if they were disposed to a longitu¬ 
dinal character. Having re-inverted and forced up one horn, 
we must serve the other in a similar way. But I fear, from 
the comparative narrowness of the vagina, that, when we come to 
force the horn through it, there will be great difficulty in doing 
so, on account of the other horn being still within the passage; 
each horn being as large as the vagina itself. If we cannot suc¬ 
ceed, of course we must pass either a single ligature around the 
neck, previous to its bifurcation, or, I think a preferable plan would 
be to pass a double ligature through the middle of it, and divide 
it into two portions, which ought to be tied separately ; and after¬ 
wards to amputate the uterus. In passing the ligature or ligatures 
around either the uterus or the vagina, we should be careful not 
to fasten them too high up, as it is possible we may include a por¬ 
tion of the bladder; since, in the present case, though I am not 
quite certain of the fact, I am almost inclined to believe that, in 
the act of dividing the uterus or vagina, 1 cut through the bladder, 
as a quantity of urine immediately issued, although I am aware 
it may do so without any such division. 


II.— Case of Spinal Disease in a Sow. 

On the 5th June 1847, I was called in to attend a sow that had 
seven or eight pigs, a month old, suckling on her, the property of 
Viscount Combermere. I was told that on the 2d instant she was 
perfectly well; but that on the 3d instant, in the morning, she was 
VOL. XXI. C 


10 CASE OF SPINAL DISEASE IN A SOW. 

seen to be very weak in her hind quarters, and had gradually got 
worse. 

Symptoms .—Feeds tolerably well. Milk nearly gone. Lies 
down most of the time. With some difficulty she is able to get 
up. When up, she can but barely stand, or move along by being 
propped up on each side, and her legs are crossed under her body, 
in every direction, while she is in the act of walking. Her weak¬ 
ness appears to originate in the spine, as she totters and bends in 
a marked degree from that part. Respiration about natural. 

Treatment .—As I believed the disease originated in the spinal 
nerves, I took about a pint of blood from a vein that ran over the 
outside of the left hock, near to the os calcis. I tied a cord around 
the thigh, which soon dilated the vein. I first of all tried to find 
a similar vein to what there is in the horse on the inside of the 
thigh, but could not raise one. I could easily feel the femoral 
artery, but durst not open it; though it might have been easily 
done, as it lay very superficially. 

Give hyd. chlor. gr. iss, ant. pot. tart. gr. ij, sem. colchici gr. iij, 
in a pill, night and morning, until they have some effect on her. 
Rub some ung. hyd. bin. cum ant. pot. tart, along the spine, after 
having washed the parts well with soap and water with a hard 
brush. To be kept quiet. 

8 th .—She is a little better, being able to move her hinder 
parts quicker, and stand on them more firmly; but when walking 
about she crosses her legs a good deal, and each doubles under and 
knocks against the other. At times she stands on the point of 
the fetlock joints. Feeds better. The blister has taken but little 
effect, although it was very strong (hyd. bin. 3j, adipis 5j, cum ant. 
pot. tart.) No injurious effect, neither nausea nor purging, has been 
seen from the medicine. Continue the medicine, and rub some 
liquid blister on the loins. Took about Jiv of blood from one of 
the hind legs. Would have taken more, but it bled_badly. 

21s/.—She has been taking the medicine regularly from the 
first without any appearance of disagreeing with her, or pro¬ 
ducing any ill effect. I now found her a great deal better, as she 
could run about almost as fast as usual; but she was still weak and 
crossed her legs, but nothing like as at first. R. pulv. helleb. alb. 
gr. xlv made into xxx pills, one to be given twice a-day, unless 
any bad effect be produced ; and the strong blister to the loins to 
be repeated. The other did scarcely produce vesication, or indeed 
swelling of the parts. Her appetite does not fail her. 

July Is/.—Nearly well. 

6th .—Quite well. 


11 


III.— Case of Spinal Affection and Disease of the 
Stifle Joints in a young Sow. 

May 19 th, 1847. I this day saw a six months’ old sow, belonging 
to Viscount Combermere, that had been presented to him by Prince 
Albert some months before. 

Symptoms .—It is excessively fat, and does not fail eating its 
meat On walking along she goes very stiff and slow. In respect 
to her fore leys she seems as if the flexor tendons and suspensory 
ligaments had given way, since the back of the fetlock joints come 
at every step almost to the ground, similar to what they do in a 
horse that is broken down; and the claws in the front stand wide 
apart, and project outwards. There is no other peculiarity in the 
fore parts. 

Hind Parts. —Now, here, the contrary position exists ; for she 
is actually standing on her tip-toes, and there is a general contrac¬ 
tion and stiffness in the flexor tendons. There is no weakness or 
tottering from side to side, but a stiffness in the hind parts, and a 
peculiarity of standing on the tip-toes. 

Treatment .—Thinking there might be some rheumatic affection 
of the muscles and joints of the hind parts, I ordered her to be put 
in a hot bath for half an hour at a time, for five or six days toge¬ 
ther, and gave hyd. chlor. gr. jss, ant. pot. tart. gr. jss, sem. col- 
chici gr. ij, night and morning, in a pill in her meat. Reduce her 
food to two meals a-dav. 

*15th .— But little improvement. Blister the spine. To have a 
little exercise at grass. 

June 5th .—She is not near so fat, but will eat any thing that is 
given to her; and we think she walks more lively and better. 
Blister the part with ung. hyd. bin. cum ant. pot. tart. 

1th .—But little alteration, though I think she is quite as well as 
she was. Continue medicine, and rub some liquid blister on the 
spine. 

21s£.—No better. Her hind quarters, I think, waste. Looks 
lively, and feeds well. She always humps her back; and her legs 
go straight forward, one after the other. I ordered her to be fed 
sparingly. 

Sept. 23 d .—From the last date she has not at all improved, and 
has continued to walk on the tips of her hind toes, in the manner 
she has done all along. Has fed well, but has been rather stinted 
of meat. Seeing no amendment, or any likelihood of such taking 
place, his Lordship ordered her to be killed, being good pork. 

Examination .—She was about five score pounds weight. On 


\2 PLEURISY—RHEUMATIC INFLAMMATION, &C* 

dressing her, the butcher discovered that her stifles were much 
enlarged. On laying open these joints, I found that they contained 
a little sanious matter, and on disaiticulating the tibia from the 
femur, I found that the heads of both these bones were carious to 
a great extent, especially on the inner surfaces, and that the heads 
of the bones surrounding the joints were much enlarged! I did not 
examine any other joint, as she was good meat. Her spine was 
then sawn through. * Over the loins the spinal marrow was de¬ 
cidedly red and inflamed, and very different to any part of the 
remainder. The inflamed part had streaks of bloodvessels running 
both on the theca and in the texture of the cord. The other part 
of the cord was beautifully white. 

His Lordship, Captain Cotton, and Mr. Blantern, the bailiff, were 
present at the post-mortem. Several other similar cases have 
occurred at the Favon-yard, and I have every reason to believe it 
is not a rare disease. 


PLEURISY—RHEUMATIC INFLAMMATION—HYPER¬ 
TROPHY OF THE HEART—DEATH. 

By William Percivall, M.R.C.S ., and VS. 

A BLOOD MARE, four years old, of slender form, but with limbs 
and other points such as bid fair, one day, to render her powerful 
enough to carry weight, was out of health at the time she was pur¬ 
chased for my regiment, which was in April last; she, however, in 
a few weeks appeared to have recovered herself, and was about to 
be taken to be broke in, when she was seized (11th Aug.) with 
the influenza, prevalent about that time. This, though slight, and 
apparently trifling at first, stealthily increased on her, and at length 
ended on the 16th—five days after—in decided pleurisy. Being 
low at the time, it was deemed inadvisable to let blood; however, 
her symptoms had become so much aggravated—her breathing so 
irksome—that, on the 19th, there was no longer resisting blood¬ 
letting; and accordingly her jugular was opened, and she bore 
extremely well the abstraction of seven pints of blood. The effect 
of this was, that, on the 20th, her breathing had become tranquil, 
and the mare was decidedly better. From this time, with the aid 
of medicine and counter-irritation, she tardily progressed in return¬ 
ing health, was led out every day, and thought to be, though slowly, 
still surely, amending; when, 





13 


PLEURISY—RHEUMATIC INFLAMMATION, & C. 

On THE 28th Sept , full a month from the time she had shewn 
signs of convalescence, she became suddenly attacked with lame¬ 
ness in her off fore leg. On the first, there was no swelling or any 
heat or other sign to account for the lameness; on the day after, 
however, the back of the fetlock-joint exhibited that puffy tume¬ 
faction and heat and tenderness which, plainly enough, indicated 
the nature of the case. It was rheumatic inflammation of the syno¬ 
vial tissues, originating in metastasis from the membranes of the 
thorax. It seemed extremely doubtful whether the lameness had 
been at all mitigated, or had its course abridged by any treatment 
that was pursued; among other things was tried a mixture of 
tincture of arnica and water—the remedy that is such a favourite 
for allaying inflammation with many surgeons—but that seemed 
equally of no effect. 

By the 14th of October, however, she had pretty well recovered 
the sound use of her limb, when as unexpectedly as the off had 
been the near fore fetlock became attacked with the same ailment. 
From this she recovered in about the same space of time—a fort¬ 
night or thereabouts—when, 

On the 3d November, a puffy swelling of considerable volume 
arose in the seat of strangles, extending thence to the muzzle, involv¬ 
ing the lips, particularly the lower lip, in the tumefaction. The puf¬ 
finess and sense of insubstantiality it gave to the feel, shewed at 
once that the swelling was not strangles ; and yet it was difficult to 
sav what it was, or, rather, whence or from what cause it originated. 
It was treated simply by fomentation, the mare being too weak to 
bear much medicine, and, furthermore, had more than once shewn 
some tendency to diarrhoea. In a week’s time the swelling had 
a good deal abated, when a similar tumefaction made its appear¬ 
ance underneath the belly. Here, to the feel, instead of being 
puffy, the tumefaction exhibited consistence and solidity. Never¬ 
theless, it was oedematous; and yet there was no appearance what¬ 
ever of swelling in the legs. All this while the mare’s appe¬ 
tite had not failed her. She ate very well, and took her rest, 
though evidently not in the condition or strength she had been, 
even since her pleuritic attack. From the 10th—the day on which 
the swelling under the belly first appeared—until the 18th Nov., 
she had been going on very unsatisfactorily, and from time to time 
had shewn signs of returning diarrhoea ; which I was compelled to 
repress by doses of the pulv. cretae comp, cum opio : an invaluable 
medicine in such cases. She was now in a state in which little 
hope remained of saving her, her appetite having for the first time 
failed, and unusual depression having come on. From the increase 
of the sub-abdominal tumefaction to the breast between the fore legs, 
I was disposed to think effusion of water might have taken place 


14 PLEURISY—RHEUMATIC INFLAMMATION, &C. 

into the chest. To ascertain this I examined her chest by ausculta¬ 
tion. Hearing distinctly, however, at every part the respiratory or 
bronchial murmur, I relinquished this notion, and thought there 
might be effusion into the cavity of the belly. Of this, however, 
I possessed no assured evidence, the belly not appearing larger 
than natural. While in this state of doubt and uncertainty as to 
the perfect nature of her case, 

On the morning of the 20th Nov. the mare was found 
dead in her box : she having, as it would appear from the posture 
in which she was lying, and the undisturbed state of her bed, fallen 
and died suddenly, without a struggle, some time in the course of 
the night. 

Post-mortem. 

PLEURA, everywhere covered with multitudinous meshes of red 
vessels, having that dull red hue which denotes inflammatory action 
to be on the decline, or rather to have terminated in congestion. 
On the near side of the thorax were several strong adhesions of 
the lung to the side. No water was found in either cavity of the 
thorax. 

Lungs, sound, and of their natural variegated pink hue. 

Heart, strikingly large, filling its sac to that degree, that, 
apparently, no room was left for it to beat. Its ventricular cavities 
were full of blood, and were evidently, in particular the right, 
anormally large and capacious. There was blood also in the 
auricles, but their cavities were rather flaccid than distended. 
When cleansed of its blood, the heart weighed 7| lbs.: this was no 
great weight; and yet, when the slender make of the mare came to 
be considered, it was anormally large for her. It was a case, in 
fact, of hypertrophy WITH DILATATION. There was no sign of 
disease in the tissue of the heart. 

The abdomen contained several quarts of serous fluid, of 
the lightest possible straw colour, perfectly limpid, and odourless. 
The quantity was not sufficient to be likely to occasion any dis¬ 
turbance or inconvenience. The addition of nitric acid immediately 
clouded it; heat did the same. 

The leg last attacked with lameness was examined. 
The fetlock joint was quite healthy, as were the tendons and 
ligaments in its immediate vicinity and above it. The only part 
diseased was the bed of cellular tissue interposed between the 
flexor perforans tendon and the long sesamoid ligament, at the back 
of the pastern bone. This tissue shewed violent inflammation, 
the dulness of their red colour and the want of full distention of 
the vessels indicating that the inflammatory action was there 
likewise on the decline. 


15 


10 yiolBirqgoi orfj tisg vi yLtoniJaib nnimoR .norl 

I cannot help thinking there is a striking analogy between the 
present case and one 1 published in the year 1846, in vol. xix of 
The VETERINARIAN. In both cases there was primary membranous 
inflammation within the chest; there was erratic or rheumatic 
lameness; and there was disease of heart, causing death suddenly. 
Still, there exist differences; some reconcileable, others not appa¬ 
rently so. That the thoracic inflammation in the case before us 
should be exclusively confined to the pleura, while in the former 
case it was visceral as well as membranous, seems no great matter 
in our rationale. But, that the lameness which, in the former case, 
was found to arise from inflammation of the synovial membrane of 
a joint and effusion of lymph into its cavity, should in the present 
one prove to have had its origin in inflammation of cellular tissue 
interposed bet ween tendon and ligament, somewhat, perhaps, dis¬ 
turbs the analogy. More than by this, however, is the analogy 
lessened, when we come to make the comparison between the 
disease of heart in one case and in the other. There can be no 
analogy, one would think, between disease of the semi-lunar valves 
and hypertrophy with dilatation. The only question for us to ask 
ourselves appears to be, can one and the other disease of heart be 
regarded as the same consecutive link in the chain of causation 1 
If so, then is one case still analogous to the other. 

For the present, I would rather leave the subject here than 
pursue it further. A good deal more might be said about the 
case. Something might be thrown out to account for the dropsy, 
internal as well as external. I would, however, for my own 
part, I repeat, rather await the recurrence of similar cases, than 
venture upon the wings of theorization. I cannot help suspecting 
that diseases of the heart, in fatal cases which pass off as “ in¬ 
flammation of the lungs,” are too often overlooked , and that the 
fault is, consequently, throwm upon the lungs—upon the practi¬ 
tioner perhaps—w r hen all the while, had the heart been inspected, 
the mark of death’s arrow would have been plain and visible 
enough. Mr. Pritchard, the well known skilful veterinary surgeon 
of Wolverhampton, was the first to call my attention to the subject 
of cardiac disease in the horse, through some admirable papers on 
the subject he published in the yearsl833-4, in The VETERINARIAN 
(vols. vi and vii); from which time I have rarely, if ever, failed, in 
cases said or thought to be pulmonary, to examine the heart, and 
with a great deal more attention than I had been in the habit of 
ever doing before; and the result to me has been highly satisfactory. 




16 


TUMOUR IN THE BRAIN, AND DEATH FROM IT, 

craHuo A horse. ; 2ao owt 

By Mr. WEBB, London . 

Sir,— The following case appears to me somewhat singular. Not 
having met with any thing of the kind before, nor having heard of 
such a one from any other person, is the inducement to send it to you. 
If you consider it worth a corner in The VETERINARIAN, it is quite 
at your disposal; at the same time, should I not be considered an 
intruder, I should much like your opinion concerning it. 

The patient was a compact chestnut cart-horse, five years old, 
the property of Mr. Batty, a dealer at Whitechapel. Mr. B. had 
purchased him at a fair two days previously, and had sold him. I 
was sent for at 9 A.M., the messenger saying, I must come directly, 
for one of the horses had the mad staggers. When I arrived, the 
following symptoms presented themselves: Throwing himself about 
in all directions—the respiration greatly increased—his eyes hav¬ 
ing a wild appearance—and once he threw himself under a cart 
that was standing near. I then thought he was fixed; but he soon 
cleared himself, and plunged against the counting-house door, and 
broke it. He then recovered himself, and became calm for a few 
minutes. During this intermission I plunged my lancet into the 
jugular vein, took a great quantity of blood from him, and gave 
aloes 3x. After this he became more furious, and died in about 
an hour. 

Post-mortem Examination. 

Stomach perfectly healthy—the intestines likewise : within the 
large intestines were found about one hundred small pebbles. Con¬ 
ceiving that nothing of this kind could cause him to be rabid, I 
examined the brain; and was surprised to find a hard tumour, 
about the size of an egg-plum, within the lateral ventricles. The 
corpora striata and hippocampi are much flatter than I had ever 
seen them, being made so by this hard substance. 

There was another tumour in the cerebrum of the same descrip¬ 
tion, but of smaller size. I was asked if this horse was sound when 
Mr. B. bought him. I said he could not be. And as the seller 
was not aware of the unsoundness, he ought to, and did, refund the 
money. Now, the seller had bred the horse, and he said he never 
had any thing the matter with him before in his life. 

P.S.—Perhaps the two following cases are also worthy of 
record:— ,,h 


17 


TWO CASES OF PSEUDO-GLANDERS CURED 

WITH CREASOTE. 

By the same . 

The patient was a brown pony, twelve years old, the property 
of Mr. Williams, of Whitechapel. The membrane of the nose was 
inflamed and ulcerated, and there was a discharge from the near 
nostril. The submaxillary gland on the near side was firmly ad¬ 
herent to the jaw. The coat unkind. I informed the owner there 
was but little chance for the pony. Being, however, a great 
favorite, the owner told me he was prepared to allow both time and 
expense, providing the pony could be brought round. I gave 
cantharides, five grains daily, with a drachm of sulphate of copper, 
ginger and gentian one drachm each, for fourteen days. No better. 
A few farcy buds on the near thigh. I then gave diniodide of 
copper in drachm doses, continuing other medicines for about 
a month, and had the gland dressed with iodine ointment, and 
passed a seton over the nasal bones. The gland has grown softer; 
but the discharge from the nose is no better: it hangs about the 
nostril, and smells badly. There is also now a discharge from the other 
nostril. The owner not wishing me to despair, I altered my treat¬ 
ment. I gave 3j of creasote in water twice a day, and had a weak 
solution injected up the nostril every other day; having him cast, 
and his head held up for the purpose. This treatment I continued 
for about six weeks, when the pony proved perfectly cured. The 
owner was much pleased. This happened in the year 1844, and I 
saw the pony in September 1847; he was then perfectly well: 
the owner informed me he had never had a relapse. 

The second case is a bay gelding, the property of Mr. Moses, of 
Aldgate; not Moses the tailor. 

The patient is eight years old, fifteen and a half hands high. 
He was at livery at the Bull Inn, Aldgate. Mr. Nelson, the owner 
of the stables, considering him a glandered horse, would not have 
him on the premises any longer. I had him sent to my infirmary. 

Symptoms .—The membrane of the nose inflamed and ulcerated; 
gland fixed to the jaw on the near side; the discharge from his 
nose has an offensive smell. I passed a seton over the nasal bones; 
gave a drachm of creasote in water twice a-day, and injected a 
weak solution up the nostril. This treatment I continued tor about 
six weeks, when he was sent home perfectly cured. This took 
place in the year 1845. I saw him in October 1847; he had 
continued well. 

VOL. XXL 


D 


18 


AN ACCOUNT OF CERTAIN ABNORMAL FORMATIONS 
FOUND IN THE BRAIN OF AN AGED PONY. 

By Mr. HAYCOCK, Veterinary Surgeon , 

(Member of the Veterinary College, Edinburgh) 
Huddersfield. 

The following case I have deemed worthy of record, simply 
from the fact of abnormal formations existing in the lateral ventri¬ 
cles of the brain during life, without giving rise to any manifest 
disease, or derangement of function of any kind, in the animal in 
which I discovered them. 

In order, therefore, to give the reader clear ideas of the case I 
am about to describe, I will first relate such particulars respecting 
the animal as will enable him to do so in every essential. The 
subject of this case was a pony, the property of a gentleman re¬ 
siding in this town. The animal was fourteen hands high, of a 
bay colour, of the cob breed, and at least eighteen years of age : he 
had been in the possession of his owner about three years, during 
which period he had never suffered from disease of any kind (save 
a slight attack of the epidemic which prevailed hereabouts last 
winter); nor, from what I can learn after every inquiry, was the 
animal ever known to be affected with illness. On the 8th of 
November, 1847, it was deemed necessary to clip the animal, and 
at night, after the operation was performed, he was taken out of 
the stable to be smartly galloped; and when returning home again 
he was accidentally run against by a horse and truck, the shaft of 
which pierced his side, fracturing three ribs,.and inflicting such 
other injuries as to cause death in about two hours afterwards. 


Examination twelve Pours after Death. 

State of the lungs , heart , fyc. —The contents of the chest were 
perfectly healthy. The lungs did not exhibit the slightest trace of 
disease; the heart was also sound and firm in structure, and weighed 
seven pounds avoirdupois. 

State of the digestive organs. —The abdominal cavity contained 
a large quantity of liquid blood, in which was mixed fsecal matters, 
that had escaped out of the colon from a large opening or rent 
caused by the shaft of the truck lacerating it, when the concussion 
took place: otherwise the bowels and stomach were perfectly 


ABNORMAL FORMATIONS IN THE BRAIN. 19 

healthy. The liver was quite free from disease or enlargement, 
no softening nor paleness in colour, but perfectly firm; which 
is a fact, I believe, not generally observed in aged horses when 
examined after death. 

The head and a portion of the neck I had removed for the pur¬ 
pose of dissection; and it was in taking out the brain that I ob¬ 
served the structures I shall next describe. On removing the en¬ 
cephalon from its bony case, I found at the base and at the external 
part of the organ, a number of white granules of a similar form 
and about the same size as grains of rice after being saturated with 
water. These granules were collected in scattered groups, which 
groups allowed of being easily broken up, for they did not adhere 
to the brain but to a vascular-looking network of fibres, which 
came out of the interior of the brain and rested upon the bones 
forming the brain case. 

On removing the substance of the cerebral hemispheres and the 
corpus callosum, and thus exposing the lateral ventricles, two 
singular looking bodies were fully exposed to view, which bodies 
I will successively describe as they then presented themselves. 

One of these bodies is larger than the other; the smaller occupies, 
or rather is placed in, the right ventricle; the larger in the left one. 

The length of the small body is one inch and six eighths; its 
superior half is lobulated; and its colour is that of a dirty looking 
grey; its form is ovoid; it rests upon or against the corpus striatum; 
its superior extremity touches the hippocampus major; and its 
inferior extremity extends into the inferior cornu; attached to it 
superiorly and posteriorly is a small portion of the choroid plexus; 
it appears, in fact, to have its matrix within the plexus. The por¬ 
tion of brain against which it rests or presses presents a faint red 
blush of a somewhat dull aspect. The weight of this body is 
exactly 3ijss. 

The large body, I have stated, rests within the left ventricle; it 
is similar in every respect to the small one with regard to colour, 
form, &c.; its length is two inches and five eighths; its circum¬ 
ference three inches and three eighths, and its weight 3 v j* This 
body, from pressing upon the floor of the ventricle, has caused that 
portion against which its inferior half rested to be entirely 
absorbed; while the remaining portion is considerably thinner than 
natural. Throughout the portion that remains, against which the 
body immediately rests, is also a red blush, which is much deeper 
in tone than the colour in the ventricle. 

These bodies are entirely composed of the rice-looking granules, 
which have all their nucleus in the plexus choroides; and they all 
appear to take one general course, and that is a longitudinal one. 
A granule can easily be separated from the mass, and several of 


20 


ABNORMAL FORMATIONS IN THE BRAIN. 


them I have measured and found to be about one-eighth of an inch 
in length and from one-sixteenth to one-twelfth in circumference. 
The membrane which invests them is white, dense, and fibrous in 
its physical characters; its interior consists of a delicate network 
of the same kind of fibre, in which is deposited a quantity of very 
minute grains of what appears to be chalky matter; and these 
grains are deposited in the delicate network in a manner very 
closely resembling the deposit of bone in the osseous tissue. 
These particulars I have fully satisfied myself respecting, by 
careful and repeated microscopic examination. 

I next placed a portion of the substance apart, and after it was 
carefully dried, I weighed half a drachm of the same, which I 
burned, and which left exactly eleven grains of earthy matter. The 
substance burned rapidly, with a large flame, emitting no per¬ 
ceptible odour. 

*** Mr. Haycock sent us a portion of the granular mass, as well 
as the residue of the incinerated portion; and through the 
kindness of Dr. Babington we have obtained a correct analysis of 
them by Dr. Rees. Their composition Dr. R. has found to be 
“ membranous tissue cemented by fatty matters (principally 
cholesterine, and phosphate of lime. The earthy salt is in large 
proportion.” No carbonate of lime was found; “so that the earthy 
ingredient is not bony.”— Ed. Vet. 

Remarks. 

For such deposits as the above described to exist in the 
brain (an organ so essential to the integrity of life in the higher 
animals), without giving rise to any symptoms to indicate their 
existence during life, appears very remarkable ; and can, I appre¬ 
hend, only be accounted for on the supposition that their develop¬ 
ment was very slow. To have suddenly appeared, would, I may 
assert, have given rise to such effects as in themselves would cer¬ 
tainly have been noticed; but, from the growth of these bodies 
being slow, those portions of brain in immediate contiguity with 
them would gradually accommodate themselves to the change, inde¬ 
pendent of any perceptible change in function. 

Similar morbid products are stated by Dr. Copland as being 
found occasionally in the lateral ventricles of the human brain, 
without any disease being suspected during life. Page 207, vol. i, 
of his Dictionary of Practical Medicine, he says, “ The choroid 
plexus, and the vascular plexus of the fourth ventricle, which are 
all productions of the pia mater, are often found remarkably dis - 


ABNORMAL FORMATIONS IN THE BRAIN. 


21 


tended with blood, and their vessels varicose, particularly when the 
pia mater has its vessels overcharged. The choroid plexus is also 
sometimes uncommonly pale and exsanguine. This generally occurs 
when considerable effusion of serum has taken place in the ven¬ 
tricles, especially when the effusion is connected with debility. 
Sometimes the plexus contains a number of transparent vessels, 
and it occasionally presents a granulated or FLESHY appearance. 
This has been ascribed to a morbidly enlarged state of the glan¬ 
dular apparatus, with which, in the opinion of some anatomists, this 
structure is naturally provided. Gelatinous tumours about the 
size of a bean, and surrounded by a cyst, have also, though rarely, 
been observed in this situation. Tumours of a cheesy or sub- 
cartilaginous consistence, the size of a pea, are likewise found, in 
some rare cases; and occasionally these tumours contain ossific 
deposits in their centres. Bony and earthy concretions are still 
more rarely met with in the choroid plexus than in the membranes. 
All these morbid changes have been most frequently observed in 
apoplectic, epileptic, and paralytic cases; but they have also been 
frequently detected where no particular symptom referrible to the 
nervous system had manifested itself during life.” 

With reference again to the cause of these formations, I believe 
I may safely state, that nothing decisive can be stated upon the 
matter. The use of the plexus choroides is principally to furnish 
the serous fluid, which is known to always exist more or less in 
the ventricles during life; but whether this fluid be secreted or 
simply exhaled from within the vessels forming the plexus, is a 
question I am not prepared to decide ; for, with respect to what is 
said relating to its structure and function, all that I can read upon 
the matter is very diffuse and unsatisfactory. If the plexus, how¬ 
ever, be a gland , then we can suppose, that from some unknown 
cause its function in the present case became changed; and that, 
instead of the normal secretion, the products I have described were 
produced : but on this supposition even innumerable difficulties 
present themselves, which to state here would not be attended with 
any profitable result; for all that could be advanced would be mere 
hypothesis or bare conjecture. 

In conclusion I may remark, that, with respect to the ultimate 
effect which might have been produced by these growths, had the 
animal continued to live, nothing positive can be said. I believe 
the masses might have gone on increasing in size, and causing 
absorption of portions of the brain for years, without any disturb¬ 
ance in the cerebral functions manifesting themselves; for “ of all 
the organs of the body, the brain is the most exquisitely and' in- 
comprehensively formed, and presents the least intimacy of con- 


22 


CASES OF SUSPECTED POISONING IN DOGS. 


nexion between the results of dissection and the phenomena of 
disease. The most violent symptoms referrible to this organ often 
exist during life; and yet, on the most careful examination after 
death, either no appreciable lesion, or none sufficient to account for 
the phenomena, can be detected; whilst, on the other hand, 
many and most important changes are frequently discovered in 
both the brain and its membranes, in cases which betrayed either 
no cerebral disorder , or none calculated to excite suspicion during 
life of any organic change.”— Copland's Dictionary of Practical 
Medicine , p. 201, article “ Brain.” 


THREE CASES OF SUSPECTED POISONING IN 

DOGS. 

By John Tombs, M.R.C.V.S ., Stratford-on-Avon. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian .” 

Sir,—I SEND you a history of three suspicious cases of poison¬ 
ing in dogs. At first, rabies was suspected, on account of the dogs 
being taken ill at stated periods, similar to their sickening for mad¬ 
ness after being bitten. Another circumstance that strengthened 
this supposition was that the old bitch, when pregnant, attacked a 
strange dog, which bit her. The first two cases are recorded by 
the proprietor: the symptoms of the third case I ascertained by 
interrogating the owner, and made a post-mortem examination of 
the dog, which leads me to believe that he had been drugged. 

1 am, Sir, 

Your’s respectfully. 

Case I. 

July 1847.—A pointer bitch, three and a-half years old, with 
puppies seven weeks old, died about the seventh day. 

Symptoms . 

lstf day. —The bitch looked thin, her bag a little swollen : she 
was cross to her puppies. 

2 d day. —Bag more inflamed and swollen. 




CASES OP SUSPECTED POISONING IN DOGS. 23 

3 d day. —Symptoms the same, but she is very cross to her 
puppies. Gave sulphur, and fomented the bag. 

4 th day. —Very anxious and uneasy: she looked often for a 
fresh place to lie down upon. Gave more sulphur. She barked 
distressingly, with only short intervals of rest. 

5ih day. —Very weak, often looking sharply back at her loins, 
as if stung by some insect. About mid-day she had a slimy 
evacuation, with worms. Cross to her master when interfered 
with, and inclined to be sick from the commencement. 

6th day. —Free evacuations of urine. Still very cross to her 
puppies, and almost incessantly barking. There is difficulty in 
swallowing. 

1th day. —Similar symptoms till about three o’clock; she then 
slept for two hours, and, on afterwards drenching her with gruel, it 
choaked her. ., r . v * 

On opening her after death, the lungs were found to be a little 
inflamed, and the windpipe and air-cells of lungs filled with frothy 
mucus. The stomach was quite empty. The bowels, particularly 
the lower part, contained a copper-coloured fluid. There was no 
discharge from the eyes or nostrils during the whole illness. 

Case II. 

Aug. 30, 1847.—This was a bitch puppy that was taken ill about 
a month after the old bitch died. 

Symptoms. 

Monday. —In the morning very anxious and irritable; cross with 
other dogs; fondled with her master, and wanted to be nursed: 
toward night she grew weak, and during the night barked inces¬ 
santly. 

Tuesday. —Very sick and irritable; barked only at intervals. 
I gave an emetic. After she had been sick, towards night she 
became more quiet. Gave gruel, and put a seton in her throat: 
afterwards an evacuation, natural in appearance. 

Wednesday morning, six o'clock. —Dead. She had not been 
cross at the latter part of her illness. No discharge from the eyes 
or nose. The balls of the eyes turned backwards towards the 
head. On opening the body, the lungs were nearly clear; no 
mucus; the stomach slightly inflamed, the intestines highly so : in 
one place, about the middle, the gut was thickened about the six¬ 
teenth of an inch. 


24 


VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


Case Ilf. 


This animal was brother to that in Case 2, and nearly four 
months old. 

Symptoms. 


1 st day .—Loss of appetite—uneasiness and sickness: immedi¬ 
ately after swallowing liquids, vomiting took place, and continued 
until death on the 3d day. A peculiar barking was observed at 
intervals, and which lasted throughout. No cough or sneezing at 
all. On the 4th day the dog died, and on the morrow, October 11, 
the appearances after death were :—sublingual glands inflamed— 
the cellular tissue situated between the posterior maxillary bones 
congested—buccal membrane discoloured—rima glottidis slightly 
injected—the fauces very much inflamed—stomach quite empty— 
the cuticular and villous coats highly inflamed, the latter drawn 
into folds—the small intestines inflamed and thickened, and con- . 
tained mucus—the rectum distended with a coffee-coloured fluid : 
the lining membrane had many pustular eruptions on it, which is 
most remarkable. The whole gut was intensely inflamed; the 
investing membrane of kidneys inflamed, as well as the cortical 
part of those glands. 


VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


Court of Common Pleas , Dec. 16. 

Nisi Prius Sittings at Guildhall, before the Lord Chief 

Justice and a Special Jury. 

Smart v . Alison. 

Mr. Cockburn, with whom was Mr. James , appeared for the 
plaintiff, and Mr. Knowles for the defendant. 

This was an action to recover damages for the breach of a war- 
ranty given by the servant of the defendant to the plaintiff, on 
purchasing from him a black gelding at Howden Fair, on the 2d of 
September, 1846. The evidence adduced in the case was of great 
length, and occupied the time of the Court during part of yester¬ 
day’s and the whole of this day’s sittings. 





VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


25 

On the part of the plaintiff, witnesses were called to prove the 
following facts:—That the black gelding had been purchased at 
Howden Fair for the sum of 150 guineas; that he was conveyed 
from the defendant’s residence, in the county of Durham, with the 
greatest care, to the plaintiff’s stables at Cricklade, in Wiltshire, 
the distance, with the exception of a few miles, being travelled by 
railroad. That, having remained there about a fortnight, he was- 
sold to a gentleman of fortune named Hardy, in Warwickshire, 
for ^200; that he was taken to Mr. Hardy’s residence by easy 
stages, and about a week after his arrival was discovered to be 
lame; the lameness proceeding from a diseased state of the fore 
feet, caused by laminitis. Mr. Hardy, who had received with the 
horse the same warranty as the plaintiff had got from the defend¬ 
ant, immediately sent him back, and, the purchase-money having 
been returned to him, the present action was brought. Mr. Stanley, 
a veterinary surgeon consulted by Mr. Hardy, Mr. C. Spooner, 
Professor of Anatomy at the Royal Veterinary College, and Mr. 
Field, a veterinary surgeon in town, consulted by the plaintiff, all 
pronounced the horse to be unsound, the structure of his fore feet, 
particularly the off one, having been permanently impaired by 
laminitis. This disease, which is usually called “ fever of the feet,” 
they described as commencing with acute inflammation of the 
laminae, substances which lie between the coffin-bone and the exte¬ 
rior hoof, protecting the latter from being pressed by the former. 
If the inflammation be so acute as to induce inflammation, the 
coffin-bone falls down upon the hoof, and the horse becomes per¬ 
manently and incurably lame : if it does not proceed to that extent, 
chronic inflammation supervenes, the coronet of the hoof throws 
out ridges, the horn at the toe thickens, and the sole or space 
within the frog becomes so flattened as to touch the ground and 
make the horse liable to lameness after a hard day’s work, or from 
travelling on the road. The witnesses abovementioned stated their 
belief that the horse sold to the plaintiff had suffered from laminitis 
in a modified form, and that the disease, which was marked by the 
usual symptoms (flat soles and ridges on the hoofs below the coro¬ 
net), had been in existence some time. As further evidence in 
support of this case, witnesses were called to prove that the iden¬ 
tical horse had been purchased for a Hungarian nobleman, but 
when he reached Northallerton, where he was to be delivered over 
to the buyers, proved so lame that he was returned to the defend¬ 
ant. Mr. Payne, an extensive horse-dealer, also swore that, having 
gone to see the horse and to know what price the defendant put 
upon him, he asked whether he had ever been lame 1 And the 
defendant’s reply was, “never, except when he had fever in the 
feet.” 

VOL. XXI. 


E 


26 


VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


In reply to this case the following defence was set up:—Wit¬ 
nesses were called to shew that from the time the horse was foaled 
he never had such a disease as laminitis, which from its painful 
character could not have escaped observation. The farmer who 
reared the animal till the age of two years, and the defendant’s 
groom, under whose care it remained from that time until sold to 
the plaintiff, both swore that it had never suffered from any com¬ 
plaint of the kind. The farrier by whom it was shod, and others, 
deposed to the fact, that the structure of its fore feet had never 
undergone any alteration, nor was its shoeing different from that 
of other horses. It was also proved that the horse had been hunted 
for two seasons, sometimes with the fox-hounds, but more frequently 
with the harriers. The witnesses called to that point denied most 
strenuously that he had ever been lame while in the defendant’s 
possession, except on the occasion referred to in the plaintiff’s case, 
when he went to Northallerton; on that occasion lameness being 
produced by a hurt in the back sinew of the near fore foot, caused 
by the prick of a thorn in hunting. Evidence was also adduced 
to shew that when the horse was sold at Dixon’s Repository, in 
December last, by the plaintiff, he was in wretched condition ; that 
he was then purchased back again by an agent of the defendant’s 
for fifty guineas; that he was lame at that time from having chapped 
heels ; but having recovered from this, was ridden in town till the 
month of July without shewing any sign of the unsoundness al- 
ledged by the plaintiff. It was further stated in evidence, that 
the horse is now again at the defendant’s residence at Durham, 
and that he has not been lame since his return. The only scientific 
evidence produced by the defendant was that of Mr. Mayhew, 
formerly demonstrator at the Royal Veterinary College, who stated 
his opinion that a horse which had suffered from acute inflamma¬ 
tion of the lamina could not be hunted. 

The Lord Chief Justice, in summing up the case to the Jury, 
entered at great length into the evidence adduced on either side, 
and concluded by directing them to find their verdict according as, 
from what they had heard, they believed the horse to be in a sound 
or unsound state when bought by the plaintiff. 

The Jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff—damages 

£ 99 ..65..6c?. 


Jones v. Chew. 

In the Court of Exchequer, an action was recently brought 
by Mr. Jones, tobacconist, Moorgate-street, against Mr. Chew, 
livery-stable-keeper, in Moorfields. The plaintiff having occasion 



VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


27 


to go to St. Albans on the 20th of August, 1846, hired a horse for 
that purpose on the previous afternoon, for one guinea, from the 
defendant. As the plaintiff resided at Camberwell, he proposed 
that he should ride the horse home at once, and proceed on the 
following day on his journey. The tobacconist accordingly rode 
out of the stables at the close of business; but he had not been long 
gone when he again presented himself at the stables, and, flinging 
himself off the animal, said he would prefer to start next morning 
from the stables on another horse, as he could not persuade the one 
he had originally taken to face the “ busses” on London Bridge. 
The defendant politely told him, all his stable was at his command, 
and the plaintiff therefore inquired for and selected “ Pope’s mare,” 
with whose performances he had previously made satisfactory 
acquaintance. 

Accordingly, the worthy citizen made a second start on the fol¬ 
lowing morning at nine o’clock; but, alas! with little better success; 
for having occasion to call at Watford on his way, he put his nag 
up at the Rose and Crown, while he regaled himself with the good 
cheer to be found in that establishment. When “ man and beast” 
had both found the entertainment which they required, the plaintiff 
would have started for St. Albans, but a storm arose which com¬ 
pelled him, “ nothing loth,” to defer his progress till the ensuing 
morning. As he was sitting at his breakfast, however, the ostler 
informed him that his “ mare had fell lame,” and on examination 
she turned out to be quite incapable of continuing her journey. The 
result was, that Mr. Jones hired a horse and gig, in which accredited 
vehicle of “ respectability” he made his entry into St. Albans, and 
in which he returned to Watford. Arrived there, he found the mare 
still unfit for service, and he returned to town, like many others, 
in the railway, having in the mean time given notice to the 
defendant to send for his mare. The defendant, however, insisted 
that it was the duty of the plaintiff to return the mare, and he 
refused to send for her, while he insisted on being paid for her hire 
and for the loss of her services so long as she should remain at 
Watford. The parties entertaining conflicting opinions on this 
subject, neither of them retracted till March 1847, when the land¬ 
lord of the Rose and Crown thought the mare was fast “ eating her 
head off,” as the saying is, and brought an action against Mr. 
Jones for her keep, and the luckless tobacconist was ultimately 
obliged to pay the sum of £32, and, that done, he sent for the mare, 
and returned her to the owner, who forthwith brought an action 
against him for the hire and loss of service above-mentioned ; 
while, as a set-off thereto, the plaintiff brought this action to recover 
the sum paid to the landlord of the Rose and Crown, the sum 
claimed in each being within a few shillings identical. Mr. Chew’s 


*28 ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND. 

action came on for trial recently in this Court, when the Chief 
Baron being of opinion that there was an implied warranty of 
soundness on the part of Mr. Chew, and that Mr. Jones was justi¬ 
fied in leaving the mare at Watford under the circumstances, a 
verdict was passed for Mr. Jones, subject to the revision of the 
court above. On the present occasion, the evidence given on the 
former trial was read over to the witnesses, and certain objections 
having been taken to the right of the plaintiff to recover it, the 
Chief Baron directed the Jury to find a verdict for the plaintiff. 
He thought that, in point of law, the defendant, when he let the 
mare to the plaintiff, impliedly warranted that she was sound, and 
fit to perform the journey to St. Albans. As she had proved 
unsound, the plaintiff was justified in leaving her at Watford, 
where she would be cared for, till the defendant sent for her, which 
he (Sir J. Pollock) thought it was his duty to do. It had been said 
that the plaintiff had selected the mare in question; but that did 
not diminish the obligation at law cast on the party letting her out 
at hire. If, therefore, the Jury thought that the mare was unsound 
at the hiring, they should find for the plaintiff; and if the law was 
incorrectly laid down to them, the court above would do justice 
between the parties in that respect.—The Jury, without any hesi¬ 
tation, found a verdict for the plaintiff, with £33.. Is. damages. 


Extracts from Domestic Journals. 

ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND. 

[From “ The Mark Lane Express.”] 

A GENERAL Meeting of the members of this Society was held 
at the Society’s House, Hanover-square, on Saturday last, at 
eleven o’clock. The Earl of Yarborough, President of the Society, 
in the chair. Among the members present were His Grace the 
Duke of Richmond, Mr. Pusey, M.P., Col. Challoner, the Rev. 
Mr. Linton, Mr. Shaw, Mr. Hillyard, Mr. Raymond Barker, Mr. 
F. Hobbs, Mr. H. Gibbs, Mr. Westbury, Mr. Emery, Mr. Kinder, 
Professor Simonds, &c. 

Mr. Hudson , the Secretary of the Society, read the report from 
the Council; which proving highly satisfactory, and being approved 
and adopted, 

The Duke of Richmond rose to move that the best thanks of the 





ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND. 29 


meeting be given to the two learned gentleman who had favoured 
them with lectures on Tuesday and Wednesday last. They all 
felt obliged to men of ability and science, who, from their experi¬ 
ence and knowledge, gave them information that might be useful 
to them. He was of opinion that what they wanted was science 
with practice ; and he was sure that every gentleman who had 
attended the lectures on Tuesday and Wednesday must have been 
greatly instructed, although the learned lecturers were called upon 
to address them on a very short notice. He wished in particular 
to notice the last lecture on the diseases of cattle, which was one 
of the most instructive to which he had ever listened. He did not 
mean to say that the lectures of Professor Way were not of the 
greatest importance and benefit, but that of Professor Simonds was 
on a subject in which they were all most deeply interested, and 
what was of great consequence, the learned Professor gave it in 
language which they could all understand. He hoped they would 
continue to have lectures on the subject of the diseases of cattle, 
because it was little understood, and was of the greatest importance 
to the country at large. It was a duty which they owed to 
themselves to elevate the station of the veterinary surgeons 
throughout the country. There were at present many of that class, 
of ability and education; but their attention was almost exclu¬ 
sively directed to the horse; and those who came from the country 
must know that their cattle were left to men who had no pro¬ 
fessional knowledge at all, and whose advice could not give 
satisfaction. It was, therefore, of the utmost importance that they 
should elevate the position of the veterinary surgeon, and en¬ 
courage competent persons to establish themselves in every part of 
the country, and that the owner and occupier should countenance 
them and associate with them, and he believed the result would be 
found highly beneficial to agriculture. He thought they ought to 
proceed in the course which they had this week adopted; he 
thought they ought to give give men of science like Professors Way 
and Simonds every encouragement to come before them, and give 
them the result of their knowledge and science; and he was certain 
they would never find the farmers of England ungrateful. He had 
great pleasure in proposing a vote of thanks to the two learned 
Professors for the lectures with which they had favoured them 
during the week. 

Mr. C. Hillyard seconded the motion, which was carried 
unanimously. 

Professor Sewell said he felt highly gratified with the eulogium 
which had been passed upon Professor Way and Professor 
Simonds for the lectures they had delivered. He thought the 
society had now taken the right direction, and he hoped they would 


30 


ROY A'L AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND. 


receive the support of the society in aid of the Veterinary College. 
There were many other things which they had to propose to the 
society besides that alluded to by the noble duke, and which would 
be found beneficial to this country, but more especiall} r to Ireland, 
in which it appeared that although they had veterinary surgeons 
who paid attention to the horse, there was none who give could 
advice with respect to cattle. He had a plan to propose to them, 
which had received the sanction of Mr. Powell, of Derbyshire, and 
which he hoped they would support; but unless they obtained a 
committee of the society to consider the system, they could not hope 
to be able to carry it into successful operation. Gentlemen did not, 
he thought, take a sufficient interest in the Veterinary College, 
without which its usefulness could not be extended. They had, 
however, taken the first step in the right direction, and he hoped 
they would follow it up. He hoped members of the society would 
visit the College, and judge for themselves. This had already been 
done by Colonel Challoner, Mr. Hill, Mr. Brown, and others, who 
appeared to be satisfied with what they observed, and expressed 
themselves highly satisfied with the education and the practice 
given in the hospital; and he hoped that their example would be 
followed, and that other members of the society would visit them. 
He regretted to say that the Cattle Infirmary had been strangled in 
the birth; but they hoped, notwithstanding, that the individual 
members of the society would send to the College specimens and 
subjects, living or dead. This had been done by the Duke of 
Rutland, the Earl of Stradbroke, and some others; and he hoped 
that from all parts of the country others would follow the example. 
They had, he repeated, taken the first step in the right direction ; 
and he hoped they would continue to turn their attention to the 
subject. He begged leave to offer them his best thanks. 

Mr. Shaw said, that, seeing several representatives of the press 
present, he was anxious that no misrepresentation or misunder¬ 
standing should go forth to the public on this subject. Professor 
Sewell had observed that they had for the first time taken a step 
in the right direction on this subject; and he (Mr. Shaw) was 
desirous not to permit that observation to go abroad without 
explanation. He begged to say that that was not the first step 
taken in that direction by the society, for it should be remembered 
that for the last eight years they had voted a sum of £200 a year 
to the Veterinary College, for the purpose of investigating into the 
causes of disease in cattle, sheep, and pigs, in addition to those of 
horses. He would make no further comment on this subject; but 
he thought it right to say so much in explanation, lest an error 
should go abroad through the means of the press. 

Mr. G. Dyer said that he had listened to what the noble duke 


ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND. 31 


had said with respect to the diseases of cattle. He knew that 
there was a great number of lambs and calves which died yearly, 
notwithstanding that medicine was administered; and therefore it 
struck him that that must arise from something in the pasture. 
A number of sheep also cast their lambs without being diseased; 
and he himself was disposed to think that this was occasioned by 
the red-wort or poppy. Now, it appeared to him that if some 
gentleman acquainted with botany were sent to different parts of 
the country to examine the pasture, it would be much better, and 
more likely to produce benefit than any thing that could be done by 
doctors. He thought they would do more good by preventing the 
evil than by curing it He hoped, therefore, the attention of the 
Society would be directed to the subject, and that some experiments 
would be made. 

Mr. Cherry said that too much was expected of the pupils who 
attended the Veterinary College, and that, instead of expecting 
them to make themselves proficient in the two branches of the 
profession—namely, that relating to horses, and also that relating 
to cattle—it would be much better that the pupils should be 
allowed to make their election for the one or the other, and to 
graduate for the one which they preferred. He thought that by 
adopting that system much good would result. 

We cannot refrain from noticing a statement, as incorrect as it 
w r as uncalled for, made by Professor Sewell at the annual meeting 
of the Royal Agricultural Society on Saturday last, to the effect 
that, in procuring a lecture on the diseases of cattle to be delivered 
at the Society’s rooms, “the Society had taken the first step in the 
right direction;” and he hoped “they would receive the support of 
the Society in aid of the Veterinary College.” He repeated the 
remark, that the Society “ had taken the first step in the right- 
direction.” What could have induced Professor Sewell to make 
an assertion so unfounded in fact we cannot possibly conceive. 
The Society has in seven years contributed £200 per annum (a 
sum of £1400) to the funds of the College, and the first useful 
return it has received is the lecture of Professor Simonds. We 
■wish Professor Sewell would point out any one single advan¬ 
tage which has been obtained in return for that large sum of 
money. In our opinion, the only “ step in the right direction” on 
the subject which the Society has taken is that by which it has 
determined to discontinue a payment which has hitherto produced 
no good results. There is talent to be found in the veterinary 
profession, as Mr. Simonds has shewn by his lecture; and we doubt 
not the Society will be able to “take a step in the right direction” 
for engaging that talent upon some practically useful objects, when 



32 ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND. 

it has the control of the sum of money hitherto placed at the 
disposal of the Veterinary College. It is, however, satisfactory to 
know that the course adopted by the Society meets the approval 
of Mr. Sewell, inasmuch as if the act to which he alludes be “the 
first step in the right direction,” the grant of £200 per annum 
must have been in the wrong direction; and hence the propriety 
of not proceeding further in that direction.— Edit. Mark Lane 
Express. 


To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian .” 

Sir,—I n looking into The Mark Lane Express of Monday, the 
13th inst., I was glad to find that His Grace the Duke of Rich¬ 
mond had noticed, in such favourable terms, the lectures which 
had been delivered by the Professors, Way and Simonds: I allude 
more particularly to that of the latter. 

It always affords me the greatest gratification when I hear of 
any onward movement in the science of veterinary surgery. 
Would it had ended there ! I cannot let the speech of Professor 
Sewell pass without a few observations. I deem it unnecessary 
to make any remark on the right direction of the Agricultural 
Society towards the Veterinary College (that was very properly 
noticed at the moment), or the remark on some contemplated|im- 
provement to be effected in Ireland. The Professor goes on to 
say, that the Veterinary College had been visited by several 
gentlemen whose names he mentions, and also states that those 
gentlemen “ appeared to be satisfied with what they observed; 
and expressed themselves highly satisfied with the education and 
the practice given in the hospital; and he hoped that their example 
would be followed, and that other members of the Society would 
visit them.” 

I sincerely hope that this invitation will be accepted by 
many; and I would here take the liberty to suggest to those 
gentlemen who may so far interest themselves as to accept the 
invitation to visit that establishment, to ascertain from both Pro¬ 
fessors and pupils the routine of education adopted, more particu¬ 
larly as to the opportunities afforded to the student of learning 
the practical and operative part of their profession; whether it 
is usual to assemble the class during post-mortem examinations I 
whether they are allowed to attend and take part in all the opera¬ 
tions performed there ? also, whether they have practical attendance 
on the horses sent into the institution and confided to their care, 
under proper inspection; and if they are allowed, under any cir- 




THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND. 33 

cufinstances, to bleed and perform the ordinary minor operations 
attendant on the administration of medicine 1 I think that the 
necessity for such a course of instruction must be obvious to every 
gentleman who has the least idea of the sort of education neces¬ 
sary for the pupil to be well acquainted with before he be launched 
into the world as fit to practise his profession. 

I am led to these remarks by having heard reports that these 
most vital and necessary duties are not permitted within the walls 
of that establishment, or, at all events, not to the extent required; 
and am utterly at a loss to imagine why this should be the case, 
as I perfectly recollect that, during the professorship of Mr. Cole¬ 
man, such was not the case. At that period, two pupils were en¬ 
trusted with the care of the medical treatment of the horses, and 
it was so arranged that one went off duty every week, and was 
replaced by a fresh one: the consequence was, a young man could 
then leave the College with a practical knowledge of horse tactics, 
so essential to his insuring the confidence of any horseman under 
whose observation he came. Imagine a young veterinary surgeon 
going into a gentleman’s stable, incompetent to perform the simple 
operation of blood-letting: the same observation will apply to the 
practical instruction he ought to obtain in cattle practice. Every 
one knows how necessary it must be for the young aspirant to be 
well accustomed to the method of approaching and handling of 
cattle, sheep, and pigs, in order effectually to treat their maladies. 

I have ventured thus far to throw out the above hints, and 
should be too happy to find that the reports above alluded to were 
unfounded ; but should the converse be the case, I sincerely hope 
that the Professor at the head of the establishment will immedi¬ 
ately see the necessity of resorting to measures for a better prac¬ 
tical instruction of the young persons confided to his care, and just 
consider that their friends have a right to expect, when they leave 
the College, that they will do so with such competent practical 
knowledge as will insure their successful advent into professional 
life. 

I shall not intrude further upon your valuable space by making 
a long apology for the above remarks, knowing too well that, 
should you consider them likely to be beneficial, not only to the 
rising generation but to the public, in your usual philanthropy you 
will not hesitate to give them a place in your next number. 

I am, Sir, 

Your’s obediently, 

A. Henderson, 

V.S. to the Quern Dowager. 


VOL. XXI. 


F 




34 


Extracts from Foreign Journals. 


The Recueil de Medicine V£t£rinaire for May 1847 
contains 

“ A Summary of some recent Observations on Inoculation with, 
and Preservation of, the Virus of Sheep-pox, by M. Lebel, V.S. at 
Brie-Compte-Robert (Seine-et-Maire),” from which we make the 
subjoined extracts:— 

In 1826, Plurtrel d’Arboval asked the question, “whether the 
virus of sheep-pox, like that of cow-pox, was capable of being 
preserved for any length of time in capillary tubes”—adding, e ‘that 
this was a point that could be cleared up in no other way than by 
accurate experiment.” M. Lebel comes prepared to answer this 
question, qualified by fifteen years’ experience in sheep-pox prac¬ 
tice, natural as well as inoculated, and by observations made, 
since 1829, on twenty thousand cases of inoculation. Speaking 
ON THE CHOICE OF VIRUS, M. Lebel cautions practitioners against 
using virus from the malignant confluent pox; and at all times 
when circumstances prove favourable to collect virus from sheep 
slightly affected with the disease, and especially from such as ex¬ 
hibit a benignant kind of pox; in which the pustules are small, 
far apart, few in number, and full of matter; and to elect such 
sheep as have taken the disease from inoculation in preference to 
any that have caught the natural pox. This is an affair of so much 
consequence, in M. Lebel’s estimation, that, when he has had no 
choice but the natural pox, yet has he refused to take matter unless 
the disease shewed itself to be of the most decidedly benignant 
character : otherwise, and indeed in the majority of cases then even, 
he preferred using matter he had by him, preserved, with the qua¬ 
lities of which he was well acquainted. The magnitude of the 
pustule is not of so much importance as its being isolated, or far 
apart from one another : indeed, this is a requisite considered by M. 
Lebel as indispensable. He would prefer for virus large pustules, 
with rarity and isolation, to small pustules disposed after a con¬ 
fluent character. And an advantage possessed by the large pustule 
is, that it possesses a serosity in its centre, as well as a circumfe- 
rent subcutaneous secretion; the latter being that to which all 
authors have ascribed the contagious property of the pox. 

Until the year 1831, M. Lebel had, under the counsel and 
guidance of other practitioners, shewn little care or choice about 
virus, when in the July of that year he was summoned to inocu¬ 
late 400 sheep belonging to a farmer; and having no choice of 



VIRUS OF SHEEP POX. 


35 


matter, the disease being before him in an unfavourable form, he 
operated with the virus that presented itself in the sheep already 
labouring under the disease, and in a fortnight repeated the inocu¬ 
lation on such sheep as had not taken the disease. In August 
following, from pustules resulting from repetition of inoculation in 
sheep, he inoculated on another farm—it being his annual inocula¬ 
tion—108 lambs. The result was, that of the 400 sheep he lost 
forty, and of the lambs twenty. The loss of the sheep might have 
admitted of explanation on the score of the unfavourable turn the 
disease now and then will take in spite of us; but how came it that 
the lambs, in another situation, and where all others had done well 
in former times, should likewise die 1 It was owing to the dele¬ 
terious virus employed; and this affair it was that first disabused 
M. Lebel aboyt indifference of the choice of matter. 

There needs no further proof of the contagious property of mat¬ 
ter of sheep-pox, be it the product of malignant or benign pox; 
but it becomes a question, whether or not this property, especially 
in the latter, does not become weakened under successive inocula¬ 
tions. Hurtrel d’Arboval is of opinion that it becomes so after the 
fifth time of inoculation. “ For my own part, however,” says M. 
Lebel, “ I would say rather th e fifteenth time.” 

In May 1846, M. Lebel inoculated fifty lambs, the produce of 
the year. The beginning of June—every thing having proceeded 
favourably up to that time—sixty-eight fresh-purchased sheep, of 
ages from one to three years, were turned to run with the flock 
that the fifty lambs had rejoined. From twenty to twenty-five 
days afterwards—from thirty-six to forty days since the inocula¬ 
tion of the lambs—some of the new-comers exhibited proofs of 
infection : twenty of them had got the pox, some confluent, some 
benignant. Those of the sixty-eight who had not caught the dis¬ 
ease Lebel inoculated from the others. 

This fact establishes the conservative as well as the infective 
properties of the virus. And, further, the matter Lebel used on 
the occasion is the same as has served him for upwards of ten 
years. Nor has he, since November 1840, had any natural pox 
virus: and such is the difficulty, not to say impossibility, to collect 
matter from natural pustules, that Lebel has not troubled himself 
about it, but has contented himself with what he had in possession. 

M. Lebel does not, however, deny that the disease, through so 
many transmissions, undergoes some mitigation, seeing that lambs 
which he is inoculating year by year with virus which he has by 
him, experience hardly any derangement of health while the dis¬ 
ease is on them, and that it is rare for him to lose more than one 
in a hundred. 

Another question is, what stage ought the inoculated pox to 


36 


VIRUS OF SHEEP POX. 


reach to be for a certainty preservative against the natural pox ? 
And why, when both diseases are present in the same individual, 
instead of developing themselves simultaneously, the natural pox 
will become suspended for twelve or fifteen days, and sometimes 
longer, to allow for the accomplishment of the principal phenomena 
resulting from inoculation. 

In collecting virus for inoculation, Lebel, for choice, prefers a 
pustule of a spheroid form, moderate size—such as a good-sized 
hazel nut cut in halves would present—rising well above the sur¬ 
face, exhibiting either a blush of red or a uniform rosiness, and 
having neither furrow nor eminence upon it. The twelfth day is 
ordinarily to be preferred, though matter may be collected up to 
the sixteenth; nay, a pustule eighteen days old will furnish conta¬ 
gious virus: and a single pustule of the required for^n and dimen¬ 
sions will furnish virus sufficient for three or four hundred sheep. 

A question importantly bearing upon what has gone before is. 
Has the blood of a sheep having the pock the power of commu¬ 
nicating the disease ] and, if so, if more so in the natural and con¬ 
fluent pock? and up to what period is this property, supposing it 
to exist, preserved] By way of answer to these questions, Lebel 
mentions the following experiment:— 

On the 15th of November, 1834, two lambs, which, up to that 
time, had been kept separate, were inoculated from blood drawn 
from the plat-vein of a sheep in the thirteenth day of his pock. 
The inoculation produced no effect; notwithstanding both the 
lambs took the disease afterwards from inoculation with virus, and 
had pustules rise close by the punctures made by the blood-inocu¬ 
lations. 

*%* This experiment appears to us any thing but satisfactory or 
conclusive. The blood may have been—most probably was— 
infected ; and yet a drop or two of it, or as much as would be 
conveyed upon the point of a lancet, be totally insufficient to 
transmit the disease. To cite Coleman, who was always particu¬ 
larly happy on this point, a quantity of arsenic might be put into 
a pailful of water, and yet a spoonful of the fluid not poison an 
animal. Transfusion should have been made of the blood of the 
infected sheep, and then the experiment would have had validity. 
And, supposing the sheep had shewn signs of having become 
thereby infected, further inoculation should have been made from 
the pustules upon him.— Ed. Yet. 




37 


LECTURE ON THE INFLUENCE OF EXERCISE ON 

MAN AND ANIMALS. 

[From “ La Clinique Veterinaire continued from vol. xx, page 515.] 

“ L’inactivite est la source de tous les maux.” 

Statics and dynamics both prove that man is able at his will 
almost to augment or diminish the power of the horse, providing 
he knows well how 1o regulate his exercise. Power residing in 
muscle, he may render it hereditary even to the third generation. 
Witness the famous trotters of OrlofFs stud. We know that 
Count Orloff obtained these by crosses between strong Danish or 
Russian mares and Arabian stallions. 

The progressive development of strength and power depends 
likewise on the feeding following the weaning;—on both, the 
quantity and quality of the aliments, on the grooming, on the ma¬ 
nagement ; lastly, on the period and season of castration. 

It must be admitted as a principle, that there exists a vast dif¬ 
ference between the two properties demanded in a superior horse,—• 
speed and strength. It is easy to obtain of an animal what strength 
it is capable of, so as to suit him to the work required of him; but 
it is not equally easy to render him triumphant in the race, this 
last being in an essential degree under the influence of climate. 

On the Duration of Exercise. 

Endurance of exercise may be regarded as the prime founder of 
strength. It determines the measure of capacity (capability) of the 
animal. Experience has proved that, on an average, the horse 
who expends 100 kilogrammes of strength will withstand this effort 
for eight hours daily, whether in bearing, an average length of time, 
100 kilogrammes while standing, or in trotting gently for eight 
hours without anv burthen. 

•s 

The proportion here given is to be considered as the datum for 
regulating exercise. Beyond this, exercise becomes work, that is • 
to say, strength begins to fail under fatigue. 

The conservation of animals requires that we at all times dimi¬ 
nish the burthen in ratio to the increase of speed, and vice versa. 
The same principle ought to serve as a regulation for the duration 
of exercise. 


38 


ON THE INFLUENCE OF EXERCISE 


Of Climate. 

According to Aristotle, cold, heat, dryness, and humidity, form 
the basis of all organizations. Their combinations or degree con¬ 
stitute climate; and this spreads its influence over the organism 
of beings in general, and determines their especial much or little of 
vitality, their much or little of eyergy. One of the principal ex¬ 
citants of organic life is, as everybody knows, heat. 

Without stopping to consider this question in a scientific point 
of view, let us inquire into the direct influence exercised on the 
horse by climate. 

Fahrenheit’s thermometer never descends in Arabia lower than 
30° at night, while during the day it rises to 80°, sometimes even 
to 150° in the shade. In spite of this intense heat the horse 
thrives wonderfully. His bones are more slender, but they are 
firmer and more resisting than those of the breeds of other coun¬ 
tries. The osseous structure, as well as the marrow, is greater in 
weight. In respect to flexibility and muscular strength, likewise, 
the Arabian horse has no equal, no more than he has for the energy 
of his organs of assimilation. The horse of the desert, exposed to 
burning heat, and living on furze (hruyeres), will endure thirst for 
three days without losing any of his energy or courage, while our 
horses could with difficulty support the same privation for four- 
and-twenty hours. 

Well, these excellent qualities, which constitute the Arabian 
the first of horses, are the effect of climate rather than of any other 
cause; and we can no longer doubt this, when we see the Arabian 
losing them as soon as he is transferred from his native country. 
Transplanted into our country (France), our climate speedily robs 
him of part of his individual worth, and his descendants quickly 
become French horses, as in England they become English, in 
Germany German horses. This fact has remained too long un¬ 
known, on account of our ancestors not sufficiently diving into the 
study of the influences of climate over animals. 

Analogous considerations to these it is which has induced us to 
call the attention of competent men to the necessity of getting up 
a Medico-Veterinary Topography, a work yet wanting to us. 
Studies on this subject would open a field altogether new to us, 
equally vast and rich for minds of deep thought, one whose trea¬ 
sures would be found unencompassable by ordinary intellects. 

We avail ourselves of this occasion to beg the Society will 
kindly bethink themselves of some way of accomplishing this, so 
that the necessary steps may be taken to interest the Academy of 
Sciences in the question, in order that it may assist us with the 


ON MAN AND ANIMALS. 


39 


powerful aid of its enlightenment to fill up a void so repugnant to 
the progress of science. 

Without advancing too far, let us simply narrate here some 
facts tending infallibly to prove the great influence climate exerts 
on horses. 

The horse of South America, imported from Spain three centu¬ 
ries ago, bears no resemblance to the Andalusian horse. The 
French horses that were taken to Camargue are become small, 
and exclusively white or grey. All English horses brought to the 
continent quickly with us degenerate, in spite of every care that 
can be taken of them. Colts reared in their native land become 
completely altered under the influence of climate. Normandy every 
day furnishes proofs of this in the colts of Bretagne and Poitou, 
which are reared in its rich pasturages, and afterwards sold as 
Norman. 

Thus it is, in inquiring into the influence climate exercises over 
the individuality of different breeds, that it affects their powers, 
and renders them fitted for different purposes. 

The same likewise explains how all attempts, up to the present, 
made with a view of ameliorating indigenous breeds of horses by 
the introduction of foreign blood, have constantly miscarried.. 

Influence of the Seasons , of Temperature, and of Soil, on Exercise. 

1. In winter, when the cold does not exceed 15°, it proves ex- 
citive of action, accelerates it, increases the power of the muscles, 
and is favorable to the plastic process; but more intense than this, 
it operates against action, and by the torpor it engenders, against 
prolonged great speed, as well as against exercises requiring any 
great suppleness, as, for example, that of the school. Cold, by 
stimulating the plastic power, diminishes the sensibility and flexi¬ 
bility of the muscular fibre. 

Consequently, winter is a fitter season for moderate exercises, 
though these may be long sustained, than for rapid evolutions. 

And so the highly schooled horse will shew less suppleness and 
less brilliancy during severe cold than at the time when the tem¬ 
perature is mild. We have often made the remark, that horses 
leaping of their own accord, who ordinarily would clear seven feet 
in height with astonishing facility, could not perform the same feat 
in winter, though ridden, not by any learners, but b) 7, ourselves. 

2. In the spring, the horse requires some management at the 
time he is changing his coat; though beyond this, this is the 
season when the animal is most nimble, and best undergoes all 
sorts of fatigue. Immediately after he has changed his coat he 
enters on a period wherein all his powers become, as it were, re- 


40 


“THE VETERINARIAN. 


yy 


freshed, and his whole organism is put into perfect equilibrium 
and full vigour, and especially mares, when the oestral season is 
passed. 

3. Summer calls for the more management according as exces¬ 
sive heat, by augmenting muscular sensibility and irritability, the 
more exhausts horses. 

4. But it is in autumn that exercise should be pressed the least. 
Not that we are therefore to prolong the animal’s repose; for, in 
general, nothing is worse for horses than lengthened stay in their 
stables; but we ought to slacken their paces. For example, during 
a cold, humid, or frosty air, we should go less quick than ordinarily. 
Instead of accomplishing ten miles an hour with our horse, we 
should do but eight; and the cartman, in place of his ordinary 
load of 8000 kilogrammes, should content himself with 6000, &c. 

Unfortunately for horses, and especially for those of the army, 
this precaution is far from being regarded. Encampments and 
reviews take place the moment after harvest is begun, and when 
winter is approaching. This rule, established no doubt to suit the 
farmers, tells far too much against the troop horses, and contributes 
not a little to the diseases which annually prove fatal to many of 
them. 

[To be continued.] 


THE VETERINARIAN, JANUARY 1, 1848. 


Ne quid falsi dicere audeat, ne quid veri non audeat.— CiCEno. 


Twenty years ago, notwithstanding at that date thirty years 
had elapsed since Sainbel first transplanted veterinary science into 
Britain, the veterinary profession in our country remained without 
a representative journal. This day twenty years The VETERI¬ 
NARIAN came into existence—to-day, therefore, we enter on the 
twenty-first year of our journalistic life; an epoch of some import¬ 
ance to us as journalists, and one we purpose signalising by—from 
the beginning of 1848—commencing a New or THIRD SERIES 
of our publication. Remembering that The Veterinarian was 
the first to break the ground of veterinary journalism ; remember- 






41 


“ THE VETERINARIAN.” 

ing the withering coldness, amounting almost to discountenance, it 
had at its birth to face on one side, while, on another, it had to 
struggle against direct opposition; and seeing how, despite of all, 
the journal has thriven and prospered; remembering and behold¬ 
ing all this, we repeat, we cannot but confess we feel some satis¬ 
faction at having been instrumental in laying the foundation for 
twenty volumes of matter which, for amount of useful knowledge 
and valuable information elicited, may vie with any—nay, indeed, 
all —of the veterinary works extant. We say this in no spirit of 
boast or ostentation—much less with the remotest thought of de¬ 
tracting one iota from the well-earned laurels of individual veteri¬ 
nary authorship. We take little credit to ourselves for it. For 
our own part, we have been but compilers and arrangers while 
others have kindly and constantly been furnishing the materiel y 
and from time to time have sent us jewels of practical worth 
which we have done our best to set off to the greatest advantage. 

And in our “ we” let us not forget the name—the cherished and 
long-to-be-remembered and revered name—-of YOUATT. Duty 
and gratitude—to leave out friendship—both whisper us, we owe 
it to his memory to yield to him whatever merit may be deemed 
due on the score of Editorship. For fifteen years out of the 
twenty he laboured long and late, and alone , in the cause of this 
Journal; and to his persevering industry and talent may be attri¬ 
buted the twenty years’ prosperous course The Veterinarian 
has run. By the support of its friends The Veterinarian has 
achieved so much, and with that support continued it can do the 
like again. 


A “ cattle show”—or at least the cattle show—appears to have 
become in these our days a sort of omnibus show, a show if not of 
all, at least for all; for, nowadays, not farmers and graziers, and 
aristocratic and amateur agriculturists alone pay their annual visit 
thereto, but men go whose pursuits or callings are as widely dif¬ 
ferent from agriculture as agriculture itself is from watch-making 
or stay-making: we say stay-making, for even ladies find their 
way thither, though, to be sure, their number was insignificant 
compared to that of their lords and masters. Novelty and fashion 

have, no doubt, had their share in the attractions of the show; but 
VOL. XXI. G 



42 


THE LATE CATTLE SHOW. 


the novelty of the thing now is pretty well over, and since shillings 
have come to be found among certain lower orders pretty well as 
easily as among the upper, even the fashion of it seems to be on 
the decline. Mountains of living fat are fast forfeiting their 
temptation for the eye as well as for the stomach, and in propor¬ 
tion as these blubbery monstrosities subside, we find—in this year’s 
show in particular, and we are glad to see it—breed and symmetry 
and character peeping out once again in their native beauty. As 
much does it disfigure a pure Durham or Devon ox to encumber 
its body with fat as it would the form of a Venus to swell every 
admired contour of beauty into an unnatural protuberance: real’ 
beauty sits enthroned amid the proportion and harmony of her 
several constituent members. 

Now, this is precisely the point to which we would fain direct 
the attention of the veterinarian. Pure native breed in all its 
varieties will first command his observation. He will observe the 
natural and characteristic feature and form of each species or breed; 
he will note the more striking differences between one breed and 
another; he will meditate on the respective advantages and dis¬ 
advantages thereof. Along with breed he will not omit to take 
into consideration the country which produced it; and this will 
prevent him, while eying the different individual specimens as they 
stand side by side in their stalls, forming in his mind comparisons 
unfairly disadvantageous to any one in particular that .in such 
a situation, and with such neighbours, may to his eye appear 
inferior, when, in reality, he is probably quite the reverse. Of its 
kind one is, perhaps, fully as valuable and admirable as the other. 
The dwarf Scotch ox must not be despised by the side of the 
imposing Durham; neither must the South Down suffer disparage¬ 
ment because the Leicester sheep is nigh him. Each enjoys his 
own peculiar happy qualifications; each in his own sphere proves 
equally serviceable to man. 

The pure or original breeds having had their share of survey, 
the veterinarian will next find himself interested in the legitimate or 
scientific crosses which have been carried out between them. He 
will mark the improvements said to have been effected in the “ im¬ 
proved’’ stock ; and he will inquire whether such alleged improve¬ 
ments have been accomplished at the loss or expense of any valuable 


THE LATE CATTLE SHOW. 


43 


property the original breeds were in the admitted possession of. 
The concentration of all that is good and valuable in the same in¬ 
dividual is no more attainable in animals by breeding than in human 
beings by culture of body and mind; what we gain in one respect 
we too frequently lose in some other, insomuch that it is possible a 
cross may, so far from having any right to the epithet “ improved,” 
more appropriately be designated “ altered,” or even “degenerated.” 

A great source of attraction in the show just past—and it is one 
that has been increasing of late years—was the “ implement” de¬ 
partment. Mechanics are shedding the same light over the tools ' 
used in husbandry as chemistry has for some time been casting 
into the composition and improvement of soil; and between the 
two aids, the improved plough on one hand and guano on the other, 
the farmer is beginning to make some important strides towards 
an accomplished system of agriculture. Among the implements 
and machines exhibited in the late show there were several cal¬ 
culated to command the attention and approval of the veterinarian. 
There was an ingenious and apparently very effective machine for 
bruising furze, said to be the invention of a female—“ Mary Wed- 
lake’s Gorse Bruising Machine”—which, from the destruction it 
operates of all the prickly annoyance which furze, as food, occasions 
in the act of mastication, cannot fail in parts of the country where 
furze is readily procurable, and hay and straw and other fodder are 
dear, to prove in winter time extremely serviceable. The exhibitor’s 
bill declares, that “ cattle fed on furze alone will thrive well 
adding, that “ the coats of horSes (so fed) will in four days look more 
glossy and sleekand that cows (thus fed) “ will yield more 
milk and richer.” The furze should tl be cut at one or two years’ 
growthand one man alone can bruise twenty bushels a-day. 
Had there been machines such as this in the train of the Duke of 
Wellington’s army in the Peninsular campaign, the cavalry would 
have found their advantage in them; it being notorious that on 
many occasions the soldier had little provender for his horse save 
what he could forage from fields and forests. There were several 
other kinds of ingenious and useful machines and implements ; but 
we have left ourselves no room here for notice of any of them. 


44 


THE LATE MR. LISTON. 

VETERINARY surgeons will sympathize in the general regret 
felt through the medical world at the death of this distingished 
surgeon. Until last year Mr. Liston was a member of the Board 
of Veterinary Examiners; from which he only seceded on his 
appointment as Examiner at the Royal College of Surgeons, his 
avocations, probably, not admitting of time for both duties. He 
was an ardent admirer, as well as professed friend, of veterinary 
science. Unsurpassed as a human anatomist and operator, he was 
far from wanting in a general knowledge of veterinary matters; 
his zealous love for medical science in every shape, and his fond¬ 
ness for horses and hunting in particular (a hobby he indulged 
whenever business permitted and opportunity offered), leading 
him to prosecute such knowledge. He had more than once dis¬ 
sected the horse. He used to say, the best instrument for that 
purpose was not an ordinary scalpel, but a good-sized clasp-knife. 
And his dissections of the horse led to the discovery of a fact 
which, we believe we may with truth say, was not known—at all 
events not promulgated—before ; and that is, the duplex compo¬ 
sition of the ligamentum nuchce vel colli. He demonstrated its 
separability into two longitudinal halves, saying, he could readily 
introduce his fingers into the interval between them afterdissec¬ 
tion had exposed their inter-cellular connexion. 


REVIEW. 


Quid sit pulchrum, quid turpo, quid utile, quid non.—Hon. 


Travels in Western Africa in 1845 and 1846, comprising 
a Journey from Whydah , through the Kingdom of Dahomey , 
to Adofoodia , in the Interior. By JOHN DUNCAN, late of the 
First Life Guards, and one of the late Niger Expedition. 2 vol. 
8vo, pp. 304-314. 

It is a rare occurrence to meet with in a horseman the cha¬ 
racter of what we should designate a traveller. Unless he be—what 
few real horsemen are—a man of thoughts and feelings opposite and 
varied from any which an acquaintance with or fondness for horses 
is apt to engender, travelling into far and distant and uncivilized 
regions is not apt to accord with his notions of enjoyment; and this 






REVIEW—TRAVELS IN WESTERN AFRICA. 


45 


is one—perhaps the chief—reason why so comparatively little is 
known concerning the horses and cattle of barbarous tribes, such 
as those inhabiting the wilds of Africa, into which Mr. Duncan has 
first dared to set the white man’s foot. 

Nor would one have been led to expect such intrepidity and 
resolution in Mr. Duncan even after having—as he informs us he 
has—passed sixteen years of home (not hard ) service in Her Bri¬ 
tannic Majesty’s Life Guards : stately prancing day after day, as 
is the custom of these fine troops, from Hyde Park to the Horse 
Guards and back, not being exactly the sort of preparation one 
would recommend for a trip, “ ankle deep in dry sand, with the 
thermometer at 118°,” through the arid plains of Africa. Never¬ 
theless, Mr. Duncan left the Guards to embark in the notable 
Niger expedition, in which deadly enterprise he was miraculously 
one of five saved out of three hundred souls who fell victims to 
the merciless fever of the climate. Even this, however, did not 
deter him from seeking his fortune once more in the same pesti¬ 
ferous climes. After his return home, and restorement to health, 
he volunteered his services to the Royal Geographical Society, “ to 
proceed to Africa, and penetrate the Kong Mountains from the 
West Coasta peregrination in the course of which he made 
observations relating to divers strange and curious facts and inci¬ 
dents connected with the animal creation, of which, on the present 
occasion, it is our intention to give such account as we opine will 
most interest and best please our several readers. 

At Cape Coast, the landing port of our adventurer, where lie 
sojourned five months, waiting for the most favourable season for 
travelling, and while there undergoing his “ seasoning fever”—a 
seasoning his unfortunate servant did not survive—he found “ agri¬ 
culture had made little progress, probably owing to want of 
horses, which cannot live more than a few weeks, and from the 
indolence of the natives.”—“ The breed of cattle here is very hand¬ 
some, though small; but it might be greatly improved, and this 
would repay the expense very well, as the price of meat is so ex¬ 
tremely high.” 

ENGLISH Accra, a British settlement on the Gold Coast, 
about sixty miles to the eastward of Cape Coast, contains, accord¬ 
ing to Mr. Duncan’s estimate, “ about seven thousand inha¬ 
bitants. Stock of different kinds is abundant; and if any attention 
were paid to it, it might be wonderfully improved: but the Africans 
pay no attention either to domestic or wild animals; even the dog 
and horse, the two most sagacious of all the animal creation, excite 
in them no interest whatever. If not driven to it, they will suffer 
a horse to stand for days tied up without food or water. In fact, 


46 


REVIEW—TRAVELS IN WESTERN AFRICA. 


in no case do they exhibit any feeling either of regard or affection, 
to merit even a comparison with any of the lower animals, being 
also selfish in the extreme, in every point where no traces of edu¬ 
cation are found.” 

On a small island, on the opposite side of the Lagoon from 
Popoe, Mr. Duncan “ observed the first cattle he had seen on this 
part of the coast. They are properly attended to, having proper 
sheds, and slaves appointed to attend to them. He also saw a very 
handsome pony here, and in good condition.” 

The Avoga—a sort of Viceroy of the King of Dahomey’s at 
Whydah—“ has in his possession a very fine donkey, as well as 
pony, which he prizes very much. He seldom rides upon either; 
and when he does venture, he has always a couple of men to hold 
him on.” 

Mr. Duncan met with here, as well as locusts of a different kind 
from what he had elsewhere seen, the large-winged ant, so well 
known to African travellers; and he observed in regard to it a 
peculiarity which had been unnoticed before, and that is, the emis¬ 
sion of an effluvium poisonous to that degree that other insects were 
destroyed by it; a dog made to howl through it who had the ant 
simply held to his nose, and a horse to resist the odour “ with bitter 
determination.” Even Mr. Duncan found himself sick at stomach 
in the morning after sleeping in a room in which two of these ants 
had been left alive shut up in a box. 

“ I have often heard of oysters growing upon trees , but would 
never before give credit to such information. Here (on the banks 
of the Lagoon), however, I had ocular demonstration of the fact; 
the roots of the trees (and as high on the stems as the water rises) 
being covered with thousands of oysters, as well as the bed of the 
river for several miles. Some of them were of enormous size ; but 
they have not the delicious flavour of the Thames oysters.” 

“ Oxen are not so numerous here (at Cape Coast) as in Whydah, 
no attention being paid to the breeding ; nor are sheep or goats so 
numerous as in other parts of this country. The Portuguese and 
Spaniards are the principal parties who hold any stock; conse¬ 
quently the breed of oxen is much inferior in size to those I have 
observed in many other places on this coast. Sheep and goats are 
better bred than oxen; but horses are not at all bred here. Some 
of the Portuguese and Spaniards have small horses, brought from 
Badagry and Abomey. Neither the ox nor horse is used for agri¬ 
cultural purposes, although the soil is so well calculated for the 
plough, being very level, and without a stone even of the smallest 
size. The wild ox is abundant in the bush near this place, as is 
also a species of deer, both black and red. The head is broader 


REVIEW—TRAVELS IN WESTERN AFRICA. 


47 


and thicker, and its legs less graceful than those of the red deer 
which is lighter, and very much resembles our small deer in 
England. 

“ Swine are very superior in this place, being almost equal to 
those of England. Wild carnivorous animals abound in the bush 
in this neighbourhood, particularly the patakoo, or large hyrnna, 
the panther, bush-cat, and small wolf. 

“ Fowls are plentiful here, and some are very large, owing to 
the breed being crossed by the large Portuguese fowl, which is 
brought over from the Brazils by the Portuguese slave-dealers. 
The Guinea fowl is found here also in great numbers, running wild 
in the neighbourhood.” 

Being one morning out with the intention of shooting some 
pigeons for breakfast, Mr. Duncan observed a flock of monkeys, 
and shot one. On carrying it home he was told that it was excel¬ 
lent eating, making, when cooked with palm oil and vegetables, 
excellent soup. At first, he did not relish even tasting the monkey 
soup: finding, however, that it was lusciously devoured by the 
natives, and pressed at last much by a hungry stomach himself, he 
ventured on a little, and found it “ very sweet,” and such as he 
should even have “ relished,” had he not known what it had been. 

While at Whydah, to facilitate his excursionary visits to the 
surrounding parts of the country, Mr. Duncan, by a kind friend, 
had a horse lent him, to which by his ingenuity he not only fitted 
a saddle and bridle, and so equipped a la militaire , but also shod 
the animal himself, and made spare shoes besides to take with him 
when he set out on his journey. 

Upon this horse he proceeded to Abomey—the capital town and 
seat of empire of Dahomey—where he was received with all 
honours due to an envoy from the Queen of Great Britain, and, along 
with various other compliments paid him, had to exhibit before the 
King of Dahomey in the character of an English life-guardsman. 
His majesty, after inspecting his military equipments and arms, 
and declaring that “ white men knew every thing,” desired next 
that our hero would exhibit before him on horseback, “ at the same 
time ordering two of his principal men to walk by my (his) side, 
and hold me on. This I did not properly understand at first, not 
knowing their language; but after retiring a sufficient distance from 
his majesty, clear of the soldiery, I formed a circle to the right. 
My two holders signified that I must not form circle to the right, 
the king alone possessing that privilege; whereupon T counter¬ 
marched, and began a sharp trot, urging my two holders to keep 
out of my way, but all was of no avail. I then halted, and desired 
my interpreter to tell the king that Englishmen never required 
holding on their horse. Upon which he seemed surprised, and 


48 


REVIEW—TRAVELS IN WESTERN AFRICA. 


told me to do as I thought proper, but begged me rather not to ride 
for his gratification than run any risk. I again assured him that 
there was no danger, and put my horse in motion, first at a trot 
and then a gallop.’'' 

“ The king then stood up, clapping his hands in approbation. 
Upon which the whole assembled multitude followed the example, 
which much terrified my horse. After a few more circles per¬ 
formed, the king desired me to dismount and come beside him and 
sit down, thanking me for my performance.” 

It is difficult to say, in reviewing the manners and customs of 
tribes so uncivilised as those among which Mr. Duncan now found 
himself, whether superstition or cruelty is the prevailing passion— 
INSTINCT, as Mr. Couch would call it. Arrived at the mountain¬ 
ous district of Zoglogho in his way up the country, he could not 
help remarking the ‘‘curious,” and we may add cruel, mode they 
pursue of transporting their cattle. “They tie the feet of the 
animal together, and run a long palm pole between the legs, and 
thus carry the poor animals with their backs downwards, each end 
of the pole resting on the heads of the carriers. Six men are ge¬ 
nerally appointed to carry one bullock, who relieve one another in 
turns. It would seem impossible, to those unacquainted with 
African cattle, for two men to carry one bullock; but it must be 
remembered that the African ox is very small in comparison with 
English oxen.” 

“ The natives have no sympathy or feeling for the lower animals. 
They throw the animal down when they get tired, with its back 
on the rough gravel, so that if they have a long journey to perform, 
the flesh is cut to the bone, and the death of the poor animaljoften 
ensues from such usage.” 

About Baflo—a town three miles west of Zoglogho—“the cattle 
are of a superior breed, being very square, and clean on their legs, 
but very small. Sheep and goats are considerably more numerous 
than nearer the coast; but no horses are bred in this part of the 
country, consequently the natives were very timid in approaching 
my animal.” 

As might have been anticipated, we think, at the outset, Mr. 
Duncan had in the course of his journey to replace a cast shoe. 
This he found a “difficult task;” since he had no “proper nails”; 
and he found the hoofs of the African horse “ so hard that a nail 
could scarcely be driven without the assistance of a brad-awl.” 
“Fortunately, however,” adds Mr. Duncan, “I had a few common 
nails, and a shoemaker’s hammer, so that by beating the nails a 
little thinner, and using the awl, I managed to fix the shoe, and 
prepared for my journey back to BafFo.” 

Seven miles northward of Aliwaba, Mr. Duncan and his party 


REVIEW—TRAVELS IN WESTERN AFRICA. 49 

passed a small kroom (village) in a country where, among other 
sources of industry and emolument, iron is manufactured, and 
stirrups, “similar to those used by the Moors in the neighbourhood 
of Tangiers and El-Arish. Bits for horses’ bridles are also 
manufactered here of a very severe description, the cross-bar or 
mouth-piece having in its centre a ring large enough to allow the 
horse’s under-jaw to pass easily through it: this ring, of course, acts 
both as bit and curb, but is very likely to break the horse’s jaw, 
which is very frequently the case in the Fellattah country.” 

Still proceeding on his journey northward, ten miles farther, 
“we arrived,” continues Mr. Duncan, “at a kroom of about four 
hundred inhabitants. Here we saw a large number of horses of a 
small description. They much resembled our Hampshire foresters 
in shape, though a little finer breed. They were sold in this 
market at the rate of four heads of cowries, equal to four Spanish 
dollars on the west coast of Africa, but are of much greater value 
in the interior.” 

At Kahakano, a town a hundred miles or more northward of 
Akuaha, “ horses here invariably make part of the family, being 
fastened to a peg driven into the ground or floor, by the hind foot, 
having only about a foot of rope. The children are often seen 
playing between the legs of the animal, with which it seems much 
pleased, often nibbling at their heads with its lips, or licking their 
faces, as a spaniel would.” 

At Kallakandi, fifty miles farther up the country, “slaves were 
exposed in the outer market in great numbers, and early in the 
morning considerable numbers had changed owners. Sheep, goats, 
and oxen, are numerous, and very handsome. Horses are hand¬ 
some also, but small, few exceeding thirteen hands high.” 

We shall conclude with Mr. Duncan’s account of a poisonous 
plant growing at the foot of the Dassa Mountains, whose virulency 
is such that its juice coming in contact with the eye causes instant 
blindness, and, when absorbed into the system, immediate death ; 
thus exceeding in activity even the woorara poison. 

“The Annagoos of the Dassa mountains are considered danger¬ 
ous enemies, although by no means distinguished for their valour 
or gallantry, but on account of their superior skill in the manu¬ 
facture of different poisons. Perhaps the opinion entertained of 
these people may arise from superstition; but it is certain that a 
plant from which the strongest poison is extracted grows in 
abundance at the base of these mountains, and that with this the 
poison for their arrows is prepared. This plant grows about eight 
feet high, has a round stem about the thickness of a man’s thigh, 
and is of a greenish grey colour. Its stems are fluted triangularly, 
and shoot from the main trunk at regular intervals. The stems or 

VOL. XXI. H 




50 REVIEW—TRAVELS IN WESTERN AFRICA. 

major branches also send forth minor ones, bearing a resemblance 
and proportion to the horns of a species of deer or antelope abun¬ 
dant in this country. It is of the cactus tribe, and the whole is of 
a fleshy nature, but quite smooth and without prickles, growing 
almost without soil on the bare surface of the granite rock, and 
receiving nourishment from its long fleshy roots, which run in 
different directions, till they find some narrow fracture or crevice, 
into which they insert themselves. Their growth is very rapid. 

“ I had been cautioned by my Dahoman caboceer, early iq the 
morning previous to our marching, not to touch either a flower ora 
shrub of any description, or even pick up a pebble, as I had been 
in the habit of doing when I observed any thing new on my journey. 
I took little heed of this wholesome injunction, supposing that his 
motives were merely to prevent any delay on the road, as the day 
was likely to be rainy. Upon observing a succession of this plant 
as I rode along, I carelessly laid hold of and broke off a portion of 
one which was extremely brittle. A yell was instantly raised 
amongst my soldiers, and in a moment it was snatched out of my 
hand, and thrown a considerable distance from the path, while 
another soldier seized my horse’s head, and pulled it on one side 
from the plant. 

“ Upon inquiring the cause of such an unceremonious proceeding, 
I was assured that I had run into extreme danger myself, as well 
as all those near my person, as this plant was the most deadly 
poison to be found in that country, and that even the vapour from 
a fracture or wound in the stem or any other part of it, from which 
a milky liquid almost in a stream exudes, which comes in contact 
with the eye, invariably causes total blindness, and death imme¬ 
diately any particle of the juice comes in contact with the blood. 
Be this as it may, I certainly observed in Logazohy and some 
neighbouring krooms an extraordinary number of blind persons, as 
well as blind dogs, which naturally excited my curiosity. I 
thought that this was occasioned by the ravages of the small-pox; 
but I observed that many were totally blind where no signs of 
small-pox were visible (though this disease is very prevalent here 
as well as in all the neighbouring kingdoms to the north and east 
of these mountains); but, upon inquiry, I found that the blindness 
was attributed to coming in contact with this plant. 

“ After my return to Whydah,” adds Mr. Duncan in a note, 

“ I happened to mention this circumstance to a Portuguese slave- 
merchant, at the same time doubting the truth of the powers of this 
plant. He assured me of the correctness of this information, and 
that the same plant is to be found in the Brazils.” 


51 


MISCELLANEA. 


The Moral Character of the Monkey. 

A GENTLEMAN whose premises were infested by a large breed of 
sparrows, said they were birds of no principle. Of all monkeys it 
may be said, with much more propriety, that they are beasts of no 
principle, for they have every evil quality, and not one good one. 
They are saucy and insolent; always making an attempt to bully 
and terrify people, and biting those first who are most afraid of 
them. An impertinent curiosity runs through all their actions; 
they never can let things alone, but must know w r hat is going 
forward. If a pot or kettle is set on the fire, and the cook turns 
her back*, the monkey whips off the cover to see what she has put 
into it, even though he cannot get at it without setting his feet on 
the hot bars of the grate. Mimicking is another of his qualities; 
whatever he sees men do, he must affect to do the like. He seems 
to have no rule of his own, and so is ruled by the actions of men 
or beasts; as weak people follow the fashion of the world, whether 
it be good or bad. No monkey has any sense of gratitude, but 
takes his victuals with a snatch, and then grins in the face of the 
person who gives it him, lest he should take it away again; for he 
supposes that all men will snatch away what they can lay hold of, 
as all monkeys do. Through an invincible selfishness, no monkey 
considers any individual but himself, as the poor cat found to her 
cost, when the monkey burned her paws with raking his chestnuts 
out of the fire. They can never eat in company without quarrelling 
and plundering one another. Every monkey delights in mischief, 
and cannot help doing it when it is in his power. If any thing he 
takes hold of can be broken or spoiled, he is sure to find the way of 
doing it; and he chatters with pleasure when he hears the noise of 
a china vessel smashed to pieces on the pavement. If he takes up 
a bottle of ink, he empties it on the floor. He unfolds all your 
papers and scatters them about the room, and what he cannot undo 
he tears to pieces; and it is wonderful to see how much of his 
work he will do in a few minutes, when he happens to get loose.— 
Sharpe's London Magazine. 


The Domestic Fowl. 

The game fowl is one of the most gracefully formed and most 
beautifully coloured of our domestic breeds of poultry ; and in its 
form, aspect, and that extraordinary courage which characterizes 
its natural disposition, exhibits all that either the naturalist or the 
sportsman would at once recognise as the beau ideal of high blood; 




52 


MISCELLANEA. 


embodying, in short, in its individual person, all the most in¬ 
dubitable characteristics of gallinaceous aristocracy. 

We do not possess any very satisfactory record of the original 
country of the game fowl; but I am disposed to cede that honour 
to India, the natives of which have always been remarkable for 
their love of cock-fighting; and we also know that there still exists 
in India an original variety of game cock, very similar to our own , 
but inferior in point of size. As to the date or occasion of their 
first introduction into the British islands, we know nothing certain; 
but I think it probable that we owe it to the invasion of Julius 
Caesar, the Romans having been very fond of the sport of cock- 
fighting. Some have asserted the existence of the breed amongst 
us prior to the abqve era; but they can adduce no proof of their 
assertion, and both probability and plausibility are against their 
opinion, and in favour of mine*. 

The earliest record of cock-fighting in England is in the time of 
Fitzstephen, who wrote the life of Thomas a Becket, in the reign 
of Henry II, about A.D. 1100. 

The game fowl is somewhat inferior in size to other breeds, and 
in his shape he approximates more closely to the elegance and 
lightness of form usually characteristic of a pure and uncon¬ 
taminated race. Amongst poultry he is what the Arabian is 
amongst horses, the high-bred short horn amongst cattle, and the 
fleet greyhound amongst the canine race. 

The flesh of the game fowl is of a beautifully white colour, 
tender and delicate in the extreme. The hens are excellent layers; 
and although the eggs are somewffiat under the average size, they 
are not to be surpassed, if indeed equalled, as to excellence of 
flavour. Such being the character of this variety of fowl, it would, 
doubtless, be much more extensively cultivated than it is, were it 
not for the difficulty attending the rearing of the young brood ; 
their pugnacity being such, that a brood is scarcely feathered before 
at least one-half is killed or blinded by fighting. 

Buffon, and other continental writers on natural history, have 
given this fowl the not unappropriate title of the ‘‘English Fowl;” 
and truly it is in England that the very best specimens of the breed 
are to be met with. I cannot here avoid mentioning the justly 
celebrated breed in possession of the Right Honourable the Earl of 
Derby—a breed that has been preserved in that noble family for 
many generations, and that has never yet been known to turn tail, 
notwithstanding the pertinacious adherence of a white feather to 
the pile; a blemish that no breeding has been able to eradicate, 
but which, notwithstanding the well-known proverbial prejudice to 
the contrary, has, in this instance, been the never-failing con¬ 
comitant of courage. 

From the Farmer's Herald. 

* H. D. Richardson on “ The Domestic Fowl.” 


MISCELLANEA. 


53 


Cut-Straw Litter. 

At a recent weekly council of the Royal Agricultural So¬ 
ciety of England, Mr. W. R. Browne laid before the council 
the report of Mr. Bennett, M.P., and himself on their personal 
inspection of the plan pursued by Mr. W. Browne on his farm 
at Winterbourne-Stoke, in reference to the cutting of straw and 
the employment of it as litter for his stock,—agreeably with the 
request of the council at a former meeting, when Lord Portman 
called their attention to the subject. It appeared from this report 
that Mr. Browne had about fifty head of young cattle in stalls, their 
food, whether green or dry, being cut for them; and that they were 
all littered daily with cut straw, which effectually absorbs all 
moisture. The stalls are cleared out every second week, and the 
manure thus obtained is fit for immediate use. The cattle were 
found clean and doing well. The straw is cut into pieces of from 
one to two inches in length, by means of a steam-engine (employed 
for the general use of the establishment), at an expense of one 
shilling for each four hundred bushels. The manure, from its short 
texture, does not interfere with the working of the implements 
employed on the land; and in the spring may be employed as a top¬ 
dressing for wheat, without obstructing the operation of the hoe. 
It may be applied to turnips with great advantage, after they have 
been thinned out: it may then be mixed with the soil by the hoe; 
and in dry seasons, on dry soils, such application of cut straw manure 
will, they think, be attended with great advantages. Coarse salt 
is sprinkled occasionally on the manure-heaps, for the purpose of 
preventing their becoming over-heated. 


The Wolves of Tyrone. 

In the mountainous parts of the county Tyrone the inhabitants 
suffered much from the wolves, and gave from the public fund as 
much for the head of one of these animals as they would now give 
for the capture of a notorious robber on the highway. There lived 
in those days an adventurer, who, alone and unassisted, made it 
his occupation to destroy these ravagers. The time for attacking 
them was in the night, and midnight was the best time for doing 
so, as that was their wonted time for leaving their lair in search of 
"food, when the country was at rest and all was still; then, issuing 
forth, they fell on their defenceless prey, and the carnage com¬ 
menced. There was a species of dog for the purpose of hunting 
them, called the wolf-dog; the animal resembled a rough, stout, 



54 


MISCELLANEA. 


half-bred greyhound, but was much stronger. In the county 
Tyrone there was then a large space of ground inclosed by a high 
stone wall, having a gap at each of the opposite extremities, and in 
this were secured the flocks of the surrounding farmers. Still, 
secure though this fold was deemed, it was entered by the wolves, 
and its inmates slaughtered. The neighbouring proprietors having 
heard of the noted wolf-hunter abovementioned, by name Rory 
Carragh, sent for him, and offered the usual reward, with some 
addition, if he would undertake to destroy the two remaining wolves 
that had committed such devastation. Carragh undertaking the 
task, took with him two wolf-dogs, and a little boy only twelve 
years old, the only person who would accompany him, and repaired 
at the approach of midnight to the fold in question. “ Now,” said 
Carragh to the boy, “as the two wolves usually enter the opposite 
extremities of the sheepfold at the same time, I must leave you 
and one of the dogs to guard this one while I go to the other. He 
steals with all the caution of a cat, nor will you hear him, but the 
dog will, and positively will give him the first fall: if, therefore, 
you are not active when he is down to rivet his neck to the ground 
with this spear, he will rise up and kill you both. So, good 
night.” “ I’ll do what I can,” said the little boy, as he took the 
spear from the wolf-hunter’s hand. The boy immediately threw 
open the gate of the fold, and took his seat in the inner part, close 
to the entrance; his faithful companion crouching at his side, and 
seeming perfectly aware of the dangerous business he was engaged 
in. The night was very dark and cold, and the poor little boy, 
being benumbed with the chilly air, w r as beginning to fall into a 
kind of sleep, when at that instant the dog with a roar leaped 
across him, and laid his mortal enemy upon the earth. The boy 
was roused into double activity by the voice of his companion, and 
drove the spear through the wolf’s neck as he had been directed, 
at which time Carragh appeared, bearing the head of the other. 


Editors. 

We know no class of the community from whom so much dis¬ 
interested benevolence and thankless labour are expected as from 
editors of newspapers. They are expected to feel for every one 
but themselves; to correct public abuses, and private ones also, 
without giving offence; to sustain the difficulties of others, without 
regard to their own ; to condemn improper measures of every one 
and no one at the same time. They are expected to note every 
thing that is important or extraordinary; and notwithstanding the 
diversity of men’s opinions, their notice must be calculated to please 
every one and at the same time offend no one. — Dr. Johnson. 



MISCELLANEA. 


55 


The late Dr. Hope. 

The narrative of this highly-gifted man is most instructive. 
He came to London proud and self-dependent. He was endowed 
with intellectual powers of the highest order, and he knew it. He 
would have little commerce with mankind, for he deemed himself 
superior to his fellows, and he lived apart in study and abstraction. 
If he worshipped any thing, it was the mind which he discerned in 
the productions of the learned, and of which he knew himself pos¬ 
sessed. In the silence of his retirement he vowed that he would 
become great in his generation, and that men should acknowledge 
him for a master and a guide. For years he laboured in obscurity 
and poverty. He made discoveries in science, but could not pro¬ 
mulgate them; for it was necessary to accompany his statements 
with explanatory diagrams and drawings, and he was not rich 
enough to secure the assistance of an artist. With his discoveries 
accomplished, the ardent student, bent only upon winning the race 
with the competitors whom he saw still far ahead, gave up years to 
the study of drawing and painting, and, in time, produced with his 
own hand the designs that were essential to the publication of his 
work. We believe—but the fact we do not distinctly remember— 
that he himself engraved them. The proud and ambitious man was 
famous in a morning. The task that he had set himself was ac¬ 
complished. Sensible of the power that was in him, he had com¬ 
mitted a vow to heaven that he would become famous, and that 
men should acknowledge his greatness, and the goal was reached. 
Not yet sufficiently, however, as the doctor deemed. One prize 
remained to be achieved; that obtained, and his work was done. 
The first physician must be the chief physician of the principal 
metropolitan hospital. Dr. Hope announced himself a candidate. 
An older and more influential practitioner opposed him, but the 
youthful and devoted follower of science gained the day. Flushed 
with success, he returned to his home, and bade his wife rejoice, 
for the promise was fulfilled, the early resolution honestly made 
good. Wife and husband rejoiced no more. That night the vic¬ 
torious student ruptured a bloodvessel: he languished thencefor¬ 
ward, and soon died. ' 


Foreign Cattle. 

An order from the Board of Customs has lately been issued, in 
substance similar to the one dated February 1845, directing the 
collectors and comptrollers of the customs of the several outports 



66 


MISCELLANEA. 


of the kingdom to be made acquainted that information has been 
officially received of the prevalence of an infectious disorder among 
sheep in several parts of the continent. They have directed that 
they will give instructions to the officers under their survey care¬ 
fully to examine all sheep and cattle which may be imported into 
their respective ports from the continental states of Europe; and 
that, in the event of their appearing to be infected with any dis¬ 
order, they are not to permit them to be landed from the importing 
vessel without an inspection as to their soundness by some com¬ 
petent person, and to report the circumstances forthwith to the 
commissioners for their direction. The Lords of the Treasury 
have, accordingly, through their Secretary, Mr. Trevelyan, with 
reference to the instructions already conveyed to the Board of 
Customs on the subject of a certain disease raging among cattle on 
the continent, desired that the Board would enjoin upon all their 
officers the greatest attention to the state of the cattle imported; 
they (the officers) were to be apprised of this communication, and 
enjoined to a strict attention to the matter, with reference to the 
previous order of the Government on the subject, taking care not 
to fail to represent to the Board any matter that should arise fit for 
their cognizance. 


We understand that the Emperor of Russia has recently for¬ 
warded a medal to the Duke of Richmond, as President of the 
Royal Agricultural Association of England, and in testimony of 
his Grace’s exertions for the promotion and encouragement of 
agriculture. This fact was made public by J. Ellman, Esq., at 
the recent annual dinner of the Lewes Farmers’ Club.— Brigh¬ 
ton Gazette. 


Extraordinary Fact. 

There have lately died some of the sheep on the farm at 
Whitley Abbey, near this city (Coventry), and seven lambs have 
been left without the care of their natural parents. It occurred about 
the same time that a large bitch of the shepherd breed had a litter 
of whelps, which were immediately taken from her and drowned, 
and the lambs placed under her care and protection. It is not more 
extraordinary than true, that the bitch immediately adopted her new 
charge, and nurses and suckles them with the greatest kindness.— 
Coventry Standard. 




THE 


VETERINARIAN. 


VOL. XXI, 
No. 242. 


FEBRUARY 1848. 


Third Series, 
No. 2. 


LAMENESS IN HORSES. 

By William Percivall, M.R.C.S . and V.S. 

[Continued from vol. xx, p. 673.] 

Neurotomy. 

HAYING shewn what success has attended the performance of 
neurotomy under favouring, or, to speak more correctly, under 
fitting and proper circumstances, I should be doing injustice to my 
reader by setting the operation before him in a light falsely daz¬ 
zling, were I to withhold from him the recital of occurrences which 
from their aspect and termination have seemed to warrant others 
in bringing them forward as so many failures, and facts upon 
which arguments might be securely grounded against neurotomy. 
There is no more sure way, in the end, of bringing any new 
remedy or operation into discredit than that of setting forth all its 
virtues and good qualities to the entire exclusion of its bad ones: 
in the rong run, failures will be certain to make themselves known, 
and the result of such disclosures is likely to be, that what at first 
was thought and said to be perfection itself, is now declared to be 
good for nothing, or absolutely bad perhaps; it being in the one 
instance as much unfairly decried as it was in the other unduly 
extolled. Such has been the case with neurotomy. Its promoters 
and abetters, some influenced by fame, others by gain, set it forth 
at the outset in brilliant and shadeless colours, and thus succeeded 
in raising it to a great height in public estimation; so that, when 
reverses did come, its fall proved all the greater. Still had it 
sufficient buoyancy, sufficient real merit, to recover from such 
sweeping condemnation; and now, once more, is it restored by all 
reflecting veterinarians to that place in their catalogue of remedies 
VOL. XXL I 






58 


NEUROTOMY. 


which it ought to have occupied from the first, and which it is not 
likely now to suffer displacement from. 

The Insuccess of Neurotomy, principally from causes which 
will be pointed out, may be shewn in various ways. Horses can 
be brought forward who have experienced no benefit from it; nay, 
cases can be related in which horses have thrown off their hoofs in 
consequence of it. The foot deprived of its power of feeling is as 
liable to receive injury as, perhaps more liable than, one that 
retains its sensibility. Either from being pricked in shoeing, from 
picking up a nail in the road, from a wound from a flint stone or a 
piece of glass lying in the road, or a bruise from the opposite foot, 
or a festered corn, or some other like cause, the senseless foot re¬ 
ceives injury; which, not being as in the natural foot accompanied 
by pain, continues unheeded by the horse, and probably by his 
master, and the result is, inflammation and suppuration, it may 
be to an alarming extent, before any discovery be made of the 
mischief. Under such circumstances, we cannot, have no right 
indeed to, feel surprise at purulent matter having under-run the 
sole and insinuated itself between the laminae, so as, in the end, to 
occasion the separation of the hoof from the foot. Is neurotomy 
to blame in this case! Was the master or groom not called on to 
pay especial attention to the foot or feet of an animal of which he 
had caused the nerves of sensation to be cut in two! Would any 
man of common reason suppose that a foot without feeling could 
evince pain or lameness from injury the same as a foot with feel¬ 
ing 1 And would he not consider it his duty, by attention to his 
horse’s feet, to compensate in some measure for the deprivation he 
had caused him 1 I know that such occurrences as loss of hoof 
have arisen from over-work, or from work greater than the foot 
in the state in which it was operated on was prepared to bear, 
and that under such circumstances such a melancholy termination 
has been unavoidable : at the same time, I believe this to be a rare 
incident when due circumspection has been employed. 

To command Success in Neurotomy three considerations 
require attention:— 

Istly. The subject must be fit and proper; in particular, the 
disease for which neurotomy is performed should be suitable in 
kind, seat, stage, &c. 

2dly. The operation must be skilfully and effectually performed. 

3dly. The use that is made of the patient afterwards should not 
exceed what his altered condition appears to have fitted him for. 

The veterinarian who suffers himself to be guided in practice by 
considerations such as these will have little cause to regret having 
embarked in the experiment: on the contrary, in the long run, he 
will find he has thereby restored numbers of horses to work who 


NEUROTOMY. 59 

were utterly useless, saved many lives from slaughter, and obtained 
for neurotomy a good name within his circle of practice. 

A plain^and safe argument wherewith to meet the objections to 
neurotomy is, simply to ask the question—what the animal is 
worth, or to what useful purpose he can be put, who happens to 
be the subject of such an operation. If the horse can be shewn 
to be still serviceable and valuable, then is he not a legitimate 
subject for the operation. The rule of procedure I laid down 
when treating on neurotomy in my “ Lectures on the Veterinary 
Art/' so long ago as 1823, was to operate on no other but the 
incurably lame horse; and whenever this has been attended to, 
not only has success been the most brilliant, but indemnification 
from blame or reproach has been assured. 

When first neurotomy was proclaimed as a “ cure” for certain 
descriptions of lameness which all other remedies had failed to 
remove, persons having lame horses, eager to have them restored 
to soundness, flocked around veterinary surgeons to have them 
“ unnerved;” such appearing to them no more than an ordinary 
remedy for an ordinary case. By this the veterinary practitioner 
was placed in a novel and trying situation. If he refused to ope¬ 
rate, he probably lost a customer; and if he did so, he felt that he 
was performing an operation of magnitude and risk in a case where¬ 
in milder and safer means would probably prove more efficacious. 
One veterinary surgeon in our great metropolis, during the season 
of neuroto-mania , operated on some hundreds of horses, and made 
thereby somewhere about as many pounds sterling; and the result 
has been, that, in quarters where “ nerving” and “ unnerving” 
were phrases constantly in horse-people’s mouths, the operation 
is now hardly ever heard of, neurotomy having been set down in 
their minds as a lamentable failure. And certainly, for the rough 
work, coach and cab and omnibus horses have to go through, for 
farmers’ work, for all business, in fine, wherein so little attention 
is or can be paid to the feet and legs of horses, that so long as they 
are able to go at all go they must, neurotomy is altogether unsuited, 
and from them has been very properly discarded. In situations, 
however, where scrupulous attention can be given to feet and legs, 
and where work is not forced or even called for at times that re¬ 
pose may be advisable, neurotomy judiciously practised has proved 
of very great service in more points of view than the principal one 
of lameness. For this reason it is to be regretted that it has found 
so many enemies; though less surprise is excited by this so long 
as those inimical to it are out of the profession. When men in the 
veterinary profession set themselves up in hostility against it, we 
feel anxious to learn the reason of their opposition; and therefore it 
is that I am now about to make a quotation from a veterinarian of 


60 


NEUROTOMY. 


high standing and talent of our own country, running, I am sorry 
to say, in words as follows :—“ They (the opposers of his opinions 
and discoveries * on the foot of the horse’) have added » barbarity 
surpassing in refined cruelty even the unsoling or any other cruelty 
ever proposed by the old farriers, that of nerving the horses’ legs 
when they were not relieved by their injudicious measures, and so 
destroyed the very fundamental properties of the foot, instead of 
pursuing the natural and most obvious means of prevention and 
relief from the evil. Seeing and deeply feeling the very great 
injury done to the animals, as well as to the public and ourselves, 
we cannot on such an occasion but express warmly our natural, 
and we believe just, indignation at such conduct*.” 

I shall wind up this defence of neurotomy with a paragraph 
from my own “ Lectures,” published, now, four-and-twenty years 
ago:—The incurably lame and useless horse is him alone for 
whom I recommend it (neurotomy): my object being to render 
an animal serviceable during the remainder of his life, who, other¬ 
wise, must have been given up as utterly valueless for slaughter. 
No one who has given the subject of neurotomy the least reflec¬ 
tion can imagine that the operation was ever intended to super¬ 
sede other remedies. The very nature of it is such that, as a 
dernier resource, it is applicable only to a desperate and hopeless 
case; and if it succeed in restoring one of this description, it is of 
more value and consideration to us than if it were only applicable 
to such as we can relieve by other and simpler means. In conclu¬ 
sion, let me remark, that I do not recommend such horses being 
raced, hunted, or put to any other (like) extraordinary exertions. 
They may be driven in harness, and are more especially qualified 
for four-wheeled carriages or for leaders in others: in short, for 
situations where no weight is incumbent on the fore feet. 

“ In this point of view—its objects being thus circumscribed—I 
dare prophecy that neurotomy will be known as long as the vete¬ 
rinary art. It has hitherto stood the test of this capricious age, 
and weathered out the storm of discordant opinion; it has ranked 
high in the estimation of its enthusiastic admirers; it has fallen 
into discredit and comparative dread with those who have misap- 
pied it; it has now but to rise to a certain point in the scale of 
veterinary surgery, where it will remain despite of all future 
controversy.” 

The Election of the Subject for Neurotomy it is upon 
which mainly depends the success of the operation. The operation 
itself is simple and easy of performance; but, however well per¬ 
formed, cannot avail in a subject unhappily chosen for it, or devoted 

* “ The Foot of the Horse.” By Bracy Clark, p. 56. 



NEUROTOMY. 


61 


to it at an improper time. It is therefore a duty the operator owes 
to himself, as well as to his employer, to ascertain the fitness in 
all respects of the animal brought to him for operation ; nor should 
he suffer himself to be prevailed upon to undertake it, unless in 
his own mind this fitness both of subject and disease be clearly 
made out. It is the swerving from this plain rule of direction which 
has too often brought both operation and operator into disrepute. 

The INCURABLY lame Horse is the especial subject for neu¬ 
rotomy, and, above all other descriptions of lameness, that arising 
from chronic and permanent and irremediable navicularthritic dis¬ 
ease is that which holds out the best promise of success from the 
performance of such an operation. But a horse may be lame from 
this cause in one foot, or in both feet. So long as lameness is confined 
to one foot, though that lameness be severe and unrelievable, still 
may the animal be able to perform a certain amount or kind of work; 
and whether it be advisable or not to neurotomize such a horse— 
supposing he be fitted in other respects for the operation—is a 
question that will best be determined by consulting with his master 
as to the amount or kind of work he is still able to undergo, and 
the pain he appears to suffer in undergoing it, or in the stable after 
his work is done. A humane master will feel for the pain his ser¬ 
vant experiences not only at work but during rest; nor will he 
hesitate to submit his horse, under such circumstances, to neuro¬ 
tomy, although the division of the nerve be, for a moment—but 
only for a moment—exquisitely more painful than the lameness 
itself. 

With a horse, however, lame from the consequences of navicu¬ 
larthritic disease in both (fore) feet—confirmedly groggy , as the 
phrase goes—the choice does not lie between still able to work 
and neurotomy, but between neurotomy and the slaughter-house; 
for the inveterate groggy horse is absolutely worth for work next 
to nothing, while the pain many such poor beasts unremittingly 
endure wears them down in condition to that degree that their con¬ 
stitution gives way as well as their legs and feet. And, therefore, I 
repeat, nothing can save such horses from slaughter but the hand of 
the neurotomist; nor will that avail them at such times as other 
grave morbific changes have supervened upon those in the navicu¬ 
lar joint, or where age has added decrepitude to lameness. 

In neither case—neither in one nor both navicularthritic feet— 
will the judicious veterinary practitioner operate at a time when 
inflammatory action is detectible in the feet. It is a rule with 
surgeons, never, if it be possible to avoid so doing, to cut into an 
inflamed part; and veterinary surgeons should make it their rule, 
in the performance of neurotomy, to postpone the operation when 
inflammation is present, until such time as, by suitable means, such 


62 


NEUROTOMY. 


inflammation has been either altogether got rid of, or else sufficiently- 
abated—by, in the case of the foot, taking blood from the toe, if 
that be necessary, and by hot or cold applications, poultices, &c. 
and physic, as the case may appear to require. In chronic cases, 
where blood-letting is not called for, standing in clay for so many 
hours a-day will prove an excellent refrigerent. 

In regard to disease of the navicular joint, there is another stage 
of it besides the inflammatory in which neurotomy is not to be 
performed, and that is the acute or active ulcerative condition of 
the articular surfaces. It must be evident to the smallest reflection 
that motion of the joint and pressure upon surfaces in such a con¬ 
dition cannot fail to be productive of the worst consequences: 
ulceration, aggravated by such abuse, will proceed with that re¬ 
doubled speed and malignancy, that, the union of the flexor per- 
forans tendon with the navicular bone being the especial seat of 
it, we need feel no surprise at rupture of tendon and dislocation of 
bone, and consequent breaking down of the horse. But, how is 
this ulcerated state of joint to be foretold!—how are we to know 
for certain that it exists 1 The best indications of its presence to 
my mind are an inflammatory condition of foot—for acute ulcera¬ 
tion does not exist without inflammation, causing extreme soreness 
of tread : there is, with the excessive lameness present, a shrink¬ 
ing from, a sort of dread of, throwing the weight of the body upon 
the fore feet, and this is accompanied by the expression of great 
pain in the stable. In such a case as this, means should be used to 
disperse the inflammation, and absolute rest should be strictly 
enjoined, with the view of, if possible, in the absence of motion of 
the joint, inducing granulative action in the exulcerated parts. Nor 
should any operation be undertaken until the hoofs had become 
cool, and the soreness of tread had greatly abated. 

The Horse lame from the Effects of Laminitis, whose 
soles are so sunk that they give evidence of depression of the 
coffin bone, is not a fit subject for neurotomy. With (fore) feet in 
the condition his are, we may work some good by pressure upon 
the soles to the extent that the animal can bear it; but, to deprive 
them of sensibility, and to induce the horse to use them the same 
as he would sound feet, would be certain destruction of them. 
After laminitis, when the sole is sunk across its middle, just ante¬ 
rior to the toe of the frog, the coffin bone is actually resting upon 
the sole, creating the force which causes the latter to bilge; and 
what we are desirous of doing is, to take the weight off the sole 
from above, while we augment the force of pressure upon it from 
below. Neurotomy would defeat this object; and besides that, 
would force the coffin bone actually through the sole, and so prove 
the occasion of total destruction to the orgasm of the foot. 


NEUROTOMY. 


63 


There is, however, a kind of laminitis which we may call chronic 
or sub-acute, wherein the coffin bones are not at all or but little 
displaced, and consequently the soles not sunk; and this dis¬ 
ease, from a repetition of attacks, will now and then end in pro¬ 
ducing grogginess. To neurotomy in cases of this description 
there is no objection : on the contrary, when such a subject is too 
lame to work neurotomy is recommendable. 

In Ossification of the Cartilages, partial or complete 
anchylosis of the coffin joint or pastern joint, when lameness there¬ 
from, as it commonly is, is extreme, and such as to render the horse 
unworkable, neurotomy will sometimes afford relief by creating a 
forced use of the ossified parts, and so, in the course of time, through 
perpetual effort, by degrees, generating motion in them, the con¬ 
sequence of the wearing away (absorption) of such points of the 
ossification as most, mechanically, oppose it. 

For Ringbone neurotomy has been performed with perfect 
success; although, unless such ringbone interfere with the motion 
of a joint, and thus become a cause of partial anchylosis, it may be 
set down in that class of diseases which admit of relief by other and 
less (to the animal economy) expensive remedies. Ringbones have 
been distinguished into high and low according to their situation upon 
the pastern ; the high as well as the low, however, admits of hav¬ 
ing its sensibility abstracted by neurotomy, the division of the 
nerves in the former case having to be made either upon or above 
the fetlock. In vol. iii of The VETERINARIAN, p. 213, a case is 
related by Mr. Rickwood, in which neurotomy proved completely 
successful after blistering and firing had both failed ; notwithstand¬ 
ing the work the animal had to perform afterwards was of the 
most trying nature. Still, I would repeat, that ringbone is not a 
disease which commonly calls for neurotomy, because relief may 
generally be afforded by simpler remedies. 

“ In 1824,” says Mr. Rickwood, in vol. iii of The VETERI¬ 
NARIAN, p. 213, “ I operated on a galloway, the property of Mr. 
John Palmer, of Goldington, in this neighbourhood (Bedford). He 
went very lame in the near hind leg, in consequence of ringbone. 
1 had frequently fired and blistered, with no good effect. After 
performing the unnerving operation the horse got up quite sound, 
and so continues up to this period (1830). Pie has for some time 
past been let out as a hack in this town.” 

In the case which follows, the lameness arising from high ring¬ 
bone became removed by neurotomy:—• 

Mr. John Tombs, antecedently to his departure for India, ope¬ 
rated on a blood filly for 11 an enormous ringbone upon the off 
hind pastern.” She went exceeding lame, and had been repeatedly 
blistered, unavailingly. Mr. Tombs “ exised a portion of the meta -» 


64 


NEUROTOMY, 


tarsal nerve,” and directed that the wound be treated secundum 
artem. The reason why he divided the nerve above its bifurcation 
was, that he was debarred from doing so below by the enormity of 
the exostosis. Mr. Tombs did not learn the result of the operation 
until his return to England (in 1831); when he was informed that 
the lameness had vanished three days after the operation, and that 
the mare had, since, run three races, and had been sold. And that 
at the (then) present time she was doing sharp work, free entirely 
from lameness.— VETERINARIAN, vol. iv, p.542-3. 

The next case will shew that, when ringbone prevails on one 
side, or is confined thereto, only the nerve on that side need be 
operated on. 

In July 1836, Mr. Morris, V.S., Bideford, Devonshire, was 
requested by C. Radley, Esq., surgeon, of Newton Abbot, to look 
at a lame mare of his. She was four years old, and had two ring¬ 
bones, one upon the near fore leg, the other upon the near hind. 
The exostosis first appeared when she was a twelvemonth old. 
(Does not this fact, along with many analogous ones, militate in 
favour of the hereditary nature of ringbone!) She had been seve¬ 
ral times fired and blistered in both her (ringboned) legs by a 
farrier previously to Mr. Morris coming to reside at Bideford. 
She was (now) lame only in the near fore leg. “ Having atten¬ 
tively examined her,” continues Mr. Morris, “ I was convinced 
that the seat of lameness was confined to the outer side of the 
pastern. I recommended that she be nerved, to which the 
owner assented. Having prepared her, on the 6th July I per¬ 
formed the operation on the outer side only. The wound soon 
healed, and a month after, I had the pleasure of seeing her trot and 
gallop perfectly sound. Mr. Radley rides her, when visiting his 
patients, upon all kinds of roads, and says ‘ she never stumbles/ 
and that he prefers riding her to either of his horses.”— VETERI¬ 
NARIAN, vol. x, p. 201. 

For CONTRACTED Hoofs, viewing them in the light of idio¬ 
pathic disease, or as being the immediate cause of the existing 
lameness, in the uninflamed condition of the foot, and when conse¬ 
quential changes of its orgasm have taken place which bid defi¬ 
ance to therapeutic measures, neurotomy is a warrantable resource. 
Indeed, regarding the contraction as mechanically occasioning lame¬ 
ness by the pressure of the sides or heels of the hoof upon the sides 
or sensible parts of the foot, the freedom and boldness which neuro¬ 
tomy will encourage in the tread is calculated to prove of effect in 
expanding the hoof, and so removing the assumed cause of the 
lameness: not that this is of much consequence so long as the 
foot remains devoid of feeling; but that it may tell remotely to its 
advantage, supposing the foot after a time to recover its sensibility. 


NEUROTOMY. 


65 


There have been many instances of horses that have been neuroto- 
mized on account of lameness continuing to go sound, even after 
the demonstrated return of feeling in consequence of the re-union 
of the nervous trunks, and the case of contraction in question may 
be classed among such permanent restorations. The annexed case 
affords a good example of the result of severing the nerves in con¬ 
traction :— 

In November 1828, a black mare, the property of Mr. Buss, of 
the George-inn, Bedford, went extremely lame from contraction in 
both fore feet. She could not, from pain, bear to stand up in 
her stable even sufficiently long to take her requisite food. Mr. 
Rickwood operated on her, confining his operation to one nerve in 
each leg. When the wounds were healed she was taken back 
to work, and proved as useful as any sound horse; continuing now 
to stand the same time as other horses, and doing her work as 
well.— Veterinarian, vol. iii, p. 213. 

The preceding Cases will suffice to shew, that, for lameness 
in the foot, coronet, or pastern, incurable or unrelievable by thera¬ 
peutic means; for navicularthritis and its consequences; for the 
effects of chronic coronitis and laminitis, barring sunk soles; for 
ossified cartilages, for ringbone, for contraction, the operation of 
neurotomy is especially applicable, and to such has been for the 
most part confined. Nor will those practitioners who regard their 
own credit, or that of the operation, feel desirous of extending 
much, for lameness at least, its sphere of operation. In no part of 
the body do we possess equal power over the nerves supplying 
sensation as we do over the—isolated or rather peninsulated—foot. 
Two nervous trunks, one running on either side of the pastern, 
form the sole communication between it and the brain, and these 
trunks take subcutaneous courses, wdierein they are readily acces¬ 
sible to the knife. Most other parts and organs of the body derive 
their nerves from various surrounding sources, from below as well 
as from above them; hence the difficulty, next to impossibility, 
indeed, in some instances, of cutting off nervous communication. 
This circumstance, taken into account with one other, viz. the 
frequently varied and extensive seat of the disease, will account 
for the failures that have attended attempts to restore spavined 
horses to soundness through neurotomy. 1 do not mean to say that 
such experiments have not at times succeeded, or that they may 
not succeed again, when the spavined case be proved to be isolated, 
to consist in uncomplicated exostosis; though this last is a case 
wherein neurotomy is seldom called for. Furthermore, it must 
be remembered, that, in operating on nerves running to muscles as 
well as to other parts, we are dividing motor as well as sensitive 
fibres; and that thereby not sensation alone is destroyed, but motion 
likewise, leaving the part to which the divided nerve is running 
destitute of motion as well as sensation: therefore it is that neu- 
VOL. XXI. K 


66 


NEUROTOMY. 


rotomy, as a remedy for removing pain only; is not applicable when 
the seat of pain or lameness is above the knee or hock. Nor, I 
may add, has neurotomy been found any other but injurious in 
what go by the name of back sinew cases / and for the twofold 
reason, of the difficulty there is in completely cutting off sensation, 
and of the liability that still must exist in every deranged or dis¬ 
eased tendon or theca to what we familiarly call “ break down” 
afresh under the continued operation of weight and extraordinary 
muscular force. 

Neurotomy has other Objects besides the removal of lame¬ 
ness. In effecting the immediate and total abstraction of pain and 
irritation, it has rendered marked service in cases of altogether a 
different nature from lameness, as well as of entirely opposite nature, 
one to another. 

Both the cestral and generative functions have become restored 
through neurotomy. Brood mares that have proved barren in con¬ 
sequence of painful lameness annihilating in them all sexual desire, 
and that have ceased to have at the usual season any return of the 
oestrum, have, from losing such pain, had their natural generative 
functions restored, and become again good breeders. 

“ In 1822,” writes Mr. Rickwood, in The Veterinarian, 
vol. iii, p. 213, “ a chestnut cart mare at Oakley, the property 
of the Marquis of Tavistock, went very lame in the near foot 
behind, in consequence of complete ossification of the lateral 
cartilages and extensive ossific disease around the coronet. She 
scarcely ever placed the foot upon the ground, but generally moved 
on three legs. Her sufferings prevented the periodical oestrum. 
She had not bred for years. About two months after the opera¬ 
tion she went to work, and moved sound. She has bred several 
healthy foals, and works as usual.” 

Traumatic Tetanus has had its Course arrested by 
Neurotomy. In a paper “ on Tetanus,” read by Mr. Henderson, 
V.S. to the Queen Dowager, before the Veterinary Medical Society, 
in the year 1832, that gentleman says—“ I have known a case (of 
tetanus), produced by a wound in the foot, cured by the operation 
of neurotomy; I have also known the same treatment in other 
cases fail. So, likewise, in tetanus arising from docking, horses 
have recovered, in consequence of the diseased part being ampu¬ 
tated (which, in fact, is nothing but neurotomy); in other cases of 
the kind the same has failed.”—“ I particularly recollect,” adds 
Mr. Henderson, “ having examined one case where I found the 
spinal nerves very vascular, and the intestines bordering on in¬ 
flammation ; and such appearances naturally lead me to a belief, 
that, unless an operation can be performed in a very early stage 
of the complaint, we have but little chance of success.”— VETERI¬ 
NARIAN, vol. v, p. 67. 


[To be continued.] 


67 


CONTRIBUTIONS TO ZOOLOGICAL PATHOLOGY. 

[From the Annales de Chemie et de Physique, vol. 82, anno 1843.] 

Translated by JAMES MERCER, M.D., F.R.C.S.E., Lecturer on 

Anatomy , Edinburgh. 

Part * * On the “ Verminous Alterations” of the Blood of the 
Dog, as determined by the great number of “ Hema- 
TOZAIRS ” of the Genus FlLARlA, by MM. 

GRUBY and DELAFOND. 

Physiologists and anatomists have for a long time stated, 
undeniedly, that the presence of certain entozairs in the nourishing 
fluids of animals depended on the cold state of the blood, as found 
in frogs and fishes. In the mammiferous animals the same fila¬ 
ments have sometimes been found in the course of the circulation 
of their blood; but it is very probable that these filaments got 
into the circulation after having perforated the structures of those 
organs where they had been developed. It is, then, a point of 
great importance to physiology, pathology, and natural history, to 
demonstrate not only the existence of circulating entozaria in the 
course of the blood, but also to prove their constant presence in 
that fluid in those animals which come near in structure to that 
of man. But as science does not possess, at the present time, a 
demonstrative example of the exact manner of the circulation of 
these filaments in the blood of the mammifera, we shall, shortly, 
give that part to the Academie of the discovery which we have 
made of those “ entozaires ” that are found circulating in the blood 
of a dog of a vigorous constitution, and apparently in a good state 
of health. 

These filaments were of a diameter from 0.003 millimetre to 
0.005 millimetre. The body is transparent, and without any 
colour. The anterior extremity is obtuse, and the posterior, or 
caudal, is terminated in a very slender filament. Towards the 
anterior part we observed a small hair-like furrow, of length 
about 0.0005 millimetre, which might perhaps be considered as a 
buccal fissure. 

From all these characters, this species of “hematozaria” attaches 
itself to the genus “ Filaria.” 

The movements of these animals are very vivid, their vitality 
even persisting for ten days after the blood has been drawn from 
the bloodvessels, and received into a vessel placed in a tempera¬ 
ture of 15 centigrades. On examining a drop of this blood under 


68 


CONTRIBUTIONS TO ZOOLOGICAL PATHOLOGY. 


the lens of the microscope, we see these “ hematozaria ” floating 
in an undulatory manner amongst the blood globules, curving and 
uncurving themselves, and twisting and untwisting again, with 
great vivacity. 

To satisfy ourselves that these filaments existed in the whole 
current of the circulation, we have examined the blood of the 
coccygeal arteries, the external jugulars, the capillaries of the con¬ 
junctiva, of the buccal mucous membrane, of the skin, and of the 
muscles; and in everywhere, in these structures, we were presented 
with these “ entozoaires.” Within twenty days we examined daily 
the capillaries of different parts of the skin, and the buccal mucous 
membrane ; and, without exception, there were constantly present 
many of these animals. The urine and excrementitious matters 
did not contain any of them. 

The diameter of the blood globules of the dog is from 0.007 
millimetre to 0.008 millimetre, whilst that of the hematoic ento- 
zooa is from 0.003 millimetre to 0.005 millimetre ; there cannot, 
therefore, be the smallest doubt but that the small filaments 
circulate with the blood wherever it passes. We estimate from 
many researches, made to assure us of the quantity of blood exist¬ 
ing in the vessels of dogs of middling size; and where the dog was 
so treated, it yielded 1 kil. 500 gr. of blood from its circulation. 
But one drop of this blood, weighing 0 kil. 067 gr., afforded, regu¬ 
larly and ordinarily, from four to five of the entozaria: the dog, 
therefore, would have more than 100,000 of these filaria in its 
entire circulation. This prodigious number of these animals cannot 
but astonish us that the dog can still possess good health; never¬ 
theless, we must remark, that the entozaria of its digestive tube, 
the tcenia , are also in great numbers, and with rarely any derange¬ 
ment of the vital functions. For twelve months we have examined 
the blood in seventy or eighty dogs, without meeting with the 
hematozaria; and, to date from our discovery, we have searched, 
but in vain, in the blood of fifteen dogs. 

At the present time we have the honour of laying before the 
Members of the Academie,— 

1. A drawing of the filaria of the blood of the dog; 

2. Of the blood containing the living entozoa; 

3. The dog in which the blood is verminous; and we offer, if 
the Academie desire, to make an incision into the upper lip of the 
animal, and shew, by the microscope, the circulation of the filaria 
in its blood. 

Edinburgh, Jan. 5, 1848. 




69 


MR. T. W. MAYER TO MR. PERCIVALL, ON THE 
DISCOVERY OF NEUROTOMY . ^hi 

My dear Mr. Editor, Newcastle, Jan. 12,1848. 

In your excellent paper on Neurotomy, which appeared in the 
December number of your Journal, you state that the “introduction 
of neurotomy into veterinary medicine is comparatively of modern 
date. For years before the division of nerves had been practised 
by human surgeons, in particular for the relief of that most painful 
of all painful affections, tic doloureux ; but there is no mention of 
any application of the operation in veterinary surgery prior to the 
time of Moorcroft,” &c. 

Without intending to throw any doubt upon the accuracy of this 
statement, or desiring to enter upon the question as to who was the 
discoverer of neurotomy for the removal of lameness, I cannot help 
directing your attention to an insinuation that has been made, 
“ that neurotomy is not a modern discovery,” and a brief considera¬ 
tion of the grounds upon which that opinion is given. 

You are doubtless aware that, in many of our old writers, an 
operation, which they called taking up the veins, was very much 
praised in certain diseases of the feet and hock ; in fact, I believe 
that the operation is now sometimes performed by the old farriers 
for what is called bog spavins. It is upon this practice of taking 
up the veins, or, as the French call it, barring the veins, that 
a foundation is sought for the truth of the remark that neurotomy 
was not unknown to the ancients. 

In a little work, intituled “ The Art of Shoeing Horses,” by the 
Sieur de Solleysel^ to which are added Notes on his Practice, by 
Frederick Clifford Cherry, Principal Veterinary Surgeon, the 
operation of barring the veins is thus described in chapter IV, 
which treats of flat feet, and such as have their soles round and 
high:— 

. . . . “Above all things, if your horse has flat feet, you 

should bar the pastern veins. This operation, however, is not 
absolutely necessary, unless your horse has his soles round and 
high; yet this is not to say but that the doing of it contributes 
very much to the amendment of flat feet. To do it, you must 
know that in the pastern there are two veins below the joint, the 
one upon the inside, and the other upon the out; which veins must 
be barred, that so you may put a stop to the superfluous humour 
which falls down upon the lower part of the foot, which, through 
time, makes the foot become round and high at the sole. 

“ To bar the pastern veins right, you must tie them near the 


70 


ON THE DISCOVERY OF NEUROTOMY. 


joint with a firm thread, to the end that you retard not their cure; 
a little silk is very good for that purpose; then cut the vein be¬ 
neath, and let it bleed: if it bleed too long, you may bind up the 
orifice with a large band and a compress.” 

Upon this extract Mr. Cherry makes the following note : 

“ Solleysel, as well as most other old writers, knew but little 
of minute anatomy ; and the directions he gives to * bar the vein/ 
seem really to indicate the modern nerve operation, claimed by 
Sewell as a discovery, and subsequently by Coleman and Moor- 
croft as a mode of treatment formerly practised by each of them. 
Although he mentions veins only, it is very evident that the opera¬ 
tion was not confined to the vein alone, for in that case the ligature 
above the cut would be useless; but with the artery included 
within the ligature, profuse hemorrhage would be prevented, while 
the,moderate bleeding which he seems to allude to would go on 
from the open orifice of the vein, and also from the lower portion 
of the artery supplied by anastomising branches, which, though 
small at first, soon increase in size, and carry on the circulation as 
freely as before. If, then, this artery was included in what he 
merely calls the vein, it is hardly possible, and certainly not at all 
probable, that the nerve was left out.” 

Whether Solleysel’s ignorance of minute anatomy was so great 
that he could not distinguish the difference between artery and vein, 
or whether he was of opinion that “ a nerve is a long small bone , 
with very fine pipes or hollow fibres , wrapped up in the dura and 
pia mater, which not only covers them all in common, but also 
encloses every fibre in particular,” I do not think, from the meagre 
account he has given us of this operation, that we can safely arrive 
at the conclusion that he included both nerve, artery, and vein in 
his ligature. Let us refer, for a few moments, to the testimony of 
one of the old writers alluded to by Mr. Cherry in his note. 

The evidence I shall produce is our earliest English author, 
Blundeville, who flourished more than a century before Solleysel; 
and I would especially direct the attention of Mr. Cherry to a 
perusal of that part of his work which treats on the true “ Arte of 
Paring and Shooying all maner of Horses;” for this simple reason, 
that he will there find, briefly and quaintly expressed, all those 
leading principles which are to be found in Solleysel’s work, in 
which, and Mr. Osmer’s, Mr. Cherry has stated, alone “ are to be 
found all the supposed discoveries , principles , and improved prac¬ 
tices of later years , as regards the shoeing of horses .” 

After devoting a chapter on “ how many veins a horse may 
be let blood in, and to what end,” and after stating how these 
veins may be found, Blundeville devotes the next chapter to “ the 
order of taking up veins, and wherefore it is good,” which he 


ON THE DISCOVERY OF NEUROTOMY. 


71 


describes in the following manner:—“ First, if the horse be very 
everst and shrewd, then cast him upon a dounghill or some strawe; 
then having found the vayne which you would take up, marke 
well that part of the skinne which couereth the vayne, and pull 
that somewhat aside from the vayne with your left thumbe, to the 
intent you may slitte it with a razor without touching the vayne. 
And cut no deeper then onlly through the skinne, and that longol- 
wise, as the vayne goeth, and not above an inche long. That done, 
take away your thombe, and the skinne will returne agayne into 
his place right over the vayne, as it was before. Then with a 
cornel uncover the vayne and make it bare, and being bare, thrust 
the cornel underneath it and rayse it up, so as you may put a shoe¬ 
maker’s threade underneath, somewhat higher than the coronel, to 
knitte the vayne when the tyme is ; and if your cornel had a hole 
in the small end thereof to put in the threade it should be the easier 
done. Then the cornel standing so still, slitte the vayne longol- 
ways, that it may bleede, and having bled somewhat from above, 
then knitte it up with a sure knot, somewhat above the slitte, suf¬ 
fering it to bleede only from beneath; and having bled sufficiently, 
then knitte up the vein also beneath the slitte with a sure knot, 
and fill the hole of the vayne with salt, and then heale up the 
wounde of the skinne with turpentine and hog’s grease molten 
together and laid on with a little flax.” 

Taking into consideration the state of the veterinary art, and 
making every allowance for the ignorance that prevailed with re¬ 
gard to the circulation of the blood at this period, 1566, this plain 
statement of the manner in which this operation ought to be per¬ 
formed is most creditable to the writer. Although a bungling ope¬ 
rator might mistake the artery for the vein, slit through nerve and 
artery, and include them both in the same ligature, it is certainly 
not likely that he would cut through all three. Therefore the 
question turns upon this point. In speaking of veins, does Blunde- 
ville mean the artery or not] If the artery was the part, it is easy 
to conceive that the ligature embraced both nerve and artery; but 
if he mean only the veins, then I am of opinion that the nerve 
was not included. From the manner in which he describes the 
operation, the bleeding from beneath, &c., T am of opinion that the 
vein was the only part they intended the operation should be per¬ 
formed upon. I do not think, therefore, that we can say or suppose 
that the nerve operation was known to or designedly performed by 
the old farriers; at the same time it is but natural to suppose 
that the idea was taken from the operation which has just been 
described. For what so natural a reflection for a scientific mind 
as this 1 If it has been found of benefit in lameness of the feet, 
&c., to take up the veins, what may not be the result of the divi- 


72 


ON THE DISCOVERY OF NEUROTOMY. 


sion of the nerves and the destruction of all sense of pain! That 
some such idea occurred to the mind of Moorcroft there can be no 
doubt, for Mr. Blaine has placed it on record. “ I well remem¬ 
ber (says he) on my first introduction to Mr. Moorcroft, by my old 
friend Bloxam, at that time residing with him, that a very prin¬ 
cipal subject of our conversation was, his experiments on the feet, 
particularly as regarded rendering such as were incurable more 
serviceable, by making them less sensitive, which he had before at¬ 
tempted by tying up the pastern arteries , but was now employed in 
dividing the nerves of the same part” 

How often has it happened that ignorant and uncultivated minds 
have been on the eve of the greatest discovery! Totally ignorant of 
the functions of the nerves, and almost equally ignorant of the cir¬ 
culation of the blood, we find men performing an operation requir¬ 
ing both knowledge and skill for diseased feet; from which, owing to 
the copious bleeding, the counter-irritation, &c. produced, they expe¬ 
rienced oftentimes beneficial results. Yet with such an operation on 
record, and in practice for upwards of two centuries, since Blunde- 
ville’s work, it is singular that the idea of the division of the nerves 
immediately in connexion with the diseased part should never have 
been thought of until lately. Whatever may be said about its dis¬ 
covery, the honour of having brought so useful an operation into 
general use remains with one man, and that man is Professor 
Sewell. 

Believe me, my dear Sir, 

To remain, your s truly. 


CHOKING IN CATTLE. 

By JOHN Nelson, Veterinary Surgeon, Highfield, Sheffield. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian.” 

Sir,—S ince the choking season in cattle is again returned, and 
I have already had many cases, and since the losses every season 
coming under my own notice are great, occurring from evil practice 
either on the part of the owner or those to whom the care of them 
is entrusted, I feel desirous of sending you a few cases, and will 
afterwards transmit you my treatment in detail. 

Case I. 

Jan . 15, 1837.—I was desired by Mr. Joseph Bingham, of 
Norton Woodsetts, to see a cow. I returned with the messenger, 
and on examining her I could not discover any thing amiss. The 
pulse was natural, and every other department appeared so, except 




CHOKING IN CATTLE. 


73 


that there appeared a little inflation of the stomach, which seemed 
to have something in it of a solid kind. I carefully examined her 
round, and while applying my ear to the front of the thorax, I could 
distinctly hear eructations of gas from the stomach, apparently 
obstructed in its passage up the oesophagus. From these symp¬ 
toms I informed the owner I believed the cow to be choked, and 
inquired if she had not vomited at times. I was told that she had. 
I informed him that she had been choked some time. I then 
ordered her a little hay, with a view of discovering if she would 
not vomit it up again. She ate it greedily, but in a few minutes 
vomited it up again. I was then told that she was choked about 
a month ago, and that Mr. G., a neighbour, had put a choke-rope 
down her throat; but that ever since she had not done well. I 
told Mr. B. I would bring my probang in the morning, and see 
if I could relieve her. Accordingly, the probang was introduced, 
but could not be made to pass into the stomach, nor even within 
eight or ten inches thereof, to the best of my judgment. I made 
many trials, but to no purpose. I then informed Mr. B. that 1 saw 
no chance for her to recover; that he had better sell her for slaugh¬ 
ter, she being a feeding cow. He consented to that at once. On 
post-mortem examination, 1 found, extending from the stomach up 
the (esophagus, to the extent of about ten inches, a large pocket, 
containing a ball, weighing twenty-three ounces, and measuring 
nine inches long by fifteen inches in circumference, composed of 
hay, straw, turnip-tops, &c. 

Case II. 

Feb. 7.—While in the market at Sheffield, I was asked by Mr. 
Wm. West, Arberthorn, Sheffield Park, what I thought could be 
amiss with a neighbour’s cow (Mr. J. Downing’s). He said she 
had then been about three weeks ill, and nothing that was done to 
her did her any good. She had had medicine in abundance, and 
had also been tapped, but for which she could not have survived. 
I inquired how her ailment first began. He informed me, with 
swelling in her body, and vomiting. I told him that it was my 
opinion the cow was either choked or had a stricture in the oeso¬ 
phagus. We parted, and I heard no more of the case until the 
28th, when a messenger came, desiring me to go to Mr. J. Down¬ 
ing, Arberthorn, Sheffield Park, to see a cow. 1 inquired of him 
what symptoms were present. He answered, she was much swollen 
in her body, and occasionally vomited. From this description I 
took with me my probang. To my astonishment, I found it to be 
the cow which Mr. West had been describing to me three weeks 
ago; she had been therefore six weeks in this condition. On 
examining her, I found the symptoms much as in Case 1, except 

VOL. XXI. L 


74 


CHOKING IN CATTLE. 


that she had been tapped, to let out the gas from the rumen, and 
the orifice was being kept open to allow gas to escape. I intro¬ 
duced my probang down the oesophagus, but found much difficulty 
when within six or nine inches of the stomach, of passing it: but 
ultimately I succeeded. 1 then closed up the orifice in the rumen, 
and ordered all coarse food to be carefully kept from her, such as 
hay or straw; also all the bedding to be carefully removed, and 
that shavings, saw-dust, or other material which she could not pos¬ 
sibly eat, be substituted in lieu thereof. I then ordered linseed- 
dust and water, rather thin for the first four days, and then to be 
made thicker until the eighth day, when she might have a little 
hay, chopped, and linseed-dust mixed, leaving word that they let 
me know if she did not go on right. I then left her, and heard no 
more of her until the 11th of April, when a messenger came to 
inform me that she was once more ill. I took my probang, and 
went to see her. On examination, I soon found that the oesophagus 
had again become obstructed. I introduced the probang, and 
removed the obstruction, and ordered the owner to return to the 
gruel diet again for five or six days, and to let me know if she* be¬ 
came ailing again. The orifice in the stomach was now healed up. 
I gave no medicine either time. I again left her in the hands of 
the owner, who informed me, some time afterwards, that she did 
very well from the time I last saw her. 

P. S.—1 send you a ruptured oesophagus, though one damaged 
by mice, similar to Case 1, only smaller; the history of which I 
will furnish you with another time, together with some additional 
cases, should you think them worth your notice, and shew the cause 
of those ruptures and their remedy. 

Your’s truly, &c. 

December 12, 1847 

*** This communication, but for the absence from home of the Editor, 
would and ought to have appeared in the January Number. 


CONTINUOUS CASES OF CHOKING. 

By the same . 

Case III. 

On the 6th January, 1843, Mr. Bagshaw, of the Wicker, Sheffield, 
came to my house at 10 P. M. and desired me to go and see a cow, 
which he informed me had then been three weeks ill. I inquired 
of him what symptoms she exhibited. When he informed me, she 
was almost constantly risen on, that is, inflation of the rumen, and 




CHOKING IN CATTLE. 


75 


frequently vomited. She would eat greedily; but would soon 
afterwards reject what she had eaten. I informed Mr. B. that it 
was my opinion the cow was choked at the lower part of the throat., 
or else had a stricture there. I took my probang, and went on 
with him to see her, and found the symptoms as described. There 
was much inflation of the rumen, and on giving her a little food, 
she soon vomited it up again ; and there was a quantity of rejected 
food underneath her head. I applied my ear to her side, in the 
region of the lower part of the throat, and to the front of the thorax, 
and I could distinctly hear discharges of gas pass by the obstructed 
body in the throat. I informed Mr. B. that the cow was choked. 
He could not, however, believe that a cow could be choked for 
three weeks. I endeavoured to convince him to the contrary; but 
he still held to his opinion. I told him that, if a pocket had not 
formed in her throat, I would convince him in a few minutes she 
was choked, by affording her relief. I then introduced my pro¬ 
bang down the throat, and ascertained that she was choked within 
a few inches of her stomach. In the course of about three minutes, - 
by gentle pressure with the probang, she was perfectly relieved. 
The rumen expelled its gas, and she returned to her natural ap¬ 
pearance. I then ordered all litter and hay or straw to be carefully 
removed out of her reach, and that .she be confined to gruel diet; 
and left word I would see her on the following day, the 7th. Being 
busy, however, that day, I did not see my patient. But Mr. B. 
came to my house, and informed me the cow appeared well: and 
added, she would pull down the boothstake (the part she was tied 
to) unless she were allowed to have something more to eat. I told 
him she was doing quite well, and I would see her in the morning. 

8 th .—Doing well; taking her gruel herself; ruminating, and 
desiring solid food. Ordered gruel diet to be continued until I saw 
her again. With this Mr. B. was dissatisfied, and pressed me to 
give her some medicine, and allow her to have solid food. I in¬ 
formed him that the part of the throat where she had been choked 
was dilated, and that the muscles thereof had lost their power of 
contraction to a very great extent, and that I had more confidence 
in nature righting herself, if he would only feed her as directed, 
than in any medicine that could be given; and further, that if he 
gave her solid food before the muscles of the throat had regained 
their tone, she would be again choked in the same place, and that 
the external muscular fibres thereabouts would be ruptured, and 
the case become incurable. “ Well, then,” said he, “ shall I give 
her a pint of linseed oil!” I told him he could please himself about 
that, as it would neither do her good nor harm. I then left him, 
quite dissatisfied with my orders and judgment as to the real 
disorder. 


76 


CHOKING IN CATTLE. 


9th .—On going to see my patient, I was informed by Mr. B. 
that he had applied to another person, who had told him the cow 
was not choked, and that be could cure her in a few days : he had 
allowed her solid food, &c. “Very well/’ said I, and left him. 

10 th .—A messenger came to my house and informed me I was 
to go and see Mr. B.’s cow again, that the committee (for the cow 
was in a club) wished me to examine her, and report what I 
thought of her. I took my probang and went to see her, and 
found her much in the same state she was in a month ago, except¬ 
ing the rumen was not inflated to the same extent, and the pro¬ 
bang passed much easier down the throat, appearing, however, to 
perforate a yielding mass at the part affected. From these symp¬ 
toms, I informed the member of the club, my opinion was that the 
external muscles of the throat had ruptured, and there was a 
pocket formed in it; that no means could remedy it, and that the 
cow had better at once be slaughtered. To this he consented, and 
she was driven away immediately. On examination after death, 
the muscular fibres of the oesophagus at its lower part, to the ex¬ 
tent, from the cardiac orifice, of about ten inches up the tube, on the 
lower side, had become completely ruptured. The cuticular coat 
was dilated through the rupture to nearly the same extent, and 
had become transparent from extension, forming a pocket capable 
of holding three pints of fluid, though empty at the time from the 
probang having passed through it. No other part shewed any 
sign of disease. 

Case IY. 

Dec. §th, 1842, Mr. Robert Wright, of Cherry-tree-hill, sent 
a messenger, desiring me to go to a cow that was choked. I 
took my probang, and proceeded towards the place; but had not 
gone far when 1 met another messenger, who informed me she 
was better, and I need not go. From this time to Jan. 18th, 1843, 
the same took place three times, so that I did not see the cow 
until that date. The symptoms were much the same as in the 
foregoing cases. I introduced my probang down the throat, but did 
not succeed in passing it into the stomach until after repeated trials, 
in consequence of the presence of an obstruction about six inches 
above that organ. I told Mr. W. I doubted he had neglected his 
cow, and feared there was a pocket formed in the throat, which 
would admit of no cure. I ordered a gruel diet; and that all litter, 
&c. be taken away from her out of reach during four days; then 
to give a little mash and hay; and if she did not go on favourably 
to let me know. 

24 th .—A messenger arrived, desiring my immediate attendance, 


A CASE OF STABBING. 


77 


she being again choked. I took my probang, and went to see her, 
when I found her in much the same condition as before. The pro¬ 
bang was again resorted to, and she was relieved. Gruel diet 
was renewed until the 29th, when she was again allowed mash 
and hay. No sooner, however, had she eaten it than she com¬ 
menced shewing symptoms of vomiting. I then informed Mr. W. 
it was my opinion a pocket had formed in the oesophagus, at its 
lower end, which would defy all our means of remedy; and there¬ 
fore she had better be slaughtered. He at once agreed to this, and 
the next day it was carried into effect. 

On post-mortem examination, the lower part of the oesophagus 
was found ruptured, from the cardiac orifice to the extent you see 
upwards in the specimen which I send you, and filled with masti¬ 
cated food. Within the rumen were two balls, the size of the one 
now in the oesophagus, which had been forced there by the pro- 
bang ; though it is not above half the magnitude now as when first 
taken from the cow, it having from drying become contracted. You 
will, however, be able to see the nature of the disorder. 

[To be continued.] 


A CASE OF STABBING WITH A STABLE FORK. 

By John Younghusband, V.S., Grey stoke. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian .” 

Dear Sir,—I n perusing your leading article on the rise and age 
of The Veterinarian in the January No., it struck me that I 
had not carried out my intentions with that candour and fervency 
which I ought to have done, taking into account the favours 
bestowed upon me through that periodical by its talented Editors. 
I therefore purpose, as a small mark of respect, to send you a case 
of a brutal attack committed upon that noble and useful animal the 
horse by one whom I designate by the name of a vile miscreant in 
the shape of a human being. 

The light of so small a star as mine can only shew itself in the 
profession as one of the minor class ; nevertheless, I will, as far as 
lies in my power, cause it to shine amidst the more brilliant lumi¬ 
naries of the professional hemisphere, and not, as I am fearful some 
of the major class do, keep my rays hid under a bushel. 

Oct. 24, 1847.—I was called to visit a mare of the Scotch cart 
breed that had received two severe wounds contiguous to the lower 
border of the short ribs, and was beginning to shew symptoms of 





78 


A CASE OF STABBING. 


an aggravated nature, although, up to this time, she was doing her 
work as usual. To make short work, I bled the mare, gave her 
some opening medicine, ordered the place to be diligently and regu¬ 
larly fomented, and to have warm emollients applied, and was pre¬ 
paring to leave, when the usual question was put, “ How had the 
wound been produced 1” To which I made answer, that it was 
my firm opinion it had been done by some person, either in 
his passion or maliciously, and to every appearance with the stable 
fork, or some such like instrument; since the wounds had evi¬ 
dently been inflicted from behind, they pointing forwards, as indi¬ 
cated by the probe ; but from the swelling that had taken place, 
and the smallness of the wounds, I could not satisfactorily examine 
them, so I left, this time, desiring to be called again should the 
symptoms get worse. 

2 6th .—Called again ; and upon my arrival at once saw that the 
mare was near the point of dissolution, and that any remedial 
means I could use would prove of no avail, and so forbore any 
further treatment: at the same time desiring to have an opportunity 
after death to make an examination. 

21th .—I received word that the mare was dead, and that, equally 
to my discomfort, they had made an examination. The wounds 
were found both to have penetrated quite through the integu¬ 
ments, and to have entered the cavity of the abdomen; and so 
ended the affair. Now, from the hint thrown out by me respecting 
the nature of the wounds, the servant man having charge of the 
mare was immediately suspected. After her death, he was taxed 
with the deed, which at first he stoutly denied; but my explana¬ 
tion being told him, and likewise he being threatened to be car¬ 
ried before the magistrates, in his simplicity, if so I may call it, 
he confessed that it was he who did it; and if they would not pro¬ 
secute, he would forfeit his wages, and leave his place. To which 
proposal consent was given, the master wisely considering the less 
he had to do with such a vile hireling the better. This same person 
was heard to say, he would do his master a private injury before 
he left. I do not write this paper in the expectation that it will in 
the least conduce to the merit of The Veterinarian, but as a 
small token of my desire to do all in my humble power to advance 
that science of which I have laboured hard to attain a little know¬ 
ledge, and at the same time to shew with what brutal authority 
man can vent his spleen upon an inferior animal. 

I have forborne entering into any particular explanation about 
treatment, as I consider that a waste of time. 

Your well-wisher. 


79 


ON WOUNDED AND DIVIDED TENDONS. 

By Thos. Turner, 

President of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. 

[Continued from Yol. xx, p. 191.] 

Dear Mr. Editor,—I n one of your leading articles of the last 
number of The Veterinarian you have done me an honour by 
urging the necessity of the attention of the junior veterinarian and 
student to my paper, published in the same number, on “ Wounded 
and divided TendonsI therefore feel it the more imperative that 
I should embrace the first leisure opportunity of adding a few brief 
remarks touching the treatment of these very formidable injuries. 

By the way of additional zest, I shall cite an instructive case of 
my brother’s, which occurred in the olden time, since its precepts 
are applicable at the present day, to the very letter. Nearly thirty 
years ago, at the height of the gallant hunting career of the late 
John Maberly, Esq., his most crack hunter was cut down under 
him with one fore leg, during a very rapid burst. He valued his 
horse at 500 guineas. Notwithstanding only a few weeks before 
the accident, my brother saw 250 guineas paid down for the said 
brown gelding to the celebrated “ Gowland Lotion Dickinson.” 

Previous to the rider dismounting, the horse’s toe was observed 
in the air. The wound was at the back of the fetlock, imme¬ 
diately under the tuft of hair—a puncture from a razor-like flint. 
The very minutise of this case are worthy of record, because it 
happened that all manner of circumstances conspired towards the 
restoration of the wounded steed. 

This accident occurred in a wild country, far from shelter; and 
the squire, perceiving that the patient, in his way home, would 
have to ascend and descend some terrific hills, exercised his usual 
acumen by giving a peremptory order to his groom that the horse 
should not be moved one yard from the field he was then in until 
Mr. Turner arrived, although it might be all the night through. 
My brother reached the spot within three hours of the receipt of 
the injury, having carried in his pocket a small mechanical support, 
which led to the perfect restoration of this valuable animal. There 
is no occasion for a sketch of the crooked piece of iron, since he 
merely directed his farrier to forge the ordinary high supporting 
patten, provided with two side wings or branches, as if he were 
about to weld these wings upon the ground surface of a common 
shoe. This instrument, without a shoe, he took with him. His 
design was as follows: first, partially to flex the injured leg, before 
an ounce of weight was borne upon the sinew; secondly, that he 


80 


ON WOUNDED AND DIVIDED TENDONS. 


would avoid the torture of wrenching the injured surfaces of the 
tendon necessarily attendant upon taking off the shoe (an evil too 
often before deplored), being provided with two or three small 
files and drawing knives, he first excavated the horn between the 
two last nails of the outside quarter, making an aperture between 
the shoe and the foot corresponding in size with the extremity or 
side branch of the patten ; then, having made a similar breach in 
the hoof of the inside quarter, between the two case nails, the 
wings of the supporter slipped into each excavation most happily 
and firmly, while the shoe remained equally secure upon the foot. 
Compresses of pasteboard and rollers were immediately applied to 
the leg and arm, and the horse ordered, by short and measured 
steps, to make the best of his way to his own stable, a distance of 
several miles. 

The case demanded and received long continued soothing treat¬ 
ment, absolute quietude, with the strictest antiphlogistic discipline, 
which was followed up by blistering. Notwithstanding our ex¬ 
treme efforts he remained lame for several months, with considerable 
tumefaction of the flexor tendon. In due time the leg received the 
deep cautery lesions , and about that day twelvemonths, from the 
receipt of the injury, the horse made his re-appearance in the 
hunting field, carrying with spirit his master one of the most ex¬ 
traordinary days in the annals of Surrey hunting. 

Mr. Maberly’s faith in veterinary surgery, even in those embryo 
days of our veterinary existence as a body, was unbounded : he 
was the very model of a patron to a really practical man. Had 
two years been required for this case, there would have been no 
hesitation, no flinching, no evasion of the struggle; and in the 
event proving a dead failure, not the semblance of a murmur would 
be either uttered or implied. 

This animal remained absolutely sound for several successive 
seasons, known all through the county as the cut tendon horse. 

As an auxiliary in the treatment of such formidable cases, there 
can be no doubt of the importance of slinging when the chief 
appliances are at hand; but it having happened to me on so many 
trying occasions that I have been driven to tax my wits to the 
utmost to find substitutes for such accommodation, at the pressure 
of the moment, the cause may be further served by a short outline 
of other expedients. In the worst of these cases, the practitioner 
is anxious to get his patient into the nearest farm house stable 
within reach, or even hovel if provided with rack and manger. 
If turned loose in the box he would be continually getting up and 
down from pain and irritation: this I oppose ; by applying a 
stout leather head collar provided with two strong reins, and 
securely tying his head to the rack. I should have commenced by 


REMARKS ON QUEEN’S PLATES. 


81 


saying, a broad heavy cart collar on his neck ; then a cart-horse 
harness with a strong breeching is procured, from which ropes are 
extended to each stall-post, also ropes from the neck collar to the 
rack. With these three points of support I have, in numerous in¬ 
stances, kept the patient on his legs for a fortnight most advan¬ 
tageously, and without any serious amount of wringing. 

It will be perceived that, by these homely arrangements, the re¬ 
quirements are only those which every farm-house readily affords. 

I am, dear Mr. Editor, 

Your’s very truly, &c. 

Croydon, Jan. 18th, 1848. 


REMARKS ON QUEEN’S PLATES. 

By William Goodwin, M.R.C.S., Vet. Surgeon to the Queen. 

[These remarks have been called forth by the perusal of a 
printed brochure from the pen of Mr. Cherry, Principal Veterinary 
Surgeon to the Army, wherein it is suggested that the money 
annually granted for the encouragement of racing, by the support 
of Queen’s Plates, might be devoted with more advantage to the 
maintenance of a certain number of stallions, for covering eligible 
mares, the property of farmers and breeders, with a view of restor¬ 
ing a breed of horses (hunters, roadsters, and cavalry horses, able 
to carry weight) said to be on the decline.] 

Of late years, it has become quite fashionable to complain of 
the sum our Government expends in the shape of King’s Plates; 
and it is to remove an erroneous impression, only imbibed by 
those who know but little of racing matters, that I take up my 
pen, to endeavour to answer some of the points in Mr. Cherry’s 
brochure on the subject; since argument, from such authority 
as the Principal Veterinary Surgeon of the Army, is likely to 
carry weight in the minds of many. I am not, however, afraid of 
the Legislature ever consenting to the taking away of these 
Plates, there being too many members of both Houses of Parlia¬ 
ment who know that the race is the only criterion of the goodness 
of the animal, and for that reason would never consent to such a 
proposition. 

The amount expended in the shape of King’s Plates is (not 
£2090 annually—as stated by Mr. Cherry), but 3600 guineas 
in England and Scotland, and 1600 guineas in Ireland. The 
distances vary considerably, as well as the weights; but in no 

VOL. XXI. V M 




82 


REMARKS ON QUEEN’S PLATES. 

instance is the distance less than two miles, and the race, except 
in one or two cases, is always heats ; nay, the greater part of 
King’s Plates are contended for in a distance of more than three 
miles, and extending to four miles. I take Goodwood as furnish¬ 
ing about the medium weights, and find that, there, the distance 
being three miles and five furlongs, the weights are—three-year- 
old, 7 st. 4 lb.; four-year-old, 9 st. 2 lb.; five-year-old, 9 st. 131b.; 
six, and aged, 10 st. 4 lb. Surely, Mr. Cherry had not taken the 
trouble to look over the Racing Calendar when he stated that 
“ short distances, and carrying very light weight, has reduced the 
race-horse to a feeble breed.” 

If Mr. Cherry, or any other man in the world, could give us an 
estimate of the character of the horse by looking at him, he might 
then with some degree of consistency talk of “strength, especially 
in the limbs, perfect flexion of joints, firmness of step, good tem¬ 
per, and activity, roundness in the region of the heart, &c.” as 
being the points to which we should turn our attention in breeding; 
but, as we know that, with all the most perfect symmetry ima¬ 
ginable, size, and every other circumstance favourable, as far as 
appearance goes, the animal may prove a brute of no kind of value, 
we should, were we to give up the test—the race—soon degene¬ 
rate to, perhaps a good-looking class of horses, or, rather, such a 
class as Mr. Cherry might desire, but which would only please the 
eye to impoverish the pocket; and in this I do not allude to racing 
only. According to Mr. Cherry’s notion, a good judge should be 
capable of selecting the winner by taking a glance at the animals 
previous to the race; but I know that he would find it a losing 
game to back his opinion; for we often see the most unlikely 
looking animal outstrip a field of good-looking horses. Now, 
fortunately for our breed of horses, we have preferred the good to 
the good-looking animal, and hence all our superiority in the breed 
of horses in this country. I cannot do better than give you an in¬ 
stance out of many that I have seen of the kind:—In the year 1836, 
at Doncaster, I witnessed the race for the King’s Plate, contended 
by Mundig and Venison : there were others in the race, but the 
two mentioned were horses of repute, and known to most men. 
Mundig was a fine large powerful looking horse, 16 hands high, 
and had been fortunate enough to win the Derby: his shape, 
strength, breeding, and character, made him a great favorite for the 
race: he being then four years old. Venison, equally well bred, 
looked the little, shabby, light weed. He had run many races dur¬ 
ing the year, and travelled great distances, and not in a van, as they 
do now. He arrived at Doncaster only the night before the race, 
from Warwick; and, as far as appearances went, the judge, looking 
at the two, would have said it was “a horse to a hen;” but the 


THE CATTLE EPIDEMIC. 


83 


race proved the qualifications of the weed to be far superior to those 
of his better-looking competitor, for he nearly distanced him at the 
finish of it. To trace these animals after their racing career will 
afford another proof of the race having been the true criterion of 
the animal. Mundig, from his size and shape, and having won 
the Derby, began his career as a covering stallion under the most 
auspicious circumstances ; but in a few short years his stock proved 
valueless, and he was sold to a Prussian for 400 guineas—a very 
small sum for the winner of a Derby. The other horse, Venison, 
is now covering at 25 guineas, and is the sire of Alarm, and many 
celebrated horses, and is deservedly one of the best stallions in the 
country. 

On attentively considering the circumstances just narrated, and 
which are too well known to admit of their being questioned, I 
think Mr. Cherry would have been likely to have fallen into the 
error of selecting Mundig instead of Venison as a stallion : and it 
was the race that first indicated the error of such a choice ; for, 
had not his qualifications been found good, he might have been 
sold from his appearance for a small sum as a weed. A few weeks 
since, I saw an account of a pony, under 13 hands, trotting in 
harness fifteen miles in an hour. How many good-looking horses 
are there 15 hands high that have no pretension to do the same 
thing ! Sir Harry Smith, or any other general officer, I take it, 
would prefer the one that could perform rather than the one that 
merely looked like performing. Take away the race, and a 
degeneration would ensue that would certainly endanger a breed of 
horses acknowledged throughout the world for their superior 
excellence. 


THE CATTLE EPIDEMIC. 

By John Storry, V.S., Pickering. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian .” 

Sir,—T he epidemic which has prevailed to such an alarming 
extent among horned cattle in this country for these few years 
past has likewise been severely felt in these parts. And since I 
have had to attend great numbers of them in various stages of the 
disease, and as the subject is now attracting the notice of the 
Royal Agricultural Society, who have offered a prize of £50 for the 
best Essay on it, as well as the attention of others who are inte¬ 
rested in the preservation and healthy condition of our cattle (in 




84 


THE CATTLE EPIDEMIC. 


which, indeed, all classes of the community are deeply interested) 
you will, perhaps, admit a paper on the subject into your valuable 
periodical, The Veterinarian, from one who has had such ample 
experience of the disorder for the last two or three years. 

The Symptoms of the epidemic, or, as it is more properly called, 
pleuro-pneumonia, are not always the same, but vary-according 
to the age, constitution, and condition of the animal attacked; and 
consequently the treatment must be diversified. I have had to 
attend some cases that have been given up by other practitioners, 
and have in several such instances been successful in restoring the 
animal to health and soundness. Indeed, in a very great number 
of cases to which I have been called on the first appearance of the 
disease, I have succeeded in saving seven out of nine; and out of 
the eight last cases I have had to attend, only one has died, the 
others having perfectly recovered. 

In almost every pase I find it necessary to bleed and give aperi¬ 
ent medicine, with the exception of a few cases wherein the pulse 
is greatly depressed: it is then necessary to promote circulation 
by stimulants, &c. 

As it would be impossible to give a regular and uniform mode of 

treatment where the same disorder assumes so manv different 

«/ 

forms of attack, I propose giving two cases, narrating the symp¬ 
toms attending each, with the mode of treatment in each adopted. 

Case I. 

On the 7th February, 1845, Mr. Thomas Dobson, of Pickering, 
farmer, had two milch-cows attacked with pleuro-pneumonia. He 
sent for his “ farrier,” who attended them until one of them died, 
and the other was given up by him to die. He said, there was 
no chance of her recovery, as one of her lungs was gone. 

Mr. Dobson then sent for me. I attended, and found the cow 
standing, having her respiration very quick and laborious, and giv¬ 
ing a sort of grunt, repeatedly, as she respired. Pulse about 90. I 
was told, she had not eaten any thing for several days, but had been 
supported by a little gruel, which had been given her with a horn. 
After having examined her minutely, I found the svmptoms much 
the same as I had met with in similar cases, which I had treated 
successfully, and therefore I told Mr. Dobson that I had great hopes 
of her recovery, through proper treatment. I bled her freely (the 
blood proving very aqueous), and administered such medicines as 
I had been in the habit of using in similar cases. Gradually she 
recovered, and was in a few weeks perfectly cured. Then she was 
turned out to grass, well fed through the summer, and sold the 
latter part of the year to a butcher. 


VETERINARY EDUCATION. 


85 


Case II. 

On the 29th August, 1847, Mr. John Haxby, of this place, had 
an Irish cow taken ill, which he had just bought out of a drove of 
cattle that had been driven several miles. When I was called in 
to attend her she was evidently labouring under the symptoms of 
pleuro-pneumonia. She was standing, emitting a continual hoos- 
ing and rattling noise in respiration, and looked very ghastly. Pulse 
sank to 35 or 36. Rumen disordered; hidebound; bowels consti¬ 
pated. After bleeding, the pulse rose to 70. It being indispensa¬ 
ble to administer aperients, some time elapsed before I could give 
sedatives to quiet the system. This being accomplished, the cow 
evidently felt greatly relieved; she would not, however, either 
eat or drink. I therefore ordered her to have weak gruel, which 
was followed by happy effect. Her appetite returned gradually, 
and in a few days the pulse lowered to 45. She then began to 
feed a little, rumination became restored, her recovery soon proved 
complete, and she has done well ever since. 

To the above cases I could add numerous others whose cures 
have astonished their owners, who would be ready (including Mr. 
Dodson and Mr. Haxby) to satisfy any inquiries that might be 
made relative to these and other cures of mine of the pleuro¬ 
pneumonia. 

Believe me, Sir, to remain, 

Your’s very respectfully. 

17th January, 1848. 


DEFECTIVE VETERINARY EDUCATION. 

By Alex. Henderson, M.R.C.V.S., 

Veterinary Surgeon to the Queen Dowager. 

Sir,—I n a letter which I addressed to you, and which appeared 
in your last Number, reflecting on what I considered to be a gross 
dereliction of duty, in not giving the pupils at the Veterinary Col¬ 
lege a proper degree of instruction in the practical part of their 
education, much more might have been adduced; but 1 trust that 
sufficient has been said on that particular point to draw the atten¬ 
tion of the proper authorities to this important subject. For, not 
only has there been a want of attention to the proper instruction of 
the pupils, after they have become such, but every applicant is 
admitted who presents himself with sufficient fees, without any 




86 


VETERINARY EDUCATION. 


attention as to what may have been his previous pursuits; however 
at variance they may have been with that general knowledge of 
animals, and their habits, without which the knowledge requisite 
to their treatment in disease is with difficulty acquired, and the 
requisite tact, so essential to skilful manipulations, never becomes 
perfectly attained. 

In the original laws of that Institution, it is clearly manifest that 
particular attention was paid to this subject. It is not requisite to 
enter into a history of the causes which have led to a neglect of the 
original laws; but I would draw attention to the fact, that, while all 
other branches of science, during the last fifty years, have become 
more and more strict in the requisite qualifications, and have been 
enlarging their curriculum of study, the veterinary schools have not 
only ceased to advance, but actually have been retrograding. It is 
true that recently a slight improvement has taken place ; but still 
our Institution is far behind what it was originally intended to have 
been by its founders. 

If, like the human branch of medicine, we were possessed of the 
advantages of large hospitals, infirmaries, or dispensaries, in which 
the ravages of disease might be largely noted, then an apprentice¬ 
ship might be of little or no value; but with us it is different. We 
possess nothing of the kind, nor is it probable we ever shall have; 
hence, what may be valueless to the medical profession becomes 
to us of paramount importance. 

The simple dressing of a foot or a wound, the administering of 
a dose of medicine, are common-place duties that may be easily ac¬ 
quired ; but the patience, the tact, the capability of making avail¬ 
able all or every resource that may be within reach in cases of 
emergency, can alone be acquired by long, careful, and judicious 
training. Hence, the necessity of an apprenticeship is, with those 
best acquainted with the subject, looked upon as imperative; not 
because they approve of apprenticeship simply, but from there 
being no substitute for it. 

With these simple facts before us, it cannot but strike every one 
who may take the trouble to reflect, how strange it is that those who 
have the management of our only English veterinary school should 
so long and so virulently oppose its introduction, by throwing every 
impediment in the way: by admitting, as pupils, those whose pur¬ 
suits have been at total variance with the knowledge of animals, 
and classing them with those who have been previously properly 
trained; requiring no longer attendance from one than from the 
other, or giving one class more instruction than the other, but sub¬ 
mitting them to the same ordeal as those who had devoted years 
to the acquirement of the principles of their art, and launching the 
trained and untrained upon the public as equal in capability. 


87 


VETERINARY EDUCATION. 

Of this, both parties so situated, as well as the public at large, 
have equal right to complain;—-The uninitiated, that he has been 
deluded into a belief that he has been instructed in all that is 
requisite to insure moderate success in the outset of his professional 
career; while, alas! he has but to discover, that the first require¬ 
ments for which he has need are all but unknown to him. The 
previously trained, and therefore better taught, has still stronger 
reasons to complain; for not only has he been placed below his 
proper level, but is held in diminished estimation in the eyes of 
his employers, the public, in consequence of the failure of the un¬ 
qualified man. Again; the public have to complain that the un¬ 
qualified should be palmed upon them by high-sounding testimo¬ 
nials, which they soon discover not only to be of little worth, but 
actually tending to the injury of all parties. 

It is in vain to attempt to blink a question of so grave a nature. 
Such might have been done in days passed by, when Professor 
Sewell gave me to understand, when I first entered the College as 
a pupil, many years since, after he had ascertained what had been 
my previous pursuits.— the sooner I forgot all that I had learned 
under my father, the better it ivoidd be for me. Time, the test of 
all things, has proved the fallacy of such an injunction, and has 
taught me, after long experience, the absolute necessity of ele¬ 
mentary instruction. 

I beg particularly to draw the attention of all parties interested 
to so important a question as the fitting education to be adopted 
for the proper formation of the future veterinary practitioner, and 
more particularly do I wish to direct the attention of the managers 
of our veterinary schools to this important subject. 

I remain your very obedient servant. 

Cockspur-street, Jan. 21, 1848. 


Extracts from Foreign Journals. 


The Clinique Veterinaire for March, 1847, contains a Memoir 
from the pen of M.F.de Nanzio,the Veterinary Professor at Naples, 
on the Conception and Parturition of a Mule. The common opi¬ 
nion is, that mules, both male and female, are in general incapable 
of reproduction. The ancient proverb, 

Quura inula pepperit, 





88 


CONCEPTION, &C. OF A MULE. 

appears to have gained strength with age. Some persons have 
attributed this incapacity to a vicious conformation in their genito- 
urinal apparatus. 

In setting out, it may be as well to observe, that we apply the 
name mule to any animal the product of the commerce of two indi¬ 
viduals of different species; such, for example, among birds, are 
the offspring from the canary coupling with the goldfinch; and, 
among quadrupeds, from the intercourse between the ass and the 
mare, or between the stallion and female ass. In the latter case, 
therefore, it appears, two generations have had this name given to 
them. In English, we remain without any distinctive appellation 
for these, though among the French the former goes by the name 
of mulet, the latter by that of bar dot. Such distinctions are re¬ 
quisite, from the circumstance of one species of mule differing from 
the other. The mulet —the offspring of the- male horse and female 
ass—is much larger than the bardot; possesses a longer and more 
developed neck, rounder sides and croup, and elevated haunches; 
and is a very strong, hardy animal, capable of enduring a great 
deal of fatigue; contenting himself with ordinary and scanty fare, 
and being but little obnoxious to disease. On the contrary, the 
bardot is small and low in stature, with a short thin neck, salient 
back, pointed croup, and low and drooping haunches; insomuch 
that, when we come to compare the two, we feel disposed to agree 
in opinion with Buffon, who affirmed that in the female resided 
the unity of the species: for certain, in the examples just given, 
the horse is paramount in one instance, while the ass predominates 
in the character of the other. Beyond these characteristics, how¬ 
ever, are secondary qualities which belong to the sire, as is exem¬ 
plified in the voice of the mulet , in his large ears, the shape of his 
head, form of his tail, slender sinewy limbs, and long narrow hoofs; 
while in the bardot we have the neighing voice, the small head, 
the short ears, the tail clothed from above downwards with hair, 
the large limbs, &c. Thus, Aristotle, describing the mule, has 
written,— 

“ Magnitudine corporis et viribus magis fceminse quam mari 
simile evadit quod nascitur;” and Columella, on the same subject, 
has said, “ qui ex equa et asina concepti, generantur, quamnis a 
patre nomen traxerunt, metri per omnia magis similes sunt.” 

There are instances on record, both ancient and modern, of mules 
having generated, but the one given by M. Nanzio is more com¬ 
plete and instructive. In the Commune d'Auzano, province of 
Capi Sanata, a mule, the property of Francis Messrangeli, foaled 
on the 15th of July, 1844. The novelty of the event astonished 
the inhabitants of the province, and the prefect sent for the district 
veterinary surgeon, who, through his report of the circumstance, 


89 


CONCEPTION, &C. OF THE MULE. 

authenticated it. And M. de Nanzio himself, anxious for some 
intelligence on the matter, went to the place towards the end of 
May 1845, and saw the mule in question together with its little 
one. 

We may safely affirm then, that, as mules have bred once, they 
may do so again, and that we have no right to regard them as al¬ 
together sterile; and that, as a consequence, Pliny was in error 
when he asserted that animals issuing from two species become a 
third species, differing from either parent, and incapable of repro¬ 
duction. And so, as little reliance must be placed in the judgment 
of others, who, blindly credulous of what has been said bv the 
Roman naturalist, re-echo his words, and say that the mule cannot 
breed. 

Buffon followed Aristotle in the same doctrine, supposing that 
any commerce between male mulet and female bardot , or even be¬ 
tween male and female of the same cross, would prove unpro¬ 
ductive ; and for the reason, that two natures came together already 
altered by generation. 

This assigned sterility in the mule species has led to an exami¬ 
nation into the causes of their barrenness. And M. Hebenstrach, 
a believer in their absolute sterile nature, pretends to have disco¬ 
vered the causes of it, alleging that it proceeds from the semen 
of the mule wanting the spermatic animalcules;—from the circum¬ 
stance of the ureter opening into the vagina, whereby, whenever 
the animal urinates, the sperm is washed away;—from the uterus 
being slender and pellucid, compared with those of other animals, 
and consequently incapable of supporting the weight of the embryo; 
—from the ovaries not containing any transparent vesicles com¬ 
monly called ova; —lastly, from the Fallopian tubes being too 
narrow. 

These reasons, says M. de Nanzio, have been refuted by 
M. Brugnone, who maintains that the external genital organs 
of the mule present no imperfection, that the spermatic vesi¬ 
cles contain sperm in abundance, and that the ureters open no 
way differently from those of other solipedes, &c. Notwith¬ 
standing this, however, we have regarded it as our duty to 
institute fresh inquiries into these matters, and principally as 
regards the mule; we taking another view of the question, and 
thinking that the mule could hardly be sterile without some im¬ 
portant defects—either, first, in the organs producing the ova; or, 
secondly, in the tubes destined to conduct the ova into the organs 
of gestation; or, thirdly, in the conformation of the womb. 

In comparing the ovaries of the mule with those of the mare, we 
cannot say we have discovered any especial difference. The vesi¬ 
cles of Graaf are equally visible in one and in the other. But the 

VOL. XXI. N 


90 INFLUENCE OF EXERCISE ON MAN AND ANIMALS. 


most important inquiry, without doubt, is that which concerns the 
proper structure of the vesicle, as well as the existence and 
structure of the ovum contained within it; since it might happen 
that the ovary might contain a vesicle, but that be without ovum ; 
or else, that the ovum might never depart from the ovary, or be 
duly received by the duct; and, lastly, that the ovum might not 
have that composition and structure fitted for fecundation by the 
semen of the male. 

It is true our examinations, being hitherto confined to aged mules, 
are not such as to warrant us in answering such questions as 
these; at the same time, taking the case of the actual procreation 
of the mule, these questions are in truth resolved, since, had not 
matters being fitting and proper, the mule would never have con¬ 
ceived. 

The subject is both curious and interesting, and, being as yet 
but unsatisfactorily investigated, both needs and deserves further 
examination. 


Lecture on the Influence of Exercise on Man and 

Animals. 

[Continued from “ La Clinique Vet&inaire” for March 1847.] 

Temperature. 

The wind is one of the greatest obstacles to freedom of move¬ 
ment ; it tends to fatigue a horse much in his course. It has been 
calculated that the wind opposing a horse in a gentle trot calls for 
four times the amount of force; in a full trot for nine times; in a 
gallop for sixteen times; and in the race it is by no means a rare 
thing to see a horse fall in a state of suffocation after having run 
any great length of distance in the face of the wind. 

Soil. 

The influence of soil is shewn more on horses in draft. The 
weight and construction of the vehicle a horse has to draw will 
tell in deep and rough ground; in the former in proportion to the 
impression made in it by the wheels, large wheels, from the less 
impression they make, being the best to run; though on hard and 
uneven ground they become an obstacle to draft, from their greater 
weight. 

Carriages and Draft. 

Our engineers of bridges and causeways—whom in a paren¬ 
thesis we may accuse of having thrown the greatest impediments 
in the way of improvement of horse draft, by extravagantly lauding 




TETANUS CURED BY ETHER. 


91 


the invariable employment of large wheels, on account of their 
doing less injury to the roads—these engineers pretend to de¬ 
termine the weight and draft of a vehicle. 

The draft of a carriage depends entirely on the construction 
of its wheels. We are now speaking of a carriage without 
springs ; for when springs are added—an addition so desirable, both 
on account of the preservation of horses as well as roads—the 
traction is diminished by one-fifth. In the construction of wheels, 
barring their diameter, the axle-tree, and the friction between it and 
them, are the points to be looked to. 


General Idiopathic Tetanus cured by Ether, admi¬ 
nistered IN THE FORM OF FUMIGATION AND CLYSTER. 

[Clinique of the Alfort School, “ Recueil de Med. Vet.” for Oct. 1847.] 

A RIDING mare, nine years old, the property of M. Harve, at 
Charenton, had for three days been failing in her appetite, listless, 
and lazy at work, for which she was bled by a veterinarian, but 
without benefit, and therefore he brought her to the College to 
have her submitted to proper treatment. 

Her SYMPTOMS at present are—lofty carriage of the head ; ears 
erected and fixed; nostrils rigid and dilated; eyes fixed, pro¬ 
minent, and brilliant; pupils contracted; nictitating cartilage 
thrown over the cornea on excitation ; motor muscles of the jaws 
firmly contracted, occasioning insurmountable resistance to the 
separation of the jaws; muscles of the neck, back, and loins, in 
the same state of tension; tail slightly erected; limbs stretched 
out, giving to the trunk the appearance of being supported by 
four pillars, and making progression to resemble that of an auto¬ 
matic machine, moving all of a piece; the vertebral column ap¬ 
pearing as inflexible as a metallic rod; under the excitement of 
motion the ears and tail growing more rigidly erect; the muscles, 
in particular the extensors of the limbs, contracting and elongatingin 
a strange remarkable manner, the same phenomenon being apparent 
in the muscles of the thorax and abdomen. In the stable, the 
prehension, mastication, and deglutition of food, solid and liquid, 
are attended with so much impediment, that these functions, after 
all, are but imperfectly performed. The respiration is short, 
catching, and accelerated ; the pulse slow and wiry. 

The DIAGNOSTIC, by symptoms so pathognomonic, was ren¬ 
dered unequivocal. 

PROGNOSTIC, grave. Tetanus being a disease in horses com¬ 
monly fatal; recovery being the exception. 

TREATMENT. —Almost every means furnished by the thera- 




92 


TETANUS CURED BY ETHER. 


peutic catalogue have been used in tetanus. Antiphlogistics, 
sudorifics, diaphoretics, revulsives, purgatives, antispasmodics, 
special excitants of the nervous system, all by turns have been put 
in practice, either separately or in combination, and all with occa¬ 
sional though rare success. 

It was thought a favourable opportunity to have recourse to 
ether, whose action on the nervous system is so diametrically 
opposed to those by which tetanus itself is produced. Moreover, 
the success already obtained in the treatment of tetanus in man 
by the same remedy proved an encouragement to make such an 
experiment. 

On the 8th June, the day of her admission, she was clothed 
and kept hot with sheep skins; and besides, had prescribed for 
her vapour baths, laxative drinks, and clysters. Considerable 
difficulty was experienced in getting her to swallow liquids, the 
contractions of the muscles of the jaws offering all but insurmount¬ 
able obstacles. 

June 9.—The trismus is a little augmented, as well as the ten¬ 
sion of the muscles in general. At the slightest outward excitement 
the face becomes contorted, the ears erect, the nostrils dilated, and 
the jaws make a grating noise ; the general spasms become more 
intense; the nictitating cartilage is thrown over the cornea; and 
the region of the neck, croup and thighs, acquire the hardness of 
marble. In spite, however, of her trismus and difficulty of deglu¬ 
tition, the mare is eager for solid food; she seizes a little hay 
between her lips, which from their tense and rigid condition are 
without the power of transferring it to the mouth. During the day 
may be observed, profuse sweats about the ears, and sides of the 
neck, in the flanks and insides of the thighs. The pulse is small 
and wiry; the pulsations of the heart strong and hurried. Respi¬ 
ration slow and deep. The limbs still remaining as stiff and im¬ 
moveable as four posts. 

The laxative drinks are continued; and, at twice, is administered 
to her twenty grammes (nearly 3vj) of the aqueous extract of 
opium. Such, however, is the difficulty of moving the jaws that 
it is impossible to force her to swallow the medicine: hardly is it 
introduced into the mouth before it is all rejected. 

JUNE 10 & 11.—The disease has advanced; every symptom is 
aggravated. The trismus, the tension of the muscles, especially 
the extensors, is at its height. Respiration is short and deep; the 
flanks are drawn up to their utmost; they are, indeed, almost 
motionless; and the pectoral muscles are so rigidly contracted that 
the ribs are rendered immoveable. The animal is ever on the 
verge of asphyxia. Those members the more distant from the 
centre of gravity are constantly in a complete state of inflexibility. 


TETANUS CURED BY ETHER. 


93 


so that it is with extreme pain motion is excited in them; and then 
even, rather a tetanic convulsion is excited than a change of place. 
In spite of the severity of the disease, and the difficulty, not to say 
impossibility, of prehension (with the lips) and of deglutition, still 
does the animal seek after hay and corn. 

Such was the condition of our patient when we came to the 
resolution to subject him to the action of the vapour of ether. 

JUNE 12: —First etherization .—In the absence of a suitable 
apparatus for the administration of ether to an animal so large as a 
horse, we had to adopt means which, though acknowledged to be 
very imperfect in many respects, still answered the end in view. 

We fixed, or rather adjusted, a fumigatory head-collar around 
the head, above the nostrils and commissures of the lips, and 
by two ropes tied the animal fast to the rack: fitting the 
inferior part of the halter most exactly to the circumference of an 
ordinary pail, at the bottom of which was placed a wooden bowl, 
previously furnished with a large sponge impregnated with nearly 
half a pint of ether. 

The inhalation was not tardy in manifesting its effects. During 
the first inspirations the horse resisted violently, under the in¬ 
fluence of a veritable attack of spasm. In spite of the energetic 
muscular tension, the limbs, and the head and neck, became con¬ 
vulsed ; the respiration growing very quick, and the movements of 
the flanks tumultuous. 

This course of symptoms insensibly subsided; the commotion 
changed into a perfect calm; the respiration became slow and 
deep ; no more than two inspirations could be counted per minute, 
instead of thirty-eight, as before; the pulse was small and quick. 
At the end of an hour a state of profound drowsiness came on; the 
muscular spasm and rigidity was less conspicuous; it was possible 
to produce some slight motions in the limbs and jaws; the eye had 
lost its unnatural brilliancy, and the countenance that expression 
of anguish so marked in the tetanic subject. This state lasted a 
quarter of an hour; at the end of which time, sleep began once 
more to forsake the patient, and with his awakening returned 
rigidity, spasm, grinding of the teeth, brilliancy of the eye, im¬ 
mobility of limb, and acceleration of respiration. Desirous of re¬ 
newing the influence of the ether, we attached afresh the fumi¬ 
gating apparatus. It was with great difficulty we arranged the 
apparatus again. From the very first inspiration the animal was 
seized with an attack of furor. He struggled violently, fought 
with his fore legs, and vehemently shook his head. He broke 
away his cavesson and fell down upon his left side, and, immediately 
afterwards rising with energy, he experienced a violent exacerba¬ 
tion it would be difficult to describe. The respiration grew quick 


94 


TETANUS CURED BY ETHER. 


and panting. For a moment he was drawn up in every part; his 
neck was ewed, his head perpendicular; the limbs, the fore 
especially, stretched out to the utmost, w'ere collected under the 
centre of gravity as though the animal were going to make a 
spring; the countenance was drawn up, the nostrils dilated ; and 
the lips and mouth beslabbered with saliva. 

This tetanic spasm lasted ten minutes. Gradually, calm re¬ 
turned; and soon afterwards the animal relapsed into a sound 
sleep: without being wholly under the influence of sleep from 
etherization, he remained listless to every thing around him; 
often, indeed, not feeling the puncture of any sharp body. 

The phenomena just described commenced at half past 10 o’clock 
A.M., and terminated at mid-day. 

In the afternoon, the horse experienced sensible relief. To the 
muscular spasm succeeded remarkable flaccidity. Perspiration, 
circulation, exterior plight, all contrasted strangely with their state 
in the morning. He now masticates hay held out to him, and con¬ 
trives to dilate the pharynx for the alimentary bolus. 

About three o’clock the patient again declined. Spasm once 
more seized his muscular system, commencing by constriction of 
the jaws, as evinced by the grinding of his teeth, again to be 
heard; profuse sweats bedew the flanks, neck, sides, and interval 
between the anterior and posterior limbs. In a word, the disease 
has returned in the same character it presented before the ether¬ 
ization. 

JUNE 13.—The animal’s condition is not changed. Etherization 
is applied the same as before, only more ether is used. The 
operation commenced at half past eight and terminated at three- 
quarters past ten o’clock. The animal displays the same symp¬ 
toms nearly as before. He plunges violently, throws himself 
backwards, struggles, trembles all over, standing with the fore 
limbs bent; the skin is covered with perspiration f the pupil is 
quite dilated; at last, he fell down in his stall like a lifeless mass. 
In the course of his agitation he had disencumbered himself of his 
inhaling apparatus; and the sleep now produced by the etheriza¬ 
tion was less profound and enduring than the former one. At the 
expiration of twenty minutes he was roused up again, and there 
was evident already a diminution of the spasm. The weather being 
very fine, he was walked out for a little while in the hospital yard: 
breathing the external air seemed of service to him, indeed, in the 
course of his walk he commenced neighing and changing his legs. 
In returning to his stable there was manifestly commencing a 
general flaccidity; the appetite admitted of gratification; he seized 
the hay, and swallowed about five pounds. Up to about four o’clock 
in the afternoon, the essential characters of tetanus, the muscular ten- 


TETANUS CURED BY ETHER. 


95 


sion and rigidity, remained but in a feeble degree. The muscles 
of the neck have all along maintained greater firmness than those 
of other parts of the body. 

Apprehending, as was remarked last evening, lest, when the 
effects of the ether should have passed away, the animal should 
relapse into his tetanic state, we decided on continuing the ether 
under the form of clyster. By so doing, we escaped the fears we 
had reason to entertain of asphyxia, from the imperfection of the 
ether apparatus we had used. 

June 18. —At four o’clock was given him six ounces of ether 
in a clyster. At the expiration of half an hour there came on a 
well-marked state of somnolency. The amelioration lasted all the 
evening. The motion of the jaws is grown quite free. The 
muscular system is in a moderate state of tension. The animal 
again ate about five pounds of hay with fair appetite. In the 
evening there came on a foetid diarrhoea. 

JUNE 14.—Still better. The diarrhoea is increased since last 
evening. The trismus is a little less. The patient eats from time 
to time the parcels of hay set before him. Fresh etherization is 
tried with the apparatus used before. In an hour and a half the 
somnolescence returned, accompanied by considerable retardation 
of respiration, but no falling down. To the drowsiness suc¬ 
ceeded a brisk exacerbation; a veritable tetanic paroxysm breaks 
out; the animal once more becomes unmanageable; it is with 
great trouble he is kept in his stall. Attributing part of these 
phenomena to the commencement of asphyxia, from the prolonged 
contact of the ethereal gas with the pulmonary surface, we dis¬ 
continued the inhalations, and in their place substituted ethereal 
clysters. Nine ounces of ether were immediately thrown into the 
rectum. In the evening the patient was sensibly better. 

JUNE 15.—Continues better. There is less tension in the 
masseter as well as in all the other muscles. What, however, is 
the most remarkable, is the pliableness of the alee nasi. The 
countenance, also, is less contracted; the eyes less glassy; the 
breathing calmer; the appetite improved, he having, in the course 
of the day, eaten half a ration of hay and corn. 

Renewed inhalations of ether for an hour and a half: the clys¬ 
ters having been suspended on account of diarrhoea, which is now 
more violent than it was last evening, and more offensive. A 
violent inflammation has set up around the margin of the anus and 
the lips of the vulva; and the rectal mucous membrane likewise 
is intensely inflamed, the tegument of the perineum being in part 
infiltrated. This inflammation, caused by the ethereal clysters, 
has been relieved by antiphlogistics and anodynes, the excoriations 
exteriorly being kept sprinkled with absorbent powder. 


96 


TETANUS CURED BY ETHEIi. 


To-day was visible considerable amelioration in our patient 
day by day the disease is wearing itself out; the patient eats 
slowly, and with little difficulty consumes his full ration, being 
ten pounds of hay, the same quantity of straw, six pounds of 
oats, and four bunches of carrots. 

June 16, 17, and 18.—Our attention was directed to the rectal 
excoriations. The passage of the excrementitious matters and the 
frictions of the tail have produced a vast denuded surface, with a 
disposition in certain places to gangrene. Irritative fever is the 
consequence. Measures are taken accordingly. 

June 21.—The wounds have assumed a healthy aspect; they 
are in progress towards cicatrization. Inflammation is passing 
away, and the constitutional fever along with it. Respiration and 
circulation have almost returned to their natural rhythm. The 
appetite is good again. The movements comparatively free. In 
the course of his walks he neighs, and dances, and seems tired of 
his repose. 

From the 22d June to the 12th July, the date on which he left 
the hospital, all the tetanic symptoms underwent sensible diminu¬ 
tion : every day amendment was visible. By degrees nearly the 
whole of the muscular system recovered its normal properties. 
Tension and stiffness continued up to the 5th July in the extensor 
muscles of the limbs, and principally in the constrictor muscles of 
the jaws, which re-acted but very imperfectly on the alimentary 
cud. And this caused a necessity, from time to time, up to the 
day of his departure, to remove the cuds lodged within the pouches 
of his cheeks, in order to restore the free exercise of manducation. 

*** Will not this case incline some veterinarian, the first oppor¬ 
tunity he may have, to test chloroform in tetanus 1 —Ed. Yet. 


Extracts from Domestic Journals. 


MR. BRANSBY COOPER. 

[From “ The London Mercury.”] 

No one is more opposed to the hospital exclusive system than 
we; but as in the days of the old borough-mongering parliament 
a man of genius occasionally appeared, so in those of existing 
medical monopoly one of ability at rare intervals is found. The 
gentleman whose name stands at the head of this article may be 
adduced as an instance of the remark. He is one of the 


“ Rari nantes in gurgite vasto”— 





MR. BRANSBY COOPER. 


97 


one of the few talented men belonging to the clique—one, in short, 
though by no means of the highest order of ability, of the trump 
cards of the pack. 

Farther than that he was the nephew of the late Sir Astley, we 
are not acquainted with any of the details of Bransby Cooper’s 
early life; but we believe that, in his sphere, it was a stirring one; 
and several passages in his “ Life” of his uncle would lead to the 
inference that he had been concerned in many churchyard scenes, 
as well as grave recollections. As these, however, are of by-gone 
date at the present time, and of questionable taste at all times, we 
shall not refer to them now. It was one of them, we believe, which 
first attracted Sir Astley’s attention, and induced the recommenda¬ 
tion that his nephew should be devoted to the interests of the 
church beyond the walls, instead of those within. The young 
gentleman was accordingly despatched to London instead of being 
confined to the provinces; he was furnished with a scalpel instead 
of a breviary; and he is consequently now elevating his finger 
before the students of a London lecture-room, instead of shaking 
his head in thevpulpit of some Norfolk parish. 

Having duly completed his noviciate at Guy’s and St. Thomas’s, 
where his uncle then reigned in undisputed supremacy, Mr. 
Cooper’s frolicsome and adventurous disposition led him to seek 
service abroad in the medical department of the army; and we 
believe that so little did he confine himself to the mere routine of 
his profession, or to the rear, which is commonly considered its 
department, that he quickly became a subject for treatment himself, 
instead of attending in this capacity upon others. Going out with 
the design of superintending the limbs of the troops, he with dif¬ 
ficulty escaped with the loss of his own. In looking after their 
organs, he lost his eye; for which he is indebted to a pension, and 
a peculiarity in his appearance which renders him, for his similitude 
to England’s greatest naval hero, strikingly remarkable. 

At the end of his period of service, or when thus disabled, Mr. 
Cooper returned home ; and it is now that the first, and still the 
most important, incident in his life occurred. He was, of course, 
quickly inducted into a hospital. His uncle’s influence at once 
secured him a leading-place, as surgeon to Guy’s; and it was 
shortly after he entered upon this career that the memorable trial 

with Mr. Waldey took place. 

# * * * * 

We make these remarks with no reference whatever to Mr. 
Cooper: on the contrary, we believe that he wanted no such 
advertisement, and assuredly we feel confident that on his part 
there was not the slightest shadow of moral obliquity. We give 
him full credit for being an able and honest surgeon, as well as a 

VOL. XXI. o 


98 


MR. BRANSBY COOPER. 


bold, and upright, and fearless man ; incapable of committing any 
act inconsistent with the character of a gentleman, of having re¬ 
course to any hole-and-corner practices, or in any degree lace¬ 
rating the feelings and increasing the sufferings of either man or 
woman. Nor is he one likely to resort to law where a question 
concerning his honour is involved. There is no member of the 
faculty, we believe, who would more readily adopt the customary 
means of resenting such an imputation; and this is paying him no 
slight compliment, as the faculty, whatever be their failings, are 
not, with one or two noted exceptions, destitute of courage. They, 
on the contrary, daily risk their lives for others; and there is, 
perhaps, not above one man in the profession who would consent to 
retain life at the cost of another’s honour and his own. 

This trial, as already mentioned, forms the principal public 
event in Mr. Cooper’s life, and no incident has since occurred to 
bring him conspicuously before the e)'es of the community. When 
it took place, he was almost the junior assistant of the hospital in 
which he is now amongst the senior surgeons. He has subsequently 
become known as a lecturer and an author, but in neither capacity 
calls especially for notice. His lectures are sound without being 
brilliant, and, if not so off-hand as those of his late uncle, are more 
correct in taste and structure. His Life of Sir Astley, already 
alluded to, is his sole extra-professional work; and though by no 
means perfect as a piece of biography, it is, perhaps, as impartial 
as could be expected from such a source. It abounds with ad¬ 
ventures and incidents which might well have been omitted ; but 
this possibly is to be attributed more to the subject than to the 
writer of the memoir. 

In his younger days, Mr. Cooper was described as a fierce-look- 
ing Gorgon; but he never could, have presented the bold, devil- 
may-care, burly appearance of his uncle. At present, now that 
nearly sixty summers have passed across his forehead, he is an ex¬ 
ceedingly sedate, self-possessed, compact, and unassuming looking 
man. When uncovered, his resemblance to Lord Nelson is re¬ 
markable ; and if asked to sit for the portrait of that hero, he would 
undoubtedly have formed a much better picture than the one-armed 
image which figures in Trafalgar-square, and only requires the 
addition of a cork-leg to render it supremely ridiculous. This 
peculiarity of his physiognomy has frequently been remarked, 
especially in courts of justice, where, somehow or other—possibly 
from the central position of his residence at Charing-cross—Mr. 
Cooper chances to find himself more frequently than any other 
member of the profession, with the exception of one brother chip, 
who has fixed his domicile still nearer to St. Stephens’s, for the 
purpose of meeting with parliamentary accidents. Mr. Cooper 


EVIDENCE ON MEDICAL LEGISLATION. 


99 


was the gentleman called in on the memorable occasion when Mr. 
Drummond was shot for Sir Robert Peel, and we remember he 
especially distinguished himself by the clearness with which he 
gave his evidence—a characteristic very rare with medical men. 
For their benefit, we may add, that the secret was short. He as 
far as possible avoided digression and explanation, and confined 
himself as closely as he could to monosyllabic answers. 


Evidence taken before the Select Committee on 

Medical Legislation. 

[From the Medical Times.] 

(Joseph Henry Green , Esq., F.R.S., called in and examined.) 

Professional Titles. — I AM a member of the College of Surgeons 
and one of the council; I have been one of the council for ten 
years, and a member of the college about thirty years. I have 
ceased to practise generally, but I still continue to be surgeon of 
St. Thomas’s Hospital. 1 have been one of the surgeons of St. 
Thomas’s Hospital about twenty-five years. My connection with 
St. Thomas’s Hospital has enabled me to watch the progress of the 
students in general in the acquirement of the knowledge of their 
profession, for I have been occupied in teaching during the whole 
of that time, and indeed longer—for upwards of thirty years; I began 
to be a teacher before I was a member of the college : I have been 
engaged, therefore, instructing the surgical youth upwards of thirty 
years. I am now one of the council of King’s College; I was 
professor of surgery there. 

Opportunities for observing the Progress of Students. —My 
connection with those two institutions has given me opportunities 
of observing the progress, or otherwise, generally made by youths 
studying surgery within the last thirty years. I should fear that 
their proficiency as a body has been rather retrograde in respect of 
those particular branches which I have taught, anatomy and sur¬ 
gery. Those two branches are the cardinal points in the science 
of medicine, certainly. I ascribe this retrograde movement to a 
greater demand being made upon the time of the young men by the 
system of instruction, which requires attendance upon a greater 
number of lectures, and attention to be given to a greater number 
of subjects, than formerly. * * * * 

Grinding. — * * * * I have mentioned grinding as pre¬ 

paratory to the examination before the College of Surgeons; I am 
now an examiner of the College of Surgeons, and by examination 
we can detect grinding, and imperfect knowledge based upon grind- 




100 


EVIDENCE ON MEDICAL LEGISLATION. 


ing, to a very considerable extent. We consider it our duty to 
check that system by the course of examination in the College of 
Surgeons. I do not know whether the examiners on the part of 
the Society of Apothecaries are public teachers, but I believe that 
they are limited in their selection of examiners, and that, therefore, 
they are not capable of choosing those who may be best fitted for 
the office. 

Unsound Knowledge , by whom, detected. —I apprehend that no 
other persons than those accustomed to teach have the power of 
detecting unsound knowledge from grinding. It is part of the busi¬ 
ness of a teacher to be constantly examining, with the cases of 
disease, the dead body, or whatever the subject may be, before 
him. We do not, in examining for admission to membership of 
the College of Surgeons, test surgical skill by actual dissection ; 
the only practical part of the examination is that of having the 
bones before us, but which assist very much in examining as to the 
knowledge of anatomy. 

Examination of Members. —I have been examiner only about 
twelve months. The examination as now conducted by myself 
and colleagues is stricter than it was when I was admitted a mem¬ 
ber, and underwent examination—considerably so. Therefore, un¬ 
less it were for this interruption of the study of surgery and anatomy 
which I have described, from the interference with it by the pre¬ 
paration necessary for the examination before the Society of Apo¬ 
thecaries, so far as it depends upon the College of Surgeons, the 
standard has been rather raised than lowered; the students too are 
impressed with that opinion, that the examinations for membership 
are much stricter than they were formerly. I cannot speak from 
my own experience, but only from the information I have obtained 
among the students; but I believe the examinations are now more 
strict and searching than they have ever been. 

Examination of Felloivs. —Passing from the examination for 
membership to the examination for fellowship, that examination is 
a stringent and efficient one: there, dissection is introduced into 
the examination and operations. Grinding cannot prepare for that 
examination, as regards the practical part of it. I think one must 
concede to physiology the rank of being the highest, but anatomy 
is the foundation of medical science. The examination does not 
extend now beyond physiology, nor does it branch into general 
literature and general acquirements: it will do so in the year 1850. 
Notice has been given that, after that year, mathematics, the de¬ 
monstrative sciences, and general literature, and those acquirements 
which are necessary for the bachelor’s degree at the universities, 
will form part of the examination for the fellowship. I examine 
for fellowship as well as for membership. The institution has been 


EVIDENCE ON MEDICAL LEGISLATION. 


101 


somewhat recent, but I think, taking it on the whole, that as many 
have come up already as might have been expected; and it has not 
only excited emulation amongst the young, but likewise among the 
older men: we have had many members of longstanding who have 
come up for examination for the fellowship. From what passes 
under my own eye among the young men at St. Thomas’s, I think 
I can hardly say generally that they look forward to standing out, 
when they attain the age of twenty-five, for the fellowship, and 
that at an early period of study they look forward to preparing 
themselves for that honour; but I have met with many instances 
of men who have so determined. I can venture to say quite affirma¬ 
tively, on the whole, that the institution of the fellowship has 
acted, and will act, as a stimulus to the acquirement of greater 
surgical skill. * * * * 

A Single Faculty. —* * * * I am not favourable to a single 

faculty in the whole profession—certainly not. 

The Registration Bill. —And I would not approve of any system 
of registration which had a tendency to favour or produce a single 
faculty. I should think it would be a great misfortune to the pro¬ 
fession and the public. * * * * 

Al» V. AN \l» Vl* 

Opinion on Registration. —I myself approve of registration, pro¬ 
perly framed and under competent authority. I do not think that 
the registration under this bill is a registration such as ought to be 
the standard registration for England, because it does not sufficiently 
inform the public what the qualifications of the persons registered 
are. I have seen the register. My opinion is, that there should 
be a register setting forth in classes the qualifications of the per¬ 
sons registered. * * * * 

Tendency of the Registration Bill. —I think that the bill which 
is now before us has a tendency to the introduction of a single 
faculty, so it appears to me; but, more than that, it appears to me 
very likely to diminish very seriously, and very dangerously to 
the public, the education of medical men. As no benefit would 
be derived from a higher qualification on the register, they would 
naturally seek the cheapest schools, and it is very likely to produce 
a rivalry among the schools, for affording medical education at the 
cheapest rate, and in the shortest time, and that must necessarily 
induce a lower professional standard of education. 

Penalties. — * * * * That it would be desirable, by penalty, 

to check practice without qualification, or that it would be more 
expedient to induce, by encouragement, the possession of qualifi¬ 
cation, is a very difficult question to decide; but I am disposed 
very much, if it be possible, to make some legal penalty against 
unqualified persons practising. * * * * It is one thing to 


102 


EVIDENCE ON MEDICAL LEGISLATION. 


act in violation of the law, and another to pass a law which shall 
legalize practice without such qualification. They are two very 
different things. It is my opinion of this bill which we are now 
considering, that it would legalize general practice without any 

adequate qualification. 

* * * * * 

Apprenticeship .-—Apprenticeship I do not see the advantage of ; 
on the contrary, I see many disadvantages as regards the education 
of professional men. If you could always secure a master who could 
teach, and who would teach, it might have its advantages; but the 
facts are so notoriously opposed to that, that one cannot but wish to 
see the apprenticeship clause done away with. The dedication of 
five precious years, taken from the time of study, to the compound¬ 
ing of drugs, is an unreasonable period; but even then they do not 
seem to learn pharmacy, at least they do not acquire an adequate 
knowledge of the materia medica: they may know how to make 
up a draught, but they do not obtain a scientific knowledge of phar¬ 
macy. As regards learning pharmacy, the five years are thrown 
away. * * * # 

The Examiners .— * * * * The examination on medicine 

would best devolve on those who have made its science their 
especial object, and the examinations in chemistry and pharmacy 
should be conducted by those persons who have made the science 
of chemistry and pharmacy their study. Now, a general practi¬ 
tioner, merely as such, cannot be supposed to have made chemistry 
and pharmacy the objects of special and scientific study: he, for 
the most part, and especially a member of the Apothecaries’ Com¬ 
pany, buys his compounds already prepared. There is not, that I 
am aware of, any penalty for assuming the designation of a member 
of the College of Surgeons. I propose that the College of Physicians 
should examine the general practitioners in medicine. The exami¬ 
nation of the Society of Apothecaries should not be confined to 
pharmacy and chemistry. I do not think that they are persons 
fitted to examine in pharmacy and chemistry. I would propose 
another body. They are not by profession what the French call 
pharmaciens, or pharmaceutical chemists. It must be a board 
composed of persons who have especially made those subjects their 
study. We have no such body in the profession that I know of; 
but I did not wish at all to convey the idea that the Society of 
Apothecaries had not been of very considerable benefit to the pro¬ 
fession. Care must be taken not to render the education of general 
practitioners too expensive. I propose that the College of Physi¬ 
cians should examine them in medicine, some other body in phar¬ 
macy and chemistry, and the College of Surgeons in surgery; and 
it would be very essential, likewise, that another body should 


EVIDENCE ON MEDICAL LEGISLATION. 


103 

examine them in midwifery, that body being composed of professed 
accoucheurs. That branch could not be brought within the province 
of the College of Surgeons; it does not belong properly or entirely 
to surgery : but you have here in London a much better opportunity 
of forming such a body, by taking physicians and surgeons who 

practise in midwifery. That would make four examinations. 
***** 

Education of Surgeons .—I think it desirable that surgeons, or 
a certain number of the most eminent surgeons, should receive their 
education, together with the more eminent members of the law and 
the church and the gentry of the country, at the universities. I do 
not think that there is any thing in the nature of the occupations of a 
surgeon which would make a university education a bad preparation 
for his professional avocations. On the contrary, I should think it 
would be of great service to him, in disciplining his mind even for 
his professional studies, without any ulterior views—without con¬ 
sidering the man, only considering the surgeon. I cannot point 
out any distinction between the mode in which a man who is aiming 
at the higher and more scientific position in his profession pursues 
his studies, and that in which a man who is only seeking for gene¬ 
ral practice pursues them. I should think the principle to which 
they must both advert would be the same; but it is the misfortune 
of a person who cannot aim at the higher rank in his profession, 
that he cannot have his mind so opened, invigorated, and disciplined 
by preliminary education as to obtain the advantages which the 
other obtains; but still the profession, I take it, must be studied 
upon the same principle and with the same views. For example, 
if you take, as it has been frequently my lot to see, a young man 
who has come from an apprenticeship of five years, and compare 
him with one who has been at the university, who has merely 
taken his first degree in medicine, both of them young men, and 
nearly of the same age, you will find that it is with the greatest 
difficulty that the one who has been apprenticed in the ordinary 
way to a country practitioner acquires information: he has no 
power of observing and generalizing; in many instances he cannot 
spell, and cannot put down his thoughts in writing; in short, he 
evidences in every way great imperfection of mental development, 
whilst the young man who has come from the university gains 
more, perhaps, in a couple of years than the other would if he were 
at the hospital for ten years. The students for general practice 
are obliged to study too many subjects at once under the present 
system of examination. They come unprepared in point of mind, 
and the whole of the information has to be poured in at once. They 
are over-lectured. * * * * 

Professional Trading .—I have expressed in print a very strong 


104 


EVIDENCE ON MEDICAL LEGISLATION. 


opinion that the medical profession should be as far as possible 
removed from any thing that should give it the character of a trade. 
I doubt whether it would be possible to carry it so far as to make 
it a regulation that general practitioners should not sell drugs; it 
may be left to their good feeling, and to the improvement which 
may be hoped for by raising the standard of education: but in the 
country it would be quite impossible for them not to keep their own 
drugs; and I take it that their patients derive advantage from it, 
by getting better drugs than they would get from the small 
chemists and druggists’ shops. I am apprehensive that the tend¬ 
ency of elevating the education of general practitioners may be 
to introduce a lower class of practitioners in the chemists and drug¬ 
gists. It does not occur to me to make any suggestion to remedy 
that: I think that the Legislature must always require a certain 
amount of information, such an amount as will qualify persons to 
practise with safety to the public; and if you find that chemists 
and druggists are rising into practitioners, you must require of them 
the same: therefore it is, though I cannot very well say how it is 
to be done, that I stated to Sir James Graham it was desirable that 
there should be something like illegality or penalty affixed to 
unqualified practice. I trust a good deal to the high standard of 
professional and gentlemanly feeling for correcting some of the evils 
which the law cannot prevent. I would endeavour by a system, 
whatever it was, to produce the highest qualification that you could 
produce; and to give hope to ail, even in the lowest grade, that 
they might rise to the highest if they would give the time and 
study requisite for its attainment. I attach the greatest importance 
to keeping up a high tone of gentlemanly feeling in our profession. 
On that ground I think it important to encourage the high grades 
in our profession going to the universities, as tending to connect 
the heads of our profession with the highest persons in the land ; 
but I would add to that, that I think it essential to the interests of 
even the lower ranks of professional men; for I think that the 
one-faculty plan would soon be found to have a very serious effect 
upon the pocket of the general practitioner. It is the fact that that 
gentlemanlike feeling is now to a great extent spreading through 
the profession, and tending to elevate persons who before were in 
the lower scale of society. 

Fees for Education .—The serious effect upon the pocket of the 
general practitioner to which I referred is, if the standard of pay¬ 
ment were not regulated by high fees, you would have a reduction 
of fees: you would have a run for cheap practice, as you have in 
other trades. I would not, then, regulate the fees of the medical 
practitioner by law ; the fees of the physician are not regulated by 
law, and I am very sorry that the fees of surgeons are regulated by 


ON CHLOROFORM. 


105 


law: it ought to be an honorarium. The way I consider the adop¬ 
tion of a single faculty in medicine would have a serious effect on 
the pocket of the general practitioner would be this :—if you have 
one faculty, that faculty must all be brought to the level of the 
lowest; there would be no grades, no distinctions, nothing elevated 
in it; and if you brought all to the level of the lowest, it would be 
a run for cheapness : you would have it degraded into a trade ; they 
would be cheaply educated, and they would compete with regard 
to the cheapness with which they could attend patients. 


Chloroform, the new Agent for producing Insensibility 

to Pain by Inhalation. 

Read by Mr. D. Waldie at the Meeting of the Liverpool Literary and Philo¬ 
sophical Society , held at the Royal Institution, on the evening of Monday, 
Nov. 29, 1847. 

[From “ The Pharmaceutical Times.”] 

The property of various substances existing in the state of gas 
or vapour to affect the animal constitution has been long known, 
more particularly with respect to the production of deleterious or 
poisonous effects; and the same fact has been observed in the 
case of substances found in ordinary circumstances in the solid or 
liquid form, when brought by artificial means into the state of 
vapour, and conveyed into the lungs. And this has been observed 
more generally in the class of substances called narcotics than pro¬ 
bably in any other; in the smoking of opium or tobacco for instance, 
or in the intoxicating effect of the atmosphere in apartments con¬ 
taining large quantities of wine or spirits. 

The discovery, in the latter part of last century, of the constitu¬ 
tion of the atmosphere, and the elimination of various substances 
in the gaseous or aeriform state, possessing very distinct and dif¬ 
ferent properties, opened up a field of investigation on this subject 
previously unknown. The remarkable and highly-interesting dif¬ 
ference in the relations of oxygen and carbonic acid to combustion 
and life led to the knowledge of these properties in other gases and 
vapours. 

Great expectations, based on theoretical considerations, were 
entertained at that time by many of the probable utility of gaseous 
bodies as remedial agents. Dr. Beddoes, one of the most enthusi¬ 
astic of these theorists, thought that all diseases might be cured by 
breathing a medicated atmosphere, and in 179S opened a pneuma¬ 
tic institution at Bristol for that purpose. It is well known that 
his expectations were disappointed, as the scheme was unsuccess¬ 
ful ; but it was the means of introducing to him Davy, then a 
VOL. XXI. P 




106 


ON CHLOROFORM. 


youth, who was recommended to him to conduct his chemical pro¬ 
cesses, and who with great boldness investigated the physiological 
properties of various gases by trying experiments on himself. 
From these experiments resulted the discovery of the curious pro¬ 
perties of nitrous oxide gas. These were giddiness, a delightful 
sense of thrilling in the chest and limbs, acuteness of hearing, 
brilliancy of all surrounding objects, and an unconquerable propen¬ 
sity to muscular exertion or laughter; these were of short duration, 
and were not followed by the depression and nausea consequent 
on the use of spirits or opium. The effects, however, were not 
uniform, some persons having been affected with weakness, ten¬ 
dency to faint, loss of voice, and insensibility. In fact, its effects 
vary, not only from differences of constitution in various indivi¬ 
duals, but also according to the quantity inspired; and, as in the 
case of the substances immediately to be noticed, insensibility and 
unconsciousness always result if it be taken in sufficient quantity. 

It has been long known, though perhaps not very generally, 
that the vapour of ether possesses similar properties to nitrous ox¬ 
ide. At what time this was first observed I am not aware; but 
the earliest notice I have found of it is in “The Quarterly Journal 
of 8010006 ” for 1818:— 

“ When the vapour of ether mixed with common air is inhaled, 
it produces effects very similar to those occasioned by nitrous oxide. 
A convenient mode of ascertaining the effect is obtained bv intro¬ 
ducing a tube into the upper part of a bottle containing ether and 
breathing through it: a stimulating effect is at first perceived at 
the epiglottis, but soon becomes very much diminished ; a sensation 
of fulness is then generally felt in the head, and a succession of 
effects similar to those produced by nitrous oxide. By lowering 
the tube into the bottle, more of the ether is inhaled at each inspi¬ 
ration, the effect takes place more rapidly, and the sensations are 
more perfect in their resemblance to those of the gas. 

“ In trying the effects of the ethereal vapour on persons who are 
peculiarly affected by nitrous oxide, the similarity of sensation 
produced was very unexpectedly found to have taken place. One 
person, who always feels a depression of spirits on inhaling the 
gas, had sensations of a similar kind produced by inhaling the 
vapour. 

“ It is necessary to use caution in making experiments of this 
kind. By the imprudent inspiration of ether, a gentleman was 
thrown into a very lethargic state, which continued, with occa¬ 
sional periods of intermission, for more than thirty hours, and a 
great depression of spirits. For many days the pulse was so much 
lowered that considerable fears were entertained for his life.” 

These facts may be noticed as a remarkable instance of how 


ON CHLOROFORM. 


107 

long men may stand on the brink of a discovery without reaching 
it, to which subsequent reflection may shew them that many cir¬ 
cumstances have pointed. The discovery now to be treated of we 
owe to the United States of America. According to his own 
statement, Mr. Horace Wells, a dentist, of Hartford, Connecticut, 
in reflecting on the fact that individuals, either in a state of high 
excitement from ordinary causes, or when intoxicated with spi¬ 
rituous liquors, may receive severe wounds without manifesting 
the least suffering, was led to inquire whether the same result 
would not follow from the inhalation of some exhilarating gas, the 
effects of which would pass off immediately, leaving the system 
none the worse for its use. Accordingly, in the fall of 1844, he 
had himself a tooth extracted, and performed the same operation 
on others, under the influence of nitrous oxide gas, without pain. 
He states further, that he communicated the result of these experi¬ 
ments to Dr. Morton, Dr. Jackson, and others in Boston. Whether 
as the result of such communication, or from his own reflection on 
the effects of nitrous oxide and the vapour of ether, Dr. Morton, of 
Boston, in September 1843, extracted a tooth from a stout, healthy 
man, whom he had caused to inhale the vapour of ether, and who 
avowed a total unconsciousness of its removal. From that time 
the discovery was made known in America, and speedily found 
its way to this country, where it has met with the advocacy, scep¬ 
ticism, and opposition, which are the usual fate of such novelties. 

Dr. J. Y. Simpson, professor of midwifery in the University of 
Edinburgh, who has, since the introduction of ether inhalation into 
this country, carried on the investigation of the merits of the prac¬ 
tice with the greatest ardour and assiduity, had been for some time 
on the search for other vapours possessing the properties of ether 
without certain disadvantages connected with its use, the result of 
which has been the discovery of such properties in chloroform, 
through the following circumstances :— 

The term chloric ether was at one time applied to the chloride of 
olefiant gas, or Dutch liquid of chemists. In 1837, Mr. Guthrie, 
an American chemist, was led by a statement in Silliman’s 
Elements of Chemistry, that the alcoholic solution of chloric ether 
was a grateful and diffusible stimulant, to attempt a cheap and easy 
process for its preparation. This he did by distilling a mixture 
of spirit and chloride of lime, collecting the product so long as it 
came over sweet and aromatic. This both Guthrie and Silliman 
supposed to be a solution of the chloride of olefiant gas, and called 
it chloric ether. In reality it was an impure spirituous solution of 
chloroform. 

In 1831 Soubeiran, and in 1832 Liebig, prepared a liquid by a 
similar process, and separated the chloroform. Dumas, in 1834, 


108 


ON CHLOROFORM. 


punned it fully, and made an accurate analysis of it: he found it 
to be composed of twelve parts carbon, one part hydrogen, and L06J 
parts chlorine, and named it chloroform, from being analogous to 
formic acid in its composition, but containing chlorine instead of oxy¬ 
gen. From theoretical considerations Liebig termed it perchloride 
or terchloride of formyle,—in chemical symbols, C 2 H Cl 3 . It is 
a colourless, transparent liquid, of specific gravity nearly 1500, or 
about times the weight of water; it boils at 141°Fahr,the 
vapour having a specific gravity nearly four times that of air ; it 
quickly evaporates at ordinary temperatures, but does not burn 
easily ; it has a sweet taste and agreeable smell; is soluble in all 
proportions in strong spirit, but very sparingly soluble in water, to 
which it communicates its taste in a small degree. 

To the best of my knowledge, from the result of many inquiries, 
it seems to have been introduced into this countrv as a medicinal 
agent, first in Liverpool, where, indeed, in the form of a spirituous 
solution, it has been more known than in any other part of the 
country, and from which, I believe, the knowledge of its therapeutic 
properties has extended. About the year 1838 or 1839, a prescrip¬ 
tion was brought to the Apothecaries’ Hall, Colquitt-street, one 
ingredient of which was chloric ether. No substance being known 
there of that name having the properties of that with which the 
mixture had been previously prepared, Dr* Brett, then the com¬ 
pany’s chemist, in investigating the subject, found, in the United 
States Dispensatory, the formula for its preparation which has been 
noticed above, and prepared some. Its properties pleased some of 
the medical men, particularly Dr. Formby, by whom it was intro¬ 
duced into practice in this town. After coming to take charge of 
the company’s laboratories, I found that the method of preparation 
yielded a product which was not of uniform strength, and some¬ 
times of disagreeable flavour. Accordingly, I altered the process, 
by separating and purifying the chloroform, and dissolving it in 
pure spirit, by which a product of uniform strength and sweet 
flavour was always obtained. Thus prepared, it is much superior 
to specimens I have seen of London manufacture. Those members 
of the profession who are in the habit of using it prefer it greatly 
to sulphuric ether, as possessing all its remedial value, and being 
verv much more agreeable. 

The vapour of the so-called chloric ether seems to have been 
tried as a substitute for sulphuric ether in February or March 
last, but without very satisfactory results, which, indeed, could 
scarcely be expected, unless the vapour of alcohol possessed the 
same properties, it being composed principally of alcohol. When 
in Scotland, in October last, Dr. Simpson introduced the subject 
to me, inquiring if I knew of anything likely to answer. Chloric 


ON CHLOROFORM. 


109 


ether was mentioned during the conversation; and being well 
acquainted with its composition, and with the volatility, agreeable 
flavour, and medicinal properties of chloroform, I recommended him 
to try it, promising to prepare some after my return to Liverpool, 
and send it to him. Other engagements and various impediments 
prevented me from doing this so soon as I should have wished ; and 
in the mean time Dr. Simpson, having procured some in Edin¬ 
burgh, obtained the results which he communicated to the Medico- 
Chirurgical Society of Edinburgh on the 10t.h of November, and 
which he published in a pamphlet, entitled “ Notice of a New 
Anaesthetic Agent as a Substitute for Sulphuric Ether in Surgery 
and Midwiferv.” 

As an inhaled anaesthetic agent, he states that chloroform pos¬ 
sesses the following advantages over ether:— 

A much smaller quantity is required to produce the effect; it is, 
therefore, more portable and transmissible than ether, and, though 
more costly, from the smallness of the quantity required, will pro¬ 
bably be less expensive. 

Its smell is pleasant, and does not remain attached to the clothes 
of the operator, or exhaling in a disagreeable form from the lungs 
of the patient, as so generally happens with ether. 

Its action is more rapid and complete, and generally more per¬ 
sistent, so that the surgeon’s time is saved. 

Most of those who have breathed both declare that the inhalation 
and influence of chloroform are much more pleasant and agreeable 
than those of ether. 

The quantity required to produce insensibility is from fifty to 
one hundred drops generally, more or less. It is applied by pour¬ 
ing it into a hollow sponge or a pocket handkerchief, and holding 
it over the mouth and nostrils, not too closely at first, so that the 
vapour may be fully inhaled. 

It would be out of place here to go into detail of the phenomena 
produced by the inhalation of these agents, or a minute examina¬ 
tion of cases : I shall, therefore, only briefly mention what may 
be most generally useful and interesting. 

The most essential point in the administration of these agents is 
to know when it has been carried far enough. Their effects vary 
with the quantity of vapour inhaled, and have been divided by 
Dr. Snow, in his treatise on ether inhalation, into five degrees. 
These run gradually into each other, and are not always clearly to 
be distinguished, but may be described as follows :— 

In the first degree the person retains a correct consciousness of 
where he is, and what is occurring around him, and a capacity 
to direct his voluntary movements : the feelings are usually agree¬ 
able, often highly so; but this is not a proper state for performing 


110 


ON CHLOROFORM. 


operations. In the second degree mental functions may be exer¬ 
cised and voluntary actions performed, but in a disordered manner; 
the movements are instinctive, guided by volition, though no£ by 
knowledge or reason; there may be struggling, screaming, or 
laughing; the patient may be tractable or obstinate; dreams occur 
in this stage. An operation would cause pain, though the patient 
might, perhaps, not remember it: this stage is not proper for ope¬ 
rations. In the third degree there is no evidence of any mental 
function being exercised, and, consequently, no voluntary motions 
occur; but muscular contractions, in addition to those concerned in 
respiration, may sometimes take place as the effect of the ether, or 
of external impression. The eyes are stationary, the breathing is 
usually regular and deep, though it sometimes stops for a time, 
and there may be muscular rigidity: in operations there may be 
some flinching and moaning, but no articulate sound, and there is 
no recollection of what has been done. In the fourth degree no 
movements are seen except those of respiration, and patients are 
incapable of being influenced by external impressions. The eye¬ 
lids fall, the eyes are fixed, the muscles are all relaxed, the face is 
placid and expressionless, the breathing regular and automatic, and 
sometimes there is snoring, a state which would be alarming if we 
did not know the cause of it. In this the patient remains perfectly 
passive under every kind of operation. In the fifth degree, not 
witnessed in the human being, the respiratory movements are more 
or less paralyzed, and become difficult, feeble, and irregular. If 
continued, this ends in death; yet, according to Dr. Snow, the 
animals always recover if the vapour is discontinued before the 
breathing has actually ceased. 

These various stages disappear in the inverse order in which 
they make their appearance; that is, the third succeeds the fourth, 
the second succeeds the third, and the first concludes. It is to be 
observed that the degree of insensibility is greater in a stage when 
retiring than when advancing; that is, for instance, a patient might 
feel, while in the second stage during its advance to the third, 
what he would not feel in the same stage during its retiring from 
the third. 

The proper stages for operations are, according to Dr. Snow, the 
third or fourth; the latter, if there be any muscular movement or 
rigidity in the third stage. If there is the least snoring, the opera¬ 
tion may be commenced, and the ether should be temporarily with¬ 
drawn till the snoring ceases. The insensibility may be kept up 
for a long time without risk, by allowing partial recovery occasion¬ 
ally, by withdrawing the inhaled agent for a time. 

Dr. Simpson points out the following conditions as necessary to 
be attended to in producing anaesthesia:—1st, perfect quiet and 


ON CHLOROFORM. 


Ill 


freedom from all sources of excitement; 2d, avoiding as much as 
possible the stage of excitement by giving a full dose as quickly 
as jllssible, so as to produce the state of insensibility as speedily 
as possible; and, 3d, steadfastly deferring the commencement of 
the operation till the state of insensibility has been fully produced. 
It ought also to be observed that it is advisable not to administer 
these agents very soon after a meal, as the desired effects are not 
so easily produced. 

Patients often recover promptly, frequently after some delay, 
with, perhaps, wandering of the mind, or even some excitement. 
Faintness and languor are not unfrequent for some time after re¬ 
covery, and sometimes sickness, or even vomiting, particularly if 
shortly after a meal. 

Anaesthesia, or insensibility to pain, by the inhalation of the 
vapour of ether or chloroform, has been induced, not only in surgi¬ 
cal operations, but in neuralgia and some other painful diseases, 
in passing otherwise intolerable galvanic currents through tumours 
to relieve spasm, as in hooping-cough and in parturition. 

As an example bearing on the relative merits of ether and chlo¬ 
roform, I may give the following case, with which I have been 
favoured by Dr. Imlach:—The patient, a lady, was afflicted with 
severe facial neuralgia, coming on every night after assuming the 
horizontal position in bed. Opium, henbane, camphor, iron, and 
arsenic, were all tried as remedies, and failed. Ether inhalations 
stopped the paroxysms : an ounce and a half was required, and the 
breath continued loaded with its smell during the day, the patient 
losing strength and appetite. Chloroform was then tried; it re¬ 
moved the pain and produced sleep, and next night it was so much 
better that none was required. It was repeated five times in all 
on alternate nights, with the use of berberine for three days. The 
health, strength, and appetite, became much improved, and there 
was no further occasion for applying the chloroform, as the pain 
did not return and the sleep was restored. 

In regard to the experience of the sufferers, if we can so desig¬ 
nate them, Dr. Forbes gives us the following as the result of in¬ 
quiries in the London hospitals, by personally questioning fifty- 
four patients who had undergone, principally, capital operations:— 
“ They were unanimous in their expressions of delight and grati¬ 
tude at having been relieved from their disease without suffering. 
In listening to their reports it was not always easy to remain un¬ 
moved under the influence of the conceptions thereby communi¬ 
cated of the astonishing contrast between the external physical 
condition of the mangled body in its apparent tortures on the ope¬ 
rating-table of a crowded theatre, and the really happy mental 
state of the patient at the time/' 

Dr. Simpson also remarks, with respect to its employment in 


112 


THE MURRAIN AMONG CATTLE. 


parturition, “ I have never had the pleasure of watching over a 
series of better and more rapid recoveries, nor once witnessed^nv 
disagreeable result follow to either mother or child, whilst I Mve 
now seen an immense amount of maternal pain and agony saved by 
its employment. And I most conscientiously believe that the proud 
mission of the physician is distinctly twofold, namely, to alleviate 
human suffering, as well as to preserve human life.” 

Such is the sketch of this remarkable discovery of ether inhala¬ 
tion, and such the promise of improvement in the addition to it of 
chloroform; a substance hitherto interesting only to the scientific 
chemist, but now of importance to all who seek relief from the suf¬ 
ferings to which their bodily constitution renders them liable. 

A discovery such as this is sure to make its way, if experience 
should not prove that it is attended with counteracting disadvan¬ 
tages. All that its advocates can fairly demand is an impartial trial 
of its merits. The irrepressible desire in human nature to escape 
from pain will compel this, even though it may be opposed by the 
timidity, prejudices, dulness, indolence, or callousness of individuals. 
The practice numbers among its supporters names of the highest 
rank in the medical profession—men who will carry on the investi¬ 
gation of its applicability and suitableness to the various cases of 
human suffering with the ardour and perseverance which the im¬ 
portance of it demands, but whose judgment and intelligence will 
not allow them to admit these claims, except to such an extent as 
may be warranted by the experience arising from a judicious obser¬ 
vation of facts, the only substantial basis on which we can ground 
its title to be called an important addition to the healing art. 


THE MURRAIN AMONG CATTLE. 

At the monthly meeting of the Highland and Agricultural So¬ 
ciety of Scotland, held at Edinburgh, on Wednesday, 12th inst., 
the secretary read a communication from the Board of Trade, to 
the effect that the epizootic, which w T as thought to be disappearing, 
had broken out with greater violence than ever among the horned 
cattle of Wallachia, and that three-fourths of those which had been 
spared from last year’s visitation were falling victims to it. The 
secretary said, that though the communication just read had refer¬ 
ence to the state of the epidemic in a distant country, the directors 
conceived it to be their duty to submit to the public all information 
conveyed to them on so important a subject, in regard to which 
Professor Dick, who was present, has promised to give to the 
meeting the results of his experience. Professor Dick then rose 
and made the following statement, which we give as of great inte¬ 
rest to the public at present:—Professor Dick stated that pleuro- 




THE MURRAIN AMONG CATTLE?. 


113 


pneumonia was still prevailing with great violence, and varied 
witj^ the weather. It existed at present to a great extent in East 
Lomian, as well as in Aberdeenshire, and throughout the north. 
He was informed yesterday, by one of his pupils, who is in prac¬ 
tice at Maybole, in Ayrshire, that there has only been occasionally 
a solitary case for fifteen miles round during the last twelve months. 
He considered its origin and propagation to be atmospherical, and 
attributable to influences to which man and the lower animals were 
equally exposed; in illustration of which the Professor referred to 
the existing epidemic in the form of influenza, under which he 
himself was evidently labouring, and in consequence of which the 
public schools have been partially closed. The disease consisted 
of active inflammation of the lungs, and in the pleura which covers 
them and lines the chest. It was attended with great danger, par¬ 
ticularly when the pleura was principally affected; and such cases 
generally were fatal, unless the proper remedy was immediately 
applied; because, when that membrane is attacked by inflamma¬ 
tion, being what is called a serous membrane, it very rapidly pro¬ 
ceeds to pour out serum and lymph between the lungs and ribs; 
the chest fills with water, and the animal sinks and dies rapidly. 
Man, and all the domesticated animals, are liable to the disease, 
although they may not be equally affected at the same time. 
Horses, as well as dogs, during the present epizootic, have been 
less affected than cattle. The disease is not, generally speaking, 
so fatal in horses as in cattle, because horses, being under continual 
notice, were better attended to; the symptoms were at once noticed, 
and they were seldom lost. The same would be the case with 
cattle, if properly looked after; but too little attention is paid by 
the breeders and rearers of cattle to the health and comfort of their 
stocks and the symptoms of their diseases; they, at the same time, 
are not so much under the immediate observation of their owners. 
Indeed, the early symptoms very readily escape notice, because 
they are obscure. To illustrate the treatment required, the Pro¬ 
fessor referred to a case in Lanarkshire, where he had been called 
on for advice; his instructions to the smith or farrier on the pro¬ 
perty were, that he should bleed whenever he observed any cough 
or alteration in the milk or feeding; clean out the bowels by laxa¬ 
tive medicine—say 1 lb. of Epsom salts, nitre, tartrate of anti¬ 
mony in large and repeated doses; repetition of bleeding; blister¬ 
ing the sides, and even firing, if necessary. After the inflamma¬ 
tory action has been subdued, tonics should be administered. By 
following this course the smith has acquired a local celebrity. It 
was sufficiently simple if adopted at an early stage of the disease; 
but if the disease has made a certain progress, no reasonable hope 
of success can be entertained .—Mark Lane Express . 


VOL. XXI. 


Q 




114 


REVIEW—ESSAY ON 


MR. HENDERSON'S LETTERS. 

In reference to the letters of Mr. Henderson on “ Defective 
Veterinary Education,” one of which is contained in our impression 
for last month, the second appearing in our present No., and which 
have likewise been published in the Mark-lane Express, the Edi¬ 
tor of that journal writes—“ That the importance of veterinary 
science to the owners of cattle and horses in this kingdom is so 
great, that, if the statements made by Mr. Henderson are correct, 
means must be taken to remedy the evil. The establishment of a 
second school or college would , in all probability, have the desired 
effect.” 


REVIEW. 


Quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid non.—Hon. 


An Essay on the Diseases of the Jaws, and their Treat¬ 
ment. By Leonard Koecker, Surgeon-Dentist, &c., New 
Edit. With copious Notes and Appendix. By T. B. Mitchell, 
M.D., Surgeon-Dentist. Churchill, London. 8vo. pp. 94. 

The maladies of the jaws—though there are times when, in 
animals more than in human beings, they may be regarded as 
independent of the teeth—for the most part belong, in their early 
forms in particular, to the province of dentistry ; and therefore it 
is that “ the dental surgeon has the best and most extensive 
practical opportunities of observing and watching these maladies 
through their different stages.” Diseases of the teeth, in horses, 
dogs, and cattle, as compared with the catalogue human medicine 
exhibits, are few, uncomplicated, and readily remediable. Leav¬ 
ing out of mention such evils as, now and then, not often, arise 
from dentition, horses’ dental disorders may be comprised under 
the headings— inapposition, fracture, supplemental or wolves' 
teeth, caries . 

At the middle and advanced periods of life horses are very apt, 
from irregular and sidelong motions of the jaws during the act of 
manducation, to wear the surfaces of their molar teeth slantingly, 
and so much so as in the course of time to give rise to declivities 
in the crowns of those teeth, unfitting them for the purpose of 
grinding the food, the consequence of which is, that the aliment 
either passes into the stomach imperfectly masticated, or else 
collects together into a sort of pellet— cud, as it is called—and 
becomes lodged in a pouch formed within the cheek, outside the 







THE DISEASES OF THE JAWS. 115 

molar teeth. The evil becomes readily remedied, generally speak¬ 
ing, by the judicious use of the tooth-rasp. 

Fracture of the teeth, rarely—hardly ever, in their sound condi¬ 
tion—happens; but fracture of the jaw from injury, is a case 
which every now and then presents itself, and with it the teeth 
commonly become involved. 

What is most apt to affect the jaws, however, is caries of the 
teeth, or disease communicated from them to the lining membranes 
of the sinuses and cancellated cavities in their interiors. 

“Writers on dental surgery have not failed to point out the 
morbid effects of the diseases of the teeth or the osseous structure 
of the jaws; but they have been content to grapple with these 
effects in one or two forms only. “ Abscess of the Antrum/' 
“ Parulis or Gumboil," and “ Epulis,"—the simplest form of the 
sarcomatous tumour, are sometimes mentioned in systems of 
dental surgery; but, uniformly as distinct and primary diseases, 
instead of symptomatic affections, all equally referrible to the 
same causes, namely, the “ idiopathic diseases of the teeth and 
sockets."-“A vesical calculus may give rise to various (symp¬ 

tomatic) affections of the neighbouring parts, and connected organs; 
but in an etiological point of view, the disease, whatever the symp¬ 
toms, is still calculus , and the sole correct treatment consists in 
the removal of the lithic deposit,"—together with, we would add, 
the lithic diathesis. “ Thus it is with the diseases of the jaws. 
In their etiology they are identic, and on this identity is founded 
their only successful curative treatment.”— Editor's Preface. 

That fundamental science in medicine must have for its prin¬ 
cipal object the study of primary causes will not be questioned by 
the man of reflection, no more than that the jaws and other vici- 
nous parts have been treated for pains and aches, and inflammations, 
and swellings, when the teeth were the parts that ought to 
have been looked to : this last, in fact, is a remnant of old surgery 
that has been pretty well exploded from modern practice, the folly 
and absurdity of which, it would appear from Dr. Mitchell’s preface, 
Mr. Koecker has been very instrumental in exposing. 

The observations the running over of the work before us have 
elicited, will shew how little of it can be made applicable to such 
animals as horses, dogs, &c. There is, however, one division of 
the “ Essay " to which we may with advantage direct the atten¬ 
tion of the veterinarian; and since this is but a short one, and our 
reader may feel desirous of judging for himself of the applicability 
of it to veterinary practice, we will transcribe it into our pages. 
The heading of it is— 

“Of Osseous, Fibro-cartilaginous, Sarcomatous, Fungous, and 
Osteo-Sarcomatous Tumours and Excrescences of the Jaws. 



116 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE COUNCIL. 


“ Sometimes, from some accidental excitement, or from a peculiar 
irritation produced by the osseous structure upon the periosteum, 
the membrane lining the cavity of the jaw, or the external ^ri- 
osteuin and gums, during the progress of the diseases already 
described, large tumours or excrescences are formed on these parts. 
These tumours are either of a soft, fleshy, cellular structure, or of a 
fibro-cartilaginous or osseous kind, forming various sorts of exos¬ 
toses, which seem to be equally common to both.jaws. When they 
occupy the upper jaw, they may sometimes be found to enter the 
nose, and even the orbit of the eye ; and by their gradual increase 
the cheeks become very much swollen, as well as all the parts 
involved, great deformities of the face, distortions of the nose, the 
eyes, and other parts, being the necessary consequences. 

“ In the under jaw these tumours are often of a spongy or osteo- 
sarcomatous nature, and particularly disposed to extend to an im¬ 
mense size; sometimes they are accompanied by the formation of 
polypi in the ears, and discharges of matter from these organs. 
Notwithstanding their very formidable appearance, however, these 
diseases are neither more dangerous nor less tractable, under 
proper treatment, than those of the upper jaw. 

“ If, however, under all these various complications, these mala¬ 
dies are not properly and completely arrested in their progress, they 
are liable to become cancerous, and thus terminate fatally; or, by 
gradually weakening the constitution, and predisposing it to the 
influence of other diseases, eventually assist in destroying the 
unhappy victim.” 

PROCEEDINGS OF TPIE COUNCIL OF THE ROYAL 
COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS. 

Sitting of December 29, 1847. 

Quarterly Meeting. 

Present—the Secretary, Messrs. Henderson, Percivall, 
Godwin (Birmingham), Arthur Cherry, Ernes, Cherr y 
sen., and Wilkinson. 

The PRESIDENT being absent in consequence of having met 
with a severe accident, Mr. Henderson, the senior Vice-Presi¬ 
dent, occupied the Chair. 

The minutes being read and confirmed, 

There appeared to be no question for the consideration of the 
Board. A general discussion followed on various points of pro¬ 
gressive business, but which it is not necessary to notice, it being 
generally understood that the next meeting would be an interesting 
one, as there would be the consideration of two important notices, 
and other business.—Adjourned. 




THE 


VETERINARIAN. 


VOL. XXI, 
No. 243. 


MARCH 1848. 


Third Series, 
No. 3. 


ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTER 

APPLIED FOR BY THE PRESIDENT AND GOVERNORS OF THE 
ROYAL VETERINARY COLLEGE OF LONDON, AND THE 
PRESIDENT AND DIRECTORS OF THE HIGHLAND AND 
AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF SCOTLAND. 

The preamble sets forth, that the application is made on the part 
of the “ president and governors of the Royal Veterinary College 
of London, and the president and directors of the Highland and 
Agricultural Society of Scotland;” that “ the Royal Veterinary 
College of London and the Veterinary College of Edinburgh have 
been established for many years, and are the only schools for the 
education of students of the veterinary artand goes on to re¬ 
capitulate the principal parts of the preamble of the charter already 
granted to the veterinary profession. This is followed by a plea 
for exemptions:—“ That in consequence of practitioners of the 
veterinary art not participating in the privileges and exemptions 
which have been granted to the medical and other professions, much 
injury has arisen to themselves as well as loss to their employers 
and, therefore, they “ submit that considerable advantages would 
accrue to our subjects generally by enabling veterinary surgeons to 
possess privileges from which they have been hitherto excluded.’ 

The next clause sets forth that advantage would accrue from the 
connexion with the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland ; 
but how this is to arise is not pointed out. 

Clause 3, acknowledges the granting of a royal charter of incor¬ 
poration on the 8th day of March, in the seventh year of the reign 
of Her Most Gracious Majesty. 

Clause 4, sets forth, that, up to the time of the granting of the 
said charter, “ the management of their respective schools, from 
which such great benefits have accrued to the public, was in their 

VOL. XXL R v 







118 


ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTER. 


own handsand complains that the present charter exercises 
“ uncontrolled power over the said schools;” and that the “ peti¬ 
tioners are in no way represented in the said body politic and cor¬ 
porate, and that the said charter, and the bye-laws made in pursu¬ 
ance thereof, contain clauses and rules which our petitioners con¬ 
sider detrimental to the interests of the said colleges and to the 
advancement of the veterinary artand further prays, that a 
charter of incorporation be granted to the certificated members of 
the said schools, under “ the name and title of the Royal Veterinary 
College of London and Edinburghand 11 that the veterinary art 
might henceforth be recognized by law as a profession.” 

Clause 5, recapitulates the former in the usual recitative phrase¬ 
ology of the law, and may be looked on as the first clause in the 
body of the proposed charter. 

Clause 6, proposes the appointment of a council, and regulations 
regarding general meetings; but goes on to add, “ that the profes¬ 
sors, being veterinary surgeons, to be appointed by the two bodies 
petitioning respectively,” and “ such other veterinary colleges as 
may be appointed and recognized by sign-manual, and to be ap¬ 
proved by the veterinary board afterwards mentioned, shall be , by 
virtue of their respective offices , members of the said council, so 
long as they hold their said offices, but no longer; and that the 
council shall consist of thirty members, and that there shall be one 
president, two vice-presidents, and one secretary, elected by the 
said council out of their own body ; and the members of the council, 
with the exception of the said ex-officio members, and of the first 
president, who is appointed by these presents, shall be severally 
elected and appointed in manner hereinafter mentioned.” 

Clause 7, appoints Professor William Sewell as the first pre¬ 
sident. 

Clause 8, directs, that the council shall be elected from the body 
politic and corporate. 

Clause 9, directs, that the first general meeting shall be held at 
the Royal Veterinary College, or, elsewhere in the county of Mid¬ 
dlesex ; and that the first president, or, in case of his death, the 
petitioners, shall fix the day and hour for holding the same. 

Clause 10, directing the calling of the general meetings, is a re¬ 
script of the present charter, except that the general meeting be 
held in June instead of May. 

Clause 11, directs the election of members of council, exclusive 
of the ex-officio members, to take place at the annual general 
meeting. 

Clause 12, directs, that the president, vice-presidents, six mem¬ 
bers of council, and the secretary, go out of office on the day of the 
annual general meeting. 


ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTER. 


119 


Clauses 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17, directing the manner in which 
the members of council are to be elected, providing for the going 
out of office of six members annually, and regarding the filling up 
of vacancies, is a rescript of the present charter, excepting that the 
continuance in office of a member of council will be five instead of 
four years. 

Clause L8, directs, that the president, vice-presidents, secretary, 
and members of council, shall still be considered and act as official 
members of the council until the termination or adjournment of the 
annual general meeting. 

Clause 19, directs, that the voting for members, &c., be taken by 
ballot. 

Clause 20, directs, that members of the said body politic and 
corporate shall “ vote in person, except those residing more than 
twenty miles from the place of meeting, who may vote by proxy 
in the appointment of members of council.” 

Clause 21, directs, that any president, vice-president, or mem¬ 
ber of council, may resign his office if so inclined; and that any 
general meeting specially called for the purpose, “ may remove any 
president, vice-president, or member of the council, NOT BEING 
AN EX-OFFICIO MEMBER, for misconduct or other reasonable 
cause.” 

Clause 22, directs, that the meetings of council shall be convened 
by the secretary. 

Clause 23, directs, that the first council shall be convened within 
one month after the general meeting, at which one president, two 
vice-presidents, and one secretary, shall be appointed. 

Clause 24, directs, that any secretary or treasurer may be re¬ 
moved by the council from his office. 

Clause 25, directs the manner of voting at the general meeting 
to be by ballot, and by proxies entitled to vote. 

Clauses 26 and 27 relate to the presiding at the general meet¬ 
ing and meetings of council, and regarding the entering of minutes. 

Clause 28, directs, that such matters as may be entered and duly 
signed in the minutes are to be “ binding and conclusive on the 
said body politic or corporate,” except “ such matters requiring 
approval by the veterinary board as hereinafter mentioned.” 

Clauses 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, and 34, give power to the council 
to appoint officers, &c., and the management of the general affairs 
of the body politic and corporate, except as hereinafter mentioned. 

Clause 30, places in the hands of the council the power of fixing 
the time and place of meeting of the council, and also for examin¬ 
ing students, and for regulating the nature and extent of such ex¬ 
aminations, and the appointing of examiners, and fixing “ the 
sum or sums of money to be paid by such students, either previous 


120 


ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTER. 


to their examinations, or upon their admission as members;” and 
“ generally touching all other matters relating to and connected with 
the said body politic and corporate and “ to alter, suspend, or re¬ 
peal, and to make new orders, rules, and bye-laws, in their stead, 
as the council shall think most proper and expedient.” All these 
clauses are rescripts of the present charter. 

Clause 35, directs, that the fee for examination and admission, 
inclusive, shall not exceed the sum of five guineas, except as 
hereinafter mentioned. 

Clause 36, directs, that all orders, rules, or bye-laws, be reduced 
to writing, and the common seal affixed thereto. 

Clause 37, directs, that before any order, rule, or bye-law, or al¬ 
terations in repeals therein, can be made, notice must be given 
thereof at a previous council; and that “ copies of the same must 
be suspended in the common meeting-room of the council, and in 
the lecture-room of the Edinburgh College, during the space of two 
calendar months previous to the meeting of the council at which it 
is intended to propose the same,” and a special meeting called both 
for the consideration of and confirmation of the same. 

Clause 38, regulates the affixing of the college seal. 

Clause 39, directs the establishment of a board, to be styled the 
“ Veterinary Board,” and that this Board be composed of one of 
Her Majesty’s principal Secretaries of State, or some person to be 
by him appointed; the president or one of the vice-presidents, and 
three governors of the Royal Veterinary College of London; and 
the president, and three members of the Highland and Agricultural 
Society of Scotland; the principal veterinary surgeon to the army ; 
the veterinary examiner of the Honourable East India Company; 
the senior professor of each of the said colleges of London and 
Edinburgh; and the president and vice-presidents of the to be 
formed new college. 

Clause 40, directs, that the Veterinary Board shall determine the 
time and place for their meeting, and that their acts shall be decided 
by vote, and that five form a quorum. 

Clause 41, provides, that the Veterinary Board shall appoint a 
secretary, and that minutes be kept of their proceedings; and 
which minutes, signed by the president, shall “ be binding and 
conclusive on the said body politic and corporate, AND ON ALL 
THE MEMBERS THEREOF.” 

Clause 42, directs, that the Veterinary Board may require re¬ 
turns to be made from the council “ in such form, and including 
such particulars, as they may think fit respecting the examinations 
of students ;” and, further, that any secretary of the said Veterinary 
Board mav be deputed, or for any member of the said Board to be 
present, at any of the said examinations. 


ABSTRACT OF THE CHARTER 


121 


Clause 43, directs, that the said Board may, with the consent of 
the “ council, vary, alter, or add, to the nature or form of the ex¬ 
aminations hereinafter directed, as they shall see fit.” 

Clause 44, directs, that no order, rule, or bye-law, to be made 
by the council, nor any appointment of a member or members of 
the board of examiners, “ shall be of any force until it has been 
laid before and approved of by the said Veterinary Board.” 

Clause 45, directs, that a board of examiners shall be formed, 
and the professors of the Royal Veterinary College of London, and 
the professors of the Veterinary College of Edinburgh, the princi¬ 
pal veterinary surgeon to the army, the veterinary examiner to the 
Honourable East India Company, shall be ex-officio members 
thereof; and that the council shall elect from those who are or 
shall have been public teachers in the medical profession eight 
persons, four of which are to be resident in London, and four to be 
resident in Edinburgh or Glasgow; that the council shall elect 
from the members of the body politic and corporate eight other 
persons, four of such members to be resident in England, and four 
to be resident in Scotland. 

Clause 4ft, directs, that on a vacancy by death, or otherwise, of 
a member of the board of examiners, such not being caused by 
the death or resignation of an ex-officio member, the council shall 
fill up such vacancy, but subject to the approval of the Veterinary 
Board. 

Clause 47, directs, that every student, prior to examination, shall 
have completed his twenty-first year. 

Clause 48, directs, that any person who shall have obtained a 
diploma from any of the universities, or from any public veterinary 
school in any of our colonies or in foreign parts, or from any of the 
Royal Colleges of Physicians or Surgeons, or the Honourable 
Company of Apothecaries of London, Edinburgh, or Dublin, shall 
produce certificates of having attended one of the recognised veteri¬ 
nary colleges of not less than one sessional year. 

Clause 49, directs, that those students who shall not be qualified 
under the previous cause shall study for not less than two sessional 
years. 

Clause 50, directs, that at the expiration of two years after the 
date of the proposed charter, students shall be required to serve an 
apprenticeship of not less than two years with a member of the 
body politic or corporate, or of not less than three with a member 
of the Royal College of Surgeons, or Honourable Company of 
Apothecaries of London, Dublin, or Edinburgh, or of the Pharma¬ 
ceutical Society of London; or who shall have been established as 
a practitioner of the veterinary art for not less than three years be¬ 
fore the granting of the said proposed charter, although not having 


122 


REPLY OF THE COUNCIL TO 


a certificate of qualification from either of the colleges, shall, in 
each case, be required to attend not less than two sessional years 
at one of the recognized schools. 

Clause 51, that all other persons who may enter as students, not 
coming under any of the previously enumerated conditions, shall 
be required to attend at one of the recognized schools for not less 
than three sessional years. 

Clause 52, directs, that the fee for examination and admission, 
together with the required certificates, shall be delivered to the 
secretary of the council, at least fourteen days previous to the day 
of examination. 

Clause 53, provides, that the board of examiners may direct a 
candidate found not competent, to return to his studies for a period 
of not exceeding six months; and such candidate shall be entitled 
to a second examination without the payment of any farther fees. 

Clause 54, directs, that if, on a second examination, a candidate 
shall not be competent, he shall not be entitled to another or any 
succeeding examination, without the further payment of a fee of 
five guineas for every such additional examination. 

Clause 55, vests the property of the body corporate and politic 
in, and places it under the control of, the council. 


REPLY OF THE COUNCIL TO THE PROPOSED 

CHARTER. 

To the Right Honourable Sir GEORGE Grey, Bart. 

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State. 

1. The Memorial of the President and Council of the Royal 
College of Veterinary Surgeons, incorporated by Charter granted 
by Her Most Gracious Majesty on the 7th day of March in the 
Eighth Year of her Reign, 

Humbly sheweth, 

2. That your Memorialists have seen with surprise the Petition 
for and draft of a new Charter submitted to the consideration of 
Her Most Gracious Majesty, and prayed to be granted to “ the 
President and Governors of the Royal Veterinary College of 
London, and the President and Directors of the Highland and 
Agricultural Society of Scotland.” 

3. That your Memorialists view this application with regret, 
mingled with pain, that noblemen and gentlemen should have again 




THE PROPOSED CHARTER. 123 

reiterated statements which have long since been explained and 
refuted. 

4. That the allegations contained in their Petition, and the gene¬ 
ral tendency of the proposed Charter, have been, for the most part, 
answered at some length in two former memorials, bearing date 
22d July, 1844, and 4th November, 1846, to which we respectfully 
beg leave to draw your attention. 

5. That this application has been made by “ the President and 
Governors of the Royal Veterinary College of London, and the 
President and Directors of the Highland and Agricultural Society 
of Scotland” only; that large and influential chartered body, the 
Royal Agricultural Society of England, having refused to join in 
the application. 

6. That the grant or grants of public money made to the Royal 
Veterinary College or School of London, alluded to in the Petition 
and draft of Charter, have ceased for many years; and so far from 
there being evidence to shew that such grant or grants were made 
to that Institution as a public body, the Governors have always 
maintained that they are a private and uncontrollable one . 

7. That the general anatomy and pathology of cattle, sheep, 
swine, and other domesticated animals, were not taught in this 
school, nor were such animals admitted as patients, until just prior 
to the granting of the present Charter, and then only in conse¬ 
quence of a grant of money from the Royal Agricultural Society 
of England for this particular purpose; though the structure and 
diseases of these animals were, by the laws of the Institution, 
passed in the year 1791, especially directed to be taught. 

8. That this grant from the Royal Agricultural Society of Eng¬ 
land has been since directed to be withdrawn, in consequence of 
the defective results obtained. 

9. That these important branches of knowledge are still but 
very imperfectly investigated. 

10. That the condition of the Veterinary College, or School, of 
Edinburgh, as regards the means for the instruction of pupils, was 
and still is in a similar position. 

11. That the course adopted in the tuition of pupils has long 
been the subject of complaint on the part of the members of the 
veterinary profession, as well as of the public at large. 

12. That attempts have repeatedly been made, and more espe¬ 
cially of late years, to induce the Governors of the Royal Veteri¬ 
nary College, or School, to establish a better and more extensive 
system of tuition, but without effect. 

13. That, in the year 1840, an application, signed by upwards 
of 300 members of the veterinary profession, was made to the Go¬ 
vernors of the Royal Veterinary College, or School, to memorialize 


124 


REPLY OF THE COUNCIL TO 


Her Most Gracious Majesty for a Royal Charter of Incorporation; 
but. they most unceremoniously refused. 

14. That the body of veterinary surgeons, thus finding that the 
Governors of the Royal Veterinary College, or School, would 
neither co-operate with the veterinary profession at large in re¬ 
moving evils and improving and extending the curriculum of study, 
nor make any attempt thereto of themselves, were obliged, from 
the urgent necessity of the case, to take more effectual steps for 
their obtainment. 

15. That, in consequence, a public meeting of the veterinary 
profession was convened, at which meeting a Committee was 
appointed to take proper steps for petitioning Her Most Gracious 
Majesty for a Charter of Incorporation. 

16. That, at an interview between the Professors of the Royal 
Veterinary College, or School, and the Solicitor to that Institution, 
and certain members of the veterinary profession, the co-operation 
and assent of the Governors were stated by their Solicitor as ready 
to be given, provided the Committee made certain alterations in 
the petition then proposed to meet their wishes. 

17. That the Committee acceded to this request, and that the 
portions thus introduced by the Solicitor to the Governors are those 
which , in the present application, form the principal subject of 
complaint. 

18. That, subsequently, the names of Messrs Spooner and Si- 
monds, professors or teachers at the Royal Veterinary College or 
School, were added to the Petition, at their own special request. 

19. That the proposed Petition and draft of Charter were sub¬ 
mitted to the consideration of the solicitor to the Royal Veterinary 
College, or School, and his opinion taken thereon. 

20. That the clause excluding the professors or teachers from 
becoming examiners of their own pupils was inserted by the 
direction of the legal adviser to the Crown. 

21. That, after the proposed draft of a Charter had been cor¬ 
rected by the advisers to the Crown, it was submitted to the 
solicitor to the Royal Veterinary College, or School, at his own 
request, and by him stated to be improved thereby. 

22. That the allegation on the authority of the professors, that 
surreptitious alterations were made in the draft of the Charter, has 
already, at a meeting of a deputation of the Governors appointed 
to confer with a deputation from your Memorialists, been distinctly 
withdrawn. 

23. That all necessary expenses and charges of obtaining the 
same have been borne by the body of veterinary surgeons, without 
any aid whatsoever, either pecuniary or otherwise. 

24. That the body of the veterinary profession never sought to 


THE PROPOSED CHARTER. 


125 


interfere with any vested or other rights, whether private or public, 
but, on the contrary, did every thing in their power to support and 
uphold the existing schools. 

25. That your Memorialists, since the granting of Her Most 
Gracious Majesty’s Charter of Incorporation, have uniformly acted 
on these views and principles; that their only object has been to 
obtain a more perfect curriculum of study, and the distributing 
throughout the kingdom better qualified practitioners to meet the 
increasing wants of the community. 

26. That your Memorialists are surprised to find that the Royal 
Veterinary College or School, which is a private Institution , sup¬ 
ported by voluntary contributions, but so exclusive that it will not 
allow a veterinary surgeon to become a subscriber, and the Veteri¬ 
nary College or School of Edinburgh, which is the sole property of 
one individual, should claim as vested rights the continuance of 
powers which they only obtained by usurpation. 

27. That your Memorialists have never made any secret of their 
wish to occupy the same position towards the schools of education 
as the College of Surgeons does to the medical schools, which posi¬ 
tion they occupy by the present Charter. 

28. Your Memorialists are fully sensible that the onward pro¬ 
gress of veterinary science has been greatly retarded, and nume¬ 
rous grievances of long standing have been mainly perpetuated, by 
an erroneous system, which the present Charter has put an end to. 

29. That, as your Memorialists are gradually exercising those 
powers with which they have been entrusted, it will be found that 
there is no necessity for another Charter. That the character and 
usefulness of the veterinary profession will be raised by the mea¬ 
sures already in operation, and that there is no ground for the in¬ 
dulgence of those needless alarms expressed to Her Majesty by the 
opposing parties. 

30. That the allegation, that the members of the veterinary pro¬ 
fession have no means of educating students, is both unjust and illi¬ 
beral. That the materials for the establishment of a school of in¬ 
struction have been long in existence; the only reason why they 
have not been rendered available having been wholly from a de¬ 
sire not to interfere with the schools already existing. 

31. That for these reasons, and because the veterinary profes¬ 
sion are fully satisfied with the present Charter, your Memorialists 
pray that you, Right Honourable Sir, will not advise Her Most 
Gracious Majesty to grant the application now made. 

And your Memprialists, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 

(Signed by the President on behalf of the Council.) 


VOL. XXI. 


s 




126 


OBSERVATIONS ON THE CAUSES OF DECLINE IN OUR 

STOCK OF GOOD HORSES, ON BREEDING, AND ON 

QUEEN’S PLATES AND RACING. 

OJ 21 VTTflDOO ?Iflj iO /fSOlS SlXjJlt 10 .* 1 W* p* »n0il 

By W. J. Godwin, M.R.C.V.S., Birmingham. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian .” 

Sir,—Y our last Number contained some remarks by Mr. Good¬ 
win, Veterinary Surgeon to the Queen, on Breeding of Horses, and 
on Queen’s Plates, as connected therewith (apparently called forth 
by a pamphlet on the same subject by Mr. Cherry, Principal 
Veterinary Surgeon to the Army), in which that gentleman appears 
to look upon the make and shape of a horse as no criterion 
whereby we may judge , of his qualifications for racing or other 
purposes, and to consider it inconsistent for breeders to turn their 
attention to strength, shape, temper, action, &c.; adding, that 
“ neither can Mr. Cherry nor any other man in the world give an 
estimate of the character of a horse by looking at him.” Now, if 
he means, pick out a winner of the Derby by such mode, I agree 
with him, otherwise I must dissent from him in opinion; notwith¬ 
standing, I am ready to admit that Nature, in her vagaries, will 
often lead us wide of the mark. And since this is a subject enter- 
tainable by veterinary surgeons, I cannot refrain offering my views 
thereon; and especially am induced so to do, seeing they differ 
materially upon some points from an authority which, I fear, might 
be considered as laying down a principle, an established fact, 
should such be allowed to pass without comment. 

I shall attempt to shew that the different breeds of horses in this 
kingdom, employed as hunters, carriage, or cavalry horses, or as 
hacks, are fast degenerating; and that the system adopted in the 
present day of breeding for the turf to contend in short distances, 
and with light weights, has a tendency to produce this effect, by 
reducing the necessity of the race-horse being the large powerful 
animal that, I contend, is advantageous to this or any other country, 
to improve the breed of horses for general purposes. I am of opi¬ 
nion, with Mr. Cherry, that some means should be adopted by 
Government to enable farmers and other breeders of horses to 
obtain the use of stallions of a good class, free from defects likely 
to be entailed on their progeny; and that, if some plan for this pur¬ 
pose is not employed, the breed in this country will be on the 
decline, if it be not at present. Look at the names of first-rate 
stallions in days gone by, and find, if you can, any common horse 
in appearance whose descendants have been successful to the 


127 


ON BREEDING HORSES, &c. 

second generation, or whose blood has been sought by breeders; 
and then observe the animals that form the entries for our great 
handicaps of late years. Take about 20 out of the 130 entries 
for the Chester cup, and behold what a stud, except as race¬ 
horses, from which a share of the future stock of this country is to 
be produced. Still, most of them are good enough to win, in their 
turn, some moderate stake during their career, either by getting 
favourably handicapped, meeting a field of the same class, or some 
other fortuitous circumstance resulting from the present system of 
racing. As regards the scarcity of hunters, I feel confident that 
“ Pegasus” is in error, when he observes in Bell's Life of the 6th 
instant, in refutation of Sir Harry Smith’s assertion, “ that it 
would be difficult to obtain 500 hunters, if required, for the use 
of the cavalry,” that 5000 could be easily bought, if wanted. 
Pegasus has evidently not been in the market for the last few 
years, or he would know better; and, moreover, would be satisfied 
that the higher class of horses are every year more difficult to be 
found. Ask Elmore, Smart, Kench, Anderson, Collins, or any 
other dealer in the best description of horse, the difference in ex¬ 
pense incurred between now and some few years back to find 
them; and I feel little doubt but they would confirm my statement, 
that they at the present day spend more money in travelling, and 
paying others on the look-out for them, than some years back 
would have half purchased them. I am of opinion that none of 
them would undertake a contract to supply 500 well-bred, clean, 
sound horses, under eight years old, perfect as hunters, and equal 
to fourteen stone, with one month’s notice at the commencement 
of the season, at 150 guineas each. They are not to be found 
without great exertion, and a perfect knowledge of the where¬ 
abouts of almost every hunter of character in the kingdom ; and, 
after that, the judgment is required to select the class of hunter 
for the different countries they are afterwards to perform in; and 
this latter forms no small share of the task, whether constructed 
for the speed and flying propensities so essential in Leicestershire, 
Northamptonshire, or the best part of the Warwickshire country; 
for the compactness and strength so much better adapted for the 
deep country about the Worcestershire and Warwickshire wood¬ 
lands; or possessing those qualities suitable for the Surrey hills, 
or the Gloucestershire walls, &c. There are no men more alive to 
the scarcity of such animals than the farmers in Shropshire, 
Cheshire, Warwickshire, Northamptonshire, and Lincolnshire, 
and who, at the Stourbridge, Rugeley, Rugby, Horncastle, 
and Lincoln fairs, were the purchasers of the well-bred, good- 
looking, three or four year olds, with them to undergo his years of 
tuition and probation, and, if not before sold to some neighbouring 


128 


ON BREEDING HORSES, &C. 

fox-hunter, to come again to market as a best-priced hunter. But, 
how many horses come into a fair at the present day worthy being 
called hunters] Very few, I can safely assert; and most of these 
are wanting in some respect, either as regards performance or 
soundness. Dealers, who have to buy horses of character or qua¬ 
lity, have to seek them in their owners’ stables; and every man who 
has bought a few horses knows to what disadvantage he stands as 
regards the prices to be paid, when the owner has to be told, “ You 
have heard he has a good-looking horse” (and this bit of flattery is 
necessary in many instances to get the chance of seeing him) “ and 
would not object to sell him,” for none place themselves in the 
position of wanting to sell a good-looking one now-a-days: it is 
something to get a refusal of him at his own price. I fancy this 
state of affairs augurs much of the scarcity of the animal. 

I recollect when Shropshire, Warwickshire, Yorkshire, and 
Lincolnshire, were wont to supply the majority of the hunters used 
in this kingdom, and I have but little doubt, but at the present 
time more hunters are brought from Ireland to the English fairs 
than come to them out of our own country. Indeed, I think 
Ireland is getting an advantage over this country in the breed of 
horses, from the circumstance that mares for common purposes of 
breeding cannot here be sent to a first class stallion, in conse¬ 
quence of the price being objectionable; it having become the 
fashion for the best stallions to cover thorough-bred and other 
mares at the same price, say from 10 to 25 guineas each; and these 
horses not being studded at every market-town, there is an addi¬ 
tional expense for keep and travelling expenses, and the breeders 
of half-bred horses will not pay such sums. The result is, being 
under the control of his pocket, he loses all desire to exercise his 
judgment in the selection of a horse, and sends his mare to the 
nearest and cheapest horse in his neighbourhood. There are, it 
is true, owners of good horses who allow these mares to be served 
at half price, whose liberality ought to be considered a national 
boon; but then even it comes high. 

It may be argued, that farmers are not so disposed to breeding 
horses as formerly. This is an instance of an evil working its own 
remedy. The best mares for these purposes having been taken 
out of the kingdom by the tempting prices offered for them, they 
have bred from what they could obtain at a less sum; and the re¬ 
sult has been, that not one colt in twenty has turned out good 
enough to pay his expenses at five years old, which was formerly 
considered the best age to bring colts for sale (although now four- 
year-olds are very readily sold to the same hands); and thus, find¬ 
ing so little hope of a remunerating return, breeders decline prac¬ 
tice. In other instances, the depreciated value of the colt has been 


ON BREEDING HORSES, &C. 129 

in some cause of unsoundness that has not been discovered by the 
breeder until offered for sale, and which has, perhaps, existed from 
an early period of his life. 

A breeder should be careful to look to any defect of this kind 
in mares, and particularly to watch their produce, to see if any 
like cause exist in them ; otherwise, he may, at a ruinous expense, 
stock himself with a defective stud of young horses, and this to be 
discovered to his cost not until he comes to sell them. I need not 
enforce the especial necessity of paying attention to the stallion se¬ 
lected. If a farmer be not judge enough himself in these matters, 
let him not grudge a fee to some competent veterinary surgeon ; it 
will be money well laid out. By many, action is not noticed suf¬ 
ficiently in the selection of horses for breeding purposes. Since 
“ like is apt to beget like,” I would never put a mare to a bad 
goer. The difference in the value of a common horse is equal to 
50 per cent; but one of first quality, in other respects, enormous. 
Picture yourself on the look-out for a first-rate horse, either as 
charger, for the park, or harness. Walking through a fair, the 
very animal presents himself, coming into the town for sale. You 
get the refusal of him ; price turns within your own estimate : he 
is fed, dressed, and pulled out for your inspection. After an 
anxious hour has passed, mark your disappointment at discovering 
he is a bad goer. You feel you would not buy him. Then, whose 
disappointment is greatest] Yours, or the breeder’s, who has 
never turned his attention to this part of his favourite’s qualities, 
until, as in the case of unsoundness, he is reminded of it by the 
otherwise would-be purchaser] On the other hand, a dealer, 
knowing the nag you require, and believing, from your knowledge 
and love of action, he has what will tempt you, asks you to allow 
him to shew }mu one in the stable. You reply, on seeing him, 
“ It is useless; he is not quite good enough.” Still, from the desire 
of the dealer, you consent to have him out, more to satisfy him than 
yourself, when, to your astonishment, from his action, you cannot 
leave him. The price] Half as much again as you valued liim at. 
Still, you must and will have him. Why should not the farmer 
be in this position ] He cannot insure a good goer, it is true ; 
but he should adopt every means possible to attain one, and if he 
prove not, then sell him young, for some inferior purpose. I would 
recommend the same, likewise, in case of existing unsoundness, 
since a serious per centage will have to be taken from the amount 
sold for as “ sound,” should he be certified to the contrary, when 
he comes to be overhauled by the veterinary surgeon, a scrutiny 
from which few escape when about to leave the dealer’s hands. 
Many a young horse intended for harness might, under these cir¬ 
cumstances, be put into the team at two or three years old, and thus 


130 


ON BREEDING HORSES, &C. 

earn his living at a time when his expenses are most serious, and 
be sold at five years old to pay well for his keep, up to the time he 
began to work, for van horses, which are much in request just now, 
for the purpose of delivery from, and collecting goods to, railway 
stations. 

No bad goer or unsound colt is worth holding till four or five 
years old, unless he can earn his keep. Why has the dealer the 
good goer f Because he is on the look-out for such, and takes 
care to purchase, or have him promised to him, or some one em¬ 
ployed by him, before he has reached the place of sale. It is 
astonishing what horses suffer, by comparison, when brought to 
market for sale. There are few persons who can carry those 
niceties of form in their eye that constitute what is termed quality , 
when deprived of the advantage of comparison, except the expe¬ 
rienced dealer; and many feel astonished at such a man refusing 
to purchase what is considered by the breeder a fine cleanly-look¬ 
ing horse, until he comes to be compared with others, brought per¬ 
haps by themselves to a fair. Through comparison, the secret be¬ 
comes divulged, it not being the practice of a respectable dealer to 
disparage what he does not intend to purchase. 

It is true, foreigners take a vast number of entire stock out of 
the country ; and I am of opinion it would be better if a limit were 
put to this practice, and so increase the trade for the foreign market, 
and enforce the breeding of them ourselves. But if they take the 
material, they not only produce w’hatthey require, but this country 
is deprived of the means of so doing, and thereby is the supply 
rendered scarce in cases of emergency. Further, they now take 
the very description of animals so much required by ourselves, as 
country stallions, their object being undoubtedly not so much the 
production of race-horses as the improvement of their studs. For 
general purposes, they are also careful in selecting their purchases 
free from any defect likely to be entailed on their progeny, or any 
natural formation that would predispose to such, both in mates and 
sires. It is to this weeding our cleanly sound mares out of the 
country, and leaving us the refuse, that I attribute the increased 
number of horses now with spavins, curbs, &c., more than was 
formerly the case ; a circumstance that, in my opinion, calls for the 
especial consideration of Government. 

I shall now make some observations on the Queen’s Plates and 
Racing, as it has had, and is likely to have, influence on the breed¬ 
ing of horses for the purposes previously mentioned. I do not 
think that these (racing) prizes w r ere given solely for the purpose 
of increasing the amount of sport at different meetings : if so, the 
new scale of weights, and alteration in distance, will bring about— 
indeed it has produced—the desired effect. On the contrary, I 


ON BREEDNIG HORSES, &C. ; . 131 

have always looked upon them as being- established for the purpose 
of causing the race-horse to be bred with the power to carry weight, 
and as an encouragement of adherence to that blood possessing the 
quality of endurance in the highest degree; and, as the weights 
were previous to the late alteration, undoubtedly such prizes stood 
as a reward to the best horses in the kingdom possessing these 
qualifications. And as, in former days, before such large stakes as 
are now raised by private subscription were run for, the amount 
bore a fair proportion with the sums contended for in other stakes, 
and then had the effect of bringing together moderate fields; but, 
as the disproportion in these prizes to other stakes increased, so 
did the fields become reduced for the royal plates, it being not un¬ 
common for a horse to walk over or meet with some insignificant 
competitor for a succession of these prizes. Even then, however, 
the prize went to the proper purse, that of the owner of the horse 
best qualified for these races, although the public felt some disap¬ 
pointment for want of competition. Now, I am an advocate that 
these royal prizes should be continued, not only on account of 
stamping the truly national sport of horse-racing with the highest 
character; but now knowing that, if placed upon a proper footing, 
they will answer the end intended, and which, in my opinion, is a 
material one. That the shortening the distances and lowering the 
scale of weights will produce the greatest amount of sport, as the 
prizes now stand, I do not doubt; but, proceeding with this view 
alone, will, I am convinced, give a disposition to the breeding of 
the race-horse for speed only, consequently leave unregarded the 
size and power necessary to carry weight, and particularly since 
most of the great stakes are handicaps. A weed of a horse, pos¬ 
sessing speed, has many opportunities of winning a large stake, 
consequently there will not be that inclination to produce a more 
powerful animal, the means of doing which come more expensive; 
and therefrom arises a disposition or bias to breed from parents 
destitute of these qualities, if no further encouragement is held out 
to promote this end than now exists, viz., that of breeding the de¬ 
scription of animal destined for the general improvement of the 
race. 

It would be folly to suppose that the present system of racing 
could be changed entirely. The object, as it now exists, is to in¬ 
crease the amount of speculation more than to improve the breed of 
horses, which, as connected with the turf, can only be effected by 
increasing the amount of these plates, and keeping up the weights. 
The distance (four miles) of many of the old plates I think rather 
too far with the higher scale of weights; nor do I approve of the 
system of running heats. If there be any cruelty in racing, as 
some choose to assert, it is in this, and this only. How often have 


132 


ON BREEDING HORSES, &C. 

I seen horses come to the post, to contend for a third or fourth 
heat, scarcely able to gallop from exhaustion through their previous 
efforts ! I no more desire to see this than I admire seeing a bump¬ 
kin shaking and spurring a tired horse in the hunting field, or a 
beaten horse, whose chance is run out, in a steeple-chase. 

I would propose to increase the amount of the Royal Plates, by 
removing them from places where the spirit of racing is not upheld 
by subscriptions from the inhabitants (who participate in the pro¬ 
fit and amusement derived therefrom) to an extent to secure a pro¬ 
portionate amount of stakes to those contributed in other places, or, 
in other words, from where racing is not conducted and supported 
in its best and most spirited style; and by adding to the same prize, 
where such is the case, and so increasing the amounts instead of 
the number of the prizes. Suppose twelve Royal Plates of five 
hundred pounds each, one three mile heat, weights high, but vary¬ 
ing according to the severity of the course over which it is run, 
with a penalty of 7 lbs. for winning each stake in the same year; 
thus giving as many horses as possible a chance of winning one of 
them. This would be something like a reward for such animals 
being bred, and would enable the owner of a good horse to secure 
a fair share of the public money, although his means might be too 
limited to have engaged him heavily, as the more opulent proprie¬ 
tors of race-horses would have done at the age most of our great 
stakes require, and which, in most instances, as in the Derby, 
Oaks, and the great Produce Stakes, is before the merits of the 
animal can be tested. Out of this, I firmly believe, would arise 
a desire to breed an animal suitable for the purpose; and, since 
there are other prizes of similar amount, where speed only is of 
importance, the retention of this property would always be consi¬ 
dered, and carefully studied to be retained, and would, if effected, 
be the ultimatum of our object for the amelioration of that race of 
animal, the British race-horse. 

Since it is from our thorough-bred stallions that our hunters, 
chargers, carriage-horses, and hacks are descended, the best formed 
and biggest are those which should be sought as sires for this pur¬ 
pose, there being a natural proneness to the primitive type, which 
is much less than the present race of blood-horses. When, how¬ 
ever, I speak of a big horse, I do not mean the high, long-legged, 
narrow animal, but one in which the osseous system is capacious 
enough to afford sufficient space for chest, large levers, and attach¬ 
ment of a corresponding bulk of muscles ; such a form that not only 
suits for racing, but, with slight modifications, almost any other 
purpose, from the hunter to the hack. 

In breeding for speed only, that is, when powers of endurance 
are not kept in view, I am of opinion one of the most desirable 


133 


ON BREEDING HORSES, &C. 

qualities we can possess in horses for general purposes, may be 
dispensed with in some degree, and in some instances to advan¬ 
tage ; hence one reason why breeding such animals detracts from 
the essential qualities of the horse for useful purposes : I mean 
that form of body and chest known among horsemen by a strong 
constitution. How many good horses have I known on the turf 
whose legs have been sacrificed by the severe work requisite to 
prepare them ; whose career, otherwise, would probably have been 
a long and brilliant one! Take Launcelot, Melbourne, Meteor, and 
many others I could mention, as instances: still, they were the 
description of horse required for the general improvement of the 
race, and were race horses as well. 

I do not think that Mr. Goodwin argues fairly when, taking the 
exceptions to prove his opinion instead of the rule, he states, that 
because Venison was a good race horse and sire, that shape and 
substance is not a desideratum; although we are aware, if with 
this you have bad action, your hopes are frustrated. But Venison 
was not the “ shabby” horse described by him; for his size, a more 
perfect animal does not exist. 

When one of these exceptions prove first-rate for racing, or for 
any other purpose, it is because their action is superior to what is 
expected in such forms. And why not expected ] Because it does 
not commonly exist. 

It is common with racing men to observe, that they run in all 
forms : so they may ; but the instances of a bad-shaped horse being 
a superior race horse are few. That they sometimes arrive at a 
high pitch in mediocrity, I admit; but still, the proportion the 
number tried of this sort bear to the good-looking, moderate-sized, 
true-shaped colt, is as fifty to one; leaving out those not thought 
worth preparing for a trial, it incurring no slight expense to know 
whether such an one is worth going on with or not. Hence the 
crowds of such horses in the kingdom, and the chance of one of 
them being a moderate runner. I have come to the conclusion 
that the horses of this country (except for the purposes of racing 
as it now exists) are becoming reduced both in number and quality; 
and that this is mainly owing to the increased difficulty breeders 
experience in procuring good stallions for half-bred mares at 
moderate charges, and to our best-shaped, sound mares, being 
purchased for the foreign market. The same happens, also, with 
regard to our country stallions; those best adapted for that pur¬ 
pose being the very horses selected by foreigners. Their govern¬ 
ment, or the societies for whom they purchase, enabling them to 
give such prices as empower them to take from this country the 
sound good-looking animal with fine action; and so forcing breed¬ 
ers not possessing the means or inclination to pay the prices 
VOL. XXI. T 


134 TliE EFFECTS OF CHLOROFORM ON HORSES. 


required for our first-rate sires, to put their mares to any common 
horse they meet with. And, since most of those that travel, 
having good appearance and action, are either blind, spavined, 
curby, or with some defect that makes the foreigner reject them, 
the result is, that in the next generation the country becomes 
stocked with mares the majority of which bear some of these 
defects. For I do not believe there was one-fifth of the unsound 
horses from these causes twenty years ago. And T contend, con¬ 
trary to Mr. Goodwin’s opinion, that trying to produce a good- 
looking horse, as understood by a horse-man, is not “ to please the 
eye to impoverish the pocketbut that the horse of moderate 
good size, and well shaped, is not only the best race-horse, but the 
best to get racing or any other stock. 

Look at our best stallions of the present day—Touchstone, Don 
John, The Provost, Sir Hercules, Hetman PlatofF, and others of 
their class. Do they tell bad for the opinion herein advocated I 
Whereas, Venison, Sir Isaac, Col wick, and Picaroon, are about 
the only getters of race-horses, of the contrary character. Col- 
wick, certainly, got Attila, and Venison Alarm, both superior race¬ 
horses. But there have been as good, and a few more of them, 
got by better-sized horses. And it must be taken into account, 
that Venison had as many good and tried mares as any horse in 
the country, and that these were the property of owners who en¬ 
gage the produce deeply; thus giving the chance, in case of a 
superior horse being got by him, of enormously swelling the num¬ 
ber and amount of stakes won. 


THE EFFECTS OF CHLOROFORM ON HORSES; 

WITH ITS PROBABLE OPERATION AS AN ANAESTHETIC AGENT 

IN VETERINARY SURGERY. 

By William Field, M.R.C.V.S ., London . 

My dear Mr. Editor,— Assured that you, in common with 
your subscribers, will feel gratified at having some account of the 
new and powerful anaesthetic agent, chloroform, I send you the 
results of some experiments I have made with it; and along with 
them the deductions to which I feel myself, after due consideration, 
warranted in coming. 

First of all, however, let me describe to you the apparatus I 
make use of. It is simple, consisting merely in an ordinary 




THE EFFECTS OF CHLOROFORM ON HORSES. 135 

leathern (setting) muzzle, into the bottom of which is fitted a tin 
basin, shallow in depth, provided with a moveable perforated lid, 
after the manner of an old-fashioned tinder-box. Through each 
side of it, towards the front, is a circular aperture about an inch 
and a half in diameter, guarded by a perforated tin plate, by means 
of which free communication is kept up with the external air ; and 
between these, directly in front, is a third opening in the muzzle, 
about the same size, differing from the lateral ones onty in being 
provided with a lid instead of a perforated plate, which may be 
opened and shut at pleasure, according or not as the animal appears 
to require any additional supply of atmospheric air. The floor of 
the tin basin is covered with sponge, and upon this is poured the 
chloroform; from an ounce to three ounces being in general suffi¬ 
cient. The apparatus, such as it is, I have found convenient and 
effective, and 1 shall be happy to shew it to any gentleman who 
may favour me with a call. 

In experimenting on some ponies of my own—which I have at 
times done to gratify some friends of mine—I have found myself 
able to manage and restrain the animal during the inhalation merely 
by standing in front of him, and firmly holding his head by a hand 
upon either rein of the head-stall. In the case of a large or spi¬ 
rited horse, however, a man’s power would prove insufficient; and 
therefore I have had a long rope attached to the head-collar, and 
passed through a ring in the wall, or some post hard by, and by 
that means have enabled an assistant to restrain the animal in his 
vertiginous or delirious movements, and through it to cause him 
to fall, when he comes to stagger and reel about, upon his quarters, 
instead of suffering him to precipitate himself headlong forwards, 
which might be followed by very serious consequences. 

The muzzle, then, we will say, is buckled fast on the head ; and 
the chloroform is afterwards—not before—poured through the cen¬ 
tral opening (or over the side of the muzzle), which, as I said before, 
has no perforated plate, but merely a hinged lid, upon the sponge 
within the basin. And now the operator either himself seizes the 
reins of the head-stall, or in case of the rope being used—which is 
the safer plan—merely watches the movements of the animal, at 
the same time steadying his head or other part, while his assistant 
is watchfully and actively engaged with the rope. 

The primary effect of the inhalation is evidently one of excitation. 
The animal begins to feel elated; every faculty in him seems 
aroused: he looks as though he were momentarily going to make 
a plunge or a dart at you; his breathing becomes quickened; his 
pulse accelerated; he heaves at the flanks, and perhaps becomes 
agitated over his whole frame, and may break out into a sweat. 
By and by, he commences plunging; fights against his opponents, 


136 THE EFFECTS OF CHLOROFORM ON HORSES. 

resists to his utmost his restraint, and finally makes a desperate 
throe or precipitation, which generally ends in his violently fall¬ 
ing upon the ground, and lying as quiet and motionless as 
though he had been struck dead. And now he may be turned 
and rolled about, cut or maimed in any way, without manifesting 
the slightest feeling. A person may run a pin through his ear, or 
amputate his tail, but he will evince no pain whatever: his nos¬ 
trils, which were before dilated, now become collapsed; his ears 
fall down; his breathing is hardly perceptible; his pulse has become 
slow; his pupils dilated and insensible to light: indeed, there is 
little external manifestation of vitality remaining, save that one 
limb is, perhaps, now and then twitched up and flexed, or that there 
is some appearance of subsultus tendinum over parts of the body. 
In general, in about two minutes after inhalation has commenced, 
the animal begins to exhibit symptoms of restlessness, and in no 
case has the time been prolonged beyond fifteen minutes to put 
the animal completely under the effects of chloroform. In the 
case of any operation, should it be desirable to maintain the animal 
under its influence, whenever signs of returning consciousness 
make their appearance, chloroform must be added in half-ounces 
or so, from time to time, through the central opening in the muzzle. 

However satisfied I may feel about the power of chloroform over 
the horse as an aneesthetic agent, I cannot think of employing it for 
the purpose of casting, in lieu of the hobbles. Injuries of the spine 
accruing in horses under such circumstances, I am of opinion, 
happen at the moment the animal struggles after being cast. A 
serious objection to the use of chloroform before casting is, that the 
fall of the animal is too uncertain to admit of restraint or limitation, 
and consequently violent injury may result in the struggles and 
staggerings preparatory to his fall, as well as in the fall itself. 

I raav conclude this account bv the mention of a case of disease 

%j %/ 

in which I have administered chloroform, though with doubtful 
effect. It was a case of tetanus. The horse at the time was in 
the slings, being in so hopeless a condition that all prospect of 
recovery had vanished. Chloroform was suggested. Its inhala¬ 
tion speedily roused the patient, and threw him, for the space of 
a minute or two, into a state of frantic excitement. Then he fell 
and became insensible, exhibiting relaxation of his spasmodic 
limbs, collapse of his nostrils, dilatation of his pupils, &c.; and in 
this state of relaxation from spasm and total unconsciousness 
he breathed his last. 



137 


CASTRATION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF 

CHLOROFORM. 

By J. C. Pickering, V. S., Settrington, Malton , York. 

My dear Sir,— I SEND you for insertion in The VETERINARIAN 
an account of an operation of castration under the influence of 
chloroform, in order to increase, in a slight degree, the small num¬ 
ber of contributions you receive from the Yorkshire vets. One 
would think, from the few who send their lucubrations, that York 
was indeed “wanting,” and that we had so mean an opinion of our¬ 
selves, that we were not able to summon sufficient courage to write 
an article fit to be read by our southern brethren. But let us pro¬ 
ceed to the subject of my present communication. 

The animal was a six-year old thorough-bred horse, unbroke, 
by Stumps, dam by Sheik, the property of the Rev. Charles 
Maitland Long, rector of Settrington, near Malton. I had a tin 
made in the shape of a common muzzle, to which I fixed a strap to 
go over the head, similar to a muzzle. On the inside of the tin, 
round the rim, I had it lined with sponge, in order that it might fit 
more tightly the horse’s cheek. I had the bottom of the tin in the 
centre pricked full of small holes, to let in air. I placed a large 
sponge in the bottom of the muzzle, to cover the mouth and nostrils, 
and poured into it 2 j)z., or rather more, of liquid chloroform. As 
soon as I had placed it on the animal’s head—I should have said, 
however, before this, I had put on the hobbles, ready in case our 
new move should fail—the groom holding him firmly by the caves- 
son, scarcely had he had the muzzle on two minutes before he 
began to shew symptoms of increased vivacity. He commenced 
staggering from side to side, and reeled about quite ungovernable. 
Being afraid lest he should fall with his head against the wall, or 
in some place that would not suit for the operation (as we were in 
a fold-yard with only a small space fit for an animal to lie down 
upon, the rest being swampy and wet), I ordered the men in charge 
of the hobbles to pull him down. He went down as though shot, 
without a struggle. His legs being made secure, and he being now 
quite insensible, I commenced the operation. I made an incision 
through the scrotum and integuments, exposing the testicle. He 
evinced not the slightest feeling. The clams were placed on 
without the least retraction of the cremaster. I proceeded with the 
other testicle with the same effect. The operation being over, his 
legs set at liberty, and the muzzle taken off, I proceeded to examine 
his pulse, which I found distinct, though weak. It gradually arose 
in frequency from 70 to 100, and upwards. I applied a sponge 


138 


THE USE OF LIME IN OPENED JOINT. 


with ammonia to his nostrils. I found sensibility and conscious¬ 
ness returning. There was an unnatural heat of skin all over the 
I . body. From the time of putting on the muzzle to the finishing 
of the operation was six and a-half minutes, time being kept by 
Mr. R. Jones, and Mr. T. Hartley, surgeons, Malton, and by Mr. 
Thomas Cooper, veterinary surgeon, Northallerton, Yorkshire, who 
kindly consented to be present at the operation, and who can testify 
to the accuracy of this statement. In Jwelve minutes from the 
time of the muzzle being put on he was on his legs again; and 
though weak, was able to walk to his box, a distance of one hundred 
yards, and in less than half an hour would have fed as well as 
ever, had he been allowed. On the following day, after the clams 
were taken off, he had an hour’s exercise; and from that day to the 
present he has never omitted having two hours’ exercise daily 
(Sundays excepted). He is now breaking in to ride, and is 
mounted, and in constant work every day. The chloroform used 
was obtained through Mr. Jefferson, chemist, Malton, from Mr. 
White, York, and it proved excellently pure. 

P.S.—You may form some idea of the effect produced, by an 
old Yorkshire farmer who was present exclaiming, as the animal 
lay unconscious after the operation, “ He’s dead, he’s dead! I will 
not give a shilling for him !” 

21st January, 1848. 


THE USE OF LIME IN OPENED JOINT. 

By the same. 

Jan. 8 th, 1847.—I WAS summoned to attend a grey cart-horse, 
the property of Mr. David Cook, Settrington, that had two days 
before received a severe kick on the inside of the near hock; and, 
notwithstanding, had been worked a whole day at plough. I 
found the synovia escaping from the wound every time the horse 
moved his leg. I at once pronounced that it was a case of opened 
joint, and gave a dose of physic, &c. 

From that time till the 4th of February I tried without success 
every mode of treatment I could think of. Having heard of the 
peculiar action of quick lime, I procured some, and applied it to 
the wound, and continued to re-apply it whenever there was an 
escape of synovia, which happened as frequently as twenty times 
in the course of the day (more or less). By perseverance, how¬ 
ever, it became less frequent. The lime acted (allow me to use 
the phrase) with railway speed, for on the 7th of February the 




DIFFICULT PARTURITION IN A COW AND BITCH. 139 


discharge had entirely ceased. I then commenced using, and fre¬ 
quently in the course of the day, a weak solution of diacetate of 
lead, and gave a dose of physic. 

After a few days he was blistered, and in due time the blister 
was repeated. He was then turned out into a fold-yard in the 
day. By such means he became perfectly sound, and went to 
plough on the 31st of March. The hock had begun to decrease, 
and continued so to do until it came to its natural size and form. 

Feb. 9th, 1848. 


CASES OF DIFFICULT PARTURITION IN A COW AND 
BITCH, AND OF IMPERFORATE VAGINA IN 

A HEIFER. 

By J. Nelson, V.S., Highfield, Sheffield. 

Sir, — I SEND you the following cases for insertion in your 
Journal, if you can find a place for them. 

Case I. 

Difficult Parturition in a Cow, followed hy Rupture of the 

Vagina. 

Nov. 29 thy 1847, at 2 A.M. —I was awoke by a messenger from 
Mr. Joseph Smith, farmer, Richmond, who informed me I was to 
go with him as soon as possible; for he said they had a cow 
which could not calve, and the calf was not right. I arose, and 
went with him. When we arrived at the-place, I found the cow 
exhibiting acute labour pains. I inquired how long she had exhi¬ 
bited these symptoms; when, to my astonishment, I was told from 
the morning before, on which day she had been driven several 
miles to Sheffield fair. She had shewn symptoms of calving as 
soon as she arrived at the fair; and in that state was bought, and 
travelled about four miles to Richmond; and then was not consi¬ 
dered to require help till morning. On examination, I found it to 
be a breech presentation. All was righted in about twenty mi¬ 
nutes, without the use of the forceps, though I had got them with 
me: and the hind legs were brought out, and securely roped. 
Here, however, I must observe, that, though all appeared to have 
a favourable aspect as regards the calf, from the length of time 
the cow had been in labour, which could not have been less than 
eighteen or twenty hours, much congestion had taken place within 




140 DIFFICULT PARTURITION IN A BITCH. 

the vagina, so that, when the foetus was attempted to be extracted, 
a great deal of puckering of the folds of the vagina preceded the 
coming of the foetus, which was frequently obliged to be pushed 
back, and every means made use of to prevent the folds from 
gathering, except taking the foetus away by piecemeal. By the 
assistance, however, of three men and two boys to the ropes, the 
calf being already dead, in about fifteen or twenty minutes the 
foetus was extracted, though it was evident on the slightest in¬ 
spection that the vagina was extensively lacerated. I therefore 
advised the owner to have her slaughtered immediately, to which 
he consented. On post-mortem examination, the vagina, close to 
the os uteri, proved ruptured half through its circumference. I have 
given this case to shew how necessary it is to examine per vaginam 
all animals when parturition does not go on to its conclusion in 
the course of a few hours. Indeed, I feel no hesitation in saying, 
that this cow, if she had had help at a proper time, together with 
her calf, might have been saved. 

Case II. 

Difficult Parturition in a Bitch. 

One also of Neglect, somewhat similar to the first. 

Dec. 29th, 1847.—A bitch, of the small spaniel breed, was 
brought to my house by Mr. Stephen Terry, in consequence of 
having, for two days and nights, been exhibiting symptoms of par¬ 
turition, and during that time having taken no food. She at this 
time appeared extremely weak. A little stimulant was given, and, 
on examination, per vaginam, the hind extremities of a pup were 
found to be impacted therein. I informed the owner I was afraid 
Nature was too far spent to bear up under the operation, and he 
must not be surprised if the bitch sank during it. However, with 
my forceps I succeeded in extracting one pup and half of another 
by piecemeal, the remaining half of which fell back into the 
extreme end of one of the horns of the uterus, and so foiled my 
attempts at recovering it, since I could introduce no more than one 
finger. I therefore advised the owner that we should leave her 
until morning. She was accordingly made as comfortable as 
possible for the night, but wafc found dead in the morning. On 
post-mortem examination, the fore part of a pup was found, as 
above stated. 


IMPERFORATE VAGINA IN A HEIFER. 


141 


Case III. 

Vagina Imperforate in a Heifer. 

Dec. ls£, 1847.—A messenger from Mr. Joseph Nicholson, 
Shiregreen, Sheffield Park Farm, requested me to go and see a 
heifer, about eighteen months old. I accordingly went to the 
place. On inquiry, I was informed she had been several weeks 
unwell. 

Present Symptoms. —Constant erection of the tail; setting her 
back up; straining, and passing small quantities of urine. From 
these symptoms I was led to believe that there was some affection 
of the bladder or kidneys; and, as the heifer had been in the 
straw-yard, exposed to the weather, I ordered her into the cow¬ 
house, to be kept warm, and have linseed dust or cake, and a little 
hay; and to take a laxative, combined with fever medicine. 

4th. —I found her much worse in every way. I introduced my 
arm up the rectum, to ascertain in what state the bladder was, and 
found it distended with urine. I introduced a human male gum 
catheter into the bladder, and drew off about two quarts of urine, 
which appeared of its proper colour. From this I concluded that 
the disease was not in the bladder or in the kidneys; nevertheless, 
as yet I had not discovered the true seat of disease. I gave the 
same medicine, and ordered the like diet until I should see her 
again. 

8th. —All the symptoms much worse; pulse 100, and she lying 
almost upon her back, straining in the most pitiable manner, with 
her head and neck out at full stretch, and her forehead flat on the 
ground, and jaws uppermost. I examined her, per rectum , again, 
and this time discovered the womb to be much enlarged, as far, at 
least, as I could trace it through the rectum. The nature of the 
disease now at once struck upon my mind. It was, thought I, a 
case of imperforate vagina. I immediately withdrew my arm from 
the rectum, and commenced an examination of the vagina, and I 
found it to be, about two inches beyond the meatus urinarius, im¬ 
pervious. I informed the owner there was no chance but through 
an operation, and that he must not be surprised if she died even 
then, though she would certainly do so without it. He at once 
put her into my hands to do as appeared best. 

9^A.—Much the same as on the 8th. I now had her secured, she 
being already down, and emptied the bladder with the catheter. I 
then took in my left hand a trocar, such as cattle are tapped with 
when the rumen has become inflated with gas; the blade about six 
inches long. Separating the labia pudendi , I adjusted the point of 

VOL. XXI. U 


142 THE CURE OF GLANDERS IN THE HORSE. 

the trocar, to the best of my judgment, about one inch from the rec¬ 
tum, and I maintained it in that situation with my right hand until 
J had carried my left hand into the rectum. The heifer lay upon 
her right side, and I stood astride of her hind parts. I now moved 
the point of the trocar, so as to be able to feel it with the hand 
within the rectum ; then I gently pushed forward the trocar, at 
the same time directing it by the hand in the rectum, about an inch 
distant, until its whole length had become introduced. Now I 
withdrew the blade, leaving the canula in for a few minutes. A 
starch-like fluid escaped through the aperture. A whale-bone 
probe was passed in lieu of the canula, and was left in. I then 
took a probe-pointed bistoury, and passed it gently by the side of 
the probe, the full length of the blade, and gently drew the bistoury 
in an horizontal direction, cutting as much of the integument as 
would allow my finger to be passed by the side of the probe. 
I now drew out the probe, and introduced a pewter mare-catheter 
to its full length, which brought away about a pint of fluid similar 
to the former. By substituting the catheter for a probe, guided by 
my finger, I cut until the os uteri could be felt, and three fingers 
together could be passed through the opening made. The quantity 
of fluid discharged during the operation was about a quart, and 
with it about half an ounce of blood. The heifer was now released, 
and allowed to get up. A little of the former medicine was given 
once a-day, and she was kept warm and made comfortable. 

1(M.—Doing well: but slight discharge from the vagina; indeed, 
it has not been seen to stream since I last saw her. To continue 
her medicine as before. 

14 th. —Improving; appetite better. Slight discharge; cocks her 
tail now but little. Discontinue medicine. 

20 th to Jhn. 26th .—Doing well: still discharges slightly. Since 
this I have not heard of her. 

Yours truly, &c. 

14th February, 1848. 


THE CURE OF GLANDERS IN THE HORSE. 

By James Broad, M.R.C.V.S. , 14, Market-street, Paddington. 

We have had descriptions of this direful disease handed down 
to us by numerous writers on the veterinary art from its earliest 
period, and various have been the opinions respecting its true 
nature, cause, and curability. It has attracted the zealous atten- 




THE CURE OF GLANDERS IN THE HORSE. 


143 


tion of eminent members of the profession of the present day, who 
have laboured hard to ascertain a more successful plan of treatment 
to combat such a powerful enemy, and various and diversified 
have been the experiments to bring about their object. But, in all 
instances, too often has the disease proved the victor. It is not my 
intention, at the present time, to attempt a description of its nature 
and causes but rather to assert that it is not so incurable as many 
authors inform us, or as numerous practitioners at the present time 
consider it. It is a well known fact, that some thousands of horses 
(and many amongst that number valuable ones) are annually con¬ 
signed to the knacker’s knife, or some similar fate, in consequence 
of being affected with this disease ; and I fearlessly state, that a 
great many of that number might, under proper treatment, have 
been cured, and thus a great loss saved. I would not be under¬ 
stood to be alluding to the disease in its advanced stage, or where 
the animal is old; nor yet to those cases where we find the disease 
the result of a weak and debilitated constitution; for, in such cases, 
the practitioner would do more to serve the interest of his employ¬ 
er, and likewise his own reputation, by humanely recommending 
them to be destroyed* I more especially allude, however, to those 
cases of the acute character, where, the constitution being good 
and the animal possessing youth, it has frequently occurred, where 
a veterinary surgeon has been consulted upon a case, and found the 
usual symptoms by which we recognize the disease, he has at once 
prematurely recommended its destruction without reference to age 
or state of the constitution at the time. Previous, however, to its 
being carried into effect, the opinion of another vet. is sought, who 
admits the existence of the disease, but, from the age and constitu¬ 
tion being favourable, considers the case would yield to treatment. 
He is probably allowed to treat it, and ultimately success attends his 
measures; and should the patient happen to be a valuable one, such 
a circumstance would tell heavily against the reputation of the 
former practitioner, at the same time that it will add to that of the 
latter. 

That my views may be better understood, and that they may not be 
thought to arise from theoretical hypothesis, I submit the following 
cases, whereby the reader will clearly perceive that I do not depend 
upon success from the introduction of any novel or specific plan of 
treatment, but upon pursuing a steady tonic course, combined with 
liberal feeding, regular exercise, pure air, and attention to cleanli¬ 
ness. I am fully aware, it may be urged that, while we are doing 
this, we are incurring a great risk of spreading the disease; but if 
a little attention is given to it, the risk will not be great. I would, 
on all occasions, separate my patient from other animals, and, after 


144 ON THE CURE OF GLANDERS IN THE HORSE. 

the case is given up, it is necessary that the box or place he stood 
in should be cleansed with a solution of chloride of lime, after which 
no danger would be likely to accrue from placing a sound horse in 
the same situation. 

Case I. 

Feb. 25th, 1847.—A brown carriage gelding, six years old, be¬ 
longing to Mr. W., was brought to this infirmary, having a dis¬ 
charge from the near nostril, which had been in existence} as I was 
informed, for about a fortnight. There was also enlargement of 
the submaxillary gland of the same side, and the Schneiderian 
membrane was ulcerated. No cough present; the pulse firm and 
natural. The animal fed well, and appeared to possess a good 
constitution. I considered it a favourable case to undertake the 
treatment of, and therefore had him removed to a place by himself, 
where he had no communication with other horses; and I com¬ 
menced treatment by giving him twice a-day sulph. ferri Qy, 
cantharidum gr. viij, with ginger and gentian, and applying to the 
enlarged glands the ointment of the biniodide of mercury ; keeping 
the nostril cleansed with cold water, ordering him good living, hay, 
corn, carrots, &c., in fact, any thing he would eat, with occasional 
warm bran mashes. The hay he was made to eat from the ground. 

28th .—Feeds well, and appears as lively as a two-year old ; dis¬ 
charge from the nostrils increased; the ulcers enlarged ; the glands 
increased in size, but are softer to the feel: this, however, I at¬ 
tribute to the effect of the ointment. I now tried twice a-day an 
injection of the solution of iron to the nostril. 

March 5th .—The discharge still abundant, but not possessing 
such a gluey character as at the early period of the disease. The 
ulcers enlarged ; the glands quite loose and detached from the jaw. 
Continue the same treatment, in addition to which, a rod of the 
nitrate of silver was applied to the ulcers. At this period of the 
case, my friend, Mr. Dunsford, happened to pay me a friendly call. 
I directed his attention to the case, and he fully concurred with me 
» as to the nature of the disease, and likewise as to the probability of 
a favourable result. 

10 th .—General symptoms improving. Discontinue the injections. 

1 5th .—The discharge much less, the ulcers healing up, and a 
general improvement apparent. A similar plan of treatment was 
continued until the early part of April, when he was turned out to 
grass for six weeks, after which he was brought up shewing no 
traces of the disease. He was a few days after put to work, and 
continued to work sound until the early part of February, 1848, 


ON THE CURE OF GLANDERS IN THE HORSE. 145 


when he was sold for £37..5s. About ten days after commencing 
treatment of the above case, the same gentleman wished me to ex¬ 
amine another of his horses that, he said, was going the same way. 
This constitutes— 

Case II. 

A bay gelding, nine or ten years old, exhibiting every symptom 
of the disease. The Schneiderian membrane extensively ulcerated, 
but the discharge was scanty, which probably accounted for its not 
being observed earlier in this case. The near nostril was the 
affected one. In endeavouring to ascertain the cause of this dis¬ 
ease, I had reason to conclude that this animal became affected 
by standing near the abovementioned case, prior to my attention 
being directed towards him; since, after that, I exercised every 
precaution to arrest the progress of the disease, the owner pos¬ 
sessing a great number of horses, and having been in business for 
many years, and never before having seen the disease among his 
stud. A similar plan of treatment to that adopted in Case No. I 
was had recourse to, and was followed by a similar result. After 
six or seven weeks’ run at grass, he resumed his work, at which 
he is continually performing, as sound as ever. In this case, I 
should mention, there is a slight mark left upon the cartilage of 
the nostril (septum narium), the result of ulceration. 

Case III. 

A black gelding, five years old, belonging to Mrs. T-. 

My attention was directed to him on November 9th, 1847, when 
I found the existence of the disease in a virulent form, the off 
nostril being in this case the affected one. Upon my reporting the 
nature of the case to the owner, she thought it advisable to have 
him destroyed, as she informed me she had had several similarly 
affected on previous occasions, but always had them destroyed. 
From the age and constitution being favourable, I advised her to 
have him placed under treatment; thereupon a convenient place 
was selected, and a similar mode of treatment adopted to that re¬ 
commended in the above cases. In the course of a few days the 
symptoms became aggravated, and farcy shewed itself on the off side 
of the face to that degree that the eye became nearly closed, and the 
ala so swollen that it could not be inverted sufficiently to view the 
membrane. A chain of ulcers shew themselves from the lips 
across the face. The ointment of the biniodide of mercury was 
freely applied, and the parts soon after put on a more healthy 
appearance. At this stage of the disease no medicine was admi¬ 
nistered by the hand. He took, twice a-day, 3 ij of the sulph. 



146 


EFFECTS OF CHLOROFORM ON THE HORSE. 


ferri, finely pulverized in his mashes, corn, &c. ; sometimes dis¬ 
solved in his water. As soon as the swelling of the ala had 
abated, I discovered the membrane extensively ulcerated. I 
applied to the ulcers the nitrate of silver, and gave the powders 
three times a-day. Shortly afterwards I perceived a gradual im¬ 
provement in my patient. About this time, happening to be in 
conversation with Mr. Mayhew, I alluded to this case, when he 
expressed a wish to see it. The following morning he accom¬ 
panied me to it, and fully agreed in considering it a virulent case 
of acute glanders. Treatment was continued until Dec. 14th, five 
weeks from the commencement. Another week was allowed, and 
he was put to work, and is working at the present day without 
shewing any disposition to relapse. He was an animal that fed 
remarkably well throughout the whole of the treatment, and got, 
indeed, fat. f had an opportunity of seeing him this day, as fat 
and as well as ever. 

Case IV. 

A bay gelding, seven years old, belonging to Mr. H., of Ham¬ 
mersmith. On Sept. 23d, 1847, Mr. Woodger was consulted 
respecting him, when he found the symptoms present very nearly 
the same as in Case III. In this instance the off nostril was the 
diseased one, and likewise farcy had shewn itself on the same side 
of the face, to a similar degree as in the case abovementioned. I do 
not think it necessary to detail the treatment or symptoms, as they 
were so precisely analogous. I had not the same opportunity of 
watching this case I had the others; but it was constantly attended 
by Mr. Woodger, and suffice it to say that the treatment differed 
in no material degree from that in the above cases, and that, on 
Oct. 26th, he was given up, cured, and has been at work ever 
since. I could narrate numerous other cases of this disease, fol¬ 
lowed by the same result. I will not, however, at present, intrude 
further upon the pages of your valuable Journal, but remain 

Yours obedientlv, &c. 


EFFECTS OF CHLOROFORM ON THE HORSE. 

By SAMUEL PEECH, M.R.C.V.S., Wentworth , Rotherham. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian ” 

My dear Sir,— WHEN I was at the meeting of the Council of 
the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, last week, I had some 
conversation with Mr. Henderson, Y. S. to the Queen Dowager, 




EFFECTS OF CHLOROFORM ON THE HORSE. 147 

respecting tlie administration of chloroform to the horse. Mr. H. 
made some useful observations to me, and recommended me to 
Mr. Hooper (7, Pall Mall East) as the proper person from whom 
to procure the chloroform, and to obtain instructions for its ma¬ 
nagement. I did so ; and yesterday two aged mares, in low con¬ 
dition, were brought into a paddock for the purpose. 

There was a common hemp halter put on the head, with a good 
length of cord on each side, and two men to each cord. A leather 
muzzle with a large sponge in the inside made moderately warm, 
about ounce of chloroform poured on the sponge, and imme¬ 
diately put on the head. After administration, 


In 2 minutes, 

irritable, accompanied by a cough. 

3 

— 

pulse quick. 

5 

— 

staggered. 

6 

— 

began to recover. 

7 

■—• 

quite recovered. 

This failed, in 
muzzle. 

. consequence of the sponge being too low in the 

Second Application , immediately , on the same Mare . 

In 1J 

minute, sensibly affected. 

1* 

— 

rapidly do. 

2 

— 

partly down. 

3 

— 

effort made to rise again. 

4 

— 

forced down by two men pushing her over. 

6 

—• 

more chloroform administered. 

8 

— 

action of the heart scarcely perceptible. Frog 
setons inserted in all four feet. 

9 

— 

muzzle removed. 

10 

— 

the insertion of the last seton in the hind foot 
gave slight pain. 

13 

—• 

dragged out all the setons without apparent 
pain; in a state of tremor for two minutes, 
performed neurotomy on the near fore foot, out¬ 
side only; slight pain on dividing the nerve. 

15 

* -* 

164 

■ 

neurotomy on off foot, inside only; slight pain 
on the division of the nerve. 

20 


an incision made on the near hind leg, but sen¬ 
sibility returned before the operation could 
be completed. 

23 

— 

sensibility restored. 

28 

— 

got on her legs, apparently well. 


148 EFFECTS OF CHLOROFORM ON THE HORSE. 


Second Mare . 


In 1 minute, 
1 * - 
2 — 

4 — 


5i — 
6 — 
10 — 
12 — 
13* - 

15 — 

16 — 

18 — 

19 — 

20 — 
28 — 


sensibly affected, 
down. 

ceased to struggle. 

in a complete state of asphyxia; neurotomy 
. performed on the outside of the near leg; no 
pain. 

inside off, leg a little paim 
signs of sensation, 
muzzle taken off; turned over, 
muzzle put on again; some struggling, 
neurotomy, outside off leg ; no pain, 
ditto, inside near leg; no pain ; muzzle again re¬ 
moved. 

action of the heart not perceptible; breathing 
difficult. 

action of the heart perceptible, 
suffered very much, and struggled with all four 
legs. 

ceased to struggle. 

got up, and in a short time apparently well. 


Eight ounces of the chloroform were used for both the mares, 
and a cloth was tied round the upper part of the muzzle, to prevent 
any escaping. The time was kept by a gentleman present, and I 
have no doubt of its correctness. 

If you consider this worthy of insertion in your valuable period¬ 
ical, and will allow it to appear in the next number, I shall be 
obliged. 

I beg to conclude these remarks by saying, that it is, in my 
opinion, very doubtful whether chloroform will ever become an effi¬ 
cient agent in veterinary practice on the horse, as I believe that 
these two bad-conditioned animals suffered more in being reduced 
to a state of insensibility, and in recovering from that state, than 
they did from the operations performed. 

What would be the case with horses in first-rate condition I I 
do not write this by way of discouragement, it being my intention 
to take every opportunity of administering it. 

Yours, very sincerely. 


17th February, 1848. 






149 


DEFECTIVE VETERINARY EDUCATION. 

By Alex. Henderson, M.R.C. V.S., Veterinary Surgeon to the 

Queen Dowager . - 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian .” 

Sir,—I HAVE to thank you for the insertion of two letters ; and 
as you inserted in your last Number an editorial comment from the 
“ Mark Lane Express’ on them, to the following effect,—“ The 
importance of veterinary science to the owners of cattle and horses 
in this kingdom is so great, that if the statements made by Mr. 
Henderson are correct, means must be taken to remedy the evil. 
The establishment of a second school or college would, in all proba¬ 
bility* have the desired effect,” I take the liberty of again intrud¬ 
ing on your space. 

The statements f have made are simple matters of fact, and have 
existed so long, that patience has at last become exhausted. If in¬ 
quiry were but instituted, so much neglect and want of proper 
management would be found to exist in our veterinary schools as 
scarcely could be credited. The consequence of this neglect has 
been brought home to mv feelings as a parent, with one son a vete¬ 
rinary surgeon, and another who will shortly have to commence 
his studies for the same; and finding that every effort that has been 
made to induce the proper authorities to remove or amend those 
evils has not been attended with success, I have addressed myself to 
you, in hopes that, by making the matter public, others possessing 
greater influence may take such notice of them as will bring about 
a change for the better. 

1 have no w r ish for the establishment of another school, my ob¬ 
ject being to draw the attention of the parties who have the control 
or management of the present Veterinary College towards the ex¬ 
isting abuses and neglect. 

The Veterinary College of London was established in the year 
1791, and the circumstances were briefly as follow :—A society of 
noblemen and gentlemen, formed for the purpose of the encourage¬ 
ment of agriculture, and from the plan pf meeting called the 
“ Odiham Society,” somewhere about 1786, determined that a few 
young men of promise should be sent, at the expense of the society, 
to study the veterinary art at the French veterinary school that 
had been established some years before. Just as their arrange¬ 
ments were about to be completed, M. Vial de St. Bel, a young 
French veterinarian of great promise, came to this country, and 
endeavoured to lay the foundation for a veterinary college • but 

VOL. XXI. X 


150 


DEFECTIVE VETERINARY EDUCATION. 


after much negotiation, failed. However, in 1789-90, he returned 
to this kingdom, and, in consequence of his exertions, aided by the 
Odiham Society, that institution merged itself into the Veterinary 
College, thus established in the year 1791, the celebrated John 
Hunter, Mr. Cline, and other eminent medical and surgical practi¬ 
tioners taking a warm interest in the institution. M. V. de St. Bel 
was the first professor, and a synopsis for the routine study to be 
followed in the institution was laid down, and was as follows :— 


1st course. 

The study of Zootomy. 

2d. — 

The study of the Exterior of the Horse. 

3d. — 

Operations. 

4th. —- 

Pharmacy. 

5th. — 

Botany. 

6th. — 

Shoeing and Pathology. 

7th. — 

Attention to the Stables. 

8th. — 

Epizootic Diseases. 


But scarcely had the young institution began to work when its 
founder and professor unfortunately died, and a change in its sys¬ 
tem and management was the result. The course of instruction the 
first professor had marked out was abandoned, and only the diseases 
and structure of the horse were taught. Nor was it till the year 
1841 that any instruction on cattle, sheep, or swine, was attempted; 
and this was only brought about by a large annual grant of money 
from the Royal Agricultural Society; with what success your 
readers are aware from the report of the proceedings of that body, 
for which see The Veterinarian for June last, volume xx, 
p. 362. 

It does appear a most extraordinary circumstance, that a com¬ 
pany of gentlemen professing to be procurators for the public good, 
and having besides a considerable pecuniary interest in the welfare 
of the Institution, should suffer the management to go on so 
blindly. The Veterinary College of England ought to be a model to 
the world! What has it become 1 A degraded, neglected, institu¬ 
tion ! How is it to be expected that persons of good family and 
education should be at all anxious to enter an institution so 
managed as not to have a reading-room or even a shelter for the 
pupils from the inclemency of the weather, save the stables or the 
gateway. Can we be surprised that many valuable hours are 
wasted in idleness, or, what is worse still, spent in some adjacent 
tavern. Even a police-station now-a-days has its library and 
reading-room, and every institution has more or less regard to the 
wants and comforts of those who frequent it. 

About a twelvemonth ago I took a journey purposely to look 
through the Agricultural School at Cirencester. Having obtained 


VETERINARY EDUCATION. 


151 


a letter of introduction to Mr. Bowling, I was kindly conducted 
through the building, and was truly delighted at the regularity with 
which every department appeared to be conducted. The accom¬ 
modation for the pupils was most complete. Independent of the 
spacious school-room, I found many of the pupils engaged in study 
in small apartments. I felt amply rewarded for the trouble and 
expense of my journey, when I beheld what ample means for the 
instruction and comfort of the students were provided. 

I am quite aware that the accommodation at the St. Pancras 
School could not be brought into any thing like the state of perfec¬ 
tion of the one I have alluded to, nor do I think it necessary; still, 
much might and ought to be done for the better instruction, greater 
comfort, and encouragement of the students. And I most earnestly 
hope that the governors of the Veterinary College will see that the 
best way of supporting their Institution will be by studying a little 
more the interests of those young men who enter there with the 
expectation of being sent out as useful and competent persons. 

If they would afford that personal inspection so requisite in all 
institutions, a great change, I feel, would soon ensue ; but unless 
this be done, their College must sink into insignificance; and 
should it be found necessary to establish another, as has been 
hinted at, downfall of the old one must be the inevitable conse¬ 
quence. 


VETERINARY EDUCATION. 

To the Editor of" The Veterinarian .” 

Sir,—HAVING unintentionally allowed the last month’s publica¬ 
tion of The Veterinarian to pass without replying to a letter 
subscribed “ An Admirer of Progression in the Veterinary Art,” 
which appeared on the 1st January, in answer to mine of the pre¬ 
ceding month, on the subject of education of veterinary students, 
and conceiving that some parts of the same call for a reply, inasmuch 
as I appear to have been misunderstood, I ask permission for the 
few following lines to obtain a place in your Journal. 

With the writer of that letter, in most of his observations, I per¬ 
fectly agree, and therefore feel surprised that he could have so 
wrongly misinterpreted me as to have supposed that I considered 
it a disgrace to a man practising the veterinary profession “ to 
put on a leathern apron and examine a foot as to lamenesson the 
contrary, I agree with him, and say it is a credit to such a man. 




152 


REVIEW—MANUAL OF PHARMACY. 


I merely contend, that it is no more necessary fora veterinary sur¬ 
geon to be skilled in the blacksmith’s business than it is for him 
to be acquainted with that of the saddlers; and as to the instance 
adduced of Mr. J. Field’s modus operandi, nothing could be more 
honourable to a man engaged in the practice of his profession. 
However, I beg to disagree with him on one point, and that is, 
when he expresses a doubt “ that veterinary surgeons should be 
connected with the literary world;” and have only to say in reply, 
that in my humble opinion, 1 conceive it to be as necessary for 
them to be liberally educated as it is for the practitioner of human 
medicine ; and I opine that until such be the case, generally, the 
profession will not be respected as the nature of their calling de¬ 
mands; and that such may be the case is the earnest desire of 

A devoted Friend to the Veterinary Art. 

P.S.—I stated in my last letter, that I did not mean to applv the 
term literary in its full acceptation, as I believe it has too extensive 
a meaning to be applied to any profession generally. 


REVIEW. 


Quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid non.—Hon. 


A Manual of Pharmacy for the Student of Veterinary 
MEDICINE : containing the Substances employed at the Royal 
Veterinary College, ivith an Attempt at their Classification, 
and the Pharmacopoeia of that Institution. Bv W. J. T. MOR- 
TON, Lecturer on Materia Medica. 4th edit. pp. 382. Long¬ 
man and Co. London. 

As will appear from the above, Mr. Morton’s “Manual” has 
reached its fourth edition; and most deservedly so, since, without 
it, students of veterinary medicine, in these reformed days of 
scrutiny into their qualifications, would find themselves a good 
deal bothered and troubled to search out the useful information it 
contains elsewhere. So far as our school of instruction goes, ve¬ 
terinary pharmacy may, indeed, be said to have taken its rise in 
Mr. Morton’s Manual. Bartlett published a sort of veterinary 
pharmacopoeia, and so did White; and to these Bracy Clark’s 
“ Reformed Pharmacopoeia for Horses” succeeded: the two former, 
however, to professional people, were of no value, and the latter 
was too restricted for general use. The “Manual” has proved 






REVIEW—MANUAL OF PHARMACY. 


153 


what the pupils wanted. It initiates them, first, into the proper¬ 
ties of matter; secondly, it instructs them in the art and mystery 
of pharmaceutical operations; thirdly, it teaches them the nature 
and origin and use of the various substances, natural and artificial, 
made use of in the practice of veterinary medicine. We can re¬ 
member the day when “ old” Wilkinson was pharmacien at the 
St. Pancras College. We have in our time received some lessons 
from him in the compounding of purging mass and diuretic mass, 
and mange ointment and canker ointment; and we have now 
lying before us a copy—a faithful one, we believe—of that 
esteemed, well-thumbed, age-honoured collection of “recipes” 
then in use at the College, which without a quid pro quo never 
passed from the sanctuary of the careful old man into the unhal¬ 
lowed hands of vulgar students. Herein we still find “ Eye 
Powders,” composed of five grains of muriate of soda and one 
ditto of bole armenian ; “Cordial Balls” composed of powdered 
ginger and linseed meal, with “ theriac ” sufficient to form a bolus; 
and “ Pectoral Balls,” and “ Strong Tonic” and “ Mild Tonic Balls,” 
all equally choice, and rare in their composition, and “ infallible” 
in their efficacy. Induction into these mysteries may be said to 
have comprised the whole of the veterinary pharmacy of those 
days. Times, however, are strangely altered now : the veterinary 
student is required to know that aloes are the inspissated juice 
of the aloe spicata ; that hog’s lard is a composition of carbon , 
hydrogen , and oxygen; and that the verdigris used in making 
canker ointment becomes decomposed by the addition of sulphuric 
or nitric acid. And herein it is that Mr. Morton’s scientific 
work differs from its empirical predecessors. 

So far concerning the veterinary student. As regards the 
practitioner of veterinary medicine and surgery, the work would 
be more valuable to him did it extend its reports of the operation 
and effects and doses of the various medicines in use amongst us, 
much more than it has, beyond the walls of the College. Insu¬ 
lated as that institution stands, and distant from the metropolis, it 
never has had, nor can it one while, if ever, enjoy that variety 
and extent of practice which alone can lead to the testing and esti¬ 
mation of medicines; and therefore Mr. Morton, would he in the 
practitioners’ eyes enhance the value of his “ Manual,” should as 
much as possible enlarge his sphere of therapeutic inquiry. Nor 
need he be content with domestic sources of information; but ex¬ 
tend, if he deem it worth his while, his researches into the conti¬ 
nental systems of veterinary pharmacy. 

Running on in this manner, however, we are forgetting that the 
“Manual” came under our review some years ago ( Vet ., vol. x, 
p. 506, et sequent). We must, in huntsman’s phrase, “ hark back,” 


154 


VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


lest we outrun the scent. We said on a former occasion—and we 
are ready to repeat it on this—that “ there was nothing more con¬ 
nected with the wishes and wants, and we feel assured with the 
improvement, of the veterinary pupil” than Mr. Morton’s “Manual 
of Veterinary Pharmacy.” 


VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


Westminster Hall, 10th February, 1848. 

In the Exchequer.—Mayhew v . Spooner. 

Tried before Lord Chief Baron Pollock and a Special Jury; fire 
Special Jurymen only appearing , a Tales was prayed. 

Counsel for the Plaintiff, Mr. Cockburn, Mr. Martin, Mr. Pe- 
tersdorff.—Attornies, Messrs. Mayhew, Son, and Reynolds. 

Counsel for the Defendant, Mr. Serjeant Wilkins, Mr. H. Hill. 
—Attorney, Mr. Wilkinson. 

[From the Short-hand Writer’s Report.] 

Mr. Petersdorf opened the pleadings. 

Mr. Cockburn then stated the case on the part of the plaintiff, 
as follows:— 

May it please your Lordship, Gentlemen of the Jury,—The 
plaintiff, Mr. Mayhew, is a veterinary surgeon, and was for 
some time a demonstrator of anatomy at the Veterinary College. 
The defendant, Mr. Spooner, is the principal professor and teacher 
at that same establishment; and the action is brought by Mr. May¬ 
hew to recover compensation for certain slanderous words applied 
to him in the presence of a considerable number of persons by the 
defendant, Mr. Spooner. The history of the transaction, gentle¬ 
men, and the circumstances which led to this action, are shortly 
these:— 

In the year 1843 Mr. Mayhew became a student at the 
Veterinary College, which, as you know, is situate at Camden 
Town. The Veterinary College, gentlemen, is a species of hos¬ 
pital for horses, if I may use that expression, where horses suffer¬ 
ing and labouring under any disease are taken in to be cured, 
and where, as is the case at our own hospitals for the treatment of 
human beings, lectures are held, and demonstrations on anatomy 





VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


155 


take place, so that pupils may attend for the purpose of preparing 
themselves to become members of the veterinary profession. 
Having gone through a course of study there, the object is to pass 
an examination, by means of which they may become members 
of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons; just the same as 
young men who intend to qualify themselves for the profession of 
surgeons, and to obtain admission into the Royal College of Sur¬ 
geons, are in the habit of frequenting one of the hospitals in the 
metropolis as students, with a view of learning their profession, 
and qualifying themselves to pass that examination which is to 
lead to their introduction to the Royal College of Surgeons as 
members of that body. 

Now, the plaintiff, Mr. Mayhew, became a student at this hos¬ 
pital, called the Veterinary College, in the April of 1843, and he 
entered that profession somewhat late in life : he was, I believe, 
turned of thirty at that period; but he applied himself with such 
extraordinary assiduity, and such determined and devoted zeal to 
the study of the profession, that before, I believe, much more than 
a year had elapsed, at all events in the second year of his studies— 
and I should tell you that students are obliged to continue there 
two years, I understand, before they are qualified to pass examin¬ 
ation—before the end of the second year, before he had passed 
his examination, such was the proficiency he had obtained, that 
he was appointed demonstrator of anatomy at this very Vete¬ 
rinary College. He gave very great satisfaction; and notwith¬ 
standing tha,t his object was to reform certain abuses in the disci¬ 
pline of the College which he thought had crept in, he became 
so popular with the students, that I believe no course of lectures 
or demonstrations that ever took place there were attended or 
heard by more numerous audiences than those that Mr. Mayhew 
was enabled to collect. He had stipulated that, after a time, the 
theatre of the College should be given up to him for the purpose 
of his demonstrations, which at that time, however, were carrried 
on in the dissecting-room. 

It seems that some differences of opinion took place between him 
and Mr. Spooner as to the extent of the engagements that had been 
entered into with him for giving up the theatre of the College for 
his lectures; and it seems, whether from the popularity of his lec¬ 
tures or the number of students that he collected around him, that, 
at an early period, some jealousy grew up in the mind of Mr. 
Spooner towards this gentleman. Mr. Spooner refused the use of 
the theatre, some misunderstanding took place, and it ended in Mr. 
Mayhew resigning his situation of demonstrator of anatomy at that 
College, and he withdrew himself from the College. At the same time, 
being anxious to make himself useful to the students whom he had 


156 


VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


been instructing up to that time, though he withdrew from his situa¬ 
tion of demonstrator of anatomy, he continued to teach a class of 
pupils, preparing them for the general purposes of the College. 
Some obstructions were thrown in his way, not that he was treated 
very handsomely before. His demonstrations had beenat ten o’clock; 
the appointed class hour being nine. They shifted the hour of demon¬ 
stration from ten to nine or half-past nine, so as that the two classes 
might clash, and it ended in his students adhering to him and throng¬ 
ing around him, and somewhat neglecting Mr. Spooner. Of course, 
some jealousy and heart-burnings arose, as I am afraid, which led 
to a bad spirit on the part of Mr. Spooner towards this gentleman. 
So matters stood; he passed his examination with very great satis¬ 
faction ; he was elected a member of the Council of the Royal Col¬ 
lege of Veterinary Surgeons, I believe, by the largest number of 

votes of all those who were admitted in the vear he was admitted 

%/ 

to the Council, and no one could stand more fair as an honoured 
and respected member of the profession to which he belonged. 

Gentlemen, things were in this position. After he had left the 
College, and ceased to be connected with it, and become a member 
of the Council of the Royal College, it so happened that a dispute 
arose between this College of Surgeons and the veterinary hospital 
at Camden Town. The profession of veterinary surgeons, as a 
body, had applied to Government, and obtained from Government, 
a royal charter of incorporation. It seems the professors and the 
leading members and authorities of the Veterinary College at Cam¬ 
den Town were not satisfied with the position they had assumed 
under the charter, and, in consequence, they applied to Government 
for a new charter, the object and effect of which new charter 
would have been to place the professors and teachers of that estab¬ 
lishment in a position of superiority over the rest of the profession, 
which, it was felt by the general body of the profession, they ought 
not to assume ; the consequence was a considerable opposition about 
this charter, the principal promoter of which, I believe, was Mr. 
Spooner. The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons presented 
to Government a memorial against this new proposed charter, and 
according to the terms of the charter of the Royal College of Ve¬ 
terinary surgeons, a meeting took place of the members of the pro¬ 
fession of that college for the purpose of considering this memorial, 
and considering the charter for which Mr. Spooner and his adher¬ 
ents petitioned. A public meeting took place at the Freemasons’ 
Tavern of all the members of the Royal College of Veterinary Sur¬ 
geons, and at that meeting attended, as members, Mr. Spooner and 
various other gentlemen. A discussion took place upon the subject 
of the memorial which had been presented by the College against 
Mr. Spooner’s proposed charter; it was the subject-matter which 


MAY HEW V. SPOONER. 


157 


they attended there to discuss; and if that discussion had been con¬ 
ducted temperately, and properly, and decently, no man would have 
a right to complain of such observations as fairly arose out of the 
subjects of discussion, that were legitimate; and even if something 
had been said by one or the other, attacking in the course of the de¬ 
bate, upon public grounds, the opponents of the measure or its 
friends, nobody could have made the slightest objection. 

In the course of the discussion, the Memorial having in some 
degree addressed itself to the question of the fitness of the parties 
at the Veterinary College to exercise the rights, powers, and pri¬ 
vileges over the profession which they were seeking to assume and 
arrogate to themselves—I believe the Memorial had pointed out 
certain objections to the manner in which the business of the Ve¬ 
terinary College was conducted, and to the want of zeal and want 
of attention that was paid to the discharge of their duties by the 
professors and the teachers in that establishment—Mr. Spooner at¬ 
tempted to vindicate himself against these charges. Amongst 
other things, it had been stated, with reference to the most import¬ 
ant disease in horses, called the glanders (one of the most fatal 
diseases with which animal life can be affected), that no lecture had 
taken place on this important disease, and no attempt had been 
made to elucidate it, or throw any light on the nature of its treat¬ 
ment. Mr. Spooner, in the most emphatic terms, denied that, and 
declared that he had lectured upon the subject. A discussion arose 
upon it, and Mr. Mayhew, the plaintiff, who, having been on the 
establishment for some time, knew perfectly well what had taken 
place (as the subject-matter of Mr. Spooner’s lectures during the 
whole period he was there, because it was part of his duty and 
functions to make the anatomical preparations for Mr. Spooner’s 
lectures), being perfectly satisfied that no such lecture had ever 
taken place, and no observation had been directed to the subject of 
this particular disease, he told Mr. Spooner he was under a mistake 
with regard to that—it was not the case—and Mr. Spooner must be 
perfectly aware he was stating that which was incorrect. Mr. Spoon¬ 
er again addressed the meeting, and called on them to be aware of 
what credit they attached to the statements of the man who was ad¬ 
dressing them, “for,” says he, “he is a convicted libeller ! and, what 
is more, he is a desecrator and ridiculer of the Christian faith /” 
Mr. Mayhew was a little startled at hearing such language spoken 
of him in the presence of the leading members of the profession, 
and, in the heat of the moment, he said, “ That is a lie!" I do not 
disguise that, and let my learned friend make the best he can of it: 
on which, Mr. Spooner again deliberately reiterated the statement 
he had made, stated that he was a convicted libeller, and a dese¬ 
crator of the faith of a Christian, and he could prove it. Mr. 

VOL. XXI. Y 


158 


VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


Mayhew rose to repudiate, with the indignation which he felt, that 
which he knew to be an unfounded calumny and untruth. The 
President interposed; he saw that this might lead to unpleasant 
circumstances, and said, “ Mr. Mayhew, you cannot be allowed to 
enter into any explanation now: you have your remedy elsewhere ; 
bring your action, and vindicate your character. Do not break up 
the proceedings and interrupt the harmony of this meeting; have 
recourse to the remedy which is open to you elsewhere, in a better 
field than the present.” Accordingly, Mr. Mayhew was induced 
to leave the assembly; but he found these expressions had pro¬ 
duced an impression, and a very considerable impression, on the 
minds of those who heard them, that the imputations on his re¬ 
ligious faith, and his veracity and character, in stating him to 
be a convicted libeller, would induce people to withhold the 
credit they would otherwise give to his assertions : he has felt his 
character impeached ; and he has therefore felt it is a duty to his 
honour, and to vindicate his religious faith, to bring Mr. Spooner 
into a court of justice, calling on him to make good his assertions 
if he can, and, if not, to afford him that redress which every man 
is entitled to whose character has been wantonly assailed. 

Gentlemen, in the times in which we live, in which there is a 
growing feeling which every man must uphold, not to have re¬ 
course to those old methods to which people were too willing and 
too eager to have recourse for the purpose of seeking satisfaction 
in a different mode where the character is assailed, it now becomes 
the duty of every man to abstain from taking the law into his own 
hands, and proceeding in a way at variance with morality, religion, 
and the law of man, to come into a court of justice, and demand re¬ 
paration in a court of justice as a means of vindicating his cha¬ 
racter. 

Now, gentlemen, if Mr. Spooner had been willing to say that 
this had fallen from him in the heat of the moment;—if he had felt 
himself that he had used language which he was not justified or 
warranted in using, and had been willing to come forward, and say, 
“ I have said that of you which I feel I cannot maintain, which 
was not justifiable at all in me to use—I am sorry for it, I retract 
it; and you are at liberty to make known to those in whose pre¬ 
sence I uttered it, that I thus give you the means of vindicating 
yourself from the aspersions I cast upon you, by admitting their 
untruth, and that I regret the use of them;” this action never would 
have been brought into a court of justice. Mr. Spooner admits, 
by the course he has taken in putting no plea of justification on 
the record, that he used these words of Mr. Mayhew without 
having any ground whatever for applying them to that gentleman, 
but he has not the moral courage to make to him that apology and 


MAYHEW V. SPOONER. 


159 


vindication which, I say, every man who brings the character of 
another man into question, without having sufficient foundation for 
what he has said, is bound to do; otherwise, he puts his opponent 
under the necessity of coming to a court of justice to vindicate his 
character. That is the position which Mr. Mayhew is placed in; 
he has no object in coming for vindictive damages; but he has been 
told, in the presence of fifty or sixty of the most respectable mem¬ 
bers of his profession, that he is a “ convicted libeller and dese- 
crator of the Christian faithand he says, these are too serious 
aspersions affecting the honour or character of any man to be sub¬ 
mitted to. I ask you to put yourselves in his situation; how 
would you like any man in a public assembly to rise up, and say 
your statements are not to be believed; or that you were a man 
capable of slandering another; that you had been convicted of a 
libel, and were not worthy of credit or belief in another respect, 
because you were wanting in religious faith, and not a believer in 
Christianity'? Those are too serious aspersions to make on any 
man. I say it is the bounden duty of a man who makes such 
aspersions either to withdraw the statement, which he finds and 
knows to be untrue, or, if he cannot do that, to make that open 
apology or that open public retractation which such an aspersion 
unwarrantably and unjustifiably casts on the character of another 
ought justly to bring with it. 

Gentlemen, this is the case. As I said before, Mr. Mayhew 
does not come for damages, but to vindicate his character : this is 
the only means open to him, and I trust you will think he has 
been well founded in the course he has adopted, and that he has a 
right to come into court to vindicate himself from those aspersions. 
Mr. Spooner is here, I know, but what course he means to take I 
cannot tell: I suppose the object will be to reduce these damages 
to the lowest amount. I ask for no large or vindictive damages; 
but I do ask you to mark your sense of the conduct of a man who 
makes these aspersions on the character of another, when, after¬ 
wards, he admits he has no means of supporting the charges he has 
made, and who at the same time has not the courage to avow he 
has been wrong, and to express his regret. 

Gentlemen, I am afraid it was not merely in the heat of the 
moment that arose from the discussion ; I am afraid that the seeds 
of this animosity were sown long before, and that really there was 
an unpleasant and bitter feeling in the mind of Mr. Spooner: I 
should be glad to think it was not so. That there had been a 
growing jealousy of Mr. Mayhew for some time there is not much 
room to doubt. At all events this is quite clear, that Mr. Spooner, 
whether in the heat of the moment, or from some lurking feeling of 
animosity, I care not which, as he does not choose to put it on the 


160 


V ET ERIN A RY JURISPRUDENCE. 

latter ground, and sav he is sorry for it—it is clear that Mr. Spooner 
has used of Mr. May hew expressions and made statements under 
which no man could patiently and tamely sit down. I trust that 
you will think that Mr. Mayhew is justified in bringing this 
action : he asks for no vindictive damages; but I trust you will 
mark your sense of Mr. Spooners conduct by giving to Mr. May¬ 
hew what you think will be a full vindication of his character, and 
for the pain and annoyance which he has been put to. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —It is quite clear, from the opening 
of my learned friend, Mr. Cockburn, that both these gentlemen 
have made use, in the heat of discussion, of expressions which [ 
am sure they will regret. They are both men so eminent in their 
profession, and so much respected, as my learned friend has stated, 
that, with respect to Mr. Mayhew, it is merely a question of cha¬ 
racter, and I do not think his character can suffer from it; and, 
supposing that to be so, I put it to your lordship whether these 
two gentlemen should not meet each other half way, shake hands, 
and withdraw a juror. It is quite clear they have both used ex¬ 
pressions, according to the opening of Mr. Cockburn, which neither 
of them can attempt to justify. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —No, brother Wilkins, you must put it 
to Mr. Cockburn; I have no objection, through me, that you 
should put it to Mr. Cockburn. 

Mr. Cockburn. —Then, your lordship, I return the answer. If 
this had been said some time ago; if Mr. Spooner bad said— 
“ What I said was in the heat of the moment, and I regret it, and 
I allow you to say so to those who heard it.” we should have been 
perfectly satisfied; but when nothing of that sort is done, and we 
are compelled to bring our action and come into court, it is a little 
too much to ask us to withdraw a juror. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —I do not wish to bandy words If my 
friend’s client had been perfectly free from censure, I should have 
thought the verdict ought well to be entered for him; but, when 
Mr. Cockburn states in his opening, that he in the first instance 
said that “ Mr. Spooner was stating that which he knew to be un¬ 
true,” and in plain English afterwards said, “ It is a lie”- 

Mr. Cockburn. —You must take it as I said it—that he told him 
it was a lie in reference to this, that he was a convicted libeller. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —Before that, in reference to the glan¬ 
ders, that he had stated that which he must know to be untrue. 

Mr. Cockburn. —I did not present it in that way; I am ready 
to put it in any wav that is reasonable. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —I think it is a great pity that the use¬ 
fulness of two such gentlemen should be impaired by widening the 
breach : it is merely a question of character. As to the character 



MAYHEW V. SPOONER. 161 

and respectability of Mr. Mayhew, I cannot suppose it is a question 
of money—I do not believe it is. 

Mr. Cockburn. —Still a man is not bound to pay the costs of a 
proceeding that is forced upon him. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —I do not think I am called upon, brother 
Wilkins, to express any opinion ; I think it would be very unbe¬ 
coming in me. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —I will not say another word upon it. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —If you made a direct appeal to me, what 
I would do in your situation, I would answer. 

Mr. Cockburn. —All I can say, my lord, is, that I am quite 
willing, on the part of the plaintiff, to leave the matter in your 
lordship’s hands, and bow to your decision. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —I will do the same. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —If I were in your situation, I would cer¬ 
tainly tender the costs of coming here: according to my experience 
at the bar, that is what should be done. It was 
come here. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —Of course, having submitted to your 
lordship’s decision, I am bound by it. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —In your situation it is what I should cer¬ 
tainly have done : if I had been in your situation, practising at the 
bar, I should have tendered to the other side the payment of the 
costs. I do not see how a gentleman could sit down under that 
imputation without taking some steps; and I begin to feel very 
much the force of the remarks made by Mr. Cockburn. I do hope 
that the absurd and almost insane, as well as wicked, practice of 
duelling is very fast going out; and, in order that it may be extin¬ 
guished, juries should do their duty when they are fairly and pro¬ 
perly called upon. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —Will your lordship pardon me for call¬ 
ing your attention to the first observation I If any thing on the 
face of the earth, one would suppose, would provoke a gentleman to 
that barbarous system of vindicating his honour, it would be the 
being told that he is stating that which he knew to be untrue. If 
any man told me so, I declare to God I should tremble for the con¬ 
sequences : I do not know what I should do. 

Mr. Cockburn. —My friend is putting a tortuous construction 
upon my words. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —I am not; I use your very words. 

Mr. Cockburn. —My friend is mistaken as to the course I took. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —I have given you my opinion, and my 
opinion is formed on the practice of a great many years at the bar; 
and I assure you, in your situation, what I should have done would 


really necessary to 


162 


VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


have been to tender the expenses, and nominal damages. That 
which you have said I think is very honourable. ■> 

Mr. Wilkinson. —The case has not been opened on our part ; 
it is quite against my consent that such a course as this is adopted. 
I must request that Mr. Sergeant Wilkins will proceed with the 
cause : it is quite against the interest of the defendant, and against 
my own feeling, that this course should be taken; and I do 
protest against it, and request that this cause be laid before the 
jury. * :>no W> sal dm 

Mr. Cockburn. —That gentleman, a single moment ago, agreed 
to leave it to my lord, and I agreed to it; and they ought to be 
bound. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —I think he ought. 

Mr. Wilkinson. —I am quite unprepared for this; it has come 
on me by surprise. 

Mr. Cockburn. —It is taking the chance of your lordship’s deci¬ 
sion, and then objecting. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —This is a strange state of things. I 
think you had better consider for a short time. I will call on an¬ 
other case, and adjourn this; and, brother Wilkins, speak to your 
client. 

Mr. Wilkinson. —My client is sitting beside me. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —It involves questions that we can hardly 
discuss now. 

Mr. Wilkinson. —I should bow with the greatest deference to 
your lordship’s decision, but- 

Chief Baron Pollock. —I wish you only to consider. 

Mr. Wilkinson. —I have considered. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —I do not think you have considered 
enough. I do not value very much the precipitate determination 
of a gentleman who refuses to consider any more. 

Mr. Wilkinson. —I have considered it for a long time. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —'You cannot have considered it for a long 
time, because my brother Wilkins has only made the proposal 
within the last few minutes. 

Mr. Wilkinson. —Something similar has been offered before. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —If you persist in having the cause tried, 
I am willing. I am very anxious to give the parties an oppor¬ 
tunity of judging for themselves; it involves more considerations 
than you are aware of. In the first place, it involves the question 
of whether you are not bound by what has occurred—a matter 
which I do not want to try or to settle, if I can help it. 

Mr. Wilkinson. —That is not for me to decide, as far as any 
thing does rest with me- 



MAYHEW V. SPOONER. 163 

Chief Baron Pollock. —I will adjourn the case, and take another 
one, and then these gentlemen can consider it. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —I am afraid I shall have no alternative. 
I do not know how to act in the case. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —Then the cause will go on. 

Mr. Cockburn. —At the same time, as a member of the pro¬ 
fession, I do enter my protest, most emphatically, against any mem¬ 
ber of this profession of the bar coming to a distinct arrangement 
with his opponent, and with the court and jury, in the face of 
the court and jury, taking the chance of your lordship’s judgment, 
and putting himself in your lordship’s hands, as my friend did. His 
attorney and his client are close under him, and hearing the whole 
proceeding; they take the chance of your lordship’s decision : and 
I undertake to say, if your lordship had said, we ought to be satis¬ 
fied with the verdict without the costs, they woujd have been quite 
content, and would not have objected to it. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —I feel the force of what Mr. Cockburn 
says. There is a duty I owe to myself, as far as I am concerned, 
a duty which I owe to you, my lord, and to the rest of my brethren 
here; and painful as it may be, and involving some sacrifices as it 
will to me and others, if the agreement that I suggested and sub¬ 
mitted to be not carried out, I must respectfully beg to retire from 
this cause. I have no other choice. The honour of the bar requires 
I should do so, and I must do so. 

Mr. Cockburn. —I will tell you what I will do. I feel very 
much for the position that my learned friend is in. I will do one 
of two things: my friend has acted most honourably, and I feel 
very much for the position in which he is placed. I have the au¬ 
thority of my clients, persons of respectability, whom everybody 
knows in this court, to say, they will be satisfied with the costs 
out of pocket; or, if they refuse that, I will release my learned 
friend from the engagement he entered into, and let the case go 
on. I have full instructions from my clients to take the costs out 
of pocket, or go on and have the cause tried, and release my friend, 
Mr. Sergeant Wilkins, from the engagement he has entered into, 
feeling much for the position in which he is placed. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —I was desirous, brother Wilkins, that 
there should be some further consideration, because I saw the po¬ 
sition in which you were placed. I felt it, and I knew what you 
would feel it to be your duty to do, and I knew that the defendant 
would be placed in a very painful position, being without counsel 
at all; for no man who instructs a gentleman of honour could 
hardly expect him to go on with the cause after what had occurred; 
and I wished that the defendant should have an opportunity of 
instructing other counsel, or of taking the advice which you pro- 


164 


VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


bably would give him, to acquiesce in the arrangement. That was 
my reason for proposing a postponement. I must say, brother 
Wilkins, you have acquitted yourself on the present occasion in a 
manner worthy of the character of the bar. I do not think any 
gentleman, after he had been heard to make a statement and pro¬ 
pose a compromise,—after it had been deliberately left by both par¬ 
ties to the judge, and the judge had decided, I do not see how any 
gentleman of honour could go on with it. And I do not see how 
any member of another branch of the profession as honourable as 
our own,—I do not understand by what singular omission to do 
his duty he can permit an appeal to be made to the judge, and 
only withdraw his consent when the decision is adverse to his 
client. 

Mr. Wilkinson. —My lord, after what your lordship has said, I 
think I am entitled to be heard in vindication of my character. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —I think not: the cause is either to go on, 
or be settled. 

Mr. Wilkinson. —My lord, you have thrown out reflections^on 
me: if you do not think I am entitled to answer them- 

Chief Baron Pollock. —I do not sit here to try this question. 

Mr. Wilkinson. —Then I shall sit down. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —Perhaps I may be allowed to say in 
vindication of Mr. Wilkinson, that I took it on myself, without 
consulting him for a moment; and therefore 1 feel I have in some 
degree placed Mr. Wilkinson in a position which he ought not to 
be placed in. 

Mr. Wilkinson. —I objected while you were speaking. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —I think the blame is to be attached to 
me. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —Well, brother Wilkins, what shall we 
do 1 

Mr. Cockburn. —Whichever you like. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —I understand, we are to go on. My 
friend, Mr. Cockburn, has released me from the obligation. 

Mr. Edmund Gabriel called. 

[After a short consultation] 

Mr. Cockburn. —My friend has adopted the other alternative 
and offer. The action has never been brought by the respectable 
attornies who sit before me for costs, but simply for the purpose of 
vindicating the plaintiffs character: they are satisfied with the 
costs of pocket; they are willing to accept it; and that the cause 
shall be settled in that way. 

Mr. Martin. —It is understood you withdraw all the expressions 
you used. 



MAYHEW V . SPOONER. 


165 


Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —-Yes; and you too. 

Mr. Cockburn. —Yes; both sides. Do not let us have a quali¬ 
fied retractation. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —I do not want to do any thing unhand¬ 
some or improperly qualified. * 

Chief Baron Pollock. —What I understand is, that the offensive 
expressions on your part are entirely withdrawn. What I consi¬ 
der, Mr. Cockburn, the best apology is, the speaking of your client, 
the plaintiff, as a gentleman of high character, and an expression of 
regret: I think that is ample. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —And they are both withdrawn. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —They withdraw the expressions of the 
plaintiff. It was, no doubt, an offensive expression; and, next to 
giving a blow, the use of the expression which is avowed on 
the part of the plaintiff is as great an offence as can be. 

Mr. Cockburn. —It is understood that the words “ convicted 
libeller,” and “ desecrator of the Christian religion,” are with¬ 
drawn. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —Yes. 

Mr. Martin. —And then a juror be withdrawn. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —'There is no doubt it was a meeting at 
which there was a good deal of excitement on both sides; and I am 
certain that Mr. Mayhew would never for a moment justify a 
gentleman using that language, saying of another gentleman, “ you 
are telling a lie.” They both used expressions which they regret. 

Mr. Mayhew. —I am the plaintiff in this case, and this action is 
brought under circumstances- 

Chief Baron Pollock. —Mr. Mayhew, do not. The language 
addressed to you is withdrawn ; nobody ever believes you are a 
“ convicted libeller” and “ a desecrator of the Christian faith.” 

. Mr. Cockburn. —It is a verdict for £5, so as to carry costs. 

Mr. Sergeant Wilkins. —40s. will carry cost®. 

Mr. Cockburn. —Your Lordship will certify it is a fit case for a 
special jury. 

Chief Baron Pollock .■—Yes; if you permit me to suggest, I 
think the better way will be to withdraw a juror and to enter into 
an arrangement for the purpose of paying the costs. 

Mr. Cockburn. —Certainly. 

Mr. Martin. —And your Lordship will certify for a special jury, 
so that that should be part of the costs. 

Chief Baron Pollock. —Oh yes. 


VOL. XXI. 


z 






Extracts from Domestic Journals. 


t al9880T qu s.i: ,er uj ^iioo^ 

MEDALS TO MEDICAL OFFICERS. 

[From “ The Lancet.”] 

AFTER a long opposition, the surviving heroes of the Penin¬ 
sular war, from Maida to Toulouse, and of the long series of naval 
engagements which began with Lord. Howe’s victory in 1794, 
and ended with the naval fights between the English and 
Americans in 1814 and 1815, are all to be rewarded by a medal. 
In this portion of our naval and military history, the medical men 
of the armies and navies of Great Britain bore their part, and 
conduced in no mean degree to the brilliant successes it com¬ 
memorates ; yet, according to custom, those of our medical 
brethren who served in these wars will have no share whatever in 
the decorations about to be conferred. We feel called upon to 
protest against this, as being ari act of the greatest injustice. In 
times of peace or war, the avocations of the military and naval 
surgeons are as arduous, and we venture to say as honourable, as 
those of their brother officers, while they are attended by peculiar 
perils of contagion and infection, from which the fighting staff are 
in great measure exempt. To their peace services it is that the 
military profession owe the knowledge of the economy and physique 
of fighting men. Many of the most eminent military writers have 
been medical men, and some of the greatest names in medicine 
grace also the military section of our profession. Harvey narrowly 
escaped being killed by a cannon-ball at the battle of Edgehill; 
John Hunter served at the siege of Bell-isle; Pringle was with 
the army in the Low Countries for nearly twenty years; and Sir 
Gilbert Blane, to whom the prevention of scurvy in our fleets is 
mainly due, saw a long period of active service. In the day of 
battle, as we have before had occasion to shew, the personal hazard 
incurred by the military surgeon is as great as that to which the 
rest of the troops are exposed, and in all enterprizes of danger the 
surgeon is called upon to take his chance with the rest. It may be 
objected that surgeons do not engage in actual fighting; but neither 
are the officers of an army, from the commander in chief down to 
ensign, called upon to engage hand to hand with the enemy, except 
in self defence; and this of course the surgeon would do, if necessary. 
The duty of the officer is in directing—in wielding and impelling 
the power of the men under his command to the proper point, with 



MEDALS TO MEDICAL OFFICERS. 


167 


the proper impetus. All the qualities of intrepidity, courage, and 
coolness, requisite by the acting officers, are equally necessary to 
the surgeons of the army and navy. They have frequently upon 
the open field, or in ships, in danger of fire, sinking, or capture, 
coolly to follow their vocation; to amputate, trephine, tie up vessels, 
apply sutures to gaping wounds, extract balls, arrange fractures, 
and fulfil the other offices of their art, that a great battle may 
render necessary, and which were recently described most ably, in 
the House of Commons, by a veteran soldier, Sir Howard Douglas. 

To perform these duties well, the very self-same qualities as 
those which make the brave soldier or sailor are imperatively 
required; and why, then, are not the same means of evoking and 
sustaining the military spirit distributed to them in common with 
the actual fighting men and their leaders 1 If medals and ribbons 
are useful in inciting the ardour and rewarding the courage of our 
troops, they would be equally useful in sustaining and rewarding the 
same qualities in the medical men of the army and navy. Military 
surgeons are nothing if they are not imbued with the true military 
spirit; they are frequently killed or wounded in battle; are called 
to the front ranks to succour the wounded men; and it is their 
coolness and skill, exerted on the instant, to which a Wolfe or a 
Nelson must owe all his chance of recovery. Again, we say, as 
participators to the full in all warlike dangers, they should be 
made the sharers of military honours and rewards. . Apart, too, 
from the immediate services of naval and military surgeons, our 
profession has done enough for the efficiency of the sea and land 
services to deserve every consideration from civilized governments. 
Medical science has done much to allay the horrors of war, and 
lessen the sacrifice of human life; it has done, too, quite as much 
as military tactics to strengthen the national arms. It is to 
medicine that our armies owe it, that dysentery and malignant 
diseases do not stalk after large bodies of troops, as they did of 
old, causing oftentimes as much dismay in the rear as the enemy 
in the front, and devastating armies even more rapidly than the 
sword. It is to medicine that our navy, and not less our commerce 
and civilization, owe their immunity from scurvy—a pestilence 
which formerly rendered lengthened voyages or prolonged naval 
operations almost impossible. Hpw could modern naval warfare be 
carried on if such a state of things as that described by an unpre¬ 
judiced historian, Sir J. Herschel, prevailed in the present day ? 

“The sufferings and destruction produced by this horrid disorder 
on board our ships, when, as a matter of course, it broke out after a 
few months’ voyage, seem now almost incredible. Deaths, to the 
amount of eight or ten a-day, in a moderate ship’s company; 


168 


MEDALS TO MEDICAL OFFICERS. 


bodies sewed up in hammocks, and washing about the deck for 
want of strength and spirit on the part of the miserable survivors 
to cast them overboard; and every form of loathsome and excru¬ 
ciating misery of which the human frame is susceptible; such are 
the pictures which the narratives of nautical adventure in those 
days continually offer. At present, the scurvy is almost completely 
eradicated from the navy—partly, no doubt, from increased and 
increasing attention to general cleanliness, comfort, and diet, but, 
mainly, from the constant use of a simple and palatable preventive. 
If the gratitude of mankind be allowed on all hands to be the just 
meed of the philosophic physician, to whose discernment in 
seizing, and perseverance in forcing it on public notice, we owe the 
great safeguard of infant life, it ought not to be denied to those 
whose skill and discrimination have thus strengthened the sinews 
of our most powerful arm, and obliterated one of the darkest features 
in the most glorious of all professions.” 

This description, it is worth observing, applies only to about 
seventy or eighty years ago. 

Thus, then, we have attempted to shew that medical sailors and 
medical soldiers deserve to form an integral part of the profession 
of arms, and that they ought to receive their meed of honour and 
decoration when medals are to be worn and ribbons displayed. 
They ought not to be treated as mere hirelings, as they now are; 
and governments may rest assured, that unless the naval and 
military branches of our profession receive the same stimulus as is 
awarded to other sections of the army and navy, the state does not 
receive all the benefits, and call forth all the services, which the 
profession is capable of rendering. We do not deny the present 
efficiency of the military medical staff of this country; but taking 
human nature as it is, in its strength and weakness, there can be 
no doubt that the prospect of military honors would be a stimulus 
to the highest exertion—to exertions which mere pay can never 
compensate. Military and naval medical men deserve that this 
should be conceded to them for their own services; and they have 
an additional claim in the great services which the profession of 
medicine has rendered to the profession of arms. We advise 
medical officers who served in the actions for which the new medal 
is to be given to send in their claims to the War Office and the 
Admiralty; and we should hope such claims would be efficiently 
supported, at the one, by Sir Jas. Macgrigor, who is as much a 
soldier as any general, and at the other by Sir Wm. Burnett, who 
is as much a sailor as any admiral, in the United Service. 





169 


THE VETERINARIAN, MARCH 1, 1848. 


Ne quid falsi dicere audeat, ne quid veri non audeat.—C icero. 


A NUMBER of our journal more pregnant with matters of in¬ 
terest and importance to our professional brethren than is the 
present one, we hardly remember to have put to press; and the 
matters in it which will command their first, their chiefest atten¬ 
tion, are the “Abstract” of the Charter now being petitioned for 
by the President and Governors of the Royal Veterinary College 
of London, and the President and Directors of the Highland and 
Agricultural Society of Scotland, and the “ reply” to the same of 
our own Council. The perusal of the abstract will shew, that all 
the novelty and gist of the petitioned-for charter is comprised in 
the introduction of the “ Veterinary Board:” strip it of that es¬ 
sential feature, and it is, with all its parade of 55 clauses, but a 
modification of the charter we are already in the possession of. 
And the Veterinary Board—as we had occasion in our number of 
The Veterinarian for December last to explain—is a sort of 
House of Lords, kindly set over the profession to manage their 
affairs for them, or, at least, to take especial care that nothing shall 
be transacted by them having reference to the corporate body, save 
what has received the assent of their—the Veterinary Board’s— 
honourable house. We have a notion that this is not precisely 
the sort of charter the colleges desire; still, it wrests a power 
which they through “ usurpation ” have for years enjoyed out of 
the hands of its present holders, members of the profession ; and, 
moreover, it gives them, in part at least, the examination of their 
own pupils. In the new council, the same as in the old, as on a 
former occasion we think we pretty satisfactorily demonstrated, 
the professors are certain to get worsted; though, to be sure, then 
they will have their appeal to the Veterinary Board, and that 
board will be constituted in part of themselves, and in the re¬ 
mainder, chiefly, of their patrons. 




170 


NOTICE OF MEETINGS. 


The “ reply” the projected charter has called forth from our 
council, couched as it is in the form of a “ memorial” to the Home 
Secretary, is a temperate, firm, veracious document. It has met 
allegations and assertions in the charter as they presented them¬ 
selves ; nor has it needed, in refutation of such as have not been 
“ explained and refuted” over and over again before, any weapons 
save those of plain fact and simple truth. Every point in the 
charter has been turned by the reply. It has not left a single 
plea—no, not even the plea of expediency, for granting a veteri¬ 
nary charter in addition to, or as a substitute for, the one already 
vouchsafed us by our Most Gracious Majesty. And therefore, 
if perchance it should so turn out that, through some strange 
official inconsonancy, another charter be conceded, it will be to 
serve the purposes of the private schools miscalled “ colleges.” It 
can have—after what has been stated in the present reply to the 
proposed charter, and in the former reply of the Council to the 
“ objections” to our charter—no pretensions whatever to serving 
either the cause of the profession of veterinary surgeons or that of 
veterinary medicine in Britain : both these great ends being al¬ 
ready served, so far as, in the present condition of affairs, they can 
be served, through the approved Royal Charter of Incorporation 
now in operation amongst us. 


Notice of Professional Meetings for 1848. 

The Quarterly Council Meetings are fixed for March 29th, 
June 28th, October 4th, December 27th. 

The General Meeting will take place on the first Monday in 
May. aoiaauoai: 

*** Members of the profession are admitted to all meetings of 
Council by sending to the President for the time being, at the time 
of sitting, their names and addresses. As visitors, however, they 
can take no part in the discussions. 






171 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE COUNCIL OF THE ROYAL 
COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS. 

Sitting of February 9, 1848. 

Present—the President, the Secretary, Messrs. Robinson, 
Peech, Godwin (Birmingham), Henderson, T. W. Mayer, 
Silvester, Cherry son., Turner, Field, Ernes, Braby, 
Arthur Cherry. 

Messrs. Varnell, Draper, Heraud, and Hooper, visitors. 

A SPECIAL Meeting, called to consider the motion for Orders in 
Council, of which notices had been given November 3d, 1847. 

It was moved by Mr. T. W. Mayer , and seconded by Mr. Field, 
“ That, for the purpose of further raising and extending the wel¬ 
fare and dignity of the veterinary profession, it is desirable that 
certain honorary appointments be created in connection therewith ; 
such appointments to comprise a Patron, twelve Vice-Patrons, and 
a proportionate number of Honorary Associates; the parties so 
elected not, however, to be deemed members of the bod) r politic 
and corporate.” 

A discussion ensued which terminated in the motion being car¬ 
ried by a majority of ten to three. 

It was moved by Mr. T, W. Mayer, and seconded by Mr. God¬ 
win, “ That a committee, consisting of the President, the Secretary, 
Messrs. Field, Percivall, and Henderson, be appointed to carry 
the same into effect.”—Carried. 

Mr. Robinson, after a few prefatory remarks, moved, “ That it 
appearing to the Council to be desirable that the nature and extent 
of examinations of candidates should be more specifically defined, 
the Board of Examiners be requested to prepare an outline of the 
same for the concurrence of the Council, and for the better informa¬ 
tion and guidance of the pupil.” 

On being seconded by Mr. T. W. Mayer, a general but short 
discussion ensued, when the motion was carried unanimously. 

The first meeting having terminated, a Second Special Meeting 
having been convened by circular for the same evening, the Council 
resumed its functions. 

The President read a letter from the Home Office (which we 
give elsewhere). 

The Report of the Committee appointed to prepare a reply was 
then read, and, being highly approved, it was moved by Mr. James 
Turner, and seconded by Mr. Field, “That the Report be adopted, and 



172 


SITTINGS OF THE COUNCIL. 


that the President write to the Home Office, with a copy of the 
same.”—Carried unanimously. 

A Report from the Registration Committee was then read. It 
was moved by Mr. James Turner, and seconded by Mr. Field, 
“ That the Report be adopted, and the gentlemen therein recom¬ 
mended as corresponding members, be appointed accordingly.” 

A discussion, chiefly explanatory, ensued, but terminated in the 
motion being carried unanimously. 

A petition from Mr. T. B. Darling, of Australia, student of the 
Edinburgh school, for permission to appear before the Board of 
Examiners, certain conditions of the bye-laws, impracticable to 
be carried out by him having been omitted, was read, and his 
statements being duly confirmed, acceeded to. 

Mr. T. W. Mayer read a letter from Dr. Knox, on the Educa¬ 
tion of the Veterinary Student, for which the thanks of the Coun¬ 
cil were directed to be given. 

The Secretary having called the attention of the Council to the 
fact that a chartered body of farriers exists in the City of London, 
possessed of certain immunities and privileges, and that such 
Company is desirous of improving and benefitting their art: it was 
moved by Mr. Godwin, and seconded by Mr. James Turner , 
“ That a Committee be appointed to confer with the Farriers’ 
Company, to inquire into the privileges enjoyed by their Charter, 
and to ascertain whether any steps can be taken for the advantage 
of both parties;” and “ that the Committee consist of the Presi¬ 
dent, the Secretary, and Messrs. Field, Ernes, Percivall, Hen¬ 
derson, and Arthur Cherry.” 

After some general remarks and explanations, the motion was 
carried without a dissentient. 

Copies of Documents referred to in the Report. 

Whitehall, 8th February, 1848. 

Sir,—I am directed by Secretary Sir George Grey to request, 
with reference to the petition of the Royal Veterinary College of 
London and the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland, 
(a copy of which was transmitted to you on the 15th Sept. 1847), 
that you will inform the Council of the Royal College of Veteri¬ 
nary Surgeons that Sir George Grey is ready to receive any 
explanation or counter-statement which the Council may be de¬ 
sirous of making with respect to the allegations in the petition, the 
petitioners having renewed their application for the charter. 

I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) Denis Le Marchant. 

Thomas Turner, Esq. President of the Royal 
College of Veterinary Surgeons, 311, Regent-street. 


SITTINGS OF THE COUNCIL. 173 

To this letter the President sent the following answer, accompa¬ 
nied by the reply prepared by the Committee:— 

311, Regent-street, 14 Feb. 1848. 

Sir,—I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your let¬ 
ter of the 8th inst., and enclose the reply prepared by the Council 
to the leading points of the petition and charter lying at the Home 
Office; as, however, the application has been renewed, and as 
there are several points yet unanswered, the Council have the 
subject still under tlieir serious deliberation, and are preparing a 
more detailed reply for Sir George Grey’s consideration; or, 
should an explanation to yourself be more convenient, I will do 
myself the honour of waiting on you at any time you may appoint. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

(Signed) Thos. Turner, 

President Roy. Col. Yet. Surgs. 

To Sir Denis Le Marchant, Bart, &c. 

Home Office. 


Report of the Registration Committee. 

Since the last report the Committee have received a few addi¬ 
tional returns from members of the Royal College of Veterinary 
Surgeons. That a list comprising the names and residences of 422 
members is alphabetically drawn up. It appears to the Committee 
to be desirable to obtain as much further information on this subject 
as possible. 

The Committee therefore beg to suggest the following :— 

That, in accordance with the Minute of Council passed November 
3d, 1847, they propose that the following gentlemen be added to 
the committee as local and corresponding members :— 

W. Burley, junior, Leicester; Samuel Baker, Chelmsford, 
Essex; Robert Boutal, Abergavenny; G. T. Baldwin,Fakenham, 
Norfolk; G. Carruthers, Lancaster; H. Crowe, Shrewsbury, 
Salop; Joseph Carlisle, Carlisle; W. A. Cartwright, Whit¬ 
church, Salop ; G. Farrow, Ash, Durham ; Hordern, Macclesfield, 
Yorkshire; John Ions, Waterford; W. McKenna, Belfast; 
R. Pritchard, Wolverhampton, Stafford; H. Christian, Canter¬ 
bury, Kent; W. Richardson, Peterborough, Lincolnshire ; Josiah 
Rogers, Exeter, Devon; W. Statham, Derby, Derbyshire; W. 
Stanley, Leamington, Warwick; C. Taylor, Nottingham, Notts; 
G. Watts, jun., Dublin; O. H. Parry, Reading, Berkshire; 

VOL. XXI. A a 



174 


SITTINGS OF THE COUNCIL. 


E. C. Dray, Leeds, York; S. H. Withers, Bristol, Gloucester; 
T. G. Habin, Chichester, Sussex; John Tombs, Stratford-on-Avon, 
Warwickshire; W. Holliday, Luton, Bedfordshire; W. F. Kar- 
keek, Truro, Cornwall; — Nash, Dorchester, Dorset; — Snow, Sa¬ 
lisbury, S. Wilts; Henry Taylor, Sheffield. 

That the Corresponding Mmembers be requested to obtain and 
transmit every information in their power on this subject. 

That the Registration List be closed by the 20th day of March 
next ensuing, in order that the same may be printed ready for dis¬ 
tribution at the general meeting. 

The Committee are Ihe more earnest in their endeavour to pro¬ 
cure as many verified names and addresses of members as possible, 
as they are aware that there are very many persons who assume to 
be M.R.C.Y.S., who are not entitled to such distinction, to the in¬ 
jury of the really qualified members. 

That a certificate of registration, with the College seal attached, 
be granted to those who have duly registered: such certificate 
to be obtained upon application to the Secretary or to the dis¬ 
trict Corresponding Member, upon the payment of a fee of—; the 
certificate to be as follows:— 

This is to certify that is a duly registered 

Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons . 

President, 

Members of 
Council. 

For the Committee . 

Arthur Cherry, Hon. Sec. 



Sitting of February 23, 1848. 

Present—the PRESIDENT, the SECRETARY, Messrs. PERCJVALL, 
Cherry, sen., Ernes, J. Turner, Goodwin, A. Cherry, 
Henderson, and Mayhew. 

Mr. Y. R. Graham, visitor. 

A Special Meeting called to confirm the Orders in Council 
passed at the last meeting. 

The minutes having been read and confirmed, 

The Orders in Council were read over, and, being put to the 
vote, were each carried and confirmed, and afterwards duly sealed, 
as required by the charter. 





MISCELLANEA. 


175 


Very little discussion took place. 

The Secretary read a letter of thanks from Mr. T. B. Darling, 
accompanied by the requisite certificates. 

Mr. J. Turner gave notice “ that the Committee of Reply be 
reappointed, adding thereto Mr. Mayhew.” 

Mr. A. Cherry stated, that, at the last meeting, not any Scotch 
practitioner had been recommended as a corresponding member, 
not from any disrespect towards the members in that portion of 
the kingdom, but simply from not knowing on whom such selec¬ 
tion should fall: he should, therefore, give notice, that the follow¬ 
ing gentlemen be appointed “ Corresponding Members to the Regis¬ 
tration Committee: — Messrs. Alex. Grey, senior, Edinburgh; 
Thos. Turnbull, Hawick; John Steel, Biggar; William Aitkin, 
Kilmarnock; John Bisset, Montrose; James Tindall, Glasgow; 
John Fulton, Ayr; and that Mr. James Dawber, of Liverpool, be 
added to the English division of the list.” 

Adjourned. 


MISCELLANEA. 


Live Stock in the United Kingdom. 

From “ M‘Queen’s Statistics of the British Empire,” we learn 
the enormous value of the live stock in the kingdom. It appears 
that there are 2,250,000 horses, of total value of £67,000,000, of 
which more than £1,500,000 are used in agriculture; and that 
their value is £45,000,000. The number of black cattle in the 
kingdom is about 14,000,000 to 15,000,000, of the value of 
£216,000,000. The number of sheep 50,000,000, whose value 
is estimated at £67,000,000; and the extent of capital invested 
in swine is still more extraordinary, when we reflect how lit¬ 
tle it is thought upon or taken into account. The number of 
pigs of all ages, breeding and rearing, is calculated to be upwards 
of 18,000,000, which, taking one-third at £2 each, and the re¬ 
mainder at 10s. each, gives a value of £11,870,000 as the capital 
invested in pigs alone; making the total amount of capital invested 
in the above species of agricultural stock, £346,270,000.— 
Morning Post. 

M. Le Masson assures us, that he once had a very old fox pre¬ 
pared and dressed en civet, for some Parisian sportsmen who were 
very fond of venison, and that they took it for chevreuil de com - 
piegne. They must have been persons of exquisite taste and 
discernment! 







176 


MISCELLANEA. 


HOW TO MANAGE SHY HORSES. 

SHOULD you have to pass a camp of gipsies, a carriage, or any 
other object at which your horse may be expected, or has been 
taught habitually, to shy; if the object be on the left, pass the 
right hand on the right rein, about a foot below the left hand, so 
as to keep his head straight, and to prevent his turning towards 
the object, and fronting it. This will be sufficient if the horse has 
always been well ridden. If he has been badly ridden, you must 
turn his head from the object of his alarm at least sufficiently to 
see his right eye. And if he has been ill used for being alarmed, 
you must turn his head still more towards the hedge or ditch on 
his right-hand side, so as to make him pass the object with his 
head inclined from it, and his croup towards it. Do not imagine 
there will be any danger of his going into the ditch on that ac¬ 
count : the very contrary will be the case. If, instead, you pull 
his head towards the object of his alarm, and oblige him to 
face it, he is very likely indeed to run backwards from it; and 
while his whole attention is fixed before him, he will go back¬ 
wards over Dover cliff, if it chance to be behind him .—Hints on 
Horsemanship. 


Good Riding. 

There is nothing heroic, nothing grand, in good riding, when 
dissected. The whole thing is a matter of detail; a collection of 
trifles. Its principles are so simple in theory, so easy in practice, 
that they are despised. The pupil on hearing them assents—“ Of 
course !—we need no ghost to tell us that!” But, in fact, the great 
unpractised secrets in riding are simply these : When you go to 
the right, pull the right rein stronger than the left: when you go 
to the left, the left rein stronger than the right. Urge the horse 
strongest on the side opposite to the guiding rein, and let your 
bearing on his mouth be smooth and gentle. He who does this, 
if not a perfect horseman, will at least be a more perfect one than 
a million out of a million and one .—Hints on Horsemanship. 


Rural Farriery. 

The following is the sign of a village Caleb Quotem on the 
road between Birmingham and Oldbury:—“ William Wright, 
beast, leash, and farrier, horse and cow, dranches, koinds, and 
oyles, of various, koinds, and medicines, sold here.” 




THE 


VETERINARIAN. 


VOL. XXI, 
No. 244. 


APRIL 1848. 


Third Series, 

No. 4. 


LAMENESS IN HORSES. 

By William Percivall, M.fi.CS. and V.S. 

Neurotomy. 

[Continued from page 66.] 

HAVING determined on the fitness of the subject for neurotomy, 
and put him through such preparative treatment, or assigned him 
such resting time by way of preparation, as is deemed requisite, 
we proceed to take 

Steps for the Operation. —But the operation, after all, must 
be regarded only as secondary in importance, subservient quite to 
the considerations of fitness of subject, and to the time when, and 
site (in the limb) where, its performance is to be undertaken. 
What success may follow the operation is not so much attri¬ 
butable to any anatomical knowledge or dexterity displayed by 
the operator, as to the judgment he had exercised beforehand in 
foretelling what the result of neurotomy was likely to be in that 
particular case. 

In all operations, success a good way depends upon circum¬ 
stances, which are, for the most part, under the control of the 
medical practitioner. Fitness of subject is the chief of these; 
preparation of him is another; and last, but not least in animals, 
comes the securing of the subject, and the placing the part to be 
operated on in that position in which the operator can best exercise 
his power and judgment. 

Attempts have been made, and are we believe on occasions still 
made, to perform neurotomy while the horse is standing, using a 
bistoury in lieu of a scalpel, in a manner we shall hereafter describe. 
For our own part, however, we advocate casting in all such opera¬ 
tions. Let the animal, we say, be cast with hobbles in the usual 

VOL. XXL B b 







178 


NEUROTOMY. 


manner, and let the limb to be operated on be separated and held 
in a side-line, until it can be brought to be bound down upon a truss 
of hay, previously covered with a linen cloth, to serve as a sort of 
operating table. And, in order to afford still greater security and 
steadiness of the limb so placed during the operation, an assistant, 
holding a blunt iron hook passed underneath the toe of the shoe, 
may firmly stay the foot, and keep the limb extended. While 
this is being done, however, it requires some vigilance on the part 
of the operator to see that the limb is not drawn into such a false 
position by over-extension, that, when the incisions come to be 
made, and the limb in the interim comes to change position, he 
finds the cut in the skin not opposite,* as he expected, to the parts 
he is seeking for, but to one side of them; the consequence of 
which will be, to embarrass him more or less in his future proceed¬ 
ings. Therefore, on having the limb placed in position, let the 
operator take care that no such deviations by dragging or stretch¬ 
ing be made as will throw parts in respect to the skin covering 
them out of their natural positions. Formerly, the part to be cut 
into used to be shorn of its hair prior to casting. This however is 
nowadays, perhaps wisely, dispensed with; the hair not being 
much in one’s way, and the blemish being, for a time, the greater 
after the wound is healed. 

Prior to commencing the Operation, it will perhaps be as 
well for the operator to run over in his mind the course and rela¬ 
tive situation of the parts about to engage his attention. He will 
remember that 

The Metacarpal Nerves are double, one running down either 
side of the leg; while the metacarpal artery is single, and accom¬ 
panies the nerve on the inner side. This renders the relative 
course of one nerve different somewhat from that of the other. 

The internal Metacarpal Nerve, descending below the 
knee, lies buried underneath a faschia spreading from the knee 
upon the flexor tendons, wherefrom it is stretched across to the can¬ 
non bone, ending below in a crescentic border, underneath which, 
as under an arch-way, nerve, artery, and vein, are all seen 
emerging in their course down the leg. In the first part of its 
course the nerve runs close behind the artery, the vein being in 
front, a relative position which it (the vein) maintains throughout 
its subsequent course to the foot. About one-third of the length 
of the cannon downwards, the nerve detaches the communicating 
branch , so called from its uniting with the nerve on the outer side, 
which it does, after obliquely crawling round the back of the flexor 
tendons, at about the distance (measured in a straight line) of two 
inches and a half below its place of Origin. After sending off this 
branch, the trunk more inclines in its passage downwards from the 


NEUROTOMY. 


179 

posterior to the inner side of the artery, and maintains this relation 
down as low as the fetlock joint. There, as it commences making 
its curve outward to meet the swell of the fetlock, the nerve gives 
rise to a branch almost as large as itself, and which takes a similar 
course, inclining however forward, and running between the plantar 
artery and vein, sending off in its way filaments to the fetlock and 
pastern, and finally distributing its terminating fibres upon the 
lateral and fore parts of the coronet. In addition to this anterior 
branch , the metacarpal nerve (or else the plantar nerve) detaches 
a, posterior branch; and this takes its course between the plantar 
artery and plantar nerve, after crossing over the former, as well as 
over the ligament of the pad; so that, in fact, it is quite superficial. 
Its destination is the substance of the frog. Neither of these 
branches (the anterior and posterior) are meddled with in neu¬ 
rotomy. It is 

The Plantar Nerve —the continuation of the trunk (or meta¬ 
carpal) nerve that becomes the subject of neurotomy whenever the 
low operation, as it is called, is contemplated. In the first part of 
its course, upon the side of the fetlock, this nerve inclines back¬ 
ward to get behind the artery; a relation which it does not after¬ 
wards alter, though the circumstance of its running over the pastern 
at the distance of a quarter of an inch behind the artery, while 
upon the fetlock it runs in contact with it, is one of too much im¬ 
portance to the neurotomist to be treated with indifference; for 
this circumstance it is that enables the operator with the bistoury 
or neurotomy knife to insinuate the point of his instrument be¬ 
tween the artery and nerve , and divide the latter without risk of 
wounding or cutting the former. Another part worthy the neu- 
rotomist’s attention, and particular attention, is the slender cord 
known by the name of the ligament of the pad ; and the reason 
why it claims such particular attention from him is, that on too 
many occasions, from its being white and cord-like, and about 
the size of the nerve, has it been mistaken by the operator for the 
nerve itself, and divided and excised instead of the nerve. Now, 
this ligament is a subcutaneous glistening cord, originating in the 
cushion or pad of cellulo-fibrous substance at the back of the fet¬ 
lock (from which the tuft of long hair is growing); whence it 
passes in an oblique direction forward and downward, crossing over 
in its way both plantar artery and nerve, to dip into the interval 
left between the former and the plantar vein in its front, after 
which dip it spreads and expends itself upon the substance of the 
coronet. 

The External Metacarpal Nerve, at the upper part of the 
cannon, is to be found between the flexor tendons and suspensory 
ligament; gradually however it inclines outward, and runs along 


180 


NEUROTOMY. 


tlie posterior and outer border of the flexor tendons, still inclining 
outward in its course until it reaches the outer edge of the per- 
forans tendon, which for some few inches above the fetlock is the 
best guide we can take to find it. Upon the side of the fetlock it 
joins the outer posterior artery, running at first close behind the 
vessel, and pursuing its course in relation to the artery in pre¬ 
cisely the same manner as its fellow on the opposite side, the 
internal metacarpal nerve, and giving off in its passage similar 
branches. 

The Operation in itself, to a veterinarian acquainted with the 
anatomy of the parts we have been Examining, and whose hand is 
at all practised in operations of the kind, is any thing but complex 
or difficult. With the limb properly placed, and the security of 
it such as will not admit, from struggling, of any material derange¬ 
ment of its position, and with a twitch on the animal’s nose, the 
operator commences by making his 

Incision through the Skin. —Supposing him to be operating 
for lameness in the foot, which is the case of ordinary occurrence, 
it is the plantar nerve that becomes the subject of operation; and 
the place for many reasons found most convenient for its division 
is upon the pastern. The first of these reasons may be stated to 
be, that, when the seat of lameness is, as it commonly is, the 
navicular joint, the division of the nerve at this site answers the 
end required, while it leaves, uncut off, sensation in the anterior 
parts of the foot. The second is, since a horse never cuts or 
bruises his pastern, he will not strike either the wound that is 
made, or any tubular enlargement upon the end of the divided 
nerve that may follow the operation. The third, that the nerve is 
pretty well as accessible here as upon the fetlock; a situation in 
which the performance of the operation is amenable to one, if not 
to both, of the objections just mentioned. 

The pastern, then, being the part chosen for the operation, the 
operator, either with his knife or bistoury, proceeds to business. 
The old-fashioned mode of proceeding is to make an incision with 
a scalpel directly down upon the, nerve; and for my own part l do 
not think, taking all matters into consideration, that this mode has 
been improved upon. There certainly is no occasion to make so 
lengthy an incision as was formerly made; in fact, the smaller the 
incision the better: at the same time, unless some longitudinal 
opening be made in the skin, the operator will find himself trou¬ 
bled, first, in getting hold of the nerve when divided; and, secondly, 
in dragging sufficient length of it out (through such a confined 
aperture as is made by a bistoury) to excise the requisite portion 
of it. Prior to making his incision, let him trace with his fingers 
the border of the united flexor tendons in their course along the 


NEUROTOMY. 


181 

pastern, and at a place immediately below the head of the pastern, 
where the fingers, pressing inwards, are found to sink into a sort of 
hollow, let him commence his incision, and carry it boldly down¬ 
ward to the extent requisite—say, an inch or an inch-and-a-half. 
Let the knife be sharp, and let sufficient force of hand be used in 
making the incision to divide the skin cleanly and completely 
through at once, so as to lay bare (should the incision have been 
judiciously made) the 'plantar nerve, crossed obliquely at its lower 
part by the ligament of the pad. When the incision through the 
skin has been made too low down, or with an obliquity from behind 
forward, instead of being in a direct line with the border of the 
tendon, it has happened that this ligament (and no nerve) has pre¬ 
sented itself; and the result of this has been, either that the liga¬ 
ment has been mistaken for the nerve, and divided, and excised 
instead of it; or, that its presence has much embarrassed the 
operator in finding the nerve. The circumstance, however, of the 
superficial situation of the ligament, lying so immediately under¬ 
neath the skin that by uncareful dissectors it is often taken off 
with the skin, together with that of its oblique course, and that of 
its glistening (tendinous) aspect, confirmed by the proof, that, 
when pinched or pricked, no sensation is expressed, will at all 
times clear up any doubt that may exist on this matter. If the 
ligament happen to obtrude itself in his way, which it will now 
and then, the operator must push it with his scalpel—better back¬ 
wards than forwards—out of his way; or he may, if found requi¬ 
site, even cut it away altogether, without, that I know, any great 
harm being likely to accrue therefrom. Indeed, honestly speaking, 
the use of this ligament—for use it undoubtedly has—is wrapped 
in some obscurity. Having exposed the nerve, a blunt hook or 
aneurismal needle, carrying a ligature, may be passed underneath 
it; and now, that we have got with our hook or ligature possession 
of it, is the time to satisfy ourselves that we have really raised the 
nerve, and not the ligament, or the plantar artery: for the latter, 
as well as the former, has been a source of delusion, though I need 
hardly say that pulsation will set the case of the artery at rest; 
nor is it scarcely necessary for me to add, that the very act of 
laying hold of the nerve to raise it, and most certainly pinching or 
irritating it, will set the animal struggling from pain, and thus 
most satisfactorily clear up every question of identity. All that 
remains to be done is to divide the nerve; and this is done better 
with a sharp bistoury than with either knife or scissors. Take 
care that such division be made as high up as the wound in the 
skin will permit, the object of this being two-fold;—1st, that 
thereby sensation is at once cut off, which it would not have been 
had the nerve been, first, divided below ; and, secondly, that the 
excision of the requisite portion of the nerve—say an inch or so— 


NEUROTOMY. 


182 

(which is most conveniently effected by seizing hold of the lower 
end of it with the forceps) may not occasion the animal the slightest 
pain or inconvenience. Sutures may be employed or not to close 
the wound; and this finishes the operation on the inner side. And 
now it may become a question in the operator’s mind whether or 
not he will proceed further than this, and operate upon the outer 
side of the leg as well. Cases, well authenticated, stand on re¬ 
cord, in which the disease of foot appeared to prevail on the inner 
side, wherein one operation proved sufficient. At all events, 
should any such notions be present with the operator, there can be 
no great harm in making the experiment—suffering the horse to 
rise out of his shackles, and trotting him, to ascertain what amount 
of benefit has been conferred by the single operation. Should 
which not prove satisfactory, the animal can be thrown again, this 
time upon his opposite side, to undergo the same operation on the 
outer side of the leg. 

On the other hand, should it be determined from the first to 
operate upon both sides of the pastern, and which in the majority of 
cases appears indispensable, as soon as one operation is concluded 
and the wound sewn up, the animal, as he lies, must be turned 
over; unless both (fore) legs require neurotomy, and then, before 
he is turned over, the outer side of the other leg may—after the 
operated leg has been returned to the hobbles, and the one to be 
operated upon separated and secured—be incised and treated in 
the manner already directed, there being no essential difference 
between the inner and outer operations. 

The operations concluded, the horse is released, and as soon as 
he has risen upon his legs it is usual to have him led along, first 
at a walk, afterwards at a trot, with a view of ascertaining what 
benefit has been conferred by the operation. The most decisive 
proof we can have of success is the restoration at once from a state 
of lameness to one of soundness; at the same time it must be Ob'- 
served, that it does not follow, because such does not turn out to 
be the case, that hope of restoration is thereby destroyed. A 
horse may feel himself cramped from having been long fettered, 
or he may feel sore in moving his fore limbs from his wounds, or 
he may, I believe, continue to go lame from habit, simply because 
he has for so long a time prior to the operation been going lame. 
Let it be ascribed, however, to what cause it may, the fact is well 
authenticated enough, of horses hardly seeming to experience re¬ 
lief—at all events such decided relief —immediately after neuro¬ 
tomy, and yet who in after-times have been restored through it. 

Now, then, the horse is returned to his stable. A stall is, in his 
present condition, a more suitable place than a box for him. He 
requires to be fastened up securely; two halter ropes are on that 
account better than one : the object being to keep him from 


NEUROTOMY 


lying down, and prevent him by any possibility reaching his 
wounded pasterns with his mouth. And now, wet linen bandages 
should be rolled round his pasterns; they will serve to support the 
sutures, and at the same time will keep the parts cool, and so 
moderate the approaching inflammation. With the same view a 
dose of physic may be given while he is under confinement. The 
grand object is to obtain union of the divided skin by the first 
intention, or by adhesion without suppuration. And to this pur¬ 
pose, nice and continued approximation of the severed edges, with 
quietude of limb and coolness of body, are the best measures we 
can take. Should any festering make its appearance in the 
wounds, which sometimes, despite of our best precautions, will 
happen, let the bandages be removed, and the sutures drawn out, 
and the wounds be treated with simple dressings or poultices, as 
they seem to require. 

The High Operation, as it is called in relation to the one we 
have been describing, which by way of distinction is named the 
low operation, is demanded whenever the seat of lameness for 
which neurotomy is deemed advisable is above the foot or pastern, 
in the fetlock perhaps, or above that even. Remembering that the 
metacarpal nerve of the inner side is closely connected with the 
metacarpal artery, and that both, along with the accompanying 
vein, maintain their course along the inner border of the flexor 
tendons, the latter will prove a sufficient guide to the operator for 
finding them; and our account of their course, at page 178, will 
shew him how in point of relation one to another they will be 
found situate. On the outer side of the leg, however, the course of 
the nerve is different. There, it. has no attendant artery, and is 
to be found, as our former description will point out, rather behind 
than alongside of the flexor tendons; in the space, in fact, be¬ 
tween them and the suspensory ligament. Having exposed the 
nerve by an incision in the direction of its course, the steps of the 
operation are the same here as in the case below, save and except 
that due attention must be paid to the presence of the cross branch 
of nerves forming the communication between the metacarpal nerv¬ 
ous trunks. Originating high up, as this branch does on the inner 
side of the leg, and terminating low down on the outer side, were 
the two high operations for neurotomy on the same leg performed 
in directly opposite places, as the low operations are, it is evi¬ 
dent nervous communication with the sensorium would remain 
uncut off, unless such divisions of the trunk nerves were both 
made either above or below the places of junction of the com¬ 
municating branch. For this reason it is that, in high neurotomy, 
the operation is commonly performed above the branch on the inner 
side of the leg; below it on the outer. 


184 


ON PLED RO-PNlSUMONI A. 


a 



d 


The annexed diagram will illus¬ 
trate my meaning:—Let a b, c d, 
represent the metacarpal nerves 
dissected out and laid upon the 
table, connected by their commu¬ 
nicating branch, e. Supposing the 
divisions of the two nerves made at 
any points represented by o o, it 
is evident communication with the 
sensorium would still be carried on 
through the communicating branch; 
whereas, were such points as are 
represented by L P or p l, chosen 
for section, the communicating 
branch would no longer serve the 
purpose of concatenation, because 
the divisions proved either both 
above or both below the points of 
communication.' 


A FEW REMARKS ON PLEURO-PNEUMONIA, 

ADDRESSED TO THE AGRICULTURISTS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

By T. W. MAYER, M.R.C.V.S ., Newcastle , Staffordshire. 

My Lords and Gentlemen, 

AFTER so much has been said—after so much has been written, 
and perhaps remains to be written—on this important subject, it 
may seem somewhat presumptuous in me, and somewhat incon¬ 
sistent, that I should venture thus publicly to address you on 
what by many may be considered a professional subject, but has 
now become a national calamity. 

Although premiums have been offered to a considerable amount 
for the best essay on this particular subject, I am one of those that 
believe these means are never calculated to realize the object 
sought for. It is impossible to make every man his own cattle 
doctor; it is impossible to convey to minds unacquainted with the 

















ON PLEURO-PNEUMONIA. 


185 

forms of disease, the types, the changes consequent on its progress, 
the symptoms of its decline, in a popular essay. It is a delusion 
to suppose that, after a man has produced his well-written paper, 
detailing with great clearness the modes of infection, the precau¬ 
tions against infection, the premonitory symptoms, and the treat¬ 
ment of the disease, you can take that essay, and, following 
out the plans therein laid down, be successful in the treatment. 
You have been led to believe that you can: you have tried dif¬ 
ferent modes of treatment, and they have failed; you may be in¬ 
duced to try them again, and you will meet with the same result, 
and the disease will, continue its ravages as it is doing now, with¬ 
out any exertions being made to arrest its progress. Your confi¬ 
dence in your professional adviser is destroyed; your faith in all 
remedial agents is gone, and, as a natural consequence, whole 
herds are swept away out of large and extensive districts in a 
most lamentable manner. I know of no subject more humiliating 
for my own profession, or one that conveys a more sweeping re¬ 
flection on the powers that be, than this. If such a disease had 
been desolating the country of our horses, would not every effort 
have been put forth to stop the course of so dreadful a malady 1 

It is the object of this letter to direct your attention to certain 
facts which have hitherto been slighted, and to offer some sugges¬ 
tions, which, if acted upon, are calculated to check the progress 
and mitigate the ravages of the pleuro-pneumonia. They are such 
as your observation will easily detect, such as no eye but yours 
can take cognizance of. They are the results of my own experi¬ 
ence, and I will endeavour to place them before you as plainly and 
briefly as possible. 

It has for some time been supposed that our atmosphere, at cer¬ 
tain periods and in certain seasons, is loaded with poisonous vapour, 
destructive alike to vegetable and animal life; and it has been 
proved that at different times, and under certain circumstances, this 
poison is generated by the decomposition of vegetable and animal 
substances. 

Certain diseases there are which, by proper precautions, may 
be prevented, and others that may be removed by proper remedies. 
But as to the cause of pleuro-pneumonia, the human mind, fertile 
as it is in invention, ready as it is to fix upon this and that as the 
origin of a disease—which, when once it has obtained its footing 
within the walls of the chest, defies the utmost skill employed 
against it—driven from post to post, is obliged to look up to the 
First Cause of all, and exclaim, in the language of the Patriarch 
of old, “ Behold the hand of the Lord is upon thy cattle which is 
in the field' 1 

That God was the cause of the murrain which affected the cattle 

VOL. xxi. c c 


186 


ON PLEURO-PNEUMONIA. 


of the Egyptians, none but an infidel will deny, and that at various 
times such judgments were inflicted by his almighty power as a 
punishment for the sins of men, who can doubt] Listen to the 
question put by the Prophet Jeremiah,—“ How long shall the land 
mourn, and the herbs of every field wither for the wickedness of 
them that dwell therein ] The beasts are consumed and the birds , 
because they said, Pie shall not see our last end.” The same 
Almighty Being “ that made the earth by his power, and esta¬ 
blished the world by his wisdom,” still reigns. Of Him it is said, 
“ When he uttereth his voice, there is a multitude of waters in 
the heavens, and he causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends 
of the earth; he maketh lightnings, with rain, and bringeth forth 
the wind out of his treasures.” He works by certain means, and 
by his power certain effects are produced. 

You can often bear testimony to this fact. How often does it 
not happen that your orchards are nipped in the bud and your 
crops struck with blight in one night’s blast] If, therefore, the 
wind is charged with something so destructive to vegetable life, 
is it not fair to suppose that it is at times equally destructive to 
animal life ] Taking this view of the subject, it is my opinion 
that pleuro-pneumonia is the effect of the inhalation of a poison 
conveyed by atmospheric agency. 

If this be true, you may inquire, what is the first effect pro¬ 
duced ] To this inquiry I must beg your most serious consider¬ 
ation ; for, however much some may differ as to the cause, those 
who have observed this disease will agree with me, that the effect 
produced is always the same. For a long time this was entirely 
overlooked, and in fact is often still, until too late. Many a cow 
has been destroyed, supposed to have been only seized with the 
affection a few hours, when the post-mortem appearances have 
shewn that this germ of the disease has been in existence for 
weeks, perhaps for months. The first symptom of infection is a 
cough or hoose, at first slight, but, according to climate and cir¬ 
cumstances, rapidly increasing until the disease has advanced to 
its second stage. Your servant-man comes some morning, and 
says, “ Master, Primrose is not well—she looks starving—she has 
not given so much milk as usual, and she hooses a bit.” You 
hasten to your cow-house for the first time, to discover a case of 
pleuro-pneumonia. Question your man a little closer, and he will 
tell you, “ I have perceived her hoose a bit for some time; thev 
all hoose a little, but you know cows will hoose, sir: but she 
never failed in her milk before this morning.” Such is, in fact, 
the first intimation you have received that you have an infected 
flock. Kill the animal if you like, and you will be persuaded by 
the disorganization of one lung, sometimes both, spreading from 


ON PLEURO-PNEUMONIA. 


187 

its centre to the circumference, rendering it unable to perform its 
natural functions, that the disease is not the product of an hour; 
yet there has been neglected this premonitory symptom, which 
should have given you warning, and ought to have reminded you 
that then was the time to employ curative remedies; and you now 
only begin to remove a disease which has too often nearly run its 
course. 

It is perfectly true, that all cows cough; but if you could hear, 
side by side, the cough of a healthy cow with one that has the 
seeds of infection within her, you would not forget the sound. 
The one is merely an effort something like a man clearing his 
voice to get rid of some obstruction—the other an effort to relieve 
irritation: the first is a free sound—the second suppressed. It 
does not appear at first painful, but as the disease progresses it 
becomes harsh and discordant, accompanied sometimes with a low 
moan. 

It not unfrequently happens that this cough will be in existence 
for months before you will have a single case; in other instances 
it will appear only for a few weeks or even days. But in this 
there is nothing unusual: it is well known that the germs of con¬ 
sumption will exist in the human species for years before they 
come to maturity; and with regard to the absorption of poison, 
we have still much to learn as to how long it takes thoroughly to 
affect the system. Take the case of the virus of hydrophobia, 
which has been known in some cases to be two years in taking 
effect, and as many weeks or days in others. 

Whether the cough symptomatic of pleuro-pneumonia has been 
in existence for a longer or shorter period, it is certain that it 
affords you a warning which you must not neglect, for this is the 
time to adopt curative remedies. Most strongly would I urge 
upon you frequent inspection of your stock;—listen for the cough, 
and, when it makes its appearance, at once seek for assistance. 
Do not neglect precautionary means—fumigate your sheds—strew 
chloride of lime frequently in your cow-houses—have your stock 
setoned. Should the cough not abate by the use of the means 
after mentioned, consult your professional adviser. If your cows 
are in milk, do not be afraid (if the weather is favourable) of 
bleeding them; you will find that it will more speedily remove 
the cough, and will tend rather to increase than diminish your 
milk. 

If you commence and persevere in the use of remedial measures, 
you will find them generally to remove the cough; and if they do 
not, the disease will take a much milder form, and yield mostly to 
that treatment which is now generally adopted by the scientific 
veterinary surgeon. 


188 


CASES OF QUITTOR. 


It may be thought by some that the treatment of a large stock 
will entail too much labour; but surely any labour is well bestowed 
that will check such a disease as this. It is in vain for you to call 
in professional assistance when the disease has nearly arrived at 
its termination. Extensive observation has convinced me that it 
is only curable by the prompt and decided measures had recourse 
to in its early stages; and I am persuaded, if you will carry out 
the suggestions to which I have directed your attention, you may 
in a great measure prevent those extensive disastrous results 
which have taken and are now taking place in many important 
districts.-,, 

I do not think that, in the commencement of the disease, it 
is infectious. All the flock that have been exposed in the same 
atmosphere may have the seeds of the disease deposited within 
them ; but it is only when the system is overcharged with a super¬ 
abundant quantity of the poison, which then begins to be thrown 
out by the breath, that it becomes contagious. I should, however, 
advise that you separate those that cough from those that do not. 
There is no necessity, unless the weather is very bad, for you to 
keep your stock up during the time they may be under treatment. 
I have generally found, when I have had a chance, that the cough 
has been removed by bleeding and the administration of laxative 
medicine, such as Epsom salts, either alone or in combination 
with nitre and digitalis, repeated as occasion requires; but should 
the disease continue to pursue its course, take the best assistance 
you can, as, from the varied changes the disease assumes in its pro¬ 
gress, each requiring corresponding treatment, none but a veteri¬ 
nary surgeon of experience and practical tact can grapple with it, 
and he, if only consulted in a later stage, with little or no success. 


CASES OF QUITTOR, RUPTURED VEIN, AND 
PARTURIENT APOPLEXY. 

By Henry Draper, M.R.C.V.S., Chelsea, Leighton Buzzard , 

Bedfordshire. 

To the Editor of " The Veterinarian .” 

Dear Sir, 

If you will find space in your Periodical for insertion of the 
three cases I herewith send you, I shall feel obliged. I deeply 
regret that the members of our profession, with some exceptions, 
do not more frequently report their interesting cases: to do so 
would be highly beneficial to the junior practitioner, and, if I mis¬ 
take not, would have a tendency to make veterinary surgery and 




CASES OF QU1TTOR. 


189 


medicine progress in the “ right way.” Assuredly, each of us, 
particularly we who are in full practice, must occasionally meet 
with cases which, if not of rare occurrence, are, nevertheless, highly 
instructive to us individually, and ought therefore to be rendered, 
as being so to the profession at large. The case of ruptured vein 
may probably be regarded by some of your readers as a case per se . 
there being no similar case on record that I am aware of; and that 
is the reason why I relate it. With those, however, who would consider 
it a novelty I must respectfully beg to differ, being aware of a simi¬ 
lar case occurring in Mr. Lepper’s practice a short time since; and 
believing that the cases of “ Rupture of the Spur Vein” which we 
have heard of, were, in reality, precisely the same as the case I am 
going to report. I think the anatomy and physiology of the parts, 
long since demonstrated by Mr. Mayhew, fully warrant me in giv¬ 
ing this opinion. I shall have great pleasure in transmitting other 
cases for your next Number*, and shall continue to contribute all 
cases worthy of interest in future, and trust my brother-practition¬ 
ers will do the same. In haste, 

I remain, dear Sir, 

Truly yours. 

Case I.— Quittor cured by Dilatation. 

February 27 th, 1847.—I was requested to see an aged brown 
mare, the property of Mr. Jackson, contractor on the Dunstable 
railway. The animal, for a considerable time, had been lame in her 
near fore limb, but the affection had materially increased the last 
two months, during which time she had been under the care of a 
shoeing smith. She is now found to be incapable of continuing 
her work, which has been that of drawing heavy loads along the 
railway, where she had to step over wooden sleepers rising eight 
inches above the ground surface. I learned from the driver that 
she had frequently bruised the coronet of the lame limb against the 
sleepers, and also with the opposite foot. The lateral cartilages 
are found to be in a great measure ossified, the inner one forming 
a large bony tumour. On the coronet, in a line with the middle 
of the quarter, is a deep ill-conditioned ulcer, the size of a shilling, 
from which flows a thin, foetid, and dark-coloured discharge: a 
probe is readily passed along a sinus extending from the ulcer in 
a direction downwards and forwards to the extent of three inches. 
I was informed that the smith had “ cored” the sinus and used 
several kinds of dressings. 

Treatment .—The ground surface of the inside quarter was 

* The late arrival of this paper forced us to publish our March number 
without it.—E d Yet. 


190 


CASES OF QUITTOR. 


lowered so as to leave no bearing upon a bar shoe, which was 
then applied, and removed every third week. The sinus was in¬ 
jected daily with a saturated solution of sulphate of zinc, and rest 
enjoined. 

March 8th .—Have continued injection to this period with no 
improvement in respect to the lameness, and no alteration of the 
discharge. A weak solution of chloride of lime was now injected, 
twice daily. 

15th .—The injections have been regularly attended to up to this 
date, and there is not the smallest improvement. The bichloride 
of mercury wrapped in paper was now introduced into the sinus, 
secured by compress and bandage, for twenty-four hours. The 
sinus was then injected, twice daily, with a weak solution of chlo¬ 
ride of lime : on the fourth day the slough was removed, and the 
injection continued for ten days longer. 

80th. The mare is as lame as on my first visit. The discharge 
is still thin, dark in colour, and foetid, and mixed with blood after 
exercise. No good resulting from the usual plans of treatment, 
and my employer evidently becoming impatient, I at once proposed 
the simple plan of treatment advised by Mr. Mayhew three years 
ago, viz. converting the sinus into a simple wound by means of 
the knife: to this he consented, but said it should be the last step 
taken. Having the crust reduced as thin as possible over the 
region of the sinus, and well rasped for some distance around the 
part, a strong probe-pointed bistoury was then introduced, and 
the sinus completely laid open. A small portion of horn at the 
inferior extremity of the incision was afterwards removed, to prevent 
any lodgment of matter, and on doing this was found a consider¬ 
able quantity of the hydr. nitr. oxyd., which had been used by the 
smith who originally had been entrusted with the case. Two small 
pieces of dead cartilage were taken away with the mass here re¬ 
moved. Two other sinuses were now detected, taking a course 
backwards towards the heel. These were laid open, and a pledget 
of lint placed in each wound, the foot being enveloped in poultice 
for two days. 

April 2d .—The mare is feeding well, and has done so since the 
operation—is resting more weight upon the foot than heretofore: 
the wounds discharge freely, though the pus is still thin and rather 
foetid. Use chloride of lime with poultice. 

4ith .—Wounds are granulating well—pus less in quantity, thicker, 
and not so foetid. Strips of lint wetted with a weak solution of 
chloride of lime are now inserted into each wound, and retained 
there by cording and bandage. 

6th .—Walks much better, and appears to suffer no pain when 
standing still or bearing upon the lame foot. The posterior wounds 


CASES OF QUITTOR, &c. 191 

are nearly filled with granulations : apply nothing to them. The 
anterior wound and ulcer of coronet are granulating tardily—pus 
thin. Continue the lint, with weak solution of chloride of lime, to 
this wound. 

10£A.—-The anterior wound and ulcer progressing slowly: the 
two posterior wounds are partially covered with a thin layer of 
horn secreted by lamina. 

16/A.—The two posterior chasms are well protected with horn, 
which offers considerable resistance to presure, save on the coro¬ 
nary surface, where the layer of horn is very thin and yielding : 
the ulcer of coronet and anterior wound progressing slowly. 

20 th. —There is no more lameness than what may be attributed 
to the ossification of the cartilages : the wound and ulcer are much 
improved since last visit. 

24/A.—The two posterior chasms of wall are now everywhere 
filled up to a level with the adjacent horn—the anterior wound is 
partially covered with horn, secreted by lamina—a space of an 
inch or more at the coronary surface remains uncovered with horn: 
ulcer has cicatrized. The proprietor has now determined that the 
mare shall go to dight work, the foot being properly protected. 

May 1th .—Has worked regularly without the lameness increas¬ 
ing. The anterior division of wall is pretty much filled up below 
the coronary surface, but at the coronary surface no horn has been 
formed. 

January 10, 1848.—The mare has continued regularly at work. 
The two posterior fissures are growing out, leaving an even surface 
above: the anterior fissure remains in statu quo —the coronst at 
the seat of the ulcer feels hard—a thick layer of cuticle has extended 
an inch down the fissure. A plain shoe has been worn ever since 
June last, and no treatment was required after the 24th of April 
last. 

In this case various caustics had been employed, but their action 
did not prove to be beneficial. The healthy structures appear to have 
been more affected by them than the disease ; and as these agents 
are not entirely under the control of the practitioner, or exposed to 
his view, the false quarter which so frequently ensues upon the 
cure of quittor may, perhaps, in a majority of cases, be attributed 
to the potency of the remedies made use of. The knife, on the 
other hand, inflicts an injury which exposes the disease, and by 
admitting the atmosphere sets up a beneficial degree of inflamma¬ 
tion ;—the extent and nature of the disorder are laid bare, and the 
senses are enabled to instruct the judgment. A harder test upon 
any operation could scarcely have been selected than the present 
case, which had been in existence for a considerable period before 
I saw it, and was under my care four weeks before I adopted the 


192 


RUPTURE OF THE AXILLARY VEIN. 


course recommended by Mr. Mayhew, but not generally recognized 
by the profession. The result was certainly gratifying ; but, had 
the sinuses taken an inward direction, I should have hesitated to 
employ the knife with the freedom which I used on this occa¬ 
sion. That the sinuses were superficial, I attribute mainly to the 
altered structure of the cartilage; the bony condition of which, 
though, as indicated by foetor, in a state of ulceration, was enabled 
to resist the progress of the disease. The free incisions, by expos¬ 
ing the bone, set up a new action, and the recovery was as rapid as 
the disorder had been lingering. There are some practitioners who 
may object to the plan here recommended to their notice, but a little 
reflection will assure them it is not attended with danger, or based 
on principles which have not been long advocated. Many, no doubt, 
will continue to use caustics; but in that case none ought to be 
employed which are not highly soluble, as they may otherwise 
gravitate to the bottom of a sinus, become confined, and act as 
foreign substances, setting up a degree of irritation which no skill 
could remove without resorting to an operation. 

The mare can now be seen at Mr. Jackson’s stable, at Bow, 
London. 


Rupture of the Axillary Vein. 

March 20, 1847.—I was called to a four-year-old mare, the 
property of Mr. Reeve, of Leighton. The animal had gone through 
a severe run with the fox hounds four hours previous to my see¬ 
ing her, which had occasioned extreme congestion of the lungs. 
But the chief point of interest in this case was a great tumefac¬ 
tion extending from the ulnar and axillary regions along the side 
of the abdomen, as far back as the fourteenth rib. The swelling 
was soft and rather elastic. By applying pressure with the two 
hands at the extremity of the swelling, and carrying them onward 
to the elbow, the swelling was nearly removed, but upon with¬ 
drawing pressure it quickly re-appeared. It was evidently fluid ; 
but whence came it 1 I could not detect any thing like rupture of the 
abdominal muscles. The mare had not received any bruise upon 
the part, and I was therefore inclined to attribute it to haemorrhage 
of the spur vein, resulting from inordinate pressure of the girth. 
My employer being very anxious for the recovery of his favourite 
animal, I, not seeing a probable chance of that being realized, 
requested I might have the assistance of Mr. Lepper, of Ayles¬ 
bury. Suffice it to say, that the animal died, and Mr. Lepper 
kindly assisted me in making the post-mortem, which I will now 
briefly relate. ; ; • , 



PARTURIENT APOPLEXY. 


193 

The structure of the lungs was broken up. The pleura intensely 
inflamed, and there was considerable effusion into the chest. A 
great quantity of extravasated blood was found immediately 
beneath the panniculus, and under the accessory thoracic muscles 
of the side affected. Under the scapula the cellular tissue was 
completely infiltrated. The axillary vein was lacerated near the 
second rib, where it is embraced by the expanded tendon of the 
sub-scapulo-hyoideus muscle. . It became a question how such a 
lesion could have taken place. Not feeling myself capable of satis¬ 
factorily accounting for the injury, I requested Mr. Mayhew to 
favour me with his opinion on the case. Mr. Mayhew writes as 
follows:—“ In extreme exhaustion the muscles no longer obey the 
will, but their harmony of action is destroyed. To protect the 
vessels beneath the scapula, the sub-scapulo-hyoideus has been 
created. Its tendon acts directly upon these delicate parts, and 
by regulating their position according to the motions of the limb, 
effectually preserves them from injury. I therefore imagine the 
exhaustion of the system deprived the guardian muscle of its 
power, and the vessels consequently becoming compressed, the 
weakest of them yeilded.” 

Parturient Apoplexy. 

July 15, 1847, 5 o’clock, P. M. —I visited a six-year-old cow, a 
well-bred Durham, the property of Edward Lawford, Esq., of 
Louthede, Leighon Buzzard, that had three days previously given 
birth to a moderate sized calf without unusual suffering, and had 
appeared to be doing well until the evening of the 15th. That 
was the third calf she had had since she came into the possession 
of the present proprietor, and hitherto she had not been ill. She 
is on grass keep, and is full of flesh. The calf remained with her 
till the evening of the 14th. On the 15th, the cow-man says she 
became restless, did not feed well, and had not given near the 
quantity of milk she ought to have yielded. Symptoms: respira¬ 
tion hurried, stands in a fixed position, and is unwilling to move. 
Pulse contracted, and numbering 120. Eyes, wild, and starting 
from the orbits, pupil dilated, iris sluggish, conjunctiva deeply 
injected ; head hot, mouth and nose hot, and rather dry. A scanty 
purulent discharge from the vagina, with no foetor. Bowels open, 
and has urinated more frequently than natural. Has not been 
observed to ruminate this afternoon. No distention of rumen. 
Extremities and skin generally hotter than natural. Udder feels 
full, but is not painful on pressure. The shed being very warm, 

VOL. XXL D d r y v, ' 


( 


194 PARTURIENT APOPLEXY. 

and ill adapted for her, I had her removed to an open out-house, 
close by. Upon loosing the animal and turning her towards the 
door-way, she ran staggering out into the yard, where she stood fixed 
again for a minute or two. We then carefully got her into the out¬ 
house. No sooner in than she ran her head against the wall, and, 
falling down, was incapable of rising. Treatment: I drew blood 
from jugular to a considerable amount, but could not collect it. An 
evident impression was made upon the pulse, which afterwards 
was readily compressed. I ordered the head to be kept constantly 
wet with cold water, the body to be covered with a rug. 

Seven o’clock, P. M. —Respiration hurried; pulse hard and rather 
full, numbering 103; head hot. V. S. till pulse became feeble. 
Gave aloes Barbad. §j, ol. crotonis Mxxx, spt. ammon. co. §j, in a 
draught. 

Nine o’clock, P. M. —Pulse 120, soft and round, and readily 
compressed; pupil less dilated, and contracts on bringing the light 
near the eye; respiration free, but still much accelerated ; no dis¬ 
tention of rumen; appears somewhat conscious. Gave two quarts 
of tepid water, and ordered it to be repeated every fourth hour 
with aloes 3ij. 

1 6th, 7 o’clock, A. M. —Much better; has urinated, and the 
bowels have acted; appears conscious, but has made no effort to 
get up. Cease giving aloes. 

Four o’clock, P. M. —The cow got up in the afternoon and re¬ 
mained up a short time; appeared very weak. Cerebral symptoms 
have disappeared ; there has been free action of bowels; has taken 
gruel, and a little grass. 

11th. —Is up, and feeds well; very little milk can be drawn from 
udder. 

19th. —Continues doing well. v 

2 5th. —Is well, and giving a good quantity of milk. 

I have been induced to report the above case in order to shew 
the advantages of bleeding even after the animal has fallen, when 
some persons protest venesection should not be resorted to. The 
result in this case would certainly permit a contrary judgment to 
be maintained. 






195 


THE STATE OE AFFAIRS AT THE ROYAL 
VETERINARY COLLEGE. 

By Edward Mayhew, M.R.C.V.S., Spring Street , 

Sussex Gardens. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian.” 

boiobio I J)9889iqrnoo ylibii&r &i*w« 

SOME months have passed since I addressed you. The motives 
which induced my silence will not, I am assured, he misinter¬ 
preted. It was due to the profession that my voice should not be 
heard until every imputation cast upon my character had been re¬ 
futed. While I was accused, my pride told me to ask no man’s 
confidence. Having, however, met and answered the charges ad¬ 
vanced against me, I once more presume to appear as a contributor 
to your pages. 

The time is fraught with danger. That danger is not the less 
because its threatening appears to awaken no alarm. The peril 
calls for action. All who have feelings to express or opinions to 
declare should now be heard, lest forbearance be mistaken for 
apathy, or silence be construed into consent. I too well know the 
sentiments of our body to believe there are none who feel the cir¬ 
cumstances which surround us. The charter once more is assailed. 
The same parties who have hitherto confused the deliberations 
of the Council are again in motion. They have been beaten ; yet 
they retain no sense of defeat. They refuse to be convinced; but 
with a fatuity bordering upon madness, they persevere in a course 
injurious to their characters and to the interests which in honour 
they are bound to respect. 

A new charter is demanded. On what ground is it applied for 1 
Either the reasons have not been stated, or I want the sense to 
perceive them. All I can comprehend is the statement, that the 
teaching at the Veterinary College has been favourable to the ad¬ 
vance of veterinary science. The fact must be admitted. Our 
art has been benefitted by the efforts of the Professors. Neverthe¬ 
less, that circumstance constitutes no argument on which to ask the 
revocation of an existing grant, or the foundation of a novel sys¬ 
tem. The motives which induced that instruction should in can¬ 
dour have been stated. It should have been shewn that the 
teaching was undertaken solely upon public grounds. Such, how¬ 
ever, cannot be demonstrated to be the fact. The Saint Pancras 
Institution is a private association, in which the animals of indi¬ 
viduals are supposed to be “ doctored cheap.” It was founded 
for other ends; but such it has become. The school which origi- 


196 


THE STATE OF AFFAIRS AT 


nally was its object has grown to be no more than an appendage. 
The tuition which is afforded is not gratuitous. The accomoda¬ 
tion of the pupils is not even of an ordinary kind. The instruc¬ 
tion is in many points deficient, and in others it is erroneous. The 
fees paid by the students enable the governors to retain the services 
of the Professors without drain upon their funds. The school, 
therefore, is a source of profit. It is of advantage to the institution, 
and, being kept up on such ground, I cannot see it gives any right 
on which to found a request for public grants. 

The governors know nothing of the school. During thetime I was 
attached to the institution as a teacher I know not that I ever saw 
a gentleman holding such an office. Certain am I, no inquiry was 
ever addressed to me concerning the object of my teaching or the 
conduct of my class. Unknown to the governors I was appointed, 
and ignorant of their existence I remained in my situation. They 
knew nothing of me, or I of them. No orders were transmitted to 
me as to what I should do, and no report was made of that which 
I had done. No minutes were kept of the transactions of the 
school. The College was left to the discretion of the teachers. 
Beyond that it was free from direction or control. 

Certainly, in answer to the above it can be said, gentlemen, 
members of useful and scientific associations, were invited to inspect 
the place. Equally certain is it the Professors were nominally re¬ 
sponsible to the Governors. A report was annually drawn up and 
approved. All this is admitted, but unfortunately the admission 
will establish nothing. A few gentlemen may walk through the 
building, and see that which the attendant Professors request them 
to look at. Of course, in return for courtesy they are polite. 
Thanks and approval are expressed. The visitor is reported to 
depart delirious with delight. On reflection, however, what can 
such a person assert that he has learnt l What can he have ascer¬ 
tained about the internal regulation of the place T He sees young 
men, and these, he is told, are students. He enters a theatre, and he 
is informed lectures are dailv delivered. He walks into a room 

# 4/ 

crowded with specimens, and is acquainted that it is a museum 
illustrative of anatomy. His ears are amused, and his eyes are 
pleased. He, however, leaves the Veterinary College as ignorant 
of all that really concerns the conduct of the place as the man 
would be of the British government who had merely been shewn 
through the offices of Downing-street. Nevertheless, opinions 
uttered after so hasty and superficial a view have been seriously 
urged as proofs that the school is properly managed, and the insti¬ 
tution systematically conducted. 

Such evidence is obviously ridiculous. The report annually made 
is of no greater value. It is the report of the Professors concern- 


THE ROYAL VETERINARY COLLEGE. 


197 


ing their own doings ; of course, being such, it would be pleasant. 
The governors, as gentlemen, are not disposed to question it. If 
no rumour necessitating inquiry has reached them, the report is 
formally passed. Under the circumstances, complaints are not 
likely to be heard by them. They rarely visit the College. When 
they meet, it is at the Thatched House—a long distance from 
Saint Pancras. Then the accounts have to be audited. These 
last constitute the real business of the assembly. No narrative of 
the proceedings is published. All is snug, and, as a natural con¬ 
sequence, every thing is agreeable. 

Secure from internal direction, the College also is protected from 
public surpervision. No one may be decidedly turned out of the 
building; but they who come to it merely to look, are never wel¬ 
comed. A cold reception readily checks any inquisitiveness of 
disposition. The stay is brief, and the visit rarely is repeated. 
Other colleges are managed on a different plan. The lectures are 
reported. The professors seek publicity, and take pride in the 
discussion of their opinions. The profession are received with 
kindness. Their presence is regarded as an honour, and their at¬ 
tendance is courted. The reverse is the fact at Saint Pancras. It 
stands alone amidst the colleges of London. No report of the lec¬ 
tures is given. The veterinary profession are not even permitted 
to be subscribers. They who best could judge, and are most fit 
to approve, are arbitrarily excluded. From criticism the Professors 
are protected. The pupils alone hear the lectures. When one has 
obtained his diploma, if he enter the walls, he is informed that his 
presence is obtrusive. Gentlemen who have graduated at the 
College have been even ordered off the premises. The grooms 
have been commanded not to speak to them. The Professors feel 
they are private, and they act in a manner calculated to maintain 
their privacy. The place is given up to them, and in it they con¬ 
sult only their pleasures. To the public they acknowledge no 
right, and to the profession they accord no privilege. 

The foregoing assertions embody but a portion of the truth. To 
state every fact, would require more space than I dare venture to 
occupy. If all were told, the narrative would seem exaggerated. 
I suppress much. Enough, however, has probably been advanced 
to convey some idea of the condition of a school, the existence of 
which is urged upon the Government as a sufficient plea for an¬ 
nulling a charter, and establishing an unconstitutional authority 
over a profession. 

The folly and the impudence of the demand provoke wonder. 
Nevertheless, I have no wish to assert that the teaching is wholly 
bad. Under the circumstances, it is better than might be ex¬ 
pected. Still it is imperfect. On some points it is deficient; on 


198 


THE STATE OF AFFAIRS AT 


others, it is erroneous. During the time I was connected with the 
institution the lectures did not embrace many important diseases. 
Glanders was not dwelt upon in the theatre; no lecture on that 
subject was delivered. I repeat this assertion with confidence. 
My position gave me every opportunity to ascertain the fact. I 
was constant in mv attendance. I made ample notes. I prepared 
the table for the Professor. I examined the pupils on what he 
taught. I had every facility to learn the truth, and more than 
ordinary reason to remember it. I have consulted my notes, and 
they confirm my belief. The days and dates are recorded, but 
nothing concerning glanders is to be found. Still, not depending 
on my own impressions, I have made inquiry. Other gentlemen 
were as assiduous as myself. I have asked them to confirm or to 
correct my assertion. They give but one reply : and against such 
evidence, can a single individual be produced capable of saying he 
heard this fatal disorder dwelt upon, while I was either a pupil or 
a teacher at the College 1 

In another sphere, rabies was not alluded to. On this matter 
my evidence is positive. The same reasons which cause me to 
recollect the one circumstance, occasioned me also to remember 
the other. Let these two facts be fairly weighed: if they are 
not thought to be established, it would be only justice to institute 
inquiry. That inquiry I shall be happy to assist. 

In anatomy, as in pathology, the course was wanting. The 
Professor hurried over this portion of his duty. Of the lymphatic 
system he made no mention. The ligaments he did not notice. 
The muscles, arteries, veins, and nerves, he barely touched upon; 
telling his class to seek in the dissecting-room the information it 
was his special office to afford. Such was the anatomical instruc¬ 
tion concerning the horse. With regard to other animals, the 
anatomy was unknown, and therefore I need not state it was not 
taught. Something, however, was said about the bones: of the 
value of that something perhaps a judgment may be formed, 
when the skeleton introduced to illustrate the osseous structure of 
the dog actually had the bones incorrectly articulated, and proba¬ 
bly thus retains them to the present hour. 

Turning from the teachers to the men, I ask, what are their ac¬ 
quirements, that they would place themselves at the head of the 
profession 1 What have they done 1 What have they discovered ] 
What have they invented 1 What have they written ] To such 
questions, Mr. Morton may with some credit reply. That gentle¬ 
man, however, standing as he does alone in merit, is the least in¬ 
fluential and the worst remunerated of the Professors. The others 
must be silent, or their desert has strangely been concealed. Of 
the value of the general instruction my own case may afford an 


199 


THE ROYAL VETERINARY COLLEGE. 

illustration. It is by no means pleasant to make confessions of 
this kind; but, rather than seek the proof at another’s expense, I 
advance the statement. When I started in practice, it was my 
fortune to have many dogs brought to me for treatment. I strictly 
followed the College method in the measures I adopted. The 
animals died. The agents I had been taught to rely upon were 
either inoperative or injurious. There are many gentlemen can 
speak to the effect the result produced upon my mind. I actually 
thought of resigning my profession. At length, in desperation, I 
cast from me all that I had learned. Consulting books and study¬ 
ing principles, T began upon a new plan entirely. Let the result 
tell how much of error I discarded. During the last six months, 
but two of these animals have died under my care. One had 
chronic ulceration of the duodenum opening into the abdominal 
cavity, and was under my charge but forty hours. The other 
died of hydrothorax, after it had been in my custody but an hour 
and a half; having, for a fortnight previous, shewn symptoms of 
disease. 

The foregoing may read harsh : some even may think the 
statement has been heightened. Those, however, who are ac¬ 
quainted with the facts, will know that not a tithe of the truth has 
been alluded to. The corruption of years is not to be contained 
in a few pages. The system is bad, and, of course, evil has grown 
up under it. The Professors are not wholly to blame. Perhaps 
they are to be pitied. They have been placed in false positions: 
it could be pleaded in their behalf, that they have been surrounded 
by abuses which existed before they took office. I regret only 
that gentlemen in such a situation should have been blind to the 
evil in which they moved. 

The governors are not to be reproached. They are gentlemen; 
and however unfortunate may be their acts, their motives, at all 
events, are not to be suspected. They mean well, but they are 
misled. They are mistaken. They are ignorant of the facts. 
Still I lament that a body so well intentioned, and so honourable, 
should have been induced to join in a public movement before they 
had taken some pains to ascertain the circumstances of the case. 

The school being paid for all it gives, can advance no higher 
claims than what every tradesman could adduce. The existence 
of a paying speculation establishes no right on which to address 
the state, asking for extraordinary and unprecedented powers. On 
the score of benefits conferred, nothing can be urged. On the 
ground of injury inflicted, something on the other side might be 
insisted on. The school, however, under the charter has improved. 
That improvement should not be regarded as a wrong. The Pro¬ 
fessors ought not to feel that progression is an injury. What 


200 


THE STATE OF AFFAIRS AT 


complaint, however, can they make ] The number of pupils has 
increased. The income has, therefore, been enlarged. The Pro¬ 
fessors, however, urge that under the charter they are not allowed 
to examine their own pupils. Is this a grievance ? If it be, then 
Abernethy, Cooper, and Liston, in silence bore the ill; and what 
such men endured without regret, surely Mr. Spooner or Mr. 
Simonds might put up with. The charter places the Professors 
in the same position which the highest ornaments of the medical 
body occupy, and I cannot see their pride should be offended. 

The Council have behaved with liberality to the teachers. 
Mr. Sewell and Mr. Spooner are members of that body. Those 
gentlemen retain their seats; but out of this very circumstance 
arises considerations of a most distressing nature. What the 
Council does is virtually and legally the act of each member of 
that body. All alike are responsible; and none can, by right or 
honour, shrink from the responsibility. This is evident; a child 
must recognise so plain a principle. Let it be applied. Mr. Sewell 
and Mr. Spooner, being members of the Council, petition against 
the Council, or complain to the Government of their own deeds. 
Acting under the Charter, they seek to destroy the Charter. In 
one view they are foolish, in another they are treacherous. They 
accept appointment to act for, but they hold it to move against. 
They have two characters which cannot be reconciled. If the 
Charter be wrong, why do they lend their names to its support I 
If it be right, why do they oppose it 1 Their conduct is contra¬ 
dictory. I fear it is open to graver charges. When confidence is 
accepted from a public body, the trust, in my opinion, should be 
held sacred to the interest which created it. 

In the zeal of their opposition the Professors seem to have lost 
•sight of reason. It is openly asserted the teachers of the London 
College will establish an examining board and grant diplomas to 
their pupils. The threat is puerile; no man of character could sit 
on such a board. No member of the medical profession having 
any station to uphold could lend his name to the manufacture of 
quack diplomas. The idea is preposterous. Could it be carried 
out the diploma would be worthless. In no court of law would it 
be recognized. Men practising under such authority would rank 
with farriers. The threat, however, shews the regard the Profes¬ 
sors entertain for the welfare of the public or the advancement of 
veterinary science. 

Nevertheless, having expressed such a determination, with what 
grace can the Professors, or any acting with them, appear as pe¬ 
titioners before the Government. They pray a charter, and yet at 
the very time they make the prayer they are openly planning to 
bring the power a charter has created into contempt. They are, 


THE ROYAL VETERINARY COLLEGE. 201 

without disguise, opposing the self-same authority they beg to be 
invested with. Those who ask, at least should shew a disposition 
to respect. Still, while appealing to the Crown, they are actively 
thwarting the expressed and proclaimed commands of majesty. 

Inquiry is wanted : it must be instituted before matters proceed 
much farther. In the present state of affairs no ministry could 
advise the crown to grant the proposed new Charter. There is no 
evidence to shew it is required ; no proof to shew it is deserved. 
Without necessity and without merit it cannot be conceded. For 
the existing Charter there is ample precedent. For the one applied 
for there cannot be quoted a single example. 

Compare the two parties acting in opposition;—a profession and 
the professors of a single school. The one a public body, the other 
a private clique. On one hand the meetings are open and the 
decisions public; on the other side the proceedings are secret, and 
the conduct removed from inspection or responsibility. 

The governors, and those acting with the school, will, I am cer¬ 
tain, on reflection withdraw from the present disgraceful contest. 
Desiring only good, they are, on conviction, incapable of remaining 
the advocates of evil. It is said they are committed to the cause 
they have espoused. I deny they are so committed ; or, granting 
that they are, they are gentlemen, and have no petty fear of ac¬ 
knowledging they have been deceived. 

The veterinary profession, however, must now shew its feeling. 
If the Charter have their support, the fact must be demonstrated. 
In such a cause, every individual must act as if the issue de¬ 
pended on his single arm : all know what has been. They are 
aware how their wishes are opposed, and their best interests en¬ 
dangered. If the threatened plan of manufacturing illegal diplo¬ 
mas be carried into effect, the consequences will not be slight. 
The war which quacks and farriers have for so many years main¬ 
tained will receive new vigour. In the county, the certified of 
the College will hardly be distinguished from the constituted mem¬ 
ber of the Charter. The false and true paper will be confounded. 

Fearing the possibility of such an event, I have induced a 
talented young artist to execute a model of the crest of the Royal 
College of Veterinary Surgeons. He has produced a work which, 
on the score of art, is deserving of no measured praise. It is, in 
fact, a noble performance; one that would not disgrace the gallery 
of a connoisseur. The centaur rears boldly up, firmly grasping 
the shield, as if he defied it to be wrested from him, and was de¬ 
termined to retain it. The figure is full of spirit, and displays 
more talent than I can here afford space to allude to; my present 
purpose being to explain the motive rather than to enlarge on the 
beauty of the production. 

VOL. XXI. E e 


202 


ON CHLOROFORM. 


This work, I am empowered to say, shall be allowed to pass 
into the hands of those only who are members of the Royal Col¬ 
lege of Veterinary Surgeons. From its size and peculiarity of 
appearance it would constitute a conspicuous and appropriate 
ornament of the surgery. A diploma may not to every visitor 
who calls on a member of our profession be intelligible. Certi¬ 
ficates may be, and have been, mistaken for instruments of authority. 
Here, however, is an object which, certain to attract attention, will 
be seen only where the title is assured. It will form the honour¬ 
able sign of recognised pretension ; and where it is found, there will 
the most ignorant be enabled to discern the title of the practitioner. 

I have long desired that we possessed some mark of the kind. 
Of the utility of the design there can be no dispute. That it shall 
be possessed by none but members, I undertake the responsibility. 
In the first instance, I make myself answerable that it shall be 
obtained by no one whose right is not beyond dispute. It should 
afterwards be a point of honour not to sell or give it to any not 
associated with the corporate body. The profession to whose 
special service it is devoted must be careful that it is not under 
any circumstances perverted from its intention. 

In conclusion, let me state, I have no further interest in the 
work, or any control over it, beyond that which I have implied in 
the above statement. It is to be sold, but at what price I do not 
know. Being, however, a work of some size, and much merit— 
circumscribed in its circulation, and therefore limited in its sale— 
I cannot imagine it will be published cheap. Neither do I desire 
it should be sold at too low a price, lest, being obtainable at small 
cost, it should grow to be lowly estimated, or pass into the hands 
of those who could desire it to sell again. 

Those who may wish for particulars I refer to the proprietor, 
Mr. T. Bailey, 8, Conduit-place, Spring-street, Paddington. From 
that gentleman every information may be procured, but the cast 
itself can only be had through my order. 

I remain, Sir, 

Your obedient servant. 


MAY NOT CHLOROFORM PROVE USEFUL IN THE 

SLAUGHTER-HOUSE ] 

By A Retired Medical Officer. 

Among its many uses, may not all the horrors of the slaughter¬ 
house be superseded by its intervention] 

Having several times witnessed the effects of chloroform on 




ON CHLOROFORM. 


203 


small animals, chiefly the speedy and apparently easy transition from 
life to death in those animals, when confined in an atmosphere of 
chloroform, the idea immediately arose to my mind, whether simi¬ 
lar effects might not be produced on larger animals by the same 
powerful agency 1 On further reflection, I am induced to submit 
the question, not only to the practical class immediately concerned, 
but to the scientific inventors and introducers of the various im¬ 
portances which have lately conferred wealth, power, and pre¬ 
eminence particularly upon this country. May not all the cruelty 
now inflicted upon animals doomed to destruction for our use—may 
not all the violent, offensive operations in the slaughter-house be 
rendered unnecessary and superseded—may not the inflictors and 
the sufferers both be relieved by the simple introduction of cloro- 
form ? 

Unlike many recent discoveries; unlike quinine, morphia, and 
the other alkaloids, obtained with difficulty, and from expensive 
materials, chloroform, obtained by a simple process and from ma¬ 
terials not costly, is now prepared largely and cheaply in London. 
A confined space—a cellar for example—could easily be filled with 
an atmosphere of chloroform; a score of sheep could be turned into 
the cellar, the door closed upon them ; after a little excitement they 
would fall into unconsciousness, insensibility, and death; all in a 
short space of time, of about half-an-hour. A second and a third 
score could be similarly served in the same atmosphere, or with a 
little additional chloroform. 

So with the larger animals: they might require, perhaps, a little 
more care, as liable to more excitement at first. Chloroform, trans¬ 
parent, clear, has an extraordinary sweetness, a peculiar etherial 
flavour—is heavier than water, and sinks in it, though powerful—is 
very manageable, and of easy evaporation. 

On inquiring of a practical man whether he thought the meat 
might be affected by this mode of killing, he thought not; but if 
affected at all, he thought it would be beneficially. Animals are 
fond of sugar and sweetness: their meat would be more likely to 
be improved than injured by the sweetness and peculiar flavor of 
the chloroform. Hams are improved by previous sugar, and by 
penetrating juniper. 

As in all other researches, trials, practice, experience, are here 
necessary, and can alone answer the questions or give the informa¬ 
tion required. No science, however extensive, can tell beforehand 
what will happen in any chemical operation. 

*** In the above philanthropic suggestions we trace, if we mis¬ 
take not, “ the writing on the wall ” of an old comrade, and a truly 
estimable friend.— Ed. Vet. 


RUPTURE OF THE URETHRA OF AN OX, 

CONSEQUENT UPON INJURY, FOLLOWED BY IMMENSE EXTRAVA¬ 
SATION OF URINE INTO THE CELLULAR TISSUE UNDER THE 
ABDOMEN, WITH EXTENSIVE SLOUGHING OF SKIN AND PRE¬ 
PUCE. 

By Robert Read, M.R.C. V.S., Crediton, Devon , 

December 7, 1847.— I WAS requested to look at an ox, the 
property of Thomas Hole, Esq., Gutton Barton, Shobrook, which 
had a large circumscribed swelling under the belly, mostly con¬ 
fined around the prepuce, but extending backward. I examined 
the swelling, and pronounced it to be an effusion of urine under the 
skin, arising from some cause that had lacerated the urethra. Mr. 
Hole could hardly credit such was the case, as there was no 
visible wound or injury externally, and as in urinating it flowed 
through the prepuce. I still maintained my conviction that such 
was the fact, although a portion came through the natural channel. 
On driving the ox out of his stall he began to urinate, but the 
stream was small, and soon ceased. On looking at the animal 
behind, the detrusores urinse were still acting, and propelling the 
urine into the cellular tissue. By the following morning I ex¬ 
pected there would be a total stoppage through the natural orifice. 
Such was the case. On visiting him the next day, the swelling 
was most extensive, and might be not inaptly compared to a com¬ 
mon market pannier in size. Knowing it would be fruitless to 
attempt passing any instrument beyond the receipt of injury, I at 
once introduced the trocar its full length, as near as I could guess, 
posterior to the receipt of injury. On pulling out the stilette the 
urine rushed out with considerable force, followed by an intoler¬ 
able stench, resembling putrid urine. The owner was now satis¬ 
fied, and convinced that my diagnosis was correct. When the part 
was at its utmost distention the ox failed a little in his appetite, 
and slight fever came on. On seeing him the following morning 
after the introduction of the trocar, the swelling was considerably 
reduced, and the urine still running through the canula. I ap¬ 
prised Mr. Hole that in all probability extensive sloughing of the 
skin would take place, and a false outlet or urinary fistula would 
be the termination, provided gangrene did not kill the animal. 

On the 12th, ecchymosis of the skin was plainly indicated: 
four or five days after it began to separate, and the urine rushed 
out through several openings. The artificial opening now allowed 
the urine to escape ; the canula was withdrawn. During the 


LETTERS ON PI^URO-PNEUMONIA. 


205 


sloughing the stench was so great, that it became necessary to 
sprinkle powdered charcoal over the surface, which corrected it. 
In about five weeks from the date of injury nearly the whole of 
the skin of the belly, with the prepuce, fell off: it rapidly granu¬ 
lated, and the animal perfectly recovered, with the exception of an 
artificial urethral orifice. In tracing out the cause of the injury, 
it was acknowledged by the plough-boy that the ox had several 
times on the day previous been gored by his companion, by 
drawing his horn across his belly, in turning the corner of the field 
in his work. This is the third case of torn urethra I have seen. 
The others were produced in jumping hurdles or wood fences: not 
being able to clear the fence, the animals got across, and remained 
for hours before seen, and thus lacerated their urethra. 

During the convalescence of the ox the animal evinced but little 
pain, ate heartily, lay down, and ruminated, more especially after 
an outlet was made for the urine. He is now thriving fast, and 
bids fair to make sixty score weight. 


LETTERS ON THE SUBJECT OF PLEURO-PNEUMONIA 

IN CATTLE. JlBfna faw nmoaia 

By H. DRAPER, M.R.C.V.S., Chelsea , Leighton Buzzard , Beds. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian .” 

Letter I. 

Dear Sir, —If you will let this short letter appear in your forth¬ 
coming Number of The Veterinarian, I shall feel obliged, being 
desirous of ascertaining the opinions of my brother practitioners 
generally, as to the real cause of the “ pleuro-pneumonia” in cattle. 
I regret we have not seen more papers on this disease from gen¬ 
tlemen who are in the habit of almost daily witnessing the disease 
in its varied form, and who, doubtless, have accumulated much va¬ 
luable information on this very important subject. I will enter 
more fully into this matter ere long, and for the present content 
myself by very briefly stating the opinion I have formed respect¬ 
ing the cause of the malady, with the view of submitting my opi¬ 
nion to the test of the profession generally. I am of opinion that 
the disease termed pleuro-pneumonia is the result of suppressed 
scarlatina, or vesicular disease; the history of cases, and post¬ 
mortem examinations, particularly in the very early stage of the 
disease, each go to shew such is the case. Trusting this may 
be the means of eliciting the opinions for which I am anxiously 
waiting, believe me to remain, dear Sir, 

Truly your’s. 




206 


LETTERS ON PLE^RO-PNEUMONIA. 


Letter II. 

Dear Sir,—I wrote my letter of yesterday in great haste, my 
time being fully occupied just now in attendance upon patients, and 
making a general dissection of two calves affected with pleuro¬ 
pneumonia, resulting from suppressed or very imperfectly developed 
scarlatina. 

I said that pleuro-pneumonia was the result of suppressed scar¬ 
latina. Now, 1 could wish to say that it may also be the result of 
an imperfectly developed attack of scarlatina. It may also appear 
as a sequel to scarlatina; for we know in that disease there is a 
predisposition to inflammation of the serous membranes, the pleura 
in particular. Wet and cold being applied ere the skin and other 
organs have recovered their tone, may give rise to pleuro-pneu¬ 
monia. General dissections will throw much light upon this 
hitherto mystified disease. Up to this time the examinations have 
been pretty much confined to the thoracic cavity: such examinations 
need to be general, that is, the various viscera, the integument, the 
glands around the throat, the mouth and fauces, all these ought to 
be looked into, for each in turn will exhibit the previous existence 
of scarlatina. Such I find to be the case in two young calves now 
under dissection. Calves will be found to afford a ready means of 
exploring this disease, and the younger they are the better. If the 
scarlatina has been suppressed or driven in with them, they are 
attacked with severe diarrhoea about the fourth day, and it gene¬ 
rally proves fatal at the expiration of eight or ten days, sometimes 
more early. I find this disease prevalent just now with calves, 
and from the diarrhoea attending it farmers have regarded it simply 
as a bad form of “ scour.” The disease proving fatal in such a 
short space of time with calves, will enable us, I doubt not, to arrive 
at a satisfactory conclusion, both as to the real cause and nature of 
the disease. In these animals we can recognise the very early 
lesions of different tissues, and have not occasion to feel much 
puzzled as to the tissues primarily affected. 

I remain, dear Sir, 

Truly your’s, 

Henry Draper. 

Thursday Morning. 

*** Mr. Draper will find most opportune to his desires Mr. 
Walton Mayer’s “Few Remarks” on the subject, one so vitally 
interesting to us all.— Ed. Yet. 




207 


THE VETERINARY BOARDS OF EXAMINATION. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian .” 

Sir,—A t last has the bubble burst, and vapour and froth would 
be in the ascendant. The “ new charter”—the work of “ all the 
talents”—is so far from being attained by its concoctors, that they 
have no means of getting out of the scrape into which their reck¬ 
lessness has thrown them, but by setting up an examining board 
of their own, under the old system and management: in other 
words, that they may manufacture veterinary surgeons in their 
own way, hide their own ignorance and incapability as teachers, 
and inundate the kingdom with incompetent persons, to the injury 
of every party, the profession, and the public. 

For months the cry has been, “ we are certain to have a charter 
of our own ;” but, alas for the vain-glorious! the vaunt has come 
to naught, or why is there to be established a board, whose acts 
will be null and void, whose existence has arisen at the dictation 
of some half-dozen or so, whose power is self-assumed, and sup¬ 
ported by egotism and bombast. 

But a word on these boards of examination. Of whom are 
they to be composed] Can any man be found so lost to all 
honourable feeling as to occupy the position of being a sanctioner 
of quackery, of delusion ] No man who has a particle of character 
to lose can do so. What kind of instruction is to be meted out, 
and what is to be the standard of knowledge to enable a candidate 
to appear before such a board, and possess himself of such a value¬ 
less document ] It cannot be high, when—if Rumour does not 
lie—one who is incapable of writing his own name may probably 
be a candidate; for regulations can only be made equal to the ca¬ 
pacities of the smallest. What is or can be the position of such 
parties who are so unfortunate as to be deluded into an appearance 
before them ] 

The answer is simple enough. They will rank only as farriers, 
cowleeches, or any other class of a similar character; the docu¬ 
ment for which they are foolish enough to pay will not confer re¬ 
spectability, nor give any position or rank whatsoever; nor will 
they ever take any other rank than with the quacks, and which, to 
their cost, they will regret as long as they live. 

I am well aware that the hope has been held out, that the cer¬ 
tificate of these to-be-formed boards of examiners will be equiva¬ 
lent in value to that of the chartered board, both as regards the 
body corporate, as well as the appointments of veterinary sur¬ 
geons in the army; but a greater delusion was never attempted, 


208 THE VETERINARY BOARDS OF EXAMINATION. 


and is a course that cannot be too severely censured : it is an in¬ 
sult to common sense even to suppose it, and to attempt such a 
course in the very face of Her Majesty’s Government is a pro¬ 
ceeding so very extraordinary that one can hardly believe that 
men who can so act are allowed to be at liberty. 

Few know better than I do the real position which army ap¬ 
pointments bear to the chartered body. It is true that it has been 
declared by the Principal Veterinary Surgeon, that the charter did 
not apply to the army ; and that a plough-boy might be appointed 
if he, the Principal Veterinary Surgeon, so willed it. Let it be 
tried, however, and see how long an officer of the Crown can set 
at defiance any of the acts of Government. Here is no subter¬ 
fuge, no paltering with a fact; but a simple matter, that does not 
require comment. The officer so acting would hardly be able to 
retain his own appointment, much less be able to save another. 

Previous to the granting of the charter, it was necessary to have 
received a diploma from one of the then schools before obtaining 
an appointment; and I believe that I am correct in stating, that 
no instance to the contrary is on record. Now, if this was the 
case when the schools were merely recognized in manner hardly 
public, and arising through private influence, how unlikely, when 
the Government who have advised Her Majesty to grant a charter 
of incorporation to the veterinary profession for the very pur¬ 
pose of increasing its usefulness, and thereby made it a legal 
and responsible body, that now the Government would sanction 
the appointment of any person who had not gone through the 
ordeal which the incorporated body had laid down. It is so pre¬ 
posterous that further comment is unnecessary. 

But, by the appointment of a board to examine their own pupils, 
a question arises of rather serious import,—Whether by such acts 
they do not place their schools beyond the pale of the charter ] 
They are now by a legal document declared to be institutions for 
education , and not of examination: this power was taken from 
them by the especial direction of the Crown. 

This being the state of affairs, who will be so deficient in per¬ 
sonal respect as to appear before a board, and expect that any 
certificate they can give will be of the slightest value ? Should 
any such exist, let them rest assured that they have taken a false 
step, and one which can never be retraced. 

Placed as I am, in charge of the “ Registry ,” it is my duty to 
watch over the result of examinations; and I here distinctly state, 
that I will not allow any party who may attempt by this false 
document to foist themselves on the public as members of the cor¬ 
porate body to do so without the fullest exposure. Already, have 
several persons who styled themselves “ veterinary surgeons,” 


COMPLAINT OF A VETERINARY PUPIL. 209 

altered their signs to that of “ farrier,” or some equivalent term. 
Let there be no mistake on this point. Exposure is no light 
punishment, and rigorously shall it be performed. There is a 
great difference between those who set themselves up in opposi¬ 
tion to the law after such law has come into operation, and those 
who were in existence before such law was known. 

I have not taken the trouble to make these statements in any 
way to interfere with the acts of the schools : they are beneath 
notice, from their excessive absurdity; but there may be some 
who might be led astray by erroneous representations into a false 
position: I have, therefore, felt myself called on to give such a 
warning as they cannot possibly mistake, and have done so from 
feelings of kindness to those who might err from ignorance. I 
may be called upon to act with vigour hereafter; and as I must do 
so, I think that I am bound, ere it be too late, to warn those whom 
it may concern of the course which will be adopted. There are 
always constitutional ways of procedure to make known pre¬ 
tenders to a position to which they are not entitled. 

But, trusting that occasion may not arise for any farther notice 
of so unpleasant an affair, 

I am, Sir, 

Your’s, obediently, 

Arthur Cherry. 

March 21st, 1848. }f noPioa vnn 1a tnArrHrtrnwYR 


COMPLAINT OF A VETERINARY PUPIL RESPECTING 
HIS ADMISSION FOR EXAMINATION. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian .” 

Sir, I *f t 

PERMIT me, through the medium of your much-valued Publi¬ 
cation, to lay the following facts before the Council of the corporate 
body. I entered the Veterinary College as a pupil in October 
1846 (the commencement of last session), with a distinct under¬ 
standing from the Professors at that Institution that I would be 
enabled to an examination for a diploma by attending for two ses¬ 
sional courses at the College; at the same time I was informed, 
that a recent regulation had been made by the Council, to the 
effect that all pupils, who had not served three years’ apprentice- 
VOL. xxi. fbei/j8 oiiw anoaioq Jjstsva 




210 


COMPLAINT OF A VETERINARY PUPIL. 


ship with a veterinary surgeon, should attend the College for four 
sessions; but that, in the event of such regulation being carried 
into effect, there would be a Board of Examiners formed by the 
College, who would examine all pupils who had attended for two 
sessions at the College, and grant diplomas to all those they might 
consider qualified, and that such diplomas would in every respect 
render its possessor a “ qualified” veterinary surgeon; in fact, would 
be just the same as those heretofore given. Now I, in common 
with many others, have since learned that such diplomas are 
worthless, and that, in order to obtain a proper diploma, it will be 
necessary to attend the College for double the time I was informed 
on entering: this I consider as most unjust on the part of those 
who must have been well aware they could not perform that 
which they were promising. I would here take the liberty to 
remark, that, whilst students of human medicine can go up for 
examination at the end of three years*, it appears very strange 
that the veterinary student must remain four years at his studies 
before he is similarly qualified. If the Council were to settle on 
three years instead of four for non-apprentices, I have no doubt 
but that it would be productive of satisfaction to all parties, and 
to none more than, 

Sir, your most obedient servant, 





A Non-apprentice. 


WO!! SfHW ; . 

P.S. The students that entered the College this year are simi¬ 
larly situated as those of last. 


Royal Veterinary College, London, 
March 20, 1848. 


* This is an error. Candidates for examination at the Royal College of 
Surgeons must have been engaged “ not less than four years” in the acquire¬ 
ment of professional knowledge.— Ed. Vet. 





211 


Extracts from Foreign Journals. 

We have received the French journals up to the end of the 
year. The Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire Pratique contains 
the Report of the Second Annual Meeting of the Central Society 
of Veterinary Medicine; the society having held its first meeting 
in December 1846, of which, as no account was given in The 
VETERINARIAN at the time, we shall, on the present occasion, 
include a notice in our summary with that of the report for 1847. 
At these annual meetings took place the distribution of prizes and 
medals for questions submitted to the Concours in 1845 and 1846. 

These two meetings have been held in the Hotel de Ville, at 
Paris; M. Girard, the honorary president on both occasions, 
occupying the chair. At the first, in 1846, his address was sum¬ 
marily as follows:— 

Feeling highly flattered and honoured at the distinguished 
post the society had, on account of his standing in the profession, 
elevated him to, M. Girard had to congratulate the society, young 
as it was, on the success which had attended their early appeal to 
the profession. Papers had flowed in Upon them from all quarters, 
shewing the happy results of their first concours, promising well 
for the future, and proving that the funds placed by government at 
their disposal had been commendably employed. 

Re-UNION it was that constituted their main force. Old mem¬ 
bers, who had long quitted the veterinary schools, and were now 
spread over the country, some in towns, some in villages, others in 
the different cavalry regiments, were left without any relationship 
or scientific intercourse being kept up between them. It was the 
professional journals which first furnished the means of establish¬ 
ing an intercourse so much to be desired; and M. Girard had the 
satisfaction of having been instrumental in setting agoing one of 
the first veterinary periodicals— Le Recueil de Medecine Veteri - 
naire; and he was happy to have it in his power to add, that this 
journal had become prosperous, and most widely circulated. 

The establishment of veterinary journals has been followed by 
the successive formation of veterinary societies in many of the 
provinces; though in the department of the Seine (that in which 
Paris stands) it is only lately such societies have sprung up. 
Soon after its establishment, however, the society of the Seine felt 
sensible that, from its position, it was called on to become a centre 
to its associates at a distance from the capital, to which they might 
refer their scientific and practical deductions; seeing that, al¬ 
though at Paris matters of practice might not be so prolific as in 
the provinces, yet that experimental and bibliographical researches 


212 


FRENCH VETERINARY SOCIETIES. 


were, for the most part, more readily prosecuted, and that the dis¬ 
eases of the feet, and shoeing, could there be studied to better 
advantage. 

In another point of view, the centre of action residing in the 
metropolitan society must forcibly operate in putting down char¬ 
latans, who mix themselves up with our profession. Let us hope 
that ere long government will legislate regarding the practice of 
our art. Enactments so much to be desired can alone put down 
empirics, and will therefore no doubt have to encounter serious 
difficulties; these, however, a judicious concours of veterinary 
societies will go far to surmount. 

M. Girard concluded his address on this interesting occasion in 
the words following:— 

“ Permit me, gentlemen, before I sit down, to thank the society 
for the honour they have done me in electing me their honorary 
president. It is a distinction I am keenly sensible of. Old prac¬ 
titioner, old professor, long time director of a veterinary school 
whose reputation is become European, I have devoted all my 
energy to the study of veterinary medicine; and I feel but too 
happy to be still able to assist my successors in their labours, and 
to co-operate with them to the utmost extent of my remaining 
faculties.’’ 


The Central Society of Veterinary Medicine held its second 
meeting in the Salle d' Agriculture of the Hotel de Ville, presided 
over by M. Girard. 

A great number of eminent men, medical as well as veterinary, 
were present on the occasion. 

The Roval Academv of Medicine were represented at the meet- 
ing by its two secretaries, M. Dubois (of Amiens), perpetual 
secretary, and M. Melier, annual secretary. 

M. Gayot., director of studs, and corresponding member of the 
society, took his seat at the committee table. 

At half-past one o’clock M. Girard, honorary president, opened 
the meeting with the following oration:— 

Gentlemen,—Yielding to the wishes of the Central Society of 
Veterinary Medicine, I am come for the second time to preside at 
its annual meeting. Notwithstanding my fondness for retirement, 
I have been unable to resist this honourable mission; one that I 
feel unspeakable pleasure in fulfilling, surrounded as I find myself 
by distinguished colleagues, almost all of whom have been my 
own pupils. 

The compte-rendu which the secretary-general will have to 
render you of the labours of the central society during the year 



FRENCH VETERINARY SOCIETIES. 213 

just closed, will make it unnecessary for me to enter into any 
detail relating thereto. I shall confine myself to calling your 
attention, gentlemen, to the act of kindness of M. le Ministre 
d'Agriculture et Commerce , protector of the Central Society, 
through whom questions of veterinary medicine connected with 
agriculture have been submitted to the concours, and that, this 
year, as in 1846, our brethren have replied to the appeal made to 
them, by addressing numerous interesting memoirs to the Central 
Society. The report about to be read to you will put you in a 
position to appreciate the merit of these papers, as well as the 
studious care the Society has taken to thoroughly examine them. 

These are not the only testimonies of esteem and confidence 
the Central Society has received from veterinarians. A great 
number, French and foreign, have solicited and obtained the title 
of corresponding members, and, thanks to this present concours, 
henceforth the Society may expand its scientific irradiations not 
merely into divers parts of France, but even for the most part 
throughout Europe. 

After nearly sixty years of my life devoted to the study and 
advancement of veterinary medicine, I find myself looking upon 
its onward progress with, gentlemen, a feeling of pride which you 
will well understand, and no doubt pardon me for entertaining. To 
my eyes they are but the presages of renewed success, leading 
me to hope that the Central Society, so worthy of its name, will 
become the rallying focus for every veterinary association that 
may spring up in France, and that it will ever hold the foremost 
rank among them, and so realize the hopes expressed at its in¬ 
stitution by the minister who founded it. 

From time immemorial, academies and faculties of medicine 
have perpetuated the memory of Hippocrates, by awarding to 
their laureates medals bearing his effigy. In imitation of the 
same, the Royal and Central Society of Agriculture has by simi¬ 
lar means immortalized the father of agriculture, OLIVIER (of 
Serre). The Central Society of Veterinary Medicine, gentlemen, 
has thought that such good examples ought to be followed, and 
therefore has, in its turn, caused to be struck a medal bearing the 
effigy of the founder of veterinary schools, the immortal BOUR- 
GELAT, and this medal will be for authors of papers to which 
prizes have been awarded. 

Bourgelat, gentlemen, as you are well aware, not only founded 
our schools, but was the originator of La Mtdecine Vctcrinaire 
raisonnee. By this double claim, and by many others that might 
be mentioned, is he entitled to the homage the Central Society 
has paid him. 

These medals, given as the reward of merit, will be received by 


214 WORKS RELATING TO VETERINARY MEDICINE. 


every veterinarian with emotion, and will carefully be preserved 
as a testimonial of his love of the science, and handed down as a 
heir-loom to his children, who in their turn will one day come to 
seek in their own name fresh palms of the Central Society, whose 
business it will be to keep alive the sacred fire (of emulation). 

Bourgelat died in 1779. His attached pupils lost no time in 
dedicating to his memory a plain monument, now the precious 
treasure of the Alfort School. But will the veterinarians through¬ 
out Europe rest satisfied with this hasty tribute of veneration 1 
Will they not rather, one day, do more worthy honour to the 
founder of our schools, and cause a statue to be erected to his 
memory 1 

Gentlemen, let us exclaim, Glory to Bourgelat!—honour to his 
genius !—honour to the sage observer, to the distinguished writer, 
who, by his works, emancipated a science which we are left to 
protect and to promulgate! 

*** We hope in our Number for next month to be able to give 
abstracts from the reports of the two meetings.— Ed. Yet. 


ENUMERATION OF WORKS RELATING TO VETERINARY 
MEDICINE PUBLISHED UP TO THE YEAR 1838. 

By M. Leblanc. 

VETERINARIANS in general are, perhaps, not sufficiently ac¬ 
quainted with the literary riches of the art they profess, especially 
when that art comes to be considered in the light it has a right to 
be,— of a complex science, made up of divers branches of studies 
professed at the present day with more or less fulfilment in the 
veterinary schools of France; studies which at once embrace vete¬ 
rinary medicine properly so called, and rural economy in general. 

Some notions of this may be obtained by casting our eyes over 
the catalogue of the late M. J. B. Huzard, arranged by M. P. Le¬ 
blanc, formerly bookseller. In this catalogue we find an account, 
probably not far from being complete, of all known works that 
have been published in different languages and different countries 
up to the death of M. Huzard, which took place in November 1838. 

For curiosity’s sake, I have stripped this catalogue of the fol¬ 
lowing summaries: — 

I. Veterinary Medicine properly so called : 
lstly. Introductions. — Histories. — Dictionaries. — Journals. — 

35 works. 

(Many of these works consist of several volumes.) 




WORKS RELATING TO VETERINARY MEDICINE. 215 

2dly. Institution of Veterinary Schools in France and Foreign 
Countries.—51 works. 

3dly. Anatomy of Animals.—22 works. 

(Among which not many works on comparative anatomy are to 
be found.) 

4thlv. General Hygiene. —20 works. 

5thly. Treatises on the Diseases of different Animals. —216 
works, of which 4 are in the Latin language; 115 in French; 
6 in Spanish; 31 in Italian; 54 in German, Swedish, and 
Dutch ; 7 in English. 

6thly. Epizootics of the different Species of Domestic Animals. — 
102 works, of which 28 are French. 

7thly. Veterinary Pharmacy. — 20 works. 

8thly. Sanitary Police. — Veterinary Jurisprudence. —45 works. 
9thly. Cattle Medicine. —296 works. French and foreign. 
lOthly. Sheep Medicine. — 78 works. French and foreign, 
llthly. Pig Medicine. —8 works. 

12thly. Dog and Cat Medicine. —11 works. 

13thly. Horse Medicine. — 694 works, of which 12 are histories 
and dictionaries, 44 anatomical; the remainder physiological, 
pathological, and pharmacological, in different languages. 

II. Breeding and Management of Studs. 

Istly. General and Special Treatises on the Education and Break¬ 
ing of Horses. —141 works, of which 125 are in the French 
language; 7 in Spanish; 5 in Italian; 8 in English ; 24 in 
German. 

2dly. Treatises on the Knowledge of Horses. — 51 works in dif¬ 
ferent languages. 

3dly. Treatises on the Exterior and Age of Horses. — 31 works 
in different languages. 

4thly. Treatises on Harness , Bridles , and Bits . —22 works in 
different languages. 

5thly. Treatises on Shoeing. — 63 works in different languages. 

III. Equitation and Racing. — 459 works in different 
languages. 

IV. Agriculture. —2480 works. 

V. Rural Economy. —705 works, exclusive of works on silk¬ 
worms and bees, and those of agricultural societies, which amount 
to 766. 

So that I find 5812 works published in different languages and 
different countries, up to the year 1838, on the various branches 
of knowledge which have more or less direct bearing upon veteri¬ 
nary science. ( 89fn ..j 0M ( vnaMl 



216 


EXTRAORDINARY GESTATION IN A MARE. 


I might now turn my attention to the books published since 
the year 1838, as well as the veterinary articles which have found 
their way into the different transactions of learned societies, French 
and foreign ; transactions of which some limited account is to be 
found in the library catalogue of M. Huzard, among the series of 
works of the kind on veterinary matters. And some faint idea 
may be formed of their probable number, when we come to be 
informed that J. D. Reuss has devoted 80 pages, of small pica, 
solely to the enumeration of the: titles of veterinary articles met 
with in the memoirs of learned societies published up to 1821. 
From which date the number has become strangely augmented, 
since in no former time has veterinary literature been so assidu¬ 
ously cultivated either in France or other countries. 

As for the works published since 1838, their number must be 
very great. I could easily give the number of the French, but 
not of the foreign, of which but the principal are known to me. 
Among them, French and foreign too, are to be found a great num¬ 
ber of periodicals in continual issue, and transactions of learned 
medical, agricultural, and veterinary societies, which are also 
continuous. 

It would be very desirable to complete the list contained in 
Huzard’s library catalogue, which most probably contains a pretty 
full account of all the works published before 1838. I have already 
commenced this task, and am only waiting for documents I have 
asked of foreigners to complete it. 

Veterinary medicine was not so poor twenty years ago as repre¬ 
sented. To those holding such an opinion, it is a sufficient answer 
to remind them of the dates of the different works published prior 
to that period. 


CURIOUS CASE OF EXTRAORDINARY GESTATION 

IN A MARE. 

By M, \ Caillier. 

In May 1834, M. Caillier had committed to his care a seven- 
year-old mare, that for some years had been given up for breeding, 
and who in the May preceding had been covered by a stallion ass. 

At the time M. Caillier was called in, he found the mare’s ab¬ 
domen very large and sunken, appetite gone, surface of the body 
extremely cold, coat dull and harsh, membranes pallid, head in 
continual agitation, frequent yawnings, looking back often at flank, 
with sinking and approximation of the hind extremities, and 
unsteady painful step in walking, the foetus exhibiting no sign 
of life. 




EXTRAORDINARY GESTATION IN A MARE. 


217 


The history given by the owner is, that the mare has not been 
near any thing likely to cause abortion ; that it is only two days 
since she appeared unwell; that, when she first appeared so, the 
farrier of the establishment gave her a bottle of white wine, and 
afterwards some nitre and sweet oil; and that nothing much was 
thought about her ailment, seeing that her time was expired, and 
that the movements of the foetus have recently been observed. In¬ 
deed, the evening prior to my visit, the mare was said to have ex¬ 
hibited the ordinary signs of approaching parturition; she having 
manifested expulsive efforts, which were followed by discharge of 
glairy matter, and considerable dilatation of the vulva. And when, 
further, was perceived filling of the udder and sinking of the ab¬ 
domen, no doubt was entertained; so that, next morning, when 
the owner came to enter her stable, and find no foal, he was 
struck with astonishment at discovering that all signs of foaling 
had vanished, to make room for others such as have been de¬ 
scribed. 

M. Caillier persisted in his investigations. He introduced his 
hand into the vagina to explore the neck of the uterus, which he 
found hard and completely closed : an examination, which, re¬ 
sisted as it was in every way by the mare herself, led M. Caillier 
to suspect the presence of scirrhus. He bled her, used emollient 
fomentations to the vagina, administered injections, &c. 

On his second visit, three days after, he found the mare had 
passed per vaginam glairy discharges, but in other respects was 
much the same. Notwithstanding, both the udder and the belly 
seemed diminished in bulk. She would eat a few handfuls of 
hay; then she would withdraw her head to the length of her 
halter, and grind her teeth. 

M. Caillier had her made secure, and then proceeded to a fresh 
examination per vaginam. He found he could not introduce the 
point of the index finger into the orifice of the womb, but was 
opposed by a hard tumour, of a firmness and volume not correctly 
appreciable. 

The prognostic was now becoming despondent. Indeed, such 
was the gravity of the case, that he proposed performing the Csesa- 
rian operation on the vagina; to this, however, the owner was 
obstinately opposed, alleging reasons, which, if not absurd, were 
of little validity. 

And so, according to her master’s desire, the mare’s case was 
abandoned to nature. For a couple of months she remained 
stationary : then, however, in spite of her having immensely 
fallen away, she was turned out to graze. This improved her 
appetite, and she seemed to be getting better; and as she had 
sufficiently recovered her health and strength, she was again, on 

VOL. XXI. G g 


218 


THE HUNTERIAN ORATION. 


the return of the coming season, put to horse, and was covered 
six times. Ten days afterwards she died. 

Autopsy , made immediately after death, discovered, among the 
abdominal viscera, which had a healthy aspect, the womb repre¬ 
sented by a voluminous hard substance, which, cut lengthwise, 
gave exit to a lifeless mule, very well formed, without the least 
sign of decomposition, not even any depilation. Its nose was so 
completely encased within the neck of the uterus, that, through 
compression, it had become elongated, and had its nasal cavities ob¬ 
literated. The uterus itself, with its membranes, exhibited nothing 
extraordinary. After the symphysis pubis had been divided, the 
incision that had been made into the uterus was extended as far 
as the neck, the parietes of which were found in a scirrhous, tumid, 
yellow condition, and so hard that no instrument could be found to 
penetrate it without difficulty. 

The thoracic viscera were sound. The head was not examined. 

M. Caillier concludes this interesting account by observing that 
he abstains from all reflections on the case, further than remarking 
that the mare went twenty-three months with foal; and that the 
scirrhous affection, involving the neck of the uterus, proved the 
sole obstacle to parturition. 


Extracts from Domestic Journals. 

O vbvihaoqjtv THE HUNTERIAN ORATION. 

[From “The Medical Times.”] 

This annual address was delivered on Monday, Feb. 14th, bv 
R. D. Grainger, Esq., of St. Thomas’s Hospital, to a very crowded 
audience. Sir R. Peel, Sir R. H. Inglis, the Dean of West¬ 
minster, and the heads of the medical corporations, were present. 
From the low tone of voice, more particularly remarkable at the 
close of sentences, which detracted from the effect of Mr. Grain¬ 
ger’s otherwise agreeable delivery, much of his meaning was lost 
to a great proportion of his hearers. 

Commencing with a recognition of the circumstances of time and 
place under which the assembly had met, the orator indicated, at 
an early stage of his address, the particular direction which his 
remarks would take. Modestly avoiding an ambitious flight, he 
preferred to rest on his experience, as a teacher in a large medical 
school, his title to speak freely upon the past and present state of 




THE HUNTERIAN ORATION. 


219 


organic science. He believed that a review of the nature and 
amount of physiological knowledge, as it existed at the time when 
he first was called to teach, and of its progress to the present time, 
would be full of instruction. That progress had not been the work 
of chance: it had been preceded by a rational cause, and depended 
on the same laws as did the advancement of human knowledge in 
every other department. Its degree had been so high, that it was 
surprising to him that it had not attracted greater notice among the 
educated and the learned. The generalization of the properties 
and laws of organic nature, within the last ten years, had attained 
an importance that could only be compared to the determination 
of the laws of chemical affinity; and that which had been hoped 
for as the fruits of some centuries of inquiry had been realized 
within a few years. He might cite, in confirmation, the disco¬ 
veries of nervous connexions by Bell, and the theory of cell- 
formation of Schwann. But not only had the results actually 
obtained been sufficient of themselves for a subject of felicitation, 
the mode of investigation had been changed and placed in harmony 
with that of the other inductive sciences. To appreciate rightly 
the state of organic science as it existed till within a very short 
time, it would be necessary to discriminate between what was then 
positively known, and what dwelt in conjecture and uncertainty ; 
for, unless this distinction was kept in view, the character of its 
subsequent progress could not be properly estimated. He would 
say that, in the anatomy and physiology of that period, the most 
striking feature might be characterised by the term uncertainty. 

Of the ultimate and essential structure of bone, cartilage, nerve, 
epidermis, and their allied organs, nothing was known positively. 
The connexion of the vascular system and solid tissues, and the 
question of secretion and absorption, were left in vagueness and 
doubt, and no useful generalization could be established. The 
attempts that had been made to question Nature anew, by a pro¬ 
cess more analogous to the relative unity of the objects of know¬ 
ledge to the human mind, had been successful in reclaiming the 
science of the body from speculation and doubt, and of placing it 
on the same basis as other positive sciences. The triple combina¬ 
tion of design , unity , and law, he thought, had not been sufficiently 
present to the minds of preceding inquirers. It was first necessary 
to subvert the prevalent belief, that the phenomena of living bodies 
had something so peculiar and so distinct from those of chemistry 
and physics as to require a mode of investigation different from 
that of all other objects of knowledge; a doctrine which had 
always exerted great influence on the progress of anatomy and 
physiology. Minute anatomy was unknown, and secondary phe¬ 
nomena gave the laws to the most important functions of life. 


220 


THE HUNTERIAN ORATION. 


When the teachers or writers on these subjects felt themselves at 
a loss, they were contented with urging the necessity of further 
inquiry, without shewing in what way or by what means it was 
to be prosecuted. Both teachers and pupils were only creeping 
about in the dark, accumulating facts which, from their diversity 
and contradictory aspect, only increased the difficulty of arriving 
at a general law, and strengthened doubts as to the trustworthiness 
of science. Among the most striking and instructive of the fea¬ 
tures of the present state of science was the fact that it is no 
longer proposed to cultivate the knowledge of the human organiza¬ 
tion by one or two,means of research. Nor does the study of the 
human body alone, nor the aid of the microscope, of chemistry, 
and of embryology, suffice for the requirements of the present 
method of prosecuting the sciences of human life and structure. 
The physiologist is called on to appeal to the general laws of 
matter, whether organic or not. If it be said there is nothing new 
in all these methods, it is true, if it is meant that singly these 
means of knowledge have to some extent been employed ; but it 
would be difficult to point to any age or country where thoy have 
before been combined into a system and directed to these pur¬ 
poses. Another important characteristic of modern inquiry was 
the part assigned to the purer intellectual function. Although no 
one could see more clearly than the orator the importance of 
emancipating the mind from the bondage of the senses, and that 
nothing but the strictest questioning of Nature would suffice, yet 
it was a fact that great promoters of science had, almost without 
exception, been industrious observers. Some had, indeed, ap¬ 
peared at long intervals who had seemed to reach great conclu¬ 
sions to some extent, independently of the senses. Harvey saw 
not with the bodily organ the junctions of veins and arteries on 
which the doctrine of the circulation is built; but the means of 
science must be adapted to the course of every-day study, and not 
to exceptional possibilities. It was by the microscope that those 
beautiful revelations of minute anatomy had been made on which 
future physiologists would delight to look back. The anatomy of 
muscular products exhibiting a fibre composed of two substances, 
distinct in their constitution, and enclosed in different cells, de¬ 
tected in the 18,000th part of an inch, was an achievement of 
which modern times might be proud. The great principle of the 
new school of physiology, which is so subversive of those of the 
former, was, that vascularity is secondary and subordinate, and 
not essential to organization, and might be dispensed with. It 
would be vain to attempt any definition of vital forces, and the 
same difficulty besets the naturalist in this respect. We know as 
much of vital forces as we do of those we call physical. The 


THE HUNTERIAN ORATION. 


221 


views of Hunter on this subject were so much in advance of his 
age, that it required the lapse of half a century that his views 
might be appreciated; and now many persons were found to say, 
that the facts accumulated by Hunter would be valued when his 
speculations were forgotten. It was precisely on these depreciated 
speculations, as they were called, or rather as he would term them 
—those sublime generalizations and laws of vital forces—that the 
highest claims of Hunter to the veneration of posterity will most 
abidingly rest. There was no difficulty in comprehending that 
Hunter had a clear perception of two great truths:—First, that 
vital forces are possessed by the fluids as well as the solids of the 
animal body; and, second, that these forces are possessed by parts 
of the body non-vascular. The mere form assumed by matter is 
not an essential property, though we are accustomed to connect 
the idea of life rather with a solid than with a fluid. Thus, 
compound matter, water—in its three states of vapour, solid, and 
fluid—possesses/ notwithstanding its change of form, its essential 
properties unaffected; and the same thing may be said of living 
substances, as the extended researches of modern physiologists 
leave no room to doubt. There is now no difficulty in compre¬ 
hending what Hunter affirms, that the living principle exists in 
the different parts of the living body, independently of brain or 
circulation. It would be impossible for any physiologist of the 
present day to give a more precise expression than Hunter has 
done, to the fact that organization is essentially independent of 
vascularity. The first and most obvious fact which strikes an 
observer in contemplating the phenomena of the living animal is, 
that every thing seems to be peculiar and different from what has 
been observed in other bodies, inorganic or vegetable bodies; but 
it soon becomes apparent that the most important functions depend 
on the laws of chemistry and physics. The living body contains 
no new elementary substance; and we constantly encounter in the 
animal economy processes which have their counterpart in the 
chemist’s laboratory. Speaking only of the body, we might say 
that physics and chemistry supply the forces of life. 

After enumerating some of the names most distinguished amongst 
modern promoters of science, the orator proceeded to notice the 
deaths of Mr. Liston and Mr. Morgan, as a loss sustained by the 
profession since the last anniversary. Of the character of the 
former he read a delineation by Professor Miller, of Edinburgh. 
Mr. Liston was distinguished by high resolve, indomitable energy, 
and inborn consciousness of power; and was a zealous enthusiast 
in his profession. His eye was fine and sharp; his wrist re¬ 
minded one of Nasmith’s steam-hammer, which drives a pile or 
touches a needle’s point with equal aptitude. Professor Miller had 


222 


MILK. 


never seen it shaken, and did not believe it could have been shaken^ 
His size and strength gave him great advantage in operations. 
He was particularly fond of instruments, and was always trying to 
simplify them, believing that the degree of their simplicity was the 
degree of their utility. Trifles were apt to put him out of temper, 
but grave accidents only rendered him more calm. He has been 
seen to rush out of the operating room to weep and sob, but in the 
scene of action he never shewed the least emotion. Obstructed in 
the midst of an operation, he never stopped to talk or scratch his 
head, but in an instant the thing was done. That, for him, was 
the best move that was accomplished on the spur of the moment. 
He had great powers of diagnosis and touch : a touch and a glance 
would do more for him than a whole day’s meddling for some prac¬ 
titioners. He had great faith in the vis medicatrix natures, and 
would avoid the use of drugs whenever possible. He was firmly 
set against quackery in all its forms. As a teacher, he was neither 
fluent nor eloquent, but distinct and practical, with great power of 
gaining the attention of his pupils. Though second to no operator 
then living, he avoided an operation whenever the welfare of his 
patient could consist with such a course. He observed in a letter 
to a friend—“ My principal business is to prevent the necessity of 
operating.” Mr. Morgan was a most skilful as well as bold ope¬ 
rator, and was distinguished for the attention he bestowed upon 
medical surgery. His writings, which were not numerous, were 
marked by great clearness and strength. The work on Poisons, 
undertaken in conjunction with Dr. Addison, contributed much to 
his fame. 

Taking a general retrospect of the subject of his address, the 
orator drew an argument in demonstration of the existence of a wise 
Creator, from the delicate arrangements of the human body, more 
particularly brought to light in the achievements of modern organic 
science; and concluded an oration of two hours, which had been 
listened to with the most marked attention. 


MILK. 

[From “ The Scottish Farmer and Gardener’s Journal.”] 

Of all the animal fluids, milk, perhaps, is the most important, 
as being that which constitutes in every country a very important 
part of the food of man. It is produced by that order of animals 
which are termed mammalia, and it varies in its composition and 
properties to a certain extent, according to the nature or habits of 




MILK. 


223 


the animal which produces it. It is one of the most valuable 
articles of diet in some countries, and has been so from the most 
remote times. The wandering Arabs drink the milk of the camel , 
prepare butter from it, and the flesh of this useful animal is used 
by them as an article of food. The wild Tartar tribes make use 
of mare's milk in various ways, and are in the habit of preparing 
an intoxicating drink from it, which is relished by them in the 
same way as the inhabitants of civilized countries relish the finest 
flavoured wines which crown the boards of the wealthy*. 

* * Milk constitutes the food of the young, and it is well calcu¬ 
lated, from its known composition, to yield to the growing animal 
all the materials which are required to sustain its life and build up 
its body in all its various parts. 

* * It is remarked that the milk almost invariably derives its qua¬ 
lities and flavour from the food which is given to the cow; and 
were it praticable to deprive certain kinds of food (which are com¬ 
monly given to cattle for the purpose of increasing the quantity of 
milk) of that disagreable flavour which they give to it, a very im¬ 
portant end would be obtained in dairy husbandry. 

* * Another circumstance which affects the quantity and quality 
of the milk, to a very considerable extent, is that of the particu¬ 
lar breed to which the milk-giving animal belongs. 

* * In many parts of the North Highlands the hardy black cow 
is exposed out all the winter, even when with calf, with little 
shelter from the inclemency of the season, and with little pasture 
besides stunted heath, with the exception of being treated to a 
very sparing quantity of hay and straw during the frost and snow; 
yet the hardy animal is frequently maintained in this way in a 
healthy und active condition till the time of calving, which is ge¬ 
nerally the spring. We remember hearing it said of a parish 
minister, some years ago, in Ardnamurchan, who was in the habit 
of allowing his cows to feed in the church-yard occasionally, that 
the milk given by them was the richest in the district. Climate 
has also a certain effect in the quality of the milk. It is remarked 
by Professor Johnston, in his Lectures, that a moist and temperate 
climate is the best adapted for producing a large quantity; whilst 
that of hot countries is calculated to produce the smallest quantity, 
but richer. 

* Clarke’s Travels. 


i. 


r 




224 


DISEASES ARISING FROM IMPROPER FOOD. 

[From “The Farmer’s Herald,” 1st February, 1848.] 

Chemistry has proved to us, that the starch contained in the. 
food of animals undergoes in the stomach certain changes, distinct 
and well marked in their character; also, that in particular de¬ 
rangements of the stomach, the normal changes do not take place. 
This of itself gives rise to disease. When the starch is converted 
into sugar, and there the digesting process stops, or it may be into 
the elements of sugar, in such a state as the kidneys shall separate 
them from the blood in such a manner as they shall there form 
sugar — and give rise to diabetes mellitus —it is objected that the 
lacteal mesenteric glands take nothing but what is suited for nutri¬ 
tion. This may be true in so far, but we know that they do at 
times depart from this law. Professor Dick mentions a singular 
fact, that in a case of diarrhoea in a colt, where astringents were 
exhibited during life, on the death of the animal the mesenteric lac- 
teals were found injected with the chalk; that substance was not, 
however, detected beyond the glands : it is still a question if they 
would so act during health. Various reasons have been assigned 
as to certain kinds of food acting as causes for the production of 
this disease: we think there can be no doubt of bad food having 
such a tendency. Spoiled oats have a most baneful effect on the 
stomach of the horse, and thus become the fruitful course of several 
diseases of fatal character, such as diabetes, farcy, glanders, and 
acute inflammation of the stomach. It is much to be feared that 
dealers in grain do not look for the best quality of oats, but for 
that which can be got for the smallest sum of money. Large 
quantities of very inferior grain are brought from the high parts of 
our country in what is termed late seasons, that is, cold and wet 
summers followed by harvests of a similar character, and in which 
frost makes it appearance at an early period. In these circum¬ 
stances, much of the oats is in reality worthless for seed, and 
nearly so for meal: it is soft in quality, (partly malted) and black 
in colour. This arises from two causes : — first, it is not properly 
ripened; secondly, long exposure to rains after being cut. I am 
told this useless stuff is eagerly sought after by some dealers in 
and shippers of grain ; and they contrive to give it the appearance 
of fine grain. They put it on a kiln, where it is slowly dried; 
this gives it firmness. They then subject it to the fumes of sulphur, 
and the dark colour is destroyed. The grain is then hard to feel, 
it is white to the eye, and the deception is complete. The effect 
of such food on hard-wrought horses must be injurious in the 


TIJE CHARTER. 


225 


treme. We have thought that a deficiency of free acid in the 
stomach might be one of the causes of diabetes; when sugar is 
treated with any hydrogen acid, it is converted into water and a 
carbonaceous compound. This would indicate the exhibition of 
such medicine or such food as would afford the elements of hydro¬ 
chloric acid to the stomach. We would give tonics to keep up the 
strength of the animal. It would be of the utmost importance to 
the owners of horses to have the grain and hay, &c., they use for 
their horses thoroughly examined before purchasing. There is not 
the slightest reason to doubt, that the great majority of deaths that 
occur among horses arises from bad food and improper feeding. 
The veterinary surgeon is, or ought to be, able to give the owner 
of horses proper advice as to the quality of food, and the manner 
of feeding, best calculated to insure the safety of the animal, under 
the various trying circumstances to which he is subjected. 

Professor Dick, in his lectures, mentions a case, where by im¬ 
proper feeding one farmer lost twelve horses within a very short 
time. In this particular case the evil arose from giving too much 
rich food at one time. Knowing the chemical action which should 
take place, and knowing also that it could not take place because 
the stomach was over-loaded, the Professor desired one-half the 
quantity of food to be given at one time, and no more deaths 
occurred. 

J. M'Gillavray , V. S. — Scottish Farmer. 


THE VETERINARIAN, APRIL 1, 1848. 


Ne quid falsi dicere audeat, ne quid veri non audeat.—C icero. 


“ The first Monday in May ” falling this year, as it does, on the 
first day of May, the present is the only opportunity that remains 
to us of addressing a few words to our professional brethren on the 
subject of their General Meeting, before the time will arrive for 
them to assemble and hold that meeting, fixed by the charter to 
take place on the above-named day. There is no need for us to 
remind them, that this meeting, coming but once a year, and being 
one calling together the veterinary body at large, and one wherein 
business is transacted of more or less interest to all, is a meeting 
to them of no ordinary import. Thereat it is that every indivi- 
VOL. XXI. H h 






226 


THE CHARTER. 


dual member of the corporate body enjoys, freely and without re¬ 
serve, the privilege of recording, in the presence of his assembled 
professional brothers, his sentiments and opinions, whatever they 
may be, on any and all matters under discussion; nay, on this oc¬ 
casion it is that he is invited to do so. Those who have had most 
concern with the charter—who have had the labour and anxiety of 
obtaining it, and who have all along, under the trials to which it 
has been put, borne the burden upon their shoulders, and who are 
still found fighting manfully under its banners—these persons, we 
say, have from the very first sought the assistance and co-opera¬ 
tion of their professional brethren ; and so far from having any ends 
or purposes of their own to serve—any private or selfish interest 
to forward—have all along, foolishly and culpably as it would now 
seem, admitted even their very enemies into their councils. Had 
their cause not been a sound one, a disinterested one, one intended 
for the general and not for their own individual benefit, it could 
never have stood such a test of magnanimity as this—never have 
maintained itself against the attacks and machinations of opponents 
armed with all the information the camp of the advocates for the 
charter could afford them in furtherance of their own sinister pro¬ 
jects to destroy that charter. Nothing, we repeat, short of a 
sound and just cause could have borne an ordeal like this. And 
if any proof were wanting to confirm the integrity of the present 
charter, it may be found in the total inability of those who are 
opposed to it, either to bring forward an objection of any real 
weight or moment against it, or to strike out another charter that 
should be found worth any thing save insomuch as it contains of 
the wise and wholesome provisions of its predecessor. 

In the possession of such a charter as the one you have, and 
with men in your council who are resolved, through good report 
and evil report, to uphold that charter, and through it your interests, 
how is it, we ask, members of the profession ! you do not, as 
you are bound to do, come forward in a body to the General 
Meeting, and by your presence in ample numbers there, at once 
confound the politics both of anti-chartists and other-chartists; 
while } r ou convince those who entertain any doubts touching the 
popularity or working of your own charter, that such dubitations, 
and all allegations to the contrary, are but weak inventions of the 


THE CHARTER. 


227 


enemy ? It was asked of one of the oldest and most respected 
members of the veterinary profession, by a first Minister of the 
State, into whose ear he had ventured to let drop an apprehension 
or two as to the probability of our losing our charter—“ But, how 
does your charter work —“ Well!” was the reply. “ Oh! then,” 
came the rejoinder, “ You have little to fear.” Now, what Ufany 
Minister of State, or to any other man of sound practical sense, could 
possibly demonstrate the working of the charter better than a full 
attendance of members at the General Meeting! And, exists there 
a doubt that, when the state of affairs comes to be known, such will 
not be the case at the forth-coming meeting 1 None, we should 
hope, whatever. Let every member who in his heart wishes well 
to the cause of the charter—and he is no friend to the veterinary 
profession who does not—in such perilous time as these, make a 
point of then and there attending in his place, and let him hold up 
both his hands in the defence of his own—his struggling corporate 
body. Let him remember that the present representative charter 
lost, nullified, or anywise antagonized by other charters—this 
sacred bond of the profession once broken—away goes all self-rule, 
all freedom, and we from that moment become mere agents in the 
hands of the schools, to eventually dwindle down once more to a 
level with a class of men from whom, through the powerful aid of 
our charter, we have but now, by law, for once and ever emancipated 
ourselves. Throw away this chance—we say to you, fellow-mem¬ 
bers !—and you may never expect, in your time, to see another. 
Seven hundred pounds sterling, and more labour, bodily and 
mental, than we dare make an estimate of, have been paid for a 
charter which has defied its greatest enemies to pick a hole in it, and 
which admits by acts of Parliament hereafter to be appended to it, 
of being made all that the professional body can ever hope or desire; 
and yet, is all this money and labour and excellence to be made 
shipwreck of?—and for why ?—because, forsooth, a charter which 
has been found to suit the best views and interests of the profes¬ 
sion by whom and for whom it has been obtained, does not happen 
to meet the interests of the schools of the Royal Veterinary Col¬ 
lege of London, and of the Highland and Agricultural Society 
of Scotland. 



228 


THE ROYAL VETERINARY COLLEGE. 


We had penned the foregoing appeal to the profession, when we 
received Mr. Mayhew’s portraiture of “ things as they are ” at our 
Royal Veterinary College. Cordially do we congratulate our 
readers, as well as ourselves, on the resuscitation of Mr. Mayhew. 
Of the well-known cause of his so long silence let not another 
word be said. Let it suffice for us to know, that — 

“ Richard is himself again,” 

and will in battle-front his prowess show. Mr. Mayhew’s feelings 
would not have been widely different from our own when he wrote 
the lines, “ The veterinary profession, however, must now shew 
its feeling. If the charter have their support, the fact must he 
demonstrated. In such a cause every individual must act as if 
the issue depended on his single arm. All know what has been. 
They are aware how their wishes are opposed, and their best in¬ 
terests endangered.” — But, stop ! What comes next Nothing 
less than “the threatened plan” — a plan the concoction of which 
receives additional evidence from Mr. Cherry’s communication — 
“ of manufacturing illegal diplomas.” If which “ be carried into 
effect,” adds Mr. Mayhew, “ the consequences will not be slight.” 
Indeed, they will not. Valueless, worthless, as the certificate will 
be, derived from any examining board so constituted, without 
the pale of the charter, yet are the public not sufficiently informed 
on such matters to be able, unassisted, to make a distinction between 
one diploma and another—between, as Mr. Mayhew has hap¬ 
pily expressed it, “ the false and the true paper;” and, therefore, 
adjuncts to the legalized diploma will become necessary to its veri¬ 
fication. The one suggested by Mr. Mayhew is an artistic chef 
d'ceuvre , consisting in a cast from the model of the crest of the 
Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons; and, under the restrictions 
to which it is proposed it shall in strict honour be subjected, a 
valuable as well as an ornamental possession it cannot fail to prove. 
Another recognition, an undeniable one, and protection, the incor¬ 
porated practitioner will enjoy will reside, permanently and for ever 
reside, in his REGISTRATION. In that honourable and indisputable 
enrolment will his name stand, promulgated in every corner of the 
country, while the “College List” will remain, where it ever has 
been securely kept, screened from the dust as well as from the 


ON PLEURO-PNEUMONIA. 


229 

public eye, upon the book shelves of the worthy Secretary of the 
College, Professor Sewell, — to be ever and anon handed to a 
“ Subscriber, ” should he perchance ask for “ The Regulations 
of the College,” to which “ a list of veterinary sugeons” comes, as a 
sort of incidental appendix, by way of eking out the printer’s sheet, 
which the names and addresses of the subscribers, though given at 
full length, are found insufficient to fill up. 


There is a remark or two in Mr. Walton Mayer’s address to the 
agriculturists of Great Britain, on the engrossing subject of Pleuro¬ 
pneumonia, which we are unwilling to let pass unnoticed. “ It is 
impossible,” says Mr. Mayhew, “ to make every man his own cat¬ 
tle-doctor.” So think we. But so thought not the renowned 
Clater, whose work, entitled “ Every Man his own Cattle-doctor,” 
went through, we think, somewhere about seven-and-twenty edi¬ 
tions : a convincing proof, according to the author, as stated in one 
of his prefaces, of its excellence. To this, however, we take occa¬ 
sion to demur. The little experience we have had in such mat¬ 
ters has been sufficient to convince us that the sale of a book of a 
mediocre class is more influenced by the publisher than by the 
merits of the work itself; and the circumstance of Clater’s and 
White’s, and other veterinary works being the property of asso¬ 
ciated publishers, sufficiently accounts for the unparalelled sale 
they have had. Only let a man get up a work holding out “ re¬ 
cipes ” and “ cures” for every thing, and make it the interest of an 
influential publisher to father it, who will invite certain journals 
to puff it, and the sale of the book is insured, the public being 
every way gulled to their hearts’ content. This is one reason why 
cattle-medicine continues to be in many parts of the country so 
barbarously practised. Another reason for the unadvanced state 
of this branch of veterinary science being, as stated by Mr. Mayer, 
the little attention the “ colleges,” have paid to it, compared to the 
cultivation that has been given to horse medicine. Regard but 
for a moment the condition of the two branches of science. On 
the one hand, look at the perfection to which all medical matters 
concerning horses have been brought; and, on the other, look at 
the lamentably depressed state of cattle, and sheep, and we 



ON PL EURO-PNEUMONIA. 


230 

might, believe add, dog-medicine! Had equivalent study and 
pains-taking been bestowed on the latter, would the farmers and 
graziers of the present day have to deplore the loss, year and year, 
of their valuable stock through pleuro-pneumonia 1 Had such a 
disease ravaged our stables, as it has done our cattle sheds, should 
we be looking on instead of working out its cause and its nature, 
and in the end hitting upon its cure or prevention ? Can any body 
taunt us with any ill-understood, or uncured, or unprevented disease 
affecting horses'? Glanders, it may be said, remains incurable. 
Granted ! But how rarely does it occur now-a-days, compared to 
what it did in former times I Have we not, through prophylactic 
measures, all but banished the invader from our large horse estab¬ 
lishments — from the army, from collieries and breweries, post 
and coaching and farm stables 1 And is not “ prevention better 
than cure!” Had pleuro-pneumonia, as the malady is called, 
spread among our horses as it has among our cattle — and who is 
bold enough to say horses are not subject to such a disease ?—it 
would have met long ere this with a successful combatant out of 
our pharmacopoeia. But, so long as cattle-medicine is left in the 
hands of “ an enlightened public,”— so long as every man is to con¬ 
tinue his “own cattle doctor,”—so long as cattle-medicine is suffered 
to remain a dead letter at the veterinary colleges, so long must and 
will our cattle, the pride of our country, fall victims to the dreaded 
pleuro-pneumonia. 


REVIEW. 


Quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid non.—Hon. 


The Crest op the Royal College of Veterinary Sur¬ 
geons. Modelled and published by J. BAILEY, 8 , Conduit- 
place, Paddington. 

A CAST of this figure is before us; and really there are few crests 
which could be made to represent so agreeable an image. There 
is about it so little bearing any relation to heraldic taste that a 
person uninformed of the artist’s design, would naturally conceive it 






THE CREST OF THE CHARTERED COLLEGE. 


231 


to be the embodiment of a poetic idea. Simply regarded as an 
ornament, it therefore would be esteemed, but received in connexion 
with the object of its creation, it has an interest and a value inde¬ 
pendent of its merit as a work of art. The execution is very free, 
and represents rather a spirited sketch than a laboured model. 
The vigour of the conception, far more than the pains of the artist, 
is felt by the spectator. Saying this, however, we do not mean 
that the work has in any degree been slighted. On the contrary, 
we are of opinion the idea has been judiciously embodied, and 
carried out to that point which leaves the intention more conspicuous 
than the mechanical skill of the modeller. 

The image stands about two feet nine inches in height, measur¬ 
ing from the head of the centaur to the bottom of the plinth. The 
compound animal is exhibited rearing into the air. To gain strength, 
no tree or rock has been introduced, but the body is supported by the 
hind legs and tail, which last is represented as touching the earth. 
Without detracting from the effect of the prancing attitude of the 
horse, sufficient substance has thus been obtained to uphold the 
weight. Grace and lightness are thus gained, while the notion of 
solidity is also conveyed. Further advantage, likewise, springs from 
this mode of treatment. The hind-parts have been made to balance 
the forward mass. The whole has been rendered harmonious by 
that sense of proportion which has by a trivial licence been in¬ 
troduced. 

More masterly, however, is the manner in which the body of the 
man has been made to blend with that of the beast. Fabulous 
though the idea may be, Mr. Bailey has so represented it as to 
make the union appear possible. The two creatures seem one 
animal. The shoulders of the horse by a little play have been 
made to personate the groin of the human being, the lower portion 
of whose spine leads easily into the line of the animal’s withers. In 
action, also, the unity is perfect. The man is not the rider merely, 
aiding the leap or studying to maintain his seat. Leaning back, 
to throw the weight more under the centre of gravity, he seems 
to share the act, and by the confidence of his expression denotes 
his will called forth the motion. 

We like this figure much. There is in it no sacrifice to pretti¬ 
ness. In its proportions it is large, and its beauty, in our opinion, is 
the greater, because its aspect is even somewhat rude. On that very 
account we esteem it to be more perfect. The fable of the Centaur 
is of barbarous origin; and here the man appears a creature ordained 
to rule, but unsoftened by refinement. The horse is not the ad¬ 
mired of the stable. It does not display the points which con¬ 
stitute the delight of modern breeders. The offspring of the wild—- 
joying in its power and vigorous in its freedom—it careers like life 


232 THE CREST OF THE CHARTERED COLLEGE. 

that yet had known no bondage. A savage aspect is stamped upon 
the form, indicating the age when such a monster was believed to 
trample upon earth. 

The lines flow gracefully. They lead to and run out of one 
another in a manner which is more than pleasing. On the merits 
of the work we have, however, probably said sufficient to give 
the reader an idea of our opinion of its worth. We have now to 
speak of its application and fitness for the purpose which caused it 
to be executed, and here we see much that calls for praise. 

When the charter is attacked, and the rights of the veterinary 
profession threatened, the image which was to represent the crest 
of the incorporated body almost necessitated some allusion to the 
circumstances of the time. 

Without making this so conspicuous as to render the meaning 
offensively prominent, we must imagine the feeling has been 
embraced. The centaur holds the shield on which the aloe is 
relieved as if he were proud of its possession—capable and 
determined to retain it. He does not stand on even ground. 
Rugged is the place he treads, but still it indicates an upward 
course. The difficulties of the path are symbolized, but veterinary 
science, undismayed, ascends the rock, which yields but little to 
nurture or reward. 

A compliment which our heart tells us is deserved has been 
delicately expressed. Lest it should not be comprehended, the 
motto lies upon the ground. The words teach us for whose ser¬ 
vice the model was designed. 

Sincerely do we hope this work may be strictly kept to the in¬ 
tention which originated it. If it can be thus limited in its circu¬ 
lation, we have no doubt but its utility will soon be felt. The 
veterinary practitioner has too often to deal with ignorance. Not 
for himself, but for a large portion of his employers, especially in 
the country, was some symbol wanted to denote the title of the 
qualified. This appears to be the thing that was needed. An orna¬ 
ment such as a gentleman may admire, not a sign such as a 
bumpkin only would commend. Far removed from vulgarity, it 
yet is striking ; nor can we conceive there will be any thing dero¬ 
gatory in its display. The nobleman with pride places his coat of 
arms above his gate ; and surely the veterinarian who exhibits 
the crest of the college to which he belongs in his surgery displays 
a feeling that none could condemn. 

In conclusion, we enter fully into the wish of the gentleman with 
whom the idea has originated. He has, however, undertaken a 
responsibility such as will demand much caution, and occasionally 
some firmness. There is no desire on our part to question his in¬ 
tentions, or to doubt his fitness for the office he has assumed. Let 


MISCELLANEA. 


233 


us, however, remind him that the veterinary profession, if they ac¬ 
cept the security he offers, will not hereafter be content to find the 
pledge has been violated. He has voluntarily undertaken a duty, 
and is bound to discharge it strictly. With the profession generally 
it will remain to keep the model sacred to the purpose of the 
originator. Honour, we think, should bind both parties, and cer¬ 
tainly ought not to have the least force upon those who will be the 
greatest gainers by the engagement. 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE COUNCIL OF THE ROYAL 
COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS. 

Sitting of March 8, 1848. 

Quarterly Meeting. 

Present—the PRESIDENT, the SECRETARY, Messrs. Mayhew, 
Wilkinson, Henderson, Arthur Cherry, Ernes, and 

Cherry, sen. 

The minutes being read and confirmed, Mr. Henderson moved, 
and Mr. Wilkinson seconded, “ That the Committee appointed to 
draw up the draft of Reply to the proposed Charter, be re-appointed, 
and that Mr. Mayhew be added thereto,” which was carried 
without opposition. 

Mr. Arthur Cherry moved, “ that the following Gentlemen be 
added to the List of Corresponding Members:—Messrs. Lepper, 
sen., Aylesbury; Rogerson, Bedford ; Martin, Chesterfield; Lucas, 
Lutterworth; Brown, Melton; Wells, Norwich; Vincent, Devizes; 
Lucas, Atherstone ; H. Draper, Leighton Buzzard.” 

Several letters were read from parties respecting the next exa¬ 
minations, which were severally disposed of, a short discussion 
ensuing, but not of sufficient importance for particular notice. 

Adjourned. 


MISCELLANEA. 

Chloroform administered to a Pig. 

WINTER is a fatal period for pigs, and right glad, no doubt, the 
majority of the “ grunt creation” would be to quit existence upon 
more agreeable terms. The other day, Mr. Horace Watson, drug¬ 
gist, Laceby, near Grimsby, caused our friend the butcher to ad- 
vOL. XXI. I i 









*234 


MISCELLANEA. 


minister through piggy’s monstrous nostrils quantum sufficit of 
chloroform. “ Grunt,” naturally fond of sleep, was soon in the land 
of forgetfulness, when our hero in the “ blue frock ” very conveni¬ 
ently extracted the requisite portion of vital fluid, leaving the pig, 
after being scalded, cut up, and salted, apparently not a whit 
the wiser for what had passed.— Scottish Farmer and Gardener's 
Chronicle. 


The Rhinoceros. 

After travelling four days over a dry and trackless part of the 
country, occasionally meeting with a few of the poor Bechnanas, 
we came to a fine valley, Mosite, in which were some pools, and 
plenty of game, especially the rhinoceros. Having shot one of 
these ponderous animals, we halted a day to prepare the meat, by 
cutting it up into slices, and hanging it in the sun to dry. One 
would have been more than sufficient for our company; and it was 
only at the urgent request of the poor people that a couple more 
were shot, as they very rarely succeed in killing such animals, ex¬ 
cept it be in a pit-fall.— Robert Moffat's Labours and Scenes in 
Southern Africa. ■ 


Wild Dogs’ Chase. 

During our stay at this place, a circumstance occurred which 
may throw some light on the habits of these people, while it 
confirms the old adage, “ that the one-half of the world does not 
know how the other half lives.” It was at noonday when a fine 
large hartebeest (Khama of the Bechuanas), the swiftest of the 
antelope species*, darted close by our wagon, and descended 
towards the extensive valley. Started by so unusual an occur¬ 
ence, one of the natives called out, “It is the wild dogsand 
presently the whole pack made their appearance, following their 
leader, which was pursuing the antelope. We seized our guns to 
attack them as beasts of prey. The poor people who were sitting 
around their flesh-pots started up and followed, begging of us 
most earnestly not to kill the wild dogs, for they were their pro-r 
viders. We of course laid down our guns again, and directed our 

* “ The Hartebeest is one of the finest animals of the antelope family; 
it is fleet, and graceful in its gait. The male is about seven feet long and 
five feet high, with handsome recurested horns growing from approximated 
bases. The female is of a smaller size. The flesh is good, and bears a 
considerable resemblance to beef.” Pringle .—There are immense herds of 
these animals in the interior, and generally of a larger size than the above. 




MISCELLANEA. 


235 


attention to the Kharna, which was soon overtaken and seized by 
the hind leg. It turned round to defend itself, and then started off 
till again seized by the wild dog. As we had, in a measure, re¬ 
tarded the speed of the pack, about thirty in number, the single 
dog, which was engaged baiting the Khama, looked round, and 
gave a piteous howl for his companions to come to his assistance. 
When they overtook the poor animal, they fell upon it with one 
accord, and instantly brought it to the ground. One of my men 
ran off in order to secure a piece of the skin, of which he wanted 
to make shoes; but by the time he reached the spot nothing re¬ 
mained but bones, and those well picked: these the poor people 
afterwards collected for the sake of the marrow. On farther in¬ 
quiry, I found that these people are in the habit, when they see 
an antelope, or even an ostrich, pursued by the wild dogs, of en¬ 
deavouring to frighten them away, that they may come in for a 
share of the prey. One of the men, with much feeling for him¬ 
self and companions, said, patting his hand on his stomach, “ Oh! 
I am glad you did not shoot the dogs, for they often give us a 
meal.” At another place, the poor people were very glad, on the 
same account, that we had not killed the lion which had been 
troublesome to us during the night. These children of the desert 
very promptly described the manner of the wild-dog chase, which 
I have since had opportunities of witnessing. When the dogs ap¬ 
proach a troop of antelopes, they select one, no matter how it 
may mingle with others on the dusty plain : the dog that starts 
never loses scent, or, if he does, it is soon discovered by the pack, 
which follow after, as they spread themselves the more readily to 
regain it. While the single dog, who takes the lead, has occasion 
to make angles in pursuit of his prey, the others, who hear his 
cry or short howl, avoid a circuitous course, and by this means 
easily come up again, when a fresh dog resumes the chase, and 
the other turns into the pack. In this way they relieve each other 
till they have caught the animal, which they rarely fail to ac¬ 
complish, though sometimes after a very long run. Should they 
in their course happen to pass other game much nearer than the 
one in pursuit, they take no notice of it. These dogs, of which 
there are two species, never attack man, but are very destructive 
to sheep and goats, and even to cows, when they come in their way. 
On another occasion we had passed the night without food; and 
after a long day’s ride, the sun was descending on us with little 
prospect of meeting with any thing to assuage the pains of hunger, 
when, as we were descending from the high ground, weak and 
weary, we saw, at a distance, on the opposite ridge, a line of dust 
approaching, with the fleetness of the ostrich. It proved to be a 
spring buck, closely pursued by a wild dog, which must have 


236 


MISCELLANEA. 


brought it many miles, for it was seized within two hundred yards 
of the spot where we stood, and instantly dispatched. We, of 
course, thankfully took possession of his prize, the right to which 
the wild dog seemed much inclined to dispute with us. I pro¬ 
posed lo leave half of it for the pursuer. “ No,” said one of my 
men: “ he is not so hungry as we are, or he would not run so fast.” 
—Robert Moffat's Labours and Scenes in Southern Africa. 


Putting a young Horse on the Bit. 

As a practice of submission, placing him on the bit is good—- 
not to improve his mouth, it spoils that; for colts left in this way, 
tightly buckled up, bear heavily, and even go to sleep on the bit. 
The immediate consequence is raw, and afterwards callous lips. It 
is better to fix the straps from the cross and pillars to the cavesson, 
instead of to the bit. Cleaning him on the bit, that is an easy 
colt’s mouthing-piece, is an admirable practice. The reins should 
be on the sides of the stalls, and the horse’s head towards the 
manger. When dressed in the pillow straps, there is danger of 
capping his hocks by kicking against the manger.— Hints on 
Horsemanship. 


Chiffney Bits and Bridle Reins. 

As the collected paces of the parade are not in vogue in 
England, a gentleman rarely has occasion for his curb at all, unless 
it be to train a horse for a lady, or in the case where a commanding 
power is required with a horse, who, by bad or cruel handling, has 
become habitually restive (for I disbelieve the existence of one 
naturally so), or whose animal impetuosity or ferocity leads him to 
attack his neighbours. In such a case, a Chiffney bit, on the prin¬ 
ciple described, with half the length of branch, and a third part of 
the weight, will be found more effective than a clipper bit; and 
at the same time that weight is got rid of, danger is avoided, 
which, with branches running far below the horses mouth, is very 
great in going through living fences or coverts. The reins should 
be extremely thin and supple: they will last the longer for it. • 
Reins break from being stiff and cracking; and suppleness of reins 
is essential for delicacy of hand. With such a bit, so placed 
(low in the mouth) I have seen the tips of the most beautiful 
fingers in the world, constrain the highest mettled and hottest 
thorough-bred horses, and—• 

“ Rule them when they ’re wildest.” 

Hints on Horsemanship. 




THE 


VETERINARIAN. 


VOL. XXI, 
No. 245. 


MAY 1848. 


Third Series 

No. 5. 




MEMORIAL. 

To the Right Honourable Sir George Grey , Bart., Her Majesty's 
Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department. 

The Memorial of the Council of the Royal College 

of Veterinary Surgeons, 

Humbly sheweth, 

That your Memorialists lament the necessity they are under of 
trespassing once more on your attention. They have, however, 
no choice. The rights which they are elected to protect are 
attacked, and the little which is possessed by the profession by 
whom they are appointed is endangered. Under such circumstances 
to be silent would be to betray the interest your Memorialists are 
bound by duty to uphold. 

That your Memorialists are not aware that their conduct has 
provoked the opposition to the Charter under which they act. They 
have studied to forbear and to concilitate. They have made con¬ 
cessions, and been patient under aggression. They have been 
desirous of elevating the profession over which they preside, and 
anxious to promote the science to represent the interests of which 
they are elected. They have exercised their authority with caution, 
and used the power invested in them with prudence. 

That your Memorialists are not conscious of having done wrong. 
They humbly ask what interest they have injured, or who has just 
reason to complain of their conduct 1 The veterinary profession 
give them support, and the public have not found fault with their 
acts. 

That your Memorialists know only of one source from which 
any opposition has emanated. That opposition sprang from and is 
upheld by motives which cannot be defended upon public grounds. 
It is a movement kept alive by individuals. Under the pretence 

VOL. XXL K k 







238 


MEMORIAL TO SIR GEORGE GREY, BART. 


of defending public rights it seeks to establish personal authority, 
to sanction professional abuses, and to enlarge private interests. It 
is not animated by a spirit which can be commended. It was 
begun by the Professors, and by them it has been upheld. 

The Professors have boasted that the present opposition was by 
them commenced. It is notorious that it arises solely from a fear 
lest the institution of a higher qualification in the candidates for 
diplomas should decrease the number of pupils at the Colleges, and 
thereby diminish the source whence the emoluments of the Pro¬ 
fessors is derived. 

Such fear is groundless. The number of students at the Colleges 
has increased since the Charter gave to the veterinary profession 
its existing rights. 

That, if such fear were real, your Memorialists would participate 
in it, since one portion of the means of defraying their expences 
is obtained by the examination of gentlemen wishing to become 
members of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. 

That the names of the other parties which appear appended to 
the petition for a new Charter, in the opinions of your Memorialists, 
are of little weight; the persons who thus petition having been 
instigated so to do by statements which cannot be substantiated. 
They are not acquainted with the truth, or they would not lend 
their countenance to an agitation w'hich cannot be honourably 
maintained. They are misled and deceived. They act under 
false impressions. They have not inquired into the circumstances, 
and they are ignorant of the facts. Their motives are pure, but 
their knowledge is deficient. They mean well, but they are mis¬ 
taken. Their intentions are noble, but their convictions are un¬ 
founded. They have heard strange assertions and heavy accusa¬ 
tions, but they have not sought for explanations from the accused, 
or endeavoured to corroborate the charges made by the accusers. 

Your Memorialists are anxious to defend their conduct. They 
are prepared to answer for all that they have done. Their acts 
are open, and their motives undisguised. They invite inquiry. 

The Governors of the Ro} r al Veterinary College of London ask 
for a new Charter. They do so knowing little of the Institution 
over which they nominally preside. At that school no minutes 
are kept. Over it no one is placed to watch the actions of the 
teachers. It is left to these teachers. The Governors do not often 
enter it. The Professors make report of their own conduct. Com¬ 
plaints must be made through the Professors. Improvement must 
be sought through the Professors The Governors seldom meet, 
and are difficult to approach because of the Professors, through 
whom they must be addressed. Under such a system injury is 
silenced and abuse is strengthened. 


239 


MEMORIAL TO SIR GEORGE GREY, BART. 

The School is subjected to no supervision. Though ostensibly 
founded to advance veterinary science, it is secured from the 
possibility of inspection. The lectures are not published : no 
plan of study is laid down. The Professors teach that which 
and so much as they please. Their doctrines may be wrong, but 
there are no means of correcting them : their teaching may be 
dangerous, but there is no power of restraining it: their informa¬ 
tion may be limited, but there is no ability to improve it: their 
industry may be deficient, but there is no authority to stimulate it 
—they have only to report to gentlemen who, however enlightened, 
can hardly be supposed to know all the points which a peculiar 
education should embrace. The veterinary profession, who might 
judge correctly of the fitness of the instruction and the qualifica¬ 
tions of the instructors, are by a special vote excluded. No 
member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons may be¬ 
come even a subscriber to the Institution. 

The School attached to the Royal Veterinary College is a mere 
appendage to that Institution. It is not upheld upon any public 
grounds, neither does it confer any gratuitous advantages. For 
all it gives it demands payment. The pupils pay for that which 
they receive. The money thus obtained goes to the Professors: 
the Professors so remunerated attend to the animals of the Sub¬ 
scribers ; the School, consequently, enables the Governors to retain 
the professional services of the Professors at a small tax upon the 
funds of the College. The School is a source of profit, and a 
benefit to the Institution. It is no more than a remunerative 
speculation, and has no claims to the consideration of the State. 
Its appointments are strangely deficient: there is no apartment in 
which the Students could wait the commencement of the lectures, 
or seek shelter from the inclemency of the weather. No Reading- 
room or Library is connected with the College. The Museum is 
locked against the students, and no prize of any kind is offered to 
stimulate the exertions of the pupils. Compared with a barrack 
or a charity school, the Royal Veterinary College would seem to 
offer the poorer accommodation and the least incentive to study. 

If the Institution presents little entitling it to be regarded as a 
College, it certainly exhibits nothing approaching to a Hospital ; 
in which character, however, by a general mistake, it is com¬ 
monly viewed. There is no charity attached to the Institution; 
neither can any but Subscribers share the benefits it is presumed 
to bestow. It does not pretend to generosity, and the animals of 
the poor are not admitted inside its walls. It is strictly a private 
society, supported by individuals induced to join it solely by the 
offer of pecuniary advantages. Its members require no recom¬ 
mendation beyond wdiat the payment of the annual subscription 


240 MEMORIAL TO SIR GEORGE GREY, BART. 

may imply. Lucrative, circumscribed, and irresponsible, it exists 
as a combination of individuals, held together only by the prospect 
of pecuniary saving. The prospectus issued by the establishment 
holds forth no inducement beyond what a trading association would 
embrace. To sell medicine cheap to its members, and to treat the 
animals of its subscribers at a low charge, is the single motive 
upon which it relies for support. By its regulations it has refused 
to co-operate with the veterinary profession, and by its practice 
it competes with the veterinary surgeon—not on the score of 
merit, but on the plea of cheapness. It is fortunate in the pa¬ 
tronage it enjoys, happy in the wealth it has accumulated, and 
secure in the privacy which surrounds it Fostered, rich, and 
undisturbed, it has no claim to public support, or any pretence to 
public sympathy. Compared with other colleges, it exhibits rather 
that which calls for correction, than any thing deserving of special 
and extraordinary confirmation. 

While making so serious a statement, your Memorialists have 
been cautious to advance nothing which does not admit of easy 
proof. Nevertheless, your Memorialists beg to express their con¬ 
viction, that the Governors of the Royal Veterinary College of 
London are not aware of the real condition of the Institution, 
which was originally founded upon public principles. The re¬ 
membrance of these is probably retained, and the report of the 
Professors may lead to the belief that such principles are observed. 
As gentlemen, the Governors give their confidence to those whom 
they employ : conscious of their own integrity, they refuse to 
entertain suspicion. This feeling your Memorialists admire; but 
under its operation abuse too often is engendered. By degrees, 
security from inquiry induces neglect, and gradually a noble 
design is perverted. At length, the magnitude of the evil dis¬ 
inclines those in power to undertake the supervision; abuse 
grows into a system, and, under the sanction of usage, offence is 
protected. By passing the annual report of the Professors, the 
Governors have appeared to approve acts which, on consideration, 
they might condemn. An inquiry is needed, but none has been 
instituted. The Governors lack the information which would 
acquaint them with the moral and actual position that they hold. 
Their purpose is generous, and their design is noble; and your 
Memorialists, while representing facts, deny all intention of in¬ 
sinuating one word against the integrity of motive by which 
the Governors of the Royal Veterinary College of London are 
actuated. 

The gentlemen constituting the Highland and Agricultural 
Society of Scotland appear as Petitioners for a New Charter: 
your Memorialists regret to see such names appended to such a 


MEMORIAL TO SIR GEORGE GREY, BART. 241 

prayer. Towards that high and influential body your Memorial¬ 
ists profess the deepest respect. The Society, however, is by 
distance separated far from the Council of the Royal College of 
Veterinary Surgeons. Removed from the possibility of personal 
communication, the Society has not sought to learn the objects 
or intentions of your Memorialists. Your Memorialists are will¬ 
ing to communicate, and anxious to be observed. No secresy 
is established, no privacy is desired. The wish of your Memo¬ 
rialists is to be known and to be understood. As a public body, 
they court publicity: as responsible agents, they ask to be in¬ 
structed. They desire to know the evil they might correct, and 
wish to learn the good they can effect. Nevertheless, the High¬ 
land and Agricultural Society have transmitted to the Council of 
the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons no remonstrance; 
neither have they addressed any complaint. They have asked no 
explanation, and they have requested no statement: they have not 
asserted that which should be done, or expostulated against that 
which had been done: in silence, they have allowed your Memo¬ 
rialists to proceed, making no proposition, and urging no objection. 
Your Memorialists, therefore, are ignorant of the circumstances 
which cause the Highland and Agricultural Society to be their 
opponents. Your Memorialists lament the fact, and regard it with 
surprise. To your Memorialists, it appears extraordinary that a 
high and honourable Society should undertake a direct and active 
opposition without first investigating the circumstances which 
alone could justify such a proceeding. The Society, however, did 
not commence the movement. The Professor of the Edinburgh 
College had declared his discontent before the Society joined the 
parties petitioning for a new Charter: with that Professor the 
Society is in communication Acts may be misrepresented, and 
motives may be implied; consequences may be foretold, and in¬ 
terests may be alarmed. Where one party alone is heard, the 
truth is seldom learnt. The Edinburgh Professor openly threatens, 
and without disguise declares his animosity. From that source 
the Highland Society have derived all the information they 
possess. Deeply solicitous for the advancement of science, the 
Society has been induced, by interested arguments, to adopt a 
course which, on inquiry, your Memorialists feel convinced they 
would immediately relinquish. That Society desires the exalta¬ 
tion of the veterinary profession; but, if the prayer they urge 
could possibly be granted, the result would be the elevation of 
individuals upon the degradation of veterinary science. 

In proof that, on inquiry, the Highland and Agricultural Society 
would find they had no just reason to complain, your Memorialists 
confidently refer to the honourable conduct of the Royal Agri- 


242 MEMORIAL TO SIR GEORGE GREY, BART. 

cultural Society of England. The object of the two Societies being 
the same, that which the one can approve ought not to displease 
the other. The Royal Agricultural Society of England, induced 
by the representations of the Professors, were once opponents to 
the Charter of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons; your 
Memorialists, however, having opportunities of communication, 
and being located where their conduct could be watched, sought 
to explain their powers, and to justify their proceedings; your 
Memorialists gratefully acknowledge their representations were 
entertained. The result has been, that the Royal Agricultural 
Society, after mature consideration, recognizing the scope of the 
existing Charter, and witnessing the conduct of the Council, no 
longer appear as Petitioners against the Royal College of Vete¬ 
rinary Surgeons. 

The Professors of the Colleges are the parties with whom the 
Petition originated. They drew it up, and they are the persons 
whose activity caused it to be signed : on their assertions the agi¬ 
tation was commenced, and in consequence of their representations 
it is continued. 

“ Your Memorialists decline to insinuate the motives by which 
the Professors are actuated, but they humbly beg you, Honourable 
Sir, to weigh the following facts:— 

The Charter gives to the Royal College of Veterinary Sur¬ 
geons the power of appointing Examiners to test the qualifications 
of those gentlemen who may be desirous of becoming members of 
the veterinary profession. This power indirectly, to a certain 
extent, controls the teaching of the Professors. In some measure 
it makes known what has been taught at the schools :—it places 
the Professors, in some degree, under responsibility—it inquires 
into the attainments of the pupils, and therefore it insists upon the 
efficiency of their instruction. 

Such is the only power connected with the schools which the 
Charter confers upon the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
and such is the only responsibility to which the Colleges are 
subjected. 

The establishment of such power was not a novelty, since it 
had been in operation for many years over the medical profession; 
for the existence of such authority there was, therefore, ample 
precedent. To prove that it was wholesome in its influence, and 
by no means injurious in its effect, the acquiescence of a learned 
and noble profession affords the most decided evidence. To shew 
that it has been abused by your Memorialists no statement is 
advanced, but to demonstrate that it has been considerately exer¬ 
cised facts may be appealed to. 

To guard against the possibility of abuse, your Memorialists 


MEMORIAL TO SIR GEORGE GREY, BART. 243 

have created the Professors of the Colleges ex officio members of the 
Examining Board, thereby giving to those gentlemen the means 
of watching the conduct of the Examiners. To shew such conduct 
has been guided by principles of liberality, it can be proved that 
the Professors have not seen the necessity of their being constantly 
or regularly present when the Board of Examiners has assembled ; 
indeed, for nearly two years they have not availed themselves of 
the privilege thus afforded them. To establish that the present 
system inflicts no injury, the testimony of the Professors themselves 
may be referred to, since, in the proposed draft of a new Charter, 
it is contemplated, so far as the Board of Examination is con¬ 
cerned, only to confirm the position which under the present 
College the Professors already occupy. 

To demonstrate that a power of supervision was imperatively 
demanded, a host of evidence can readily be produced. When, pre¬ 
vious to the grant of the existing Charter, the Professors were 
examiners of their own pupils, the complaint was general that 
diplomas were bestowed upon persons unfitted to enter imo 
practice. The period of study was uncertain, and the system of 
teaching was unsatisfactory. The Professors sought to inculcate 
their peculiar ideas, and to these the pupils paid attention, rather 
than to recognized and established principles. The opinions of the 
Professors were in opposition, and frequently the teacher changed 
his notions, denying in one course of Lectures those doctrines 
which in the previous Session had been vehemently insisted upon. 
Diseases of vital importance were passed over, and errors of fatal 
consequence were propagated. Glanders and Rabies, the two dis¬ 
orders which to the agriculturist and to the human race are of espe¬ 
cial and peculiar interest, were for years never explained to the 
students. 

At the present time the mode of education is far from satis¬ 
factory. The anatomical instruction is still deficient; the Professor 
of Anatomy, instead of lecturing upon the nerves, veins, absorbents, 
muscles, and ligaments, referring the pupils to the dissecting-room 
for the information which it is his appointed duty to afford. 

After more than fifty years, the Professors at the Colleges are 
ignorant of the anatomy of the animals, which a veterinary educa¬ 
tion, properly conducted, ought to embrace. In the London College 
the skeleton of the dog has the bones placed in wrong situations. 
In the dissection-room, donkeys only are dissected. The carcasses 
of sheep, pigs, or oxen, are not to be there seen : even living spe¬ 
cimens of such animals are rare ; since one pupil, in answer to the 
complaints of the Chairman of the Examining Board, that the 
replies elicited upon cattle pathology were unsatisfactory, openly 
stated that, during an attendance of two years at the Royal Vete- 


244 


MEMORIAL TO SIR GEORGE GREY, BART. 


rinary College of London, he had seen within the walls or 
School of the Institution but two cows. 

To illustrate the scope of the teaching and the spirit of the 
London Institution in which the Professors are employed, your 
Memorialists will allude to one circumstance :—That College had 
been in active existence since the year 1791. It had become rich, 
and had funds at its disposal. It professed to investigate the dis¬ 
eases of animals, and to educate veterinary practitioners in whom 
the public might confide. Up to the year 1841 no lectures were 
given upon the diseases of cattle. At that date a Professor was 
appointed ; not however because the want of his services was felt 
by the Governors, but because the Royal Agricultural Society of 
England, to induce such appointment, consented to contribute two 
hundred pounds annually towards the maintenance of the teacher. 
The Governors of the Royal Veterinary College were actually paid 
to carry out the purpose of their establishment; and took money 
to do that which the name of the Institution confessed it was their 
duty to perform. The two hundred pounds were paid by the Royal 
Agricultural Society for seven years; but the result of the teaching 
has been so unsatisfactory, that the contribution has been directed 
to be withdrawn. 

Such a fact cannot be misunderstood; but lest it should not be 
entirely conclusive, your Memorialists will allude to the acts and 
practice of the Professors, shewing that in the assumption of supe¬ 
riority those persons are wholly unsupported. 

When, in the year 1840, a disease known by the name of the 
Vesicular Epizootic appeared among cattle, the London College 
was by the Royal Agricultural Society requested to draw up a plan 
of treatment for the instruction of the farmers. This plan of 
treatment was formally drawn up, and extensively circulated; 
but the measures therein recommended were so erroneous in theory 
and injurious in practice, that, instead of being a method of cure, 
they proved to be a ready means of destruction. Great loss ensued, 
until, by the labours of the veterinary profession, the nature of the 
affection was pointed out, and the proper course of remedy 
adopted. 

In the foregoing statements your Memorialists must here say, 
they refer only to the Royal Veterinary College of London; and, 
while submitting such statements to your consideration, your Me¬ 
morialists are desirous of exempting from any censure that may 
be therein implied the Professor of Chemistry at that Institution. 
To the talent and industry of the gentleman holding that appoint¬ 
ment your Memorialists with pleasure bear witness, and testify 
to the creditable manner in which his pupils generally appear be¬ 
fore the Board of Examination. 


MEMORIAL TO SIR GEORGE GREY, BART. 245 

To the Edinburgh College your Memorialists decline to make 
any allusion beyond what may be contained in the previous com¬ 
munication which they have had the honour of laying before you. 
That Establishment is the property of an individual, who is teacher 
and proprietor of the School; and, being so, your Memorialists 
humbly request to be informed what right it can confer privi¬ 
leging a private person to petition for public grants ? 

Having endeavoured to point out the different parties petition¬ 
ing against the present Charter granted to the veterinary profes¬ 
sion, your Memorialists respectfully entreat you to contrast them. 

The Council of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons is 
a public body; the Members are elected; their meetings are open, 
and their proceedings are reported. They have the support of a 
profession to whom they are responsible for their conduct. Their 
offices are honorary, and they have no individual interests to pro¬ 
mote, or any pecuniary advantages to advocate, beyond such as 
may by them be shared in common with the profession of which 
they constitute a part. 

The Professors at the Royal Veterinary College are appointed, 
and hold their offices removed from inspection or control. They 
have their gains to instigate them, and their claims to superiority 
of station to defend. They plead for no party but themselves, and 
they advocate no cause which the profession approves. Their 
actions are irresponsible, and their conduct is subjected to no revi¬ 
sion. Their services are paid, and they have personal motives for 
continuing the agitation they have commenced. 

That agitation has been by the Professors maintained without 
regard to honour or respect to truth. Slander has been unscru¬ 
pulously indulged in; and after it had been refuted, the Professors 
were not ashamed to repeat it. Vexatious opposition has been 
on all occasions displayed. They have confused the deliberations 
of the Council, and interrupted the business of the General Meet¬ 
ings of the Body Corporate. They have made no effort to test the 
efficacy of the existing Charter, or sought to discover how far it 
might be worked for the advantage of the veterinary profession 
and for the benefit of the public. From them, your Memorialists 
have heard only of themselves. 

Your Memorialists can perceive nothing in the conduct of the Pro¬ 
fessors which merits approbation, but much which every honourable 
mind must condemn. The Professors have been and are Members 
of the Council of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. They 
took part in framing the Bye-Laws applying to the pupils; such 
laws were therefore known to the Professors. One of those re¬ 
gulations ordained that candidates for diplomas after the year 1847 
should have served an apprenticeship of three years. The Pro- 

VOL. XXL L 1 


246 MEMORIAL TO SIR GEORGE GREY, BART. 

fessors, however, have accepted pupils, disregardful of this law, 
promising the gentlemen who paid to enter the College that they 
should be admitted into the profession after two years’ attendance. 
Before the present time arrived, the Professors hoped to have ob¬ 
tained a new Charter; but, failing in that expectation, they are 
now employed in constituting a Board of Examination, which, it 
is asserted, will issue unprofessional diplomas. 

Such diplomas would be in every sense obnoxious: signed by 
persons selected by the Professors, they will represent only the 
opinions of the Professors concerning their own system of instruc¬ 
tion. Granted by a Board appointed by individuals, such diplo¬ 
mas may be given to whomsoever those individuals think proper, 
and therefore will be neither certificates nor proofs of the fitness of 
the pupil to practise. Instruments of such a nature are open to 
every species of abuse; and, being likely to be confounded with 
the diploma issued by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
are calculated to create a confusion, and keep alive an opposition 
of interests, injurious to the advancement of sciences and preju¬ 
dicial to the welfare of the public. 

The position which the Professors occupy is irreconcileable w T ith 
any notion of propriety or idea of honour: it is such as should 
unfit them to be petitioners for any public trust. To the prayer 
which obtained the present Charter, the names of the Professors 
were, by their particular requests, appended : to the Petition which 
now begs the Charter should be revoked, the names of the Pro¬ 
fessors again are attached. At one time they ask for, and, getting 
what they desire, they cry against. They have been elected 
Members of the Council of the Royal College of Veterinary Sur¬ 
geons : they retain such offices to act for the profession, but against 
the profession, whose trust they have accepted, the Professors see 
proper to exert their influence. Members of the Council of the 
Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, they are 'petitioners against 
the Council of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons : their 
complaint, therefore, is against their own acts. They seek a 
Charter; but, asking to be invested with authority, they are 
studying to bring into contempt the power which a Charter can 
bestow., They beg for that which they display no disposition to 
respect: they oppose the expressed pleasure of the Crown, even 
while they entreat the Throne to grant them extraordinary pri¬ 
vileges. As Members of the Board of Examiners, which existed 
previous to the grant of the present Charter, they resigned their 
offices as Examiners when the Charter was made known. They 
would now reconstruct the Board, which, by their consent, was 
dispersed. Factious, vacillating, and contradictory, their conduct 
appears most strange. In one petition they complain that appren- 


MEMORIAL TO SIR GEORGE GREY, BART. 247 

ticeship is made a necessary qualification towards the obtainment 
of a diploma. In the draft of a proposed new Charter, apprentice¬ 
ship, however, is introduced as imperative towards the education 
of the practitioner. Once they lamented that they were not 
allowed to be examiners of their own pupils : now they ask only 
to retain that position the Council of the Royal College of Vete¬ 
rinary Surgeons have accorded them, of ex-officio Members of the 
Board of Examiners. 

The principal reason advanced in support of the prayer for a 
new Charter is a fiction : it has no foundation in fact, and cannot 
be made to harmonize with truth. It is asserted that the Charter 
has taken the management of their affairs out of the hands of the 
Governors of the Royal Veterinary College or School, and exer¬ 
cises uncontrolled power over the said School. The assertion is 
utterly false. Your Memorialists ask that the statement be in¬ 
quired into, and demand that it be supported by evidence. 

The proposal to institute a Veterinary Board, as sought in the 
new Charter, is, in the opinion of your Memorialists, a ridiculous 
and weak invention, designed only to elevate the Professors, 
placing them over the other members of the profession, to whom 
they are by no means superior in ability. Such Veterinary Board, 
if attempted, could never be made of practical utility. One half 
of its members being resident in Scotland, and the other half 
located in England, no place of meeting for ordinary occasions 
could be found convenient for all the members to assemble at. 
The London and Edinburgh School having long been, and still 
being, opposed to one another, disputes would soon spring up. 
The Governors of the College, or School, act under the instruction 
of the London Professors. The Highland Agricultural Society 
give their confidence and patronage to the proprietor of the Edin¬ 
burgh School. The interests which even now are at war would 
find support, and the result would soon be seen. The non-pro¬ 
fessional members would seek advice from the Professors; the 
Professors would become virtually the Board itself, and, that point 
secured, the quarrel, which has scarcely been disguised, would 
be openly displayed. 

The proposed Veterinary Board, however, being intended to 
rule over the profession, ought to be possessed of the confidence 
of those who are to obey it: without such confidence no power 
could be enforced. The Professors have earned the dislike of 
their professional brethren, and where their influence predo¬ 
minates no reliance could be placed. Distrust would engender 
faction. The Council would, by the profession, be elected to 
oppose the Veterinary Board, which the proposed Charter con¬ 
templates they should obey. A state of things calculated to 



248 


MEMORIAL TO SIR GEORGE GREY, BART. 


disgust gentlemen, and cause them to retire, would speedily oc¬ 
casion the Veterinary Board to consist of the individuals who 
alone are anxious to possess the authority it is proposed to enjoy. 

Taking, however, another view, and supposing no dissension to 
arise, the Professors being friendly, they nevertheless would form 
the only members having motives for activity. They would con¬ 
stitute a large party in a limited assembly : a majority would 
generally be at their command, since, if even all the members 
were present, one or two, gained over by specious arguments or 
unfounded statements, would decide a debate. Indeed, the object 
of the proposed new Charter is so plain, and the interest by which 
it was concocted so evident, that no one can mistake the persons 
under whose direction it was drawn up. It is, however, painful 
• to see individuals aiming at degrading the profession they should 
respect for so mean a motive as personal advantage. 

It is impossible to peruse the draft of the proposed new Charter 
without perceiving the intention is to promote the Professors above, 
and render them the dictators to, the veterinary profession. Every 
post and office which a charter could secure, is, by the proposed 
draft, given up to the Professors: not by right of talent, or on the 
ground of integrity, but simply because they are fortunate in place 
the Professors are to be Members of the Council, Members of the 
Examination Committee, and Members of the Veterinary Board. 
Other members of the Council are to be elected to that office. 
The Professors are to take their seats on the plea of superiority. 
The President, Vice-Presidents, or members of the Council, are to 
be subject to removal for misconduct or other reasonable cause. 
The Professors are to be permanent, and no iniquity is to expose 
them to expulsion. The Professors are to vote at the Council, and 
at the Veterinary Board they are to vote again upon the acts of 
the Council. The Professors, as Members of Council, are to act 
for the veterinary profession; as Members of the Veterinary 
Board, they are to pass motions which shall be binding and con¬ 
clusive on all the members of the veterinary profession. 

The proposed new Charter is a barefaced attempt to establish an 
unexampled tyranny. There is neither precedent nor excuse for the 
constitution of such a power as that proposed to be established 
under the title of the Veterinary Board. No cause is shewn why 
it should be created; no security is offered that its power will 
not be abused. Uncontrolled in its acts, unlimited in its authority, 
and irresponsible in its conduct, the notion of such a power is 
opposed to every idea of government under which your Memo¬ 
rialists have been reared. 

Against the establishment of a close and arbitrary power, to 
which a whole profession are to be made subservient, your Memo* 


MEMORIAL TO SIR GEORGE GllEY, BART. 249 

rialists most respectfully, but at the same time with the utmost 
energy, solemnly protest. In the name of justice on the part of 
the veterinary profession, they humbly submit to you their deter¬ 
mination to resist it. bd ^ahljjT 

Before it was openly attempted to create an inquisitorial assembly 
which was to deprive a body of meritorious individuals of freedom 
of action, take from them all liberty of management over their 
own affairs, and reduce an honourable profession to a state of moral 
and actual bondage, some case of flagrant wrong, calling for the 
interference of the State, ought to have been established. None, 
however, has been made out. No accusation that could be main¬ 
tained has been brought forward. The complaint is selfish, and 
the demand founded upon it preposterous. Nothing has been 
adduced warranting the destruction of existing rights, or sanction¬ 
ing the revocation of an established Charter. 

Your Memorialists do not believe that you, Honourable Sir, 
seriously entertain the proposal which you have been petitioned to 
recommend to the approval of the Crown.. They will not credit that 
any member of the British Government, much less a gentleman 
honourably distinguished by the liberality of his opinion, could be 
induced to propose to Her Majesty the creation of an unenglish, 
unheard of, and unnecessary despotism. 

Your Memorialists, relying confidently on the high sense of 
justice which nobly characterizes the British ministry, humbly 
submit to you that the present Charter was by the Veterinary 
Profession obtained at no inconsiderable expense. That charge 
the members of the veterinary profession have voluntarily liqui¬ 
dated. 

Your Memorialists boast not of their wealth. They are mem¬ 
bers of a profession poorly remunerated, but anxious to excel. 
The cost of the present Charter was to your Memorialists a heavy 
responsibility; but it has been honourably and cheerfully dis¬ 
charged : neither is the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons 
involved. The Council is steadily progressing. Their existence, 
however, is of but recent date. They are young in the exercise 
of duty, new to the cares of office, and have a profession to 
organize. Their situation is one worthy of consideration. They 
do not plead for favour — they ask only for justice ; and beg, that, 
while they are guilty of no wrong, they may be allowed to 
deliberate undisturbed. They pray that, acting under the sanction 
of Her Majesty, they may be protected from the selfish annoy¬ 
ance of persons who are greedy of distinction, and hungry after the 
fees of office. 

Your Memorialists complain that, since the establishment of the 
Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, the Council has been con- 


250 


MEMORIAL TO SIR GEORGE GREY, BART. 


stantly subjected to the factious opposition of the Professors. 
Although time has not yet been allowed to judge finally how the 
Charter may work for the benefit of veterinary science, yet, up to 
the present period, under the direction of your Memorialists, it has 
given more satisfaction than could have been reasonably anticipated. 
It has done this, notwithstanding the interruption to which it has 
been exposed : that interruption, your Memorialists confess, has in 
a great measure crippled their actions. When they ought to have 
been engaged in consolidating their measures and considering the 
requirements of the body over which they preside, they have been 
distracted by boisterous agitation, forced to answer groundless 
accusation, and obliged to study to defend the rights which, en¬ 
trusted to their charge, are unscrupulously attacked. 

Your Memorialists, depending upon your approved and known 
love of equity, trust their case with confidence, Honourable Sir, in 
your hands. All that they have stated they are ready to prove; 
whatever they have done they are prepared to justify: they seek 
inquiry—they beg that the conduct and the assertions of their op¬ 
ponents be investigated—they entreat that a fair, full, and thorough 
examination of every circumstance be entered into. The}* - re¬ 
spectfully solicit that the whole case may be sifted, in order that 
Her Majesty may be informed whether your Memorialists have 
violated the trust confided in them by the existing Charter, and 
whether the Governors of the Royal Veterinary College have fulfilled 
the intent of their foundation, or taken care to ensure the proper 
conduct of the School over which they preside. 

Signed, on behalf of the Council, 

Thomas Turner, President. 


LAMENESS IN HORSES. 

By William Percivall, MM.C.S. and V.S. 

Neurotomy. 

[Continued from page 184.] 

Improvements in Neurotomy, since its first introduction, 
have been suggested, and some of them have turned out of merit 
enough to be carried into practice. The chief objects in view in 
the performance of such an operation are expertness and neatness. 




NEUROTOMY. 


251 


While no cutting or meddling should be spared which can any¬ 
wise conduce to the efficiency of the operation, it is at all times 
an object, and one deserving consideration, to leave as little 
wound or blemish as possible consequent on it. This consideration 
has prompted the substitution for the ordinary operation of what 
may be called 

Subcutaneous Neurotomy ; the operation surgeons are in 
the habit of resorting to, when nerves are to be divided for the 
relief of tic doloureux, or other painful affections; a long, straight, 
narrow, sharp-pointed bistoury being the instrument commonly 
used for the purpose. That a similar operation admits of being 
introduced—nay, has been successfully practised—in veterinary 
surgery is not to be denied. In the first place, however, it must 
be remembered that it is in those situations only in which nerves 
run unaccompanied by arteries, or in which a nerve runs at some 
interval of distance from an artery, that such an operation becomes 
practicable; and, in the second place, it must be borne in mind 
that nerves simply cut in two in a little time after unite again, 
and then the lameness, of course, may be expected to return; it 
not being practicable to excise any portion through such an open¬ 
ing as a bistoury makes. So that, in point of fact, unless for any 
time-serving or sinister purpose, such as the palming of a horse 
off for sale that has been lame and will become lame again, as a 
sound horse, hardly any end is answered in a case of lameness by 
the operation of simple division of a nerve. It is different, how¬ 
ever, in such a case as tetanus, or in any case, in fact, in which 
the simple requirement is the immediate abstraction of pain or 
sensibility: the veterinary surgeon then, finding himself placed in 
the same position as the surgeon, may, if practicable, have recourse 
to the same method of operating. 

All that admits of being done, in the ordinary mode of operating, 
by way of expediting the healing of the wound, and lessening the 
chance of blemish, is making the incision as clean as possible, 
and clean down upon the nerve at once, so as to render subsequent 
dissection unnecessary; and at the same time to be careful to make 
the wound no larger than is absolutely required for the excision of 
sufficient length of nervous cord. With a convenient instrument, 
it is practicable to seize and divide the exposed nerve through a 
smaller opening than when a ligature has first to be passed under¬ 
neath it; and we have two instruments in particular which an¬ 
swer this purpose extremely well. One is the invention of 
Mr. Ernes, Veterinary Surgeon, Dockhead. It is in 
the form—as will be seen in the annexed woodcut—of a straight 
sharp-edged bistoury, to the pointed part of the blade of which is 


252 


NEUROTOMY. 


given a sort of hooked curve (c b d), after 
the fashion of the first turn of a cork¬ 
screw; the intention being to pass the 
point of the blade ( d ), which is rounded 
off for that purpose, underneath the nerve, 
and so lodge it upon the bend ( b ) of the 
instrument, which is made flat and smooth 
to receive it, and admit of sufficient force 
being used to raise the nerve out of its 
bed, without chance of injuring it. This 
done, and the nerve examined and identi¬ 
fied, one semi-rotation to the right of the 
handle of the instrument (a) on its axis 
will transfer the nerve from off the bend 
to upon the cutting part of the blade (c), 
whereupon any struggle the animal may 
make, at the moment, or any force used 
at the time by the hand of the operator, 
effects its instantaneous division. 

The other instrument, though of totally 
different construction, having similar ob¬ 
jects, is the invention of 

Mr. Gowing, Veterinary Sur¬ 
geon, Camden Town. As will be seen 
by the cut representative of it (in p. 253), 
this instrument resembles a pair of curved 
scissors, one blade of which ( a ) is made 
with a mortise through it ( ) of sufficient 
length to completely receive within it the 
other, or cutting blade ( b ); the instrument 
admitting of thus being shut up, and then 
intended to answer simply the purpose 
of a tenaculum , to be passed underneath 
the nerve, and so raise it out of its bed 
for examination and identification. This 
done, and the operator satisfied he has 
hooked the nerve, and not either the 
plantar artery or the ligament of the 
pad, he gently permits the nerve to slide 
sufficiently forward upon the blade a to 
enable him to open the cutting blade ( b ), 
which now is ready, the moment the nerve slides back again 
upon the mortised shaft of the blade a, at the pleasure of the 
operator to be closed, and in being so, after the manner of a pair 


a 









































































































NEUROTOMY. *253 

of scissors, to effect the division of the nerve. Only the upper 
half of the blade b, as will 
be seen by the woodcut, 
is provided with a cutting 
edge. 

Between instruments of 
such different construction, 
although intended to answer 
similar purposes, there is no 
making any comparison. 

Nor is it needful for us to 
do so. All that we shall say, 
in passing any opinion on 
their merits, is, that in their 
way both exhibit more than 
ordinary ingenuity in their 
invention, and that the neu- 
rotomist who takes care to 
provide himself with one or 
both of them, will find him¬ 
self at the moment of ope¬ 
rating in the possession of 
an aid which will much sim¬ 
plify and shorten his under¬ 
taking. 

The Union of the 
divided Nerves takes 
place forthwith, provided 
those nerves are simply cut. 
in two; sensation—and with 
it lameness — returning in 
about a month or six weeks: 
but if a portion of nerve be excised, immediate union is thereby 
prevented. 

In a series of experiments made on animals by Swan* to set 
the question of union of nerve at rest, he found that when a 
portion of nerve is removed the restorative process is set up the 
same way as when there has been merely division of a nerve; 
and that this was, that the extremities of the divided nerve, par¬ 
ticularly the superior one, became thicker and more vascular : 
coagulable lymph, having the appearance of albumen, being poured 
out, and in a short space of time permeated by bloodvessels: 
then both ends of the effused lymph form an union, and anasto¬ 
mosing vessels shoot through it. Gradually, this intermediate 

* On the Local Diseases of Nerves. 

M m 



VOL. XXL 




254 


NEUROTOMY. 


substance acquires a firmer texture; the number of bloodvessels 
in it in the course of time diminish—it shrinks in substance as in 
cicatrization, and the separated extremities of the divided nerve 
approach nearer and nearer each other. But Swan found it diffi¬ 
cult to determine at what period this intervening new material 
was capable of carrying on the nervous function. 

If we examine the nerves of the limbs of horses any length of 
time after they have been operated on in the usual manner, we 
find oblong bulbous swellings occupying the intervals from which 
portions of nerve have been excised; and these tumours we 
observe to be larger above than below, measuring three or four 
times the bulk of the original nervous chords. This consequent 
enlargement it is which makes it so objectionable to perform 
neurotomy on the side of the fetlock, where the horse, should he 
be disposed to hit his legs, would be certain almost to strike the 
bulbous nerves, and when he had done so, for the moment render 
himself dead lame from the exquisite pain the blow occasioned 
him. Between this nervous tumour and the cellular tissue by 
which it is surrounded, firm and dense adhesions exist every 
where; so that it requires some dissection with a sharp knife to 
raise the tumour out of its bed. Cut into, its substance is found 
to be pearl-white, solid, and firm, more like cartilage, in fact, than 
nervous substance. 

Of the Regeneration of Nervous Matter our chief 
knowledge is with respect to the regeneration of the tubular 
fibres. “ Many years ago, our countryman, Doctor Haighton, 
in making experiments to determine the function of the vagus 
nerve, shewed, that when a nerve is simply divided, without 
taking away any portion of it, union would take place, and the 
nerve resume its proper office. If a considerable piece were 
excised, so as to leave much interval between the cut ends, there 
would be union after the lapse of some time, but not by true 
nervous fibrous, nor in such a way as to restore the action of the 
nerve. It appears, however, from recent observations, of which 
those of Schwann, Steinreich, and Nasse are the most interesting, 
that true nervous fibres may be developed in this uniting sub¬ 
stance, but apparently in smaller numbers than in the nerve itself. 
The proof of the regeneration of the true nerve-fibres depends 
upon the restoration of the nerve’s function, and the demonstra¬ 
tion of the presence of proper nerve-tubes by microscopical exa¬ 
mination. Perfect restoration of the action of the nerve does not 
generally take place, owing, most probably, to the fact that the 
central and peripheral portions of the same fibres do not always 
meet again. The central portion of a motor fibre might unite with 
the peripheral segment of a sensitive one, and thus the action of 


NEUROTOMY. 


255 


each would be neutralized.”— Todd and Bowmans Physiological 
Anatomy. 

Return of Sensation. —So far as restoration of function in a 
nerve can be considered as proof of union of its divided ends, the 
notable experiment, so impressively set forth by our late Professor 
Coleman in his “ Lectures,” concerning the division of the par 
vagum in horses, is conclusive. If the nerves on both sides of the 
neck be divided at the same time, or within a short interval of one 
another, death becomes consecutive on the division of the last ; 
whereas, if an interval of three weeks be allowed between the 
operations, the animal survives. 

Neurotomy, as performed for lameness, proves the same thing in 
the case of excision of the substance of the nerve ; the difference 
being, that while after simple division the nerve takes but a month 
or two to have its union and function restored, after excision the 
time required for regeneration and restoration of function becomes 
lengthened in some sort of ratio to the quantity of nerve excised. 
Meyer, who instituted some experiments to illustrate this, found 
that when he excised one line in breadth of nerve, the reproduc¬ 
tion occupied three weeks; and when two lines’ breadth were cut 
out, two months. Mr. Sewell found, in cases of entire section of 
the nerves of the limbs of horses, that sensation returned in about 
a couple of months; but that when a portion of nerve was ex¬ 
cised, the period of restoration and return of feeling could by no 
means be calculated with any certainty. In a horse I neurotomized 
many years ago, belonging to the Artillery, sensation and lameness 
returned in two years, and he was in consequence sold, unfit for 
further service. But, in a horse of my own, on which I operated 
for navicularthritic lameness (whose case is mentioned in vol. xx), 
and thereby rendered sound, after having ridden him myself for 
upwards of two years, and then parted with him, sensation had 
not re-appeared. So far as the return of lameness is the question, 
one of the most extraordinary cases we have on record is that 
(Case I) of the late Mr. Castley (referred to in vol. xx), wherein 
the horse neurotomized returned to his duty, as a troop-horse, a 
month after the operation, and continued to do his duty for eight 
years afterwards; and even at the expiration of that length of 
time was not sold on account of any failing in his ci-devant lame 
limb, “ but for old age.” Although lameness had not returned, 
whether sensation had or had not we are not informed. The 
two conditions, although closely allied, and for the most part de¬ 
pendent, are not altogether so. As was stated before, cases, 
no doubt, arise in which changes of such a nature occur, either 
in the structure or function of the parts affected with the disease 


256 


NEUROTOMY. 


causing the lameness, as in time work the cure of that lameness, 
or, in other words, enable the animal to perform actions without 
pain, which in former times occasioned him more or less pain, and 
consequent lameness. Cases of this description, we repeat, may 
and do occur; though we are by no means sanguine enough of 
such results to hold out hopes of the kind to our employers. 

Neurotomy confined to one Leg holds out better prospects 
of success than when both (fore) feet are robbed of their nervous 
communication. We had occasion, at the commencement of this 
subject, to state that there was, under the more favourable circum¬ 
stances, some alteration occasioned by neurotomy in the action, 
either sensible to the by-stander or else to the rider. This, in 
one limb, might prove so slight as hardly to be perceived, though, 
existing in both, the alteration might turn out for riding any thing 
but what was pleasant. Added to which, in two legs, of course, 
there is more risk of failure from the operation than in one, and 
there is double risk afterwards, supposing both operations—or 
rather all four operations—turn out completely satisfactory. A 
reference to those cases of neurotomy in which success has proved 
most signal and lasting will shew that, for the most part, they 
have been lamenesses of one leg. Indeed, so formidable to our 
French veterinary brethren did neurotomy in both fore legs ap¬ 
pear, that they held it to be unwarrantable, nay, impracticable 
and dangerous. This, however, our own experience contradicts. 
Still, that neurotomist is in the happiest position who is called on 
to operate on one leg alone. Nor need he be under the appre¬ 
hension, which might enter his mind, that because neurotomy has 
restored one foot, the animal will fail in the opposite one. If he 
does fail after this manner, it will be from a translation of navi- 
cularthritis. 

Sequels of Neurotomy. Notwithstanding the precaution 
has been given before, it is one that may be given again, indeed 
can hardly be repeated too often, viz. that every injury or sign of 
injury to a foot or leg deprived of sensation, requires double care 
and attention on the part of the person tending on such horse, 
seeing that the animal, feeling no pain, will afford no indication of 
annoyance or suffering himself. The disregard of this plain and 
obvious injunction it is that proves the fruitful source of mis¬ 
chief in various forms, arising out of neurotomy certainly, but as 
certainly not fairly ascribable to neurotomy. A simple bruise 
or tread upon a leg or foot devoid of sensation may breed inflam¬ 
mation and festering of the part, and that may end in caries or 
quittor, or in something worse, and all owing either to neglect or 
wilful perseverance in wrong, after the mischief has declared itself. 


NEUROTOMY. 


257 


Of such accidents, or rather ill consequences of accidents, it would 
be useless to speak further; and therefore I shall dismiss these 
avoidable grievances to examine 

The other Class of Evils arising out of Neurotomy, 
such as proceed from improper use of the horse after the operation, 
or at least of such use of him as under the circumstances of his 
special case he is, and ought, probably, to have been known to be, 
not in a condition to endure. To suppose that every foot deprived 
of sensation upon which a horse, in consequence, goes sound, is 
to bear any kind or amount of work the owner of the horse chooses 
to impose upon it, is running in the face of all reason. It is true, 
horses have hunted, have performed cavalry exercise, have car¬ 
ried their riders through long and fast journeys on the road; have 
done extraordinary work in harness: it is equally true, however, 
that horses which have been neurotomized have failed from the 
moment they have been put to any hard work, or unusual effort, 
such having brought on inflammation and suppuration of the feet, 
followed by casting of the hooves, fracture of the navicular bone, 
rupture of the long flexor tendon at its place of insertion, &c. 
These are evils which may not at all times be avoided; at the 
same time, we have no right to run in the very face of them by 
putting a neurotomized horse to severe or trying work, whose foot 
or feet, though he go sound, are not, from all we can judge from 
appearances and circumstances, in a condition to bear it. 

Can a Horse that has been subjected to Neurotomy be 
CALLED Sound 1 —“Most certainly, no!” replies our late honoured 
colleague, Mr. Youatt; and he pertinently adds, “ There is 
altered, impaired structure; impaired action, and a possibility of 
"the return of lameness at some indefinite period. Let the horse 
be ever so free from lameness, he has been disabled—he possibly 
is diseased now; but the pain which usually accompanies the 
disease being removed, there are no means by which it (the pre¬ 
sumed or supposed disease) can be indicated.” So far so good. 
But let us put the case in a somewhat different light: it may be 
a strained light, but still the case has happened, and may again 
happen. Supposing a horse restored to soundness through neuro¬ 
tomy ,* and supposing he continues to go sound for several years— 
nay, for life, afterwards; and supposing satisfactory proof to be 
given, that in the said horse’s originally lame and senseless foot 
the power of feeling can be proved to have returned ; and to this 
add, that, after the most searching examination, no sign of existing 
disease is disclosed. Is such a horse to be regarded, in the eye of 
law or equity, as sound or unsound 1 We leave the question for 
the “ judges,” as well of horses as of law, to determine. 





258 


THE VETERINARY PROFESSION. 

By EDWARD Mayhew, M. R.C. V.S. Spring-st., Sussex Gardens. 

To the Editor of" The Veterinarian 

Sir,— However much I may lament the necessity, the circum¬ 
stances which surround us leave no choice. Once more am I 
obliged to be silent upon those subjects which are of general 
interest and scientific importance, that I may again speak to the 
profession of matters which the Professors have made notorious. 
How long the mercenary motives and arrogant pretensions of three 
or four individuals are to distract the minds and retard the useful¬ 
ness of the veterinary body it is hard to conjecture. The duration 
of the evil seems to be limited only by the patience of the minister 
for the Home Department, and some persons are very tolerant of 
others’ wrongs. So long, however, as the annoyance is permitted 
to exist, even for such a period must those who have feelings to 
express make their voices heard. I have no pride in the dispute, 
and no desire to keep alive the bitterness of sentiment to which it 
has given rise. Sincerely do I wish the affair were ended. Still, 
conscious that the right is with our cause, and convinced that jus¬ 
tice is on our side, there is now no disposition to retreat. The 
time when compromise was possible has passed. The battle must 
be fought: let those who have provoked the strife abide the issue. 

No man must allow his energies to be damped by words. Pro¬ 
mises are easily made, and more easily broken. Declarations of 
what is meant should now be received with caution. Facts have 
been made known, and these alone ought to be regarded. The 
act should shew the motive: if the one is upright, the other can¬ 
not be crooked. To actions, therefore, we have now to look : it is 
deeds we have to deal with. By these let the designs be inter¬ 
preted ; and what do they exhibit when the intentions of the Pro¬ 
fessors are deduced from that which they have attempted in the 
draft of a proposed new charter 1 

The preamble to that document sets forth the long-felt grievance 
that veterinary practitioners do not enjoy those privileges and ex¬ 
ceptions which the members of the medical profession are entitled 
to. The statement is not to be denied. So far as it may contain 
a mere acknowledgment of a notorious fact, it is w’orth something : 
beyond that, however, it is of no value. The question is not now 
for the first time proposed, nor is the sympathy it implies to be 
depended upon. It is an empty plea put forth to catch the thought¬ 
less and impose upon the weak. The subject did not demand the 
advocacy of the petitioners in order to attract notice. It has been 
for some time before the Council. A committee has been appointed 


THE VETERINARY PROFESSION. 


259 


to take those measures necessary for bringing the matter before 
the legislature: as members of Council the Professors ought to 
have known this. They should have been aware that the Com¬ 
mittee referred to waited only until the registration list was per¬ 
fected to pursue their labours. They ought not to require to be 
told that the Council have been and are desirous of getting intro¬ 
duced into Parliament a bill to relieve the veterinary profession 
from the liabilities to which they are injuriously exposed. The 
plan for accomplishing this object has been prepared ; and till it 
had been tried, and had failed, the voluntary assumption of the 
leadership was not called for. That post was filled—the ground 
was occupied : and the gratuitous appearance of the Professors 
will not expedite the victory. Interference, however, may create 
confusion—two parties struggling to gain one end may cause im¬ 
pediment. Such a result might not be objectionable to those who, 
having private purposes to serve, wished only to raise a party, 
and to take the lead. 

Now, how far the generosity of the plea was genuine mav be 
conjectured from the clauses which the proposed new charter con¬ 
tains. Whether that instrument was concocted to advance our 
science or enrich our body, let those who have perused it say. 
Let any one who has read its clauses declare if, supposing it pos¬ 
sible the provisions they contain could be authorized, the vete¬ 
rinary profession would be benefitted. 

The forty-eighth clause directs, that any person who shall possess 
a diploma from any of the universities, or from any veterinary 
school,—no matter where such school may be—in any colony, or 
in foreign parts, or from any medical college or society, shall be¬ 
come a member of the veterinary profession after he has attended 
the lectures of one session. 

It is not my wish to write one word which might savour of dis¬ 
respect for the medical profession. To the labours of that noble 
and learned body I acknowledge myself indebted. Two-thirds of 
my little library is composed of medical works. I consult their 
writings when in difficulty, and I rarely do so without being 
assisted by the information they afford. I am proud of the debt I 
owe, and wish not to deny it: at the same time I must admit, that 
however close may be the principles, the practice of the two pro¬ 
fessions is widely separated.* He who has learned to treat the 
human being has not therefore acquired the power to administer 
to the diseases of the lower animals. When the surgeon essays 
to cure his horse, the animal generally dies. This fact is so well 
known, that cow doctors and farriers even are aware of it. The 
study of human surgery seems rather to unfit than to prepare the 
mind for veterinary knowledge. Numerous are the instances of 


260 


THE VETERINARY PROFESSION. 


gentlemen who have attempted to overcome the difficulties, but at 
present I cannot recollect an exception to the rule. Such being 
the case, and the fact being so established, I cannot comprehend 
the reason why the gentlemen who seem to be most disqualified 
should be required to attend the shorter period to their studies. I 
know much of the physiology of man applies to brutes. The ana¬ 
tomy of the one animal is not, perhaps, very different from that of 
those creatures which are immediately below him. The pathology 
is greatly similar, and the drugs employed in both cases are the 
same. Yet the habits are not alike—the developments are not 
parallel—the symptoms are adverse, and the doses are opposed. 
The principles are united; but in their application they are wide 
asunder. He who leaving one pursuit would embrace the other, 
may have learned much; but he also has acquired habits and 
modes of thought which he will find it almost impossible to dis¬ 
card. He may enter on the task theoretically prepared to master 
it, but he soon discovers that the preparation gives him no advan¬ 
tage. Disappointed of the assistance which the answers to his 
inquiries afforded, and deprived of those reliances on which he has 
been tutored to depend, he soon becomes confused, and abandons 
his new profession, not because he could not learn, but because he 
was unable to forget. 

Could it be possible to enrol among the veterinary profession the 
names of gentlemen who by their writings contribute so largely to 
its advancement, every member of our body would rejoice. Of that, 
however, there is little hope : it would be folly to expect it. The 
respectable desire to assist; but they are not eager to be classed 
amongst us. They are our superiors; and, as such, I feel no 
shame to acknowledge them. On scientific grounds we labour to 
be equal; but in social position we are inferior. To offer a phy¬ 
sician worthy of the name a veterinary diploma is ridiculous— 
to ask a surgeon to resign the lancet for the drawing-knife, is ob¬ 
viously a folly. Apothecaries would not find it profitable to quit 
the chamber for the stable. As a class we are poorly estimated, 
and even more lowly paid. We have neither wealth nor dignity 
to tempt the prudent to come amongst us : there may, perhaps, be 
some few who might desire any change. In every profession 
there are to be found those who by misfortune or imprudence have 
been rendered reckless. The cause may be regretted, but the 
condition it induces is not to be admired. Such might find an 
easy entrance to the veterinary art a welcome refuge; but against 
their admission 1 protest. Humble as we are, we have yet a cha¬ 
racter to maintain. I protest against our profession being made 
the refuge of the desperate or debased. Low as we are we have 
yet some pride. I protest against our profession being made a 


THE VETERINARY PROFESSION. 


261 


cheap and ready resort for every man who, having wearied out his 
friends and ruined his expectations, may manage to scrape together 
twenty guineas and a winter’s board. 

The Professors, probably, might see a benefit in the entrance fee; 
and, not being themselves in practice, the consequences of such 
additions to our number might not alarm them. They thrive by 
teaching, and pupils are all they want. Let the class be large, and 
what takes place beyond the College walls will not affect them. 
Possibly they may think the general degradation makes more con¬ 
spicuous their respectability. The contrast might be gratifying ; 
but I trust it never will be seen. It might, however, soon be 
witnessed, could the proposed new charter be established. The 
foregoing clause was bad enough; but the fiftieth far exceeds it. 
The trap is here so thinly baited, that the intent is seen. The 
object evidently is to increase the school. Diplomas, it is pro¬ 
posed, should be in the master’s giving; and the way to gain 
them is made very smooth. All obstacles are removed, and every 
class or state has its advantage. It is true, apprenticeship is men¬ 
tioned ; but that difficulty is tenderly considered. We know some 
agriculturists imagine, that he who has not been used to cattle 
may be of little service on a farm. There may be a few who 
think a veterinary surgeon should know how to approach a beast 
without alarming it, or being himself afraid. Men have said the 
students raw from Saint Pancras have killed the cow they were 
called in to cure. Such accusations have been heard; and, there¬ 
fore, to overcome the prejudice, this clause provides for due 
apprenticeship. Apprenticed the candidate for a diploma must 
have been, for so the proposed new Charter stringently insists. 
The only point is, with whom he shall have served 1 What can 
that matter 1 Those who think apprenticeship imperative towards 
the qualification of the practitioner shall be indulged. Let them 
take the word, and ask no more; for if they inquire further they 
will not be pleased. Three years spent with a surgeon, an 
apothecary, a druggist, or a farrier, will satisfy the College. The 
country doctor of some distant village, who takes a boy to eke his 
income out, and finds that idleness renders the younker wild, can 
cancel his indentures; and when the lad is ruined, turn him over 
to Saint Pancras for a Yet. How much knowledge most youths 
gain by such apprenticeships the Report of the House of Com¬ 
mons Select Committee may declare. The farmer, possibly, would 
not find the future race of veterinary surgeons much improved; 
and the agricultural interests might not be well advanced by the 
aid of those who were incompetent to mix a draught or make a 
pill. The practitioners’ cast off would be bad indeed; and yet the 
chemists’ torment would be worse. The one might have ridden to 

VOL. XXI. N ri 


262 


THE VETERINARY PROFESSION. 


a case, and on his journey have looked upon a cow. Neither 
horse nor ox to him might be quite strange. The other, however, 
coming from the academy to the shop, throwing away his books 
to take the pestle up, and never leaving the counter save when 
there was physic to take out, would be well qualified to pass 
quickly through the veterinary school. It is true, he in his 
master’s place would mix up drinks and pack up balls. He 
would in the window see a plaster horse; and occasionally he 
would compound a strange specific for a cat. Such education, in 
the Professors’ eyes, would fit the lad at once to take the lead in the 
shed, the stable, or the forge. Those who concocted the proposed 
new Charter thought the druggist’s ’prentice equal to the vete¬ 
rinary surgeon’s pupil, and offer to certify the fact. They ask 
the ministry to charter them to propagate so gross a falsehood. 
They have obtained the sanction of the Highland and Agricultural 
Society to the enormity. The governors of the Royal Veterinary 
College back up the outrage; and, to crown the whole, the 
monstrous untruth is officially presented to the Throne. 

Common sense revolts at the hardihood which dared advance this 
infamous proposal; but, if possible, even that is surpassed by what 
succeeds, if every country chemist is to write Member of the Royal 
College of Veterinary Surgeons above his door, and in his person to 
unite trade and profession, every fellow who lingers about a mews 
or travels to cut pigs (either of which might be made to constitute 
the veterinary art) is to take apprentices, and to send them up as 
candidates for our diplomas. The would-be Charter seeks the 
recognition of a class, yet contains a clause acknowledging an order 
which its intent and purpose is to repudiate. If the pupil is to be 
accepted, why is not the teacher to be embraced] When the 
farrier’s ’prentice is admitted, why should the farrier be repulsed ] 
What the one could claim for learning much, the other might de¬ 
mand for knowing all. 

Such are but two of the contemplated clauses in the proposed 
draft of a new charter. The profession will do well to consider 
them. The object is too plain to be mistaken. The design lies 
so openly upon the surface, that no man can fail to see it. The 
Professors want the pupils, from whom they get their incomes, and 
for all else they care not. Let the fees be numerous, and they 
can smile at consequences, which, however fatal to the profession 
on whose merits they urge their prayer, will have filled the pockets 
g!’ the men who, within the College walls, are not likely to be 
affected by them. Treachery more flagrant, or selfishness more 
abhorrent, was never displayed. It should be published and made 
known. The veterinary practitioner should think well of the men 
who have presumed to make farriers his equals, and chemists his 


THE VETERINARY PROFESSION. 


263 


competitors The members of our profession ought not to lightly 
view the individuals who have proposed to swamp their interests 
by throwing open the door to every scapegrace, and welcoming 
the advent of every vagabond who wants a pretence to cover his 
dishonesty. 

Agriculturists should not overlook the anxiety displayed by 
those with whom some of them act in concert. While their re¬ 
quest to have apprenticeship instituted is acceded to, they ought 
to mark the manner in which the principle has been evaded. 
Remembering the losses they have sustained, they should observe 
the care taken for their future security. The honour of the trans¬ 
action, and the integrity of the dealing, should be investigated. 
The property of a class is interested, the advancement of science 
is involved. A large and important principle must not be allowed 
to be made subservient to individual gain. 

Against the proposed new Charter, all who are interested in the 
progress of the veterinary art, are bound to move. It is not a 
narrow squabble which it concerns. The question embraces more 
than I dare here point out. Let none be idle. The time has passed 
when a merely passive position was commendable. If the pro¬ 
posed grant could receive the royal signature, the aristocracy and 
wealth of England would speedily find reason to petition that 
it might be revoked. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Edward Mayhew. 


THE VETERINARY PROFESSION. 

By Thomas Wright, M.R.C.V.S., Brighton. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian .” 

Sir,—A LONG time has now elapsed since any contribution from 
my pen appeared in The VETERINARIAN : still I have from time 
to time, with feelings of the greatest satisfaction not altogether 
unmingled with anxiety, perused the information contained in its 
pages; and I should feel that I failed in my duty towards the 
gentlemen with whom is entrusted the welfare of our Charter, if 
I did not, in return for the energetic exertions they have made and 
are daily making to protect our rights from violation, express to 
them my most sincere thanks, and congratulate them most cordially 




264 


THE VETERINARY PROFESSION. 


upon the success which has hitherto attended their well-directed 
efforts. Such a course as the one so rigorously pursued by them 
ought and must ultimately effect its object. Failure is impossible; 
and future generations will with pride refer to the members of that 
Council who, in the time of faction and trouble, maintained their 
Charter pure and inviolate, that it might descend to their inheritors 
as a boon worthy of acceptance and of general usefulness instead 
of being, as it otherwise must be, an empty, worthless, appendage. 

The profession are most seriously alive to the occurrences past 
and passing; but their confidence is so implicit in their Council, 
that they are content to rely entirely upon their vigilance and 
integrity. The time, however, has now arrived, says Mr. Mayhew, 
when “ If that the Charter have the support of the profession, the 
fact must be demonstrated; ” and it is with a full concurrence in 
this assertion that I now address you, fearing that I may not be at 
liberty to attend the general meeting. 

Upon taking a retrospective view of' all that has appeared, and 
considering all the probable advantages and disadvantages which 
would arise in the event of the present veterinary schools with¬ 
drawing themselves from the corporate body, or if that they, by 
illegal acts, should place themselves beyond the pale of the existing 
Charter, I am decided in the opinion that such an event, instead 
of being in any way feared, ought rather to be rejoiced at, if that 
a total reform does not take place in their operations. And I con¬ 
sider, moreover, the veterinary profession to be forcing a derogation 
upon their Council if they do not come forward and take upon them¬ 
selves the entire responsibility of such a change, and empower their 
Council to demand an instant cessation of hostilities, or at once 
proceed to the putting into execution such plans as shall for ever 
prevent the possible recurrence of such exceedingly disagreeable 
misunderstandings. 

Why may not the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons have 
a school of its own? What are the objections, and wherefore are 
we to be beholden to parties out of the profession for the use of a 
school for the instruction of those anxious to become members of 
the corporate body 1 The St. Pancras School is certainly an edifice 
not calculated either from its external appearance or internal 
management, to reflect any very great degree of credit on the pro¬ 
fession at large. Besides, the progressive spirit of the times calls 
loudly for an institution better in every respect than either of those 
now in existence. A new school, of which every regularly qualified 
veterinary surgeon would be eligible to become a member and 
have a voice in the general management of its affairs, would at 
once receive the decided support of the whole profession, who, 
having an interest in its welfare, would be certain to employ all 


VETERINARY BOARDS OF EXAMINATION. 


265 


the various means at their command to secure its advancement; 
and thus would be achieved a signal victory over the grievous 
annoyances to which we are now continually subjected. 

The schools, now big with self-importance, w r ould then receive 
the reward they appear so long to have studied to deserve. A 
few years would find them fallen beneath the significance of a 
body determined in the worthy ambition of raising themselves to 
that elevated position whence empiricism and all its attendants are 
viewed with ridicule, contempt, and disgust. 

Your’s very truly. 

Horse Infirmary, Castle Street^ 

April 10th, 1848. 


VETERINARY BOARDS OF EXAMINATION. 

By Mr. W. Whittle. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian .” 

Sir,— In your last number there is an anonymous advertisement 
respecting the appointment of “ certain Boards of Examination,’ 
and letters from Mr. Mayhewand Mr. Cherry on the same subject, 
with reference to which I beg to offer a few remarks, hoping you 
will insert them in your next publication. 

I am one of the numerous individuals intending to present my¬ 
self at the ensuing examination here, and, if successful in passing, 
shall obtain one of the “ certificates or diplomas,” which the ad¬ 
vertisement states, “ are not valid, and will not confer any of the 
rights, privileges, or immunities granted to the body politic and 
corporate,” and will not “ be any guarantee of the qualification of 
the person practising.” Will you, Sir, be kind enough to inform 
others, and myself, who cannot attach any importance to these 
statements, what there is in the Charter which “ renders certificates 
or diplomas not valid,” when granted by other boards of examina¬ 
tion than those for which it provides ] Is there any thing in the 
Charter which prevents men who are not members of the body 
politic from practising the veterinary art, when they gain the con¬ 
fidence of the public] Having pursued the curriculum of study 
entitling me to appear before the Board of the Royal College of 
Veterinary Surgeons, if, for my own reasons, I prefer presenting 
myself before another examining body of superior efficiency and 
respectability, what is there in the Charter entitling any one to call 
in question my “qualification” as a practitioner of the veterinary 




266 


VETERINARY BOARDS OF EXAMINATION. 


art. Perhaps, too, you will be kind enough to inform me, what 
really valuable “ rights, privileges, or immunities,” a member of 
the body politic will enjoy, of which I shall be deprived, provided 
my professional capabilities are considered by the public equal 
to his. 

I am ignorant of the management of the institution to the abuses 
of which the greater part of Mr. Mayhew’s letter refers; but I am 
convinced that, from the manner and circumstances under which 
his statements are made, they will but at best, and if correct, fall 
pointless on your readers. In speaking of the subject, and the 
Board of Examiners to which I am especially alluding, there are 
other remarks of his which more immediately concern me. His 
statement, that “ no man of character could sit on such a board” 
had better have been withheld until he had seen of whom the 
board was to be composed. I can assure him that this gratuitous 
testimony to character will not apply to the Edinburgh Board, 
which consists of men to whom no one can possibly impute want 
of character or reputation, without being thoroughly ashamed of 
the existing Board of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons 
which examines at this school. 

We have had enough of examiners of whom the remark would 
have been peculiarly appropriate, as alluding to men whose know¬ 
ledge of the English language can scarcely render them intelligible 
to those they address, and whose only public appearances are as 
annual Examiners for the body politic. A candidate rejected by 
such a Board suffers little disgrace; a person possessing a diploma 
with such names attached, may become a member of the body po¬ 
litic and corporate, yet he cannot but consider that ten guineas 
spent on such a document is wasted, whilst there is a chance of 
obtaining another signed by men of known scientific reputation, 
before whom it is a true honour to pass a successful examination, 
and by whom it is a real disgrace to be rejected. 

Mr. Mayhew says, that the assertion regarding the establishment 
of another Examining Board is a “puerile” threat—that the “idea 
is preposterous,”—and makes other vague and premature assertions 
in endeavouring to ridicule the probability of such a measure being 
carried out. It seems, however, that he is really “ fearing the 
possibility of such an event,” and admits that, when diplomas are 
granted by two different examining bodies, “ the false and true 
paper will be confounded.” So far, indeed, has this fear gone, 
that a model of the Crest of the Royal College has been prepared 
for the members of the Incorporation. But does it not occur to 
Mr. Mayhew, that if the diploma of the Royal College stand in 
need of any other than its own recommendation, it will surely be 
most humiliating for its possessors to be driven to the “ puerile ” 


VETERINARY BOARDS OF EXAMINATION. 


267 


necessity of putting their trust in a graven image, even though it 
be that of a monster which “ rears boldly up, firmly grasping the 
shield]” 

Mr. Cherry’s letter is but an echo of Mr. Mayhew’s remarks 
regarding the subject alluded to. It were well had he adduced 
something new in support of the vague, and, as yet, unproved as¬ 
sertions which he so unaccountably reiterates nearly word for word, 
and which fail to convince the reader of any thing, except that he 
has nothing to say. 

He asks, “ what of instruction is to be meted out, what is to be 
the standard of knowledge to enable a candidate to appear before 
such a board, and possess himself of such a valueless document ] 
It cannot be high, when, if rumour does not lie, one who is incapa¬ 
ble of writing his own name may probably be a candidate.” Here 
is nothing but hypothesis on Mr. Cherry’s part, and, consequently, 
nothing tangible in the question he both puts and answers. I will 
endeavour to supply him with a reply of more general application 
than his own : it is this—There are students going before “ such a 
board,” who are entitled by apprenticeship and attendance at col¬ 
lege to appear before the Examiners of the Royal College of Ve¬ 
terinary Surgeons. The instruction which has been “ meted out ” 
to them is what the Council has hitherto accepted as admitting to 
examination, and would, I doubt not, have gladly accepted again 
had we given the opportunity. There is less shame in a person 
probably being a candidate who is incapable of writing his own 
name, than in the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons having 
Examiners who cannot write legibly, or spell anything like correctly 
the words and questions they employ, and which they cannot even 
articulate in intelligible English. 

Mr. Cherry would oblige me if he would state what there is 
in the Charter, or in any existing law, which constitutes members 
of the incorporation alone eligible for army veterinary surgeons. 
Let him point out, by reference to specific laws and regulations, 
not by reiterating his own assertions, what there is to prevent the 
examination of any individual possessing the necessary attain¬ 
ments, or what there is to hinder his appointment if found pro¬ 
fessionally competent. 

But by certain parties appointing a Board to examine their own 
pupils, it is asked —“ Whether by such acts they do not place 
the schools beyond the pale of the Charter ]” If the schools in¬ 
struct those students who wish to become members of the body 
politic in the way and under the conditions specified by the Char¬ 
ter, what further have they to do with the Charter, or the Charter 
with them ] If students wish to be educated, and never intend 
becoming members of the corporate body, must the schools deny 


NEUROTOMY. 


268 

x, & / 

them admission ] I apprehend the schools can do well enough 
without the Charter,—much better than the Charter can do with¬ 
out them. Where else than from the schools must the funds come 
from ] for the Charter does not seem so highly prized as to call 
forth from the body politic that pecuniary aid of which the Coun¬ 
cil seems so much in need. Instead of being the much-vaunted 
boon, by conferring rights, privileges, and immunities, it seems 
to have disgusted the profession, from which, as could but be ex¬ 
pected, the Council receives apathetic indifference in return. 

With regard to the “Register” as a security to the Incorpora¬ 
tion, it seems to me much of the same value as the graven image 
which is being set up. If the Registry is so valuable, how is it 
that, after some years’ existence as a corporate body, no public 
accredited list of members has been published by the Registrar 
General I The members of the profession must care little about 
the matter not to make that functionary aware of their existence 
and locality; or, if they have given him the required information, 
he must have been remiss in not publishing the list referred to. 

In short, Sir, I believe, along with most others, that the pro¬ 
fession has yet to be convinced of any value the Charter may 
possess in conferring rights, privileges, or immunities. The Pub¬ 
lic is the arbiter which will decide whether a man will fail or suc¬ 
ceed in professional life. A man may go forth to the world a 
thoroughly able and scientific practitioner, without being a mem¬ 
ber of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, and his claims 
for public support will not rest on the decision of that body. If 
he does not possess the needful scientific and practical qualifica¬ 
tions, he will assuredly fail, although a member of the body poli¬ 
tic and corporate; and not even their diploma, or registration, and 
much less their graven image, will render him any assistance. 

I am, Mr. Editor, 

Your most obedient humble servant. 

George Street, Edinburgh, 

17 April, 1848. 


NEUROTOMY. 

By J. G. Webb. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian." 

Sir,—HAVING had frequent opportunities of witnessing the 
effect of neurotomy on horses, the following results may not be 
unacceptable to some of your veterinary readers. 




NEUROTOMY. 


269 


Case I 

Was a chestnut mare, sixteen hands high, possessing great mus¬ 
cular power, temperate with hounds, and very fast, well known to 
the Puckeridge Hunt. She fell lame in the navicular joint, for 
which she was blistered and fired without any beneficial result. 
She was then sold to a gentleman in town, who had the operation 
of neurotomy performed on both legs above the joint; after which 
she went sound, but with an apparent loss of speed. 

Case II. 

A well-bred chestnut mare, fifteen hands high, who had been 
hunted in Surrey. She had navicular lameness. I operated on 
her under the joint, and excised about an inch of the plantar nerve: 
she went sound, but lost her pace, and was sold to go in harness. 


Case III. 

A beautiful well-bred bay horse, sixteen hands high, well known 
with the Surrey hounds. He had a navicular lameness, was bled 
in the foot, blistered, and fired round the coronet. 

I told the owner that he had performed an useless operation, and 
advised him to have the horse neurotomized; but to this he would 
not consent. After a long rest he appeared much better, and was 
then ridden with the hounds; when, on the first day, he became 
as lame as ever. A few days afterwards I bought him for a small 
sum, and divided the metacarpal nerve in the near fore leg, after 
which he went perfectly sound. 1 kept him two months as my - 
hack about town. I then sold him to a dealer, telling him he had 
been neurotomized. He wished to see him perform; and, conse¬ 
quently, we had a spirt across the country for two miles, when I 
found he could neither go the pace nor in the style that he for¬ 
merly did; and in one down-hill jump he brought his fore foot so far 
under him as to strike my stirrup; all which I conceived to be the 
consequence of the operation. I, however, sold him to the dealer, 
who afterwards sold him to a crack steeple-chase rider. He after¬ 
wards carried a lady with the Surrey hounds. 

Case IV. 

A compact, strong, and clever horse with hounds, but navicu- 
larly lame. I was consulted by the owner, whom I told that the 
only cure would be the nerve operation, to which he consented. 

VOL. XXI. O 0 


270 FALSE PRESENTATION IN A HEIFER. 

I operated on the near fore leg above the joint. He afterwards 
went sound, but clambered in his gallop, and could not go his 
former pace. He was ultimately sold to hunt in Essex. 

Case V. 

The Chief, a steeple-chase horse. As regards the lameness 
of this horse, there were a variety of opinions. I was consulted, 
and stated it to be navicular. He was sent to me to be operated 
on. I excised a portion of the metacarpal nerve. He afterwards 
went sound—was put into training—ran second in the first 
steeple-chase in which he was engaged ; and in the second, while 
contesting the race with another, to be first at the post, his hind 
foot unfortunately became fixed in the heel of the fore foot of the 
leg on which he had been operated, and he came down, tearing 
the flexor tendon to threads. He was in this condition destroyed. 

As my mode of operation is different from that which is generally 
adopted, and as it may not be unworthy the consideration of prac¬ 
titioners, permit me to state it. Instead of making the incision 
down the leg, I make it transversely. The consequence of this 
is, if well performed, that the cicatrix can scarcely be detected: 
the hair growing over it, and completely covering it from above, 
renders it altogether imperceptible to the eye. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant. 

April 15 th, 1848. 

*** Will Mr. Webb kindly inform us if he practises the transverse 
operation below as well as above the fetlock ; and if he finds any 
difficulty in excising the nerve through it; and whether it occa¬ 
sions, afterwards, any protraction in the healing of the external 
wound?—E d. Yet. 


FALSE PRESENTATION IN A HEIFER, AND 
DIFFICULT PARTURITION. 

By John Younghusband, V.S. Grey stoke. 

Sir, — In looking over some loose memoranda, I found the 
following case of false presentation and difficult parturition; and 
as the season is approaching when we may expect to meet with 
cases of the above description, I perhaps may be excused for nar¬ 
rating some of its particulars. 




FALSE PRESENTATION IN A HEIFER. 


271 


A friend and employer of mine, a Mr. Harper, residing in the 
neighbourhood, had out at winterage some cattle (not having 
sufficient forage at home to keep them) distant some three or four 
miles off. He occasionally went to visit them. On one of these 
visits he found a fine four-year-old heifer labouring under a state 
which clearly indicated that manual assistance would be now 
necessary; so he immediately retraced his steps, and called upon 
me for help. On my arriving at the patient’s domicile, on a very 
cursory glance, I quite expected I should have some sharp work to 
do, seeing the head and neck had already protruded, and that to 
their full extent, and had become (either from the parts being 
exposed to the action of the atmosphere or from having been so 
long strangulated, or, perhaps, partly from both causes) quite livid, 
and were emitting a strong cadaverous odour. The head and neck 
being in this situation, and no fore feet appearing as in a natural 
presentation, to make any attempt to search for them in the tumefied 
state of the head and neck was next to impossible; and to offer to 
return the parts, as suggested by a looker-on, would have been 
worse than useless. So I went to work, and by a circular incision 
made quite round the neck, close behind the ears, divided the skin 
all round, dissected it as far backwards as I could, disarticulated 
the vertebrae, and separated the head and neck from the rest of 
the body. Placing the loose portion of skin over the divided 
end of the bone, I proceeded to push the part back into the uterus. 
My next step was to bring the fore feet and legs into a right posi¬ 
tion, which was also done without much difficulty. After having thus 
got the parts into a favourable position, I fixed a crotchet into the 
upper and back part of the neck, placed a cord around each fore leg, 
and confided them to an assistant. By this I thought we had 
gained a powerful advantage, but we were sadly deceived; for, 
from the emphysematous state of the foetus, delivery by this means 
was entirely hopeless. There was no way that I saw now of accom¬ 
plishing our purpose but by again having recourse to embyrotomy. 

I therefore proceeded to detach one of the fore legs and shoulder, 
which, by the help of an assistant pulling strongly at the 
parts and an active use of the knife, was accomplished in a short 
time. We now tried again to extract the parts remaining ; but in 
this we were again foiled. For, after having drawn out the re¬ 
maining fore leg and shoulder, we found an insuperable bar to our 
proceedings from the immense size of the thorax and abdomen. 
My next act was to make an opening into the internal parts of the 
body, and this I did by cutting out a portion of the anterior ribs, &c. 
by which opening the contents of the thorax were evacuated. 
Pushing my hand on through the diaphragm, I succeeded in re- 


272 FALSE PRESENTATION IN A HEIFER. 

moving the contents of the abdomen also. Thus it appeared now 
we had almost gained our point, and the extraction seemed to be 
near a conclusion; when, lo ! as soon as the haunches of the foetus 
reached the bones of the pelvis we found ourselves at a stand still 
again; nor, with all our united efforts, could we gain any more 
advantage. Remembering at this time a similar case in a mare 
(where all attempts to deliver the hind extremities had proved 
fruitless until I was called in), I again had recourse to the knife, 
and divided the lumbar vertebrae, separated the adjoining muscles, 
and by this means got clear of all incumbrance save the hind 
quarters. From this last section I had gained so much room that 
I could introduce my hand and arm for examination, when I soon 
discovered the obstacle to our proceedings. The hind feet and legs 
had become impacted forward, and were pressing against the lower 
parts of the pelvis, in a manner resembling that of a dog sitting 
upon its haunches. By pushing the parts in utero back, and as it 
were head over heels, I easily gained hold of the hind feet, which 
without much manuduction were placed in a state to expedite de¬ 
livery ; and thus, as in a breech presentation, with the belly of the 
calf turned upwards, 1 easily succeeded in relieving the animal 
from her sufferings. 

All the while this was transacting, which, of course, occupied no 
short time, the animal remained firm and strong. Twice she had 
a little gruel offered, which she drank with avidity. Labour pains 
returned at intervals, but were neither strong nor lengthened. The 
case happened in the midst of winter, at a time when the ground 
was thickly covered with snow. The animal had been lying out 
during the winter, and up to the present time her owner had visited 
her. After she got quit of her burden she began to feed, and ap¬ 
peared as tranquil as could be expected in her situation. She was 
driven home next day, and needed little more afterwards than 
ordinary attention. 





273 


REVIEW. 



Quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid non.—Hon. 


Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and 

THE PANJUB; IN LADUKH AND KASHMIR; IN PESHAWAR, 

Kabul, Kundez, and Bokhara. By Mr. William 
Moorcroft and Mr. George TrebeCK, from, 1819 to 1825. 
Prepared for the Press from original Journals and Corre¬ 
spondence, by Horace Hayman Wilson, M.A. FR.S. In 
two vols. 8vo, pp. 439 and 508. Murray, London, 1841. 

The traveller whose name stands first in the above announce¬ 
ment, whose adventurous spirit and laudable ambition for profes¬ 
sional distinction first induced him to quit his native country for 
Hindustan, and subsequently led him amid the wild and unknown 
mountains of Central Asia, was originally brought up as a sur¬ 
geon, but afterwards was persuaded to quit that line of life for 
the study of veterinary science, at the instigation of no less a man 
than the celebrated John Hunter. To St. Bel is justly assigned 
the merit of being the founder of veterinary schools in Britain. 
He was the first Professor at the present Royal Veterinary Col¬ 
lege of London; though he was soon dislodged from his post of 
honour by death—too soon, indeed, to afford him time for carrying 
out plans he had in view, comprehensive and judicious, for the 
cultivation of an art up to that time, in our own country, in a 
sadly depressed and neglected condition. At St. Bel’s decease, 
the professorship fell into the joint hands of Moorcroft and Cole¬ 
man. This co-professorship, however, held together but a very 
short time. What the precise cause or nature of rupture was, we 
are hardly sufficiently well informed to trust ourselves to repeat; 
though, from all that has reached our ears pertaining thereto, we 
should feel but little hesitation in believing that Moorcroft, with 
his chivalrous spirit and ambitious bent of mind, was a person ill 
calculated to play second fiddle to any man, even supposing he 
could for any very long time content himself with equipollent 
sway. Moorcroft’s star appears to have been ever on the ascen¬ 
dant. And that it rose, even before he quitted England, to a 
more than ordinary height among veterinary constellations, and 
gave promise of still higher flights, we are, we think, in posses¬ 
sion of satisfactory evidence to shew; while the volumes before 
us—which, through the kind thoughtfulness of a valued friend 




274 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 


have recently been placed in our hands—bear within them ample 
testimony of the appliance of the same talent and energy in a 
sphere of research which, if not altogether alien to his professional 
pursuits, was at least sufficiently different from them to call for 
something beyond the mere flexibility and power of an ordinary 
mind. 

After seceding from the joint-professorship, leaving Coleman in 
sole possession thereof, Moorcroft opened an establishment on 
his own account in Oxford-street—the same which has since 
grown so extensive and flourishing under the no less universally 
known than respected name of FIELD. As a private practitioner, 
Moorcroft appears to have received the support of all the noble 
and opulent horse characters of his day ; and was, without doubt, 
in the road to fame as well as wealth. On this road, however, he 
was arrested by a handsome offer from the East India Company 
to embark for Hindustan ; and thither he immediately went in the 
lucrative and elevated situation of superintendent of the Com¬ 
pany’s studs. In this commanding station his chief duties became 
that of improving the native breeds of Indian horses. To a great 
extent he effected this by procuring the best stock the country 
around him afforded. At length, however, he felt the necessity of 
cross —of mingling foreign blood with the indigenous; and he 
became desirous, in order to bring this about with blood such as 
no other part of the world could afford him, of revisiting his native 
country. To this expedition the Company refused assent: the 
consequence was he was left to his Indian resources. Then it was 
that Moorcroft meditated travelling into the Himalayan provinces. 
Unexplored as these mountainous regions remained, he felt on that 
account the more anxious for such a trip; and he was joined in 
this spirit of research and adventure by a young, warm-hearted, 
talented friend, by the name of Trebeck. It was a bold and 
hazardous enterprise; but the minds of both our heroes were 
made up to it, little dreaming, poor fellows! that both of them 
would have to leave behind them their 

“ Stiffened corses, 

Stretched out and bleaching in the Himalayan blast.” 

The annexed biographical sketch of Mr. Moorcroft, from the 
pen of Mr. Wilson, the compiler of these volumes, will serve to 
fill a void in veterinary records; at the same time that it can 
hardly fail to prove an acceptable morceau to those who desire 
some acquaintance with the memory of a man who was, if not the 
very first, one of the first to drag our degraded art into notice, and 
give it something like such a form and rank as it has since shewn 
itself deserving of; though it may not, as yet even, to our full 
satisfaction, been able to attain thereunto. 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 275 

Mr. William Moorcroft, who is to be regarded as the originator 
of the journey, and the principal of the enterprise, was a native of 
Lancashire, and was educated at Liverpool for the profession of a 
surgeon. Upon the completion of the usual course of study, how¬ 
ever, his attention was diverted to a different pursuit, and he finally 
settled in London as a practiser of veterinary surgery. His reasons 
for the change are thus detailed in a letter written from Kashmir 
to a friend in London. 

“ Whilst a pupil of Dr. Lyon, the colleague of Dr. Currie at the 
Liverpool Infirmary, the attention of the physicians and surgeons 
of that institution was suddenly and strongly called to a formidable 
epidemic disease amongst the horned cattle of a particular district, 
and was thought to be extending. It was agreed to depute a pupil 
to examine the disease upon the spot. The choice fell upon me; 
and in company with a Mr. Wilson, the ablest farmer of the day, 
I performed my commission. As arising out of this occurrence, it 
is only necessary to remark, that two gentlemen, of whose judg¬ 
ment and patriotism I had the highest respect, took the trouble of 
endeavouring to shew, that if I were to devote myself to the im¬ 
provement of a degraded profession, closely connected with the in¬ 
terests of agriculture, I might render myself much more useful to 
the country than by continuing in one already cultivated by men 
of the most splendid talents. Convinced by their arguments, but 
opposed by other friends, and especially by my master, the matter 
was compromised by a reference to the celebrated John Hunter. 
After a long conversation with me, Mr. Hunter declared, that if he 
were not advanced in years, he himself would on the following day 
begin to study the profession in question. This declaration was 
decisive, and I followed the course of study which Mr. Hunter was 
pleased to indicate.” 

As there was no veterinary college in London at the time, Mr. 
Moorcroft went over to the continent, and resided for some period 
in France. On his return he settled in London, where, in conjunc¬ 
tion with Mr. Field, he carried on for some years a very prosperous 
and lucrative business. The nature of the profession, however, 
involved many occurrences unpleasant to a man of cultivated taste 
and warm temper, and, amidst intercourse with persons of station 
and respectability, collision with individuals not always possessed 
of either. Mr. Moorcroft, therefore, became disgusted with his oc¬ 
cupation, although he speedily realised a handsome property by it. 
A great portion of this, however, he lost in some injudicious project 
for manufacturing cast-iron horse shoes, and he readily, therefore, 
accepted an offer from the Court of Directors of the East India 
Company to go out to Bengal as superintendent of their military 
stud. He left England in May 1808, in the same fleet, though in 


276 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 


a different ship, with the writer of this notice, who, when he occa¬ 
sionally saw Mr. Moorcroft during the voyage, as the vessels 
spoke, or on their touching at Madeira, little anticipated that he 
should ever become his biographer. 

The Company’s stud was instituted for the purpose of improving 
the indifferent breed of horses indigenous in Hindustan, for the 
special service of their own cavalry. That the object had not been 
successfully prosecuted is to be inferred from the necessity of ob¬ 
taining scientific superintendence from England. That it was at¬ 
tained in a very eminent degree within a reasonable period after 
Mr. Moorcroft’s appointment, the observation of persons in India, 
however little conversant with the subject, could not fail to remark. 
In the letter above cited, Mr. Moorcroft observes, that, at the time 
he left the stud on his present travels, there was not above one 
horse diseased for ten that he had found when he took charge of 
it. This amendment he attributes, amongst other things, to the 
use of oats as food, the cultivation of which grain he introduced 
into Hindustan. In order, however, to improve essentially and 
permanently the cavalry horse of India, and especially in size and 
strength, Mr. Moorcroft strenuously urged the introduction of the 
Turkman or English in preference to the Arab horse. His repre¬ 
sentations were at one time so favourably considered by the authori¬ 
ties in India, that he was on the eve of being permitted to return 
to England to select a batch of suitable stallions; but the purpose 
was abandoned, and his thoughts were thenceforward fixed exclu¬ 
sively upon the neighbourhood of Balkh and Bokhara. This was 
the leading motive of his journey across the Himalaya, and this 
purpose prompted the second journey, which terminated fatally for 
his project and himself. 

Coupled with the conviction that the native cavalry horse of 
India could be ameliorated only by an infusion of the bone and 
blood of the Turkman steed, was an equally strong belief in Mr. 
Moorcroft’s mind of the possibility of establishing a commercial in¬ 
tercourse with the Trans-Himalayan districts, which should be 
highly advantageous to Great Britain. In some respects the 
belief was founded on sufficient premises. To the anticipation of 
an extensive demand for British fabrics, both of hardware and of 
woollen cloth, from the known absence of all manufacturing skill 
in the countries of Central Asia, and the necessity of warm cloth¬ 
ing imposed by the climate, was added an acquaintance with the 
fact, that these very articles, some of continental and some of British 
manufacture, found their way from Russia across the whole of the 
intervening regions, even to Afghanistan and the Panjub. To 
secure a part, if not the whole, of this commerce, was an object 
which Mr. Moorcroft entertained with the ardour and tenacity of 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 277 

bis character; for, as he observes of himself, “ his obstinacy was 
almost equal to his enthusiasm,” in which, however, for obstinacy, 
his friends would substitute perseverance. Accordingly, having 
wrung from the government of India a reluctant acquiescence in 
his journey to Bokhara for the purpose of procuring horses, he also 
obtained its permission to carry with him such articles of merchan¬ 
dize as he thought likely to be most in demand. The ultimate 
proceeds of these articles were to be expended in the purchase 
of horses, which were, in the first instance, to be offered to 
the Government for sale: such as they disapproved of were to be 
disposed of through other channels. The principle of the experi¬ 
ment was, no doubt, creditable to Mr. Moorcroft’s patriotism; but 
many disasters, and much delay—eventually the cause, perhaps, 
of his death—may be ascribed to his incumbering himself with 
heavy packages amidst impracticable routes, and amongst people 
who are little better than organized robbers, and who welcome the 
stranger merchant to their haunts merely that they may revel on 
his plunder.”— Preface . 

In the paragraph hereto subjoined, but which in the work pre¬ 
cedes the extract we have just concluded, Mr. Moorcroft appears 
in the noble character of an adventurous and intrepid explorer of 
countries unknown to other parts of the world, amid all the perils 
and dangers and countless obstacles with which such enterprizes 
must ever be beset. He was not a man, however, to be turned 
from his purpose. Exposure, fatigue, sickness, but delayed, frus¬ 
trated not his object. If, as an undaunted and undauntable traveller, 
he had a fault, it was probably that, at times, he would assume a 
little authority beyond what he was legitimately armed with, and 
hence some little bickering on occasions between John Company 
and himself. There was also one other little point on which John 
and he did not exactly hit it, and that was the exchequer he was 
during his travels furnished with or permitted to draw upon as 
necessity required. That Moorcroft was either particularly econo¬ 
mical or particularly scrupulous, we think no one who reads his 
“ Travels” will discover : at the same time that he was—what we 
have asserted him to be—a man of first-rate talent, indomitable 
energy, and untiring perseverance, we think will everywhere 
appear; and, as such, could, properly managed, have proved 
nothing short of a most valuable servant to the Company, at the 
same time that he was promoting science in every commendable 
manner. With these few remarks, we shall continue our extracts 
from the “ Preface” of the work, leaving those we have made from 

the " Travels” to another occasion. 

* * * 

pp 


VOL. XXI. 


278 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 


“ The most enterprising, and, in a great measure, the most suc¬ 
cessful efforts to penetrate into Central Asia from Hindostan, have 
been made by, or have originated with, Mr. William Moorcroft; 
and these were undertaken not only without the encouragement of 
the government of India, but without their expressed approbation. 
A cold permission was Mr. Moorcroft’s only incitement beyond the 
stimulus of a speculative mind and an enterprising disposition. 
His first attempt, which was made by way of Chinese Tartary, has 
been long the property of geographers, having been published in 
the twelfth volume of the Asiatic Researches. In this journey he 
was the first European to cross the Himalaya, and make his way 
to the great plain between that and the Kuenlun chain, the situa¬ 
tion of the sources of the Indus and the Sutlej, and of the two 
remarkable lakes of Kavan and Manasa. Besides the natural 
difficulties of the way, he had to elude the vigilance of the Nepa¬ 
lese, then masters of the Himalaya, and who were on the eve of 
that war with the British which transferred the snowy moun¬ 
tains to the latter. Mr. Moorcroft had also to conciliate the Chinese 
authorities beyond the Himalaya; and, in spite of all obstacles, 
and of sickness, induced by exposure and fatigue, he accom¬ 
plished his purpose, ascertaining not only the valuable geographical 
facts, alluded to (the situation of the sacred lakes of the Hindus, 
and the upper course of two important rivers), but the region also 
of the shawl-wool goat, and opening a way for the importation of 
the wool into Hindustan, and finally into Britain. Mr. Moorcroft’s 
ulterior object, however, was to penetrate to Turkistan, to the 
country of a breed of horses which it was his great ambition to 

domesticate in India. 

***** 

“ Certain it is, that the government of India never recognized 
Mr. Moorcroft in any diplomatic capacity, and his supposed 

assumption of it occasionally incurred their displeasure. 

***** 

Part of the detention at Sadahk was owing to pecuniary diffi¬ 
culties. Unable to dispose of his merchandise at a fair price, the 
expense of maintaining his party, consisting of forty persons, for 
so long a period, exhausted Mr. Moorcroft’s finances, and he was 
obliged to negotiate bills upon his agents in Calcutta, through the 
Resident at Delhi —Sir David Ochterlong. That officer, pro¬ 
bably, did not consider himself authorised to advance money on 
the bills, at least without reference to Calcutta; some, therefore, 
he hesitated, some he refused to pay, and considerable delay en¬ 
sued, which, whilst it subjected Mr. Moorcroft to much anxiety, 
prevented his departure to Ladahk. This conduct of the chief 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 


*279 


authority at Delhi he deeply resented, and addressed him a letter, 
of which some extracts may seem to mark the warmth of his ieel- 

ings, both of resentment and gratitude. 

***** 

“ ‘When my days were racked with anxiety, my nights passed 
in sleeplessness,—when I saw only a refuge from loss of charac¬ 
ter in the miserable expedient of selling merchandise at one-third 
of its value, from a general combination of Kashmeri against me,— 
Providence raised up a friend in a native of Khojand, a trader of 
Yackland, whose feelings of respect for British merchants, im¬ 
pressed by accounts related to him in Russia, induced him to ad 

vance money to relieve my embarrassment.’ ” 

***** 

Mr. Moorcroft remained at Bokhara nearly five months. 

* * * * 1 * 

“He was received by the king with as much kindness as could 
be expected from Ahi Hyder—a selfish, sensual, and narrow¬ 
minded bigot; and after various diffiulties, arising from the mean¬ 
ness and cupidity, chiefly of the monarch himself, disposed of part 
of his goods, and effected the purchase of a number of valuable 
horses, with which he purposed to return to Hindustan. After 
crossing the Oxus, on his way back, about the 4th or 5th of 
August 1825, Mr. Moorcroft determined to deviate from the road, 
in order to go to Maimana, where he understood it was likely that 
he should be able to make important additions to his stock of 
horses. * Before I quit Turkistan,’ he writes from Bokhara, ‘1 
mean to penetrate into that tract which contains, probably, the 
best horses in Asia, but with which all intercourse has been sus¬ 
pended during the last five years. The experiment is full of 
hazard, but lejeu vaut bien la chandelle .’ His life fell a sacrifice 
to his zeal. At Andhko, where he spent some days in effecting 
purchases, he was taken ill with fever, and died. 

Of the particular circumstances of his death there is no satis¬ 
factory account, as he had quitted his party, and was attended by 
a few servants only, and a son of Wasir Ahmed, a Pirzada, or 
Mahommedan of a religious character, who had replaced Mir Jyzet 
Ullali as his native secretary and interpreter. It was reported that 
he had been poisoned; but there is no reason to believe that this 
was the case, although he had fallen amongst robbers, who seized 
upon his property, and put his followers into confinement. Such 
was the luckless fate of an individual who, whatever may be 
thought of his prudence or judgment, must ever stand high amongst 
travellers for his irrepressible ardour, his cheerful endurance, his 
inflexible perseverance in the prosecution of his objects, and his 
disinterested zeal for the credit and prosperity of his country. 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 


280 

The liberation of Mr. Moorcroft’s servants having been, with 
some difficulty, obtained by the efforts of the son of the Pirzada, 

they conveyed their master’s body to Balkh, where it was buried. 

* * * * * 

Deprived of a leader, the other members of the party dispersed, 
and the property being left without a responsible owner, was 
seized upon by Ata Khan, the mutawala, or manager of the holy 
shrine at Mazar. The son of Wasir Ahmed managed, however, to 
secure a few horses, some of the property, and most of the papers of 
Mr. Moorcroft, and with these effected his return to Kabul, where 
his arrival was announced to Mr. Charles Trebeck, by Gwendas 
Sinh, a banker of Kabul, from whose report the circumstances 
attending the death of the travellers, as here particularized, are 
derived. The accounts collected by Lieut. Burnes on the spot are 
somewhat different. 

“ The caravan assembled outside the city, near to another me¬ 
lancholy spot—the grave of poor Moorcroft—which we were con¬ 
ducted to see. Mr. Guthrie lies by his side. It was a bright 
moonlight night, but we had some difficulty in finding the spot. 
At last, under a mud-wall, which had been purposely thrown over, 
our eyes were directed to it. The bigoted people of Balkh refused 
permission to the travellers being interred in their burial-ground, 
and only sanctioned it near the city, upon condition of its being 
concealed, lest any Mahommedan might mistake it for a tomb of 
one of the true believers, and offer up a blessing as he passed by it. 
The corpse of Moorcroft was brought from Andhkoh, where he 
perished at a distance from his party. He was attended by a few 
followers, all of whom were plundered by the people. If lie died 
a natural death, I do not think he sank without exciting suspicion; 
he was unaccompanied by any of his European associates or con¬ 
fidential servants, and brought back lifeless on a camel, after a 
short absence of eight days. Mr. Trebeck’s health did not admit 

of his examining the body .”—Burnes Travels, i, 243. 

***** 

Mr. Moorcroft’s character as a traveller will also be best elicited 
from the perusal of his journals. In many respects he was most 
eminently qualified, and was not to be surpassed in determination, 
hardihood, endurance, and spirit of enterprise. His scientific attain¬ 
ments were strictly professional, and he had neither the preparatory 
training nor the means to investigate profoundly the mysteries of 
nature. Neither was he an oriental scholar or an antiquarian, al¬ 
though he had a practical use of some of the dialects of the East, 
and took a ready interest in the remains of antiquity which he 
encountered. His chief objects were on all occasions rural economy 
and manufactures, as he entertained a notion that much was to be 


CENTRAL SOCIETY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE OF PARIS. 281 


learned in both from the natives of the East, as well as to be com¬ 
municated to them. So much was he impressed with the capa¬ 
bilities of the countries he visited, and the advantages to be derived 
from the cultivation of their products, that it was his serious inten¬ 
tion to settle, upon his return, in the lower range of the Himalaya, 
and devote the rest of his life to the occupations of a farmer. 
With such views and impressions, therefore, much that recom¬ 
mends travels in the present day—liveliness of general descrip¬ 
tion, moving incidents by flood and field, and good-humoured 
garrulous self-sufficiency—are not to be looked for; but if the 
travels of Moorcroft and Trebeck are not quite so amusing as 
those of some more modern voyagers, it is to be hoped that they 
will more than compensate for the deficiency by merits of their 
own.” 


Extracts from Foreign Journals. 

The Central Society of Veterinary Medicine of Paris. 

Our Number for last month contained sketches of proceedings 
and addresses at this Society on the occasion of its opening (in 1846), 
and on that of its second meeting at the conclusion of 1847. We 
are now going to redeem the promise we then made of giving 
abstracts from the reports made at these two annual meetings, be¬ 
ginning with that for the session ending 1846. 

After M. Girard had concluded his opening address, M. H. 
Bouley, the annual Secretary of the Society, read the following 
Comple-rendu of its proceedings for the past year :— 

It is customary with re-unions instituted like our own for the 
improvement, through their united efforts, of some one special 
science, at the conclusion of each session to suspend for awhile 
their routine business, in order to devote a few moments to a hasty 
retrospection of results emanating out of their past labours. 

A halt of this kind enables us to possess ourselves of what we 
have accomplished, and, by a retrospective coup d’ceil, finding this 
has not proved unattended with good, we derive confidence in the 
future, and courage to pursue with greater ardour our not wholly 
unprofitable labours. 

The Central Society, adhering to a custom no less honourable for 
its antiquity than its excellence, now for the first time since its 
foundation presents itself before the public with some account of 
its transactions. 




282 


THE CENTRAL SOCIETY OF 


Under these circumstances, as the organ of the Society, it is my 
duty to endeavour to fulfil this difficult mission ; and I do so, con¬ 
fidently reposing in the indulgence of those around me, who will 
not expect in this our first essay such precision and form of 
language as is usually heard from men experienced in solemnities 
of the kind. 

The first efforts of the Society had to be directed to its own in¬ 
stitution (in 1844), and a difficult matter this turned out, surrounded 
as we found ourselves at the time by convulsions everywhere 
agitating our professional world. 

Far from me, gentlemen, be the thought of wishing to rekindle 
extinct animosities; but, as historian of our Society, I must for a 
moment recall days gone by, in order to shew how it first came to 
be instituted. 

For some years many veterinarians of the provinces had shewn, 
by their example, the advantages to be derived from scientific 
association, ere Paris had dreamt of any such movement. 

Veterinary science, for whose improvement our Society is 
founded, is that branch of knowledge which is engaged in the con¬ 
servation, perfectionization, and utilization of domestic animals. 

To attain this triple object, so vast, so complex, calls for the con¬ 
currence of anatomy, physiology, hygiene, medical science, natural 
history, agriculture, physics, chemistry, botany, mechanics, and even 
law; or, rather, each of these branches of knowledge furnishes a 
sort of contingent towards the constitution of this complex, diver¬ 
sified, and yet harmonizing whole, called veterinary science. 

At first view, it might seem that an assemblage so vast and 
extensive required the concours of many individuals specially 
devoted to each department, in order that, by a sort of division of 
labour, all the detail might be met, and better worked out; a 
system, according to which a veterinary society should be a re¬ 
union of anatomists, physiologists, agriculturists, surgeons, veteri¬ 
narians, chemists, grooms, physicians, jurisconsults, and even 
blacksmiths, each contributing, according to his vocation, to the 
common work. 

This, however, would deprive the veterinary art of its indivi¬ 
dual character; would convert it into a sort of pele-mele, of group¬ 
ing without order, without method, without object; a crowd of 
ideas and opinions, of works good in themselves perhaps, but 
without connexion between them, and frequently without any 
possible application. 

What constitutes the individuality of veterinary science is the 
regular and methodic disposition of these contingent parts;—ana¬ 
tomy, physics, chemistry, botany, agriculture, jurisprudence, shoe¬ 
ing, See. ranged around the other central and preponderating parts, 


VETERINARY MEDICINE OF PARIS. 


233 


viz. medicine, hygiene, physiology. These govern the first, group 
them around them, and cement them together into a combination 
perfectly consistent with nature. 

To embrace this concentration, to understand the harmony of it, 
to appreciate what the influence of every constituent part should 
be, and what its relation is with adjacent parts, we must not con¬ 
fine ourselves to the study of any one in particular among them. 
We must have looked into all of them, have studied them all in 
succession, and in their reciprocal connexion ; in a word, we must 
have become veterinarians. 

Such, gentlemen, was the view you took when }’ou came to the 
wise decision in one of the laws of your constitution, that none but 
veterinarians could become members of your society. 

I am aware it may be said, we have too much narrowed our sys¬ 
tem in so completely isolating ourselves, in not giving to sciences 
in connexion with our own, medicine, agriculture, pharmacy, at 
least to a certain extent, a representative among us. It might 
be said that, in so acting, we have voluntarily shut out from 
among us lights ever resulting from analogy and comparison. This 
objection is a grave one, gentlemen, and you have discussed its 
full weight on the occasion of making your laws. You have con¬ 
sidered that, before you called to your aid foreign colloborateurs, 
it were better, in the first instance, to have your constitution exclu¬ 
sively of yourselves, to depend alone upon your own resources, 
and thus to establish a society permanent and pregnant in useful 
labours. 

At the period and under the circumstances we are at present 
acting, when there is a disposition abroad to deny the veterinary 
a place among sciences—although the world is yet in ignorance of 
the reach and extent of our science—is it not of the greatest im¬ 
portance to us to shew the possibility of making up a society out 
of the members of our profession, and to prove that there exists 
no scientific question standing without the pale of its compe¬ 
tence 1 

Then, when you have given proofs of what you are able to do, 
made yourselves strong in your position by antecedent labours, 
and having your individuality well established, you will be at 
liberty to assimilate foreign bodies without the apprehension of 
having thereby your own homogenity interrupted. 

Moreover, the validity of the objection just urged against exclu¬ 
siveness is weakened when we come to consider that, in a society 
wholly veterinary, the elements of comparative studies are not 
likely to be wanting. 

In fact, notwithstanding every subject embraced by our science 
may be found united where competence exists, yet, will the indi- 


284 


VETERINARY EXAMINATIONS. 


vidual not have studied all alike. Individual dispositions, parti¬ 
cular vocations, necessities of position, will cause a determination 
in favour of this or that branch of science, and cause the develop¬ 
ment of special superiorities; and so, amidst a group actuated by 
the same views and the same objects, diversifying the characters, 
modifying the aptitudes, and resembling, if I may borrow a 
comparison from physiology, so many separate organs, which the 
society use for the purpose of assimilating the complex facts 
brought before them. 

The remainder of the Report has especial reference to the organ¬ 
ization of the society. 


VETERINARY EXAMINATIONS. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian.” 

Sir,—I n your last Number I addressed a letter to you on the 
subject of the establishment of private or spurious Boards of Ex¬ 
amination, and warned any who might be tempted to appear before 
them of the position in which they would hereafter stand by so 
doing; but the warning has been thrown away, and some twenty 
unfortunate individuals have taken an irrevocable step, and placed 
themselves for life in the ranks of the farriers, quacks, or unrecog¬ 
nizable classes with which the country swarms. That persuasion 
and influence have been at work is too clear, and when placed at 
such a distance that supervision is out of the question, evil coun¬ 
sellors have fearful power; even after the appearance of my warn¬ 
ing several were gained over, by what means may be guessed at, 
though, perhaps, it would not be prudent to express. 

As announced in the Scotch local papers, we find that, on the 
18th and 19th instant, a Board, consisting of the following indi¬ 
viduals, met in Edinburgh for the purpose of manufacturing 
veterinary surgeons:— 

Mr. Burn Murdoch in the Chair. 

Mr. Brown, V.S. to the cavalry regiment at Edinburgh. 

Mr. M'Robie, V.S., Stirling. 

Mr. Alexander Watt, V.S., Edinburgh. 

Mr. Balfour, V.S., Cramond; together with Dr. Mercer, Dr. 
Wilson, lecturer on chemistry to the class; and Mr. Barlow, 
demonstrator to the school; and twelve physicians and surgeons. 




VETERINARY EXAMINATIONS. 


285 

Before this body some twenty-four students appeared, and 
some twenty were dignified by the receipt of documents with 
high-sounding names, but which, for any practical purpose, are 
utterly valueless. 

How much better would it have appeared, if those gentlemen 
who are members of the medical profession had taken the trouble 
to inquire how far they were justified in interfering or setting 
themselves up as infringers of the laws, rights, and privileges of a 
corporate body with which they have no connexion! What would 
they say, were any of the members of the veterinary body corporate 
to take part in the manufacture of physicians or surgeons ? Would 
Drs. Lizars, Handyside, or Burt, submit to such an attempt with 
quietude ]—would they tolerate such a proceeding] Let them ask 
their own consciences this question, and the answer is an indignant 
No ! Then, why do they so act towards us ] Let them rest 
assured that they have cast a stigma on their names which will 
not readily be forgotten. As for those who profess to be members 
of my own profession, 1 blush for them ; and men who can so act 
are beneath criticism. 

But what, in the name of all that is just, have the Highland So¬ 
ciety or Mr. Burn Murdoch to do with the veterinary profession ] 
What has given them the power of making, or assisting to make, 
veterinary surgeons] By what right do they fly in the face of 
Her Majesty’s Acts 1 By what qualification can they judge of 
either the capabilities of the teachers, or of the capacity of the 
students ] To answer, to define these queries, would be beyond 
the capacity of a Solon—for none of them have a shadow of an 
existence. It is mere assumption, arising from a desire for med¬ 
dling, and playing the part of patron. 

The same game has been tried hard for in London, and mani¬ 
fold have been the journeyings and correspondence to get up a 
Board; numerous their disappointments, ceaseless their trouble. 
I have letters before me from those who have been applied to 
and refused. The English body of veterinary surgeons are not 
to be tampered with. There may be, and doubtless there will 
be, found some who are so lost as to be led astray; but no man 
of repute will be found amongst them. Let us wait until such 
parties make themselves known, and see how they will like 
exposure; for, rest assured, they will obtain it, and to their cost, 
too. 

A Board is stated to be appointed to meet on Thursday, the 
27th instant; but no announcement has yet been made of its con¬ 
stituents ; nor were there, two days since, any candidates for them 
to examine. If men are disposed to thus suffer themselves to be 

VOL. XXI. Q q 


283 


THE ROYAL COLLEGE 


misled, no warning will prevent them; and whether they be the 
examiners or examined, they will meet with their due reward. 

I could sa.y much more, and the materials are lying at my 
hand; but I am intruding on your space. 

I am, Sir, your’s, obediently, 

Arthur Cherry. 

April 24M, 1848. 


THE VETERINARIAN, MAY 1, 1848. 


Ne quid falsi dicere audeat, ne quid veri non audeat.— Cicero. 


While the proceedings of the Royal College of Veterinary 
Surgeons have all along been marked by that openness and ho¬ 
nesty of purpose which long before this cannot fail, in every unbi¬ 
assed mind, to have bespoke for them unqualified approbation, and 
while the soundness of the cause their Council have had and yet 
have to battle for—which may be alleged as the best motive for 
such upright proceedings—has shone conspicuously all the way 
through, for our own part we have never until the present mo¬ 
ment—and we say this more in shame than in boast—made any 
mention of the talent displayed in the framing and wording of the 
several public documents from time to time issued by the Coun¬ 
cil. It was our duty to have done this, because the talent exhibited 
in these instruments is not of the ordinary measure: in proof 
whereof, we might recall to our reader’s memory the annual re¬ 
ports for the three years the Charter has been in existence; the 
“ objections” urged, on the part of the College, against any alter¬ 
ations being made in their Charter, published in The VETERI¬ 
NARIAN for 1846; the “ Memorial” in the same volume; the 
“ Reply,” likewise, in the form of Memorial, in our current vo¬ 
lume. We need not, however, trouble our reader to rise from his 
seat for evidence, strong and convincing, of ability for office of our 
hard-working Council. We simply ask him to attentively peruse 
their supplementary “ Memorial,” which we this month publish. 






OF VETERINARY SURGEONS. 


287 


And when he has done this, and well considered all that has in' 
relation to it passed before, as well as the circumstances under 
which it is now put forth, let him, unbiassed and unprejudiced, 
come coolly and deliberately to his own conclusions as to the 
amount of. talent and ability to be found in the Council of the 
Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. 

It has been said, and said with considerable shew of reason, that 

ik Good wine needeth no bush - . 

whence the inference might be drawn, that a cause sound in itself 
does not of necessity call for aid from talent. We all, however, 
and some, perhaps, to our misfortune, know how many “ good” 
causes have been lost for lack of able advocacy; but we know from 
experience, while truth and justice will ever shine brightly in the 
meanest vestments, their contraries may be so meretriciously be¬ 
decked and bespangled that much beyond ordinary pains-taking 
and common sagacity is demanded to drag the wolf out of his 
sheep’s clothing. However praiseworthy our cause may be from 
its inherent integrity of purport and purpose, brighteirand better 
stands it forth in the admirable argument and diction in which our 
Council have afforded us ample evidence of their possessing the 
power to invest it. 

We sincerely congratulate our young friends now arriving at the 
conclusion of their studies at “ College,” on the suspension of the 
apprenticeship clauses in the bye-laws, and, with them, the alter¬ 
native law of spending four sessions at school. Under all the 
circumstances pressing upon them; with, on the one side, repre¬ 
sentations from pupils that they had been allowed to enter college 
without being made acquainted with the operation or even the ex¬ 
istence of such bye-laws; and with threatenings, on the other side, 
that advantage would be taken of this predicament of the pupils, 
by setting up other extra-charter boards of examination; under 
these cogent and unprecedented circumstances, we say, we do not 
see how the Council could well refuse this boon to the pupils. 
Nor was there, we are happy to have it in our power to add, any 
disposition on the part of the Council so ungraciously to act. Quitq 
the contrary. The motion for suspension was no sooner made, than 
it was unanimously received and unanimously passed. 



VETERINARY AND MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. 


Shaw v . The York and North Midland Railway Company. 

"IOI Ill'll < * ' , . , . ■, 11 

This case was tried before Mr. Baron Alderson, at the last 
Assizes for the county of York, when a verdict was given for the 
plaintiff. 

Mr. Knowles , Q. C., now moved for a new trial, under the 
following circumstances:—The action was brought to recover 
damages for injuries sustained by the plaintiff’s horse while being 
carried in one of the company’s carriages, which was defective 
in some particulars, whereby the injuries were occasioned. The 
ticket given to the plaintiff upon the delivery of the horse was 
put in evidence, from which it appeared that the horse was agreed 
to be carried upon the terms that the company should not be 
responsible for any injury or damage, however caused, while 
travelling, or while loading or unloading. It was held by the 
learned Baron that this evidence did not support the contract as 
set out in the third plea; and that it was the duty of the defend¬ 
ants, as common carriers, to supply a fit carriage for the convey¬ 
ance of goods, of which duty the plea took no notice. He (the 
learned counsel), however, contended that a carrier might, if he 
pleased, enter into a special contract to carry goods upon certain 
terms, as had been done in the present case. 

Lord Denman said, the question was important, and worthy of 
being discussed : the Court would, therefore, grant the rule. 

Rule nisi granted. 

The Times, April 17, *1848. 


Rights of Physicians. 

CLARK V. FREEMAN. 

Rolls Court. 

[Before the Master of the Rolls.] 

Mr. TURNER (with whom was Mr. Wickens) moved in this case, 
on behalf of the plaintiff, Sir James Clark, Bart., Physician in Or¬ 
dinary to the Queen, to restrain the defendant, Richard Freeman, a 
chemist, living at 5, Clay ton-place, Kennington-road, from selling 
or offering for sale some pills, of which he was the manufacturer, 
in such manner as to represent them to be the pills of the plaintiff, 




VETERRINAY AND MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. 289 

and from holding himself out to be the agent of the plaintiff for the 
sale of the pills. It appeared that the defendant manufactured the 
pills in question for the cure of consumption and other pulmonary 
complaints, and, to puff them off, he published advertisements and 
circulated handbills so worded as to lead the public to suppose they 
were the pills of Sir James Clark, who enjoys a great reputation 
in pulmonary disorders, having written some treatises on the subject. 
One of the advertisements was headed, “ By her Majesty’s per¬ 
mission, Sir J. Clark's Consumptive Pills, a certain cure for con¬ 
sumption, and an unfailing remedy for coughs, asthma, difficulty of 
breathing, &c.and then followed a dissertation on pulmonary 
disorders and an eulogy of the pills; and at the foot, “ Agent, Mr. R. 
Freeman, Kennington-road, and to be had of any medicine vender. 
2s. 9d.” There was also a representation of the royal arms after 
the words “ Her Majesty’s permission.” Another advertisement 
was in the form of an apology to the medical profession for selling 
a patent medicine. The defendant had spelt the name of Clark 
with an e at the end; but the intention appeared to be to induce the 
public to believe that the pills were manufactured and sold under 
the direction of Sir James Clark. 

In support of the application, an affidavit of the plaintiff was 
read, in which he stated that he had caused the pills to be analyzed, 
and had found that they contained antimony and mercury, which 
were very injurious in many cases of consumption. He had re¬ 
ceived several letters from parties in the country, some asking him 
how they were to use the pills, and others complaining of the ill 
consequences which had followed from the use of them. It was 
contended, that as it was not only a gross imposition on the public 
to represent the pills as the plaintiff’s, but as it would also tend to 
injure the reputation and practice of the plaintiff, the court ought 
to interfere by injunction. The defendant had no right to use the 
plaintiff’s name to enhance the value of his own wares, or to hold 
himself out as the agent of the plaintiff in the sale of a quack me¬ 
dicine. The conduct of the defendant gave the plaintiff a right of 
action against him; and where damages were recoverable in an 
action at law, the court would grant an injunction. In the case of 
“ Lord Byron v. Johnston” (2 Meriv. 29), Lord Eldon granted an 
injunction to restrain the defendant from selling some poems as 
Lord Byron’s which were sworn not to be his; and so here the 
court ought to restrain the defendant from selling pills as the plain¬ 
tiff’s which were not his.— The Master of the Rolls thought he 
had not jurisdiction to interfere. There could not, he said, be any 
injury to property so as to induce the court to interfere. An 
attempt to impute to Sir James Clark that he had any thing to do 
with a quack medicine was, perhaps, defamatory to his character, 


290 


SITTINGS OF THE COUNCIL. 


but he could not imagine that a person in his position could be 
seriously injured by it. It was one of the taxes imposed on eminent 
men to have their names thus made use of. No doubt, also, an 
attempt to connect Sir James Clark with a quack medicine was a 
great injury to the public, who were induced to adopt remedies 
which were highly prejudicial. But this was in the nature of a 
public offence; and Lord Byron's case differed from the present in 
this respect, that Lord Byron was in the habit of writing and pub¬ 
lishing poems, but Sir James Clark was not in the habit of making 
and selling pills ; he could not, therefore, be said to be injured in 
his trade or business by what was done by the defendant. He 
must refuse the application. 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE COUNCIL OF THE ROYAL 
COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS. 

Sitting of March 29, 1848. 

Quarterly Meeting. 

(By an accidental error, the last Report was headed “ Quarterlyit should 

have been “ Special ” Meeting.) 

Present—the PRESIDENT, the SECRETARY, Messrs. ARTHUR 
Cherry, Mayhew, Field, Henderson, Godwin (Birming¬ 
ham), Cherry, sen., Jas. Turner, and Ernes. 

The minutes being read and confirmed, Mr. Arthur Cherry drew"** 
attention to the necessity for giving notice by advertisement of 
the position any parties who might think proper to accept cer¬ 
tificates from any self-constituted and miscalled board of examina¬ 
tion would occupy thereby, and read a draft of advertisement for 
this purpose ; which, after a short discussion and a few verbal 
alterations, was unanimously adopted. [See wrapper of VETERI¬ 
NARIAN for April.] 

The Secretary then laid before the Council the draft of a Me¬ 
morial to the Home Office as prepared by the Committee appointed 
for that purpose, and proceeded to read the same. Several passages 
produced discussion, and were supported by other members of the 
Council; only one paragraph, though confirmed by all as to accuracy, 
it was thought would be better not inserted, and, on being put to 
the vote, it was struck out, the members forming the Committee 
declining to vote. 

Mr. Godwin moved, and Mr. Henderson seconded, that the draft 






SITTINGS OF THE COUNCIL. 


291 


just read be received and adopted : these gentlemen, together with 
Messrs. Field and Jas. Turner , spoke in high praise of the docu¬ 
ment laid before them. 

Mr. Cherry, sen., denounced it as highly improper, erroneous in 
statements, dangerous in tendency, likely to provoke inquiry, and 
require proof hereafter to be given of the truth of the statements. 

Mr. Arthur Cherry in reply, as a member of the Committee, 
stated that inquiry was the very object which the Committee had in 
view, during the preparation of the draft; that there was abundant 
evidence of the validity of every statement—and that the Com¬ 
mittee were ready to support every thing which had been ad¬ 
vanced : so abundant were the materials, that there was more dif¬ 
ficulty in selection than in refusal, and, above all things, they sought 
for inquiry. 

Mr. Mayhem followed in the same views. 

The motion was then put to the vote, and carried without a 
dissentient. 

The Secretary read a letter he had received from Dr. McGrigor, 
Secretary to the Board of Examiners acting for Scotland; also one 
from Mr. Rankin, containing some statements relating to the for¬ 
mation of a separate Board of Examination by Professor Dick, and 
putting some queries on these proceedings. 

An official letter was read from Mr. Barlow, announcing that 
Professor Dick had appointed a Board of Examiners for the pur¬ 
pose of examining his pupils. A discussion ensued on these topics, 
and Mr. Godwin gave notice of motion, “ That the ex-officio mem¬ 
bers of the Board of Examiners being engaged in the formation 
of separate Boards of Examination, contrary to the decrees of the 
Charter, be suspended or removed from their offices.” 

Mr. Mayhem gave notice of motion, “ That application be made 
to certain official departments touching the admission of unqualified 
persons to hold appointments under them.” 

A question arose on lapsed presentation for examination; and 
after some discussion it was moved by Mr. Field , and seconded by 
Mr. Arthur Cherry, “ That a case be prepared, and opinion taken 
thereon; ” which was unanimously carried. 

It was also moved, that a Committee be appointed to prepare 
the Annual Report, and that the same gentlemen who formed 
the Memorial Committee be appointed to prepare the Report. 
Carried. 

It was moved by Mr. Jas. Turner, “ that the ‘ Reply or Memo¬ 
rial Committee/ under the present aspect of affairs, do stand, and 
be under the direction of the President, that, should occasion 
arise, no time might be lost by the having to call a meeting of the 
Council to re-appoint such Committee.” A general opinion on the 


292 


SITTINGS OF THE COUNCIL. 


policy of this measure prevailed, and which was carried without 
any dissentient. 

Adjourned. 

[The “Memorial” will be found in another part of our Journal.] 


Sitting of April 19, 1848. 

A Special Meeting. 

Present—The PRESIDENT, the SECRETARY, Messrs. ARTHUR 
Cherry, Henderson, Wilkinson, Cherry, sen., Peech 
(Y.P.), Ernes, Robinson, Percivall, Mayer, sen., Field, 
King, Mayhew, and Jas. Turner. 

The Minutes being read and confirmed, the draft of the Annual 
Report as prepared by the Committee was read by the Secretary, 
which met with high approval. Mr. Robinson moved, and Mr. 
Percivall seconded, that the same be adopted, which was carried 
unanimously. 

Mr. Cherry , sen., asked the question, whether it would be 
printed and placed in the hands of the Council previous to the 
General Meeting. 

The Secretary said it would not be. 

Mr. Mayhew said, that such a course had been adopted at first; 
but in consequence of the very unfair, improper, and unjust use 
which had been made of it, it had been discontinued, and he con¬ 
sidered most wisely. 

Mr. Arthur Cherry took the same view, and stated that a com¬ 
mittee had been appointed to assist the Secretary in its preparation, 
expressly to avoid the recurrence of such scenes as took place two 
years ago. 

The Treasurer laid before the Council a statement of the Funds 
of the College, and the balance-sheet was then read. 

Messrs. Mayhew and Ernes moved and seconded, that the ac¬ 
count be received and adopted. Carried. 

The Secretary and Mr. Arthur Cherry moved and seconded, 
that the same be appended to the Annual Report. Carried. 

The case directed to be prepared at the last Sitting was then 
read, together with the opinion thereon, and was to the effect, 
that, if a party allowed the period to pass without claiming the 
benefit which would accrue from application at or before the time, 
such claim became of no avail at a later period; but that the 
Charter gave to the Council the power of suspending any bye¬ 
law at their discretion, though such law could not be altered or 
erased without giving three months’ notice thereof. 



SITTINGS OF THE COUNCIL. 293 

A long and rather desultory discussion ensued, in which most of 
the members present joined. 

The President said, that he had before him a document which 
might come very properly before them at this period of the meet¬ 
ing, and which was a Memorial from twenty-two of the students 
now studying at the Royal Veterinary College, praying to be re¬ 
lieved from the position in which they were placed in regard to 
not being able to produce indentures of apprenticeship; and also 
complaining that they had not been fully informed, at the period of 
their entrance as students, of what would be required from them 
in order to qualify them for presenting themselves for examination 
for the purpose of becoming members of the body corporate. 

As notice had been given in the circular calling together the 
meeting, 

The Secretary moved, “ That the bye-law 2, sect. 6, relating to 
apprenticeship, be suspended for the present session;” which was 
seconded by Mr. Percivall. 

A discussion ensued as to whether the suspension should be an 
open suspension, or apply only to those who had made applica¬ 
tion ; which latter being put as an amendment, was lost, and the 
open suspension carried : it being distinctly understood that every 
other certificate of qualification would be required, and that the 
suspension be only for this session. 

When the Memorial from the Students was read, it was attempted 
to be shewn that it was based on falsehood, and Mr. Wilkinson 
endeavoured very strongly to obtain the sanction of the Council to 
laying the document before the Professors, to prove the validity 
of its charges. But to this extraordinary proposal no attention 
was paid. 

Mr. Mayheio warmly supported the right of memorializing, 
though he might condemn some of the steps that had been taken ; 
but spoke very strongly against the manner in which students had 
been admitted as pupils, and felt that those who had been led 
astray were to be pitied, not punished, but that the punishment 
should fall on the right shoulders. 

Mr. Percivall could not consent to any reference whatever, after 
the manner in which the Professors had treated the Council. 

Mr. Arthur Cherry said, that he had for many months antici¬ 
pated that some such measure as that proposed that evening must 
be adopted, and had, in consequence, taken much pains to become 
acquainted with the facts of the case, and was sorry to say that it 
had a very bad appearance : indeed, he thought that the Students 
had a just cause of complaint, and openly avowed himself as the 
advocate of justice towards the Students, as future members of the 
body corporate. 

VOL. XXI. R r 


294 


SITTINGS OF THE COUNCIL. 


Much was said on these points, but chiefly repetitions ; and the 
matter ended by Mr. Mayhew moving, that the truth of the 
Memorial from the Students be inquired into, and which was 
unanimously carried. 

Mr. Arthur Cherry , in the absence of Mr. Godwin, stated that 
he would bring forward that gentleman’s motion for the suspension 
of the ex-officio members of the Board of Examiners, provided that 
the word “removed” be struck out; and stated that the course 
which he thought should be adopted was the suspension of those 
parties who had taken or were taking a part in the formation of 
private or spurious Boards of Examination, and that this had not 
any reference to their being professors or teachers: with that they 
had nothing to do; but when these parties accepted office under the 
bye-law appointing ex-officio members, they became the officers 
or servants of the Council, and the Charter gave them unlimited 
power over them ; the object of “ suspension ” being, that any party 
who was not concerned in these obnoxious proceedings might have 
time to exculpate himself; but, should this not be done, judgment 
ought to go by default. 

To these views there was a general assent, and the discussion 
was a repetition of the general statement. A few verbal altera¬ 
tions were made in the motion before it was put to the vote; which 
being done, it was carried unanimously. 

Mr. Arthur Cherry then gave notice for suspension for three 
months, “ That bye-law 3, section 6, relating to the appointment of 
ex-officio members, be rescinded.” 

Mr. Mayhew s notice of motion, that certain official parties be 
applied to, touching the holding of official appointments by non- 
members of the body corporate, was carried, to be left in the 
hands of the President; on which that gentleman applied for a 
committee to assist him, and which was left to his own nomination. 
Messrs. Gabriel, Mayhew, and Arthur Cherry, were named for this 
purpose. 

Mr. Arthur Cherry then laid before the Council the third Re¬ 
port from the Registration Committee, together with a list of 
returned members, which was ordered to be printed. 

Adjourned. 

THIRD REPORT FROM THE REGISTRATION COMMITTEE. 

The Committee have to report that a list of those members of 
the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons who have made returns, 
together with those new Members who have received diplomas, 
amounting together to upwards of 800, has been prepared, alpha¬ 
betically arranged, and is ready for printing. 

The Committee have further to report, that the names of several 


SITTINGS OF THE COUNCIL. 


295 


parties have not been inserted, on account of their having neglected 
to comply with the requisition made to them. 

Some parties may not have been applied to, arising from a want 
of knowledge of their addresses. 

The Committee beg to suggest to the Council the necessity for 
urging on the body politic and corporate the necessity for registra¬ 
tion ; otherwise it will not be possible for those parties who may 
neglect this to participate in any of the claims, advantages, or im¬ 
munities, which now exist, or may hereafter be granted. 

The Committee have studiously avoided the entry of any name 
in the list for which there has not been a voucher. 

The Committee have also to state, that, since the commencement 
of their labours, several instances have occurred in which the 
assumption of the title of Veterinary Surgeon has been removed or 
prevented; and as the Members of the body corporate the more 
completely register, so will the improper assumption of the title 
become the more difficult. 

The Committee have to regret that they have not received that 
assistance from parties of influence that they had reason to expect, 
but, on the contrary, it has been distinctly refused. 

The Committee will be happy to receive notice of any errors 
that may have crept in, and also announcements of any changes of 
residence, or deaths. 

All members who may have received certificates or diplomas 
regularly granted by either of the recognized veterinary schools 
previous to the granting of the Charter, may have, on application 
to the Secretary, proper forms for filling up, which names so 
entered, if correct, will be inserted in the next new list to be pre¬ 
pared ; but the Committee cannot admit for insertion any name 
merely on report. 

The Committee beg to acknowledge the kindness of those 
gentlemen appointed Corresponding Members, who have taken so 
much trouble to collect information, and to transmit the same to the 
Committee. 

It is also recommended that, for the better distinction of Mem¬ 
bers of the body corporate, the letters M.R.C.V.S. be adopted 
instead of V.S. 

For the Committee, 

Arthur Cherry, 

Honorary Secretary to Committee . 


April 19 thy 1848. 




296 


MISCELLANEA. 


Restive Horses. 

“ No horse becomes restive in the colt-breaker’s hands; nor do 
any, when placed in their hands, remain so. The reason is, that 
they invariably ride with one bridle and two hands. When they 
wish to go to the right, they pull the right rein stronger than the 
left; and when to the left, the left stronger than the right. These 
are indications which, if the colt does not obey, he will at least 
understand, the first moment he is mounted, and which the most 
obstinate will not long resist. But, as may be supposed, it takes 
a long time to make him understand he is to turn to the right lohen 
the left rein is pulled) and it is only the most spirited and docile 
that will do this at all. Such, however, is the great docility of the 
animal, that a great proportion are, after long ill usage, taught to 
answer these false indications, in the same way that a cart-horse 
is taught to turn right and left by the touch of the whip on the 
opposite side of the neck, or by word of his driver; and, indeed, 
such is the nicety to which it may be brought, that you constantly 
hear persons boast that their horses will ' turn by the weight of the 
reins on the neck’. This, however, only proves the docility of the 
horse, and how badly he has been ridden; for a horse which has 
been finely broken should take notice only of the indications* of 
his rider’s hand on his mouth, not of any feeling of the reins against 
his neck. 

“ This is a common error, both in theory and practice, with re¬ 
gard to the restive horse. He is very apt to rear sideways against 
the nearest wall or paling. It is the common way to suppose that 
he does so with a view of rubbing his rider off. Do not give him 
credit for intellect sufficient to generate such a scheme. It is, that 
when there, the common error is to pull his head from the wall. 
This brings the rider’s knee in contact with it; consequently, all 
further chastisement ceases; for, were the rider to make his horse 
plunge, his knee would be crushed against the wall. The horse, 
finding this, probably thinks it is the very thing desired, and re¬ 
mains there ; at least, he will always again fly to a wall for shelter. 
Instead of from the wall, pull his head towards it, so as to place his 
eye, instead of your knee, against it; continue to use the spur, and 
he will never go near a wall again.”— Hints on Horsemanship. 

* By indications , are meant the motions and applications of the hands, 
legs, and whip, to direct and determine the paces, turnings, movements, and 
carriage of the horse. I have used the word instead of “ aids.” 



THE 


VETERINARIAN. 


VOL. XXI, 
No. 246. 


JUNE 1848. 


Third Series, 
No. 6. 


FOURTH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF THE 
ROYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS. 


On Monday, the 1st instant, the Fourth Annual Meeting of the 
Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons was held, pursuant to public 
notice, at the Freemasons’ Tavern, Great Queen-street, Lincoln’s 
Inn-fields. • The attendance of Members was not less than at the 
previous anniversary, there being above fifty persons present. 

Thomas Turner, Esq., of Croydon (President of the College), 
occupying the chair, opened the business of the meeting by ex¬ 
pressing the great happiness he felt at meeting the gentlemen 
present on that, the fourth year of the existence of their Charter. 
He could well remember that when the Charter was first obtained 
there were persons who insinuated that the Charter would not hold 
water, and that a coach-and-four might be driven through it; but 
he was proud to say that at this, the fourth year, it was still intact, 
and steadily progressing for the benefit of the profession at large; 
and he felt quite sure that it would continue to do so. He was 
glad to see so many Members present, although he must admit 
that he could have wished there had been at least double that 
number. He begged to thank the Editor of The Veterinarian 
for the able leader he had put forth ; an article which reflected on 
him the greatest credit for the talent and ability he had displayed 
in it. He hoped that they would now soon see the Charter firmly 
established. The Council had had a most arduous year to go 
through, as was shewn in the Report, which was in the hands of 
the Members present; and he could bear testimony to their hav¬ 
ing been indefatigable in their exertions for the good of the pro¬ 
fession at large. He would not go more fully into the proceedings 
of the past year, as they were contained in the Report, which 
would be read, and would occupy a considerable length of 
time in reading. The question of the Registration was one of 
very great importance ; and in successfully carrying it out he felt 
bound to say, that Mr. William Arthur Cherry had used the 

VOL. XXI. s S 






298 


ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF THE 


greatest exertions. The next subject to which he would draw 
the attention of the meeting was, the appointment of six members 
of the Council in lieu of those who go out. Of the six retiring 
members, he felt bound to say that four of those gentlemen had 
given their constant attendance, while the other two gentlemen 
had never been present. He would not detain them longer, but 
conclude by expressing a hope, that the gentlemen present would, in 
conducting the business of the meeting, one and all, in delivering 
their feelings, have a due regard to their own credit and character, 
and speak their sentiments in as mild language as possible. 

Mr. Gabriel, the Secretary, then read the minutes of the pre¬ 
vious meeting, which were signed by the Chairman. 

Mr. Vines had listened to all that the President had said with 
the greatest pleasure. He, however, felt that it was no use 
bringing in a lot of mushroom gentlemen who had had no expe¬ 
rience. They had now a Charter, and he hoped the profession 
generally would be benefitted by it. They had even yet no room 
of their own to meet in, as they ought, now that the College was 
of four years’ standing : they had still nothing but the dark room 
in the tavern in which they were assembled, where the great body 
of the profession did not attend. He also understood that the 
Secretary received a salary of £50 a-year for his services, and 
that the Examiners received two guineas each for their services, 
and yet they had no funds. He condemned the use of printed 
balloting papers, and their being put forward like parish meeting 
papers. He, for one, would not vote for the names on the 
papers. He also felt that they were using the Royal Veterinary 
College too harshly. They ought to give and take, and not to 
speak against each other. 

The Chairman said, the first business to be transacted was the 
election of the six members of the Council. 

Mr. Withers and Mr. Hunt having been appointed Scrutators, 

Mr. Draper said, he thought the two gentlemen who had never 
attended the meetings of the Council ought not, at any rate, to be 
longer continued members of that body. 

The election was then proceeded with, and the balloting papers 
having been all received, the Scrutators commenced casting up the 
votes. At the conclusion of their labours, 

The Chairman announced that the election had fallen on Mr. 
Percivall, whose number of votes were 36; Mr. Robinson, 34; 
Mr. J. Turner, 33; Mr. A. Henderson, 31; Mr. Pritchard, 25; 
Mr. Peech, 25; a result which was received with much cheering. 

The Chairman then said the Secretary would read the Report 
of the Council. 

Mr. Gabriel, the Secretary, commenced reading the Report, in 


ROYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS. 299 

doing which he was assisted by Mr. W. A. Cherry, it being a 
lengthy document, occupying upwards of an hour in reading. It 
was received with considerable applause. 

Mr. W. A. Cherry then laid before the Meeting a printed copy 
of the register of the members of the veterinary profession, and 
said that, although it was not a complete list, he could vouch that, 
as far as it went, it was a correct one, as no name had been in¬ 
serted for which a voucher had not been received. Several persons 
who had been written to had not sent any replies: that, however, 
would now be obviated in future, a number of gentlemen in dif¬ 
ferent parts of the country having consented to become Corre¬ 
sponding Members, by which means he did not doubt it would be 
much improved next year. 

Mr. Burleigh, of Leicester, said he spoke the sentiments of the 
members of the profession residing in the midland counties, when 
he expressed his great approbation of the able stand which the 
Council had made against the opposition by which they had been 
assailed. He condemned that opposition to the Charter, because 
' he considered that those who are making it would best consult the 
interest of the profession at large by allaying that opposition, and 
uniting together in one community of brotherhood. The present 
times, he would maintain, were not the times to divide, or to 
promote division; but rather ought the members of every profes¬ 
sion to unite in brotherly union. With regard to cattle practice, 
the neglect of which had so properly been shewn in the Memorial 
sent in to Sir George Grey, he knew an instance, in which a gen¬ 
tleman, after applying to several members of the profession without 
being able to procure the slightest assistance from them, had been 
compelled at last to fall back upon the common cowleech, and this 
after the Royal Veterinary College of London had been established 
for upwards of fifty years. The want of knowledge of cattle 
practice was a serious reflection on the profession. He would 
contend that the Royal Veterinary College had neglected the 
country members. He would not detain the meeting longer than 
to observe that, in his opinion, and in the opinion of those he 
represented, the profession generally ought to wait patiently in 
order to see what will be the effect of the present charter, before 
they desire to obtain a new one. 

Mr. Vines considered that the Council had in their Report gone 
too far in their charges and reflections against the Royal Vete¬ 
rinary College. That institution had been established more than 
fifty years, and in his (Mr. Vines’) opinion, did not deserve them. 
Many of those present would not have been in the profession had 
it not been for the Royal Veterinary College. He, therefore, 
would contend, that the Council ought not to have drawn up the 


300 


REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE 


Report so hastily; and, in fact, ought not to have sent such a Me¬ 
morial to the Secretary of State at all. It was a great pity there 
should be so much dissension amongst them; and he would suggest 
to the Council that something ought to be done in order to bring 
the whole profession together. 

It was then moved and seconded, “ That the Report be received 
and adopted,” and, no one rising to speak on either side, 

The Chairman proceeded to put the motion to the meeting, when 
there appeared to be for the motion 24, against it 6. 

The Chairman declared the motion carried, and the meeting 
broke up. 


FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE 
ROYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS TO 
THE MEMBERS OF THE PROFESSION. 

The Fourth Annual Report which the Council have the honour 
of laying before the Members of the Royal College of Veterinary 
Surgeons, will vary' but little in its general outlines from the one 
preceding it; being limited to a detail of facts originating from 
causes and terminating in effects but too similar to those which its 
yet early infancy has been doomed to struggle with. 

With respect to veterinary politics, it will, doubtless, be borne 
in mind, that, in the last Annual Report, was given a Memorial 
imperatively called for by a demand made at the Home Office for 
a new Charter of Incorporation by certain parties who expressed 
themselves aggrieved by, and dissatisfied with, the one under 
which we have the honour to act; and the reply from the Home 
Office was added, acknowledging its receipt, and promising that, 
in the event of any further agitation in the matter, notice should 
be given to the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. In June 
last, in accordance with the courtesy and good faith which have 
characterized all the transactions of the Home Office, the following 
note was received by your President:— 

Sir, Whitehall , 2 6th June , 1847. 

I am directed by Secretary Sir George Grey to inform you, with reference 
to my letter of the 10th November, 1846, that he has received a petition 
from the Royal Veterinary College of London, and the Highland and Agri¬ 
cultural Society of Scotland, praying that a Charter may be granted to the 
Royal Veterinary College of London and Edinburgh, and that this petition is 
under Sir George Grey’s consideration. 

I am, Sir, 

Thos. Turner , JEsq., Your obedient servant, 

President of the Royal College S. M. Phillips. 

of Veterinary Surgeons. 




KOVAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS. 301 


Its receipt was acknowledged as follows :— 

Sir, 311, Regent-street, July 1$£, 1847. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of June 26th, 
announcing an application from the Royal Veterinary College, and the High¬ 
land and Agricultural Society of Scotland, praying that a Charter may be 
granted to the Royal Veterinary College of London and Edinburgh. 

I have the honour to remain, Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Thomas Turner, 

President of the Royal College of 

S. M. Phillips, Esq. Veterinary Surgeons. 

But as the announcement was merely that which, as a matter of 
course, had been anticipated, it was not considered necessary that 
any further immediate steps should be taken respecting it. As time 
passed on, however, without any further intelligence transpiring, 
several of the country members of the Council, whose opinions are 
always sure of commanding attention, became anxious for more 
recent information, and, in compliance with their wishes, the fol¬ 
lowing application was made by your President:— 

To the Right Honourable Sir George Grey, Bart., Her Majesty's Principal 
Secretary of State for the Home Department. 

Sir George,— I had the honour, in July last, of acknowledging the receipt 
of a communication from Mr. S. M. Phillips, intimating that a Petition from 
the Governors of the Royal Veterinary College, and the Highland and Agri¬ 
cultural Society, was then under your consideration. 

May I be permitted to beg the favour, in the name of the Council of the 
Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, of a copy of that document, if not 
incompatible with the usual routine on such occasions ? 

I have the honour to be, 

Sir George, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Thomas Turner, 

311, Regent-street, President of the Royal College of 

Sept. 10, 1847. Veterinary Surgeons. 

The reply was prompt and satisfactory. 

Sir, Whitehall, 1 5th September, 1847. 

I am directed by Secretary Sir George Grey to acknowledge the receipt of 
your letter of the 10th instant, and to transmit to you the enclosed copy of 
the Petition of the Royal Veterinary College of London, and the Highland 
and Agricultural Society of Scotland, in pursuance of your request. 

I am, Sir, 

Thomas Turner, Esq. Your obedient servant, 

President of the Royal College Denis Le Marchant. 

of Veterinary Surgeons, 

311, Regent-street. 


302 


REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE 


To the Right Honourable Sir George Grey, Hart., 8fC. S^c. Sf'C. 

The Humble Petition of the President and Noblemen and Gentlemen, 
Governors of “ the Royal Veterinary College of London,” and the 
President and Directors of the “ Highland and Agricultural Society 
of Scotland,” 

[As published in The Veterinarian, vol. xx, p. 616-620, to which the 

reader is referred.] 

In this Petition, it will be observed, reference is made to the 
heads of a Charter also submitted for consideration; and, as it was 
obviously necessary to enable your Council to obtain a correct view 
of the measures taking against the body whose interests they were 
bound to protect that a knowledge of these heads of a Charter, 
&c., should be procured, a further appeal was made to Sir George 
Grey. 

To the Right Honourable Sir George Grey, fyc. SfC. 

Sir George,— I am requested by the Council of the Royal College of Vete¬ 
rinary Surgeons to return their thanks for your prompt attention to their 
request for a copy of the Petition from the Royal Veterinary College of 
London, and the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland; and am 
directed further to trespass on your kindness in soliciting a copy of the heads 
of the Charter submitted for your consideration, which document they were 
not aware had been presented when I last had the honour of addressing you. 

I have the honour to be, 

Sir George, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Thomas Turner, 

311, Regent-street , President of the Royal College of 

Oct. 8th, 1847. Veterinary Surgeons. 

The reply gives the acquiescence as prompt as it was courteous. 

Sir, Whitehall, 19 th October, 1847. 

I am directed by Secretary Sir George Grey to acknowledge the receipt of 
your letter of the 8th instant; and to transmit to you herewith, agreeably to 
your request, a copy of the Charter referred to in the Petition of the Royal 
Veterinary College, and the Highland and Agricultural Society. 

I am, Sir, 

To Thomas Turner, Esq., Your obedient servant, 

President of the Royal College of Veterinary Denis Le Marciiant. 

Surgeons, 311, Regent-street. 

The heads of the Charter proved to be a very long and ver¬ 
bose document, its more important points being freely transposed 
from the Charter of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
with others of a more complicated and exparle nature rather incon¬ 
gruously dovetailed. The following is an abstract of its leading 
provisions :— 


ROYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS. 


303 


Abstract of the Charter appliedfor by the President and Governors 
of the Royal Veterinary College of London, and the President 
and Directors of the Highland and Agricultural Society 
Scotland. 

[Published in The Veterinarian for March of the current year, vol. xxi, 

p. 117-122.] 

Sufficient data for consideration having thus been obtained, a 
Committee, consisting of Messrs. T. W. Mayer, A. Cherry, W. 
Ernes, and E. Gabriel, was nominated to consider and prepare a 
reply to the same;—their Report, unanimously adopted by the 
Council, was as follows :— 

[As published in The Veterinarian for March of the current year, vol. xxi, 

p. 122-125.] 

Ere, however, this reply had been transmitted to the Home 
Office, the following note was received:—• 

Sir, Whitehall, 8th of February, 1848. 

I am directed by Secretary Sir George Grey to request, with reference to 
the Petition of the Royal Veterinary College of London, and the Highland 
and Agricultural Society of Scotland (a copy of which was transmitted to you 
on the 15th of Sept., 1847), that you will inform the Council of the Royal 
College of Veterinary Surgeons that Sir George Grey is ready to receive any 
explanation or counter-statement which the Council may be desirous of mak¬ 
ing with respect to the allegations in the Petition, the petitioners having 
renewed their application for the Charter. 

I am, Sir, 

Thos. Turner, Esq., Your obedient servant, 

President of the Royal College of Veterinary Denis Le March ant. 

Surgeons, 311, Regent-street. 

In consequence of which, the reply was immediately forwarded 
with the following note from the President:— 

Sir, 311, Regent-street, \±th February, 1848. 

I have the honour of acknowledging the receipt of your letter of the 8th 
instant, and enclose the reply prepared by the Council to the leading points 
of the Petition and Charter lying at the Home Office. As, however, the 
application has been renewed, and as there are several points yet unanswered, 
the Council have the subject still under their serious deliberation, and are 
preparing a more detailed reply for Sir George Grey’s consideration ; or, 
should an explanation to yourself be more convenient, I will do myself the 
honour of waiting on you at any time you may appoint. 

I have the honour to be, 

Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Thos. Turner, 

To Sir Denis Le Mar chard, Bart., President of the Royal College 

Home Office. of Veterinary Surgeons. 

The President of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
however, and its Council, were not likely to require a second 



304 


REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE 


reminder from the Home Office to urge them to prompt measures, 
when difficulties were to be overcome or delays became dangerous. 
The Committee that had furnished the first portion of the reply 
was re-elected, with the addition of Mr. Mayhew; and a counter¬ 
report, which was unanimously adopted by the Council, was, with¬ 
out loss of time, dispatched with the following note to Sir G. 
Grey:— 

To the Right Honourable Sir George Grey , SfC. 

Sir George,— I have the honour of forwarding a more detailed reply from 
the Council of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons to the points con¬ 
tained in the petition for, and draft of, a Charter presented by the Governors 
of the Royal Veterinary College of London, in full confidence that it will 
be received with the consideration which the advancement of veterinary 
science, and the interests of the veterinary profession, may be deemed worthy 
to require. 

I have the honour to be, 

Sir George, 

Your most obedient and humble servant, 

Thomas Turner, 

311, Regent-street , President of the Royal College 

Aprils, 1848. of Veterinary Surgeons. 

To the Right Honourable Sir George Grey, Bart., Her Majesty's 
Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, the 
Memorial of the Council of the Royal College of Veterinary 
Surgeons. 

[As published in The Veterinarian for May of the current year, vol. xxi, 

p. 237-250.] 

The results of all this labour are, it is true, as yet but negative ; 
still they are significant. No new grounds have been broken for a 
fresh Charter—no controversion of the statements given in by your 
Council has been attempted—no renewed application has been 
heard of—no new Charter has been granted. 

A subject of scarcely secondary importance to the one we have 
been narrating, namely, the Registration of the Members of the 
body politic and corporate, has continued to receive the attention 
of the Council. The Registration Committee still continue their 
labours; and too much praise cannot be given to the indefatigable 
Honorary Secretary thereof, Mr. Arthur Cherry, by whom the whole 
of the details have been collected, and through whose continuous 
exertions alone, the result, as far as it goes, is solely to be attri¬ 
buted : their Second Report—the First having been given last 
year—is as follows :— 

[The First Report will be found in The Veterinarian, vol. xx, p. 270-273.] 

[The Second Report is published in the March No. of The Veterinarian 
for the present year, vol. xxi, p. 173-174.] 



ROYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS. 305 

The appointment, under the sanction of the Council, of a num¬ 
ber of Corresponding Members, is a measure which has produced 
the most valuable results; not only inasmuch as it has spread a very 
considerable esprit de corps among our country brethren, but as 
having produced also a considerable amount of local information 
and personal detail, which could only have been procured on the 
spot, and, even there, by those alone who were well versed in the 
matter, and had ability and inclination to investigate the actual 
state of affairs. 

The Third and last, which has just been delivered, gives the 
result of their labours, and prepares you to receive the first List 
of the Members of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
which is this day laid before you. 

[The Third Report from the Registration Committee was published in our 

No. for last month, vol. xxi, p. 294-295.] 

The veterinary profession is neither a very large nor a very 
influential body ; others much larger and more influential have not 
deemed it unwise to seek the aid of rank, wealth, and science, to 
extend and embellish their achievements;—why should not we 
follow their example] Your Council, after a deliberate considera¬ 
tion of the subject, could see no reason to prevent it; and the fol¬ 
lowing order in Council was passed:—■ 

“ That, for the purpose of further raising and extending the welfare and 
dignity of the veterinary profession, it is desirable that certain honorary 
appointments be created in connexion therewith; such appointments to com¬ 
prise a Patron, twelve Vice-Patrons, and a proportionate number of Honorary 
Associates; the parties so elected not, however, to be deemed members of 
the body politic and corporate.” 

It is to the aristocracy of the country we look for patronage— 
to the wealth of our princely merchants for remuneration and re¬ 
ward—to the aid of science to extend our utility—and to literature 
to record our improvements, and to herald forth the fact that we 
have not been idle in our day, nor fallen off in our attainments. 
Why, then, should not one and all be combined amongst us? Why 
should the genial influence of rank, wealth, and talent, be shunned 
by a professional body which despise concealment, even when by 
so doing their errors may be proclaimed, because they feel they 
have endeavoured to do their duty in that station of life in which 
their vocation places them] and which therefore court, without 
presumption on the one hand or sycophancy on the other, the 
inquiry, the investigation, and, after these, the friendly co-operation 
of those installed above and around them. 


It does occasionally happen in your Council, that, when some 
individual on particular occasions exerts himself more than his 
VOL. XXI. T t 



306 


REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE 


compeers, a due appreciation of his efforts is evinced by a vote of 
thanks; and, fortunately, this happens sufficiently often to render 
it unnecessary to bring every such instance before your notice. But 
when the gentleman so complimented is not only not a member of 
Council, but is not even a member of the profession, the fact can¬ 
not be too extensively promulgated: the instance referred to is that 
of Dr. M'Gregor, of Glasgow, Secretary to the portion of the Board 
of Examiners acting for Scotland. This gentleman has not only 
taken his full share in the labours of the Board, but has also most 
handsomely and efficiently performed the official duties of the 
Secretaryship without fee or reward, and a warm and unanimous 
vote of thanks from the Council proved their sense of his valuable 
services. 

The year 1848 still finds us in the mere possession for the hour 
of the hall of a public establishment, the entrance to which is not 
governed by the requirements of general science and professional 
knowledge, but is indiscriminately open to all who can produce a 
golden key. We may, indeed, dream of “ marble halls,” but, in 
sad reality, we have not even a lath-and-plaster tenement; a 
habitation, however quiet and unpretending in character, however 
plain and humble in pretension as would suffice, as compared to 
the abodes of the elder branches of the healing art, Medicine and 
Surgery, is a boon too great to be accorded to the Royal College of 
Veterinary Surgeons. How far different the case might have been 
had friendly feeling and goodwill existed among us, there are 
some who could give a shrewd guess; for, where the spirit of con¬ 
ciliation exists individually, and the only rivalry permitted is that 
of professional excellence, the yearning for that communion of 
kindred studies, and the desire for professional intercourse, so con¬ 
ducive to the advancement of science, is sure to be evidenced; 
nor would the spot long be found wanting whereon the right hand of 
fellowship might be held out frankly and cordially on the one side, 
and received with sincerity and good faith on the other. Selfish, 
solitary, and misanthropic, must be the musings of those who, like 
the evil genii of old would scatter the seeds of distrust and dis¬ 
sension through the bond created and chartered by royal benefi¬ 
cence, to combine all in one cosmopolite community; but still, 
nil desperandum , the good time will come. 


If, however, there is no habitation devoted to the use of the 
Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, do not for a moment let it 
be imagined that it is because there are no funds, for that would be 
a very annoying mistake, when we have at this moment, from a 
source of not very many more than a thousand members, an income, 




ROYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS. 307 

derived from annual subscriptions alone, making us “ passing rich 
on £40 a-year.” The sum, it is true, is not so large as it might, 
and, were we an united and co-operating body, it most assuredly 
would be ; but still the contribution demonstrates a chivalrous and 
liberal spirit among the few, which, though it may well make the 
many blush while reminding them that the main object can only be 
carried out by the co-operation of the body at large, still rallies 
round the good cause, determined that the treasury, though low, 
shall not become exhausted ; but that, even after all just demands 
shall have been met, enough shall there be found to form a nucleus 
on which, when the happy day arrives, the combined efforts of the 
profession shall produce an overflowing exchequer. Nor, while 
these feelings predominate, has the invaluable maxim of “be just 
before you are generous,” been lost sight of; for, by an unani¬ 
mous vote in Council, <£100 from the small balance in hand, has, 
during the past year, been devoted to the farther liquidation of 
your debt. 


In conclusion your Council would remark, they have, as far as 
possible, pursued the even tenor of their way, neither beguiled 
by undue hopes or aspirations on the one hand, nor deterred by 
wars or rumours of wars on the other. They have been accused, 
but no charges have been proved against them; assailed, but no 
errors have been recorded; threatened, but no results have, by the 
opposing parties, been arrived at: apprehensions, therefore, that 
might have existed, either as to the influence and success of their 
opponents, or of their own inability efficiently to perform the oner¬ 
ous duties devolving on them, are fast disappearing. Strong in 
the integrity of their purpose, supported by your confidence, appre¬ 
ciated by the public, and listened to with courtesy and impartiality 
by the advisers of the Sovereign who created us, they will steadily 
pursue their onward progress for the advancement of veterinary 
science, and the dignity 7- and well-doing of the profession over 
which, by your unbiassed voices, they have the high honour to 
preside. 

E. N. GABRIEL, 

Secretary. 



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309 


LAMENESS IN HORSES. 

By William Percivall, M.R.C.S. and V.S. 

[Continued from page 257.] 

Other Joint Lamenesses. 

We have seen that two joints in particular are subject to dis¬ 
ease in horses, viz. the navicular joint in the fore limb, and the 
hock joint in the hind limb. Other joints of the limbs have, on 
occasions, proved the seats of lameness, but these two are its ordi¬ 
nary situations, the reasons for which have been before detailed. 

Formerly, among the farriers of old, “the round bone,” by 
which is indicated the hip joint, was supposed to be a frequent 
seat of ailments; and it was a common practice with those who 
held this opinion to fire the skin covering the round bone, the 
part they took for such bone being the great trochanter of the 
os femoris, which, in fact, is the nearest point, externally, to the 
hip joint. The firing was commonly made to imitate the wheel of 
a carriage; and some years ago, it was by no means 
uncommon to meet with horses having this mark upon 
their hip; though, at the present day, the occurrence is 
comparatively rare. This will not appear strange when 
the reader comes to be informed that numbers of horses whose 
lamenesses have really been in the hock have been pronounced 
“ lame in the round bone.” The advances made in veterinary 
science have satisfactorily shewn that the farriers’ opinion was, for 
the most part, founded in error; the halting action which they con¬ 
sidered as denoting hip-lameness, more critical observation, com¬ 
bined with post-mortem results, has demonstrated to have its 
origin in disease of hock, for the most part, indeed, in spavin. 
Spavin, as we have seen, is a fruitful source of lameness behind, 
frequently insidious in its rise and progress, sometimes difficult 
of detection, occasionally incapable of demonstration; no wonder, 
therefore, that it should so often lead the unwary and inexpe¬ 
rienced into error. 

But it is an easier task to expose palpable error of this kind 
than it is to define the limits of articular disease—to say what 
joints commonly are affected with lameness, and what rarely or 
never are—than to specify the joints really obnoxious to disease, 
and those that have never been known or observed to be diseased. 
This is a subject on which information is a good deal needed; 
meanwhile, we must content ourselves with what we find on 
record, and with stating such results as have been afforded by 
our own experience. 





310 


LAMENESS IN HORSES. 


Hip-joint (or Round Bone) Lameness. 

Eight years ago—in 1840—Mr. T. W. Mayer, veterinary sur¬ 
geon, at Newcastle-under-Lyne, published a paper in The VETE¬ 
RINARIAN on this subject, which had the two-fold effect of rectify¬ 
ing the erroneous opinions formerly entertained respecting its pre¬ 
valence, and of warning veterinarians of falling into the opposite 
error of regarding it as an occurrence of extreme rarity; at the 
same time it has put us in possession of a good amount of useful 
information, of which it is our intention to avail ourselves on the 
present occasion. 

“ So strong of late years,” says Mr. Mayer, “ has been the tide 
of prejudice against the possibility of any lameness occurring in 
this joint, that we occasionally overlook it, and attribute the 
grounds of the mischief as resident in the hock : nor can we wonder 
at this, when, in the slighter shades of lameness in a hinder ex¬ 
tremity, the effect upon progression is so very similar.” 

Our own observation would lead us to the belief that the hip- 
joint of the horse is rarely found in a state of derangement without 
there being some sprain, contusion, slip-up, fall, or other injury 
connected with the ailment; and then we, for our own part, think 
that it is a common seat of the lameness accruing from the injury, 
in consequence of its being a part very liable under falls, con¬ 
tusions, and certain kinds of sprains, to receive injury. At the 
same time, we must admit that too often, in cases of supposed hip- 
joint lameness, much of the medical opinion is founded in conjec¬ 
ture, there being, as Mr. Mayer has justly observed, at times a good 
deal of similarity in the halting produced by disease or injury of 
hip and hock, while in the case of the former no external sign shews 
itself whereby we can, either to our own satisfaction or that of our 
employer, demonstrate the nature of the case. At other times, 
however, and in the generality of the cases of external injury, 
where the attention of the practitioner comes to be directed to the 
hip, a perceptible difference in the halting action is observable. 
There is a hoji and a catch in the movement of the lame hind limb 
which, to the practised eye, pretty clearly shews the lameness to 
be in the hip: the hock, it being remarked, flexing itself with its 
wonted freedom. 

Thus, the hip-joint, as Mr. Mayer has informed us, “ is not only 
subject, like other joints, to strains of its connecting and capsular 
ligaments, but likewise to synovial inflammation from accidental 
injuries, &c., consequent ulceration of its cartilaginous surface, and 
extensive formation of matter, which, ulcerating its way out, may 
lie a long time embedded under the mass of muscles surrounding 
the joint before it makes its way to the surface.” 


LAMENESS IN HORSES. 


311 


“ Foals,” says Mr. Mayer, “ and calves are occasionally subject 
to scrofulous inflammation of the hip-joint.” In some cases of this 
kind he has “ seen large formations of matter occur upon the sacro- 
sciatic ligament without being connected with the hip-joint.”—“ In 
others, the formation of matter takes place within the joint.” 

But “ in full-grown animals,” continues Mr. Mayer, “ we rarely 
meet with scrofulous inflammation.” In them, “ in consequence 
of strains, or of being thrown down, particularly in carts and car¬ 
riages, synovial inflammation is set up; and unless very vigorous 
treatment is early adopted, it either terminates in perpetual lame¬ 
ness from anchylosis, &c., or in the formation of matter, consequent 
ulceration, and, ultimately, loss of life.” 

The following narrative related comes instructive to us here. A 
cart-horse, it was strongly suspected by its owner, had been 
thrown down in a cart. Mr. Mayer did not see the case for some 
months afterwards. The animal looked emaciated from pain and 
irritation. The affected quarter had much wasted, and as the 
animal moved along, by the application of the hand and ear, 
could every now and then be perceived a sensation and sound as 
though “ the head of the femur chucked in and out of the aceta¬ 
bulum.” Mr. Mayer was of opinion that there was either a 
dislocation of the hip, or a fracture of the neck of the thigh hone , 
and that therefore the animal had better be destroyed. Post¬ 
mortem examination disclosed a very large collection of pus in and 
around the hip-joint, extending as high as the sacro-sciatic liga¬ 
ment. The round ligament was ulcerated through its attachments, 
the cartilage lining the acetabulum and clothing the head of the 
femur absorbed, and the matter had made its way through the 
capsular ligament, which accounted for the peculiar sensation and 
sound afforded by progression. It seemed remarkable, the pus 
had not made its way to the surface. 

The Treatment of Hip-joint Lameness may turn out. 
either a very trivial or a very formidable affair. Occurring, as it 
usually does, from injury of some sort, continual fomentation of the 
quarter, repose, and brisk cathartic medicine, will very commonly, 
give sufficient time, accomplish the cure. And the most effectual 
fomentation for such a part as the hip is a continual succession of 
woollen cloths, soaked in water as hot as the hand can be borne in 
it. A large covering of spongio-piline, with another soaking in the 
hot water ready to succeed it, would prove most effective. The 
fomentations may be followed by refrigerent or discutient lotions; 
though from the latter not much benefit need be expected. Any 
effective treatment, with a view of discussing or counteracting 

inflammatory action, must now consist in counter-irritation—in 
%/ 

blisters or setons, or a rowel in the thigh, than which, Mr. Mayer’s 


312 


LAMENESS IN HORSES. 


practice has taught him, nothing in such cases proves more bene¬ 
ficial. Although it may be proper to keep the lame animal for a 
time tied up in his stall with two ropes, so that he cannot lie down, 
when the inflammatory action comes to be on the decline a 
loose box is certainly the preferable apartment for our patient, and 
in some cases, especially during convalescence, a little walking 
exercise is recommendable. 

Elbow-joint Lameness. 

Had it not been for a luckless wight of a horse of my own, my 
pen must have remained silent on this subject. The case is 
complete in every stage of its history, from its very insidious and 
dubious beginning down to its unfortunate and fatal termination. 
To me, all the way through, it proved a mystery ; to others it may 
answer the purpose of a beacon in the event of their ever en¬ 
countering a rara avis of the sort. 

The subject of the disease was a chestnut gelding, I got in the 
year 1843, in a swap with Mr. Sewell, dealer in horses, Pimlico. He 
was then rising five years old, and looked like a weight-carrying 
hunter and useful harness horse, being in appearance little more 
than half bred. He was well shaped everywhere save in his 
fore legs; and they were not deficient in power, but were strik¬ 
ingly calf-kneed, with toes inclined outward, and action dishing 
and slovenly, the consequence of which was, that, in his usual 
careless jog trot, he made frequent stumbles through hitting his 
toe, although when excited or put into a gallop his action im¬ 
proved greatly, so much so indeed in the latter pace that it was in 
the eye of a sportsman undeniable. Though I used him mostly 
in harness, I occasionally rode him, and paid dearly enough for it 
by his having thrice fallen upon his knees with me. In neither 
fall, however, did he hurt himself; only on one occasion, indeed, 
did he graze the hair upon his knees. Still, I repeat, he was an 
excellent galloper, and turned out a capital jumper, and more than 
once acquitted himself very creditably with the Queen’s hounds. 

Soon after I purchased him—in the spring of 1843—he took 
the catarrhal influenza prevalent about that time, but had it favour¬ 
ably, and speedily recovered; since which, to the summer of 1845, 
he ailed nothing, but regularly did his work, which was extremely 
moderate. 

The latter end of June 1845 he took the influenza again, and 
though the epidemic of that year was of a severe and fatal cha¬ 
racter, he had it very lightly; the only question being, as will 
arise in the sequel, whether his system did or did not in conse¬ 
quence of the attack, notwithstanding it was a mild one, imbibe 


LAMENESS IN HOUSES. 


313 


the arthritic or rheumatic diathesis, which along with the influenza 
so much prevailed. Albeit, he recovered about the middle of 
July from the attack, and went to work again, appearing com¬ 
pletely restored to health and strength and spirits. 

A month afterwards—the middle of August—while driving him, 
I fancied he went lame in the off fore leg. I at first thought his 
lameness might arise from some temporary cause. I looked for a 
stone in his foot, but found none. I continued my drive notwith¬ 
standing, and when I returned home I had his shoe taken off. 
Still I found nothing to account for his slight and transitory lame¬ 
ness : I say transitory , for the following day I drove him again, 
and then he appeared better—hardly lame, in fact, at all. I con¬ 
tinued working him—unwisely giving way to a vulgar notion that, 
in his somewhat dubious condition, he “ might work sound”—for 
a few days longer; when I became ashamed of myself for driving a 
lame horse, and resolved on submitting him to some treatment 
likely to prove more effective than any thing which had hitherto 
been tried. Considering his lameness to be in his foot, blood was 
taken from the toe, and that followed up by a sweating blister 
upon the pastern. This treatment occupied the month of Sep¬ 
tember. No relief resulting from it, 1 shewed him in the begin¬ 
ning of October to Mr. Arthur Cherry, whose opinion was that 
the knee was the seat of his lameness. Accordingly, treatment 
was directed to that locality, with, however, no better success 
than the former. On the 1st November both his fetlock joints 
were blistered, and he was, when fit, turned into straw-yard. There 
he remained until the 15th December, when he was taken up 
again into the stable, and, strange to say, in a lamer condition 
than he had ever yet been; and was thought now to be lame in 
the near as well as in the off fore limb. At all this I was so 
much surprised, and at the same time so disheartened, that I felt at 
a loss to account for his lameness, or what steps to take by way 
of remedy for it. In this state of mind I was, I may say, driven 
to attack the shoulder , every other joint likely to harbour dis¬ 
ease having been already tested or treated for it. I therefore, as 
a sort of hit-or-miss treatment, had a large quantity of blood ab¬ 
stracted from the plat vein, and an ample blister applied around 
the off shoulder joint; cathartic medicine being at the same time 
given, as on former occasions. After this was done, instead of 
being allowed any motion on the limb, he was kept tied up in a 
stall in a state of absolute rest and quiet. 

January came and passed, February came, still no relief; on the 
contrary, he had, under all the treatment described, become gradu¬ 
ally lamer and lamer; insomuch that now, at the latter end of 
February, he was going, after all this rest, actually lamer than I 

VOL. XXI. U u 



314 


LAMENESS IN HORSES. 


had ever seen him go before. Several of my veterinary friends 
had the kindness, at my request, to look at him and examine him, 
after hearing my account of his case. Two thought he was lame in 
the shoulder, another in the foot, a third in the spine; all, however, 
agreeing that his case was a hopeless one, although, in considera¬ 
tion of his age and undisturbed good health, inclined to the opinion 
that he should not be given up without further experiment: since 
pure matter of experiment had his case now become. 

The time is now arrived for me to enter into a more particular 
account of the symptoms his lameness presented, and particularly 
for the three or four weeks antecedently to his being destroyed. 
During the early period there was nothing to strike notice in his 
manner of projecting or putting down his lame limb, save that he 
evidently did all he could in action to throw the weight of his body, 
as it appeared to us, upon the heel of the foot; so that I more than 
once suspected chronic laminitis, and had on that supposition in¬ 
serted a seton through the frog*. When he had become lamer, and 
was consequently more unwilling still to impose weight upon the 
lame limb, he evinced a sort of dragging of the limb after him in 
his going ; which symptom it was, combined with an increased 
manifestation of it in his side movements, that disposed us to think 
his case was one of shoulder lameness. By the time, however, that 
he shewed lameness in both fore legs, and particularly when he 
became, as he had latterly become, quite a cripple, he manifested 
a remarkable crouching sort of action, dreading almost to move his 
fore limbs forward, and manifesting such exquisite soreness and 
pain when compelled to move on, that, while he was making as 
short steps as he could, he was doing his utmost to keep his body 
back and advance his hind limbs to receive its weight, to prevent 
any of it, or as little as possible, falling upon his fore limbs. In 
short, his posture and gait altogether were very like that of acute 
founder; so like indeed, that, perhaps, one might not be able to 
make a distinction between the two diseases, were it not that in 
founder the feet would shew the nature of the disease; and that in 
elbow-joint disease, although the animal manifested all this pain 
and dread of stepping, yet, when the whip was applied, and 
he found himself obliged to go, did he plainly shew that his fear 
arose purely from the pain of the moment, and not from any cause 
of absolute inability to tread; and, further, that the pain was not 
evinced at the moment of putting down the foot, as in founder, but 
at the time when the body was required to be advanced by the 
hind upon the fore limbs; at the moment, in fact, that he was called 

* In the performance of this operation he plunged and fell, and, as I after¬ 
wards thought, hurt himself; though, from the sequel, I am satisfied no hurt 
took place. 



LAMENESS IN HORSES. 


315 

on during action to throw the slightest weight upon the columns of 
bones, which he no sooner had done than his body shrunk back 
upon the hind quarters: in fact, it was evidently the effort to 
throw the weight upon the muscles of the shoulder instead of upon 
the bony column that occasioned this peculiar crouching gait. 
And every now and then, while he was being compelled to walk, 
would he, at the moment the weight came upon his fore limbs, 
crouch down to that degree, that lookers-on cried out he would 
“ fallon no occasion, however, did he fall, but always saved 
himself by shrugging his body back upon his haunches. Reduced 
as he was to a state of crippleness to disable him even from walk¬ 
ing about to get his own living at pasture, and evidently in exqui¬ 
site pain every time he put forward his fore limbs in action, still it 
was not without both reluctance and regret, that, in the month of 
March 1845, I came to the resolution to have an end put to suf¬ 
ferings which every means we had made trial of had signally 
failed either to arrest or relieve. 


Post-mortem Account . 

The Elbow Joints proved the seats of disease. The infe¬ 
rior or broader half of the articulatory surface of the ulna presented 
a patch of ulceration, of the shape of a square whose sides mea¬ 
sured about an inch each. The transverse portion of the articu¬ 
latory surface of the radius, which naturally is an eminence, had 
become a fissure of ulceration of about a quarter of an inch in 
breadth at its widest, which was its posterior part: this ulceration 
extended but little more than half way across the surface, the 
portion of surface in front of it being sound. There was likewise 
a patch of ulceration in the interval between the condyles of the 
humerus, of a triangular shape, but which, in that situation, 
would not be opposed, either in action or at rest, to the ulceration 
upon the ulna. There was a patch of discolouration upon the front 
of the outer condyle, a seeming precursory to ulceration. From 
the surface of the ulcer upon the olecranon there were granula¬ 
tions springing up, which, it is to be believed, would in the course 
of time have turned osseous, and formed the nucleus for an an¬ 
chylosis of the joint. In this instance, however, there existed no 
disease whatever of the periosteal or ligamentary tissues outside 
the joint, though I believe that would speedily have supervened 
upon the morbid condition afore described. 

At no period of the duration of time the case was under treat¬ 
ment—seven months—was any satisfactory opinion given of the 
lameness, or the seat to it. The lameness came on very gradually, 



316 


UNNATURAL PRESENTATION IN A COW. 


in a manner imperceptibly, and fluctuated in intensity, being 
sometimes more evident than at others. It followed no hard 
day’s work or known injury. And it increased, though tardily, 
by degrees from first to last, and in the face of all kinds of treat¬ 
ment (to parts not affected), until at length it became intolerable. 
And so mysterious was its nature all the way through the case, 
that nobody, by the merest conjecture, ever hit upon its seat. 
And yet, when its seat and nature came to be developed and con¬ 
sidered, the symptoms appeared such as might have indicated it; 
and, moreover, inclined to the belief that there possibly might have 
been some connecting pathological link between it and the attack 
of influenza. One reason for so thinking was, that the influenzal 
attack happened in July, the lameness in August; another, that 
the influenza of that year had shewn a remarkable predisposition 
consequent upon it to such translations; though against this 
opinion militated the absence of bursal swelling outside the af¬ 
fected joints, and of any deposit inside. After all, the case is 
not stripped altogether of its mystic vestment. Nevertheless, it 
is likely to prove so far useful to us, that, should we ever meet 
with a similar one, although we may be equally at a loss for a 
remedy for it, we may at least be in a situation to offer some sa¬ 
tisfactory diagnosis of its nature. 


UNNATURAL PRESENTATION IN A COW. 

By Mr. AlTCHlSQN, Shotley Bridge , Durham. 

Sir,—If you think the following case will be interesting to the 
readers of The Veterinarian, it is at your service. 

ABOUT four o’clock in the afternoon of the 15th of March, 
I was called to see a two-year-old heifer, that, as I was told, 
had been calving since morning. Upon examination, I found the 
foetus lying with its hind quarter towards the mouth of the uterus, 
and the tail protruding into the vagina. I immediately attempted 
to turn the foetus into its natural position : finding this, however, 
impossible, I tried to get hold of the hind feet, but this also failed, 
in consequence of their lying so far forward under the animal. 
I then proceeded to fasten a rope round the loins, with the in¬ 
tention of dragging the foetus away in this manner; but I soon 
found, from the largeness of the foetus, that nothing but embryotomy 




MR. CHERRY IN REPLY TO MR. WHITTLE. 


317 


Would save the life of the mother. Accordingly, I introduced my 
parturition clams, and, fastening them in the posterior part of the 
pelvis, carefully introducing a probe-pointed bistoury, I divided 
the lumbar vertebrae, and, telling the assistant to pull the rope 
which was attached to the clams, we got away one hind leg and 
the pelvis. My next step was to evacuate the abdomen of its 
viscera, and by forcing my hand through the diaphragm I drew 
away the contents of the thorax; then, fixing the clams in the 
anterior part of the dorsal vertebrae, I got away the greatest part 
of the carcass. I then introduced my hand, and, seizing one of the 
lore legs, I managed to turn it into a natural position, by attaching 
a rope to each fore leg, and, by fixing the clams on each side of the 
head, I extracted the remaining part of the foetus. 

The foetus appeared to have been dead some days, and the 
mouth contained four incisor teeth in the lower jaw, and three 
molars on each side, perfectly developed. But it had only one 
hind leg, and an unusually short tail. I was quite certain that the 
other leg had not been left in the uterus, and could not account 
for the singular lusus naturce , unless it was the effect of a disease 
under which the mother had been labouring for four or five months 
previous to my seeing her, and which had deprived her of one fore 
and two hind feet, taking them off at the fetlock joint: about two- 
thirds of the tail, and nearly all the off ear, were also gone, and 
the animal was in a very unhealthy state. 


MR. CHERRY IN REPLY TO MR. WHITTLE. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian.” 

Sir,—I CANNOT but express my regret that a letter so entirely 
out of place should have appeared in the last number of your 
Journal, as that bearing the signature of “ W. Whittle.” What 
may be its object or its point I cannot clearly understand, unless it 
be that the writer has consented to allow his name to be used to 
give utterance to dull hacknied phrases which have long ceased 
to have any meaning; for dull of comprehension must I be, after 
being used to the sound of every tinkling bell for more than 
twenty years, not to be able to distinguish the ring of the metal, 
cracked though it be, whatever may be the clapper that elicits 
the sound. 




318 MU. CHERRY IN REPLY TO MR. WHITTLE. 

To Mr. Whittle, had he thought proper to have addressed me 
with common courtesy, I would have cheerfully given any and 
every information that he might seek; but I can assure him 
that I am not to be trepanned into a discussion with one appa¬ 
rently, though in reality with others, who, incapable of fighting 
their own battles, seek for others to do so for them: it is an old 
trick. I never fight by proxy. I have never yet been tempted 
to express any thing that I have not been able to prove; but 
poor, indeed, must a man’s capability be, who loses himself at 
the vague report or blustering sound of a popinjay. 

Mr. Whittle tells you, that my “ letter is but an echo of Mr. 
Mayhew’s remarks.” Of Mr. Mayhew’s letter or remarks I knew 
nothing until, in common with your numerous readers, I saw it in 
The Veterinarian. It may be a coincidence that they should 
have appeared in juxta-position, but it is nothing more. Twenty, 
fifty, or a hundred, that I know, would have given utterance to the 
same ideas; every man, with the slightest knowledge of the laws 
which govern society, would arrive at the same conclusion: it is 
an inevitable result. 

That Mr. Whittle has thought a self-appointed Board of equal 
value with one legally established, is his own affair, and with which 
I have nothing to do. Experience will teach him that he has 
taken a false step. As a man takes his position, so must he bide 
the consequences. 

Mr. Whittle is a young man, I doubt not with some ability ; 
but his knowledge is very scanty, either of the laws which regu¬ 
late society in an established community, or of the history of the 
veterinary profession. He puts, what I have no doubt he consi¬ 
ders an unanswerable point, Why did not the Registrar-general 
publish “ an accredited list of members 1” For the simplest of 
all reasons,—namely, that veterinary surgeons were a body unre¬ 
cognised ; they were only farriers, cow-leeches, or were placed 
among the host of nameless occupations. This one fact will, with¬ 
out any comment, shew the utter valuelessness of the school certi¬ 
ficates or diplomas , though such had been in existence for fifty 
years at the time of the last census. Such will not be the case 
when the next census comes to be taken, but which event will 
not happen before the year 1851; by which time Mr. Whittle 
will, in all probability, have seen the error of his ways, and have 
become, should it not be placed beyond his power, a member of 
the corporate body. 

Like the fox and the grapes, Mr. Whittle wants to know what 
is the value of the registration. It can be of no consequence to 
one who holds it so cheap; but he further tells you his belief, that 
most others think as lightly both of the value of registration, or of 


MR. CHERRY IN REPLY TO MR. WHITTLE. 319 

the benefits to be derived from the Charter of Incorporation. I 
shall not combat his ideas, but shall only say, that, out of about 
twelve hundred known members of the veterinary profession, 
eight hundred have thought proper to “ register ,” and at least two- 
thirds of the known old established practitioners have done so under 
their own hands. So much for fact versus bombast. 

There are some other queries and objections, which are not 
worthy of especial notice ; some refute themselves, others will be 
practically answered at the fitting time : and as for the aspersion 
of the gentlemen who compose the Board of Examination—two of 
whom, however, are in the list of the self-appointed Board—it is a 
wanton insult, while the panegyric on the latter is fulsome in the 
extreme. Though I may not be residing in Edinburgh, I probably 
know more of all the parties than Mr. Whittle, and certainly do 
know better how to appreciate them. Enough of Mr. Whittle 
and his letter. I have done with him : he may say or do what¬ 
ever pleaseth him; to me it passeth as the 

“ Idle wind, which I regard not.” 

But a word to those who may not be quite so wise as Mr. 
Whittle, and who will take advice not as gall, but as it is meant, 
in kindness. 

A diploma from a chartered body will not give a man a business 
or a fortune, but it gives a point from whence he can start with 
advantage. He does not enter on life as a mere adventurer; he can 
say boldly that he has paid such a degree of attention to the 
pursuit by which he hopes to live, that it has qualified him to 
appear before those who have been appointed for the purpose of 
testing his fitness; and there is the proof of his having passed the 
ordeal, by the possession of his diploma. The public never look at 
the men who may compose individually any public board, but they 
do look to the competency of the power which constituted them. 
Men tolerate private acts and opinions, but they respect and obey 
the acts of the legislature. 

It is this therefore that constitutes the great value of all diplomas, 
whether of law, physic, or divinity ; it is this starting from a 
known and recognised point, which enables a man to proceed fa¬ 
vourably, and cce.teris paribus , gives immense superiority over 
another not so qualified; but after the start has been made, success 
depends on individual capacity, rectitude, attention, and knowledge 
of the art or calling. 

No public appointments can be held without proper qualifica¬ 
tion : even in the Excise—a sort of employment into which any 
or everybody may enter—a certain time has to be passed in in- 


320 


RUPTURE OP THE MESENTERY. 


struction before any trust is reposed: in the Customs the same. 
We have precedents in our own profession ad libitum ; but enough. 
No one but an ignoramus or a fool could for a moment think 
otherwise. I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant. 

Arthur Cherry. 

May 3, 1848. 


RUPTURE OF THE MESENTERY AND STRANGULATION 

OF INTESTINE. 

By John Hawthorn, M.R.C.V.S ., Kettering. 

To the Editor of “ The Veterinarian .” 

Sir,—HAVING had lately a case of not common occurrence, and 
not having seen a record of such a disease in any veterinary pub¬ 
lication, I thought it, perhaps, might have interest enough to be 
inserted in vour valuable Journal. 

The disease I should call rupture of the mesentery and conse¬ 
quent strangulation of the intestines. It is partly similar in its 
symptoms and the operation for cure to strangulation of the intes¬ 
tines over the spermatic cord, commonly called “ gut-tie.” 

In the mesenteric strangulation the symptoms are slighter; 
there is not so much derangement of health, not so much striking 
of the belly with the hind legs, and not so much stretching of the 
body and sinking of the loins after rising from lair, as in 
“ gut-tie.” There is also, for the first two or three days, more faeces 
passed (although the quantity is but small), and there is not so 
much slimy mucus in the rectum; and when operated on, the in¬ 
testine does not hang so completely like a sheet over a line as in 
the “ gut-tie” strangulation. 

I have had a good many cases of “ gut-tie,” and most of them 
successful ones; but have had only three cases like the one now 
described, all of which recovered. But it was rather singular 
that I saw a fourth case for the first and only time on the same 
day as the following operation was performed. The animal had 
been neglected, and was sinking fast. I opened it for satisfaction, 
but found the intestines gangrenous and intolerably foetid, with a 
quantity of purulent red water in the abdomen. Although I could 
feel the strangulation, it was useless to do any thing, and the animal 
was killed. All these cases were males, of the Durham breed, 




RUPTURE OF THE MESENTERY. 321 

like those of “ gut-tie.” I have never seen it in a female; but in 
“ gut-tie” the animals, in almost every case, have been Irish. 

In this instance the steer was taken ill on the 17th of March, 
with loss of appetite and apparent costiveness, now and then 
striking his belly with his hind feet, and sometimes, but not often, 
stretching himself after getting up, and sinking his back a little. 

Purgatives and enemas were given to the utmost extent until 
the 23d, when it was evident that medicine was of no use; and 
although I felt certain he was not “ gut-tied,” in the common sense 
of the word, yet it was imperative to operate. He had lost all 
pain, had become weaker, had no appetite, and passed no faeces. 

I know some veterinary surgeons cast the animal for the ope¬ 
ration ; but I prefer doing it when standing, to avoid the danger 
of the intestines escaping in the struggles through the incision, 
which must be made about five inches long. On opening this 
patient it was clear it was not “ gut-tie;” but on examining 
amongst the intestines I found a cord with what felt like a knotted 
mass of intestines over it, in the middle of the abdomen. The 
cord was about as thick as a goose-quill, and I thought I felt the 
lacerated mesentery. 

These circumstances reminded me of my two former cases, and, 
of course, I resolved to cut the cord, but with little hope of saving 
the animal, for there was a great quantity of fluid among the in¬ 
testines of a light pinky hue, and of which I ladled out a good 
deal, by pressing the back of my hand upon the intestines, and 
allowing the hollow of my hand to fill with it. I could feel one 
intestine very much thickened, like a piece of velvet, as thick as 
the lappel of my coat; and this circumstance, connected with the 
quantity of serous fluid, made me express a very unfavourable 
prognosis. However, the cord was cut, and the owner suggested 
that the steer should be laid on his back “ to get the water out.” 
I thought this desirable; and, after sewing up the incision with 
interrupted sutures within an inch to prevent the escape of intes¬ 
tine, he was thrown, and turned on his back, and the fluid drained 
off. The incision being closed, we loosed him, and he rose and 
appeared as well as before. 

In about an hour and a half he had a copious discharge of 
faeces, and ate some hay. He was better the two next days, with 
regular evacuations, and fed well; but on the 26th he was not so 
well, fed less, and appeared costive. I attributed this to his having 
eaten too much hay, and to the state of the thickened intestine, 
and gave a mild dose of physic, and wished him to be kept two 
or three days on oil cake, gruel, and bran mashes, with very little 
hay. This was done; and from that time there was no further 

VOL, XXI. XX 


322 


COMA IN THE HORSE. 


trouble, either with his health or the wound. The latter soon 
healed, and the steer is now well. 

If any of my brethren have met with similar cases, I should like 
to see their remarks in your Journal, as they might be the means 
of saving some animals which are thought to be labouring under 
constipation only; for at first the resemblance to “ gut-tie” is far 
from complete, and after two or three days is often very much 
less so. 

I am, Sir, 

With great respect, 

Your’s, truly. 

26th April, 1848. 


TRANSVERSE OPERATION OF NEUROTOMY. 

By Mr. Webb, London. 

Sir,—I n compliance with your request, I beg to state that I 
have practised the nerve operation, transversely, below the fetlock 
in cases of ringbone, ossified cartilages, &c., and consider the nerve 
quite as conveniently got at as though made horizontally. After 
I have operated on both sides of the leg I bandage with flannel, 
keeping it wet with cold water for a week or ten days. By that 
time the wound is healed, and I have seldom occasion to use 
caustic to keep the granulations back. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant. 

iU* * t . . . ... 

P.S.—We thank Mr. Webb for his attention to our inquiries.— Ed. Vet. 


COMA IN THE HORSE, 

PRODUCED BY THE PRESENCE OF TWO TUMOURS AND A LARGE 
QUANTITY OF SERUM IN THE LATERAL VENTRICLES 

OF THE BRAIN. 

By P. Leach, M.R.C. V.S., Yeovil. 

Sir,— WITH this I forward by post a tumour, which I yesterday 
took from the left lateral ventricle of the brain of a horse : should 
the history of the case be deemed worthy of a place in your valua¬ 
ble Journal it is at your service, and I shall thus for the first time 






COMA IN THE HORSE. 


323 


(but I hope not the last) become a subscriber to its pages. I have 
also one or two cases more, but not of the same description, which 
I hope to send you on an early day. 

Early on the morning of Monday last my immediate attendance 
was required to look at an aged horse, of a heavy draught breed, 
chestnut colour, and in very low condition, belonging to a person 
of this town. On entering the stable, I found the following 
symptoms to present themselves :—The horse was standing with 
his head depressed, and pushed firmly against the wall; legs and 
ears of a moderate temperature ; mouth rather hotter than usual, 
and moist; breathing calm and regular; pulse about thirty, and 
full; pupils very much dilated ; complete paralysis of both optic 
nerves, and the animal in a state of lethargy, from which he was 
with great difficulty aroused. My first impression was that it was 
a case of coma arising from an over-distended state of the vessels 
of the brain ; and that the absence of many of those symptoms 
which usually characterize that affection probably depended upon 
the short time the horse had been attacked, and thus a sufficient 
time had not elapsed for those symptoms to manifest themselves. 
Under this impression, I at once proceeded to abstract blood from 
the jugular vein, a* d on compressing that vessel with my finger, I 
was surprised to find several indications of this operation having 
been previously performed. I also examined the jugular on the 
other side of the neck, and here also had the lancet made its 
wounds. I however opened the vein, and abstracted about eight 
quarts of blood before an} r effect was produced; I then closed the 
orifice, administered a cathartic ball, and in the course of half an 
hour, my patient being much relieved, I left him. I visited him 
several times during the day: he appeared to be going on favour¬ 
ably until about 8 o’clock, P.M., when the disease was returning 
with increased activity. I again took away blood until an evident 
effect was produced upon the system; administered some seda¬ 
tive medicine, and ordered cold water to be continually applied 
to the head. I now found, on particular inquiry, that my patient 
had been the property of its present owner about eight months. 
In November last he experienced an attack of the same kind, but 
milder in degree, and which was relieved by venesection and ape¬ 
rient medicine (the horse had not, however, been a patient of mine 
before); that since that time, and even before, he had been gra¬ 
dually losing condition, would frequently when at work reel and 
stagger in his walk, appear sleepy, and run heedlessly against any 
object which came in his way. From this I expressed my opinion 
that there most certainly existed some abnormal formation within 
the cranial cavity, and which caused a continual pressure on the 
substance of the brain; but as to the nature of this formation I 


324 


COMA IN THE HORSE. 


could not determine. My impression, however, was, that in all 
probability there was a collection of fluid within the venticles; 
and my reasons for coming to this conclusion were the following; 
viz. That there was an undue degree of pressure upon the sen- 
sorium could not be doubted ; and that this pressure operated more 
particularly upon the optic nerves was also certain; and as a 
collection of fluid within these cavities would more especially press 
upon the optic nerves by direct pressure upon the Thalami ner¬ 
vorum opticorum, I think I had some reason to form the opinion 
above stated ; although, of course, I could not say positively that 
this was the case. Again, a pressure on almost any other part of 
the brain would, most likely, have produced partial if not complete 
paralysis of some other organ : whereas, no such circumstance had 
been observed. Having formed this opinion upon the case, of 
course my prognosis was extremely unfavourable, viz., that al¬ 
though the horse might, perhaps, recover this attack, still he would, 
at no distant day, be carried off by a future one. On Tuesday I 
frequently visited my patient, and continued the cold water and 
sedative medicine until night, when the medicine having operated, 
and the symptoms being less urgent, the ablutions were discontinued. 

Wednesday morning. —Medicine operating rather freely ; pulse 
feeble, and appetite fastidious : this improved, however, during the 
day, and the animal ate a little grass, and oats mixed with bran. 
In the evening the action of the cathartic medicine was subsiding, 
and, on the whole, the horse was progressing favourably. 

Thursday morning. —Medicine set, appetite dull, pulse quick and 
almost imperceptible at the submaxillary artery : discontinue me¬ 
dicine, give gruel, oats, bran, &c. In the afternoon, or rather 
evening, I was sent for in haste, as the horse was down and in 
great pain. I immediately attended, and found him lying down, 
very restless, and apparently suffering great pain, continually 
changing his position, and especially rising on his fore legs and 
sitting on his haunches, which position appeared to give temporary 
relief: the pupils, which had contracted to nearly the usual size, 
were again dilated, and the optic nerves again paralyzed; the heart 
beating violently, but the pulsation of the arteries imperceptible; 
the legs and ears becoming colder every hour; the breathing 
very quick and laborious, (very much resembling that of a horse 
badly broken winded when under severe exertion), and the animal 
becoming rapidly exhausted : with these symptoms, I confess I was 
completely put to a nonplus. It was not colic or enteritis, and T 
did not consider it to be gastritis. I had never seen a case of 
ruptured diaphragm; but, from the writings of others, I was in¬ 
clined to consider this to be a case of that description. I certainly 
did not think it to be a chest affection, as no symptom indicating 


COMA IN THE HORSE. 


325 


such had shewn itself. I administered a dose of opiate and diffu¬ 
sive stimulant medicine: the poor animal, however, rapidly got 
worse, and about one o’clock on Friday morning, being completely 
exhausted, he was compelled to yield to the grim tyrant, Death. 

Sectio cadaveris , Friday evening.—The contents of the abdomen 
healthy, with the exception of the liver, which was of a dark blue 
colour, but not otherwise altered. In the thorax were found about 
five or six quarts of transparent serum, of a yellowish colour, 
without any particular odour; the pleura costalis and pulmonalis 
thickened, but not inflamed, except at one part, where the former 
was considerably inflamed for about the space of a foot; the paren¬ 
chyma of the lungs was healthy, and I cannot now consider but 
that the pain which the horse suffered during the last six or eight 
hours of its existence was in consequence of the disease of the 
brain. The diaphragm was healthy. 

The brain was next examined, in which the only evidence of 
disease was that of an accumulation of, I should say, not less 
than two fluid ounces of serum in the lateral ventricles, together 
with, in the left ventricle, the tumour which you now see, and in 
the right another tumour of the same description, only three times 
as large (the one inclosed weighing when taken out exactly half an 
ounce, and the other one ounce and a half), and in its centre it had 
about a teaspoonful of serum. Both tumours were attached to the 
plexus choroides; the ventricles were, of course, enlarged to a con¬ 
siderable extent, and, as a consequence, the substantia medullaris 
was proportionately absorbed. 

The structure of the tumours is peculiar. I have examined one 
of them under the focus of a microscope, and consider it to be 
made up of small sacs, the cavities of which contain serum, and a 
vast number of very small metallic-looking substances; (or, to the 
naked eye, they do not appear unlike the scales of fish), but under 
the microscope they are seen to consist of infinitely minute crystals. 
The bulk of the tumour principally consists of a substance appa¬ 
rently analogous to the fibrine of the blood, and of which the sacs 
already alluded to appear to be formed; and the whole is enclosed 
in a very thin transparent membrane. The tumours were highly 
vascular. 

Such, Sir, is a brief outline of the case, and which, so far as my 
reading and observation go, is the first of the kind on record. 
There is, however, a kind of semicartilaginous glandiform sub¬ 
stance said to have been found attached to the plexus choroides in 
the human brain ; but the tumours found in the present case do 
not belong to that class. I think the chemical composition of 
these malformations would prove an interesting inquiry, and, in 
the hands of a scientific analytical chemist, might throw some 


326 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 


light on their formation. There are also two other questions of im¬ 
portance ; viz. how long had they existed, and, supposing their pre¬ 
sence to have been known, could they have been absorbed. As to 
the first, my own opinion is, that they had existed for a very long 
time, probably for years; and as to the last question, 1 could not 
see how their presence could have been detected during life ; but 
should I ever witness a similar case, I think I shall try the effects 
of iodine, or a compound of iodine and mercury. 

You will, probably, favour your readers with some observations 
on the case. What I have advanced is but the theory of a young 
practitioner; but your opinion would have the superior advantages 
of science and experience. Perhaps these observations may also 
draw forth some valuable information from my brother vets. 

I am, Sir, your’s respectfully. 

Yeovil, May 20/A, 1848. 


REVIEW. 


Quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid non.—Hon. 


Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and 
the Panjub, &c. By Mr. Wm. Moorcroft and Mr. Geo. 
TrebeCK. Prepared for the Press by Mr. Wilson. 

[Second Notice.] 

OUR former notice of this work did not extend beyond the 
“ Preface.” That happens, however, to be of a character unusually 
long and interesting, containing, as it does, a biographical sketch 
of Mr. Moorcroft, together with other particulars requisite to be 
known by the reader for the due understanding and relish of the 
body or substance of the work : apart from all that may entertain 
or instruct them or us in the course of perusal, the part to which 
we are now come, and to which our readers will, with us, attach 
additional interest from the circumstance of its being the produc¬ 
tion of Mr. Moorcroft himself. In culling our extracts, we have 
been mainly influenced by the relation, direct or indirect, they 
have appeared to have to veterinary science. At the same time 






REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 


327 


they will tend, in some degree, though that be slight perhaps, to 
exhibit the veterinary proficiency and ardour of Mr. Moorcroft, 
More conspicuously will they represent him as author, traveller, 
and scientific inquirer, characters in which our late eminent pro¬ 
fessional brother shone with light no less creditable to himself than 
to those who elected him for the equally honourable, arduous, and 
perilous undertaking. As a traveller, Moorcroft was not to be 
surpassed “ in determination, hardihood, endurance, and spirit of 
enterprise.” As a veterinarian, “ his scientific attainments were 
strictly professionalthereby shewing that he both followed and 
loved his profession. As a writer, some letters of his which we 
published on a former occasion, taken in connexion with the work 
before us, will at least demonstrate that he held his pen after the 
manner of a scholar and a gentleman. 

“ Our cattle had started on the 3d of February, swimming across 
the river at Rani-Nath, a village on the right bank of the Ala- 
kanda, opposite the gate of the palace at Srinagai, in order that 
they might proceed by a safer though more circuitous route. In 
the more difficult portions of their journey, porters had been pro¬ 
vided to relieve them of their loads; but the grooms, confiding in 
the experience which they imagined they had acquired, refused to 
avail themselves of this aid, and consequently a valuable mule 
perished; his load came in contact with a projecting rock, and he 
was forced over the edge of the precipice on the other side of him, 
and killed by the fall. This was the fourth animal I had lost. The 
horses were killed by accidents, with difficulty avoidable; but the 
mules perished chiefly through the carelessness of their attendants. 
If horses are employed in such journeys they should not exceed 
fourteen hands, and those bred in the hills should be preferred. 
The mule, however, is a much safer animal; but for the Himalaya, 
the beast that excels all in caution and security is the jabu, or 

mule from the Yak of Tartarv and the cow*” 

•/ 

***** 

“ The vicinity of Tiri is infested with tigers, and a kind of trap 
is used to catch them. This is a small chamber of loose, heavy 
stones, with a sliding door at one end and a loop-hole at the other. 
The door is kept raised by a slight moveable projection, and from 
the upper part of it a rope passes over the roof of the hut, which, 
entering it by the loop-hole at the other extremity, is tied to the 
neck of a goat, who is slightly fastened within. The tiger, at¬ 
tracted by his prey, enters the hovel, and attempts to carry off the 
goat. In the struggle that ensues, the door, shaken by the rope in 


328 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 


contact with it, frees itself of the slight impediment opposed to its 
descent, and, falling down by its own weight, secures the tiger. 

The animal is then shot through the loop-hole.” 

* * * * * 

“ The neat cattle of the (Himalayan) hills are not obtainable for 
food except by the violation of local prejudices; but the short¬ 
tailed sheep of Tartary, after it has been employed some years in 
carrying loads, furnishes, after fattening, a mutton rarely surpassed 
for fineness of fibre, juiciness, and flavour. The sheep may be 
procured in any number at a rupee a head. The goat-mutton is 
very indifferent. The mast of the oak and horse-chestnut support 
great numbers of wild hogs, which haunt the upper part of the hills 
until compelled by the snow to seek for food lower down. They 
are then waylaid by the inhabitants, and when entangled in the 
snow-drifts, attacked and speared. The domestic poultry is small, 
but good if suitably prepared. Pheasants exist in considerable 
numbers and variety. The male of the monal pheasant weighs 
usually above five pounds, and is a bird of most magnificent 
plumage. The chakor, or Francoline partridge, and black partridge, 
are in great plenty; woodcocks are also met with. I have already 
alluded to the trout of Alakananda, which, although in its general 
form and the colour of its flesh it resembles trout, differs from it in 
many particulars, especially in the structure of its mouth, which is 
placed more backward, and it has no teeth in its lips; the nose 
projects farther; the lower lip is thick, leathery, and flat below 
and convex above, and applies exactly to some moveable bones in 
the fore part of the palate, against which it squeezes its food. It 
has a single row of teeth in its throat, and two barbs on each side 
of the upper lip. The mode of catching it has also been adverted 
to; but I should think that anglers in England would find it an 
advantage to substitute the line made from the fibres of the murna 

for any tackle that they at present employ.” 

***** 

“ Whilst waiting for Dharm Sinh, numerous flocks of sheep and 
goats passed us on their way to Kangra and Chamba. The goats 
were generally white ; the sheep were white, black, pied, and dun; 
but the fleeces were less fine than I expected to have found them. 
Iygee Ullah purchased three wethers, selected by him from the 

flock, for four rupees, and I bought two for the same sum.” 
***** 

“ The animals of Ladakh of the domestic species are horses, 
asses, yaks, cows, the Tho or Yak-mule, sheep, goats, dogs, &c. 
Of these the horses are small, but active and hardy : they are not 
numerous or much used. The yak is found only on high lands, 
and is inferior in appearance and strength to that of Chan-than. 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 


329 


The males are applied almost solely to the transport of burdens. 
The neat cattle are kept entirely for milk and butter, the consump¬ 
tion of which latter, especially with tea, is very considerable. The 
Zho is a hybrid, between the male yak and the cow: the male 
is employed as a gelding for carrying loads and for ploughing, in 
which latter occupation he is remarkable for docility and endur¬ 
ance. The female Zho is not, strictly speaking, a mule, but her 
progeny. 

“ The native breeds of sheep, though larger than those of India, 
are much smaller than the sheep of Chan-than. There is one 
species, however, the purik, which is very diminutive, and is re¬ 
markable for its complete domestication. This, when of full 
growth, has scarcely attained the size of a South-down lamb of 
five or six months : the bone is small, and carcass large in respect 
to its bulk, and its mutton is most excellent. It gives two lambs 
within twelve months, and is twice shorn during that period. The 
clip may afford three pounds in the annual aggregate, and the first 
yield is fine enough for tolerably good shawls: the whole of the 
wool is worked up into narrow cloth for home consumption. 

“The dog is scarcely more perfectly domesticated than this little 
animal. During the day in the summer months it is pastured 
amongst the mountains, but at night, and throughout the winter, 
it finds shelter in a walled yard, or under the roof of its master. 
In this state it seeks with incessant assiduity grass, straw, chaff, 
grain, peelings of esculent vegetables, and always attends the 
meals of the family for morsels of flour-cake, barley-meal, tea but¬ 
tered and salted, or exhausted tea leaves, and will sometimes even 
nibble a bone. It would be an invaluable appendage to the cottage 
of the British peasant, as it could be maintained at scarcely any 
cost*. 

“ The common breed of goat in this and the neighbouring counties 
of Lassa, Chan-than, and Chinese Turkestan, is the shawl-wool 
goat, the fleece of which in Ladakh is much finer. The fleece is 
cut once a year; the wool picked out is sent to Kashmir, but the 
hair is made into ropes, coarse sacks, and blankets for home con¬ 
sumption. The dogs are large, with a shaggy coat of a dark colour, 
and are in general of a fierce but intelligent disposition. 

“ The wild animals are not numerous; they are principally of the 
goat kind, which are much larger than the domestic goat, and yield 
a finer wool. The Ibex frequents the loftiest and most inaccessible 
crags; the male is called Skin, and the female L’Danmo. The 

* A letter on the puric sheep, and other topics relating to Ladakh, from Mr. 
Moorcrofit to J. Fleming, Esq., is published in the first volume of the 
“ Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society,” p. 49 .—Ed. 

VOL. XXI. V y 


330 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 


wild sheep (ovis ammon) is also met with, and is much larger 
than the domestic one. In the eastern parts of the country is a 
nondescript wild variety of horse, which I may call Equus Kiang. 
It is perhaps more of an ass than horse, but its ears are shorter, 
and it is certainly not the Gur-khor, or wild ass of Sindh. Its 
activity and strength render its capture difficult. A mouse, nearly 
three times the size of the English mouse, with a thick coat of 
grey fur, and a tail one-third of an inch long, is met with. Hares 
in some parts of Ladakh are found in considerable numbers, as has 
been noticed already; and I obtained skins of the squirrel, fox, 
ounce, bear, lynx, and leopard, although I did not meet with them 
alive. The natives assert that there is a kind of tiger or jaguar 
in the mountains, though rarely visiting the valleys. The marmot 
was seen in considerable numbers on some of the mountain-passes 
in summer, but in winter it had vanished, slumbering amidst the 
snow. 

“ The birds are not numerous, nor in general remarkable. One 
of the largest is the raven, which is a fierce and powerful bird, of a 
lofty and active flight in summer, but sullen and dull in winter. 
Another large bird is the gigantic chakoe, which is much larger than 
the common partridge. Sparrows, linnets, and robin redbreasts, are 
numerous and mischievous at seed time and harvest. The crested 
skylark sings as sweetly as in England, and the gelinok or snow- 
lark frequents the higher regions. Water-birds of various descrip¬ 
tions haunt the pools and lakes which are dispersed through 
Ladakh. Fish abound in all the streams, but the chariness of life 
which is taught by the religion of Buddha prevents their being 
caught, notwithstanding they would form so important an accession 
to the means of subsistence available in such a region. 

“ One of the most important articles of the trade of Ladakh is 
shawl wool, of which it forms, in some degree, the source, but in a 
still greater the entrepot between the countries whence the wool is 
chiefly supplied, Rodokh and Chan-Kan, and that in which it is 
consumed, Kashmir. The wool is that of a domesticated goat, and 
consists of the under fleece, or that next the skin, beneath the 
outer coat or hair. The breed is the same in Ladakh as in Lassa, 
Great Thibet, and Chinese Turkistan; but the wool is not so fine 
as in the breeds of the districts on its eastern and northern fron¬ 
tier. The fleece is cut once a year, and the wool, coarsely picked 
either in the place from whence it comes, or at Le, is sold by the 
importers to the merchants at that city, by whom it is sent on to 
Kashmir. The Raja and Khalun deal extensively in this trade; 
but it is also shared by merchants both from Kashmir and Tunir. 
About eight hundred loads are annually exported to Kashmir, to 
which country, by ancient custom and engagements, the export is 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 


331 


exclusively confined, and all attempts to convey it to other coun¬ 
tries are punished by confiscation. In like manner it is considered 
in Rodokh and Chan-Khan as illegal to allow a trade in shawl 
wool except through Ladakh; and in the latter country considera¬ 
ble impediments are opposed to the traffic in wool from Yarkand, 
although it is of a superior quality and cheapness. The hair ot 
the goat, after it is separated from the wool, is made into ropes, 
blankets, and bags for home use, and as wrappers for bales ol 
merchandize. 

“ Although the fleece of the sheep affords a material similar to 
that of the goat, it is not in sufficient proportion, nor of adequate 
length, to be considered fit for the manufacture of shawls : it is, 
therefore, either worked up into woollen cloth, the greater portion 
of which is reserved for domestic consumption, and a small part 
is exported, or it is exported for a like manufacture to Kotoch, 
Chamba, and Kulu, and even to Kashmir. Some of this cloth, 
shorn and singed into an imitation of long piled velvet, is not 
without merit as a fabric. The sheep of Chan-Kan are also arti¬ 
cles of trade, as they are larger and stronger than the breeds to the 
westward; and being imported from thence, are re-exported to the 
hill states, where they are largely purchased as beasts of burden, 
carrying from twenty-five to thirty pounds weight. 

“ Besides the fleece of the domesticated goat, that of the wild 
goat, under the denomination of Asali Tus, is exported in smaller 
quantities to Kashmir. It is of a light brown colour and exceeding 
fineness, and is worked into shawls, a species of soft cloth called 
Tusi, and lining for shawl wool stockings; very few shawls, how¬ 
ever, are made from this material. I purchased a small quantity 
of it at eight rupees the manwati: when picked, for which an 
additional charge of seven rupees was made, I received about five 
ounces, or one-eighth of the original quantity, back in very fine 
shawl wool. Another parcel yielded a fifth. In general, the 
pickers of shawl wool are paid by the hair, but in this case the 
hair was considered unfit for making into ropes, &c. Shawls 
made from this material would be much softer, lighter, and warmer, 
than those of ordinary fabric. When, without being picked, the 
Asali Tus is worked into Tusi, it forms a warm, soft cloth, of a 
drab or grey colour, which is much worn in the hills. It is manu¬ 
factured at various places in the Panjub. A piece bought at Am¬ 
ritsar for ninety rupees was sold at Delhi for two hundred and 
fifty; but the Tusi cloth which comes to Hindustan is made from 
a mixture of the Asali Tus with other wool. This article must 
be always high priced, from the difficulty of procuring the animal 
that produces it, the wild goat rarely venturing within gun-shot 


332 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’s TRAVELS. 


during the day, and being obtained only by snares at night, when 

they come down from the mountains to browse in the ■valleys.” 

* * * * * 

“ We saw many large herds of the kiang, and I made numerous 
attempts to bring one down, but with invariably bad success. 
Some were wounded, but not sufficiently to check their speed; and 
they quickly bounded up the rocks, where it was impossible to 
follow. They would afford excellent sport to four or five men 
well mounted, but a single individual has no chance. The kiang 
allows his pursuer to approach no nearer than five or six hundred 
yards; he then trots off, turns, looks, and waits until you are 
almost within distance, when he is off again. If fired at, he is 
frightened, and scampers off altogether. The Chan-Kan people 
sometimes catch them by snares, sometimes shoot them. From all 
1 have seen of the animal, I should pronounce him to be neither a 
horse nor an ass. His shape is as much like one as the other; but 
his cry is more like braying than neighing. The prevailing colour 
is a light reddish-chestnut ; but the nose, the under part of the 
lower jaw and neck, the belly and legs, are white ; the mane is 
dun, and erect; the ears are moderately long; the tail bare, and 
reaching a little below the hock; the height is about fourteen 
hands. The form, from the fore to the hind leg and feet to a level 
with the back, is more square than that of an ass; his back is less 
straight, and there is a dip behind the withers and rounding of the 
crupper which is more like the shape of the horse; his neck is 
also more erect and arched than that of the ass. He is, perhaps, 
more allied to the quaghi, but is without stripes, except a reported 
one along each side of the back to the tail. These were distinctly^ 
seen on a foal, but were not distinguished in the adults. 

“ Whilst engaged in the pursuit of the kiang, I came occa¬ 
sionally upon wild goats; they were rather higher than the sheep, 
long in leg, and spare in body, with a light head and neck, and 
curved horns of a moderate size. They bounded off, as I ap¬ 
proached, exactly like deer.” 

***** 

“ At the same time that my young friend was despatched to 
Piti, I undertook an excursion to Dras, and left Le for that pur¬ 
pose on the 10th of June. The sowing of wheat had been finished 
at the end of May, and the most forward plants were now five 
inches high. Peas and beans were also above the ground. 
Lucerne was only just bursting where the soil was dry, but where 
it was well watered it was full and high. In Ladakh this grass is 
almost an aquatic; though in India it perishes if long under water 
in the rainy season. It is also worthy of remark, that in this 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 333 

country pure gravel, without mould or clay, will rear lucerne if it 

be plentifully watered.” 

***** 

“ The cows of this district (Gonh) were more numerous, and in 
better condition than any I have seen since leaving the southern 
hills. They were small but well shaped, with small horns; the 
prevailing colour was black, but it varied to pure red, and mixed 
with white. They are pastured on the hills during the day, on 
lucerne and white clover, and at night are fed with the wild oat 
gathered from amongst the corn for this purpose. Before being 
taken to their sheds they browsed upon some common pasture- 
grass which was flooded an hour before their return. Two cows 
were fastened together by a rope attached to willow rings passed 
through their noses, and children were employed to prevent their 
straying.” 

***** 

“ On the 19th of June we crossed the pass of Parang-La. The 
ascent, though not of the most abrupt description, occupied us from 
daybreak till noon. In the lower part the snow lay in lines, with 
edges sufficiently frozen to bear our weight, and we stepped along 
as if we had been walking upon boards placed on their edges. 
Higher up it was softened by the sun, and we had the agreeable 
variety of sinking into it knee deep. My horse was so utterly 
incapable of proceeding, long before reaching the summit, that it 
was necessary to dismount and leave him to his fate. I should 
have put an end to. his sufferings, but was persuaded that some 
men might be sent back for him with food from Kiwar, though 
I had little expectation of this being effected in time. The height 

of the pass above the sea was not less than 19,000 feet.” 

***** 

“ From Lang Kartse we proceeded by a different route from that 
formerly followed by Sankho, and ascended the bank of the Zakut 
river, running from west by south, and falling into the Kartse-chu. 
The path was narrow, rugged, and steep. At the distance of a 
mile and a half we came to a small village, from the lands of which 
the crops had been lately reaped. A large patch of ground was 
thickly covered with prangos plants. As we ascended we expe¬ 
rienced the keenness of the wintry wind, and round the stems of a 
species of dock thin bands or ribands of ice had formed. The 
road then descended, but soon again took an ascending direction, 
skirting the right bank of a stream, at a considerable height above 
it, which was carrying a suppl} r of water to the Kartse-chu. 
Here, on stepping over a block of jasper which crossed the road, 
my horse fell, and rolled with me a considerable way down the 
slope before I could get loose. The softness of the snow prevented 


334 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 


my receiving any serious injury, and the horse was brought up bv 

a block of stone just upon the edge of a precipitous rock.” 

* * * * * 

“ The animals and birds of Kashmir are much the same as those 
of Hindustan. The horses are small and indifferent. Sheep are 
plentiful, and the mutton is well flavoured; the fat is particularly 
white. Whether this is owing to any peculiarity in their feed, I 
shall not undertake to determine; but although it would be very 
possible to prepare an ample sufficiency of hay for winter fodder, 
the preference is given to the leaves of certain trees—as the walnut, 
willow, mulberry, elm, and several others, which are considered 
much more warming and nutritious than hay, especially for sheep. 
Small branches, after having been cut when in full leaf, are imme¬ 
diately so disposed within the first forks of the tree to which they 
belong, as to be thereby retained ; and although loosely piled, yet, 
in consequence of being entangled amongst themselves, are not 
detached by the wind; neither do they lose their leaves, nor are 
the latter in any respect injured. This forage is reserved for the 
severe part of the winter, when the cattle are driven under the 
trees in which the store is suspended, and the dry branches being 
pulled down, the leaves are eaten by them with great avidity. 
When grass is stored for winter fodder, it is twisted into thick ropes 
immediately after having been cut, and in this state hung across 
the upper branches of trees, without other preparation, for hay ; 
it thus keeps free from rottenness, and, generally, even from mould¬ 
iness, notwithstanding the great quantit}^ of rain and snow that falls. 
Grass thus dried is given to the cattle in the morning, and leaves in 
the afternoon and evening: oil-cake, made of linseed, walnut kernels, 
mustard seed, along with the seed of cotton, are given to fatten cattle, 
as are flags, or the leaves of sedge. The prangos, which likewise 

grows in Kashmir, is also largely used as winter fodder.” 

***** 

“ From Aibek to the foot of the mountains was about eight miles. 
There were several towns in ruins, having been destroyed by 
Murad Beg, who had made slaves of their inhabitants. There still 
remained a number of inhabited villages, and the land, where culti¬ 
vated, was well tilled and watered. Every village had large 
droves of brood mares, and they were more numerous than cows : 
they were generally about fourteen hands high, sometimes too long 
in their bodies, but, in other respects, well formed. They would 
have been well worth from two hundred and fifty to three hundred 
rupees in Hindustan : here they were purchased for a toman or a 
toman and a half, or from twenty to thirty rupees. 

“ In order to elude the vigilance of the Yesawal and his detach¬ 
ment, it was agreed that three of my horses should be led into the 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 


335 


town, as if to be in readiness for the morning’s journey, that after 
nightfall they should be conducted to a burying-ground at some 
distance by a couple of trusty persons, who were to act as my 
guides to Talikan, and that I should endeavour to join them as 
soon and as secretly as practicable. The horses were sent off. 
As the evening advanced, the guard was reinforced, and horsemen 
from the town were continually approaching and parading round my 
tent. No time was to be lost. Going forth in my usual attire, and 
inspecting my sentinels, I returned, and in a few minutes threw an 
Uzbek silk dress over my own, with an upper woollen mantle 
commonly worn, put a sheepskin cap upon my head, enfolded at 
bottom by a lungi or turban, one end of which hung loose, and the 
other was brought across my mouth and chin, so as to conceal my 
face and want of beard, and, thus equipped, I sallied forth on foot, 
directing my path towards an unfrequented part of the mountains, 
concealing my person as much as possible by descending into ra¬ 
vines and hollows. The moon was young, but rain fell, and the 
clouds augmented the obscurity of the night. 

Having walked about half a mile, I with some difficulty made 
out the place where I was to meet my guides, and at last found 
them at their posts, with one of my own people and our three horses. 
We mounted, and galloped to the south until we reached the foot 
of the mountain, when, skirting the adjacent portion of the town, 
we followed the foot of the range for some miles, finding our way 
with difficulty. The path we had taken was little frequented, and 
as the badness of the night was unfavourable to travelling, we met 
with no one upon the road. At Yang Arekh we were embar¬ 
rassed amongst the ruins, but at last cleared them, and passed 
close to the fort, without being observed. Beyond this place, 
the plain, without tree or shrub, was fetlock deep in water, and 
our horses had great difficulty in making way over the clayey soil. 
At Bash Abdan we were nearly detected; for my guides having 
imprudently entered to light a pipe, found there a party of Hindus, 
the servants of the Dewan Begi. Luckily, I remained without, 
awaiting their return. At the pass of Shahbagli some uncertainty 
prevailed as to our proper road, and my guides, after some time, 
found themselves at the bottom of a ravine, where it became ne¬ 
cessary to dismount, and wait the break of day. However, on 
the rain diminishing and the atmosphere clearing a little we re¬ 
sumed confidence, and discovered a path, by which we crossed the 
mountain just as the day was beginning to dawn. Providential 
it was that we had not traversed the mountain in the night by the 
usual road; for in the grey of the morning we discerned, at the 
eastern foot of the pass, the fires of a party, which must have been 
one of alemans or banditti, as travellers never halt in such a situ- 


336 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 


ation. We continued our advance on the direct road, as if we 
had not noticed them; but as soon as we had got behind a rising 
ground, which secured us from view, we turned off to the north, 
and galloped hard until we thought ourselves out of danger of 
pursuit. Proceeding on the same line, we came to an abdan, or a 
path which led to the Oxus, and then returned to the direction on 
Kunduz. Leaving it a short distance to our left, we rode to the 
east and south, traversing a large extent of barren plain. After 
many deviations, which made me apprehend the competency of 
my guides, we observed some Uzbeks fording the Ghori river, 
and followed their direction. The river was about a hundred 
yards broad, and the current was rapid. We then rode on till it 
was dark, when we came upon an Uzbek encampment, where it 
was thought we might venture to stop and give our horses a feed 
of barley, which we had brought in our saddle-bags. The animals 
had been without food for twenty-four hours. One of my men, 
who spoke Turki like an Uzbek, went amongst their tents to pur¬ 
chase some milk and salted tea, whilst I lay down upon a felt; 
and the other guide, who remained with me, replied to those who 
inquired who I was, that I was his fellow-traveller, and was very 
ill with fever. Milk was not procurable, but we obtained a little 
tea. I was then anxious to depart, but my guides were over¬ 
come with fatigue, and I was obliged to consent to their taking 
about an hour’s rest. We then remounted, and rode on. The 
night was dark, and the path was indistinct; and when it wanted 
about three hours of day, my guides declared they could not ven¬ 
ture to proceed, as they were uncertain of the road. We were, 
therefore, obliged to halt till towards dawn, when we were joined 
by another benighted traveller, from whose information it was 
ascertained that we had lost our way. It was with great difficulty 
that we recovered it, and the morning had fairly broke, when 
it was discovered that we had considerably retrogaded, and were 
not above four kos in advance from Kunduz, on a tract abounding 
with water and mud, frequently up to the horses’ knees. At eight 
o’clock we were opposite to Khanahabad, about seven kos from 
Kunduz. It seemed to be a large town on the right bank of the 
Turkhan river, with a fort of some extent, but not in good repair. 
We pushed on as fast as we could, and, avoiding the main road, 
which was somewhat circuitous, forded the river, and crossed a 
rice level. Whilst yet far distant from Palican, a person was 
met who reported that Baba Bey was on his way to the same 
place, at some distance in our rear. We had not proceeded much 
iarther, when we had the mortification of descrying Baba Bey, 
with a numerous party, advancing at a round pace, and gaining 
upon us rapidly. We, however, cleared the pass that leads to 


REVIEW.—MOORCROFT’S TRAVELS. 


337 


the plain of Paliccin, and encountered a cavalcade, both of horse 
and foot, going out to meet the governor of Pash Kurghan, who 
was accompanied by Khan Jan, the eldest son of Murad Beg. 
The interchange of civilities, indispensable on such occasions, 
would, we hoped, delay the approach of our pursuers, if such they 
were, and give us time to reach the residence of the Pir. Unfor¬ 
tunately, this was at some distance beyond the town, and we 
thought it expedient to make a circuit across a ridge of mountains, 
in preference to traversing the town. I was here obliged to change 
horses with one of my guides, as my own was unable to get be¬ 
yond a walk; a failure which, considering his steadiness, I ascribed 
to his being galled by my English saddle.” 

***** 

“ We left Karshi on the 21st February, and resumed our journey 
to Bokhara. The country we traversed resembled that we had 
passed between Karshi and the Oxus : after quitting the confines 
of the strip of cultivated ground on which that city stands, we 
again came to a sandy and sterile tract, less undulating than that 
nearer the river, but equally unproductive. It was with no 
slender satisfaction, that, on the morning of the 25th February, 
1825, we found ourselves at the end of our protracted pilgrimage, 
at the gates of that city which had for five years been the object of 
our wanderings, privations, and perils.” 

***** 

“ The valley of Deas is situated in the district of the same 
name. The climate of Deas is, like that of Ladakh in general, 
severely cold for half the year, and during the other half ranging 
from intense heat in the day to cold, almost freezing, in the night. 
The inhabitants of Deas are rather under the middle stature, 
though taller than those of the eastern districts, and have coarse 
and unattractive features. Their houses are built of pebbles, 
cemented with earth, and with terraced roofs, and are most inar¬ 
tificial fabrics. As usual, they are built without chimneys, and the 
smoke with which they are commonly filled accounts for the fre¬ 
quency of complaints of the eyes. In the course of two months I 
operated on fifty cataracts, and the patients who applied for relief 
in inflammatory affections of those organs were exceedingly nu¬ 
merous.” 

Our extracts have run to greater lengths than we anticipated; 
we hope they have not grown tediously long. As we continued 
our perusal of the work, page after page, the matter seemed to 
increase in interest, and we had finished reading it before we‘ 
discovered we had marked for extraction more and lengthier 

VOL. XXI. z 2 


338 


REVIEW—SPONGIO-PILINE. 


paragraphs than we had meditated taking from it. We felt we 
had transgressed, and yet we felt an unwillingness to abridge or to 
curtail; knowing that, in all probability, this notice would for ever 
close our pages to the honoured memory and departed worth of the 
veterinarian,— Moorcroft. 


,r ... 

Spongio-Piline. 

Whilst surgeons are engaged in experiments on any and every 
new invention that may happen to be introduced to their notice as 
in any way promising to be auxiliary to the healing art, it would, 
indeed, be a shame were veterinary surgeons to be found idle or 
standing still in this respect—ignorant or indifferent about what, 
in the world of improvement, was going on as applicable to their 
own art. We trust such is not the case. On the contrary, we 
entertain little doubt but that there are many veterinarians who, 
like ourselves, have already put to trial the above-named novel 
substance, desirous of eliciting its properties and uses. For 
our own part, we feel it our duty to say something about it, not¬ 
withstanding, as we must confess, our experiments with it have 
neither been so multiplied nor so varied as we could have wished. 

SPONGIO-PILINE is a newly invented substance, consisting—as 
its name implies—in a mixture of sponge and wool felted together, 
spread out, and afterwards coated on one side with a plaster of 
caoutchouc, which forms a sort of foundation for the felting, and 
at the same time renders it, on the side coated, impervious to wet 
or steam. As will probably suggest itself from this cursory de¬ 
scription, spongio-piline much resembles sheep’s skin, the cutis 
representing the india-rubber foundation, while for the wool is sub¬ 
stituted the spongio-piline; and thus, while one side is a pilous, 
and, consequently, an imbibing and retaining surface, the other 
is a smooth and an impermeable one; and for these reasons has it 
become a substitute for poultices and fomentations, and, as such, 
has for some months past been in use in several of our metropolitan 
hospitals. Now, supposing that it be found as efficacious as poul¬ 
ticing and fomenting, we need not tell veterinarians of the great 



REVIEW—SPONGIO-PILINE. 


339 


utility such an application will be likely to prove to them in 
practice, not only from the labour and trouble it will save, but 
from the extreme convenience of its application; seeing that the 
spongio-piline admits of being cut and moulded into any and every 
shape and size that may be required for each particular part. 
Every veterinarian knows but too well the trouble and vexation he 
has to encounter in applying poultices to some parts, while to others 
he never dares to think of their application, however anxiously he 
may desire it: here the spongio-piline will be found eminently 
serviceable. We have used it for sore throats, confining a piece 
of the proper size and shape simply by means of the throat latch 
of the headstall; we have also used it for sprained legs, confining 
a piece of requisite size to go round the leg by means of a long 
linen bandage, or, what perhaps is better, a flannel-roller bandage. 
For convenience of application, for bibulousness, for lightness, we 
must confess we are highly pleased with the spongio-piline; the 
only question with us being whether or not it is sufficiently per¬ 
manently retentive of heat to render it equi valent to a poultice* 
There is, however, one case—and one in particular—in which, 
though we have not as yet had an opportunity of putting it to the 
test, we feel no hesitation in pronouncing the spongio-piline likely 
to prove of signal service, and that is, the case of colic “ gripes/' 
or enteritis. While the animal is rolling about and pawing in a 
paroxysm of pain, we can well imagine that a broad sheet of 
spongio-piline, dipped in water as hot as the hands can bear it, 
wrung out, and applied at once to the abdomen, would be likely to 
prove quite as effectual as a fresh-flayed sheep-skin, and every¬ 
body knows the difficulty in most places, and in some the impossi¬ 
bility, of obtaining the latter. 

Mr. Markwick, the inventor and patentee of the spongio-piline, 
has also formed out of it pads, to answer the purpose of stoppings, 
for horses’ feet; and excellently calculated the spongio-pilous sub¬ 
stance of itself is for that purpose, each pad soaking up readily as 
much as two ounces of water. But the pad, as now constructed, 
will not remain in the foot, and, moreover, is not sufficiently durable 
for the purpose of foot-stopping. What we should recommend Mr. 
Markwick to do, is to stick the spongio-piline upon a gutta perclia 


340 


CENTRAL SOCIETY OF 


foundation of the requisite thickness. This will give the pad 
strength, and will materially increase its durability. And this 
possibly might, from the known elasticity of gutta percha, render 
it consistent and springy enough, when a vacuity for the frog has 
been cut out, to remain in the foot without fastening. 


Extracts from Foreign Journals. 


Compte-Rendu of the Central Society of Veterinary 
Medicine of France for 1847. 

We find nothing in the “ Report” to interest us, but in the 
cases annexed to it there are some observations which may be 
worthy notice. We subjoin the best of them. 

1 .—Some curious Observations on Division of the Neck of the 
Uterus in difficult and impossible Parturition. 

[Addressed to the Society by M. Bonnet, V.S., Yssel, Correze.] 

M. Bonnet would discard altogether from veterinary surgery 
both the Caesarean operation and embryotomy, and introduce as a 
substitute for them division of the neck of the uterus, whereby are 
preserved both the mother and the progeny. In support of this 
suggestion, M. Bonnet asserts, that in four cows, in which partu¬ 
rition was rendered impossible in consequence of the super-deve¬ 
lopment of the foetuses and paralysis of the hind quarters, com¬ 
bined, in three of them with inversion of the vagina, and in the 
fourth with scirrhous induration of the neck of the womb, the 
former (three) were perfectly recovered, save that one of them 
remained paralytic; the last case succumbed, owing, according to 
M. Bonnet, to an infection referrible to the death and decomposition 
of the foetus within the womb. 

Although there is nothing new in the operation of division of the 
neck of the uterus, these observations suffer no diminution of im¬ 
portance from that circumstance ; seeing that they are calculated to 
instigate veterinary practitioners in breeding countries to the em¬ 
ployment of such an operation in the generality of cases, in pre¬ 
ference to embryotomy. 






VETERINARY MEDICINE OE FRANCE. 


341 


2.— A Case of Recovery from Idiopathic Tetanus through 

Castration. 

[ByM. Valtat, V.S. at Paris.] 

After shewing the grave nature of tetanus in horses, and how 
frequently are found to fail all curative measures employed to 
counteract it, M. Valtat calls to mind some successes he has obtained 
in idiopathic tetanus through the employment of castration ; not 
recommending the operation under a violent attack of tetanus, 
but warning us not to reject it when the progress of the disease is 
tardy. 

M. Valtat concludes his paper with the history of the case of a 
horse, which induced him to make the circumstance known to the 
Society. The animal had been ill a week; every medicament 
recommended in such a case had been tried in vain: at last re¬ 
course was had to castration d testicules converts, as a forlorn 
hope. Ten days afterwards the horse went to his work. 

*** British veterinarians rarely have an opportunity of testing 
the efficacy of this novel remedy for tetanic diseases.— Ed. Vet. 


3.— Pneumonia in Horses. 

[By M. Prange, V.S., formerly in the army ; now at Paris.] 

Notwithstanding pneumonia in horses, complicated or not with 
gangrene, is a malady well enough known at the present day, M. 
Prange has devoted his attention afresh, and with a careful minute¬ 
ness, in all its phases and complications, to a disease of the kind 
which, in 1841, prevailed enzootically among the horses of the 
8th Regiment of Hussars. 

What was remarkable in this malady was, that the thirty-one 
animals attacked with it died in from the third to the sixty-second 
day of gangrene of the lungs. M. Prange attributed the disease, 
and especially the gangrenous character it assumed in almost 
every case, to circumstances connected with the events of 1840, 
and to the unhealthy quarters the regiment, at that time at Lune- 
ville, occupied. Without commenting on the pernicious influence 
excited by such causes as are here mentioned in animals affected 
with pneumonia, we may briefly state the fact, that, during the 
first six months of the year 1841, the horses of the 8th Hussars 
were not the only ones attacked by the disease described by M. 
Prange; and that, in several other instances, gangrene proved its 
termination. 

The other " Memoirs” appended to the Report are without 
interest. 



342 


FRENCH VETERINARY MEDICINE. 


Stomach Staggers successfully treated by Ether Inhalation 

and Purgatives. 

[From the “ Recueil de M4d6cine Veterinaire” for Nov. and Dec. 1847.] 

The subject of this case was an entire horse, who, for five or six 
days past, had been observed to be dull, and since two days past, 
having been subjected to heavier work than usual, had refused his 
corn. From this was remarked a propensity, becoming daily more 
observable, to run his forehead against the wall. This induced 
his owner to consult a veterinary surgeon, by whom he was 
advised to send his horse to the Alfort Veterinary College. 

Nov. 4, 1847.—Admitted into the College ; examined while 
loose in a box: he evinced the following symptoms :— 

Great dejection—unsteady gait; the head, held in a perpendi¬ 
cular line with the ground, is forcibly maintained under the 
manger against the wall in front—the fore limbs are bent and 
trembling (this possibly may be, in some measure, attributed to 
his having come from a long distance to the College)—respiration 
slow and laboured—mouth hot, and not so moist as in health— 
abdomen, though but little tense, is very tender, and it is consti¬ 
pated—pulse very slow, soft, and difficult to be felt—conjunctive 
membrane has a remarkable saffron-yellow taint, the buccal mem¬ 
brane having the same hue, but which is less apparent in the 
Schneiderian. 

Diagnostic. —Symptomatic staggers. 

Prognostic. —Unfavourable, there being much more likelihood 
of death than recovery. 

Treatment. — Administration of 30 grammes of aloes in a 
pint and a half of warm water. Purgative and stimulating 
lavements. 

Some moments of quiet followed the exhibition of the drench; 
soon, however, grinding of the teeth presaged another attack. 
Not being as yet tied up, the animal commenced violent throes 
from side to side, striking his head against every obstacle in its 
way. He was now fastened up with two ropes, and the rack and 
manger were, for defence, covered with straw mattings. The win¬ 
dow was also protected by straw, which served likewise to mode¬ 
rate the light. 

To this first attack, which lasted but a few minutes, succeeded 
an interval of tranquility, during which the head remained dog¬ 
gedly forced into the right corner of the box. Soon, however, the 
animal fell all at once to the ground, making then some fruitless 
efforts to rise again; to which succeeded prostration and som- 
nolescence. 


ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND. 


343 


Scarcely had a quarter of an hour elapsed before a fresh parox¬ 
ysm manifested itself. In the course of it, making a violent effort, 
the horse reared himself upon his hind quarters, and, making the 
ground a point d'appui for his head, he threw his entire weight 
upon it. In this singular posture, the head was flexed to that de¬ 
gree upon the neck that there appeared every reason to dread a 
luxation. Nevertheless, no harm resulted, and, by a second effort 
equally brusque , the animal was on his legs again. Instantly he 
went to take up a point d'appui against the rack, in which attitude 
he continued until night. 

Nov. 5.—From the report made of him during the night, it ap¬ 
peared the patient had experienced fits of agitation, but that, since 
two o’clock A.M., he had been tranquil. This morning there appeared 
no great difference in him. Let loose out of the stable, he turned 
indifferently to the right or to the left, according as his head was 
inclined on the one side or the other. His step evinced no assur¬ 
ance. His countenance expressed, in its fixity of regard, uncon¬ 
sciousness of surrounding objects. And in the stable he is conti¬ 
nually, as the phrase goes, “ boring with his head.” 

Prescription .—Inhalation of the fumes of ether, 500 grammes 
of sulphate of soda in his water. Laxative lavements. Diet. 

In the absence of any apparatus for the purpose, we were com¬ 
pelled, in order to carry the prescription of ether into effect, to 
contrive something. A linen bag was procured with a slip-knot 
around its aperture, by which it might be fitted to the muzzle; and 
in this was placed a large sponge lodged in a wooden bowl, upon 
which ether was poured in sufficient quantity to saturate it. It 
was precisely ten o’clock when the animal’s head was enveloped 
around the muzzle in the ether bag: at a quarter past ten, both 
motion and sensibility had become momentarily annihilated; the 
animal failed at once upon all four legs, and fell to the ground (in 
appearance) a lifeless mass. The eether was administered four 
times afterwards, and the animal in the end recovered. 


Extracts from Domestic Journals. 


Royal Agricultural Society of England. 

Shoeing Horses. —Mr. George Turner, of Barton, near Exeter, 
having presented at the former meeting of the Council a set of 
Mr. Miles’ model hoofs, illustrating the mode of shoeing horses 
advocated in that gentleman’s work on the Foot of the Horse, a 
copy of which Mr. Turner also presented at the same time, an 





344 ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND. 


interesting discussion ensued on this subject, in which Mr. Thomas 
Turner, Professor Sewell, Colonel Challoner, and Mr. Parkins, 
took part. Mr. Turner stated that the system of shoeing advo¬ 
cated by Mr. Miles was known in the profession as the “ unilateral” 

• (or side-nailing) mode, in which the shoe was nailed to the hoof 
with the most decided effects in preventing the navicular disease 
to which the horse’s hoof was so frequently liable; a system, he 
added, which, in common justice, he might be allowed to say was 
founded upon the important principle discovered by his brother, 
Mr. James Turner, Y.S., of Regent-street, and published by him 
many years ago in his work on the Foot of the Horse, of which, at 
the next meeting of the Council, a copy should be presented for 
the acceptance of the Society. Professor Sewell remarked, that 
he had found old horses shod with a layer of leather, forming an 
artificial sole between the shoe and the hoof, recover from the 
severest affections arising from injury to the hoof, such, for in¬ 
stance, as contractions, brittleness, sand-cracks; or diseases even of 
the foot itself, such as thrushes,.canker, and corns; and perfectl)' - 
regain their original elasticity and firmness. He also strongly 
advised that all horses for road or street work should be shod in 
that manner during the whole period of their being required for 
use. The plan in question had been employed by Professor 
Sewell for the last thirty years. The leather sole prevented that 
concussion from taking place against the sensitive part of the foot 
which resulted in inflammation; and, by excluding all injurious 
substances from the hoof, those frequent accidents were avoided 
which arose from the falls resulting from the bruising and punctur¬ 
ing occasioned by such hard and sharp substances in the natural 
horny sole. The plan required a little practice to carry it out suc¬ 
cessfully; and it was not with an injudicious regard to economy to 
be abandoned, when, after its adoption for some time, it might 
seem, from the apparent soundness and safety of the feet, that the 
horses no longer required it. Colonel Challoner observed, that 
seventeen years ago Mr. James Turner had explained to him the 
principle of unilateral nailing, to which the attention of the Council 
was then called, and had practised it on Colonel Challoner’s 
horses for the avowed purpose of promoting the expansion of the 
hoof; but Colonel Challoner had since that time been led to adopt 
the plan of felt-shoeing for shell-footed horses, namely, that of in¬ 
serting, instead of leather, as practised b} r Professor Sewell, nothing 
more than thick felt, or thick gun-wadding, between the shoe and 
hoof of the horse. He had found this plan productive of the most 
beneficial results. Mr. Parkins had also employed Mr. James 
Turner many years ago to shoe his horses on the unilateral prin¬ 
ciple .—Mark Lane Express.- • 


SOCIETY FOR PREVENTING* CRUELTY. 


345 


Probangs and Trocars for Cattle .—Professor Sewell presented 
to the Society further specimens of instruments of practical utility 
in cases of choking, or of the hove, in cattle, and favoured the 
Council with additional directions connected with the use of such 
apparatus. He also presented, for the inspection of members, the 
model of an ox, on which was marked the exact spot where, in the 
case of hove, the trocar ought to be inserted through the inflated 
hide into the rumen or paunch, namely, a full hand’s-breadth be¬ 
low the loins, and behfnd the last rib, on the left side of the 
animal. The laterally perforated cylinder, after the stiletto had 
been withdrawn, might remain in its place of insertion even until 
the following day, if gas continued to be evolved; and, on its re¬ 
moval, an adhesive pitch plaster might be applied over the punc¬ 
tured orifice. The elastic probangs presented by Professor Sewell 
were very useful for unchoking horses, colts, calves, or other 
stock, by dislodging the impeding food from the gullet, and were 
much preferable to the hempen ropes often used instead of pro¬ 
bangs for that purpose .—Mark Lane Express. 


Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 

Animals. 

The Annual Meeting of this well-known and valuable Society 
was held on Saturday at the Hanover-square rooms, and was 
very respectably attended. The Lord Bishop of Norwich pre¬ 
sided, and in an admirable speech advocated the interests and 
explained the objects of the Society. The right reverend prelate, 
in the course of his address, alluded particularly to the Smithfield 
nuisance, and to the suppression of dog and cock fights. He also 
expressed his disapprobation of battues , which he characterized as 
un-English forms of sport; and of a too great love for animals, 
as in the case of lap-dogs. Mr. Thomas, the secretary, read the 
Report, from which it appeared that the position of the Society 
was highly satisfactory, and that, during the past year, both at 
home and abroad, great efforts had been made to protect the lower 
animals from cruel treatment. The progress through Parliament 
of a bill for the promotion of the Society’s objects was alluded to, 
and the effect of which, when passed, will be to give magistrates 
a more complete jurisdiction in dealing with that class of offences 
for the prevention of which the Society was instituted. During 
VOL. XXI. 3 A 



346 


THE ANNUAL MEETING. 


the past year 200 convictions have been obtained for acts of 
wanton cruelty to animals. Mr. G. Wilks, Mr. G. A. Warre, 
Mr. R. E. Broughton (magistrate of Marylebone Police Court), 
Lord Dudley Stuart, Dr. Carpenter, Mr. G. Raymond, Mr. S. 
Buckingham, and Mr. Mackinnon severally addressed the meet¬ 
ing in support of the usual resolutions; which having been una¬ 
nimously adopted, the proceedings terminated. — The Times, 
May 22 d. 


THE VETERINARIAN, JUNE 1, 1848. 


Ne quid falsi dicere audeat, ne quid veri non audeat.—C icero. 


It gratified us, as they say in Lancashire, “ above a bit,” to 
behold our professional brethren assembled at their anniversary 
meeting in undiminished numbers; it gratified us yet more to find 
ourselves confronted there with such an array of old and esteemed 
friends as we do not remember to have seen since the days when 
Coleman or Cooper annually presided at the “ pupils’ anniversary 
dinnermen whose heads had grown hoary in the profession, and 
whose hearts, like the needle, ever true to the north pole, still vibrat¬ 
ed for the welfare and promotion of veterinary science. The very 
presence of such men was enough to bespeak the feeling of the 
profession ; the circumstance of several of them having travelled 
scores of miles to be present at the meeting must have told daggers 
to the breasts of those who would have been well pleased had the 
general meeting proved a failure, and ended, as it did last year, in 
turbulence, declamation, and quarrelling. But, to the credit and 
honour of the great majority present, there was a totally different 
feeling abroad,—a feeling of unanimity and amity, and a determina¬ 
tion to put down any attempt at interruption and clamour. There 
might, to be sure, have been picked out half-a-dozen discontents; 
but the opposition set up by them proved of so feeble and pithless 
a character, that, seemingly out of consideration for the weakness of 
their cause, reply was mercifully withheld. 






THE ANNUAL MEETING. 


347 


A most unusual length of time was taken up in the reading of 
the “ Reportnot that it was of itself at all a lengthy production, 
but that the documents necessarily forming part of it were several, 
and were protracted as well. These were— 

1st. The Petition of the Governors of the Royal Veterinary 
College of London, and the Highland Society of Scotland, for a new 
charter. - 

2dly. The Abstract of the Charter petitioned for. 

3dly. The reply of the Council why the same should not be 
granted. 

4thly. The counter-report of Council, in the form of “ Memorial.” 

5thly. The Registration Reports. 

Notwithstanding, however, the great length to which the report, 
with the above adjuncts ran, and notwithstanding it was consider¬ 
ably past, “ precisely one o’clock,” before the President opened the 
meeting, the business of the day was brought to a close sufficiently 
early to enable a score or so of the members present to sit down 
by five o’clock at the tavern (the Freemasons’) where the meeting 
was held, to a dinner good in itself, and rendered better still by 
being ready to be served by the time the meeting was concluded. 

And this finale turned out by no means the least pleasurable 
part of the day’s business; for, at the table we recognized old 
friends and old faces, and drank “ success to the charter,” and “ con¬ 
fusion to its enemies,” and so made it a “ feast of fraternity,” and 
withal broke up at an hour early enough to admit of our country 
friends resuming their seats in the “ trains” for home: reluct¬ 
antly parting with them with reciprocal assurances to meet again 
on the same day next year, in maintenance of the good cause of 
the charter and professional fellowship. 

The Report of Council for the sessional year 1847-8, we have 
said, is by no means, of itself, a lengthy document; on the contrary, 
it is somewhat shorter than usual, and has, as it would seem, judi- 
ciously been made so on account of the important introductions with 
which it had to be charged. It has been penned by our Secretary 
in his usual happy style, and will be found a comprehensive compte- 
rendu of the transactions of Council for the past year ; at the same 
time that it exhibits too faithful a picture of the present position 
and finances of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. For 
how many years longer are we doomed to make the degrading 


348 


REGISTRATION. 


confession, that we possess “ not even a lath-and-plaster tenement’' 
to hold our meetings in and invite our members to ? The College 
of Physicians once had its representative in War wick-lane; the Col¬ 
lege of Surgeons in Newgate-lane: both, compared with the present 
colleges, it is true, lowly habitations; but still, worse than either 
is our chartered body, for that is absolutely collegeless. The Royal 
College of Veterinary Surgeons,—“tell it not in Gath,”—hath not 
wherewithal to lie its head. And yet, nous ne sommes pas ab - 
solument au dessespoir. Our Secretary tells us—and we believe 
him—“ The good time will come.” May he and we live to 
see it! 

No little praise, no few thanks, are due to our Registrar, Mr. 
Arthur Cherry, for the activity and method with which he has 
conducted, and the successful issue to which he has been enabled 
to bring, the troublesome business of registration. It is a business 
necessarily carried on mainly by letter, and letter-writing in such 
numbers, to receive replies such as are expected or required—even 
when the persons written to are willing and able to communicate 
all they know—is not the most pleasant occupation in the world; 
and when they do not happen to turn out either one or the other 
the task becomes both tedious and vexatious. However, Mr. Cherry 
was not to be discouraged, although he foresaw he should fail in ac¬ 
complishing all he desired; and it is to his perseverance in the 
face not merely of disinclination or unwillingness, but of dogged 
refusal, to communicate information, that he has now reason to 
congratulate himself on having achieved so much as he has; 
notwithstanding that consummation of registration which by all 
must be devoutedly looked forward to must remain over for another 
year or two to come. 

The new list of the veterinary profession, as compiled from 
vouchers actually in the possession of the Registrar, comprises the 
names and residences of 717* Members of the Royal College of 
Veterinary Surgeons. The former list, published as soon after 
the obtainment of the Charter as the settlement of matters would 
permit, under the superintendence of Mr. Walton Mayer, who had 
many difficulties at the time to contend with, numbered 1046 

* In the “ Third Report,” by which the “ List of Members” is prefaced, 
for “ upwards of 800” read upwards of 700. 



UNRECOGNIZED VETERINARIANS. 349 

Members; while the last issued by the Royal Veterinary Col¬ 
lege comprises 826 names*. The apparent falling off in numbers 
in the present list—which for correctness and convenience of refer¬ 
ence will be found the best hitherto published—is accountable for 
in the rule Mr. Cherry laid down for his own guidance, viz. that 
of refusing to register any name for which he had not either 
actually received a voucher, or else had in his possession accre¬ 
dited authority. There is no member of the profession who will 
like to be without “ the correct list.” We have authority 
for saying, that it may be obtained per post by application to the 
Registrar. 

We would fain address a word or two to such individuals as 
have chosen to present themselves for examination, as to their 
competence as veterinary practitioners, before other Boards or Com¬ 
mittees save the one legitimately appointed for that specific pur¬ 
pose by the Council of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. 
The Charter is either valid or invalid—either a substance or a 
shadow—an instrument of law, or a bugbear set up to deter the 
timid and mislead the unwary. We apprehend, as matters stand 
at present, in the absence of other charters, the fact of the existing 
Charter being operative—so far as a Royal Charter needing par¬ 
liamentary support can be operative—can neither be questioned 
nor gainsayed. The government authorities^—“ the powers that be” 
—the public—will not fail to acknowledge it; nor will they, when 
the fitting season and opportunity shall arrive—and that may 
not prove so very long first—hesitate to recommend the Royal 
Charter to the notice of the Legislature, with a view to its being 
armed with such powers, privileges, and immunities, as shall be 
found consistent with the present order of legislative affairs, and 
consonant with charters of a similar description. Now, suppos¬ 
ing no other charter be granted by the Queen, and supposing the 
present one be received by Parliament, in what position will those 
individuals find themselves who have chosen or been advised to 
run counter to the chartered body, in having presented themselves 
for examination before an assemblage of persons destitute of any 


* None, we believe, has been printed since 1842. 



350 


MESSRS. LEACH AND HAWTHORN’S CASES. 


authority either to examine for or to grant diplomas! Instead of 
ameliorating their former condition, as uncertificated ssudents, they 
have absolutely made it worse. In having taken such a course, 
they have shut themselves out from the incorporated body of the 
profession; and so long as they persist in such an irregular pro¬ 
ceeding they must remain excluded—unacknowledged by their 
own profession, unrecognised by the law, unrespected by the 
public. In a word, they are, to all intents and purposes, ‘pro¬ 
fessionally outlawed. We, therefore, entreat them, ere too much 
time fly away—while yet their memories are fresh with the know¬ 
ledge they have gained at “ College”—to reconsider the business; 
to retrace the steps they have made in error or thoughtlessness; 
and to come without delay, and offer themselves for examination 
before the legalized Board of Examiners. It is true they will have 
to pay, in addition to what they may have already paid, their ten 
guineas each; but what is the consideration of such a sum com¬ 
pared with the disadvantages they actually labour under, added to 
the aspersions they will lay themselves open to have cast upon 
them during a long career of professional practice I To conclude, 
we say again to those individuals, “ Strike the iron while it is 
hot;” let not the sun go down upon your present state of unrecog¬ 
nition and exclusion. 


Mr. Leach’s case of “ coma in a horse,” the result of “ two 
tumours and a large quantity of serum in the lateral ventricles,” 
while it is interesting on account of its rarity, is valuable to us 
for the pathological chain of connexion traceable all the way 
through between the symptoms during life and the strange appear¬ 
ances presented after death. Mr. Leach, from the symptoms 
present when he v r as called in, and from what he had been able to 
learn of the history of the case—a point in all similar cases of such 
vast import—sagaciously anticipated organic changes in the brain, 
and framed his prognosis accordingly; thus putting it out of the 
power of his employer to entertain hopes of recover}', while in his 
own mind he had come to a tolerably correct notion of what he 
should find, in case of death, and the whereabouts of the proximate 
cause of the coma. The tumour Mr. Leach has sent us—for which 
we return him our best thanks—is about the size of a large filberd, 



SITTING OF THE COUNCIL. 


351 

and of a flattened ovoid shape. And we find it composed of a 
tolerably dense outer envelope (rendered tough, perhaps, by being 
somewhat dried) in which is enclosed a pale, dingy, reddish- 
brown, granular substance, containing, as it would appear to us 
through a common magnifying glass, little irregular cysts or sacs; 
one of which, of larger size than the rest, contains as much as three 
or four drops of thick creamy-looking pus. And near to this sort 
of little vomica we found a whitish solid tubercle, as large as a 
tick bean, exhibiting, when cut across, a solid substance looking 
like fibro-cartilage. Mr. Leach’s account of the larger tumour, 
however, must be taken in preference to ours, he having had the 
advantage of a microscope. 

Mr. Hawthorn’s case of “ rupture of the mesentery” has to us 
the appearance of strangeness or rarity. We must acknowledge 
our want of observation in cattle pathology forbids us remarking 
on what seems to us like singular success in a bold operation. We 
wish some of our friends in the country would favour Mr. Hawthorn 
and us with the results of their practice in such matters. 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE COUNCIL OF THE ROYAL 
COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS. 

Sitting of May 23, 1848. 

A Special Meeting, 

Called pursuant to the Directions in the Charter to elect Officers , SfC. 

Present—the President, the Secretary, the Treasurer, 
Messrs. Arthur Cherry, Peech, Henderson, Robinson, 
Godwin, Braby, Jas. Turner, and F. King. 

The minutes being read and confirmed, it was moved by 
Mr. Field, and seconded by Mr. Godwin, “That Mr. Thos. Turner 
be the President for the year ensuing.” 

A ballot took place; but no other name being returned, that 
gentleman was declared unanimously elected. 

Mr. T. Turner briefly returned thanks. 

The Secretary stated, that it seemed to him highly desirable 
that the Vice-Presidents should be elected from amongst the 
numbers of the country practitioners, and that the parties whose 
names he should submit for their consideration were all strangers 




352 


SITTING OF THE COUNCIL. 


to him. He believed them to be of high repute in their respect¬ 
ive localities, and of long standing in the profession; of course, 
this nomination was only to facilitate business, as any other name 
or names than those he proposed could be returned. 

A ballot was then taken, and the Secretary shewed the result 
as follows:— 


Messrs. Burley, Leicester . 9 

“ Baldwin, Fakenham 8 

“ Child, Hackney . . 8 

“ Carter, East Dereham 7 

“ Tons, Waterford . . 7 

“ Leigh, Clifton . . 7 

“ Mills.4 


Messrs. Peech. 

“ Henderson . . . 

“ Sewell (Professor) . 

“ Lucas. 

“ Robinson . . . . 

“ Stockly . . . . 


The first six gentlemen were in consequence declared duly 
elected, and were those whose names were proposed by the Secre¬ 
tary. 

Mr. Field proposed, and Mr. Peech seconded, that Mr. Gabriel 
be re-elected as Secretary. Carried by ballot, without any op¬ 
position. 

The business of the sitting here terminated, as no other business 
could be transacted until the whole of the members composing the 
Council were duly informed of their appointments, and be officially 
acquainted of the business to be transacted. 

An animated conversation took place after the adjournment of 
the sitting among the members present, the result of which will be 
seen at the next meeting of the Council. 


MEMBERS PRESENT AT THE GENERAL MEETING, 

1848 


Ainslie, J. 

Ernes, W. 

Aston, J. 

Field, W. 

Baker, G. 

Fisher, J. 

Braby, E. 

Gabriel, E. W. 

Brown, W. 

Godwin, W. J. 

Burley, W. J. 

Goodwin, W. J. 

Chester, G. 

Gowing, T. W. 

Cherry, F. C. 

Henderson, A. B. 

Cochrane, J. L. 

Hunt, R. L. 

Charles, E. 

Henderson, A. 

Cherry, Arthur 

Hill, G. 

Draper, H. 

Mayhew, E. 

Daws, H. 

Mayer, Thos. 

Dunsford, J. 

Percivall, W. 


^ CO <M 






SITTING OF THE COUNCIL. 


353 


Pritchard, R. 


Turner, T. 

^ ’ ■ .1 > vL -* . 

Peech, S. 


Turner, J. 


Robinson, W. 


Vines, R. 


Rogers, A. J. 


Varnell, R. 


Spooner, C. 


White, G. 


Smith, W. 


Wilkinson, J. 


Surmon, H. J. 


Withers, S. H. 


Salter, G. 


Weston, J. 


Silvester, F. R. 


Wadlow, L. H. 


And about six more who omitted to enter their names. 

i 

Result of Election by Ballot for Six Members of Council 

in lieu of the Six going out of Office. 


W. Percivall .... 

. 36 

R. Vines .... 

. . 3 

W. Robinson .... 

. 34 

J. Weston .... 

. . 3 

J. Turner. 

. 33 

W. Morton 

. . 2 

A. Henderson . . 

. 31 

G. White . . . . 

. . 2 

S. Peech . 

. 25 

E. Charles . . . 

. . 1 

R. Pritchard .... 

. 25 

G. Chester . . 

. . 1 

W. Sewell (Professor) . 

. 6 

Mavor ..... 

. . 1 

F. Gowing .... 

. 4 

C. Spooner . . . 

. . 1 

G. Yarnell. 

. 4 

Bull. 

. . 1 

J. Siddall. 

. 3 

J. B. Cochrane . . 

. . 1 


Gentlemen who have obtained the Diploma of the 
Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 1848. 

London, April 27. 

John Weston, Smally, Derbyshire. 

Isaac Worthington, Charlton on Medlock. 

Joseph Swain, Ashton-under-line. 

John Roberts, Chipping Sodbury. 

Benjamin Cartledge, Bawtry, Yorkshire. 

John Thomas Cochrane, Clonmel, Ireland. 

John Lane, Hodnet, Shropshire. 

John Dickson, Edinburgh. 

Robert Cook, Erith, Kent. 

May 11. 

William Barry Lord. 

William Clements, Liverpool. 

Charles Nicholson Carter, East Dereham. 

Edwin Harrison, Melton Mowbray. 

John Cuthbert, Wakefield, Yorkshire 
Page Wallis, Haslingfield, Cambridgeshire. 

VOL. xxi. 3 B 

















354 


MISCELLANEA. 


Francis Ward, Great Haywood. 
Benjamin Blunsom Aris, Northampton. 
Henry John Fitter, Wolverhampton. 

May 17. 

John Meredith, Shrewsbury. 

Edinburgh, April 27. 

Thomas Bell, Darling, Australia. 
Edmund George, Chalwin, Sussex. 
Andrew M'Farlane, Perthshire 


■... . . 1 

MISCELLANEA. 


A Word for the Dumb Creation. 

Keep no dogs that are not wanted for some really useful pur¬ 
pose ; discourage in every way their being used as beasts of 
draught; take care to let them always have free access to water, 
and never overfeed them.—We ma} 7- also say a word for birds 
kept in cages. In hot weather do not hang them out in the sun, 
unless you cover the cage with a piece of carpet or green sod, or 
a thick layer of leaves. Let horses, too, have frequent opportu¬ 
nities of quenching their thirst, especially such as are working in 
towns, and can rarely enjoy green grass. 


A Lion’s Meal. 

On one occasion a lion ran off with our cow ; the two Barolongs 
were grudging the lion his fat meal, and would now and then break 
the silence with a deep sigh, and expressions of regret that such a 
vagabond lion should have a feast on our cow, which they anti¬ 
cipated would have afforded them many a draught of luscious milk. 
Before the day dawned, having deposited nearly the whole of the 
carcass in his stomach, he collected the head, backbone, parts of 
the legs, the paunch, which he emptied of its contents, and walked 
off, leaving nothing but some fragments of bones, and one of my 
balls, which had hit the carcass instead of himself. When it was 
light we examined the spot, and found from the footmarks that the 
lion was a large one, and had devoured the cow himself. I had 
some difficulty in believing this, but was fully convinced by the 
Baralongs pointing out to me that the footmarks of the other lions 






MISCELLANEA. 


•355 


had not come within thirty yards of the spot; two jackals only had 
approached to lick up any little leavings. The men pursued the 
spoor to find the fragments where the lion had deposited them, 
while he retired to a thicket to sleep during the day. I had often 
heard how much a large hungry lion could eat; but nothing less 
than a demonstration could have convinced me that it was possible 
for him to have eaten all the flesh of a good heifer, and many of 
the bones, for scarcely a rib was left, and even some of the marrow¬ 
bones were broken as if with a hammer. Having travelled in a 
circuitous direction, we came to Kurrechane, or, as it is more com¬ 
monly called, Chuenyane, a noble mountain, in a fine, well-watered 
country. Here the number of lions was fearful; and having in this 
part of the country gorged on human flesh, do not spend their time, 
if hungry, in looking at the human eye, as some are said to do, 
but seek the easiest and most expeditious way of making a meal 
of a man. 

The preceding lion story, selected from many more, will serve 
for the present to illustrate the character of that noble but dan¬ 
gerous creature. As to his being afraid of the human eye, I shall 
touch upon that subject in another part of my work, when I de¬ 
scribe those which have tasted human flesh, for which they ever 
afterwards retain an uncommon relish. With all their boldness 
they are sometimes arrant cowards. On one occasion, I remem¬ 
ber a man, who, coining unexpectedly on a lion, fainted. The lion 
raised himself to look over the bushes, and, seeing no one, seemed 
to suspect a plot, and scampered off with his tail between his 
legs. It is but justice to add, that the man was no less cowardly; 
for on awaking from his swoon, and looking this way and that, he 
imagined the object of his terror was still there, and, taking to his 
heels, he made towards the wagon. I have known bushmen, and 
even women, drive the lion away from the prey he has just seized, 
by beating their clubs on dry hides, and shouting: nevertheless, 
by day, and especially by night, he is an object of terror. 

Moffat's Scenes and Labours in Southern Africa. 


An Encounter with Baboons, near the Kwees River. 

Having ascended a rugged height, I turned to descend, when, 
happening to cough, I was instantly surrounded by almost a 
hundred baboons, some of gigantic size : they grunted, grinned, and 
sprang from stone to stone, protruding their mouths, and drawing 
back the skin of their foreheads, threatening an instant attack. I 
kept parrying them with my gun, which was loaded ; but I knew 
their character and disposition too well to fire, for, if I had wounded 
one of them, I should have been skinned in five minutes. Some 



•156 


MISCELLANEA. 


came so near, as even to touch my hat while passing projecting 
rocks. It was some time before I reached the plain, when they 
appeared to hold a noisy council, either about what they had done, 
or intended doing. Levelling my piece at two that seemed the most 
fierce, as I was about to touch the trigger, the thought occurred, “ I 
have escaped, let me be thankfultherefore I left them uninjured, 
perhaps with the gratification of having given me a fright.— 
Moffat's Scenes and Labours in Southern Africa . 


Taking to Business Nat’ral. 

The following expression of professional opinion (reported for 
the Boston Atlas) is said to have been given, verbatim , by a cow- 
doctor, who was called as a witness in the late trial of an action in 
the Court of Common Pleas at Boston. The subject-matter of 
inquiry was the cause of the death of a certain valuable cow. “ I 
am sixty years old, and live in Scituate—I am a cow doctor—I 
have followed the business these forty years—I doctor sheep, hogs, 
and horned critters—I never read no books on critters. I took to 
the business nat’ral; I doctor in Scituate, Hanover, Hanson, and all 
about. Mr. Maynard and Mr. Litchfield came to me about this 
ease: I told ’em to give her a pint-and-a-half of castor ile, and, if 
they had none of that, to give her a pint of lamp ile, or a pound of 
hog’s lard. I went down to see her the Friday before she died— 
I gave her a dose of thorough-stalk tea, strong—and injections. I 
went down to see her again on Saturday, and gave her another 
dose and injection. I thought, if I could start her idees up a little 
and jog natur, she would get along : she revived up, and I left her. 
—I went down agin Sunday morning about half-past ten o’clock, 
and found her ded as a herrin. I was mightily struck up—we 
skinned her, and snaked her out in the snow ; I then split her open 
and examined her. She had what I called the overflow of the gall 
and stoppage, and a calf in her which I should say would weigh 
ninety or hundred weight: there was as much as five buckets of 
water in her calf bag, and none in her bladder. I opened her 
paunch, and found I should say a bushel basket full of fox-grass 
hay, and nothing else. I found a peck or more in her manifold all 
matted together and dried on. I believe the eating that fox-grass 
hay gave her the stoppage, and no ile or medicine could start it. 
My neighbours use this fox-grass hay. It will do for young critters 
that browse, but I don’t believe there was ever tallar enough made 
by using it to grease a musquito’s bill. I never see any critter eat 
it growing, but have often seen grasshoppers running away from 
it, for their life. I had some spirits with me when I examined the 
cow, but, as she did not need it., I took a dose myself.” 



THE 


VETERINARIAN. 


VOL. XXI, 
No. 247. 


JULY 1848. 


Third Series, 
No. 7. 


LAMENESS IN HORSES. 

By William Percivall, M.E.C.S. and V.S. 

[Continued from page 316.] 

SHOULDER LAMENESS. 

AS the “ round bone” or hip-joint has frequently had disease or 
derangement attributed to it in lamenesses of the hind limb when 
all the while the seat of ailment has been the hock, so the shoulder, 
over and over again, has been imagined to have suffered “ wrench,” 
or laceration, or injury of some sort, when all the time the seat of 
lameness has been the foot. At the time and by the persons such 
mistakes used to be made the different sites and kinds of lameness 
were not so well understood as they are by veterinary surgeons of 
the present day; and since both the hip and shoulder-joints are parts 
removed at some distances from the surface of the body, and are 
both of them pretty thickly clothed with muscle, disease might 
exist in either without there being any external signs of its pre¬ 
sence, or be imputed to either when it did not exist without much 
apprehension of error being detected, seeing that no very obvious 
signs o any cause for lameness were to be found elsewhere. Action 
is our great guide in directing our attention to the shoulder as the 
seat of lameness; and though, as far as this goes, we may not 
have improved any very great deal since the time of old Solley- 
sell, still has so much light been thrown upon lameness in other 
parts, that, finding additional causes for it, we are less often in 
doubt concerning it, and consequently less likely to impute it to 
quarters in which its existence is by external signs indemonstra¬ 
ble. Nothing has reflected brighter light on the seat and nature 
of lameness in general than the discovery of navicularthritis. 
Before the navicular joint was known to be so common a site of 
disease as it has since been proved to be, ignorance or indecision 
in regard to the seat and nature of lameness found a ready and 
VOL. XXI. 3 c 





358 


LAMENESS IN HORSES. 


secure retreat in a part so concealed from view and touch as the 
shoulder-joint. The shoulder of the quadruped includes pretty 
well a fourth part of his body; it occupies a large space, compre¬ 
hends many and various parts, and is complicated altogether in its 
structure. The bulk of it is made up of muscles. There are but 
two bones entering into its composition—the scapula and os humeri; 
but the joint they form between them, of the ball-and-socket cha¬ 
racter, possesses greater variety of motion than any other joint in 
the limbs; and, moreover, has connected with it a pulley-like 
bursal cavity, containing synovia the same as the main joint, which, 
there exist strong reasons for believing is, if not the ordinary, at 
least a very frequent seat of shoulder lameness. The tendon of 
the flexor brachii —a muscle principally concerned in the flexion 
of the arm of the quadruped—passes down from its attachment to 
the scapula within a groove formed between the tubercles upon the 
head of the os humeri , and plays up and down within this groove 
after the manner of a rope over a pulley; the surfaces both of ten¬ 
don and groove being coated with articular cartilage and enclosed 
within a synovial sac. Now, from the circumstances of this muscle 
being mainly employed in bending or raising the arm, of the known 
liability of bursal joints, such as this, to get out of order, and of 
the presumed and pretty well ascertained seat of ailment being the 
point of the shoulder—a part directly opposite to this bursa—there 
seem good reasons for believing that this said bursa is the especial 
or usual seat of derangement or disease in shoulder lameness. It 
may appear strange, or even inexcusable, that in this, the sixtieth 
year, or thereabouts, of the introduction of veterinary science 
among us, we should be found making use of language so dubious 
as this in regard to the site and pathology of the lameness in 
question. It must be borne in mind, however, that for one case 
that is in verity shoulder lameness there occur thirty that are not; 
and that, being a lameness that is commonly curable, or one of 
which horses, give them time, somehow or other are found to 
recover, or, at all events, one which they never die of, or are put 
to death for, we get, in point of fact, little or no opportunity of exa¬ 
mining into the state of parts supposed to be diseased; though, we 
may add, that such facts—and they are mostly of foreign growth 
—as stand on record shew the shoulder-joint, if not. the bursa , to 
be the seal of disease. 

The French VETERINARIANS call shoulder lameness ecart, 
because they say it has the effect of causing the horse “ ecarter le 
membre du thorax.” And Barthelemy—one of their best authori¬ 
ties—asserts that the scapulo-humeral articulation, with its capsu¬ 
lar ligament and investing muscles and tendons, is the seat of 
the lameness. 


LAMENESS IN HORSES. 


359 


De Nanzio, Director of the Veterinary School of Naples, was 
of opinion, likewise, that the shoulder-joint was in fault, and for 
that reason recommended his operation, as performed for hip-joint 
lameness, as applicable in this case. 

M. Leblanc, our professional friend and associate, for whose 
opinion we entertain the highest respect, has informed us—in The 
Veterinarian, vol. x—that “ old lamenesses arising from lesions 
of the superior divisions of the extremities are oftenest. to be attri¬ 
buted to diseases of the articulations, and more especially to dis¬ 
tention of the capsular ligaments.”—“ The capsular ligament of the 
shoulder-joint loses its natural aspect; is in some parts diminished 
in thickness, while in others it is increased in substance ; its inter- 
fibrillary cellular texture is indurated; the tendinous fibres are no 
longer distinct; the surrounding mass has assumed a variable 
colour—oftenest a yellow tinge mingled with red points; the neigh¬ 
bouring cellular tissue is likewise sometimes indurated, at other 
times osseous.”—“ The synovial capsule and the synovial fringes 
(glandulce Haversii) are always diseased—thickened, and of a min¬ 
gled yellow, black, and red colour. The synovia is thicker than 
in health, and of a deeper colour. The articular cartilages are 
diminished in thickness; sometimes they are abraded in various 
places where they have a yellow hue. The ends of the bones are 
sometimes deformed and out of their places, displaying false articu¬ 
lation. Finally, the muscular tissue surrounding the shoulder- 
joint is found discoloured and wasted, especially when lameness 
has been of long standing.” Such is, or was, Leblanc’s account 
of the post-mortem appearances. They evidently apply, we should 
say, rather to chronic shoulder lameness than to common or recent 
disease. 

The Symptoms of Shoulder Lameness are—1st and nega¬ 
tively (in the absence of signs of other lameness) that the horse 
neither points with the foot of the lame limb, nor usually stands 
upon it differently from what he does upon the sound leg; 2dly, 
and positively, that, in trotting, he displays a movement in the 
fore leg different from the action of a horse lame in the foot or 
elsewhere. 

. SOLLEYSELL was perfectly well acquainted with the latter : his 
description includes pretty well all observation since his time has 
taught us concerning it. His name for the ailment was “ shoulder- 
wrench,” “ shoulder-plight,” or “ shoulder-sprain.” And he tells us, 
“ ? tis hard to discover where the lameness is if you did not see 
him get it, and if the horse does not cast his leg outwards or make 
a circle icith it, instead of advancing it straight forward; for 
that is almost an infallible sig?i that the grief is in his shoulder .” 

Pain or inability evidently intimidates or prevents the horse 


360 


LAMENESS IN HORSES. 


from lifting and projecting the lame fore limb in the manner and 
with the freedom he does the sound one—“ he cannot get it 
forward,” as horse-folks say ; i. e. forward in a direct line without 
pain, to avoid which he, as Solleysell has truly described it, 
“ makes a circle with it,” brings it forward with a sort of sweep, 
and perhaps some trail of the toe upon the ground as well. 

But it may be endeavoured to elicit pain by pressing or squeezing 
or moving about the shoulder. Solleysell tells us to “ take hold 
of the fore limb, and make it go backwards and forwards, that we 
may perceive how the shoulder can be moved, and whether or not 
the horse does not complain of pain or shrink while such motions 
are being performed.” All this is usually done nowadays, and by 
veterinarians; though we must confess our diminished faith in 
tests like these compared with such as are afforded by action, and 
the absence of any cause or suspicion for lameness elsewhere. 

DIAGNOSIS. Strange as it may appear to persons out of the 
veterinary profession, it is notorious enough to those in it, that no 
two kinds of lameness have so frequently been confounded as foot 
lameness and shoulder lameness; the best explanation we can 
offer of which seemingly unpardonable error in judgment, probably, 
is to be found in the fact of there being “ nothing to be seen” to 
account for the lameness either in one or the other. “ The usual 
way,” says Solleysell, '* to know whether the grief be in the 
shoulder or foot, is to observe whether the lameness be increased 
or abated by exercise ; for if it be in the shoulder the horse will 
halt least while he is heated with riding ; but if in the foot he will 
halt most when he is ridden.” This, so far as it goes, is good. But 
we must have other marks of distinction. We must observe the 
gait in the trot; mark whether the lame limb be carried outward 
or not. Next we should inquire if there be any pointing of the 
toe, any hurt of the foot, or any signs of shelving in or rimminess 
of the wall of the hoof, symptoms which, in the absence of the 
sweep of the limb in action, would at once draw our attention to 
the foot. Furthermore, the same horse may be made to perform 
movements especially trying to the shoulders, such as running 
round a circle while held in hand, or passaging, or backing, some 
one or all of which may possibly more perceptibly elicit the lame¬ 
ness or expression of pain. As for “ wasting of the shoulder,” a 
symptom hy farriers and grooms in general laid great stress on, it 
is at best but a remote consequence of lameness, which may be in 
the foot or leg, and not necessarily in the shoulder: the explanation 
of the “ wasting” being simply the loss or diminution from absorp¬ 
tion of the fleshy fibres of muscles, which, instead of having their 
healthful exercise, are compelled to be laid up in a state of inac¬ 
tivity, or even absolute repose. 


LAMENESS IN HORSES. 


361 


Lastly, we must bear in mind, that the knee joint may be the 
hidden and mysterious seat of lameness, and that we may be refer¬ 
ring that to the shoulder or foot which all the while lies concealed 
within or about the knee. Mr. Arthur Cherry’s papers, inserted 
in The VETERINARIAN for 1845, instruct us how to search for 
diagnostics of this. Verily, there is, we are sorely afraid, after 
all, about the seat of lameness—“ more things than are dreamt 
of in our philosophy.” Nothing but steady observation, and 
faithful and frequent report, can clear up these matters; and this 
veterinarians are, or ought to be, setting their minds to the per¬ 
formance of. Progress in our knowledge after such a manner, it is 
true, cannot be but tardy; once attained, however, it will prove of 
a character that will be sure ever afterwards to serve us in 
practice. 

The Causes of Shoulder Lameness are all comprehended 
under injury in some or other form : we have no notion of the 
production of lameness of this description apart from some wrench, 
sprain, stretch (tcart), laceration, contusion, &c. of the shoulder; 
hence a slip-up, a false step, an over-strained gallop or leap, a 
violent tugging or pulling of the limb, occasioned by the attrapment 
of the foot in a rut or rabbit-hole, a collision against any hard or 
unresisting body of the point of the shoulder, any thing, in fact, that 
may outwardly injure the horse or may occasion the animal inwardly 
to injure himself, may prove the cause of a shoulder lameness. 

In riding-school and military practice there is one particular 
movement which, carried to excess, is exceeding likely to cause 
shoulder lameness, and that is what is called shouldering-in and 
shouldering-out. Veterinary surgeons in the army see such cases 
occasionally; though, on inquiry, they will generally prove refer¬ 
able to abuse of the said practice, and not to the moderate or ju¬ 
dicious performance of it. Some years ago I was employed in 
attending the horses sent to the cavalry depot then established at 
St. John’s Wood. Every now and then a horse was brought to 
me lame in the shoulder, and, on one occasion, cases of the kind 
became so prevalent that I was instigated to make inquiries into 
the causes of them, which, with very little trouble, and less demur, 
I found to be the strained exercises of shouldering in and out to 
which such horses had been put in the riding-school. Simple with¬ 
drawal of the lame horses from their work, and resting them in 
their stalls, restored them to soundness ; and a word of caution in 
the proper quarter put an end to the evil. 

The Treatment of Shoulder Lameness will have to be 
conducted on those general principles which are our best guides in 
all similar affections. In making our selection out of the many 


362 


LAMENESS IN HORSES. 


remedies within our reach, attention should be paid by us to the 
history of the case submitted for treatment: its duration, and the 
mode in which it occurred, when ascertainable, may very likely cast 
some light upon our restorative plan of procedure. 

Repose of the lame limb is indispensable : without such a pre¬ 
cautionary measure all remedies will have little chance of succeed¬ 
ing. On this account a stall is preferable to a box for the lame 
horse; and he should be fastened up in it so that he cannot lie 
down or move about much. Side-reins are preferable to a single 
strap or rope. 

FOMENTATION of the shoulder, in a recent case, we are of opinion 
is preferable to the application of cold or refrigerant lotions; but 
then, we mean fomentation persisted in, and directed in particular 
to the point of the shoulder. It being impossible to confine a hot 
poultice on the part, an ample covering of spongio-piline will be 
found an excellent substitute, seeing it may, by very simple con¬ 
trivance, be made to closely cover the entire surface surrounding 
the point of the shoulder. The piline poultice should be replaced 
by a fresh hot one every hour. 

A Dose of cathartic Medicine is commonly given in such a 
case, and, we think, while the lameness is yet recent, with decided 
good effect: only let the dose be strong enough to purge the animal 
without there being a necessity for exercising him. 

Topical Blood-letting, so far as that can be carried into 
effect by drawing blood from the plat vein, is advisable in most 
cases—in severe ones indispensable. And the fittest time for its 
performance is the day the patient is sick and purging from the 
physic. From six to eight or ten pints of blood, according to the 
severity and duration of the case, should be abstracted. 

Cold, in the form of refrigerant or evaporating lotions, or through 
the application of ice, may, if preferred, be substituted for the fo¬ 
mentations : for our own part, however, as we stated before, we 
like the soothing and emollient plan the best. At the expiration 
of a w r eek of treatment of this mild and emollient description, the 
horse may be seen out of his stable, first in a walk, then, for a few 
yards, in a trot: caution being taken to put a stop to the trot the 
moment any lameness re-appears, indeed, to exercise of an3' kind, 
unless he should be found to go sound, in which case a walk out 
for a few minutes, providing he do not “jump about,” and risk re¬ 
laming himself, will be beneficial. In the case of there being no 
amendment, or not that amount of “ better” that had been expected, 
some change of treatment should be thought of. When hot and 
cold applications have failed to afford relief, sometimes 

A Stimulating Liniment, well rubbed in over the point of 


LAMENESS IN HORSES. 363 

the shoulder, has been known to do good, 
following:— 

R. Liquor, ammonise 

01. olivae 

01. terebinthinae aa . . . 

Saponis mollis. 

This liniment takes immediate effect, and 
time annoys the animal so much that he requires to be held in hand 
for a few minutes, or to be fastened up short with the rack-chain. 
The first perfrication will not move the hair; the second, however, 
will be apt to do this; the third almost certain to do so: knowing 
which, it will be to act accordingly. 

A Blister entirely over the point of the shoulder is, however, 
the remedy most likely to prove efficacious in a case wherein mild 
means have conferred little or no benefit; the objection to such a 
remedy being the certain removal of the hair, and the consequent 
laying-up of the horse for a much longer time than consent in this 
stage of the lameness can always be obtained for; though, in the 
end, it may prove—-as it often does—really a saving of time. Three 
or four weeks is the shortest period you can reckon for a blister to 
work itself out, even if it be sponged off with hot water as soon as 
it has taken effect—which in this case ought to be done : and then, 
even though the horse may prove sound, the shoulder will proba¬ 
bly be left bare; though that, of course, will depend on the strength 
and composition of the blister used. What will frequently amount 
to a bli