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THE 


VETERINARIAN; 

OR, 

MOISTHLY JOURNAL OF VETERINARY SCIENCE, 

FOR 1835. 

# 

VOL. VIII. - VOL. III. NEW SERIES. 


EDITED BY 

W. DICK, 

Professor of the Veterinary School, Edinburgh; 


W. F. KARKEEK, V.S., Truro; 

^ W. PERCIVALL, M.R.C.S., 

Author of “Lectures on the Veterinary Art,” “ Hippopathology,” and of “The Anatomy 

of the Horseand 

W. YOUATT, 

Lecturer on Animal Pathology at the University of London, and Veterinary Surgeon to the 
Zoological Society of London, and the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 


Ars Veteriiiaria post medicinam secunda est.— Vegelms. 


LONDON: 

PRINTED BY COMPTON AND niTCIIIE, MIDDLE STREET, CLOTH FAIR ; 

PUHLISHED BY LONGMAN, REES, ORME, BROWN, GREEN, 

AND LONGMAN, 

PATERNOSTER ROW. 









THE 


VETERINARIAN. 


VOL. VUI, No. 85.] JANUARY 1835. [New Series, No. 25. 


MR. YOUATT’S VETERINARY LECTURES, 

DELIVERED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. 


LECTURE XLVI. 

Apoplexy in the Horse, 

MEGRIMS is apoplexy under its mildest forms. It is a de- 
teririination of blood to the brain,—pressure on the origins of the 
animal nerves, and partial or total, yet temporary, loss of con¬ 
sciousness and voluntary motion : but the determination of blood, 
if not so sudden, may be greater or differently directed, or more 
lasting:, and resolve itself in that species of apoplexy recognized 
in our strange nomenclature under the name oisleepy staggers,'m 
distinction from phrenitis, or, as the farrier calls it, mad staggers. 

Early Symptoms. —There are usually sufficient w^arnings of its 
approach, if the carter or the groom had wit enough to observe 
them. The horse is a little off his feed ; he is more than usually 
dull; there is a degree of stupidity about him, and generally a 
somewhat staggering gait. This goes off when he has been out 
a little while; but it returns under a more decided character, 
until at length it forces itself on the attention of those about the 
animal. 

More advanced Symptoms. —The actual illness is first recog¬ 
nized by the horse standing with his head depressed ,* it bears 
upon or is forced against the manger or the wall, and a consi¬ 
derable part of the weight of the animal is apparently supported 
by this pressure of the head against some fixed object. As he 
thus stands he is balancing himself from one side to the other, as 
if he were ready to fall; and it is often dangerous to move him, 
for he fails without warning. If he can get his muzzle into a 
corner, he will sometimes continue there motionless for a full half 
hour, and then drop as if he were shot; but the next moment he 
is up again with his feet almost in the rack. He sleeps, or seems 
to do so, as he stands; or at least he is more than half uncon¬ 
scious of surrounding objects. When he is roused he looks va- 

VOL. vni. B 















2 


Mil. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 


cantly around him ; perhaps he will take a lock of hay, but, ere 
it is half masticated, the eye closes, and he sleeps again with the 
food in his mouth. Soon afterwards you perhaps rouse him once 
more; the eye opens, but it has an unmeaning glare ; you move 
your hand before it, but it closes not; you speak to him, you 
halloo to him, but he hears not; but the half-chewed food again 
drops from his mouth. The last act of voluntary motion which 
he will attempt is usually to drink ; but he has little power over 
the muscles of deglutition, and the fluid returns through the 
nostrils. He begins to foam at the mouth—he is every moment 
balancing more from side to side, until, at length, he falls : 
his breathing is laborious, stertorous; it is performed by the 
influence of the organic nerves, and those of animal life no 
longer lend their aid. The pulse is slow and oppressed ; the ju¬ 
gular vein is swelled almost to bursting; the muzzle is cold, and 
the discharge of the feces involuntary. The eyes are now open, 
protruded, fixed, and the pupils dilated. The animal grinds his 
teeth; twitchings steal over his face and attack his limbs, and 
they sometimes proceed to convulsions, and dreadful ones too; 
the horse beats himself about in a fearful manner, but there is 
rarely disposition to do mischief. In the greater.number of cases, 
however, the convulsions last not long: all the powers of life are 
oppressed, and death speedily closes the scene. 

Post-77iortem Appearances. —The whole venous system is in a 
state of congestion, but the vessels of the brain are peculiarly 
turgid with black blood. Occasionally there is no inflammation 
of the brain or its membranes; but in the majority of cases, and 
particularly when the horse has been violent, there are evidences 
of considerable inflammatory action. The stomach generally 
contains a more than usual quantity of food; and where that 
viscus is empty, the large intestines are loaded with foul matter. 
In these cases, there is evident inflammation of the stomach or 
the intestines, according as either of them is thus overloaded. 

M. Girard has recorded a case in which a horse died of staggers, 
with niany of the characters of phrenitis. A large tumour was 
found in the right curvature, filled with sanious pus. The parietes 
of the tumour were much thickened, and dense bands ran across 
it rom side to side. The small intestine was in many places 
contiacted, and its surface was studded with numerous red and 
brown spots. There was no accumulation of food in any part of 
tie igestiie canal. In another case, there were two congested 
tumouis in the stomach, each of them covered with bots, and 
containing a^niultitude of worms no larger than a hair. 

llie kind of Horses most exposed to this Complaint d isease 
IS found more frequently in the stable of the postmaster and the 


APOPLKXY IN THE HORSE. 


3 


farmer, than anywhere else. We shall know by-and-by how to 
account for this. Thirty years ago it was the very pest of these 
stables, and the loss sustained by some persons was enormous; 
but as veterinary science progressed, the nature and the cause of 
the disease were better understood, and we have not one case 
now where we had twenty at that time. 

Nature and Cause of the Disease .—To account for this change 
we must consider for a moment the nature of the disease. I have 
already described it as a determination of blood to the brain— 
pressure on the origins of the animal nerves, and, by degrees, 
on the organic ones too, and consequent loss of consciousness 
and of life. What causes this determination of blood to the 
head? Over-condition, and too great fulness of blood. Ideas 
of condition in the horse, very different from those by which our 
forefathers were guided now prevail. It no longer consists in the 
round sleek carcass—fat enough for the butcher, if the flesh were 
eaten here—but in fulness and hardness of muscular fibre, and a 
comparative paucity of cellular and adipose matter: in that 
which will add to the power of nature, and not oppress and 
weigh her down. 

The improper System of Feeding, a Cause of Staggers .— The 
Coach Horse :—The system of exercise is better understood than 
formerly. It is proportioned to the quantity and quality of the 
food; and, more particularly, the division of labour is more ra¬ 
tional. The stage-horse no longer runs his sixteen or eighteen 
miles. I recollect one stage of two-and-twenty miles which the 
same team of horses used daily to run ; and then, exhausted and 
famished, tliey were turned into the stable for the next twenty 
hours. The food was eaten voraciously—their (comparatively) 
little stomachs were distended with it before nature had suffi¬ 
ciently recruited herself to carry on the digestive process, and 
there it remained a source of general oppression and danger— 
and, either by the actual distention of the stomach, the vessels 
of that viscus were compressed and the flow of blood through 
them arrested, and more blood sent to other parts, and to the 
brain among the rest, and more to the brain, from its known 
sympathy with the stomach; or that powerful sympathy which 
undeniably exists between these two important parts, being suffi¬ 
cient to account for any cerebral derangement, without this me¬ 
chanical obstruction of the circulation in the one, and extraordi¬ 
nary determination of it to the other:—whatever was the cause, 
these horses were 
perished every yeai 

Illustration .—The custom then prevalent of giving a consider¬ 
able quantity of dry bran mingled with corn, was not a little inju- 


sadly liable to staggers, and many of them 


4 


MR. YOUATt’s veterinary LECTURES. 

rious, for few things are so indigestible as the husk of the wheat. 
In one of our largest breweries it broke out not many years ago as a 
kind of pest, and more than twenty horses perished in a very short 
time. The principals were dissatisfied, and they applied to another 
veterinary surgeon , who traced the malady to the inordinate use of 
dry bran, and which had not been long introduced into the stables. 
He forbade the use of the bran except in the form of a mash, in 
which the cortical portion of tlie wheat was somewhat macerated 
and softened, and the plague was immediately stayed. 

The Farmer's Horse, —The farmer also used to send his horses 
out early in the morning, and keep them at plough for six or 
eight hours; and then they were brought home, and suffered to 
overgorge themselves, and many of them were attacked by stag¬ 
gers and died: or, if the evil did not proceed quite to this ex¬ 
tent, the farmer’s horse was notoriously subject to fits of heavi¬ 
ness, dulness, sleepiness; he had half-attacks of staggers : and 
then ensued another consequence, unsuspected at the time, but 
too prevalent among them—he became blind. The farmer was 
notorious for having more blind horses in his stable than any 
other person, except perhaps the postmaster: and it was a pe¬ 
culiar kind of blindness to which these horses were subject— 
amaurosis—glass-eye, palsy of the optic nerve. This nerve, as 
it winds its course across the crura cerebri, both before and after 
its apparent decussation, is particularly exposed to pressure when 
there is any determination of blood to the brain; hence in the 
human being a peculiar dizziness, an indistinctness of vision, an 
illusory motion of surrounding objects, or the creation of a thou¬ 
sand imaginary ones, constitute the very essence of vertigo, 
and are some of the earliest and truest warnings of the approach 
of more serious cerebral affection. 

French Account of the Connexion of Amaurosis with Staggers .— 
The Hecueil de Medecine Veterinaire for June 1828 contains 
some interesting cases of amaurosis following the successful 
treatment of apoplexy. They are related by M. Berger Perriere. 
He tells us that the inhabitants of the neighbourhood of Bourgoin 
are very poor, and their horses ill-fed. The horses are worked 
without food from an early period of the morning to night-fall, 
and then turned into a meadow until ten or eleven o’clock. They 
are afterwards led to the stable for a few hours’ rest, and at three 
or four in the morning are again turned out to pick up sufficient 
sustenance for the day; and this vicious system is pursued 
during every change of season, and however severe may be the 
labour exacted. The consequence is, that staggers is very pre¬ 
valent there and may almost be considered as an epizootic. 

M.B. P. visited two horses that had staggers. They were 


APOPLEXY IN THE HORSE. 


dull; the head resting against the manger; the respirations low 
and deep; and the pulse small and concentrated. He purged 
them both :—one died ; the other recovered, but in two months he 
became blind. 

In the following month he had another case; it was a mare : 
she recovered from the staggers, but in two months she became 
blind. 

Three months after this, he attended on a horse near Havre 
with staggers. The animal recovered, but, a month afterwards, it 
was observed that he lifted his fore-feet higher than usual, 
while the slightest noise frightened him, and his ears were in 
perpetual motion. On careful examination it was ascertained 
that he was perfectly blind in the right eye, and could see very 
little with the left. At the expiration of nine months, M. B. P. 
happened to see the horse again: amaurosis was then complete 
in the right eye, and the left eye was merely sensible to the dis¬ 
tinction between light and darkness. 

Staggers may prohahly lay the Foundation for Amaurosis .— 
I have a perfect recollection of one case, in which amaurosis ap¬ 
peared to be the consequence of staggers. Six weeks elapsed 
between the cure of the staggers and the occurrence of blindness. 
I confess that I did not then trace the connexion between these 
diseases; I was not in possession of these facts ; and we have 
too few successful cases of staggers : but I can now imagine that 
occasionally, and oftener than we are aware (for the time which 
is interposed between the two may mislead us), the foundation 
for amaurosis may be laid when the origins of all the animal 
nerves, and these among the rest, and more than any of the rest, 
are oppressed and injured by the accumulation of blood. 

The records of human medicine contain the history of the case 
of a female who was every day blind for a little while after her 
principal meals. 

The System of Feeding the grand Cause of Staggers. —The sys¬ 
tem of dorse-management is now essentially changed. Shorter 
stages, a division of the labour of the day, and a sufficient inter¬ 
val for rest and for feeding, have, comparatively speaking, ba¬ 
nished the sleepy staggers from the stables of the postmaster: 
and the morning and afternoon labour of the farmer’s horse, with 
the introduction of that simple, but invaluable, contrivance, the 
nose-bagy have rendered this disease comparatively rare in the 
establishment of the agriculturist. To whom we are indebted for 
these important improvements I know not: perhaps dearly- 
bought experience gradually taught the farmer and the post¬ 
master wisdom. 

Mr. White's Account of the Epizootic in Swansea. —Mr. White, 


6 


Mil. YOUATt’s VKTERINARY LECTURES. 

in the third volume of his Treatise on Veterinary Medicine/" 
gives an account of a disease, as he says, very nearly resem¬ 
bling stomach-staggers,” which had proved exceedingly destruc¬ 
tive in the neighbourhood of Swansea, and particularly in the 
mines. One gentleman lost more than a hundred horses in one 
year; and some had lost their whole stock twice in a year. Had 
he, however, attended more to the symptomatology of the dis¬ 
ease (and which, generally speaking, constitutes the excellence 
of his work), he would not have puzzled either himself or his 
readers, by his speculations on its contagiousness or epizootic 
character^—circumstances which no one now believes to apper¬ 
tain to staggers. The consideration of this, however, would 
detain me too long; and ray present purpose will be answered 
by warning you against being misled by the long account which 
Mr. White here gives of this malady, somewhat ‘‘ resembling,"" 
but essentially distinct from, stomach-staggers. 

The Causes of Staggers continued .—Old horses are more 
subject to staggers than young ones; for the stomach is weak, 
and the food is apt to be retained in it, and to become a source of 
general, and particularly of cerebral, disturbance. The vessels 
of the brain are weakened ; they yield to a force which, in youth 
and health, they would have successfully resisted; and, having 
yielded, they have less power to resume their former energy, and 
once more contract on their contents. 

Horses at grass are occasionally attacked by this disease; but 
they are generally poor, hardly-worked, half-starved animals, 
turned on richer pasture than their impaired digestive organs 
are ec[ual to. Perhaps the weather is also hot, and the sympathy 
of the brain with the undue labour of the stomach is more easily 
excited, and a determination of blood to the brain far more easily 
effected. 

The symptoms of staggers in a horse at grass are somewhat 
singular. The animal cannot easily find a place on which to 
press his head ; but still he is throwing his weight forward, and 
he goes on in a straight line, until at length he is often found 
entangled in a hedge, or drowned in a ditch. 

Mr. Percivall gives a very satisfactory illustration of the pro¬ 
duction of staggers in this way. He says, that when his father 
entered the service of the Ordnance (and in which he continued 
moie than thirty years, with the highest credit to himself and 
advantage to the service ;—he was one of the most straight¬ 
forward practitioners, and the kindest friend, and the most 
honourable man, I ever knew), it was the custom to turn horses, 
which had become low in condition, but still well upon their 
legs, into the maishes, in order to recruit their strength. During 


APOPLEXY IN THE HORSE. 


7 


the months of July, August, and September, nothing was more 
common than an attack of staggers among these horses, and 
which his father rightly attributed to the luxuriant pasture they 
were turned into, combined with the dependent posture of the 
head, and the sultry heat to which they were exposed in 
marshes destitute of places for shade. They were relieved by the 
free and immediate use of the lancet, provided they were timely 
attended to. 

A more general View of the Causes of Staggers. —Cases of 
staggers have occurred, in which the stomach was nearly or 
perfectly empty; but then we usually found that some of the 
viscera were overloaded. Even that cause of disturbance has 
also been wanting; but there has been inflammation of the 
mucous coat of the stomach and intestines. In a few” instances 
no existing cause of this cerebral affection could be detected. 
The thoracic and the abdominal viscera were perfectly sound; 
but there was venous congestion everywhere, and particularly in 
the cranial cavity. In the greater number of cases, however, 
the disease was clearly of digestive origin ; and we are war¬ 
ranted in regulating our treatment by the expectation that we 
shall find this in the particular case that is brought before us. 
We will not dispute whether it is the distention of the stomach, 
as first taught by Mr. Coleman, or inflammation of that viscus, 
as inculcated by Mr. Blaine ; or whether it may not result from 
morbid irritability of any other portion of the digestive appa¬ 
ratus, or of the digestive apparatus generally ; or whether it 
may not, although rarely, appear when the digestive organs have 
nothing to do with it. The prevalent cause is, plainly, disten¬ 
tion of the stomach, or sympathy between the brain and the 
stomach; and on this view of the disease we are justified in 
acting : although it cannot be denied that the causes of staggers 
are far from being confined to the stomach alone, but may be 
found in abdominal irritation anywhere. 

Very strange accounts are given of the quantity of food 
occasionally found in the stomach in these cases. There is 
a well-authenticated record of the stomach and its contents 
weighing sixty pounds. The stomach was not ruptured ; but 
the coats of the viscus were so attenuated by the distention 
which such an enormous mass must occasion, that they were 
lacerated with the slightest touch. Mr. Percivall relates two 
cases, in one of which the contents of the stomach weighed 
forty-five pounds, and in the other fifty pounds. 

The Importance of Inquiri/ as to the Cause. —We should 
never fail to institute the most diligent inquiry into the previous 
circumstances of the case. Does it arise from improper manage-. 


8 


W()ilDS V E N El’ RA1’ING 


INTO THE CHEST. 


iiient, to whicli the horse has been, in a inannei, habituated, 
lono- ’labour and fasting, and then the opportunity pf gorging to 
excess ? or does it proceed from accidental repletion, from the 
horse having loose in the night, and found out the com oi 
the chaff-bin, and filled his stomach almost to bursting? There 
is nothing in the appearance of the animal that will enable us 
to discover the cause j no yellowness of the skin, no twitching^ 
of the panniculos carnosus, as some have described ; no charac¬ 
teristic local swelling of the abdomen, for in most of these cases 
both the stomach and intestines are distended either with gas 
or with food. We must get at the truth of the matter as well as 
we can, and then proceed accordingly. 


ON WOUNDS PENETRATING INTO THE CHEST 

OF THE HORSE. 

EXPERIMENTS MADE WITH A VIEW TO ILLUSTRATE THEIR CONSEQUENCES 
AND THE PROPER TREATMENT OF THEM. 

jByNiM. U. Leblanc, V.S., and Principal Editor of the Journal de 
Med, Vet., ajid A. Trosseau, M.D. 

[Continued from vol. vii, page 634.] 

7. Simple wounds of the parietes of the chest, with injection of 
blood draivn at the moment from the jugular vein, and withoiU 
the introduction of air. 

We injected into the chest of a horse, about eleven years old, 
four pounds and a half of blood just drawn from the jugular 
vein of the same animal. We had taken proper precaution that 
as little air as possible should insinuate itself through the wound, 
which was effected between the third and fourth asternal ribs on 
the left side, and about six inches from tlie spine. Immediately 
after the injection, the wound was closed by means of the usual 
suture. By tapping on the chest of the horse, the resonance 
was distinctly heard, and the respiratory murmur could be readily 
detected by auscultation. After the operation the resonance was 
increased, which we attributed to the introduction of a certain 
quantity of air when we punctured the chest. 

On being taken back into the stable, the animal ate with 
appetite a handful of hay which he found in the rack. Five 
hours and a half after the injection, the.motions of the flanks 
were slightly laborious—the act of inspiration was much short¬ 
ened— that of expiration was proportionably prolonged — the 
flanks were tucked up—the ears cold—and the pulse regular, 
full, and hard. On having recourse to auscultation, we could 
not detect any sound at the inferior part of the chest on the left 






WOUNDS PENETRATING INTO THE CHEST. 9 

side, but a vesicular noise was evident at every other part of the 
chest. 

The horse ate his litter. 

On the following day there was nothing remarkable in the 
movements of the flanks, except that they were more than 
naturally prolonged, and that the expiration commenced with a 
sudden fall of the flanks. The warmth of the extremities, and 
of the legs, had returned. 

On the following day the convulsive action resembling bro¬ 
ken wind still remained. 

The horse was destroyed at the close of that day, and about 
forty-eight hours after the injection of the blood into the chest. 

We found in the left thoracic cavity a clot of blood, weighing 
two pounds, or thereabouts : its surface was covered with a kind 
of pellicle, analogous to what we should call a serous membrane. 
The colour of the superior part of the clot was of a lighter 
tint than the inferior part. The clot was generally of a very 
dark hue. 

There was a small quantity of serosity, of a strong blood- 
colour, in both the sacs of the pleura, and these sacs communi¬ 
cated together. 

The portions of the pleura which were not in contact with the 
clot did not present the slightest trace of inflammation. On 
the border of the wound which was made in order to effect the 
injection the subpleural vessels were distended with blood, and 
there was evident inflammation. The lungs were sound. 

It appears by this experiment, that we may introduce with 
impunity, more than four pounds of blood into the thoracic 
cavity; and that the greater part of it is absorbed in the space 
of two days. 

We varied this experiment by injecting the same quantity of 
blood, and not destroying the horse untirten days had expired. 
We found nothing but a fluid of the colour of wine-lees in the 
inferior part of the pleural cavity into which the injection was 
made. There was no appearance of inflammation, except about 
the edges of the wound. 

8. Simple wounds, with the injection of blood drawn imme¬ 
diately from the jugular, and with the introduction of air for a 
greater or less length of time. 

It would have been necessary here to have repeated that 
which we said of wounds in the chest, with the effusion of 
blood from the intercostal artery, and with the introduction of 
air, had we not remarked, that the blood which proceeds from 
the jugular changes more rapidly than arterial blood. It was 
easy to foresee this, because, in the first case, it was venous 

VOL. VIII. c 


10 WOUNDS PENETRATING INTO THE CHEST. 

blood; and next, because the blood from the jugular, before 
beino^ transferred into the chest, had remained for a ceitain time 
in cmitact with bodies foreign to the animal, and by means of 
this had already lost a portion of its life. 

The alteration of the blood was, besides, regulated by the 
duration of the communication of air with the cavity of the 
chest. The general and local phenomena which the animals 
subjected to these experiments presented, were very analogous 
to those in the horses on which the first experiments had been 

XYlctdo* 

The only particular which it is necessary to mention, with 
reo'ard to the variety of experiments related in this section, has 
reference to the (quantity of blood thrown into the chest. In all 
our experiments we injected at least six pounds of venous blood. 
It results from this, that the clots of blood are large, and are 
less promptly changed by contact with the air; but notwith¬ 
standing this, we have found that the influence of the air is 
most strongly marked, and at the end of three days only, the 
clot (which was probably formed at the first) becomes liquefied, 
and in part mingled with the pleural serosity. 

We cannot speak of the changes effected in the blood in a 
less time than two days; for as to all the horses that we opened 
three days, or a little less, had expired after the injection of the 
blood ; and most of them died in consequence of our experi¬ 
ment. We could retard their death at our pleasure, by cutting 
off the communication of the air with the chest from time to 
time ; but if that communication was constant, or through the 
medium of a large opening, the death of the animal was pro- 
portionably hastened. 

9. Simple wounds, with injection of blood drawn from the 
jugular a certain time before, and ivithout the introduction of air. 

When the blood is not injected as soon as it is drawn from 
the vein, it speedily loses certain of its properties, or, if we may 
so express ourselves, a portion of its life ; or, at least, it acts 
more as a foreign body when it is introduced into the chest. 
The symptoms and the result approach nearly to that vvhich we 
have just described, when we had injected blood as soon as it 
yras drawn from the jugular, and had left a communication be¬ 
tween the pleural cavity and the atmosphere: nevertheless, we 
remarked that the animals survived longer after the injection : 
this would be probable, considering that the interior of the 
chest was not in communication with the atmosphere. The clot 
of blood was more slowly decomposed, and the respiration was 
not so much disturbed during the few first days after the 
operation. The time, however, always arrived when the blood 


WOUNDS PENETRATING INTO THE CHEST. 


11 


began to be decomposed ; and then pleurisy commenced, and 
the death of the animal soon followed; it was hastened in pro¬ 
portion to the quantity of blood injected, and the time during 
which it had been previously exposed to the external air. If 
we waited a considerable time before we injected the blood, it 
was already partially decomposed (physically, at least) when it 
was introduced into the chest. It happened in one experiment, 
that the blood was partly solid and partly liquid, and we had con¬ 
siderable difficulty in managing the portion that was coagulated, 
and liquefying it, and getting it into the syringe. The horse on 
which this experiment was made lived only four days. We 
have sometimes found in the chest almost all the blood which 
we had injected, but there was a great quantity of bloody 
serosity effused in the chest, and inflammation, which occupied 
almost the whole of the pleura on the side at which the blood 
had been injected. We thought, however, that it was not pleu¬ 
risy alone that destroyed the horse—the inflammation did not 
seem to be sufficiently violent for that. It is more likely that 
the quantity of blood (eight pounds), and the decomposilion 
which that blood underwent, had more effect in producing 
death. 

10. Simple wounds into the thoracic cavity, with the injection 
of blood running from a vein during different lengths of time, 
and also with the introduction of air for a longer or shorter 
period. 

In experimenting on this kind of wounds we observed all the 
consequences related in the preceding section, and those alluded 
to in a former part of this memoir as connected with the intro¬ 
duction of air into the chest. Death invariably follows in a 
little time, when a communication is permitted between the ex¬ 
ternal air and the pleural cavities. This last complication of 
wounds in the chest is, however, more to be dreaded than any 
of the preceding. Not only is the decomposition of the blood 
accelerated, but suffocation is produced, and by which the horse 
is destroyed, much more than by any of the consequences of 
the pleurisy or pneumonia which are the necessary attendants 
on these wounds. These last are only beginning to appear 
when in these cases the horse is actually in the agonies of death. 
It is also reasonable to believe, that the state of decomposition 
of the blood has much to do with the speedy death of the 
animal ; for we shall see that we could have introduced into the 
chest a larger quantity of inert fluid, as water; but which would 
not have produced so speedy a death, and perhaps not have pro¬ 
duced death at all, if there is not a communication between the 
external air and the cavity of the chest. 

[To 1)0 continued.] 


12 


ON STAGGERS IN HORSES. 

Bj/ Mr. King, F. 6’., Stanmore. 

Messieurs Editors, 

If the accompanying short history of the disease called Stag- 
2 :ers, which was drawn up under the view I at that time had of 
the complaint, and which then proved such a dreadful pest to 
the whole country (as far, however, as my knowledge extended ; 
though I was informed, at that time, that certain districts were 
free from it); if, I say, you think it worth notice, it is at your 
service. What has happened may happen again. You must 
especially take notice of the date, 1801. It appears from my 
memoranda, that the disease had been very prevalent at a former 
period, 1786-7; and then gradually seemed to be wearing away, 
until the year 1800, when it broke out with frightful severity 
about the middle of June, and its violence was unabated till the 
latter end of November, when it began to disappear again. 
According to my memoranda, the disease, in every succeeding 
year, became less and less frequent; and I can now say that I have 
not witnessed a single case of it for the last fifteen vears. That 
certain disorders affecting the human as well as the animal con¬ 
stitution do disappear and return, from causes to us seemingly 
undiscoverable, is, I believe, pretty well established. In re¬ 
ferring to the date, 1 was not then acquainted with either Mr. 
Blaine’s or Mr. White’s publications. In referring to memoranda 
made in succeeding years, I am obliged to confess that many 
horses which were physicked as a preventive, occasionally fell 
under the complaint; but their recovery was in a great propor¬ 
tion in favour of the treatment. I have not set about any 
corrections or emendations, hut sent it just as it was at the time 
indited by me, which will account for some parts of the paper 
appearing like a repetition of this Preface. It was drawn out 
at the request of a worthy medical friend then residing at 
Rickmansworth (now no more), without the slightest view to 
publicity. And 7iow, if you send it before the profession, I shall 
only beg of its readers to receive it with all the courtesy they can 
possibly invest themselves with ; and remain. 

Messieurs, 

Your’s, &c. 

F. K. 


[We have great pleasure in placing this paper of our old and 
valued friend in the foremost ground in the first number of the 



ON STAGGERS IN HORSES. 


13 

year. It is a veterinary curiosity, as containing the opinion, 
four-and-thirty years ago, of a careful observer and sound prac¬ 
titioner, respecting (at that time) one of the most murderous 
epidemics to which the horse was subject. The paper-and the 
writing bear about them sufhcient marks of age. The communi¬ 
cation is otherwise exceedingly valuable].— Edit. 

Various have been the opinions entertained with respect to 
the cause of the disease here treated on, and, among them, the 
most prevailing one was, that the food was the cause. It is certain 
that, on inspection of the dead body, the stomach is always 
found full; but there will not be found such a degree of disten¬ 
tion as to cause any interruption of its functions. I think the 
food has a very small share, if any, in the production of the dis¬ 
ease, as it most certainly affects horses of every description, and 
under every circumstance of diet; and also of rest or work. I am 
led to believe that it proceeds from some morbid atmospheric 
cause, which most likely we shall never be acquainted with; for, 
since the years 1786-7, the disease has occurred but very 
rarely till the last year, 1800, when it again made its appearance 
about the middle of June, proving generally fatal, and occurring 
very frequently till the latter end of November, when it began 
gradually to disappear. 

It appears from experience, that horses which are or have 
been on after pasture, in a season wdien the disease is prevalent, 
are affected with it perhaps more frequently than in any other 
situation ; which, most likely, is the reason why (as an article of 
food) a fine succulent state of herbage is looked to as a cause. 
But it must be remembered that in the year 1800 not a blade of 
grass ivas to he seen from the hay-time till the beginning of Sep¬ 
tember, and the disease occurred during that time more fre¬ 
quently than at any time after. 

No publication^ which I have ever read conveys to me any 
thing like an accurate, clear description of the disease. I shall, 
therefore, attempt to describe its symptoms just as they appear 
to me. 

According to my observation, it is ushered in by a degree of 
languor and loss of appetite: the vessels of the conjunctiva in 
the early stages appear rather empty; and it, as well as the lips 
and mouth, assumes a dirty, straw-coloured appearance, which, 
as the disease proceeds, acquires a deep saffron tinge. The 
mouth emits a faint fetid smell, and is generally covered with a 
white clammy froth. The pulse, in the early stages, is not dis- 


Sec Preface. 



14 ON STAGGERS IN MORSES. 

turbed ; and I am inclined to think, that, could the animal be re¬ 
strained from the violent exertions it is disposed to make, it would 
appear low all through the disease. The respiration is not ahected, 
except occasionally, from the above-named cause. Ihere i& 
always a most obstinate costiveness, and the urine is very high- 
coloured, and generally thrown off with a violent effort. As the 
disease proceeds, loss of sensibility comes on, and the animal 
reels in his walk, and, with his eyes vacantly staling, presses 
forward against any object which may happen to be in his 
path, and, if left to himself, would infallibly find his way into a 
ditch or pond; but if, as is generally practised, he is tied to a 
swivel, he runs round till he falls. I have seen at one time, 
and apparently all attacked with the disease at the same mo¬ 
ment, three horses, out of a team of four, belonging to farmer 
Chapman, of Perrivale, tied up in the manner described. I 
have known, though rarely, the complaint come on and death 
take place in a few hours, with strong marks of putrescence. 
But generally, I believe, it does not acquire its full powers for 
four or five days, if left to itself; but, as is too often the case 
when it has not made sufficient progress to be observed by the 
driver (and very often wdien it has), the horse undergoes his 
usual fatigue, and it is by that means speedily brought to a 
dreadful height. 

The distinction of mad and sleepy staggers I think not neces¬ 
sary, as the disease is precisely the same in every feature, except 
that in the one the animal holds the head to the ground and 
quietly inclines forward, while, in the other, he moves on in a 
furious manner. 

In the course of the disease, not unfreqnently the horse yawns, 
and sometimes stretches himself, which, according to my obser¬ 
vation, is a bad omen; for those I have marked doing so, have 
generally died. So, likewise, is cold clammy sweat breaking 
out partially or generally, a bad symptom ; and a still worse 
symptom, after which 1 never knew^ recovery, is the horse 
neighing upon being roused by the opening of a door, or any 
noise. On the other hand, if sense and desire for food return 
gradually, there is hope of recovery; which is much strength¬ 
ened if the costiveness gives way, and the extremities become 
warm and swell, or if a determination to the nose and lips takes 
place. But it sometimes happens that, towards the end of the 
disease, a sudden alteration in some of the symptoms takes place, 
apparently for the better, such as taking a little fluid and be¬ 
coming calm : but this is delusive, as a person acquainted with it 
would discover, by the then quickened state of the pulse and 
the coldness of the extremities, and they being at the same time 


ON STAGGERS IN HORSES. 


15 


so exceedingly thin, that it would appear as if the fingers would 
meet between the tendons; in such case recovery cannot follow. 

I have known, in two or three instances, a slight degree of in¬ 
flammation take place in the nose and lips, succeeded by a dry 
slough of the skin, without any pus secreted ; the cicatrix forming 
very slowly, and a perfectly bald surface being left. All those 
horses did well without any assistance. 

As difference of opinion has been entertained of the cause, so 
likewise has it been as to the seat. Farriers, generally, imagine 
the head to be principally affected, by inflammation either of the 
brain or its membranes, and they treat it accordingly, by bleeding, 
blisters, setons, and also drenches the cure of staggers; 
and the application of stimuli to the pituitary membrane. Eva¬ 
cuations from the intestines have always been deemed necessary; 
which, however, are seldom procured, if any degree of delirium 
is present, as the animal is then so unmanageable that medicines 
can very rarely be given with any degree of certainty; or, if 
given at all, at that period the stomach and bowels are become 
so torpid and insensible, that no effect is produced. 

Locked jaw is said to attend the disease, but I never observed 
it; as, though often, great resistance is made to a balling-iron, or 
horn, vet there is no fixed contraction of the muscles. 

I have, by chance, given medicine in form of a ball, when the 
animal was in this furious state, and yet lived, perhaps, thirty 
hours after; and, on examination of the stomach, I found the 
paper in which the ball was wrapped a very little way within the 
cardiac orifice, between the stomach and its contents. 

I shall now offer a few remarks on the remedies generally used. 
The good effect arising from bleeding I consider very doubtful: 
if it is practised, it must be in a very early stage, and in small 
quantity, for the blood does not exhibit the least mark of inflam¬ 
mation, but acquires a colour more and more dark as the disease 
proceeds, and sometimes will not coagulate firmly, but appears in 
a broken dissolved state; and, I am satisfied, the more blood is 
lost, the sooner the subject sinks. The serum is always of a deep 
yellow. Nor will ray observation warrant me to speak in better 
terms of blisters, and the insertion of rowels in different parts of 
the body : blisters irritate very much, without producing any de¬ 
gree of inflammation worth notice ; and rowels inflame very little, 
and never suppurate kindly before a crisis has taken place, and 
sometimes, though not commonly, run into gangrene, and kill 
the animal that way. I shall pass over a number of drinks 
famous for curing staggers, which have repeatedly failed with 
me, and which, I believe, have gained repute, either from being 
administered by designing people (in order to obtain a character) 


16 


ON STAGGERS IN HORSES. 

when the disease was not present, or by others, who were not 
able to distinguish between the disease and a common indis¬ 
position. 

My remarks have led me to conclude, that the complaint is 
not of an inflammatory nature; and always finding the stomach 
charged, and the small intestines lined with a very tenacious 
ropy mucus, I have judged it expedient to unload them as soon as 
possible, which I have every reason to believe would succeed if taken 
up in the beginning of the disease, and before it is aggravated by 
fatigue ; but, as I have before observed, it unfortunately happens 
that it seldom comes under the eye of the veterinarian before it 
has acquired nearly its height; and, then considering no time 
was to be lost, I have given, with a bold hand, different medi¬ 
cines, as aloes, calomel, emetic tartar, carbonate of ammonia in 
great and frequent doses, with camphor and asafoetida singly 
and variously combined, and at the same time what liquids could 
be got down, but they were generally in a very insufficient quan¬ 
tity to have any good effect; I must confess, that too frequently 
my expectations have not been answered when the disease had 
taken such strong hold ; though it must be allowed, that the 
costiveness attended with such torpor of the intestines, their 
horizontal situation, and a complete refusal of liquids, all tend 
very much to weaken the expectation of a speedy effect from ca¬ 
thartics. Still I consider evacuation from the intestines as a 
point which must not be neglected, and on which the cure greatly 
depends. 

The treatment which has under my hands proved most success¬ 
ful is the exhibition of aloes from ^iss to jiiss joined with from 
Jj to 3ij of gran, parad., according to the strength of the horse, 
and the advanced state of the disease ; both being reduced to fine 
powder, and given in warm ale, giving afterwards some more ale 
to w-^ash it down the mouth ; and this repeated every four, six, or 
eight hours, as may be necessary, till purging is produced. 
Clysters are a great auxiliary ; and one compounded of three 
pints of thick gruel, with the addition of about four ounces of olive 
oil and the same quantity of salt, is as good as any: they should 
frequently be repeated. Vinegar thrown up the mouth witha womb 
syringe refreshes much, and corrects that fetid smell which it 
emits : the body, not forgetting the head and legs, should be fre¬ 
quently and well rubbed, and any quantity of gruel or plain water 
the horse will take, as likewise any thing he will eat, may be 
allowed. In case of determination to the lungs, or any of the 
abdominal viscera, blisters may be applied with some advan¬ 
tage ; but that is a very rare occurrence. It is a disease which 
generally after evacuations terminates favourably. As the stag- 


FARCY IN EGYPT. 


17 

gers seldom makes it appearance in a stable without several 
horses being seized with it, and, sometimes going through the 
whole stable, it naturally becomes a question, how can it be pre¬ 
vented from spreading? I am inclined to believe it not communi¬ 
cable from one horse to another, but depending on their all being 
exposed to the same cause; the effect being produced sooner 
or later according to the constitution and the manner of treat¬ 
ment. As preventives, bleeding, and rowels, and medicines 
used as alteratives, have been employed, and have repeatedly 
failed. Wherever I have been called, I have uniformly advised 
a brisk cathartic to the other horses ; and wherever that has been 
employed I have not known* any one (except a mare that 
gave milk and took her physic while at grass) fall afterward with 
the complaint: this has served to strengthen my opinion of the 
treatment I have employed. Under the above circumstances, I 
have given physic to twelve different stables of horses, all in the 
year 1800. I therefore think it a fair inference that it was of 
service, and recommend it as the most likely mode of prevention 
I am acquainted with. 


LA LEPRE BOUTONNEUSE, AND FARCY IN THE 
HORSE, CONSIDERED AS IDENTICAL DISEASES. 

Bj/ MM. Hamont, Founder and Director of the Veterinary 
School^ and D. F. Pruner, Professor of Anatomy and Phy¬ 
siology in the School of Human Medicine at Ahou-ZabeL 

[It is pleasant to see the professors of the two branches of 
medicine uniting together in the pursuit of medical science, and 
each drawing from his peculiar resources illustrations for the 
common good of their respective patients. M. Pruner had, in 
the former part of this Essay, given an interesting, and, if we 
may express an opinion on the point, a valuable account of the 
Elephantiasis of the Greeks, the Black Leprosy, 

Est Elephas morbus, qui propter flumina Nili, 

Gignitur ^Egypto in media, neque prseterea usquam.— Lucret. 

This, however, concerns the medical man more than the vete¬ 
rinarian, and therefore M. Hamont shall take up the tale.] 

Farcy, Scabies equrum of the Latins; 

Sarage of the Egyptians ; 

Etti-Sale of the Wahabites. 

This disease exists in many different parts of the world. It is 
found in France, Italy, Germany, England, Syria, Egypt, Asia- 

* See Preface. 

VOL. vin, Tj 





FARCY IN EGYPT. 


Minor, and Arabia. It was known to the ancients, but we pos¬ 
sess few documents of its march or its development, and we are 
ignorant of the place whence it had its origin. It is an affection 
peculiar to the horse, the ass, and the mule, but some have 
thought that they had observed it in the ox. It consists of the 
existence of tumours on the skin of greater or less size, and which 
take on them the form of chaplets, knotted cords, buds, or but¬ 
tons, round, oval, flat, globular, adhering to the skin, or being 
immediately beneath the skin, more or less hard, and finishing 
by softening and suppurating. At the commencement of the 
eruption pre^ssure on the tumours causes considerable pain ; the 
lymphatic vessels are much developed, and can be plainly felt; 
there is infiltration and tumefaction of the limbs, with pain and 
great swelling of the testicles, and of the sheath of the penis, and 
of the exterior lymphatic ganglions ; and also anasarca. 

These little tumours or buds appear on every part of the body; 
on the abdomen, the scrotum, the anus, the tail, the back, the 
loins, the shoulders, the neck, the head, the eyelids, the con¬ 
junctiva, the membrane of the nose, the nasal septum, the coro¬ 
net, and principally on the extremities, where they follow the 
course of the lymphatic vessels. They often appear first of all 
on the extremities, or on the head or neck. 

A single button is perhaps first perceived, which is speedily 
followed by many others. The skin becomes thin, it ulcerates, 
and discharges a matter sometimes thick and white, and some¬ 
times grey or bloody, and sometimes viscid and yellow : now it 
will fall in drops, and presently it will harden upon the skin. 
The ulceration increases—the discharge is fetid ; it ha.s a smell 
sui generis. Fungous excrescences, elevated, rounded, bleeding, 
appear; to these succeed large ulcers, covered by a yellow thick 
crust, thin towards its edges. On the limbs of many horses 
we have seen tumours of a scirrhous nature, and they have 
become of a considerable size. 

In the nasal cavities the buds are generally small—occa¬ 
sionally large; they are, at first, hard—they soften ; they extend 
considerably; they render the septum of the nose, and the 
bones of the nose, carious ; and there is an abundant and fetid 
discharge, variable in colour. 

These buds are confined to the exterior membranes. Under 
the skin, and in the interstices of the muscles, voluminous and 
hard tumours are frequently formed. 

All four limbs often enlarge at once. After a certain time, 
the heat and tenderness observed at the commencement of the 
disease disappear. The softening of the buttons causes the 
horn to be detached at the coronet, and pus is throwm out 


FARCY IN EGYPT. 


19 


between it and tbe sensible parts beneath, and the hoof at 
length falls off. We have now under our care horses attacked 
with farcy on one or both legs, and confined to those parts, 
although the disease has been of long standing. 

When farcy attacks the eyes, it produces very considerable 
enlargements and infiltrations of the lids; and which terminate 
in covering the whole globe of the eye, and depriving the animal 
of sight. 

The mucous membranes are almost always pale—infiltrated ; 
the eyes weeping, and blear; the hair changes its colour—it 
falls from some parts of the body; the skin is always covered 
with scurf, which the comb raises with difficulty ; there is con¬ 
tinual itching, and the horse gnaws and blemishes himself in 
various parts. Many of the buds now become ulcerated; ex¬ 
crescences appear on different parts; an infectious smell is 
perceived at a considerable distance". The respiration becomes 
diflScult—loud ; the matter which is secreted by the ulcers 
speedily dries up, and the horse is covered with scabs. Many 
horses continue to work without much pain or difficulty; they 
preserve their appetite—it even becomes voracious ; but not¬ 
withstanding this, they slowly, but constantly, lose condition. 
The discharge from the ulcers becomes more fetid—the urine 
thick and yellow—tbe respiration accelerated ; the emaciation 
is now more rapid, and the animal weaker; and at length he 
dies of marasmus. Some horses, however, live many years, 
covered with farcy ulcers. 

• • • 

Farcy ranks among the diseases of the lymphatic system : it 

is inflammation of these vessels, the lymphatic ganglions, and 
the cellular tissue. It may be the consequence of intestinal irri¬ 
tation, and has been compared with scrofula and syphilis by 
modern veterinarians. 

On examination after death we find the farcy buds filled with 
thick white pus, or with a blood-coloured fluid, and thick yellow 
scabs cover the ulcers. Some of the ulcerations are confined to 
the superficial portion of the skin, attacking the bulbs of the 
hair ; others perforate the dermis : the skin is hard, thick, white, 
and difficult to cut; and there are often abscesses in the very 
substance of the dermis, where they form little pouches: other 
small abscesses are subcutaneous. The white parts of the limbs 
are thickened, and the skin there resembles that of a hog. There 
is little blood in the frame, and where the white colour prevails it has 
a remarkable appearance. Often there is an effusion of a citron- 
coloured fluid, more or less abundant, under the skin. There are 
reservoirs of pus in the interstices of the muscles ; the lymphatic 
vessels are dilated—evidently so; the subcutaneous ganglions 


FARCY IN EGYPT. 


20 

are hypertrophied, sometimes hard, sometimes soft; black, or 
red; and, on pressure, suffering a puriform matter of varied 
colour to escape. In the chest and the abdomen there are the 
same alterations. The mucous membranes are pale. The vessels 
which are ordinarily red are scarcely seen; ulcerations, more or 
less extensive, are found on the cartilaginous septum of the nose ^ 
the septum is occasionally perforated; and there are f^rcy buds 
in a state of softening where the integument and the mucous 
membrane meet. In some the lungs contain miliary or pea-shaped 
tubercles, and these are also met with in the liver and in the 
spleen; but these alterations are not frequent, and in many 
horses there is not a vestige of them. There is little blood in 
the large vessels: the tissue of the heart is discoloured. 

In the carcasses of some horses the bones are farcied, and pre¬ 
sent deep ulcerations : the bones which are oftenest affected are 
the nasal ones. The museum of the school at Alfort contains 
bones, carious and ulcerated, from the enlarged limbs of farcied 
horses; and Professor Dupuy, in his work on Glanders, relates 
many cases of very great disease in the bones. 

Vast abscesses are often found in the testicles; and farcy is 
often accompanied by mange, and softening of the liver : the 
latter is a frequent termination of it in Egypt. 

It has been supposed that farcied horses are very subject to 
glanders, and that glandered horses usually have farcy. This 
has been asserted and believed by a great many medical men of 
deserved eminence, and they have not scrupled to place the two 
diseases in the same class. This opinion has at the present day 
many partisans. Repeated observations, however, which w^e have 
made as well in Europe as in Africa and Asia, have established 
a distinct line of demarcation between glanders and farcy. The 
first seerns to have ifs seat in the septum which divides the 
nasal cavities, often, perhaps, extending a third of the way down 
the mucous membrane of the trachea; while the second consists 
of a profound lesion of the lymphatic ganglions and vessels, 
affecting many systems at once, as, for example, the skin and 
the mucous membranes. Many glandered horses die without 
having had a symptom of farcy ; while, on the contrary, we meet 
with many farcied horses which present lesions similar to those 
of glanders, as chancres and nasal discharge. This it is, doubt¬ 
less, which has caused old practitioners, ignorant of anatomy and 
physiology, to assert that farcy is cousin-german to glanders. 

If farcy, as has been shewn, attacks the skin and the mucous 
membranes, ought we to be surprised if some farcied horses 
have ulcers on the nasal membrane, or discharge from the nos¬ 
trils ? It is always the same disease ; and if we had closely 

V 


21 


FARCY IN EGYPT. 

marked its progress when it extended to the interior of the nose 
we should have recognized that which belonged to glanders, and 
that which was the product of farcy. We have no doubt, how¬ 
ever, that both diseases may exist at the same time in the same 
animal; but we may always distinguish that which belongs to the 
one and to the other, and we ought to consider their joint pre¬ 
sence only as a fortuitous complication. 

Farcy is always most difficult to cure when the mucous 
membranes are affected, and tumours develop themselves on 
the septum of the nose, which they perforate or render carious, 
like the chancres of glanders. That fact was known to the old 
veterinarians, and they announce it by saying that farcy is in¬ 
curable when it has degenerated into glanders. Ordinarily farcy 
develops itself without any of the principal functions of the 
animal being disturbed. Medical men say that an eruption is 
generally preceded by febrile symptoms. In this disease in the 
horse no such complication exists. There are no precursor cha¬ 
racteristic symptoms. 

Farcy is sporadic, enzootic, and epizootic; prevailing often 
among great masses of animals, and extending over large spaces 
ot country. We often see it commit sad ravages among our 
cavalry regiments. It shews itself all at once, and many animals 
are attacked at the same time. It makes rapid progress among those 
whom it has attacked, and destroys its victims in a space of time 
too short, but varied by an infinity of causes. It rages with equal 
violence m the country. It is a dreadful disease in Egypt, and 
w regiments of his Highness have it constantly among them. 
Ihe infirmaries of the veterinary school always contain a o-reat 
proportion of farcied horses; indeed, we can affirm without 
tear of contradiction, that the greater part of our sick horses are 
1 with faicy. Before the institution of the veterinary school, 
almost every animal attacked by it soon became for ever unfit 
tor service. In Arabia it is confined to certain districts. Aban¬ 
doned by the owners and the attendants, the animals rarely 
recover, or, if there are some instances of the sudden disappear¬ 
ance of the farcy tumours, they appear afresh after a greater or 
less period of time. The disease, until lately at least, has been 
considered as incurable in Egypt, but the Arabs regard it as 
susceptible ot cure, if it has not been too long neglected. 

hen^farcy first develops itself in the extremities it is more 
obstinate, more serious, more to be feared than when it attacks 
any other part of the body; and we may almost despair of a 
lavourable termination, if the testicles, the sheath, and the ex- 
lemities, are tumefied and engorged at the same time; and more 

^ if farcy buds are developed on the globe 

o le eye, the cheeks, the lips, and the membrane of the nose. 


22 FARCY IN EGYPT. 

Jim 

Among the predisposing causes, authors have cited the fol” 
lowino-: Disease of the blood—lymphatic temperament—the 

neighbourhood of rivers, or low and marshy places subject to 
inundations.” It is also said, that farcy may be produced by 
the use of irritating food in undue quantities, as corn, or other 
fodder, dry, dirty, mouldy, putrid. New hay also has occa- 
sioned’intestinal irritation, which by sympathy may become the 
cause of farcy eruption.” (Huitrel D’Arboval.) 

Filthy and cold stables, where the water runs along the sides 
of the walls, unwholesome water, and continual w'ork in the 

water, have also given rise to farcy. 

M. Hurtrel D’Arboval combats the opinion of those who 
maintain that all the causes of farcy are of a debilitating nature. 
He sees in all of them signs of irritation. According to him, the 
effects of farcy are produced according to the predominance of 
the lymphatic system. It is positively demonstrated, and placed 
beyond doubt, that farcy, the seat of which is in the lymphatic 
vessels and ganglions, attacks in preference the horses in which 
these organs predominate. The predominance of a particular 
system, may it not be indicated in animals by the colour of the 
liair? May not the different shades, which the natural covering 
of the horse presents, indicate the peculiar nature of his tem¬ 
perament? In human mediidne, do we not know that fair people 
are more disposed to scrofula and phthisis pulmonalis than the 
brown or the black ? May not the same things exist in veterinary 
medicine ? Does not the observation apply to the appearance 
of melanosis in grey horses alone? 

We know from experience that black horses are, in Egypt, far 
less susceptible of farcy than the grey, the sorrel, or the bay. 

We cannot avoid being astonished at the confusion which 
prevails in veterinary works on the origin and causes of farcy. 
That disease having been observed only in some parts of Europe, 
and in climates and under influences nearly analogous, an exact 
etiology of it cannot be established, without all the conditions 
attached to its development in all the different countries in which 
it exists having been observed and studied. 

A great variety of circumstances, acting at once on the interior 
and the exterior of domesticated animals, are concerned in the 
production of farcy. 

Journal, Aug> 1834. 


[To be continued ] 


TETANUS. 

4 

By Mr. W. F. Karkeek, F.5'., Truro, 

A BRAMBLE at the eye is larger than an oak at a distance; 
and thus every man is of importance in his own view, and ima¬ 
gines that he could communicate something of profit or pleasure 
by recounting the results of his individual experience. 

But the most remarkable occurrences in our practice are for¬ 
gotten if they are merely inserted in our case-books; and by not 
making public the results of our experience, much useful infor¬ 
mation is withheld from the world, since all agree that one fact 
is more valuable than volumes of theory. 

In the four following cases of idiopathic tetanus, which were 
successfully treated, or, to speak more correctly, that recovered, 
I may be vain enough to suppose that I am giving the profession 
something new, when, in fact, similar cases may have happened 
to many ;—but how should I know this, unless those gentlemen 
favour the profession with the results of their experience? 

On the disease in question much useful information has al¬ 
ready been elicited through the medium of The Veterinarian ; 
and I have not a doubt but that much more wdl be known, for 
I differ in toto from the late Mr. Abernethy, who was of opinion 
that Hippocrates knew as much concerning tetanus as is known 
at the present time. Tetanus was regarded by Hippocrates as 
certainly mortal: now, as we succeed sometimes "in effecting 
cures, it is but just to conclude that some improvements have 
taken place since his day. 

CASE I. 

A bay hackney mare, seven years old, and expected to foal in 
about two months, was, when she was first discovered to be un¬ 
well, immediately taken into the stable by the proprietor, a 
farmer, and bled, clothed warmly, and about twelve ounces of 
castor oil administered to her. 

On account of the great difficulty that was experienced in 
drenching the animal, I was sent for the following evening, 
when I found the jaws nearly closed. I succeeded in giving 
her 3x of Barbadoes aloes in solution ; took away two gallons of 
blood, and applied a strong blister to the spine. 

The following day, I gave ^ij of aloes, and ^ij of powdered 
opium, mixed with a small quantity of water ; and ordered her 
to be repeatedly clystered with thin gruel in the course of the 
^ay. 

day .—The jaws as rigid as ever; the aloes had had no 


TETANUS, 


24 

effect y tlie pulse, wliicli 3.t first wus not ufFectedj hud become 
quick and intermittent; the breathing was at intervals, particu¬ 
larly when excited, laborious ; and the countenance had a wilder 
and more haggard appearance. I bled to the amount of four 
quarts, being afraid to draw more blood, in consequence of her 
being so near her foaling time. I ordered ^ij of opium, and 
of Barbadoes aloes, morning and evening; the clysters to be 
continued, and a warm sheep skin to be applied over the back 
and loins. 'She was still costive; the clysters brought away a 
few hard slimy pellets at each ejection. 

For about a week this plan of treatment was pursued; thin 
gruel and ground oats, and bran mixed with water, were given 
her, which she sucked through the teeth. The opium was in¬ 
creased to jiij daily. 

lO^A da ^.—The disease has existed for ten days—the jaws 
are as rigid as ever, and the animal has become very weak. 
The proprietor talks about administering a leaden ball, as a 
specific. 

11th day .—A slight remission of the spasms is observed, 
and purging is produced for the first time. The suffering ani¬ 
mal ate some grass that was offered her. A slight oedematous 
swelling is observed underneath the abdomen. From this period 
she began to recover; the dropsical swelling gradually increased 
in size, until it assumed a formidable appearance, and the time 
of the remission of the spasms gradually lengthening. In fact, 
exactly in the same ratio as a fluid was deposited in the cel¬ 
lular structure of the skin, did the muscles become less rigid. 
The progress of the cure was exceedingly slow ; the swelling 
was punctured with a lancet, which soon removed the enlarge¬ 
ment; the animal was again turned to grass, and in about six 
weeks she was delivered of a fine colt, and both at this period 
(now six years ago) are in perfect health. 

CASE II. 

A grey gelding, seven years old, on the 21st May, 1832, was 
observed by the groom to have some difficulty in swallowing, 
and not to eat with his wonted appetite. He gave him a dose of 
physic (3vj of aloes), but on the following morning, the pro¬ 
prietor observing him to move his hinder limbs with difficulty, 
he was immediately placed under my care. 

1 found him labouring under every symptom that characterizes 
tetanus. The back and loins were shrugged up ; the tail elevated 
and tremulous ; the ears erect; the eyes wild, and squinting out¬ 
wards, appearing as if forced out of their,sockets, with the haws 
protruding over them. The nostrils expanded, the countenance 


TETANUS. 


25 

haggard, and the whole body as stiff and awkward as a loo- of 
wood. 

The jaws were not completely locked, but sufficient space was 
left to allow a drench to be administered. The horse having 
taken 3 iij of aloes on the day previous, I ordered 3 iv more; to 
be bled to the amount of two gallons, and a strong blister to be 
applied along the whole length of the spine. Previous to this, 
the animal was moved with great difficulty to a quiet place, that 
he might not be disturbed. 

2^d .—^The spasms are more violent; bled to the amount of 
six quarts ; ordered opium 3iss, camphor Jj, Barbadoes aloes 3 j ; 
to be given morning and evening: and laxative clysters adminis¬ 
tered three times in the course of the day. 

2^th .—Bled six quarts ; washed off the old blister, and ap¬ 
plied a fresh one. Opium 3ij, camphor ^j, aloes 3j, given twice 
in the day ; clysters as before. 

25M.—The bowels, which hitherto had been sluggish, now 
yielded copiously. Ordered the medicines as before. 

2Qth .—The bowels are purged ; discontinued the aloes and 
clysters, and administered opium 3iij, camphor Jj, twice a day. 

27th .—A sheep-skin is applied over the loins, and the medi¬ 
cine given as yesterday. 

2^th .—Bled six quarts; gave opium 3 iij, and camphor Jj, 
twice in the day. 

2^th .—A slight oedematous swelling is observed underneath 
the abdomen. Medicine given as before. 

30^A.—The spasms are neither so violent, nor so frequent; 
the swelling has increased considerably during the night. The 
bowels are relaxed, and the jaws less rigid. 

It would be tedious to describe the treatment that was pur¬ 
sued after this period; suffice it to say, that the dropsical 
swelling increased to an enormous size; and, exactly as was 
witnessed in the former case, in proportion as the swelling in¬ 
creased tetanic symptoms disappeared. 

Punctures with the lancet were made, and a rowel introduced, 
which soon removed the fluid that was effused. In a short time 
the animal was able to take gentle exercise; which, with liberal 
food, as malt mashes, carrots, and green meat, with the daily 
administration of vegetable tonics (gentian, calumba, and ginger 
combined), and now and then a slight aperient, the cure was 
completed. The animal was shortly after sold by the proprietor 
to his brother, James Daubuz, esq. who took him into Sussex, 
where he has been hunted ever since. 

Now it must be admitted, that these two cases are extraordinary 
instances of the removal of a disease from one place to the other, 

VOL. VITI, E 


TETANUS. 


by the translation of inflammation, and, consequently, irritation, 
to a diflerent part. I have had numerous cases of tetanus j in¬ 
deed, it has been my lot to witness a great many, for I believe 
that the climate of our country is favourable to its production : 
but I never witnessed such terminations before or since. I sup¬ 
pose that the disease occurs so frequently in the west of Cornwall 
on account of the land being surrounded almost by the sea, and 
bordering so closely upon it. I have likewise observed that this 
disease is more prevalent in marshy situations than in places 
which are dry and elevated; and 1 have more easily succeeded 
in effecting cures when they have happened to horses living in 
high, dry, and elevated spots. 

The cases that I have succeeded in curing have been all idio¬ 
pathic. I have met with several instances of traumatic tetanus, 
but was never so fortunate as to produce a recovery. I have seen a 
case of the latter kind occur, when the skin underneath the eye 
has merely been broken by the lash of a whip. In this case the 
wound had entirely cicatrized. 

I recollect, just after I had commenced practice, that I was at¬ 
tending a horse for a slight wound on the inside of the thigh, in a 
village called Perran. The farm of the proprietor was bounded 
by the Atlantic; the stable was situated on a low, marshy, damp 
soil. The wound was nearly healed, and, it being the summer 
season, the animal was turned to grass ; when, in three days, 
tetanus supervened, and on the next day the animal died. The 
following were the appearances of the body on a post-mortem 
examination, transcribed from my case book. 

Sectio Cadaveris .—On removing the skull, the dura mater was 
found slightly vascular; the pia mater was likewise so. The 
cineritious portion of the cerebrum was considerably inflamed, 
particularly on the right side. The plexus choroides in the right 
ventricle, which contained some seious effusion, was loaded with 
blood. The thalamus on that side also slightly vascular. Left 
ventricle perfectly healthy. A small quantity of limpid fluid 
escaped on opening the arachnoid membrane. The immediate 
covering of the chord was vascular; but the spinal chord itself 
was firm, and not at all inflamed. On examining the thorax, I 
found the lung highly vascular,and full of redjiorid blood; and 
I particularly observed the sympathetic nerve and its ganglia to 
be decidedly inflamed*. The sensible portion of the stomach 

* Mr. Alexander Henderson, V. S. to the Queen, describes similar cases 
in Tur: Veterinarian, aoI. v: —“The horse,’' he says, “ was excessively 
irritable, became rapidly worse, and died in about thirty hours. On open¬ 
ing' him I found the stomach unusually distended with food, and an in- 
c!eased redness on its surface, with several crimson spots on the pyloric 


TETANUS. 


27 

and some of the small intestines were inflamed; red patches 
were observed on the latter, at different places. The liver was pale, 
and its texture loose and broken; and the bladder contracted. 

This was the first case of tetanus that I ever met with in my 
own practice, and I believe I may say with certainty, that I 
never met with any since in which the brain shewed so much 
inflammation, and so much organic lesion. 

In the case that I alluded to, as proceeding from a slight 
wound produced by a blow from a lash of a whip underneath the 
eye, the vertebral canal was filled wath a fluid of a yellowish co¬ 
lour, and the investing membrane of the cord was considerably 
inflamed ; but the brain appeared perfectly healthy, except a 
slight vascularity of its investing membranes. In this case the 
sympathetic nerve, wath its ganglia, were decidedly inflamed. 
The stomach and bowels likewise bore marks of inflammation; 
and the lungs were gorged with florid blood. 

The following are the observations made in examining a horse 
nearly thorough-bred, belonging to a merchant of this town, that 
died of idiopathic tetanus: — 

Bay horse, aged, 1830, June 5th. I will pass over the treat¬ 
ment that was pursued : being a very irritable horse, he died 
on the 6th day. He was treated by an empiric, for two days, 
for a cold in the loins 

Sectio Cadaveris .—The viscera of the abdomen, with the ex¬ 
ception of the bladder, which was considerably contracted, were 
inflamed ; in some places very highly so, particularly the duo¬ 
denum. The lungs were rather more than usually red, and 
gorged, as it were, with blood. The membranes of'the larynx 
and bronchial ramifications were considerably inflamed, and the 
sympathetic nerve and its ganglia on the thorax were decidedly 
more than usually vascular. The brain appeared healthy in 
every respect, except some increased vascularity in its investing 
membranes. The spinal chord was firm and healthy, but its 
immediate covering was slightly vascular. 

In another case, I found the brain perfectly healthy; the spinal 
envelope slightly inflamed ; but the stomach, at its pyloric orifice, 
possessing a high degree of vascularity. The duodenum was 
likewise vascular, and the branch of the sympathetic that sur¬ 
rounds the stomach considerably so. 

The conclusions which appear to me naturally, or almost ne¬ 
cessarily, to result from these cases, must form the subject of 
another communication. 

portion. The dnodeiium and jejunum were much inflamed, and the lung 
gorged with blood. 'J'hat, however, which attracted my attention more 
particularly was, the unusually vascular appearance of the large sympa¬ 
thetic nerves through their various ramifications in the chest and abdomen. 


28 


EXTRACT FROM THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
VETERINARY SCHOOL AT ALFORT, DURING THE 
SCHOLASTIC YEAR 1833-34. 

By M. Renault, Professor’ at that School. 


Clinical and Surgical Chair. 

During the present session, 570 animals have been ad¬ 
mitted into the infirmary of this school, viz. 382 horses, 5 asses,. 
1 goat, and 182 dogs. 

Of the 382 horses, 209 were discharged cured, or in the way 
of being so ; 19 died, and 45 were abandoned to the school as 
incurable, and destroyed. 

Of the five asses, one died : he had been affected with tetanus. 

Of the 182 dogs, 329 were discharged cured, and 46 died, or 
were destroyed after having been given up by their proprietors. 
It should be recollected, that the animals sent to us have gene¬ 
rally laboured under very serious diseases, and that often they 
had been already treated without success, or had been aban¬ 
doned, and then, as the last chance, had been brought to our 
infirmary. 

The number of animals submitted to treatment in our hospi¬ 
tals, was 95 more than in the last year. This evidently proves the 
increasing confidence which the owners of horses and other ani¬ 
mals in our neighbourhood place in us, and also the increasing 
advantage of the school in the augmentation of the means of 
practical instruction which are placed at its disposal. 

Unfortunately, the absence, during 18 months, of an assistant, 
that was indispensable to him, did not permit M. Renault to 
give all the clmical instruction which he wished to have done. 
Perhaps that professor would have felt himself incompetent to 
the number and extent of the duties wdiich from this cause de¬ 
volved upon him, had not M. Delafond kindly devoted to 
attendance on the infirmary a portion of the few leisure moments 
that w’^ere left to him. M. Renault here offers to him a public 
acknowledgment of obligation and gratitude. 

1545 horses, 10 cows, 23 pigs, 31 sheep, and 12 dogs were 
also brought to the hospital for advice : it was given with regard 
to all, and on several of them surgical operations, more or less 
serious, were performed. 

The pupils of the fourth year have attended on these animals 
when the proprietors in the neighbourhood wished that they 
should be visited at their habitations. 

The total number of animals that have been either re¬ 
ceived into the infirmary, or with regard to which advice has 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE VETERINARY SCHOOL AT ALFORT. 29 

been given by the professor, and that have been visited by tlie 
pupils, amounts to 2143. 

Of the diseases that were treated in the hospital, we content 
ourselves with notino^ the following;:— 

Glanders. —We have had about the same number of glan- 
dered horses as in the last year ; and we must repeat, that, in 
spite of all the care that has been bestowed upon them, and the 
strict attention which has been paid to the administration of 
medicines the most likely to have good effect, and the power of 
which has been vaunted by others, we are not able to relate a sin¬ 
gle case of the complete cure of chronic glanders. 

Seven horses were returned to their owners apparently cured— 
all the recognizable symptoms of the disease had disappeared; 
six of them were, after some months, returned to us more 
decidedly glandered than before : they were destroyed. The 
seventh has now been away three months; but we reckon upon 
seeing him again about the same time as the others, and in the 
same state as that in which they returned. 

As to horses in which glanders is beginning to appear, there is 
no doubt that they may be treated with fair hope of success. 
They must be withdrawn from the influence of the general or 
peculiar causes of this disease ; and then a good constitution in 
the horse, and rigorous attention to diet, appear to us to be the 
conditions of cure. The medicines which are generally employed 
are more injurious than beneficial. 

Experiments ought to be made on a grand scale in order to 
determine the contagiousness of this disease. If glanders is con¬ 
tagious, the sanitary measures that have been opposed to it are 
altogether insufficient, or have been very negligently observed ; 
or, if it is not contagious, it is deplorable to see so many horses 
lost from certain exciting causes, of which the public ought to 
be made fully aware. 

If glanders is, strictly speaking, non-contagious, and which is 
our opinion, it ought to be demonstratively proved; for it is noto¬ 
rious that the greater part of the proprietors of horses, and of the 
commanders of regiments, attributing the ravages of glanders to 
contagion, either principally or alone, neglect to withdraw their 
horses from that kind of influence, and do not inquire into those 
errors in the food and management of these animals, which are 
the true causes of its production. A mischievous error this, 
which costs the country many a good horse every year. 

Farcy. —Like glanders, with which it has so much analogy 
both in its nature and its causes, farcy is often incurable, when 
it appears at the same time on many parts of the frame ; conse¬ 
quently, if it can be so rarely combatted with success, it is to 


30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE VETERINARY SCHOOL AT ALFORT. 

the prevention of it that veterinary surgeons ought to direct all 
their efforts. Having been occupied in a series of experiments 
on the effects produced on animals by the re-absorption of pus, 
M. Renault has proved that farcy, and particularly acute farcy, 
often knows not any other cause than this re-absoiption. 

Alteration in the Blood. —Some recent cases have 
enabled M.M. Renault and Delafond to continue their inquiries 
into the diseases produced by, or complicated with alteration of 
the blood. The extreme and'^almost sudden debility with which 
the horse is seized—the infiltration of the conjunctival mem¬ 
branes, which are of a yellowish red, or a livid colour—the soft¬ 
ness and little development of the pulse, when compared with the 
great force with which the heart often beats the looseness of the 
hair in an early stage of the disease—the appetite, which the 
horse retains until the last moment—and, finally, the peculiar 
phenomena which the blood presents when it is first drawn from 
the vein,—these are, in their opinion, the principal symptoms of 
this affection. 

The enlarged size, and the softness of the spleen—the semifluid 
state, and the black or deep violet colour of the substance con¬ 
tained in the meshes of its collated tissue—the numerous ecchy- 
moses which are found in different organs—the discoloration and 
the softness of the red muscles-=--the sero-sanguineous effusions 
which are often found in the serous cavities, and particularly in the 
pericardium, without any apparent lesion of the membranes 
which contain them, and the quickness with which the carcasses 
putrefy, are the lesions which these professors deem the most 
characteristic of this malady. 

Slight bleedings at the commencement, to which a tonic and 
afterwards an analeptic treatment have quickly followed, have 
perfectly succeeded with the greater part of the animals that 
have been placed under our care. 

Wounds of the Sole. —Among the injuries to which the 
plantar surface of the foot of the horse is exposed, the most 
serious, without exception, are wounds from stubs or nails, pene¬ 
trating through the aponeurosis of the perforans tendon into the 
navicular joint, and making an orifice of greater or less size, 
through which the synovia escapes. 

Many saddle and cabriolet horses, and also some of heavier 
draught, were brought to the infirmary in the course of last year 
with wounds of this kind. They were all operated upon, but the 
treatment was not successful in all. 

Those on which the operation was performed on the day in 
which the accident occurred, or the following day, have been 
cured, and quickly returned to their work, however serious the 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE VETERINARY SCHOOL AT ALFORT. 31 

wound may have been j while with those that were not operated 
on until three or four or five days after the accident, the treat¬ 
ment has always been long, and the cure seldom perfect. Fibrous 
exfoliations, caries of the navicular and pedal bones, softening of 
the tendon, the establishment of fistulse and of abscesses in the 
pasterns, have been the complications that have delayed or 
prevented the cure. 

Neurotomy. —In the report of the last year, we spoke of 
the happy results obtained by neurotomy in our school. This 
success has been continued through the session which has just 
closed. Twelve horses, whose fore feet had been so contracted, 
and the heels so narrowed, that they were of no service to their 
owners, have been operated upon, and rendered free from lame¬ 
ness. Three, among others, of a valuable breed, having been 
operated upon successively on the two fore feet, have been made 
quite right. 

It has been said, that after the complete section of the two 
nerves above the fetlock, the flexor tendons of the foot, below the 
point of operation, is liable to be ruptured during the exertion of 
much speed, or when the horse is put to unusually heavy draught. 
This accident has happened, during the present year, to two 
cabriolet horses that had been operated upon eight months 
before. One of these animals was brought to the school, and 
destroyed there. The foot was dissected with much care, and 
the softening of the tendon was observed, reaching some dis¬ 
tance above and below the laceration. There was° besides, a 
transverse fracture of the navicular bone. The owner of this 
horse, however, had two others, which have been operated upon 
more than two years, and who work well every day, and are not 
in the least degree lame. 

The horse that was the subject of the second accident, was at 
the school a few days ago. He presented the same appearances 
as the former one. It is probable that the rupture was produced 
in both by similar lesions. 

These are the only accidents that have occurred during the 
four years that neurotomy has been practised at our school; and 
W'e have operated on twenty-one patients. They are so few in 
number, that they prove nothing against the operation; and 
both the proprietors acknowledged that they were attributable 
to their abuse of their horses. Were they, however, more nu¬ 
merous, we should persist in asserting, that neurotomy is a 
most important and valuable operation; because it restores to 
usefulness many horses that were rendered almost incapable 
of service, and for which w^e at present know not of any remedy. 

Roaring. —Some observations made and published by M. 


32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE VETERINARY SCHOOL AT ALFORT. 

Delafoiid, tend to prove that La Gesse chiche^, given to horses 
both in its dry and green state, may produce roaring. That 
professor and M. Renault have had occasion, in the course of 
the present year, to make the same remark in the establishment 
of a farmer, in the neighbourhood of Paris, who keeps his horses 
on winter tares, chopped and mixed with a small quantity of 
chaff and treacle. The roaring of these horses was very remark¬ 
able. The slightest exercise, continued for only one or tw^o 
minutes, would excite it; and it speedily increased to such a 
degree, that for a little while they were threatened with suffoca¬ 
tion. One of them fell during the paroxysm and continued 
half an hour with frightful laborious breathing ; but generally 
the roaring ceased after a few minutes’ rest. In the interval 
between these attacks, the horses were perfectly tranquil; the 
respiration was natural, and they ate with appetite the ordi¬ 
nary allowance of healthy horses. 

Two of these horses were brought to the school, one to un¬ 
dergo medical treatment, and the other to be destroyed. This 
last killed at the moment when the roaring was most 

violent; and neither in the nerves nor the respiratory passages 
was there any lesion which could account for this singular phe¬ 
nomenon. 

The other underwent medical treatment for two months, and 
was at length destroyed during an access of roaring. The result 
of examination after death was, in this case, as little satisfactory 
as in the former one. 

Is this affection an inflammation (nevrose) of the respiratory 
nerves of the larynx ? We are inclined to think so ; but we have 
no authority to affirm that it is so. 

Chair of Anatomy. 

Biliary Calculi.— M. Rigot, Assistant Professor, has 
added to the museum ninety calculi, collected from the hepatic 
and chpledical canals of a horse. The dilatation of the different 
tubes, and the thickening of their parietes, were the only altera¬ 
tions which these productions had occasioned in the liver; and 
there was no symptom dnring life which could have induced a 
suspicion of the existence of these calculi. 

The Latyrus Cicera (the flat-podded latyrus) cultivated, according to 
Giopiiei (Coins d Hygiene, p. 174), in the Soutli of France, for the food 
of sheep while they are housed in the winter. 

Oifila (vol. ii, p. 166), following Duvernoi, attributes some poisonous pro¬ 
perties to this leguminous plant. He says, that when mixed with wheaten 
Lour in the composition of bread, it has produced partial paralysis of the 
lowei ex lemities ; and that horses and fow ls experience similar pheno¬ 
mena from the seed. v 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE VETERINARY SCHOOL AT ALFORT. 3f3 

Salivary Calculus. —One of the form and size of an 
almond was found in the excretory duct of one of the maxillary 
glands of the same horse. The complete obstruction of the 
canal was accompanied by a transformation of the gland into a 
lardaceous mass, in the middle of which were several large 
cavities filled with a mucous fluid, communicating with the 
excretory duct, and seeming to be considerably dilated ramifica¬ 
tions of it. M. Rigot has often seen the same organic change 
in similar cases, and also after tying the parotid duct; and it 

has been always preceded by inflammation of the glandular sub¬ 
stance. 

Ossification of the Abdominal Aorta.—A horse pre¬ 
sented a complete ossification of this vessel, from the origin of 
the sub-diaphragmatic arteries to that of the renal ones. A 
fibrous clot was found in this part of the artery, half obliteratino- 
its calibre. The cellular tissue of the hind limbs was infiltrated 
with serosity. M. Rigot has already observed these serous 
infiltrations at the time of obstruction either of the arterial or 
venous circulation, and effusions of the same kind in the peri¬ 
toneal cavity, accompanied by induration of the liver. 

A CYST IN THE SpLEEN.—A Spheroidal cyst, seven pounds 
in weight, and filled with fibrine, not discoloured, was found in 
the substance of the spleen of a horse. No alteration was ob¬ 
served in the tissue of the organ, not even where it was in 
immediate contact with the parietes of the cyst. 

M. Renault, several years ago, deposited a similar production 
in the museum. 

Foreign Bodies in the Guttural Pouch.— A biscayen, 
about an inch in diameter, was found in the left guttural pouch 
of a horse. A cicatrix on the skin, and in the thickness of the 
parotid behind the facial artery, indicated the path which this 
piojectile took in order to penetrate into the guttural pouch. 
Its continuance there had caused the formation of a Quan¬ 
tity of pus. ^ 

Insufflation of the Lungs.— Insuffiation of the luno-s 
of a horse, made as far as possible within the limits of ordinary 
respiration, having discovered to M. Rigot, that ’different por¬ 
tions of these organs were unequally pe"rmeable to air, and that 
where that permeability is most easy and prompt, interlobular 
and sub-pleural emphysema is oftenest found, that professor 
asks, whether this coincidence does not warrant him in sup¬ 
posing that these portions are most constantly in action durinV 
the life of the animal. ^ 


VOL. VIII. 


1' 


34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE VETERINARY SCHOOL AT ALFORT. 


Chaire d’ Hygiene. 

The Flock of English Sheep.— The English sheep, and 
the flocks crossed by them, have given us little matter for ob¬ 
servation in the clinical course. Many cases of intense ophthal¬ 
mia, and which have been, in a manner, epiozotic in England, 
have been less difficult to treat in our climate, and have been 
promptly cured by means of astringent washes. Many acci¬ 
dents, and especially the lamenesses occasioned by the voyage 
and journey, have yielded to proper treatment. The only am- 
mals that have been lost, died of grangrenous swelling of the 
udder, and redwater, unfortunately so common in our district, as 
well as in many other localities. The health of the flock has 
been generally good, notwithstanding the change of food and 
management to which they have been submitted. The lambing 
has been fortunate ; many of the ewes had twins, and most of 
the lambs have been reared. During the ten months that it 
has been in France, the flock has doubled its number. This 
increase has enabled us, in the present year, to sell and to let 
some rams; and, most of them being in the neighbourhood of 
the school, we shall be enabled to observe the effect of this 
foreign cross. In the next year we hope to be able to sell a 
greater number of older sheep, to form a cross with our native 
ewes, and to verify, by multiplied experiments, the trials which 
we have already made at Alfort on a small scale, and tending 
to this point, whether our climate affords any obstacle to our 
obtaining in France the long, strong, and shining wool, which 
the English are permitted to send to us. 

In the course of the last year, Mr. Yvart has been consulted 
on many points relative to the rearing and management of do¬ 
mestic animals, and especially on the value of buck-wheat as a 
food for sheep, and to remedy the want of forage which, ac¬ 
cording to him, has followed the unfortunate attempt to intro¬ 
duce the Norman stallions of Cottentin and the plain of Caen 
into the departments of Pas-de-Calais and the Boulonnois. 
Mr. Yvart has delivered to the Eoyal and Central Society of 
Agriculture, a report on the levers (leviers) which Granger has 
proposed to apply to the fore-wheels of carriages; and he has 
described the circumstances under which the discovery may be 
rendered most useful. 

Having been appointed one of the committee to examine into 
the advantage of substituting bread for oats, as the food of 
troop horses, he has made this the subject of a memoir which he 
has published. 

Htcueilj Sept. 1834. 


35 


CALCULUS IN THE COLON. 

]3i/ Wlr, W. C. Spooner, F, aS., Winchester, 

On the evening of the 30th of July, an old horse, belonging 
^ Mr. Biidd, miller, in this city, was brought to my stables. 
He had been attacked several times during the day with symp¬ 
toms of colic, and was inclined to he down on his way up the 
street. Pulse 48. I administered an antispasmodic draught, 
soon after which he appeared to shiver very much; a little 
exercise, however, removed this, and in the course of an hour 

he appeared much better, and quite free from pain, but would 
not eat his mash. 

August Ist. Has had another attack this morning, and we 
could not discover that any dung had passed during the night. 
He was raked, but only a small quantity of hardened feeces 
obtained. An injection was thrown up, twelve pounds 
of blood abstracted, and ol. ricini ^x, aloes ^v, administered. 
1 thought perhaps the mischief might arise from a collection of 
faecal matter, and with this view I gave (by the advice of the 
French) antim. tart, ^i, in oil, twice during the day. He had 
several attacks in the course of the day, and in the evening the 
pulse had increased to 52. V. S. from the abdominal veins 

ID Vl. 

August Sd. Appears worse. Pulse 70. Nothing has passed. 
Attacks much more frequent, and during their continuance he 
will s^ upon his haunches for several minutes at a time. The 
tartarized antimony was continued in larger doses, but all the 
symptoms became more aggravated. I expressed my opinion 
that a calculus was the cause of obstruction, and that the case 
was hopeless ; and in the evening, with the consent of the 
owner, the poor beast was destroyed. 

Post-mortem Examination .—The next morning, as soon as 
the abdomen was opened, I put my hand at once on a laro-e 
calculus that was wedged completely in the second curvature t)f 
the colon, near the diaphragm. It was completely circular, 
weighed five pounds two ounces, and forms a very fine and 
perfect specimen. Much inflammation was, of course, discover¬ 
able, but the fseces were softened. The horse had been occa¬ 
sionally subject to attacks of the fret for a long time past, but 
a ways got better without any medicine. The calculus was, 
ou t ess, formed in the colon, and acquired its rotundity from 
lolling about in this large intestine. 


RUPTURE OF THE STOMACH. 

J5j/ the same. 

On the evening of the 15th of September last, I was re- 
quested to see a cart-horse, belonging to the same owner as the 
foregoing case. He had eaten with his usual hearty appetite 
early in the morning, and was then put to the waggon with the 
other horses, to go to Southampton. By the time he had got 
six miles he seemed to be in much pain, and v^/anted to lie 
down. He was taken on by the carter three or four miles fur¬ 
ther, and on his getting worse was left in a stable. A farrier 
was sent from Southampton, who gave the horse a drench, and 
bled him. In the afternoon he was sent home behind the wag¬ 
gon, and shortly after his return I saw him. 

On my going into the stable, I observed a dark-coloured, 
sour, offensive fluid issuing from his nostrils, and which had 
been running about ten minutes before I saw him. He was 
covered with a cold clammy sweat, and not the slightest pulsa¬ 
tion was perceptible. Every now and then he would stretch 
out his fore legs, lean backwards and downwards until his abdo¬ 
men nearly touched the ground, and then rise up again with a 
groan, after which the fluid from his nostrils issued in increased 
quantity. I told the attendants they had better remove him 
from the stable as soon as possible, for fear of his injuring the 
other horses in his struggles, as he would not live half an hour. 
He was removed with difficulty, and in about twenty minutes 
(during which he continued vomiting by his nostrils) he died in 
the greatest agonies. 

Sectio Cadaveris .—On opening the abdomen the next morn¬ 
ing, the contents of the stomach, consisting mostly of bran, 
were found mingled with the intestines. A large rupture ex¬ 
tended nearly throughout its larger convexity. The stomach 
was still about half full of food, and, judging from the quantity, 
both liquid and solid, found in the abdominal cavity, and the 
quantity vomited (at least six quarts), this viscus must have 
been most enormously distended. It appeared much inflamed, 
and patches of ecchymosis were discoverable in the intestines; 
but the other viscera were found in a healthy state. The horse 
was a ravenous feeder, and his diet mostly consisted of dry bran, 
which, on mixing with the liquid in the stomach, no doubt in¬ 
creased in bulk, and caused the rupture. 

Do you think, Messrs. Editors, that the rupture took place 
soon after the horse was put to work in the morning, or that the 
overloading of the stomach caused pain and spasm, and the 
stomach became lacerated during the struggles? And why should 
the vomiting take place so shortly prior to death ? 


37 

INTERMITTENT FEVER. 

Zlj/ M. LAUTO UR, V. S. 

CASE L 

A COLT, two years old, and which, in the course of three 
weeks, had covered a dozen or fifteen mares, exhibited, on the 
18th of May, 1829, at eight in the morning, the following symp¬ 
toms of disease :—General shiverings; the head hanging down; 
pulse frequent, and small; the loins inflexible ; the animal is 
frequently stretching himself out and yawning. This continued 
until about half past ten; the mucous membranes began then 
to redden—the pulse acquired force and fulness—the dulness 
augmented to something like stupor—the temperature of the 
body was increased—partial sweats broke out; the limbs were 
brought close together under the body—the colt shifted his 
feet as if he was about to lie down, and his tail was continually 
in action—the bowels rumbled. At noon these symptoms began 
to diminish, and at two o’clock they had completely disap¬ 
peared : the suppleness of the vertebral column was restored; 
the horse began to eat, and all febrile reaction had ceased. 
Hay and white water for the night. 

19th .—A new attack of fever in the morning: bleed to six 
pounds. Emollient injections; friction. 

20th. —An attack similar to the first. 21s^.—Ditto. 22d .— 
Ditto, with marked symptoms of colic. 

2Sd. —Ditto. Emollient fumigations confined about the horse 
by clothing reaching to the ground. The bleeding repeated at 
six o’clock in the evenino’. 

O 

24th. —Fever, but not so violent. Two vapour baths. 

25^/i.--No fever. 

2(kh. —Fever, but of shorter duration; and the symptoms 
milder. 

27thy 28^4, 29th, 30/7/.—The fever gradually returned at its 
usual time, but with diminished force, and at length disappeared. 

CASE II. 

ISlov. Wth, 1829, 9 A. M. —A mare had general shiverings— 
gathered her limbs under her—carried her head low—moved 
slowly, and evidently with pain. She yawned every instant— 
the tail in continual action—bending her legs as if she was about 
to lie down—expulsion of flatus from the anus, and the voiding 
of very hard pellets of dung. An hour afterwards she broke out 
into a sweat; was immediately relieved, and every febrile symp- 


38 INTEilxMITTENT FEVEll. 

tom quickly disappeared. During the remainder of the day she 
appeared to be perfectly well. 

\2th .—A similar febrile attack. A small quantity of blood . 
was taken away. 

13M.—In order to break the charm, she was taken out a 
quarter of a league, but the same symptoms were manifested with 
greater severity; there was much rumbling of the bowels—she 
looked anxiously at her flanks—she placed her limbs in a pos¬ 
ture for lying down, and at length she laid herself down in 
the middle of the road. After five minutes had passed, her 
owner made her get up, which she accomplished with difficulty. 
She was gathered, as it were, altogether, and walked as if the 
spine was perfectly inflexible. Having returned to the stable, 
she soon became tranquil, and apparently well. 

\-ith. —Nothing unusual occurred. 

15//z.—She was turned in the field before the usual attack, 
but the symptoms came on violently, and it was deemed neces¬ 
sary to bring her into the stable again. 

\(yth .—I now saw her. There did not seem to be any thing 
the matter with her, nor was there during the day. The owner 
told me, that, about fifteen days before, he had began to feed her 
liberally with peas and barley, and that the increase of condition 
which followed was rapid and surprising. After this I could not 
doubt that this febrile action was the result of some irritation of 
the digestive organs, and which was otherwise sufficiently mani¬ 
fested by the colicky pains which she evidently suffered during 
the exacerbation of the symptoms. Six pounds of blood were 
abstracted ; a mash diet was ordered, and soothing powders mixed 
with honey: emollient injections were administered. 

17th .—A new access of fever. 

18M.—Perfect health during the day. 

19^A.—A slight febrile reaction; after which the disease 
ceased to appear. 

Many cases of intermittent fever have been published by vete¬ 
rinarians ; nevertheless, it is of rarer occurrence in the horse than 
in the human being. If, however, we carefully review our own 
practice and that of others, we shall probably find more cases of 
it than we suspect. A horse is a little off his feed—shivers—is 
uneasy hangs his head : a little while afterwards he is better—- 
he is well; and then,on the following day, or at some uncertain 
time, the symptoms return. If these states of febrile reaction are 
of short duration, the owner pays no attention to them; and, as the 
horse is not withdrawn from the influence of the causes which 
produced this irregularity of action, but on the contrary the 
fever is increased by food more choice or more abundant than 


CYNANCHE LARY^NGITIS ERYSAPELATONIS. 39 

usual, and given with an intention to rally the powers of the 
animal, it results that intermittent fever, for such it was at first, 
becomes continual, and then only the veterinarian is called in, 
unless the patient is valuable, or the master or the groom is 
more than usually attentive. 

Whether, however, this febrile reaction has assumed a con¬ 
tinuous or intermittent type, I am far from considering it as es¬ 
sential ; for we are now beginning to regard many of these diseases 
not as primary affections of the organs which seem to suffer, but 
as the result of sympathy with some point of irritation. 

In the cases which I have related, the febrile action could be 
plainly traced to this sympathetic influence. In the first in¬ 
stance, the patient had been exhausted by copulation too fre¬ 
quent for his strength; and in the other, by food of too stimu¬ 
lating a nature. 

Journalj Janvier 1833. 


CYNANCHE LARYNGITIS ERYSIPELATA (Qy- CEL- 

LULARIS.—LWzY.) 

J3j/ Mr. Meyer, Jun., F.*S'., Newcastle-nnder-Line. 

This is a disease which has hitherto escaped the notice of 
veterinary authors, but which, from its rapid and fatal termina¬ 
tion, cannot be brought too early before the attention of veteri¬ 
nary practitioners. The horse, as well as the cow, is subject not 
only to cynanche pharyngitis and cynanche laryngitis, but like¬ 
wise bronchitis, after the ordinary characters of active inflamma¬ 
tion in general. They also are both subject to this very peculiar 
but rare affection, which I have designated by the name of 
Cynanche Laryngitis Erysipelata. I have witnessed it both 
in the horse and the cow. The animal shall be well over night, 
and the next morning you shall find its throat swelled up, from 
ear to ear ; the swelling not only filling up the cavity betwixt the 
rami of the lower jaw, but likewise extending itself with amaz¬ 
ing rapidity up towards the back of the head and neck, and 
likewise down the sternal muscles in front, terminating by that 
abrupt oedematous edge so characteristic of erysipelatous inflam¬ 
mation. The breathing is accomplished with great difficulty, 
and with a loud whistling noise ; the nostrils distended ; the 
countenance anxious ; great restlessness, arising from a sense of 
suffocation ; pulse from 70 to 80 ; loss of appetite ; bowels 
constipated, or the faeces being covered with slime and effused 
lymph. If instant relief is not afforded, it runs its fatal career in 
the course of from twelve to twenty-four or forty-eight hours. 




40 ON THE USE OF THE CHLORIDE OF LIME. 

Upon examination of the cases after death, I found the mem¬ 
brane lining the pharynx and larynx of a dark venous hue, ac¬ 
companied with great infiltration of serum into the cellular tis¬ 
sues ; the membrane lining the epiglottis was much thickened 
and raised, terminating by an abrupt edge towards its root; the 
lungs and membrane lining the trachea and bronchial tubes were 
generally inflamed, but not to a violent degree. 

Upon examining the mucous membranes of the stomach and 
intestines, they presented one uniform inflamed surface, particu¬ 
larly that portion lining the caecum, colon, and rectum. I there¬ 
fore consider this disease as dependent upon general inflamma¬ 
tion of the mucous surfaces of the system, particularly those of 
the stomach and bowels. It is a disease which, if not identical 
with, bears strong analogous features to an endemic one which oc¬ 
casionally attacks cattle, and, from sweeping off such numbers in 
particular districts, has been erroneously styled the murrain by 
the common people. I understand that the swelling of the throat, 
and consequent suffocation, form some of its leading features. 

The indications of cure are—1st, To prevent suffocation by 
performing immediately the operation of tracheotomy—it never 
should be delayed a moment; 2dly, To reduce inflammatory ac¬ 
tion and consequent fever by bleeding cautiously, and bringing, 
as soon as possible, the bowels into action, by the exhibition of 
oL ricini, sulphate of magnesia, and aloes, in linseed tea or warm 
water, following it up by an antiphlogistic treatment. Locally, 
deep longitudinal incisions should be made into the cellular tis¬ 
sues, by which means tension is taken off, and the vessels have an 
opportunity of unloading themselves. Apply cooling astringent 
lotions, but not hot fomentations, which, I think, are prejudicial 
in erysipelatous inflammation, of an active inflammatory cast or 
character. The animal should be supported with oatmeal and 
water, and bran mashes, made quite thin with water. As* the 
disease declines and the appetite returns, grass must be given, in 
preference to hay. 

If the above means are promptly and vigorously adopted, I 
trust the disease may be brought to a happy termination. 


ON THE USE OF THE CHLORIDE OF LIME. 

Bij M. Huvellier, V.S. 

A HORSE of quick draught had on his neck several cores 
imperfectly healed; suddenly several fistulous ulcers broke out, 
giving issue to a most foetid matter. I probed them, and found 





THE VETERINARIAN. 


41 

vast sinuses, more than eight inches deep, extending on botli 
sides. I introduced the point of an iron, brought to a red heat, 
into each opening, to prevent them from closing, and I dressed 
them during fifteen days with th^e tincture of aloes, Not seeing 
amelioration, I had recourse, twice every day, to the chloride 
(chlorure) oi Yime, dissolved in half its weight of water; and 
in the space of three weeks the swelling of the neck was gone, 
the wounds were all healed, the animal could readily turn his 
head on either side, and, a few days afterwards, he was sent 
again to work. 

I have employed the chloride of lime, mixed with six parts of 
water, with much advantage, in cases of chronic ophthalmia. In 
the course of eight days the conjunctiva has regained its natu¬ 
ral colour, and the cloudiness of the cornea disappeared. 

Ihe chloride of lime, pure (Mr. H. must mean a saturated 
solution of it), has healed, in ten days, a vast farcy ulcer which 
had attacked the lips and the nostrils, and extended to the 
cheeks. The animal was unable to eat, and emollient applica¬ 
tions had been of no service. The lotion was employed twice 
in the day, and the ulcer healed with astonishing rapidity. An 
enlargement of the glands beneath the jaw also disappeared. 

Hecueily Janvier 1834. 


THE VETERINARIAN, JANUARY 1 , 1835 . 

Ne quid falsi dicere audeat, ne quid veri non audeat.—C icero. 

We commence to-day the eighth year of our literary existence 
our labour in a cause that deserves, and well repays, our best 
exertions—our association with fellow-workmen, who merit and 
who have our cordial esteem, and our truest, deepest gratitude. 

“ Though varying wishes, hopes and fears, 

Fevered the progress of these years,” 

from the hour that we first struggled for birth—and the abor¬ 
tive attempt was made to strangle us in our very cradle—and 
the prediction w^as confidently uttered (the expression of hope 
more than belief), and again and again repeated, that we could 
not survive—that we should perish for lack of nutriment—yet, 
with renewed vigour—with the increased certainty of gradually 
accomplishing our object—and with the proud assurance that the 
existence of our periodical is identified with the progress of 
veterinaiy science, and that the good wishes of every good 
veterinarian attend it, we once more present ourselves before our 

VOL. VIII, G 








42 THE IMPllOVEMENT 

readers. While we say this with exultation, we can likewise 
say it without egotism, for the cause to which our Journal is 
devoted is that of our brethren ; its value depends on—has been 
created by—their labours ; and the good it has effected is their 
work far more than ours. 

We will not again compare the state of veterinary science 
eight years ago with what it now is, nor put against each other 
the altered opinions, and usages, and practice of that time and 
the present: a slight review of the past year will be sufficient 

to illustrate the progress of our art. 

The use of the ergot of rye has been established in cases of 
difficult parturition in all our quadruped patients. For many a 
year past the writer of this article had been accustomed to have 
recourse to it in protracted labour in the bitch, and geneially 
with success. If the powers of nature were not quite exhausted 
the uterus began once more to contract upon its contents. A 
communication from his talented pupil, Mr. Simpson, illustra¬ 
tive of this property of the spurred rye, induced Mr. Allinson 
to bear his testimony to its value in the difficult parturition of 
larger animals; and although Mr. Harrison’s report of it was 
not favourable, probably from one of those occasional mysterious 
and uncontrollable states of the cesophagean canal of the rumi¬ 
nant, yet the different result in other and not a few cases, of 
which the present writer has accidentally heard, or which have 
been privately communicated to him, warrant the conclusion that, 
judiciously administered, and with those guards and precautions 
that the case may require, the lives of many valuable animals 
may be saved. 

From a French writer, M. Bouley, many valuable observa¬ 
tions, and new to the English practitioner, have been translated 
on the causes and treatment of paralysis in the horse, and on 
the diseases of the spinal cord, and its membranes generally. 

Some interesting observations have been made on the con¬ 
nexion of strangles with constitutional debility, by M. Corbet, 
and with a disposition to the formation of tumours elsewhere, 
by Mr. Brown. 

Mr. Bull has described a case of Asiatic cholera, or a disease 
identical with it, in a mare; and another writer has communi¬ 
cated a similar case in a zebra. 


OF THE PROFESSION. 


43 


A complete revolution has been formed in the opinion of vete¬ 
rinarians respecting cataract, by the communications of Messrs. 
Cartwright, Clay, Hale, Harris, Percivall, Spooner, and others. 
It may be produced without apparent previous inflammation—it 
may come almost of a sudden—it may not necessarily impair 
vision—it may, and does frequently, disappear; and we are 
beginning to have a conception—perhaps, as yet not a very cer¬ 
tain one—of the circumstances which may guide our prognosis 
as to its serious character, and its probable duration. , 

Some experiments, almost invaluable, by M. Leblanc, respect¬ 
ing the effects of wounds'penetrating into the chest, have been 
laid before the British public. 

That which will hereafter be considered as one of the noblest 
improvements in our practice, the use of the chloride of lime in 
many cases of grease, and in all fistulous wounds, has found 
powerful advocates in Mr. Simpson and Mr, Holford. 

Chrochles in cattle.—We are indebted to Mr. Tate for the 
first intelligible account of this singular disease. Mr. Cooper 
and Mr. Corbet on the chords in cattle must not be forgotten; 
nor the explication of grass-ill by the latter. 

The division of the flexor tendons has been considered by 
various contributors ; Mr. Young’s cases of successful division 
of them are gratifying; the explication by Mr. Dick is luminous 
and conclusive: and there is no doubt that if the operation is 
undertaken with proper selection and precaution, and the horse 
is not set to work too soon, or cruelly abused, it will be generally 
successful. The accounts of the rupture of the perforatus and 
perforans, by M. Pattre, do him much credit: and Mr. W. C. 
Spooner’s case of division of the flexor tendons of both legs is 
a most valuable addition to our surgical practice, and reflects on 
him much credit. 

Mr. Friend, and Mr. Harrison, have illustrated the mechanism 
and functions of the stomachs of ruminants. It is an important 
subject, and the want of definite knowledge with regard to it 
is often the source of sad annoyance to the practitioner on 
cattle. 

Mr. Friend’s frog-pressure shoe has peculiar value in all cases 
of sunk soles, and when it is desirable to relieve the laminae as 
much as possible. The shoe is both simple and ingenious, and 


44 THE IMPROVEMENT 

is the best application of frog-pressure whicli the veterinary 
surgeon possesses. 

The question started by Mr. W, Henderson, as to the con¬ 
nexion of occasional attacks of spasmodic colic with soundness^ 
is a new and interesting one. 

The paper of Mr. Karkeek, on the External Causes of Disease, 
abounds with interest ; and his communication on the effect of 
the hydriodate of potash in removing glandular enlargements^ 
will rank among the recent and not the least valuable innova¬ 
tions in veterinary practice. We would suggest, and we speak 
here from repeated experience, the use of this drug in cases of 
phthisis, whether in the horse, the cow, or the dog. We have 
seen beneficial effects from it, which exceeded our most san¬ 
guine expectations. This, however, will, at some future time^ 
form the subject of a lengthened communication; in the mean 
time, we entreat our readers to make trial of it in every case in 
which they suspect tuberculated lungs. A communication of the 
effect produced will be gratefully received. 

The cases of the unusual retention of the foetus in a cow, and 
of singular rupture of the uterus in the same animal, by Messrs. 
King, are original and instructive. 

The introductory lecture of Mr. Percivall will be read with 
much interest; and in his communication on scarlatina, he has 
made an addition to our increasing list of diseases. 

M. Prevost gives a graphic delineation of that unacknow- 
ledged but frequent disease, the cramp in horses. 

Mr. Pritchard, in his concluding paper on the diseases of the 
heart, is original and correct. There are several analogous sub¬ 
jects worthy of his pen. 

Some light has been thrown on the subject of rabies. Mr. 
Baker s account of the symptoms in sheep was a desideratum. 
The fact of the communication of rabies by the saliva of a cow, 
is all-important. Dr. Gaetani’s theory of the non-contagious¬ 
ness of communicated rabies, and the usual exciting cause of 
this disease, are stated at considerable length. 

The rot in sheep has also received much original illustration 
by the account given of it on the banks of the Nile, by M. 
Hamont. Although differing essentially from him as to his 
theory of the disease, we have derived much valuable inforraa- 


OF THE PROFESSION. 45 

tion from his memoir; and we rejoice to see medical men and 
veterinarians uniting in the combined pursuit of such subjects. 

Mr. Simpson has added to our stock of veterinary knowledge, 
by his observations on the metastasis of inflammation, and on 
obscure hock-lameness; and particularly, by his comparison 
between the high and low operation in neurotomy, and his 
very proper advocacy of the former in general cases. This is an 
interesting point of practice. 

Mr. Skeavington has placed that singular oriental disease, 

the worm in the eye of the horse/’ in a perfectly new point of 
view. 

Mr. Storry deserves the thanks of the profession for his com¬ 
munication of four additional cases of the cure of glanders, by 

fumigation with carbonic acid gas.” This is a portion of our 
vineyard in which every labourer is indeed ‘honourably em¬ 
ployed. 

To Mr. C. Taylor much merit is due for his history of a suc¬ 
cessful performance of lithotomy, and for his ingenious descrip¬ 
tion of the instruments he employed. 

The account given by Mr. Thomson of the casualties attending 
castration, will be read with pleasure and improvement; and his 
case of a hymen in a filly is valuable. 

Mr. Young’s history of the fatal effect occasioned by the 
lodgment of a small needle under the tongue of a horse, is unique. 

It the writer of this article might, for a moment, allude to 
papers contributed by him, he would refer to some Illustra¬ 
tions of Disease” derived from animals that do not usually come 
under the veterinarian’s care. He would hint at the introduction 
of torsion into veterinary practice, as a means of arresting he¬ 
morrhage, and as promising eventually to supersede the clumsy, 
and often ineffectual, and almost always cruel, methods which 
were formerly resorted to for this purpose; and he would also 
glance at a sketch of the nervous system, suggested by the in¬ 
valuable discoveries of Sir Charles Bell, but extended farther 
than that eminent physiologist has hitherto gone ; embracing not 
meiely the functions of respiration, but all the phenomena of 
oiganic life; and based on plain and undeniable anatomical 
facts. The connexion of this view of the nervous system with 


THE IMPROVEMENT 


46 

the theory and treatment of some of the most serious diseases to 
which our quadruped patients are exposed, is sufficiently evident. 

As contributing to the more perfect knowledge of anatomy, 
natural and morbid, and as illustrating some important points of 
physiology, mention should be made of Mr. Anderson’s account 
of carcinomatous enlargements of the spleen—Mr. C. Clark on 
the uses of the infundibulum and canalis vasiferus in the foot of 
the horse—and Blr. Dick, on the functions of the omentum. 

Mr. Apperley’s Contribution on Cataract, and Mr. Berry’s 
History of the Cmsarean Operation, rank among the proudest 
testimonies of the progress of our art. When men like these will 
ally themselves with us, veterinary science is beginning to be 
estimated as it ought. 

This is a review of the proceedings of one year—not in the 
slightest degree exaggerated—and which cannot fail of delighting 
those who have the improvement and the reputation of their pro¬ 
fession at heart. Thanks, kind friends! A few more such 
volumes as the last, and the eventual accomplishment of our 
noble object will not only be assured, but it will have been 
substantially effected. 

But has the march of improvement been confined to the exer¬ 
tions of individual labourers? No ! No! ! Let us turn to our 
schools. The Professor of the Veterinary College at St. Pancras 
has advertised—publicly pledged himself—-that his lectures shall 
comprise the general functions of all domesticated animals. The 
Assistant Professor has placarded the theatre to the same pur¬ 
pose ; and has also publicly pledged himself” that his lec¬ 
tures shall embrace the diseases of all domesticated animals. 
These instructions must consist of no application of theory, good 
or bad, to cases which the lecturer has never seen—no random 
gleanings, here and there, from sources the authenticity of 
which has not been satisfactorily examined—and thrown hastily 
together to answer the purpose of the moment:—they must be 
the result of personal observation, and of deep and anxious 
thought; for, as another professor, in another theatre—that of 
politics—has lately and truly said, and by which he, also, must 
stand or fall, I have the firmest conviction that confidence 
cannot be secured by any other course than that of frank and 


OF THE PROFESSION. 


47 


explicit declarations of principle—that vague and unmeaning 
professions may quiet distrust for a time, may influence this 
or that mind, but that such professions must ultimately and 
signally fail, if, being made, they are not adhered to^ 

The establishment of an efficient school of veterinary anatomy, 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the College, is another 
pledge of improvement; for the student will now be enabled to 
lay deep and sure the foundation of that superstructure which 
alone can shelter him, and add to his respectability, instead of 
an ill-formed, insecure, and treacherous fabric, which the first 
shock of doubtful or difficult practice will overwhelm, and in the 
ruins of which he will be buried. 

The extension of veterinary education to chemistry, and parti¬ 
cularly to agricultural chemistry, is another assurance that the 
good cause will progress and triumph. But, really, these in¬ 
structions should not be delivered, and the experiments made, in 
a little close room, where the lecturer has not a fair chance to do 
himself or his subject justice, and where he and his class suffer 
severely at the time and afterwards from the heat and vitiated 
air. The College theatre, most properly granted to the London 
Veterinary Medical Society, will not surely be longer withheld, 
when that science is taught which the chairman of the exa¬ 
mining committee truly asserts more than any other concerns 
the veterinary student.” 

There is another indication of continued progress, which we 
have much pleasure in stating. Young men are too apt to squander 
away, in frivolous or low pursuits, the time, too short, yet all- 
important, that should be sedulously devoted to preparatory 
study. At a late examination, a considerable proportion of those 
who presented themselves had been thus incautious and censu¬ 
rable. In the tavern and the skittle-ground many an hour had 
been wasted which should have been given to better purposes. 
They were rejected—and the ground of rejection was frankly 
stated. This was as it should be. It was an act of kindness to 
those who had suffered themselves to be thus misled. It was an 
act of justice to the profession generally: and, although we 
have never been flatterers of the examining committee, as at 
present constituted, but, on the contrary, have, in no very mea¬ 
sured terms, expressed our opinion of their composition and 


48 


THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE PROFESSION. 


their conduct, we here thank them, in the name of every one who 
has the interests of veterinary science at heart. Our thanks are 
more cordial, because we know that, when the judge begins to 
act with salutary severity, he must take especial care that there 
is nothing wrong in his own tribunal—no violation of the rights 
of others—no neglect of duty—no insensibility to the welfare of 
those for whose benefit alone he presides—or even-handed justice 
will soon commend the ingredients of the bitter chalice to his 
own lips. 

We have much pleasure in adding, that the appearance and 
conduct of the students generally, who are more numerous than 
in any former year, afford a pledge of better, far better things. 

We look northward, and there, from the increased numbers and 
respectability of the pupils, and the talent and exertion of the 
professor, and the character of the instruction, co-extensive with 
the future wants of the students, we have reason to augur well as 
to future times. 

Although no veterinary lectures have, for a twelvemonth past, 
been delivered at the University of London, the connexion be¬ 
tween that noble institution and our art, so honourable and 
advantageous to us, is not broken. In the ensuing spring, the 
lecturer will have opportunity to shew that ill-health alone, and 
no lack of zeal, caused this long suspension of instruction there. 

Most important of all, is the feeling which is rapidly pervading 
every district, that the agriculturist may and ought to derive far 
greater benefit from our profession than he has hitherto been 
enabled to do—that our sheep, our cattle, unequalled in the 
world, should no longer be deemed unworthy of veterinary care, 
and strangely, infamously abandoned to those whose ignorance 
is equalled only by their brutality. This sentiment has been of 
late frequently expressed in the leading agricultural publications 
■ it was echoed, in a way not to be misunderstood, at the last 
Smithheld meeting it is adopted, as the writer of this has had 
occasion to see, by the most influential breeders in every part 

of the United Kingdom ; and the consequence is neither un¬ 
certain nor distant. 

Aie theie no dark shades in the picture?—no causes of tera- 
poraiy retardation in our onward course? The consideration of 
this must be deferred to a future number. 


Y. 


49 



Quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid non.— Hor. 


A Treatke on tlit Care, Treatment^ and Training of the English 

Race-Horse^ in a series of Rough Notes. By IlicidARD 

Dakvill, late 7th Hussars. Vol. ii. Price £1 Is 

Our readers will remember we presented them (in the 2d and 3d 
vols. of our Jourual) wdth a tolerably copious analysis of the first 
part of the present work : we have for some time past had the 
second lying upon our table; and this, we find, is to be followed 
by a third. yS/ e wonder what old Frampton—we think his 
name was Frampton —the Father of the Turf/’ would say, 
could he rise out of his grave and behold three such octavo 
volumes as these devoted to the subject of training? 

It is a subject that may be denied to come strictly within the 
province of a veterinary surgeon, and yet he is the very kind of 
person that must, or at least ought to feel, that his mind is 
stored with that sort of knowledge which, when it comes to be 
applied to the science of training, must, like a male and female 
screw, be found exactly one to fit the other. Notoriously and 
disreputably true as the fact is, that few horse-people know less 
about racing than veterinary surgeons in general; still it must 
be admitted, that the sciences are related, and can, consequently, 
be more advantageously cultivated both together in the same 
mind, than either of them can singly. Mr. Darvill commenced 
his career in life in learning to rub legs, set the stables fair, 
and clean up the yardhe has left off, after having practised 
twenty long years as a veterinary surgeon in the army. Is he 
any the worse for having performed the duties of a common 
groom ? Quite the contrary. How much the better veterinary* 
surgeon has he made for it; and how much the better still would 
he make trainer, were he now to commence that business again, 
after having been initiated in the principles of veterinary medi¬ 
cine, and followed the practice of it for twenty years! It is this 
dove-tailing of the sciences that so strongly reflects and exten¬ 
sively^ elicits their reciprocal advantages. It is, in fact, com¬ 
parative anatomy; which those alone decry who choose to remain 
in ignorance of it: at least this is the only thing one can offer 
in the shape of a reason for such strange fastidiousness of taste. 

Mr. Harvill distributes the contents of the present volume 
into twenty-six chapters, commencing with the formation of the 
1 ace-horse, and ending with the completion of his training; 
pointing out every thing as he proceeds, with the regularity and 
precision of one who had already done it all himself, and in 


VOL. VIII. 


II 




50 REVIEW—DARViLL ON THE TREATMENT AND 

such language as trainers and jockeys best understand the force 
and meaning of. 

Speaking of the formation of the English race-horse,” Mr. 
Darvill says, he prefers one of the height of fifteen hands, or, 
at most, fifteen hands one inch j and one that has length, with 
good substance,” to any other description. Tall horses answer 
very well to run over straight courses of short lengths, such as 
the one for the two thousand guineas’ stakes at Newmarket, 
and the Kiddlesworth ; they also come in well enough for Epsom 
and Ascot; but for running under high weights—twelve stone 
in King’s plates—at long racing lengths, from two to four miles, 
or for running on a small cock-pit or whip-top sort of course, 

the low lengthy horse”—being, as he mostly is, a round goer, 
and comparatively bandy at his turns, is, in my estimation, by 
far the most likely. 

We shall not trouble our reader with any common-place detail 
about conformation, but sum up this chapter by forcibly im¬ 
pressing upon him the necessity, beyond all other considerations, 
of attending to such points as denote a sound constitution, and 
strong and fleet limbs; these being indispensables in the con¬ 
struction of a race-horse having any pretensions to superiority. 
However, as there is no such thing as perfection in a racer, any 
more than in any other living creature, due allowances must be 
made for faultiness. Our chief aim should be, to come as near 
to perfection as possible; and this we shall be best enabled to 
put in practice, by making a sort of debtor and creditor account 
between the bad points and the good ones. If we find the latter 
counterbalance the former, and that the horse possesses action, 
and, above all, evinces this in his walk, and is withal sound, let 
nothing but an out-of-the-way price hinder us from purchasing 
him. 

In the second chapter, Mr. Darvill makes some proper and 
manifest distinctions between the thorough-bred, half-bred, and 
cock-tail, and at the same time points out what use should be 
made of these differences in running one description of horse 
against the other. 

The reason why thorough-bred horses so far surpass half- 
bred ones is, not from the circumstance of their being thorough¬ 
bred, but because they are bred to race^ Now, though this may 
appear, at first view, somewhat paradoxical, we believe, on close 
examination, it will turn out to be pithily, nay, happily expressed. 
What constitutes the difference between the Arabian—the foun¬ 
tain of all our blood and our present breed of blood-horses ? If 
not that the one is of pure genuine blood, or thorough-bred,” 
while the other is bred to race ?” To what a degree has the 
altered system pursued in racing changed our breed of racers ? 
Have they not degenerated from the sterling King’s plate horse 


TRAINING OF THE ENGLISH RACE-HORSE. '51 

— such a horse as Eclipse was—down to the handful of speed, 
or else into the spiry w'eed that can run but a mile before his 
powers forsake him ! But this is breeding to race”—to run 
half miles and miles with no more than five or six stone of bur¬ 
then; not to hunt, which would require a horse able to win a 
King's plate, carrying twelve stone four miles. The thorough¬ 
bred horse, from breeding only, is superior to the cock-tail be¬ 
cause he has considerably more power in less compass;” and 
can therefore “ almost always beat the half-bi‘ed in a long race, 
provided he be made proper use of eari^ in the running.” The 
only chance the cock-tail or half-bred horse has to win is, to wait 
or he back until he comes within the distance, where—as he is 
very likely to be quite as fast, or, perhaps, a little faster than 
the thorough-bred—he may commence running. On the other 
hand, the thorough-bred must be sure to come off sujficieritly 
early in the race to draw the half-breed up to the top of his pace, 
and to keep him at that pace until he is thoroughly beaten; 
which ought to be done before they get too near home, in order 
that the race may be finished to satisfy the crowd.” 

Inclosing this chapter, let it be understood that there is a 
diflereuce, and that a material one, at least in propinquity to true 
blood, between the hall-bred and the cock-tail. The cock-tail 
claims the nearest possible kindred to the racer: there is only 
some little stain in his pedigree when traced so far back as the 
grea,t grand-dam or sire, or, perhaps, the great great grand-dam 
or sire; whereas, of the half-bred, either the sire or the dam is 
supposed to possess no blood or breeding at all. As Mr. D. 
aptly observes, therefore, it shews bad judgment to allow a cock 
tail to be entered into a hunting stakes unless with the under¬ 
standing that he be heavily weighted. Without that, he will not 
only beat all his half-bred competitors, but occasionally obtain 
the victory even over some very fair thorough-bred ones.” 

We shall pass over Chap. HI, containing The necessary 
knowledge to be acquired by noblemen and gentlemen of the 
turf, in order that we may leave ourselves space to notice a 
few practical observations” of more interest to us, on the sub¬ 
ject of commencing the training of horses.” The principal 
requisites in a racer are that he should have good blood, good 
speed, and good temper;” added to which, he should not have 
the least tendency to unsoundness, either local or constitutional.” 

In training different horses, we are principally to be guided by 
t eir structure, age, and temper”; as these respectively vary, 

so will each horse require a different treatment.” It is to be 
o served, that the exercising of race-horses is one thing, and the 
c oing of work with them is another. The former is to keep them 
steady, and in health; and the latter, when properly adminis- 
teied, is to bring them clear in their wand, to lighten those that 


52 REVIEW —DARVILL ON THE TREATMENT AND 

require of their flesh, and to give tone and substance to the mus-* 
cles of their bodies and tendons of their legs. Most of them wilh 
more or less, draw fine in training, depending on the work they 
may be doing ; and this, in the medium, is what we want, provided 
that they are hearty, and that they go cheerfully to their work ; 
that their legs are cool, and in shape; and that they feed and 
drink well. We mean, by the above observations, that all horses 
in training should enjoy both their food and their work; if they 
be over-marked at either the one or the other, they will not come 
out to run in their best form.^^ A horse may be trained to lun 
either a short or a long length: in either case he must occasion¬ 
ally go (while training) '' a little longer length in the concluding 
of his work than he will have to go in his race.” '' As to the 
appearance of a horse in condition, when brought to the post to 
run, he should appear (if I may be allowed the expression) 
bloomingly ripe, fresh, and healthy in himself, clean, and un¬ 
loaded in his muscular surface from what is commonly called ‘ the 
waste and spare in other words, there should be neither in him 
nor on him any superfluous flesh or adipose membrane. He 
should be clear in his wind, kind and glossy in his skin, cool 
and clean on his legs, and, from behind the girths of his saddle, 
he should be straight and handsome in his carcass (if he is not too 
great a glutton); the rnuscles of his body should feel hard and 
springy to the touch, with a sort of projecting swell or substance 
in the body of them, and particularly those of his hind quarters, 
which should also appear as though they were distinctly divided 
from each other; his crest, not being too high, should feel firm 
and closely attached to his neck.” This is good sound doctrine, 
such as comes directly home to the minds of men of experience, 
and than which no better can be instilled into minds of inexpe- 
perience; but, sound and good as it is, as our author wisely ob¬ 
serves, it will not serve us in all cases, without knowing what 
work the horse has actually performed, and being acquainted with 
many other circumstances which the trainer alone can be privy 
to. In fact, there are no men who can, or at least ought to be 
so capable of judging of the fitness or state, in ail respects, in 
which horses should be to race, as those who have had the work¬ 
ing, the feeding, the watering of them. A training groom should 
never sufier himself to be led astray about the condition of his 
horses by the opinions of others.” If the training groom finds 
that his horses are not likely to suffer, either locally or constitu¬ 
tionally, from the work he may be giving them, and that they 
keep traming on; that is, if he finds that his horses can go 
faster and stay longer at the pace by being drawn fine, the 
trainer will be right in stripping them of their superfluous flesh r 
still bearing in.mind the circumstances which have already been 
noticed, viz. that his horses feed well, and go chcerfiilly to their 


TRAINING OF THE ENGLISH RACE-HORSE. 53 

work ; that they are cool and clean on their legs, and sound on their 
feet.’^ The grand criterion in training horses, and the best of 
all others (at least I found it so), for a training groom con¬ 
stantly to bear in mind, is, that Nature will ever claim her rights, 
in regulating the whole economy of the animal system.’^ 

Spare, light-carcassed horses, providing their constitutions be 
sound and they be good grubbers, there is but little trouble in 
training; the difficulties lie, in bringing to the post in a fit state, 
hardy, gluttonous, strong horses: ^^it is difficult to keep them from 
putting up flesh, so as to prevent them from coming too fat to post; 
and training grooms have sometimes been led astray from the 
circumstance that, if horses are fat in their insides, they 
cannot run for any length ; nor can any animal that is fat run 
its best pace but for a very short distance. Yet this rule does 
not, in the same degree, hold good as to the fat there may be on 
the surface of horses’ bodies. If hardy horses do not draw fine 
Irom the work they have been doing, they may, nevertheless, 
have got rid of a sufficient portion of the superfluous fat in their 
insides; and if I found them right in their wind for the 
length they may have to come in their races, I should not mind 
their coming out high. Such horses had better come out thus 
to run, than that they should be drawn fine for appearance sake, 
at the risk of very much injuring their constitutions ; and thereby 
disabling them from running in their best form for the length in 
which they may be eno;ao;ed.” 

What follows this is too true to have escaped any practical 
horseman’s observation ; it is a point we have always firmly con¬ 
tested :—Another thing to be observed in the training of race¬ 
horses is, that they should be got ready precisely to the day on 
which their engagements are to take place, as they will not re¬ 
main in the artijicial state of condition to which they may have 
been brought but for a very shoy^t time; and unless they run on 
the day for which they are prepared, they will change more or 
less, and but seldom for the better’' —almost always, we believe 
{cwteris paribus) for the worse: “ except, indeed, they should 
not have been forwarded sufficiently early up to the time they 
ought to run. Now, such horses as are employed for pleasure, 
saddle-horses, if regularly fed and exercised, and in other re¬ 
spects properly looked after, will be healthy and kind in their 
skins, with a sufficient portion of flesh in them; and they are 
then considered by the pad groom to be in condition ; and so they 
are, and in a very proper state for the purposes for which they 
are intended to be used. But, even in these horses, if neglected 
in any of the little essential regularities in the management of 
them, as that of being allowed to lie by only for |a few days, a 
change in their appearance from the healthy state described 
will be observed.” Ay! without tliis neglect of “ little essential 


54 REVIEW—darvill’s treatise on the race-horse. 

regularities” will such changes followg iii despite of our utmost 
endeavours to counteract them. The organ has been wound up 
to the top of its spring, and will, in that condition, play well and 
vigorously : but, by the laws of both physics and metaphysics, 
decline it must in power as it continues to play on—the spring, 
the primum mobile, must from this pitch of strength grow weaker 
and weaker as the machine works on ; and the works must go 
down, or nearly so, ere they can be again brought to the acme of 
excellence from which they have but so recently descended. 

Little way as we have proceeded into the present volume, we 
will venture to affirm, our readers will not dissent in opinion 
with us, when we declare it to be nowise inferior in excellence to 
the one which preceded it; of the two, for our own part, we 
should say it was the better one. In a conversation we held on 
this subject, we perfectly well remember a friend of our’s in¬ 
forming us, that, at Newmarket, they said, there was nothing 
7iew in Mr. D.’s work.” Admitting that it contained only what 
is and has long been known on the subject, we should say, that 
there was very great credit due to Mr. Darvill for having collected 
such a lot of rough diffused materials; and still greater, for 
having treated a subject which, at first sight, hardly seemed to 
admit of systematic arrangement, in such a methodic and concise 
style : and, at the same time, as we intimated before, in language 
such as was suited to no other subject, and yet without which 
the subjects of racing and training could scarcely have been in¬ 
telligibly treated. No person at all conversant in such matters 
can read a single line of Mr. Darvill’s work without feeling 
assured that the writer has himself been the actrt of a part 
which he is desirous to teach others to perform ; and we should 
unhesitatingly say, that the young uninitiated jockey or trainer 
might, providing he were intelligent and industrious, gain more 
information by the careful perusal of lAr. Darvill’s work, than 
many years might put hinr in the possession of, spent in the 
ordinary routine of the stable. 


Bij M. U. Leblanc. 

An intermittent Symptom, the Cause of which is 
A Malady sufficiently visible—Can the Animal 
BE returned on ACCOUNT OF IT? 

I DO not think that he can, because the appearance of this in¬ 
termittent symptom might always have been presumed by the 
purchaser of an animal that exhibited an evident defect to which 
this symptom is plainly referrible. 

It is different when a malady is only cognizable by one or 
more transient symptoms ; such an iinsoundness may be consi- 









VliTERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. . 65 

dered as obscure at the time of purchase, and in that case the 
horse might be returned. 

A horse has a deformed hock—it is double its natural size— 
on several parts of it there exist prominences, anormal, irregular, 
hard, insensible to the touch, and without heat. He carries on 
his hock a considerable jaiass of periosteal growth—he has a 
bone spavin, a curb, or a splent, apparent enough to the most 
careless observer. The horse is lame in this limb. The lameness 
is intermittent. The limb, carefully examined, presents no other 
lesion which would be the cause of lameness. He was not lame 
when he was bought; but it is plain that the periosteum, unna¬ 
turally extended around the articulations of the hock, is the cause 
of the present lameness. What right can the person who has 
purchased such a horse have to return it on the seller? The 
lameness was nothing more than one of the probable or necessary 
consequenees of the injury of the hock; an injury that was suffi¬ 
ciently apparent by other and not equivoeal signs. The vender 
has a right to maintain, that when he sold a horse with a hock 
so deformed, he could not be compelled to give a warranty 
against that which w as the natural consequence of this deformity, 
and visible to every eye at the moment of sale. 

In such circumstances it is not sufficient to say that it was an 
old lameness^ in order to be enabled to return the horse. 

Many veterinarians, however, are of a contrary opinion. They 
say that an animal has, in technical language, an old lameness,” 
when that lameness is intermittent; and whether the cause of it 
is apparent or not; '' because,” say they, or, at least, so I have 
heard them explain the matter, a horse with bony enlargements 
about the hock is not necessarily lame, and the buyer, who does 
not see him lame, thinks that he is purchasing a horse with 
spavin, or curb, &c., but not with intermittent lameness; and, 
therefore, is so far injured by I he vender.” This reasonino' is 
specious, but it will not bear close examination. It cannot for a 
moment be sustained, that when a person buys a horse with the 
knowledge (for that is always supposed) that he has spavin, or 
curb, or splent, he can justly complain, or wish to return'the 
horse, on account of any of the natural or probable consequences 
of those diseases. 

If I wished to maintain an opinion contrary to that which I 
have now expressed, I might, perhaps, demand of him who told 
me that the intermittent or occasional lameness of the horse pro¬ 
ceeded from the visible bony enlargements, whether it might not 
possibly be the symptom of some other lesion not apparent. It 
would be impossible for him to deny that this might be the case. 
There would be some slight shadow of propriety in this mode of 
reasoning, because, unless, in very peculiar circumstances, w^e can 
appreciate the physical effects of certain lesions, there is nothing 


56 


YETEIIIN A11Y JU R1SPRUDENCE . 

certain in medicine. But 1 ask, where is the veterinarian wtio,when 
called upon to give an opinion of the state of a lame horse, and 
to indicate the cause of the lameness, will not say in his xCertifi- 
cate, that it arises from these bony enlargements, when such en¬ 
largements are evident in the horse he is examining. To form 
any other conclusion would be as unreasonable as to hesitate to 
acknowledge as the cause of lameness the prick of a nail in the 
foot of a horse that before the accident was not lame. For 
myself, I should not for a moment hesitate to pronounce that a 
horse, lame behind, and that had his hock surrounded by bony 
tumours, was lame in consequence of these exostoses, unless I 
saw some other plain and manifest cause of lameness. 


By the mme. 

Intermittent Ophthalmia — Ought a Horse to be 

RETURNED FOR IT UNDER ALL CIRCUMSTANCES? 

Certainly not. If the horse was blind before the sale, or his 
vision materially affected in consequence of cataracts, that would 
not have escaped the observation of a careful purchaser. The 
buyer has no right to set aside the sale because inflammation 
mav have returned, for, under such circumstances, this inflam¬ 
mation cannot be said to lessen the value of the horse; nor is 
any injury done by the seller, or at least the judges will not sup¬ 
pose so, even although the buyer should affirm that he thought he 
had purchased a horse with two sound eyes. Neither can the 
purchaser say, as has happened in many instances, that he was 
aware that he bought a horse with two cataracts, but did not 
mean to buy one that had periodical ophthalmia. This manner 
of defending the thing has its advocates among some veterina¬ 
rians, but there is too much of quibbling, and too little of justice 
about it; and it has not, so far as I am aware, succeeded before 
any of the tribunals. 

If a horse has a cataract in one eye, and he is, after the pur¬ 
chase, attacked with periodical ophthalmia in both eyes, I think 
that he may be returned ; for, in that case, the renewed inflam¬ 
mation does lessen the value of the animal; but no person, so far 
as my knowledge extends, has hitherto contested this case. 

A horse, one or both of whose eyes present some visible lesions, 
as the mark of some former ulceration {leucoma )—a spot—a 
cloudiness—a partial opacity of the crystalline lens, can he be 
considered as subject to periodical ophthalmia, and, therefore, 
returned if inflammation reappears? Most certainly ; because it is 
the nature of ophthalmia to be intermittent, periodical; and be¬ 
cause these traces of former disease render it probable that more 
serious lesions will followy and terminate in total blindness, and 
thus materially diminish the value of the animal. I should found 



REGENERATION OF A COW. 


o7 

tMs opinion on what veterinary surgeons know of the greater or 
less serious character of these lesions when they exist in a horse 
that is not at the time labouring under periodical ophthalmia. 
They know that leucoma—a spot—a cloudiness—a partial ca¬ 
taract—may exist for a long time without producing blindness ; 
that some of them may disappear, as detached spots, and cloudi¬ 
ness ; that leucoma may be stationary during the life of the 
horse ; and that the progress of cataract is sometimes exceed¬ 
ingly slow. 

I know that all my brethren do not agree with me in opinion 
here ; but I submit this for public discussion. 

Journal. 




Regeneration of a Cow. 

A GENTLEMAN applied to Mr. Hobler, the chief clerk, to know 
whether the Lord Mayor could remedy a case in which it could 
not but be considered that a very gross imposition had been prac¬ 
tised. The case related to an old cow that had been sold, and 
foisted upon the seller very soon afterwards as a young one. Mr, 
Hobler requested to know how the deception was practised, as 
the imposture was to be collected from the circumstances. The 
gentleman said that his friend had been already so much laughed 
at for allowing himself to be imposed upon that he could scarcely 
appear among his neighbours. It would, therefore, be injudicious 
to mention the case in a place where every thing that is said ap¬ 
pears before the public at breakfast next morning. Mr. Hobler 
said the public would, perhaps, be benefitted by the recital, and 
that the trick, if exposed, would stand no chance of being repeated. 

About a fortnight ago a farmer, residing in Epping Forest, having 
rather an elderly cow which began to be very slack of milk, deter¬ 
mined to get rid of her, and purchase another. He accordingly 
took her to Romford fair, and sold her to a cow-dealer for £4 10s.; 
not seeing any other cow in the market that he liked, he returned 
home satisfied with the price he had got for the *‘oldun'’ The 
cow-dealer calculated on Smithfield as being a better emporium for 
disposing of his bargain, and acccordingly drove her there in order 
to sell her to the polony-pudding merchants ; but there happened 
that day to be a glut of that description of dainty. The cow 
would not sell even for the money he had given for her, and the 
owner was about to dispose of her for less, when a doctor, who 
had been regarding the beast for some time, offered for a fee of 5s. 
to make her as'young as she was ten years before. The fee was 
paid, the doctor took the patient into a stable, groomed and dressed 
her all over, prescribed some strange diet, sawed down her horns 






REGENERATION OF A COW. 


58 

from the rough and irregular condition to which years had swelled 
them into the smoothness of youth, and delivered her to the owner 
more like a calf than the venerable ancestress of calves. The 
cow-dealer was struck with her transformation, and it immedi¬ 
ately occurred to him to sell her for the highest price possible, and 
not to say a word of her infirmities and deformities. Having 
learned that an Epping farmer was in want of a cow, he thought 
that he could not send his bargain to better quarters than those 
she was accustomed to, and forthwith dispatched her to Romford, 
where her old master was on the look out for a beast. She im¬ 
mediately caught his eye. He asked her age. The driver did 
not know, ^^but she was a fine young un.’’ Fve seen a cow 
very like her some where,’^ said the farmer ; ^^ay,’’ said the driver, 
then you must have seen her a long way off, for I believe she 
is an Alderney.’^ An Alderney ! what do you ask for her V’ 
The price was soon fixed, the driver got the sum of £15 17s. for 
the cow, and the farmer sent her home. The ingenuity exercised 
may be guessed at from the fact that the person who drove the 
cow home had been at her tail twice a day for seven years, and 
yet he did not make the discovery, although she played some of 
her old tricks on the journey, and turned into the cow house and 
lay down with all the familiarity of an old acquaintance. At 
length the discovery was made; the cow was milked and milked, 
and the most that could be got from her was a pint, and that but 
little more than sky-blue. The farmer in grief and astonishment 
sent her to the cow doctor who had been in the habit of pre¬ 
scribing for her, and complained that she gave no milk. ^^Milk 
said he, ""how the devil should she, poor old creature? Sure it 
ishit by cutting her horns, giving her linseed oil cakes, and 
scrubbing her old limbs, you can expect her to give milk ?’’ The 
farmer was soon convinced of the imposture, and would forgive it 
if the laugh against him could be endured. 

Mr. Hobler regretted that the Lord Mayor could not interfere. 
He believed that the farmer must be content with the benefit de¬ 
rived from his experience; and it was to be hoped he would take 
a judge with him the next time he went to buy a cow. Some 
facts had reached him about the transformation of old jaded 
horses into spirited steeds, but he had not before heard of the 
effect filing down cows’ horns had in restoring age to youth. 
He supposed this must be what is meant by grinding young.” 

Farmers’ Journal. 

The Smithfield Horse Market. 

EXTRACTED FROM THE MINUTES OF EVIDENCE BEFORE THE SELECT 
COMMITTEE ON THE STATE OF SMITHFIELD MARKET. 

The horse market is only once in the week ? No, on the 
Friday. It commences, in the summer season, at three in the 



THE SMITHFIELD HORSE MARKET. 59 

afternoon, and closes at seven, or as soon after as we can get 
them from it. In the winter season it commences at two, and 
closes at the dusk of the evening. 

What is the number of horses that come into the market, and 
the state of the neighbourhood in consequence of that number ? 
At this season of the year (^July), I should suppose there are 
from 300 to 350, or 400, and from 50 to 100 asses brought in, 
and the scene of confusion is beyond all description. It brings 
tog’ethei all the thieves and rogues within ten miles of London. 
It is the most abominable scene that can be imagined. I would 
rather be there ten Mondays than one Friday afternoon. 

From whence does the supply of horses arise ? From all parts 
of the country.—Do you think there are any that are stolen ? 
Occasionally there are some. 

Does that market facilitate the stealing of horses ? I cannot say. 

Do they run the horses up and down the streets ? Yes. I 
place officers at the ends of the streets to prevent them drivino* 
on the pavement, and to prevent any persons riding them, and 
to exclude any carts brought there for sale. 

Are you aware of any accidents having happened there from 
the horses lately ? There was a woman, four or five weeks since, 
had her leg broken,* and a child had its arm broken by the kick 
of a horse about two months since. 

Do the horses come in at such an hour as to cause any incon¬ 
venience to the drovers and butchers? In the winter time they 
do. At this time of the year I place officers at the different 
avenues to prevent them coming in till the cattle are out, but 
that causes great inconvenience in the avenues. 

Is there a register kept of the horses sold ? Yes ; if they choose 
to pay a shilling they may have the horse registered. 

Is it the practice not^to have the horses registered ? If a person 
wishes to recover he has them registered. 

What is the practice ? To book them, as it is called. 

Do they pay for the ties of the horses ? I do not know what 
they pay. A portion of them are tied up, but the greater propor¬ 
tion stand out; these are a great nuisance. Those that are 
tied up are the most valuable. 

Those that stand out pay nothing ? No. 

What is the average value of the horses sold there ? You may 
buy a horse there from 20s. to 100 guineas. 

Do the knackers buy many horses there ? A great many. 

Are they generally a more riotous class of people and more 
lawless that attend the horse-market than attend the cattle- 
market? Yes, they are the most lawless set I ever saw; if we 
inteifere we are generally obliged to take our staves and fight. 

Have you ever taken any of these persons before the magis- 
tiates? Repeatedly, and locked them up for being disorderly. 


60 TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Where do those persons generally come from ? From all round 

London, within ten miles. ' _ 

You are obliged to keep the officers in such a position as to 

prevent the horses getting out among the people ? Yes. 

Was not a man executed a short time ago for stealing horses 
that were sold in that market? Yes, there have been five or six 
executed within the last few years that were detected in Smith- 
field n^^rket# 

Is there much cruelty practised upon the horses ? \ es, they 
tie them up, and keep whipping them all the afternoon. 

Is the cruelty worse than is exhibited at the repositories for 
the sale of horses, Sadler’s and other places? Not when they 
are first tied up ; but it is to keep up their mettle. 

What inconvenience would arise if that horse-market were abo¬ 
lished ? I cannot see any ; it would only be an inconvenience to 
the public houses. 

Do the drovers that bring up cattle also bring up ponies and 
horses to Smithfield? No, I believe not; they are a different 
sort of people. The Welshmen bring up ponies, but they do 
not bring them to Smithfield. 

Does the market close at seven o’clock ? No, it is eight before 
we can get rid of them. 

Do the people that attend the market lie about the public- 
houses for hours afterwards ? Yes, some of them. 

Are they the same people that sell the asses that sell the 
horses? No; they are a different people; they are a better set 
of people. Tke have not half the trouble with the people that 
sell the asses, that we have with the dealers in horses. 

Are there regular horse-dealers that attend ? Yes, there are 
some. 

W hat people generally attend with the asses ? They generally 
come from London, but there are some from the country. 

You say the people that attend with asses are a better claof 
people than those who attend with horses? Yes; they are the 
costermongers of London. 


TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

We must again appeal to the kind forbearance of several Contributors, 
whose communications shall speedily appear. 

The Plistory of the Edinburgh School, and of the medical Practice of that 
in Nassau Street in 1834, and the Visit of Paul Pry, must also be deferred. 

The communications from Lancashire and Derby shall have the conside¬ 
ration they deserve. There are many circumstances that must be carefully 
and anxiously weighed. 

Mr. Lawrence’s work has been received. 

The “Communications on Sheep,”—will our readers and friends give us a 
spare half hour when they can ? Y. 





THE 


VETERINARIAN. 


VOL. vm. No. 86.] FEBRUARY 1835. [New Serie.s, No. ae. 


MR. YOUATT’S V ET E R I N A R Y LE CTU R E S, 

DELIVERED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. 


LECTURE XLVI (continued). 

The Treatment of Apoplexy in the Horse—Apoplexy in Cattle, 

Sheep, Dogs, and Swine, 

BLEEDING.—Whatever is the cause of this disease? the 
essence of it is determination of blood to the head ; and there- 
ore bleeding is the first measure indicated. It is sanguineous 
apoplexy, and the vessels of the encephalon must be unloaded. 

The Jugular Vein to be opened. —The jugular is the vessel 
immediately indicated, as that the opening of which promises the 
greatest benefit. It is easily got at; it is large ; and the blood 
may be drawn in a full stream : being also the vessel through 
which the blood is returned from the head, venesection here will 
embrace the double advantage of local and general bleeding. The 
greater part of the blood will be drawn from the overloaded 
organ; while the quantity that may be easily and rapidly 
abstracted from that organ will have its desired general effect. 

No definite quantity of blood to be taken away can be fixed. 
We have done with this method of bloodletting; "we look to the 
effect produced, and not to the number of pounds. The horse 
with staggers should be bled until the pulse falters, or the animal 
begins to blow, or, perhaps, with more assured success, until he 
falls. 

Not from the Temporal Artery. —Some have proposed to bleed 
from the temporal artery ; and they tell us, that although it is 
a good thing to carry away the surplus quantity of blood, it is a- 
much better one to cut off the supply. Granted : but the supply 
is not cut off by opening the temporal artery, for no portion of its 
blood goes to the brain. It is justly described by our first ana¬ 
tomical writer as one of the terminating branches of the external 
carotid. It is difficult to open so as to obtain a stream that' 
promises any success ; and it is more difficult to stop the bleed'- 

VOL. VI II. K' 


V 



















()2 MR. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 


in^ unless the vessel is cut across, and thus retracts by its inhe¬ 
rent elasticity, and becomes compressed by the neighbouring 
integument and cellular substance. I sometimes fancy that it is 
a very foolish species of charlatanism which induces us to select 
the temporal artery. The jugular may do very well for common 
occasions, or for thoracic and abdominal complaints; but here is 
a serious affection of the head, and we may be thought to dis¬ 
play our practical skill by selecting a vessel belonging to the 
head for the abstraction of blood. We should take care, however, 
that no practical anatomist stands by when we make this attempt 


cfiTcct* 

The Necessity of ascertaining the Cause of the Disease again 
enforced,—WQ must next turn to account the intelligence which 
we have obtained of the previous circumstances of the case. Is 
it known that the animal had got at the corn, or pea, or chaff- 
bin, and that his stomach is probably distended to the utmost; 
or, at least, so distended as to be unable to contract upon its 
contents ? or on that or the preceding day had he worked harder 
or longer than usual, and then, according to the foolish kindness 
of many travellers, had had a double feed of corn given to him, 
or was suffered to eat as much as he liked ? In this case I ask, 
with my excellent friend Mr. Percivall, of what avail can we 
expect our physic to be, introduced into a stomach already 
crammed with indigested food ?—what effect can even twelve oi 
twenty drachms of aloes have poured down the oesophagus, and 
scarcely able to penetrate into the stomach 1 

The Stomach-pump,— have relieved congestion, and some¬ 
what lessened the tendency to inflammation by our bleeding ; 
but we must not leave the cause of that congestion and inflamma¬ 
tion untouched, and we probably cannot touch it by our physic. 
Then next comes the stomach-pump—to us one of the most 
valuable discoveries of modern times, and affording us the means 
of combating several diseases which had previously set all me¬ 
dical skill at defiance. We must inject warm water; the horse 
is incapable of offering much resistance: and we must continue 
the injection not only until we have so far diluted the contents 
of the stomach that a portion of them will escape through the 
pyloric orifice, but until the obstruction to vomiting offered by 
the ureter-like entrance of the oesophagus is overcome, and the 
food is returned through the nose or the mouth. 

Physic ,—This being effected, or we having ascertained that 
there ivas no extraordinary cause for the disease^ 7ior probable 
extreme distention of the stomach, although it may still be the 
result of bad management; or that by mere possibility, and in 
a very few instances, this affection of the head can be traced to 


APOPLEXY IN TUE HORSE. 


63 

no assignable cause,—we administer our physic. The aloes 
will be the best, and in quantity varying from six to twelve 
drachms. Thus the intestinal canal, which to a greater or less 
degree will share in the oppression, will be evacuated, or some 
cause of irritation probably removed. 

The Doses of A loes administered hy some French Veter mar ians, 
—I cannot, however, recommend you to adopt the seemingly 
outrageous doses of aloes to which some of our continental 
brethren have recourse. JVl. Mangin had tried without success 
various methods of treating staggers; but observing that in many 
cases the large intestines were filled with a great quantity of 
faeces, he began to suspect that they, and not the stomach, 
might occasionally, or oftener than we suspected, be the seat of 
the disease, and he determined that he would try what strong 
purgatives would do. He soon had opportunity, and, in the space 
of twelve hours, he gave to a horse with staggers four drinks, 
each of them containing two ounces of aloes and three ounces 
of Epsom salts. The horse was well on the sixth day. He gave 
the same quantities of purgative medicines to three other horses, 
and he saved them all. This becoming a matter of much remark, 
Professors Dupuy and Bardin were desired by the French go¬ 
vernment to examine into the matter. They reported that the 
cases had been correctly stated, yet, notwithstanding the success 
which attended the treatment, they were disposed somewhat to 
blame M. Mangin for administering such large doses of aloes in, 
so short a time. The practitioner replied that, the horses being 
in a comatose state, purgative medicines would not act with their 
usual energy; and so the matter rested. To a certain degree 
M. Mangin was right; yet he should have recollected that the 
organic nerves were not those primarily affected in such cases, 
and I confess I should be loath to give such doses. 

Tonics. —Many practitioners are fond of strong stimulants 
given internally, and with the view of causing the stomach to 
contract upon its contents. If they are admissible at all, it is 
in order to restore the tone of the stomach after the greater por¬ 
tion of its contents have been expelled. I should prefer giving 
them with the physic. I would add double the usual quantity 
of ginger to the physic ball; or if I gave my physic in the form 
of a solution of aloes, I would add an ounce of the tincture of 
ginger. 

The beneficial Effect of Bleeding. —A French veterinary sur¬ 
geon has recorded in the liecueil de Med. Vet., tome v, two 
cases of the successful treatment of staggers running on to 
phrcnitis. 

He thus describes the first case :—A horse, after a fatiguing 


64 MR. YOUATTS VETERINARY LECTURES. 

day, was suddenly taken ill. M. Gerard found him with his 
head depressed, resting upon the manger, and the forehead 
forcibly pushed against the wall. His breathing was laborious; 
the eyes were haggard and very brilliant; the ears cold ; the 
subcutaneous veins of the head swelled; the pulse hard and 
slow; the body covered with perspiration, and the extremities 
cold and drawn together. M. Gerard attempted to bleed him, 
but he was seized with a violent paroxysm—leaped into the 
manger, and beat his head against the wail. M. G. however 
succeeded in abstracting nearly seventeen pounds of blood. The 
animal became quiet, and remained in a dosing state all night; 
and although it was observed on the following morning, that the 
pulse was free, the eye was fixed, and the sight was gone. Ten 
pounds more of blood were abstracted, and a drink with opium 
attempted in vain to be given. In the evening he became fright¬ 
fully violent. M, G. managed to cut off his tail, and he was 
suffered to bleed until he fell exhausted; and even then the bleed¬ 
ing was permitted to continue, until it stopped spontaneously. 

On the next morning he was quiet; he had partly recovered 
his sight, and was eating. Eight days afterwards he returned 
to the ranks. 

Observations .—is a valuable case, as illustrating the 
beneficial effect of venesection in this disease, and the extent to 
wdiich it may be safely carried. 

Effect of Opium .—The second case recorded by this gentleman 
is a very singular one. A horse, apparently w'ell over-night, was 
suddenly seized with a violent fit of mad staggers. He had 
broken from the stable, and escaped into the yard, and destroyed 
every thing within his reach, but was at length exhausted, and 
was lying on the ground when M. Gerard first saw him. He 
was completely blind ; the jaw was locked, the body covered with 
sweat, and the pulse inexplorable, although the artery was dis¬ 
tended. He opened both the jugulars, and abstracted twenty- 
nine pounds of blood. Four hours afterwards the horse was 
down, with his head against the wall, and with occasional spas¬ 
modic movements of it. The pulse was fifty-six and strong, and 
the blindness continued. M. G. abstracted ten pounds more of 
blood, and, not content with this, docked the horse, and suffered 
the bleeding to continue as long as it would. At night the pulse 
had sunk to forty, when M. G. gave two ounces and a lialj oj 
indigenous opium in a drink, and administered two ounces more 
in the form of injection. 

On the following morning the pulse was soft, and the horse 
liad partly recovered his sight. The same quantity of opium was 
repeated by the mouth, and administered in an injection, morning 


• APOPLEXY IN CATTLE. 


65 

and night, and also on the three following days; but whether 
once or twice in the day, the report does not clearly express. 
The horse had been getting better all this while, and on the tenth 
day from the first attack he returned to his work. 

Observations ,—This is a marvellous account. I give it to you 
as I find it, and it should have a page in your case books. The 
good effect of bleeding I can well believe, although I should not 
have dared to have carried it to such an extent. I think that I 
should have been satisfied with abstracting forty pounds of blood 
in four hours, without the after and long-continued bleeding from 
the tail: but, as to the opium, I must agree with M. Yvart, that 
the effect here attributed to it is contrary to all experience. We 
find that it not unfrequently produces states of the system not 
unlike staggers. When we give it in considerable quantities in 
cases of violent and obstinate diarrhoea, it usually does its duty, 
so far as the mucous membrane of the intestines is concerned, 
but the horse becomes somewhat dull and off his feed. The 
case, however, is worth recording, and you will judge of it as 
you think proper. 

A fter Treatment .—This must be regulated-by circumstances. 
For some time the horse should be put on a restricted diet: mashes 
—green meat in no great quantity—a moderate allowance of hay 
—little corn. When sufficiently recovered, he may be turned 
out with advantage on rather bare pasture. 

Liability to return .—One circumstance, however, should never 
be forgotten, that the horse that has once been attacked with 
staggers is liable to a return of the complaint from causes that 
would not affect another horse. The distended vessels are weak¬ 
ened, the constitution is weakened, and prudence would dictate 
that such a horse could not be too soon disposed of. 


Apoplexy i)i Cattle. 

Oxen are far more subject to apoplexy than the horse. They 
are naturally more plethoric. They are continually under the 
influence of a more stimulating and forcing system; and that 
without the exercise by means of which the injurious effects of 
this system are in a great measure counteracted. The food of 
the horse is regulated by this consideration, that, while he obtains 
muscular power equal to the work we require from him, there 
shall be no useless accumulation of fat to impede him in that 
work; whereas the very object in the feeding of the ox is to clothe 
him with as much flesh and fat as possible: consequently he is far 
more subject than the horse to all the diseases connected with 
redundancy of blood, and to apoplexy among the rest. 



66 • MR. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 

Symptoms. —There are few premonitory symptoms in these 
cases. The animal is struck all at once. The disease is termed 
blood-striking. Had he been closely observed, it might have 
been perceived that he was more than usually indisposed to 
move, that the breathing was a little laborious, and the eye 
somewhat protruding: but the herdsman takes no notice of trifles 
like these ; the animal seems to him to he struck all at once; he falls, 
breathes stertorously and heavily, struggles with greater or less 
violence, and dies, sometimes in five minutes—oftener at the 
expiration of a few hours. 

Remedial Measures. —If we had time to do any thing, we should 
bleed ; we should here, as well as in the horse, abstract as much 
blood as we can. To this should succeed a dose of physic. The 
Epsom salts are the best we can give, in doses of a pound and a 
half in such a case as this, and without any carminative, and 
followed up by doses of half a pound every two hours, until the 
physic operates; its action should then be maintained by half- 
pound doses of sulphur every morning. 


Apoplexy in Sheep. 

This disease is more prevalent and more fatal in the sheep 
than in the ox. I will suppose a flock of sheep, apparently in 
perfect health, grazing on a pasture somewhat too luxuriant; 
they have been lately put upon it; they perhaps have been driven 
a little distance to it, and the weather is hot; or I will merely 
suppose that the pasture is good and the sheep in high condition. 
All at once, one of them stands still; he remains as if he were 
fixed ; he is unconscious of every thing about him : by and by he 
begins to stagger, he falls, he struggles, usually not much, and 
he dies; and all this takes place in less than a quarter of an 
hour. 

Premonitory Symptoms.- —Here too, if the looker had done his 
duty, he would have been aware of what was coming. He would 
have seen that the sheep was dull, that it lagged behind in the 
flock, that its flanks heaved, and that rumination had ceased. 
Then we might have had some chance of subduing the disease, 
but none in the world afterwards. 

Mr. Hogg, in his treatise on sheep, says, that such as feed in 
woods are subject to temporary fits of the staggers, appearing as 
if intoxicated; but they soon recover, except they are harassed 
or driven, or exposed to sudden exertion, or are previously full of 
blood. In his opinion, nothing induces this temporary stupor 
more than a hearty feed on broom in frosty weather, and which so 
overpowers them, that they will lie sprawling for several hours as 



APOPLEXY IN SWINE. 


67 

if in their last throes. A shepherd of Traquair one day found a 
number of his sheep intoxicated in this way, and, thinking that 
they were at the point of death, he cut the throats of four of 
them, that their flesh might not be lost ; and he would have dis¬ 
patched them all, if his master had not opportunely arrived, and 
abused him for a blockhead, and asked him how he would like it 
if people were to cut his throat when he was drunk 

Freatment .—Whenever a sheep is found lagging behind, stand¬ 
ing still if he can, and with his head down, stupid, half blind, 
and half deaf, he should be bled. No harm could ever ensue 
from this, and many an animal would be saved. It is a bad 
practice when the dead sheep are the shepherd’s perquisite. I 
will not say that he will be purposely blind ; but he will not 
have the stimulus to careful observation, which a regular per¬ 
quisite for the detection of these incipient and obscure diseases 
would afford. 

Bleeding .—This is the first measure, and to the extent which 
the case may indicate or that the animal will bear. I should 
take a pound as about the average quantity that should be drawn 
at the first bleeding; and that not taken from the eye-vein—the 

vessel usually opened by the shepherd and by the farrier too_ 

for the most adroit of them cannot always obtain any great quan¬ 
tity of blood from this vein, and seldom can they obtain it so 
rapidly as it should be drawn; it should be drawn from the 
jugular, a vessel quite as easily opened, and from which the blood 
will flow in a much fuller stream. 

Pki/sicy ^c .—Five ounces of Epsom salts should be admi¬ 
nistered as soon as possible after the bleeding, and an addi¬ 
tional ounce every six hours, until the bowels are opened. The 
animals should be moved to thinner pasture, or perhaps taken 
into the farm-yard and most sparingly fed. 


Apoplexy in the Dog. 

I have never seen a case of true apoplexy, either serous or 
sanguineous, in the dog. Almost every cerebral affection in this 
animal takes on the character of epilepsy. There is increased 
excitement, rather than depression. The pathological reason for 
this I am unable to give. 


Apoplexy in Swine. 

In an animal fed to be as fat as a bacon hog,” you may 
expect that cases of apoplexy will be frequent enough^ and so 
they are, and characterized by the same suddenness of attack 


68 ON WOUNDS PENETRATING INTO THE CHEST. 

and fatal termination as in the ox and sheep. Sometimes it 
rages like an endemic through the piggery. The remedies are, 
as in the other cases, bleeding, but here from the palate, for we 
could not manage the hog sufficiently to open the jugular. 
Epsom salts or sulphur should be given as purgatives. The 
subsequent, and also the precautionary measures, are food less 
in quantity, or of a less stimulating character. 


ON WOUNDS PENETRATING INTO THE CHEST OF 

THE HORSE. 

By M.M. U.ILeblanc, M. F., and Principal Editor of the Journal de Med. 

Vet., and A. Trousseau, M.D. 

[Continued from page 11.] 

11. Simple Wounds of the Parietes of the^ Chest, with the 
injectioji of ivater at different temperatures into the pectoral 
cavity. 

We have attempted this experiment on two horses. We in¬ 
jected four ounces of water at a temperature of 10° (5U Fah.) 
into the left pleural cavity. The respiration was increased during 
some instants. He pawed with his fore foot for several minutes 
afterwards, and then every-function seemed to return to its na¬ 
tural state. The operation was carefully perlormed, and no air 
was suffered to enter the wound. 

We injected, or rather poured, into the left pectoral cavity, six 
litres (rather more than 12^ Hi) of water, at a temperature of 
32*^+ 0 (90°Fah. ?), and a very small quantity of air only entered 
with the water. 

The operation was performed at 3^ p.m. Immediately after¬ 
wards the respiration became accelerated, and the flanks fell 
suddenly when every act of expiration commenced. The sound 
returned by percussion was diminished towards the inferior part 
of the left pectoral cavity. At 3| p.m. the right side had lost its 
resonance, probably because that, during the quarter of an hour 
that had elapsed since the introduction of the water, the liquid 
had found its way from one sac into the other. Ten minutes 
after the injection the horse 'had a strong shivering fit, and 
during this time the animal dunged twice, and pawed the ground 
with his foot. At 4J p.m. he lay down ; the respiratory action 
was exceedingly quickened, and the souhresaut^ of broken wind 
was strongly marked. He ate with appetite the hay that was 

* The term soubresauth applied by the French to that double convulsive 
muscular effort seen in the flank, which accompanies the act of expiration. 




ON WOUNDS penf:thating into the chest. 69 

offered to him, and he even seized it greedily while he was lying 
down. At 10 o’clock he was still lying down ; he breathed with 
gieat difficulty, and the souhvcsQui of broken wind was evident. 

On the following morning he was still lying; the respiration 
was more accelerated, and the souhresaut more marked. In the 
evening he had not got up; his mouth was open; his nostrils 
dilated beyond measure: no vesicular respiration, but we heard 
only a puffing sound towards the end of the expiration. 

The horse died during the following night. 

He was examined at half past eight on the morning of the 
following day. The left pleural sac contained about two quarts of 
bloody serosity, with a firm and yellow clot floating in it, about 
the size of a fist. Other little fibrous clots adhered to the pleural 
covering; there was no trace of vascularity in them, but the sub- 

pleural cellular tissue, both costal and pericardic, was stronp:lv 
injected. ° ^ 

The left lung did not fill more than a third of its proper cavity. 
Its costal surface was rugous at several points. The rugosities 
were attributable to an infinity of false membranes, formed on 
the pleura. Ihe portions of the lung which corresponded with 
these granulations were condensed and highly red Their inter- 
lobulary and sub-pleural tissue was infiltrated : in a word, it was 
the seat of pneumonia, which extended deeply into the lung, but 
which was not by far so intense as the inflammation on the pleura. 

I he light lung was not inflamed. The pleural sac on that side 
contained a little bloody fluid, but no false membranes. 

Into the chest of a third horse we introduced about two quarts 
of water, at a temperature of 8 (50 Fah.) degrees; but, for a 
reason which it is scarcely worth while to report here, we could 
not detain the horse more than two hours after the experiment. 
During that short space of time we perceived that he had a shi¬ 
vering fit; that he pawed with his foot; and that he continually 
lay down, and got up again, as if he had colic. These two 
last symptoms, which we thought rather extraordinary in this 
case, have constantly appeared whenever we have injected alcohol 
and saline solutions into the chest. 

12. Simple Wounds of the Parietes of the Chest, with the In¬ 
jection of Alcohol. 

The symptoms and lesions which follow the injection of alcohol 
into the pleural sacs are analogous to those produced by the in¬ 
jection of a considerable quantity of water; only they appear, 
and attain their utmost intensity with greater rapidityand the 
animal sooner dies. Alcohol always produces pneumonia, pleu¬ 
risy, and often pericarditis when the patient lives two or three 
days. The only peculiar circumstance which we have remarked 

VOL. VI II. r 


TO ON WOUNDS PENETRATING INTO THE CHEST. 


is, that the fibrous coagula, small in bulk, have a loose and open 
texture, and, if they are not attached to the pleura, float in the 

effused fluid. r • 

13. Simple Wounds in the Walls oj the>Chest, with the Injection 

of a saline Solution. . p . i . . i. 

We have experimented only with the solutions ot the tartrate 

and nitrate of potash, in the proportion of two drachms of the 

salt to five decilitres (a little more than a pint of water), and at 


a temperature of 54^^ Fah. i i ,• 

We remarked in two cases, that, as soon as the solution was 

iniected, the animal had a shivering fit, and that he gathered 
his legs under him and lay down. The respiration and the pulse 
were much accelerated ; they again became slower when ten mi¬ 
nutes had passed, but did not regain their natural standard. 
Then succeeded all the recognized symptoms of pleurisy and 

pneumonia. i i . j 

On one of the horses, into whose chest we had injected a so¬ 
lution of nitrate of potash, we attempted a double experiment, 
with the view of discovering what might be the influence of in¬ 
tense pleurisy on the absorption of blood injected into the chest. 

The injection of the saline solution was made on October 27th. 
On the 30th, the horse, although he had pleurisy well marked, 
was yet tolerably lively. We therefore attempted to inject four 
pounds of blood into his chest, by means of the opening through 
which the solution had passed; but we found an obstacle to this 
in the thickness of the walls of the thorax, for false membranes, 
of considerable firmness, had already closed the aperture. As, 
for aught that we knew, the lung might be here adherent to the 
side, we preferred to make a new opening more posteriorly, 
where we should run less risk of finding false membranes. We 
were thus able to inject the blood immediately after it had been 
drawn from the jugular. This new experiment hastened the 
death of the horse. He died on the 31st, at night. 

He, like most of those on which we had experimented, had 
retained his appetite almost to the last. This would prove that 
there is a difference between pleurisy arising from the ordinary 
causes of that disease, and produced by the introduction of a fo¬ 
reign body into the pectoral cavity. This difference is in general 
very manifest, not only by the preservation of the appetite, but 
by other symptoms, which every experienced observer will easily 
recollect. We know, besides, that nothing is so difficult as to 
reproduce artificially a disease which has come on spontaneously; 
therefore it is that experiments of this kind, although useful, 
will never accurately discover to us the nature of the different 
lesions which either constitute the disease, or are produced by 


POLYPUS IN THE PHARYNX. 71 

it, because there is always something in the disease which it is 
impossible to produce, however we may try to place the subject 
of the experiment in the circumstances which are recognized as 
most proper to produce the affection which it is our intention to 
create. 

14 . Contused Wounds of the Parietes of the Chest, without in 
jury to the lung ,—It is rather to fill completely the outline which 
we had traced before we commenced our experiments that we 
now devote a line to this species of wounds, for, in truth, they do 
not merit serious attention. We have nothing to observe re¬ 
garding them, that all our readers, probably, have not had the 
opportunity of frequently observing. 

Journal, Sept. 1834. 

[To be concluded in the next number.] 


POLYPUS IN THE PHARYNX. 

By Mr. S. Goodworth, F.aS., Driffield. 

I WAS called in a short time ago by a gamekeeper in this 
neighbourhood to look at a young bay mare that was sent to be 
slaughtered for the dogs. She had been under medical treat¬ 
ment for twelve months, and was considered incurable. She 
w^as four years old, and had the appearance of a well-bred 
aninial. Before destroying her, the keeper wished to have my 
opinion, and, if possible, to save her. 

Her disease was said to be fits. She was taken into a pad- 
dock, and trotted two hundred yards and back again to the 
place where I stood, when she immediately fell, and had a most 
violent struggle for a short time ; she then rose, and was as well 
as ever. Before she fell, she took a deep inspiration, and 
when she could again respire she was relieved, and the fit 
passed off. 

I was convinced that there was an impediment at the top of 
the trachea which it would be necessary to remove, and I agreed 
to have the mare sent to ray stable. 

Treatment .—I cast her and put a gag into her mouth; I then 
introduced a probang, which required a little pressure in order 
to get it into the stomach ; and in drawing it up again it was im¬ 
peded by a lump in the throat, which brought on one of those 
severe struggles that I had before witnessed. When she re¬ 
covered from its effect, I introduced my arm to convince myself 
of the cause, and I found a substance which I endeavoured to 
burst or drag out: it escaped from my fingers, and I lost it. 




72 POLYPUS IN THE PHARYNX. — ON FARCY. 

I then performed the operation of tracheotomy, and let the 
mare rise 5 she was much relieved, and ate and drank better. 
I took a little blood from her, and gave an aperient mixture, 
which had the desired effect. 

She continued to do well, and in four or five days I gave her 
exercise, which she bore well; even trotting and severe exertion 
did not produce any of the former symptoms. She continued 
thus for a fortnight, when she altered for the worse, and began 
to toss her head and catch her breath with difficulty, whilst 
eating. Her appetite decreased, and she gradually got worse until 
she scarcely ate or drank any thing; in fact, I found she was as 
bad as when she first came to me. 

I cast her again, and felt the same substance as before; I 
grasped it with my fingers, and pulled with all my power, but it 
resisted my efforts. I then got a cord, and made a running 
noose in it, which I put round the neck of the substance, and 
tried to drag it from its hold : my efforts broke the string. I got 
another cord, and again secured it round the substance, and this 
time 1 succeeded in pulling away a lump as large as a hen’s egg. 
It appeared to come from the roots of the tongue, and when the 
mare was in exertion and obliged to take deep inspirations, to 
have acted as a valve upon the epiglottis, and to have required a 
powerful effort to displace it, and hence was the cause of the fits. 
On the next day 1 gave oatmeal gruel and bran mashes : the 
second day after the operation I found her breathing heavily, 
and I took four quarts of blood from her : this relieved her, and 
she became tranquil. In a few days she ate vetches, and grazed, 
and continued to go on well without further medical treatment. 
I suffered the tube to remain in the trachea about ten days after 
I had taken away the tumour; I then removed it, and healed up 
the orifice. 

She can now travel with perfect ease, and is quite sound. 


ON FARCY. 

M. Ha MO NT, Founder and Director of the Veterinary 

School at Abou-Zahel. 

[Continued from p. 22.] 

Cold damp situations—living and working amidst the waters— 
ill-constructed stables—are they alone capable of producing the 
farcy eruption? 

It very widely exists in Egypt, more in summer than in winter, 
in the villages, the army, among the Bedouins, in horses that 
are confined, and in those that live in the open air. There the 





ON FARCY. 


73 

food of the horse is rarely deteriorated. During nine months 
these animals live on barley and chaff, and for the rest of the year 
on green clover. 

As long as they are fed on green meat, farcy seldom occurs : 
we have, nevertheless, seen it m some horses. During that season 
they are fat, but weak, and that weakness continues a longtime. 
The use of the green clover, continued for three whole months, 
and sometimes more, may it not contribute to the development 
of farcy ? We are not yet able to answer that question. 

The Egyptian horses that are used only for the saddle, they 
do not work in the water ,* their food is wholesome; they 
inhabit a warm climate, but farcy attacks and destroys them. 
In Syria it is common, but on the plains alone ; and it is said not 
to be found on the mountains of Lebanon. 

Among the Wahabites, on the borders of the Red Sea, and 
thirty-two days’ distance from Gedda, Dr. Gand has seen farcy 
on the horses that are kept at the foot of the mountains. The 
account which this estimable physician has given is extremely 
interesting. He shall speak for himself. 

‘^The ISIejdeSf horses which are found near Chignigues (Hedjaz), 
not only those that are found at the feet of the mountains, but 
those that inhabit the highest parts, and on some which, in 
point of elevation, may be compared with mount St. Gothard. 
The disease breaks out in summer, and disappears in winter. In 
the hot season, during the month of July, the thermometer, in 
the tent, rises to 44 degrees of Reaumur (131 of Fahrenheit). 
It long continues between 36 and 38 degrees (113 and 117 of 
Fahrenheit). At that period, which is the period of farcy, the 
horses of the plain are fed entirely on grasses, dry, hard, and of 
considerable bulk : the water is stagnant, often fetid—the animals 
sleep in the open air. 

During the winter the rains are incessant, and numerous 
torrents descend from the mountains. Then the grass is good 
and abundant j the water is wholesome, and the horses become 
fat. The mountains, the summits of which are most elevated, 
and covered with snow during the winter, are clothed with per¬ 
petual verdure; the plants which are cultivated there are the 
coffee and the doura.” 

We cannot think that ‘inflammatory irritations of the intes¬ 
tines” can here occasion farcy by their “sympathetic influence.” 
This assertion is founded on no fact—inflammations of the in¬ 
testines have their seat in the red capillary vessels ,* farcv in the 
lymphatic vessels and ganglions. Farcy eruptions are often 
thrown out without the animal having shewn the least symptom 
of inflammation of the digestive passages—the farcy disappear- 


74 


ON FARCY. 


ing as soon as that irritation has ceased. Ihis will doubtless 
suffice to shew what little solidity this theory has*. 

Farcy is a peculiar disease of the lymphatic system that we 
meet with every where, and almost only so on comparatively 
plain and level countries ; in hot countries, as well as in cold and 
humid ones—in young horses, and in adult and old ones in 
females as well as males. The horses which are fed on barley, 
chaff, oats, and hay, and on aliments of the most wholesome 
kind, are, if living in flat countries or districts, as subject to it 
as those who live upon nothing but bad, dry, and innutritive 
herbage. It is observed on the banks of the Nile, where the 
animals have wholesome water to drink, and in the villages 

where there are nothing but stagnant pools. 

In Europe, working in the water or the rain, or living in cold 
humid climates, or ili-constructed stables, or damaged food, are 
said to be causes of farcy eruption. In this enumeration of 
causes nothing is said of heat. If a Wahabite is asked^^what 
are the causes of farcy, he first of all mentions heat,” and 
then he adds the custom of leaving horses exposed in the air; 
and to these he joins barley, chaff, deficiency of nourishment, and 
the bad quality of the food. 

Is farcy contagious ? In the present state of veterinary science 
perhaps it is impossible to give a definitive answer. There are 
contradictory facts. Professor Gohier has instituted numerous 
experiments at the school of Lyons, the result of which is, that 
farcy can be transmitted, both by immediate and mediate con¬ 
tact. Experiments have been made by other persons, the result 
of which is altogether of an opposite nature. Some say that 
they have produced the disease by inoculation ; others affirm 
that they have never been able to accomplish it, and utterly deny 
the contagiousness of farcy. 

We have placed sound horses in the same stables with farcied 
ones, in whom the malady had existed in a very advanced stage ; 
they have eaten together—they have rubbed against each other— 
they have played with each other—they have bitten each other. 
We have left them together five mr six months, but never, so far 
as our experience has gone, has farcy been communicated. The 
matter which runs from farcy ulcers and buds has been intro¬ 
duced under the epidermis of the skin of several horses. One 
of them had chronic catarrh; he alone, at the end of five months, 

* What lias M. Hurtrel D’Arboval done, that he should be incessantly 
attacked by M. Hamont, in this supercilious, sarcastic, unbecoming man¬ 
ner? Surely all this shews very bad taste, and bad policy too; for we 
shrewdly suspect that the “ theoretical’’ “ amateur” veterinarian would 
have by far the best of the argument.— Edit. 


ON FARCY. 


75 


had two farcy buds on the right hind leg. This fact proves 
nothing. Would not the horse have become farcied without this 
inoculation ? If the disease were really contagious, there is no 
country where it ought to spread itself more rapidly than in 
Egypt. x41most every horse would be attacked by it; for there 
is, both among the Turks and the Arabs, an absolute carelessness 
and indifference as to the mingling of farcied and sound horses. 
In none of the regiments are the sick horses separated from the 
healthy ones, until they are become incapable of service. The 
same soldier feeds at the same time the sound horses and the 
farcied ones, and they eat and drink together. The clothing, 
the saddles, and the bridles, pass from one horse to another; 
and yet the number of the diseased animals does not increase. 
Nevertheless, we have met with some Arabs who believed that 
farcy was contagious. 

Can farcy be transmitted from the sire to the offspring? We 
think not; yet some very experienced practitioners have adopted a 
contrary opinion. 

In order to answer that question in a satisfactory manner, it 
would be necessary to institute a great number of experiments; 
these experiments, however, must be made in localities and 
under conditions that are perpetually changing. Should we 
conclude in favour of the hereditary character of the disease 
when a colt from a farcied sire became farcied, when he was 
placed in the same circumstances and exposed to the same in¬ 
fluences as the sire ? If certain circumstances appertaining to 
the climate or country can produce farcy in the one, how can 
we conclude that it is hereditary in the other ? We do, however, 
believe that a disposition to be affected by the disease may be 
communicated by the parent to the offspring, on account of the 
great development of the lymphatic system, and its predo¬ 
minance over the other systems. 

M. Hurtrel D’Arboval, faithful to his theory, of which we have 
spoken when treating of the causes of farcy, has recommended 
a plan of treatment quite in conformity with this opinion. Farcy, 
according to him, arising from the influence of ill-managed and 
unwholesome stables, the working in water, and the living in 
damp situations, and a faulty mode of feeding—it naturally 
follows, that different localities, and a better regimen, ought 
first to engage the attention as preservative means; hence, in 
his estiraa'tion, the advantage of pure, dry air, removal from wet, 
marshy situations and stagnant waters, and the good effect of 
large well-ventilated stables, wholesome food, and good water. 
These things are altogether insufficient. Saddle-horses of a 
light form, well fed, and in good condition—they are kept in 


ON FARCY. 


76 

elegant stables, perfectly ventilated; nevertheless, at the moment 
when they appear to be otherwise in perfect health, farcy buttons 
appear all over the body—they suppurate, and the ulceis spiead, 
and the animals are without hesitation condemned, and judged 
to be incurable. 

We are far from condemning the measures recommended as pre¬ 
servatives against farcy ^ but what we think is this, that, fiist of 
all, it is indispensable thoroughly to understand what is meant 
by'good food, and pure and dry air, &c.; and we shall probably 
then see, that the best food which we are accustomed to give to 
our horses is not, perhaps, that which we ought to piesciibe as a 
preservative against farcy. At present, however, that malady 
having been studied in a very small part of the world, it is impos¬ 
sible to assign the proper prophylactic treatment. 

Having thus rapidly glanced at the practice of Europe, let us 

see what is done in a foreign country. 

In Egypt, a flat country, we know not of any mode of treat¬ 
ment proper to preserve horses from the farcy. In Arabia, in 
the coflee country at Chignigues (Hedjaz), of which we have 
already spoken, farcy is never seen on the mountains. It will 
follow*^ from this, that keeping them on the mountains, with 
good food, will prevent an attack of farcy. This is what the 
Wahabites do, and with perfect success. In Europe warmth is 
recommended; in Arabia they search for cold situations; and 
we have seen that farcy does not appear in the winter, and it is 
also at this period that the animals feed on luxuriant and succu¬ 
lent grass. 

A mixed food, composed of animal and veg'etable substances, 
can it produce such advantageous changes in the general eco¬ 
nomy, as to exempt the horse from the attack ol farcy ? This 
liad occupied our attention before we had any documents to prove 
that the Arabs had been accustomed to resort to such a kind of 
food. It is also to Dr. Gaud that we are indebted for the de¬ 
tails we are about to lay before our readers. 

In the same province of Chignigues, already referred to, a 
sheriff, named All, an inhabitant of the plain, had many horses 
very handsome, and for which he asked a great price. He was 
rich, and fed them with dried raisins, camel’s milk, meat cut 
into small pieces and dried in the sun, and dates; sometimes he 
gave them grass, which was brougiit from the mountains. These 
horses never had farcy, although they lived constantly in the plain. 
This is a striking proof of the influence of vegeto-animal food. 

One of us had the opportunity of seeing, for a long time, that 
the Wahabites were accustomed to feed their horses with beef, 
camel’s milk, butter, 8cc. We beg the attention of medical men 


ON FARCY. 


77 

to these circumstances, of very great interest. Ought horses to 
be kej3t entirely on vegetable food ? We cannot certainly resolve 
this question without having visited many countries, and mul¬ 
tiplied our observations, and compared them with those of other 
travellers qualified to form an opinion on such a subject. 

The researches which we have been enabled to make, and 
which have been conducted with honesty and diligence, lead us 
to th IS conclusion, that fciTcy is a disease oj^ the 'plain country. 
It will be evident, then, how much depends on aliment and lo¬ 
cality, in all preservative treatment and means. Stables may be 
spacious and well-ventilated, but may not offer any advantage, 
unless they are placed in an elevated situation—unless perhaps, 
we give the horses a portion of animal food, that may preserve 
them from the attack of farcy. At the same time it will ap¬ 
pear, that oats, and hay and oats, and barley, although of excel¬ 
lent quality, are not the good food’’ which we should administer 
in order to preserve our horses from this disease. 

‘‘Vicq. d’Azir proved that broths of animal food have saved 
many animals that had been attacked by murderous epizootics. 
Although this practice, says M. Dupuy, seems contrary to our 
principles of medical treatment, and the nature of the food on 
which herbivorous animals are usually fed, we are compelled to 
acknowledge with Vicq. d’Azir, that in most of the successful 
cases that occurred in Languedoc, the beasts had been made to 
drink great quantities of animal broths.’" 

M. Dupuy, on whose valuable lectures we have had the oppor¬ 
tunity of attending, recommended animal broths in the treatment 
of the rot in sheep. By the use of animal food,” said that 
highly talented professor, ‘‘we have been enabled to cure dis¬ 
eases that had bid defiance to the ordinary means of treatment.” 
Medical men well know the effect of vegetable food on the car¬ 
nivora, and aliment derived from the animal kingdom will pro¬ 
duce effects as remarkable on the herbivora. 

Farcy being a malady which principally attacks horses in 
which the lymphatic system is developed, may it not, by the aid 
of proper and skilful crossings, give to the progeny an organiza¬ 
tion that will render them less liable to be affected by this 
malady. The effects which have been produced on different 
animals by these means have almost exceeded belief; and often 
the most important changes in the form, qualities, and produce 
of certain animals, have resulted, in defiance of the blunders of 
unskilful experimentalists. 

Journal, 

[To be concluded in our next,] 


VOL. VIII. 


M 


78 


LARYNGITIS ACCOMPANIED BY SCARLATINA. 

% Mr. Cha PMAN, V.S. Southampton, 

On Wednesday, Nov. 19th, I was requested by James Young, 
Esq. Moor Court (New Forest), to examine a bay mare, rising 
five years old (by Lapdog), and which had for some time been 
afflicted with cough. The mare in the preceding spring had 
been ill with the influenza, and when she began to recover she 
continued weak for a considerable period. The cough soon re¬ 
turned, and has existed, at intervals, unto the present time. The 
owner wishing her to be under my care, sent her to my stables, 
a distance of about seven miles. 

4 A.M. —Upon examining my patient, I found exceedingly 
dangerous symptoms, and gave the owner little hope of her re¬ 
covery. Pulse 70, producing a sensation very similar to the 
vibration of a wire; mouth hot, Schneiderian membrane very 
highly injected; extremities cold ; coughs violently, at times 
so much so, that she reels against the wall of her stable; much 
difficulty in moving, or reluctance to move; appetite gone. 

Treatment.—Y Ihvi; all I could obtain without producing 
evident faintness; the throat stimulated with emetic tartar lini¬ 
ment (ant. tart. 3i to spt. tereb. 3i), which produced very little 
effect; the following drink was also administered, R pulv. digital. 
3 i; aloes Barb, siij ; aquae pura ^viij, and to be repeated six hours 
afterwards, with potas. nit. 3ij instead of the aloes. 

Nou. 20th, 8 A.M. —Symptoms much the same as yesterday; 
hand-rub and bandage the legs; rub into the throat blistering 
ointment jiss; give aloes Barb. 5 iss; pulv. digital. 3i; potas. 
nit. 3 ij* She drinks a little white water, but will not eat. 

6 p.M. —Ball repeated, omitting aloes; the bowels slightly 
acted upon ; the cough continues very violent. 

2\st .—She appears restless, looking round at her flanks, and 
pawing with her fore legs ; repeat ball. 

22d .—She continues much the same ; no faeces having passed 
since the 20th, give enema with Epsom salts Ibss dissolved; 
and as a drink ol. lini. Ibi. 

236?. A.M. —Bowels slightly acted upon ; extremities continue 
cold, and she refuses all food. 

6 p.M. —Rather surprised to find the respiration much in¬ 
creased ; Schneiderian membrane being highly injected ; pulse 
68 ; and she is becoming very restless. V. S. Ifeviij. Repeat 
fever ball, drench with a little gruel, all food being refused. 

24/^.— Improved a little; pulse 48; still coughs very vio- 


LARYNGITIS ACCOMPANIED WITH SCARLATINA. 79 

lently; the blister having acted a little is dressed with calamine 
ointment; repeat ball. 

25^/l—T he kidnies appear to be very much acted upon. 
Omit the digitalis, give white hellebore 9ij, camphor 9i : the 
mare still refusing food she was drenched with gruel twice in the 
day. 

2Qthr —Pulse very weak ; membrane of the nose of a pale livid 
colour. Give as a drink, gentian pulv. ^^ij ; zingib. p. '^i; spt. 
eth. nit. 3iiij with water to make ^viij. She ate a little sainfoin, 
drank a little gruel, &c. 

27th, —Pulse much as yesterday; lies down more comfort¬ 
ably : eats a little sainfoin hay. She was walked out for a few 
minutes in the middle of the day; appears more lively. 

3 p. M. —Her legs have become very hot; the mouth is hot; 
the Schneiderian membrane has a very singular appearance, being 
covered with scarlet patches, irregularly formed. The hair had 
come off on that part of the neck where the blister had been 
applied, and I could discover similar patches there. I should 
have no hesitation in saying, that the principal, or the whole of 
the body, was covered with similar spots. The upper lip became 
swollen. 

The pulse very much increased, 60. I gave diuretic ball and 
enema. 

2Sth, —The scarlet patches are still existing, but more nu¬ 
merous than yesterday ; the aqueous discharge from the nose is 
very profuse. Give as a drink pulv. digital. 3i^ aloes Barb. si. 
Mindererus's spt. ^i, aqua rue §viij. 

2dth. —Scarlet patches still remaining, though not so* nume¬ 
rous ; extremities warm; eats grass with avidity ; still very weak. 
The loss of flesh has been very great during the last three days ; 
she rests freely. 

Dec, 2d. —Improving very rapidly; feeding well; scarlet 
patches still to be seen, but fewer in number. The cough still 
continues. Gave ball of pulv. digital. ant. tart. 3j, pulv. lini 
and petroleum Barbadense q.s. to form ball, and to be repeated 
every night. 

17^/^.—The mare continues to improve ; the cough has left 
her. She has walking exercise every day, and is now quite con¬ 
valescent. 

Remarks. —This case may be called Scarlatina,’^ from its 
analogy to that disease in the human subject. I very well recol¬ 
lect one of a similar kind to that to which Mr. W. Percivall 
very properly affixed the name of scarlatina,” whilst with my 
excellent friend and preceptor Mr. Youatt. There were numerous 
scarlet patches, with anasarcous swellings, &c. The patient 
recovered. 


OPERATION FOR STONE IN THE BLADDER OP 

A MARE. 

M, Renault, Professor of the School of Alfort, and 
Principal Editor of the ^^PecueilP 

The patient was a mare of small size, about fourteen years 
old. During the last fourteen or fifteen months the proprietor 
had observed that the mare discharged her urine with consider¬ 
able pain, and not in her usual manner. That pain had sensibly 
and progressively increased since the commencement of the last 
winter. She frequently put herself in the posture for urining, 
and then discharged a very little, and sometimes none at all. 
When it was voided with less difficulty, it was of a deep yellow 
colour, turbid, thick, and a deposition was perceived on the 
pavement on which it had fallen; but when it was discharged after 
long and painful efforts, in addition to the preceding characters, 
it was often charged with bloody mucus. 

Alarmed at this last circumstance, and which he had often 
observed in the course of the preceding month, and although 
the mare continued to work, and had not lost her appetite, the 
owner determined to bring her to Alfort for advice. 

The symptoms were too plain for me not to suspect the exist¬ 
ence of a vesicular calculus, and I was about to satisfy myself by 
direct examination, when she attempted to stale precisely in the 
same manner which the owner had described. She put herself 
in the usual position, and during some twenty extraordinary 
efforts which she made to void her urine, I saw the lips of the 
vulva widely diverge; and the orifice of the urethra, pushed 
by every effort to the very mouth of the vagina, appeared half 
open in the midst of a large fleshy projection, covered with 
mucus. A little urine, ropy, and loaded with sediment, was 
ejected at each succession of expulsive contractions, and some 
drops of blood appeared at the inferior angle of the vulva. 

I did not hesitate to give it as my opinion that there was a 
stone in the bladder, and that it had a considerably roughened 
surface, founded on the discharge of a small quantity of blood, 
with which each violent contraction was followed : in fact, this 
could only proceed from slight lacerations of the mucous mem¬ 
brane of the urethra or the bladder ; and these lacerations could 
not be produced by a calculus of a smooth and polished face. 

I cut my nails close, and, having anointed my hand with olive 
oil, I waited until the mare was a little calm, and then intro¬ 
ducing ray hand into the vagina, I endeavoured to ascertain the 
presence and the volume of the calculus. At first I could not 


OPERATION FOR THE STONE IN THE BLADDER. 81 

feel any thing distinctly, for this foreign body was not in the 
pelvic portion of the bladder, but occupied the fundus of it, 
which lay within the abdominal border of the pubis ; and on 
that account, as soon as I pressed lightly upon it with my fingers, 
in order to grasp it, and form some vague idea of its bulk through 
the parietes of the vagina and the bladder, it slipped from me, and 
escaped into the abdomen, whither I could not follow it. Soon, 
however, the mucous membrane of the vagina being excited by 
continuance of my hand within it, new efforts were made, during 
which the calculus was pushed violently towards the neck of the 
bladder, and then I could easily ascertain its form and bulk. It 
was ovoid, and about the size of a goose’s egg. 

I have said, that in the violence of these efforts the vaginal 
orifice of the urethra was pushed to the very mouth of the 
vulva. This again occurring, I profited by it, and introduced 
my finger into the urethra, and was enabled to touch a hard 
body, the surface of w’hich was covered with asperities, so an¬ 
gular, that my finger, being somewhat hardly rubbed by it 
during one of the efforts of the mare, was slightl}^ excoriated. 

This state of the surface, and particularly the great volume of 
the calculus, prevented me from attempting to extract it with 
my fingers, as I had been able to do with other mares when the 
stone was not so large: I therefore determined to cut the neck 
of the bladder, and to extract the calculus with the forceps. 

Having provided myself with the necessary instruments, I 
passed a canula through the meatus urinarius as far as the neck of 
the bladder: I then introduced a long bistoury through the canula, 
and attempted to cut the neck of the bladder, without success • 
on one account, because the go and come motion of the calculus^ 
every moment pushed against the neck of the bladder by the 
efforts of the mare, drove away my canula and my bistoury, and 
also on account of the softness and looseness of the neck of the 
bladder which escaped from under my knife, so that I could not 
possibly cut it. I regretted that I had not at my command a 
cystocome cache (an instrument used by the human suro-eon in 
lithotomy). Being obliged to do without it, I withdrew the 
canula, and introduced instead the index and middle finger of the 
left hand, resting the extremity of their back surface against the 
left side of the neck of the bladder, and thus constituting a sup¬ 
port for the back of the bistoury, which I directed with the other 
hand, w'hile its cutting edge was brought to act on the right 
side. In this manner I was enabled, yet not without difficulty, 

to make an incision nearly two inches long. Very little blood 
was lost, " 

I then introduced the forceps, after having anointed them with 


82 OPERATION FOR THE STONE IN THE BLADDER. 

oil ; and they had scarcely entered the bladder ere they struck 
against the stone, with a ring so loud, as to make us believe that 
it was very dense. I easily seized it by its small diameter 5 but 
just as I was about to free it from the neck of the bladder, and 
was grasping it firmly for that purpose, it broke, and was reduced 
to a mass of gravel, in the centre of which were three or four 
fragments of the size of a small nut. I removed these, one after 
another, with the forceps. With the same instrument, the blades 
of which were Very large, I likewise withdrew a portion of the 
gravel; but this mode of proceeding not being sufficiently ex¬ 
peditious, and there likewise being danger of bruising the rugm 
of the mucous membrane, I made use of une curette a rectum 
(a little scoop or spoon-shaped instrument), with which I renioved 
a great part of the mass that remained, promptly, and without 
giving pain. In order perfectly to empty the bladder of the 
debris, I injected several times a quantity of warm water, which 
always brought out with it a quantity of gravel, and I only 
ceased the injections when there were no more calculous particles 
to be expelled. 

The mare did not appear to have suffered much by the operation, 
yet the pulse was full but not accelerated, and the membrane of 
the eye somewhat injected. The animal was put on spare diet. 
Mucilaginous enemata, rendered more soothing by a decoction of 
poppy-heads, were thrown up, and likewise into the vagina, 
and directed principally to the side of the meatus urinarius, and 
repeated every half-hour during the day. 

In the course of the day, the patient several times put herself 
in the posture for voiding her urine, but the efforts were less 
violent than before the operation; and she ejected each time 
a little urine slightly tinged with blood, but not mingled with 
any gravel: she drank her white water well, and ate two mea¬ 
sures of chaff. 

2d day .—The pulse is natural; the conjunctiva no longer 
injected, and the animal is looking out for food : she stales at 
longer intervals.—The same treatment. 

day .—She continues to improve. The same treatment 
with a little walking exercise. 

day .—Much better. She discharged her urine once only 
in the course of the day, and no effort attended the act of voiding 
her urine. 

XOtli day .—She was returned to her owner, apparently well. 

An examination of different portions of the calculus proved 
that, before it was broken, it was composed of an agglomeration 
of a great number of small hard particles, united together by an 
earthy substance of little consistence. These particles were gene- 


TRISMUS, SPASM OF THE DIAPHRAGM, &C. 83 

rally exceedingly angular, which explains the roughness of the 
external surface of the calculus. Like all other vesical calculi 
in the horse, it was composed almost exclusively of carbonate 
of lime. 

Recueilf July 1834. 


TRISMUS, SPASM OF THE DIAPHRAGM, AND 
GREAT NERVOUS IRRITABILITY. 

By Mr, J. Sin CLAIR, V.S., Morpeth. 

I WAS called to a bay pony, about fourteen hands high, 
aged, on the morning of the 19th September, at nine o’clock. 
I found him with his jaws rigidly locked, pulse 72, respira¬ 
tion laborious, severe convulsive twitchings of the muscles 
of the head and neck, frequently lying down and getting up ; 
when up, perambulating the stable fbr a few seconds, and then 
again lying down. The blacksmith had abstracted six pounds 
of blood. I immediately administered aloes Barb. 3vj, aqua 
bull, ^vj, ol. lini ^viij, with a small necked bottle. A mustard 
cataplasm was applied to the head and whole length of the spine; 
a double blanket was secured upon him, and repeated enemata 
given. A considerable quantity of unmasticated oats passed off 
with the first enema. 

1 o’c/oc/i:.—-The convulsive motion of the muscles abated. 
Patches of profuse perspiration broke out on several parts of the 
body. The pony takes longer intervals of rest, and sighs and 
groans most piteously. The respiration is quicker. Give gum. 
opii 3j, gum. asafoetid. 3ij, aqua bull, ^vj, camph. spt. ^iv. 

5 o'clock .—Jaws much relaxed. There was a loud beating in 
the region of the diaphragm, which could be heard at the distance 
of ten yards, and not synchronous with the pulse. This led me to 
suppose that it was a spasmodic action of that muscle, accom¬ 
panied witha distressing cough and profuse perspiraBon. I or¬ 
dered the following draught, gum. opii, pulv. digit, aa 5j, antim. 
tart, jiss, aqua bull. ^viij. 

9 p.M.—Pulse at the submaxillary and radial arteries imper¬ 
ceptible ; at the heart, fifty: the spasmodic action of the diaphragm 
nearly subsided; extremities at their natural temperature; par¬ 
takes freely of gruel; has no inclination for lying down. 

20^A, A.M. —Symptoms greatly improved. No evacuation of 
faeces since the''previous morning. Give aloes Barb. 
bull. 5viij, ol. lini ^vj, enemas repeated. 

7 p.M. —Has had one motion, accompanied with a most foetid 
smell; takes a little mash, and drinks freely of gruel. 

2 Vst. —Convalescent. 




84 


HYDROCELE IN A FOAL. 

.Bj/ Mr, Young, Muirhead of Garnkirk. 

On the 25th of June, 1834, I was consulted respecting the 
following case. 

On the 9th of the same month, about eight hours after birth, 
a foal and its mother were driven from an old house to a new farm¬ 
steading which was erecting. A quantity of old timber was lying 
about near the door. The foal fell upon a portion of the timber, 
which came in contact with the scrotum and groin, and a consi¬ 
derable enlargement of the scrotum gradually followed. 

A neighbouring quack and farrier was desired to examine the 
case. He was of opinion that the enlargement was produced by 
rupture, and thought it advisable to cut down upon it and put it 
up. The owner being sceptical about this mode of explanation 
and treatment, as the foal had sucked and dunged since the first 
attack, I was called in to examine the case; and, on seeing it, 
I was not a little surprised. There was much enlargement of 
the scrotum ; the left side had the appearance of the testicle of a 
three-years old colt, except that, when handled, it was soft and 
heavy, and extended anteriorly past the umbilicus. The sheath 
was pushed on one side, and, when the patient walked, the enlarge¬ 
ment had a vibratory and shaking motion. I gave it as my 
opinion that the swelling was filled with some fluid, and that 
there was no hernia. I then took a lancet, and made a large 
puncture in the pendulous portion of the left side of the scrotum, 
where the incision is made in castration: a green-coloured fluid 
niade its escape, to the quantity of about three quarts. I put 
into the puncture a pledget of tow, and ordered the same to be 
renewed daily, in order to keep the orifice open; the scrotum was 
rubbed with ol. tereb., ol. Europ., and aqua ammon., equal parts, 
every second day. The swelling decreased daily, and the sur¬ 
face of the scrotum became more and more wrinkled. On the 
15th of August there was no vestige of the disease, and the foal 
continues healthy. 


VETERINARY SCHOOL AT LYONS; 

EXTRACT FROM THE REPORT OF THE PROCEEDINGS DURING THE 

SCHOLASTIC YEAR 1833-4. 

-Bj/ M. Grognier, Director of the School, 


CLINICAL CHAIR. 

We have much satisfaction in announcing that the practice of 
our hospital has increased during the last year. The number of 
animals admitted into the infirmary from the first of Auo^ust in 







PROCEEDINGS OF THE VETERINARY SCHOOL AT LYONS. 85 

the last year to the end of July in the present year, is 950, viz* 
430 horses, 36 asses and mules, 1 cow, 464 dogs and cats, 
5 goats, and some other animals less common, as an ape, a coote, 
a wolf, a squirrel, &c. Less than a sixteenth of the monodactyles 
died under treatment. The mortality among the dogs was 
greater. 

The animals that have been brought to the infirmary for con¬ 
sultation, or operation, as the case might require, and also those 
that were treated by the students at the residence of the owmers, 
amounted to 1550, making a sum total of 2500. 

A few of the observations worthy of record may be classed 
under the following heads. 

Diseases of the Respiratory Organs. —Although the 
number of animals that have come under treatment appears to be 
considerable, no epizootic diseases have shewn themselves during 
the last year. The temperature was mild during the winter and 
the spring; and these seasons succeeded to each other without 
any considerable atmospheric changes. The cold rains which 
have been the frequent causes of these maladies, have, to a very 
inconsiderable extent, exerted their fatal influence. We have 
seen, however, that the variations of temperature which have ne¬ 
cessarily attended the change from one season to another, have 
produced several acute, although simple laryngeal and pharyngeal 
affections, which easily admitted of cure; and some instances of 
bronchitis, pneumonia, and pleurisy, which have proved fatal, 
when the resources of our art were not early sought. Having 
been taken in time, these maladies also have generally terminated 
favourably. The cases of pleurisy have furnished us with an op¬ 
portunity of observing the too active effects of a blister on the 
chest, even although bleeding, carried to a considerable extent, 
had been employed to prevent the intense reaction which it often 
excites. We have been more fortunate in the use of cataplasms 
of linseed-meal, on which mustard is sprinkled, and scarifications 
being afterwards applied to the cellular engorgement which usually 
follows. We have sometimes pushed on this cutaneous revulsive 
inflammation even to vesication. 

Glanders and Farcy.— The knowledge that we think we 
have acquired of the occasional causes of glanders and farcy 
enables us to explain why these diseases have been so rare during 
the winter and spring; and also why the treatment of the last of 
these affections has generally been successful. In fact, the in¬ 
fluence of a mild temperature and dry air seems to be almost as 
efficacious as any of the remedies to which we are accustomed 
to have recourse. 

With regard to farcy, M. Legros, a veterinary surgeon at Autun, 

VGL. Vlll. 


86 PROCEEDINGS OF THE VETERINARY SCHOOL AT LYONS. 

has made us acquainted with ap ointment, which we have used 
on many horses, when the farcy cords have been well developed, 
and before the suppurative softening has taken F^ce. 1 he ap¬ 
plication of it produces a very thick eschar, at the tall ot which 

the tumour has disappeared. . 

Rheumatism. —We observed many cases of rheumatic anec- 

tion of the loins among dogs during the last spring; they were 
usually produced either by plunging the animals into water, or 
by suffering them to sleep at night in cold damp places, oome 
of these affections, which had proceeded to almost complete palsy 
of the hind limbs, have given way to embrocations with cam¬ 
phorated oil, and opium, or oil of morphia, or spirituous fiictions; 
the loins being well covered. 

Castration. —No accident has occurred to any of the horses 
operated on with the clams. (The reporter does not mention 
whether the operation was performed in the covered or uncovered 

way.) 

Colic. —The dearness and scarcity of horse provender com¬ 
pelled the owners to consume all the provision for winter, and 
while it was both new and of a bad quality. It was then necessary 
to have recourse to vegetables, green or dry, and before they weie 
fit to be eaten. The consequence of this was indigestion, accom¬ 
panied by enteritis, swelling of the belly, and colic more or less 
violent. We have been so fortunate as to lose only one horse 
out of twenty-two thus affected. We employed, in the tieatment 
of them, dilute infusions of mallows and linseed, rendered slightly 
stimulant and antispasmodic by the addition of flowers of the 
linden-tree; emollient injections were also administered. W^hen 
the spasm and swelling were considerable, we fomented with 
emollient liquids, at a temperature of 110 or 120 degrees of 
Fahrenheit, and which we applied by means of wool or flannel sur¬ 
rounding the belly and the loins. We bled from one or both of the 
external thoracic veins, when the pulse was hard and frequent; 
and we did not neglect dry frictions, fumigations, and exercise. 

Rabies. —Notwithstanding the warmth and dryness which 
prevailed during the close of the spring and commencement of 
summer, we-have not had any unusual number of rabid dogs in 
our infirmary. There were only twenty-two. 

Vertigo. —Of twenty horses attacked by this disease eight 
only were cured. In the last year we succeeded in saving eight 
out of sixteen, or one-half; but this year the deep yellow tint 
of jaundice was evident on the greater part of these patients, and 
their urine, from the very beginning, was of a yellow-brown colour, 
and thick, oily, and fetid. After having allayed the cerebral 
irritation, and reduced the nervous irritability, by a revulsive 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE VETERINARY SCHOOL AT LYONS. 87 

bleeding from the coccygean vessels, the administration of ptisans 
of marshmallow and valerian, and the employment of cutaneous 
revulsive irritants, and of injections, a smell resembling that from 
mice was evident in the perspiration, and debility rapidly en¬ 
sued, to combat which we had immediate recourse to acidulated 
and bitter drinks. The horse usually died on the day following 
the appearance of these symptoms. In one patient, a seton 
became gangrenous in the space of twelve hours. 

Dartres. —Cutaneous eruptions under the form of scaly 
patches on the head, and about other parts of the body, have 
appeared on many stage-horses. They have yielded to a general 
bleeding, cooling medicine, and the application of common 
sulphur ointment. When the eruptions have been obstinate, we 
have added a few drops of the oil of Cade to the ointment. 

Gastro-Enteritis. —Irritations of the stomach and intes¬ 
tines, with little or no cerebral affection, accompany jaundice in 
the horse; and obstinate constipation, and, sometimes, slight 
dysentery, in the dog. We lost two horses from this affection, 
and wdiich speedily took on it the character of debility, although 
we had been careful to effect only small repeated bleedings, and to 
administer frequent ernulcent drinks, slightly acidulated with 
vinegar. Warm emollient baths used on many successive days, 
frequent injections, laxatives, and strict attention to diet, have 
been opposed with much success to intestinal irritation, and to 
constipation in dogs. 

Amputation. —For some years the species of dog, called 
the Bull-dog, has multiplied in Paris. These dogs, which are 
trained to fight with the bear and the bull—a barbarous amuse¬ 
ment and foreign to French habits*—are often brought to us to 
be treated for lacerations of the integument and the muscles ; 
or wath fractures resulting from blows with the feet of the bull; 
or with dreadful contusions which sometimes render amputation 
necessary. The taste for this sort of combat has risen to such a 
height, that these dogs have been loosened at the bull even after 
the amputation of one of their legs. After operating on these 
animals, it is impossible to keep the stump covered more than 
five or six days, when suppuration has been well established. 
The animal is continually endeavouring to get at it, and he tears 
the bandages from it every instant, whatever attempts we may 
make to prevent him. We then take every thing awmy, the dog 
licks it as he pleases, and the cure does not seem to be retarded 
by this ; perhaps we may say that it is hastened. 

* And, with the exception of some thoughtless young men, and more 
blackguards, foreign also to the feelings and habits of Englishmen. 


ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 


88 

In that degeneracy of the tissue of the frog of the horse, called 
crapaud, we have tried the mode of local treatment so highly 
spoken of by some veterinarians, and which consists in cauter¬ 
izing the part by means of inflamed gunpowder. This method, 
like a great many others, has not yet been attended with much 
success; but we will continue it until the observation of a great 
number of cases will permit us to draw some well-founded con- 
' elusion. In the meantime, we would warn practitioners that 
gunpowder alone will produce only a simple black film, or stain, 
on the tissues, without any proper eschar; and that it will be 
necessary to mix together one part of sulphur with two of nitre, 
in order to obtain a scab of sufficient thickness. 

Grease. —M. Schoale, veterinary surgeon at Fontaine on the 
Rhone, having requested us to use the caustic powder of Dr. 
Dubois, and which he had applied with much success, in order to 
arrest the discharge of grease, and to destroy the cutaneous 
morbid growths known by the name of Grapes, we have done so 
on two horses, and have completely succeeded. We will try it 
again as occasion may present itself, and we will record the 
result. 

Glanders not hereditary .—A colt three years old, from a mare 
that had both farcy and glanders, and by a horse that was blind, 
continues in good health, although it has always been among 
glandered horses. The eyes also continue to be free from disease. 

M. Grognier terminated his discourse with some advice to the 
pupils, warning them of the rocks which they should carefully 
avoid when they left the school, and laying down some excellent 
rules by which their future conduct and practice should be guided. 

Recueil, Oct. 1834. 


ANNUAL REPORT OF THE VETERINARY SCHOOL 
IN NASSAU STREET, FOR 1834. 

The number of horses that came under treatment during the 
last year was 379; and of other domesticated animals, 1373 ; 
total 1752 : being a decrease of 47 horse-cases, and an increase 
of 213 among the other ordinary patients of the veterinary sur¬ 
geon. Among the fercc naturae, whose diseases have often afforded 
instructive lessons to the pupils, 222 are recorded; being 78 more 
than in the last year, and affording a gross number of 1974 cases. 
Notwithstanding this, the year has been an unusually healthy 
one, at least so far as serious complaints and the loss of patients 
are concerned. 

In 1833, 49 cases of Influenza occurred; in 1834, only 17. 
In 1833, there were 8 deaths from this complaint; in 1834, only 




VETERINARY SCHOOL IN NASSAU STREET. 


89 


3: and, in both years, the advantage of gentle aperient medi¬ 
cine, and the danger of pushing it but a very little too far, were 
sufficiently evident. 

Of Carditis, of which, in 1832, 8 cases occurred, there was 
only 1 in 18tl3, and 1 in 1834. 

Of true Flatulent Colic, so rife in the north of the kingdom, 
not a single case occurred in either 1833 or 1834. Of serious 
Spasmodic Colic, the 15 cases of 1833 actually dwindled down 
to 4 in 1834; and all of them yielded to bleeding where fever 
was indicated, walking exercise, and the spirits of turpentine and 
opium. 

Three bad cases of Farcy in the last year, and 1 in the present, 
yielded to the application of the budding-iron, occasional appli¬ 
cation of the corrosive sublimate wash, and the internal admi¬ 
nistration of the sulphate of iron, wdth gentian and ginger—not in 
the form of our friend Turner’s grmi solution —very useful, doubt¬ 
less, in many a case; but administered in the old-fashioned way, 
as a ball. 

Of Simple Fever, and in such a form that it could not admit 
of a moment’s doubt or question, 6 cases occurred in the last 
year, and 7 in the preceding ; and they all were subdued by 
prompt yet moderate bleeding until the pulse just began to be 
affected, small doses of laxative medicine, digitalis, and nitre. 

The cases of Fistulous Withers that occurred afforded addi¬ 
tional proof, if it were wanting, that nothing more is necessary 
for the cure than a seton through the lowest sinus, and a solution 
of the chloride of lime, varying in strength according to the ap¬ 
pearance or foetor of the wound, and although gradually yielding 
to the compound tincture of aloes, yet, perhaps, occasionally 
resorted to again and again. 

Of 6 cases of Glanders, 5 took their usual course, and the 
patients died. The other was a case of acute glanders, serious, 
and threatening to be fatal. A medicine (the composition of 
which I know not, but which was sent to me by a veterinary 
surgeon in the west-country, with the promise that, if it proved 
to be effectual, the whole history and nature of it should be di¬ 
vulged for the good of the profession) was administered ; and under 
the influence of which the horse rapidly improved, and is now 
perfectly sound and well. A portion of it was sent to Professor 
Coleman, who promised that it should receive a fair trial. It 
was entrusted to a person at the College, who expressed great 
unwillingness to use it, until he was properly silenced by the 
positive command of his superior. It was not used, after all, at 
the College, where the observation of its eflect would have been 
interesting, but on an out-patient (c//'e they still alloived?), and 


90 ANNUAL RLPOIIT OF THE 

is said to have failed. I think I can promise a supply of it to 
any gentleman who is disposed to experiment with it; for although 
the gentleman from whom I had received it thought that he had 
sufficiently enwrapped himself in mystery, I know him well 
enough. I will only say of it, that 1 have tried it owcc on a 
fair, or rather a bad case, and that it succeeded. I can guess at 
the ingredients ; but my friend (for as such I regard him) must, 
at some time or other, tell his own tale. 

Of Laryngitis two cases occurred, but neither of them accom¬ 
panied by the scarlatina desciioed by my friends Pei civ all and 
Chapman. In the preceding year, however, I had a case of it. 
The papers of these gentlemen are exceedingly interesting. 

Of Mange, and someCutaneousEruptions almost identical with 
it, 18 cases are recorded; and troublesome enough some of them 
have been. That which seemed to have most effect, and which in 
several instances effected a cure, hitherto permanent, was a lotion 
composed of equal parts of a decoction of tobacco and spirit of 
tar, together with the persevering use of the common alteratives, 
levigated antimony, nitre, and sulphur, with occasional mild 
purgatives. We much want a plain and practical classification 
of these skin diseases. Mr. Percivall, in the first volume of his 
Hippopathology, has rendered us much service here. Another 
touch of his wand will dispel the whole of that obscurity which 
confounds and misleads us. 

Beside the cases of ordinary skin disease, there were two in 
which, with no scabby eruption and very little redness, there 
was a degree of itching, in one case confined to the flank, in 
another spreading almost over the frame, which nearly drove the 
horses mad. Shall we add pruitus to our list of cutaneous 
affections? It yielded to bleeding, physic, and the frequent 
application of nitrated water. 

Pure pneumonia has been particularly rare, and of pleurisy 
the cases have been few. Is it that the disease is gradually dis¬ 
appearing, as a more rational treatment of the horse is adopted, 
"'"'or that our nosology beginning to be a little more worthy 
of our art, so many diseases plainly, and most advantageously 
for us as practical men, arrange themselves under the denomi¬ 
nations of catarrh in all its shades of mildness or severity, 
bronchitis, carditis, coryza, cynanche, enteritis, fever, hepatitis, 
influenza, laryngitis, pleurisy, tracheitis, and various others, 
that there are few left for pneumppia, and they of very doubtful 
character? Whatever may be tli^l^aus^, there were but two 
patients in which theEhpracteristic s;^mpt6n?i^^^^ of this once-sup¬ 
posed prevalent malady cbuld be deafly traced. 

’ From what cause 1 am ttnablc satisfactorily to explain, whe- 

\ 


VETERINARY SCHOOL IN NASSAU STREET. 


91 


ther from the continued dryness or hardness of the roads, or any 
atmospherical influence producing local and partial debility, or 
the owner being tempted by the unusual and long-continued 
fineness of the weather to ride a little too far and too fast, or 
whether the whole is to be traced to the singular and inexplica¬ 
ble irregularity which sometimes attends not only medical prac¬ 
tice, but everything else, the number of cases of sprain, or lesions 
of the tendons of the extremities, or their sheaths, has, this year, 
more than doubled the average of many preceding years, and 
some of them have been of a very serious character. The sus¬ 
pensory ligaments have suffered to an extraordinary degree, 
and yet the general tendency to enlargement about the legs, and 
indeed to oedematous swellings generally, has rarely, in the 
course of my practiee, been so little. 

Among dogs, disease has taken on a somewhat different cha¬ 
racter. The cases of illness have been considerably more nu¬ 
merous than usual, but they have comparatively rarely been 
severe. Cutaneous affections have been prevalent to an extent 
altogether unprecedented. In 1833, there were 150 cases of it; 
and in the last year, no fewer than 249. Their prevalence seemed 
to be clearly connected with the temperature of the atmosphere. 
In April there were only 7 cases, in May 13, in June 19, in 
July 30, in August 42, in September 32, in October 23, in 
November 23, and in December only 10. The predisposition 
to it, and the actual appearance of it, began to increase as sum¬ 
mer came on : the disease was established as a kind of epidemic in 
August, and began regularly to subside as autumn and winter 
approached. The disease had likewise assumed a character 
almost unknown, not many years ago. The common scabby 
mange, which could be easily grappled with, and generally sub¬ 
dued, w^as little seen—even the usual red mange, with the fox- 
coloured stain, was not of more frequent occurrence than usual ; 
but an intolerable itching, with comparatively little redness of 
skin — rarely with sufficient to account for the torture which 
the animal seemed to endure, and, often, with not the slightest 
discoloration of the integument, was brought under our notice 
almost every day, and under its influence the dog became ill- 
tempered, dispirited, emaciated, and occasionally fairly sunk. 
All unguents were thrown away here. Lotions of corrosive sub¬ 
limate, or decoction or infusion of digitalis, or tobacco, alone did 
good, with the persevering use of alteratives and purgatives, and 
the abstraction of blood. 

Acute mange of another form—the sudden appearance of red¬ 
ness of skin, and exudation from it, and actual sores, with the 
falling off of the hair, and itching that seemed to be intoler- 


ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 


92 

able—has also been prevalent to an unprecedented extent; but 
it has been as mangeable as usual. A dose or two of physic, 
the application of the calamine ointment, and, in a few cases, 
one bleeding, have caused it to disappear almost as suddenly as 
it came. 

Distemper has also been very prevalent: 1833 afforded 148 
cases of it; in the last year 254 cases occurred. The charac¬ 
ter of the disease has, however, been mild, almost without parallel. 
With diarrhoea and dysentery, amounting only to 36 cases 
—and with somewhat less than the usual proportion of nervous 
affections, degenerating into epilepsy, the malady was not difficult 
to treat; and, consequently, although the actual number of 
patients exceeded those of the preceding year in the proportion 
of five to three, the deaths were not so numerous by fifteen. 
This year also its dependence on serial agency was plain enough. 
It is usually a disease of the spring and autumn: thus in 
February there were only 8 cases, in March 24, April 25, May 38, 
in June 21, and in July only 7, in August 26, September 28, 
October 33, and in November and December very few. 

Rabies, on the contrary, has shewn its absolute independence 
on atmospheric agency, at least that agency which has been sup¬ 
posed to have so much power over it,—temperature. Only four¬ 
teen cases of it occurred in the last year:—in February 1, April I, 
June 2, July 1, August 2, September 1, October 1, Novem¬ 
ber!, and December 4. 

Sixteen cases of enlargement of the thyroid glands have oc¬ 
curred—fourteen of which yielded to iodine, in doses of from a 
quarter to a third of a grain, morning and night, and continued 
during three or four weeks. 

The worm patients have multiplied—there have been 54. 
In nearly all of them the little mischief done by worms, 
unless their presence has been associated with other and more 
serious complaints, has been sufficiently evident, and also the 
efficacy of the mechanical mode of treatment in order to their 
expulsion. 

Rheumatism, and leading to partial loss of power over the 
hinder extremities, has been of frequent occurrence, and gene¬ 
rally obstinate. Warm baths and emollient aperients have been 
most successful in the treatment of it. No fewer than 22 cases 
of paralysis of the hinder limbs have occurred ; the majority have 
yielded to these means, or to the continued but mild stimulus 
of a pitch plaister, or a charge. 

Of Asthma, 58 cases have occurred : and vffiat would puzzle 
the human pathologist, they are of most frequent occurrence in 
the latter part of the spring, and as the summer advances. 


VETERINARY SCHOOL IN NASSAU STREET. 93 

and comparatively disappear in the winter. Emetics are our most 
successful weapons here. 

In some few cases of cattle, and among some undomes¬ 
ticated animals, we had most interesting and important illustra¬ 
tions of the nature of phthisis and the power of iodine over it. 
These well deserve a separate notice. 

The communication from Edinburgh is necessarily postponed 
until the next number. How happy should we be to give in¬ 
sertion to the transactions of another school, and which could 
not fail of being instructive and valuable ! 

Y. 


ABSCESS IN THE SUBLUMBAB REGION IN A MARE; 
PASSAGE OF PUS INTO THE VERTEBRAL CANAL. 

By M. Decoste. 

A MARE, eight years old, and that had been exceedingly irri¬ 
table, and accustomed to kick, sometimes ceased her violence all 
at once, and in her manner of going seemed to express consider¬ 
able pain in the lumbar region. On the 2d of November, 1826, 
she received a violent blow on that part, and a phlegmonous 
tumour followed as large as an egg. The populeum ointment 
was applied*. 

4^A.—Fluctuation was perceptible; an incision was made into 
the tumour, and a small quantity of coagulated blood escaped. I 
should, perhaps, have said, that for some days before this acci¬ 
dent, she did not appear to have full power over her hind limbs ; 
the action was less Lee and assured, and a slight pressure on the 
loins gave very great pain, which she expressed by her groans. 

6th.~ She lay on her left side, and made violent and useless 
efforts to raise herself; and it was only by means of a bar, and 
the assistance of several persons, that we were able to get her up 
for a moment, and then her weight was supported by her fore 
feet, while her hind limbs were flexed and motionless. We again 

* This is a favourite emollient and soothing ointment with the Freneh 
practitioners. It is very curiously prepared. Take of dried buds of the 
black poplar, two parts: fresh leaves otpopp}^ belladonna, black (common) 
henbane, blaek (common) nightshade, of each one part, and of prepared 
lard twelve parts. The leaves are cut and bruised, and boiled in the lard, 
a^**^*^ taken that tliey do not burn ; the poplar buds bruised are then 
added, and lett to infuse in the hot grease fbr two or three hours, and the 
whole then pressed through a cloth or tine sieve. It is used to supple tlie 
skin, to hasten the separation of eschars, to heal chaps and cracks, and to 
calm pain and ease irritation in muscular and fibrous parts. Y, 

VOL. VIII. 




94 ABSCESS IN THE SUBLUMBAR REGION IN A MARE, &C. 

laid her down on plenty of good litter. Her efforts, with her 
fore legs, to raise herself were incessant, but her hind ones re¬ 
mained in anv posture in which we chose to place them. 
was covered with perspiration, particularly about the base of the 
ears, the shoulders and the flank^; the respiration accelerated; 
the nostrils dilated, and the membrane of the nose of an intense 
red ; the pulse full and hard ; the temperature of the hind limbs 
cold, compared with that of the fore ones. The tumour of yes¬ 
terday now presented nothing but a little opening without en¬ 
largement. _ . • 1 1 • 

Two setons, dipped in a stimulating fluid, were introduced into 

the thighs I the animal expressed a great deal of pain during the 
operation. This sensibility appeared to me extraordinary. I 
pricked the paralyzed limbs in various places, and as low as the 
coronet, and everywhere the sensibility was excessive. Ten 
pounds of blood were taken from the jugular; stimulating fric¬ 
tions were applied over the loins, and anodyne drinks and muci¬ 
laginous injections were resorted to. 

In the same state. The sensibility as great as on the 
former evening. The appetite good; frequent meanings ; con¬ 
tinual agitation of the fore limbs ; the heat of the whole of the 
body diminished ; general perspiration, and also general debility. 
Six drachms of nux vomica were administered. 

Sth.—The pulse very feeble; cold sweats ; the paralyzed limbs 
as acutely sensible as before. Eight drachms of the nux vomica, 
after which there was slight agitation of the limbs ; the pulse was 
more developed, and there appeared to be intense inflammation 
of the conjunctival membranes. 

9^/?, A.M. —The body covered with cold sweat; respiration dif¬ 
ficult ; pulse not to be felt; the sensibility of the hind limbs still 
retained. She died at five o’clock in the afternoon. 

Post-mortem Pxamlnation. —The floating portion of the colon 
and some portions of the small intestines were slightly inflamed. 

The right pleural membrane was injected—black. The lung on 
the same side was black and gorged with blood ; the animal had 
lain on that side during the whole of her illness. The tissue of 
the lungs was easily torn. The right cavities of the heart were 
red ; the tissue of that organ was pale and flaccid. 

The lesions in the neighbourhood of the tumour that has been 
spoken of, were confined to the sub-cutaneous tissue : but in 
raising the left clio-spinal muscle (the longissimus dorsi) towards 
the last dorsal vertebra and the first lumbar, we found under it a 
collection of purulent matter, which penetrated into the spinal 
cavity by means of the canals for the passage of the nerves. The 
pus which it contained was generally black, with green points or 
specks, and had a carious smell. Many of the vertebrae had 


FACTS AND OBSERVATIONS ON DIARRH(EA IN CATTLE. 95 

points of their surface carious. The pus which had entered the 
spinal cavity had not penetrated through the spinal mem¬ 
branes. 

We exposed a part of the spinal chord, corresponding with the 
points occupied by the puriform matter. The superior columns 
were softened to the extent of three or four inches, and towards 
the hole through which the pus had penetrated into the spinal 
canal: this portion of the spinal chord was more fluid, and of a 
yellow colour. The inferior columns had the same hue, but more 
consistence. The cellular tissue surrounding the chord was 
highly injected. 

This case appears to me valuable on account of the evident 
cause of the paralysis, the effusion of pus into the spinal canal, a 
fact which 1 believe stands alone in the records of veterinary me¬ 
dicine. The increased sensibility is also well accounted for by 
the state in which the superior columns were found. 

Recueil. 


PATHOLOGICAL FACTS, AND OBSERVATIONS ON 

DIARRHCEA IN CATTLE. 

jBj/ Mr, Samuel Browne, F.5'., Melton Mowbray. 

As the diseases of neat cattle were not taught at the institu¬ 
tion from which we derived our professional instruction during 
my pupilage, it may appear presumptuous in me to address you 
on that subject; because the practical knowledge which I possess 
is not based upon any professor’s lectures on this branch of our 
art. But I am fully sensible of the utility of your Journal, and 
my object in writing is to fill a void space in its pages—not pre¬ 
suming to instruct, but hoping to amuse. 

Diarrhoea is met with in every variety of breed ; and although 
young cattle are the most subject to its attack, it occurs 
in both sexes long after the adult period. Diarrhoea is said to 
be a chronic inflammation of the mucous coat of the bowels; 
and post-mortem examinations and some painful reflections have 
convinced me that these traces of disease in the mucous mem¬ 
brane are often either the effects of an imperfect digestion, or a 
morbid biliary secretion. In winter store cattle generally live on 
straw, or ill-got mouldy hay. This kind of food may absorb a 
smaller quantity of water, or injure the internal surface of the 
stomachs so much as to check the natural secretions. The pecu¬ 
liar structure and, perhaps, functions of the manyplus may render 
it highly favourable to the accumulation of cakes of indigestible 
food between its plaits, and which become indurated to such a 




96 FACTS AND OBSERVATIONS ON DIARRHOEA IN CATTLE. 

degree as to impair the functions of the organ. Hence the food 
passes into the abomasum in too crude a state for its powers of 
assimilation, and the consequence probably is, that it acts as a 
constant source of irritation on the intestinal canal. 

Although I have said that the exciting causes of diarrhoea 
may be either an obstruction of the third stomach, or a morbid 
action of the liver; yet, in a majority of cases, there is such a 
similarity of symptoms, that I am unable to distinguish the one 
from the other. If the history of the case is such, however, as 
will lead us to suspect the third stomach, of course the fipt indi¬ 
cation of treatment is to evacuate its contents. We might na¬ 
turally suppose that this object would be easily attained by 
cathartics; but I must confess that I am rather sceptical as to 
their solvent powers upon cakes of food which are perfectly dry, 
and apparently pressed until their texture is almost incredibly 
firm. I usually commence the treatment with the administration 
of a saponaceous oily mixture ; not supposing that it is the 
greatest solvent, but under the impression that this bland fluid 
may lubricate the foliaceous parts of the stomach, and operate 
in some measure mechanically : and I have frequently observed 
pieces of hardened half-digested food pass with the liquid faeces 
after its administration. 

In order that the stomach may be less called into action, the 
regimen consists of a very small quantity of hay, with plenty of 
gruel, made either of wheat, or bean flower, or linseed; and some¬ 
times with mutton suet boiled in skim milk, and thickened with 
wheat flour or starch. 

If this treatment should not restrain the purging, some ano¬ 
dyne astringent medicines with aromatics and absorbents are 
given; and, as a last resource, the animal is compelled to drink 
lime-water, which has occasionally succeeded. 

This treatment has restored health to some of my patients 
when the cases were apparently hopeless; and I believe that I 
may conscientiously say that they have become as useful, both 
as regards their milk or flesh, as they would have been had they 
not been attacked with disease. In those cases in which the 
liver does not properly perform its functions, I have frequently 
given alterative doses of calomel combined with opium and aro¬ 
matics ; and the compound powders of either kino or cinnamon, 
cascarilla and cinchona, arrest the alvine discharge, and restore 
the animal to a state of considerable usefulness, as regards its 
preparation for the butcher, and in several cases a cure has been 
effected. 

I have met with cases of diarrhoea in which the attack was 
sudden and violent, and from the expression of abdominal pain 


iJYPERTROPHY OP THE HEART. 97 

I conceive that they were primarily an affection of the mucous 
coat of the bowels. This variety of the disease is characterized 
by the animal striking its belly, frequently lying down, and 
shifting from side to side. The pulse is quick, the nose dry, 
and the eyes shrunk in their orbits; rumination and the secre¬ 
tion of milk are suspended ; depression of strength supervenes, 
and the beast becomes unable to rise. The alvine excretions are 
voided in large quantities ; they are fetid, of a dark colour, and 
extremely fluid. 

In these cases I have succeeded with calomel and opium, 
aromatics, &c.; copious draughts of starch or arrow-root, with 
clysters of starch and powdered opium. 

In some of those patients that died of diarrhoea, and which I 
have dissected, the manyplus was distended with cakes of indu¬ 
rated food, which adhered so firmly to the leaves of the stomach 
that it was impracticable to empty it without tearing them. The 
membranous coat of the abomasum and intestinal canal pre¬ 
sented an irritated surface, slightly injected and partially thick¬ 
ened. In one subject the liver was enlarged, and the gall-bladder 
contained a small quantity of black viscid bile. But in others 
the livers were small, of a dark colour, and firm texture. The 
gall-bladders were enlarged, and the bile exhibited different 
morbid changes, being thin, and of a pale colour, or turbid, re¬ 
sembling a mixture of turmeric and water; and one of them, 
which was filled with turbid bile and concretion, weio-hed twelve 
pounds. The mucous coat of the bowels was injected, but there 
was more uniformity in their appearance. 


HYPERTROPHY OF THE HEART. 

By M. Huvellier. 

On the 29th of August 1831, I was requested to open a cow, 
five years old, in moderate condition, and that had died during 
the period of warranty. As she was led from the fair, she was 
seized with frequent cough, and with so much difficulty of 
breathing that she was obliged, every now and then, to stand 
still. She lived three days, eating very little ; she was then 
seized with another fit of coughing, and fell, and died in a moment. 

Both lobes of the lungs were sound. The heart, of an enormous 
size, was surrounded by membranes thick and hard, and which 
seemed to be folds of the pericardium, and from which they could 
scarcely be distinguished. In cutting into them in order to arrive 
at the heart, nothing could be perceived but a gross, irregular, 
thickened mass, very soft, offering to the touch, where it was 




HYPERTROPHY OF THE HEART. 


98 

most enlarged, several hardened masses of the size of an egg, 
and which appeared to bound the part which was nearest to the 
lungs. 

The coronary scissure of the heart was not to be found; it 
was covered with soft, fleshy folds, seemingly belonging to the 
heart. On removing them the auricles could be recognized, very 
much dilated, irregularly studded with tumours, and resembling 
the liver in their colour. Some of these tumours were hard, and 
creaked under the edge of the bistoury ; others, within walls of 
considerable thickness, contained a quantity of pus, in some of 
a yellow and in others of a dark green colour. The interior of 
these cysts resembled that of pulmonary vomicm. 

The whole of the right auricle was prodigiously enlarged. It 
was surrounded by many of these tumours, but there was one, 
larger than any of the rest, the walls of which were very thin, 
and had been lacerated apparently from within ; although nearly 
empty, it still contained a small quantity of pus and blood. The 
remaining part of the blood and pus that had been contained in 
this pouch was found in the right ventricle. The violent fit of 
coughing had, without doubt, ruptured the tumour; it had 
poured its contents into the auricle, whence they had descended 
into the ventricle, and caused immediate suffocation. 

The other auricle, similarly dilated, presented at its base similar 
clusters of tumours, but they were not so soft. The ventricles, 
arteries, and pulmonary veins, were gorged with excessively black 
blood. In many parts that portion of the pleura that formed 
the pericardium appeared to be cartilaginous, and creaked under 
the knife, as a scirrhous tumour would do. 

The parietes of the right ventricle towards the apex of the 
heart, were enlarged, and soft, and thin as a piece of paper, 
and seemed as if they would have burst at the application of the 
slightest strain. 

I have no knowledge of the cause of such strange disorder of 
this organ: I can scarcely think that it would be the result of 
any external violence. I am rather inclined to believe that I have 
here seen the true cancer of the heart. 

Although our usages only admit as unsoundness chronic 
affection of the lungs, yet I could not hesitate in concluding that 
there was fully sufficient here to set aside the sale, and the 
Tribunal did not object to this. 


Recueilf Jari. 1834. 


99 


STRANGITI.ATION OF THE RECTUM, AND INFLAM¬ 
MATION OF THE COLON AND CiECUM. 

Bj/ Mr.W, A. Cartwright, Whitchurch, 

On Tuesday, 23d Sept. 1834, Mr. Cookson, jun. of the 
Woodhouses, had been riding a grey gelding of his six years old, 
and returned with him home about ten at night, when he was 
cleaned and made perfectly dry. In about half an hour after¬ 
wards a bucket-full of water was given to him, and he was then 
left for the night. The next morning, about five o’clock, he was 
discovered by the waggoner to have the gripes. A drink composed 
of ol. juniper and oil of turpentine was given by the owner, 
and the horse was walked about a good deal. He did not 
sweat, but rolled over very often, and the pulse was very little 
quickened than natural. 

24ithf 8 A.M.— No better. Three quarts of blood were taken 
from him, and he was cl 3 ^stered. 12 m.— No change. One pint 
and a half of linseed oil and two ounces tinct. opii were given ; 
the clysters were repeated, and the animal was walked about. 
6 p. M.— The same. Three quarts more blood were abstracted, 
but which, like the former bleeding, did not seem to give him 
any relief; he continued rolling about, and over and over, and 
getting up and lying down most of the night. No dung had 
come from him since the commencement of the attack, but his 
bowels were rumbling all the night as if they were about 
to discharge their contents. He was not swelled. 

26th, 2 p.M. —I first saw him. He was then lying on his 
near side, all at full length, and breathing quickly—his pulse 
was 73. Eyes inflamed; legs and ears, and up his nostrils, 
intensely cold—he rolled over on his back, and was often looking 
towards his side. I had no hope of his recovering, and con¬ 
sequently did not carry the bleeding to the extent I generally 
do ; he had been ill too long, and the general symptoms made me 
despair. I however gave aloes Cape jiij, antim. tart. 3iss, and 
opium oSS, in a drink ; and made an infusion of 3iij lyttm, and 
rubbed it on the abdomen, but which produced no effect. 4 p.m. 
—Gave aloes 3iss, antim. 3iss, and opium 3ss, in some water, 
and took about two quarts of blood from him; but I had great 
difficulty in obtaining even that quantity. 7 p.m.— No better: 
the opium evidently produced a desire for sleep, and calmed the 
system generally ; the pulse also decreased in rapidity, and the 
respiration became nearly natural, but its effects subsided in the 
course of half an hour, and he became then as bad as ever. I left 
two doses of medicine, composed of aloes and antimony, to be 


L 


100 STRANGULATION OF THE RECTUM, &C. 

given in the night, and also a strong liquid blister to be rubbed 
on the abdomen, not expecting to find him alive in the morning. 

7 A.M. —Worse. Nothing has yet been voided from the 
bowels,^ but he has urined twice—has been restless and 
agitated during the whole of the night; the pulse cannot 
be felt at the jaw, and is not more than about 50 at the heart. 
The breathing is stertorous, and the belly now swelled. In a 
quarter of an hour after I now saw him; he got up, sta^j^ered about, 
tumbled against the stall, fell down, lay awhile, struggled, and 
died in great agony. During the whole time he never sweated 
in the least. 

Post-mortem Emmmatio?i.~-The colon and cmcum were highly 
inflamed, their muscular coats congested, and the others highly 
tinged. These intestines were filled with faeces, and the smaller 
ones had also contained some, but in all of them it was quite 
soft, and, in a manner, in a liquid state. Two feet of the rectum, 
about two yards from the anus, were twisted and strangulated, 
and filled with hard dry fasces, but it was not to any great 
degree diseased or inflamed. There w'as not any dung in the 
rectum posteriorly to the strangulated portion. This, no doubt, 
would have been a good case to have used the patent syringe, 
if I had then had one. 


ABSCESS ON THE SPINAL MARROW. 

By the same. 

A CHATSE-HORSE has had a puffy tumour, the size of an egg, 
for the last two or three years, just over between the first and 
second bones of the lumbar vertebrae, and rather on one side, but 
which appears not to have caused lameness or perceptible pain : it 
was not sore, nor considered by her farrier to contain matter ; but, 
one day in the month of June last, 1834, the horse was fetched 
up out of a field adjoining the house where he had been feeding, 
and seemed in perfect health, when on coming quietly up to the 
yard he made a bit of a stumble, fell down, and instantly ex¬ 
pired. The owner wished me to examine him, in order to find 
out the cause of his sudden death. 

Examination. 07i the foUowmg morning .—On laying open the 
abovementioned tumour, it was found to contain about ^ij of 
matter, of a creamy consistence and colour: this was contained in 
a sort of cyst, from which there was a small opening that a probe 
could just be introduced into, and which continued for about 
half an inch, where it opened into another abscess close upon the 
spinal chord, and which seemed to have burst and discharged 




VETERINARY MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. 


101 

its contents into the vertebral canal. The spinal marrow was 
evidently thinner just under the place where the abscess had 
been pressing. 


[Indisposition—sudden in its attack—renders the preparation 
of a Leader impossible: our readers will kindly excuse it. In 
the mean time the following Scotch cause, although somewhat 
lengthy, may be acceptable. It still farther explains the method 
ot proceeding in the northern courts, and places the reader in 
the situation of juryman in the cause.— Ed.] 

Scotch Court.—Supposed Rupture of the Extensor 

Tendon of the Hind Leg. 

Drummonds v, Leslie. 

Pursuer^ Proof, 

James Plumpton, horse dealer and flesher in Brechin, de¬ 
posed that he attended the fair- in Keith, in 1827, and looked at 
a black mare belonging to the defender; that she appeared lame 
on the near fore foot and off hind leg; but does not recollect 
whether he mentioned it or not to him : was asked by Drum¬ 
monds, who afterwards purchased the mare, to go and see her, 
when he remarked how he had come so far to buy a crippled 
beast; and, at the same time, a Mr. Elder, who is since dead, 
came forward and asked whether witness or the pursuer had 
bought the crippled beast; he did not examine to see what was 
the matter, but that she was lame. Pursuer said nothing when 
told that she was lame. Understood that £25 was paid for her, 
which was a fair price. 

John MacGregor recollects of a black mare being brought, in 
Sept. 1827, to the stables of his father; she was put into a 
stall by herself all night. Witness does not think she sustained 
any injury : there was a pony in another stall. Witness observed 
no lameness when he took the mare into the stable, and saw 
that she was lame next morning; he only saw her walk into the 
stable at night: next morning she was put into another stable, 
where she was kept for several months, and attended by him. 
He rode her twice a-day to water ; she was always lame when 
taken out, but got better with exercise, and continued in this 
state until she was sold by public roup. She was tied in the 

VOL. VIII, p 




102 VETERINARY MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. 

stable the first night with a rope and stall collar. The pony 
was in the next stall; but there were no other horses in the 
stable : the pony was fastened in his stall. 

Alexander MacGregor corroborated the former witness’s state¬ 
ment. The lameness was in the near hind leg: observed the 
swelling between the knee and the hoof, nearer the latter than 
the former. She was lame all the time she was in his stable, 
under the care of his son. She received no injury that he knows 
of in his possession; the swelling was very considerable next 
morning after she came into the stable. The swelling must have 
been of old standing, for he knows of nothing to occasion it be¬ 
tween the night and morning. He never felt the swelling. The 
pony stood on the near side of the mare. The pursuer said no¬ 
thing about the mare being lame when she came to the stable. 
Witness has no doubt, that if the mare had been in the same 
state in the market as she appeared in the morning, the pursuer 
(a dealer) would not have been deceived with her; but, as the 
swelling got less after exercise, perhaps a person might have 
been deceived : the swelling never went entirely away, but was 
sometimes better and sometimes worse. 

Thomas Fawces, cattle dealer, was shewn the mare the morn¬ 
ing after the market, and remarked to pursuer that she was very 
lame. Did not examine the mare minutely ; saw no cut, mark, 
or bruise; and witness therefore thought the lameness was of 
some standino^, and that the mare must have been unsound on 

O' 

the day before he saw her, and never saw the mare before or 
since. 

John Robinson, cattle dealer, Perth, observed the mare to be 
lame on the off hind leg next day; examined her particularly ; 
observed no broken skin, and therefore thought it was an old 
lameness. 

John McBa^, carrier, saw her often while at McGregor’s ; 
observed that the lameness got better with exercise. 

Alexander Steehles, horse and cattle dealer, saw the mare the 
day after the market; she was dead lame on the off hind leg, 
and the whole leg much sw'ollen from the hoof to the knee. 
Witness supposed, after a careful examination of the mare, that 
the lameness and swelling were occasioned by an old blemish, 
—that the mare had been at grass for a considerable time be¬ 
fore, and that the fatigue of coming to the market, after having 
been upon grass, brought down the shot of grease, which shewed 
the lameness: never saw the mare since.—(Cross-examined). 
For the defender. Witness supposed that the mare had been lame 
before, and that the lameness had been considerably got the 
better of by the grass, and had been brought on again by the 


VETEHINARY MRDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. 103 

iatigue of the journey to the market by McGregor. The 
distance between the market stand and McGregor’s stables is 
about one hundred yards. 

Peter McGregor, blacksmith, saw that the lameness did not 
arise from the shoe, and recommended for a farrier to be sent for. 

James Diiff , formerly horse-dealer in Keith, saw her when she 
was sold by public sale; she was swelled in both hind legs. 

Thomas Smith, veterinary surgeon, of Montrose, was requested 
to visit and inspect a black mare then in the possession of Mr. 
Duff, and which witness was informed had been purchased at a 
public roup in Keith ; that he went and saw the mare, and found 
her, in his opinion, to be unsound from a contraction of the co¬ 
ronet on the left fore foot; also from a rupture of the extensory 
tendons of the off hind leg. Witness was satisfied that both de¬ 
fects had existed for a considerable time ; the contraction, in the 
witness’s opinion, being of the longest standing : thinks the 
contraction existed for twelve months, and the rupture for four 
months, at the least.— For the defender. Witness has a diploma 
from Mr. Coleman, in London ; studied three years with him, and 
was seven years in Edinburgh with Mr. Gray. Cannot say if 
the contraction of the foot was natural, or occasioned by accident 
or disease. Witness thinks the rupture was occasioned by a 
sprain, and not likely to be occasioned by a blow, though a 
blow sometimes occasions it; it might have been occasioned by 
violent exercise, or by a sudden jerk, or from the animal having 
put its foot into a hole. Saw no appearance of grease about 
the mare. That swelling of the‘limb always ensues immediately 
after a rupture of extensory tendons. Does not think it possible 
for a horse having a rupture of the extensory tendons to travel 
a distance of fifteen or twenty miles without a swelling arising in 
the limb in time sufficient to indicate the existence of the rupture ; 
and by this he means, not a general swelling, which will go off by 
exercise, but a swelling which will indicate a rupture to a pro¬ 
fessional man, only cannot say how long a swelling occasioned 
by rupture will remain if not reduced by practice. Was shewn 
the mare at Botriphnie, by the grieve or upper servant; had 
some conversation with him; examined the mare most minutely 
in his presence; felt her limbs and body, and made the servant 
walk and trot her, and turn her in a circle. Said to the servant, 
that there was no doubt the mare was lame. Did not say to 
him that he had got a real good beast. Does not recollect of 
having stated any thing to tlie servant at Botriphnie about a 
law plea respecting the mare. 


John P/owcnlf, veterinary surgeon, Inverness, granted a certi- 
licatc, dated the 12th of October, 1827, which tlie fiursuer now 



104 VETERINARY MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. 

tenders in evidence; and the defender, rather than defer his 
proof, consents to the certificate being held as evidence, and of 
which certificate the tenour follows :—I have this day ex¬ 
amined a black mare, and pronounce her to be unsound, but 
from what cause I am not able to say* I am of opinion, that she 
must have been unsound, although she did not shew it, the day 
on which she was purchased by Mr. Drummonds, which Vt^as 
from three to four weeks ago, having shewn a lameness the fol¬ 
lowing day. (Signed) John Plowcutt.^’ 

Defenders Proof. 

James Borelay, Hill of Montblainy, purchased said mare 
about Martinmas, 1825, and exchanged her in three or four 
weeks after, with John Taylor, farmer, Scotstown, who kept her 
twelve months, and then sold her at his removing roup to the 
defender. Saw the mare frequently in Taylor’s possession, and 
also in the defender’s, who sometimes rode her. Never saw her 
exhibit symptoms of lameness or unsoundness in any respect. 
Taylor has gone to America. Refused £28, and also £28 IO 5 , 
for the mare, at Tureff and Aldeer markets ; and got £29 15s 
by the exchange. 

James Winton, farmer, Whitefield, knows that Taylor sold 
said mare with his other stock. Has seen her frequently, and 
never heard of her being lame or sick. Saw her sold to the 
pursuer at Keith market, in 1827. She was shewn in the usual 
way, and saw the purchaser looking at her; and in a few mi¬ 
nutes saw the parties in a tent. The mare was brought to the 
door of it, and the bargain concluded; the purchaser led her 
away ; the price was £25^. The mare was not lame when he saw 
her in the market, and it was good daylight when she was sold. 
There was no swelling on any of the mare’s legs when she vvas 
sold, that he observed, and he looked at the mare different times 
minutely in the market; did not see her trotted on the road, 
but saw her walked, and would have known if she was lame, as 
well from seeing her walked as seeing her trotted. Was eleven 
years groom to the late Lord Banff; was with him in the Ennis¬ 
killen Dragoons on the continent; and witness has had consi¬ 
derable experience among horses, and has seen a great deal of 
their complaints and diseases in the army abroad, and in cavalry 
hospitals at home. The mare in question had no contraction of 
the coronet of any of the feet, nor any rupture of the tendons of 
any of the legs, so long-^as he knew her, that ever he saw ; and 
there is no doubt that if she had had a contracted coronet or rup¬ 
tured tendon, he, the witness, would have seen it. 

James Pricey farm-servant, Torglen, was in defender’s service 
one year, previous to Whitsunday 1827; yoked the mare in the 


VETERINARY MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. 105 

liaiTOvvs first after the defender bought her. She was regularly 
worked while he was with defender. Never saw or heard of her 
being lame or unsound. 

William Barber, farm-servant with defender, one year pre¬ 
vious to Whitsunday 1827, never saw or heard of the mare being 
lame or unsound. Accompanied the defender nearly two miles 
when he was taking her and two other mares to Keith market. 
The mare was perfectly sound, as far as he saw, at that time. 
Did not see the mare trotted on the road to the market, but had 
often done so before on all kinds of roads, and never saw her 
lame or crippled ; and she was the same that day as he had seen 
her before. 

Alexander liinnaird, farrier, Cramer, has been fully employed 
for the last fourteen years in that way. Considers himself pretty 
well versant in the diseases of horses. . Met the defender about 
three miles from his house on the road to Keith market, in Sep¬ 
tember 1827, with three mares. Knows the mare in question ; 
looked at her; she was on the outside, in defender’s hand ; saw 
no appearance of lameness or unsoundness about her. Did not see 
her trotted. Would walk, trot, and gallop a horse if he were 
purchasing one; but working horses are, in general, only walked 
and trotted. He looked at the mare particularly, out of curiosity, 
as he knew defender paid rather dear for her at the roup ; and 
witness expected defender would leap upon her; and would have 
been satisfied of her soundness if he had been going to purchase 
her, from what he saw of her at that time. 

James Guthrie, Haityburn, eight miles on the road to Keith 
market from defender’s. Defender stopped at witness’s house for 
two hours, to bait mares. Witness looked at the mares when 
defender left his house with them for the market; and asked 
defender why he was selling so many mares. Defender said he 
did not intend to sell them all, but only such as would take the 
market; for pursuer would have taken mares as sound without 
more inspection, if he had wanted to purchase, and he has a 
notion of looking at horses. Did not see the mares trotted. 
Has no doubt it is necessary to see a work horse trot, to see if 
he is sound. 

James Carnegia, greive, Montblainy, saw defender at Keith 
market, September 1827, with said black mare. Looked at her 
to purchase; but before he could ask the price, another man 
began to bargain with the defender about the mare. Saw de¬ 
fender lead the mare about to let the man see her. Saw no 
lameness or defect about her, and she appeared quite sound. 
Afterwards asked if the mare was sold, as witness wished to 
purchase her. Did not see the mare trotted, and did not consi- 


106 VKTERlxNARY MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. 

der it necessary, as he thought he could judge as well by 
walking as trotting whether she was sound. W as sure the mare 
was sound when he saw her in the market. It was on the lea, 
and not on the road he saw her.— For pursuer. From what wit¬ 
ness saw of the mare, thinks he would have discovered if she had 
been lame or unsound.—By Mr. Craigie (one of the referees). Is 
aware that it is customary with dealers and judges of horses, before 
buying, to walk and trot the horse on the road.— I'or dej'ender. 
Cannot say if or not the man who bought the mare trotted her 
on the road ; but, if he was a horse-dealer, it was likely he would 
have done so, as that is the general practice. 

Alexander Dork, vintner, saw the parties, in his tent at the 
fair, make the bargain about the mare. Held her at the door ol 
the tent, and saw defender give her to the purchaser, who led her 
away. Saw no lameness about the mare. She was led to 
M‘(jregor’s stables, two hundred yards off. 

Alexander Stuart, greive, Bracco, knows David Innes, who 
bought a black mare at public roup at Keith, for £13 IO 5 . 
Bought her from Innes, who said she was as free from blemish 
as any he ever had in his stable. Paid £18 IO 5 for her. 
Worked her regularly two years and a half. Never found or 
saw any thing ailing her all that time ; and she did her work the 
same as the rest of the horses. She was after that sold, when 
Mr. Duff gave up the farm, for £25. Soon after witness got the 
mare, a man came and said he was a farrier from Edinburgh, 
and that he had been sent to see her, as she was considered 
lame ; but said nothing about a law process. Witness took out 
the mare to let him see her, and walked, trotted, and turned her 
as narrowly as he could upon a paved road. The man examined 
her minutely, and, after he had done all this, he said he found no 
lameness on her, and that she was as sound a mare as was in the 
stable, and said that witness had got a very good mare. There 
never was any other farrier bu^t the said man came to see her. 
The said man said, after he had walked and trotted her, but 
before he had handled her, that he supposed she would be taken 
back to the place where she was bought and shot# and witness 
said this would be a pity, aS she was such a good beast, and that 
she should not be shot to him; and it was after this, and 
after the man had handled her as aforesaid, that he, the man, 
said that he found no lameness about her, and that she was a 
good beast: never saw any lameness about her. When he 
bought her from Innes for £18 IO 5 , he thought he had got a 
very good bargain. He did not trot her when he bought her, 
but tried her by walking her. Has been a greive since 1823, but 
has had little experience in buying horses. 


VETERINARY MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. 107 

David Lines, Linimore, bought the mare at the roup, for 
.£13 IO 5 , kept her six weeks or two months, then sold her to 
Alexander Stuart, for Mr. Duff, for £L8 IO 5 . Did not pay 
much attention whether she was lame or sound, as he thought 
her worth the money, lame or sound ; but never saw any lameness 
about her. He observed no swelling about her legs. Shewed 
her to an acquaintance going home from the sale, after he had 
bought her, and then thought her sound, and thinks to this hour 
she is so. Did not warrant her to Stewart. He never asked 
witness to do so. He had six horses in the stable when Stewart 
came to buy, and he told him to take his choice, and he fixed on 
the mare. 

Notes by the Oversman in the Judicial Reference 

OF the Cause. 

Gavin Drummonds, residing in Auchterarder, against John 
Le slie, residing at Redbrae, in the parish of Forglen. 

The oversman has considered the record, and the proof laid 
before the arbiters, and the cases since lodged for the parties ; 
and the following are the views which he at present entertains 
on the subject :— 

It appears to the oversman, that the following'facts are ad¬ 
mitted or established beyond doubt, viz. 

1st, That on the morning of Wednesday, the 19th of Sep¬ 
tember, 1827, the mare in question, and two other mares, were 
taken by the defender from his farm of Redbrae to the market 
stand at Keith, a distance of nineteen miles along the road. 

2 d, That on the afternoon of that day, the mare in question 
was sold by the defender to the pursuers, at the price of £25, 
warranted sound, and was delivered to one of the pursuers, by 
whom she was led from the market-place to the stables of Alex¬ 
ander M^Grigor, where she was placed for the night. 

3d, That next morning the mare was palpably lame in one 
of her hind legs, which was visibly and much swollen from the 
hoof to the knee. 

4th, That, two days after the sale, the mare was offered back 
to the defender as lame; but he refused to take her back. 

5th, That after the mare had remained in M‘Grigor's stable 
for about six weeks, she was sold by public roup, at his instance, 
ni virtue of a warrant of the sheriff of Kincardineshire, and was 
j)urchased for £13 5.5 by David Innes, Lineniore, who, after 
keeping her for a few months, and considering her sound, sold 
her for £18 10s to Mr. Duff, of Drummuir, in Botiiphnie, who, 
after working her like other horses on his farm for two vears ami 


108 VETERINARY MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. 

a half, without observing her to be lame or unsound, sold her, 
when he gave up fanning, for £25, to Roderick Morison, in 
Delmore Boharn, who still had her at the date of the proof, in 
September 1833, and had not found any fault with her. In 
regard to the other facts attempted to be established on either 
side, the evidence is more or less contradictory or unsatisfactory. 

The truth, which the oversman must search for and discover 
if he can, is the soundness or unsoundness of the mare at the 
time of the sale. 

The above established facts prove that the mare was lame 
next morning after the sale, and they go far to prove that she 
afterwards recovered from that lameness, and became worth as 
much as the pursuers paid for her. 

But they are not conclusive as to her condition before or at 
the time of the sale. On that point the evidence is of two 
kinds —direct and inferential. 

The direct evidence for the pursuers, as to the condition of 
the mare at the time of the sale, consists of the testimony of 
James Plampton, who says, that he saw the mare in the market 
before she was sold, and observed that she was lame in one of 
the hind legs, which lameness, he says, was quite apparent when 
she was led in the usual manner in the market. 

This witnesses testimony appears to be liable to the following 
observations : 1st. He is the only person brought forward who 
observed any lameness before the sale, although the mare tra¬ 
velled nineteen miles along the road, and was shewn all day in 
the market, and must have been seen by many. The observa¬ 
tions of the deceased Mr. Elder rest solely on the testimony of 
this witness. 2d. He says he directed the attention of one 
of the pursuers to the lameness, before the mare was deposited 
in M^Grigor’s (at least so the oversman understands the testi¬ 
mony) ; but the pursuer does not appear to have immediately 
acted upon that discovery as he ought to have done, and no 
explanation is given of his reason for not doing so; on the con¬ 
trary, his conduct appears to have been inconsistent with such a 
communication. 3d. This witness does not say that the mare’s 
leg was swelled on the 19th, which was its condition next morn¬ 
ing, and which the pursuers’ witness. Smith, says would be the 
immediate consequence of that rupture of the tendons which he 
says caused the lameness. 

The inferential evidence for the pursuers, as to the condition 
of the mare at the time of the sale, consists of, 1st. The 
evidence which proves that on the morning of the next day (the 
20 th) the mare was lame. 2d. The evidence of the manner in 
which she was taken care of during the ni^ht of the 19th, as 


VETERINARY MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. 109 

excluding the possibility of the lameness having been contracted 
during that period. 3d. The evidence of the witnesses who 
saw her on the 20th, and afterwards at IVTGrigor’s, and who 
think that the lameness was not the result of any recent injury, 
but must have been of some standing. 4th.—The evidence of 
Thomas Smith, a man of skill, who examined her in November, 
1827, when in the possession of Mr. Duff; and who says, that 
he discovered a rupture of the extensory tendons of the hind leg, 
and which he thinks had existed for four months at least prior 
to his inspection, which brings it to two months at least prior to 
the sale. 

This evidence, so far as it consists of evidence of opinion, is 
liable to the following observations: 1st. The opinion of'the 
persons who saw the mare at M^Grigor’s, in regard to the en¬ 
durance of the lameness, is, for the most part, not the opinion 
of persons of skill, and is wholly rested on the absence of any 
proof or visible mark of recent external violence. But, accord¬ 
ing to the evidence of Smith, the man of skill, the rupture 
might have been occasioned by a blow, and might also have 
been occasioned by a sprain or jerk ; so that the absence of any 
external mark is no proof that the injury was not recent. 2d.—^ 
The appearance of the limb on the 2()th was consistent with 
what Mr. Smith describes as the immediate consequence of a 
rupture of the tendons, when he says, that swelling of the 
limb always ensues immediately after a rupture of the extensory 
tendons;” while, on the other hand, the lameness which existed 
on the 20th, and on account of which the mare was offered back, 
is not proved to have been a probable consequence of a rupture 
of the tendon existing two months previously : on the contrary, 
Mr. Smith says he does not think it possible for a horse, 
having a rupture of the extensory tendons, to travel a distance 
of fifteen or twenty miles without a swelling arising on the limb 
sufficient to indicate the existence of the rupture; and by this 
he means not a general swelling, which will go off by exercise, 
but a swelling which will indicate a rupture to a professional 
man only.” Now this mare had travelled nineteen miles in the 
morning, and had stood all day in the market; and there is no 
proof of any swelling in the course of that day, or in the even¬ 
ing: and the swelling which appeared next day is not such a 
swelling as Mr. Smith describes as ^Gndicating a rupture to a 
professional man only,” but is the opposite kind of swelling, 
which he describes as a ‘‘ general swelling,” obvious to the eye 
of the unskilled, and affecting the whole limb, from the hoof to 
the knee. Hence there is some reason for inferring, either that 
?f the swelling, which arose during the night of the .I9th and 

VOL. vih. o 


110 VETERINARY MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. 

morning of the SOth, was the result of a rupture of the exten- 
sory tendons, that rupture must have been occasioned by some 
sprain or jerk, or other injury, occurring after the sale, which 
is not impossible ; and that Mr. Smith’s opinion of its probable 
endurance, formed entirely from an inspection of the limb so 
late as November, and which opinion at least could only be 
speculative, is erroneous; or, that the swelling and lameness 
observed on the 20th, and on account of which the mare was 
offered back, had nothing to do with the rupture of which Mr. 
Smith speaks, but must have proceeded from some other cause, 
which did not exist at the time of the sale on the 19th, and 
which appears to have been temporary, as the mare appears to 
have afterwards recovered, and to have been for years past con¬ 
sidered sound, and of full value. 

On the part of the defender, the direct evidence consists of 
the testimony of several witnesses, some of whom knew the 
mare before, and who saw her on the day of the sale, both on 
the road to the market and at the market, and who speak to the 
absence of swelling or lameness, so far as their observation goes. 

This evidence is liable to the following observations: 1st. 
That none of the witnesses saw the mare trotted out, which 
would have afforded them a better opportunity of judging of 
her soundness. 2d. That none of them except one (James 
Carnegra) examined the mare with a view to purchase her. 
3d. That lameness may exist, though not observed ; and, there¬ 
fore, that the non-observation of lameness is not so conclusive of 
the absence of lameness, as the observation of it is conclusive of 
its presence. 

The inferential evidence, on the part of the defender, consists 
of, 1st. The testimony of witnesses who knew and used the 
mare before the sale, and up to the day of the sale, without dis¬ 
covering any swelling or lameness. 2d. The testimony of wit¬ 
nesses who have known and used the mare subsequently, with¬ 
out discovering any lameness. 3d. The fact that the mare has 
since wrought as well as other horses, and has been sold for the 
same price of £25, and has given satisfaction to the purchasers. 
That evidence is liable to the following observations: 1st. 
That the mare may have been lame, though not observed by the 
witnesses; and that Mr. Smith’s evidence goes to prove a rup¬ 
ture two months, at least, before the sale. 2d. That, undoubt¬ 
edly, the mare was lame on the 20th September, and for several 
weeks afterwards. 3d. That the mare may have been worth 
£25 for the purposes of the subsequent purchaser, though not 
sound. But it is of some consequence to keep in viewq 1st. 
That the witness, Barber, who wrought the mare for about twelve 


VETERINARY MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE. HI 

months before the sale, during which time, if Mr. Smith’s con¬ 
jecture be right, the rupture and its consequence, immediate 
swelling, must have occurred, could scarcely have failed to ob¬ 
serve such things. 2d. That both he and the witness, Barclay, 
had seen her ridden and trotted on all kinds of roads, and never 
saw her lame. Such being the import of the evidence, the 
oversman is at present inclined to hold, that the pursuers have 
not made out their case. It appears to the oversman that the 
mare was in a very different state on the morning of the 20th 
from what she was when sold on the afternoon of the 19th; and 
he is not satisfied that the change in her condition is attributable 
to any disease or cause existing at the time of the sale, while he 
thinks it may have resulted from some sprain or other cause 
occurring after the sale. 

It appears to the oversman unnecessary to have any further 
written pleadings ; but if the pursuers wish to be heard orally 
against the above views, they must make an application to that 
effect before the first boxday. Failing such application, the 
oversman will issue an award in favour of the defender; and it 
appears to the oversman that expenses ought to follow. 

Abjudication. 

We are of opinion, that the oversman has come to a correct 
conclusion ; but there are some points which would have enabled 
him to have done so more readily if they had been brought into 
view, and wiiich shew the advantage which would have arisen 
to all parties by almost certainly stopping the proceeding in the 
commencement, if application had been made to a person pro¬ 
perly acquainted with his profession ; for it appears to us, that 
if a veterinary surgeon had seen the case, as described by the 
witnesses, they must have at once been able to discover by the 
degree of the lameness, and, as far as is proven, the rather sudden 
appearance of it, the extent and rapidity of the swelling, that 
the mischief must have arisen from some recent injury or disease. 
It is extremely probable, that the witness who suggests that it 
was a shot of grease f was in the right so far, although there is 
nothing in the evidence which shews that it was the recurrence 
of an old attack ; on the contrary, all the evidence is against 
such an opinion. The swelling and lameness might also have 
arisen from an injury, either on the road to the stable, or in it 
during the night, and a number of causes might have produced 
it, which could not readily meet the eye of the purchaser, or 
which could not have been known to any one; and although 
it is probable that the cause of the disease might have arisen 


112 ROYAL VETERINARY COLLEGE. ^ 

during time of tho day on which the sale took place, there 
seems more reason to conclude that it arose after the sale ; but 
the suddenness of the lameness, the extent and rapidity of the 
swelling*, together with what appears in the evidence, incontesti- 
bly proves, in our opinion, that the disease or injury, whatever it 
was, had its origin very approximate to the time of sale. The 
evident degree of lameness which existed after it was first dis¬ 
covered, and which was observed by some of the witnesses 
without much difficulty, the circumstance of the svyelling con¬ 
tinuing for a number of weeks, and afterwards disappearing, 
while it never was completely subdued by exercise for some 
weeks after it was first observed, all tend to shew that the dis¬ 
ease was of recent origin ; and, in the absence of evidence to 
the contrary, must be held to have taken place after coming into 
the pursuer’s possession. 


VtUvimxv! 


The Royal Veterinary College. 

Gentlemen, 

Seeing, in your number of The Veterinarian of last 
August, Professor Coleman’s Address to his pupils, I am induced 
to send to you a copy of a few words which he delivered in his 
theatre, on the «3d of December, respecting those young men 
who presented themselves for examination on the previous day. 

It is pleasing, indeed, to me to see the great improvement of 
the generality of my pupils in every branch of knowledge con¬ 
nected with their profession. They seem particularly to have 
improved in chemistry since Dr. Paris became one of our ex¬ 
aminers. Whether those young men learned chemistry by read¬ 
ing or experiment, or attending on lectures here or elsewhere, 
they answered their questions on this and all other branches of 
the profession so readily and correctly, that never were the 
examiners better pleased with my pupils, than they are at the 
present moment with those to whom I allude. And I trust 
this will be a warning and stimulus to all of you to persevere 
in your studies, and aspire to the honourable situation in which 
those gentlemen stand at the present moment; for, I assure 
you, that Messrs. Read, Gibbs, Garrett, Molyneux, &c. have done 
credit to this institution : and I hope they will become ornaments 
of the profession.” 

You will allow me to tell you the present state of things at 
the College. The majority of the students is composed of 








1IJ3 


PAUL pry’s reminiscences. 

industrious young men, who seem to have great disposition to 
become well acquainted with the rudiments of their art; but 
I am sorry to say, the dissecting-room is slack, and I believe it 
to be owing to some system introduced this session, by a person 
who takes on himself the purchase of subjects at the expense 
of the pupils, whether they like it or not; so that, with this 
management, the pupils are destitute of those demonstrations 
and instructions which that department is intended for. 

It is fortunate they can attend a neighbouring school, the 
conductor of which is continually at his post, for the improve¬ 
ment of his class. And I know', from experience, there is not 
a single person who attends his excellent instructions but fully 
appreciates their value. 

I am. Gentlemen, your’s, &c. 

A Student. 


We have great pleasure in giving insertion to this letter:— 
so far as our observation and knowledge of the pupils go, they 
are, as he describes them, diligent and deserving. As to the 
account which our correspondent gives of the dissecting-room, 
reformation has long been wanting there. The particular fact 
which he states, he doubtless will be able and willing to sub¬ 
stantiate.—Y. 




Paul Pry’s Reminiscences, No. 2. 

“ A chiefs ainang' ye takin’ notes. 

And, faith, he’ll prent it.” 

I KNOW they ought to be written, Messrs. Editors; they ought 
to be read. They should be written, and then they would be 
read ; but time, gentlemen, time is wanting. 

Eheu ! fugaces Posthume, Posthuine 

Labuntur anni! 

And time is a commodity of which the value rises as long as 
we live. This is my only excuse for having delayed sending 
you my ‘^ College Reminiscences” so long. We must be con¬ 
tented with doing, not what we wish, but what we can. 
Every one has surely felt that there have been moments in their 
existence—not moments of peculiar important events, but, on 
the contrary, of comparative insignificance—which have, never¬ 
theless, left unaccountably strong impressions on the mind. So 








114 PAUL pry’s reminiscences. 

trifling are sometimes the outward features of these recollec¬ 
tions, that they may be forgotten by ourselves, until some as 
insignificant passing event touching the same string in our 
hearts, that former bright spot suddenly shines forth to our 
mind's eye in all its original scenery. 

A veterinary friend of mine informed me last week, that he 
had discovered a remedy for glanders, the vexctta questio of the 
veterinary science. And what do you suppose was this boasted 
specific, that was, at one fell swoop, to overturn the labours of 
Mr. Vines, and annihilate the blue drinks of the Assistant Pro¬ 
fessor Sewell for ever? Why, barytes! I had not heaid this 
mineral mentioned for a long time, but it at once brought to my 
recollection a discussion which occurred at the London Veteri¬ 
nary Medical Society, on the properties of this medicine as a 
remedy for glanders. But, quorum h<zc^^ 

I have been led to make these remarks by way of introduc¬ 
tion to the following scene, which occurred at the Veterinary 
College, in one of the evening discussions. A paper was read 
by Mr. W. Percivall, one of the present editors of The V eteri- 
TMARiAN, on this subject. Several veterinary practitioners were 
present, as much useful information on the nature and treatment 
of this disease was expected to be developed that evening. Mr. 
Sewell was the President. ' The author of the paper stated on 
the outset, that out of a number of cases of glanders, between 
twenty and thirty, which fell under his notice, he had had the 
good fortune to cure several of them by the administration of 
barytes. He was actuated, he said, by no other motive in 
bringing these cases before the society, than that they might be 
known to the brethren of the science, who, by repeating the 
experiments, might arrive at the truth. His paper contained 
thirteen cases of glanders, in five or six of which he had suc¬ 
ceeded in effecting cures. A desultory conversation at first oc¬ 
curred, between Mr. Sewell and Mr. Percivall, on the compara¬ 
tive merits of the muriate of barytes and the sulphate of copper ; 
and it was very evident to the pupils that the worthy Assistant 
Professor was not a little jealous of the effect that Mr. Perci- 
valFs paper might produce. It was, in fact, sulphate of copper 
versus barytes.—The following speech will perhaps convey a 
tolerable idea of Mr. Sewell's opinion on glanders:—‘‘ I have, 
gentlemen,'’ he said (looking at the table, and playing with his 
pencil-case), as you all very well know, paid particular atten¬ 
tion to the nature of glanders. It has hitherto been supposed 
that this troublesome disease originated in the sinuses of the 
head ; but I have proved, as plainly as any thing can be proved, 
that the lungs are the seat and origin of glanders, whilst the 


PAUL PRY S REMINISCENCES. 


115 


aftection in the nostrils is secondary. When the lungs are sim¬ 
ply hepatized, a cure may be effected. Another stage of the 
dise 0 S 8 is the tuberculous j in this starve, likewisCj a cure may be 
effected : but when the tubercles begin to suppurate, they run 
into one another, forming large abscesses, which discharge their 
contents through the bronchim : at this stage of the disease the 
animal had better be killed. I have ascertained, by repeated 
experiments, that the matter of a tuberculous lung will produce 
the disease in another horse, by inoculation, as surely as one 
potatoe will produce another. 

With respect to the manner in which the tubercles are formed, 
that exist in the great majority of cases of glanders, this is as 
yet far from being determined. Some veterinarians ^re of opinion 
that they are distinct morbid tissues; others regard them as the 
production of a morbid secretion. I confess that I am inclined 
to agree in the latter opinion, that a tubercle is the product of a 
morbid secretion, and that this process is preceded by an active 
congestion in the part, similar to that which occurs in every case, 
while secretion is going on, whether healthy or unhealthy. 

‘‘ With regard to my treatment of glanders, you must all be very 
well acquainted ; it consists in the administration of the sulphate 
of copper in a solution of water. This mineral may be given to 
the extent of two ounces for one dose in this manner; but if 
given in a solid form, it would occasion inflammation of the coats 
of the stomach. By being dissolved in water, this is prevented, 
and it acts in a more general manner. I have usually given from 
four drachms to one ounce daily : it should be given on an empty 
stomach, as it is apt to be decomposed by any acid that may be 
generated there. I know that even threc'^unces of the sulphate 
of copper, dissolved in a quart of water, may be given every 
other day, or every day, if so large a quantity should be re¬ 
quired. Mr. Percivall informed me, that he has given three ounces 
m a ball to a horse for one dose ; but this, in my opinion, is 
dangerous practice. I have already cured two glandered cases 
this year; and 1 have great hopes, especially as the season of 
the year is rather unfavourable to the thing, of effecting another 
cure; for, if they can be cured at this season, they may be cured 
at any time. As a local remedy I have applied setons with good 
effect. It was a common practice formerly to apply rowels un¬ 
derneath the jaw, but this is, in my opinion, too far from the seat 
of the inflammation. With regard to diet in this disease, the 
animal should have his constitWion kept up by nutritious diet: 
fine flour is a very excellent diet in this complaint, as it contains 
a great deal of nourishment in a small bulk.’' 

This was the principal part of a discourse delivered by Mr. 


110 PAUL pry’s Reminiscences. 

Sewell on the debate in question. Nothing, indeed, could be 
more unexpected than the oration of the Assistant Proiessor on 
this memorable evening. That he should have talked so long 
without intermission was extraordinary, for one whose powers of 
speech had previously been seldom extended beyond the pailia- 
mentary standard of eloquence, in saying, yes, or no, in a 
case of consultation. I have not seen the worthy gentleman for 
some years 5 but at that period I considered him to be a fair 
sample of that homebred, upright, common sense, which seems 
to form the instinct of the mass ; and which it is greatly the 
fashion to deride in those circles of “ Vets” in which mystifica¬ 
tion passes for profound thinking and bold assumptionfor evidence. 

There was a great deal of embarrassment at the commence¬ 
ment of his discourse, but this gradually wore off. 

Mr. Percivall was of opinion that the lungs were not in every 
instance diseased at the commencement of glanders; he would 
rather say, that they were rarely or never so. He had always 
considered, and he had been in the habit of finding, so far as 
proof could be adduced in such a case, that tubercles were the 
effect of glanders, and not the cause.” 

Mr. Sewell, in reply, said, ''that he had examined many 
hundreds of horses that had died glandered, but never found 

one that had not tuberculous lungs.” 

Mr. Percivall stated, in answer to a question from a pupil as 
to the manner in which his specific acted on the constitution of 
horses, that he did not consider it to he a specific; it would be 
ridiculous thus prematurely for any one to suppose such a thing. 
He had said no more than that barytes had appeared to have 
been of service in several cases, and he wished to ascertain how 
far the experience of others coincided with his. Barytes was a 
medicine that required much caution in introducing it into 
the system. In large doses it caused sudden death ; and its 
deleterious effects were accompanied with an intermittent pulse; 
indeed, the commencement of intermission was the signal of 
danger. In the horses that had died from an over-quantity be¬ 
ing administered, he could not discover any particular lesion, on a 
post-mortem examination, except a slight inflammation of the 
stomach. The proper dose of barytes was from half a drachm 
to two drachms. 

Mr. Sewell said, that ""he considered that the sulphate of 
copper was a much safer medicine than barytes, and much more 
efficacious The French veterinarians had tried the barytes, but 
they found the remedy to be as bad as the disease, inasmuch 
as it had killed their patients:”—and 

In reply to a question from a pupil, Mr. Sewell said, "" that 


PAUL pry’s reminiscences. 117 

he'sht)uld certainly consider the sulphate of copper as a specific for 
glandersy when administered in the first stage of the disease.’’' 

In reply to another question from a pupil, Mr. Sewell said, 
that in one or two cases which had come under his notice 
of chronic glanders, with acute supervening, after the disease 
was eradicated there remained an unhealthy discharge from the 
nostrils, particularly in the morning, which was greater or less 
in degree, according to the animal’s work on the preceding day. 
To ascertain if this discharge was infectious, he had inoculated 
an ass with the discharge, but no ill effects followed : he there¬ 
fore considered it to be a mere nasal gleet, and not of an in¬ 
fectious nature. The gleet was produced in consequence of the 
inflammation having disorganized the secretory surfaces.” 

After a little sharp firing between Mr. Sewell and Mr. Per- 
civall, a veterinary pupil, Mr. Harrison, now veterinary surgeon, 
I believe, of the 9th Lancers, complimented both gentlemen on 
the success they had hitherto met with, and wished them still 
more in their future experiments. They both deserved the 
thpks of the profession; indeed,” he said, ‘‘he believed that 
this was all the profit they were likely to get; for in seeking 
to discover a remedy for the disease, a man must not step out of 
the way, to look like Atalanta after the golden apples. He cer¬ 
tainly was rather sceptical respecting Mr. Sewell’s remedy beino- 
considered as a specific; he did not wish, he said, to throw a 
damp on the matter, but only to warn those who were over 
sanguine of its success, and who fancied that it would prove 
a specific which was to act with an effect more rapid and elec¬ 
trical than the fabled touch of Ithuriel’s spear. Mr. Sewell had 
certainly cured two cases,—and Mr. Percivall had succeeded in 
curing some likewise, and each by different remedies ; therefore 
he thought that each gentleman might say respecting glanders, 
as Newton said of himself, ‘ I have picked a few shells by the 
sea shore, but the great ocean of Truth lies undiscovered before 
me.’ For the fact was, he believed, however unpalateable it 
might be to some, that the secret at present remained unsolved.” 

It would be almost impossible to record the various opinions 
on the nature and cure of glanders, as delivered on that me¬ 
morable evening. Mr. Coleman’s opinions on glanders were 
strongly advocated by many, whilst others had formed strange 
opinions of their own. Amongst the latter class, the opinions 
of Mr. Vines were most extraordinary. This gentleman had just 
obtained his diploma, and had but recently been inducted to the 
situation of Assistant Demonstrator at the College. He said, 
tha Solleysel was the only person who had written any thing 
worth reading on the subject of glanders ; that Solleysel believed 

VOL. VIII. Tj 


118 PAUL pry’s reminiscences. 

there were seven kinds of farcy—and for his part he believed 
that there was no such thing as specific poison being con¬ 
tained in its blood;—that the blood was never diseased in any 
complaint—that the terms glanders and farcy were erroneous 
terms for the disease in question, being terms that indicated 
unhealthy disease of certain parts of the body, particularly 
those of the mucous membrane which lines the nose, the sub¬ 
stance of the lungs, the skin, and the cellular membrane under¬ 
neath/' 

An intelligent pupil congratulated Mr. Vines on his recent dis¬ 
coveries, and said, that he might now pride himself on having 
brought to light Solleyseks works, too long withheld from mo¬ 
dern sight; and that he had no doubt, when he had published 
his discoveries, his treatment of the dreadful disease, the now 
‘^opprobrium medicum,^’ will cease to be telum imhelle sine 
ictuT as it so long has been, if not worse; and that then we 
might say, in the words of Cicero, that we are snatched, a 

desperatione ad spem, ab exitio ad salutemd’ Mr. Vines 
thanked him for the well-merited compliment, and, with his 
hair on end, like Katerfelto at his own wonders, declared, 

that although he did not understand Greek sufficient to com¬ 
prehend all the speech he had just heard, yet he was determined 
to publish a book on glanders.^’ 

I have given Mr. Vines’ opinion, as delivered by him to the 
society, as well as 1 am able. The gentleman spoke too fast for 
my pencil to follow him. His speech appeared to me rather.'in- 
comprehensible; the farther he went, the more he became be¬ 
wildered : like circles in the water, his arguments became weaker 
as they extended, and vanished at last in the unmeasurable and 
unfathomable space of the vast unknown. During the evening’s 
discussion, he appeared to excel more in monologue than dia¬ 
logue, never allowing any one, if he could help it, to speak but 
himself. 

1 would it were in my power to do justice to every one of the 
speakers on that memorable night. Among the veterinary prac¬ 
titioners present, was Mr. Cherry, the elder. So much,’’ lie 
said, “ had been written and published on the subject already, 
and so little to encourage a hope of any remedy, still less of a 
specific, being discovered for it, that he was very sceptical when 
any new^ plan of treatment or cure was announced.” 

Mr. Smallbones, now veterinary surgeon, I believe, practising 
in Oxford, said that his opinions respecting a specific being 
discovered coincided with those of Mr, Cherry and his friend 
Harrison; for, on taking the sum total of reported cases and 
recoveries^ he believed that the latter had been to the former 


]19 


PAUL pry’s reminiscences. 

about one in an hundred; and the result had come out under 
great variety of treatment; each person probably holding different 
opinions as to the origin and pathological conditions of the dis¬ 
ease. Can it be said then,” he continued, that those poor 
animals who have struggled through the disease, under such 
experimental treatment, have been cured? May it not rather be 
said that they have escaped from the nirnia diligentia medicorumy 
by the strength of good constitutions and the reparative energies 
of nature?” 

Mr. W. Percivall concluded the evening’s discussion by thanking 
the meeting for their attention to his paper, and begged to re-assure 
them, that the only object he had in presenting it to their notice 
was to elicit inquiry. It had been said by some of the pupils 
that he had better not be too sanguine of success; he was aware, 
he said, that medical practitioners and veterinary surgeons had 
sometimes their day dreams, as well as the poet: but such a 
charge could not be brought against those who took anatomy 
and physiology for their guide; who, not satisfied with the ex¬ 
ternal part of the animal, examined minutely the component 
parts of the whole machine, and the operations which nature 
effected with beautiful simplicity in the regular adaptation of 
one part to another, and in the grand conformity of the whole. 

The remarks of Mr. Percivall throughout the evening were 
replete with information. When discussing the nature and 
origin of glanders, he did not at first seem to have transcended 
the known boundaries of the question,—nor to have penetrated 
farther than his predecessors into the terrcz incognita of the dis¬ 
pute ; but, after awhile, we discovered our mistake, and per- 
,ceived the efforts of a mind rich in the recollections of reading 
and observation. 

In conclusion, Paul Pry has to beg the indulgence of those 
gentlemen whose speeches he may have misquoted, and likewise 
for omitting many that were given on this memorable evening. 
The names of many he has forgotten, and they have passed away 
from the memory, as well as the good things they uttered. But 
the recollection of the many evenings that he has passed at the 
College, when the society held their meetings, will never be lost, 
whilst memory exists. And frigid indeed must be the heart that 
does not bound the lighter whilst the tongue recounts the tales 
of by-gone days, nor warm awhile at reminiscences which form 
the phantasmagoria of the past. These weekly meetings, and the 
pleasures then enjoyed, mark the fairest of the few unblotted 
passages of life’s manuscript; and are of that small number we 
can re-peruse without a sigh, and which we would not obliviate, 
though memory should consent to the erasure. 


120 

Clerical Horse Dealer. 

A complaint, which has caused a great deal of conversation 
in Bath, was made a few days ago by a French gentleman, named 
Lafu, against a clergyman who resides in the neighbourhood of 
that city, and who is remarkable for dealing very profitably in 
horses. The magistrate applied to on the occasion recommended 
that the case should be stated in a court of law, after having the 
following account from the lips of the Frenchman :— 

Frenchman. —I go to buy a horse from him, and he ask me forty 
guinea. I say. No, by Gar; I no give that. Well, say the cler¬ 
gyman, I will tell you what: you shall have him for thirty-five 
guinea ; but, d—n my eyes, you have him for no less. 

Magistrate. —You could not think of dealing with a clergy¬ 
man who was so ready to swear ? 

Frenchman. —Oui, I did : I thought a clergyman would not 
swear to any thing but true ; so I paid him the money. Well, 
I got upon him, and he go beautiful: then I put him up in the 
Bell stables, and I ride him next day, and he go upon three legs. 
I put him up again, but he still go upon three legs, and then I 
give him a doctor; but, by Gar, he walk upon his knee; and so 
I say. By Gar, if you do walk upon your knees, I do not walk 
upon your back. 

Magistrate. —You mean the horse was unsound ? 

Frenchman. —Oui! he had got the gout. 

Magistrate. —The gout! horses don’t get the gout. 

Frenchman. —But he was a clergyman’s horse, and they both 
have the gout. The horse’s leg was swell, and so was the master’s. 

Magistrate. —Well; I suppose you sent back the horse ? 

Frenchman. —No, the clergyman said, D —n his eye, he’d 
no have him: but I asked Mr. Bell to buy him for thirty-five 
guineas; but he said. No, I would not give more than £5: so 
I keep him in the stable twelve weeks, and then I send him 
to be sold; and what do you think I got ? 

Magistrate. —Why, perhaps £5. 

Frenchman. —No, by Gar; I got £15. 

Magistrate. —Weil, then, I think you received more than you 
had a right to expect in your transaction with this worthy cler¬ 
gyman. 

Frenchman. —Receive! why I receive nothing. I got £15 
to pay for the dinner. 

Magistrate. —For the dinner ? 

Frenchman. —Oui, fon my horse’s dinner for twelve week, at 
Mr. Bell’s stables. 

The unfortunate Frenchman thus lost, by dealing with the 
reverend horse-jockey, no less than £50. 

Fanner's Journal, April 28,1823. 


1T1E 


VETERINARIAN. 


VOL. VllI, No. 87 .] MARCH 1835. [New Series, No. 2T. 


MR. YOUATT’S VETERINARY LECTURES, 

DELIVERED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. 


LECTURE XLVI (continued). 

Phrenitis in the Horse^ Cattle^ and Sheep. 

WE sometimes meet with primary inflammation of the brain 
or its membranes, or of both; and of the membranes oftenest 
when both are not involved. At other times, if the determination 
of blood to the brain, of which I have been speaking, is not suffi¬ 
cient to destroy the animal, it produces considerable irritation by 
its continued presence, and thus terminates in inflammation. 
The farrier calls this disease mad staggers, in distinction from 
the quieter malady which we have been considering, and which 
he terms sleepy staggers. 

Early Symptoms. —Whatever be the origin of phrenitis, its 
early symptoms are scarcely different from those of apoplexy. 
The horse is drowsy, stupid, his eye closes, he sleeps while he 
is in the act of eating, and doses until he falls : the pulse is slow 
and creeping, the breathing oppressed, yet stertorous and labo¬ 
rious. Ihis is the description of apoplexy; the symptoms may 
differ a little in intensity and in continuance, but not much in 
kind. It is, nevertheless, most desirable that we should be en¬ 
abled to distinguish the one from the other, in order that our 
preparation for the after stages may be different, and our treat¬ 
ment, if possible, even more energetic in the latter than in the 
former. 

Difference between the Symptoms of Phrenitis and those of 
Apoplexy. —The phrenitic horse is not so perfectly comatose as 
his fellow that labours under apoplexy. The eye will respond a 
little to the action of light, and the animal is somewhat more 
manageable, or at least more susceptible, for he will shrink when 
he IS struck, while the other often cares not at all for the whip. 

Tf of the early symptoms there is some difference. 

I. the apoplexy proceeds from distention of the stomach, fonr- 

VOL. VIII. • 














122 MR. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 

and-twenty or six-and-thirty hours will scarcely pass without 
the cure being completed, or the stomach ruptured, or the horse 
destroyed; and if it proceeds more from oppression of the diges¬ 
tive organs than absolute distention of the stomach, and from 
that sympathy which subsists between the stomach and the 
brain, the disease will go on; it will get worse and worse every 
hour, and this imperfect comatose state will remain during two 
or three days : but the apoplexy of the phrenitic horse will not 

often last many hours. ^ ^ 

Should he vigorously attacked in this early state, —Now is the 
time for exertion, and with fair hope of success. Bloodletting 
and physic being now carried to their full extent, the horse will 
be materially relieved, and often cured ; but if this golden hour 
should be suffered to pass, or if remedial measures should be now 
ineffectual, the scene all at once changes, and the most violent 
re-action succeeds. 

Later Symptoms,—"IhQ eye brightens—strangely so; the con¬ 
junctiva becomes suddenly reddened, and forms a frightful con¬ 
trast with the transparency of the cornea; the pupil is dilated to 
the utmost; the nostril, before scarcely moving, being left to 
the influence of the organic nerves alone, now expands and 
quivers, and labours; the respiration becomes short and quick; 
the ears erect or bent forward to catch the slightest sound, and 
the horse, becoming more irritable every instant, shakes and 
trembles at the slightest motion. 

The excessive violence of the Horse, —The irritability increases; 
it might be said to change to ferocity, but that the horse has no 
aim or object in what he does. He dashes himself violently 
about, plunges in every direction, rears on his hind legs, whirls 
round and round, and then fails backward with dreadful force. 
He lies for awhile exhausted; there is a remission of the symp¬ 
toms, perhaps only for a minute or two, possibly for a quarter of 
an hour. Now again is the surgeon’s time, and his courage and 
his adroitness will be put to the test. He must open, if he can, 
one or both j ugulars; he may attempt, if he has time, to open 
the temporals also : but let him be on his guard, for the paroxysm 
will return with its former violence, and without the slightest 
warning. 

The second paroxysm is more dreadful than the first. Again 
the animal whirls round and round, and plunges and falls; he 
seizes his clothing and tears it to pieces; perhaps, destitute of 
feeling and of consciousness, he bites and tears himself. He 
darts furiously at every thing within his reach ; but no mind, no 
design, seems to mingle with and govern his fury. 

CJosing Symptoms, —Another and another remission, and a 


PIIREMTJS IN THE HORSE. 


123 

return of the exacerbation follow, and then, wearied out, he 
becomes quiet: but it is not the quietness of returning reason ; it 
is mere stupor. This continues for an uncertain period, when he 
begins to struggle again ; but he is now probably unable to rise; 
he pants, and foams, and, at length exhausted, he dies. 

How distinguished from Colic. — There are but two diseases 
with which phrenitis can be confounded, and they are colic and 
rabies. In colic the horse rises and falls, he rolls about, and 
kicks at his belly; but his struggles are tame compared with 
these. There is no involuntary spasm of any of the limbs, and 
the horse is sensible, and, looking piteously at his flanks, seems 
to tell us the seat of his pain. The beautifully, fearfully excited 
countenance of the one, and the piteous anxious gaze of the 
other, are sufficiently distinct; and, if it could be got at, the 
bounding rapid pulse of the one, and that of the other scarcely 
losing its natural character in the early stage, could not possibly 
be mistaken. 

How distinguished from Rabies. —In rabies, when it does 
assume the ferocious form, there is even more violence than in 
phrenitis; and there is method and treachery too in that mad¬ 
ness. There is the desire of mischief for its own sake; and 
there is frequently the artful stratagem to allure the victim 
within the reach of destruction. There is not a motion of which 
the rabid horse is not conscious, nor a person whom he does not 
recognize; but he labours under one all-absorbing feeling, the 
intense longing to devastate and to destroy. 

Post-mortem Appearances. —The study of these is a neglected 
but most valuable branch of veterinary education ; yet if there is 
any disease in which I should be inclined to doubt the dependence 
that could be placed upon them, it would be this. They are 
strangely, incomprehensibly, uncertain. I have seen the highest 
injection and inflammation of the membranes, and evident injec¬ 
tion and inflammation of the substance, or portions of the sub¬ 
stance of the brain; I have seen them both combined : and I 
have seen other cases, in which the horse had been furious to an 
extreme, and yet scarcely any trace of inflammation, or even of 
increased vascularity, could be detected. There were circum¬ 
stances, however, about these cases which cast a faint light upon 
them, but into which it would be tedious to enter here. The 
lesson which you wall learn from this uncertainty of morbid ap¬ 
pearance, is to be very cautious in your prognosis. Young men 
often do themselves incalculable injury by their foolish tattling 
about the anticipated progress and result of disease, and of the 
appearances which they shall find to justify all their pretty 
speeches and absurd predictions. 


124 MR. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 

Treatment. —Here again, gentlemen, comes the old story, yet 
a little varied : bleed-take as much blood as you can get—let 
the animal bleed on after he is down— do not pin up the phrenitic 
horse at all. You will never lose your patient by this—you will 
never do harm—but you may knock down the inflammation j and 
the first blow is here the whole of the battle. 

Physic. —Then the physic; it should be that which can be 
readiest given, and which most speedily acts. The farina of the 
croton will here deserve the preference, and in no little dose 
either, I would give half a drachm. The intense inflammation 
of the brain yields me full assurance that I shall not easily set up 
any dangerous inflammation in the intestinal canal. This can 
be made into a very little ball, or drink, and, in some momentary 
remission of the symptoms,! may administer the one with the pro¬ 
bang or the stick, or the other with the horn. Sometimes the apo¬ 
plectic horse, when he will take nothing else, and is unconscious 
of every thing else, will plunge his nose in his gruel, and sip and 
swallow a little; and I have seen the phrenitic horse drink with 
the utmost avidity a little water that was offered to him. Repeated 
doses of purgative medicines may, perhaps, be thus given, and 
must be repeated until the bowels respond. 

Blisters. —We may next call in another powerful subduer of 
inflammation, but not in the efficient manner that we could wish. 
A counter-irritant, applied as nearly as possible to the seat of 
inflammation, will usually divert a portion of the inflammatory 
action from the old to the new tissue; and therefore we rub a 
blister over the forehead in this case, as soon as we can do so 
with proper regard to our personal safety. The cranial roof of 
the horse, however, is not only defended by the dense parietal 
bones, but they are thickly covered by a mass of muscle—the 
temporal muscles; and therefore the thickness of the bone and of 
the muscle is interposed between the brain and the new surface, 
which we expose to inflammatory action. The effect is conse¬ 
quently weakened; but some good may, notwithstanding, be done; 
and a blister should not be omitted. As for rowels and setons, 
they would be perfectly useless here; the business will be settled 
ere they scarcely begin to act. 

Medicine. —Sedatives are here manifestly indicated if they can 
be given. Digitalis will stand at the head of our prescription in 
such a case. Its first and most powerful action is on the heart, 
diminishing both the number and strength of its pulsations; 
while, at the same time, it is a diuretic, but of no great power in 
the horse. To this must be added the other component parts of 
the fever ball—emetic tartar as a diaphoretic, and nitre as a 
diuretic, and a refrigerant; but tee must have no hellebore. If 


PHRENITIS IN CATTLE. 125 

hellebore acts at all as a sedative, it is by promoting a somewhat 
unusual determination of blood to the brain, and thus causing a 
diminution of nervous agency. This may be excusable or even 
beneficial in pneumonia ; but we have here too much determina¬ 
tion of blood to the brain already. 

We must not be solicitous about feeding in this complaint ; 
no attempt should be made to coax the horse to eat: and even 
when appetite returns with the abatement of the inflammation, 
we must be exceedingly cautious with respect to both the quan¬ 
tity and the quality of the food. 

Prognosis .—^In such a case our prognosis must be very guard¬ 
edly formed. No opinion should be given until some hours have 
passed after the first bleeding. If the pulse then becomes deve¬ 
loped and soft, a germ of hope may be encouraged. If after the 
furious state has commenced, and before the strength of the 
horse is exhausted, the violence should abate, and the animal 
become conscious of surrounding objects, and less irritable, these 
may he regarded as favourable circumstances ; but if the delirium 
remains unabated after copious depletion has taken pi ace, little 
hope can be encouraged. 

Phrenitis in Cattle. 

The Frenzy or Sough in cattle is too well known to the farmer 
and the practitioner. There are generally at first much oppres¬ 
sion and heaviness; the animal can scarcely be induced to move; 
the eyes protrude and are red ; the respiration is hurried, and 
delirium more or less intense rapidly succeeds. The beast rushes 
at every thing in its way—it mischievously selects its objects—it 
is in incessant action, galloping about with its tail arched—stag¬ 
gering—falling—bellowing hideously—its skin sticking to its 
ribs, and the sensibility of the spine exceedingly increased. 
There is, even in health, a peculiar formation of the eye, or a 
sensibility of the retina to certain colours, which makes the beast 
dislike a brilliant red : under this disease it excites him to the 
highest pitch of fury. 

If, however, the previous oppression and stupidity are much 
less in the ox than in the horse, so is the succeeding violence in¬ 
creased ; not even a rabid ox is a more fearful animal; and it is 
somewhat difficult to distinguish between the two diseases. 
There will probably be some history of a previous bite belonging 
to the rabid ox; and in the early stage, although there may be 
lowness or oppression, there is nothing like apoplexy or want of 
consciousness. Beside, with greater fury there is more method 
in the madness of the rabid than the phrenitic ox. The latter 


126 MR. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 

will run at every thing which presents itself, but it is a sudden 
impulse. The former will, like the horse, plot mischief; he will 
endeavour to lure his victims within his reach. A much greater 
quantity of foam will be discharged from the mouth of the rabid 
than the phrenitic ox. 

The causes are much the same as those of apoplexy—too sti¬ 
mulating food and too great redundancy of blood, to which may 
be added some immediately exciting cause, as hard and rapid 
work in sultry weather, over-driving, &c. In the neighbourhood 
of London too many instances of phrenitis occur from the latter 
cause. It once used to be the sport of brutes in human shape to 
excite it by selecting a beast from the herd, and driving it furi¬ 
ously from street to street. 

The post-mortem appearances in the ox are always character¬ 
istic of the disease. The vessels of the cerebrum, the cerebellum, 
and the spinal chord, are highly injected—the membranes of the 
three are also loaded with blood. The lateral ventricles are dis¬ 
tended with a serous fluid. The fourth stomach and the small 
intestines usually exhibit the most decided traces of inflammatory 
action. To a certain extent, however, and sometimes to a degree 
almost inconceivable, the whole venous system is gorged with 
black blood. The ox has, comparatively, more blood in him than 
the horse. 

As to the treatment pf phrenitis in cattle, there is some diffi¬ 
culty. Is any treatment practicalile ? Is human life to be ha¬ 
zarded ? Cases will occur in which the bullet will be the best 
remedy; but then the flesh may be in such a congested state 
that it cannot be sold. If the beast can be managed or ap¬ 
proached during a momentary remission of the symptoms, bleed¬ 
ing should be attempted ; and if a vein can be opened, it should 
be suffered to bleed on as long as it will. Physic, if it can be 
given, will be indicated. Sometimes the beast labours under an 
insatiable thirst; and as his taste is not very exquisite now, he 
may be cheated with water in which Epsom salts have been dis¬ 
solved. If there is time to get down a hornful of drink, a scruple 
or half a drachm of the farina of the croton nut may be admi¬ 
nistered, mixed with a little gruel. All other medicines are com¬ 
pletely out of the question. If bleeding and physic will not save 
the ox, nothing will. Use should also be made of any temporary 
respite to confine the animal; or, if possible, to get him into some 
place where he cannot do much harm to himself or to any one 
else. Some persons have recommended setons of the black hel¬ 
lebore root inserted into the dewlap, and when these begin to 
act, they do generally act most tremendously; but the animal 
will have recovered, or he will be dead before the seton can have 


PHRENITIS IN SHEEP. 


127 

any influence. The frenzy being subdued, the next consideration 
is, what is to be done with the beast. No more dependance 
can be placed on him than on one that had recovered from a fit 
of apoplexy. The purging system should be continued to a mo¬ 
derate degree; and the fever medicine given to abate the quick¬ 
ness of the circulation; and then, when the congested blood is 
got pretty well out of the system, and the vessels have got rid of 
their superfluous blood, and the flesh looks well, the sooner the 
beast is disposed of the better. 

Phrenitis in Sheep. 

In the sheep the symptoms are the same—the eyes bright and 
prominent—the flanks heaving—the animal in constant motion ; 
he cocks his tail and gallops about the field, and attacks his 
companions, or the shepherd, or even a post or tree that may 
chance to attract his attention. 

Lambs .—In lambs the symptoms are sometimes very curious— 
they leap and jump about, and exhibit the most ridiculous antics. 
Mr. John Lawrence says that “ on the borders of Suffolk several 
scores of lambs were seized with an uncommon malady, leaping 
and jumping about the fold-yard in a strange manner; and a 
dunghill being raised to a level with the eaves of alow-tiled barn, 
a number of the lambs ran skipping up to the top of the roof, as 
though they had been possessed by more devils than Mary 
Magdalene, or even the nuns of Loudon. The whole parish 
wisely concluded that they were bewitched, and a wretched and 
aged pauper became the object of their suspicion and deadly 
hatred. The senseless and infernal supposed prevention of 
witchcraft was recurred to, namely, burning one of the poor ani¬ 
mals alive.” 

Causes and Treatment .—These bear so close an analogy to 
what I have described in cattle, that I will not detain you by a 
repetition of them. 

The dog is comparatively exempt from phrenitis. I never 
saw a case of what I could satisfy myself was pure phrenitis in 
this animal. These exemptions are singular; and, as veterinary 
science progresses, will be a subject of interesting inquiry. 


ON WOUNDS PENETRATING INTO THE CHEST OF 

THE HORSE. 

By M.M. U. Leblanc, M . F., and Principal Editor of the Journal de Med . 

Vet ., and A. Trousseau, M . D , 

[Continued from page 71, and concluded.] 

15. Wounds of the Cavity of the Chest, complicated with Injury 
of the Pulmonary Tissue, 

Wounds of this kind may be classed under the following 
divisions 

I.Superfcial Wounds of the Lung ,—Wounds an inch in depth, 
made with the blade of a bistoury retracted in a direction con¬ 
trary to that in which it had been introduced, have never been 
followed by any marked derangement of the pulmonary functions. 
We have opened many horses that had been thus wounded. 
Some were destroyed two hours after the infliction of the wound; 
others were suffered to live two days afterwards. These wounds 
never produced any great degree of hemorrhage. After two 
hours they were very difficult to find, unless the exact spot on 
which they had been inflicted had been previously remarked. 
Their edges had been brought exactly together, and had been 
glued to each other, if we may so speak, by a layer of fibrine. 
The neighbourhood of the wound was a little reddened. After 
the lapse of a day, the portion surrounding the wound was of a 
somewhat yellow colour. The thin fibrous clot which re-united 
the edge of the wound was very solid; nevertheless, when we 
extended the wounded lung it always gave way at the situation 
of the wound. After two days the cicatrix was as firm as the 
pulmonary tissue itself. 

2. Deep Wounds of the Lung .—The serious nature of these 
wounds seems to depend less than could be expected on their 
depth. We have seen wounds four or five inches deep, made 
with straight instruments, sharp and pointed, that have not been 
followed by any serious consequence, and that, in the space of an 
hour, have been closed by a fibrinous clot, like superficial wounds. 
On the other hand, we have seen a wound only two inches in 
depth, and made by the same instrument, produce death in a 
quarter of an hour. In this case the instrument had ppened an 
artery, and one of the divisions of the bronchi. The animal died 
of suffocation from the presence of mingled blood and air in the 
bronchi. This complication of wound will seldom occur; for it 
was not until we had repeated the experiment many times, twenty 
at least, on different horses, that we were able to wound at the 
same time an artery and a bronchial tube. 


ON WOUNDS PENETRATINO INTO THE CHEST. ] 29 

In experimenting with this instrument, which was very sharp, 
and which was not more than six lines wide at the part which 
penetiated fiom two to five inches into the lung, we remarked, 
that sometimes we had wounded a small bronchial tube alone, 
and at other times only a bloodvessel. In the first case the ani¬ 
mal soon began to breathe with difficulty, and exhibited all the 
symptoms of broken wind. Always there escaped from the nos¬ 
tril a little bloody fluid, but this lasted only during a few instants. 
The difficulty of breathing likewise disappeared in two or three 
days. This difficulty of breathing arose in some measure, we 
thought, from partial pulmonary emphysema, of which some 
traces remained at the examination after death ; and, in some 
measure also, from the presence of a small quantity of blood in 
the bronchi, which had assumed a spumous character. 

The simple wound of a vessel of somewhat considerable size 
produces less derangement of the respiratory functions j but these 
deiangements continue during a longer time: we have watched 
them as many as ten days, and they had not entirely ceased when 
the horse was destroyed. On examination after death, we found 
a bloody infiltration of ten inches in diameter, and which had its 
seat in the interlobular cellular tissue. A vein as large as a goose 
quill had been cut entirely through. We did not find any blood 
in the pectoial cavity, and the pulmonary wound was entirely 
closed by a yellow clot, offering in some points cruoric masses. 
The interlobular interstices did not contain any more pure blood, 
but in the direction of the wound there was a yellow fibrous sub¬ 
stance, with, here and there, points of a deep red. 

After having introduced our cutting instrument, straight and 
pointed, to a depth of two inches only, we gave it a sawing mo¬ 
tion, and very soon divided a sufficient number of bloodvessels 
and bronchi to produce a bronchial hemorrhage that soon de¬ 
stroyed the animal, especially when a direction was given to the 
instrument perpendicular to the vessels and the bronchi. 

Wounds effected with large instruments, as a keen sabre, were 
always accompanied by hemorrhage, whether bronchial or pleu¬ 
ral. These hemorrhages were great in proportion as the wound 
was accompanied by the introduction of air into the chest; we are 
enabled to state this from having left the wound open during 
several seconds. We have never seen the horse survive this com¬ 
plication of mischief two days. The horse that lived the longest 
ad both a bronchial and pleural hemorrhage, but the bronchial 
emorihage was not very great, nor did it endure long enough to 
produce sudden death. 

The following case proves that the introduction of air into the 
wound had great influence on the bleeding:—We had plunged a 

VOL. VIII. ^ 


130 ON WOUNDS PENETRATING INTO THE CHEST. 


bayonet into the left lung of a horse, and the weapon had pene¬ 
trated to the depth of four inches. We took care that no air should 
enter the chest. The horse did not seem to experience any in® 
convenience during several seconds, and no blood was discharged 
through the nostrils. We then opened the wound, and suffered 
air to enter for about two minutes. The influence of the air im¬ 
mediately manifested itself by the ordinary symptoms, and blood 
also began to run from the nostrils; the mucous membrane be¬ 
came pale, the horse fell, and died three hours afterwards. On 
opening him, we found at least six pounds of blood in the left 
pleural cavity, and the wound in the lung contained a large clot 
of red blood. In other cases, when any animals died, suffocated by 
the presence of blood in the bronchi, the wound always contained 
a clot, but it was very small. 

Wounds with a bayonet were generally less serious than those 
with a sabre. We have several times introduced the bayonet to 
the depth of four or five inches without producing death. This 
kind of wound is only serious when the weapon, after being in¬ 
troduced, is moved in different directions, for then the pulmonary 
tissue is torn: but sometimes even in that case death does not 
immediately follow, when air is not admitted into the wound. 

Large and blunt instruments produce wounds of a very serious 
character; but these wounds are made with difficulty, and, con¬ 
sequently, are rare. Those that we have attempted have been 
with a table knife that had no point, and after w^e had penetrated 
the walls of the chest with another instrument; then, plunging 
the knife the whole of its length into the chest, we were enabled 
to make wounds of little depth only, and which were not followed 
by death, or by any very serious consequences. The animals 
would always have lived had we not destroyed them for the pur¬ 
pose of examination. These wounds were not followed by he¬ 
morrhage, and they explain why it happens, that, after the 
introduction of foreign bodies, long and blunt, to a very consider¬ 
able depth into the chest, the animals are not destroyed. Al¬ 
though the instrument has penetrated deeply, the lung has only 
been pressed upon, and not deeply wmunded. 

Most of the horses that were the subjects of the preceding ex¬ 
periments lived a very little while; either they died sponta¬ 
neously, or w^e sacrificed them: hence it happens that the nature 
of the pulmonary cicatrix has not been fully ascertained. 

The following experiment enables us to fill this chasm :—We 
had plunged a blunt rod of iron, two inches in diameter, into 
the lung of a horse. It penetrated to a depth of eight inches, 
and was immediately drawn out again. No material bad con¬ 
sequences followed. We kept him during three weeks, and in 



EXTRACTS FROM MY CASE-BOOK. 181 

that period he was bled ten or twelve times. He lost but a little 
each time, perhaps not more than sixteen pounds in the whole 
(we were then making experiments on the blood), and he continued 
to feed well. When we examined him after death, no trace of 
the wound could be perceived except at the very orifice of it, 
where the serous membrane.was of a white opal colour. 

Another horse, on which we made the same experiment, was 
killed six or seven hours after the wound was inflicted. We fol¬ 
lowed the trace of the wound with much difficulty. It was 
somewhat tortuous (doubtless because the tissues which lay in 
the passage of the iron had offered different degrees of resist¬ 
ance) ; and it was marked by a black line formed by a clot of 
blood. The pulmonary tissue surrounding that line was in its 
natural state—not a trace of inflammation could be perceived 
through the whole course of the wound. It is very probable that 
in a little time the clot would have lost its colour, and would have 
at length entirely disappeared. 

The following consequences seem to result from the considera¬ 
tion of these experiments;—that we ought always to avoid the 
introduction of air into the thoracic cavity, and therefore should 
never probe or sound wounds in the chest; and that we ought not to 
attempt to evacuate the blood which may be effused in the 
pleural cavities, although it may exist in a very considerable 
quantity, because that blood will be absorbed, if it has not been 
long in contact with the air ; and also because the effort to eva¬ 
cuate it would be fruitless, the blood coagulating very shortly 
after it is effused. 

Journal, Sep, 1834. 


EXTRACTS FROM MY CASE-BOOK. 

Bi/ Mr. Simpson, V. S. 

No. XIII. 

NEUROTOMY. 

1834. Sep. 24. — A bay mare, four years old., The patient 
became suddenly lame in the near fore leg, when at work six or 
seven months ago. In five weeks after this the off leg became 
equally affected, and the lameness has continued in both legs 
until the present time. The hoofs present the appearance of 
being extremely well formed, having a moderately concave and 
nearly circular sole, with a prominent frog, well defined bars, &c. 
Around the front of each there is, however, an indentation or 
ring; and, on more minute examination, the horn is hard and 




132 EXTRACTS FROM MY CASE-BOOK. 

unyielding, and the sole thick to a morbid degree. The present 
symptoms are, that she is continually pointing one foot or the 
other when at rest; the lameness diminishes after a little exer¬ 
cise, but returns after rest; and she shews great disinclination to 
trot. The case is clearly confirmed navicular lameness. When 
the lameness first appeared, various methods of shoeing and 
paring the feet were tried; and I believe the animal was placed 
under the care of different practitioners. In the infirmary of one, 
her shoulders were extensively blistered, after the fashion of those 
days when veterinary science was hid in worse than Cimmerian 
darkness; and she was finally turned out upon a common, and 
although her value estimated at thirty shillings, when sound, 
she was worth quite as many pounds. 

The disease being evidently confirmed, I advise neurotomy, 
and directed her to be placed under preparative treatment for 
that operation. 

Oct. 8.—To-day I excised an inch of the metacarpal nerves 
on both sides from both legs. The patient got up free from all 
appearance of lameness; and I can never forget the astonished 
countenance of the groom, when lie witnessed the change. He 
could not believe his eyes. The portions of nerve he took home, 
and said he would keep them for ever. 

2Sth .—The legs have undergone the regular process conse¬ 
quent upon the operation. The wounds are healed, and the 
mare seems as efficient as ever; she is theiefore put to work at 
light jobs, being just three weeks after undergoing the operation. 

Dec. 4th .—The groom tells me he is afraid the off hoof is 
coming off. On examining it, I find a fistulous wound on the 
inner coronet, into which I can introduce my finger, discharging 
a somewhat foetid matter, evidently caused originally by the 
calkin of the other shoe. It appears that, instead of continuing 
the mare at light and easy work, she has been for the last month 
used as shaft-horse in carting sand from a sand-hole, for filling- 
up drains ; about the roughest and most shaky work a horse can 
be put to. Even in her sound state she was not calculated for 
this work, being a light, active animal; and, in her present 
state, the consequence has been, that she has inflicted this wound 
on the opposite foot; but, shewing no lameness, it has not been 
noticed so soon as it otherwise would have been. 

A saturated solution of sulphate of zinc, to be daily used for 
dressing the fistula. 

14^^.—Almost all trace of the wound has disappeared. The 
fistula has quite healed, and good horn is secreted as usual. 

1835. Jan. 2Sd .— The mare has been at regular work until 
tliis time. 


EXTRACTS FROM MY CASE-BOOK. 183 

liemarks .—In the above case the patient was sent to work just 
three weeks after the operation of neurotomy was performed ; 
and although this practice is at variance with the doctrine of 
Mr. Sewell, I do not see any reasonable objection against its 
adoption in all cases where neurotomy is employed, presuming 
that no symptom of existing inflammation is present, of which 
circumstance it is almost supererogatory to remark every judi¬ 
cious practitioner would satisfy himself before he decided upon 
operating. I remember reading a long and theoretic exposition 
of this operation in the pages of The Veterinarian, translated 
from the French of MM. Dupuy and Prince, in which their 
argument against it is founded upon their most astonishing igno¬ 
rance of the nervous system generally, and especially of the 
varied and distinct, and, to a certain extent, independent func¬ 
tions of its three divisions. They most absurdly assume, that 
upon the metacarpal nerves depend alike the nutrition and 
sensibility of the parts to which they are given.” They speak 
of the changes in the shape and volume of the hoof, and appear 
to be sceptical as to the secretion of horn; and state, that the 
operation is almost only applicable to diseases arising from excess 
of nutrition. Now, had they been aware how^ totally unconnected 
these spinal nerves are with the nutritive or secretory process ; or, 
allowing their want of knowledge of that well-founded fact, had 
they had practical experience in a single case wFere all feeling 
in the foot was cut off, I think they would not have published 
such a specimen of ingenious but unsound physiological reason¬ 
ing as the paper’ alluded to contains. That all the vital powers 
are continued with energy, unimpaired by the excision of a part of 
the metacarpal nerves and the consequent suspension of all sen¬ 
sibility in the foot, is abundantly demonstrated in the extract 
I have made to-day. It will be seen, that, two months after the 
patient underwent the operation, she received a severe tread on 
the inner coronet of the off fore foot, from the raised heel of the 
opposite shoe. Had feeling remained in the part, the wound 
would, most probably, have been earlier discovered ; but, being 
void of feeling, no lameness was apparent, and the grievance 
was undiscovered and neglected until it degenerated into a quittor. 
Yet by the application of Mr. Newport’s humane remedy, a 
healthy action is immediately set up, and in ten days hardly a 
vestige of disease remains. Had the French theory been correct, 
this effect could not have been produced. But I am dwelling 
on this simple point longer than its self-evidence renders 
necessary. 

Before I conclude this hasty sketch, I would just observe, that 
the navicular disease affords one of the aptest illustrations of the 


SWJCLLED LEGS. 


134 

ruinous effects of entrusting a diseased animal to the superinten¬ 
dence of a man unprepared by anatomical and general medical 
knowledge. Not seeing a great staring wound, or a lump as big 
as his fist, he has no guide for his muddy judgment, but suffers 
it /CO flounder about as confused and unstable as a man returning 
from the companionship of glorious souls,’’ until, at length, he 
fixes upon the shoulder, as being the most prominent object, 
upon the same grounds that the aforesaid reeler would cling to a 
lamp-post. Having determined that the shoulder shall bear the 
blame, he sets to work with a zeal proportionate to his ignorance, 
and blisters and setons, and hot oils, are in daily requisition, 
until the owner’s patience is exhausted, or the poor brute brought 
to death’s door by constant irritation. Oh! shame on the man 
who will allow his mind to give way to prejudice so far as to put 
faith in such cruel empiricism! 


SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF INFILTRATION AND 
INDURATION OF THE CELLULAR TISSUE OF THE 
LOWER PART OF THE LEGS OF HORSES. 

By M. Lardit, F.*S. to the Depot at Braisne. 

I WILL not trifle with the time of your readers in describing 
the symptoms which characterize infiltration and cellular indu¬ 
ration of the lower portions of the limbs, for every person is well 
acquainted with them; nor will I speak of the causes of these 
lesions, for they are numerous, and too well known to be stated 
here: I will only relate a mode of treatment which has often 
been attended with a successful result when the usual means 
have failed. The usual means are, moderate exercise, tonic and 
stimulant frictions of various kinds, firing, the administration of 
diuretics, and the use of setons. 

Convinced of the insufficiency of these means in various cases, 
I have made numerous slight incisions, or scarifications, through 
the skin, but which have sometimes produced inflammation so 
intense, that it was necessary to have recourse to emollient fo¬ 
mentations. The inflammation, however, soon disappeared, a 
sero-purulent fluid ran from the incisions, and the engorgement 
diminished, but only to re-appear a short time afterwards. I did 
not wait until it had acquired its former bulk, but repeated the in¬ 
cisions, and which produced renewed and increased improvement; 
and I continued this until the enlargement had entirely disap¬ 
peared. I sometimes suffered three days to intervene between 
the incisions, and in the interval I employed emollient lotions. 




swelled legs. 


135 

When the disease resisted these means, and the engor2:ement 
occupied a great part of the leg, I applied the cautery to the in¬ 
cisions; and, finally, when this treatment was not of avail, I 
made more numerous and deeper scarifications, into which I 
introduced the cautery. By this I obtained an abundant sup¬ 
puration, and never failed to effect a cure. 

I have found that this treatment has been advantageous when 
seconded, 1st, by setons placed in the thighs, or in the chest, 
accordingly as the seat of the disease was in the posterior or 
anterior limbs; 2 d 5 by two or three bleedings from the jugular, 
with a view of favouring the absorption of the infiltrated fluids ; 
3d, the use of infusions of aromatic plants, and decoctions of 
bitter ones, towards the conclusion of the treatment; and, 4th, 
by moderate exercise. 

These scarifications, which are so beneficial in chronic enlarge¬ 
ments, were also of great use in inflammatory and critical tu¬ 
mours of great extent, and which were evidently increasino;. The 
scarifications succeeded admirably after the ordinary means, as 
general bleedings and the application of liquid emollients, had 
been resorted to. 


The result of my practice confirms the opinion of M. Lardit, 
as to the treatment of infiltration and cellular induration of the 
limbs by deep scarifications and the cautery. I have many times 
seen enormous chronic enlargements of the hock, shank bone, 
fetlock, and pasterns disappear by these means alone. I have 
sometimes neglected the previous scarification, and have con- 
tented^myself with penetrating through the integument and cel¬ 
lular tissue, with a thin and rather sharp iron, brought to a white 
heat. I seldom employ any auxiliary measure. I have often 
seen horses thus treated sent to work on the day of the operation, 
or a few days afterwards. Horses of little blood, and naturally 
devoid of irritability, experience no fever of re-action to any ap¬ 
preciable degree, and are seldom off their food for a single day. 
—U. Leblanc. 


Journal. 





136 


SEVERE CASE OF ACUTE FOUNDER, IN WHICH 
DEATH WAS PRODUCED BY EXTREME IRRITA¬ 
TION. 

Mr. Horsburgh, U.8., Castleton, N. B. 

On Friday night last I was sent for to see a mare that was 
said to be foundered. She had rim to Edinburgh the night be¬ 
fore, had come home late, and did not appear ill; but in the 
morning she was so stiff that she could not move. She had been 
bled from the neck and from the plate veins in the forenoon, and 
had had a ball of aloes 3 viij about nine o’clock at night. I found 
her standing with her head wedged, as it were, into one corner of 
the manger, and bent a little on one side, from which position it 
was almost impossible to put her back. The legs were stifl and 
wide apart, the tall elevated ; the body, legs, ears, and nose had 
a natural heat; pulse 78, respiration 50, the flanks heaving vio¬ 
lently, the nostrils dilated, but the membrane not much injected ; 
the respiratory murmur on auscultation vv'as violent, and the 
body, legs, and neck had severe spasmodic twitchings every 
three or four minutes, which shook her as if she was suddenly 
startled. There was no alteration in the eye; she took notice of 
every thing going on around her, and drank a little water, often 
shaking her lips in it after drinking. I bled her to the amount 
of four quarts. The blood presented a considerable buffy coat. 
I then gave pulv. antim. 3 ii, tart, antim. nitre 

gruel, and op. 3 SS, in a small ball. I proposed blistering the 
sides, which the owner objected to, thinking it was only founder, 
and saying that he would rather see her dead than marked on 
the sides by blisters. With great reluctance I consented to defer 
it until morning, when, if she w^as no better, I was to have li¬ 
berty to blister her. On the next morning she was worse ; the 
pulse 80, respiration 60, and, at intervals of about four minutes, 
so uncommonly violent, that the flanks heaved like a pair of bel¬ 
lows, the nostrils were dilated to their utmost extent, and she 
seemed as if she would suddenly fall down and die ; but this 
was succeeded again by a few minutes of quiet. I applied a 
large blister to each side, and along the sternum, and gave pulv. 
antim. 3 ij, tart, antim. 51, nitre ^ij, in gruel, the dose to be repeated 
in four hours. I also ordered clysters, and gruel to drink. 

I saw her again in the afternoon; the blisters were acting 
well: there was no appearance of purging : she was breathing in 
the same way, but, if possible, more laboriously; pulse 84. I 
took twm quarts of blood. The spasmodic affection had ceased 



UNDUE SECRETION OE MILK. 


137 


shortly after blistering; and after bleeding the pulse fell to 76. 
She was removed from the stall to a small house, where she kept 
turning always to the left side, and slowly went round by the 
wall, stopping a little at a small open window. The eyes ap¬ 
peared quite right, and she took notice of everything around her. 
She continued in the same way till about ten o’clock, when she 
suddenly made a rush forward to a corner, fell, and expired with 
a violent struggle. 

I was convinced from the first that the lungs were affected; 
but the legs, ears, and nose remained moderately warm during the 
whole of the time. The pulse was also rather fuller than it 
usually is in inflammation of the lungs; neither did I ever see 
these spasms, or intervals of acute pain and comparative quiet, 
and without any dulness in the countenance; and although it 
was thought at first to have been founder, and there was consi¬ 
derable stiffness of the legs, yet there was no heat of the feet, no 
pulsating of the artery at the pastern, and no inclination to lie 
down. It was such a case as I had never met with before, 
nor have I ever seen an account of such an one; therefore, 
immediately after death I proceeded to examine the body. 

I found the abdominal viscera perfectly healthy. Many large 
white spots were on the muscular portion of the diaphragm, 
which I conjectured to be produced by some former disease. On 
opening the thorax I was surprised at the extreme smallness of 
the lungs (some of the bystanders saying they were no larger 
than a sow’s). This was produced by the anterior parts being 
collapsed, but with numberless emphysematous appearances 
under the pleura, apparently from rupture of the air cells. 
The posterior parts were a little inflamed, but not so much so as 
to cause death ; indeed, I believe the cause of death must be 
sought not in the disease of any particular part, but in general 
and overwhelming irritation. 

October 13, 1834. 


A CASE OF INFLAMMATION OF THE CCECUM AND 
COLON, CONTEMPORANEOUS WITH UNDUE 
SECRETION OF MILK, IN A MARE. 

Bif M. Feli X VoGELY, F.»S., Lyons* 

A RED sorrel mare, about eight or nine years old, belonging 
to the artillery, was shewn at my weekly inspection on the 28tli 
of June 1834 : she had had during the last month an unusual 

VOL. VIII, u 





138 UNDUE SECRETION OF MILK, AND 

secretion of milk gulactorrhoea”). She had not had a foal since 
she was bought in 1831 ; nevertheless, her udder had become 
full of milk, and there was no alteration in the quantity of it 
whether she was at work or at rest. 

Notwithstanding this continual drain, she was in a very satis¬ 
factory state of condition ; her appetite was moderate, and her 
pulse and the actions of her flank had a peculiar appearance of 
labour, which I am unable precisely to describe. She had been 
dismissed from the infirmary on the 7th of June, where she .had 
been on account of some chest affection from the 21st of April. 
I ordered mashes and moderate exercise, and expressed my 
opinion that nothing serious was to be apprehended : I rested 
that opinion on analogous facts in the human female, when she 
no longer gave suck, and also on the apparent state of conva¬ 
lescence in which the mare then was. 

Fourteen days passed, the mare was exercised like other horses 
of the artillery, and did her work well. She had now regained 
her appetite and spirits notwithstanding the continued secretion 
and discharge of milk, and every function seemed to be perfectly 
performed, except that she was not quite so strong as before. 

At this time a change took place in the veterinary department 
of the regiment, and she passed under the care of M. Jarryon ; 
and being inspected by him on the 12th of July, he sent her 
again to the infirmary. She was put under treatment for this 
undue secretion of milk, which ran from her in a continual and 
not very small jet. The populeum ointment was rubbed on the 
udder, and the mare was put on very restricted diet. 

ll^/L—An ounce of aloes was administered in honey; and, to 
increase the action of the purgative, I ordered her to be led about 
for a considerable time on the following day. These orders were 
very much exceeded, and she was taken back to the stable evi¬ 
dently fatigued ; and even then she was not bled. 

\Qth &. \7th .—The physic worked in a satisfactory manner ; 
the pulse was neither quick nor full, but rather soft: the skin was 
loose, and she had some appetite. 

\^th .—The running of the milk had entirely ceased ; the physic 
had also ceased to operate, and the mash diet was continued. 

\dth to the 24^/i,—She seemed to be gaining a little condition 
and strength; the appetite was as good as that of a healthy 
horse, and the pulse was natural. She was suffered to have more 

food than on the former davs. No corn had hitherto been allowed 

•/ 

her : she was now suffered to have some ; and on the 26th, she 
resumed her post at the battery at 10 o’clock. She was, however, 
scarcely there before a violent dysentery suddenly appeared : 
the animal soon became so weak that she could not stand; she 


INFLAMMATION OF THE C(ECUM. 139 

was cohered with cold sweat, exhaling that peculiar odour, 
sui generisy belonging to sick horses, and which practitioners 
immediately recognize. The nose, ears, and extremities were 
cold ; the pulse wiry, small, hard, and quick; the matter evacu¬ 
ated had covered the tail and the thighs ; it was fluid, of a brown 
colour, and had more the appearance of human excrement than 
as proceeding from a mare. 

I immediately diagnosticated gangrenous enteritis, and pre¬ 
dicted a fatal and speedy issue. I proposed to bleed her, in 
order to develope the pulse, which w as almost imperceptible ; and 
also to act as a useful derivative. The blood was thick and 
black, and flowed gently down the neck. We had great diffi¬ 
culty in abstracting two pounds, which, after standing in a vase, 
presented a coat of a dirty grey colour, five or six lines in thick¬ 
ness, supported by a clot that had scarcely the consistence of 
currant jelly. The application of large vesicatories to the 
thighs and the sides of the chest being resolved on, I made in¬ 
cisions into the skin in a lozenge-like form, and these wmunds 
were thickly covered with blister ointment; and I predicted that 
the patient would not live four hours, if, in the mean time, con¬ 
siderable swelling did not take place. My prognosis was 
rigorously fulfilled ; and I believe it is a general observation in 
acute diseases that the issue will be fatal wdien the skin seems 
to have lost its sensibility, and stimulating applications have 
no effect upon it. A decoction of linseed, and in which poppy- 
heads and belladonna leaves were infused, was prepared, in order 
to be administered, both in injection and by the mouth. Our 
cares, however, were fruitless; the blisters did not rise, and the 
mare died at about the expiration of the predicted time. She 
was immediately opened, in the presence of MM. Jarryon and 
Giguet, my colleagues in the regiment. 

The thoracic viscera w'ere perfectly sound, and the cranium 
presented nothing unusual. In the digestive organs there were 
the following morbid appearances :—the small intestines and the 
rectum were sound ; but the mucous membrane, and the mucous 
membrane alone of the large intestines, was sphacelated through 
its whole extent; its colour was of a deep black brown, but here 
and there were points and patches of a decided black colour, 
while the membrane generally was covered by a thick and 
granulous mucus resembling a coat of mud. These morbid ap¬ 
pearances were confined to the origin and termination of the 
large intestines, where they commenced and broke off'suddenly. 

The liver presented nothing unusual except its pale pink colour, 
and the little adherence of its pleural covering, that might be 
raised with perfect ease from the parenchyma, which was easily 


STAGGERS AND AMAUROSIS 


140 

torn, and exhibited on its lacerated surfaces large granulations 
of a rather deeper colour. 

The udder, in which no trace of milk was found, was slightly 
indurated. 

The abdominal viscera were covered and protected by a thick 
layer of fatty matter. 

From the detached account of this case, in my opinion the 
following questions arise :— 

1st, Was the flow of milk the consequence of the former chest 
affection ; and if so, how is it to be accounted for ? 

2d, Was it independent of the pneumonic disease ; and, if 
so, what was its origin ? 

3d, Was the inflammation of the ccecura and colon the 
consequence of the suppression of the flow of milk ? 

4th, Was it occasioned by the action of the aloes, too much 
increased by the exercise of the 15th ? 

5th, Was the disease of the liver contemporary with or an¬ 
terior to that of the chest? 

6th, The sound state of the lungs; does it not seem to indi¬ 
cate that there was no previous pneumonic affection ? and that the 
practitioners who had treated the mare for it had formed an 
erroneous diagnostic in placing in the chest a malady of the 
liver—an organ the diseases of which are not yet well known, 
and which circumstance would, in a great measure, excuse the 
mistake ? 

Journal, Sep. 1834. 


DETERMINATION OF BLOOD TO THE HEAD, AND 

AMAUROSIS, IN A COW. 

Bp Mr. G. Cleland, Rosewell, N. B. 

On the 25th June, 1832, I w^as sent for to attend a cow, the 
property of Dr. Smith, of Dun Esk, that had been taken badly 
on the 23d, with a shaking, loss of milk and cud, that would 
neither eat nor drink, and that had not dunged for several days. 
I was informed that they had a cow-doctor to her, and that he 
bled her, and gave her a drink of 2 quarts of ale, 4 oz. of mus¬ 
tard, 2 oz. of ground pepper, and life of treacle ; and that after 
this she had rapidly got worse. When I examined her, I found 
her to be blind; the pulse was 82,and there was a constant grind¬ 
ing with her teeth and foaming at the mouth. The shaking fits 
came on at times, and then she would catch the stall with her 
mouth, and hold it fast untd the shaking went off, when she 
would then tumble down very much exhausted. I gave her life 




IN A COW. 


141 


of Epsom salts and 12 oz. of castor oil. I back-raked her, and 
took a great quantity of black slimy dung from her; admi¬ 
nistered several clysters, and ordered gruel to be given through 
the night every three hours. 

2Qth. —No better. Pulse 82; the shaking still continues; and 
she catches at any thing with her mouth, and supports herself 
until the fit goes off. She has neither dunged nor urined. I 
gave her 12 oz. Epsorn salts, 12 oz. castor oil, and 2 drs. of 
emetic tartar. I back-raked her, and found no dung. Clysters 
and gruel were given often in large quantities. I visited her in the 
afternoon, and found her respiration very laborious. 1 bled her 
copiously, and blistered her on both sides. She pushes her head 
against the wall as if she would break her neck, if not kept back. 

1 back-raked her, but found no dung. I blistered her head, and 
had her back well rubbed with turpentine and oil. Clysters and 
gruel as before. 

27th, —No better. Pulse the same. I gave 10 oz. of salts 
and 10 oz. of castor oil; and I back-raked her, but found no dung. 
Clysters, with a large quantity of salad oil and gruel, to be often 
thrown up. 

2Sth .—As before, except that a little dung had come away in 
the night. Pulse the same. I was told that the owner had given 
some doses of magnesia. I then gave her 2 quarts of good strong 
ale, 2 drs. ginger, and ordered the clysters and gruel as before. 

29^A.—The shaking fits violent, and she continues to push her 
head against the wall. Her head was again blistered all over: 

2 quarts of ale and 2 drs. ginger were given. This forenoon she 
was thought to cud a little. Clysters and gruel as before. 

About midnight a great palpitation of her heart came on ; it 
was so loud, that everybody present was alarmed. She roared 
and tumbled about, up and down. Clysters and gruel continued. 

—Still no improvement. She is getting very weak. The 
owner wished her to be killed ; but ere this could be done she 
began to dung, and discharged a large quantity of urine. As I 
was waiting to see the effect of this, and was at some distance 
from her, I heard the palpitation begin. I pushed her head from 
the wall, and got cold water and threw it on her head, and the 
fit went off in a short time. I back-raked, and got a great deal 
of dung away. She dunged several times, and urined. Pulse 80. 
About mid-day she was offered a pailful of water; she drank 
greedily of it. A little grass was put before her ; she ate it, but 
she shook at intervals, and pushed her head against the wall. 
Clysters continued. 

July l.s^.—A little better ; but she still pushes her head against 
the wall when the shaking comes on, which, however, is not so 
Irequently. Give I dr. tartar emetic, twice daily. She continues 
to eat and drink, and dung. Pulse 73. Clysters still continued. 


FRACTURE OF THE SCAPULA. 


142 

^d .—A little better; but still pushes her head occasionally 
against the wall. I again blistered her head, and continued the 
clysters. On this day, for the first time, she began to see a little. 
After that she rapidly got better, and is now doing well. 


FRACTURE OF THE INTERNAL PLATE OF THE 

SCAPULA. 

By M. Delaguette. 

When the regiments of the Imperial Guard marched to Roch- 
fort, on their way to Spain, I was desired to look at the horse of 
one of the troopers, that had its shoulder very much swelled. 
I immediately visited him, and found that his left shoulder pro¬ 
jected in an extraordinary manner. There w'as no enlargement 
on the external face, but it appeared to be forced from the body 
by a considerable tumour between the scapula and the ribs. 
There was no lesion at all externally, and I did not know how to 
account for what I saw. The dragoon told me that his horse 
was quite well in the morning, and was not in the slightest de¬ 
gree lame, and that it was only three quarters of a league before 
he arrived at Rochfort, that he had begun to go lame; that the 
shoulder had then begun to swell, and that it was with the greatest 
difficulty that he could get him to his journey’s end. 

On moving the limb in various directions, and applying my 
ear to the shoulder, I could distinguish a very obscure crepitus. 
I reported, that 1 considered the horse to have fractured the bone 
of the shoulder, and I had orders to destroy him. 

On examining him after death, my prognosis was justified. 
I found the shoulder forced from the walls of the chest by a 
great quantity of blood effused into the cellular tissue, while a 
portion of the inner plate of the scapula, about three inches 
square, and at the dorsal angle, was detached from the body of 
the bone, and had produced the hsemorrhage by tearing the 
muscles and bloodvessels. 

The days were short, and the horse could not rest himself unless 
at night. Our march was a forced one ; we set out before day¬ 
break. I was alone, and had the care of 800 horses, and con¬ 
sequently was fully occupied and thoroughly fatigued. This 
prevented me from making the accurate examination I could 
have wished. I was desirous to ascertain what had been the 
cause of this extraordinary fracture, and if it was of recent date; 
but I was compelled to satisfy myself with merely guessing at 
the thing, and went to attend on other horses. 

Journal^ Dec. 1834. 




4 


143 

FRz\CTURE OF THF: SCAPULA. 

By Mr. Fuller, V. S., March. 

On the 2d instant, I was requested to see a thoroughbred 
fiily, the property of Mr. John Tibbett, of Doddington Fen, 
who informed me, that, on his return from St. Ives' market, she 
fell suddenly lame of the near leg, when galloping at about three- 
quarter speed. He immediately dismounted, at which time he 
was about nine miles from home. Mdth great difficulty he in¬ 
duced her to walk to within one mile of his house, when she lay 
down much exhausted. Mr. T. then procured a sledge, and got 
her home that evening, and fomented the shoulder the greater 
part of the night. 

On the following morning, when I saw her, I readily disco¬ 
vered that the scapula was fractured in a transverse direction. 
I immediately placed her in slings; after which, the near foot 
was kept from the ground by means of a kneeband, and the 
fracture was easily reduced. I then applied about twenty yards 
of flannel bandage with a compress upon the fracture, and Wered 
her to have bian mashes until I saw her again. 

On visiting her on the following morning, I was informed that 
she had been out of the slings, and had undone all that I had 
applied the day before. I again suspended her, but with no 
better result, for she appeared determined not to submit to the 
confinement. 

Other expedients were tried, but she was perfectly unmanage¬ 
able 5 and on the fifth day after the accident symptoms of tetanus 
came on. Seeing no probability of her recovery, she was destroyed. 

I examined the shoulder after death, and found the muscles 
about the fracture dreadfully lacerated. 

The annexed drawing is a rough sketch of the fracture. 





ON FARCY. 

M. Hamont, Founder and Director oj the Veterinary School 

at Abou-Zabel. 

[Continued from p.77, and concluded.] 

The nature of Farcy being known, we may certainly, for a 
while at least, diminish or destroy all innate predisposition to it. 
It remains, then, to determine whence we may obtain stallions 
on which our hope of accomplishing this may be founded. Farcy 
having been considered as peculiar to cold and wet countries, 
some have thought of searching for them in w'arm climates. 
Arab horses have been bought at great expence either in Egypt 
or in Syria; but these stallions, so beautiful and so vigorous, 
have not answered the expectations of the governments that pur¬ 
chased them. An Egyptian asked one of us, whether, by crossing 
the females of a hot country with males from a cold one their 
progeny might not be preserved from farcy ? Animals of a moun¬ 
tain breed, fed on animal and vegetable diet, crossed with those 
of the plains, ought to produce a race that had little disposition 
to farcy: but the influence of locality, incessantly acting on the 
animal economy, would render it necessary to have frequent 
recourse to these crossings; and then, this system being uni¬ 
versally pursued, and a different mode of feeding adopted, the 
malady of w hich we are treating might perhaps be caused entirely 
to disappear. This is not an affection that is likely to give way 
to medicine, although every one has his favourite mode of treat¬ 
ment, and there are few drugs the power of which has not been 
tried, and none of them with any satisfactory result. Some of 
the incendiary corrosive substances that have been given have 
often strangely aggravated the evil. Vitet advised the employ¬ 
ment of fumigations of orpiment, and water saturated with white 
arsenic. Lafosse had recourse to emollients and discutients, 
according to the state of the farcy tumours. Chabert prescribed 
sudorifics and diaphoretic antimony. Gohier, professor of the 
school of Lyons, used decoctions of hemlock. A French veteri¬ 
nary surgeon, formerly professor of the school of Milan, cured 
many cases of farcy by the use of large doses of sulphur. While 
one of us was at Alfort, the Professor of Pathology, M. Barthe- 
lemy, sen., administered Kermes mineral in very large doses, and 
also cured many horses by this mode of treatment. These iso¬ 
lated cures, however, have not changed the general opinion. It 
is not the surgeon who records the case that has cured the far¬ 
cied horse : it is not the effect of the medicines that have been 
employed : it is the work of nature alone. 


ON FARCY. 


145 


Ilurtrel D^Arboval has advised tlie employment of decoctions 
of hops and wormwood, and gentian and bark, in order to restore 
to the sanguineous system the predominance which it had lost. 
The school of Lyons endeavoured to withdraw the animal from 
the influence of the predisposing causes. 

The Egyptians apply the cautery : it is the only weapon with 
which they oppose the disease. They do not cauterize the 
buttons, the ulcers; but they strangely endeavour to draw from its 
lurking-place the tissue really affected, by lines scored with a red- 
hot iron, and which they apply without principle and without 
mercy. This method of proceeding is attended by no advantage. 
It often aggravates the evil, and it brings on complications of 
disease and inflammatory engorgements, which hasten the death 
of the animal. 

As soon as farcy appears, the Wahabites send the horses to 
little huts, where proper persons are charged with their treat¬ 
ment. They are as much as possible placed in localities where 
they wdll be exposed to little heat. These men begin with 
purging the horse, by means of a fossil common in the Hedjar. 
They form it into balls, which M. Gand has seen. The dose is 
said to be about three drachms. We have nevqr been able to pro¬ 
cure this salt, which is said to possess a strong acid taste. Dried 
figs, soaked in water, are their principal food. Every day at noon 
each horse has a certain quantity of camefs milk. The ulcer¬ 
ated surfaces are washed with the same salt that is given as phy¬ 
sic, diluted in water. The health of the animal beginning to be 
restored, he is sent off to the mountains. The inhabitants consi¬ 
der that farcy may be cured, if it has not been too long neglected. 

Our situation in Egypt has enabled us to see a great many 
cases of this disease. Out of nearly a hundred horses, which 
the infirmary of the veterinary school always contains, half of 
them are affected with farcy. We have employed, in turn, every 
medicine, and we have tried to its full extent that which the 
skilful or the unskilful have recommended. The disease, how¬ 
ever, proceeded, and our patients died, only to be replaced by 
others wdiom the same fate awaited. Bleedings, local or general, 
were never followed by any apparent benefit, whether they were 
had recourse to early or late in the disease. Mercurial preparations 
administered internally, and whether in moderate or excessive 
doses, and continued for a long space of time, were never at¬ 
tended by any advantageous result. During tw'O months we kept 
two horses on meat broth, and they died like the rest; the dis¬ 
ease, however, was previously far advanced in them, and the 
Arabs had been applying the fire to various parts of the body 
that were considerably tumefied. Every means that the wildest 

VOL. vni, X 


ON FARCY, 


146 

fancy or the sagest counsel had advised having failed, vve knew 
not what to do. Emollients, tonic bitters, the application of the 
cautery, the use of the blister, all, far from being serviceable, 
seemed to aggravate the evil. At length there remained nothing 
to be tried but the ointment of the sulphuret of potash. Several 
horses were put under treatment with it. The affected parts 
were well rubbed with it many times in the course of twenty-four 
hours. After some days the success was complete—they were 
cured. We attributed the fortunate result to chance—to nature; 
nevertheless we repeated the experiment, and upon a greater 
number of horses, and the success was the same: we continued 
it, and w^e found that farcy was a curable disease, at least, if at¬ 
tacked before it had become inveterate—constitutional. 

We observed, that when the ointment of the sulphuret of pot¬ 
ash had been continued during a considerable time, the skin be¬ 
came red and sore : we then employed cataplasms, or decoctions 
of belladonna, until the irritation had disappeared. We dimi¬ 
nished the quantity of food, and gave white drinks, or chaff only. 
Ordinarily, however, the patients w'ere left to their usual regimen. 
When the buttons were hard, frictions with mercurial ointment 
softened them. A very light application of the actual cautery 
favoured the cicatrization of yellow and sanious ulcers which were 
occasionally found about the eyes, on the forehead, the nostrils, 
or the limbs. The severe application of the iron was always in¬ 
jurious rather than useful. 

We were obliged to continue this mode of treatment for a long 
time if farcy attacked the limbs ; but generally we succeeded. 
The frictions with the ointment of the sulphuret of potash were 
singularly successful in promoting the healing of farcy ulcers, 
and the resolution of farcy swellings. 

Conclusions. 

If we compare what has been said of leprosy in the human 
being and farcy in the horse, we cannot fail of recognizing a per¬ 
fect identity between them; with a few modifications only, result¬ 
ing from difference of organization. We cannot assign the 
precise period when leprosy was imported into Europe, and to 
this day an impenetrable obscurity veils the origin of farcy. 
There is nothing in human or veterinary medicine that can dis¬ 
pel the darkness. Their identity is demonstrated by lesions 
which are found both in men and in the horse from the com¬ 
mencement to the close of the disease. There are the same pre¬ 
monitory symptoms—the same progress—the same buttons — the 
same ulcers — and on the same parts of the body. We have not, 
however, seen in the human being the subcutaneous purulent 


ON FARCY. 


147 

depots whicli are often observed in the horse. The skin of the 
latter is thicker, and does not permit the purulent matter so rea¬ 
dily to escape. 

The perishing, the dropping off of some of the extremities, is 
a frequent termination *of the disease in men. This is confined 
in the horse to the fall of the hoof, and has not affected the parts 
above, and which in this animal are larger and more strongly- 
knit together. As to the symptoms which precede and accom¬ 
pany the developement of this disease in man, febrile symptoms, 
disturbed digestion, and general languor, are almost invariably 
observed ; they are not, however, seen in the horse. A well- 
known law explains this difference. If the same malady affects 
various classes of beings, the symptoms are more serious, general, 
and complicated in him who occupies the highest rank ; and they 
diminish in intensity and extent in proportion as the number of 
the organs and the complication of the functions diminish. 

In those parts of the East that we have visited, wherever le¬ 
prosy appears, farcy is its inseparable companion. 

If leprosy has disappeared in Europe, we must search for the 
reason in that civilization which has done so much for man and 
so little for the horse. 

Leprosy seldom exists among the negroes, and farcy rarely at¬ 
tacks a black horse. 

The causes are similar—animals that live for a long time on one 
description of food are liable to farcy. Those that are affected with 
leprosy live either on salt-fish, as in Greece and Cyprus; or on doura 
and bad cheese, as in Palestine, Egypt, and Arabia. So horses 
that are fed on chaff, and barley, and oats alone, or on chaff and 
hay, are they better kept, so far as preservation from farcy goes, 
in proportion as these articles are extended? We think not; 
but horses that are fed on a mixture of animal and vegetable 
food are not susceptible of the disease. The horses of the Sherif 
Ali, although kept in places where farcy was most frequent, 
were exempt from it. 

The number of farcied horses surpassed that of the human 
beings that were leprous, because man, however miserable may 
be his situation, always finds some means of sustaining himself 
against the influence of deleterious agents, and especially atmo¬ 
spheric ones. 

Finally, the success which we have obtained, both on men and 
on the quadruped, by an analogous mode of treatment, com¬ 
pletes the conflrmation of the identity of leprosy and farcy. 


148 


TETANUS. 


Remarks hy the Editor of the JournaL 

I have endeavoured, like MM. Hamont and Pruner, to com¬ 
pare together the two maladies described by these authors, but I 
confess that I have not been able to trace an identity between 
them ; and in their conclusions I should have preferred to have seen 
a succinct recapitulation of the original observations which their 
memoir contains, than a fruitless attempt to establish that which 
has no existence. This recapitulation, which is often the only 
part of a memoir that one reads with attention, would then 
have been more useful. Among other things they w^ould have 
reminded us 

Ir That the opinion of M. Hurtrel D’Arboval, of the sympa¬ 
thetic influence of intestinal irritation in the production of farcy, 
is not admissible. 

2. That it is deserving of remark that farcy should be so com¬ 
mon in hot countries, and in proportion to the degree of heat, 
since, among us, it much more frequently appears in summer than 
in winter. 

3. That farcy is oftener met with in flat than mountainous 
countries. 

4. That after six months of contact-often immediate—be¬ 
tween sound and farcied horses, farcy has not proved itself to be 
contagious. 

5. That inoculation with the matter of farcy has not produced 
the disease. 

6 . That farcy does not seem to be hereditary. 

7. That a diet, partly vegetable and partly animal, may pre¬ 
vent the attack of farcy. 

8 . That friction with the sulphuret of potash, in the form of 
ointment, on farcy buttons and tumours, has often cured the 
disease. 


TETANUS. 

[Continued from p. 27, No. 85.J 
By Mr. W. F. Karkeek, V. S., Truro. 

The reader will bring to his recollection the result of the three 
dissections described in the preceding part of this paper: they 
are proofs of the brain and spinal marrow being affected in teta¬ 
nus. Similar observations have been made by many others; there 
cannot, therefore, be a doubt of these organs being diseased in 
every instance. It has been supposed that lesions of the spinal 





TETANUS. 


] 4 [) 

marrow were alone the cause of tetanus, as the voluntary muscles 
only are affected; and the grand source, if we may so speak of 
the nerves of voluntary muscles, is the spinal marrow; but a dis¬ 
ease of the spinal chord would not account for the spasmodic ac¬ 
tion of the muscles of the jaw, face, &c., as they receive their 
nerves almost in a direct way from the brain. 

Yet, although the brain and spinal marrow have been thus 
proved to be diseased in a case of tetanus, we are by no means 
warranted in concluding, that mjiamtnation of those organs ex¬ 
ists in the majority of cases; for numerous have been the cases 
where no inflammatory appearance has been discovered. I much 
doubt, whether inflammation may be considered as a neces¬ 
sary concomitant of this disease, since it so often takes place 
without any quickness of pulse, or other febrile symptoms. 

But there are other organs diseased in tetanic cases besides 
those we have mentioned. There are evident proofs of lesions to 
a considerable extent existino; in the stomach and bowels. The 
branches of the sympathetic nerve surrounding the stomach are 
likewise observed to partake of the inflammation, and red patches 
are seen in the small intestines at different places; altogether 
proving, beyond a doubt, that great irritation exists in the diges¬ 
tive organs. 

Now, it is evidently a point of much practical importance to 
decide, whether these lesions observed in the stomach and bowels 
are merely symptomatic, or whether they may not be considered 
as the primary malady. 

I believe the latter position to be the correct one. Tetanus 
depends, if any disease does, upon sympathy. It is a nervous 
disorder, and may be defined to be the result of an injury upon 
certain nerves, by means of which the morbid influence is con¬ 
veyed to the brain and spinal marrow, whence it is reflected 
through the motor nerves to the muscular system ; and this 
morbid influence conveyed, is evidently caused by a deranged 
state of the digestive organs. 

A rather singular case occurred in my practice but a few 
weeks since, which, in conjunction with the post-mortem obser¬ 
vations before alluded to, proves the correctness of this opinion. 

I was attending a horse belonging to a farmer, about ten miles 
from my residence, and, after I had finished the business for 
which 1 had been employed, he cursorily remarked, that he had 
a three-year old colt, in an adjoining field, that had lately been 
ill with the strangles. He did not recover his health,” he 
said, as soon as he expected, and, although it was more than 
three weeks since the abscess had broken and discharged, yet 
there was still a very small hole left underneath the jaw ; he had 


150 


TETANUS, 


probed it, and found it to be about a quarter of an inch deep, yet 
it did not heal. The colt was very poor, and fed badly, and 
he had been turned out to grass by day, the weather being un¬ 
commonly mild ; but, to prevent the cold from injuring him, he 
had tied some flannel around the throat.’^ I examined the colt, 
and remarked, that the flannel might as well be taken away, and, 
as for the wound, I thought that it was very nearly healed; but 
particularly recommended him to attend to the general health 
of the animal—to give him nourishing diet, such as oats, 
bran, carrots, turnips, &c., as he was considerably out of 
condition. 

In about a week from this period I received a message from 
the owner of the colt, briefly informing me, that, in conse¬ 
quence of attending to ray advice,’’ viz., taking off the flannel 
bandage, that the colt had taken cold, and had ‘ becomed locked 
jawed ;’ and, as he believed that I was instrumental in producing 
this complaint, he thought that I ought to attempt to cure it, 
free of expense.” I did not exactly relish this message; but, 
having nothing better to do at the time, I soon reached the 
farmer’s house. I found the poor suffering animal labouring 
under a case of acute tetanus. The limbs were stiff, and almost 
immoveable,-—the nostrils expanded and drawn up,—the eyes 
distorted,—the countenance haggard, and expressive of extreme 
agony. The spasms were violent, and almost constant; and, ere 
I had been present half an hour, a violent convulsive fit put an 
end to his misery. 

I proceeded immediately to dissect the animal, which I did 
with the greatest minuteness, particularly the parts immediately 
surrounding the throat, &c.; but not the slightest morbid ap¬ 
pearance was perceivable in the nerves of the part. I examined 
the brain and spinal marrow, and they were likewise free from 
disease, except a slight inflammatory tint in their investing mem¬ 
branes. But, on viewing the stomach and bowels, the cause of 
the disease was very apparent. The stomach was considerably 
inflamed, particularly at its pyloric orifice, and the small intes¬ 
tines were covered with dark gangrenous patches at different 
places. There were likewise a large number of bot-worms in the 
stomach, and fortunately so for me, for the farmer no sooner saw 
them, than he exclaimed, There! that’s enough; I see the 
cause of this complaint—it’s the worms. I knew two horses 
that died of locked jaw before, from these here things. There’s 
enough there to lock the jaws of all the horses that Thave got.” 

I said, fortunately for me; for if the farmer had not been sa¬ 
tisfied as to the cause in his own mind, 1 should probably have 
lost a good customer for the future. 


TETANUS. 


151 

Now, in this case, leaving the bot-wornis and the farmer’s 
tlieory out of the question, it was very evident that the cause 
existed in the digestive organs. If this disease had not been so 
very acute, I might probably have attempted to produce a fresh 
action in the wound underneath the jaw, by means of caustics, 
See.; but this the reader will perceive could have been of no ser¬ 
vice, inasmuch as the local irritation had altogether ceased. But, 
though the irritation of the wound had ceased, it had existed suf¬ 
ficiently long to produce the morbid appearances which were ob¬ 
served in the stomach and bowels, and which, re-acting on the ner¬ 
vous system, was the cause of tetanus. Admit this, and we can 
easily explain why, after the amputation of a limb, from the in¬ 
jury of which tetanus has arisen, the symptoms are not mi¬ 
tigated j because the disordered state of the digestive organs, esta¬ 
blished during the irritative state of the wound, is still present, 
although the original irritation has ceased. This also explains 
why the indication of cure, which is generally applicable in 
othei diseases, namely, the removal of the exciting cause, has 
but little effect in a morbid condition which is the consec|uence 
of causes that have ceased to act. I have heard instances of 
tetanus being produced by docking, when re-docking has re¬ 
moved the disease as by a charm. I have tried this'^once; I 
nearly cut off the whole tail of the animal, but did not succeed 
in producing the least mitigation of the symptoms. 

In such cases as these, where we might reasonably suppose 
local irritation to be still operating, the most effectual method of 
counteracting its effects on the system, would obviously be, to 

intercept all communication between the seat of the irritation 
and the sensorium. 

In another case of tetanus, produced by a prick from shoeing, 
and^ in one proceeding from a wound of the joint capsule of the 
navicular bone, by picking up a nail on the road side, I tried the 
experiment of dividing all the nerves going to the part affected ; 
but in neithei of these cases did I perceive the least mitigation 
of the symptoms. I found in all three cases, on dissection, 
sorne slight inflammatory appearance in the membranes of the 
brain, and spinal envelopes. A more or less inflammatory ap¬ 
pearance in the sensible portions of the stomachs, and likewise in 
the small intestines. The sympathetic nerves were likewise 
I observed to be inflamed, as in the former cases that I have 
! mentioned. 

' regard to idiopathic tetanus, I am of opinion that a 

! diseased state of the digestive organs is invariably the primary 
I c^use, as, on dissection, 1 have ever discovered it to exist. 

the leader wil recollect the two cases of idiopatliic tetanus 



TKTANUS. 


152 

described in the first portion of this paper=^. They were ex¬ 
traordinary instances of the removal of disease from one place 
to the other by the translation of inflammation, and consequently 
irritation, to a different part. I think that there cannot be a 
doubt on the subject, as to the cause that produced the disease 
in these two instances j the stomach and bowels were evidently 
ciiS0^s0d 

In conformity, then, with those opinions, I determined to tiy 
the effect of strong blisters on the abdomen on the next patient 
that came under my care afflicted with tetanus ; for as I at¬ 
tributed the success that attended those two cases to metas¬ 
tasis, I thought if I could produce a counter-action on the sys¬ 
tem by blistering the skin, that I might be fortunate enough to 
produce a similar result. The trial proved the correctness of my 
opinion. Two opportunities were soon afforded me 5 foi, as I 
stated before, tetanus was a disease which occurred frequently 
in the West of Cornwall, which I suppose is owing to the 
land being surrounded almost by the sea, and bordering so closely 
upon it. 

The first case was a brown horse, three years old : he was 
attacked in the early part of last spring. It was certainly a 
favourable case, as the jaws were opened sufficiently wide to 
allow a drink to be administered by a bottle. I first gave him 
3 x of Barbadoes aloes, and bled to the amount of two gallons. 
The hair was then cut closely round the bowels, and a strong 
powerful blister was applied. I had it well rubbed in by two 
men, one on each side. 

2d day ,—The bleeding is repeated, and sij of opium adminis¬ 
tered. 

M -The blister had acted well; opium repeated. 

4:th day .—The blister was washed off, and a fresh one applied. 
Bleed to the amount of two gallons; administered aloes and 
opium of each 3 ij, and ordered laxative clysters three times a-day. 

^th day .—The dung is hard and slimy; the clysters, aloes, 
and opium given as before. 

Qth day .—Ditto ditto. 

7th day .—Another blister is applied, and a large rowel inserted 
in the chest. From the noise in the bowels I expect the animal 
will soon purge; discontinue the medicine, but repeat the 
clysters. 

Sth day .—The animal is freely purged. The stool is almost 
wholly slime, and smells very offensively. 

^th day .—The purging has not ceased ; the jaws are partly 
relaxed, the spasms are less violent, and the animal is better. 

* Vide p. 23, No. 85. 


TETANUS. 


153 

Vdthdaii ,‘—From this period the animal began to get better; 
he was turned out to grass in the early part of the summer, and 
soon recovered his former strength. 

The animal had eaten but little food ; his diet was chiefly bran 
and bruised oats, and he drank thin gruel. The patient’s symp¬ 
toms were mitigated as soon as the bowels were acted on; and 
the discharge was considerable, considering the small quantity 
of food consumed. It appeared to me to consist chiefly of a 
morbid secretion of the alimentary canal, &c. 

The next case happened in the middle of the summer. I pur¬ 
sued nearly the same method of treatment as in the former case, 
with this exception, the former being in good condition, and 
this one a poor miserable, half-starved mare, the remedies that 
were employed were, of course, milder, and 1 bled her only once. 
Two blisters were applied from the first to the sixth day. In the 
course of the sixth night the animal was obliged to be slung to 
prevent her falling, and a liniment composed of olive oil Ibj, 
spirits of turpentine 4oz., and sulphuric acid loz. was prescribed, 
a part of which was ordered to be rubbed on the blistered surface 
daily. I had not the slightest idea of the animal’s recovery; 
and being five miles distance from my residence, I did not see 
her again for six days, when I was agreeably surprised to find 
her out of the slings, the jaws completely relaxed, and the 
spasms altogether subsided, although she was left in a very weak 
and debilitated state. The proprietor informed me, that purging 
had commenced on the evening of the seventh day, from which 
time she began to get better. 

In both these cases the animals had drunk thin gruel, and had 
fed on bran mashes and ground oats sprinkled with water, and 
cut grass. I refrain from drenching with gruel, even when it 
may be easily accomplished, as the effort always brings on a 
violent paroxysm of spasms. Deglutition is, in the most favour¬ 
able cases, difficult, but more particularly when the patient is 
alarmed. 

The reader will observe the large doses of aloes and opium that 
I have given. It is astonishing how the system, when labouring 
under a tetanic disease, will resist the operation of these and 
other remedies, which, in ordinary cases, would have been more 
than sufficient to overpower and destroy it. It seems requisite to 
augment the dose rapidly, as the disease presses upon us every 
hour; no time, therefore, should be lost, while there is a chance 
of controlling its fury. The approaching closing of the jaws 
and difficulty of deglutition may increase, so as to render it im¬ 
possible to introduce medicines into the stomach; and without 
we can act on the stomach and bowels by strong purgatives, and 

VOL. VTII. Y 


TETANUS. 


154 

produce secretions from the alimentary canal, I consider the 
case to be altogether hopeless. 

In the four cases that were cured, the attacks were not at¬ 
tended with much febrile action ; the pulse was, on an average, 
from 48 to 58; but when the spasms were violent, the pulse 
became hurried and irregular. The blood that was drawn, in 
one instance, exhibited a considerable degree of inflammation, 
being almost all coagulable lymph; the others shewed no un¬ 
usual appearance. 

I must not now, however, conclude the paper, without stating 
that I have very latel}^ met with a case of tetanus, which I 
considered to be a favourable one. I applied the same remedies 
which I found to succeed in the two last cases, but the animal 
died on the fifth day. 

I shall, however, try this method of treatment, again and 
again, if favourable cases are afforded me. I mean, by favour¬ 
able cases, those of the chronic kind, which, on account of the 
gradual progress of the symptoms, afford opportunities of being 
successfully treated. 

The remedy that I have suggested may share the same fate as 
many others have before,—tried in the balance, and found 
wanting,—for it has been found that what has succeeded in one 
instance, is of no avail in another; and I am very much inclined 
to believe that there are numerous instances of tetanus in which 
the disease gradually wears out, and spontaneously terminates, 
but which we are apt to impute to the effect of the treatment 
that has been employed. 

I have come to this conclusion at the termination of my paper, 
partly in consequence of the ill success I experienced in my last 
case, and partly to warn those who might try the plan that I 
have recommended, not to be too sanguine of success ; for this 
mysterious disease may be said to baffle every mode of practice, 
since numerous are the plans that have succeeded, but more nu¬ 
merous are the cases in which the same plans have miscarried. 

There are few things that shew so substantially the mighty 
and awful power of disease, and of our incapability of arresting 
its progress, as to see a fine noble horse die tetanic. The case 
that I have mentioned as being produced by docking was an 
example of this. He was a fine handsome colt about three years 
old; had shewed no symptoms of illness until about a fortnight 
after the operation. Being of an irritable temperament, he 
suffered dreadfully. The spasms were almost always present, 
and the tongue, which in most cases continues to possess vo¬ 
luntary motion to the last, had been forcibly propelled through 
the opening by the side of the mouth, where it was dreadfully 


ON THE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS. 155 

lacerated. I did not see the animal until he had been ill two 
days; I then recommended him to be destroyed, which was im¬ 
mediately done. And thus died, by means of this mysterious 
disease, a creature which, a few days before, was full of wild 
life and noble fire, and stood on the sublimest point of animal 
existence, proving that our boasted knowledge is of no avail,— 
perhaps 

Vain wisdom all, and false philosophy.” 

There is alw^ays a wide field for speculation on subjects that 
are mysterious. The disease in question is evidently one of 
these, inasmuch as we cannot ascend a palpable ladder of cause 
and effect. Our minds cannot see what we explore; our remedies 
must, therefore, be empirical. 

Before I conclude this paper, I beg to state, that the four 
cases which I have described as cured in this paper were of the 
idiopathic kind. I never tried this method which I pursued 
with so much success in a case of traumatic tetanus^ though 
I intend to do so. Generally speaking, cases of the latter kind 
are too rapid and too violent in their progress to afford the least 
chance of a successful termination. 


THE BE-ABSORPTION OF PUS CONSIDERED AS 
AN IMMEDIATE CAUSE OF DISEASE. 

By M. Renault, Profossor at the School of Alfort, and Prin¬ 
cipal Editor of the RecueiL 

In a prior article, M. Renault gave an interesting account of 
the opinions of human practitioners on this subject, the insertion 
of which, however, would cause us to deviate too much from our 
usual plan. He stated the material points on which modern phy¬ 
sicians and surgeons were agreed, and succinctly narrtated their 
differences of opinion. He principally dwelt on the anatomical 
lesions, which, on the examination of the dead body, clearly 
proved that pus had been absorbed, and had mingled with the 
blood; he stated that the lungs and the liver were the organs in 
which the pus was oftenest deposited in the circulation of the 
blood ; he described with precision the characters which distin¬ 
guished it in the first of these organs—the metastatic depots of 
pus resulting from pulmonary inflammation ;—he also indicated 
the colour and consistence so remarkably different which the 
blood presented after the absorption of pus, and as it was seen 
in the ventricles of the heart. 

‘‘ I now proceed,” says M. Renault, to cite some cases 




156 


ON THE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS. 

which appear to me to prove the absorption of pus in domesti¬ 
cated animals, and to call the attention of my confieres to a 
question too much neglected in veterinary medicine, and which, 
nevertheless, is highly important. What light will it not throw 
on the etiology of certain diseases, frequent and seiious, if it can 
be shewn that they often proceed from the re-absoiption of pus? 
at the same time, what indications will they not unfold of the 
proper treatment of suppurating wounds? I will limit myself at 
present to the point of practice under whicli this question may 
be considered. 

In the facts which I am about to state, pure pus has not 
been met with in the blood j but the circumstances in which the 
animals have been found—the perfect similitude in the lesions 
and alterations observed in the dead bodies, with those which in 
the human being are regarded as the consequence of purulent re- 
absorptions—appear to me to leave no doubt about the mattei. 

CASE I. 

An entire draught horse, four years old, was brought to the 
hospital to be treated for fistulous withers. The fistula had ex¬ 
isted nearly three months. It commenced with a large tumour, 
which burst spontaneously, and from which a great deal of pus 
ran during fifteen days. At that time the opening from which it 
issued being almost entirely cicatrized, a fresh tumour formed, 
and enlarged and spread so much, that the owner was frightened, 
and, for the first time, consulted a veterinary surgeon. He made 
two large incisions on the right side of the swelling, in order to 
empty the abscess, and to favour the future discharge of pus. 
Some days after this operation, the horse began to cough from 
time to time, then the cough became more and more frequent — 
the horse got thin, and the pus continued to run as plentifully 
as at first from the wounds in the withers. 

The horse was now brought to the hospital. The withers were 
enlarged from the posterior part to the commencement of the 
crest. From the anterior one of the two wounds there ran, when 
the tumour was pressed upon, a sero-purulent grumous fluid, ex¬ 
haling the odour of caries. The probe penetrated more than 
eight inches into a fistulous sinus. It was decided that the horse 
should be operated on in the course of the following day; and, 
in the meantime, the wounds were washed with a solution of 
chloride of lime, and the horse put on half-diet. 

Since last night the horse has coughed frequently, and 
the cough was dry. He was cast and operated on. The devas¬ 
tation was frightful. Two spinous apophyses, and nearly half a 
foot of the posterior part of the cervical ligament, were carious. 


ON THE RE-ABSORPTION , OF PUS. 157 

The carious parts were excised, and the cautery was applied to 
every part that was diseased. 

Prognostic, —U nfavourable. 

22d. —Strong fever. Considerable emphysematous engorge¬ 
ment about the withers, descending to the base of the crest; a 
gangrenous odour from the wounds. Deep scarifications; lotions 
of chloride of lime. He died at nine o’clock in the evening. He 
was opened thirteen hours after death. Besides the alterations 
produced in the withers by the gangrene and long-continued 
suppuration, the tissue of the right lung was thickly set with ec- 
chymosesj varying in extent from the size of a pea to that of a 
pin’s head. Other ecchymoses more considerable than these sur¬ 
rounded little masses of concrete pus, deposited here and there in 
the pulmonary parenchyma. Some of these masses were almost 
as large as a nut, no part of this casemis matter was encysted. 
The same changes, but not so numerous, were found in the left 
lung. The tissue of the heart was pale and flaccid. The left 
cavities contained little blood. The blood in the right cavity had 
formed a large coagulum, black, and of little consistence. The 
posterior vena cava from the part whereit received the crural trunks 
to its entrance into the right auricle, was filled with a long, white, 
firm coagulum, and in which there was no mixture of red. 

The other viscera were sound. 

CASE II. 

A gelding, aged fourteen or fifteen years, entered the hospital 
August 27, 1833, with pneumonia. Five or six months before, 
after a slight contusion, an abscess was developed about the 
middle of the four last false ribs. It burst spontaneously; a 
small quantity of pus escaped ; and then the abscess closed, and 
appeared to be healed. A month afterwards, a new tumour ap¬ 
peared, which remained for some time without breaking; but the 
pus at length forced for itself an issue, after which the wound 
which was the result was not slow in cicatrizing, but it did not 
perfectly heal; and there alw'ays remained a little fistula, from 
which a small quantity of pus escaped now and then. The 
animal did not appear to be much affected ; the owner paid him 
no attention, and he continued to work. 

About ten or twelve days ago, the part, the seat of the first 
abscess, began to enlarge, and, for the third time, a fluctuation 
announced the presence of pus; and, as he had done before, the 
owner left the reservoir of pus to open of itself. This time, how¬ 
ever, a large portion of the integument became gangrened, and 
the result was a wound as large as the palm of the hand. It 
was scarcely three days since the disease began actually to mani- 


158 ON THE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS. 

fest itself; but it had made fearful progress, and the animal was 
brought to the hospital. 

He was exceedingly feeble—sadl}^ depressed—without appe¬ 
tite—the nostrils ddated—the flanks heavy—the respiration ac¬ 
celerated and irregular—the expired air penetratingly fetid—and 
there ran from the nose a little rose-coloured fluid with a well- 
characterized gangrenous smell. Auscultation was had recourse 
to ; nothing was to be heard but a very feeble respiratory mur¬ 
mur in the left lung—a much more feeble one in the right—and 
no murmur at all in many parts of both lungs, and particularly 
of the rio’ht lung; nevertheless, both sides of the chest resounded 
loudly on percussion. 

Diagnostic, —Gangrenous inflammation of the right lung and 
of some part of the left one. 

Prognostic, —Death at hand. 

It is of importance to remark, that, two days before the ap¬ 
pearance of the disease in the lungs, the owner had ob¬ 
served a diminution, and then a complete suppression, of the 
suppuration of the wound on the side. It was on the day of the 
suppression that he was attacked with pneumonia. When he 
was brought to the hospital the wound had a livid redness round 
it, with a leaden tint at its centre, where opened a fistula which 
extended three inches forwards under the subcutaneous muscle. 

Treatment, —The application of a mild vesicatory ointment to 
the wound; chloruretted fumigations; an electuary containing 
two ounces of bark and two drachms of camphor; nitrated white 
drinks. 

He died in the night of the 30th and 31st. 

Openings four hours after death, —The internal surface of the 
chest beset with numerous ecchymoses. The left lobe of the lung 
equally ecchymosed on some points of its surface, and presenting 
within, ten or twelve gangrenous spots, varying in size Jrom that 
of a small nut to a pulled s egg. The centre of each of these little 
masses was composed of a purulent matter, of a white grey colour, 
and mingled with broken down gangrenous par^ticles. These 
morbid products had no determined envelope—their limits were 
those of the mortified tissue. The cellular tissue between them 
was sound; but there was one portion of this tissue so infiltred 
with blood, that it resembled a clot of blood of one or two lines 
in thickness. This clot was, in its turn, surrounded with cellu¬ 
lar tissue that crepitated between the fingers. All these gan¬ 
grenous portions communicated with the bronchial tubes. 

The right lobe was entirely changed into a deliquium of the 
colour of the lees of wine, and of an infectious odour, and in 
which it was impossible to trace any organization. The left ven- 


APTHA, OH THRUSH IN THE HORSE. 159 

tricle of'the heart was filled with black blood, not coagulated, 
and resembling liquid pitch. The right ventricle was occupied 
by an albuminous coagulum, of a yellow colour, and which 
filled the whole of the cavity. 

There was no direct communication between the wound on the 
side and the interior of the chest. 

To these cases, in which the horse was the patient, I could 
add five others that very much resembled them. In three of 
them the animals were destroyed on account of fistula in the 
poll or withers, deemed incurable ; the fourth died from the con¬ 
sequences of thrombus, which had been suppurating nearly 
three months; the fifth was a horse that had been operated 
upon for sarcocele, and that died after twenty-two days’ abundant 
suppuration. 

On examining them after death, the blood was found in every 
one of them small in quantity and not coagulated in the left 
cavities of the heart, but forming dense masses of white coagulum, 
distinctly united io a hlaclc coagulum much less abundant, and 
reflecting ^ gr een tint at the point of the junction of the two clots, 
and which, in many subjects, were prolonged, and also reunited, 
and yet distinct in the large veins running into the right auricle. 

In the lungs of all of the five horses 1 found little ecchymoses 
disseminated in greater or less numbers through the pulmonary 
tissues; little masses of concrete pus of a caseous consistence, 
varying in bulk from the head of a pin to that of a large filberd ; 
—some of them surrounded by a red areola, a sort of ecchy- 
mosis of a colour somewhat deep; others circumscribed by pul¬ 
monary tissue, yet crepitating, but evidently already infiltred with 
matter similar to that which constituted the central depot, and 
without the slightest trace of ecchymosis. 

I will add, that among the horses that have been treated for 
fistulous withers and poll-evil, in the hospital at Alfort, within the 
last two years, M. Delafond and myself have remarked that the 
greater part have coughed during the early period of the suppu¬ 
ration, and before the pus had become thick and of a good cha¬ 
racter ; and that in some of them the cough was so violent as to 
render it necessary to employ bleedings, fumigations, and seda¬ 
tive medicines. 

Recueil, Aug. 1834. 

[To be continued.] 


APTHA, OR THRUSH IN THE HORSE. 

By Mr. Fred. W. Price, V.S. 

[We have much pleasure in inserting this essay on a disease, 
strangely neglected by our veterinary writers. It was read at 





160 APTHA, OR THRUSH IN THE HORSE. 

one of the sittings of the London Veterinary Medical Society, 
about the time that Mr. Price obtained his diploma from the Col¬ 
lege. The old stager observes with much interest these first efforts 
of the future supporters and stars of our profession.—Y.] 

Gentlemen, 

I HAVE the honour of proposing for discussion this evening a 
disease of the mouth, and other organs connected therewith, in the 
horse, termed Thrush; so called, I imagine, from a disease of a 
somewhat similar nature in the human being, and designated by 
the name of Thrush, or Aptha. The term is familiar to most veteri¬ 
nary surgeons; yet I have not found the disease spoken of under 
either of these appellations in any of our English veterinary 
authors. 

It is, however, of much more frequent occurrence than has 
generally been imagined ; but has been too much confounded 
with a host of other affections of a totally different nature : and, 
besides this, effects have been, generally speaking, looked upon 
as causes, and remedies applied accordingly. 

Although not directly mentioned, it is evidently alluded to by 
Blaine and White, and some others, when treating of indigestion, 
morbid condition, dyspepsia, &c. 

Gervaise Markham, who wrote nearly 250 years ago, thus 
speaks of a disease which he terms canker in the mouth,” but 
much more analogous to Aptha. Canker in the mouth is 
a venemous and fretting ulcer, which proceedeth from the unna¬ 
tural heat either of the brain or stomach, which distilling in salt 
rhumes into the mouth, doth breed raw and fretting ulcers; the 
signs whereof are rawness of the mouth and tongue, blisterings, 
white furrings, and such like ; the cure whereof is. Take strong 
vinegar and alum, rubbing the sores three or four times a-day for 
two or three days together, until it be whole.” He also speaks 
of canker caused by wearing a rusty bit—canker from wearing 
an improper bit; both of which he describes as being very dif¬ 
ferent from the former ; and he also speaks of an extraordinary 
heat in the mouth and lips, which proceedeth from the stomach 
without ulceration of the mouth. 

White observes, that “ sometimes during dentition, the whole 
mouth becomes inflamed and sore, and this state generally ex¬ 
tends to the stomach, causing loss of appetite, 8ic.” In another 
place he says, “ young horses often fall off in their appetites, 
and at this period there is often a considerable soreness of the 
mouth, in which the mucous membrane of the stomach and 
bowels participate. During teething there is often a degree of 
soreness about the gums, when soft food should be given for a 
few days; and, as the stomach and bowels are sometimes affected. 



APTHA, OR TF^RUSH IN THE HORSE. 161 

also a little nitre may be given in the mashes. If the month 
a}3pears very sore, it may be washed or syringed with a lotion, 
composed of alum, honey, and water. 

Blaine thus writes under the head, ‘^Condition of Horses:” 
'‘The morbid change which takes place in the stomach and alimen¬ 
tary canal in the state called ‘ out of condition’ is not sufficiently 
defined ; and whether it is a diseased state of structure or of sur¬ 
face, or whether it arises from a vitiation of the secretions of the 
parts, is not altogether clear. If we argued from some appear¬ 
ances that occur, as the inflamed and swollen state of that cuti- 
cular portion of the alimentary canal which lines the mouth, 
particularly the thickened state of the cuticle of the tongue, 
- we should be led to infer a diseased alteration in the cuticular 
lining of the canal throughout. I have observed, in two instances 
which occurred of horses being accidentally killed, that the 
cuticular portion ot the stomach was relaxed, and streaked with 
marks of inflammation. The secreting villous portion was not 
without some marks of inflammation also. 1 should, reasoning 
analogically, be prompted to believe that the secretions them¬ 
selves might become vitiated, and that this affection, as well as 
some others, were purely dyspeptic, and dependent on an altered 
state of the gastric secretions.” Also under the article “ Lampas,” 
1 find the following : This tumefaction of the palate is not un¬ 
frequent among young horses, and is sometimes occasioned by 
the later dentitions; and at others is dependent on some de¬ 
rangement of the stomach and alimentary canal. It is ver}^ 
common among young horses when first stabled, from the inflam¬ 
matory tendency of a change of food, confinement, &c., if it is 
evidently not the result of teething. Examine the general con¬ 
dition, and the probable circumstance of derangement of the 
alimentary canal. Are there any appearances of worms? Has 
there been any recent change of food ? Or has the horse been 
lately much confined ? If none of these causes are apparent, 
it is very probable that some lassitude may be observed, or that 
the hair, hide, &c. will detect some affection of stomach.” 

Among other authors, it is alluded to under diseases or affec¬ 
tions of the mouth, whether the result of accident or otherwise ; 
among which are paps, barbs, gaggs, washes, lampas, denti¬ 
tion, canker, squirrel-tailed grass, impure vegetables, &c. &c.; 
and, although last, by no means the most unfrequent, that 
affection of the throat which I should term a relaxed or ulcer¬ 
ated sore throat, consequent on catarrhal or pneumonic affections, 
and attendant on which we invariably find a peculiarly un- 
piCasant fetor of the breath which, in pure thrush, is, for the 
most part, wanting; at least, so far as my observation has gone, 

VOL. VJII. 


z 


162 APTHA, OR TFIRUSH IN THE HORSE, 

the odour emitted in thrush is very different, and much less 

offensive. • j i 4 . u 

From the foregoing extracts it will be perceived, that it has 

been considered by some as a disease, sui generis, and b}/ otheis 
as owing to heat in the brain and stomach ; while others 
sider it as commencing in the mouth, and extending down to the 
stomach. The reverse of this is, in my opinion, the case ; it ex¬ 
tends from the stomach upwards. 1 . 1 • 4 . 

You will, I am persuaded, concur with me in thinking that 
some definite term should be given to this affection of the mouth. 

I am unwilling unnecessarily to add to our increasing nomen¬ 
clature of disease, but if such an affection has existence (and on 
that point there can be no doubt), it surely is worthy of some 
distinguishing appellation; and, for aught 1 know, ‘‘Thrush is 
unobjectionable: but let us not confound with it a multitude 0 
other maladies to which it bears not the slightest resemblance. 

I will not trespass longer on your time, but proceed to state 
what I consider constitutes the malady. I am fully persuaded 
that, except the partial soreness of the gums during dentition, or 
in consecjuence of injuries of different kinds, the mouth is never 
primarily affected, but that it is secondarily or sympatheticallij 
so; and that these effects are produced solely by a derangement 
of that important viscus the stomach, or, to a greater or less 
extent, the whole alimentary canal; but this will fall under the 
head of 

Causes. —There are many with which I am totally unacquaint¬ 
ed ; but, allowing the stomach to be an organ of such peculiar and 
vital importance in the animal economy—that it requires to be 
attended to more than any other—and that when injured, evei’y 
part of the system seems to participate in the injury I come to the 
conclusion that whatever may produce derangement or disease 
of this all-important viscus, may produce aptha, although I by 
no means wish you to infer from this, that I consider it must 
necessarily do so. Many facts come daily before our eyes, in 
which diseases of other, and very different systems, are connected 
with or caused by a morbid state of the stomach; I need only 
mention staggers, amaurosis, surfeit, and chronic cough. 

I will, however, speak, of that alone which has come under my 
own immediate knowledge; and from that I am compelled to 
infer, that among the more immediate causes of thrush, sudden 
changes of food, and particularly from grass to hard meat (hay 
and oats), and whether of a good or a bad quality, but given 
in undue quantity, and the stomach being unprepared for the 
change, is one of the most frequent causes of thrush. I have 
seen it occur while the animal was at grass; but in these cases I 


APTHA, OR THRUSH IN THE HORSE. 163 

have generally traced it to the existence of worms, or to the 
animal having been over-heated, or, in common parlance, sur¬ 
feited. 

I have often seen it occurring in post and coach horses of all 
ages; and more particularly when at very high keep. I have 
also seen it exist in very old poor, and emaciated horses. In 
these cases I have always been inclined to think that there was 
chronic disease of the stomach, somewhat similar to that de¬ 
scribed by Mr. Blaine. I have been informed by an intelligent 
farrier in extensive practice, that he has seen disease of the 
mouth follow an attack of grastritis. 

From having most frequently seen it in young horses, that is 
from three to five years old, I am inclined to think dentition 
may have something to do in the production of the soreness of 
the gums observed in thrush, and causing also an imperfect 
mastication, and consequent indigestion of the food, and so pro¬ 
ducing or aggravating the disease. 

Symptoms .—The animal appears a little amiss and off his 
food, but the sympathetic disturbance of the system is generally 
slight. The pulse is accelerated, but not increased in strength. 
The coat, if it does not actually stare^ loses that peculiar glossy 
or bloomy appearance which is the attendant on perfect health 
and good condition. The horse is dull and listless ; the dis¬ 
charge of saliva is generally considerable, and appears unusually 
tenacious or ropy, and not unfrequently hanging for a considera¬ 
ble distance from the corners of the mouth. The buccal or 
lining membrane of the mouth is inflamed, and in a partial or 
complete state of ulceration, putting on at the commencement a 
phlegmonous, but, if suffered to proceed, an erysepelatous ap¬ 
pearance. The bowels irregular, or more or less costive. 

Treatment .—A removal of the causes, and the substitution 
of any wholesome soft meat,—mashes of sweet bran and oats, 
stand first in order here. To this should be added a slight dose 
of purgative medicine, and sometimes a second. Epsom, or 
Glauber’s, or common salt, given in solution, the animal fasting, 
in the quantities of ^iv of the two first or ^vi of the last in a 
pint of water, and this repeated every morning for about a week, 
are good remedies, and renders any astringent or detergent wash 
for the mouth unnecessary. When the patient is tolerably quiet, 

I prefer these latter remedies. 

Result .—The causes havino; been removed, the effects soon 
cease, and health is restored. 


164 


THE VETERINARIAN, MARCH I, 1835. 

Ne quid falsi dicere audeat, ne quid veri non audeat.—C icero. 

The first portion of our Journal is exclusively devoted to 
matters of practice, or to subjects immediately connected with 
it. In '' the leading article” we allow ourselves a wider range, 
and are limited only by the interests of our art. If there are any 
inquiries that more than others occupy our anxious, fearful, de¬ 
lighted attention, they are the actual state of our profession—the 
obstacles that oppose its onward march—and its slow, irregular, 
but evidently assured progress towards the station which it ought 

to occupy. 

Confined to a chamber of pain, we were seeking, and then 
always most successfully, a short interval of ease, by abandoning 
ourselves, no, not to a series of day-dreams, but to the consi¬ 
deration of a subject which we were pledged to resume, the 
actual state of our profession:'' and we were, in our mind's eye, 
giving to our leader for March some form and substance, when 
a knock at our sanctum disturbed us, and a small pamphlet was 
placed on our table, entitled, A Concise Account of Veterinary 
Surgery, its Schools and Practitioners, for the Benefit of Pro¬ 
prietors of domesticated Animals: by a Veterinary Surgeon. 
Published by Andrew Rut her glen and Co., Glasgow, and 
Simpkin and Alarshall, London.” It was a neat modest-looking 
little work. Price Is, 

It was the very subject on which we had been ruminating. 
The fire was stirred—the cushioned chair adapted a little more 
conveniently—and the paper-knife called into exercise. We had 
not read the whole of the first page before we were convinced 
that it was the work of a man of talent, and of a zealous and 
liberal veterinarian; and ere we had skimmed more than a page 
or two, we determined to make a review of it the subject of our 
leading article. 

The author commences with a faithful sketch of what veterinary 
surgery now is in the estimation of society generally. Worse 
definitions have been constructed than that which a veterinary 
surgeon gave when he said his profession was ‘ that science 




VETERINARY SURGERY. 


165 


which every one thinks he knows so well.’ There are few sub¬ 
jects, if any, upon which so many men think themselves qualified 
to say something. The man who diets or dresses, and the man 
who rides or merely owns one of these quadrupeds, equally con¬ 
siders his opinion on his maladies as entitled to some respect. 
Even medical men, who ought to know a great deal better, and 
are therefore less excusable, will occasionally step into our pro¬ 
vince, and assume pretensions which do not at all become them.” 

He properly adds that these empirical pretensions to vete¬ 
rinary skill are founded solely upon ignorance—they are incon¬ 
sistent with a knowledge of the present state of the art, of its 
objects, its practitioners, and the extent and nature of their 
studies. But few are aware how the subject has been and still 

is cultivated. Its schools are hardlv known to exist, its im- 

•/ 

portance is not recognized—its objects are misunderstood. A 
little information on these points would, at least among the en¬ 
lightened and uninterested, dispel much of the confidence which 
error produces.” 

He then touches on the scope of veterinary science. It is a 
mistake to suppose that it has to do with no animal but the 
horse; yet it is a mistake which a few worthless veterinarians have 
encouraged rather than rectified. Ignorance and puppyism are 
the only two things that ever deter a man from relieving pain. 
The pitiful greatness that will not relieve a sufferer because he is 
mean, is itself more contemptible than the animal it despises; 
and he who withholds his aid from any, can do justice to none.” 
These are noble sentiments, and reflect on our author the highest 
credit. 

He now takes a rapid view of the origin of the veterinary art— 
the high character it sustained in the early ages of Greece and 
Rome—its degraded state in the darker ages—and the continued 
and seemingly inseparable union between the blacksmith and the 
veterinary surgeon, when that between the apothecary and the 
barber had been dissolved. This leads him to the establishment 
of the first modern veterinary school in France, when repeated 
epidemics had swept away nearly one-half the cattle in most of 
the states of Europe—the incalculable benefit which had accrued 
Irom the establishment of that school—the gradual rise of others 


VETERINARY SURGERY. 


166 

at Copenhagen, Madrid, Vienna, Berlin, Dresden, Leipsic, 
Prague, Munich, Fribourg, Marbourg, Mayence, Bombay, 
Hanover, Turin, Naples, Parma, Padua, and, last of all, London. 

The history of this last institution is given at considerable 
lenptb. The author was a student of it—a student of all three 

O 

of the schools now existing, and therefore competent to furnish 
an impartial account of each of them. To all that he says of the 
advantages the St. Pancras school alFords, and the good it has 
done, we yield our cordial assent. From the College have pro¬ 
ceeded all our valued authors, and, with few exceptions, our best 
practitioners. Its pupils have succeeded, so far as could be expected 
in so short a time, in rooting out the farrier and the cow-leech, 
with their absurd and mischievous practices; and they have in¬ 
culcated a more rational and humane system of managing ani¬ 
mals in health. Glanders, farcy, grease, mange, blindness, and 
a host of other diseases, which used to rage with unrestrained 
violence,’’ are, without comparison, more rare; and the beneficial 
influence of a total change in stable management is every day 
more apparent. 

The defects of the College system of education, at which the 
author likewise glances, come not within the scope of our present 
observation. 

The Edinburgh Veterinary School comes next under review; 
but here, although we do not accuse the author of wilful misre¬ 
presentation, some unkindly feeling marks the picture which he 
draws with lines far too harsh, and with shadows too broad and 
deep. We regret this, because there is enough in other parts of 
this little brochure to convince us that the writer is capable of 
good and generous feeling, and has the cause of our profession 
sincerely and vv^armly at heart. In another edition of his work— 
and it will soon be called for—we much mistake if this will not 
be honourably and fully redeemed. 

Of the third school, that at the University of London, it be¬ 
comes us only to say, that he has a little over-rated the personal 
exertions of the Lecturer. His pupils are now transferred to 
Mr. Morton’s school, in order to learn the medical and chemical 
properties of the drugs used in veterinary medicines; and, as the 
author properly observes, it being impossible to run over the struc- 


VETERINARY SURGERY. 


167 

ture and diseases of the horse, cow, sheep, dog, poultry, pigs; &c., 
in the course of nine months, the lecturer now gives no more of the 
anatomical structure than is necessary for the right understanding 
of physiology and disease; and for a complete course of dissec¬ 
tions and demonstrations, and, at no additional expense to his 
house-pnpils, he refers them to the School of Veterinary Anatomy, 
so beneficially for the College students established by Mr. 
Spooner, in the immediate neighbourhood of that institution, 
since the author of "" The Concise Account, was a pupil 
there. With these exceptions, and also an addition to his charge 
of ten guineas for every half-year after the first, the account given 
in this pamphlet is correct. We will also add, that, if we mis¬ 
take not, the author of this little work carried off the first prize 
in the year of his attendance at the University School, and that 
a more attentive pupil we have rarely had, nor one whose good 
opini'on we are more desirous to retain, or who is more capable 
of becoming an ornament to his profession. 

It would naturally be expected, that this writer, after reviewing 
the veterinary schools,” would not forget the periodicals,” 
so intimately connected with the improvement and respectability 
of the profession. He has not forgotten them ; but what degree 
of justice he has rendered them, our readers shall judge. It 
is now nearly seven years since two monthly periodicals, or vete¬ 
rinary journals, simultaneously started into existence. Both 
began their career by abusing the College most furiously. They 
said much that was quite true, and they exposed much that well 
deserved exposure ; but, at the same time, they were unreason¬ 
able, and it must be confessed, somewhat malignant. They de¬ 
manded cures where none could be effected—sometimes blamed 
those who were not at fault; .and, forgetting how little power 
mere words have upon men in office, the reformers raved inces¬ 
santly, and seemed to expect that abuses should be corrected the 
moment they were brought to light, and that innovation should 
have taken place the instant it was suggested. The Vete¬ 
rinarian still survives. It has been a radical from its birth; 
but it has sustained its hostility to the College with philosophic 
dignity worthy of its avowed objects. It has now subsided into 
comparative quietness, at least, we are not so frequently annoyed 


I 


VETEKINARY SURGERY. 


168 

by articles vvhicli were poured out one after another before any 
had time to operate. It has effected some reformation ’ it has, 
for one thing, compelled the student to prolong his residence at 
school. Its work, however, will be more apparent by and by; 
advantage williprobably be taken of quietness to effect changes 
which obstinacy resisted, more because it disliked dictation than 
because it loved things as they were.’' 

We have given the accusation at length, and we might be 
fairly content to leave the decision with the jury—our readers. 
One word or two, however, we must say. To the charge of being 
reformers—liberal reformers, if our readers please—or rather, 
a term once used by our friend Morton, “ renovators,”—we plead 
guilty. To that of being radicals we demur, if by radical we 
are to understand that which the conduct of too many of the 
present day would prove to be the recognized meaning of the 
term, a man determined to sweep away all abuses at all risks. 
To the charge of being malignant, we indignantly plead not 
guilty. In the first regular expose of the objects we had in view 
(May 1828) we complained of the insufficiency of the two pro¬ 
fessors appointed to a class of 14, when that class had increased 
to 70 or 80. We complained of the lack of sufficient anatomical 
instruction, and the total want of chemical and pharmaceutical— 
the visits, few and far between, of the clinical teacher—the 
negligent mode in which the duties of the dresser were performed 
—the utter ignorance of all the manipulations of the forge— 
and, chief of all, we murmured at the shamefully inadequate 
period allotted to the education of the pupil, and the absurd and 
unjust construction of the medical examining committee: and 
we avowed that we would urge the repeal of these, by close yet 
fair, by strong yet legitimate argument; by that which should 
convince the understanding, but not rankle in the heart; by no 
attack on private character—no imputation of unworthy motives 
—no foul misrepresentation—no vile system of ungentleman¬ 
like annoyance.” Is there any malignancy in this? 

More than a twelvemonth ago, when we had been teased and 
worried, and abused, by many a correspondent, on account of 
our quietness” (Jan. 18-34, p. 48) our language is this: 

Much progress has been made—as much as the most sanguine 


VETERINARY SURGERY. 


169 


among us could have expected; and one fact every page of his¬ 
tory confirms, that when concessions have begun to be made to 
the demands of increasing knowledge, they will finally be bounded 
by the claims of justice and truth alone. In which way, then, 
could we best promote the cause of our profession ?—by continual 
agitation ? by exciting on the one hand unreasonable demands, 
and on the other unreasonable and obstinate opposition ? or by 
endeavouring to unite our brethren of every party in the pursuit 
of science ? If veterinary knowledge continues to progress, ve¬ 
terinary instruction must keep pace with the improvement of the 
times.” Is there any raving incessantly” here—any ** expec¬ 
tation that abuses were to be corrected the moment they were 
brought to light”—any annoyance by articles poured out, one 
after another, before any had time to operate”—any “ ma¬ 
lignancy^'^ here? 

And, once more, when, at the commencement of the year 
1833, having added two valued names to our list of Editors 
(vol. vi, p. 101), we felt that there was a duty which, in point 
of courtesy, as well as in accordance with our own inclinations, 
and the interest of our work, and the advantage of the profession, 
we had to perform,—as a proof of our feeling that we had arrived 
at that desired point when controversy (ill-tempered controversy) 
might begin to cease among us; and, as the most satisfactory 
demonstration of our sincerity, an offer was made to include the 
name of Professor Coleman in our list of Editors. Was there 
annoyance, malignancy here? 

We may, in the language of our friend, have endeavoured to 
maintain our course ’—we disclaim the term hostility ”— 

with philosophic dignity, worthy of our avowed objectbut we 
have never been malignant. 

We may have expressed, as our author has done, strong 
feeling in strong language. We may have approached to the 
words that burn, with which he characterizes the conduct of the 
examinators (see p. 13) ; but where, from the first expose to the 
present number, have we been malignant?” 

The author confesses that we have succeeded in maintaining 
our philosophic dignity, and we thank him for this confession. 
We will not press him to reconcile this with other parts of his 


VOL. VIIT. 


A a 


VETERINARY SURGERY. 


170 

charge. And, now, w^e are not unrolling to try what quiet¬ 
ness” will do, and see whether advantage will be taken to ef¬ 
fect changes which obstinacy resisted, more because it disliked 
dictation than because it loved things as they were.” We will 
be quiet, but we shall not slumber at our post We will be 
quiet, unless we are malignantly” attacked. 

We also thank our author for the acknowledgment of one re¬ 
formation which The Veterinarian—or, rather, the wish of the 
profession, expressed through the medium of The Veterinarian 
—-has effected,—the compelling the student to prolong his 
residence at school.” Why! this is the most important of all 
the objects at which we aimed—it is the only foundation on 
which the improvement and future triumph of our art can be 
tjuPt—and, if this were all, The Veterinarian would not be for¬ 
gotten in times long to come. But, says our friend, its work 
will be more apparent by and by.” We had thought that he 
could have added a little more now — but we are content 
to wait. 

We are glad to have done with controversy, and especially 
with an old pupil ;—^a relation this which the instructor who 
throws himself into his work does not soon forget. We shall 
meet again on pleasanter ground, and he will do us no injustice. 

He proceeds from the veterinary schools and periodicals to a 
consideration of veterinary practitioners as they are generally 
found. We will leave our readers to follow him in this new, 
and interesting, and dangerous track; and we can assure them, 
that they will derive considerable amusement and instruction 
too. We will give one extract more,—the contrast between the 
veterinarian of former days, and too frequently of the present 
time, who founds his pretensions to skill on his great practice and 
long experience, and the surgeon who has laboured hard to ground 
himself in those principles of his profession which alone can, 
consistently with his own reputation and the safety of his pa¬ 
tient, guide his proceedings,—the falsely called practical man, 
and the more falsely called man of theonj. We cordially recom¬ 
mend this little work to the perusal of every one connected with 
the veterinary profession, and to every proprietor of domesticated 
animals. 


VETERINARY SURGERY. 


171 

Theory is just an explanation of, or an attempt to explain, 
some circumstances which we know or think it important to un¬ 
derstand. Practice gives us dexterity in doing a thing. Theory 
or reasoning teaches us when to perform an operation, and when 
to let it alone. Does not the farrier theorize? He certainly 
does; we shall not be so unjust to him as he is himself. He 
sometimes, though, it must be confessed, not often, makes an 
attempt to explain what he sees or does. If your horse be too 
fat, he is full of humours, and he must have three doses of phy¬ 
sic. Three is the proper number, and he must neither have 
more nor less. The first is to stir up the humours, the second 
to set them afloat, and the third to carry them all oflT. 

To hear the pretender boast of his experience and practice, and 
his aversion to theory, one would imagine that veterinary medi¬ 
cine was merely a piece of handicraft, only to be acquired after a 
great many fruitless eflbrts, and that theory was something which 
rendered perfection impossible. We have but few very difficult 
operations to undertake; none but what a skilful anatomist may 
perform as well, and very nearly as quickly and easily, at the first 
as at the fiftieth attempt. But the main thing is, not so much 
to do, as to know what should and what should not be done. Any 
man may bleed a horse, but only a few know when and why he 
should or should not be bled. The great experience upon which 
the empiric lays so much stress may all be reduced into very 
little compass. It is a plausible excuse for high pretensions 
only to those who have never analyzed it. 

The knowledge of the educated and the uneducated man 
varies widely, both in the mode in which it is acquired and in its 
extent. The latter begins his career destitute of all information, 
and with no assistance save what he thinks himself sure of in the 
possession of some barbarous recipes and traditional rules handed 
from age to age. He goes on trying one thing after another, and, 
at length, after sacrificing a multitude of victims, he discovers 
that one thing kills and another cures, and another does neither. 
He does not get even this little knowledge till he has done im¬ 
mense damage. 

The employer, of course, must pay for all this—must not 
only lose his property, but pay the man for destroying it. This 
is the course of the farrier’s great experience, which, great as it 
is, he would find some difficulty in filling a sheet of paper by 
recordino^. 

The educated practitioner must pay for his experience or 
knowledge out of his own pocket. In the course of his studies 
he learns, or ought to learn, both the principles and practice of 
his profession, which, if they did no more, would at least prevent 
him from committing any very grievous blunder. But, besides, 


17*2 THE VETERINARY COLLEGE. 

he imbibes the experience, not of one man only, but of multitudes 
of those who have begun their career under the most auspicious 
circumstances—have spent their lives in ardent and well-directed 
efforts to improve their profession—and who have ultimately be¬ 
queathed the result of their labours to posterity. And when the 
student has appropriated to himself all that is valuable, he may 
consider himself fortunate if, at the close of his career, he can 
reflect that he has added something to the common stock.”—Y. 


V^tUvimvv 

The Veterinary College. 

Generally speaking, a controversial field is not the place 
on which a young man, either at college, or having just left 
it and become a member of the profession, should be eager to 
appear; but there may be circumstances in which it is a duty for 
him to step forward in the defence of truth and justice. 

A letter was addressed to the Editors last month, by a gentleman 
who signs himself A Student,” but which is so contrary to 
truth and justice, that I feel called upon to correct his misrepre¬ 
sentations, especially in behalf of those whom I had the honour 
of knowing, and who are immediately concerned in the transac¬ 
tion. This is a sufficient excuse for my interference. And the 
first thing that I shall do will be, to prove that the representations 
put forth by A Student” are contrary to truth; and, se¬ 
condly, that they are contrary to justice. 

First, that they are contrary to truth. 

A Student,” after having stated his inducement to write 
to you, says, that he sends a copy of a few words of an 
address of Professor Coleman, which he delivered in the theatre, 
on the 3d of December, respecting those young men who pre¬ 
sented themselves for examination on the previous day.” 

To the latter part of this supposed address 1 entreat the reader’s 
serious attention, for it is that which I have now particularly to 
do with, viz., For, I assure you, that Messrs. Read, Gibbs, 
Garrett, Molyneux, &c., have done credit to this institution, 
and I hope they will become ornaments of the profession.” 

Now, is this anonymous communication contrary to truth ? 
Yes, it is ; and in two particulars :—first, because Professor 
Coleman never did mention, nor does he ever mention^ names: he 
always expresses himself in general terms. Therefore A Stu¬ 
dent’s” information is incorrect in that point. 

It is incorrect, secondly, in another particular ; for supposing, 
for a moment, that Professor Coleman had mentioned names, is 
it likely that he would, as A Student” has, introduced that 







THE VETERINARY COLLEGE. 


178 


of a gentleman who had not passed his examination, and omitted 
that of another who had passed it? He would have done no 
such thing: it is preposterous to think that he would. This 
is sufficient, I think, to establish my first point, that “ A Stu¬ 
dent’s’’ communication is contrary to truth. 

1 now pass on to the second, viz., that it is contrary to justice. ' 
Is that justice, which omits one student’s name and inserts that 
of another, to the detriment of a deserving young man ? What 
could have been the object of A Student” to insert one gentle¬ 
man’s name that had not passed his examination, and to leave 
out that of a gentleman who was inferior in talent to none that 
passed along with him ? It could not have been either the love 
of truth or justice. What was it, then? It was, from beginning 
to end, a desire to misrepresent that prompted A Student” to 
send this communication to The Veterinarian. 

Having now, I think, proved that the assertions of A Stu¬ 
dent” are contrary to truth and justice, I will state what parts 
of his paper are correct, and what are not. That Professor Cole¬ 
man did address the students the day after the examination, is 
correct; that he did pay the compliment to the gentlemen stated 
by A Student” (so far as it does not refer to the names) is like¬ 
wise correct;—that he mentioned Messrs. Read, Gibbs, Garrett, 
and Molyneux, is 7iot correct: Professor Coleman mentioned no 
names. 

The facts are these:—Messrs. Garrett, Molyneux, ParJces, and 
Gibbs, passed their examination at the time A Student” states. 

A week afterwards there was another examination, at which 
Messrs. Ready Taylor, and Cade, obtained their diplomas ; and 
it was between the two examinations, and when Mr. Read had 
not passed, that Professor Coleman made his address, expressing 
himself in general terms, and making no mention of names. 

Such are the simple facts which ^'A Student” has mis¬ 
represented; and he has neither acted with truth nor justice 
towards those who are immediately concerned in the transaction. 

But there is another part of his letter which I shall not pass 
over in silence. That the class is composed of industrious young 
men is correct; but as regards the purchase of subjects, &c., 
every pupil is at liberty to buy his own subject: it is only the 
subjects for the use of demonstration that are bought at the 
expense of the pupils. 

As to the satisfaction that it produces, I know not. If I may 
be allowed to express my own feeling on the subject, I was per¬ 
fectly satisfied, and I think it was much more approved of than 
the committee of pupils last season. 

As ‘‘ A Student’s” letter has been proved to be wrong in one 
jiart, so, I think, he is wrong; in this. That there are errors, not 


174 


VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


in 0116 ; but in every department of the College, I am ready to 
admit. 

“ Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see, 

Thinks what ne’er was, nor is, nor e’er shall be. 

But, if the means be just, the conduct true. 

Applause, in spite of trivial faults, is due.’^ 

But T do dislike to hear assertions made which have no object 
of reform in view, but are put forth merely for the purpose of 
misrepresentation. 

I am assured that the Editors will allow these remarks a place 
in their valuable Journal. 

Thomas Walton Mayer, V.S.. 

London, February 13, ISS.'i. 

[Mr. Mayer has come forward in a manly and.honourable way. 
To the plea of truth and justice” the pages of The Veteri¬ 
narian will never be closed ; but all future communications on 
this, and on every other controversial subject, must bear the 
name of the writer.— Edit.] 


Hiring Horses, and Accidents occurring during 

THE Period of Hiring. 

We have had opportunity of putting our readers in pos¬ 
session of the way in which legal questions on these, and other 
horse and veterinary matters, are disposed of in Scotland ; and 
we are now enabled, by laying before them the following docu¬ 
ments, to shew how the same things are managed in France. 

Two horses were hired at Paris on the 6th of June 1833, and 
taken into the country. On the 29th of August following one 
of them broke the leg of the other. A veterinary surgeon, at 
the requisition of the mayor of the place, examined the injured 
horse, and ordered him to be destroyed in the absence of the 
owner. Afterwards a suit arose between the parties. It was 
carried before the Tribunal of the first instance of the Depart¬ 
ment of the Seine, which, before it pronounced its judgment, 
nominated, as was the custom in these cases, an expert veterinary 
surgeon, and charged him to report— 

M hat was the usual mode of hiring ? 

Whether the hirer was liable for the accident ? 

And, if so, what was the value of the horse that was de¬ 
stroyed ? 

M. Bouley, jun., was appointed to examine into and report 
on these questions. The following is the report which he sent 
to the Tribunal:— 








VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


175 

Paris, January 24th, 1834. 

To MM. the President and Judges of the Mh Chamber of 

Tribunal of the first instance of the Department of the Seine, 

Gentlemen, 

By your decree of 8th of December last, relating to a suit 
between M. (le Sieur) Doga, letter of horses and carriages, resid¬ 
ing in Paris, No. 36, Neuve des Methurins-street, plaintiff (rc- 
conventionnellement demandeur), on the one part, and M. Peteau, 
freeholder {proprietaire)fWmg also at Paris, No. 18, Boulevart 
des Italiens, defendant, on the other part, you have thought 
proper, in order to the better understanding of the facts of the 
case, and before you give judgment, to constitute me arbitrator 
{arhitre rapporteur') in this affair, and have charged me in this 
quality to bring the parties before me; and, having heard them 
and other persons, as well at Paris as at Mormaire, to make all 
farther inquiries that I should judge proper, and to report to 
you my opinion on the questions which you have submitted to 
me ; agreeably to your decree, I have heard the parties many 
times, both separately and face to face, and also many other 
witnesses which they have brought before me ; and I proceed to 
report as succinctly as possible the principal facts of the case, 
and the information which I have obtained ; and, after that, I 
shall have the honour to submit to you my opinion on the ques¬ 
tions which you have submitted to me. 

Facts. 

On the 6th of June last, M. Peteau hired for his use from 
M. Doga two carriage horses, which he took on the following 
day, the 7th, to his country residence. In the night of the 28th 
and 29th of the following August, one of these horses had his 
leg broken by his comrade. M. Peteau, after having stated the 
accident before the mayor of the commune, destroyed the animal 
in the absence of the owner, and of which he did not complain. 
On the 18th of the ensuing September, the horse which remained 
was brought back to M. Doga, who received him without ob- 
I jection. Some days afterwards disputes arise between the parties, 
not only with regard to the price of the dead horse, but the rate 
of the hiring, which M. Doga asserts to be for the express 
sum of 600 francs for six months, but which M. Peteau, on the 
contrary, maintains was agreed to be at the rate of 2 francs 50 
cents per day and per horse. Not being able to agree respecting 
this, M. Peteau, on the 23d of October, offered M. Doga, 
through the medium of M. Garret, officer of the court—1st, 
I 300 francs as an indemnity for the loss of the horse ; 2d, 210 
' francs for the hire of the aforesaid animal from the 6th of June 
: to the 29th August, the day of his death ; and, 3d, 260 francs 





176 VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 

for the hire of the second liorse from the 6th of June to the 
i8th of September, the day on which he was returned to Doga; 
in the whole, 770 francs. 

These offers having been refused, as under all the circum¬ 
stances insufficient, Peteau, on the 26th of October last, de¬ 
posited in court* the sum offered ; and on the 28th of the same 
month he cited Doga to appear before the court, to see the offers 
which had been made to him declared good and available. The 
cause was heard on the 23d of November, when Doga demand¬ 
ed, by his advocate, that the offers that had been made should 
be declared insufficient and null, and that Peteau should be 
condemned to pay him 2,100 francs ; namely, 600 francs for the 
hire of the two horses, and 1,500 francs as an indemnity for the 
loss of one of the horses, and the consequences resulting from 
that loss. Peteau replied on the 4th of December by a prayer, 
that the court would pronounce his offers good and equitable, 
and, on account of them, would release him from the suit of 
Doga. 

Such is in few words, gentlemen, the state of the case which 
you have thought proper to submit to my arbitration, and re¬ 
questing me to give you my opinion on the three following 
questions—1st, Whether the hire of the horses, with regard to 
which the present action was brought, was at so much per day, 
or for four months, at a fixed price? 2d, Whether Peteau is 
responsible for the accident which happened to the horse, the 
value of which is claimed? And, 8d, What was the value of that 
horse ? 

The better to give an answer to these questions, you have 
authorized me to state, 1st, What is the usage relating to the 
hiring of horses? 2d, To examine the surviving horse ; and, 3d, 
To receive evidence from the parties, and from other persons, as 
well at Paris as at the country-seat of Peteau, where the acci¬ 
dent occurred. I shall now have the honour of laying before 
you the documents I have collected on those points. 

The point of Law, 

Ought Peteau to pay 600 francs for the hire of the horses for 
four months, or at the rate of two and a half francs per day and 
per horse ? 

The loss of the horse; should the hirer or the owner be re¬ 
sponsible ? 

What was the value of the animal ? 

Lxammations. 

Doga, whom I first examined, said that he could not accede 
to the offers of Peteau, because they were far less than the sum 
to which he was entitled j that he liad let his horses not by the 



VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


177 


day, but by the month, at the rate of 150 francs for the two, 
Peteau being chargeable with the keep and care of them, and 
with the express condition that he should keep them during the 
dead season, that is until the 1st of October, when the letters of 
horses can again easily dispose of them at Paris; and that with¬ 
out this promise he would not have let them at so low a price. 
He added, that, when a hired horse was returned in the course of 
the month, and especially after the 15th day, usage had esta¬ 
blished that the hirer should pay for the whole month ; or, if he 
preferred it, according to the number of days that had elapsed 
since the first of the month, at the rate of 6 francs per day, and 
not calculating according to the monthly hiring; that, accord¬ 
ing to this principle, universally adopted in these transactions, 
Peteau was indebted to him the hire of both the horses, or at 
least of the horse that survived, because he had not returned him 
until the 18th. Doga added, that, as to the indemnity of 300 
francs that had been offered to him on account of the loss of the 
horse that had had its leg broken, it was so little, compared with 
the actual value of the animal, that he was compelled to reject 
it; that the horse was considerably the better of the two; and 
that, some days before the letting of them to Peteau, he had re¬ 
fused 2,200 francs for the pair ; and that consequently the horse 
that died was worth at least 1,100 francs ; but that, being willing 
to bear a portion of the loss, he had reduced his claim to 800 
francs, and he trusted that the court could not decree a less sum 
than that. In confirmation of his statement respecting the 
value of the horses, he begged permission to call two witnesses. 

1. M. Meslier, also letter of horses and carriages, living at 
No. 37, Faubourg-street, Honore-street, who affirmed that he 
recollected the horse of which Peteau had spoken, as making one 
of a pair of horses belonging to Doga which he had been bar¬ 
gaining about in the latter part of May last, and which then 
stood in Paix-street. He added, that, after having tried these 
horses, he had offered 2,200 francs for them; but that Doga re¬ 
fused that sum, and would not take less than 2,400 francs. 

2. M. Giraud, veterinary surgeon, living at No. 30, Faubourg- 
street, Honore-street, deposed, that his employer, Meslier, had 
consulted him about the end of May, as to the purchase of a pair 

i of horses which Doga had to sell; that he had examined them, 
I and advised Meslier to purchase them; that, privately, he had 
advised Meslier not to give more than the 2,200 francs which 
; he had offered, that sum appearing to him more than they were 
I worth. 

Having, then, been shewn the horse which Peteau had sent 
I back, he said that he perfectly recollected him as one of the two 
: horses that he had examined. Then, being examined by Meslier, 

VOL. VIII. B b 


178 VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 

as to the comparative value of the two horses, he said, that they 
were both good horses, but that his memory would not suf¬ 
ficiently serve him to say which was the better horse. 

M. Peteau stated, that he had, in fact, hired the two horses 
at the rate of 150 francs per month, but that he had never en¬ 
gaged to keep them four months, as Doga had asserted; but, 
onithe contrary, he conceived that he might have returned them 
whenever he thought proper. He further said, that he did not 
conceive that he could be forced to pay the hire during the 
whole of the month of September, for one horse had been ren¬ 
dered useless from the 29th of August—his leg having been 
broken by the other; and that he thought that he could only be 
compelled to pay the hire up to the day that he returned the 
surviving horse. He added, that it appeared to him strange 
that Daga should demand an indemnity of 800 francs for a 
worn-out and mangy horse, which the veterinary surgeon at 
Montfort I’Amaury had valued at 200 francs, as the certificate 
which he now delivered would prove; and, beside, that Doga 
could not conscientiously demand more to-day than he had asked 
a few days after the accident, when he limited his claim to 500 
francs, and which he offered to prove by producing M. Lefebvre, 
14, Provence-street, who had declared that, some days after the 
accident, he had been charged by Peteau, his father, to offer Doga 
300 francs as an indemnity; but that he then demanded 500 
francs in order to settle the dispute. 

Doga replied, that, in despite of the assertions of Peteau, he 
persisted in his first deposition—that the certificate of the vete¬ 
rinary surgeon at Montfort fAmaury was worth nothing in his 
opinion, because it was not given until the 27th of November; 
while the facts which was stated passed in June; that he knew 
not whether, through want of care, his horse had become mangy 
in the stables of Peteau, but that, when he left Paris he had not 
a blemish about him, which, if it were needed, the veterinary 
surgeon, Giraud, would certify. Finally, that Lefebvre was de¬ 
ceived in attesting that he had only demanded 500 francs in the 
first instance; whereas, on the contrary, he had said that, if 
that sum had been offered, he would have refused it. 

Lefebvre, being examined, persisted in the truth of what his 
father had stated, notwithstanding the denial of it by Doga; 
and Giraud stated, that, at the time of his examination of these 
horses, he did not perceive the slightest cutaneous disease; and 
^that, if he had observed it, he should have opposed the purchase 
W the horses, rather than recommended it. 

These examinations being concluded, I proceeded to examine 
the horse which Doga brought, and which Peteau recognized 
as that which he had returned on the 18th of September. He 


VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 179 

was about twelve years old; he had marks of work about his 
limbs, and also had spavins, but he was yet fully equal to 
plenty of work, and was worth about 600 francs. 

Anxious fully to discharge the duty you had confided to me, 
I endeavoured to obtain satisfactory information respecting the 
usages relating to the hiring of horses; and the result is, that 
Doga has correctly stated the arrangements usually adopted; 
namely, that, when a horse is hired by the month, he cannot be 
returned to the owner, and especially after the 15th, without 
paying either the entire month, or for the days that have elapsed 
since the 1st of the month, at the rate of six francs per day. It 
appears, however, that this usage is sometimes departed from, 
and especially where persons are constantly served ; and, in that 
case, the supplementary days are added to the usual monthly 
price. 

Finally, gentlemen, I terminated my inquiries by examining 
the books of Doga, that I might assure myself what were his 
arrangements with Peteau. It appeared from them, that, on 
the 6th of June, he had let two horses to Peteau, at the rate of 
150 francs per month; but nothing was said of Peteau’s having 
engaged to keep them for four or five months, as he afiirmed to 
be the case. At the same time it is right to state, that the let¬ 
tings to all the employers of Doga are posted in the same way, 

by the month,’’ although, with some of them, the transaction 
was evidently by the year. 

Deliberation, 

Considering on the one part, 1st, That it results from the de¬ 
position of both parties, and on examination of the books of the 
plaintiff, that on the 6th of June last Peteau hired from Doga 
a pair of carriage horses, at the rate of 150 francs per month ; 

2d, That nothing indicates, as Doga pretends, that Peteau 
engaged to keep them four or five months ; 

3d, That, when hired horses are returned in the middle of a 
month, it is usual to pay the hire of the whole month, or, if it is 
preferred, that of the days that have expired from the first of the 
month, and at the usual rate of daily hiring; 

Considering, on the other hand, that Peteau, when hiring this 
pair of horses from Doga, engaged to keep them, and have them 
taken care of by his own coachman, and that, consequently, the 
owner had not any one about the animals who represented him, 
or could take care of his interests; 

Considering, finally, 1st, That, on one side, it results from a 
certificate delivered by M. Jacquinot, veterinary surgeon at 
Montfort I’Amaury, that the horse that had its leg broken was 
not worth more than 200 francs ; 


VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


180 

2d, That on the other side, M. Giraud, another veterinary 
surgeon, deposes that this animal was one of a pair of horses 
for which one of his employers had offered 2200 francs ; 

3d, That depositions so opposite could not possibly guide the 
opinion of the arbitrator, and that, in such a state of things, the 
examination of the remaining horse could alone enable him to 
approximate to the value of that which had been destroyed ; 

Conclusions. 

I apprehend, 1st, that the hiring of the two horses was by the 
month, at the rate of 150 francs, and not by the day; and that, 
in conformity with usage, Peteau ought to pay the hire of the 
two horses until the 31st of August, and of the surviving one 
until the 30th of September. 

2d, That the loss of the horse with the broken leg ought to be 
entirely borne by Peteau, seeing that the accident occurred while 
the horse was under his care. 

3d, That that animal, supposing him like his fellow, was 
worth about 600 francs. I think that I ought to observe, in con¬ 
clusion, that horses belonging to the same equipage (apyareillh) 
are not generally considered so valuable, by about one-fifth, as 
when they are taken separately ; perhaps, therefore, it will be 
just, on this consideration, to allow Doga a somewhat greater 
sum than 600 francs. 

These, gentlemen, are the opinions which I have the honour 
to submit to your ulterior deliberation and decision. 

I have the honour, &c. 

Bouley. 

The Tribunal decided according to the recommendation of 
M. Boulev. Hecueil. 


ERRATUM. 

Mr. Cartwright’s communication on Abscess of the Spinal Marrow, in 
our last number, for “ Lumbar Vertebrae,” read Cervical Vertebrae.” 

TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Communications have been received from Messrs. Cheetham, Corbet, 
and Rawlings, which shall be inserted.—Will our friends favour us with 
their contributions as early as convenient in the month ? 

We will endeavour to comply with the request of A Subscriber;” yet if 
the document to which he refers is incorrect, what are we to do ? 

Mr. Coleman’s bust will be presented to him in the Theatre of the Vete¬ 
rinary College, on Tuesday, the 10th instant, at one o’clock ; and his friends 
will dine together at Freemasons’ Hall, on the same day, at six o’clock pre¬ 
cisely. Two days’ previous notice of attendance at the dinner is requested 
^ be sent ^ost paid) to the Secretary of the Committee, Mr. Morton, at the 
College. Tickets One Guinea. 







THE 

VETERINARIAN. 


VOL.YllI, No. 88.] APRIL 1835. [New Series, No. 28. 


MR. YOUATT’S V ET E RI N A R Y LE CT U R E S, 

DELIVERED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. 


LECTURE XLVII. 

Tetanus ,— Theory of the Communication of Nervous Influence .— 
Symptoms of Tetanus.—Progress of the Disease. — Post¬ 
mortem Appearances. 

Sketch of the Servous System. —I HAVE described the spinal 
chord as divided by a mesian line through its whole extent; 
and each side again divisible into three columns, and each of 
these devoted to a distinct and separate function. The central 
columns on the inferior surface (the anterior one in the human 
being) are connected with voluntary motion—the central columns 
on the superior (posterior) surface, with sensation, and the 
lateral column on either side with the movements and peculiar 
sensibility of organic life. The first two we have traced to the 
brain : the mandate of the will or the nervous influence is con¬ 
veyed by the inferior columns from the brain to the various 
organs of voluntary motion, and so we move and act amidst the 
objects that surround us. The impressions that are made on the 
extreme fibrils of other nerves are conveyed to the common sen- 
sorium by means of the superior columns, and thus we have 
sensation, pleasurable or painful. The lateral column, however, is 
a system of itself, and not of cerebral origin; connected with, 
influenced by, and influencing, aiding, and assisting, the other 
two, as its very situation would lead us to suspect; but indepen¬ 
dent of both : possessing properties similar to both, yet devoted 
to the functions of organic life. 

There are certain classes of diseases principally referrible to 
one or the other of these columns. I will consider each in the 
order in which I have mentioned them. 

I begin witlv those of the central column of the inferior surface 
and connected with voluntary motion. 

VOL. VIII. C c 










182 MR. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 

Theory of the Communication of Nervous Influence. —You will 
find a beautiful explanation of the flow or communication of 
nervous influence to the various parts of the system, in that 
admirable work by Dr. Mason Good, his Study of Medicine 
a work that should find a place in your libraries, as yielding to 
none in a clear, natural, and interesting explication of the prin¬ 
ciples of human pathology, and physiology too. I will use his 
own language:—We have had frequent occasions of shewing 
that the nervous power which supplies the muscular fibres is 
communicated, not strictly speaking in a continuous tenour, 
but in minute and successive jetsj so that the course of it is 
alternately broken and renewed by a series of fine and impercep¬ 
tible oscillations. In a state of health and vigour this succession 
of influx and pause is perfectly regular and uniform ; and hence 
whatever movements result from it will partake of the same uni¬ 
formity, and appear to be one continued line of action instead of 
a successive series. But as soon as ever the harmonious alterna¬ 
tion through which the nervous power is thus supplied is inter¬ 
fered with, the oscillations become manifest; the apparently 
uniform current is diverted into a tremulous undulation ; and the 
muscular exertion to which it gives rise, instead of being seem¬ 
ingly one and undivided, is sensibly multiplied into hundreds.’' 

Adopted to illustrate the Diseases of the Spinal Chord. —I 
would scarcely go so far as this excellent writer has done, when 
he says that the truth of this theory is shewn or proved but 
there are so many circumstances which give an air of probability 
to it, such as the firmness of the sound and healthy limb—the 
trembling of the hand fatigued by labour—the shaking palsy of 
old age—the agitation of every limb when the animal is violently 
excited—and, above all, this theory furnishes me with so intelli¬ 
gible an illustration of the diseases of the nervous system, that I 
shall adopt it, for the present purpose at least. 

Illustration of the Diseases of the Spina l Chord. —^Mn health, 
the succession of influx and pause is perfectly regular and 
uniform, and the motions resulting from it appear to be one con¬ 
tinued line of action/' energetic in proportion to the degree of 
nervous influence bestowed ; but I can conceive of some diseased 
state of the sensorial system in which the nervous energy shall 
rush on with unusual violence and without pause, and in defiance 
of the will. If one limb only is affected, we have rigid spasm of 
that limb; if it is a general affection, we have tetanus. If the 
pauses or relaxations are too protracted, then, from the accumu¬ 
lation of nervous power, the next jet has more than usual 
strength, and we have shivering and trembling. If the protrac¬ 
tion is more considerable, and confined to one set of muscles, we 


TETANUS. 


183 

have chorea. If it is universal, and the suspensions lengthened, 
yet the expenditure of animal power increased, we have epilepsy; 
and if the supply is altogether suspended, we palsy. 

Farther Illustration. —These diseases are all connected to¬ 
gether—they have a tendency to run into each other. Chorea 
in the dog is a frequent precursor of fits. The spasmodic affec¬ 
tion of one limb is speedily propagated to the neighbouring ones, 
and gradually involves the whole frame. Fits either become 
less frequent and violent, and terminate in chorea; or they in¬ 
crease in the rapidity with which they succeed to each other, 
and the vital power is at length nearly or quite expended, and 
partial or total palsy succeeds. 

Theory of Tetanus.—The disease which will occupy our atten¬ 
tion this evening is t et a n u s, or, as it is commonly called, lo c k e d- 
JAw ; and so termed, because the forcible closing of the mouth 
is one of the earliest and most prominent, although not the in¬ 
variable, symptom of tetanus. It is constant spasm of the vo¬ 
luntary muscles, and particularly those of the jaw, the neck, and 
the spine. The old farriers used to call it ‘‘ Stag Evilwhether 
from its being supposed, but I think erroneously, to be a disease 
to which the stag is very subject,—or from the well-known fact, 
that when the stag is nearly hunted down he takes refuge, if he 
can, in some pond of water, where he stands at bay, and from which 
he is said to become stiff and tetanic, from the sudden effect of 
the cold,—or whether because the tetanic horse carries his head 
in somewhat the same manner that a stag usually does—I will 
not now inquire. 

Symptoms. —Its approach is usually slow and insidious—at 
least it is so in the estimation and observation of the groom. 
The horse is dull—unwilling to move—he does not feed well 
—he quids his hay and gulps his water. The groom attributes 
all this to sore throat; and when he begins to be alarmed by its 
continuance, and by the rapid manner in which the horse loses 
flesh, even from the very beginning, he sends for the veterinary 
surgeon. The mischief is all done now, nine times out of ten. 

Caution as to supposed Sore Throat. —The veterinary surgeon 
will never examine, or ought never to examine, a horse with 
supposed sore throat, without ascertaining the state of the 
muscles of the jaw : and yet I do recollect one; he was a young 
practitioner—so you may suppose ; but he was a clever young 
man notwithstanding,—who saw the quidding and the gulp¬ 
ing, and the difficulty of opening the mouth, but was bam¬ 
boozled by what the groom forced upon him of the soreness of 
the throat, and the foulness of the breath, and the enlargement 
of the parotid glands,—and lost for ever the golden opportunity. 
Let this be a rule with you—one without exception—in every 


1 



184 MR. youatt’s y^eterinary lectures, 

case of supposed catarrh or influenza, or, in fact, disease of 
almost every kind, introduce a finger or two into the mouth, and 
move them about there, not only to ascertain its temperature, 
but the action of the lower jaw 5 and if that is limited, satisfy 
yourselves whether this arises from the pain which the motion 
of it occasions, or from actual inability to move the jaw. 

Continuation of Sym'ptoms,—ThQXQ. will now, or ere this, be 
stiffness of the neck j and, on passing the hand down it, the 
muscles will be prominent, distinct, hard, knotty, and unyielding. 
There is difficulty in bringing the head round, and still greater 
difficulty in bending it; for the extensors of the head are in health 
more powerful than the flexors, having to assist in suppoiting 
the weight of the head. The difference of power in the tvyo, 
therefore, shews itself now by the very peculiar manner in which 
the muzzle is thrown out and forward, and permanently retained 
there. The eye is sunk—the retractor muscle acts among the 
rest, and the eye is drawn deep within the socket 5 and in con¬ 
sequence of this, the fatty matter behind the eye is pressed for¬ 
ward, and the membrana nictitans is protruded, and there is an 
appearance of strabismus, or squinting. I confess that I have 
never seen what the erudite Mr. John Hinds describes: ^ The 
eyes of the animal were turned back, shewing the nerve which 
retained the ball in position in a very disgusting manner. I 
had supposed that the retractor muscle so completely surrounded 
the optic nerve as to render this impossible, especially under 
the state of spasmodic contraction in which this disease places itj 
but Mr. Hinds’ book contains some very strange things. 

The ears are erect, pointed forward, and immoveable ; if you 
speak to the horse, or threaten to strike him, they change not 
their position. Considering the beautiful play of the ear in the 
horse, when in health, and the kind of conversation which he 
can maintain by means of it, there is scarcely a more character¬ 
istic symptom of tetanus than this immobility of the ear. The 
nostril is expanded to the utmost; and there is little or no play 
of its alae, as in hurried or even natural breathing. The breath¬ 
ing itself is usually accelerated, but not always so; I have 
known it rendered considerably slower; but it is always labo¬ 
rious, for the aid of some of the auxiliary voluntary muscles is 
withdrawn, and the rest have more to do. The pulse will give 
little indication of the severity of the disease. I have known it 
in a manner unaffected, when the spasmodic action was fully 
established. It would rise, and rapidly, when I approached the 
horse and offered to touch him; but after I had stood by him 
a minute or two, it would quiet down almost to its natural 
standard. After awhile, however, the heart begins to sym¬ 
pathize with the excitation of the animal system, and the pulse 


TETANUS. 


185 


increases in frequency and force, until the animal becomes 
debilitated, and then it beats yet quicker and quicker, but 
diminishes in power, and gradually flutters and dies away. I 
have counted 130 and 140 pulsations in a minute towards 
the close of tetanus; yet Mr. John Hinds tells us that it may 
increase to 60 when the disease is at its height, and becomes 
slower as the exhaustion of the animal increases, and at lenoth 
beats not more than 40 times in a minute. When doctors 
disagree, why you, gentlemen, must judge for yourselves. 

The countenance is eager, anxious, haggard; it is piteous to 
behold, and it tells plainly enough how much the animal suflers. 

The Progress of the Disease .—The stiffness now gradually 
extends to the back. If the horse is' in a narrow stall, it is 
impossible to turn him ; and even with room and scope enough, 
he turns altogether like a deal board. The extremities begin 
to participate in the spasm—the hinder ones first, and principally; 
but never to the extent to which it exists in the neck and back. 
The horse stands with his hind legs straddling apart in a very 
singular way. We see something resembling this in affections 
of the kidneys, but it is not so marked as here; and when the 
animal is moved, the gait is still straddling to a remarkable de¬ 
gree : the whole of the limb moves, or rather is drao;ged on, 
together ; and anxious care is taken that no joint shall be flexed 
more than can possibly be helped. The fore limbs have a 
singular appearance : they are as stiff as they can be, but 
stretched forward and straddling; they have been very aptly 
compared to the legs of a form. Very soon after this, the ab¬ 
dominal muscles are plainly involved ; the panniculus carnosus 
contracts with all its might, and there is a degree of hide-bound 
and tucking-up of the belly which is seen under no other cir¬ 
cumstances. The tail becomes in constant motion from the 
alternate action of the elevators and depressors. 

Farther Progress .—The disease being confirmed, and having 
endured three or four days, the respiration becomes rapidly 
quickened and laborious. The pulse also, at first slightly af¬ 
fected, becomes quick, and small, and irregular. Constipation, 
and to an almost insurmountable degree, now appears. The 
abdominal muscles were not involved at first, and durino; some 
days the bowels retained much of their usual action, and responded, 
but perhaps not quite so readily as before, to the stimulus of physic ; 
but when the aid of the abdominal muscles is lost, a very great 
degree of constipation must ensue. 

Later Stage .—The spasm continues to extend, and to become 
more violent. The motion of the whole frame is lost, and the 
horse stands fixed in the unnatural posture he had assumed. 


186 


MR. YOUATT’s veterinary LECTURES. 


The countenance becomes wilder, and still more haggard : its 
expression can never be effaced from the recollection of him who 
cares about the feelings of a brute. Think of violent cramp of a 
single muscle or set of muscles—it makes the stoutest of us cry 
out; and then imagine this torture to spread over the whole 
frame, and to continue with little respite from day to day and 
week to week. True, when you approach and touch him, he 
moves not—he scarcely shrinks—but the sudden acceleration of 
the pulse tells you what he feels and fears. Still, I doubt whe¬ 
ther the torture of our patient, or the violence of the spasm, is 
equal to that endured by the human being. We have no account 
of any bones being broken by the force of the muscular contrac¬ 
tion : there are some cases of this in the records of human medi¬ 
cine, and particularly of one man, both whose thigh bones were 
broken by the violent contraction of the flexor muscles during a 
momentary remission of the extensors. The horse, in proportion 
to his bulk of muscle, has not the energy and power of the 
human being, and certainly he has not the sensibility. The 
human patient is generally worn out in a few hours—the horse 
will labour under the disease for as many days. 

The Nature of the Spasm. —Tetanus, then, is spasm of the 
whole frame—not merely of one set of muscles, but of their anta¬ 
gonists also; the flexors and the extensors are equally affected 
and fixed. The fixidity of the animal is the effect of opposed 
and dreadful muscular contraction. It belongs to the motor co¬ 
lumn only—the sensibility is unimpaired; perhaps, it is height¬ 
ened ; or if not, the compression and the lesion of so many 
sensitive fibrils by the forcible contraction of the muscles, are 
fully sufficient to account for all the torture that the animal ex¬ 
periences. The organic system is even to the last scarcely in¬ 
volved—the horse would eat, if he could—^he tries to suck up 
some moisture from his mash, and the avidity with which he 
lends himself as well as he can to assist in the administering of 
a little gruel, these things tell us that the feelings of hunger 
and thirst remain unimpaired. Digestion in the mean time goes 
on ; and if the horse experiences difficulty in voiding his urine, 
it is because he has lost the aid of certain auxiliary muscles 
of volunlary power; or if the bowels are constipated, it is be¬ 
cause the whole abdomen is compressed by the spasmodic con¬ 
striction of its parietes, and no room is left for the peristaltic 
motion of the bowels to be effected. Still to the last there is 
appetite. 

Duration .—If the disease terminates fatally, it is about the 
6th, 7th, or 8th day, when, if there has been no remission, or 
only a slight remission, of the spasms, the horse dies exhausted 


TETANUS. 187 

by hard work. The task extorted by the whip and spur of the 
most brutal sportsman is nothing to it. 

Favourable Symptoms. —About or a little before this time, 
there are sometimes evident remissions. The spasm does not 
quite subside, but its force is materially lessened, and the pulse 
becomes quieter. The jaw is not sufficiently relaxed to enable 
the animal to eat or to drink, or for advantage to be taken of the 
opportunity for the administration of medicine ; and the slightest 
motion, or disturbance, or fright, recalls the spasmodic action 
with all its violence. If the remission returns, and is a little 
lengthened, and, particularly if there is more relaxation of the 
lower jaw, hope will begin to spring up : but do not hail it too 
eagerly, and do not remit the slightest medical attention. If the 
horse should recover, it will be very slowly, and he will be left 
sadly weak, and a mere walking skeleton. 

The Post -’mortem Appearances .—You will perhaps expect that 
examination after death would throw considerable light on 
a disease like this; you will, however, generally speaking, be 
grievously disappointed here. The system which, nearly first of 
all, presents itself will be an exception to this remark. The mus¬ 
cular fibre will exhibit proof plain enough of the labour which 
has been exacted from it, and of its vital power being perfectly 
exhausted : the muscles will often appear as if they had been 
macerated; their texture will be softened, and they will be torn 
\yith the greatest ease. You will find much general inflamma¬ 
tion : the lungs will in the majority of the cases be highly in¬ 
flamed, for they have been labouring long and hardly to furnish 
arterial blood in sufficient quantity to answer to this great ex¬ 
penditure of animal power. The stomach will exhibit patches of 
inflammation, but the intestines, in most cases, will present no 
diseased appearance at all. 

The B rain and Spinal Chord. —You naturally examine the 
brain. You do not often find any thing that can well be con¬ 
nected with the production of such a disease. Sometimes you 
have sliglit injection of the membranes, and in a few cases 
chronic inflammation of them. The theca vertebralis will exhibit 
patches of inflammation—the medulla itself will often be darker, 
and more vascular:—in some cases, this has reached through the 
whole extent of the spinal chord; in others, that which was con¬ 
tained in the dorsal portion of the canal was affected ; and in 
niore numerous cases there was no morbid change that was 
worthy of record. One fact I am compelled to record, that al¬ 
though believing tetanus to be a disease of the motor column 
principally or solely, I never could detect any inflammation about 
the coats of the motor nerves, or any peculiar affection of that 



188 MR. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 

column; but the morbid appearances, so far as they reached, 
seemed to involve the whole of the chord. Others have given 
different accounts. 

The Morbid Appearance of the Locomotive Columns. —M. 
Gelle, professor at the Veterinary School at Toulouse, gives a 
very interesting description of the expected different appearance 
of the different columns of the spinal marrow in a tetanic horse. 
It is recorded in the Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire, vol. vi, 
p. 246: Having exposed the whole length of the nervous sys¬ 

tem, the cerebro-spinal fluid appeared diminished in quantity, 
and of a red colour. The inferior column of the spinal chord, 
particularly on the left side, was softened, and its white sub¬ 
stance was pointed and mingled with blood. The gray substance 
was redder; the little points of bicod were more numerous; and 
at intervals there were patches of blood. All the spinal marrow 
was to a certain degree softened, but less at the cervical than at 
the lumbar and sacral region, where it scarcely had any consist¬ 
ence, and was broken and torn by the slightest touch. The 
roots of the nerves which proceeded from the inferior columns 
were of a yellowish red colour; they were easily broken and se¬ 
parated from the spinal chord, while the superior ganglionic roots 
did not appear to be in the slightest degree altered. This morbid 
state of the locomotive nerves was most of all marked at the 
lumbar and sacral regions. 

Appearance of the Spinal Chord, continued. —In the number 
for March 1830, of the same periodical, M. Gelle gives an ac¬ 
count of the post-mortem appearances in the spinal chord of 
another horse that died tetanic. The dura and pia mater were 
injected—the arachnoid membrane was healthy—the consistence 
of the spinal marrow was diminished—the softening was most 
evident in the gray substance, but it was equal on both the 
superior and inferior surfaces. The roots of the nerves were not 
softened on either surface; they possessed the character of health, 
except that the roots from the inferior surface were of a yellow 
nankeen tint, curiously contrasted with the roots from the supe¬ 
rior surface.” 

Contrary Opinions.— Ovl the other hand, M. Vatel, another 
professor of the French school, says that, hi^/ing had the oppor¬ 
tunity of examining ten horses which died tetanic, he observed 
lesions worthy of notice in the cerebro-spinal system of two of 
them only. 

Rejiections.—Oases, of tetanus do not occur to us every day in 
town practice, and the three last which I had terminated suc¬ 
cessfully; but in two others, after my attention had been directed 
to these different functions of the superior and inferior columns, 


ON TFIE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS. 189 

I certainly did not observe this yellowish red or nankeen ap¬ 
pearance of the roots of the locomotive nerves.’’ It is, however, 
a most interesting part of morbid anatomy, and I trust that you, 
gentlemen, will endeavour to throw some light upon it. The 
plain matter of fact is, that I do not believe that the spinal chord 
of one horse in twenty, that dies of tetanus, is carefully examined; 
the knacker is always in a hurry, and the examination would be 
a matter of impossibility at the stable of the owner. Amidst 
the filth of the knacker’s yard it can hardly be satisfactorily 
conducted ; and we know to our cost, that those hungry im¬ 
posing fellows would charge us nearly or quite the price of the 
whole horse for the spine, and especially if they knew the. pur¬ 
pose for which we wanted it. From some or all of these causes, 
it results that we have scarcely upon record an examination of 
the post-mortem appearance of the spinal chord of a tetanic 
horse, and most certainly we have not one satisfactory one. We 
must wipe off the disgrace. The question is one of too great 
importance to be left thus in abeyance. 

No Necessity/ for the Distinctions used hy Medical Writers ,— 
Medical writers describe various kinds of tetanus. They speak 
of tetanus anticus, or spasm of the flexors, bending the body for¬ 
ward—dorsalis, or spasm of the extensors, and bending the body 
backwards—lateralis, or spasm, principally of one side, and in¬ 
clining the frame to that side—and erectus, including both, and 
keeping the frame upright and fixed. We have nothing to do 
with these things; ours is the tetanus erectus, affecting equally 
both sides of the horse, and making him sometimes a perfect 
fixture. 


THE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS, CONSIDERED AS 
AN IMMEDIATE CAUSE OF DISEASE. 

By M. Renault, Professor at the School of Alfort, and Prin¬ 
cipal Editor of the RecueiL 

[Continued from page 159.] 

The following cases are selected from our canine patients:— 

CASE III. 

Pehruary 2, 1831.—A dog was brought to the hospital on 
account of a large painful tumour, extending from the channel 
between the jaws, and which it occupied entirely, quite to the 
middle of the right cheek. According to the report of the owner, 
the tumour had developed itself immediately after a blow which 

VOL. VIII. j) d 




190 ON THE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS. 

the animal had received on the cheek on January 31st. The dog 
had had the distemper about eighteen months before, and since 
that period had enjoyed perfect health. 

His state on his arrival at the school—B .q was lively and ted 
well, but he was restrained in moving his head, and particularly 
his jaw, by the tumour beneath. This tumour was very tender 
when touched — somewhat circumscribed — oedematous at its 
edcres, and slightly fluctuating at the angle of the right maxillary 
branch. A viscid saliva ran from the mouth, and somewhat 
embarrassed the respiration. The populeum ointment was applied 
to the tumour; emollient fumigations, and half-diet. 

3^.—The fluctuation was more evident. On opening the 
tumour there ran from it nearly or quite a pint of pus, a little 
bloody, and very fetid. The internal surface of the abscess was 
glistening, and of a livid red colour. Inject a solution of chloride 
of soda into the abscess, apply the cautery to the edges of the 
wound, and the populeum ointment over the surface of the tu¬ 
mour ; the same diet. At night the animal was dull, its respi¬ 
ration was more difficult j but, nevertheless, it searched foi 

something to eat. . • • i j i 

4^/^.—The tumefaction is considerably diminished, but the 

wound is pale, and suppurates very little. The patient is dull 
without appetite—the respiration accelerated and irregular, and, 
from time to time, accompanied by moaning. There is a slight 
nasal discharge; the spume is viscid and abundant; and the 
beatings of the heart are strong and quick; but the pulse is 
feeble. Injections of chloride of soda into the wound; dress it 
with digestive ointment; emollient fumigations; milk with 
honey and gum as food. 

bth. —The wound is livid ; it is scarcely moistened by a little 
serous discharge. The general symptoms are more intense ; the 
beatings of the heart are strong and quick; the pulse scarcely 
sensible; the respiration more embarrassed; and the discharge 
from the nose very great. The animal that had been in high con¬ 
dition is reduced to a frightful state of marasmus. He died in 
the night. 

Examination at six in the morning. —The dissection of the 
tumour, and of the cyst which it formed, presented nothing that 
we had not seen in the living animal: it only enabled us to state 
with more certainty that the abscess had no communication with 
any other part'. 

Respiratory apparatus. —The two pleural cavities contained 
a great quantity of sero-purulent matter, exhaling an odour, 
which, although weaker, reminded us of the smell which had 
proceeded from the abscess under the jaw. There were no false 




ON THE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS. 191 

membranes. Theplenrad luere as thin, glistening, and transparent 
as in their natural state ; except that the sub-serous capillary 
system presented, here and there, faint arborescent injections. 

The surface of both lungs was thickly covered with ecchymoses, 
at somewhat regular distances, and the largest of which did not 
exceed a lentil in size. Besides these ecchymoses there were 
numerous perforations, about the size of a pin’s head, forming a 
communication between the pulmonary tissue and the pleurae, 
and through which, probably, the pus that we found had made its 
way into the pleural cavity. 

The pulmonary substance had lost its sponginess—it would 
not float in water—it contained a great quantiti^ of infiltrated 
pus, mixed with serum, in its tissue, and which escaped on pres¬ 
sure being made. This pus resembled that which had been con¬ 
tained in the pleural cavities. Many small ecchymoses were 
remarked in the pulmonary tissue. 

Digestive organs, —The mucous membrane of the pharynx 
was strongly injected, and a great quantity of pus was found in 
it of the same smell, and having the same character, as that in 
the abscess beneath the jaw. A little pus was also found mingled 
with the mucus of the stomach, and had the same odour. To 
this was probably to be traced the vivid redness of the mucous 
coat of the stomach, particularly about the pyloric orifice. 

I regret that the nervous and circulatory organs were not 
examined. 


CASE IV. 

A spaniel bitch, nine or ten years old, was brought to the in¬ 
firmary, with an ulcerated wound in the lower part of the chest. 
This wound had existed two months, and no one knew the 
cause of it. Before its appearance the animal had enjoyed good 
health. During the first month the wound extended a little 
almost daily, and suppurated abundantly ; but the bitch did not 
appear to be much aflected by it. She ate, drank, ran about as 
usual, and preserved her condition. After this she still retained 
her appetite, but began to lose flesh. Within the last three days 
the suppuration has rapidly diminished, the appetite has failed, 
she has begun to cough, and she was becoming more rapidly thin. 

Tresent state. —She has, behind the elbow, and on the inferior 
and lateral part of the chest, a wound nearly four inches long and 
three wide. The integument is destroyed through the whole 
extent of it. The lint with which the wound is dressed is covered 
by a great quantity of pus, possessing little smell, and of a grey 
tint; few granulations can be seen, and the wound is pale and 
livid. The mucous membranes are pale—respiration difficult — 



192 ON THE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS. 

there is debility, and the appetite fails. Wash the wound with 
an infusion of aromatic plants, and dress it with lint impregnated 
with tincture of bark. Emollient fomentations. Give mutton 
broth to drink. 

April 27thy 28^A, 29^A.—The emaciation has made rapid pro¬ 
gress ; the animal is more enfeebled every day, and the cough is 
more frequent, but weaker. Suppuration is yet abundant, and 
the pus seems to be pure, and of a grey colour. Dress with 
strong digestive ointment twice in the day; and give, internally, 
bark wine diluted with water. 

30^A.—The patient refuses to eat; other circumstances the 
same. Continue treatment. 

Map —The wound is all at once become dry and covered 
with soft, black eschars—the cough feeble, and scarcely to be 
heard—the gait staggering, and diarrhtea is commencing. Wash 
the wound with chloride of soda; mixtures of gum to drink; 
injections of a decoction of poppy heads. 

2dy Sd, 4thy and 6th ,—The diarrhoea is become continual and 
fetid, and the patient is gradually sinking. She died on the 
morning of the 6th. 

Examination, —The left lung is adherent to the thorax through 
a space corresponding with the external wound. False mem¬ 
branes have caused this adhesion, but they do not appear to be 
more than twelve or fifteen days old. Two reservoirs (foyers) 
of thick pus, resembling tuberculous matter, are at a little dis¬ 
tance from each other towards the dorsal edge of the lung. The 
pulmonary substance which surrounds these foyer sjs 7iot changed, 
A few depots of a similar matter, hut very small, are scattered 
through the right Imig; some of them are surrounded by a slight 
ecchymosis, others are in contact with sound tissue. The blood 
contained in the left cavities of the heart is very fluid, and small 
m quantity: that in the right cavities, a much greater quantity, 
is formed into a firm clot, exactly moulded to the internal surface 
oj the ventricle and the auricle, and occupying the whole of the 
cavity. Almost a fourth of the clot is formed of chronic coagu- 
lum; the rest is one firm mass of yellounsh-white coagulum. 

No alteration in the mucous membrane of the digestive tube, 
not even in the lower intestinal passages, although diarrhoea had 
existed five days. 

All the left lobe of the liver was softened—it was in a manner 
dissolved. We found in its substance four or five foyers, 7iot 
regularly circumsc7'ibed, contahiing a sa7iious matter resemblmg 
that which ran from the ulcer during the first days after her 
arrival at the hospital. 

It should not be forgotten, that the liver is one of the viscera 


i 


ON THE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS. 193 

in which these depots of pus are formed after its absorption. 
These hepatic collections are rare in the horse; indeed, I have 
not yet observed them in him: but they are more frequent in 
the dog, in whom the biliary apparatus discharges a more im¬ 
portant function, 

CASE V. 

A bull-dog, four years old, with suppurating wound in the 
scrotum. 

Inquiries, —About two years ago he received a violent blow on 
the genitals, which produced considerable swelling of the tes¬ 
ticles and their envelopes. This engorgement, which for a con¬ 
siderable time had all the characters of an abscess, did not 
spontaneously break, and was never opened. After fluctuatino’ 
at several points, it ended by becoming indurated, and the en^ 
largement remained stationary. About a month afterwards, the 
owner perceived that the scrotum was the seat of superficial 
suppuration, and remarking that his dog was becoming weaker, 
he made him bathe in the river; but this produced no good effect. 
The animal soon lost his appetite, refused his food, and remained 
constantly lying down. He was then brought to the infirmary. 
He was castrated the same day, by means of ligature round the 
cords, and the excision of the diseased parts below the ligature. 
A slight hemorrhage followed, which continued about an hour 
and a half, and was at length stopped by injections of Goulard- 
water. There was great prostration of strength after the opera¬ 
tion, and the animal refused all food and drink. 

Until the 16th, the wound exhaled a fetid odour, and did not 
suppurate. Lotions of chloride of lime were applied. On this 
day and the following he ate a little baked meat. 

28M.—The wound was of a pale red, with slight granulations. 
Two grains of emetic tartar were given, and three injections ad¬ 
ministered in the course of the day. In about an hour after the 
emetic he vomited some mucous fluid, and also some frecal 
matter, very fetid, and of a deep brown colour. He refused to 
eat and drink, and the debility was extreme. 

315^.—-He had continued in nearly the same state, and died 
to-day. 

Examination half an hour after death, —The peritoneum was 
highly injected, and thickly set with a great number of ecchy- 
moses. The liver, which was much larger than in its natural 
state, was filled with little tuberculous Joyers: they were not 
encysted, but merely contained a yellowish-black matter, firm at 
its circumference, and which, on pressure, suffers a purulent 
white fluid, without smell, to escape. These purulent masses 


194 


CATARACT. 


%oere very numerous^ and the size of the largest did not exceed 
that of a yea. 

The other viscera presented nothing remarkable. 

I leave to the readers of the RecueiI to judge of the value of 
these cases, with reference to the physiologico-pathological fact, 
which they were intended to establish. If they are not rigorously 
demonstrative, and that is my opinion, it will at least be con¬ 
ceded, that they give much probability to the theory of the re¬ 
absorption of pus. At all events, they will do good, by inviting 
discussion on a point of pathology, which, at the present moment, 

much occupies the attention of veterinarians. 

Uecueil, April 1834. 


CATARACT. 

By Mr. Richard Rawlings, Sen., V.S., Milk-street, Bristol, 

Having read with considerable interest some observations in 
The Veterinarian on the subject of Cataract, and especially 
on its sudddenly appearing without previous inflammation of the 
eye, I am induced to offer my opinion on this point, and a very 
decided one, because it has been founded on more than twenty 
years^ extensive practice. I wish not to revive an old contro¬ 
versy that was becoming a little too personal, or to raise any un¬ 
pleasant feeling in the minds of those who have gone before me. 
We are infinitely obliged to those gentlemen ; for if we are to fol¬ 
low only the beaten track of old established opinion, adieu to the 
improvement of our art! Mr. Percivall has lately added a sup¬ 
posed new disease to the list of those to which the horse is sub¬ 
ject—scarlatina, and we are much indebted to him for the innova¬ 
tion. It is a disease which many of us had seen, but of which 
our too limited nosology contained no mention, and to which we 
had not dared to give a definite form or name. 

I never saw a single case of cataract without previous disease 
of the eye; but a circumstance occurred in the autumn of the 
last year which did for awhile surprise and stagger me. There 
was a case in which cataract did seem to appear most suddenly, 
and without any previously observed disease. 

On the 18th of October, a horse, warranted sound, was pur¬ 
chased by one of my employers, from an extensive dealer in 
Temple Street, Bristol, for £50. The dealing took place at Glut¬ 
ton, midway between Bristol and Wells, at which last place I then 
resided. The purchaser tried the horse in harness, and approved 
of his paces, but said that he had a cough. The dealer replied 
that it was a mere trifle, and he would give a special warranty 





CATARACT. 195 

against that. The bargain was completed, and the horse was 
led to Wells by the purchaser’s servant. 

On his arrival there he lay down, and exhibited symptoms of 
great uneasiness. Presently afterwards he raised himself up 
suddenly, and coughed violently. I was sent for ; and nothing 
could be more apparent than that the animal was labouring 
under inflammation of the lungs. He was bled copiously: a quart 
of castor oil was administered ; injections were thrown up, &c. 

A few hours afterwards I saw him again : he was no better. 
The gentleman then said to me, “ I purchased this horse to-day 
under a warranty of soundness. He shall not stay in my sta¬ 
bles to-night, and you take him to your’s.” The horse was re¬ 
moved immediately. 

As the man was leading him into my stable, the horse ran 
against the door-post. I instantly remarked to my son, that I 
feared the horse was becoming blind. My first thought was, 
that there was a sudden counter-determination of blood from the 
lungs to the head. I had him turned round to the light, and 
examined his eyes, and in e^ch was a slight cataract. I imme¬ 
diately returned to the purchaser, and told him what I had dis¬ 
covered ; upon which he requested me to go to Bristol in the 
morning, and inform the dealer of the state both of the lungs and 
the eyes, and, if possible, to make arrangements with him. I 
did so. The dealer replied, that it was impossible; for the 
horse had been examined on the previous morning by a veteri¬ 
nary surgeon, who had pronounced him sound.” Have you a 
certificate to that effect ?” I asked, No,” he replied ; but it 
is true, I assure you.” 

Now, had the horse been examined by a veterinary surgeon, he 
must have seen the cataracts. “ This, then,” thought must 
be one of those cases of cataract without previous inflammation 
of the eye, of the existence of which I had before doubted. 
These gentlemen are, after all, in the right, and I am mistaken. 
To proper evidence my former opinion must be surrendered. 
I will, however, inquire about the matter, and sift it to the 
bottom.” 

The dispute was settled between the parties, and, time after 
time—thirty times at least—I called on the dealer, and requested 
him to favour me with the name of the veterinary surgeon who 
j had examined the horse, and passed him as sound on the 
morning of the sale. He had forgotten who it was; but this 
or the other stable-man could tell. They, however, knew 
i nothing about the matter. At length, he gave me the name of 
I the veterinary surgeon. I called on this gentleman, and found, 
j as I was beginning to suspect, that he had not examined the 
! horse until after he was returned to the dealer and had recovered 



CATARACT. 


196 

from his chest affection ; and that he had then given a certificate, 
that the horse was unsound, having cataracts/^ 

The horse, while the matter was in dispute, was sold at the 
repository for £17, as an unsound horse, aud purchased by a 
coach proprietor in our city, and being then quite blind. 

I feel assured that it is from such misrepresentations as these 
that the theory of cataract coming on without previous inflam¬ 
mation, but being, in fact, a primary disease, has arisen. I have 
seen many a case, when, for a considerable time, the previous 
ophthalmia was so slight as scarcely to attract notice, and, also, 
was entirely overlooked by those about the horse, until it was 
pointed out by the veterinary surgeon who was attending the 
horse for some other complaint. Will you permit me to refer to 
one case of this kind, and one out of a great many of the same 
character? 

About the same time (October 1834), I was consulted by a 
gentleman relative to the lameness of a favourite horse, and, 
after due examination, I gave it as my opinion, that if the horse 
was fired and blistered there was a fair chance of his becoming 
sound; ‘‘ but,’’ I added, he has a worse disease, and which I 
fear is incurable. Look at the off eye, and you will perceive the 
forerunner of much mischief.” The gentleman was astonished 
and angry, and exclaimed,—that he had had the horse three or 
four years, that there never had been any thing the matter with 
his eyes, and that there was nothing the matter now. 

The horse was fired and blistered, and dismissed from my in¬ 
firmary—the disease in the eye, in my opinion, progressing; but 
I had been forbidden to do any thing to it. About a month 
afterwards the gentleman called at my house, and said, he was 
sorry to confess that my opinion was accurate: the eye was now 
weeping, and its diseased state could no longer be denied.” 
Proper means were adopted ; but cataract gradually formed, and 
the horse is now quite blind. 

Is it not probable that on such circumstances as these the 
opinion (as I believe erroneous) was founded, that cataract can 
appear without previous ophthalmia ? 


CONGENITAL HEREDITARY CHRONIC GLANDERS. 

By M . Lautour. 

A MARE that had laboured under glanders four or five 
months, produced a male foal on April 27, 1831. From the 
moment of its birth it had two indurated glands, not adhering 
to the lower jaw, and there was a white discharge from the right 
nostril. Ten days having passed, I perceived some minute ul- 




CONGENITAL, HEREDITARY, CHRONIC GLANDERS. 197 

cerations on the nasal membrane on the same side. The animal 
wp suckled by the mother, and appeared to be in perfect health, 
with the exception of the circumstances already stated. 

Little change took place during the first two months of the 
animal’s existence. In the third and fourth months the respira¬ 
tion through the right nasal cavity was accompanied by a nasal 
sound, and exercise considerably augmented it. The appetite 
and spirits were unaffected. 

The mare was destroyed in the month of October, and I had 
opportunity to examine the colt in the subsequent December. 

The lymphatic ganglions of the mesentery contained tubercles 
of different sizes. The mesentery itself, in various parts, parti¬ 
cipated in the same disorganization. Five or six pounds of a 
yellow serous effusion were found in the abdominal cavity. There 
was little injection in any part, but every thing betokened a sub¬ 
acute inflammatory state. 

The bronchial glands were indurated, but not in so great a 
degree as the glands in the thoracic viscera. The other thoracic 
viscera were sound. 

The left nasal cavity presented nothing unusual; but there 
were deep ulcerations in the frontal and maxillary sinuses on the 
right side, and the turbinated bones were nearly destroyed: the 
bony parietes of their ceils were softened, and denuded of their 
mucous membrane, and which was, here and there, replaced by 
vegetations resembling transparent jelly, of a light green hue. 
There were eight of these morbid productions, varying in size 
from a horse-bean to a large nut. 

At the superior extremity of the nasal cavity was a polypous 
production, three or four inches in length ; it looked like a 
middle-sized pear. Its parietes were thick, yet soft; and, on being 
cut into, a small quantity of white fluid ran from it. 

The whole nasal cavity contained almost innumerable small ulcer¬ 
ations, for the most part not extending beyond the mucous tissue. 

This case (and others resembling it frequently occur) does not 
prove that glanders is contagious; but the conclusion is inevi¬ 
table, that it is hereditary. I believe that the disease may be 
traced to vitiated nutrition; for the foetus, forming an integrant 
part of the mother, owes its development to nutriment imperfectly 
I absorbed, because the principal viscera of the mother are a prey to 
! disorganization very considerably advanced. 

^ T-here is no doubt that the mesenteric and bronchial indura¬ 
tions observed in the animal derived their origin from this cause, 
and their morbid condition spreads sympathetically towards the 
pituitary membrane; for when this irritation is once developed, 
it IS capable of propagating itself indefinitely, attacking sue- 



198 CONGENITAL, HEREDITARY, CHRONIC GLANDERS. 

cessively the principal viscera, and causing disease of greater or 
less intensity, yet never losing its insidious character. It is a 
Proteus assuming every possible form ; often eluding our most 
careful investigation, and exposing us to the commission of fre¬ 
quent errors; and so much the more frequent in proportion as 
the lesion of an important organ is discovered only by sympa¬ 
thetic phenomena. 

It is, nevertheless, beyond doubt that glanders is often occa¬ 
sioned by irritation, more or less developed, of the respiratory 
organs of the chest. It may also be the consequence of inflam¬ 
mation of the intestinal canal. 

As a proof of the last assertion, I saw, in November 1830, a 
colt, eighteen months old, and which, during the last three or 
four months, had been getting very thin. It had often had inter¬ 
mittent colic, and which at length terminated in death, aftei 
acute enteritis accompanied by violent tetanus and perfect trismus. 
There was also discharge from the left nostril, and the submaxil¬ 
lary glands were enlarged and indurated. There was serious 
disease in the digestive canal, and especially in the small intes¬ 
tine, which contained 400 strongyli. The mucous membrane 
of the nose was ulcerated in various places. 

It is easy to perceive that a diseased state of the digestive 
canal must have existed during a considerable time. The colic 
and the slow and long emaciation are likewise proofs of this. 
At length the visceral affection began to interfere with the dis¬ 
charge of the principal functions: it was certainly the cause of 
the tetanic spasm, and we must trace the disorganization of the 
pituitary membrane to the same cause. 

In conclusion, I believe the following to be the usual causes 

of glanders:— 

1. Living in low, badly ventilated, and badly managed stables. 
The deleterious emanations which the animal is compelled to 
breathe, irritate the respiratory passages, and predispose them to 
take on this disease, under the influence of a very slight occa¬ 
sional cause. 

2. It is the consequence of inflammation, whether proceeding 
from the influence indicated above, or having, as its cause, al¬ 
ternations of heat and cold. If, in these circumstances, the 
disease attacks the pituitary membrane, it loses its intense cha¬ 
racter, and passes into a sub-inflammatory state, and disorganizes 
more or less slowly the tissue which it affects. If, however, 
the inflammation m.anifests itself acutely in the bronchial mucous 
membrane, it soon gains the nasal cavities, by its phlogistic 
principle of extension, and produces glanders, which is always 
incurable. 


TREADS. 


199 

3. When over-work, or scanty or bad food, have reduced the 
system to a state of complete debility, we observe, all at once, 
a slight discharge from the nose, which increases in proportion 
to the degree of predisposition, or as the primitive constitution of 
the animal might predispose him to these fatal effects. 

[We do not hold ourselves responsible for any of the opinions, 
theoretical or practical, maintained in these extracts: our only 
object is to put our readers in possession of what is thought and 
done by our continental brethren.—Y.] 


ON TREADS. 

Mr. J. P. C HEETHAM, E.>8^., Lotldofl. 

Among the accounts of the numerous cases recorded in your 
Journal, I do not recollect having seen any of the injuries arising 
from treads; allow me therefore to offer the following remarks 

The term tread is applied to all those injuries which are pro¬ 
duced by a horse treading upon and wounding the one foot with 
the other. In many instances these wounds are of trivial im¬ 
portance, while in other cases they are of material consequence. 

Dray-horses in London are most exposed to these acccidents, 
which are attributable generally to the incautious manner in 
which draymen turn round the corners of narrow streets. The 
horse most liable to the injury is the one in the shafts: he is 
nearly always literally dragged round by those in front, and in 
this act the poor animal is compelled by the weight of the load 
upon him, and the force of the other horses, to place his feet with 
an incautiousness which he would otherwise avoid, and, occasion¬ 
ally treading with one hind foot on the coronet of the other, 
a contusion or wound is the result. There may, perchance, be 
only a simple scratch, which will be of no consequence; or there 
may be a wound, or a separation of the parts about the coronet, 
which may be attended by serious effects : the coronary ligament, 
the intermediate soft parts, and even the bones themselves, are 
sometimes implicated. In a case of this description, on the animaTs 
arrival at the stable he frequently cannot bear his foot to come 
m contact with the ground: he is covered with perspiration; his 
pulse perhaps 100 in the minute ; and the respiration is augmented 
in an equal proportion. 

In such a case, all that is to be done in the first instance is 
to wash the foot with warm water, remove the shoe, immerse 





200 


TREADS. 


the foot in a large poultice, and put the horse into a large box well 
littered with straw. Before he has been long there he will, in 
all probability, be found in a recumbent position. Let him be 
watched without noise : if possible, let the attendant remain out 
of sight. I have known them lie down for many hours, and 
after they had thus rested, their pulse and breathing had become 
reduced to an extent that would scarcely be credited. The crust 
should be now thinned opposite the inflamed coronary ligament, 
the sole pared till the blood oozes through the horn, and six or 
seven quarts of blood taken from the saphena major or plantar 
veins: the foot should be fomented, and then enveloped in 
another poultice ; purgatives are also to be administered. 

As the parts inflamed are particularly sensitive, great care 
should be taken not to handle the leg roughly, for the slightest 
pressure, even with the finger, will cause excruciating pain. 
If in the course of twelve hours the symptoms have not amended, 
the foot must be re-examined, especially the coronary ligament; 
and if the crust is not sufficiently removed from the inflamed 
parts, it must be now effectually accomplished : the horn having 
been softened by the poultice, its removal can be executed with 
comparative ease. At this juncture, I have seen the ab¬ 
straction of three or four quarts of blood from the vessels of the 
sole to be of immense service,so much so that the animal has, im¬ 
mediately afterwards, thrown a portion of his weight upon the 
injured foot. From the combined actions of the cathartic and 
other remedies, it may generally be calculated that our patient 
will be somewhat relieved ; but if the irritative fever is not 
mitigated, it will be found to depend invariably upon one or 
other of the articulations having participated in the injury, or 
sharing in the inflammation produced by the injury of the con¬ 
tiguous parts. I have found that the substitution of a cold 
poultice, wetted frequently with cold spring water, will now be 
exceedingly serviceable. Two or three days after the accident 
a portion of skin usually detaches itself, and there is left in the 
bottom of the wound a slough composed of ligament or tendon : 
probably in ten days this is thrown off, and, with attention, the 
cavity will soon be filled with granulations; but if there is a 
discharge of synovia, the greatest possible care must be bestowed. 
I have had many of these cases, and in examining with the probe 
I have distinctly felt the surface of the bones, but only in one 
instance had I exfoliation, and in that I believe it arose from 
fracture. 

The treatment I have usually adopted in such cases, and with 
the most advantage, has been a pledget of tow bandaged firm 
on the orifice, and kept constantly damp with a cold solution 


RABIES IN THE DOMESTICATED ANIMALS. 201 

(acet. plumbi, or bi-chloride of mercury, highly diluted). This 
is to be continued until the orifice is so far contracted that there 
is only a small aperture for the escape of the synovia; then sul¬ 
phate of alumina calcined should be daily dusted on the part, 
which will generally diminish the flow of synovia; and, when it 
has ceased, a paddock will be a desirable place for the horse, in 
order that he may toddle about, and have gentle exercise. I have 
found this mode of procedure successful in cases of the most 
serious description. 

One case I cannot well pass over without saying a word or 
tvvo about it: the proprietor of the horse had come to the deter¬ 
mination of having him destroyed, and that by introducing air 
into the veins. I was to be the operator : a proper quantity of 
straw was spread over the stable for him to die upon ; several 
spectators were present, and our friend the knacker was wait¬ 
ing outside for his victim. Before proceeding to open the vein, 
I was again interrogated whether I had any hope of his recove¬ 
ry. My reply was that I certainly had, and he was reprieved. 
In the course of six weeks from that date, he was put to work, 
where he now is, and I may say equally valuable as before the 
accident.—The after-effects of treads are various. In many 
cases, sandcracks or false quarters take place, from a loss of a 
portion of the coronary ligament; in others, from a thickening 
of the surrounding parts, ringbone is produced. The length of 
time required for the treatment of these cases will vary accord¬ 
ing to their severity. 


OBSEBVATIONS ON RABIES IN THE 
DOMESTICATED ANIMALS. 

Hj/ M. Peyronnie, M.F., Bordeaux. 

[Six cows, two horses, three asses, and four sheep, were bitten 
at the same time by a rabid wolf. M. Peyronnie was not called 
in until eighteen days after the accident. There were few mea¬ 
sures of precaution which he could then advise. After recount¬ 
ing them, he makes the following general observations on the 
disease. Few of them are new, and to the truth of others we 
are far from subscribing; but we give them as containing a 
tolerably faithful sketch of the opinions of many of our con¬ 
tinental brethren.—Y.] 


A.LTHOUGH termed hydrophohiay rabies is not always accom¬ 
panied by a dread of water. Many authors think that rabies 






202 RABIES IN THE DOMESTICATED ANIMALS. 

may be developed spontaneously in all animals others have 
maintained that no dog can become rabid unless he has been 
inoculated with the rabid virus. Both these assertions are 
erroneous. The dog and the cat are the only ones of our do¬ 
mesticated animals that are subject to spontaneous rabies; and the 
actual cause of this disease is often unknown. The wolf and the 
fox are in the same situation. Herbivorous animals can neither 
propagate the disease among their own kind, nor communicate it 
to others. Huzard has incontestibly proved this in a memoir 
read at the Institute. Dupuy endeavoured to inoculate cows 
and sheep with the disease, by rubbing the wounds which he 
had made with a sponge that rabid animals of the same species 
had just bitten. The disease was not communicated, but, on the 
contrary, it did appear after the sponge had been bitten by a 
rabid dog, and then applied to the wound. M. Dupuy has also 
seen rabid sheep bite others of the same flock without the dis¬ 
ease ensuing : I have seen the same. 

It is commonly supposed that rabies appears at the expiration 
of forty days from the time of the bite : according to my expe¬ 
rience, the time is very uncertain. While I was with my father, 
an ass was bitten by a rabid dog. Seventy-two days elapsed before 
the appearance of the disease, and then in one night the animal 
gnawed its thighs almost to pieces. A draught-mare was bitten 
in the lip by aliitch : it became mad eighty-two days after the 
bite. In the animals to which I was now called, nothing was 
so variable as the period of the development of the malady. 
In some it appeared as early as twenty days—in one, forty-five 
days elapsed. Without laying much stress on the assertion of 
Gervy, that he has seen madness break out in a sow two years 
after she was bitten, or that of Schmid, who says that the wife 
of a tailor became rabid twenty years after she was inoculated it 
may surely be asserted, that after forty days have passed there is 
no security that the malady may not appear. 

A little before the appearance of the disease the bitten part 
becomes painful; it is tinged with red, and in some cases the 
wound re-opens. 

One of the horses that had been bitten, and in whom the 
symptoms of rabies were easily recognized, was led out of the 
stable. The pulse was accelerated to 118 beats in a minute— 
the wounds were intensely red — and the animal was in a high 
state of excitement and fury. He was immediately bled. This 
had no effect in calming him, but it gave us opportunity to ex¬ 
amine the physical state of his blood. Ten minutes after the 
bleeding, the vessel in which the blood had been received con¬ 
tained nothing but a white serous fluid, and an albuminous sub- 


203 


CHOKING IN A HORSE. 

stance of very slight consistence : the Jihrine and the colouring 
matter of the blood had altogether disappeared, M. Peyronnie 
acknowledges that it was the only opportunity he had of ex¬ 
amining the blood of the rabid horse, and, therefore, is unable to 
say whether this is the usual appearance of the blood of the rabid 
horse, or of other rabid animals. 


[We must confess that we have never seen this singular 
affection of the blood, and we scarcely think that it would have 
escaped our observation in all the cases in which, for the sake 
of experiment, we have abstracted blood from the rabid animal. 

-Y-] ______ 

CHOKING IN A HORSE. 

Bp Mr, J. Cooper, F.S'., Coleshill, 

On the 13th of December 1834, I was requested by Mr. Um¬ 
bers, of Dunton Hall, to examine a bay horse that was taken 
suddenly unwell. On reaching the stable I found him coughing 
violently, and stamping with his fore feet: saliva ran from his 
mouth, which he occasionally attempted to swallow, but the 
greater part of it was returned through the nostrils. 

I was soon aware that there was some obstruction in the 
superior part of the throat. He had a few hours before been 
eating some Swedish turnips, several pieces of which then lay 
in his manger. I immediately concluded that a piece had lodged 
in the pharynx, and accordingly passed a whalebone probang 
down the oesophagus, and a rounded substance could be dis¬ 
tinctly seen driven before it. The horse after this appeared to 
be relieved ; he ate a few mouthfuls of hay, and drank some 
water ; he was then left for the night. 

14th, —1 was again sent for, the horse being much worse. He 
does not now cough ; and the pulse is 50, but the flanks heave 
very much: he refuses all food and drink; has not lain down during 
the night; hangs down his head ; saliva, mingled with mucus, 
runs abundantly from his nostrils, although he repeatedly swallows 
much of it. V.S. ftvi ; administered aloes jij, digitalis jj, pot. 
nit. jij, and ordered some gruel, which he takes freely from a 
bottle. Thinking the substance might have injured the throat, 
I applied some infus. lyttae externally. 

l^th .—Much the same ; has dunged, and lain down during 
the night; the saliva continues to return through the nostrils. 
Blister the throat, and repeat the ball. He takes the gruel from 





204 PRACTURR OF THE RIGHT HUMERUS OF A DOG. 


the bottle, but will not eat. I said that I had no hope of saving 
him, and early on the following morning he was dead. 

On laying open the oesophagus from the pharynx downwards, 
on arriving within a few inches from the cardiac orifice, I was 
surprised to find a large-sized hen egg entirely whole and firmly 
fixed in the passage : the parietes of the oesophagus, where the 
egg lay, were very much dilated and ulcerated nearly through. 
The groom, who w'as present, immediately confessed he had given 
the egg a few hours before I was sent for, as he understood they 
were good to improve his condition. The balls which were 
given must have dissolved and passed by the egg, as also would 
the gruel. 


A CASE OF FRACTURE OF THE RIGHT HUMERUS 

OF A DOG. 

By M, Delaguette. 

A BEAUTIFUL bloodhound, trained to the chase of the wild 
boar, was wounded bv a ball just as he had fastened on one of 
these animals in the forest of Marly. The ball struck him m a 
direction from behind forwards, and fractured the right humerus. 
Every sportsman was interested about this unfortunate dog, and 
especially the Count D’Artois, by whom he had been wounded, 
and he was brought to me a few hours after the accident. 

I examined the wound of Tout-heau, a name which he merited 
on account of his beautiful form and excellent qualities, (the 
wound had not made him quit his hold). The ball had broken 
the body of the humerus all to pieces. I made the wound 
as nearly a simple one as I could, by detaching and removing 
every portion of bone that was loose : I cut off’ every sharp or 
irregular portion that remained, and the wound was afterwards 
covered with pledgets dipped in equal quantities of brandy and 
water, and I applied a bandage to retain the dressings in their 
proper situation. 

It was summer; the weather was sultry, and fearing the con¬ 
sequences of a wound so complicated, and doubting the possi¬ 
bility of the re-union of the two ends of the bone, my first intention 
was to amputate the limb at the scapulo-humeral joint ; but as 
the troop in which I served was ordered to Paris on the following 
day, and it was impossible that those measures could afterwards 
be pursued which such an operation required, I at length deter¬ 
mined to confine myself to the seconding of those means which 
Nature might point out, and the result beautifully displayed her 
matchless power. 




USE OF TORSION IN THE CASTRATION OF THE HORSE. 205 

I had in the infirmary an intelligent groom, to whose care I 
entrusted Tout-beau, and I saw the animal about once in every 
week. 

The first dressing being removed, the suppuration was abun¬ 
dant, and of a brown tint; a simple digestive was therefore 
applied. 

For some time small splinters came away at each dressing. 
The parts surrounding the wound, at first very much swelled, 
diminished by little and little, and the suppuration became less 
abundant; the power of the digestive was then increased by the 
addition of tincture of aloes. 

The extremities of the bones began to approach, and a callus 
formed, and that portion of the limb seemed to be very much 
shortened. 

The wound, which was afterwards dressed with dry lint, healed 
in about three months ; but in that time several little abscesses 
had appeared, from which spiculae of bone were discharged. 
Tout-beau attempted to walk a little from the very commence¬ 
ment. As the wound cicatrized he got more about, holding up 
the broken limb; at length he began to rest some of his weight 
upon it; and at the end of five months he walked and ran, halting 
a little. 

Tout-beau had the lot of those who cease to be necessary. 
For a little while after the accident one and another of the officers 
sent to inquire about him ; but before he was cured he was quite 
forgotten ; and, when cured, nobody claimed him, nobody would 
take him. He became a true regimental dog, living sometimes 
at one table, and sometimes at another, and then taking his walk 
in the forest of St. Germain. This misfortune had gained him 
the pity of the soldiers, who never shot at him as they did at 
every other stray dog; but otherwise there remained for poor Tout- 
beau nothing but the tonsciousness of liberty and independence. 


THE USE OF TORSION IN THE CASTRATION OF 

THE HORSE. 

By Mr. J. C. Molyneux, V.S., London. 


“ No man was ever so completely skilled in the conduct of life as not to receive new 

information from age and experience.” 


Having from time to time read in The Veterinarian 
cases of the use of torsion for the prevention of hemorrhage from 
arteries, and hints that it might possibly supersede the clumsy 

VOL. Vl II. F f 






206 USE OF TORSION IN THE CASTRATION OF THE HORSE. 

and cruel use of the actual cautery in castration, I determined 
to give the forceps a fair trial on the first opportunity that pre¬ 
sented itself. I have now had recourse to torsion three times in 
castrating the horse, and with more success than I could even 
anticipate—I send you an account of them. I believe they will 
be the first cases of the kind placed upon record; and I trust 
that a perusal of them will stimulate my brethren to abjure, as 
far as they can, the barbarous usages of the farrier, and assimilate 
their practice, as much as the structure and physiology of the 
animals will permit, to that of the human surgeon. 

CASE I. 

Nov. 14:th, 1834.—I was requested by Mr. Geale, job-master, 
of Regent Street, London, to castrate a colt eighteen months old. 
Before I commenced the operation I expressed my wish to use 
the torsion forceps instead of the cautery, to which Mr. G. im¬ 
mediately consented. The colt was cast and secured in the 
usual manner, and I made my incision through the scrotum, 
dartos muscle, and tunica vaginalis. I then divided the vas 
deferens and cellular membrane, immediately above the epi¬ 
didymis, leaving nothing attached to the testicle but the sper¬ 
matic artery and vein, I then took the torsion forceps and 
applied them as tight as possible, after the clams had been placed 
on the chord about three inches from the epididymis in the 
usual manner, and the testicle was cut off. The forceps vvere 
turned eight or nine times, and held firmly for four or five 
minutes, when the chord was suffered to return gradually into 
the abdomen. I waited five minutes, and no hemorrhage en¬ 
suing, I operated in the same manner on the other testicle. The 
colt was then let up, and only the trifling quantity of blood 
which is usually discharged by the scrotal vessels was lost. 

15th and 16th .—ISo swelling, pulse 38. I ordered mashes 
and green meat, if it could be procured, otherwise a small quan¬ 
tity of hay. 

17th to 20th .—No untoward circumstance. A little healthy 
discharge from the scrotum, which was directed to be kept clean. 

26th .—Doing well. Turned out. 

CASE 11. 

A colt, two years and a half old, rather too much encumbered 
with flesh. I deemed it necessary to reduce him a little before 
the operation. When duly prepared, he was operated upon in 
the same way. Very little swelling appeared after the castration, 
and the animal did exceedingly well. 


USE OF TORSION IN THE CASTRATION OF THE HORSE. 207 

CASE III. 

I would have immediately communicated the two former 
cases to The Veterinarian, but I waited until one of more 
importance presented itself in the course of my practice, and 
which, without danger of error, would display the actual value 
'of this mode of operation. On the 20th of December as decisive 
an one occurred as I could possibly desire. The owner of the 
colts requested me to examine a five year and a half entire horse 
which he was about to purchase. He afterwards wished him to 
be castrated, in order that he might be ready for work at the 
commencement of the season. 

The horse being in high condition, I had him duly prepared ; 
and on the 24th I operated on him in the same manner as in the 
two former cases. 

26th ,—Little swelling, appetite good, pulse 38. 

2Qth .—Swelling increased, but not so great as in many cases in 
which I have operated with the actual cautery or caustic clams; 
appetite diminished, pulse 40. 

28^A.—Swelling diminishing, appetite returning, pulse 38. 

2^th to 3I5L—The appetite good, and the animal recovering 
his former strength and spirits. 

A friend of Mr. Geale’s, who was present at this operation, told 
me that he would have two colts castrated in the same manner 
this spring. If any professional or other gentleman should be 
anxious to be present at these, or other similar operations, I 
should have much pleasure in gratifying their wishes, if they will 
favour me with their address. 

There is one caution to which the attention of practitioners 
should be directed; namely, to make what they suppose to be 
the requisite number of turns with the forceps steadily at once, 
and to hold the chord firmly two or three minutes afterwards. 
If after a certain number of turns the operator pauses, and then, 
fearing he may not have done enough, gives another turn, and, 
after that, perhaps another, the coagulum or clot is disturbed or 
broken, and hemorrhage will possibly ensue. 

If after the proper number of turns the chord is immediately 
let go, it will probably be suddenly retracted, and, in the act of 
being quickly drawn up into the belly, will be untwisted, and in 
this case also hemorrhage may follow. The chord should be held 
firmly two or three minutes, that the clot may form above, and 
the vessel may adapt itself to its new state; it should then be 
suffered gradually to retract, the forceps still remaining fixed; 
and, having retracted nearly as far as it is then disposed to go, 
the forceps may be opened, and the vessel liberated. 

4 he clams were used as a^prudcnt precautionary guard in a 


208 A CONTAGIOUS DISEASE IN THE GENITALS 

new operation so important as this; and I would advise the 
practitioner to put them on the chord in the first cases in which 
he operates with the forceps; but I am convinced that they will 
soon be discarded, together with the cautery and the caustic, and 
that the torsion forceps will not only present a more humane, 
but a perfectly safe mode of arresting hemorrhage in castration. 

5, Nassau Street, Middlesex Hospital, 

7tli March, 1835. 


We regard this as one of the most valuable papers that has 
lately appeared in our Journal, and we cordially thank Mr. 
Molyneux for it.~Y. 


A CONTAGIOUS DISEASE IN THE GENITALS 
OF THE HORSE AND MARE. 

M. Lautour, F.5'. 

In April 1830, I was required to attend on a mare with the 
following symptoms:—running of a yellow-coloured fluid from 
the orifice of the vulva—the membrane of the vagina more highly 
coloured than is natural — phlegmonous and very tender en¬ 
largement of the right side of the udder, and which extended to 
the groin and the thigh on the same side. The discharge had 
continued eight or ten days, but the attention of the owner was 
principally fixed on the enlargement of the mamm®, and which 
had produced lameness sufficient to prevent the animal from 
working. The appetite, however, was good, and the fseces of 
their usual consistence. 

I extracted eight pounds of blood from the jugular, and ap¬ 
plied the scarificator to the tumefaction of the udder, to which 
I ordered emollient lotions. Injections of water with a small 
quantity of vinegar were thrown up the vagina. 

The mare was radically cured in about fifteen days; and I 
thought that I had treated a simple phlegmonous affection. 

While I was treating this case I was sent for to another of the 
same nature, as I imagined, two leagues off; and at the beginning 
of May I was called almost every instant to some new case, 
and each presented more serious complications. I was much 
surprised to see an affection, the characters of which were so 
similar in all, manifesting itself in so many subjects, and espe¬ 
cially as I could not recollect any epizootic or enzootic that had 
been accompanied by these symptoms. 





OF THE HORSE AND MARE. 


209 

Having been informed that all these mares had been covered 
by the same stallion, I was anxious to ascertain the state in which 
he was; but this was impossible, for the owner had sold him 
clandestinely, and I could not discover into what part of the 
country he had gone. This sudden disappearance threw a new 
light upon the whole affair, especially as every day I had new 
patients. 

I may state the following as the general character of the com¬ 
plaint :—increased discharge from the orifice of the vulva, of a 
white or yellow colour, differing in quantity in different patients, 
and, in general, most abundant in weak and emaciated subjects. 

Few ulcerations appeared when 1 was called in at the com¬ 
mencement of the disease ; but when that was not the case, and 
the disease had made progress, chancres were constantly found, 
either on the integument on the inside of the thighs, or on the 
edge of the vulva, or on the membrane within the vagina; and 
it often happened that chancres, more or less numerous, appeared 
on all these places at the same time. 

I had always occasion to remark sympathetic affection of the 
mammae, the termination of which was generally in suppuration, 
and especially when bleeding had not been practised. In some 
patients, the wound whence the pus had escaped became deeply 
ulcerated; and always, when the tumour being left to take its 
natural course, the orifice was large. 

About twelve of these mares became affected with chronic 
glanders. If it had been found that only two or three had ex¬ 
hibited this complication of disease, I probably should not have 
attributed the appearance of mange to the malady now under 
consideration ; but I found the number too great for me to avoid 
the conclusion that the appearance of glanders was connected 
with the inflammation of the genital parts, and induced by it. 

All these mares had been covered at nearly the same time, and, 
generally speaking, in those to which I was first called, the dis¬ 
ease was only commencing, and yielded easily to antiphlogistic 
treatment, the employment of general bleeding, scarifications 
of the udder, and emollient or acidulated injections into the 
vagina. As to those which I had occasion to see afterwards, 
the cure was more difficult to accomplish, and, indeed, was only 
accomplished after a treatment of six weeks or two months’ 
duration. I then ceased to employ general sedatives or debi- 
htants, but made the local treatment more active, using bitter 
injections (gentian), or styptic ones (alum), and more or less con¬ 
centrated, as the case seemed to require. The ulcerations result¬ 
ing from the breaking of the abscesses on the udder were pow¬ 
dered with bark. 


210 A CONTAGIOUS DISEASE IN THE GENITALS 

When, at the end of six weeks or two months, my efforts were 
not crowned with success, the owners, wearied with the tardiness 
of the cure, abandoned their animals to the ignorance of em¬ 
pirics, who purged them without reason or mercy, and in a little 
time induced marasmus and death. That will not be surprising, 
when it is considered that, in many cases, the texture of the di¬ 
gestive passages of these animals had suffered materially from 
the consequences of the disease, and then the abuse of purgatives 
could not fail to hasten a fatal termination of the affair. 

The greater part of the mares that were not submitted to any 
treatment exhibited most of the symptoms already described, and 
got well spontaneously after the space of six or eight months, or, 
sometimes, a year. It may be well to observe that in all those that 
were not bled there were febrile re-actions, more or less intense, 
about the third or fourth month; and that in most of them the 
tumours of the udder were, in a manner, interminable, for, when 
one ulcer cicatrized, two or three appeared in its place. 

All those that were affected with glanders were, of course, 
destroyed, and on examination after death displayed the fol¬ 
lowing lesions. The exterior portion of the generative organs 
was infiltrated, presenting marks of phlegmonous inflamma¬ 
tion—the skin of the inside of the thighs was almost covered 
with ulceration—the membrane of the vagina was thickened, red, 
or livid, and beset with chancrous ulcerations of a more or less 
decided character—the neck of the uterus was usually scirrhous. 
The ovaries were covered with fungous or other degeneracies, 
in the highest state of inflammation—their tissue was become 
lardaceous, or bad changed to a receptacle of purulent matter.— 
The peritoneum presented traces of inflammation about the pelvic 
region. The Schneiderian membrane was chancred, tumefied, 
and covered with fungus;—in a word, chronic glanders existed, 
and announced its existence, during the life of the animal, by all 
its usual symptoms. 

I must not say that I am yet authorized to draw any absolute 
conclusion from the facts which I have stated, but I confess 
that I cannot help tracing some analogy between this disease 
and the syphilis of the human being. 

1. The stallion which appeared to have communicated the 
disease, had, without doubt, something particularly the matter 
with him, or his owner would not have disposed of him so 
quickly and with such secrecy, when it was generally known 
that many of the mares covered by him had contracted a dis¬ 
ease in their genital parts. 

2. Every mare that I saw had been covered by this horse, 
therefore the malady under which he laboured possessed the 


OF THE HORSE AND MARK. 211 

fatal property of being transmitted to others. I do not pretend 
to say that every mare connected with him became diseased—• 
I have not the means of knowing this; but I do mean to say 
that all those who became diseased in this way had been covered 
by him. 

3. The symptoms during life, and the lesions observed on 
examination after death, favour the suspicion which I have 
expressed. 

4. The glanders which was developed in several of them 
renders this supposition more probable, since not only ulceration 
of the Schneiderian membrane, but caries of the bones of the 
face and the cranium, are frequently complicated with venereal 
affections in the human being. 

Some cases which occurred in 1832 give additional proba¬ 
bility to my surmise. After having covered a mare, apparently 
in good health, a stallion had many little pustular tumours 
on his penis, and particularly on the right side and the posterior 
surface of the organ. After having acquired, in the space of 
four or five days, the volume and the appearance of variolous 
pustules, they broke, and gave issue to a whitish fluid, which 
produced ulceration of every part of the mucous membrane over 
which it flowed. The suppurative process having passed, the 
pustules degenerated into ulcers, and to such a degree, that the 
penis of the horse presented posteriorly, and on the right side, 
a great number of ulcerated surfaces fully an inch in diameter. 

The mares which he covered, after the rupture of the pustules, 
had also ulcerations, but only on the edges of the vulva, and 
those points which could have come in contact with the ulcera¬ 
tions on the penis ; and in my opinion fully proved that there 
had been a true inoculation from the male to the female.—The 
vagina offered nothing worthy of remark. 'Two other stallions 
in the same stable were attacked with the same disease, but in 
a slighter degree. 

Bleeding, and lotions of a weak decoction of gentian, fre¬ 
quently repeated, were the only means employed; and a cure 
was usually effected in about eight days. In order to apply the 
lotion, it was necessary to excite erection of the penis, and the 
diseased part was immediately discovered. 

The mares were not bled; and in all of them the disease easily 
yielded to lotions frequently repeated. 

lieciieily March 1834. 


212 


OBSERVATIONS ON GELDINa 
Bj/ Mr. R. Thomson, Beith, N. B. 

(Addressed to Mr. Dick.) 

I HAVE made many experiments as to the use of the ligature 
in the castration of colts and horses, and the removal of this 
ligature on the second or third day. However humane the plan 
may appear, there are serious objections to it. Suppuration, in 
the generality of these cases, does not commence until the fifth 
day—rarely sooner, and sometimes later. Inflammation of the 
scrotal portion of the peritoneum must extend more or less during 
that period, and its progress is not arrested until suppuration 
commences. The protracted time must, in this mode of operat¬ 
ing, be more dangerous, especially in fiery blood colts. I have 
cut about ten colts, using this operation. Some did remarkably 
well: in others the swelling was very great before suppuration 
commenced. In one that died it was uncommonly large. Sup¬ 
puration did not commence until the sixth day. The animal 
got better at that time—the swelling subsided—but he died 
about two months afterwards. The adhesive inflammation, by 
being so long protracted, had done so much mischief that the 
scrotum, peritoneum, and chord, were all glued into one mass. 
Fomentation, bleeding, ^and laxatives, were employed in vain. 
The colt was a wild fiery animal, half bred. 

I have cut a good many bulls in the same way, and there does 
not appear to be the least bad consequence attending this plan 
with regard to them. I have scarcely seen any swelling, al¬ 
though I gelded three in one day, in the very heat of summer. 

The first colt gelded by me did remarkably well: it was three 
years old, and the success of the plan made me persevere until 
I saw its danger; and I will geld no more upon that principle, 
unless particularly requested to do so. 

The success of common gelders, in my opinion, is founded on 
this, that however coarsely the operation be done, and however 
unmerciful may be the application of the hot iron, there is an 
almost immediate tendency given to suppuration: suppura¬ 
tion does make its appearance much sooner after the iron than 
after the ligature; and the patient is always considered, in a 
manner, out of danger when the parts begin to suppurate, unless 
immediate inflammation of the peritoneum followed, and mortifi¬ 
cation has taken place. 

I am quite aware that you are a great advocate for firing 
nothing more than the vessels, and so am I likewise. I would 


OBSERVATIONS ON GELDING. 


213 

fire no more than necessary. I well remember that, when seeing 
you castrating (and 1 was extremely anxious to see you perform 
that operation), no more was generally fired than the mouth 
of the artery. There is one small artery on the posterior part 
of the chord that cannot well be fired without touching a portion 
of the peritoneum. This small portion of it being touched with 
the iron suppurates; the rest of the divided portion gradually 
follows from that point where the cautery touches the peri¬ 
toneum upon the chord, and prevents the adhesive inflammation 
from ascending far upon it, in consequence of the suppurative 
process more or less taking place in a very short time after 
firing. So that I consider the practice of firing the divided sur¬ 
face of the chord safer than tying, or even than firing no more 
than the mouths of the arteries ; for if the least portion of 
peritoneum upon the chord be touched with the cautery, it forms 
a point for suppuration, and answ^ers the object as well as the 
old plan of burning the chord like a cinder. 

I am aware that it may be argued that, by firing the points of 
the arteries a suppurative point is formed in the chord ; but the 
chord and the peritoneum covering it are distinct, and suppura¬ 
tion may take place extensively in the chord, as is sometimes the 
case in fistulous abscess of that part, without much affecting the 
peritoneum covering it. 

I consider the caustic clams as operating upon the same prin¬ 
ciple. The caustic burns the peritoneum and the chord ; suppu¬ 
ration immediately follows, the scrotum is left open while the 
clams are upon it, and allows the fluid to escape there which 
forms between the peritoneum and testicle, and in a great mea¬ 
sure prevents the swelling and discharge from being so abundant 
as in firing or tying the arteries. 1 do not mean to argue that 
bad consequences would always attend tying the arteries, or only 
firing the mouths of the two arteries of the chord ; but what I 
argue is this,—if a small portion of peritoneum is fired or burnt 
with caustic, the operation would be comparatively safer, as it 
cannot be denied that suppuration always follows castration, 
more or less, and the sooner the better; and inflammation of the 
peritoneum, to any extent, without suppuration, is always dan¬ 
gerous in gelding. 

If suppuration follow^s the operation of firing in two or three 
days, it must be safer than when prolonged to five or six days, 
as in tying the arteries. 


o g 


VOI-. VI II. 


214 


FARCY IN THE HUMAN BEING. 

Bi/ M. VoGELI, M.V., Besancon. 

CASE I. 

In 1817, M. P— pricked his left hand in performing certain 
operations on a farcied horse destined for the surgical instruction 
of the school. The wound was immediately washed and bound 
up. On the same day the arm began to swell even as high as 
the axilla, and a red line could be traced along the inside of the 
arm and fore-arm. He was put under the care of Dr. Parrat, 
physician in ordinary to the school. A bubo formed in the axilla, 
as large as a pullet’s egg. It broke, and resisted every means to 
heal it. This induced M. P. to petition for leave to visit his 
home, and withdraw himself from the injurious influence of the 
fogs that prevail at Lyons during the winter. After an absence 
of nearly a year he returned quite well. 

CASE II. 

During the winter of 1828, M. Gardouneche, of Ussel, a 
strong and robust young man, twenty-one years of age, but too 
much addicted to the use of wine and spirituous liquors, pricked 
himself in the hollow of his hand. The wound would not heal, 
and the arm enlarged as high as the axilla, and continued in that 
state for a considerable time ; the ulcer in his hand slowly spread¬ 
ing. Other ulcers appeared on his knee, his lips, and in the 
fauces. He returned to his native roof, and there he died in 
September 1829. 

CASE III. 

About the same time, M. M—, of Nobs, accidentally inocu¬ 
lated himself while dissecting a farcied horse. The results were 
the same as in the first case. 

CASE IV. 

Peter Couderq, of Concon, in the same class with myself, 
twenty-two years old, of very irritable temperament, of herculean 
stature, and enjoying perfect health, had the charge of a horse 
sadly farcied. As he was puncturing one of the farcy buds, on 
the 11th December 1829, the horse suddenly started. Couderq 
quickly drew back the bistouiy, that he might not wound the 
animal, and, in so doing, pricked his left thumb. As the acci¬ 
dents which I have already related had made us aware of the 
danger of these wounds, Couderq washed it with liquid am¬ 
monia in which chloride of lime had been dissolved. The wound • 


FARCY IN THE HUMAN BEING. 


215 

was bandaged, in order to preserve it from contact with the air; 
and neither on that day nor the following did he experience 
any inconvenience, and he began to think that all danger was 
passed. 

13^4.—He returned to his employment in the clinical school, 
with the management of which he was then charged. The 
ground was covered with ice, and Couderq going carelessly along, 
fell heavily. This caused some merriment among his class-fel¬ 
lows, which so exasperated him, that, nohbeing in any other way 
able to avenge himself, he used some very angry and improper 
language. This only increased their mirth, and he retired. 
Some hours afterwards he betook himself to his bed, complain¬ 
ing of a '‘dreadful headach. On the morrow he said that he 
was very ill: this drew from some of his companions expressions 
of surprise and ridicule. They looked at his stature and his 
strength, and they could not comprehend how a simple fall 
should so completely knock him up. He felt no inconvenience 
from the w^ound, and he and his companions had ceased to think 
of it. 

On the 15th he betook himself to the infirmary of the school, 
where I also was confined by severe catarrh. He went to bed, 
and waited for the physician, who did not visit him until the 
evening. Couderq used to be a great eater, but now the pain 
in his head deprived him of all his appetite. I will not speak of 
the care that was taken of him, which was very great, nor of the 
means that were resorted to; my present purpose is the possi¬ 
bility of the farcy of the horse being communicated to the human 
being. During the first days of his residence in the infirmary, 
however, no one dreamed of the inoculation of farcy : the object 
of the physician was to relieve the dreadful pain in his head, 
and he was immediately bled, and baths and sinapisms were ap¬ 
plied to the feet. I undertook to be his nurse, and by the ad¬ 
vice of the doctor applied a certain number of leeches to the 
inside of his thighs, and placed cloths wet with an anodyne de¬ 
coction on his forehead and his temples, but with no good effect. 
The least noise startled him ; the light became insupportable ; his 
countenance assumed a mingled expression of melancholy and 
suffering, occasionally becoming dark and ferocious. His thumb 
had now become inflamed, and there was considerable suppura¬ 
tion from the wound. 

Fever, which left him but few moments of respite, attacked 
him on the 18th, and continued until the 23d, when he sunk 
into a complete state of apathy, and was perfectly obedient to 
command. 

In the night of the 23d and 24th he became delirious, and 
talked continually of his farcied horse and its disease, which he 


FARCY IN THE HUMAN BEING. 


216 

described with singular exactness. This delirium, and the subject 
which occupied his mind, threw new and unexpected light on his 
case. The idea of farcy immediately presented itself to us, and 
we communicated our fears to Dr. Perrat and the inspector 
Bonnefoy, but who at first strenuously opposed our opinion. 

On the 24th the delirium subsided ; and about two o’clock in 
the afternoon Couderq asked me for a mirror. I gave him one; 
and, after having attentively gazed on his own countenance, he 
said, as he returned the glass to me, It is astonishing! I 
thought that 1 had something on my left jaw : I felt a tickling 
as if some insect was crawling over it.” During the rest of the 
day he frequently felt his left jaw, with an expression of pleasure 
on his countenance. He was calm during the night, and slept 
a little. 

On the 25th, at six o’clock in the morning, the delirium re¬ 
turned. The itching of the jaw was become insupportable, and 
a slight redness began to appear. Couderq was continually lift¬ 
ing his hand to it. At nine o’clock the red spot had become a 
hideous ulcer, as large as a five centime piece, bleeding, and 
with its edges reversed and prominent: its surface was irregular, 
and scattered over it were little portions of muscular fibre, which 
had been broken in the bursting of the tumour. 

The sudden appearance of this farcy bud, and which formed 
itself into an abscess so quickly and so hideously, confirmed our 
fears, and inspired the inhabitants of the infirmary with such 
terror, that five out of the seven which it contained immediately 
quitted it,either to return to their own lodgings, or to some other 
temporary abode. I alone remained; for, whatever might be my 
fears, I could not bring myself to abandon my companion. The 
delirium ceased in the course of the same day. Couderq then 
complained of pains all over him. Other buds appeared on his 
eyelids, his arm-pits, the bending of the elbows, and the back of 
the hands. The delirium returned at night, and only quitted 
him afterv/ards at rare and short intervals. 

The farcy buds had caused the eyelids to swell, and they were 
quite closed; they were about a line in diameter—on other parts 
they were twice or four times as large. They were all prominent 
in the centre, and surrounded by a large red areola; and they 
quickly suppurated and discharged a white sanious or purulent 
fetid matter. 

26^/n-—The arm, the fore arm, the lips, the alee of the nostrils, 
the inside of the mouth, the neck, the chest, the groins, the pre¬ 
puce, the glans, the inside and the outside of the thighs, the 
bending of the knee, the calves of the legs, and the upper surface 
of the feet, w'ere covered with buttons irregularly scattered—some¬ 
times in groups, varying in their numbers, sometimes isolated. 



FARCY IN THE HUMAN BEING. 217 

but in no place more distant than three-fourths of an inch from 
each other. 

During the night of the 26th and on the 27th these buttons 
became white in their centre; and some of them formed into ab¬ 
scesses, containing thick flocculent pus, mixed with slight striae 
of blood. The poor patient, in his delirium, spoke of nothing 
but his horse, and with even more exactness than at first. He 
seemed to suffer more from the tumours on the eyelids than 
from any of the others, for he imagined that they were effecting 
some strange change in him, and he had occasionally harboured 
that idea from the very beginning. 

On the night of the 27th he ffincied that he had returned to 
his native soil, and about seven in the morning my poor fellow- 
student ceased to live. 

I continued to watch over him; and I do not know whether it 
was an illusion of my senses, or an actual fact, but more of the 
tumours seemed to wdiiten, and others increased in size for two 
hours after his death ; and, after that, I observed many more of 
these buttons on the back and loins and thighs, but they were 
much smaller than any of the others. 

CASE V. 

M. G., a pupil from L'Ardiche, wounded himself in the fore 
finger of the right hand, some time in the month of July 1830, 
when performing, for the sake of practice, some operations on a 
farcied horse. Disorders, but less serious than those of Cases I 
and III, followed. I quitted the school at the end of August, and 
thus lost sight of him ; but I met with him in January 1831, still 
in the infirmary, and in June 1833 with the wound in his finger 
unhealed. 

I do not know w'hether these facts are conclusive, but, at least, 
they are true; and the whole of the fourth case passed under 
my own observation. 

This is an exceedingly interesting paper, and reflects the highest 
credit on M. Vogeli. He who, braving all danger from conta¬ 
gion, and under so dreadful a form, remained at the bed-side of his 
unfortunate friend, when every one besides had fled, will ever 
stand high in the estimation of his fellow-men. The destructive 
agency of these animal poisons is too well knowm, and the ac¬ 
count of poor Couderq bears considerable resemblance to the his¬ 
tory of those v/ho have perished from the infliction of slight wounds 
in the dissection of subjects that had not died of any recognized 
contagious disease. M. Vogeli’s point is not, in our mind, 
proved—the identity of disease, the communicahkniess oj farcy. 
Some of our British veterinarians may have cases in ])oint.—Y. 





218 


THE VETERINARIAN, APRIL 1 , 1835 . 


Ne quid falsi dicere audeat, ne quid veri non audeat.—C icero. 


It is known to most of our readers, that many of the former 
and present pupils of Professor Coleman had determined to pre¬ 
sent him with a bust of himself, as a token of their respect. The 
presentation took place in the College Theatre, on Tuesday, the 
10th of March. The bust was by Sievier. It was an admirable 
likeness of the Professor—it was the very man. It was placed 
on a neat scagliola pedestal, with the following inscription: — 

THIS BUST OF PROFESSOR COLEMAN 
WAS PRESENTED TO HIM BY THE 
MEMBERS OF THE VETERINARY PROFESSION 

IN 1835, 

AS A MARK OF RESPECT, AND ADMIRATION 
OF HIS TALENTS. 

The theatre was filled with the subscribers, several of whom 
came from distant parts of the country, and with the Professor's 
present class. Mr. Sewell, as Chairman of the Committee of 
Management, was delegated to tender this offering of esteem 
and gratitude. He addressed the Professor in nearly the follow¬ 
ing words:— 

Sir,—Fortj^-one years have now passed since you have begun 
to fill the Professor’s chair in this College, with credit to yourself 
and advantage to your pupils. They are pleased to observe, that, 
after so lengthened a career, you are still enabled effectively to 
discharge the duties of that chair; but, ere you pass away from 
among them, they are anxious to present you with this testimony 
of the sense they feel of your habitual amenity of manners and 
the excellence of your instructions. I feel some difficulty in ex¬ 
pressing myself as I could wish on this point; but I can say that 
you have ever given ample satisfaction to the majority of your 
pupils. 

The veterinary art is of no recent date. It was known and 
cultivated in the time of the Greeks and Romans, and the writings 
of Palladius and Vegetius have reached us at this distant time, 
and are duly prized. Although, with the other sciences, it seemed 




MR. Coleman’s bust. 


219 


to perish in the general wreck of the middle ages, it at length 
began to revive upon the continent, and first of all in France ; 
Bourgelat, Solleysel, and some others, leading the way. I have 
had the honour of seeing the statue of Bourgelat, the first French 
professor, in the theatre of the school at Ajfort; and I am happy 
that we shall now have the bust of our Professor in our theatre. 

The art has made great advance in England, and that is to 
be attributed chiefly to my friend, the Professor of this College. 
We have several works on veterinary science, but they are not 
such as we should wish them to be—they are not worthy of this 
institution, nor of the state of the science among us; and if, 
gentlemen, we could induce our worthy friend, before he departs 
from among us, to give us a w^ork of his own on the anatomy and 
physiology of the horse, he would leave behind him a monument 
more imperishable than this marble. I wish it had fallen into 
better hands, Sir, to have presented you with this memorial: it 
is a sincere tribute of respect; and I again express our ardent 
hope, that, before you leave us, you would give us a work worthy 
of you and of us, and which, as I said before, would render your 
name more imperishable than this marble.” 

Mr. Coleman then arose. He was evidently much affected; 
but the apyflauses of the company, which long continued, gave 
him time to recover himself. His first sentences, however, were 
nearly inaudible. We conceived him to say, “ I want words, 
gentlemen, to express the pleasure and the thankfulness which I 
feel at the present moment. With that greatest of all crimes— 
that which includes in it every other crime—ingratitude, you 
shall never, 1 trust, have to accuse me. This is, indeed, a reward 
for the forty years that I have spent in the instruction of veterinary 
pupils, and, I trust, the improvement of the veterinary art. 

The establishment of a veterinary school had long been agitated 
in this country. In 1791, M. Sainbel was appointed Professor 
of the contemplated rather than organized institution. In the 
October of that year the Professor’s lectures were first advertized, 
and at the close of the year there were four resident pupils in the 
College. In January 1792, the first public veterinary lectures were 
delivered; and, applications becoming numerous for the reception 


THE-<: PnESE?%TxVTION OF 


220 

of sick horses, the committee determined that stables should be 
forthwith erected. On the 1st of January, 1793, the infirmary was 
opened; and before the end of February, the number of sick horses 
had increased to 50, ,and there were fourteen resident pupils. 
Before the end of that year, Sainbel died. 

It becomes not me to speak of the abilities or the deficiencies 
of the first Professor of the Veterinary College. The governors, 
however, had great difficulty in supplying his place. Overtures 
were made to more than one, who were supposed to be as capa¬ 
ble as, under the circumstances, they could be, to fill the situa¬ 
tion ; but the art was in its infancy, and the new professor of it 
would have much to contend with, and they all declined the 
offer. I was then practising as a surgeon. I knew nothing of 
veterinary matters any farther than I had been engaged in many 
careful dissections of the eye of the horse for a particular pur¬ 
pose, and had likewise been experimenting on the phenomena 
of suspended respiration in animals. My name was at length 
mentioned by my kind master and patron, Mr. Cline. 

I was not much disposed at first to accept the offer of the pro¬ 
fessorship,—indeed, I peremptorily refused it; but, being urged 
friends, who told me that I already knew as much as, and proba¬ 
bly somewhat more, than any other person to whom overtures could 
possibly be made, of the anatomy and physiology of the horse, 
I was induced to accept of the situation, on the condition that Mr. 
Moorcroft, a highly talented veterinary practitioner, would become 
my colleague. He consented, and we were appointed. 

[found thirteen students at the College, many of whose names 
are familiar to you, and who, since the death of the first Profes¬ 
sor, had, under the direction of Mr. Bichard Lawrence, con¬ 
ducted the practice of the College : and, gentlemen, when I w'as 
brought into immediate contact with them, and observed the ex¬ 
tent of their acquirements, I began to see the rashness, perhaps 
I should rather say the folly, of my conduct. I found there, 
Mr. Richard Lawrence, Mr. Bracy Clark, Mr. Field, Mr. Bond, 
and others who were afterwards ornaments to their profession. 
I brought with me some knowledge of comparative anatomy and 
physiology, and of the grand principles of medical science ; but 


MR. Coleman’s bust. 221 

I found those who were acquainted with that which was of in¬ 
finitely greater importance,—the best mode of practising on the 
diseases of our chief patient. 

However, we went on comfortably, and as I imagined satisfac¬ 
torily, when Mr. Moorcroft thought proper to resign. He pleaded 
ill health—I could see no ill health at all. He also pleaded in¬ 
terference with his duty to those by whom he was employed in 
private practice of considerable extent; but his time at the Col¬ 
lege had been clearly specified—two hours, three days in the 
week, and with little or no call upon him for attendance at un¬ 
certain hours. It was not for me then, or now, to inquire into 
his motives, but I confess that I felt myself rather ill-used. 

** The situation in which I now found myself was perplexing and 
annoying to the greatest degree. I felt that I could not, with¬ 
out many mortifying reflexions, return to my first profession ; 
but I felt also that it would be presumptuous, perhaps disho¬ 
nourable, for me, so little versed in veterinary matters, to super¬ 
intend the interests and the growth of the infant school, and, 
after much serious consideration, I determined also to resicrn. 

^^The governors gave me credit for the feelings by which I was 
influenced, but they were unwilling to accept my resignation; 
and my own private friends, relying on my industry, and I may, 
perhaps, be permitted to say, on my principle also, urged me to 
stay. They conceived that a course of severe study, and from 
which they thought, and I trust justly thought, I should not shrink, 
would at no great distance of time make me fairly qualified to pre¬ 
side over that institution, and, perhaps, better qualified than most 
other men at that day would be. I yielded—whether rightly or 
not my pupils and the profession must judge—and I became sole 
Professor of the Veterinarv Colleo^e. 

t/ O 

I trust that you will give me credit for losing no time in 
preparing myself for my arduous duties. While I made myself 
more thoroughly acquainted with the anatomy and physiology 
of the horse, and the symptoms of his diseases, I instituted a 
course of experiments on the power of certain drugs on certain 
of his functions, and on his constitution generally. I brought 
with me all my prejudices as a surgeon. I imagined that the 

VOL. VIII. II h 


222 THE PRESENTATION OF 

drugs which would produce a certain efiect on the human being, 
would produce the same effect on the horse—with some differ¬ 
ence only, perhaps some great difference, in the dose. I thought 
that I should vomit him with tartar emetic, and purge him with 
jalap. I soon, however, found that I was wrong here—I had 
something to forget as well as much to learn ; and anxious ob¬ 
servation and numerous experiments convinced me that the dis¬ 
eases of the horse and the human being were often essentially 
different—their treatment, perhaps, the same as to the grand 
principle, but strangely different in the application of that prin¬ 
ciple, and the operation of medicines setting at defiance all my 
preconceived opinions. I could not vomit by ipecacuanha, or 
nauseate by tobacco, and scarcely ease pain by opium: in fact, 
I had every thing to learn. 

I then considered the character and standing in society to 
which my pupils had a right to look, and which, in fact, be¬ 
longed to those who practised my new profession. I saw some 
estimable men among them—men of high talent and acquire¬ 
ments ; but I saw a great many more who had nothing estimable 
in their general conduct, and whose practice was grossly empi¬ 
rical ; and I saw, also, that it was in vain that the man of cha¬ 
racter and talent strove to emerge from the general mass. He 
might be esteemed, and might associate with those who knew his 
worth, but he had no claim that he could enforce to general re¬ 
gard. He was a farrier, and, as such, excluded from the superior 
and almost from the middle classes of society. 

I then bethought me how I should give respectability to such 
a profession; and the mode of effecting this was soon afforded 
me. Veterinary surgeons began to be appointed to cavalry re¬ 
giments ; and I prayed and demanded that they should be ap¬ 
pointed in the same way as the human surgeons—that they 
should be commissioned officers—that they should rank as gen¬ 
tlemen. With some difficulty I obtained my object, and thus 
gave to the veterinary profession a new character and import¬ 
ance. I gave to its members a claim to respect where they had 
not otherwise forfeited that claim. I gave them a right to ad¬ 
mission not only to a superior class of society, but to the highest 


MR. Coleman’s bust. 223 

and the best—nay, under fitting circumstances, to the table of 
royalty itself. 

Still, gentlemen, it was a hard battle which I had to fight: 
the prejudices of the public were not to be at once, nor until 
after a long lapse of time, disarmed ; nor do I think that I should 
have had the resolution to have struggled on, nor should I have 
struggled successfully, had I not had kind and powerful backers. 
In Mr. John Hunter, Mr. Cline, Dr. Fordyce, Sir Astley Cooper, 
Sir Everard Home, Sir Charles Bell, Sir Benjamin Brodie, Dr. 
Pearson, Mr. Green, Mr. Mayo, and Mr. Travers, I had those 
who zealously and perseveringly upheld me, and the respectabi¬ 
lity of the art I taught. 

You may suppose that a great deal of ignorance with regard 
to the horse continued to prevail, and that not only among the 
lower classes of society, and the lower classes of veterinary prac- 
tioners, but the bench of justice was not free from the imputa¬ 
tion. A horse was sold perfectly sound ; a little while afterwards 
he sprung a curby attended with a little more swelling and in¬ 
flammation than usual. The purchaser said that he was unsound, 
and returned him, and commenced his action. Mr. (afterwards 
Lord) Erskine, in opening the case, remarked, that horse-causes 
were generally tedious affairs ; but this, gentlemen,’^ said he, 
will be an exceedingly short one, so short, that I shall only 
have to state my case in order to obtain your verdict immediately. 
The horse in question had scarcely been a day or two in my 
client’s possession before he was discovered to have a sad sw^elling 
beneath the hock—the hock in the horse, you know, answers to 
the knee of the human being” (so much for his lordship’s ana¬ 
tomy !). It is a very serious thing for^us to have swellings about 
the feet, and the legs; but when they reach to the knee, and 
threaten to run up to the body, I need not tell you that there 
must be constitutional disease fraught with danger.” He 
then called a farrier, supposed to be skilful in these matters, 
and he confirmed the opening of the counsel to the very 
letter. He said these swellings were very bad things indeed; 
that they proceeded from a kind of gout; that it was bad 
enough when the horse had swellings lower down; but that 


THE PRESENTATION OF 


224 

when they crept as high as the hock, it was all up with the 
animal. The judge, Lord Mansfield, held that this was a very 
serious grievance—a manifest and, probably, incurable unsound¬ 
ness; and that, therefore, the defendant must take the horse 
back again: and so verdict was given accordingly for the plaintiff. 

Another cause was tried before the same judge. A horse 
was sadly lame in one of the fore feet, and various measures of 
relief had been ineffectually tried. The owner took the horse to 
a farrier, who, after a very serious examination, told the gentle¬ 
man that he could take away the cause of the mischief, and that, 
if he would call on his return from a place to which he was going, 
he would shew him all about it. The gentleman returned in due 
time. ^ Here, sir,’ said the farrier, ‘ I don’t know whether it is 
bone or gristle, or what it is, but here is the source of all 
the evil’—holding up the navicular bone! You, gentlemen, 
know what must have been cut through, and what mischief 
must have been done, in order to get at that bone; and that the 
horse must necessarily be ruined for life. He was so. And when 
the farrier sent in his bill, the gentleman refused to pay it, on the 
ground of mal-practice. The farrier commenced his action— 
the whole story was told, and so ignorant was the judge of what 
was good or bad practice in such a case, that he thus summed 
up : ‘ The plaintiff employed the defendant—he had confidence 
in him, or he would not have employed him : the man acted to 
the best of his judgment, and he must be paid for his time and 
trouble ;’ and, accordingly, the verdict was for the plaintiff. 

I am proud, however, to say, that, so far as my knowledge 
extends, only two actions have been brought against pupils of 
mine for mal-practice; and, although in both cases, the verdict 
was against them, yet, in my opinion, neither of them ought to 
have suffered in reputation or in purse. One of them was sent 
for to examine a sick horse. Immediate bleeding was evidently in¬ 
dicated. It was then customary to bleed with the fleam; but my 
pupil had not his blood-stick with him. A delay in the bleeding 
might have been dangerous. He asked for some substitute for 
the blood-stick, and a hammer was given to him. The horse 
was bled. The vein afterwards inflamed, and a great deal of 


MR. Coleman’s bust. 225 

sloughing ensued. The owner brought his action against the 
veterinary surgeon for mal-practice; and although it could not be 
proved that there was any necessary connexion between the use 
of the hammer and the subsequent inflammation of the vein—' 
although it was highly probable that from some inflammatory 
tendency, or other unknown cause, this same disease of the vein 
would have ensued had the blood-stick been used (for the ad¬ 
justment of the force used in order to accomplish the purpose 
would have been the same, and a person skilled in his profes¬ 
sion, and aware of the power which it was actually necessary to 
employ, might have used a brick-bat as safely as a blood-stick), 
the defendant w^as saddled with heavy costs and damages, and, 
in fact, eventually compelled to quit that part of the country. 

‘‘Another of my pupils was consulted with respect to a horse 
that had inflammation of the eyes. He recommended among 
other things a rowel under the jaw. His employer could not 
afford to pay any great sum for medical attendance, and my pupil 
told him that if he would call as he passed, which was almost 
daily, he would dress the rowel for him with pleasure; nay, once, 
or twice, or thrice, he went considerably out of his way, and did 
what was necessary to the rowel. Several days, however, passed, 
and the owner did not think proper to call with his horse; and, 
from some of those causes, of which we know so little, gangrenous 
inflammation was excited in the rowelled part, and the horse 
became glandered and died. An action was commenced against 
him for negligent treatment; and although it might justly be 
disputed whether the veterinary surgeon is compelled to give 
balls, or to move and clean rowels, any more than the practitioner 
of human medicine is expected to administer his own draughts, 
or to dress the blisters which he orders (and in this case it was 
from mere kindness that he had offered occasionally to attend 
to the rowel), the jury, listening to the opinion of a farrier, who 
swore that the glanders was produced by the neglected rowel, 
considered he had not done his duty, and returned a verdict 
against him. 

“ I am proud to repeat it, that these are the only two instances 
that I know of in which actions have been brought against vetu- 


THE PRESENTATION OF 


226 

rinary surgeons for unskilful or negligent conduct, and, in my 
opinion, they were unjustly brought in both these cases. The 
confidence of the public was difficult to obtain at first; the 
young practitioner from the College had many prejudices to con¬ 
tend against; but that confidence has been gradually gained, and 
it will now be your own faults, gentlemen, if you do not obtain a 
fair share of employment, and live in society with comfort and re¬ 
putation. It was imagined a few years ago that you were multiply¬ 
ing too fast, that you were elbowing each other too closely, and 
that the number of the students must necessarily decrease. I do 
not know how that came to be thought of; but however that may 
be, the number of my pupils, and the number of veterinary 
surgeons sent into the world, has been larger and larger every 
year ; and I have heard of very few of them not doing compara¬ 
tively well, without the failure being clearly attributable to 
themselves. Some of them I know have made, or are making, 
large fortunes. 

‘^Not only is the number of students from the college school 
increasing, but the number of schools is increasing too. There 
are now four veterinary schools,—two in London, one in Edin¬ 
burgh, and one in Glasgow. Did I ever object to this? No. 
I have uniformly asserted, that if these schools are honourably 
conducted, in proportion as able teachers are multiplied truth is 
likely to be elicited. Discussion, friendly and candid discussion, 
always does good : both disputants cannot be right, and it will 
sometimes happen that both will be proved to be in the wrong. 

“ My old apprentice and assistant, Mr. Sewell, with whom I have 
lived five-and-thirty years, without one serious difference—differ¬ 
ence of opinion there has often been—and why not ? I like dis¬ 
cussion ; it is the only way in which truth can be discovered or 
confirmed. There has, however, been no difference which could 
impair friendship or mutual esteem. He has urged me once 
more to become an author. May I ask him why he has not 
himself favoured the public with one of those valuable works to 
which he alludes ? If, however, he has not done this, he has the 
strongest claim to the public gratitude for introducing, at least for 
establishing, an operation—I mean the excision of the nerves of 


MR. Coleman’s bust. 227 

the leg—which will live as long as veterinary science is known. 
It may not suit all cases. When the sinew has been abraded by 
the roughened surface of Mr. Turner’s navicular bone, it may 
hasten or produce the rupture of that tendon ; but it is applicable 
to so many cases in which it will ease the sufferings and pro¬ 
long the services of a noble and useful animal, that it will never 
be laid aside, and with it the name of my friend will be ever con¬ 
nected. 

^Weterinary writers have increased. There is my friend oppo¬ 
site to me (Mr. James Turner): he has published an admirable 
work on the navicular disease in the horse. I will not say that 
the cause of that particular lameness was unknown before the 
appearance of Mr. Turner’s book; but it was very obscurely 
understood by the best practitioners : the majority had no notion 
whatever of it, and the treatment of it was as rude and brutal 
as can be imagined. He who first brings an important subject 
before the public—who first of all clearly elucidates it, and labours 
until he has established it in the opinion of the public, deserves 
all the credit and praise connected with it. 

There is Mr. Richard Lawrence, a man of good education, 
great talent, and an admirable horse-limner. Very few persons 
are aware how much instruction may be derived from the 
writings of this gentleman. He ought to have filled this chair: 
he was ably conducting the arrangements of the school when I 
first came here. 

‘^Mr. Bracy Clark is likewise a man of superior education and 
talent. He has written an elaborate work on the foot of the 
horse. We differ about some things connected with that sub¬ 
ject; we agree as to the general anatomical structure of the 
foot; but we differ about the physiology of certain parts of it. 
What harm can come of that ? The public will judge which of us 
is right, and which is wrong. I am told that he complains that 
I have not used him well: I am yet to learn in what particular ; 
I am totally unconscious of it. I have recommended that which 
I thought was founded on true physiology in his work, and I 
have given my reasons for not agreeing with other parts. If 
this is injustice, I am yet to learn the meaning of terms. 


'2*28 


THK PRESENTATTON OF 


Mr. W. Percivall has written some excellent works on the 
anatomy, and physiology, and diseases of the horse, and exceed- 
ingly useful to the student. If I could be induced to comply 
with the request of my worthy assistant, and leave behind me 
some record of my opinions and instructions, I could not expect 
to rival the accuracy and perspicuity which characterize the 
productions of that gentleman. 

Mr. Youatt, his brother in the successful pursuit of veterinary 
science, has published various works, which reflect on him the 
highest credit. 

Mr. Joseph Goodwin has also published a useful work on the 
foot of the horse, and the principles of shoeing. 

All these gentlemen were my pupils, and I need not tell you 
that I am proud of them. 

There is another author who was not my pupil, who was 
assistant to M. Sainbel before I was called to the College; 
I refer to Mr. Blaine. You, gentlemen, well know the value of 
his works, and the assistance which you derive from them in 
the earliest and the most advanced period of your studies. 

I look to the Veterinary College, and I see three gentlemen 
whom I must not pass over in silence. Mr. Spooner, of whose 
intimate knowledge of veterinary anatomy, and his facility of im¬ 
parting that knowledge, many of you have had experience. My 
old friend, Mr. Vines, the assistant demonstrator,—whether 
u little harder work agrees with him I know not, but he is 
actually getting fat upon it. I am glad that he now gives much 
more satisfaction than he used to do, and I regard him as a 
valuable officer of this institution. I mentioned a third person, 
Mr. Morton, neither a veterinary surgeon, nor a veterinary stu¬ 
dent, but who, somehow or other, has contrived to pick up a 
vast deal of knowledge on veterinary subjects, and which, com¬ 
bined with that indispensable portion of your education, che¬ 
mistry, he satisfactorily imparts to the pupils. 

‘‘ If I were to select particular families who have distinguished 
themselves in the practice of our art, the name of Field would 
first of all occur to me. The father was a student to the College 
when I came to it. I am told that he amassed a princely fortune : 


MR. Coleman’s bust. 229 

That did not spoil him; wealth did not produce idleness. It 
has not spoiled his sons, who are most assiduous in business, 
and much connected with the respectability and the growing 
improvement of our profession. 

‘‘ And now, gentlemen, in conclusion, permit me, from my very 
heart, to thank you for this testimony of your esteem. Your 
esteem has ever been my best reward; and this token of it, so 
near the close of my career, is indeed dear to me. I do not, 
however, take it as notice to quit. You do not mean it so ; and 
I do not think that retirement from the duties of this chair 
would at present contribute to my happiness; yet, when you no 
longer deem me capable of fully discharging its duties, give me 
the hint, and I will retire. Gentlemen, once more I thank you ; 
I ought to be, and am warmly interested in your welfare—for 
you are all my children. May you be prosperous and happy! 
and if you are so to the extent to which I wish you, you will 
not have much cause to complain.^’ 

Mr. Morton then said that he had a short but pleasing task 
to perform. He begged to present the Professor with a list of 
the pupils who had, in contributing to the procuration of the 
bust, received far more honour than they conferred. 


The company re-assembled at the Freemasons’ Tavern, at 
six o’clock, in order to conclude, in the good old English style, 
the ceremonies of such a day, by a dinner. Several of the per¬ 
sonal friends of the Professor were now present; among them 
we observed Sir James McGregor the Surgeon-General of the 
Forces, Sir Charles Clarke, Sir C. Bell, Professors Mayo and 
Green, Drs. Bright and Paris, and Messrs. Bransby Cooper 
and J. Cocks; also Messrs. Morton and Spooner, Secretary and 
Treasurer to the Committee, and Mr. Sievier, the sculptor 
of the bust.—Few of Mr. Coleman’s present class were 
absent; and we were pleased to see so great a number of prac¬ 
titioners, and some of them from distant parts of the country. 
We recognized Messrs. Bardell, Bartlett, Braby, Byron, Cheet- 
ham, Dickens, W. Field (Mr. John Field was at the presenta- 

VOL. viii. I i 



230 VETERINARY DINNER. 

tion), Fletcher, Harrison, A. Henderson, Hollingworth, Jumpson, 
Kingjjun., Leigh, jun., Lepper, Lowes (3d Dragoons), Marshall, 
Mayer, jun., Morgan, Sibbald, Silvester, Snow, Sparrow, Stan¬ 
ley, James Turner, Thomas Turner, Vines, Wright, and Youatt. 

Mr. Sewell filled the chair, and Messrs. Sibbald and James 
Turner were Vice-chairmen. The three sons-in-law of the Pro¬ 
fessor, Messrs. Selby, Bruce, and Harwell, were seated opposite 
to him ; and his daughters, with Mrs. Sewell and other ladies, 

occupied the gallery. 

Such an assembly, and on such an occasion, presented every 
thing that was gratifying to the well-disposed mind. It was 
one of those happy hours in which we can forget every differ¬ 
ence of opinion, and every prejudice—in which those who by 
accident, or strange misunderstanding, or even on principle, are 
at variance, may, for the moment, consign to oblivion every 
cause of contention—in which we may not only afford to do 
justice to each other, but should scorn ourselves if we were not 
disposed to do so. It was one of those sunny scenes in life’s 
varied track, in which we can joyously abandon ourselves to 
eveiy sensation which the passing hour excites, and to which 
memory will often delight to recur. 

Surrounded by his natural and his adopted family by all 
his children, as he had called them in the morning—the Pro¬ 
fessor forgot the bodily pain under which it was evident that he 
laboured during the presentation, and threw off the weight of 
many a year j and even the countenance of our somewhat too 
cynical friend, the chairman, shortened and expanded almost to 
the contour that we remembered many a year ago. 

The cloth being removed, the usual toasts, The King, 
‘'The Queen,” and “The Duke of Cambridge, the President 
of the College,” were drunk with the accustomed honours. 
“The Governors of the Royal Veterinary College” was then given; 
and, after that, the health of him whose bust was placed in a con¬ 
spicuous part of the room, and respect and regard for whom had 
brought us together. Mr. Bransby Cooper’s “ one cheer more” 
was electrical. Mr. Coleman, now quite himself, replied with 
all that good humour and aftectionate regard which the father 


VETERINARY DINNER. 


231 


of such a family would naturally feel, and to the expression of 
which he well knew how to give the fullest effect; and although 
he, and the old gentleman’’ who presided, did, as the Pro¬ 
fessor facetiously said, lecture twice in the same day, and on 
the same subject too,—why they were not addressing altogether 
the same company, and a lecture on such a theme would not 
pall on repetition. 

To this followed the health of the Chairman, who apologized 
for the imperfect manner in which he feared he might discharge 
the duties of the chair, stating that it was the first time he had 
•been called upon to preside over such an assembly. That apo- 
logy was needed not, for the critics and the spirit of criticism 
had, on that evening, been nem. con. excluded. 

Then followed the common routine of toasts, “ The College of 
Physiciansand Dr. Paris, in reply, traced the connexion be¬ 
tween human and veterinary medicine—The College of Sur¬ 
geons and Mr. Mayo compared together the principles and the 
practice of human and veterinary surgery—The Examiners 
and Mr. Green eloquently described the progress of the veteri¬ 
nary art until it had spread and ripened into a science—The 
two absent Examiners, Sir Astley Cooper and Sir Benjamin 
Brodieand Mr. Bransby Cooper, always speaking from and 
to the heart, depicted the zeal of Sir Astley in the cause of 
veterinary science, and the friendship of half a century between 
him and the Professor, only changed by having acquired the mel¬ 
lowness and the sanctity of time. This was touching the right 
string, and the Professor arose, and, proudly acknowledging a 
friendship which would cease only with the last throb of life, or 
be but for awhile suspended then, begged that he might be 
permitted to propose one glass more to him whom illness alone 
could keep from them that evening; his earliest, latest, best 
friend, Sir Astley Cooper.” 

The memory of Dr. Babington” was then drunk in solemn 
silence, The Medical Officers of Guy’s” called from Dr. Bright 
an expression of good will towards the veterinary pupils and the 
veterinary cause.—The Army Surgeons” drew from Sir James 
McGregor the acknowledgment of much personal friendship for 


232 VETERINARY DINNER. 

the Professor, and of the high estimation in which, as his peculiar 
situation gave him the opportunity to observe, the cavalry vete¬ 
rinary surgeons were held by their brothers of human medicine, 
and by the officers generally of their respective regiments.—"‘The 
Visitors’" elicited from Sir C. Clarke a facetious account of 

the weakening strengthening humours” of a certain farrier: 
he also spoke of his esteem for the Professor, and his respect 
for our art, both of which would long strengthen, without one mo¬ 
mentary weakening intermission. 

The healths of Messrs. Byron and Hollingworth,” two old 
pupils of Mr. Coleman, and respectable practitioners in Lan^ 
cashire, and with whom the proposition of presenting the Professor 
with a bust of himself originated, and also of Mr. Sievier,” the 
sculptor, were now drunk. Mr. Byron, in a neat reply, distin¬ 
guished by feeling and eloquence, said that he and Mr. Holling¬ 
worth had few more pleasing recollections than of that evening, 
when, in company with their excellent friend Mr. Morton, this 
plan was first suggested. To the indefatigable assiduity of Mr. 
Morton, however, was to be traced the completion and the triumph 
of it. It was no common-place language which he used, when 
he declared that he had never spent a happier day. The recol¬ 
lection of the kindness and the talents of the Professor would 
long be cherished by him; and in zeal for the respectability and 
progress of veterinary science he would always be found in the 
foremost rank. 

Mr. Mayo, with some humour and much feeling, proposed 

Perpetuity to the Bust of Professor Coleman.” 

Whatever differences of opinion might have existed, rightly or 
wrongly, with regard to certain points connected with veterinary 
science, there had been but one feeling among those who had the 
opportunity to follow the Professor into private life. At his own 
table—in the bosom of his family—as an affectionate husband, 
and a kind and indulgent father, he was unrivalled. His family 
were now present, at the table and in the gallery; the happiest 
among the happy spectators of this scene. Mr. Bransby 
Cooper seized these points ; he spoke of them in his own way; 
and there was no toast throughout the evening drunk with more 


VETERINARY DINNER. 233 

enthusiasm than Professor Coleman’s daughters and their 
husbands.” 

It was delio^htful to see the sons-in-law contending; who first 
should return thanks for this toast; and each did speak, and each 
spoke well, for each spoke from the heart. It was one of those 
few occasions in which the virtues and the bliss of domestic life 
might, without intrusion and without profaneness, be depicted in 
a public assembly. Let those who are happiest at home imagine 
how they would have felt, and what they would have said, and 
they will have a not incorrect version of the replies to this toast™ 

The health of the Committee was now proposed; and Mr. 
Sibbald returned thanks. 

The chairman having retired, Mr. Spooner was called to the 
chair. In proposing his first toast, The Veterinary Profession,” 
he gave an interesting sketch of the rise and progress of our art; 
and proved that it was now founded on those principles, and had 
made that rapid advance which assured us, that it would, at no 
great distance of time, assume its due and proper place amidst 
the sciences most intimately connected with the cause of hu¬ 
manity and the prosperity of the country. Pleasure and har¬ 
mony afterwards continued to prevail, and were prolonged, we 
are not ashamed to say, on such an occasion, until almost the 
mornincr’s dawn. 

One or two omissions, perhaps, should be glanced at, which 
were excusable enough in the agitation and pleasure of the mo¬ 
ment. The health of the Treasurer was not drunk, who could 
have told us of the distribution of the money collected, and the 
cost of the bust, and many little particulars that would have 
been interesting. The Secretary was also forgotten, who, dis¬ 
charging the labours of his office so assiduously as he had done, 
had not, doubtless, forgotten to come prepared with a history of 
the rise and progress and consummation of the whole affair; and 
the recital of which would have done every heart good. These 
omissions, perhaps, may be repaired. The Veterinary Profes¬ 
sion” should not have been left to the chairman of a late hour: 
but the spell of the day is not yet broken, and we are silent. 

And was there an individual who cherished a malignity of 


234 REVIEW.-BRIDGEWATER TREATISES, NO. 8. 

spirit, that would not be lulled by the charm to which every 
other heart had yielded ? There was one : but he vanished with 
the storm—the momentary storm he had raised ; and we will 
leave him to his own reflections, and to the recollection of the 
strongly expressed opinion of many around him. 



Quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid non.—H or. 


Bridgewater' Treatises, No. 8. Chemistry, Meteorology, and the 

Function of Digestion. By William Prout, M.D. F.B.S. 

That a knowledge of chemistry forms an indispensable part 
of a veterinary surgeon’s education, no one can doubt, as it is so 
intimately connected with veterinary pharmacy; and a knowledge 
of the latter cannot be understood, nor practised with advantage, 
without a constant reference to the former. By veterinar}^ phar¬ 
macy w^e mean the art of preparing, preserving, and cornpound¬ 
ing substances for the purposes of medicine. An acquaintance, 
therefore, with this science must be as essentially necessary to 
the veterinary surgeon as to the apothecary. 

It is not necessary that a veteriuary surgeon should enter into 
all the intricacies of chemical research ; but it is absolutely ne¬ 
cessary that he should be acquainted with the nature of drugs, 
the different affinities of substances, and the change produced by 
combination. Without this knowledge he will often err in the 
forms of preparations and compositions which he employs, and 
will be often deceived in the effects resulting from compositions, 
when he infers their pronerties from the known powers of the 
ingredients in their separate state. 

How often is it imagined, that, in order to obtain a safe and 
efficacious medicine, nothing further is requisite than to jumble 
together a number of ingredients, without being aware that me¬ 
dicines, so mixed, often entirely change their nature, and acquire 
active powers which none of them possessed before. Again, 
many active substances are of such a nature that they could 
not, without imminent danger, be exhibited by themselves ; but 
by very slight additions become efficacious medicines. To obtain 
the advantages that may be derived from such compositions, it 
is indispensably necessary that the practitioner has a knowledge 
of chemistry. Plrarmaceutical chemistry, we are informed, is 







CHEMISTRY, METEOROLOGY, &C. 235 

more attended to at the Veterinary College than formerly. We 
are happy to hear of it. During our pupilage (about eleven 
years since), we had the opportunity, with others, of hearing the 
excellent lectures of Messrs. Brand and Faraday on Chemistry, 
and of Dr. Pearson on Materia Medica; but not one pupil out 
of ten that attended those lectures derived any benefit from them. 
The fault lay not in the lecturers, but in the pupils, since they 
could not comprehend what they heard. Their education had 
rarely extended far beyond reading and writing; their knowledge 
of medicine was confined to a few recipes for cordial, diuretic and 
purging balls, and of the qualities of even the few drugs that 
they employed they were entirely ignorant. Pharmacy was not 
then taught at the College; indeed, at this period, there was no 
such a book as a Veterinary Pharmacopoeia. They are indebted, 
we are told, to their active and well-informed dispenser for a 
short one now. May he derive sufficient encouragement, and 
most of all from the heads of the institution, to induce him to 
enlarge and to complete it! 

But chemistry is as applicable to other branches of our science 
as to veterinary pharmacy. It is intimately connected with 
‘physiology; and although, from the present state of our know¬ 
ledge, it has not been proved to be of much service to pathology 
in a practical manner, yet the time will assuredly come when it 
will enable the practitioner to wield his remedies with a certainty 
and precision ot which he has not now the slightest conception. 

But we have forgotten the author and his treatise. The in¬ 
tention ofihe Bridgewater Treatises is to point out the various 
evidences of design among the objects of creation; and to de¬ 
duce from them the existence and the attributes of the Creator. 
And well has Dr. Prout fulfilled the task imposed on him. 

He has divided his treatise into three books .—The first Booh 
contains preliminary observations on the rank of chemistry as a 
science, and its application to the argument of design. It treats 
of the mutual operation of physical agents and of matter, and of 
the laws which they obey: of the solid, liquid, and gaseous forms 
of bodies: of the properties of heat, light, &c.: of chemical 
elementary principles, and of the laws of their combination.— 
The second Book has reference to meteorology, comprehending a 
general sketch of the constitution of the globe, and of the dis¬ 
tribution and mutual influence of the agents and elements of 
chemistry in the economy of nature .—The third Book treats of 
the chemistry of organization, particularly of the chemical pro¬ 
cess of digestion ; and of the subsequent processes by which 
various alimentary substances are assimilated to and become 
component parts of a living body. 


236 REVIEW.—BRIDGEWATER TREATISES, NO. 8. 

It would be a pleasing task to review the whole of this inte¬ 
resting work, but the limits of The Veterinarian confine 
us to Book III, and even here we must necessarily be brief. We 
shall, however, endeavour to exhibit to our readers a few of the 
most striking facts which the author has detailed. He shews, in 
the first place, that the mechanical arrangements for reducing the 
food of animals are wonderfully varied, according to the peculiar 
qualities of their food. 

In the graminivorous and granivorous tribes, for example, the 
teeth are literally instruments for grinding or triturating herba¬ 
ceous matters and seeds. In carnivorous animals, such a struc¬ 
ture would be useless : the teeth, therefore, are suited only for 
cutting or tearing. In gnawing animals, the teeth present a 
totally different structure, but, at the same time, are admirably 
fitted to the habits of the animal. Occasionally, as in the fowl 
tribe of birds, the grinding apparatus is placed, not in the mouth, 
but in the stomach itself, this organ being, as it were, expressly 
contrived for trituration ; while some of the functions it performs 
in other animals are transferred to contiguous parts. The 
structure and mechanism of the stomach, and of the alimentary 
canal, next claim attention. In carnivorous animals, whose food 
requires comparatively little assimilation, the alimentary canal is 
short and of a simple structure. On the other hand, in vege¬ 
table feeders, that canal is long and complicated, but perfectly 
adapted for macerating their food, and for extracting from it every 
thing that can be converted into nourishment. Nor is there an 
adherence to any model, but the whole is throughout varied, as 
if in order to demonstrate the power and the wisdom of Him by 
whom they were contrived. Thus the alimentary canals of the 
cow and of the horse are formed on entirely different models, 
though the food of both animals is nearly the same. 

The author next proceeds to the consideration of the chemical 
changes which the food undergoes in the stomach and duodenum. 
In these changes we discover arrangements not less wonderful, 
indeed more so, than in those of structure and mechanism. The 
variety of forms assumed by bodies having the same essential 
composition produces a latitude in the choice of diet which is 
almost infinite; at the same time the organs being endowed with 
the power to discriminate all these differences, and to act on the 
ultimate principles of bodies, elaborate from all these various 
forms of matter the same uniform chyle. The power by w’hich 
the stomach is enabled to effect these astonishing changes is 
that of associating the different alimentary substances with wa¬ 
ter—of dissolving or digesting them. This dissolving power 
seems to be exerted through the agency of chlorine derived from 


CHEMISTRY, METEOROLOGY, SCC. 237 

the common salt in the blood; at least, chlorine is always pre-- 
sent in the stomach during the act of the solution of the food, 
though the precise mode in which it operates is still unknown. 
Contemporaneously with the act of solution of the food, such 
essential changes take place in its composition as are requisite 
for perfecting the future chyle. 

The stomach having accomplished its office, the digested mass 
enters the duodenum, where the series of changes is continued 
in a manner equally wonderful. In this intestine or additional 
stomach the digested mass is brought into contact with the biliary 
and the pancreatic fluids. The alkali of the bile unites with the 
acid with which the food has been mingled during its digestion 
in the stomach ; the excrementitious parts, both of the food and 
of the bile, are separated or precipitated; while, at the same 
time, the proper chylous principles are eliminated in a condition 
appropriate for their absorption by the lacteals. 

There are two divisions of the minute tubes that compose what 
is termed the absorbent system of animals,—the lacteals, and the 
absorbents properly so called. The ultimate ramifications of the 
lacteals originate from the internal surface of the alimentary 
canal, where they take up the digested and partly assimilated 
aliment, or chyle. The ultimate ramifications of the proper ab¬ 
sorbents originate from all parts of the body, and are enabled to 
take up by some peculiar process every component of the body, 
solid as well as fluid, in the same manner as the chyle is taken up 
by the lacteals. The fluid obtained from the lacteals, and that 
obtained from the proper absorbents, are both alike albuminous. 
The albumen of the chyle, the author clearly shews, is produced 
in the stomach and duodenum while the food is undergoing the 
process of digestion. But whence is the albumen derived that 
is found in the proper absorbents ? The animal body we know 
to be composed of a great variety of matters, among which gela¬ 
tine ])redominates. Now, since albumen only is found in the 
absorbents, it follows that, before the gelatine of the body is 
taken up by the absorbents, it is reconverted into albumen; in 
other words, the absorbed gelatine undergoes a process entirely 
analogous to that which gelatine and other matters undergo in 
the stomach and duodenum during the process of digestion. 
Hence the digestive process, instead of being confined to the 
stomach and duodenum, is actually carried on without intermis¬ 
sion in all parts of a living body. The two kinds of fluid 
albumen derived from these two sources, that is to say, the crude 
chyle in the lacteals, and the highly animalized lymph in the 
absorbents—are at length commingled, and form one uniform 

K k 


VOL. viii. 


238 REVIEW.—BRIDGEWATER TREATISES^ NO. 5 . 

fluid of an intermediate character, adapted for becoming a part 
of the general mass of the blood. 

The character, however, of the fluid, when it becomes part of 
the blood, though albuminous, is still very weak; or, in other 
words, the fluid consists of albumen holding a large proportion 
of water in a state of essential combination. By a beautiful ar¬ 
rangement, as soon as this weak albuminous fluid is mingled 
with the blood, it is hurried through the lungs, where it under¬ 
goes a remarkable change. In the lungs, the water, which is 
an essential union with the weak albuminous matter of the chyle, 
is separated and expelled along with the carbonic acid gas, 
that is continually escaping from these organs ; and, at the 
same time, the w^eak and delicate albuminous matter of the 
chyle is converted into the strong and firm albuminous matter 
of the blood. 

We must refer the reader who wishes for a more minute in¬ 
formation on the subject, to the work itself. 

The following short table exhibits the relative proportions of 
the constituence of human blood to each other, as they exist in 
most individuals:— 


One thousand parts of human blood contain 

Of water.. 

Fibrin .. 

Albumen. 

Colouring matters. 

Fatty matters, in various states. 

Various undefined animal matters and salts 


783,37 

2,83 

67,25 

126,31 

5,16 

15,08 


1000,00 

The reader will not fail to remark that, among these con¬ 
stituent principles of the blood, gelatine is not mentioned. In 
fact,’" says the author, though existing most abundantly in 
various animal structures, gelatine is never found in the blood, or 
in any 'product of glandular secretion,''^ The author then pro¬ 
ceeds to plain that gelatine ranks lower than albumen in the scale 
of organized substances; that a given weight of gelatine con¬ 
tains, at least, three or four per cent, less carbon than an equal 
weight of albumen. • The production of gelatine from albumen 
must, therefore, be a reducing process. 

We are now brought to consider the process of respiration. 
The blood, in its course through the lungs, emits carbonic acid gas, 
and assumes a florid arterial colour. At the same time, accord¬ 
ing to the principles of gaseous diflusion, the blood absorbs in 
the lungs a portion of oxygen from the air of the atmosphere. 
The oxygen thus absorbed remains in some peculiar state of 
union with the blood (query, as oxygenated water, or some ana- 








CHEMISTRY, METEOROLOGY, &C. 239 

logous compound ?) till the blood reaches the ultimate termina¬ 
tion of the arteries. In these minute tubes the oxygen changes 
its mode of union ; it combines with a portion of carbon, and is 
converted into carbonic acid, which carbon must be derived 
from the albuminous principles of the blood. Two distinct 
alterations take place during the union of the carbon with the 
oxygen; a portion of the albumen contained in the blood is 
supposed to be reduced to the state of gelatine, which gelatine 
is appropriated to the production and renovation of those tex¬ 
tures whose composition is chiefly gelatinous. At the same 
time, the carbonic acid which had been formed from the reduced 
albumen unites with the blood, communicates to that fluid its 
dark venous colour, and is transferred to the lungs, where it is 
expelled from the system along with a portion of aqueous vapour, 
derived principally from the weak albumen of the chyle, as 
formerly explained. 

The blood is the source, not only of all the constituent prin¬ 
ciples of animal bodies, but likewise of all the various secretions ; 
many of which differ altogether in their properties from those of 
the primary fluids, and perform secondary offices of great im¬ 
portance in the animal economy. Other products separated 
from the blood are purely excretions; as, for instance, the car¬ 
bonic acid gas from the lungs, which could not be retained in 
the animal system without destroying life. 

Such is a summary of those operations of living bodies which 
the author has presented in the 3d Book. We have been brief, 
but we hope intelligible. 

Most of the facts on which the author has dwelt are of a 
character so obvious, that they require only to be understood, in 
order to be admitted among the proofs of benevolent design. 

In considering the economy of organized being, one of the 
circumstances most calculated to arrest our attention, is the ex¬ 
traordinary skill manifested in the disposal of the various parts 
of the organized system with regard to each other. As an 
instance of this, the mutual relation and dependence of plants 
and animals may be noticed. Thus, as we once before had the 
pleasure of pointing out in The Veterinarian, carbonic acid 
I gas constitutes the chief food of plants; and nearly the whole 
I of the superfluous carbon produced by the operations of the 
1 animal system is actually thrown off in the form of carbonic 
i acid. Plants, therefore, on the one hand, supply the chief 
I nourishment to animals; while that gaseous matter which is 
j separated by the animal economy, and which, if retained within 
( animals, would to them be fatal, constitutes, on the other hand, 

» the chief food of plants. 


240 REVIEW.—BRIDGEWATER TREATISES, NO. 8. 

Nor in these respects only are the two great systems of organi¬ 
zation mutually dependent; for unless plants consumed the 
carbonic acid gas which is formed by animals, the deleterious 
compound would probably accumulate in the atmosphere, so as 
to destroy animal life ; while it is doubtful whether the present 
race of vegetables could exist if carbonic acid gas were not formed 
by animals. 

Again, the general scheme of Providence for the nourish¬ 
ment of animals claims our especial notice. Animals have not 
only been destined to prey on each other, but all created 
beings are the food of those progressively higher than them¬ 
selves in the scale of organization. By this wise arrangement, 
the labour of the assimilating power has been greatly diminished; 
and by the same means, that accumulation of dead animal re¬ 
mains, which soon would be overwhelming, is entirely prevented. 

To the veterinary pupil we particularly recommend the study 
of this work of Dr. ProuPs. The times are altered from what 
they were formerly. A veterinary surgeon is now expected to be a 
scientific man, and the practice of our science cannot any longer 
be entrusted to ignorant pretenders. The present is an age rich 
with discoveries that distribute the blessings of freedom and 
power. Modern veterinary medicine differs from the ancient in 
thisthe ancient was nothing but conjecture—the modern is 
distinguished by facts drawn from legitimate inferences. The 
study'^of the veterinary pupil must, therefore, be directed for the 
future not only to anatomy and physiology, but to chemistry. 

K. 


TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

We acknowledge the receipt of Communications on various matters, 
practical and personal, from Messrs. Baker, Barker, Bisset, Cleland, Fuller, 
Godwin, Holmes, Read, Sinclair, Toombs, Williams, and several anonymous 
correspondents (why anonymous ?); they shall receive due attention. 

The Spring Dinner of the Veterinary Club will take place at the King’s 
Arms, Bridge Street, Westminster, on Thursday, April the 16th, at Half- 
past Five o’clock, precisely. Tickets 20s. In accordance with the prin¬ 
ciple on which the society is founded—the promotion of good feeling among 
the members of the same profession—the spring dinner has usually been 
an open one. 

The Club will be happy to see any of their brethren, or the friends of the 
profession, on that day, provided they will have the kindness to send a notice 
to the Secretary, at the Bar of the Tavern, on or before the noon of Tuesday, 
the 14th. 






THE 


VETERINARIAN. 


VOL. VIII, No. 89.] MAY 1835. New Series, No. 29 . 


MR. YOUATT^S VETERINARY LECTURES 

DELIVERED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. 


LECTURE XLVII (continued). 

The Causes of Tetanus, 

THESE have been divided by medical writers into idiopathic 
and symptomatic. I would consent to acknowledge this divi¬ 
sion so far as it is generally explained; meaning by idiopathic, 
causes which are either unknown, or which must be referred to 
some general agent influencing the whole system, as cold, worms, 
8cc.; and symptomatic, including local causes, as wounds gene¬ 
rally—pricks in the foot—docking—nicking—the exposure of 
some particular part to cold ,* although I should observe that 
the term idiopathic is scarcely an appropriate one in any case. 
I cannot help referring the morbid action of cold, worms, &c. 
to some definite part, and to the lungs or the skin, or the intes¬ 
tinal canal, more than to any other. The truth however is, that 
we have comparatively few cases of idiopathic tetanus in our 
patients; we can usually trace the original irritation or inflam¬ 
mation of the nervous fibril to some particular spot, whence it 
was mysteriously transferred to a distant part. 

The usual Causes .—If I were to select one part as more than 
any other the source and focus of tetanic irritation, it would 
be the foot. Wounds in it—^a stub left in shoeing—a prick in 
shoeing—a stub picked up on a journey—a piece of glass wound¬ 
ing the frog or penetrating to thd flexor tendon, these are the 
prevailing sources. The horse becomes lame—the evil is dis¬ 
covered—it is carelessly treated—the lameness disappears—the 
wound, however, has not healed: when examined, there is an 
unhealthiness about it—a want of life in the neighbouring sub¬ 
stance and vessels—and then, eight or ten days after the injury, 
(if three weeks had passed, all would have been safe), locked-javv 
appears. 

VOL. VI IT. l1 









242 MR. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 

Old Sollysel, the Equerry to the French king, whose Com¬ 
plete Horseman’’ you may read with pleasure and advantage 
too, after you have been well grounded in practice and are able 
to select that which is really valuable (and there is a great deal of 
it in his book) from what is, in the present day, most ludicrously 
absurd, had no notion of tetanus proceeding from wounds. He 
considered it as a kind of rheumatism, brought on sometimes by 
violent exertion, in which they (^Hhe horses”) strain and stretch 
the muscles of the neck so as to draw the humours to them ; or 
oftener from cold, for the sudden change stirs the redundant 
humours, and breeds many obstructions that hinder the motion 
of the affected parts, and cause a pain not only in these, but also 
in the neighbouring parts.” Therefore his remedy, next to 
bleeding, is to take a stimulating embrocation, and chafe the 
parts very hard with the hand to make the liquor penetrate; 
which will heat the muscles that are cooled and stiffened by 
the defluxion, and so loosen the jaws and supple the neck.” 

Difficult to he accounted for .—Why does not the nerve of the 
immediate part, or those of the neighbouring ones, first take on 
the inflammatory action ? Probably they do. Then why do 
not the muscular spasms first appear in the neighbourhood of 
the wound ? I will not answer that there are no muscles in the 
immediate neighbourhood, because this would not apply when 
tetanus follows nicking or docking. I can only reply, that 
there is an anastomosis of nervous fibrils all over the frame; 
designed, doubtless, for a good purpose, and possibly to keep up 
an identity of influence everywhere. Whatever portion of the 
nerves of the foot may be injured, there is a connexion and com¬ 
munication between that and the nerve which supplies the most 
distant part, effected partly by means of the spinal chord, more 
effectually probably through the medium of the intercostals, 
and also by endless anastomoses between the different branches 
of the nerves everywhere. 

But this you will tell me is no answer—why select a distant 
part, the nerves of the head and neck ? I can only say, that 
nature seems fond of these distant sympathies, and that, to a 
greater extent than we are aware, and which we do not always 
turn to the account which we might in the treatment of disease. 
I have ever been subject to the sick headache—what is the 
harbinger of its approach ? Cold feet. What the first symptom 
of its preparation to depart ? The return of the natural warmth 
of the extremities. I get wet feet; do I suffer from it in my feet 
or legs ? no, but I reckon on a fit of the toothache, or a sore 
throat on the following day. There is an uninterrupted chain 
of nervous communication through the whole frame, and nature 


TETANUS. 243 

is fond of connecting together, in influence at least, the most 
distant links of that chain. 

The Causes resumed .—The undeniably symptomatic causes of 
tetanus, then, are, irritation or inflammation of some nervous fibril, 
cut or injured by means of an operation or accidental wound ; 
and oftener in the feet than any or every other part of the 
frame. 

Wounds in the Feet .—With regard to wounds of the feet, I 
have often thought that we treat them far too carelessly. We 
open them, give free vent to the effused matter, apply a poultice 
or two, and then endeavour to heal the wound as quickly as we 
can by the application of the Friars’ balsam, or the tincture of 
myrrh. The old farrier goes to work in a very rude way, but 
a much better one; he also opens the foot and gives vent to tho 
pus, and then he places a pledget of tow on the wound, satu¬ 
rates it with spirit of turpentine, and sets fire to it. This 
leaves a crust upon the wound, which rarely separates from it, 
and gradually changes into good horn. He makes a summary 
business of it, and, what is most important of all, he either 
destroys the lacerated or injured nervous fibril, which might 
by-and-by be the focus of mischief, or sets up a degree of tem¬ 
porary irritation in the part inconsistent with, or preventing the 
access of, that irritability which runs on to tetanus. 

The Treatment of Wounds in the Feet continued .—It would be 
a good rule that the surface of every wound in the foot should 
be exposed to the power of some caustic. The chloride of 
antimony is the most manageable and the best. We should 
generally gain time by causing a disposition in the part to throw 
out new and good horn; while, at the same time, we should 
destroy or deaden the exposed fibril of the nerve. The last case 
of tetanus which I had I could plainly trace to neglect of this 
kind. The horse was lame four or five days after shoeing; and 
after some protracted examination, a very small stub of a nail 
was discovered, which the careless smith had suffered to remain, 
and close upon which he had driven the new nail. It was ex¬ 
tracted, and I satisfactorily ascertained that there was no wound, 
but that the lameness had been occasioned by the pressure of 
the two nails on the sensible laminae. The shoe was put on 
again, the bearing taken from the place, no nail driven there, 
and the horse did not go lame afterwards : but on the 7th 
day subsequent to the examination, he began to exhibit symp¬ 
toms of tetanus. He recovered after a hard struggle; but had I 
freely opened the foot, and applied the chloride of antimony, 
he would not have been endangered at all. 

Docking and l^icking .—Next to the injuries of the foot we 


344 MR. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 

place docking, esyjecially if the stump has been seared too 
severely; and nicking, if the first bandage has not been loosened 
or removed sufficiently early: but, after both these operations 
it occasionally appears without any assignable cause, and without 
the possibility of attributing any blame to the operator. The 
atmosphere, either its temperature or variable composition 
(and I am often inclined to think, the latter more than the 
former), has influence. Several horses will die one after the 
other in the same stables, or the same district, in consequence 
of these operations ; and after that years will elapse before this 
dreadful disease will again appear. 

Castration, when the colt was not properly prepared for the 
operation, or the searing iron was applied too severely, or the 
clams bound or screwed too tight, or the animal put to work too 
soon after the operation, or exposed to unusual cold, is occasion¬ 
ally followed by tetanus. Hurtrel d’Arboval relates that twenty- 
four horses were castrated on the same day, at the depot at Bee, 
in the department of I’Eure. By some strange fancy of the 
riding-master, they were afterwards led, four times in every day, 
through a deep pond of water, that was supplied by a very cold 
spring. Sixteen of them died of tetanus between the 10th and 
15th day after the operation. At Rennes, a horse, after cas¬ 
tration, was exercised until he was covered with perspiration, 
and then suddenly plunged into the river. He died tetanic. 
He had been previously condemned, and this was done by way 
of experiment. Hurtrel d’Arboval also states, and they are very 
important facts, that the Americans used to have recourse to the 
cautery in the castration of their horses and mules, and that 
tetanus was so frequent, that the price of the horse or mule 
became doubled when he had recovered from the operation ; 
and that bulls in whom the hemorrhage was arrested by the 
application of a caustic, were not exempt from fatal attacks of 
tetanus after castration. He also adds, that M. Gelin, an 
American veterinary surgeon, has assured him, that this disease 
never attacks those that are operated on by the use of the clams 
in the uncovered way. 

Tetanus cured by Castration .—While castration appears to be 
so frequent a cause of tetanus, M, Taffanel has inserted in the 
Recueil deMed. Vet. for August 1830, an account of the cure 
of tetanus by this operation. An entire horse, nine years old, 
which had always been most annoyingly salacious, was suddenly 
seized with tetanus from some cause perfectly unknown. The 
usual means were adopted, but the 14th day arrived, and the animal 
became worse and worse; every muscle was fixed, and the 
breathing so laborious as to threaten immediate death. In the 


TKTANUS. 


245 

early period of the disease, the horse had not, even amidst his 
extremity of suffering, forgotten his old propensities, and had 
neighed whenever a mare approached, and had endeavoured as 
well as he could to join her. M. Taffanel happened now to 
meet with a fellow practitioner, to whom he related the 
circumstances of the case. His friend told him that he had had 
an entire horse under treatment for tetanus under very similar 
circumstances, and that, all other means failing, he had castrated 
him, and cured him too. It was determined that this patient 
should submit to the operation, and perhaps under the circum¬ 
stances the most judicious mode of operating was adopted— 
namely, that of torsion and tearing of the chord. The horse 
could not be securely hobbled on account of his extreme irrita¬ 
bility, and therefore it happened that the chord of the left tes¬ 
ticle was not sufficiently twisted, and it bled for four hours, 
and eight pounds of blood were lost. During the operation, the 
horse uttered the most plaintive cries ; the muscles of the face 
and of the abdomen were even more violently contracted than 
before ; the breathing became much more laborious, and it 
seemed to be impossible that he could survive, but all this quieted 
down. On the second day, the tetanic spasm was so diminished 
that he could eat a little green meat; and on the fifteenth day 
after the operation, he was dismissed cured. This was applying 
the principle of counter-irritation with a vengeance : it belongs, 
however, to another part of my subject. 

Over-fatigue, exciting causes, and sudden change of tempera¬ 
ture. —Our scanty records of veterinary matters contain nume¬ 
rous instances of tetanus following exertion brutally exacted 
beyond the animal’s natural strength, in the draught of heavy 
loads. Horses that have been matched against time have too 
frequently died tetanic a little while afterwards. Sudden 
exposure to cold, after being heated by exercise, has produced 
this dreadful state of nervous action, and especially if the horse 
has stood in a partial draught; but of all the causes of this nature, 
the dripping of cold water upon the loins has been the most 
fatal, with the exception, perhaps, of the animal’s drinking his fill 
of cold water when he was profusely perspiring after exercise. 

Diseases producing or followed hij Tetanus. — I might present 
you with a long list of these. There is scarcely a disease that 
has not been complicated with tetanic symptoms in some of its 
stages. Many have degenerated into, or have yielded to the 
overwhelming power of this dreadful spasm. Suppressed strangles 
have not unfrequently been followed by tetanus ; and there is one 
case in which, although the tumour suppurated, the discharge 
was not so great as it ought to have been, and tetanus closely 


246 MR. youatt's veterinary lectures. 

followed the healing of the wound. Worms have been accused, 
and not always falsely, of being the exciting cause of this disease. 
The teres, and even the ascaris, may produce sufficient disturb¬ 
ance in the intestinal canal to cause, in irritable habits, even 
tetanus itself; but we must acquit the harmless yet dreaded 
hot, who only occupies that habitation which nature designed 
him for, while preparing to assume his perfect form. I have 
seen one case, and there is the record of another, in which 
glossanthrax either accompanied or was the cause of tetanus. 
1 certainly used boldly, and to their full extent, the usual means 
for quieting this fearful nervous erythism; but I added to it, so 
far as the nearly closed state of the jaws would permit me, 
the deep lancing of the vesicles beneath the tongue, and that 
from end to end. They speedily disappeared; the violence of 
the tetanic spasm began soon afterwards to remit, and the 
horse recovered. Distention of the Stomach has been accom¬ 
panied by tetanus. We do not often see a case of staggers, 
of the violent kind, in which there are not occasional spasmodic 
contractions of the muscles, that bear no little resemblance to 
tetanus; and in a few cases the lesser disturbance of the 
nervous system has merged in the greater one. Chronic cough 
and a tuberculated state of the lungs, accompanied by breathing 
unusually laborious, have had this termination; and the sudden 
absorption of pus, whether from vomicse of the lungs or ab¬ 
scesses of any kind, have thrown a weight on the constitution, 
the effort to get rid of which has produced a state of general 
irritation terminating in tetanus. The irritability of weakness 
has been followed by the same effect. A horse was evidently re¬ 
covering from some disease of long continuance, and of an 
enfeebling nature, and nothing but common care was wanted to 
ensure the return of perfect health : the animal, however, was 
exposed to some circumstances of excitement; he worked too 
early and too much, or he was suffered to gorge himself with 
food, and then all at once tetanus came on, and he was irre¬ 
coverably lost. 


THE RE-ABSOEPTION OF PUS AN IMMEDIATE 

CAUSE OF FARCY. 

By Professor Renault, Alfort, 

In a former article I endeavoured to prove, 1st, That pus ex¬ 
isting in certain conditions, either enveloped in tissues, or on the 
surface of a wound, might be absorbed by the veins, and give 
birth to a series of accidents, of which farcy would often be the 
result. 




ON THE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS, 


247 


2d, That if the absorption of pus could not be demonstrated 
by its existence in its proper form in the blood, it was because it 
was mingled with that fluid in a manner so intimate as not to be 
distinguished from it; but that, nevertheless, 

3d, It impressed on the blood with which it was mingled 
new qualities and properties easily appreciable; and which, if 
they were not actual proofs of the absorption of pus, rendered it 
very probable. 

4th, That these proofs acquired new force when the animal 
presented, during the suppurative course, certain additional phe¬ 
nomena (epiphenomenes), as cough, beating of the heart, &c., 
which are not ordinarily remarked while suppuration is going- 
forward; and especially when, after death, we meet, in certain 
organs, with little purulent masses, with or without ecchymoses, 
and deposited in the substance of a tissue generally in a sound 
state; and proving, at once, that that tissue could not have 
secreted the pus, and that it could not have been long in con¬ 
tact with it. 

In the present article I shall endeavour to prove (and here the 
demonstration will be more rigorous) that, in the horse, the ab¬ 
sorption of pus often takes place by means of the lymphatic ves¬ 
sels, and gives rise to a well-known variety of that disease so 
common and so fatal, Farcy. 

It being my object, in this article, to exhibit farcy in relation 
with the absorption of pus, I shall pass rapidly over the symp¬ 
toms and treatment of the various cases. 

CASE I. 

A cabriolet gelding, ten years old. 

Inquiries .—He was brought to the infirmary on account of 
lameness in the right fore leg. Independently of this, the owner 
said that he had had him two years; that he was at first very 
much out of condition, and had been long in regaining it; and 
that, although he was now better in that respect, he coughed, and 
discharged from the nostril whenever he was worked hard. 

Present State .—He knuckled in the fetlock of the lame leg, 
and the perforans tendon was much retracted. Seeing no other 
cause of lameness, a division of the tendon was recommended, 
to which the owner consented. 

T>ec. Wth, 1833.—After having, during some preceding days, 
been prepared for the operation, he was cast, and the tendons 
divided without the slightest accident. Two sutures confined 
the edges of the wound ; three pledgets covered it, and were con¬ 
fined by several turns of bandage. Some degree of fever deve- 


248 ON THE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS. 

loped itself in the evening; there was evident local pain, and 
swelling as high as the knee; six pounds of blood were abstract¬ 
ed, and the diet and the lotions were of a cooling nature. 

During the two following days the pain seemed to abate, but 
the engorgement remained. Continue the treatment. 

\Ath ,—‘Some pus escaped from the wound. It was yellow, 
sero-grumous, and had an offensive odour. The swelling of the 
knee continued; much less heat and pain. Simple digestive 
ointment to the wound, and frictions of camphorated spirit over 
the swelling. 

\Qth. —Morning. Granulations begin to appear; the suppu¬ 
ration is abundant, but it is limpid and foetid. Eleven o’clock : 
Evident symptoms of fever. Take six pounds of blood from the 
right arm. This bleeding produced some remission of the symp¬ 
toms, but the engorgement now extends up the right arm. 

V7th .—I now recognized a painful enlargement, elongated, ex¬ 
tending from the protuberance formed by the sterno-humeral 
muscle (pectoralis transversus), and going round the internal face 
of the fore arm to the subcutaneous thoracic vein on the same 
side. On the right side of the neck, and at its base, there was 
developed, and already softened, a large button, with a knotty 
cord continued from it fifteen inches in length. Neither the 
button nor the cord existed on the preceding night. The pus is 
abundant, unmixed, and yellow, and the wound is of a pale colour. 
The swelling has not diminished. 

The horse has acute farcy. 

Every attention was paid to the horse during several following 
days. The wound and the pus retained the same characters; but 
the left leg began to swell in its turn, and a farcy button deve¬ 
loped itself on that leg, and softened and suppurated in the space 
of seven hours. A cord then appeared on the ala of the right 
nostril: there were ganglions beneath the jaw, which increased; 
a button, of the size of a small nut, appeared on the septum of 
the nose, the membrane of which was of a deep yellowish red 
colour. Discharge then commenced from the left nostril: the 
fluid that was thus discharged, as wtU as that which came from 
the different buttons, whether they opened spontaneously or were 
lanced, had the colour and consistence of that which proceeded 
from the wound of the tendon. Acute glanders was established. 
Seven or eight cords now appeared on the right arm, following 
the course of the lymphatics, and which were decisive indications 
of farcy. Finally, tumefaction of the hind limbs followed, and 
increased enlargement of the fore ones, on the skin of which little 
tumours began to form in great numbers : they broke, and a fluid 


ON THE RE-ABSORPTION OP PUS. 


249 

similar to that from the wound escaped from them. Such were 
the chief exterior lesions which appeared until the 26th, when 
the horse died. 

It may be proper to remark, that from the appearance of farcy 
to the death of the animal the 'pulsations of the heart were unusu-' 
ally powerful* 

Examination, six hours after death.—Of the lesions which 
bore more especially on the fact of the absorption of pus, tho 
following were the chief:— the lymphatic vessels emanating from 
the wound of the tendon, as well as those that were in the neigh¬ 
bourhood of the softened buttons, were surrounded with infil¬ 
trated cellular texture, filled with white matter of a caseous con’- 
sistence, and having the character of pus. 

It is true that the veins coming from the diseased limb did not 
contain pus; but the blood which they contained was firmly co¬ 
agulated and divided into two clots^ pe'rfectly distinct and separate 
from each other; the one white, firm, difficult to crush, and re- 
fleeting a light green shade; the other black and solid, hut of 
much less consistence. 

The heart presented some ecchymoses on its surface, particu¬ 
larly around the coronary vessels. The right cavities were occu- 
pied by an enormous clot, hard, torn by strong pressure, and suf¬ 
fering a citron-coloured serosity to escape. This clot, exactly 
moulded to the internal surface of the ventricle and the auricle, 
prolonged itself into the anterior and posterior vense cavee. In 
the latter vessels only it was united with a small black clot. 

The left cavities contained only a small coagulum, black and 
white. No alteration was observed on the interior serous mem¬ 
brane of the heart. 

The spleen, much enlarged, was soft; the blood which it con¬ 
tained was black, thick, patchy, and readily escaped on slight 
pressure when an incision was made into this viscus. 

Many small ecchymoses were perceived here and there in the 
substance of the left lobe. There were found, besides, more than 
twenty little masses of concrete pus, easily crushed by the fingers, 
and surrounded, some of them, by pulmonary tissue slightly ec- 
chymosed, and others by tissue perfectly sound: none were encysted. 

In the right lung these masses were more numerous, and 
nearer together. In the centre of some was pus already softened. 
The cellular interlobular tissue, which surrounded these masses, 
was infiltred by a great quantity of citron-coloured serosity, 
which established between them and the farcy buttons a very 
striking analogy. The pus that constituted these masses be¬ 
ing collected and compared with that drawn from the farcy-but¬ 
tons, and from the lymphatics, was most like the latter. 

VOL. vni. M m 


250 


ON THE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS. 


CASE II. 

A hackney gelding, eleven or twelve years old. 

lyiquiries .—This horse had been bled nearly three weeks be¬ 
fore. A few days afterwards, and, doubtless, in consequence of 
the part being rubbed against the manger, thrombus began to 
develope itself; and, notwithstanding proper measures were im¬ 
mediately adopted, it was impossible to disperse it. An abscess 
formed and burst spontaneously, and there ran from it pus hold¬ 
ing in suspension fibrous flocculi and remnants of the coat of the 
vein. Then the tumour gradually disappeared; but a fistulous 
opening remained, with its direction upwards to an extent of five 
or six inches. Soon afterwards a new tumour appeared between 
the point where the first had burst and the parotidean region, and 
the horse began to cough. These two circumstances decided the 
proprietor to send his horse to Alfort on the 9th of May. 

14^A.—The tumour in the neck begins to fluctuate. 

\^th .—It was punctured; the pus which escaped was lauda¬ 
ble, but a little thin. The cough continues. 

23(i.—The wounds suppurate well; but the pus that flows 
from the fistula, which now extends under the parotid gland, is 
grey, and very thin. 

24/A .—Serous infiltrations under the form of large cords are 
seen along the course of the veins of the arm, the fore-arm, and 
the saphenas. (Edema appears on the posterior limbs and under 
the belly. The cough increases. 

and 26ifA.—-These enlarged cords now take upon them all 
the characters of farcy. A button, which appeared only a few 
hours before on the left hinder extremity, has broken, and a yel¬ 
low serous fluid escapes from it. A similar button has formed, 
and opened on the inside of the right thigh. New farcy cords 
develope themselves on the inside of the left fore-arm. 

July Is^.—Farcy buttons are numerous over the whole surface 
of the body. The cough continues. For some time the animal 
has lost its appetite, and is perceptibly getting thin. The wound 
occasioned by the opening of the tumour, and which before the 
appearance of the buttons was very much diminished, is now 
stationary: it is pale; and the pus that is discharged from it 
is thin, and small in quantity. 

^th .—A discharge from the nose has commenced. 

Qth .—A new abscess was opened, which has appeared above the 
former one, and near the parotid gland. The pus that it con¬ 
tained was thin and grey: remnants of a vein are held in sus¬ 
pension in this discharge. 

\^th .—The discharge from the nose has increased. A sanious 


ON THE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS. 251 

fluid of very bad character runs from most of the buttons that 
have been cauterized. 

19^A. The animal is in a state of extreme emaciation. He 
no longer feeds. Another swelling, with deep fluctuation, an¬ 
nounces a fresh abscess in the very substance of the parotid. The 
animal was destroyed, the consent of the owner being obtained. 

Examination lesion characteristic of farcy was found 
in the cellular tissue, the vessels, and the lymphatic ganglions. 

^ The lungs contained a gi'eat quantity oj small purulent masses^ 
in every point resembling the buttons oJ subcutaneous farcy* 
Some of these little masses, softer and consequently older than 
the others, had begun to surround themselves with cysts; others, 
the consistence of which was yet caseous, were surrounded by 
hepatized pulmonary tissue. Eor the most part the smallest of 
them were survounded by tissue either entii'ely sounds or simply 
ecchymosed. 

CASE III. 

An entire draught horse, ten years old, was brought to the in¬ 
firmary to be treated for a suppurating wound of the withers. 

History. Twelve or fifteen days before, a voluminous cyst ap¬ 
peared on the withers, the consequence of rubbng it. A veteri¬ 
narian, called in a few days afterwards, instead of treating the 
tumour by resolutives, punctured it at once. The wound sup¬ 
purated abundantly, and the skin peeled off for the space of nearly 
a foot from the superior part and right side of the withers. On 
the left side there was a slight engorgement, with a little fluctua¬ 
tion ; but there was no communication between the two abscesses. 

From the 6th of January to the 2d of March various means 
were tried ; but the cicatrization was not more advanced than on 
the first day. More than once during that interval the attendants 
thought that the cure would soon be complete, for the fistula dimi¬ 
nished in depth; the skin appeared to adhere to the parts beneath 
over almost the whole of the withers; the quantity of pus dis¬ 
charged diminished, and it became very thick, and the swellino- 
had nearly subsided, when, taking advantage of a moment 
during which he was not watched, the animal rubbed it again : 
every precaution and every care that had been taken was de¬ 
feated, and the evil reappeared worse than ever. 

March Qth. —On sounding the right fistula anew, it appeared 
that it extended on the left side at least four inches from the 
median plane. A counter overture was made on that spot, and 

a seton was passed through it and carried to the inferior portion 
of the right side. 

Until the i3th of April the horse was alternately better and 


252 ON THE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS. 

worse, accordingly as he was placed where he could or could 
not rub himself. During the whole of this time the pus had a 
serous character, the animal coughed, and the cough, dry at firsts 
became moist, and was accompanied by expectoration. It was 
also remarked, that the coat stared, and that the appetite was 
impaired. Over the left side of the withers, and below the supe¬ 
rior orifice of a fistula which existed on that side, commenced a 
farcy cord, which extended to the scapulo-humeral angle. Apply 
to this cord a mixture of one part of corrosive sublimate with 
eight of turpentine. 

15^^.—The cord has extended itself two inches lower down. 
Apply the same mixture to the continuation of the cord. 

18^4.—The cord has disappeared. 

2^th .—^The horse, abandoned by its owner, was bled to death. 

Examination. —Among other lesions, we found in the sub¬ 
stance of the right lung many little masses of a greyish white mat¬ 
ter, crushing easily under the finger, not encysted, but surrounded 
by cellular tissue, congested, yet crepitating. 

CASE IV. 

An entire draught horse. 

This horse was sent to the infirmary on account of a throm¬ 
bus in the left jugular. It is accompanied by suppuration. 
A considerable swelling exists at the parotid region, and a fistula, 
having its orifice at the wound made in bleedings, extends, fol¬ 
lowing the vien, as high as this swelling. After twenty-three days' 
treatment, the swelling having completely disappeared and the 
suppuration being less abundant and quite laudable, the horse 
ws restored to the owner, who was instructed how to apply 
the future dressing; but the swelling returning, and sanious 
matter escaping from the old fistula, he was sent to Alfort: 
thence he was taken away before the wounds were quite healed, 
and contrary to the wishes of the Professor, and was finally 
brought back on the 11th July, the old fistula discharging grey 
and thin pus. The glands under the jaw soon began to enlarge 
—farcy buttons appeared on various parts—farcy cords ran 
over the left side—the membrane of the nose became affected— 
there was considerable discharge from the nose, and in that 
state he was again taken away by the owner*. 

CASE V. 

An entire horse, fourteen years old, also had tumour on the 
withers; which, however, had considerably subsided under emol- 

* This last case we have abridged, and want of room compels ns to 
abridge those which follow.— Edit. 


ON THE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS. 253 

lient treatment; when on the 15th day, a farcy cord appeared in 
its neighbourhood. The cord soon acquired several little nodes 
along it—the legs began to swell—and the strength of the horse 
seemed to waste. The tumour was opened, and a considerable 
quantity of thick yellow pus, mingled with bloody striae es¬ 
caped, and the cautery was applied over the inner surface of 
the abscess. The buttons on the cord were also scarified and 
cauterized. 

The horse remained in the hospital a month, and then was 
taken away; the farcy cord had disappeared, and nothing re¬ 
mained but two or three small buttons surrounding a hardened 
kernel of cellular tissue which occupied the place where the 
incision into the abscess had been made. The horse was after¬ 
wards lost sight of. 


CASE VI. 

An entire horse had a tumour on the point of the shoulder, 
occasioned by the pressure of the collar. After various foment¬ 
ations by the owner, the tenderness and heat had in a great 
measure disappeared, and the tumour had become hard, but had 
not diminished in size. A sharp-pointed iron was plunged into 
various parts of it, and through its whole depth. Three 
weeks afterwards the wounds had nearly healed, and the tumour 
had disappeared, except one hard button, a little softened to¬ 
wards its centre, and from which a hard cord extended towards 
the chest. This was cauterized with the budding-iron. 

On examining the horse more closely on the following morn¬ 
ing, a considerable number of small buttons were found on 
various parts of him, and almost entirely on the right side. 
Some were continued in a kind of line. They were scarified, 
and corrosive sublimate and turpentine applied to them. The 
horse left the hospital forty-four days after his first arrival. The 
farcy buttons had disappeared, and nothing remained but this 
deeply-seated induration at the point of the shoulder, and which 
could not have been removed without making a large and deep 
wound. M. Renault, however, did not deem it prudent to do 
this after symptoms of farcy had developed themselves. 

CASE VII. 

An entire horse, seven years old, had been bitten in the neck 
by another horse. The postillion continued to work him—the 
wound became serious—and the animal was sent to Alfort. On 
examination, it appeared that sinuses now penetrated between 
the muscles of the neck, and a little pouch had been formed in 
which the pus had collected, and remained for some time. From 


254 ON THE RE-ABSORPTION OF PUS, 

the lower lip of the wound there ran a long, hard, knotted cord, 
and which had increased two inches in length since the last 
night: a slight infiltration existed round this cord, and there 
could not be any doubt that it was a true farcy cord. The 
wound was cleansed with the chloride of lime, and the corrosive 
sublimate and turpentine applied to the cord. The wound after¬ 
wards looked well; but the cord lengthened until it measured at 
least a foot. The horse was cast, and the cord dissected out, 
and the hot iron applied over the whole extent of the wound. 

Twenty-three days after the operation, the wound, from having 
been more than a foot long, was reduced to three inches, and a 
fortnight afterwards it was completely cicatrized, and the horse 
was sent to work. 

This horse had scarcely been cured when the same accident 
happened to one of his companions in the same establishment. 
He was bitten in the throat: the wound was deep, and almost 
reached the trachea. Here also the pus that was formed had 
not free escape, and it accumulated under the skin; and in 
eight days after the bite there was a manifest farcy cord extend¬ 
ing down the neck, and almost reaching the ganglions at the 
entrance into the chest. Two inches of the lower part of this 
cord were excised, and the hot iron applied, and the same care 
was taken, both in the operation and the dressing, that had been 
used in the last operation, that it might not be possible for 
the pus to be arrested in its course, especially before it had ac¬ 
quired good consistence; for the cause that had once produced 
the evil might do so again. In five weeks the horse was well. 

CASE VUI. 

A gelding, fourteen years old. Eight days before, a tumour 
was observed on the neck, produced by the pressure of the collar: 
fluctuation was evident—the skin on the summit of it was of 
a blue colour, and from its base, the skin around which was 
cedematous, proceeded a farcy cord directing its course towards 
the ganglions of the chest. The tumour was opened, and the 
cord thoroughly covered with a mixture of corrosive sublimate 
and turpentine. From that moment the cord ceased to extend 
itself, and, indeed, soon disappeared; and in thirty days the 
horse was dismissed from the infirmary. 

CASE IX. 

A mare had, twenty days before, shewn some difficulty in 
swallowdng. A swelling was soon evident in the parotid region 
on both sides of the throat. A little w^hile afterwards that on 
the left side disappeared, but the other continued to increase 


FUNGUS H^MATODES IN THE EYE OF A MARE. 255 

until it had attained a very considerable size. After that it no 
1 longer increased, but became softer every day. On examining 
[ her with attention, a long farcy cord was discovered, deeply 
seated, going from the inferior part of the swelling, and direct¬ 
ing its course towards the ganglions at the entrance into the 
1 chest; and these were so much enlarged, that their situation 
I could be plainly seen. 

The tumour was opened, and nearly two pounds of pus es- 
1 caped. As for the farcy, M. R. despaired to arrest its progress, 
since the cord had reached these ganglions ; and they, by their 
enlargement, proved that they were already affected : he, how- 
« ever, attempted to prevent the arrival of more of the poison, and 
1 he made an incision at the entrance into the chest, and cut 
out an inch, at least, of the indurated cord. This was some 
I days before he composed the interesting memoir which we have 
; laid before our readers, and when it was sent to the press he 
had not heard the result of his operation. 

Recueil, Aug, 1834. 


(FUNGUS HA5MATODES IN THE EYE OF A MARE. 
By Mr, W. J. Godwin, F.*S'., Birmingham, 

On Feb, 2, 1833, I was requested by J. Walker, a farrier 
in Lichfield, to see a case for him which he been attending, viz. 

I‘"a mare (to use his own words), out of whose near eye some 
proud flesh had grown, until it had turned the eye inside out, 

I He had at different times cut and causticed some pounds away • 

1 but it grew as large as ever again in a very short time, and bled 
I a good deal whenever it was touched.” 

1 went with him, and found a fungoid tumour growing from 
ithe near orbit; soft, but resuming it shape after the removal of 
pressure; and bleeding considerably after examination. Upon 
inquiry, I learned that the tumour had existed five or six 
months , but she had been blind of the oye affected several 
months previous to the appearance of the tumour. The ball of 
the eye, in the first instance, was noticed to have become con¬ 
siderably enlarged, and this increased until the cornea burst, when 
ia small vascular tumour protruded, forcing before it the contents 
of the sclerotica, and distending this tunic to such an extent as 
to cause the farrier’s assertion of the eye having been turned 
inside outa description of the case not so inappropriate as, in 
the first instance, it appeared to be. From this period it grew in 
I size rapidly: portions of it had been removed several times by 





25G FUNGUS H^MATODES TN THE EYE OF A MARE, 

different means ; and her health had continued pretty good until 
within the last few weeks, when the bleeding had become more 
considerable, and she exhibited, by coma and other symptoms, 
indications of the brain having become affected. Judging from 
the appearance of the tumour, with its disposition to bleed so 
profusely, and the fact of its having been formed in the interior 
of the eye, 1 concluded it was not of an ordinary description ; 
and, suspecting it to be a case of fungus haematodes, I re¬ 
quested Mr. Alport, surgeon, residing in Lichfield, to see it 
with me, who pronounced it to bear all the specific characters 
of that disease in the human subject. 

I had previously determined upon’ extirpating it with the 
whole of the contents of the orbit, and which was now effected. 
I found it necessary, in consequence of the superiority in size 
of the tumour to that of the orbit, to dissect a portion of it away, 
level with the orbital margin, before I could make it practicable 
to remove that which was contained within the orbit. With 
some difficulty, owing to an immense hemorrhage, the whole was 
extirpated, weighing about two pounds. The sclerotica within 
the orbit was filled with firm medullary matter of a yellowish 
colour; the optic nerve had its usual appearance; but there was 
no trace of any of the other component parts of the eye. The 
portion that was first dissected away had a somewhat similar 
though darker appearance towards its centre ; and became very 
vascular towards its exterior. The orbit was filled with tow 
after the operation, and a bandage applied to retain it. The 
mare had physic, and was sent home. 

I saw her two days afterwards, when she was swollen pretty 
much about the parotid gland and top of the head. These 
parts were fomented, and physic was given, which operated 
well. I did not see her again, but understood from the farrier 
who attended her, that the swelling increased until about the 
seventh day after the operation, when the comatose symptoms 
became more apparent, and she died in three weeks from that 
time. The tumour was larger than it had ever been, which ap¬ 
peared more extraordinary, as I considered that I had removed 
the whole of the tunic from which it had originated. He opened 
the head, and found the brain very soft, and containing much 
serous fluid. 




257 


ON THE DANGER OF BLEEDING, AND THE AD¬ 
VANTAGE OF ADMINISTERING EMETIC TAR¬ 
TAR IN STAGGERS (VERTIGO) IN THE HORSE. 

jBy Philippe, ilT.F., Militaire, 

The frequent occurrence of vertigo (staggers) in the horse, 
and (whether from the serious character of the disease, or the 
nature of the treatment which is employed, or the difference of 
opinion which exists as to what that treatment ought to be) the 
frequency with which it bids defiance to all the resources of art, 
induce me to relate some facts that have occurred in my practice. 

At the commencement of my career, fully imbued with the 
doctrines which I had learned in the schools, I employed vene¬ 
section, emetic tartar and aloes, setons or vesicatories, and 
lotions of cold water on the head. From the absolute failure 
of success in the cases in which I had seen this mode of treat¬ 
ment adopted, I ought to have foreseen that such means could 
have little good effect; but, seduced by the brilliant illusions of 
theory, I persisted in the employment of them, and in the space 
of ten years I thus treated twenty-three horses, twenty of which 
died, and the three others remained in a comatose, debilitated 
state, to which farcy or glanders soon succeeded. 

It was not until 1833 that I changed my plan of treatment. 
A mare named La Fortune, belonging to the 11th regiment of 
artillery, eight years old, and exceedingly fat, was, on the 13th 
of May, attacked with vertigo. She was continually in motion, 
nocliin^ and pressing her head forcibly against the wall, and 
had thus already wounded her head in various places. She was 
led with difficulty to the infirmary, which was only a little way 
from the place in which she had been standing. The pulse was 
full, hard, and slow—the conjunctiva highly injected—the pupils 
dilated—the dorso-lumbar portion of the spine inflexible, and she 
was perfectly unconscious of surrounding objects. I was about 
to bleed her, when, reflecting upon my former experience of the 
inadequacy of this measure, I determined to adopt other means. 
A few days before I had been talking of this disease with my 
intimate and valued friend M. Crepin, and he had informed 
me of the success which had attended his adoption of the plan 
first recommended by M. Gilbert—abstaining from bleeding, and 
giving emetic tartar. Encouraged by his advice, I gave La For¬ 
tune an ounce of emetic dissolved in a pound and a half of the 
infusion of the flowers of the Linden tree. After having cast 
the animal, and inserted a seton on each side of the chest, an 
injection of an ounce and a half of aloes was thrown up, and 

VOL. viii. N n 


258 THE USE OF EMETIC TARTAR 

the animal was restricted to water whitened with oatmeal. After 
that, an ounce of the sulphate of soda was administered daily, 
and some injections given, and the animal, to my great surprise, 
was completely well in the space of fifteen days. She was then 
sent to grass, and in a little while fully regained her condition. 
Four days afterwards she was taken up, and pat wholly on dry 
food, and on the 6th day fresh symptoms of vertigo appeared. 
I employed the same means, with the exception of the setons, 
and with the same success. She is now at hard work, and in 
perfect health. 

Two other cases of vertigo presented themselves in the months 
of March and April 1834, and in both of which it would have 
been thought that bleeding was plainly indicated. Both the 
horses were very fat—there was great redness of the mucous 
membranes—fulness, frequency, and hardness of pulse—dilata¬ 
tion of the pupil—all the intellectual functions suspended or con¬ 
fused—the power of motion disordered—it seemed like a state of 
drunkenness: they pressed their heads against the wall, and, 
in fact, exhibited all thjs symptoms of well characterized vertigo. 

As soon as I saw them I ordered them to be cast, and in¬ 
serted setons on each side of the chest. I then administered an 
ounce of emetic tartar in a pound and a half of hot water. On 
being liberated and led to their stalls, an injection containing an 
ounce and a half of aloes was administered to each. The re¬ 
stricted diet of white water was ordered for each, with an ounce 
of the sulphate of soda daily. Success crowned my efforts, 
although in July one of them had an appearance of farcy in the 
course of the seton; and they now are free from every symptom 
of a disease which I regarded as mortal, and, at least, in which 
I had previously been unable to render any service. 

Journal, Fev. 1835. 


ON THE DANGER OF BLEEDING, AND THE AD¬ 
VANTAGE OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF EMETIC 
TARTAR IN STAGGERS (VERTIGO) IN THE HORSE. 

By M, Crepin, M.V. 

I, LIKE my friend M. Philippe, once thought that copious 
and repeated bleedings were indicated in this disease. My 
opinion coincided with that of all my brother practitioners; but 
experience has now enlightened me, and I am convinced that I 
was much too long deceived. 

The error was, indeed, a very natural one, for it had the merit 




IN VERTIGO. 


259 

of great antiquity; it was contained in every popular work, 
whether original or borrowed from the famous medico-physiology 
of the Greeks ; it was supported by every mode of reasoning and 
illustration, more or less plausible, which that system could 
offer to the partizans of the ancient mode of treating vertigo; 
and the detractors of the method prescribed by Gilbert, the pro¬ 
fessor of Alfort, who, in a treatise full of new and profound views, 
has deprecated not only the abuse but even the most moderate 
use of bleeding in vertigo. Let it be remembered also, that far 
from admitting many varieties of this malady, he recognized ver¬ 
tigo as dependent solely on some morbid state of the digestive 
organs. 

The following are cases that have occurred in my practice :— 

CASE I. 

On the 3d of May 1816, at eight o’clock at night, a horse 
belonging to the first Grenadier Regiment of the Guards was 
suddenly attacked with vertigo, with many of the characters be¬ 
longing to the variety then termed stomach staggers (indigestion 
vertigineuse). He was bled largely at first by amputation of 
the tail, and afterwards from the jugular. Four setons were 
inserted in the neck—cold water was thrown on the head—many 
purgative drinks and injections were administered—but all with¬ 
out avail. The horse died at the expiration of thirty-six hours. 

CASE II. 

May ^7th ,—Another horse in the same stable was attacked 
by vertigo, and died in three days after being bled, and treated 
in the same way as the other. 

CASE III. 

From the 1st to the 10th of May 1817, I had a horse under 
treatment that had been violently attacked with vertigo. I bled 
him largely, and administered two drachms of emetic tartar and 
an ounce of aloes. There was a marked remission of all the 
symptoms, which continued until the 4th, when the disease re¬ 
turned with its former violence. The horse was bled again, 
and led to the watering-place and bathed, at the somewhat^im¬ 
perative suggestion of an influential amateur. He was scarcely 
in the water when he was seized with a fit more dreadful than 
any of the preceding, and he would infallibly have been drowned, 
had we not dragged him out by force of ropes and arms. The 
erneto-cathartic given at the commencement of the attack was 
again administered. He was calm for three days, when he again 
relapsed, and died on the 10th. 


260 


THE USE OF EMETIC TARTAR 


CASE IV. 

2d April, 1818.—A horse, eight years old, and very fat, be¬ 
longing to the same troop, was attacked with vertigo. At 
4 p.M., having broken his halter, he abandoned himself to the 
most violent movements, and ran into a court, and hurled himself 
with frightful force against a wall. His eyes were brilliant, but 
the buccal, nasal, and conjunctival membranes were of a yellow 
colour. He was bled four times in the space of four hours— 
many drinks with emetic tartar were administered, and also some 
injections. At ten o'clock the horse was calm. 

Sd .—The horse is now stupid—he pushes against the wall, or 
supports his head on the manger. He drinks from time to 
time a few gulps of white water, with emetic tartar, which he 
sucked for a long time, and he also searched for something 
to eat. 

4^^.—He had frequent mucous evacuations. The membranes 
retained their yellow tint, and during the five or six following 
days he continued to improve. 

\0tL —^There remained only a kind of drowsiness, which those 
accustomed to him said he always seemed to have. He was 
considered as cured, but did not return to the troop until the 
1st of May. It was unfortunate for him that he did then return, 
for about 5 p.m. he began to be stupid and to stagger about. 
From this he seemed to recover a little, but about nine o’clock 
he had a decided attack of apoplexy. He fell—for a few minutes 
respiration seemed to be suspended, and it was afterwards per¬ 
formed in a hurried, laboured manner. A copious bleeding some¬ 
what calmed him, and he was got up; but an hour afterwards 
he fell again, and at eleven o’clock he died: his limbs had been 
previously paralyzed and cold. 

CASE V. 

23d April, 1819.—A horse of the fifth troop was attacked at 
four o’clock in the morning ; at seven o’clock there was a well- 
marked remission, and he was calm during the remainder of the 
day. He had been bled twice, and some emeto-cathartic drinks 
had been administered. During the night he had another attack, 
which lasted about a quarter of an hour, and was followed by 
profound sleepiness. On the following day his state varied little: 
he was again bled, and cold water was dashed on his head. 
He endeavoured to eat some bran which was at the bottom of his 
drink: he made several efforts to swallow, but nothing passed, 
except a few drops of the white water. I have often remarked 
these ineffectual attempts to swallow in the horse labouring 
under vertigo. 


IN VERTIGO. 


261 

Ko great change took place until the evening of the 25th, 
when a most violent relapse occurred; he pushed with all his 
might against the wall ; he threw himself down, and still con¬ 
tinued to force himself against the wall. Getting up again after 
some hours, he forced his head to the bottom of the manger. A 
cold sweat covered his shoulders; his respiration was loud; his 
head was hot, particularly about the forehead, and he continu¬ 
ally and forcibly ground his teeth. 

26th ,—Profound drowsiness. At eleven o’clock a copious dis¬ 
charge of red-coloured and strong smelling urine. The bottom 
of the eye reflected a bright opaline colour. 

27th .—He died at eleven o’clock, after struggling violently. 
A little while before he had attempted to eat and to drink, but 
was unable to swallow. 


CASE VI. 

July, 1822.—A mare was attacked. She was immediately 
bled, and sedative drinks were administered, but without any 
good effect. On the third day of the disease, at the recommen¬ 
dation of M. Dupuy, who was then professor at Alfort, twenty 
grains of emetic tartar, dissolved in about a pint of warm w'ater, 
were injected into the jugular. Almost immediate relief fol¬ 
lowed. The horse got better and better during the space of 
a month, and was considered to be out of danger: a sudden 
relapse then occurred; the animal became immobile, and died of 
marasmus. 

It has hitherto been seen that bleeding is, at least, inefflca- 
cious if it is not injurious in vertigo, counterbalancing the good 
effects of, the emetic, and the emetic, perhaps, given in too 
small a quantity. The following facts will clearly shew that 
bleeding has an injurious effect. 

CASE VII. 

\6th May, 1825.—A horse, belonging to the Comte de P—, 
two months before had an attack of staggers that was at that 
time an epizootic complaint. He now lay on his litter in an ap¬ 
parently desperate state, and the illness of his former attendant 
had prevented any thing being done. I administered an ounce 
of emetic tartar in a drink. The horse remained for two days 
without power to rise; he had extraordinarily loud horhorigmi, 
and his head was paralyzed and motionless on the litter. At the 
end of that time the owner sent for the knacker to destroy and 
take him away; previously, however, a last attempt was made to 
get him on his legs, which succeeded. He no sooner got a little 
firm in his new position than he staled abundantly, drank half a 


262 THE USE OF EMETIC TARTAR 

pailfull of warm white water, and gathered a few fibres of hay 
that were in the manger ; in short, he lay down no more until he 
was perfectly convalescent. In fifteen days he was quite well. 
For the last five years he has been in hard service, and I have 
not lost sight of him. 

CASE vni. 

20/A May, 1826.—A horse labouring under staggers was put 
under my care. I pursued the mode of treatment recommended 
by Gilbert, and inserted four setons in his neck, and he was per¬ 
fectly cured. 

CASE IX. 

In the following month, another horse affected with staggers 
was placed under my care. Fifteen hours had elapsed since the 
first attack, and he had been during eight hours stretched on his 
litter. A farrier had seen him, and would have bled him; but, 
after striking him five or six times with the blood-stick, he gave 
it up, declaring that the blood was too thick, too frozen, to flow; 
and that explanation satisfied the proprietor, although he held a 
high station in the Academy of Medicine. Folly ! where next 
wait thou nestle ? This thickness of the blood, however, saved 
the horse. 

CASE X. 

7th March, 1827.—I gave an English horse, attacked with 
staggers, half an ounce of emetic tartar and an ounce of aloes. 
He was cured without relapse, or any of the ordinary conse¬ 
quences of this disease. 

CASE XI. 

2^th August, 1827.—I was desired to see ahorse belonging to 
M. B—, that was very ill, stretched on his litter, and was said 
to be overw^orked, foundered, lost. He had been ill some twelve 
hours ; and those who attended on him had not been niggardly 
in their bleeding, which had only made bad, worse. I prescribed 
an ounce of emetic tartar, not without many remarks on the 
quantity of the medicine on the part of the farrier who had pre¬ 
viously attended on the horse, and who vehemently declared 
that the case was absolutely incurable. The emetic was ad¬ 
ministered at eleven o’clock at night: at seven o’clock on the 
following morning I found him up, and searching for some fibres 
of hay amidst his litter, and w'hich he ate with a certain de¬ 
gree of appetite. He apparently went on well during some days, 
and then he relapsed and died, after being for a while paralyzed. 
It is suflfciently plain that the good effects of the emetic were 
destroyed by the bleedings made so rnal a propos. 


IN VERTIGO. 


263 


f 


CASE XII. 

25M Feh. 1828.—A horse, twenty years old, that had rendered 
good service in his time, and that was preserved more from the 
recollection of what he had done, than what he could now do, 
was attacked with vertigo. The proprietor, who, in his quality 
of officer of cavalry, thought that he had some pretensions to 
veterinary science, having questioned me with regard to the ma¬ 
lady, and the treatment which 1 intended to adopt, deemed it 
very extraordinary that I did not have immediate recourse to 
bleeding, which, in his opinion, such a case imperatively de¬ 
manded, and for which he appealed to the authority of an esti- 
inable confrere, M. G.; but, as I was obstinate, although they 
did not conceal their belief that I was somewhat beside myself, 
they left me to do as I pleased. 

I pursued, with some slight modifications, the plan of Gilbert, 
and with complete success. On the first day I administered an 
ounce of emetic tartar, with the same quantity of aloes and some 
opium. The attack had been exceedingly violent: the medicine 
produced loud rumbling of the bowels, which continued durino- 
the 25th, 26th, and 27th, and, although somewhat weake^ 
several days afterwards. I also applied four setons to the neck^ 
and enormous sinapisms on the thighs and chest. On the se¬ 
cond day he had roused himself a little; and this increased on 
the following day. On the fifth day the animal exhibited more 
drowsiness, and bore upon the reins by which he was secured in 
his stall. He pawed frequently, and agitated his tail as if he 
was teased by flies. By the advice of M. Dupuy I gave him a 
half-pound of bark, mixed with six or seven pounds of honey, in 
the space of three days. I intended by this to avoid the stimu¬ 
lating drinks recommended by M. Gilbert. Good panado was 
afterwards given, to the amount of three pounds every day, with 
a pound of honey. 

March lO^A.—He was led for the first time into the yard, and 
staggered like a drunken man. Fifteen days after that he re¬ 
turned to his former food and work. 

Twenty months afterwards he was found one morning dead in 
his stall, without any appearance of illness on the previous even¬ 
ing. 


CASE XIII. 

The case which I am now about to relate occurred during the 
convalescence of the last mentioned horse. About the middle of 
March, 1828, I was desired to see a horse, belonging to the 
gendarmerie of Paris, that was very ill, I immediately recog- 


STAGGERS. 


iiized the symptoms of staggers. Another veterinary surgeon 
attended with me, who requesting me to act as I thought best in 
such a case, I administered an ounce of emetic tartar about eleven 
o’clock in the morning. The horse beat himself about very much 
during the day, and, at seven o’clock in the evening, he fell, and 
was not able to rise again until the following day, when he ap¬ 
peared to be considerably better. The other veterinary surgeon, 
however, thought it his duty to bleed him, and he begged me to 
repeat the bleeding some time afterwards. I did so reluctantly, 
but honestly ; and, at eleven o’clock on the succeeding day, the 
knacker carried the animal away. I am far from imputing any 
blame to that surgeon, with whom I live in habits of friendship, 
and whom I sincerely respect; but I confess that I regard the 
death of this horse as attributable, in great part, to the copious 
bleedings that were practised at the moment that he was begin¬ 
ning to get better. 

CASE XIV. 

At the beginning of August, 1829,1 attended a horse, the pre¬ 
cise nature of whose disease was not evident for some days. I 
could only affirm that there was some internal inflammation; 
and yielding to the necessity which the veterinarian often feels 
to appear to be doing something, in order that he may not be 
considered as quite useless, I practised a bleeding, to which both 
the owner and the coachman much urged me. The animal was 
put on restricted diet and white water; at the end of three days, 
his loss of appetite and his dulness had increased, and I began 
to recognize the symptoms of stomach staggers {vertige ahdo~ 
mmol'). After many a violent struggle the horse fell. I then 
administered the emetic; it was about midnight. On the fol¬ 
lowing morning he had got up of his own accord, and without 
assistance; in the course of the day he appeared to improve, and 
he drank a little j but during the following night he relapsed, 
and died. 

Journal, Fev. 1835. 


[We are merely chroniclers here—and leave, for the present, 
this novel and singular mode of treating vertigo to the con¬ 
sideration and experience of our readers.— Edit.] 





265 


ON CRAMP, DISLOCATION OF THE PATELLA, 
AND HOCK LAMENESS. 

Mr. W. C. Spooner, V.S., Winchester. 

In the last December Number, there appears a paper, by a 
foreign veterinarian,^entitled, ''Cramp in Horses,’^ which, I 
think, deserves a few remarks, both from the novelty of the sub¬ 
ject, and as it is calculated to mislead a novice ] though a sci¬ 
entific practitioner will at once perceive the errors it contains. 
It appears that the writer, having met with many cases of lame¬ 
ness with the cause and seat of which he was unacquainted, 
resolves to get out of the difficulty by classing them all under 
the denomination of cramp; alike regardless of the true mean¬ 
ing of the term and the great discrepancy that occurs in the 
symptoms of his cases. It is enough for him to know that no 
exterior lesion is discoverable, in order to persuade himself that 
the case is one of cramp. 

He divides cramp into three sorts ; but this division is only an 
attempt to support false premises by ideal distinctions, and is 
of no utility whatever. The first case he details presents the 
exact symptoms of dislocation of the patella; and if we could 
conceive it possible that the bone could have slipped into its 
place from the effects of the friction, unknown to M. Prevost, 
it would readily explain the mystery. 

I remember about two years since being sent for to attend a 
colt that had suddenly lost the use of one of his legs the pre¬ 
vious day. He had been put into a stable, perfectly well, with 
the intention of being sold by auction, at a sale ; but on moving 
him out for that purpose, a few hours afterwards, he went en¬ 
tirely on three legs ; the off hind leg was dragged after the 
others, the animal not possessing the slightest capability of 
flexing it. I was assured by several respectable farmers that 
it was, that it must be the cramp, and nothing else; however, 
on minute examination, I discovered that the patella was dis¬ 
located outwards. I therefore desired an assistant to pull the 
foot forwards, and, getting behind the colt, I dovetailed my hands 
in front of the patella, and forced the bone into its place. The 
cramp advocates stared with surprise on finding tlie colt could 
use his limb with freedom; but, to satisfy themselves farther, 
they made him trot and turn suddenly, and in a minute or two 
the bone was again dislocated ; it was, however, reduced with 
much less difficulty and force than before : he was again trotted 
and frightened, and the immobility of the limb once more re¬ 
turned, but the bone regained its situation without assistance 

VOL. VIII. Q O 


266 ON CRAMP, DISLOCATION OF THE PATELLA, &C. 

by moving the colt a few steps. A pitch charge was applied 
to the part, the animal was turned out, and did well. The 
facility with which the bone was dislocated and replaced the 
second and third times, deserves note; and it was this circum¬ 
stance that induced me to think that it was possible M. Prevost’s 
case might have been of this nature. 

The second case detailed is decidedly one of hock lameness, 
and, in my opinion, the lesion existed between the tibia and 

astragalas. . . tv/t -n 

The third is a case no doubt similar in its situation ; M. Pre- 

vost himself considered it was in the hock. Why in the world, 
then, should he have called it cramp ? 

The fourth is a case likewise of hock disease, and terminating 
in spavin. M. Prevost says, it would be interesting to know 
whether the osseous tumour was caused by cramp. It would, 
I think, have been much more sagacious, if he had considered 
that deep-seated injury had taken place; that the ligaments were 
involved in the mischief; and that nature, in order to relieve 
the inflammation, threw out an ossific' deposit, after which, as 
is generally the case, the lameness was diminished. 

Case the fifth is a lameness of the fore extremity, and, as it 
occurred after exposure to cold, was probably cramp or rheu¬ 
matism. 

The sixth and seventh cases were possibly cramp; but the 
two others which M. Prevost alludes to, presented the symptoms 
of hock disease, viz. lameness after rest, and diminution or ces¬ 
sation from exercise. 

I cannot better conclude these observations than by men¬ 
tioning a case that has recently come under my notice, which 
still further illustrates the seat of obscure hock lameness. 
A chesnut mare, five years old, appeared slightly lame in No¬ 
vember last, in the off hind leg ; it diminished and nearly dis¬ 
appeared from exercise, and was much worse sometimes than at 
others. Not the slightest enlargement or heat could be disco¬ 
vered at the hock or elsewhere; but notwithstanding this, I at 
once pronounced her lame in the hock. She was rested a short 
time, and a vesicating liniment was rubbed on the hock; this, 
or more probably the rest, relieved her: she became nearly 
sound in her action, and was worked moderately through the 
winter, though hunted now and then. She soon became, how¬ 
ever, as lame as before, but the lameness did not much increase. 
She died of inflammation of the bladder and bowels, last month, 
and afforded me an opportunity of examining the hock, which, 
as I expected, discovered an abrasion of surface and ulceration 
on the ridge of the tibia, and in the concavity of the astragalus. 


267 


DEEP FIRING FOR CHRONIC LAMENESSES OF 

THE HOCK AND LEGS. 

Mr, J. Toombs, F.iS., Bengal Horse Artillery, 
now at Pershore. 

The following case is extracted from my registry of sick and 
lame horses. If approved of, it shall, at no great distance of 
time, be followed by others. 

Dec. lOthf 1832.—An aged troop horse was admitted into the 
hospital stable this morning in consequence of severely injuring 
both hind legs by entangling them in the wheel of a gun car¬ 
riage while at practice. There were slight contusions on the near 
leg: the off one was dreadfully bruised, and the horse could not 
rest the least portion of his weight on it. When held up, it ap¬ 
peared as though the tibia was fractured, the hock and leg 
having an exceedingly rotatory motion. On minute examination 
I ascertained that the gastrocnemic muscles were ruptured where 
they become tendinous. Six quarts of blood were taken from 
the femoral vein, and a patten shoe applied. Repelling lotions 
and fomentations were ordered, and a purgative administered. 

Wth, —Patient in statu quo. Fomentations continued. 

18^A.—No perceptible amendment. It is very strange that 
no swelling has taken place. The parts must be roused into ac¬ 
tion; therefore let a blister be applied. 

20th .—The blister has produced a violent inflammation, and 
an enormous swelling. Treatment, fomentations and physic. 

27th. —Inflammation abated ; swelling less. He can now bear 
a little weight on the feet. Apply a charge to brace up the in¬ 
jured parts. 

Jan. Othy 1833.—The patient improving slowly; but when 
the foot is elevated from the ground, the leg has still a sort of 
rotatory motion. Continue the charge. 

20th. —The injured muscles are extremely weak and relaxed. 
Patient very lame. This morning I adopted my favourite remedy 
for all long existing cases of lameness in the hock and legs, viz., 
the actual cautery, deeply and extensively. 

ZOth. —Inflammation diminishing from the effects of the cau¬ 
tery. 

Feh. \0th .—I had him led out; he walks much better. The 
patten shoe was removed, and a thick heel then applied. 

\^th. —Lameness going off rapidly. 

20th. —The firing has had a very excellent effect: he can now 
trot tolerably well. The firing produced a deep-seated inflam¬ 
mation and effusion, which united the ruptured parts together. 


268 


March 7th »—Discharged fit for duty. I attribute the cure to 
the effects of the cautery, as it very soon made the horse a fit 
and proper subject for a species of military duty which is some¬ 
times particularly laborious. 


ON INSANITY IN THE DOMESTICATED 

QUADRUPED. 

By Professor Rodet, of Toulouse, 

In the Dictionary of Medical Science,” in which there is 
much that is interesting to the veterinarian, the editor, under the 
title insanity” (folie), has neglected to call the attention of 
naturalists to the derangements which seem to take place in the 
faculties, truly intellectual, which domesticated quadrupeds evi¬ 
dently possess. In truth, however, the veterinary surgeon has 
not collected a sufficient number of well-authenticated facts ab¬ 
solutely to prove that insanity does exist in the animals which 
we have subjected to our sway ; but, since these animals are en¬ 
dowed with certain faculties or inclinations superior to instinct, 
such as volition, memory, attachment, hate, resentment, fear, &c., 
which indubitably prove that they possess the power of compar¬ 
ing their ideas, and, consequently, a certain degree of intelli¬ 
gence, it will necessarily follow, from the very possession of 
these faculties, that they may be deranged or destroyed by a 
multitude of causes which it is unnecessary to state here; in fact, 
that insanity in some of its varieties may and must exist as a 
consequence of their complicated organization, and the circum¬ 
stances in which they are placed. 

The brain, the organ essential to the intellectual faculties, is, 
with few differences, the same in the domestic animal as in man. 
In him the lesion of a certain part of the brain often draws 
after it the derangement, or disturbance, or perversion of a cer¬ 
tain faculty ; and it is well known that the same lesions, whether 
mechanical or organic, are to be met with in the inferior animals. 
Th ese identical lesions—ought they not, in an analogous organi¬ 
zation, to produce nearly similar results? especially since com¬ 
parative anatomy proves to us that, among all the beings endowed 
with life, wherever we find an organ w^ell developed, we find also 
the faculty of which it is the base and instrument; and we find 
the particular disease of which it alone can be the seat, and of 
which the lesion of this organ can become the special, and, more 
or less, inevitable cause. May it not hence be concluded, that 
in animals, in which essential lesions of the brain are observed. 




ON INSANITY IN THE DOMESTICATED QUADRUPED. 269 

certain derangements of the cerebral functions will also be found, 
if we will take the trouble to look for them ? 

Besides, the disordered motions—the unaccustomed, and, as it 
were, involuntary actions—the fury—the caprices more or less 
singular the unusual vices—the unaccustomed exertion of mus¬ 
cular strength, &c., which are seen in horses in certain violent 
inflammatory diatheses—in frenzy, vertigo, and some varieties 
of apoplexy, &c., are they not in the highest degree analogous to 
certain acts of insanity in man, and especially to that furious 
delirium which constitutes some maniacal affections, and accom¬ 
panies others? Finally, the acute delirium, characterized in the 
horse by certain errors of the will and the natural propensities and 
desires, may it not sometimes be seen in other graver affections, 
and degenerate into a continued chronic delirium, which is, in 
truth, actual insanity, and not incompatible with the free exercise 
of the vital functions, and with the continuance of health ? 

M. Lessona has remarked*, that morbid irritation of the brain 
and its meninges, becoming of a chronic nature, may be the fre¬ 
quent cause of the vices which many horses display, whether 
under the form of starting, restiveness, impatience, biting, kick¬ 
ing, and rushing on persons without provocation. 

The remarkable fury which some animals, gentle in every 
other respect, shew at the sight of one object, and one alone, and 
which makes them quite beside themselves whenever they see 
that object, is it not in some cases true monomania? The pecu¬ 
liar eagerness with which certain females, that before had been 
good mothers, search out and pursue their own offspring in order to 
destroy them, and the evident delight (which we cannot behold 
without horror) with which they devour them, is not this insani- 
ty; and so much the more distinctly characterized when we com¬ 
pare it wuth that natural instinct for the preservation of their 
young ones, and their attachment to them, and the unwearied 
care with which they nurse them, the observation of which so 
much delights us ? 

Fear! are there not many examples of its having produced the 
most remarkable effects upon animals which, from their cause, 
their character, and their duration-even as long as the life of the 
animal—bear much resemblance to insanity in the human being? 
It is not because the derangements in the cerebral structure and 
function which take place in the human being cannot happen in 
t^ quadruped that the history of veterinary medicine does not 
afford cases of insanity so marked and perfect as those that are 
observed in man ; but because, our domesticated quadrupeds 
not having the gift of speech, we are deprived of one of the surest 
* Propa^atore f'dhQKolo di rnaggio, 182/. 


270 ON INSANITY IN THE DOMESTICATED QUADRUPED. 

and easiest means of detecting insanity, namely, by the incohe¬ 
rence and singularity of conversation ; and also because, while 
all the cerebral functions connected with thought, like all the 
intellectual faculties, are less developed than in man, their de¬ 
rangements will be more likely to escape observation; and, chiefly, 
because from the absence of speech they are less easily recog¬ 
nized, studied, or described. If, however, insanity may exist in 
animals, it is much more rare than in the human being; and 
which is doubtless owing to the imagination, that has so great a 
share in the development of the intellectual aberrations of men, 
being less active, and less capable of excitation in the inferior 
portions of the creation, than in him. 

Let this, however, be as it will, the following facts, although 
too isolated for any medical conclusions to be drawn from them, 
may prove that affections analogous to insanity may really 
exist in the domestic animals; and, even although they may 
not be admitted to be veritable maladies of this kind, yet they 
will, perhaps, attract the attention of observers to derangements 
of the intellectual faculties of animals more numerous and more 
frequent than is generally supposed. 

CASE I. 

I saw, at the commencement of 1824, a horse, seven years old, 
belonging to the first regiment of Chasseurs, then in garrison at 
Rouen. He was remarkable for an habitual air of stupidity, and 
a peculiar wandering expression of countenance : his head was 
usually carried very high, and his neck was stretched out; but 
there was nothing else that could lead to the suspicion of any 
particular nervous affection. Whenever he saw any thing that 
he had been unaccustomed to, or heard any sudden and unusual 
noise, or heard a horse struck, whether it was near to or at a dis¬ 
tance from him, or even, sometimes, when his corn was thrown 
into the manger without the precaution of speaking to him, or 
caressing him, he was frightened to an almost incredible degree; 
he recoiled precipitately, every limb trembled, and he struggled 
violently to escape. After several useless efforts to get away, he 
would work himself into the highest degree of rage, so that it was 
dangerous to approach him. This state of excitement was followed 
by dreadful convulsions, and which did not cease until he had 
broken his halter, or, at least, detached himself from his tram¬ 
mels ; and then, as soon as he felt himself free, when there was 
nothing to constrain his convulsive movepients, he became calm, 
dismissed all his apprehensions, and suffered himself to be i 
caressed and led back to his stall, where he immediately began i 
to eat, and there was not a trace of agitation remaining. During ; 


ON INSANITY IN THE DOMESTICATED QUADRUPED. 271 

• 

the intermission between these fits there was nothing extraordi¬ 
nary to be perceived about him, save an almost continual inquie¬ 
tude, and a wandering and stupid expression of countenance. 

We knew that this horse had previously belonged to a brutal 
soldier, who frequently beat him about the head ; and it was said 
that the horse had been quiet and tractable, and had never fallen 
into this state of seeming insanity until he had been thus ill- 
used. 

Having now become not only dangerous but absolutely unfit 
for service, he was cast. Before that 1 had the opportunity of 
observing him during several months in my infirmary; and neither 
the kindest treatment, nor the utmost care to inspire him with 
confidence, could preserve from these occasional fits of terror, 
nor in the least diminish their violence. 

CASE II. 

About the same time there was in the regiment a mare, six 
years old, who was in the same state, and from the same cause, 
but with this difference, that the fits did not continue so long, and 
that they ceased when she was able to detach herself from her 
halter; for, this being effected, she would throw herself back¬ 
ward on her haunches and be quiet. This she was the more 
easily enabled to accomplish, when, on account of a more than 
usually nervous and irritable state, she was loose in her box. 
At other times it would have been dangerous to have tied her 
with a strong halter, because she would have destroyed herself 
in her attempts to throw herself backwards, she was therefore 
very slightly fastened to the manger. 

A subaltern officer afterwards took her, and endeavoured to cure 
her; and, after a long course of patient attention, caresses, and 
gentle treatment, and the careful avoidance of those things which 
used to annoy her, he had the satisfaction of seeing the com- 
i plaint gradually disappear. She was killed in the campaign of 
11815. 

I I have selected these facts from many others, because they ap- 
I pear to me very nearly to approach to some of the affections 
that would rank under the term insanity in the human subject. 

Finally, if it should hereafter be proved that insanity may 
exist in animals approaching in a greater or less degree to the 
i perfect organization of man, may we not, perhaps, when their 
j causes and actual character are better known than they hitherto 
f have been, class under this affection some obstinate caprices and 
I whimsical habits which we can neither conquer nor change, and 
i also some inexplicable aversions and instances of depraved ap¬ 
petite ? Are we not often struck with the remarkable analogy 




272 THE EAULV HISTORY OP VETERINARY MEDICINE. 

which seems to exist between the insanity of man and all those 
fancies so singularly capricious in animals ; the return of which 
is more or less frecjuent, and often by no means to be prevented , 
and which, besides, are only seen when connected with one spe¬ 
cial circumstance or train of circumstances, the common appear¬ 
ance and behaviour of the animal presenting nothing extraordi¬ 
nary, or even particular ? Does it not also seem impossible to 
avoid referring to any other derangement than insanity those 
sudden dispositions to restiveness, stubbornness, fantastical con¬ 
duct, fury, which suddenly appear \vithout any apparent diseased 
state, either habitual or periodical; and in horses that at other 
times, and in every other situation, the object of their aversion, 
their terror being put out of the question, are as obedient and 
tractable and free, and as exempt from dangerous caprices, as 
they are now frightened, difficult to manage, or timid ? 

Doctrine Vhysiologique appliquee a la Medecine Veterinaire, 


THE VETERINARIAN, MAY 1 , 1835 . 


Ne quid falsi dicere audeat, ne quid veri non audeat.—C icero. 

THE EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 

Extracted from The History of Medicine f hy M, J. F. C. 

Hecker, Professor at the University of Berlin, 

It would be exceedingly useful to unite the maladies of all 
living beings in one course of instruction, in order to arrive at a 
profound knowledge of the laws of nature ; but this is a problem, 
to the solution of which many obstacles have hitherto opposed 
themselves. Before this union, both human and veterinary me¬ 
dicine ought to have attained the highest state of perfection. 
They both owe their origin to the necessity which bounds the 
latter to the maladies of a few animals only. Both being now 
recognized among the most useful sciences, they may, as each 
makes new progress, be compared together, but they cannot be 
mingled in the same system of tuition; for the age has not yet . 
sufficiently advanced to enable any one to treat of the diseases i 







THE EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 273 

of every being endo\ved with life, with that true and enlarged 
spirit of philosophy which such a subject requires. Even in 
modern times, after so many volumes, and with so much ability, 
have been written on one or the other of these divisions of me¬ 
dical research, who is there who has dared to attempt a work of 
this kind ? It would, therefore, be unjust to expect to meet with 
such an union in the productions of the writers of antiquity. Phy¬ 
siology, indeed, presents us with the noble works of Aristotle and 
Galen, in which man and the inferior animals are so advanta¬ 
geously and so accurately compared together; but Pathology, 
limited to the human being, has scorned to avail herself of the 
important aid she might have derived from veterinary medicine. 
At the period in which these great men lived, science was in a 
flourishing state; later, when it fell into decay, the union of 
which we have been speaking would have been less practicable. 

Veterinary medicine, however, so necessary in civilized socie¬ 
ty, and which follows so closely the track of human medicine, 
has long existed as a separate branch of science. It was not 
forgotten by the Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, who, 
animated by an ardent zeal for the progress of science, caused 
the most careful research to be made in every branch of knowledge 
of which antiquity could boast. A collection of fragments from 
the most valuable of the older veterinarians was made, in which 
are found the rudiments, at least, of much of the knowledge of 
modern times. 

In ages of the remotest antiquity, little notice was taken of the 
diseases of most domestic animals. The Greeks were the first 
who shewed a laudable disposition to elevate those servants of man 
from the state of neglect in which they lay, and to render them 
more useful. The work of Xenophon on equestrian matters 
shews how diligently the Greeks had studied the various quali¬ 
ties of the horse ; but it is to be regretted that we have no record 
of the treatment of the diseases of the horse at that period when 
Greece flourished most. Xenophon mentions only one disease 
to which the horse is subject—acute rheumatism, 

Simon, whose writings on this subject were antecedent to those 

VOL. VIII. p p 


274 THE EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 

of Xenophon, acquired great celebrity, and a statue of bronze 
was erected in honour of him at Eleusis. 

Veterinary medicine was not, to any considerable degree, ele¬ 
vated to the rank of a science until much later, and when letters 
and the arts had begun to decay; but many veterinary surgeons had 
before that exercised their profession, and accompanied the troops 
in their expeditions. It is difficult to account for the appear¬ 
ance of skilful, scientific, and experimental veterinary surgeons 
in the middle of the fourth century, a time when all other sciences 
were obscured ; and when medicine itself, although it yet ranked 
an Oribasus amidst its votaries, was beginning to suffer from 
the spirit of compilation which then reigned. 

Towards the commencement of the second century, and, per¬ 
haps, a little before, there were in the Roman camp two spaces, 
called the valetudinariam and the veterinarum. The first was 
destined for the sick and wounded men; the other for horses 
that were diseased or lame. The latter was placed near the forge 
and the other buildings appropriated for the horses*. After that 
there is no doubt that, among the Romans, and, still later, in the 
Greek empire, veterinary surgeons regularly accompanied the 
armies. Besides other testimonies to this effect, we have that 
of Apsyrtus, who says that he followed Constantine in his expe¬ 
ditions. 

The oldest veterinary writer of whom mention occurs is Eume- 
lus of Thebes, who flourished about the end of the third century. 
Some fragments of a great work of this author are preserved, 
which prove that he had had great experience, and justify, to 
a considerable extent, the reputation he enjoyed, but which 
certainly fail in proving him to be a scientific man. He has de¬ 
scribed fever in the horse, cough, inflammation of the lungs, and 
their termination in phthisis ; inflammation of the glands of the 
ear (the parotids), and other glandular tumours of the neck, 
connected with suppuration and discharge. His enumeration 
of symptoms, however, is often given in a superficial and 
obscure manner, and betrays a want of solid knowledge, and 
also a certain tendency to empiricism. 


^ Hyginus de Castramentatione. 


THii EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 275 

We are acquainted merely with the names of two other vete¬ 
rinary writers, who probably lived about the same time, namely, 
Stratonicus, and Hyeronymus of Lybia. 

The most valuable of these early writers is Apsyrtus, who lived 
a little before the time of Oribasus. He accompanied the expe¬ 
dition of Constantine the Great against the Sarmatians, between 
the years 319 and 321, as veterinary surgeon to the cavalry. He 
acquired great celebrity, as is proved by numerous letters written 
by persons of different ranks in society, and particularly by vete¬ 
rinarians. These letters were collected by Apsyrtus himself, and 
dedicated to a physician named Asclepiades; and it appears 
that, at that time, several veterinary surgeons exercised their art 
in Alexandria and Laodicea. It is also proved that this profes¬ 
sion was hereditary in the family of Apsyrtus, for he tells us that 
his grandfather Demetrius was a veterinarian. When scientific 
establishments were wanting, instruction was sedulously trans¬ 
mitted from father to son. We possess, in the writings of 
this author, many natural and valuable observations, but none 
very profound. He had little connexion with the medical men 
of his time, which is easily accounted for by his want of educa¬ 
tion ; and farriery, separated from medicine, obtained an inde¬ 
pendent situation, which enabled it to distinguish itself more 
advantageously. 

Apsyrtus says expressly that the horse has no gall-bladder, 
but this he might have easily learned from the writings of Aris¬ 
totle ; and we have no right to expect from these early veterina¬ 
rians anatomical knowledge beyond that which was common to 
their age. In physiology they contented themselves with the 
popular opinion, and with the light which they could obtain 
from medicine. Apsyrtus recognized the hereditary nature of 
ophthalmia in the horse. 

We might easily cite other diseases, with regard to which his 
opinions were singularly exact. He very accurately describes the 
nature of fever in the horse, its symptoms and its causes; and he 
combats it by a simple mode of treatment, and without medicine. 
He prescribes, at the commencement of the disease, a restricted, 
diet and bleeding from the head ; and, after the first day, gentle 


276 THE EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 

exercise and moderate regimen. When the disease evidently pro¬ 
ceeds from fatigue, and is accompanied by loss of flesh, he re¬ 
commends a tonic and nutritive diet. The mode of treatment 
advised by him in other affections is equally worthy of praise, on 
account of its simplicity. The only thing for which he can be 
reproached is his having recourse to amulets and superstitious 
practices, as preservatives from disease ; that which did so much 
injury to veterinary medicine in the latter period of the Roman 
empire, and to so great a degree arrested its progress. 

The nervous or contagious putrid fever of horses was then 
generally dreaded. We have no fragment of Apsyrtus on this 
subject; but passages from Pisterius of Sicily, Leontius,iEmilius 
of Spain, and Litorius of Benevento, lead us to suppose that 
they had already witnessed some appearances of this dread¬ 
ful malady under an epizootic form. The ancient veterinarians 
endeavoured to prevent the progress of the malady by separating 
the sound horses from the diseased, and which they could only 
accomplish by means of convenient stabling and pasturage*. 
We do not find, in ancient authors, whether before or after the 
establishment of Christianity, any plan for measures of this kind 
in contagious diseases of the human being; unless, indeed, we 
reckon the various regulations of the police for the purification of 
the air, established both among the Greeks and the Romans. 
Coelius Aurelianus even blames the salutary counsel given by 
some physicians of his time to prevent the contagion of leprosy, 
by cutting off all connexion with those that are infected, and 
says that medicine is incapable of such an act of inhumanity. 
They knew, even then, the manner in which contagious diseases 
are propagatedf; but the prejudice, the barbarism, the superstition, 

* In the “ Geoponicorum, sive de re rustica,” drawn up by order of Con¬ 
stantine Porpliyrogenitus, there are many important fragments on veterinary 
medicine, which are not found in the collection entitled Hippiatrica, 
and which may serve to render this last vvork more complete. The passage 
where the isolation of horses labouring under certain complaints is men¬ 
tioned, is not found in the Greek edition of the Hippiatrica, but is con¬ 
tained in the Latin translation of (Feterinarice Medicinie),\N\iic\i 

is in many respects more complete. 

f See Marx, Origines contagii. 


THE EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 277 

and, above all, the negligence of the different governments, pre¬ 
vented the enacting of salutary ordinances on a matter of so great 
importance ; and hence it happened, that while there were regu¬ 
lations to prevent the spread of contagion among cattle, no one 
had dreamed of endeavouring to preserve the biped from the 
danger to which he was exposed. 

The contagious nature of strangles was then known, and the 
same measures of isolation were resorted to, in order to prevent 
other horses from being attacked. Apsyrtus says, expressly, that 
this malady is very dangerous among colts, as we find at the pre¬ 
sent day ; and he carefully distinguishes other diseases of horses 
accompanied by discharge from the nostrils, among which are 
glanders and nasal gleet. The last he clearly describes under the 
name of the humid diseaseand he considers it as easy to 
cure when the mucous discharge has no fetid smell; but, other¬ 
wise, very difficult to get rid of. One would think that he was 
here speaking of glanders. In the malady termed the dry dis¬ 
ease, and which Eumelius regards as incurable, no discharge 
from the nostrils is observed ; but the principal symptom is ma¬ 
lignant inflammation of the lungs and diaphragm. Under the 
name of gouty disease he seems to understand glanders, or ozena, 
with rheumatic affection of the Joins or thighs. Theomnestus 
speaks of glanders more clearly under the title of foetid disease, 
to distinguish it from that which is' unaccompanied by peculiar 
smell, and which answers to our mild coryza. We must not 
expect from these authors an exact distinction between these dif¬ 
ferent species of nasal disease. They make use of no technical 
terms, but describe what they have seen in common language; 
and they know not how to reduce a complicated malady to the 
various simple affections of which it is made up, as is sufficiently 
evident in the account which Apsyrtus gives of broken wind,, 
and which has more resemblance to inflammation of the dia¬ 
phragm terminating in a collection of purulent matter, than tO' 
asthma properly so called. 

The etiology of glanders, and the diseases analogous to it, 
which we find in the fragments of Apsyrtus, may give us some 
idea of the physiology of veterinarians at that time. ‘^The want 
of a gall-bladder in the horse easily causes a too abundant flow 


278 THE EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 

of bile in the arteries on the side of the dorsal portion of the 
spine;—an injurious humidity is propagated hence to the spinal 
marrow, and from the spinal marrow to the brain, which derives 
its nourishment from the spinal cord. The old theory, which re¬ 
cognized every catarrhal affection as coming from the brain, had 
great influence in producing this opinion. 

Apsyrtus describes acute founder in the horse in terms that 
can scarcely be misunderstood, and gives it the old name of 
hordeatio —the barley disease. He orders bleeding, and a 
chanf>’e of food. It is evident from this that he subscribed to 
the common belief that founder was produced by the horse 
eating greedily of barley, after unusual fatigue. Hierocles sup¬ 
posed it to be caused by the horse drinking a considerable quan¬ 
tity of cold water when he was hot, and we yet see many 
cases in which it is thus produced. 

Apsyrtus, and other veterinary writers, describe farcy under 
the name of elephantiasis. They regard it as contagious, and, 
as in strangles and putrid fever, they recommend that the horse 
should be separated from his companions, in order to prevent 
the propagation of the disease. The description which the same 
author p-ives of tetanus is excellent. Some veterinarians of that 

O 

day attempted to cure the horse by a bath of hot sand—others 
plunged the animal into a dunghill. 

We might cite some very exact and very instructive descrip¬ 
tions of other diseases, as dysentery, dropsy, inflammation of 
the kidneys ; many inflammatory complaints, and insanity in the 
horse, for the cure of which castration is recommended. Apsyr¬ 
tus prescribes a very insufficient measure for the bite of a rabid 
dog, in fact, nothing more than simple irritation of the wound, 
as soon as that can be employed : this, however, proves that the 
Greek veterinarians had observed rabies in the horse. 

The precepts which Apsyrtus gives as to bleeding, extend to 
a great length. He mentions the different places at which it 
should be effected for various diseases : he inveighs against the 
abuse of it as practised on sound horses, or those that have been 
simply overworked; and he says that bleeding from the thigh 
will sometimes be followed by inflammation, which will termi¬ 
nate in permanent lameness. His directions as to castration 


EDINBURGH VETERINARY SCHOOL. 279 

and other surgical operations are valuable. He treats fractures 
below the knee with splints and bandages, and he says that he 
usually cures them in forty days. Fractures above the knee he 
considers to be generally incurable. In prolapsus of the uterus 
he usually employs cold water, and repeated punctures with a 
fine needle—a kind of acupuncturation which bears some re¬ 
semblance to the operation performed in the east from the oldest 
time. 

[To be continued ] 


Examination of the Edinburgh Veterinary School. 

The Annual Examination of the Veterinary School, conducted 
by Mr. Dick, under the patronage of the Highland and Agri¬ 
cultural Societ)^ of Scotland, took place in the Lecture Rooms, 
Clyde Street, on Thursday and Friday, April the 16th and 17th, 
when the following students, who had completed the prescribed 
course of study, were, after examination, found qualified, and 
obtained diplomas:—James White, Paxton, Berwickshire; Robert 
Mason, North Berwick, Haddington; John Tait, Tweedrnouth, 
Northumberland ; Henry Seaton, Edinburgh; James Horsburgh, 
Castletown, Mid Lothian; John Anderson, Libberton, Mid 
Lothian ; William Anderson, Lanark; Peter Strut, Coldstream, 
Berwickshire; John Pattison St. Clair, Morpeth ; John Donald¬ 
son, Paisley; Andrew Edmonstone, Aberargie, Perthshire; 
Alexander Waddell, Guildtown, Perthshire; James Maxwell, 
Dalswinton, Dumfries ; John Falconer, Loanhead, Mid Lothian; 
and John Aldington Ainslie, London. 

The proficiency shewn by the students in the several branches 
of medical science, and especially in that department more im¬ 
mediately the object of their pursuit, afforded much satisfaction 
to all who witnessed the examination. Each student, before 
being admitted on trial, is required to attend a course of two 
years’ study under Mr. Dick, and during which period, by the 
very liberal conduct of several of the most distinguished medical 
professors and lecturers in the city, he has the benefit of free 
admission to their respective classes. As upon former occa¬ 
sions, the convener and committee appointed by the Society 
superintended the examinations, which were conducted by Pro- 



280 


EDINBURGH VETERINARY SCHOOL. 


fessors Sir George Ballingall, Graham, and Lizars; Drs. 
Gillespie, Wm. Wood, Mackintosh, Robertson, and Aikin j 
Mr. J. G. M. Burt, surgeon, and by Messrs. Gray and Hen¬ 
derson, veterinary surgeons at Edinburgh. 

At the close of the business, the convener shortly addressed 
the students, and congratulated them on the favourable termi¬ 
nation of their studies. They had all acquitted themselves well, 
and to four, who had more particularly distinguished themselves, 
premiums had been awarded. The convener, in conclusion, 
earnestly entreated the students to endeavour, under an humble 
trust in Divine assistance, by a correct deportment in their 
future lives and conduct, to prove themselves worthy of the 
advantages of the liberal education which they had enjoyed. 
He assured them, that as it was the only return which they had 
it in their power to make to those generous medical friends to 
\x hose liberality they were so much indebted, and he was satisfied 
their future good conduct and success in life would be the most 
gratifying remuneration which these gentlemen could receive. 

To the medical gentlemen, to whose kind assistance the School 
was so much indebted for its success, he begged, in the name of 
the committee, and of the Highland and Agricultural Society of 
Scotland, to return his best thanks; and he was certain that all 
who felt interested in the Institution would agree with him in 
expressing their satisfaction of the manner in which Mr. Dick 
continued to discharge the duties of his situation. 

Sir George Ballingall then expressed to the students the high 
satisfaction which he and the other medical gentlemen present 
had witnessed the appearance made by them on their examination; 
and enforced the advice given them by the convener, as to the 
care they ought to take to exhibit propriety of conduct in their 
future lives. 

Mr. Dick then returned his thanks to the medical gentlemen 
who had attended the examinations, and in a particular manner 
to those who furnished his pupils with free admission to their 
lectures. Without this great advantage, he found he could not, 
by any exertions of his own, have produced pupils who did so 
much credit to the School as those now examined. 



TO COURESPONDENTS. 


281 

WE acknowledge the receipt of a letter from the gentleman 
who once sent us a packet of a medicine in which he put great 
faith as a remedy for glanders. He tells us that it has perfectly 
succeeded in another case, in which glanders was combined with 
farcy, and the glanders communicated from another horse. He 
adds, that he is anxious to have it tried, and as extensively as 
may be, in the practice of others. 

We have already stated, that it perfectly succeeded in a case 
under our own inspection ; and if he will send us another pack¬ 
age of it, we shall be ready to forward his wishes, by transmit¬ 
ting portions of it to those who wall put it to the test: but this 
on the plain understanding, that if the medicine should be proved 
to be as valuable as he thinks it to be, the whole history of its 
composition and mode of application shall be given to the public. 

I believe,’' says he, in his last communication, that the time 
will come when I shall be enabled to publish such facts as may 
** stagger some in authority j” but the only reason I have for con¬ 
cealment now, is, that I do not like to be laughed at; but I will 
acknowledge myself when I can bring forward a sufficient num¬ 
ber of proofs positive.” 

We do not see the danger of his being laughed at” now : 
but, however, he shall have his own way, and we will hold him to 
his pledge. 

We thank our Somersetshire friend, A veterinary Surgeon” 
(we assign his locality to shew him that we do know him, and have 
heard from him before), for the compliment which he pays our 
Journal; but he must really permit us to use our own judgment 
in the selection of our papers. We have many masters to please ; 
and the only way to give satisfaction to the best of them, is to act 
impartially, and to fear nobody. 

He charges us with inserting some very common-place cases 
of horses that die at last, and such cases as every one who has 
been in country practice six months has met with often.” 

We demur to the truth of the accusation. We regard the re¬ 
cords of fatal cases as some of the most valuable that a medical 
Journal can contain. They are convincing proofs of the honesty 
of the writer—they rank among those few, and too few they are, 

VOL. VI IT. on 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 


282 

on which we can place implicit reliance 5 and among those which 
The Veterinarian contains, there is scarcely one from which 
can be fairly drawn, or from which can be forced by a far 
more malignant critic than our Somersetshire friend, the slightest 
impeachment of the skill of the practitioner. The warning against 
a dangerous and fatal path is but little less important than the 
unfolding of another that promises to lead to success. 

But these every day cases,” as he calls them in another 
part of his letter, they are those of which our practice is made 

—thev are those about which we are too apt to be careless j 
and in which we oftener err, and compromise our own reputation 
and the interest of our employers than in more complicated and 
difficult ones. We have again looked over some of these cases to 
which we imagine our correspondent refers, and they certainly are 
very similar to many which almost daily occupy us ; yet there is 
a peculiarity in the development, progress, connexion, and ter¬ 
mination of the disease, which afford matter for useful reflection. 

The object of The Veterinarian is the improvement of our 
profession. We are evidently accomplishing this by the insertion 
of papers—and we can boast of no small a number of them—which 
well and scientifically treat of new and important points; but 
we are effecting the same purpose, and as surely and rapidly too, 
by encouraging in our junior brethren a habit of observation— 
the practice of recording their cases, and the ambition of con¬ 
tributing their share, be it greater or smaller, to the common 
accumulatincf stock of science. There are those, and we would 
proudly point them out if we could consistently do so, who are 
becoming, or who have already become, sterling ornaments of our 
profession, whose first attempt at authorship, and that not critically 
correct, the pages of our Journal contain. There are those whose 
maiden essays were condemned by persons as fastidious and hy¬ 
percritical as our friend, who now, we will answer for it, 
search for their names in the table of contents, as affording 
assurance of pleasure and improvement in the perusal of their 
communications. 

But, after all, this accusation comes with an ill grace from 
him who has contributed nothing at all to the value of our work. 
If we oceasionally insert very common-place” cases, let him, 


TO CORRESPONDENTS. 


and those whom he says join with him in the complaint, keep ns 
well supplied with better ones. He who assists not in the labour 
has no right to find fault with the execution of the work. All 
this, however, in perfect good-humour; for we know that 
veterinary surgeon” is our friend, and we regard him with feel¬ 
ings as friendly as he bears towards us. 

Our intellect is too obtuse to understand the point or wit of 
J. P.’s communication; and, perhaps, we have given ourselves 
no great deal of trouble to discover them, because every combatant 
in our tournament shall wield none but lawful weapons, and shall 
enter the lists with his visor up. 

Y. 




Quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid non.—H or. 


Bridgewater Treatises, No. 9. Animal and Vegetable Physiology, 

By Peter Mark Roget, M.D. 

We have already noticed this Treatise of Dr. Roget’s in 
The Veterinarian; but as w^e concluded our short review 
with a promise to revert again to his highly interesting and use¬ 
ful work, we now, with pleasure, fulfil our pledge. 

There needs no apology for introducing this subject a second 
time to the readers of The Veterinarian, inasmuch as our 
publication is open to every thing that is connected with, and 
that will tend to the advancement of, veterinary science. 

In the present da)^ a period distinguished by cultivation of 
intellect, and the progress of enterprise, the attention of all 
classes of men is directed to the best means of furnishing to 
every description of persons the information necessary to the 
course of life which they follow. The mechanic and artizan 
will soon cease to be mere automatons in their respective em¬ 
ployments, as they are now becoming sufficiently acquainted 
with the sciences connected with their trade, to enable them to 
apply their knowledge in the exercise of it. For the due qua¬ 
lification of crentlemen to become members of the three learned 

o 

professions, theology, law, and physic, certain adequate means 
have been provided ; but when we revert to our own profession, 
can we honestly say, that the means are adequate to the ends 








284 REVIEW.-BRIDGEWATER TREATISES, NO. 9 . 

to which they are directed? It is an evil replete with mis¬ 
chievous consequences, that while the extension of general 
knowledge should be so much the aim of public exertion, the 
veterinary student is limited in his resources ; for the system of 
instruction pursued at the Veterinary College, even if it embraced 
all the objects which it was originally designed to embrace, viz. 
a competent knowledge of the structure and diseases of all our 
domesticated animals^ would suit only the infant state of the 
art ; for at the present time, a more extensive grasp of know¬ 
ledge is necessary for its safe and successful practice. 

Every kind of information in literature, science, and the arts, 
may be turned to advantage in studying our profession. Without 
the assistance of mechanics, we are unable to determine the 
principle of muscular motion—without pneumatics, we cannot 
explain the beautiful process of respiration, and the physiological 
results of this function. W ithout optics, we cannot explain the 
operation of the humours of the eye on the rays of light in their 
transmission through them—and without acoustics, we should 
be ignorant of the manner in which sound is conveyed to the 
sensible expansion of the auditory nerve. To those students, 
then, who wish to acquire a competent knowledge of mechanics, 
pneumatics, optics, acoustics, and other branches of natural 
philosophy that are justly considered as the auxiliary sciences 
to the study of medicine, inasmuch as they elucidate certain 
phenomena in the animal economy, we recommend Dr, Roget’s 
Treatise. 

The limits of our Review will be necessarily confined, as on a 
former occasion, to a single part of this interesting work; and 
we have therefore selected the ‘‘ sensorial functions.’^ The 
author has divided this portion of his work into eight different 
chapters, 1 on sensation, 2 touch, 3 taste, 4 smell, 5 hearing, 
6 vision, 7 perception, 8th and lastly, on the comparative phy¬ 
siology of the nervous system. 

Sensation, 

*^The intentions of the Deity in the creation of the animal 
kingdom, as far as we are competent to discern or comprehend 
them, are referrible to the following classes of objects:—The 
frst relates to the individual welfare of the animal, embracing 
the whole sphere of its sensitive existence, and the means of 
maintaining the vitality upon which that existence is dependent. 
The second comprises the provisions that have been made for 
repairing the chasms resulting, in the present circumstances of 
the globe, from the continual destruction of life, by ensuring the 
multiplication of the species, and the continuity of the race to 


ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 


285 


which each animal belongs. The third includes all those arrange¬ 
ments which have been resorted to in order to accomrnod »^e the 
system to the consequences that follow from an indefinite in¬ 
crease in the number of each species. The class relates 

to that systematic economy in the plans of organization by which 
all the former objects are most effectually secured. 

“ With reference to the welfare of the individual animal, it is 
evident that, in the brute creation, the great end to be answered 
is the attainment of sensitive enjoyment. To this all the ar¬ 
rangements of the system, and all the energies of its vital powers, 
must ultimately tend. Of what value would be mere vegetative 
life to the being in whom it resides unless it were accompanied 
by the faculty of sensation, and unless the sensations thence 
arising were attended with pleasure? It is only by reasoning 
analogically from feelings we have ourselves experienced that 
we ascribe similar feelings to other sentient beings, and that we 
infer their existence from the phenomena which they present. 
Wherever these indications of feeling are most distinct, we find 
they result from a particular organization, and from the affection 
of a peculiar part of that organization denominated the nervous 
substance. The name of brain is given to a particular mass of 
the substance placed in the interior of the body, where it is cai’e- 
fully protected from injury. The sensations, for exciting which 
the brain is the material instrument or immediate organ, are the 
result of certain impressions made on particular parts of the 
body, and conveyed to that organ by the medium of filaments, 
composed of a similar substance, and termed nerves. In this 
way, then, it has been provided that a communication shall be 
established between the sentient principle and the external object 
by which its activity is excited, and on which it is to be depend¬ 
ent for the elements of all its affections, both of sensation and 
intellect/^ 

A considerable portion of the Treatise is occupied with the 
development of the series of means by which impressions from 
external objects are made on the appropriate organs that are pro¬ 
vided to receive and collect them. We must be brief on these 
different subjects, and those who wish for a more extended field 
must have recourse to the work itself. 

Touch. 

'‘ Touch is the most important of all the senses, inasmuch 
as it is the foundation of all our knowledge of the material 
I world ; so its relative degrees of perfection establish marked dif- 
1 ferences in the intellectual sagacity of the several brutes, and 
I have a considerable influence on the assignment of their proper 
1 station in the scale of animals. The intei 2 fuments—under which 


286 REVlEW.^—BRIDGEWATER TREATISES, NO. 9 . 

designation are included not merely the skin, but also all the 
parts that are immediately connected with it—are the immediate 
organs of the sense of touch. No parts of the animal structure 
present greater diversity in their form and outward appearance 
than the integuments ; yet it is easy to discover, amidst all these 
varieties, that the same general plan has been followed in their 
construction, and that each particular formation is the result of 
the same elementary structures. Of these elements ^he most 
important, and that which generally composes the chief bulk of 
the skin, is the corium or true skin. The outermost layer is 
termed the epidermic cuticle or scarf-skin; and between these 
there is often found an intermediate layer, denominated the rete 
mucosum or the pymentum. 

The corium forms the principal portion of the skin, and is 
constructed of an intertexture of dense and tough fibres, through 
which a multitude of bloodvessels and nerves are interspersed ; 
but its external surface is more vascular than any other part, 
exhibiting a fine and delicate net-work of vessels; and it is this 
portion of the skin, termed by anatomists the vascular plexus^ 
which is the most acutely sensible in every point: hence, we may 
infer that it contains the terminations of all the nervous filaments 
distributed to this organ, and which are here found to divide to 
an extreme degree of minuteness.’’ 

The author describes the condition on which the perfection of 
the sense of touch depends in the various living beings that in¬ 
habit the sea, the earth, and air: his description is beautiful as 
it is interesting. Our limits prevent us from entering on this 
delightful study; we must, therefore, pass over this, together 
with the different chapters on taste, smell, hearing, and vision, 
merely remarking, en passant, that the author has plainly shewn 
that these different senses have been harmoniously and studiously 
adjusted, not only to the properties and the constitution of the 
material world, but also to the respective wants and necessities 
of each species in the situations and circumstances where it has 
been placed by the gracious and beneficent author of its being. 

The 8th chapter, on the comparative physiology of the 
nervous system,” is a very interesting one. Our knowledge of 
the exact uses and functions of the various parts which compose 
the pervous system, and especially of its central masses, is un¬ 
fortunately too scanty to enable us to discern the correspond¬ 
ence which undoubtedly exists between the variations in the 
functions and the diversities in the organization; yet the author 
has given us a clear view of the different plans according to 
which the nervous system is constructed in the several classes of 
animals, and shews distinctly that these central masses are mul¬ 
tiplied and developed in proportion as the faculties of the animal 


ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PHVSIOLOGV. 287 

embrace a wider range of objects, and are carried to higher de¬ 
grees of excellence. 

Confining our inquiries, then, to the more intelligible in¬ 
tellectual phenomena displayed by the higher animals, we 
readily trace a gradation which corresponds with the deve¬ 
lopment of the central nervous organ, or brain. That the 
comparison may be fairly made, the author has thought it ne¬ 
cessary to distinguish these actions which are the result of the 
exercise of the intellectual faculties from those which are called 
instinctive, and are referrible to other sources. In all the in¬ 
ferior orders of the animal creation, where instincts are multi¬ 
plied while the indications of intellect are feeble, the organ 
which performs the office of the brain is comparatively small. 
The sensitive existence of these animals appears to be circum¬ 
scribed within the perception of the moment, and their voluntary 
actions have reference chiefly to objects which are present to the 
sense. But in proportion as the intellectual faculties of animals 
are multiplied, we discover that an additional magnitude and 
complication of structure are given to the brain. In man, in 
whom all the faculties of sense and intellect are so harmoniously 
combined, the brain is not only the largest in its size, but, be¬ 
yond all comparison, the most complicated in its structure. 
large brain,” says the author, has been bestowed on man, evi¬ 
dently with the design that he should exercise superior powers 
of intellect; the great distinguishing features of which are the 
capacity for retaining an immense variety of impressions, and the 
strength, the extent, and vast range of the associating principle, 
which combines them into groups, and forms them into abstract 
ideas. Yet the lower animals also possess their share of memo¬ 
ry and of reason : they are capable of acquiring knowledge from 
experience; and, on some rare occasions, of devising expedients 
for accomplishing particular ends. But still their knowledge, 
and their efforts of intellect, are confined within very narrow 
limits; for nature has assigned boundaries to the advancement 
of the lower animals which they can never pass. By far the 
greater portion of that knowledge which it imports them to 
possess is the gift of nature, who has wisely implanted such 
instinctive impulses as are necessary for their preservation. Man 
also is born with instincts, but they are few in number compared 
with those of the lower animals ; but that instinct which is the 
most conspicuous in the human subject, and which is the foun¬ 
dation of all that is noble and exalted in our nature, and which 
is altogether wanting in the lower animals, is the instinct of 
sympathy y 

Here we must beg to differ from the learned doctor ; and on 
this subject we have a perfect right so to do, as we fancy that 


288 REVIEW.—BRIDGEWATER TREATISES, No. 9. 

we are more intimately acquainted with it than himself—we mean 
with the metaphysics of the huoyhnymn. We are willing to 
allow that the affections of the lower animals, between indi¬ 
viduals of the same species, are observable only in a few in¬ 
stances. We take the horse species for an example; for, in 
general, they are indifferent to each others^ joys or sufferings, 
and regardless of the treatment experienced by their companions ; 
but by what peculiar instinct is it, if it is not that of sympathy, 
that the noble animal, the horse, will at once perceive the slight¬ 
est change in his master’s physical temperament, and allow him¬ 
self so to be influenced by it, that, according as his master’s 
spirits fluctuate, will his own energies rise and fall, wavering 
“ From walk to trot, from canter to full speed.’* 

We are certain that no servant partakes so much of the cha¬ 
racter of the master as the horse; he becomes a portion, as it 
were, of ourselves ; he thinks and feels with us ; as we are lively, 
he is sprightly; as we are distressed, his courage droops. In 
proof of this, let the reader see what horses some men make— 
make we say, because, in such hands their character is wholly 
altered, partaking, in a measure, of the courage and the firm¬ 
ness of the hand that guides them, and of the resolution of the 
frame that sways them. What that rider wills, they do, or 
strive to do. When their governing power is relaxed, their ener¬ 
gies are relaxed likewise; and their fine sensibilities supply them 
with an instant knowledge of the disposition and capacity of the 
rider. If this is not the instinct of sympathy, we know not what 
to call it. More striking examples might be produced between the 
elephant and his driver, and the dog and his master. We cannot 
divest ourselves of the persuasion, that the movements of the 
higher classes of animals are directed, like our own, to obvious 
ends, and that they proceed from voluntary acts, and imply the 
operation of an intellect not wholly dissimilar in its spiritual 
essence from our own. In vain may Descartes and his followers 
labour to sustain the paradox, that brutes are only automata— 
mere pieces of artificial mechanism, insensible either to pleasure 
or to pain, and incapable of internal affections analogous to those 
of which we are conscious in ourselves. Their sophistry will 
avail but little against the plain dictates of the understand¬ 
ing. 

We conclude our review, by requesting those who are dis¬ 
satisfied with our imperfect sketch, to obtain the work itself. 
In a future No. of The Veterinarian it is our intention to 
review the Treatise of Sir C. Bell, last in order, but not least in 
our estimation. 


K. 



289 


F^trrinari) 


IS TEMPORARY DISEASE UNSOUNDNESS? 

Warranty of a PIorse.—Topham v. Milling. 

Mr. Newton, clerk to Mr. Hostage, solicitor, at Northwich, 
said he was, on the Llth of November, at a public-house at Dun- 
ham-on-the-Hili, Mr. Topham and Mr. Milling were there. 
They were speaking of exchangino- horses, and both of them said 
they had agreed to do so. Mr. Topham was to give £25..10s 
and his bay mare, which he rated at £9..10s value, to Mr. Mill¬ 
ing for his brown horse, on certain conditions, viz. that Mr. Top¬ 
ham was to take the horse, and give him a fair trial, and 
Milling vi^arranted him sound in every respect; and,besides war¬ 
ranting him sound, if Mr. Topham did not like him after trial. 
Milling would take him back, and return the £25..10s and the 
mare, or the value that Topham put upon her. Milling said that 
the horse would trot ten or twelve miles an hour, and he had 
come a distance of five miles that day in half an hour. Witness 
went home with Mr. Topham in his gig'. Mr. Topham drove 
the horse to Northwich ; the way they w^ent was about eighteen 
miles from Dunham; the horse was driven at a very moderate 

pace, and they were about three hours and a half performing the 
journey. ° 

On cross-examination, he said he did not hear defendant say 
to plaintiff when they were making the contract for the sale of 
the horse, take him to Youde, the farrier, and let him be ex¬ 
amined; don’t take my word for it.” The defendant said the 
gelding was perfect in all respects, and a good hunter.’ They 
had drunk a little gin and water, but all the parties were quite 

J. T. Mainwaring lives with Mr. Topham; is a ward of his; 
is very fond of horses; he recollected Mr. Topham bringing 
home the brown gelding, and went to look at him: he did'^nol 
look very well; he looked poorly ; he put his head under the 
manger; there was food in the manger, but he did not feed so freely 
as he ought to do, or like another horse. Went to him the next 
morning, but he had not eaten his food, and did not look well 
then; he was a very bad feeder; witness exercised him almost 
every night for about a quarter of an hour; he stumbled very 
much, and was much frightened at any thing he met on the road. 
He made a great noise in breathing when he was trotting. Mr. 
Holford examined him about a week afterw'ards, who gave wit- 

VOL. VIII. r> r 



290 


veterinary jurisprudence. 

ness a certificate, which witness took the next day with the horse 
to Mr. Milling. The distance was about eighteen miles : the 
horse went so badly that witness could hardly get him alon^g the 
road. Witness saw Mrs. Milling, and said he had brought the 
horse back, and that Mr. Topham did not like him, as he was 
not sound. Mrs. Milling declined receiving the horse, and said 

her husband was gone into Wales. 

On cross-examination, he said they gave the gelding three 
feeds a-day and bran mashes ; but he fed very badly. Witness, 
when he took the horse back to Mr. Milling’s, could not get him 
to go more than three or four miles an hour; witness did not 
stop to bait till he came to Mr. Milling’s house, and then, 
when he was refused, he returned back to the Horse Shoe, at 
Kingsley, where he stopped a quarter of an hour—altogether 
twenty-six miles: he did not have him rubbed dowm, but turned 
him into the stable for a quarter of an hour to feed. 

Charles Gorst is ostler to Mr. Topham. When the horse was 
brought home he looked very poorly, and held his head under 
the manger. He had the leeding of the horse, and attended to 
him. He gave him three feeds of corn a-day, and cleaned him 
twice a-day. He never ate his food so well as another horse. 
He had often occasion to take away part of the corn that was 
given to him. He never said to any body that he would not eat 
at all, but that he was a bad feeder. He was not fit for work 
all the time he was there, which was between a fortnight and 
three weeks. 

Cross-examined.—Witness is groom to Mr. Topham, and his 
name is also over the door of the public-house at Northwich, as 
landlord. Witness is not the proprietor of the house. The last 
witness started about seven in the morning to return the horse to 
Mr. Milling, and returned about four or five o’clock. 

Mr. Topham is an auctioneer and sheriff’s officer, and there¬ 
fore cannot take out a licence as a publican in his own name. 

Mr. Topham’s nephew said he took the horse back to Mr. 
Milling, after he had been examined by Mr. Holford. He went 
very badly indeed, and not more than four or five miles an hour. 
Witness fed him twice on the road, with a pound of meal and 
water each time. He did not take it freely, as a horse would that 
was travelling. On arriving at Mr. Milling’s house, he took the 
horse into the stable and tied him up, and then went to the house 
and demanded back the £25..10s. It was refused, and he im¬ 
mediately went away. He did not look back, nor did he ob- 
aerve the horse running after him as fast as he could. 

Mr. Thomas Holford is a member of the Veterinary College. 
Kxamined a brown gelding for Mr. Topham on the 18th of last 


VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 


291 


November; rode him from two to four miles at different paces, 
and considered him to be thick-winded. Saw him rode by Mr, 
Newton before Mr. Topham's nephew took him back, and was 
of the same opinion still. 

Cross-examined.—Has been in practice for himself between 
two and three years, and was a pupil at the College thirteen 
months. It is a somewhat rare thing for a horse to be thick- 
winded at five years old, but it does sometimes occur. This 
disease is not always permanent. It is the effect of inflamma¬ 
tion in some of the respiratory passages. I consider any tempo- 
mry disease to be unsoundness so long as it lasts. Even a cough 
is unsoundness: a common cold is so as long as it lasts. The 
horse must have laboured under this affection some time prior to 
the time of Topham’s purchasing him. The duration of such a 
disease is altogether uncertain ; it depends on the violence of the 
inflammation, and on the mode of treatment. The horse was not 
a roarer or a piper, but he was thick-winded. It is occasioned 
in the first instance by a cold. It is unsoundness as long as it 
lasts. 

Mr. Jesse Hopley, farrier, examined the horse when he was 
rode out. He sweated very much, and breathed very hard, which 
was unsouridness. It might have been of two or three weeks' 
standing, or two or three months. 

Mr. Jervis addressed the jury at very considerable length, and 
contended that the thickness in tlie horse's wind proceeded en¬ 
tirely from a temporary cold, and would cease when the cold was 
removed. 

Mr, Thomas Edwards, livery-stable keeper at Chester, had 
been all his life accustomed to horses. The horse in question 
belonged to the Rev. Mr. Gibson, and was seven years old. 
Witness purchased him of the Rev. Mr. Gibson for Mr. Lowe, 
in September 1834; he was then quite right. Witness tried 
him on the Sands, and he was then sound. He remained with 
witness till Mr. Lowe exchanged him with Mr. Milling for a 
mare, and gave also £10. He saw the horse last Sunday ; he is 
fat, and in a healthy condition. He appeared to have been in the 
stable a long time. 

On cross-examination, the witness was asked what sum he 
gave for the horse when he purchased it of Mr. Gibson. “That 
is a question," said the witness, “ I shall not answer: what I 
give for horses is nothing to nobody." 

Mr. Baron Holland said if the witness refused to answer the 
I question, he should commit him to prison. 

The witness then said that he believed he gave thirty guineas 
I for the horse. 



292 VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 

Mr. Jeykes, of Newton, said he found the horse after it had 
been turned out of Mr. Milling’s stables by Mr. Topham s ne¬ 
phew. He knew the horse very well. He afterv»?ards examined 
the horse with Mr. Collier, a veterinary surgeon, who is now in 
Dublin, who said he was perfectly sound. The horse was ex¬ 
amined by several diderent people. Witness has kept him since 
he found him turned out. He is a good feeder, and of sufficient 
pace to trot ten or twelve miles an hour. He is not gi’oggy^^ 
before. The horse is sound now. 

Mr. Walters, a practising veterinary surgeon, examined the 
horse on the 17th of last March, and pronounced him sound. 
Thick wind is always permanent: a temporary cough is not un- 
soundness. If he wanted such a horse now, he would not scru- 
]ifle to give £40 for him. 

Mr. Hayes, veterinary surgeon, of Chester, examined the horse 
on the same day as the last witness did. He was sound. Thick 
wind, in his opinion, is always permanent. A temporary disease 
is not unsoundness. The horse is worth £40. 

Mr. Wm. Fish, farrier at Chester forty years, and Mr. Owen 
Coyle, farrier at Chester fifteen years, gave similar evidence ; the 
latter stating in addition that Milling gave £50 for the horse.— 
Mr. Ince gave the same evidence. 

The jury were here invited to take a view of the horse, which 
had been brought into the Castle-yard. Counsel, jury, and 
nearly every other person, immediately sallied out to inspect him. 
His appearance was that of perfect health. 

The Judge summed up decidedly in favour of the plaintiff, but 
the jury returned a verdict for the defendant. 


PEDIGHEE. 

Keport of M. Yvart, Arbiter, 

To the President and Judges composing the Tribunal of Commerce 

in the Department of the Seine. 

Gentlemen,— By your decree of the lith of November, 1831, 
with reference to a dispute between M. C. L. and Mad. C., you 
have authorized me to examine the parties, and to bring the af¬ 
fair to an amicable conclusion, if possible ; and, if I fail in that, 
to make my report to you, and tender my opinion on the matter 
in controversy. 

Ap’reeably to your decree, I have examined the parties, and 
their witnesses, but have been unable to settle the dispute; and 
now submit to you the facts of the case, and the opinion which 
I have founded on them. 



VETERINARY JURISPRUDENCE. 293 

On the 16t]i of August, 1831, the plaintiff purchased of the 
d^efendant, for the sum of SOOOfr., a filly three years old, of pure 
English blood, and warranted to be got by the'stallion Merlin. 

This filly, previous to the sale, had commenced a regular sys¬ 
tem of training, which was continued by M. L. afterIhe came 
into his possession. 

At the time for the entry of the filly for the stakes in the 
Champs-de-Mars, a person in the service of Lord S— informed 
M. L. that the filly was not got by Merlin. Notwithstandino* 
this, however, she ran at the Chara*p-de-Mars. 

These facts are admitted by both parties. 

Ihe plaintiff adds, that he afterwards rec^uired the defendant 
to take back the filly, and to return the 3000fr., with all ex- 
pences; and he founds this demand upon the fact, that she was 
sold as the daughter of Merlin, to whose stock it now appeared 
that she did not belong. 

In proof of this, Mr. Felix W— produced the stud-book of 
hi. S., in which she is stated to have been got bv a horse named 
Morisco. 

It also appeared that, although the progeny of this last horse 
had occasionally fetched as high a price as that of Merlin, yet at 
other times they had been sold for much less money, thereby ex¬ 
plaining the recognized superiority of Merlin. 

To this the defendant replied, that the certificate of the pedi¬ 
gree of the mare given at the time of sale is not referred to in the 
receipt of the defendant^ and that the only object of this certi¬ 
ficate was to establish the fact of her being'of “ pure blood,” and 
therefore entitled to be entered at these races; and that Morisco 
is of as pure blood as Merlin; and, lastly, that M. L., knowing 
that the certificate was incorrect, ran her at the Champs-de- 
Mars, and thereby made her his property. 

Considering —1st, That the declaration of her pedigree as de- 
liveied to J\I. L. is false \ 2d, That it is not indifferent whether 

the filly is descended from Morisco or Merlin, since the latter 
horse is in much higher repute than the former one;--3d. That 
in the sale both of blood-horses and mares, and destined either 
for the course or for breeding, it is usual to deliver a certificate 
of pedigree, on which the value of the animal very much depends; 
and that if this certificate were not to be relied on as perfectly 
true, an inlet would be opened for the commission of the grossest 
frauds;—4th, That if M. L. had not been deceived by the certi¬ 
ficate, he either wmuld not have purchased the filly, or would 
have purchased her at less price 5th, That at the time of the 
entry of the filly he had not full proof of the falsehood of the 
ceitificate;- fith. That, before he seized the opportunity of en- 


CURIOSA.—PLEASING. 


294 

tering the filly (already partly trained by Mad. C.), M. L. had 
been compelled to perform some acts of proprietorship ; and that, 
in this point, the only part of the case with regard to which there 
can be the slightest doubt, the act of proprietorship is usually 
explained in favour of the buyer rather than the seller ; 

I am of opinion that the demand of the plaintiff is well 
founded, and that the defendant is bound to restore the sum of 
SOOOfr., and to pay all expences, allowance being made for any 
depreciation in the value of the filly from any other cause since 
the time of sale. 

Such, gentlemen, is the conclusion which I have the honour 
to submit to the wisdom of your ulterior deliberations. 

Yvart. 

Coinciding with the opinion of M. Yvart, the tribunal con¬ 
demned Madame C. to take back the filly, to return the 3000fr., 
and to pay all expences. 




PLEASING. 

5th April, 1835, 

Dear Sir,—I t is now about seven years since I left “ Auld 
Reekie^’ with my diploma as a veterinary surgeon, and only seven¬ 
teen shillings and sixpence in my pocket, to go, like Jack the 
gjant killer,’^ to push my fortune in the wide world ; and, with¬ 
out troubling you with a long detail of all my adventures by “flood 
and field” since I settled in this canny nook, allow me to say, 
that mine has been a lucky lot, and surely, as the proverb says, 
I must have been “ born wi’ a siller spoon in my mouth f and no 

wi^ a wooden ladle f —that instrument so much prized by my 
honest, couthie, but now almost forgotten countrymen. Forgot¬ 
ten ! did I say? No, no, they will never be forgotten; for the 
remembrance of you, and the remembrance of them all, is twined 
round the strings of my very existence. But to my story. After 
the first week that I had travelled, I found myself employed, on 
the Monday following, strapping stage-coach horses at an inn 
about twenty miles from where 1 am now writing. Yes, strap¬ 
ping dirty horses ! and sometimes abused because I was not so 
clever as my superiors would have wished me to be. But I did 
not murmur at my beastly employment, because I could not 
avoid it; and besides, it was an honest shift, although some of 
my late cigar-smoking class fellows would have been ashamed of 
my clouterly, uncouth appearance, with habiliments of the worst 
possible description, and of the worst possible shape, and that 





CURIOSA-PLEASING. 295 

hung about me like a sheet spread upon a Jire-screen. I say, 
although my late companions would have been ashamed of me, 
and of my employment too, yet I was not ashamed of it, nor am 
I ashamed even yet to say that I gloried in it. 

I was, however, but a very brief period employed as a strapper, 
as from the care and pains which I took in cleaning and watering 
the horses they soon mended in their jaded, worn-out appearance, 
for they were regularly fed, because I was regularly sober, 
a state, I have been informed, in which my predecessor was 
never in aftei mid-day. In a few weeks more I was exclusively 
employed in feeding and looking after the horses, and this em¬ 
ployment, at eight shillings a week, bed, board, and washing, 
with the sweet smiles of a blue-eyed, cherry-cheeked bar-maid, 
were enough to have turned a wiser head than I at that time 
possessed ; but I was a canny Scot, and my blood had not reached 
Its meridian, and the side-long love-glances of the bar-maid fell 
a,s lightly on me as snow upon the ocean, and they did me as 
little mischief as water thrown upon a clacking hen. In a few 
days after I had been made chancellor of the corn and bean chests, 
a ciicumstance occurred which called forth my scientific acquire¬ 
ments: it was this, one of the horses was brought home, as 
the driver said, surnmat poorly f and the regular mis-named 
doctor was sent for, who pronounced it a case of inflammation of 
the bowels, and bled the poor animal with a vengeance. I had 
never said to any one who or what I was; and every body about 
the place knew that I had been employed as the ''lowest of the 
low;’ an understrapper j and I said nothing about the profound 
Ignorance of the doctor; but I saw, from every symptom which 
the horse exhibited, that it was a case of irritation, and not in- 
Jianimation, as the doctor supposed. I, of course, informed 
master of what was going on in the stable, and entreated him to 
order the bleeding to be stopped immediately, as the horse was 
rapidly sinking under it; and if I was found to be wrono*, al" 
though I was sure that I was not, I would serve him for'two 
years for nothing. The bleeding was stopped; and after I had 
received a sufficient quantum of angry cursing from the doctor, 
for interfering with his cures, or rather kills, and who called me a 
beggarly, lousy, Scotch blackguard, master paid him off that 
very hour. Then followed such a scene as I cannot well describe, 

I was so confused : but I was raised to the peerage, and althoucrfi 
the astonishment of all the natives was great at seeing such'^a 
great change (even greater than at the dissolution ofUie late 
whig ministers) yet I was not greatly surprised at it, and I will 
tell you why—because, some years before—some twenty years 
bQ\0VQ~n\y granny often said, speaking of me, that '* she ivas 
sure that callant would come to something yet; for,” added she. 



29G 


C U K1 () S A.-P LA SIN G. 


ij there be u big tatae C the pat he's sure to get it. 13ut the 
change to me was great; indeed I scarcely know a greater, 
unlesl it wa^ ‘ Joseph, when made chief of Pharaoh’s house, 
and ruler over all the land of Egypt.” But there was really little 
of Joseph in my composition, but more of this, mind ye, 
when 1 see you, which wall be in three weeks. Now, to be done, 
I cured poor Rover, for that was the horse’s name; I cured 
Jimboo ; I cured thorn all - RIy. Then I directed where I used 
to obey; I commanded those to whom, before that, I dared not 
speak without touching my chapeau, and I was always very 
awkward in doing it, and called a Scotch, clumsy sou of a (it 
matters not what). In two years in this situation I had 
made upwards of £200, and, with this sum, I set up a regular 
Vet.; and, as I was employed far and near, you vrill not 
wonder that I had made so much. Upon leaving my kind em¬ 
ployer (this is the most interesting -art of ray story), he 
called me into his library, and said, ^ re now^ leaving me, 

faithfullest of servants (here the tears n his cheeks, 

and mine ran too)', you are now,” sai . about to leave 
me and this place, and, as I understana, you will soon take 
away Lavinia also (this was an only daughter); this place 
has now no charms for me. Come hither, Lavinia, said 
he, addressing her; ‘‘you have been a dutiful daughter to me, 
and you will make a loving wife. Take her,” said he to me, 
“ and be kind to her, and endeavour to grow wise as you grow 
old, and a blessing will always attend you both.” After saying 
this, the kind old man took me aside, and put a cheque for 
£1000 on his banker into my hands; and, said he, “if 1 could 
not think that you would do well with this money, I would not 
have given you my daughter : farewell.” Lor four years past we 
have lived all together,—happy as happiness can make us; and 
although there be a new member sworn in almost every year, yet 
we are not the less contented for these occurrences. 

You may make what use of this letter you please before dis¬ 
missing your class this session, as it would shew some of the 
students the necessity of lowering their ideas, when necessity 
bids them. 

Yours, ever truly, 

_ ###*#* 


ANNOYING. 

t 23 d April, 1835. 

Sir,—You did not use me well this morning. I was desired, 
on the preceding day, to call at —-, to look at a dog sus¬ 

pected to be rabid. I found him loose in the garden. In order 





CURIOSA-ANNOYING. 297 

to ascertain the actual disease I was compelled to go into the 
garden to him. Fortunately, he was naturally a quiet fellow.— 
I examine him, and satisfy myself that he is rabid. I return, and 
inquire what possible mischief may have been done. I find that 
the lives of three persons are at stake. He has, far within the 
time when the disease becomes contagious, fawned upon and 
licked the mistress of the house, her daughter, and the servant. 
The young lady and the servant have chaps and small scratches 
upon their hands and wrists,—they have more than sufficient 
abraded surface to admit of fatal inoculation. The lady has a 

pimpled eruption on her face, which in too many cases has likewise 
proved to be fatal. 

The dog was rabid: I stake my professional reputation on the 
fact, I inquire who is their medical man, that I may privately 
communicate with him. I am told that they have lately come 
here, and have no medical attendant. Then, fully aware of their 
fearful situation, I offer to apply the caustic to the abraded 
parts, and thus avert the evil that hangs over them. I do so—I 
^PP^y caustic to the hands of the young lady and the ser¬ 
vant I touch some spots on the face of the lady. I am there 
an hour and a half. J promise to call the next morning and exa¬ 
mine whether the application is likely to be effectual; and for all 
this I charge the sum of one sovereign. 

I call on the following morning, and I am met with a denial 
that the dog was rabid, and a refusal to pay my demand, and 
with an insulting offer of five shillings ! ! 

Now, Sir, have you used me well ? Apply to your own sur¬ 
geon state the situation of the dog—the saliva running from 
the mouth -the halj closed mouth—the squinting—the staggering 
gait the difficulty of swallowing ; and ask him whether these 
things are or are not characteristic of rabies. 

State what I did, and the circumstances under which I did 
it; and inquire of him whether my demanded fee was exorbi¬ 
tant, or whether it ought not to have been double, treble what I 
askedo 

Gn these things I rest the paltry fee. You may have mis¬ 
conceived the matter; but you will not persist in acting unjustly. 

And now. Sir, for another and more painful part of the sub¬ 
ject. The dog was rabid. The three persons whom I saw had 
i more than sufficient abrasions to give reasons for fear—Mrs. 

-^’s hands were not sound. I said that I called the second 

time to examine the state of those who had been exposed to 
j danger I was not permitted to see them. My calling again is 
i out of the question : but let me urge you not to let the matter 
j rest here. By the sympathy which you ought to feel for those in 

I VOL. VIII. o e 





298 CURIOSA.—SURPRISING. 

the house, and by the love you bear to one object, let the case 
be farther inquired into. 

Dare I name the man ? send for • ■ . He has more 

experience about rabies than any other surgeon whom I know. 
Tell him that I have seen the dog (don’t tell him, for your own 
sake, of the five shillings), tell him what I say, describe to him 
the symptoms as I have stated them, let him examine every 

patient, and submit to his decision. 

I urge you to do this, and your own heart will tell you that 

there needs no apology on my part for pressing this upon you. 

I am. Sir, your very obedient servant. 


SURPRISING. 

How TO Stop a Startled Horse. 

Dr. De Chemant has suggested the following means of pre¬ 
venting accidents from high mettled horses: The musculai 

strength of the horse being greater in the flexors than the exten¬ 
sors, a small chain, of about three yards long, covered with 
ther, and contrived to fall, at pleasure, a few inches below the 
joint of the knee, would slacken the horse’s pace, or stop him at 
will. To accomplish this, the chain must be fixed to the harness 
by the two ends, about the middle of the body ; and, for greater 
security, a small piece of copper, one or two inches wide, could 
be placed on that part of the chain which would fall on the horse’s 
knee, so as to embrace the narrow part of the leg, and which 
would prevent the chain from sliding upwards. 

When not in use, the chain may be suspended round the 
neck of the horse, or be attached to the centre of the collar by 
a small cord which would pass behind the ears, and be fixed on 
the harness at the top of the head. Then, by means of a 
spring, made for that purpose, the chain could be let down at 
the will of the driver, or of those persons inside the carriage. 

To this invention may be added the following simple means of 
depriving the horse of his sight in an instant:—A pair of leather 
winkers, made concave, may be fixed to the harness on the fore¬ 
head with a spring, and which, on pulling the same cord that 
lets down the chain, would also close over his eyes.” 

Atlas newspaper. 




299 




A Life Preserver. 

A MARINE who had just joined the ship, and who w^as unac- 
quainted with the excellent qualities of the dog, endeavoured, 
while bathing, to entice him from his station into the water. 
The noble animal paid no attention to his invitation. One of 
the crew told the marine, that if he swam out of the sail, and 
would call out as if in distress, and suit the action to the word, 
Mr. Boatswain would certainly obey his summons. The marine 
took the hint, got out of the sail, and began to enact the part of 
a drowning man to perfection. The dog instantly sprang into 
the water, with his ears erect, and his eyes flashing fire from 
intense anxiety. Away he swam for the soldier, who, on the ap¬ 
proach of his canine friend, began to have some misgivings as to 
the wisdom of his proceedings. He became alarmed lest the 
dog should seize him, which manoeuvre Boatswain appeared re¬ 
solved to execute. His fears increased the dog’s endeavours to 
effect his purpose; and, finally, he roared outmost lustily for help 
from his shipmates. The louder the poor devil sung out, the 
more determined was the sagacious brute to seize him; and he 
very soon accomplished his purpose, and grasping him firmly by 
the hair at the back of the neck, and twisting his face towards 
the heavens, brought him alongside, amidst the convulsive roars of 
laughter of the whole of the ship’s company, and the piteous 
cries of the jolly marine. Boatswain would not resign his hold 
till the frightened man was assisted up the side: the bite of a 
rope being placed overboard for his conductor, he placed his fore 
legs in it up to his shoulders, and holding himself stiff out, was 
hauled up, and calmly resumed his watch, as if nothing had hap¬ 
pened.— Scott's Recollections of a Naval Life, 


Parental Affection in a Hen. 

A GENTLEMAN in the Haugh had a hen with thirteen chickens, 
about three weeks old, which were occasionally indulged with a 
ramble in the garden. During the height of the flood, the hen- 
I house was surrounded with water, and the brood were confined 
j for two days. On Friday the hen was observed walking out of 
I her prison-house with four of the chickens on her back, which 
i she deposited on a dry spot in the garden. She returned, knee- 
deep in the water, for a second freight; and, having lowered her¬ 
self to enable the young ones to take their passage on her back, 






MISCELLANEA. 


300 

they leaped up, and were carried in the same manner. By this 
time the chickens in the garden and those in the hen-house began 
to be clamorous, and were attempting to follow their parent, who 
was in sore trouble and confusion, not knowing which of the di¬ 
vision to attend to first. To prevent serious consequences, how¬ 
ever, the servants interfered, and landed the whole safely in the 
hen-house, out of which no attempt of removal was made until 
the flood had subsided.—Inverness Courier. 


Veterinary Societies. 

We understand that at his lecture of to-day (April 27th), 
Professor Coleman, after eulogizing, in warm and just terms, the 
society for the discussion of veterinary subjects at present exist¬ 
ing at the College, addressed his class on the advantages which 
would result from the establishment of one of a more general na¬ 
ture ; and to which the practitioners of the metropolis might 
sometimes be allured. 

The present society, in which each student, in his turn, is 
^compelled to defend a certain thesis against all opponents, by the 
cross-questioning and the badgering of which it admits, puts 
every youngster on the alert, and forces on him the knowledge of 
many a point of anatomy and physiology, of which he would 
otherwise have possessed a ve^y obscure and unprofitable con¬ 
ception ; and it is an admirable preparation for his examina¬ 
tion, This very circumstance, however, has its corresponding 
evils ; and few practitioners, however accurate and varied their 
acquaintance with the grand principles of their art, would like to 
grapple with youths fresh from the dissecting table, and who 
would consider the slightest error with regard to minuteness of 
structure imperfectly compensated for by the sublimest concep¬ 
tions of nature and of truth. 

It was a misfortune and a disgrace to veterinary science in this 
metropolis when the Veterinary Medical Society became defunct. 
There is too little communication among veterinarians here, to 
expect that they will soon be brought to coalesce in the formation 
of a similar one ; but if such an one commences at the College, 
and is orderly conducted, and on the principle of medical socie¬ 
ties generally, and supported by the presence and countenance 
of the heads of the College, we have no doubt that the best of 
the metropolitan practitioners will be gradually attracted thither, 
and the interests of veterinary science essentially promoted. 



THE 


VETERINARIAN. 


VOL. VllI, No. 90.] JUNE 1835. , [New Series, No. so. 


MR. YOUATT’S VETERINARY LECTURES, 

DELIVERED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. 


LECTURE XLVIII. 

The Treatment of Tetanus. — Bleeding .— Purging. — Opium. 

Treatment. —I HAVE to speak this evening, gentlemen, of the 
cure of tetanus. This is a most unsatisfactory portion of my 
subject. The indication of cure is plain enough: the system 
must be tranquillized. Ay! but how ? I have found—every 
veterinary surgeon, I believe, has found—this to be an exceedingly 
difficult affair; and we have failed oftenerthan we have succeeded. 
There is one exception, indeed—that of Mr. Wilkinson, who, in 
a treatise which he published on this disease, gives us a list of 
cases in which the successful ones were almost or quite (for I 
have not the book now at hand) three to one. Mr. Wilkinson 
was a respectable and skilful practitioner, and here, it would seem, 
a fortunate one too; and far more fortunate than you will be> 
especially if you pursue the whole of his plan of treatment, which 
is seriously objectionable on various accounts. 

Venesection. —You will anticipate me in the first thing which 
I should recommend. Bleed—bleed copiously—abstract as 
much blood as you can get. Nothing is so likely to lessen such 
an extreme state of nervous erythisrn as this. There is no more 
powerful sedative than venesection carried to its proper extent 
in cases of muscular spasm. We effect a double purpose—we 
lessen the determination of blood to the common sensorium and 
to the origins of the nerves ; and by which they were enabled, if 
I may so express myself, to secrete and to pour out this torrent 
; of nervous influence ; and we lessen the supply of blood to the 
! muscular system, and by the vivifying power of which alone that 
1 system is enabled to respond to the stimulus of the blood. There 
i are many diseases in which we may well hesitate as to the pro- 
I priety of bloodletting, at least to the extent which I recommend 

VOL. v in. Tt 










302 MR. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 

here ; but in tetanus there cannot be a doubt about the matter. 
You take away the pabulum of the nervous and the muscular 
systems—the life of both—the capability of acting in the one, 
and of being acted upon in the other. Therefore, my advice 
would be—founded both on theory and experience—on the 
first access of tetanus, bleed ; and bleed until the horse falters 
or falls. 

The different Degree of Resistance to the Effect of the Loss of 
Blood. —I have often, gentlemen, endeavoured to impress on your 
minds the change which different diseases produce, temporarily at 
least, in the constitution, as it regards the power of bearing the 
abstraction of blood; and I may add, the perfect change in different 
stages ofthe same disease, and in the same animal at different tirnes. 
I have had for my object in this, to put an end to the idle and ndis- 
chievous practice of directing specific quantities of blood to be 
taken, and leaving to an assistant the abstraction of that blood; and 
also to impress deeply on your minds this golden rule—this rule 
without exception^—that your bleedings must be regulated by 
the effect which they produce on the circulation. Bleed until 
the pulse falters : if I ever allowed you to go beyond that, it 
would be here. In acute inflammation, and particularly local 
inflammation, and more of a serous than a mucous membrane, 
there is a resistance to the effect of the loss of blood, obstinate 
beyond what you would think possible. I have more than once 
taken away 20Ibs. of blood, before I could accomplish my object; 
but r have uniformly persisted, and sometimes to the great 
terror of the owner. I have never had occasion to repent of 
having done so. I take this resistance to the loss of blood as one 
of the strongest proofs I can have of the intensity of the inflam¬ 
mation, or the extreme degree of irritability; and as one of the 
plainest indications of the necessity of bleeding, and also an im¬ 
portant guide in my prognosis. Forgive repetition here, for this 
is the corner-stone of all good practice. 

Objections answered. —But do I not diminish that general 
strength which the animal will by-and-by need in order to enable 
him to support the protracted and violent spasm? — Do I ulti¬ 
mately weaken the horse when I bleed him until he drops, in 
order to lessen, or possibly knock down at once, inflammation 
of some vital organ? I should weaken him by suffering the 
disease to prey upon his frame. I should weaken him by small 
and repeated bleedings which sapped his vital power, but 
diminished not in the slightest degree the power of the enemy. 
This is an argument of the old school, and unworthy of the pre¬ 
sent state of veterinary science. The grand principle of veteri¬ 
nary practice—which I shall not have laboured in vain if I can 


ON TETANUS. 


303 

establish in your minds—is to subdue inflammatory action by 
the promptest and most efficient means,—depletion. I speak of 
no specific quantity to be taken away; but I give you an unerr¬ 
ing guide,—the pulse. While that remains firm, bleed on, for 
you are attacking the disease, and not in the slightest degree 
hazarding the permanent strength of the patient. 

I am fully aware that if I was advocating this mode of treat¬ 
ing tetanus in the human subject, I should have the opinion of 
some excellent pathological writers decidedly against me ,* and 
as it is, 1 know that I am opposed to some, but not many, good 
veterinary practitioners. Perhaps I should say, even then, that 
the objection to venesection has been oftener supported by the 
mere ipse dixit of the author, than by any appeal to fact, or even 
to sound pathological reasoning; and I should repeat, that I 
could not act on a sounder pathological principle, than to en¬ 
deavour to withdraw as much as I could of that which I have 
described to be the life of both the systems involved—that to the 
presence of which the one owes its capability of acting, and the 
other its power of being acted upon—the menstruum, by the 
interposition of which, if I may dare say so, the diflerent elec¬ 
tricities of the two substances are developed, and the galvanic 
effect produced. But I am a mere veterinary surgeon, addressing 
veterinary pupils. I am describing the diseases of quadrupeds, 
and the proper medical treatment of them; and I must not, will not 
be deterred from following my own course, either by the somewhat 
unfounded prejudices, or the soundest inductions, of human 
practitioners, or even the most overwhelming accumulation of 
facts as it regards the human being. 

A Case stated .—About four years ago I saw, 1 trust for the 
credit of human nature, a very rare case of tetanus. A cabman, 
who had been seen driving his horse about town from an early 
to a late period of the day, came not back to the stables at the 
appointed hour. The night passed, and he came not; but in 
the course of the following day the cab-master received intelli¬ 
gence that his horse, looking like a dog-horse, had been seen at 
the door of a public-house thirty miles from home. He imme¬ 
diately despatched one of his men with a constable by coach in 
that direction, with peremptory orders, wherever they found him, 
and whatever might be the state of the poor animal, to put the 
fellow into the cab, and to make the best of their way home, in 
order that, as the sessions were just commencing, he might have 
the pleasure of punishing the scoundrel without delay. They 
found him early in the morning of the second day. They 
i ascertained that he had been driving in every direction about 
' the country ; that the horse had not been taken out of the cab ; 



304 MR. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 

but that, the contents of the nose-bag being consumed, he 
had had nothing but an occasional wisp of hay, and not always 
that, where the fellow stopped to bait himself; and, in fine, that 
the animal was in the most dreadful state of exhaustion. but 
they knew the brutal character of their master, and that he 
would sacrifice a dozen horses, and this among the rest, although 
be was his very best, rather than delay his'^vengeance an instant. 
In fact, they were as bad as himself: they put the drivei 
the cab, and whipped on the poor horse, and accomplished 
their journey home^^—thirty-six miles—in little more than three 
hours, and with merely pulling up once to water the exhausted 
animal for a few minutes. The scoundrel-master did not expect 
them so soon, and was out of town ; and as the horse was dis¬ 
tressed to a most pitiable degree, and in the opinion of the 
ostler something worse was coming upon him, I was sent for. 
I saw him within a quarter of an hour after his arrival, and he 

was perfectly tetanic. ' 

The Case continued .—Did I act upon my system of bleeding 
here? No j but I ordered him to be made as comfortable as 
possible, and I gave him a good cordial drink in a half pint of 
the oldest and strongest ale I could procure. I saw him again 
in half an hour. I fancied that the reaction which I wished 
to produce had commenced. I staid a little longer, until I was 
assured of it, and then I bled him, and took as much blood 
as the pulse would allow. The effect was magical; the tetanic 
spasm was not only relieved, but it disappeared ; and I immedi¬ 
ately took advantage of it, and threw in a mild dose of physic. 
In the meantime the owner returned. We had previously dif¬ 
fered about horse-matters, and, as I expected, I was dismissed. 
Tetanus returned, and the horse was ultimately lost: he possibly 
would have been so under my treatment. 

Bleeding in after Stages .—The propriety of bleeding in the 
after-stage of the disease much depends on the circumstances of 
the case. In sudden exacerbation of the spasm, or the evident 
appearance of fever, I would bleed without scruple ; and I would 
be guided by the same rule : the blood should flow until the 
pulse indicated the desired constitutional affection. If I can 
lessen this furious working of the muscular fibre, if I can re¬ 
duce this tearing along at full speed to a little more moderate 
pace, or if I can obtain a slight interval of comparative rest, 
the expenditure of animal power which I prevent far more than 
counterbalances the loss of blood. 

Mr. Saunders, of Wolverhampton, has related two instructive 
cases of the successful treatment of tetanus by repeated blecd- 
inp's. He took from each horse 561b. of blood in the course of 

O 


ON TETANUS. 


305 

nine days. I have little faith in the small quantity of digitalis, 
or the two doses of aloes which he gave; but after every bleed¬ 
ing the horse was relieved. I confess, however, that I want 
more evidence as to the general effect of such a plan. I have 
considerable doubt about it, and should be inclined, after the 
first venesection, to trust to my opium and my aloes, reserving 
the lancet for any unexpected exacerbation of the complaint. 
The Recueil de Med. Vet, contains a case, in which a horse 
with the jaw immoveably locked was cured by the abstraction 
of blood assisted by injections alone. On the first day 12ib. 
of blood were taken, twelve on the second, and eight on the 
third day, when complete relaxation of the spasm had taken 
place. 

The Importance of Physic ,—Next in order, and equal in 
importance, is physic. This profuse bleeding, if it does no 
other good, will generally relax the muscles of the jaw so far, 
that you will be enabled to give a dose of physic. You must 
take instant advantage of this, and give a good strong dose, 
except perhaps in such a case as I have just related, when you 
have the terrors of pneumonia before your eyes. Eight or ten 
or twelve drachms of aloes should be administered. This is 
the best purgative, if the state of the jaws will permit you to 
administer it. It is the most to be depended upon—it is the 
only one thoroughly to be depended upon in the horse. If, how¬ 
ever, the remission of the spasm is very slight, there is another 
purgative not so certain in its action, sometimes dangerous, and 
no great favourite of mine—the farina of the croton nut: this 
may be given in the form of a very small ball, and to the extent 
of a scruple ; and it should be followed up by the solution of 
aloes, in doses, each of them containing four drachms of the 
gum resin, and repeated every sixth hour, until purgation is 
produced. 

There is little or no danger of exciting inflammation of the 
mucous membrane of the intestines by this prompt and ener¬ 
getic administration of purgative medicine, for there is too much 
determination of vital power towards the nervous system—too 
: much irritation there to leave us cause to dread the possibility 
I of metastasis elsewhere. I should be better pleased if I could 
' excite a certain degree of inflammation in the mucous membranes, 

! because I should hope that I might, to a proportionate extent, allay 
I this powerful excitation of the nervous system. I have another 
1 reason for the administration of these large and repeated doses, viz. 

! because I have cause to fear that I shall soon lose the co-operation 
of the abdominal muscles in keeping up the peristaltic motion of 
the bowels, and expelling their contents; and shall not only 


*306 MR. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 

be left to the unassisted power of the organic nerves, but shall 
have that power opposed and almost destroyed by the continued 
spasm and compression of the abdominal muscles. 

Physic, then, is indicated as relieving the intestines, and prin¬ 
cipally the larger ones, of the fecal matter by which they may 
be oppressed,—as possibly removing some source of irritation 
connected either with the origin of the spasmodic action or its 
continuance, or its violence—as lessening to a material degree 
the quantity of the circulating medium, and, when it is fearlessly 
continued, and pushed to its full extent, abating the force of 

almost every nervous affection. i • j j 

Clysters .—The action of the purgative should be excited and 
kept up by means of clysters, which we are now enabled readily 
to administer, and in what quantity we please, by means of Read's 
patent pump. I have not, for many a year, known a more valuable 
addition to our apparatus; and in this disease it will be an indis¬ 
pensable auxiliary, for reasons which I have just stated. Warni 
soap and water—not too strong of the soap, or warm water in 
which 8oz. of Epsom salts have been dissolved, or to which 4oz. of 
the solution of aloes have been added, will form the best clysters; 
and the quantity administered and the frequency of administration 
will depend on the degree of constipation. The feces must, if 
possible, be kept in a pultaceous state ; and in order to accomplish 
this, I should not scruple occasionally to throw up a bucketful of 
fluid at a time. I would not only completely fill the recturn, but 
force on a portion of the injection into the colon. The assistant 
must be always prepared with a wisp of hay, and place it on the 
anus the moment the pipe is withdrawn, and hold the tail strongly 
down; for such is now the pressure of the abdominal muscles on 
the intestines, that the fluid will be immediately expelled with a 
force that would be scarcely thought credible. 

Sedatives .—Next I inquire, have I any drug that possesses a 
general sedative power over the horse, or that exerts a direct influ¬ 
ence on the nervous system? 

Digitalis. —We must know little of horse-practice, if we have 
not witnessed the power of digitalis over the heart and the circu¬ 
latory system; and, in many a chest affection, we have hailed 
with true delight the intermittent pulse, a fearful symptom in 
the opinion of the uninitiated, but to us the certain harbinger of 
returning health. This, however, hardly suits our present pur¬ 
pose. The influence is too indirect—it is too much confined to the 
organic system. There may be pauses in the supply of arterial 
blood; there may be, on the whole, a diminished supply, but 
this will go only a little way to subdue the dreadful excitation of 

tetanus. 


ON TETANUS. 


307 

White Hellebore. —We often experience the beneficial 
agency of hellebore in lessening the rapidity of the circulation, 
or allaying general irritability; and this seems to be effected by 
the direct power of hellebore on the common sensorium, and an 
increased determination of blood to that organ, producing, if I 
may dare to use the term, a benumbing effect on the sources 
of nervous influence, both animal and organic. I seem to have 
found what I wanted here; but experience teaches me that I must 
at all times administer the hellebore in very cautious doses—that 
I must watch it almost every hour—and that if I go a little too far, 
I have coma, convulsions, death. This frightens me, where my 
only hope of success consists in outrageous doses, and those 
often repeated; and the dangerous effects of which may be sud¬ 
den in their appearance, and bid defiance to all my attempts to 
arrest their progress. 

Opium. —In opium I have a sedative of acknowledged effect 
on every system, and with little, or, I may almost say, no nar¬ 
cotic power on the quadruped. If I have local inflammation— 
inflammation of the conjunctival membrane—a drop or two of 
the vinous tincture of opium introduced into the eye frequently 
acts as a charm. If I have inflammation of the mucous mem¬ 
brane of the intestines, whatever else I may give, I have recourse 
to opium as my main dependence. I find, by the cessation of 
pain and mucous ^discharge, that it has soon relieved the 
irritation of the membrane generally; and, by the greater con¬ 
sistency of the fecal discharge, that the open mouths of the 
exhalent vessels have been quieted down to the natural exercise 
of their functions. It is an astringent, because it is a sedative: 
and lean administer this drug to almost any extent without dan¬ 
gerous narcotic effect being produced. Then to this I fly; and 
I find it my sheet-anchor in the treatment of tetanus. I give 
it in large doses : I must do so, for I have a formidable enemy 
to encounter; and I am encouraged to do so, for all that I can 
at any other time fear from it is, that it may a little overact its 
part, which it is scarcely possible for it to do here. 

To the smallest horse I should give a drachm of powdered 
opium, morning, noon, and night; I should increase the dose 
in proportion to the increased size of the animal, and to a 
large horse I should not scruple to give two drachms three times 
in the day. If it can by possibility be managed by means of a 
probang or flexible cane, it should be given in the form of ball. 
There is more in this than I can perhaps explain. I can give a 
larger dose of purgative medicine with safety in the form of 
drink than I can in that of ball. I can perhaps get it to act 
a little more speedily, but it does not act so powerfully, and that 


308 MR. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 

by a great deal. In proportion as it is ditiused over a laiger 
surface, its effect seems to be weakened, and it sooner passes ovei 
that surface, and ceases to act. I must have the whole power 
of a drug concentrated for awhile on a particular spot, and 
then, by the too little appreciated influence of sympathy, its 
power conveyed to every part of the intestinal canal. It was long 
before I could comprehend or believe this. It has an appear¬ 
ance of being inconsistent with all our established notions of the 
action of medicines, but I am thoroughly convinced of it now. 

Mr. John Hinds describes a method of procuring temporary 
relaxation of the jaw. He tells us to place a piece of wood on 
the forehead of the horse, and to strike a smart blow upon it 
with another piece or a small mallet. The jaw will immediately 
be relaxed, and some substance may be placed between the teeth, 
to prevent their return to their former closeness. I confess that 
1 have never tried this plan. If it succeeds, there really is some 
good in Mr. John Hind’s book. 

French Notions of our Practice .—Hurtrel d’Arboval recom¬ 
mends opium as the main hope of the practitioner in the treat¬ 
ment of tetanus; but he says that ‘‘the French surgeons e^e 
in the habit of giving it in doses of only a few grains of the 
tincture or the extract, with decoctions of marshmallows or poppy- 
heads ; whereas the English, bolder but not more skilful, gave 
at a dose three ounces of tincture of opium with sulphuric ether, 
and brandy, and ale.” I do not know where the author of the 
Veterinary Dictionary picked up this precious intelligence I do 
not think that either Clater, Knowlson, or even John Hinds him¬ 
self, would recommend this compound of spirit of wine, and ether, 
and brandy, and ale; but if we are more fortunate than our neigh¬ 
bours in the treatment of this disease, it is because our practice 
is bolder, and more skilful on that account. In the course of 
treating a case I have given twelve, fourteen ounces, and even a 
pound of crude opium to a horse, and succeeded at last; but I 
never gave the laudanum, or ether, or brandy, or ale : then I 
might have been characterized as bold, and it might very pro¬ 
perly have been added, “ but not skilful.” 

There is one mode of obtaining the desired effect of many 
drugs, in which the practice of our continental brethren deserves 
commendation and imitation,—I mean through the medium of 
the absorbents. If the cuticle is raised by a blister, opium or 
aloes spread on the abraded surface produce, I will not say 
their full effect, but a very considerable one. In many cases of 
tetanus this may be turned to very good account. 


309 


A ISEW MODE OF TREATING STAGGERS (VERTIGO). 

Bi/ M. Desaint, M.V., Depot, Bontivy, 

M. Huvelliek having described the good effect which 
attended the use of white mustard seed in staggers (see The 
Veterinarian, Dec. 1834, p. 655), I also beg leave to narrate 
a mode of treatment peculiar, I believe, to myself, and which has 
been attended by results as satisfactory as I could desire. 

CASE I. 

July \lth, 1833, 4 p.m. —A strong horse was suddenly taken 
ill while he was eating a feed of corn. I was immediately sent 
for, and found him stretched on the pavement, with his head 
under the manger. I hastened to loosen his halter—got him 
up, and had him led into the yard. His walk was uncertain 
and staggering—he slipped several times on the pavement of the 
stable, and he fell on his head at the door, where the ground was 
a little inclined. 

When got into the court, he started at a quick pace—if he 
was stopped he reared, or threw himself on his head on the 
ground. The eyelids were opened widely—the eyes fixed and 
dull, and the pupils dilated. The tongue, of a blue colour, was 
swelled, and half protruded from the mouth, from which there 
ran a thick and ropy discharge. The artery was hard, and the 
pulse a little irregular. 

He was copiously bled, which was effected with difficulty, on 
account of his sudden and violent movements; a strap, how¬ 
ever, was fastened round his neck in order to compress the 
jugular, and the blood was suffered to flow on the ground. 

A moment of calm followed the bleeding, and I profited by it, 
and administered a pint and a half of cold water, strongly 
etherized. The closing of the jaws, and the protrusion of the 
tongue, were powerful obstacles to this ; but we succeeded in 
getting down the greater part of the medicine. We then ad¬ 
ministered an injection of warm water, strongly ammoniated, 
which procured an immediate and copious dejection. The alkali 
seemed to produce a derivative excitement of the mucous mem¬ 
brane of the rectum, which was durable and effective. Simple 
emollient injections were afterwards employed. 

I then had him led into the school, and fastened him in the 
centre of it, by means of a swivel, so that he could describe a 
considerable circle, and I waited the effect of the first treatment. 

Three or four hours passed, and there was no improvement. 
It then occurred to me that I would inject up his nostrils cold 
VOL. viii. u u 


310 A NEW MODE OF TREATING STAGGERS. 

water, strongly impregnated with ammonia. He was suddenly 
startled by this; he made a long inspiration, stretched out his 
fore legs, and then, by a powerful muscular effort, threw him¬ 
self on his haunches, from which position it was impossible to 
move him. Violent and reiterated sneezing terminated this 
state of excitation; every muscle relaxed, and the horse fell on 
the ground in a state of exhaustion. 

His mouth was gargled with mucilaginous water and honey ; 
and his nostrils, eyes, and lips, were washed with cold water. 

The vertiginous symptoms diminished in intensity and fre¬ 
quency, and the night was passed quietly. 

—Not seeing any decided amendment, I cauterized the 
upper part of the neck, and as near as possible to the occipital 
bone, with a flat iron, sparing only the part which would be 
occupied by the band of the head-stall. I also carried the 
cautery over the whole of the forehead, and afterwards applied 
a blister over the whole. This produced, before night, very 
considerable swelling and soreness. 

During the day, the patient continued to traverse his circle 
tolerably quietly; sometimes w^e stopped him, and at other 
times he would rest a little himself: at night I caused some 
straw to be spread on one part of his track. About the middle 
of the night, he began to move more slowly; he stopped two 
or three times at the place where the straw had been scattered, 
and at length, overcome by fatigue, he lay himself down and 
slept during several hours. On awaking he stretched his head 
towards the straw—he seemed to smell it, and moved his lips as 
if he would seize it. The attendants then offered him some 
gruel, flavoured with honey, a little of which he drunk: his 
tongue had now re-entered the mouth, and the animal was able 
to move it. 

13^^.—He began to distinguish objects. He lifted his head 
at the sound of the whip, and shrunk when a hand approached 
his eyes. All his functions began to resume their former course, 
and he was decidedly convalescent. His progress towards per¬ 
fect health was rapid. I retained him in the hospital until the 
20th of August; he was then discharged, and has continued 
well. 

CASE II. 

A horse, belonging to the 2d Cuirassiers, had not been well . 
during some days, but the disease had not assumed any de¬ 
cided character. On the 17th of April, 1834, after his noon- 
feed, he exhibited symptoms of vertigo; his walk was stagger¬ 
ing — he slipped several times as he went out of the stable, and. 


A NEW MODE OF TREATING STAGGERS. 


311 


as soon as he got into the yard, would have run away. His eye¬ 
lids were dilated, and the appearance of the eyes and general 
countenance left no doubt with regard to the real nature of the 
disease. 

He was copiously bled ; a drink with ether was administered, 
and cold water, with ammonia, thrown up his nostrils. The 
same effects were produced as in the last case. 

Instead of using the cautery I inserted two setons in the poll; 
I rubbed the blisterino’ ointment over their track, and also over 
the forehead; and 1 placed the horse in the school, as I had 
done the other. 

The patient had no relapse—the symptoms speedily diminish¬ 
ed in intensity—the functions of the different organs of sense 
were resumed; and at eight o’clock on that night the horse was 
taken out of the school, and placed in the infirmary. 

He afterwards had a slight attack of enteritis, which was soon 
removed. 

On the 1st of May he was perfectly cured. 

CASE III. 

A horse belonging to the 7th Cuirassiers exhibited on the 20th 
of June, 1834, symptoms of enteritis. Acute pneumonia suc¬ 
ceeded to this, or was complicated with it, and the horse re¬ 
mained in the infirmary until July the 2d, when he was dismissed 
perfectly cured, and with very little loss of flesh. 

September 14^/?.—At the evening feed the horse was dull, and 
scarcely ate. I was sent for, and on examining him I disco¬ 
vered a small tumour on the left side of the upper part of the 
head, and a little excoriation above the eve on the same side. 
No marks of disease were now observable either in the pulse 
or general appearance of the animal. He was led to the water¬ 
ing place, and drank as usual, and on his return to the stable 
seemed to have recovered his appetite, and ate the remainder of 
his corn : I concluded from this that he had received a severe 
blow on the head, which had produced temporary stupor. 

15^/i.—I was summoned early to him. He now refused his 
food, his head was low, and various parts of his body were 
agitated by spasmodic motions. I caused him to be led into the 
yard, and there his manner of walking and the expression of his 
countenance assured me of the nature of his disease. 

The same means were adopted as in the former cases, and 
attended with the same results, so far as the symptoms of vertigo 
were concerned. 

During the rest of the day, and on the 46th, he was evidently 


312 A NEW MODE OF TREATING STAGGERS, 

iaiproving: but I was not satisfied. He did not lie down, or 
appeared to suffer much in the attempt to lie down. He would 
take liquid food, but, after partly chewing that which was solid, 
he dropped it from his mouth. We gave him the powdered 
mustard as recommended by M. Huvellier. 

V7th .—There is little alteration. 

\Sth ,—About the middle of the day he had another seeming 
attack of vertigo, which lasted about two hours ; he then became 
calm, but new symptoms appeared. The mucous, inodorous 
fluid which the horse had discharged from the nostrils after the 
injections, had become exceedingly fetid, and his breath was very 
offensive. If he lay down, it was but for a moment; his respira¬ 
tion was laborious, and accompanied by a loud yet plaintive 
sound. When he stands up he is relieved, and a kind of calm 
succeeds. The patient after this remained standing until mid¬ 
night, when, again lying down, the same symptoms were exhibited, 
but with much greater violence. 

\2th .—At two o’clock in the morning I was called by the guard. 
The horse was stretched on his litter, and his breathing seemed 
dreadfully laborious and agonizing. The pulse was scarcely to 
be detected. Much stinking mucus was collected about the 
nostrils, and more rattled in the bronchi and trachea. I opened 
the trachea, and then, on the supposition of a purulent effusion 
in the air passages, I introduced the canula of a syringe into the 
aperture, and, closing the nose and mouth of the animal, I drew 
up the piston. 1 repeated this several times without any result, 
and in an instant afterwards the animal died. 

On the dissection of this horse, the mucous membrane of 
the pyloric portion of the stomach was found to be stained of a 
yellow colour, and likewise exhibited traces of considerable in¬ 
flammation, the effect probably of the mustard. The small 
intestines were sound, and so were the larger ones, except that 
at the caput coli some black sand, a pound in weight, had col¬ 
lected and formed a partial obstruction: some portions of the 
ingesta were accumulated there, of greater consistence than was 
natural. The heart was larger than usual, without sensible altera¬ 
tion either in its substance or cavities ; but the pericardic bag was 
distended with serous fluid, of a light red colour. The plurm 
were comparatively unaffected. The substance of the lungs was 
slightly congested, and contained tubercles, for the most part of an 
indurated character. There was no considerable ulcer, or purulent 
reservoir, as I had expected ; nor was it easy to trace the source of 
the fetid purulent matter, a portion of which was still contained 
in the bronchi. It probably proceeded from some small tubercles 


A NEW MODE OF TREATING STAGGERS. 


313 


that had suppurated, and opened a passage into the minute 
bronchial divisions. There had evidently been former severe 
disease of the lungs. 

The therapeutic means which I had adopted had certainly 
removed the symptoms of vertigo : but the affection that de¬ 
stroyed the animal was one that bid defiance to all medical skill, 
and death was the consequence of inanition, and hastened by 
the pericardic dropsy, and, perhaps, by some altered structure of 
the heart* 

CASE IV. 

One of the most beautiful horses of the detachment exhibited 
symptoms of staggers as he was eating his evening ration, 
September 15th, lS34. 

The same means were adopted, with the exception of setDns in 
the poll, and other counter-irritating applications. 

Having been placed in the school, he performed a few circles, 
and every symptom seemed to vanish. He was led back to the 
infirmary about eight o’clock, proper attention was paid to his 
diet, and I formed the most favourable expectations with regard 
to him. 

2^th .—He appeared to be quite well, and rejoined the regi¬ 
ment ; but on the 23d, and again at his evening feed, he 
exhibited symptoms of staggers. I found him lying against the 
wall; and on his body, and particularly on his head, were bruises 
caused by the violence of his struggles. 

The same means wefe used with as prompt and complete 
success. The horse was sent to the depot at Pontivy, and is 
now in perfect health. 

I shall wait for new cases to confirm or weaken the impression 
which these have made, and I will faithfully record them. 

The following is the course which I have hitherto pursued :— 
1st, Copious and reiterated bleeding if the case appears to require 
it; but one bleeding at all events. 2d, Immediately afterwards the 
drink composed of diluted ether, then an ammoniacal injection 
up the nostrils, and the same used as an enema ; afterwards in¬ 
jections of cold water only, with application of the same to the 
eyes, face, &c. 3d, These things being done, he was sent to the 
school, and fastened in the centre of it with a long rein, so that 
he could form a very considerable circle. 4th, If the violent 
symptoms continued, or a comatose state succeeded, setons or 
blisters vrere applied to the neck, and opiates administered with 
the flour of white mustard-seed. This medicine, recommended 
by M. Huvellier, appears to me to be a very useful one, but it is 
not always possible to administer it at the beginning of the 


314 INFLAMMATION OF THE BRAIN. 

disease, when it would be most efficacious. It cannot, also, be 
administered in a liquid form, for the vehicle in which it is given 
would necessarily impair or destroy the action of it: its employ¬ 
ment is consequently conditional. 

Rec. de Med, Vet, 


If we now translate the instructions of Professor Vatel on the 
three divisions into which these affections of the head naturally 
range themselves, our readers will be sufficiently in possession 
of the opinions of the French veterinarians on the subject of 
staggers. 

Inflammation of the Brain. 

Inflammation of the brain is ordinarily accompanied by inflam¬ 
mation of the arachnoid membrane. It is difficult to distinguish 
these aflections from each other, even when they exist separately, 
on account of the similarity between their symptoms and the 
symptoms of the collapse which follows : the first resemble 
those of cerebral apoplexy. Apoplexy appears to be generally 
characterized by sudden loss of power over the voluntary muscles, 
without spasmodic action ; inflammation of the brain is knowm by 
spasmodic action, that may be followed by slow and progressive 
paralysis, the march of wffiich is perhaps irregular and inter¬ 
mittent; and arachnitis by spasmodic action without loss of 
voluntary power. 

Among the predisposing causes of inflammation of the brain 
may be reckoned the use of stimulating food and liquors : 
the occasional and more ordinary ones are, blows on the head, 
fracture of the cranium, the presence of foreign bodies in the 
cranial cavity (the hydatid in sheep), exposure to the sun, in¬ 
tense irritation of the stomach, and inflammation of the arach¬ 
noid membrane, of which this is often the consequence. 

Simple cerebritis is seldom found, at least, without easily 
recognized physical causes. It is marked by continued or inter¬ 
mittent contraction of the muscles, somnolence, deafness, im¬ 
pairment of sight, slowness of pulse: to these succeed paralysis 
of the muscles, at first with contraction more or less violent, 
and with the preservation of sensibility : to these succeed flacci- 
dity of the muscles, insensibility oif the skin, palsy of the 
bladder, constipation, &c. &c. 

It is a serious complaint, and rarely cured after being perfectly 
developed. If it does not occasion the death of the animal, it 
generally terminates in suppuration, softening {ramolUssement)y 
or induration. * 

In the treatment of this disease the first object is to get rid of 



ARACHNITIS. 


315 


the causes which produced it, if they are known, as fractures, 
hydatids, &c. The second is to prevent the disorganization of 
the brain: for this purpose general and repeated bleedings are 
used; the dashing of cold water, in which common salt has been 
dissolved, on the head ; the establishment of some point of deri¬ 
vation ; some counter-irritant, as blisters on the inside of the 
thighs, or on the sides; or the use of the actual cautery: to 
these should be added, restricted diet, cooling drinks, and stimu¬ 
lating injections. If the disease continues long, and seems to be 
passing into a chronic state, purgatives should be employed in 
small doses and for a long continuance, and recourse may be had 
to setons in the neck and poll. 

Filhnens de Pathologic Vkerinaire, p. 40. 

Acute Inflammatioin of the Arachnoid Membrane. 

Many causes may produce arachnitis or phrensy. The most 
usual, among the occasional ones, are blows on the cranium, 
exposure to the sun, acute or chronic inflammation of the brain, 
violent pain, stimulating food, the miasmata that produce typhus, 
inflammation of the mucous membrane of any of the digestive 
passages, or of any other mucous or serous membrane, and, 
finally, all the ordinary causes of inflammation. 

The symptoms are, violent convulsive action of the limbs, and 
forcible contraction of them, without being followed by palsy. 
The last symptom is seen only when the inflammation is propa¬ 
gated to the brain, or when there is serous effusion on the brain. 

The head is, at first, generally depressed; the horse rests it 
on his manger, or presses it against the wall. When he walks, 
the head is still carried low; it is struck against every object in 
the animal’s way, until he finds something against which he may 
press it. He staggers as he walks, his eyes are open and protrud¬ 
ing ; but he cannot see. By and by he becomes almost immoveable 
in some place where he can partially support himself. All at 
once, however, violent convulsions succeed ; he strikes his head 
forcibly against every thing that surrounds him, without appear¬ 
ing to feel the blows he is inflicting on himself. He paws with 
his fore-feet; he rears on his hind ones; he falls backward ; he 
struggles violently, and he sometimes dies in this state of exacer¬ 
bation. 

Prompt and copious bleedings are indicated; revulsives at the 
temples, thighs, and neck; the dashing of cold water on the 
head, and the application of ice to the forehead and poll. 

Chronic Arachnitis. 

This succeeds to acute arachnitis, or is from the commence¬ 
ment of a milder character than that which has been described. 


CEREBRAL APOPLEXY. 


316 

The symptoms are sometimes obscure, for the disease does not 
run on to an acute state ; or the signs of compression of the brain 
'by the accumulation of serous fluid in the ventricles, such as 
coma, stupor, debility, paralysis, slow respiration, and plaintive 
cries, are not seen. 

The treatment is essentially the same as that of acute arach¬ 
nitis, but the practitioner must reckon more on the effect of 
revulsives, as setons in the neck, purgatives, and diuretics. 

Eiernens de Pathologic VetermairCf p. 249. 

Cerebral Apoplexy. 

Cerebral hemorrhage is chiefly seen in the horse, the ox, the 
sheep, the hog, and, sometimes, the dog. 

The causes are, all kinds of cephalic irritations—plethora, high 
feeding, sudden change from dry to green food, heat, exposure to 
the sun, heated stables, idleness, over-work, great muscular 
efforts, irritation or distention of the stomach, blows on the 
head, &c. &c. 

Its attack is occasionally preceded by some precursory symp¬ 
toms, such as temporary giddiness, hanging of the head ; disincli¬ 
nation to move; irregular and staggering gait; impairment of sight, 
hearing, or appetite ; frequent yawnings ; stupidity; numbness of 
the limbs, and frequent sighing. In the greater number of eases 
apoplexy comes on without warning. 

Slight apoplexy,—Thiii is sometimes observed in the horse. 
It is characterized by sudden palsy of one limb, or of one side. 
The pulse is full and strong; the vessels of the face are gorged 
with blood. A remission of the symptoms often soon takes place, 
if proper means are used. 

Severe apoplexy .—The animal falls all at once, as if struck 
with lightning. Stupor, insensibility, difficulty in moving the 
hind limbs, and, sometimes, all four of them; fixedness and 
blindness of the eyes; immobility and dilatation of the pupils; 
great discharge of saliva; the apparent mucous membranes of 
a red, or deeper, or violet colour; the tongue also of a violet 
hue; the jugulars distended ; the nostrils dilated; the respira¬ 
tion sometimes quick, at others slow and stertorous; the pulse 
hard and full, sometimes slow, sometimes quick; and, at last, 
immobility more or less complete, are the usual symptoms. 

In sheep the attack of apoplexy is usually most rapid. The 
eye has an expression of distress, yet half unconsciousness ; the 
conjunctival and nasal membranes are of a vivid red ; the head 
is low and protruded ; the flanks heave ; the breathing is loud; 
the animal moans ; and it falls and dies occasionally in the space 
of a few minutes. 


DESCRIPTION OF CREEPING JENNY. 317 

The hog often dies suddenly without any precursory symptoms. 

If apoplexy, however sudden and violent may be its attack, 
does not destroy the animal in a comparatively short space of 
time, the most alarming symptoms gradually disappear, but 
without the animal being cured. The disease passes into a 
chronic state, and terminates, at last, with the death of the pa¬ 
tient, who dies with all the symptoms of inflammation of the 
brain. 

On opening the animals that die of apoplexy, there is either 
simple turgescence of the vessels, which are gorged with blood, 
or, oftener, there is an effusion of blood either on the surface, or 
in the substance, or in the ventricles of the brain. 

When this complaint attacks many animals at the same time, 
it is necessary to search diligently for the causes of it, and 
either to remove them or lessen their injurious effect; and the 
succour afforded to the animals should be prompt. 

l^lemens de Pathologic VetermairCf p. 44. 


ANOMALIESDOUBLE LEGS — DESCRIPTION OF 

CREEPING JENNY. 

Bj/ilfr. Cartwright, P.S.y Whitchurch. 

In The Veterinarian for September last you inserted a 
case I sent you of ‘‘ Double Legs” in a colt, and I there alluded 
to a similar one in a mare, called Creeping Jenny,” which I 
had seen eight or nine years before, but had not particularly 
noticed her: since then the mare has been shewn again in this 
town, and I have sent you the following particulars of her, as I 
think it worthy of being recorded, although I believe she has 
been seen by most people in this country, and shewn for two or 
three years in London. 

She is said to be fifteen years old, thorough-bred, got by Sor- 
cereror Williams’s ditto, dam by Skyscraper; but is thought to be 
got by the former, as her dam went the usual time with foal for 
his get, but was covered by the latter six weeks after, being sup¬ 
posed not to hold to the former. She has had three foals; one is 
seven and another three years old, and the other I know nothing 
about, except that all of them are perfect in conformation. She is a 
very handsome compact mare, and I am told has run nine races, 
winning the filly stakes at Newmarket, and £50 at York in 1822; 
and the £60 stakes and the City plate at Canterbury in 1823. She 
was bred by Mr. Checketts, of Belgrave Hall, near Leicester, who 
now travels about with her as a curiosity, and who takes occasion- 

VOL. VITI. X X 





318 DESCRIPTION OF CREEPING JENNY. 

ally, by shewing her, as much as £20 a-day at some races. She 
was born, to all appearance, natural. The two hind extra legs 
made their appearance when she was about three years old, and 
the fore ones a year or two after. The two hinder ones have in¬ 
creased in size for the last few years, and project farther out side¬ 
ways. She travelled the other day forty-seven miles with ease ; 
and when she walks she seems to have the power of extending 
the hind extra legs, proving that she has extra extensors of the 
feet. 

The off-hind Zcg.—The thigh appears to be double, as there is 
a division or cavity along the front of its whole length, and it is 
thicker than usual. The hock is certainly a fine large one, but 
seems as if it was spavined. At, and a little above the fetlock 
joint there grows out, on the inside, a separate part of leg (pas¬ 
terns and foot), but not quite so perfect as the other, and merely 
touches the ground in consequence of the hoof being allowed to 
grow down unnaturally. The frog is rather imperfect. If the 
hoof was properly pared down, it w'ould not touch the ground, 
and does but barely do so at present. This is the largest of the 
two additional hind ones. 

The near-hind leg, —The thigh and hock are natural. ^ There 
grows from the inside of the fetlock, and just above it, an addi¬ 
tion similar to that abovementioned, but not quite so large. 

The off-fore leg, —There grows on the inside, in a similar situa- 
dition to the others mentioned, a small, badly-formed imitation ad- 
tional leg. The bone (the pastern) is about the thickness of a 
knife-handle, short, and loosely attached to the joint; the liga¬ 
ments giving great play to the joint. The hoof, if it can be 
called so, is nothing more than a horny substance, the thickness 
also of a knife-handle, and three or four inches long. As a 
whole, it has no appearance whatever of a leg. 

The near-fore leg, —At the inside of the fetlock joint there is 
a thickening of the skin, and a little horny substance, in two 
parts, growing from it; but not more than would cover a penny- 
piece, and is about half an inch thick. 

When the owner was here, I shewed him the legs that I have, 
and asked him if he had ever seen or heard of any similar to 
his horse before, and he replied that he had not. 


319 


RUPTURE OF THE PERICARDIUM, WITH EXTEN¬ 
SIVE DISEASE OF THE LUNGS, PLEURA, &c. IN 
A HEIFER.—CHRONIC DISEASE OF THE HEART 
IN A COW. 

Mr. E. A. Friend, F.aS., Walsall. 

On the 16th March, 1834, I was sent for by Mr. Wright, of 
Stonnall, near Lichfield, to examine a heifer that he had pur¬ 
chased about a fortnight previously. I found her much emaciated, 
the hide tight, and the coat staring; the eye sunken, with total 
loss of appetite, and the faeces of a dysenteric kind, together 
with a considerable affection of the thorax, but of such a nature 
that I could not ascertain its precise character. 

He requested my opinion as to her soundness at the time he 
had purchased her, he having had her (with others bought at 
the same time) warranted sound. I told him at once that 1 had 
not the slightest doubt of her having been decidedly unsound 
long before the time of purchase, and advised him instantly to 
write to the party from whom he had her. 

I grounded my opinion at that time partly on the general ap¬ 
pearance of the animal ,* partly on the nature of the faeces, which, 
when discharged, were covered with small gaseous globules, 
stronsfly indicating chronic disease of the mucous membrane of 
the intestines; and partly from the affection of the chest, which, 
though of a mixed indefinite character, yet appeared to me to be 
chronic: but more particularly I was led to this consideration 
from the appearance of the hide and coat. There is a peculiar 
sympathy in the skin with chronic disease of the thoracic and 
abdominal viscera; and in this case the hide was tight to the 
feel, and the hair bore the same resemblance to the bloom of 
healthy hair, that old thatch would do to reed newly cut. I sent 
some medicines for her, with directions for their exhibition ; and on 
the 28th instant I received a note from him stating that, during 
the time the heifer had been taking the medicines, she had been 
very much relieved, but that she had relapsed again. As soon 

as they were finished I then sent him some more, with further 

•/ 

directions. 

I saw Mr. Wright again on the 9th April, and he then told 
me that the cow was better in her body, and that her appetite 
had improved very much, but yet that he thought her otherwise 
no better. 

I saw her again myself on the 14th, and there was an im¬ 
proved appearance in the coat, a brighter eye, a much better 
appetite, and the faeces such as would be voided by a cow living 


PLEURISY AND RUPTURE 


320 

on the same food, in a state of perfect health : but the affection 
of the thorax was decidedly much worse ; there was considerable 
cedematous swelling of the dewlap and the integuments under 
the jaw, and I immediately detected effusion into the cavity of 
the chest. I told Mr. Wright of this, and the immediate danger 
to life consequent upon it. The event justified the prediction ; I 
went again on the 16th, and found her dead.—The following 
were the appearances that presented themselves at the post¬ 
mortem examination: The first three stomachs were healthy, 
with a due portion of food in them ; the fourth stomach was 
slightly inflamed, with a quantity of dirt, and several small pieces 
of coal or cinders in it; there was also a nail, a pin, and a small 
piece of wire, in the first stomach. The intestines had recovered 
their healthy aspect in a great measure, but there was a small 
quantity of serous fluid in the cavity of the abdomen. Upon 
opening into the thorax, about two gallons of purulent fluid es¬ 
caped. The lungs were in a state of complete collapse, and not 
more than half their natural size, and were completely attached 
to the ribs by a diseased secretion from the pleura. The most extra¬ 
ordinary appearance, however, was exhibited by the pericardium: 
a portion of it was found closely adhering to the left side of the 
heart ; on the right side there was a rupture of it, forming a 
foramen of an inch and a half in diameter, and it appeared as if 
the edges of this opening on one side had receded upon the sur¬ 
rounding parts. Adhesive inflammation had taken place, and 
there was a complete duplicature of the pericardium, which was 
altogether thickened and indurated to such an extent, as to pre¬ 
sent the appearance of tanned leather. 

Here, then, at any rate, I had firm ground for my original 
opinion of long-existing chronic disease. The pericardium did 
not exhibit that intense vascularity that one stage of acute in¬ 
flammation would produce ; nor was there that tendency to de¬ 
composition that would be the effect of a still greater extension 
of the same kind of inflammatory action, but there was, instead, 
a firm indurated half-organized substance, of fifty or sixty times 
its original thickness. Now, in the first instance, when this 
comparatively delicate membrane (from the disease consequent 
upon its rupture) had lost its healthy secreting action, a diseased 
one would be set up in its stead, and a deposition upon the 
whole of its internal surface must have taken place. A partial 
organization of this must have followed ; and this deposition, 
covering the original secreting surface, must have itself become 
the secreting surface. A fresh deposition must then have taken 
place, and a fresh organization have followed, and so layer after 
layer were added, till it became the hardened indurated mass which 


OF THE PERICARDIUM. 321 

was exhibited on dissection; this I considered, and I was con¬ 
firmed in my opinion of its long duration. 

I gave Mr. Wright a written detail of the case, and my opinion 
upon it, of which the following is a copy: that the primary 
disease in this case was of the pericardium; and that so extra¬ 
ordinary was the extent of disorganization which had taken place, 
that it was matter of absolute certainty that it could not pos¬ 
sibly have been effected, except under a disease of several 
months’ continuance : that the disease of the abdominal viscera 
(but which yielded to the power of medicine) was a consequence 
of this excessive derangement; and that the immediate cause of 
death was from suffocation, produced by the enormous quantity 
of purulent fluid latterly secreted.” 

I advised Mr. Wright to send a copy of this case, and opinion, 
together with the hide of the animal, after putting his brand- 
mark upon it, to a friend of his that lived in the neighbourhood 
of Mr. Thomas, the cattle dealer of whom he had bought 
the heifer, and to desire him to deliver the hide, and to allow 
Mr. Thomas’s veterinary surgeon (if he employed one), or if 
not, the family surgeon, to peruse the case, and 1 thought that he 
would not find much difficulty in getting the matter settled. 
He did so, and Mr. Thomas honourably paid him for the heifer, 
and expences; but having had her in his possession only three 
or four days prior to selling her to Mr. Wright, he naturally 
turned to the party of whom he had purchased her for repay¬ 
ment likewise : thisi was refused, and the matter went into a 
course of law, and I received a subpoena to attend the Shrewsbury 
assizes, in March, to give my evidence. This in a few days 
was countermanded, and 1 have since learned that the defendant 
had agreed to pay all the debt and costs. 

I send you this case for various reasons : in the first place, I 
consider that even a simple record of extraordinary cases that 
occur in veterinary practice (though they should be given without 
note or comment) is extremely valuable. For who, when he 
is standing by a suffering patient, that cannot inform him of the 
nature of the pain that is tormenting him, when every eye is 
turned upon his, and every one looks to him for the expected 
explanation or prognosis, when, perhaps, the symptoms are such 
as to set all ordinary calculation or explanation at defiance, and 
the whole of his previous practice furnishes him with no parallel 
case ; I say who, at such a time, would not be glad to cast back 
the eye of his mind over the many valuable records that he re¬ 
members to have read in the pages of The Veterinarian for 
[ instance, if haply amongst them he may find something in the 



322 RUPTURE OF THE PERICARDIUM. 

practice or experience of others to help him out ? And though 
he may not be able to save the patient, yet the very knowledge 
of this circumstance, coupled with the fact of his being aware of 
the chances of disorganization in certain parts of the animal 
frame, will give him a deserved consequence with his employers, 
and entitle him to such a share of their confidence as he might 
find it difficult otherwise to obtain. 

In the second place, it is one which was likely to have occupied 
the attention of a court of justice; and, as I should in that case 
have been obliged to state my opinion publicly, I do it now with¬ 
out hesitation, for it may possibly serve some of the profession 
at a future time, who may be employed in a litigated case, con¬ 
nected with cattle practice, as something to refer to, by way of 
precedent; and I will not do your readers the injustice to sup¬ 
pose that they would be inclined to slight the end on such an 
occasion, because the means were humble. 

In the next place, I do it for the purpose of introducing a 
medicine which I gave in this case, and which I never remember 
to have seen or heard recommended for the purposes for which 
I give it, but which I have found the most efficacious of any 
that the whole range of the materia medica has afforded me, for 
stimulating the digestive system generally, increasing the appe¬ 
tite, and restoring the very important function of suspended ru¬ 
mination. It is pulv. cantharidis, in doses of fifteen to twenty 
grains,combined with carbonate ammon. from 3 j to 3ij : these, with 
ginger and gentian (medicines commonly used for the purpose), 
will be found on trial so valuable, that I feel sure that I do not 
arrogate to myself more than those who have the opportunity of 
giving it a fair trial will willingly award me, when I say that I 
anticipate in some little degree the thanks of that part of the pro¬ 
fession who are engaged in cattle practice for its public in¬ 
troduction. 

In the last place, I do it to substantiate a fact in the pathology 
of cattle that I have frequently noticed, viz. that so powerful is 
the digestive system in them, and so capable, in a state of health, 
of supplying waste and repair, that disorganization, even in the 
most/vital parts, may go on to an astonishing extent without 
affecting life, and even sometimes without interfering materially 
with the actual improvement in the condition of the animal. I 
have seen large abscesses in the liver of a fat cow killed by the 
butcher, and other affections of the same kind that could not 
co-exist in the horse with the necessity for that active exertion 
that is generally required of him. Further to illustrate this, I 
subjoin the following case of 


323 

Extensive Chronic Disease of the Heart. 

About a year and a half ago I was sent for to a cow, belonging 
to Mrs. Swift, of Aldridge, about four miles from hence. I found 
her down, in exceedingly great pain, with a most alarmingly quick 
and strong pulse, a wild and haggard eye, and the head turned 
back on the side, indicating pain in the region of the abdomen. 
I bled her, and the blood flowed copiously : after I had abstracted 
as much as I judged proper, and the pressure was removed from 
the lower part of the vein, I had the greatest possible difficulty 
in stopoing the bleeding, for it was forced out in jets, several 
feet distant from the animal, and she died in less than five mi¬ 
nutes. 

I am sorry that I had not the opportunity of minutely exaimin- 
ing her, as I am persuaded that it w'as a case accompanied by 
indigestion, but the heart was saved for me. It was very large, 
and the whole of the outer walls presented the appearance of a 
honeycomb; the holes were more than an inch deep ; such a 
case of chronic disease of that viscus as I have never seen any 
thing else at all to compare with : and yet this cow was in as 
good condition as you could possibly desire to see a store beast; 
and, they informed me, had milked extremely well, and had 
shewn no symptoms of illness that they could perceive, until 
a short previously to my being sent for. 

The little necessity for exertion that there is at times in these 
cases, adds materially to the power of the digestive organs, as 
antagonists to disease ; and it is truly astonishing how the pur¬ 
poses of life are carried on under such circumstances as these in 
consideration : and yet, let the digestive organs themselves be 
once sensibly diseased whilst such affections exist in other parts, 
and it is then equally astonishing with what a rapid flow the two 
conjointly hurry life to its last ebb. The impression on my mind 
at the time this case occurred was, that the functions of the heart, 
which had gradually been accommodating themselves to the al¬ 
teration in its structure, had not been able to stand against the 
rapid derangement such a case of acute indigestion had pro¬ 
duced, and that death was the consequence. 


EXTIRPATION OF THE CONCH OF THE EAR OF 

THE HORSE. 

By Professor Delafond, Alfort, 

Caries of the cartilage, forming the principal part of the 
I external ear of domesticated animals, is often a very obstinate 
disease, requiring the most assiduous care, and, after all, yield- 




324 EXTIRPATION OF THE CONCH OF THE EAR 

ing only to partial amputation of the conch. This partial ampu¬ 
tation is often practised on the dog: as a matter of convenience 
or necessity, and it sometimes takes place in the larger animals; 
but I do not know that a complete extirpation of the cartilage of 
the conch has been effected as a cure for long standing caries of 
that part. 

In the course of the present year, two horses, that had long 
been affected with caries of the conch, were received into the 
hospital of our school. The disease had existed for a long time, 
and had resisted various applications, such as partial excision 
of the caries, and the actual and potential cautery repeated again 
and again. The conch was at length completely extirpated, and 
the wound readily healed. 

These two facts appear to me to be deserving of attention, 
not only because they have the claim of novelty, but because 
they may induce veterinary practitioners to practise this new 
surgical operation. 

The horse having been cast, and his head turned back, and 
kept in that position by two assistants, the operator charged a 
third to take hold of the extremity of the ear, and to move it 
as he might be directed. Then, with a crooked bistoury, he 
with one stroke made an incision through the skin which 
covered the outside of the conch. 

He next separated the skin from the conch, taking care to 
avoid wounding the two branches of the parotid gland which 
embrace the base of the conch at its external face, anteriorly 
and posteriorly, and also the scutiform cartilage situated ante¬ 
riorly and on the inner side. The excision of any of the lobules 
of the gland may occasion a salivary fistula; the wounding of 
the scutiform cartilage or the denudation of the cellular tissue, 
and the muscular substance that surrounds it, may lead to more 
widely spreading caries during the process of suppuration. 

The parts which must inevitably be cut are the muscles that 
move the external ear, the vessels and the nerves that supply 
the ear, and the two nervous plexuses situated at the anterior 
and posterior parts. 

The separation of the skin of the cartilage being made to its 
very base, the operator, with two or three strokes of the bis¬ 
toury, carefully avoiding the parotid, cuts through the cervico- 
auricular muscles, the nerves, the vein, the artery, and the 
posterior-auricular plexuses. The artery will discharge a great 
deal of blood, and must be immediately tied. This first part of 
the operation is very painful to the animal, and the operator 
must proceed with firmness and dexterity in the midst of the 
struggles and violent movements of the head of the animal. 


I 


OF THE HORSE. 325 

The conch being now drawn backwards by the assistant, he 
proceeds to the separation of the cartilage from the parts that 
are connected with it anteriorly and exteriorly. He divides the 
scuto-auricular and parotido-auricular muscles, the subcutaneous 
auricular plexuses, and the anterior-auricular nerve and artery : 
it will be necessary to tie this last vessel. He then isolates 
the anterior branch of the parotid, and arrives at the narrow and 
rounded part of the cartilage. 

Then, bringing the ear down by the side of the larynx, he 
divides the parieto-auricular muscle, and, turning the convexity 
of the cartilage downwards, comes to the inferior part and the 
fibrous ligament which unites the conch to the annular cartilages. 
Now, taking the conch between his finger and thumb, he tries 
whether it is completely separated from the surrounding parts, 
which he ascertains by the flexibility of the fibrous ligament: 
he then cuts this ligament across, and the conch is extirpated. 
The incision across this ligament is essential, because it renders 
the wound a simple one, and prevents subsequent caries of the 
remaining portion of the conch, and of the annular cartilage 
which was involved with it. 

The wound ought to be well w^ashed with cold water, and then 
sponged clean : after which, having assured himself of the safety 
of the ligatures, the operator unites the threads, and places them 
in the external and inferior angle of the wound. Putting a 
pledget of tow, rolled round and hard at one extremity, over 
the auricular canal, in order to prevent the flowing of the blood 
into the interior of the ear, and bringing the other extremity of 
the pledget over the spot at which he had placed the ligatures, 
he proceeds to bring the lips of the wound together, uniting 
them by means of the suture d surjet (uninterrupted), com¬ 
mencing at the superior part, and leaving an opening below for 
the pledget, the ligatures, and the escape of the pus. 

The h orse being led into the stable, must be tied up to the 
rack, in order to prevent him from rubbing his ear. 

On the third day pus generally begins to escape at the infe¬ 
rior opening, and at this period the ligatures, the suture, and the 
pledget, may be withdrawn—the last should be replaced by a 
smaller one, in order to absorb the pus. About the 15th day, 
the wound is generally healed : on the 8th day, the horse may 
go to work, or even sooner, if necessary, the wound being de¬ 
fended by a light bandage. 

llecue/d, Dec» 1834. 


V y 


VOL. VIII. 




326 


EXTIRPATION OF THE CONCH OF THE EAR OF 

THE HORSE. 

Professor Remault, Alfort, 

A HORSE, belonging to a postmaster, had been wounded with 
a fork in the superior part of the ear. A tumour soon appeared, 
hot and painful, and which was followed, about the 12th day,by an 
abscess, that opened spontaneously. During more than a month, 
the horse continued at work, care being taken to keep the wound 
clean, which it was hoped would be sufficient to effect a cure. 

At the end of that time I saw him. The whole of the ear was 
swelled, principally on the convex surface, and the ear began to 
turn inwards. Some bloody pus escaped from the small orifice 
of the abscess; and a fistulous sinus took a direction down¬ 
wards, two inches at least below this orifice. 

An incision was made at the termination of the sinus, in order 
to favour the escape of the pus. The wound w^as washed with 
tincture of aloes ; and the horse was brought to the school twice 
in every day, that the wound might be dressed. 

This treatment was pursued during three months, without 
success. Powdered aloes, charcoal, alum, chloride of lime, 
Egyptiacum ointment, excision of the carious spots many times 
repeated, cauterization with Teau de Rabei (elixir of vitriol), 
nitrate of mercury, nitrate of silver, corrosive sublimate, and the 
actual cautery, were successively and uselessly employed. The 
external ear became completely deformed; it was thickened, 
hard; and so exceedingly sore was the part, that it was impos¬ 
sible to approach the head of the horse without his attempting 
to defend it. A great quantity of ichor, clear and fetid, conti¬ 
nually ran from the inside of the ear, until the mucous mem¬ 
brane was inflamed. The animal evidently lost flesh. It was 
proposed to attempt the amputation of the conch, and, the con- 
' sent of the owner being obtained, it was effected. The horse 
was out of work seven or eight days, and at the expiration of 
the 20th day the wound was healed. 

CASE II. 

An entire horse, eleven years old, had been bitten in the ear, 
three months before, by another horse. A painful swelling of 
the ear soon followed, to which emollients and anodynes were 
applied. An abscess presently opened, the wound would not 
heal, and fistula followed. 

Oct. 29th .—The ear was attentively examined—the conch was 
swelled, hard, a little painful; its base was very large, and its 


ON RED WATER IN CATTLE. 


327 

point was reversed. Two little wounds, covered by pale and 
soft granulations, existed on the internal face of the ear, and a 
serous and slightly fetid fluid escaped from them. A straight 
and inflexible probe was introduced into each of them, and pene¬ 
trated to the very base of the conch. 

There was no doubt as to the existence of caries. I advised 
the extirpation of the ear : the owner consented, and the opera¬ 
tion was performed. 

The two fistulse having been laid open, were lined near their 
termination by a very thin false mucous membrane. They ended 
in a cavity formed by the complete destruction of the cartilage by 
caries. The diseased cartilage was soft and fetid. Some san- 
guino-puruient fluid was found in the cavity. The cartilage was 
destroyed to the very base ; the skin was thin and ulcerated. 
This serious and extensive injury of the cartilage, and its situ¬ 
ation, well explain the want of success that attended every at¬ 
tempt to heal the fistula, and completely justified the having 
recourse to the operation. 

On the seventh day after the operation, the pledget and the 
sutures were withdrawn. A few drops of blood ran from the 
wound, mixed with bloody pus. 

The wound was now dressed daily with chloride of lime. On 
the 8th the pus was laudable; on the 9th, the wound looked 
well; on the 14th, the wound was entirely healed, and the horse 
returned to his owner, and recommenced his usual labour. 

^Recueil, Dec, 1834. 


ON REDWATER IN CATTLE. 
f Bj/ Mr. J. D. Harrison, F.5., Lancaster. 

The season when redwater becomes prevalent, at least in 
this neighbourhood, drawing nigh, I have ventured to trespass 
upon the pages of The Veterinarian, and, perhaps, a little 
upon the patience of its readers, whilst offering to their con¬ 
sideration some facts connected with that disease. They may 
operate as a stimulus to the minds of other practitioners in the 
prosecution of further and more accurate research about this 
matter ; and whereby we may hope ultimately to arrive at the 
much-to-be desired object, of a perfect development of the true 
seat of this complaint. There are, and, I trust, always will be 
found, a few veterinary surgeons who do not confine their inqui¬ 
ries to the diseases of horses alone, but are anxious to extend 
the benefits of science, and may I not likewise add humanity. 




ON REDWATER IN CATTLE. 


328 

to all domesticated animals. In the foremost rank of these, in 
point of public wealth and utility, stand horned cattle; than 
whom, when labouring under disease, no class of animals have 
been so grossly neglected, and their sufferings so much increased, 
as well from the cupidity and bigotted prejudices of their owners, 
and the ignorant, self-taught, and self-elected cow doctor. 

In The Veterinarian for May, 1833, I hazarded an 
opinion as to indigestion being the cause of redwater, and the 
digestive apparatus its probable seat. I did it then, as I now do, 
under the heartfelt wish of eliciting inquiry, but not controversy, 
in order to arrive at the truth; for, at that time, not having what 
I conceived to be any undeniably solid foundation, and from the 
absence of many facts which I now possess, I was deterred from 
persisting in the defence of that theory, determining, however, 
at some future period, to return to the subject. 

That redwater was not primarily an affection of the kidneys, 
I had long suspected; and I had observed either the non-effect 
or the mischievous effect of the diuretics and astringents gene¬ 
rally resorted to and used by cattle doctors. This observation 
gradually led me to look to other and more important organs for 
an elucidation of the matter; and the digestive organs, as par¬ 
taking of a greater and peculiar complexity of character, pre¬ 
sented themselves to my mind; and in connexion with them the 
disease, throughout its various stages, was narrowly watched : it 
soon became sufficiently evident, that to them alone the disease 
is entirely referrible. 

Diarrhoea, I do not hesitate to say, is invariably the premoni¬ 
tory symptom. Neither before nor during its continuance is 
the urinary discharge altered ; and the administration of a mild 
purgative during this stage will, in the generality of cases, pre¬ 
vent all unpleasant consequences. From this fact alone, if 
others were wanting, we might justly conclude that the digestive 
organs were disordered, and look upon the diarrhoea as one of 
Nature’s resources and curative indications. It is, however, too 
frequently the case, that the diarrhoea is not seen, or if seen is 
disregarded, and this favourable opportunity is allowed to escape ; 
and then constipation, so universally known and as universally 
feared, ensues: the urine becomes tinged, and, as the constipa¬ 
tion becomes more confirmed, gradually acquires a darker hue— 
nay, I have even seen the milk itself partake in the discoloura¬ 
tion, when the stimulus of medicine has failed in alleviating the 
obstinacy of the bowels. 

On these grounds I infer, that from an undue and vitiated 
secretion of bile redwater is produced, and that purgation, at 
the onset, is consequent on this vitiated secretion. That the 


STRICTURE OF THE DUODENUM. 329 

bile becomes absorbed and taken into the circulation, is like¬ 
wise evident from the obstinate, and in too many instances fatal, 
constipated state of the intestines, and the yellow tinge of the 
tunica conjunctiva; and still more strongly from the fact, that 
the very milk (when any is secreted) as well as the urine, are 
saturated with bile. This latter circumstance I have clearly and 
satisfactorily proved by analysis; an ounce of urine being found to 
contain rather more than one-fourth part of bile. It is likewise 
demonstrable, but in a less satisfactory manner, from the action 
of purgatives; for I have personally witnessed several cases, in 
which the w'ater has become clear after the administration of 
physic, and two or three hours prior to the commencement 
of the purging; and this I have generally regarded as a favour¬ 
able omen. 


STRICTURE OF THE DUODENUM. 

ih/ Mr. John Tombs, F.aS., Bengal Horse Artillery. 

7 A.M. Jan. 15, 1833.—An aged troop horse was taken sud¬ 
denly ill on the parade ground. He was brought home imme¬ 
diately, and admitted into the infirmary with the following 
symptoms :—he lies down frequently and rolls on his back ; per¬ 
spires profusely, with the pulse quick and hard; and I had 
great difficulty in feeling it, as the animal threw himself about 
violently. The conjunctiva was very much reddened, and he 
appeared to be suffering the most excruciating pain. He was 
bled copiously : ol. terebinth, and enemas were administered, 
and the abdomen and extremities were stimulated with volatile 
liniment. 

9 A.M. —The symptoms are not in the least degree mitigated. 
He was again bled largely ; tine. opii. et spts. nit. eether were 
exhibited, and the abdomen fomented. In a few minutes after 
the medicine was given he appeared sick, and made a success¬ 
ful attempt to vomit the contents of the stomach, which escaped 
through the mouth and nostrils. Soon after this he was drenched 
with some warm water, which also was instantaneously ejected 
from the stomach. 

10 A.M. —No remission of the pain. Bloodletting repeated ; 
a solution of aloes given, part of which was quickly expelled 
from the stomach, wholly through the mouth : fomentations and 
enemas continued. 

2 p.m. — The legs and ears cold, the surface of the body 
covered with clammy sweat, and he rolls about in great agony. 
I could not succeed in extracting much more blood, it being 




330 EXTIRPATION OF THE LYMPHATIC GLANDS IN FARCY. 

excessively thick and black, an invariable sign of approaching 
dissolution: a bottle of ol. ricini was administered, which pro¬ 
duced another ejection from the stomach. Warm water was 
occasionally horned down; the extremities were again stimu¬ 
lated ; the abdomen was bathed continually, and enemas fre¬ 
quently injected. He rolled about, getting up again, and then 
crouching with all four legs together. He continued in this 
dreadful agonizing state, without the least cessation of pain, 
until 11 P.M., when he expired. 

A'ppearances after Death .—The stomach was distended with 
grain, grass, and liquid ; the villous coat slightly inflamed. In 
the duodenum, three inches posterior to the entrance of the 
ductus hepaticus, was a complete stricture. That portion of 
intestine anterior to the stricture was awfully distended, and in 
a gangrenous state. The bloodvessels of the mucous coat were 
ruptured, and two or three ounces of blood had escaped, which 
was mixed with the food. This accounts for the repeated expul¬ 
sion of liquids from the stomach. 

The posterior part of the jejunum was inflamed ; the ceecum 
was cedematous, and filled with dry, hard fecal matter. The 
colon was inflamed; but the other abdominal viscera were 
healthy : the contents of the thorax and pelvis in a healthy 
state. 

[We believe this to be the only case on record of stricture of 
this intestine.— Edit.] 


THE EXTIRPATION OF THE LYMPHATIC GLANDS 

IN FARCY. 

By M. Maurice, Af. F., Is^ Reg. of Artillery. 

During the last twelve years I have usually had at least 
ten farcied horses at a time in my infirmary; and the mode of 
practice on them which I am now about to describe has usually 
been successful. 

The seat of the disease is the lymphatic system, and the 
causes which render it enzootic in our regiments are bad food, 
unhealthy situations, particular kinds of work, and, sometimes, 
climate. Delay in the administration of medicines, circum¬ 
stances which imperiously retard the performance of the opera¬ 
tion, or negligence on the part of the proprietor, and, occa¬ 
sionally, of the veterinary surgeon, render the disease incurable. 





EXTIRPATION OF THE LYMPHATIC GLANDS IN FARCY. 331 

by the absorption of farcy matter, which affects the internal 
ganglions, and thus spreads over the whole system. 

The farcy which attacks cavalry horses ordinarily shews itself 
by tumours, cords, beads, and buttons, spread more or less over 
the whole surface of the body. 

The curative method .jyhich I have employed, and which has 
almost invariably succeeded, is extirpation and cauterization of 
the glands ; but, in order that these operations should be suc¬ 
cessful, it is necessary to be assured that the lymphatic glands, 
to which the tumours, cords, &c. are directed, are in a sound 
state. 

I have constantly remarked, that negligence in the extirpation 
of the lymphatic glands has interfered with the cure of farcy, 
and that when this operation has not been performed, the 
wounds have healed with difficulty, and the farcy has become 
incurable. 

When farcy appears in the hind extremities, the lymphatic 
glands of the groin are constantly diseased, and their extirpation 
renders farcy very difficult to cure. 

Farcy in the loins, the back, and the flanks, always renders 
the extirpation of the glands in the adipose substance of the 
flanks necessary. 

As for the fore legs, the neck and shoulder, the collection of 
glands which are on the lateral and inferior surface of the trachea 
must be removed. 

For the head and interior of the nose, the lymphatic glands 
of the neck must be extirpated. 

The lymphatic glands situated in the direction of the farcy 
tumours and cords are always diseased, but may be extirpated 
without danger. 

Extirpation is always practicable in farcy; but it is necessary 
after that operation to cauterize the wound lightly, as well to 
destroy the small quantity of farcy matter that may remain, 
as to change the nature of the tissues, and to produce a wound 
of healthy character. 

Farcy buttons often suppurate on the hind extremities, in 
consequence of the length of time that the disease has»existed. 
In this case cauterization should be employed, taking care that 
it penetrates sufficiently deep to completely destroy the cyst 
in which the puriform matter was contained. 

The wounds should be dressed with dry pledgets of tow as 
soon as the suppuration is established, or the tow may be dipped 
in tincture of aloes. 

Sometimes it may be necessary to employ the cautery lightly 
a second time. At other times the wounds assume the cha- 


332 A CASE OP ESOPHAGOTOMY IN A COW. 

racter of unhealthy ulceration ; it may then be necessary to have 
recourse to nitric acid, corrosive sublimate, chloride of antimony, 
or, best of all, the hot iron. 

Wholesome and plentiful food is of the first consequence in 
the treatment of this disease; the dressings should be well at¬ 
tended to ; the horse warmly clothed, and gentle exercise occa¬ 
sionally resorted to when the weather is dry. 

In the first regiment of artillery, to which I belong, and the 
effective force of which consists of 1100 horses, there are at 
least 300 that have been cured by the methods that I have 
described. 

I do not speak of the farcy which is always accompanied by 
acute glanders: that affection appears to be a disease of the 
blood, and has for its cause the absorption of animal poisons, 
or bad and innutritions food, too long continued. 

This malady is always fatal, and the duty of the veterinary 
surgeon is confined to its prevention. 

Journal, Jan. 1835. 


A CASE OF ESOPHAGOTOMY IN A COW. 

By Mr. W. C. Vine, V.S., Horsebridge. 

On the 21st of January last, I was called upon to attend an 
Alderney cow, the property of a gentleman in this parish, which 
was expected to calve every hour, having gone nearly a fortnight 
over her time. I found her with a portion of Swedish turnip 
lodged in the esophagus. I immediately applied the probang, 
and persevered with it until I found it impossible to relieve her 
in that way. I informed the owner that I dreaded the conse¬ 
quence of using farther violence, and obtained his leave to at¬ 
tempt the removal of it by making an incision into the gullet. 
I then cast her on the right side, and cut down upon the 
impacted body, about five inches in length, and extracted a large 
portion of turnip, which had not been chewed at all by the cow 
before she attempted to swallow it, it having been frozen very 
hard. I then washed the wound clean with warm water, and 
sewed it up, after which the cow was allowed to get on her feet: 
she then drank some warm gruel which was prepared for her, 
and we left her in a loose stall for the night, during which time 
she brought forth a live calf. 

In the morning the cow continued to take mashes, and gruel 
to drink; and we gave her cabbage leaves and scalded hay to eat 
from the hand, in order to prevent her taking a large quantity at 
a time, as she was very greedy. 




VETERINARY SCIENCE. 


333 


On the 23cl, her throat was very much swollen, and the cow 
was troubled to swallow. I released two stitches in the centre 
of the wound, kept the part fomented with warm water; after 
which the swelling subsided, and the cow fed without any 
difficulty. 

In seven days a sloughing took place, after which the wound 
assumed a healthy appearance and gradually closed, and the 
animal is going on well at the present time. 


VETERINARY SCIENCE BEFORE THE TIME OF 

BOURGELAT. 

Let us open Aldovrandus, that incomparable naturalist; Con¬ 
rad ; Gesner, surnamed the Pliny of Germany; and that curious 
collection entitled ‘‘Scriptores rei rusticee veteres.’’ These 
compilers have extracted every thing that was to be found in the 
works of the Greeks and Latins. But what do they offer us 
but an assemblage of fragments of science scattered through a 
mass of worthless dross ? What do they prove, but the strange 
extent to which men of the greatest genius will sometimes 
wander? Who would have believed that Aristotle would have 
affirmed that horses drink muddy water, in order the better to fill 
their veins? or that Xenophon would judge of the paces of the 
horse by the height of his hoofs, or his temperament and qua¬ 
lities by the length of his ears ? 

If we pass into Italy, what a mass of erudition does the work 
of Pascal Caracciolo present! True veterinary knowledge and 
practice are lost in an immense abyss of historical facts. He 
gives the history of Bucephalus, Pegasus, and Arion; he de¬ 
scribes the armour of the ancients—the soldiers of Alexander— 
the attachment of Caligula to his horse, and of the horse of 
Nicomedes to him—the chariot of Pompey drawn by elephants 
—the eloquence of Cicero—the address and agility of the Nu- 
midians—the origin of the name of the Moon, and I know not 
what 1 It would take a volume to enumerate all that that 
book recounts. 

History is not more favourable to the English veterinarians. 
Some of them denied the existence of the brain—others filled 
the sole with salt and bran in cases of apoplexy—some groomed 
the horse well with an iron comb, to remove constipation—others 
cauterized the flank for diseases of the spleen—and others pre¬ 
scribed effectual remedies for diseases of the horse’s gall-bladder. 

We pass in silence the German authors, distinguished only 
by their great prolixity ; and we examine, but humiliating to our 

VOL. VI IT. z z 




334 STRANGFLATION OF THR ILEUM IN A STEER. 


national pride, the writers of our own country. One maintains 
that there are in the horse two sorts of blood—the vital blood, 
and the greneral mass of blood—and that the vital blood alone 
circulates while the animal sleeps;—another affirms that there 
goes from the head of the horse a white nerve, which takes its 
origin from the tip of the nose, goes along the upper part of the 
neck, follows the spine of the back and the fore limbs, and 
extends to the extremities of the feet! 

Such was veterinary science before the establishment of the 
first modern school. 

La Matiere Medicale Raisonnee. 


STRANGULATION OF THE ILEUM IN A STEER. 

ib/ Mr, Firman Fuller, V.S., March, Canihridgeshire. 

On the 25th of January last, I was sent for to attend a four- 
year old Irish steer. The shepherd informed me that he found 
him in the morning cast under a gate in the yard; he had evi¬ 
dently been in that situation the greater part of the night, from 
the bruises which appeared about him. When I first saw him, 
his sufferings seemed to be very great. He would frequently 
strike his belly with his hind legs.^ When laid down, he was 
frequently shifting his position, and straining hard to void 
small quantities of feculent matter mixed with mucus. His 
pulse was quick ; his muzzle dry; eyes sunk in their orbits ; 
rumination suspended ; and respiration hurried. I abstracted 
twelve pounds of blood ; gave him mag. sulph. Ihj, sulphur Ibss, 
pot. nitrat. 3ss, in some warm gruel; administered an enema of 
gruel, and ordered six quarts of gruel to be horned down at 
night. 

26^/i.—Very little alteration in the symptoms, with the ex¬ 
ception of being a little hoven: he has not eaten any thing, 
and has no feculent discharge. I gave him ol. lini. Ihiss, and 
repeated the drink and enema as yesterday. The shepherd in¬ 
formed me that the enema was returned shortly after I left him, 
without any faeces. 

27M.—He has not eaten or drunk any thing; he is constantly 
down, and mourns incessantly, and has had no discharge from 
the bowels. I w^as now led to suspect that very obstinate ob¬ 
struction existed in some part of the intestinal canal; and 
I informed my employer that there was little chance of success, 
and, unless the beast shortly changed for the better, it would be 
advisable to consign him to the butcher. 




ON WOUNDS PENETRATING THE JOINTS. 


335 


28///.—As he continually got worse, he was killed. On open¬ 
ing the abdomen, the seat of mischief was readily discovered. 
The small intestines presented a general inflammatory appear¬ 
ance, particularly the ileum; the lower portion of which was 
completely strangulated by a strong tendinous cord, which pro- 
ceeded from the right side of the bladder to the mesentery of 
this intestine. The cord encircled itself round the lower portion 
of the ileum, and completely intercepted all passage ; the stran¬ 
gulated portion was in a gangrenous state. The large intestines 
were entirely empty : they presented a pale appearance, and were 
very much contracted. 


PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON WOUNDS PENE¬ 
TRATING THE JOINTS. 

Bi/ M. E. Auboyer, M.V,, 4//i Reg. of Chasseurs. 

CASE I. 

An entire horse, six years old, was in the month of May 
1831 wounded on the anterior outer part of the left hock. The 
swelling was at first slight, but on the second day it was enor¬ 
mous. The owner, living four leagues from a town, was com¬ 
pelled to consult the farrier of the village, who, immediately 
advised that an opening should be made into the injured part, 
saying that the horse would infallibly die without it. The 
owner having considerable faith in the empiric, consented. 

In order to open the tumour, the farrier heated a poker, and 
bv means of it penetrated into the hock-joint. The animal 
suffered extreme pain—fell down, and was unable to rise again. 
Loss of appetite, prostration of strength, and a high degree of 
fever, followed an operation so cruel, and the swelling of the 
part returned, and increased. At length the dreadful state of 
the animal induced the owner to consult me. 

I saw the horse two days after the operation, when the farrier 
was still continuing his means of cure, by rubbing in spirit of 
turpentine, royal water, &c. in order to destroy the proud flesh. 

The pulse was hard and strong—the conjunctiva injected— 
the mouth hot—the breathing difficult, with engorgement of the 
whole left leg from the stifle to the foot. He could not put 
that foot for a moment to the ground ; an examination of the 
part made him groan with pain : partial sweats appeared on 
the flanks, and about the roots of the ears. 

My prognosis was very unfavourable, for I feared that the 




ON WOUNDS PENETRATING THE JOINTS. 


336 


animal could not be saved. The farrier having been dis¬ 
missed, I bled to the extent of seven pounds, and caused emol¬ 
lient lotions to be applied over the whole of the limb. Aperient 
injections were ordered to be thrown up : a severe regimen was 
ordered, and I delayed a particular examination of the part 
until the following day. 

Ma^ 2Sth. —I now carefully examined the hock. I introduced 
my probe into the wound which the farrier had made, and; on 
withdrawing it, a little synovia followed : this convinced me 
that the joint was opened. The owner then told me that he 
had seen a similar fluid escape after the operation of the farrier. 

Convinced that I had to combat a deep injury of the joint, 
I enlarged the external wound, in order the better to apply my 
dressings. Then having ascertained the direction and depth of 
the wound, I introduced into it small pledgets moistened with 
tincture of aloes, and then placed others gradually increasing 
in size upon them. The whole was kept in place by a bandage. 
I ordered absolute rest—emollient anodyne lotions, composed of 
marshmallows and poppy-heads, over the neighbouring inflamed 
parts, but not to be brought into contact with the wound. Re¬ 
stricted diet, and frequent clysters. 

29th ,—The patient as depressed as yesterday, but a little 
diminution of pain in the joint. The febrile symptoms remain¬ 
ing, and the conjunctiva being even more inflamed, I ab¬ 
stracted six pounds more of blood. The dressings not being 
deranged, I did not disturb them. A little water whitened 
with barley meal, and a small quantity of wheat-straw, allowed. 

315^.—I could not see my patient until this evening. The 
swelling was much diminished—the pain less intense—the spirits 
somewhat recovered—the pulse regular, but a little hard—the 
respiration freer, and the conjunctiva less inflamed. On re¬ 
moving the bandages I found that suppuration had commenced, 
and that the pus was of a good character. Same dressing as 
before—continuation of the emollient lotions—bleeding to four 
pounds—same regimen. 

June 2d .—Little change—the same treatment, with the omis¬ 
sion of the bleeding. 

^th .—’Much better—suppuration in less quantity, and healthy : 
the synovia still flows, and there is yet a little fever; but the 
local pains are abated, and the animal can rest a little on the 
injured limb. Treatment the same. 

Sth, 10^/^, \2th, \bth .—Going on well—the wound filling up. 

29th ,—The owner met me this morning. I feared that he 
had bad news to communicate, but he said that he came to tell 
me how satisfactorily every thing was proceeding. Wc found 


ON WOUNDS PENETRATING THE JOINTS. 337 

her walking in the court, quite gay—seeking for something to 
eat, and betraying no alarm when she was approached and the 
injured limb handled ; and, indeed, resting upon it as she walked. 
I removed the bandages, and cleaned the wound with diluted 
spirit: it looked healthy, and I dressed it with the same liquid. 

30M.—The wound was cicatrized—and there remained only a 
slight seam, which yielded to friction with camphorated spirit. 

CASE II. 

A horse belonging to the 5th squadron struck his knee 
against a nail, tore the integument, and opened the joint, in 
the month of June in the same year. I saw him almost imme¬ 
diately after the accident. The carpal bones of the second and 
third row were exposed. The wound was cleansed and dressed 
with diluted alcohol. The horse was forcibly kept up during 
the first forty-eight hours, and did not change his position for 
eight days afterwards. The same treatment as in the former 
case was continued. 

CASE III. 

On the 9th of May 1832, a horse belonging the 1st squadron 
received a cut from a sabre on the outside of the right knee. 
The articulations between the first and second rows of the carpal 
bones w^ere opened, but the lateral ligament was not touched. 
A portion of synovia immediately escaped, mingled with blood. 
Cold water was first applied in order to stanch the blood, and 
then the wound was dressed, as in the first case, with pledgets 
of lint dipped in diluted spirit The animal was kept from lying 
down, and his diet was restricted. 

Vdth .—The dressing was not deranged, and therefore I did 
not disturb it, but applied diluted spirit externally. 

Wth ,—I removed the dressing, and saw, with much pleasure, 
that the synovial discharge had already ceased. The dressings 
were continued fifteen days, at the expiration of which time the 
horse returned to his duty. 

After these results of a treatment exceedingly simple, can we 
avoid acknowledging that veterinarians have much exaggerated 
the dangers of these deep wounds of the articulations; and that 
it is much more easy than many of them think to obtain a com¬ 
plete cure, and in a very short space of time, by the employ¬ 
ment of applications most easily procured ? 

I could add many other cases of a similar nature ; but as, witli 
one exception only in which 1 was cora])elled to have recourse 
to the cautery, the treatment and the success were the same, 

I will pass them over in silence. 


338 FUNGOID DISEASE OF THE TESTICLE. 

[We have already said that we do not hold ourselves account^ 
able for the accuracy either of the theory or practice of the cases 
that are recorded in our Journal. Nothing is here stated of the 
method by which the first, the indispensable step towards a 
cure—the closing of the opening—was accomplished ; whether 
by engorgement of the surrounding tissue artificially produced, 
or by that clot of coagulated synovia which the practitioner 
so rejoices to see, and so carefully cherishes. We certainly enter 
our decided protest against the condemnation of those who re¬ 
gard wounds penetrating into the joints as cases of a serious 
character.—Y.] 

FUNGOID DISEASE OF THE TESTICLE. 

By a Student, 

I HAVE just now a case that rather puzzles me. A valuable 
stallion was shewn to me some time since, having one of his 
testicles very much enlarged. The proprietor told me that the 
enlargement had appeared suddenly. I naturally supposed that 
it had been hurt or injured, and .ordered warm fomentations, 
and the suspending of the testicle in a warm woollen-padded 
sling, and a dose of physic now and then. This plan of treat¬ 
ment has been pursued for three weeks, with no apparent bene¬ 
fit. About eight days ago, I learned that the testicle had been 
observed to be gradually increasing in size for some months past, 
which makes me now suspect that some specific disease exists 
in that gland ; but I will give the present symptoms of the case. 

The aspect of the scrotum is globular; rather flattened next 
the thigh : it appear bluish externally. I can feel distinctly the 
gland in every part enlarged ; not very hard, but yielding to the 
finger, and not painful, unless roughly handled : the epidydymis 
is distinct, and also enlarged proportionally, as is likewise the 
cord. I feel no irregularities upon the surface of the testicle, nor 
do I think there is any water of consequence in the tunica 
vaginalis. 

What is this, or what will it be ? Is it f ungoid disease, or 
scirrhous, or what? I shall be happy to have your opinion as 
to its nature and treatment, as I am not aware of its being 
noticed in works on farriery. Will it be of any advantage to 
cover a few mares? If it arises from congestion of semen,this 
may have some effect. Any thing will be tried that you may 
kindly suggest, and I will let you know the result. 




ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF SOOT IN MANGE. 339 

[From the description given of this case, we are inclined to 
think it one of a fungoid nature, and that there will be found 
tumours on the tunica albuginea, and adhesions between it and 
the tunica vaginalis. It is a case in which we would recommend 
a trial of iodine as an ointment, applied to the surface, in the 
proportion of a drachm to an ounce of lard: it may also be of 
use to give some of the hydriodate of potass, internally, a drachm 
daily. The iodine, in the metallic state, is not of much use given 
internally; I have administered an ounce twice a^day, without 
apparent effect. Serving mares will rather do harm than 
good.—D.] 


ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF SOOT IN MANGE. 

By Dr. Bland. 

The satisfactory results which have been obtained by the use 
of Creosote, in France, induced M. Bland, first physician to the 
hospital of Beaucaire, to substitute a preparation less difficult to 
prepare, and more economical. M. Bland thinks that he has 
discovered a succedaneum for this in soot, a decoction or an 
ointment of which he has found exceedingly serviceable in 
inveterate cases of chronic herpetic eruptions, scald head, scurfy 
eruptions, ulcers of an unhealthy character, &c. 

For the decoction, two handfuls of soot are boiled during 
half an hour in a pound of water, and the expressed fluid used 
as a lotion three or four times every day. In cases of herpes or 
scald head, the scab should first be removed by means of a 
poultice. To ulcers, it is applied by means of lint, saturated 
with it, and it is injected into inveterate fistulm. 

The formula for the ointment is as simple. A quantity of the 
soot, added little by little, is rubbed down with lard, until the 
mass assumes a deep brown colour. The ointment is either 
employed alone, or alternated with the lotion. 

Bulletin general de Therapeutique. 

[There is need enough for some application that can be 
depended upon in many cutaneous affections of the horse, 
dog, cattle, and sheep. The soot is worth trying. The creo¬ 
sote has been used by some English physicians, and particu- 
iarly by Dr. Elliotson, with considerable success, in cases of 
cutaneous eruption. —Edit.] 





A TUMOUR ROUND THE RECTUM OF A COW. 

Bi/ Mr. E. Barker, Stockesley. 

March 26, 1834.—I was desired to see a cow, constipated, 
swelled, and near her time of calving. She had evidently 
slight fever, but I could not refer her illness to the affection of 
any particular part. I gave her two ounces of Cape aloes, ten 
ounces of Glauber’s salts, and six ounces of sulphur. 

27^A.—Being no better, I bled her moderately—repeated the 
purgative, and prepared to administer an injection of salt and 
water with Reed’s patent syringe, but, previously backraking 
her, I felt a very considerable substance connected with the 
rectum. I told the owner that the evil was there, and that I 
had not much hope. 

2Sth .—The medicine had not operated ; I therefore gave one 
pound of Glauber’s salt, two ounces of ginger, and eight ounces 
of sulphur, and once more repeated the enema. 

29th .—Still obstinately constipated : she now moaned much, 
her eye was sunk, and her pulse weak. It being about a week 
to her time of calving, I determined to take the calf away, 
that we might save one life at least; but I had waited too 
long, and the calf died a few hours after it was extracted. 

SOth .—The cow died. On examining her, I found that a 
large substance was grown round the rectum, two feet from the 
anus. Suppuration had commenced in it, and on cutting into 
it a yellow substance escaped. It weighed two stones, and the 
rectum ran through the middle of it. Every other part was 
healthy. 


A CASE OF FRACTURE OF THE BONE OF THE 
LEFT FORE-ARM OF A DRAUGHT HORSE. 

By M. Delaguette. 

An entire draught horse, aged, received a kick from a mare 
which fractured the left humerus. 

Being immediately sent for, I found the horse in the stable 
lying down on his left side, that is to say, on the injured limb. 
Having raised the horse and examined the limb, I found that 
the cubitus was fractured transversely from two-thirds of its 
length upwards, down to its carpian articular extremity, and 
that one portion was separated from the other. The obliquity 
of the fracture was from without, inwards; so that the exterior 




FRACTURE OF THE RONE OF THE FORE-ARM. 341 

I 

carpian extremity, was larger than the interior one. It was of 
one entire piece through the whole of its length, and we might 
have considered the external part of the bone as perfect, if it had 
not been for its size. 

This species of fracture presented a fair chance of cure; and, 
the proprietor liking the horse, which he had lately bought, 
desired me to undertake the case. 

It is well known that the slings which are ordinarily em¬ 
ployed inconveniently compress the abdomen, and the result of 
this compression is difficulty of breathing, while in the male 
horse the discharge of urine is often difficult. In order to 
remedy these inconveniences, Verrier had contrived an appara¬ 
tus to support the hinder part of the horse, and to which he had 
given the name of breeches (calottes). This apparatus, very 
complicated, bulky and heavy, although useful in the hospital of 
a school where a professor may superintend the application of it, 
cannot find a place in the luggage of a military veterinarian, on 
account of its price, and the little room that is allotted to him. 

On different occasions that have presented themselves in the 
course of my practice, when I have been compelled to suspend 
a horse, I have endeavoured to supply the place of the appa¬ 
ratus of Verrier by contrivances that produce the same result, 
and the means of which are at hand every where. 

I went to work in the following manner, I placed a sack, or a 
strong cloth doubled, under the chest, of a convenient length, 
and twenty inches wide; and a cord fixed to each extremity 
is fastened to the bars or horizontal rafters above. In order 
to support the hind part, 1 take two sacks used for oats; I 
put a little long straw into them ; then I fold them length-ways 
in the form of rollers, and attach a cord to each extremity ; I pass 
the sacks between the thighs, and I raise the extremities of 
each, the one towards the haunch, and the other towards the 
thigh : the cords are fixed to horizontal bars above, and I sepa¬ 
rate the cords, or make them approach each other, as I need. 
In some cases it is necessary, on account of the tallness of the 
horse, to give a little more height to the bars, or, on account of 
his size, to bring the cords closer to each other. It was bv 
means of a machine of this kind that the horse whose case I am 
now describing was suspended. 

As I have said, this kind of fracture is reduced with tolerable 
ease. The bones being retained in their place by an assistant, 

I applied large pledgets, covered with pitch plaister, around the 
limb, particularly v/here there were any hollows, in order to 
render the limb everywhere of nearly tlie same size. I then 
placed compresses, and made the first turn with a bandage 

VOL. VI II. 3 ^ 


342 FRACTURE OF THE BONE OF THE FORE-ARM. 

four fingers’ breadth. I then fitted to the part four splents of 
light wood surrounded with tow, and these splents were retained 
by other bandages. 

I had the pavement of the stable taken up, and a hollow dug 
under the fractured limb, and this depression was filled with 
straw, to afford a soft support for the foot. 

The horse was bled, he was confined to white drinks, and 
several injections were given to him daily. 

No bad consequence resulted from the fracture save a slight 
enlargement of the limb during the first few days, but which 
was presently dissipated by lotions of infusion of elder-flowers. 

The only inconvenience which presented itself was a weak¬ 
ness of the loins, on account of which the horse vvas unable 
to support himself on his hind limbs, but was continually bear¬ 
ing on the slings. At the end of sixty days the skin was not 
in the sli 2 ;htest decree excoriated, which proved the advantage 
of my contrivance. 

On the 25th day, the splents were deranged, and I unrolled 
the bandages : there was still some slight movement between the 
fractured pieces. I re-applied the rollers as at first. 

The horse did well—his appetite w^as good, and his rations 
were increased. All the functions were properly discharged ; 
but we continued to administer injections from time to time. 

On the fortieth day he began to rest on the fractured leg. 

The weakness of the loins, however, continued, and gave me 
some disquiet as to the future usefulness of the horse. I sus¬ 
pected that it was some sad affection of the part, and I endea¬ 
voured to remedy it by emollient cataplasms, and then by tonic 
frictions. 

On the sixtieth day, the bandages were taken from the limb : 
the fracture had been well consolidated, and the horse rested his 
weight upon it. As he was led out of this stable to another, we 
observed that he was a little lame. Having arrived at his new 
residence, he laydown; and during * three weeks that he was 
kept there, he was almost continually lying down, although he 
had the range of the whole stable. 

After all, the proprietor having discovered that the horse 
would not have been sold had it not been for this affection of 
the loins, determined to have him destroyed. He walked to the 
knacker’s without the slightest lameness. 

Journalf Dec, 1834. 








LACERATION OF THE LEFT JUGULAR VEIN. 

By Mr. George Hawthorn, V.S.y Kettering. 

A BROWN cart mare, the property of Mr. J. Owens, of Fine- 
don, was accidently wounded across the anterior and inferior 
part of the chest, at the bottom of the neck. The wound was 
dressed by the owner, and appeared to be going on well, and 
the mare was thought able to work a fortnight after the accident 
had happened, when it appeared that the jugular vein was 
lacerated, for by the pressure of the collar upon the neck, vio¬ 
lent hemorrhage was produced. She w^as immediately taken 
home; and from this time the hemorrhage was of frequent occur¬ 
rence when feeding time came, and for several successive days 
had followed the eating of the smallest quantity of hay. She 
was, therefore, supported on mashes and split beans. 

October Wth, 1834, I saw the mare for the first time, and 
found her in a very debilitated state. In consequence of the 
hemorrhage having been so frequent and profuse when eating, 
she had had no food given to her for two whole days : she had 
likewise been standing in a place exposed to currents of air all 
the time, which had brought on violent catarrh, accompanied 
by a weak, hoarse cough. She appeared not to like mashes, 
therefore a small quantity of hay was now given her by the owner ; 
but the first mouthful that passed the esophagus, pressing upon 
the lacerated wound immediately caused bleeding to the amount 
of two quarts. Of course, no more hay was given, and she was 
compelled again to eat mashes, which she appeared to do with 
great reluctance. Had she been allowed hay, no doubt she 
would have continued eating till she had dropped down dead 
from loss of blood, for she had already been reduced to so 
weak a state by the great loss of blood, that she could hardly 
walk. 

The wound had been stopped with tow, and covered with 
puff-ball to stanch the bleeding. 

Being desirous of examining the wound, I first cleansed it out, 
and found it to extend across the chest, from the off to the near 
side, where it was deep and lacerated. As I had not yet seen 
her eat hay myself, I wished a little to be given her, to see what 
effect it would produce, which with much hesitation was con¬ 
sented to by the owner. The moment she had sw^allowed the 
first mouthful, the blood flowed more copiously from the wound 
than ever, and faster than from common venesection. I filled 
the cavity with tow, previously dressing the wound with unguent. 


344 LACERATION OF THE LEFT JUGULAR VEIN. 

tereb. and sewed up the integument, and applied the pud-ball 
externally, but the blood continued flowing for a short time. 
I stopped the return of blood through the near side jugular vein 
with my finger, and the hemorrhage immediately ceased; but 
when the finger was withdrawn, the blood again flowed through 
the opening. When the current of blood on the off* side was 
stopped, no effect whatever was produced. 

I told the owner that the mare was in a very dangerous state, 
and that in all probability the case would terminate fatally; and 
that there was only one chance left of saving her life, namely, 
by taking up the jugular vein. 

He immediately consented, and the operation was performed 
as follows:—The mare was thrown. The part of the vein I in¬ 
tended to tie was the usual place of bleeding, as I considered it 
useless to search for the vein at the chest; in fact, from the very 
unhealthy and lacerated state of the wound, it would have been 
impossible to have found it. I made an incision an inch and 
a half long through the skin, and cut through the few muscular 
fibres of the panniculus carnosus and levator humeri muscles, and 
exposed the vein, which I detached from the surrounding parts. 
I then passed a blunt probe under the vein, and raised it. The 
probe was held by an assistant until I had passed two ligatures 
with a curved needle under the vein, and made it quite secure. 
I then brought the lips of the external wound together by sutures. 

After the mare got up I gave her some hay, which she ate, for 
the first time for a fortnight, without its producing hemorrhage. 
1 then again cleansed out the wound in the chest, and applied 
the unguent, tereb., and watched her minutely until she had eaten 
a sieve full of hay chaff. 

I ordered her head to be tied up, to prevent congestion of 
blood in the brain. This precaution was proved to be necessary, 
for the head, on the left side, began to swell exceedingly, and in 
the space of two or three hours the bifurcation of the jugular 
vein on the near side, and the submaxillary and facial veins, 
became distended almost to bursting; and ail the veins on the 
near side felt as hard and unyielding as they possibly could feel. 
I quite expected the ligature would give way from the immense 
pressure of blood. 

I ordered her head to be well fomented with warm water 
several times in the day. This had the effect of reducing the 
swelling, for in the space of a few hours it became greatly 
diminished. I considered it necessary to give her mild tonic 
and diuretic medicine for several successive days. 

Oct. 12th .—The mare appeared more lively, and had eaten 
as well as when in health. iSo more blood escaped from the 


THE EARLY HISTORY OP VETERINARY MEDICINE. 345 

wound in the chest after the 0(3eration was performed. The pulse 
was 45, and strong. The enlargement of the veins had nearly 
disappeared, and the wound in the chest, which before the 
operation was in a very unhealthy state, and the smell very 
offensive, was discharging pus of a healthy character. The 
wound was dressed twice a day with the unguent, tereb. 

14^^.—The mare continued getting better in health, and 
appeared to be gaining strength rapidly, and she walked in a 
much firmer and stronger manner. 

16^/l—T he neck and chest going on well. I ordered her to 
be loose for a few hours, and to be able to lie down if disposed ; 
watching her all the time, that she might not rub her neck 
against any thing. 

Idth, —The wound in the chest healing rapidly; the neck a 
little swelled and hot. I cut two or three of the sutures of the 
external wound, and let out a great deal of healthy pus, and 
afterwards dressed the opening with tinct. of myrrh. 

24M.—The ligatures round the vein, and the sutures of the ex¬ 
ternal wound, had all sloughed away, and the wound was quite 
healed; likewise the wound in the chest: and on the 31st of 
October I visited the mare for the last time, and ordered her to 
be put to work with the other horses. 

May Athy 1835.—I saw the mare to-day, and was told by the 
owner"that she had been at work regularly, and to all appear¬ 
ance without producing the least inconvenience, it being now 
six months since the operation was performed. 


THE VETERINARIAN, JUNE 1, 1835. 


Nc quid falsi dicere audeat, ne quid A^eri non audeat.— Cicero. 


THE EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 

/ 

Extracted from The History of Medicineby M. J. F. C. 
Hecker, Professor at the University of Berlin. 

Two other veterinarians, Hippocrates and Hermerius, were 
contemporaries of Apsyrtus. In the collection of Constantine 
Porphyrogenitus, already referred to, are many extracts from 
the former of these writers. They arc, for the most part, of 
inferior merit, and often contain nothing more than worthless 







346 THE EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 

prescriptions, or superficial descriptions of disease. Both of 
them voluntarily acknowledge the merit of Apsyrtus, and derive 
most of their information from their epistolary correspondence 
with him. 

Of all these veterinarians, Hierocles, after Apsyrtus, wrote 
the most, and seems to have been the only man of good edu¬ 
cation. He lived, probably, about the end of the fourth century, 
or, at the latest, about the beginning of the fifth. He profited 
much by the works of Apsyrtus, and often quotes them word for 
word. He was by profession an advocate, but he pursued the 
veterinary art with especial zeal. His descriptions are clear. 
His prescriptions, calculated to effect their desired purpose, are 
from Apsyrtus. Apsyrtus and Hierocles give some directions 
with regard to grooming the horse which furnish us with in¬ 
structive information concerning this branch of rural economy 
among the Greeks. The same notions, as to the points of the 
horse most connected wdth usefulness and beauty, were held 
now as were maintained by Xenophon nearly seven hundred 
years before. 

As to the other veterinarians of whom the unknown author 
of Constantine’s collection has preserved some fragments, we 
cannot determine the age in which they lived, and we know 
little more than their names. He who has least merit among 
them is Pelagonius, an empiric, probably of the fourth century. 
He recommends the strangest modes of treating some diseases, 
worthy only of the superstition of the lowest classes. He pre¬ 
scribes a decoction of swallows’ nests for ophthalmia. He boasts 
of the efficacy of the ashes of young swans burned alive, given 
interiorly, mixed with wine, for pestilential fever in horses : in a 
word, we may call him the Marcellus—the empiric of veterinary 
medicine. 

\ 

Theomnertus, who could not have lived later than the fourth 
century, professed to cure rabies in dogs by depriving them of 
food for a day, and then giving them hellebore. He relates 
very seriously that, when deer are tormented with worms that 
crawl into the gullet, they swallow serpents who eat up the 
worms. For worms in horses, he recommends, as the most 


THE EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 347 

effectual method, to extract them from the fundament with the 
fingers. 

Many of the writers whose names occur in this collection, 
practised other arts connected with veterinary medicine. At 
that time veterinary medicine was not separated from the study 
and pursuit of rural economy generally. Cato, a superstitious 
person, and a careless observer, wrote much which had relation 
to agriculture alone. In all the diseases of cattle, without dis¬ 
tinction, he recommends that a raw egg should be given to the 
animal, and he adds, that the servant who gives that egg should 
be a young man. He was a great partisan of magical formulae, 
and he had no faith in any but popular remedies. He recom¬ 
mended, as a practice known from the earliest times, the injec¬ 
tion of medicines up the nostrils of animals. 

Praxamus, a Greek author, who probably lived before Colu¬ 
mella, in the century before Christ, and who seems to have 
principally followed the works of Mago and Hamilcar, Cartha¬ 
ginian writers, regards an exact knowledge of the diseases of 
animals as impossible. He distinguishes, however, several dis¬ 
eases in cattle, as apoplexy, diarrhoea, indigestion, and colic. 
He manifests in general considerable talent, proving that the 
spirit of observation which distinguished the Greeks might 
have been attended by important results, if other circumstances 
had been favourable. 

The loss of the work of Celsus on rural economy is much to 
be regretted. It doubtless contained a treatise on the diseases 
of domestic animals; and we cannot help believing that this 
man, so well-informed, and more exempt from prejudice than 
any other Roman, would have shewn the same judgment which 
he has exhibited in his work on medicine, and would have 
united in one regular work all the fragments which are scattered 
through so many tracts. 

We are, in some part, recompensed for the loss of the vete¬ 
rinary medicine of Celsus, by the possession of the work of 
Columella, his contemporary, on rural economy generally. He 
profited much by the writings of Celsus, and has treated on 
veterinary medicine in the profound and complete manner which 


348 THE EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARV MEDICJNE. 

we should expect from the experience and intelligence of a 
writer of the Augustan age. That part of his work which 
treats of the diseases of the horse is very satisfactorily minute; 
and his description of the maladies of cattle is certainly the 
best that antiquity has left us. In the contagious affections of 
cattle he orders the perfect separation of every affected beast 
from the rest of the herd ; and he points out measures for pre¬ 
serving the others from infection, yet without describing with 
sufficient exactness the diseases to which he refers. He appears 
to regard the specific prescriptions as superfluous, because they 
were generally known to those who were engaged in agricultural 
pursuits. This blameable custom of the ancient writers of de¬ 
scribing so superficially the objects which presented themselves 
to daily observation, under the pretext that no person could be 
ignorant of them, is the reason that we possess such obscure 
and unsatisfactory knowledge of many very important things. 
Thus, by way of example, it is very difficult now to determine 
what was the principal food on which either the larger or 
smaller cattle were kept in early times. 

Human medicine, although it was treated on in a more 
scientific way, has many similar and lamentable chasms. The 
details which Celsus gives of malignant contagious fevers among 
men are as incomplete as those which Columella has left of the 
same diseases among domestic animals. 

Among the diseases of the larger cattle. Columella has de¬ 
scribed indigestion {cruditas )—dysentery {tormend )—colic {ven~ 
tris et intestinorum dolor) —fever, which he combats with bleed¬ 
ing and restricted diet — cough, of which he distinguishes 
several distinct varieties — abscess, which he recommends to 
open with the red-hot iron—many cutaneous diseases under 
the common name of scabies —pulmonary phthisis {exulceratio 
—ophthalmia which terminates in blindness, and for 
which he recommends sal ammoniac, a drug much used by the 
old veterinarians in diseases of the eyes. Columella speaks 
also of the bites of venemous animals, and of leeches which are 
occasionally swallowed by cattle when they are drinking. Ana¬ 
tolius, a more modern writer, recommends a singular vomit in 


THE EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 349 

order to get rid of the last, viz. to hold crushed bags under the 
nose of the animals. Columella believes that bad digestion is the 
cause of the formation of worms in the calf. He also describes 
a machine by means of which cattle may be confined, so that 
remedies may be administered to them, and which very satis¬ 
factorily proves the care which agriculturists and veterinary sur¬ 
geons had at that time bestowed on cattle. 

After these productions and labours in the time of Augustus, 
it would have been expected that veterinary medicine would 
have attained to a high degree of perfection among the Homans; 
but the state of decline which commenced in the second century 
was fatal to this as well as to every other science. A writer, 
named Gargilius Martial, who lived in the third century, has 
left us a fragment on the maladies of cattle, that proves that 
veterinary medicine had not progressed after the time of Colu¬ 
mella, but had rather, to a considerable degree, retrograded. 
This little work bears the impression of the lack of science, 
which was the character of that age, and does not deserve 
farther consideration. 

The Greeks bestowed the knowledge of veterinary medicine on 
the Romans, in the same manner that they had imparted to them 
every other science. The Romans have merely treated on it 
in the manner which their masters had described it, but had 
scarcely added any thing. In the four centuries that followed 
the time of Columella, the veterinary art fell into great decay 
among the Greeks, and there was not an author worthy of 
record among the Romans. We may, therefore, be surprised at 
the appearance of Publius Vegetius, about the end of the fourth 
century. His work is exceedingly valuable. We must not, 
however, confound this Vegetius, of whose life we have no 
historv, with another writer of the same name, who has left a 
treatise on the military art. Whatever was the station of life 
which the author of whom we are now about to speak occu¬ 
pied, we cannot deny that he had much experience in, and 
knowledo'e of, the diseases of the horse. He shews that he 
has profited by a diligent reading of his predecessors, the Greek 
veterinarians; and the style of his work, written in Latin, is not 

3 B 


VOL. VIII. 


350 THE EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 

excelled by any one in the fourth century. He advocates, some¬ 
times, the principles of the Methodists*, which proves, as also 
the experience of other times has shewn, that veterinarians are 
always in the rear in the progress of medicine, and adopt those 
theories alone which had grown old, and were abandoned by 
othersf. 

Vegetius has profited much by the letters of Apsyrtus, with¬ 
out servilely copying them. He finds fault with them on 
account of their incorrect style, and he attributes the same 
defect to some other writers ; and at the same time, he success¬ 
fully labours to give the stamp of originality to his own work. 

His speaking so often of the Huns and their horses, proves 
that he lived after the irruption of these barbarians into the 
centre of Europe. The Huns passed the Volga in 314; our 
author could not be later than the commencement of the fifth 
century, and, at that period, the Latins were well acquainted 
with the Greek language. 

He considers disease according to the situation of the different 
parts of the frame, and his descriptions differ little from those 
which the Greek veterinarians have left us : and, beside this, we 
should not form a very high idea of his knowledge after read¬ 
ing the very incomplete anatomy of the horse, which he has 
affixed to his book. 

He adds to the precautions which should be taken against 
contagious diseases, by ordering that the horses that die of 
them should be deeply buried. His opinion of the origin of 
these diseases is just. He attributes them to some malignant 
principle in the atmosphere; and, in order to cure or check their 
progress among other horses, he recommends that the air of the 
stables should be purified by certain fumigations. He combats 
the old opinion, which attributes founder in the horse to the 
eating an undue quantity of barley. In some parts of his work 

* A sect of pliysicians wlio attribute every disease to contraction or 
relaxation of the solids, and founded their indications of cure on these dis¬ 
tinctions ; thus Vegetius ranks tetanus, and gout, and phthisis, as diseases 
of contraction.—[E d.] 

f How true is this observation! 


THE EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 351 

we find some valuable matter, which the Greek veterinarians 
had omitted. His remarks on the vermin which infect the skin, 
and on vesicular calculi, are instances of this. Under the old 
name of malleus (from the animars being immediately knocked 
down, as it were, by a hammer), Vegetius describes more dis¬ 
eases than the Greeks had ranged under the title of malisy which 
renders it exceedingly difficult for the reader to understand what 
particular affections are meant. That part of his work in which 
he treats of the disorders of the eyes, is more valuable than any 
that the Greeks have given us on this subject; and his treatise 
on the maladies of cattle is more complete than that of Colu¬ 
mella, and may be considered as a summary of all the know¬ 
ledge which the Greeks possessed on this branch of the veteri¬ 
nary art. 

The Greek and Roman veterinarians have not passed over in 
silence the diseases of sheep, goats, pigs, and dogs, yet they 
have not bestowed much care on them. It appears that it 
was not until modern times that poultry began to be domesti¬ 
cated to any considerable extent. Among the directions for the 
treatment of sheep, there are some important ones with regard 
to parturition. In false presentations of the fetus, it is recom¬ 
mended to cut it in pieces, in order to save the life of the mother. 
Many passages prove that the scab, and other cutaneous affec¬ 
tions, described indeed very slovenly, committed sad ravages 
among the flocks of sheep. In dropsy in the goat. Columella 
recommends to make an incision in a favourable place, in order 
to evacuate the water. Few details are given of any of the dis¬ 
eases of pigs. The most common of them at that time was 
inflammation of the glands of the neck. Didymus describes 
this very correctly : he also makes mention of cutaneous af¬ 
fections in camels, the maladies of which animals had doubtless, 
at that time, very much engaged the attention of veterinarians. 

Beside the art of breeding and breaking-in dogs, they pos¬ 
sessed a knowledge of every thing essential to rural economy 
and the chace ; but it was not until much later times that they 
seem to have had any conception of the nature and treatment 
of the diseases of these animals. Columella, satisfactorily 


352 THE EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 

treats of nothing but mange and canker in the ear; the other 
diseases of dogs are either passed over in silence, or described 
very incompletely. Rabies itself, of the communication of which 
man was in continual danger, was known in a very supeificial 
manner j and human physicians merit much reproach, in not 
having, at that period^ bestowed sufficient attention on this 
malady, which was observed in populous cities, as well as in 
deserts, and which was, even then, of ancient origin. We read 
with astonishment, that the veterinary surgeons regarded rabies 
as curable, and that this opinion prevailed so late as the thii- 
teenth century. A writer of inferior merit, who lived at that 
period, and w^ho is unworthy of the name of Demetrius Pepa~ 
gomenus, which some have wrongly bestowed on him, confi¬ 
dently recommends a drink composed of a decoction of the root 
of the wdld rose, as a cure for rabies in the dog. The same 
author proposes to prevent madness by the excision of a ver¬ 
miform substance found beneath the tongue, and which is, even 
at the present day, the popular belief. It is needless to detain 
the reader longer with similar opinions of this anonymous author, 
nor with his prescriptions against bewitchment of the dog. 

We regard, as much more worthy of our attention, the details 
which veterinary writers of the thirteenth century have given us 
of the treatment of the diseases of falcons, the use of which for 
sporting purposes began to be introduced into Europe at the 
return of the Crusaders. Demetrius of Constantinople, probably 
the same with the true Demetrius Pepagomenus, a distinguished 
physician attached to the court of the Emperor Paleologus, has 
written a work on this subject which may be regarded as a model 
for veterinary authors, at least considering the age in which he 
lived. He describes with much exactness many catarrhal af¬ 
fections of falcons, a kind of disease which evidently prevails 
among birds, on account of the great development of their 
respiratory organs, and which assume even more severe and 
fatal characters than in the human being. He enumerates the 
causes of these diseases with great care, and prescribes, in a very 
pleasing style, an excellent mode of treating them. 

We also find in this work some instructive remarks on inflam- 


THE EARLY HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 353 

mation of the nasal passages in these birds, and apthae in the 
mouth, and the connexion of this with inflammation and sup¬ 
puration of the liver, a viscus which is often much diseased in all 
birds. He gives some interesting details of inflammation of the 
eyes in falcons, and particularly of ophthalmia, and mucous dis¬ 
charge from the eyelids, for which he recommends cauterization 
of the edges. He likewise treats of opacities of the cornea, and 
worms that are found in the tissue of the eyelids, very much 
resembling the jilaria ahhreviata, and which have been found 
in modern times in the yh/co ncRvim, and in some other birds of 
the same species. Among the nervous diseases, he mentions 
epileptic fits. He speaks also of indigestion and of intestinal 
worms—of emphysema, which he proposes to combat by prick¬ 
ing the skin with a needle—of inflammation of the claws, a 
disease very common among domesticated birds—and of many 
other maladies of these animals, which merit the attention of 
observers. Superstition is banished altogether from this work, 
which interests the naturalist as well as the sportsman; for 
Demetrius accurately describes every kind of falcon used at 
that time. The remedies are simple, and appropriate to the 
organization of the animals to which they are administered. 
The bleeding from the thigh, although covered with feathers, is 
not omitted. 

A few fragments of the works of the old veterinarians on 
the diseases of poultry are preserved. Praxamus has prescribed 
certain remedies against many of the diseases of pullets, and, 
among others, against ophthalmia, which he combats with sal- 
ammoniac; and diarrhoea, and worms, and catarrh. Columella 
has mentioned inflammation and suppuration of the feet of these . 
animals, under the name of podagra. It may be readily be¬ 
lieved, seeing the want of knowledge of natural history and its 
kindred sciences among the Greeks, that Demetrius is superior 
to them all ; and even in a subject of minor importance like 
this, he stands far above any of his own age, who offer nothing 
but a state of lamentable decline in every branch of human 
science. 



354 THE students’ veterinary society. 

We were not correctly informed as to the nature of the society 
lately instituted at the Royal Veterinary College, and to which 
we alluded in our last number. 

It has now assumed a name, which not unaptly expresses 
the valuable purpose which its projector had in view, ‘‘The 
Mutual Instruction Society.” It consists solely of pupils, no 
visitors, and not even the teachers being allowed to be present. 
A committee of twelve has been appointed, out of which one has 
been selected as secretary, and each of the others acts in rota¬ 
tion as chairman. His duty is to select some point or points 
of Anatomy, Physiology, Chemistry, or Materia Medica, and 
to make himself as thoroughly as he can master of the subject. 
He then draws up a series of questions on that subject, or, having 
studied hard to conquer it, he trusts to the suggestion of the 
moment, and he examines his companions on it, and, perhaps, 
on other subjects intimately connected with it. If he does not 
obtain a satisfactory answer, he is called on to give one himself; 
and should not his explanation be quite clear and conclusive, 
reference is made to works of acknowledged authority on that 
subject, or perhaps to one of the instructors, within whose 
peculiar province that matter may lie. 

These meetings are held for the space of an hour, three times 
in a week. 

We heartily wish success to a society which promises so much 
good as this does; and much will it redown to the credit of the 
pupils of the College, if, from the construction—the almost 
necessary construction of such a meeting—left to their own 
guidance and management, a spirit of emulation, untainted by 
jealousy or ill-will, is excited in the well-disposed—the founda¬ 
tion is laid for more attentive observation, and for the acquisition 
of those first principles on which alone scientific and successful 
practice can be built; and no rude and ungovernable spirit mars 
the pleasure, and lessens or destroys the harmony of so praise¬ 
worthy an association. If they will sedulously cultivate, in these 
meetings, self and mutual respect—if they will avoid those 
questions on which grey-beards are not united—if they will 
confine themselves to the grand fundamental principles of their 


ON PHTHISIS IN COWS. 


355 

profession, and its accessory arts, many a pleasing recollection 
will hereafter be associated with the memory of the hours thus 
spent; and the benefit resulting from them will be felt and 

acknowledged through the whole course of their professional 
career. 

If this society should maintain its ground, we shall regard it, 
on many accounts, as the ctuspicium Tncliovis cdvi, and for this 
reason among others, that perhaps the other meetings may be so 
modified as gradually to attract to them the practitioners of the 
metropolis, and give us, what it is highly disgraceful that we 
have not, a useful and harmonious association of those who 
are engaged in the pursuit of the same art. 

Y. 




Report addressed to the Prefect of Police, by M. 

Huzard, jun., respecting the Pulmonary Phthisis 

OF Cows IN Paris and its Environs. 

Mr. Prefect,—I have the honour to send to you certain obser¬ 
vations which you require respecting the diseases now prevalent 
among the milch cows of Paris and its vicinity. These diseases 
have almost driven the cow-keepers of this department to de- 
spair; and until the present moment they have failed to excite 
the attention of government. You will pardon some details, 
which appear to be necessary, in order that these maladies may 
be better understood, and also the causes which render them of 
so frequent occurrence in Paris. 

Of all the species of domestic animals, cattle are the most 
subject to affections of the chest. 

The principal cause of this is the treatment to which we subject 
these animals, in order to procure a continual secretion of milk. 
Medical physiologists well know how much the secretion of milk, 
developed by child-bearing affect the pulmonary organs; they 
know what relations are immediately established between the 
lungs and the mammae, and what precautions women who give 
suck are obliged to take at that time. Veterinarians, on their 
part, have observed the same relation in cattle; and all who 
have been accustomed to these animals well know that a primitive 








356 ON PHTHISIS IN COWS. 

affection which deranges the habitual secretion of the milk is often 
followed by an affection of the chest, that has not the least 
relation to the former: and if it is also considered, that the greatest 
part of our cattle have, through a long succession of generations, 
being submitted to this regime, we shall not wonder that the 
organs of respiration in these animals should be exceedingly 
subject to disease. 

Experience has proved, that animals descended from parents in 
whom a certain system of organs has been enfeebled, are more 
than others disposed to an affection of those organs; and that 
this predisposition is greater in proportion to the number of 
generations through which it may be traced. 

The structure of the pulmonary organs is also, I believe, a 
general cause of these affections. In fact, if only the individuals, 
or the races submitted to the regime necessary for a constant 
secretion of milk were affected by maladies of the chest, we 
might believe that that regime was the only cause of the evil, and 
that they were only accidental local causes which developed 
these diseases in a greater or less number of other individuals : 
but this is not the case, and we see epizootic and enzootic ma¬ 
ladies of the chest develop themselves among the half-savage 
races of Russia, Poland, and Hungary, which yield milk only 
for the short space of time during which they nourish their 
young. Among these animals, always in the open air, there is 
some other cause for these complaints, and which I can find 
only in the peculiar structure of the lungs. 

Such are the two prevailing general causes which dispose the 
French cattle to diseases of the chest. 

It remains next to shew why the cattle in Paris are more 
exposed to these maladies than others. 

The bad system of management to which cattle are submitted 
in the country is well known. They pass suddenly from the 
warm, humid, and almost suffocating air of the cow-house to all 
the continual variations of the air without, sometimes hot and 
sometimes cold, now dry and presently moist, and by and by 
they return to the deleterious atmosphere of the stable. If these 
causes, well known determining causes, (to use a medical term) 
of pulmonary affections, had not influence on the losses which 
are experienced in Paris, I would not speak of them ; but as we 
shall presently find another reason for the frequency of these 
maladies among us, I am compelled to call your attention to 
them. 

In fact, if these causes of acute and violent inflammations of 
the chest always developed themselves, it would follow that the 
cows would either die, or would with much difficulty be saved; 



ON PHTHISIS IN COWS. 


357 


and then there would be no longer any well-founded hope of their 
becoming good milkers, and the farmer would have nothing more 
to do, as soon as they got tolerably well, than to fatten them for 
the butcher; and these inwardly and incurably diseased cows 
would never find their way to Paris. 

But it is not so : there is quite another order of things. The 
pulmonary organs do not become diseased in so serious a way 
all at once. The inflammation is slight at first: the animals are 
scarcely ill at all: soon all the syntptoms of the disease dis¬ 
appear, and every fear is dissipated ; but a change of manage¬ 
ment or diet, a change of atmosphere, or almost any other cause, 
reproduces the affection. These changes happen frequently in 
a greater or less length of time, and, at length, the malady 
becomes habitual,—it becomes chronic. The cow, in the mean 
time, continues to yield milk—it is only by close attention that it 
can be perceived that the secretion varies, and that it diminishes 
every time the chest is thus affected; but a slight, constant cough 
will infallibly betray the secret of the case to any one in the 
slightest degree acquainted with cattle. 

When the malady has arrived at a certain stage, a part of the 
lung becomes diseased, congested, of firmer consistence than in 
its natural state—it is hepatized. At length, tubercles begin to 
develop themselves; the pleura participates, more or less, in 
the inflammation ; and in this state the cow is affected with that 
disease which we call pulmonary consumption, or phthisisfpor/zme- 
liere). 

It is then, or even without the disease having arrived at such 
a degree of intensity, that, in most cases, some other cause de¬ 
velops all at once a new inflammation, acute, violent, in the 
lungs affected by the chronic malady; and this new inflamma¬ 
tion either quickly destroys the animal, or reduces her to such a 
degree, that it is with difficulty that she is saved, and, in fact, 
she loses almost all her value. It is remarkable, that before this 
last attack occurs, the cow, although often in an advanced stage 
of phthisis, continues to yield milk, and in a very considerable 
quantity. 

Some farmers know this disease well: others know it im¬ 
perfectly ; yet, when they have a cow that has experienced some 
of these intermittent secretions of milk, diminishing and return¬ 
ing ; when the character of the cough is easily understood, and 
especially when they are in communication with a veterinarian ; 
these farmers, I say, know that it is time for them to get rid of 
that cow : they hasten then to send her to the bull, that they may 
sell her when she is almost ready to calve. Then, within a circle 
of thirty leagues from the capital, these cows are bought by the 

VOL. VIII. 3 c 


ON PHTHISIS IN COWS. 


358 

cattle merchants who supply the Paris markets ; and this city and 
its environs are, in general, the destination of all the bad cows of 
a great many cantons ; consequently, a considerable number of 
those that are brought here have in them the germ of con¬ 
sumption. 

If we examine the management of these animals by the cow- 
keepers, we shall find plenty of causes for the rapidly increasing 
intensity of the disease, and which will well explain the mor¬ 
tality so frequent in their establishments, or, at least, the neces¬ 
sity of so often replacing their cows. 

The dairymen buy their cows, either when they have newly 
calved, or are about to calve. If the purchase is made in sum¬ 
mer, the animals are immediately placed in open sheds or houses, 
and supplied with food abounding with nourishment; they are 
consigned to idleness, and repose almost continual. They 
quickly recover from the fatigue of their journey, or of parturi- 
lion, and, for a while, every thing seems to be going on well. 

Presently autumn arrives, and the temperature of the air be¬ 
comes too cold for the secretion of milk to continue so abundant, 
and the dairymen close their cow-houses. Then the principal 
causes of affections of the chest begin to act cruelly on those, 
the greater number of whom have already pulmonary diseases, 
or, at all events, are powerfully disposed to have them. 

The stables are shamefully small, compared with the number of 
the cows. They are narrow, low,and, when we calculate the quan¬ 
tity of air which a cow will usually respire in the course of a night, 
we find that they have not one-fourth part of that which the pur¬ 
poses of health require. The air is also charged with aqueous fluid 
exhaled from the lungs and the skin. This water continually 
runs down the walls of the stables, the beams, and the racks : 
the cows are covered with perspiration, by means of the heat 
in which they are so long plunged, and the air charged with 
water which they expire ; and in the morning, when the door is 
opened, a thick cloud rushes out of the stable, and the air some¬ 
times fairly drives back, by its almost irrespirable nature, the 
person who is about to enter. 

Is it possible that these animals, already predisposed to dis¬ 
eases of the chest, can long resist these determining causes ? it 
is rather to be wondered at, that some of the inmates of such a 
pest-house resist the deleterious influence so long. 

This, however, is not all: there are two other causes of disease 
as powerful as those that have been already described. 

In the first place, the nutriment of these cows is always abun¬ 
dant, because they give milk in proportion as the quantity of 
food exceeds that which is necessary for the purposes of life; 


THE HOG IN A WOODY COUNRY. o59 

and, finally, a second cause is to be found in those changes of 
temperature to which they are exposed during this destructive 
period, at every opening of the doors, whether it be to bring them 
food, or to clean the house, or to draw their milk. The effect 
which is produced on the skin and on the lungs by the air which 
thus rushes in from behind is sufficiently evident in the sudden 
roughening of the coat, and the tremors which run over every 
part of the body. 

Annales de VAgriculture Francaise. 

[To be continued.] 


The Hog in a Woody Country. 

By Dr, Doe. 

Nature doubtless designed that the forests should be inha¬ 
bited by the hog; for the perseverance of the sportsman has not 
been able to accomplish, in any of our woods, the destruction of 
the wild boar—the origin of the domesticated hog. Swine fulfil 
many important functions in a forest country. They destroy the 
larvae of innumerable insects that would otherwise prey on the 
productions of the trees, and on the wood itself; whether it be by 
devouring them at once, or by consuming those fruits which had 
escaped the search or the regard of man, but which are thus 
converted ultimately to his nourishment, instead of contributing 
to the multiplication of beings that are a nuisance to him. 

The hog is continually searching out the larvae which inhabit 
the woods '’and materially injure them, and also those which 
burrow in the ground and destroy the roots of vegetables. He 
greedily devours the slug and the snail, the toad, the snake and 
the adder, which arc always unpleasant guests in a forest, and 
whose destruction is not only advantageous to the wood, but be¬ 
comes a source of profit to man by the fattening of the hog. 

As to the wild fruits which the hog takes away from the 
noisome and injurious animals, it may be thought that, by dimi¬ 
nishing or exterminating the trees that yield them, the services 
of the hog would become unnecessary; but this is not true. An 
attentive observation of the economy of nature will shew that 
trees are necessarily associated together by a compact or bond 
which man cannot entirely break, and by reason of this fruit 
trees will be always found with others by a natural and necessary 
union, at least, in forests that will admit of their growth ; so that 
there will be always fruit for the wild animals to eat, in default of 
those that are domesticated. It is in vain that, by different me¬ 
thods of cultivation and of sale, the forester would endeavour to 
produce but one kind of tree alone, those which the soil favours 




360 NEW METHOD OF CURING TETANUS. 

will always re-appear. His preference of particular species will 
only extend somewhat to limit the number of others; but he will 
get rid of them altogether only by the perfect devastation of 
the forest. Every tree which the soil of the forest suits, being 
equally the production of nature, will assert its right to existence. 
Some will produce apples, and others nuts, or acorns, or berries; 
but all of them are equally dear to the soil, and he must labour 
hard effectually to cross her affections. 

If, then, trees yielding fruit or nourishment, exist almost by ne¬ 
cessity, in our forests, the pasturage of the hog there is a kind of 
natural function; while, at the same time, this animal destroys 
a vast quantity of insects and other beings injurious to the woods. 

It will not be contested, that the feeding of the hog in the 
forest (/e Glandage), under the conditions and restrictions im¬ 
posed by law, is the source of considerable emolument to thq 
forester. The extent of it, in different localities, is an article of 
political economy that deserves separate consideration. 

In the district of Bar-sur-Seine the glandage has been sup¬ 
pressed during some years. The forests have not improved, 
but the foresters have suffered. Their herds of swine have dimi¬ 
nished more than one-half; and, instead of sending their surplus 
pigs to the neighbouring towns, they have been compelled to have 
recourse to them for the supply of their own wants. 

Annalei de CAgric, Franc. Janvier. 


A New and Certain Method of Curing Tetanus.. 

A FARRIER, residing in the neighbourhood of St. Mawes, 
having a case of tetanus under his care, and finding that every 
means that he had employed had failed to unloose the jaws of 
his patient, as a last resource, tied a strong cord to the lower 
jaw of the horse, and fixing it firmly in a blacksmith’s vice, fired 
off a gun immediately over the animal’s head. The poor suffer¬ 
ing animal, as might be expected, was thrown into violent 
spasms and convulsions; he started back, away followed vice, 
bench, and, tools; and, the next minute, he lay dead in the smithy. 
The j aws becoming relaxed in consequence of the death of the 
horse, it was sagely remarked by the operator, that he had cured 
the disease; but that the animal not possessing sufficient strength 
to undergo the operation, had died under it, which would not have 
been the case if had recourse to it sooner. 





THE 

VETEEINAKIiiN. 


VOL. Ylli’, No. 91.] JULY 1835. [New Series, No. 31. 


MR. YOUATT’S VETERINARY LECTURES, 

DELIVERED AT THE IIJsIVERSlTY OF LONDON. 


LECTURE XLVIIi (continued). 

The Treatment of Tetanus—Local Applications. — Blistering.-— 
Cold.-—Opiate Frictions. — Food.—Attention to the Focus or 
Origin of the Disease.—Tetanus in Cattle — Sheeps — Hogs — 
Dogs. 

Treatment continued. —WHAT shall I add to the opium ? Un¬ 
less actual purging was going on I should continue the exhibition 
of the aloes. If 1 depend on the opium to allay this nervous 
excitation, I must take into the account, that it will allay irrita¬ 
bility, and diminish even natural action every where, and in the 
intestinal canal among the rest; and, therefore, as not only the 
aid of the auxiliary muscles is lost, but they are now obstacles to 
the' usual peristaltic motion of the bowels, and the opium will 
lessen even this, every ball must contain more than sufficient 
aloes to counterbalance these tendencies to constipation. I have 
given four and five drachms of aloes for many a successive 
day, not only without injurious effect, but with decided benefit; 
and the clysters administered during the day contained, at least, 
2tbs of Epsom salts. Is any thing else to be added ? Why, 
Mr. Wilkinson’s ball contained camphor; and common consent 
seems to have determined that the ball for tetanus should contain 
camphor ; I therefore usually give it. Not that I am satisfied about 
the eflect of camphor on the horse : in great doses I have seen 
it do harm; in moderate doses, like the camphor julep of the 
human practitioner, it does neither good nor harm ; and, there¬ 
fore, I retain it, lest, in such a disease, and where the fatal 
cases far exceed in number those that are saved, I should incur 
after-reproach. The assafcetida, do 1 retain that? I should be 
ashamed of myself if I did. Several perfectly satisfactory ex¬ 
periments have assigned to it the same place which the old 
VOL. vni. 3 D 

















362 MR. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 

powder of post, if it was ever used, and the mica panis of the 
human practitioner, occupy. 

Mr. Percivall, in the first volume of The Veterinarian, 
relates a satisfactory case of the power of opium and aloes over 
tetanus, assisted, indeed, by a copious bleeding at the com¬ 
mencement ; and, more so than my friend is willing to allow, by 
a second equally copious bleeding by the farrier^-major during his 
absence. 

Local applications. Blisters .—I call to my aid the power¬ 
ful principle of counter-irritation ? Will any local application— 
any severe blister along the course of the spine—be of service? I 
fear not. This is a disease of the spinal chord, and of the infe¬ 
rior columns of that chord; and there is too much integument, 
and ligamentous and cellular substance, and thick muscle, and 
dense bone interposed to afford any rational hope that a blister 
along the spine, however severe, could have effect on irritation 
or inflammation so deeply seated. 

Besides, I can hardly reconcile myself to the application of a 
counter-irritant in such a case. I have to do with a disease 
the very essence of which is nervous irritability. The muscular 
fibres along the course of the spine are those which are in the 
highest state of excitation : fibrils of the same nerves are carried 
on to the integument; and the susceptibility of the integument 
over the whole of the spinal region is increased to an extreme 
degree. It seems to me that a blister would increase rather than 
allay the nervous erythism. I confess that this is the light in 
which I have always regarded the application of blisters along 
the spine in cases of tetanus. I cannot call to my recollection a 
single case in which decided good effect has been produced by 
them; and I have had ocular demonstration, that 1 have added 
to the torture of an animal already suffering too much. 

Perspiration .—There is one local application, however, which 
I can make with some prospect of good effect. If I can excite a 
profuse perspiration along the spine, and keep it in full action for 
many successive hours, or even days, I should, at least, unload 
the congested vessels of the part—I should relieve the sensitive 
fibrils from some compression, and materially lessen the suffer¬ 
ings of the animal. By this maceration, as it were, of the mus¬ 
cular fibre, it may possibly become so debilitated, and attenuated 
too, as to be incapable of its former extreme spasm ; and I know 
that the whole system must be affected by long-continued profuse 
perspiration from any part. Therefore 1 have generally been in 
the hafiit of recommending sheep-skins applied warm from the 
recently killed animal, and renewed as soon as they begin to be 
offensive: over this, and extending from the poll to the tail, 
should be double or treble clothing. 


ON TETANUS. 


363 


Application of Cold .—But is not cold one of the most direct 
and powerful sedatives that can be applied ? Why, I have 
heard of a tetanic horse being perfectly cured by being turned 
out on a cold frosty night. I can suppose that when this power¬ 
ful sedative—powerful under some circumstances at least—is thus 
universally and intensely applied, and applied to the air-pas¬ 
sages, and to the lungs, as well as to the external surface, and 
the horse has the full effect of it—for he is almost incapable of 
motion—I can suppose, I say, that the vital powers will be gra¬ 
dually depressed, and that to such a degree that this nervous 
excitation shall'quiet down to almost its natural standard. I can 
suppose the possibility of this, and should not severely censure 
those who had recourse to such a mode of cure. I cannot, however, 
say, that I should be willing to make the experiment myself: 
there is too much apparent barbarity about it; and to the partial 
application of cold I have a decided objection, as sadly increasing 
the torture of the animal without the remotest probability of 
doings good. I have tried it under the common form of cold water 
to its full extent—to an extent, indeed, which I can scarcely 
justify to myself. I have had relays of men, and for twenty-four 
long hours the water has been pumped or dashed upon the horse. 
It was cruel work. I did produce some slight remission, but no 
decided good effect; while the poor animal was cringing at the 
expectation of every fresh pailful; and when I stood so that he 
could turn upon me his retracted eye, I shall never forget the 
expression of that countenance: I do not always like to think 
of it. 

Opiate Frictions .—There is one kind of external application 
that has not been so much used, or so highly valued as it de¬ 
serves—I mean gentle friction over the course of the spine with 
the softest cloth, or, what is far better, the hand, beginning with 
the lightest possible pressure, and never increasing it much. The 
horse is a little frightened at first, but he soon gets reconciled to 
it; and when, at the same time, an opiate liniment was used 
(powdered opium rubbed down with camphorated oil, or opium 
and camphor dissolved in olive oil placed near to the fire), 1 am 
sure that I have seen relief obtained to a very marked degree ; 
and at length the poor fellow has courted the friction as eagerly 
as he lent himself to the admininistration of the gruel. 

Tobacco Injections .—These were once in considerable repute, 
and, in a few instances, were eminently useful^ and may be had 
recourse to in obstinate cases; but we shall not expect too much 
from them when we consider that their immediate effect is on a 
different system of nerves from those primarily connected with 
the disease. 

Mr. Egan, assistant surgeon to the 12th Lancers, gives, I am 


364 MU. youatt’s yeterinary lectures. 

ashamed to say, one of the best accounts Vv^e have of tetanus in 
the horse, and a very weli reported case of it. I suspect, how¬ 
ever, that he owed much of this to our excellent and lamented 
friend Castley, who was veterinary surgeon to the regiment. He 
says (Med. and Phys. Journal, Sept. 1825), “ A horse in leaping 
over a wall tore oif a wart from the centre of the abdomen, and 
the stifle of the near-hind leg was bruised. Eighteen days after 
the accident, tetanus appeared. Six quarts of blood were taken 
at two bleedings ; the spine, and the muscles of the throat and 
jaws and left stifle were blistered ; a purgative medicine was in 
vain tried to be administered, and two large purgative enemata 
were thrown up, which were immediately rejected. On the fol¬ 
lowing day, there being little amendment, the cold affusion 
was tried ; but this aggravated all the symptoms, and rendered 
the paroxysms more intense and constant. On the following 
day, it was tried in vain to administer a strong solution of 
opium, but strong purgative enemata were thrown up; half an 
ounce of crude opium was placed in the rectum as a suppository, 
and the animal turned out in the open air on the 1st of May, 
the night being dark, wet, and cold. The veterinary surgeon 
now considering the case hopeless, Mr. Egan requested permis¬ 
sion to try the effect of tobacco clysters. He infused one ounce 
of leaf tobacco in a quart of boiling water, and administered it as 
an injection. It produced a discharge of dark fluid faeces ; and 
he fancied that the next tetanic symptom was not so acute as 
the preceding. On the following day he infused two ounces of 
tobacco in two quarts of w^ater, and used it as an enema. The 
next paroxysm was shortened by half an hour, and from this 
time the horse continued to amend ; but, the enema being omit¬ 
ted for two days, all the symptoms returned. The tobacco was 
again resorted to, and thrown up two or three times every day 
until the 30th of May, when the horse was pronounced to be 
perfectly cured. 

Food. —What! a horse with locked jav.q shall we be solicitous 
about his food ? Yes; for he is as hungry as when in health; 
and if you place within his reach a pail of good gruel, he will 
nuzzle in it, and contrive to drink some of it too ; and particu¬ 
larly if you put a thoroughly wet mash before him in a pail (the 
manger is hardly deep enough), he will bury his nose in it, and 
contrive to extract no small portion of the fluid. I have already 
hinted that, by means of a little horn, or bottle with a very 
narrow neck, it w'ill often be possible to get down a cer¬ 
tain quantity of gruel. The flexible pipe which accompanies 
Reed’s Patent Pump will render this of easier accomplishment. 
Indeed, there is now no difficulty about the matter ; and, next to 
the power w'C have obtained of supporting the strength of the 


ON TETANUS. 


365 


animal, is that of administerinp’ the nutriment without elevating^ 
the head of the horse, and inflicting on the animal the extreme 
torture which used from this cause to accompany the act of drench¬ 
ing. Let the jaw be ever so closely clenched, we have but to 
introduce the pipe between the tushes and the grinders, and carry 
it pretty far back into the mouth, and we may introduce into the 
stomach any quantity of fluid we please. Thick gruel, not more 
than a quart at a time, may also be thrown up as an injection. 
In this small quantity it will usually be retained and absorbed. 

Food continued .—The most irapoitant time, however, for at¬ 
tending to the food is during those remissions, occasionally ob¬ 
served in cases that, after all, terminate badly, but more marked 
when the disease is beginning to give way. The horse may be, 
and generally is, utterly incapable to take up the smallest portion 
of food ; but if, in these intervals of remission, a little bit is con¬ 
veyed between his grinders, he will set to work to masticate, or, 
at least, he will try to do so. Before it is a quarter chewed it 
will, perhaps, drop from his mouth, and not one morsel will he 
probably be able to swallow; but v/hat then ?—he has been do¬ 
ing good, or you have been enabling him to do so—he has been 
putting the muscles of his jaws to their proper use. He has 
been breaking the chain of spasmodic action, and it will not re¬ 
turn again so violent as before. On the following day he will do 
a little better; and, on the next day, perhaps, he may be able 
—no, not to gather a morsel, but—to swallow one out of a dozen 
that have been thus conveyed between his grinders. These are 
minutise of practice which the young man thinks not of, but ex¬ 
perience teaches us their value ; and I am sure that I can truly 
attribute the successful termination of more cases than one to 
this carefid nursing of the patient. 

When the horse is getting decidedly better, and the weather 
will permit of it, there can be no better practice than to turn him 
out for a few hours in the middle of the day. His toddling 
about will regain him the use of his limbs ; the attempt to stoop 
to graze will drive the spasm from his neck ; the act of grazing 
will relax the muscles of the jaws, and no better food can he 
have than fresh grass. 

Attention to the Focus or Origin of the Disease .—I have not yet 
touched on this very important branch of the treatment of tetanus. 
True, the whole system of voluntary motion seems to be involved ; 
but it proceeded from some local affection. The fire kindled on 
some particular spot, where there is still probably a focus, a re¬ 
servoir of morbific action. We must carefully inquire into the 
history of the horse for ten or twenty days back. If he has 
been docked, or nicked, or castrated, these things will speak for 
themselves. Hus he been lame in the feet ?—has he been pricked 


366 MR. youatt’s veterinary lectures. 

in shoeing?—stubbed in travelling? If you find that he has, 
examine the wound. It may be a very trifling one compared with 
the dreadful effect produced. Examine it closely ; it will have a 
peculiar unhealthiness about it—a lifelessness—a bloodlessness ; 
if you cut into it there is but a little jet of arterial blood ; and the 
venous blood is doubly black. The ganglionic nerves have evi¬ 
dently sympathized with the affection of those derived from the 
spinal chord. Is it in the foot? remove from around the wound 
every portion of horn that is separated, and freely expose the 
whole surface to the action of the chloride of antimony. If I 
had rendered myself quite assured that I had found the focus of 
mischief, I should not be satisfied with this; but if my patient 
was a valuable horse, and a draught horse, I should perform the 
operation of neurotomy. I might not be able at first, much, or 
at all, to lessen the force of the tetanic spasm; but I should, at all 
events, cut off the enemy’s supplies, and that is a matter of no little 
consequence. If I detected a wound in any other part that, 
from the time at which it was inflicted, and, more particularly, 
from its appearance, raised my suspicion, I would apply the 
caustic or the cautery severely and eft'ectually to it, and, if prac¬ 
ticable, divide the nerve which goes to it. Mr. Brodie has some 
valuable observations on this in one of his lectures delivered at 
the College of Surgeons, in 1822; and which, although in some 
measure contrary to what I have been recommending, I feel my¬ 
self bound to quote:—lie seldom found that a division of the 
nerve between the seat of injury and the brain had the slightest 
effect in abating the spasm; and that, on the contrary, neuro¬ 
tomy had occasioned an aggravation of the symptoms, and even 
amputation had been resorted to with equivocal advantage; 
but that the destruction of the injured portion of the nerve ivas, 
found to be in the highest degree beneficiat. 

If tetanus seemed to arise from nicking, the incision should 
be deepened, and freely exposed to the caustic or cautery; if 
from docking, another joint should be taken from the stump; if 
from castration, the cord should be examined ; the clams, if pos¬ 
sible, applied afresh; the original cauterized surface removed, 
and the cautery applied anew. If the progress towards healing 
should render this impracticable, the nitric acid should be freely 
applied over the whole of the sore'surface. 

Justification of these Measures. —Whatever was the cause of 
the disease, it is now become a constitutional affair. However 
produced, the irritation is now general; the habit is formed, and 
it is not easily broken ; and, therefore, the removal of the local 
cause will not be always or often successful. Still it is wortli 
trying. A man had been bitten by a rabid wolf; the part was 
excised; the proper precautionary measures wefe taken, and he 


ON TETANUS. 


367 

appeared for awhile to be doing well: but, all at once, symptoms 
of hydrophobia came on : and they were too plain to be mistaken. 
The wound, which had been kept open, was examined, and some 
fungous granulations seemed to be sprouting from its bottom. 
The caustic was applied : they were removed ; and the general 
nervous irritability, either hydrophobia or something very closely 
resembling it, subsided, and the patient did well. I do not 
know of any case in our practice in wdiich this has been the effect 
of applications to or operations on the original wound producing 
tetanus. The records of human medicine, however, contain 
such; and I would urge on you this attention to the primary 
evil, for' in such a disease every thing is worth trying. 

The Argument pursued .—But I urge the trial of this on other 
grounds. There is the grand principle of counter-irritation. No 
two inflammations of great intensity usually exist at the same 
time. When one is set up, if I can establish another, and if in 
a neighbouring part so much the better—in proportion to the 
intensity of the new one, will the other subside. It will some¬ 
times be removed; it will generally be alleviated : but I must 
confess that, in a disease of the highest nervous excitation, 
this attention to the original wound—this attempt to set up a 
new" action, and thus to remove or to lessen the violence of the 
constitutional affection, has so often failed, that I regard it as a 
very subordinate portion of the medical treatment of tetanus, yet 
by no means to be omitted altogether. 

Singular Case of Tetanus .—One case of tetanus is so singular 
that I cannot refrain from relating it. It is also connected with 
the mode of treatment of which I have now been speaking. A 
tumour appeared, without any assignable cause, on the point of 
the left shoulder of an old horse. It grew to an enormous size. 
It suppurated, but the fluid was deeply seated. It was opened, 
and a great quantity of pus escaped. With much difficulty, and 
after a month’s hard work at it, the tumour quite subsided, and 
the w'ound that had been made in it healed. On that very day 
tetanus commenced, and was rapidly established, and continued 
seventeen days until the horse was perfectly exhausted, and the 
case seemed to be lost: when a tumour began to appear on the 
point of the right shoulder, and grew as rapi