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Full text of "The Veterinarian : a monthly journal of veterinary science. Volume 67, Issue 3, March 1894."

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UABCH, 1894. 







A History of Mons. Vial de St. Bel 
in connection with the Establish¬ 
ment of the Veterinary College 
{with Fortrait) . . . . 147 

Communications and Cases— 

Eecent Researches on Tetanus. By R. 

T. Hewlett, M.D., Demonstrator of 
Bacteriology in King’s College, 
London ..... 153 
Duodenal Obstruction in the Horse. 

By R. Rutherford, F.R.C.V.S., 
Edinburgh ..... 158 
Vomition in the Horse—Ejection of 
Ascarides. By J. B. Wolstenholme, 
F.R.C.V.S., Manchester . . 162 

General Paralysis and its Cause : 
Clinical Notes by Vety. Lieut. 
Marriott, A.V.D.; Pathological Re¬ 
marks by Vety. Lieut. Butler, A.V. 
School, Aldershot (^Illustrated) . 164 
A Case of “Choking” in the Horse. 

By J. A. W. Dollar, London . . 166 

Death of a Two-year-old Colt and a 
Foal from Intestinal Hminorrhage 
caused by Parasites—the Stron- 
gylus armatus. By a Retired Prac¬ 
titioner . . . . . . 169 


Mesenteric Aneurism with Complica¬ 
tions. By G. E. King, M.R.C.V.S., 
Newport Pagnel {Illustrated) . 172 
Gastro-enteritis in Sheep. By Robert 
Barron, M.R.C.V.S., Shrewsbury . 177 
Mainmitis in a Virgin Mare. By F. 

W. Evans, M.R.C.V.S., Stratford- 
on-Avon ..... 178 
Clinical Notes. By E. Wallis Hoare, 
F.R.C.V.S., Cork . . . .179 

Obscure Lameness. By “ Country 

Editorial Observeations— 

Examination Bye-laws . . . 185 
Farriers or Shoeing-smiths . . 186 

“R.C.V.S.”—“ R.S.S.” By C. Cun- 
ningham, M.R.C.V.S., Slateford . 187 

Worshipful Farriery . . . 194 

Veterinary Practice in the Chan¬ 
nel Islands. By A. Rodent . 197 

Uterine Inertia in Cows. By J. 
Clark, F.R.C.V.S., Coupar Angus . 198 

Tuberculosis in Pigs. By Jno. A. 

W. Dollar.199 

[ Continued on 'page 2. 




Price Is. 6d. 

All Rights Reserved. 




CONTENTS— continued. 


Laboeatort Notes. By James Bayne, 
F.C.S., Professor of Chemistry, Royal 
Veterinary College . . . 200 

Opinions and Research . . 201 

Contagious Diseases . . . 218 

Royal College oe Veterinary 

Special Meeting held January 24tli . 219 
Special Meeting held February 5th . 223 

Royal Agricultural Society— 
Meeting held February 7th . . 224 

Army Veterinary Department . 226 


Fitzwygeam Prizes . . . 227 

Central Veterinary Medical 

Monthly Meeting held February 1st ib. 

' Lancashire Veterinary Medi¬ 
cal Association— 

Meeting held December 15th, 1893 . 231 

Western Counties Veterinary 
Medical Association— 

Meeting at Truro . . . . ib. 


Vos’s Bread for Horses . . . ib. 

Notices TO Correspondents . . 232 


Principal .— Professor BROWN, C.B. 

Dean .— Professor McFADYEAN, B.Sc., F.R.S.E. 

SESSION 1893-4. 


The next Examination will be held at the College on the 6th, 7th, and 8th March, 1894. 
Candidates are required to give thirty days’ written notice to the Secretary of tlieir desire to 
be examined, and to forward at the same time the Examination Fee of One Guinea. 

The College Entrance Fee is eighty guineas; the payment of which confers the right 
of attendance on all the Lectures and Collegiate Instructions. The fee may be paid in 
Four instalments, viz. Twenty Guineas on entry, Twenty Guineas at the end of the first 
'period of study, Twentj’^ Guineas at the end of the second 'period of study, and Twenty 
Guineas at the end of the third period of study. The first instalment must, with the Matri¬ 
culation Examination Fee of One Guinea, as well as the Library and Reading Room Fee of 
One Guinea, be paid prior to the Examination. 

A Pupil, previously to his admission, is required to produce a Certificate of having 
passed the Preliminary General Educational Examination in force after 1st January, 1892, of 
the General Medical Council, or produce an Educational Certificate recognised by that body. 

The Educational Year begins on October 1st and ends about the middle of May. 

Lectures, Clinical and Pathological, Demonstrations, and General Instruction, are given 
on Diseases of the Horse and other Domesticated Animals, including Epizootics, Parasites 
AND Parasitic Affections ; also on Pathology, Bacteriology, Comparative Anatomy, 
Physiology, Histology, Chemistry (General and Practicil), Toxicology, Materia 
Medica, Botany, Therapeutics, Veterinary Hygiene and Dietetics, and Pharmacy; 
Hospital Practice, Obstetrics, Operative Surgery, the Principles and Practice of 
Shoeing, &c. 

A Scholarship of £25 per annum, tenable for two years, was awarded for the year 
ending June 30th, 1893; and an additional Scholarship of the same amount will be awarded 
in 1894. A Centenary” Scholarship of the value of £21 will also be awarded aunually. 
Beside the Coleman Prize Medals ; Class Medals, Prizes, and Certificates are given in 
each division of the Students’ studies. 

In addition to these Prizes the Royal Agricultural Society awards ^ Silver and a 
Bronze Medal to the two Students who may pass the best examination in the Pathology of 
Cattle, Sheep, and Pigs, at the Diploma Examination of the Royal College of 
Veterinary Surgeons. 


The Hospital and general Practice of the College is conducted by Professors Penberthy 
and Macqueen. The Hospital contains ample accommodation for upwards of 100 Horses, 
besides Cattle, Sheep, Dogs, and other animals. It is fitted up with large and airy Loose 
Boxes and Stalls; Hot, Cold, Douche, and Vapour Baths; Operating Rooms, Covered 
Exercising Ground, &c. Rooms are also specially set apart as an Infirmary for Dogs. 

RICHARD A. N. POWYS, Secretary. 



This compound, prepared by a new process, excels all others in the rapidity of producing a lather and its 
unrivalled cleansing properties. A daily application will he found a complete cure for Mange, Eczema, and all 
kindred Skin Diseases, and it thoroughly destroys all Fleas and Parasites. The ingredients are not only perfectly 
harmless to animals, but especially tend to promote a generally healthy condition. It leaves the coat thoroughly 
clean and sweet, witli a softness and glossiness unattainable by any other compounds. Eminent members of the 
profession liave used Eczematine with marked benefit in Mange, and liave testified to its superiority over soft soap 
and other cleansing agents. Price 1/- per lb.; Special Quotation for Quantity. 

“ Any one who has had to wash a long-haired animal must have felt how objectionable soft soap is. No amount 
of rubbing and washing seems to thoroughly free the coat from its sticky and matted condition. Very little better 
is hard soap, as the amount of muscular exertion required to make a good lalher is excessive. Both these disad¬ 
vantages are obviated by Mackey’s ‘ Eczematine.’ For washing dogs, or horses’ manes, we can strongly recommend 
it. It forms a splendid lather, has no excess of alkali, is medicated with a deodoriser and fragrant disinfeetant, and 
leaves the coat clean, sweet, and brilliant. It is an elegant and effective preparation .”—Veterinary Record, April 
20th, 1889. 


A Powerful Disinfecting^ Deodorising^ mid Detergent Fluid. It is Non-poisonous, and will not 

stain, or destroy articles of clothing. 

This Fluid contains the active Antiseptic, Disinlectant, and Deodorant properties of the Eucalyptus globulus and 
other allied species, combined with the Disinfectant and Detergent properties of the Finns sylvestris and other speeies 
of pine. 

During the last few years these trees have acquired a high reputation for rendering localities, previously unin¬ 
habitable on account of malaria, wholesome and fit for the dwelling-place of man. 

These trees yield large quantities of essential oil, which is stored up in the pellucid glands of the leaves. This 
oil consists principally of substances of a carnphoraceous nature, which have great Antiseptic and Disinfecting 
properties due to tlie peroxide of hydrogen produced bv their oxidation. In Bottles at 1/- and 2/-; 5/- per Gallon. 


In 1/- Tins; in | cwt., ^ cwt., and I cwt. Packages, Packages extra, at 10/6 per cwt. 


And all Veterinary Preparations. Makers of Special Improved Veterinary Instruments. 

MACKEY, MACKEY & Co., Wholesale Veterinary Druggists, 



By Lieut.-Gteneral Sir F. FITZWYGBAM. 

Fourth Edition, Revised and. Enlarged. Price 2s. &d. net. 




in place of Veterinary Capt. Rutherford (resigned); also the ELECTION OF AN EXAMINER 
IN PATHOLOGY (Practical), in place of Veterinary Lieut.-Coi. Duck (resigned), will take 
place at the next Meeting of Council in April. 

The Secretary will receive NOMINATIONS not later than the 31st day of MARCH 

By Order of Council. , 

February 22nd, 1894. 


Secretary. / 

1 / 


Ask your Tradesman for 



Contain sufficient Meat and other Ingredients, 
forming a Complete Food. 



tx thz 

ODAl^S’ XVIAHrURES have been used on the Royal Farms for over Forty Years. 


UTon-Poisonous, Reliable, Uniform. 

ODAMS’ POWDER (Poisonous) DIP. 

(Fluid and Powder) for the Farm, Dairy, Domestic, and Veterinary Purposes. 


{Established 1855, by Tenant-Farmers occupying upioards of 150,000 acres of Land.) 

Capital paid up, £200,000. 

Directors. — Chairman: Chaeles Doeman, Lawrie Park, S^’^denham, Kent. Deputy- 
Chairman: J. Caetee Jonas, The Grange, Great Shelford, Cambs. John Collins, Bush 
Hill, Winchinore Hill, Middlesex. Richaed Hunt, Culver Lodge, Much Hadhain, Herts 
(Farmer). JoNAS Webb, Melton Ross, Barnetby Junction, Lincolnshire (Parmer). Maetin 
Slatee, Weston Colville, Cambridgeshire (Farmei’). Robeet Beveeley Leeds, Castleacre, 
Norfolk (Farmer). Gaeeett Taa'loe, Trowse House, Norwich (Farmer). Thomas Alfeed 
Spencee, Clavering Hall, Newport, Essex (Farmer.) 

General Manager—C. T. MACADAM, F.C.S. | -Secretary—HENRY CLAYDEN. 


Manufactory — Odams’ Whaef, Victoeia Docks, E. Branch Offices — County Chambees, 
Queen Steeet, Exetee. Branch Manufactory — Ebfoed, Topsham, Devonshiee. 

Branch Manager —J. P. RIPPON. 

Prices, Particulars, and Agencies in Unrepresented Districts torite to the Secretary. 





This Food as supplied to 



Being prepared with RYE, LINSEED, and CONDIMENT, its 
Nutritive and Hygienic Qualities cannot be equalled, half a loaf 
being equal to one feed of oats. It may be given to horses and 

cattle in place of corn. 

Price Nett 10s. 6d. per cwt. 

28 Ihs. Delivered Weekly in Toton at same rate. 





Price Complete 25/-. 

Extract from the “ Veterinarian,” August, 1892. 

“It is certainly the most compact arrangement lor every-day instruments which as yet 
has been brought to the notice of the profession, for although it contains such a number of 
them it is very little larger than an ordinary knife.” 

Extract from the “Veterinary Record,” August 13th, 1892. 

“The ‘Compactum* knife brought out by Messrs. Arnold & Sons, Loudon, almost 
does away with carrying a pocket case. It consists of a horn handle, in which are set six 
instruments, viz. castrating knife, probe-pointed bistoury, scalpel, gum lancet, exploring 
needle, and Symes’ abscess knife. Besides these there is a groove cut under the surface 
of the horn which liolds a silver probe; there is also a small receptacle at the side for 

Telegrapliic Address, ~| ADMOin JP QO^Q PTELEPHONE NUMBER 

"instruments, LONDON.’J nllllULU OL OUNup L 6518. 

Veterinary Instrument Mahers by Appointment to Her Majesty’s Goverriment, 

The Royal Veterinary College, S^c,, 







1 gr. in 5ij.—Twelve minims to twenty-four to e gr.) injected subcutaneously relieves 
Spasmodic Asthma, Colic, Gastrodynia, Rheumatism, Pleurisy, Pleurodynia. Price 2s. 6d. per oz. 


1 gr. in 10 minims.—Twenty minims (2 grs.) injected subcutaneously will be found 
invaluable to relieve Colic, Neuralgia, Rheumatism, Enteritis in Horses and Cattle; used con¬ 
jointly with Atropine, the action is more conspicuous and prolonged. Price 3s. 6d. per oz. 


Forty to sixty minims may be injected subcutaneously. Most effective in Colic, Rheumatism, 
Enteritis in Horses and Cattle, &c. The combination produces less excitement than Morphine 
alone, and no constipation nor retention of urine. Price 3s. 6d. per oz. 


Physostigmine can be employed in all cases of Constipation due to atony of the intestinal 
muscular fibre, in Chronic and Intestinal Catarrh, and in Colic due to impaction of food or in¬ 
digestible matters. In small doses it may be used with success in Bronchitis and Dyspnoea. 

Captain Russell, F.R.C.V.S., writes:—“In my opinion 40 drops to 60 drops is a good 
standard dose of the solution made by Hewletts. I have used it extensively in 40-drop doses 
without any untoward result that I could possibly trace to the remedy ; and in cases of In¬ 
digestion, Flatulent Colic, and Impaction of the Colon of the Horse, I believe it stands alone as 
a remedial agent to afford speedy relief.” Price 4s. per oz. 




Established 1832. 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2020 with funding from 
Wellcome Library 



Founded 1§2S. 

No. 795. 

MARCH, 1894. 

Fourth Series, 
No. 471. 



{With Portrait.) 

St. Bel, the first Professor of the now Royal Veterinary 
College, whose portrait we attach to this description, was 
a native of France. His ancestral name was Vial, but in 
this country he added that of the village of St. Bel in 
which he was born, and as such he was simply known here 
as Mens. St. Bel. It has been said that he himself had 
affirmed that he adopted this appendix because it gave him 
an air of noble descent.’^ 

Nothing is recorded with reference to his birth or to the 
position occupied by his parents. It is, however, probable 
that his choice of the veterinary profession depended on 
his acquaintance with rural affairs, and his appreciation of 
the worth and value of the animals of the farm. He had pro¬ 
bably also to regret the treatment which he had not unfre- 
quently witnessed when they were suffering from disease. 

Important, however, as was the step which St. Bel 
took by coming to England and taking active measures to 
found a Veterinary College here, the chief honour of the 
success of this praiseworthy object must be awarded to the 
Agricultural Society of Odiham in Hampshire. 

Early in life he became a student in the Veterinary 
College of Lyons, which was established in 1761, and opened 

LXVII. 11 



for the reception of students January 1st, 1762_, being pre¬ 
sided over by the celebrated Bourgelat. On leaving Lyons, 
St. Bel was appointed an Assistant at the Royal Veteri¬ 
nary School which had been established in 1765 at Alfort, 
near Paris. 

Speaking of this school, he says that ‘^‘^the interests of 
rural life were not alone promoted by this Establishment, 
for the different corps of Cavalry have also repeatedly 
experienced its benefits. In 1769 each regiment sent a 
person to be instructed in the School; that such persons 
were quartered in the neighbourhood, and that by a regu¬ 
lation of the 15th October of the same year it was provided 
that the barracks should be under the direction of a Com¬ 
manding officer, and the studies and interior discipline 
should be regulated by the Director and Inspector-Gieneral 
and by the Assistant Director.^’ 

Speaking of himself, he writes, ^^That being superseded 
in a promotion which I had a right to expect, through 
the then Master of the Horse to the King of France, I re¬ 
solved to come to England and to pass some time in ob¬ 
serving the state of rural economy, and in examining the 
different breeds of Cattle, and especially Horses ; in a word, 
whatever had any relation to the principal objects of my 
favourite profession.” 

In this resolve he was encouraged by some friends in 
France, and in June, 1788, he landed here, bringing with 
him letters of recommendation to Sir Joseph Banks and 
Dr. Simmons. Within two months of his arrival he pub¬ 
lished proposals for forming a Veterinary school, but fail¬ 
ing to obtain sufficient support, it is said that he returned 
to France, and revisited England in 1790. If so, it is 
somewhat singular that in a Preliminary Discourse ” to his 
First Course of Lectures, delivered in 1791, no mention is 
made of this departure. His words are, This disappoint¬ 
ment, however, did not destroy my hopes, for in the month 
of Octoher, 1789, 1 published fresh proposals to read Lectures 
on the Veterinary Art. These proposals met with no better 
success, and I confess this second disappointment nearly 
disheartened me.” Shortly after this time, however, he 
goes on to state, I had the good fortune to become 
acquainted with a gentleman who was led by a decided 
taste for the art, and a long desire of seeing it introduced 
into his own country, to engage in frequent discussions 
with me on the subject. I made him acquainted with the 
whole of my plans, and of the little encouragement I had 
met with. This gentleman eagerly corresponded to my 



views, and bid me not to despair of success, assuring 
me tbat by persisting in my proposals tbe reason of the 
thing would sooner or later carry the victory.And 
he adds that this gentleman also assisted me in draw¬ 
ing up fresh proposals, better adapted to the customs 
and genius of the nation.^’* 

These proposals were distributed in May, 1790, and con¬ 
sisted of a pamphlet of twenty-eight pages octavo, entitled 

Plan foe establishing an Institution to Cultivate and 
Teach Veterinaey Medicine.^^ He further says, carried 
several of them to Newmarket, where they were well re¬ 
ceived, and I brought back the names of a few subscribers. 
About the end of May I also sent several copies to the So¬ 
cieties at Odiham, Bath, and Manchester.^^ 

The Odiham society had, he states, some time before 
this date proposed to send two pupils annually to study in 
the schools of France, and had opened a fund for the im¬ 
provement of farriery. On receipt of my plan, however, 
they did me the honour to pass a resolution of approbation 
and to elect me an honorary member of their Society, and 
expressed their opinion of the expediency of establishing 
an Institution similar to those in France and Germany.^^ 

In November, 1790, The Society arranged for a meeting 
of a Committee, to be held in London, for the purpose of 
taking more active steps for the improvement of farriery 
by collecting from men of experience and practical know¬ 
ledge well-authenticated facts relative to the diseases of 
horses, cows, and sheep, their treatment and cure.’^ At 
this meeting the Committee agreed to offer an Honorary 
premium of not less than ten guineas value for the best 
collection of cases—not less than twenty—of the disease 
in horses called the Glanders, with the treatment and cure; 
cases to be sent to the secretary. No. 10, Welbeck Street, 
Cavendish Square, on or before January 5th, 1791, without 
names or intimation to whom they belong, marked in such 
manner each claimant shall think fit ; each claimant send¬ 
ing his certificate, properly authenticated, sealed up in a 
paper having on the outside a corresponding mark with the 

* The gentleman here alluded to was probably the celebrated Dr. D. 
Peter Layard, Physician to Her Royal Highness the Princess Dowager of 
Wales, who throughout strongly supported the efforts which were made to 
establish the Veterinary College. On the success of the scheme Dr. 
Layard was, in March, 1791, elected an Honorary Member of the College. 

In 1757, Dr. Layard, who then resided at Huntingdon, published An 
Essay on the Nature, Causes, and Cure of the Contagious Dis¬ 
temper AMONG Horned Cattle.” A third edition of this work was pub¬ 
lished 1770. 



cases.^^ St. Bel records that two treatises only were sent 
in—one by their zealous Vice-President^ Sir Wm. Fordyce, 
and the other by himself. 

At a succeeding meeting of the committee, held on 
January 12th, 1791, the thanks of the Society were given 
^^to Sir Wm. Fordyce and Mons. Vial de St. Bel for their 
memoirs on the disease of Grlanders.’’ At this same meeting 
it was also determined to repeat the offer of the premium 
for a further paper on Grlanders, and a premium of the same 
amount for the best collection of cases of the disease in 
sheep called Pot, consisting of twenty cases, or such a 
number as the committee shall judge to be sufficient to 
establish the fact of the treatment and cure.^^ 

Another most important step was also taken by the So¬ 
ciety at this meeting, which may be described as leading 
forthwith to the foundation of the Veterinary College. It 
was unanimously resolved—That the immediate objects 
of the Society ai'e to establish a fund by subscription for 
collectiug by premiums well-authenticated facts relating to 
the diseases of Horses, Cows, and Sheep, their treatment and 
cure; for establishing an extensive communication with 
foreign Veterinary societies; for speedy and general cir¬ 
culation of such memoirs on the diseases of horses, cows, 
and sheep as may be communicated to the Society; for 
providing a building as an Hospital for diseased horses, 
cows, and sheep; and for promoting the Science of Farriery 
by regular education in it on medical and anatomical prin¬ 
ciples. That advertisements be inserted in the public 
papers—the Morning Post English Chronicle —soliciting 
subscriptions of not less than a guinea (Farrier Fund), and 
that a circular letter to the same purpose be sent to all 
noblemen, gentlemen, and others who may be thought most 
likely to be interested in the improvement.’^ 

Subscriptions flowed in, and notice was given that another 
meeting of the Committee would be held on Friday, January 
28th. Accompanying this notice was one that other meet¬ 
ings would be summoned as circumstances might demand. 

The most important of these was the one held at the 
Blenheim Coffee-house, Bond Street, February 18th, 1791, 
the result of which is thus given : 

^Wetbrinary College, London, for the Reformation 
AND Improvement of Farriery. —The public are respectfully 
informed that the Committee appointed by the Odiham 
Agricultural Society to consider of the best method of im¬ 
proving the art commonly called Farriery, feeling them¬ 
selves unable to act with thorough energy and effect in the 



capacity of a Committee, have found it expedient to erect 
themselves into the present Form. The object of the 
Institution is to reform and bring into a regular system that 
important branch of medicine which regards the treatment 
of diseases incident to horses and other cattle, and which 
has hitherto been neglected and much abused in this 

The ^ Transactions’ of the College will be published 
annually, and a copy thereof delivered gratis to each 

Me. St. Bel, for some years Peofessor op Yeterinaey 
Medicine in the Eoyal School at Lyons, and of Compara¬ 
tive Anatomy at Montpellier, a gentleman well known 
for his anatomical skill and knowledge in every part of his 
art, is appointed Professor to the College.” 

Notice was also given that a general meeting of 
subscribers would be held on Friday, April 8th, at 6 o’clock 
in the afternoon, for the purpose of choosing a President, 
Vice-Presidents, Directors, Treasurer, and other officers, 
and finally concluding on a Plan op this Institution.” 

In accordance with this notice the meeting was held, 
when the following noblemen and gentlemen were unani¬ 
mously elected: 


His Grace the Duke oe Northumberland. 


Right Hon. Earl Grosvenor; Right Hon. Earl of Morton; Right 

Hon. Earl of Oxford; Right Hon. Lord Rivers; Sir Geo. 

Baker, Bart.; Sir T. C. Bunbury, Bart.; Sir Wm. Eordyce; 

John Hunter, Esq. 


Sir Jno. Ingolby, Bart. ; Sir H. P. St. John Mildmay, Bart.; G. M. 

Ascough, Esq.; Mr. J. Baynes ; E. J. Brown, Esq., M.P.; Rev. T. 

Burgess ; Rev. J. Cook ; Dr. Crawford ; John Gretten, Esq.; 

Dr. Hamilton; Mr. Kennott; Dr. D. Mapleton; G. Penn, Esq.; 

Mr. W. Stone; Edw. Topham, Esq.; Dr. Williams; J. Wol¬ 
laston, Esq. 


Messrs. Ransome, Morland, and Hammersley. 


Mr. St. Bell. 


Mr. James Huntingford. 

Absteact of the Constitution of the College. —Any 
sum not less than two guineas shall be a qualification for 



an Annual Member, and not less than twenty guineas for 
a Perpetual Member. 

There shall be a President, Vice-President, and Directors 
forming a Council, one half of the Directors to be elected 
every year, and from the Council shall be chosen a Com¬ 

A Committee shall also be chosen annually, to be called 
the Medical Experimental Committee, for the purpose of 
suggesting and trying experiments with a view to throw 
light upon the animal economy, and discover the effects of 
medicine upon different animals which shall be purchased 
for the purpose. 

There shall be a Treasurer and a Secretary. There 
shall be a Professor of Veterinary Medicine, who shall be 
charged with the care of the School and of the pupils to 
be instructed therein. There shall be an Infirmary annexed 
to the School, with a view principally to illustrate the 
nature of the diseases and their accompanying symptoms. 

Subscribers to be entitled to the benefit of the Infirmary 
in proportion to their respective subscriptions. There 
shall be four Greneral Meetings in the year, a Monthly 
Meeting of the Council, and a Weekly Meeting of the 
Committee, for the purpose of regulating and conducting 
the business of the College. 

A volume of the Transactions of the College and School 
shall be published annually, and a copy delivered gratis 
to every subscriber. 

It is requested that all noblemen and gentlemen who 
may be disposed to aid this important plan by their coun¬ 
tenance and subscription will be pleased to testify their 
intention of becoming members, as early as convenient, to 
Mr. Huntingford, the Secretary, No. 10, Welbeck Street, 
Cavendish Square.^^ By order. 

J. Huntingeord, 


In addition to this request, the names of several London 
bankers, who had previously been nominated for receiving 
subscriptions and had consented to do so, were attached. 

{To he concluded.) 


Communications and Cases. 


By R. T. Hewlett, M.D., Demonstrator of Bacteriology in 

King’s College, London. 

The record of the investigations into the nature of 
tetanus and the increase of our knowledge of that disease 
are remarkable illustrations of the progress of modern 
scientific research, of the advance from the unknown to 
the known. Ten, or even six, years ago the etiology of 
tetanus was quite uncertain; the disease was regarded as 
a mysterious one, and many speculations were made as to 
its nature. No obvious or characteristic changes being 
met with after death, tetanus was regarded by many as 
a functional ” disease, a convenient term which commits 
us in no way and expresses little. Others believed that 
a primary lesion of the central nervous system might be 
the cause of the affection, while a few classed it with the 
^^specific” diseases. Tetanus is now known to belong to the 
acute infective diseases ”—a causative agent in the form 
of a characteristic micro-organism has been isolated, the 
chemical products elaborated by this have been investi¬ 
gated, a great deal has been learnt as to the conditions 
necessary for its development in the body, and, lastly, a 
new method of treatment has been introduced. 

Tetanus seems to have been known even in classical 
times, and it has long been recognised that lacerated or 
contused wounds, especially those soiled with dirt, are 
most liable to be followed by the disease, though slight 
and trivial injuries are not exempt, and cases occasionally 
occur (the so-called idiopathic ones) where no breach of 
continuity can be discovered. 

This was the state of our knowledge until 1884, in which 
year Nicolaier produced tetanus in mice and rabbits by intro¬ 
ducing garden earth beneath the skin; in the active earth, 
and also in the inoculation wounds, he found a peculiar 
micro-organism in the form of a bacillus. Nicolaier did not 
succeed in obtaining pure cultivations of this organism, 
but with his impure cultures he was able to produce tetanus 
in animals. In the same year Carle and Rattone showed 
that tetanus was an infective disease, that the bacillus of 
Nicolaier was present in the tissues and secretion of the 



wound in cases of traumatic tetanus in man_, and that 
inoculation with the pus from such a wound produced 
tetanus in the lower animals. Rosenbach confirmed these 
observations in 1885. 

Brieger, in 1886^ obtained from the impure cultures of 
Nicolaier’s bacillus chemical substances of the nature of 
alkaloids, two of which he named tetanine and tetano- 
toxine,—the former producing tetanic symptoms in mice, 
and the latter tremor, paralysis, and finally convulsions. 
It is interesting to note that Brieger has isolated tetanine 
from the amputated limb of a tetanic patient. A little 
later, Chantemesse and Widal by an elaborate method 
obtained the bacillus of Nicolaier in pure cultivation, but 
strange to say these pure cultures had lost the power of 
inducing tetanus, a fact which, with our present knowledge, 
can easily be explained. Kitasato, a Japanese observer 
working in Berlin, in 1889 successfully isolated the bacillus 
of Nicolaier in a simple and ingenious manner. This 
organism, the Bacillus tetani as it is now called, is met 
with in the form of a fine rod, sometimes short, sometimes 
long, rounded at the ends, and motile. The short rods 
develop spores at one extremity; these are clear, shining, 
rounded bodies, four or five times the diameter of the rods 
from which they arise. The short rod with attached spore 
is very like a drum-stick, and the organism has been 
termed the drum-stick bacillus."’^ The Bacillus tetani is 
strictly anaerobic—that is, will not develop in the presence 
of oxygen, and has to be grown in an atmosphere of 
hydrogen; hence a good deal of the difiiculty formerly 
experienced in obtaining pure cultivations. The Bacillus 
tetani forms spores at an earlier period than the other an¬ 
aerobic species with which it is usually associated in wounds, 
&c. The spores of bacteria are more resistant than the 
fully developed organisms to heat, the latter being killed 
at a much lower temperature, and Kitasato availed himself 
of this fact in his method of isolation. He made cultures 
from the inoculation wound in a case of tetanus in a man, 
and so obtained impure cultivations just as Nicolaier had 
done. The cultures were examined microscopically at short 
intervals, and, as soon as the drum-stick bacillus had 
developed spores, were heated to 80° C. for three-quarters 
of an hour. By this treatment all the fully developed or¬ 
ganisms, including the tetanus rods, were killed, while the 
more resistent spores alone retained vitality, and, inasmuch 
as the Bacillus tetani was the only organism which had 
formed spores, these remained alive and readily grew on 



being transferred to fresh nutrient media, pure cultivations 
being thus obtained. By continual cultivation, especially if 
the conditions are not rigidly anaerobic, the Bacillus tetani 
is apt to lose its virulence and fails to produce tetanus on 
inoculation, and this is probably the reason why the cul¬ 
tures of Chantemesse and Widal were inactive. 

Some have supposed that the presence of other organisms 
is necessary for the Bacillus tetani to be active, and have 
suggested that these absorb free oxygen and so bring about 
an anaerobic condition. Though this does not seem to be 
the correct explanation, these adventitious organisms may 
play a part by diminishing the vitality of the tissues, 
and rendering them less able to cope with the Bacillus 

The Bacillus tetani, unlike the Bacillus anthracis for ex¬ 
ample, seems to be localised to the wound or seat of in¬ 
oculation, and is never found in the blood or tissues, 
internal organs or central nervous system. How, then, are 
the general symptoms of the disease to be accounted for ? 
They are due to a toxaemia or blood-poisoning—the 
organism elaborates chemical poisons, which are spoken of 
as ^Hoxines,’’ locally at the site of inoculation, and these 
are absorbed into the system and produce the general 
effects. This fact explains how it is that the disease can 
sometimes be arrested by amputation or re-amputation, or 
by excision of a cicatrix. By these means the place where 
the toxines are being formed is removed, and, provided 
that the amount absorbed has not been too great, a cure is 
naturally effected. This treatment fails when a large and 
BO fatal dose of the toxines has already been absorbed. 
The cure said to occasionally follow the division of the nerve 
or nerves near the wound is more difficult to explain. In 
some of these cases, doubtless, the favorable result may be 
an instance of ‘‘‘post hoc’^ and not of ‘‘propter hoc,” for the 
disease, though generally, is not necessarily fatal. There 
is, however, another possible explanation. I have noticed 
that very small doses of the toxines appear to produce a 
marked local effect, the muscles in the region of the inocu¬ 
lation becoming powerfully contracted, while the general 
effects are inappreciable. So where neurotomy has been of 
service possibly the toxines may have travelled along the 
sheaths of the nerves for a short distance before entering 
the general circulation; on division of the nerve this path 
is blocked, the toxines no longer pass into the system, and 
the case being a light one, a favorable result ensues. 
The fact that the nerves in the neighbourhood of the 



wound are often in a state of intense inflammation lends 
support to this suggestion. 

The spores of the Bacillus tetani are widely distributed 
in the soil_, though some districts seem to be free from them, 
hence the fact that tetanus does not appear to be met with 
in all localities. 

Although the organism is so widely distributed, cases of 
the disease are comparatively rare. The explanation of 
this is that other conditions besides the presence of the 
bacillus are necessary. Thus, unless circumstances are 
favorable the organism develops so slowly in a wound 
that the tissue cells obtain the mastery and remove the 
intruder before it has had time to multiply. Another 
factor also is the dose of the organism, for Watson Cheyne 
found that injection of fewer that 1000 bacilli into rabbits 
did not cause death. So also if the tetanus spores be 
deprived of their adherent toxines’^ and injected they do 
not seem to produce the disease, while if with these same 
spores a little lactic acid be injected, tetanic symptoms 
follow. This is the explanation of the loss of virulence so 
often met with in cultivations; the organism forms only 
small quantities of the toxines, and so little of the latter 
adheres to the bacilli that the tissue-cells are not 
weakened sufiiciently to prevent them waging a successful 

In addition to alkaloidal bodies, the Bacillus tetani also 
forms an extremely poisonous substance of an albuminous 
nature, a toxalbumin,’^ and this seems to be the most 
important constituent of the toxine which gives rise 
to the manifestations of the disease. The tetanus toxine 
is readily destroyed by heating to 65° 0. for five minutes, 
by strong acids and alkalies, and by the action of light, 
direct sunlight completely destroying it and rendering it 
non-poisonous after fifteen to eighteen hours’ exposure. 
In a cool dark place the toxine maintains its toxicity almost 
indefinitely. Rabbits, guinea-pigs and mice, goats, sheep, 
and horses are all susceptible to tetanus, the dog, fowl, and 
pigeon are very refractory, and cattle are rarely attacked. 

Two classes of cases of the disease are usually described, 
—the traumatic where there is an obvious wound, and the 
idiopathic where apparently there is no breach of con¬ 
tinuity. There is probably no real distinction between 
these ; in the latter the channel of infection has been some 
trivial injury which has escaped observation. Some recent 
work on immunity with regard to tetanus is most interest¬ 
ing and of far-reaching importance, opening up a wide field 



in the direction of the treatment of infective diseases. It 
has been sho'wn that by injecting gradually increasing 
doses of the toxines^ provided the initial doses be suflS- 
ciently small, an animal finally becomes tolerant of enor¬ 
mous doses, and it acquires such a high degree of immu¬ 
nity, that tetanus can hardly be communicated to it. More 
marvellous still is the fact that the blood or blood-serum of 
such an immunised animal will, if injected, confer immunity 
on other animals, cure the disease when already in progress, 
and destroy the chemical poisons of tetanus if mixed with 
them. The method of immunisation is a comparatively simple 
one; the Bacillus tetani gvown in sterilised bouillon 
in an atmosphere of hydrogen at about 35° C. for four or 
five weeks. The cultures are then filtered through porous 
porcelain; the filtrate is germ-free, but contains the 
chemical poisons elaborated by the organism and is ex¬ 
tremely virulent. 

The treatment is commenced by injecting subcutaneously 
increasing doses of a weakened virus, the above filtrato 
being mixed with a dilute solution of iodine in potassium 
iodide, whereby its virulence is much diminished; then in¬ 
creasing doses of the untreated filtrate are injected, and 
finally increasing doses of the untreated filtrate are ad¬ 
ministered intravenously. Animals after four or five injec¬ 
tions become very refractory, but in order to prepare an 
active blood-serum—a blood-serum which is active in 
destroying the tetanus poison—the treatment must be pro¬ 
longed. Rabbits, mice, sheep, and horses can all be ren¬ 
dered refractory and yield an active blood-serum. The 
horse is the best animal, perhaps, to employ for the pre¬ 
paration of the tetanus antitoxine —the name given to 
this active blood-serum—but the treatment is tedious, last¬ 
ing as long as two months, and necessitating twenty-five or 
thirty injections. When the blood is found to be suffi¬ 
ciently active, which is done by testing its activity on mice, 
the animal is bled, the blood allowed to coagulate, and the 
blood-serum collected aud dried by evaporation in vacuo. 
In the dried state it retains its properties unaltered for 
long periods of time. This, then, is the method of pre¬ 
paring the now celebrated tetanus antitoxine. Behring 
and Kitasato in 1890 found that the blood of a rabbit 
rendered refractory to tetanus was capable of destroying 
the toxines of tetanus when mixed with them, one or two 
drops of the blood-serum neutralising and rendering inert 
ten drops or so of the filtrate from a virulent culture after 
a contact of fifteen to twenty minutes’ duration. 



They also found that mice, which are very susceptible to 
tetanus, after inoculation with the blood-serum of a refrac¬ 
tory animal, became refractory likewise; and, moreover, 
the onset of tetanus can be prevented if this blood-serum 
is injected soon after infection, and even a cure effected 
after symptoms have appeared. This method has now 
been applied to the treatment of several cases of tetanus 
in man; large doses of the antitoxine have been injected, 
and a cure has followed in some instances. 

In an animal rendered artificially immune, it would seem 
that some substance is formed in the blood which has the 
property of neutralising the tetanus toxines. In a natu¬ 
rally immune animal, however, as a fowl, the blood has no 
such action, and when mixed with the tetanus toxines 
these are not neutralised, so that immunity in this case 
must be due to some other cause. 

This brief sketch justifies, I think, my opening state¬ 
ment, and tetanus now ranks as one of the infective dis¬ 
eases about which we know most. 

The antitoxine treatment appears to effect a cure in cases 
of tetanus, and as similar results have been obtained with 
regard to two other diseases—diphtheria and pneumonia— 
this “serum therapathy^’ seems to have a future before it. 


By R. Rutherford, F.R.C.Y.S., Edinburgh. 

This is one of the more obscure of the acute and fre¬ 
quently fatal forms of bowel disease. I have met with a 
number of cases of it, and as some of these were marked 
by a series of symptoms most interesting and instructive, 
I have much pleasure in sending you the following notes 
on such of them as were of recent date and are still fresh 
in my memory. 

About eighteen months ago I was telephoned to attend 
as soon as possible two horses reported affected with colic. 
Both horses had been ill for two or three hours, and had 
been attended to by the stable foreman, under instructions 
applicable to all colic cases, but without affording relief. 
The symptoms in both cases were alike, and the most out¬ 
standing were profuse dribbling of saliva from the mouth 
and constant eructation of gas. There was no attempt at 
vomition, simply a markedly dilated condition of the oeso- 



pliagus extending about halfway up the neck^ accom¬ 
panied by a constantly recurring wave of gas and a little 
sour-smelling fluid which escaped by the nostrils. Abdo¬ 
minal pain^ marked by uneasiness^ attempts to lie down, 
pawing, abdominal distension, arching of the back, and 
profuse sweating—chiefly over the neck and shoulders. 
The pulse was small and quickened in both cases, and there 
was some degree of stupor and dilatation of the pupils, 
which symptoms I am able to say were not the result of 
any administered medicines. 

Under treatment one of the horses was out of all danger 
in a few hours, but the other I failed entirely to relieve. 
He lived till the following day, gradually becoming worse, 
the most persistent symptom being the escape upwards of 
the fluid and gaseous contents of his stomach. After his 
rectum had been emptied, in the earlier hours of his suffer¬ 
ing, of a few and rather small pellets of dung, there was 
obstinate constipation, and although abdominal fulness, 
indicative of the presence of flatus, was present throughout 
his illness, nothing of any consequence to his relief escaped 
•per anum. An hour or two before his death there was 
marked increase of pain, with abdominal distention fol¬ 
lowed by cessation of eructation and by collapse. 

On the same day, and before a post-mortem examination 
could be made of this horse, my services were required for 
another one, which exhibited similar symptoms, but of 
much greater intensity, and which died within a few 

In each case the post-mortem examination revealed rup¬ 
ture of the stomach, complete impaction of the duodenum 
for twelve to fifteen inches with a mass of very dry and 
coarse fodder, and inflammation of the enveloping bowel. 

On the day following there occurred another case marked 
by symptoms of salivation, gastric tympany, eructation of 
gas and fluid. These, however, under treatment gradually 
abated, and the case ended in recovery. 

Naturally the occurrence, in a large stud, of so many 
cases of an unusual type, within a few days of one another, 
gave rise to some anxiety as to the cause, not only to my 
client, but to myself. Together we went round every 
horse, examined the contents of their mangers, and noted 
the condition of their bowels. In a large majority of the 
stalls the cut fodder was only partly eaten, the coarser 
portions being left, and all the horses were more or less 
constipated, only a few exceptionally small and dry pellets 
of dung lying behind them. 



There evidently was one cause for this condition of 
matters. The food consisted of cut hay and whole oats; 
no bran_, no mashes, except where specially ordered. The 
oats could not be found fault with, but on examining the 
fodder in bulk I was almost confident that in it we had 
found the mischief-maker. It was foreign—Algerian I 
believe—but it differed from other Algerian hay I had seen 
used with no bad result, that while it was also uncom¬ 
monly dry, there was a quantity of what appeared to be 
the leaves and pods of some kind of pea. I have shown 
samples to several friends, and while they did not like the 
appearance of the plant, they failed to identify it. In my 
opinion, the plant was the cause of the narcotised condition 
which all the cases presented. 

My client, one of the best judges of fodder in the 
country, attributed the ailment to excess of oats, and was 
loathe to admit there was anything wrong with the hay, 
but in deference to my opinion and advice, an order was 
issued to use it no longer. All the horses were placed on 
small and liberally salted bran and linseed mashes, with 
frequent small waterings. In a few days the state of their 
bowels became as we desired, and for the time the disease 

The fodder, however, was still in the lofts, and, as I 
suspect, my client, preferring his judgment to mine, 
ordered the hay to be used again; and, as if to prove 
wherein the mischief lay, we had a recurrence of abnor¬ 
mally small and dry dung pellets and of one or two cases 
of colic marked by ^symptoms already given, but no 

The fodder ultimately was gradually used up by adding 
it in small quantity to good Lothian hay. No more cases 

I must confess that I was not able to say positively of 
the fatal cases that the patients were suffering from duo¬ 
denal obstmction; but from occasional cases formerly seen, 
and close observation of symptoms, I had little doubt in 
saying there was obstruction in the vicinity of, if not 
actually at, the pylorus. In a more recent case, however, 
of this comparatively rare form of bowel lesion, there was 
to a careful observer neither room nor reason to travel from 
a fairly accurate diagnosis. 

This case occurred during the last examination, and was 
twice seen by my friend Mr. James Clark, F.R.C.Y.S., who 
was much interested by the peculiarity of the symptoms 
persistently present. The subject was an eight-year-old 



chestnut harness mare, purchased at five years old, had 
pneumonia a year afterwards, then perfect health and con¬ 
dition up to the beginning of this winter, when she had an 
attack of flatulent colic of about an hour^s duration. The 
diet was oats, bran, and long hay, the last of indifferent 
quality, damp, and musty, and none of the horses ate it 
freely. On the evening of December 19th I was again 
called, and found her suffering from a rather severe attack 
of gastric tympany, which after a time yielded somewhat 
to treatment. Before bedtime I saw her again. She was 
better, but there was still, as from the first, some eructa¬ 
tion of gas from the stomach. Such cases, if they are not 
in much pain, do not alarm me, my experience being that 
after a time the fermentative action and eructation gra¬ 
dually subside. This case was, however, watched all 
night, and in the early morning I was sent for, the mes¬ 
senger saying the mare was rather worse. By the time I 
got to the stable my patient was easier; pulse very little 
disturbed, and only a mild perspiration over the neck. No 
severe abdominal pain; she scraped a little occasionally, 
and when allowed to lie down did so comparatively quietly. 
Her most striking symptoms were vomition, which took 
place with its very characteristic movements every few 
minutes while standing, and free eructation of gas when 
lying down. 

These symptoms continued more or less all day, vomi¬ 
tion being accomplished with the greatest ease. I never 
saw a horse vomit with less inconvenience. Towards even¬ 
ing her condition, which had been hopeful, became less so. 
Her pulse began to fail. She grew haggard in appearance, 
had occasional paroxysms of severe pain, with blowing and 
sweating, and the material which she vomited was dis¬ 
tinctly stained with biliary matter. Mr. Clark saw her 
next morning with me, and I think was fairly satisfied 
that the symptoms distinctly pointed to duodenal obstruc¬ 
tion. Neither of us thought she would recover, and that 
prognosis she justified by dying after protracted struggling 
on the evening of this day, or about forty-eight hours from 
the time the illness began. The post-mortem examination 
of this case disclosed an intact stomach containing a quan¬ 
tity of bile-coloured fluid. There was no impaction of the 
duodenum, but, more unusual, it was completely strangu¬ 
lated, about eighteen inches from the pylorus, by a band of 
mesentery, I took it to be, twisted round it. While such 
a case was necessarily fatal, it does not by any means 
follow that duodenal obstruction should always be so; nor 


would I like to say that we should always and at once be 
able to diagnose it, say from gastric tympany having its 
origin in the retention of indigested food in the stomach. 
The treatment of such cases demands care; the indications 
being to keep the animal as quiet and free from pain as 
possible, unload the bowels from behind, and the adminis¬ 
tration by the mouth of remedies in small volume which 
will control the stomach, arrest fermentation, and move 
onwards and out of the stomach and small intestines the 
undigested food, which I should say is, if not generally the 
original cause, at any rate an important factor in the occur¬ 
rence of such cases. 



By J. B. WoLSTENHOLME, E.R.C.V.S., Manchester. 

Valuable roan cart gelding, four years old. December 
1st, 1893, this horse when at work was noticed to be un¬ 
easy as though in pain at about 4 p.m., and fell down 
before he could be removed from the shafts. At 9 p.m. 
we were called in and an anodyne was given; at 10 p.m. I 
saw the horse myself; the patient was down, evidently with 
abdominal pain ; pulse 72, small and weak; neither blow¬ 
ing nor sweating; conjunctivae somewhat injected. 

The horse was quietly walked—well rugged up—for a 
quarter of a mile to my own premises. 01. Lini Jxv, et Tr. 
Opii 5ij cum 01. Menth. Pip. were given; this draught was 
repeated at 11.30 p.m.; pulse 80, small and weak; horse 
uneasy, lying down and rising frequently, but not at all 
violent. The surface of the body was very cold, although 
two rugs were on; stimulating liniment was well rubbed on 
the abdomen, the legs chafed and bandaged, the neck and 
head well wisped; a thick woollen neck-sheet and a similar 
additional rug were put on. In a short time the circulation 
in the skin had responded, and the surface became warmer. 
At 12.30 (midnight) gave chlorodyne et Spt. Ammon. 
CO. in water. At 1.30 a.m. gave Spt. Ammon, co.; 
the pain was much relieved at this time, but the extremities 
had become very cold, and the surface generally was cold. 

After an interval of ease lasting about one hour the pain 
became more marked, and continued until 6.30 a.m. The 
pulse at this time was 96, very small, feeble, and scarcely 
perceptible to the touch; conjunctivas injected a bright 


red colour. A draught consisting of chlorodyne and Spt. 
Ammon, co. had been given every hour^ and hot rugs 
applied to the abdomen^ but the surface of the body was 

At 6.45 a.m. the horse vomited—without difficulty—a 
small quantity of fluid which came down the nostrils. At 
7.15 he vomited a larger quantity, which as before came 
down the nostrils, bringing with it, however, a small 
Ascaris megalocephala. 

From this time onwards the horse was quiet and appa¬ 
rently out of pain, standing with his head over the half¬ 
door of the box, vomiting frequently; these acts were 
accomplished with very little effort,—a slight contraction of 
the abdominal and cervical muscles, accompanied with an 
elevation of the chin, being all that was noticeable. 

A large quantity of fluid was voided in this manner; at 
times it was passed in a copious gush, at others more 
gently. The colour was brown, with a gastric odour, 
more or less masked by the medicines which had been 
given. Small quantities of chopped hay were co-mingled 
with the vomit, but the noticeable feature was the presence 
of ascarides before mentioned; in all twenty-seven were 
thus ejected, their length varying from 2^ to 12 inches. 
The horse stood to the last; fell, and died quietly at 
4.30 p.m. on December 2nd. 

The pulse could not be felt at the jaw after 11 a.m. At 
1 p.m. the temperature was 99'8°. The extremities and 
surface of the body remained cold until death. The con¬ 
junctiva was scarlet in colour until a little before death, 
when it became much less marked. 

Post-mortem examination, 11 a.m. December 3rd. Much 
gaseous distention of abdomen ; a portion of rectum pro¬ 
truding beyond anus; parietal peritoneum red in colour, 
partly, I think, due to staining and partly to inflam¬ 
matory action. A quantity of sanguineous fluid was in the 
abdominal cavity. The intestines were of a deep red colour 
on their outer surface. The stomach was large, red as the 
intestines on outer portion ; contained about a gallon of pul- 
taceous ingesta ; the villous portion was congested, but pre¬ 
sented no eroded or excoriated patches; there were only a 
few ascarides in the stomach or intestines. 

At a distance of fifteen feet from the pylorus a rent 
eighteen inches in length was present; the bowel at this 
part was dark red, almost black, in colour, soft in texture, 
and much thickened ; this condition extended to the caecum 
caput coli. The substance of the caecum was in a similar 

LXVII. 12 



state to that of the small intestines; its ca vity was partially 
filled with a dark red grumons fluid. 

The colon was inflamed and much congested, extra- 
vasated blood being mixed with its contents. The results 
of the inflammatory process were least marked at the com¬ 
mencement of the duodenum. Other organs appeared 

I reserved portions of the affected viscera and their con¬ 
tents, and advised the owner to have them analysed, but 
this was not done. 


Clinical Notes by Veterinary Lieutenant Marriott, A.Y.D. 

Pathological Remarks by Veterinary-Lieutenant 
Butler, A.V.School, Aldershot. 

Brown mare, thirteen years old, was admitted to hospital 
7th December, 1893, with symptoms of slight motor para¬ 
lysis affecting the angle of the mouth on the near side, but 
otherwise in the pink of health and condition. A 5-drachm 
physic ball was given, but had not the slightest effect. 

December 8th.—Paralysis affecting the near eyelid and 
the near hind quarter, necessitating the use of slings. 
12th.—Nostrils drawn to the right side. 14th.—Fed well 
until to-day. Muscles on the right side of the face becoming 
paralysed. 17th.—Paralysis more marked. Cornea of each 
eye becoming clouded. Takes very little food, and that 
with great difficulty. 18th.—Cornea of right eye ulcerating. 
19th.—Ulceration of the cornea more marked. Foetid smell. 
Paralysis affecting pharynx ; cannot swallow food or water. 
20th.—Appears to have more power in the jaws, and can 
swallow. A few unhealthy sores on the cheeks, the result 
of injury from pressing on the manger to push the food 
between the molars, as it constantly became impacted 
between the teeth and cheeks. 22nd.—Appears slightly 
better. Ulceration attacking cornea of near eye. 26th.— 
Complete blindness of off eye from ulceration. 28th.— 
Appears to have more power in the jaws; feeds better. 
January 1st, 1894.—A decided improvement; head and 
neck carried stright. 6th.—Improved slowly until to-day. 
The case is now at a standstill. 6th.—Improving again, 
but ulceration of the cornea of the near eye is increasing. 
Since the eyesight has been affected. This mare—formerly 
very quiet—has become vicious. 7th.—Great change for 



the worse; paralysis affecting both hind quarters ; cannot 
stand well in slings; completely blind. 8th.—Getting 
gradually worse. 10th.—Further treatment useless. De¬ 
stroyed by chloroform to avoid injury to the brain and 
spinal cord. 

Post-mortem Appearances .—Left lobe of the cerebrum 
slightly darker than the right. On making a section 
through the substance of the brain, a tumour the size of a 
small hazel-nut was found in each lateral ventricle, having 
a very slight attachment to the plexus choroides, on the 
upper and inner surface of which each tumour was situated. 
The tumour in appearance was dark red in colour and of a 
very firm consistency. 

The accompanying illustrations show (1) a transverse 
section of a brain forwarded to me by Mr. Marriott, A.Y.D., 
which exhibits symmetrical tumours situate at the free 
border of the plexus choroides of the lateral ventricles. 
(2) Section of the growth at the junction with the plexus. 
A. Vessels of the plexus. The growths were each spherical, 
about three-eighths of an inch in diameter, of a reddish 
yellow colour, slightly translucent, and having a lobulated 
appearance. They were perfectly free in the ventricles, 
having no attachments except to the extremity of the 
plexus, and their presence had apparently wrought no 
appreciable change on the surrounding structures. 

Microscopically they were found to be typical examples 
of the growths known as psammoma, consisting of a large 
amount of connective tissue arranged as a loose stroma, in 
the meshes of which were lodged masses of cholesterin, 
the arrangement being fairly shown in the accompanying 
illustration. Professor McFadyean has kindly corroborated 
these observations. 

Growths in connection with the plexus choroides of the 
lateral ventricles are of fairly common occurrence, and on 
searching such literature as I have at command, I find 
several cases recorded which it may be interesting to 
review in the effort to obtain some guide to accurate 

(1) Mr. Cox, Veterinary Record, February, 1845.—This 
horse had been frequently observed to turn round and 
round while at grass, and reel at work. There was ulti¬ 
mately a sudden exacerbation of the symptoms, and the 
animal rapidly succumbed. Post-mortem examination 
showed a tumour the size of a pigeon^s egg in the left 
ventricle which is described as consisting largely of phos¬ 
phate of lime. 


(2) Mr. Butters^ Veterinary Journal, j^^ngust^ 1880, 
records five cases which presented a common symptom, 
viz. pressing the head against the wall, and in one case he 
observed blindness and coma, and at the post-mortem 
examination found choleastomatous tumours on the plexus. 

(3) Mr. J. L. Symonds, Quarterly Journal of India .— 
Constant depression, incontinence of urine, continuous 
spasmodic movements of the lower jaw and near hind limb. 
Post-mortem examination.—Small cholestrine tumours of 
both plexuses. 

(4) Journal of Comparative Pathology, March, 1892.— 
Blindness, corneal sloughing of both eyes, facial paralysis, 
and marked paraplegia. Post-mortem examination.—Small 
angiomata of the plexus of both sides. 

We have running through these cases symptoms indi¬ 
cative of brain pressure, but is it possible for us further 
to localise the position in which the pressure is being 
exerted ? 

With a tumour situated in the lateral ventricle the 
structures most likely to suffer primarily are the corpus 
striatum and optic thalamus, and it has been shown experi¬ 
mentally that injury of these will produce in the case of 
the former a persistent movement forwards, and in the 
latter interference with or destruction of vision. Here, 
then, we have a plausible explanation of two commonly 
observed symptoms in connection with these growths, and, 
to pursue the line of argument further, injuries to the 
corpus striatum will produce motor disturbances of the 
opposite side of the body. 

I am well aware that this attempt to theoretically justify 
clinical facts is in many points weak, but it is nevertheless 
interesting to attempt a logical deduction. 


By J. A. W. Dollar, London. 

The interesting case detailed by Mr. Pullon in last 
month’s Veterinarian leads me to give the following par¬ 

My experience of such accidents is somewhat limited, 
but I think a rather different significance might be ascribed 
to the symptoms recorded by Mr. Pullon than that which 
the author has deduced from them. At the same time I 
do not wish to be considered as in any way insisting on 

A CASE OF choking’^ IN THE HOESE. 167 

the causal identity of my own case and the one related by 
him_, and must express my admiration for the keenness of 
observation and clearness of exposition discovered by the 
article in question—qualities too often wanting in our pro¬ 
fessional literature. 

Some weeks ago I was hastily summoned to attend a 
case described as severe colic. On arrival I found the 
animal (a bay cob mare six years old and about 14 
hands high) to be in acute pain^ sweating on the sides of 
the neck, in the flank, and blowing.^^ The respirations 
were about forty per minute and of a peculiar character, 
inspiration being accomplished slowly, whilst expiration 
was forcible and accompanied by the production of a dis¬ 
tinct sound. The breathing was, in a word, pumping.^^ 
The temperature was normal. There was marked tym¬ 
panites. The animal stood with the legs stretched out and 
the head extended, and on being released threw itself to 
the ground and rolled violently. When it rose I noticed 
that thick, ropy saliva was running from the mouth. The 
eyes were prominent, widely opened, and the pupils dilated. 
The face had a strained, anxious look. The pulse was 
small, wiry, and 110 per minute. I also saw that a small 
quantity of frothy mucus, mixed with food, was running 
from the near nostril. 

The history of the case was that the animal had been at 
work all day, had returned home an hour before, and had 
been turned into its stall to eat its supper. About half an 
hour before my arrival it had received some water, and 
had then shown difl&culty in swallowing and had com¬ 
menced to cough. Shortly afterwards it exhibited signs 
of pain, threw itself down and rolled, or sat up at intervals 
like a dog. The bowels and kidneys had both acted within 
two hours of the attack. The acute pain, peculiar pulse, 
and marked tympanites led me to think for the moment 
that the case was simply one of acute indigestion, an opinion 
which I still hold in a modified form. But the salivation 
and discharge of food by the nostril pointed in addition 
to interference with swallowing, and as a careful examina¬ 
tion of the mouth revealed no obstruction there, nothing 
remained but to refer the condition to the oesophagus. 
On passing the hand carefully over the course of the latter, 
a firm swelling was detected just above and behind the 
larynx. This extended over about four inches. On exerting 
pressure on it the cob made, what I consider to be, swallowing 
movements, i. e. the head was drawn downwards towards 
the trachea, the neck arched, and a powerful muscular 


spasm evoked^ whilst a gurgling sound was heard, and a 
peristaltic wave of contraction could be seen to flit down 
the neck in the known situation of the oesophagus. I 
passed one arm over the animahs neck, and, uniting my 
hands below the larynx, endeavoured to press the obstruc¬ 
tion towards the mouth by pushing with the thumbs. This 
produced a succession of the above-mentioned spasms, but 
did not disperse the swelling. I then kneaded the mass 
gently and attempted to squeeze it downwards, in which 
effort I was more successful. The animal no longer dis¬ 
charged so much saliva from the mouth. At this stage I gave 
a hypodermic injection of morphia, and administered about 
three to four ounces of linseed oil. Finding that the latter 
was taken and did not occasion coughing, I continued the 
downward rubbing, and in a few minutes repeated the dose 
of oil. By persevering with these methods I discovered 
that in half an hour the swelling had diminished by one 
half, and leaving the groom to carry out my instructions I 
returned home. Daring the course of the next six hours 
two pints of linseed oil were given, the tympanites sub¬ 
sided, and next morning the cob appeared quite comfort¬ 
able. Nevertheless I considered it necessary to restrict 
the diet to soluble materials and soft bran mashes for 
several days afterwards, and to warn the owner against 
the possibility of recurrences of the attack. Since that 
time (some three weeks ago) I have heard nothing more of 
the animal. The explanation of the symptoms which I 
propounded to myself was that the pony had been at work 
all day and was exhausted; that it returned home and 
found its manger full of food, which it rapidly swallowed; 
that during the consumption of the latter part of the food 
some had accumulated in the posterior portion of the 
pharynx and become impacted there, and that owing to 
its ‘^hard^^ nature (the chaff was largely composed of 
Canadian mixture) individual fragments may have pene¬ 
trated the mucous membrane. That an obstruction was 
thus produced which the contractions of the pharyngeal 
walls only aggravated, and that simultaneously fermentative 
processes, in no way dependent on the pharyngeal obstruc¬ 
tion, were proceeding in the stomach, which resulted in the 
formation of large quantities of gas and in consequence of 
tympanites. The distension of the muscular walls of the 
stomach and intestine I viewed as responsible for the 
acute pain. 

In conclusion, I may point out that the recommendation 
of certain authorities to examine the pharynx via the mouth 


is seldom practicable, because the rows of molars are com¬ 
monly too near together to allow of passing the hand, 
because the passage of a foreign body over the epiglottis 
leads to difficulty in breathing, and lastly because the horse 
is almost always too restless. The use of the probang 
in the horse generally presupposes casting, and to cast a 
horse with acute tympany is, to say the least, distinctly 
inadvisable. Treatment in such cases must therefore be ' 
restricted to local manipulation, the relief of pain and 
tympany, and thereafter partake largely of an expectant 
character. The use of pilocarpine, whilst exciting an 
increased secretion of saliva, is contra-indicated where 
choking is complete on account of the danger of producing 
mechanical pneumonia. For a similar reason (viz. the 
chance of mechanically producing pneumonia) fluids should 
either be given with great caution or altogether withheld. 


By a Retired Practitioner. 

The perusal in the June number of your valuable peri¬ 
odical, 1893, of the death of some cart colts from pro¬ 
tracted ascites, caused by the existence of strongyli located 
beneath the peritoneum, brought to my mind some allied 
cases which occurred several years since in my practice. 
These cases, although due to the same cause, essentially 
differ in their progress from those alluded to, and as such 
you may probably see fit to record them in your pages. 

Here, however, allow me to offer you as the New Con¬ 
ductor of the Veterinarian my best wishes for your success. 
By this change the old and faithful exponent of the best 
interests of the profession, independent of party politics as 
it has been, will doubtless receive increased support in its 
efforts to promote the advancement of veterinary science, 
especially in its application to pathology. 

Throughout its long career, now sixty-six years from its 
first appearance, the Veterinarian has never swerved from 
its main object, although it has necessarily come under 
new management from time to time. With these few 
congratulatory remarks on the change of Editors, I will 


at once proceed to the special object of this communica¬ 

Case 1.—One day a messenger arrived requesting my 
immediate attendance at a farm about three miles distant 
to see a two-year-old colt which had been suddenly 
attacked with serious illness. The animal^s breathings he 
saids was so very quick and difficult that his Master 
thought that the colt must be affected with violent inflam¬ 
mation of the lungs. 

On arrival I found the animal in a dying condition. The 
breathing was indeed rapid^ and accompanied with occa¬ 
sional sighing and continuous abdominal pain; the pulse 
also was so indistinct that its number could not be satis¬ 
factorily ascertained. The body and limbs were clammy and 
cold. Visible mucous membranes blanched, &c. From these 
indications of rapidly approaching death and the sud¬ 
denness of the attack, I inferred that a rupture of some 
important blood-vessel had taken place, and consequently 
I waited so as to make an immediate post-mortem examina¬ 
tion. On laying open the abdominal cavity I was some¬ 
what surprised at not finding a quantity of effused blood; 
but was forcibly struck with the remarkable discoloration of 
the intestines, particularly the small ones, which presented 
an appearance as if filled with some dark-coloured fluid. 
On cutting into them an exit was given to a considerable 
amount of blood, mingled with which were an innumerable 
quantity of palisade worms— strongyli, thus satisfactorily 
accounting for the attack and death. 

The mucous membrane, when cleared and washed, showed 
the existence of innumerable pin-hole-like punctures, evi¬ 
dently produced by the boring-like action of the denticles 
of the parasites. The cause of death by the continuous 
escape of blood from these apertures was thus made clear; 
but not so the existence of such a host of worms. Where 
did they come from in such numbers ? was a question I 
could not then solve, although I was fully aware of the 
existence of strongyles in the mesenteric arteries and in 
other blood-vessels immediately connected therewith. It was 
evident, however, that they could not have been long located 
in the bowels, and that their ova, if recently taken in with ali¬ 
mentary matter, would scarcely have been sufficiently nume¬ 
rous and matured to produce such a fully developed brood. 

The farm was a heavy land, clay one, and I knew from 
experience that the young horse stock grazed on such 
pasture land not unfrequently suffered from parasites of 
this kind. Indeed, Ageicola, in the paper alluded to, drew 


attention to the yearly loss of some colts from the presence 
of strongyles located iDeneath the peritoneum causing death 
by ascites. These cases did not^ however, render me much 
assistance in the one before me. 

Case 2.—In the summer of the following year a second 
case, identical as to its nature and immediate results, oc¬ 
curred on the same farm. 

The patient, a foal scarcely three months old, which 
had never thriven from the time of its birth, was attacked 
with acute abdominal pain, accompanied with great distress 
in breathing, blanched membranes, &c. It died almost 
immediately after my arrival. 

On making the post-mortem examination I at once recog¬ 
nised a similar condition of the intestines to that described 
in Case I, and was thus prepared forthwith to tell the 
owner that the cause of death was identical with that of 
the colt which he had lost in the previous year. 

The intestines being removed and laid open, hundreds 
of parasites, strongyli, were found floating in the mass of 
blood, besides which a very large number were still fixed 
to the mucous membrane by their denticles. From an 
immense number of points, where they had quitted their 
hold, blood was also still oozing. No other parasites were 
found, with the exception of two small tapeworms. 

Here, then, we have two instances of death being sud¬ 
denly produced by haemorrhage into the intestinal canal 
by palisade woi'ms—in one case that of a two years old 
colt, and in the other of a foal less than three months old. 

In the present day it is not so difficult to account for 
such circumstances as the natural history of parasites has 
since received close and continuous investigation by hel¬ 
minthologists and other scientists. 

On referring to the late lamented Dr. Cobbold’s work 
on “ Parasites op Man and Animals,’’ 1879, we read that 
“ the eggs of the Strongylus armatus are elliptical and 
somewhat constricted in the centre, their contents form¬ 
ing embryos after expulsion from both parent worm and 
host. The larvm are rhabditiform, changing their skin in 
moist earth in about three weeks, at which time they part 
with their long tails. According to Leuckart, they pass 
into the body of an intermediate bearer before entering 
the stomach of the definite or equine host. From the ali¬ 
mentary canal they pass to the blood-vessels, causing aneu¬ 
rism, and thence seek to regain the intestinal canal, where 
they arrive at sexual maturity. It is during their migra¬ 
tory efforts that they give rise to dangerous symptoms in 



the bearer, not infrequently causing death in yearlings. 
In the adult, the worm is also dangerous to the bearer, as 
it produces severe wounds by anchoring to the mucous 
membrane of the gut.” 

With regard to the various locations of the worm, all 
practitioners of experience are familiar with their existence 
not only in the posterior aorta and mesenteric arteries; 
but in many other vessels, including those supplying the 
organs of generation, &c. (vide the case recorded by Agri¬ 
cola, January number, 189J). 

Reflecting on the migratory habit of these parasitesin 
this particular case of the death of a foal, I am inclined 
to ask whether in their wanderings it is not probable that 
in the latter period of utero-gestation—the dam being the 
host of the ova of these parasites, which on such a farm 
can scarcely be doubted—they might not have passed into 
the uterine arteries, and thus have reached the maternal 
portion of the placental membrane, which in equine animals 
lines the inner part of the womb ? If so, there would then 
be little or no difflculty of their passing onwmrds into the 
foetal portion, and thus gaining a free entrance into the 
general circulatory vessels of the foetus. 

The age of the foal, not being more than ten or eleven 
weeks old, as well as its impaired health from the time of 
its birth, would indicate that a persistent cause had existed 
which produced its want of vigour. Doubtless on such 
pastures as the mare and foal were placed in, myriads of ova 
existed, and these might be the direct source of origin and 
development of the parasites in this case, as it is in most, 
if not all, young animals grazed on such pastures. It should, 
however, be remembered that here we are confronted with 
an animal so young that it would partake of but little 
grass ; nor would it probably be found to be sipping water 
from pools on the surface or ponds in the held. Besides 
which the animaks age at the time of its death would 
appear to be scarcely sufficient to allow of the hatching of 
the ova and the development of fully matured strongyles 
in the intestinal canal. 


By Geo. Edw. King, M.R.C.Y.S., Newport Pagnel. 

Although aneurism of the mesenteric artery is not an 
unusual pathological condition amongst equines—more 



especially in young animals—I venture to forward the fol¬ 
lowing clinical notes of cases which have lately come under 
my notice, in the hope that they may prove interesting to 
some of the readers of the Vetermarian. 

Case 1.—Subject, a dark bay pony gelding, four 
years old, remarkably smart and fast; had been in its 
owner’s possession nearly two years, and had always been 
particularly bright, hearty, and spirited, and to all appear¬ 
ances perfectly healthy; no symptoms of pain or colic had 
ever been noticed. 

March 23rd, 1893.—The pony received his ordinary mid¬ 
day meal of oats and hay chaff, which he ate in his usual 
hearty manner. Soon after he was noticed to be in pain, 
which became violent and continuous. A draught con¬ 
taining Tinct. Belladon., ^ther Nit., and Tinct. Opii was 
.administered, and at intervals, as pain continued, this was 
twice repeated. A small dose of 01. Lini was also given, 
and through the night hot fomentations were applied to 
the body. I was called to the case early upon the 24th, 
about eighteen hours after the pony was first noticed to be 
ill. I found the animal with all the symptoms of severe 
abdominal pain. He was walking round and round a 
roomy loose box, lying down and looking anxiously 
at his flanks, getting up suddenly and walking round 
again. The conjunctival membranes were slightly in¬ 
jected ; pulse 84, much more perceptible on the left side 
than the right, and as the case progressed this became 
more and more noticeable; temperature 101°, no tympany 
or enlargement of the abdomen, and no tenderness was 
exhibited when the body was pressed and manipulated ex¬ 
ternally. Excessive and constant quivering of the muscles 
of the fore-limbs. Rectal examination revealed no impac¬ 
tion or displacement of colon, and the rectum contained no 
fasces. Morphia was injected subcutaneously, a dose of oil 
with Tinct. Chlor. et Morph, and an enema of soap and 
warm water with oil were administered, and the animal led 
out. The gait was crouching and the tail was carried per¬ 
fectly straight. After being taken back to the box and 
well rubbed down he appeared much easier, and remained 
so for several hours; flatus was passed several times, fteces 
once or twice, together with a considerable quantity of 
jelly-like mucus. Pain returned at 4 p.m. and continued 
until his death at 6 a.m. on the 25th, about forty hours 
from the commencement of the attack. The animal con¬ 
stantly walked round and round his box, raked the straw 
into a heap, lay down, and, if allowed to do so, would roll 


on his back and remain a minute or more with his feet and 
legs cramped up towards his body, this position seeming 
to afford a little relief; then he would suddenly jump up 
and recommence walking round the box. The pulse ran 
up to 120—140, when it became imperceptible ; tempera¬ 
ture 104°. 

Autopsy .—Examination was made four hours after dea,th. 
Body extremely well nourished; inside of abdominal 
muscles lined with fat. Skin looked particularly healthy, 
with a fine gloss upon it. The animal previously to the 
attack had evidently been in the pink of condition. The 
abdominal cavity contained a small quantity of fluid; a few 
shreds of lymph were noticed upon the peritoneal surface 
of large bowels when viewed in situ ; stomach full of fluid, 
contained larvae of Qijstrus equi; spleen enlarged and 
studded with elevations which, when cut into, presented 
the ordinary appearance of spleen pulp; the elevations 
appeared to be due to a bulging of the splenic capsule, for 
after the spleen had been removed a short time and laid 
on the cool pavement the organ assumed its normal form. 
From pylorus to ileo-csecal valve the small intestines con¬ 
tained a quantity of fluid; at this point about twelve inches 
of the ileum had passed into the caecum, the invaginated 
portion being almost completely strangulated at the valve, 
and no amount of traction would remove it. Only the im- 


Fig. 1. —External appearance of Artery. C. D. = Calcareous Deposits. 


mediately adjoining portion of the bowels was inflamed. 
The anterior mesenteric artery was considerably enlarged 
—sacculated aneurism (Fig. 1). The coats of the artery 
had undergone extensive changes, and offered a consider¬ 
able resistance to the knife when cut, and imparted a 
sensation analogous to that experienced when cutting 
into the gizzard of a fowl. Accumulations of calcareous 
particles, varying in size from the head of a pin to a 
pea, could be plainly seen scattered about both inside 
and outside the artery (Fig. 2). Inside, several small 
fibrinated clots were attached by shreds to the calcareous 

Fig. 2. —Internal aspect. C. D. = Calcareous Deposits. TH. = Thrombi. 

No vestige of parasitic invasion could be found in the 
artery, its branches, adjacent tissues, or the bowels, 
although a careful search was made. 

The thoracic and other viscera were not examined, 
owing to the carcass being inadvertently removed to the 

Case 2 (March 22nd, 1893).—Subject, a brown geld¬ 
ing, three years old. The animal during winter had been 
running at grass upon land adjoining the river Ouse, and 
had been brought up to be broken. At that time he was 
in poor condition, and instead of improving upon a liberal 
diet of bran, oats, and chaff, he rapidly grew worse. When 



out and subjected to ordinary exertion his evacuations 
became thinner and thinner^ and after being ridden for a 
short time at a moderate pace he began to purge violently ; 
more or less diarrhoea was always present. One evening, 
after being ridden a short distance, he purged more than 
usual, was fatigued, and seemed in such pain that he was 
only got home again with great difficulty. Early next 
morning I was sent for to see the colt. I found him ex¬ 
tremely emaciated and very much tucked up’^ at the 
flanks, with a haggard and unthrifty appearance; the 
eye was bright but sunken; visible mucous membranes 
highly injected; pulse weak, slow, and irregular; tempera¬ 
ture normal; appetite very capricious; signs of dull abdo¬ 
minal pain. Rectal examination revealed, as suspected, the 
presence of Strongylus tetracanthus. When in pain the 
animal lay at full length with his legs extended, occa¬ 
sionally raising his head to look at his flanks; in the 
intervals between the attacks of pain he appeared fairly 
bright and easy, and ate a little now and then. 

Treatment .—Starch gruel, milk, eggs, a nutritious easily 
digested diet; tonics, and draughts for the relief of the 
pain, which on some days was excessive, when the patient 
scarcely ate a mouthful; upon other days he seemed to 
improve, fed nicely, and appeared bright; but, in spite of 
the most careful nursing, he became weaker and weaker, 
and gradually sank. Death occurred eleven days after my 
first visit, and twenty-one days from the date he was taken 
from grass. 

Autojpsy .—Examination of this animal was conducted 
under extremely disadvantageous circumstances about 
twenty-four hours after death. Abdomen contained a con¬ 
siderable quantity of fluid; viscera of a leaden hue; intes¬ 
tines contained very little except fluid. Standing out in 
bold relief to the other bowels was the cgecum, which was 
the size of an average maffis body, and which at first I took 
to be an immense tumour. From the blind extremity, ex¬ 
tending along three parts of its length, this organ was 
completely filled with a soft friable material, which on sec¬ 
tion presented a reticulated appearance, and from which 
a considerable quantity of fluid drained. This deposit 
could be easily removed, or peeled from the lining of the 
bowel, breaking like a lump of jelly, and exposing a surface 
dotted with small black spots, as if black pepper had been 
sifted over it. The inner surface of the bowel was rough¬ 
ened by elevations, varying in size from a pin^s head to a 
nut, and some of the larger prominences contained pus. 



The mucous membrane of the colon presented a similar 
condition^ but no gelatinous material. The intestinal glands 
were enlarged^ and contained pus; numerous strongyles 
were found. The anterior mesenteric artery was enlarged 
to the size of one’s wrist, and with its branches contained 
a soft, putrid, and many-coloured thrombus. 

[To he continued.) 


By Robert Barron, M.R.C.Y.S., Shrewsbury. 

It is not an uncommon thing in Shropshire for a shep¬ 
herd to look over his apparently healthy flock of lambs 
one night, and the next morning to And one or more lying 

These sudden deaths often occur at intervals of a few 
days when lambs are penned on roots or rape, and are 
generally attributed to ^‘striking” or black quarter.” 

Having recently had the opportunity of making two 
jpost-mortem examinations of lambs that had died suddenly 
in this way, I thought it might be of some interest to the 
readers of the Veterinarian to record the result. 

About a dozen lambs from the flock in question had been 
found at different times either dead or dying during a 
period of two months. The lambs were penned on rape, 
and were receiving a fair allowance of a mixed diet, con¬ 
sisting of Egyptian beans (mashed), lentils, peas, Indian 
corn, locust beans, and lupines. These were well ground 
together before being supplied to the sheep. 

On making the post-mortem examinations I found all the 
organs normal with the exception of the stomach and 
bowels. The pyloric portion of the abomasum was acutely 
inflamed, as were also portions of the large intestines. The 
mucous membrane of the small bowels showed inflammatory 
streaks and patches. Wherever the inflammation was most 
acute considerable quantities of sand were present. Be¬ 
lieving that the ingestion of sand was the cause of death 
in these cases, I examined the food to And its source. On 
taking a double-handful of lupines from a sack I discovered 
a large number of pieces of pale red or yellowish sandstone, 
about the same size and colour as the beans. The sand¬ 
stone had most probably been imported with the beans. 
These angular pieces, when ground up, formed sand of 
similar quality to that found in the sheep. There appeared, 



on a rough estimate_, to be from 5 to 7 per cent, of rock 
present among the lupines. The other dry foods and rape 
were of average quality. 

The supply of lupines was at once stopped^ but three 
more lambs died within a few days_, presumably from the 
same cause. Since then a fortnight has elapsed^ and no 
further deaths have occurred. 

It is probable that many of the sudden deaths of lambs 
commonly attributed to quarter-ilP^ are due to errors in 
diet or adulterations of food. 


By F. W. Evans^ M.E.C.Y.S.^ Stratford-on-Avon. 

The subject of this report was a four-year-old mare. 
She had been in the stable for a few days owing to a slight 
lameness. No medicine of any description had been given. 
Her food consisted of half a peck of oats a day, besides 
hay and chaff. On Monday, Jan. 1st, she had been out 
doing light exercise for about an hour and a half. She 
was also showing signs of oestrum. Nothing was noticed 
wrong at night. 

On Tuesday, 2 nd, she was seen for the first time. The 
mare was off her feed; not altogether, but still she did 
not quite clean up her manger. Her udder on the off side 
was considerably enlarged, and evidently caused her pain 
to move, producing an appearance of stiffness and a 
peculiar abduction of the off hind limb. There was no 
lymphatic enlargement in the thigh. 

The gland was quite normal on the near side, but on 
the right side was swollen, painful to the touch, and 
moulded to the shape of the space it occupied. The teat 
was protruded, and in fact the udder presented all the 
appearances of the gland before foaling. 

Her temperature was 100’5 per vaginam, and the pulse 
normal both in character and number of beats. 

Treatment .—No change was made in the food. Pot. Nit. 
^ij night and morning in her drinking-water. The follow¬ 
ing liniment to be rubbed into the affected gland :—Tinct. 
Belladonn., Spt. Chloroform!, Tinct. Aconiti, aa 5 !]; Lin. 
Saponis, ad ^ij- 

Wednesday, 3rd.—No great change. The udder showed 
a slight belladonna rash. The patient had eaten all her 


food. From this date till the 6th the swelling gradually 
decreased^ and she moved about with freedom. 

Saturday, 6th.—The udder had decreased in size, and 
showed no signs of pain. An oedematous swelling appeared 
in front of the gland on the right side of the abdomen. 
It was about seven inches long, and extended from behind 

Monday, 8th.—The udder had become quite normal, the 
oedema less, and its position somewhat more advanced. 
The liniment was discontinued, and the mare taken out for 
quiet walking exercise. 

Wednesday, 10th.—The swelling had quite gone, and 
the patient was perfectly well. 

The peculiarity of the case is that it should occur in a 
virgin mare. There was no sign of any injury. The only 
conclusion I can form is that the oestrum of the previous 
day was in some way connected with the cause of the 


By E. Wallis Hoaee, F.B.C.Y.S., Cork. 

4. Lacerated Tongue due to Negligent Drenching with a 
Glass Bottle .—A chestnut cart-horse was admitted into the 
infirmary suffering from an ordinary attack of colic, which 
commenced when at work about two miles in the country. 

The usual treatment was adopted, and as there was a 
recurrence of the pain the animal was kept overnight. 

Next morning all pain had disappeared, but the animal 
exhibited great difficulty in feeding, and there was an 
abundant fiow of saliva. 

The mouth was examined for the cause of the symptoms, 
but nothing was found until on raising the tongue an 
extensive lacerated wound was discovered close to the 

The driver of the horse then admitted that he had 
attempted, when in the country, to administer a drench 
with an ordinary glass bottle, and in consequence of the 
animal struggling the neck of the bottle was broken in 
the mouth, but for fear of blame he had concealed the 

The mouth was washed twice daily with solutions of 
Potass. Chlor. and borax, and the wound readily healed, 
the animal being kept on fluid nourishment. 

LXVII. 13 



5. Enlargements of the Lower Jaw due to Retention of the 
Temporary Molars .—A roan three-year-old filly was brought 
for advice with very hard enlargements on each side of the 
inferior maxilla. The owner had applied blisters with no 
effect^ and stated that these enlargements had occurred at 
irregular intervals. 

Examination of the mouth showed that the third tem¬ 
porary molar on each side of the lower jaw had not been 
shed, and that one permanent tooth was projecting from 
the side of the gum to a slight extent. Both temporary 
teeth were removed by forceps, and Ung. Biniod. applied 
to the external enlargements. The swelling slowly dis¬ 
appeared after repeated applications. 

6. Comminuted Fracture of the Superior Fart of the Nasal 
Bone and a Part of the Frontal .—The subject was a van 
horse which presented a discharge from the right nostril, 
with a punctured wound on the superior part of the nasal 
bone of the same side, the wound being very small in extent. 

Examination showed that a short distance from the 
puncture there was depression of the bony structure, and 
that the cause was probably a kick. 

The animal was cast, and a portion of skin raised, when 
it was found that a large part of the superior extremity of 
the nasal and a part of the frontal bone were fractured in 
small pieces, and that the greater number of these had 
been forced into the frontal sinus. As many of these frag¬ 
ments as could be reached were removed, the sinus was 
well washed out daily with an antiseptic solution, and the 
animal made a good recovery. 

7. Brain Symptoms due to Reflex Irritation from the 
Stomach .—The patient, an aged fox terrier bitch, was 
brought for treatment with the following history. 

She had for the past few days been subject to inter¬ 
mittent fits, during which she would reel and fall; appetite 
capricious, animal in high condition, accustomed to very 
little exercise. 

On examination the animal presented an unsteady gait, 
and could not walk in a straight line, head sometimes 
turned to one side. Ascertained that she had been under 
the care of another practitioner, who applied stimulating 
liniments to the poll. 

Suspecting parasites, I prescribed oleaginous purgative 
and doses of santonin and nux vomica. No improvement 
followed; fits became more frequent, and appeared to in¬ 
crease in severity after taking medicine. 



Then changed the treatment to small doses of potass, 
bromide and chloral hydrate^ with Tinct. Grentian. Co. After 
a day’s course of this medicine the animal had a sudden 
seizure of vomiting, and ejected the body of a fair-sized 
eel. Subsequently she rapidly improved, and recovered 
her usual health. How the eel gained entrance to the 
stomach I cannot explain, but the fact remains that after 
its removal all symptoms ceased. 

8. Extensive Sloughing of the Heel from the Application 
of Nitric Acid .—Attendance requested at a place twenty 
miles from town to see a colt excessively lame in off hind 
leg, stated by owner in telegram to be due to a strained 
back tendon. 

On arrival found a two-year-old grey colt in the field, 
hardly able to put the affected leg to the ground, back 
tendons swollen, and animal evidently in great pain. 

On examination found an extensive fissure in the heel 
reaching from side to side, with deep sloughing of the 
tissues, and the skin around the part inflamed and stained 
a deep yellow colour. 

There was a profuse unhealthy-looking discharge from 
the part, and on lifting the leg the animal almost fell over 
from the pain of the effort. The owner had not observed 
the condition of the heel; thought that the enlarged 
tendons were the cause of the lameness, but explained that 
a few days before he had consulted a practitioner with 
reference to a warty growth on this heel, and that the latter 
had applied fuming nitric acid, and left him a supply to be 
re-applied if necessary. 

I had the animal removed to a clean stable, and ordered 
applications of belladonna with glycerine to relieve the 
intense pain, and a hot poultice to the part, with instruc¬ 
tions that after the inflammation had subsided the part 
should be kept perfectly dry and dressed with iodoform 
and antiseptic wool. Under this treatment the inflamma¬ 
tion was subdued and the excessive lameness disappeared, 
but the part did not seem disposed to heal; the dry dress¬ 
ing was therefore continued, and after a time granulations 
commenced to spring up, but the greatest difficulty experi¬ 
enced was to keep the part at rest. 

The animal was brought into town, and after a long 
course of treatment I succeeded in causing the part to heal, 
but not without leaving a permanent blemish in the form 
of a thickening of the part, which remains in spite of the 
repeated application of preparations of iodine. 



Bemarhs. —In my opinion nitric acid is a very dangerous 
agent to employ as a caustic in situations sucli as the heels 
and over the flexures of joints, as it may cause extensive 
sloughing; besides, its penetrating effect is difficult to con¬ 
trol, and its action continues for a long time. 

9. Fissured Heels as a Sequel to Grease. — These lesions 
are of comparatively frequent occurrence in this country 
in consequence of the very wet winters to which we are 
exposed. They occur in all classes of horses, from the 
well-cared in the gentleman^s stable to the posting horse. 
More commonly we find one heel affected, generally of a 
hind limb ; the affection comes on rather suddenly, takes 
the form of deep sloughing of the skin and underlying 
structures of the heel, with excessive lameness, and, in 
some instances, inability to rest the foot on the ground. 

If the fissure is deep and extensive no more painful 
lesion is met with in the horse, and constitutional symptoms 
are quickly developed. I find, as a rule with few excep¬ 
tions, that the patient has been subject to previous attacks 
of grease. We may ascribe the affection to constitutional 
causes, and a foul thrush often exists at the same time. 
No doubt constant washing with cold water, neglect of 
proper drying, and the irritating action of limestone roads 
are very important factors in causation. 

The treatment is slow and not always satisfactory. Some 
practitioners hold that moisture of all kinds should be 
rigidly avoided, and dependence placed on dry dressings. 
I have found that in the first stages, where there is acute 
pain, nothing gives more relief than to apply freely to the 
part belladonna and glycerine equal parts, and a hot 
poultice of boiled turnips. This relieves the acute pain, 
and after a few applications the use of Pulv. Iodoform., 
either alone or mixed with a powder composed of creolin 
and boracic acid, makes an excellent dressing, with wood¬ 
wool wadding to keep the part from the air, and applied 
so as to ensure as little movement of the heel as possible. 

When the granulations are springing up an occasional 
slight touch with nitrate of silver will be of benefit. 

10. A Peculiar Outhreah of Glanders. —The following 
cases illustrate how glanders may be encountered in places 
where least expected, and also the obscure manner in which 
the disease is spread. 

In October, 1893, I was asked by a merchant to attend 
at a farm, about twenty miles distant, to castrate a two-year- 
old and a three-year-old colt. 



At tlie same time lie desired my advice with reference to 
three young horses at grass which were affected with what 
he termed a chronic cold and discharge from the nostrils. 

He also informed me that one of the animals_, a four- 
year-old, had been under treatment about two years since 
by another practitioner, and that I had assisted at the 
operation of trephining the head for nasal gleet. I remem¬ 
bered the case, which was one of enlargement of the 
maxillary region with snoring respiration; and in trephin¬ 
ing the part, and also the frontal sinus, a large quantity of 
thick pus escaped, and the case seemed to be doing well 
when I lost sight of it. 

On arrival at the farm I found this animal in a stall, but 
decided not to examine him until after operating on the 

I found considerable discharge from both nostrils, very 
loud snoring respiration, and an unhealthy appearance of 
the Schneiderian membrane, without any distinct ulcera¬ 
tion, but his condition was poor. 

The remaining animals were together in the field ; one, a 
bay gelding, showed discharge at both nostrils, with snor¬ 
ing respiration similar to the first one. 

On examining this animal I found in one nostril a very 
large nasal polypus almost filling the nostril, in the other 
there were traces of ulcers which appeared to have healed. 

No. 3 was a black filly^ three years old, in wretched con¬ 
dition, with characteristic nasal discharge from both 
nostrils; the septum nasi was literally eaten through by 
ulceration, and there was an extremely foetid odour from 
the animal. One hind leg was enlarged, and showed recent 
marks of farcy buds. The owner stated that this animal had 
been discharging from the nostrils and in poor condition for 
about nine months. He could give no history of the cases 
except that at one time he possessed an old mare affected 
with discharge from the nose. The temperature of all 
these animals was 102°. The affected animals were de¬ 
stroyed and the place put under supervision, but no cases 
have since occurred. 

The post-mortem examination show the presence of the 
characteristic tubercles of glanders in all the cases. 

Probably by reason of the animals being at grass, they 
failed to show acute symptoms for a long period. 

What seems surprising with reference to the first case is 
that when operated on about two years previously there 
were absolutely no signs of glanders, the animal being in 
splendid condition. 




For a number of years back I have had several cases 
annually of lameness following severe attacks of influenza; 
and as all the cases present some features in common^ and 
all of them one most unfortunate peculiarity—viz. their 
chronic nature in defiance of all treatment—I will with 
your permission give your readers a few notes from 
memory^ and perhaps may learn in a future Veterinarian a 
more successful method of dealing with such cases than 
that which I adopted. 

In every case the lameness follows severe attacks only, 
and, further, I have never seen it in a poor, ill-fed animal, 
but only in those where artificial food—such as milk, tea, 
eggs, wine, &c.—had been used; and I think it appeared 
oftener when wine had been freely given. 

About three weeks after the animal has been pronounced 
fit for exercise he suddenly falls lame on one fore-leg, and 
this lameness is generally noticed at exercise, and on exa¬ 
mination a hot painful swelling is found, evidently a dis¬ 
tension of synovial sheath at, and for about three inches 
above the fetlock. No constitutional disturbance can be 
seen; the animal feeds well all through the lameness, and 
in my experience the lameness is not influenced in the very 
slightest by the weather. 

This swelling and pain at the fetlock may be all that can 
be discovered, as in a few days the animal may go wrong 
in the other limb in a very similar way; but in no case 
have I ever noticed the lameness leave one limb and appear 
in another, and in sixteen or eighteen cases I cannot re¬ 
member one instance when the slightest lameness or 
swelling appeared in any other joint. 

And now comes the most unsatisfactory part of the trouble. 

Thinking I had to deal with rheumatism, I applied the 
usual remedies, but had no good results; in fact, all the 
treatment I could think of did no good. Refrigerants, 
antacids, blisters, firing, and setoning all failed; and 
internally everything that I had ever heard of for rheu¬ 
matism was tried, all the so-called specifics had a 
turn, but without avail, and the animals were ultimately 
turned out to grass or disposed of. The most peculiar 
feature of the disease was this :—in no case was there any 
improvement noted in the animals at grass as long as the 
weather was good, but as soon as the pasture became poor 



and the weather bad^ and the patient commenced to lose 
condition and get rough of his coat, then the swelling and 
lameness began to disappear. In all the cases I have had 
for several years I have simply put them to grass in the 
autumn and let them run there till they were sound, and 
after such treatment I have never known the disease to 



At a recent meeting of the Royal College of Veterinary 
Surgeons Mr. Mulvey proposed—That no student shall be 
eligible for the second examination until he has attended 
one session of not less than thirty weeks, exclusive of 
holidays, after ^passing the first examination and Pro¬ 
fessor Walley moved—^^That no student shall be eligible 
for the second examination until he has attended two 
sessions of not less than thirty weeks each, exclusive of 
holidays.The amendment was carried. Similar resolu¬ 
tions touching the third and fourth examinations now wait 
confirmation. Under Mr. Mulvey’s motion a rejected 
student would continue in Class A until he passed his first 
examination. Professor Walleyes amendment enables a 
rejected Class A student to proceed to the subjects of 
Class B and onwards. The motion marks the students’ 
progress by examinations—successful or unsuccessful. The 
amendment notes the same thing by the number of sessions 
at college, irrespective of examinations. Passing the refer¬ 
ence to a sessional year of thirty weeks—which may mean 
much or little teaching according to the views of the 
different schools—no doubt can be entertained of the con¬ 
sequences of the resolutions to students, teachers, and 
practitioners. In future a rejected student will not suffer 
for his indifference, idleness, lack of aptitude, or capacity. 
Indeed, the amendment implies that backward ” students 
possess—in some way—better ability to learn than their 
more successful fellows. But that is not all. As his rejec¬ 
tions increase in number the eligibility of the plucked ” 
student will gain in power. By the end of the third 
session the chronic ” student may present his well-known 
figure at three examinations in one week. Professor 
Walley’s avowed object was to prevent students hanging 



on by rejection after rejection/^ We do not question the 
Professor’s sinceritybut we venture to challenge the 
wisdom of his action. To pitchfork rejected A men into 
Class B will not reduce the number of unfortunates who 
are waiting to pass the first examination. Such men must 
hang on somewhere^ and^ in our opiuion, their hanging ” 
could not take place at a stage more satisfactory to all 
concerned than in Class A. The genus chronic contains 
several species. To the few nervous among the many 
mainly remarkable for unadulterated disinclination to yield 
seasonable fruity Professor Walley would add certain 
hybrids_,—escapes from the garden of orderly cultivation, 
—bearing traces of Classes A and B; A, B, and C, and 
A, B, C, and D. 

Much may be said for and against concurrent studies, 
but students as a rule prefer, and we may add justly, a 
limited number of subjects in any year. Professor Yeo’s 
remarks on this point should not be disregarded. He 
says, ‘^^In order to secure an attentive audience the 
curriculum of the studies should be so arranged that students 
should only attend lectures on the subjects in which they 
have at the time a direct and immediate interest.” We 
have heard more than once that Class B students are not 

well up,”' but shall anyone maintain that they will be 
prepared with greater advantage by studying concurrently 
the subjects of two or three examinations ? 

To-day our students are superior in many respects to 
those of twenty years ago; they learn more and are taught 
far more. Our examinations are conducted on better 
principles and, presumably, by abler men—for knowledge 
accumulates while examiners die. Students have been 
rejected at every examination since the beginning, and a 
few will fail to pass until the end—some through nervous¬ 
ness, others through ignorance, and most through indo¬ 
lence. It would be as reasonable to expect that all 
graduates should succeed in practice as that all students 
should satisfy the examiners. We have no faith in im¬ 
pulsive attempts to give special relief to small minorities. 
Alterations of bye-laws or other innovations fraught with 
danger to professional progress and well-being should not 
be hastily sanctioned. 


We have received a copy of the first number of The 
Farriers^ Journal —‘^‘’an organ for shoeing-smiths and al 








interested in tlie horse.^’ This penny weekly ought to 
succeed. It contains an advertisement of the National 
Registration of Farriers or Shoeing-smiths, and one or two 
of remedies for cracked heels^ sores and wounds^ lameness_, 
sprains^ sore throats^ influenza, &c. The Editorial informs 
its readers that articles will appear from the pens of 
eminent veterinary surgeons/^ and that its “pages will 
also be used as a means of giving advice to inquiries in 
relation to the treatment and diseases of animals, to articles 
on the foot and shoeing, This is excellent. Our 

Council should be pleased to see its efforts are about to 
reap a just reward. 

Referring to Mr. Hunting's unsuccessful resolution and 
the word “farrier,the Editor remarks that, “as at pre¬ 
sent understood, it often stands in the same relation to the 
veterinary surgeon that blacksmith does to the horse-shoer; 
more than that, we think the time has now arrived when a 
direct dividing line should be drawn. ... The occupa¬ 
tions of the veterinary surgeon and farrier are separate 
ones, and should be kept so.^^ This is distinctly commend¬ 
able. We hope the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons 
will appreciate its signiflcance. 

“ R.C.Y.S.^^—“R.S.S.^^ 

By C. Cunningham, M.R.C.V.S., Slateford. 

Fifty or sixty years ago the word “ farrier was in 
every-day use. If an unfortunate horse or cow ailed little 
or much, the common expression was “ Send for the farrier,^^ 
or “ ferrier,’^ the Scotch word being even a nearer approach 
to the Latin root ferrum. The farriers of old, as every one 
knows, in the dearth of duly qualified men stood very much 
in the room and stead of the veterinary surgeon; “ for 
the most part shoeing-smiths, who to their own calling 
added more or less horse and cattle doctoring,^^ closely 
resembling in many respects the “ Existing Practitioners 
whose names were so willingly attached to the Register of 
the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, and whose dis¬ 
appearance at one time was so ardently desired. 

In a copy of Walker^s Dictionary, published in 1831, the 
meaning of the word “ farrier is set down as “ one who 
shoes horses, one who professes the medicine of horses.’^ 
In 1852, in one of the best school dictionaries (Reid^s) of 
that time, a “ farrier means “ one who shoes horses, one 
who cures the diseases of horses and in NuttalFs Standard 






3 ) 


Dictionary of the English Language published in 1892, one 
of the latest and best, comprising many thousands of new 
words which modern literature, science, and art have called 
into existence and common usage,^^ the word farrier is 
rendered “ one who shoes horses, a veterinary surgeon/^ 
The gradation is a little significant: in 1831, one who 
professes the medicine of horses;’^ in 1852, ^^one who cures 
the diseases of horses/^ in 1892, a veterinary surgeon.” 
And really, with every wish to speak and judge charitably, 
if the Worshipful Company of Farriers continues for a few 
years to receive the same kind countenance and assistance 
as lately from the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, I 
see no reason why the farriers of the country should not be 
worthy of their name;—shoeing-smiths who profess and 
practise a considerable amount of horse and cattle doc¬ 
toring ; ”—veterinary surgeons, not possibly in name, but 
in a quiet sort of way in deed and in truth;—first aids,” 
and occasionally “ last aids,” in many a case which should 
properly fall to the lot of the duly qualified veterinary 
practitioner, the M.R.C.Y.S. 

A few years ago, despite the dictionary renderings, the 
word farrier ” had fallen very much into disuse; one 
seldom heard of it, except possibly in connection with the 
Army and a few Agricultural shows;” otherwise it bade fair 
to become almost obsolete. We heard of ‘^Wets.” and 
veterinaries,” or veterinaiy surgeons ” on the one hand, 
and blacksmiths, shoeing-smiths, or horse-shoers on the 
other. A veterinary surgeon might own and preside over 
a shoeing-forge, but he was seldom called a farrier;” and 
the shoeing-smith who tried his hand at any serious case of 
illness or lameness was looked on as little better than a 
quack, meddling with matters not within his province. 
This, I think, was the acme of our desires—and common- 
sense too; for, however objectionable and undesirable the 
terms ^Wets.” and ^Weterinaries,” they yet marked off 
with clear and sufficient plainness the qualified veteri¬ 
nary surgeon from the unqualified shoeing-smith or farrier.” 
It has, however, seemed fit and pleasing to the Royal 
College of Veterinary Surgeons and the Worshipful Com¬ 
pany of Farriers in their march of progress, to disturb this 
very natural and desirable arrangement. The new depar¬ 
ture is a queer mixture. Right in the main,” we are told, 
but wrong in the abstract.” The Venerable and Worship¬ 
ful Company, we hear, has been in a suspended state of 
animation for 250 years,” but having been resuscitated and 
revivified, it has once again turned its attention to the 







members of its crafty and as a reward for attending a few 
lectures and passing a simple examination—or^ to speak 
more correctly, in the great majority of the cases without 
passing any examination at all—upwards of 3000 shoeiug- 
smiths have been awarded ^Hhe imposing certificate^^ of 
this Worshipful Company, and decorated with the beautiful 
title registered shoeing-smith,’^ certified as 

examined and passed by some of the most eminent and 
distinguished men in the veterinary profession. What next ? 

Why stop at the foot ? The spirit of farriery is not yet 
extinct among our shoeing-smiths. Only a few weeks ago 
a worthy shoeing-smith docked two fine Clydesdale colts, 
and tied a piece of string so well and firmly round the tail 
of each that skin and muscle sloughed to the bone, leaving 
a well-defined constricted neck, and a well-developed cauli¬ 
flower excrescence on the end of each stump ; and one of 
the colts, a valuable animal, died within a week from tetanus. 
Another worthy horse-shoer, who has spent a few years in 
England, is great in the way of medicine; the regularly 
appointed agent for liniments, oils, and drenches; but he 
fails occasionally to find the suppuration caused by bad 
shoeing; and still another worthy smith, I found,had advised 
the application of a fly blister to a recent bruise of the knee. 
All this is very sad. It looks like a revival of farriery in 
earnest. Can the W.C.F. and R.C.Y.S. do nothing to 
dispel this darkness and ignorance ? All over the country 
shoeing-smiths dock, and will continue to dock horses :— 
would it not be well, in the interest of the public and on 
the score of kindness and humanity to the animals, to teach 
the farrier how to perform the operation expeditiously and 
well ? Again, in cases of sudden illness or accident, or of 
parturition, the R.S.S. in the absence of the regular prac¬ 
titioner might be of the greatest possible service, being 
known when properly educated by a few more nice titles, 
such as ^^E.C.C.,^^ E.F.A.P.,^^ &c. 

There is something, moreover, peculiarly nice and nice 
looking and sounding in this title ^‘^E.S.S.^^ Its happy 
possessors may well be proud of it. Let us put down a 
few well-known names and titles as they come to hand, 
thus :—John Jones, E.S.S.; Noel Paton, E.S.A.; William 
Dick, y.S.; James Hunter, M.D. ; G. T. Brown, C.B.; 
George Fleming, LL.D.; William Williams, F.E.S.E.; 
I. Vaughan, F.E.I.; William Pritchard, M.E.C.V.S.; 
William Hunting, F.E.C.Y.S. 

Now of all these titles, so far as letters go, I think our 
friend the registered shoeing-smith more than holds his own. 

190 R,C.V.s/’-E.S.S.^^ 

There is something royal and ronnd^ safe and sound_, sub¬ 
stantial and satisfying in the designation Not 

so imposing^ certainly, as F.R.C.Y.S.—we all know how high 
in scientific knowledge, in microscopical and bacteriological 
attainments, and practical experience and skill is the 
F.R.C.Y.S.—how he soars above and dominates his poorer 
and lower brother the M.R.C.Y.S., especially on the Exa¬ 
mining Board. The F.R.S.E. looks well, the F.R.I. un¬ 
common, but the medical member and the Royal Acade¬ 
mician, and even the C.B. and LL.D. might be overlooked; 
and as for the plain, modest Y.S., though the founder of 
the profession in Scotland, he is nowhere beside this newly 
and easily hedged R.S.S.^^ 

Again, a young fellow, the son it may be of a veterinary 
surgeon, is destined to the profession, and his father or 
guardian gives him the best and most expensive education 
in his power—English, French, German, Latin,—Greek 
possibly; history, geography, mathematics, physics, &c.— 
knowing well the difficulties of the Preliminary.^’ Arrived 
at college, the syllabus of study, as lately published, is 
almost overpowering. Botany in various of its branches ; 
chemistry, organic and inorganic, analytical and practical; 
anatomy, descriptive, comparative, and morbid; physiology, 
histology, microscopy, bacteriology, sanitary science and 
hygiene, pathology, practice, materia medica, therapeutics, 
and pharmacy; written, oral, and practical tests; four 
years’ study; four examinations, the ‘Affinal” particularly 
stiff, with occasionally 50 per cent, rejections. The young 
gentleman who passes through such an ordeal, every one 
will admit, well deserves his title M.R.O.Y.S. — he 
thoroughly deserves to place the coveted letters behind 
his name. Surely the Council which presides over the 
welfare of his profession will take care that no unnecessary 
or unduly troublesome hindrance is placed in the way of 
his success. Surely the first duty of the Council of the 
Royal College of Yeterinary Surgeons is to conserve and 
protect the interests of its graduates in every lawful and 
commendable way. Will the presence of half a dozen 
registered shoeing-smiths in the immediate vicinity of some 
young or weak member of the profession be a blessing or a 
bane ? Does anyone really believe that the creation of 
“^4000 R.S.S.” will be an advantage to the veterinary pro¬ 
fession ? On the contrary, it is coolly admitted that the 
local veterinary surgeon will suffer. Why should he 
suffer ? Is the registration of these 4000 men without 
thorough and true examination a commendable act ? Is it 







not somewliat of a fraud on the public ? Why should a 
swarm of registered shoeing-smiths be decorated with the 
letters R.S.S. and scattered over the country to buzz about 
the ears of local veterinary surgeons_, and possibly suck 
away at their practice ? 

A stout lad, too, at fourteen years of age or so, makes up 
his mind to be a shoeing-smith, and his father places him 
with some country blacksmith or in a city veterinary forge. 
The apprentice begins work by blowing the bellows and 
fingering the hammers and tongs, striking,^^ too, occa¬ 
sionally. After a little he summons courage to place a 
horse^s foot—possibly a hind one—between his knees, and 
tries to tug and twist off the shoe; and in three or four 
years he turns out a fair driver or doorman, and in a few 
more years possibly a good fitter and fireman; receiving all 
the time wages proportionate to his work. If his master, 
the veterinary surgeon, has been kind, and dissected a few 
feet and legs before him, and told him the names and 
use of the principal bones, ligaments, &c., and taught him 
the right principles of shoeing, armed with this knowledge, 
or with that derived from books and diagrams, he presents 
himself before the examiners under the registration scheme, 
and straightway his name is added to the number of ^Hhe 
3000 or 4000;^^ the beautiful certificate of the Worshipful 
Company of Farriers is handed to him, and he is dubbed 
or dubs himself ‘"‘'Farrier,'” and possibly “Foot- 


The certificate of the Worshipful Company of Farriers (a 
copy of which lies before me) is an imposing document, with 
“First Established in 1356” in one corner on top, and “In¬ 
corporated by Charter 1674” in opposite corner, with the 
seals of the Company attached; the names of the Master and 
Clerk, and countersigned by the Examiners (ex-presi¬ 
dents, and examiners of the Royal College of Veterinary 
Surgeons). Now this tout ensemble makes a very pretty 
picture, nearly equal, I suppose, if not superior, to the 
diploma of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons; and 
as the happy possessor hangs it up in his parlour, or unrolls . 
it in the forge or elsewhere, one can almost fancy admiring 
friends and relatives exclaiming, Our Jim, Ted, and Bill 
have got their diplomas, they have passed their examina¬ 
tions. ^ Jack is as good in his own line as the master ’— 
there^s the very same examiners^ names on the papers. 
Fine men are our Ted, Dick, and Bill,—almost veterinary 
surgeons. They will shoe our horses well, and maybe 
doctor them a little occasionally.” 

192 E.C.V.s/’-E.S.S.’^ 

In writing thus I hope no one will say that I am doing 
so in a spirit or manner derogatory to the calling of a 
shoeing-smith or against the men personally. Not at all 
—nothing of the kind. No one has a greater liking for, 
or more sincerely admires and sympathises with, good 
horse-shoers than I do. Living for long in close proximity 
to a couple of places in which horses are put to as hard 
and slavish work as anywhere in the country,—places to 
which many of the worst tempered and most ungovernable 
brutes naturally gravitate,—where cryptorchids are not 
castrated, but valued for the gameness and hardness and 
worse that is in them, I have a fair idea of what bad feet 
and bad-tempered horses are, and of the difficulties and 
even dangers with which our smiths have to contend. I 
yield to no one in genuine admiration of and sympathy 
with really good shoeing-smiths as such; but when it comes 
to the case of an ^^L.S.S. degree,’^ and a bogus certificate 
and foot-specialism,^^ I confess my sympathy and admira¬ 
tion entirely flee away. 

After all said and done, in my opinion the calling of a 
shoeing-smith is simply a trade or craft, learned chiefly, 
like all other trades or crafts, by proper instruction on the 
part of the master, and long and daily practice and natural 
aptitude on the part of the apprentice or journeyman. The 
sailor on the mizzen-top, the collier in the mine, the 
chimney-stalk builder, the driver and stoker of an ex¬ 
press/’ run daily more risks than a horse-shoer ; and the 
responsibility of some of them is immeasurably greater. 
The joiner at his bench, the engineer at his engine, the 
watchmaker, silversmith, lapidary, the surgical and mathe¬ 
matical instrument maker, all require far more elaborate 
tools, and fully more native talent, education, and skill 
than an ordinary horse-shoer. Yet we never hear of such 
men being decorated with letters after their name, nor 
holding imposing certiflcates signed by professors of other 
learned professions. Their registration, when deemed 
necessary, is carried through quietly by their own trade 
or guild, and there is an end to the matter. Why cannot 
the W.C.F. or some shoeing-smith guild do the same ? 
What right or call has the R.C.V.S. to interfere to the 
detriment of local veterinary surgeons ? 

However, the mischief is done. The profession is saddled 
with a nucleus of 4000 registered shoeing-smiths,—soon 
to be saddled too, I suppose, with a few thousand more. 
May I humbly add my mite to the seconding of the sugges¬ 
tion of not a few members of our profession, that, if 

R.C.V.s/^ -R.S.S.’^ 193 

shoeing-smitlis are to be thus decorated, a proper educa¬ 
tion and thorough examination be given them; thus, 
compulsory, say, ability to write, read, spell, and sum 
correctly, with some knowledge of Latin and French 
roots —one term at least at some farriery college or 
institution, in which are taught such subjects as minera¬ 
logy and metallurgy as applied to the distribution and 
manufacture of iron; with forging as applied to the making, 
fitting, and nailing on of horseshoes. Geology, in connection 
with the distribution of coal; its varieties, and the best 
strains for the shoeing-forge. The anatomy and physiology 
of the horse and bullock’s foot; with the structure and 
principle of action of the bellows, and some knowledge of 
anvils, knives, and tools. Having passed this oral exami¬ 
nation, the candidate for registration honours might then 
have placed before him a hunter, a hack, a dray horse, and 
a chronic case of laminitis, and be requested to make and 
apply one really good fitting shoe to each, and afterward 
show his prowess with some shivering” or kicking sub¬ 

To the man who passed such an examination creditably, 
no one would much grudge the title and a certi¬ 

ficate, but how many of the 4000 would pass it? Would 
there be 400, or 40, or only 14? Fourteen or 40 R.S.S. 
might do good, but 4000—soon to be 6000 or 8000! 

Let us pause just once more, and contemplate the intelli¬ 
gence, prescience, and arduous work of the Council of the 
Hoyal College of Veterinary Surgeons in the best interests 
of its profession. In its failure for long years to come to 
terms with the Highland and Agricultural Society;—in the 
late passing of the Veterinary Surgeons Act;—in its ^^9th 
Clause,” and the hounding of 2000 members from the 
Council Room and Examining Board;—in its almost frantic 
efforts to obtain a New Charter at great expense, to restore 
to members the privilege of the Council, of which they had 
been robbed;—in its restricting even now the choice of exa¬ 
miners to 300 Fellows, no better on their merits—the 
majority of them—than their neighbours (wherein con¬ 
sists the great and permanent advantage of thus restricting 
the choice of examiners ?). And now we have the Council 
hand in glove with this W.C.F. in the registration of 4000 

In Truth for last month is a powerful and striking article 
headed “ Worshipful Farriery,” which well repays perusal, 
giving some new and astounding statements regarding this 
Worshipful Company of Farriers. To all appearance the 



Council of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons might 
find better society, and find also better work to do, than 
the registration of farriers. 


During the last three years the Worshipful Company 
of Farriers have been giving a series of practical demon¬ 
strations of the utter unfitness of City companies for any 
work of real utility in connection with the trades whose 
names they bear. In 1889, feeling, doubtless, the neces¬ 
sity for doing something to justify their existence, and 
perceiving that technical education was the favourite 
hobby of the moment, this worshipful body, which up 
to that time had not a man among them with the slightest 
pretension to practical acquaintance with the craft, de¬ 
cided to constitute itself an authority for the purpose of 
registering qualified farriers. Needless to say, the first 
step it took towards this end was to collect money. The 
Worshipful Farriers only own to the possession of a cor¬ 
porate income of £240 a year, but they succeeded in raising 
by subscriptions from the public a sum of £1257 19s., with 
which they went to work. Their proceedings were from 
the outset of the most fatuous and delusive character. In 
the first instance they started a scheme of registration,^^ 
under which 3332 shoeing-smiths were enrolled on the tes¬ 
timonials of any parties for whom they had worked. The 
only practical result of registration on these lines was that 
£906 were contributed in fees by the deluded farriers, who 
supposed that the registration would be of some commercial 
value to them. This sum having been secured, the com¬ 
mittee of the Company which had charge of the proceed¬ 
ings went on to institute what is called an examination,’*’ 
as a test for registered farriers. The examination consisted 
in putting a few questions in physiology and anatomy over 
a table in an office in Laurence Pountney Hill. No prac¬ 
tical test of any kind was imposed, and, as a consequence, 
men were passed as registered farriers who had never 
made or put on a shoe in their lives, though, doubtless, 
many hundreds of experienced and competent farriers 
would have been ignominiously plucked had they cared to 
offer themselves for examination. Before long an indig¬ 
nant outcry was raised against this bogus examination, 
and a Mr. Rogers, who had taken the lead in exposing 
its true character, was struck off the register of the 



Company. That this was a purely vindictive proceeding 
is shown by the fact that it was first justified by a charge 
which had to be withdrawn^ and then by a trumpery 
pretext which is demonstrably untrue. The committee 
persevered^ however^ with its discredited examination 
until June of last year^ when it finally gave itself away 
by arranging to co-operate in the examinations held by 
certain agricultural societies, and to issue its certificates 
upon the result. Its co-operation’^ consists in sending a 
representative to put a few questions when the practical 
work is over, and to grant on this a certificate for 
registration. Nevertheless these examinations are paraded 
in the last report as though they were those of the Com¬ 
pany itself. Finally, as a last resource, the Company so 
far yielded to outside opinion as to hold two manual exa¬ 
minations, one in Scotland and one in England, at the 
former of which eighteen and the latter six men were 
passed. A competition, extensively advertised, which it 
was proposed to hold in September last, had to be aban¬ 
doned for want of competitors. These last facts are the 
visible expression of the profound contempt with which the 
Worshipful Company and its registration schemes are now 
regarded by the trade. A very similar feeling prevails 
among the veterinary profession. 

I call attention to these facts now for two reasons. In 
the first place, a further appeal for funds to carry on the 
work has recently been issued, backed by a most imagina¬ 
tive recital of what has been done up to the present time. 
I earnestly warn the public against contributing another 
farthing for such a purpose. The Company has received 
up to the present time for the purposes of its scheme” 
£2891 155. lO^d., the whole of which it has muddled away 
over the farcical proceedings above described. What can 
it show in return ? A register containing the names of 
3332 working shoe-smiths enrolled without any pretence at 
examination; 264 enrolled after an examination which 
means nothing; 344 passed by agricultural societies, whose 
certificates would signify quite as much as those of the 
Farriers’ Company; and twenty-four men in all England, 
Wales, and Scotland registered after a genuine test by the 
Company of their qualifications. Nor was any better 
result to be expected. The Worshipful Company of Far¬ 
riers has no earthly connection with the business of shoeing 
horses. Only quite recently, and since the failure of the 
whole thing was in danger of becoming a public scandal, 
have two practical farriers been added to the committee of 

LX VII. 14 



twentj!^ which has got this precious registration scheme in 
hand. For 250 years the Worshipful Farriers were in a 
state of suspended animation. A few years back they 
were resuscitated, mainly by the exertions of a gentleman 
connected with the Stock Exchange, who had, I suppose, 
more time on his hands in the City than he knew what to 
do with. A few other City men joined him, and paid their 
subscriptions. Such is the Worshipful Company. As well 
might the Primrose Club or the Dockers’ Union constitute 
itself the sole authority for certifying and registering com¬ 
petent shoeing-smiths. No outsider in his senses will give 
his assistance to such an undertaking. 

At the same time, nothing can be more desirable than a 
genuine system of certifying or registering farriers, more 
especially if it were combined with an efficient system of 
apprenticeship, and some provision for theoretical instruc¬ 
tion. This is my second reason for calling attention to the 
matter. In many European countries, in France, Belgium, 
Germany, and, I believe, some others, no man is allowed to 
practise as a farrier until his competency has been certified 
by the prescribed authority. The welfare of the horse is 
certainly not of less consequence here than in any foreign 
country. There are difficulties in the way of introducing 
registration upon a high qualification, if registration is to 
be made compulsory; but the same difficulty formerly 
existed in the case of dentists and of veterinary surgeons, 
and has been met—in the case of dentists, at any rate— 
by a fairly satisfactory compromise. The vested interests 
of the men already in the business must be respected. 
They must be allowed to continue the trade, but it is absurd 
and mischievous to institute a bogus examination in order 
to make it appear that their qualifications have been tested. 
It should be made clear on the register, as in the case of 
the dentists, that their qualification is simply that they 
were at work on or before a certain date. After that date 
no one should be allowed to start in the trade nntil he has 
passed such an examination as will afford a genuine test of 
his competency. A properly constituted authority must be 

established to work the schene. It must be a bodv with 


some knowledge of the requirements of the trade, and some 
interest in its being properly conducted. It might be the 
Boyal College of Veterinary Surgeons, or one or two of the 
older Agricultural Societies, or a joint committee appointed 
by them. Bnt one thing is certain : the Worshipful Com¬ 
pany of Farriers should have nothing whatever to do with 
it.— Scrutator, in Truth. 




By A. Rodent. 

The article on Veterinary Practice in the Colonies 
which appeared in the January number of this journal has 
interested me so much that I have been persuaded to put 
together a few notes jotted down at odd intervals during 
the past year on the practice in the Channel Islands_, which 
I hope may prove of like interest to all who are concerned 
in the improvement of veterinary science and the advance¬ 
ment of the status of those who practise it. These islands^ 
situate about seventy miles south-west of Southampton, 
are perhaps best known for their breed of cattle, but by 
those who study the past history of man they are also re¬ 
garded as most important, insomuch as amongst their in¬ 
habitants survive many of the old customs and manners 
which prevailed in England in former ages. Here we see— 
and this is what most interests us—quackery in veterinary 
work in all its stages of evolution, from its worst to its 
least objectionable form. To prove that I am in no way 
exaggerating the state of affairs I shall take the case of 
Jersey, that being the largest of the islands, and shall 
show how far this branch of science is encouraged by those 
to whom the welfare of the community is entrusted. Jersey 
contains a superficies of about 39,000 acres, a population 
of 54,518, and the return of live stock on June 4th, 1893, 
was 19,723. There are four veterinary surgeons holding 
the diploma of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons 
and one registered practitioner residing in the island; but, 
as anybody who wishes can settle down and practise without 
let or hindrance, they by no means constitute the whole 
body of those to whom the care of sick animals is entrusted. 
The Veterinary Surgeons Act of 1881 not applying here, 
Frenchmen holding strange diplomas—which, however 
obtained, are not always evidence of ability—are practising 
amongst the farmers, and veterinary forges are also plen¬ 
tiful. As a profession of which little is known—ignorance 
of the importance of the value of the veterinarian is simply 
sublime, even amongst the educated in the island—must 
necessarily be judged by its worst members, it is obvious 
that those who have been to the trouble and expense of 
properly qualifying for their work have disadvantages to 
contend with which are almost incalculable. 



In the law courts the evidence of unqualified men is 
accepted, and considered as weighty as that of qualified 
practitioners, and in other places little or no distinction is 
drawn between the two classes. It is true that the oflScial 
inspectorship is held by a gentleman who possesses the 
diploma of the Eoyal College of Veterinary Surgeons; but 
the conditions under which the position is offered are such 
that few men who have a real interest in their work would 
care to accept it. If a medical man wishes to practise in 
the island he must have his name registered at the Royal 
Court, otherwise he cannot legally claim a fee, a list of 
such registered men being posted in the lobby of the Court¬ 
house. There is no reason why a similar law with refer¬ 
ence to veterinary surgeons should not be enforced, but 
the great difficulty is to get the States or local Parliament to 
move in the matter. It does not seem to strike any member 
of the general public that the passing of such a law would 
be of immense advantage to both owners and animals; and 
as for the States themselves, with all due deference let it 
be said, they are far too old-fashioned to dream of making 
such a violent innovation in the laws of the land. Of course 
the qualified men in the island cannot move in the matter 
for very obvious reasons. It is to be hoped, however, that, 
with the growth of the younger generation, light and 
wisdom may come to our legislators, and the protection we 
ask for may be granted as a right which has been too long 


By J. Clark, F.R.C.V.S., Coupar Angus. 

In your issue for February I observe an able criticism by 
Mr. Macgillivray of your number for January, in which 
notice is taken of a short article by me on uterine inertia. 

I regret that the wording of my paper has prompted 
your critic to misinterpret my meaning. In the first place, 
I do not wish it to be understood that I consider tubercle 
a chief cause of inertia, although I have reason to believe it 
is an occasional one. My remark was offered as a probable 
explanation why cows were more frequently the subject of 
inertia than mares. In another part of the paper I give 
other likely causes of inertia in cows. 

In the second place, I did not wish to convey the im¬ 
pression that I had removed tubercular matter from the 


womb, although I admit, on looking at the text, it is open 
to that interpretation. 

In the case referred to the cow suffered from inertia; 
delivery was followed by expulsion of caseous or cheesy- 
looking casts; the animal lingered for some weeks and 

On post-mortem I found the animal had suffered from 
general tuberculosis. The external aspect of the uterus 
was affected, and doubtless invasion took place through 
the serous membranes. The matter was not, therefore, 
likely to be tubercular, but an exudate to some extent 
induced and intensified by the presence of tubercle. I 
have had several well-marked cases which gave similar 
results on post-mortem examination, and a few other cases 
which recovered—quite enough to make me strongly sus¬ 
picious that tuberculosis was present. 

I quite agree with Mr. Macgillivray that we may and do 
have the formation and post-partum discharge of cheesy- 
looking matter—independent of tuberculosis,—but in my 
experience the quantity has been more pronounced when 
the organ was the subject of disease. 

I am extremely glad Mr. Macgillivray took exception to 
the remarks, thus affording me an opportunity of fuller 


SiE,—With regard to your note of interrogation re 
uncooked milk waste (skim-milk?)’’ on p. 118 of last 
month’s Veterinarian allow me a word of explanation. 

The milk waste [scJileim] is the thick semi-solid material 
found adhering to the walls of the centrifugal separators 
after they have been in continuous work for some hours. 

It appears to consist of formed elements, and contains 
the foreign bodies accidentally introduced into the milk, 
as well as specimens of any bacilli (such as those of tuber¬ 
culosis) which may have been present. 

The rotation of the separator causes the milk components 
to arrange themselves in a certain order, the heavier being 
found at the circumference, the lighter at the centre. Thus 
the cream gravitates towards the middle, the skim-milk is 
found at the outer edge, and the solid particles are forced 
into actual contact with the walls of the drum, to which 
they remain adhering. When the drum is stopped this 



material is scraped off, and forms the milk waste {ScJileim) 
referred to by Dr. Ostertag. 

Yours faithfully, 

Jno. a. W. Dollar. 

To the Editors of the ‘ Veterinarian.^ 

[We thank Mr. Dollar for his communication. Mr. Place, 
Honiton, has sent a similar explanation and a sample of 
milk waste, for which we are much obliged.] 

Laboratory Notes. 

By James Bayne, F.C.S., Professor of Chemistry, Koyal 

Veterinary College. 

In last month^s Notes I mentioned a case in which some 
fox terriers Avere poisoned by tonic dog pills containing 
only grain of strychnine. In connection with the case 
I wrote to the owner of the dogs, a well-known breeder of 
fox terriers, advising him to be very cautious in employing 
strychnine in any form, and not to use it at all unless 
advised by a properly qualified veterinary surgeon. I also 
stated that several cases of poisoning by this alkaloid in 
doses usually considered medicinal had come under my 
notice. This letter was published in the Stoch-keeper, and 
gave rise to some discussion. One correspondent challenged 
my assertion that I had known fatal effects to be produced 
even with grain, and attributed the death of the dogs in 
such cases to the unequal distribution of the strychnine 
through the pill mass. This assumption, however, would 
not account for death occurring after administration of 
small doses of Easton^s syrup or Liquor Strychnige in which 
the strychnine would be evenly distributed. As instances 
are known of fatal results following the use of the drug in 
these forms, it seems reasonable to assume that some dogs 
are peculiarly susceptible to its action. 

Many deaths attributed to strychnine, I am convinced, 
are not due to this or to any other poison, maliciously 
administered, but to poisoning by ptomaines—alkaloids 
formed by the decomposition of meat and fish,—some of 
which induce symptoms which closely resemble those pro¬ 
duced by strychnine. Hounds are sometimes seen to 
pick up meat or fish, and shortly afterwards die seized 
with convulsions. Strychnine is at once suspected; fre¬ 
quently, however, no trace of this or any other vegetable or 
mineral poison can be detected, but reactions agreeing 



witli recorded experiments on ptomaines have been obtained 
from extracts prepared from the viscera. Ptomaine 
poisoning ” is still in its infancy, but several scientists are 
at work on the subject, and we may hope shortly to gain 
further information of the properties and tests of these 
dangerous alkaloids. Meanwhile I may mention that 
several poisonous alkaloids have been discovered in putrid 
meat and fish, they have been analysed, and definite formulas 
assigned to them. Whether the symptoms are always 
produced by the alkaloids themselves or by some albu- 
Diinoid substance present with the alkaloid remains to be 
proved. My object in making these remarks is to call 
attention to the fact that cases of poisoning may and do 
occur from animals partaking of meat, fish, &c., in a state 
of decomposition. It has long been known that death has 
been caused in man by tainted meat, sausages, fish, tinned 
salmon, &c., but many yet fail to realise that what is 
injurious to the human subject will in all probability be 
equally hurtful to the lower animals. 

Opinions and Research. 


The Lancet. 

70. Water Pressure in Urethral Stricture. 

Charles J. Smith, M.R.C.S.Eng., &c., relates two obsti¬ 
nate cases of urethral stricture which he relieved with 
hot baths and water pressure. He passed a catheter down 
to the stricture and attached a Palfrey^s vaginal douche to 
the free end. The cistern was suspended to the highest 
part of his room. He repeated the treatment for several 
days, and at last succeeded in passing a No. 1 French 
catheter through the stricture. 

71. Intra-VENOUS Injection of Salt Solution. 

The Lancet recommends the above in severe hasmorrhage. 
The strength should be one teaspoonful to a pint of water; 
the temperature equal to that of the body. The flow 
should be at the rate of one pint in four minutes [for 
horses a quicker rate would be desirable]. It is important 
to note that the minimum quantity should be two pints 
and the maximum six pints, or until the pulse is felt at the 



72. The Ethical Position of the Medical Profession. 

G. A. Legge_, M.A., M.D.^ writes^ Recently 

ijiere has been a good deal appearing in the Lancet with 
reference to improving the curriculum, overcrowding of 
the profession, and allied subjects. He suggests that those 
applying to be registered as medical students shall first 
hold the degree of M.A. or B.A.and adds, ^^Overcrowd¬ 
ing would be done away with in the first place; that in 
itself would be a benefit to all concerned. The patients 
would get a superior class of men to attend them; the 
medical men themselves, being a ^priori men of higher 
culture and breeding, would be less likely to have a life of 
worry caused by friction (from jealousy and kindred 
reasons) with their professional brethren. We should secure 
at once a better class of men as medical practitioners; 
gain the respect to which we are fairly entitled, but which 
the public has hitherto withheld; and we should benefit our 
patients by our greater skill in our art, and ourselves by 
lessening competition and friction (an immense gain). 

73. Pneumonia from Traumatic Causes. 

D. R. Paterson, M.D.Edin., M.R.C.P.Lond., quotes a 
number of cases which go to prove that a genuine croupous 
pneumonia may be caused by external violence to some 
part of the body, such as a fail or a blow. If pneumonia 
is due to microbes, as some think, it is possible that the 
external violence may create conditions suitable for the 
proliferation of these microbes. It is a fact well estab¬ 
lished by experiment that certain infective diseases cannot 
be transmitted to particular animals unless their organism 
is altered in some way. 

74. Subnormal Temperatures. 

Tom Robinson, M.D., L.R.C.P.Eng., quotes some cases 
of low temperatures. In taking his own temperature he 
found it to be 96*4° F. In a woman he found it to be 96°. 
He points out that this is important in diagnosis. 

75. Dissecting. 

A. Leader says: We believe that almost every teacher 
of practical anatomy in England will agree with our state¬ 
ment that the quantity and quality of the dissections now 
made by students in our medical schools are distinctly in¬ 
ferior to those which teachers and examiners were accus¬ 
tomed to some years ago. In elementary anatomy and bio¬ 
logy the candidates are examined for ten minutes only on 
the studies of six months; how can anyone examine 


thorougUj in the few minutes which are devoted to the 
viva voce examinations in those subjects ? 

The British Medical Journal, 

76. Patent Medicines^ &c. 

The British Medical Journal is conducting a campaign 
against the illegal sale of poisons^ quack medicines, &c. A 
number of able articles have appeared which would repay 
perusal by our Council. The time is ripe for us to examine 
how we stand in this important matter. 

77. Overcrowding (Medical). 

Edward H. Ryan Tenison writes, ^^The introduction 
into our profession of competition and price-cutting—in 
other words, of low trade expedients—is the cause of many 
abuses. The overcrowded state of the profession is another 
cause of them. 

Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society. 

78. Management oe Pigs. 

Mr. Edney Hayter considers that the sties should face 
south, be away from other buildings, and be dry. The 
best roofing is thatch, being cool in summer and warm in 
winter. The pigs should always be provided with a run. 
The herdsman should be present while a sow is farrowing, 
and should nip the young pigs’ teeth at once, as they are 
as sharp as needles and hurt the sow, who becomes rest¬ 
less, and by overlaying often kills several of her offspring. 
The milk appears in the sow’s teats about twelve hours 
before she farrows. Ruptured pigs should be made into 
pork as quickly as possible; castration is a failure in such 
cases. As rupture seems to be hereditary, no sow should 
be kept for breeding that has once thrown ruptured pigs. 
In choosing a boar this should also be guarded against. 
Two drawbacks cause annoyance in fattening pigs : 1st, 
loss of appetite due to nausea from overfeeding (this is 
best remedied by a dose of two ounces of sulphur in milk 
given fasting) ; 2nd, cramp (in these cases removal to 
other sties is recommended). 

79. Moss Litter. 

Mr. F. Fream, LL.D., has an article upon peat and its 
products. He quotes a report upon the use of moss litter 
in the stables of a Prussian Uhlan regiment. 

The regiment has used moss litter as a substitute for 



straw, with, the object of obtaining better and drier beds 
for the horses, and reserving the fresh straw for food. 
This object was attained with complete success. For 
experimental reasons the horses were not all placed on 
moss litter at once. 

“ In October one third were placed on moss litter, in 
November two thirds were placed on moss litter, and in 
December nearly all were placed on moss litter. 

The following advantages were observed :—Dry beds, 
and dry fresh air free from ammonia. The ceilings, walls, 
and leather trappings remained free from moisture and 
mould. Moss litter absorbs eight times its own weight of 
urine, whereas straw absorbs only three times its own 
weight. The short and broken nature of the moss fibre 
allows of the easy removal of the wet portions. Care must be 
taken not to neglect to turn and shake up the litter every 
day, and to fork it from one part of the stall to another. 

If these precautions are observed the animals find a 
dry bed, the horses remain clean, and their skin maintains 
its activity. If properly treated, moss litter is far more 
elastic than straw, and affords more comfortable bedding. 
The harness and saddles, as well as the boots of our soldiers, 
are better preserved. 

From a veterinary point of view, further advantages 
are observed. Catarrhs of the nose and eyes, generally 
the result of bad air in the stables, are less frequent; 
wounds on the legs heal more quickly; inflammation of 
the glands very seldom occurs, and rotting of the frog is 
almost entirely prevented. In cases of contagious disease 
moss litter is of great value, and surpasses all other dis¬ 

Cases of colic occurred as follows : 

October, 1881 
November, 1881 . 

December, 1881 . 

January and February, 1882 

. i of horses on moss 1 
^ 0 

. Nearly all „ 1 

. All „ 0 

On moss. 2 

•| on straw . 14 

i » . .21 

A few on straw 1 

On straw . 36 

^^The consumption of moss litter per month and per 
squadron of 135 horses amounted to 180 cwt., against 280 
cwt. of straw formerly required. 

Up to this date, in all a period of eighteen months, the 
regiment had used moss litter to its perfect satisfaction. 

Moss litter has been most effectively tried at the stables 
of the Copenhagen Milk Supply Company. The system 
under which it is there used is the following: 


Each stall is constructed with a hollow lined with 
cement three inches deep below the level of the floor 
paving. This is filled with the litter. About an inch in 
depth is removed daily from the surface^ the fresh supply 
being laid at the manger end^ while the supply of the day 
before is raked from the head to the hinder end. The 
litter so removed forms most excellent manure. 

The peat-moss litter is delivered in compressed bales 
of 150 lbs. each, and care has to be taken that it is almost 
free from moisture, in order that it may be able better to 
absorb all moisture when in use. 

The Company referred to keep fifty horses. Though 
it is customary in Denmark to bestow but little trouble 
upon grooming horses and keeping stables clean, and 
though there is no drain whatever in the stable in question, 
no trace of ammonia and hardly any unpleasant smell can 
be detected. 

The manager states that the litter for the fifty horses 
costs the Company £100 a year, or £2 per horse per 

But there are, at times, drawbacks to the use of the 
litter j for Dr. Fream says, The Bordeaux Tramway 
Company, which tried the experiment of peat moss for 
litter, has now abandoned the use of it, partly because of 
the difficulty of disposing of the manure, and partly 
because the litter, which was sold to them by weight, was 
frequently supplied in a damp condition, which considerably 
reduced its utility.^’ 

80. Composition op Acorns. 

Professor Yoelcker gives the following analysis of acorns 

(including the husk) : 



Albuminous compounds (flesh-forming matters)^ 4!‘81 
Starch, digestible fibre, &c. . . . . 49 02 

Woody fibre (cellulose) .... 6'14 

Mineral matter (ash).1*39 


* Containing nitrogen . . . '77 

He says, that as the chief elements of feeding value are 
starchy matters, it may follow that acorns are perhaps 
best utilised for feeding pigs. 

81. Castor Oil Bean in Cotton Meal. 

Professor Yoelcker reports three cases of poisoning, in 
Shropshire, by the above. 1st. Owner found that his meal 



purged his cattle very much, and several have been very 
unwell since. 2nd. Owner stated that out of 150 cattle 
that received the meal nearly half began to scour suddenly. 
3rd. Owner complained that the first time he gave the meal 
to 28 heifers, they all became ill, and one died. A veteri¬ 
nary surgeon, by autopsy, diagnosed enteritis, caused by 
irritant poison. Yoelcker found the husks of castor oil 
bean in the meal. 

82. Hair and Wool in Cotton Cakes. 

Professor Voelcker says, he received samples from a 
M.R.A.S., who stated, that a week after some sheep had 
been fed on the cake they fell amiss, and some died. 
Balls of some substance were found in the stomach. 
Yoelcker states that the cakes contained a good deal of 
hairy material, and that this material composed the balls 
found in the stomach. 

83. Yew Poisoning. 

Lord Moreton reports the death of several of his year¬ 
ling shorthorns from yew poisoning. He says that he has 
wondered whether the soil, or the sex of the tree, may not 
have something to do with its toxic effects. He knows 
two places where yew trees are frequently eaten, without 
apparent evil result. 

84. Tuberculosis. 

Professor MacFadyean used tuberculine as a test for the 
above in a herd of Jerseys. The result indicated that 
every animal in the herd, with one doubtful exception, 
was the subject of tuberculosis. To test the accuracy of 
this indication a yearling heifer and a cow were killed, 
and the post-mortem revealed tuberculous disease in each. 
Since then twenty other animals, being all the remaining 
members of the herd with the exception before mentioned, 
have been killed, and in every instance tuberculous lesions 
were discovered in some part of the body. 

85. Gtapes in Fowls. 

Mr. Cecil Warburton says that this disease causes a 
serious annual loss to breeders of poultry and pheasants. 

Symptoms .—Loss of appetite, feathers ruffled, a peculiar 
whistling cough accompanied with a spasmodic stretching 
of the neck and opening of the beak. Death is caused by 
suffocation or exhaustion. The disease is due to the 
presence of a nematode {Syngamus trachealis) in the 
bronchi, &c. The eggs do not escape from the female 



until she bursts, or dies and rots. They are then coughed 
up, and other fowls may contract the disease by devouring 
the ova or worms that have taken up the ova. 

Treatment. —Fumigations, rue and garlic. 

General Treahnent. —Isolation, clean water, disinfection 
of yard, &c., with sulphuric or salicylic acid 1 per cent. 
Dead birds should be cremated or deeply buried. 


Monatsschrift fur Thierheilkunde. 

86. Steeility. 

F. V. Chelchowski, continuing his essay on the above, 
describes the normal processes that occur in the female 
organs in coitus. They begin by the vaginal lacunse (ana¬ 
logous to Bartholinfs glands in the woman) discharging 
their secretion owing to pressure of the constrictor cunni 
during coitus. The clitoris becomes erect, the blood is 
pressed from the corpus cavernosus vestibuli on the sides 
of the vulva into the glans clitoris, and this assists its 
erection and its sensitiveness. In the vulva the sphincter 
vaginse acts, and in the vagina the circular muscular fibres. 
The reception of the semen into the uterus is facilitated by 
muscular action of the vagina and uterus. At the height of 
sexual excitement in the mare and of the seminal discharge 
in the horse a peristaltic contraction of the vagina, uterus, 
and tubes takes place, so that the semen under a certain pres¬ 
sure is retained at the mouth of the womb. At the same time 
the action of the abdominal muscles causes the uterus to 
enter the pelvis. The combined action of all these organs 
ejects the tenacious mucus which is in the neck of the 
womb. Then a general relaxation takes place, and the 
semen is aspirated into the uterus. Probably these con¬ 
tractions continue for some little time after coitus. Beun- 
DELL observed these movements in rabbits. Basch and 
Hoeeman witnessed in a bitch a descent of the vaginal 
portion of the uterus into the vagina; an opening and 
closing of the cervix uteri; an ejection of cervical secretion, 
followed by retraction of the cervix uteri. Kehrer con¬ 
siders that if the uterus does not contract, and the thick 
mucus is not driven from its neck, conception cannot take 
place. The author proceeds to describe the malformations 
of the neck of the womb which give rise to sterility. 

87. Feeding Expeeiments. 

Weiske fed animals upon the same quantity and quality 
of food, but in some cases it was given as a whole in one 



meal^ in others in separate feeds. He found at least 
4 per cent, more benefit from the latter method. 

A paper by J. Feeeman, jun.^ Dublin, upon an ‘^'Unex¬ 
plained Disease in Cattle is translated in summary. 


Zeitschrift fur Veterindrhunde. 

88. A New Disinfectant. 

Dr. W. Dollnee remarks that the news of yet another 
disinfectant will probably cause a cold shudder in his 
readers. "TrekresoP^ is an invention of Messrs. Gr. Sobering, 
Berlin. It is a product of crude carbolic acid, and dissolves 
in water with a little shaking; does not make the hands 
slippery or greasy as some carbolic compounds do, and 
has absolutely no caustic effect. These items are important 
in operations. It is not as poisonous as carbolic acid. A 
1 per cent, solution of "TrekresoU^ is as effective as a 
3 per cent, solution of carbolic acid. The author thinks 
the new disinfectant is destined to drive the many com¬ 
pounds of soap and carbolic acid, such as creolin, lysol, 
&c., out of the market. 

89. Colic due to an Abscess. 

Y.S. Heinze. —In July, 1891, a young remount in the 
depot at Wizsitz was in very poor condition. It was sent 
to Metz, and suffered from colic on the way, and several 
other attacks occurred in July and August. It remained 
well until the 24th March, 1892, and its condition improved. 
On the 25th March violent colic occurred. The mucous 
membranes were dark red, the pulse 80, &c. Per rectum a 
firm band could be felt near the root of the mesentery, and a 
little beyond there was a hard immovable mass. In four 
hours there was a crisis; the animal vomited some yellow- 
brown stuff through the nose and mouth, became suddenly 
tympanitic, and died soon afterwards. 

Autopsy .—The peritoneum contained about 15 litres of 
fluid ingesta from the caecum, in which there was a long 
rent. The mesentery was ruptured in several places, and 
some of the loose bands caused gut tie of the small intes¬ 
tines. Several of the latter were adherent to each other. 
Upon the removal of the entrails a large tumour was left 
at the root of the mesentery, which, on incision, consisted of 
an old pear-shaped abscess 10 by 8 cm., with thick hard 
walls. The author surmises that the abscess was meta¬ 
static, a relic of an attack of strangles that had occurred 
two years previously. 



90. Colic. 

V.S. Weisnee. —One morning a private liorse_, after eat¬ 
ing a feed of green clover_, had colic. 

Symptoms .—Tympanyespecially of the right flank. 
When down the animal remained quietly upon his back^ or 
turned on to his right side. Complete suppression of peri¬ 
stalsis^ and a tinkling sound in the cgecum. The rectum 
was empty. The colon appeared to be full of ingesta. Per 
rectum two bands could be felt_, one on the right and 
the other on the left. They were near the spine^ and 
formed as it were the sides of a triangle^ and passed out of 
touch into the abdominal cavity. A tightly stretched 
piece of omentum could be felt between them. Thinking 
he had to do with a twisted intestine^ the author attempted 
by turning the patient in various ways to put it rights but 
in vain. Eserine was injected^ but although some white 
slimy material came away, no faeces appeared. The case 
became worse; the pulse reached 115. The animal was 
lying stretched in a meadow panting, but occasionally it 
rose, and after running about would lie down carefully. 
The author gave a dose of aloes, and before he left in the 
evening requested the owner to let him know when the 
horse was dead, as he wished to make a post-mortem. 
Twentv-two hours afterwards he was astonished to hear 
that the horse had recovered. It appears that two hours 
after the veterinary surgeon had left, the animal had walked 
into his box of his own accord, and there lay quietly till 
the next morning, when he defecated and began to eat. A 
rectal examination proved that the two bands had dis¬ 

91. Traumatic Pericarditis in a Horse. 

y.S. B. Lewin. — Symptoms .—Bad appetite for several 
days, stops at work, depressed. Resp. 18; pulse 60; 
mucous membranes dirty red; oedema of the chest, from 
which drops of serum issue in one spot. Strong vesicular 
murmur on the left side. A loud splashing noise accom¬ 
panies each heart-beat, and this can be heard on the right 
side too. 

Autopsy .—Considerable serous infiltration of the cellular 
tissue of the chest and belly. The duodenum is attached 
to the diaphragm, and when separated some greenish-yellow 
pus escapes. There are about fifteen litres of grey-red 
flocculent fluid in the pleura. The pericardium is about 
1 cm. thick, and contains three litres of grey-red, opaque 
and stinking fluid. It is attached to the right side of the 



heart. The heart is covered with exudate. After the fluid 
was evacuated a darning-needle 8 cm. long was found. 
The author was informed that two months previously the 
animal had had a mild attack of colic, and had suffered 
from malaise ever since. 

92. Sudden Blindness in both Eyes. 

Y.S. PiECZYNSKi, 1st Pomm. Uhlans, found a horse in 
this condition one morning. Conjunctiva and cornea 
normal. Pupil dilated to its utmost. Optic stump yel¬ 
lowish green; the vessels were not normally distinct. A 
conjunctival eserine injection caused the pupils to contract, 
but they soon resumed their former condition. The horse 
was cast and sold. 

The history of the case disclosed nothing, except that 
this animal with a number of others had been through 
some hard swimming manoeuvres two days previously. 

93. Cure op a Simple Fracture op the Pastern. 

S. V. S. Steepens. — Symptoms .—The animal cannot put 
the foot to the ground, great pain, throbbing of the meta¬ 
carpal arteries, and crepitation. 

Treatment. —Slings, plaster-of-Paris bandages, and diet. 

Progress .—In eight days the patient put some weight on 
the leg; in six weeks the bandages were removed, and the 
toe was found to be turned 2 cm. to the right of the median 
line. A fresh bandage was applied, and removed in four 
weeks. The animal could then use the leg, but was ex¬ 
tremely lame. The leg was next placed in iron splints, 
and the animal was turned into a loose box. It gradually 
got less and less lame, and was given walking exercise, then 
work in light draught, and became in the end quite sound, 
with the exception of a slight thickening round the part. 

94. The Treatment op Foot Canker. 

V.S. Kexilius, in April last year, took over charge of an 
army horse which had suffered for a long time from canker. 
In fact, it had joined the battery as a remount with a foul¬ 
smelling discharge from all four frogs, which in spite of 
careful treatment could not be cured. In January last 
year the usual signs of canker appeared, which the re¬ 
porter’s predecessor had treated with removal of all loose 
horn, chloride of lime baths, and pressure bandages; later 
with caustic powders, composed of PlumbiNit., Cupr. Sulph., 
and Alum; and later still with creasote 10 per cent, com¬ 
bined with Tinct. Aloes 5 per cent. When the author took 
over the case three of the feet were still affected. In the 



fore-feet the soles were attacked_, and in the near hind the 
sole^ frog^ and the wall as high as the coronet. In some 
parts the fleshy papillas grew at the rate of 1 cm. per diem. 

First Treatment. —Strip off all disintegrated tissue, and 
apply Plnmbi Nit. in powder and bandage. Result, no 
improvement in fourteen days. 

Second Treatment. —Same as above except creasote and 
Plumbi Nit. is used. No result. 

Third Treatment. —Cautery with Acid. Nitric, daily, and 
Plumb. Nit. in powder with bandaging. No improvement. 
The animal under this treatment became unmanageable 

Fourth Treatment. —Discontinue the bandages and pour 
creasote all over the parts twice a day. The animal was 
cured in fourteen days. 

[As the author omits to mention a relapse, it appears 
a permanent cure was effected.] 

95. Umbilical Heenia in a Five-months-old Foal. 

y.S. Keamee.— The swelling was of the size of a child’s 
head, the ring 5 cm. long and broad. The rupture had 
existed three months. 

Operation .—The animal was starved for twenty-four ' 
hours, cast and chloroformed, and turned on to its back. 
After the skin was shaved, a longitudinal incision in the 
length of the tumour laid the ring bare. The borders of the 
ring were sewn together with catgut. Some of the super¬ 
fluous skin was removed, and the wound was sewn up. Over 
this a pad was applied (truss). The wound healed without 
trouble, and in four weeks the truss was removed. 

(We note here the very frequent omission of important 
details from surgical records, not only of foreign veterinary 
surgery, but also in those found in our medical [human] 
contemporaries. A cynic would hint that surgical records 
are made in the first place for the glorification of the 
reporter, and only in the second for the instruction of 
readers. In the case reported above nothing is said about 
asepsis or antisepsis, but in all probability one or the other 
was employed. In nine cases out of ten it is in the small 
details that the success of an operation lies.) 


Recueil de Med. veterinaire. 

96. Swiss Regulations foe Mallein. 

Laqueeeieee communicates a letter from Olivet, sanitary 
inspector at Geneva, who states that his Board of Agri- 

LXVII. 15 



culture has laid down the following regulations for the 
employ of mallein :—1st. Any horse, mule, or ass belonging 
to a stable or mob in which glanders has appeared shall 
be submitted to the mallein test. 2nd. Any suspected 
horse, &c., shall be submitted to it. 3rd. Animals will be 
valued before the test. To the owner of the animal that 
is destroyed an indemnity of one fourth the value of the 
horse shall be given. 4th. If the animal after slaughter 
is found not to be glandered, the full value is to be re¬ 

Laquerriere points out that now the fate of a suspected 
horse is decided in twenty-four or forty-eight hours. If 
they react, they are destroyed ; if not, they are returned to 
the owner. Formerly these animals would have been 
detained for a very long period without any decision being 
arrived at. 

97. Mallein. 

Laquerriere inoculated thirty-four horses. Fourteen 
did not react, and were sent to work. Ten are under 
observation. Seven others did not react, but were destroyed, 
and no signs of glanders were found. This batch included 
two horses that were thought to be farcied. Another horse 
that had not reacted died, and was found to be free from 
glanders. Seven horses that reacted showed, mortem^ 
typical glanders. Two horses that reacted feebly were 
found jpost mortem to be glandered. The slight reaction is 
ascribed to the age and debility of the animals, and to the 
age of the mallein. In two cases of nasal discharge not 
due to glanders an injection of mallein was promptly fol¬ 
lowed by a cessation of the discharge. During the discus¬ 
sion which followed this report Sanson pointed out that 
Arloing had recorded that glandered horses react to 
pneumo-bacilline as to mallein; he also drew attention to 
Bourchard and Charrin^s experiments that most of the 
various sterilised cultivations give reactions. It would 
therefore appear that the febrile reaction of mallein and 
tuberculin are not specific. Chauveau reported that in 
certain cases of tuberculosis an injection of testicle extract 
causes an analogous reaction to that of tuberculin. 

98. Atypical Tuberculosis in Dogs. 

Cadiot. —A mountain-bred dog, aged four, was destroyed 
three months after the first manifestations of infection. 
The liver alone was affected. It weighed three kilos., and 
showed five large hemispherical tumours of yellowish-white 
colour. In the centre they were softened, fluctuating, and 



cystic. No tubercles nor granulations were visible to the 
naked eye, and but for the fact that he discovered the 
typical bacillus of tubercle he would have thought he had 
to deal with a veritable degenerating neoplasm. 


Annales de Med. veterinaire. 

99. Nephritis in Dogs complicated with Anasarca. 

E. Lienaux.— Case 1.—A six-year-old bull-dog had been 
unwell for a few weeks, when sudden symptoms of hydro¬ 
thorax, ascites, and anasarca presented themselves, and 
the animal became enormously swollen from head to foot. 
There was no appetite; thirst normal; respiration in¬ 
creased and superficial; pulse strong and regular. 

The urine was rather scanty, rich in albumen, with 
hyaline and epithelial cylinders. The dog was destroyed. 

Autopsy. —Both kidneys were smaller than usual; the 
surface was corrugated, their consistence firm. On sec¬ 
tion the cortex, which was thin, presented a number of small 
cysts of clear liquid. 

The medulla retained its normal colour, but was harder 
than usual. 

The heart was hypertrophied, the pericardium free from 
dropsical fluid. 

Under the microscope the glomeruli were much altered, 
many of them being pushed out of their place or pressed 
against the vesicle of Bowman by a granular exudate. In 
places the glomeruli were replaced by connective-tissue 
nuclei. The uriniferous tubes were much altered. 

The dominant change in the medulla was hypertrophy of 
the connective tissue. 

Case 2. Complicated Dyspnoea. — History. —A large four- 
year-old dog used in draught had suffered at various times 
during the year from fits of dyspnoea. 

Symptoms. —Condition good, appetite and thirst normal. 
Under observation for three weeks gave no signs of 

Two months later he was admitted during a fit of 
dyspnoea which had evidently been aggravated by the 
journey to the infirmary. The form of dyspnoea was simi¬ 
lar to asthenia. An injection of one and a half centi¬ 
grammes of morphine relieved the symptoms, which, how¬ 
ever, did not disappear, and the animal died in half an 

Autopsy. —All organs healthy except the kidneys and 



the heart. The former showed two characteristic lesions 
of chronic interstitial nephritis. 

The left ventricle of the heart was hypertrophied. The 
dyspnoea was uraemic. This case points to the desirability 
of examining the urine in cases of asthenia. 

Case 3. Nephritis causing Eclampsia. —A small seven- 
year-old dog lost its appetite for several weeks, and was 
very thin; thirst increased ; abundant polyuria; the urine 
rich in albumen, &c. Eight days later it had fits of 
eclampsia, during one of which it died. 

Autopsy. —Tuberculous invasion of both kidneys. 

100. Descent oe the G-eavid Uteeus. 

M. Ueb. Andee, amongst other valuable information, 
records the following case. A mare that had carried for 
nine months manifested an enormous oedema of the inferior 
abdominal region, which extended to the chest. Exami¬ 
nation of the abdominal walls, &c., gave rise to a diagnosis 
of descent of the uterus due to rupture of the suspensory 

As the mare showed no signs of approaching parturition, 
walking exercise was recommended, and massage of the 
cedematous parts. 

Two months later the usual expulsive efforts occurred in 
the mare, and he was again called to attend her. He 
found that she made no progress. Although the neck of 
the uterus was largely dilated, the hand could not be intro¬ 
duced into the matrix unless it was passed from above 
downwards in front of the pubes. The mare was therefore 
cast and turned on to her back, and maintained in this 
position ; by this means the uterus resumed its natural 
position, and the hand could be easily introduced. The 
foetus was found to be in the normal position, and gentle 
traction brought the case to a satisfactory conclusion. 


Medical Magazine. 

101. Lectures in Medicine. 

Professor J. Burney Yeo, M.D., F.E.C.P.—The follow¬ 
ing summary is from the Medical Magazine of February, 
1894, but the entire article deserves careful study by those 
interested in teaching. 

The best teaching in many subjects of our medical studies 
consists largely of demonstrations. Whatever can be de¬ 
monstrated should be demonstrated. The best kind of 


lectures_, therefore^ will consist of demonstration and dis¬ 
sertation, or exposition. 

Of tlie qualities to be cultivated by the teacher, I would 
place first and above all others the faculty of clearness of 
thought and method. The teacher who helps the student to 
start in the study of his subject with a clear and orderly 
method has already done him a vast service; and no man 
is fit to be a lecturer in a medical school, whatever may be 
his scientific reputation or eminence, who cannot, or will 
not, display to his class a clear and orderly method of ac¬ 
quiring and retaining a knowledge of the principal facts 
which form the essential groundwork of the subject he has 
undertaken to teach. 

With clearness of thought and method will naturally be 
associated clearness and conciseness of statement. The 
ideas and facts to be taught and remembered should be 
expressed in as few words as is consistent with perfect 
clearness. But conciseness must be subordinated to clear¬ 
ness, for repetition is often of great value. 

A command of fit and appropriate language is essential 
to clearness of expression. The teacher must be in sym¬ 
pathy with his audience. He must realise the difficulties 
and the state of mind of the beginner. Fulness of know¬ 
ledge and complete mastery of all essential details of his 
subject is, of course, an absolute necessity. 

The faculty of judicious selection is perhaps as important 
as that of clear exposition. The lecture should contain 
the essence of the subject—that is to say, the points that 
it is most needful the beginner, the learner, should have 
implanted in his mind. Judicious selection, then, is abso¬ 
lutely needful, and becomes more and more so as our 
knowledge grows wider and wider. 

A good lecturer may be likened to a good cook, he deals 
with the same raw material as the text-books, but he pre¬ 
sents it in a more appetising and in more digestible form. 
He is an aid to assimilation. 

In the next place, what are the chief faults to be avoided ? 

The teacher should not be discursive. He should adhere 
rigidly to that portion of the subject selected for consi¬ 
deration, and he should not depart one haiFs breadth from 
it. All his repetitions, all his illustrations, all his stories 
(if he tells any) must be strictly appropriate, and designed 
to develop and complete the proper theme of his lecture. 
I have known lecturers waste three quarters of the allotted 
hour in mere gossip, or in dwelling on topics wholly irre¬ 
levant to the subject that had to be taught. 



Closely associated with the preceding faults is the ten¬ 
dency some lecturers have of dwelling on ^‘^fads.^^ There 
are other occasions open to them for the airing of these 
fads.^^ Why_, then, inflict them on the student, whose 
time is precious and all too brief for his purpose, which is 
to learn the essential elements of the subject treated of ? 

The lecturer should be careful to avoid carrying his 
subject beyond the reach of his audience, and exceeding 
the limits within which the attention of the student may 
be confined. And this leads me to say that a lecturer 
should be chosen rather for his powers of clear exposition 
than for his devotion to original research. A man devoted 
to original research is naturally and properly full of the 
particular research he is devoted to, and he is often what 
is termed ^Wiewy.^’ A sound good teacher of general 
subjects, though following the researches of others with 
keen interest and quick appreciation, must detach himself 
as a teacher from special investigations. 

What, then, should a man do who desires to become a 
good lecturer and a profitable teacher ? He should study, 
I venture to suggest, the clear and methodic arrangement 
of what is known :—the student is not expected to make 
excursions into the unknown. There is quite enough to 
be fitly brought under the category of the known to 
fully occupy all the time the student has at his disposal. 

He should he familiar with all the methods of research 
in his own subject, so that he may be competent to draw 
clearly the boundary between the known and the unknown. 
The displacement and expansion of that boundary it will 
generally be better for him to leave to others, whose genius 
adapts them better to the work of research than to the 
business of exposition. I have purposely used the word 
business,^^ because teaching is really and truly a 
business and to be successful needs the same qualities of 
accuracy, method, economy, punctuality, and attention as 
command success in any other business. The lecturer 
should be a storehouse of clear ideas, for it is his business 
to strive to make the crooked straight, and the rough 
places smooth.” In order to secure an attentive audience, 
the curriculum of studies should be so arranged that 

INTEREST. The working student’s mind is, and should be, 
fixed on his examinations, and the need of passing them 
without delay; and the lecturer’s mind should be fixed on 
the same subject. 



From the preceding considerations we may now^ I think, 
come to some conclusions as to the practical value of 
lectures in medical teaching. 

In the first place, they teach, or should teach, an orderly 
arrangement of the subject taught, and they promote, or 
should promote, clearness of ideas; and what is arranged 
with order and stated with clearness can be fixed in the 
memory and reproduced with comparatively little diffi¬ 

They save, or should save, an enormous amount of time 
to the student if he makes a right use of them; for I 
have already said that a good lecturer will make a wise 
and judicious selection —of the essence of his subject— 
which he will present to his class in a clear and concise 
form. This will often save the student an immense amount 
of laborious reading and reference to text-books and 

They remove, or should remove, difficulties which con¬ 
stantly arise in unaided reading. Every student must 
have encountered, in commencing the study of a new sub¬ 
ject by the aid of books alone, difficulties and obscurities 
which a few words from an experienced teacher have 
immediately removed. 

At the beginning of each session the several courses 
should be considered and arranged by the several lecturers, 
so that as wide a range of subjects as possible and practi¬ 
cable should be treated of, and something like order and 
system be introduced into our clinical lectures. It is idle 
to say this cannot be done, because in the Continental 
schools it is done. 

Finally, the scope and nature of the teaching of many— 
indeed, of nearly all the subjects of medical education, have 
greatly expanded of late years, and practical teaching by 
means of laboratory work has assumed a pre-eminent posi¬ 
tion both in elementary and advanced studies; but there 
still remains, and always will remain, the business of expo¬ 

Let me say, in conclusion, the great advantage a lecture 
has over a hooh is that the lecture selects ; and as the area 
of medical knowledge is expanding so rapidly, this work 
of judicious selection becomes a most important and essen¬ 
tial one. 



Pleueo-pneumonia.— According to the returns published 
weekly in the London Gazette no case of this disease was 
discovered in Great Britain during the first six weeks of 
the present year^ but six cattle suspected of being affected 
were slaughtered by order of the Board of Agriculture and 
found on post-mortem examination to be free from this 

Swine Fever. —The efforts of the Board of Agriculture 
to eradicate this disease do not appear up to the present to 
have reduced the amount of disease in the country. The 
Swine Fever Act has been in operation since the 1st 
November, and we find, as recorded in the Gazette, that 
during the six weeks ended February 10th no less than 677 
pigs died from the disease, 5267 were slaughtered as being 
affected or in contact with the diseased, and 85 suspected 
swine were slaughtered and found on post-mortem free from 
swine fever. In looking over the returns we find that 
cases of swine fever have occurred since the beginning of 
the year in thirty-eight counties in England, three in 
Wales, and one in Scotland. 

Anthrax. —The returns relating to this disease still re¬ 
main abnormally high as compared with former years,—in 
fact, anthrax appears to be gradually increasing, not only 
as regards the number of outbreaks, but also as regards 
the area over which it is spread. According to the pub¬ 
lished returns it appears that eighty-seven fresh outbreaks 
of anthrax occurred in the six weeks for which the returns 
have been issued this year, as compared with forty-seven 
in the corresponding period of last year. These outbreaks 
were distributed over forty-one counties in Great Britain, 
viz. twenty-eight in England, three in Wales, and ten in 

Glanders and Farcy. —The returns relating to these dis¬ 
eases show a decrease as compa,red with former years, but 
it is somewhat doubtful whether the disease has actually 
decreased, as there is some reason to believe that all the 
cases are not reported. There have been 139 outbreaks of 
glanders reported this year and 191 horses attacked, as 
compared with 183 outbreaks and 342 horses attacked in 
the corresponding period of last year. 

Rabies.— This much-dreaded disease has been more pre¬ 
valent during the first few weeks of the present year than 
in the corresponding periods of the three previous years. 


In the course of six weeks we have had seventeen cases of 
rabies recorded, as compared with ten in 1893, one in 
1892, and thirteen in 1891. Two cases occurred in the 
week ended February 10th, one of them in Lancashire and 
the other in Renfrewshire. 



F. W. Wragg, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

Present :—Professors Edgar, McFadyean, Penberthy, 
Shave, Walley, and Williams; Veterinary Colonel Oliphant; 
Veterinary Captain Raymond; Messrs. Faulkner, Hunting, 
Hunter, Kidd, Mason, Mulvey, Peele, Simpson, Thompson, 
Trigger, Thatcher (Solicitor), and A. W. Hill (Secretary). 

Mr. Simpson moved the following resolution :—That 
no student shall be entitled to receive his diploma or have 
his name entered on the Register of the Royal College 
until he has completed his twenty-first year, but he may 
present himself for his final examination provided he 
would complete his twenty-first before the date of the next 
examination.^^ He said if the Council approved of the 
alteration in the regulations which he now proposed they 
would not be inflicting an injustice upon anybody, and would 
not be admitting younger men into the profession than they 
had been since the previous alterations were made; they 
were admitting them practically at the same age, twenty- 

Professor McFadyean seconded the resolution. 

The resolution was carried, with only three dissentients. 

Mr. Mulvey moved the following resolution ; 

^^To substitute for Bye-laws Nos. 14 and 18, page 73— 
That no student shall be eligible for the second exa¬ 
mination until he has attended one session of not less than 
thirty weeks, exclusive of holidays, after passing the first 

That no student shall be eligible for the final examina¬ 
tion until he has attended one sesssion of not less than 
thirty weeks, exclusive of holidays, after passing the 
second examination.^^ 

Professor McFadyean asked whether it would not be 
better to insert Third instead of “Final,^^ as they were 
now going to have a fourth examination. 


Mr. Mulvey said that with the permission of the Council 
he would make that alteration. 

Veterinary Captain Raymond seconded the resolution. 

Professor Walley asked whether if this resolution was 
passed it would not entirely do away with his which he was 
to propose subsequently. 

Mr. Hunting said of course that would be so. 

Professor Walley then asked leave to move his resolution 
as an amendment. 

The President said that might be so. Perhaps Mr. 
Mulvey would move his separately. 

Mr. Mulvey then moved—‘^‘^That no student shall be 
eligible for the second examination until he has attended 
one session of not less than thirty weeks_, exclusive of holi¬ 
days, after passing the first examination.'^ 

Professor Walley moved as an amendment—‘^That no 
student shall be eligible for the second examination until 
he has attended two sessions of not less than thirty weeks 
each, exclusive of holidays." He said that under that 
resolution a man could not go up for his second examination 
under two years, but he was not kept hanging on by rejection 
after rejection in the first, and then again a whole year 
before being allowed to be examined for the second. 

Mr. Hunter said he had very much pleasure in seconding 
the amendment. He could not see why a student should 
be penalised to the extent of twelve months because he had 
failed in one examination. 

Professor Edgar supported Mr. Mulvey's resolution. 

Mr. 8impson said at present he felt inclined to support 
the amendment, but he should like to know whether it was 
possible for a rejected student to be instructed in and 

B" at the same time. If a satisfactory answer were 
given to that question he hoped they might be unanimous 
on the matter, and perhaps Mr. Mulvey might see his way 
to withdraw his resolution. 

Professor Walley that the principal of the school had to 
certify that the student had attended the necessary lectures. 

Professor Edgar thought it was a sign that Class A and 
Class B men were lamentably underworked if they could 
take up both of them simultaneously. 

Professor Shave supported Professor Walley's amend¬ 
ment. He thought in exceptional cases men were rejected 
at the examinations, although they might have sufficient 
knowledge of all the subjects. They were often rejected 
through nervousness when they were quite in a position to 
go on with Class B work. 


Mr. Hunting asked wkether they were to legislate for 
the exceptional cases or for the majority. The suggestion 
was that because one or two persons were rejected who 
were competent to pass that this new arrangement should 
be made for them. Mr. Mulvey^s motion carried out what 
had been done by the College for forty or fifty years. The 
only addition was that he had put in the thirty weeks^ 
session. The motion simply provided that there should be 
an orderly curriculum; the other arrangement was that a 
man could_, if he liked, remain six years in class, and then 
pass all the others if he liked. 

Professor Walleyes amendment was then put to the 
meeting, and declared to be carried, 8 voting in its favour 
and 7 against. 

Mr. Mulvey said that he would now withdraw his other 

Professor Walley moved—That no student shall be 
eligible for his third examination until he has attended 
three sessions of not less than thirty weeks, exclusive of 

Professor Williams seconded the motion. 

Mr. Hunting proposed as an amendment—That no 
student shall be eligible for the third examination until he 
has attended one session of not less than thirty weeks, ex¬ 
clusive of holidays, after passing the second examination.’’ 

Mr. Mason seconded the amendment. 

The amendment was then put and lost, and the original 
motion was carried. 

Professor Walley moved—^^That no student shall be 
eligible for the fourth examination until he has attended 
four sessions of not less than thirty weeks, exclusive of 

Mr. Simpson seconded the motion. 

Mr. Hunting moved as an amendment—That no 
student shall be eligible for the fourth examination until 
he has attended one session of not less than thirty weeks 
exclusive of holidays, after passing the third examination.” 

Veterinary Captain Raymond seconded the amendment. 

The amendment was then put to the meeting and lost, 
5 voting in its favour and 9 against. 

The original motion was then carried. 

Professor Edgar moved for alteration of system of 
marking at the examination by substituting numbers for 
terms very good,” good,” sufiicient,” and bad.” 

Mr. Simpson seconded the motion, which was agreed to. 

A vote of thanks to the President closed the meeting. 




F. W. Wragg, Esq., President, in the chair. 

Present: —Professors McFadyean, Penberthy, Shave; 
Veterinary Captain Raymond; Messrs. Hunting, Lawson, 
Simpson, Thatcher (Solicitor), and A. W. Hill (Secretary). 

The Secretary read the notice convening the meeting; 
also the minutes of the last special meeting, held on the 
24th January. 

Mr. J. F. Simpson. —I beg to move that the minutes be 

Professor McFadyean. —I beg to second that. 

Mr. Hunting. —I shall object to the minutes. I object 
to be made to say what I did not say, and a lot to be left 
out that I did say. I have been incorrectly reported, and 
I distinctly object to those minutes. 1 therefore propose 
that either my part be deleted altogether, or that the 
minutes be not confirmed until corrected. 

Professor Penherthy .—I will second that, on the ground 
that it is highly essential we should have what we say 
reported. I cannot propose that minutes be confirmed 
which have not reported matters which I think important. 
I should not have said it unless I thought them valuable. 

Mr. Simpson. —I am sure neither Professor McFadyean 
nor myself would wish to confirm the minutes if they were 

Professor McFadyean. —I should not for a moment second 
Mr. Simpson’s motion if I thought that a serious injustice 
were being done to Mr. Hunting. I have read the report 
which appeared in the Record, and that was much more 
inaccurate than these minutes; it was much more full as 
regards Mr. Hunting’s own speeches, but it entirely omitted 
certain important omissions and contradictions which 
were pointed out. If I might be allowed to cite it, he 
said the whole muddle had arisen out of a misprint. My 
contradiction of that is not in it. I second Mr. Simpson’s 

Professor Penherthy, —When a member of the Council 
gets up to speak on a subject that he wishes some notice 
to be taken of—that is to say, some notice of what he says 
as to what other people say, and it is a matter which will 
come up again, and all the arguments will have to be 
weighed, and that have to be weighed only through the 
reports of the Council meeting—he expects his arguments 
to be reported. I have to go before my constituents in the 
course of a month or two. I do not speak at all from 



special views of my own, but we should get into the habit 
of having our meetings properly reported, and that is 
my reason for opposing the passage of these minutes. 

Mr. Lawson. —I quite agree with what Professor Pen- 
berthy says. If every member of Council is not properly 
reported, the reports ought not to be passed. But how 
are we to go on with the business ? 

Mr. Simpson. —May I suggest that Mr. Hunting should 
tell us what, to the best of his recollection, he did say, and 
that Professor Penberthy should do the same, and let us 
add that to the minutes ? 

Mr. Hunting. —The reporter has omitted more than half 
of what I said, as though he had lost a page or two of his 
notes. It is not as though he had omitted a single clause, 
but he has omitted the whole bottom half of what I said. 

Professor McFadyean. —He not only omitted that, but 
he omitted all the discussion that arose out of what Mr. 
Hunting said in the latter half of his speech, and that we 
cannot now recover by any means, and that is why I think 
we had better take this, which is more correct than the 
Record report. 

Mr. Hunting. —That is simply Professor McFadyean’s 
opinion. May I ask this ? Is it competent for a majority 
of one to make me say whatever he likes in those minutes ? 

Mr. Simpson. —Will Mr. Hunting accept my sugges¬ 
tion ? 

Mr. Hunting. —I have no objection to getting on with 
the work. 

Mr. Simpson. —Will you tell us what you said ? 

Mr. Hunting. —I want the whole of the latter part of my 
speech added. The reporter has taken down the first ten 
lines of what I said, and left out the next twenty. It 
looks as if it was deliberately done. 

The amendment was then put to the Council and lost. 

The original motion for the confirmation of the minutes 
was then agreed to. 

Mr. Hunting. —I give notice that I shall refer to the 
subject at the next Council meeting. 

The President. —I gave instructions that the meeting 
should be reported as nearly verbatim as possible. 

Mr. Hunting. —The reporter has not reported half of the 

Professor McFadyean. —If Mr. Hunting brings it up I 
shall support him. 

The President. —The next business is to confirm the 
following alterations of bye-laws passed at the meeting of 



Council held on the 24th ult. The first is—^‘^That no 
student shall be entitled to receive the diploma, or to have 
his name entered on the Register of the Royal College, 
until he has completed his twenty-first year; but he may 
present himself for his final examination provided he 
would complete his twenty-first year before the date of 
the next examination/^ 

Mr. Simpson .—I beg to propose that the decision arrived 
at by the Council at its last meeting with regard to this 
suggested alteration of bye-law be confirmed. I do not 
propose to use any arguments in favour of it. These con¬ 
firmation meetings are as a rule a matter of form, and for 
that reason I do not apprehend there will be any opposi¬ 
tion to it. 

Mr. Hunting .—I was going to ask. What is a quorum ? 
what number of members of a Council meeting ? 

The President. —Seven. 

[Mr. Hunting then left the Council Chamber.] 

Professor McFadyean .—I second Mr. Simpson’s resolution. 

The resolution was agreed to. 

[Mr. Lawson then left the Council Chamber.] 

Messrs. Hunting and Lawson having left, there was 
no longer a quorum, and the Council was unable to proceed 
with further business. 


At a meeting held on February 7th, the Duke of Devon¬ 
shire in the chair— 

Mr. Dent reported the election of Sir John Thorold as 
Chairman of the year, and the addition of Professor Axe to 
the Veterinary Committee. A letter had been read from 
the Board of Agriculture stating that as the demands of 
the Public Departments for the year 1894-5 were excep¬ 
tionally heavy, the Lords of the Treasury regretted that 
they were unable to sanction the necessary financial 
provision for the inquiry into the subject of abortion in 
cattle suggested by the Council of the Royal Agricul¬ 
tural Society. In these circumstances the Committee were 
of opinion that it was desirable that an inquiry into this 
disorder should be undertaken by the Society itself, and 
they accordingly recommended that a Committee of Inquiry 
be appointed for this purpose, such Committee to be em¬ 
powered to collect evidence from stock-breeders and from 
veterinary surgeons, both by the issue of circulars of in¬ 
quiry and by the calling of witnesses, and to be instructed 



to report as to the advisability of experiments with breed¬ 
ing animals being undertaken by the Society. In the event 
of these proposals being adopted by the Council the Com¬ 
mittee recommended that the Special Committee be con¬ 
stituted as follows :—Sir John Thorold, Hon. C. T. Parker, 
Sir Nigel Kingscote, Colonel Curtis-Hayward, Mr. Glarrett 
Taylor, Professor Brown, Professor Axe, Professor McFad- 
yean, and Dr. Sims Woodhead, with power to add to their 

Inquiry into Abortion in Cows. 

Mr. Dent said that what they now proposed would 
involve but little expense; and if the Special Committee 
should find it necessary later on to ask for a grant of 
money for exact scientific investigations into the matter 
he hoped the Council might see its way to vote a sum for 
the purpose. At present, however, they only asked for 
authority to the Committee to take evidence, and to issue, 
as a preliminary, circular letters of inquiry to those who 
were likely to be able to afford useful information. The 
Committee would be much obliged to any member of the 
Society who would kindly give information himself, and 
suggest the names of other stock-owners to whom the cir¬ 
cular might usefully be sent. The questions to which 
answers were desired are as follows: 


1. During what year have you had experience of abortion 
among your cows ? 

2. What was the total number of cows kept and the 
number that aborted in each year ? 

3. At what month of gestation did most cases occur ? 

4. Did abortion occur among cows at grass as well as 
among those housed ? 

5. What was the nature of the diet of the cows during 
the winter months ? 

, 6. Was it observed that the cows that aborted stood near 
each other in the byre ? 

7. What was generally done with the cows that aborted— 
were they sold or again put to the bull ? 

8. Have you observed repeated abortion in the same cow ? 

9. Have you formed any opinion regarding the following 
as possible causes of the abortion in your stock : 

Fright or accidental injury. 

Errors in feeding. 

Contagion ? 

10. Have you observed that cows served by a particular 
bull were specially liable to abortion ? 



11. Have you had any experience of abortion in mares 
or ewes ? 

12. Have you tried the preventive measures recom¬ 
mended in the Society’s Journal (vol. ii, 1891_, p. 739), or 
any other method of treatment ? and, if so, with what result ? 

13. Would you be willing to allow any experimental 
treatment to be adopted in your herd ? 

14. Any general observations likely to prove useful for 
the purposes of the inquiry. 

Army Veterinary Department. 

^London G-azette,’ 2^11% January, 1894. 

Army Veterinary Department. —Vety.-Lieut. B. Taylor 
embarked for a tour of service in India on 30th ultimo. 

Vety.-Lieut. D. J. Barry has been transferred from 
Woolwich to York for duty with 6th Dragoon Guards. 

Vety.-Lieut. C. B. Freeman has been transferred from 
Aldershot to Woolwich for duty. 

Artillery Volunteer Corps.—1st North Kidino op 
Yorkshire (Western Division) Royal Artillery. —Vety.- 
Lieut. W. E. Laurence resigns his commission. Dated 
27th January, 1894. 

Vety.-Lieut.-Colonel F. Duck embarked on 17th February 
to take up the duties of Principal Veterinary Officer in 
India to relieve Vety.-Lieut.-Colonel W. A. Russell, who 
has been ordered home. 

Vety.-Captains R. W. Burke and H. T. W. Mann em¬ 
barked on the 24th February for service in India. 

Vety.-Lieut.-Colonel W. B. Walters has been placed on 
retired pay, 24th February. 

Vety.-Major C. Phillips has been promoted Vety.- 
Lieut.-Colonel, and posted to Dublin as District Veterinary 
Officer in Ireland. 

Vety.-Lieut.-Colonel H. Thomson has been transferred 
from Dublin to Aldershot to take up the duties of District 
Veterinary Officer at that station. 

Vety.-Captain J. A. Braddell has been transferred from 
Limerick to Ballincollig for duty with the 13th Hussars. 

Vety.-Lieut. H. C. Harris has been transferred from 
Aldershot to Limerick. 

Mr. F. S. H. Baldrey, M.R.C.V.S., has received a com¬ 
mission as Veterinary Lieutenant. 

Vety.-Lieut. J. E. W. Lewis arrived from India on 19th 
February on four months’ private leave of absence. 



Lieutenant-General Sir E. Fitzwygram offers three prizes 
—£50, £30, and £20—to be competed for by students who 
have gained the diploma R.C.Y.S. since the spring exa¬ 
mination, 1893. The conditions will be much the same as 
last year. 


The usual monthly meeting of the Society was held on 
Thursday evening, the 1st ult., at the Royal College of Vete¬ 
rinary Surgeons, 10, Red Lion Square, W.C.; Mr. A, 
Prudames, the President, occupied the chair. 

Mr. Hurndall introduced the subject of the formation of 
a new benevolent and defence society, and moved—That 
the Manchester Benevolent and Defence Society be asked 
whether it is prepared to consent to an alteration of its basis 
in the separation of the benevolent from the defence objects 
of the Society, conditionally upon the accession of a large 
increase of members, and that the sum available for defence 
purposes should be unlimited.^’ 

Mr. F. G. Samson seconded the motion. 

The resolution was carried unanimously. 

Mr. A. L. Butters then read a paper on Intestinal 
Calculi of the Horse,’’ of which the following is an 
abstract : 

The calculi found in the intestines of the horse vary con¬ 
siderably in size, shape, weight, and chemical composition. 
In weight they vary from 1 oz. to about 20 lbs., but the ma¬ 
jority generally range from about 1 to 7 lbs. The surface of 
some are smooth and polished, whilst others are rough. 
They are all more or less spherical in shape, unless there 
are several in the bowel at one time, when they present 
surfaces which are more or less flattened. 

The late Professor Morton divided them into phosphatic, 
oat-hair, and mixed. 

The phosphatic are the heaviest kind of calculi. Their 
chemical composition in 100 parts is— 

Ammoiiio-pliospliate of magnesia . . . 48'00 

Piiosphate of calcium ..... 19*00 


Animal matter ...... *80 

Soluble salts, &c. ...... 6*60 

Extractive matter ...... 4*00 

Fatty matter ....... 7*00 

Loss ...... *60 





As a rulcj there is but one phosphatic calculus in the 
intestine at one time, but in one case that came under my 
notice there were over 150 in the intestine. I have never 
found more than one oat-hair or mixed calculus in the 
intestine at one time. 

Oat-hair calculi are found in the caecum or colon, and 
consist almost entirely of the beard of oats, barley, or other 
grain. They sometimes attain a large size, but are light 
in weight; they generally assume the same shape, and are 
sometimes mixed with phosphatic salts. 

Mixed calculi are less constant in their composition. 
They are composed of phosphatic salts, faecal matters, oat- 
hair, or any indigestible matter found in the intestine. 

I shall now go on to the causes which lead to their forma¬ 
tion ; this is not only the most important and interesting 
part of my subject, but is also the most difficult; inter¬ 
esting as it enables us to give our clients a reasonable 
explanation, and important because a correct knowledge 
of the causes enables us to recommend and adopt measures 
to prevent their recurrence, and difficult—perhaps not 
more difficult than other problems we have to solve— 
because we have no means of ascertaining the time when 
they first begin to form—the time when treatment would 
be most valuable; we seldom or never suspect their presence 
until they have attained such dimensions that they get 
fixed in a position to cause pain to the animal. Difficult 
also because our knowledge of the physiological and chemi¬ 
cal processes which take place in the large intestines—the 
organs which, in my opinion, are chiefly involved, for I 
have never met with a calculus in the stomach or small in¬ 
testines—is not yet perfect. 

A cursory examination of specimens will lead to the con¬ 
clusion that different forces have been at work in their 
formation. Thus the forces which produce a phosphatic 
calculus differ from those which produce an oat-hair, whilst 
in the mixed we have a combination of both these forces 
more or less. If we cut a phosphatic calculus in halves we 
shall find about the centre a nucleus, around which the cal¬ 
culus is formed in concentric layers. The nucleus generally 
consists of a bit of iron, stone, india rubber, or other mate¬ 
rial which in ordinary circumstances has no right in the 
alimentary canal. The nucleus being swallowed, and 
neither digested nor passed onwards, has precipitated upon 
itself the constituents forming the calculus. The peri¬ 
staltic action of the bowels gives it a rounded shape. The 
layers, which can be separated, mark a period of time to 



estimate which is mere conjecture. As a nucleus can be 
found in every phosphatic calculus_, I think it is only a fair 
inference that if there had been no nucleus introduced into 
the alimentary canal no calculus would have been found 
there. This^ however, is too narrow a view to take of the 
subject, and compels us to accept as a theory that every 
time a horse swallows a bit of iron or other material 
capable of forming a nucleus, a calculus is formed around 
it. My own observations lead me to contend that this is 
not so, and unless the animal which has the misfortune to 
swallow a nucleus is fed upon a diet in which phosphatic 
and mineral salts are in excess, and is also affected with a 
condition of the alimentary canal commonly described as 
morbid, no calculus is formed. 

An oat-hair calculus on section presents a very different 
aspect from the phosphatic. The material of which it is 
composed is simply a homogeneous mass of indigestible 
matter, glued together by the juices of the intestines, 
and pressed into shape by the contraction of their walls; 
the absence of a nucleus and the irregular shape which 
a number of them assume lead me to think they are formed 
in a very different manner from that of the phosphatic. 
The material accumulates in a portion of the intestines, 
and is there permeated with fluids of an adhesive nature. 
By-and-by the mass is moved by the action of the bowels, 
and the ends of the accumulation are pressed or doubled 
up, leaving a gap in the centre, and in this shape it re¬ 
mains ; the hardening process having taken place at this 
particular juncture prevents it being pressed into a spheri¬ 
cal shape. It strikes me that conditions similar to those 
which produce impaction of the bowels are at work in the 
formation of an oat-hair calculus. 

The symptoms exhibited by an animal suffering from 
an obstruction caused by calculus resemble those of colic 
and impaction of the bowels so closely that they may be 
considered identical. A high authority has said there 
are no symptoms diagnostic of the presence of a calculus, 
and with this opinion I agree. I do not wish it to be 
understood, however, that their presence is never recog¬ 
nised during life; on the contrary, this has been frequently 
done; I have done so myself, and so have many others, but 
that conclusion has generally been arrived at from manual 
examination jper rectum^ or from previous knowledge and 
experience of the stud from which the patient came, 
rather than the symptoms displayed by the patient itself. 
H orses which suffer from frequently recurring attacks of 


colic are not, in my opinion, the subjects of calculus. The 
illness which they produce, although it may be protracted 
over several days or even weeks, has had but one termina¬ 
tion—death. The chief and constant symptom is abdo¬ 
minal pain. 

Treatment naturally enough divides itself into two heads 
—remedial and preventive. Of the remedial very little 
can be said; medicine has little effect on these ob¬ 
structions. Purgatives, laxatives, physostigmine, alkalies, 
stimulants, and sedatives, are the medicines usually em¬ 
ployed, along with copious and frequent enemas of soapy 
water and tobacco smoke. I need not remind you how 
often these fail to give relief. In my opinion nothing less 
than an operation will do so, and these, rather than twist, 
are the cases in which an operation is likely to be success¬ 
ful, and it may be that veterinary surgery may yet claim 
the operation for the extraction of intestinal calculi as one 
of its triumphs. 

A good deal can be done in the way of prevention. 
Where the provender is mixed and prepared on a large 
scale the little bits of iron can be removed by the use 
of an automatic separator. The separator consists of a 
magnetised plate, and the iron is extracted as the food 
passes over it. As regards diet, I have found that where 
animals died from phosphatic calculi they had received 
a diet in which, besides a fair quantity of oats and beans, 
there was a liberal supply of bran. The animal from which 
the 150 phosphatic calculi were taken belonged to a firm 
which had previously lost several horses from stone; their 
horses were fed upon bran and beans, with as much hay as 
they liked to eat or waste. The quantity of bran would 
be about 6 or 7 lbs. per diem. This was altered; oats and 
maize were substituted for a quantity of the beans, and 
the quantity of bran was reduced to rather less than 
2 lbs. per day. No case of phosphatic calculi has occurred 
in the stud since, and that is twenty years ago. Another 
case : a company had lost in the course of a few months 
about ten horses with phosphatic calculi; these horses were 
fed upon chaff, oats, beans, maize, and bran, the quantity 
of the last being at the rate of 5 lbs. daily; this quantity 
was reduced to 2 lbs. per day, an automatic separator was 
also used where the provender was mixed, and no death 
from phosphatic calculi has occurred since this change was 
effected fifteen years ago. These cases speak for them¬ 
selves ; they require no further comment from me, and 
suggest one of the means of prevention. 




A QUARTERLY meeting was lield at Manchester on Decem¬ 
ber 15th; Mr. Thomas Grreaves in the chair. The office¬ 
bearers were elected as follows : 

President, Mr. Gr. C. Mayor^ Kirkham. Vice-Presidents, 
Messrs. Carter, Burnley; Jones, Manchester. Treasurer, 
Mr. Hughes, Oswestry. Secretary, Mr. Chorlton, Man¬ 
chester. Auditors, Messrs. Locke and Ingram. 

Professor Delepine, Victoria University, delivered a 
lecture on ^^The Spread of Tuberculosis in the Body.^’ 



At a recent meeting held at Truro, under the able pre¬ 
sidency of Mr. Thomas Olver, a most instructive and in¬ 
teresting paper on Laminitis and Sidebone and their 
Treatmentwas read by Mr. Nelder, Exeter. 

[We regret that the report did not reach us in time for 
fuller notice in this issue.] 


Vos’s Bread for Horses. —A correspondent writes :—Occa¬ 
sionally one meets with a case of emaciation that does not 
yield to ordinary remedies and extra food of the best 
quality. Two cases of this kind occurred recently. The 
appetite was excellent, but the animals were too thin-look- 
ing to send to work. After trying various medicines, in¬ 
cluding tonics and nutrients and a variety of food, without 
apparent benefit, I was advised to try Vos^s bread; and in 
both cases I was satisfied that the bread succeeded in 
effecting rapid and marked improvement. 


Notices to Correspondents. 

To ensure the publication of communications in the coming number they 
should arrive by the 15th of the month. 

Letters, Articles, Reports of Cases and of Veterinary Meetings, British 
and Foreign exchange Journals, Newspapers, &c., should be addressed to 
The Conductor, Veterinarian, 35, Bartholomew Road, London, N.W. 

The Conductor does not hold himself responsible for the sentiments ex¬ 
pressed by contributors, nor can he undertake to return rejected papers. He 
will be happy to advise and assist as far as possible, by letter, correspondents 
who may desire information regarding cases, instruments, or books. 

Letters with enclosures have been received from J. Burchnall, C. Cunning¬ 
ham, J. Clark, R. Rutherford, “ Country Vet.,” A. Rodent, Retired Prac¬ 
titioner,” F. E. Place, J. A. W. Dollar, E. W. Hoare, F. W. Evans, R. Butler, 
R. T. Hewlett, M.D., W. H. Bloye, A. W. Hill, J. Ward, R. Ward (Balti¬ 
more), Vigor and Co., H. D. Youug, Professor Bayne, J. B. Wolstenholme, 
F. C. Mahon, Professor Hobday, W. F. Greenhalgh. 


American Veterinary Review. Journal of Comparative Medicine and 
Veterinary Archives. Veterinary Journal. Veterinary Record. Revue 
Veterinaire, Annales de Medecine Vet^rinaire. La Clinica Veterinaria. 
Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire. Zeitschrift fur VeterindrTcunde, Sfc. 
Oesterreichische Monatsschrift ThierheilTcunde, S(c. The Lancet. British 
Medical Journal. The Field. The Live Stock Journal. North British 
Agriculturist. Journal of Cape Colony. Bulletin John Hopkins Hospital, 
Nos. 35 and 36. Report Department of Agriculture, U.S.A., 1892. The 
Horse, by Col. Coulson. Medical Magazine. Report of the Minister of 
Agriculture, Canada, 1893. 

Subscriptions 1^. Qd. monthly, 18s. annually, post free. Annual subscribers 
may have their copies forwarded on the day of publication on application to 
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Twenty Years of Success.—Twenty Medals and Hiplonias at the Exhibitions. 



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The Veterinary Society of La Yienne (Erance), after having 
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the two Antipsorique Lebeau.^^ 

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Fees for Analyses to Subscribers and Veterinary Surgeons t 

Analysis of Viscera for Mineral or Vegetable Poisons only 
Analysis of Viscera for Mineral and Vegetable Poisons . 

Cases to be addressed— 

£l 11^. 6d. 
£3 3-?. Od. 


Chemical Laboratory, Royal Veterinary College, Camden Town, London. 




Terms, and Testimonials from many loell-lcnown Veterinary Surgeons and others, 

on application. 

Horses Operated on Insured if desired. 









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Special attention is given to Reports of the Proceedings of Veterinary Medical Societies, 

and to Professional Politics. 


Post Free—Six Months, 716; Per Annum, 15 j-. 

To he had of the Publishers only — 















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