TO DEVELOP A SAFE EXPLOSIVES
TO WIN AN EXPLOSIVES SAFETY
TO FORMULATE & IMPLEMENT AN
EXPLOSIVES SAFETY PROGRAM-
TO MAKE AN EXPLOSIVES SAFETY
SURVEY AT AN INSTALLATION-
TO CONDUCT AN
EXPLOSIVES SAFETY SEMINAR-
TO HOLD AN EXPLOSIVES
SAFETY COMMITTEE MEETING-
TO REPEAT AN EXPLOSIVES
SAFETY SLOGAN OR RULE-
TO DESTROY ALL OF THE ABOVE
E XPV-OSIVES\|Acc/ 0eNT
UNITED STATES ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND
WASHINGTON, D C. 20315
The Safety Digest is an AMC Pamphlet prepared by the Safety Division,
Headquarters, U. S. Army Materiel Command. Its purpose is to disseminate
information which can materially influence and improve safety programs at
all Command establishments.
Articles are included to supplement technical knowledge as well as practical
knowledge gained through experience. They provide a basis for the further
refinement of safety measures already incorporated in operating procedures
and process layout. To achieve maximum effectiveness, the Safety Digest
should be given widespread circulation at each AMC establishment.
Articles appearing in the Safety Digest are unclassified and are not copy-
righted. They may be reproduced as desired in order to bring pertinent
accident prevention information to the attention of all employees. The Army
Materiel Command Safety Digest should be given a credit line when articles
Unclassified material believed to be of interest or benefit to other establish-
ments is welcome for publication in the Safety Digest. Please send articles
for review to: U. S. Army Materiel Command Field Safety Agency, Charles-
town, Indiana. If possible, include pictures, charts, drawings, and illustrations
that clarify and heighten interest in your presentation.
SELWYN D. SMITH, JR.
Major General, USA
Chief of Staff
Chief, Administrative Office
IN THIS ISSUE
IN THIS ISSUE
POTENT METHODS TO REDUCE INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS
CO, ANNISTON ARMY DEPOT, SHOWS WAY IN SAFETY SHOE
AMC BEGINS SAFETY MANAGEMENT INTERN TRAINEE PROGRAM
ARADMAC SOLVES INDIVIDUAL HEAT STRESS PROBLEMS
THIS MECHANIC NEEDED GLASSES
PULL ON SLOPE UPSETS TRACTOR
TRY FOR EXTRA SAFETY CAUSES FIRE
UNWARY OBSERVERS UPSET TRAILER
TRAIN ENDS SHORTCUT TRY
GLASS CAN BE A MENACE
SAFETY GOES GLAMOROUS AT PICATINNY ARSENAL
DEER vs MOTOR VEHICLES
DESIGNING SAFE EXPLOSIVES PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
PREVENT ACCIDENTAL INITIATION OF ELECTRO-
DO YOU KNOW?
GRANITE CITY ARMY DEPOT WINS NSC AWARD OF MERIT
U. S. ARMY TANK-AUTOMOTIVE CENTER SAFETY DISPLAYS
CHECK THOSE INCIPIENT HAZARDS
WELL, DID YOU KNOW?
GLASSES PROTECT EYESIGHT DURING EXPLOSION
POTENT METHODS TO REDUCE INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS
Costs to be used for estimating FY1966 monetary losses
due to nondisabling, nonfatal disabling and fatal injuries
(DA Circular 385-9, dated 11 June 1965) will average
approximately 15 percent more than for FY1965. Because of
these higher costs, greater than normal improvement will
be required to achieve the continuing AMC objective of 10
percent improvement in injury costs and of 30 percent cost
improvement from safety programs by 1970 called for by
President Johnson in Mission "Safety-70".
How are you to achieve these improvements? The follow-
ing account (from our archives) of what was done by the
Commanding Officer of one AMC installation is commended for
During 1954, Colonel Taber, newly appointed as Commanding
Officer, Watertown Arsenal, inherited a safety program with
a civilian injury rate of 7.8 (as compared to an Ordnance
Corps rate of 2.7) injuries per million manhours. (Watertown's
twelve year average had been 7.1 injuries.) Within one year,
Watertown achieved a 1.6 rate and received the DA Award of
Merit. Colonel Taber also accepted a commendation for per-
sonnel at Watertown Arsenal from the Massachusetts Safety
Council. This was the first time any Government installation
had received that award. How was this accomplished?
Commanders should take note of the following extracted from
an article on the subject in the June 1955 Safety Digest.
"Colonel Alden P. Taber, Commanding Officer at
Watertown Arsenal recently delivered an address at
the 34th Annual Massachusetts Safety Conference.
In this address entitled: Potent Methods to Reduce
Industrial Accidents, Colonel Taber outlined some
of the methods which he, as the Commander of the
Arsenal, employed to reduce the accident rate of
Watertown Arsenal. The rate at Watertown Arsenal
was well above the rate for the Ordnance Corps at
the time Colonel Taber assumed command and the
methods he employed have reduced the accident rate
to below the rate for the Ordnance Corps. Some of
the methods which Colonel Taber enumerated have
been extracted for use in the Digest from his
address to serve as a guide to other top management
in their efforts to reduce accidents.
'In order to have one month's overlap wit»h my
predecessor, I arrived at Watertown Arsenal on July
30, 1954. On August 6th when my predecessor was on
official travel, I was the Commanding Officer in
his absence. On this date I received some bad news
to the effect that we had had a disabling injury -
the third of its kind for this month. I immediately
went to the dispensary and interviewed the injured
person, the doctor, and the nurse, as to the extent
of the injury. Before leaving my office, I asked
my secretary to notify the Safety Officer and the
injured man's immediate supervisor (thru the Works
Manager, the Shop Superintendent, and Building
Foreman) that I was enroute to investigate the
accident. Within twenty minutes after its occur-
rence, I was investigating the accident on the
spot where it occurred, reconstructing the event
as it happened with the injured man's immediate
supervisor and building foreman,
'When I returned to my office, I established
the policy that I would be notified by the most
expeditious means possible of any accidents in the
future that might result in disability. One of the
key men cautioned me that I would be a very busy
man as Commanding Officer and, as a result, would
not be able to investigate the many lost time acci-
dents that we would have. I stated rather bluntly
- "I don't expect to have that many accidents".
'Regardless of what I have done since that date
last summer, it is my belief that this policy is
one of the most important things that has occurred
to directly affect and improve our safety record.
'I noted that discipline w as poor in regard
to enforcing regulations on safety glasses and
safety shoes. Regulations were published defining
the areas in which glasses would be worn along with
the date everyone would comply with the directive.
Although one man tried to test the directive by
openly refusing to wear glasses, he lost a day's
pay as a result. The news about "lowering the boom"
relative to safety soon got out.
'My support by the foremen and supervisors on
this directive was excellent. As an example, one
day I started into a shop without glasses. The
building foreman stopped me and informed me that
the area was one in which everyone must wear glasses -
and, as he phrased it, "Everyone includes the C.O."
I complimented him on his action and put glasses
1 In addition I heard from various sources
that my policy, on visiting the scene of the
accident as soon as possible after it occurs, was
paying off. The building foremen, the immediate
supervisors, and the co-workers of the injured
man didn't like the "old man" breathing down their
necks on every little accident.
'After I started moving in, to investigate each
accident at the spot it occurred, the accident rate
dropped abruptly. The men didn't like my questions.
My favorites are: "Do you think you will ever have
another accident like this one?" or "As the immediate
supervisor of this man, what are you going to do
to prevent others having a like accident?"
'We established a two-hour course of instruction
for all supervisors. I led off with about a twenty
minute talk to each two-hour session. In order to
speak to all supervisors in each of the three shifts
I had to talk to seven different groups or to a
to total of about 350 supervisors.
'In each of these talks I emphasized the fol-
lowing points. First, I read a letter from the Chief
of Ordnance informing me that the Watertown Arsenal -
lost time accident frequency rate was 7.8 for the
first six months of 1954 and did not compare favor -
ably with the Ordnance Corps contractor personnel
rate of 1.8 and the Ordnance Corps rate of 2,7.
The Chief: directed that appropriate command action
be taken to correct the situation. I pointed out
to each group that our top level people in Washington
are safety conscious and are "lowering the boom" on
me as an Arsenal commander and that I intended to do
something about it. Next, poor methods, which cause
accidents , are due to poor supervision. In view of
this, I hold the first-line supervisor responsible
for ell accidents. Then I made an emotional appeal
to the immediate supervisor pointing out the tragic
consequences involved when a married man with wife
and children loses a finger, or part of a limb or
his life in an accident. I stated that I had seen
men die and it was not a pleasant sight. I warned
that if any supervisor here is in charge of an oper-
ation which takes a man's life, this supervisor
might not sleep for a night or two after the unfor-
tunate event. I will admit I was a little rough
and "laid it on the line" in some of my remarks
but the reaction was gratifying. As I overheard
one man remark upon leaving the room, "The old man
will have a safety program or else."
'During November and December of last year,
we had no lost- time accidents. After the second
lost time accident occurred in January, I visited
each shop, where I talked to the assembled foremen
and supervisors. At these meetings I announced that,
in the future, the safety record of each promotion
of a supervisory grade would be reviewed by me prior
to promotion; that not only did I expect a supervisor
to produce quality products in the quantities
desired, I also expected the work habits would be
safe ones. Let me read you a sample of the action
I took on a recent request for promotion.
Watertown 72, Mass.
Executive Officer, Works Manager
Chief Mfg, Div. , Mach. Gen. Foreman
Standard Form 52, John Doe
1. Before approving request for job reclassi-
fications such as the one attached, I have established
a policy of reviewing the safety record of the person
involved. In the case of Mr. Doe, I find that his
overall Accident Frequency Rate (both minor and lost
time) is 356 per million man hours of exposure for
the period June thru December 1954 as compared with
the Arsenal wide average of 184 for the same period,
2. I realize that Mr. Doe is quite a good man
and has a large number of dangerous machines in
operation in his building. However, I direct that
that the above information be brought to his atten-
tion, and I would appreciate comment by his immediate
supervisor as to what action he plans to take to
reduce this high Accident Frequency Rate.
/s/ ALDEN P. TABER
Colonel, Ord Corps
'The reply to this memo outlined the steps being
taken by Mr. Doe to reduce his accident frequency in
building X. The reply stated that the rate had
increased during the month of January 1955 and that
the recommendation for promotion was being held in
abeyance for 60 days to observe whether or not the
accident frequency rate approached the arsenal-wide
average. If the rate showed improvement, the request
would be resubmitted.
' Here are the Main Points of Interest in Lowering
1. Top management must move in fast to inves-
tigate each accident that may result in disability.
When a bank is robbed the police move in quickly
before clues get cold. You must do the same thing.
2. Keep you finger on the pulse and know your
weak areas by study and analysis of all accidents.
An increase of minor accidents in any area is a
red flag for action and an indication of poor super-
vision. Move in fast and make supervisors correct
poor methods before a lost-time accident occurs.
The Safety Officer can study and analyze but top
management must -take the action to correct faulty
3. Top management must take advantage of safety
devices such as safety glasses and safety shoes.
Enforce wearing of these where required. "Lower the
boom" early to show you mean business.
4. Top management must keep a safety program
going continuously. Educate everyone but concen-
trate drive on first-line supervisors.
Continued on Page 6
CO, ANNISTON ARMY
DEPOT, SHOWS WAY
IN SAFETY SHOE
Three disabling toe injuries in a six months period
caused Anniston Army Depot to step up its emphasis on foot
protection. A survey was made of all jobs, and for those
where foot hazards were present safety shoes were made a
required item. The number of personnel required to wear
safety shoes increased from 700 to 2,100. The shoes are
furnished at government expense to personnel who are
required to wear them.
To encourage the wearing of protective footwear by
Depot employees, Colonel Gilbert P. Levy, Commanding Officer,
and Colonel Bergsagel, Deputy Commanding Officer, set an
example by purchasing dress safety shoes. Photographs
of the Commanding Officer and Deputy Commanding Officer
putting on their safety shoes were placed on bulletin
boards throughout the depot. The picture was also reproduced
on a full page in the Depot Information Letter.
The Commanding Officer wrote a letter to all super-
visors encouraging them to buy and wear safety shoes,
even though these were not required on their jobs. Over
200 supervisory and office personnel, from program directors
to office clerks, purchased and are wearing safety shoes.
Continued from page 5
5. Consider safety record of supervisor before
you promote him. Hold first-line supervisors respon-
sible for proper operations, which include quantity,
quality, and safety. Poor methods which cause
accidents are the result of poor supervision. Never
let the first-line supervisor forget this.
'In conclusion, let me say I use a direct approach.
My definition of an accident is any unscheduled or
unusual event that interferes with production. Good
methods give not only quality and quantity but also
safety . ' " a
AMC BEGINS SAFETY
MANAGEMENT INTERN TRAINEE PROGRAM
The U.S. Army Materiel Command has started a Safety
Management Intern Trainee Program as part of a centralized
career trainee program. The first group of ten carefully
selected Safety Assistants has started its training at the
AMC Field Safety Agency.
The trainees were recruited from the 1965 graduating
classes of colleges in many parts of the United States.
They will be given six months training at the AMC Field
Safety Agency. A similar period will then be occupied
in getting on-the-ground familiarity with the different
types of AMC installations. Assignment will then be made
to individual AMC commands and installations where they
will be absorbed within manpower ceilings.
Nine of the trainees are shown in the above photo,
made soon after they arrived at the AMC Field Safety Agency.
Left to right (first row) are Edward J. Coder, Harry A.
Dittman, Marc A. Simon, Herbert D. Steger; (second row)
Daniel J. Shedlowski, Glenn S. Leach, Larry E. Morgan,
Michael K. Orn, and Thomas D. Pond. A tenth member of
the group, James T. Drake, had not arrived at the time the
picture was made.
INDIVIDUAL HEAT STRESS PROBLEMS
Frank S. Woodard, Safety Director
U.S. Army Aeronautical Depot Maintenance Center
In many jobs where heat stress is a problem, complete
air conditioning of the area is impractical, but the oper-
ation itself must continue. Like our other accident
prevention problems, a solution can be attained in three
1. Remove or eliminate the exposure,
2. Reduce the exposure by guarding machine or
3. Guard or protect the individual.
Where exposure to temperature extremes is required for
extended periods, the practical solution is to provide the
worker with protective clothing (insulated suit) with
auxiliary cooling equipment which will prevent inordinate
heat stresses. This solution can be applied to mainte-
nance, foundry, and welding operations, or any job where
sufficient plant air is available for the operation of the
air conditioning unit. The initial cost is not exorbitant
and the operating cost is very low.
At the U.S. Army Aeronautical Depot Maintenance Center,
the heat stress problem has been solved by the adaption of
either a Hilsch-Ranque vortex tube or a Vortair Exchanger,
as appropriate, to the individual air conditioned unit.
The basic parts of the Vortair Exchanger are shown
in Photo 1. None of these are moving parts and the entire
unit weighs approximately 18 ounces. The anodized aluminum
case holds all of the parts together. The unit case can
be obtained in plastic material for corrosive atmospheres.
The case has a cotton strap for mounting it to the belt.
There is a metal bump pad to keep the case off the employee's
The mixing tube is about 10 inches long. There is
an inlet air connection to which the filtering fitting is
attached. The filter screen is inside the fitting and is
retained by a filter nut. This screen filters out foreign
particles to keep them from entering the orifice and tube.
At the top of the mixing tube, the nylon orifice and
the "0" ring are attached to the head. These are held
in place by the orifice retaining nut. The orifice is
constructed of nylon and has eight tapered holes drilled
at a predetermined angle. The cold-air outlet fitting
attaches to the orifice retaining nut and fitting.
This complete assembly is inserted in the aluminum
case with insulation material packed around the head or
upper portion. The bottom end of the tube is slipped
through a tapped plate on the case and held in place by
the lock nut. Along with this assembly unit is one
12-foot 3/8-inch supply hose and quick fitting assembly.
The unit works most efficiently if 25 CFM of inlet
plant air at 100 PSIG is piped to the exchanger. The
inlet air is filtered through the screen mesh, enters
the tapered holes in the orifice and is directed tangentially
into the long tube. A small sized "tornado” is produced
with the air spinning at approximately 500,000 RPM at the
center of the "vortex" or "tornado." Cold air accumulates
in the center of the tube and is forced out the cold air
outlet. The outer portions of the air become very hot,
flow down the tube and leave through the hot-air outlet
and the hot-air control valve. Air flow control is reg-
ulated by the hot-air control valve. If the exit hot-air
flow is restricted, enough back pressure in the tube is
built up to force out the desired amount of cold air
through the cold-air outlet. There is an energy balance
between the flow of hot and cold air. The heat loss by
the cold air is equal to the heat gain by the hot air.
The temperature differences produced are enough to
freeze water at one end while boiling it at the other.
Practical application consists of making use of the
cold air exiting from the unit at about 68°F. while the
surrounding dry-bulb temperature is higher. The use of
cool air can be adapted to various types of suits and units.
At the U.S. Army Aeronautical Depot Maintenance Center
we have three specific applications for the Vortair unit.
1. a. The welding application is for the Heliarc
welding processes where air flows across the weld has to
be "nil" for quality welds to be produced. The men work
eight hours a day in an area where the dry -bulb temper-
ature may reach 95° to 100°F. The need for cooling the
employees was established, yet air conditioning of the
area was impractical.
b. The basic exchanger assembly unit was utilized
with an elongated cold-air tube connecting the exchanger
assembly cold-air outlet to the perforated plastic ducts
and the funnel. Photo 2 shows a welder wearing the unit
while working, and Photo 3 shows how the ducts were attached
to his welding vest. The ducts distributed the cool air
to the inside of the vest which was specially designed of
flameproof material with long sleeves and a special button
system. The funnel piped the cool air to the welding hel-
met area and also provided fresh air for the welder.
c. As shown in Photo 2, the exchanger unit was
mounted to the bottom of the welding bench and an elongated
insulated cold-air tube was used. This kept the welder
from having to attach the exchanger to his belt. The
exhausted hot air was exhausted beneath the workbench and
did not interfere with the welding process. The complete
unit worked excellently with the men maintaining individual-
ly controlled climatized conditions. This resulted in
better welds, increased efficiency, better employee morale,
and increased production. There were no health problems
because the air was filtered prior to entering the
exchanger. It was necessary for the individuals to keep
the cold- air temperature within a comfortable range to
insure that upper respiratory problems did not result.
d. The cost of each complete unit for this appli-
cation was approximately $240.
2. a. The cleaning shop application consisted of
outfitting employees having to work over hot cleaning tanks
that contained phenolic vapors. Extreme heat in this area
had prevented employees from utilizing chemical resistant
suits. In this case, the basic exchanger assembly unit
was combined with a cold-air tube running to perforated
ducts lining the interior of a pair of cotton coveralls.
Over these coveralls were placed chemical-resistant overalls
with jacket, rubber gloves with a seal-tight cuff, a chemical-
resistant hood, and rubber boots. As shown in Photo 4,
this provided complete cooling for the employee from head-
to-foot. Again, increased efficiency, increased production,
and increased employee morale resulted with a greater
degree of safety for the employee.
b. The cost of this complete unit was approximately
3. a. The stripping operation application consisted
of outfitting employees who were manually applying and
removing paint-stripping chemicals on the exterior of the
aircraft. This operation normally is performed in the open.
Use of ordinary chemical-resistant outer clothes was
limited due to heat problems. Again the application, shown in
Photo 5, consisted of the basic exchanger assembly unit
with cold-air tube to the coveralls with outer chemical-
resistant overalls, jacket, hood, and boots. This was
done in exactly the same manner as the cleaning operations.
(The use of this at this operation has not materialized
at this time as a new system of stripping is being con-
b. The cost for this complete unit is approximately
The basic exchanger sells for approximately $100.
It can be obtained for right-side or left-side mounting
and either plastic or aluminum case. The basic unit plus
the other gear such as welding vest, perforated ducts, and
cold-air tube shown in Photos 6 and 7 costs between $200
and $300, depending on how it will be applied.
The basic unit can be adapted to various situations
where heat stress is a problem. Various types of suits
can be furnished to fit any situation where the basic
unit can be utilized. The inlet air supply must be
sufficient and properly filtered to remove foreign
particles and insure that carbon monoxide content is
not present. Employees should be instructed on maintain-
ing the proper comfortable temperature within the suits.
Inlet plant air should be free of moisture to keep the
exchanger from icing up. The orifice retaining nut must
be tight to keep maximum pressure on the "0” ring to
produce maximum results. Air pressure should be at least
New suits will soon be available in which the process
will be reversed, and the unit can be used for heating in
winter as well as cooling in summer.
The 18 complete units used for a year at this Center
have worked well. The cost of maintenance has been "nil",
because there are no moving parts. The increase in quality
production, greater efficiency, improved morale, and safety
has more than paid for the units.
PHOTO 1 - Basic parts of a
PHOTO 2 - Welder wearing ex-
changer assembly unit.
PHOTO 3 - Perforated plastic
ducts distribute cold air
beneath the welding vest.
PHOTO 4 - Exchanger assembly unit
adapted for use in work over hot
tank containing phenolic vapors.
PHOTO 5 - Exchanger assembly unit
adapted for use by worker applying
and removing paint-stripping
chemicals on aircraft exterior.
nmn Tima EQQXESSO
PHOTOS 6 and 7 - Parts of gear used to assemble the units
shown in Photos 2, 3, 4, and 5.
THIS MECHANIC NEEDED GLASSES
An automotive mechanic was performing an internal wheel
inspection. The front of the vehicle had been jacked up
and was resting on stands. Work on the right wheel had been
completed, and the mechanic was busy on the left wheel. He
reinstalled the hub drum and wheel. He then turned the nut
to the point of proper wheel bearing adjustment and aligned
the spindle hole with the hole in the nut for an eighth-inch
cotter pin. He inserted the pin from the top side of the
spindle and nut hole and spread one-half the pin about 180 °
around the nut.
About one-half of the spread portion of the cotter
pin was left. The mechanic used a pair of diagonal cutting
pliers to cut off this bit of metal. When the tool made
the cut, the short piece of metal flew through the air and
struck the man's right eye. The cornea was pierced and it
was estimated that he would lose forty days from his job.
The injured man had not been wearing safety glasses
and apparently had taken no other precautions to shield
his face and eyes. Management at the installation under-
took a more stringent enforcement of its safety regulation
that required personnel to wear safety glasses while
performing repairs. Supervisors were told that prevent-
able accidents involving their subordinates would be
considered when their efficiency was evaluated.
PULL ON SLOPE UPSETS TRACTOR
The employee was operating a tractor to pull, a five-
gang mower. When he attempted to mow across a steep slope,
the mower slid sideways into a ditch and caught on an
obstruction there. Because of poor traction on the sloping
surface the tractor could not pull the mower forward.
The operator unhooked the tractor from the mower and
moved the machine back to one side until it was at a 30°
angle on the slope. He next hooked the tractor to the
mower with a cable and tried to pull the mower free. To
make certain that the mower was not damaged by the strain
on it he turned to watch it as he eased the tractor forward.
The mower came free of the ditch, and the operator
turned his head forward to see where the tractor was going.
The front of the tractor had reared clear of the ground.
Before the operator could react, the tractor upset and
pinned him beneath it.
Several minutes passed before a man passing nearby
discovered the upset tractor and the operator pinned
beneath it. He summoned help, A crane was brought to
the location, and the tractor was lifted clear of the
operator. He was promptly examined in a hospital and was
found to have escaped with minor bruises. The damage to
the tractor and mower amounted to $700.
The following instructions were given to the tractor
operators at the installation:
a. Stay off of any slope where reel mowers have a
tendency to slide.
b. Do not try to mow any bank or grade that the
operator believes he cannot mow safely. Leave it un-
mowed and notify the supervisor.
c. Mow slopes only with those tractors that have a
low center of gravity and with the wheels spaced to the
d. Decrease speed or use lower speed for slope
mowing. If the machine stops on a slope, slip the clutch
if necessary to get a slow, even start. Do not start off
with full power as in a normal operation.
e. Secure assistance whenever a tractor or mower is
stuck, regardless of whether it may be on a slope or a
TRY FOR EXTRA SAFETY CAUSES FIRE
The men finishing breakfast suddenly realized that
the odor of smoke was not coming from the spaceheaters .
The mess hall was on fire! A sergeant called the fire
department. The firemen responded promptly and extin-
guished the blaze within ten minutes after their arrival.
Fire damage Estimated at $1,125) was confined to an attic
area around a spaceheater flue.
Investigators concluded that the fire was caused by
a combination of a faulty roof jack construction and an
overheated spaceheater. The roof jack and the thimble had
been istalled with the required amount of clearance be-
tween the thimble and all combustible materials. The in-
dividual making the installation had then gone beyond the
requirement apparently in an effort to attain an additional
measure of safety. He had nailed asbestos board over the
space between the rafter and the thimble and had then
enclosed the space around the thimble between the roof
and the ceiling. Instead of providing extra safety his
work had created two heattraps. These eventually helped
start the fire. Fire inspectors over a period of six
years had failed to detect the hazard.
Similar heattraps about the other roof jacks and thimbles
in the mess hall were eliminated by removing the asbestos
board. Holes were punched at the top of all roofjacks to
allow hot air to circulate and escape above the top of the
UNWARY OBSERVERS UPSET TRAILER
A load of generator sets was drawn from supply and
loaded on a two-wheeled trailer for movement to the area
where they were to be used. The three Army sergeants who
were to place the machines in use checked them to make
certain they would operate. They found the generators
would run but would not produce the required voltage.
One of the sergeants asked assistance from an Army
employee, whom he knew to be knowledgeable about the
operation of the machines. The civilian mounted the
trailer to check the generators. Intent on learning more
about the equipment the three sergeants climbed up to
observe his actions.
As the work progressed the four men moved about on the
trailer until they were all near the rear edge. Their
weight caused the vehicle to tip. The civilian jumped off,
hoping to stop the overturning by lightening the load. His
leap was too late. The trailer continued to turn, and the
three sergeants and the generators were spilled undamaged
to the ground. The man who jumped struck his left leg
against a curb when he landed and broke a bone below his knee.
The accident was publicized in supervisor-development
classes and in letters to all of the activity's units.
Emphasis was placed on the hazards created by such actions
as overloading vehicles and failing to provide blocking to
prevent moving and tipping. Inattentiveness and poor
judgment of personnel as causes of accidents were stressed.
TRAIN ENDS SHORTCUT TRY
Two soldiers were installing radar targets on pedestals
in an isolated, arid area. After part of the work was
finished, it was necessary to cross a railroad to reach
additional target sites. Instead of driving four miles to
the nearest railroad crossing, the men decided to drive
their 3/4-ton Army vehicle across the track.
The driver started across at a 45° angle. The left
front wheel crossed both rails before the vehicle stalled.
The right rear wheel remained on the sloping track bed out-
side the right rail. The other wheels were left between the
rails. With one front and one rear wheel on the loose,
sloping track bed, the driver found he could not get enough
traction to drive the vehicle off the track.
The soldiers undertook to increase traction by shoving
wood under an outside wheel. As they worked they heard a
train in the distance. They made a last effort to free
the stuck vehicle while a passenger train came on rapidly.
Their efforts were unsuccessful, and they abandoned the
attempt and moved back from the railroad as the train drew
The locomotive struck the vehicle and scattered wreckage
for half a mile along the track. The engineer braked his
train to a stop. None of the passengers were injured by
the quick stop, and the train was able to proceed after a
one-hour delay. Damage to the engine was estimated at $500,
and the $2,275 Army truck was a complete loss.
The installation instructed its drivers to use only
authorized railroad crossings. Action was initiated to
revoke the driver's permit until he had received remedial
driving training. A report of survey was started.
GLASS CAN BE A MENACE
In the past few years, the use of all glass doors has
increased considerably. Following are but a few of the many
tragic facts about glass doors.
— 40,000 Americans walk through glass doors each year, and
6,000 are injured seriously enough to require hospitalization.
— Only a third of those involved in glass door accidents are
children from 5 to 14, the rest are adults.
— More than a fourth of the accidents involve people who have
had glass doors for a year or more.
— In some cases, accidents involving glass doors have caused
fatalities. In others, loss of sight or permanent muscle
damage has been the result.
— In Seattle alone, accidents involving glass doors at one
time averaged one a day. (After an extensive campaign,
they were reduced to one a month or less.)
— In Mew Jersey, a pretty youngster scampered into a sliding
glass door. Results: 127 sutures, 90 of them in her face.
We know there is a problem, but what can be done?
— Building codes in some states require the use of safety glass.
— Decals can be used making the door decorative in addition
to creating awareness.
--Prohibit children from horseplay or running in the vicinity
of glass doors.
— Keep approach to glass doors free of tripping or slipping
hazards (scatter rugs, toys, etc.),
— Equip glass doors with safety bars at door handle level.
(This will also keep glass free of finger marks.)
— Don't forget the YOU factor. Don't take for granted a glass
door is open. Make sure you are passing through the glass
door and not an adjacent glass panel. (Solid glass panels
can be identified by placing plants or furniture in front
of them. )
Remember, 75 percent of all glass door accidents occur
in the home. It could be YOUR home.
ACT NOW SO YOU WON'T BE SORRY LATER.
Thiokol Chemical Corporation, Wasatch Division's Monthly Publication
SAFETY GOES GLAMOROUS AT PICATINNY ARSENAL
Safety Division, Picatinny Arsenal
Safety personnel, busy with routine business, often fail
to take full advantage of opportunities to publicize safety
appropriately. Participation in a public exhibition requires
more than placing some protective gear on a manikin, draping
items on a table, and handing out National Safety Council
literature. Public reaction to such exhibitions is likely
to be one of indifference.
Modern advertising techniques require that products be
presented to the public in such form that the potential
purchaser automatically thinks of the product when the desire
is created. Safety is our product, and the Picatinny Arsenal
Safety Division is willing to spend time and money to advertise
A detailed and scientific study was made of the various
types of exhibits displayed by the other A.rsenal segments and
design criteria were established. First, an "attention-
getting device" had to be created to attract viewers. Next,
color was considered from a safety color code standpoint and
for tones or shadings which would please the eye. Another
factor was motion, because inanimate objects, no matter how
authentic or detailed, fail to hold attention. Finally, the
manner of highlighting the many facets of safety had to be
considered so that a true picture of safety activities would
The next step was the utilization of an artist who could
design and sketch each proposal suggested. The areas of traffic
explosives, industrial, and off-the-job safety were selected
and various groupings or situations were created. After
sketching, final settings were chosen as being the ones most
A proposal that Safety Division personnel be photographed
and their pictures displayed was considered carefully before
it was decided that this would inform the viewer whom he
should contact with his problem. A suggestion to place tower-
like structures at the ends of the exhibit designed to attract
attention was adopted.
Since our Safety Division operates a Driver Training
School, it was decided that the exhibit should meet the exhibit
design criteria and also be suitable for use as a visual
training aid for the school. For the exhibit a miniature
village with normal traffic patterns was laid out, complete
with electrically operated scale model cars racing over
the streets (on H-O gage track) obeying signs, lights, and
other control devices. The exhibit units were built, painted,
and wired electrically so that they could be used alone or
For Armed Forces Day, 1965, the Project Officer's pro-
posal for a display in the exhibits building was accepted.
The Safety Division display was set up beforehand and
When the doors opened the visitors eyes were drawn to
a corner where, completely surrounded by other glamorous
exhibits, revolving traffic warning lights flashed atop our
towers. Directly below was the toy-like village with the
two cars racing the streets and dodging an erratic trolley
car. Colored photographs on the five units stood out. An
animated explosives assembly line ground out components.
Inside the towers miniature revolving figures wearing pro-
tective clothing and equipment maintained their mechanical
posturing. The whole exhibit was surrounded with safety
rope mounted on traffic stanchions. A detail of four Safety
Officers protected it from any accidental damage by the 21,000
spectators who visited the Arsenal. As an additional attraction,
each child visitor was given a toy game enclosed in plastic.
The safety exhibit was so successful that the Arsenal
has received several requests for it to be loaned to other
DEER VS MOTOR VEHICLES
Leo Brown, Safety Officer
Aberdeen Proving Ground
The words, "Deer bounded from roadside into side of
vehicle", are familiar ones at installations that have a
sizeable deer population. Aberdeen Proving Ground has
approximately 3,500 Virginia or White-tailed deer, and in
FY 1964 it recorded 19 deer-vehicle collisions. Three of
these occurred in late September, six in October, three
each in January and February, two in May, and one each in
April and June. The 12 deer-vehicle accidents in FY 1963
fell into a similar pattern.
These 31 recorded accidents reveal a pattern. Twenty-
four involved damage to the front of the car. Five vehicles
were struck on the side. One driver reported he swerved to
avoid a deer entering the road in front of him. One driver
reported that the animal had attempted to leap over the
If these drivers had been aware of what seems to be
a standard behavior pattern of frightened deer, the col-
lisions might have been avoided.
What do we know about deer that might help? The
opinions expressed below are based upon observations that
have been made of the Aberdeen Proving Ground deer not only
along the roads of the reservation but also in the deep woods
remote from highway travel. No difference in their reaction
or behavior pattern was observed, regardless of where or how
the deer were frightened.
Deer display curiosity. They will stand and watch an
intruder until a sudden motion or scent frightens them into
moving. Their hearing and sense of smell are very acute;
however, vision seems to govern their actions when immediate
danger threatens. It is not the visual acuity of the deer
that is questionable but rather the animal's ability to see
an object approaching from an angle. Deer facing the track
of a moving object will move their heads in jerks as the
position of the object changes. I think this indicates that
the deer does not possess the visual focusing ability of
creatures that have their eyes set in a plane side by side
with ability to see in a 180° arc. This apparent lack of
focal ability is believed to be the primary cause of deer-
car accidents. The animal's visual equipment being limited
to approximately a 45° arc, any object approaching the
animal from behind or to the side is not readily visible.
Since deer normally graze into the wind, the sound or
scent of the approaching object is muffled. Typically, the
animal will be oblivious to everything but the grass it is
munching. If a vehicle approaches without warning, the
animal will be surprised and frightened. It reacts by
instinctive flight, usually in the direction toward which
its head is pointing.
Most deer-car collisions appear to occur if the vehicle
continues moving parallel to the course of the deer. The
driver relies on his horsepower to beat the deer. The deer,
not realizing it is supposed to yield the right of way, goes
on doing what the species has been doing for centuries. It
tries to outdistance the frightening object that seems to
be chasing it. The driver expects the animal to veer away
from the car. However, the deer follows an instinctive
course and continues running at top speed. Still hearing
the seeming pursuer but not seeing it, the deer turns and
runs across the front of the "pursuing enemy" , presumably
to escape danger by causing the pursuer to overrun while
it gains a lead on a new course of pursuit.
Another characteristic of deer behavior is that the
animals will remain in the woods until approximately an
hour before sundown. When the shadows begin to lengthen
this acts as a signal. The herd begins drifting upwind,
grazing as they go. The likelihood of deer-car collisions
Initially reference was made to autumn as the season
in which most deer-car accidents happen. During spring,
summer, and late winter, deer are very seldom observed
grazing near travelled roads. The change in the season
affects the food supply and forces the herds to forage in
the lush grassy spaces bordering the reservation roads.
This places large numbers of animals in close proximity to
areas traversed by vehicles and increases the possibility
of deer-car collisions.
During the first stages of this grazing cycle the animals
are unused to traffic and they graze away from the road while
vehicles are passing. As they become more familiar with the
sight and sound of the traffic they feed nearer the road.
Then the chances of surprising the animals are vastly increased
because vehicles can approach the animals from the rear or
The driver has an opportunity to prevent a collision.
When an appreciable distance exists between the animal and
the car the deer may be stampeded into flight by sounding
the horn. When warned the animals will sometimes whirl and
dash away. At other times they will raise their heads
momentarily and resume grazing.
Another phase of deer behavior is encountered in late
autumn. Nature's measures to carry on the species convert
the accident-causing hazard from that of deer-car collision
to the even more perilous one of buck-doe-car collision.
The danger during this season seems to be more in the pattern
of a deer in headlong flight bursting into or crossing the
path of a moving vehicle. The collision may really be un-
avoidable. The value of signs warning of deer activity is
debatable, particularly if a driver fails to reduce his
speed while passing through a posted area.
Here are suggested driver actions to reduce the fre-
quency of deer-vehicle collisions:
DON'T attempt to maintain your position alongside a
DO sound your horn upon approaching grazing deer. This
removes the element of surprise.
DON'T sound your horn right beside the animals if they
are unaware of your presence.
DO expect to see more deer if you sight one. If the
deer leader breaks into flight the others will follow.
DON'T expect the deer to whirl and run away from you.
It will usually run in the direction toward which' its head
DO realize that deer are gregarious animals. One separated
from the herd will try to rejoin it.
DON'T think that the buck is docile in mating season.
At times he will attack any moving object that he takes to
be an enemy.
The Do's and Don'ts above are the result of 20 years'
observations of the behavior pattern of one species of deer.
If practiced they should prevent most deer-car collisions.
The hunting season will soon be opened in your part
of the country. Within a few hours after the start of the
season, fatal accidents usually occur. Adherence to the
following requirements should help prevent such accidents:
* Wear clothing that makes you easily visible - red or
* The first action in handling a gun is to make certain
that the muzzle is pointed in a safe direction,
* In the house, in the car, climbing through a fence,
or while resting, a hunter always breaks down the
gun or opens the action and removes the ammunition,
* The maximum range, danger area, of a gun is always
much greater than the effective range,
* When two hunters come to a fence together, one should
hand his gun to the other, then climb the fence. Then
the two broken guns should be passed through the fence
and the second hunter should climb the fence,
* The danger range of a shotgun loaded with a charge of
small shots may vary from 150 to 300 yards,
* More firearms casualties occur at home than in the
* In case of misfire, the firearm should not be open
until after it has been pointing at the target for
* If the gun barrel becomes plugged with mud, snow, or
debris, unload and clean the gun to prevent the barrel
from exploding if a shot is fired.
* Hunters are to consider every gun as loaded and handle
DESIGNING SAFE EXPLOSIVES PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
H. L, Brinkley
Chief, U.S. Army Supply and Maintenance Command
Safety Field Office
Adequately designed processing equipment is essential
to safe operations in the explosives industries.
Evidence that insufficient attention is sometimes
given to this basic principle of explosives safety can often
be found when explosives accidents are investigated.
The designer should not receive the entire burden of
blame for some explosions that involve inadequate equipment.
Such would be the case if pressure to meet a production
schedule has prompted management to press into use a piece
of equipment that it should recognize as being substandard
or poorly designed. Another potentially hazardous situation
may be created when old equipment is used with a new
explosive formulation. This new product may require a
greater simplicity of machine design and more consideration
for sensitivity to friction, heat, or impact than the product
for which the equipment was designed.
Personnel who approve the design of new equipment and
the new use to which old equipment is put should keep in
mind the basic information summarized below:
Aluminum is one of the materials used for fabrication
of explosives equipment. Its chemical and physical properties
make it particularly suitable for a wide variety of
Explosives processing equipment that will be subjected
to heavy work loads, heat, pressure, and corrosive actions
usually are fabricated from stainless steels. Pressure
vessels, kettles, driers, and blenders are examples of
explosives equipment that normally are fabricated from
Cast iron and forged steel are used when precision
and dimensional stability are critical requirements.
When these materials are used, precautions are taken to
prevent impacts between them and other ferrous metal
Steel is used for heavy machine tools, presses and in
some instances for such items as cutter heads, gage parts,
and handling devices.
Non-metallic materials such as wood, leather, plastics,
and rubber are typical of materials used in equipment for
explosives that are sensitive to impact or friction and
also for temporary equipment. The use of glass is minim-
ized as far as possible.
Brass and copper are used in some applications. They
should not be used in constant contact with explosive
materials due to sensitive salt formations.
Tungsten carbide and stellite are normally used for
cutting tools. Tool steel is often used for manual
cutting and scraping tools.
Threaded members such as studs should be stainless
steel, brass or steel, cadmium plated.
Through a process of elimination, the designer deter-
mines which material should be used for the various parts
of the equipment. The various materials selected must be
chemically compatible with each other and with the explosives
which they may contact. Some of the materials selected may
require plating or other surface treatment in order to be
suitable for use.
'SIMPLICITY OF DESIGN
Simplicity of design is essential in explosives processing
equipment. The numbers of moving parts, individual assemblies,
and threaded connections should be kept to the minimum.
Other design features which should be eliminated or kept to
the minimum are:
1. Crevices into which explosives can seep,
2. Exposed and unprotected threaded members,
3. Sealed hollow areas and closed tubular sections.
4. All valves except rubber diaphragm.
5. Sharp edges and irregular surface indentations.
6. Unground weld joints and porous surface defects.
7. Explosives absorbent materials.
8. Abrasive or unsmooth finishes rougher than a 63
9. Unsealed friction bearing surfaces.
10. Non-counter balanced leverage loads.
11, 3earings, motors, and gears below the explosives
work, area of the equipment.
The following features are desirable in explosives
1. Clean designs that can be visually inspected
with minimum of disassembly.
2. Threaded members located in such positions as
to minimize contamination with explosives and that can be
calked or shielded easily.
3. Minimum weight.
4. Design that permits use in a variety of operations
without machine shop alterations.
5. Equipment and drawing number stenciled on the
6. Sturdy construction that requires a minimum of
maintenance - especially welding or soldering maintenance.
7. Pneumatic controls and interlocks where applicable.
8. Functionally designed equipment that requires only
a nominal amount of operator effort to regulate or adjust.
9. Ease of placing or removing product in and out of
10. Use of vacuum to hold product in machining,
inspection, and assembly fixtures.
Continued on page 31
PREVENT ACCIDENTAL INITIATION OF
Thomas P. Browne
Supervisory Safety Engineer
U. S. Army Missile Support Command
Where electric motors, hydraulic systems and pneumatic
systems have been used on our rockets and missiles, these
are being replaced with simple and more reliable explosive-
mechanical devices. This progress has been accompanied by
a growth in the opportunity for accidental and hazardous
ignition of these devices.
Since a number of apparently unrelated events may
cause an electro-explosive device to explode, precautions
must be taken to insure that an unintended initiation will
do the least amount of injury to personnel and damage to
property. The most effective way to accomplish these objectives
is to utilize the cardinal principles of explosive safety:
— Maintain safe distance between operators.
— Limit the number of electro-explosive devices any
one operator may handle.
— Establish barricades between operators and around
— Provide eye protection for personnel exposed to explosive
— Provide individual hoods so that only small portions
of the operator's person are exposed to the hazardous material.
Visiting personnel, who may introduce hazards into a work
area because of their unfamiliarity with required safety
standards, should be briefed on the hazards involved and
escorted at all times.
All electrical equipment (including wiring) and its
installation should meet all the requirements of the National
Electrical Code. This will assure that equipment used is
suitable for the purpose, and that adequate attention has
been given to other important requirements such as grounding.
The principal methods for reducing the hazard of static
electricity are to avoid the use of materials that are good
static generators and to provide effective electrical
bonding and grounding. Nonconductive materials should be
kept to a minimum. Cotton is the material that has been
found most suitable for clothing worn in electro-explosive
device work areas. Clothing made of synthetic fibers, wool,
silk, and rubber should not be worn.
Research and development laboratories often encounter
the problem of testing items such as fuzes that contain
electro-explosive devices as part of an explosive train.
Usually mechanical interruption of the train is provided
for safety reasons. The type of explosive train to be tested
may vary since no standard set of conditions exist. Attention
must be given to the hazards involved, to the safeguards
necessary to prevent unintended initiations and to the pro-
vision of adequate protection for personnel. Barriers for
protection of personnel must be designed and constructed to
provide absolute protection from all possible effects of an
explosion of the item being tested.
When explosive charges are small enough to permit
function testing to be conducted in firing chambers (usually
in the form of total enclosure armorplate boxes) safety
provisions can be made through circuit interlocks. These
insure that no electrical energy can get to the electric
explosive device from the firing circuit until the box is
completely closed and locked.
The devices tested may be detonators or devices such
as boosters that contain larger quantities and more powerful
explosives. The object of the test may be to determine
if a given alignment of explosive items will function reliably.
When the components are assembled in the case, all safety
normally provided by physical interrupters is defeated and
the only safety is the absence of the application of electrical
energy to the electro-explosive device.
As an added precaution, a safety inspection team should
be called upon to examine test procedures and make recommen-
dations. The team should be made up of individuals who are
disinterested in the particular operation but who are competent
in analyzing particular test setups from the point of view
Well-trained supervisors should understand the nature
of the electro-explosive device they are handling, and be
capable of training operators in safe practices. It is also
important that they maintain a high standard of orderliness
and cleanliness within the work area. The operators must be
well trained and aware of what constitutes dangerous
practices. Operators must constantly be on the alert and
must not tolerate unsafe practices on the part of fellow
Most unintended electro-explosive device initiations
are caused by the lack of adequate safety standards, by
ignorance of the precautions required to accomplish the
work safely or by human failure. Intelligent and sustained
effort can overcome these shortcomings and prevent the
accidental and hazardous ignition of these devices.
ARE THE BEST SINGLE
FOR CARS TODAY
]- -&nK 3 S 1/
AR 10-11, 22 March 1965
Organizations and Functions - United States Army Materiel
AR 18-50, 3 April 1965
Army Information and Data Systems - Unit Identification
AR 55-8, 7 June 1965
Transportation and Travel - Transportation of Biological
AR 385-41, 28 May 1965
Safety - United States Army Accident Codebook
AR 385-42, 16 June 1965
Safety - Investigation of NATO Nation Aircraft/Missile
AR 385-63, Change 5, 14 June 1965
Safety - Regulations for Firing Ammunition for Training,
Target Practice, and Combat
DA Cir 385-9, 11 June 1965
Safety - Costs of Accidental Nondisabling, Nonfatal
Disabling, and Fatal Injuries to Army Personnel
TB 9-2300-260-10, 5 May 1965
Warning Light for Over-Hanging Loads and Auxiliary
Taillight for Use on High Speed Roads on Military Vehicles
* * * *
Continued from Page 27
If every individual, from designer through the user
would apply the information outlined above, there would be
fewer explosives accidents.
The following are questions relating to industrial
safety taken from AMCR 385-224, How many can you answer?
Try them before turning to the answers on pages 36 and 37,
1, Who should be required to investigate accidents?
Answer & Reference:
2, What basic approaches simplify handling of materials
and aid in the control of accidents?
Answer & Reference:
3, What guide should be used by a crane operator to
govern movement of materials?
Answer & Reference:
4, What condition makes it difficult to calculate
remaining strength of wire rope with safety?
Answer & Reference:
5, What action should be taken when a new wheel has
been mounted on a grinding machine?
Answer & Reference:
6, What factors determine the shade of filter lens
required for eye protection in electric welding operations?
Answer & Reference:
7, What action must be taken when welding or cutting
is to be done in locations where explosives and highly
flammable materials may be present?
Answer & Reference:
8. What are the more important health hazards
associated with welding sites and what control measure is
Answer & References
9. What is the maximum allowable concentration of
Stoddard solvent vapors to which any employee should be
subjected for an eight (8) hour workday?
Answer & Reference:
10. May rooms used for. processing oxidizing agents
be used for processing fuels or combustible materials
including metal powders?
Answer & Reference:
* * * *
GRANITE CITY ARMY DEPOT WINS NSC AWARD OF MERIT
Granite City Army Depot has received a National Safety
Council Award of Merit for compiling 1,028,506 manhours with
out a disabling injury. Brigadier General D. E, Breakefield
(left) Director of Maintenance for the U.S. Army Supply and
Maintenance Command, presented the award to Colonel Charles
B. Schweiger, Commanding Officer of the Depot, General
Breakefield paid tribute to the accident prevention efforts
of the depot's personnel, "As I present this award", he
said, "I know I am presenting it to all the employees who
are responsible for this accomplishment."
U.S. ARMY TANK-AUTOMOTIVE CENTER SAFETY DISPLAYS
During Armed Forces Day, USATAC emphasized safety on
display boards shown below.
Close relationship with Post Engineer services is shown in
Cooperation of all services in the USATAC safety orogram
was stressed above,
CHECK THOSE INCIPIENT HAZARDS
U.S. Army Supply & Maintenance Command Safety Field Office
The realistic Safety Director knows that plans and
procedures that provide for adequate safety in operations
of today are likely to be unsatisfactory for future oper-
ation. New hazards will be encountered and they will
require new countermeasures.
New hazards can be kept to a minimum by the cooper-
ative efforts of management and safety personnel. It is
important that safety personnel be thoroughly familiar
with all operations being performed and that they be advised,
in advance, of any significant changes to be effected. This
can be assured by including the following requirements in
post regulations and standing operating procedures:
1. The Safety Office will be given prior notice of
all changes in:
a. Location of operations.
b. Operating buildings.
c. Layouts of processes.
d. Process equipment.
e. Process materials.
f. Process methods and procedures.
2. No changes shall be made in safety equipment pre-
scribed for operation without the approval of the Safety
3. Plans and drawings for changes in industrial oper-
ations shall be approved for safety features by the Safety
4. Plans for any proposed experimental set-ups must
have prior approval for safety features by the Safety
Director before being put into operation.
Answers are shown below for the questions on industrial
safety given on pages 32 and 33, if you answered all correctly,
you mark yourself "excellent".
1. The foreman, with the help of his supervisor or a
safety department representative. References Paragraph
124, AMCR 385-224.
2. a. Keep material moving uniformly through the
b. Minimize unnecessary rehandling.
c. Eliminate heavy manual lifting,
d. Reduce transport distances whenever possible.
e. Provide special handling equipment, such as
conveyors, forklift trucks, etc. where practicable.
Reference: paragraph 902a, AMCR 385-224.
3. A uniform code of signals should be used such as
that in the American Standards Association, Code for Cranes,
Derricks, and Hoists. Reference: Paragraph 904a, AMCR 385-224,
4. Corrosion. Reference: Paragraph 908b, AMCR 385-224,
5. New wheels, newly mounted, should be run at full
operating speed for at least one minute before being used.
During this test, the operator and other employees should
stand clear in a protected location. Reference: Paragraph
920a, AMCR 385-224.
6. The size of the welding rods or the magnitude of
the welding or cutting current. Reference: Paragraph 927a,
7. Permits for the work must be obtained in advance
and in accordance with all requirements of paragraph 1606.
Reference: Paragraph 927e, AMCR 385-224.
8. Metal oxide fumes and nitrogen oxide gases. Local
exhaust ventilation. Reference: Table 1111, AMCR 385-224.
9. 500 parts per million. Reference: Table 1117,
10. No. Reference: Paragraph 1311a, AMCR 385-224.
GLASSES PROTECT EYESIGHT DURING EXPLOSION
The safety glasses shown above served their intended
purpose of protecting the eyesight of a worker at an AMC
installation. The man reached for a lump of material in
a blender that contained a mixture of inert ingredients.
When he touched the lump a flash occurred and an explosion
followed. The building was damaged. The man received
burns on his hand, arm, and face.
3 1262 09304 lllS^