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The Safety Digest is an AMC Pamphlet prepared by the Safety Division, 
Headquarters, U. S. Army Materiel Command. Its purpose is to disseminate 
information which can materially influence and improve safety programs at 
all Command establishments. 

Articles are included to supplement technical knowledge as well as practical 
knowledge gained through experience. They provide a basis for the further 
refinement of safety measures already incorporated in operating procedures 
and process layout. To achieve maximum effectiveness, the Safety Digest 
should be given widespread circulation at each AMC establishment. 

Articles appearing in the Safety Digest are unclassified and are not copy- 
righted. They may be reproduced as desired in order to bring pertinent 
accident prevention information to the attention of all employees. The Army 
Materiel Command Safety Digest should be given a credit line when articles 
are extracted. 

Unclassified material believed to be of interest or benefit to other establish- 
ments is welcome for publication in the Safety Digest. Please send articles 
for review to: U. S. Army Materiel Command Field Safety Agency, Charles- 
town, Indiana. If possible, include pictures, charts, drawings, and illustrations 
that clarify and heighten interest in your presentation. 


Major General, USA 

Chief of Staff 

Chief, Administrative Office 
























































Costs to be used for estimating FY1966 monetary losses 
due to nondisabling, nonfatal disabling and fatal injuries 
(DA Circular 385-9, dated 11 June 1965) will average 
approximately 15 percent more than for FY1965. Because of 
these higher costs, greater than normal improvement will 
be required to achieve the continuing AMC objective of 10 
percent improvement in injury costs and of 30 percent cost 
improvement from safety programs by 1970 called for by 
President Johnson in Mission "Safety-70". 

How are you to achieve these improvements? The follow- 
ing account (from our archives) of what was done by the 
Commanding Officer of one AMC installation is commended for 
your consideration. 

During 1954, Colonel Taber, newly appointed as Commanding 
Officer, Watertown Arsenal, inherited a safety program with 
a civilian injury rate of 7.8 (as compared to an Ordnance 
Corps rate of 2.7) injuries per million manhours. (Watertown's 
twelve year average had been 7.1 injuries.) Within one year, 
Watertown achieved a 1.6 rate and received the DA Award of 
Merit. Colonel Taber also accepted a commendation for per- 
sonnel at Watertown Arsenal from the Massachusetts Safety 
Council. This was the first time any Government installation 
had received that award. How was this accomplished? 

Commanders should take note of the following extracted from 
an article on the subject in the June 1955 Safety Digest. 

"Colonel Alden P. Taber, Commanding Officer at 
Watertown Arsenal recently delivered an address at 
the 34th Annual Massachusetts Safety Conference. 

In this address entitled: Potent Methods to Reduce 

Industrial Accidents, Colonel Taber outlined some 
of the methods which he, as the Commander of the 
Arsenal, employed to reduce the accident rate of 
Watertown Arsenal. The rate at Watertown Arsenal 
was well above the rate for the Ordnance Corps at 
the time Colonel Taber assumed command and the 
methods he employed have reduced the accident rate 
to below the rate for the Ordnance Corps. Some of 
the methods which Colonel Taber enumerated have 
been extracted for use in the Digest from his 
address to serve as a guide to other top management 
in their efforts to reduce accidents. 


'In order to have one month's overlap wit»h my 
predecessor, I arrived at Watertown Arsenal on July 
30, 1954. On August 6th when my predecessor was on 
official travel, I was the Commanding Officer in 
his absence. On this date I received some bad news 
to the effect that we had had a disabling injury - 
the third of its kind for this month. I immediately 
went to the dispensary and interviewed the injured 
person, the doctor, and the nurse, as to the extent 
of the injury. Before leaving my office, I asked 
my secretary to notify the Safety Officer and the 
injured man's immediate supervisor (thru the Works 
Manager, the Shop Superintendent, and Building 
Foreman) that I was enroute to investigate the 
accident. Within twenty minutes after its occur- 
rence, I was investigating the accident on the 
spot where it occurred, reconstructing the event 
as it happened with the injured man's immediate 
supervisor and building foreman, 

'When I returned to my office, I established 
the policy that I would be notified by the most 
expeditious means possible of any accidents in the 
future that might result in disability. One of the 
key men cautioned me that I would be a very busy 
man as Commanding Officer and, as a result, would 
not be able to investigate the many lost time acci- 
dents that we would have. I stated rather bluntly 
- "I don't expect to have that many accidents". 

'Regardless of what I have done since that date 
last summer, it is my belief that this policy is 
one of the most important things that has occurred 
to directly affect and improve our safety record. 

'I noted that discipline w as poor in regard 
to enforcing regulations on safety glasses and 
safety shoes. Regulations were published defining 
the areas in which glasses would be worn along with 
the date everyone would comply with the directive. 
Although one man tried to test the directive by 
openly refusing to wear glasses, he lost a day's 
pay as a result. The news about "lowering the boom" 
relative to safety soon got out. 


'My support by the foremen and supervisors on 
this directive was excellent. As an example, one 
day I started into a shop without glasses. The 
building foreman stopped me and informed me that 
the area was one in which everyone must wear glasses - 
and, as he phrased it, "Everyone includes the C.O." 

I complimented him on his action and put glasses 
on immediately. 

1 In addition I heard from various sources 
that my policy, on visiting the scene of the 
accident as soon as possible after it occurs, was 
paying off. The building foremen, the immediate 
supervisors, and the co-workers of the injured 
man didn't like the "old man" breathing down their 
necks on every little accident. 

'After I started moving in, to investigate each 
accident at the spot it occurred, the accident rate 
dropped abruptly. The men didn't like my questions. 

My favorites are: "Do you think you will ever have 
another accident like this one?" or "As the immediate 
supervisor of this man, what are you going to do 
to prevent others having a like accident?" 

'We established a two-hour course of instruction 
for all supervisors. I led off with about a twenty 
minute talk to each two-hour session. In order to 
speak to all supervisors in each of the three shifts 
I had to talk to seven different groups or to a 
to total of about 350 supervisors. 

'In each of these talks I emphasized the fol- 
lowing points. First, I read a letter from the Chief 
of Ordnance informing me that the Watertown Arsenal - 
lost time accident frequency rate was 7.8 for the 
first six months of 1954 and did not compare favor - 
ably with the Ordnance Corps contractor personnel 
rate of 1.8 and the Ordnance Corps rate of 2,7. 

The Chief: directed that appropriate command action 
be taken to correct the situation. I pointed out 
to each group that our top level people in Washington 
are safety conscious and are "lowering the boom" on 
me as an Arsenal commander and that I intended to do 
something about it. Next, poor methods, which cause 
accidents , are due to poor supervision. In view of 


this, I hold the first-line supervisor responsible 
for ell accidents. Then I made an emotional appeal 
to the immediate supervisor pointing out the tragic 
consequences involved when a married man with wife 
and children loses a finger, or part of a limb or 
his life in an accident. I stated that I had seen 
men die and it was not a pleasant sight. I warned 
that if any supervisor here is in charge of an oper- 
ation which takes a man's life, this supervisor 
might not sleep for a night or two after the unfor- 
tunate event. I will admit I was a little rough 
and "laid it on the line" in some of my remarks 
but the reaction was gratifying. As I overheard 
one man remark upon leaving the room, "The old man 
will have a safety program or else." 

'During November and December of last year, 
we had no lost- time accidents. After the second 
lost time accident occurred in January, I visited 
each shop, where I talked to the assembled foremen 
and supervisors. At these meetings I announced that, 
in the future, the safety record of each promotion 
of a supervisory grade would be reviewed by me prior 
to promotion; that not only did I expect a supervisor 
to produce quality products in the quantities 
desired, I also expected the work habits would be 
safe ones. Let me read you a sample of the action 
I took on a recent request for promotion. 

Ordnance Corps 
Watertown Arsenal 
Watertown 72, Mass. 





Executive Officer, Works Manager 
Chief Mfg, Div. , Mach. Gen. Foreman 
Commanding Officer 
Standard Form 52, John Doe 

1. Before approving request for job reclassi- 
fications such as the one attached, I have established 
a policy of reviewing the safety record of the person 
involved. In the case of Mr. Doe, I find that his 
overall Accident Frequency Rate (both minor and lost 
time) is 356 per million man hours of exposure for 
the period June thru December 1954 as compared with 
the Arsenal wide average of 184 for the same period, 


2. I realize that Mr. Doe is quite a good man 
and has a large number of dangerous machines in 
operation in his building. However, I direct that 
that the above information be brought to his atten- 
tion, and I would appreciate comment by his immediate 
supervisor as to what action he plans to take to 
reduce this high Accident Frequency Rate. 


Colonel, Ord Corps 

'The reply to this memo outlined the steps being 
taken by Mr. Doe to reduce his accident frequency in 
building X. The reply stated that the rate had 
increased during the month of January 1955 and that 
the recommendation for promotion was being held in 
abeyance for 60 days to observe whether or not the 
accident frequency rate approached the arsenal-wide 
average. If the rate showed improvement, the request 
would be resubmitted. 

' Here are the Main Points of Interest in Lowering 
Accident Rates. 

1. Top management must move in fast to inves- 
tigate each accident that may result in disability. 
When a bank is robbed the police move in quickly 
before clues get cold. You must do the same thing. 

2. Keep you finger on the pulse and know your 
weak areas by study and analysis of all accidents. 

An increase of minor accidents in any area is a 

red flag for action and an indication of poor super- 
vision. Move in fast and make supervisors correct 
poor methods before a lost-time accident occurs. 

The Safety Officer can study and analyze but top 
management must -take the action to correct faulty 
methods . 

3. Top management must take advantage of safety 
devices such as safety glasses and safety shoes. 
Enforce wearing of these where required. "Lower the 
boom" early to show you mean business. 

4. Top management must keep a safety program 
going continuously. Educate everyone but concen- 
trate drive on first-line supervisors. 


Continued on Page 6 


Three disabling toe injuries in a six months period 
caused Anniston Army Depot to step up its emphasis on foot 
protection. A survey was made of all jobs, and for those 
where foot hazards were present safety shoes were made a 
required item. The number of personnel required to wear 
safety shoes increased from 700 to 2,100. The shoes are 
furnished at government expense to personnel who are 
required to wear them. 

To encourage the wearing of protective footwear by 
Depot employees, Colonel Gilbert P. Levy, Commanding Officer, 
and Colonel Bergsagel, Deputy Commanding Officer, set an 
example by purchasing dress safety shoes. Photographs 
of the Commanding Officer and Deputy Commanding Officer 
putting on their safety shoes were placed on bulletin 
boards throughout the depot. The picture was also reproduced 
on a full page in the Depot Information Letter. 

The Commanding Officer wrote a letter to all super- 
visors encouraging them to buy and wear safety shoes, 
even though these were not required on their jobs. Over 
200 supervisory and office personnel, from program directors 
to office clerks, purchased and are wearing safety shoes. 

Continued from page 5 

5. Consider safety record of supervisor before 
you promote him. Hold first-line supervisors respon- 
sible for proper operations, which include quantity, 
quality, and safety. Poor methods which cause 
accidents are the result of poor supervision. Never 
let the first-line supervisor forget this. 

'In conclusion, let me say I use a direct approach. 
My definition of an accident is any unscheduled or 
unusual event that interferes with production. Good 
methods give not only quality and quantity but also 
safety . ' " a 



The U.S. Army Materiel Command has started a Safety 
Management Intern Trainee Program as part of a centralized 
career trainee program. The first group of ten carefully 
selected Safety Assistants has started its training at the 
AMC Field Safety Agency. 

The trainees were recruited from the 1965 graduating 
classes of colleges in many parts of the United States. 

They will be given six months training at the AMC Field 
Safety Agency. A similar period will then be occupied 
in getting on-the-ground familiarity with the different 
types of AMC installations. Assignment will then be made 
to individual AMC commands and installations where they 
will be absorbed within manpower ceilings. 

Nine of the trainees are shown in the above photo, 
made soon after they arrived at the AMC Field Safety Agency. 
Left to right (first row) are Edward J. Coder, Harry A. 
Dittman, Marc A. Simon, Herbert D. Steger; (second row) 
Daniel J. Shedlowski, Glenn S. Leach, Larry E. Morgan, 
Michael K. Orn, and Thomas D. Pond. A tenth member of 
the group, James T. Drake, had not arrived at the time the 
picture was made. 



Frank S. Woodard, Safety Director 
U.S. Army Aeronautical Depot Maintenance Center 

In many jobs where heat stress is a problem, complete 
air conditioning of the area is impractical, but the oper- 
ation itself must continue. Like our other accident 
prevention problems, a solution can be attained in three 
ways : 

1. Remove or eliminate the exposure, 

2. Reduce the exposure by guarding machine or 


3. Guard or protect the individual. 

Where exposure to temperature extremes is required for 
extended periods, the practical solution is to provide the 
worker with protective clothing (insulated suit) with 
auxiliary cooling equipment which will prevent inordinate 
heat stresses. This solution can be applied to mainte- 
nance, foundry, and welding operations, or any job where 
sufficient plant air is available for the operation of the 
air conditioning unit. The initial cost is not exorbitant 
and the operating cost is very low. 

At the U.S. Army Aeronautical Depot Maintenance Center, 
the heat stress problem has been solved by the adaption of 
either a Hilsch-Ranque vortex tube or a Vortair Exchanger, 
as appropriate, to the individual air conditioned unit. 

The basic parts of the Vortair Exchanger are shown 
in Photo 1. None of these are moving parts and the entire 
unit weighs approximately 18 ounces. The anodized aluminum 
case holds all of the parts together. The unit case can 
be obtained in plastic material for corrosive atmospheres. 

The case has a cotton strap for mounting it to the belt. 

There is a metal bump pad to keep the case off the employee's 

The mixing tube is about 10 inches long. There is 
an inlet air connection to which the filtering fitting is 
attached. The filter screen is inside the fitting and is 
retained by a filter nut. This screen filters out foreign 
particles to keep them from entering the orifice and tube. 


At the top of the mixing tube, the nylon orifice and 
the "0" ring are attached to the head. These are held 
in place by the orifice retaining nut. The orifice is 
constructed of nylon and has eight tapered holes drilled 
at a predetermined angle. The cold-air outlet fitting 
attaches to the orifice retaining nut and fitting. 

This complete assembly is inserted in the aluminum 
case with insulation material packed around the head or 
upper portion. The bottom end of the tube is slipped 
through a tapped plate on the case and held in place by 
the lock nut. Along with this assembly unit is one 
12-foot 3/8-inch supply hose and quick fitting assembly. 

The unit works most efficiently if 25 CFM of inlet 
plant air at 100 PSIG is piped to the exchanger. The 
inlet air is filtered through the screen mesh, enters 
the tapered holes in the orifice and is directed tangentially 
into the long tube. A small sized "tornado” is produced 
with the air spinning at approximately 500,000 RPM at the 
center of the "vortex" or "tornado." Cold air accumulates 
in the center of the tube and is forced out the cold air 
outlet. The outer portions of the air become very hot, 
flow down the tube and leave through the hot-air outlet 
and the hot-air control valve. Air flow control is reg- 
ulated by the hot-air control valve. If the exit hot-air 
flow is restricted, enough back pressure in the tube is 
built up to force out the desired amount of cold air 
through the cold-air outlet. There is an energy balance 
between the flow of hot and cold air. The heat loss by 
the cold air is equal to the heat gain by the hot air. 

The temperature differences produced are enough to 
freeze water at one end while boiling it at the other. 

Practical application consists of making use of the 
cold air exiting from the unit at about 68°F. while the 
surrounding dry-bulb temperature is higher. The use of 
cool air can be adapted to various types of suits and units. 

At the U.S. Army Aeronautical Depot Maintenance Center 
we have three specific applications for the Vortair unit. 

1. a. The welding application is for the Heliarc 
welding processes where air flows across the weld has to 
be "nil" for quality welds to be produced. The men work 
eight hours a day in an area where the dry -bulb temper- 
ature may reach 95° to 100°F. The need for cooling the 
employees was established, yet air conditioning of the 
area was impractical. 


b. The basic exchanger assembly unit was utilized 
with an elongated cold-air tube connecting the exchanger 
assembly cold-air outlet to the perforated plastic ducts 
and the funnel. Photo 2 shows a welder wearing the unit 
while working, and Photo 3 shows how the ducts were attached 
to his welding vest. The ducts distributed the cool air 

to the inside of the vest which was specially designed of 
flameproof material with long sleeves and a special button 
system. The funnel piped the cool air to the welding hel- 
met area and also provided fresh air for the welder. 

c. As shown in Photo 2, the exchanger unit was 
mounted to the bottom of the welding bench and an elongated 
insulated cold-air tube was used. This kept the welder 
from having to attach the exchanger to his belt. The 
exhausted hot air was exhausted beneath the workbench and 
did not interfere with the welding process. The complete 
unit worked excellently with the men maintaining individual- 
ly controlled climatized conditions. This resulted in 
better welds, increased efficiency, better employee morale, 
and increased production. There were no health problems 
because the air was filtered prior to entering the 
exchanger. It was necessary for the individuals to keep 
the cold- air temperature within a comfortable range to 
insure that upper respiratory problems did not result. 

d. The cost of each complete unit for this appli- 
cation was approximately $240. 

2. a. The cleaning shop application consisted of 
outfitting employees having to work over hot cleaning tanks 
that contained phenolic vapors. Extreme heat in this area 
had prevented employees from utilizing chemical resistant 
suits. In this case, the basic exchanger assembly unit 
was combined with a cold-air tube running to perforated 
ducts lining the interior of a pair of cotton coveralls. 

Over these coveralls were placed chemical-resistant overalls 
with jacket, rubber gloves with a seal-tight cuff, a chemical- 
resistant hood, and rubber boots. As shown in Photo 4, 

this provided complete cooling for the employee from head- 
to-foot. Again, increased efficiency, increased production, 
and increased employee morale resulted with a greater 
degree of safety for the employee. 

b. The cost of this complete unit was approximately 


3. a. The stripping operation application consisted 
of outfitting employees who were manually applying and 
removing paint-stripping chemicals on the exterior of the 
aircraft. This operation normally is performed in the open. 
Use of ordinary chemical-resistant outer clothes was 
limited due to heat problems. Again the application, shown in 


Photo 5, consisted of the basic exchanger assembly unit 
with cold-air tube to the coveralls with outer chemical- 
resistant overalls, jacket, hood, and boots. This was 
done in exactly the same manner as the cleaning operations. 
(The use of this at this operation has not materialized 
at this time as a new system of stripping is being con- 
sidered. ) 

b. The cost for this complete unit is approximately 


The basic exchanger sells for approximately $100. 

It can be obtained for right-side or left-side mounting 
and either plastic or aluminum case. The basic unit plus 
the other gear such as welding vest, perforated ducts, and 
cold-air tube shown in Photos 6 and 7 costs between $200 
and $300, depending on how it will be applied. 

The basic unit can be adapted to various situations 
where heat stress is a problem. Various types of suits 
can be furnished to fit any situation where the basic 
unit can be utilized. The inlet air supply must be 
sufficient and properly filtered to remove foreign 
particles and insure that carbon monoxide content is 
not present. Employees should be instructed on maintain- 
ing the proper comfortable temperature within the suits. 
Inlet plant air should be free of moisture to keep the 
exchanger from icing up. The orifice retaining nut must 
be tight to keep maximum pressure on the "0” ring to 
produce maximum results. Air pressure should be at least 
90 PSIG. 

New suits will soon be available in which the process 
will be reversed, and the unit can be used for heating in 
winter as well as cooling in summer. 

The 18 complete units used for a year at this Center 
have worked well. The cost of maintenance has been "nil", 
because there are no moving parts. The increase in quality 
production, greater efficiency, improved morale, and safety 
has more than paid for the units. 


PHOTO 1 - Basic parts of a 
Vortair Exchanger, 

PHOTO 2 - Welder wearing ex- 
changer assembly unit. 

PHOTO 3 - Perforated plastic 
ducts distribute cold air 
beneath the welding vest. 


PHOTO 4 - Exchanger assembly unit 
adapted for use in work over hot 
tank containing phenolic vapors. 

PHOTO 5 - Exchanger assembly unit 
adapted for use by worker applying 
and removing paint-stripping 
chemicals on aircraft exterior. 



I * 


nmn Tima EQQXESSO 

PHOTOS 6 and 7 - Parts of gear used to assemble the units 
shown in Photos 2, 3, 4, and 5. 



An automotive mechanic was performing an internal wheel 
inspection. The front of the vehicle had been jacked up 
and was resting on stands. Work on the right wheel had been 
completed, and the mechanic was busy on the left wheel. He 
reinstalled the hub drum and wheel. He then turned the nut 
to the point of proper wheel bearing adjustment and aligned 
the spindle hole with the hole in the nut for an eighth-inch 
cotter pin. He inserted the pin from the top side of the 
spindle and nut hole and spread one-half the pin about 180 ° 
around the nut. 

About one-half of the spread portion of the cotter 
pin was left. The mechanic used a pair of diagonal cutting 
pliers to cut off this bit of metal. When the tool made 
the cut, the short piece of metal flew through the air and 
struck the man's right eye. The cornea was pierced and it 
was estimated that he would lose forty days from his job. 

The injured man had not been wearing safety glasses 
and apparently had taken no other precautions to shield 
his face and eyes. Management at the installation under- 
took a more stringent enforcement of its safety regulation 
that required personnel to wear safety glasses while 
performing repairs. Supervisors were told that prevent- 
able accidents involving their subordinates would be 
considered when their efficiency was evaluated. 



The employee was operating a tractor to pull, a five- 
gang mower. When he attempted to mow across a steep slope, 
the mower slid sideways into a ditch and caught on an 
obstruction there. Because of poor traction on the sloping 
surface the tractor could not pull the mower forward. 

The operator unhooked the tractor from the mower and 
moved the machine back to one side until it was at a 30° 
angle on the slope. He next hooked the tractor to the 
mower with a cable and tried to pull the mower free. To 
make certain that the mower was not damaged by the strain 
on it he turned to watch it as he eased the tractor forward. 

The mower came free of the ditch, and the operator 
turned his head forward to see where the tractor was going. 
The front of the tractor had reared clear of the ground. 
Before the operator could react, the tractor upset and 
pinned him beneath it. 

Several minutes passed before a man passing nearby 
discovered the upset tractor and the operator pinned 
beneath it. He summoned help, A crane was brought to 
the location, and the tractor was lifted clear of the 
operator. He was promptly examined in a hospital and was 
found to have escaped with minor bruises. The damage to 
the tractor and mower amounted to $700. 

The following instructions were given to the tractor 
operators at the installation: 

a. Stay off of any slope where reel mowers have a 
tendency to slide. 

b. Do not try to mow any bank or grade that the 
operator believes he cannot mow safely. Leave it un- 
mowed and notify the supervisor. 

c. Mow slopes only with those tractors that have a 
low center of gravity and with the wheels spaced to the 
fullest width. 

d. Decrease speed or use lower speed for slope 
mowing. If the machine stops on a slope, slip the clutch 
if necessary to get a slow, even start. Do not start off 
with full power as in a normal operation. 

e. Secure assistance whenever a tractor or mower is 
stuck, regardless of whether it may be on a slope or a 
level surface. 



The men finishing breakfast suddenly realized that 
the odor of smoke was not coming from the spaceheaters . 

The mess hall was on fire! A sergeant called the fire 
department. The firemen responded promptly and extin- 
guished the blaze within ten minutes after their arrival. 

Fire damage Estimated at $1,125) was confined to an attic 
area around a spaceheater flue. 

Investigators concluded that the fire was caused by 
a combination of a faulty roof jack construction and an 
overheated spaceheater. The roof jack and the thimble had 
been istalled with the required amount of clearance be- 
tween the thimble and all combustible materials. The in- 
dividual making the installation had then gone beyond the 
requirement apparently in an effort to attain an additional 
measure of safety. He had nailed asbestos board over the 
space between the rafter and the thimble and had then 
enclosed the space around the thimble between the roof 
and the ceiling. Instead of providing extra safety his 
work had created two heattraps. These eventually helped 
start the fire. Fire inspectors over a period of six 
years had failed to detect the hazard. 

Similar heattraps about the other roof jacks and thimbles 
in the mess hall were eliminated by removing the asbestos 
board. Holes were punched at the top of all roofjacks to 
allow hot air to circulate and escape above the top of the 


A load of generator sets was drawn from supply and 
loaded on a two-wheeled trailer for movement to the area 
where they were to be used. The three Army sergeants who 
were to place the machines in use checked them to make 
certain they would operate. They found the generators 
would run but would not produce the required voltage. 

One of the sergeants asked assistance from an Army 
employee, whom he knew to be knowledgeable about the 
operation of the machines. The civilian mounted the 
trailer to check the generators. Intent on learning more 
about the equipment the three sergeants climbed up to 
observe his actions. 


As the work progressed the four men moved about on the 
trailer until they were all near the rear edge. Their 
weight caused the vehicle to tip. The civilian jumped off, 
hoping to stop the overturning by lightening the load. His 
leap was too late. The trailer continued to turn, and the 
three sergeants and the generators were spilled undamaged 
to the ground. The man who jumped struck his left leg 
against a curb when he landed and broke a bone below his knee. 

The accident was publicized in supervisor-development 
classes and in letters to all of the activity's units. 

Emphasis was placed on the hazards created by such actions 
as overloading vehicles and failing to provide blocking to 
prevent moving and tipping. Inattentiveness and poor 
judgment of personnel as causes of accidents were stressed. 


Two soldiers were installing radar targets on pedestals 
in an isolated, arid area. After part of the work was 
finished, it was necessary to cross a railroad to reach 
additional target sites. Instead of driving four miles to 
the nearest railroad crossing, the men decided to drive 
their 3/4-ton Army vehicle across the track. 

The driver started across at a 45° angle. The left 
front wheel crossed both rails before the vehicle stalled. 

The right rear wheel remained on the sloping track bed out- 
side the right rail. The other wheels were left between the 
rails. With one front and one rear wheel on the loose, 
sloping track bed, the driver found he could not get enough 
traction to drive the vehicle off the track. 

The soldiers undertook to increase traction by shoving 
wood under an outside wheel. As they worked they heard a 
train in the distance. They made a last effort to free 
the stuck vehicle while a passenger train came on rapidly. 
Their efforts were unsuccessful, and they abandoned the 
attempt and moved back from the railroad as the train drew 

The locomotive struck the vehicle and scattered wreckage 
for half a mile along the track. The engineer braked his 
train to a stop. None of the passengers were injured by 
the quick stop, and the train was able to proceed after a 
one-hour delay. Damage to the engine was estimated at $500, 
and the $2,275 Army truck was a complete loss. 

The installation instructed its drivers to use only 
authorized railroad crossings. Action was initiated to 
revoke the driver's permit until he had received remedial 
driving training. A report of survey was started. 



In the past few years, the use of all glass doors has 

increased considerably. Following are but a few of the many 

tragic facts about glass doors. 

— 40,000 Americans walk through glass doors each year, and 

6,000 are injured seriously enough to require hospitalization. 

— Only a third of those involved in glass door accidents are 
children from 5 to 14, the rest are adults. 

— More than a fourth of the accidents involve people who have 
had glass doors for a year or more. 

— In some cases, accidents involving glass doors have caused 
fatalities. In others, loss of sight or permanent muscle 
damage has been the result. 

— In Seattle alone, accidents involving glass doors at one 
time averaged one a day. (After an extensive campaign, 
they were reduced to one a month or less.) 

— In Mew Jersey, a pretty youngster scampered into a sliding 
glass door. Results: 127 sutures, 90 of them in her face. 

We know there is a problem, but what can be done? 

— Building codes in some states require the use of safety glass. 

— Decals can be used making the door decorative in addition 
to creating awareness. 

--Prohibit children from horseplay or running in the vicinity 
of glass doors. 

— Keep approach to glass doors free of tripping or slipping 
hazards (scatter rugs, toys, etc.), 

— Equip glass doors with safety bars at door handle level. 

(This will also keep glass free of finger marks.) 

— Don't forget the YOU factor. Don't take for granted a glass 
door is open. Make sure you are passing through the glass 
door and not an adjacent glass panel. (Solid glass panels 
can be identified by placing plants or furniture in front 
of them. ) 

Remember, 75 percent of all glass door accidents occur 

in the home. It could be YOUR home. 


Thiokol Chemical Corporation, Wasatch Division's Monthly Publication 



Safety Division, Picatinny Arsenal 

Safety personnel, busy with routine business, often fail 
to take full advantage of opportunities to publicize safety 
appropriately. Participation in a public exhibition requires 
more than placing some protective gear on a manikin, draping 
items on a table, and handing out National Safety Council 
literature. Public reaction to such exhibitions is likely 
to be one of indifference. 

Modern advertising techniques require that products be 
presented to the public in such form that the potential 
purchaser automatically thinks of the product when the desire 
is created. Safety is our product, and the Picatinny Arsenal 
Safety Division is willing to spend time and money to advertise 

A detailed and scientific study was made of the various 
types of exhibits displayed by the other A.rsenal segments and 
design criteria were established. First, an "attention- 
getting device" had to be created to attract viewers. Next, 
color was considered from a safety color code standpoint and 
for tones or shadings which would please the eye. Another 
factor was motion, because inanimate objects, no matter how 
authentic or detailed, fail to hold attention. Finally, the 
manner of highlighting the many facets of safety had to be 
considered so that a true picture of safety activities would 
be retained. 

The next step was the utilization of an artist who could 
design and sketch each proposal suggested. The areas of traffic 
explosives, industrial, and off-the-job safety were selected 
and various groupings or situations were created. After 
sketching, final settings were chosen as being the ones most 
truly representative. 

A proposal that Safety Division personnel be photographed 
and their pictures displayed was considered carefully before 
it was decided that this would inform the viewer whom he 
should contact with his problem. A suggestion to place tower- 
like structures at the ends of the exhibit designed to attract 
attention was adopted. 


Since our Safety Division operates a Driver Training 
School, it was decided that the exhibit should meet the exhibit 
design criteria and also be suitable for use as a visual 
training aid for the school. For the exhibit a miniature 
village with normal traffic patterns was laid out, complete 
with electrically operated scale model cars racing over 
the streets (on H-O gage track) obeying signs, lights, and 
other control devices. The exhibit units were built, painted, 
and wired electrically so that they could be used alone or 
in combinations. 

For Armed Forces Day, 1965, the Project Officer's pro- 
posal for a display in the exhibits building was accepted. 

The Safety Division display was set up beforehand and 

When the doors opened the visitors eyes were drawn to 
a corner where, completely surrounded by other glamorous 
exhibits, revolving traffic warning lights flashed atop our 
towers. Directly below was the toy-like village with the 
two cars racing the streets and dodging an erratic trolley 
car. Colored photographs on the five units stood out. An 
animated explosives assembly line ground out components. 

Inside the towers miniature revolving figures wearing pro- 
tective clothing and equipment maintained their mechanical 
posturing. The whole exhibit was surrounded with safety 
rope mounted on traffic stanchions. A detail of four Safety 
Officers protected it from any accidental damage by the 21,000 
spectators who visited the Arsenal. As an additional attraction, 
each child visitor was given a toy game enclosed in plastic. 

The safety exhibit was so successful that the Arsenal 
has received several requests for it to be loaned to other 
organizations • 



Leo Brown, Safety Officer 
Aberdeen Proving Ground 

The words, "Deer bounded from roadside into side of 
vehicle", are familiar ones at installations that have a 
sizeable deer population. Aberdeen Proving Ground has 
approximately 3,500 Virginia or White-tailed deer, and in 
FY 1964 it recorded 19 deer-vehicle collisions. Three of 
these occurred in late September, six in October, three 
each in January and February, two in May, and one each in 
April and June. The 12 deer-vehicle accidents in FY 1963 
fell into a similar pattern. 

These 31 recorded accidents reveal a pattern. Twenty- 
four involved damage to the front of the car. Five vehicles 
were struck on the side. One driver reported he swerved to 
avoid a deer entering the road in front of him. One driver 
reported that the animal had attempted to leap over the 
vehicle . 

If these drivers had been aware of what seems to be 
a standard behavior pattern of frightened deer, the col- 
lisions might have been avoided. 

What do we know about deer that might help? The 
opinions expressed below are based upon observations that 
have been made of the Aberdeen Proving Ground deer not only 
along the roads of the reservation but also in the deep woods 
remote from highway travel. No difference in their reaction 
or behavior pattern was observed, regardless of where or how 
the deer were frightened. 

Deer display curiosity. They will stand and watch an 
intruder until a sudden motion or scent frightens them into 
moving. Their hearing and sense of smell are very acute; 
however, vision seems to govern their actions when immediate 
danger threatens. It is not the visual acuity of the deer 
that is questionable but rather the animal's ability to see 
an object approaching from an angle. Deer facing the track 
of a moving object will move their heads in jerks as the 
position of the object changes. I think this indicates that 
the deer does not possess the visual focusing ability of 
creatures that have their eyes set in a plane side by side 
with ability to see in a 180° arc. This apparent lack of 
focal ability is believed to be the primary cause of deer- 
car accidents. The animal's visual equipment being limited 
to approximately a 45° arc, any object approaching the 
animal from behind or to the side is not readily visible. 

Since deer normally graze into the wind, the sound or 
scent of the approaching object is muffled. Typically, the 
animal will be oblivious to everything but the grass it is 
munching. If a vehicle approaches without warning, the 
animal will be surprised and frightened. It reacts by 
instinctive flight, usually in the direction toward which 
its head is pointing. 

Most deer-car collisions appear to occur if the vehicle 
continues moving parallel to the course of the deer. The 
driver relies on his horsepower to beat the deer. The deer, 
not realizing it is supposed to yield the right of way, goes 
on doing what the species has been doing for centuries. It 
tries to outdistance the frightening object that seems to 
be chasing it. The driver expects the animal to veer away 
from the car. However, the deer follows an instinctive 
course and continues running at top speed. Still hearing 
the seeming pursuer but not seeing it, the deer turns and 
runs across the front of the "pursuing enemy" , presumably 
to escape danger by causing the pursuer to overrun while 
it gains a lead on a new course of pursuit. 

Another characteristic of deer behavior is that the 
animals will remain in the woods until approximately an 
hour before sundown. When the shadows begin to lengthen 
this acts as a signal. The herd begins drifting upwind, 
grazing as they go. The likelihood of deer-car collisions 
becomes greater. 

Initially reference was made to autumn as the season 
in which most deer-car accidents happen. During spring, 
summer, and late winter, deer are very seldom observed 
grazing near travelled roads. The change in the season 
affects the food supply and forces the herds to forage in 
the lush grassy spaces bordering the reservation roads. 

This places large numbers of animals in close proximity to 
areas traversed by vehicles and increases the possibility 
of deer-car collisions. 

During the first stages of this grazing cycle the animals 
are unused to traffic and they graze away from the road while 
vehicles are passing. As they become more familiar with the 
sight and sound of the traffic they feed nearer the road. 

Then the chances of surprising the animals are vastly increased 
because vehicles can approach the animals from the rear or 
side unobserved. 

The driver has an opportunity to prevent a collision. 

When an appreciable distance exists between the animal and 


the car the deer may be stampeded into flight by sounding 

the horn. When warned the animals will sometimes whirl and 
dash away. At other times they will raise their heads 
momentarily and resume grazing. 

Another phase of deer behavior is encountered in late 
autumn. Nature's measures to carry on the species convert 
the accident-causing hazard from that of deer-car collision 
to the even more perilous one of buck-doe-car collision. 

The danger during this season seems to be more in the pattern 
of a deer in headlong flight bursting into or crossing the 
path of a moving vehicle. The collision may really be un- 
avoidable. The value of signs warning of deer activity is 
debatable, particularly if a driver fails to reduce his 
speed while passing through a posted area. 

Here are suggested driver actions to reduce the fre- 
quency of deer-vehicle collisions: 

DON'T attempt to maintain your position alongside a 
frightened deer. 

DO sound your horn upon approaching grazing deer. This 
removes the element of surprise. 

DON'T sound your horn right beside the animals if they 
are unaware of your presence. 

DO expect to see more deer if you sight one. If the 
deer leader breaks into flight the others will follow. 

DON'T expect the deer to whirl and run away from you. 

It will usually run in the direction toward which' its head 
is pointed. 

DO realize that deer are gregarious animals. One separated 
from the herd will try to rejoin it. 

DON'T think that the buck is docile in mating season. 

At times he will attack any moving object that he takes to 
be an enemy. 

The Do's and Don'ts above are the result of 20 years' 
observations of the behavior pattern of one species of deer. 

If practiced they should prevent most deer-car collisions. 



The hunting season will soon be opened in your part 
of the country. Within a few hours after the start of the 
season, fatal accidents usually occur. Adherence to the 
following requirements should help prevent such accidents: 

* Wear clothing that makes you easily visible - red or 
orange . 

* The first action in handling a gun is to make certain 
that the muzzle is pointed in a safe direction, 

* In the house, in the car, climbing through a fence, 
or while resting, a hunter always breaks down the 
gun or opens the action and removes the ammunition, 

* The maximum range, danger area, of a gun is always 
much greater than the effective range, 

* When two hunters come to a fence together, one should 
hand his gun to the other, then climb the fence. Then 
the two broken guns should be passed through the fence 
and the second hunter should climb the fence, 

* The danger range of a shotgun loaded with a charge of 
small shots may vary from 150 to 300 yards, 

* More firearms casualties occur at home than in the 
hunting field, 

* In case of misfire, the firearm should not be open 
until after it has been pointing at the target for 
20 seconds, 

* If the gun barrel becomes plugged with mud, snow, or 
debris, unload and clean the gun to prevent the barrel 
from exploding if a shot is fired. 

* Hunters are to consider every gun as loaded and handle 
it accordingly. 




H. L, Brinkley 

Chief, U.S. Army Supply and Maintenance Command 
Safety Field Office 

Adequately designed processing equipment is essential 
to safe operations in the explosives industries. 

Evidence that insufficient attention is sometimes 
given to this basic principle of explosives safety can often 
be found when explosives accidents are investigated. 

The designer should not receive the entire burden of 
blame for some explosions that involve inadequate equipment. 
Such would be the case if pressure to meet a production 
schedule has prompted management to press into use a piece 
of equipment that it should recognize as being substandard 
or poorly designed. Another potentially hazardous situation 
may be created when old equipment is used with a new 
explosive formulation. This new product may require a 
greater simplicity of machine design and more consideration 
for sensitivity to friction, heat, or impact than the product 
for which the equipment was designed. 

Personnel who approve the design of new equipment and 
the new use to which old equipment is put should keep in 
mind the basic information summarized below: 

Materials Used 

Aluminum is one of the materials used for fabrication 
of explosives equipment. Its chemical and physical properties 
make it particularly suitable for a wide variety of 
applications . 

Explosives processing equipment that will be subjected 
to heavy work loads, heat, pressure, and corrosive actions 


usually are fabricated from stainless steels. Pressure 
vessels, kettles, driers, and blenders are examples of 
explosives equipment that normally are fabricated from 
stainless steels. 

Cast iron and forged steel are used when precision 
and dimensional stability are critical requirements. 
When these materials are used, precautions are taken to 
prevent impacts between them and other ferrous metal 
parts . 

Steel is used for heavy machine tools, presses and in 
some instances for such items as cutter heads, gage parts, 
and handling devices. 

Non-metallic materials such as wood, leather, plastics, 
and rubber are typical of materials used in equipment for 
explosives that are sensitive to impact or friction and 
also for temporary equipment. The use of glass is minim- 
ized as far as possible. 

Brass and copper are used in some applications. They 
should not be used in constant contact with explosive 
materials due to sensitive salt formations. 

Tungsten carbide and stellite are normally used for 
cutting tools. Tool steel is often used for manual 
cutting and scraping tools. 

Threaded members such as studs should be stainless 
steel, brass or steel, cadmium plated. 

Through a process of elimination, the designer deter- 
mines which material should be used for the various parts 
of the equipment. The various materials selected must be 
chemically compatible with each other and with the explosives 
which they may contact. Some of the materials selected may 
require plating or other surface treatment in order to be 
suitable for use. 


Simplicity of design is essential in explosives processing 
equipment. The numbers of moving parts, individual assemblies, 
and threaded connections should be kept to the minimum. 

Other design features which should be eliminated or kept to 
the minimum are: 

1. Crevices into which explosives can seep, 

2. Exposed and unprotected threaded members, 


3. Sealed hollow areas and closed tubular sections. 

4. All valves except rubber diaphragm. 

5. Sharp edges and irregular surface indentations. 

6. Unground weld joints and porous surface defects. 

7. Explosives absorbent materials. 

8. Abrasive or unsmooth finishes rougher than a 63 
micro finish. 

9. Unsealed friction bearing surfaces. 

10. Non-counter balanced leverage loads. 

11, 3earings, motors, and gears below the explosives 
work, area of the equipment. 


The following features are desirable in explosives 
processing equipment: 

1. Clean designs that can be visually inspected 
with minimum of disassembly. 

2. Threaded members located in such positions as 
to minimize contamination with explosives and that can be 
calked or shielded easily. 

3. Minimum weight. 

4. Design that permits use in a variety of operations 
without machine shop alterations. 

5. Equipment and drawing number stenciled on the 


6. Sturdy construction that requires a minimum of 
maintenance - especially welding or soldering maintenance. 

7. Pneumatic controls and interlocks where applicable. 

8. Functionally designed equipment that requires only 
a nominal amount of operator effort to regulate or adjust. 

9. Ease of placing or removing product in and out of 
the equipment. 

10. Use of vacuum to hold product in machining, 
inspection, and assembly fixtures. 


Continued on page 31 


Thomas P. Browne 
Supervisory Safety Engineer 
U. S. Army Missile Support Command 

Where electric motors, hydraulic systems and pneumatic 
systems have been used on our rockets and missiles, these 
are being replaced with simple and more reliable explosive- 
mechanical devices. This progress has been accompanied by 
a growth in the opportunity for accidental and hazardous 
ignition of these devices. 

Since a number of apparently unrelated events may 
cause an electro-explosive device to explode, precautions 
must be taken to insure that an unintended initiation will 
do the least amount of injury to personnel and damage to 
property. The most effective way to accomplish these objectives 
is to utilize the cardinal principles of explosive safety: 

— Maintain safe distance between operators. 

— Limit the number of electro-explosive devices any 
one operator may handle. 

— Establish barricades between operators and around 
storage areas. 

— Provide eye protection for personnel exposed to explosive 
hazards . 

— Provide individual hoods so that only small portions 
of the operator's person are exposed to the hazardous material. 

Visiting personnel, who may introduce hazards into a work 
area because of their unfamiliarity with required safety 
standards, should be briefed on the hazards involved and 
escorted at all times. 

All electrical equipment (including wiring) and its 
installation should meet all the requirements of the National 
Electrical Code. This will assure that equipment used is 
suitable for the purpose, and that adequate attention has 
been given to other important requirements such as grounding. 

The principal methods for reducing the hazard of static 
electricity are to avoid the use of materials that are good 
static generators and to provide effective electrical 


bonding and grounding. Nonconductive materials should be 
kept to a minimum. Cotton is the material that has been 
found most suitable for clothing worn in electro-explosive 
device work areas. Clothing made of synthetic fibers, wool, 
silk, and rubber should not be worn. 

Research and development laboratories often encounter 
the problem of testing items such as fuzes that contain 
electro-explosive devices as part of an explosive train. 

Usually mechanical interruption of the train is provided 
for safety reasons. The type of explosive train to be tested 
may vary since no standard set of conditions exist. Attention 
must be given to the hazards involved, to the safeguards 
necessary to prevent unintended initiations and to the pro- 
vision of adequate protection for personnel. Barriers for 
protection of personnel must be designed and constructed to 
provide absolute protection from all possible effects of an 
explosion of the item being tested. 

When explosive charges are small enough to permit 
function testing to be conducted in firing chambers (usually 
in the form of total enclosure armorplate boxes) safety 
provisions can be made through circuit interlocks. These 
insure that no electrical energy can get to the electric 
explosive device from the firing circuit until the box is 
completely closed and locked. 

The devices tested may be detonators or devices such 
as boosters that contain larger quantities and more powerful 
explosives. The object of the test may be to determine 
if a given alignment of explosive items will function reliably. 
When the components are assembled in the case, all safety 
normally provided by physical interrupters is defeated and 
the only safety is the absence of the application of electrical 
energy to the electro-explosive device. 

As an added precaution, a safety inspection team should 
be called upon to examine test procedures and make recommen- 
dations. The team should be made up of individuals who are 
disinterested in the particular operation but who are competent 
in analyzing particular test setups from the point of view 
of safety. 

Well-trained supervisors should understand the nature 
of the electro-explosive device they are handling, and be 
capable of training operators in safe practices. It is also 
important that they maintain a high standard of orderliness 
and cleanliness within the work area. The operators must be 
well trained and aware of what constitutes dangerous 


practices. Operators must constantly be on the alert and 
must not tolerate unsafe practices on the part of fellow 
employees . 

Most unintended electro-explosive device initiations 
are caused by the lack of adequate safety standards, by 
ignorance of the precautions required to accomplish the 
work safely or by human failure. Intelligent and sustained 
effort can overcome these shortcomings and prevent the 
accidental and hazardous ignition of these devices. 



]- -&nK 3 S 1/ 

, * 



AR 10-11, 22 March 1965 

Organizations and Functions - United States Army Materiel 

AR 18-50, 3 April 1965 

Army Information and Data Systems - Unit Identification 

AR 55-8, 7 June 1965 

Transportation and Travel - Transportation of Biological 

AR 385-41, 28 May 1965 

Safety - United States Army Accident Codebook 
AR 385-42, 16 June 1965 

Safety - Investigation of NATO Nation Aircraft/Missile 

AR 385-63, Change 5, 14 June 1965 

Safety - Regulations for Firing Ammunition for Training, 
Target Practice, and Combat 

DA Cir 385-9, 11 June 1965 

Safety - Costs of Accidental Nondisabling, Nonfatal 
Disabling, and Fatal Injuries to Army Personnel 

TB 9-2300-260-10, 5 May 1965 

Warning Light for Over-Hanging Loads and Auxiliary 
Taillight for Use on High Speed Roads on Military Vehicles 

* * * * 

Continued from Page 27 

If every individual, from designer through the user 
would apply the information outlined above, there would be 
fewer explosives accidents. 





The following are questions relating to industrial 
safety taken from AMCR 385-224, How many can you answer? 

Try them before turning to the answers on pages 36 and 37, 

1, Who should be required to investigate accidents? 
Answer & Reference: 

2, What basic approaches simplify handling of materials 
and aid in the control of accidents? 

Answer & Reference: 

3, What guide should be used by a crane operator to 
govern movement of materials? 

Answer & Reference: 

4, What condition makes it difficult to calculate 
remaining strength of wire rope with safety? 

Answer & Reference: 

5, What action should be taken when a new wheel has 
been mounted on a grinding machine? 

Answer & Reference: 

6, What factors determine the shade of filter lens 
required for eye protection in electric welding operations? 

Answer & Reference: 

7, What action must be taken when welding or cutting 
is to be done in locations where explosives and highly 
flammable materials may be present? 

Answer & Reference: 


8. What are the more important health hazards 
associated with welding sites and what control measure is 

Answer & References 

9. What is the maximum allowable concentration of 
Stoddard solvent vapors to which any employee should be 
subjected for an eight (8) hour workday? 

Answer & Reference: 

10. May rooms used for. processing oxidizing agents 
be used for processing fuels or combustible materials 
including metal powders? 

Answer & Reference: 

* * * * 


Granite City Army Depot has received a National Safety 
Council Award of Merit for compiling 1,028,506 manhours with 
out a disabling injury. Brigadier General D. E, Breakefield 
(left) Director of Maintenance for the U.S. Army Supply and 
Maintenance Command, presented the award to Colonel Charles 
B. Schweiger, Commanding Officer of the Depot, General 
Breakefield paid tribute to the accident prevention efforts 
of the depot's personnel, "As I present this award", he 
said, "I know I am presenting it to all the employees who 
are responsible for this accomplishment." 



During Armed Forces Day, USATAC emphasized safety on 
display boards shown below. 

Close relationship with Post Engineer services is shown in 
this display. 

Cooperation of all services in the USATAC safety orogram 
was stressed above, 



U.S. Army Supply & Maintenance Command Safety Field Office 

The realistic Safety Director knows that plans and 
procedures that provide for adequate safety in operations 
of today are likely to be unsatisfactory for future oper- 
ation. New hazards will be encountered and they will 
require new countermeasures. 

New hazards can be kept to a minimum by the cooper- 
ative efforts of management and safety personnel. It is 
important that safety personnel be thoroughly familiar 
with all operations being performed and that they be advised, 
in advance, of any significant changes to be effected. This 
can be assured by including the following requirements in 
post regulations and standing operating procedures: 

1. The Safety Office will be given prior notice of 
all changes in: 

a. Location of operations. 

b. Operating buildings. 

c. Layouts of processes. 

d. Process equipment. 

e. Process materials. 

f. Process methods and procedures. 

2. No changes shall be made in safety equipment pre- 
scribed for operation without the approval of the Safety 

3. Plans and drawings for changes in industrial oper- 
ations shall be approved for safety features by the Safety 

4. Plans for any proposed experimental set-ups must 
have prior approval for safety features by the Safety 
Director before being put into operation. 


Answers are shown below for the questions on industrial 
safety given on pages 32 and 33, if you answered all correctly, 
you mark yourself "excellent". 

1. The foreman, with the help of his supervisor or a 
safety department representative. References Paragraph 
124, AMCR 385-224. 

2. a. Keep material moving uniformly through the 
process steps. 

b. Minimize unnecessary rehandling. 

c. Eliminate heavy manual lifting, 

d. Reduce transport distances whenever possible. 

e. Provide special handling equipment, such as 
conveyors, forklift trucks, etc. where practicable. 

Reference: paragraph 902a, AMCR 385-224. 

3. A uniform code of signals should be used such as 

that in the American Standards Association, Code for Cranes, 
Derricks, and Hoists. Reference: Paragraph 904a, AMCR 385-224, 

4. Corrosion. Reference: Paragraph 908b, AMCR 385-224, 

5. New wheels, newly mounted, should be run at full 
operating speed for at least one minute before being used. 

During this test, the operator and other employees should 
stand clear in a protected location. Reference: Paragraph 

920a, AMCR 385-224. 

6. The size of the welding rods or the magnitude of 
the welding or cutting current. Reference: Paragraph 927a, 

AMCR 385-224. 


7. Permits for the work must be obtained in advance 

and in accordance with all requirements of paragraph 1606. 
Reference: Paragraph 927e, AMCR 385-224. 

8. Metal oxide fumes and nitrogen oxide gases. Local 

exhaust ventilation. Reference: Table 1111, AMCR 385-224. 

9. 500 parts per million. Reference: Table 1117, 

AMCR 385-224. 

10. No. Reference: Paragraph 1311a, AMCR 385-224. 


The safety glasses shown above served their intended 
purpose of protecting the eyesight of a worker at an AMC 
installation. The man reached for a lump of material in 
a blender that contained a mixture of inert ingredients. 
When he touched the lump a flash occurred and an explosion 
followed. The building was damaged. The man received 
burns on his hand, arm, and face. 



3 1262 09304 lllS^