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SAFETY 
DIGEST 


AMC Pamphlet 
AMCP 385-80 


November 1967 



U. S. ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND 




AMC MAJOR SUBORDINATE COMMAND 

SAFETY AWARDS 



FY - 1967 





AMC MAJOR SUBORDINATE COMMAND 

SAFETY AWARDS 


Ilppartmpnl nf tbn Army 


Ipparfmpnt nf tbn Army 

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1. & Army Mafpripl dommand 


1. Si Army Batpripl dommand 

Atoard of fflprit for Safpty 


Atoard nf Jflprit for Safpty 

it presented to 


a presented to 

30-^. (Army iHioilt CHammanb 


(Army Jltciramc* Cantmanb 

for superior achievement in the prevention of accidents hy the 


for superior achievement in the prevention of accidents hy the 

establishment and maintenance of a comprehensive and effective 


establishment and maintenance of a comprehensive and effective 

Safety [Program during o Tiscal \jear 1967 . 


Safety [Program during c Tiscal \jear 1967 . 

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1. & Army Mafpripl (Hommand 
(Eommpndatinn for Safpty 

is presented to 

(Army (JRmritiono (Command 

t -for exemplary achievements in the prevention of — J 
accidents an d the maintenance of a sound 
Safety [Program during C [fiscal IJear 1967 


Ippartmpnt nf thr Armu 

9 


1. Si Army Matpripl dommand 
dommpndation for Safpfy 

JH.JL (Armg ®c«t and Jbalmrtion Command 

t for exemplary achievements in the prevention of - — ; 
accidents and the maintenance of a sound 
Safety [Program during ofiscal year _1567_ 

G INLXAL 


FY - 1967 



HEADQUARTERS 

UNITED STATES ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20315 


AMC Pamphlet 385-80 NOVEMBER 1967 

The Safety Digest is an AMC Pamphlet prepared by the Safety Division, 
Headquarters, U. S. Army Materiel Command. Its purpose is to disseminate 
information which can materially influence and improve safety programs at 
all Command establishments. 

Articles are included to supplement technical knowledge as well as practical 
knowledge gained through experience. They provide a basis for the further 
refinement of safety measures already incorpotated in operating procedures 
and process layout. To achieve maximum effectiveness, the Safety Digest 
should be given widespread circulation at each AMC establishment. 

Articles appearing in the Safety Digest are unclassified and are not copy- 
righted. They may be reproduced as desired in order to bring pertinent 
accident prevention information to the attention of all employees. The Army 
Materiel Command Safety Digest should be given a credit line when articles 
are extracted. 

Unclassified material believed to be of interest or benefit to other establish- 
ments is welcome for publication in the Safety Digest. Please send articles 
for review to: U. S. Army Materiel Command Field Safety Agency, Charles- 
town, Indiana. If possible, include pictures, charts, drawings, and illustrations 
that clarify and heighten interest in your presentation. 


(AMCAD-S) 

'FOR THE COMMANDER: 

OFFICIAL: 


CLARENCE J. LANG 
Major General, USA 

Chief of Staff 



STANLEY J. 
Colonel , 
Chief, A 




n i st r at i ve Office 


Special Distribution 


I 



IN THIS ISSUE 


FOREWORD I 

IN THIS ISSUE II 

U. S. ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND SAFETY AWARDS FOR FY 1967 1 

MANAGEMENT INSPECTION TEAM PRODUCES SAFETY AND 

EFFICIENCY 5 

IF THE CHAIN BREAKS 8 

GIVE THE NEW MAN A HAND 8 

MAKE YOUR SAFETY MEETINGS EFFECTIVE 9 

MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS INCREASE 12 

THE HAND TRAP 14 

FARM TRACTOR MADE SAFER 15 

FIRST, INSTALL THE FIRE PROTECTION 16 

STOPPING DISTANCES 18 

SAFETY GLASSES PREVENTED EYE DAMAGE 20 

MG LATTA PRESENTS ECOM FLIGHT SAFETY AWARDS 21 


CURRENT EVENTS 

LITTLE TURN CAUSES BIG EXCITEMENT 

WELDER GETS HOT FOOT 

THE GLASS PANEL REALLY WAS INVISIBLE 

PAINTER INJURED WHEN SAFETY DEVICE OPERATED 
RECHECK COSTS THREE FINGERS 


EXPLOSIVES SAFETY 

IS YOUR SOP UNDERSTANDABLE? 27 

MACHINES ADD SAFETY TO INITIATING EXPLOSIVES PROCESSING 30 
TEST DEMONSTRATES SHIELD ADEQUACY 34 

DO YOU KNOW? 36 

NSC AWARD OF MERIT PRESENTED TO U. S. ARMY RESEARCH 

AND DEVELOPMENT LABORATORIES 37 

REFERENCE PUBLICATIONS 38 

HAVE YOU CHANGED TO YOUR SNOW TIRES YET? 38 

WELL, DID YOU KNOW? 39 

LONG SAFETY BOARD SERVICE RECOGNIZED 40 

AMC MAJOR SUBORDINATE COMMAND SAFETY AWARDS, 


FY 1967 INSIDE FRONT COVER 


22 

23 

24 

25 

26 


1 



Commendations for Safety 


Point Score 

T 


U.s. Army Nuclear Defense Laboratory 
Harry Diamond Laboratories 
U.S. Army Human Engineering Laboratories 
Office of the Project Manager - NIKE-X 
U.S. Army Coating and Chemical Laboratory 
U.S. Army Materiel Command Installations and Services Agency 
Natick Laboratories 


► GROUP 3 

DEPOTS REPORTING DIRECTLY TO HEADQUARTERS, U.S. ARMY MATERIEL 

COMMAND 

Award of Honor 


Savanna Army Depot 

93.85 

Awards of Merit 

Pueblo Army Depot 

93.75 

Charleston Army Depot 

91.95 

New Cumberland Army Depot 

91.40 

Tobyhanna Army Depot 

91.20 

Red River Army Depot 

89 .15 


Commendations for Safety 

Tooele Army Depot 

Anniston Army Depot 

Sacramento Army Depot 

Granite City Army Depot 

Letterkenny Army Depot 

U.S. Army Maintenance Board 

U.S. Army Area Support Command, Chicago 

U.S. Army Support Center, Richmond 

► GROUP 4 

INSTALLATIONS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE U.S. ARMY MUNITIONS 

COMMAND 

Award of Honor 

Fort Detrick 90.25 


2 


Awards of Merit 


Point Score 


▼ 

Indiana Army Ammunition Plant 88.80 
Kansas Army Ammunition Plant 87.00 
Lake City Army Ammunition Plant 86.30 
Holston Army Ammunition Plant 86.00 
Milan Army Ammunition Plant 84.94 
Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant 80.15 
Frankford Arsenal 79.85 


Commendations for Safety 

St. Louis Army Ammunition Plant 
Radford Army Ammunition Plant 
Edgewood Arsenal 
Newport Army Ammunition Plant 

► GROUP 5 

INSTALLATIONS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE U.S. ARMY WEAPONS COMMAND 

Award of Honor 


Springfield Armory 


90 .40 


Award of Merit 


Rock Island Arsenal 


85.30 


► GROUP 6 

INSTALLATIONS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE U.S. ARMY MISSILE COMMAND 

Award of Honor 

Rohm £ Haas Company, Redstone Arsenal 
Research Division 92.15 

Award of Merit 

Thiokol Chemical Corporation, Huntsville 
Division 80.30 


3 


GROUP 7 


INSTALLATIONS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE U.S. ARMY TEST AND 

EVALUATION COMMAND 


Award of Honor Point Score 

? 

U.S. Army Artillery Board 76,21 

Awards of Merit 

Dugway Proving Ground 75.80 

U.S. Army Armor and Engineer Board 73.37 

Jefferson Proving Ground 71.87 


Commendations for Safety 

U.S. Army Airborne, Electronics and Special Warefare Board 
U.S. Army Electronic Proving Ground 

► GROUP 8 

INSTALLATIONS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION 
MATERIEL COMMAND, U.S. ARMY MOBILITY EQUIPMENT COMMAND, 

AND U.S. ARMY TANK-AUTOMOTIVE COMMAND 

Award of Honor 

Aeronautical Depot Maintenance Center 93.40 
Awards of Merit 

Modification Center 93.00 

Aviation Materiel Laboratories 87.95 

Commendation for Safety 

Aviation Materiel Command, HQ 

► GROUP 9 

INSTALLATIONS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE U.S. ARMY ELECTRONICS 

COMMAND 

Award of Honor 


U.S. Army 


Lima Army 
U.S. Army 


U.S. Army 


Research and Development Directorate and 
Laboratories 93.80 


Award of Merit 


Procurement and Production Directorate 


92.10 


MANAGEMENT INSPECTION TEAM 
PRODUCES SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY 


C. R. Goff 

Safety Director, Day 8 Zimmermann, Inc. 
Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant 


The idea that the Management Inspection Team approach 
should be applied to Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant 
activities became clear in May 1962. The objective was to 
assure that all new equipment, whether an individual 
machine or a complete production line, had all the necessary 
safeguards and components to produce a particular item. 

Before the Management Inspection Team was established, 
the practice was for each division concerned to inspect 
newly installed equipment before it was turned over to 
Production for use. These individuals would make note of 
their findings and bring them to the attention of those 
responsible for making corrections. Because each group did 
this separately, changes were suggested and made over a 
period of time. This resulted in excessive engineering and 
maintenance time being expended. For example, three separate 
actions might be taken at three different times, rather than 
all three at the same time. 

This system was also inadequate in that one division 
might suggest a change which did not meet with the apnroval 
of another division. This could complicate and delay necessary 
changes . 

The Management Inspection Team is composed of two groups. 
The first consists of supervisors, inspectors and safety 
personnel who have responsibility for the area where the 
new equipment will be operated. This group consists of the 
Line Engineer, the Line Superintendent, two Safety Engineers 
and Head Line Inspectors. Both Day 8 Zimmermann, Inc., and the 
Contracting Officer's Representative provide Safety Engineers 
and Head Line Inspectors for the team. 

The second part of the team is the Management Inspection 
Group. It has final responsibility and authority to reach 
agreement, in accordance with prescribed directives, necessary 
to fulfill the contractual obligations of the item to be 
produced. This group consists of the Director of Engineering 
and Maintenance; the Director of Technical, Quality Control and 
Value Analysis; the Director of Safety and Plant Protection; 
the Director of Production; and the Chief of Safety, Contracting 
Officer's Representative. 


5 





As soon as the equipment has been installed to a point 
that inspection is meaningful, the first group makes a joint 
preliminary inspection. If it is possible at that time, 
complete agreement is reached before notifying the second 
group that the equipment is ready for final inspection. Any 
problem areas on which complete agreement cannot be reached 
by the first group is transmitted to the next group before 
its inspection. 

Coordination by both groups starts long before the 
inspections are made. A meeting is arranged as soon as 
a requirement is received to produce a particular item. Inert 
component parts, if available, or drawings are used. All 
the members of the Management Inspection Team, along with 
other interested personnel, discuss the item. Subjects that 
may be considered at this time include the following: 

What type of explosives are required? 

What barricades will be necessary? 

Are operational shields adequate? 

If the item can be handled completely in the open, 
what type of equipment will be required? 

Is needed equipment available? Is it a commercial 
item, or must it be fabricated? 

If an item is unlike previously produced products, 
necessary plans are made for testing the barricades and/or 
operational shields in accordance with the Safety Manual. 

Proposed location for installation of the necessary 
production equipment. 

Estimated production per shift. 

Component and packing material supply and storage. 

Other things incidental to the production of an item 
of ammunition. 

After this discussion, Engineering makes the necessary 
drawings for equipment and line layouts. Production develops 
the necessary SOP's. Technical prepares the Technical Programs 
for barricade testing, if required, plus procedures for 
inspecting and testing the item. The two Safety Departments, 
both Day S Zimmermann and the Contracting Officer's Representat 
ive , act in an advisory capacity to all the divisions concerned 


6 


As drawings, SOP’s and technical programs are prepared, 
they are circulated for the approvals before completion or 
fabrication as appropriate. Each division director of the 
Management Inspection Team is responsible for seeing to it 
that personnel within his division are kept informed about 
the new items in progress. 

By the time the plans progress to the construction stage 
the members of the first approving group are completely familiar 
with the item and the plans. They have been following the 
fabrication, the installation of equipment, the writing of the 
SOP’s and technical programs, and the other facets of the job. 
Each division director who is a part of the Management 
Inspection Team is also receiving periodic reports from his 
personnel as to the status of the installation. 

In most cases when the Management Inspection Team makes 
its inspection, the first group is also present. If changes 
are still required, the personnel who will be responsible for 
the action and follow-up are available. Complete agreement 
by all members of the Management Inspection Team must be 
obtained before the equipment is turned over to the Production 
Division for use. 

In some cases a production line may have some equipment 
that is so new to the industry or so complicated that inert 
runs are made after the Management Inspection Team has made 
its final inspection. This may be necessary in order to 
insure that all equipment operates as it was designed to 
operate . 

In other instances certain pieces of automatic equipment 
for handling sensitive explosives, such as lead azide and 
primer mix, cannot be given a final test with inert materials. 
Special barricades may be set up in remote locations where 
the equipment can be operated under simulated production 
conditions utilizing the actual explosives for the item being 
produced. In this way required engineering changes can be 
made economically. A much quicker determination can also be 
made to the feasibility of certain equipment by utilizing 
isolated installations for specialized explosive handling 
equipment testing rather than attempting to prove out such 
equipment under actual production conditions. 

By limiting the Management Inspection Team to five 
members, agreements are reached with a minimum of difficulty. 

The Management Inspection Team has definitely contributed 
to the safety of operations at the Lone Star Army Ammunition 
Plant. Is assures that all individuals who share responsibility 


7 


for producing an item safely, on time, of good quality, 
with low cost, have followed it through from its inception. 
Close coordination and communication by the Team members 
quickly produces safer and more efficient operations. 


Editor's Note: This article was adapted for Safety Digest 

publication from a presentation Mr. Goff made 
at a Safety Seminar of Ammunition Procurement 
and Supply Agency Safety Directors. 


IF THE CHAIN BREAKS 


A worker broke a window at an AMC installation, looked up 
at the ceiling and made a chilling discovery. If he had 
broken some of the other window chains in the building, he 
might have been electrocuted. 

The building had an overhead crane powered by electricity. 
Three wires , not covered by insulation because they supplied 
power through contact with the motor, ran the length of the 
building. On one side of the building the metal chains 
used to open and close high windows ran near the exposed 
power lines. Had a chain broken near the top it could easily 
have come into contact with a hot line and electrocuted any- 
one holding the other end. 

The worker who discovered the hazard suggested a way to 
correct it. The pull chains were enclosed in metal conduits, 
which were secured to the structure of the building. 

Have you looked up lately? A hazard may be lurking over- 
head . 


GIVE THE NEW MAN A HAND 


Just as the toddler needs Mom and Dad's outstretched 
hands when he takes his first steps, the new man on the job 
can use a little coaching too. 

After all, one of the satisfactions of being an old hand 
on the job is sharing your know-how with beginners. 

By showing him the right and safe way to do his job, 
you can help him avoid painful and costly injuries — even death. 

(Continued on page 11 


8 




MAKE YOUR SAFETY MEETINGS EFFECTIVE 


Are you looking for a little extra push that will improve 
your safety record? 

It is unlikely that you will find any one new thing that 
will cause a sensational improvement. Most progress in 
accident prevention is made by the energy, efficiency and 
imagination with which your complete safety program is applied. 
The best records reflect the effective use made of already 
available tools . 

Few accident prevention tools are more commonly used 
than the safety meeting for small groups of employees. Results 
should be produced, for information on current safety problems 
can be brought directly to the individual workers who are 
concerned. The sessions are also expensive in time and pay. 

All too often, however, those who attend the gathering seem 
to think it is a dull waste of time. If they think this about 
your safety meetings, they are probably correct. 

Here are 20 suggestions that may help make your safety 
meetings more effective. After adopting those that are 
applicable to you, you may find it profitable to pass the 
list on to supervisors who conduct safety meetings. The ideas 
can also be adapted to other types of sessions. 

1. Get the purpose clearly in mind before you issue 
your call. At your safety meeting you are going to inform 
or teach one or more aspects of safety to members of your 
organization. Make certain you will have one or more specific 
subjects . 


2. Select a major topic. It may be one that has 
been used a hundred times. Do not shy away from the old 
problems because they are old. People are still getting their 
fingers caught in machines, slipping on ice in the parking 

lot and tripping over telephone cords in the office. They 
need and can apply instructions on familiar problems. 

3. Announce the meeting and the subject to be 
covered a day or two in advance. The penalty for failure to 
do this is likely to be poor participation by personnel who 
lack an opportunity to organize their thoughts and questions. 


9 




4. Arrange for the best meeting place you can 
secure. Strive to hold it in a place that is quiet and com- 
fortable. The worker who cannot hear, who is crowded, or 
who has to stand will receive little benefit. His mind 
will be on his discomfort, not on accident prevention. 

5. Arrange to eliminate distractions. Telephones 
that must be answered or individuals who are called away in 
the middle of a presentation or discussion interruptthe 
attention of everybody present. 

6. Arrange for the best time. This will vary 
from group to group, according to the nature of the work 
done. Early in the day is usually a good time, for it 
permits immediate use of the information received. 

7. Arrange for attendance at the meeting. Make 
certain the personnel who should be there can and will be 
present , 


8. Make certain that the personnel scheduled to 
attend are those who have a real interest in the subject 
that will be discussed. Your stenographers and file clerks 
would be out of place at a session on safe operation of 
fork lift trucks. If you cannot adjust your audience to fit 
the subject, adjust the subject matter to fit the audience. 

9. Arrange for supervisors to be present and to 
participate as appropriate. The workers need to know the 
boss is concerned with their safety. When the supervisor is 
"too busy" to attend a meeting devoted to the safety of his 
personnel, there must be something wrong with the way he is 
doing his job. 

10 . Make certain that any needed "props" , from 
leaflet to blackboard, to projector, will be in place and 
ready for use when the meeting starts. Don't let the "props " 
distract from the subject matter. Use only those that are 
needed . 


11. Plan the actual presentation. Organize the 
information that will be given. Decide how much time will be 
devoted to presentation and participation. Outline questions 
to stimulate participation if the audience should prove to 

be "cold". Plan the way the meeting will be closed. 

12. Start and stop the meeting on time. Late starts 
and overdue endings waste time and decrease interest. Those 
present have work to do. Short meetings and brief talks are 
likely to be more interesting than long ones. 


10 


13. Introduce your topic and present your facts in 
simple, clear language. Avoid technical terms, because these 
may fail to convey a clear meaning to your audience. The big 
word or the fashionable abbreviation may screen a fuzzy 
thought. If you know your subject, you can talk about it in 
simple, clear and interesting terms. 

14. Avoid the use of large quantities of statistics. 
If you must use figures, convert them into understandable 
terms. Do not read long passages from rules. Avoid fault- 
finding, criticism and "This is the way it is going to be” 
presentations. Persuade your personnel to believe rather 
than try to "cram it down their throats". 

15. Promote group participation. Persons who take 
part usually end by knowing more than those who simply sit 
and appear to listen. 

16. Try to secure agreement on problems. Those who 
help develop a solution work harder to apply it. 

17. At the close of the meeting summarize the ground 
you have covered and the conclusions you have reached. 

18. Keep extraneous subjects out of the discussion. 
After all, it is a safety meeting. 

19. Be sincere. Accident prevention is a serious, 
important subject. 

20. After the meeting is over, look back at it. 

What can you do to make the next one better? When you do this 
seriously, you are on the way toward improvement. 


(Continued from page 8) 

Helping the beginner is not only a friendly but a wise 
thing to do. In the plant, where teamwork counts, his 
error could spell danger not only for himself but for you 
and your co-workers as well. 

An an "old pro" you have an obligation at work, at 

home, or on the highway, to set good examples for the 
beginner. 


-Sharpe Army Depot 


11 


MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS INCREASE 


That impression you have had that there are more noisy 
motorcycles darting about the scenery is based on fact. In 
the 1961-66 period there was a 220 per cent increase in their 
number. In the same time all motor vehicles increased only 
26 per cent. 

The National Safety Council's "Accident Facts", 1967 
edition reports that deaths of motorcycle riders increased 
210 per cent, from 697 to 2,160. The NSC estimates ' that the 
mileage death rate is between 20 and 40 per 100,000,000 
vehicle miles of travel, in comparison with an all motor 
vehicle rate of 5.7. In the United States Continental Army 
Command 10 soldiers were killed and 167 injured on motorcycles 
and motor scooters in FY 1966. Twelve AMC Active Army 
personnel were injured in cycle accidents in FY 1967. 

♦ Detailed analysis by CON ARC has revealed the following 
facts about its two-wheeled vehicle accidents: 

1. These accidents occur most frequently during 
warm weather, on weekends, on clear days and during daylight 
hours . 


2. The principle causes include lack of skill, 
excessive speed and faulty attitude. 

3. Two-wheeled vehicle accidents are severe, with 
an average 27 days lost time per injury. 

4 S Two-wheeled vehicles are often struck by auto- 
mobile drivers who do not see the cycles. This indicates a 
need for more conspicuous apparel for cyclists, 

5. Twenty per cent of the injuries occurred when 
the individual was riding a two-wheeled vehicle for the first 
or second time . 

6. Seventy per cent of the vehicles involved were 
either rented or borrowed. 

♦ Safeguards for cycle safety recommended by CON ARC include 
the following: 


1 . 


2 . 


Eye protection. 
Safety helmet. 


12 




3. Conspicuous attire. 

4. Leather clothing. 

5 . Heavy protective foot gear. 

^ CONARC ' s preventive measures include the following: 

1. Testing operators to determine competency. 

2. Training operators to develop and improve 
initial skill. 

3 . Inspection to insure safe condition of 

vehicle . 

4 . Enforcement to require compliance with rules 
and regulations. 

5 . Utilization of any available aids for train- 
ing operators of motorcycles and motor scooters. 

Motorcycles appear to exert a particular attraction for 
teenage personnel. Before any younger members of your 
family are permitted to operate a cycle the greatest pos- 
sible use should be made of facts , recommendations and safe- 
guards that will contribute to their safety. 

Care should also be taken to make certain the young 
operators know and obey state and local requirements for cycle 
safety . 



13 


THE HAND TRAP 


C.D. Attaway, Chief Safety Engineer 
Thiokol Chemical Corporation 
Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant 



When a rising trend in hand and finger injuries among 
employees in the plant accounted for 100 per cent of the 
total plant injuries, the Safety Section initiated a camoaign 
of safety promotions and publicity titled, "THE HAND TRAP". 

One of the ideas utilized was a display board approximately 14 
inches long, 10 inches wide with a 4-inch base fitted with a 
plastic reDlica of a human hand and a message placard on a 
black background. The hands were painted a brilliant red to 
attract attention; and one message read, "Fingers will not 
grow back." A second message read, "Can you grow another?" 

These display boards were located at machines and in 
areas where a high incident rate of hand and finger injuries 
were being experienced. Their use was successful in making 
the plant employees conscious of the need to prevent injuries 
to their hands and fingers. 


14 






FARM TRACTOR MADE SAFER 


Larry Morgan, Safety Officer 
Joliet Army Ammunition Plant 


A farm tractor turns over in about two seconds, experts 
say. When the point of no return is reached, a complete 
roll over is just seven-tenths of a second away. This 
leaves little time for a safe exit by the operator. 

Purdue University Extension Farm Safety Specialists say 
farm tractors are blamed for 1,000 fatalities every year in 
the United States. Eighty-five per cent of these involve 
the operator of the tractor. 



Ammunition Plant, complemented its safety program with the 
addition of roll bars and seat belts to its tractors. (Photo 
1.) This action was taken last spring. Its soundness was 
proven before the warm weather season was over when a tractor 
overturned while mowing on a grade. (Photo 2.) The operator 
received no serious injuries. 


In view of the statistical evidence and Joliet Arsenal 
experience, AMC installations should consider installing 
protective devices to prevent possible injuries to its 
operator if a tractor upset occurs. 


15 




FIRST, INSTALL THE FIRE PROTECTION 


The recent experience of a non-Army Federal organiza- 
tion provides a timely reminder of an old fire prevention 
principle. Before you expose personnel and property to a 
possible fire hazard, plan for and provide the fire 
prevention and detection system that will protect them. 

The Federal organization was cooperating with a 
university that was designing and building a special purpose 
computer. The cooperation included furnishing several 
million dollars. Most of the computer w as installed in 
the second floor of a university-owned fire-resistant 
building. A smoke detection system had been recommended for 
the computer area, but its installation was postponed 
pending construction of additions to the building. 

During a weekend when no one was in the building a 
fire broke out. A policeman saw the smoke and reported it 
to the university fire department. The firemen responded 
promptly, but had difficulty locating the blaze because 
dense smoke had spread throughout the building. There were 
no exterior windows in the computer area. Although the 
fire fighters used self-contained breathing apparatus, it 
took them approximately one hour to locate the fire. When 
it was found, it was quickly extinguished with water from 
two 1 1/ 2-inch hose lines with fog nozzles. 

Total damage to the computer, electronic equipment and 
the building from heat and smoke was estimated to be 
$210,000. Delay in the eventual use of the computer was 
also expected. 

The fire started in the vicinity of three plywood 
tables with shelves that contained packaged computer parts 
and electronic testing equipment. It was theorized that 
electrical equipment which may have inadvertently been left 
on from the night before may have overheated and ignited 
combustibles on the worktables. Circuit breakers for the 
area were found open after the fire. 

The following lessons learned from the fire may be 
applied or adapted to meet situations at Army Materiel 
Command installations: 


16 





► 1. The fire might have been discovered in its 

incipient stage, if the smoke detection system (installation 
of which had been delayed) had been completely installed 
and in operation prior to the incident, or if automatic 
sprinklers had been provided. Needed fire protection should 
be installed prior to the installation of high-value and 
important equipment . 

» 2. 'Assembly operations and the storage of 
miscellaneous parts may present greater fire potentials 
than the operation of the computer and associated equipment. 
The fire exposure from assembly and storage may warrant 
the installation of temporary heat (fire) detection, smoke 
detection, or sprinkler systems. 

-*■ 3. Fire fighting procedures should be developed 

at the beginning of construction or equipment installation. 

► 4. Procedures should require that electronic 

testing equipment be turned off at the end of the workday , 
preferably from a central control panel. 

► 5. Ventilation systems for computer equipment 

should be on separate circuits and should be shut down when 
the equipment is not operating. 

♦ 6. A computer area should be separated (i.e., cut 
off) from the remainder of the building by a partition or 
wall with one-hour fire resistance, with equivalent protection 
for all communicating openings in the enclosure, to protect 
the computer equipment from fires originating outside the 
computer area. 

7 . Parts storage and assembly shops should not 

be permitted within the computer area. Any furniture, 
shelves and cabinets needed within the computer area or a 
high-value work area should be noncombustible. 

^8. Copies of program data and important design 

drawings should be stored in fire resistant safes in another 
location to prevent loss in the event of a fire in the work 
area . 


Editor f s Note: Army standards for the protection of electronic 

digital computers and allied recorded data are 
contained in AR 420-94, Fire Protection for 
Electronic Digital Computers and Recorded Data, 
Section VII, AR 420-90 contains Army standards 
for other installed and stored critical materiel. 


17 


STOPPING DISTANCES 


Safety Division 

Headquarters Operations, MICOM 


Failure on the part of the average driver to under- 
stand the amount of time and distance required to stop a 
vehicle traveling at given speeds and under varying road 
conditions is a serious matter. 

The driver who says he can stop on a dime is overdue 
for some good advice and closer supervision. Even at 20 
miles per hour, including time for reacting and braking, 
he would need 846 dimes or 47 feet to stop safely. 

It takes even longer when perception time is included. 
Here's the formula: 

PERCEPTION + REACTION + APPLICATION = TOTAL STOPPING 
DISTANCE PERCEPTION - This includes awareness of a dangerous 
traffic situation and a decision how to handle it. Perception 
includes the following important items: 

1. Knowledge of accident-causing conditions. 

2. Ability to make decisions quickly. 

3. Good mental and physical shape. 

4. Ability to see out of the vehicle. 

5. Attention to the job of driving, 

REACTION - This covers the time between making up your 
mind to brake and getting your foot on the brake pedal, 

APPLICATION - Execution of a decision to apply the brakes 
involves : 

1. Physical coordination. 

2. Ability to operate brakes. 


18 





Wasted time here means trouble an instant later. 
Actual braking does not occur until the brake shoes are in 
firm contact with the brake drums. Firm, steady contact 
must be held until the car stops. 

BRAKE-ANALYSIS 


There are three ways to stop a car. These are: 

1. Collision with a moving or stationary object. 
Its occurrence unmasks a careless driver who has neglected 
the upkeep of his brakes or who has never learned how to 
judge a safe stopping distance. 

2. Locking wheels and letting road surface do the 
rest. This is the frequent sign of an inattentive or hard 
riding "cowboy" driver who runs a chance of skidding and 
loss of steering control. With wheels locked the car is 
stopped by friction between the wheels and the road. This 
is very rough on tire tread. It is also distracting to 
others who happen to be driving to the front, rear or the 
sides . 

3. Letting brake shoes do the job without locking 
the wheels. This is the mark of a smooth operator. The 
determining factor here is braking force of the car -- 
friction between the brake shoe and the drum. The best 
braking force is achieved just before wheels lock. Ease up 
on the pedal -- even in an emergency just before locking -- 
or the car may skid and steering control may be lost. 

STOPPING TIPS 


The engine may be used as a brake, especially in low 
gear. This takes the load off brakes on hills and mountains 
and prevents brake fading. 

Observe posted safe speed when entering curves. Condi- 
tions ahead are often hidden and the driver should be prepared 
to stop. 

Pump the brakes gently on slippery roads. It takes 
longer to stop but skidding is prevented. Begin pumping as 
early as possible. 

Do not overdrive headlights. Be able to stop within 
headlight range if an emergency develops. 

Reduce speed drastically on snow and ice because of 
increased stooping distance (8 to 12 times as much as on dry 
surface). Snow tires help some but the best protection is 
reinforced tire chains. 


19 


When first driving a car with power brakes, test them 
at low speed to get the feel of the new system. Guard against 
overbraking. When switching from power to normal, don't 
underbrake . 

If a collision cannot be avoided and there is a choice 
of targets, choose the one with the most "give" (pedestrians 
excluded). Just a little "give" helps a lot. 


AVERAGE STOPPING DISTANCES FOR PASSENGER CARS 



50 MPH 


243', 16 car lengths 


6 0 MPH 


366', 23 car lengths 



SAFETY GLASSES 
PREVENTED 
EYE DAMAGE 


70 MPH 532 


33 car lengths 


James Ledford, a Hercules Incorporated employee at 
Radford Army Ammunition Plant, has his safety glasses to 
thank for his unimpaired eyesight. A work assignment required 
him to remove a flooring material that had been bonded to a 
wooden deck. He used a brass hammer to break the bond 
between the two materials. During this chipping operation 
the tool struck a pocket of explosive material, and a small 
explosion occurred. The flooring material was propelled into 
the man's face and was embedded under the skin, as shown in 
the picture. Mr. Ledford's eyes were saved from serious 
damage by the safety glasses he was wearing. 

20 


MG LATTA PRESENTS ECOM FLIGHT SAFETY AWARDS 


MG W. B. Latta (2d from left), 
Commanding General, U.S. Army 
Electronics Command, recently 
presented two ECOM flight safety 
awards for superior accomplishment 
in the prevention of aircraft 
accidents. The awards were present- 
ed to Colonel G. A. Kurkjian (center), 
Commanding Officer, Electronics 
Support Command. Also shown are 
Mr. Bernard M. Savaiko, Chief of the 
ECOM Safety Division, Major Roy 
Renegar, Aviation Safety Officer, 
and LTC I. J. Kersey, Commanding 
Officer of the Aviation Detachment. 

During FY 1966 and FY 1967 the 
Aviation Detachment completed 
17,789 flight hours without an 
accident or injury to its personnel. 
General Latta commented that this 
record reflected great credit upon 
the leadership provided and the 
proficiency of the flight and 
general crew personnel. 



MG HAYES PRESENTS AWARD FOR BRAVERY 


MG John J. Hayes, Project Manager for 
the T-53 and T-55 Turbine Aircraft Engines 
Army Materiel Command, recently presented 
the Meritorious Civilian Service Award 
for Bravery to Mr. Donald F. Smith, 
Charleston Army Depot. Mr. Smith saved 
the life of Mr. Moten Lloyd, a fellow 
employee, who came into contact with an 
electrically charged cable. Mr. Smith 
freed Mr. Lloyd from the current, 
administered aid and secured he IP that 
restored the injured man's pulse and 
breathing to normal. His initiative 
and resourcefulness prevented further 
injury to Mr. Lloyd and other workers. 
Presentation of the award was observed 
by Colonel C. S. Campbell, Charleston 
Army Depot Commander. 


» 



21 








CURRENT 


LITTLE TURN CAUSES BIG EXCITEMENT 


Two Army employees were performing maintenance inside 
a hangar on a propeller driven aircraft. One worker bumped 
into the propeller and decided to move it out of the way. 

The partial turn he gave the propeller started the plane’s 
engine. 

The 1500 RPM operation of the engine set the aircraft 
into motion. A third worker, who was standing near the 
chocked left wheel, tried to hold the plane in place. It 
moved in spite of his effort, and he ran toward the tail to 
push there. Freed from the force he had been able to apply, 
the aircraft began to turn, because one wheel was not 
chocked . 

After the plane moved about five feet its propeller 
began to strike an engine on the floor and a tool box. Debris 
torn from the propeller, the engine and the box began to fly. 
Pieces struck the aileron and vertical stabilizer of another 
aircraft about 50 feet away. 

One of the workmen ran to the aircraft cockpit and 
turned the magneto switch to the off position. The engine 
stopped firing. 

No one was disabled. Estimated property damage exceeded 
$2,400. 

Investigation revealed that the aircraft was not properly 
secured, because only one wheel had been chocked. The magneto 
switch had been left in the "both” position, and the mixture 
control was in the full rich position. The battery was 


22 





disconnected, the fuel was in the "off" position and the 
control cable for throttle was disconnected. The carburetor 
was new, was being soaked and therefore was full of fuel. 

The following actions were taken to prevent similar ac- 
cidents : 


1, Directives were published on the actions required 
when an aircraft is brought into a hangar and when a new 
shift begins work on a plane. These include requirements for 
chocks to be placed under each main wheel, for the magneto 
switch to be in the "off" position, for the fuel to be turned 
off, for the battery to be disconnected, for the aircraft to 
be grounded and for the mixture control to be in the cutoff 
position . 


2 * Personnel concerned with aircraft maintenance 
were briefed on the accident, the factors that caused it 
and accident prevention measures. The gravity and consequence 
of his act was discussed with the worker who had turned the 
propeller . 

3 . The accident was brought to the attention of 
the division safety committee, the aviation safety council 
and the supervisors committee. 

4. Closer supervision of new and inexperienced 
personnel was emphasized in order to insure compliance with 
directives and safe practices. 


WELDER GETS HOT FOOT 


A welder sat on a one-foot high stool to do part of 
his work. The task at hand was the securing of a newly 
fabricated one-inch thick steel ring on a final drive hub. 
This was mounted on a rotating welding fixture about 30 
inches above the floor level. The worker was using an 
electric welder and a 3/16-inch diameter electrode. 

While he worked a piece of hot slag flew toward him 
from the welding surface. It crossed above a 20-inch high 
sheet metal guard and fell to the floor. It landed near 
the workman, bounced, fell into the top of the five-inch 
high work shoe on his right foot and came to rest on his 
heel . 


23 



Before the worker could remove the shoe he received a 
third degree burn. When treatment at the post dispensary 
failed to heal the burn, he was hospitalized for skin graft- 
ing. 


The welder was the second worker at the installation to 
be burned by hot metal from a welding operation. After the 
first accident the 20-inch high barricade was erected. The 
shield had failed to provide the protection needed. 

Soon after the second accident eight-inch high welder’s 
shoes were ordered for all welders. Until the new shoes 
werei received and issued all welders were required to secure 
their pants cuffs below their shoe tops. 



■ 

0 

mam 

THE GLASS PANEL 

j 


REALLY WAS INVISIBLE 1 



1 

mim 


The facilities directorate was notified that a glass 
door panel was broken. It dispatched repairmen who re- 
moved the broken glass and the hand guard that was a part 
of the door. They then left the area to secure a new panel. 
The unmarked door frame was left in its closed position. 

A short time later an enlisted man came hurrying out 
of the building. He was not aware that repairs had been 
started, and he tried to open the door by shoving on the 
glass panel. He lunged forward when his shoving hands 
encountered empty air where he expected to encounter clear 
heavy glass. He tripped on the bottom of the door frame 
and fell forward through the frame. He landed on both 
elbows on the concrete porch. 

Bones in both elbows were broken and the soldier was 
expected to be away from his regular duties for 45 days. 

The door was promptly repaired. Measures were taken 
to make certain that repairmen p osted si gns warning of 
hazards while work was in progress. 


24 




PAINTER INJURED WHEN SAFETY DEVICE OPERATED 


Plans were made to prevent injury or damage when three 
electrically operated roll up type doors were installed in 
a building. An emergency reversing system was provided. 

When the bottom of a descending door came into contact with 
an object during its lowering cycle, the system would stop 
the door at that point and then cause it to raise. 

Time passed and a contract was made for painting the 
building. The contractor's painters set to work and it 
fell to the lot of one to paint one of the doors. 

The painter exercised caution to prevent the closed 
door from being operated by an unseen person on the opposite 
side. He operated the control and lowered the door a short 
distance. The remaining three-fourths opening seemed to be 
enough to make his ladder visible to anybody. He placed his 
ladder against the outside of the door surface and went up 
to work. 

When the painter was well up on his ladder, the door's 
reversing system functioned. The man may have made contact 
with the bottom of the door. The door moved up beyond the 
point where the ladder was supported, and the ladder fell 
forward against the hard floor of the building. 

The startled painter had no choice but to ride the ladder 
down. He suffered a lacerated finger, a fractured bone in 
his right forearm and a lower back sprain. It was estimated 
that it might be three or four months before he could return 
to his work as a painter. 

The contractor's foreman was given instructions on the 
operation of mechanical overhead doors. He was told that 
these doors would not be used to support ladders. 


* 


25 





RECHECK COSTS THREE FINGERS 


Two electricians were making the electrical instal- 
lations required to provide power to two newly installed 
boring machines. The job included installing an overhead 
conduit. This was to be supported by an I-beam, which also 
supported a traveling crane and the crane rail. 

The workers ‘marked the I-beam and then made use of the 
crane as a platform while they worked on the conduit and the 
conduit hangers. To do the job it was necessary for them to 
lean out of the crane, as shown by No. 1 in the photo. 

The conduit hangers were installed, as shown by No. 2 
in the photo. It was then found that the conduit would not 
clear the rivets in the support beam unless shims were used 
with the hangers. The two men began to remove the hangers, 
install shims, replace the hangers and reset and connect 
each section of conduit. 

Two hangers for a section were shimmed and the conduit 
reset. The men next prepared to move the crane to a point 
where two sections could be coupled together. One electrician 
was at the controls and the second was behind him. The man 
at the controls turned, checked on his companion, saw he was 
clear, and turned back to operate the crane. 

At this moment the second electrician decided to recheck 
the clearance. He leaned out of the cab and placed his hand 
on the rail for support. (See No. 3 in the photo.) At this 
moment the operator, thinking all was clear, started the 
crane movement. The bridge drive wheels ran over his hand 
that rested on the rail. The middle, third and little fingers 
were amputated. 

All persons authorized to operate overhead cranes were 
made aware of the accident and its consequence. They were 
reinstructed to be positive that all personnel and materials 
were in a safe place before any crane was moved. 



26 






IS YOUR SOP UNDERSTANDABLE? 


How often have you encountered the standing operating 
procedure that made it harder instead of easier to under- 
stand the step-by-step operation it described? 

In the last few years great improvements have been 
made in reproduction processes. It is no longer necessary 
for an SOP to be a dull, uninformative or confusing document. 

An explosives area operating procedure prepared by the 
Thiokol Chemical Corporation, contractor operator of the 
Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, shows how an SOP can be 
more attractive, interesting and useful. A section taken 
from its standing operating procedure for the manufacture of 
the M-125 Series Ground Signals is an example. The 38-page 
section, which deals specifically with M-125A1 and M-127A1 
Illuminant Consolidation and Assembly, contains the following 

1, Step-by-step instructions on performing tasks 
appear on 20 pages. Each of these pages contains the 
following information: 

Title of the SOP. 

Number, section, revision and date of the SOP. 

Section title of the SOP. 

Name of the operation. 

Location where the specific operation is perform 
ed. This includes plant number, building, bay and section. 

Personnel limits for both operators and casuals 
in the building, the bay and the section. 

Explosives limits for bay and the station. 

Explosive class. 


27 


Fire symbol. 

Layout drawing number. 

Approval spaces. 

Step-by-step instruction for operations to be 
performed at the station. 

Parts list for the items used. This includes 
the name of the part, drawing or commercial identification 
and number or amount of material required to perform one 
operation. These parts lists appear on 12 of the 19 
instruction pages . 

Special safety notes that apply to operations 
in the bay. These special safety notes appear on 17 of 19 
instruction pages. 

2 . Photographs and small drawings fill pages that 
are numbered "Sketch 1" through "Sketch 17". Twenty photo- 
graphs and 12 drawings are used. Photographs appear on 16 
of the pages and drawings on nine. Some of the sketch pages 
contain both photographs and drawings. 

There are frequent tie-ins throughout the SOP text 
between instructions, the sketch pages and the special safety 
notes. The following is an example: 

"Use a brush to coat inner side of illuminant case 
with binder composition (1) per Sketch 10. Follow Safety 
Note 1." 

Safety Note 1 is clearly identified and it appears on 
the sheet with the instruction, starting an inch below it. 
Sketch 19 is the following page, and one of its three clearly 
identified photographs shows a brush being used to apply 
binder to the inner side of an illuminant case. 

Sample pages of the Thiokol Chemical Corporation Standing 
Operating Procedure accompany this article. (Page 10 and 
Sketch 10 . ) 

A standing operating procedure similar to the Thiokol 
Chemical Corporation example can be reproduced by 'a variety of 
modern reproduction equipment. 


28 


If a standing operating procedure is required, it is 
worth preparing in a format that will make the instructions 
and operation absolutely clear and safe. 


LONOMORN ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT 

LOWTIOT 
PLANT 2 

■UTLBTWB ' 

34 -Y 

MkV 

)in 

ITXT1BH ' 

10 

Manufacture 'of the M-125 Series 
Ground Signals 

UNUTS 

PERSONNEL 

CASUALS 

EXPLOSIVES 

6 

36 

6 

3 

1 

125* 

1 

1 

2° T nc **e - 

*OP NO. SECTION NO. REVISION DATE 

10 7 Orig. 11-16-6 

Jicrldw HTlI 

Illuminant Consolidation 5 Assembly 

EXPLOSIVE class 

2 

1VM.OL 1 LAYOUT OHO. HO. 

, 1.20-4073 

; Sheet 8 

operation Apply Binder, Add Anchor 
Assembly and Case Disc 

APPROVALS 
POI I WON. 

PRODUCTION M0R 

VMOMMICAL DIR. 

ARMY 


25. Pre -assembled anchor assemblies are delivered in tote boxes; 
mixed binder composition in disposable container is delivered 
from mixing; case disc in tote box is delivered from drving in 
1 8 -Y. 

26. Apply Binder, Add Anchor Assembly and Case Pise 

26.1 Use a brush to coat inner side of illuminant case with binder 
composition (1) per Sketch 10, Follow Safety Note 1. 

26.2 Insert case disc (2) and anchor assembly (3; in the illuminant 
case per Sketch 10; manually press anchor assembly firmly against 
illuminant . 

27. Place illuminant assembly on conveyor and move to Station 11. 

SPECIAL SAFE TY NOTES 

1. Binder composition container shall he kent closed except when in 
use . 

2. Waste binder composition will be placed in waste container under 

water - PARTS LIST 


dent ifying 
Number 

Name of 
Part/Material 

Dwg . No . , Size 
or Spec. 

Number/ Amount 
Pequi red 

CD 

Binder Composition 


AP 

(2) 

Disc, Case 

8797980 

1 

(3) 

Anchor Assembly 

8797988 

1 




S. 0. P. NO. 10, SECTION 7 
BUILDING 34 Y 


APPLY BINDBl TO INNER SIDE OF ILLUMINANT 
CASE. 


INSDIT CASE DISC IN CASE. 


ILLUMINANT 




1 — 


I nth ; htr4ffTn 

b 



. 

1 


ANCHOR ASSEMBLY 
CASE DISC 


ILLUMINANT CASE 


29 



MACHINES ADD SAFETY TO INITIATING EXPLOSIVES PROCESSING 


C. R. Goff 

Director, Safety and Plant Protection 
Lone Star Division, Day & Zimmermann , Inc. 
Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant 


The handling of initiating explosives such as lead 
azide and primer mix has been a safety problem in the 
ammunition loading industry from the time these were first 
used. Hazards still exist despite great strides in 
mechanization. Because these explosives are required to 
initiate the explosive train, they must be extremely 
sensitive to spark, friction, impact and crushing to 
guarantee functioning of the item in which they are used. 

Photo 1 shows the size of a small XM relay (left), that 
is essentially a detonator, and a large M50 detonator 
(right) when compared to a dime. Obviously, the explosive 
content is very minute, yet it must be powerful enough to 
set off the next step in the explosive train. It must be 
sensitive enough to function every time. 

Photo 2 shows the initiating explosives consolidated 
in the M55 detonator. This detonator is slightly larger 
than the smaller component in Photo 1. At the top are 
approximately 32 milligrams of LCA primer mix, in the middle 
are about 70 milligrams of RD-1333 lead azide, and on the 
bottom are about 57 milligrams of HMX. 

Hand scooping of the initiating explosives that went 
into these small items was the accepted method in the 
industry until Day & Zimmermann, Inc., contractor operator 
of the Lone Star Armv Ammunition Plant, Texarkana, Texas, 
designed and proved the first automatic loading device known 
as the frictionless loader. Although the operator performing 
hand scooping was protected by an operational shield, her 
hands were exposed to an explosion in a one-ounce receptacle 
(Photo 3). As soon as the frictionless loader was developed 
and proven, it was installed in regular hand lines. This 
eliminated the hazardous hand scooping operation. 

An incentive to develop an automatic metering device was 
created by the introduction of RD-1333 lead azide into 
detonator loading, in place of dextrinated lead azide. This 
replacement was necessary because new fuze design requirements 
dictated smaller detonators with greater output. Dextrinated 


30 





lead azide could not meet the requirement. RD-1333 lead 
azide was much more sensitive to shock, friction and other 
factors and it could meet design requirements. Unfortunately, 
it further increased the hazard of hand scooping sensitive 
materials . 

Photo 4 shows a frictionless loader of the type first 
used to eliminate hand loading. This is the first of 
three automatic metering devices that have been developed by 
Day S Zimmermann at Lone Star. After the development of 
these loaders, they were installed on a Jones loading 
machine . 

The frictionless loader uses the hour glass principle. 

The initiating explosive runs continually through the funnel. 

A movable chute beneath the funnel interrupts the flow, 
thereby resulting in either metering the initiating explosives 
or returning it to the water-wheel that in turn dumps the 
powder back into the top of the funnel. This machine is 
used for both dextrinated and RD-1333 lead azide. 

The Chamlee loader was developed as an improvement over 
the frictionless loader. (Photo 5.) It used the "flip-flop" 
principle in which the loading cup is filled in one position 
and is then rotated 180°. This permits the powder to fall 
through a funnel into the detonator. 

The Cargile loader (Photo 6) was developed specifically 
for the loading of primer mixes. Primer mixes do not flow 
as readily as azides. This is especially true of NOL 130 primer 
mix which tends to cling to the scoop or funnel and will not 
free flow. This loader can also be used for azides but not 
with the accuracy obtainable with other loaders. The 
mechanism of this loader recreates mechanically the move- 
ments of a human hand while scooping. 

Photo 7 shows a typical Jones loader. It provides 
automatic cycling from one operation to another in the 
consolidation of explosives, but still requires hazardous hand 
scooping of sensitive initiating explosives. These machines 
have now had the automatic metering devices added. 

The Jones loading machine is relatively versatile, but 
it cannot load small components with more than three increments. 
A machine had to be designed that could be used to load, 
automatically and remotely, detonators requiring four or more 
increments. A detonator loading machine known as the Trans-o- 
mator was developed. (Photo 8.) 


31 


This Trans-o-mator automatically loads the inert metal 
cups into the stations, performs the necessary initiating 
explosive loading steps, consolidates, inserts closures, 
crimps, inspects, separates rejects from acceptable 
detonators, and ejects finished products into receptacles. 
This machine does not provide for automatic packaging 
yet, but we are working on it. 

The introduction of RD-1333 lead azide did more than 
increase the hand scooping hazard. Detonators loaded with 
it have exploded inside cardboard packages at rest in 
holding barricades . Such explosions have occurred several 
hours after loading of the detonators without any outside 
initiating force being applied. As a result of this 
experience, a new type final pack for detonators has been 
engineered to prevent propagation within the package if 
one detonator should explode. 

Although Day & Zimmermann has been able to develop an 
almost completely automated machine for filling detonator 
cups by the use of a Trans-o-mator, along with automatic 
metering equipment and packaging to preclude propagation, 
the story is not complete. There is still much to be done 
to eliminate the final manual operation during the loading 
process. Equipment is needed to package detonators auto- 
matically as they leave the Jones machines or Trans-o-mators . 
Equipment for this purpose is now in the early design stage. 

There still remain the processing problems of washing, 
drying, screening and blending of the various azides and 
primer mixes prior to their introduction to the automatic 
loading equipment. Much design and engineering effort will 
be required to develop equipment and processes which will 
eliminate all manual handling. Most of these operations are 
accomplished behind substantial dividing walls, that should 
contain an explosion and protect personnel. Manual handling 
of these sensitive explosives between the various operations 
also is a problem that requires solution. 

The development of successful automated equipment and 
procedures for the processing of these explosives prior to 
automatic loading is costly. So few people are involved in 
this type of production that it is not possible to carry out 
the development of automated equipment on a self-amortizing 
basis. It is therefore necessary to make an investment in 
safety. This should receive a high priority as we progress 
to more sensitive initiating explosives. 


32 


Editor's Note: Additional details on how a frictionless loader 

operates may be obtained from Mr. S. J. Ryan's 
article, "New Frictionless Loader Breakthrough 
in Loading Initiating Explosives", in the 
March 1966 Safety Digest. 




33 






The accompanying series of four photographs demonstrates 
the care exercised at Army Materiel Command installations to 
determine the adequacy of explosive protective shields. The 
pictures were made by a Day & Zimmermann, Inc. photographer 
while a test was being conducted at Lone Star Army Ammunition 
Plant. The item tested was a protective shield designed 
for installation on Jones loaders. 

Photo 1 shows an outside view of the shield before it 
was tested. It had been mounted on legs and placed outside 
at a site where a remotely controlled explosion would not 
endanger personnel. 

Photo 2 shows the inside of the shield. The circular 
device on the floor is a scooping receptacle with an M1A1 
electric squib positioned above it. The shield was designed 
to provide protection from an explosion of one ounce of 
dextrinated lead azide during Jones loader operation. The 
test was made with one and one-fourth ounces of the dextrinated 
lead azide in the container. This amount provided a 25 per 
cent overload as required by paragraph 2622b, AMCR 385-224. 

Photo 3 shows the inside of the barricade after one and 
one-fourth ounces of dextrinated lead azide was detonated by 
remote control. The shield satisfactorily contained this 
explosion . 

Another test was made with one and one-fourth ounces of 
RDX. Photo 4 shows the condition of the shield, with its 
door blown off, after detonation of this quantity of RDX, 

The assembly was not safe for use with this material. 

Upon the completion of the test, the technical personnel 
who conducted it recommended that the shield be installed 
on the Jones loaders for use with dextrinate lead azide and 
various primer mixes, provided the load limit did not exceed 


one oui 





1 '■■ ll 11 




Technical Report: LS-256 

View of inside of barricade after 

detonation of 1£ oz. of dextrinated lead 

azide. 




s 








35 




Here are 10 questions that will test your knowledge of 
safety requirements. The answers to these questions may be 
found in AMCR's 385-9 , 385-224 , and 750-25,, and pages 39 and 40 


1. What AMC regulation governs the inspection, testing and 
maintenance of lifting devices? 

Answer and reference: 

2. Is it permissible to destroy propellant in 3.5 inch 
(and smaller) practice rockets by static firing? 

Answer and reference: 

3. Should heavy carboys of acid be stored on a concrete floor? 
Answer and reference: 

4. When should applications be forwarded for AEC licenses to 
procure nuclear material? 

Answer and reference: 

5. When operational shields are not in use, how many persons 
may be present in a room or cubicle during machining of 
explosives? 

Answer and reference: 

6. May normal maintenance of chemical munitions be performed 
in the magazine storage area by local command approval? 

Answer and reference: 


36 


7. What protection against lightning is required for metal 
smokestacks ? 

Answer and reference: 

8. How often should cranes be inspected? 

Answer and reference: 

9. How should lead azide contamination be removed from 
surfaces on which it has accumulated? 

Answer and reference: 

10. If nine workers perform various tasks on an explosives 
operation in a large room, what is the minimum required 
number of 30-inch wide exits? 

Answer and reference: 


NSC AWARD OF MERIT PRESENTED TO U.S. 

ARMY ENGINEER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT LABORATORIES 



The National Safety Council's Award of Merit has been 
awarded to the U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development 
Laboratories for its injury-free achievement in a recent 11 
month period. Brigadier General Edwin I. Donley (right), 
Commanding General of the U. S. Army Mobility Equipment 
Command presented the award plaque to Colonel Frank Milner, 
Commanding Officer of the Engineer Research and Development 
Laboratories . 


37 





REFERENCE PUBLICATIONS 


AR 21 - 22 , 10 August 1967 

Legal Services, Claims Incident To Use Of Government 
Vehicles And Other Property Of The United States Not 
Cognizable Under Other Law. 

AR 40-7, 21 July 1967 

Medical Service, Clinical Use of Investigational Drugs. 

AR 55-38, 26 May 1967 

Transportation and Travel, Reporting of Transportation 
Discrepancies in Shipment 

AR 55-55,31 July 1967 

Transportation and Travel, Transportation of Radioactive 
and Fissile Materials Other Than Weapons. 

AR 700-58, 5 January 1967 

Logistics, Report of Packaging and Handling Deficiencies. 
AMCR 10-65, 4 August 1967 

Organization and Functions, U. S. Army Procurement 
Detachments and Agencies. 

AMCR 385-1, 16 August 1967 

Safety, Safety Responsibilities. 

DA Circular 385-17, 31 July 1967 

Safety, Safe Operation of Truck, Utility, 1/4 Ton, 

4X4, Ml 51. 


HAVE YOU CHANGED TO YOUR SNOW TIRES YET? 



Dan Shedlowski , Safety Officer, ECOM 
prepares for the winter months ahead by 
making the "big" switch. Changing to 
snow tires makes good sense since they 
can increase your traction 28% on glare 
ice and up to 51% on snow as compared to 
regular tires. When the going really gets 
tough using reinforced tire chains can 
increase your traction by 409% on ice and 
313% on snow as compared to ordinary 
tires. Plan ahead. For safe winter 
driving, change to snow tires now. 


38 








Here are the answers to the questions on pages 36 and 

37 . A reference to the pertinent regulation is shown in 

addition to answers. 

1. AMCR 750-25. 

2. Yes. Propellant in 3.5 inch (or smaller) practice 

rockets and rocket motors (without heads) may be 
destroyed by static firing with the nozzle in place. 
Reference: Paragraph 2727b(4), AMCR 385-224. 

3. No. Carboy stores should be elevated from floors to 

keep the bottoms of the crates dry and to prevent 
rotting. Reference: Paragraph 1302c, AMCR 385-224. 

4. Applications for AEC licenses should be forwarded 
through channels to arrive in Headquarters, AMC, by 115 
days before the date the license is required. Reference: 
Paragraph 5a(4), AMCR 385-9. 

5. V/ hen protection is not provided by operational shields, 
not more than two persons shall be permitted in a room 
or cubicle during the dry machining of explosives. 

Where wet machining is performed and the special nature 
of the work requires the presence of more than two 
persons, the number of personnel exposed shall not 
exceed five. Reference: Paragraph 2615m, AMCR 385-224, 

6. No. All operations to be performed on chemical ammunit- 
ion will require prior approval by the Commanding General, 
AMC before being performed in the magazine area. Refer- 
ence paragraph 2502d, AMCR 385-224. 


39 





7. Metal smokestacks shall be electrically continuous and 
properly grounded. If the construction of the foundation 
is not such as to provide ample electrical connection 
with the earth, ground connections shall be provided. 

Metal guy wires shall be grounded. Reference: Paragraph 

816a, AMCR 385-224. 

8. Inspection schedules should include the inspection of 

each crane monthly. Reference: Paragraph 904d, AMCR 385- 

224. 

9. Lead azide accumulated on surfaces should be taken up 

with water wet cloths. Reference: Paragraph 302d(l), 

AMCR 385-224. 

10 . Three exits are required for the nine workers . Two 

exits are required for a room where more than two people 
are engaged in an explosives operation. A room in 
which more than eight persons are employed should be 
provided with one additional exit for each five additional 
employees or portion thereof. Reference: Paragraph 507, 


AMCR 385-224. 




Statistics are not available, 
but Lawrence E. Sollars, Umatilla 
Army Depot, may hold some sort of 
record. He has served on his depot's 
Central Safety Board for 22 years. 

He has actively supported improved 
safety practices and has scored 
nearly perfect attendance since 
he was appointed in 1945. Mr. Sollars 
Chief of the Support Division at 
Umatilla Army Depot, recently received 
a Department of the Army achievement 
certificate in recognition of this 
service . 


o ) U Jlld L JL ± JL d 

some sort of 


40 




FEDERAL SAFETY COUNCIL 



WORK SAFELY- “REDUCE FEDERAL 

EMPLOYEE WORK INJURIES 30 % BY 1970 “ 


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 


3 1262 09304 9335 


fFLARE"] 



UNITED STATES ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20315