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SCHOOL CAMPS 



R. C. HEWITT 




OXFORD 
AT THE CLARENDON' PRESS 




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SCHOOL CAMPS 

Their Value and Organization 

BY 

RICHARD G. HEWITT, B.Sc., F.G.S. 

AND 

LEWIS ELLIS, ART MASTER 

FINAL CERTIFICATE WOODWORK, LONDON CITY AND 

GUILDS INSTITUTE ; TEACHER'S HIGHER CERTIFICATE WOODWORK 

AND METALWORK, BOARD OF EXAMINATIONS FOR 

EDUCATIONAL HANDWORK. 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1920 



OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK 
TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPE TOWN BOMBAY 

HUMPHREY MILFORD 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



PREFACE 

THIS handbook has been compiled in response to numer- 
ous appeals for advice as to the organization and cost of 
a school camp. Whilst it specially deals with camps directly 
connected with the various types of schools, much of the 
matter is nevertheless applicable to the requirements of 
similar organizations of boys and girls. 

Camp management admits of much elasticity of method, 
and the authors merely offer their methods to be taken as 
recommendations based upon ten years of camping expe- 
rience with boys, the ages of whom varied from twelve to 
sixteen years. 

Unfortunately the present artificial and unstable prices 
make it impossible to give reliable figures of the cost of 
camps to-day. At the same time, this book would be 
lacking in a very essential point if it overlooked altogether 
the matter of cost. The authors have therefore considered 
that the safest plan is to give pre-war rates only, for although 
these prices are now quite inadequate they form a fairly 
trustworthy basis upon which to make comparative estimates 
for the present time. 

We wish to thank Mr. C. H. Dennis, Sub-Inspector of 
Schools, and Mr. R. Montgomery, B.A., for the kindly 
interest they have taken in the preparation of the book. 

R. G. H. 
L. E. 

466654 



EDUCATION ACT, 1918. 
8 & 9 Geo. 5, Ch. 39, Section 17. 

'For the purposes of supplementing and reinforcing the instruction 
and social and physical training provided by the public system of 
Education, and without prejudice to any other powers, a local educa- 
tion authority for the purposes of Part III of the Education Act of 
1902, as respects children attending public elementary schools, and a 
local education authority for the purposes of Part II of that Act, as 
respects other children and young persons over the age of eighteen 
attending educational institutions, may, with the approval of the Board 
of Education, make arrangements to supply or maintain or aid the 
supply or maintenance of 

(a) Holiday or school camps, especially for young persons 
attending continuation schools ; 

(6) Centres and equipment for physical training, playing fields 
(other than the ordinary playgrounds of public elementary schools 
not provided by the local educational authority), school baths, school 
swimming baths ; 

(c) Other facilities for social and physical training in the day or 
evening.' 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

INTRODUCTION . 9 

I. GENERAL OUTLINE n 

Aims Scope Preliminary arrangements. 

II. THE FORMATION OF THE CAMP . 18 

Time Selection of site Erection of tents, &c. 
Railway facilities Cost. 

III. EQUIPMENT OF A CAMP 28 

Housing Feeding Clothing. 

IV. FOOD 36 

Meal-times Quantities and Cost of Commodities 
Menus Cooking utensils Prepared foods. 

V. THE MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT ... 51 
Tables and seats Sanitary equipment Tent fittings. 

VI. THE MAKING OF ADDITIONAL CAMP EQUIP- 
MENT 71 

Small kitchen utensils Braziers Kitchen Hand- 
cart. 

VII. DAILY ROUTINE IN CAMP 87 

Time-table Duties. 

VIII. GENERAL CAMP AFFAIRS . . . . .93 
Discipline Age Health Sundays Visitors' day. 

IX. CAMPS FOR SPECIAL SCHOOLS . . . .100 
Necessary modifications Proposed curriculum. 

APPENDIX . . . ... . . . .109 



INTRODUCTION 

MOST prominent persons who take an active interest in 
education agree that school camps are a valuable educa- 
tional factor and are destined to play an important part 
in the life of every school. The Board of Education has 
recognized this fact, and now offers such facilities as enable 
Education Committees to encourage the formation of 
school camps. 

Camp life is not necessarily the ' simple life ', and though 
this book may be of assistance to those who advocate and 
intend to camp on the lines of the ' simple life ', it is with 
the more elaborate type of school camp that the book chiefly 
deals. The authors may be accused of too much elabora- 
tion ; it may be even suggested that their desire is to make 
the camp a ' home from home ' that is far from their work. 
No treatment can err in minuteness from the organizer's 
point of view, and we have not elaborated details with the 
idea that they are necessary for any particular camp, but 
rather in order to offer a wealth of material from which 
alternatives may be chosen. Again, the authors have learnt 
from painful experience how fatal it is to the smooth 
working of a camp to neglect or overlook that which, when 
viewed from the class-room, appeared to be of quite trivial 
importance. We have therefore not hesitated to draw 
attention to minor details which may so easily escape 
notice. 

Camp work is hard but none the less enjoyable and 



io INTRODUCTION 

beneficial. The week or fortnight under canvas is the 
culminating point of the year's work and not a period 
detached from the forty weeks of the school year. Though 
it may not appear in the time-table, school camp will never- 
theless be as much a real subject of the Curriculum as 
French or Arithmetic, and the authors trust that this book 
may be a guide and an encouragement to many to take up 
the work. 

The difficulties are not really great, the risks are small, 
the rewards ample. Camp helps to break down that arti- 
ficial barrier so liable to* be set up between teachers and 
scholars : the teacher becomes a man first, a teacher second ; 
the scholar becomes a boy first, a pupil second, and thus 
more rational points of view emerge from both sides. Even 
though the camp period be short its effect is never entirely 
removed, and so always helps forward the teachers' ideal 
the building of character, the making of men. 



CHAPTER I 

GENERAL OUTLINE 

Aims Scope Preliminary arrangements. 

AN ordinary day school is almost necessarily an indoor 
institution. That this is so is due largely to two causes, 
firstly the vagaries of the English climate, secondly the 
necessity of giving to scholars a definite amount of theo- 
retical information. The consequent cramping effect upon 
the mind, the lack of opportunity to develop character, and 
the difficulty of establishing sympathy and mutual under- 
standing between scholar and teacher have always been 
appreciated. Attempts have been made to overcome these 
deficiencies by means of outdoor lessons and excursions, 
and teachers have realized the value of such work but have 
also recognized its shortcomings. What a much greater 
field of work could be brought within their grasp if the 
excursion lasted for a week instead of half a day ! The 
school camp develops this idea and introduces an additional 
phase into school life. 

A teacher who is to be really successful must know his 
pupils thoroughly. At some time or other he should be in 
a position to place himself on the same plane as theirs, and 
camp is the one period of the year when teacher and scholar 
spend the whole twenty-four hours of the day under common 
conditions. In camp, traits of character not exhibited at 
school are brought out. The life shows up the real boy, 



12 GENERAL OUTLINE 

his weaknesses on the one hand, the most noble parts of 
his character on the other, and so the teacher is able to 
get a more comprehensive knowledge of each boy than 
would otherwise be possible. Also the teacher, for the 
moment, takes upon himself the duties of the parent ; con- 
sultations often ensue which lead to mutual understandings 
upon the one common topic the boy and nothing is 
more valuable than thfe resultant sympathetic co-operation 
between teacher and parent. 

The term l school camp ' cannot be treated too broadly, 
it should permeate the curriculum of the school. Camp 
week is the centre upon which the energies are focused, 
the real goal of the work done throughout the year. It 
follows that camp is not merely a holiday centre but a centre 
where a happy combination of pleasure and work exists, 
where the joy of life, the acquirement of knowledge, and 
the accumulation of experiences are blended. In prepara- 
tion for the event there are abundant opportunities for 
juvenile activity to have unbounded scope ; not only the 
activity of play but the activity of work may be so merged 
that the result is pleasurable labour of the highest order. 
Practical constructive work is done, and at the same time 
a corporate spirit is cultivated in the production of many of 
the articles. 

Constructive work will confine itself chiefly to the Manual 
Room, and year by year there is always much to do in this 
department. The first year's work involves the making of 
many very necessary articles to form the nucleus of the 
camp equipment. When camp has become an established 
institution each year's new ideas will have to be materialized, 
general wear and tear will have to be made good ; and equip- 
ment will have to be extended to meet the growing demands 
of increased numbers. It is surprising how many matters 



AIM S S COPE 13 

connected with camp arise in the daily work of the school, 
all of which are of direct personal interest to the scholar 
because they concern the welfare of the camp. For example, 
Science can add its quota; on more than one occasion 
serious attempts have been made by the boys at the right 
stage to supply the camp with soap made in the laboratory. 
The making of small accumulators for lighting a tent has 
also received much attention at various times. In such 
cases the success has usually been indifferent, but, after all, 
does that really matter ? 

History, Geography, Literature, and Nature Study all 
have their place in the work of preparation. Quite a large 
area can be covered in the course of seven or eight days on 
well-chosen excursions, and if the site selected is one 
abounding in literary and historical associations or special 
natural features, points which have been previously dealt 
with in school can be amplified and fixed. 

Preparations for the annual camp are usually begun 
immediately on re-assembling after the Christmas holidays. 
New boys and others not previously eligible have to receive 
full particulars. These can be given in a short address and 
enlarged upon where possible by a lantern lecture (the 
latter may not be feasible when initiating a camp, but later 
one generally finds photographers among the party and 
a collection of ' snaps ' will form the nucleus of a set of 
camp lantern slides). A cyclostyled or printed sheet giving 
particulars of the scheme should be distributed amongst 
the boys for them to take home for their parents' perusal. 
Attached to this sheet should be a form of declaration to be 
signed by the parent and returned to school as a guarantee 
that the boy's attendance meets with approval. Below is 
a specimen of the type of form suggested. It is a copy 
of the one used by the authors : 



r 4 GENERAL OUTLINE 

May 1913. 
SEVENTH ANNUAL CAMP. 

The school camp will be held at Malham from July 28 
to August 4, and will be in charge of the Staff. 

The inclusive cost will be 175. per boy, which must be 
paid before Friday, July 21. 

Each boy should provide himself with the following 
articles, which are absolutely essential : 

i Change of clothes and stockings. 

i Overcoat or mackintosh. 

i Pair of strong boots. 

i Pair of shoes or slippers. 

r Blanket. 

i Towel. 

i Comb, brush, and toothbrush. 

1 Piece of soap. 

2 Enamelled plates. 

i Mug (enamelled), knife, spoon, and fork, 
i Good note-book, sketch-book, pencil, 
i Tin of vaseline. 

The boys will be accommodated in bell tents, and each 
boy will be supplied with one large blanket. No crockery 
should be taken as it is so easily damaged. Boys will be 
expected to wear the school cap and jersey on all possible 
occasions, and old clothes will be more serviceable than 
recent ones. 

The following routine will be adhered to as closely as 
possible : 

7.0 a.m. Reveille'. 
7.45 a.m. Tent inspection. 

8.0 a.m. Breakfast. 
9.30 a.m.-i p.m. Excursion. 

i p.m. Dinner. 

1.30 p.m.-2.3o p.m. Rest period. 
2.30 p.m.~5 p.m. Games. 
5 p.m.~5.3o p.m. Tea. 
5.30 p.m.-8.3o p.m. Free time. 
8.30 p.m. Supper. 
10 p.m. Lights out. 



AIM S S COPE 15 

Boys are at liberty to leave the camp between 5.30 p.m. 
and 8.30 p.m. without obtaining special permission. At no 
other time will boys be permitted to leave camp except in 
following out camp routine. 

Indiscriminate bathing will not be allowed, but will only 
take place at the properly appointed time and under the 
supervision of the masters. 

Owing to the great responsibility devolving upon the 
masters it is hoped that parents will co-operate with them 
in inculcating implicit obedience to orders on the part of 
the boys. Boys are accepted for camp on the understanding 
that the regulations will be strictly observed ; they are ex- 
pected to behave as gentlemen, and respect the school 
colours whether under supervision or not. 

Details relating to time of starting, provision for luggage, 
and camp address will be given later. 

I am willing that my boy ............. shall join the 



school camp and ^fard^ seventeen shillings, payment 

for same. 

(Signed.) 

In order to render the cost as little burdensome as possible 
to the parent a camp bank may be instituted. If opened 
four or five months beforehand it will enable parents to 
contribute a weekly sum to defray the cost of the outing, 
and it will also encourage thrift amongst the boys them- 
selves if they are permitted to add their own small quota. 
They naturally require a few shillings to spend whilst away 
from home, and this can be accumulated by periodical 
contributions from their spending money. One boyish 
anxiety is that his pocket money may be lost owing to the 
lack of adequate means of safeguarding it under camp con- 
ditions. This trouble is overcome if his capital is invested 
in the Bank and he is at liberty to draw upon it daily or as 
required. The ' bank manager ' will have the money with 
him in camp and can arrange a time for daily disbursements. 



16 GENERAL OUTLINE 

Small sums are sometimes required by the Staff to pay small 
railway fares which are necessary in the case of some of the 
excursions, and if these sums are taken from a boy's account 
as wanted the trouble of collecting it on the spot is avoided. 
Some system of pass books or cards for registering the 
deposits and withdrawals will suggest itself to the organizers. 
Under camp conditions the teacher is on duty practically 
all the twenty-four hours of the day. The children are 
always present, and responsibility never ceases from the 
moment of entraining to the time of dispersal to the chil- 
dren's homes. To ensure smooth working plenty of assis- 
tance is needed; not less than three masters can properly 
deal with a camp of thirty boys, and above that number one 
master for every additional fifteen boys is essential. The 
most satisfactory arrangement is for each member of the 
Staff to undertake some specific duty, usually the duty for 
which he feels most fitted. Broadly speaking, the work can 
be divided into three sections, viz. 

1. The superintendence of general arrangements, including 
excursions ; 

2. Commissariat ; 

3. Sports and pastimes ; 

while every teacher will foster the subject in which he is 
particularly interested. 

As already mentioned, work under the foregoing headings 
commences some time before camp week. In the first 
section the work which can be done prior to the camping 
week consists of planning excursions and making railway 
arrangements, and includes also the gathering and tabu- 
lating of interesting information about the district, and the 
bringing of the same before the notice of the scholars. 
During the camp week the master in charge of this section 
will devote himself to the general welfare of the boys. He 



AIMS SCOPE 17 

is the one to whom the boys will come with their troubles 
and from whom they will seek advice. It will rest with him 
to see that the camp is kept clean and sanitary, and that the 
time-table is adhered to as strictly as possible. 

The work of the commissariat department is arduous, and 
the master in charge may require assistance. Much worry 
can be avoided by beginning early enough, thereby ensuring 
that supplies are ordered and arrangements completed for 
the delivery of the goods needed. The arranging of the 
daily menus in accordance with the available foodstuffs 
requires careful attention in order to avoid monotony, and 
to make the meals healthful and palatable, while a strict 
eye must be kept on economy. When an initial visit is paid 
to the camping-ground it is advisable to select at the same 
time the most suitable butcher and grocer and to make 
preliminary verbal arrangements with them. 

The greater part of the sports programme can be drawn 
up ahead and attention given to the matter of the equipment 
for the sports. Should it be thought desirable to try con- 
elusions at cricket with a local school or other team negotia- 
tions can be entered into and the fixtures completed. 

If the above suggestions are carried out so that the ground- 
work is well prepared, the anxieties and the work of camp 
week itself will be much lessened and correspondingly 
greater benefits will accrue to the scholars. 



CHAPTER II 

THE FORMATION OF THE CAMP 

Time Selection of site Erection of tents, &c. Railway facilities 

Cost. 

IT is probably quite safe to assume that the time chosen 
for holding camp will fall in the period between the end 
of April and beginning of September, and in many cases 
one of the weeks of the summer holiday will be utilized for 
the purpose. June or early July is perhaps a better time 
for camping than August. The long period of daylight is 
a great advantage, and the weather, in the latter part of 
June at any rate, is usually very warm and settled. Nature 
is most certainly at her best at this time, a fact worth careful 
consideration from the educational side. According to the 
custom of the present day the period will not coincide either 
with the school summer holiday or with the holidays of 
the parents, but there is now a tendency to commence the 
holidays at an earlier date. A change in this direction is 
very desirable, and the demands made by those anxious to 
inaugurate camps, and the extension of the movement 
generally, may succeed in so placing this annual holiday 
that it will coincide with the hay harvest rather than with 
the corn harvest, as is at present the case. While the 
claim for midsummer camping and earlier summer holidays 
is urged, the authors realize that local conditions will 
always influence the dates. 

The selection of a site depends to some extent upon 



SELECTION OF SITE 19 

the financial means at one's disposal. Ideally the best site 
is one which Coffers the best combination of educational 
and recreative facilities without involving too great an ex- 
pense. Needless to say, a rural area is preferable to an 
urban one, and access to the sea is a great attraction to 
inland dwellers. There is much to be said for choosing 
a district at some considerable distance from home. The 
children have thereby an opportunity of seeing an entirely 
new type of countryside, and hence great scope for making 
valuable comparisons with their own neighbourhood. They 
are also entirely removed from local and domestic influences, 
and being ' on their own ', so to speak, are called upon to 
develop a sense of manly independence. 

A district already known to some members of the Staff 
has advantages, because whatever area is chosen it is very 
essential that the masters should be well acquainted with 
all matters likely to come within the view of the scholars. 
Whether it be a seaside or rural camp one naturally turns to 
the farmer for suitable ground. Generally speaking, he is 
sympathetic and helpful, provided always that guarantees 
are forthcoming that no damage shall be done to his 
property, particularly to his hedges and walls. 

The ideal field is one with a gentle slope and a porous 
subsoil. Though both conditions may not always be found 
together, at least one of the two is indispensable. The 
question is one of drainage, for given either porous soil or 
a clay soil and a good slope, the water which tends to 
accumulate during a heavy shower will not prove unmanage- 
able. Ground which may become waterlogged, even tem- 
porarily, is both troublesome and injurious ; half an hour's 
heavy rain may, by damping clothes and bedding, do 
damage sufficient to undermine the health of a whole 
camp. Stony ground should be avoided, and a good depth 

B 2 



20 FORMATION OF THE CAMP 

of firm soil is necessary, for otherwise tent pegs will either 
be broken or will fail to hold well, and both of these will 
be sources of anxiety, particularly in the event of a strong 
wind arising; hard ground is also troublesome as it is 
difficult to excavate for any purposes required in the camp 
arrangements. 

Provided that the movements of the campers do not in 
any way interfere with the residents of the farm, a field 
near to the farm buildings is desirable. Many farmers 
depend upon well water for their supply, and the pump is 
often situated within the farm precincts, therefore labour 
and time are saved if the camp is near at hand. Under 
no circumstances should cows or horses be permitted to 
graze in the same field as that in which the tents are placed. 
This may be a difficult matter to adjust with the farmer, 
but it is worth a good deal of trouble to obtain satisfaction. 
Both cows and horses are inquisitive beasts, and conse- 
quently a perpetual menace to all camp property. Only 
those who have lived in tents can appreciate the many 
different ways in which the animals can make themselves a 
nuisance unconsciously, no doubt but the knowledge of 
that fact does not pay for the trouble and cost of repairs 
which may result from these visits. Moreover, their presence 
is a perpetual temptation to boys to ' look after them ', a 
pursuit which generally ends by causing friction with the 
farmer. 

Though camping will generally take place during the 
period of most settled weather, the possibilities of a wet 
day or a heavy summer shower cannot be overlooked. In 
anticipation of such an occurrence it is well to try to 
arrange for some outbuilding to be kept in reserve as a 
temporary resort for feeding and shelter in case of emer- 
gency. 



SELECTION OF SITE 21 

Nothing is more prejudicial to the welfare of camp life 
than the curious and unofficial attentions of the public, and 
the field chosen should be one removed from all public 
roads and pathways. Main roads in the country are now- 
adays rendered dangerous by the motor traffic upon them, 
and accidents may easily occur if the field gives direct access 
to such a road ; in fact danger lurks in many unsuspected 
quarters, and the proximity of ponds, disused quarries, 
railway lines and level crossings should be specially noted 
when considering the pros and cons of any prospective site. 

No matter how favourable the situation may be topo- 
graphically, there are still two important factors to be taken 
into account, viz. Transport and Food Supply. Many other- 
wise admirable camping grounds have to be abandoned 
owing to the local inadequacy of these two services. A baker, 
grocer, and butcher, capable of undertaking the provision 
of their respective commodities, must be available within 
reasonable distance. One must remember that it is not 
always possible to depend upon a remote country village 
for a supply of food, seeing that the presence of an addi- 
tional sixty or seventy persons may swell the population 
abnormally. Meat and bread must be delivered fresh daily, 
primarily for hygienic reasons, but also because lack of 
proper accommodation makes it undesirable, if not impos- 
sible, to keep a store of such foodstuffs about a camp. The 
farmer may perhaps undertake to supply milk, butter, eggs, 
potatoes and green vegetables, but is not likely to be able 
to sell any other commodities. 

Unless cost is no consideration it is wise to keep fairly 
near to a railway station. The transfer of luggage from 
station to field and vice versa becomes a serious item of 
expenditure if any great distance is involved, and in country- 
districts it is often extremely difficult to obtain conveyances 



24 FORMAT I ON OF THE CAMP 

rapidly shrink and may even shrink so much that either the 
pegs or canvas must give way. If the pole is dislodged 
from the brick the tension is reduced and the danger 
averted, and, what is perhaps equally important, the un- 
comfortable ordeal of turning out in the wet and slacking 
ropes is avoided. The character of the ground will deter- 
mine the advisability of trenching round the tents ; usually 
it is unnecessary, but if such a course is decided upon, the 
turves must be cut and stacked away carefully, so that they 
can be easily and properly replaced when camp breaks up. 
This matter is worthy of attention because, naturally, the 
farmer does not like either to have his ground defaced or to 
be given the trouble of replacing the turf for himself, and 
such neglect on the part of the responsible party spoils the 
chances of future campers. 

If possible the stove should be erected in some sheltered 
place, preferably under a large tree which will provide some 
protection both from stormy and hot weather. Camp stoves 
are not usually fitted with stands, but are made to rest on 
the ground. If by some means the stove can be raised 
from the ground it is an advantage to the cook, as it saves 
a good deal of lifting. Stones or bricks are often available 
with which to build up such a foundation, and full par- 
ticulars as to the method of assembling the parts is usually 
received with a stove. The question of the choice of any 
particular type of stove, and the construction and equipment 
of a kitchen are discussed in greater detail in a later 
chapter. 

Immediately on arrival in camp a party must be told off 
to attend to the digging of the latrine and the erection of 
the screen around it. For this purpose the position of the 
four corner posts must be fixed by careful measurement and 
holes prepared for their reception. ' Dummy driving ' 



ERECTION OF TENTS 25 

usually achieves this object most readily, that is, a short 
stake of similar cross-section to that of the proper posts is 
driven into the ground with a mawl, then loosened and 
extracted, and the proper post inserted. A trench is then 
dug sufficiently large to meet all requirements, care being 
taken not to allow it to approach the posts too closely or 
otherwise their stability may be impaired. All the uprights 
having been fixed in position the cross-bars are bolted in 
their places and the canvas tacked round. The width of 
the canvas is about forty inches, so that two widths will be 
required ; the upper will be fastened all round, and the 
lower will be carried as far as the doorway only. Large- 
headed tacks or upholsterer's nails should be used to 
fasten the canvas, otherwise it may be torn away and 
damaged by a strong wind. 

Games and sports are an integral part of camp life, and 
suitable ground for them is essential. This should be borne 
in mind when selecting the camp site. It is sometimes 
possible to get a large field with a suitable surface, where all 
kinds of games can be indulged in. If this cannot be done, 
the farmer may lend a suitable field for use during one or 
two afternoons of the week, or a local sports club, whose 
assistance is as a rule willingly offered, may be approached. 

The cost of a camp-week for each boy is comparatively 
small. Modern conditions have enhanced prices, but these 
are only comparative, and when travelling facilities are 
restored there will be found no serious impediment. A fluc- 
tuating item in the cost is the railway fare, which depends 
upon the numbers and the distance. The railway companies, 
acting in conjunction with the Board of Education, grant 
exceptional rates for camp parties. An application form 
(Voucher R.F. 2), obtainable from the Board of Education, 
should be filled in (giving details of the proposed camp- 



26 FORMATION OF THE CAMP 

place, numbers, date, &c.) and signed by the officer in charge 
of the camp and by the officer of the local education autho- 
rity. On receipt of this form the Secretary of the Board of 
Education will authorize the railway company concerned to 
issue the necessary tickets. It is suggested that the date 
upon which the party decides to travel should be fixed after 
consultation with a railway official. 

The scale of fares is as follows : 
Officers (i for every 10 juveniles) : Single ordinary fare for 

return journey. 
Juveniles (14 years to 18 years): Single ordinary fare for 

return journey. 
Juveniles (under 14 years old) : Half single ordinary fare for 

return journey. 

A covered passenger van for the conveyance of all camp 
equipment and luggage can be hired at a rate of sixpence 
per car mile ; by this means all the impedimenta can be 
transported with the minimum of trouble and cost. This 
method is particularly advantageous in the case of the boys' 
personal luggage, which in the aggregate is considerable 
and troublesome, not only to the owners but to everybody 
else if taken on the train with the party. The dispatching 
of the van in advance is also an advantage if an advance 
party is sent to make preliminary arrangements. 

Generally speaking, the expenditure on food can be esti- 
mated at about 50 per cent, of the total cost. The following 
list will show the total and incidental cost of a camp for 
sixty persons, fifty-four boys and six adults. The camp, it 
will be supposed, is situated about one hundred miles from 
home and is held for a period of eight days. Nine boys 
sleep in a tent, and one tent is used by the Staff. The 
charge for each person is seventeen shillings, so that the 



COST 27 

income is fifty-one pounds and the expenditure is somewhat 

as follows : 

s. d. 

7 Tents, at $s. 6d. each . . . i r8 6 

60 Ground-sheets, at 6d. each . . i 10 o 

60 Blankets ; at 6d. each . . . i 10 o 
60 Railway fares : 

44 Boys, at 4s. each . . . .8160 

10 Boys, at 8s. each . . . .400 

6 Adults, at 85. each . . . .,,280 

Food ; at 8s. per head . . . 24 o o 

Hire of field on basis of $s. per tent . i i o 

Luggage van . . . . 2 10 o 

Balance . . . . . .366 

51 o o 



CHAPTER III 

EQUIPMENT OF A CAMP 

Housing Feeding Clothing. 

THE camp locality and site having been fixed, housing 
and feeding next demand attention. Housing resolves 
itself largely into the matter of sleeping accommodation. 
Everything depends exactly upon the type of camp which 
is proposed. The camp may be perfectly self-contained 
tents for sleeping, marquee for dining, and portable camp 
stove for cooking or some modifications may be introduced 
either as necessary expedients or to meet one's personal 
views. Sleeping accommodation may be obtained in a good 
barn or schoolroom, and only cooking > &c., done in the 
field, or tents may be used for sleeping, and arrangements 
made with a local resident, e.g. the farmer's wife, to do 
the cooking. The authors have tried the latter course on 
two occasions and have found it to work admirably for 
a party not exceeding twenty-five in number. 

A self-contained camp is, on the whole, best. If the 
party possesses complete cooking and sleeping equipment 
more latitude is permissible in the selection of a site, and 
not only is there a greater feeling of independence, but 
also a more lively sense of real camp life, and the boys 
are more directly interested in all the details of their new 
mode of living. 

The average bell-tent is about forty feet in circumference 



HOUSING 29 

at the base, and will comfortably house from eight to ten 
boys. The tents may be either bought or hired ; but as 
the period during which they are in use is short and the 
hiring-price low, hiring is preferable to purchase unless 
a very advantageous purchase can be made and unless 
facilities exist for proper storage and repairs. They can 
be hired from numerous firms throughout the country and, 
complete with pegs, cost about 51. 6d. per week plus the 
cost of carriage. A fifty per cent, reduction is usually made 
for subsequent weeks. 

The flooring of a tent is a separate item. Wooden floors 
may be used but are not recommended ; they are heavy and 
hence the cost of transport is a consideration, and they 
are difficult to lay satisfactorily ; also wooden floors are 
hard to sleep upon unless palliasses, or some other type 
of bedding is provided. Some firms supply tarpaulin sheets 
to cover the floor space, and these are better than boards, 
but not altogether satisfactory. The tent pole has to be 
placed upon the centre of the sheet, which prevents the 
sheet from being moved readily, and thus increases the 
difficulty of cleaning when it is soiled. A still worse draw- 
back is the difficulty of drying, should the sheet get wet, 
and this is a very likely thing to happen if it projects at 
any point beyond the curtain of the tent, in which case 
it is apt to act as a shallow trap to catch rain, and the water 
then flows towards the lowest part of the sheet. Ground- 
sheets, army pattern, have proved most satisfactory. They 
adapt themselves to the turf, are warm and waterproof, and 
can be thrown out during some part of the day to be 
dried thoroughly and aired, whilst at the same time the 
ground inside the tent is given a chance to freshen. 
Ground-sheets can be hired with the tents at a cost of 
sixpence each per week, and each boy can be supplied 



3 o EQUIPMENT OF A CAMP 

with one. The usual method of sleeping is with the feet 
towards the centre of the tent, so that where there are 
eight or nine sheets in a tent there is a considerable amount 
of overlapping, which is an additional advantage. A word 
as to the correct way to lay them may not be out of place ; 
it may appear superfluous, but the authors have been 
surprised to find that many boys lay them with the rubber 
side upwards instead of towards the ground, and it is as 
well to mention this point to the boys beforehand. 

It is the usual practice to supply every boy with one 
blanket ; this can be hired with the rest of the equipment. 
Brown army blankets are always supplied at a cost of 
sixpence each. Each boy is instructed to take one other 
blanket or large rug himself, and with a reasonable number 
of boys per tent this number has ensured ample warmth 
for every one. 

If the numbers in camp are fairly large, say fifty or more, 
it is advisable to take an extra tent, to be erected for use 
as a stores tent. It will be found useful for storing away 
many of the odds and ends required in camp at various 
times, such as buckets, spades, lamps, apparatus for games, 
as well as packing cases and spare equipment. If cer- 
tain non-perishable foods be taken to camp instead of 
being purchased locally a dry storage tent will be almost 
necessary. 

Cooking occupies a prominent place in the scheme. 
The art and practice of cooking is valuable educationally, 
and indeed a knowledge of the subject is essential for 
those who intend to go to the Colonies. What share the 
boys should take in the preparation of the food is debat- 
able. In a girls' camp cooking has an important place in 
the curriculum, but as there is so much other material of 
greater educational value for boys, cooking by them is not 



FEEDING 31 

recommended. Apart from its position in the scale of 
educational values, there are other considerations. A care- 
fully regulated time-table is very important. Meals must 
be taken at definite times, and their preparation must be 
in the hands of a trustworthy person, otherwise the daily 
programme and, what is still more important, the health 
of the community will suffer. One cannot emphasize the 
fact too much that uncertainty as to the time and the 
quality of a meal is very detrimental to the interests of 
the work. It is therefore better to relegate the preparation 
of meals to some one who can devote the whole of his or 
her attention to the work. Small duties appertaining to 
it would certainly be done by the boys ; these duties will 
include the peeling of potatoes, washing the cook's utensils 
and fetching water. Assuming, then, that the work will be 
done independently, the two methods already mentioned 
are available. Domestic culinary facilities are limited, and 
should the numbers exceed twenty-five it is doubtful if one 
kitchen range will be large enough to do the work. The 
two types of ovens used in the field are ' ground ovens ' 
and portable ' camp ovens '. Ground ovens are not alto- 
gether satisfactory, especially when they are to be used 
for such a short time. They involve interference with the 
surface of the ground, and generally necessitate an advance 
party to prepare them. A farmer will usually stipulate that 
the surface of his ground be interfered with s little as 
possible. He does not mind the grass being worn, for 
that is even beneficial, but he objects to the cutting and 
removal of turf. Portable camp stoves give more satis- 
faction ; one may be either bought or hired, and purchase 
is recommended, as storage is not difficult, nor is there 
much likelihood of repairs being required nor of any 
serious deterioration. A good stove, capable of cooking 



32 EQUIPMENT OF A CAMP 

for eighty persons, can be obtained new for 9, and this 
includes a small boiler with a capacity of about three 
gallons. Hot water is an exceptionally valuable commodity 
in camp, and no camping equipment is complete which 
does not provide for a good supply of this. Apart from 
the requirements for drinking purposes, there is the washing 
of cooking utensils and ' crockery '. An additional supply 
of hot water can be obtained by using an army or navy 
kettle heated on a brazier. A better way is to use a caterer's 
small hot-water boiler, with a capacity of about fifteen 
gallons. These are not costly, their, fuel consumption is 
small, and one will well repay the outlay upon it. A new 
one can be purchased for about 3. 

Some masters prefer a marquee for the purposes of 
assembly and for meals, but it is doubtful if the resulting 
advantages compensate for the additional cost. Marquees 
are expensive to hire, and are not easy to erect. Meals in 
the open air are satisfactory in every respect, and if pre- 
cautions are taken to provide for temporary disability caused 
by rain, there is no. reason why this additional expense 
should be incurred. 

It is extremely important that feeding should be done 
decorously and properly. Squatting on the ground with 
a plate between one's legs may be all right on a day's 
picnic, but it is not the sort of procedure that should 
obtain in a well-ordered community. Boys are apt to 
become slovenly in their feeding habits, and the type of 
feeding with the methods just described will do more 
harm than good. If at all possible some sort of tables 
should be provided at which the children can partake of 
their meal properly. Not only is such a course desirable 
hygienically, but it is a valuable bit of social education, 
useful in the training of manners and habits of the children. 



FEEDING 33 

The type of table recommended, and which can be made 
by the boys themselves, is discussed in Chapter V. 

There are numerous small items which should not be 
allowed to escape attention ; many, if not really necessary, 
are conducive to the smooth working of a camp. One or 
two spades are useful about a camp. They are handy in 
the event of heavy rain, when it may be necessary to dig 
trenches round the tents, and one will be required for 
digging the latrine and for the daily covering of the refuse. 
Though no arrangement need be made for the illumination 
of the tents, as there will be sufficient light to meet the 
requirements of the boys, a few hurricane lamps may be 
included in the general equipment. One may remark here, 
that, apart from electric hand-lamps, no lamps other than 
well constructed hurricane lamps are trustworthy when a 
strong wind is blowing. The master in charge must visit 
every tent before retiring himself, and he may be called up 
in the night to see a boy who is indisposed ; or, should 
a storm arise, it may be necessary to make a tour of the 
camp, and in all cases a trustworthy lamp is most valuable. 
An adequate supply of buckets is also desirable. Perhaps 
the most satisfactory method of obtaining them is to make 
the company of each tent responsible for securing at least 
two. These should be well marked in order to guarantee 
their return to the owners both during camp-time and 
afterwards. It is the duty of the members of each tent to 
prepare their share of the potatoes required each day; 
these can be distributed in buckets, peeled, washed and 
returned to the cook in the same utensil. If small baths, 
such as are used in laundry centres, can be obtained, each 
tent might be supplied with one, and these are more 
satisfactory than buckets for potato washing. No doubt 
other small items will suggest themselves as preparations 



34 EQUIPMENT OF A CAMP 

proceed. A box of tools is useful. This can be fitted up 
from the Manual Room stock, and might contain, for 
example, a small saw, large and small hammer, screwdriver, 
large chisel, pair of pincers, brace and bit, and an assort- 
ment of nails and screws. 

A few words on clothing may be useful. Clothing should 
be as light and simple as possible compatible with neatness 
and suitability. If the School has its own colours, naturally 
each boy will be expected to wear the school cap and 
badge. Jerseys usually form part of the school dress, and 
the jersey is an ideal camping garment. It is easily donned, 
is warm, light, comfortable, and cannot be readily spoiled 
by tent usage. Collars and ties, with their accessories such 
as studs and tie-clips, can be avoided, and these articles 
are easily misplaced in a tent. A change of clothing must 
be provided as a safeguard against colds, &c., should a boy 
get wet as a result of either bad weather or accident. Straw 
hats are not very* satisfactory ; they are troublesome in 
a tent, on windy days, and on long excursions. A pair of 
strong, watertight boots is very necessary. They are much 
more comfortable for long-distance walking than light ones, 
and they are a preventive of sore feet. They must be 
watertight to resist the heavy dews of morning and evening, 
if for no other reason. A pair of gymnasium or similar 
shoes should also be included. They provide a restful 
change for the feet after a long walk, and may be useful 
for games ; they are also better to wear in and about a tent 
than heavy, and often dirty, boots. An alternative to the 
above is that of going barefoot about the camp, and wearing 
boots only when going long road walks. The practice of 
going barefoot is beneficial if it is habitual and not casual, 
otherwise there is a chance that chills, c., may be con- 
tracted. In our opinion the length of time spent in camp 



CLOTHING 35 

is insufficient to make any particular practice really habitual, 
and therefore to the town boy who is unaccustomed to bare 
feet, there is a distinct danger. Moreover, the wearing of 
heavy boots alternately with that of going barefoot may 
produce irritation and soreness. 

Perhaps readers will criticize much of the above on the 
ground that it is too lavish for a boys' camp. The authors 
would be the last people in the world to make a camp 
a luxurious holiday centre ; but experience has taught that, 
for example, boys must be fed properly and regularly, and 
that it is courting disaster to depend upon amateur attempts 
at cooking. Meal-times must come and go with the regu- 
larity of home, otherwise the day's programme will be 
disarranged, and the real work, of the camp endangered. 
There must necessarily be a limit to the general and 
personal kit, and the items enumerated are such as will 
not unduly burden the transport, yet will render service 
sufficient to warrant their inclusion. 



C 2 



CHAPTER IV 

FOOD 

Meal-times Quantities and Cost of Commodities Menus Cook- 
ing Utensils Prepared Foods. 

THE food question of the camp is very important because 
on this point so much depends. No amount of fresh 
country air or sea-breezes will brace a boy up if his daily 
food is in any way faulty or poor. The authorities must be 
prepared to provide a well-balanced menu, ample in quantity, 
of good quality, served at the best time and in the most 
satisfactory manner that circumstances will permit. Camp 
is not a place of luxury, and food will necessarily be plain, 
but so long as there is plenty of variety, the palate will not 
demur ; living continually in fresh air stimulates the appetite 
to an extent almost alarming. 

Number and Times of Meals. The times chosen for 
meals are 

8 a.m. Breakfast ; 

i p.m. Dinner ; 

5 p.m. Tea ; 
8.30-9 p.m. Supper. 

Breakfast. This meal will consist of the following : 
oatmeal porridge with milk, sugar or treacle, cocoa or 
coffee, bread and butter, together with changes rung on the 
following eggs, fish, potted beef, bacon, ham, beef and 
ham rolls. Such a breakfast is not as expensive as at first 
appears, for after a good portion of porridge a boy only 



M E A L - T I M E S 37 

requires a small helping of the second course. It is not 
advisable, on the other hand, to breakfast wholly on 
porridge, for the good walk during the morning, with 
perhaps a stiff climb, will warrant a substantial breakfast 
beforehand. Some will advise taking lunch bread and 
cheese ; the authors reject this advice, for experience has 
proved that the carrying of lunch is always irksome to a 
boy, that very few boys eat cheese, and that lunch takes 
away the keenness of the appetite for dinner. One would 
rather advise handing round to each boy an apple to be 
eaten during the morning, but whether this would constitute 
lunch or not depends on the boy. 

Dinner. This is the meal of the day and one that is 
keenly enjoyed by the boys, especially after a good country 
walk and a subsequent l clean up '. Plenty of variety must 
here be the key-note, with a minimum of stews, especially in 
hot weather. Beef, mutton (roasted or boiled), peas, haricots, 
meat-pie, Irish stew, serve as a list from which the first 
course may be chosen. For the second course such items 
as currant, rice, fig, and ginger pudding, apple-cake, currant 
and raisin pastry will find favour. 

Tea. This will be a much lighter meal, no meats being 
provided. It will consist of tea, bread (white and brown) 
and butter, plain buttered currant cake or scones, jam or 
stewed fruit. 

Supper. With regard to this meal the authors have 
found it expedient to give a drink of warm milk, or cocoa 
and milk, a bun or a piece of cake or biscuits before retiring. 
This is not intended as a formal meal seated at tables, but 
it has been found to satisfy the needs of the body during 
the night and to be conducive to a good night's rest. 

Commodities. Tea. It is advisable to obtain a good 
brand of this article ; it goes further and is more economical 



38 FOOD 

than the so-called cheaper tea. It should be infused in 
muslin bags made with draw tapes, and sufficiently large to 
allow of the expansion of the leaves when they are scalded. 
It is convenient to have the tea weighed up into two-ounce 
packets beforehand ; this facilitates easy and correct judging 
of the amount required at a meal. After the first meal, 
when one has gauged the drinking capacity of the popula- 
tion, careful note should be made and registered of the 
amount of tea which has been used to give complete 
satisfaction, both in quantity and in strength, and also how 
much is left in the urns, for if the tea is sweetened, sugar 
and milk (important items in the economical working of the 
camp) are also wasted. 

Coffee. The remarks made concerning the tea also 
apply to the coffee. If an additional set of muslin bags be 
procured, one can be sure of having a * dry set ' for the next 
meal. The coffee should be of a good brand, pure and free 
from chicory, for the latter is disliked by many people. 
Coffee will be found twice as costly as tea. 

Cocoa. This food is best prepared by mixing it first into 
a paste, then gradually adding boiling water; this avoids 
the lumpy sediment so common when large quantities are 
prepared. The sugar should be made into a syrup with 
hot water and poured into the cocoa, to avoid any wastage. 
It is well to arrange for the cocoa to be weighed out in 
two-ounce tins. Milk to be added should be boiled, for 
the cocoa must be served hot as it cools very soon in the 
open air. Here, again, a good brand of cocoa will prove 
the cheapest. 

Oatmeal. This food is mainly required for the porridge, 
and the coarse-ground variety of oatmeal % preferable. To 
prepare the porridge the oatmeal should be placed in the 
pans or kettles, covered with water, and soaked over-night ; 



MEAL-TIMES 39 

this lessens the length of time required for cooking on the 
next day. The kettles should be put on the braziers early, 
one hour before the porridge is required, and kept constantly 
stirred while on a slow heat. With, the slightest burn the 
delicate flavour of porridge is lost. This is an important 
dish, and it is necessary that boys should acquire a liking 
for it. Experience shows, however, that very few town boys 
are accustomed to eating porridge for breakfast, but most 
boys rapidly develop a taste for it at camp. A liberal 
addition of salt takes away the insipid character of boiled 
oatmeal and accentuates the taste of sugar if the latter 
be used. 

Bread. The supply of bread will be obtained locally, 
and the master responsible for the food should take care 
that the store of bread is always a day in advance of the 
requirements, for new bread is uneconomical, not so easily 
digested, and difficult to cut. The form of loaves known 
as sandwich loaves are very convenient, and the labour of 
cutting is considerably lessened if one possesses a bread- 
cutter. 

Sugar. The ordinary white moist sugar will prove most 
suitable for all purposes. It is not advisable to take more 
than one kind, for this means extra thought and attention 
as regards packing and storing. The authors again advocate 
the practice of the sugar being weighed up into half-pound 
packets. Without appearing parsimonious, it is not advisable 
to allow boys to help themselves to sugar and milk, for 
often they are very extravagant in the use of these 
commodities. 

Butter. This is usually supplied by the farmer, but he 
should know at least a fortnight beforehand the probable 
amount required so that he can keep back that quantity 
from his dairyman. 



40 FOOD 

Jam. This food makes a good stand-by and is much 
relished by most boys ; the more varied the assortment of 
jam, the better, and although a little extra trouble is 
involved, it is an advantage to have two sorts in use in 
order to cater for all. The following kinds have been 
proved to be favourites : blackberry and apple, raspberry, 
strawberry, and apricot. For this reason it is recommended 
that these form the bulk of the supply. Two-pound jars 
are most convenient, for the larger the jars the more dust 
and dirt they are likely to accumulate before the jam is 
finished. It should be made a practice to so gauge the 
amount required, that none is left over for another meal. 
The contents of half-empty jars lose their freshness and are 
unhygienic. 

Meat. This is another matter which must be arranged 
some weeks in advance. A camp is often held well out in 
the country, quite away from any butchers' shops, and even 
these may not be able to provide the large joints that are 
required. If the camp is situated near a sea-side village or 
even if within thirty miles or so of a shop, it is a simple 
matter for a daily supply of fresh meat to be forwarded by 
train. Butchers in such places, it will be found, are very 
accommodating, and by arrangement will supply the 
necessary quantity if they are given a clear day's notice. 
It is expedient that the master who is responsible for the 
food arrangements should take the first day's supply of 
meat with him, and mutton chops will form a convenient 
dish for this particular day. The campers reach their 
destination about noon, and by this time the advance party 
will have erected the field kitchen, the ovens will be hot, 
and the potatoes will be cooking ; thus, while the boys are 
having a wash after their journey, the meat can be readily 
and conveniently prepared. 



M E A L - T I M E S 41 

Milk. This all-important food is easily provided, for, as 
a rule, the farmer who is accustomed to churn his milk into 
butter will be pleased to sell to the camp as much milk as 
is required. This pays him better than butter-making, and 
so long as he knows at night the next day's requirements 
there will be no difficulty. 

Eggs. This matter ought also to be reckoned with 
beforehand as the farmer may, or may not, be able to 
supply eggs in sufficient quantities. Again, it is advisable 
to obtain the, opinion of the campers as regards their liking 
for eggs. Experience shows that they are not much relished 
at camp. It may be possible, if the camp is held in August 
or September, and in a good mushroom -growing district, to 
obtain a supply of mushrooms for breakfast ; this would prove 
a welcome change in the menu and by arrangement would 
give certain boys an opportunity of working off the early- 
rising habits which they contrive to develop in camp. 

Fish. Concerning this food another appeal to boys may 
give greater satisfaction and prevent waste, for quite a large 
number of boys do not care for fish, and it may be simpler 
and more advisable to choose another course. The choice 
of fish, if any, will of necessity be of the cheaper varieties, 
such as cod, bloaters, kippers, haddock. An alternative 
course to fish may be potted beef, which would probably be 
enjoyed by a larger number of boys. 

Bacon. This food forms a somewhat expensive dish ; 
eaten in the open air it does not always give satisfaction, for 
it is difficult to serve hot, moreover, supplying bacon to sixty 
boys is almost impracticable. As a substitute a cooked ham 
is recommended if the funds will permit. 

Ham and Beef Roll. This is a less expensive dish 
than either bacon or ham, and forms a very tasty addition 
to breakfast. It is convenient in form, readily and easily 



40 FOOD 

Jam. This food makes a good stand-by and is much 
relished by most boys ; the more varied the assortment of 
jam, the better, and although a little extra trouble is 
involved, it is an advantage to have two sorts in use in 
order to cater for all. The following kinds have been 
proved to be favourites : blackberry and apple, raspberry, 
strawberry, and apricot. For this reason it is recommended 
that these form the bulk of the supply. Two-pound jars 
are most convenient, for the larger the jars the more dust 
and dirt they are likely to accumulate before the jam is 
finished. It should be made a practice to so gauge the 
amount required, that none is left over for another meal. 
The contents of half-empty jars lose their freshness and are 
unhygienic. 

Meat. This is another matter which must be arranged 
some weeks in advance. A camp is often held well out in 
the country, quite away from any butchers' shops, and even 
these may not be able to provide the large joints that are 
required. If the camp is situated near a sea-side village or 
even if within thirty miles or so of a shop, it is a simple 
matter for a daily supply of fresh meat to be forwarded by 
train. Butchers in such places, it will be found, are very 
accommodating, and by arrangement will supply the 
necessary quantity if they are given a clear day's notice. 
It is expedient that the master who is responsible for the 
food arrangements should take the first day's supply of 
meat with him, and mutton chops will form a convenient 
dish for this particular day. The campers reach their 
destination about noon, and by this time the advance party 
will have erected the field kitchen, the ovens will be hot, 
and the potatoes will be cooking ; thus, while the boys are 
having a wash after their journey, the meat can be readily 
and conveniently prepared. 



M E A L - T I M E S 41 

Milk. This all-important food is easily provided, for, as 
a rule, the farmer who is accustomed to churn his milk into 
butter will be pleased to sell to the camp as much milk as 
is required. This pays him better than butter-making, and 
so long as he knows at night the next day's requirements 
there will be no difficulty. 

Eggs. This matter ought also to be reckoned with 
beforehand as the farmer may, or may not, be able to 
supply eggs in sufficient quantities. Again, it is advisable 
to obtain the opinion of the campers as regards their liking 
for eggs. Experience shows that they are not much relished 
at camp. It may be possible, if the camp is held in August 
or September, and in a good mushroom -growing district, to 
obtain a supply of mushrooms for breakfast ; this would prove 
a welcome change in the menu and by arrangement would 
give certain boys an opportunity of working off the early- 
rising habits which they contrive to develop in camp. 

Fish. Concerning this food another appeal to boys may 
give greater satisfaction and prevent waste, for quite a large 
number of boys do not care for fish, and it may be simpler 
and more advisable to choose another course. The choice 
of fish, if any, will of necessity be of the cheaper varieties, 
such as cod, bloaters, kippers, haddock. An alternative 
course to fish may be potted beef, which would probably be 
enjoyed by a larger number of boys. 

Bacon. This food forms a somewhat expensive dish ; 
eaten in the open air it does not always give satisfaction, for 
it is difficult to serve hot, moreover, supplying bacon to sixty 
boys is almost impracticable. As a substitute a cooked ham 
is recommended if the funds will permit. 

Ham and Beef Roll. This is a less "expensive dish 
than either bacon or ham, and forms a very tasty addition 
to breakfast. It is convenient in form, readily and easily 



42 FOOD 

served, and, like potted beef, can be prepared before- 
hand. 

Potted Beef. A good supply of this meat is not to be 
despised. It is handy, stores in small space, and can be 
prepared the day before camp begins. 

Food Quantities. The scheme of quantities must 
necessarily be very elastic, for its accuracy depends 
altogether on the various courses chosen ; for instance, if 
porridge is dispensed with for breakfast once or twice, 
less oatmeal will be required than the amount stated. The 
authors trust, however, that the figures given in the table 
appended will serve as a basis on which to work. They are 
the result of careful calculation based on the figures obtained 
during several years. The basis taken is sixty, and this will 
include four or five masters and two cooks, the boys them- 
selves ranging from twelve to sixteen years of age. With 
growing boys plenty of bread is required, for this is the 
staple food and there should be no shortage in this direc- 
tion. It is advisable to order generous supplies of food with- 
out being extravagant, as it is very annoying to run short in 
some particular commodity the day before it is required, for 
the local grocer may also be without the same article, and 
thus a hitch occurs which may be disastrous, for faults in this 
section never appear singly. Any food left over at the break- 
up of camp can easily be sold at a little less than cost price. 

The following table gives the quantities required for a 
camp of sixty persons, and the prices are those which 
obtained in pre-war days : 

5. d. 

Tea 3p lb. @ 2 6 per lb. 
Coffee i\ @ i 8 ,. 

Cocoa 3 ,, @ 2 o ,, 

Sugar 45 (cv 2J 

Oatmeal 32 ., (ci .2 .. 

Butter 24 .,((ii 2 ,. 



QUANTITIES AND COST 



43 



Jam 40 Ib. 


<@ 


5<^., 6d., ^d. 'per Ib. 


Meat 130 ., 


@ 


7<^., 8^., 9</., g\d. per Ib. 






5. f. 


Peas 12 ., 


@ 


4 per Ib. 


Haricots 7 ,. 


(a 


5 ., One meal. 


Lentils i ,, 


@ 


3 r 7, 


Rhubarb 15 ., 


($ 


2 J? >? 


Figs 6 


& 


4 J? 9) 


Primes 6 .. 


(cv 


6 


Apricots 6 ,, 


(d) 


9 , ? i, 


Fish 25 ,, 


@ 


7 


Bacon 10 ,. 


@ 


10 , 


Ham 10 


@ 


1 ' 7, If''' 


Potted beef 8 ,, 


@ 


1 7? P 


Beef and 






ham roll 10 ,, 


(a 


9? y, 


Milk 50 galls. 


@ 


i 2 per gallon. 


Eggs 100 


@ 


10 or 12 for. 15. 


Bread 140 loaves 




112 white 



28 brown 
Apples @ 3<^. per Ib. 

The following table suggests one week's menu. It will 
be noticed that where meats are served for breakfast a full 
ration of meat is not included in the dinner. An alternative 
is offered here and there to meet the various circumstances 
of camp. 



Saturday 



Sunday 



Monday 



Breakfast. 


Dinner. 


A light lunch in the 


Mutton chops with 


train. 


mince sauce 




Potatoes 




Apple pasty. 


Porridge and milk 
Coffee or cocoa 


Roast beef 
Potatoes 


Rread and butter 


Haricots 


Ham and beef roll. 


PJum pudding. 


Porridge and milk 
Coffee or cocoa 


Legs of mutton 
Mint sauce 


Bread and butter or 


Potatoes 


dripping 
j Jam. 


Peas 
Currant pasty. 



Tea. 

Tea 

Bread and butter 

(white and brown) 
Jam. 

Tea 

Bread and butter 

(white and brown) 
Stewed figs. 

Tea 

Bread and butter 
* (white and brown) 
Stewed fruit. 



44 



FOOD 



Tuesday 



Wednesday 



Thursday 



Friday 



Saturday 



Breakfast. 


Dinner. 


Tea. 


Porridge and milk 


Meat pie 


Tea 


Coffee or cocoa 


Potatoes 


Bread and butter 


Bread and butter or 


Rice pudding 


(white and brown 


dripping. 


Stewed fruit. 


Jam. 


Potted beef. 






Porridge and milk 


Roast beef 


Tea 


Coffee or cocoa 


Potatoes 


Bread and butter 


Bread and butter or 


Haricots 


(white and brown 


dripping 


Plum pudding. 


Stewed fruit 


Eggs. 






Porridge and milk 


Irish stew 


Tea 


Coffee or cocoa 


Potatoes 


Bread and butter 


Cooked ham 


Yorkshire pudding 


(white and brown 


Bread and butter. 


with jam. 


Stewed apples. 


Porridge and milk 


Legs of mutton 


Tea 


Coffee or cocoa 


Mint sauce 


Bread and butter 


Bread and butter 


Potatoes 


(white and brown 


Fish. 


Fruit tart with rice 


Jam 




pudding. 


Buttered Scone. 


Porridge and milk 


Beef sandwiches 




Coffee or cocoa 


Cocoa. 




Jam 




Bread and butter. 







Kitchen and Cooking Utensils. It is often a difficult 
question to decide what cooking utensils should be taken to 
camp. To carry too many is a burden and a waste of time 
and labour, and to run short of them is equally a nuisance. 
Still, in camp, whether self-contained or otherwise, certain 
articles are essential. If numbers are small and the cooking 
is done at a farm-house, it is very unlikely that the mistress 
of the house will have the necessary equipment, either from 
the point of view of quantity or of size. It adds to the 
pleasure and the smooth and orderly working of a camp 
to have a sufficiency of ' pots and pans '. The following list 
will serve as a guide, sixty or thereabouts being taken as 
the number of persons to be provided for. 



COOKING UTENSILS 45 

The Cooking Stove. This must be the first considera- 
tion, and it is wise to attempt no economy when selecting 
a field stove. Military ' ground-ovens ', ' clay-ovens ' are all 
right in their way, but they are somewhat fallible, and 
their success as ovens is indifferent. A proper coal oven 
is advocated. Messrs. Langdons, of Liverpool, show in 
their catalogue a very simple one which does its work well, 
is comparatively light, and cah be packed with great ease. 
The chimneys, kettles, dishes, draught-plates all fit into the 
two ovens, which then rest side by side in a well-made 
crate. The inside measurements of the ovens in the above 
stove are 16 in. by 13^ in. by 13^ in., and by manipulating 
the draughts one can regulate the heat for the ovens quite 
satisfactorily. 

Pudding Dishes. Four or six of these are required, 
especially if the runners and plates in the ovens will admit 
of so many. The size should be roughly 14 in. by u in. 
The dishes supplied with the stove described above 
are very strong, with wire roll tops and handles at the 
ends. 

Meat Tins. The pudding dishes will, if not used as 
such, make serviceable meat tins, but often both are 
required in the preparation of the same meal, and therefore 
it is advisable to procure meat tins ; three will be required, 
for occasionally three smaller joints are cooked instead of 
two. The size of the tins will be governed by the size of 
the ovens. 

Pie Dishes. Six dishes are necessary, and enamelled 
goods are the best. They should be about 12 in. diameter 
and 4 in. deep, with a good broad lip ; these form very 
handy utensils. They serve as mixing bowls, and also for 
soaking oatmeal overnight. Their shape must be such that 
they ' nestle ' one into the other. 



46 F O O I) 

Kettles. Three kettles are supplied with the afore- 
mentioned stove, each holding about six gallons. One is 
fitted with a strong brass plug tap, and so this kettle could 
be reserved as an urn as it suffices for fifty boys at tea. T In 
addition to the above it is suggested that the camp should 
purchase two or three kettles of the army pattern for 
porridge boiling or stews. An extra kettle for emergencies 
is always an advantage. 

Enamelled Jugs. Various sizes of jugs are always 
being required for milk or water ; three will be adequate, and 
these should hold respectively two gallons, one and a half 
gallons, and half a gallon. 

Enamelled Lading-Cans. Two will be required. 

Zinc Buckets. It is advisable to take at least two. 

Wooden Jam Spoons. Four spoons will be sufficient ; 
these are used for ladling out porridge, pudding, &c. 

Braziers. It will be found convenient to have two 
braziers for the boiling of porridge and vegetables, thus 
leaving the water boiler free to provide a hot-water supply 
for cooking and washing up. 

Carving Sets. Three cases of carvers will be sufficient. 

Net Bags. These are used for the quick handling of 
potatoes. Six are required, each holding conveniently six 
or seven pounds. They may be purchased from a rope and 
twine dealer. 

Bread-cutter. If a small number of boys is taken to 
camp a bread-cutter can be dispensed with, but with large 
numbers it saves much time and labour, as the bread- 
cutting for sixty or more is a huge task. There are various 
kinds on the market, but in all probability one can be 
hired from a neighbouring club or Sunday-school. It is a 
good plan for a school which holds an annual camp to 
conclude an agreement with a neighbouring club whereby 



COOKING UTENSILS 47 

an exchange of such articles as the aforementioned can be 
effected and thus diminish considerably the expenses. 

Field Boiler. This is -a necessary item of camp appara- 
tus. Hot water is constantly being required, both for 
cooking and washing things, and the ordinary stove kettles 
prove quite inadequate to provide it in large quantities. 
There are good designs on the market at fairly reasonable 
prices. The capacity should be from fifteen to twenty 
gallons, and for convenience of handling and transport the 
boiler should be in sections, namely, the chimney, the body, 
and the fire-grate or base. 

To purchase all the foregoing articles means a large outlay 
of money, and as a rule such a list is obtained gradually, as 
with other camp materials. If the school has a cookery or 
housewifery department the problem is partially solved, for 
a great number of the utensils mentioned can probably be 
borrowed from those departments. Small zinc baths ob- 
tained in this way might take the place of buckets ; an extra 
large saucepan or two, jam spoons, washing bowls, might 
also be borrowed. Again, if dinners are prepared at school, 
or if there are any dining arrangements, an additional number 
can be added, such, as jugs, urns, cutlery. Several articles 
may be borrowed from the homes of intending campers, but 
the drawback here is that the objects borrowed are often 
unsuitable and of all shapes and sizes. The authors do 
not recommend this course. If apparatus has to be pur- 
chased the cheaper way is to obtain it directly from a whole- 
sale firm, for thus one will at least avoid paying the ordinary 
retailer's profit. 

What food to take and how to take it. What food 
is it advisable to take to camp ? This is a question which 
will be asked by many, and which is not the easiest to 
answer, for so many factors enter into it. In the first place, 



48 FOOD 

food, tea, coffee, &c. can generally be bought more cheaply at 
home. One can see it before purchasing, and when it is 
purchased one can have it packed into the most convenient 
forms. Together with the rest of the luggage it is delivered 
into camp, and there it is ready to hand, sufficient for the 
week or fortnight, as the case may be. Thus the masters 
are not dependent on the caprices of the village trades- 
men, and much time is saved that would otherwise be 
taken up in journeys between the stores and the camp. On 
the other hand there will be extra packing, more boxes 
and additional room to provide. As previously stated, the 
' Food Controller ', when visiting the camping ground, will 
have interviewed suitable tradesmen and obtained from 
them price-lists of the goods required. He will also have 
compared these prices with those prevailing at home, and 
thus be in a position to use his discretion to the best advan- 
tage. Both these methods of solving the food question 
have been tried, and the authors recommend that as much 
food as possible be taken, with the exception of meat, con- 
fectionery, and what the farmer can supply. If a large 
supply of food is taken, an extra tent either a bell tent or 
a UAbri must be hired and used as a stores tent. It is 
a good plan for the master responsible for the school stock 
to save all wooden boxes, string and rope that periodically 
arrive at school with apparatus and stationery, for such are 
admirably suited for the packing of food. Wherever it is 
possible each box should contain goods of a similar nature. 
The master in charge should be present when the packing 
is in progress. It will be an advantage for each box to be 
marked on the lid and on each end with a big capital letter, 
and this should be entered in the stores handbook with 
the description of the contents of the box written opposite : 
this arrangement will save time in the preparation of meals. 



PREPARED FOODS 49 

The following table may be suggestive of packages re- 
quired : 

Box A. Tea, coffee, cocoa. 

B. Sugar. 

C. Jam a strong box needed. 

D. Oatmeal. 

E. Rice, peas, lentils, beans. 

F. Salt, pepper, mustard; mint. 

,, G. Dried fruits. 

H. Prepared meats. 

,, I. Plum puddings. 

Under no circumstances should food be packed in the 
same box with cleaning materials. As the food is used out 
of the boxes the latter can be broken up for firewood. 
Every box and package of any description should have 
printed labels tacked on to the lid, denoting the nature of 
the contents of the box ; this prevents confusion in the 
stores tent. These labels should be printed in big and con- 
spicuous letters, and this might easily be done by boys in 
the art lesson, with indian ink and brush, as examples in 
bold lettering. Needless to say, the stores tent itself should 
be a model of order and cleanliness, one portion being 
devoted to boxes of food, another to utensils, &c. Empty 
jam jars should be stacked neatly by the side of the stores 
tent or placed in boxes and stored in the open as they are 
successively emptied of food. 

Cooked Food to be taken to Camp. It may be con- 
sidered absurd to take any cooked foods to camp, but experi- 
ence has shown that the policy is sound, and that there are 
advantages in taking some. Wherein do these advantages 
lie, and what kinds of foods can be taken ? In the first place, 
the day of arrival in camp is a busy one for everybody, and 
cooking should be reduced to a minimum ; it will be found 
that a second course for dinner ready cooked is often very. 



50 FOOD 

acceptable. The type of foodstuffs to be taken will be 
decided by considering 

1. Perishability; 

2. Effect of transit ; 

3. Comparative cost. 

The following are the cooked foods that can be success- 
fully taken : 

1. Plain plum puddings. 

2. Apple and other fruit pasties. 

3. Cooked hams. 

4. Potted beef. 

5. Beef and ham rolls. 

For a camp of sixty, eighteen or twenty puddings about five 
or six inches in diameter will be sufficient for two dinners. 
It must be remembered that this is a favourite dish, and 
that the portions served out must be generous. The 
puddings are prepared and boiled beforehand in the school 
copper. At camp they merely require boiling up again 
before being served. The apple, raisin, and currant pasties 
may also be made at school in the large ovens usually to 
be found either in the cookery or dining room ; it is 
recommended that these pasties be made the day before 
the departure for camp; if placed in the oven a few 
minutes before dinner they will appear fresh and crisp. 
An old tin trunk serves admirably for the package and 
storage of pasties the food keeps moist and the trunk is 
vermin proof. The boiling of hams and the preparation 
of potted beef, and beef and ham roll, are comparatively 
simple matters if one possesses or can hire a mincing 
machine. It is advisable for these prepared meats to be 
served early in the week. 



CHAPTER V 

THE MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 

Tables and seats Sanitary equipment Tent fittings. 

IT often happens that a boy in the Manual or Handicraft 
Room makes a model or an object which serves no specific 
purpose either in his daily life or surroundings, and when 
completed is^placed in a cupboard or on a shelf and left 
there as discarded or lost so that its durability and utility 
are never tested. Compare this with the scope which exists 
for the making of camp furniture ! Originality, correct 
conception of ideas, sound construction are all principles 
which must not be lost, sight of, for camp soon finds 
the weakness and the unfitness of things. In design- 
ing camp materials several further considerations have 
also to be taken into account. There must be maxi- 
mum of strength with minimum of weight and space, con- 
venience in the folding up of parts ; easy and quick 
dismemberment, and the possibility of erection with as 
few tools as possible ; absence of small pieces liable to 
be lost in transit. Good trustworthy timber must be used, 
as a few rainy days may play havoc with the work of 
months and mar the success of the camp week. No 
matter how small the camp is, it should begin with a certain 
amount of stock, and as the camp grows so will the furniture 
and other necessary articles. Thus it will be seen that in 
considering the initial requirements coupled with the repairs 
every year there is always some handicraft needed. The 

D 2 



52 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 

list of articles enumerated in this chapter has been simpli- 
fied and modified so that the making of them will lie within 
the abilities of boys who attend a manual class. Those 
objects embodying metal-work can be produced by the 
exercises of filing, drilling, countersinking, riveting, and 
simple forging. It is presumed sthat every Manual Room 
has the apparatus sufficient to accomplish these tasks, and 
with regard to the woodwork this should satisfy the scheme 
of any ' Manual Master '. The list is by no means exhaus- 
tive, and it is not intended that it should be slavishly 
followed ; the authors merely present it as suggestive of what 
can be done, and has actually been done, by boys. 

The drawings and illustrations are not drawn to scale, 
and in many cases self-explanatory detail is omitted. If the 
illustrations explain the text, and serve as suggestions for 
improved apparatus, they will have justified their inclusion. 

Tables and Seats. Probably the first articles to be 
made are tables and seats, for experience shows that tables 
are a necessity rather than a luxury ; adverse weather condi- 
tions have always to be taken into account. The following 
type of table has been proved to be really serviceable. The 
tables are best made of white deal boards 8 ft. x 1 1 in. x | in. 
Both the sides and edges of each board should be planed 
and the ends squared. Two boards will form a very con- 
venient width for all purposes. If each pair of boards is 
dowelled deeply at the ends and in the middle and 
strengthened by battens 18 in. x 2 in. x|in. a serviceable 
top is obtained. A thin strip of metal, mild steel or sheet 
iron, filed up accurately and screwed on the under surface 
of the table across the ends, greatly strengthens the table, 
for this is the weakest part and that which receives any 
knocks and blows. Fig i shows the under surface of the 
table. The second table should fit on to the first, a third to 



'FABLES AND SEATS 



53 



the fourth, and so on ; hence the battens must be placed so 
as to be clear of each other, and the advantage of this 
method of fixing will be apparent in the packing (Fig. 2); 
the two outer battens must be placed well towards the end 



Fig. i. 



Fig. 2. 




Fig. 3- 

so as to lie outside the trestle. The trestles themselves can 
also be made if desired ; they must be light and withal fairly 
strong. Now to make thirty-two frames (sufficient for eight 
tables) is a rather large order, and will tax the resources of 
the Manual Room, for there are two mortise- and tenon- 



54 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 

joints in each frame besides the jointing of the cross-pieced 
(Fig. 3). It may be found that a joiner can supply these 
frames almost as cheaply as they can be made on the 
premises, in fact they have been obtained at ninepence for 
each bare frame. The cross-piece A may be jointed as at 
B or C (Figs. 4 and 5'. The mortise- and tenon-joint at B 
is preferable as far as packing is concerned, but it is doubt- 
ful whether it is the stronger. At the modest sum of nine- 




Fig. 6. 



Fig. 7. 



pence for one frame the joint was similar to that at C 
(Fig. 5), for that entailed less work on the part of the 
joiner. 

It will be found that webbing is preferable to iron for 
the hinges ; there is no rust and less weight ; it is strongly 
recommended that the best webbing be bought. Nothing 
is so annoying in camp as to be constantly repairing. The 
webbing should be fixed at the top of the frames in 
the manner shown (Fig. 6), and again as in Fig 7 for the 



TABLES AND SEATS 



55 



1 stride ' of the legs. A little packing of leather placed 
between the tack-heads and the webbing will save money 
as well as worry. Having discussed the tables, seats now 
claim our attention. Boys can stand, but it is conducive 
to orderly and quiet working to allow them to sit. The 
designing of seats is not an easy matter if they are to 
comply with the conditions previously laid down. The 
following pattern, though somewhat primitive, has been 
found so far to give the best all-round satisfaction. The 
timber used must be 2 in. square and the first support 





Fig. 8. 

should be made according to the sketch (Fig. 8), the joint 
being a mortise and tenon, or a bridle one ; the long post is 
4 ft. long and pointed as shown. Two such supports are 
needed for one form ; another stake should now be prepared, 
pointed as before but without the top member, its use being 
merely to prevent the seat-board from sagging. The seat- 
boards are made from white deal boards 9 in. x ^ in. It is 
very important in the erection of these seats to drive the 
supports in vertically ; the elevation of part of the seat is 
given (Fig. 9). If desired the seat-board can be bolted 
down (Fig. 10), but this has its drawbacks. In wet weather 
the table tops are merely turned over and the seat-boards 



56 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 



are taken off and placed under the tables through the 
trestles ; now if seats are bolted down this cannot be done. 
Rectangular pieces of stee.l or iron nailed to the top of the 
supports in the manner shown (Figs, n, na) prevent 
the seat-boards from slipping away from their supports. 
A peg fitted into the top member, corresponding with a hole 



\ / 



Fig. 9. 



Fig. 10. 



Fig. n. 



Fig. ii a. 



bored in the seat-board would also serve the same purpose. 
One great advantage of this form of seat is that it can be 
easily packed ; the centre posts are lashed together in 
bundles of nine, the supports in threes, and the boards 
in sixes. 

Sanitary Equipment. Latrines. The latrine is a 
structure that needs some thought and attention. Owing 
to the use of canvas for the screen it is often a very unstable 



SANITARY EQUIPMENT 



57 



affair, especially in windy weather. The following design 
meets the demand (Figs. 12 and 13). All the posts and 
bars should be 2 in. square except J and K, these being 
6 in. x| in. The posts A, B, C, and D should be 8 ft. 
long, pointed 9 in. and driven into the ground 2 ft. G and 




Fig. 12. 



Fig. 13. 

H are 3 ft. 6 in. long, pointed 6 in. and rest in the ground 
to the extent of i ft. 6 in., their distance from D and C being 
2 ft. F is tenoned into D and C, and E into G and H 
about i ft. 6 in. above the ground (Fig. 13 a). Another post 
L along with A forms the doorway ; all joints should be 
bolted with f in. bolts. The upper ends of the posts A, B, 



58 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 



C, D are fitted as shown (Fig. 14). A is a piece of metal 
mild steel or sheet iron covering the top and extending 
down the sides of the timber i in., B is the threaded shank 
of a \ in. bolt, its head fitting into a hollow made for that 
purpose (Fig. 14 a) the hole in the plate should be square 
to prevent the bolt turning round with the spanner. The 
boards J and K are strengthened at the ends with metal 
plates filed to size, fixed as shown (Fig. 15), and pierced 






Fig. 14. 



Fig. 14 a. 



i* 



Fig. 15. 



Fig. 1 6. 



with a square or round hole to slip over the upturned bolt. 
The plate A (Fig. 16) is fixed on the centre of one of the 
boards and a similar one is fixed to the under surface of the 
second board, the two are then bolted together with a couple 
of bolts. This method of securing the roof boards, if carried 
out properly, does away with the use of guy ropes, which 
continually require attention. The whole structure is then 
canvassed round, leaving the opening or doorway between 
the posts A and L. When making any joints for camp 
furniture it is wise to mark with a definite colour the 



SANITARY EQUIPMENT 



59 



complementary parts ; this ensures quicker erection on the 
day. 

Washing Stands. It saves much time, worry, and dirt 
to have a washing stand for each tent rather than one trough 
for the whole camp, besides being more hygienic ; in fact 
the latter really needs the laying down of service water, and 
the proper construction of a soak-pit, whereas for the former 
a bucket will serve the purpose The stand illustrated 
(Fig. 17) has been proved to be fairly serviceable, and it 
presents a capital exercise for the boys in the Manual Room 




Fig. 1 8. 

always a further recommendation. It will be found that 
the boys will vie with each other in producing a first-class 
model. The stand consists of three upright stakes 2 ft. 9 in. 
X if in. x | in., pointed, and fitted with metal tops as pre- 
viously described for the posts of the latrine (Fig. 18). The 
table is made from three pieces of 2 in. x f in. timber, joined 
at the corners as open mortise- and tenon-joints at angles of 
60 degrees ; the ends are then plated on the top and the 
bottom with thin sheet iron and drilled to receive a f in. 
bolt, so that the whole frame forms a tripod with a top 
capable of taking an average-sized bucket ; nuts are then 



60 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 

screwed down to keep the top firm. An alternative method 
of fixing the top is suggested (Fig. 20 a), where a small 
piece of mild steel is drilled, bent at right angles and 
screwed to the broader face of the post. The table is then 
bolted down to the plates. Before erecting the stand it is 
wise to apply a liberal dose of oil or grease to the bolts, for 
if wet weather prevails bolts become rusty, and difficulty is 
experienced when the camp is broken up. Various parts of 
the stand are illustrated (Figs. 17, 18, 19, 20). 





Fig. 19. 



Fig. 20. 



Fig. 20 a. 



It will be noticed that quite a large number of objects 
are fitted with plates here and there ; these are not absolutely 
essential, but they strengthen the objects considerably and 
thus prolong their life, at the same time providing ; capital 
exercises in filing, drilling, and countersinking. If material 
is available the example illustrated (Fig. 21) suits the purpose 
well. It consists of three rods of \ in. round iron forged at 
one end as shown in the sketch (Fig. 21 a). A discarded 
metal rim about the diameter of the bucket at mid-height 
serves admirably. Such parts as those which have been 
mentioned can often be picked up for a small sum at a metal 



SANITARY EQUIPMENT 



61 



broker's. A very simple and yet effective washstand can 
be made from a i Tate ' sugar box. Such a box can be 
used on the outward journey for the transport of goods 
(Fig. 22). If metal rods are not easily obtainable for wash- 
stands wooden posts 2 in. x f in. would suffice ; the hook 




ft* 



Fig. 21. 



Fig. 21 a. 




Figs. 22, 23, 24. 

would then be forged similarly to that shown (Figs. 23, 24); it 
is made from -| in. round iron forged flat at one end and 
then drilled and countersunk. The hook takes the ring 
similarly to the one in a previous design. All the rods can 
be tied together when being packed, and the rings can be 
placed inside a bucket. Perhaps one will remark, Why go to 



62 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 



all this trouble in the preparation of a wash-stand when 
merely the bucket placed on the ground or on a box- 
suffices ? It is only another instance of that fine camping 
spirit, the broader aspect of which can be made to permeate 
the school in question from January to December. It brings 
another interest to the Manual Room in that the boy recog- 
nizes that his model is being made for a definite purpose in 
life his own life. One will find when the above spirit is 
abroad it is difficult to keep the boys out of the Manual 
Room. 

Tent Fittings. Tent pegs are also articles in constant 
demand ; accidents are always happening to them, and a 
score or so of extra pegs will be found 
useful in case of storms, &c. They 
are best made of beech, oak, or ash, 
and should not be waste or knotty 
pieces, as, if so, they are liable to be 
broken at the first blow ; the wood 
must be sound and the grain straight. 
There should be two sizes, one for the 
tent guy ropes and a smaller size for 
the curtains ; a design is that shown 
(Fig. 25), the size of the larger peg 
Figs. 25, 26. being 14 in. xf in., and that of the 

smaller 10 in. x^ in. A soaking in 

water for some time before use is beneficial to new pegs. 
Sharp edges chafe the guy ropes. 

Two pegs can be cut from a rectangular piece of wood 
with very little waste (Fig. 26). When preparing for camp 
it is an advantage. to pack the correct number of pegs for 
each tent in separate bags, this will prevent confusion and 
loss of time at tent-erection. 

Every tent should possess its own mallet, and the con- 



TENT FITTINGS 63 

struction of this object forms a suitable exercise for the 
boys. The head should be 8 in. long and 3! in. in dia- 
meter ; a hole, i in. in diameter, bored through the head 
receives the handle, which is wedged in the usual way 
(Fig. 2 6 a). A number burned on the head will save much 
inquiry respecting lost mallets, and all mallets should be 
strung together for transport. 

Tent slides are occasionally split or lost, so it is advisable 



C 




Fig. 26 a. 



(^ 



Fig. 27. 



Fig. 28. 



to have a few in stock ; the shaping of them to a given 
curve serves as a good exercise for the younger boys ; like 
tent pegs they are best made of hard wood and of a good 
thickness, | in. The design shown (Fig. 27) meets the 
purpose. For smaller and home-made tents a simpler 
design might be adopted (Fig. 28), the thickness in this 
case being f in. 

Lamp Hooks. It is inadvisable and unsafe for lamps 
to be placed on the floor, and they are very little safer on 



64 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 

boxes. The diagrams (Figs. 29-33) are mostly self-explana- 
tory and so detail of construction is therefore omitted. The 
design shown (Fig. 29) admits of an alternative. In the 
figure the arm is fixed and brazed to the band (Fig. 30), 
which is heated in the forge, then beaten round to a little 
less than the diameter of the tent pole about 3 in., leaving 
2 in. of straight metal for bolting-up purposes. A con- 
venient length for the arm is 9 in., the iron, rin/xjin., 



Fig. 29. 





JT, 



Fig. 30. 



Fig. 31. 



being drawn out at the end to the form of a hook. The 
alternative is shown (Fig. 31), where the arm is loose and 
the clinching of the band round the tent pole with a \ in. 
bolt also firmly fixes the arm. If the tents are one's own 
property a small hole drilled through the band will admit of 
the latter v being further fixed by the insertion of a nail ; this 
will prevent any slipping of the band. On the other hand, 
if the tents are hired the owners usually stipulate that nails 
must not be driven into the poles. Another, of simpler 



TENTFITTINGS 65 

design, is shown (Fig. 32). This is made throughout of 
\ in. rod iron ; the end is drawn out in the forge in 
the form of a hook ; 9 in. is marked off and bent at 
right angles. The rod is then placed in the ground near 
the pole and bound to the latter with string or wire ; this 
will keep it upright. This design can be modified by 
employing supports of wood instead of iron ; in this case 
it would be necessary for the arm to be altered somewhat 
to enable it to be fixed to the wooden post. One end of the 
arm should be heated and hammered flat for about 3 in., 




Fig. 32. 



Fig. 33- 



then bent at right angles, drilled, and countersunk ; the 
other end should be forged into a hook (Fig. 33). It is 
recommended that all lighter posts be of the same size for 
convenience in packing. Rectangular-shaped posts are 
preferable to round ones, as the latter are more difficult to 
pack tightly, take up more room when packed, and are not 
as firm in the ground as the rectangular ones. It is neces- 
sary that all stakes be slightly pointed in order to facilitate 
the driving of them into the ground. A plentiful supply of 
hooks prevents an unsightly litter of clothes lying about ; 
they are very convenient for hanging and drying damp 
clothing, for the orderly disposal of haversacks, bags, boots. 



66 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 

, These hooks or hangers are made somewhat on the same 
principle as lamp brackets. They may take the form of the 
designs illustrated (Figs. 34, 35, 36), and it will be seen that 
in each case the band is fixed tightly round the pole with 
nut and bolt. In Fig. 36 two arms similar to the one 
shown in Fig. 31 are used. 

It is not advisable to have oil lamps, nor is it always 
possible to obtain them. The presence of oil in tents 
causes uneasiness to the masters, and so, in order to 
mitigate the anxiety, it is recommended that candles be 
used if lights are necessary; short, thick carriage candles 






Fig. 34- Fig- 35- Fig. 36. 

are more serviceable than the ordinary kind. Here, again, 
any simple kind of bracket or home-made lamp is far 
preferable to the naked -light standing on a box. A few 
suggestions may be obtained from the sketches (Figs. 37 to 
41). In the first design the back is made of wood 6 in. or 
7 in. high, on which a reflector of tin is fixed ; the base is 
made from a piece of wood 4 in. x 4 in. x 4! in., bored 
with a hole to take the particular size of candle ; a slight 
1 surround ' to collect the candle drippings is nailed to the 
base (Fig. 41). Fig. 37 illustrates one made out of a 
cocoa tin. The sides of the tin are cut with the shears 
as shown (Fig. 38), and then bent back to form a handle 
(Fig. 39). Holes are then drilled to allow the heat to 



TENT FITTINGS 



escape; next a piece of tin should be soldered on the 
inside of the lid to receive the candle (Fig. 41), and also 
the lid should be soldered to the body (Fig. 40). 






Fig. 37 



Fig. 38. 





Fig. 40- 



Fig- 39- 



Fig. 41. 



Tables or stands for use either inside or outside the 
tent do not comprise part of the necessary stock, but 
a paragraph is devoted to them as showing the initiative 
and originality of the boys as regards the requirements 
and the fittings of the tent ; on one occasion they were the 

E 2 



68 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 



outcome of a healthy spirit of rivalry shown as soon as 
the occupants of the tents were settled. The following 
notes are for the guidance of those who wish to make and 
use them. The available space determines to some extent 
their design, and hence they must, of necessity, be some- 
what limited in size. A table which is so constructed that 
it surrounds the pole will probably suggest itself first to the, 
boys, for this is the most convenient place in the tent 
(Fig. 42). The top, 22 in. in diameter, is fixed with ordinary 
hasps (Fig. 44); the legs can be either round, rectangular, 






Fig. 43- 



Fig. 44. 



or square, and pointed slightly ; the diameter of the upper 
end of each leg is lessened slightly to form a peg (Fig. 43) 
which slides through a hole bored in the top of the table ; 
a long nail running through the projecting portion of the 
peg will tend to make the table more rigid. The design 
shown in Fig. 45 has the advantage in that it can be 
pitched anywhere out of doors if fine, indoors if wet; 
the base or bottom disk is used merely to keep the object 
upright ; the two disks are kept in position by a couple of 
long nails piercing the post. There is also the folding 
table, which can be packed well (Fig. 46) ; the top and 
legs are separate. A and B are two pieces of wood i in. 
square, bored to take a f in. bolt and wing nut at their 



TENT FITTINGS 



69 



intersection; the extremities of the legs are cut to the 
correct angle, and the battens D and E are placed to allow 
for a sufficient stride of the legs; J^and G are two battens 
connecting opposite legs. 

Clothes-lines are very useful for drying towels and bathing 




Fig. 47. Fig. 48. 

costumes, for airing blankets, c. One for each tent will 
be sufficient. Two posts are required 3 ft. 6 in. x 2 in. x 2 in., 
with a hole bored near the top for the cord (preferably 
cotton rope) to pass through. Two guys and two small 
pegs make the erection stable ; the posts should be driven 
i ft. into the ground (Figs 47, 48). 



70 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 

Mauls. This very important and useful piece of ap- 
paratus can be made easily and cheaply. If possible, one 
should obtain a round log from the wood-turner's ; a dis- 
carded wringing machine roller will suffice or a waster 
roller. It should be arranged for the log to be cut and 
turned to the proper size and shape required ; this would 
only be a few minutes' task. In order to prolong the life 
of the maul it is necessary that the head should be tired 
or hooped. The hoops should be made from i-|in. X Jin. 
wrought iron, and their diameter should be slightly smaller 
than the ends on which they have to be fixed. Each hoop 
should be heated to a dull red and forced on the maul 
head, which should then be plunged into cold water. 
Holes may now be drilled through the hoops, countersunk, 
and the hoops fixed by means of | in. screws. The head 
should now be bored to receive the handle, which must be 
made' of tough wood ash and after it has been forced 
through the head it should be wedged in the usual 
manner. 



CHAPTER VI 



THE MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 

(continued). 

Small Kitchen Utensils Braziers The Kitchen The Hand-cart. 

Wooden Rods or Porridge Stirrers. Two or three 
1 thybals ' (as these are called in the North) are required. 
They provide good exercises for the younger boys, for the 
exact shape can be determined to suit the abilities of the 
class. It will be found that the construction of any cooking 
apparatus is always of special interest to the boys. 

Wooden Spoons. These should be similar to those 
used in jam-making, but in this case they are designed for 
serving out porridge; they present a difficult exercise in 
modelling in wood. Three or four spoons will be sufficient. 





Figs. 49-5 2 - 

Boxes will be required for conveying the kitchen appa- 
ratus, food, &c. ; these will probably be obtained from the 
local stores. Bryant and May's cases, Tate's sugar boxes, 
ham boxes, tea chests, are all suitable. These boxes may 
be in a more or less damaged condition, and so may require 



72 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 



overhauling and, in any case, strengthening. Corners 
should be protected, for these are the places where the 
dam-age begins. Cheap garth iron comes in useful and 
can be obtained from a cooper or blacksmith. The box 
should be strengthened as shown (Figs. 49 to 52) both at 
the top and at the bottom ; the wood needed (and the 
nails) can be obtained from other boxes carefully pulled 
to pieces. A substantial lid should be made and fixed 
down by means of i^in. screws. 

Braziers. No matter what sort of cooking-stove a camp 





Fig. 53- 



Fig. 54- 



possesses, a brazier is always acceptable. Its usefulness is 
seen in the cooking of porridge for breakfast, potatoes for 
dinner, and at any time when the kitchen range is required 
for roasting. As to the quality, this is not a serious con- 
sideration so long as the design fully meets its purpose. 
If braziers can be borrowed yearly it is not advisable to 
make them, for they require storage room during the 
greater part of the year. The primitive idea of a bucket 
placed upon a couple of bricks is not advocated, for this 
is a very unstable affair, and an accident or an upset may 
spoil a breakfast. Braziers are not difficult to construct if 



BRAZIERS 



73 



the Manual Department possesses a good drilling-machine 
and a forge, It will be found that braziers of a rectangular 
shape are generally more convenient than circular ones, 
especially if constructed to take two pans or kettles (Fig. 54). 
It is a good plan to obtain the kettles first and make the 
braziers to suit them ; an average size would be height 2 ft., 
depth of fire-space or grate 9 in., length 24 in., breadth 
20 in. ; the fire-bars should be iin.Xy\in. Six pieces of 
i in. angle iron, sawn to the requisite length, will be 





55- 



required. Holes J in. diameter are drilled in the fire-bars, 
and correspond to holes drilled in the angle-irons; the 
rivets are heated in the forge, and the whole fixed together 
as shown (Fig. 55). The bottom or sixth fire-bar on either 
side is also an angle-iron, and serves as a runner for the 
fire-grate to rest upon. This grate should be bored with 
holes | in. diameter, twelve to sixteen in number. A thin 
piece of sheet-iron is often useful to place on the top of the 
fire when a slow heat is required ; it should project i in. 
beyond the brazier on all sides. If round braziers are 



74 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 




Figs. 56, 57. 




57 a. 



required, they are made very 
much on the same lines as the 
foregoing (Figs. 55 and 56). 
Instead of two angle - irons 
serving as runners, four pieces 
of bar iron 6 in. long are 
required. These should be 
heated and bent to form angle- 
irons which, when drilled and 
riveted to the uprights as 
shown in the sketch serve as 
rests for the fire-grate. An 
alternative design is shown in 
Fig- 57 a. As cover -plates 
become very hot, dusters are 
of no use for handling them. 
To overcome the difficulty two 
slots, 3 in. x f in., should be 
drilled and filed in the cover- 
plate. Carriers similar to the 
one shown (Fig. 58) should 
now be forged from \ in. round 
iron, the arm being 2\ in. long 
and the handle big enough 
to admit the hand easily. In 
order to obtain a firm grip 
a pair of these carriers will be 
required, and their manufac- 
ture will provide good forging 
exercises for more advanced 
pupils. 

A couple of pokers will 
meet the ordinary require- 
ments, namely, a long one 



BRAZIERS 



75 



2-| ft. and a shorter one 18 in., each having a simple bowl- 
handle (Fig. 59). 

A small coal-rake for cleaning out the flues of the stove 
is necessary ; the simpler the design the better (Fig. 60). 
The plate should be of mild steel 3 in. x 2^ in., and the 
handle of f in. rod iron, flattened in the forge and bent 
over at right angles. This portion is drilled and riveted 



Fig. 58. 




Fig. 60. 



Fig. 59- 




Fig. 61. Fig. 62. 

to the plate in two places, the other end of the rod being 
forged into a suitable handle of simple design. 

A small shovel specially made for the purpose will meet 
requirements better than one purchased. A design which 
can easily be made by boys is illustrated (Fig. 61) as the 
diagram is self-explanatory ; only the measurements need 
be detailed scoop 12 in. x 6 in. x 3 in., handle 9 in. the 
development of the shovel is shown (Fig. 62). 



76 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 

The Kitchen. It is surprising how readily ambition 
enters a school camp. A kitchen is often one of the later 
acquisitions and may almost be regarded as proof of a series 
of successful camps. It (the kitchen) is not really essential 
in genial dry weather, but if rain prevails cooking in the 
open is wellnigh impossible, and in our island one must 
take into account the various climatic changes which may 
occur. Camp kitchens are often very clumsy and far from 
rigid; they are seldom waterproof, and generally rely for 




Fig. 63. 

comfort on the fine weather. If a small marquee can be 
bought so much the better ; if not, the following notes may 
be suggestive of lines upon which to work. 

The size of the kitchen should be such as to contain 
comfortably a camp trestle-table, a form or seat alongside it, 
and a row of boxes containing * pots and pans ' along the 
other side ; these boxes serve, in an emergency, as seats. 
Four posts of 3 in. x 3 in. material, one pair 8 ft. long and the 
other 6 ft. long, are needed for the comers of the erection 
(Fig. 63), and eight boards,,6 in. (or preferably 9 in.) x i in. 
and of the correct length according to the length of the 



THE KITCHEN 



77 



sides of the kitchen. These are fixed to the upright posts 
with \ in. bolts (Fig. 64), a light spar, placed across the 
middle of the roof, being fixed as shown (Fig. 65). Nails 
should -not be used, as their use renders dismemberment of 
the structure difficult. Second-hand tarpaulins can be ob- 
tained from some army contractor ; they are sold of the 
size 72 in. x 36 in. and are eyeleted. Four or five of these 





Fig. 65. 



Fig. 64. 




66. 



will serve for one end, and the tops should be re-shaped to fit 
the frame of the kitchen ; in this case they will need re- 
eyeleting. Eyelets can be obtained at a cobbler's wholesale 
stores and can be inserted as follows. A hole must be cut 
in the material slightly smaller than the eyelet and the shank 
of the eyelet forced through ; by placing the rim over it, the 
eyelet may be spread by means of a suitably made punch 
(Fig. 66). Curved hooks screwed into the cross-piece at the 



78 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 

top will serve as attachments for the tarpaulins, and thus 
the use of nails may be dispensed with. The edges of the 
tarpaulins can now be corded together to form one wall. 
If funds will allow, sufficient waterproof sheets should be 
purchased for both ends, as otherwise a change will have to 
be effected when the wind alters. The back of the kitchen 
will be mostly taken up with the stove, and the amount of 
space to be covered in depends on the size of the stove and 
the nature of the background whether earth, wall, or bank. 
In certain places in the camp field a little digging will 
probably have to be done ; the turves should be cut carefully 




Fig. 67. 

and stacked to form a wall on both sides of the stove and, 
if they are in sufficient quantity, at the back as well. This 
will form a ' packing ' and will, in a slight measure, conserve 
the heat. A few sheets of corrugated iron form a very 
suitable roof, and if the sheets are tarred shortly after pur- 
chase they will remain sound for several years. They may 
be arranged on the roof as shown (Fig. 68), with allowance 
for overhanging 4 in. or 5 in. at the front and the back, and 
for overlapping each other to the extent of one roll ; the 
cross-spar will .prevent any sagging in the middle. These 
sheets should not be nailed down to the frame but kept in 
position with hooks of the design shown (Fig. 69) ; they are 
easily fixed and taken down ; the hooks themselves can be 



THE KITCHEN 



79 



forged out of any scrap iron or strong garth iron i in. wide, 
drilled and countersunk and fixed after the roof has been 
laid. A rope slung across the middle of the roof and 
weighted with stones will prevent any lifting of the sheets 
by the wind. As an alternative to the corrugated sheets 
and tarpaulins one may be fortunate enough to obtain 
a large railway-wagon cover ; these are capital things, and 
possibly one can be purchased at second hand of sufficient 





Fig. 68. 



Fig. 69. 





Fig 70- Fig. 71. 

length to cover both ends and roof. These covers can 
generally be hired at railway goods stations. 

It is suggested in another part of the book (page 91) 
that ' basket ball ' is a suitable game for camp. The appa- 
ratus required is not difficult to make. Two posts are 
necessary ; it is not essential that they should be extra long 
or strong, 8 ft. X 2 in. x 2 in. will serve the purpose, i ft. being 
buried in the ground and the earth pounded down firmly. 
An iron hoop made from i in. iron, forged and welded as in 
sketch (Fig. 70), will be required for each post. The piece 
of metal A riveted on to B slips into the socket C (Fig. 71), 



8o MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 



made with i in. mild steel and bent at right angles as shown ; 
the netted bag may be dispensed with. 

The Hand-cart. The usefulness of a hand-cart at 
camp will be apparent to every one ; numerous journeys 
have usually to be made which necessitate the carriage of 
goods, a parcel of overdue blankets from the station, 
groceries from the village stores, boys' luggage, a bag of 
coal or coke. To carry these by hand proves both irk- 
some and laborious, and it is with the object of easing these 





Fig. 72. 



Fig. 73- 



labours that the following suggestions 'are made. It is 
a mistake when designing a cart to make it too large and 
heavy; one must remember that on most occasions the 
boys will have to do the hauling, and moreover it is not 
intended that the cart should form the sole means of trans- 
port. Another important consideration must be its easy 
dismemberment, for the carriage of wheeled vehicles intact 
on railways requires a special rate. A handy size for the 
model would be 2 ft. x 3 ft., but here again the size would 
depend on the camp's stock; for example, assuming that 



HAN D-C ART 



81 



one possesses a field stove, the cart should be capable of 
conveying it, for it may happen that circumstances compel 
its removal to another part of the camp field. The frame 
should be made first, the sides being 3 in. x 3^ in. placed on 
edge and the spendings or cross-pieces 2 in. x i^ in. with i in. 
tenon and jointed as shown (Fig. 72). The upper face of 
the spending should be | in. below that of the side piece to 
allow for | in. floor. The side boards should be 9 in. x i in. 




3 



Fig. 74- Fig. 75. 

the iron standards slotting into mortises in the frame, thus 
bringing the outside of the board flush with the side of the 
frame. These standards may be forged 8 in. x i J in. x \ in. 
from wrought iron ; then drilled and fixed as shown (Fig. 73). 
The back and front boards are merely slotted down between 
two pairs of battens, and the side boards clinched with 
a couple of angle-irons 6 in. long on top and dropping i^ in. 
or 2 in. down the sides (Fig. 74). The bottom boards of 
the cart should be 4^ in. xf in., tongued and grooved and 
nailed as shown (Fig. 75). The pole or shaft should be 



b2 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 

2\ in. x 2 in. x 6 ft. and shaped as in Fig. 76, the cross-bar 
being 6 in. from the end and projecting 9 in. on each side of 
the shaft. To provide for extra haulage with ropes a piece of 
round wrought iron f in. diameter should be forged flat at 
either end to the extent of '3 in., drilled, countersunk, and 
fixed as shown (Fig. 77). The front socket for the recep- 





Fig. 76. 



Fig. 77. 





Fig. 78. 



Fig. 79. 



tion of the pole can be made from ^ in. wrought iron, the 
inside measurements being 2\ in. x 2 in. ; this should be 
bolted to the front spending of the frame (Fig. 78). The 
rear end of the pole could be finished as illustrated (Fig. 79) 
and the socket made accordingly ; it would be convenient 
for the socket to be bolted to the middle spending of the 
frame and to allow the tenon to project a little. To prevent 
the pole from working out of the sockets, a pin of the design 



HAND-CART 83 

shown (Fig. 80) should be placed as in Fig. 81 ; this can 
be fastened with a light chain to the under surface of the 
cart ; when in use the hinged part drops by its 
own weight, thus securely locking the pole. 
The pin itself can be forged from two pieces of 
\ in. round iron, the end of one piece being 
forged flat to form a sort of tenon and a 
mortise sawn in the other piece to receive it ; 
the joint is then drilled and a cotter-pin 
inserted. The construction of this little piece 




TJ 

t 



Fig. 80. Fig. 8r. 

of apparatus forms a very neat exercise for older boys. 

It will be found necessary to purchase springs, axle, and 
wheels, and when the order is written the following par- 
ticulars should be given : 

Springs. Width, thickness, and number of plates, 
length, length centres (distance between the eyes), size of 
eyes, compass (depth of the spring from the horizontal at 
its lowest point). 

Axle, Size, distance between solid collars, length of 
bush. 

Wheel. Diameter, width of face, size of spokes, size of 
axle. 

In the assembling of the springs, axle, and wheels, several 
parts are needed, some of which can readily be made by the 
boys with the occasional help of the master. 

There are dumb Jack scroll irons which are fixed to the 
under part of the frame, and to which the springs are 

F 2 



8'4 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 



attached. They may be made as follows : to a piece of 
wrought iron 10 in. x f in. (the width depends on the width 
of the spring) is welded a piece at right angles (Fig. 82) ; 
the ears or the lugs are cut off to the required length, 2 in. 
for those of the front scroll iron and 2 \ in. for those of the 
back one (when measuring allowance must be made for 
bending). One lug must now be pierced with a square hole 




Fig. 82. 



Fig. 83. 






Fig. 8 4 : 



Fig. 85. 



and the opposite one with a round hole ; the lugs must be 
bent at right angles away from the welded surface (Fig 83). 
It will be noticed that the tail is longer than the head. 

The spring suitable for the purpose in hand should have 
four laps i-f in. or 2 in. wide and one end slaped ; the other 
end fits between the lugs of the scroll iron and is bolted up 
in the manner shown (Fig. 84) ; the slaped end fits into a 
scroll iron but has a free-way on which to move (Fig. 85). 



HAND-CART 85 

The method of fixing the axle to the spring is shown in 
Fig. 86. A is a four-lap spring pierced by a conical-headed 
bolt C and tightened up with the nut L. D is hard-wood 
packing placed between the axle clip /^and the spring A. 




Fig. 88. 



Another view of the axle clip is given (Fig. 87). G is a steel 
peg piercing F and resting tightly in a corresponding hole 
drilled in the axle J\ this keeps the axle clip in position 
when fixed. B is the spring clip and binds the axle to the 
spring A ; the full view of the clip is shown in Fig. 88. 
The clips are fixed by clip-couplings, the dimensions of 



86 MAKING OF CAMP EQUIPMENT 

which vary according to those of the spring clip (Fig. 89). 
The axle is shown in part in Fig. 90 ; A is the bush (see 
also Fig. 91), B the collar of the bed, which for our purpose 



C2 

Fig. 89. Fig. 90. 




Fig. 91. 

is square ; D is a washer, and E a cotter-pin. The nave of 
the wheel should be bored and housed to receive the metal 
bush easily ; this is then so wedged as to ensure that its 
centre and the centre of the wheel coincide. 



CHAPTER VII 

DAILY ROUTINE IN CAMP 

Time-table Duties. 

WHAT should be the daily routine of camp life is largely 
a matter of individual opinion. In this chapter the authors 
propose merely to discuss the questions on broad lines and 
to indicate what they have found to be satisfactory. It is 
by no means easy either to formulate a rigid scheme or to 
adhere to it when formulated ; nevertheless, it is important 
that the general outlines of each day's programme should 
be drafted beforehand. The ever-present uncertainties of 
the English climate must be reckoned with, and the age of 
the boys will also be an important factor in determining 
exactly what course to pursue. 

Generally speaking, the programme for each day divides 
itself into three sections : 

(1) Excursions. 

(2) Organized games and sports. 

(3) Free-time. 

Excursions occupy the first place; they take up the 
whole of the mornings from 9.30 a.m. to i o'clock, and 
occasionally the whole period from breakfast to tea or late 
dinner. The former may be taken as the normal arrange- 
ment, when the afternoons will be devoted to games. After 
tea the boys are at liberty until supper-time. 



DAILY ROUTINE IN CAMP 



The programme for a week will arrange itself somewhat 
as follows : 

Morning. Afternoon. Evening. 

FRIDAY Arrival in camp and completion of arrangements. 

SATURDAY Excursion Games Free-time. 

SUNDAY Service and Excursion Free-time. 

Short walk 

MONDAY Excursion Games Free-time. 

TUESDAY Excursion Free-time. 

WEDNESDAY Excursion Games Cricket match. 

THURSDAY Excursion Sports or 

Free-time. 
FRIDAY Excursion Sports Sports. 

(Visitors' Day) 
SATURDAY Packing and Departure. 



The time-table for an average day may be arranged on 
the following lines : 



Reveille . 
Tent inspection . 
Breakfast . 
Cleaning up 
Excursion . 
Dinner 
Rest period. 
Games and sports 
Tea . 
Free-time . 
Supper 



7.0 a.m. 

7.45a.m. 

Soa.m. 

8.45 a.m. -9.30 a.m. 

9.30 a.m.-i,o p.m. 

i p.m. 

1.30 p. m. -2.30 p.m. 

2. 30 p.m. -5.0 p.m. 

S.op.m.-s.sop.m. 

5'3P m -- 8 -3P- m - 
8.30 p.m. -9.0 p.m. 
Camp sing-song. 

10.0 p.m. 



Lights out . 

As has already been stated, the times cannot be rigidly 
observed, but they are approximate and are based on our 
yearly camp practice. There is nothing gained by keeping 
the early riser in his tent until reveille, and it will be 
found that some boys are always up and out before that 
hour. There is no harm in this, always provided these 
boys do not disturb the sleepers or leave the camp. It 



TIME-TABLE 89 

will also be found that some boys wish to retire imme- 
diately after supper, and as the days pass and the active 
life and pure fresh air produce their full effect very few 
boys will be found moving about the camp after 9.30 p.m. 
Every boy must be up and dressed as soon as possible 
after reveille*, and busy cleaning up for inspection. There 
is much to do ; personal belongings to be cleared away, 
ground-sheets and blankets to be folded up neatly or put 
out to air, according to orders and the state of the grass 
and, weather. The immediate vicinity of each tent must 
be cleaned ; waste paper, bottles, boots, and the hundred 
and one things dear to the heart of a schoolboy must be 
removed. The skirt of the tent must be neatly furled, 
and pegs and ropes inspected. If the weather is hot the 
ropes will slack during the day and should therefore be 
tightened up, due care being taken to see that they are 
eased off again at night. 

The tent is the boy's home, and in all probability it is 
the first time, or at any rate the only time throughout 
the year, that he can feel he has a home of his own, the 
proper management of which rests with himself. This 
feeling is a great inducement to him to take a pride in 
its appearance, and tents are generally kept spick-and-span. 
There will always be the slacker, the boy whose sense of 
ownership and responsibility is dull, and who has never 
previously been called upon to exert himself either on his 
own behalf or on that of others. Needless to say, the other 
members of the tent family will teach him a valuable lesson 
pretty quickly, more pointedly, perhaps, and probably more 
effectively, than a lengthy discourse from a teacher would do. 

Camp being all in order, the next business is breakfast. 
Bread and butter will almost certainly be one of the items 
on the menu, and its preparation for a large number is 



90 DAILY ROUTINE IN CAMP 

tedious. Unless a mechanical bread-cutter is used it is not 
an easy task to perform successfully. After a day or two 
boys apt for the work will usually be discovered, and it is 
advisable to allocate this little duty to these particular boys 
for the remainder of the time, due allowance being made 
in the case of some other duty. If the dining-tables are 
made so that each one accommodates a tent company, 
then the occupants of each tent can have their own table 
and be held answerable for its condition. After tent 
inspection the tables will be prepared for breakfast, they 
will be turned over from night, and brushed or rubbed 
down. Scrubbing tables is a duty reserved for later in the 
day when the sun is hot. 

A duty requiring immediate attention after breakfast is 
potato-peeling. In a camp of sixty persons some twenty- 
eight pounds will be required daily, and the responsibility 
for their preparation rests with the tent-captains, who will 
make their own arrangements with their respective com- 
panies. The cook will require an ample supply of water 
for the day, and, if storage is available, sufficient should 
be obtained to satisfy his requirements for the next twenty- 
four hours. A dairyman's milk-float, of a capacity of twenty 
or thirty gallons, is a most useful asset in camp. It serves 
both for water carrying and storing. One can usually be 
hired for a few shillings, or the making of a framework for 
a similar contrivance might be attempted in the Manual 
Room. 

It is advisable to arrange for some person to remain in 
charge of the camp when the party is away on Excursions. 
If a cook is present he will generally suffice, otherwise 
some member of the Staff should stay behind. It may be 
that a boy is slightly indisposed, footsore, &c., in which 
case he cannot undertake the Excursion and must be left 



DUTIES 91 

in proper charge. There is also the danger of pilfering 
by outsiders if the ground is left unattended. 

A very important part of the day's programme is the Rest 
Period, and this, following dinner, should be rigidly observed. 
It is not a time for boys to do as they choose, but a period 
of definite rest and quiet, and it should take the form of retir- 
ing to the tents or lying quietly in the shade. For the first 
day or two this may appear irksome to the more active boys, 
but later it will be fully appreciated. Its restorative and tonic 
value in helping every one to maintain their full vitality up 
to bedtime cannot be too highly estimated. 

On organized sports it is hardly necessary to dwell. 
They include the usually pre-arranged matches and contests 
between various units of the camp and perhaps a cricket 
match with a local team. It is desirable that every boy 
be given a fair chance to engage in some sport or pastime 
during the whole of the games period, and the opportunity 
of inculcating the value of ' team-work ' should not be lost. 
If apparatus for games is not available, ' Hare and Hounds ' 
is a fine game for a whole afternoon, and one in which 
every member of the party can co-operate. Leap-frog and 
Rounders also produce much fun and provide good all- 
round exercise. Some modified form of Basket-ball may 
also be introduced. Bathing is a vexed question. There 
is always an element of danger present, and accidents so 
easily occur. Should bathing be permitted, a good rule to 
observe is that no boy or boys must enter the water unless 
accompanied by at least one of the masters. It is also 
advisable for another master to be on the beach who can 
keep his eye, as it were, on the outer line of bathers. The 
time for bathing cannot be definitely fixed, it may depend 
upon the state of the tides, and it is also a matter of 
personal opinion. 



92 DAILY ROUTINE IN CAMP 

In order to ensure proper surveillance throughout the 
day it should be a rule that no boy may leave the camp 
field without first obtaining the permission of one of the 
masters. This rule is relaxed after tea, when Free-time 
comes into operation and boys are at liberty to go whither 
they will, except in or on water, for the next two or three 
hours. Many boys will visit the village and chum in with 
kindred spirits, or there may be another camp within 
reasonable distance in which some will be interested. Such 
little acquaintanceships have their value, the arrangement 
of a friendly cricket match may ensue, or the exchange 
at a later period of letters and school magazines. 

Supper need not be a formal meal. It is not a meal in 
the ordinary sense, and may be eaten in any part of the 
camp and in any company. As it usually consists of a cup 
of cocoa or milk taken with a bun, the boys like to sit 
about in the cool of the evening and partake of it leisurely, 
whilst discussing their plans and private affairs before turning 
in for the night. 

At 10 p.m., a final round of the camp by the masters, 
a glance into each tent to see that all the occupants are 
properly and comfortably settled down, an inquiry as to 
the welfare of any particular boy if necessary, an external 
inspection of the tent to ensure that all is in order, and 
a cheery ' Good-night, boys ', ends a strenuous and healthy 
day in camp. 



CHAPTER VIII 

GENERAL CAMP AFFAIRS 

Discipline Age Health Sundays Visitors' Day. 

IN this chapter a few further details relative to camp 
management are dealt with, which,, though not appertaining 
directly to camp routine, and to a great extent subsidiary, 
come within the field of the work. They are matters upon 
which no attempt is made to dogmatize, but the authors 
have tried to bring them before the reader's notice for his 
consideration and judgment. 

The subject of discipline is always to the fore in a 
teacher's mind. Discipline in camp is not difficult to 
maintain. The parents' attention is drawn to the matter in 
the circular and their co-operation is sought. The boys are 
away from home and in a strange land, they are surrounded 
by new and enjoyable experiences, they are living a ' bigger' 
life than when at home, and are animated by esprit de 
corps, all factors conducive to securing an easy and natural 
discipline. They soon enter fully into the spirit of camp 
life and render willing and cheerful obedience to orders. 
There is a feeling abroad that camps tend to foster a 
military spirit. As a body teachers are opposed to mili- 
tarism, and there is no reason whatever that anything of 
a military nature should be introduced. Education in its 
broadest and best sense is the key-note of a school camp, 
and if this* is always borne in mind any suggestion of 
militarism can be combated. 



94 GENERAL CAMP AFFAIRS 

The age at which a boy should begin camping requires 
careful consideration. The authors have camped with 
their own children when the maximum age was four years 
and the minimum ten months, so that, it may be said, 
there is really no age at which a child is too young, every- 
thing depending upon the circumstances. Such tender 
years as these, however, do not enter into the problem 
when the conditions are those which obtain in a school 
camp. Eleven years of age is about the safe minimum, 
and even then it is probable that a boy of fourteen will 
derive greater benefit than a boy of eleven. Young children 
are more sensitive to chills, c., than older ones, and 
would suffer more acutely the minor inconveniences of 
camp life should these become in any way exaggerated. 
Moreover, under the age of eleven a child can hardly be 
regarded as competent to look after himself in the way 
that he is called upon to do in camp. This means that 
a camp of young children would be a great burden and 
responsibility upon those in charge. Manual work is not 
usually taken up in school until a boy is about eleven, 
and so the assistance rendered by this subject is lost. 
Between the ages of eleven and sixteen a boy rapidly 
develops. He begins to appreciate responsibility and to 
develop a feeling of independence ; possibilities of his 
capacities crowd into his mind, and camp gives him a 
chance of testing himself and of realizing his abilities and 
his shortcomings. Thus, while no age may be too young 
from a hygienic standpoint for a child to begin the outdoor 
life, nevertheless the benefits to young children are limited, 
for they are not sufficiently mature to withstand the rigours 
of the life. 

The limit of the incompatibility of the age of different 
scholars also requires consideration. In school, boys are, 



AGE 95 

to a large extent, in watertight compartments according to 
their ages, but in camp such a condition does not apply. 
All boys are then alike, they feed alike, sleep alike, and 
work alike, and it is obvious that a youngster of ten is 
handicapped alongside a youngster of sixteen. Therefore, 
unless distinct arrangements can be made to allow for 
marked differences of age, it may be better to keep the age 
within small limits. A difference of three years is ideal, 
boys between eleven and fourteen or twelve and fifteen 
work well together. If these limits cannot be maintained, 
and if the total numbers warrant it, the best solution is to 
establish a junior and senior camp. 

Following upon the matter of age the distribution of the 
boys in the tents can be dealt with. As far as possible 
responsibility will be shared and graded so that every unit 
of the camp takes up some definite duty. This means that 
there must be a senior boy or ' charge boy ' or captain of 
each tent who will be held responsible for elementary 
matters of discipline. To arrange this two methods suggest 
themselves : either to allocate a certain number of boys to 
a tent and place a senior boy in charge, or allow them to 
group themselves into tent parties and select their own 
captain from amongst their number. The latter way has 
much to recommend it. No matter in what particular 
' year ' the boy may be at school they will be able to keep 
together, and each tent group will consist of boys (including 
the senior) of similar scholastic status. The selection of 
' our tent ' by the boys generally takes place some weeks 
beforehand. This gives them an opportunity to formulate 
and carry out little schemes for satisfying their personal 
ambition and adding to their comfort in camp. Thus camp 
boxes, candle and lamp holders, stools, tracings, &c., begin 
to be produced. Ideas for making many articles will be 



96 GENERAL CAMP AFFAIRS 

evolved from the fertile mind of a boy, particularly when 
each article is looked upon as suitable for furnishing a tent 
and adding to the general efficiency of camp. 

If each tent choose its own captain, and if in some instances 
the choice be considered unsatisfactory by the Staff, careful 
watch will be necessary. As a rule boys do not make 
mistakes in these matters, and interference by the ' authori- 
ties ' should only come in extreme cases. It may be that 
the selected boy is backward in school, but it is not on 
school-work that he is now to be judged. He may be a 
natural leader, and possess qualities of leadership recognized 
by the boys but hidden from the teacher in school. The 
bestowal of authority and responsibility may help such 
a boy in many indefinable ways. The chosen leader will 
be expected to maintain order in his tent and keep it clean, 
to report any untoward occurrence or mishap, and to see 
that all standing orders are complied with. 

The chances of illness occurring in camp cannot be over- 
looked, and though the occurrence of any serious illness is 
extremely rare it is well to take precautions. In anticipation 
nothing more need be done than to make oneself acquainted 
with the address of the nearest medical practitioner so that 
in an emergency he can be consulted. Minor accidents will 
always happen cuts, bruises, slight sprains, &c. and these 
can be coped with if a box containing the usual ' first-aid ' 
requisites is included in the equipment. It should be the 
duty of the masters to see that every boy is properly dry 
and warm on retiring, and if this is carefully done nothing 
abnormal is likely to develop. It will be thoroughly under- 
stood by all that any indisposition must be immediately 
reported. Constipation and diarrhoea are the commonest 
complaints, and it is wise to tell the boys beforehand not to 
be shy as many are but to mention the matter at once 



SUNDAYS 



97 



to any of the masters, after which the trouble can, as a rule, 
be easily corrected. For this purpose a supply of simple 
correctives known to every household is useful to have at 
hand. 

Sunday in camp will not differ very much from other 
days. It is undoubtedly desirable that its special character 
should not be allowed to pass unnoticed, and some modifi- 
cation of the daily time-table can be introduced. Religious 
observance may take the form of a visit in the morning to 
some local place of worship if the numbers are small, other- 
wise a service in the camp field may be held. The latter 
arrangement is strongly recommended. Hearty choral sing- 
ing in the open air is a delight to everybody, and the singing 
of a few well-known hymns followed by a short address 
a few well-chosen words from one of the Staff or a visitor 
form an ideal service of thanksgiving and praise. Camp 
service on a sunny Sunday morning beneath the shade of 
the trees and with Nature's setting is a lasting memory in 
many minds. 

Much of the routine work becomes easier year by year. 
After the first season the boys are no longer novices, and 
those who elect to go in the following years are able to put 
the ' freshers ' into camp ways without the direct interven- 
tion of the masters. In some schools where there is an Old 
Students' Union or Old Boys' Society, membership of such 
a society entitles older boys to attend camp. In some ways 
this arrangement has advantages. Young boys are not 
always strong enough to erect the tents and handle camp 
equipment entirely by themselves, nor are they very com- 
petent to do so in their first year, and assistance is wel- 
comed. Some of the Old Boys may, holidays permitting, 
form themselves into a valuable advance party, when they 
can do some of the laying out of the camp prior to the 

2382 Q 



98 GENERAL CAMP AFFAIRS 

arrival of the scholars. The one drawback to this arrange- 
ment is the presence in camp of boys of widely separated 
ages, a matter which has been previously discussed. Also, 
the members of an Old Scholars' Club, having acquired 
a strong taste for camping, may take over the camp for 
a week, and if this can be arranged they can share 
not only the work of erecting and of dismantling but also 
the expense. 

If the camp is held in a neighbourhood within easy access 
from home a Visitors' Day may be inaugurated and, at least, 
tea provided. The limited state of the ordinary camp 
' crockery ' will not admit of any extensive demands being 
made upon it, as for very important reasons its quantity 
has been reduced to a minimum. It is usually possible to 
hire crockery and cutlery at a local club or Sunday school ; 
often such articles can be obtained on payment of a small 
fee, provided, of course, that everything is returned whole 
and clean. On the other hand, should the camp be situated 
some considerable distance from home a Visitors' or Parents 1 
Day is out of the question. Still, one anticipates a few visi- 
tors perhaps a gentleman living in the neighbourhood and 
interested either in local educational affairs or school camps, 
the officers of the town or village, school inspectors, &c.~ 
and for these provision must be made. 

It has always been customary with us to pack a box 
labelled ' Visitors' Crockery ' from the dining-room stock of 
the school and thereby to ensure the proper entertainment 
of any visitors who may chance to come. Should a Visitors' 
Day be included in the programme its proper organization is 
necessary. The following scheme is recommended : 

2 p.m. Formal reception by the masters. 
2.30 p.rrf. Camp sports 



V I S I T O R S' D A Y 99 

5 p.m. Tea ; this may consist of brown and white 

bread and butter, cold beef, stewed fruits, 
cake, and biscuits. 
The older boys will act as orderlies. 

6 p.m. Tea for boys ; inspection of tents, equipment, 

&c., by visitors. 

6.45 p.m. Impromptu concert and presentation of sports 
prizes. 

The collecting together of a few books to form a small 
camp library is recommended. It might consist of a few 
easy reference books on natural objects, flowers, shells, 
birds, &c., together with any books of local literature which 
may be suitable and available. If the district is associated 
with any of the best English novels these books should 
certainly be added. The boys usually purchase small 
guides to objects and places of local interest which they 
visit, but a more extensive volume dealing fully with the camp 
area should be placed in the library. It may be possible to 
obtain books of folk-lore and stories written in the local 
dialect or idiom and these will lend an additional interest 
to the study of the English language. Not only is such 
a collection of books useful educationally, but it is of splendid 
assistance in helping to pass the time on a rainy day. A supply 
of well-chosen daily newspapers should not be overlooked. 
This period presents an excellent opportunity of getting 
children into the habit of reading a daily paper, a habit 
which is not easy to foster in the ordinary routine of school life. 

Finally, no outfit is complete without a i in. Ordnance 
Survey map of the area surrounding the camp, and if anything 
of the nature of a continuous camp is contemplated 
(see page 101) a large number of the cheap form of maps 
issued by the Ordnance Survey Department, Southampton, 
may be obtained. 

G 2 



CHAPTER IX 

CAMPS FOR SPECIAL SCHOOLS 

Necessary Modifications Proposed Curriculum. 

THE present increase in the number of school camps and 
camp schools is indicative of their success, and they will in 
all probability become universal in all types of schools as 
their value becomes more fully appreciated. Camps have 
already been instituted in many Secondary and Elementary 
Schools, and in the new types of schools now being erected 
they are extremely desirable. The organization and manage- 
ment of camps for Day Continuation and Works Schools 
will differ but slightly from that of the present Day Schools. 
In many Day Schools camps are held during the summer 
holidays, so as not to interfere with the school routine, and 
only a percentage of the total number of scholars attends : 
this more particularly applies to Elementary Schools, where 
the tender age of some scholars prohibits them from 
camping on the present camp lines. In Day Continuation 
and Works Schools all the scholars are of camping age, 
they are all engaged in industrial or commercial pursuits, 
and their holidays are not lengthy as compared with those 
of a child attending an ordinary school. 

In this new type of school, then, it is not a case of 
providing for a select and, possibly, small number of 
scholars, but for the whole of the pupils in attendance, 
so that all can enjoy the benefits of a period under canvas. 
To do this means either ,a large camp with all the pupils 
pjesent simultaneously, or a small one where the pupils can 
attend in groups in successive weeks. As the scholars 



NECESSARY MODIFICATIONS 101 



attached to these schools will already begrouped ^ 
to the periods at which they attend, the latter method 
should present little difficulty to arrange. It is the opinion 
of the authors that large camps are not so effective as small 
ones owing to the weakening of corporate and social life. 
If the numbers are unwieldy it is difficult to get that 
personal touch which is such an exceedingly valuable 
feature of the enterprise. The difficulties of site, time- 
table, and curriculum are enhanced if the numbers are 
large, and therefore the alternative scheme of spreading the 
camping period over a longer time and taking the boys in 
small groups is recommended. Under any circumstances, 
whatever arrangements are made they will be to some extent 
dependent upon the conditions of employment in the works 
from which the pupils are drawn, and modifications will be 
made accordingly. 

As far as possible, the members of each group should be 
of similar scholastic status, for this simplifies the time-table 
and the curriculum. About thirty pupils with three masters 
and a cook is a convenient number. Four tents for the 
boys and one for the staff will be required. An arrange- 
ment of this kind has been tried and found to work 
admirably, as the interests of all the young persons of one 
specific age can be catered for. 

In a camp school opportunities are afforded to do some 
valuable practical work applicable to the boys' careers, to 
inculcate the qualities of true citizenship, and to cultivate 
a love of nature and an appreciation of the beautiful. A 
suitable curriculum would include work under some of the 
following headings : 

i. Geography and Practical Mathematics simple survey- 
ing introduces Mensuration and Trigonometry easily 
and rationally. 



102 CAMPS FOR SPECIAL SCHOOLS 

2. 'Literature- and History the two subjects present 

themselves in co-relation at several points, e. g. folk- 
lore, dialect, castle and church associations. 

3. Nature Study and Scoutcraft scoutcraft is largely 

1 applied nature study J . 

4. Rural Economics. 

5. Art outdoor sketching. 

6. Games. 

In the limited time of a school camp it would be almost 
impossible to do anything of real value if all the subjects 
were attempted. The branches of study taken up should 
depend upon the age and ability of the group. For 
example, Rural Economics is a subject suitable for older 
boys, whereas Scoutcraft will appeal to the juniors. Practical 
Geography is an all-round subject and can be made adaptable 
to all grades of students. Much co-operative work can be 
done in this subject, and it introduces many useful side 
issues. It may be taken so far as to introduce the elements 
of town-planning and the question of the suitable disposition 
of suburbs. Elementary Surveying introduces or amplifies 
Practical Mathematics. A simple type of theodolite or 
angle-meter (either a home-made instrument or one of 
those on the market, e. g. Becker's), a chain and tape with 
perhaps a few poles, which need not be of the professional 
kind, are all that will be required to illustrate in a real 
manner the ordinary rules of Mensuration and elementary 
Trigonometry. At the same time a youth is taught to 
measure up a parcel of land, or the floor space of a build- 
ing, roughly, perhaps, but with sufficient accuracy for many 
purposes ; he also obtains a proper appreciation of a" square 
yard,, an acre, &c. A study of local geographical facts rain- 
fall, mineral wealth, soil, waterways can also be undertaken, 
and their influence upon the lives of the people considered. 



PROPOSED CURRICULUM 103 

If the site be judiciously chosen there will be scope for 
clothing the dry bones of history and making the subject 
more real and proportionately more attractive than can 
usually be done in school. Castles, churches, and other 
ancient piles are freely distributed throughout the country, 
and nearly all possess interesting associations, either a long 
historical record or connexion with some particular historical 
episode. Old roads and tracks, and the sites of ancient 
camps, &c., lend colour to the work. Folk-lore, dialect, 
and local music are all likewise topics of unending interest. 

A course of Nature Study or Scoutcraft interests younger 
boys and quickens their powers of observation. In the 
short time spent in camp it is as well to treat Nature Study 
as broadly as possible, also with the assumption that the 
pupils are not familiar with anything in the way of text-book 
treatment. The habits of a few flowers, insects, and animals 
may be studied, but the changing beauties of the landscape, 
the colour effects of sunshine and shadow on moorland and 
pasture, hill and dale, are more valuable studies than those 
confined to simple biological facts. There is to all this an 
utilitarian side by no means to be despised. The appli- 
cation of flower and plant forms in design, and the 
harmonious blending of colour in certain constructive work 
may be valuable to pupils in some trades. Geology, earth 
sculpture, and astronomy may also be touched upon, and 
an attempt may be made to create a lasting interest in these 
subjects. They are subjects of unbounded wealth in educa- 
tional possibilities, difficult to make interesting to a boy at 
home, yet admirable subjects in camp. Tastes differ, and 
if only the interest of individual scholars is aroused in some 
small branch of the subject, a distinct educational gain has 
been made. 

Another matter having, perhaps, a special bearing upon 



ro 4 CAMPS FOR SPECIAL SCHOOLS 

Continuation and similar schools, is a cultivation of a sense 
of the beautiful. The susceptible mental age of the scholars, 
the conditions under which many of them are employed, 
and the tendency of these schools to become places of 
utilitarian value only, render it desirable that the finer side 
of mental development should be emphasized. For this 
purpose camps are invaluable ; they are held in the country 
away from the materialistic and, perhaps, sordid atmosphere 
of town life, and they place a boy in more direct contact 
with nature, and in an environment unsullied by industrialism. 
Being thus surrounded, and having the beauties and wonders 
of nature indicated and explained to him, the boy may 
become for the first time cognizant of 

The dark green summer with its massive hues, 
and appreciative of what the poet describes when he says 

The mists of morn in slumbering layers diffuse 
O'er glimmering rock, smooth lake and spiked array 
Of hedgerow thorns, a unity of grey. 

He will also recognize that his daily happiness in camp 
is due largely to his healthy and pleasant environment. 

How beautiful the world is when it breathes 
The news of summer ! when the bronzy sheathes 
Still hang about the beech-leaf, and the oaks 
Are wearing still their dainty tasselled cloaks, 
While on the hillside every hawthorn pale 
Has taken now her balmy bridal veil, 
And, down below, the drowsy murmuring stream 
Lulls the warm noonday in an endless dream. 

Once this impression is created it is difficult to efface, 
and it may considerably affect the future tenor of the boy's 
life. The beauties of Art and the glories of Literature can 
be brought home to a boy in no better way than by a study 



EDUCATIONAL OUTLOOK 105 

of these subjects in association and by comparison with 
undefiled Nature. 

Few places exist which do not offer material for the 
expression of artistic ability. Quaint objects of old-world 
appearance and reminiscent of bygone days form delightful 
studies. It may be a rustic or a pack-horse bridge, an old 
farm-house or wayside cottage which rivets attention and 
calls forth the effort. Some districts are rich in old churches 
and manor-houses, and these often present splendid subjects 
for pencil, pen, and brush a Norman arch or doorway, 
an antique font or chancel screen, a tomb or traceried 
window. 

Finally, a humorous incident in camp, committed to 
paper, provides material for the camp note-book. 

Youths not interested in sketching might take rubbings 
of brasses in churches, and thus obtain unique examples of 
Old English lettering and phraseology. The foundations 
of the study of Architecture and Heraldry may thus be 
laid, and the taking of notes, illustrated by sketches, will 
serve as a stimulus to open up a new avenue of knowledge. 

The abler youths would attempt more ambitious work 
with colour and brush a choice bit of woodland scenery, 
a charming dell, the camp field, or even a sunset. The 
effort and the motives that prompt it are here, as in all 
cases, more valuable than the results. 

The study of Rural Economics should prove fascinating 
to older youths. It forms a fitting corollary to the work 
previously done in History and Geography because the 
condition of the country-side is almost entirely a practical 
expression of the forces exerted by geographical conditions 
and historical associations. Such problem^ as the decline 
of domestic and village industries and the growth of the 
factory system, with the resultant depopulation of rural 



io6 CAMPS FOR SPECIAL SCHOOLS 

areas and concentration in large towns, are worthy of study. 
Work of this kind will either introduce or stimulate 
according to what has previously been accomplished the 
study of the history of the race rather than that of the 
rulers of the country. Latterly the question of urban and 
rural allotments has been much to the fore, and this rriatter, 
coupled with that of rural transport, will provide material 
for numerous talks and debates. Not only are these points 
worthy of study in themselves, but they may be of economic 
interest to many working boys and girls 

Games of all kinds will occupy a prominent place in the 
time-table, but the playing of games in the usual manner 
is not sufficient. The teaching of the meaning of recreation, 
of camaraderie, and of physical development and well- 
being, is of first importance. It is appalling to see the 
fatuous attempts of some youths to play ; such attempts 
are often limited to the kicking of a ball about a street or 
spare piece of land. There is no attempt at co-ordinated 
effort no team-work but instead a display of selfish 
motives. The real sporting sense and the recreative idea 
are almost entirely absent, and it is with a view to over- 
coming these deficiencies that the games programme should 
be drawn up. Camp sing-songs are also another phase of 
the same idea. They should be encouraged ; they foster a 
pleasant spirit of emulation and sociability, and encourage 
the bringing forth of latent talent. 

The daily time-table for a camp doing the type of work 
suggested in the preceding lines may vary somewhat from 
that previously set forth. In fact, a point has now been 
reached where a digression may be made concerning the 
terms l school camp ' and ' camp school '. It is obvious 
that they are not synonymous terms. A * school camp ' 
implies nothing more than that it is a camp attached to 



EDUCATIONAL OUTLOOK 107 

a school. Such a camp may be a means of providing 
a holiday under canvas for the children, and may have no 
organic connexion with school life or work, nor need there 
be any attempt to make the affair directly educational 
A camp of this kind has no place whatever in the scheme 
expounded in this book. The underlying motive of camp- 
ing as outlined in these pages is Education, and therefore 
the camp, as understood by the authors, is really a ' camp 
school '. Emphasis has been laid throughout, however, on 
the particular branches of education most applicable to 
camp purposes, because, on the other hand, a camp school 
might be nothing more than the transference of an ordinary 
school to a place under canvas which would again be 
a travesty of the functions of the ideal camp. 

In the case of Works Schools, &c., a little more emphasis 
on the ' school ' side may be made by some modification 
of the time-table. An early period each day may be 
devoted to study and discussion, and then the rest of the 
morning can be filled up with practical work, e. g. Survey- 
ing, Nature Study, Map-making. Excursions and games 
would then occupy the afternoons and occasionally an 
evening. Such a time-table would meet the requirements 
of boys already engaged in industrial pursuits. 

Work in mills and factories has a cramping effect on 
a boy's mind. His earning capacity tends to become his 
first consideration and its expansion his ideal. To counter- 
act this undesirable tendency should be one of the aims 
of the teacher. That is to say, that while not discouraging 
the desire for competence, opportunity should be afforded 
to acquire other and nobler outlooks on life. Camps can 
help materially in this work. They enable the teacher to 
present the higher and better things in a living and attractive 
picture and to open out to the growing mind new avenues 



io8 CAMPS FOR SPECIAL SCHOOLS 

of thought and suggest new lines of action which, otherwise, 
would probably remain for ever inert. Thus influences are 
brought to bear which will help to produce refinement of 
mind and serenity of outlook qualities so desirable to 
cultivate in this age of unrest. 

The training of a mind to become receptive, appreciative, 
and discriminative, to be prudent and to possess a broad, 
sympathetic, and practical outlook on life, is embraced in 
the term ' Education '. 

No means whereby these ends may be attained should 
be neglected, and the authors trust that after a perusal of 
this book the reader will recognize the value of camps in 
his or her sphere of educational work. 



APPENDIX 

THE following lists are appended for reference and as 
a summary of what is mentioned in the text. It is obviously 
useless to give quantities, nor does it follow that everything 
is absolutely essential ; on the other hand, nothing is 
mentioned which will be found superfluous. 

1. General Camp Equipment: 

Tents, poles, bonnets, pegs, slides, mallets, ground- 
sheets, blankets. 

Tables, trestles, forms, supports. 

Latrine posts and boards, canvas and tacks, nuts and 
bolts. 

Buckets, spades, pick-axe, lamps, maul, hatchet, candles, 
spare rope, wash-stands. 

2. Food List: 

(a) Non-perishable foods. 

Tea, coffee, cocoa, sugar, salt, mustard, pepper, oat- 
meal, rice, peas, beans, lentils, jellies, dried fruits, 
pot herbs. 

(b] Foods previously prepared. 

Puddings, ham roast or boiled, meat-roll, pasties 

(fruit, e. g. mince-meat, apple), potted beef. 
(c) Perishable foods. 

Bread, meat, milk, butter, eggs. 

3. Boy's Kit: 

Change of clothes, two pairs of socks, mackintosh or 
coat, strong boots, slippers or light shoes, blankets^ 
hairbrush and comb, tooth-brush, soap, towel, 
vaseline or dubbing, enamelled mug, two enamelled 
plates, knife, fork, spoon, bathing-costume, stiff- 
backed note-book and pencil. 



no APPENDIX 

4. Visitors' Box: 

Cups and saucers, small plates, large plates, knives, 
forks, spoons, dessert spoons, teapot, cream jug, and 
sugar basin. 

5. Tool Kit: 

Hammer, saw, chisels, pincers, pliers, screwdriver, 
brace and bits, spanner, supply of nails and screws. 

6. Cleaning Kit: 

Flue brush, blacklead and brush, scrubbing brushes, 
pan brush, dish cloths, floor cloths, supply of soda, 
soft soap, hard soap, tin of disinfectant. 

7. First-aid Box. 

8. Sports Kit: 

Bats, balls, wickets, football, &c. 



PRINTED IN ENGLAND 
AT THE OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 



THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE 
STAMPED BELOW 



AN INITIAL FINE OF 25 CENTS 

WILL BE ASSESSED FOR FAILURE TO RETURN 
THIS BOOK ON THE DATE DUE. THE PENALTY 
WILL INCREASE TO SO CENTS ON THE FOURTH 
DAY AND TO $1.OO ON THE SEVENTH DAY 
OVERDUE. 



JUN 23 1933 



MAR 28 1941 M 

11 1944 

DEC 8 1J*u 
MAR 20 1947 



;.3 1947 



MAY 10 1948 



llMar'49DB 



<' 



\ 



\ 






18Dec'57RK 
REC'D LD 



ncr 



LD 21-50m-l,'33 



46665i 



- 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY