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THE 

SCHOOL ROOM GUIDE 



TO 



METHODS OF TEACHING 



AND 



SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 

BY 

E. V. DE GRAFF, A. M. 

Conductor of Teachers' Institutes 
One Hundred. Twenty- Seventh Edition, with Index 




SYRACUSE, N. Y. 
C. W. BARDEEN, PUBLISHER 

1904 



Copyright, 1877, 1884, by E. V. De Graff ; 1890, 1894, by C. W. Bardeen 



PREFACE TO THE 111TH EDITION 



For the fifth time an entirely new set of plates has 
been made for this volume. The advantage of such 
large sale as to make this possible is nowhere more mani- 
fest than in a book of methods. Whatever it may have 
been in the past, the teaching of to-day is progressive, 
and the methods of 1877 are not altogether the methods 
of 1894. Particularly in Drawing and in Penmanship 
has such advance been made that it seemed necessary 
to have those chapters entirely rewritten. Of the new 
chapters it need only be said that they have been pre- 
pared respectively by Mrs. Mary Dana Hicks of Boston ; 
and by Charles E. Wells, author of the Movement 
Method of Penmanship. We have also substituted for 
the Geography of North America prepared by Mr. 
DeGraff an entirely new chapter, condensed from the 
admirable works of Prof. Meiklejohn, and in accord 
with the most approved modern method of teaching. 

Except in these three chapters, the changes are mainly 
of arrangement. The book was originally made up of 
the author's notes as an institute conductor, and hence 
contained many repetitions. In this edition all that 

was anywhere said on a particular topic has been 

(iii) 

359981 



IV 



PREFACE 




brought together, and by the insertion of topical side 
lines has been made easy of reference. 

But as a whole the book is still as the author origin- 
ally wrote it. What there is 
in Prof. De Graffs method of 
presentation that so reaches 
and holds the young teacher, 
it might be hard to say ; but 
he has never had his equal 
as an institute instructor in 
the inspiration he gave ; and 
superintendents everywhere 
agree that where other books are bought and put away, 
the " School Boom Guide"' is bought and kept on the 
desk, for daily use. 

There is probably not a county in the United States 
where this book is not known and valued. In this new 
edition, the responsibility for which has through the 
death of the author fallen upon the publisher, the latter 
hopes that all the features that were most worthy have 
been retained, while the additions and changes will 
make it still more available in the school-room. 

SYRACUSE, March 27, 1894. 



E. V. DE GRAFF. 



CONTENTS 



READING _ 9 

I. METHODS _. 9 

ABC Method _ 9 

Drawing Method 10 

Word-Building Method 11 

Phonic Method __ 11 

Phonetic Method _ 13 

Phonotypic Method _ 13 

Look-and-Say Method __ 14 

Object Method _. __ 15 

Word Method 16 

Sentence Method _ 21 

II. PRIMARY READING. _ 22 

III. INTERMEDIATE READING 30 

PHONICS 42 

SPELLING..., _ ._ 45 

Oral Spelling... _ 47 

Written Spelling _ 50 

Methods 53 

Exercises in Orthoepy _ _ 59 

PENMANSHIP (25 Illustrations) _ . 62 

I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES __ 62 

II. PRACTICAL EXERCISES __ _ 69 

FORM STUDY AND DRAWING (27 Illustrations) 107 

I. COURSE FOR PRIMARY GRADES 108 

Color in Primary Grades 132 

II. COURSE FOR INTERMEDIATE AND GRAMMAR GRADES. -.141 

LANGUAGE (4 Illustrations) 147 

Objects as Wholes .-149 

Parts of Objects ._ 151 

(v) 



VI CONTENTS 

"Words as Objects of Observation 153 

Illustrated Compositions 156 

Comparison of Objects 158 

Lesson on General Terms 161 

The Parts of Speech 163 

Suggestive Abstracts 174 

Synonyms _ __ 179 

Mistakes and Vulgarisms 180 

Topics for Brief Talks 183 

Questions for Debate 184 

Subjects for Compositions _ - 185 

GRAMMAR 188 

LETTER- WRITING (1 Illustration) 201 

Importance of Letter- Writing 201 

Startling Statistics as to Dead Letters 202 

I. MECHANICAL STRUCTURE 203 

First Attempts 203 

Materials 204 

The Heading .205 

Models _ 206 

The Introduction 207 

Name and Title 208 

Salutation 210 

In Writing to Women 213 

Models _ _ ..215 

The Body of the Letter _216 

Where Begun 216 

Paragraphing _ _ 216 

The Co nclusion 217 

Signature 218 

Women's Signatures 218 

Models - -.218 

Folding ~ -.219 

Superscription _ __ -- 221 

Models --- 222 

Topical Review _ 223 

Specific Hints 224 



CONTENTS Vll 

A Postal-Card from Miss Peabody 225 

II. THE STYLE OF THE LETTER 227 

Bryant's Advice _ 228 

III. SUBSTANCE OF THE LETTER. 229 

What to write 230 

When to write _ _ _ 231 

When to delay ..232 

Bitter Words __ _ 233 

ARITHMETIC (2 Illustrations) __235 

I. THE FUNDAMENTAL RULES 236 

II. FRACTIONS 259 

III. GENERAL REMARKS. 268 

GEOGRAPHY (2 Illustrations).. ....272 

I. FIRST STEPS _ 272; 

II. ADVANCED GEOGRAPHY 283: 

Study of North America 285 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY (1 Illustration) 301 

I. ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE 301 

II. THE GENERAL LAW 304 

III. MODIFICATIONS 306 

HISTORY.. ...320 

OBJECT LESSONS _ 327 

I. WITHOUT APPARATUS 330 

II. WITH APPARATUS 341 

SCHOOL MANAGEMENT _ _.34& 

I. ORGANIZATION 346 

The First Day 347 

New York Course of Study for District Schools 350 

II. SCHOOL GOVERNMENT. _ .355 

The First Requisite. ._ ..355 

Do not Anticipate Offences 356 

A Cheerful School 357 

Corporal Punishment. ._ _ 358 

Elements of the True Teacher 361 

Hints on the Correction of Special Offences .362 

Communication .. 363, 



Vlll CONTENTS 

Loud Study _ _._ 363 

Laughing 363 

Moving Noisily _ 363 

Questions during Recitation 363 

Writing Notes _ _ _ .363 

Uncleanliness _ _864 

Disorder 364 

Tattling 364 

Quarrelling _ __ __364 

Untruthf ulness ._ _ _ .364 

III. CONDUCT OF RECITATIONS _ _ 365 

General Suggestions. ._ _ 366 

Dr. Harris's Description of a Lifeless School __373 

Methods of Instruction _ __ _ .377 

Text-Book 377 

Oral 379 

The Two Combined i 379 

Socratic _ 381 

Topical... ..381 

Discussion 382 

Lecture _ 383 

Laws of Questioning 385 

Special Hints to Young Teachers 387 

A WORD IX CONCLUSION 392 

To Superintendents ._ _ 392 

To Teachers.. ..393 



READING 



I. METHOD OP BEGINNING 

That teachers may distinguish good methods we begin 
with descriptions of several of those most in Methods of 
use. Some are old, long, unnatural and reading, 
tedious, affording little but monotony to stimulate the 
child's desire to learn. Others are shorter, but none 
the less unnatural and arbitrary. Some are unphiloso- 
phical, and leave no cause for surprise that so many 
children flounder at the very threshold of knowledge, 
the very place that should be made most attractive. 
We mention : 

1. The A b c or Alphabetic Method. 

2. The Drawing Method. 

3. The Word-building Method. 

4. The Phonic Method. 

5. The Phonetic Method. 

6. The Phonotypic Method. 

7. The Look-and-say Method. 

8. The Object Method. 

9. The Word Method. 
10. The Sentence Method. 

THE ALPHABET, OR A B METHOD 

The children by this method, are taught the names 

of the letters, and they begin to spell words at first. 

This attempts learning to read by learning to spell. 

Spelling may be learned through reading, but reading 

(9) 



10 

through spelling NEVER. The attempt to combine two 
things in one lesson, by diverting the learner's attention, 
interferes with his progress in recognizing the words. 

This method was universally used years ago, and even 
now is used in many of the ungraded schools. In the 
best schools, the alphabetic method is superseded by 
some of the modern ways. It is an imperfect method 
in that the letters do not guide to the pronunciation of 
the word. 

Take the word mat ; by the same method, the name 
of the first letter is em ; the second letter is a, and the 
third tee ; pronounced em a tee ; by the phonic it 
becomes mat. 

This method produces halting, stumbling readers ; it 
lays the foundation for mechanical, unintelligible read- 
ing, and is now abandoned by all good teachers. 

THE DRAWING METHOD 

The Drawing Method teaches the child first to draw 
the letter, and then learn its name. 

Since curiosity, which is so strong in the child, seeks 
its gratification in finding new forms, this method of 
drawing can be used as a means of training his eye to 
quickness and accuracy of observation. Lessons should 
be given upon straight, curved and crooked lines, that 
the children may know what is meant by the terms 
used. 

By actually drawing and naming the parts of a letter 
its form and name as a whole may be easily impressed 
on the memory of the pupil. In this manner the learn- 
ing of the alphabet, instead of being a spiritless task, 
as it has too often proved, is attractive to the child 



THE PHOKIC METHOD 11 

and becomes a valuable aid in cultivating the sense of 
sight. 

THE WoKD-BuiLDi^G METHOD 

The plan here is to begin with words of one letter as 
A, I, 0, and gradually form new, words by prefixing or 
affixing single letters. The child is taught to pronounce 
first the word, then the letters that form it. Separate 
letters of the alphabet, and spelling, are taught by asking 
questions similar to the following : 

e( What letter is placed after a to form an?" 

66 What after an to form and?" 

{f What before and to form land?" 

THE PHONIC METHOD 

Every intelligent mind will welcome any means by 
which loose and bad habits of enunciation may be cast 
off, and correct ones formed in their stead. 

Children who have been taught and accustomed to 
sayjudgmunt for judgment, read'n for reading, an for 
and, muss for must, parent for pdrent, pass for pass, 
will not be likely, by a single effort, to set their speech 
right. By well directed and persevering effort they can 
do it ; with proper guidance and encouragement they 
will do it. A thorough knowledge of the elementary 
sounds is essential to success in the Phonic Method. 
It must be made a careful study and the teacher should 
master it. 

The Phonic Method consists in making the learner 
acquainted with the powers of the letters, so that when 
words are before him, he may, by uttering the sound 
of each letter in succession, construct for himself the 
sound of the word. Such a method, says John Gill, of 



12 

the Normal College, Cheltenham, it is impossible to 
have in a language like the English. A purely phonic 
method is possible only where the numbers of letters and 
elementary sounds correspond, where the same letter 
always represents the same sound, and where, in the 
spelling of words, the numbers of letters and of sounds 
agree. But these conditions in English are impossible. 
The letters give but five-eighths of the elementary 
sounds ; one letter often represents two or more sounds ; 
some sounds are represented by more than one letter, 
and often letters are found not sounded at all. 

The principal advantage of this method is, that it 
puts into the hands of the children a key by which they 
may be able to help themselves. The elementary sounds 
must be known before the child can take a single 
step in advance, except as he is assisted by the teacher. 

Another advantage is that it teaches the children 
from the beginning to enunciate distinctly ; many other 
advantages are gained by combining the Word and 
Phonic Methods. 

Letters are elements of the forms of words ; simple 
sounds are the elements of the sounds of words ; neither 
of these elements are units in language. The child 
must know the sounds and the names of the letters ; 
through these aids he may be able to help himself. This 
process, however, is not adapted to the child, until it 
has learned some words as wholes, as units of language, 
as the representations of thoughts. 

The best results have been gained by primary 
teachers in using the Phonic Method as an auxiliary to 
the Word Method, but not as a substitute for it. The 
word must be the unit of thought ; it is the natural way to 



THE PHONOTYPIC METHOD 13 

begin with the units of language, which are words. 
Language deals with thoughts ; words are symbols of 
thought. 

With all plans that have been considered, let the 
teacher bear in mind that children can never learn to 
read with any degree of ease until they are able to call 
instantly the words in the sentence without stopping to 
analyze them. 

By the method suggested, children are enabled to 
read with more interest and expression in a far shorter 
time than by the plans heretofore generally pursued. 

THE PHONETIC METHOD 

The Phonic and Phonetic Methods are distinct ; the 
phonetic method provides signs to represent all the 
sounds of the language, using the common letters each 
to denote but one sound of that letter, and providing 
slight modifications of these letters to denote other 
sounds. This method is used with success in those 
schools provided with Leigh's Phonetic Eeader. 

THE PHOKOTYPIC METHOD 

This is another form of the Phonic Method, providing 
a character or letter for each sound in the language. 

The pupil is required to learn forty or more letters in 
place of twenty-six. 

There are those who claim that pupils will learn both 
methods, and become able to read better thereby in a 
given time, than they usually do when taught entirely 
from the common print. 

This method may be used with success ; but, as the 
schools are not provided with books on the Phonotypic 
plan, we will not enlarge upon it. 



14 BEADIKG 

THE LOOK-AND-SAY METHOD 

By this method after the children have mastered the 
alphabet, all words are read without spelling. 

Attention is directed to each word as a whole, and 
its sound associated with it as a whole. 

In no case is the learner allowed to spell a word that 
he may afterwards recognize and pronounce it. 

The following advantages are claimed in favor of this 
method : 

First. For mastering the word by the eye. 

Second. For recognizing the word in the sign, and 
for acquiring practical acquaintance with the number 
of letters and syllables. 

Third. For suitability to the circumstances of com- 
mon schools. 

The above reasons must commend this method to 
many teachers who have not received special training. 
It best meets the requirements of class instruction. In 
the class, the aim is to bring out the energies of all. 
This is done through emulation and self-respect. 

Now when spelling is permitted, a child has little in- 
ducement to exert himself to retain a word once seen ; 
but let spelling be forbidden, let the remembrance of 
the word be thrown on the eye, and emulation will 
stimulate some to retain it, and to give it when called 
upon ; and self-respect will be appealed to in the others, 
not to require always to be told by a sharper companion. 
It is a method which requires no special preparation 
like the phonic, and therefore may be entrusted to an 
inexperienced teacher, 



THE OBJECT METHOD 15 

THE OBJECT METHOD 

The children's attention is first directed to some 
object with which they are familiar by sight, name and 
use. 

The teacher shows the object to the children, and the 
name is given by the children. If they cannot give the 
name, the teacher tells them. The teacher presents a 
picture of the object, or makes a drawing of it upon 
the board ; then the name is plainly written under the 
drawing. The pupils are now taught to distinguish 
from one another the object, the picture of it, and the 
work representing it. 

The following order should be observed in teaching 

beginners to read by the Object Method, as steps in 

used by N. A. Calkins, Assistant Superin- Method, 
tendent of Schools in New York city. 

First Step. Teach whole words by sight that are 
already known by hearing, as signs of objects, qualities, 
and actions. 

Second Step. Teach the analysis of the word by its 
elementary sounds. 

Third "Step. Teach the analysis of the word by the 
names of its letters, and their order in spelling it. 

Fourth Step. Require the pupils to pronounce the 
word ; sound it ; spell it. 

Fifth Step. Group words into phrases and sentences. 

The children will learn new words by comparing the 
known words with the unknown. 



16 READING 

THE WORD METHOD 
Directions 

1. Call the attention of the children to some object. 

2. Ask questions about the object. 

3. Talk to the children about the object. 

4. Ask the children to give the name of the object. 

5. Show a picture of the object. 

6. Make a drawing on the board of the object. 

7. Print and write the word on the board. 

8. Let the pupils copy the word on their slates. 

9. Group words into phrases. 

10. Group words into sentences. 

11. After the pupils learn one sentence, use the words 
in making other sentences. 

12. Select words that are the names of familiar 
objects. 

Cautions 

1. Present only two or three new words for each 
lesson. 

2. Teach the children to recognize words as signs of 
ideas. 

3. At first give no attention to elements of which 
words are composed, as the elementary sounds, and 
letters. 

4. Attempt no spelling of any of the words. 

Results 

1. Knowledge. 

2. Naturalness of expression. 

3. Fluency. 



THE WOKD METHOD 17 

In the earliest stages of the course, teaching precedes 
Remarks. learning ; the child's steps are guided and 
upheld by the teacher ; his way is made clear for him, 
and his difficulties are anticipated. It is essential that 
the child shall have a liking for the work in which he 
is engaged. It is the spirit of the teacher rather than 
his methods that ensures success in teaching little ones 
to read. 

In the word method, we begin by teaching words, 
leading the children to recognize them as wholes. 
This method is now used extensively ; it was the method 
used by the race in developing the language. Nature 
is the guide of both parents and children. There is a 
fitness in nature's means that secures in the most simple 
way the most desirable ends. We have become arti- 
ficial, mechanical in teaching ; we need to retrace our 
steps and imitate nature's process. 

Nature begins with objects the idea first, its signs 
second, and the ability to represent the idea Follow 
by its signs third the natural order of learn- plan, 
ing language, and the natural order of using it, are 
made to correspond. The word soon becomes familiar 
to the child. It is the object of thought. 

The word method begins with words, not with letters. 
In the word "hat" it does not teach first the letters 
h, a, t, and say " hat " ; but it takes the word and calls 
it "hat", without any reference to the fact that the 
printed word is made up of letters. 

The thing before the sign is the rule in teaching. 
w c^ds that are not signs of things can be The thing 
illustrated by examples : for instance, white, sign. re 
by showing the color ; runs, by showing the act; on by 



18 HEADING 

showing the position, etc. By this method it will take 
no more time to teach the word, its elementary sounds, 
letters and spelling, than the letters alone by the old 
way of teaching the letters first. 

Let the teacher aim to get the children to talk freely. 
Hints. If possible, present a real object to the class : 

a picture, or a drawing. Ask questions to draw out 
what the children know of the object. You now have 
excited an interest ; show the class the word ; write or 
print the word under the drawing ; tell the children 
that the word is a picture of the real object ; require the 
children to pronounce it several times ; print the word 
in several places on the board ; and require the children 
to pronounce it in concert. 

In like manner teach quality words, for example, 
" red " ; show an object which is red, and print on the 
board the words, "a red cup", and request pupils to 
read the phrase. That the plan of teaching children 
to read by the word method may be made more clearly 
understood and readily applied, the following directions 
are given : 

Let the teacher begin by a familiar conversation with 
HOW to the children about some object. It is of lit- 
begin. ^ e importance what words are taught first, 

if the words are short ones and familiar to the children 
by use in conversation, and if the objects which the 
words represent and the pictures can be readily shown. 
The purpose of the talk and questions should be to put 
the child in conscious possession of a knowledge of the 
thing, or of what the word represents. 

"When the child has this knowledge, and not before, 
the teacher may show him the sign, i. e., the word. 



WORDS THE OBJECT OF THOUGHT 19 

As soon as the word is presented the child should 
print it on the slate. A little practice will enable the 
child to print it rapidly. The printing will fix the 
word in the mind. 

In many schools the children are taught from the 
first to write the word ; not permitted to print it, for 
the reason that in after life we use script, not the 
printed forms. 

If the pupils are receiving, as they should be, daily 
lessons in writing, they will soon be able to copy the 
sentence from the board on their tablets. 

This exercise is important not only on account of the 
practice in writing which it affords, but for giving the 
children something attractive and useful to do, and 
preventing the mischief that comes from idle hands. 
The teacher should examine the work from time to 
time, and encourage the children to do the work neatly 
and correctly. 

The child knows nothing of vowels, consonants and 
articulation ; nothing about letters, when Letters and 
he looks upon the printed page. sounds. 

The word, the word ! This is the object of thought. 
The printed word is the object presented to the mind 
of the child. It is presented through the eye. It is 
known by its form ; the child learns to recognize the 
words by their forms, as it learns to recognize other 
objects. The names of letters are no guides to the 
correct pronunciation of words, and they can be of no 
possible service to the children in learning to read. 

After the children have made considerable progress 
in reading words, the teacher may call their attention 



20 READING 

to the elementary sounds of which the words are com- 
posed. 

Some teachers combine the Word and Phonic Methods, 

Word and and af tei * tlie W0r(i * S learned b J si g nt > teach 

Methods elementary sounds. This is not necessary 
combined. to this plan of teaching reading, and if the 
teacher thinks best may be omitted. 

Children have been taught to read in a very few weeks 
by this plan, and we would encourage primary teachers 
to try it. It is useful in cultivating distinctness in 
articulation, and in aiding the children to acquire new 
words. 

When the pupils have been made familiar with the 
The names words that have been taught by sight, so as 
of letters. readily to pronounce them, and give their 
elementary sounds, the teacher may call the attention 
of the children to the names of the letters ; but as a 
rule the children will learn the names of the letters 
soon enough without any help from the teacher. 

As soon as the letters are taught, by all means show 
their use by putting them together and making the 
word ; use the same letters in forming new words. 

There is but little variance between the Object Method 
and the Word Method. The introductory part is the 
same, and both should be combined in order to interest 
the children. Whole words should be presented, and 
the pupils required to pronounce them, without spell- 
ing, by sight. Subsequently the analysis of these words 
into sounds and letters may be taught. 

First, teach words that are the names of things ; then 
words representing the names of qualities and actions. 
The little connective words and those that are used as 



ME SENTENCE METHOD 21 

substitutes for other words, should not be taught until 
they are needed in the construction of phrases and 
sentences. 

THE SENTENCE METHOD 

In this method the teacher does not begin with the 
letters, nor with separate words, but with words in com- 
bination, that express a thought. Using this combina- 
tion of words as a unit, the separate words are learned, 
as the separate letters are learned by the Word Method, 
that is, without special effort and almost, if not quite, 
unconsciously. 

In teaching by this method let it be the aim of the 
teacher to teach not so much separate sounds, letters 
and words, as the proper expression of thought. 

The letters and words must be known, but as they 
will necessarily become known by this method without 
much special teaching, they are regarded and treated 
as of secondary importance for the time being. 

The attention of the children should be directed to 
the thought. To this end real objects and facts are at 
first employed to appeal to the senses and to demand 
of the child words to give the thought oral expression. 

In learning to talk, children acquire ideas from ob- 
jects, and then seek language to express them. It re- 
quires a combination of words to express a thought, or 
to give birth to a new idea or thought. 

The advantages claimed for this method over others 
are : 

First. It is a natural way teaching the child to 
read very much as he learned to talk. 

Second. The attention of the child is directed to 
the expression of the thought ; hence he reads easily 
and naturally. 



22 HEADING 

Third. It makes the child thoughtful, and hence 
cultivates his intelligence. 

This method was first systematically used in the 
schools of Binghamton, N. Y., and is fully explained in 
"The Sentence Method of Teaching Heading " y by G. 
L. Farnham, at that time Superintendent of Schools. 

II. PKIMAKY READING 

Give special attention to the primary classes in read- 
ing ; if a child is not taught to read well during Ms 
first tivo years in school, he will probably be a poor 
reader through life. 

Directions 

1. Train the pupils to pronounce the words readily 
at sight. 

(a) Print or write the words on the board in 

columns ; pupils to pronounce them at sight. 
(Z>) Write difficult words on the board, and sylla- 
bicate them ; mark the accented syllables, 
pupils to pronounce them. 

(c) Require the pupils to pronounce the words 
forward ; reverse. 

(d) Require the pupils to bring in a portion or all 
of the reading lesson upon the slate ; pupil? 
read the lesson from the slate. 

(e) Alternate. 

Cautions 

1. Present to the pupils only one difficulty at a time. 

2. Never permit the pupils to spell words in reading. 

3. Insist upon correct articulation and pronunciation. 
If the pupils in the first lessons of reading are taught 

correctly, they will not spell words audibly. Remarks. 



PBIMABY BEADING 23 

Many of the common faults in reading may be traced 
to the improper methods in use during the first lessons 
in this subjectc Bad habits at this period usually cling 
to the pupils during all their school days, and often 
seriously affect their entire future progress. 

The first lessons in reading are of the greatest impor- 
tance, and they should be given in a proper manner. 

To do this successfully there must be a system in the 
plans pursued. 

The pupils must be familiar with the words of the 
lesson, so that they can readily pronounce Reading 
them at sight. words - 

The teacher should introduce a short preliminary 
exercise, for calling the words at sight, as follows : 

Teacher and children alternating one word each ; 
boys and girls alternating one word each ; careless 
pupils alternating with class ; each pupil reading a line 
as rapidly as possible. 

In no instance should the teacher let a pupil stop to 
spell a word. The plan is in violation of the funda- 
mental laws of teaching. It attempts to compel the 
child to do two things at the same time, and to do both 
in an unnatural manner, viz : to learn reading and 
spelling simultaneously, and reading through spelling. 

Eeading has to deal with sounds and signs of thoughts. 
Spelling rests on a habit of the eye, which is best ac- 
quired by writing. 

In attempting to teach reading through spelling the 
effort distracts the attention from the thought ; reading 
furnishes facilities for teaching spelling; but spelling 
does not furnish a suitable means for teaching reading. 



24 HEADING 

If spelling is permitted, a love of reading is not enkin- 
dled ; good readers are not produced. 

The teacher should be familiar with the sounds of the 
Phonics. letters, and require the pupils to practise on 
them two or three minutes daily. Let it be a lively 
exercise, and insist upon clear, distinct articulation. 
Attend to one difficult point at a time ; see that the 
pupils understand it and are able to reproduce whatever 
you teach them. 

Further Directions 

1. Train the pupils to read in natural tones. 

(a) Eequest the pupil to look off the book and 

tell what he reads. 
(V) Select a good reader ; request pupils to 

imitate. 
(c) Teacher illustrates how a sentence should be 

read. 

2. The teacher should illustrate and define difficult 
words. 

(a) Illustrate by objects, pictures, drawings and 
diagrams. 

3. No definitions should be given of those words 
whose meaning can be inferred from the context. 

4. Every piece should be carefully studied before it 
is read aloud. 

Eeading should not be a mere mechanical exercise. 
Remarks. The end of reading is not to give vocal utter- 
ance to a succession of words, but to give expression to 
thought and feeling. 

Reading is the most important subject taught in 
school. It is specially important that it be thoroughly 
taught in primary classes. The "sing-song drawl " 



MAKE HASTE SLOWLY 25 

and " nasal twang ", which so often prevail in the 
school-room, should be avoided. 

Almost all children can be taught to read well ; they 
imitate, unconsciously and naturally, the voices of their 
playmates. 

Many of the teachers are too ambitious in one direc- 
tion : that is, to promote pupils to higher TOO difficult 
books than they are qualified to comprehend. selections - 

This is a great mistake. Perhaps three-fifths of the 
pupils of our country are reading in books which they 
do not understand, or in which they take no interest. 
This is one of the principal causes of mechanical read- 
ing ; through this error in judgment the pupils have 
acquired a drawling way ; a lifeless, mechanical style. 

I am glad to admit that a reformation has begun in 
this department of instruction, but it will Reformation 
need the constant and varied efforts of needed - 
teachers and parents for years in order to overcome the 
effects that have already resulted from past negligence. 

Let the teacher select (from some book or magazine) 
a story which he will be sure shall interest suggestions. 
the pupils. 

Let him give the book containing it to a pupil, ask- 
ing him to read the story over a few times, to become 
familiar with it ; and at or near the close of school, 
let the pupil read it aloud to his schoolmates. 

As he reads, do not discourage him by frequent inter- 
ruptions, but occasionally, when he relapses into a 
drawl, repeat the passage, kindly, in a better way, and 
ask him to notice and imitate your manner. 

When he has finished, read to them yourself some 



26 READING 

other good story, and let your style be worthy of imita- 
tion. 

Let the standard of good reading be its resemblance 
Reading ^ g 00 ^- conversation. The pupils may be 
sentences. j e( j to attend to the thoughts expressed, by 
requiring them to find out what the sentences tell with- 
out reading them aloud. The teacher may aid them 
by proceeding in a manner similar to the following : 
Kequest the class to study the first sentence, and each 
member to raise a hand when able to tell what the sen- 
tence is about. Call upon different pupils to state, in 
their own language, what the sentence tells ; in this 
way they will readily learn to read with easy conversa- 
tional tones. 

Special care should be taken in this step to train 
Distinct pupils in habits of clearness and distinctness 
enunciation. Q enunc i a tion ; also to read in an easy, speak- 
ing voice. Overcome the faults in reading by taking 
up one kind at a time, and continue the practice until 
the pupils clearly perceive the fault and take proper 
means to correct it. 

As a requisite essential to success, the teacher of read- 
ing should be a good reader. With proper 

The teacher i , 

should be a management it is a very easy matter to make 
good reader. C j 1 ji ( j ren rea( j we j^ an( j even the teacher who 

is a tolerable reader may teach pupils to read. That 
children have learned to read under such teachers I am 
willing to admit, because the fact is evident ; but that 
they have been taught by their masters I do not admit, 
for it is impossible for any person to teach well what he 
does not understand. 

If a child has sometimes learned to read under an 



DEFINING VOICE 27 

incompetent instructor, it has been, not because of the 
teacher, but in spite of him ; and the question is, not 
how much he has learned, but how much he would have 
learned had the teacher been qualified to teach him. 

The young pupiFs knowledge of the meaning of words 
is limited. One object of reading is to in- D ifficu i t 
crease the knowledge of words. No defini- words - 
tion should be given of those words whose meaning can 
be inferred from the context. (See page 23). Kecourse 
should be had to a dictionary only when the pupil can- 
not think out the meaning for himself. 

The child learns the meaning of words by hearing 
them used seldom by formal definition. 

The teacher may impress the idea by resorting to 
objects ; this is the natural way. Sometimes pictures 
may be at hand to throw light upon the word ; again, 
a drawing may be given at the board to illustrate the 
meaning of the word. 

In no case should a definition be committed to mem- 
ory and mechanically recited. The meaning Defining 
should be inferred from the context, and the words, 
pupil requested to use the word correctly in a short 
sentence. 

Let the pupil tell what the word means in his own 
language. 

A definition is a general truth, a deduction ; children 
should be thought primary truths ; and, as their reason 
develops, deduce the definitions, rules and principles. 
Develop correct ideas ; then give definitions. We must 
not encourage teachers to require pupils to commit the 
definitions to memory in the primary reading books, 



28 HEADING 

but we should insist that the pupils understand the 
meaning of the words used. 

Teachers sometimes instruct pupils to stop and count 
"Mind the " one " a ^ a comma, " one, two", at a semi- 
pauses." colon, etc. This leads to a mechanical, un- 
natural style of reading. First attend to the reading 
of sentences, and lead the pupils to see how the pauses 
aid in understanding the meaning. Do not teach read- 
ing as if attention to " pauses" were the chief object 
to be attained. 

Keciting definitions of pauses is useless and leads to 
waste of time. Teach the use of the pauses, instead of 
the definition of them. A few teachers pay no attention 
to the explanation of the words, but turn their attention 
almost entirely to the names and the pronunciation ; 
important points, to be sure, but by no means the life- 
giving elements of good reading. 

Pure tone. This is a clear, cheerful tone. It is 
Tone qualities. the language of common conversation. 

Rotund. This is the pure tone, rounded, deepened 
and intensified. It is the language of sublimity, 
grandeur, awe, reverence. 

Aspirate. This is whispered utterance. It is the 
language of hate, fear, secrecy. 

Gutteral. This is the sepulchral tone and has its 
resonance in the throat. It is the language of hate, 
rage, contempt. 

Pectoral. This is low, pure tone. It is the language 
of deep feeling, sorrow. 

Falsetto. This is a very high tone. It is the lan- 
guage of irritability, etc. 



QUALITIES OF THE VOICE 29 

A particular stress of voice given to certain words, or 
parts of a discourse, or a distinctive utter- Emphasis, 
ance of words specially significant, is called emphasis. 

A new idea or fact, one now presented for the first 
time, constitutes the emphatic word or words. 

That which presents no new or dominant fact or 
thought is unemphatic : as clauses of repetition, antici- 
pation, sequence, subordination, knowledge beforehand. 

Do not require children to commit the rules to mem- 
ory in reading. They are hindrances instead Ru i es in 
of helps. If the teachers know how to read, reading, 
those aids in which many school-books abound are worse 
than useless, because positively injurious. 

The competent teacher needs but two rules by which 
to be guided in teaching the pupils to read : 

First Make the pupils understand what it is to be 
read. 

Second. Require them to read naturally. 

To expect a child to read what it does not understand 
is unreasonable, and yet nothing is more common. It 
is idle to put marks, rules and directions, whether by 
words or characters, into books intended to be read by 
children, for the reason that they are seldom or never 
used. 

The teacher should carefully study the reading lesson; 
should be familiar with the pronunciation of 

* . The teach- 

every word, including its literal and its re- er's prep- 

A ' TT i ij ^ -i aration. 

ceived meaning. He should give the pupils 
the history of the author and some of his prominent 
characteristics, this will, add to the interest. He 
should awaken thought in the minds of the pupils, 
this will secure interest. It matters not how simple the 



30 BEADING 

lesson may be, previous preparation is indispensable. 
Previous study will add new power and generate better 
methods, by means of which success will be insured. 
The teacher will become independent, self-reliant, and 
a " law unto himself". 

III. INTERMEDIATE READING 

Directions 

1. Teach and train the pupils to understand : 

(a) The prominent objects mentioned ; 

(b) The prominent facts mentioned concerning 
the object ; 

(c) What they read, so as to be able to tell the 
story, or the principal facts in the lesson ; 

(d) The connected thought, so as to express it 
orally and written. 

Caution 

1. Attend to one subject of criticism at a time, and 
require pupils to correct errors. 

2. Practice on one sentence at a time. 

3. See that all the pupils understand the thought, 
and are able to express it. 

4. Examine the subject carefully before reading. 

Results 

The pupils in the Intermediate Classes in Reading 
' should be able : 

1. To pronounce the words accurately. 

2. To define the words. 

3. To understand the subject-matter. 



INTERMEDIATE READING 31 

4. To explain the language. 

5. To account for marks of punctuation. 

6. To point out what is true, beautiful and good in 
the sentiment. 

7. To show the manner of delivery, and give reason 
for it. 

The number of those who can be properly called good 
readers in our schools is small ; but how Remarks, 
large is the number who can read quite indifferently, 
or very poorly. 

As a general thing it must be admitted that reading 
has not been well taught in our schools. It has re- 
ceived formal attention and frequent inattention. Time 
enough is given to the exercise, but not enough atten- 
tion. 

The elocutionary part of reading should receive but 
little attention in the intermediate classes. 

-rrr.., ., T ... .. An iritellec- 

With so many pupils under your training, it tuai ex- 
cannot be expected that you will go into all 
the minutiae of elocutionary drill. Your aim must be 
to teach well what you undertake to teach. You can- 
not even hope to make all your pupils accomplished 
elocutionists, but you can make them good and intelli- 
gent readers. When you find a pupil who takes to 
elocution it may be well to encourage it, but not to the 
neglect nor the expense of other subjects of instruction. 
It may be asked, what is good reading ? I call that good 
reading when a person reads distinctly, giving the sense 
with such intonation and emphasis as to be pleasant to 
the hearer, and in such a manner as to be easily heard 
and readily understood. 



32 READING 

Take, for example, the following beautiful selection, 
An niustra- an( l see now niany pertinent questions may 
be asked in reference to it. 

NELLY 

Nelly sat under the apple tree, 
And watched the -shadows of leaves at play, 

And heard the hum of the honey bee 

Gathering sweets through the sunny day. 

Nelly's brown hands in her lap were laid ; 

Her head inclined with a gentle grace ; 
A wandering squirrel was not afraid 

To stop and peer in her quiet face. 

Nelly was full of a pure delight, 

Born of the beauty of earth and sky, 
Of the wavering boughs, and the sunshine bright, 

And the snowy clouds that went sailing by. 

Nelly forgot that her dress was old, 
Her hands were rough and her feet were bare ; 

For round her the sunlight poured its gold, 
And her cheeks were kissed by the summer air. 

And the distant hills in their glory lay, 
And soft to her ear came the robin's call : 

'Twas sweet to live on that summer day, 
For the smile of God was over all. 

And Nelly was learning the lesson sweet, 

That when the spirit is full of care, 
And we long our father and God to meet, 

AVe may go to nature, and find him there. 

1. Where did Nelly sit ? 

2. Wha two things did she do ? 

3. Wha^ is meant by the leaves at play ? 

4. What were the bees doing? 

5. What is said of Nelly's hands? 

6. What is said of her head ? 

7. What is said of the squirrel? 



A MODEL LESSOR 33 

8. Of what was Nelly full ? 

9. What is meant by being full of pure delight? 

10. Of what four things was it born ? 

11. What is meant by being born of these things? 

12. What did Nelly forget ? 

13. Why did she forget these things ? 

14. What is meant by the sunlight pouring its gold ? 

15. What is meant by kissed by the summer air ? 

16. What is said of the distant hills ? 

17. What is meant by the phrase 4w in their glory lay " ? 

18. What is said of the robin ? 

19. Why was it sweet to live on that summer day ? 

20. What lesson was Nelly learning ? 

21. What is the meaning ot gathering ? Inclined ? Peer ? Boughs ? Nature ? 

22. Make sentences in which these words in some of their forms shall be 
used correctly. 

23. Write a short composition about Nelly. 

The piece is descriptive and should be so read as to 
give the hearer a clear idea of the scenes Directions, 
described. State each thing mentioned as though you 
were telling some person what you had seen. 

The frequent or occasional study of reading lessons 
in this manner will be attended with two advantages. 
The pupils will read them better, for they will have a 
sympathy for the author, and a more intelligent percep- 
tion of the meaning. 

The answering of the question will prove very ser- 
viceable, by unfolding the sense of the piece, and thus 
enabling one to read it more understandingly. It will 
produce thought) and whenever we produce thought we 
secure interest. 

In intermediate classes constant attention should be 
given to punctuation, accent, inflection, emphasis, and 
correct pronunciation. 

Explanations of historical, biographical, or scientific 
allusions, should be given by the teacher and reviewed 



34 



BEADING 



in subsequent recitation. Higher classes may be taught 
the rhetorical divisions. Thus : 

a. Letters. 

b. Dialogues. 

c. History. 

d. Essays. 

e. Orations, etc. 
a. Pastoral. 

#. Lyric. 

c. Epic. 

d. Dramatic. 

e. Elegy. 



A. Composition. 



1. Prose, 



and 



2. Poetry. 



B. Subject Matter. 



C. Discourse. 



'1. Humorous. 

2. Pathetic; 

3. Sublime. 
'1. Narrative. 

2. Descriptive. 

3. Didactic. 



General 
remarks. 



No subject is of more importance than how to teach 
reading understandingly. Good reading is 
calculated to develop the mind, the body, 

and the imagination. Although so important, yet it 

is sadly neglected. 

Elocution is the art of speaking so as to be heard, so 
as to be felt, so as to impress. The first essential is to 
speak or read so as to be heard distinctly. Never speak 
above or below your natural voice ; if you do so, the 
effect will be lost. The three great rules that all should 
observe in reading or speaking are : " Be sure you have 
something to say ; say it as well as you can say it ; and stop 



ATTEND TO SPECIAL FAULTS 35 

when you are clone. " Speak so that the listener may 
understand you ; speak so as to be felt, hence be in 
earnest ; if you do not feel what you say, you cannot 
expect your hearers to feel it. 

If you have a fault, attend to it ; overcome it by prac- 
tice. Much time must be taken in correct- Attend to 
ing bad habits of reading, but you must take faults, 
the time. And whatever you do, be sure to teach the 
pupils to do it in the right way. If the teacher wishes 
to succeed he must learn how intonation and articula- 
tion are to be taught. Before he can teach it he must 
learn it. It can be acquired only through study. 

Kules in books might as well be omitted ; correct 
reading might be taught by example. The object of 
teaching reading is to make good readers. Before good 
reading and good speaking can be taught it is necessary 
to learn how to articulate distinctly and pronounce cor- 
rectly. If you are careless in one single point, your 
pupils will be careless not only on that point but on 
others. 

In reading you must give each sound its true value. 
The requirements in reading are t ,vo-f old : 

first. To express rightly what you read ; and, 

tiecond. To do this pleasantly and naturally. 

A perfect understanding of what you read is the 
foundation ; you must understand the thoughts of the 
author and make the thoughts your own. 

It is the exception to find good readers in our schools ; 
the reason is because pupils are not required to study 
the lesson as in other branches. 

Study gives force, meaning, beauty, and power to the 
passage. After the pupils can speak distinctly, they 



36 BEADING 

should be taught to express the sense, to give the exact 
meaning. In no other way can this be taught than 
through study on the part of the pupils. They must 
read and think. 

Pupils should be taught how to stand, and they should 
Posture. not be allowed to utter a word until they as- 
sume a position to give full force to their utterance ; 
they should not be allowed to appear awkward. 

Do not allow your pupils to mumble words, smother 
sounds, and thus destroy the sense of a passage. 

The position should be perfectly easy, natural, and 
graceful ; the posture should indicate the sentence to 
be spoken. Insist that your pupils always take an easy, 
graceful position in reading or speaking. 

It is important to know how to breathe properly. It 
Breath. is well to exercise the lungs before beginning 
to read. The power of the reader or speaker consists 
in having perfect control of his breathing, so as to 
utter his words in the proper and most effective man- 
ner. It is only when you have perfect control of the 
breathing that you can give full expression to words 
and sentences. 

Let me caution you against placing dependence upon 
caution. rules f or inflection of the voice given in read- 
ing books. All that you need is fully to understand 
the thought ; when you have the thought fully, you 
will know all about inflection of the voice. If a per- 
son cannot translate what -he reads into his own lan- 
guage, he most assuredly does not understand it. If 
you cannot bring out in your own language the full 
meaning of the lesson, you are not the one to teach, 



MECHANICAL READING 37 

and you should either adopt some other work, or go 
through a rigid course of training. 

A great deal of teaching in reading is a positive in- 
jury to schools, and all because the teacher does not 
know how to teach. " Practice makes perfect ; " rap- 
idity and correctness are attained only through frequent 
repetition. No one ever arises at distinction by sitting 
with arms folded ; you must be willing to think, to 
exercise, to labor. It is not an easy thing to become a 
good reader ; it is acquired only through practice con- 
tinual practice. There is no other way than through 
practice. 

The following rules are taken from " Kidd's Elocu- 
tion ". They should be carefully studied and practised : 

First. Understand well what is read. 

Second. See to it that pupils never read without fulfilling the 
conditions of proper position and posture. 

Make them take the position God intended them to take ; 
train, not teach : there is a difference between the two. 

Third. Insist upon frequent and natural breathing. Good 
breathing is essential to health. 

Fourth. Reach the heart of the pupil. This is done by in- 
teresting them ; by making them understand what they read. 

Fifth. Cultivate a perfectly easy, distinct, and natural voice ; 
avoid all labored efforts ; let the voice come out full. Let pro- 
nunciation be correct, inflection natural ; give the best models, 
but never rules. Make pupils repeat the pronunciation of words 
they are in the habit of mis-pronouncing. Modulation and into- 
nation should be varied but always natural. 

Sixth. Have your pupils speak with naturalness. If the sub- 
ject be understood anyone will speak naturally. Train them to 
speak by the highest standard they possess. 

Seventh. Be in earnest. If the pupil has not an earnest man- 
ner, it proves that he does not understand his subject. 



38 READING 

Teacher, whatever else you may teach, do not con- 
Necessary sider the reading exercise an unimportant 
conditions. ou ^ Teach and train the pupils to be 
readers. It is the art of arts, and in it are the germs 
of growth and development. 

We read in the Bible at the eighth chapter of Nehe- 
miah, eighth verse, how they used to read in the olden 
times : 

" So they read in the book in the law of God distinctly, and 
gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading." 

There are three kinds of reading that are often con- 
founded ; mechanical reading, intelligent reading, and 
intellectual reading. 

Mechanical reading, per se, is no reading at all ; it is 
but a form of voice training. It may include pronun- 
ciation, articulation, enunciation, inflection, tone pause, 
harmony, rhythm, and emphasis. A child may learn 
every one of these, in a foreign language, learn them 
to perfection, if he be well drilled in them by means of 
direction and imitation, and yet not understand one 
word of what he reads while he gives them. 

An intelligent reader is one who understands what 
he reads, who takes in the author's thought. There 
are various degrees of intelligent reading. One person 
takes in the meaning vaguely, another more clearly, 
another quite clearly and definitely. It is not possible 
for a young child to be more than an intelligent reader, 
but the power should come to him as he grows older. 
Yet how many adults there are who do never get beyond 
the child's power of reading. Take, for instance, the 
well-informed man who never will be wise : he is emi- 



INTELLECTUAL BEADING 39 

nently an intelligent reader, but there is no hope for 
him that he ever will become an intellectual reader. 

Intellectual reading is not only a taking in, clearly 
and definitely, of the author's meaning, but it is also a 
ready recognition of the relation of that meaning, a 
prompt assimilation of it, and a consequent growth. 
This is the kind of reading that reigns in the student's 
den and the philosopher's study. That man who has 
the original power, or the acquired habit, which is 
often more than an equivalent for the original power, 
to grasp readily and clearly the meaning of what he 
reads, is one whom all others may well envy. And yet 
this power, valuable beyond calculation, may be given 
to every child in our schools, if we can but find the 
right way to secure it for him. 

The question then is : How shall we train our children 
so that they shall become not only intelligent but intel- 
lectual readers ? so that they shall become not only 
intellectual silent readers, but also accomplished oral 
readers ? 

By assigning to the lesson in voice-training all those 
exercises which pertain to voice-culture and Readin 
discipline of the organs, which drill in pro- 
nunciation and a consideration of emphasis 
and pauses, illustrated by mistakes taken from yester- 
day's lesson and difficulties in to-day's, we shall relieve 
the reading lesson proper of the necessity of taking note 
of all that machinery which produces effect, and leave 
the teacher and class time and opportunity to study the 
thought the passage contains, and to give it a free and 
natural expression. Let it be understood by the class 
as well as the teacher, J;hat_the_reading lesson should 



40 BEADING 

be a clear, clean-cut process of thought carried on to 
expression, and should not be interrupted by continued, 
trivial and harassing corrections. What is more pain- 
ful than to see a child rise in his class, full of the thought 
the passage contains, confident of his power to give it 
good expression, his eye a-kindle and his cheeks aglow, 
and then to see him suddenly brought to a blank stand- 
still by a dozen upraised hands and snapping fingers, 
because, forsooth, he has omitted an " a/' a " the/ 9 or 
mis-called some simple word he knew quite well, or 
skipped some useless comma ? 

Where such practices are allowed, the reading lesson 
becomes a mere game in pronunciation, and a correct 
handling of the voice according to rules. Such games 
are good to make the children keen-sighted, quick- 
thoughted, and correct ; but their place is not in the 
reading-lesson, and if we keep them there we shall go on 
forever teaching only words, words, words. 

Let us first attend to the thought, then to the expres- 
sion, and last and least, to mechanical defects. Better 
that the thought should be full-born, and clothed in 
garments with here and there a rent, than that it should 
be still-born and in garments without a flaw. 

As in language the thought is the root of which the 
word is the blossom, so in reading an understanding 
of the author's meaning is the root of which oral reading 
is the blossom. If, then, we find our blossoms defective, 
it behooves us to look to the condition of the roots. 

But what method will help us here ? How can we 
make sure that a child understands what he reads ? 
Children imitate so easily, and habit counterfeits na- 
ture so closely, how can we be sure that we are not 



THE THOUGHT FIKST 41 

misled ? Only by studying the lesson with children ; 
only by having before every reading-lesson a language- 
lesson upon the subject-matter of the reading ; only by 
compelling the children, by means of questions, to think, 
to reason, and to express : to express the thoughts of the 
lesson, first in their own words, and then in the words 
of the book ; and, whenever the subject-matter may 
be, from any cause whatsoever, vague to the children's 
minds, by illustrating it with objects, with pictures, 
printed pictures, and outline pictures drawn upon the 
black-board, and with what the English training-schools 
call "picturing out words ". 



PHONICS 



Till recently this important subject had received but 
little attention in the public schools of the country. 
Why it was so long neglected, when it is such an im- 
portant element of expression, is a curious problem. 

The object of teaching this subject should be : 

First. To train the organs of hearing so that the 
children may readily distinguish the sounds heard in 
speaking and reading. 

Second. To train the organs of hearing so that the 
pupils may learn to produce the sounds correctly in 
using language. 

To acquire an articulation which shall be at once 
accurate and tasteful, it is necessary : 

1. To obtain an exact knowledge of the elementary 
sounds of the language. 

2. To learn the appropriate place of these sounds. 

3. To apply this knowledge constantly in conversing, 
reading, and speaking, with a view to correct every 
deviation from propriety. 

A good articulation is not to be acquired in a day, 
nor from a few lessons. Practice should begin with 
the primer, and continue through the whole course of 
education ; and even then there will remain room for 

improvement. 

(42) 



DIACBITICAL SlOtfS 43 



Great care should be taken in giving these lessons 
that the class repeat each exercise until all the pupils 
can make every sound and combination that it contains, 
readily and perfectly. 

The teacher should make the sounds, and then require 
the pupils to imitate them. The pupils should stand 
or sit erect, and use the natural tones of the voice. 
Only one or two sounds should be taken for a lesson. 

The exercise should not continue more than five 
minutes ; it may be introduced in the reading or spell- 
ing exercise, or the whole school may join in it. 

Tell the children " to open the mouth and move the 
lips ", to speak distinctly, and to enunciate every sound 
perfectly. Time should not be wasted in the endeavor 
to teach children definitions or descriptions of the vari- 
ous sounds of the letters. The chief aim should be to 
train the organs of hearing to acuteness, and the organs 
of speech to flexibility and accuracy. 

The pupil should be taught the correct sounds and 
the signification of the different marks. All Notation 
the vowels and many of the consonants have Sacrfticai 
marks to distinguish their sounds. siffns - 

After a sound is learned the teacher should write the 
letter on the board with its proper mark. The pupils 
should be required to copy and reproduce every exercise. 
Let the drill be thorough. 

Tell the pupils that when a short horizontal line 
called the macron is placed above the vowel it indicates 
the long sound, as a ; that a short curved line with the 
curve downward called a ~breve placed above the vowel 
indicates the short sound, as a ; that two dots placed 
above the vowel a indicates the Italian sound, as a, etc. 



44 PHOKICS 

"We find few teachers who are able to give the sounds 
of the English language correctly, and many are unable 
to tell the kind of a mark or sign that indicates a certain 
sound. 

This subject requires study and practice. We need 
not expect distinct speaking so long as we 

Suggestions. , , ,, _, ,, . , . 

neglect the following suggestions : 

1. Train the organs of hearing to distinguish readily 
and accurately the different sounds of language. 

2. Train the organs of speech to produce these 
sounds with ease and accuracy. 

3. Train the pupils to the correction of faults of 
enunciation and pronunciation in reading and speaking. 

4. Train pupils in every lesson upon the elements. 

5. Master the analysis before you attempt to teach it. 

6. Let the drill be accurate. 



For full directions in teaching this important subject, the 
author refers to his book called "PRACTICAL PHONICS : A com- 
prehensive study of Pronunciation, forming a complete guide to 
the study of the Elementary Sounds of the English Language, and 
containing 3000 words of difficult pronunciation, with diacritical 
marks according to Webster's Dictionary ". Price 75 cts. 



SPELLING 



It cannot be denied that the orthography of the Eng- 
lish language is difficult. In a general way there are 
no principles governing it ; but few rules can be called 
to mind, and these have so many exceptions that they 
are of little use. 

There are only three rules that I have found of prac- 
tical value : 

1. Monosyllables and words accented on the last 
syllable, ending in a single consonant, preceded by a 
single vowel, double the final consonant before an addi- 
tion beginning with a vowel. 

2. The diphthong ie is generally used after other 
consonants than c, which is followed by ei. 

3. Words ending in final y, preceded by a vowel, 
form their plurals by adding s. 

It will be seen at once that English spelling must be 
learned to a great extent arbitrarily ; but industry and 
attention will enable any student to master it. 

Everybody knows how imperfectly the teaching of 
spelling accomplishes its purpose ; yet there Results un _ 
is no reason why any student should habitu- satisfactory, 
ally spell words badly. Any person may learn to spell, 
if in writing, whenever he shall come to a word which 
he does not certainly know how to spell, he will look 
for it in his dictionary and study its spelling and 

meaning. 

(45) 



46 SPELLING 

Too often the spelling is a mere "parrot exercise", 
Mechanical * n that ^ s results are rapidly lost as soon as 
spelling. ^ e attention is given to something else. 
Inattention is a fruitful source 01 ill spelling. Time is 
wasted upon oral spelling, and bad habits are formed 
by spelling new words pupils do not understand. 

I should connect spelling and reading with writing 
from the very outset. As soon as the child 

In connec- ., iii ,-, i 

tion with can pronounce the alphabet on this plan he 
will be able to write it, and then as he ad- 
vances he must continue to write all the spelling lessons 
and as much of the reading lessons as time will admit. 
It is a rare thing to find children seven years old able 
to read a word of manuscript, much less to write well. 
A little instruction given by the teacher each day upon 
this special study will aid in making the children good 
penmen. It is a very valuable help. 

During a certain year I pronounced the following 
words to twenty-one Institutes in the State of New 
York, viz : 

accordion, melodeon, alpaca, 

beefsteak, billiards, caterpillar, 

diphtheria, harelip, surcingle, 

occurrence, inflammatory, succotash, 

tranquillity, exaggerate, vaccinate, 

centennial, brilliancy, collision, 

dissipate, tyrannical, valleys, 

lilies, numskull, primer, 

erysipelas. 

The average spelling of the teachers, including pub- 
lic school, union school, academy and normal school 
teachers, was 63 per cent. One county stood at 85 per 
cent, and one at 20 per cent. Only three teachers 



ORAL SPELLING 47 

from the twenty-one counties spelled all the words 
correctly. 

The following list has been given at institutes, with 
similar results : 

judgment, infringement, abridgment, 

acknowledgment, tranquillity, dissyllable, 

bilious, lilies, eying, 

vying, halos, inseparable, 

privilege, licentiate, conscientious, 

intercede, supersede, sacrilegious, 

inflammation, quizzical, contrariwise, 

mucilage, millennium, metallic. 

ORAL SPELLING 

Spelling is the right formation of words with their 
proper letters. Oral spelling does not give value of oral 
the ability to write words correctly ; but it spellmg - 
must not from this fact be deemed a useless exercise. 
Long used as a basis of learning to read, and still 
clung to by many, there must be something in it. It 
makes words that otherwise would have been altogether 
strange familiar to the ear and sufficiently distinguish- 
able by the eye to enable the learner to recognize them 
again when met with in his reading lessons. It finds 
favor with parents as furnishing some school work at 
home. And it finds favor with the teachers, as giving 
the only means with the younger children, or with 
poor scholars, of forming those habits of attention, 
application, perseverance, and retention which are the 
characteristic features of a system of tasks. 

Directions 

1. Require the pupil to pronounce : 
(a) The word accurately before spelling ; 



48 SPELLING 

(Z>) The letters accurately ; 

(c) The syllables accurately ; 

(d) The words accurately after spelliu & , 

(e) The words of the succeeding lesson accurately 

before study. 

2. Eequire the pupil to name everthing necessary 
to the correct writing or printing of the word, as the 
capital letter, hyphen, apostrophe, etc. 

3. Eequire the pupils to copy the words of the suc- 
ceeding lesson several times before spelling. 

4. Let every fifth exercise be a review. 

5. Eequire misspelled words to be written correctly. 

6. Eeview often and advance slowly. 

Cautions 

The teacher should : 

(a) Pronounce the word only once. 

(b) Never repeat a syllable. 

(c) Not permit the pupil to repeat a syllable. 

(d) Eequire pupils to divide one syllable from 

another by a pause. 

(e) Give no undue emphasis to unaccented syl- 

lables. 
(/) Forbid the pupil to try the second time on a 

word. 
(g) Explain new words. 

Results 

1. The correct spelling of words. 

2. The correct pronunciation of words. 



WKITTEtf SPELLING 49 

In teaching Spelling, the instructor should aim to 
give interest to the exercise by frequently 
varying the mode of recitation. But what- 
ever course is pursued, the following directions should 
be strictly adhered to : 

a. The word should be pronounced distinctly ; just 
as it would be pronounced by a good reader or a good 
speaker. In giving out the words to a class, teachers 
sometimes commit the error of departing from the 
ordinary pronunciation, for the sake of indicating the 
orthography. No undue emphasis or prolongation of the 
utterance of a syllable should be given by the teacher. 

5. The pupil should spell once only on a word ; as 
all beyond will be merely guessing. 

For employment between recitations the children 
should be permitted and encouraged, and required and 
compelled, to write all the exercises they read or spell 
upon their slates. 

The best way to study a spelling lesson is to require 
the pupils to write it several times on their 

-, , mi ,. . . ., . Importance 

slates. The practice of requiring pupils to of written 
study the lesson a given number of times 
only teaches them to hurry over their study, and not to 
study to any purpose. 

It is not the number of times a lesson has been studied 
that should be considered the mark of effort, but the 
ability to spell every word in the lesson. 

There is no reason why every child in every school 
should not be a good penman at a very early 
age. The advantage of this acquisition to o?teachin* 
the children cannot be overrated ; for, be- 
sides the mechanical skill, the child has the means of 



50 SPELLING 

constant employment which will keep him from idle- 
ness and mischief, and the energetic teacher can make 
this skill bear upon almost every exercise in other 
branches of instruction. 

WRITTEN SPELLING 
Directions 

1. Preparation for the lesson. 

(a) Pronounce the word accurately. 

(V) Use it in the construction of a sentence. 

(c) Define it. 

(d) Write a sentence containing it. 

2. Materials Book, pen and ink. 

3. Eequire the pupils to write the word neatly, as 
soon as pronounced. 

4. At the close of the written exercise, the teacher, 
or some pupil, should spell the word orally. 

5. The pupil should check the misspelled words. 

6. Every misspelled word, and word omitted, should 
be written correctly on another sheet or page, with its 
number and the number of the column. 

7. All blanks, letters or words erased, inserted, writ- 
ten over, or written indistinctly, should be considered 
as errors. 

8. The teacher should examine the pupil's work, and 
keep a record of the scholarship. 

9. Begin all words with small letters, except proper 
names. 

Cautions 

1. The teacher should give sufficient time to the 
exercise. 



DISCOVERY OF MISTAKES 51 

2. The direction number eight must be adhered to 
strictly ; any violation will be counted the same as a 
misspelled word. 

3. If words are found unchecked, they should be 
marked with a cipher. 

4. Every word which the student checks for himself 
will deduct one ; every one checked with a cipher will 
deduct five ; any correction whatever made in the 
column will deduct ten. 

" The old adage, ' Eyes are better than ears ', nowhere 
holds good with greater force than in learn- 

11 i TI -T Remarks. 

ing to spell. familiarity with words as 
written, such as will give the knowledge of all the let- 
ters and their proper position, is necessary to the power 
of writing them, correctly. Such familiarity is obtained 
only from frequently seeing and writing them. The 
only way to produce words accurately is to make them 
familiar to the eye ; hence the well-known fact that 
persons who read much, as compositors, or write much, 
as copyists, invariably spell correctly ; hence also the 
common practice, when people are in doubt between 
two forms of words, to write them both, when the eye 
instantly decides on the right way. 

The detection of every mistake with least loss of time 
is of the first importance. Careful examin- Discovery 
ation of each slate by the teacher is most of mis takes. 
likely to secure this, but it is open to the fatal objection 
that it occupies much time and leaves the class idle. 
In some schools monitors are appointed to examine the 
slates and to correct the mistakes. This, apart from 
the difficulty of getting properly qualified monitors, is 
objectionable, as yielding the monitors no adequate re- 



52 SPELLING 

turn for their long and irksome task, to which must be 
added the possibility of unfaithfulness. The plan of 
allowing the children to inspect each other's slates is 
open to serious objections, not the least of which is the 
distrust it seems to imply. Sometimes the children 
compare their slates with the lesson in the book, or 
written on the black-board ; a plan which has the advan- 
tages of throwing the labor on the child, and of having 
the corrections made at the same time : all that is needed 
being a vigilant oversight, to see that it is faithfully done. 
But the method which to our mind is the best, is to 
dictate but one or two sentences, and then to have each 
sentence spelled through, either by the teacher or by 
the scholars in turn, every mistake being underlined. 
The correction of mistakes should appeal to the eye, 
not to the ear. Pains should be taken to 

Corrections. 

ascertain the cause of any common defect. 
For this purpose the word should be written on the 
black-board, and alongside of it the correct form ; the 
two should be compared and the cause of the mistake 
discovered. Often this will be a lesson on the structure 
of a class of words, and probably prevent similar mis- 
takes afterwards. After this has been done, the whole 
class should write the word in its correct form, and then 
the words should be dictated afresh ; if any now have 
mistakes, they should be required to write the words 
three or six times, according to the degree of careless- 
ness shown. Sometimes it may be well to direct the 
children themselves to write correctly the words they 
have underlined, this making them attentive while the 
words are being spelled. But, as a general thing, this 
is open to the objection that it appeals to the eye, and 



METHODS 53 

that it does not occupy the children who have spelled 
it correctly. 

METHODS IN SPELLING 
/. Constructive Method 
The teacher should request the pupils : 

(a) To name a few familiar words. 

(b) To construct with block or card letters. 

(c) To spell the words by the sound of the letters. 

(d) To copy the words on their slates. 

(e) To tell the silent letters. 

(/) To spell the words by the names of the letters. 
(g) To use each word correctly in a sentence. 

II. Objective Method 

The teacher should request the pupils : 

(a) To bring to school a number of objects of 

the same kind. 

(b) To examine them carefully. 

(c) To name the parts. 

(d) To spell and write words. 

(e) To tell the uses of the parts. 

(/) To introduce the word into a sentence. 
(g) To name the properties of the parts. 
(h) To write a short composition, reproducing 
words. 

III. Definitive Method 

1. Assign an object to every pupil. 

2. Pupils find the meaning. 

3. Pupils name the parts, qualities, uses, etc. 

4. Pupils write a short composition, reproducing the 
words. 



54 SPELLIKG 

IV. Composition Method 

1. The teacher writes a certain number of words on 
the board, requiring the pupils to copy. 

2. The pupils learn to define them. 

3. The pupils use them in composition of a sentence. 

V. Geographical Method 
Require the pupils to spell the names of : 
(a) Countries. 
(J) States. 

(c) Counties. 

(d) Cities. 

(e) Towns. 

(/) Divisions of Land. 
(g) Divisions of Water. 
(h) Occupations. 

VI. Natural History Method 
Require the pupils to spell the names of 
(a) Animals, Minerals, etc. 
(V) Trees. 

(c) Fruits. 

(d) Flowers. 

(e) Vegetables. 

VII. Dictation Method 

1. The teacher has Dictation Exercises once a week. 

2. He dictates stories, descriptions, etc., to the 

pupils, who produce them exactly. 

Suggestions for the Above Exercise 

1. Write your full name on the paper. 

2. Number the sentences. 

3. Construct every letter accurately. 



METHODS 55 

4. Do not erase letters or words. 

5. Do not insert letters or words. 

6. Do not write over letters or words. 

7. Do not prompt, or be prompted. 

8. Use capital letters correctly. 

9. Use punctuation marks correctly. 

10. Cross the "tV and dot the "i's". 

11. The teacher or pupil writes the correct forms on 
the board. 

12. Those who make mistakes in spelling, or in any 
of the directions, are required to correct them. 

13. The teacher examines the papers ; and 

14. Finds the per cent. 

However thorough the drill in spelling may be from 
the lessons of the speller or reader, every Remar k S 
teacher should have frequent and copious 
exercises in spelling words from other sources. These 
should be words in common use, chosen as far as possi- 
ble from the range of the pupiFs observation, including 
the new words that arise in object lessons, in geography, 
arithmetic, and grammar. The more difficult of these 
words should be written in columns on the board, and 
studied and reviewed with the same care as lessons from 
the speller and reader. Failures in spelling these words 
should be marked as errors, the same as failures in any 
other lessons. 

SUGGESTIVE METHODS IN SPELLING 

1. Bead a short sentence distinctly, and require every 
word to be spelled by the class, the first pupil pro- 
nouncing and spelling the first word, the next pupil the 
second, and so on until all the words in the sentence 



56 SPELLING 

have been spelled. (An excellent exercise : it demands 
attention.) 

2. It will be well in oral spelling to make all the 
members of the class responsible for the accurate spell- 
ing of each and every word. 

If the first member of the class misspells the word 
given to him, let the teacher proceed and give out the 
next word, without intimating whether the first word 
was correctly or incorrectly spelled. 

If the second pupil thinks the first word was not 
spelled correctly, he will spell it instead of the one given 
him, and so on through the class, each being expected 
to correct any error that may have been committed. If 
the first pupil spells a word incorrectly, and no one cor- 
rects it, let all be charged with a failure. This mode 
will amply compensate for its frequent adoption. 

Two-thirds of the words in the English language 
need but little study. The remainder can 

Put your J 

hard work be mastered only by study. The pupils 
cult words, should be urged to study the difficult words. 

3. Another mode of conducting the exercise of spell- 
ing is the following, and we may add that for more 
advanced schools it possesses some advantages. 

Let the teacher write legibly on the board twenty or 
more difficult words, and allow them to remain long 
enough to be carefully studied by the school. A few 
minutes before the exercise let all the words be erased 
from the board. Let each pupil provide himself with 
a slip of paper, following the order as directed in the 
previous exercises. The teacher will pronounce the 
words and the pupils will write them* 



SUGGESTIVE METHODS 57 

After the words have been written, let the slips be 
collected and taken by the teacher, who may himself 
aided by some of the pupils examine the slips, and 
mark the words spelled incorrectly. Subsequently, let 
the teacher read the result to the whole school, stating 
the number of errors committed by the several pupils ; 
after which the papers may be returned for correction. 
If there is a good board in the room, a few pupils should 
write the lesson on it. 

4. An attractive mode, which may answer for oral or 
written spelling, is the following : 

The instructor pronounces the word which is to be 
spelled by the first in the class, who will name immedi- 
ately another, commencing with the final letter of the 
first word which is to be spelled by the next pupil ; and 
he in turn will name another word, and so on through 
the class. It will awaken thought and interest. 

5. Another mode which has its advantages is the 
following': , 

Let the teacher dictate some twenty or twenty-five 
words to the class, requiring the members to write them 
on their slates. These words are to be carefully exam- 
ined and studied by the pupils, who are also to be 
required to incorporate each word in a sentence which 
shall illustrate its meaning and show that it is under- 
stood by them. 

After these sentences have been read and erased from 
the slates, let the words be dictated again, to be written 
and examined with special reference to the orthography. 

The teacher should keep a copy of all words dictated 
to the pupils, and hold them responsible for the correct 
spelling in review. 



58 

Teachers should give close attention to this important 
importance subject, for truly it has been said, " To spell 
>f spelling. one > s own language well is no great credit 
to him, for he ought to do it ; but to spell it ill is a dis- 
grace, because it indicates extremely poor attention and 
loose scholarship." 

We have a great number of spelling-books, grammars, 
and other aids, but with all these, poor spellers still 
abound. 

One cause of the frequency of poor spelling may be 
found in the neglect with which the spelling lesson is 
treated in schools. It is often crowded into a few min- 
utes and passed over in a hurried and imperfect 
manner, while if any exercise must be omitted the spell- 
ing lesson is the neglected one. Another cause may be 
found in a feeling, not very uncommon, that spelling 
is undeserving the attention of any but very young 
pupils. 

Prom the beginning let your pupils understand that 
the spelling lesson will always receive its due share of 
attention, and its due time. Hold your pupils respon- 
sible for the correct spelling of every word in the regu- 
lar recitation and upon reviews. 

As soon as the pupils can write, which in a well-con- 
ducted school is about as soon as they can read, special 
instruction in spelling with script letters should be in- 
troduced, and children should be required to write and 
to spell orally every word in their reading, and the diffi- 
cult words in other lessons. If accuracy and neatness 
in every particular be required, habits of careful atten- 
tion will be formed. 



EXERCISES IK PROKtWCIATIOK 59 

The child must be taught to spell correctly before 
twelve years old, as this habit is seldom acquired after 
that age. 

A good speller is one who habitually gives the cor- 
rect form to every word in his written exer- spelling used 
cises. It is only in printed and written Ian- 
guage that correct spelling possesses any ms ' 
value. Oral spelling is not a test of accuracy. It is 
impossible to memorize by their letters all the words in 
our language. If we wish to make pupils excellent 
spellers, we must cultivate the powers of observation and 
memory. If habits of carelessness and inaccuracy are 
allowed to be formed in childhood, no ordinary efforts 
in after life can overcome the defects or supply the 
deficiencies that result from such habits. 

GENERAL EULES FOR SPELLING 

Rule 1. Write no word unless sure of its orthography 
and signification. 

Rule 2. Consult the dictionary in case of doubt. 

Rule 3. Apply the rules for derivatives. 

Eules for spelling are of but little use in primary 
classes, or in fact in any classes. It may be 
well to memorize them, as they may prove 
of a little use in spelling of derivatives. 

EXERCISES IBT ORTHOEPY 

NOTE. The teacher should write these words on the 
board, and let the pupils pronounce them. 

1. sacrifice, 4. equable, 

2. memoriter, 5. truths, 

3. pedagogy, 6. torrid, 



60 



SPELLING 



7. often, 


9. finance, 


8. pretty, 


10. mercy. 


1. sSc'rrfice, 


6. tSrMd, 


2. memSr'iter, 


7. Sf'n, 


3. pgcTagOgy, 


8. prtt'ty, 


4. 5'quable, 


9. fT'nSnce, 


5. truths, 


10. mSi^cy. 


1. finale, 


6. inquiry, 


2. apparatus, 


7. employe, 


3. orotund, 


8. condolence, 


4. jugular, 


9. dessert, 


5. enervate, 


10. pronunciation. 


1. finale, 


6. Inquiry, 


2. SpparS'tus, 


7. employe, 


3. C'rOtund, 


8. condolence, 


4. ju'gular, 


9. dessert 7 , 


5. engr'vate, 


10. pronunciation. 


1. aye, 


6. acclimate, 


2. area, 


7. apparent, 


3. almond, 


8. aspirant, 


4. alias, 


9. allopathy, 


5. arctic, 


10. albumen. 


1. a'ye, 


6. ScclI'mate, 


2. a'rea, 


7. SppaVent, 


3. a'mond, 


8. Ssplr'ant, 


4. a'ttas, 


9. aildp'athy. 


5. arc'tic, 


10. Slbu'men. 


1. Appala'chian, 


6. Colorado, 


2. Amazon, 


7. Cohoes 7 , 


3. New Orleans, 


8. Virginia, 


4. New'foiindland, 


9. Arkansas, 


5. Shawan'gunk, (Sho^gum) 


10. Ausa'ble. 



ARTICULATION 61 

" Exactness in articulation cannot exist without close 
discrimination and careful analysis." The Remar ks 
preceding exercises on the correct pronun- 
ciation of words should receive attention. It would be 
well for the teacher to write on the board a list of words 
pronounced incorrectly by the pupils, and require the 
pupils to correct them. 

The author's "Pocket Pronunciation Book" (price 15 cts.), 
gives 3,000 of the words oftenest mispronounced. Hall's " Or- 
thoepy Made Easy" (price 75 cts.) gives 38 selections containing 
in narrative form the words oftenest mispronounced, with a key at 
the end of each giving all the words with diacritical marks. 
Hoose's " Studies in Articulation" (price 50 cts.) gives a careful 
study of sounds, with abundant exercises in pronunciation. 

Sanford's " Limited Speller " (price 25 cts.) gives the 5 ; 000 
words most commonly misspelled, arranging them alphabetically, 
and giving the diacritical marks, so that no mistake can be made 
in pronunciation. It is perhaps the best adapted to secure results 
of all the manuals published. 



PENMANSHIP 



I. GEJSTEEAL PKIJSTCIPLES 

Instruction in penmanship may be broadly classed 
under two heads ; one which aims to teach scholars to 
draw, and the other which seeks to develop the forms 
of letters through the medium of natural movements. 

The first makes use mainly of the movements which 
may be produced by the fingers, thumb, and wrists, while 
the second recognizes a medium of execution which 
brings into play the entire arm and shoulder muscles. 

These two processes are based upon principles so radi- 
cally different, that a clear understanding of the nature 
and tendency of each is quite essential to any intelligent 
plan of teaching. 

It would be comparatively easy to suggest theoretically 
a method for instructing classes in our public schools 
which if carried out according to programme would 
insure excellent results, but in practice we might find 
it an entirely different thing ; the conditions are usually 
so restrictive, and the requirements regarding other 
branches to be taught so numerous, that the question 
really becomes, not so much what ought a teacher to 
do, as what can he do, under the circumstances ? 
PENMANSHIP NOT ACQUIRED BY IMITATION OF FORMS 

One of the first requirements, especially in our graded 
schools, is that a child from the moment he 

A fundamen- 
tal error. enters shall begin to learn to make the script 

letters, and to form them into words and sentences, as 

(62) 



IMITATION OF FORMS 63 

an essential medium for developing the faculty of lan- 
guage. In doing this if he is able to draw out the forms 
legibly upon the slate or tablet, the important question 
of how it is done is rarely considered, and even the 
more important question as to what future use the child 
may make of this writing, receives but little attention. 

It is a fact well known to teachers that in learning to 
form the letter, young children almost in- . 

9 J & . Early forma- 

variably acquire a habit of grasping the pencil Jj ^.P f bad 
in a manner which cramps the fingers, forces 
the hand over to the right, bends the wrist in toward 
the body, and places the pen in a position which is so 
awkward and unnatural as to prevent absolutely any- 
thing like freedom in execution ; but it is forgotten 
that this habit of twisting and distorting the position 
of the hand must in time become as much a part of the 
act of writing as the form of the letter itself. 

The force of habit will be certain to assert its power, 
and this strained unnatural position must eventually 
identify itself with the forming process in every letter 
the act of writing becomes a torture instead of a pleasure, 
and a struggle ensues between teacher and pupil when 
the slate is exchanged for the copy book, and the attempt 
is made to correct the habit. 

Nor does the difficulty end when by careful teaching 
and patient effort the scholar has obtained some con- 
trol of the pen, and is able to imitate the forms of letters. 
The carefully drawn page in the copy book will often 
excite admiration, while the composition or other written 
exercise presents a style of penmanship which fails to 
suggest any connection between them, the character of 



64 PENMANSHIP 

the handwriting in the two instances being as totally 
unlike as if written by different persons. 

This tendency to write two entirely different hands 
is not at all uncommon among school children, and 
demonstrates quite clearly that penmanship acquired by 
imitation,, and with the hand and pen in a false position, 
lacks the essential quality of practical application. 

Under these conditions the teacher is quite apt to 
become discouraged, and may conclude that such results 
are inevitable ; but when properly understood, the real 
cause of failure may be traced to the natural difference 
which exists between drawing two words per minute in 
the writing lesson, and the attempts to draw fifteen or 
twenty in the same time in the composition, where it 
becomes evident that the process of correct drawing 
must be restricted as to speed. 

It is perhaps practically impossible to do away with 
Disadvan- slate-work in teaching writing to primary 
sfate? ork scholars, notwithstanding its liabilty to pro- 
mote bad habits in pen-holding, its certain 
tendency to make a scholar careless in all his work ; but 
it is evident that the transition from the unyielding 
slate surface and the short pencil where main strength 
often becomes an active element, to the sharp, pliant 
pen and soft texture of the paper, is altogether too 
abrupt. Some kind of preparation is needful, and if 
an intermediate drill in which long lead pencils might 
be used on calendered manilla paper, was introduced, it 
would render the change more gradual and be produc- 
tive of better results. 

So long as instruction in penmanship consists of 
teaching by imitation the forms of letters, with such 



THE SECRET OF SUCCESS 65 

occasional directions for position and pen-holding as a 
teacher who cannot himself hold a pen correctly may ven- 
ture to give, the theory of an intimate relation between 
writing and drawing will be accepted ; the faculty of 
drawing will possibly be somewhat developed, but as 
regards any practical application commercially or other- 
wise, the process results in failure, the scholar continues 
to draw term after term, but unfortunately never learns 
to write. 

This may partly explain why the slate work of the 
primary grades in many of our schools is so much better 
than the pen work of scholars in the higher classes ; the 
formation in writing is so simple that the elements are 
rapidly acquired, but in the attempt to use pen and ink, 
without having been thoroughly drilled in movement, 
the correct form quickly disappears. 

THE SECEET OF SUCCESS LIES IN THE ARM MOVEMENT. 

Want of confidence, generally arising from a belief 
that one must needs be a fine penman to teach this 
branch successfully, prevents many able teachers from 
attempting anything out of the ordinary routine. 

A knowledge of the nature and value of movement, 
the ability to make upon the blackboard a Every teacher 
few simple elements of form, a little faith 
gained from personal experience, and a dis- wel1 - 
position to work, will enable any teacher to obtain as 
good results in this as in any other branch, and quite 
frequently much better. 

If penmanship as now taught in our public schools 
is a comparative failure, the fault is largely with the 
teacher; he does npt need to be an expert penman to 



66 PENMANSHIP 

teach it acceptably. It is better to know something of 
the analysis of letters, but the requirements in this re- 
spect are not beyond what the majority possess. 

He should, of course, understand from the start that 
he is to teach writing, not drawing ; and the scholar 
should be made to realize that he is to learn to form the 
letters with the whole arm instead of with the fingers. 

Whole-arm, as here used, should not be confounded 
with off-hand or free-arm movement ; for although the 
entire arm is used, the fore-arm rest on the desk is 
maintained, and the sleeve is kept from sliding. 

Next, and in this connection most important of all, 
Not imitation ^ eacner an( ^ scholar should each know that 
76 ^ e ^ es ^ wa y ^ i m P rove hi s penmanship is 
to stop writing entirely, so far as imitation 
of letters is concerned, and to give all attention to the 
cultivation or development of movement through prac- 
tice on properly arranged exercises. 

It is evident that if a scholar has already acquired a 
false position of the hand in learning to form letters on 
the slate or otherwise, this form and position are to a 
degree inseparable, and continued practice on the let- 
ters with pen and ink will serve merely to confirm bad 
habits, and to prevent the establishment of correct 
ones. 

New forms of exercises must necessarily be associated 
Exercise w ^ ^ new movements ; and that the mo- 
on^vai? 6 ^ ve * or P rac ^ ce ma y not ke uncertain, the 
hand and arm under the impulse of an aug- 
mented power must be drilled to do something definite, 
having always for its object the application of the move- 
ments acquired to the construction of letters : hence all 



REPETITION OF ONE MOVEMENT 67 

exercises of muscular drill should be based upon the 
standard forms of ovals, separately, and associated with 
straight lines. 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS 

There is so much variety in the shape and size of 
school desks that definite instruction for the 
position of the body, and the placing of the position the 
right arm so as to secure the best results in 
all cases, cannot be given ; but it will generally be found 
that if a scholar is given a start in arm movement, and 
is made to understand clearly what is expected of him, 
he will usually adjust himself to existing conditions 
and work out both problems in a satisfactory manner. 

It is the constant, persistent repetition of a single 
movement which tells in forming an exercise, Re etitionof 
and this part of a beginner's work cannot a single 

movement. 

well be overdone. 

Drill a scholar in this manner for a few months and 
you will have given him a degree of facility with the 
pen which he can no more forget than the knack of 
skating or swimming, and in addition you will enable 
him to lay the only true foundation for future success- 
ful practice in penmanship. 

In telegraphy the character, or the sound represent- 
ing it, is not produced by the operator through any 
mental recognition of the number or arrangement of 
the dots and dashes employed, but by an unconscious 
action of the fingers, which through long practice has 
come to personate that special character. And the 
business penman, although forming characters with per- 
fect uniformity, gives no thought to the matter of right, 



68 PENMANSHIP 

left, or double curves ; a definite movement has been 
established for each letter, and the hand trained by 
practice does the work without mental effort. 

That which in practice is true of telegraphy or rapid 
business writing is equally true in applying acquired 
movements in learning to write. The letters are so 
constructed that by learning the strokes which form the 
principal types five in number the letters themselves 
may be formed without especial effort ; and if the stroke 
fails to produce a correct type, the error will be found 
to result from an imperfect movement rather than from 
any lack of knowledge in formation, and want of char- 
acter in any letter may be directly traced to lack of 
firmness and precision in the arm action. 

Very much of this fine theorizing about the necessity 
individuals ^ or developing the artistic and cultivating 
in penman- the beautiful in conception of form, as ap- 
plied to teaching school children to write, is 
mere nonsense, and may easily become a hindrance 
rather than a help to practical work. 

It is a well understood fact that no two persons ever 
did or ever will write exactly alike ; in learning, each 
one will be certain to develop characteristics peculiar to 
himself, and there is little use or reason in attempting 
to force all hands into any specific mould. 

Make a careful study of the right arm ; ascertain by 
study the practice which muscles and joints come most 
arm. prominently into use by the act of writing, 

and then introduce such calisthenic exercises as will dis- 
cipline these into subjection to the will ; now, basing 
your pen drills upon properly arranged exercises, put 
scholars in the way of securing this faculty or knack of 



IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 69 

movement as applied to the different classes of letters, 
and the mere matter of form, although of equal impor- 
tance, will require but little special attention. 

THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS MAY MAKE GOOD PENMEN. 

Many teachers get the idea that as good work cannot 
be done in public schools as in those organized for 
special instruction in commercial branches, but experi- 
ence shows that the better work in almost every respect 
can and should be done in the former. 

The organization and force of discipline behind a 
teacher in a well regulated public school is a Forceofor 
powerful lever, which rightly applied may gamzation 
be made a means for producing results not 
easily attainable in any other way. In addition to this, 
the fact that children may be kept under a systematic 
course of training for several years, and the habits of 
correct position, movement and formation so firmly 
established as to assure continued improvement after 
leaving school, renders the public school instruction in 
many respects more valuable than tuition under other 
conditions. 

II. PRACTICAL EXEECISES 
SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS 

The lessons given on the following pages are intended 
to assist you in acquiring the ARM MOVEMENT Learn to do 
in writing, as distinguished from the use of b y doin - 
the thumb and finger joints. If you will merely take 
the time to demonstrate its value in your own case you 
cannot very well fail in teaching it successfully to others. 
But this is a case where for a certainty you must learn 



70 PENMANSHIP 

to do by doing, and the measure of your own success 
will determine the degree of confidence with which you 
will impart it unto others. You need not necessarily 
wait for its accomplishment before beginning to teach 
it. As soon as you have learned to place the arm and 
hand properly, as directed on page 71, and can make 
the direct muscular movement as illustrated hereafter 
(but without the pen), put your class under the same 
drill, and by thus applying the theory in practice you 
will add materially to the value of your own training. 

When the work outlined in this lesson has been ac- 
Position of complished, when you can not only make the 
the pupiL movement exercises fairly well (this does not 
refer to a perfect formation, as that is merely a result 
and not a means) but can also teach others to make them, 
then you will be prepared to continue the application of 
the method by the use of properly arranged exercise 
books. For position you will probably obtain the best 
results by having the pupil turn the right side to the 
desk, placing the right fore-arm entirely on it (the 
elbow joint will not interfere if the arm is perfectly flat), 
and with left hand brought to the edge to hold the paper 
or book. The body should not touch the edge of the 
desk. Do not allow the pupil to lean on the right arm ; 
be careful that a light rest is maintained in all move- 
ments. 

In practising to improve your penmanship, ligibility 
and uniformity are the primary, and free- 

Thefour ... r ... ,. , 

ends to be dom m movement and rapid execution, the 
ultimate results to be attained. These, taken 
together, constitute the essentials of good writing. 
The motive for practice should not be uncertain ; the 



PRACTICAL EXERCISES VI 

hand and arm must be drilled to do something definite, 
and that having always for its object the application of 
the movements acquired to the construction of letters. 
We may say here, that all consideration of this subject 
will be from the standpoint of future utility, by assum- 
ing that those who undertake to carry out the instruc- 
tion will have in view a practical application in some 
form of what they may acquire either as teachers or 
penmen. 

POSITION 

The position of the hand and pen, in learning to write, 
is of such vital importance that any neglect Correct osi . 
to secure and maintain the standard position ^Jj^jf ~ 
will be almost certain to result in failure ; 
any attempt to evade this point by trying to do it your 
way, because it appears less difficult, will simply defeat 
its accomplishment. If you value success in this work, 
be sure that you begin right in penholding, and then be 
very careful that you keep right. 

The directions for securing this have reference to 
placing the body in such a position at the table (not 
always applicable to school desks), as will admit of an 
unrestricted use of the right arm, hand, and fingers. In 
teaching position to school children, let them turn the 
right side, placing the right arm on the desk parallel to 
its front edge ; left hand brought to the edge of desk to 
hold book or practice paper, both feet on floor, etc.; 
straighten the arm until the elbow comes near the front 
of the body. When practising at a table take a position, 
nearly square in front, with both arms resting, the left 
with the elbow projecting over the edge two to four 
inches, and brought near the body. 



This latter direction cannot be observed if the top of 
the table is much more than two inches above the elbow 
joint when the arm is dropped by the side. A low table 
or high chair is much better for movement practice. 




Cur No. 1. The Front Position /Both arms resting ; elbows projecting over 
edge of desk ; leaning upon the left arm ; arms forming right-angles at 
elbow, with body erect ; arms crossing desk obliquely. Best adapted 
for practice at a large desk or flat table. The usual position for busi- 
ness writing, whether sitting or standing. Advantageous for general 
practice where conditions are favorable. Not practicable for the ordi- 
nary school desk, mainly on account of lack of space from front to back 



MOVEMENT 



The training of the arm in the movements to be used 
in writing must be considered as distinct from the writ- 
ing itself. The indicated movement drills are simply 




CUT No. 2. The Side Position . Right side to desk, with arm and paper par- 
allel to the front edge ; body erect, with left hand at edge of desk to 
hold paper and to steady the position ; right arm resting very lightly, 
and forming a light- angle at the elbow; both feet on the floor; right 
elbow kept always below the centre of page ; right arm flat on desk, 
and balanced on the bunch of muscles near the elbow ; wrist elevated, 
with weight on nails of third and fourth fingers bent inward. Best 
adapted for ordinary school desks, and has been found to answer all 
requirements. 



74 PEX-MAXSIJIP 

a kind of highly specialized gymnastics, having no nec- 
essary connection with the writing which is to follow 
except as they furnish the vehicle for producing it. 
The needed muscular movement requires a range of ef- 
fective exercises which the act of writing does not fur- 
nish. In fact the best way to obtain the desired muscular 
force, and through that the controlled movement, is to 
forget all about writing while practising these prelimi- 
nary drills. A condition of strong and positive vitality 
is indispensable ; stout nerves and supple muscles will 
greatly facilitate successful practice. 

FIRST POSITION FOB MOVEMENT DRILLS 

This can most readily be shown to the class by plac- 
ing the arm on the black-board or wall as indicated in 
the cut, giving at the same time the following direc- 
tions. See CUT No. 3, page 75. 

1st. Eight side to desk, but without the body's touch- 
ing it. 

2d. Both feet on the floor. 

3d. Place right arm flat on the desk, parallel to the 
front edge. 

4th. Hand perfectly flat (as in CUT 3), palm touch- 
ing desk. 

5th. Wrist should be found naturally but clearly 
elevated. 

XOTE. This elevation of the wrist above the desk will vary 
somewhat and the exact distance cannot be determined ; but be 
sure that it is elevated, and teach the pupil that this position of 
the arm and hand flat on the desk gives the natural wrist-eleva- 
tion which is to be maintained throughout his practice. See ele- 
vation shown by CUTS 1 and 2. 

6th. Impress upon each pupil the fact that when the 



MOVEMENT 



75 



hand is laid flat with palm touching desk, the arm is in 
exactly the correct position, and that when the hand is 
turned to the right, however slightly, the position of 
the arm must be wrong. 

7th. When the arm is correctly placed on the desk 
the inside should form a right angle at the elbow. This 
rule must be rigidly enforced, whatever the height of 
the desk may be. It brings the arm into its correct 
relative position to the body, and admits of all move- 
ments being freely executed. See CUT No. 2. It will 
be as well if the elbow is kept entirely on the desk, as 
it generally will be if the arm forms a right-angle ; 
but if allowed to project at all the distance should not 
exceed two or three inches. 




CUT No. 3. Showing position of hand as placed flat upon the desk, before 
taking 2d and 3d positions, or commencing a movement exercise. 

SECOND POSITION. No. 2 

The next step is to learn how to balance on the^ 
muscles of the arm near the elbow, without having the 
hand or elbow-joint touch the desk. See CUT No 4.. 



76 



PENMANSHIP 



Directions. Close the hand without changing posi- 
tion of the wrist, which should be neither lowered nor 
raised. The hand should now be held clear of the desk, 
the weight of the arm resting lightly on the bunch of 
muscles in front of the elbow-joint. See CUT No. 6. 

THIRD POSITION 

Without changing from second position make the 
direct movement as illustrated by CUT No. 5. Use the 
muscles of the shoulder in conjunction with shoulder 
and elbow joints, working the arm back and forth on 
a line with the direction of the forearm, pushing out 
and drawing in, but without sliding the sleeve. 

The sleeve in this movement should remain as station- 




Cur No. 4. Showing hand closed and slightly elevated from desk ; arm 
lightly balanced on muscles near elbow. The hand should be closetl 
tightly, and the muscles of hand and arm must be entirely relaxed. 

ary as if glued to the desk, while the wrist works out 
and in, impelled freely by the action of the shoulder 
muscles. The action of the arm is the movement which 
would straighten it if the motion was unrestricted by 
the rest on the desk. 



MOVEMENT 



77 



The simple motion of the entire arm thus produced 
on a line with the forearm is the key to all subsequent 
movements, and must be practised daily until the action 
of the muscles brought into play becomes easy and 
natural. The vibration of the muscular rest in this 
movement will carry the hand back and forth a dis- 
tance of from one-half inch to three inches without 
sliding the sleeve, varying according to the natural 
formation of the arm and amount of practice ; but it 
will be found that beginners can materially increase 
the range of movement by systematic drill. 

How TO EXPLAIN MUSCULAR MOVEMENT 
A correct idea of the vibratory action of the forearm, 
muscles is obtained by grasping the right arm with the 
left hand, as before indicated, firmly on the inside just 
below the elbow ; then, holding this hand stationary, 
work the hand back and forth on the direct movement, 
the wrist moving in and out of the sleeve. This action 




CUT No. 5. Showing action of hand and forearm, working back and forth. 
in direct line, but without sliding the sleeve. This action produces the 
developing movement which is the correct basis of all others. 

will show how the muscle-layers by slipping over each 
other produce what is called muscular movement. 



78 



PESTMA^SHIP 



CLASS DRILLS 

After the pupils have learned to take the three posi- 
tions at command, and are able to make the direct 
movement freely, begin the regular movement drills as 
follows : 2d position ; 3d position ; ready ; one-two- 
three (repeat). Draw the arm back quickly at each 




Cur No. 6. Showing muscular rest on forearm near elbow. 




Cur No. 7. Illustrating position and pen-holding. Holder between first and 
second fingers and thumb, crossing first finger in front of knuckle-joint 
and second finger at the root of naii ; end of thumb opposite the f 



CLASS DRILLS 79 

joint of forefinger. Third and fourth fingers separated from the other 
two, and bent inward equally at the three joints ; keep entirely relaxed 
and resting almost flat on the nails. Keep hand and arm perfectly flat, 
with holder pointing at the head. End of second finger not to exceed 
one-half inch above the desk. This cut shows the simultaneous action 
of pen-point and finger-rest in forming oval or straight line movements. 
The arm should form a right-angle at the elbow. Wrist elevated above 
the desk. 

count, but without sliding the sleeve, counting 150 per 
minute. Continue for one minute without stopping. 
Kest one minute, relaxing arm and hand. Repeat this 
drill twice daily, not less than 10 minutes each time, 
paying strict attention both to the position and to the 
character of the movement produced. See that the 
arm rests lightly. 

FOURTH POSITION 

You may now have the class take the several positions 
in regular order, as explained in the last lesson ; and 
for the Fourth Position, place the hand as in CUT No. 
11. This may be called forming the hand, and is an 
important part of the drill. With scarcely an excep- 
tion, pupils when learning script will have acquired 
cramped and unnatural positions in pen-holding. It 
will also be found that these wrong positions have by 
association become inseparable from the act of forming 
letters. The first step, then, should be to disconnect 
the new position and movements from the writing itself, 
to train the hand into a correct position independently 
of the pen-holding. During the first year in school 
it is better not to attempt pen- or pencil-holding in 
connection with movement exercises, but by aiming 
to conform the habit of correct position, secure the 
ability to hold and use the pen effectively in the higher 
grades. But in any grade where this method is being 



80 PENMANSHIP 

introduced, the same rule should be observed at the 




Cur No. 8. Showing how the band and pen-holder should appear when the 
pupil is facing the teacher. When, tho arm and hand are kept flat on 
the desk the holder will naturally cross the ruled lines obliquely, or on 
the regular writing slant. When practising with the pen what was 
called the direct movement in Lesson EL, and which was made on a line 
with the forearm, should now be modified, and made in the oblique 
direction towards the head. This is indicated by the line shown in cut. 

beginning. Drill a great deal without the pen, and 
with a dry pen ; get all the range of action you possibly 
can ; and that which is to follow will come not only 
naturally, but easily. Do not be in any hurry to prac- 
tise writing. There will be ample time for that after the 
movement to do it with has been secured. Faithfully 
and intelligently carried out there can be no such thing 
as failure with this plan of teaching. From the 
Fourth Position, CUT "No. 11, make the modified direct 
movement towards the head on the writing slant, as 
explained under CUT No. 8. Count for this movement 



HOW TO GAUGE MOVEMENT 



81 




CUT No. 9 CUT No. 10 

the same as directed for " Class Drills " in Lesson II. 
Be sure that the third and fourth fingers are relaxed, 
and bent well inward, and that they are sliding freely 
on the nails. 

How TO GAUGE MOVEMENT 

It is a good plan to place your arm on the desk in 
correct position and then to take an accurate gauge of 



82 PENMANSHIP 

the distance your hand will move in a direct line with- 
out sliding the sleeve ; then by continued practice 
endeavor to increase the range. This course should 
also be adopted with the class. 

PEN-HOLDING 

After the hand has by practice been correctly formed, 
pen-holding is by no means difficult. Place the hand 
carefully as in CUT No. 11 ; then separating the thumb 




CUT No. 11 

slightly from the forefinger, insert the peri-holder, 
pushing it down until the point just touches the desk. 
Now replace the thumb and note if the directions as illus- 
trated in CUTS 7 and 8 have been observed. With the 
hand and pen as now placed, drill the class once more 
on the straight line movement, made obliquely towards 
the head, counting the time as indicated before. Make 
these movements energetically, allowing the class to 
count part of the time. The arm should rest lightly on 
the desk. It is a good plan to have the class lift the 
arm occasionally, and replace it carefully on the desk 



VALUE OF MOVEMENT DRILLS 83 

with just enough bearing to keep the sleeve from sliding. 
SPECIAL EXERCISE FOR MUSCULAR DEVELOPMENT 
Have the class stand, and, with both arms extended 
horizontally, open and shut the hand twenty-five to 
fifty times. Shut the hands firmly and throw them 
wide open with a quick motion, spreading the fingers 
at each action. This drill if followed will materially 
increase the size, strength, and flexibility of these 
muscles. By taking a firm hold of the right arm on 
the inside below the elbow with the left hand, and then 
opening and shutting the right hand, the action of the 
muscles controlling this movement is clearly indicated." 
Have the class try this. 

CLASS DRILL ON HAND FORMING 
Starting from the first position with the hand flat on 
the desk : At the word One: bend the forearm back 
into a vertical position, with elbow resting, and hand 
open as in CUT No. 9. At Two : form the thumb and 
fingers into the correct position, as in CUT No. 10. At 
Three : drop lightly upon the desk, with the hand in 
position shown in CUT No. 11. Order of drill : At- 
tention ; First position ; One ; Two ; Three. After 
repeating ten times, follow with the oblique movement 
drill. This will be found especially helpful for young 
pupils. 

VALUE OF MOVEMENT DRILLS 

In the use of finger movement the muscles of the 
arm may be disciplined but cannot be developed ; but 
it will be found that the process of muscular develop- 
ment as outlined in these lessons will in itself effect 
the needed discipline. 



84 PENMANSHIP 

Strength of movement can come only through the 
creation of muscular force, which alone will give the 
freedom of arm action necessaly to produce bold and 
definite execution with the pen. 

THE SIDE OB LATEKAL MOVEMENT 

For the reason that it assists directly in forming 
every letter, and in addition carries the hand from let- 
ter to letter and from word to word across the page, 
the lateral movement becomes the controlling action in 
writing. It is the force which will enable you to utilize 
all other movements, and must be thoroughly mastered 
at the beginning. 

PRELIMINARY PRACTICE 

Movement should always precede form : that is, a 
given form must be considered as the result of a specific 
movement ; hence a careful preparatory drill, first with 
the hand correctly formed, and then with a dry pen, 
will be an essential part of these elementary exercises. 

Place the arm in position as is shown by CUT No. 2, 
with the hand formed and placed as in CUT No. 11. 
The arm should be placed four inches from the edge 
of the desk and parallel with it : upper and lower arm 
forming a right-angle. Now balancing lightly on the 
muscular rest, and using that as a pivot, swing the 
forearm back and forth a distance of about eight inches. 
As only the elbow-joint should be used in this action, 
watch the wrist, and be sure that there is no movement 
of that joint. The hand is to be carried on nails of third 
and fourth fingers relaxed and bent well underneath. 

Have the class practise this, counting one, two, until 
every hand moves freely, in perfect concert, and with- 



PRELIMINARY PRACTICE 85 

out apparent effort. The pupil should be especially 
taught to watch his own hand, to observe if it be cor- 
rectly formed, and to measure the distance of eight 
inches accurately. See that the arm lies perfectly flat 
on the desk, that the muscles are entirely relaxed, that 
the elbow action is unrestricted. 

When this action of the arm has become free and 
natural, place the pen in the hand and continue the 
same movement, but without the pen-point touch- 
ing the desk. To place the pen, leave the right hand, 
formed into position as in CUT No. 11, take pen 
in left hand, separate thumb of right slightly from first 
finger, and insert the pen-holder, pushing it down until 
the point touches the desk. Then raising the pen just 
enough to clear the desk, replace the thumb opposite 
the first joint of the first finger. See CUTS 7 and 8. 

Continue this pen drill until every pupil holds the 
pen correctly, keep the hand properly formed, and 
make the movement with a well indicated force. 

It will be found, as stated on page 82, that every 
pupil's habit of pen-holding has become directly asso- 
ciated with the letter-forming, and if asked at this 
point to write a word, he would be quite certain to 
relapse into the old position. It is also evident that 
this firmly fixed habit of finger movement combined 
with a cramped position can best be overcome by the 
creation of a stronger counter habit of arm movement, 
using the more natural position. 

In this connection it may be stated that the first pen- 
stroke to be made with these movements should be one 
requiring no effort as regards formation. And right 
here is a fundamental point. It is comparatively easy to 
teach a pupil these movements, but not so easy to get 



86 



PENMANSHIP 



him to understand clearly that to have any special value 
they must become self-recording; that the less effort 
made so far as the resulting form is concerned the better 
will be that result. We usually find more success in 
teaching new habits than in trying to induce pupils to 
let go of old ones. To remove the principal cause by 
disconnecting these positions and movements entirely 
from the act of writing for the time being, is therefore 
the first step necessary in this direction. 

MATERIALS FOR PRACTICE 

For the exercises which follow, foolscap of a good 
quality, or the largest size of letter paper, should be 
used. Foolscap cut into quarter sheets gives nearly 
the width of the ordinary copy-book page, and makes 
a convenient form for the purpose. Note paper and 
the smaller size of tablets will not answer for this prac- 
tice. A fine pointed flexible pen like " Gillott's 604 " 
is decidedly the best. Good black ink is a necessity. 

THE RECORD OF A MOVEMENT 

Have the class take the " Side" position as shown in 
CUT No. 2, page 73. The paper should be placed close 
to the edge of the desk and parallel with it. The elbow 
must be beiow the centre of the page, hand and wrist 




EXERCISE Ko. 1 

crossing the ruled lines vertically, and with the pen 
held at the middle of the top line, without touching. 



KECORD OF A MOVEMENT 87 

"With the arm balanced lightly on the muscular rest near 
the elbow, and using this as a pivot, swing the hand 
back and forth across the page, gliding on the nails of 
the finger rest. If no joint except the elbow is used, 
the movement of the pen-point would if recorded trace 
the arc of a circle, whose radius would be the distance 
from the pivotal rest to the pen-point. Now take ink 
and proceed as follows : At the word " Position " place 
the hand and pen at the centre, as directed above. 
" Ready " : swing the hand back to the left edge of 
paper. Next swing the hand to the right entirely across 
the page, counting one, back to the left edge counting 
two. After six preliminary swings, and starting from 
the left side at the word " Eight" let the pen-point 
drop lightly on the paper, and trace a record of the 
curved movement across the page ; at the word " Left " 
lift the pen-point enough to clear and swing back. Ee- 
peat this curved movement stroke six times but only 
making a record while moving to the right. The re- 
sult should be similar to Exercise No. 1, but nearly 
twice as long. Be very certain that no effort is made 
to form a curved line. Let tne hand swing freely, 
merely allowing the pen-point to record the natural 
movement. The pen starting from a given line at the 
left although moving on a curve should stop on the same 
line at the right, and the hand and paper should be so 
adjusted as to accomplish this without effort. While 
practising from this lesson, stop frequently and read 
over the questions at the end. You will find this not only 
helpful in your own practice, but very useful in the class 
drills. These directions are given in detail precisely as 
you are to present them to your pupils, and the repeat- 



88 PEtfMAKSHIP 

ing of the questions while they are at work calls atten- 
tion directly to the most important points of the 
instruction. In practising Exercise No. 1, hr/ve the 
group of lines placed no more than J of an inch apart, 
and the lines themselves the same distance as shown in 
copy. After filling a page turn the paper and make 
the same exercise across the ruled lines, but with as 
much care as before. 




EXERCISE No. 2 

The directions for practising Exercise No. 2, are the 
same as for No. 1, except that the record line for No. 2 
is made continuously in both directions without lifting 
the pen. The ; rate of speed in this movement record 
fihould be about sixty strokes per minute. The order 
of class drills may be : 1. Position at desk. 2. Posi- 
tion of hand and pen at top of page, and middle of 
line. 3. Swing the left, "Ready". 4. Count six for 
preliminary strokes. 5. Eight, left, right, left, for the 
record lines. If, as will sometimes be the case, the 
pupils insist upon trying to make the curved line, have 
him swing the hand back and forth a few times, and 
then looking away from the paper allow the pen to 
touch and trace the line without seeing it. 

Attention is again called to the fact that while the 
object should be ultimately to connect the movements 
with the formative process, form must for the present 
be considered as a result only, and so far as possible 
should be entirely separated from all previously ac- 



QUESTION'S FOR EXAMINATION 



89 



quired habits of construction. In fact a pupil should 
be instructed not to try to form anything, but simply 
permit the arm to swing naturally while allowing the 
pen-point to trace this action on tho paper. The 
amount of time which may profitably be given to the 
practice of the exercises of this lesson cannot be definite- 
ly stated ; but there is little danger of overdoing it, and 
the more firmly this habit of position and movement 
becomes fixed, the more readily will a pupil understand 
and make application of the instructions which are to 

follow. 

QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION 

Are you in a proper position at the desk ? Are both 
feet on the floor, the left in advance ? Does the arm 
lie flat on the desk, and rest lightly ? Do you keep 
the pen-holder pointing at the head ? (See CUT 8, page 
80.) Do you slide freely on the nails (hand rest) ? 




CUT No. 12 

Does the arm form a right angle at the elbow ? Are 
you swinging the hand freely and with a natural move- 
ment from left to right ? Are you using the wrist- 



90 PENMANSHIP 

joint ? Does the record show a true curve, and are the 
Jines parallel ? Have you been careful about counting ? 
Has the elbow been constantly kept below the centre of 
the page ? 

NOTE. This position of the arm rest below the centre of the 
paper should be strictly maintained, and never be changed in 
writing across the page. 

Is the weight of the hand carried on the nails ? Do 
you hold the practice paper in position with the left 
hand ? 

It is once more indicated that the object of these 
lessons is not to teach the forms of letters except as a 
result, and that such exercises as may be introduced 
for the purpose of developing or disciplining the various 
movements to be used in writing, are to be employed 
suggestively. Even where letters or combinations of 
the same are given, they are not to be practised imita- 
tively, but merely as a test of movement. For example: 
If, after practising on the movement designed to pro- 
duce the first part of the capital W, an attempt to form 
this letter is unsuccessful, you are to assume that the 
failure is due to defective movement, and that more 
practice on the required stroke is needed. A properly 
developed, well disciplined action of the arm can be 
depended upon. Put aside tha idea that you must first 
learn to imitate a given form of letter. Confine your 
efforts to the acquirement of the natural unrestricted 
action of the shoulder muscles, so directed as to pro- 
duce certain definite movements of the forearm, with- 
out any use of the wrist or finger joints. Keep driving 
at this in a systematic manner, and the desired re- 
sults in formation will not be lacking. But so long as 



QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION 91 

the writing exercise retains any of the elements of a 
drawing lesson, as commonly understood, your efforts 
will not only be restricted, but in all probability de- 
feated. 




EXERCISE No. 3 

Make it a rule to gain considerable freedom and con- 
trol in any given movement before you begin to look 
for correct form as the result of its record. Exercise 
No. 3 will aid directly in gaining all other movements, 
and some which are to follow cannot be learned with- 
out it. 

When practised as a direct movement, see CUT No. 
12, it is made by drawing in and pushing out the arm in 
its own direction, using the shoulder muscles only and 
without sliding the sleeve. It is a good plan to have 
each pupil take a careful gauge of his direct movement, 
measured by the ruled spaces on the paper, and then 
seek to increase it as much as possible by practice. 

As given in Exercise No. 3, the action is modified so 
as to make the stroke towards the head. Try to get an 
easy range in this direction of at least three ruled 
spaces, and without any use of the thumb or finger 
joints. This movement is intended to make the straight 
line in the down stroke of all letters, and when made 
from the correct position, in the direction indicated 
above, will produce the proper slant for each individual. 



92 PENMANSHIP 

This slant will be found to vary but little from the 
established standard. 

DIRECTIONS FOR PRACTICE 

Place the hand and arm in position as illustrated and 
explained by CUTS No. 7 and 8, pages 78 and 80. 
Next take ink and let the pen-point rest without 
touching, at the centre of the page near the top. Now 
swing the hand back and forth across the page a few 
times on the natural curve movement, stopping at the 
left side. Then with the pen-holder pointing at the 
head make a few preliminary movements in that direc- 
tion, drawing the arm into the sleeve and pushing it 
out, without any sliding action on the desk. Without 
checking this action let the pen-point touch the paper 
and trace the lines as in Exercise No. 3. 

In the preliminary practice begin counting quite 
briskly 1-2-3-4-5, making the downward stroke for each 
count, and be careful to keep the speed the same while 
making the ink record. Do not allow the arm rest to 
change from the position below the centre of the page. 
Watch the movement of the hand-rest on the nails of 
third and fourth fingers, as this action must always 
coincide with that of the pen. Observe the character 
of the strokes made, glancing occasionally at the copy 
but never trying to imitate it, except by use of the 
shoulder muscles. 

As illustrated by this exercise, the next movement, 
although the reverse of No. 2, page 73, is much more 
difficult. The swinging action of the forearm is the 
same, but instead of the natural sweep, the oblique 
movement of No. 3 is so combined with it as to con- 
tinually draw in the arm until the centre of the under 



DIRECTIONS FOR PRACTICE 



93 



curve is reached, whon it is again relaxed or pushed 
out gradually as either side of the paper is approached. 
The ease with which this stroke may be executed will 
depend very much on the freedom secured with No. 3. 
In all of these exercises, and for all purposes of practice 
or of writing, the elbow should be kept constantly below 




EXERCISE No. 4 

the centre of the page. Always take this position with 
the pen-point at the middle of the line, and then swing 
back to the left side. This insures a command of the 
entire line, besides giving the down stroke the uniform 
slant, Make this exercise entirely across the page, and 
get all the action you can without sliding the sleeve, 
or using the wrist or finger joints. 

The movement to be gained is that used in forming 
the under curves of small letters. No. 1 forms the 
upper curves, and No. 3 the straight lines. It will be 
seen therefore that these three exercises will produce 
elementally all the movements used in making the 
small letters. Eate of speed not more than 50 strokes 
per minute. 



EXERCISE No. 4 



PENMANSHIP 



Exercise 5 the same arm action as No. 4, slightly 
modified. Let the forearm swing freely back and forth 
across the page, at the same time training the hand to 
make the lines perfectly straight and parallel to each 
other. At first make them only in one direction, or 
while moving to the right ; after this becomes easy^ let 
the pen remain on the paper and trace a record in both 
directions. When beginning to practise this exercise 
rule the paper down the centre and make the line half 
the distance across ; afterwards try to cover the whole 
distance. 

This will be found to be an excellent drill to steady 
the arm action in the lateral movement, and it will 
enable you to write entirely across the page on a straight 
line, without lifting the pen or changing the fixed 
position of the arm rest. It will also prove very bene- 
ficial in overcoming the nervous action which often 
makes the lines in writing irregular. Make about fifty 
strokes per minute. 



EXERCISE No. 6 

Rule the paper down the centre as directed for No. 5, 
and write half way across. In this exercise the design 
is to associate the straight lines of the lateral movement 
with the forming process as required in making the 
letter o. After taking position and practising the pre- 
liminary swings, let the pen touch and record a straight 
line. Swing the forearm again before making the 



QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATIONS 95 

next stroke ; then let the pen touch and slide to the 
centre, form the o with the shoulder action alone, and 
then finish the line. Make the first stroke on the ruled 
line, and make three others including the o twice, 
between that and the next line. Eepeat this process, 
never omitting the preliminary swings, down one side 
of, the page, and then complete the other half in the 
same manner. Now turn the paper and repeat the 
exercise across the written lines, covering the whole 
distance, if you are using quarter sheets of foolscap as 
directed. There must be no action of the finger, thumb, 
or wrist joints, the shoulder muscles only being em- 
ployed. Do not make the movement too rapidly at 
ifirst. 

QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION 

Did you practise thoroughly on the " direct " move- 
ment before taking the pen ? After this did you drill 
on it as an oblique movement towards the head ? Were 
the hand and forearm kept in position to cross the 
Tilled lines vertically ? Was the elbow at all times 
below the centre of page ? Can you get a range of 
more than two spaces on the oblique movement ? Have 
you made the pen and ink strokes without using the 
fingers ? Have you practised Exercise No. 4, until the 
record shows an improvement ? Can you make this 
stroke without sliding the sleeves or changing the 
position of the arm rest ? It is not expected that any 
one without much practice can execute this undercurve 
movement so that it will compare with the results of 
Exercise No. 2 on page 73. But it is a very useful drill 
.and should have considerable time given to it. Have 



96 PENMANSHIP 

you kept the arm, and held the pen as shown in CUTS 
7 and 8, on pages 78 and 80 ? 

In the five lessons already given, we have endeavored 
to present a comprehensi"> plan of practice for the 
development of movements to K>O used in writing. We 
have several times suggested that this part of the process 
was of the utmost importance. It has also been stated 
that the greater portion of this required free action of 
the arm can be secured better, independently of any 
use of the pen. In other words the more we come to 
depend upon simple drills which will bring into action 
the muscles to be employed, developing the natural 
movements, and bringing them under control, the more 
immediate and lasting will be the results to the indi- 
vidual pupils. 

Take up any code of gymnastic drills designed to 
strengthen and render flexible the movement of the 
arms and hands, and use freely in connection with the 
exercises given in these lessons. But as a one-sided 
development is not wise, use both arms in all such sup- 
plementary exercises. 

If a pupil has been correctly instructed in the various 
movements and pen exercises heretofore given, he should 
be prepared to make some useful application of this in 
writing. Still it is very evident that the first requirements 
in this direction should be simple. The habit of using- 
the fihgers in constructing letters will still be strong 
and the process of overcoming this tendency must be a 
gradual one. By using the straight line made with a 
free swing of the arm, in connection with the letters, 
the disposition to use the fingers will be lessened, and 
finally the new habit will become the stronger. 



PRACTICE EXERCISES 97 

The v/idth of the column does not admit of present- 
ing the exercises here the exact size they should be 
written ; hence in practice the spacing between the let- 
ters should be increased, although the letters need not 
be made any larger. 

With second and third year pupils there may at first 
be some difficulty in sliding the hand entirely across the 
page on a perfectly straight line, but so far as possible 
the exercise should be written the whole distance. The 
aim should be to obtain range and freedom of action, 
and the more you have the better. 



& o 





CJ 



EXERCISE No. 7 

The directions for practising this are the s&me as roi 
No. 6. First take position and make preliminary 
swings. Then let the pen touch and record the straight 
line. Swing the hand back and forth again and then 
form the next line, making the "o" twice. Be sure 
that the letter is formed by the shoulder muscles. The 
spacing should be uniform, as well as the distance be- 
tween the lines. 

~o o ^' ' 

(J " ^'^" 5 

EXERCISE No. 8 

Careful practice on this exercise, may be followed by 
increasing the number of letters in each line up to six, 



98 



PENMANSHIP 



but always observing the indicated rules for position 
and movement. It is not well to write too rapidly at 
this time, but there should always be a forceful swing 
of the hand in sliding between the letters. The pen 
strokes should be uniform, but decisive in action. 



EXERCISE No. 9 

In this you will make the undercurved line in form- 
ing the letter " i ". First practise the exercise half way 
across the page, until the curve can be correctly formed 
by the sweep of the hand. Then extend it the whole 
distance, forming two letters ; afterwards gradually 
increasing the number to six. The down stroke for 
the "i" must be straight, and upon the regular writing 
slant. It is made by drawing back the arm towards the 
head. In forming this letter the movement need not 
stop at the turn, but should be continuous. 



EXERCISE No. 10 

Practice on Nos. 8 and 9 will lead naturally to the 
construction of this exercise, if you will simply allow 
the movement to produce the form without attempting 
to make it with the finger action. Starting with the 
undercurve, swing the hand back so as to increase the 
alant of the "o", and then make the "i" to finish the 



PRACTICE EXERCISES 



99 



** a". As you increase the number of letters, be careful 
to start the connecting stroke as a distinct undercurve. 
This may slightly diminish the apparent width of the 
" a ", but need not be considered an error in form. 




EXERCISE No. 11 

The directions for writing standard script give the 
height and width of "n" as being equal. For the 
present we will use another scale, which makes the 
width two-thirds the height. As this is the proportion 
of letter " o", as we generally form it, we have a con- 
venient scale for measurement. Let the hand swing 
naturally in forming the upper curve, make the down 
stroke by drawing back the arm on the regular slant, 
form the second stroke so as to make the width two- 
thirds the height, and finish the line with a full under- 
curve sweep. 

The upper and lower turns are to be made without 
stopping the movement. Gradually increase the num- 
ber of letters in the line, being particular about the 
width and the turns, upper and lower, of each. 

If you form the habifc of swinging the hand freely 
across the page as a preliminary drill before making the 




EXERCISE No. 



100 



PENMANSHIP 



given strokes for any exercise, you will soon learn to 
depend upon the movement to carry it in the direction 
of a straight line. The required curves being naturally 
formed from this movement with but a slight exertion, 
the construction of the letters becomes quite easy. 

Make the "m" twice the width of the " o ", and the 
upper and lower turns without stopping the movement. 

With the hand correctly placed, the action of the 
third and fourth fingers sliding on the paper should 
trace the same form as the pen-point. 



EXERCISE No. 13 

In writing this the full width of a page, the spacing 
will be so much increased as to change the appearance 
of the word. Make the first stroke to " m " with a free 
swing, the uiroke to "a" an undercurve, the stroke 
between "a" and "n" nearly a straight line, and the 
last stroke an undercurve. The f ( n " should be a trifle 
narrower than the "a". The fact that you do not get 
a perfect formation need not discourage you. Look 
upon all these lessons as movement drills, and give your 
attention mainly to that. 

The exercises given with this lesson will illustrate 
how the first three movements as given in lessons 4 and 
5, the upper curve (convex), the lower curve (concave), 
and the oblique straight line, may find application in 
forming naturally the letters and connecting them into 
words. 



QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION 101 

It will be evident that if these simple and easily 
acquired movements can be made so useful in learning 
to write, the time spent in training the muscles of th^ 
arm to execute them with freedom and precision is 
well invested. It may also show the importance of 
becoming thoroughly grounded in them before advanc- 
ing to their general application in writing. There is 
not a movement nor any combination of movements 
essential to free rapid penmanship, which cannot be 
better taught, first without the pen, secondly on simple 
lines, and thirdly on exercises containing but one let- 
ter, than by attempting to use words and sentences for 
practice. Reason and common sense support this theory. 
<~ive your pupils the power to do these simple things, 
let taem practise until they become habits of movement, 
supplement this by definite instruction as to the scope 
and value of the training, and you may be assured that 
they will not fail to find the means of application. 

"When practising these exercises be sure that the arm 
AS resting very lightly on the forearm muscles. It must 
be held so as to move freely in every direction. A goo^ 
plan is to lift the arm occasionally, replacing it lightly 
on 'the desk. Another point is to learn how to carry 
the weight of the hand on the nails of the third and 
fourth fingers, to avoid undue pressure on the pen-point, 
and to keep the lines of uniform thickness. Thess 
fingers should be completely relaxed and kept bent well 
underneath. 

I must again call attention to the fact that under 
this plan of hand training, the simple exercises are the 
really important ones. Designed to prepare the way for 
certain success on those more difficult, they cannot 



102 PiJSTMAXSHIP 

safely be neglected. Do not imagine that a slight 
knowledge of all will be of more value than the com- 
plete mastery of the simplest one given. It is far better 
to exhaust every reasonable effort to become perfect in 
the few foundation principles of both movement and 
form, before seeking further advancement. Working 
out the lessons as given in these directions the first time 
will no doubt benefit you, but every additional time 
that you work them out will benefit you still more. A 
little patience and a good deal of perseverance will at 
this period of your experience prove very helpful m 
the end. 

THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION 

Having acquired the movements which will form 
naturally the letters of one word, the next step will be 
to apply these same movements to the writing of other 
letters and other words. No copy will be required, 
either for yourself or for your pupils, in teaching this 
application. Take for instance the word main, and 
practise it with the same spacing action used in writing 
exercise No. 13. Be sure that you retain the swinging 
movement of the arm, with the pen sliding up to a letter, 
forming it with the arm action alone, and then sliding 
again to the next letter, until the word shall have been 
completed. At first, space sufficiently to carry the 
word entirely across a foolscap page. This spacing 
movement is the key to a free running hand. After 
writing the word ten times, reduce the spacing some- 
what and try it again. But for the present keep the 
distance between the letters at least half an inch as the 
narrowest spacing. Then in their order practise writ- 
ing the following list of words : Moan, time, dimes. 



THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION 103 

cause, rained, lamps, flamed, liinged, queenly, thinking, 
abruptly, enjoined, weaving, taxing. 

You are to proceed in exactly the same manner with 
pupils. Having first taught them to write a simple 
word with the arm action and spacing movement, begin 
at once dictating other words, and gradually force them 
to teach themselves the true application of all movements. 
This can be done in almost every instance, and you 
will be surprised at the immediate gain in the appear- 
ance of the writing. The next step will be to insist 
upon the use of the arm action and spacing movement 
in the regular spelling exercises. And if you insist 
you will not fail to get it. It should of course be 
understood that all the work here indicated must be 
written with pen and ink. It is absolutely certain that 
penmanship cannot be taught in the writing class alone. 
If any considerable part of the daily lesson-getting and 
lesson-record is done with slate or lead pencils you need 
not expect any permanent gain in penmanship. Penc'L 
work is almost without exception careless work, and 
careless work here will inevitably produce careless 
writing habits. Once get your pupils into the habit of 
doing careful written work all day long, and you need 
have no fear in regard to satisfactory penmanship 
results. You are to accomplish this gradually ; step by 
step, one thing at a time. If you now see your way 
towards getting results in the written spelling work, it 
is a great step in advance. With this well in hand, 
you may next begin on the written number work. The 
movements will apply there just as well, if you can only 
induce the pupils to use the same care. After this take 
up geography, language, etc. 



104 PENMANSHIP 

The movement drills for the capital letters are practi- 
cally the same as those already given, and may be readily 
acquired by any pupil after the second year in school. 
Full explanations and directions for developing and 
applying these movements will be found in the exercise 
books of the Wells Natural Movement system, which 
is based upon the principles here laid down, and which, 
as Superintendent Phillips of Scranton says, " has 
made in penmanship not a reform but a revolution. " 
THE MONITOR, OR PUPIL-TEACHER PLAN 

From the beginning it will be found an excellent 
plan to encourage the pupils to assist each other. At 
the first lesson in movement, one or more will be cer- 
tain to make it correctly. Aid these especially, and by 
the third or fourth lesson you should have at least 
half a dozen who understand and can do it creditably. 
Select the most expert of these and set them to teach 
what they know to others. Teaching will soon perfect 
their own knowledge of the movement, and you will 
find the number of experts rapidly increasing. Keep 
this up until not less than 75 per cent, of your pupils 
are able to do it correctly. Pursue the same course 
with all the movements, and with the written exercises 
which follow. In any event a pupil must teach him- 
self to write. The chief work of a teacher, therefore, 
is to make the conditions such that this result may be 
accomplished. But do not forget that the main part 
of this self -teaching is to be done on the lesson-getting 
and lesson-record. The writing lesson proper is de- 
signed simply to prepare him to do this more important 
part of the work. When you have taught a pupil to 
make the movements as outlined in these lessons, and 



FINAL SUGGESTION'S 105 

then have shown him how to apply them in writing, 
making him believe that it is possible to write with 
the arm instead of with the fingers, there remains but 
one thing more and that is to make him desire to do 
his writing in this way. It has been done in thousands 
of instances. It can be done with 90 per cent, of all 
pupils. 

FINAL SUGGESTIONS 

In beginning to teach movement, make that your 
sole business. Do not attempt an application until you 
are sure you have something to apply. Allow the 
pupils in their other work to hold their hands and pens 
as they are accustomed to. Let them write as they 
please. The movement instruction must be given and 
the habit of arm movement built up as a thing apart 
from the old writing habit. Do not mix the two 
together. The pupil will have strong habits of finger 
movement, strong habits of wrong position. These 
can be overcome only gradually. But as the arm is 
stronger than the fingers, so will this habit of arm 
movement, if persisted in, become stronger, and in due 
time supplant all others. 

With young pupils short periods of practice on the 
movement exercises are better than long. This is 
especially true when practising without the pen. If 
required to practise five or six times a day one minute 
at a time, better results will follow. Frequent repeti- 
tions will more quickly establish the desired habit. 
Faith is an essential element in this work. And not 
only must you believe, but you must establish in each 
pupil the same belief. Talk to them constantly about 
the importance of trying to do all writing with the 



106 PENMANSHIP 

arm. Encourage them in every possible way to dem- 
onstrate the value of this theory. It does not matter 
whether the one who tries this writes better or worse 
at first. The main thing is to induce all to use the arm 
for writing ; and the direct way to accomplish this is 
through the spacing action. Give frequent reviews on 
the movements and exercises. Go back to some point 
where the majority can do the work creditably, and 
take a fresh start. Try to have all written work care- 
fully done, whether in the penmanship class or on the 
daily lessons. Kapid writing will not answer until the 
perfect movement has prepared the way for it. This 
method is universal in its scope and application, and 
while you will be expected to adhere to the foundation 
principles as here set forth, you should in an import- 
ant sense make the work your own. Individualize your 
efforts. Thoughtful study will enable you to find many 
useful methods, which although different from any 
here given may be quite as valuable. Seek to demon- 
strate by investigation that you are absolutely right, 
and then if you earnestly desire to teach penmanship 
successfully, the confidence necessary to do the work 
fearlessly will not be lacking. 

More detailed instructions will be found on the 
covers of the copy books of the Wells Natural Move- 
ment Series of copybooks. Where the detailed direc- 
tions for class work as given in this manual differ from 
those given on the covers of the copy book, follow the 
copy book instructions. 



FORM STUDY, DRAWING 
AND COLOR 



The purpose of education in Form Study, Drawing 
and Color is three-fold practical, educational and 
aesthetic. By following out this three-fold purpose, 
provision is made for mental and spiritual, as well as 
industrial growth, and the work becomes worthy of the 
broad designation, Art Education. 

A good course in Art Education stands for certain 
well-defined ends in the education of children : 

The recognition of the child's individuality, and of 
his aesthetic feelings, his natural love of what the 

the beautiful. course stands 

The recognition of Nature as a part of the child's 
environment and the cultivation of his power of 
appreciating and expressing the spirit and the 
beauty of natural objects. 

The recognition of Industry and Art as parts of the 
child's social environment, the cultivation of his 
power of appreciating the beauty and significance 
of Industrial and Art work, and the development 
of his creative powers along Industrial and Art 
lines. 

The method employed to secure these ends is that of 
appealing to the interest of the child in 

Its method. 

beautiful objects, encouraging his self -activ- 
ity, nourishing his mind with well-chosen mental food, 

(107) 



108 FORM STUD?, DRAWING AHD COLOR 

and so developing his powers through intelligently 
guided exercise that he may be constantly growing in 
mind and in aesthetic feeling through his self-activity, 
in observation, thought, and manual expression. 

The work of this Course can be most clearly seen 
under its two divisions : 
Itstwo A Course for Primary Grades, 

divisions. ^ Course for Intermediate and Grammar 
Grades. 

I. A COURSE FOR PRIMARY GRADES 

Form Study and Drawing 

The foundation work of these grades is Form Study 
Form study fr m objects. The purpose of this Form 
tfoVo^pri*" Study is to build up in the child's mind clear 
mary work. an( j correct concepts of form as a basis for 
thinking and doing. To this end the Form Study 
should be made individual, the pupil exercising both 
touch and sight in his observations. 

The forms studied by the child should be presented 
to him in such a manner that he may grasp 

Develop- * 

mentofidea the idea of types of form, discovering such 
types, for himself, through observation and 
comparison of the common objects provided for such 
study. . 4 

The study of type forms should be so conducted as 
to: 

a. Help the pupil to classify the miscellaneous forms 
which he already knows, by leading him to refer these 
forms to the types which he has found to represent 
them as ideals. 

b. Help develop the pupiPs imagination along healthy 



FIKST TWO TEAKS 109 

and desirable lines, by leading him to see in each type 
the suggestion of natural and manufactured objects not 
present before his eyes. 

The types thus studied should be presented in the 
natural sequence proven by Kindergarten order of 
experience to be best adapted to the devel- 
oping comprehension of the child's mind. 
Spherical and nearly spherical objects first ten - 
lead the child to the idea of the sphere ; then, following 
the logical form-sequence of Frcebel, cubic and nearly 
cubic objects lead him to the idea of the cube, the form 
showing at once the greatest resemblance to, and the 
greatest difference from, the sphere, each idea being 
strengthened by the mutual contrast. Still following 
the Kindergarten sequence, cylindric and nearly cylin- 
dric objects next lead to the idea of the cylindric type, 
which is the mediation between the sphere and the 
cube. Other forms should follow these in course, each 
new form being studied in the light of all the preced- 
ing study, that the mental process may be that of 
sequential advancement from the known to the unknown. 

FIRST Two YEARS 
1. To BE STUDIED. 

(a) Type solids for the first year : 
Sphere, cube, cylinder. 

Hemisphere, square prism, right-angled triangu- 
lar prism. 
Type solids for the second year : 

Ellipsoid, ovoid, equilateral triangular prism, 
cone, square pyramid, vase form. 

(b) Nature-forms and common objects : 

Objects resembling these type solids, 



110 FORM STUDY, DRAWIKG AND COLOR 

(c) Pictures in which objects resembling these types 
may be found. 

2. Observation. 
(a) Of form : 

In nature and common things. 
In type solids. 
() Of color ; 

In nature and common things. 
In type colors. 

3. Expression. 

(a) By modelling in clay. 

(b) By laying color tablets. 

(c) By paper folding, cutting, and making. 

(d) By stick laying. 

(e) By oral and written language. 
(/) By drawing with chalk and pencil. 

4. Time. 

Five fifteen-minute lessons a week. 

The study of Form should be in every case so guided 
as to take cognizance, first of wholes, and afterwards of 
parts. Each solid should be regarded first as a com- 
plete unit ; next as to its surface, and the parts (faces) 
which may make up that surface ; next as to edges, their 
direction and relationship, and their junction at corners. 

It is not held desirable to present many sections of 
type solids as themselves typical. This 
phase of Form Study is too analytical for 
primary work, the variations obtainable by section are 
too numerous for practical class-room study in these 
grades, and they offer as a rule comparatively few sug- 
gestions of familiar objects for individual study in the 
child's environment, The hemisphere and the right- 



" FIKST TWO TEARS 111 

angled triangular prism, being the simplest, and to the 
child, the most suggestive of such possible sections, 
are explicitly presented, all others being left for inci- 
dental presentation and study in connection with the 
wholes from which they are derived. 

The ideas of Form obtained through this study are 
expressed in several different ways, as stated 

1 rrn tit Expression 

above. These means of expression should of ideas of 
be cultivated, not for the production of re- 
sults of technical value in themselves, but chiefly as 
means of promoting the mental and spiritual develop- 
ment of the child, by enlarging and strengthening his 
conceptions of Form, developing his sense of beauty, 
his imagination, and his creative powers ; and, second- 
arily, as means by which the teacher is enabled to see 
the degree of progress he is making in his general de- 
velopment. The method advised for such exercises is 
largely that of free self-activity on the part of the chil- 
dren, with only so much direction and guidance by the 
teacher as are necessary to secure goo&general habits of 
work. 

Of the various modes of self-expression already 
named, Language is applicable to the Form 
Study at its every stage. Modelling is prac- modes of 
tised in connection with the study of types xpre 
and kindred forms as wholes, and also in connection 
with the study of sectional parts of those wholes. 
Making is practised in connection with the study of 
forms as wholes, and also in connection with the study 
of their parts (surfaces and faces). Tablet-laying is 
practised in connection with the study of parts (faces), 
as well as with the study of certain facts about the 



112 FORM STUDY, DRAWING AND COLOR 

wholes (views), and also in connection with the study 
of objects and of pleasing decorative arrangements. 
Stick-laying is practised in connection with the study 
of a form as to its parts (faces, edges, and corners), and 
also in connection with the study of objects and of 
pleasing decorative arrangements. Paper-folding and 
cutting are practised in connection with the study of a 
form as to its parts (faces, edges, and corners), and 
also in connection with the study of pleasing decorative 
arrangements. Freehand Drawing is practised con- 
tinually in connection with all the other means of ex- 
pression in Form Study, as the most ready means of 
expression. 

A special point should be made of encouraging free- 
hand drawing from objects having three di- 

Freehand . 3 . J & . 

Drawing men&wns as well as from geometric figures, 
and from objects having only two dimensions. 
Experience under widely varying school conditions 
proves the perfect practicability of pupils' drawing the 
appearance of sofid objects in various positions, even in 
the lowest primary grade, if such drawing is not ham- 
pered with technical requirements, but is allowed to be 
the free expression of what the child sees and desires 
to express. The practical reasons for beginning such 
drawing in the lowest grades are : Additional interest 
is felt by the child, if encouraged to draw solid objects. 
His natural power of seeing things just as they appear 
is strong in these early years ; but unless cultivated 
early, and in such a manner as to keep the work in this 
direction distinct from the analytical study of faces, 
edges, etc., this power of seeing things as they appear 
becomes confused with his knowledge of facts, and u^ 



FIRST TWO YEARS 113 

biased " seeing " becomes very difficult. In the latter 
case the child's later work is of necessity narrowed 
down to mere technical reproduction (e.g. perspective), 
thus limiting his legitimate enjoyment of the work, 
and reducing his practical graphic power to a minimum. 
As already stated, the drawing by primary grade 
pupils, should be freehand. This is chiefly 

xl -, , -, Why Free- 

because the primary work aims, not at the hand Draw- 
production of technical results, but at the mgonly - 
development of thought and of the power of readily 
expressing thought through the training of the senses ; 
and freehand drawing, on account of its reliance ex- 
clusively on the thought that is in the individual mind, 
and the power that is in the individual hand, is best 
fitted to accomplish this purpose. The use, at this 
initial stage of the work, of measures and rulers is dis- 
couraged, as tending to substitute acquaintance with 
tools for the training of the senses, and as allowing the 
mechanical production of exact results to eliminate 
that element of increasing self-mastery which should 
be characteristic of the work. 

Throughout the work of the primary grades it should 
be a distinct aim of the instruction to culti- 
vate the imagination along desired lines. ItivJSe-^' 
Emphasis is laid upon this point, because at 
this stage the imagination may be very easily awakened 
and so directed as to become a most valuable element 
of the child's character ; while if left to die out or 
allowed to become perverted, the whole after-life is 
poorer and the child's individuality less effective in 
practical life. Opportunities for its right cultivation 
arc found in connection with almost every line of this 
work, including Form lessons, exercises in Building, 



114 FORM STUDY, DRAWING AND COLOR 

Modelling, Making, Tablet and Stick-laying, Paper- 
folding and cutting, Drawing, and work with color 
materials. 

Memory of Form should be cultivated through special 
Form review exercises, in which previously ac- 

Memory. quired form concepts are recalled by new 
applications rather than by formal drill, the aim being 
to bring out the little child's memory of form through 
his interest in it. 

The assthetic element should be present throughout 
the course, and there should be a distinct 

The 

.Esthetic aim to awaken and develop the pupiFs sense 

element. -, , * 

of beauty, and to encourage his expression 
of that growing sense, through the work of his hands. 
This may be accomplished through : 

1. Providing type models of beautiful proportions, 

for study. 

2. Emphasizing the selection of really beautiful ob- 

jects, natural and manufactured, for study. 

3. Calling the pupils' attention in various ways to 

the beauty of these models and objects. 

4. Encouraging the pupil to notice and recall the 

beauty of other objects, seen elsewhere. 

5. Encouraging every attempt to express a sense of 

beauty in individual work, especially in his ar- 
rangements of tablets and sticks, his exercises I'TL 
paper-folding and cutting, and in all his drawing 
It is advised that the Primary grade drawing be done 
The use of <> n blank paper, because the drawing of 
Senary* these lowest grades is cultivated almost en- 
tirely as a simple means of self-expression. 
It is to be regarded chiefly as merely a graphic indict- 



GENERAL WORK OF PRIMARY GRADES 115 

tion of the impressions made upon the child's mind by 
the world about him. So regarded, it is not met with 
technical criticism. The pupil is led to grow toward 
the proper standard through the development of his 
own powers. 

In all Primary grade drawing pupils should be en- 
couraged to use the pencil with a free, 

i j j. j -XT j. Character 

broad sweep, and to draw with soft, gray of line in 
lines rather than fine and wiry black lines. 
This cultivates the style of work which can most readily 
be adapted to the varying line-requirements of different 
kinds of drawing. 

Dictation has but a limited place in this Primary 
work. Where used it is in exercises for Dictation 
developing certain desirable ways and habits grades? 8 " 1 *' 
of working, not for the sake of producing technical 
results. 

THE USE OF FORM STUDY AND DRAWING IN THE 
GENERAL WORK OF PRIMARY GRADES 

The Course for Primary grades closely affiliates the 
work with the other school studies. Thus, 

. . -r> . T Affiliation 

for instance, Primary Language lessons are with other 
practically strengthened by the Form Study, 
in that the latter gives the children clear ideas as a 
basis for much of the regular language practice (e.g. in 
the use of terms relating to form, shape, size, propor- 
tion, color, etc.), while the practice in correct language 
involved in the Form lessons saves time for the other 
work by anticipating a part of its own purposes. The 
regular Language work is especially aided by those ex- 



116 FORM STUDY, DRAWING AND COLOR 

ercises in Form Study which involve the exercise of the 
pupil's imagination. In a similar manner 

Language the Language lessons are anticipated. em- 
Lessons. , . , , , , , , 

pnasized, or supplemented, by work in 

Building, Modelling, Tablet and Stick-laying, Drawing, 
and other modes of manual expression. The Freehand 
Drawing gives the child freedom and growing facility 
in the line of pencil sketching, and this sketching, 
though necessarily very crude in point of technique, is 
found in actual experience to be of great assistance in 
Language work, as supplementing the written repro- 
duction of stories. 

Primary work in Number is strengthened by the 
Help in Form Study, in that the latter makes the 
child practically familiar with certain 
standards of dimension (the form-models being one 
inch in diameter, or one by two inches in certain cases), 
and with many different combinations of numbers, 
concretely illustrated in the study of faces, edges, cor- 
ners, etc. The child has also valuable practice in 
thinking number, and the practical working out of 
number-ideas, in his exercises in Tablet and Stick-lay- 
ing. His work in Paper-folding and cutting makes 
him experimentally familiar with the idea of halves, 
thirds, quarters, etc., the division of a whole into 
parts, and the combination of parts to form a whole. 
His crude pencil sketches of real things are often found 
by experienced teachers to be a help in impressing ideas 
of Number, as, e.g., when he is allowed to " make np 
examples" of his own, illustrated with pictures of the 
objects concerned. 



GENERAL WORK OF PRIMARY GRADES 117 

Primary lessons in " Place," or Elementary Geog- 
raphy, are strengthened by the work in '-pi ace 
Form Study, in that the various exercises Lessons - 
with models, tablets, sticks, and paper give the child 
clear ideas about position, location, and direction, and 
accustom him both to understand and to correctly use 
terms of position, location, and direction. Again, his 
developing power of Freehand Drawing, whatever its 
stage may be, is of help in this work, as it enables him 
to sketch with approximate success the natural forms 
he studies, or to make a simple diagram of class-rooms, 
school-yards, etc. 

The primary school instruction in Natural Science is, 
most clearly of all, related to the work of Nature 
the same grades in Form Study and Draw- study - 
ing. Since Form is a necessary property of the objects 
studied in Natural Science lessons, all the regular work 
in Form Study may be regarded as directly anticipating 
instruction which would otherwise have to be given in 
the "Nature Study " periods. Again, the Form Study 
and the Science work may and should be mutually 
helpful as means of cultivating the higher nature 
through exercise of the sense of beauty. The element 
of beauty (though not always given due recognition in 
otherwise excellent scientific instruction) is conspicuous 
in most of the natural objects selected for primary 
school study ; it is that characteristic in them which 
most immediately and strongly appeals to the child 
himself. The aesthetic training received by him in his 
elementary Art Instruction with models and objects 
when properly interpreted makes him still more appre- 
ciative of the beauty of things studied in Science les- 



118 FORM STUDY, DRAWING AND COLOR 

sons ; while, reciprocally, the Science Study may be of 
great benefit to the Art instruction when it gives the 
aesthetic element right recognition. 

The use of Freehand Drawing as a means of expres- 
sion in Nature Study is very generally recognized. 
Such utilization of Drawing in primary grades is made 
especially practicable by encouragement of the sketch- 
ing of solid objects from the very beginning of school 
life, and by exclusive use of the free hand. The ad- 
vantage of this freehand work is especially evident 
when considered in connection with Nature Study, be- 
cause not only is mechanical drawing, if taught in pri- 
mary grades, itself valueless for Nature Study, but its 
practice in primary schools is also proven by experience 
to hamper thought and retard the development of 
power to sketch freely and effectively. 

The Manual Training practicable for primary grades 
Manual * s gi yen through the regular exercises in 
Training. p orm study, Modelling, Making, Building, 
Tablet and Stick-laying, Paper-folding and cutting, 
and Freehand Drawing, which constitute a thorough 
elementary course in Manual Training. These exer- 
cises are entirely consistent with the requirements of 
Manual Training in higher grades, and are found in 
actual experience to prepare pupils broadly and prac- 
tically for such higher work. 

AH the general work of Primary grades is strength- 
ened by the Form Study and Drawing, in that the 
Form Study and Drawing are constantly developing 
the child through observation, thought, and expression, 
and are constantly relating the mental power gained to 
other lines of school work. The pupil's interest ia. 



SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS 119 

school life is greatly increased, habits of observation 
are cultivated, and a love of neat, orderly, and beauti- 
ful work is awakened, tending towards a higher standard 
of effort in every direction. 

SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS 

As many teachers have not had an opportunity to 
prepare themselves in this work, a brief out- 
line of Form Study of the first six solids is 
given here to open the subject to them for self-study. 




Fig. 1 

In the illustration, Fig. 1, we see the type solids of 
the first year arranged in two groups, the group on the 
left containing the sphere, cube and cylinder that on 
the right, the hemisphere, square prism, and right- 
angled triangular. The six solids will furnish sufficient 
material for illustrating the subject here. 

1. STUDY OF THE SOLIDS AS WHOLES 
The first step in the Methods of Study is to take the 
solids as a whole, in accordance with the Thesoiidsas 
well-known educational maxim, first the awhole - 
whole, then the parts. The study of a solid at first 



120 



FORM STUDY, DRAWING AKD COLOR 



must not, therefore, deal with the details of surface, 
face, edge, and corner, but must consider the solid 
simply as a whole. 

Study "by Touch 

Grasp the sphere in one hand, roll it between the two 
hands, Fig. 2, hold the sphere with the fingers of one 
hand, turn it with the fingers of the other hand, Fig. 3. 




Fig. 2 Fig. 3 

Hold the sphere tightly in one hand, grasp the cube 

with the other hand, Fig. 4. What impressions are 

received ? 

The sphere is smooth and pleasant to hold,* 
The cube has sharp points and hurts the hands. 




Fig. 4 Fig. 5 

Grasp the cylinder in various ways, Fig. 5. 

The cylinder is pleasant to hold in one way held in 
another way it cuts the hand. 

Move the fingers over the solids in different directions. 

The sphere feels the same all over the fingers move 
easily all over it. 

The cube feels smooth in some places-and sharp in 
others. 



STUDY BY TOUCH AND BY SIGHT 121 

The cylinder feels something like the sphere and 
something like the cube. 

Study by Touch and ~by Sight 

Put the models on the desk or table experiment with 
each separately as to rest or motion. . 

The sphere will roll. 

The sphere will stand. 

The cube will not roll ; it will slide and will stand. 

The cylinder will roll, it will slide and will stand. 

The sphere will roll in every direction and however 
placed. 

The cylinder will not roll when it is upright ; when 
it is lying down, it will roll, but not in all directions 
like the sphere. 

Examine each model as to dimensions how do its 
different dimensions compare with each other ? 

In the sphere, the width from left to right, the width 
from front to back, and the height are equal. 

In the cube, the width from left to right, the width 
from front to back, and the height are equal. 

In the upright cylinder, the width from left to right 
and the width from front to back are equal, but the 
height is greater than the width. 

After the children have passed the kindergarten age, 
it is desirable to introduce new features and For older 
greater variety. The sphere and cube can- children. 
not be changed in proportion ; but the cylinder may 
vary very much in the proportion of the height to the 
other two dimensions. By using a cylinder higher than 
wide, two new elements are introduced, that of propor- 
tion and that of greater beauty of form. The cylinder 
in which the height varies from the width is much more 
beautiful than the cylinder in which these dimensions 



122 FORM STUDY, DRAWING AND COLOR 

are equal. It will be noticed that cylindric objects hav- 
ing the three dimensions equal are very rare ; but that 
those objects in which the height is greater or less than 
the width are very frequent. 




Fig. 6 

In considering the elements of proportion in the cylin- 
der at this stage, it is desirable to choose a proportion 
easily appreciated. Therefore, the cylinder given for 
primary work has the very simplest proportion, that of 
1 to 2. 

Build up the sphere, cube, and cylinder, and new rev- 
elations will be made concerning them. Try the 
arrangements illustrated and any others which may 
occur to you. What do you learn ? 






Fig. 7 
The sphere can have but one position. 



TOUCH, SIGHT, AND ARRANGEMENT 



123 



The cube and cylinder can have several positions. 
The sphere and the horizontal cylinder cannot be 
used as foundations in building. 

Study ~by Arrangement 

Try now to arrange the solids in rows ; seek for pleas- 
ing arrangement. You will find yourselves, perhaps, 
working for an orderly and symmetrical arrangement, 
Pig. 8. 




Fig. 8 
Study ly Sight 

Hold each model up before you, Figs. 9 and 10 ; 
turn it in any way you please. How much of it do 
you see ? 

The sphere cannot be held so that more than half 
can be seen ; neither can it be held so that less than 
half is visible. 




Fig. 9 Fig. 10 

The cube and cylinder cannot be held so that more 
than half can be seen*; but they can be held so that 
less than half can be seen. Figs. 11 and 1&. 

* These statements need a little modification when very small models 
are used. 



124 FORM STUDY, DRAWIHG AKD COLOR 





Definitions. 



f Fig. 12 

#, 3. Study as to Surface and Face 

Surface in its geometric signification means simply 
length and breadth without thickness. But 
when applied to objects, it is used differently. 

The surface is the whole outside of a thing. A face 
is a limited part of a surface. 

The ordinary and general classification of surfaces 
classification an( ^ ^ aces ^ s i n ^ two kinds, plane and curved. 
of surfaces. Thj s j s a broad classification; but for the 
purposes of Form-study, a more specific classification is 
necessary. Take the sphere in your hand ; turn it over, 
you will find that it is round all over. If you apply a 
rule or any other straight edge to it, the rule will touch 
the sphere at but one point. And moreover this sur- 
face or face is continuous ; turn the sphere as you will, 
you will find the surface unbroken by an edge. Such a 
surface or face is called round. 

Looking over your solids you will find another resem- 
Round and bling the sphere in part but having two faces ; 
rounding. one c f these faces is round in character as 
far as it goes, but it is not completely round and is 
limited by an edge. Such surfaces or faces, being in 
some ways like a sphere, are called rounding. A rulr 



SUKFACE AND FACE 



125 




applied to any one of them will touch at but one point. 

Take now the cylinder ; 
applying the ruler to its 
length, you find that the 
ruler touches the cylin- 
der throughout its entire 
length. Turn the ruler 
and apply it across the 
Fig. 13 same face and it touches at 

but one point. You will find also another solid among 
the twelve that has a similar face. Such faces, that are 
round one way and straight one way are called curved 
faces. 

Take the cube ; its faces are all 
flat, as if they had been planed off. 
Such faces are called plane faces. 
Make a list now of six solids classi- 
Fig. 14 fied according to the kind of faces, 

beginning in this way : 

Bound face ; sphere. 

Rounding face ; hemisphere, ellipsoid, ovoid. 





Fig. 15 

Now study the objects in the illustration, Fig. 15, 
with reference to the kinds of faces. Remember that 
all Form-study should be carried on from the type- 
solids to its application in objects. 






126 FORM STUDY, DRAWING AND COLOR 

4- Study as to Edges and Corners 

Make a list of the six solids classified according to 
edges. Find all the solids having no edges, all the 
solids having straight edges, all the solids having curved 
edges, and write a classified list. Bemember that in 
each of these various classified lists, every one of the 
twelve solids must be included. 

The classification as to corners is exceedingly easy. 
Find the solids, like those in the 
illustration, Fig. 16, and place 
them as there shown. Consider 
the two models together as one ; 
study all the corners. Which of 
' the corners are square ? Which 
of the corners are sharp, that is, 
sharper than a square corner ? 
Fig. 16 Which of the corners are blunt, 

that is, more blunt than a square corner ? 

A Suggestive Lesson 

The object of this first study of the solids is first to 
gain the child's recognition of these types 
through observing them in connection with 
similar objects with which he is already somewhat 
familiar, then to lead him to discover some of their 
more striking features, and finally to feel their beauty. 

At this stage of the work, no attempt should be made 
at an analytic study of the solids. This is the time for 
simply receiving mental impressions of concrete form. 
Association of ideas must precede an analysis of parts. 

Child nature must be remembered throughout. The 
work should not be dry and technical and formal but 




Object. 



OBSERVATION AND EXPRESSION 



127 



should be developed in a winning, sympathetic way 
which will bring delight to the hearts of the children. 

" To let the new life in, we know 
Desire must ope the portal." 



FIEST WEEK. FORM 

OBSERVATION EXPRESSION 

Sphere, Familiar Objects. Modelling. Location 
Lesson 1 Can you find something you know ? Tell 
me about it ? 




Several familiar oljects resembling the sphere such as 
a football, a globe, marbles, return balls, etc., on the table. 

These objects should be selected with especial refer- 
ence to the child's pleasure or to their beauty. With 
the objects place one or more spheres ; if of different 
sizes it will be better. Have the children's models 
ready to distribute later in the lesson. 

As there are but fifteen minutes for this lesson the 



128 FORM STUDY, DRAWING AKD COLOR 

conversation must not flag, but should be bright and 
quick throughout. Let children come up to the table, 
two or more at a time, and be sure that those at the 
table talk so that they can be heard by those in the 
seats. Keep the interest of the whole class as active as 
though all were at the table. 

Encourage the children to talk about the way the ob- 
jects are used in their play or the way in which they 
have seen others use such things. Let the children 
show what the objects can be made to do by playing 
with them and let them observe the action. Be careful 
not to limit the conversation to the group at the table, 
but let individual children about the room who feel that 
they know something more about the objects come for- 
ward to the table or stand at their desks and add their 
stories. The group at the table should be constantly 
changing so as to bring as many children forward as 
possible, to take part in the observation. 

When there is evidence that the children are thinking 
of the general form of the objects (round), lead the 
children to tell which object they like best and observe 
whether it is the familiar toy used in their games or the 
sphere. Use the name sphere freely when it is neces- 
sary and allow the children to do so, being sure that 
there is no confusion as to which object is meant. 

It is hoped that the children will prefer the perfect 
sphere (the model), for the appreciation of the pure 
type leads to a love of the ideally beautiful. The 
teacher must be careful, however, about showing prefer- 
ence, for the choice of the child should be made with a 
free spirit, should be expressive of his own feeling. 

Try to limit the above work to ten minutes. The re- 



OBSERVATION EXPRESSION 

maining time can be spent in having each child take a 
sphere from the basket with the right hand and place it 
on the desk, in the groove, etc., and in collecting the 
spheres. 

The following illustrative lesson, while it differs 
slightly from the suggestions given above, for conduct- 
ing the same exercise, will serve to show what the spirit 
of the exercise should be. 

Lesson Developing Sphere from Familiar Objects Type 
included in the Collection 

Teacher We are to have a new game this morning. 
See how many things we have to play with. Fll stand 
so that my back is toward the table and you must let 
me know everything there is on it. Will you be sure to 
tell me something about the thing you mention so that 
I may know just which one it is when I turn around 
afterward to look ? 

Several children Yes, Miss Rich. 

Teacher Thank you. Now mention just one thing 
and tell me about it. 

Annie I see a ball, a white ball. I guess it is rubber. 

John There is a big ball with pictures on it. 

Teacher Where is that ? 

John Right in the middle of the table. 

Teacher Can you play with it ? 

John No, it is fastened to some iron things and can 
only turn around. 

Teacher Oh, I see ; you mean the school globe that 
belongs in Mr. Porter's room. Very well, go on. 

Mary I see a base-ball ; it is made of pieces of leather. 

Lizzie I see a kaby's rattle ; it has a round part and 
then a ta&dle. 



130 FORM STUDY, DRAWING AND COLOR 

Tom Eight side of the thing you called a blobe. 

Teacher I did not speak plainly then, it is globe, 
try again to say the word. 

Tom Globe. Side the globe there is a chestnut-burr. 

Teacher Can you tell me something about the burr, 
Jessie ? 

Jessie It's awful prickly. 

Teacher Very prickly indeed. Now for something 
else.* 

Bessie I see a round, round ball ; it looks like wood. 

Eleanor There is an orange there, too. 

Teacher You haven't told me anything about it, you 
know. 

Eleanor It is yellow. 

Teacher Now the next one see something for me. 

Philip I see some marbles ; they are made of glass. 

Rex One marble has stripes on it. 

Teacher Very well. Who else will use his eyes for 
me? 

Children Everything has been told about. 

Teacher Sure enough. Now you have told me 
something about each one ; can you now think of some 
one thing that you can tell me about all of them ? 

Bessie They are all on the table. 

Alice They are all round. 

Mary The rattle isn't all round ; it has a handle. , 

Joseph But part of it is round. 

* It will be observed that at this stage no formal correction of the child's 
expression is made. A child is easily disconcerted and his thought directed 
from the main point by being called upon to repeat his statement so as to 
conform to the teacher's standard. 

He soon learns, however, to detect the difference in the modes of ex- 
pression, and will gradually try to speak as does the teacher whom he loves. 



OBSERVATION EXPRESSION 131 

Theo. The orange isn't just all round; it's been 
jammed on one side. 

Teacher Who will come and find the very roundest 
one of all ? 

Eleanor This wooden ball is the roundest one. 

Teacher That is so. This ball or sphere is perfectly 
round. 

(Models now rapidly distributed.} 

Teacher Who is ready now to tell me something ? 

Susie I have a ball or sphere and it is the roundest 
thing there is. 

A ' dissatisfied Dodd, gloomily 'Taint any rounder 
than any other ball. 

Teacher Very true. This sphere is no more per- 
fectly round than any other sphere. 

Teacher Let us play the spheres are round, round 
sponges, and we are going to squeeze the water out of 
them. (Children follow action of teacher.} Be careful 
or we shall wet our desks. 

Teacher Now let us play they are snow-balls and we 
will make them up round and hard so as to have a great 
snow-ball match. 

Teacher Now what would you like to play they are ? 

Freddie Fd like to play they are walnuts. 

Teacher We will. And what shall we do with them ? 

Freddie We'll crack them and get the meat out. 

Teacher But what can we play are our hammers ? 

John I know ; our pencils. 

Teacher Surely. Now we'll hold them on our desks, 
so, and be careful not to pound our thumbs with these 
heavy hammers. 

Teacher Now let us play they are plums, oh, so ripe, 



132 FORM STUDY, DRAWING AND COLOR 

and we must handle them so, just as carefully, and we 
will put them into boxes or baskets and send them to 
the sick children in the hospital. 

(This collects material.) 

The limits of this volume will not permit us to carry 
the primary work further. The instruction here given 
is in accordance with the methods now approved by 
leading educators. Teachers who are ready to carry it 
further will find it fully developed in the manuals of 
the Prang Educational Company, Boston. 

COLOE IN PEIMAEY GEADES 

The true aim and purpose of color instruction can be 
Aim of nothing less than the awakening, through 

instruction. cu iti va ted sense activity, of the child's higher 
spiritual powers, the opening up of new avenues of 
thought and enjoyment through enlarged observation 
of beauty in nature and in art, and the cultivation of 
better possibilities of usefulness to others through en- 
larged capabilities of expressing thought and feeling by 
the use of color materials. The object of such instruc- 
tion is thus both personal culture and practical useful- 
ness. The wise teacher who herself has eyes open to 
the beauty of color, and who recognizes in children, 
minds and soul to be nurtured as well as bodies to be 
fed and clothed, will find in this newly introduced study 
of color especially rich and suggestive opportunities for 
reaching the child's higher nature and encouraging its 
healthy and happy growth. 

The instruction in color which is suggested here is 
based on certain general principles which are considered 
fundamental. These are : 



COLOR IK PRIMARY GRADES 133 

I. The Ideal Unit of Color. 

II. Color Instruction according to the Power of Color 

Perception in the pupils. 

III. Color Sensation before Color Names. 

IV. Simple Nomenclature. 

V. Coordination of the Study of Color with that of 

Form. 

For purposes of education there must be a unit of 
color and this color unit must be the em- Unitof 
bodiment of all pure color. The solar Color - 
spectrum has been considered the embodiment of all 
color. The solar spectrum however is known to be in- 
complete, as it lacks a series of hues which are found in 
nature and which are necessary to a complete color unit. 
Nature nowhere gives a complete color unit. It is neces- 
sary, therefore, to form an ideal color unit and this 
ideal color unit is here presented as the basis of color 
instruction. 

Instruction in color must be based not on scientific 
theory alone, but also on the physiological Color 
effect of color forces on the retina. It seems to Perception, 
be necessary, therefore, to make the state of color percep- 
tion in the child the starting point of color instruction. 
It has been found by numerous experiments that little 
children do not perceive the darker colors as well as the 
lighter, brighter colors ; but the color sense is with 
them, as with many adults, in an undeveloped state ; 
and that some colors have for them no distinct character 
as colors. Hence, investigation as to the color percep- 
tions of the pupils becomes an important factor in the 
course. 



134 FORM STUDY, DRAWING AND COLOR 

Care should be taken to have the impression or sen- 
sensation sation of a color precede its name. The 
before name. co lor sensation must be recognized by the 
teacher as something distinct from the color name. 
Investigation in this line shows that children may as- 
sociate a color name with some particular color object, 
and yet fail to recognize the same color sensation in 
another object ; hence it is necessary to study the sen- 
sation as produced by various objects having the same 
color. It will be seen that what the child needs is as- 
sociation with, and close observation of, various colored 
objects to awaken his color perception. 

It is very desirable that the terms used in any subject 
should be simple and well defined. There 
has been a degree of confusion with regard 
to some color terms incident to the newness of the 
study. The more necessary terms, with their signifi- 
cations according to the best accepted usage are given 
here : 

Standards are the colors which by common consent 
have definite and permanent value as accepted 
types. 

The tone of color in any given scale which is most 

typical of the whole scale is the normal tone. 

The normal is pure color unmixed with white 

or black. 
Hue is the characteristic of a color that distinguishes 

it from another color ; as red, blue, green, blue 

violet, etc. 
A Tone is any state of a color as it passes from light 

to dark. 



COLOR IN PRIMARY GRADES 135 

A Tint is a tone of a color lighter than the normal 
tone of that color yet retaining the same hue. 
A Shade is a tone of color darker than the normal 
tone of that color yet retaining the same hue. 
A Scale of color is the orderly progression of related 
tones or hues. A scale according to tones is 
from light to dark of one color or vice versa. A 
scale according to hue is from one color through 
related color to a color differing from the first : 
For instance, any part of the ideal unit from red 
through orange and yeflow to green, from yellow 
to blue, etc. There may also be scales of hue 
and tone combined. For instance, from the 
lighter tint of yellow through light yellow 
orange, normal orange, dark red orange, to 
darker red. 
Positive color is decided color. The normal tones 

are most positive, the tints less so, etc. 
Pure color is a term used for physical color when 
free from admixture with white light or in re- 
lation to pigment color when free from admix- 
ture with white or black full unbroken color. 
Broken color is color slightly dulled. The shades 

and the different grays are broken colors. 
In early education the essential aim, is or should be 
to make the child acquainted with his en- Form and 
vironrnent. He is surrounded with objects, color - 
of which the chief visible characteristics are form and 
color. Through form and color, objects become appre- 
ciable to the mind. Hence through the study of color 
the environment of the child is made more and more 
real to him. 



136 FORM STUDY, DRAWIKG AKD COLOR 

To the child form and color are an undivided unit, 
and the idea of color seems to come to the child as in 
some way a part of form, and the form of objects is 
brought out through color. 

Color instruction and form instruction should then 
be closely allied and the work in these two subjects 
should be parallel and should be so arranged that the 
instruction in the two subjects will be reciprocally 
helpful. 

If the use of color is to be treated as an expression of 
observation co ^ or ideas ^ must be preceded by observa- 
and expres- tion of color. Such observation must pro- 

sion. . 

ceed in regular order from colors easy of 
apprehension by the child to colors more difficult of 
apprehension. After a color is apprehended, it should 
be expressed as a means of completing and affirming 
the apprehension. Colored papers furnish the means of 
color expression, which is at present the most practica- 
ble and practical in the school-room. 

In schools where the funds are sufficient to have both 
Water colored paper and water colors, the latter 

colors. w ju b e found a valuable medium for illus- 

trative work. 

The children enjoy painting very much and will ex- 
press their thoughts and tell their stories in color in a 
very interesting manner. 

There should be, however, a good foundation laid by 
colored ^ ie S ^ U ^J f the color tablets and colored 
papers. papers before taking up the paints, as colored 

papers afford good standards of color desirable for the 
cultivation and study of color perceptions, whereas 
water colors are desirable for color expression. The 



COLOR IK PRIMARY GRADES 137 

first exercises in water colors should consist of washing 
in colors and their tints to match the standard colors ; 
next a lesson in scaling the different colors according 
to tone, then an application of the knowledge and skill 
gained in a simple design : after which, twigs and 
leaves may be studied and color drawings made. From 
this the child may work into flowers and sprays, fruits 
and vegetables, bees and butterflies, in fact any object 
he wishes to represent. 

With a brush full of clean water, obtain the full 
strength of color from the cake and then transfer it to 
the spaces in the cover of the box, as to a palette. Add 
color or water as strength or delicacy of tint is required. 
When the color is satisfactory apply it with the side of 
the brush, using only the point to keep the edges well 
defined. Keep the brush full of wet color, and with 
paper inclined, work gradually downward, carrying the 
brush across from left to right. Surplus color can be 
removed if taken up quickly by using a brush nearly 
dry, a blotting paper, a soft cloth, or a hollow sponge. 

Do not leave the brushes in the water, or put them 
in the mouth. When ready to put the brush away wash 
it thoroughly in clean water and give it a quick shake ; 
this removes the water while bringing the brush to a 
point and preserves its shape. 

Every school should have color tablets, sheets of gray 
cardboard to be "used as a background for 

, . Materials. 

arrangements, and scissors as a permanent 
supply for color instruction. In addition there should 
be colored paper for each child. The study of pleasing 
arrangements for borders, etc. should be carried on to 
a great extent by means of colored paper. The follow- 



138 FORM STUDY, DRAWIHG AND COLOR 

ing course in color study is suggested for the first two 
primary years. 

FIRST YEAR 

Normal. The six leading colors ; Bed, Orange, Yel- 
low, Green, Blue and Violet. 
Gray cardboard to be used as background. 
First Half. Color tablets. Color Choice. Color 

relations. 

Eecognition of color. Color names. 
Study of ideal color unit. 
Study of individual color. 

Second Half. Borders and rosettes to be cut from 
colored paper in the six leading colors in one 
tone, mounted on a very light gray or manilla 
paper. 

SECOND YEAR 
Normal. The six Leading Colors, and two tints of 

each. 
First Half. Scales of the six Leading Colors in 

three tones, normal, light and lighter. 
Figures in one tone. 

Second Half. Borders of rosettes in two tones to 
be cut from colored paper in the six leading 
colors and tints. 

A Suggestive Lesson 

The first step in the cultivation of the color sense is to 
learn the state of color perception through a series of 
investigations. The aim of the first investigation is to 
find out which colors appeal most to the children, and 
how the color perception grows when opportunity is 
given for its use. For this purpose the child is to be 



COLOR IN PRIMARY GRADES 139 

allowed in the exercises given, to express himself freely, 
without any guidance or hint whatever as to the colors 
to be used, or the order in which they are to be taken. 
One of the main points in this lesson is to utilize the 
delight that children have in the bright-colored tablets, 
in leading them to an understanding of how to keep 
them in good order. 

Give to each child a box of colored tablets. Have the 
gray cardboards ready on the desk and show the children 
how to open the boxes over away from them so that the 
tablets will lie in a pile on the mounting board. 

Let the children spread out the tablets so that they 
can fully enjoy them, but have it done with such care 
that no tablets will fall on the floor or get off the mount- 
ing board on the desk. Make this care a pleasure and 
not a restraint. 

Ask the children to lay all the tablets of this shape O 

(showing it) in one pile, of this | | in another, and of 

^his | | in another. Let them put the first two 

piles back in the boxes, thus leaving all the oblong 
color unit tablets on the cardboard, and place the box 
on the farther right-hand corner of the desk. 

Ask each child to select the color he likes best and 
place it under the box. Thus there will not be much 
opportunity for one child to be influenced by the choice 
of another. Make a list of the children's names, and 
make a record of the choice by writing after each child's 
name the abbreviation of the color name ; R., Red ; 
R. 0., Red Orange ; 0., Orange ; Y. 0., Yellow Orange ; 
Y., Yellow; Y. G., Yellow Green; G., Green; B. G., 
Blue Green ; B., Blue ; B. V., Blue Violet ; V., Violet ; 
K. V., Red Violet. 



140 FOfcM STUDY, DRAWING AND COLOR 

This is an important lesson, as it will show what the 
order of study should be for the succeeding lessons. 
The needs of the children can be learned only through 
investigation. 

These and similar investigations are being made by 
many teachers, under the direction of The Prang Nor- 
mal Art Classes, and blanks have been prepared for 
recording the results without much expenditure of 
time. Any teacher who is interested in making these 
records can obtain the blanks by writing to The Prang 
Normal Art Classes, Washington street, Boston. 

COLOR IN INTERMEDIATE AND GRAMMAR GRADES 

The study of the intermediate colors and the grays 
and their tints and shades together with the harmonious 
combination of colors should be studied in these grades. 
The purpose of the lessons should be to bring to the 
pupils a greater power of color perception, hence a 
greater enjoyment of the beauty of color. The study 
of color like that of form should be presented in its 
practical, educational and aesthetic aspects. 

It would be interesting to carry out this work more 
in detail if space permitted. In connection with the 
study of types of color in colored paper, there should 
be a constant leading to the beauty of color in nature as 
well as in art. Suggestive lines of poetry (the poet sees 
color) in connection with the study add to the interest 
and delight of the child. Teachers interested will find 
these methods continued in Suggestions for Instruction 
in Color in the Public Schools published by The Prang 
Educational Company. 



INTERMEDIATE AND GRAMMAR GRADES 141 

II. A COURSE FOE INTEEMEDIATE AND 
GKAMMAR GRADES 

The course for Intermediate and Grammar Grades is 
a development of the Course for Primary Grades, to 
meet broader educational needs and wider applications 
in practical life. 

There is this distinction between the work laid out 
for Primary pupils and that for older pupils. 
The main emphasis of the Primary grade between n 



work should be laid on the development, in 
the mind of the child, of certain typical ? a d r 
form-concepts derived from his original ob- 
servation of form in the material things by which he is 
surrounded, without too much self -consciousness on his 
part. The main emphasis in the Intermediate and 
Grammar grade work should be laid upon the further 
development of the child through his conscious effort 
in utilizing these form-concepts as a means for wider 
observation in nature and in art, and also as thought 
basis for the exercise of his imagination in the individual 
creation of industrial or artistic products of an educa- 
tional or practical character. 

The work laid out for the Intermediate and Grammar 
grades should be so planned and presented as to develop 
in the pupil : 

Habits of attention and observation, leading to a 
wider range of ideas, and a better appreciation of 
beauty in Nature and Art. 

Increasing power of self-command in thought, with a 



142 FORM STUDY, DRAWING AND COLOR 

steady growth of the creative imagination along 
the general lines of Industry and Art. 
In order to facilitate the educational purposes above 
subject named, and to give the instruction the most 
Divisions. direct and effective bearing on practical life, 
the pupil's study of form and drawing in the Inter- 
mediate and Grammar grades is classified under three 
subject divisions 

I. Construction. 
II. Representation. 
III. Decoration. 

Construction. This subject division includes the 
study of the facts of form in their relation to each other, 
as observed in types and in common objects ; the pres- 
entation by drawing of these facts so arranged as to 
convey definite ideas of the form, size, and structure of 
the objects in their reality, the making of objects from 
drawings, and the application of this study and draw- 
ing in elementary Constructive Design. 

The subject takes its name from the fact that its 
principles and methods find their fullest development 
in the Constructive Arts. 

The leading principles and methods of Construction 
are brought out through the following features : 
Form study in models and objects. 
Developments of Surface, or Pattern making from 

models and objects. 

View Drawings and Working drawings (both mak- 
ing and reading) from models and objects. 
Conventions of Constructive Drawing. 
Constructive Design, 



INTERMEDIATE AKD GRAMMAR GRADES 



143 



rti 

I i \ 
\ i i 
I i \ 



VIEW 




Y///M// 


1 


''*. ! 


14- 


l 


X 


/, 


$ i 


^ 


; 


X 


JECTION ON Al 



SECTION os CD 
BOTTOM VIEW 
BOTTOM VIEW 

The working-drawing of a hollow cylider closed at 
one end and the sectional views given above illustrate 
view-drawings, working-drawings and conventions. 

Representation. This subject division includes the 
study of the appearance of form in objects viewed under 
various conditions and in various relations ; the expres- 
sion by drawing of ideas derived from such study, and 
drawing in elementary Pictorial Composition, or Repre- 
sentative Design. 

The subject takes its name from the fact that its 
principles and methods have their fullest development 
in the pictorial, or Representative Arts. 

The principal features of the Representative work in 
the Intermediate and Grammar grades are : 

Form Study : leading to the discovery of the princi- 
ples of perspective. 

Outline Drawing : involving the use of certain desir- 
able modes of rendering. 
Rapid Sketching. 



144 FORM STUDY, DRAWING AND COLOR 

Drawing in Light and Shade. 

Study of Good Examples for gaining skill in render- 
ing. 

Pictorial Use of Color. 
Representative Design : (Pictorial Composition). 




The illustration given above shows some of the per- 
spective principles in Representation, as foreshortening 
of faces and edges, convergence of lines, &c. 

Decoration. This subject division includes the study 
of beauty in geometric forms, in historic ornament, and 
in natural forms ; the expression of this beauty by 
Modelling, Paper-cutting, and Drawing, and the adapta- 
tion of beautiful geometric, historic, and natural forms 
to purposes of Decorative Design. 

The subject takes its name from the fact that its 
principles and methods have their fullest development 
in the Decorative Arts. 

The principal features of Decoration, as taught in 
the Intermediate and Grammar grades are : 

The study of typical forms of beauty as found in 
Historic Ornament. 

The study of elementary principles of Decoration as 
presented in selections from Historic Ornament, 



INTERMEDIATE AND GRAMMAR GRADES 145 

The study of beauty in natural forms, and the adap- 
tation of natural forms to purposes of decorative 
design. 

The study of beauty in type forms and in geometric 
figures, and of beauty in geometric arrangement, 
and their relation to decorative design. 

Decorative Design. The creation of the beautiful in 
ornament, by the pupil himself, through the use 
of geometric, historic, and natural forms in ac- 
cordance with decorative principles derived from 
geometric and historic ornament. 

Types of Beauty. The instruction in the subject of 
Decoration (the study and expression of Beauty of Form) 
includes the presentation to the pupil of certain ex- 
amples of Beauty found in the Decorative Art of differ- 
ent countries and different ages, which through their use 
and their historic association are regarded as types in 
the styles of art to which they belong. 

Special pains should be taken, throughout the work 
of pupils in Intermediate and Grammar grades, to cul- 
tivate an appreciation of the types of beauty, in order 
that the aesthetic sense may have nourishment as the 
condition of growth. 

The principal historic styles of ornament from which 
types of beauty are taken for individual study are the 
Egyptian, Greek, Eoman, Byzantine, Saracenic, and 
Gothic. 

The illustration on next page shows the study of 
natural forms and the adaptation of natural forms to 
purposes of decorative design. 



146 



FORM STUDY, DRAWING AND COLOR 




The methods in all these subjects should lead to 
individual study and individual expression for only 
through wisely-directed self-activity can true progress 
be attained. 

It will be found that the Form-Study and Drawing in 
each of the three subjects, Construction, Representation, 
Decoration has direct application in Manual Training 
and in Illustrative work in other studies. 

It is impossible to indicate here how the various 
features of Form-Study, Drawing and color in the inter- 
mediate and grammar grades should be carried out in 
details. Teachers interested to make a study of these 
subjects will find great help in the text books and 
Manuals of the Prang Educational Company, Boston. 



LANGUAGE 



We are not of those who wish to do away with gram- 
mar ; every teacher should understand it, and Grammar 
pupils who are able to comprehend and as- co^e d too 0t 
similate it should be encouraged to study it. earl y- 
But a majority of pupils have formed a distaste for it 
because it was introduced at too early an age. Lessons 
in Language should receive attention from the first ; 
but they should be free from all definitions, grammati- 
cal rules, analysis and parsing ; these only clog the 
memory and signify nothing but mere notions of general 
terms. 

The object of the study of grammar is " To teach the 
science of language, and the art of correct object of 
expression." The study of our text books grammar, 
on grammar does not, as a rule, attain these results. 
Why ? Because grammar, proper, is a study of only 
the science of language. Scientific grammar belongs to 
the advanced course ; before the age of twelve years, 
pupils should study only the art of expression. 

In Language the duty of preparing the soil and plant- 
ing the seed is with the primary teacher. 
Only correct sentences should be used in the moreThtn 
presence of the pupil ; if the teacher do not ] 
err in this direction, the ear becomes accustomed to 
correct forms of expression, and the child will uncon- 
sciously acquire them. This does not come from class- 
ifying, conjugating, and declining. Pupils must learn 

(147) 



148 LANGUAGE 

the art of language, and through the art come up to 
the science. 

Language is a growth. It cannot be stereotyped. 
Language and thought have reciprocal influence. Eight 
habits of language produce right thinking, and vice 
versa. The language of a person is a test and evidence 
of his thoughts and mental culture. The chief cause 
of alarm is on account of the woful ignorance of Eng- 
lish and the faulty use of our mother tongue among 
nominally intelligent and educated people even among 
teachers, who of all persons should use pure language. 
The teacher is responsible for the language of his pupils. 

We acquire language through imitation ; the pupil 
who has always heard good language, will 

Howgood , , J , . & ,.,., 

English is use good language; his ability to use good 
language does not depend upon his knowledge 
of grammar, but upon his having heard good English, 
read good English, and practised good English. With- 
out further comment upon language we would say that 
whatever else may be omitted in teaching no teacher 
can afford to dispense with the language exercise. 

" I had rather speak five words with iny understanding, that 
by my voice I might teach others also, than a thousand words in 
an unknown tongue." I. Cor. xvi. 19. 

SUGGESTIVE METHODS 
/. Directions 

1. Ask the children to tell the names of the objects 

a. In the school-room, the yard, the house, etc. 

b. Made of wood, iron, gold, wool, cotton, etc. 

0. Manufactured by the carpenter, moulder, etc. 



OBJECTS AS WHOLES 149 

2. Ask the pupil to tell the names of the parts of 
things. 

3. To name some of the quantities of things. 

4. To tell the uses of things. 

21. Cautions 

1. Insist on correct articulation. 

2. Form correct ideas ; then insist on the intelligent 
use of the terms. 

3. Let every exercise bear upon the correct USE of 
language. 

///. Results 

1. A wide vocabulary. 

2. Eeady and correct use of words. 

3. Increased mental power. 

OBJECTS AS WHOLES 

The pupils will at first mention the names of things 
in the wildest confusion. The teacher lis- Syst emin 
tens patiently for a few seconds; then kindly namin s- 
bids them to begin at a certain part of the room and to 
speak one at a time, and name things in order. 

In the answers, constant attention must be paid to the 
pronunciation of words distinct and correct 
articulation being one of the first requisites pronuncia- 
of correct language. Yet this should not be 
insisted upon to such an extent as to make it irksome 
to the pupils. The child can attain perfection only 
gradually, and the teacher should encourage but not 
drive. Indeed, the child needs no driving ; he will 
work cheerfully and zealously with the leader who has 
learned the art of working with the child. 



150 LANGUAGE 

As the names of objects are given by the children, 
incidental ^ ne teacher should write these names in col- 
speiiing. umns on the board, requiring the children to 
spell each word as it is written, assisting or correcting 
when necessary. 

Let the children say something about each object, the 
simple teacher helping them to determine how far 

statements. the terms they apply are appropriate. The 
teacher should add to these descriptions the names, and 
lead the children on to the formation of simple state- 
ments in their simplest forms. 

In the written exercise, the children should be led to 
Reproduction observe that each sentence begins with a cap- 
exercises, ital i e tter and ends with a period. The 
teacher will use judgment in the assignment of the 
directions in each lesson. 

The directions should be written on the board one at 
a time, and the pupils requested to follow the directions, 
and read the statements from the slate. After an ex- 
ercise has been carefully examined, the teacher should 
require the class to reproduce it. 

The children may be supplied with little books in 
which to write out these lessons at home. For some 
time they should not be required to originate anything 
for themselves, but merely to reproduce that which has 
been taught in school. They will find pleasure in doing 
that which they can do well. 

When the objects in the room have formed the sub- 
jects of such lessons, those in the play-ground, the 
street, or in the fields, may be resorted to, gradually 
extending the circle to more remote objects. 



i>ARTS Otf OBJECTS 151 

At least a dozen lessons of this description should be 
given; 

PAK* OF OBJECTS 

After giving lessons on objects as a whole the teacher 
will ask the pupils to name the parts of objects, and the 
number of those parts. This is a second step. 

In these exercises, the teacher should be careful not to let 
the children call that a part which is merely a property or an 
accident. A part of a material object is a portion of it ; if the 
part is removed, the object will be diminished in size and weight. 
It is improper, then, to consider as parts the lines and surfaces of 
objects. 

The exercises on the parts of objects should be varied 
in many ways, so as to arouse and maintain a lively in- 
terest in the pupils. 

For example the parts of a pin are the head, shaft, 
and point ; of a chair, leys, rounds, seat, and ~back. 

The first step to be taken in language is to obtain 
ideas. The second is the proper expression The two 
of the ideas when obtained. steps * 

To acquire ideas, it is necessary to cultivate habits of 
observation ; to use the eyes in noticing not observation 
only entire objects, but also their different comes first, 
parts ; to consider their qualities, uses, operations and 
effects, together with their relations to other things. 
The mind employed in such processes acquires material 
for its own operations, and develops ideas and th6*ughts 
as it were spontaneously. 

For this exercise in language it is proposed that the 
children enumerate the parts of some visible object, 
something as follows : 



153 



LANGUAGE 

A House 



Its parts are : 








stone, 


sills, 


plates, 


ceilings, 


mortar, 


posts, 


rafters, 


floors, etc. 


joints, 


doors, 


shingles, 




beams, 


nails, 


chimneys, 





Glass 
Its qualities : 

It is hard, inodorous 

solid, colorless, 

smooth, heavy, 

bright, durable, 

transparent, inflexible, 

brittle, insoluble, 

cold, dry, * 

tasteless, fusible, etc. 

Its uses : 

For windows to admit the light ; 
For spectacles to assist the sight ; 

For useful vessels, such as goblets, pitchers, bottles, phials, 
lamps, etc. 

Thus far we have endeavored to teach the pupils the 
Qualities power of rapid, complete, and accurate obser- 
of objects. vation, and to prepare them for concise, com- 
plete, and accurate description. The teacher in order to 
give the children information on qualities of objects, so 
that they may form correct impressions, should subject 
the object to more or less complicated experiments. 
The names of some of these qualities, e. g., compressi- 
bility, flexibility, etc., must be fully illustrated. 

This exercise will furnish opportunity for the teacher 
to invent means of entertaining children while instruct- 
ing them. 



LESSONS OK WORDS 153 

Interrogate the children closely upon the uses of 
objects, and require them to write short compositions 
about objects, to tell the name, parts, qualities, and uses. 

The teacher must have a plan of presenting subjects. 
Experience daily proves that an unprepared 
lesson, or what may be termed extempore must have a 
teaching, is sure to be diffuse and indifferent ; 
besides, the teacher must NEVER PAIL to enter the class 
well prepared, not only in regard to the OBJECT on 
which he intends to exercise his class, but upon the 
ORDER in which the exercises are to be conducted, and 
upon the manner in which the individual pupils are to 
be interrogated. He must himself have clear and dis- 
tinct ideas ; must observe accurately and speak carefully, 
concisely 9 and correctly. 

Without these requisites the teacher will fail in lan- 
guage. Let him study carefully Fitch's admirable lit- 
tle book on "The Art of Questioning." 

WORDS AS OBJECTS OF OBSERVATION 
/. Directions 

1. Give the children words similar in pronunciation, 
but different in spelling. 

2. Ask the children 

a. To find the words in the spelling-book. 

b. To write sentences that have the words men- 
tioned in them. 

c. To make a spelling-lesson of the words named. 

d. To write statements, using the words named. 

e. To write a composition, using the statements. 

//. Cautions 
1. Kequire the children to answer in full statements. 



154 LANGUAGE 

2. Give constant attention to distinct articulation. 

3. Correct the common errors in pronunciation. 

4. Make the exercise pleasant and instructive. 

III. Results 

1. The children will understand the meaning of words. 

2. They will learn correct, simple expression. 

3. They will learn how to write and to spell. 

An exact copy of a lesson given in the Primary De- 
A real partment of the State Normal school in 

exercise. Buffalo, New York, is here appended. 

The words for practice; leech and beach. List of 
words, given by the pupils : 

/. Beech II. Beach 

1. beech-tree, 1. sand-beach, 

2. beech-nut, 2. shell-beach, 

3. beech-leaf, 3. pebbly-beach, 

4. beech-wood, 4. beach-timber, 

5. beech-root, 5. Rye beach, 

6. beech-twig, 6. ocean-beach. 

7. beech-bark, 

8. beech-oil. 

SENTENCES WRITTEN BY THE PUPILS 
/ Beech ; a tree 

1. The beech-trees make a nice shade in summer. 

2. The beech has a smooth green bark. 

3. The squirrel hides beech-nuts in his hole for winter. 

4. Beech-wood snaps in the fire. 

//. Beach ; a sandy shore 

1. Year before last we all went to Rye beach in vaca- 
tion. 

2. 0, see the pretty pebbles I picked up on the beach ! 



THREE GEKTJTNE COMPOSITIONS 1S5 

3. What fun it is to walk barefoot on the dry warm 
sand, down on the 'beach, 

THREE OF THEIR COMPOSITIONS 

1. A beech-tree is a very large forest tree. It has little three- 
cornered beech-nuts on it. I was out in the country once and I 
saw very many little shells of the beech-nuts where the squirrels 
had been. The beech- wood snaps when you put it into the fire, 
and makes a very hot fire. 

2. I went down to the Beach one day and the sand was all 
smooth. I was on the Beach of Lake Michigan once and made 
little houses of the beach pebbles in the sand. Rye Beach is 
where the people go to bathe in the summer. 

3. A squirrel is a animal that eats beech-nuts. When you burn 
beech- wood it crackles and snaps all on the carpet like ashes. 
The beech-tree grows to be very large and when it is very large 
men go and chop them into wood the beech-nut is very good to 
eat I had some twice and they were good sometimes people get 
oil from the nuts ; beech leaves are good to chew they have a 
sour taste they are very good ; beech-nuts are as big as the end of 
the finger they are three-cornered the beech-nut tree grows in 
Europe and america. 

The last was written by the youngest girl in the class, 
aged eight. All are printed just as written. 

Children from eight to ten years of age will do this 
work, if the teacher directs them. . 

The teacher should spell and pronounce such words, 
as the children cannot, and also tell their 

, .,, , T Suggestions. 

exact meanings and illustrate them. It pos- 
sible, let him draw a picture at the board, an indiffer- 
ent one is better than none. 

Indeed the off-hand drawing of sketchy pictures by 
the children has become in many schools a prominent 
feature of composition-work. Here are some specimens 
of actual class-work in Putnam school, Syracuse, N.Y., 



15(3 

taken from "English Grammar made Practical'*, an 
excellent work by the principal of that school, Mr. 
John D. Wilson. 

Maude Kinsley. 

December 20, 1887. 
THE PROCESS BY WHICH THE EARTH is WATERED 

Ct.u* 




The sun shines upon the water of the ocean and draws up in- 
visible vapor. It rises, and when it comes in contact with the 
cold upper air is partially condensed, and becomes visible clouds. 
These clouds are carried by the wind over the land, until they 
reach a still colder layer of air, or a colder mountain range, when 
they are wholly condensed, and fall to the earth as rain, snow, or 
hail. The rivers and the lakes are simply the ram, finding a pas- 
sage to the ocean. 



Clara K. Harth, age 15 years. 



June 5, 1888. 



LAND AND SEA BREEZES 




When the sun shines on the land and water, the land becomes 
heated first because it is motionless. The air over the land be- 
comes lighter and rises ; and the cooler air from the water rushes 
in to take its place, forming a sea breeze during the day. 

When the sun goes down the land imparts its heat first ; the 
warm air over the water rises, and the cooler air from the land 
rushes in to take its place, forming a land breeze at night 



ILLUSTRATED COMPOSITIONS 
?. G. Strong, age 14 years. 

SPRINGS 



157 
Oct. 21, 1887. 




Springs are streams of water issuing from the ground. 

When the rain strikes the earth it soaks into the porous rock 
until it strikes impervious rock ; then it rushes along the imper- 
vious rock until it can go no farther ; then it bursts up through 
the ground and we call it a spring. 



Marion Kinsley, age 15 years 

ALCOHOL 




Starch under certain conditions with water forms grape sugar. 
Grape sugar, dissolved in water, in the presence of some vegeta- 
ble substance at a temperature of 70 to 100, separates into two 
parts : alcohol and carbonic acid gas. The carbonic acid gas 



158 LANGUAGE 

rises to the top in bubbles, and passes off in a gaseous state ; the 
alcohol stays in the bottom. This process is called fermentation. 
Put any fermented liquor in a closed retort with a tube attached ; 
apply heat, and the alcohol turns into vapor, and passes through 
the tube into an ice box. It passes through coils, and is con- 
densed by the cold, and forms a liquid, which passes out as 
alcohol. This process is called distillation. 

Alcohol is not a food. It interferes with digestion, and injures 
the blood. It also deadens the nerves. 

All erroneous expressions uttered by the children 
should be immediately corrected and the proper words 
flxed upon the mind by repetition. 

In the daily work of the school-room, all definitions 
of the meaning of words, and all descriptions of places, 
objects or events, whether given by the teacher to the 
children, or elicited from them, should be clothed in 
simple and definite language, and fixed in the memory 
by repetition. 

The children should be trained to give complete 
answers to all questions put to them. Experience 
teaches that nothing more tends to make an idea clear 
to the mind, and to render it a permanent possession, 
than the act of clothing it in accurate language. 

Monosyllabic answers, as "yes" and "no", should be 
rejected, except when they express all that can be said 
on the subject. 

The value of such instruction has not been sufficiently 
appreciated, but it is hoped that these lessons will show 
how suited it is to promote mental training. 
COMPARISON OF OBJECTS 
/. Directions 

1. Hold an object before the children and ask them 
to say something about it. 



COMPARISON OF OBJECTS 159 

2. Place objects of the same kind in their hands, and 
let the pupils describe them ; first in oral, second in 
written description. 

3. Let the pupils compare objects, and tell their dif- 
ferences, as paper and leather, lead and iron, wood and 
stone, etc. 

4. Let the pupils ascribe different qualities to one 
and the same object. 

5. Let the pupils ascribe the same quality to various 
objects. 

6. Let them apply many descriptive terms, applicable 
to various objects. 

7. Let them point out the value of each word and 
state what it adds to the description. 

//. Cautions 

1. See that the children form correct ideas. 

2. Correct all improper expressions. 

3. Fix the new word in the mind by frequent reviews. 

4. Assist the children in determining the suitability 
of words, correcting when necessary. 

5. Encourage the children to reproduce lessons at 
home. 

///. Aims 

1. To train the children to SEE. 

2. To teach them to COMPARE. 

3. To train them to DO. 

4. To train them to TELL what they see and do. 

In the oral description let the children give tne gen- 
eral properties, as the form and color ; then 

i -i T j i L Suggestions. 

the parts, properties and uses. In the writ- 
ten description require the work to be expressed neatly^ 



160 LANGUAGE 

giving attention to spelling, writing, capital letters and 
punctuation. 

Let the teacher write the name of some familiar ob- 
combination J ec ^ on ^ ne board, and call upon the chil- 
of statements. ^ren o apply to it various qualities, writing 
them as they give them. It may be necessary to assist 
the children in determining the suitability of the quali- 
ties, and also in spelling the more difficult words. 

We may suppose a lesson in which the given name 
is "paper". It would present itself in such a form as 
this : 

The paper is white, 

The paper is thin, 

The paper is smooth, 

The paper is pliable, etc. 

The teacher should next lead the children to notice 
that the word "paper" need only be written once, and 
that the four sentences may be contracted into one. 
Then the teacher directed by the children writes : 

Paper is white, thin, smooth, and pliable. 

The children then read this over, and are led to per- 
ceive the necessity of commas in those places where the 
words "paper is" are omitted, and also the use of the 
word " and " between the last two words of the sentence. 
Cover the board and require the children to reproduce 
the lesson. 

When the same quality is attributed to many objects, 
it would present itself in such a form as this : 

Glass is brittle. 
Chalk is brittle. 
Coal is brittle. 

Glass, chalk, and coal are brittle. 
Iron is hard. 



GENERAL TERMS 161 

Flint is hard. 
Glass is hard. 

Iron, flint, and glass are hard. 

The children should be led to notice the stops as 
before, and the change of the word " is " to " are." 

Let the children observe that each sentence begins 
with a capital letter, and ends with a period. Examine 
each slate, and require the children to reproduce cor- 
rect copies. 

Be sure the children observe that words used in a 
series are separated by a comma. 

Kequire the children to write many sentences, until 
this fact is fixed in the mind. 

A LESSON ON GENERAL TERMS 

1. Ask the pupil to give a name that will apply to 
everything which they can perceive. 

2. Ask the pupils 

a. To classify the different kinds of matter. 

b. To name the different classes. 

c. To name the things that belong to the indi- 
vidual classes. 

d. To observe and tell what animals and vegetables 
do. 

e. To notice and tell what animals can do which 
the vegetable cannot do. 

/. To observe the differences between the food of 

plants, and that of animals. 

g. To write a statement using the words named. 
h. To write a short composition, combining the 

statements. 

3. Cautions. 

a. " Never assist the child to a thing that it can 



162 LANGUAGE 

do itself " with reasonable effort. 

b. Eemember that it is a difficult thing to form 
a thought and express it. 

4. Kesults. 

a. It will arouse the curiosity of the pupils. 
p. It will enlist their undivided attention. 

c. It will cause them to observe closely. 

d. It will teach them the importance of classifica- 
tion. 

The aim of these language lessons is to enlarge the 
Aim to train c i rc ^ e of the pupils' knowledge respecting 
the mind. ^he objects brought under inquiry. The 
true aim is not only to impart knowledge rightly, and 
teach the elements of order, but to train the poivers of 
the pupil. This is its dignity; this is its peculiar dis- 
tinction. The main design is the growth and develop- 
ment of the whole being. 

In order to teach language effectively we must begin 
the process, as nature meant w% should, by furnishing 
the children with the elements out of which language is 
created, namely, a knowledge of material things. 

The teacher should place upon the table a number of 
articles that belong to the mineral, vege- 
table, and animal kingdoms. He should ask 
the children to examine them carefully, and to tell a 
name that will apply to all of them. (It would be well 
to ask the children to bring different things from their 
homes.) 

The children will give the following names : Articles, 
objects, substances ; they may not be able to give the 
term that you wish, which is "matter/' Write the 



PARTS OF SPEECH 163 

words on the board, and tell the children that the term 
MATTER is the one that you wish. 

After the children become familiar with this term, you 
may ask them to put all the objects of the 

, . , . . rrM .,, , Suggestions. 

same kind into groups. They will learn 
to classify objects an important lesson. The teacher 
will then ask the children to name the different groups, 
viz : mineral, vegetable, and animal. (It may prove a 
surprise to some of the children, that they belong to the 
animal kingdom.) 

Many lessons may be given, requiring the children 
to name things that belong to the different classes. 

The teacher should require the children to bring in 
long lists of these- names ; an exercise of this nature 
will arouse their emulation. 

Let the children observe that the animals move about, 
and plants are stationary ; that animals and plants take 
food, breathe, grow, and die ; that plants feed on min- 
erals ; and animals on vegetables, animals, and minerals. 

The teacher should be careful about assisting the 
children ; it may be well to let a question remain unan- 
swered for a day or so and see if the pupils cannot find 
out the answer by a few hours' study. 

THE PARTS or SPEECH 

We introduce at this point a new class of objects, viz : 
Words in regard to some of their offices. We have 
examined the nature and functions of other things and 
have made use of the facts thus obtained as material for 
language development. Words, as will be seen, can be 
made to give us a large stock of working material to be 
used in advancing the Art of Language. 



164 LANGUAGE 

The Noun 

Teacher. What is this ? 

Pupil A bell. 

T. Spell the word bell. 

(Pupil spells the word, and teacher writes it on the 
board. Obtain and dispose of, similarly, the following ; 
book, pencil, cup, Henry, Aurora.) 

T. What are these on the board ? 

P. They are words. 

T. Pronounce this word : Henry. 

P. Henry. 

T. When you see or hear this word, of what do you 
think ? 

P. I think of a boy. 

T. What boy? 

P. My brother. 

T. Why, when you hear this word, do you think of 
him? 

P. Because that is his name. 

T. What kind of a word is it ? 

P. A name word. 

T. Of what is it the name ? 

P. It is the name of a person. 

T. Of what is the word cup a name ? 

P. The name of a thing. 

T. Find other words upon the board that are the 
names of things. (Pupils find pencil, book, bell.) 

T. Of what do you think when you speak this word ? 
(referring to the word Aurora.) 

P. Of a town. 

T. Why do you think of a place ? 

P. Because it is the name of a place. 



PARTS OF SPEECH 165 

T. Find another word and tell of what that is the 
name. 

P. Wednesday is the name of a day. 

T. What is each of these words ? 

P. A name. 

T. Does any one know another word that means the 
same as name ? (No hands raised.) 

T. You may call these words nouns. (Pupils spell.) 

T. What is a noun ? 

P. A name is a noun. 

T. Give me twelve names. (Pupils give names and 
spell them.) 

For to-morrow write : 

1. Ten words that are the names of persons. 

2. Ten words that are the names of things. 

3. Ten words that are the names of places. 

The Common Noun 

T. What is this ? (touching one of the boys.) 

P. A boy. 

T. What are you ? (addressing a boy.) 

P. A boy. (Address several boys and obtain similar 
replies.) 

T. By what name may all of you be called ? 

P. Boys. 

T. A boy may open the door. (Several boys^tart to 
obey.) 

T. Why do so many of you start when I speak ? 

P. We don't know which one you mean. 

T. Why ? 

P. Because the name belongs to each of us. 

T. What name belongs to each of you ? 

P. Boy. 



166 LANGUAGE 

jT. What have you learned to call a word that is a name ? 

P. A noun. 

T. Why is it a noun ? 

P. Because it is a name. 

T. Because the name applies to each of you what 
kind of a name is it ? 

P. A common name. 

T. What kind of a noun is it ? 

P. A common noun. 

T. What is a common noun ? 

P. A common name is a common noun. 

T. But when is a name common ? 

P. When it applies to each one of the same kind of 
objects. 

T. What, then, is a common noun ? 

P. A name that applies to each one of the same kind 
of objects is a common noun. 

T. Peter, bring me five things that have a common 
name. What are these called ? 

P. Books. 

T. What name may be given to each boy and girl in 
this school ? 

P. Pupil. 

T. What common name may be given to Miss , 

Miss , and Miss ? 

P. Teacher. Lady. Woman. 

T. What kind of nouns are pencil, pupil, teacher, 
lady, boy, girl ? 

P. Common nouns. 

For to-morrow write a list of : 

1. Twenty common nouns that are names of ^articles 
of furniture. 



tARTS OF SPEEOM 167 

2. Twenty common nouns that are names of tools. 

3. Twenty common nouns that are names of vegetables. 

4. Twenty common nouns that are names of minerals. 

The Proper Noun 

T. Jane, write your name on the board. (Pupil does 
so.) What have you written ? 

P. I have written my name. 

T. Why do you say "my name" ? 

P. Because it belongs to me. 

T. What other person in your family has the same 
name ? 

P. No other person has the same name. 

T. Class : why do you think a different name from 
any other in her family was given ? 

P. To tell her from the others. 

T. To how many of her family does the name Jane 
belong ? 

P. It belongs to one. 

T. What is this name ? 

P. This name is a noun. 

T. What is a noun ? * 

P. A name is a noun. 

T. Because this name belongs to one only, what kind 
of a noun is it ? 

P. It is a particular noun. 

T. You may call it a proper noun. What is a proper 
noun ? 

P. A particular name is a proper noun. 

T. To how many does a proper noun belong ? 

P. It belongs to one. 

T. Give a name that is common to those three things. 
(Pointing to a pile of books.) 



168 LAHGtTAGE 

P. Book. 

T. Give the proper name. 

P. Monroe's First Keader, Webster's Dictionary, 
Thomson's Arithmetic. 

T. Open your readers and find five proper nouns. 
(Pupils do so. ) With what kind of letter is each begun ? 

P. With a capital letter. 

T. Find a proper noun that does not begin with a 
capital letter. (Pupils fail to find one.) 

1. Write ten proper nouns that are the names of men. 

2. Write ten proper nouns that are the names of 
women. 

3. Write ten proper nouns that are the names of places. 

4. Write ten proper nouns that are the names of 
divisions of time. 

The Possessive Form of Nouns 

T. What is this ? 

P. That is a hat. 

T. Whose hat is it ? 

P. William's. 

T. Make a statement of what you say. 

P. That is William's hat. (Some of the pupils write 
this statement on the board ; the others write it on their 
slates. ) 

'T. What is the word William's ? 

P. A noun. 

T. What kind of a noun ? 

P. A proper noun. 

T. For what is it used in the sentence ? 

P. To tell whose hat. To tell who owns the hat. 

T. You may say possesses, instead of owns. 

P. To tell who possesses the hat. 



PARTS OF SPEECH 169 

T. Speak the word as we commonly hear it. (Pupils 
do so.) 

T. Speak the word as it is here used. (Pupils do so.) 

[This should be repeated, with this and other nouns, 
until the pupils perceive clearly and can state the dif- 
ference between the sounds of the two forms.] 

T. Open your books and find names used as we have 
used the name William in this sentence. (Pupils find 
many names and pronounce them.) 

T. What is the difference in the sounds of these 
words, and the same words as they are commonly called ? 
(Pupils state.) 

T. What do you find in the printed word to represent 
that difference ? 

P. An apostrophe and a letter s. 

T. As you look at the words William and William's, 
what difference can you see ? 

P. One has more letters than the other. A differ- 
ence in the size of them. A difference in the form of 
them. 

T. Because William is the way we commonly use the 
word, what form may we call it ? 

P. The common form. 

T. What shall we call the other form ? (Pupils do 
not know.) 

T. You may call this the possessive form of the noun. 
(Pupils spell the word.) 

1. Write ten common nouns in the possessive case. 

2. Write ten proper nouns in the possessive case. 

In like manner develop all the Parts of Speech, as the 
adjective, pronoun, verb, etc., and make immediate ap^ 



170 LANGUAGE 

plication of tlie terms developed. This will lead the 
pupils pleasantly into the Science of Language so that 
it will become a rational study. 

The Comma Its Use in a Succession of Particulars 

T. I want you to tell by writing on your slates five 
things that this knife has. 

(The pupils at the age of those for whom these les- 
sons are intended will, almost without exception, write 
five sentences : 

This knife has a handle. 

This knife has a blade. 

This knife has a back. 

This knife has a spring. 

This knife has rivets.) 

T. How many sentences have you written ? 

P. Five. 

T. See how many times you have written the words 
this, knife, has, and a. Can you not shorten the work 
by putting all you have to say in one sentence ? 

(Pupils write : 

The knife has a handle and blade and back and spring, 
and rivets.) 

T. Listen closely. I am going to ask you another 
question. What is the use of the words handle, blade, 
back, spring, and rivets ? What did you discover ? 

P. You said and only before the last word. 

T. Now I think you can give the sentence that you 
have been writing, and have it just right. Who will 
try ? (Hands are raised.) 

P. The knife has a handle, blade, back, spring, and 
rivets. 



PARTS 01* SPEECH 1?1 

T. That is right. All repeat. (Pupils repeat, and 
write on their slates.) 

T. There is a question unanswered. Who can give 
it ? (Hands are raised.) 

P. What is the use of the words handle, blade, back, 
spring and rivets ? 

T. Eight. Who will answer it ? 

P. To show what the knife has. 

T. Because they are all used for that purpose what 
may we say about them ? 

P. They are used in the same way. They are used 
alike. 

T. Now turn to your books, and find words that are 
used alike, and see how they are written ; then we shall 
know whether our work is right or not. What do you 
discover ? 

P. There is a comma after each of the words except 
the last. (Pupils correct the work on their slates. ) 

T. You say these words are used in the same way. 
How hiany words in this sentence are used in the same 
way ? 

P. Five. Many. Several. 

T. Which now makes the best answer to my ques- 
tion five, many, or several ? 

P. Several. 

T. I think so. We have learned something about 
the use of the comma, and I want you to tell me what 
it is. 

P. When several words are used in the same way, a 
comma is placed after each except the last. 

(The teacher ought now to suggest many kinds of 
sentences containing successions of particulars, and 



172 LANGUAGE 

have them all written and carefully criticised. Drill on 
this lesson should continue several days.) 

THEMES FOR COMPOSITION 

/. Directions 

1. The teacher will select a familiar theme and ask 
suggestive questions. 

2. Write the correct answers on the board. 

Water 

a. Where does the water come from ? 
1). How does it reach the clouds ? 

c. In what form is it carried ? 

d. What causes it to fall to the earth ? 

e. Is rain useful ? 

/. In what way is it useful ? 

A Journey 

a. The starting point. 
Z>. Time of departure. 

c. Mode of travel. 

d. Destination. 

e. Appearance of the country. 
/. Kind of trees, flowers, etc. 
g. Return. 

CAUTION. Enlarge upon the idea of criticising and 
correcting by the pupils. 

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES 
/. Directions 

1. Tell or read a short story, and require the pupils 
to reproduce it. 

2. Write a letter to a wealthy merchant in New York 
city, requesting a situation as salesman in his store. 



THEMES FOE COMPOSITIONS 173 

3. Write an advertisement describing a lost child. 

4. Write a composition on each of the following 
proverbs, explaining its meaning, and showing how far 
it is true : 

a. " Fortune favors the brave." 
I. "All is well that ends well." 

c. " Strike while the iron is hot." 

d. " A little pot is soon hot." 

e. " Out of sight, out of mind." 

5. Take some poem of several stanzas, and write your 
opinion of it. 

6. Write a letter to the New York Times, giving an 
account of a railway accident. 

7. Write an allegory comparing tobacco to a thief. 

Perhaps as easy a method as any to induce the 
younger class of pupils to make their first Reproduction 
efforts at composition is to read or relate to of stories - 
them a short but interesting story, and desire them to 
write an outline of it, as full and extended as they can 
within a given time. In such an exercise the thoughts 
are already furnished, and the only labor of the pupil 
is to place them in their proper connection and clothe 
them with good language. In an exercise of this kind 
the pupil takes one of his first lessons in generalization ; 
he learns to separate and classify facts, selecting the 
most important, and rejecting those of little conse- 
quence. An excellent series of blanks for this purpose, 
with illustrations and suggestions, is Edwards's " Graded 
Lessons in Language," in six numbers, at $1.00 a dozen. 



174 LANGUAGE 

SUGGESTIVE ABSTRACTS 
Abraham Lincoln 

I. His Early Life. 

a. Birth. 

b. Childhood. 

c. Youth. 

d. Manhood. 

e. Difficulties. 

II. His After Life. 

a. Occupatioo. 

b. Election to the Presidency. 

c. Administration. 

d. Assassination. 

e. Burial. 
III. His Character. 

a. Simplicity. 

b. Uprightness. 

The Influence of Kind Words 

I. A Kind Word costs nothing, yet its influence may last 
through a life time. 

a. Kind words at home. 

b. in school. 

c. to friends. 

d. to our inferiors. 

e. to strangers. 
/. to animals. 

II. The Influence upon the Speaker. 

a. They gain him friends. 

b. They gain him a reputation for amiability. 

c. They keep alive his kindly feelings. 

d. They produce images of beauty in his mind. 

e. They win for him love and gratitude. 

III. The Influence upon the Hearer. 

a. They shame him out of anger. 

b. They comfort him in grief. 
(?. They soothe him in pain. 



SUGGESTIVE ABSTKACTS 175 

IV. The Influence upon Children. 
V. The Influence upon the Poor. 
VI. The Influence upon Other People. 

a. The morose. 

b. The misanthropic. 

c. The wicked. 

d. The weak. 

VII. Uses of Kind Words. 
VIII. Value of Kind Words. 
IX. Compared with : 

a. Angry words. 

b. Cold words. 

c. Hot words. 

d. Bitter words. 

e. Vain words, idle words, empty words, profane words, 

&c. 

X. Conclude by any instances you may be able to recall of the 
influence of kind words in your experience ; as, an anecdote or 
incident. 

Politeness 
I. Definition. 

Ease and grace of manner in the expression of a desire to please 
others, and a careful attention to their wants and wishes. 
II. Politeness exacts of us : 

a. Unselfishness, in our care for the comfort or pleasure 

of others. 

b. Elegance of manner, in our desire to please by our de- 

portment. 

c. Deference toward our superiors, either in age, station 

or importance. 

d. Kindness to our inferiors, either children or servants. 
III. Value of Politeness. 

a. Proceeds from the impulse 01 a kindly nature, proving 

a good heart. 

b. Will admit of a great degree of polish, proving a fin- 

fthed education. 

c. Gives respect where it is due, and thus wins considera- 

tion in return. 



176 LANGUAGE 

d. Gives kindness to inferiors, and thus wins respect and 

gratitude from them. 

e. Promotes good feeling among friends. 
/. Assuages discord, even among enemies. 

IV. Natural Politeness. 

a. Proceeds from the heart without instruction. 

b. Often to be found among the rough and uncultivated, 

even if more clumsily expressed than among the 
educated and refined. 
V. Acquired Politeness. 

a. The observance of points of etiquette and good breed- 

ing by the well educated. 

b. Mere polish of manner, often covering a selfish, hard 

nature. 
VI. Politeness in different Countries. 

a. The etiquette of one nation often considered rude or 

insulting in another. 

b. Every race, even the most savage, has some form of 

outward politeness. 

c. Name any peculiar form of etiquette you may have 

seen or read of. 

VII. Politeness in Children and Young People is one of the most 
winning and graceful of attributes. It is a mistaken 
idea to fancy rudeness a token of manliness or bravery. 
Bayard, one of the bravest of cavaliers, was one of the 
most finished gentlemen mentioned in history. 
VIII. Perfect Politeness may be defined as the union of natural 
politeness of the heart, with the acquired politeness of 
Etiquette and Custom. Holmes describes the combi- 
nation : 

" So gentle blending courtesy and art, 
That wisdom's lips seemed borrowing friendship's heart. " 

Wisdom and Wealth 

I. Wealth may be defined as : 

a. Great possessions. 

b. A large amount of worldly good. 



SUGGESTIVE ABSTRACTS 



177 



II. Mere Money may, it is true, be considered as Wealth, but 
are there not more precious possessions, worldly goods 
far more valuable ? 

III. Poverty, it is true, will impede our search for Wisdom, as 

we shall lack : 

a. Time for study, if obliged to earn a livelihood. 

b. The means of buying books. 

c. The advantage of good instruction. 

IV. But Wisdom once gained is preferable to Money, for these 

reasons : 
a. Once gained it cannot be taken from us, while money 

may be lost by a thousand reverses. 
6. It can never be given to us, but we must taste the 
sweets of exertion and enjoy the reflection that we 
have earned our treasures. 

c. We can never acquire wisdom by theft, or inherit it 
when dishonestly acquired, as we might mere money. 
a. Wisdom is independence. The man who has acquired 
knowledge can in a great measure control his own 
future. His opportunities for earning money are 
largely increased ; his pleasures lie in his love of 
reading and study, and are therefore always open to 
him ; he is respected by his fellow men ; he never 
feels the weariness of the vacant mind ; if reverses 
come to him his wisdom enables him to meet them 
bravely and often to conquer them 
V. Conclusion. 

In starting, therefore, in life, the possession of wisdom is 
far preferable to the possession of mere money, if ignorance is the 
price of the latter. A fool can never win honor or even respect 
though he were to possess unbounded riches ; all the pleasures 
that can be purchased are nothing compared to the delights of a 
cultivated mind arid refined intellect. 

Seek, therefore, to gain wisdom, that you may possess the 
true wealth that can never be taken away from you, that you 
win never lose, that you may impart freely tc others, and in so 
imparting increase your own store rather than diminish it. 



178 LANGUAGE 

Whose life more brightly illuminates the pages of the past 
the wise man's or the rich man's ? 

In the history of the future, aim rather to figure as a Socrates 
than as a Croesus. 

Compare the life of the wisest man you can remember, and 
that of the richest man. 

Knowledge is Power ; Wisdom is Wealth. 

Absent Friends 

I. Introduction. 

In this world of change, every one is called upon to feel the 
pain of separation from friends endeared by association or acts of 
kindness. The dearest friends are severed by circumstances, 
often having the ocean between them. 

II. Treatise. 

a. Affection is kept warm by kind remembrance. 

b. Tender recollections will dwell upon words spoken by 

the absent, and the memory of their acts will be 
cherished with pleasure. 

c. Their return to us, or our joining them, will be an- 

ticipated with delight. 

d. The circumstances under which separation took place 

will seriously affect our thoughts. 

1. Parting in anger Time heals rage. 

2. Parting in affection. Time should increase love. 

3. Parting in sorrow. Anticipated joy of meeting 

again. 

e. Separation by death. 

1. Memory of friends then becomes holy and pleasant. 

2. Faults are forgotten when the grave closes over them. 

3. But few homes are without their unf orgotten dead, 

whose memory is associated with some spot or hour. 
/. Compare the pain of parting and the pleasure of meeting. 

1. After a journey. 

2. After years of separation. 

3. Hope of reunion in another world. 

"The joy of meeting pays the pangs of absence ; 
JjUse who could bear it ? " 



SYNONYMS 179 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS 

1. Make a plan or outline of the essay before writing any part of it. 

2. Note down in writing any useful thought that may occur to you 

while you are collecting material for your composition. 

EXERCISE IN SYNONYMS 

1. Custom habit. Custom respects the action ; habit the actor. 

By custom we mean the frequent repetition of the same 
act ; by habit the effect which that repetition produces on 
the mind or the body. 

2. Pride vanity. Pride makes us esteem ourselves ; vanity 

makes us desire the esteem of others. 

3. Enough sufficient. Enough relates to the quantity which 

one wishes to have of anything ; sufficient is all that is 
needed. 

4. Remark observe. We remark in the way of attention, in 

order to remember ; we observe in the way of examination, 
in order to judge. 

5. Qualified competent. Qualified, having the training, skill, 

knowledge ; competent, having the power. 

6. Entire complete perfect. Entire, having all its parts ; com- 

plete, all its appendages ; perfect, all essentials, without flaw. 

7. fortitude courage. Fortitude, power to endure pain ; cour- 

age, power to face danger. 

8. Vocation avocation. Vocation is the calling or profession ; 

avocation, the temporary employment. 

9. Excuse pardon forgive. We excuse slight offences ; we 

pardon manifest faults ; we forgive sin. 

10. Or and sublime. Lovely pretty beautiful. (We omit 

definitions. Point out the distinctions.) 

11. Amuse divert entertain. Amuse, to pass time lightly and 

pleasantly away ; divert, to turn one's thoughts to some- 
thing of a livelier interest ; entertain, to put the mind into 
agreeable contact with others, as through conversation, or a 
book. 

12. Arduous hard difficult. Difficult, anything that requires 

more or less exertion to perform it ; hard f that which re- 



180 LANGUAGE 

quires a decidedly greater effort to perform it ; arduous, 
that which requires strenuous and persevering effort to per- 
form it. 

13. Gospel. Derived from the Saxon adjective G6d, meaning 
good, and spell, a narrative the good narrative, or glad 
tidings. Distinguish it from Scripture. 
This can be made a very pleasant and instructive ex- 
ercise ; the teacher should explain and illustrate the 
synonyms, and require the pupils to form sentences, 
using the words correctly. It will teach precision in 
the use of words ; great care should be taken to distin- 
guish between the general meanings and particular 
applications. Wilson's " Elementary English " will be 
found useful ; and Rogers " Thesaurus " is invaluable. 
Instruct the pupils to use simple, plain terms ; com- 
pare the quotations below and study the difference in 
the purpose and form of expression. 

" Life is real, life is earnest ; and the grave is not its goal ; 
Dust thou art, to dust returnest, was not spoken of the soul." 

Longfellow. 

" Life is the definite combination of definite composite hetero- 
geneous changes, both simultaneous and successive, in correspond- 
ence with external co-existences and sequences." Herbert Spencer. 

COMMON MISTAKES 

1. " We have no corporeal punishment here/' said a 
teacher. Corporeal means having a body and is opposed 
to spiritual. Say, corporal punishment. 

2. " Set down and rest yourself ;" say, sit down. 

3. " Who do you mean ?" say whom. 

4. " He has got my slate ; " omit got. 

5. " Wlio done it \" say did it. 

6. (t I intended to have written a letter yesterday ; " 
say, to write. 



MISTAKES AHD VtJLGAKISMS 181 

7. " The girl speaks distinct ; " say,, distinctly. 

8. " He lives at New York ; " say, in New York. 

9. " He made a great splurge ; " say, he made a blus- 
tering effort. The first savors of slang. 

10. "My brother lays ill of a fever ;" should be my 
brother lies ill of a fever. 

VULGAEISMS 

The following words and expressions should be strictly 
avoided in conversation and in writing. Only a few of 
the many hundreds in use are given, simply as sug- 
gestions. 

1. " Acknowledge the corn/' instead of to admit. 

2. " Ain't," instead of am not or isn't. 

3. " Awful," instead of ugly or difficult. 

4. " Beat out," instead of tired. 

5. ' ' Dreadful, "instead of very. 

6. " Hopping mad," instead of very angry. 

7. " Strapped," wanting or out of money. 

8. " Wrathy," instead of angry. 

9. "Female," correctly used with reference to sex alone. To 
speak of a woman simply as a female is ridiculous. 

The teacher should keep a record of all the mistakes 
made by the pupils, and encourage them to Recordof 
do the same. Once a week these should be mist akes. 
written on the board, and corrected by the pupils, the 
teacher assisting when necessary. 

The pupils should be required to copy in a note-book 
the exercises in a form similar to the above. 

Let the pupils learn the correct way of speaking by a 
correct use of the term. Arbitrary rules are of little 
use in the beginning. 



182 LAH6tTAGE 

FINAL SUGGESTIONS 

The teacher, at first, will assist the pupils to classify 
outlines of subjects, draw outlines, and form correct 
compositions, tabulations. Questions may be used for a 
brief time, to teach classification ; but should be cast 
aside as soon as possible. The teacher should always 
require pupils to hand in an outline of the subject. 
This plan will cultivate individuality and originality 
and give the pupils a training, intellectually, that will 
prove of great service in after life. 

The teacher must not attempt to do any more than 

Thought the S ^ e Can ^ We ^' ^ Would not do, for ill- 
one essential, stance, to select an object in which the 
properties to be illustrated were not well developed, nor 
an object with which the pupils were not familiar. 

Every lesson should be given in such a way as to 
draw out the perceptive powers of the pupil by leading 
him to reflect on what he sees, or to analyze the object 
before him. Powers are to be strengthened only by 
teaching the pupil to THINK upon what he sees. 

1. Prepare yourself beforehand on the subject, fixing 
important * n J OUY mind exactly what aspects you will 
suggestions, bring up, just what definitions and illustra- 
tions you will give or draw out of the class. 

2. Have the work marked or written down in the 
form of a synopsis. 

3. Use the board in all exercises ; write on it techni- 
cal words, classification of the knowledge brought out 
in the recitation, and, whenever possible, illustrative 
drawings. 



FINAL SUGGESTIONS 183 

4. Whenever the subject is of such a nature as to 
allow it, the teacher should bring in real objects illus- 
trative of it and encourage the children to do the same. 

5. Do not burden the pupil with too many new tech- 
nical phrases at a time, nor fall into the opposite error 
of using only the loose common vocabulary of ordinary 
life, which lacks scientific precision. 

6. Discuss the topics thoroughly. 

7. Do not overburden the pupil's memory. 

8. Do not distract his power of attention. 

9. Never take up a topic that you are unable to ex- 
plain and illustrate so clearly as to make the pupil un- 
derstand it. 

10. Avoid all phases of the subject that will tend to 
confuse rather than enlighten. 

11. Draw out in a conversational way the experience 
and information which your scholars already possess on 
the subject. 

12. Never omit to show by a synopsis on the board 
what has been discussed in the lesson, its classification 
and relation. 

13. Eequire short weekly compositions of the pupils, 
expressing in their own language their ideas on the 
subject. 

By spending ten or fifteen minutes each day, in a 
familiar, conversational lecture, upon some Top i CS f or 
topic or object, selected from the following brief talks - 
list, not only will the scholars be interested and learn 
many new truths in a way to remember them, but the 
teacher himself will derive great advantage from his 
preparation for such an exercise. Whenever it can be 
done, the means of illustration should be at hand, to 



184 



LANGUAGE 



demonstrate to the eye, and thus fasten upon the mind 
the facts and reasoning of the lecturer. The curiosity 
of the pupils should be excited, and questions and re- 
marks should be encouraged, for by these means they 
will be led to closer habits of thought and observation. 

45. Feathers. 

46. Coral. 

47. Gutta-percha. 

48. A piece of fur. 

49. Rotundity of the 
earth. 

50. Spheroidal form 
of the earth. 

51. Origin and use of 
salt in the sea. 

52. Commerce. 

53. The seasons. 

54. Phases of the 
moon. 

55. Tides. 

56. Eclipses. 

57. Electricity. 

58. Mariner's com- 
pass. 

59. Circulation of the 
blood. 

Questions for Debate 

Is the farmer the most useful member of society ? 
Does wealth tend to exalt the human character ? 
Has civilization increased human happiness ? 
Are great men the greatest benefactors of the world ? 
Is intemperance a greater evil than war ? 



1. 

2. 


Glass. 
India-rubber. 


23. Vinegar. 
24. Butter. 


3. 


Leather. 


25. Cheese. 


4. 
5. 


Sponge. 
Wool. 


26. Coffee. 
27. Tea. 


6. 


Wax. 


28. Rice. 


7. 
8. 


Whalebone. 
Bread. 


29. Paper. 
30. Cotton. 


9. 
10. 


Ivory. 
Chalk. 


31. Flax. 
32. Silk. 


11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 


A pin. 
A pencil. 
A brick. 
An acorn. 


33. Gold. 
34. Silver. 
35. Mercury. 
36. Lead. 


15. 
16. 


A cork. 
A stone. 


37. Copper. 
38. Iron. 


17. 


Cinnamon. 


39. Tin. 


18. 
19. 
20. 


Nutmeg. 
Ginger. 
Gloves. 


40. Lime. 
41. Coal. 
42. Granite. 


21. 


Water. 


43. Salt. 


22. 


oil. 


44. Slate. 



MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS 



185 



Do inventions improve the condition of the laboring 
classes ? 

Is the expectation of reward a greater incentive to 
exertion than the fear of punishment ? 

Do savage nations possess the right to the soil ? 

Is the mind of woman inferior to that of man ? 

Is the pen mightier than the sword ? 

Has increased wealth a favorable influence on the 
morals of the people ? 

Did the Crusaders benefit Europe ? 

Was the invention of gunpowder an evil ? 

Is the existence of political parties an evil ? 

Is the pulpit a better field for eloquence than the bar ? 

Subjects for Compositions 



Spring. 

Flowers. 

A Thunder-storm. 

What becomes of the Rain. 

Blessings of Hope. 

Flowers of Memory. 

The Prairies. 

Unity in Diversity. 

Snow. 

Mountains. 

Forests. 

The Beauties of Nature. 

Our Country. 

The Study of History. 

Peace. 

War. 

The Ruins of Time. 

The Fickleness of Fortune. 

A Dream. 

A Ray of Light. 



A Drop of Water. 

Immutability of Change. 

Town and Country. 

Never Give Up. 

Benevolence. 

History of a Looking-glass. 

Power of Mind. 

The Bible. 

The Sunny Side. 

The Aurora Borealis. 

The Earth. 

The Shady Side. 

Human Genius. 

Aim High. 

Past and Present. 

Book of Nature. 

Hope On, Hope Ever. 

Nature's Mysteries. 

The Contrast. 

The Starry Heavens. 



186 



LANGUAGE 



By-gone Hours. 
Immortality of the Soul. 
Influence of the Great and 

Good. 

Poetry of Nature. 
Music of Nature. 
Memory of our Fathers. 
Matter and Mind. 
The Stuff that Dreams are 

made of. 
The Seasons. 
Heat. 
Light. 

The Spirit of Discovery. 
The Art of Fruiting. 
Newspapers. 
Novelty. 
The Sun. 
The Rainbow. 
The Moon, 
the Stars. 

The Study of Geography. 
The Pleasures of Travelling. 
The Application of Steam. 
Rivers. 
To-morrow. 
The Ocean. 
Manufactures. 
The Influence of Women. 
Hero-worship. 
Magic of Kindness. 
Cost of Civility. 
Things that Cost Nothing. 
The Orphan. 
The Rolling Stone. 
Teachers. 
Loved Faces. 



We Bloom To-Day, To-m6r- 
row Die ! 

The Wreath of Fame. 

Reflections of a Looking-glass. 

Early Companionship. 

Music of the Sea-shell. 

Letter from the Town. 

Letter from the Country. 

Tricks of Trade. . 

Keepsakes. 

My Room-mate. 

The True Friend. 

What Shall we Read ? 

School Associations. 

Paddle Your Own Canoe. 

Star of Home. 

One by One. 

I've Wandered in Dreams. 

Philosophy of a Tear. 

Music of the Spheres. 

Oppression the Nursery of Re- 
form. 

The Book. 

Peaceful Conquests. 

The True Hero. 

Sources of a Nation's Wealth. 

Commerce. 

Early Rising. 

Cheerfulness. 

The Uses of Biography. 

The Backwoodsman. 

Punctuality. 

Curiosity. 

Foppery. 

Gardening. 

Modern Delusions. 

Young America. 



MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS 187 

The Multiplication of Books. The First Stroke is Half the 

The Philosopher's Stone. Battle. 

Nature and Art. Make Hay while the Sun Shines. 

The Freedom of the Press. Necessity is the Mother of In- 

The Present. vention. 

The Past. A Picture of Fancy. 

The Future. Leaflets of Memory. 

Silent Influence. A Soft Answer Turneth away 

The Monuments of Antiquity. Wrath. 

Rome was not Built in a Day. Avoid Extremes. 

A list of 1,000 graded subjects for composition will 
be found in* Emerson's "Rules for Essay- Writing." 

REFERENCE BOOKS 

VERBAL PITFALLS. A manual of 1,500 words commonly 
misused, including all those the .use of which in any sense has 
been questioned by Dean Alvord, G. W. Moon, Fitzedward Hall, 
Archbishop Trench, Wm. C. Hodgson, W. L. Blackley, G. F. 
Graham, Richard Grant White, M. Schele de Vere, Wm. Mat- 
thews, "Alfred Ay res," and many others. Arranged alphabet- 
ically, with 3,000 references and quotations, and the rulings of 
tne dictionaries. By C. W. Bardeen. 16mo, pp. 223. 75 cts. 

ORTHOEPY MADE EASY. A Royal Road to Correct Pronuncia- 
tion. By M. W. Hall. 16mo, pp. 103. 75 cts. 

OUTLINES OF SENTENCE MAKING. A brief course in compo- 
sition. By C. W. Bardeen. 12mo, pp. 187. 60 cts. 

A SYSTEM OF RHETORIC. By C. W. Bardeen. 12mo, pp. 813. 
$1.75. 

A SHORTER COURSE IN RHETORIC. By C.W. Bardeen. 12mo, 
pp. 311. $1.00. 



GRAMMAR 



Grammar deals largely with abstract relations, and 
A mature ^ or tn ^ s reason some maturity in the pupil is 
study. indispensable. A great deal of time is wasted 

upon this subject ; if presented wisely and at the proper 
time it will prove delightful and interesting. 

A common fault in teaching grammar is to require 
pupils to commit to memory definitions and rules that 
have for him no meaning. Grammar should at first be 
taught orally ; all the terms should be developed, ex- 
plained and illustrated by copious examples. When 
these terms are fully understood, then, and not until 
then, should the pupils be required to commit the rules 
to memory. As fast as the terms are learned, the 
pupils should be required, in all cases, to embody them 
in sentences of their own construction. 

GENERAL PLAN OF STUDY 
I. Develop the Sentence. 



II. Develop the parts of a 
Sentence. 



III. Develop the kinds of 
Sentences (as to use.) 



1. Subject. 

2. Predicate. 

1. Declarative, 

2. Interrogative. 

3. Imperative. 



4. Exclamatory. 
(138) 



GENERAL PLAN OF STUDY 189 

fl. Simple. 
. 
2. Complex. 
3. Compound. 

V. Teach the correct use of Capital Letters. 
VI. Teach the correct use of Punctuation Marks. 

The Sentence 

Ask the pupils to think of some object. Ask them 
how you may know the name of the object. 
They perceive that before their thoughts can 
be known to others they must express them. In order 
to communicate your thoughts, what must you use ? 
They will discover that to express a thought, they must 
use words. Now ask each pupil to express a thought, 
as " The bird sings ;" " The tree grows ;" " The boy 
laughs ;" " The clock ticks " etc. They are now told 
that a thought expressed in words is called a sentence. 

Eequire the pupils to form several sentences orally, 
using the following analysis : 

I first think about something ; I use words to express 
my thought. The words used are: " The bird sings." 
These words express a thought, and form a sentence. A 
thought expressed in words is called a Sentence. 

The pupils have already discovered that there must 
be an object or subject of thought in the 
mind. And when they tell their thoughts 
they speak of some object or subject and tell something 
about it. They are led to see this in every sentence. 
By repeated trials they soon find that they can form no 
sentence without speaking of something and telling 
something about it. 



190 GRAMMAR 

Ask the pupils to express a sentence and analyze it. 
" The clock ticks. " 

" The clock ticks/' is a thought expressed in words ; it 
is a sentence. The word "clock" represents the object 
upoken of; it is the subject. The word "ticks' 9 repre- 
sents what is said of the clock ; it is the predicate. 

That of which something is said, is called the subject. 

That which is said of the subject is called the predi- 
cate. 

By a similar process of development the pupils are 
The object, led to observe the object of a sentence. 

The teacher should write at the board all the sen- 
tences given. 

It would be well for the teacher to ask questions of 
Kinds of sen- ^ ne pupils and endeavor to get in reply the 
tences. different kinds of sentences, as asking, tell- 

ing, etc. The teacher should write these sentences as 
given by the pupils on the board, and let the pupils dis- 
cover the differences. Let them see that every telling 
or declarative sentence, ends with a period. Every ask- 
ing or interrogative sentence ends with the mark of 
interrogation ; every exclaiming sentence with an excla- 
mation point ; and every commanding or imperative 
sentence with & period. 

REVIEW. To be committed to memory. 

1. A thought expressed in words, is a Sentence. 

2. That of which something is said, is called the Sub- 
ject. 

3. That which tells what is said of the subject, is 
called the Predicate. 

4. That which receives the act expressed by the predi- 
cate, is called the Object. 



KINDS OF SENTENCES 191 

Every sentence should leg in with a Capital Letter. 
Every sentence should end with a Punctuation Mark. 

The Telling, or Declarative Sentence 

Teacher. Make a sentence about this cap. 

Pupil. The cap is red. 

(The teacher writes on the board, while the pupils 
spell the words. ) 

T. What did you do wnen you made this sentence ? 

P. We told you something said about the cap. 

T. Because this sentence tells or says something, 
what kind of a sentence may we call it ? 

P. We may call it a telling sentence. 

T. What then is a telling sentence ? 

P. A sentence that tells or declares something. 

T. What mark must be placed after the last word of 
every telling sentence ? 

P. A period. 

T. What have we learned in our lesson of to-day ? 

P. A sentence that tells something is called a Telling, 
or Declarative Sentence. We must place a Period after 
the last word of every telling, or declarative sentence. 

Eequire the pupils to write on their slates the defini- 
Fix facts by ^ on ^ a sentence, subject, predicate, object, 
wnting them. a telling sentence and the rule for punctua- 
tion. Let the pupils spell the words, and examine the 
slates carefully. 

The Asking, or Interrogative Sentence 

T. I will ask you a question, and will write it on the 
board. " Do you love study ? " What did I do ? 
P. You asked a question. 



192 GRAMMAB 

T. Because it asks a question, what kind of a sentence 
is it? 

P. An asking sentence. 

T. What is an asking sentence ? 

P. A sentence that asks a question is an asking sen- 
tence. 

Let the pupils repeat, spell words, and write the defi- 
nition on their slates ; ask them to examine their reading 
books, and bring in asking sentences. 

Drill upon the above until every member knows how 
to use the period and the interrogation mark. 

The Commanding, or Imperative Sentence 

T. Tell me to do something. Can I use another word 
instead of tell? 

P. You can use command. 

T. Give me a command. 

P. "Hand me a cup." 

T. What does this sentence do ? 

P. It makes a command. 

T. What kind of a sentence may we call it ? 

P. A commanding sentence. 

T. What is a commanding sentence ? 

P. A sentence that expresses a command is a com- 
manding sentence. 

T. What mark have I placed after the last word of 
the commanding sentence ? 

P. A period. 

T. How do I begin a commanding sentence ? 

P. With a capital letter. 

T. How do I close it ? 

P. With a period. 



KINDS OF SENTENCES 193 

T. What is a sentence ? 

What is a telling sentence ? 

What is an asking sentence ? 

What is a commanding sentence ? 

How do I close every asking sentence ? 

How do I close every telling sentence ? 

Write five telling, five asking, and five command- 
ing sentences. 

Write the definitions of the telling, asking and 
commanding sentences. 

The Exclaiming, or Exclamatory Sentence 

T. If you should see a house on fire, what would you 
say ? 

P. " 0, see the fire ! " "A house on fire ! " 

T. What would you call these expressions ? 

P. Exclamations. 

T. What do these sentences do ? 

P. They make exclamations. 

jP. What kind of sentences are they ? 

P. Exclaiming sentences. 

T. What is an exclaiming sentence ? 

P. A sentence that makes an exclamation, is an ex- 
claiming sentence. 

T. What mark do you find after the last word ? 

P. An exclamation point. 

T. You may all write an exclaiming sentence. 

Kequire the pupils to repeat all the definitions, see 
that they understand the idea before com- 
mitting them to memory. Let them construct drill in com- 
and write many sentences, holding them 
rigidly to the correct use of capital letters and punctua- 



194 GRAMMAR 

tion marks, and requiring neatness in every exercise. 
Work on each sentence until it is right. If necessary 
to success, be willing to work three days on one short 
lesson. " Not how much, but how well/' should be the 
motto. 

Review, to be committed to Memory. 

1. A thought expressed in words is a Sentence. 

2. A sentence that tells or declares something is a 
Telling or Declaring Sentence. 

3. After the last word of every Telling or Declaring 
Sentence we must place a Period. 

4. A sentence that asks a question is an Asking or 
Interrogative Sentence. 

5. After the last word of every Asking or Interroga- 
tive Sentence we must place an Interrogation Mark. 

6. A sentence that expresses a command is called a 
Commanding or an Imperative Sentence. 

7. After the last word of every Commanding or Im- 
perative Sentence, we must place a Period. 

8. A sentence that makes an exclamation is an Ex- 
claiming or Exclamatory Sentence. 

9. After the last word of every Exclaiming or Ex- 
clamatory Sentence, we must use the Exclamation Point. 

NOTE. Simple as this may seem, it requires on the 
part of the teacher a great deal of patience to teach it 
thoroughly. This is a very important subject, and the 
pupils should be able to make practical application of 
the above points. "Make haste slowly." 

The attention of the pupils should be called to the 
use of capi- capital letters at the beginning of all these 
tai letters. different sentences. This is very important, 
and one of the most practical rules in grammar. Ke- 



ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES 195 

quire written exercises to be brought into the class, 
subject to the criticism of the class and teacher. 

After the pupils have been made thoroughly familiar 
with the sentence, subject, predicate, and 
object, with the kinds of sentences, capital 
letters and punctuation marks, they should be required 
to form sentences and analyze them, and write the 
definitions of all the terms that have been taught. A 
perfect understanding of the thought to be expressed is 
essential to correct analysis ; hence, the first step should 
be to prepare the pupils to analyze sentences they them- 
selves have constructed. When they have become quite 
expert at this, they may analyze the thoughts of others. 

Let it be the aim of the teacher to present the subject 
so pleasantly and attractively that pupils will not say, 
as is often the case, " What a dry, distasteful, uninter- 
esting subject." 

Sentences Classified According to their Propositions 

T. Jennie, what have you in your hand ? 

P. I have a book. (Teacher writes the answer on 
the board.) 

T. What is the subject ? 

P. The subject is "I." 

T. What is the predicate ? 

P. " Have a book." 

T. When the subject and predicate express a complete 
thought it is called a Single Proposition. 

You may repeat what I have just said. 

P. Suppose it does not express a complete thought ? 

T. It may, or it may not, express a complete thought, 
and still be a proposition for a proposition is the union 



196 GRAMMAR 

of a subject and a predicate. In the example, "I have 
a book," the thought is complete. In the example, "If 
I go," it is incomplete ; both are propositions. 

Fred, do you like the boys in school ? 

P. I like the boys who study. 

T. Eead the first proposition. 

P. " I like the boys." 

T. That is right: why is that a proposition ? 

P. Because it is the union of a subject and a predi- 
cate. 

T. What kind of a proposition is it ? 

P. A single proposition, because it expresses complete 
sense. 

T. Do the words "who study" make sense ? 

P. They do not, if used alone, but with the other 
proposition they assist to complete the sense. 

T. That is right. Are -the words "who study" a 
proposition ? 

P. They are ; because they form the union of a sub- 
ject and predicate. A proposition by itself may or may 
not form a sentence. 

T. What is such a proposition as " who study ", called ? 
Do you know ? 

P. It is called the second proposition. 

T. You might call it that, but it would not be defi- 
nite: we will call it a clause, as it performs different 
offices. 

In the sentence " I like the boys who study," which 
do you think is the principal proposition ? 

P. "Hike the boys." 

T. Why do you think that is the principal ? 



AHALYSIS OF SENTENCES 19? 

P. Because it is that which expresses the leading 
thought. 

T. That is right. Let us all repeat that. 

That which expresses the leading thought is the Lead- 
ing Proposition. 

P. And what of the words " who study " ? 

T. Do they make complete sense ? 

P. They do not ; they seem to have something to do 
with the principal proposition. 

T. That is right, John. They tell the kind of boys. 
We may call them the " study boys". It is not the 
principal proposition. What shall we call it ? In a 
regiment we have principal officers and [Fred answers 
"subordinate".] That is right, Fred. As the words 
"who study" modify the principal proposition we will 
call them a subordinate clause. Now, what is a subor- 
dinate clause ? 

P. The clause that modifies the principal proposition 
is a Subordinate Clause. 

T. You may all repeat it slowly ; so you see that sub- 
ordinate parts or elements are those that belong to 
other elements. They are called subordinate because 
they are under in order, or importance. 

Now, let us find another kind of proposition. I sep 
two boys in the park. Tell their names. 

P. Charles and Frank. 

T. What are they doing ? 

P. Charles runs and Frank walks. 

(Teacher writes answer at the board.) 

T. Read the first proposition. 

P. Charles runs. 

T. Read the second proposition. 



198 

P. Frank walks. 

T. Does the last proposition belong to any word in 
the first ? 

P. It does not. 

T. Does the first proposition belong to any word in 
the second ? 

P. It does not. 

T. Does the first proposition express a complete 
thought in itself ? 

P. It does. 

T. Does the second proposition express a complete 
thought in itself ? 

P. It does. 

T. Since each proposition expresses a thought by 
itself, meaning that it is not dependent, what shall we 
call it ? I will tell you. We call the propositions Co- 
ordinate. It means that the propositions are of equal 
rank. We will now repeat : 

Propositions of equal rank or order are called Co- 
ordinate. 

T. A sentence composed of one proposition is called a 
Simple Sentence ; a sentence composed of a principal and 
one or more subordinate propositions, is called a Complex 
Sentence; a sentence composed of two or more co-ordi- 
nate propositions is called a Compound Sentence. 

The teacher should not leave this division until the 
pupils can bring into the recitation written examples of 
all the different sentences. He should also require the 
pupils to analyze the sentences. 
Review 

1. A proposition is the union of a subject and a 
predicate. 



CLASSIFICATION OF 



199 



2. A proposition ly itself may or may not form a 
sentence. 

3. A single proposition is a sentence when it expresses 
a complete thought. 

4. A proposition may form an element of a sentence ; 
it is then called a clause. 

5. The principal proposition of a sentence is that 
which expresses the leading thought. 

6. A subordinate proposition is one that modifies the 
principal. 

7. Co-ordinate propositions are thosjs of equal rank in 
the same sentence. 

8. A simple sentence is one composed of hut one propo- 
sition. 

9. A complex sentence is one composed of a principal 
and one or more subordinate propositions. 

10. A compound sentence is one composed of two or 
more co-ordinate propositions. 

CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES AND THEIR ELEMENTS 



Sentences, 

Clauses, 

Phrases, 

Subjects, 

Predicates, 

Objects, 

Attributes, 

Modifiers, 

Sentences, 



Clauses, 



Phrases, 



are classified in respect to 
and use, as 



are classified in f Declarative, 
respect to kind) Interrogative, 
or proposition, 1 Imperative, 
as [Exclamatory, 

are classified in respect to kind 
and proposiJn, as 

( 



Simple, 



Compound, 



Complex. 
Affirmative, 



positional, 




> are classified in respect to kind, -j Infinitive, 
) ( Participial. 



200 GftAMMAH 

Sentences, ^j f Substantive, 

Clauses, L are classified in respect to office, J Adverbial' 

Phrases, [ Independent. 

Elements, \ -p . . , ( Subject, ( Verb, 

I Principal, -j Pre( i ica ^ Copu ' la and 

^ *nhn te j Object, ( attribute. 



Sentences. J Subordinate. | ^g^ 

Elements ) ( Principal, 

of v are classified into 1 

Phrases ) ( Adjunct, 

Conjunctions, 



Connective, 
Subsequent. 
Words, 
Modifiers. 



Conjunctive Adverbs, 

Copulas, 

Phrases, 

Relative Pronouns, 

Prepositions. 



Connecting Elements are 
classified into 



Independent Elements are ( 

(Words of Euphony. 

REFERENCE BOOKS 

3000 Grammar Questions, with Answers, based on Brown's 
Grammar, with cross references to the grammars of Murray, 
Greene, Clark, Kerl, Quackenbos, Weld & Quackenbos, Hall, 
Fowler, Swinton, Reed & Kellogg, and Whitney. By HENRY 
KIDDLE, formerly Sup't of Schools, New York city. 16mo, pp. 
200. $1.00. 

Exercises in English Syntax. By A. G. BUGBEE. 16mo, pp. 81 
35 cts. Key 35 cts. 



LETTER-WRITING 



Good letter- writing is one of the foundation-stones of 
business, and one of the strongest connecting Its import . 
links of common life. It were to be wished ance - 
that more attention were paid to the subject of letter- 
writing in our schools. In the present day, when igno- 
rance is deservedly at a discount, and when so much is 
expected of every one, even in a humble position in 
life, there is no reason why letters should furnish so 
many examples of outrageous grammar and absurd 
diction. 

A habit of expressing oneself distinctly and without 
pretension ought to be inculcated in early life. 

When the difficulties of spelling have once been con- 
quered, there will be little difficulty in enabling the 
pupil to acquire such simple forms of letter-writing as 
are necessary to the ordinary correspondence of business. 

"True ease in writing/' as Pope says, "comes by art, 
not chance/' and every element of a complete educa- 
tion will find exercise in correspondence. Here we can 
offer only a few suggestions that may help one who is 
at loss how to begin, and may prevent anything like 
positive awkwardness or inelegance. 

The chief purpose of this chapter is to guide in the 
manner of the mechanical detail of a letter. Mechanical 
It is to be hoped that this subject will re- structure. 

(201) 



202 LETTER-WRITING 

ceive attention, and that pupils may be taught HOW TO 

WRITE A LETTER. 

One can hardly realize that there is a daily average 
of 12,000 or 15,000 dead letters, or about 
400,000 a month. In other words some 
400,000 persons a month undertake to send letters either 
without stamps, without addresses, or with cancelled 
stamps, insufficient postage, illegible or incorrect ad- 
dresses. Many letters are without either stamp or 
address, and often without signature. Strange as it 
may seem, these are sometimes the most valuable letters, 
often containing currency or drafts for large amounts 
of money. It is estimated that some $3,000,000 in 
drafts and $75,000 in cash are sent yearly in letters 
that cannot be delivered. This is all returned, if pos- 
sible, to the persons sending it ; but if any portion of it 
fails to find a claimant, it is turned over to the Post 
Office fund. 

Little difficulty is experienced in restoring checks and 
LOSS of drafts to the rightful owners, but money 

money. generally comes in small sums, and is sent 

in the most careless, haphazard fashion. The loss of 
these amounts represents a deal of suffering and disap- 
pointment. Some hard working man may send $20, 
the savings of a month's labor, to his wife and little 
ones whom he has had to leave behind him ; but, alas, 
he is one of forty thousand who trust to Providence, 
without stamp or address, or else his writing or orthog- 
raphy are beyond mortal ken, and so the poor wife 
never gets the pittance which is her all. 

During November, 1876, more than 400,000 letters, 
newspapers and postal cards, were received for delivery 



*IRST SUGGESTIONS 203 

by the letter carriers of New York city, of which 20, 000 
were returned by them as undeliverable on account of 
incorrect and illegible superscriptions. Four millions 
and a half accumulate annually in the United States. 

Surely every teacher should give instruction in Letter- 
Writing. 

It has been taKen for granted, that pupils who could 
parse and analyze a simple sentence, bound the States 
and Territories, and explain an example in cube root, 
could write a passable letter ; but this is a mistake. A 
majority of our pupils are only able to do what has been 
taught to them, and that thoroughly. It is not enough 
to say to pupils, " You should be able to write a good 
letter ;" you should make sure by your own instruction 
that they can write a good letter. 
I. MECHANICAL STRUCTURE OF THE LETTER 
FIRST ATTEMPTS 

"How shall I teach the pupil to write a letter?" 
Try the following method : Ask him, 

1. What are you going to write about ? Get the real 
fact or incident, and have him write it down 

T . 7 . . Subject. 

in proper form, as his subject. 

2. What is the first thing you wish to tell about ? Tell 
him to write that down by itself, as he wishes 

to tell it. Proceed thus, with the several 
items, 2d, 3d, and so on, till he thinks of nothing more. 
So far you have the material. Now for the order. 
Ask him, 

3. Which of these really ought to come first ? If he 
hits on the right one, have him number it 1. 

If he is wrong, point out the right one. 

Proceed in the same way to find the proper second item, 



204 LETTER-WRITIK& 

and so on to the end. This settles the order. Now 
consider the paragraphs. Ask, 

4. Which of these seem to belong together in a group ? 

Have them numbered a second time, as ^[ 1, 
2, etc. Show the proper method for spacing 
the first lines of paragraphs. Attend next to the ex- 
pression. Ask, 

5. What long words can be changed for short, simple 

words, or those in better taste ? Have the 
changes made by interlining. Next, con- 
sider the capitals and punctuation. Ask, 

6. What ungrammatical words or expressions do you 

find ? Whatever such he finds, correct by 
interlining. Such as he fails to find, point 
out and have corrected. 

7. What words should begin with capitals ? Have 
capitals. these marked. 

8. Where do we want a full separation . Have the 

period inserted. And so proceed, as other 

Punctuation. r . . -. , 

points are needed. 

Now require a complete draught to be made. When 
this is done, examine and correct it under the pupil's 
close observation, explaining the corrections made. 
Lastly, require a carefully written copy according to the 
corrections. 

The materials for letter-writing should be of good 
quality. Good materials cost only a trifle 
more than poor ones. The paper for busi- 
ness correspondence should be white or tinged with 
blue. The size of the paper should be adapted to the 
size of the envelope to be used. 



THE HEADING 205 

In business correspondence, it is not in good taste to 
use tinted or colored paper. 

Avoid the use of all fancy inks, and use simple black ; 
all other colors fade. 

Do not use envelopes of irregular or fanciful shape, 
and let them be adapted in size and color, to the paper. 
White is always suitable. 

The Heading 

The Heading includes the place and date. If your 
letter is to consist of one page only, the prop- 
er position for the Heading is on the first 
line : if of less than one page, proportionately lower ; so 
that the space at the bottom of the page may be equal 
to the space at the top. Begin the Heading a little to 
the left of the middle of the page ; and if it is too long 
to be placed within the limit of a half line, let it be ex- 
tended for completion to the next line below. It usually 
occupies two lines, but never more than three ; when 
two lines are used the second should begin farther to 
the right than the first. Business letters should always 
be dated at the top ; some place the date at the bottom, 
but this form is used more generally in social correspond- 
ence. When placed at the bottom it must be near the 
left edge of the paper, one line below the signature. 
(Model 5.) 

The heading of a letter should be self-explaining. 
The name of the State and County should be 
expressed, unless the letter is addressed to a 
very large city, like New York or Boston. If the letter 
is written in a city the street and number should be ex- 
pressed. The Heading should be full and complete, so 



206 LETTER-WRITING 

that when a person answers the message, he may know 
where to send. 

The date includes the month, day of the month, and 

the year ; if letters are used after the figures, 

let them be placed on a line with the figures, 

and not a little above the line. The best usage requires 

cardinal numbers rather than ordinal Dec. 10, not 

Dec. 10th. 

The parts of the Heading should be separated by com- 
mas, and a period should be placed at the close 
of the Heading and after abbreviations. The 
ordinal adjectives 1st, 5th, 27th, are not abbreviations, 
and they should be followed by a comma. The Head- 
ing is an abridged form of sentence, composed of 
phrases, and phrases are usually set off by commas. 
The teacher should write or have written on the board 
the correct form of the heading of a letter, 
>ns * calling attention to the position and arrange- 
ment of the parts, capital letters, arjd punctuation. 
He should require the pupils to copy the correct form 
on their slates, spell the words, and give the correct ar- 
rangement and position of all the parts. 

Various Headings should be given by the teacher un- 
til the pupils are thoroughly familiar with them. A 
few lessons methodically given, will SECURE MASTERY. 

MODEL 1 
Albany, New York, 

June 10, 1877. 



MODEL 2 
Amsterdam, 

Montgomery Co., N. Y., 

June 11, 1880, 



THE INTRODUCTION 201 

MODEL 3 
Vassar College, 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 

March 21, 1880. 



MODEL 4 
1109 East Genesee St., Syracuse, N. Y., 

Tuesday, Dec. 10, 1889. 



MODEL 5 
221 Fifth Avenue, 

Chicago, III, Aug. 30, 1893. 



The Introduction 

The name of the person to be addressed should be 
given on the line below the Heading, at the 
right and near the marginal line. It may 
occupy one, two, or three lines. The first line of the 
address should contain the name and title alone ; it 
should begin even with all the lines of the page, exceDt 
the Heading and those that commence paragraphs. 

The American form of correspondence places the 
address before the salutation, except in letters of an 
official character ; then it is placed at the close of the 
letter, at the left of the signature ; this corresponds 
with the English style. 

The direction should be as full in the address as in 
the Heading. The letter should be self-ex- 
plaining ; it should contain not only the 
name and residence of the writer, but also the name 
and residence of the person to whom it is written 



208 LETTER-WRITING 

The name should be written in full ; for example, we 
write to J. C. Knox, Colorado Springs, Col- 
orado ; as it stands now it may mean James 
C. Knox or Jennie C. Knox. It is better, unless the 
party is well known, to write the full Christian name, 
and not the initials of the name. Too much pains cannot 
be taken in the address of letters and the superscription 
of envelopes. In New York city there are hundreds of 
persons by the name of John Smith ; in order to avoid 
confusion and prevent the profanity of mail carriers, it 
would be better for all correspondents to write the full 
name, the proper title and the name and the number of 
the street. 

The common titles are Mr., Mrs., Miss, and Esq. Mr. 
is an abbreviation of Mister ; Mrs. is an ab- 

Title 

breviation of Mistress, but pronounced 
Missis, which is written Mrs.; Miss is not considered 
an abbreviation, but a contraction from the word 
Mistress ; Esq. is an abbreviation of Esquire. 

The following will illustrate the various titles fixed 
Titles. by custom. 

To the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

To the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty. 

To his Grace the Duke of Argyle. 

To the Most Noble the Marquis of Westminster, 

To the Eight Honorable the Earl of Derby. 

His Excellency Grover Cleveland, President of the 
United States. 

The title of His Excellency is also applied to the 
Governor of any State, or to a Foreign Minister. 

Honorable Adlai Stevenson, Vice-President of the 
United States. 



THE INTBODUCTIOtf 209 

The title of Honorable is also applied to Senators and 
Representatives of the United States, Governors of a 
State, State Senators and Representatives, Judges, 
Mayors, and Heads of Executive Departments of the 
General Government. 

The term Esquire is applied very indiscriminately. 
Properly it is limited to members of the legal profes- 
sion, or to non-professional gentlemen of note and dis- 
tinction. 

Two titles of the same class should not be applied to 
the same name. Thus in addressing John Roe, do not 
say Mr. John Roe, Esq.; though you may say Mr. John 
Roe, or John Roe, Esq. 

If the profession of the person addressed be known, 
the professional title should always be used. If a per- 
son be entitled to two titles, the higher is given ; if both 
are used, the lower first, followed by the higher. 

Titles of respect are usually placed before the name ; 
as Mr., Hon.) Rev., Dr., and military titles. 

Professional titles sometimes precede, and sometimes 
follow the name. Dr. Fred Childs or Fred Childs, M. D. ; 
Prof. Moses True Brown, or Moses True Brown, A. M. 

All titles should be written plainly and in full. 

One title should not include another, as Dr. Graham 
B. Bristol, M. D. It is allowable in writing to a clergy- 
man whose surname alone is known to us, to write 
Rev. Mr. Smith, the Mr. being in this case regarded as 
a substitute for the Christian name. A common but 
barbarous error is to write " Rev. Smith. " 

Two literary, or professional titles may be added to 
one name; thus, Prof. Leroy Cooley, A. M.; Rev. Dr. 
Shaw ; Rev. M. B. Anderson, D.D., LL. D. 



210 LETTER-WEITING 

The wife of a professional man may be addressed, 
using the following title, as Mrs. Dr. Brown, Mrs. Sec- 
retary Bowen. It is a frequent custom to address the 
wife in her own name, as, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe. 
This is required in business transactions. 

The salutation should never be omitted ; it expresses 
politeness, respect, or affection. The terms 

Salutation. , , . ., . --,,. 

employed in writing to a man are Sir, Dear 
Sir, My dear Sir. 

The word Dear implies that the parties are acquainted ; 
My dear Sir suggests intimacy or friendship. 

In addressing a married woman, the following form 
is usual, including the title and Christian name of the 
husband : 

Mrs. Dr. J. J. Anderson, 

105 Madison Avenue, 

Albany, N. Y. 

Madam, 

In the use of salutations, it is better to be too formal 
Avoid than too familiar. To use a term of affec- 

famiiiarity. j on wnen no endearment exists between the 
parties, is highly improper. It is assuming undue 
familiarity, not warrantable in business correspondence. 

On the other hand, a friendly correspondence once 
But do not established must not relapse into mere 
be capricious, formalities, unless a decided quarrel and 
separation have taken place. Small differences or dis- 
agreements should make no change in your modes of 
address and expression. You may some day have to 
oppose your friend at a caucus meeting, or in a warm 
discussion on religion or politics ; yet his aversion to 
your views, and your impetuous opposition to his, are 



THE INTRODUCTION 211 

not to prevent you writing "My dear Harry " 9 or " My 
dear Tompkins", or "My dear Sir", as you did before 
the difference broke out. Depend upon it there is 
nothing more contemptible than to taint the amenities 
of social life with exhibitions of temper or vexation, 
or to suffer the pen to express unfriendly sentiments or 
greetings of a suddenly cool character, because some 
trifling difference has arisen between yourself and your 
friend. 

Here it should be hinted that whatever mode you 
adopt in addressing a person, is to be preserved in 
future correspondence, if not in exactly the same words, 
at least the same in purport ; you must not go back ex- 
cept for a special reason, but you may go forward with 
a proper grace as intimacy ripens, and increase the 
warmth of your congratulations. 

We remember an incident which may be mentioned 
in illustration of this. A gentleman had been for many 
years on terms of intimate friendship with his tailor, 
and the correspondence between them, whether of a 
friendly or a business nature, had always a cordial tone 
pervading it, until on one occasion the friendship was 
slightly interrupted. In fact, the gentleman was a little 
in arrear as to the settlement of his friend's account, 
and the latter sent a short and brusque letter, as follows : 
-Sir, 

"I am disappointed in not having received the amount of my 
bill as promised by you in your last ; may I beg the favor of a 
speedy settlement ? Yours obediently, 

SIMON SLOWSTITCH." 

To this an answer was returned as follows : 
' ' My dear Slowstitch, 

' ' Last time you wrote I owed you nothing, and you addressed 
me as your 'Dear Nonplus'; but since I have unfortunately 



212 LETTER-WRITING 

failed to meet your demand, according to my own promise, you 
reduce me to a mere ' Sir ', upon your list of patrons. Do you 
intend to terminate a friendship of ten years in this way, or do 
you propose resuming the ' Dear Nonplus ', with a view to be 
mine ' faithfully ', when the account is settled (as it will be to- 
morrow), remaining in the meanwhile mine ' obediently ', only ? 
Will you allow me to suggest that expressions of friendship are 
open to question, both as to their value and their sincerity, when 
they are made to depend on business relations for their respective 
amounts of warmth or coldness which shall be infused into them. 
To be consistent, I shall have to adopt a cringing tone when I 
owe you money, and a tone of pompous patronage the moment I 
have paid it ; that is, if any correspondence should continue be- 
tween yourself and Yours very truly, 

STEPHEN NONPLUS." 

Among the forms of address for friendly, complimen- 
tary and semi-business letters, we have the formal " Dear 
Sir " for use on all occasions. The solicitor so addresses 
his client, the client his solicitor, the patient his physi- 
cian, the editor his contributor, and, indeed, any man 
of gentlemanly pretentions, addressing another to whom 
he has already been introduced, or with whom he has 
already corresponded. In correspondence of a profes- 
sional nature, where both parties are strangers, it would 
always be well to commence with the simple "Sir", or 
" Madam ", and in the second or third letter adopt the 
more agreeable "Dear Sir", or "Dear Madam". A 
little enhancement of the gentlemanly or ladylike feel- 
ing is to be found in "My dear Sir", or f ' My dear 
Madam ", which may by degrees, as the parties know 
and respect each other more sincerely, take a very 
friendly and now fashionable form of " My dear Mr. 
Swallowwing", "My dear Mrs. Pettitoe", or " My dear 
Miss Nightingale ". The latter form is that most in 



THE 

use at the present day in polite society, between persons 
who have met at least once, and who are on terms of 
acquaintance in which business has no part. 

When folks begin to say " My dear Higginbottom ", 
" My dear old boy ", and " My dear fellow ", all strict 
rules of etiquette are at an end, and good sense gives a 
proper form to the free expression of mutual friendship. 

The salutation used in addressing a woman, either 
married or single, is Madam, Dear Madam, or In writing 
My dear Madam. In writing to a young to women, 
unmarried lady, it is customary to omit the salutation 
and address her with the title prefixed to her surname, 
with the address at the bottom of the letter, at the left. 
(Model 9.) 

J. Willis Westlake says, "In writing to a lady wno 
is a stranger or mere acquaintance, persons 
often feel a delicacy, (unnecessarily so, it 
seems to us,) about saying ( Dear Miss Blank ', or f Dear 
Madam \ Dear does not mean any more in 'Dear 
Miss', than it does in 'Dear Sir*. Surely no lady 
would hesitate to use the latter form of address in writ- 
ing to a gentleman of her acquaintance ; and the gen- 
tleman would be a fool to suppose she intended to make 
love to him by so doing. When Miss or Dear Miss is 
used in the introduction it must be followed by the 
lady's name ; as ' Miss Flora May ', ' Dear Miss Barnes '." 

We should use the full form in the salutation ; as 
Gentlemen, not Gents; Sir, not Sr.; Dear, not Dr. 

The salutation should begin at the same distance 
from the marginal line as the paragraphs. 
If the address is omitted at the beginning of 
the letter, the salutation should be placed on the first 



214 

line below the heading, a little to the right of the mar- 
gin, so that the places of beginning the paragraphs may 
be uniform, and correspond to the salutation. (Model 11.) 

Place a period at the end of the address. The ad- 
dress and the salutation are not in the same 

Punctuation. , . , ,, , -, , . . ,, 

grammatical person, the address being in the 
third person, and the salutation in the second. 

As to the punctuation mark after the salutation, the 
best authorities use a comma when the body of the let- 
ter begins one line below the salutation (Models 7, 10), 
and a comma and a dash when the body of the letter 
begins on the same line as the salutation (Model 8). In 
the English form of letter-writing, the salutation, 
simply, is placed at the beginning of the body of the 
letter, and the address at the close of the letter, a little 
at the left. (Models 9, 11, 12.) 

Always preserve an even margin in letters, and in all 

forms of manuscript. The French preserve 

two margins, one at the left, and one at the 

right ; this adds to the appearance of the letter, making 

it correspond with the printed page. The Introduction 

to social and miscellaneous letters is in form the same 

as to business letters. 

All of the above points in the Introduction of a letter, 
should be neatly written on the board. The 
>ns ' teacher should call attention to each part, 
its exact form and place. 

He should require the pupils to copy the correct form 
on their slates ; and upon review, require them to spell 
the words, give correct position and arrangement of all 
the parts, and punctuate the introduction correctly. 



THE IKTHODUCTIOK 215 

At this point in the instruction review the Heading and 
the Introduction together. 

It is delightful to be able to write a good letter, and 
it is a pleasure to read one. In this as in every other 
accomplishment "practice makes perfect," and pupils 
should at once set to work with a determination to con- 
quer the difficulties of writing. 

MODEL 6 
Prang Educational Co., 

646 Washington St., 

Boston, Mass. 
Gentlemen, I have received, etc., 



MODEL 7 
Messrs. Bangs & Co., 

737 Broadway, 

New York, N. T. 
Dear Sirs, 

Your favor, etc. 



MODEL 8 
/. Edward Lyon, 

lanisteo, N. Y. 

Respected Friend, / 
have the honor, etc. 

MODEL 9 

Miss Griffin, 

We are in receipt of 
yours, etc. 

Miss Ida L. Griffin, 

Mexico, N. Y. 



216 LETTER-WRITING 

MODEL 10 
Mrs. Daniel Keating, 

Canastota, N. Y. 
Dear Madam, 

Your kind favor, etc. 



MODEL 11 
Dear Sir, 

Yours was received, etc. 
8. H. Albro, Ph.D., 

Mansfield, 
Pa. 



MODEL 12 
Gentlemen, 

Send me 10 gallons Hornstone Slating, etc. 
Scrantom & Wetmore, 

RocJiester, 

N. T. 

The Body of the Letter. 

The body of the letter is the message itself, exclusive 
of the Heading, Introduction, and Conclusion. 

The body of the letter may begin directly after the 
salutation, and on the same line (Models 
6, 8); or on the next line below, a little to 
the right of the salutation (Models 7, 9-12). The salu- 
tation should never be placed so far to the right of the 
sheet of paper, as to leave room for only one or two 
words after it. 

The paragraph indicates a new subject, and begins on 

a new line, which begins farther to the right 

e ' than other lines. The first word of the first 



THE COHCLUSIOK 217 

paragraph commences after the salutation ; the first word 
of the second paragraph should fall directly under the 
salutation, and so on with the remaining 
paragraphs. All paragraphs should begin 
at the same distance from the marginal line, preserving 
uniformity in the mechanical structure of the letter. 

The Conclusion 

The conclusion of a letter is the part added to the 
body of the letter. It includes the closing 
compliments, and should begin a little to the 
right, but near the middle of the first line below the 
body of the letter, about the same distance from the 
marginal line as the heading. The compliments may 
be broken into two lines, but it is not necessary. If 
composed of two lines, the second should begin a little 
to the right of the first, both lines beginning with a 
capital letter. 

Social letters admit of many forms of closing : 

Your friend ; Your sincere friend ; Yours with esteem ; 
Faithfully yours ; Yours heartily and affectionately ; 
Most gratefully and faithfully yours ; Yours very sin- 
cerely ; Your loving daughter ; Your affectionate father ; 
Ever your affectionate friend ; etc. 

Common business forms are Yours truly ; Yours re- 
spectfully ; Yours very truly ; Yours. 

The complimentary closing should be neither too 
familiar, nor too formal. It should have 

. . , , . . . , Be consistent. 

some reference to the salutation used, so 
that it may not seem inconsistent. If the salutation 
used be "My dear friend", do not close with "Your 
friend"* better " Truly yours". 



In writing the signature, begin a little at the right of 
the complimentary close, on the next line 
below. A letter should always be signed in 
a legible hand, and with accuracy, symmetry, uniform- 
ity and neatness. The full name should be written. 
Thousands of letters are dropped into the post-offices 
having no name subscribed. It is well to write the 
address under the signature if you wish an answer to 
your letter ; particularly if your letter is mailed at some 
other point than your regular residence. 

If the writer is a woman, she should, in writing to a 
women's stranger, so sign her name as to indicate 
signatures. whether she is married or single. 

Suppose a letter should be written by Miss Morris, for 
example, and signed J. E. Morris, how is one to know 
whether the letter was written by a man or a woman ; 
and the person receiving the letter, how should he 
address it ? He does not know whether to address it to 
Mr., Miss, or Mrs. J. E. Morris. The writer is thus 
placed in a dilemma ; he must either address the letter 
without using any title, or risk making a mistake. 

If the writer is single and unknown let her write her 
first name in full ; or if she is married, or a widow, 
let her prefix Mrs., in parenthesis, as shown on the fol- 
lowing page. Or she may sign her name as she chooses, 
but give her full address at the left and below. A comma 
should be placed after the complimentary close, and a 
period after the signature. 

MODEL 13 SOCIAL FORM 
/ remain as ever. 

Yours sincerely, 

Henry R. Sanford. 



THE COKCLtfSIOK 

MODEL 14 BUSINESS FORM 

/ am, gentlemen, 

Yours respectfully, 

Augustus S. Downing. 



MODEL 15 OFFICIAL FORMS 
/ have the honor to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Isaac H. Stout. 



I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

A. 0. McLachlan. 



lam, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Welland Hendrick. 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

(Mrs.) B. Ellen Burke. 



Neatly folding a letter will add very much to its 
appearance. This is a simple thing but it 

M v i Folding. 

should be learned. 

For note paper nearly as wide as the envelope is long, 
fold up the bottom so that it shall be nearly the width 
of the envelope, turn down the top in the same manner, 
and press the folds neatly together. 

For paper of letter size, turn the bottom edge up so 
that it shall be nearly equal to the length of the en- 
velope ; then proceed in the same manner as above. 



220 LETTER-WRITIM 

If the letter is to be enclosed in an official envelope, 
turn up the lower edge to the width of the envelope, 
and fold the top down over it. 



MODEL 16 SOCIAL LETTER 

Albany, Jan. 19, 1894. 
My dear Sister, 

Your letter makes me perfectly happy. I have 
so much to tell you, and so much to hear from you, too 
(0, you sly puss, a little bird has told me all about 
him!), that I can hardly wait for Wednesday and three 
o'clock. You will see my face first of all at the depot, 
and don't let the train be late. 
Till then, and always, 

Your loving sister, 

Mary B. Davis. 
Miss Eunice Davis, 

Granger Place School, 

Canandaigua, N. F. 



MODEL 17 BUSINESS LETTER 

406 So. Franklin St., 
Syracuse, N. Y., Feb. 12, 1894. 
Sup't M. W. Scott, 

Binghamton, N. Y. 

Sir, Yours of Feb. 10 is duly received. I am glad 
to receive your order, and will ship the goods to you by 
the first of next week. Trusting they will prove satis- 
factory, lam, 

Yours very respectfully, 

Wm. A. TuttU. 



THE SUPERSCRIPTION 221 

Superscription 

We have finished the letter and are now ready to 
superscribe it. This Superscription is written on the 
outside of the envelope. It consists of the name and 
title, post-office, county and State. 

Every element of the Superscription should be on a 
separate line. The first line, consisting of 
the name and title, should begin below and 
at the left of the centre ; the second should begin a lit- 
tle further to the right ; the third a little further to the 
right than the second, and so on. 

The spaces between the lines and the space below the 
last should be equal. 

Great pains should be taken in writing the Super- 
scription, and the full form should always be used. 
Each part should be written legibly. It is always the 
safer way to express the name of the county, unless the 
letter is directed to a large city. 

Place a period after abbreviations ; when the abbre- 
viation is at the end of a line, place a comma 

, , . , -i ' j i i Punctuation. 

after each line, and a period at the close. 

A postage-stamp should immediately be placed upon 
the envelope, lest it be forgotten. It should p ostage . 
occupy the upper right-hand corner, about st amp. 
a sixteenth of an inch from the upper and from the 
right edges. Pains should be taken to put it on neatly. 
It is better to moisten the envelope than the postage- 
stamp, as the latter often becomes too wet if applied to 
the tongue, and falls off the envelope. 



222 LETTER- WRITING 

MODEL 18 

Mr. A. C. McLachlan, 
Conductor of Institutes, 
Seneca Falls, 

New York. 
Seneca Co. 



MODEL 19 

Mrs. Anna Randall- Diehl, 
54 W. 55th St. 

New York, N. Y. 



MODEL 20 
Hon. N. A. Calkins, 

East 88th St. 

New York, N. Y. 



MODEL 21 
Gardner Fuller, A. M., 

Batavia, 

Genesee Co., 
New York. 



REVIEW 

1. Develop every part of the letter. 

2. Illustrate and explain each part on the board. 

3. Require pupils to copy the correct form. 

4. Require pupils to reproduce each part. 

5. Carefully examine the pupiPs work. 

6. After all the parts of the structure of a letter have 
been taught thoroughly, and the pupils have been drilled 



GEHERAL ANALYSIS 



223 



sufficiently, require them to reproduce the whole cor- 
rectly. 

7. Teach them how to place the superscription upon 
the envelope, and require them to hand in a letter 
properly written, folded, inserted, and superscribed. 

REVIEW 

a. Domestic. 

b. Introductory, etc. 

a. Personal. 

b. Official. 



I. Private. -< 



\tion 
of Letters. 



1. Social. 



3. Miscellaneous. 



A. Materials. 



B. Heading^. 



4. Postal Cards. 

II. Public or Open. 

STRUCTURE OF LETTERS 

( a. Size. 

1. Paper. -j b. Quality. 

( c. Color. 

2. Ink-Color. 

3. Envelopes, j ^' 

^4. Pen. 

I. Position and Arrangement. 

( 1. -Post Office. 

1. Place. J 2 ' Cou r ? t / or 
Uity. 

II. P'ts. <{ 

( 1. Month. 

[2. Date. { 2. Day of the Month. 

(3. Year. 

III. Punctuation. 

I. Position and Arrangement. 



;NO. 

1 St. 



0. Introduction. 



II. Parts. 



1. Addressi 



1. Name and 

2. Salutation. | 3 Direction. 

III. Punctuation. ( 1. Business. 

IV. Model. j -J 2. Social and Miscel- 

laneous. 



224: LETTER-WRITING 

{I. Substance. 
II. The Margin. 
III. Paragraphing. 
I. Position and Arrangements. 



E. Conclusion. 



II. Parts. V 2. Signature. 



Complimentary Close 



Address. 
III. Punctuation. 



F. Folding. 

I. Position and Arrangement. 

( 1. Name and Title. 

G. Superscrip- II. Parts. -j M Post Office. 

tion. ( 2. Direction. J 3 County. 

III. Punctuation. ( 3. State. 

. IV. Legibility. 

tf. Postage Stamps, j ^ e put on . 

Specific Hints 

On the subject of penmanship, M. Ernest Legouve 
careful tells nis grand-daughter : " The people who 

penmanship. p ra i se y OU to your face and laugh at you 
behind your back, say, ' Ah ! all clever people write 
badly.' Answer by showing as I have shown you a 
hundred times, letters of Guizot, Mignet, and Alexan- 
der Dumas the elder, which are models of caligraphy. 
Write well, my child, write well ! Pretty writing in a 
woman is like tasteful dressing, a pleasing physiognomy, 
or a sweet voice. " 

Careless writers who correct their letters often cross 
interlining ou ^ an< ^ interline until the writing is illegi- 
and crowding. bi e . This is inexcusable. Nor should writ- 
ing be crowded. The postal-card on the opposite page 
was written by one of the most unselfish philanthropists 



A POSTAL-CAKD FROM MISS PEABODY 225 




America lias known, yet her penmanship cost her 
friends much unnecessary labor. 

Copy and re-copy until every part of the letter pleases 



226 LETTER-WRITING 

the eye. An hour or two devoted to careful copying 
will lead to habits of accuracy. 

Tautology is quite common with inexperienced writers; 
when a fact has been stated once, the point 
made distinctly and clearly, repetition only 
weakens and confuses. 

Sidney Smith once remarked : " After you have writ- 
ten an article, take your pen and strike out half the 
words, and you will be surprised to see how much 
stronger it is." 

Never allow a blot to be seen in your letters ; it is 
Blots. slovenly. 

Avoid nourishing in letter writing ; it is indicative of 
dash and display. It goes with an Alaska 
diamond pin, alligator boots, hair parted in 
the middle, and a slim cane. 

If it is necessary to write more matter than can be 

properly placed on the pages of a letter, use 

another sheet of paper. There is seldom 

excuse for writing on the margins of the sheet and over 

the body of the letter. 

In reading, certain words are emphatic, and when 
properly emphasized increase the intensity 

Underscoring. . ., ., , , 

of the thought. 

In writing it sometimes adds force to the expression 
to underline certain words ; but indiscriminate under- 
lining is as ineffective as it is disagreeable. 

A postscript is something added to a letter after it is 
properly finished, and is generally unneces- 

Postscripts. J 

sary. 

When the writer has received new information after 
the letter is finished, it may then be added. It is not 



LITERARY STYLE 227 

best to get into the habit of appending postscripts. It 
is especially rude to consign to a postscript any word of 
compliment or affection, as an afterthought. 

The character & may be used between the surnames 
of a business firm or between the initial let- 

. . , . i , i ., & for "and". 

ters of Christian names ; but as a rule it 

should not be employed to take the place of the word 

for which it stands 

Figures are used for dates, time of day, rates, quanti- 
ties, prices, aggregate amounts, etc. In com- 
mercial paper it is best to use both figures 
and words. 

Business letters are generally preserved, and as lead 
pencil marks are easily blurred or erased, it 
is not business-like to use the lead pencil in 
correspondence. 

It would be a great favor to editors and printers, 
should those who write for the press observe Letters for 
the following rules. They are reasonable, newspapers, 
and correspondents will regard them as such . 1. Write 
with black ink, on white paper, wide ruled. 2. Make 
the pages small, one-fourth that of a foolscap sheet. 3. 
Leave the second page of each leaf blank. 4. Give to 
the written page an ample margin all around. 5. Num- 
ber the pages in the order of their succession. 6. Write 
in a plain, bold hand, without respect to beauty. 7. 
Use no abbreviations which are not to appear in print. 
8. Punctuate the manuscript as it should be printed. 
II. THE STYLE OF THE LETTER 

Use the simplest terms. Fine words are avoided by 
educated people. Pompous expression and simp i elan . 
parade of language betoken lack of culture. g ua # e - 
Simplicity should characterize all correspondence. 



228 LETTER-WRITING 

The words we use are an index to the mind and 

heart. Your letter will be accepted as a 

type of your mind and an index of your 

thoughts. Slang phrases are inconsistent with dignity 

of thought, word or deed. And be sure your language 

is chaste. Pure words show a pure heart. 

It is not considered good taste to use foreign words, 
Foreign unless necessity requires them. It is better 
words. to use p ure English. 

If people would plainly say what they think, without 
roundabout phases, and without being haunted at every 
step with the thought of saying fine things, and the 
necessity of moving on stilts in order to show style, 
they would be more interesting and effective. 

William CuJlen Bryant once made the following sen- 
Bryant's sible remarks to a young man who had 
advice. offered an article for the New York Evening 

Post. 

My young friend, I observe that you have used several French 
expressions in your letter. I think if you will study the English 
language, that you will find it capable of expressing all the ideas 
that you may have. I have always found it so, and in all that I 
have written I do not recall an instance where I was tempted to 
use a foreign word, but that, on searching, I have found a better 
one in my own language. 

Be simple, unaffected ; be honest in your speaking and writing. 
Never use a long word when a short one will do as well. 

Call a spade by its name, not a well-known oblong instrument 
of manual labor ; let a home be a home, and not a residence ; a 
place, a place, not a locality ; and so on of the rest. When a short 
word will do, you always lose by a long one. You lose in^ clear- 
ness ; you lose in honest expression of meaning ; and in the 
estimation of all men who are capable of judging, you lose in 
reputation for ability. 



OF THE LETTER 229 

The only true way to shine, even in the false world, is to be 
modest and unassuming. Falsehood may be a thick crust, but in 
the course of time truth will find a place to break through. 
Elegance of language may not be in the power of us all, but 
simplicity and straightforwardness are. 

Write much as you would speak, and as you think. If with 
your inferior, speak no coarser than usual ; if with your superior, 
speak no finer. Be what you say and within the rules of pru- 
dence. No one was ever a gainer by singularity of words or in 
pronunciation. The truly wise man will so speak that no one 
will observe how he speaks. A man may show great knowledge 
of chemistry by carrying bladders of strange gases to breathe ; 
but one will enjoy better health, and find more time for business, 
who lives on common air. 

III. SUBSTANCE OF THE LETTEE 

Letter-writing is very much a matter of habit, and 
for that reason it is important that young 
people should learn early to consider it a wrrtegood 
pleasant way of communicating thoughts 
and feelings to their friends, instead of a burdensome 
task to be got over as quickly as possible. 

We often hear people excuse themselves by saying 
that they have no "gift for writing letters", as though 
it were something like a talent for music, only accorded 
to a favored few. But the truth is that any one can 
write interesting and pleasant letters who will take a 
little trouble and really persevere in the effort. The 
grand difficulty in the way is that they are too selfish 
and too indolent to try. Nothing that is worth any- 
thing comes without effort ; and if you do not care 
enough about gratifying your friends to take a little 
pains for it, you deserve never to receive any letters 
yourselves. 



230 

" Do not think what to write ; write what you think," 
whatto is an old rule, and a good one to remember, 
write. jf y OU are away from home, it is very selfish 

not to share your good times with the family by writing 
frequent letters. You can tell what you are enjoying 
so much better while it is fresh in your mind, than you 
can after your return, when you may not have leisure 
to go over the whole ground ; and these home letters 
may be a means of afterward refreshing your own mem- 
ory, and reminding you of incidents which you would 
otherwise have forgotten. There are many other things 
which might be said here, but this will do for the pres- 
ent. A very good rule for letter- writing is the golden 
one, ' ( Do as you would be done by." 

Write all that you have to say on one subject at once. 
Write That is, do not begin to tell about your gar- 

fuiiy. &en, and then about your school, and then 

about your garden again ; but finish one subject before 
you begin another. Do not be afraid of using the pro- 
noun I. Some people avoid it and thus give their sen- 
tences a shabby and unfinished sound, as " Went to 
Boston called on Mrs. Smith. " Never apologize for 
what you write by saying that yon do not like to write let- 
ters. You would not think it quite polite in visiting a 
friend, to say, "I do not like to talk to you, so I shall 
not say much." Keep the idea before you that you are 
writing for the sake of giving pleasure to your friend. 

When your letter is merely an inquiry, or on a mat- 
ter of business, the case is different. You then should 
try to be as brief, concise, and clear as possible. An 
elaborately drawn-out business letter is out of place as it 
it is inconsiderate. 



AS TOT; TALE 231 

Do not consider anything too trivial to write about 
which you would think worth mentioning Write ag 
in conversation. Writing letters is simply you talk, 
talking on paper, and your friends will be much more 
entertained by the narration of little every-day affairs 
than by profound observations upon topics which they 
care nothing about. 

In writing to very intimate friends, who will be in- 
terested in the details of your daily life, it is well some- 
times to make your letters a sort of diary telling some- 
thing of how you have spent each day since you wrote 
last ; what books you have been reading, what letters 
you have received from mutual friends, and what you 
have seen or heard that has interested you. 

Many persons, not much accustomed to use the pen, 
have a notion that if any occasion happens Don , t defer 
to call for a letter on any business matter writing, 
they must immediately compose a tedious rigmarole of 
statements and explanations ; and, finding it difficult to 
makeup what they consider " a capital letter", they 
defer writing until the occasion is perhaps gone, or at 
least until the business in hand has suffered considera- 
ble injury by the delay. But if they divest their minds 
of all ideas of literary composition, and just write what 
they would say, in the fewest possible words, and at 
once, such persons would find correspondence agreeable 
rather than irksome. 

You will find it easier to reply to a letter soon after 
you get it than if you neglect it for a few Mnish your 
weeks, because you will have the impressions stories - 
which the first reading made upon your mind. Tell 
your friend when you received the letter which you are 



LETTER-WRITIKG 

answering, and take up the topics in the order which 
they naturally come, remembering to answer all the 
questions which have been asked. Try to think what 
your friend would like best to hear about, and when 
you undertake to tell anything do not leave it half told, 
but finish the story. People who are not careful about 
this often give a false impression without meaning to 
do so. For instance, one of these careless writers, in 
giving an account of a fire, simply stated that the house 
was burned, without giving any qualifications, thus 
giving the impression that it was entirely consumed, 
and causing a whole family much unnecessary trouble 
and anxiety, as the actual burning in question was very 
slight. 

To this rule there is a single exception. Friendship, 
^^ to like all other moral and material adornments 
delay. O f \{f e) j s subject to blight occasionally, and 

the strongest union may be dissolved by a fiercer heat 
arising from the combustion of the very dregs and lees 
of amity. Your friend annoys you, disappoints you, 
breaks his word, or lets off a bit of scandal that reaches 
your ears. Then you will " write him such a letter", 
you'll tell him plainly what you think of him, and put 
him to shame by the evidence of black and white. 

Now, if you are wise you will do nothing of the sort ; 
you will never write a single word that may cause shame 
or pain in the reader's mind, or that the writer may have 
cause hereafter to regret. A letter is a document that 
may be preserved forever ; and should you be mistaken, 
or only partially informed, or the victim of your own 
too hasty or incompetent judgment, your own hand and 
seal may remain as a witness of your rashness, perhaps 



BITTER WORDS APOLOGIES 233 

of your meanness, to the end of your days, aye, and long 
after that, to the end of the world even. 

Therefore if you want to tell your friend your mind, 
do not write, but speak it ; a spoken bitter- Bittep 
ness may be forgotten and forgiven, but a words - 
written one cannot be so readily forgiven, and can never 
be forgotten ; no, not even if burnt ; for when we are 
stung in the perusal of something, the effect goes deep, 
and can never be obliterated, even by all-corroding time. 
A fierce letter, a sharply written reproof, a disparaging 
communication to a friend, has been the cause of em- 
bittering many pairs of lives. Never should that be 
written which we may hereafter wish to recall. We are 
all fallible, and may be much in error when we feel sure 
that we are right. That consideration should be suffi- 
cient to make any sensible man or woman pause before 
giving vent to anger, with the pen in hand. 

But exceptions to such a rule may occur ; an admoni- 
tion, a reproof, nay, even an accusation, may sometimes 
be necessary, and a letter be the only possible mode of 
conveying it. Let good sense and good feeling deter- 
mine how the case shall be, and let it at the same time 
be borne in mind that what is once written cannot be 
unwritten, and that greater caution is necessary in using 
the pen, than in using the tongue. 

In apologizing for misconduct, for failing to meet an 
engagement, or for lack of punctuality, al- 
ways state the reason. Letters of excuse 
should be written as promptly as possible. 

In asking favors, do not urge the claims too strongly. 
Should a refusal be the result, the humiliation will be 
felt deeply. 



234 LETTER-WRITING 

Letters refusing favors should be kindly worded, and 
should state the reason. 

In writing a letter, the answer to which is of more 

Encios benefit to yourself than the person to whom 

postage- you write, enclose a stamp for the reply. 

This may seem to be a small matter, but 

business firms usually adopt it, and it is only just. 

A letter of introduction, or recommendation should 
never be sealed, as the bearer by whom it is sent 
ought to be presumed to know the contents. 

As a rule, every letter, unless insulting in its language, 
requires an answer, which should usually be immediate. 
To neglect to answer a letter shows ill-breeding. 

Business letters must be pithy, short, and go straight 
to the point. Pleasantry is not advisable. It is best 
carefully to distinguish letters of business and of friend- 
ship. 

Every paragraph should be marked by extreme clear- 
ness and perspicuity ; so clear and unambiguous that 
the dullest person may be able to understand it exactly. 

For the sake of perspicuity, careful attention to 
punctuation is necessary. 

All intercourse between parents and children should 
be free and confidential. 

Bead your letter carefully when finished, to see that 
you have made no omissions or mistakes. 

Be very sparing of letters of advice. Even when 
solicited, advice often gives offence, and it should be 
obtruded only when the necessity seems overwhelming. 

Useful hints and illustrations will be found in Bar- 
deen's "Primer of Letter-Writing", 25 cts. 



ARITHMETIC 



In order to teach arithmetic successfully the teacher 
should have an idea of the subject as a whole. 
The most difficult part of the subject as in onthefounda- 
all subjects is the fundamental part ; and 
unless that is thoroughly taught, the after results will 
be unsatisfactory. 

More time is given to the subject of mathematics in 
the schools than to any other study. Important as it is, 
it should not receive an undue proportion of time, it 
should not be pursued at the expense nor to the neglect 
of other studies of equal importance, as language, read- 
ing, spelling, etc. 

Nothing is gained by passing rapidly through the 
primary part. Pupils should be perfectly Make haste 
familiar with all the fundamental operations ; slowl y- 
able to write numbers of five and six periods without 
hesitation ; to add rapidly and accurately long columns 
of figures ; and to perform all computations in the 
fundamental rules with dispatch. 

The first part of arithmetic should be simple, and the 
lesson should be given orally by the teacher. 
More attention should be given to the study 
of processes than to analysis computation 
comes first, elaborate reasoning afterward. During the 
primary course the aim should be to make pupils learn 
how to do it. 

(235) 



236 ARITHMETIC 

Little attention should be given to definitions ; if used 

they should be fully understood and ex- 
Definitions, r - ..j.i! -4.4. j 
plained, otherwise they may be committed 

to memory, and this is not necessary during this period. 
The pupils should be able to explain the processes, but 
they should not be required to commit the rules to 
memory, nor the principles. 

Definitions, rules, and principles are deductions, do 
not burden the children with these. They belong to 
the science of arithmetic. 

Thomas Hill says in his book, " The True Order of 
Studies", that "the science of arithmetic receives so 
much attention that the art is neglected." The primary 
object of arithmetic should be, not to develop the reason- 
ing power, but to make pupils skillful in computation. 

He further says, that "A child should not be expected 
or required to reason at an early age. Any direct train- 
ing of the logical powers before the age of twelve years 
is premature, and in most cases a positive injury to the 
pupil. The common sense view would give facts before 
reasoning. Eeasoning upon facts is the work of a 
maturer mind." Granting this to be true, arithmetic 
is taught backwards in many cases, beginning with 
reason instead of observation. 

I. THE FUNDAMENTAL KULES 

The teacher should begin the lessons in number with 
Beeinwith objects, using pencils, crayons, pebbles, 
objects. books ; also a numeral frame. 

"Initiate children in arithmetic by means of the ball- 
frame alone, thereby making their elementary instruc- 
tion a simple and natural extension of their own daily 



BEGIN WITH OBJECTS 



237 




observation," says Laurie, in his standard book " On 
Primary Instruction in relation to Education", (p. 112), 
and as he leaves the subject of arithmetic, he adds this 
note, as if in fear he had not been sufficiently emphatic : 

"The teaching of arithmetic should be begun earlier 
than is customary, and always with the ball-frame" 
(p. 117). 

The object is to lead the children to the perception of 
the idea of numbers, as exemplified in surrounding 
objects. 

The idea to be gained at first is that of one, as it is 
the basis of all arithmetical calculations. 

The teacher should hold up one object before the 
class, as one pencil, one crayon, etc., until every child 
understands what is meant by one, 



238 ARITHMETIC 

Tell the pupil that one is the word that expresses 
" the how many ", the number. 

After you have taught the word one, then teach the 
character that represents it. 

"Develop the idea, then give the term; educate the 
eye, then employ the hand ; cultivate the use of lan- 
guage, then exercise memory." 

Pupils should not count one, two, three, etc., naming 
the abstract term ; they should say one pencil, one 
crayon, one book. 

Proceed in the same manner to teach two, by holding 
' up two objects of different kinds. After they are made 
familiar with the number of objects, let marks be made 
on the blackboard ; then the characters that represent 
the number of marks. Let children reproduce at their 
seats the work given at the board by the teacher. 

At this point see that the pupils get the idea of the 
Value of value of numbers, by comparing a greater 

numbers. group of objects. 

Care should be taken to teach the order of numbers, 
Order of so ^ na ^ ^ ne children can tell what number 
numbers. comes before and what after any given num- 
ber. This may be illustrated with the class, or the 
picture of a ladder. 

Teach the pupils in the same way to write numbers 
to 99. Give no instruction about units and tens, etc., 
until a later period. 

Teach the subject so thoroughly that your successor 
will not be obliged to instruct in it. 

NUMERATION AND NOTATION 

The pupils have been taught thus far to deal with 
ones. They are now supposed to be familiar 
with the numbers to 1,000, They may now 






NOTATION AND NUMERATION 239 

be taught that there is another name unit, which 
means a sin le thing that may be used with the 
figures, as 1 unit, 2 units, etc. 

At this stage the teacher may provide several small 
sticks, about the size of matches. Take 
several sticks and let the pupils count 10 ; 
proceed in the same manner until 10 bundles have been 
made ; now let them see that 1 bundle contains 10 sticks, 
or ten units, or ten ; 2 bundles, 20 sticks, or 20 units, 
or 20 ; and so proceed until you reach 100. 

Write numbers on the board to correspond with the 
objects and groups ; let them read the numbers, as 1 ten 
and 1 unit, 1 ten and 2 units ; 20, 2 tens ; 30, 3 tens, etc. 

When the pupils can readily read columns of units 
and tens, they may be required to write these 
numbers on the slate. The teacher may 
dictate numbers. Let them write numbers below 100, 
and ask them what they used to write the number. For 
example, write 86. How did you write it ? With 8 
tens and 6 units, etc. 

They have been already taught that 10 units make 1 
ten, and 10 tens make 1 hundred. Now 
let them read the numbers. For example 
123 ; 3 units, 2 tens, 1 hundred, read 123 units. The 
teacher, after sufficient drill, should obtain bundles 
with 100 sticks. 

Supplement these illustrations with dictation exercises, 
and so proceed until the pupils are made familiar with 
and can write numbers readily from dictation on the 
slates and at the board, and read their values. 

The pupils must have a clear idea that units may 
differ in size and value that one of any- orders of 
thing is a unit, whether large or small. One unitSt 



240 ARITHMETIC 

bushel is a unit ; one dollar is a unit ; one cent is a unit. 
They have already been taught that numbers are built 
up of simple "ones", so far as 100; that each ten is 
considered as a whole, or 1 ten ; that each hundred is 
regarded as a whole, or 1 hundred. 

Now they are prepared to see what is meant by a unit 
of the first order, of the second order, of the third 
order, etc. 

This step is sometimes omitted in teaching number. 
It is a very important one ; it should be carefully taught 
and the pupils thoroughly drilled upon it. 

Let them see that it is the position of a figure that 
determines its value. 

Teachers are too ambitious in advancing pupils in 

arithmetic. Some teachers will promote to 

mote too higher classes pupils that could not pass an 

rapidly. ... . r ,. , 

examination in notation and numeration. 
Frequently we find pupils ciphering in percentage, who 
fail in writing and reading a number of four figures. 
Never let pupils pass beyond the fundamental rules 
until they are familiar with them, and are able readily 
to apply them. 

They will make slow progress in the advanced steps 
if- this is not understood, they will make rapid progress 
if it is thoroughly understood. 

Teach so thoroughly that your successor may not be 
obliged to unteach what has been taught. 

Too much pains cannot be taken with notation, 
numeration, and addition. The law of increase and de- 
crease may be thoroughly developed with these rules. 

Again we repeat, "not how much but how well," 



USE OF OBJECTS 241 

ADDITION* 

Begin the subject in the same way as the first, with 
objects. Marks upon the blackboard may 
be used after the children have become fa- 
miliar with adding objects. Use the numeral frame 
but see that the children do not confound counting with 
adding. 

Let pupils add concrete numbers without having the 
objects before them. The continued use of Use of 
objects as counters by children is a positive objects- 
harm, as they look to them for results rather than to 
memory. It is only another form of counting on the 
fingers. 

Do not let the pupils add numbers in the following 
manner: " What is the sum of 8 apples, 7 Econ omy 
apples and 4 apples ? 8 apples and 7 apples words - 
are 15 apples ; 15 apples and 4 apples are 19 apples/' 
Kather have them say ; " 8 apples, 15 apples, 19 apples." 
Simply announce the results and do not allow them to 
count. 

The concrete numbers may soon be dropped altogether 
for they interfere with the one aim the 
teacher should have in view the instantane- 
ous recognition in any two numbers of their sum. 

Many expedients to effect this have been devised. 
Thus the Germans construct tables like the A German 

following I expedient. 

2 3 

86 97 

2+4 3+4 

2+6 3+6 

40 51 

(1) W 



242 ARITHMETIC 

4 5 

2 8 

26 91 

4+2 5+7 

4+8 6 6+7 4 

08 37 



(3) (4) 

2 4 

9 5 
6 8 

2 + 3 4 + 5 

3 2 + 7 1 
4 

7 9 

(5) (6) 

In circle No. 1, begin with 2, add 4, and write the 
results about the circle. When the result exceeds nine, 
write the right hand figure only. Beginning with 1, 
passing to the right, we have the following : 2, 6, 10, 14, 
18, 22, 26, 30, 34, 38, 42, etc.; again beginning with 2, 
passing to the left, we have the following : 2, 8, 14, 20, 
26, 32, 38, 44, 50, etc 

In order to form the circular tables, take any number 
less than ten and add a number to it, and continue the 
successive additions until you repeat the first figure ; 
write these numbers about the circle. 

Begin with the number 1, and add the number to 10 ; 
and so on with each number. 

This exercise produces great ambition in the school, 
and pupils like to take part in it. They should first, be 
called on to recite in concert ; subsequently by individual 
drill. Time them, and see how many seconds they will 



ADDITION 243 

require to add 100. Only six of the tables are given, 
many others may be made by the teacher. The Ger- 
mans have attained grand results with the circular tables. 

But a more direct and effective method has been de- 
vised by Dr. H. K. Sanford, one of the New 
York State conductors of teachers' institutes, method in 
It consists of 45 cards containing the 45 pos- 
sible combinations of two digits, arranged as in the ac- 
companying figure, each card having on its back the 
same numbers in reverse order. 

Problems in addition, subtraction and multiplication 
are everywhere written for solution in this one way, 
viz., one number above the other with a line beneath. 
Evidently the method of drill should be the same. He 
thinks there is no advantage in the making of rules by 
children. 

His plan is to follow each development lesson imme- 
diately with a drill upon all combinations developed, 
using these cards exclusively. Hold the package of 
cards selected for a lesson in one hand before the class, 
and rapidly move them one at a time to the front ; the 
teacher thus sees one side and the pupils the other. 
Concert exercises are not recommended. The best re- 
sults will be obtained by calling pupils miscellaneously 
and presenting several cards in rapid succession. Only 
two daily exercises of ten minutes each are necessary. 
Do not introduce new cards too rapidly. 

At every exercise review all cards previously used as 
long as necessary. Answers must be instantaneous. The 
least hesitation should be considered a failure. Present 
the cards selected for a particular exercise miscellane- 
ously so that no answer can be known from the preced- 



244 



AKITHMETIC 



ABDITIOK 245 

ing. The position can not indicate the result as when 
numbers are arranged on a chart, or tables are made 
by the children. 

Let the drill be so thorough that when a pair of fig- 
ures is seen, as j[, the sum, difference or product as 
required will instantly appear to the mind ; e. g., at 
the first glance the pupil reads as 16, not as 7 and 9 
are 16, as CAT is read as a word, not as C-A-T. 

Pursue the same plan in subtraction and multiplica- 
tion. When in subtraction the smaller number is 
above, pupils will readily add ten to the minuend and 
give the remainder in the usual manner. 

No other means will be necessary for the complete 
mastery of the multiplication table in a marvelously 
short time. 

After perfectly learning the multiplication table, 
very little drill is needed in the division table. 

When the number 4 has been reached, commence 
column work, but never let the sum be greater than the 
last number developed. The columns will gradually 
become longer and the sums greater, yet no new com- 
bination of single pairs of figures can possibly occur. 

Finally let the columns be read up and down silently, 
giving only final results. This can be done with re- 
markable rapidity and accuracy, if all single combina- 
tions involved have been thoroughly learned by card 
drill. 

Wonderful results have been obtained with these 
cards in normal and other schools. 

Because pupils thus learn the combinations of num- 
bers, they learn that combining the 4 and 5 will always 
produce a 9 ; a 6 and a 5 a 1 ; 9 and 5 a 4 ; 8 and 5 a 3 ; 



246 ARITHMETIC 

7 and 5 a 2, etc., and by daily systematical drill they 
overcome the hesitancy which is a common fault in 
American schools. No rule in arithmetic is used so 
much as addition, and no pains should be spared to 
teach it well. 

An experience of fifteen years at institutes has re- 
vealed sad results in adding simple columns of figures. 
In many instances the teachers had not been taught to 
add properly in their youth, and we have frequently re- 
ceived twenty-five different answers to a problem like 
the following : 

Add 8085, 7898, 7697 and 9876. 

We are thus particular and emphatic, concerning 
The first * ne ear lj steps of mathematical education, 
step costs. because it is "the first step which costs ". 
Much more labor is required to unlearn than to learn. 
The teachers for the younger classes should possess par- 
ticular aptness for imparting instruction. Such teach- 
ers, deserve and are beginning to receive better wages. 

After the pupils have mastered the fundamental rules 
and their reasoning powers begin to develop, 
the teacher should require an analysis of the 
problem. 

The mechanical operation the doing part, should 
not be confounded with the logical operation the 
thinking part, but the latter has its place. Thus : 

What is the sum of 8764, 9789, 5786 and 9843 ? 
8764 
9789 
5786 
9843 

34,182 



SUBTRACTION 247 

i have written the numbers so that units of the same order 
stand under each other. For convenience I will begin at the 
right hand ; adding the first order, the sum is 22 units. As ten 
units make one ten, 22 units are equal to 2 tens and 2 units ; I will 
write the 2 units in the order of units, and add the two tens to 
the order of tens. 

Proceed in this manner with each order, giving the 
reasons for every step. 

Eequire the pupils to deduce the rule from the 
analysis. 

ANALYSIS OF CONCRETE PROBLEM 

Problem : If a horse cost $120, and a wagon $110, 
and a harness $90, what will be the entire expense ? 

Analysis: The entire ' expense will be the sum of 
$120, $110, and $90 ; or $320. 

The simplest and most concise analysis should be 
taught to the children. No unnecessary words should 
be allowed in the analysis of a problem. 

SUBTRACTION 

This subject should be taught like addition, begin- 
ning with objects, first by taking away one ob- First by 
ject, then two objects, etc. After the pupils ob J ects - 
have become familiar with this process,' then use marks 
on the board, subsequently using concrete numbers 
without having objects before them. At first ask the 
pupils to answer in concert, followed by individual drill. 

After the children have become familiar with the pre- 
ceding processes, the teacher may write num- 

, , , , -, - n -, . , By figures. 

bers on the board as far as 9, and require the 
children to subtract one, then two, then three, etc. 
Vary the processes. For rapid work Sanford's cards 
will be found effective. 



248 ARITHMETIC 

When the figure in the subtrahend is greater in value 
Minuend than the corresponding figure in the minu- 
smaiier. end, the process must be explained clearly. 
Subtract 456 from 824. 

824 or 7 11 14 
456 456 



368 368 

I have written the numbers as in addition, writing the subtra- 
Analysis. hend under the minuend. 

Begin at the right hand to subtract. Six units from 4 units I 
cannot take ; take 1 ^en from the 2 tens and it equals 10 units ; 10 
units and 4 units are 14 units ; 6 units from 14 units equal 8 
units ; write underneath in the units order. 

Five tens from 1 ten I cannot take ; take 1 hundred from 8 
hundreds and it equals 10 tens ; 10 tens and 1 ten equal 11 tens ; 5 
tens from 11 tens equal 6 tens ; write it underneath in the tens 
order. Four hundreds from 7 hundreds leave 3 hundreds, etc. 

By this process it will be observed that the form of 
the minuend was changed without altering its value. 
The subtrahend in form remained unchanged. The 
teacher should see that the pupils understand that 8 
hundreds, 2 tens and 4 units are of the same value as 7 
hundreds, 11 tens and four units. 

This is a simple analysis and easily understood. 

I cannot take 6 units from 4 units ; so will add 10 units to 4, 
equal 14 units ; 6 units from 14 units equal 8 units ; 
as * have acl ded 10 units to the minuend, in order to 
preserve the equality, I must add 10 units or 1 ten to 
the subtrahend ; adding 1 ten to 5 tens equals 6 tens ; 6 tens from 2 
tens I cannot take ; I will add 10 tens to two tens, equal to 12 tens ; 
6 tens from 12 tens equal 6 tens ; as I have added 10 tens or 1 hun- 
dred to the minuend I must add 1 hundred to the hundreds in the 
subtrahend ; 4 hundreds and 1 hundred are 5 hundreds, and 5 hun- 
dreds from 8 hundreds leave 3 hundreds. This depends upon the 



MULTIPLICATION ; DIVISION 249 

principle that to add equal numbers to both minuend and sub- 
trahend does not alter the value of the remainder. 

This analysis may be required in addition to the first, 
but is not to be preferred to it. 

When there are ciphers in the minuend, ciphers in 
the explanation is similar. the minuend - 

Subtract 456 from 1000. 

9 9 10 

1000 

456 



544 

Analysis /There are no units in the units order, no tens in 
the tens order, no hundreds in the hundreds order. In 1000 there 
are 9 hundreds, 9 tens and 10 units. Six units from 10 units equal 
4 units ; 5 tens from 9 tens equal 4 tens ; 4 hundreds from 9 hun- 
dreds equal 5 hundreds. (The form of the minuend has been 
changed, but not its value.) Deduce the rule. 

MULTIPLICATION 

Problem .-What will 40 books cost at $9 apiece. 

Analysis : Since one book costs $9, 40 books will cost 40 times 
$9, equal to $360. 

The teacher should insist that the pupils use the true 
multiplier in all concrete problems. 

Drill upon the multiplication table. Kequire pupils 
to say it forward, backward and irregularly, till every 
product of two numbers presents itself to the mind 
instantly. Make constant use of Sanford's cards. 

DIVISION 

Begin with objects ; ask questions as follows : What 
have I on my table ? One apple. How many First by 
times can I take one from it ? Once. What ot) J ects - 
have I placed on my table ? Tivo pencils. How many 
times can I take one pencil from my table ? Two times. 



250 ARITHMETIC 

Each may place one watch on his desk. How many 
times can you take one watch from your desk ? Once. 
Place three drums on your desk. How many times can 
you take three drums from your desk ? Once. How 
many times can you take one drum from the desk ? 
Three tim.es, etc. 

Place eight books on the desk. How many times can 
you take four books from the desk ? 

How many times can you take two books ? Once, 
twice, three times, four times. How many times can you 
take one book ? Once, twice, etc. Place sixteen pencils 
on the desk. How many times can I take four pencils 
from them ? 

Place ten coins on the desk, and divide them into two 
equal parts ; how many coins in each part ? Place nine 
books on the desk, and divide them into three equal 
parts ; how many in each part ? Take away one part, 
how m&ny parts will remain ? Take away one part, how 
many books will remain ? Place sixteen pencils on the 
desk, and divide them into four equal parts ; how many 
pencils are there in each part ? 

By the use of oral abstract questions, thus : How 

many two's in 8 ? In 2 ? In 14 ? In 10 ? 

strict mim- How many times can four be taken from 8 ? 

From 24 ? From 32 ? Twelve is how many 

times 2 ? How many times 4 ? How many times 6 ? 

How many times are four contained in 8 ? In 12, in 

20 ? etc. Sixteen contains 2 how many times ? Contains 

4 ? Contains 8 ? etc. What is one-third of 9 ? Of 15 ? 

Of 21? Of 18 Pete. 






THE GLUBB METHOD 251 

It is usual to teach the subject of addition by itself, 
then subtraction, etc. By the Grube method The Grub 
the pupil begins with 1, and learns all there method - 
is to know about it before passing over another number, 
performing all the operations possible within the limits 
of this number. He has to see and keep in mind that 
= 2, 1X1 = 1 1 1=0, l-f-l = l, etc. 
3, 3X1 = 3 21 = 1, 2-5-1 = 2, etc. 

The whole circle of operation up to 2 is exhausted 
before he goes on to the number 3, which is to be treated 
in the same way. 

The first four processes are naturally connected, and 
will appear so in the child's mind. 

If you take away 1 from 2, and 1 remains, the child 
in knowing this also understands implicitly the opposite 
process of adding 1 to 1 and its result. 

Multiplication and division are, in the same way, 
nothing but another way of adding and subtracting, so 
that we might say one operation contains, and may be 
shown to contain, all the others. 

"You must teach the child to know the numbers in 
some way or other," but " to know a number really 
means to know also its most simple relations to the num- 
ber contained therein." Any child who knows a num- 
ber and its relations, must be also able to perform the 
operations of addition and subtraction, etc., with it, as 
they are the direct result of comparing two numbers 
with each other. Only when the child can perform all 
these operations, for instance within the limits of 2, 
can it be supposed really to have a perfect knowledge of 
this number. 



252 ARITHMETIC 

This seems to be a rational method and worthy of a 
trial ; it has proved superior in practice to the methods 
in use. 

A full exposition of this method, commonly known 
as the Grube metho.d, may be found in Beebe's First 
Steps Among Figures. 

A knowledge of the process must precede any attempt 
Processes ^ * ve a theory or to supply a rule. Theory, 
before rules. } n f ac t^ implies that the conceptions it em- 
braces are already in the mind, and the rule is universal 
that it springs from or is based on practice. 

The process must be made clear by examples from 
experience, aided in every possible way by sensible repre- 
sentations, either objects, marks, or diagrams. When 
these have set forth the process, it should be made 
familiar by well-constructed examples to be worked 
mentally. 

This, when a process is clear and intelligent, is a 
Accuracy matter only of a memory, and depends on 
and rapidity, practice. The two things to be secured are 
accuracy and rapidity. These important habits may 
be established by a thorough knowledge of all the tables, 
and abundant practice in computation. 

To acquire facility in operation the teacher should 
written require the pupils to bring in to the daily 
analysis. recitation a written analysis of one or two 
problems. The mechanical process also should be re- 
quired, and the work should be neatly and correctly ex- 
pressed. This work should be examined by the teacher, 
else the pupils will lose interest in its performanee and 
become careless in the mechanical execution. 



SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS 253 

EXAMINE AND CROSS-EXAMINE THE PUPILS IN THEIR 
WORK, AND SEE IF THEY CAN GIVE A REASON FOR 
EVERY STEP. 

SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS 

1. We cannot impress too strongly upon the teacher's 
mind that each lesson in arithmetic must be at the same 
time a lesson in language. As the pupil in the primary 
grade should be generally held to answer in complete 
sentences with clear and distinct articulation so especial- 
ly in arithmetic, the teacher should insist on fluency, 
smoothness and neatness of expression, and lay special 
stress upon the process of the solution of each example. 

2. Teachers should avoid asking too many questions. 
Such questions, moreover, as by containing 

i i / , i n 11 111 Let the pu- 

half the answer, prompt the scholar, should piisdothe 
be omitted. The pupil should do the talking 
as much as possible. 

3. No new numbers should be commenced before the 
previous one is perfectly mastered. It would Memorya 
be a mistake to suppose that in teaching ac- factor - 
cording to this plan, memory is not required on the 
part ot the child. Memory is an important factor here, 
as it is on all instruction. I say this boldly, though I 
know with some teachers it has become almost a crime 
to say that memory holds its place in education. 

4. Analyses given by pupils are often re- Redundant 
dundant. analysis - 

Problem: James had five cents and he found seven more; 
how many had he then ? 

First Step. James had five cents and he found seven more ; 
how many had he then ? 



254 ARITHMETIC 

Second Step. He had as many as the sum of five cents and 
seven cents. 

Third Step. Five cents plus seven cents are twelve cents. 

Fourth Step. Therefore, if James had five cents, and he found 
seven more, he then had twelve cents. 

In the above analysis, as it is given in many schools, 
the pupils have used fifty-one words. No business man 
in solving this problem would go through with this 
rigmarole. If the teacher repeats the problem it is not 
necessary for the pupil to repeat it. There is no ob- 
jection to the pupil's reading the problem from the 
book. 

The great object sought for in the study of arithme- 
tic, is to develop and strengthen the reasoning powers. 

It is a positive injury to require pupils to commit to 
memory simple arithmetical problems that are of no 
value whatever after the answer is attained. 

The following analysis is to be preferred : 

Since James had five cents, and found seven cents, he had the 
sum of five cents and seven cents, or twelve cents. 

In this analysis we have used twenty- two words, 
instead of fifty-one. "Therefore", etc., at the close of 
a problem is unnecessary repetition. 

Problem : A boy having seven marbles, lost five of them ; how 
many had he left ? 

First Step. He had as many left as the difference between 
seven marbles and five marbles. 

Second Step. Seven marbles minus five marbles are two mar- 
bles. 

Third Step. Therefore, if a boy having seven marbles lost five 
of them, he has two left. 

This is better : 

Since a boy having seven marble lost five of them, he had 
left the difference between seven marbles and five marbles, equal 
to two marbles. 



REDUNDANT ANALYSIS 255 

Problem : At seven dollars a pair, what will five pairs of boots 
cost ? 

First Step. If one pair costs seven dollars, five pairs (or more 
frequently, five pairs which are five times one pair) will cost five 
times seven dollars. 

Second Step. Five times seven dollars are thirty -five dollars. 

Third Step. Therefore, at seven dollars a pair, five pairs will 
cost thirty-five dollars. 

Say instead : 

Since one pair costs seven dollars, five pairs will cost five times 
seven dollars, equal to thirty -five dollars.- 

Problem: If a man laid out $100 for cows, and paid $20 for 
each one he bought, how many cows did he buy ? 

Mrst Step. If one cow cost $20, he bought as many cows for 
$100 as 20 is contained times in 100. 

Second Step. 20 is contained in 100 5 times. 

Third Step. Therefore, if a man laid out $100 for cows, and 
paid $20 for each one that he bought, he bought 5 cows. 

How much better to say : 

He bought as many cows as $20 is contained times in $100, or 
5 cows. 

Some meet with difficulty in analyzing problems in 
division, when they consist of concrete num- concrete 
bers. Division is finding how many times division, 
one number can be subtracted from another of the same 
kind. 

Dollars can be divided by dollars and by nothing else ; 
yards, can be divided by yards and by nothing else ; and 
so on for any other things that might be mentioned. 

That dollars can only be divided by dollars arises from 
the fact that division is but a short process of finding 
how many times one number or quantity can be sub- 
tracted from another, and we can subtract only dollars 



256 AKITHMETIC 

from dollars ; therefore we can divide dollars only by 
dollars. Thus : 

Divide $42 equally among 6 men. Now we cannot divide $42 
by 6 men or by 6 ; but if we give each man a dollar, then that will 
require $6, and $6 can be subtracted from $42 seven times. 
Hence we can give each man a dollar seven tunes, or we can give 
$7 at one time. 

After the operation is performed, we may call the 7, 
seven dollars ; then the 6 will be a mere number, and 
thus, indirectly, we may divide $42 by 6. 

Practically, however, all such operations are performed 
abstractly, as 42, 6, 7, taken as mere numbers. 

The study and solution of examples and their dis- 
Pointstobe cussion in the class involve the following 

emphasized. points : 

1. Correct reading. Not one pupil in twenty reads a 
new kind of problem correctly the first time. 

2. Examination preparatory to solution. A celebrated 
mathematician said that if his life depended on solving 
a complicated problem within an hour, he would give 
the first thirty minutes to studying it before putting 
down a figure. 

3. Analysis and solution. 

4. Keviewing, to see that there are no errors. 

5. General correction by the rule of Common Sense. 
A mistake in pointing off may make a barrel of flour 
cost 70 cts. or $70, but the pupil's common sense should 
teach him that neither is possible. 

cautions. Keep in mind the following cautions. 

1. Present single ideas, single facts and single diffi- 
culties. 

2. Call up each point in the lesson frequently. 



MENTAL AKITHMETIC 257 

3. Teach simple processes. 

4. Keep the mind active. 

5. See that pupils get a clear perception of principles. 

6. Fix and hold the attention. 

( 1. Correct perception. 
1. Mental discipline -< 2. Attention. 
(3. Practice. 



Results. - 



2. Practical business ( 1. Accuracy. 



preparation. { 2. Expertness. 
Rapidity. 



Ji 

I*. 



3. Preparation for advanced study. 

The analysis of a problem is the same in mental as in 
written arithmetic. The difference is that Menta i 
mental arithmetic is limited to problems arithmetic, 
that may be performed mentally, without recourse to 
written symbols. It is a fact that those pupils who 
have been trained carefully in mental arithmetic take 
up the principles of higher mathematics more readily. 
The language used should be sufficient to render the 
solution of the example clearly intelligible to a listener, 
yet so brief as not to retard the process of mental cal- 
culation. Mental arithmetic should both precede and 
accompany the written arithmetic, step by step. In fact 
it would be much the better way to select a text-book 
that contained exercises in both mental and written 
arithmetic. In mental arithmetic the language should 
be clear, and the words enunciated distinctly. No 
hesitancy should be permitted pupils should pass 
through the solution rapidly. Pupils should be re- 
quired to construct original problems, and random 
exercises should be given by the teacher in addition, 
subtraction, multiplication, and division, to teach rapid- 
ity and accuracy in computation. 



258 AKITHMETIC 

The teacher should give diversified problems of a 
practical nature to the class. 

There is a great deal of perfectly barren mathemati- 
Practicai ca ^ knowledge in this country, particularly 
application. am0 ng those who have studied, not for 
knowledge, but for a certificate or a diploma. 

Not unfrequently do we meet teachers who can dem- 
onstrate problems in algebra and geometry, who at the 
same time cannot make the least application of them. 
Again, we have met teachers who have graduated at the 
higher institutions of learning, who have passed over 
the rules of arithmetic finished the study who would 
be unable to determine how many feet there are in a 
board 12 feet in length and 12 inches wide. 

They seem to be unaware that the rules of arithmetic 
were ever intended for any practical purpose. 

Knowledge, so confined and abstract, is of doubtful 
Theory and utility, even as a mental discipline. Theory 
practice. an( j p rac tice should be united, or we per- 
ceive nothing of the beauties of mathematics. " De- 
tached propositions and abstract mathematical princi- 
ples give us no better idea of true and living science 
than detached words and abstract grammar would give 
us of poetry or rhetoric." Small acquirements in mathe- 
matics serve only to make us timid, cautious, and dis- 
trustful of our own powers but a step or two further 
gives us life, confidence, and power. 

Mathematics should not be studied merely for disci- 
Mental dis- pline. The object should be to understand 
cipiine. ^ e su bject and make it useful. Those who 

teach with no other view than giving discipline to the 
minds of their pupils, never more than half teach. 



FRACTIONS 259 

Let a person undertake the study of any science with 
no other object than discipline and the science will come 
to him with difficulty. But let him begin the study 
determined to understand it and avail himself of it, and 
the science will come to him with ease, and with it a 
discipline of mind, the most effective he can attain. 

In the application of arithmetic there are two dis- 
tinct operations, the logical and the median- Logic of 

arithmetic. 



In too many schools greater attention is given to the 
mechanical. To some extent this is quite necessary, 
and pupils should be made very familiar with elemen- 
tary processes ; but after they become expert in compu- 
tation, greater attention should be given to calculation, 
the thinking. The undisciplined direct their atten- 
tion more to the doing than to the thinking, wbsn it 
should be the reverse ; and nearly all the efforts of the 
good teacher are directed to making his pupils reason 
correctly. If a person fails in an arithmetical problem, 
the failure is usually in the logic, for false logic directs 
to false reasoning, and true logic points out true opera- 
tions. 

II. FRACTIONS 

It is well to introduce the study of fractions by ob- 
jective teaching. For this purpose the best 

j . it. r,- -i Objects first. 

device is a series or equal spheres, of which 
one is whole, another is divided into halves, and the 
others into thirds, fourths, fifths, sixths, eighths, etc. 
These have been provided in what is known as Davis's 
Fractional Apparatus. A similar but less perfect device 
is a series of circles correspondingly subdivided. Most 



260 ARITHMETIC 

teachers will have to make use of apples or other objects 
obtained without expense. Whatever is used, the fol- 
lowing definitions should all be made so clear that every 
pupil can illustrate them by the objects employed. 
The term UNITY in mathematical science is applied 
to any number or quantity regarded as a 

Definitions. 11,1 -n 

whole ; the term UNIT in arithmetic, to any 
number that is used as the base of a collection. 

Every number, whether integral or fractional, has 
the unit 1 for a primary base. 

A quantity regarded as a whole, called a unit, is the 
primary base of every fraction. 

One of equal parts of a unit called the fractional unit, 
is the secondary base of every fractional number. 

The value of a fraction is the number of times it con- 
tains the unit 1. 

The quantity or unit that is divided into equal parts 
is the unit of the fraction. 

One of the equal parts is called & fractional unit. 

In f of a pound, 1 pound is the unit of the fraction, 
and | of the pound the fractional unit. 

A fractional unit or a collection of fractional units is 
a, fraction. (Or a fraction may be considered one or 
more of the equal parts of a unit, these parts correspond- 
ing to fractional units.) 

Two integers are required to express a fraction, one 
above a short horizontal line to denote the number of 
fractional units, called the numerator ; it numbers, or 
expresses how many are taken. The other below the 
line, expresses how many fractional units it is divided 
into, and is called the denominator ; it denominates or 



261 

names and expresses how many fractional units are 
equal to a unit. 

The numerator and denominator taken together are 
called terms of the fraction. 

Fractions are of three kinds, common, decimal and 
duodecimal. One or more of the equal parts of a quan- 
tity, expressed by two numbers, one written above the 
other with a line between them, is a common fraction 
J, T 5 ^ and f. 

Its denominator is other than ten, or some power of 
ten. 

A fractional number, whose value is less than a unit, 
is & proper fraction, as f, f. It is so termed because it 
expresses a value less than 1. An improper fraction 
is not properly a fraction of a unit, the value expressed 
being equal to or greater than 1. 

A single fraction, either proper or improper, is a 
simple fraction, f, f. 

A fraction of a fraction, or several fractions joined by 
of, is termed a compound fraction, as 2-4 of 7-8 of 3-12. 

A fraction in the numerator, or denominator, or both, 

2. s 
is termed a complex fraction, as ?,? 

"5" 

Unity divided by any number is termed a reciprocal ; 
thus the reciprocal of 4 is J. 

An integral number added to a fractional number is 
termed a mixed number, as 3+f, 7+f. The sign of 
addition is usually omitted. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES 

1. Multiplying the numerator increases the value of 
the fraction. 



262 ARITHMETIC 

Because it increases the number of fractional units while the 
value of the fractional unit remains the same. 

2. Multiplying the denominator decreases the value 
of the fraction. 

Because it diminishes the value of the fractional unit, while 
the number remains the same ; it diminishes the value of the frac- 
tional unit because the unit of the fraction is divided into a 
greater number of fractional units, and each fractional unit is as 
many times less in value as there are units in the multiplier. 

3. Multiplying both numerator and denominator by 
the same number does not alter the value of the fraction. 

Because it increases the number of fractional units, as many 
times as it decreases the value of the fractional unit ; that is in the 
same ratio. 

4. Dividing the numerator decreases the value of the 
fraction. 

Because it diminishes the number of the fractional units, while 
the value of the fractional unit remains the same. 

5. Dividing the denominator increases the value of 

the fraction. 



Because it increases the value of the fractional unit, while the 
number remains the same ; it increases the value of the fractional 
unit because the unit of the fraction is divided into a less number 
of fractional units, each fractional unit being as many times 
greater in value as there are units in the divisor. 

6. Dividing both numerator and denominator by the 
same number does not alter the value of the fraction. 

Because it diminishes the number of fractional units as many 
times as it increases the value of the fractional unit. 

7. If the numerator be multiplied by any number, 
the number of fractional units will be increased as many 
times as there are units in the multiplier. 



FRACTIONS 263 

8. If the numerator be divided by any number, the 
number of fractional units will be diminished as many 
times as there are units in the divisor. 

9. If the denominator be multiplied by any number, 
the fractional units will be diminished as many times as 
there are units in the multiplier. 

10. If the denominator be divided by any number, the 
value of the fractional units will be increased as many 
times as there are units in the divisor. 

Naming the quantity or unit divided, the value of 
one of its fractional units, the number of Analysis of 
fractional units, the denominator, numerator a fraction - 
and the terms of the fraction, is to analyze a fraction. 
Thus: 

Analyze the fraction . 

| is a fraction because it expresses 4 of the equal parts of a 
unit. 1 is the unit of the fraction, or the unit that is divided to 
form the fraction. is the fractional unit, or one of the equal 
parts of the unit divided. 5 is the denominator ; it names the 
parts ; it shows that the unit is divided into 5 equal parts ; it tells 
the size or value of each part. 4 is the numerator ; it numbers 
the parts taken to form the fraction ; it is written above the line. 
4 and 5 are the terms of the fraction, and its value is 4-5-5. 

PROCESSES 

Fractions are reduced to their lowest terms Lowe st 
as follows : terms - 

Reduce Jf to its lowest terms. 
16-4-4 _ 4 
20-4-4 ~ 5 

Dividing ^f by | -=% ; as the numerator and denominator are 
prime to each other, the fraction is reduced to its lowest terms. 
This depends upon the following principle : Dividing both terms 
of the fraction by the same number does not alter the value of 



264 ARITHMETIC 

the fraction, because the number of fractional units is decreased 
as many times as the valiw of the fractional unit is increased. 
(Deduce the rule.) 

Reduction of Improper fractions are reduced to integer 
frSons. or mixed numbers as follows : 

Reduce -f- to an integral number. 

ifJL -i- * = 25, or 5, ip = -^ = 25. 

In 1 there are 5 fifths ; in 125 fifths, as many ones as 5 is con- 
tained times in 125, or 25. This depends upon the following 
principle : Dividing both terms of the fraction by the same num- 
ber does not alter the value of the fraction ; the same reason as 
when we reduce fractions to their lowest terms. (Deduce the 
rule.) 

integers Integers or mixed numbers are reduced to 

improper fractions as follows : 

Reduce 49| to fifths. 
I X 49 = if* 

145 + | = 147 

In one there are 5 fifths ; in 49 ones, 49 times 5 fifths, or 245 
fifths ; plus 2 fifths equals 247 fifths. This depends on the follow- 
ing principle : Multiplying both terms of the fraction by the same 
number does not alter the value of the fraction, because the num- 
ber of fractional units is increased as many times as the value of 
the fractional unit is decreased. (Deduce the rule.) 

common Fractions are reduced to a common de- 

denominator. nom i na tor as follows : 

Reduce , f , f , V- 

3X 24 _ 72_ 
5~>T24 ~ 120 
3X 20 _ _60_ 
6X 20 ~~ 120 
4X 15 ^ 
8 X 15 ~~ 120 
15 X 30 _ 450 
4 X 30 ~~ 120 



FRACTIONS 265 

The least common multiple of the denominators is 120 ; divid- 
ing the least common multiple by the denominator of the first 
fraction, we have the quotient 24 ; multiplying both terms of the 
fraction by 24, we have T 7 ^. This depends upon the following 
principle : multiplying both terms of the fraction by the same 
number, does not alter the value of the fraction, because it in- 
creases the number of fractional units as many times as it decreases 
the value of the fractional unit. (The same analysis for the re- 
maining fractions.) 

Fractions may be added as follows : Addition. 

Add f and }. 

l+| = f= If 

As the fractions have the same fractional unit, we may add the 
numerators ; f + f = f = 1 J- 

Add | and f . 

As the fractions f and f h&ve different fractional units, first re- 
duce them to fractions having the same fractional unit, f is 
equal to f f ; f equal to f f ; now as the fractions are of the same 
fractional unit value, we may add the numerators : f f -f- Jf = f-J 
= Iff- (Deduce the rule.) 

One fraction is subtracted from another as 

, ,, Subtraction. 

follows : 

Subtract f from }. 

B - A = A- 

The fractions f and f have different fractional units. First 
reduce the fractions to the same fractional unit value, equals 
IS; f is equal to $ ; as the fractions are of the same fractional 
unit value, we may subtract one numerator from the other, giv- 
ing us $. (Deduce the rule.) 

Fractions are multiplied by an integer as Multi p lica tion 

follows: by an integer. 

Multiply 



___ 
16 " 16 ~~ 2 
2_ _ 2 _ 1 

16 _*. 4 - 4 ~ 2 



266 ARITHMETIC 

Multiplying T 2 ^ by 4, by multiplying the numerator is equal to 
T 8 T or |. This depends upon Principle 1. Multiplying the num- 
erator increases the value of the fraction, because it increases the 
number of fractional units, while the value of the fractional unit 
remains the same. 

Again, multiplying T \ by 4, by dividing the denominator, is 
equal to or . This depends upon Principle 5. Dividing the 
denominator increases the value of the fraction, because it in- 
creases the value of the fractional unit, while the number remains 
the same ; it increases the value of the fractional unit, because 
the unit of the fraction is divided into a less number of fractional 
units, and each fractional unit is as many times greater in value 
as their are units in the divisor. (Deduce the rule.) 

Multiplication ^ e multiply a whole number by a fraction 

by a fraction. a s follows : 

Multiply 24 by f . 

a. I X 24 = 2 4 

V X 2 = V = 16. 

b. i of 24 = 8 
8 X 2 = 16. 

c. 24 X 2 = 48 
48 -f- 3 = 16. 

a. Once 24 is 24 ; -J- times 24 is ^ ; f times 24 is 2 times Y or 
-V- = 16, Ans. 

b. J of 24 is 8 ; f , 2 times 8 or 16, Ans. 

c. Multiplying 24 by 2 = 48 ; as the multiplier is three times 
too great in value, the product is three times too great in value. 
To give the correct value divide by 3, which gives us 16, Ans. 
(Deduce a rule.) 

NOTE. See that the pupil understands that f of 1 is the same 
as J of 2. 

We multiply one fraction by another as follows : 
Multiply f by {. 

a. f X | or 1 = f . 
f X i - A- 

A x = if 



FRACTION'S 26? 

b. f x 5 = y. 
V 5 x 8=15. 

a % multiplied by f or 1 = f ; ? multiplied by is equal to ^. 
Since f multiplied by | is equal to / ? , f multiplied by f will be 
equal to 5 times / F or ^f . 

b. Multiplying f by J is the same as multiplying by the eighth 
part of 5. First multiply f by 5 = *f- ; as the multiplier is eight 
times too great in value the product will be eight times too great 
in value ; hence to get its required value divide - 1 /- by 8, by mul- 
tiplying the denominator, which gives J-f 

We divide a fraction by an integer as f ol- Division by 

lows : an integer- 

Divide f by 3. 

a. 6 -f- 3 = 2 
7 7. 

5.6 i ? 

7 X 3 = 21 = 7. 

Dividing f by 3 = f ; according to the principle which says : 
Dividing the numerator decreases the value of the fraction, be- 
cause it diminishes the number of fractional units, while the value 
of the fractional unit remains the same. 

Again, dividing | by 3, by multiplying the denominator is 
equal to / T ; multiplying the denominator decreases the value of 
the fraction, because it decreases the value of the fractional unit, 
while the number of fractional units remain the same ; it dimin- 
ishes the value of the fractional unit, because the unit of the frac- 
tion is divided into a greater number of fractional units, and each 
fractional unit is as many times less in value as there are units in 
the multiplier. (Deduce the rule.) 

We divide a whole number by a fraction Divisipn by 
as follows : 

Divide 8 by f . 

a. I X 8 = - 4 /. 
V- - t = 13f 

b. 8 -*- 3 = 2f 
2J X 5 = 13i. 



268 ARITHMETIC 

a. In one there are ; in 8, 8 times = - 4 g ; 4 g divided by 
!=13i ; 

b. Divide 8 by f , or the fifth part of three ; dividing 8 by 3 
gives us 2 ; now as the divisor is five times too great in value, 
the quotient is only one-fifth of its required value ; to get its re- 
quired value, multiply the quotient by five, which gives us 13^. 
(Deduce the rule. ) 

We divide a fraction by another fraction as follows : 
Divide by f . 

a. 3 X 3 _ 9 b. 3 _ 3 c. 3 _ j)_ 

4 ~ 4 4 X 2 ~ 8 4 ~ 12 

? = ? = 14 ? X 3 = ? =14 ? = J? 

4X28 8 8 3 12 

9 -^=H 

12 12 

a. 1 is contained in f , three-fourth times ; i is contained in , 
three times , or f times ; $- will be contained in f , of , or . 
times. 

b. Dividing by 2 gives us f ; as the divisor is three times too 
great in value, the quotient is only | of its required value ; multi- 
plying the quotient f by 3 gives us f = 1|. 

c. Reduce f and $ to a common denominator, f is equal to 
T 9 ^ ; f is equal to T 8 ^ ; T 9 ^ divided by T \ is equal to f or l. 

III. GENERAL REMARKS 

It is not expected in a manual for teachers to explain 
suggestive every rule in arithmetic. A few rules have 
analyses. been carefully explained and illustrated in 
detail ; and these are suggestive only. The plan of this 
work has been to give a course of reasoning leading to 
those conclusions from which rules are drawn, and this 
is given in language free from technicalities, and easy 
to be understood. 

The explanations are so given as to put the pupil into 
the place of the original reasoner, until he arrives at a 



GENERAL REMARKS 269 

conclusion from which he can deduce the rule for him- 
self. 

After the pupils are familiar with the process and 
have received sufficient drill, they should be Exactness in 
taught to analyze problems. The teacher language, 
should see that the analysis is thoroughly understood 
and accurately recited. Pupils should be required to 
write out an analysis, and the pupil that presents the 
most simple and concise analysis should write it on the 
board, subject to the criticism of the class. See that 
the language is used correctly ; that it tells " the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth". Now you 
may if you choose require every member of the class to 
commit this approved analysis verbatim, for it will mean 
something to them. 

There are teachers who allow a wide range in the 
forms of analysis as long as the language is good and the 
reasoning logical. While we should insist upon the 
development of individuality and originality on the part 
of the pupils, yet, as mathematics is an exact science, 
the language used in the analysis should be exact. 

I cannot see how language may be cultivated if the 
teachers allow a wide range in the use of words ; I call 
that the best analysis which is the most simple and 
concise. 

It is very common for the pupil to suppose that to 
explain an example simply means to state 

,. r , Analysis 

what operations what processes are per- more than 
formed in reaching the results. Hence, he 
will consider it an unreasonable question if asked why 
he added or subtracted, multiplied or divided, 



270 ARITHMETIC 

Such an explanation should never be accepted. To 
explain a problem, means to assign a reason for each of 
the several steps. I have heard the following given as 
an analysis to a problem in division of fractions : 

Divide by . 

"Invert the terms of the divisor and proceed as in multipli- 
cation." 

The rule tells how to solve the problem ; the analysis 
gives the reason for each step. 

A large number of pupils who pass through the entire 
Practical arithmetical course in our best schools fail 
work - to make application of their knowledge. 

This is owing to a lack of practical application of the 
rules. For example, let them measure the school-room, 
find out the area, measure the yard, fields, etc.; in all 
the tables make a practical application at the time. 

Too much time is wasted in solving problems in con- 
tinued addition, multiplication, division ; I have known 
a class to linger a week upon casting out the 9's in 
addition. All such subjects as these and many others, 
like circulating decimals; true remainder, foreign ex- 
change, alligation, algebraical and geometrical prob- 
lems, should be omitted in our public schools. By 
those who wish to pursue advanced studies, the subjects 
quoted may be studied ; but, as a majority of the pupils 
leave school at the average age of twelve years, they 
should be drilled upon the subjects that they will be 
obliged to use through life. 

Pupils should be put to the test in many ways ; the 
Frequent skilful teacher will not only examine the 
tests. pupils, but cross-examine them. The teacher 

should call for original problems; should encourage 



GENERAL REMARKS 271 

variety of solutions ; should never leave a subject until 
the pupils are able to make ready application of it. 

Pupils should be made familiar with the simplest 
forms of commercial paper ; should be able Business 
to write a negotiable note, to cash interest forms - 
upon notes where partial payments have been made, to 
find the profit and loss upon articles bought and sold. 
When practicable bring in real notes given and held by 
men whom the pupils know. No subject is fully mas- 
tered by the pupil until he is able to make use of it in 
this manner. 



Whatever text-books are used, many outside problems should 
be given. Among the books of problems published the best are 
"The Regents' Questions" from the first examination in 1866 to 
June, 1882. Complete with Key, pp. 473. $2.00. " The Regents' 
Questions in Arithmetic only," in book form, 25 cts.; Key 25 cts. 

Next to the Regents' Questions in value come the Uniform Ex- 
amination Questions of the State of New York, like the Regents' 
Questions prepared with great care by experts, and in three 
grades of difficulty. They are published in three volumes : ' ' The 
New York Question Book", giving the questions from the begin- 
ning to March 31, 1890, pp. 461, $2.00; " Supplement No. 1", 
from April, 1890, to June, 1891, pp. 163, 25 cts.; and " Supple- 
ment No. 2", from Aug., 1881, to June, 1892, pp. 139, 25 cts. 
They give answers, and cover 29 subjects, the number of ques- 
tions in arithmetic being 958. Subsequent questions are published 
monthly in The School Bulletin. 

Another collection of great convenience to the teacher is Ed- 
wards's "500 Every Day Business Problems," price 50 cts. These 
are on slips of card-board that can be distributed, one box serving 
for an entire room. A Key accompanies them. 

In all the above, the questions are promiscuous. Those who 
prefer them arranged by subjects will find Prentice's " Review 
Problems " excellent. They cost 20 cts. 



GEOGRAPHY 



Geography acquires its full value as a branch of edu- 
cation only when it loses the character of an accumula- 
tion of facts, undigested by the child's mind, and be- 
comes real in his memory, linked by association with 
the world of thought and action which immediately 
surrounds it or that which is within it. 

Tell the child to observe the lines of the map which 
hangs perpetually before his eyes, and talk 

Make it real. i> i * *i / 

to him only of the names upon it, and you 
will soon weary his attention ; but speak to him of the 
living men who inhabit that country, tell him of their 
stature and aspect and dress, and ways of life, and of 
their forms of worship ; speak of its climate of the 
forms of vegetable and animal life with which his eye 
would be conversant if he dwelt there of trees and 
flowers, and you excite him to a new life. 

FIEST STEPS IN TEACHING GEOGEAPHY 

I. Talk about the earth as a whole of what it is 
composed and what may be found upon it. 

The heavens catch the child's attention early, and 
observation ^ e w i snes t know about the sun, moon and 
first - stars. He has a general knowledge of the 

earth ; he has learned something about land and water, 
varieties of surface, the location of places, vegetable 

(272) 



GENERAL NOTIONS OF THE EAKTH 273 

products natural and cultivated, and the animal and 
mineral kingdoms. 

These things may be said to comprise the elements of 
geographical study ; and they may be made the subject 
of direct study by the children. 

With these, the study of geography may begin not 
~by learning words from a book, but by actual observa- 
tion, guided by the oral instruction of the teacher. 

In teaching the first steps in geography, explain to the 
children that the sun, moon and stars are Theearth 
large balls, and that they resemble the ball in s P ace - 
we live upon. Tell them that we call this ball the 
earth, and "the earth hangeth upon nothing/' floating 
free in space like a bird in the air. To excite the 
pupils' curiosity and give them a correct idea of the 
form of the earth, blow a few soap-bubbles Use of soap . 
before them, and let them float in the air. bubbles. 
Tell them that a body of the shape of a ball is called a 
globe or a sphere. Talk about the outside of different 
objects and tell them that the outside of an object is 
called the surface. The outside of the earth is called 
the surface of the earth. 

The immense magnitude of the great globe they can- 
not as yet imagine ; at first be content to see that they 
understand its form and motion. 

Let the children see that if they should walk on the 
earth a certain number of hours or days in Landand 
any direction, they would come to the water. water - 

They will now see that the surface of the earth is 
composed of land and water. 

Tell them the fact that one-fourth of the earth's sur- 
face is land and three-fourths are water. 



274 GEOGRAPHY 

Now explain to the child the figures on the globe ; 
point out which is meant for land; which for water ; 
and show him his own country. 

Draw an oblong figure upon the board and divide it 
colored ' m ^ ^ our P ar ^ s ^ ^ three parts represent 

crayon. water and one part the land. Draw a circle 

upon the board and let three parts represent the water 
and one part the land. Use colored chalk. The illus- 
trations will tend to impress the correct ideas on the 
mind. " Happy illustrations excite curiosity." 

Now, on looking at the globe, the first thing that must 
strike every one is, how much more water there is on it 
than dry land. Tell the children that we may ride for 
days and weeks on water and not see any land. 

Let them see how very unequally the land is arranged ; 
instead of being spread evenly all over the surface, it is 
collected together, some portions very large and some 
very small. Let them see the roughness of the fields 
and roads and hills, not to speak of the high mountains 
or depths of the sea. 

In the foregoing account we have spoken of the earth 
shape and as a s P nere > or a globe, or an exactly round 
size - ball. But this though practically true for 

our purpose, is not strictly correct, for the earth is not 
exactly round. You can see it is not. On so big a ball 
as the earth however, these things do not count for 
much. The earth, although so large, so many miles 
around it, may be travelled over we can go around it. 
A train of cars at the 'rate of 40 miles an hour would 
pass around the earth in about 26 days. 

Now, ask the children what may be found upon the 



DIVISIONS OF MATTER 275 

surface of the earth ? They will give names 
to the different kinds of matter, such as 
trees, shrubs, plants, rocks, and horses, cows, etc. 

Let them see that the different things named may be 
classified. Tell them to name the different Divisions of 
things found within the earth that do not matter - 
grow, as iron, lead, gold, silver, rocks, pebbles, sand, 
etc. Tell that these objects belong to the Mineral 
Glass. 

Tell them to name the things only that grow out of 
the earth : as trees, plants, shrubs ; the different kinds 
of trees, plants and shrubs. Tell them that these ob- 
jects belong to the Vegetable Class. 

Tell them to name the animals that are found on the 
land, in the water, and in the air. Tell them that these 
objects belong to the Animal Class. 

Ask the children which class they belong to, and tell 
them wherein they differ. That plants grow, breathe, 
take food and die. That brutes do the same ; but that 
men differ in that they all possess a mind and a soul. 

Now they have learned : Review. 

1. The earth is a large ball or sphere. 

2. Its surface is composed of land and water ; one-fourth is 
land and three-fourths are water. 

3. Minerals, vegetation, and animals are found upon the earth. 

//. Give instruction upon the relative position of 
objects and places. 

Draw their observation to relation, position or place, 
beginning with the situation of the things Relative 
which they see around them, and the dis- position, 
tances of these from each other. Question the children 
as to the position of objects before them, and lead them 



276 GEOGRAPHY 

to describe how they are placed with regard to each, as 
above, below, on this side or that side, etc. The teacher 
should represent the positions of these objects on the 
board and request the pupils to copy the representations 
on their slates. These exercises will prepare them to 
appreciate the value of the map. Proceed with fixed 
divisions of space. Make clear the limits and form of 
its boundaries. 

Study the position of objects and places in regard to 
absolute and relative distances. Make the school the 
first division of space. Map with accuracy all the things 
learned, and have the pupils reproduce the representa- 
tions. 

///. Give the children a knowledge of the cardinal 
points of the compass in their use in geographical 
description. 

When children have been accustomed to determine 
Points of ^ ne relative position of objects, they must be 
compass. j e( j ^o consider places in the same point of 
view ; and to this end they should be made acquainted 
with the use of the several points of the compass. 

Let the class face the North. Ask them to point 
where the sun rises and where it sets. Tell them that 
the place in the heavens where it rises is called the East 
that in which it sets, the West. Excite them to ob- 
serve, both at home and at school, that the sun rises 
in the East and sets in the West. 

Close the lesson by a simultaneous repetition : 

"That direction in which the sun rises is called the 
East ; and that in which it sets, the West." 

Begin the next lesson with a repetition of the preced- 
ing one. Call on the children to place themselves with 



POIKTS OF COMPASS 

their right hand to the East and their left to the West, 
and then tell them that the point directly before them 
is the North, and that directly behind them the South. 

Ask them to repeat together : " If we stand with our 
right hand to the East and our left hand to the West, 
the point directly before us is the North, and that di- 
rectly behind us the South. " Ask the pupils to face 
the East, the South, the West and the North. Let the 
children place a stick or draw a line with the chalk on 
the floor, in the directions of North, South, East and 
West. 

In such exercises the object is to occupy only so much 
time upon each new idea as may suffice to fix it in the 
mind. A figure should be drawn on the board repre- 
senting the compass, or better still a small compass 
should be exhibited. The teacher should see to it that 
the children are firm on one step of the ladder of knowl- 
edge, before they proceed to another, and not weary and 
disgust them by keeping them too long on one subject. 

When we wish to represent the situation of different 
places on paper or on a slate, we call the top Sem i_ car( ji. 
North, the bottom South, the right hand nal P ints - 
East and the left hand West. The teacher writes the 
four cardinal points on the board. But are things or 
places always exactly at the North, the South, the East 
or the West ? Where may they be ? They may be be- 
tween any two of these points. A point half-way be- 
tween North and East is Northeast. What do you 
think half-way between North and West is called ? De- 
velop the other semi-cardinal points in the same way. 
Drill upon the above facts. Draw a square on the board 



278 GEOGRAPHY 

and let the children mark and tell the cardinal and 
semi-cardinal points. 

Draw a circle on the board and mark off the principal 
and intermediate points. 

Let the teacher draw the outline of the room on the 
Mapping the ^ oor ^ n cna ^^ an( l mark the position of ob- 
room. j ec s w jthin it; and when a map of the room 

is substituted, place it first in a horizontal position. 

Let the pupils place the different articles in the room 
along the northern, eastern, southern, and western 
boundaries. 

Eequire them to draw the room according to the 
same scale, and mark the relative positions of the objects. 

Let them measure the length of the school-room by a 
foot measure ; see that it is correctly done. 

Let the children see that we cannot represent the 
Scale of rep- dimensions of the room on the board by 
resentation. us ing the scale of feet, but that we must use 
the scale of inches. Now let one foot of the room be 
represented by one inch on the slate or board. If the 
room is twelve feet long, how many inches shall we 
make our line on the slate ? Twelve. Proceed in the 
same manner until the children obtain a correct idea of 
a scale. For example, the inch, the foot, the yard, the 
rod, and the mile. 

Teach the location of streets and the directions of 
them ; the public building, etc. Let the 

Mapping the , ., ' f, , . , , 

neighbor- children see that in geography we need not 

say top and bottom, right and left, but we 

call them north, south, east and west. When you are 

in front of a globe or map, the top is north, the bottom 



DEFINITIONS 279 

is south, the right hand is east, and the left hand is 
west. 

IV. Give instruction and drill upon geographical 
definitions. 

Draw an irregular figure on the board representing 
one of the divisions of the earth, say South Land 
America. In drawing the coast, (that is, a ^visions, 
rib or side the edge of the land near the sea,) make 
the projections and indentations prominent, so that we 
may be able to use the figure to give the children a cor- 
rect idea of the shape of land and water divisions. The 
larger figure will represent one of the mainlands of the 
world, as distinguished from islands, which, though 
large, are still evidently surrounded by the sea ; and it 
is called a Continent. 

A prominent projection of land from the coast, not 
quite an island, not quite surrounded by the water, is 
called a Peninsula. It projects from the mainland or 
body, and generally is quite narrow at the point of pro- 
jection and gradually widens. Where there is a Penin- 
sula, there ought to be an Isthmus, which is a neck of 
land connecting it with the mainland. 

Proceed in the same manner to develop all the land 
divisions. Continue the drill until all the children 
understand what is meant by the terms used such as 
Continent, Peninsula, etc. 

Let the children draw many figures, until they are 
perfectly familiar with all the land divisions. 

Let the children see that all the water of the earth 
belongs to one great ocean, sometimes called Water 
the sea. Tell them that the ocean is the divisions, 
largest body of water. Talk to them about the extent 



280 GEOGKAPHY 

of the ocean, what is found within its waters, and the 
great thoroughfares of commerce. 

Draw a figure with a prominent indentation in the 
coast, and let the children see that a recess in the coast 
is called a Gulf or Bay. The gulf is usually the nar- 
rower and deeper, and the bay the broader and more open 
of the two. In fact, the words are used without exact- 
ness of distinction. 

A narrow passage of water between two continents, 
not very deep, is called a Strait. A Sound is also a 
narrow passage of water between two continents or 
islands, but much deeper. All of the water divisions 
may be represented on the board in such a manner as 
to convey correct impressions. Develop all the terms 
in the same manner. 

The teacher should not be content until these terms 
Homeiiius- are thoroughly understood and mastered. 

trations. ' The ob j ect of them ^ ig t() teach the pupils 

about the earth, and they are of no use if they do not 
do that. Get the pupils into the habit of looking at the 
country itself, finding out all the ideas they can and 
what they all mean. 

The most important spot for us all in this and many 
other respects is our homes. What sort of a country is 
it ? What about its hills and mountains; its valleys and 
plains ; its resources and thoroughfares ? Can you 
answer all these questions ? It is that sort of inquiry, 
begun at your own home and gradually inclining to 
other countries and scenes till you know all about them, 
that is the useful part of the great science of man and 
nature of which Geography is an important part. Keep 



GENERAL SUGGESTIONS 281 

your eyes open, and you will see something to study 
every day of your life. 

The first study of geography should be based as far as 
possible upon what the pupils can see about General sug . 
them. Upon this basis they are prepared to gestions. 
advance to the study of what they cannot see but must 
take from description this is the law of development. 

I. Teach direction, and apply it to the school-house 
and immediate surroundings. 

II. Teach dimensions, especially the smaller denomina- 
tions, with frequent tests. Direction and dimensions are 
essential to conception of space and distances in space. 

III. Proceed with fixed divisions of space. Make 
clear the form of its boundaries. 

Study the position of things within the space in 
regard to distances and directions. Make the school- 
room the first division of space. Map with accuracy 
all the things learned ; base your teaching on map- 
drawing. Buy and use Miss Wilkins's "Teachers' 
Manual of Map-Drawing," and follow it. 

IV. Take the school-house grounds as the second 
division of space and apply the preceding principles ; 
thence in succession the district, the township, the 
county, the State, the nation, the world. 

V. Study the vegetation, the animals, and the min- 
erals of the smaller spaces. Give names and uses, dis- 
tinguishing the wild animals and vegetation from those 
which are cultivated. 

VI. Study the occupations and the trades of tne 
people. 

VII. Study the manufactures and the forces employed 
in driving the machinery. 



282 GEOGRAPHY 

VIII. Study the commerce and the transportation. 

IX. Study the social, religious, and political organi- 
zations. 

The above may be all taught objectively, for examples 
of them come within the perception of every ordinary 
child, if he be but taught to use it. 

This local geography should be studied thoroughly 
before undertaking the general study of the world ; it 
gives the basis of understanding the subjective treat- 
ment. Then : 

X. Study the form, size, and position of the earth. 

XI. Study its surface in respect to land and water 
and their relations. 

XII. In studying particular divisions pursue a natural 
order, viz. : outlines, surface, climate, vegetation, min- 
erals, animals, nations. 

Map-drawing. In Map-D rawing : 

1. Begin with the school-room and draw a plan of it 
on the board. 

2. Draw around it the plan of the yard. 

3. Let the children measure the dimensions of the 
room and the yard, and draw the plan to various scales. 

4. Draw a map of the neighborhood, village, city, etc. 

5. Let the* pupils indicate the various streets, public 
buildings, etc. 

6. GIVE THOROUGH DRILL. 

The geography often taught is not true geography ; 

it is a miserable hotch-potch of insignificant 

fragments, and is utterly unworthy the great 

name it bears and the time it occupies. Gigantic facts, 

magnificent generalizations, splendid speculations, in- 



ADVAHCED TEACHING 283 

volving, as they do, the mightiest problems in several 
of the other sciences, are certainly not fitting food 
for little children's minds. Their imaginations are 
confounded at its first propositions. The huge round 
world, swinging unsupported in limited space, and 
wheeling with an inconceivable velocity along its track- 
less orbit, parcelled into vast expanses of continent and 
still vaster oceans, and peopled with a billion of human 
beings : what a conception is this to offer to a little child ! 
Picture it, explain, illustrate it as we will, it still remains 
a great mystery of which nothing is learned but the 
vaguest ideas. Nor are its later problems less difficult 
than these first and fundamental notions. The alter- 
nations of day and night, with their varying lengths in 
different latitudes and different seasons ; the variety and 
succession of the seasons and their relation to climate ; 
the precession of the equinoxes ; the movements of the 
tides ; the flow of the oceanic currents ; the sweep of 
the winds ; the great laws of climate ; the geographical 
distribution of plants and animals, and the migrations 
and varying civilizations of the human race : these 
surely are not questions for mere tyros in learning and 
novices in study to solve. 

II. ADVANCED GEOGRAPHY 

In Advanced Geography facts have to be classified, 
generalizations to be made, laws to be dis- Physlcal 
covered and the connection of causes and features first, 
effects to be established. It is now clearly understood 
that the most profitable way of teaching the geography 
of a country is to take up its physical features first, and 
then the facts which depend upon them. To be made 



284 

acquainted with the physical features of a country is as 
necessary to a geographer as the knowledge of the bones 
and great blood vessels of the human frame is to the 
anatomist. In order to understand the real geography 
of a country, its organic structure, so to call it, the 
form of its skeleton that is, of its hills ; the magnitude 
and course of its veins and arteries, that is of its 
streams and rivers, one should conceive it as a ivhole 
made up of connected parts ; and then the position of 
man's dwellings, viewed in reference to these parts, 
becomes at once easily remembered, and intelligible. 

The use of the blackboard in teaching geography is 
Blackboard now g enera l- I^ s relation to the use of maps 
and maps. j s better understood than it was. It fur- 
nishes the means of exhibiting any portion of a map on 
a larger scale, and bringing out prominently any feature 
that may be required, the usual maps being often 
confusing because so crowded. 

By means of colored chalk, the separate classes of 
colored ^ ac ^ s ma y ^ e ^ e P^ distinct an( ^ their relation 
crayon. more clearly shown. All facts presented to 
the eye are impressed on the mind. " The faithful 
sight engraves the knowledge with a beam of light." 

In the treatment of this subject, we associate Physi- 
cal and Political Geography as inseparable as one sub- 
ject ; with this fact overlooked geography becomes a 
mass of meaningless details, without either cause or 
correlation, while its study degenerates into mere rote 
work. We take as an illustration the study of a single 
division. 



THE NEW WOULD 



285 



The New 
World. 



STUDY OF NORTH AMERICA 

America lies between the two largest oceans on the 
globe the Pacific and the Atlantic, and 
stretches from north to south a distance of 
more than 9000 miles. Compared with its length, it is 
extremely narrow. There are certain distinctly marked 
contrasts between the New World and the Old ; and it 
may be well to take notice of these first of all. Let us 
compare them. 

AMERICA and EURASIA 



1. Has its greatest length from north 

to south. 

2. Its greatest mountain-chains run 

from north to south. 

3. Is a continent of great plains. 

4. The American Plains are open to 

the sea and the sea-winds. 

5. America has no vast deserts. 



6. America decreases in breadth as 

it goes south. 

7. America lies in both hemispheres 

northern and southern. 

8. America runs through four zones. 

9. The heart of each of the two 

Americas is connected with the 
sea by rivers. 

10. America is the " land of promise " 
and of the future. 



1. Has its greatest length from west 

to east. 

2. Its chief mountain-ranges run 

from west to east. 

3. Is a /continent of immense and 

elevated plateaus. 

4. The Eurasian Plateaus are shut 

off from sea influences. 

5. Eurasia has the largest deserts on 

the globe (with the exception 
of Africa.) 

6. Eurasia remains nearly of the 

same breadth in all longitudes. 

7. Eurasia is confined to the north- 

ern hemisphere. 

8. Eurasia lies mostly in the North 

Temperate Zone. 

9. The middle of Asia is a closed 

basin, which sends no rivers to 
the sea. 

10. Eurasia is the land of accom- 
plished fact and of the past. 



America has an area of 16| millions of square miles, 
and is larger than Europe and Africa taken together. 
The northern continent contains about 9 millions ; and 
the southern about 7. 



286 GEOGRAPHY 

(i) The four extreme points of the American continent are : 
(a) Murchison Peninsula, hi the north ; 
(&) Cape Froward, in the south ; 

(c) Cape Branco, on the east ; 

(d) Cape Prince of Wales, on the west, 
(ii) The most remarkable breadths are : 

(a) In 45 North lat., 3100 miles across; 
(6) In 5 South lat., 3200 miles across ; 
(c) At Panama, 28 miles across. 

(iii) America is 4 times as large as Europe ; 5 times Australia ; and 
times Africa. But it is a good deal smaller than Asia. 

North America is the northern division of the New 
World. It is connected with South America 
by the Isthmus of Panama. In shape and 
character it is not unlike South America ; and the fol- 
lowing points of resemblance between the two ought to 
be noted : 

NORTH AMERICA and SOUTH AMERICA. 



1. North America is an irregular tri- 

angle. 

2. On its west coast, there is a high 

range of volcanic mountains. 

3. Parallel with the east coast, runs a 

lower range. 

4. The middle of the continent is oc- 

cupied by a vast plain from the 
Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of 
Mexico. 

5. The St. Lawrence flows from west 

to east; the Mississippi from 
north to south. 



1. South America is a regular tri- 



2. On its west coast, there is a high 

range which contains many 
volcanoes. 

3. Parallel with the east coast, runs a 

secondary range. 

4. The middle of the continent is oc- 

cupied by a vast plain from the 
Caribbean Sea to the La Plata. 



5. The Amazon flows from west to 
east ; the La Plata from north 
to south. 



North America has a roughly triangular shape, with 
Form and ^ s ^ ase near ^ s northern line, and its acutest 
Extent. angle stretching to the south. It contains 

about 8,600,000 square miles less than half the extent 
of Asia. 

(i) Its greatest length is 4500 miles, 
(ii) Its greatest breadth on 45 North lat., is 3100 miles. 



AMEEICA 



287 



The build of North America is extremely simple. On 
the west, there is a lofty table-land with high ranges of 
mountains ; on the east, a lower range parallel with the 
coast ; and between the two, an immense plain, which 
stretches from the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. 

The length of the coast line of North America is es- 
timated at 24,500 miles. The eastern coast is much 




288 GEOGRAPHY 

and deeply indented ; the west coast is comparatively 
regular. 

(i) This gives 1 mile of coast line to each 350 square miles of surface, 
(ii) Europe has a coast line twice as richly developed ; Africa has, com- 
paratively, less than half the coast line of North America. 

The eastern coast contains the mighty re-entrances of 
Bays and Baffin Bay ; Hudson Bay ; Gulf of St. Law- 
iniets. rence ; Bay of Fundy ; the Gulf of Mexico ; 

and the Caribbean Sea. The chief opening in the west 
coast is the Gulf of California ; in the north, the Gulf 
of Boothia. 

(i) Baffin Bay was first explored in 1615 by William Baffin, a pilot on 
board the ship " Discovery " in search of the North- West Passage. There is 
a great deal of whale and seal-fishing in this immense bay, which is open 
only four months in summer. 

(ii) Hudson Bay was discovered in 1610 by Henry Hudson, a famous sailor. 
His men mutinied ; put him and his son in an open boat ; sent them adrift 
on this great inland sea ; and they were never heard of more. 

(iii) The Gulf of St. Lawrence is the estuary of the mighty river St. Law- 
rence, which carries off the surplus x water of the Five Great Lakes. It is 
much infested by fogs in summer, and by ice in winter. 

(iv) The Bay of Fundy is a narrow arm of the Atlantic, between Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick. It is famous for its strong and rapid tides, 
which sometimes rise and fall fully 70 ft. 

(v) The Gulf of Mexico is the true '* Mediterranean of America ". It is a 
vast caldron, in which the waters from the Caribbean Sea are heated to 
over 90 and then discharged through the Florida Pass, to spread themselves 
as the ''Gulf Stream" over the North Atlantic, and give to the western 
shores of Europe their warm climate. 

(vi) The Caribbean Sea is the great inland sea which lies between the Great 
Antilles and the continent of South America. It is entered either by the 
4 'Windward Passage " to the west of Hayti, or by the " Mona Passage " to 
the east. 

(vii) The Gulf of California is a long and very narrow gulf on the west 
coast. It is 700 miles long and in some parts only 40 miles broad. 

(viii) The Gulf of Boothia is an immense opening between the Boothia 
Peninsula and Cockburn Island. It was discovered by the famous navigator 
Sir John Ross, and named by him after his friend Sir Felix Booth. 

The chief Straits in North America are : Hudson 
Strait ; Davis Strait ; Barrow Strait ; and 

Straits. ^ , . a , ., 

Behnng Strait. 



NORTH AMEEICA 289 

(i) Hudson Strait connects Hudson Bay with the Atlantic, 
(ii) Davis Strait connects Baffin Bay with the Atlantic. It is thickly beset 
with icebergs, which come down from the west coast of Greenland, 
(iii) Barrow Strait connects Baffin Bay with the Arctic Ocean, 
(iv) Behring Strait connects the Arctic Ocean with the Pacific, and divides 
the continents of North America and Asia. It is about 50 miles wide. 

There are, on the east coast, four great peninsulas : 
Labrador ; Nova Scotia ; Florida ; and Yu- p en insuias 
catan ; on the west coast, two : Alaska, and and Ca P es - 
Lower California. The most important Capes are on 
the east coast: Cape Eace (in Newfoundland); Cape 
Sable (in Nova Scotia); Cape Cod (in Massachusetts); 
Cape Hatteras (in North Carolina); and Cape Sable (in 
Florida). 

(i) Labrador is a triangular peninsula which lies in the same latitude as 
the British Isles between 50 and 60 ; and yet it has a nine months' winter. 
This is due, on the one hand, to the absence of the Gulf Stream, and, on the 
other, to the presence of a cold current, crowded with icebergs, from Davis 
Strait. 

(ii) Yucatan is one of the few peninsulas in the world which run to the 
north. The others are Jutland in Europe, and Cape York Peninsula in 
Australia. 

(iii) Other capes of secondary importance are : (a) On the East : Fare- 
well ; Charles : Breton ; Catoche ; Gracias-a-Dios. (b) In the North : Barrow 
and Bathurst. (c) On the West : Prince of Wales (in Alaska) ; and St. Lucas 
(in California). 

(iv) Cape Race is the land first sighted in sailing from Britain to America. 
(v) Cape Sable is so called from its sandy beach (Fr. sable, sand). 

The only Isthmus of first importance in North Amer- 
ica is the Isthmus of Panama, which joins 

~ ., T ^ , . . Isthmus. 

South and Central America. 

(i) Its narrowest breadth is about 30 miles. The great French engineer, 
M. de Lesseps, attempted to cut a canal through it, thus saving the voyage 
round the whole of South America, and revolutionizing the commerce of the 
Western World. But though he had already cut through the Isthmus of 
Suez and shortened the voyage to India by saving the circuitous course 
round the African continent, the Panama canal has thus far proved a failure. 

(ii) Another isthmus of some importance is the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, 
between the Gulf of the same name and the Bay of Campeachy. It is 140 
miles across. 



290 GEOGRAPHY 

The islands on the east coast of North America are 
much the most important. They are : 

Islands. . . . . . -~ . _JL* 

Anticosti ; Prince Edward Island ; New- 
foundland ; the Bermudas ; and the West Indies. On 
the north lies a vast archipelago, the largest island of 
which is Greenland. On the west, the most important 
island is Vancouver. 

(i) The largest island in the West Indies is Cuba; the second, Hayti ; and 
the third, Jamaica. 

(ii) Besides Vancouver, there are, on the west coast, the Queen Char- 
lotte Islands, the Sitka Archipelago, and Prince of Wales Island. 

The western part of the North American continent is 
one vast plateau. The well-marked moun- 

Table-lands. . , . , . , ~ , 

tain-range which runs through Central 
America branches into two ranges at the Isthmus of 
Tehuantepec ; and these two ranges, under different 
names, run up almost to the Arctic Ocean, supporting 
between them a long and immense table-land. The 
highest table-land in the whole system is the Plateau of 
Mexico, which is about 9000 ft. above the level of the 
sea. The best known is the continental basin which is 
called the Plateau of Utah. 

North America has two great systems of uplift ; the 

Appalachian System and the Western or 

Cordillera System. In the Appalachian 

System, the most important range is that of the Alle- 

ghanies ; in the Western System, the chief range is the 

Rocky Mountains. 

(i) The Appalachian Mountains begin in the table-lands of Alabama, 
stretch north-east to the St. Lawrence, and reappear in the Plateau of 
Labrador. Their best-known ranges are the Alleghanies and the Blue 
Mountains. They are also connected with the Catskills of New York, and 
the Green Mountains of Vermont. 

(ii) The Western or Cordillera System consists of two plateaus and a 
number of mountain ranges. The two plateaus are the Mexican Plateau ; 



NORTH AMERICA 291 

and the Western Plateau. The Mexican Plateau has the Sierra Madre as 
its western buttress. The Western Plateau has the Rocky Mountains, 
which are the backbone of North America, as its eastern buttress ; while, on 
its western edges, it has the Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Mountains. 
West of the Sierra Nevada range and parallel to it runs the Coast Range ; 
and the two support between them a river-valley. The most famous part of 
the Western Plateau is the Great Basin an elevated plateau which lies be- 
tween the Wahsatch Mountains on the east, and the Sierra Nevada and 
Cascade Range on the west. This Great Basin is a continental basin and 
contains rivers and lakes whose waters never reach the sea. The largest 
lake is the Great Salt Lake. The vast table-land which is called the West- 
ern System covers one-third of the area of the United States. 

(iii) The highest mountain in North America is Mount St. Elias (19,500 ft.) 
in Alaska. It stands in a continuation of the Cascade Range. The highest 
summits in the " Rockies " are Mount Brown (16,000 ft.) and Mount Hooker 
(15,700 ft.) The highest peak in the Alleghanies is Mount Mitchell, which is 
only 6088 ft. high. In Mexico, at the south end of the Mexican Plateau, 
Popocatepetl (the highest mountain in Central America) rises to the height 
of 17,884 ft. ; and Orizaba is only a little lower. 

(iv) The volcanoes of North America are found at the two extremities of 
the system in Central America and Alaska. 

The most remarkable feature in the build of North 
America is the Great Central Plain, which 
stretches from the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf 
of Mexico, and lies between the Rocky Mountains and 
the Appalachian System. One half of this plain slopes 
to Hudson Bay and the Arctic Ocean ; the other half 
to the Gulf of Mexico ; and the watershed between 
them is called the Height of Land. 

(i) The Great Central Plain merges gradually into the sloping table-land 
which lies to the east of the Rocky Mountains. 

(ii) The general name for the vast grassy plains of North America, is 
prairie. Most prairies are treeless ; but there are timbered as well as " bald " 
prairies. The surface is not perfectly level, but in general consists of a suc- 
cession of low wave-like swells. These are called " rolling country ". The 
terraces which rise gradually from the banks of rivers are called " benches ". 
In the south, grassy plains are called "Savannahs"; and along the lower 
Mississippi are found "prairies tremblantes ", or quaking plains. The 
prairies are covered with high waving grasses, interspersed with scattered 
belts of timber. These prairies fill the larger part of the Mississippi Valley. 

As North America possesses immense plains, it is also 



292 GEOGRAPHY 

provided with a magnificent system of rivers. 

Rivers. * 

The mam axis of the continent, being near- 
est the Pacific, sends the longest streams into the At- 
lantic and the Arctic Oceans. The position of the two 
great systems of uplift the Cordillera and the Ap- 
palachian, with the Great Plain between them, throws 
much the larger part of the flowing waters into this 
plain ; and the Height of Land sends them down the 
north slope and the south slope respectively. The four 
largest rivers of North America are the Mississippi, the 
Mackenzie, the St. Lawrence, and the Saskatchewan ; 
and all four belong to the Great Central Plain. The 
Mississippi flows south, the Mackenzie, north, and the 
St. Lawrence, east. The two largest rivers into the 
Pacific are the Yukon and the Columbia. 

(i) (a) In addition to the Mississippi, the Rio Grande del Norte (=Great 
River of the North) flows into the Gulf. (&) The largest rivers falling into 
the Hudson Bay are the Saskatchewan or Nelson, and the Churchill, (c) A 
large number of streams flow down the short Atlantic slope. The best 
known are the Connecticut, Hudson, Susquehanna, Potomac, and James, 
(c?) The Fraser, Sacramento, and Colorado, also flow into the Pacific, (e) In 
addition to the Mackenzie, the Coppermine and the Back or Great Fish 
River, flow into the Arctic Ocean. 

(ii) The Mississippi or " Father of Waters" has a basin which consists 
mainly of three long slopes : one from the Rockies eastward ; one from the 
Appalachians westward ; and one from the Height of Land southward. 
Down these three slopes roll its three largest tributaries : the Missouri, the 
longest the Ohio, the largest ; and the Upper Mississippi. The Missouri- 
Mississippi is, measuring from the source of the Missouri, the longest river 
in the world. It is 4200 miles long ; and, with its tributaries, provides 35,000 
miles of navigable water-ways. The Mississippi itself rises in the small lake 
of Itasca, in the State of Minnesota. Its upper course ends at the Falls of 
St. Anthony. In its middle course, it receives, from the west, the Missouri, 
Arkansas, and Red Rivers ; from the east, the Ohio. The Missouri is itself 
2900 miles long ; and the others are nearly as large as the Danube. The 
Missouri brings down a vast quantity of yellow mud ; and, after it joins the 
Mississippi, the river becomes a dense yellow torrent. The Missouri itself 
receives mighty tributaries, the largest of which are the Yellowstone and 
the Platte. 



KOETH AMERICA 293 

44 This great river-system penetrates to the very heart of the conti- 
nent; and, with its numerous tributaries, affords an inland 
navigation of unsurpassed magnificence. "FOSTER. 

(iii) The St. Lawrence is the overflow of the Five Great Lakes. It is 2000 
miles long ; and the area of its catchment-basin is 480,000 square miles or 
twice the size of the Rio Grande. Though the third in length, it is the largest 
in volume. In the first part of its course it is called the St. Louis, and flows 
into Lake Superior. It receives all the rivers which flow from the long 
ranges of mountains and highlands, which separate the slopes to Hudson 
Bay from those to the south. Its largest tributary is the Ottawa ; its grand- 
est, the Saguenay. It receives also a large number of affluents from the 
south. It has a large number of different names : (a) above Lake Superior, 
it is called St. Louis ; (6) between Superior and Lake Huron, the Narrows, 
or " Sault Ste. Marie "; (c) between Huron and Lake St. Clair, the St. Clair ; 
(d) between St. Clair and Lake Erie, the Detroit ; (e) between Erie and On- 
tario, the Niagara ; and (/) between Ontario and the Ocean, the St. Law- 
rence. 

On the river Niagara are the " Falls of Niagara," the largest in the 
world. The Horse-Shoe, or Canadian Fall, is 1900 ft. wide and 
120 ft. high. The American Fall is only one-third of the Cana- 
dian Fall in width, but is a little higher. 

(iv) The Mackenzie is 2500 miles in length. It is fed by mighty streams, 
both from the east and from the west. The largest is the Athabasca. 

(v) The Saskatchewan or Nelson is 1900 miles long, and has a catchment- 
basin nearly as large as that of the St. Lawrence. It rises near Mount 
Hooker, and flows through a country called the tl Fertile Belt ". 

If North America is remarkable for its splendid and 
highly-developed river-systems, it is still 
more remarkable for its % lakes. It has the 
largest number of the largest lakes of any continent on 
the face of the globe. It may be called the Lake Con- 
tinent. These lakes lie in the form of an immense 
semicircle, parallel and almost concentric with Hudson 
Bay. They lie in three great depressed basins, and be- 
long to three river-systems the Mackenzie, the Sas- 
katchewan, and the St. Lawrence. They may be 
counted by hundreds ; but the most important are : the 
Great Bear Lake ; Great Slave Lake ; Athabasca ; 
Winnipeg ; Superior ; Michigan ; Huron ; Erie ; and 
Ontario. The five last are called the Five Great Lakes, 



294 GEOGRAPHY 

and form part of the St. Lawrence Basin. The Great 
Salt Lake belongs to the Continental Basin. 

(i) The St. Lawrence, with its lakes and rivers, contains more than one- 
half of all the fresh water on the globe. 

(ii) Lake Superior has an area of nearly 32,000 square miles, and is there- 
fore about the size of Ireland. It is the largest body of fresh water in the 
world ; and, in some parts, it is about 600 ft. deep. Its greatest length, 
measured on its own curve, is 420 miles. Its water is remarkably transpar- 
ent, and comes from more than 200 rivers. Its shores abound in silver, 
copper, and iron. 

(iii) The Five Great Lakes have together an area of over 90,000 square 
miles or more than the area of Great Britain. 

(iv) Of the Five Great Lakes, the only one which lies wholly within the 
United States is Michigan ; the others lie between the United States and 
Canada. 

North America stretches from 80 to about 10 North 
lat. ; and hence it possesses every gradation 

Climate. , v . *. , J \ 

of climate from arctic, through sub-arctic, 
temperate, sub-tropical, to tropical. There are cer- 
tain established facts relating to the North American 
climate : 

(i) Latitude for latitude, it Is colder than the climate of Europe, (a) 
Labrador is in the latitude of Great Britain. But Labrador is colder than 
Siberia. (6) Quebec is in the latitude of Paris ; but it has a very much colder 
and longer winter, (c) Washington is in the latitude of Sicily ; but at Wash- 
ington the Potomac is sometimes frozen oyer. 

(ii) In most parts of North America, the climate is more continental than 
in the corresponding latitudes of Europe. This is mainly due to the absence 
of inland seas ; and also to the fact that the south-west winds from the 
Pacific are kept off by the mountain ranges from the eastern plains, which 
are extremely cold in winter and intensely hot in summer. 

(iii) The changes of temperature are very abrupt. This is due to the fact 
that there is no range of mountains between the northern and the southern 
slope ; and the Great Central Plain extends without a break from the Arctic 
Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. The " Height of Land " is very low ; and 
hence an icy wind from the north may suddenly spring up ; and the ther- 
mometer has been known to fall 40 in less than an hour. Under such a 
wind, ice has been known to form at the mouth of the Mississippi, and 9 
of frost have been found in the south of Texas. 

(iv) In the Temperate Zone, th.e west coast is warmer and moister than 
the east. This is due to the fact that the warm rain-laden south-west winds 
from the Pacific blow on the west coast. But, in the east, a west wind is a 



NORTH AMERICA 295 

dry wind ; and the east wind is cold as well as moist. " In California, it is 
never too hot nor too cold to work." 

(v) The rain-fall is greatest in the south, decreases as we go north ; and 
also decreases from west to east. The driest parts are the Western Plateau, 
especially the Utah Basin, which is drying up. The elevated plains east of 
the Rockies are always dry. 

The flora of North America is very rich and enor- 
mously varied. In the Arctic Regions we 
find, as usual, mosses, lichens, and stunted 
trees ; in the tropical districts of Central America, 
palms and bamboos ; and in the Temperate regions be- 
tween them a greater variety of forest-trees than is to 
be found in the forest-regions of Europe or Asia. Of 
cultivated plants, the North grows barley, oats, and ex- 
cellent spring-wheat ; maize grows in the warmer parts 
of Canada and in nearly all the southern parts of the 
continent ; the sugar-cane, tobacco, aud cotton, are 
cultivated in the southern districts of the United 
States. Rice is grown very far south ; and sub-tropical 
fruits (the orange, fig, and lemon) flourish in the warm 
southern regions, and on the Pacific coast. 

(i) The forests of the northern part of the United States are " mixed 
forests ". The forest regions occur chiefly on the western and the eastern 
coasts. On the east it extends from west of the mouth of the Mississippi to 
Massachusetts, and is of various breadths. Most of the trees are deciduous. 

(ii) In Canada, pines, oaks, maples, and poplars, are the commonest trees. 

(iii) In Mexico the most striking plants are the cactuses, some of which 
are nearly 60 ft. high, and with their stiff forms and odd arms look like 
gigantic candelabra scattered over what looks like a barren country. 
Azaleas and magnolias come to us from tropical America. 

(iv) Maize, or Indian corn, is the only cultivated cereal that is indigenous 
to North America ; and it is to the presence of this plant that the coloniza- 
tion of the continent is chiefly due. 

(v) The manioc (from which cassava and tapioca are made) and arrow- 
root are among the native food-plants of Tropical America. Both are tubers. 

The fauna of North America is rich and varied. But, 
while North America is as rich as the Old 
World in birds, insects, and plants, it is 



296 GEOGRAPHY 

much poorer in mammals. In the North we find the 
bison (which is rapidly becoming extinct), the cariboo 
(corresponding to the reindeer of Europe), the moose- 
deer (elk), five kinds of bear, seals, beavers, racoons, 
and many other fur-clothed animals. There is only 
one marsupial the opossum. Monkeys are found only 
within the tropics. The continent is rich in birds. 
The humming-bird is peculiar to America ; and there 
are also many species noted either for their song or for 
their plumage. The rattlesnake is the most dangerous 
reptile. 

(i) (a) Among cetacea, we find the Greenland whale. (&) Among rumi- 
nants, there are four large deer ; the Rocky Mountain sheep called the 
"big-horn"; the musk-ox; and two antelopes, (c) Among rodents, there 
are beavers, hares, squirrels, and the prairie-dog, which is allied to the mar- 
mot and squirrel. Prairie-dogs live in villages, (it) Of Carnivora, there 
are foxes, wolves, jaguars, pumas, sables, and skunks (of the weasel kind), 
otters and gluttons, bears (the grisly bear of the Rockies), and racoons. 

(ii) Of the cat tribe, the puma is the most widely diffused. 

(iii) The common turkey is native to America. 

North America is unequalled by any continent in the 

richness and variety of its mineral products. 

The largest stock of coal known in the 

world is in the United States ; iron is enormously 

abundant; while the so-called precious metals gold, 

and silver, are mined in very large quantities. The 

purest copper is found in great abundance on the north 

and east shores of Lake Superior. Lead and quicksilver 

are found in many parts of the continent ; both Canada 

and Mexico produce tin. 

The area of all the coal-fields of the United States is 
estimated at 190,000 square miles or twenty times as 
large as all the coal-fields of Europe. The Appalachian 
coal-field, on the west side of the Alleghanies, has an area 



NOBTH AMERICA 297 

of 70,000 square miles or more than twice the size of 
Ireland. The Missouri Basin or " Great Western coal- 
field," the largest in the United States, covers nearly 
85,000 square miles. There is also a great deal of coal 
in the Dominion of Canada. 

There are at present in North America probably 
about 80, 000, 000 inhabitants. Of these 1 about 
60 millions are whites and of European 
blood ; the rest are Negroes, American-Indians, and 
half-castes. 

(i) The white population usually speak English ; in Lower Canada the 
language is usually French, and in Mexico and Central America it is Spanish. 

(ii) The Red Indians (or Americans) are rapidly decreasing, and are said 
not to number half-a-million. Within the vast territory of the United States 
there are somewhat less than a quarter of a million. (When America was 
first discovered, Columbus believed that he had reached the eastern shores 
of India ; and hence these copper-coloured races were called Indians.) 

(iii) The Eskimoes in Greenland and the north are akin to the Lapps of 
Europe. 

North America was discovered by Christopher Colon 
("Columbus") in the year 1492; but the 
mainland he saw only in 1498. The Span- 
iards were the first people to think of conquering the 
country ; and they seized Mexico and some of the West 
India Islands. The French appeared in 1534 ; and be- 
gan to build forts and plant colonies. Next came the 
English, who gradually expelled the French, and who 
declared themselves independent of the British Crown 
in 1776. The original colonies numbered thirteen ; 
and they formed a federation which they called the 
United States. Mexico threw off the Spanish yoke in 
1830. The whole continent is now divided chiefly be- 
tween English-andSpanish-speaking peoples. 

(i) Cortez conquered the Mexican Empire in 1521 with 950 Spaniards. 



298 GEOGRAPHY 

(ii) The first permanent settlement of the English was made in 1607 in 
Virginia. 

(iii) The English drove out the French in the war of 1756-60 ; and Wolfe 
took Quebec which was the strongest fortress of the French in 1759. 
With the fall of Quebec, all Canada fell into the hands of the English. 

(iv) The Negro slaves in the United States were set free in 1862, during 
the great American Civil War, by a proclamation of President Lincoln. 

The political divisions of North America are : Danish 
America ; British North America ; the 
United States ; Mexico ; the Central Amer- 
ican Eepublics ; British Honduras ; the West Indian 
Eepublics ; the Spanish West Indies ; the British West 
Indies ; the Dutch West Indies ; and the French West 
Indies. 

(i) Danish America includes Greenland and three small islands in the 
West Indies. 

(ii) The United States include the detached territory of Alaska. 

(iii) The West Indian Republics consist of one island, the western part of 
which is Hayti ; the eastern San Domingo. 

The teacher may continue the subject by treating the 
following topics : 

Natural Advantages 

1. (At the home of the pupil, local geography.) 

2. On the surface of the earth. 

a. Nature of the soil with reference to agriculture. 

b. Forests, nature and uses of the woods. 

c. Facilities for transportation afforded by the sea, rivers, 

lakes etc. 

3. Within the earth. 

a. Useful minerals and metals as coal, building material, 

iron, copper, lead, etc. 

b. Precious metals, as gold and silver 

4. In the waters. 

a. Sea fisheries. 

b. Lake and river fisheries. 

Industries) or Occupations 
1. Agriculture. 

a. Relative importance among the industries of the State. 



BLACKBOAKD TABULATIONS 299 

b. The crops raised. 

c. Statistics of crops. 

d. Cattle, sheep and hog raising. 

2. Manufacturing. 

a. Relative importance. 

b. Articles produced. 

c. Statistics of manufactures. 

3. Mining. 

a. Metals or minerals found. 

b. Mines, to what extent worked. 

4. Lumbering. 

a. Locality of the forests. 

b. Description of the method. 

5. The Fisheries. 

a. Locality of the fisheries. 

b. Kinds of fish taken. 

6. Commerce. 

a. What is exported. 
>, What is imported. 

c. Means of transportation. 

Internal Improvements 

1. Railroads. 

a. Local railroads. 

b. Trunk-lines. 

2. Canals. 

3. Navigation on lakes and rivers. 

After this subject lias been taught objectively and 
fully illustrated, it should be tabulated on the board 
and the pupils be required to recite topically. 

They should name every important item connected 
with the relief, and the teacher should require compo- 
sitions in which the tabulation is used as an outline. 

It is expected that after the subject is taught objec- 
tively all the divisions will be tabulated in a similar 
manner. 



Those who desire specimens of the treatment of local geography, 
can obtain for 25 cents each Bardeen's " Geography of Onondaga 



300 GEOGRAPHY 

County", or Northam's "Geography of Lewis County" and "of 
Oneida County", all of New York, costing 25 cents each. Bar- 
deen's " Geography of the Empire State ", 75 cents, is an octavo 
volume of 126 pages, with 25 outline maps on uniform scale, 5 
relief maps, and 125 illustrations, giving help for local geography 
as yet unequalled in completeness. 

The "Oswego Normal System of Geography", 50 cents, by 
Amos W. Farnham, teacher of geography in that famous institu- 
tion, was published in 1896, and gives the methods now employed 
there, embodying of course all that has proved permanently val- 
uable of recent devices. Griffin's " Topical Geography ", 50 cts., 
is also excellent. 

The use of relief maps is recommended wherever they can be 
obtained. The publisher of this volume can furnish maps of 
Switzerland, particularly adapted for showing contour, at $3. 50 
for the size 11 x 17| inches, and $10.00 for the size 23 x 34 inches. 
Also map of Palestine, 22x35, $10.00, particularly useful in 
Sunday schools, but also adapted to day schools on account of 
the physical configuration. 

Much use is now made of card -board helps, such as "Geograph- 
ical Cards", $1.00; "Geographical Game, Our Country", 50 cts. 

These cards are intended to accompany any text-book in Geog- 
raphy. The topics and questions emphasize a necessity for 
thorough knowledge of commercial relations, exports, imports, 
routes of travel, expense of transportation ; in fact, the cards 
deal with the Essentials of Geography, omitting that which is of 
little or no importance. A set of these Cards will save the 
teacher many needless hours of study and research, by preserv- 
ing classified memoranda in compact form. 

Griffith's "Outline Blackboard Maps" serve a useful purpose. 
They include the five Continents, the United States, the State, 
and a blank for the County, and cost $8.00 a set. The outline is 
permanent, while tlie pupil is to locate before the class whatever 
are the main features of the day's lesson. 



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 



The special province of Physical Geography is the 
investigation of Climate and its modifications. . 

The great agents are the air, rain, frosts, springs, 
brooks, rivers, glaciers, icebergs, mountains, and the 
sea. 

It is Climate, and Climate alone, that determines 
mainly the character of all vegetable and animal life. 

Climatic agents not only are now the most important 
and influential, but they have been so during all past 
geological ages. To account for all of the extraordinary * 
changes of Climate would require many volumes, but I 
have studiously avoided introducing theories of a hy- 
pothetical nature. 

The conclusions are in every case derived either from 
facts or from recognized principles. 

The student should never rest until he gets at the 
reasons for what he sees about him. He should know 
something about the air he breathes, and the earth he 
lives upon, and about the relations between them. It 
is the great book of Nature, wherein each of us, young 
and old, may read, and go on reading all through life, 
without exhausting even a small part of what it has to 
teach us. It is that great look Air, Earth, and Sea 
which I would have you study. 

I. ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE 

By climate we mean the temperature, the moisture 
of the air, the prevailing winds, and their results. 

(301) 



302 



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 



Temperature. 



Heat comes from the rays of the sun, which give the 
most heat when they fall the most directly upon any 
part of the earth, and the least when they fall the most 
obliquely. 

When we speak of the heat or the cold of the air, we 
use the word Temperature. When the air 
is hot, the temperature is said to be high. 
When the air is cold, the temperature is said to be low. 

The temperature is warmer at noon than in the 
morning or evening because at morning and at evening 
the rays of the sun fall in a slanting direction, and we 
receive comparatively few of the rays, because they are 
spread over a great surface. 

At noon when the sun is more or less directly upon 
us, then we receive more of them because they fall upon 
a comparatively small space, as will be seen from the 
following figure : 




Rays falling directly from overhead are said to be 
vertical ; those falling in a slanting direction are said 
to be oblique. 



OBLIQUE RAYS OF THE SU^ 303 

This diagram put on the black-board will bring the 
matter home to the pupil's comprehension. oblique 
The vertical sheaf of rays, striking the earth rays ' 
at noon, falls upon a small surface. In the middle of 
the forenoon or afternoon, the rays, falling obliquely, 
are spread over a greater surface. At sunrise or sunset 
no part of the sheaf touches the earth's surface except 
its lower side, and most of the rays are lost in the at- 
mosphere beyond. Tell the pupils that the sun always 
shines vertically, or nearly so, on the equator, and on a 
considerable belt beyond the equator, on either side. 
Now, just as the sunbeams fall more directly at noon 
than in the morning or evening, so they fall more 
directly during the summer season than during the 
winter season. 

In our country the sun centre is never directly over- 
head, and its rays fall upon us in the most nearly verti- 
cal direction on the longest summer day. 

First Important Fact. Temperature that is, the 
heat or cold of a place is one element of climate. 

In some countries immense quantities of rain fall ; in 

others none, or next to none. In the rain- 
Humidity, 
less districts the climate is dry ; where much 

rain falls the climate is wet or damp. 

When we speak of a wet or a dry climate, we use the 
word humidity, or moisture. 

Second Important Fact. Humidity is another ele- 
ment of climate. 

TJiird Important Fact.-~ The prevailing p reva iiing 
winds form an element of climate. winds. 

The three elements of climate then are Temperature, 
Humidity, and Prevailing Winds. 



304 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

A climate thafc is neither too hot nor too cold is called 
temperate. When it is very hot or very cold it is said 
to be extreme. 

A climate that is in every way fine and agreeable is 
called genial or salubrious. 

Three elements are included in climate : 

Review. 

1. Temperature that is, the heat or cold. 

2. Humidity, or the state of being wet or dry. 

3. The prevailing winds. 

(a). A temperate climate means one that is neither 
too hot nor too cold. 

(b). An extreme climate means one that is very hot 
or very cold. 

(c) A genial or salubrious climate means one thafc is 
in every way fine and agreeable, favorable to health. 

These facts should be written on the board, and the 
pupils should be required to copy and commit them to 
memory. 

II. THE GENERAL LAW 

How can we tell what variety of climate any country 
has ? What must we know before we can tell ? 

NOTE. Before this division of the subject is taken up, a les- 
son should be given on the shape or form of the earth, lines upon 
the earth's surface, etc. 

We have learned that the earth in its motion, like a 
Latitude wheel, revolves around an imaginary line 
called its axis. 

The most northern point of the earth's surface is 
called the North Pole, and the most southern point the 
South Pole. 



THE GENEKAL LAW 305 

There is an imaginary line called the Equator, drawn 
at an equal distance from each pole, and dividing the 
earth-surface into eqi^l parts. 

The countries where the sun shines directly over- 
head, or perpendicularly, are those that are near this line 
the equator (use a globe if you have one, or at 
least a map ; place a diagram on the board ; illustrate 
fully). 

Here, 23^- north of the equator, is another line, 
called the Tropic of Cancer, and 23^ south of the 
equator is the Tropic of Capricorn. 

Any country lying anywhere between the tropics is 
called intertropical. And since these countries have 
the sun directly overhead at certain seasons, and nearly 
so at all other seasons, they will have a hot climate. 
Then as we go nearer to the poles it becomes colder, till 
at last, at the polar regions, we find only ice and snow. 
We learn from these facts that the heat throughout the 
year is greatest at or near the equator, and diminishes 
gradually toward the poles. Thus we see that the 
climate of a place depends upon the latitude of the 
place. The latitude of a place is, therefore, of the first 
importance in determining its temperature, since a 
decrease of heat takes place with an increase of latitude 
as we travel, at the same level above the sea, from the 
equator towards the poles. 

So it will be seen that latitude is the fundamental 
element in climate, and influences all the others. 

At the equator, and within the tropics, the greatest 
heat is experienced, because the sun is always vertical 
to some place within those limits, and the solar action 



306 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

is more intense in proportion as the rays are vertical to 
the earth. See figure, page 302. 

As we recede from the equator the rays fall more 
obliquely ; and, because fewer of them are spread over 
a larger space, they are less powerful, and consequently 
have less influence on temperature. 

It has been calculated that out of 10,000 rays falling 
upon the earth atmosphere, 8,123 arrive at a given point 
if they fall vertically ; 7,024 if the angle of direction is 
50; 2,821, if it is 7; and only 5 if the direction is 
horizontal. 

As will be seen, the amount of heat produced by the 
sun upon the earth's surface is greatest near the equator, 
and diminishes gradually toward the poles, and these 
effects are referable to the spherical form of the 
earth, and the angle at which the sun's rays impinge 
upon the surface. 

In the equatorial regions they are vertical to the sur- 
face of the earth, and there produce maximum effect ; 
but on account of the curved outline of the globe, they 
fall more and more obliquely with increasing latitude, 
and the intensity of action diminishes proportionately. 
At the poles they are tangent to the surface, and their 
effect is zero. 

From these facts we may deduce the following : 

General Law The climate of a place depends prin- 
cipally on its latitude. 

MODIFICATIONS OF THE GENERAL LAW 

When we ascend mountains, the air becomes cool, 
cooler, cold, colder, till finally we find our- 
selves amid snows that last all the year 
around. 



MODIFICATIONS OF THE GENERAL LAW 307 

We may travel several hundred miles from the 
equator toward the poles, along the level surface of the 
earth, before we become sensible of a diminished tem- 
perature ; but when we ascend the mountains between 
the tropics, as we begin to increase our elevation a 
rapid change of temperature is experienced, and those 
places that are elevated will be colder than those at the 
level of the sea. 

On an average, an increase of 300 feet altitude dimin- 
ishes the temperature 1 Fahr.; hence, the rate of 
diminution is about 3 to 1000 feet. 

In large plateaus, however, the effect of altitude seems 
to be, in some measure, intensified by the great extent 
of absorbing and radiating surface uplifted into the 
atmosphere. In general they are considerably warmer 
than the isolated summits of mountains of the same 
altitude. 

From this effect of elevation upon temperature, it is 
obvious that the mountain regions of the torrid zone 
have great varieties of climate. 

In this region we may find vines at the base of the 
mountain. The region of vines rises from the level of 
the sea to a certain height ; in this zone of vegetation 
may be found the date-tree, the sugar-cane, the fig, and 
the olive ; next come the hardy species of trees, as the 
oak, the laurel ; higher, the birch, the pine, and the 
firs ; higher still may be found the grasses ; and, be- 
yond, a few plants and lichens ; and, still beyond, the 
vegetation ceases entirely, and we have reached the 
line of perpetual snow. 

NOTE. Illustrate the zones of vegetation by a diagram at the 
board, using colored chalk. 



308 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

From these facts we gather that the temperature of a 
place depends not on its latitude alone, but on its eleva- 
tion, or, as it is called, its altitude. 

The lower and denser strata of the atmosphere absorb 
the greatest amount of the sun's heat, and are necessarily 
the warmest ; the atmosphere is not much heated by the 
direct rays of the sun, but receives heat mainly by 
radiation from the earth's surface. 

First Modification The altitude of a place modifies 
the climate. 

Mountains also modify the climate of large areas of 
lower lands in their vicinity. Their elevation 

Mountains. . _".* ^ 

intercepts the moist currents approaching 
from the oceans, and their cold summits condense the 
moisture, causing it to be precipitated. 

Consequently, the winds, on leaving the mountains 
for the interior, are dry, and give the characteristics of 
dryness to the climate of the interior areas. This modi- 
fication is well illustrated in our own country by the 
climate of our Western Plains, which are influenced in 
their climatic conditions by the high, cold wall of the 
Rocky Mountains. 

The valleys west of this range have abundant rain- 
fall, and, consequently, rich fertility ; while those to 
the east have almost perpetual drouth, and consequent 
sterility. 

Therefore, another modification of climate is the 
proximity of mountain ranges. 

Second Modification The proximity of mountain 
ranges modifies the climate, 



MOUKTAIKS AKB WI^DS 309 

Heat causes winds. Winds are motions of parts of 
the atmosphere ; warmer portions expand. 

J 4.1. ' 1 

become lighter, rise, and their places are 
filled by cold air. 

Hence, tropical heat causes an ascending, warm cur- 
rent of air at the equator. The heavy cold air from the 
poles, flowing toward the equator, causes Trade Winds 
on each side of the equator. 

Ascending air cools, contracts, and descends to the 
surface beyond the tropics, meets the polar currents, 
and forms the return currents. 

The motion of the earth causes the polar and return 
currents to be turned from their northern or southern 
direction, and they take a northeastern or southwestern 
course. 

The character of the wind depends upon the region 
whence it comes. Winds from the equatorial regions 
carry into the middle latitudes some portion of the heat 
of the tropical regions ; while polar winds bring the 
low temperature of the latitudes whence they come. 

If there is nothing to break the force of the icy winds 
coming from the Arctic region, we may expect the 
country to be cold even if it is pretty far south ; on the 
other hand, if there is nothing to break the force of the 
hot winds coming from the torrid region, we may expect 
the country to be warm, even if it is pretty far north. 

In the United States the winds from the north are 
usually noted for their coolness, a property they derive 
from the frozen regions of Hudson and Baffin Bay ; 
while those from the south, coming from the Gulf of 
Mexico, impart a mildness throughout the whole 
country. 



310 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

The comparatively mild climate of the British Isles 
is owing to the prevalence of main currents of air which 
are warmed by sweeping over the Gulf Stream. 

In the same latitude the shores of Greenland and 
Labrador are washed by the icy waters of the Arctic 
currents and swept by the polar winds. 

The one region has a mild climate, and is occupied 
by the most enlightened nations of the world ; the other 
is a frozen waste, sparsely inhabited by degraded sav- 
ages and European traders. 

We gather from these facts that the climate of a place 
depends not alone on its latitude, altitude, or proxim- 
ity to mountain ranges, but on the character of the 
winds. 

Third Modification The prevailing winds at a given 
place modify the climate. 

Oceanic climate is characterized by uniformity. 
Water has a great capacity for absorbing 
heat, and but feeble conducting power ; 
hence, the ocean grows warm slowly under the rays of 
the sun, and never attains a high temperature. It also 
radiates heat slowly, and as fast as the surface particles 
become cool, they sink and are replaced by warmer ones 
from beneath ; hence the cooling process is as gradual 
as the heating, and neither produces extremes of tem- 
perature. 

The ocean retains the heat longer than the land. In 
the summer the land is warmer than the sea, and in the 
winter the land is cooler than the sea. 

NOTE. This is a general statement, and does not refer to daily 
variation of temperature. 



THE OCEAH 311 

The air from the ocean moderates the heat of summer 
and the cold of winter. So the coasts have a more 
equable temperature than the interior. 

The land absorbs the solar heat rapidly, and the sur- 
face soon attains a high temperature. Especially is this 
the case when the soil is imperfectly covered with vege- 
tation, as in treeless plains or deserts. 

But, when the sun is withdrawn, heat radiates with 
rapidity, and a comparatively low temperature is soon 
reached. It is seen that the ocean preserves a much 
more uniform temperature than the land, hence islands 
and maritime districts have milder climates than inland 
regions under the same parallels of latitude. London, 
though situated in a higher latitude, enjoys a milder 
climate than Paris. The winters and summers of Ire- 
land are much more temperate than those of any other 
country in the same latitude. 

Let us take an example in Nature, and see what 
passes on an island alone in the midst of the ocean. 
Let us remember that the land is heated more readily 
than the sea. In proportion as the sun rises above the 
horizon, the island becomes warmer than the neighbor- 
ing sea. 

Their respective atmospheres participate in these un- 
equal temperatures ; the fresh air of the sea rushes from 
all directions under the form of a sea-breeze, which 
makes itself felt along the whole coast, and the warmer 
and lighter air of the island will ascend into the at- 
mosphere. 

During the night it is the reverse. The island loses 
heat by radiation, and cools quicker than the sea. 



312 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

Its atmosphere, having become heavier, runs into 
that of the sea, under the form of land-breeze, and this 
interchange lasts until the temperature, and conse- 
quently the density of the two atmospheres, has again 
become the same. 

This is the phenomenon observed on the eastern coast 
of Georgia, Florida, and almost daily on nearly all the 
seaboards. 

What takes place here on a small scale in the space 
of a day, passes on a great scale between the entire con- 
tinent and the ocean from one season to another. A 
moment's reflection will enable us to see that these dif- 
ferences of temperature, setting the whole atmosphere 
in motion, modify the climate of a place. 

So it is seen that the water of the sea keeps an island 
warm in winter and cool in summer. 

In the centre of the continent the wind in winter 
blows over immense fields of snow or ice, and keeps the 
air cold ; and in the summer it blows across the heated 
land, and the air must be very warm ; the countries in 
the centre of a continent have an extreme climate ; hence 
the nearness to, or remoteness of a place from the ocean, 
modifies the climate. 

Fourth Modification The proximity of a place to, or 
its distance from, the ocean modifies its climate. 

There are rivers in the ocean called ocean-currents. 
ocean cur- They consist of vast oceanic streams which 
rents. k ee p U p a perpetual circulation of the waters. 

Some of them have been traced many thousand miles. 
All the rivers in the world are insignificant when com- 
pared with some of these currents. 



OCEAH CURRENTS 313 

They move on steadily through the water compara- 
tively at rest, and are often different from the latter in 
color and temperature. Some are hundreds of miles 
broad, thousands of feet deep, and have a course em- 
bracing a larger part of the ocean in which they 
move. 

Currents exist not only at the surface, but in deep 
waters, where their course is frequently in a different 
direction from, sometimes even opposite to, that of the 
surface-currents. 

The direction and velocity of currents are modified : 
1. By the revolution of the earth on its axis ; 2. By the 
constant winds of the Torrid Zone ; 3. By being turned 
aside by the shores. 

The expansion and contraction of water by heat and 
cold are, perhaps, the principal causes to which currents 
are due. Heat causes water to become warm ; warm 
water is lighter than cold ; and when certain portions 
become heated, they rise by reason of their buoyancy, 
and are replaced by surrounding colder and heavier 
water flowing at the same time toward the equator. 
The ocean currents assist to cool the tropical and to 
warm the polar regions. 

Evaporation by solar heat causes large quantities of 
water to pass off in vapor ; and it is this excessive evap- 
oration within the tropics which tends to lower the 
level of the water there. 

The revolution of the earth round its axis is still 
another powerful cause in producing currents, particu- 
larly those of the equatorial regions, which have com- 
monly a western direction. 



314 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

The winds of tropical climates, which blow continu- 
ously or during long periods in one direction, also lend 
their influence in affecting the currents. 

The effect of the rise and fall of tides in producing 
an alternate flowing of currents in opposite directions is 
perceived in channels between islands, or between islands 
and the mainland. 

Thus, in the channel which connects Long Island 
Sound with the harbor of New York, known as the East 
Eiver, strong currents alternately prevail in opposite 
directions, as the tide ebbs and flows. 

The Gulf Stream, which first becomes apparent near 
the northeast coast of Cuba, has a great influence on 
climate. The Gulf Stream, as it issues from the straits 
of Florida, is of dark indigo-blue, so strongly contrast- 
ing with the greenish color of the sea that the line of 
contact is distinctly traceable by the eye. Near its ori- 
gin this remarkable current has a breadth of 32 miles 
and a depth of more than 2,000 feet ; off Cape Hatteras 
the breadth is at least 75 miles, and the depth more than 
700 feet. 

The temperature at its origin is about 80 Fahr. ; on 
an average it is from 20 to 38 warmer than the adja- 
cent water. 

The comparatively high temperature of this great 
stream modifies the climate of the eastern coast of North 
America ; and as it sweeps across the Atlantic Ocean, 
in its northeast coast to the British Isles and Norway, 
it modifies the climate of those countries. It will be 
seen, by a study of the ocean-currents, that the polar 
currents and the return currents bring heat to the 
western shores, and that they produce contrasts in tern- 



RAIN-PALL 315 

perature in the same latitude on opposite shores of con- 
tinents. We gather from these facts that the ocean 
currents modify the climate of a country. 

Fifth Modification. Ocean currents modify the cli- 
mate of a place. 

The annual quantity of rain that falls in a place con- 
siderably affects its climate, by imparting a 

J ! ,.,-, Rain-fall. 

greater or less degree of humidity or damp- 
ness of the atmosphere. In general more rain falls on 
islands and on sea coasts than in inland districts ; among 
mountains than in level regions ; and within the tropics 
than in the other zones. 

Heat and winds produce rains. Heat causes evapora- 
tion ; the vapors rise in the air ; air at a given tempera- 
ture has a certain capacity for moisture ; when this limit 
is reached the air is said to be saturated with humidity, 
and the least lowering of the temperature causes a con- 
densation of moisture in the form of dew, fog, clouds, or 
rain ; but, if the temperature is raised, the capacity for 
vapor being increased, absorption recommences. 

As long as the amount of vapor present in the air is 
much less than is required for saturation, evaporation 
goes on rapidly, and the air continues to absorb the ris- 
ing vapors. It is, therefore, called dry air. When the 
air is nearly saturated evaporation proceeds but very 
slowly ; when saturation is reached evaporation ceases, 
and the air is moist or humid. 

Visible masses of vapor resting on or near the ground 
are called fogs, while those floating in the air at a con- 
siderable height are distinguished as clouds. 

Condensation and rain are mostly caused by the cool- 
ing of currents of warm air laden with aqueous vapors. 



316 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

Cold causes condensation ; the vapors condensed fall as 
rain ; hence rain is caused by the cooling of air laden 
with moisture. The temperature of tropical winds ad- 
vancing into cooler latitudes is lowered, the moisture is 
then condensed, and the rain falls. Cold winds, if sat- 
urated, advancing into warmer latitudes become ex- 
panded, and their capacity for moisture is increased ; 
they become less humid, the clouds dissolve, and the air 
becomes clear and dry. 

Winds blowing over plains retain their moisture, but 
if they strike a mountain they become cooled, and the 
rain falls. Plateaus usually receive less rain than other 
forms of relief, because the mountains, which form the 
borders of the greater number, prevent the vapors borne 
by the winds from reaching them. 

From these facts we see that the annual amount of 
rain modifies the climate of a place. 

Sixth Modification. The annual quantity of rain 
modifies the climate of a place. 

The nature and covering of the soil have an influence 
upon the condensation of the vapor in the 
air. A region with nothing to shield it from 
the burning rays of the sun becomes intensely heated, 
and imparts to the superincumbent air a temperature 
so high as to dissipate all clouds which may float into 
it from the surrounding atmosphere. A covering of 
vegetation, on the contrary, shields the soil from the 
sun's rays, keeps its temperature lower, and promotes 
condensation. And whether a region be bare or covered 
with vegetation greatly affects its climate. From these 
facts we see that the nature and covering of the earth 
have an influence upon climate. 



SOIL, FORESTS, VEGETATION 317 

Seventh Modification. The nature and covering of 
the soil modify the climate of a place. 

The clearing of forests, the draining of swamps and 
marshes, the cultivation of the soil, etc., are 
among the operations of man by which the 
climate of a country is greatly modified and improved. 

Clearing a country of trees has the effect of raising 
the mean annual temperature, but at the same time 
introduces greater extremes of heat and cold. Open 
grounds are always frozen deeper than woodlands, but 
the latter retain the snow and ice of winter to a much 
later period in the spring than the former. 

From these facts we see that the cultivation of a place 
modifies its climate. 

Eighth Modification. The degree of cultivation and 
improvement modifies the climate of a place. 

Both the moisture and salubrity of a region are influ- 
enced by its vegetation. Vegetation. 

The leaves of trees and plants give forth 
moisture to the atmosphere, and take from it its carbonic 
acid ; hence the forests receive more rain than treeless 
regions similarly situated, while at the same time they 
check the evaporation of moisture from the soil ; thus 
they equalize the irrigation of the surrounding country 
and augment the volume of its springs and rivers ; hence 
forests effect an important modification of climate. 

Salubrity or the health condition depends greatly on 
the general character of the surface, as to evenness or 
unevenness. When the areas are even or flat the waters 
spread over larger surfaces, become stagnant, and are 
charged with decaying animal and vegetable matter. 



318 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

The adjacent atmosphere receives foul emanations 
from these unwholesome waters, and the region is thus 
rendered insalubrious and unhealthful. Where, on the 
contrary, the surface is uneven or broken, the waters 
collect into narrower currents and move with consider- 
able velocity, carrying away decaying substances, cleans- 
ing the region, and rendering its climate more and more 
wholesome. 

Hence an important modification in a region results 
from its evenness or unevenness of surface. 

Ninth Modification The evenness or unevenness of 
the surface modifies the climate of a place. 

RECAPITULATION 

First Important Fact Temperature that is, the 
heat or cold of a place is an element of 

Elements. -. . 

climate. 

Second Important Fact Humidity that is, whether 
it is wet or dry is an element of climate. 

Third Important Fact The prevailing winds are an 
element of climate. 

General Law The climate of a place de- 
pends principally on its latitude. 

First Modification The altitude of the 
ms ' place modifies the climate. 

Second Modification The proximity of mountain 
ranges modifies the climate. 

Third Modification The prevailing winds modify 
the climate. 

Fourth Modification The proximity of a place to, 
or its distance from, the ocean, modifies the climate. 



RECAPITULATION 319 

Fifth Modification Ocean currents modify the cli- 
mate of a place. 

Sixth Modification The annual quantity of rain 
modifies the climate of the place. 

Seventh Modification The nature and covering of 
the soil modify the climate of a place. 

Eighth Modification The degree of cultivation and 
improvement modifies the climate of a place. 

Ninth Modification The evenness or unevenness of 
the surface modifies the climate of a place. 

1. A temperate climate means one that is Kinds of 
neither too hot nor too cold. climate. 

2. An extreme climate means one that is either too 
hot or too cold. 

3 . A genial or salubrious climate means one that is 
in every way agreeable, favorable to health. 

The condition of a country in regard to temper- 
ature, moisture, and the prevailing winds, is 

' , Definition. 

its climate. 



HISTORY 

The facts of history comprise the sum of the events 
that man has brought about in all the teeming centuries 
since first he inhabited the earth. The number is be- 
yond the power of imagination to conceive, and histo- 
rians do not attempt to enumerate them. They describe 
some of the grandest and most interesting features 
of a nation's life, and leave the rest to be inferred or 
forgotten. 

History describes the past conditions and actions of 
Keep facts in men j an( ^ investigates the causes which have 
perspective, operated to produce them. History should 
be taught from a series of progressive standpoints. 

In the history of every nation there are certain prom- 
inent events from which as centres other minor events 
have seemed to emanate, and to which they bear refer- 
ence. It is only of these great events that we need to 
know the dates or the minute particulars. It is a use- 
less waste of time and labor to commit to memory a 
great number of dates to be speedily forgotten. Only 
such dates should be committed to memory as are indis- 
pensable as landmarks in history. The sequence of 
events, rather than the precise date of each, is what is 
chiefly necessary. 

The teaching that goes under this name in schools is 
useless generally a farce. It consists usually in 

teaching. stringing together the names and dates with 
a few facts of the least important kind. Or, if more is 

(32Q) 



INFLUENCE OF HISTORY 321 

attempted, it is reading in a text-book ; in which case 
generally there is little within a child's sympathy or 
comprehension, and together are often jumbled, with- 
out purpose or method, facts of the most diverse kind, 
from which it is impossible to gain clear conceptions. 

Like geography, history should begin at home. In- 
terest the children first in the traditions of History 
their own school-district and village and atliome. 
town, and soon they will be eager for the history of their 
own State. Text-books on State history are now pub- 
lished in most of the States. In New York, for instance, 
Hendrick's " History of the Empire State " answers the 
purpose admirably, making history a real thing to pu- 
pils because it refers to events that occured in places 
they have seen. All teachers' and regents' examina- 
tions in this State contain questions in New York his- 
tory as a part of American history. 

In most States the law now requires the teaching of 
American history, and for the best of reasons. For 
history presents many examples of good and Moral 
great men and women who honored by their 
noble deeds the age and country in which they lived. 
Such examples have more influence upon the young than 
moral precepts. The heart is more easily moved to 
virtue by incidental teaching than by direct teaching. 

The history of such men as Washington, Franklin, 
Lincoln, and scores of others, proves an incentive to 
youth, and the moral seeds sown by their examples 
germinate and produce rich fruit. 

The reason why pupils take so little interest in the 
study of history is principally on account of Topical 
the fragmentary manner in which the subject treatment - 



322 HISTORY 

is presented in our text-books. Lessons in history 
should be assigned by topics, and not by pages. All 
verbatim recitations of sentences and paragraphs should 
be forbidden, and pupils should be required to state the 
facts in their own language. 

History should be taught as a methodical record of 
Essential to important events. To every American citi- 
citizenship. zen some knowledge of the history of his 
own country is useful ; he should know of the founding, 
progress, and growth of liberty in his own country. To- 
wards the preservation of good government and the per- 
manency of our institutions, it is necessary that the 
principles of government and the leading events of 
history be taught in our American schools. 

The idea of national unity and of patriotism should 
rise above the stripes of party and the turmoils of war, 
and plant itself as the one thing vital to American in- 
stitutions. That the subject of history may secure 
attention from the teacher, and study from the pupils, 
is the sincere wish of every loyal American citizen. 
GENERAL SUGGESTIONS 

1. Interest the pupils by a familiar talk. 

2. Examine the lessons with the pupils. 

3. Draw maps and locate important places. 

4. Let the maps be examined and criticised. 

5. Bring out the prominent, salient facts, with clear- 
ness. 

6. Require pupils to classify and tabulate the lesson, 
and recite from the tabulation. 

7. Do not require too many dates. 

8. Let the pupils state the causes of the different 
wars and their effects. 



A MODEL LESSOR 



323 



9. Teach history as a methodical record of important 
events. 

10. An objective representation should be given by 
means of maps and charts ; drawings and diagrams 
should be placed on the board of all important matters 
in the history of the nation. 

A MODEL LESSON 



Important Questions 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 



6. What persons ? 

7. What means ? 
What losses ? 
What results ? 



8. 
9. 



What event ? 
What causes ? 
What battle ? 
What time ? 
What place ? 

Taking these questions for the model form, we have 
the following lesson : 

History of the Battle of Bunker Hill 

What event ? Revolutionary War. 

r l. Rights of arbitrary govern- 
ment claimed by the Brit- 
"1. Remote. ^ ish. 

2. Character of the King, 
George III. 



1. 



2. What causes?^ 

2. Direct, j 1. 

3. What battle ? Bunker Hill. 

4. What time ? 1775, June 17. 

5. What place ? Breed's Hill. 



6. What persons ? - 



American 
Generals. 



British 
Generals. 



Importation Act. 
Stamp Act. 



(a) General Ward. 

(b) General Prescott. 

(c) General Putnam. 

(d) General Warren. 

(a) General Gage. 

(b) General Howe. 

(c) General Clinton. 

(d) General Burgoyne, 



324: HISTORY 

7 What Trip* ? 5 1 - American limited. 
7. What means J T>^ h _ unlimited 



(1. American 115 killed, 305 wounded, and 

8. What losses ? < 32 prisoners. 

( 2. British 1054 killed and wounded. 

( 1. Remote Gaining our 
fl. American, -j Independence. 

( 2. Direct Encouraging. 

9. What results ? 1 

9 -RritUh J 1 - Remote Defeat. 
[* j sh ' \2. Direct-Discouraging. 

This model form may apply to a period of our coun- 
try's history, or to a battle of that period. 

Associate, as far as possible, geography with history. 

The review should take three distinct forms, chrono- 
logical, biographical, and geographical. In 
the chronological, the pupil should state all 
of the principal dates ; in the biographical all that has 
been learned in regard to particular individuals ; and in 
the geographical, whatever he can state of all important 
facts relating to the history of a locality. 

These reviews may be made spirited exercises, by re- 
questing the class to write a few of the essential dates, 
the sequence of important events, the names of impor- 
tant individuals. The system of the reviews above sug- 
gested, must, if faithfully carried out, result in a 
thorough unifying of the general subject of history. 

Many of the facts of history may be given in reading, 
incidental an< ^ especially in geography lessons. Such 
lessons. facts embrace pictures of social condition, 
growth of manufactures and of populous districts, actions 
that have made particular places celebrated, and inci- 
dents in the lives of remarkable men. Through these 
the mind, furnished with some of the material of his- 



TOPICAL TACiiIH 325 

tory, may pursue with more advantage to itself its 
systematic study. 

Lessons on any subject are thus more adhesive than 
when given to a mind entirely ignorant of it. 

United States history may be taught in a way to make 
it of very little use. To memorize a dry 
narrative will be of little avail except to in- 
spire disgust with history in general. But all modern 
text-books accept the topical method of arrangement, 
at least in their summaries, and Northam's ' ' Helps in 
Fixing the Leading Facts of American History " makes 
this topical review practicable in every school. 

Here all facts are 1775. L exington. 
presented in groups. 1776. I ndependence. 
The key-word to the 1777. B urgoyne's surrender. 
Revolution, for in- 1778. E vacuation. 
stance, is LIBERTY, 1779. R etribution. 
as shown in the ac- 1780. T reason, 
company ing table of 1781. Y orktown. 
Key- Words ; and in like manner the events of the late 
civil war are kept chronologically distinct by the key- 
words SLAVES FREED. Chart No. 1 indicates by 
stars the years in each decade from 1492 to 1789 in 
which the most remarkable events occurred, while the 
colored Chart No. 2 arranges the events under the Con- 
stitution in the following groups : (1) Acquisition of 
Territory, (2) Financial Matters, (3) Tariff, (4) Treaties 
and Compromises, (5) Wars and Rebellions, (6) Important 
Proclamations, (7) Great Inventions, (8) Slavery, (9) 
Epidemics, (10) Conflagrations, (11) New States, (12) 
Deaths and Resignations of President or Vice-Presi- 
dent. 



326 HISTORY 

In all your teaching the principle of proceeding from 
From known ^ ne known to the unknown must be followed, 
to unknown. ^ clear picture of the present must be drawn, 
embracing, in their order, all of the above particulars. 
The method, whatever it may be, should quicken the 
pupils' observation, and lead them to see some impor- 
tance in matters of everyday life. Every succeeding 
lesson should bring up vividly the condition of man in 
the past, and compare it, in its several particulars, with 
things now. This will make more and more evident 
how great has been the change, and how much for the 
better. The pupils should see how events, both great 
and small, have contributed to the prosperity and the 
advancement of the people. 

The aim in teaching history should be to inculcate 
those moral lessons which it is the office of 
history to teach by example. What, for in- 
stance, could be better adapted to produce a spirit of 
contentment and thankfulness, than a clear knowledge 
of the present condition of our country, with its points 
of superiority over that of other nations ? What better 
opportunity can be desired for showing and enforcing 
the necessity of character and skilled industry than is 
afforded while tracing the improvements and the progress 
of our nation for the past one hundred years ? 



Among books that will aid in teaching history are " A Thous- 
and Questions in U. S. History ", $1.00 ; Williams's "Topics and 
References in American History ", 50 cts. ; Juliand's " Brief Views 
of U. S. History ", 50 cts., and Van Wie's " Outlines in U. S. His- 
tory", 15 cts. Edwards's Historical Cards on United States His- 
tory ($1.00), and General History ($1.00), and his Historical Game 
1 ' Our Country " (50 cts), are excellent helps. 



OBJECT LESSONS 



Can the natural sciences be profitably taught to the 
average pupils in our schools ? Our first inquiry leads 
us to distinguish between the natural and the artificial 
studies to which the children are introduced. 

The child's mind is an instrument for acquiring 
rather than using knowledge. He voluntar- Education 
ily begins the study of nature. Here he goes by nature - 
to school long before his parents send him. He touches 
with child-hand many forces, and tries to grasp them. 
His studies are natural, for they are in the order of his 
mental development. Study is play ; play is study. The 
objective part of mathematics unfolds to him the shapes 
and numbers of things. He begins physics with the 
weight of his toy, or watching the ripple and dash of 
brook, or the whirl of the water-wheel. He opens 
his botany when he plucks a flower, distinguishing color 
and form. He notices the material 8f rocks, and 
gathers various stones like a zealous mineralogist. 

A child confined as many pupils are to the reading, 
writing, and arithmetic method of discipline, 
might as well be brought up in a desert as contrary to 
in the world of beauty and power which sur- 
rounds him. His eyes are gradually closed to a thous- 
and alluring truths ; his ears are dulled to the myriad 
voices of nature. It is still true that to a majority of 

(327) 



328 OBJECT LESSOKS 

pupils in the public schools, the acquiring of knowledge 
is uninteresting and positively irksome. 

But right teaching requires that the child's powers of 
Sense knowing accurately should be developed, 

teaching. an( j hence should begin and largely continue 
with his senses. "Words and number, over which so 
much time is spent in reading, spelling, and arithmet- 
ical problems, are valuable to his mental development, 
as they are associated with things really known. Hence 
the elements of science furnish the proper material for 
such study. Knowledge is not power to the child, if it 
is abstract. He cannot use knowledge which lies be- 
yond the sphere of his daily observation and experience. 
What the state needs is intelligent citizens, and intelli- 
gent youth from whom they can be made. These come 
of the power of knowing and judging accurately. We 
claim for the Natural Sciences this effect on the child. 
They deal with facts more sensible than those of arith- 
metic. The parts of a leaf or of a flower are definite, 
easily comprehended, and classified with certainty. This 
is true of the nature and species of the common animals, 
shells and insects, the constituents of a stone, the qual- 
ities of an acid or gas, the history of a rock traced in 
forms of life, the nature and effect even of geological 
changes. 

No wide range of knowledge is required to under- 
Mental stand definitely and surely scientific facts 
training. simply presented to the youthful mind. It 
easily comprehends them as a whole. We claim, there- 
fore, that to whatever degree the reasoning faculties 
should be developed to furnish the child-mind with 
power, this is best secured by its reasoning on facts and 






HABITS OF OBSERVATIOH 329 

things rather than on abstract ideas, to which children's 
studies are often confined. The last knowledge gained 
by man is the correct understanding of human nature, 
of the causes of human actions. The sciences teach the 
relations of cause and effect in their clearest manifesta- 
tions. With enlarged comprehension the child may 
learn the secondary character of causes. He will trace 
their relation to effects with the certainty of conviction 
to his mind. Thence will be imparted the element of 
positiveness to the pupiFs acquirements and habits of 
character. He learns to act unwaveringly on what he 
knows, and to know positively that upon which he acts. 
Correcting by his own observations the conclusions to 
which he is led by the inductive methods of science, 
he gains independence in thought, and, with that, confi- 
dence in his own powers of judging, which are the safe- 
guards of his character and of his rights as a freeman 
under our republican institutions. 

Thus early introduced to the elements of science, the 
foundations of his character as a citizen are n^\^ O f 
more broadly laid. The child becomes more observation, 
inclusive in thought, more inventive through familiar- 
ity with the mechanism of nature, and more appreci- 
ative of the wealth and beauty of his country's resources. 
Taught to observe, he never ceases to be affected by the 
changing lines and hues of nature which his daily vision 
embraces, and the elements of a true aesthetic culture 
find place in him which will add to his certain worth 
and power as a citizen. The old idea that knowledge is 
for discipline is faithfully maintained in our education. 
Yet knowledge is one of the natural desires of the mind. 
The true science of education will make it a pleasure. 



330 OBJECT LESSONS 

This will require for the senses larger opportunity than 
they now enjoy. Moreover, we owe to the State and 
its free institutions, to raise the standard of intelligence 
and culture among the people, among mechanics, farm- 
ers, merchants, and laborers in the mill or street. A 
discernment of the true nature and qualities of things, 
in their daily use will secure this far better than drills 
in spelling, arithmetic, and grammar. The mass of our 
citizens are not intelligent enough to understand one- 
half the instruction contained in a good weekly news- 
paper. 
We make, therefore, this demand for the sciences 

Place should ^ rs ^ ^ na ^ ^ nev ^ ave an e( l ua l place with the 
be made. usual studies of primary and grammar and 
district schools ; secondly, that our teachers be required 
to make plain the elements of the sciences to pupils be- 
low fourteen years of age, at the expense of rote-drills 
and problems in arithmetic, grammatical analysis, spel- 
ling without definitions, and the time spent in prepar- 
ing for pretentious written examinations, imposed at 
too early an age, that have become one of the worst 
abuses of an artificial system in public work. 

I. WITHOUT APPARATUS 

But how should these sciences be taught in district 
Methods of schools, or grades below the high school? 
teaching. The efforts of authors of elementary text- 
books in science are not entirely successful ; most of 
them are still too technical. There is less vividness in 
the statement of the facts of science, less personification 
and idealizing of the study, than a child's apprehension 
demands. The ancients taught their children the forces 



INCIDENTAL TEACHING 331 

and sounds and shapes of the waters and fields and 
forests, by personifications of nymphs and dryads, gods 
and goddesses, in whose histories and habits they were 
personally interested. So should the stories of insects, 
fishes, mollusks, birds, and well known animals, or of 
plants and stones, be told without text-books by the 
teacher, with scientific truthfulness as to their modes of 
life and motion. Thus children would become familiar 
with their living forms. With text-books in^^ntai 
still defective, the teacher's opportunity lies teachin e- 
in what President Hill calls the incidental method. Let 
her have specimens of minerals, leaves, insects, flowers, 
pictures of birds and animals, and simple apparatus for 
illustrating chemical and physical forces, in order to 
make real to her classes the subjects of the lesson. By 
a hundred well selected stereoscopic pictures she could 
teach physical and political geography as effectively as 
the shapes, circles, and seasons of the earth by a globe. 
Thus the text-book in the hands of a suggestive and 
excursive teacher will become secondary to her personal 
power to make knowledge real and interesting to the 
youngest pupils in her classes. Yet the text-book in 
science will give the study equal dignity with the arith- 
metic in the mind of the scholar, whilst it corrects the 
unscientific or garrulous tendencies of the teacher. 

Moreover, no other studies will so naturally develop 
the personal power of the teacher. Proceed- Enthusiasm 
ing by the method of nature, step by step aroused, 
from the known to the unknown, she will awaken 
enthusiasm in the class, and from the fullness of her 
devotion to the subject there will be an overflow into 
the minds of the pupils. Rote-teaching in these ele- 



332 OBJECT LESSONS 

ments of science is utterly defenceless. Every class of 
facts and every principle involved should have illustra- 
tion from the wide range of nature. The living method 
should be employed in the sciences. Every sense and 
power of the child can be grasped and applied to them 
by the live teacher. 

The chief purposes of the object lessons are two : first, 
object ^ cultivate habits of careful observation and 

lessons. reflection ; and second, to give facility in oral 
description. When properly given they involve the 
systematic discipline of the perceptive faculties and of 
the judgment, of imagination and the memory of facts, 
and in the use of language. 

The method that should be pursued is that known as 
the objective method. This presents two distinct 
though intimately related departments : perceptive 
teaching, in which the object, as an acorn, an egg, a 
leaf, or a piece of coal, is directly presented to the 
pupil's senses ; and conceptive teaching, in which impres- 
sions previously received are recalled, arranged, and util- 
ized, the objects themselves not being presented to the 
senses during the lesson. A lesson upon an oak, an 
elephant, or a thunder storm would fall under the latter 
department. The use of pictures, models, or other sen- 
sible representations of objects, is an important com- 
bination and modification of the two departments. 

Definitions should be very sparingly introduced, and 
never in the first stages of a subject. If 

Definitions, . ,, ,, , , . . d . _ 

given at all, they should sum up knowledge 
already attained. They should be as brief as possible 
and should be carefully prepared for by a process at once 
inductive and objective. The words organic, inorganic, 



THE VITAL ELEMENT 333 

vegetable, animal and mineral, are prominent among the 
very few terms requiring definition. In every stage of 
the lessons, with the exception of a few indispensable 
definitions, the language used by the pupil should be 
entirely his own, and all set forms of words should be 
carefully avoided. "Familiar objects", and familiar 
animals, plants and minerals should take precedence of 
all others in the selection of topics. 

The process employed will necessarily present two 
distinct stages in accordance with the two 
chief purposes of these lessons already re- 
ferred to. The first may be called the analytic or pre- 
paratory, and furnishes the principal discipline of the 
powers of observation and reflection. In this stage, 
which is largely conversational, the teacher leads the 
pupils by questions or otherwise to discover or remem- 
ber the properties or peculiarities of an object, or to 
state any other important facts associated with it. The 
points thus considered should be written upon the 
black-board in very brief synoptical form, but each only 
after it has been dwelt upon. 

The vital element in this part of the work, that which 
gives it a living interest to the pupil, is the The ^^ 
discovery or learning of new facts, or the elei ent. 
gaining of new ideas about the object under considera- 
tion. It is evident that from the nature of the case 
this important element must be chiefly limited to the 
first presentation of the object. Reviews, although for 
certain purposes indispensable, soon become, at least as 
far as this element is concerned, much like "a thrice- 
told tale ". This makes it all the more important that 
the teacher should have an outline of the lesson care- 



334 OBJECT LESSONS 



fully prepared beforehand, so as to be sure to include 
the points most likely to be interesting and instructive. 
Any additional point or fact afterwards drawn from the 
class may be readily incorporated. 

It should also be remembered that the effort to 
small " Develop the perceptive powers " of children 

classes. j^g fts ii m it, especially when applied to large 

classes. In teaching a little group of four or five, com- 
paratively little difficulty should be found by the skilful 
teacher. But when the class ranges in number from 
forty to sixty in the grammar school, and to seventy- 
five in the primary, and when at the same time owing 
to the pressure of the other and more directly important 
exercises of a graded school the time given to oral les- 
sons is limited to a very few minutes, it is evident that 
the problem is a different and more formidable one. 

In the first lesson upon any given object or phenome- 
Get answers non > un ^ss great care is taken to prevent it, 
from all. a f ew p u pil s o f naturally quick perceptions 
will give most of the responses, and the rest of the class 
will be as really "told" by their classmates as if the 
information had been given by the teacher., 

It is true that in both cases there is an exercise of the 
perceptive faculties ; but it is obvious that the mental 
condition in which we follow and verify a statement 
made by another is usually one of far less vigorous and 
profitable activity than that in which we discover a fact 
of ourselves. The former may be called the perception 
of discovery, the latter the perception of verification. 
Nevertheless, from the very nature and condition of 
class-teaching, the lower and the less profitable form of 
the mental exercise will be the* predominating one. The 



DEVELOPMENT 335 

methods of reducing this evil to a practical minimum 
will be obvious to the experienced teacher. It is also 
well for us to consider how large a part of what we call 
our own knowledge has become ours only through veri- 
fying the statements and perceptions of others. 

The processes and results of this first or preparatory 
stage of the work, important and interesting as they 
may be, are entirely subordinate to the second stage. 
The preparatory stage collects the material for the work 
that is to follow ; the lumber, lime, bricks and stone for 
the edifice that is now to be constructed with them. 

DEVELOPMENT OF A SUBJECT 

Let us suppose that the subject of our lesson is Salt. 
The teacher has given the lesson with due Pointsde _ 
attention to the requirements of the objective veioped. 
method. The qualities, as learned by the senses, the 
kinds, uses, and sources of salt have been considered. 
To these points have been added the chief source of our 
own supply, the singular fact that it is a mineral food, 
its necessity to the health of the body, a brief reference to 
its ancient use as a symbol of hospitality and to certain 
superstitions which still cling to it, together with such 
other simple and interesting facts as seemed appropriate. 

In that stage of the lesson which we have now reached, 
the chief discipline is of the memory of facts. " What 
do you know or remember about salt ? " should be the 
teacher's only question : except when an error is made 
in the statement of facts, when a proper question or 
two should lead to its correction, not by the teacher, 
but by the class. The points as written upon the black- 
board in the order in which the pupils remember them 



336 OBJECT LESSORS 

will be something like the following, omitting the pre- 
fixed numerals, which will presently be explained. 

Salt 

3. Taste, 9. Springs, 6. Made into Soda, 

4. Seasoning, 10. Ocean, 2. Soluble, 

1. White, 11. Sparkling, 13. Hospitality, 

7. Kinds, 12. Granular, 14. Superstitions. 

8. Mines, 5. Preserves meat and fish, 

The next step is to have the class, not the teacher, 
condense and arrange this miscellaneous list 

Arrangement. ... .. . , -, * 

of items into a brief and orderly synopsis. 
This is a point of prime importance, but is so simple in 
practice that any ordinary class will need but one illus- 
tration in order to apply the principle. With beginners 
this will be best understood by illustrating with some 
short story one well-known to pupils is best. Whit- 
tington and his Cat would do admirably. Write the 
chief points of the legend on the blackboard in brief, 
synoptical form, but in an absurdly illogical order : 

Whittington a chest of gold goes to sea born in London 
Mayor cat given him dies respected poor boy, etc. , etc. 

If now the teacher will begin to tell the story, follow- 
ing the exact order of the synopsis, the class will soon 
object, and may readily be lead to number the items in 
the order in which they should be stated in telling the 
story. 

A very little practice will enable the class to number 
the items relating to salt substantially as they are num- 
bered in the synopsis already given. When these are 
arranged according to the principles of object teaching, 
they will condense into 



LESSON OK SALT 337 

Salt 

1. Qualities 3 : White ; soluble ; saline taste. 

2. Kinds 3 : Rock ; bay ; table. 

3. Uses 3 : Seasoning ; preserving meat, etc. ; soda. 

4. Sources 3 : Mines ; springs ; ocean. 

5. Associations 2 : Hospitality ; superstitions. 

In making up a final synopsis such as this, great care 
should be taken not to overload a subject by Not too many 
a multiplicity of details. To accomplish details - 
this, only the most important items of the irregular 
synopsis should be taken. To attempt more is to cause 
the lesson to break of its own weight. Most of the ob- 
jects properly selected as the basis of the lessons of the 
lower grades may readily be reduced to form seven to 
ten items. The smaller the number the better. 

Now what use is to be made of this synopsis ? It is 
obvious that if the pupil has the synopsis be- Ut5e of 
fore him on the blackboard and is called upon sy n P si s- 
to state without being questioned what he knows about 
salt, the synopsis will be to him a brief set of arranged 
suggestions or notes, and that with a little practice he 
will be able with its aid to make a " continuous oral 
statement". But a much more important use can be 
made of this synopsis. 

The next step is to train the class to reproduce it for 
themselves. This will be found to be of 

... . Reproduction. 

great practical importance, and is indeed in- 
dispensable. The memory will now be called into ex- 
ercise to remember the facts, and the brief notes with 
which they are associated. The judgment will be 
trained to arrange them in their logical order of se- 
quence. When by many lessons this has been made a 



338 OBJECT LESSONS 

mental habit, the influence of the training will be felt 
upon all the other school lessons, as well as through life. 
There are several ways of accomplishing this step of re- 
producing the synopsis. The following is one of the 
most simple, expeditious, and efficient. Skilful teach- 
ers will readily devise methods of their own. 

1. Write the seven to ten or more items upon the 
blackboard in their proper order. This has already been 
determined by the pupil. Place its proper number be- 
fore each item. 

2. Tell the pupils to look carefully at the items and 
try to remember them, and that you will presently re- 
quire them to be written in the same way upon the 
slates and from memory. 

3. Cover the synopsis with a newspaper or the con- 
venient screen, and at a given signal let the pupils try 
to reproduce it upon their slates. 

4. Call upon one to read what he has written, and let 
the rest of the class, without looking upon their slates, 
tell what he has omitted or what error he has made. 
Then give all a brief opportunity to correct and com- 
plete. Have the slates cleaned, and try once or twice 
more, if necessary, until a reasonably correct result is 
obtained. Clear the synopsis from the blackboard. 

5. The final step is obvious. It is that for which all 
that precedes has been the preparation. Let a sufficient 
number of pupils be called upon one after another to 
make a connected oral statement of such facts and ideas 
as each can properly recall, glancing from time to time, 
as he may find it necessary, at the synopsis upon his 
slate. 



REPRODUCTION 339 

SPECIMEN OBJECT LESSOR 

( The Bear Use pictures. ) 

Parts 

Broad head ; strong, clumsy body, covered with long coarse 
hair ; stout thick legs ; short tail ; large, slightly pointed ears ; 
small, bright eyes ; front teeth in both jaws ; canine teeth (two 
in each jaw), long, strong, and slightly curved backwards ; 
molars broad and surmounted with tubercles ; five toes on each 
foot, each having a long, stout, curved claw or nail, fitted for dig- 
ging or climbing (not retractile). Sole of foot naked ; simple 
stomach. 

Hcibits 

Eats animal and vegetable food ; walks on his flat feet (hence 
called plantigrade) ; climbs trees ; nocturnal ; stands readily on 
hind feet ; uses fore feet for defence by striking or hugging. 

Uses 

Flesh, leather, fur, curiosity. 

Dwell on adaptation of parts to habits and uses. 

Miscellaneous 

Cunning, unsocial ; spends the winter in caves or in hollow 
trees, almost without food ; dangerous and formidable ; some- 
times called Bruin. (Why ?) 

A few lessons should be given with the use of pic- 
tures, upon the lion, tiger, wolf, fox, raccoon. The 
cat, dog, and bear being the types of the families to 
which they respectively belong, the matter furnished 
above will answer in all essential particulars for classi- 
fying the other animals. 

Give lessons on likenesses and differences ; from the 
former get the idea and term carniverous, and from the 
latter the following : 



340 OBJECT LESSONS 

(Cat family. 
Bear " 
X 

NOTE. The other families of this order are not given, because 
to attempt so much would defeat the object of the lessons. 

Models for identifying or describing : 

Oral 

The lion is a wild, ferocious, toe-walking animal, that belongs 
to the cat family of carnivorous animals. 

Written 
Wild. 

g 



Carnivorous 
Animals. 



Claws retractile. 

Front teeth in both jaws. 

Canine, long, hooked, fit- 
ted for tearing. ! p arnivorous 

Molars, uneven, sharp, > 
fitted for cutting. 

Simple stomach. j 

After each animal studied has been identified accord- 
ing to plans given, and a general talk had upon the 
whole order, a composition should be written upon the 
subject, Carnivorous Animals. 

Several weeks may be spent profitably upon a com- 
parison of Herbivorous and Carnivorous animals. 

The following points are suggested. 

Kinds of teeth. Kinds of food. 

Kinds of stomachs. Nature of food. 

Shape and comparative size of trunks, ) Qnantitv of fnorl 

especially the abdominal region. f *** 

Acuteness of senses. { M f btaining 

Pliability of osseous structure. j Mt of obtainin S 



USE OF APPARATUS 341 

Freedom of motion of the ) j Manner of obtaining 

limbs. f ( food. 

._. , - ( General habits, manner 

Kinds of feet. -j of obtaining food . 

Muscular power, (Relative.) ) ( Obstacles to be over- 
Limbs as weapons of offence [- - ] come in obtaining 

or defence. ) ( food. 
The animal in each order most } 

remote from the type. Food (both kinds.) 
(Hog, bear.) ) 

For an ideal lesson on the Duck, see Hooper's "Object-Teach- 
ing, or Words and Things". 

II. WITH APPARATUS 
/. Directions 

1. Let the pupils describe the apparatus. 

2. Let the pupils perform the experiments. 

3. Let the pupils announce the experiments. 

4. Use simple objects and illustrations. 

5. Proceed by rudimentary facts. 

6. Proceed by individual cases to deduce laws. 

7. Let the principles be developed by the pupils. 

8. Let the pupils perceive that we arrive at results by 
three different ways : 1st, Jby observation ; 2d, by expert 
ment ; 3d, by considering effects. 

II. Cautions 

1. Speak slowly. 

2. Repeat carefully. 

3. Use simple language. 

4. Write points on the board. 

5. Require pupils to copy. 

6. Keep close to the subject. 

7. Require pupils to answer in complete statements. 



342 OBJECT LESSONS 

8. Eepeat experiments and illustrations. 

9. Reproduce each lesson carefully. 

10. Never use a term that has not been fully de- 
veloped. 

11. Guide the pupil's thoughts, but do not lead them. 

12. Arrange a definite plan. 

13. Work so as to secure and hold attention. 

14. Let your object be to guide pupils to see clearly 
and infer correctly. 

GENERAL FORMULA 
/. Objects should be presented, 

1. To the senses, or perception ; 

2. To the reflective or reasoning powers. 

3. Their features should be thoroughly memorized. 

//. Ideas should be developed, 

1. By appealing to the senses. 

2. By comparison. 

3. By experiment. 

4. By reason. 

SPECIMEN LESSON ON DIVISIBILITY 

The teacher should have on the table different articles, 
as slips of wood, a lump of coal, pieces of glass, brick, 
stone, etc., glass jar containing water, cochineal, car- 
mine, etc. 

First, let the pupils describe the articles, as : 
"You hold in your hand a piece of pine wood ten inches in 
length, two inches in breadth and one-half inch in thickness. " 

See that they express the truth and use accurate 
language. 



LESSOR OK DIVISIBILITY 343 

" You hold in your hand a lump of coal about as large as a 
hen's egg." 

" You have in your hand a piece of brick about four inches in 
length, four inches in breadth, and two inches in thickness. " 

" You hold in your hand a glass jar containing one quart of 
clear water," etc., etc. 

The teacher may now place in the hands of the pupil 

a small slip of wood and tell him to do some- 
wood, 
thing with it. The pupil will either break, 

cut, or split it. The teacher will ask him to observe 
what he has done with it. The pupil will answer, " I 
have broken it." The teacher will so question the 
pupils as to draw out an answer similar to the following : 
"The wood may be separated into parts." 

Again the teacher will request one of the pupils to 
take the hammer and do something with the 
coal. The pupil will break it, and he per- 
ceives that the coal may be broken into pieces. 

The teacher will also question the pupil so as to draw 
out the following answer : " Coal may be 
separated into parts." So proceed with the 
brick, glass, stone, iron, etc., and lastly take the glass 
jar and put in a few grains of cochineal, carmine, or 
indigo, and let the pupils notice the effects. They will 
say that the cochineal is coloring the water ; let them 
see that the cochineal is separated into thousands of parts; 
lead them to say that cochineal " may be separated into 
parts." The teacher should write all these facts on the 
board, and require the pupils to spell the words. See 
that the children begin every statement with a capital 
letter and end it with a period. 

The lesson thus far developed will appear on the 
board in the following form : 



344 OBJECT LESSONS 

1. Wood may be separated into parts. 

2. Coal may be separated into parts. 

3. Glass may be separated into parts. 

4. Brick may be separated into parts. 

5. Iron may be separated into parts. 

6. Cochineal may be separated into parts. 

Pupils should be required to copy the above neatly, 
General an( ^ reproduce it. They should be led to 
principle. perceive that all objects may be separated 
into parts. At this stage ask them to give a general 
name to all things that they can perceive. They will 
give the names : things, objects, articles, substance, 
matter, perhaps not the latter ; if they do not give the 
word matter the teacher should give it. Tell the pupils 
that " matter " is the term you wish them to use. Now 
lead them to perceive that "Matter may be sepa- 
rated into parts. " Now tell them that this properly 
is called by a certain term, Divisibility, and lead them 
to develop the definition from the knowledge already 
possessed. For example, That property of matter which 
allows it to be separated into parts is Divisibility. 

The lessons will now appear on the board in the fol- 
lowing form : 

1. Wood may be separated into parts. 

2. Coal may be separated into parts. 

3. Glass may be separated -into parts. 

4. Brick may be separated into parts. 

5. Iron may be separated into parts. 

6. Cochineal may be separated into parts. 

7. Musk may be separated into parts, etc. 

General Law. All matter may be separated into parts. 
Definition. Divisibility is that property of matter which allows 
it to be separated into parts. 



BOOKS FOR REFERENCE 345 

The pupil should memorize the General Law and the 
Definition. The teacher may give extended informa- 
tion in relation to divisibility, speaking of a grain of 
musk, of the small portions it throws off, and of various 
minerals. 



The best statement of the advantages of such teaching is found 
in "How to Teach Natural Science in the Public Schools", 50 
cts., by Dr. Wm. T. Harris, Commissioner of Education. 

McKay's "100 Experiments in Natural Science", 15 cts., is 
especially intended for district schools. 

Hooper's " Object-Teaching, or Words and Things", 50 cts., 
treats of that subject from the most intelligent modern stand- 
point, and contains a model lesson on "The Duck" which has 
never been equalled for completeness and suggestiveness. 



SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 



School management may be considered under three 
heads : I. Organization ; II. Government ; III. Conduct 
of Eecitations. 

I. ORGANIZATION 

School organization is a system of arrangement de- 
pur ose of signed to secure constant employment, effi- 
organization. c i e nt instruction, and moral control. It 
aims at providing the means of instructing and educat- 
ing the greatest number in the most efficient manner, 
by the most economical expenditure of time and money. 

Organization puts each child in its proper place ; al- 
lots to each class proper work, proper in kind and 
amount ; secures to each subject the time that is justly 
its due ; arranges the work, both as to place and as to 
kind, so as to preserve a quiet room ; and properly dis- 
tributes the work, so that no interest of the school in 
any of its parts shall suffer. 

The young teacher should not select a difficult school 
choice of a ^ ^ rs ^ ^ man y teach for the money, 
a school. an( j d no t consider whether or not they are 
adapted to particular schools. 

The contract should be in writing, and express defi- 
nitely the conditions. Both parties should 
have a copy. Like all other business, this 
should be done in a business-like manner. It is import- 
ant that the teacher should know both his rights and 
(346) 



HOW TO BEGItf 34? 

his duties, and he should not begin school without a 
careful reading of Bardeen's " Common School Law for 
Common School Teachers ". 

Preparation for the first day's work is all import- 
ant. The seeds of failure are frequently 
sown the first hour. The teacher should day - 
have a plan in his mind : just what he will do ; hoio he 
will do it ; and when he will do it. He should not try 
to accomplish too much the first day. Let him not be 
too anxious about courting the favor of pupils good 
discipline cannot be established in a day ; he should use 
words expressive of friendly feelings and good intentions ; 
he should not let frowns cloud the brow, although all 
may not be, at the outset, just as one might wish ; he 
should leave nothing to the impulse of the moment ; he 
should be firm, watchful, and uniform ; he should en- 
deavor to make the first impression pleasant. 

Do not attempt to hear recitations the first morning ; 
after opening the school with a general ex- p.^ 
ercise, let them all join in singing some exercises, 
familiar piece ; this will dispel embarrassment. The im- 
portance of singing in school as an aid to school govern- 
ment, can hardly be overestimated. The "Song Budget", 
"The Song Century", and "The Song Patriot", at 15 
cts. each, are certainly within the means of every school. 

Write on the board the requirements, and pass slips 
of paper, asking all that can write to hand 

1 1 j. n Enrolment. 

in the following, viz. : 

1. The full name. 

2. The full name of parent or guardian. 

3. Residence. 

4. Age. 

5. His studies and classes for the term before. 



348 SCHOOL ORGANIZATION 

Let some pupils pass around and take the names, etc., 
of those who cannot write. 

In the highest classes institute a written examination. 
This can be made a test exercise in spelling, 

Classification. mi 6 ' 

penmanship,, and the use of language. The 
questions need not be difficult ; ten questions upon 
the different subjects will test the knowledge of the pu- 
pils as well as twenty. The pupils that cannot write 
should be examined orally, and record kept of the stand- 
ing of each pupil. It is not best to make sudden and 
radical changes ; better adopt the classification of your 
predecessor, if you have not confidence in your own 
ability. Be especially careful not to find fault with the 
methods and work of the term before. Choose points 
to commend, not to criticise. 

Make all changes gradually and quietly, and let the 
pupils see that they are necessary for the good of the 
school. 

After having graded the pupils, attempt a tempor- 
Forminff ai T classification. It will be impossible to 
classes. classify permanently at first, and the pupils 

should so understand it. 

There should be not more than four grades in district 
schools. The primer and the first reader should be the 
limit of the D grade ; the second reader, of the C grade ; 
the third reader, of the B grade ; and the fourth reader, 
of the A grade. The number of classes in each grade 
should not exceed four, and by class classification they 
need not exceed this number. 

The teacher is now ready to draw up the plan of ivork, 



A DAILY PKOGKAMMB 349 

specifying the number of classes and the 

* i T 1 J.-U i j-i. Programme. 

time of beginning, ending, and the length 
of each recitation. 

The programme should provide for study as well as 
for recitation. It lessens the labor of teaching, makes 
the work more effective, promotes good order, cultivates 
systematic habits, and promotes the ambition of pupils. 

While it is well to follow the programme carefully, 
the organization and discipline must not be too mechan- 
ical, or pupils will tire of it. No change in classes 
should be made for visitors, unless by special request. 

Pupils should be seated according to classification, so 
far as practicable, and graded according to Movement 
height, the tallest pupils seated in the rear, of classes. 
The teacher should have the entire charge of seating 
the pupils, and should change seat-mates when advis- 
able. As a rule it is not best to place pupils of the same 
temperament together, and seat-mates should understand 
that if they are disorderly they will be separated. Class 
movements should be conducted with precision, and no 
disorder should be allowed in the room. In no instance 
should the school-room be used as a play-ground; nor 
should pupils be allowed to deface, destroy, or in any 
way injure the school property. 

As a suggestion to teachers who do not find a pro- 
gramme of work already adopted in school, we give here 
the Course of Study adopted for country schools in 1894 
by a committee of School Commissioners of the State of 
New York, and approved by the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, 



350 SCHOOL ORGANIZATION 

FIRST YEAR 

Heading Word and Phonic method combined. Blackboard work. First 
Reader begun. 

Writing Much written work on tablet, slate, and blackboard. 

Spelling All words introduced. 

Language See Manual. 

Arithmetic First Term All combinations from 1 to 5 inclusive. 

Second Term Combinations to 10. Problems involving addition, subtrac- 
tion, multiplication, and division. 

Drawing Color, form, tracing. 

General Lessons Reverence for God. Good morals and manners. Care of 
the person. Simplest elements of vocal music. 

SECOND YEAR FIRST TERM 

Reading First Reader completed. 

Writing Same as first year. 

Spelling Oral and written spelling of all words introduced, 

Language Writing sentences containing given words. Filling blanks. 
Use of capitals. 

Arithmetic Combinations to 15. Reading and Writing of numbers to 100. 
Fractions. halves, thirds, and fourths. 

Drawing Color, form, ruling. 

General Lessons Inculcating good habits. Throughout all grades special 
attention should be given to the effects of stimulants and narcotics. Oral 
instruction on the parts and care of the body. Elements of vocal music. 
Items of useful knowledge. 

SECOND TERM 

Reading Second Reader begun. 

Writing Same as first year. 

Spelling Same as first term. 

Language Same as first term. 

Arithmetic Combinations to 25. Reading and writing of numbers to 1000. 
Addition and subtraction tables completed. Fractions to and including 
tenths. Numerator 1. Original concrete work. 

Drawing First term's work continued. 

General Lessons Same as first term. 

THIRD YEAR FIRST TERM 

Reading Second Reader completed. 

Writing Copy book No. 1. 

Spelling All words in various lessons. 

Language Use of such words as is, are, was, were, have, has. Simple let- 
ter writing. Picture lessons. 

Arithmetic Multiplication and division tables. Fractions to tenths, using 
1, 2, and 3 as numerators, Easy problems in mental arithmetic. 



A COURSE OF STUDY 351 

Geography Location and direction of objects. Drawing familiar surfaces 
to a scale. Natural features of school district, soil, crops, climate, etc. 

Drawing Color, form, measurements. 

General Lessons Functions of the principal organs of the body, and the 
preservation of health. Reading very easy music. Mineral, vegetable, and 
animal substances. Solids, liquids, and gases. 

SECOND TERM 

Beading Supplementary reading of Second Reader gfade. 

Writing Copy book No. 1. 

Spelling Same as first term. 

Language Reproduction exercises. Writing sentences containing such 
words as this, these, that, those, seen, saw, did, done, got. 

Arithmetic Addition, subtraction, and multiplication. Fractions See 
Manual. Concrete work with analysis. Mental arithmetic. 

Geography Town, and county as regards surf ace,* places, railroads, lakes, 
rivers, and mountains. 

Drawing First term's work continued. 

General I*esson$ First term's work continued. 

FOURTH YEAR FIBST TERM 

Heading Third Reader begun and much supplementary reading. 

Writing Copy book No. 2. 

Spelling New words in reading'and other lessons. Spelling book. 

Language Letter writing and descriptions continued. Such words as 
went, gone, lie, lay, lain, sit, set, rise, raise, written in sentences. 

Arithmetic Reading and writing numbers of four periods. Roman nota- 
tion to 100. Division. United States money. Mental arithmetic. Third 
year's work in fractions continued. 

Geography The world as a whole. Illustrating and defining the natural 
divisions of land and water. Description and location of the principal 
divisions on both continents. 

Drawing Geometric, decorative, and pictorial drawing. 

General Lessons Previous work reviewed. Lessons on food and drink. 
Biographical sketches of noted persons. Choice gems of literature memor- 
ized and recited. Vocal music. Simple experiments in natural science. 

SECOND TERM 

Reading Third Reader completed and much supplementary reading. 

Writing Copy book No. 2. 

Spelling Same as preceding term, 

Language Preceding term's work continued. Common abbreviations. 

'Arithmetic Fractions, See Manual. Problems involving all principles! 
previously taught. Mental arithmetic. Roman notation to 1000. Problems 
in linear measure. 

Geography Prominent features and boundaries of all the grand divisions, 
Location of important cities, rivers, and mountains. Map drawing. 



352 SCHOOL ORGANIZATION 

Drawing First term's work continued. 

General Lessons Preceding term's work continued. Simple lessons on 
digestion. 

FIFTH YEAR FIRST TERM 

Reading Fourth Reader begun and much supplementary reading. 

Writing Copy book No. 3. 

Spelling Words from various lessons and from spelling books. 

Language Reproduction of stories and articles read. Letter writing, in 
eluding invitations and orders for merchandise. How to write possessives. 

Arithmetic Factors, multiples, and divisors. G. C. D. and L. C. M. Re- 
duction, addition, and subtraction of fractions. Simple problems in avoir- 
dupois weight. Easy bills. 

Geography A general account of the grand divisions as regards soil, cli- 
mate, productions, animals, commerce, and people. 

Drawing Geometric, decorative, and pictorial work continued. 

General Lessons Fourth year's work continued. Simple lessons on the 
blood and respiration. Vocal music. Rhetorical training. General infor- 
mation. 

SECOND TERM 

Reading Fourth Reader continued and supplementary reading. Selec- 
tions from classical literature, including stories from American history, read 
in school and at home. 

Writing Copy book No. 8. 

Spelling Same as preceding term. 

Language Work of preceding term continued. 

Arithmetic Common fractions completed. Simple problems in liquid and 
dry measure. Problems involving all principles previously taught. 

Geography A thorough review and completion of elementary geography. 

Drawing First term's work continued. 

General lessons First term's work continued. Easy lessons on the ner- 
TOUS system and the five senses. 

SIXTH YEAR FIRST TERM 

Heading Fourth Reader completed. Supplementary reading. 

Writing Copy book No. 4. 

Spelling Spelling book and important words in various lessons. 

Language Writing descriptions of things seen, heard, or read. Analyses 
for compositions. 

Arithmetic Review of common fractions. Decimals. Problems invol- 
ving all previous work. Mental arithmetic. 

Geography Mathematical geography. Divisions of North America, the* 
United States in particular. 

Draw ing Fifth year's work continued. 

Physiology Review of work given in connection with General Lessons. 
The skeleton, muscle*, and skin. 



A COUKSE OF STUDY 353 

General Lessons Selections from classical literature. Rhetorical training. 
Vocal music. Illustrated lessons in the elementary natural sciences. Gen- 
eral information. Calisthenic drill. 



SECOND 



Tl&M 



Beading Brief history of the United States. Choice selections from 
standard authors. 

Writing Ca$7 book No. 4. 

Spelling From, readers, spelling book and other text-books as in preceding 
terms. 

Language Preceding term's work continued. 

Arithmetic Compound numbers, tables and reduction. Problems invol- 
ving all previous work. 

Geography Review of county. New York State, boundaries and nat- 
ural features, counties, principal railroad systems, cities and important 
towns, minerals, products, manufactures, government, and education. 

Drawing Fifth year's work continued. 

Physiology Review of preceding term's work. Digestion. 

General Lessons A. continuation of previous term's work. 

SEVENTH YEAR FIRST TERM 

Reading Fifth Reader, or selections such as Rip Van Winkle, Legend of 
Sleepy Hollow, Snow Bound, The Barefoot Boy, Black Beauty, Swiss Fam- 
ily Robinson, Evangeline, Tom Brown at Rugby, Bitter Sweet, The Deserted 
Village, the Chambered Nautilus, Biographies of Washington and Lincoln. 

Writing Copy book No. 5. 

Spelling Previous work continued. Word analysis. 

Grammar Parts of speech and their modifications, except case, declen- 
sion, mode, and tense. The sentence, subject, predicate, and modifiers, 
word, phrase, and clause. 

Arithmetic Compound numbers completed. Problems involving all pre- 
vious work. 

Geography South America, Europe, and Asia. 

Drawing Fifth year's work continued. 

Physiology Review of sixth year's work. Circulation and respiration, in- 
cluding voice. 

General Lessons A. continuation of previous lessons. (See sixth year, first 
term.) Current events. 

SECOND TERM 

Beading Continuation of preceding term's work until proficiency is at- 
tained. 

Writing Copy book No. 6. 

Spelling Continuation of previous work. 

Grammar Review of last term's work. Case, declensions, simpler rules 
of syntax, parsing, conjugation of the verb to be. 



354 SCHOOL ORGANIZATION 

Arithmetic Percentage, insurance, taxes, commission, profit and loss. 
Problems involving all previous work. 

Geography Africa, Oceanica, standard time, and general review. 
Drawing Fifth year's work continued. 

Physiology Nervous system and special senses. General review. 
Gene?'al Lessons A continuation of previous term's work. 

EIGHTH YEAR FIRST TERM 

Heading Miscellaneous reading. One or two recitations a week. 

Gramma? 1 Review of previous year's work. Conjugation of the active 
voice. Analysis and parsing. 

Arithmetic Review of last term's work. Simple interest. Partial pay- 
ments, United States rule only. Problems. 

Drawing See Manual. 

History Discoveries and explorations ; Colonial period to 1763. 

General Lessons See sixth year, first term. Current events. Making of 
simple apparatus and other useful articles. 

SECOND TERM 

Reading Same as preceding term. 

Grammar Conjugation completed. Four principal parts of irregular 
verbs learned. Rules of syntax completed. 

Arithmetic Review of percentage. Longitude and Tune. True and bank 
discount. Stocks. 

Drawing See Manual. 

History First term's work briefly reviewed, and continued to the close of 
the war of 1812. 

General Lessens Same as preceding term. 

NINTH YEAR FIRST TERM 

Grammar General review. Special attention given to subordinate 
clauses, infinitives, and participles. 

Arithmetic Bills, ratio, proportion, partnership, square root, domestic 
exchange, mensuration. 

Drawing See Manual. 

History American History completed. History of the State of New York. 

Civil Government Some elementary work. Special attention given to 
the constitutions of the United States and of New York. 

Geography General review preparatory to final examinations. 

Physiology General review preparatory to final examinations. 

General Lessons See eighth year, first term. 

SECOND TERM 

During this term let pupils pursue those studies of the course in which 
they have not yet passed the final examinations ; and if they are capable of 
doing more work than this, they should take up some or all of the following 
studies, Algebra, Physical Geography, Book-keeping. 



FIRMNESS A FIRST REQUISITE 355 

II. SCHOOL GOVEBNMENT 

The strength or weakness of a teacher is no where 
more clearly shown than in the government of the 
school. 

How often have I been asked, " Tell me how to govern 
my school." The subject is the most impor- Difficulty of 
tant that can engage the attention of teach- government, 
ers. It is one that calls for experience, judgment, and 
wisdom. Every pupil has a conscience, that decides 
on all actions contemplated or begun decides whether 
the act is right or wrong. The fundamental rule is, 
"Do nothing that your conscience tells you is wrong." 
This covers the whole ground, and a score of rules will 
only weaken it. Some consciences are depraved, but 
few are seared. 

For the maintenance of a healthy discipline, it is not 
necessary that there should be great severity in the 
punishment of offences. 

Firmness is the first requisite to school government ; 
the pupils must understand that the teacher 
has absolute control, that his authority is 
supreme ; and this in most cases is sufficient in itself to 
hold the evil propensities of pupils in check. 

On the contrary, a lack of firmness will encourage the 
spirit of revolt, and make necessary frequent resorts to 
punishment of one kind or another. 

School government should be administered in such a 
way that it shall be a reign of justice. The 

J ..... xi j- Justice. 

sense of justice is strong even in the case of 

vicious children. Offences will occur in the best con- 



356 SCHOOL GOVEKIOIENT 

ducted schools, but the teacher must discriminate be- 
tween trivial, aggravated, and flagrant offences. 

Children know that disobedience and wrong-doing 
in general deserve punishment ; and providing the de- 
gree of punishment does not exceed its just bounds, no 
feeling of resentment will be cherished toward him who 
inflicts the penalty. 

A teacher should not, generally, make a rule until 
DO not antici- there i g necessity for it. It should then be 
pate offences, enforced, and for a violation of the rule a 
penalty should be inflicted. Children soon learn to feel 
contempt for a teacher who does not insist on respect- 
ful obedience ; they instinctively admire the firmness 
and decision which mete out to offenders their deserved 
punishment. Complete success in school management 
at the outset is not to be expected ; only by slow degrees 
can dexterity in government be attained. Common 
sense is an important element in management. A noble 
Quaker once said : " There are three things a man needs 
to make him successful ; first, good health ; second, re- 
ligion ; and third, good sense : if he can have but one of 
these, let it be good sense ; for God can give him grace, 
and God can give him religion, but common sense 
must be born in him." 

But very few special privileges should at first be 
granted to pupils, such as leaving seats, 

Privileges. , . ' , . . ' 

speaking to one another, asking questions of 
teachers, making complaint to teachers, receiving help 
from teachers, etc. After the school is thoroughly 
organized the teacher may gradually extend these privi- 
leges, as he finds it convenient and safe, but at first 
they are troublesome. 



A CHEERFUL SCHOOL 357 

The teacher should be careful not to disgust pupils 
with learning. Frequently revengeful feel- 

.. -. , . . , ., , Learning 

ings are excited by requiring children to re- should be a 

main after school hours and commit lines of 

poetry to memory, or to work long arithmetic problems. 

Teachers are sometimes at fault for unlearned lessons 
on the part of pupils, because they have not told the 
children what to do or how to do it. If the young un- 
derstand the nature and object of their work, and the 
manner in which it should be prosecuted, they will find 
a pleasure in endeavoring to surmount every apparent 
difficulty. The work should be represented both as a 
duty and as a pleasure. 

A smile from the teacher lightens the labor of the 
school, and lessens the burdens of the day. A cheerful 
School rooms should be spacious, light and sch o1 - 
airy, well ventilated, comfortably heated during winter, 
and erected in delightful and commanding situations. 
The walls should be adorned with pictures, mottoes, 
vines, and ornaments. 

The school-room should be made homelike as possible, 
as inviting as public halls. Teachers should frequently 
exhibit amusing and instructive experiments, and ask 
the children to assist them. The children should be 
gratified occasionally with excursions into interesting 
parts of the country, to view the works of nature and 
thus increase their love of the beautiful. Scholastic 
exercises should carry delightful associations. 

The principle of emulation should be made subordi- 
nate. In an intellectual point of view emu- Do not rely 
lation may be satisfactory to the few that on emulation, 
excel ; satisfactory to the parents and guardians, who 



358 SCHOOL GOVERNMENT 

are led to form false estimates of their progress and 
acquirements by the places they occupy in their respect- 
ive classes ; but it often produces an injurious effect on 
the moral temperament of the successful, and of their 
companions whom they excel. 

One grand end of instruction, which has been too 
much overlooked, is to cultivate and regulate the moral 
powers to produce love, affection, concord, humility, 
self-denial, and other moral graces. But the principle 
of emulation has a tendency to produce jealousy, envy, 
hatred, and other malignant passions. Besides it is 
only a very few in every class that can be stimulated to 
exertion by this principle, and these few are generally of 
such a temperament as to require their ambitious dis- 
position to be restrained rather than excited. A ma- 
terial prize is the least effectual mode of accomplishing 
the desired object ; it is founded on injustice, inasmuch 
as it heaps honors and emoluments on those to whom 
nature has already been most bountiful. 

In the curiosity of children there is sufficient and 
natural stimulant of the appetite for knowledge, and we 
live in a world abounding in the means of useful and 
pleasurable gratifications. 

All that is required of teachers is to aid the faculties 
with affection and judgment. A certificate of diligence 
and good conduct seems to be all that is necessary to 
distinguish from the vicious, the idle, the slothful, 
those who have employed their time and talents in a 
proper manner. 

Corporal punishment, as it is generally administered, 
Avoid * s rev lting and degrading in its character, 

whipping. an( } the necessity of resorting to it generally 



CORPORAL PUNISHMEHt 359 

indicates that there has been a want of proper training 
in the earlier stages of life. It is vain to imagine that 
children can be whipped into either learning or good 
conduct ; and if an enlightened and judicious mode of 
tuition were universally adopted there would seldom be 
any necessity for resorting to such a stimulus. But in 
the modes of teaching which used to prevail, corporal 
punishment was inevitable, and in some instances it 
seems still necessary. When other means of correction 
have failed and it becomes a choice between whipping 
and expulsion, whipping is almost always to be pre- 
ferred. But let the teacher be sure that it is necessary, 
and that he does not inflict it to gratify an angry feel- 
ing of his own. 

Plato said, " A teacher should never punish in anger." 
When reproofs are uttered in passion, and wih looks of 
fury, they seldom or never produce any good effect, and 
not unfrequently excite a spirit of revenge against the 
reprover. 

A blacksmith brought up his son, to whom he was 
very severe, to his own trade. The urchin was never- 
theless an audacious dog. One day the old vulcan was 
attempting to harden a cold chisel which he had made 
of foreign steel, but could not succeed. " Horse- whip 
it, father," exclaimed the youth, " if that will not harden 
it, nothing will." 

A school ought never to serve the purpose of a prison. 
Classes too young to prepare lessons them- Make gchool 
selves, should be provided with "busy work " hours short - 
of various kinds. In mild weather they should have 
frequent recesses, and they should always be dismissed 
earlier than the older classes. 



360 SCHOOL GOVERHMEHT 

The school should always be not "my "school but 
" our " school, and teacher and pupils should work to- 
gether to make it excel. 

Pupils should be taught to investigate, to study, to 
insist on think, to notice every object within the 
attention. reach of their vision, and to give an account 
of what they have seen or heard. 

This will induce a habit of attention, without which 
there can be no solid improvement in any department 
of instruction. The teacher should not proceed with 
the exercises of the school until he has the undivided 
attention of every pupil. 

We would commend to every teacher Fitch's little 
manual "How to Secure and Retain the Attention of 
Pupils", and Hughes's larger work of similar name. 

Too much government may prove as injurious as too 
Over-gov- l^tle ; both may prove failures. The teacher 
erning. should govern as little and teach as much as 

possible. In some schools there is more of govern- 
ment than of teaching. The pupils should understand 
that in no instance will the teacher stop the recita- 
tion to manage a school or discipline a pupil. If 
the teacher observes that a pupil is disorderly during 
recitation, he should silently mark him, and attend to 
the offence during recess or at some convenient oppor- 
tunity. 

All discipline has its spring in the character of the 
teacher. It depends more on the man than on his 
means. It is character that imparts efficacy to action. 

Character is the source of success or failure in all 
character of Pursuits. So apparent is its influence in 
the teacher, schools that one who had many opportuni- 



CHARACTER OF THE TEACHER 361 

ties for observing has said that, " A teacher has more 
need to watch himself than his children, as the evils 
found in a school are often traceable to some omission, 
inconsiderateness, hastiness of temper, want of firmness, 
or absence of principle in himself ." 

The school becomes a reflector of the teacher, and in 
every case it will be an accurate reflector. A teacher 
cannot appear what he is not in the presence of his 
pupils. The attempt is vain. Their eyes pierce through 
every disguise. 

He must be what he seems, and must seem what he is. 

Love, honor, truthfulness, sincerity, consistency, 
justice, patience, and judgment, must be ele- 
ments of a teacher's character. Earnestness of the true 
and cheerfulness are also elements. Earn- 
estness has great influence over children ; cheerfulness 
is sunshine. 

Sympathy with them in their trials, sports and labors 
is an element of power ; but fear KEVER. 

Is there not a lesson prettily expressed in the follow- 
ing : 

He who checks a child with terror, 
Stops its play, and stills its song, 

Not alone commits an error, 
But a great and moral wrong. 

Give it play, and never fear it, 

Active life is no defect ; 
Never, never break its spirit, 

Curb it only to direct. 

Would you stop the flowing river, 
Thinking it would cease to flow ? 

Onward it must flow forever, 
Better teach it where to go. 



362 SCHOOL GOVERNMENT 

Particularly must it be kept in view by the teacher 
that quietness in governing is allied with 

A low voice. ,,..,. ., , 

good discipline. A loud voice, reiterating 
commands in an authoritative tone, is often considered 
favorable to discipline. It is not really so. A quiet 
way of issuing orders is favorable to quietness of dis- 
position among the pupils. It conveys a double impres- 
sion that obedience is expected, and that there is a 
large reserve force at command if the teacher should 
have occasion to use it. 

One thing deserving careful consideration is the im- 
obedience portance of inculcating the habit of obedi- 
from the first. ence f rom the first. If children are accus- 
tomed from their very earliest school experience to move 
together in accordance with the fixed signals, the work 
of discipline is greatly simplified. Simultaneous move- 
ments as in rising, taking seats again, or marching . 
always contribute to the result in a very pleasing way. 
We would encourage daily drill in Calisthenics, as well 
calculated to enforce prompt obedience. 

The first thing that a child should learn is obedience. 
All governments and all peoples have regarded filial dis- 
obedience with great disfavor. The teacher should 
supplement the parent's work. 

HINTS ON THE CORRECTION OF SPECIAL OFFENCES 
/. ^Communication 

1. By suggestion, advice, admonition. 

2. By reproof, make it unpopular. 

3. By restraint of personal liberties. 

4. By separation of seatmates. 

5. By printed reports to parents. 



SPECIAL OFFEKCES 363 

//. Loud Study 

1. Suspend exercises until quiet. 

2. Train pupils to study with closed lips. 

///. Laughing 

1. By suspension of exercises. 

2. Make pupils laugh until weary of it. 

IV. Moving Noisily 

1. Train the pupils how to walk, to stand, to sit, and 
to move. 

2. Always admonish them, when a command is vio- 
lated. 

3. Require the pupils to try again, until they do it 
quietly. 

4. Slates should be covered. 

5. Let the teacher move quietly himself. 

V. Questions During Recitation 

1. Prohibit them. 

2. Show their impropriety. 

3. Refuse to notice signals. 

VI. Litter on the Floor 

1. Encourage neatness. 

2. Require the floor to be swept. 

3. Inspect the floor in the presence of the pupil, 
without any remarks. 

VII. Writing Notes 

1. Give pupils all the work they can do. 

2. Read the notes before the school, omitting names. 

3. Ask for the writer. 

4. Destroy the notes without reading them. 



364 SCHOOL GOVERNMENT 

VIII. Undeanliness 

1. Have basin and towels at hand, for washing. 

2. Send pupils home till they are fit to return. 

3. Insist upon cleanliness. 

IX. Disorder 

1. Have a place for everything, and everything in its 
place. 

2. Allow no changing of position, without permission. 

3. Hold pupils accountable for the care of property. 

4. Insist on quiet attention when addressing pupils. 

X. Tattling 

1. Point out its impropriety it leads to gossip and 
slander. 

2. Eefuse to notice it. 

XI. Quarrelling 

1. Persuade of its sinfulness. 

2. Oblige pupils to play alone. 

3. Make it unpopular by ridiculing those who engage 
in it. 

XII. Untruthfulness 
1. Ignorance. 

i. 



4. Innate tendency. 

{1. Loss of reputation. 

2. Loss of character. 

3. Loss of conscience. 

4. General demoralization. 

3. Cultivate honor. 



THE FINAL TEST OF THE TEACHER 365 

III. CONDUCT OF RECITATIONS 

As it is considered more important to digest what is 
learned than merely to acquire it, the man- Testof 
ner of conducting a recitation becomes of the teacher - 
the highest importance. It is to be expected that the 
pupils carry away with them the habits of mind that 
the class training engenders. The ability of the teacher 
to make each recitation a model of the best method of 
investigating a subject and of expressing the results, is 
the highest recommendation for the position he holds. 

Discipline is only a means, whereas the recitation is 
an end. A failure here is a failure altogether. It has 
definite and rational aims, to be carefully sought after 
and earnestly pursued. It is the most delicate part of 
all the school work. Here the teacher may exhibit 
skill, tact, and individuality ; the inventive powers are 
to be taxed to their utmost, in order to bring about the 
desired results. 

The object is to develop the powers of the pupils, and 
this development will be attained in propor- 

,. ,, r , .,., ., , . ., Object. 

tion to the ability, capacity, and ingenuity 
of the teacher. 

The conditions of success in school work are as fixed 
as the axioms of mathematics. Intense in- Con( ji t ion8 of 
terest, activity, self-reliance, well-directed success - 
effort these are the essential features of all efficient 
methods. Any method of conducting recitations that 
embraces these is a good one. Different teachers do not 
always succeed best with the same method. 

Adaptation and variety are cardinal principles in edu- 
cation. The safe rule is : Employ the method ivhich 
will best enable you to effect the desired results. 



366 CONDUCT OF RECITATIONS 

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS 
/. Essentials 

1. A brief reproduction of the preceding lesson. 

2. A brief review of the preceding lesson. 

3. Kehearsal and critical examination of the daily 
lesson. 

4. Eecapitnlation of the daily lesson. 

5. Adequate preparation for the advanced lesson. 

//. Objects 

1. The development of the faculties. 

2. The acquisition of knowledge. 

3. Its application to the use of life. 

///. Ends 

1. To develop individuality. 

2. To encourage originality. 

3. To cultivate self-reliance and self-possession. 

4. To cultivate sentiments of justice, kindness, for- 
bearance, and courtesy. 

5. To nurture the development and the growth of the 
pupils, physically, intellectually, and morally, and to 
prepare them for life's service. 

IV. Hints 

1. Teach " one thing at a time, and that well." 

2. Fix and hold the attention. 

3. Develop the power of close observation. 

4. Cultivate exact, concise, and ready expression. 

5. Aim to increase the attainments of the class. 

6. Determine the pupil's habits and methods of 
study, and correct whatever is faulty in either manner 
or matter. 



GENERAL SUGGESTIONS 367 

7. Ascertain the extent of preparation on the part of 
the pupil. 

8. Encourage. This is important to prevent apostacy 
" back-sliding ". 

9. Give preliminary drill on subsequent lessons, show- 
ing what is to be done and liow it is to be done. This 
needs special attention. 

10. Hear reports on subjects assigned at previous 
recitations. 

11. Eequire pupils to answer in full and complete 
statements. 

12. Permit no pupil to speak until recognized by the 
teacher the chairman of the meeting. 

13. Eequire the pupil to rise when called upon to 
recite. 

14. Do not yourself recite, or repeat the pupil's 
answer. 

15. Let system, neatness, and accuracy characterize 
all work. 

16. Be ready with criticism, but always give it in the 
spirit of kindness. 

17. Stop the recitation when there is any confusion 
in the room. 

18. Aim to reach general principles. 

19. Kemember that in primary work the "how "al- 
ways precedes the "why ". 

20. Master subjects rather than pages. 

21. Remember that mind-training is more important 
than mere knowledge. 

22. Avoid wandering ; keep the object of the, lesson 
before you. 



368 CONDUCT OF RECITATIONS 

23. Avoid leaning in -slavish dependence upon the 
text-book. 

24. Use judgment in the assignment of lessons. 

25. Propound lessons promiscuously. 

26. State the question then call upon the pupil. 

27. When the pupil is called upon to recite, permit 
no interruptions, as speaking without permission, hold- 
ing up hands, etc. 

28. Cultivate honesty in every recitation. 

29. Never "show off " pet classes or pet pupils. 

30. Do not talk too much about order. 

31. Cultivate language in the pupils ; let every exer- 
cise bear upon the correct use of language. 

32. Close recitations promptly. 

33. Dismiss the class, in order. 

34. Be cheerful, active and energetic. 

35. Thoroughly master your subjects. 

36. "Make haste slowly. " 

37. Do not yourself remove difficulties, but teach pu- 
pils to overcome 9 to master them ; in all instruction 
"never remove a difficulty which the pupil has the 
power to remove. " 

38. Allow no questions foreign to the recitation. 

39. Allow no hesitation during recitation. 

40. Give entire time and attention to the recitation. 

41. Require expertness in mechanical operations. 

42. Comprehend the difference between memory of 
words and knowledge. 

43. Comprehend the difference between "hearing a 
recitation", and teaching. 

44. Always prepare your class in advance of the lesson 
for any difficulty which may meet them. You may ex- 



GENERAL SUGGESTIONS 

plain the difficulty orally ; you may solve an example, not 
in the book, which shall meet the difficulty ; you may 
give the class a preliminary drill on the rule, or on a. 
series of more difficult examples under any rule, or in 
miscellaneous examples under a number of rules. Such 
preparation, judiciously given, is calculated to keep up 
the ambition of all the c]ass, by removing all excuses 
for laziness and discouragement. 

45. Eemember that true education is the forming for 
life of correct habits of thinking, feeling, and doing. 

V. Requisites 

1. An energetic, intelligent teacher. 

2. Comfortable recitation seats. 

3. An abundance of blackboard. 

4. Apparatus, such as globes, charts, maps, numeral 
frames, measures, etc. 

5. Eeference books. 

6. Call-bell. 

7. Proper ventilation. 

8. Equal temperature. 

VI. Preparation ly the Teacher 

1. A knowledge of the subject and of the pupils. 

2. General preparation, as special as possible. 

3. A programme for each day's work. 

4. Knowledge how to " use " books without abusing- 
them. 

No permanent results can be attained in teaching 
without thorough, careful and repeated re- Reproduc . 
production of lessons. tion - 

After a lesson has been given, and recited by the 
pupils in the subsequent recitation, they should be re- 



370 CONDUCT OF RECITATIONS 

quired to restate what they learned in the preceding 
lesson, using good language and distinct and definite 
propositions. Xo questions should be asked by the 
teacher and if the work has been done as it should be 
in the preceding exercise, there will be no need of any. 

In primary classes require oral reproduction ; in inter- 
mediate and senior classes, written reproduction. 

In the review the teacher asks questions of the pupils, 

direct and general ; pupils are required to 

construct tabulations. It is well to let the 

pupils ask questions of each other this will inspire the 

pupils with a desire for study, and make them ready, 

prompt, and self-reliant. 

The teacher should institute weekly reviews, both oral 
and written. 

Kehearsal is perhaps the most delicate part of the reci- 
tation. So to conduct it that pupils may pass 

Rehearsal. ,, ... i -n -i 

a thorough examination requires skill, judg- 
ment, and experience. 

The teacher is not expected to render assistance in 
this division of the recitation ; the pupils must do the 
work, and give clear proof of their comprehension of 
the lesson. If they cannot do it, the teacher is in 
fault, and not the pupils. 

During this part of the recitation, the teacher should 
not take the time " to recite "; it is the pupils' time. 
He is a very poor teacher who will do the work that 
should be done by the pupil. 

Before the class is excused, let them give the leading, 
salient points of the lesson a summary a 
digest of the whole. 



GENERAL SUGGESTIONS 371 

A great deal of time is lost in the school, because 

pupils do not knOW What to do Or how to do Preliminary 

it. In all primary classes oral instruction drilL 
should precede pure recitation. In fact, in all classes, 
where it is necessary, oral instruction should be given. 
The main object of an education is to teach a child self- 
control physical, intellectual, and moral. 

f , , ,, 11 Harmonious 

This can be done only through a harmonious deveiop- 
development of all his powers. 

Pupils should be so taught in school that they may 
have a desire to pursue other studies, and may be able 
to acquire knowledge by observation, investigation, and 
study. The knowledge imparted should be applied, as 
far as may be, to practice. 

In recitations, the expression of the thoughts which 
the pupil has acquired by study should be Howfar 
embodied in his own language. verbatim. 

If the lesson contains captions, mathematical defini- 
tions, principles or tables, or fixed rules, they should be 
accurately recited in the words of the author. But they 
must first be thoroughly understood. The mind should 
be the depository of thoughts, and not of mere words 
and signs. 

In the class-recitation the pupil should be required 
to stand erect while reciting. This will give stand while 
him confidence and self-reliance. reciting. 

It should not be known beforehand what order will 
be pursued in conducting the recitation. If Fixed order 
called on consecutively, some will be inatten- in recitm g- 
tive ; if called on promiscuously, the idle and inattentive 
will be called more frequently. 



372 CONDUCT OF RECITATIONS 

Every teacher must see to it that each pupil is so 
Adaptation to classified as to be required to perform a full 
each pupil. amount of mental labor. " Each mind must 
be taxed. " It is the wise teacher who is able to adapt 
his treatment and instruction to the wants of each 
and all. 

Teachers are quite apt to call out the bright, intelli- 
DO not slight S en ^ pupils in the recitation, but they should 
the dull. remember that mere scholarship does not 
make the man, and not slight those who are dull, slow to 
understand. It is not brightness that wins in life's long 
race ; it is faithfulness/ perseverance, persistence. 

These qualities gave success to Nathaniel Bowditch, 
the mathematician ; Benjamin Franklin, the philoso- 
pher ; George Peabody, the philanthropist ; and Abra- 
ham Lincoln, the statesman. 

I would not intimate that scholarly ability is not de- 
sirable, but it is not the only test. Long and unwearied 
toil is the price of merit. The highest honors of pro- 
fessional life are reached, not by genius, but by labor. 

Strive to make the recitation attractive and interest- 
ing. This requires thought and professional 
tions inter- skill. The teacher should study each lesson 
before meeting the class, not merely to en- 
able him to understand what he teaches, but to be able 
so to conduct the recitation that he will awaken and 
keep alive the interest of his pupils. The grand test of 
the teacher's ability and the secret of his success is 
found in his power to inspire his pupils with earnest- 
ness and enthusiasm. To wake up mind, is his first and 
most important duty. A true teacher is alive and in 
earnest ; his heart throbs with tenderness and emotion ; 



A LIFELESS SCHOOL 373 

his blood flows freely through his veins, and imparts 
cheerfulness and vigor to his being. Enthusiasm speaks 
out in his voice, glows in his countenance, and flashes 
from his eye. We need in active service more of these 
live teachers ; teachers that can bring order out of con- 
fusion, light out of darkness, and awake to activity the 
slumbering powers of the intellect. 

When superintendent of schools in St. Louis, Wm.T. 
Harris, LL. D., now commissioner of educa- causes of 
tion, said that listnessness in the school- Hstiessness. 
room might be traced to : 

1. Lack of proper ventilation. 

2. Lack of equal temperature. 

3. Too long recitations for the strength of the pupils. 

4. Injudicious and too frequent concert recitations. 

5. The practice of "keeping in" pupils at recess or 
after school for failure in lessons or misbehavior. 

6. Lack of definite analysis of the subject of the les- 
son by the teacher during recitation. 

7. Substitution of individual explanation on the part 
of the teacher for correction (in the class) of bad habits 
of study. 

On entering the room of a careless or inexperienced 
teacher, the visitor is struck by the life- A nf e i ess 
less atmosphere that seems to pervade both sch o1 - 
teacher and pupils. The pupils all turn their gaze upon 
him as he enters, and stare abstractedly, forgetful of the 
presence of the teacher and of the purpose of their at- 
tendance at school. The teacher languidly, or with a 
slight flush of surprise and embarrassment, invites him 
to a seat. After a little, the pupils settle back into the 
condition prevailing before the entrance of the visitor. 



374 CONDUCT OF RECITATIONS 

The pupils at their seats are variously employed ; many 
are leaning over their de,sks, their faces full of ennui ; 
others are endeavoring to relieve the tedium of the slow 
creeping hour by ingenious devices of their own pin- 
traps,, spit-balls, picture-books under the desks, writing 
notes to their fellows, making caricatures on their slates, 
scratching furniture, telegraphing on a small scale, etc., 
some have books open before them, others not ; the 
class that is ' 'on the line " for recitations are leaning 
against the blackboards behind them, or against the 
desks in front of them ; some are paying attention to the 
lesson, others are busied with the pupils at their seats. 
The teacher is distracted and confused. 

Take the room as a whole, and the lack of the one 
spirit that should prevail in it is painful to witness. 
The almost audible sigh of the whole is : " Oh, that 
school were out ! " The visitor thinks of the Lotus-Eat- 
ers and of the " land in which it seemed always after- 
noon ; all round the coast the languid air did swoon, 
breathing like one that had a weary dream." 

The visitor who has come to inspect the school looks 

carefully into the methods of instruction and 

discipline in order that he may discover the 

primary causes of this failure, and suggest its remedy. 

He notes : " This teacher has no force ; she has no 
NO force in hold over these pupils; she does not make 
the teacher. U p ^ er m i n d a t the outset that she will have 
this and not that ; she commands incessantly, and does 
not wait to see whether any command is obeyed ; she ob- 
viously had not prepared herself on the lesson before 
coming to school, for, see, she holds the text-book in 
her hand and is closely confined to the text while she 



WHAT MAKES A SCHOOL LIFELESS 375 

asks questions : at obvious allusions to the subject of the 
previous lesson she does not pause to call it up, nor does 
she illustrate the difficult portions of the lesson for 
to-day ; while she is looking in the book for the next 
question, a pupil has answered the previous one inaccu- 
rately, or has omitted the essential point ; she treats the 
important and the unimportant questions alike ; no 
wonder the pupils are listless ! " 

But he sees that this phase is not the only one where- 
in the teacher acts like a novice ; in the more general 
programme similar defects manifest themselves which 
he notes accordingly : 

" The class is too large, and too much time is taken to 
hear it ; the lesson for the next day is too Defective 
long, and no directions are given as to how to organization, 
study it ; all those who fail are kept in at recess or after 
school ; some receive individual explanations, and con- 
sequently get in the habit of crowding around the teach- 
er's desk, and of depending on her direct assistance. 

" Added to this, the teacher hears many parts of the 
lesson in concert, and the consequence is, Concert 
only those portions of the lessons are dwelt recitation - 
upon that are most mechanical, for only such can be 
recited in concert discriminating and original answers 
cannot be given in concert concert answers must be 
something verbatim, usually short answers : 'Yes, Sir', 
' No, Sir ', ' Atlantic Ocean \ and the like. Complete 
answers are made by the smart pupils, while the dull 
ones follow the lead and join in toward the end of the 
answer. The bright pupils answer the whole : f Twenty- 
five thousand miles ' ; the less bright ones says : ' Five 
thousand miles ' ; and the dull ones : ( Thousand miles'; 



376 CONDUCT OF RECITATIONS 

the dullest comes in at the word ' Miles '. These pupils 
have not the power or discipline of mind to concen- 
trate their attention for so long a recitation ; they get 
fatigued before it is through, and listlessness is the 
result. 

Again : " The ventilation is not attended to, and the 
impure air causes incipient congestion of the 

Ventilation. \ f 

brain; so a few of the delicate ones have 
headaches, while all feel that apathy and indifference 
which is its premonitory symptom. 

" Most important is the failure of the teacher ; she 
Definite ^ oes no ^ P rac ^ise a system of definite analysis 
analysis. o f the lesson at recitation. She asks probing 
questions only seldom ; the pupil is not made to seize 
the subject and analyze it till he thoroughly under- 
stands it. The consequence is, he does not know how 
to study the next lesson, nor when he has learned it, 
and therefore does not study at his seat, having no defi- 
nite sense of his deficiency and of his ability to over- 
come it." 

These causes of failure when generalized may be 
Preparation traced to one prevailing defect on the part 
by the teacher. of tte teacher. And this may be described 
thus : The teacher fails because she does not pay care- 
ful attention to the power for work which her pupils 
actually possess, and so lay out tasks and secure their 
accomplishment as to increase constantly this power of 
work. Previous preparation on the part of the teacher 
is indispensable for this result. Everything should be 
digested by the teacher before entering the school- 
room ; she should re-enforce the moments ~by the hours, 
and thus be able at all times to bring to bear the entire 



METHODS OF INSTRUCTION 



377 



weight of her character upon the pupil. The practice 
of keeping the pupil in at recess for failure in lessons is 
very baneful in its effects. The cause of the failure is 
probably owing to inability to concentrate his mind, and 
here the cure prescribed is calculated to heighten the 
disease. The teacher should get the lesson into such 
shape that the pupil can master it by a general assault, 
and he should not be allowed at home or in school 
to make a dissipated, scattering attack on it. 

The country needs school-teachers, not school-keepers. 
The country needs men and women to conduct rational 
recitations, not to hear classes. The country needs 
masters, and mastery is attained only through voluntary 
and persistent labor. Michael Angelo says: " Trifles 
make perfection, but perfection is no trifle." The 
teacher should be watchful, faithful, and prayerful. 
Then, and not until then, will he attain success in 
teaching. 

METHODS OF INSTRUCTION 

. Rote, memoriter. 

. Rational. 





I. 


Methods 
of 1 


IL 


Teaching. 


III. 




IV. 




V. 




VI. 



Text-book, 



(1. Rote. 

\ 2. Rational. 



Oral, 

Socratic, 

Topic or Subject, 

Discussion, 

Lecture. 

In our schools, all the above methods may be found 
and many other ways not entitled to the name of 
method. 

The text-book method is by some a much abused 
method. When teachers simply require the Text-book 
pupils to commit a lesson to memory and method - 



378 CONDUCT OF RECITATIONS 

recite it mechanically, this is an abuse of the method. 
The subject is one of unusual interest at the present 
time, for the reason that so much is said and written 
for and against the so-called " oral " and " text-book " 
methods respectively. While on the one hand the text- 
Memoriter book method is stigmatized as a dead me- 
recitations, chanical memorizing of the words in the 
book and then a parrot-like repetition of the same to the 
teacher, who sits behind the desk and looks on the book 
to see that the lesson is given verbatim, on the other 
hand the oral system is accused of relieving the pupils 
from the necessity of study ; of throwing all the work 
upon the teacher. 

No doubt there are legions of unskilful, untrained, or 
Unskilled negligent teachers in the country. Indeed, 
they far outnumber the skilful and pains- 
taking and it is hardly fair to judge the methods they 
employ when they misuse the position and the instru- 
ments placed in their hands so far as to make the text- 
book a procrustean bed and the recitation a benumbing 
process to the faculties of the child. The mere memor- 
izing of the context is no index to the understanding of 
it. A school-mistress once said to a little girl : " How 
is it, my dear, that you do not understand this simple 
thing ?" " I do not know, indeed," she answered, with 
a preplexed look ; " but I sometimes think I have so 
many things to learn that I have no time to under- 
stand." 

It is not best to condemn a method that has been in 
use for hundreds of years because all cannot attain good 
results. But systems should not have their merits ad- 
judged by their results in the hands of bunglers ; they 



METHODS OF INSTRUCTION" 379 

should be compared in their results as achieved at the 
hands of those who have mastered the methods. A sys- 
tem is not responsible for the failure of those who do 
not follow out its principles. 

Grand results have been attained with the text-book 
method, by adopting the rational method of recitation, 
appealing to reason, to a proper understanding of the 
context before memorizing. The latter is insisted on by 
all rational teachers. 

The oral method is distinctively German, and like the 
text-book method has its friends and its foes. Oral 
In some schools the teachers lecture before method - 
the children, and require them to reproduce the exact 
language of the lecture. In this case it is as much a 
rote or memoriter exercise as the text-book method. 

In other schools, the teachers ask suggestive questions, 
they excite the pupilsf curiosity, awaken the mind, 
and easily hold the attention. The pupils do the work, 
and infer the answers through their powers of percep- 
tion. This is real education. This is the rational oral 
method. 

The best method is a philosophical combination of 
the oral and the text-book methods uniting The combined 
the merits and rejecting the faults. Oral m ethod. 
methods predominate properly in American primary 
schools ; text-book methods in secondary schools and 
colleges ; and we return again to oral methods, or lec- 
tures, in the professional schools. The true place for 
oral methods is in preparatory work. Oral instruction 
should lead to and prepare for the text-book. 

The best work in American schools is found in a judi- 
cious combination of both methods. Oral instruction 



380 CONDUCT OF RECITATIONS 

alone, if carried through a course of education, even 
if teachers are prepared to give it, is not the best method. 
It should lead to a mastery of other thoughts than those 
on the printed page. The most effective teaching uses 
both the oral and text-book methods. If used properly, 
oral teaching will teach the pupils how to investigate. 
Oral instruction, in its results, is of the highest impor- 
tance to American citizenship. Young children have 
few ideas, for they have heard little, read little, and 
their observation has not yet been developed. 

Oral instruction takes a more permanent hold of the 
mind than memorizing from books. It affords the 
learner an opportunity to ask questions as the lesson 
proceeds, and gives the teacher the entire control of the 
youthful minds that lie fallow before him. It opens 
also a field for enthusiasm in teaching and learning, 
where everything with some teachers is mere drudgery. 
It would give life where there is nothing now but worn 
and worthless machinery in our public schools. 

Children are often made to commit to memory names 
and dates and rules, without a proper understanding of 
them. The text-book becomes the real instructor, and 
not the living man or woman who should impart in- 
struction. 

We would not discard the text-books entirely, neither 
would we exclude them. 

The proper place for oral instruction is in the primary 
department ; and in other classes the oral instruction 
should be of such a character as to prepare the pupils for 
study, so that no time may be wasted. 

Pupils should be made to study their text-books ; 
learn short lessons ; be asked by their teachers not only 



METHODS OF INSTRUCTION 381 

the questions in the books, but others that will test their 
knowledge and awaken their interest. 

Some pupils learn readily from their text books, and 
get along with a little explanation. Some are more dull 
and need the stimulus of recitation, of questions and 
answers, and of illustrations. 

By skilful questioning the pupil is led to discover the 
truth, and trained to think. Subjects are socratic 
developed from the standpoint of the learner. method. 
The teacher stimulates and directs, but never crams. 
Pupils are encouraged to present their own thoughts. 
If correct, the teacher deepens and widens their views 
by suggestive illustrations. If incorrect, the absurdity 
is shown by leading the pupils to discover the legitimate 
consequences. Thus the burden of thought and re- 
search is thrown upon the learner, who, at every step, 
feels the joy of discovery and victory, and the conscious 
pleasure of assisting the teacher. Such teaching results 
in development, growth, and education. " The exercise 
of the child's own powers, stimulated and directed, but 
not superseded, by the teacher's interference, ends both 
in the acquisition of knowledge and in the invigoration 
of the powers for future acquisition." 

In this method the pupils are trained to tell consecu- 
tively their own thoughts. The art of con- Topical 
nected discourse is essential ; hence by our method - 
best teachers the topical method is made the basi$ of the 
recitation. This should be required of every class in 
school, whenever the subject will admit of it. No other 
method can so easily secure the results to be accom- 
plished. Pointed, searching questions are asked when- 
ever necessary, and instruction is given in the Socratic 



382 CONDUCT OF RECITATIONS 

method. At any moment any member of the class is 
liable to be called on to explain a difficulty, to answer a 
question, or to continue a topic. Thus life, vigor, un- 
divided attention, and effective individual effort are 
secured and maintained throughout the recitation. 

Prompting, in all its forms, is inartistic and perni- 
cious. The aim is to train the pupils to habits of inde- 
pendent expression, as well as independent thought. The 
exclusive use of the topic method is an extreme to be 
studiously avoided, as it excludes instruction and fails 
to elicit the intense interest and the earnest effort of 
every member of the class. It should have a limited 
use in the primary department, more extended in the 
intermediate and senior departments. In the primary 
classes, the terms may be developed individually, and 
written on the board, thus forming a complete tabula- 
tion and classification. 

The pupils should be required to review the terms 
written on the board, without any assistance from the 
teacher. 

In intermediate and senior classes, the pupils should 
be taught to tabulate and classify, and recite from the 
tabulation. 

Briefly and pointedly pupils present their arguments 
Discussion i n favor of their respective positions. Criti- 
method. cisms are urged and answered. Every point 
is sharply contested. The reasons for and against are 
carefully weighed. 

Educationally the discussion method stands high. 
It is like the interest excited in debate ; in these mental 
conflicts, the utmost power of the pupil is put forth. 



METHODS OF TEACHING 383 

There is no better way to cultivate independence, 
self-assertion, liberality, and the habit of treating an 
opponent courteously and fairly. The discussion 
method supplements the Socratic and topic methods. 
It breaks up monotony, dissipates stupidness and in- 
sipidity. 

From the primary school to the university this method 
may be used with incalculable advantage ; but in all 
cases it must be kept well under the control and direc- 
tion of the teacher. 

Perhaps there is no method that will excite greater 
interest than this rational method. There is less exam- 
ining, less artificial training, and more solid develop- 
ment. The discussion method is pre-eminently the 
method to make thinking men and thinking women. 

Lecturing is another method of instruction which has 
its uses and abuses. A lecture by the Lecture 
teacher should never be substituted for a method - 
recitation by the class. Many teachers suppose that the 
measure of their ability as instructors is the power they 
have to explain and illustrate before their classes, and 
hence spend most of the time assigned to recitation in 
the display of their own gifts of speech. But in the 
recitation room the good teacher has but little to say. 
Her ability is tested more by her silence than by her 
loquacity ; more by her power to arouse and direct the ac- 
tivity of her pupils, than by her own actions. In pro- 
fessional schools and in the advanced classes in colleges, 
the time for recitation is largely spent in this way. 
The lecturer outlines the subjects, suggests the fields of 
research, indicates the line of thought, givefe much in- 
formation, and stimulates the pupils to eifort. If the 



384 CONDUCT OF RECITATIONS 

student, by long continued effort makes the lecture his 
own, great will be the results. 

But nowhere in this country has the lecture method 
alone given entire satisfaction. It has been found 
necessary to institute oral and written examinations in 
order to make it effective. 

The conversational lecture gives results. The class 
by skilful questions are led into rich fields of thought. 
Topics are discussed by the teacher and the pupils. 
Questions are asked that produce thought ; experiments 
are performed that elicit attention ; pupils are led to 
draw inferences from what they perceive. This method 
was admirably used by the wise Socrates, Plato, and 
Aristotle. From these great masters modern teachers 
may learn important lessons. 

The lecture method is utterly out of place in primary 
classes. Wherever it has been used it proves a failure. 

Whenever a teacher gives a lecture to her pupils, she 
should require them to take notes, and recite after every 
formal lecture. It is well for the teacher to write on 
the board a tabulated classification, and require the 
pupils to copy. 

GENERAL REMARKS 

Whatever method the teacher may follow, ONE end 
should be attained : the best possible development of 
true manhood and womanhood. The inquiry may rise, 
what is the end of study, recitation and instruction ? 

Not the attainment of knowledge, but discipline 
POWER. It is undoubtedly a fact that "secular educa- 
tion will make a good man better, but a bad man 



LAWS OF QUESTIONING 385 

Education, then, is not the storing of knowledge, but 
the development of power ; and the law of development 
is thorough exercise. 

Any system of education, therefore, which weakens 
the motive or removes the necessity of laborious think- 
ing is false in theory and ruinous in practice. 

There is only one way to acquire knowledge, and that 
way is through study the voluntary and continual ap- 
plication of the mind to a subject. 

Laios of Questioning 

1. Questions should be clear and concise. 

2. Questions should be to the point. 

3. Questions should be adapted to the capacity. 

4. Questions should be logical. 

5. Questions should not be ambiguous. 

6. Avoid questions that give a choice between two 
answers. 

7. Avoid direct questions. 

8. Avoid set questions. 

9. Avoid general questions. 

10. Avoid questions that simply exercise the faculty 
of memory. 

Objects of Questioning 

1. To find out what the pupils know. 

2. To ascertain what they need to know. 

3. To awaken curiosity. 

4. To arouse the mind to action. 

5. To illustrate ; to explain, when necessary. 

6. To impart knowledge not found in the text-book. 

7. To fix knowledge in the mind. 

8. To secure thoroughness. 



386 COXDUCT OF RECITATIONS 

Cautions to be Observed in Questioning 

1. Ask questions only once. 

2. Vary the questions. 

3. Begin the exercise with an easy question. 

4. Let your questions be connected. 

5. When a question is asked do not suggest the first 
words of the answer. 

6. Enunciate every question with distinctness. 

7. Anticipate answers ; arrange suggestive questions. 

8. Never neglect or ridicule an answer. 

9. Never tell a child what you could make that child 
tell you. 

10. Question the lesson into the minds of the pupils, 
and question it out again. 

11. Lead the pupil by a pleasant question to discover 
his own mistake, instead of directly charging him with it. 

General Suggestions 

1. Show the necessity of a subject before you begin 
to teach it. 

2. Eequire one subject to be understood before taking 
up another. 

3. Eequire everything that is taught to be reproduced 
by the pupils. 

4. Always take up subjects in their logical order. 

5. That which is attempted should be thoroughly 
mastered. 

6. Eemember that all the powers are developed by 
being judiciously and vigorously exercised. 

7. Eemember that knowledge is of little value unless 
it can be utilized. 

NOTE. Two excellent helps on questioning are Young's "Art 
of Putting Questions", and Fitch's "Art of Questioning", cost- 
ing 15 cents each. 



MISCELLANEOUS SUGGESTIONS 387 

Special Suggestions to Young Teachers 

1. Make weekly or bi-weekly inspections of all books 
lield by the pupils, holding each responsible Inspection 
for the right use of the same. This will of books, 
prevent much mutilation and destruction of books. 

2. In the class-room teachers should not confine the 
attention of the pupils exclusively to what Outsi( j e 

is found in the books. "Books are but information, 
helps," or instruments ; and while that which is con- 
tained in them should be judiciously used and thor- 
oughly understood, yet, so far as time will permit, the 
teacher can with advantage introduce such matters as 
not only are valuable in themselves, but will tend to im- 
press the subject of the lesson more firmly upon the 
mind. 

3. Be judicious and sparing in awarding credit or dis- 
credit marks ; to be lavish, would render Ju( ji c j 0us 
them cheap and comparatively valueless. marking. 

4. Before reproving delinquents in recitation, first 
inquire whether or not they have studied, credit honest 
and, if so, what effort has been made. Some effort - 
pupils may devote much time and labor to the acquire- 
ment of their lessons, and yet in the class room be weak 
in their recitation ; to denounce such would discourage 
rather than stimulate. 

5. During a recitation, the attention of all should be 
engaged upon the lesson or subject under Ensure 
consideration. attention. 

6. When a pupil applies for assistance on any ques- 
tion, do not accomplish the whole yourself, Give help? but 
nor send him away entirely unaided; but not too much, 
after he has studied the subject faithfully, present to 



388 CONDUCT OF KECITATIOKS 

him one or two of the leading principles involved, and 
then leave him to develop the matter himself. Too 
much aid is sometimes worse than too little. 

7. Before entering on the duties of the day, the 
The teacher's teacher should be thoroughly conversant 
preparation. w jth the sub ject of each lesson. A teacher, 
while conducting a recitation, should never be obliged 
to refer to the look or map for the purpose of ascertain- 
ing whether or not the pupil is correct in his answer. 
Besides displaying a weakness on the part of the teacher, 
there arises in the mind of the pupil the query, Why 
should I study what my teacher does not know ? 

The teacher should be first well acquainted with the 
true answer to every question, and the correct pronun- 
ciation of every word in the several lessons. It will be 
seen that many advantages attend this plan ; the chief 
of which are much time is saved, the teacher instructs 
with more facility and success, and the pupil, observing 
the familiarity of the teacher with the several subjects, 
feels for him and for the subjects a greater respect. 

8. In hearing a lesson, give the pupil time to answer 

when he appears to have a correct idea, and 
but P anowno merely hesitates to find words to express 

himself ; but when it is evident that he is 
ignorant of the answer, waiting is but a loss of time, 
ideas not ^. Be sure the pupils have gained IDEAS, 

words. Words, without ideas, clog the mind. 

10. A teacher taking charge of a new class, should at 
Push first advance it beyond the farthest point it 

forward. ^ad previously attained in each study, In 
case the teacher finds the new class deficient in what 
has been passed over, he should not turn back until 



MISCELLANEOUS SUGGESTIONS 389 

about two weeks have elapsed, when all necessary re- 
views may be made'. When a class passes under the 
control of another teacher, a sudden retrograde move- 
ment would produce discentent in the class. At all 
times, the teacher should avoid allusion tending to dis- 
parage the course of his predecessor in the estimation 
of the class. 

11. The hearing of the class should not occupy more 
than one hour and a half daily, the remain- Recitinff 
der of the day being devoted to actual teach- vs - Caching. 
ing, when the lessons for the following day may be ex- 
plained by the teacher. Answering in concert should 
be little used. 

12. Whenever practicable, teach by means of objects, 
or through the medium of the eye ; in geog- Employ 
raphy, use globes and maps ; in astronomy, the eye - 
use orrery, globes, and diagrams ; in spelling, frequently 
require the pupils to write the words or sentences given. 

13. If you would have no drones in your school, talk 
at each recitation to the dullest in your class, 

., . , J . Work most 

and use all your ingenuity in endeavoring to with the 

i i i mi 1.1 ^ dullest. 

make him comprehend. The others, then, 
will be sure to understand. 

14. Make each exercise as attractive as possible. 
Think out your methods beforehand, and m ustra te 
illustrate freely. freel y- 

15. Cultivate self-control ; never be led 
into confusion ; and above all be in earnest. 

16. Be cheerful and smile often. A teacher with a 
long face casts a gloom over everything, and 

n u-n j J i Be cheerful. 

eventually chills young minds and closes 
young hearts. 



390 CONDUCT OF RECITATIONS 

17. Use simple language when you explain lessons, 
simple Long words are thrown away in the school- 
language, room. 

18. Thoroughly test each pupil on the lesson, and do 
Frequent n0 ^ ^e a ^ ra ^ f repetition. Eeview every 
reviews. ^ay, or mucn w in be lost. Do not try to 
teach too much ; better teach a little and teach it well, 

19. Endeavor to make the pupils understand the 
Make them meaning of what they study. Probe the 
understand. ma tter to the bottom, and get at the real 
knowledge of your scholars. Cultivate the understand- 
ing, and do not appeal to the memory alone. Lay the 
foundation of knowledge firmly and well. 

20. Impart right principles and lead your pupils to a 

higher level, to a nobler range of thought. 
Endeavor to accomplish all that skill, intel- 
ligence, and love can suggest. 

What now you do, you know not, 

But shall hereafter know, 
When the seed which you are sowing 

To a whitened field shall grow. 

'Tis a rich young soil you're tilling ; 

Then scatter the good seeds well ; 
Of the wealth of the goldest harvest 

Eternity will tell. 

21. Teach your pupils to fight manfully in the war- 
set a noble * are ^ & ooc * a g a i nst ey i^ truth against error ; 
example. an( j above all let the eternal principles of 
right and wrong govern your own life, and form a part 
of your own character. If you do this, you will "sow 
beside all waters, and eventually bring home your 
sheaves rejoicing." 



FINAL MAXIMS 391 

22. Train the eye to perceive correctly, the ear to 
understand correctly, the hand to execute Final 
correctly, the tongue to speak correctly, and maxims - 
the mind to retain correctly. 6( Begin at the begin- 
ning. " "Follow a natural order." "Classify knowl- 
edge." "Master principles." 



A WORD IN CONCLUSION 



To COMMISSIONERS AND SUPERINTENDENTS 

Upon you rest, to a great extent, the success of the 
schools and the advancement of the educational interests 
of this country. 

It is by the recommending and licensing of competent 
and efficient teachers that you are the most successful 
in promoting the interests of your charge. Let the 
teachers recommended by you be selected more with 
reference to social culture, to exalted moral character, to 
the development of true manhood and womanhood, than 
to either scholarship or talent. This you can do by 
selecting and recommending only such persons as shall 
illustrate in their lives the moral lessons which should 
be set as an example in schools. 

You stand pledged to further the interests, not only 
of literature and science, but of the highest type of 
morality. 

If you would redeem this pledge you will not license 
as a teacher any one who violates the laws of moral 
purity, who gives to social dissipation the hours that 
belong to sleep, or who indulges in any practice of vice. 
A sacred trust is committed to you, which, if faithfully 
and wisely discharged, will make your own day beauti- 
ful, and scatter blessings along the pathway of coming 
years. 

(302) 



A WORD IN" COKCLUSIO^ 393 

To TEACHERS 

An experience of thirty years in the field of education 
has secured principles and conclusions which Help the 
may be considered not theories, but facts. weaker - 
One fundamental fact thus gained is, that the school 
should be an appendage of the family, fitted to train 
the ignorant and weak by self-sacrificing labor and love, 
and to bestow the most attention on the weakest, the 
most; undeveloped, and the most sinful. 

It is exactly the opposite course to which teachers are 
most tempted. The bright, the good, the industrious, 
are those whom it is most agreeable to teach, who win 
most affection, and who promote the reputation of a 
teacher, and of a school or a college. 

To follow this principle, then, demands more clear 
views of duty and more self-denying benevolence than 
ordinarily abound. 

Another is, that both quickness of perception and 
retentiveness of memory depend very greatly importance 
on the degree of interest excited. Hence of interest - 
the importance of educating young persons with some 
practical aim, by which, in case of poverty, they may 
support themselves. 

Another is, that there is no other knowledge so thor- 
ough and permanent as that gained in teach- Know i e dge 
ing others. b ^ teaching. 

Eepeatedly has it been observed that a lesson or a 
problem supposed to be comprehended was imperfectly 
understood, and became clear only in attempts to 
aid others in understanding it. In no other profession 
is the sacred promise, " Give and it shall be given unto 
you," so fully realized as in that of a teacher. 



394 A WORD IK CONCLUSION 

Another is that in acquiring knowledge but few 
Few subjects branches should be taken at one time, and 
at a time. these should be associated in their character, 
so that each is an assistance in understanding and re- 
membering the others. 

There is a great loss of time and labor in the com- 
mon method of pursuing four or five disconnected 
branches of study. 

The mind is distracted by variety, and feels a feeble 
and divided interest. 

In many instances, the method of cramming the 
mind with uninteresting and disconnected details serves 
to debilitate rather than promote mental power. The 
memory is the faculty chiefly cultivated, and this at the 
expense of the others. 

In government be gentle yet firm ; not anxious to 
govern in those things that are innocent and harmless, 
but to restrain practices that are unquestionably immoral 
by the exercise of all the authority with which you are 
invested. 

In order that you may worthily discharge the duties 
which thus confront you at the threshold of your field 
of labor, it is of the first importance that your own 
habits of thought and life be wholly correct. 

No one is fit to govern others until he has learned to 
govern himself. Self-government and self-restraint are 
impossible without intelligence and virtue. 

The task of the teacher is one of great responsibility 
and labor. 

It is easier for a general to command an army than 
for a teacher to govern a school ; for a general has to 



TO TEACHEKS 395 

deal with and consider only immediate results, besides 
being invested with absolute power, while the teacher 
has to consider chiefly results to be attained in the 
future, and he is forbidden by the consideration of his 
own and the pupil's welfare to exercise other than 
qualified power. 

Then the military commander trains his soldiers to 
wield weapons only against material fortifications, while 
the teacher is to discipline those under his control in 
the skilful use of the mental and moral powers, and 
prepare them to contend successfully against superstition 
begotten of ignorance, against habits of thought and 
action that reach their root far back in the centuries, 
and " against spiritual wickedness in high places". 
Hence great statesmen and victorious generals are of 
little value in any country without efficient teachers. 

To our public schools we must look for those who 
will be called upon to manage the affairs of families, to 
transact the business of town and of State, to fill the 
vacated bench of justice, to sit in the halls of legisla- 
tion, and to direct and control the church of God. 

Upon the character of our schools and teachers, there- 
fore, depends the weal or woe of unborn millions, the 
prosperity or downfall of our boasted institutions. 

As the concluding thought, teachers and friends, may 
we all bear in mind that our life in this world is but the 
preparatory department in the School of God. 

Let us be so attentive to the lessons given us by the 
Great Teacher, that when the day of examination with 
us severally shall come, we may hear the glad welcome 
" Well done ", and at last gather beyond the River, under 



396 A WORD IN CONCLUSION 

the cloudless sky undimmed by the shade of night, 
there to renew our search for knowledge and our labors 
of love, with immortal faculties that are least weary 
when most employed. 



INDEX 



PAGE PAGE 

abstracts for compositions 174 arrangement of material 330 

accent 33 study by 123 

accuracy and rapidity 252 art education 107 

adaptation to each pupil 372 of arts 37 

addition 241-247 of language 148, 163 

advanced geography 283 articulation 22, 24, 35, 42, 149 

aesthetic element in drawing 114 exactness in 61 

feelings 107 aspirate tone 28 

aim high 390 attention 47 

in teaching history 326 secured 360, 387 

aims of language teaching 159 avoid capriciousness 217 

all may write good letters 229 

alligation 270 bad spelling a disgrace 58 

analysis for compositions 172 ball frame, use of 236 

analysis and parsing 147 Bardeen's Common School Law.. 347 

in arithmetic. . .246, 253, 256, 268 Geography 299 

in reading 32 Primer of Letter-Writing. . .234 

of letter writing 223 Rhetoric 187 

of literature 34 Verbal Pitfalls 187 

of the lesson 373, 376 beautiful, love of 107, 114 

of words 15 Beebe's First Steps among 

analytic stage, object lessons 333 Figures 252 

Angelo, Michel, quoted 377 beginning reading 9-22 

angry letters 232 Bible quoted 38, 148 

answers from all 334 biography in moral training 321 

received 158 bitter words 233 

to letters 234 blackboard in geography 284 

apologies 233 blots in letters 226 

apparatus 369 books and magazines in school . . 25 

in object teaching 347 breath in reading 36, 37 

application 41 Bryant's advice to a young writer. 

arithmetic 235-271 228 

and reason 254 Bugbee's English Syntax 200 

fundamental rules 236-259 business forms 271 

taught in drawing 116 letters 234 

arm movement in penmanship. 65, 69 busy work 19, 49, 359 

(397) 



398 



THE SCHOOL ROOM GUIDE 



PAGE PAGE 

calisthenics 362 curiosity in children 10 

Calkins, N. A. , quoted 15 the natural stimulant 358 

capital letters 160, 189, 204 

casting out the 9's 270 Davis's Fractional Apparatus . . .259 

cause of poor spelling 58 dead letters 202 

certificate of diligence 358 decoration in drawing 144 

character of the teacher 360 defective organization 375 

cheerful school 357 definition a deduction 27 

cheerfulness in the teacher 389 of words 50 

children imitate 40 definitions 30, 50, 147 

citizens needed 328 development of 188 

class drills in penmanship 78 in arithmetic 236 

classification 162 in color 134 

of sentences 199 in- geography 279 

climate 301-318 in object lessons 332 

color and form study 133 of pauses 28 

in primary grades 132-140 definitive method, spelling 53 

names 133 DeGraff, E. V., portrait iv 

perception in pupils 133 DeGraff 1 s Practical Phonics 44 

sensation 133, 134 Pronunciation Book 61 

colored crayon 274, 284 derivatives 59 

papers for study 136 development of definitions 188 

combined method 379 of manhood 384 

comma, lesson on 170 of subject 335 

common noun, lesson on 165 devices in spelling 55 

composition 172 diacritical signs 43,59 

method of spelling 54 dictation in drawing 115 

computation first 235 method, spelling 54 

concert recitation 373, 375 dictionary, how used 27, 59 

concrete division 255 discipline 360, 365 

construction in drawing 142 discussion method 382 

constructive method, spelling ... 53 disorder in pupils 364 

conversation in drawing 127, 129 division 249 

in object lessons 333 drawing iii, 107-146 

in teaching 18 and arithmetic 116 

conversational lecture 384 and geography 117 

corporal punishment 358 and other stndies 115 

correct sentences used 147 in penmanship 63, 66 

correction of faults 44 from solids 112 

corrections in reading 40 on the blackboard 27 

counting for pronunciation 28 drill in penmanship 70 

course of study 350-354 dull pupils not slighted .... , .372, 389 

credit honest effort 387 

criticisms one at a time 30 ear trained 43,44 

cross lines in letters 226 early habits in penmanship 63 



INDEX 



399 



PAGE 

earnestness in teaching 37, 389 

economy words 241 

edges and corners in drawing 126 

education a pleasure 329 

by nature 327 

Edwards's Business Problems.. .271 

Graded Lessons in Language. 173 

Historical cards 326 

elevation of the wrist in penman- 
ship 74 

elocution 34 

elocutionary reading 31 

emphasis 29, 33, 39, 226 

emulation 357 

enrolment of pupils 347 

enthusiasm aroused 331 

enunciation 26 

every teacher may teach pen- 
manship 65 

exactness in language 269 

example of the teacher 390 

exam pies in arithmetic 180 

excite interest 18 

excursions into the country 357 

expedients in history 325 

explanations in reading 33 

expression in reading 40 

eyes better than ears 51 

facts about salt 336 

in perspective 320 

falsetto tone 28 

familiar objects 333 

Farnham's Sentence Method 22 

faults corrected 35 

few subjects at a time 394 

firmness in teaching 355 

first day in school 347 

step costs 246 

Fitch's Art of Questioning 153 

How to Secure Attention 360 

fixed order in reciting 371 

flexibility of vocal organs 43 

flourishes in penmanship 226 

folding letters 219 

follow nature's plan 17 



PAGE 

force in teacher 374 

foreign words 228 

form and color 135 

study 119 

drawing and col or.. 107- 146 

the foundation 108 

forming classes in school 348 

foundation everything 235 

four ends of penmanship 70 

fractional unit 260 

fractions., .259-268 

f reearm movement 66 

freedom in movement 70 

freehand drawing., 112, 117 

Froebel's form sequence 109 

from known to unknown 326, 331 

fundamental error in penman- 
ship 62 

gauging movement in penman- 
ship 81 

general law of climate 304 

principles 62-69 

terms, lesson on 160 

gentle yet firm 394 

geography 272-319 

first steps in teaching 272 

from drawing 117 

of North America iii, 285 

should be real 272 

geographical method of spelling. 54 

German method in addition 241 

Gill, John, quoted 11 

good reading defined 31 

language acquired 148 

sense in arithmetic 256 

in school management. .356 

grammar 188-200 

a model study 188 

definitions and rules 188 

not too soon 147 

object of 147 

grammatical rules 147 

Griffin's Topical Geography 300 

Griffith's Outline Blackboard 

Maps 300 



400 



THE SCHOOL ROOM GUIDE 



PAGE 

Grube method 251 

guess work forbidden 388 

guttural tone 28 

gymnastic drills in penmanship. 96 



PAGE 
Juliand's Brief Views of United 

States History 326 

justice in teaching 355 



keep the mind active 257 

keeping in pupils 373 

Kidd's Elocution quoted 37 

Kiddle's 3000 Grammar Questions 

200 

kindergarten experience 109 

knowledge by teaching 393 

for discipline 329 



habit in penmanship 63 

Hall's Orthoepy Made Easy.. 61, 187 

hand firm in penmanship 83 

training in penmanship. .. .101 

harmonious development 371 

Harris, Wm. T., quoted 373 

Natural Science Teaching.. 345 

help but not too much 387 

Hicks, Mrs. Mary Dana iii language 147-187 

Hill, Thomas, quoted 236, 331 a growth 148 

history 320-326 and form study 11 

and citizenship 322 exactness in 269 

dates in 320 through arithmetic 253 

moral lessons in 321,323 lateral movement in penmanship. 84 

home illustrations 280 laughing 363 

Hoose's Studies in Articulation . . 61 Laurie, S. S. , quoted 236 

Hughes's How to Secure Atten- learning uuderstandingly 390 

tion 360 lecture method 383 

legibility in penmanship 70, 224 

ideal unit of color 133 Legouve quoted 224 

ideas and expression 151 letters, material for 204 

of form Ill heading 205 

illustrate freely 389 date 206 

imagination in drawing 113 introduction 207 

in reading 34 titles 208 

importance of reading 38 salutation 210 

incidental method of teaching. ..331 avoid familiarity 210 

independent expression 382 avoid capriciousness 210 

individuality in penmansip 68 style of 227 

in pupils 269 of introduction 234 

of children 107 letter-writing 201-234 

industrial education 107 importance of 201 

inflection 33, 37 lifeless school 373 

inspection of text-books 387 listlessness in school 373 

intelligent reading 38 literature, analysis of 34 

intellectual arithmetic 257 1 itteri ng up the floor 363 

reading 39 living method of teaching 332 

interest secured 29, 393 logic of arithmetic 259 

intermediate drawing 141-146 Longfellow quoted 180 

intonation 35, 37 loud study 363 



INDEX 



401 



PAGE 

machinery of reading . 39 

make haste slowly 235 

manual training 118 

map drawing 282 

maps 284 

margins in letters 214, 217 

marki ng pupils 387 

McKay's 100 Experiments 345 

mechanical defects 40 

reading 38 

spelling 46 

structure of letters 201 , 203 

Meiklejohn, J. M. D iii 

memoriter recitations 378 

memory in arithmetic 253, 254 

of facts 335 

of form 114 

mental arithmetic 257 

discipline in arithmetic 258 

training, sciences 328 

methods in language 148 

in spelling 53, 55 

of instruction 377 

misspelled words repeated 50 

mistakes corrected 39, 158 

in speech 180 

in spelling discovered 51 

record of 181 

model inspection of work 52 

lessons in color 138 

in divisibility 342 

in drawing 127, 129 

in grammar, 195 

in language 154 

in object teaching 336, 339 

modelling Ill 

modes of recitation varied 49 

modulation 37 

money lost i n letters 202 

monitors 51 

in penmanship 104 

moral sentiment cultivated 31 

movement in penmanship 62 

drills in penmanship 74, 83 

of classes 349 

moving 363 



PAGE 

multiplication 249 

muscular development in pen- 
manship 83 

movement in penmanship... 77 

nasal twang 25 

natural history 163, 275 

method spelling 54 

position in penmanship 67 

science and drawing 117 

effect of 328 

in elementary schools. .327 

voice 34, 37 

nature as an educator 327 

begins with objects 17 

recognition of 107 

study and drawing 118 

Nelly 32 

newspaper letters 227 

North America, study of 285-299 

Northam's Facts of American 

History 325 

Geography of Lewis county. 300 

not imitation but movement 66 

knowledge but power 384 

too many details 337 

notation 238 

noun, lesson on 164 

numeration 238 

obedience from the first 362 

object and word method 20 

lessons 327-345 

aim of 332 

of teaching reading 35 

objective method of spelling 53 

objects as wholes 148 

comparison of 158 

first in division 249 

first in fractions 259 

in addition 241 

in language teaching.. .148, 183 

in recitation 389 

in subtraction 247 

parts of 151 

oblique rays 302 



402 



THE SCHOOL ROOM GUIDE 



PAGE 

observation before thought.. 151, 272 

ha bits of 329 

offences not to be anticipated.... 356 

offhand movement 66 

one difficulty at a time 22 

oral and written spelling 49 

method 379 

spelling 47-50 

not a test 59 

. only one trial 49 

value of 47 

teaching of grammar 188 

organization 346-354 

original problems 270 

originality in pupils 269 

orthoepy exercises 59 

our country first 321 

outlines of compositions 182 

outside information 387 

ovals in penmanship 66 

over governing 360 

paper folding and cutting. ..112, 116 

paragraphing .204, 216 

parts of speech 163 

pauses in reading 39 

minding the 28 

Peabody. Elizabeth P., postal 

card 225 

pectoral tone 28 

pen, holding of 82 

penmanship iii, 19, 62-106, 160 

by imitation 64 

in spelling 49,58 

not acquired by imitation. . . 62 

perception of discovery 334 

of verification 334 

perseverance 47 

personal power of the teacher. . .331 

phonic and word methods 12, 20 

phonics 24, 42-44 

physical and political geography.284 

features first 283 

geography 301-319 

pictures, use of 27 

picturing out words 41 



PAGE 

place lessons 117 

plan of grammar study 188 

Plato quoted 359 

points of compass 276 

Pope q uoted 201 

position in penmanship 71 

of pupil 70, 371 

of the hand 63 

possessive form, lesson on 168 

postage stamps 221, 234 

postcripts 226 

posture in reading 36, 37 

practical arithmetic 257 

exercises 69-102 

work in arithmetic 270 

preliminary drill 371 

preparation by the teacher 376 

for difficult lessons 368 

for reading class 29 

for the lesson 153, 182, 369 

Prentice's Review Problems 271 

primary drawing 108-140 

readi n g 22-30 

truths for children 27 

printing and script 19, 58 

privileges i n school 356 

process more than analysis 235 

programme of school -day 349 

promotion too rapid 240 

pronunciation 

22, 30, 33, 37, 39, 47, 49, 149 

exercises 59 

phonic method 11 

proper noun, lesson on 167 

propositions in sentences 195 

punctuation 31, 33, 48, 150 

...160, 170, 189, 190, 204, 214, 221 

marks 28 

pupils must do the work 370 

pure tone 28 

push forward 388 

qualification of pupils 348 

qualities of objects 152 

quality words 18 

quarrelling 364 



INDEX 



403 



PAGE PAGE 

questioning 158, 334, 384 record of mistakes 181 

in arithmetic 253 of movement in penmanship. 86 

laws of 385 regents' questions 271 

objects of 385 rehearsal of recitation 370 

questions during recitation 363 repetition of movement in pen- 

for debate 184 manship 67 

in penmanship 89,95 representation in drawing 143 

presented singly 256 reproduction exercises 150 

quietness in the schoolroom 362 in object teaching 337 

of lessons 369 

rapid execution in penmanship... 70 of stories 173 

reading 9-41 requirements in reading 35 

a thought process 39 retention 47 

alphabet method 9 review 256, 370 

devices in 23 frequently 390 

difficult selections in 25 reviews in object lessons 333 

drawing method 10 Roget's Thesaurus 180 

interest in 25 rote teaching 331 

intermediate 30-41 rotund tone 28 

interruption in 25 rules for spelling 45 

like conversation 26 in arithmetic 236 

look and say method 14 in orthography 45 

natural tones in ,. 24 in reading 29, 35 

naturally 29 of inflection 36 

no spelling in 22, 23 

not mechanical 24 Sanford's Limited Speller 61 

object in 27 word method in number 

objectmethod 15 243,247 

of problems 256 scale of color 135 

phonetic method 11, 13 scholarly ability 372 

phonotypic method 13 school government 355-364 

questioning in 18 management 346-391 

sentence method 21 reflects the teacher 361 

the end of 24 should be home-like 357 

thought in 21 science of language 147 

understandingly 29, 30, 37 vs. art of arithmetic 236 

vs. spelling 23 without apparatus 330 

word-building method 11 see, compare, do, tell 159 

word-method 16 self-control 389, 394 

reason in young children 236 help by the pupil 161 

recitation an end 365 sense teaching 328 

object of 365 sentence, declarative 191 

recitations 365-391 -explanatory 193 

made games 40 imperative 192 

made interesting 372 interrogative '. . . 191 

reciting vs. teaching 389 kinds of 190 



404 



THE SCHOOL ROOM GUIDE 



PAGE PAGE 

sentence object of 190 surface and face in drawing 124 

predicate of., 190 synonyms, exercises in 179 

study of 189 synopsis in object teaching.,. ...337 

subject of 189 importance of 18 

short exrcises 43, 373 

short school hours 359 tablet laying Ill, 116 

sight, study by 121 tajks on composition, 183 

simple language tattling 364 

150, 180,227,228, 334, 390 tautology 226 

sing-song drawl 24 teacher must have a plan 152 

sketching of solid objects 118 must labor 37 

slang 228 -should be good reader 26 

slate work deprecated 64, 65 teacher's contract 346 

Smith, Sidney, quoted 226 preparation 38& 

soapbubles in geography 273 teachers not school keepers 377 

Socratic method 381 teaching contrary to nature 32 7 

and topical methods 383 technical phrases avoided 183 

solids, study of 119 telegraphy 67 

songs in school 347 temperature 302, 373 

sounds of language 42 ten rules for spelling 59 

special offences 362 tests of the teacher 365 

specimen compositions 155, 156 tests in arithmetic 270 

spelling... 9, 14, 45-61, 160 text-book history 321 

acquired by writing 23 method 377 

and reading 46 text-books 368, 380- 

in language lessons 153 themes for composition 172 

neglected 58 theory and practice. 258 

taught incidentally 150 thing before the word 17 

through the eye 51 thinking men 383 

Spencer, Herbert, quoted 180 thought carried into expression. 40 

spirit of the teacher 17 first in reading 40 

stand while reciting 371 the one essential 182 

standard colors 134 three rules in speaking 34 

stick laying 112, 116 topical method 381 

stories in language teaching 173 touch, study by 120 

in school 25, 26 training mental powers 162 

study in reading 35 trial on the difficult words 56 

made interesting 37 trivial corrections 40 

made pleasant 17, 359 true manhood 390 

the problem before solving.. 256 two hands in penmanship 64 

subjects for composition type models 114 

173, 184, 185 types of beauty 145 

substance of the letter 229 of form 108> 

subtraction 247-249 

suggestions to young teachers. ..387 uncleanliness in pupils 364^ 

superscription 221 underscoring in letters 226- 



INDEX 



405 



PAGE 

uniform examination questions . .271 

uniformity in penmanship 70 

unity in arithmetic 260 

unskilled teachers 378 

untruthfulness 364 

use of text-books 369 

Van Wie's Outlines in United 

States History 326 

ventilation 373, 376 

verbatim recitations 371 

vital element in object lessons. . .333 

voice in the schoolroom 362 

training 39 

vulgarisms, examples 181 

wake up mind 372 

Wells, Charles R iii 

what to write 230 

whispering 362 

whole-arm movement 66 

Wilkins's Manual of Map Draw- 
ing 281 



PAGE 

Williams's Topics and Refer- 
ences 326 

Wilson's Elementary Language. 180 

Grammar Made Practical ... 156 

women's signatures 218 

work most with the dullest 389 

write as you talk 231 

fully 230 

promptly 231 

writing not drawing 66 

notes 363 

written analysis in arithmetic.. .252 

problems 257 

spelling 50-59 

word and object method 20 

and phonic methods 12, 20 

the object of thought 17, 19 

words, definition of 24, 27 

difficult 27 

in sentences 50 

misspelled 46, 47 

observed t ..,,.,.. 153 



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Pap's Ttory ani Practice of Teaciins. 

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