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Appendix A 

2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 




2012-2022 Stream Maintenance 


Program Manual 



Sunny Williams 
SCVWD 
1/1/2012 













2012 - 2022 STREAM MAINTENANCE 
PROGRAM MANUAL 


Prepared by 

Sunny Williams, Environmental Planner 


Bill Smith 
Devin Mody 
Dour Padley 
Janell Hillman 
Joe Chavez 
John Chapman 
Judy InRols 
Kristen O'Kane 


Linda Spahr 
Lisa Porcella 
Mark Wander 
Melissa Moore 
Michael Sanchez 
Rick Austin 
Scott Katric 
Suzanne Remien 





2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


Table of Contents 

1. _INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 2 

2. _VEGETATION MANAGEMENT ................................................................................... 26 

2.1. _WOODY VEGETATION MANAGEMENT .............................................................. 28 

2.1.1. _Routine Pruning .28 

2.1.2. _Corrective Prunin g.31 

2.1.3. _Coppicin g.33 

2.1.4. _Hand Removal .35 

2.1.5. _Invasive Plant Management Plan (IPMP) .41 

2.1.6. _Large Woody Debris (LWD) .42 

2.2._HERBICIDE and MECHANICAL .44 

2.2.1. _Herbicide .45 

2.2.2. _Mowing .49 

2.2.3. _Discin g.51 

2.2.4. _Flamin g.52 

2.2.5. _Grazing .53 

3. _SEDIMENT REMOVAL .55 

4. _BANK STABILIZATION .60 

5. _MANAGEMENT of ANIMAL CONFLICTS .72 

6. _MINOR MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES .......................................................................... 83 

7. _CANAL MAINTENANCE.87 


ATTACHMENTS 

Attachment A Bank Stabilization Methods 

Attachment B Mitigation Feasibility Assessment (MFA) 

Attachment C Tree Scoring for Removal of Trees and Shrubs 6-12" dbh 

Attachment D Invasive Plant Management Plan 

Attachment E Management of Large Woody Debris in Santa Clara County Streams 

Attachment F Best Management Practices (BMPs) 

Attachment G Sediment Characterization Plans 

Attachment H Water Quality Monitoring Plans 


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1. INTRODUCTION 


The 2012 - 2022 Stream Maintenance Program (SMP) Program Manual describes the 
authorized work activities, calendar timing for the activities, Best Management Practices 
to be implemented while performing the work, work specific exclusions, and a 
description for calculating any necessary mitigation. 

1.1. Purpose 


The Stream Maintenance Program (SMP/Program) establishes an ongoing 
maintenance program for the Santa Clara Valley Water District's (District/SCVWD) 
streams, canals, and stream gauges. The SMP was first approved in 2001. Though the 
SMP is written as a long-term program, it also 
allows for periodic updates as necessary to meet 
new conditions or maintenance needs of the 
District. This document describes the 2012- 
2022 Santa Clara Valley Water District's Stream 
Maintenance Program. This is an update from 
the 2001 Program with more detailed 
descriptions for work locations and assessment, 
updated mapping tools and species listings. The 
SMP and Final Environmental Impact Report 
adopted in 2001 (2001 FEIR), used a 20-year 
planning time frame to evaluate cumulative 
impacts. This Program document covers the 
second 10-year period and wholly replaces 
documents that guided the SMP from its 
inception in 2001 until 2012. The 2012 FEIR will 
be the stand-alone environmental document for the updated program. 

Program Goals 

The SMP work activities are developed to meet two program goals. 

1. Maintain the design flow conveyance capacity (or the appropriate capacity 
when no design capacity exists) of District facilities, and 

2. Maintain the structural and functional integrity of District facilities. 



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Program Objectives 

The following objectives will be used to meet these goals: 

1. Remove sediment to maintain the hydraulic, safety, and habitat functions 
of the creek systems; 

2. Manage vegetation to maintain the hydraulic, safety, and habitat functions 
of the creek systems, and to allow for levee inspections and maintenance 
access; 

3. Stabilize beds and banks of creeks and canals to protect existing 
infrastructure, maintain public safety, reduce sediment loading, protect 
water quality, and protect habitat values; and 

4. Avoid, minimize, or mitigate impacts on the environment by incorporating 
stream stewardship princip le s measures into maintenance activities. 

1.2. SMP Principles 


These principles have been developed to ensure that natural resources are 
protected to the furthest extent possible during routine stream maintenance projects. 
BMPs have been developed to implement these principles. The BMPs are included as 
Table 2-12, DSEIR Project Description. The principles in the SMP have been developed to 
guide decision-making for stream maintenance activities and projects. Principles are 
based on the SMP objectives and are a means to the District's Ends Policies (December 
15, 2009). 

Principle 1: The District will process all routine stream maintenance activities 
according to the process and protocols established in the Program. 

Principle 2: Decisions regarding the necessity of routine sediment removal and 
vegetation management activities (to restore channel flow 
capacities) will be made following the thresholds established in the 
Maintenance Guidelines. 


Principle 3: The District will implement measures to avoid and minimize 
impacts to native species and habitat. 

Principle 4: All maintenance activities will be performed in a manner that has 
the least impact to the natural flora, fauna and aquatic resources 
while meeting the project objectives. 


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Ends Policies - Board of Directors Established 


E-l Mission and General Principles 

The mission of the District is a healthy, safe, and enhanced quality of living in Santa 
Clara County through watershed stewardship and comprehensive management of water 
resources in a practical, cost-effective, and environmentally-sensitive manner for 
current and future generations. 

Maintenance of the creeks under the SMP is an integral part of the mission, which 
combines work needed for comprehensive and efficient management within the context 
of environmental requirements. 

E-2 Water Supply: There is a reliable, clean water supply for current and future 
generations. 

Goal 2.1 Current and future water supply for municipalities, 

industries, agriculture and the environment is reliable 
Objective 2.1.1 Aggressively protect groundwater basins from the 
threat of contamination and maintain the 
groundwater basins for reliability. 

Objective 2.1.2 Protect, maintain and develop local water. 

E-3 Natural Flood Protection: There is a healthy and safe environment for residents, 
businesses and visitors, as well as for future generations. 

Goal 3.1 Natural flood protection for residents, businesses and 

visitors. 

Objective 3.1.1 Balance environmental quality and protection from 
flooding in a cost effective manner. 

Objective 3.1.2 Preserve flood conveyance capacity. 

The SMP is intended to authorize routine work needed to preserve flood 
conveyance capacity. 

E-4 Water Resources Stewardship: There is water resources stewardship to protect 
and enhance watersheds and natural resources and to improve the quality of life 
in Santa Clara County. 


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Goal 4.1 

Objective 4.1.1 

Objective 4.1.2 
Objective 4.1.3 


Healthy creek and bay ecosystems 
Balance water supply, flood protection and 
environmental stewardship functions. 

Improve watersheds, streams, and natural resources. 
Promote awareness of creek and bay ecosystem 
functions. 


Goal 4.2 

Objective 4.2.1 

Objective 4.2.2 


Clean, safe water in creeks and bay. 

Preserve or improve surface and ground water quality 
for beneficial uses. 

Promote awareness of water quality and stream 
stewardship. 


Goal 4.3 Improved quality of life in Santa Clara County through 

trails, open space and water resources management. 

Objective 4.3.1 Support additional trails, parks and open space along 
creeks and in the watersheds when reasonable and 
appropriate. 

Objective 4.3.2 Reduce greenhouse gas emissions when reasonable 
and appropriate. 


The SMP integrates the principal of resource management into the work. 
Program elements are designed to avoid, minimize or mitigate potential impacts 
in balance with the need to conduct work in streams to carry out the District's 
mission. 


1.3. General Applicability 


The SMP applies to all of the District's routine stream and canal maintenance 
activities that can be grouped into five categories: vegetation management, sediment 
removal, bank stabilization, management of animal conflicts, and minor maintenance 
activities. Routine maintenance is defined as the work activities described in this plan 
that occur in the course of standard maintenance work or procedures and are 
performed regularly, and often repeated. These activities can occur within the SMP 
program area (S ee Figur e ES - 1) 4 below the 1000-foot elevation contour, and along 
approximately 800 miles of creek, 41 miles of 11 canals, and related facilities. Stream 
gauge maintenance activities are covered in the SMP through the appropriate work 
activity projections. 


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Future maintenance work projections for the program period 2012-2022 were 
developed by an interdisciplinary team familiar with and responsible for conveyance 
requirements of the creeks. Work projections were made to describe the estimated 
location and work area percentage for Program work activities. These projections were 
used to perform the environmental impacts analysis in the 2012 SMP FEIR. 
Maintenance activities are permitted throughout the program area as long as they do 
not result in significant environmental effects substantially different than those 
evaluated for the Program as a whole. Work that is conducted in areas not originally 
projected in 2002, will require mitigation as described in the Mitigation Approach 
Memorandum, Appendix C, 2012 SMP FSEIR , and inc l ud e d in th e Mitigation chapt e r of 
this Manua l. Work projected in the 2002 SMP has been mitigated for in perpetuity. 

1.4. General Exclusion 


The SMP does not include the following activities (2012 SMP FEIR): 

1. Emergency repair work; 

2. Work that would increase the flow conveyance or water supply capacity of a 
facility; 

3. Maintenance work in stream reaches that are above the 1,000-foot elevation 
contour (areas typically above the reservoirs); 

4. Maintenance work of dams, reservoirs and other water supply facilities, such 
as pipelines outside of stream corridors, groundwater percolation ponds, and 
in-stream summer dams; 

5. Installation of new or major modification of fish ladders; 

6. Hazard tree removals; 

7. Work conducted on private property by owners or other agencies; 

8. Work performed by other agencies; 

9. Large construction projects or capital improvement projects; 

10. Area-wide, intensive maintenance, or rehabilitation of large [>0.05 acre] 
mitigation projects installed as part of Capital Improvement Projects and 
which have persisted beyond the Establishment Period; 

11. Continued implementation of the 2002 SMP mitigation, monitoring and 

reporting program, and 

124. Work activities specifically excluded in the Program. 


1.5. Capital Improvement Projects 


Large construction projects and Capital Improvement Projects (CIP) are not 
considered routine stream maintenance and are not addressed through the SMP. 
Future CIPs will analyze and account for long-term maintenance impacts under their 


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own environmental review documents. The analysis of long term maintenance for a CIP 
is expected to follow a systematic process, evaluating the design for the least amount of 
maintenance and then determining whether the needed maintenance is already 
included in the SMP. 


Step 1: Compare new project maintenance needs to Permanent Mitigation. 

Analyze the required future maintenance of the new project against the Permanent 
Mitigation Areas (PMA ) 2002 Proj e ctions (defined as the 2002 projections plus any 
changes made since 2002: adding CIP reaches, swapping out work never conducted in 
2002-2012 to provide unaccounted for mitigation that is now available to apply toward 
other work activities, and new work areas that have provided mitigation in perpetuity). 

Any environmental effects from ef- required new future maintenance ftew-of CIPs or 
other new projects will be compared to the Permanent Mitigation Areas 2002 SMP 
proj e ctions for that reach of creek. Mitigation for CIPs will only be required if there are 
impacts future maintenance needs from the capital project that are w e r e not proj e ct e d 
in the 2002 SMP Permanent Mitigation Areas . It is presumed that some of the 
maintenance needs will be projected in the Permanent Mitigation Areas, but not 
necessarily to the scale that will be needed once the CIPs are complete. On l y work 
proj e ct e d in 2002 can b e us e d as a comparison to C I Ps. A ll maint e nanc e n ee ds for th e 
C I P not comp le t el y proj e ct e d in th e 2002 SMP, must b e ass e ss e d and mitigat e d through 
th e C I P. 

If all of the future maintenance needs are not in the Permanent Mitigation Areas, 
then proceed to Step 2. 

Step 2: Include new project maintenance needs not in Permanent Mitigation Areas 
into the new project environmental document. 

To the extent that future maintenance work requirements are not covered by the 
Permanent Mitigation Areas of the 2002 SMP and incorporated projects, the long-term 
incremental maintenance needs, including the scale and frequency of work needed, 
must be analyzed and accounted for under the CIP/other new project. The mitigation 
required for those impacts must be included in the CIP environmental document and 
will need to provide up front permanent mitigation for repeated maintenance impacts 
in perpetuity. Only then will those incremental future maintenance activities be added 
to the SMP Permanent Mitigation Area projections. 

Aft e r th e e nvironm e nta l r e vi e w is comp le t e d for a n e w C I P proj e ct, th e routin e 
maint e nanc e of th e construct e d proj e ct wi ll b e int e grat e d into th e SMP. Any 
incr e m e nta l maint e nanc e work r e quir e d by th e C I P wi ll b e add e d to th e SMP proj e ctions 
and any incr e m e nta l mitigation wi ll b e add e d to th e programmatic mitigation packag e . 


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1.6. Work Projections 


1. Management 

The routine maintenance activities conducted by the District and described in this 
Manual exhibit consistent attributes and patterns. However, projections of 
future stream maintenance activities for the SMP and Program FEIR cannot 
represent the exact extent of work that will occur. Actual stream maintenance 
activities can vary from year-to-year. 

Therefore, work projections were made to describe the estimated location and 
work area percentage for Program activities for the 2012-2022 period. These 
projections were used to perform the environmental impacts analysis in the 2012 
SMP FEIR; and thereby determine potential impacts, and the necessary 
associated Best Management Practices (BMPs) and mitigation measures. 
Maintenance activities are permitted throughout the program area as long as 
they do not result in significant environmental effects substantially different than 
those evaluated for the Program as a whole. 

Work is considered included in the SMP if the work is consistent with the 
District's Maintenance Guidelines or the work is needed to maintain the flow 
conveyance capacity of a facility but does not increase the design flow 
conveyance capacity. Work areas must be managed for the entire Program area 
to ensure that the maximum work covered by the Program, FEIR and regulatory 
permits, is not exceeded. Work activity impacts in areas not projected in 2002 
are calculated on an annual basis, in conjunction with any resulting required 
mitigation. Work areas projected in the 2002 SMP have been mitigated for in 
perpetuity, will continue to have work performed in these areas, and will not 
need to calculate impacts annually. 

In addition, the Program supports site specific assessments to determine the 
most effective method to achieve the maintenance goal. If it is determined that 
a lower impact work activity method is viable for the site, the new work activity 
will be proposed through either the Notice of Proposed Work (NPW) process or 
in consultation with the regulatory agencies involved. This will support an 
assessment for work activity modification that could result in a more benign 
method being used than was originally projected. 


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Permanent Mitigation Areas 

Maintenance areas that have dedicated mitigation provided in perpetuity will be 
referred to as Permanent Mitigation Areas (PMAs). The PMAs will be a set of 
work areas that are mitigated for in perpetuity. These areas will grow as new 
work areas are mitigated through the land acquisition and enhancement process. 
When mitigation lands are acquired, the District will identify which of the "new 
work areas" now identified under the 2012 SMP would be mitigated for (in 
perpetuity) by the acquired lands. Similar to providing mitigation for new work 
areas, this same process of acquiring lands to be applied as mitigation can be 
used to provide mitigation for other work areas that were not projected. Such 
"not projected but worked" areas from the 2002-2012 period can be added to 
the pool of Permanent Mitigation Areas (PMAs) that are mitigated for in 
perpetuity, if appropriate mitigation lands are acquired and they provide a good 
match for such lands. 


Additionally, some areas may be removed from the PMA if work has never been 
performed in that area, and no need for future work in that area is anticipated. 
Under such a scenario, the projected work area (and its impacts) that are no 
longer necessary would be removed from the PMA program. The compensatory 
mitigation that had already been provided would remain, but would no longer be 
allocated towards a particular work activity and location. Work areas and 
activities that are not previously covered, as being included in the PMA, can be 
added to the PMA by applying this unallocated mitigation. In this way, 
unallocated mitigation-in-perpetuity from the 2002 Program may now be applied 
to alternative work areas. 


Any inclusion of such work areas into the PMA pool of work areas mitigated for in 
perpetuity would be reviewed by participating regulatory agencies. 

2. Ownership 

The District performs work where it owns property in fee title or has an 
easement. The Board of Directors may also approve work to be performed on 
private property if it is determined that the erosion, scour or other maintenance 
needs are negatively affecting the flow conveyance and bank stability of the 
creek system. Due to the skill and knowledge necessary to maintain the function 
of the creek system, it may become necessary for the District to work on private 
property in order to provide general public safety. 


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The District has also projected work for areas where there are not current fee or 
easement property rights, but where it is determined that there may be 
maintenance needs over the life of this Program. The District may acquire new 
property rights through purchase in fee title or easement to: provide creek 
access, prevent encroachment of development into flood plains, and meet the 
goals and objectives of this Program. 

3. Locations 

Work is identified by work activity and location. Location identification 
begins at the center of the creek and extends outward. Cross sectional areas 
include: in-stream and bank/bench, which may include a maintenance road; and 
where there is a levee, levee inboard - top of levee - levee outboard. 


1.7. Description per Work Activity 


1. Vegetation Management 

Vegetation work impacts in new areas are assessed annually, calculating 
necessary mitigation per the requirements in the Mitigation Approach 
Memorandum, Appendix C FSEIR chapt e r of this manua l. Tree and shrub 
removals 6-12 inches diameter at breast height (dbh) may occur on a project 
specific basis per the criterion and mitigation described in Attachment C this 
manual. Work projected in the 2002 SMP has been mitigated for in 
perpetuity, will continue to have work performed in these areas, and will not 
need to calculate impacts annually. 

2. Sediment Removal 

Sediment removal impacts in new areas are assessed annually, calculating 
necessary mitigation per the requirements in the Mitigation Approach 
Memorandum, Appendix C FSEIR chapt e r of this manua l. Work projected in 
the 2002 SMP has been mitigated for in perpetuity, will continue to have work 
performed in these areas, and will not need to calculate impacts annually. 
Sediment removal can be performed in any stream within the SMP program 
area. 


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3. Bank Stabilization 

Bank stabilization work can be performed in any creek under District 
jurisdiction (fee title, easement, or directed by the Board of Directors) unless 
specifically excluded by this Program. Bank stabilization work is assessed per 
project site as it cannot be pre-determined where a site will need repair. The 
District has made a commitment that no more than half of the bank repairs 
will consist of impervious hardscape bank stabilization work (all watersheds 
combined) each year. 

4. Management of Animal Conflicts 

The District manages animal damage and conflicts in District creeks and 
canals. Animals may damage District facilities by burrowing into levees, banks 
and along canals, forage on mitigation sites, and interfere with work activities. 
To avoid compromising District facilities and to reduce conflicts with species 
living in or protecting sites where work is needed, the management of animal 
conflicts may be undertaken. 

5. Minor Maintenance 

Minor Maintenance activities (fence repair, graffiti removal, access road 
maintenance, etc.) are not a projected work activities and may occur 
anywhere within the SMP program area. 

6. Canal Maintenance 

The primary function of District canals are to serve as water supply transport 
facilities, though they also provide incidental flood protection by capturing 
surface runoff. Canal maintenance activities include all the work activities 
discussed above. 

1.8. Work Window 


A. Work Window Extensions 

Requests for work window extensions must be submitted to the regulatory 

agencies by October 1 st , listing the creek names and reaches where a work 

extension will occur. Work extensions vary per work activity. The agencies will 


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provide a single response within one week. Significant rainfall applies after 

October 15. 


B. Vegetation Management 

Woody Vegetation Management activities may occur based on the following: 

1. In-stream (wetted area) hand pruning and hand removal may occur year 
round, except: 

a) where l arg e mechanized equipment would need to access the site by 
crossing a creek or otherwise affect water quality, or 

b) in steelhead creeks, where work is only permitted until December 31 
or until local rainfall of 0.5 inches or greater falls within the subject 
watershed within a 24-hour period, whichever transpires first. 

2. Vegetation management outside the bankfull channel (see section 2.1.6 for 
definition) may be performed year round. 

a) Year round work opportunities do not apply to areas where l arg e 
mechanized equipment would need to access the site by crossing a 
creek or otherwise affect water quality. 

3. Due to separate project permits and/or CEQA/NEPA requirements, individual 
sites may have additional limitations on work types and work windows. 

Where these modified conditions occur they will be incorporated into the 
SMP. 

Herbicide Vegetation Management activities may occur based on the following and 

per the MSDS and label: 

1. In-stream herbicide use is a projected work activity and may occur between 
June 15 - October 15. 

2. In-stream work may continue until December 31 or until local rainfall greater 
than 0.5 inches falls within the subject watershed within a 24-hour period, 
whichever occurs first. 

3. Up l and Non-instream (bank/bench) herbicide work may occur year round, 
weather permitting. 

C. Sediment Removal 

Sediment removal may occur during the work window of June 15 - October 15. 

Water quality monitoring shall be performed per the Water Quality Monitoring Plan and 

all excavated sediment shall be tested per the Sediment Characterization Plan. Waief 


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qua l ity monitoring sha ll b e p e rform e d p e r th e S e dim e nt Charact e rization P l an at e ach 
s e dim e nt r e mova l sit e . 

1. Extended Work Window. 

a. Creeks supporting anadromous fish: 

An extended work window may occur from October 15 through 
October 31, or until local rainfall of 0.5 inches or greater falls within the 
subject watershed within a 24-hour period, whichever occurs first . 

b. Creeks not supporting anadromous fish: 

An extended work window may occur from October 15 through 
November 30 th , or until local rainfall of 0.5 inches or greater falls within 
the subject watershed within a 24-hour period, whichever occurs first. 

2. Extended Work Window in Lower Quality Areas R e quir e m e nts : 

a. Work may occur continu e until December 31. or unti l l oca l rainfa ll of 
0.5 inch e s or gr e at e r fa ll s within th e subj e ct wat e rsh e d within a 2 4- 
hour p e riod, which e v e r occurs first 

b. Work areas will be included in the annual NPW. 

c. Additiona fWork will onlymay occur aft e r a significant rainfa ll e v e nt -el 
& 5 inch e s w i thin a 2^1 hour p e riod, on l y within Berryessa Creek (0- 
88+80; 232+70-236+00; 284+30-288+00), Lower Silver Creek (Reach 3 
between Stations 37+40 and 381+19}), Thompson Creek (0+00-10+00), 
Canoas Creek (0+00-390+00), Ross Creek (0+00-86+30), Calabazas 
Creek (35+00-105+00), and San Tomas Aquino Creek (80+00-100+00), 
ifl 

1) a preconstruction biological survey is performed and clearance 
provided, 

2) site conditions are dry and access for all construction equipment 
and vehicles will not impact roadways, 

3) water diversions will not be allowed, 

4) all work will stop if any rainfall event is forecast three (3) days into 
the future, and m 

5) e mai l notification of work wi ll b e provid e d to th e r e gu l atory 
ag e nci e s two (2) days in advanc e of sch e du le d work 

Ssites must be maintained in a winterized state. (See section 4. Bank 
Stabilization, l. g l ossary for a definition of winterization.) 
cL Work may occur after a significant rainfall event but no later than 
December 31. 


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D. Bank Stabilization 

Bank stabilization work is allowed during the work window of June 15 - October 15. 
If a work extension is granted proj e ct is mor e than 50% comp le t e on Octob e r 15 , it may 
continue until the approved date stated below comp le tion, D e c e mb e r 31 , or until the 
first 72-hour 5 - day forecast that includes significant rainfall. Significant rainfall is local 
rainfall 0.5 inches or greater that falls within a 24-hour period in the subject watershed. 

L In Creeks Supporting Anadromous Fish 

An extended work window may occur until October 31 st for bank stabilization 

projects that will be 50% complete by October 15 th . 

Z In Creeks Not Supporting Anadromous Fish 

a. An extended work window may occur until November 30 th for projects 

that will be 50% complete by October 15 th or until significant rainfall. 

b. An extended work window may occur until November 30 th for new bank 

stabilization projects that will be completed in five (5) days or less, or until 

significant rainfall. 

E. Management of Animal Conflicts 

Management of animal conflicts may occur year round. The method of control used 
will be based on the seasonal efficacy of the animal's life cycles and in compliance with 
the protection of special-status species. 

F. Minor Maintenance 

Minor Maintenance activities may be performed year round or within the Work 
Window for specified Work Activities. Minor sediment or vegetation work must comply 
with the Work Windows specific to those work activities, even when they are Minor 
Maintenance activities. 

G. Canal Maintenance 

Canal Maintenance activities may be performed as defined by the work activity and 
per the description of annual work maximums in the Canal Maintenance section of this 
Manual. 


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1.8.1 Work Window Tables 


Instream Work Window In Creeks Supporting Anadromous Fish 


Work Activitv 

June 15 - Oct 15 

Oct 15 - Oct 31 

Oct 15 - Dec 31 



No work once 

No work once 



significant rainfall 

significant rainfall 



(0.5" within 24-hr 

(0.5" within 24-hr 



within watershed) 

within watershed) 

Instream hand 

X 


X 

pruning 




Instream hand 

removal 

X 


X 

Herbicide 



xU 

Sediment Removal 

X 

X 


Bank Stabilization 

X 

X, if at least 50% 
complete on October 




15 



1 Surfactant use on the 14 steelhead streams is permitted when the stream is dry in 

the immediate work location and no rain is forecast for the next 24 hours. 

2 Aquatic herbicide can only be used in California red-legged frog and California tiger 

salamander SMP mapped areas when the creek is dry and no rain is forecast for the next 

48 hours. 


After October 15 th , seventy-two-hour look-ahead weather forecasts from the 

National Weather Service (or local vendor such as the Western Weather Group) are 

consulted to prepare for possible winterization measures. If a significant rainfall is 

forecast within the coming 72-hr forecast window, then maintenance work that may 

result in sediment runoff to the stream shall be stopped, to allow adequate time to 

complete erosion control measures. Winterization materials will be available and on- 

site when rain falls. 


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Instream Work Window In Creeks Not Supporting Anadromous Fish 


Work 

Activity 

June 15- 

Oct 15 

Oct 15 - 

Nov 30 

No work once 

significant 
rainfall (0.5" 

within 24-hr 

within 

watershed) 

Oct 15 - 

Dec 31 

No work once 

significant 
rainfall (0.5" 

within 24-hr 

within 

watershed) 

June 15 - 

Dec 31 

Work even 

after significant 

rainfall (0.5" 

within 24-hr 

within 

watershed) 

Year 

Round, except 

where 

mechanized 

eauipment 

crosses a 

creek or 

otherwise 

affecting 
water aualitv 

Instream 

hand 

pruning 

X 




X 

Instream 

hand 

removal 

X 




X 

Herbicide 

X 


X 



Sediment 

Removal 

X 

X 


X, specific 

reaches of 

Berrvessa, 
Lower Silver, 

Thompson, 
Canoas, Ross, 

Calabazas, San 

Tomas Aquino 


Bank 

Stabilization 

X 

X 

a) if at least 

50% complete 

on October 15 

b) new projects 

that will be 
completed in 
five (5) days or 

less 





Significant rainfall applies after October 15. After October 15 th , seventy-two-hour 

look-ahead weather forecasts from the National Weather Service (or local vendor 

such as the Western Weather Group) are consulted to prepare for possible 

winterization measures. If a significant rainfall is forecast within the coming 72-hr 


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forecast window, then maintenance work that may result in sediment runoff to the 

stream shall be stopped, to allow adequate time to complete erosion control 

measures. Winterization materials will be available and on-site when rain falls. 


Non-Instream Work Window 


Work Activitv 

Year 

Round, except where 

mechanized equipment 

crosses a creek or 
otherwise affecting water 

aualitv 

Time 

Specific 

Vegetation 

Management 

X 


Herbicide 

X 

per MSDS label 


Large Woodv Debris 

X 

See Management of LWD 

guidelines 


Mowing 


Feb 1-Nov 30 

Discing 


Feb 1-Oct 15 

Flaming 

X 


Grazing 

X 


Management of Animal 

Conflicts 

X 

Per special status species 

and pesticide requirements 


Minor Maintenance 

X 

Instream work follows 

activitv specific work 

windows 



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1.9. Best Management Practices (BMPs) 


Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been incorporated into the project 
activities to avoid and minimize environmental impacts. General BMPs apply to all 
work. Other BMPs are applicable to specific work activities. See Table 2-12, DSEIR 
Project Description. 

1.10. Process Overview 


1. District Work Process 

The District's stream maintenance planning, implementation, and reporting 
process occurs in three phases: 1) program development and documentation; 2) 
implementation of annual routine stream maintenance work; and 3) annual 
reporting. Maintenance work can be proposed either as part of the Annual Work 
Plan through the "Notice of Proposed Work" (NPW) or as other identified work 
throughout the year via individual work orders. All stream maintenance activities 
will follow the Resource Protection Protocols as described below. 

The District uses work orders to describe and implement stream maintenance 
projects. Work orders provide a description of the project, schedule of 
implementation, estimated costs, permit requirements and other special 
conditions. Work orders will continue to be the primary vehicle for the 
implementation of maintenance projects. 

As maintenance work is proposed, it will be evaluated to determine if the 
work is addressed under the SMP. If not, the work will follow the appropriate 
project development process, which may include individual CEQA review and 
individual regulatory permits or clearances. An example of this type of work 
would be the removal of a drop structure in a stream. 

The proposed work is also evaluated under the requirements of the individual 
creek Maintenance Guidelines to ensure that the maintenance activity meets 
pre-established engineering requirements. For example, if a sediment removal 
project is proposed, the Maintenance Guidelines provide the information on the 
allowable depth of sediment for a reach that will still provide the designed flow 
conveyance. Maintenance Guidelines are updated as new CIPs are completed, as 
better maintenance methods are developed, or as refinements are made to the 
level of maintenance required in a reach of creek. 


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2. SMP Compliance Verification F l ow Chart 

Work is proposed in the Annual Work Plan through the Notice of Proposed 
Work or as individual work orders identified throughout the year. Work will be 
evaluated for compliance with the Program. Work that does not meet the 
requirements and parameters of the SMP cannot be covered. In these cases, 
other CEQA and regulatory coverage will need to be obtained. 

Work that may be covered by the Program will be reviewed to verify that it is 
covered under the long-term regulatory clearances provided in conjunction with 
the Stream Maintenance Program. Appropriate resource protection measures 
and BMPs will be identified and added to the work order package. Pre-work 
conferences will be held with staff necessary to perform the work, including the 
appropriate staff from Watershed Program Support Units, Field Operations, 
Vegetation Management and Stream Stewardship to discuss site-specific 
requirements, environmental constraints, and BMPs. 

Work order requests will follow the District's OEMS document WQ75101 - 

Field Operations Work Order Process. A clearinghouse of experienced and SMP 

competent staff will assess, develop, and authorize work, compliant with the 

2012-2022 SMP, BMPs, required mitiRation, and other natural resource 

protection protocols. 

1.11. Process for Program Improvement 


An annual "Lessons Learned" meeting between the District and regulatory agency 
staff will occur, usually in February, to evaluate the effectiveness of both resource 
protection and maintenance methods used in the preceding maintenance year. The 
information and assessments will be used to update BMPs, and Stream Maintenance 
Program processes to create a greater understanding of how to accomplish 
environmentally-sensitive, fiscally sound maintenance work. 

1.12. Regulatory Framework 


The SMP applies to all work necessary for the: maintenance of flow conveyance 
capacity of the canals, creeks and rivers; protection of the banks adjacent to those 
facilities; proper operation of stream gauges; and to promote the ecological stewardship 
of the riparian system. It may be necessary to obtain additional permits or 
authorizations for work within the SMP area that is not covered by this Program. 


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Regulatory agencies with jurisdictional authority in the SMP area and from which 
permits are obtained include the: Bay Conservation and Development Commission 
(BCDC), California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 
(USACE), National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Marine 
Fisheries Service (NMFS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the Regional Water 
Quality Control Boards (RWQCBs) - San Francisco Bay and Central Coast). The following 
is a description of each regulatory agency and their jurisdiction within the SMP. 

1. Bay Conservation and Development Commission (BCDC) 

BCDC has regulatory responsibility over development in San Francisco Bay and 
along the Bay's nine-county shoreline. BCDC works with its federal, state and 
local partners in the Long Term Management Strategy (LTMS) for the Placement 
of Dredged Material in the San Francisco Bay Region to manage dredging and 
disposal activities in the Bay Area. Formed in 1990, the LTMS Program is a 
collaborative partnership involving the regulatory agencies, resource agencies 
and stakeholders working together to maximize beneficial reuse of dredged 
material and minimize disposal in the Bay. 

It is necessary to obtain a BCDC permit prior to undertaking most work in the 
Bay or within 100 feet of the shoreline, including filling, dredging, shoreline 
development and other work. 

2. California Department of Fish and Game 

a) Lake and Streambed Alteration program 

The Department of Fish and Game (DFG) is responsible for conserving, 
protecting, and managing California's fish, wildlife, and native plant 
resources. To meet this responsibility, the Fish and Game Code (Section 
1602) requires an entity to notify DFG of any proposed activity that may 
substantially modify a river, stream, or lake. 

Notification is required by any person, business, state or local 
government agency, or public utility that proposes an activity that will: 

1) substantially divert or obstruct the natural flow of any river, stream 
or lake; 

2) substantially change or use any material from the bed, channel, or 
bank of, any river, stream, or lake; or 


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3) deposit or dispose of debris, waste, or other material containing 
crumbled, flaked, or ground pavement where it may pass into any 
river, stream, or lake. 

If DFG determines that the activity may substantially adversely affect 
fish and wildlife resources, a Lake or Streambed Alteration Agreement will 
be prepared. The Agreement includes reasonable conditions necessary to 
protect those resources and must comply with the California 
Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). 

b) California Endangered Species Act 

The California Endangered Species Act (CESA) allows DFG to authorize 
project proponents to take state-listed threatened, endangered, or 
candidate species if certain conditions are met. DFG administers the 
incidental take provisions of CESA to ensure regulatory compliance and 
statewide consistency. 

This act aims to protect species of fish, wildlife, and plants that are in 
danger of, or threatened with, extinction because their habitats are 
threatened with destruction, adverse modification, or severe curtailment, 
or because of overexploitation, disease, predation, or other factors. 

3. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 404 Permit 

Section 404 of the Clean Water Act regulates the discharge of dredged, 
excavated, or fill material in wetlands, streams, rivers, and other U.S. waters. The 
USACE is the federal agency authorized to issue Section 404 Permits for certain 
activities conducted in wetlands or other U.S. waters. Depending on the scope of 
the project and method of construction, certain farming activities may require 
this permit. Examples include ponds, embankments, and stream channelization. 

a) Jurisdiction 

1) Tidal Waters of the U.S. The landward limits of jurisdiction in tidal 
waters: 

Extends to the high tide line, or when adjacent non-tidal waters of 
the United States are present, the jurisdiction extends to the limits 
identified for Non-Tidal Waters of the U.S. 


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2) Non-Tidal Waters of the United States. The limits of jurisdiction in 
non-tidal waters: 

In the absence of adjacent wetlands, the jurisdiction extends to the 
ordinary high water mark, or when adjacent wetlands are present, 
the jurisdiction extends beyond the ordinary high water mark to the 
limit of the adjacent wetlands. When the water of the United States 
consists only of wetlands the jurisdiction extends to the limit of the 
wetland. 

b) Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 (33 U.S.C. 403) 
prohibits the obstruction or alteration of navigable waters of the 
United States without a permit from the Corps of Engineers. All 
Structures and Work - dredging, marinas, piers, wharves, floats, 
intake/outtake pipes, pilings, bulkheads, ramps, fills, overhead 
transmission lines, etc. 

4. U.S Environmental Protection Agency 

The USACE jointly administers Section 404 authority with the USEPA, the 
administering agency for the entire CWA, and receives oversight support from 
the USFWS. Under a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the USEPA and 
the Department of Defense (DOD), the USACE is given sole responsibility for 
making final permit decisions pursuant to Section 404 and, "conducts 
jurisdictional delineations associated with the day-to-day administration of the 
Section 404 program" (U.S. Department of Agriculture 1996). The USEPA retains 
the authority to enforce compliance with Section 404 and maintains the power to 
overrule USACE decisions on the issuance or denial of permits (U.S. 

Environmental Protection Agency 1995). If there is a dispute about whether an 
area can be regulated, the USEPA has the ultimate authority to determine the 
actual geographic scope of waters of the United States subject to jurisdiction 
under all sections of the CWA, including the Section 404 regulatory program (U.S. 
Department of Agriculture 1996). 

5. NOAA-NMFS 

CWA Section 404 . The Act provides NOAA authority to comment on permit 
applications for the purpose of avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating the 
destruction and degradation of aquatic resources, including wetlands. 


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Endangered Species Act (ESA). The ESA provides for the designation and 
protection of invertebrates, wildlife, fish, and plant species that are in danger 
of becoming extinct and conserves the ecosystems on which such species 
depend. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) deals with actions 
affecting marine species. Section 7 of the ESA requires Federal agencies to 
consult with NMFS to insure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out 
by such agency is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any 
endangered species or threatened species or adversely modify or destroy 
designated critical habitat. Following consultation under Section 7, a 
biological opinion is issued. 

The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA). 

The 1996 amendments to the MSA established a new mandate for the NMFS, 
regional fishery management councils (FMC), and other Federal agencies to 
identify and protect important marine and anadromous fish habitat (Essential 
Fish Habitat or EFH), including wetlands. The EFH provisions of the MSA 
support one of the Nation's overall marine resource management goals - 
maintaining sustainable fisheries. Federal action agencies which fund, permit, 
or carry out activities that may adversely impact EFH are required to consult 
with NMFS regarding the potential effects of their actions on EFH. When 
NMFS finds that an action may adversely affect EFH, NMFS is required to 
provide the action agency with conservation recommendations to protect 
EFH. 

6. US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) 

The ESA provides for the designation and protection of invertebrates, wildlife, 
fish, and plant species that are in danger of becoming extinct and conserves the 
ecosystems on which such species depend. ESA Section 7 requires Federal 
agencies to insure that any action authorized, funded or carried out by them is 
not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of listed species or modify their 
critical habitat. 

Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA). The MBTA provides that it is unlawful to 
pursue, hunt, take, capture, kill, possess, sell, purchase, barter, import, export, or 
transport any migratory bird, or any part, nest, or egg or any such bird, unless 
authorized under a permit issued by the Secretary of the Interior. Some 
regulatory exceptions apply. Take is defined in regulations as: "pursue, hunt, 
shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or attempt to pursue, hunt, shoot, 


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wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect." The MBTA protects over 800 species of 
birds that occur in the U.S. 

Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (1940) protects eagles from commercial 
exploitation and safeguards their continued survival in the United States. This law 
provides for the protection of the bald eagle (the national emblem) and the 
golden eagle by prohibiting, except under certain specified conditions, the taking, 
possession and commerce of such birds. 

7. Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB) 

The Water Board is a State agency with regional jurisdiction over the bed and 
banks of stream channels, their riparian corridors and the beneficial uses. Santa 
Clara County is under the jurisdiction of the San Francisco Bay and Central Coast 
Regions. The RWQCB's purpose is to protect and improve the quality of the 
natural water resources in the region. Regional resources include San Francisco 
and Tomales Bays, the Ocean, streams that flow into the Bays and Ocean, and 
groundwater throughout the region. Protecting water quality is achieved by 
regulating discharges to the waters and by requiring cleanups of unplanned or 
illegal discharges. The regulating of discharges is done through a variety of 
permits. Permits issued by the Water Board put restrictions on discharges of 
wastes, such as concentrations of certain pollutants, or the amount of flow. 
Permits can also require dischargers to take certain kinds of actions; for example, 
installing certain technologies to treat or contain wastes, or implementing 
practices to manage stormwater. 

The Porter-Cologne Act also assigns responsibility for implementing CWA 
Sections 303, 401, and 402 to the SWRCB and RWQCBs. Under Section 303, the 
RWQCBs, in conjunction with USEPA, are responsible for developing and 
implementing TMDLs to address water quality impairments. 


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1.13. Reference Documents 


Detailed information of the SMP and permit conditions can be found in the following 
documents: 

1. Final Environmental Impact Report (FEIR) for the 2012 Stream Maintenance 
Program, date. 

2. San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB-SF) Order — 

-specifying Waste Discharge Requirements and Clean Water Act Section 

401 Water Quality Certification dated. 

3. Central Coast Region Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB-CC) 

Order-specifying Waste Discharge Requirement and Clean Water 

Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification dated. 

4. 2012 Stream Maintenance Program Biological Assessment, Santa Clara Valley 
Water District, date. 

5. Sediment Characterization Plan for the San Francisco Bay Region 2012 Stream 
Maintenance Program, date. 

6. Water Quality Sampling Plan For the San Francisco Bay Area Region, 2012 
Stream Maintenance Program, date. 

7. Sediment Characterization Plan for the Central Coast Region 2012 Stream 
Maintenance Program, date. 

8. Water Quality Sampling Plan for Central Coast Region, 2012 Stream 
Maintenance Program, date. 


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2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


2. VEGETATION MANAGEMENT 


The Vegetation Management Program is designed to maintain the hydraulic and 
safety functions of the District's creek and canal systems, and stream gauges; through 
the control and management of vegetation, while improving creek ecosystems. (Please 
see the Canal Maintenance chapter for the description of additional work in canals.) 

Vegetation management is necessary to achieve various facility management goals. 
Specifically, vegetation has the ability to: restrict hydraulic capacity and impede flow 
conveyance, negatively impact water quality, and create fire hazards due to high fuel 
loads. Non-native vegetation may also have negative ecological impacts as it can out- 
compete more desirable native species, resulting in habitat alteration and reduced 
biodiversity. The District uses an integrated approach for vegetation management to 
ensure the most effective technique is used in a manner that minimizes impacts to the 
environment. 

This chapter describes specific types of vegetation management that are considered 
to be routine maintenance activities. The program is separated between woody and 
herbaceous vegetation management, though there are overlaps. For simplicity, the 
words "woody" and "tree" will refer to both trees and shrubs. 

There are five projected vegetation management activities that are described for the 
program period 2012-2022. These include pruning, hand removal, herbicide, mowing, 
and discing activities. Multiple work activities can be used to achieve any one purpose 
of the program depending upon the location, time of season, goal to be accomplished, 
and sensitivity of the resources. 

Work activities are permitted throughout the program area. SMP 2002 projected 
areas have been mitigated for in perpetuity. All other "new" work area impacts will be 
assessed annually, calculating the necessary mitigation per the requirements in the 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum, Appendix C FSEIR chapt e r . 

The Vegetation Management chapter has the following sub-sections: 

2.1 _ Woody Vegetation Management 


2.1.1 

Routine Pruning 

2.1.2 

Corrective Pruning 

2.1.3 

Coppicing 

2.1.4 

Hand Removal 


2.1.5 Invasive Plant Management Plan Program 


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2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


2.1.6 Large Woody Debris 
2.2 Herbicide and Mechanical 


2.2.1 

Herbicide 

2.2.2 

Mowing 

2.2.3 

Discing 

2.2.4 

Flaming 

2.2.5 

Grazing 


2012 Projected Vegetation Management Work Type by Watershed (in miles) 


Watershed 

Hand 

Removal 

Herbicide 

Pruning 

Mowing 

Discing 

Santa Clara 

Basin 

Lower 

Peninsula 

2.5 

47.8 

22.7 

3.8 

0 

West Valley 

3.2 

146 

61.7 

32.6 

0 

Guadalupe 

6.9 

277.7 

211.6 

146.8 

.4 

Coyote 

88.6 

213.4 

159.5 

58.3 

.5 

Pajaro Basin 

Pajaro 

49.7 

162 

156.6 

45.9 

.9 

Total 

150.9 miles 

846.9 miles 

612.1miles 

287.4 miles 

1.8 miles 


Note: 


1. Acr e ag e s Miles are shown for the total projection of each work activity type. This 
includes acreages for overlapping work activities at the same location, so 
potential impacts are over represented. 

2. Acr e ag e s Miles incorporate the work area percentage estimate to account for 
varying work amounts within a reach. 

Channel Access and Staging 

Access to maintenance sites will occur via existing, adjacent access roads where 
present. Most SCVWD-maintained channels have at least one existing access road 
running along the top-of-bank on one side of the channel. Some channels have an 
access road on either side of the channel; and others may have a lower maintenance 
road along the lower level banks. When the channel shape, bank height, or the 
presence of mature vegetation prevents the use of the top-of-bank access roads, 


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equipment can move down the channel slope via existing access ramps, or forge a 
new temporary access route. Selective clearing of shrubs or trees may be necessary 
on the banks to provide equipment access to the channel bed. 

Access to vegetation maintenance sites typically occurs via the adjacent access 
road to the general location, if present, and by foot into the channel or other areas 
without access roads. Staging for maintenance activities will occur to the extent 
possible on adjacent access roads and lands, if available. 

Revegetation 

The District assesses each revegetation site with a long-term strategy for self 

sufficiency. Species palette's, soil conditions, water availability, aspect, etc, are 

incorporated into the planting approach. The structure of species and distance 

relationship to various creek flows guides the revegetation specialist to choose the 

appropriate species for the site, considering long-term maintenance 

requirements both for the vegetation and for creek capacity. 


PRUNING 


2.1. WOODY VEGETATION MANAGEMENT 

2.1.1. Routine Pruning 

A. Purpose 

Pruning of trees and shrubs is a routine activity necessary to provide 

access to District facilities, improve visibility to inspect District facilities, 
protect District infrastructure, and maintain the designed hydraulic capacity 
of the creek systems. Pruning is also used to maintain the facility per the 
facilities' O&M Guidelines. Providing an increase in design flow capacity is 
not permitted under this Program. 

Typical woody vegetation pruning takes place along maintenance 
roads, fences and levee slopes. The District may trim vegetation to reduce 
or prevent fire hazards, in compliance with local fire codes. Tree pruning 
may include thinning the canopy of an individual tree or shrub. For 
simplicity, the term "tree" or "trees" will refer to both trees and woody 
shrubs. 


ROUTINE 


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Definitions 

1. Pruning is the cutting of a branch < 4" in diameter. 

2. Herbaceous - non-woody vegetation includes grasses, broadleaf 
weeds, cattails, and bulrush; and annuals, biennials, and perennials. 

3. Shrub - woody plant smaller in height than a tree (< 15 feet [4.6 
meters] at maturity), often formed by a number of vertical or semi¬ 
upright branches arising close to the ground. 

4. Tree - a species of woody perennial that typically has one dominant 
vertical trunk and a height greater than 15 feet (4.6 meters) in its 
natural, mature form. There are some tree species exceptions. 

B. Work Activity 

Pruning is the partial removal of any individual plant and includes 
cutting of tree branches, woody and herbaceous vegetation, and is 
conducted with mechanized and non-mechanized hand tools. Pruning may 
occur in in-stream and along bank bench areas. 

C. Work Projections 

Pruning is a projected activity. Work that is conducted in areas not 
originally projected as "upland over hanging growth (OHG)" in 2002, will 
require mitigation as described in the 2012 SMP FSEIR, and included in the 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum, Appendix C FSEIR chapt e r of this 
Manua l. Pruning impacts will not exceed 40 acres over the 10-year 
Program period. Work projected in the 2002 SMP has been mitigated for 
in perpetuity, will continue to have work performed in these areas, and 
will not need to calculate impacts annually. 

D. Work Window 

Vegetation management activities may occur: 

1. In-stream (wetted area) hand pruning and hand removal may occur 
year round, except: 

a) Where l arg e mechanized equipment would need to access the site 
by crossing a creek or otherwise affect water quality, or 

b) In steelhead streams, where work is only permitted until December 
31 or until signficantJeeaf rainfall greater than 0.5 inches falls within 


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the subject watershed within a 24-hour period, whichever 
transpires first. 

2. Vegetation management outside the bankfull channel (see section 
2.1.6 for definition) may be performed year round. 

a) Year round work opportunities do not apply to areas where la rg e 
mechanized equipment would need to access the site by crossing a 
creek or otherwise affect water quality. 

3. Due to separate project permits and/or CEQA/NEPA requirements, 
individual sites may have additional limitations on work types and work 
windows. Where these modified conditions occur they will be 
incorporated into the Stream Maintenance Program. 

E. Requirements 

Pruning can invigorate trees and stimulate new growth. Improperly 
pruning a tree or shrub can create more work the following year(s); e.g. as 
when multiple, weakly attached stems sprout from a stub cut. 

The following pruning standards should be used: 

1. Pruning will be done by qualified staff in a manner that will achieve the 
maintenance goals of the facility while preserving the short and long 
term health of the vegetation. 

2. Pruning standards should be performed according to national 
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) A300 (Part 1) 2008 
Pruning, ANSI Z133.1 - 2000 Safety Requirements and International 
Society of Arboriculture (ISA) Best Management Practices Tree Pruning 
(revised 2008) or the most current updates. 

3. Limbs < 4" in diameter may be removed as routine work under the 
SMP. 

4. Limbs > 4" may also require removal due to access for bank 
stabilization and sediment projects, to reduce debris accumulation, and 
to minimize potential flooding. There are occasions whereby removing 
limbs from a fallen tree may be sufficient to maintain flow conveyance 
in lieu of complete tree removal. 

a) The following criteria will be used for lateral pruning: 

Pruning will be prescribed and marked by an ISA Certified 
Arborist or those experienced and knowledgeable in ISA pruning 
standards. 

5. When possible, pruning should be done during the winter when 
vegetation is dormant. 


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F. Applicable BMPs 

Vegetation Management BMPs are listed in Attachment F . These BMPs 
may be revised on an annual basis based on actual experience and site 
conditions. 


2.1.2. Corrective Pruning 



A. Purpose 

Corrective pruning is performed to promote long-term woody 
vegetation and tree health. Corrective pruning may occur to address 
defects that would eventually result in whole tree failure such as: co¬ 
dominant leaders; decayed or diseased limbs; extensive branch dieback; 
incorrect past pruning; or injury due to storm or mechanical damage. 
Corrective pruning may occur where a potential hazard exists yet 
complete removal of a tree is unwarranted. It may also be used to adhere 
to proper pruning standards. For example, in order to avoid leaving a 
large stub and promoting unwanted re-sprouting, pruning a lateral branch 
away from a maintenance road may be extended to the trunk of the tree. 
Correcting and pruning lateral branches is also important to reduce the 
risk of debris trapping in the channel, particularly near the active bankfull 
channel (see section 2.1.6 for definition) . 

Corrective pruning should not be used as justification to do more work 
than is necessary or would otherwise be permitted. In some cases, cutting 
a lateral mid-way may be an appropriate place to support or regenerate 
growth upward. 

B. Work Activity 

Corrective pruning is the partial removal of any individual plant and 
includes cutting of tree branches, woody and herbaceous vegetation, and 
is conducted with mechanized and non-mechanized hand tools. Unlike 
routine pruning, corrective pruning is striving to correct an injury, disease, 
past damage, or preventative measures of future damage to facilities. 

Pruning may occur in in-stream and along bank bench areas. 


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2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


C. Work Projections 

Corrective pruning is not a projected work activity and may occur 
throughout the SMP program area; although all corrective pruning must 
be prescribed by an ISA Certified Arborist. 

D. Work Window 

Vegetation management activities may occur: 

1. In-stream (wetted area) hand pruning and hand removal may occur 
year round, except: 

a) Where l arg e mechanized equipment would need to access the site 
by crossing a creek or otherwise affect water quality, or 

b) In steelhead streams, where work is only permitted until December 
31 or until significant lecal rainfall greater than 0.5 inches falls 
within the subject watershed within a 24-hour period, whichever 
transpires first. 

2. Vegetation management outside the bankfull channel (see section 
2.1.6 for definition) may be performed year round. 

a) Year round work opportunities do not apply to areas where l arg e 
mechanized equipment would need to access the site by crossing a 
creek or otherwise affect water quality. 

3. Due to separate project permits and/or CEQA/NEPA requirements, 
individual sites may have additional limitations on work types and work 
windows. Where these modified conditions occur they will be 
incorporated into the Stream Maintenance Program. 

E. Requirements 

1. All corrective pruning is performed according to national ANSI A300 
(Part 1) 2008 Pruning, ANSI Z133.1 - 2000 Safety Requirements and 
International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) Best Management Practices 
Tree Pruning (revised 2008) or the most current updates. 

2. Corrective pruning will be prescribed and marked by an ISA Certified 
Arborist or those experienced and knowledgeable in ISA pruning 
standards and successful corrective pruning. 


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2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


3. In general, no more than 25% of an individual tree would be removed 
in one season. Rare cases may occur, however, such as the removal of 
a co-dominant leader. 

4. Removal of limbs greater than 4" diameter may be necessary, and 
arboricultural justification will be provided. 

5. Whenever possible, corrective pruning should be done during the 
winter when vegetation is dormant. 

F. Applicable BMPs 

Vegetation Management BMPs are listed in Attachment F . These BMPs 
may be revised on an annual basis based on actual experience and site 
conditions. 


2.1.3. Coppicing 


A. 


B. 


Coppicing Purpose 

Coppicing creates annual "sucker" growth that may be 
desirable as cutting material for direct installation in 
mitigation projects. Willow species, mulefat and coyote brush 
are typically chosen. The trees that are chosen are trees that 
would normally be targeted for complete removal. After 
cutting the tree back to the ground, rather than treat the 
remaining stump with herbicide, the tree is instead left to re¬ 
sprout and provide an ongoing cutting source for individual 
watersheds. Select individuals within each of the major 
watersheds can be dedicated to this activity. 

Work Activity 

Coppicing of trees or shrubs entails severely pruning an 
entire woody plant near the ground to promote multi¬ 
stemmed re-growth. This action will change the plant form 
from a tree to a shrub, thus, increasing variability of canopy 
architecture and age. Coppicing typically uses hand-held and 



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small mechanical tools. Larger equipment may be necessary to remove 
the vegetation from the channel, to then be hauled away. 

C. Work Projections 

Coppicing is not a projected activity and may occur throughout the 
County program area . 

D. Work Window 

Vegetation management activities may occur: 

L Avln-stream (wetted area) hand pruning and hand removal may occur 
year round, except: 

a) Where l arg e mechanized equipment would need to access the site 
by crossing a creek or otherwise affect water quality, or 

b) In steelhead streams, where work is only permitted until December 
31 or until significant loeaf rainfall greater than 0.5 inches falls 
within the subject watershed within a 24-hour period, whichever 
transpires first. 

Z ^Vegetation management outside the bankfull channel (see section 
2.1.6 for definition) may be performed year round, 
a) Year round work opportunities do not apply to areas where l arg e 
mechanized equipment would need to access the site by crossing a 
creek or otherwise affect water quality. 

Z GrDue to separate project permits and/or CEQA/NEPA requirements, 
individual sites may have additional limitations on work types and work 
windows. Where these modified conditions occur they will be 
incorporated into the Stream Maintenance Program. 

E. Requirements 

Trees that would otherwise need to be removed may be good 
candidates to be coppiced. All work is done after appropriate pre¬ 
construction biological surveys have been performed and appropriate 
regulatory clearances obtained. 


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F. Applicable BMPs 



Vegetation Management BMPs are listed in Attachment F . These BMPs 
may be revised on an annual basis through the Lessons Learned meetings, 
based on actual experience and site conditions. 


2.1.4. Hand Removal 


A. Purpose 

Live, standing trees and shrubs may be removed from District facilities 
to meet one of the following program objectives: maintain design flow 
conveyance capacity, provide facility inspection and access, maintain the 
structural integrity of District facilities, and to promote overall ecological 
health. For simplicity, the term "tree" or "trees" will refer to both trees 
and woody shrubs. 

Tree removals may occur anywhere in the creek cross section, 
including but not limited to, streams and their immediate overstory, 
stream banks, canals, levees, access roads and pedestrian paths, outboard 
areas and at bridges and culverts. 

Stump treatment of removed trees is included under Hand Removal 
and is not defined as Herbicide work. All tree removals will assume a 
stump treatment with herbicide, unless otherwise noted in the Program 
document. Biological clearances will assume herbicide treatment unless 
otherwise noted on the Work Order. 

1. Maintenance . Tree removals may be necessary to retain 
design flow conveyance capacity and to maintain creek channels. 
This condition usually occurs when trees on the bank have fallen 
into the stream or moved in such a way that the tree's new 
orientation impedes flows or causes debris blockages, resulting in 
an increased flood risk. Fallen trees also can divert streamflows 
into the opposite streambank increasing the erosion and flood risk. 
Although locations of downed trees is not predictable, this work 
should be considered "anticipated" due to its natural and regular 
occurrence. 


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Trees also exist in locations where their roots or branches may 
interfere with or undermine the integrity of District facilities. These 
facilities include, but are not limited to concrete linings, concrete 
wing walls, gabions, sacked concrete walls, streamflow gauges, 
storm drain outfalls, culverts, and pipes. Trees removed in these 
areas would likely be stump-treated with herbicide to prevent 
recovery and re-establishment. 

Trees < 6" dbh may be routinely removed from creeks to reduce 
the accumulation of debris and potential flooding. Trees within 100 
feet of bridges are also removed to prevent accumulation of debris 
on pier noses and bridge footings. 

Trees < 6" dbh that are located within the 2002 SMP 
projections, have already been mitigated for through the 2002 SMP 
programmatic mitigation. Tree removals in "new" areas, will need 
to be assessed per project site, and mitigated for according to the 
requirements in the Mitigation Approach Memorandum, Appendix 
C FSEIR chapt e r of this manua l. 

Trees < 6" dbh in "new" work areas will be accounted for per 
the requirements in the Mitigation Approach Memorandum, 
Appendix C FSEIR chapt e r of this docum e nt . Trees and shrubs 6-12" 
dbh will be assessed on a project specific basis per a "pay-as-you- 
go" program. (See Attachment C, Tree Scoring for Removal of Trees 
and Shrubs 6 - 12"dbh©SJ4 - April, 2011) 

2. Bank Stabilization. Bank stabilization projects often require the 
installation of temporary roads and ramps to access the work area. 
Tree removals may be required under these circumstances when 
pruning will not suffice to provide clearance for maintenance 
vehicles and heavy equipment. An effort is made to target non¬ 
native trees where tree removal for vehicle access is required and 
to select an access route that avoids mature, native trees. Removal 
of large branches from mature trees for equipment access is 
evaluated carefully and avoided whenever possible. 

Tree removals will follow the requirements in the Mitigation 
Approach Memorandum, Appendix C FSEIR and summarized above. 
Trees and shrubs 6-12" dbh will be assessed on a project specific 


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basis per a "pay-as-you-go" program. (See Attachment C, Tree 
Scoring for Removal of Trees and Shrubs 6 - 12"dbh- April, 2011) 

3. Ecological Health/Stewardship. In the interest of stream and land 
stewardship, efforts may be made to improve the health and vigor 
of trees on District properties through proper arboricultural and 
vegetation management techniques. Early detection of plant 
diseases and pathogens such as Sudden Oak Death and Western 
bark beetles, supported by BMP's that prevent movement of 
infected materials to additional locations, will be implemented 
through this Program. Removal of infected trees may be necessary 
to guarantee the ecological health of the greater area. 

Trees may be removed or pruned to improve both aquatic and 
terrestrial habitat quality by achieving the following objectives: 

To promote water resources stewardship, efforts will be made 
to improve the ecological health of riparian and upland woodlands 
on District facilities. Trees with structural defects, insect infestation, 
or pathogens that threaten the ecological health of the tree or 
woodland may be removed. Woodlands with stunted growth as a 
result of competition for resources may be thinned to facilitate 
normal growth. Prior to removal or stand thinning of trees, an 
assessment of the ecological health of the riparian and/or upland 
woodlands will be conducted and documented with written 
recommendations by biological or experienced ecological staff for 
management. 

B. Work Activity 

Complete removal of above ground portions of any individual plant 
using mechanized or non-mechanized hand tools. This category includes 
herbicide stump treatment, called 'cut stump' which is follow-up work 
from the removal of vegetation. Cut stump treatment is a paired activity 
to Hand Removal. Stump treatment is assumed to occur unless noted 
otherwise on the work order. 

Hand Removal may occur where herbicide treatments have been 
applied to woody vegetation. 


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Hand removal uses small hand tools or mechanized tools such as 
chainsaws to cut vegetation. Cut vegetation will be transported from the 
channel bed to the access road by hand or by mechanical equipment such 
as an excavator or loader. Vegetation is chipped on site and hauled away 
in dump trucks/compactors. The herbicide application portion of this work 
activity is performed using tools such as drip cans, a spray bottle, or a 
paintbrush to do a topical treatment. 

C. Work Window 

Vegetation management activities may occur: 

L a^ln-stream (wetted area) hand pruning and hand removal may occur 
year round, except: 

a) Where l arg e mechanized equipment would need to access the site 
by crossing a creek or otherwise affect water quality, or 

b) In steelhead streams, where work is only permitted until December 
31 or until local rainfall greater than 0.5 inches falls within the 
subject watershed within a 24-hour period, whichever occurs first. 

Z. k}Vegetation management outside the bankfull channel (see section 
2.1.6 for definition) may be performed year round. 

a] IrYear round work opportunities do not apply to areas where l arg e 
mechanized equipment would need to access the site by crossing a 
creek or otherwise affect water quality. 

b) Except mowing, which may occur between February 1 and 
November 30, and discing which may occur between February 1 
and October 15. 

Z e}Due to separate project permits and/or CEQA/NEPA requirements, 
individual sites may have additional limitations on work types and work 
windows. Where these modified conditions occur they will be 
incorporated into the Stream Maintenance Program. 

D. Requirements 

1. All tree removals require a biological survey and must be verified for 
compliance by the watershed environmental planner. In certain 
circumstances, the work may need to be supervised by a qualified 
horticultural specialist or Certified Arborist. 


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2. Tree removals must meet one of the purposes stated above in III, A, 1. 

3. All tree removals must be coordinated with local tree ordinances. 

E. Removal Criteria 

Criteria for removal of trees is not based solely on whether they are 
native, non-native, or invasive. Non-native trees, including invasives, often 
provide valuable habitat functions in the absence of more desirable native 
vegetation. Removal of any of these trees would be evaluated using the 
following criteria. Please refer to Attachment C, Tree Scoring for Removal 
of Trees and Shrubs 6 -<■ 12 " dbh th e District's QEMS proc e dur e for 
implementation. 

1. Presence or absence of adjacent vegetation of similar stature providing 
equivalent habitat functions such as roosting, nesting, perching, SRA, 
etc. Retention of non-natives (invasive or not) will be given a higher 
priority if other vegetation is not available to provide alternative 
habitat. 

2. Current or documentable use by wildlife that is unlikely to be offset if 
the vegetation is removed. Such use would include raptor nests, 
evidence of use by cavity nesting species, evidence of a rookery, and 
similar wildlife uses. 

3. Instances where the tree is providing vegetative structure (root 
system) to a stream bank that is likely to result in erosion if the tree is 
removed will be considered for pruning or thinning to retain the soil 
stability function. 

F. Applicable BMPs 

Vegetation Management BMPs are listed in Attachment F . These BMPs 
may be revised on an annual basis through the Lessons Learned meetings, 
based on actual experience and site conditions. 


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G. Requirements 

Tree removals are a regular work occurrence and are necessary to 
maintain the proper function of District facilities, maintain conveyance 
capacity, remove debris accumulation and improve the riparian system. 
There are also different criteria for tree removals based on species type 
and location within the creek systems. 

Native trees are given a higher level of consideration for preservation 
than non-native trees. Native tree species are g e n e ra ll y more desirable 
and their presence is encouraged over non-native species. Th e y continu e , 
how e v e r, to b e g e n e ra ll y und e sirab le on cr ee k bottoms and som e chann el 
banks and le v ee s. Non-native species and invasive non-natives especially, 
are less desirable. (Please see the Invasive Plant Removal section for a 
description of a program designed to comprehensively address these 
species.) Trees, native or non-native, located within a creek channel, 
channel bank, or levee may require removal if flow conveyance capacity is 
reduced, the structural integrity is compromised, and where needed for 
visual inspection of levees. 

Trees may be removed and accounted for on a project specific, pay-as- 
you-go basis. Trees < 6" dbh in "new" work areas will be accounted for 
per the requirements in the Mitigation Approach Memorandum, Appendix 
C FSEIR chapt e r of this docum e nt . Trees and shrubs 6-12" dbh will be 
assessed on a project specific basis per a "pay-as-you-go" program. (See 
Attachment C, Tree Scoring for Removal of Trees and Shrubs 6 - 12"DBH - 
April, 2011.) This document provides a specific tree appraisal and 
evaluation protocol to determine how replacement planting occurs. The 
protocol in the Attachment C App e ndix involves carefully assessing 
targeted tree removals for their existing conditions and functions, 
including their canopy cover, local area value, ecosystem benefits, and 
ecosystem detriments. Due to the sensitive habitats of native oaks and 
sycamores, these species will be mitigated with in-kind species. 

1. Trees < 6" dbh that are located within the 2002 SMP projections. 

These trees have already been mitigated for through the 2002 SMP 

programmatic mitigation. 


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2. Trees < 6" dbh in "new" work areas. 

Tree removals in "new" areas, will need to be assessed per project 
site, and mitigated for according to the requirements in the Mitigation 
Approach Memorandum, Appendix C FSEIR of this manua l. 

3. Trees and shrubs 6-12" dbh will be assessed on a project specific basis 
per a "pay-as-you-go" program. (See Tree Scoring for Removal of Trees 
and Shrubs 6 - 12"DBH - April, 2011) 

H. Definitions 

Multi-stem: A tree or shrub with a root ball and multiple trunks or 
stems. This may occur at ground level or several feet above ground. The 
dbh of trees with multiple stems will be calculated by adding the 
diameters of the individual stems at 4.5 feet above ground. Individuals 
with greater than seven (7) stems at 
dbh will be assessed by their canopy 
cover, per the Tree Scoring for 
Removal of Trees and Shrubs 6 - 
12"DBH - April, 2011. 

2.1.5. Invasive Plant Management 
Plan Progr a m (IPMP) 


Invasive plant species are frequently 

found during routine SMP work activities (i.e., bank repair sites, sediment 
removal sites and/or routine vegetation maintenance work). In these instances, 
opportunistic control and/or removal of invasive plants could enhance habitat 
quality and benefit the larger watershed landscape. 

Mitigation may be acquired, on a case by case basis, for the removal of 
invasive non-native plant species at SMP work sites, provided the removals will 
enable regeneration of native plant species and/or improve the ecological 
function of the habitat. Mitigation credit from invasive plant removal can be used 
to compensate for loss of native plant species during routine maintenance 
activities. 

Removal of herbaceous invasive species will be quantified as acreage or area 
removed, whereas removal of woody tree or shrub species will be determined 



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based upon the number of stems, diameter rank (class), invasiveness of target 
species, and the ecological value provided by target species at the proposed work 
location. 

See the IPMP Attachment D Mitigation chapt e r of this Manual for detailed 
information. 


2.1.6. Large Woody Debris (LWD) 


Large woody debris is recruited to the stream channel throughout the year by a 
variety of natural processes including bank erosion, landslides, windstorms, and 
tree mortality. The LWD evaluation and implementation program includes an 
assessment of the ecological, geomorphic and hydraulic effects (creek, canal and 
stream gauge functions) of LWD in the creeks of Santa Clara County. The evaluation 
and implementation program will balance flood protection objectives while 


maintaining the ecological integrity of our local 
streams. 

The LWD program pertains to the in-stream 
area which is defined as the stream channel 
within bankfull ordinary high water discharge 
demarcations. The term 'bankfull' ordinary 
high water is defined by the ACOE as that line 


1 'S - * ' -'4®. 

W* • - u-- % ■■ m, Jmc 


on the shore established bv the fluctuations of 

i — '' v. 

water and indicated by physical characteristics such as clear, natural line impressed 

on the bank, shelving, changes in the character of soil, destruction of terrestrial 


vegetation, the presence of litter and debris, or other appropriate means that 


consider the characteristics of the surrounding areas, as the incipient elevation on 



th e bank wh e r e f l ooding b e gins (Rosg e n, 1996). 


A. Purpose 

LWD provides an important ecological role in Santa Clara County 
creeks. It can also create areas of debris accumulation if not properly 
managed. A LWD program will be prepared to retain woody debris in 
streams throughout Santa Clara County in order to preserve the physical 
and biological processes associated with the natural recruitment of wood 
to waterways. This process will alter urban streams so that their behavior 


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corresponds as closely as possible with that of natural streams while 
retaining the District's ability to provide flood protection. 

B. Work Activity 

In order to effectively manage large woody debris in streams within the 
urban landscape of Santa Clara County, the District will use a four tiered, 
multi-disciplined approach for addressing LWD. The four tiers are: 1) 

Retain LWD in the channel, 2) modify LWD, 3) remove LWD and replace, 
and 4) remove LWD. LWD management may use an excavator, material 
handler, and/or crane to modify placement. 

C. Work Projections 

Large woody debris is not a projected work activity. 

D. Work Window 

LWD management will follow the same work windows as for 
vegetation management. Modification of these requirements may be 
made through the Biological Opinion of the National Marine Fisheries 
Service- 

Modification and r e mova l of l arg e woody d e bris may occur at any tim e 
of th e y e ar if an immin e nt dang e r of a f l ood thr e at pr e c l ud e s le aving th e 
wood in p l ac e . 

E. Requirements 

The full requirements are described in the LWD Program document^ 
Attachment E and the Mitigation Approach Memorandum, Appendix C 
FSEIR . Please refer to thoseat documents for implementation. B el ow is a 
bri e f d e scription of th e program. Once a determination is made and 
implemented, the LWD will be tagged and monitored. This information 
will be inputted and tracked in the District database . Mitigation for LWD is 
only required in creeks that support anadromous fish; though 
management of LWD is desired in all Santa Clara creeks. 

F. Applicable BMPs 

Vegetation Management BMPs are listed in Attachment F . These BMPs 
may be revised on an annual basis based on actual experience and site 
conditions. 


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2.2. HERBICIDE and MECHANICAL 


The District's Vegetation Management Program uses an integrated approach of 
chemical, mechanical, cultural, and some limited biological methods to manage 
vegetation on its facilities. Herbicides are used in conjunction with mechanical and 
hand vegetation suppression to support hydraulic, fire safety, and ecosystem 
functions. Herbicides are used in a manner that is least disruptive to existing or 
potential biological resources. 

Control of herbaceous vegetation in the SMP area is done for many of the same 
reasons as management of woody species. Herbaceous vegetation has the ability to 
impede flow conveyance, and create fire hazards in non-instream up l and areas 
outside of the channel bottom. Herbaceous vegetation may also have negative 
ecological impacts as it can out-compete more desirable native species, resulting in 
habitat degradation. For the purposes of the SMP, herbaceous vegetation is non- 
woody vegetation which includes grasses, broadleaf weeds, cattails, and bulrush. 
Herbaceous vegetation includes annual, biennial, and perennial plant types. 

Herbaceous vegetation control is performed to limit weed growth, seeding and 
expansion into new areas, to reduce weeds in areas of special management 
(mitigation sites), maintain road right-of-ways and firebreaks along top of bank, 
prevent vegetation encroachment by herbaceous plants, maintain vegetation free 
areas as buffers, and to provide localized treatments needed to protect facilities and 
resources. 

Guiding Principles 

The goal of SMP vegetation management is to achieve the desired control while 
balancing environmental and economic considerations. Herbicides, while often the 
most effective economically, are routinely dismissed for some applications due to 
other factors that make their use in a given situation inappropriate. In the same 
context, herbicides used appropriately are, in many cases, the most environmentally 
desirable method for achieving the desired level of vegetation control. The selection 
of an approved herbicide, coupled with the use of an appropriate surfactant per 
label recommendations can provide a higher level of control which may reduce the 
frequency needed to service an area, while also minimizing physical impacts to the 
site. Targeted use of herbicides may eliminate the need to bring in heavy mowing 
equipment or large hand crews that can be more disruptive to on-site biological 
resources. For example, rather than coming in annually to control a specific area, 
you may be able to reduce the return time to every two years. 


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2.2.1. Herbicide 


A. Purpose 

Herbicides are applied in areas where the presence of the herbaceous 
vegetation is in conflict with the maintenance standards of the facility. 
Herbicides are also routinely used to treat cut stumps after Hand Removal 
activities to prevent re-sprouting (described above). The use of herbicide 
for cut-stump treatment is a paired activity with Hand Removal. Post- 
emergent herbicides are applied to manage fire breaks in areas at the top 
of bank. 

B. Work Activity 

The application of herbicide 
occurs in-stream and on bank 
bench areas as well as on 
maintenance roads, outboard 
levee slopes, and similar non¬ 
instream areas. Herbicide 
describes a work activity and not 
the formulation used. This 
activity consists of using 
herbicide as the primary 
abatement tool to kill vegetation 
and provide subsequent follow¬ 
up for hand removal activities. 

All herbicide applications are performed using equipment appropriate 
to the specific application type. Instream herbicide application may use a 
hose and hand gun with a directed stream, or a backpack unit for smaller 
isolated areas. 

On unpaved access roads, herbicides would be sprayed from a truck- 
mounted boom to control weeds in order to allow maintenance access 
and provide firebreaks. The booms have multiple nozzles that are 
specifically calibrated to provide the dosage and spray pattern appropriate 
to the area. The application is managed from an on-board computer 
mounted in each spray rig. During the application, roads are posted closed 



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to notify the public of the application and remain so until the application 
dries to reduce the risk of incidental exposure. 

Hand Removal 'cut-stump' applications are topical herbicide 
applications as a follow-up activity to Hand Removal and are considered 
paired activities. Therefore, cut-stump applications are not defined as 
Herbicide. 'Cut-stump' applications are applied using topical equipment, 
such as a spray bottle, paintbrush, or "drip bottle". Hand Removal may 
occur where herbicide treatments have been applied to woody 
vegetation. 

C. Work Projections 

Herbicide usage is a projected work activity under Herbicide. Hand 
Removal may occur where Herbicide treatments have been applied to 
woody vegetation. Hand Removal may be substituted in areas where 
Herbicide has been projected. Pay-as-you-go vegetation removal is 
accounted for separately. 

Work that is conducted in areas not originally projected in 2002, will 
require mitigation as described in the Mitigation Approach Memorandum, 
Appendix C, 2012 SMP FSEIR , and inc l ud e d in th e Mitigation chapt e r of this 
Manua l. Work projected in the 2002 SMP has been mitigated for in 
perpetuity, will continue to have work performed in these areas, and will 
not need to calculate impacts annually. 

D. Work Window 

1. In-stream herbicide use is a projected work activity and may occur 
between June 15 - October 15. 

2. In-stream work may continue from October 16 until December 31 or 
until local rainfall greater than 0.5 inches falls within the subject 
watershed within a 24-hour period, whichever transpires first. 

3. Bank bench herbicide work may occur year round, weather permitting 
and per the product label. 


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E. Requirements 

1. All herbicide usage must have the appropriate biological surveys and 
clearances. 

2. All herbicide applications must have a Pest Control Recommendation 
provided by a California licensed Pest Control Advisor. A 
recommendation is provided after each site is surveyed and the most 
appropriate control methods for the site are determined. 

3. Foliar applications to woody vegetation are limited to under two (2) 
inches dbh and typically less than eight (8) feet in height. 

4. Herbicide use is permitted in non-instream (bank/bench) up l and areas. 

5. Herbicide use is permitted year-round on in-stream concrete sections 
(e.g. weep holes, expansion cracks) in dry channels. 

6. Unmodified streams, as defined per the maps in this document, hav e 
th e fo ll owing l imitations may perform the following work activities : 

a) Pre-emergent herbicides are permitted in non-instream 
(bank/bench) up l and areas outside of the channel banks. 

b) Post-emergent herbicides may be applied in aquatic habitats to 
control non-native and invasive plant species. 

c) Post-emergent herbicides may be applied outside the wetted 
channel (inboard slope, bank bench, and outboard slope) to control 
vegetation for fuel management, maintenance access and 
ecological requirements. 

d) Additional biological and pest control recommendations may be 
required to protect sensitive species and their habitats. 

7. Herbicides may be permitted in serpentine areas when approved by a 
qualified plant biologist and with the incorporation of measures to 
protect sensitive biological resources, as appropriate. 

Considerations for herbicide use in serpentine areas: 

a) Maintain the designed function of the facility, 

b) Management for control of invasive and non-native plants, and 

c) Protection of sensitive species and habitat. 


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8. Aquatic herbicide can only be used in California red-legged frog and 
California tiger salamander SMP mapped areas when the creek is dry 
and no rain is forecast for the next 48 hours. 

9. The use of surfactants on the 14 steelhead streams are permitted 
when: 

a. The stream is dry in the immediate work location and no rain is 
forecast for the next 24 hours. 

b. Spot spraying is necessary to control undesirable vegetation (eg. 
invasive non-native vegetation or vegetation that falls outside the 
acceptable maintenance design of the facility). 

c. Foliar spray work is a method necessary to maintain channel 
capacity per the engineering standards for the following facilities 
and locations: 

1) Stevens Creek from Highway 101 to L'Avenida Avenue 

2) Guadalupe River: 

i. Reach G thru B (500' downstream UPRR bridge to Highway 
101 ) 

ii. Branham Lane to Guadalupe Creek/Alamitos Creek 
confluence 

3) Alamitos Creek (Guadalupe River confluence to Coleman Road) 

4) Los Gatos Creek (South Bascom Avenue upstream to Camden; 
and Hwy 85 to Lark Avenue) 

5) Uvas Creek (Bloomfield Rd upstream to Santa Teresa Boulevard) 

6) Llagas Creek (confluence with the Pajaro River upstream to 
Santa Teresa Boulevard). 

10. Surfactants are permitted adjacent to steelhead streams when a 20 
foot buffer is established between the treatment area and the wetted 
flow channel. 

F. Applicable BMPs 

Vegetation Management BMPs are listed in Attachment F . These BMPs 
may be revised on an annual basis through the Lessons Learned meetings, 
based on actual experience and site conditions. 


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G. 


MOWING 


Aquatic Herbicides and Surfactants 

Only herbicides and surfactants that have been approved for aquatic 
use by the EPA and are registered for use by the CDPR will be used for 
SMP aquatic vegetation control work. The lowest recommended rate to 
achieve project objectives of both herbicides and surfactants will be 
utilized to achieve desired control. An indicator dye may be added to the 
tank mix to help the applicator identify areas that have been treated and 
better monitor the overall application. 

Surfactants 

Surfactants are a separate category of materials that are added to 
herbicide mixtures to enhance their performance. The surfactant may 
assist with spreading over the vegetation, sticking to the foliage, 
penetrating thick cuticles or other activities that increase the efficacy of 
the application. Most aquatic herbicides either require or highly 
recommend the use of a surfactant to achieve reasonable levels of control. 
In instances where surfactants are absent from the tank mix, the level of 
control is often reduced. A reduction in control causes a greater return 
frequency which translates to more herbicide being used in the system 
and more frequent disturbance to the site. 

Surfactant use will be limited to the products which are documented 
to have the least toxic affect to aquatic life. Currently, Agridex and Hasten 
(also known as Competitor) are documented as the least toxic in the 
NOAA 2006 Supplemental Environmental Assessment of NOAA Fisheries 
Implementation Plan for the Community Based Restoration Program. 
(NOAA Restoration Center. Silver Springs, MD). As new technologies and 
chemistry becomes available, the District will evaluate its program and 
adopt materials that achieve optimum control while affording the best 
protection to environmental resources. The District has a series of OEMS 
Documents, including- Q751D02 - Control and Oversight of Pesticide Use 
that define the processes for modifications to the Herbicide program. 

2.2.2. Mowing 


A. Purpose 

Mowing provides visual access for facility inspections and may be 
required for flow conveyance capacity and to meet local fire codes. Local 


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fire codes call for all weeds and grasses to be maintained below 6" in 
height for 10' horizontally on both sides of access routes. Vegetation must 
be cut back 30' around any structures and a 30' firebreak must be 
maintained. Parcels up to one acre in size must be completely mowed. All 
work is performed to conform to local fire code requirements. Mowing is 
the area-wide cutting of above ground plant material by mechanized or 
hand-held equipment. Work primarily occurs in the bank bench/outboard 
areas; though may also be tidally influenced if the area is near the Bay. 

B. Work Activity 

Area-wide cutting of above ground plant material using a tractor 
mounted flail mower or hand-held equipment (weed-eaters). Work 
primarily occurs in the bank bench/outboard areas; though may also be 
tidally influenced if the area is nearthe Bay. 

C. Work Projections 

Mowing is a projected work activity. Areas currently managed by 
discing may be added to the mowing program if discing is deemed an 
undesirable management method. Work that is conducted in areas not 
originally projected in 2002, will require mitigation as described in the 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum, Appendix C, 2012 FSEIR 2012 SMP 
FE I R, and inc l ud e d in th e Mitigation chapt e r of this Manua l. Work 
projected in the 2002 SMP is part of the original program, and will 
continue to have work performed in these areas, and will not need to 
calculate impacts annually. 

D. Work Window 

Mowing may occur from February 1st to November 30 th . 

E. Requirements 

All standard procedures for biological clearances apply. Since much of 
this work is performed by contractors, annual Best Management Practice 
(BMP) training is required and BMP checklists shall be completed daily by 
the contractor. 


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F. Applicable BMPs 

BMPs are listed in Attachment F . These BMPs may be revised on an 
annual basis through the Lessons Learned meetings, based on actual 
experience and site conditions. 


2.2.3. Discing 


DISCING 


A. Purpose 

Discing is another tool used for herbaceous vegetation control. 
Discing is the area-wide removal of above ground herbaceous plant 
material by tilling the soil using a disc. All work is performed to 
conform to local fire code requirements. 

B. Work Activity 

Discing is the removal of above ground herbaceous plant 
material in a defined area, by tilling the soil using a tractor drawn 
disc or similar implement. Discing is performed in non-instream 
areas. 

C. Work Projections 

Discing is a projected work activity. Work that is conducted in 

areas not originally projected as mowing in 2002, will require 
mitigation as described in the Mitigation Approach Memorandum, 
Appendix C,4 be 2012 SMP FSEIR , and inc l ud e d in th e Mitigation 
chapt e r of this Manua l. Work projected in the 2002 SMP is part of 
the original Program, and will continue to have work performed in 
these areas, and will not need to calculate impacts annually. 

D. Work Window 

Discing may occur from February 1 - October 15. 


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Requirements 


All standard procedures for biological clearances apply. 


Applicable BMPs 

BMPs are listed in Attachment F . These BMPs may be 
revised on an annual basis through the Lessons Learned 
meetings, based on actual experience and site conditions. 


2.2.4. Flaming 


A. Purpose 

A hand-held propane gas-powered flamer may be used 
to control weed seedlings. Operation of a flamer is a useful 
alternative when non-target plants have known sensitivity 
to herbicide drift. It may also be useful in deterring annual 
exotics from invading a native, perennial habitat type, as 
when poison hemlock or perennial peppergrass seedlings 
invade a temperate Pacific tidal salt or brackish marsh. 

B. Work Activity 

A flamer is a gas powered hand-held wand that delivers a 
directed torch flame fueled by a propane canister. An 
individual would walk the project site carrying the 
flamer. Cell contents of the weed expand with the heat in a 
few seconds, bursting cell walls, leaving the plant 
wilted. Steam, not smoke, is the by-product. Upright, 
broad-leaved weeds from 34 to 1 inch tall are most 
effectively controlled by this method; grasses or rosettes are 
more difficult. If the ground substrate is flammable [e.g. 
wood mulch, leaf litter], it should be wet or moist when 
flamed. Non-flammable substrates such as rocked 
maintenance roads, cellular concrete mat [CCM], driveways, 
sidewalks, concrete floodwall seams, gabions [check the wire tolerance], 
gravel bars, marshes, weepholes and expansion joints in concrete line 



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c. 


GRAZING 


creeks, canals or spillways, etc. are ideal for this tool. Smooth substrates 
allow even application of heat; rough surfaces allow weeds to evade the 
torch effects. 

Work Projections 

Use of a flamer is not a projected work activity and is permitted 
throughout the program area. 

D. Work Window 

Work may occur year round, though usually occurs between 
October and February, weather permitting. 

E. Requirements 

All standard procedures for biological clearances apply. Flamers 
shall be used only by trained qualified staff in strict compliance with 
all applicable regulations. Flamers shall not be used during periods 
of high fire danger or in areas where fuel or climate conditions 
could cause an accidental fire. Local fire districts may request 
notification prior to use. 

F. Applicable BMPs 

BMPs are listed in Attachment F . These BMPs may be revised on 
an annual basis through the Lessons Learned meetings, based on 
actual experience and site conditions. 


2.2.5. Grazing 


A. Purpose 

In limited circumstances, grazing may be used for herbaceous weed 
control on District facilities. Grazing uses various species of domestic 
animals to provide non-targeted weed control. Animals include goats, 
sheep and other appropriate animals. Larger scale grazing by cattle is 
normally not appropriate for District facilities. 


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B. Work Activity 

Small herds are put on parcels after evaluation by biological staff to 
identify sensitive resources. Vegetation to be preserved is fenced off as a 
protective measure. Grazing is excluded from channels and other water 
resources. If a sensitive water body is within the grazing area, it will be 
excluded with fencing. 

C. Work Projections 

Grazing is not a distinct projected work activity as it is permitted where 
mowing, discing, herbicide, or non-instream hand removal is projected. 
Grazing is permitted year round though it is typically done in the spring 
and summer when vegetation is young and still palatable to the livestock. 

D. Work Window 

Work may occur year round. 

E. Requirements 

All standard procedures for biological clearances apply. 

F. Applicable BMPs 

BMPs are listed in Attachment F. These BMPs may be revised on an 
annual basis based on actual experience and site conditions. 


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3. SEDIMENT REMOVAL 


A. Purpose 

Sediment removal is the act of mechanically removing sediment deposited 
within a creek or canal. Sediment removal is necessary when an accumulation of 
sediment: (1) reduces flow conveyance capacity; (2) prevents facilities or 
appurtenant structures from functioning as intended; or (3) impedes fish passage 
and access to fish ladders. The District's purpose in performing sediment removal 
activities is to ensure that a creek or canal will continue to provide flood capacity 
and that appurtenant facilities will function as designed. During th e f i rst n i n e (9) 
y e ars of th e SMP, 2002 - 2010, th e av e rag e l e ngth of a s e d i m e nt job was 1643 f ee t; 

r e mov i ng an av e rag e of 661 cub i c yards of s e dim e nt annua ll y. 4 

Please refer to the Canal Maintenance section for work in canals. 

B. Work Activity 

Sediment may be removed from creek 
channel beds and canals with various 
pieces of equipment, including but not 
limited to excavators, long-reach 
excavators, bulldozers, scrapers, or front- 
end loaders. Sediment removal is usually 
conducted from the top-of-bank using one 
or more excavators. If the channel shape 
or the presence of mature vegetation along the channel banks prevents working 
from the top-of-bank, then the excavator may be positioned lower on the 
channel banks or within the channel bed using an existing access ramp, if 
available. Working within the channel may require the construction of temporary 
access ramps. Where practicable and necessary, smaller equipment can be 
lowered directly into the channel from a nearby stream crossing to minimize 
impacts associated with sediment removal operation. For smaller scale localized 
sediment removal or culvert clearing projects small loaders or excavators may be 
used within the culvert. Once excavated, sediment is typically either placed 
directly into dump trucks parked on the access road or stockpiled into central 
locations along the channel, where another operation subsequently lifts the 
stockpiled material into adjacent dump trucks. 



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Channel Access and Staging 

Access to maintenance sites will occur via existing, adjacent access roads 
where present. Most SCVWD-maintained channels have at least one existing 
access road running along the top-of-bank on one side of the channel. Some 
channels have an access road on either side of the channel; and others may have 
a lower maintenance road along the lower level banks. When the channel 
shape, bank height, or the presence of mature vegetation prevents the use of the 
top-of-bank access roads, equipment can move down the channel slope via 
existing access ramps, or forge a new temporary access route. Selective clearing 
of shrubs or trees may be necessary on the banks to provide equipment access to 
the channel bed. 

In the event that work will be performed within the channel bottom, all work 
will be performed in dry conditions or within an area dewatered by a stream flow 
bypass system. 

C. Work Projections 

Sediment removal is a projected work activity. During the first nine years of 
the SMP (2002-2010), the District removed an average of 42,088 cubic yards of 
sediment in the Santa Clara Basin and 1,376 cubic yards from the Pajaro Basin 
each year. The total linear extent of sediment removal activity, including 
repeated work areas, was 56.25 miles of creeks, with 52.12 miles of work in the 
Santa Clara Basin and 4.13 miles in the Pajaro Basin from 2002-2009. 

1. Projection Estimates 

Sediment removal projections for the 2012-2022 work period are listed 
below per watershed. It is projected that 35.4 miles and 7.4 miles of 
sediment removal work will occur in the Santa Clara and Pajaro basins 
respectively during the 2012-2022 period. 


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Sediment Removal Projections for 2012 - 2022 


Watershed 

2012-2022 
Total Projected 
Sediment Removal 
(miles)* 

New Work Areas 

for 2012-2022 
(miles) 

Work Areas from 

2002-2012 

Not Projected for 
2012-2022 (miles) 

Santa Clara Basin 




Lower Peninsula 

3.9 

0.7 

2.6 

West Valley 

3.8 

0.9 

8.3 

Guadalupe 

11 

8.7 

0 

Coyote 

16.7 

5.9 

0.7 

Pajaro Basin 




Pajaro 

7.4 

3.1 

3.5 

Total 

42.8 miles 

19.3 miles 

15.1 miles 


2. Work Proj e ction Manag e m e nt 


- S e dim e nt r e mova l can b e p e rform e d in any str e am und e r District 

jurisdiction, e v e n wh e n a l ocation is not inc l ud e d in th e proj e ct e d work 

ar e a, if docum e ntation can b e shown that: 

a) Th e work is consist e nt with th e Faci l ity Maint e nanc e Guid el in e s, 

b) Th e work is n ee d e d to maintain th e f l ood conv e yanc e capacity but 

do e s not incr e as e th e d e sign e d f l ood conv e yanc e capacity, and 

c) — Work is not sp e cifica ll y e xc l ud e d in th e SMP. 

Work that is conduct e d in ar e as not origina ll y proj e ct e d in 2002, 

wi ll r e quir e mitigation as d e scrib e d in th e 2012 SMP FE I R, and inc l ud e d 

in th e Mitigation chapt e r of this Manua l . Work proj e ct e d in th e 2002 

SMP has b ee n mitigat e d for in p e rp e tuity, wi ll continu e to hav e work 

p e rform e d in th e s e ar e as, and wi ll not n ee d to ca l cu l at e impacts 

annua ll y. 

D. Work Window 

Sediment removal may occur during the work window of June 15 - October 
15. Water quality monitoring shall be performed per the Water Quality 
Monitoring Plan and all excavated sediment shall be tested per the Sediment 

Characterization Plan. Wat e r qua l ity monitoring sha ll b e p e rform e d p e r th e 
S e dim e nt Monitoring Protoco l s at e ach s e dim e nt r e mova l sit e . 


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1. Extended Work Window. An e xt e nd e d work window may occur from 
Octob e r 15 — D e c e mb e r 31. Th e work window e xt e nsion a ll ows for th e 
continuation of work during dry tim e p e riods 

a. Creeks supporting anadromous fish: 

An extended work window may occur from October 16 through 
October 31, or until local rainfall of 0.5 inches or greater falls within 
the subject watershed within a 24-hour period, whichever occurs 
first . 

b. Creeks not supporting anadromous fish: 

An extended work window may occur from October 16 through 
November 30 th , or until local rainfall of 0.5 inches or greater falls 
within the subject watershed within a 24-hour period, whichever 
occurs first. 


2. Extended Work Window in Lower Quality Areas R e quir e m e nts : 

a) Work may occur continu e from October 16 until December 31©f 
unti l l oca l rainfa ll of 0.5 inch e s or gr e at e r fa ll s within th e subj e ct 
wat e rsh e d within a 2^1 - hour p e riod, which e v e r transpir e s first . 

b) Work areas will be included in the annual NPW. 

c) Work will only may occur aft e r a significant rainfa ll e v e nt of 0.5 
inch e s within a 2 4 hour p e riod, on l y within Berryessa Creek (0- 
88+80; 232+70-236+00; 284+30-288+00), Lower Silver Creek (Reach 
3 between Stations 37+40 and 381+19)), Thompson Creek (0+00- 
10+00), Canoas Creek (0+00-390+00), Ross Creek (0+00-86+30), 
Calabazas Creek (35+00-105+00), and San Tomas Aquino Creek 
(80+00-100+00), if: 

i. a preconstruction biological survey is performed and 
clearance provided, 

ii. site conditions are dry and access for all construction 
equipment and vehicles will not impact roadways, 

iii. water diversions will not be allowed, 

iv. all work will stop if any rainfall event is forecast three (3) 
days into the future, and an 

v. e mai l notification of work wi ll b e provid e d to th e r e gu l atory 
ag e nci e s two (2) days in advanc e of sch e du le d work. 

e)—Ssites must be maintained in a winterized state. (See section 4. 

Bank Stabilization, l. g lossary for a definition of winterization.) 

d) Work may occur after a significant rainfall event but no later than 
December 31. 


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E. Applicable BMPs 

Specific BMPs that are applicable to sediment removal activities are listed in 
Attachment F . These BMPs may be revised on an annual basis based on actual 
experience and site conditions. 

F. Mitigation 

Work that is conducted in areas not originally projected in 2002, will be 
Mitigation for s e dim e nt r e mova l is calculated annually and determined per the 
requirements of the mitigation package described in the Mitigation Approach 
Memorandum, Appendix C, Final SEIR and summariz e d in th e Mitigation chapt e r 
of this Manua l, d e scrib e d in th e 2012 SMP FE I R, and inc l ud e d in th e Mitigation 
chapt e r of this Manua l . Work projected in the 2002 SMP has been mitigated for 
in perpetuity, will continue to have work performed in these areas, and will not 
need to calculate impacts annually. 

G. Annual Notification and Reporting 

See the Water Quality Monitoring Plan and Sediment Characterization Plan 
Monitoring and R e porting chapt e r of this Manua l for a_description of reports that 
must be submitted to regulatory agencies during implementation of the SMP. 

H. Water Quality Monitoring Plan For Sediment Removal 

Minimum field sampling must be done for any site with active diversions. See 
the Water Quality Monitoring Plan for information on: (1) additional monitoring 
efforts and regulatory agency notification in case of exceedance of Receiving 
Water Limitations; (2) monitoring procedure; (3) monitoring for bladder dam use; 
(4) monitoring for new turbidity control BMPs; and (5) details on type of records 
and field documentation to be kept by District staff. 

I. Sediment Characterization Plan For Sediment Removal 

Sediment characterization is required for each sediment removal site. See the 
Sediment Characterization Plan for more information on: (1) additional 
information selecting random sampling location and how to determine the 
number of samples at each site; (2) sampling and analytical procedures used; and 
(3) details on type of records and field documentation to be kept by District staff. 


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4. BANK STABILIZATION 


A. Purpose 

Bank stabilization involves an action by the District to repair creek banks, 
levees and beds that are eroding or are in need of erosion protection. The District 
may implement bank stabilization when the problem: (1) causes or could cause 
significant damage to SCVWD property and/or adjacent property; or (2) is a 
public safety concern. Additional benefits of stabilizing eroding stream banks 
include reducing instream sedimentation, and protecting water quality and other 
beneficial uses such as riparian habitat and recreation. Repairs may take several 
forms from installing "hard" structures (e.g., concrete, sack concrete) to "soft" 
structures (e.g., willow brush mattresses, log crib walls, pole-plantings) or a 
combination (hybrid) of hard and soft structures. Bank stabilization also includes 
preventative maintenance to reduce the chances of banks eroding in the future. 
Such bank stabilization can potentially balance sediment and improve water 
quality. 

Creek bank erosion is a natural process and mostly occurs during, or 
following, major storm events. Erosion can occur due to hydraulic forces and 
geotechnical conditions, and can be accelerated by adjacent land uses. Bank 
erosion can lower the stream bank and thereby increase the flood risk to 
adjacent properties. Bank erosion can also lead to increased downstream 
deposition which may further reduce conveyance capacity and increase the flood 
risk. Bank erosion may also cause vegetation and soil loss, damage to private or 
public property, transportation (trails and access roads), recreation, and utilities. 
Erosional conditions can increase turbidity which can be injurious to fish and 
aquatic life. 

Sites with eroding or destabilized banks are evaluated for their local on-site 
soil conditions, slope stability, channel position, and geomorphic processes. A 
District engineer determines the most appropriate treatment to stabilize the 
bank, with consideration of habitat, species use, and other site beneficial uses. 
(See flow chart at the end of this chapter.) Based on the streambank conditions, 
the District design engineer will develop a treatment approach that stabilizes the 
streambank while trying to minimize the use of hardscape. In order to minimize 
temporal impacts to aquatic species due to failures of softer repairs and resulting 
sedimentation, a hardscape repair may minimize repeat work in an area and 
provide a long-term enhanced creek reach. 


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B. Work Activities 

Bank stabilization activities may include installing "soft structures" (e.g., 
willow brush mattresses, log crib walls, and pole plantings), "hard structures" 
(e.g., concrete, sacked concrete), or a combination (hybrid) of hard and soft 
structures (shown in Attachment A of the Program Manual). Hybrid bank 
stabilization refers to a combination approach whereby softscape bank 

stabilization approaches like live construction, contour wattling, brush 
mattresses, or surface erosion matting are combined with a limited amount of 

rock toe protection at the base of the bank stabilization site. Additional boulders 

at the toe of the bank treatment is only applied if necessary, if there are hydraulic 

shear forces affecting the bank site, or geologic slumping or mass wasting forces 

affecting the site (because of the site's position or slope) that require the 

additional presence of mass/rock at the base of the slope. 

Based on the existing channel functions at erosion 
sites, a treatment approach is developed that seeks to 
stabilize the streambank while minimizing the use of 
hardscape, but ensures that required flood protection 
elements are not compromised. Bank stabilization 
activities will use bioengineering approaches when 
feasible and appropriate to stabilize eroding 
streambanks. Softer approaches typically involve 
removing existing undesirable soil and material from the 
failed bank, reconstructing the bank by placing and 
compacting back-fill soils, installing seeding or erosion 
control fabric, and planting of native riparian vegetation at the top-of-bank, on 
the slope, and at the toe-of-slope to provide additional bank stability. If the 
situation requires it (i.e., due to high channel velocities, channel constrictions, 
controlling structures, or other limitations), rock riprap may be installed at the 
base of the rebuilt bank to provide additional strength (e.g., resistance against 
high shear stresses caused by high channel velocities) and reduce the likelihood 
of future maintenance at the site. In some cases, site conditions my require rock 
riprap installed to a higher elevation than just the base area. For installation of 
hard structures, existing undesirable soil and material from the failed bank is 
removed and the bank is reconstructed by placement of back-fill soil and the 
hardscape material. 

Equipment used for bank stabilization activities may include excavators, 
bulldozers, cranes, front-end loaders, dump trucks, water trucks, pumps, 



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generators, compactors, and hand operated thumpers. Staging typically occurs 
on adjacent access roads or lands, if available, or within the work area. Where 
possible, soil and riprap are staged in areas that have been previously disturbed 
(i.e., service road, turn-outs, etc). 

When repairs are made, banks are recontoured to match the adjacent bank 
slope (i.e., returned to pre-failure configuration), to the extent possible per site. 

If a riparian zone is present adjacent to the bank failure site, care will be taken to 
disturb the least amount of vegetation, including mature trees. 

The District has included 13 bank stabilization methods (and sub-methods). 
Please see the Bank Stabilization Methods Table at the end of this section for a 
listing of the methods, mitigation and agency review requirements. Attachment 
A provides additional detail including conceptual schematics for each method. 

Channel Access and Staging 

Access to maintenance sites will occur via existing, adjacent access roads 
where present. Most SCVWD-maintained channels have at least one existing 
access road running along the top-of-bank on one side of the channel. Some 
channels have an access road on either side of the channel; and others may have 
a lower maintenance road along the lower level banks. When the channel shape, 
bank height, or the presence of mature vegetation prevents the use of the top-of- 
bank access roads, equipment can move down the channel slope via existing 
access ramps, or forge a new temporary access route. Selective clearing of 
shrubs or trees may be necessary on the banks to provide equipment access to 
the channel bed. 

Tree removals necessary for bank stabilization activities would occur in a 

consistent manner as described above in Section 2.1.4 Hand Removal, G. 

Requirements. This includes any required mitigation for the removal of trees that 

occurs in relation to bank stabilization projects. 

In the event that work will be performed within the channel bottom, all work 
will be performed in dry conditions or within an area dewatered by a stream flow 
bypass system. 

C. Work Projection 

Bank stabilization work can be performed in any creek under District 
jurisdiction unless specifically excluded by this Program. Bank stabilization is not 


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a projected activity since it cannot be pre-determined where a site will need 
repairs. The District has made a commitment that no more than half of the 
annual bank stabilization projects (in all watersheds combined) will be of 
impervious hardscape. 

The District performs an estimated average of one mile of bank stabilization 
work each year. 

D. Work Window 

Bank stabilization work is allowed during the work window of June 15 - 
October 15. If a work extension is granted is mor e than 50% comp le t e on Octob e r 
i5, it may continue until the approved date stated below -or until the first 5- 
clav 72-hour forecast that includes significant rainfall. Significant rainfall is defined 
as local rainfall of 0.5 inches or greater that falls within a 24-hour period in the 
subject watershed. Winterization materials will be available and on-site when 
rain falls. Winterization will be completed by the actual rainfall event. A ll work 
must b e comp le t e d by D e c e mb e r 31. 

Extended Work Windows 


1. In Creeks Supporting Anadromous Fish 

An extended work window may occur until October 31 st for bank 
stabilization projects that will be 50% complete by October 15 th . 

2. In Creeks Not Supporting Anadromous Fish 

a. An extended work window may occur from October 16 until 
November 30 th for projects that will be 50% complete by October 
15 th , or until significant rainfall. 

b. An extended work window may occur from October 16 until 
November 30 th for new bank stabilization projects that will be 
completed in five (5) days or less, or until significant rainfall. 

E. Requirements 

Except for in-kind repairs, all hardscape method designs will be submitted to 
the agencies through the NPW. Hardscape designs in the 14 designated 
steelhead creeks will include a scientifically sound justification for the use of 
hardscape in steelhead creeks. Water quality monitoring shall be performed per 


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the Water Quality Monitoring Plan and all excavated sediment shall be tested per 
the Sediment Characterization Plan. 


F. Applicable BMPs 

Specific BMPs that are applicable to bank stabilization activities are listed in 
Attachment F . These BMPs may be revised on an annual basis through the 
external Lessons Learned process, based on actual experience and site 
conditions. 

G. Mitigation 

Mitigation for bank stabilization work is determined on a project, site specific, 
annual basis per the mitigation ratios provided for in the Bank Stabilization 
Methods Table and per the requirements abi l iti e s described in the Mitigation 
Approach Memorandum, Appendix C FSEIR chapt e r of this Manua l. A Mitigation 
Feasibility Assessment will be performed at each bank stabilization site to 
determine the mitigation potential and success criteria per work site. The 
Mitigation Feasibility Assessment (MFA) process will evaluate site specific 
conditions and potential ecological functions at the site to determine the most 
suitable mitigation approach. The MFA process is described further below in 
Section H and in Attachment B. 

The watershed engineer will develop the bank stabilization design with input 
from biological and horticultural staff. Integrating the needs of the repair site 
while considering the potential impacts to vegetation during the design process, 
will enhance the success of the stabilization project. Removal of any tree for a 
bank stabilization project, including tree removals for the purposes of access 
and/or staging, will be mitigated as described in Section 2.1.4 Hand Removal, G. 
Requirements th e Mitigation chapt e r . An exception for removal of trees >12" dbh 
may be permitted if necessary for the success of the bank repair and as approved 
through the NPW. Mitigation requirements will be determined via the Tree 
Scoring for Removal of Trees and Shrubs 6 -12" dbh, April 2011 (Attachment C of 
thisSMP Program Manual 2012-2022). 

The Bank Stabilization Methods Table includes the standard revegetation 
mitigation required per method used. The MFA process will determine the 
appropriate success criteria for the required mitigation given the project site 
conditions. The addition of appropriate native vegetation to unvegetated 


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hardscape methods that meet all revegetation success criteria can be considered 
for on-site mitigation credit. 

H. Mitigation Feasibility Assessment 

A Mitigation Feasibility Assessment (MFA) will be performed prior to finalizing 
the bank stabilization design to determine the revegetation potential of each 
bank repair site. The MFA will assess what plant species can be supported by the 
site and what the resulting success criteria should be based on the chosen 
species palette and site conditions. Site conditions with low value habitat have 
lower success criteria for cover and survival since the site conditions are less 
desirable and more challenging. High value habitat conditions support 
revegetation plantings and can achieve higher success criteria. See Attachment B 
of this SMP Program Manual 2012-2022, Mitigation Feasibility Assessment Field 
Protocol, July 2011 for implementation. 

1. Purpose 

Beyond simply installing mitigation on-site, it is an objective of the 
program to ensure feasible and the longer term sustainability of successful 
mitigation. The District's mitigation for bank stabilization projects will 
appropriately reflect site capabilities using the MFA. Planting species 
appropriate to the site conditions will promote a more successful 
revegetation program, in addition to a more efficient use of staff and natural 
resources. If a site has poor conditions yet is still desirable to plant, lower 
success criteria will be established to account for the poor site specific 
conditions. This will enable some replanting prior to seeking off-site 
mitigation. If the MFA results in a highly constrained site, then off-site 
mitigation will be considered to ensure greater revegetation success. 

2. Site Assessment 

The feasibility of mitigation depends on the opportunities and constraints 
of each bank stabilization site. These opportunities and constraints should be 
identified as part of the project planning process, prior to finalizing the bank 
repair design and regulatory agency review. The success criteria for 
mitigation should be evaluated and adjusted based on these findings. 
Mitigation credit may also be provided to include site enhancements, such as 
soil amendments, that would increase the site's MFA potential. 


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3. MFA Categories 

The MFA will result in a revegetation potential divided into three separate 
categories: high, medium and low. Each of these categories is based on the 
presence or absence of specific attributes (opportunities and constraints) 
assessed for the site. If the project site is limited and it is determined that off¬ 
site mitigation is preferred, off-site locations will be evaluated using the same 
MFA. 

Mitigation planting for bank stabilization projects will depend on the MFA 
for determining the appropriate site design and will be included in the NPW 
may r e quir e r e gu l atory ag e ncy r e vi e w and approva l prior to commencing 
work. 

I. Winterization 

Winterization is the process to prepare and maintain work sites with the 
appropriate BMP's to prevent erosion, sediment transport, and protect water 
quality during the rainy season. Every bank stabilization project is winterized 
upon completion. For projects that are not finished by October 15 th , the District 
relies on weather forecasts to prepare for anticipated significant rainfall. After 
October 15 th , seventy-two-hour look-ahead weather forecasts from the National 
Weather Service (or local vendor such as the Western Weather Group) are 
consulted to prepare for possible winterization measures. If a significant rainfall 
is forecast within the coming 72-hr forecast window, then maintenance work that 
may result in sediment runoff to the stream shall be stopped, to allow adequate 
time to complete erosion control measures. Winterization materials will be 
available and on-site if rain falls after October 15 th . 


Winterization is the process to maintain project sites with the appropriate 
BMPs to prevent erosion, sediment transport, and protect water quality. 
Winterization occurs upon completion of bank repairs or on incomplete projects 
after October 15 and prior to the forecast of significant rainfall, 0.5 inches or 
greater of rainfall within 24 hours in the subject watershed. Winterization shall 
be completed prior to the occurrence of such actual significant rainfall. 
Winterization materials will be available and on-site when rain falls after October 
15. 

Winterization includes erosion control practices, sediment control practices, 
and general site and materials management. 


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Basic ground rules for winterization: 


1 . 

Direct runoff awav from disturbed areas. 

2. 

Retain existing vegetation as much as possible. 

3. 

Fit grading to the surrounding terrain. 

4. 

Prepare temporary drainages and outlets. 

5. 

Grade/excavate outside of rainv season. 

6. 

Minimize length and steepness of slope. 

7. 

Stabilize disturbed areas bv mulching, vegetating (hvdromulching, 


hvdroseeding, hydraulic matrices, blankets, etc.). 

8. 

Use everv dissipating measure to keep runoff velocities low. 

9. 

10. 

Trap sediment on site. 

Inspect, log, and maintain control measures after each storm. 

Proper use of erosion and sediment control BMPs requires training bv 

experienced professionals. Certifications are available through the IECA 

(International Erosion Control Association). 


J. Annual Notification and Reporting 

Regulatory staff must review and indicate approval for bank stabilization 
designs that use hard materials. These methods are specified in the Bank 
Stabilization Methods Table at the end of this section. Regulatory agency staff 
have 30 days to respond to a proposed bank stabilization project requiring their 
approval. Written responses of "no comment" are requested. If no comments 
are received upon 30 days, the project proposals are presumed to be approved. 
Proposals for bank stabilization designs which require pre-review can be 
submitted at any time of year. 

The submitted review plans for bank stabilization projects will consist of: 

1) A plan view of the erosion site, 

2) A cross-section of the erosion site, 

3) Photographs of the site, 

4) Repair method selected, 

5) Brief description of why the method was selected, 

6) Description of mitigation, if any, including the MFA results, 

7) Identification of representative sites that will be monitored, and 

8) Explanation for the use of hardscape in the 14 steelhead creeks, if 
applicable. 


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S ee th e Monitoring and R e porting chapt e r for a d e scription of du e dat e s and 

r e ports that must b e submitt e d to r e gu l atory ag e nci e s during imp le m e ntation of 

th e SMP. 

K. Monitoring of Completed Bank Stabilization Projects 

The completed monitoring forms will be submitted with the May Notice 
fication of Proposed Work (NPW). Following submittal of the NPW no further 
evaluation for submittal is required under the Stream Maintenance Program 
CEQA and associated regulatory approvals. 

Each year in the May NPW, the District will identify any bank stabilization 
monitoring sites. This monitoring will include a visual observation of evidence of 
erosion upstream and downstream of the site (i.e., 200 feet), condition of the 
bank stabilization repair, and condition of vegetation planting. 

Table 1. Bank Stabilization Methods Table 


I.D. 

No. 

Method 

Mitigation Ratio 

Hard 2 -/Soft- 

scape 

Requires Plan 
Review by 
Agencies 

1 

Earth Repair 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

1A 

Earth Repair with 

Buried Rock 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

2 

Live Construction 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

2A 

Live Construction 

with BoulderToe 

1:1 if boulder 
toe is vegetated 
1 / 2:1 if boulder 

toe is not 
vegetated 

Vegetated: 

hybrid 

Not 

vegetated: hard 

No 

2B 

Live Construction 
with Log Toe 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

3 

Contour Wattling 

1:1 

Soft 

No 


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I.D. 

No. 

Method 

Mitigation Ratio 

Hard 2 -/Soft- 

scape 

Requires Plan 
Review by 
Agencies 

3A 

Contour Wattling 
with BoulderToe 

1:1 if boulder 
toe is vegetated 
V/ 2 :l if boulder 

toe is not 
vegetated 

Soft 

No 

3B 

Contour Wattling 
with Log Toe 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

4 

Brush Mattress 
(Brush Layering) 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

4A 

Brush Mattress 
(Brush Layering) with 
BoulderToe 

1:1 if boulder 
toe is vegetated 
1 / 2:1 if boulder 

toe is not 
vegetated 

Vegetated: 

hybrid 

Not 

vegetated: hard 

No 

4B 

Brush Mattress 
(Brush Layering) with 

Log Toe 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

5 

Surface Matting 
(Erosion Mats) 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

5A 

Surface Matting 
(Erosion Mats) with 
BoulderToe 

1:1 if boulder 
toe is vegetated 
1 / 2:1 if boulder 

toe is not 
vegetated 

Vegetated: 

hybrid 

Not 

vegetated: hard 

No 

5B 

Surface Matting 
(Erosion Mats) with Log 

Toe 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

6 

Add Rock to Invert 

1:1 

hybrid 

No 

6A 

Rock Cross Vanes 

1:1 

hybrid 

No 

6B 

Root Wads and 

Boulders 

1:1 

hybrid 

No 

6C 

Live Log Crib Walls 

1:1 

Soft 

No 


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2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


I.D. 

No. 

Method 

Mitigation Ratio 

Hard 2 -/Soft- 

scape 

Requires Plan 
Review by 
Agencies 

6D 

Log Revetment 

1:1 

hybrid 

No 

7 

Cellular Confinement 
System 

2:1 

Hard 

Yes 

8 

Rock Blanket 

2:1 

Hard 

Yes 

8A 

Boulder Revetment 

2:1 

Hard 

Yes 

8B 

Boulder Revetment 
with Soil and Vegetation 

1:1 

hybrid 

Yes 

9 

Articulated Concrete 

Blocks 

3:1 

Hard 

Yes 

9A 

Articulated Concrete 

Blocks with Planted 

Areas 

2:1 

Hard 

Yes 

10 

Concrete Crib Walls 

3:1 

Hard 

Yes 

11 

Sacked Concrete 

3:1 

Hard 

Yes 

12 

Gunite Slope 

Protection 

3:1 

Hard 

Yes 

13 1 

Earth with Rock Toe 

on Grass Lined Channels 

None if rock is 

below bankfull 
depth, and the 
mitigation ratio as 
specified in ID no. 
1 thru 12 for areas 

above bankfull 
depth 

Soft/hybrid 

No 


1 Grass lined channels are those where grass is the predominant or sole vegetation, 
and that contain no significant riparian structure. The NPW submittal will include 
photographs and descriptions to justify use of this line item. 


2 All hardscape repair methods will be reviewed by the agencies. 


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Bank Stabilization Method Selection Process 


Attachment A 


Report of 
Erosion 


I 


K 

Evaluate: 
Need to 
Repair? 


<a| x > 


Monitor 

Site for 


Future Need 



U 


Field Assessment: 

IDENTIFY Relevant Factors: 

Benefits of a project 
Site opportunities and 
constraints 

Need for special site studies 
U/s and d/s conditions 
Geomorphic conditions 
Bank conditions 
Causal factors 
Soil parameters 
Evidence of OHW 
Channel cross-section 
Vegetation conditions 
Fish and wildlife use of area 
Structure and natural 
hard points 
Access conditions 


Other data and Engineering: 

EVALUATE Relevant Factors: 

• Right-of-way information 

• Fish and wildlife data 

• Endangered species data 

• Engineering calculations: 

- hydrology 

- hydraulics 

- hydraulic geometry 

- geotechnical 



IDENTIFY all reasonable solutions for the site and 
EVALUATE each for the following criteria: 


Alternative Selection 




1. Does it address the erosion/risk hazard? 


Alternative 

dropped 




2. Is the alternative technically feasible? 



3. Evaluate environmental impacts. 

Rank alternative in order of minimum environmental 
impact. 

Evaluate mitigation requirement and cost. 

Select most appropriate alternative. 



4. SMP/Regulatory Review 
Is the repair method covered under the SMP 
and the regulatory permits? 

• Is it consistent with the FSEIR? 



Submit as an 
alternative in 
the NPW to the 
agencies 



Follow BMPs and other resource protection protocols 
for implementation. 


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2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


5. MANAGEMENT of ANIMAL CONFLICTS 


A. Purpose 

Animals may damage District facilities by burrowing into levees, banks and along 
canals, forage on mitigation sites, and interfere with work activities. Animal burrows in 
levees and banks may threaten their structural integrity which can lead to failure, 
sloughing, and slumping. Animals feeding on vegetation can reduce the health and vigor 
of plants, or denude local areas. Animals can be territorial or defensive of specific 
resources or locations and can interfere with District facilities. The presence of some 
animals may require the District to postpone work activities. To avoid compromising 
District facilities and to reduce conflicts with species living in or protecting sites where 
work is needed, the management of animal conflicts may be undertaken. 

B. Work Activities 

Managing animal conflicts may include avoidance, biological control, physical 
alterations, habitat alteration, and lethal control. Work activities will be used during 
the appropriate season, life cycle timing and location to synergistically manage species 
at individual sites. Properly sequencing activities will more effectively manage the area 
by addressing different life stages and activities of the target animals. 

1. Maintain Sanitary Conditions 

Wildlife biologists will work with the Department of Fish and Game and 
local agencies and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to identify and 
reduce potential wildlife disease outbreaks. Where appropriate, maintenance 
staff will remove and dispose of animal carcasses which do not pose a hazard 
to human health to reduce the spread of animal diseases. This may include 
the removal of animals that succumb to diseases such as botulism or avian 
cholera. The Santa Clara County Vector Control District will be contacted 
when animal carcasses are found that could pose a hazard to human health. 

2. Avoidance 

Wildlife biologists conducting pre-construction surveys may recommend 
avoidance measures to protect individual species, specific resources (nests), 
or to reduce conflicts with potentially dangerous species such as mountain 
lions, bobcats, coyotes, raccoons, skunks, fox, or rattlesnakes. Where 
sensitive resources are present within the work site the biologist may 
establish appropriate buffers. For example, birds may occasionally become 
defensive and attack individuals or vehicles near nest sites or food resources. 


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If the ecological resource cannot be physically avoided, the biologist may 
recommend a temporal avoidance by delaying the work activity. 

3. Maintain a safe work site environment. 

Field conditions and the types of animals encountered vary seasonally, 
geographically and per work activity. Swarms of wasps and bees can be 
located in a tree, arachnids and insects may be uncovered around culverts 
and bridges. Where avoidance and other measures are not sufficient to 
maintain a safe work site environment, off-the-shelf chemicals and sprays 
may be used. 

4. Biological Control 

Biological control involves the deliberate release of one species into the 
environment to control a second species. Insects have been used as biological 
control agents to control other insect pests or to control plant species. 
Biological control may also include changing plant species composition to 
make a site inhospitable to a particular species. 

The District may change plant palettes to reduce the habitat suitability of a 
site for specific animals. Raptor nest structures and perches may be installed 
in areas to encourage natural predation on ground squirrels and gophers. 

Repellents may be used to deter rodents or other nuisance species, such 
as rabbits. Repellents may include plant species and extracts and will be used 
to target specific species. The placement of peppermint oil or capsaicin, or 
sprinkling pepper, cinnamon and cayenne in the areas where rodent activities 
are frequent, are examples of biological repellants. 

5. Physical Alteration of the Facility 

Physical Alteration of a facility may include minor alterations that do not 
change the size or capacity of a facility to function but do promote the 
District's ability to conduct work at the facility. Bird netting on bridges or 
structures such as stream gauges and culverts may be installed to prevent 
birds such as swallows or black phoebes from nesting. 

Physical alterations may also occur to reduce or eliminate the effects of 
burrowing animals. Physical alterations of a facility may include: 

a. Surface compaction of levee faces with heavy construction equipment 


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Surface compaction consists of using heavy equipment to firm up, re¬ 
compact or harden the outer levee surface. Compaction is achieved by 
driving heavy equipment up and down or across the levee slope after the 
slope has been optimized for this operation. Optimization can include 
adding moisture (watering) to allow for better compaction rates, mowing 
the vegetation to improve equipment to soil contact, and possibly slurry 
filling identified rodent holes. Heavy equipment used to compact levee 
surfaces include the use of crawler tractors, rollers/compactors, and a 
water truck. Prior to the start of this method, the levee surface will be 
evaluated to determine how much moisture should be added. The levee 
surface is moistened using a water truck until an optimum moisture 
content is achieved. Heavy equipment then drives along the surface, 
traversing up and down the levee, compacting the soil to create a uniform 
surface. 

b. Filling burrows with slurry material under pressure to backfill rodent holes 

Filling burrows with slurry consists of using a truck or trailer mounted 
mixing machine to dispense a viscous, soil-like material (slurry) through a 
hose to adjacent locations where rodent burrow are filled. This operation 
requires good mobility and cannot be excessively large in order to 
accommodate the movement from site to site. In order to be mobile and 
flexible, the mixing equipment is relatively small, able to mix less than a 
few cubic yards at any given moment. A typical operation includes a truck 
or flatbed where bags of slurry mixture can be stored and transported, a 
trailer mounted mixing/pumping machine, and a water truck. At rodent 
burrow filling locations, bags of dry slurry material are hand loaded into 
the mixing machine and water is added until the appropriate consistency is 
reached. The material is then pumped through a hose to the actual rodent 
burrow where the slurry is pumped into the burrow until filled. Viscosity 
of the slurry mixture is critical in properly filling the burrows, and will vary 
dependent upon the moisture of the soil at the hole location. If the 
burrow is within the buffer area of a sensitive species, the hole must be 
inspected with a burrow camera, systematic excavations may be necessary 
to ensure no impact to sensitive species. Excavations may be performed 
with a small backhoe or hand tools. 

c. Reconstruction of levee side slopes 

Reconstructing levee slopes requires an operation to excavate or 
demolish a larger area of levee damaged by rodent burrows and rebuild it 
to the standard it was originally constructed. This type of operation would 


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utilize heavy equipment like an excavator, crawler tractor, loader, dump 
truck, motor grader, roller/compactor, scraper, back hoe, and a water 
truck. 

d. Placing physical barriers, such as geotextile mats, chain link, exclusion 
fence, and erosion control blankets. 

Placement of physical barriers consists of preparing an area for 
installation of the barrier, installing the barrier and providing follow up 
maintenance as needed. Site preparation may include scraping the barren 
soil, removing groundcover vegetation (weeds or grasses), or 
trenching. Equipment used for this operation can include hand tools, 
tractor, mower or trencher. This work activity is currently performed as a 
function of bank stabilization projects to prevent erosion and protect 
water quality. It is also used to winterize recently constructed 
maintenance projects. 

6. Habitat Modification 

Modifying the habitat through vegetation management is another method 
that is used to influence animal behavior. Low growing, herbaceous 
vegetation may be cleared prior to nesting bird season to minimize nesting in 
the area. Likewise, mowing or discing vacant or fallow lands adjacent to flood 
control levees can decrease the future food source and habitat for burrowing 
rodents. By limiting available forage areas adjacent to key District facilities, 
burrowing rodent populations may be reduced. 

Habitat modification may include: 

a. Managing vegetation growth to prevent individuals from taking up 
residence, burrowing or nesting. 

b. Maintaining vegetative barriers to reduce animal occupancy at a site. 

c. Change a plant pallet to reduce habitat suitability or desirability. 

7. Non-lethal Trapping - Relocation 

The District may employ non-lethal trapping and removal of animals when 
they occur in project areas. Animals to be removed and released out of 
harm's way include but are not limited to reptiles and amphibians. Honey bee 
colonies and swarms may be captured by local apiarists at the District's 
request. 


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The trapping and removal of birds will only be conducted in consultation 
and under separate permit from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and 
authorization from the Department of Fish and Game. 

The trapping and movement of mammals will only be conducted in 
consultation and under separate authorization from the Department of Fish 
and Game and/or U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 

8. Lethal Control 

a. Management 

Control methods will be prescribed by a Pest Control Advisor. 
Compliance with species and habitat protections under the Program is 
managed by a biologist knowledgeable with the affected species. Lethal 
control methods will comply with County Agriculture Commission 
requirements. Non-native species in the work area will not receive special 
protections, though considerations will be made to minimize their harm. 

b. Methodology 
1. Fumigants 

To be effective, fumigants are used when there is sufficient 
moisture in the soil to prevent the gases from diffusing out of the 
burrow. In Santa Clara County, this normally occurs between late 
January through early May. In areas where there are active burrows, 
an initial fumigant treatment will be conducted. One to two (1-2) 
weeks later, burrows that continue to show signs of activity will be 
retreated. California ground squirrels and gophers are the most 
targeted species. 

a) Gas Cartridges (smoke bombs): Gas cartridges consist of a mixture 
of sodium nitrate, charcoal, and sawdust compressed in a tube. 
Cartridges are lit with a fuse and placed directly into the burrow 
which is then sealed with soil. The cartridge produces a carbon 
monoxide gas that spreads through the burrow and asphyxiates the 
animals within. If smoke is observed from any other burrows, those 
burrows are sealed as well. 

b) Aluminum phosphide: Aluminum phosphide is a colorless gas with 
a punget odor (UC BMP's for California Ground Squirrel Control, 


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2011). Two to four aluminum phosphide tablets are placed directly 
into the burrow. The burrow entrance is then plugged with 
crumbled newspaper to seal the entrance and prevent soil from 
covering the tablets. The moisture in the burrow activates the 
fumigant which produces a phosphine gas that spreads through the 
burrow and is lethal to the enclosed animals. 

2. Chemical Bait Types 
a) Acute toxins 

i. Zinc phosphide (Zn 3 P 2 ): Formulations used in rodent control 
consist of a heavy, finely ground, crystalline gray-black powder 
that is practically insoluble in water and alcohol. It is available in 
pellet or grain baits that have been treated and dyed black (the 
black dye reduces the risk to birds). Zinc phosphide will be used 
one time per season once the ground and annual vegetation has 
dried out and burrowing rodent feeding habits transition from 
forbes to grains and seeds (normally between May and July). 
When ingested, zinc phosphide reacts with moisture and 
stomach acids to produce a lethal phosphine gas, causing death 
by asphyxiation. Treatment areas will be pre-baited with 
untreated non-toxic bait to enhance bait acceptance. 

Zinc phosphide will be applied by spot baiting (hand baiting). 
Using a bait spoon, 1 tablespoon of bait is spread evenly over 
the grass area near each active ground squirrel burrow. Each 
area will be limited to one treatment of zinc phosphide per year. 

To reduce the potential for exposure to non-target species 
the bait will not be piled and not be applied to bare soil or other 
surfaces. Zinc phosphide is used prior to application of the 
anticoagulant baits in order to significantly reduce the number 
of squirrels. This results in a lower population needing to be 
targeted with bait stations as well as reducing the number of 
squirrel carcasses that contain anticoagulant residue that could 
cause secondary poisoning of non-target species. (Salmon UC 
BMP's for California Ground Squirrel Control, 2010) 


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ii. Strychnine: Strychnine treated bait is the most common 

rodenticide used for gopher control. Gopher control may occur 
year round depending on activity level. Strychnine is only used 
underground and only for gopher control. A probe is used to 
locate main runways and strychnine treated bait is deposited 
into the runway where gophers are most likely to find it. The 
probe hole is then covered. Gopher runways typically occur at a 
depth of six to eight inches (CDFA Vertebrate Pest Control 
Handbook, 2010). 

b) First generation Aanticoagulants (e.g. chlorophacinone and 
diphacinone): First generation Aa nticoagulant baits are chronic 
baits that require several feedings over a period of days to a week 
to acquire a lethal dose. The anticoagulants cause capillaries to 
rupture and prevent the formation of blood clots which causes the 
animal to bleed to death over the period of a few days. 
Anticoagulant treated baits are used when burrows are active and 
can be strategically timed for use following a zinc phosphide 
application. The anticoagulants are applied in bait stations from 
May to November. The herbaceous vegetation should be dried out 
so ground squirrels are not feeding on green vegetation during 
application, but have transitioned from feeding on forbes to grains 
and seeds. 

Bait stations have a 3-inch diameter opening to restrict access 
from non-target species and a lip to prevent feeding animals from 
spilling bait outside of the bait stations. The bait stations are 
secured in place to prevent them from being tipped over. Bait 
stations can also be removed or damaged by the public who may 
oppose their use. The application areas are surveyed during active 
baiting on a weekly basis and carcasses are removed to minimize 
secondary poisoning (UC BMP's for California Ground Squirrel 
Control, 2011). 

3. Trapping 

a) Live traps: Live trapping is typically used when other methods are 
not appropriate due to concerns with special-status species. Live 


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trapping takes place year round when ground squirrels are present 
above ground. Wire cage traps are baited with untreated bait. The 
wire traps have openings no smaller than 2 inches by 1 inch, which 
is large enough to allow mice and other small species to escape the 
trap. Live traps are checked daily. Ground squirrels are removed 
from the site and are humanely euthanized with carbon dioxide gas. 
Non-target species will be released on-site as soon as they are 
detected. 

b) Kill traps: Box traps and tunnel/tube traps are placed in main 
ground squirrel runways. Body gripping traps are placed over the 
entrance of a burrow. Traps are checked daily. 

9. Coordinate with local, State, or Federal agencies. 

The District may contract or request assistance from local, state, or federal 
agencies to capture nuisance animals such as feral cats, dogs, red fox, 
opossum, or skunks. The District may contract with local, state, or federal 
agencies to control animals on sites where the District manages the habitat 
for threatened and endangered species. 

10.Safety 

Label use restrictions will be followed for all rodenticides used. Fumigants 
will not be used near dry grasses or other flammable material. Fumigants will 
not be used near buildings. 

Zinc phosphide persists for approximately two weeks under average 
conditions (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1995). Zinc phosphide breaks 
down when exposed to water and converts to phosphine gas which is then 
diluted by air. In areas accessible to the public the District will provide 
postings that the area has been treated, which will be kept in place for two 
weeks following the initial application of zinc phosphide. After two weeks the 
bait will be deactivated with water, converting zinc phosphide into zinc 
phosphine gas. All postings will include a staff contact for further 
information. 

Bait stations will be secured in place and will have a lip inside the opening 
to prevent any bait from being spilled by a feeding rodent. Any spilled bait 
will be cleaned up immediately and properly disposed of. 


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C. Work Projections 

Management of Animal Conflicts is not a projected work activity as these activities 
may occur anywhere along the District's creeks and canals. 

D. Work Window 

Management of animal conflicts may occur year round. The method of control used 
will be based on the seasonal efficacy of the animal's life cycles and in compliance with 
the protection of special-status species. 

E. Requirements 

1. A District Wildlife Biologist will conduct a desk audit to determine whether 
suitable special-status species habitat is present in or adjacent to a 
maintenance activity. 

2. If the District Wildlife Biologist determines that a special-status species could 
occur in the activity area avoidance and minimization measures will be 
inserted into the work order requirements including but not limited to: 

a) Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse Habitat 

i. No rodenticides or fumigants will be used within the range of the salt 
marsh harvest mouse (as identified by District range map or other 
information available to the wildlife biologist). 

ii. Methods of rodent control within SMHM or CCR habitat will be 
limited to live trapping. All live traps shall have openings measuring 
no smaller than 2 inches by 1 inch to allow any SMHM that 
inadvertently enter the trap to easily escape. All traps will be placed 
outside of pickleweed areas and above the high tide line.. 

b) Burrowing Owls, Bald Eagles and Golden Eagles 

i. A 656-yard buffer will be established around known burrowing owl 
locations where no rodenticides or fumigants (including smoke 
bombs) will be used. 

ii. A 0.5-mile buffer will be established around known bald eagle and 
golden eagle nesting locations where no rodenticides will be used. 

c) Special Status Amphibians 

i. Fumigants will not be used within the potential range of sensitive 
amphibians (California Red-legged Ffrog, California Tiger Salamander 


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and Foothill Yellow-legged Frog) as identified by District mapped 
range maps. 

ii. Within the potential range of the California red-legged frog, California 
Tiger Salamander or Foothill Yellow-legged frog (as identified by 
District range maps or other information available to the wildlife 
biologist) will be limited to bait stations specifically designed to 
prevent entry by these species. 

3. Carcass surveys will be conducted periodically when acute poisons and first 
generation anticoagulants are used. The frequency of the carcass surveys will 
be specific to the type of rodenticide used. 

a) Acute Toxins - -Daily-eCarcass surveys will be performed daily beginning 
the first day after application above ground until the end of the baiting 
period. 

b) Anticoagulants - W ee k l y cC arcass surveys will begin within seven days 
after first-generation anticoagulants are made available. Anytime a 
carcass is found daily carcass surveys will begin for as long as carcasses are 
found until no carcasses are found during a daily survey. Once no 
carcasses are found, carcass surveys will return to the weekly carcass 
survey timeline maximum from the date of initial installation of an 
anticoagulant bait station. 

4. To verify that the frequency of carcass surveys is adequate, a biologist will 
conduct daily carcass surveys 2 times per year over one baiting cycle. Based 
on the results of these surveys, the timing of carcass surveys will be adjusted 
if necessary. 

5. Any spilled bait will be cleaned up immediately and disposed of properly. 

1. Applicable BMPs 

Specific BMPs that are applicable to management of animal conflicts are listed in 
Attachment F . These BMPs may be revised on an annual basis through the external 
Lessons Learned process, based on actual experience and site conditions. 


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References 


CDFA Vertebrate Pest Control Handbook http://vpcrac.org/about/handbook.php. 
Accessed 4/19/2010. 

Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Zinc Phosphide, 
http://www.michigan.gOv/dnr/0,1607,7-153-10370 12150 12220-26326-,00.html, January 

2011. 

Salmon, Terrell P., P.D. Newman, 2010. Efficacy of Oat and Pellet Anticoagulant Baits 
following treatment with Oat and Pellet Zinc Phosphide Baits: Implications for Secondary 
Hazard Management. 24 th Vertebrate Pest Conf. 

University of California Best Management Practices for California Ground Squirrel Control 

http://groups.ucanr.org/GSBMP/index.cfm Accessed 1/25/11. 

U.S. National Library of Medicine. Hazardous Substances Databank. Bethesda, MD, 1995. 


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6. MINOR MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES 


A. Purpose 

Minor Maintenance activities are performed to make repairs and maintain 
District facility functions. Maintenance activities may occur along creeks, canals 
and at stream gauges. These small scale activities may occur throughout the SMP 
program area, but they do not change the footprint of any existing facility. These 
are minor activities because they are small in size and their potential 
environmental impact to resources is limited. 

Please refer to the Canal Maintenance chapter for additional detail regarding 
maintenance work in District canals. 

B. Work Activities 

Maintenance activities are considered minor if they result in the removal of 
less than 0.05 acres (2178 sq ft) of wetland or riparian vegetation. The minimum 
reporting size for any vegetation work is 0.01 acres (436 sq ft) per project. Any 
vegetation work necessary for project access or staging is included in this 
calculation of potential project impacts. 

Minor Maintenance activities include: 

1. cleaning and minor sediment removal at outfalls, culverts, flap gates, 
tide gates, inlets, grade control structures, fish ladders, fish screens. 
Work at these facilities is limited to 50 cubic yards. Vegetation removal 
will be calculated and tracked to ensure compliance with annual 
maximums. All other work must be projected. 

2. minor sediment removal less than 10 cubic yards per site may be 
removed anywhere at SMP stream/canal facilities; 

3. trash and debris removal; 

4. repair and installation of fences and gates; 

5. grading and other repairs to restore the original contour of existing 
maintenance roads; 


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6. grading small areas above streambanks (without vegetation) to 
improve drainage and reduce erosion; 

7. repair structures with similar materials within approximately the same 
footprint (such as replacement of concrete linings, culverts, pipes, 
valves or similar structures; or repairing a weir, in-stream orifice, 
communication pipe). For purposes of this activity description, similar 
materials means that materials will be replaced in-kind, such that 
hardscape and softscape facilities will be replaced with similar 
materials, respectively (as defined in the Bank Stabilization Methods 
Table. 

8. graffiti removal; 

9. installation and on-going maintenance of mitigation and landscape 
sites, including: irrigation, weed control, replanting of dead or declining 
individual plants and other types of ongoing maintenance at mitigation 
sites; until such time when the success criteria are met or the site 
fulfills the establishment phase requirements; 

10. removal of obstructions at structures: bridges (not to exceed 100 feet 
upstream and downstream of the bridges), streamflow measuring 
stations (stream gauges), box culverts, storm drain outfalls and drop 
structures to maintain functions of such structures. See the 
Vegetation Management section for vegetation removal requirements. 

11.Stream gauge maintenance including stilling well cleaning, painting of 
gauge house, replacing/adding antenna or solar panels to existing 
structures, replacing instrumentation, cableway repair, weir cleaning of 
algae and debris, and unburying staff markers/orifice/communication 
pipes. 

C. Work Projections 

Minor Maintenance is not a projected work activity and may occur 
throughout the SMP program area. Minor Maintenance activities are not 


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expected to have significant negative impact to water quality or beneficial uses 
when best management practices are implemented. 

D. Work Window 

Minor Maintenance activities may be performed year round or within the 
Work Window for specified Work Activities. Minor sediment or vegetation work 
must comply with the Work Windows specific to those work activities, even when 
they are Minor Maintenance activities. 

E. Requirements 

A minor activity is defined to be minor work that results in the removal of 
less than 0.05 acres (2178 sq ft) of wetland or riparian vegetation. The minimum 
reporting size is 0.01 acres (436 sq ft) per project. In addition, all minor activities 
for a single year have a total wetland or riparian vegetation impact of 0.2 acre 
and a total of 2 acres for the 10-year program. Any impact to wetland or riparian 
vegetation necessary for access or staging must be calculated as part of this total. 

F. Mitigation 

Work in Minor Maintenance is limited to those activities that do not have 
potentially significant impacts to resources, and thus do not require mitigation. 

G. Applicable BMPs 

BMPs that are applicable to the specific work activities are listed in 
Attachment FA . These BMPs may be revised on an annual basis through the 
external Lessons Learned process, based on actual experience and site 
conditions. 

H. Annual Notification and Reporting 

R e gu l atory ag e ncy staff wi ll r e c e iv e information r e garding pot e ntia l Minor 
Maint e nanc e proj e cts that r e quir e th e ir r e vi e w and approva l for minor activiti e s 
that hav e an impact e xc ee ding 0.05 acr e p e r activity p e r sit e . Notification and 
reporting will be provided for minor activities that have an impact of less than 
0.05 acre/site wi ll b e simi l ar to thos e for s e dim e nt r e mova l proj e cts . When 
reporting minor work projects which are outside of the major work areas, a map 
will be provided showing the location of both. 


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No reporting or mitigation will be required if a minor work activity results in 
removal of less than 0.01 acre of wetland and riparian vegetation. 


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H. CANAL MAINTENANCE 


A. Purpose 

The SMP includes routine and periodic maintenance of its canal facilities. The 
location of District canals are shown in the DSEIR Project Description (pgs 22-23) 
Figure 2-39, and representative photos are provided in Figure 2-40. The primary 
function of District canals are to serve as water supply transport facilities, though 
they also provide incidental flood protection by capturing surface runoff. During 
the first nine (9) years of the SMP, 2002-2010, the average length of a sediment 
job in canals was 16^13 1635 feet; removing an average of 66^-290 cubic yards of 
sediment annually. 4 

Future resource conservation programs, such as the Santa Clara Valley Habitat 
Plan or the Three Creeks Habitat Conservation Plan, may also provide regulatory 
coverage for maintenance activities at canals. If in the future another program 
provides adequate regulatory oversight for canal maintenance activities, then the 
SMP may be revised to exclude canal maintenance activities. Any such changes 
or revisions to the program would be coordinated with the SMP's regulatory 
agency partners. 

Canal maintenance activities include the work activities previously discussed 
in this Program Manual, including: sediment removal, vegetation management, 
management of animal conflicts, and minor maintenance activities. Any and all 
of these activities may also occur at canals for all of the same reasons stated in 
the individual sections above, namely to provide flow conveyance and to 
maintain the function of the canal systems. Any damage to canal banks would be 
repaired with in-kind materials, as covered under the Minor Maintenance 
activity. Work activity parameters previously described herein, would also apply 
when performed in and along canals. For example, removal of trees < 6 inches in 
diameter may be removed from canals without additional mitigation debts 
incurred. Similarly, tree removal activities at canals are implemented consistently 
with the protocols described in the Vegetation Management Chapter 2 and 
mitigation requirements as described in the Mitigation Approach Memorandum, 
Appendix C FSEIR chapt e r . 

B. Work Projections 

1. Sediment Removal 


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Sediment removal may occur anywhere along the canals; though no 
more than 1000 cubic yards will be removed per calendar year, for all 
watersheds combined. 

2. Vegetation Management 

Vegetation Management may occur anywhere along the canals. The 
activities of herbicide application, mowing, hand removal of trees and 
shrubs, and pruning may occur within and adjacent to the canals. Of the 
41 total miles of canals, no more than 6 acres of work will be performed 
during the period 2012-2022. 

Discing may only be performed on Coyote Alamitos canal on the right 
bank from GIS stationing 188+88 - 208+88. 

3. Minor Maintenance 

Minor maintenance is not a projected work activity and may occur 
anywhere along the canals. 

4. Management of Animal Damage 

Management of Animal Damage is not a projected work activity and 
may occur anywhere along the canals. 

C. Work Activities 

1. Sediment Removal 

Sediment removal activities range from 2 - 50 cubic 
yards in a single area and are performed to clear 
sediment deposits ("plugs") where local sediments have 
either entered the canal or have been deposited. Canal 
sediment removal will generally occur using a small 
loader from the top of the adjacent canal access 
road. Canal sediment removal may be conducted using 
hand tools at sites with small sediment 
volume. Sediment removal will be less than 1000 cubic 
yards per calendar year for all canals. 

For further description of sediment work, please 
refer to the Sediment Removal chapter of this 
manual docum e nt . 



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2. Vegetation Management 

The following work activities are permitted within canals: 

a) Hand removal 

b) Herbicide 

c) Pruning 

The following work activities are permitted outside of and along canals: 

a) Herbicide (Pre- and post-emergent herbicide applications will be 
made to maintain clear access roadways.) 

b) Mowing 

c) Pruning 

For further description of vegetation management work, please refer 

to the Vegetation Management chapter of this manual docum e nt . 

3. Minor Maintenance 

Minor Maintenance activities for canals include: 

a) trash and debris removal; 

b) repair and installation offences and gates; 

c) grading and other repairs to restore the original contour of existing 
maintenance roads; 

d) grading small areas without vegetation above canal banks to 
improve drainage and reduce erosion; 

e) repair of structures with similar materials within approximately the 
same footprint (such as replacement of concrete linings, culverts, 
pipes, valves or similar structures; repairing a weir, in-stream 
orifice, or communication pipe). For purposes of this section, similar 
materials means replacing hardscape and softscape materials with 
like materials, as defined by the Bank Stabilization Methods Table. 

f) graffiti removal; 

g) installation and on-going maintenance of mitigation and landscape 
sites, including: irrigation, weed control, replanting of dead or 
declining individual plants and other types of ongoing maintenance 
at mitigation sites; until such time when the success criteria are met 
or the site fulfills the establishment phase requirements; and 

h) removal of obstructions at structures: bridges (not to exceed 100 
feet up canal and down canal of the bridges), stream flow 
measuring stations, box culverts, storm drain outfalls and drop 
structures to maintain functions of such structures. See the 
Vegetation section for vegetation removal requirements. 


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For further description of minor maintenance activities, please refer to 
the Minor Maintenance chapter of this document. 

4. Management of Animal Conflicts 
Management of Animal Conflicts methods include: 

a) Maintain Sanitary Conditions, 

b) Avoidance, 

c) Biological Control, 

d) Physical Alteration of the Facility, 

e) Habitat Modification, 

f) Non-lethal Trapping - Relocation, 

g) Lethal Control, and 

h) Coordinate with Local, State or Federal agencies. 

For further description of management of animal conflicts methods 
and protocols, please refer to the Management of Animal Conflicts 
chapter of this document. 

D. Work Window 

1. Sediment Removal 

Sediment removal in canals may occur year round. Sediment removed 
during the wet season may be placed on the top-of-bank area adjacent to 
the canal (side casted) until the area is dry and heavy vehicles can easily 
access the area without damaging the roadways and facilities. Water 
quality monitoring shall be performed per the Sediment Characterization 
Plan protocols at each sediment removal site. 

2. Vegetation Management 

Vegetation management activities may occur: 

a) In-canal (wetted area) hand pruning and hand removal may occur 
year round, except: 

i. Where l arg e mechanized equipment would need to access 
the site by crossing a creek or otherwise affect water quality, 
or 

b) In-canal (wetted area) herbicide application may occur between 
June 15 - October 15. 

i. In-canal herbicide work may continue until December 31 or 
until local rainfall greater than 0.5 inches falls within the 


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subject watershed within a 24-hour period, whichever 
transpires first. 

c) Non-instream (bank/bench) Up l and herbicide work may occur year 
round, weather permitting and per product label. 

d) Vegetation management outside the bankfull channel may occur 
year round, weather permitting. 

i. Year round work opportunities do not apply to areas where 
equipment would need to access the site by crossing a creek 
or otherwise affect water quality. 

3. Minor Maintenance 

Minor maintenance activities may be performed year-round. 

4. Management of Animal Conflicts 

Management of animal conflicts may occur year round. The method of 
control used will be based on the seasonal efficacy of the animal's life 
cycles and in compliance with the protection of special-status species. 

E. Requirements 

For Management of Animal Conflicts activities, the following exclusions 
apply: 

1. A District Wildlife Biologist will conduct a desk audit to determine 
whether suitable special-status species habitat is present in or adjacent 
to a maintenance activity. 

2. If the District Wildlife Biologist determines that a special-status species 
could occur in the activity area avoidance and minimization measures 
will be inserted into the work order requirements including but not 
limited to: 

a) Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse Habitat 

i. No rodenticides or fumigants will be used within the range of 
the salt marsh harvest mouse (as identified by District range 
map or other information available to the wildlife biologist). 

ii. Methods of rodent control will be limited to live trapping with 
the traps having openings measuring no smaller than 2 inches by 
1 inch to allow the smaller Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse to escape. 

b) Burrowing Owls, Bald Eagles and Golden Eagles 


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i. A 656-yard buffer will be established around known burrowing 
owl locations where no rodenticides or fumigants (including 
smoke bombs) will be used. 

ii. A 0.5-mile buffer will be established around known bald eagle 
and golden eagle nesting locations where no rodenticides will be 
used. 

c) Special Status Amphibians 

i. Fumigants will not be used within the potential range of 
sensitive amphibians (California red-legged frog, California Tiger 
Salamander and Foothill Yellow-legged Frog) as identified by 
District mapped range maps. 

ii. Within the potential range of the California red-legged frog, 
California Tiger Salamander or Foothill Yellow-legged frog (as 
identified by District range maps or other information available 
to the wildlife biologist) will be limited to bait stations 
specifically designed to prevent entry by these species. 

3. Carcass surveys will be conducted periodically when acute poisons and 
first generation anticoagulants are used. The frequency of the carcass 
surveys will be specific to the type of rodenticide used. 

a. Acute Toxins - -DaUy-eCarcass surveys will be performed daily 
beginning the first day after application above ground until the end 
of the baiting period. 

b. Anticoagulants - W ee k l y cC arcass surveys will begin within seven 
days after first-generation anticoagulants are made available. 
Anytime a carcass is found daily carcass surveys will begin for as 
long as carcasses are found until no carcasses are found during a 
daily survey. Once no carcasses are found, carcass surveys will 
return to the weekly carcass survey timeline maximum from the 
date of initial installation of an anticoagulant bait station. 

3. Carcass surv e ys wi ll b e conduct e d p e riodica ll y wh e n acut e poisons and 
anticoagu l ants ar e us e d. Th e fr e qu e ncy of th e carcass surv e ys wi ll b e 
sp e cific to th e typ e of rod e nticid e us e d, 
a) Acut e Toxins — Dai l y carcass surv e ys 


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b) Anticoagu l ants — W ee k l y carcass surv e ys. 

4. To verify that the frequency of carcass surveys is adequate, a biologist 
will conduct daily carcass surveys 2 times per year over one baiting 
cycle. Based on the results of these surveys, the timing of carcass 
surveys will be adjusted if necessary. 

5. Any spilled bait will be cleaned up immediately and disposed of 
properly. 

F. Applicable BMPs 

Applicable BMPs will vary depending upon the specific work activity that is 
taking place. All BMPs are listed in Attachment F . These BMPs may be revised on 
an annual basis based on actual experience and site conditions. 


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ATTACHMENT A 


Bank Stabilization Methods 




Bank Stabilization Measures 


#1: Earth Repair 


Description: 

Earth repair involves the replacement and repair of eroded channel banks using compacted soil. 
The eroded slope is scarified and readied for fill placement. A three-foot deep key is cut into the 
invert. Fill is placed and compacted 80% to 90% in 8-inch lifts. The new slope is trimmed to a 
2:1 slope. The surface is seeded with fast sprouting grass species like rye. Geotextile/erosion 
control fabric is placed over hydroseeding to secure newly compacted bank. 

The fill material needs to be appropriate to this purpose. There should be no deleterious or 
organic material or other debris contained in the fill. The Atterberg Plasticity Index of the 
material should be between 15 and 25, with the Liquid Limit no higher than 40. The material 
must contain at least 20% clay (by weight) passing U.S. standard sieve number 200. 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate on bank slopes of 2:1 or flatter. 

Appropriate for local stream velocities of 6 feet per second or less. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Provides limited biotic resources 

Stream-side: Provides limited biotic resources 



Bank Stabilization Measures 
#1: Earth Repair 


Existing Bank 




SECTION 










Bank Stabilization Measures 


#1A: Earth Repair with Buried Rock 


Description: 

Earth repair with buried rock protects against erosion scour and stabilizes excavated or steep 
channel embankments. The buried rock (rock buttress) contributes to slope stability and 
prevents embankment failure (e.g., slumps, slides, sags). The rock structure will guard against 
bank scour, loss of adjacent property, protect infrastructure, and arrest future erosion, thereby 
reducing the loss of riparian vegetation during high flow events. The rock buttress is buried and 
compacted earth is placed over the top to provide an area for plants and stream side 
restoration. 

Since the rock is permanently buried, mitigation is not required. Any understory or trees planted 
within the footprint of the embankment repair will be counted as a credit for the SMP program. 
Depending upon the local creek ecology, hydrology, and channel capacity, plants utilized in the 
restoration area may consist of a mix of ground cover, understory, and/or trees. 

The buried rock typically requires a cutoff wall to prevent undermining. The cutoff wall is an 
excavated trench with revetment, rock, or boulders placed inside. The rock buttress is 
composed of rock revetment or boulders placed and stacked in such a manner as to construct a 
gravity retaining wall. The buttress height is limited and may be installed on cut benches in the 
embankment for purposes of stability. Earth is placed in successive lifts adjacent to the toe of 
the rock buttress and over the tops of the boulders. Once the earth has been placed, the 
overbuilt embankment is cut and trimmed back to match the upstream and downstream channel 
side slopes and toes. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 



Bank Stabilization Measures 
#1A: Earth Repair with Buried Rock 


Stabilize Embankment 



Place import fill and compact to min. 80% — 85% compaction. 
Fill shall be compacted in 8-inch lifts. After placing 
fill, scarify finished surface lightly for replanting purposes. 
Hydroseed finished surface. 

Existing eroded channel bank 


Rock Buttress 
Material - 



Toe of bank to match existing 
u/s and d/s toes. 


Earth Backfill, Compacted 


Rock cut-off wall / Trench 












Bank Stabilization Measures 


#2: Live Construction 


Description: 

Live construction consists of traditional methods of grading stable slopes and planting live 
grasses and other plants to control erosion. Vegetation planting methods commonly used 
include cuttings, transplants, live staking, and direct seeding (including hydro-seeding). Plants 
are chosen on the basis of drought tolerance and erosion control effectiveness. Biodegradable 
erosion control materials could be used where necessary in conjunction with live construction to 
assist in plant establishment. 

Excellent revegetation potential. Most successful in streambanks where moderate erosion and 
channel migration are anticipated. Bank slope, eroding velocity, and reinforcement at the toe of 
the bank are limiting factors. Enhances conditions for colonization of native species. 
Streambank soil materials, probable groundwater fluctuation, and bank loading conditions are 
factors for determining appropriate design. 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate on bank slopes of 2:1 or flatter. 

Appropriate for local stream velocities of 6 feet per second or less. 

Soil moisture conditions and availability of water year-around determines appropriate vegetation 
species. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 


Source: Adapted from Natural Resources Conservation Service. Stream Corridor Restoration 
Principles, Processes and Practices 




Bank Stabilization Measures 
#2: Live Construction 



Source: Adapted from Natural Resources Conservation Service, Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, Processes and Practices 



\ 

\ 



SECTION 
















Bank Stabilization Measures 


#2A: Live Construction with Boulder Toe 


Description: 

Live construction consists of traditional methods of grading a flatter slope and planting live 
grasses and other plants to control erosion. Vegetation planting methods commonly used 
include cuttings, transplants, live staking, and direct seeding (including hydro-seeding). Plants 
are chosen on the basis of drought tolerance and erosion control effectiveness. Biodegradable 
erosion control materials are used where necessary in conjunction with live construction to 
assist in plant establishment. 

Appropriately-sized boulders are placed at the toe of the rebuilt bank up to the ordinary high 
water elevation. Voids in between the boulders can be planted using live stakes. 

Excellent revegetation potential. Enhances conditions for colonization of native species. 
Streambank soil materials, probable groundwater fluctuation, and bank loading conditions are 
factors for determining appropriate design. 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate on bank slopes of 2:1 or flatter for live construction section. 1.5:1 or flatter for 
boulder section. 

Boulders must be keyed in (minimum 3 feet deep) at the toe of bank. 

Appropriate for local stream velocities of 6 feet per second or less. 

Soil moisture conditions and availability of water year-around determines appropriate vegetation 
species. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 


Source: Adapted from Natural Resources Conservation Service. Stream Corridor Restoration 
Principles, Processes and Practices 




Bank Stabilization Measures 
#2A: Live Construction with Boulder Toe 



Source: Adapted from Natural Resources Conservation Service, Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, Processes and Practices 


Ordinary High 



SECTION 






















Bank Stabilization Measures 


#2B: Live Construction with Log Toe 


Description: 

Live construction consists of traditional methods of grading a flatter slope and planting live 
grasses and other plants to control erosion. Vegetation planting methods commonly used 
include cuttings, transplants, live staking, and direct seeding (including hydro-seeding). Plants 
are chosen on the basis of ecological suitability and erosion control effectiveness. 
Biodegradable erosion control materials are used where necessary in conjunction with live 
construction to assist in plant establishment 1 . 

Logs are anchored to the bed and/or native bank up to ordinary high water elevation. 

Determine scour depth, log size (typically between 6 inches to 24 inches in diameter), and 
anchor system based on specific site conditions. Where applicable and/or available, rootwads 
may also be used. 

This repair method is used to protect the toe line from erosion. It is especially useful for long 
straight channel reaches. The logs provide immediate protection from erosion while live branch 
cuttings contribute long-term durability and ultimately replace the decaying logs 2 . 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate on bank slopes of 2:1 or flatter for live construction section. 1.5:1 or flatter for log 
toe section. 

Install log toe with anchors. Moisture conditions and availability of water year-round determines 
appropriate vegetation species. 

Appropriate for local stream velocities of 15 feet per second or less. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 


Source: Adapted from Natural Resources Conservation Service. Stream Corridor Restoration 
Principles, Processes and Practices 

2 Source: Santa Clara Valley Water District, “Design Manual Open Channel Hydraulics and 
Sediment Transport”. July 2009 






Bank Stabilization Measures 

#2B: Live Construction with Log Toe 



Source: Adapted from Natural Resources Conservation Service, Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, Processes and Practices 


Ordinary High 



Source: Adapted from Santa Clara Valley Water District; ’’Design Manual Open Channel Hydraulics and Sediment Transport”, July 2009 
















Bank Stabilization Measures 


#3: Contour Wattling 


Description: 

This method consists of tying long bundles of plant stems (typically willows or cottonwoods) 
together with twine and anchoring them in shallow trenches with wooden stakes. When the 
stems develop root systems and mature, the plants establish structural soil stabilization 
properties. This technique is generally used to manage surface erosion. 

Excellent revegetation potential. The long bundles trap and hold soil on banks by creating 
small, dam-like structures, effectively cutting the slope length into a series of shorter slope 
lengths. This method enhances the conditions for colonization of native species and should, 
where appropriate, be used with other soil bioengineering systems and live plantings. 
Reinforcement at the toe or bank may be a limiting factor (see bank stabilization measures 3A 
and 3B). Not appropriate for treatment of slopes actively undergoing mass earth movement 1 . 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate on bank slopes of 2:1 or flatter. 

Appropriate for local stream velocities of 6 feet per second or less. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 


Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service. Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, 
Processes and Practices 




Bank Stabilization Measures 
#3: Contour Wattling 


Bundled Plant Stems 



Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service, Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, Processes and Practices 


\ 



\ 



SECTION 


Upper Bank Varies 
Min. 2:1 Or Stable 
Slope 

Eroded Bank 

Wattles Placed In Trenches 
Min. 2:1 Side Slope 
(Sprouted Plants Shown) 

Earth Backfill, Compacted 








Bank Stabilization Measures 


#3A: Contour Wattling with Boulder Toe 


Description: 

This method consists of tying long bundles of plant stems together with twine and anchoring 
them in shallow trenches with wooden stakes. When the stems develop root-systems and 
mature, the plants establish structural soil stabilization properties. 

Appropriately-sized boulders are placed at the toe of the rebuilt bank up to the ordinary high 
water elevation. Voids in between the boulders can be planted using live stakes. 

Excellent revegetation potential. The long bundles trap and hold soil on banks by creating 
small, dam-like structures, effectively cutting the slope length into a series of shorter slope 
lengths. This method enhances the conditions for colonization by native species and should, 
where appropriate, be used with other soil bioengineering systems and live plantings. Not 
appropriate for treatment of slopes actively undergoing mass earth movement 1 . 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate on bank slopes of 2:1 or flatter for contour wattling section of slope, and slopes of 
1:5 or flatter for boulder section. 

Boulders must be keyed in (minimum 3-foot depth) at toe of bank. 

Appropriate for local stream velocities of 6 feet per second or less. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 


Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service. Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, 
Processes and Practices 




Bank Stabilization Measures 
#3A: Contour Wattling with Boulder Toe 



Source: Adapted from Natural Resources Conservation Service, Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, Processes and Practices 



SECTION 







Bank Stabilization Measures 


#3B: Contour Wattling with Log Toe 


Description: 

Contour wattling consists of tying bundles of plant stems together with twine and anchoring 
them in shallow trenches with wooden stakes. When the stems develop root systems and 
mature, the plants establish structural soil stabilization properties. 

Logs are anchored to the bed and/or native bank up to ordinary high water elevation. 

Determine scour depth, log size (typically between 6 inches to 24 inches in diameter), and 
anchor system based on specific site conditions. Where applicable and/or available, rootwads 
may also be used. 

This repair method is used to protect the toe line from erosion as well as manage surface 
erosion. It is especially useful for long straight channel reaches. The logs provide immediate 
protection from erosion while contour wattlings contribute to long-term durability and ultimately 
replace the decaying logs. 

Excellent revegetation potential. The long bundles trap and hold soil on banks by creating 
small, dam-like structures, effectively cutting the slope length into a series of shorter slope 
lengths. This method enhances the conditions for colonization by native species and should, 
where appropriate, be used with other soil bioengineering systems and live plantings. Not 
appropriate for treatment of slopes actively undergoing mass earth movement 1 . 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate on bank slopes of 2:1 or flatter for contour wattling section of slope, and slopes of 
1.5:1 or flatter for log toe section. 

Install log toe with anchors. Moisture conditions and availability of water year-round determines 
appropriate vegetation species. 

Appropriate for local stream velocities of 15 feet per second or less. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 


Source: Adapted from Natural Resources Conservation Service. Stream Corridor Restoration 
Principles, Processes and Practices 




Bank Stabilization Measures 

#3B: Contour Wattling with Log Toe 


Bundled Plant Stems 



Ordinary High 



SECTION 


Source: Adapted from Natural Resources Conservation Service, Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, Processes and Practices 







Bank Stabilization Measures 


#4: Brush Mattress (Brush Layering) 


Description: 

The eroded slope is graded and smoothed to ensure all willows are in contact with soil. A 
minimum 2-foot deep trench is dug at the toe of the bank for the butt ends of the willow 
branches. Wood, steel, or live willow stakes are partially driven in rows on three-foot centers in 
the area that will be covered by the mattress. After the stakes have been placed, live willow 
branches are put on the bank with their butt ends in the trench. Straight branches no shorter 
than 4 feet in length and V 2 -inch to 1-inchin diameter are used. If the branches are not long 
enough to reach the upper end of the mattress, several layers may be used; however, it is 
necessary to “shingle” the layers by lapping each new layer over the one below by at least 18 
inches. Once the bank is covered by a thick layer of willows, cross branches are placed 
horizontally over the bottom layer. These branches are placed against the stakes and then tied 
to the stakes using wire or string. The stakes are then driven into the bank a minimum of two 
feet or deeper, if possible. After the completion of the mattress, the toe trench is filled with 
appropriately sized boulders and rocks to anchor the butt ends of the branches. The entire 
mattress is then covered by earth or fine stream material 1 . 

This method forms an immediate protective cover over the stream bank, captures sediment 
during flood flows, and rapidly restores riparian vegetation and streamside habitat. This 
measure is not appropriate where toe scour is anticipated (see bank stabilization methods 4A 
and 4B). This method should not be used on slopes that are experiencing ongoing mass 
movement or other slope instability 2 . 

Design Criteria 

Appropriate on bank slopes of 2:1 or flatter. 

Appropriate for local stream velocities of 6 feet per second or less. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 


Source: California Department of Fish and Game. California Salmonid Stream Habitat 
Restoration Manual 

2 Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service. Stream Corridor Restoration Principles. 
Processes and Practices 




Bank Stabilization Measures 
#4: Brush Mattress (Brush Layering) 


Drive 3’ Long x 1—1/2” 
To 3” Did. Live Willow 
Stakes @ 3’ O.C.- 


2x2 Stake 


3’ Typ. 


Attach Live Willow Pole Cross 
Branches To Live Stakes 
W / 1/4” Hemp Rope 


Drive 4’ Long 2x2 Stake 
Vertical Into Ground. 

See Detail of 2x2 Stake 

Rope Tie Down Attach 1/4” 
Hemp Rope or 3/8” Jute 
Rope to 2x2 Stakes- 



Lay 8’ — 10’ Live Willow Brush 
To Cover The Bank W/ Box 
Ground Cover. Cover Lightly 
With Soil To Fill Voids. 

Allow The Top Brush To 
Remain Uncovered With Fi 


Plan View 


Live Fascine 

Rope Ties Around Live 
Fascine @ 1” O.C. 

Use 1 /4” Hemp Rope 
or 3/8” Jute Rope 


-3’ Live Willow or 
Cottonwood Stake 
2” - 3” Dia. 


Existing 

Ground 


Excavate Toe 
To A Minimum 
Depth Of 24" 



Lay Live Willow Brush On Bank 
Maintaining Solid Contact With 
Soil. Cover Bank W/ 80% Min. 
Ground Cover 


Existing Grade 

Extend Brush Mattress 
Minimum 2 Vertical Feet 
Above OHW 


Live Willow Stake 


Rock Toe 
Protection 
12” - 18 


2x2 Stake 


Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service. Stream Corridor Restoration Principles. Processes and Practices 


SECTION 

























































Bank Stabilization Measures 


#4A: Brush Mattress (Brush Layering) with Boulder Toe 


Description: 

The lower portion of the eroded slope (below ordinary high water, OHW) is graded at a 
maximum of 1.5:1 slope. The upper portion of the slope is graded at a minimum slope of 2:1 
and smoothed to ensure all plantings are in contact with soil. Appropriately-sized boulders are 
placed at the toe of the rebuilt bank up to the ordinary high water elevation. Voids between the 
boulders can be planted using live stakes. 

A minimum 2-foot deep trench is dug at the top of the boulder line for the butt ends of the 
branches. Wood, steel, or live stakes are partially driven in rows on three foot centers in the 
area that will be covered by the mattress. After the stakes have been placed, live branches are 
put on the bank with their butt ends in the trench. Straight branches no shorter than 4 feet in 
length and !4-inch to 1 -inch in diameter are used. If the branches are not long enough to reach 
the upper end of the mattress, several layers may be used; however, it is necessary to “shingle” 
the layers by lapping each new layer over the one below by at least 18 inches. Once the bank 
is covered by a thick layer of willows, cross branches are placed horizontally over the bottom 
layer. These branches are placed against the stakes and then tied to the stakes using wire or 
string. The stakes are then driven into the bank a minimum of two feet or deeper, if possible. 
After the completion of the mattress, the toe trench is back filled with boulders and rocks to 
anchor the butt ends of the branches. The entire mattress is then covered by earth or fine 
stream material 1 . 

This method forms an immediate protective cover over the stream bank, captures sediment 
during flood flows, and rapidly restores riparian vegetation and streamside habitat. This method 
should not be used on slopes that are experiencing ongoing mass movement or other slope 
instability 2 . 

Design Criteria 

Appropriate on bank slopes of 2:1 or flatter for brush mattress section of slope. 1.5:1 or flatter 
for the boulder section. 

Boulders must be keyed in (minimum 3-foot depth) at toe of bank. 

Appropriate for local stream velocities of 6 feet per second or less. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 

Source: Adapted from California Department of Fish and Game. California Salmonid Stream 
Habitat Restoration Manual 

2 Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service. Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, 
Processes and Practices 





Bank Stabilization Measures 


#4A: Brush Mattress (Brush Layering) 
with Boulder Toe 



Source: Adapted from Natural Resources Conservation Service, Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, Processes and Practices 



SECTION 










Bank Stabilization Measures 


#4B: Brush Mattress (Brush Layering) with Log Toe 


Description: 

Brush mattress with log toe consists of grading the upper and lower portions of the eroded slope 
(below and above ordinary high water, OHW) at a minimum of 2:1 and maximum of 1.5:1 slopes 
respectively, and smoothed to ensure all willows are in contact with soil. Logs are placed at the 
toe of the native bank up to the OHW 1 . Where applicable and or available, rootwads may be 
used in combination with logs. 

A maximum 2-foot deep trench is dug at the top of the log toe for the butt ends of the willow 
branches. Wood, steel, or live willow stakes are partially driven in rows on three-foot centers in 
the area that will be covered by the mattress. After the stakes have been placed, live 
branches are put on the bank with their butt ends in the trench. Straight branches no shorter 
than 4 feet in length and V 2 -inch to 2-inch in diameter are used. If the branches are not long 
enough to reach the upper end of the mattress, several layers may be used; however, it is 
necessary to “shingle” the layers by lapping each new layer over the one below by at least 18 
inches. Once the bank is covered by a thick layer of willows, cross branches are placed 
horizontally over the bottom layer. Stakes are then driven into the bank as deep as possible. 
These branches are placed against the stakes and then tied to the stakes using biodegradable 
wire or string. After the completion of the mattress, the toe trench is back filled with logs to 
anchor the butt ends of the branches. The entire mattress is then covered by earth or fine 
stream material 1 . 

This method forms an immediate protective cover over the stream bank, captures sediment 
during flood flows, and rapidly restores riparian vegetation and streamside habitat. This method 
should not be used on slopes that are experiencing ongoing mass movement or other slope 
instability 2 . 

Design Criteria 

Appropriate on bank slopes of 2:1 or flatter for brush mattress section of slope. 1.5:1 or flatter 
for the log toe section. 

Install log toe with anchors. Moisture conditions and availability of water year-round determines 
appropriate vegetation species. 

Appropriate for local stream velocities of 15 feet per second or less. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 

Source: Adapted from Natural Resources Conservation Service. Stream Corridor Restoration 
Principles. Processes and Practices 

2 Source: California Department of Fish and Game. California Salmonid Stream Habitat 
Restoration Manual 






Bank Stabilization Measures 

#4B: Brush Mattress (Brush Layering) 
with Log Toe 



Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service, Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, Processes and Practices 



Source: Adapted from California Department of Fish and Game. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual 


SECTION 












Bank Stabilization Measures 


#5: Surface Matting (Erosion Mats) 


Description: 

This method consists of securing plastic, jute, or geotextile erosion control fabric to channel 
banks using stakes or staples. These materials provide soft armor protection against erosive 
forces and are combined with live staking and direct seeding. Abrasive sediment, debris, foot 
traffic, and sunlight will wear, snag, and tear these fabrics with time, potentially undermining the 
structure. These methods are intended to be the skeleton of a vegetated erosion control 
system. The establishment of vegetation is crucial to the long-term success of erosion mats. 

Work best in small, uniform, improved channels with mild bank slopes. This method has good 
revegetation potential. Toe protection is required where toe scour is anticipated (see bank 
stabilization measures 5A and 5B). 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate on bank slopes of 2:1 or flatter. 

Typically appropriate for local stream velocities of 12 feet per second or less depending on the 
type of erosion mat and revegetation method selected. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 



Bank Stabilization Measures 

#5: Surface Matting (Erosion Mats) 



SECTION 



Bank Stabilization Measures 


#5A: Surface Matting (Erosion Mats) with Boulder Toe 


The lower portion of the eroded slope (below ordinary high water, OHW) is graded at a 
maximum of 1.5:1 slope. The upper portion of the slope is graded at a minimum slope of 2:1 
and smoothed to ensure erosion mat is in full contact with soil. Appropriately-sized boulders are 
placed at the toe of the rebuilt bank up to the ordinary high water elevation. Voids between the 
boulders can be planted using live stakes. 

In the upper portion of the slope, plastic, jute, or geotextile erosion control fabric is attached to 
channel banks using staking or staples. These materials provide soft armor protection against 
erosive forces and are combined with live staking and direct seeding. Debris, foot traffic, and 
sunlight will wear, snag, and tear these fabrics with time. The boulder toe protection will prevent 
undermining of the structure. These methods are intended to be the skeleton of a vegetated 
erosion control system. 

Work best in uniform improved channels with mild bank slopes. This method has good 
revegetation potential. 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate on bank slopes of 2:1 or flatter for erosion mat section of slope. 1.5:1 or flatter for 
the boulder section. 

Boulders must be keyed in (minimum 3-foot depth) at toe of bank. 

Appropriate for local stream velocities of 6 feet per second or less if boulders are planted with 
live stakes. 12 feet per second if boulders are not planted. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 



Bank Stabilization Measures 

#5A: Surface Matting (Erosion Mats) 
with Boulder Toe 




/ 


SECTION 


Bank Stabilization Measures 


#5B: Surface Matting (Erosion Mats) with Log Toe 


Description: 

Surface matting with log toe consists of grading the upper and lower portions of the eroded 
slope (below and above ordinary high water, OHW) at a minimum of 2:1 and maximum of 1.5:1 
slopes respectively, and smoothed to ensure erosion mat is in full contact with soil. Logs are 
placed at the toe of the native bank up to the OHW. Where applicable and/or available, 
rootwads may be used. 

In the upper portion of the slope, plastic, jute, or geotextile erosion control fabric is attached to 
channel banks using stakes, staples, or anchors. These materials provide soft armor protection 
against erosive forces and are combined with live staking and/or direct seeding. Debris, foot 
traffic, and sunlight may wear, snag, and tear these fabrics with time. The log toe protection will 
prevent undermining of the structure. These methods are intended to be the skeleton of a 
vegetated erosion control system. 

This repair type works best in uniform improved channels with mild bank slopes and has good 
revegetation potential. 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate on bank slopes of 2:1 or flatter for erosion mat section of slope. 1.5:1 or flatter for 
the boulder section. 

Install log toe with anchors. Moisture conditions and availability of water year-round determines 
appropriate vegetation species. 

Appropriate for local stream velocities of 15 feet per second or less. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 



Bank Stabilization Measures 


#5B: Surface Matting (Erosion Mats) 
with Log Toe 


—Ordinary High Water 


Slope Varies Min 2:1 
or Stable Slope 

Matting Material (Direct- 
Seeded, Hydro—Seeded, or 
Live Staked) 2:1 Max Slope 


Earth Backfill, Compacted 


Anchor System, Site Specific 



Existing Groun 


Log Toe 6” - 24” Diam. 


SECTION 




Bank Stabilization Measures 


#6: Add Rock to Invert 


Description: 

This is a technique most commonly used to armor a channel invert susceptible to incision or 
scour downstream of various control structures such as bridges or concrete channels. Rock 
channel bottoms can also be valuable in terms or reoxygenation of water in the creek. This 
installation method can also retard stream turbidity in many cases 1 . 

Rocks are placed in scour holes or along the invert for the appropriate length depending on the 
length and depth of repair needed. This can include scour holes just downstream of a drop 
structure that needs armoring, or an entire reach of channel can be armored with well-graded, 
angular rock to stop incision. If lining a long length of channel, rocks can be formed into a 
concave shape and a key can be constructed every few hundred feet to stabilize the lining. 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate for incised channels or scour holes downstream of a concrete portion of creek. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 


Source: Santa Clara Valley Water District, Design Manual. Open Channel Hydraulics and 
Sediment Transport, June 2009 





Bank Stabilization Measures 


#6: Add Rock to Invert 

(No drawing included for this bank stabilization measure; 
please refer to narrative for more information) 



Bank Stabilization Measures 


#6A: Rock Cross Vanes 


Description: 

The cross-vane is a grade control structure that decreases near-bank shear stress, velocity and 
stream power, but increases the energy in the center of the channel. The structure will establish 
grade control, reduce bank erosion, create a stable width/depth ratio, and maintain channel 
capacity, while maintaining sediment transport capacity and sediment competence. The cross¬ 
vane is also a stream habitat improvement structure. 

The cross-vane is typically composed of a row of header rocks and a row of footer rocks. The 
header rocks can be installed with half of its size embedded below the final grade. The footer 
rocks are installed downstream of and at a lower elevation than the header rocks to provide 
support. The top of the footer rocks are positioned at the final grade 2 . 

With the channel boundary opening up at the floodplain level, the vane may be properly keyed 
into the side slopes, an advantage not easily afforded by incised channels 2 . Each leg of the 
vane typically makes an angle of 20-30 degrees with the bank 1 . 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate in “B” and “F” type channels, according to Rosgen’s stream classification system. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 

Source: Wildland Hydrology, Inc.; Rosqen, David L.P.H.; “The Cross-Vane, W-Weirand J-Hook 
Vane Structures...Their Description, Design and Application for Stream Stabilization and River 
Restoration”. 

2 Source: Santa Clara Valley Water District, Design Manual, Open Channel Hydraulics and 
Sediment Transport, June 2009 





Bank Stabilization Measures 

#6A: Rock Cross Vanes 




Flow 



Source: Wildland Hydrology, Inc.: Rosgen, David L, P.H.; ’’The Cross-Vane, W-Weir and J-Hook Vane Structures... 


Their Description, Design and Application for Stream Stabilization and River Restoration”. 

























Bank Stabilization Measures 


#6B: Root Wads and Boulders 


Description: 

This method combines boulders, logs, and live plant material to armor a stream bank. Fish 
habitat is enhanced in addition to creating a natural-looking bank stabilization structure 1 . 

Footer logs are set in a toe trench below the thalweg line with the channel end pointed 
downstream and the butt end angled 45 to 60 degrees upstream. A second log (with root wad) 
is set on top of the footer log diagonally, forming an “X”. The root wad end is set pointing 
upstream and the butt end lying downstream 45 to 60 degrees. The apex of the logs is 
anchored together using boulders, re-bar or cables. Large boulders are placed on top and 
between the logs at each apex. After all the logs and boulders are set in place, live plant 
material such as willows is placed within the spaces of the structure, behind the boulders. 
Excavated gravel and stream materials can then be placed over the bank end portion of the 
structure. 

This method will tolerate high boundary shear stresses if logs and root wads are well-anchored. 
This method should, where appropriate, be used in conjunction with soil bioengineering or live 
vegetation plantings to stabilize the upper bank and ensure a regenerative source of 
streambank vegetation. The life of the structure depends on the species of logs used. It might 
need replacement if vegetative colonization does not take place. This method can create local 
scour (channel bottom) and erosion (opposite bank) 2 . 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate for channel velocities at 10 feet per second or less. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 


Source: California Department of Fish and Game. California Salmonid Stream Habitat 
Restoration Manual 

2 Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service. Stream Corridor Restoration Principles. 
Processes and Practices 





Bank Stabilization Measures 

#6B: Root Wads and Boulders 



Source: Adapted from Natural Resources Conservation Service, Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, Processes and Practices 




Plan 



SECTION 

Source: Adapted from California Department of Fish and Game. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual 

















Bank Stabilization Measures 


#6C: Live Log Crib Walls 


Description: 

Log crib walls are used to reduce sediment input and protect banks in areas where logs are 
available and boulders are not practical 1 . Cribbing provides protection in areas with near¬ 
vertical banks where bank sloping options are limited by issues such as right of way 
restrictions 2 . Crib walls afford a natural appearance, immediate protection, and accelerate the 
establishment of woody species 2 . This method is effective on the outside of bends where high 
velocities are present and in situations where a low wall may be required to stabilize the toe and 
reduce slope steepness 2 . This method does not adjust to toe scour and should be used in 
combination with soil bioengineering systems and live plantings to stabilize the upper slopes 2 . 
Logs should be selected for soundness, durability, uniformity of size, and ease of handling 
(straight logs much preferred) and delivery. 

Two rows of base logs or untreated timbers are placed in trenches below stream grade to 
prevent undercutting of the structure. Base logs should be as large (long and thick) as can be 
manipulated while conforming to the contour of the stream bank. Good base logs are crucial to 
ensure stability and durability of the cribwall 1 . Geotextile fabric should be placed behind and 
inside the face of (to keep material in) the structure. Tie-back logs are notched, nailed, or bolted 
into the base logs and placed at regular intervals (6 to 8 feet typically) along the base logs. Tie- 
back logs are attached to both rows of base logs. Once the first row of tie-back logs has been 
connected a second set of face logs is placed on top of the tie-backs. These logs are placed 
approximately 6 inches back into the slope. This procedure is repeated until the desired level of 
bank protection is achieved. As each lift is constructed, the face logs and tie-backs are filled 
with a mix of gravel and cobbles to the top of the face log. It is not necessary to use topsoil in 
the fill material; but there should be sufficient fine grained material to insure vegetation growth. 
Live cuttings are then laid in to form a complete cover layer. These live branches should be 
long enough to have their butt end in the native soil behind the crib wall. The tips should stick 
out of the crib wall no more than a quarter of the cutting total length. The branches are then 
covered with gravel/cobble mix to the top of the tie-backs and the nest layer is continued. 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate for slopes up to % to 1. 

Appropriate for velocities from 6 feet per second up to 12 feet per second, depending on 
opening size. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 

Source: California Department of Fish and Game. California Salmonid Stream Habitat 
Restoration Manual 

2 Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service. Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, 
Processes and Practices 





Bank Stabilization Measures 

#6C: Live Log Crib Walls 



Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service, Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, Processes and Practices 


Compacted Engineered 



Depth 


Source: Adapted from California Department of Fish and Game. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual 



















Bank Stabilization Measures 


#6D: Log Revetment 


Description: 

For sites where erosion has cut out the toe and a portion of a steep bank and there is no room 
for shaping back the bank slope, log revetment may be used for bank repair. Log revetment is a 
stack of logs that forms the protected bank slope with compacted soil backfill behind the logs. 
Each individual log is anchored to the foundation and rebar is used to connect logs to each 
other. The logs are cut to fit the size of the eroded bank. There is minimal excavation except to 
clear away debris and loose materials. Live tree roots are saved as much as possible by 
burying them in the soil backfill 1 . 

Log revetment will be mitered to match the upstream and downstream bank slopes. The bottom 
log of the log revetment is aligned with the upstream and downstream toe line to minimize 
encroachment into the flow area 1 . Two adjacent logs are laid below grade to act as a footing for 
the structure. These footer logs are anchored into the native ground using either rebar or 
duckbill anchors and cable, or some other site-appropriate anchoring method. Logs are then 
stacked one on top of the other, at the appropriate slope, and are rebarred to one another. 

Each log is anchored into existing ground using duckbill anchors and cable, rebar, or another 
site-appropriate method, until the appropriate height is obtained. 


Design Criteria: 

Appropriate on steep bank slopes 14:1 or flatter. 

Appropriate for velocities up to 15 feet per second. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 

Source: Santa Clara Valley Water District, Design Manual, Open Channel Hydraulics and 
Sediment Transport, June 2009 


Bank Stabilization Measures 

#6D: Log Revetment 



Rebar (Or Other System) To Anchor 
Logs Into Undisturbed Soil. 

3’ Min. Depth 








Bank Stabilization Measures 


#7: Cellular Confinement System 


Description: 

Soil cellular confinement system (geocell) is a polyethylene plastic cellular system where 
structural strength is developed by the composite design of soil, plant roots, and the plastic’s 
cellular configuration. This system is available in 8-inch deep honeycomb mats that are 
installed in offset vertical layers to create terraced planting areas. The honeycomb cells are 
filled with soil, moderately compacted, and planted with woody vegetation and grasses. The 
structure functions similarly to a crib wall structure. 

This method has the capability of developing some vegetation potential. 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate for slopes up to 14 to 1. 

Appropriate for velocities up to 6 feet per second. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 



Bank Stabilization Measures 

$7: Cellular Confinement System 


Varies 
Min. 2:1 
Or Stable 
Slope 

Existing 

Ground 


Compacted 
Backfill 


Bank To Be Cut Back 


Fill Cells With Soil Rock Mix And 
Vegetate With Native Species 



Limit Of 
Excavation 



3’ Min. Rock 
Cutoff Wall 


Geocell 

Detail 


















Bank Stabilization Measures 


#8: Rock Blanket 


Description: 

This method consists of placing a blanket of appropriately-sized rock over the bank to control 
erosion. Smaller cobbles may be placed in the voids of the rock to create a solid structure so 
as to minimize scour behind the rock and failure of the structure. This method is appropriate 
where long-term durability is needed, design discharge is high, there is significant threat to life 
or property, or there is no practical way to otherwise incorporate vegetation into the design. 
This method should, where appropriate, be used with soil-bioengineering systems or live 
vegetation to stabilize the upper bank and ensure a regenerative source of streambank 
vegetation. A major benefit to this method is that the components are flexible and function is 
not impaired by slight movement from settlement or other adjustments 1 . 

Angular rock should be used, because they tend to interlock, making the structure act like a 
single structure rather than a collection independent stones. 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate for slopes up to 1.5 to 1, preferably 2 to 1. 

Rock sizes of 6 inches to 18 inches in diameter. 

Appropriate for velocities up to 15 feet per second. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 

Source: Adapted from Natural Resources Conservation Service. Stream Corridor Restoration 
Principles, Processes and Practices 




Bank Stabilization Measures 

#8: Rock Blanket 



Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service, Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, Processes and Practices 



Source: Adapted from California Department of Fish and Game. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual 














Bank Stabilization Measures 


#8A: Boulder Revetment 


Description: 

Boulder revetment is a method for armoring stream banks with large boulders for preventing 
bank erosion. Revetment footing is laid in a “toe” trench dug along the base of the bank. Large 
boulders are then laid on the bank slopes up to the design water surface level (ordinary high 
water or other design water surface). Large angular boulders are best suited for this purpose. 
Boulder revetment can provide protection in areas where log or boulder instream structures may 
lead to bank erosion. The boulders used should be dense and structurally competent 1 . 

Geotextile fabrics should be avoided, as they prevent the natural establishment of vegetation 1 . 

This method should, where appropriate, be used with soil bio-engineering systems or live 
vegetation to stabilize the upper bank and ensure a regenerative source of streambank 
vegetation. A major benefit of this method is that the components are flexible and function is 
not impaired by slight movement from settlement or other adjustments 2 . 

This structure would allow for some natural revegetation of the bank. 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate for slopes up to 1 to 1, preferably 2 to 1. 

Appropriate for velocities up to 6 feet per second if boulder joints are planted, 15 feet per 
second if boulders are not planted. 


Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 


Source: Adapted from California Department of Fish and Game. California Salmonid Stream 
Habitat Restoration Manual 

2 Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service. Stream Corridor Restoration Principles. 
Processes and Practices 





Bank Stabilization Measures 

#8A : Boulder Revetment 



Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service, Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, Processes and Practices 



Source: Adapted from California Department of Fish and Game. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual 















Bank Stabilization Measures 


#8B: Boulder Revetment with Soil and Vegetation 


Description: 

Boulder revetment is a method for armoring stream banks with large boulders for preventing 
bank erosion. Revetment footing is laid in a “toe” trench dug along the base of the bank. Large 
boulders (are then laid on the bank slopes up to the ordinary high water or other design water 
surface. Large angular boulders are best suited for this purpose. Boulder revetment can 
provide protection in areas where log or boulder instream structures may lead to bank erosion. 
The boulders used should be dense and structurally competent 1 . 

Soil is placed over the boulders and vegetation is installed by staking and/or direct seeding. 
Bio-degradable erosion control mats may be placed over the soil to help control erosion until 
vegetation establishes itself. Special care must be taken in staking to avoid damage to the 
stakes’ cambium and to ensure good soil/water/stake contact. Thick revetment layers may 
require special tools for establishing staking pilot holes 2 . 

Geotextile fabrics should be avoided, as they prevent the natural establishment of vegetation 1 . 

This method should, where appropriate, be used with soil bio-engineering systems or live 
vegetation to stabilize the upper bank and ensure a regenerative source of streambank 
vegetation. A major benefit of this method is that the components are flexible and function is 
not impaired by slight movement from settlement or other adjustments 2 . 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate for slopes up to 1 to 1, preferably 2 to 1. 

Appropriate for velocities up to 6 feet per second. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-stream: Enhances biotic resources 

Stream-side: Provides limited biotic resources 


Source: Adapted from California Department of Fish and Game. California Salmonid Stream 
Habitat Restoration Manual 

2 Source: Adapted from Natural Resources Conservation Service. Stream Corridor Restoration 
Principles. Processes and Practices 





Bank Stabilization Measures 


#8B: Boulder Revetment 
with Soil and Vegetation 



Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service, Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, Processes and Practices 









Bank Stabilization Measures 


#9: Articulated Concrete Blocks 


Description: 

Articulated concrete blocks (ACB) consists of concrete interlocking blocks that are cabled 
together to form mats that can be laid on the channel slope and/or channel bottom. The ACB 
extended below the invert to form a cutoff wall. 

ACBs are available in two styles: open cell and closed cell. The open cell style allows for 
vegetation to be recruited into the soil filing of the cell. Vegetation growth is restricted by the 
sizes of the cell openings and by the disconnection caused by the cell walls. 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate for slopes up to 1 to 1. 

Appropriate for velocities up to 15 feet per second for closed cell ACBs, 6 feet per second for 
open cell ACBs. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-Stream: Provides limited biotic resources 

Stream-side: Reduces or eliminates biotic potential 



Bank Stabilization Measures 
#9: Articulated Concrete Blocks 



SECTION 







Bank Stabilization Measures 


#9A: Articulated Concrete Blocks with Planting Areas 


Description: 

Articulated concrete blocks (ACB) consists of concrete interlocking blocks that are cabled 
together to form mats that can be laid on the channel slope and/or channel bottom. The ACB is 
extended below the invert as a cutoff wall to prevent undermining of slope protection. 

ACBs are available in two styles: open cell and closed cell. The open cell style allows for 
vegetation to be recruited into the soil filing of the cell. Vegetation growth is restricted by the 
sizes of the cell openings and by the disconnection caused by the cell walls. 

Open planting areas can be constructed into the ACB mats by creating an opening in the mat by 
removing some of the blocks. The open areas can be revegetated with shrubs and trees. 
Irrigation is provided to the planted vegetation to aid plant establishment. 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate for slopes up to 1 to 1. 

Appropriate for velocities up to 15 feet per second for closed cell ACBs, 6 feet per second for 
open cell ACBs. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-Stream: Provides limited biotic resources 

Stream-side: Reduces or eliminates biotic potential 



Bank Stabilization Measures 

#9A: Articulated Concrete Blocks 
with Planting Areas 



SECTION 








Bank Stabilization Measures 


#10: Concrete Crib Walls 


Description: 

Concrete crib walls consist of stacked interlocking concrete frames that form a retaining wall. 
The structural strength is developed by the composite design of a concrete frame with 
compacted backfill. Crib walls are constructed with open face panels that are planted by live 
staking. This method restricts plant growth by the size of the panel opening. As the crib wall 
slope is flattened and the lattice becomes more open, the vegetation potential increases and the 
allowable velocity decreases because of the exposed soil and vegetation. 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate for slopes up to % to 1. 

Appropriate for velocities from 6 feet per second up to 15 feet per second, depending on the 
size of the crib wall’s openings. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-Stream: Reduces or eliminates biotic potential 

Stream-side: Reduces or eliminates biotic potential 



Bank Stabilization Measures 
#10: Concrete Crib Walls 



Cutoff 


SECTION 




Bank Stabilization Measures 


#11: Sacked Concrete 


Description: 

Sacked concrete slope protection (SCSP) consists of burlap bags filled with concrete and 
placed against channel banks. SCSP requires a three-foot deep concrete or SCSP cutoff wall 
at the toe of the slope to prevent failure. SCSP does not provide any revegetation potential. 
However, it offers the opportunity to contour walls such that impacts to existing vegetation are 
avoided 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate for slopes up to !4 to 1. 

Appropriate for velocities up to 15 feet per second. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-Stream: Reduces or eliminates biotic potential 

Stream-side: Reduces or eliminates biotic potential 



Bank Stabilization Measures 
#11: Sacked Concrete 



SECTION 







Bank Stabilization Measures 


#12: Gunite Slope Protection 


Description: 

Gunite slope protection consists of a concrete mixture sprayed under pressure oven an eroded 
bank. Reinforcing steel may be placed against the bank prior to spraying. 

Design Criteria: 

Appropriate for slopes up to vertical. 

Appropriate for velocities up to 15 feet per second. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-Stream: Reduces or eliminates biotic potential 

Stream-side: Reduces or eliminates biotic potential 



Bank Stabilization Measures 


#12: Gunite Slope Protection 

(No drawing included for this bank stabilization measure; 
please refer to narrative for more information) 



Bank Stabilization Measures 


#13: Earth with Rock Toe on Grass Lined Channels 


Description: 

Earth repair with rock toe on grass-lined channels* involves the repair of eroded channel banks 
using appropriately-sized boulders and compacted soil. Boulders are placed at the toe of the 
bank up to the ordinary high water elevation. Above this, earth is placed and compacted in 
successive lifts. The overbuilt embankment is then cut and trimmed back to match the 
upstream and downstream channel side slopes and toes. The surface is seeded with fast 
sprouting grass species like rye. Geotextile/erosion control fabric may be placed over 
hydroseeding to secure newly compacted bank. 

* Grass-lined channels are those where grass is the predominant or sole vegetation, and that 
contain no significant riparian structure. 

Habitat Impact Assessment: 

In-Stream: Enhances biotic resources 
Stream-side: Enhances biotic resources 



Bank Stabilization Measures 


#13: Earth with Rock Toe on Grass Lined Channels 

(No drawing included for this bank stabilization measure; 
please refer to narrative for more information) 



ATTACHMENT B 


Mitigation Feasibility Assessment 

(MFA) 




2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


Attachment B 


Mitigation Feasibility Assessment Field Protocol 


1. Introduction 

Revegetation and riparian planting is one of five methods of mitigation. Experienced staff with 
recognized botanical and/or horticultural expertise should be consulted early in the project 
planning phase. Incorporating revegetation and riparian planting direction early into the 
planning phase will enable staff to identify critical elements or pre-existing conditions at each 
site. Assessing the project site for revegetation and planting mitigation feasibility will provide 
direction in determining: 

a) Bank stabilization design, 

b) Root zone protection measures: construction fencing, plywood/mulch, best access route, 

c) Composition of a plant palette suitable to the site if planting is possible, 

d) Feasibility of on-site mitigation by standard revegetation methods, and 

e) Selection of an alternate mitigation strategy (off-site, invasive species control, revegetation 
by seeding and/or weed control). 

2. Attributes 

The feasibility of mitigation depends on the opportunities and constraints of each bank repair 
site. These elements should be identified as part of the planning process, prior to bank repair 
design and regulatory agency review. The success criteria for mitigation should be evaluated 
and adjusted based on these findings. Each site will be analyzed with the criteria elements 
described below: 

a) Hydrology - the proximity of the mitigation site to high-water events and the availability of 
water to mitigation plantings will directly impact the success of the mitigation site. 

b) Velocity - location of plantings in relation to hydraulic characteristics. As an example, the 
inside of an oxbow or curve may receive velocities that cannot sustain vegetation. 

c) Soils - soil type, nutrient content, friability, historic land use, and degree of compaction. 

d) Type of repair - may directly relate to the site’s ability to grow and support native plants. 
The type of bank repair may also limit the space available for mitigation, thereby requiring 
an off-site mitigation alternative. 

e) Aspect - duration of sun/shade on site and influence of existing tree canopy. This will 
influence mitigation species palette. 

f) Slope - directly relates to accessibility of site by staff, irrigation needs, and associated 
maintenance costs. 

g) Adjacent land use - run-off from adjacent properties, proximity to trails, impacts from 
trash/vandalism, and fire hazards. 

h) Access to site - tree removals/pruning/root zone protection, impacts to understory 
vegetation, and accessibility of site by staff to maintain mitigation site. . 

i) Presence of invasive plants or animals that are destructive to developing habitat - the 
long-term success of each site may be adversely impacted by the encroachment of 
invasive plants and animals into the site. The presence of native herbivores may also 
require additional protective measures to be incorporated into the mitigation strategy. 

j) Presence of rare/listed species - may limit the maintenance activities allowed at the site. 

k) Maintenance needs - should be incorporated into the revegetation design for each site. 
Assess future maintenance needs and determine access requirements, capacity needs, 
frequency site will need to be re-visited, etc. 


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2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


Attachment B 


3. MFA Ranking 

The MFA will result in a revegetation potential divided into three separate rankings: high, 
medium, and low. Each of these rankings is based on the presence or absence of specific 
attributes (opportunities and constraints) assessed for the site. These attributes can be further 
grouped into: 

• Physical constraints: required engineering, soil compaction, elevation and distance from the 
stream, shade/sun availability, etc.; 

• Horticultural constraints: soil characteristics, availability of water; shading; 

• Cultural/biological constraints: public access/vandalism, rodent activity, wildlife browse, 
invasive plant species; and 

• Maintenance constraints: routine maintenance activities of the creek and flood protection 
infrastructure - such as access. 

All attributes may not be applicable to every project site. Only those applicable attributes will be 
assessed to determine an appropriate MFA ranking. 

MFA Ranking 

a) High revegetation potential sites have few constraints and no insurmountable constraints 
with reasonable inputs. 

b) Medium revegetation potential sites have a few constraints but no insurmountable 
constraints with reasonable inputs. 

c) Low revegetation potential sites have several constraints and have constraints that 
cannot be overcome with reasonable inputs. 


Revegetation Planting Potential 


Ranking 

High 

Medium 

Low 

Site Attribute 




Soils 

Soil texture and 
chemistry suitable to 
horticultural processes 
with little or no 
intervention. 

Soil texture and 
chemistry require some 
intervention but will 
support establishment 
and long term plant 
processes. (5) 

Soil texture or 
chemistry have 
significant obstacles to 
horticultural processes. 
Competing goals 
(levee compaction for 
instance) preclude 
modification. (10) 

Slope 

Slope stable and grade 
suitable for planting 
and worker safety 
during plant 
establishment. 

Slope creates difficulty 
in plant installation and 
maintenance (1.5: or 
greater). Planting and 
maintenance requires 
special infrastructure. 

(5) 

Severe and/or unstable 
slope that limits or 
precludes planting. 
Worker safety (slope 
requires roping in, 
unstable slope above 
planting, etc.) 


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2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


Attachment B 





constraints. (8) 

Hydrology 

Water on or 
immediately adjacent 
to site, soil allows good 
capillary action, return 
flows allow frequent 
inundation. No need to 
modify to create good 
hydrology. 

Site and soils have 
some limitations 
regarding water 
availability. Substrate 
suitable to root 
expansion. Site may be 
modified to facilitate 
water connectivity. (5) 

Little to no water 
holding capacity. Site 
goes dry during hottest 
part of the year. Little 
or no ability to improve 
hydrology through site 
manipulation. (10) 

Stream Velocity 

Low velocity flows that 
will not impact plant 
establishment or 
mature plantings. 

Infrequent velocities 
sufficient to undermine 
or wash out vegetation. 

(5) 

Frequent or constant 
velocities likely to 
undermine or wash out 
vegetation. (8) 

Solar Aspect/Shade 

Open area without 
harsh sun exposure. 

Harsh solar aspect or 
heavy shade that could 
impact plant 
establishment. 
Reasonable inputs can 
offset limitations. 

(5) 

Heavy shade or solar 
aspect, coupled with 
other factors, create 
significant probability of 
plant failure. No 
reasonable remedies to 
overcome site 
condition. (10) 

Repair 

Characteristics 

Repair has planting 
attributes designed into 
the project. Design 
requirements are not 
incompatible with plant 
establishment. 

Repair has some 
features that are 
incompatible with plant 
establishment. 
Reasonable inputs or 
design modifications 
increase survival 
potential. (5) 

Design requirements 
are incompatible with 
planting. Little or no 
accommodation can be 
made to increase 
plantability. (10) 

Adjacent Land Use 

No land use issues 
incompatible with 
mitigation goals. 

Some level of land use 
or human activity 
incompatible with 
habitat goals (trespass, 
homeless habitation, 
dumping, illegal 
recreational uses, etc). 
Level may be reduced 
or eliminated with 
minimal intervention. 

(5) 

Excessive or chronic 
human activity that is 
incompatible with 
habitat goals. Heavy 
homeless habitation, 
historic dumping, or 
other evidence of 
persistent unauthorized 
activity. Ability to 
change conditions 
unlikely or impossible. 
(10) 

Access to Site 

Little or no access 
restrictions for staff and 
equipment. 

Some access 
requirements that 
preclude vehicular 
access and or make 
pedestrian access 
difficult. Site may be 
accessed for 
establishement 
maintenance with 

Significant obstacles to 
access by vehicles and 
pedestrians. Site may 
be landlocked (no 
easement), require 
extensive hiking or 
water crossings. 
Topography may 
preclude equipment 


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2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


Attachment B 




reasonable 
accommodations.(5) 

access.(10) 

Invasive 

Species/Rodents, 

Browse 

Little or no evidence of 
invasive plant species 
or heavy rodent activity 

Invasive plants on 
and/or encroaching into 
site. Current or recent 
evidence of heavy 
rodent populations 
(Pocket Gopher, CA 
Ground Squirrel. Issues 
and to be resolved or 
reduced to acceptable 
threshold at time of 
construction. (5) 

Heavy infestation of 
invasive plant species 
(Arundo, Cape Ivy, 
Broom, Blue Gum 
Eucalyptus, etc.). 
Established active 
rodent population on 
and adjacent to site. 
Surrounding conditions 
suggest ongoing 
difficulty in controlling 
negative impacts (re¬ 
infestation from 
adjacent areas). (10) 

ESA Limitations 
(Endangered 

Species Act) 

No management 
limitatations based on 
presence of listed 
species. Potential 
benefit to listed species 
due to creation of 
habitat. 

Presence of listed 
species requires 
alteration some of 
maintenance practices. 
Examples would be 
some pesticide 
prohibitions, delays in 
scheduled maintenance, 
limitations on vehicular 

access. 

(5) 

Presence of listed 
species requires 
significant alteration of 
maintenance practices. 
Examples would be on¬ 
site biological monitor, 
complete pesticide 
ban, major calendar 
exclusions of 
maintenance activities. 
(8) 

Facility 

Maintenance 

Little or no change in 
site management 
based on required 
facility maintenance. 

Some change to 
mitigation required due 
to required facility 
needs. Examples such 
as reduced planting due 
to ongoing prescribed 
maintenance, setback of 
vegetation to meet fire 
codes, elimination of 
tree species to maintain 
capacity. (5) 

Significant 

compromises in habitat 
design to 

accommodate facility 
needs. Examples 
would be Corps 
inspection setbacks, 
elimination of woody 
species to reduce 
roughness, loss of 
planting area for 
equipment access. (8) 


4. Revegetation Potential Scoring 

a) A “High” rating contributes a “zero” score. The lower the score, the feasibility for 
replanting is higher; the site is better. 

b) Each “Medium” or “Low” rating of an attribute would be scored as outlined in the above 
table. The individual points attached to each attribute are based on its potential to impede 
mitigation success and the degree of difficulty involved in overcoming the obstacle. 


4 


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2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


Attachment B 


c) The total points would be deducted from the most stringent success criteria, and would 
result in an adjusted success criteria commitment; more appropriate to the specific site 
conditions. 

d) The lowest score that a site could receive would be 40. If a site scores more than 40 using 
the prescribed formula, it would be considered unsuitable for revegetation and an 
alternative site or mitigation obligation would be proposed. 

e) Some sites might have an extraordinary condition where one specific attribute could be 
scored higher than is listed in the table, whereby its function at that site is critical for the 
success of the site. In that case, even if the overall scoring would seem possible, if one (a 
few) attribute(s) makes a site undesirable to plant, an alternative success criteria could be 
negotiated separate from the scoring formula proposed in the table. 

5. Mitigation Accounting 

a) The maximum success criteria is 75% total cover of native vegetation in 5 years, with a 
70% survival rate. Trees may be replanted at any time, for loss of individuals. The lowest 
success criteria is 35% total cover of native vegetation in 5 years. 

b) A site receiving a “perfect score” defined as a “High” in every category would commit to a 
maximum of 75% total cover of native vegetation in 5 years from the time of installation. 
Some replanting of lost individuals may occur during this time. 

c) The sum of all attribute scores are subtracted from the maximum success criteria 
percentage. 

Example: A site receives a total score of 20. The maximum success criteria is 75%. Therefore, 
75-20 = 55%. This is the new success criteria of total native cover after 5 years. 

d) The lowest score that a site could receive would be 40, resulting in a success criteria 
cover commitment of 35% total native cover after 5 years. If a site scores more than 40 
using the prescribed formula, it would be considered unsuitable for revegetation and an 
alternative site or mitigation obligation would be proposed. 


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July 2011 




ATTACHMENT C 


Tree Scoring for Removal of Trees and 

Shrubs 6-<12” dbh 




2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


Attachment C 


Tree Scoring for Removal of Trees and Shrubs 6 4 12” dbh 

Trees and shrubs 6 w to 12" dbh may be removed under the Stream Maintenance Program 2012-2022. The sum 
value from the assessment of four (4) attributes will provide a mitigation ratio for the trees/shrubs proposed for 
removal. Trees >12" dbh are not included as a part of this removal program. High scores equate to higher value 
trees, with greater potential impacts if they are removed; and therefore, will require more mitigation. Low scores 
equate to lower value trees, having fewer potential impacts if they are removed; and therefore, require lower 
mitigation. 

Multi-stem: A tree or shrub with a root ball and multiple trunks or stems. This may occur at ground level or several 
feet above ground. The dbh of trees with multiple stems will be calculated by adding the diameters of the individual 
stems at 4.5 feet above ground. Individuals with greater than seven (7) stems at dbh will be assessed by their 
canopy cover. 

A. Approach 

Tree replacement would start with a baseline ratio of 1:1. Replacement ratios would increase or decrease based on 
specific ecological attributes of the individual(s) to be removed and the setting in which it is/they are located. 

Scoring would add to or subtract from the baseline ratio. Final ratios would be calculated using the methodology 
outlined below. Due to the habitat value of native oaks and sycamores, these species will be replaced in-kind, with 
like native species. 

B. Ranking 

1. Canopy cover 

a) Square footage of canopy is measured at the widest drip-line extension of the subject tree. 

b) Grouping or stands of trees are calculated as the summation of each individual tree canopy, even if 
the canopies overlap. Open space between the trees would not be factored into the square footage 
calculation. 

c) Calculations may be made on approximations (+/- 5 feet) with areas converted to measurable 
geometry. Width x length = square footage. (Estimating by a triangle or circle is also acceptable.) 

d) 0-100 sq. ft. is ranked 0 as the baseline from which mitigation starts is 1:1 



L 


Metric: Choose 1. Assess at widest dripline extension point and squar e that va l u e. 


Attribute 

Score 

0-100 Square Feet of Canopy (< 10' diameter) 

0 points 

101-400 Square Feet of Canopy (10 - 20' 
diameter) 

+ 1 points 

>401 Square Feet (> 20' diameter) 

+ 2 points 


0-2 points 


2. 


Local Area Value 

a) Is the affected vegetation unique to its geographic location based on a measurable attribute 
(species, size, structure, absence of adjacent comparable vegetation). 

b) There is a 2000 sq ft maximum for removal of a stand of trees. 


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2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


Attachment C 


Metric: Choose all that apply. Score = 0 if none of these apply. 


Attribute 

Score 

Native Species 

+1 point 

No similar vegetation within 500 feet radius 
(Size of canopy, height, or similar measurable 
criteria; even if non-native). 

+1 point 

Stand Reduction (Removal of target trees 
would reduce stand by more than...) 

+1 point for 20-50% reduction 
+2 points for greater than 50% reduction 


0-4 points 


3. Ecosystem Benefits (wildlife, fisheries, streams) 

a) Tree used by wildlife. Examples include: cavity nesting, nectar feeders, high wildlife food value 
(seeds, fruits, flowers), cavities and crevices for bats, dead wood for woodpeckers and insect 
feeders, perching, roosting, nesting, etc. This will rarely ever be zero. 

Supports macroinvertebrate and biomass decomposition processes. 

b) Provides structure/cover: Nurse tree, horizontal or vertical cover. 

c) Provides SRA: Shaded Riverine Aquatic, < 15 ft from the water's edge or overhangs water, shade, 
roots or branches in water providing habitat for fish and aquatic organisms, could contribute 
instream woody debris. 

d) Tree is 6-12" dbh, provides more mature structure and life form to the surrounding environment. 


Metric: Choose all that apply. 


Attribute 

Score 

Used by wildlife 

+ 1 point 

Structure/Cover (vertical, horizontal) 

+ 1 point 

SRA 

+ 1 point 

Tree is 6-12" dbh (life form) 

+ 1 point 


1-4 points 


4. Ecosystem Detriments 

a) Tree has ecologically undesirable attributes. 

b) Ecological arboriculture would include a tree failing to thrive with little or no hope of recovery. 

Note: this distinguishes between tree removals that may benefit the ecological setting versus hazard 
trees. 


Metric: Choose all that apply. Score = 0 if none of these apply. 


Attribute 

Score 

Significant structural defects 

-1 point 

Non-native species OR 

-1 point OR 

Invasive species 

-2 points 

Removal for ecological arboricultural reasons 

-1 point 

(diseased, infestation), excludes hazard trees 



-4-0 points 


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2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


Attachment C 


C. Mitigation Calculation 

Baseline is 1:1 ratio for trees impacted in this size class. 

Point reductions could result in a final score that reduces the ratio to less than 1:1. 

Due to the habitat value of native oaks and sycamores, these species will be replaced in-kind, with like native 

species. 


Attributes 

Min. 

Max. 



Vegetation Cover 

0 

2 

Attribute Range 

Mitigation Ratio 

Local Area Value 

0 

4 

-3 - 2 

1:1 

Ecosystems Benefits 

1 

4 

3 - 5 

2:1 

Ecosystems Detriments 

-4 

0 

6 -10 

3:1 

Total Range 

-3 

10 




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2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


Attachment C 


Tree Scoring for Removal of Trees and Shrubs 6 12" dbh 


Site Location_ 

Assessors Name 

Date_ 

ESU # 


Species_ 

DBH_ 

Canopy Cover sq ft_ 
Reason for Removal 


1. Canopy cover 


Metric: Choose 1. Assess at widest dripline extension point. 


Attribute 

Score 

0-100 Square Feet of canopy cover (< 10' 
diameter) 

0 points 

101-400 Square Feet of canopy cover (10-20' 
diameter) 

+ 1 points 

>401 Square Feet ( > 20' diameter) 

+ 2 points 


0-2 


Stand maximum = 2000 sq ft 


Vegetation Cover 

Score: 


2. Local Area Value 


Metric: Choose all that apply. Score = 0 if none of these apply. 


Attribute 

Score 

Native Species 

+1 point 

No similar vegetation within 500 feet radius 
(Size of canopy, height, or similar measurable 
criteria; even if non-native). 

+1 point 

Stand Reduction (Removal of target trees 
would reduce stand by more than:.) 

+1 point for 20-50% 
reduction 

+2 points for greater than 

50% reduction 


Ecosystem Benefits (wildlife, fisheries, streams) 
Metric: Choose all that apply. 

0-4 

Attribute 

Score 

Used by wildlife 

+ 1 point 

Structure/Cover (vertical, horizontal) 

+ 1 point 

SRA 

+ 1 point 

Tree is 6-12" dbh (life form) 

+ 1 point 


1-4 


4. Ecosystem Detriments 

Metric: Choose all rows that apply. Score = 0 if none of these apply. 


Attribute 

Score 

Significant structural defects 

-1 point 

Non-native species or 

Invasive species 

-1 point or 
-2 points 

Removal for ecological arboricultural reasons 
(diseased, infestation) excludes Hazard trees 

-1 point 


Local Area Value 

Score: 


Ecosystem Benefit 

Score:_ 


Ecosystem Detriment 

Score: 


-4-0 

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2012 Stream Maintenance Program Manual 


Attachment C 


C. Mitigation Calculation 

Due to the habitat value of native oaks and sycamores, these species will be replaced in-kind, with like native 

species. 


Attributes 

min 

max 

Vegetation Cover 

0 

2 

Local Area Value 

0 

4 

Ecosystems Benefits 

1 

4 

Ecosystems Detriments 

-4 

0 

Total Range 

-3 

10 


Total 4 Attributes 

Score: 


Attribute Range 

Mitigation Ratio 

-3 - 2 

1:1 

3 - 5 

2:1 

6 -10 

3:1 


Mitigation Ratio:_ 

Canopy Cover sq ft X Ratio quotient = Amount Owed 


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ATTACHMENT D 


Invasive Plant Management Plan 




IPMP 


Attachment D 


2012-2022 SMP Mitigation 
Invasive Plant Management Program Plan 


1.0 PROGRAM PLAN OVERVIEW 

Controlling the spread of invasive plant species is a critical element in improving the ecological 
health of our streams and watersheds. Invasive plants tend to thrive and spread aggressively, 
negatively altering resource allocation regimes, wildlife patterns, soil stability and water quality 
thus degrading habitat quality and the overall ecological value of a site. In addition, invasive 
plants can exacerbate flooding and fire danger, undermine structural assets, and obstruct access 
to roads, levees and trails. 

The Invasive Plant Management Program (IPMP) will serve as compensatory mitigation for 
SMP (Stream Maintenance Program) vegetation impacts to upland, riparian, freshwater and tidal 
wetlands by eliminating or significantly controlling the population of invasive plant species from 
these affected habitats. The IPMP will be a two-pronged approach including: 1) a systematic 
program to control priority invasive plants throughout Santa Clara County; and 2) an 
opportunistic program to manage invasive plants within active individual SMP work sites. These 
two approaches will dovetail together to enhance the overall ecological health of our creeks and 
watersheds. 

The IPMP may be implemented in any location within the coverage area of the SMP. Priority, 
however, will be given to conducting control work in locations that contain sensitive habitats, 
sensitive species and/or provide quality habitat for a variety of wildlife. When possible, the 
District will coordinate with adjacent landowners to try and accomplish a complementary and 
consistent approach to invasive plant management. 


2.0 PROGRAM PLAN GOALS AND MITIGATION COMMITMENTS 

The overall goal of the IPMP is to preserve and improve habitat within Santa Clara County 
streams and riparian corridors through removal of invasive plants. This will be achieved through 
early detection and systematic removal of invasive plants in existing high quality habitats, 
opportunistic removal of invasive plants in SMP work locations, as well as undertaking control 
efforts in currently degraded habitats to improve the overall ecological site condition. 

A. Over the course of the 10 year pennit, the systematic portion of the IPMP will target: 
1) removal of 


2012-2022 SMP 


1 


November 2011 



IPMP 


Attachment D 


priority invasive plants in existing high quality habitats and 2) control efforts in 
currently degraded habitats to improve overall ecological site conditions. Mitigation 
needs and credit will be detennined annually, dependent on the proposed work for the 
year and the associated impacts expected to be incurred in each habitat type, i.e., 
upland, riparian, freshwater and tidal wetland impacts. A proposal for mitigation 
credit and the associated acreage to be treated for this program will be submitted with 
the “Notice of Proposed Work”. 

B. The opportunistic portion of the IPMP will target removal of invasive plants at 
specific SMP work sites. This effort will be variable each year dependent on the 
number of project sites where invasive plant removal is feasible. Mitigation credit 
accrued will be used to compensate for on-site vegetation impacts or for ongoing 
vegetation maintenance activities. Proposed mitigation credit for each project site 
will be submitted with the annual “Notice of Proposed Work.” 


The IPMP plans to coordinate and collaborate with other regional control and early detection 
programs in order to stay apprised of regional issues (e.g., Bay Area Early Detection Network 
(BAEDN), California Invasive Plant Council (CAL-IPC), San Francisco Estuary Invasive 
Spartina Program (ISP), Arundo Del Norte, etc.). Coordination will also take place with other 
landowners in Santa Clara County to try and accomplish a complementary and consistent 
approach to invasive plant management throughout the County (ex., Don Edwards National 
Wildlife Refuge, Cities of Palo Alto, Mountain View and San Jose, etc.). 


3.0 PROGRAM PLAN IMPLEMENTATION 

A. Systematic Component 

A priority matrix of invasive plant species has been developed which integrates and 
weights a variety of factors including: the 2006 CAL-IPC ratings, the anticipated rate of 
spread without management intervention, the feasibility of effective control, impacts to 
fish and wildlife, impacts to sensitive plant communities, increases in flood or fire 
danger, and aggressive growth patterns known to cause structural damage to flood control 
facilities or impede maintenance access (Table 1). 

California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), CAL-IPC, and BAEDN 
invasive plant databases will be consulted periodically to ensure the District’s priority 
matrix is up to date. The matrix will also be reviewed and updated to tailor the list to 
specific occurrence data in Santa Clara County and establish the priority targets for the 
year. 


2012-2022 SMP 


2 


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IPMP 


Attachment D 


Specific locations targeted for control activities will be selected based on the baseline 
inventory (See Section 4 below) as well as a variety of other factors including: quality of 
habitat, feasibility of control, access constraints, etc. Integrated Vegetation Management 
techniques will be employed (ex., mechanical, chemical, combination, etc.) to utilize the 
most effective method for each species while providing the greatest amount of protection 
to environmental resources. 

Success criteria will be developed for each site, and/or for each individual target species. 
Eradication will be the ultimate goal for defined sites where conditions exist to make it a 
realistic goal. Exclusion or containment strategies may be used where an invasive poses 
a threat to a sensitive species or habitat type and complete eradication is deemed 
infeasible. These control strategies may also be used to suppress highly competitive 
invasive species and give existing native species the ability to thrive. 

Control work for certain species may require several years of treatment to be effective. 
Repeat invasive plant management mitigation activities, within a two-year period will be 
accounted toward the original mitigation requirement. For infestations that require more 
than two years of treatment, the work on the site in year three and following will become 
available to be counted as mitigation for new SMP maintenance activities (at a 50% rate 
for the patch area). 

Efforts will be made to encourage natural revegetation/recruitment at treatment sites, 
including suppression of other weed species. In areas where revegetation does not occur 
naturally within 2 years, a biological/horticultural assessment will be made to detennine 
what impediments may exist to natural revegetation. In areas where revegetation 
potential exists, a plan will be developed to install site-appropriate vegetation. 

Mitigation credits for revegetation may be applied, consistent with SMP 2012 mitigation 
accounting. 

Once the annual mitigation needs are detennined, a proposal for mitigation credit and the 
associated acreage to be treated for this program will be submitted with the “Notice of 
Proposed Work”. IPMP may be combined with other fonns of mitigation such as 
revegetation or land acquisition to encourage a holistic mitigation program that is 
sustainable in the long term. 


B. Opportunistic Component 

Invasive plant species are frequently found during field inspections and are often 
associated with other identified SMP work activities (i.e., bank repair sites, sediment 
removal sites, minor maintenance sites, etc.). In these instances, opportunistic control of 
invasive plants may enhance habitat quality and benefit the ecological landscape. 


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IPMP 


Attachment D 


There is no specific target acreage for the opportunistic component of the Program. 
Credit for these removals will be on a case by case/ site by site basis. Mitigation credit 
gained through this portion of the program will be used to defray for on-site vegetation 
impacts or to compensate for ongoing vegetation maintenance activities. Proposed 
mitigation credit for each project site will be submitted with the annual “Notice of 
Proposed Work.” 


C. Coordination & Education 

The District will coordinate and collaborate with other regional control and early 
detection programs in order to stay apprised of regional issues (e.g., BAEDN, CAL-IPC, 
ISP, Arundo Del Norte, etc.). The IPMP will document invasive species occurrence and 
control data and submit pertinent information to regional databases (e.g., CAL-IPC, Cal 
Flora, and BAEDN). 

Coordination will also take place with other landowners in Santa Clara County to try and 
accomplish a complementary and consistent approach to invasive plant management 
throughout the County (ex., Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, Cities of Palo Alto, 
Mountain View and San Jose, etc.). 

An informational brochure highlighting priority invasive species will be published which 
includes pictures, provides descriptions, and discusses the threats posed by each plant to 
help educate District field staff and the public about these species. Increased awareness 
will aid with early detection and/or identification of previously unidentified locations of 
these species. In addition, during control activities, informational postings will be placed 
at publicly accessible sites. 


4.0 MONITORING 

A. Baseline Inventory and Database Development 

The county-wide vegetation mapping conducted in 2010 by Aerial Information Systems, 
Inc. (AIS) for the SMP will be used to develop a baseline inventory of invasive species in 
the SMP footprint. This data layer will be supplemented with pertinent information 
collected by District staff and regional databases (e.g., CAL-IPC, Cal Flora, etc.) to 
establish the Year 1 baseline inventory. 

The inventory will be updated annually based on field inspection data collected by 
Vegetation Management staff, biologists, and Field Operations Administrators. Over the 
life of the program, important information will be collected regarding the distribution of 
invasive species in Santa Clara County watersheds, their overall ecological impact, the 


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IPMP 


Attachment D 


efficacy of management efforts, and the best direction for future management to reduce 
the negative ecological impacts of invasive plants. 

B. Treatment Monitoring 

Treatment areas will be mapped with a GPS and tracked for long-term success at all 
programmatic and opportunistic control sites. This will help determine the efficacy of the 
particular treatment and determine if additional control work and/or a different technique 
will be necessary. Results of the treatment monitoring will be critical for prioritizing 
follow-up treatments and planning seasonal work. 


5.0 REPORTING 

A proposal for mitigation credit will be submitted annually with the “Notice of Proposed Work.” 
This proposal will discuss the mitigation details of both the systematic and opportunistic 
components of the IPMP. Acreage of target species to be controlled as well as general locations 
of control activities will be discussed. 

Annual summary reports will be submitted to the regulatory agencies providing details regarding 
the species treated, control methods used, and locations of treatment work. Recommendations 
will be provided, including future management needs and the feasibility of active revegetation, if 
necessary. 


6.0 SCHEDULE 

The IPMP will be implemented over the course of the 10 year permit. Specific project milestones 
include: 

• Regional coordination will be ongoing upon initiation of the program. 

• Baseline invasive plant inventory will be completed within the first two years of the 
program. 

• Priority matrix of invasive plant species will be updated as needed. 

• Proposal for mitigation credit will be submitted annually with the “Notice of Proposed 
Work” 

• Control efforts for the opportunistic component will begin in year 1 of the program. 

• Control efforts for the programmatic component will begin in Year 2 after the baseline 
inventory is complete. 

• Mitigation status will be reported annually. 


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IPMP 


Attachment D 


7.0 PROGRAM PLAN ADMINISTRATION 

This program has been constructed for the sole purpose of meeting the mitigation requirements 
of the SMP. 

As a mitigation element of the SMP, the IPMP is defined as a separate work category. While it 
has elements of vegetation management, revegetation and maintenance it is not subject to the 
limitations defined for these separate work activities. Since the IPMP is a mitigation element, 
the IPMP will have a higher level of biological oversight and resource protection than other 
“impact” program components. 


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ATTACHMENT E 


Large Woody Debris 




LWD 


Attachment E 


Management of Large Woody Debris in Santa Clara County Streams 
Guidelines for Implementation 


Stream Maintenance Program Renewal Project 
Prepared by Watershed Management Division 
Melissa Moore 
February 9, 2010 


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LWD 


Attachment E 


Management of Large Woody Debris in Santa Clara County Streams 

Guidelines for Implementation 


Objective 

Retain woody debris in streams throughout Santa Clara County in order to preserve the physical and 
biological processes associated with the natural recruitment of wood to waterways. This is the process of 
altering urban streams so that their behavior corresponds as closely as possible with that of natural 
streams while providing some measure of flood protection (Keller and Hoffman, 1977). 


Location, Size and Description of Large Woody Debris 

These guidelines pertain to the instream area which is defined as the stream channel within bankfull 
ordinary high water discharge demarcations. The term ‘bankfull — ordinary high water is defined by the 
Army Corns of Engineers (ACOE) as that line on the shore established by the fluctuations of water and 
indicated by physical characteristics such as clear, natural line impressed on the bank, shelving, changes 
in the character of soil, destruction of terrestrial vegetation, the presence of litter and debris, or other 
appropriate means that consider the characteristics of the surrounding areas . The term ‘hankfull -Ms 
defined as the incipient elevation on the bank where flooding begins (Rosgen, 1996). Furthermore, these 
guidelines will utilize established methods of defining and classifying large woody debris (LWD) as 
outlined in California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual (CDFG, 1998). 

During the initial biological survey of the woody debris site, the biologist will be responsible for 
recording the size and position of the wood in relation to the channel. Large woody debris is defined as 
having a minimum diameter of 12 inches (30.5 cm) with a minimum length of 6 feet (1.82 meters). The 
size criterion is divided into four categories based on the position of the woody debris as follows: 1) dead 
or downed, 2) dead and standing, 3) perched (on the ha nk and soon to be in the stream channel area) 4) 
live (either coniferous or deciduous). Management of the area beyond the instream zone, the recruitment 
zone, which encompasses the floodplain, is not incorporated in these guidelines. 


Management Strategy 

In order to effectively manage large woody debris in streams within the urban landscape of Santa Clara 
County, the District will use a four tiered, multi-disciplined approach. Each tier will be described within 
this document however, minor modifications based on site conditions may occur. 

1) Retain LWD in the Channel 

Watershed maintenance crews will identify sites in which woody debris is proposed for removal. Each 
site will be evaluated by a biologist to determine the ecological and geomoiphic integrity the wood is 


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LWD 


Attachment E 


providing to the stream channel. During the biological evaluation the size and position of the wood in 
relation to the wetted channel should be described. Additionally, a GPS point or GIS coordinates of the 
wood should be recorded regardless of the fact that the wood may eventually be removed. Watershed 
engineers may be asked to evaluate the woody debris to determine the potential for ha nk erosion, channel 
incision or infrastructure safety. If a consensus is reached to leave the wood in place, the watershed 
personal may collectively decide if the woody debris will require additional monitoring. 

2) Modify Instream LWD 

If the LWD cannot be left in its original configuration and position within the wetted channel due to 
flooding, trash or erosion potential, the wood can be modified and left in place. Modification can include; 
removal of small, lateral branches which capture debris, changing position of the LWD to avoid excessive 
ha nk scour or reconfiguration of the LWD to avoid aggradations or channel incision in select locations. 
The most important consideration in the decision making process to modify the LWD, is to retain its 
biological and geomorphic integrity. If that is not a feasible option, watershed staff should consider 
removal or remove/replace alternatives. 

3) Remove LWD and Replace 

If the watershed staff decide the wood is an imminent flood risk or infrastructure safety is of great 
concern, the third tier in the decision making process is to remove the wood from its original location and 
replace it elsewhere within the watershed. Considerations for the new location of wood placement could 
be the presence of a floodplain, larger width/depth ratio, greater biological value (i.e. natural channel 
versus modified), or simply improved access. 

4) Remove LWD 

If all other avenues of wood management are exhausted, tiers 1-3, watershed staff may decide that the 
wood requires complete removal from the stream channel. Complete removal may occur in highly 
modified streams with low or zero tolerance for instream vegetation or structures such as LWD. 

Mitigation for LWD 

Mitigation for LWD would only be required in creeks that support anadramous fish; though management 
of LWD is desired in all Santa Clara creeks. As shown in Figure 1. Large Woody Debris Accounting 
Criteria, only wood that is protruding into the ordinary high water area would need to be calculated for 
mitigation purposes. This demarcation is used as it is the wood within the ordinary high water area that is 
able to create habitat within the waterway. 

The Mitigation Approach Memorandum, Appendix C FSEIR, describes the mitigation requirements and 
methods to meet those requirements. Modification of these requirements may be made through the 
Biological Opinion of the National Marine Fisheries Service. 


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LWD 


Attachment E 


Work Window for LWD 

LWD management will follow the same work windows as for vegetation management. Modification of 
these requirements may be made through the Biological Opinion of the National Marine Fisheries 
Service. 

Monitoring LWD 

The selection of when and what to monitor will be derived from any concerns that arose during the 
decision making process (tiers 1-3) to leave the wood in place. For example, if the potential for bank 
scour was cited as a chance of occurrence, the team may decide to install lateral scour bars into the bank. 
Painted rebar will be installed laterally into the stream ha nk at selected locations to determine if local 
scour occurs due to the presence of the wood in the channel. If excessive aggradations or channel incision 
is a concern for watershed staff, then scour chains can be installed in appropriate locations. 

After a decision is reached to monitor the LWD, the biologist will be responsible for installation of the 
agreed upon monitoring tools (i.e. lateral scour bars, scour chains) and installation of the tree tag. All 
LWD that requires monitoring will be fitted with an aluminum tree tag and given a unique identifying 
number. An important component to monitoring LWD is to determine the flow rate at which the wood 
will move. If the wood moves from its original location during a storm event, the biologist will survey 
downstream locations for the LWD and determine the maximum discharge from the closest upstream 
gauge. This information can be utilized in future decision making processes to leave/remove LWD within 
a watershed context. Most geomorphic effects of wood in rivers arise from large, stable logs 
(Montgomery, 2003). Finding the threshold for size and movement will assist the watershed staff in long 
term management of wood in local urbanized drainages. If the LWD does move from its original location 
it will have to be reassessed for safety/flooding concerns. 

After the watershed staff decides to monitor the wood, a determination on the frequency of the 
monitoring will occur. Factors to consider when deciding how often the biologist should monitor the 
LWD can be determined based on location of the LWD within the watershed, presence of a 
floodplain, water management upstream of LWD structure, the spatial relationship of LWD with 
urban infrastructure (i.e. bridges), or duration and amount of rainfall. 

Database Management 

Each request submitted by watershed maintenance staff for biological evaluation of LWD can be tracked 
in the database management system. The database can track what percentage of wood is left in place 
within a watershed, what is modified and what is removed. Effectively managing LWD overtime, can 
improve channel processes which will enhance habitat features as well as reduction of trucking and 
disposal costs of LWD. 


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LWD 


Attachment E 


Summary of Roles and Responsibilities 

1) Watershed maintenance staff submits work request for removal of LWD 

2) Biologist surveys wood to determine ecological/geomorphic integrity 

3) Both maintenance staff and biologist determine if LWD stays in place. If both parties are not in 
agreement, consultation of a watershed engineer is required. Staff can then determine a course of 
action based on the four tiered approach. 

4) If monitoring is required, the biologist assigned the original evaluation will be in charge of 
installation of monitoring devices and periodic monitoring. 

5) The biologist is responsible for entry of all applicable data into the management system. 


Literature Cited 

CDFG. California Department of Fish and Game. 1998. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration 
Manual. State of California Resources Agency. Third Edition. 

Keller, E.A., and E.K. Hoffman. 1977. Urban streams: sensual blight or amenity. Journal of Soil and 
Water Conservation 32:237-242. 

Montgomery, D.R., B.D. Collins and J.M. Buffington. 2003. Geomoiphic Effects in Rivers. American 
Fisheries Society Symposium 37: 21-47. 

Rosgen, D. 1996. Applied River Morphology. Wildland Hydrology, Pagosa Springs, Colorado. 


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LARGE WOODY DEBRIS (LWD) 

ACCOUNTING CRITERIA 


Attachment E 
Figure 1 


NOTES: 

1. QHW = Ordinary High Water 

2. TOB = Top of Bank 

3. LWD mitigation is required for ail wood removed that: 

a. is located below OHW 

b. AND also has a diameter > 30 cm (12 inches) 

c. AND also has a length > 1 meter (40 inches) 












ATTACHMENT F 


Best Management Practices (BMPs) 

2012-2022 Stream Maintenance 

Program 




2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


Table 2-12. BMPs Listings 

A. SECTION A -Pre-Project Planning and General BMPs 

General BMPs are applicable program-wide, for most routine SMP maintenance activities. These measures include standard construction 
practices and impact avoidance measures that will minimize potential environmental impacts. These BMPs will be implemented by the stream 
maintenance crew, as appropriate and as overseen by site managers, for all activities associated with the maintenance program. The majority of 
these BMPs are implemented prior to and during maintenance operations, though the level of activity varies depending on the work type. 


Other General BMPs are conducted prior to implementing maintenance activities on site. This group of measures includes procedures to identify 
site or maintenance constraints, such as biological or cultural resource surveys which coincide with permit compliance requirements. Site design 
constraints for sediment and bank stabilization activities in particular are also identified as part of the pre-project planning process. 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 

GEN-1 

In-Channel Work Window 

All ground-disturbing maintenance activities (i.e., sediment removal, bank stabilization, tree removal, and 
mechanized vegetation management) occurring in the channel (below bankfull) will take place between June 15 
and October 15. Requests for work window extensions must be submitted to the requlatorv aqencies bv October 

1 st , listinq the creek names and reaches where a work extension will occur. Work extensions vary per work activity. 

The aqencies will provide a sinqle response within one week. Siqnificant rainfall applies after October 15. An 

extension through December 31 may apply if the following requirements are met and regulatory agency approval is 
received: 

For ground-disturbing activities: 

■ Work may continue if no significant rainfall, defined as greater than 0.5 inches per 24 hours within a local 
watershed, is either forecasted 1 or observed. Following October 15 th , maintenance work shall cease for 
the season if such a rain event is forecasted or observed. 

Sediment removal 

■ Extended Work Window: 

1. Creeks supportinq anadromous fish: 

An extended work window mav occur from October 15 throuqh October 31, or until local rainfall of 0.5 

inches or qreater falls within the subiect watershed within a 24-hour period, whichever occurs first. 

2. Creeks not supportinq anadromous fish: 

An extended work window mav occur from October 15 throuqh November 30 th , or until local rainfall of 

0.5 inches or qreater falls within the subiect watershed within a 24-hour period, whichever occurs first. 

■ Extended Work Window in Lower Quality Areas: 

1. After a siqnificant rainfall event (0.5 in/24 hrs), sSediment removal work mav occur until December 31. 

2. Work will only occur on Berrvessa Creek (0-88+80: 232+70-236+00: 284+30-288+001, Lower Silver 
Creek (Reach 3 between Stations 37+40 and 381+191, Thompson Creek (0+00-10+001, Canoas 

Creek (0+00-390+001. and-Ross Creek (0+00-86+301. Calabazas Creek (35+00-105+001. and San 


1 Weather Forecasts. No phase of the project may be started if that phase and its associated erosion control measures cannot be completed prior to the onset of a 
storm event if that construction phase may cause the introduction of sediments into the stream. Seventy-two-hour weather forecasts from the National Weather 
Service or other localized and more detailed weather forecast service will be consulted prior to start up of any phase of the project that may result in sediment 
runoff to a stream. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

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Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


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December 2011 
Project 10.005 



























2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 



Tomas Aauino Creek (80+00-100+00) can continue with the followina conditions: 
o site conditions are dry and access for all construction equipment and vehicles will not impact 
waterways; and 

o all work will stop if any rainfall is forecast for the next 72 hour period.r-artot 
e—email notification of work status will be provided to regulatory agencies two days in advance of 

scheduled work. 

3. Work mav occur after a siqnificant rainfall event but no later than December 31. 

4. Sites must be maintained in a rapidly winterizable 2 state (implement control measures BMP GEN-20). 
Bank stabilization oroiects that are 50% complete bv October 15 mav continue until the aooroved date stated 
belowcompletion or until 0.5 inches of rain is predicted in the next 24-hr period. Prior to a forecasted siqnificant 
rainfall event (0.5 in/24 hrs), all incomplete bank stabilization projects must be winterized. 

1. In Creeks Supportinq Anadromous Fish 

o An extended work window mav occur until October 31 st for bank stabilization projects that will be 

50% complete bv October 15 th . 

2. In Creeks Not Supportinq Anadromous Fish 

o An extended work window mav occur until November 30 th for oroiects that will be 50% complete 

bv October 15 tn or until siqnificant rainfall. 

o An extended work window mav occur until November 30th for new bank stabilization oroiects that 

will be completed in five (5) davs or less, or until siqnificant rainfall. 

■ Instream hand pruning and hand removal of vegetation will occur year round, except when: 

o Wheeled or tracked equipment needs to access the site by crossing a creek, ponded area, or 
secondary channel; or 

o Work occurs in streams that support steelhead. In these streams instream vegetation 
maintenance will cease on December 31 or when local rainfall greater than 0.5 inches is 
predicted within a 24-hour period of planned activities, whichever happens first. 

Modification and removal of instream larqe woodv debris will occur at anv time of the vear, and as further described 
in the NMFS Bioloqical Opinion.if imminent danger of a flood threat precludes leaving the wood in place. 

GEN-2 

Instream Herbicide 
Application Work Window 

Instream herbicide applications will take place between June 15 and October 1534, with an extension through 
December 31 or until the first occurrence of any of the following conditions; whichever happens first: 

■ local rainfall greater than 0.5 inches is forecasted within a 24-hour period from planned application events; 
or 

■ when steelhead begin upmigrating and spawning in the 14 steelhead creeks, as determined by a qualified 
biologist (typically in November/December), 

o A qualified biologist will determine presence/absence of sensitive resources in designated 
herbicide use areas and develop site-specific control methods (including the use of approved 
herbicide and surfactants). Proposed herbicide use would be limited to the aquatic formulation of 


2 Winterization is the process to maintain work sites with the appropriate BMP’s to prevent erosion, sediment transport, and protect water quality. Winterization 
occurs upon completion of bank repairs or on incomplete projects after October 15 and prior to the forecast of significant rainfall, 0.5 inches or greater of local 
watershed rainfall within 24 hours. Winterization shall be completed prior to the occurrence of such actual significant rainfall. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

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Project 10.005 






























2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 



qlvohosate (Rodeo or equal}. Surfactant use would be limited to non-ionic products, such as Aari- 
dex, Competitor, or another brand name using the same ingredients. Any modifications to these 
materials would reauire review and aooroval bv NMFS and CDFG. 
o A qualified fisheries biologist will review proposed herbicide application methods and stream 
reaches. The fisheries biologist would conduct a pre-construction survey (and any other 
appropriate data research) to determine whether the proposed herbicide application is consistent 
with SMP approvals concerning biological resources and determine which BMPs would be 
instituted for work to proceed. 

In addition, herbicide application requirements are as follows: 

■ no direct application into water; 

■ herbicide application shall not occur when wind conditions mav result in drift; 

■ herbicide shall only be applied after the surfactant has a “wet” appearance on the tarqet plants in order to 

avoid run off; and 

■ where permitted, surfactants shall be added to the sprav solution prior to application. 

GEN-3 

Avoid Exposing Soils with 
High Mercury Levels 

Sediment removal and bank stabilization projects in portions of the Guadalupe River watershed affected by historic 

mercury mining may expose soils containing mercury. 

1. In specified maintenance reaches in the Guadalupe River Basin, soils that are likely to be disturbed or excavated 

shall be tested for mercury (Hg). Soils shall be remediated if: 

a. disturbed or excavated soils exposed to streamflow below the elevation of the 2.33-year flow event exceed 

1 ppm Hg; or 

b. disturbed or excavated soils above the 2.33-year flow level exceed 20 ppm Hg. 

2. Remediation may be accomplished either by: 

a. treating the site so that contaminated soils excavated for the purpose of bank stabilization shall not be 
susceptible to erosion; or 

b. further excavating contaminated soils and replacing them with clean fill or other bank stabilization 
materials that are free from contaminants. 

c. Soils with mercury concentrations exceeding 20 mg/kg shall be removed and disposed of in a Class 1 
landfill following established work practices and hazard control measures. Soils with mercury 
concentrations less than 20 mg/kg will remain at the project site. 

3. To ensure worker safety during sediment removal and bank stabilization projects with elevated mercury 

concentrations in the exposed surfaces, personal protective equipment will be required during project 

construction to maintain exposure below levels established by the Occupational Safety and Health Agency 

(OSHA). 


Biological Resources 


GEN-4 

Minimize the Area of 
Disturbance 

To minimize impacts to natural resources, soil disturbance will be kept to the minimum footprint necessary to 
complete the maintenance operation. 

GEN-5 

Mitten Crab Control 

Measure 

Sediment from the San Francisco Bay Watershed, including that for reuse, cannot be moved to areas any farther 
south than Coyote Creek Golf Drive in south San Jose, and the intersection of McKean and Casa Loma Roads. 

GEN-6 

Minimize Impacts to 

Nesting Birds via Site 

1. For activities occurring between January 15 and August 31, project areas will be checked by a qualified 

biologist or Designated Individuals (Dl - for limited ground nesting species surveys) T for nesting birds within 2 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 


Assessments and 

Avoidance Measures 

weeks prior to starting work. If a lapse in project-related work of 2 weeks or longer occurs, another focused 
survey will be conducted before project work can be reinitiated. 

2. If nesting birds are found, a buffer will be established around the nest and maintained until the young have 
fledged. Appropriate buffer widths are 0.5 mile for bald and golden eagles; 250 feet for other raptors and the 
least Bell’s vireo, herons, and egrets; 25 feet for ground-nesting non-raptors; and 50 feet for non-raptors 
nesting on trees, shrubs and structures. A qualified biologist may identify an alternative buffer based on a site 
specific-evaluation. No work within the buffer will occur without written approval from a qualified biologist, for 
as long as the nest is active. 

3. All vegetation management, sediment reuse, road grading, or other SMP activities in or immediately adjacent 
to suitable California clapper rail or Alameda song sparrow nesting habitat, as determined by a qualified 
biologist, shall not be conducted prior to September 1 (the non-nesting season). 

4. If a pre-activity survey in high-quality San Francisco common yellowthroat breeding habitat (as determined by 
a qualified biologist) identifies more singing male San Francisco common yellowthroats than active nests, then 
the inconspicuous nests of this species might have been missed. In that case, maintenance activities in that 
area shall be delayed until the San Francisco common yellowthroat non-breeding season (i.e., August 16- 
March 14). 

5. The boundary of each buffer zone will be marked with fencing, flagging, or other easily identifiable marking if 
work will occur immediately outside the buffer zone. 

6. All protective buffer zones will be maintained until the nest becomes inactive, as determined by a qualified 
biologist. 

7. If monitoring shows that disturbance to actively nesting birds is occurring, buffer widths will be increased until 
monitoring shows that disturbance is no longer occurring. If this is not possible, work will cease in the area 
until young have fledged and the nest is no longer active. 

GEN-6.5 

Protection of Nestinq Least 

Bell’s Vireos 

1. To the extent feasible, SMP activities within woodv riparian habitat alonq portions of lower Llaqas Creek 

downstream from Hiqhwav 152, the Paiaro River from Llaqas Creek downstream, and lower Uvas/Carnadeo 

Creek downstream from Hecker Pass Road shall be scheduled to occur outside of the least Bell’s vireo nestinq 

season (March 15 - July 31). 

2. For activities within woodv riparian habitat alonq the aforementioned creek reaches that will occur between 

March 15 and July 31, anv work will be preceded bv a focused survey for least Bell’s vireos. Pre-activitv 

surveys will consist of two site visits, conducted on separate days within 14 days before the initiation of 

maintenance activities in the qiven area, with at least one of these surveys occurrinq within 7 davs before the 

initiation of such activities. Surveys will be conducted between dawn and 11:00 a.m., durinq mild weather 

conditions (i.e., not durinq excessive cold, heat, wind, or rain), within all riparian habitat in and within 250 feet 

of anv orooosed maintenance location alonq these reaches. The surveys will be conducted bv a qualified 

bioloqist who is familiar with the visual and auditory identification of this species. 

3. To minimize impacts to nestinq least Bell’s vireos and other birds, the bioloqist will not initially be lookinq for 

Bell’s vireo nests durinq these surveys. Rather, the bioloqist will look and listen for individual vireos. If a least 

Bell’s vireo is detected, it will be observed to determine whether it is actively nestinq. The bioloqist will note the 

nest location, or if findinq the actual nest could result in excessive disturbance or risk damaqinq the nest, the 

bioloqist will determine the approximate location, based on observation of birds carrvinq nestinq material, 

carrvinq food, or repeatedly visitinq a certain area. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 



4. If an active nest is found, a minimum 250-foot no-activitv buffer will be established around the nest. If a 

territorial male is found but no nest can be detected, then the aoDroximate centroid of the bird’s area of activity 



will be the oointfrom which the buffer will be applied. The reauired buffer mav be reduced in areas where 

dense riparian forest occurs between the construction activities and the active nest or where sufficient barriers 



or topoqraphic relief exists to protect the nest from excessive noise or other disturbance. The bioloqist will 

coordinate with the USFWS and CDFG to evaluate exceptions to the minimum no-activitv buffer distance on a 



case-bv-case basis. 

5. No work will occur within the buffer without verification bv a bioloqist that the nest is inactive and until anv 

fledqed vounq are no lonqer dependent on adults for food. 

GEN-7 

Protection of Burrowing 

Owls 

1. If burrowinq owls are present, then wWork within 250 feet of an occupied burrow will be delayed until after the 
nesting season. 

2. If suitable burrowing owl habitat is identified where mowing is proposed, or active burrows are found, they will 
be marked in such a way that the mower can identify the locations of such burrows. Mowing can then occur 
anywhere beyond the 250 foot buffer zone. Within the 250 foot buffer zone mowing may be done to within 10 
feet of an active burrow provided there areis no burrowing owls active on the surface. An on-site monitor will 
observe the area in front of the mower from a safe vantage point while it is in operation. In areas within 10 ft of 
active burrows the vegetation may be removed by hand (e.g., weed-whackers). All mowing and hand-removal 
of vegetation within 250 ft of a burrow will be done as quickly as possible to minimize disturbance of burrowing 
owls. 

3. All markers will be removed once mowing is complete. 

4. For burrow destruction work, all burrows within the 250-foot buffer zone around known, occupied burrows will 
be inspected with a burrow camera prior to destruction to ensure no entrapment of burrowing owls. Burrows 
that are difficult to inspect due to intricate subterranean configuration or depth will be inspected in stages 
where the uninspected section of the burrow will be protected while the previously inspected section is 
excavated. 

If maintenance activities will directly impact occupied burrows the District will consult with the DFG and FWS on 
establishing alternative burrows (including artificial burrows) and a process for removing owls from the active 
burrow. No burrowing owls will be evicted from burrows during the nesting season. 

GEN-8 

Protection of Sensitive 
Fauna Species from 
Herbicide Use 

Approved herbicides and adjuvants may be applied in habitat areas for sensitive wildlife species (including 
steelhead, California red-legged frog, California tiger salamander, salt marsh harvest mouse, and Bay checkerspot 
butterfly); all applications will occur in accordance with federal and state regulations. 

For sprayable or dust formulations: when the air is calm or moving away from sensitive wildlife habitat, applications 
will commence on the side nearest the habitat and proceed away from the habitat. When air currents are moving 
toward habitat, applications will not be made within 200 yards by air or 40 yards by ground upwind from occupied 
habitat. However, these distances may be modified for the control of invasive species on salmonid streams if the 
following measures are implemented: 

■ A qualified biologist will determine presence/absence of sensitive resources in designated herbicide use 
areas and develop site-specific control methods (including the use of approved herbicide and surfactants). 
Proposed herbicide use would be limited to the aquatic formulation of glyphosate (Rodeo or equal). 
Surfactant use would be limited to non-ionic products, such as Aqri-dex, Comoetitor, or another brand 
name using the same ingredients. Any modifications to these materials would require review and approval 


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BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 



bv NMFS and CDFG. 

■ A qualified fisheries biologist will review proposed herbicide application methods and stream reaches. The 
fisheries biologist would conduct a pre-construction survey (and any other appropriate data research) to 
determine whether the proposed herbicide application is consistent with SMP approvals concerning 
biological resources and determine which BMPs would be instituted for work to proceed. 

GEN-9 

Avoid Impacts to Special- 
Status Plant Species and 
Sensitive Natural 

Vegetation Communities 

A qualified botanist will identify special status plant species and sensitive natural vegetation communities and 

clearly map or delineate them as needed in order to avoid and/or minimize disturbance, usinq the DFG protocols 

and the CNPS Botanical Survey Guidelines to formulate the followinq protocols: 

1. A qualified botanist will use the GIS database, CNDDB, and/or other suitable tools to identify special status 
plants and sensitive natural vegetation communities located within or near work areas. 

2. Surveys of areas identified as sensitive natural communities or suitable habitat for special status plant species 
will be conducted by a qualified botanist prior to commencement of work. 

3. Surveys will be conducted durinq the appropriate time of the year to adequately identify special-status plants 
that could occur on the site of proposed maintenance activities. 

4. The qualified botanist will ensure avoidance and/or minimize impacts by implementing one or more of the 
following, as appropriate, per the botanist’s recommendation: 

a) Flag or otherwise delineate in the field the special status plant populations and/or sensitive natural 
community to be protected; 

b) Allow adequate buffers around plants or habitat; the location of the buffer zone will be shown on the 
maintenance design drawings and marked in the field with stakes and/or flagging in such a way that 
exclusion zones are visible to maintenance personnel without excessive disturbance of the sensitive 
habitat or population itself (e.g., from installation of fencing). 

c) Time construction or other activities during dormant and/or non-critical life cycle period; 

d) Store removed sediment off site; and 

e) Limit the operation of maintenance equipment to established roads whenever possible. 

5. No herbicides, terrestrial or aquatic, will be used in areas identified as potential habitat for special status 
plants species or containing sensitive natural communities, until a qualified botanist has surveyed the area 
and determined the locations of special status plant species present. 

6. If special status plant species or sensitive communities are present, then a qualified botanist will determine if a 
given type of vegetation management method is ecologically appropriate for a given area. Alternative 
strategies based on the botanist’s recommendations will be coordinated with appropriate staff. 

7. All impacts to sensitive natural communities and special status plants identified by the qualified botanist will be 
avoided and/or minimized 

GEN-10 

Avoid Impacts to Bay 
Checkerspot Butterfly and 
Associated Critical Habitat 

1. Areas supporting Bay checkerspot larval host plants will be identified by a qualified botanist and protected 
from disturbance to the extent feasible, bv establishinq buffer zones around individual plants or populations. 
The size of the buffer will be determined by a qualified botanist; the actual distance will depend on the plant 
species potentially affected and the type of disturbance. No herbicide will be applied to the buffer area, and 
to the extent feasible, maintenance personnel and equipment will not operate within such areas. 

2. Herbicides may be used in serpentine areas that do not contain Bay checkerspot butterfly larval host plants 
or sensitive plant species and habitat when approved by a qualified botanist and for the following 
maintenance purposes: 


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BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 



a) To protect sensitive species and habitat; 

b) To manage for control of invasive and non-native plants; and/or 

c) To maintain access to a facility. 

GEN-11 

Protection of Salt Marsh 
Harvest Mouse and 
California Clapper Rail 

1. A District qualified biologist will conduct a desk audit to determine whether suitable Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse 
(SMHM) or California Clapper Rail (CCR) habitat is present in or adjacent to a maintenance activity. 

2. Within 7 days prior to work within the range of the Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse (SMHM) or California Clapper 

Rail (CCR), as depicted on the District’s GIS layers, the proposed project area will be surveyed by a qualified 
biologist to identify specific habitat areas. Surveyed areas will include work locations and access routes. 

3. To minimize or avoid the loss of individuals, activities within or adjacent to California clapper rail and salt marsh 
harvest mouse habitat will not occur within two hours before or after extreme high tides (6.5 feet or above) 
when the marsh plain is inundated, because protective cover for those species is limited and activities could 
prevent them from reaching available cover. 

4. Specific habitat areas are veqetated areas of cordaass (Soartina sod), marsh aumolant (Grindelia sdd.1, 
pickleweed ( Sarcocornia pacifica ), alkali heath, ( Frankenia sp.), and other high marsh vegetation, brackish 
marsh reaches of creek with heavy accumulations of bulrush thatch (old stands), and high water refugia habitat 
that may include annual grasses, and shrubs immediately adjacent to channels. 

5. Within the identified specific habitat areas, vegetation will be removed by hand from areas to be directly 
impacted by the work activities if possible (hand removal of vegetation in some channels may not be possible). 

6. Prior to the initiation of work each day for all vegetation management work, ground or vegetation disturbance, 
operation of large equipment, grading, sediment removal, and bank stabilization work and prior to expanding 
the work area, if suitable habitat occurs within the immediate work area, a qualified biologist will conduct a pre¬ 
construction survey of all suitable habitat that may be directly or indirectly impacted by the day’s activities 
(work area, access routes, staging areas). 

a. If during the initial daily survey or during work activities a CCR is observed within or immediately 
adjacent to the work area (50 feet), initiation of work will be delayed until the CCR leaves the work area. 

b. If during the initial daily survey or during work activities a SMHM or similar rodent is observed within or 
immediately adjacent to the work area (50 feet), initiation of work will be delayed until a Site Specific 
Species Protection Form can be developed and implemented by a qualified biologist to protect the 

SMHM or similar rodent is developed and implemented by the qualified biologist. Acceptable plan 
activities may include one or more of the following activities: 1) establishment of a buffer zone at least 50 
feet in radius from the rodent; 2) ongoing active monitoring, 3) construction of silt fence barrier between 
maintenance work and location of the rodent, 4) delay of work activity until the qualified biologist can 
contact DFG and USFWS for additional direction. 

7. Mowing using heavy equipment (tractors, boom mowers, rider mowers) will not be conducted in habitat areas 
or within 50 feet of habitat areas. If mowing with hand equipment is necessary within 50 feet of habitat areas, 
an on-site monitor will observe the area in front of the mower from a safe vantage point while it is in operation. 

If SMHM are detected within the area to be mown, no mowing will occur in that area. If CCR are detected 
within the area to be mown, the mowing will stop until the individual(s) have left the work area. 

8. See ANI-2 for additional restrictions. 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 

GEN-12 

Protection of Special-Status 
Amphibian and Reptile 
Species 

1. A District qualified biologist will conduct a desk audit to determine whether suitable special-status amphibian or 
reptile habitat is present in or adjacent to a maintenance activity. 

2. If the District Wildlife or Fisheries Biologist determines that a special-status amphibian or reptile could occur in 
the activity area, a qualified biologist will conduct one daytime survey within a 7 day period preceding the onset 
of maintenance activities. 

a. If a special-status amphibian or reptile, or the eggs or larvae of a special status amphibian or reptile, 
tsare found within the activity area during a pre-activity survey or during project activities, the qualified 
biologist shall notify the project proponent about the special-status species and conduct the following 
work specific activities: 

i. For minor maintenance activities and for vegetation removal activities that will take less than 1 day, 
the qualified biologist shall conduct a special status species survey on the morning of and prior to the 
scheduled work. 

A. If no special status species is found, the work may proceed. 

B. If eggs or larvae of a special status species are found, a buffer will be established around the 
location of the eggs/larvae and work may proceed outside of the buffer zone. No work will 
occur within the buffer zone. Work within the buffer zone will be rescheduled until the time that 
eggs have hatched and/or larvae have metamorphosed. 

C. If an active western pond turtle nest is detected within the activity area, a 25-50-foot buffer 
zone around the nest will be established and maintained during the breeding and nesting 
season (April 1 - August 31). The buffer zone will remain in place until the young have left the 
nest, as determined by a qualified biologist. 

D. If adults or non-larval juveniles of a special status species are found, one of the following two 
procedures will be implemented: 

i. If, in the opinion of the qualified biologist, capture and removal of the individual to a safe 
place outside of the work area is less likely to result in adverse effects than leaving the 
individual in place and rescheduling the work (e.g., if the species could potentially hide 
and be missed during a follow-up survey), the individual will be captured and relocated 
by a qualified biologist (with USFWS and/or CDFG approval, depending on the listing 
status of the species in question), and work may proceed. 

ii. If, in the opinion of the qualified biologist, the individual is likely to leave the work area 
on its own, and work can be feasibly rescheduled, a buffer will be established around 
the location of the individual(s) and work may proceed outside of the buffer zone. No 
work will occur within the buffer zone. Work within the buffer zone will be rescheduled. 

ii. For minor maintenance and vegetation removal activities that will take more than 1 day, the qualified 
biologist shall conduct a special-status species survey on each morning of and prior to the scheduled 
work commencing. 

E. If eggs or larvae of a special status species are found, a buffer will be established around the 
location of the eggs/larvae and work may proceed outside of the buffer zone. No work will 
occur within the buffer zone. Work within the buffer zone will be rescheduled until the time that 
eggs have hatched and/or larvae have metamorphosed. 

F. If an active western pond turtle nest is detected within the activity area, a 2550 ft-buffer zone 
around the nest will be established and maintained during the breeding and nesting season 


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BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 



(April 1 - August 31). The buffer zone will remain in place until the young have left the nest, as 
determined by a qualified biologist. 

G. If adults or non-larval juveniles of a special status species are found, the individual will be 
captured and relocated by a qualified biologist (with USFWS and/or CDFG approval, 
depending on the listing status of the species in question), and work may proceed, 
iii. For Sediment Removal and Bank Stabilization Projects the wildlife or fisheries biologist in cooperation 
with the project proponent shall complete a Site Specific Species Protection Form for the project. 
Elements of the form include: work rescheduling, training work crews, daily surveys, establishment of 
buffers and buffer fencing, on-site monitoring, habitat modification in advance of work activities, capture 
and relocation of individual special-status species, methods of documentation, and reporting of results. 

b. If no special status amphibian or reptile is found within the activity area during a pre-activity survey, the 
work may proceed. 

c. During animal conflict management activities, if special status species are found within a burrow proposed 
for destruction, a qualified biologist will determine an appropriate buffer distance around that burrow to 
ensure adequate protection of the habitat. The buffer area may include not destroying adjacent burrows as 
that may damage subterranean networks of the occupied burrow or produce substrate vibrations which 
could interfere with prey detection mechanisms. If two consecutive follow up surveys are conducted (spaced 
30 days apart) in which the burrow is found to be unoccupied, work can proceed as planned. A naturally 
found backfilled burrow known to have been inhabited by a special-status species will be presumed to still 
be occupied by that species and a clearly delineated buffer demarcation of the burrow area will be in place 
for the duration of nearby work activities. In rare instances in which destruction of the burrow is not 
avoidable during animal conflict management, the animal will be relocated to a safe burrow outside the 
impact area, with USFWS and/or CDFG approval, depending on the listing status of the species in question. 
A biologist will observe the relocated animal until it is certain that the animal is not in immediate danger of 
desiccation or predation. 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 

GEN-13 

Protection of Bat Colonies 

1. A District Wildlife Biologist will conduct a desk audit to determine whether suitable habitat (appropriate roost 
trees or anthropogenic structures) is present for bat colonies within 100 feet of the work site, staging areas, or 
access routes. 

2. If potential bat colony habitat is determined to be present, within two weeks prior to the onset of work activities 
a qualified biologist will conduct a survey to look for evidence of a bat use. If evidence is observed, or if 
potential roost sites are present in areas where evidence of bat use might not be detectable (such as a tree 
cavity), an evening survey and/or nocturnal acoustic survey may be necessary to determine if the bat colony is 
active and to identify the specific location of the bat colony. 

3. If an active bat maternity colony is present then the qualified biologist will make the following determinations: 

a. The work can proceed without unduly disturbing the bat colony 

b. There is a need for a buffer zone to prevent disturbance to the bat colony, and implementation of 
the buffer zone (determined on a case-bv-case basis bv a qualified bioloqist) will reduce or 
eliminate the disturbance to an acceptable level. 

c. Work cannot proceed without unduly disturbing the bat colony; thus, the work will be postponed 
until after July 31. 

4. If a non-breeding bat hibernaculum is found in a tree or structure that must be removed or physically disturbed, 
the qualified biologist will consult with DFG prior to initiating any removal or exclusion activities. 

GEN-14 

Protection of San Francisco 
Dusky-footed Woodrat 

1. Prior to work within riparian, oak woodland, or coyote brush scrub habitat, or the removal of any oak trees 
outside these habitats, a District Wildlife Biologist will conduct a desk audit to determine whether woodrats 
could be present within suitable habitat for San Francisco dusky-footed woodrat or is known to be present in or 
adjacent to a maintenance activity site. 

2. If the District Wildlife Biologist determines that no San Francisco dusky-footed woodrat habitat is present, or 
there is habitat present but will not be affected by the maintenance activity, then no further action is required. 

3. If the District Wildlife Biologist determines that suitable San Francisco dusky-footed woodrat habitat is present 
and may be affected by the maintenance activity, a qualified biologist shall conduct a pre-activity survey within 

2 weeks prior to the start of work to determine if woodrat nests are in, or within 5 feet of, the immediate activity 
area. 

a. If woodrat nests are present at the site and will be affected by the work activity area, the District Wildlife 
Biologist in cooperation with the project proponent will evaluate the site specific situation. The Wildlife 
Biologist will then develop a site specific woodrat management plan to first avoid and second minimize 
take or injury of the woodrat(s). The woodrat management plan may include: establishment of buffers 
zones, installation of buffer zone fences, relocation of the woodrat nest, removal of the woodrat nest, 
and/or construction of artificial nests. Consideration will be given to the number of woodrat nests that may 
be affected by the work activity and the number in the project vicinity that may not be affected. 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 

GEN-15 

Salvage Native Aquatic 
Vertebrates from Dewatered 
Channels 

If fisheries or native aquatic vertebrates are present when cofferdams, water bypass structures, and silt barriers are 
to be installed, a fish and native aquatic vertebrate relocation plan shall be implemented to ensure that fish and 
native aquatic vertebrates are not stranded. Relocation efforts will be based on the District’s Fish Relocation 
Guidelines. Streams that support a sensitive species (i.e. steelhead) will require a relocation effort and/ or initial 
onsite monitoring by a qualified biologist depending on seasonal conditions: 

1. In non-tidal channels, where water is to be diverted, prior to the start of work or during the installation of water 
diversion structures, native aquatic vertebrates shall be captured in the work area and transferred to another 
reach as determined by a qualified biologist. Timing of work in streams that supports a significant number of 
amphibians will be delayed until metamorphosis occurs to minimize impacts to the resource. Capture and 
relocation of aquatic native vertebrates is not required at individual work sites when site conditions preclude 
reasonably effective operation of capture gear and equipment. 

2. Aquatic invertebrates will not be transferred (other than incidental catches) because of their anticipated 
abundance and colonization after completion of the repair work. 

GEN-15.5 

Avoidance of Impacts on 
the San Joaquin Kit Fox 

1. A qualified District biologist will conduct a desk audit to determine whether an SMP activity will occur in an area 
where the San Joaquin kit fox could potentially occur (i.e., roughly east of Frazier Lake Road and south of 
Bloomfield Avenue), and in potential habitat for the species. 

2. If the District biologist determines that an SMP activity could occur in an area that could potentially support a kit 
fox, the SCVWD will implement applicable pre-activity surveys and other measures in accordance with the 
USFWS’s San Joaquin Kit Fox Survey Protocol for the Northern Range, as follows: 

a) Conduct a preconstruction/pre-activity survey no less than 14 days and no more than 30 days prior to 
the beginning of project implementation. Surveys shall identify kit fox habitat features on the project site 
and evaluate use by kit fox and, if possible, and assess the potential impacts to the kit fox by the 
proposed activity. The status of all dens shall be determined and mapped in accordance with the survey 
protocol. 

b) If a natal/pupping den is discovered within the project area or within 200 feet of the project boundary, 
the USFWS shall be immediately notified. Disturbance to all San Joaquin kit fox dens should be avoided 
to the maximum extent possible. Destruction of any known or natal/pupping kit fox den would require 
take authorization from the USFWS. 

c) The project proponent will establish exclusion zones around the kit fox dens, if determined to be 
present. The configuration of the exclusion should have a radius measured outward from the entrance 
or cluster of entrances. The following radii are minima to be applied: 

■ Potential den: 50 feet 

■ Known den: 100 feet 

■ Natal/pupping den: Service must be contacted (occupied and unoccupied) 

■ Atypical den: 50 feet. 

3. If take of the San Joaquin kit fox will occur, take authorization from the USFWS and CDFG will be necessary. 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number |BMP Title_BMP Description 


General Maintenance Practices 


GEN-16 

In-Channel Minor Activities 

For in-channel minor work activities, work will be conducted from the top of the bank if access is available and there 
are flows in the channel. 

GEN-17 

Employee/Contractor 

Training 

All appropriate District staff and contractors will receive annual training on Stream Maintenance Program BMPs. 

The training will also include an overview of special-status species identification and habitat requirements. District 
staff and contractors will receive fact sheets to assist with in-the-field identification of special-status species and 
their habitats. 

GEN-18 

Paperwork Required On¬ 
site 

1. Copies of regulatory permits related to the Stream Maintenance Program will be kept on-site and available 
for review, if requested by regulatory personnel. 

2. Copies of the Stream Maintenance Program Manual and this BMP Manual will be kept on-site. 

GEN-19 

Work Site Housekeeping 

1. District employees and contractors will maintain the work site in neat and orderly conditions on a daily basis, 
and will leave the site in a neat, clean, and orderly condition when work is complete. 

2. Slash, sawdust, cuttings, etc. will be removed to clear the site of vegetation debris. As needed, paved access 
roads and trails will be swept and cleared of any residual vegetation or dirt resulting from the maintenance 
activity. 

3. For activities that last more than one day, materials or equipment left on the site overnight will be stored as 
inconspicuously as possible, and will be neatly arranged. Any materials and equipment left on the site 
overnight will be stored to avoid erosion, leaks, or other potential impacts to water quality (see BMPs GEN- 
24). 

4. The District’s maintenance crews are responsible for properly removing and disposing of all debris incurred 
as a result of construction within 72 hours of project completion. 

5. All trash that is brought to a project site during maintenance activities (e.g., plastic water bottles, plastic lunch 
bags, cigarettes) will be collected at the site daily. 

GEN-20 

Erosion and Sediment 
Control Measures 

1. Soils exposed due to maintenance activities will be seeded and stabilized using hydroseeding, straw 
placement, mulching, and/or erosion control fabric. These measures will be implemented such that the site is 
stabilized and water quality protected prior to significant rainfall. The channel bed and areas below the 
Ordinary High Water Mark (OHWM) are exempt from this BMP. 

2. The preference for erosion control fabrics will be to consist of natural fibers; however, steeper slopes and 
areas that are highly erodible may require more structured erosion control methods. No non-porous fabric will 
be used as part of a permanent erosion control approach. Plastic sheeting may be used to temporarily 
protect a slope from runoff, but only if there are no indications that special-status species would be impacted 
by the application. 

3. Erosion control measures will be installed according to manufacturer’s specifications. 

4. Appropriate measures include, but are not limited to, the following: 

o Silt Fences 

o Straw Bale Barriers 

o Brush or Rock Filters 

o Storm Drain Inlet Protection 

o Sediment Traps 

o Sediment Basins 

o Erosion Control Blankets and Mats 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 



o Soil Stabilization (i.e. tackified straw with seed, jute or geotextile blankets, etc.) 
o Wood chips 
o Straw mulch 

5. All temporary construction-related erosion control methods shall be removed at the completion of the project 
(e.g. silt fences). 

6. Surface barrier applications installed as a method of animal conflict management, such as chain link fencing, 
woven geotextiles, and other similar materials, will be installed no longer than 300 feet, with at least an equal 
amount of open area prior to another linear installation; and only on one side of levee slopes. Inboard and 
outboard areas will only have installations set in an alternating pattern, such that no inboard and outboard 
levee faces would have erosion control blankets along the same levee stationing. 

GEN-21 

Staging and Stockpiling of 
Materials 

1. To protect on-site vegetation and water quality, staging areas should occur on access roads, surface streets, 
or other disturbed areas that are already compacted and only support ruderal vegetation. Similarly, all 
maintenance equipment and materials (e.g., road rock and project spoil) will be contained within the existing 
service roads, paved roads, or other pre-determined staging areas. 

2. Building materials and other maintenance-related materials, including chemicals and sediment, will not be 
stockpiled or stored where they could spill into water bodies or storm drains. Materials will not be stockpiled 
longer than seven (7) calendar days. 

3. No runoff from the staging areas may be allowed to enter water ways, including the creek channel or storm 
drains, without being subjected to adequate filtration (e.g., vegetated buffer, swale, hay wattles or bales, silt 
screens). 

4. The discharge of decant water to water ways from any on-site temporary sediment stockpile or storage areas 
is prohibited. 

5. Wet material removed from an isolated creek reach may be pulled to the side of the channel (within the 
channel and below top of bank) and allowed to naturally drain prior to removal from the channel. Pulled 
material will be removed from the channel prior to deactivation of the site or forecast of rain. 

6. During the wet season, no stockpiled soils will remain exposed, unless surrounded by properly installed and 
maintained (i.e., per manufacturer specifications) silt fencing or other means of erosion control. During the 
dry season; exposed, dry stockpiles will be watered, enclosed, covered, or sprayed with non-toxic soil 
stabilizers (GEN-24). 

7. All pipes, culverts, or similar structures stored at a site within sensitive species areas, for one or more 
overnight periods shall be securely capped prior to storage or inspected before the pipe is subsequently 
moved. If any potential special-status species are observed within a pipe, a District biologist shall be 
consulted on what steps should be taken to protect the species. If a District biologist is on-site, they may 
remove the special status species from the pipes and relocate to the nearest appropriate and unaffected 
habitat. 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 

GEN-22 

Sediment Transport 

To prevent sediment-laden water from being released back into waterways during transport of spoils to disposal 
locations, truck beds will be lined with an impervious material (e.g., plastic), or the tailgate blocked with wattles, hay 
bales, or other appropriate filtration material. Trucks may then drain excess water by slightly tilting the loads and 
allowing the water to drain out through the applied filter, but only within the active project area of the creek where 
the sediment is being loaded into the trucks or within an identified vegetated area (swale) that is separated from the 
creek. 

GEN-23 

Stream Access 

District personnel will use existing access ramps and roads to the extent feasible. If necessary to avoid large 

mature trees, native vegetation, or other significant habitat features, temporary access points will be constructed in 

a manner that minimizes impacts according to the following guidelines: 

1. Temporary access points will be constructed as close to the work area as possible to minimize equipment 
transport 

2. In considering channel access routes, slopes of greater than 20 percent will be avoided, if possible. 

3. Any temporary fill used for access will be removed upon completion of the project and pre-project topography 
will be restored to the extent possible. 

4. When temporary access is removed, disturbed areas will be revegetated or filled with compacted soil, seeded, 
and/or stabilized with erosion control fabric immediately after construction to prevent future erosion. 

5. Personnel will use the appropriate equipment for the job that minimizes impacts and disturbance to the stream 
bottom. Appropriately-tired vehicles, either tracked or wheeled, will be used depending on the site and 
maintenance activity. 

GEN-24 

On-Site Hazardous 

Materials Management 

1. An inventory of all hazardous materials used (and/or expected to be used) at the worksite and the end 
products that are produced (and/or expected to be produced) after their use will be maintained by the worksite 
manager. 

2. As appropriate, containers will be properly labeled with a “Hazardous Waste” label and hazardous waste will 
be properly recycled or disposed of off-site. 

3. Contact of chemicals with precipitation will be minimized by storing chemicals in watertight containers with 
appropriate secondary containment to prevent any spillage or leakage. 

4. Quantities of toxic materials, such as equipment fuels and lubricants, will be stored with secondary 
containment that is capable of containing 110% of the primary container(s). 

5. Petroleum products, chemicals, cement, fuels, lubricants, and non-storm drainage water or water 
contaminated with the aforementioned materials will not contact soil and not be allowed to enter surface 
waters or the storm drainage system. 

6. All toxic materials, including waste disposal containers, will be covered when they are not in use, and located 
as far away as possible from a direct connection to the storm drainage system or surface water. 

7. Sanitation facilities (e.g., portable toilets) will be placed outside of the creek channel and floodplain. Direct 
connections with soil, the storm drainage system, and surface waters will be avoided. 

8. Sanitation facilities will be regularly cleaned and/or replaced, and inspected daily for leaks and spills.r 

GEN-25 

Existing Hazardous 

Materials 

If hazardous materials, such as oil, batteries or paint cans, are encountered at the maintenance sites, the District 
will carefully remove and dispose of them according to applicable regulatory requirements. District staff will wear 
proper protective gear and store the waste in appropriate hazardous waste containers until it can be disposed at a 
hazardous waste facility. 

GEN-26 

Spill Prevention and 

The District will prevent the accidental release of chemicals, fuels, lubricants, and non-storm drainage water into 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 


Response 

channels following these measures: 

1. District field personnel will be appropriately trained in spill prevention, hazardous material control, and 
clean up of accidental spills. 

2. Equipment and materials for cleanup of spills will be available on site and spills and leaks will be cleaned 
up immediately and disposed of according to applicable regulatory requirements. 

3. Field personnel will ensure that hazardous materials are properly handled and natural resources are 
protected by all reasonable means. 

4. Spill prevention kits will always be in close proximity when using hazardous materials (e.g., at crew trucks 
and other logical locations). All field personnel will be advised of these locations. 

5. District staff will routinely inspect the work site to verify that spill prevention and response measures are 
properly implemented and maintained. 

Spill Response Measures: 

For small spills on impervious surfaces, absorbent materials will be used to remove the spill, rather than hosing it 
down with water. For small spills on pervious surfaces such as soil, the spill will be excavated and properly 
disposed rather than burying it. Absorbent materials will be collected and disposed of properly and promptly. 

If a hazardous materials spill occurs that cannot be contained or cleaned up with the onsite materials, the onsite 
District field personnel will be responsible for immediately initiating an emergency response sequence by notifying 
the proper authorities (i.e., District Emergency Response (ER) Team and public fire and hazmat agencies) of the 
release; taking appropriate defensive steps from a safe distance to secure the site to minimize damage to people, 
environment, and property (PEP); and deferring all other response activities to public emergency response 
agencies and/or the District Emergency Response (ER) Team or District ER Contractor. Depending on the nature 
of the release, the District ER Team’s actions will include: urgent (responding within 2 hours of notification) field 
response site reconnaissance, emergency sequence initiation, defensive containment, release control, incident 
command; or priority (non 2-hour) field response site reconnaissance and clean-up operations. 

If a “reportable” spill of petroleum products occurs, the District’s Stream Maintenance Implementation Program 
Manager will be notified and action taken to contact the appropriate safety and cleanup crews. A reportable spill is 
defined as when: 

■ a film or sheen on, or discoloration of, the water surface or adjoining bank/shoreline is observed; or 

■ a sludge or emulsion is deposited beneath the surface of the water or adjoining banks/shorelines (40 

Code of Federal Regulations 110); or when 

■ another violation of water quality standards is observed. 

A written description of the reportable release must be submitted to the appropriate Regional Water Quality Control 
Board and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC). This submittal must contain a 
description of the release, including the type of material and an estimate of the amount spilled, the date of the 
release, an explanation of why the spill occurred, and a description of the steps taken to prevent and control future 
releases. 

If an appreciable spill has occurred, and results determine that project activities have adversely affected surface 
water or groundwater quality, a detailed analysis will be performed to the specifications of DTSC to identify the 
likely cause of contamination. This analysis will include recommendations for reducing or eliminating the source or 
mechanisms of contamination. Based on this analysis, the District or contractors will select and implement 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 



measures to control contamination, with a performance standard that surface and groundwater quality will be 
returned to baseline conditions. These measures will be subject to approval by the District, DTSC, and the Regional 
Water Quality Control Board. 

GEN-27 

Existing Hazardous Sites 

Upon selection of maintenance project locations, the District will conduct a search for existing known contaminated 
sites, as part of its annual preparation of the Notice of Proposed Work (NPW), on the State Water Resource Control 
Board’s GeoTracker Web site (http://www.geotracker.waterboards.ca.gov). The Geotracker search will only be 
performed for the District’s ground disturbing activities. For any proposed ground disturbing maintenance sites 
located within 1,500 feet of any “open” sites where contamination has not been remediated, the District will contact 
the RWQCB case manager listed in the database. The District will work with the case manager to ensure 
maintenance activities would not affect cleanup or monitoring activities or threaten the public or environment. 

GEN-28 

Fire Prevention 

1. All earthmoving and portable equipment with internal combustion engines will be equipped with spark 
arrestors. 

2. Durinq the hiqh fire danqer period (April 1-December 1), work crews will t-a)44have appropriate fire 
suppression equipment available at the work site. 

GEN-29 

Dust Management 

The District will implement the Bay Area Air Quality Management District’s (BAAQMD) required Dust Control 
Measures 

(http://www.baaqmd.gOv/~/media/Files/Planning%20and%20Research/CEQA/BAAQMD%20CEQA%20Guidelines 
%20May%202011.ashx?la=en). Current measures stipulated by the BAAQMD Guidelines include the following: 

1. All exposed surfaces (e.g., parking areas, staging areas, soil piles, graded areas, and unpaved access roads) 
shall be watered two times per day. 

2. All haul trucks transporting soil, sand, or other loose material off-site shall be covered. 

3. All visible mud or dirt track-out onto adjacent public roads shall be removed using wet power vacuum street 
sweepers at least once per day. The use of dry power sweeping is prohibited. 

4. Water used to wash the various exposed surfaces (i.e., oarkina areas, staaina areas, soil piles, araded areas. 

etc.) will not be allowed to enter the water wav. 

5. All vehicle speeds on unpaved roads shall be limited to 15 mph. 

6. All roadways, driveways, and sidewalks to be paved shall be completed as soon as possible. Building pads 
shall be laid as soon as possible after grading unless seeding or soil binders are used. 

7. Idling times shall be minimized either by shutting equipment off when not in use or reducing the maximum 
idling time to 5 minutes (as required by the California airborne toxics control measure Title 13, Section 2485 of 
California Code of Regulations [CCR]). Clear signage shall be provided for construction workers at all access 
points. 

8. All construction equipment shall be maintained and properly tuned in accordance with manufacturer's 
specifications. All equipment shall be checked by a certified visible emissions evaluator. 

9. Post a publicly visible sign with the telephone number and person to contact at the lead agency regarding dust 
complaints. This person shall respond and take corrective action within 48 hours. The Air District's phone 
number shall also be visible to ensure compliance with applicable regulations. 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 

GEN-30 

Vehicle and Equipment 
Maintenance 

1. All vehicles and equipment will be kept clean. Excessive build-up of oil and grease will be prevented. 

2. All equipment used in the creek channel will be inspected for leaks each day prior to initiation of work. 
Maintenance, repairs, or other necessary actions will be taken to prevent or repair leaks, prior to use. 

3. Incoming vehicles and equipment (including delivery trucks, and employee and subcontractor vehicles) will be 
checked for leaking oil and fluids. Vehicles or equipment visibly leaking operational fluids will not be allowed 
on-site. 

4. No heavy equipment will operate in a live stream. This will not apply to activities for which no other option 
exists, such as sediment removal which cannot be conducted from top of bank, etc. In these cases, 
dewatering will be conducted as necessary, following the protocols in BMPs GEN-33 or GEN-34. 

5. No equipment servicing will be done in the creek channel or immediate floodplain, unless equipment stationed 
in these locations cannot be readily relocated (i.e., pumps and generators). 

6. If emergency repairs are required in the field, only those repairs necessary to move equipment to a more 
secure location, and that can be performed without releasing any material into the floodway or water, will be 
conducted in the channel or floodplain. 

7. If necessary, all servicing of equipment done at the job site will be conducted in a designated, protected area 
to reduce threats to water quality from vehicle fluid spills. Designated areas will not directly connect to the 
ground, surface water, or the storm drain system. The service area will be clearly designated with berms, 
sandbags, or other barriers. Secondary containment, such as a drain pan, to catch spills or leaks will be used 
when removing or changing fluids. Fluids will be stored in appropriate containers with covers, and properly 
recycled or disposed of offsite. 

GEN-31 

Vehicle Cleaning 

1. Equipment will be cleaned of any visible sediment or vegetation clumps before transferring and using in a 
different watershed to avoid spreading pathogens or exotic/invasive species. 

2. Vehicle and equipment washing can occur on-site only as needed to prevent the spread of sediment, 
pathogens or exotic/invasive species. No runoff from vehicle or equipment washing is allowed to enter water 
bodies, including creek channels and storm drains, without being subjected to adequate filtration (e.g., 
vegetated buffers, straw wattles or bales, fiber rolls, and silt screens). The discharge of decant water from any 
on-site wash area to water bodies or to areas outside of the active project site is prohibited. Additional 
vehicle/equipment washing will occur at the approved wash area in the District’s corporation yard. 

GEN-32 

Vehicle and Equipment 
Fueling 

1. No fueling will be done in the channel (top-of-bank to top-of-bank) or immediate floodplain unless equipment 
stationed in these locations cannot be readily relocated (e.g., pumps and generators). 

2. All off-site fueling sites (i.e., on access roads above the top-of-bank) will be equipped with secondary 
containment and avoid a direct connection to soil, surface water, or the storm drainage system. 

3. For stationary equipment that must be fueled on-site, secondary containment, such as a drain pan or drop 
cloth, will be used to prevent accidental spills of fuels from reaching the soil, surface water, or the storm drain 
system. 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title BMP Description 

Dewatering 

GEN-33 

Dewatering for Non-Tidal 
Sites 

When sediment removal and bank stabilization work area includes a flowing stream, the entire streamflow will be 
diverted around the work area by construction of a temporary dam and/or bypass. Where appropriate, stt;eam flow 
diversions will occur via gravity driven systems. 

A. Planning to avoid and minimize impacts to water quality and aquatic wildlife: 

1. For construction and monitoring of a stream flow bypass, the Sediment Removal and Bank Stabilization 
Projects checklist will be completed. 

2. Recommendations by a qualified Fisheries Biologist to protect native fisheries and aquatic vertebrates will 
be incorporated into the bypass design. The recommendations may include but are not limited to: 

i. Screening the stream flow diversion source or pump to prevent entrainment of native fish or 
amphibian species. The screening dimensions will be appropriate to the species present. 

ii. Relocation of native aquatic vertebrates. This will include the methods to be used to capture and 
hold and move the aquatic vertebrates and a description of where the aquatic vertebrates will be 
relocated. 

3. Depending on the channel configurations, sediment removal activities may occur where the flows are not 
bypassed around the work site as long as a berm is left between the work area and stream flows to 
minimize water quality impacts during excavation activities. The berm between the work and the live 
channel will be wide enough to prevent introduction of turbid water from the cell into the live channel. 

B. Construction-. 

1. The construction of facilities will be based on the water bypass plan. 

2. Coffer dams will be installed both upstream and downstream of the work area to minimize impacts or the 
distance necessary to accomplish effective passive systems. 

3. In streams where water may enter the construction site from downstream (reverse flow) additional coffer 
dams (downstream) may be necessary. When multiple coffer dams are constructed, the upstream dam will 
be constructed first. 

4. Instream cofferdams will only be built from materials such as sandbaqs, earth fill, clean qravel, or rubber 
bladders which will cause little or no siltation or turbidity. 

5. 4t Plastic sheeting will be placed over k-rails, timbers, and earth fill to minimize water seepage into and out 
of the maintenance areas. The plastic sheets will be firmly anchored, using sandbags, to the streambed to 
minimize water seepage. 

6. When pumping is necessary to dewater a work site, a temporary siltation basin and/or use of silt bags may 
be required to prevent sediment from re-entering the wetted channel. Pump intakes will be screened to 
prevent harm to aquatic wildlife. 

7. If necessary to prevent erosion an energy dissipater will be constructed at the discharge point. 

8. Timing of flow diversions will be coordinated with the completion of the dam structure to facilitate not drying 
up the downstream creek area and to minimize dry back conditions. 

C. Implementation-. 



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BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 



1. Water flows downstream of the project site will be maintained to prevent stranding aquatic vertebrates. 

2. Water diverted around work sites and water detained by coffer dams will be protected from maintenance 
activity-related pollutants, such as soils, equipment lubricants or fuels. 

3. The Fish Relocation Guidelines will be implemented to ensure that fish and other aquatic vertebrates are 
not stranded during construction and implementation of channel dewatering. 

a) Native aquatic vertebrates shall be captured in the work area and transferred to another reach as 
determined by a qualified biologist. Timing of work in streams that supports a significant number of 
amphibians will be delayed until metamorphosis occurs to minimize impacts to the resource. Capture 
and relocation of aquatic native vertebrates is not required at individual work sites when site 
conditions preclude reasonably effective operation of capture gear and equipment. 

b) Aquatic invertebrates will not be transferred (other than incidental catches) because of their 
anticipated abundance and colonization after completion of the repair work. 

4. Filtration devices (silt bags attached to the end of discharge hoses and pipes to remove sediment from 
discharged water) or settling basins will be provided as necessary at discharge sites to ensure that the 
turbidity of discharged water is not visibly more turbid than the water in the channel upstream of the 
maintenance site. If increases in turbidity are observed, additional measures will be implemented such as 
a larger settling basin or additional filtration. If increases in turbidity persist, the District’s Stream 
Maintenance Program Implementation Project Manager will be alerted since turbidity measurements may 
be required. 

5. Water remaining in the work area will be removed by evaporation, seepage, or pumping. When pumping is 
required to dewater a site, the decanted water will be discharged with water bypassed around the site or in 
a separate erosion control - energy dissipation area/vegetated swale. The turbidity of discharged water will 
not be visibly more turbid than the receiving water. 

Deconstruction-. 

1. When maintenance is completed, the flow diversion structure will be removed as soon as possible. 

Impounded water will be released at a reduced velocity to minimize erosion, turbidity, or harm to downstream 
habitat. 

2. Removal will normally proceed from downstream in an upstream direction. 

3. When diversion structures are removed, the ponded water will be directed back into the low-flow channel in a 
phased manner to minimize erosion and downstream water quality impacts. Normal flows will be restored. 

4. The area disturbed by flow bypass mechanisms will be restored to the pre-project condition at the completion 
of the project (to the extent practical). This may include, but is not limited to, recontouring the area and 
planting of riparian vegetation. 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 

GEN-34 

Dewatering in Tidal Work 
Areas 

For tidal areas, a downstream cofferdam will be constructed to prevent the work area from being inundated by tidal 

flows. 

1. Installation of cofferdams and fish exclusion measures will be installed at low tide when the channel and project 
site are at their driest. 

2. It is preferable to not use any bypass pipes when work is being conducted on one side of the channel, ifs 
isolated by the cofferdam, and flows can continue on the other side of the creek channel without entering the 
project area. 

3. If downstream flows cannot be diverted around the project site, the creek waters will be transmitted around the 
site through cofferdam bypass pipes. Waters discharged through tidal cofferdam bypass pipes will not exceed 

50 NTUs over the background levels of the tidal waters into which they are discharged. 

4. Cofferdams in tidal areas may be made from earthen or gravel material. If earth is used, the downstream and 
upstream faces will be covered by a protected covering (e.g., plastic or fabric) if needed to minimize erosion. A 
protected covering or sheeting will be placed on the water side of an earthen coffer dam to protect water 
quality. 

5. When maintenance is completed, the cofferdams and bypass pipes will be removed as soon as possible but no 
more than 72 hours after work is completed. Flows will be restored at a reduced velocity to minimize erosion, 
turbidity, or harm to downstream habitat. 

GEN-35 

Pump/Generator Operations 
and Maintenance 

When needed to assist in channel dewatering, pumps and generators will be maintained and operated in a manner 

that minimizes impacts to water quality and aquatic species. 

1. Pumps and generators will be maintained according to manufacturers’ specifications to regulate flows to 
prevent dryback or washout conditions. 

2. Pumps will be operated and monitored to prevent low water conditions, which could pump muddy bottom 
water, or high water conditions, which creates ponding. 

3. All pump intakes will be screened. Pumps in steelhead creeks will be screened according to NMFS criteria 
(http://www.swr.noaa.gov/sr/fishscrn.pdf) to prevent entrainment of steelhead. 


Public Safety 


GEN-36 

Public Outreach 

The public will be informed of stream maintenance work prior to the start of work as part of the preparation of the 

NPW for all projects in the NPW: 

1. Each spring, a newspaper notice will be published with information on the NPW work sites, approximate work 
dates, and contact information. 

2. Neighborhood Work Notices will be distributed as part of the NPW preparation prior to the start of work. 

3. Local governments (cities and County) will be notified of scheduled maintenance work. The annual work plan 
NPW will be submitted to the public works departments, local fire districts, and the District’s Zone Advisory 
CommitteeFlood Protection and Watershed Advisory Committees. 

4. The District will post specific information on individual maintenance projects on the Stream Maintenance Web 
site: (http://vallevwater.orq/EkContent.aspx?id=379&terms=stream+maintenance) 

5. For high profile projects, at the District’s discretion, signs will be posted in the neighborhood to notify the 
public at least one week in advance of maintenance schedules, trail closures, and road/lane closures as 
necessary and as possible. Signage used at work sites will include contact information for lodging comments 
and/or complaints regarding the maintenance activities. 

GEN-37 

Implement Public Safety 

The District will implement public safety measures during maintenance as follows: 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 


Measures 

1. Construction signs will be posted at job sites warning the public of construction work and to exercise caution, 
as appropriate to public accessed areas. 

2. Where work is proposed adjacent to a recreational trail, warning signs will be posted several feet beyond the 
limits of work. Signs will also be posted if trails will be temporarily closed. 

3. If needed, a lane will be temporarily closed to allow for trucks to pull into and out of access points to the work 
site. 

4. Temporary fencing, either the orange safety type or chain link, will be installed above repair sites on bank 
stabilization projects. 

5. When necessary, District or contracted staff will provide traffic control and site security. 

GEN-38 

Minimize Noise 

Disturbances to Residential 
Areas 

The District will implement maintenance practices that minimize disturbances to residential areas surrounding work 

sites. 

1. With the exception of emergencies, work will be conducted during normal working hours. Maintenance 
activities in residential areas will not occur on Saturdays, Sundays, or District observed holidays except during 
emergencies, or with approval by the local jurisdiction and advance notification of surrounding residents. 

2. Vehicles, generators and heavy equipment will be equipped with adequate mufflers. 

3. Idling of vehicles will be prohibited beyond 5 minutes unless operation of the engine is required to operate a 
necessary system such as a power take-off (PTO). 

GEN-39 

Planning for Pedestrians, 
Traffic Flow, and Safety 
Measures 

1. Work will be staged and conducted in a manner that maintains two-way traffic flow on public roadways in the 
vicinity of the work site. If temporary lane closures are necessary, they will be coordinated with the appropriate 
jurisdictional agency and scheduled to occur outside of peak traffic hours (7:00 - 10:00 a.m. and 3:00 - 6:00 
p.m.) to the maximum extent practicable. Any lane closures will include advance warning signage, a detour 
route and flaggers in both directions. When work is conducted on public roads and may have the potential to 
affect traffic flow, work will be coordinated with local emergency service providers as necessary to ensure that 
emergency vehicle access and response is not impeded. 

2. Bicycle and pedestrian facility closures will be scheduled outside of peak traffic hours (7:00 - 10:00 a.m. and 
3:00 - 6:00 p.m.) to the maximum extent practicable. 

3. Public transit access and routes will be maintained in the vicinity of the work site. If public transit will be 
affected by temporary road closures and require detours, affected transit authorities will be consulted and kept 
informed of project activities. 

4. Adequate parking will be provided or designated public parking areas will be used for maintenance-related 
vehicles not in use through the maintenance period. 

5. Access to driveways and private roads will be maintained. If brief periods of maintenance would temporarily 
block access, property owners will be notified prior to maintenance activities. 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number | _ BMP Title __ BMP Description 

Cultural Resources 


GEN-40 


Discovery of Cultural 
Remains or Historic or 
Paleontological Artifacts 


Work in areas where remains or artifacts are found will be restricted or stopped until proper protocols are met. 

1. Work at the location of the find will halt immediately within 50 feet of the find. A “no work” zone shall be 

established utilizing appropriate flagging to delineate the boundary of this zone, which shall measure at least 
50 feet in all directions from the find. 

2. The District shall retain the services of a Consulting Archaeologist or Paleontologist, who shall visit the discovery 

site as soon as practicable, and perform minor hand-excavation to describe the archaeological or 
paleontological resources present and assess the amount of disturbance. 

3. The Consulting Archaeologist shall provide to the District and the Corps, at a minimum, written and digital- 

photographic documentation of all observed materials, utilizing the guidelines for evaluating archaeological 
resources for the California Register of Historic Places (CRHP) and National Register of Historic Places 
(NRHP). Based on the assessment, the District and Corps shall identify the CEQA and Section 106 cultural- 
resources compliance procedure to be implemented. 

4. If the find appears to not meet the CRHP or NRHP criteria of significance, and the Corps archaeologist concurs 

with the Consulting Archaeologist’s conclusions, construction shall continue while monitored by the Consulting 
Archaeologist. The authorized maintenance work shall resume at the discovery site only after the District has 
retained a Consulting Archaeologist to monitor and the Watershed Manager has received notification from the 
Corps to continue work. 

5. If the find appears significant, avoidance of additional impacts is the preferred alternative. The Consulting 

Archaeologist shall determine if adverse impacts to the resources can be avoided. 

6. When avoidance is not practical (e.g., maintenance activities cannot be deferred or they must be completed to 

satisfy the SMP objective), the District shall develop an Action Plan and submit it to the Corps within 48 hours 
of Consulting Archaeologist’s evaluation of the discovery. The action Plan may be submitted via e-mail to 
{rstradford@spd.usace.army.mil}. The Action Plan is synonymous with a data-recovery plan. It shall be 
prepared in accordance with the current professional standards and State guidelines for reporting the results of 
the work, and shall describe the services of a Native American Consultant and a proposal for curation of 
cultural materials recovered from a non-grave context. 

7. The recovery effort will be detailed in a report prepared by the archaeologist in accordance with current 

archaeological standards. Any non-grave artifacts will be placed with an appropriate repository. 

8. The Consulting Paleontologist will meet the Society for Vertebrate Paleontology’s criteria for a “qualified 

professional paleontologist” (Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Conformable Impact Mitigation Guidelines 
Committee 1995). 

9. The paleontologist will follow the Society for Vertebrate Paleontology’s guidelines for treatment of the artifact. 

Treatment may include preparation and recovery of fossil materials for an appropriate museum or university 
collection, and may include preparation of a report describing the finds. The District will be responsible for 
ensuring that paleontologist’s recommendations are implemented. 

10. In the event of discovery of human remains (or the find consists of bones suspected to be human), the field 
crew supervisor shall take immediate steps to secure and protect such remains from vandalism during periods 
when work crews are absent.) 

11. Immediately notify the Santa Clara County Coroner and provide any information that identify the remains as 
Native American. If the remains are determined to be from a prehistoric Native American, or determined to be a 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 



Native American from the ethnographic period, the Coroner shall contact the Native American Heritage 
Commission (NAHC) within 24 hours of being notified of the remains. The NAHC then designates and notifies 
within 24 hours a Most Likely Descendant (MLD). The MLD has 24 hours to consult and provide 
recommendations for the treatment or disposition, with proper dignity, of the human remains and grave goods. 

12. Preservation in situ is the preferred option. Human remains shall be preserved in situ if continuation of the 

maintenance work, as determined by the Consulting Archaeologist and MLD, will not cause further damage to 
the remains. The remains and artifacts shall be documented and the find location carefully backfilled (with 
protective geo-fabric if desirable) and recorded in District project files. 

13. Human remains or cultural items exposed during maintenance that cannot be protected from further damage 

shall be exhumed by the Consulting Archaeologist at the discretion of the MLD and reburied with the 
concurrence of the MLD in a place mutually agreed upon by all parties. 

GEN-41 

Review of Projects with 
Native Soil 

A cultural resources specialist will conduct a review and evaluation of those sites that would involve disturbance / 
excavation of native soil previously undisturbed by contemporary human activities to determine their potential for 
affecting significant cultural resources. The evaluation of the potential to disturb cultural resources will be based on 
an initial review of archival information provided by the California Historical Resources System/Northwest 
Information Center (CHRIS/NWIC) in regard to the project area based on a 0.25 mile search radius. It is 
recommended that this initial archival review be completed by a professional archaeologist who will be able to view 
confidential site location data and literature to arrive at a preliminary sensitivity determination. If necessary, a 
further archival record search and literature review (including a review of the Sacred Lands Inventory of the Native 
American Heritage Commission); and a field inventory of the project area will be conducted to determine the 
presence/absence of surface cultural materials associated with either prehistoric or historic occupation. The results 
along with any mitigation and/or management recommendations would be presented in an appropriate report 
format and include any necessary maps, figures, and correspondence with interested parties. A summary table 
indicating appropriate management actions (e.g., monitoring during construction, presence/absence testing for 
subsurface resources; data recovery, etc.) will be developed for each project site reviewed. The management 
actions will be implemented on site to avoid significant effects to cultural resources. 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 

Utilities 



GEN-42 

Investigation of Utility Line 
Locations 

An evaluation of the locations of utility lines that could be affected by maintenance activities will be conducted 
annually as part of the preparation of the Notice of Proposed Work (NPW). Utilities will be avoided as much as 
possible. For maintenance areas with the potential for adverse effects on utility services, the following measures 
shall be implemented: 

1. Utility excavation or encroachment permits shall be required from the appropriate agencies. These permits 
include measures to minimize utility disruption. The District and its contractors shall comply with permit 
conditions. Such conditions shall be included in construction contract specifications. 

2. Utility locations shall be verified through a field survey (potholing) and use of the Underground Service Alert 
services. 

3. Detailed specifications shall be prepared as part of the design plans to include procedures for the excavation, 
support, and/or fill of areas around utility cables and pipelines. All affected utility services shall be notified of the 
District’s maintenance plans and schedule. Arrangements shall be made with these entities regarding 
protection, relocation, or temporary disconnection of services. 

4. Residents and businesses in the project area shall be notified of planned utility service disruption 2 to 4 days in 
advance, in conformance with state standards. 

5. Disconnected cables and lines shall be reconnected promptly. 


B. SECTION C - Sediment Removal BMPs 

This group of BMPs is intended to be implemented specifically during sediment removal activities^ Tto avoid potential impacts on biological 
resources , non e of th e s e m e asur e s w ill b e i mp le m e nt e d unt il author i zat i on from th e SMP I mp le m e ntat i on Proj e ct Manag e r i s r e c ei v e d . 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 

SED-1 

Groundwater Management 

If high levels of groundwater (i.e., visible water) are encountered during excavations in a work area, the water will 
be pumped out of the work site or left within the work area if the work activity is not causing water quality 
degradation in a live stream. Water Quality monitoring would need to occur. If necessary to protect water quality, 
the extracted water will be discharged into specifically constructed infiltration basins, holding ponds, or areas with 
vegetation to remove sediment prior to the water re-entering a creek. Water discharged into vegetated areas or 
swales will be pumped in a manner that will not create erosion around vegetation. 

SED-2 

Prevent Scour Downstream 
of Sediment Removal 

Sediment removal sites in the transport zone on alluvial fans may cause increased scour downstream if they 
experience scouring flows or rapid sediment accumulation after maintenance. 

After sediment removal, the channel will be graded so that the transition between the existing channel both 
upstream and downstream of the maintenance area is smooth and continuous between the maintained and non- 
maintained areas and does not present a sudden vertical transition (wall of sediment) or other blockage that could 
erode once flows are restored to the channel. 

SED-3 

Restore Channel Features 

Low-flow channels within non-tidal streams will be contoured to facilitate fish passage and will emulate the pre¬ 
construction conditions as closely as possible, within the finished channel topography. 

SED-4 

Berm Bypass 

Where sediment removal is accomplished without a bypass by removing alternating cells, the berm between the 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 



work and the live channel will be wide enough to prevent introduction of turbid water from the cell into the live 
channel. 


C. SECTION D - Vegetation Management BMPs 

These BMPs provide specific and detailed guidance on the variety of vegetation management procedures implemented by the District. BMPs for 
the following maintenance techniques are included: tree pruning, tree removal, plant removal, woody debris management, herbicide application, 
mowing, discing, flaming, and grazing. Practices will be implemented by fully trained and qualified field crews. 


BMP Number 


BMP Title 


BMP Description 


VEG-1 

Minimize Local Erosion 
Increase from In-channel 
Vegetation Removal 

To minimize the potential effect of localized erosion, the toe of the bank will be protected by leaving vegetation to 
the maximum extent possible and consistent with the maintenance guidelines or original design requirements. 

VEG-2 

Non-native Invasive Plant 
Removal 

Invasive species (e.q. cape ivv f Delairea odorata/Senecio mikanoidesh arundo f Arundo donax 1) will be disposed of 
in a manner that will not contribute to the further spread of the species. Cape ivy removed during a project shall be 
baqqed and disposed of in a landfill. Arundo canes will be prevented from floatinq downstream or otherwise 
enterina the creek or waterway. 

VEG-3 

Use Appropriate Equipment 
for Instream Removal 

When using heavy equipment to cut or remove instream vegetation, low ground pressure equipment, such as 
tracked wheels will be utilized to reduce impacts to the streambed. 

VEG-4 

Use Flamers with Caution 

1. A fire extinguisher, water supply and other appropriate fire suppression equipment will always be kept close to 
the work site in case of an emergency. 

2. Propane tanks will be checked for leaks and proper functioning prior to and proceeding use of flaming 
equipment. The propane tank will be treated as a hazardous material. 

VEG-5 

Conduct Flaming During 
Appropriate Weather and 
Seasonal Conditions 

Flamers will not be used during periods of high fire danger or in areas where fuel or climate conditions could 
accidentally ignite a fire. 

VEG-6 

Standard Grazing 
Procedures 

1. Vegetation and areas to be preserved will be fenced off to exclude grazing animals. 

2. Grazing animals will be excluded from stream channels, using fencing or other barriers. 


D. 

E. SECTION E - Bank Stabilization BMPs 

These BMPs provide additional guidance during implementation of bank stabilization projects^^Fto avoid impacts on biological and cultural 
resources , non e of th e s e m e asur e s w ill b e i mp le m e nt e d unt il author i zat i on from th e SMP I mp le m e ntat i on Proj e ct Manag e r i s r e c ei v e d . Review of 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


the Post-Project Restoration BMPs in Section F is recommended because those measures will be implemented after bank stabilization projects 
are complete. The BMPs included in this section are implemented by the field crew and site manager. 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 

BANK-1 

Bank Stabilization Design to 
Prevent Erosion 

Downstream 

To further prevent potential downstream erosion impacts due to bank stabilization, the site design will be adjusted 
to provide proactive protection of vulnerable areas within the reach of the worksite. Such measures include, but 
are not limited to, appropriately keyed-in coir logs, riparian planting, strategic placement of rock, and flow 
deflectors. 

Bank stabilization will include appropriate transition designs upstream and downstream of the work site to prevent 
potential erosion impacts. 

BANK-2 

Concrete Use Near 
Waterways 

Concrete that has not been cured is alkaline and can increase the pH of the watery fFresh concrete will be isolated 
until it no longer poses a threat to water quality using the following appropriate measures: 

1. Wet sacked concrete will be excluded from the wetted channel for a period of two weeks after installation. 

During that time, the wet sacked concrete will be kept moist (such as covering with wet carpet) and runoff from the 
wet sacked concrete will not be allowed to enter a live stream. 

2. Poured concrete will be excluded from the wetted channel for a period of two weeks after it is poured. During 
that time, the poured concrete will be kept moist, and runoff from the wet concrete will not be allowed to enter a 
live stream. Commercial sealants (e.g., Deep Seal, Elasto-Deck Reservoir Grade) may be applied to the poured 
concrete surface where difficulty in excluding water flow for a long period may occur. If a sealant is used, water will 
be excluded from the site until the sealant is dry. 

3. Dry sacked concrete will not be used in any channel. 

4. An area outside of the channel and floodplain will be designated to clean out concrete transit vehicles. 

BANK-3 

Bank Stabilization Post- 
Construction Maintenance 

The District may maintain or repair bank stabilization projects that are less than 2 years old that are damaged by 
winter flows. 

The District will notify the regulatory agencies 24 hours prior to beginning the work and the work will be reported as 
part of the Post-Construction Report submitted by January 15 of each year or if necessary, the subsequent year. 
Appropriate BMPs will be applied during maintenance repairs. 


F. 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


G. SECTION F - Post-Project Restoration BMPs 

These BMPs will be implemented, as appropriate, on all sites that involve ground disturbance. 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 

REVEG-1 

Seeding 

Sites where maintenance activities result in exposed soil will be stabilized to prevent erosion. Disturbed areas shall 
be seeded with native seed as soon as is appropriate after maintenance activities are complete. An erosion control 
seed mix may be applied to exposed soils, and down to the ordinary high water mark (OHWM). 

1. The seed mix should consist of California native grasses (e.g., Hordeum brachyantherum, Elymus glaucus , and 
Vulpia microstachyes) or annual, sterile seed mix. 

2. Temporary earthen access roads may be seeded when site and horticultural conditions are suitable, or have 
other appropriate erosion control measures in place (GEN-20). 

REVEG-2 

Planting Material 

Revegetation and replacement plantings will consist of locally collected native species. Species selection will be 
based on surveys of natural areas on the same creek that have a similar ecological setting and/or as appropriate 
for the site location. 


H. SECTION G - Management of Animal Damag e Conflict BMPs 

Methods of animal management included in the SMP are avoidance, biological controls, physical alterations, habitat alterations, and lethal 
controls. Of all these methods, implementation of lethal controls has the highest potential for environmental and biological impacts. Therefore, the 
animal management BMPs provided in this section focus on lethal controls. The application area for lethal controls will be identified during the 
annual planning process (see the Biological Resource Planning BMPs) and guided as directed by wildlife biologists. Species habitat areas are 
defined by the District’s GIS species mapping, updated CNDDB and known local biological information and are included in the SMP Update 
Subsequent EIR. 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 

ANI-1 

Avoid Redistribution of 

Carcass surveys will be conducted periodically when acute poisons and first aeneration anticoaaulants are used. 


Rodenticides 

The frequency of the carcass surveys will be specific to the type of rodenticide used,.In areas where first qeneration 



rodenticides are used, carcass retrieval surveys will be conducted as follows to minimize secondary poisoninq 
impacts: 

• Acute toxins - Daily carcass surveys, beqinninq the first dav after application until the end of the baitinq 
period for acute toxins used above-qround . 

• Anticoaqulants -Weekly for anticoaquIantsWithin 7 davs of installation of first qeneration anticoaqulant 
bait, and weekly thereafter. Anytime a carcass is found, daily carcass surveys will beqin for as lonq as 

carcasses are found until no carcasses are found durinq a daily survey. Once no carcasses are found, 

carcass surveys will return to the weekly carcass survey timeline maximum from the date of initial 

installation of an anticoaqulant bait station. 

. In addition, twice per year District biologists will conduct daily carcass surveys for a full cycle of a baiting trap. 

to minimize secondary poisoninq impacts. To verify that the frequency of carcass surveys is adequate, a bioloqist 
will conduct daily carcass surveys 2 times per year over one baitinq cycle. Based on the results of these surveys. 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 



the timina of carcass surveys will be adjusted if necessary. 

Any spilled bait will be cleaned up immediately. 

AN 1-2 

Prevent Harm to the Salt 
Marsh Harvest Mouse and 
California Clapper Rail 

1. No rodenticides or fumigants will be used within the range of the SMHM or CCR as identified on District range 
maps. 

2. Methods of rodent control within SMHM or CCR habitat will be limited to live trapping. All live traps shall have 
openings measuring no smaller than 2 inches by 1 inch to allow any SMHM that inadvertently enter the trap to 
easily escape. All traps will be placed outside of pickleweed areas and above the high tide line. 

AN 1-3 

Burrowing Owl, Bald Eagle 
and Golden Eagle Buffer 
Zone 

Per the California Department of Fish and Game’s 2008 Guidance for Burrowing Owl Conservation, a 656-yard 
buffer will be established around known burrowing owl locations where no rodenticides or fumigants (including 
smoke bombs) will be used. A 0.5-mile buffer will be established around known bald eagle and golden eagle 
nesting locations where no rodenticides will be used. 

AN 1-4 

Animal Control in Sensitive 
Amphibian Habitat 

1. Fumigants will not be used within the habitat areas of special status amphibians. 

2. The use of bait stations within the potential habitat areas of California red-legged frog, California tiger 
salamander, or foothill yellow-legged frog will be limited to bait stations specifically designed to prevent entry by 
these species. 

3. Any live traps will allow California red-legged frogs, California tiger salamanders, or foothill yellow-legged frogs 
to safely exit (e.g., by having openings measuring no smaller than 2 inches by 1 inch). 

ANI-5 

Slurry Mixture near 
Waterways 

All slurry type mixes used to fill rodent burrows will be prevented from entering any waterway by using appropriate 
erosion control methods and according to the manufacturer’s specifications. If the creek bed is dry or has been 
dewatered, any material that has entered the channel will be removed. 


I. SECTION H - Use of Pesticides 

Pesticides may be used for vegetation management or control of animal damage 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 

HM-4 

Posting and Notification for 
Pesticide Use 

Posting of areas where pesticides are used will be performed in compliance with District Policy Ad-8.2 Pesticide 

Use as follows: 

1. Posting will be performed in compliance with the label requirements of the product being applied. 

2. In addition, posting will be provided for any products applied in areas used by the public for recreational 
purposes, or those areas readily accessible to the public, regardless of whether the label requires such notification. 
In doing this, the District ensures that exposure risk is minimized further by adopting practices that go beyond the 
product label requirements. (The posting method may be modified to avoid destruction of bait stations or scattering 
of rodenticide.) 

3. These postings will notify staff and the general public of the date and time of application, the product’s active 
ingredients, and common name, and the time of allowable re-entry into the treated area. 

4. Signs will not be removed until after the end of the specified re-entry interval. 


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2012-2022 Program Manual - Attachment F 


BMP Number 

BMP Title 

BMP Description 



5. Right-to-know literature on the product will be made available to anyone in the area during the re-entry period. 

6. A District staff contact ohone number will be costed on the sian, includinq a Baoercellular ohone number. 

7. Notification of pesticide activities will be made as required by law. Also, the District will maintain records of 
neighbors with specific needs relative to notification before treatment of an adjacent area so that such needs are 
met. 


Source: Data compiled by Horizon Water and Environment in 2011 


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ATTACHMENT G 


Sediment Characterization Plans 
Regional Water Quality Control Boards 

Central Coast and 
San Francisco Bay 



SEDIMENT CHARACTERIZATION PLAN 


FOR THE 

SANTA CLARA VALLEY WATER DISTRICT 
MULTI-YEAR STREAM MAINTENANCE PROGRAM 
-CENTRAL COAST REGION- 



Revi 


Ray Fields 
Project Manager 
Stream Stewardship Unit 




Shree Dharasker 
Engineering Unit Manager 
Stream Stewardship Unit 


Under the Direction of 


Ann Draper 

Assistant Operating Officer 
Watershed Stewardship Division 


November 2011 


Sediment Plan 


1 


November 2011 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Page 


INTRODUCTION 

PURPOSE 

SCOPE 

OBJECTIVES 

SAMPLING METHODS 

SAMPLING PROCEDURES 

SAMPLE COLLECTION 

SAMPLE CONTAINERS AND SAMPLE VOLUMES 



SURVEY OF SAMPLING LOCATIONS 

\ \ \ / 

ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES 

RATIONAL FOR ANALYTICAL TEST METHOD SELECTION 

QUALITY CONTROL 

LABORATORY 
Attachment A 


9 

9 

9 

9 

10 

10 

10 

11 

11 


Sediment Plan 


2 


November 2011 




Sediment Plan 


3 


November 2011 


Introduction 


The Santa Clara Valley Water District (District) conducts sediment removal, vegetation 
management, bank protection repairs, minor maintenance, and canal maintenance activities in 
channels/creeks for the purpose of alleviating the potential for local flooding problems and to 
meet the requirements of the Federal Emergency Management Agency for flood protection. 
Under the aforementioned activities of the Multi-Year Stream Maintenance Program (SMP), 
channel/creek sediment is often removed as a result of these activities. In order to effectively 
manage the removal and disposal of the sediments removed as a result of these activities, it is 
necessary to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the sediments (or also 
known as creek material as some of the tested material is from the creek banks or stockpiles, 
etc.). This characterization allows the District to (1) effectively plan for disposal of the 
sediments and (2) assist with determining the best management practices (BMP) to implement 
in order to avoid and minimize impacts to water quality, aquatic life, and beneficial uses. The 
sediment characterization plan proposed for the District’s Multi-Year Stream Maintenance 
Program, as presented herein, is a result of the District’s sediment testing and evaluation 
effort, and continuous improvement process based on guidance from regulatory agencies and 
other stakeholders, since 1997. 

Purpose 

According to the Basin Plan, the Regional Board establishes and enforces Waste Discharge 
Requirements (WDR) for point and nonpoint source of pollutants at levels necessary to meet 
numerical and narrative water quality objectives. The sediment tests performed by the District 
each year, as part of its SMP based on the historic occurrence of pollutants within Santa Clara 
Valley streams, in accordance with the Basin Plan water quality objectives, and the Regional 
Board’s WDR through a stakeholder process. The stakeholder process and lessons learned 
meetings involved participation of the Regional Board, the California State Department of Fish 
and Game (DFG), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Army Corps of 
Engineers (Corps), and various environmental organizations which assisted the District in 
continuous evaluation and improvement of the sediment characterization plan. 

There are four main reasons for characterizing the sediments described as follows: 

Landfill Acceptance 

Landfills require creek sediment to be characterized before they accept the material for 

disposal. 

Reuse Sites 


Reuse sites are considered places that are not within the immediate vicinity (within 500 
feet upstream or downstream) of the sediment excavation. These places can range from 
(but are not limited to) ponds, creek banks, or maintenance roads. These reuse 
sediments are approved by the Regional Board in advance of placement of the material. 
Material reused within the 500 feet upstream or downstream, and less than 500 cubic 
yards, is done without sediment testing. 


Sediment Plan 


4 


November 2011 


The Central Coast Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board 

The Regional Board has required characterization of the materials to determine if the 
proposed disposal method is acceptable. The Regional Board must ensure that the 
disposal of the material will not pose a threat to the waters of the state. The Regional 
Board is interested in determination of total mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls 
(PCB’s) in residual sediment after sediment removal. 


The California Department of Fish and Game 

DFG requests that the materials be characterized to determine if they will adversely 
impact fish and wildlife as the removal operations may cause sediments to be 
re-suspended and migrate downstream where it may have an impact on fish and wildlife. 
DFG defers to the Water Board for the determination of suitability for creek material 
removal. 

Scope 

Under the SMP, sediment will only be tested using the San Francisco Bay Regional Water 
Quality Control Board’s (Regional Board) Benificail Reuse of Dredged Materials (for 
consistency with the San Francisco Board): Sediment Screening and Testing Guidelines (May 
2000) to facilitate any beneficial reuse of sediment generated by the District at its proposed. 
The physical and chemical properties of sediments tested by the District include metals, 
pesticides and organophosphorous compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, polynuclear 
aromatic hydrocarbons, moisture content, chloride, pH, total sulfides, ammonia, and toxicity (in 
some cases). 

This sampling plan documents sampling and analytical procedures which will be utilized for the 
creek sites under the SMP. It is not intended to be a full characterization of all the stream 
sediments. The Sediment Characterization Plan is primarily designed to characterize 
sediment designated for removal (using composite, continuous core and residual sediment 
sampling methods). Residual sediment samples will only be collected in an attempt to 
characterize the sediment that may be subject to erosion and transport during flows. 

The Sediment Characterization Plan addresses the following sampling methods designed to 
meet the overall objectives of landfill acceptance, sediment reuse at alternative sites, water 
quality protection, and fish and wildlife protection: 

1. Composite sediment sampling 

2. Continuous Core sampling 

3. Residual sediment sampling 


Objectives 


The specific objectives of the Sediment Characterization Plan are as follows: 


1. Characterize the sediments for acceptance by landfills. 

2. Characterize the sediments to determine their suitability for reuse at alternative 
disposal sites (i.e., non-landfill reuse sites). 


Sediment Plan 


5 


November 2011 


3. Compliance with regulatory requirements for the sediment removal activities. 

4. Provide data for evaluation of the feasibility of long-term disposal, reuse, and 
recycling opportunities for sediment generated by the District. 

Sampling Methods 

This section describes the frequency of sampling and the location of sample collection at 
the SMP sites involving sediment removal activities. From both the regulatory and scientific 
perspectives, the primary objectives of a sampling plan for a solid material are twofold: 
namely, (1) to collect samples that are representative samples as exhibiting average 
properties of the whole solid material and (2) to collect samples that will allow measurements 
of the chemical properties of the waste that are both accurate and precise. 

Sediment samples will be collected for characterization of sediment designated for removal 
and analyzed in accordance with the contaminants listed on Table 4 Recommended Sediment 
Chemistry Screening Guidelines for Beneficial Reuse of Dredged Material (Re-use Guidelines) 
from the (SF) Regional Boards Basin Plan. Sampling parameters/analytes listed in Table 4 
may be modified after a history of sampling is obtained. This may result in not requiring 
monitoring for some of these contaminants under certain situations or at certain locations, or 
adding more parameters/analytes if deemed necessary by the Executive Officer of the 
Regional Board. 

Reliable information concerning the chemical properties of a solid waste is needed for the 
purpose of comparing chemical properties with applicable regulatory thresholds. For 
chemical information to be reliable, it must be accurate and precise. Accuracy is usually 
achieved by incorporating some form of randomness into the selection process for the samples 
that generate the data. Precision is most often obtained by selecting an appropriate number 
of samples. 

For this Sediment Characterization Plan, the District will utilize a systematic random sampling 
technique generated by the sediment sampling database, in which all sampling points from a 
population are randomly selected. The advantages of systematic random sampling over 
other sampling techniques are the ease with which samples are identified, and collected, an 
increase in precision, and to collect representative data on chemical properties. All samples 
shall be collected in accordance with the U.S. EPA Guidelines and sampling methodologies. 
The methods of analyses and detection limits must be appropriate for the expected 
concentrations. Specific methods of analyses must be identified. If methods other than U.S. 
EPA - approved methods of Standard Methods are used, the exact methodology must be 
submitted for review and approved by the Executive Officer of the Regional Board. 

Composite Sedipnent Samples 

The purpose of composite sediment sampling is to conduct the widest range of 
characterization along the project sites’ lengths and widths in order to capture the most 
variation of the area. This broader scope of randomly generated 4 point sampling will 
give a greater sense of the variability of the channel material than a specific sample point. 

Composite Sample Collection Frequency 

In order to characterize the sediment, one composite, which consists of 4 random 


Sediment Plan 


6 


November 2011 


samples, in-situ sample shall be collected and analyzed approximately every 4,000 
cys. Approximately one sample shall be collected every 1,000 cys. These 
samples will be composited together by the laboratory. The length of the channel is 
also taken into consideration as the District’s database will generate sampling points 
based on the length of the project area. As such, projects with long project lengths 
will have sample points farther apart in order to better characterize the variability in 
sediment contaminants along the entire length of the worksite. 

Composite Sample Locations 

The location of each sample at the Sediment Removal Program sites must be 
selected in the following three dimensions: (1) the creek station, or the location 
along the length of the creek; (2) the location along the creek cross section; and (3) 
the depth below ground surface (bgs). With these parameters, a sample point is 
randomly generated. The rationale for selection of a sampling location in all three 
dimensions is described below: 

Composite Sample Depth 



The sampling depth of the composite samples are also randomly generated varied 
from surface sampling to maximum excavation depth of the proposed project. 

Continuous Core Sediment Samples 

The purpose of continuous core sampling is to take samples at selected locations (e.g. 
below outfalls, depression areas of the creek, likely contaminated areas) where the 
highest likelihood of contamination exists in the project site. This type of sample is not 
taken on the banks (above the toe of the channel) nor from stockpiles, only from within toe 
to toe of the channel. 

Continuous Core Sample Collection Frequency 

One continuous core sample is taken every 4000 cubic yards per project site. 
Continuous Core Sample Locations 

The location of the sample is determined in the field upon attempting to locate areas 
of depression or outfalls within the project site. As these features are not always 
apparent, the location will sometimes have to be placed in the most likely areas of 
these features. 

Continuous Core Sample Depth 

The depth of the sample is randomly generated by the District’s sediment sampling 
database and printed on the sediment sampling plan generated in the office and 
used out in the field. 

Residual Sediment Samples 

The purpose of residual sediment sampling is to conduct limited characterization of 
sediment left behind after sediment removal from earthen channels and creeks. The 
exposed sediment in the channel/creek bottom will be sampled and analyzed for total 
mercury and PCB. 


Sediment Plan 


7 


November 2011 


Residual Sample Collection Frequency 

Residual sediment samples will be collected at one every 4000 cys on earthen 
channels. 


Residual Sample Locations 


This type of sample will be collected at each earthen channel/creek site. The 
location of the residual sample will coincide with the continuous core sample. 



nned maximum depth 


Residual Sample Depth 

The samples will be collected from within 1 foot below the 
of excavation for that project. 


Sampling Procedures 

This section describes the field sampling procedures. All samples shall be collected in 
accordance with U.S. EPA Guidelines and sampling methodologies. The methods of 
analyses and detection limits must be appropriate for expected concentrations. Specific 
methods of analyses must be identified. If methods other than U.S. EPA approved methods 
of Standard Methods are used, the exact methodology must be submitted for review and 
approved by the Executive Officer. 

Sample Collection 

All samples shall be collected by means of a hand trowel, a hand auger, or another sampling 
method approved by the regulatory agencies. The individual collecting the sample will have 
the discretion of choosing the sampling method which is the most efficient to perform. 

Sampling will be conducted in accordance with the methods described below: 

Hand Trowel Procedure 

1. Remove vegetation and woody debris from the ground surface. 

2. If collecting a subsurface sample, use a shovel to dig down to the desired 
sampling interval. 


3. 

4. 


Use a stainless-steel hand trowel to collect soil. 
Place soil in an appropriate sampling container. 


5. Replace all excavated soils to their original location (i.e., backfill the sampling 
hole). 


Hand Auger Procedure 

1. Remove vegetation and woody debris from the ground surface. 

2. Use the hand auger to advance down to the top of the sampling interval. 


Sediment Plan 


8 


November 2011 


3. Use a hand auger to collect soil from the desired depth. 

4. Use a clean (decontaminated) tool to scoop the soil out of the auger and place in 
an appropriate sampling container. 

5. Replace all excavated soils to their original location (i.e., backfill the sampling 
hole). 


If hand auger refusal is encountered, sample will be collected from an alternate 
location. 


Sample Containers and Sample Volumes 




All samples shall be collected using wide-mouthed glass jars or other sampling containers as 
directed or supplied by the laboratory. 

Sampling volume and number of containers necessary shall be specified by the District’s 
contract of internal laboratory. It is anticipated that multiple containers of sediment will need 
to be collected at each location. 

Decontamination Procedures 


All equipment used to collect soil samples (hand trowel or hand auger) shall be 
decontaminated prior to collecting each sample, on-site. Equipment shall be decontaminated 
by at least rinsing the equipment twice with water, drying and then visually inspecting to ensure 
that there are no residual particles from the previous sample. The final rinse shall be with 
de-ionized or distilled water. 


Sample Preservatioi 


All samples shall be immediately preserved in accordance with the EPA sampling and testing 
procedures. This is most commonly done by placing the samples in an insulated cooler with 
ice. Samples may also be stored in a refrigerator. 

The laboratory shall immediately record the temperature of the sample containers upon receipt 
of the samples, if required by the EPA sampling and testing procedures for the contaminants 
that are being analyzed. 

Chain of Custody Procedures 

Standard chain of custody procedures shall be used throughout the sampling collection 
procedures. A chain of custody shall be prepared for all samples. Each individual who has 
responsibility for the samples is required to sign the chain of custody upon relinquishing the 
samples to another party. The receiving party taking custody of samples shall also sign the 
chain of custody form. 


When in the field, samples shall always be in sight of the individual responsible for the 
samples, or the samples shall be stored within a locked vehicle. If the samples are stored in 
an office prior to delivery to the laboratory, the samples shall be stored in a secure location. 
Applicable sample storage and preservation procedures shall be followed. 


Sediment Plan 


9 


November 2011 


Survey of Sampling Locations 

All sampling locations will be identified by Geographic Information Stationing. 

Analytical Procedures 

Every sediment sample location shall be sampled for the full list of parameters/analytes listed 
in Table 4 for the Reuse Guidelines. Sampling parameters/analytes listed in Table 4 may be 
modified after a history of sampling is obtained. This may result in not requiring monitoring for 
some of these contaminants under certain situations or at certain locations, or adding more 
parameters/analytes if deemed necessary by the Executive Officer. 

/ f 5 

Rational for Analytical Test Method Selection 

The rationale used for selecting test methods is based largely on the laboratory’s ability to 
meet the detection limit requirements of the Table 4. All methods are EPA standards but may 
vary from time to time (based on changes from the EPA). Although, the driving force behind 
the selection of the test methods will be (SF) Regional Board’s Re-use Guidelines. 

Moisture Content 

Sediments in creeks naturally contain moisture; moisture content may fluctuate during the 
year and is dependent on creek flows, groundwater elevation, and other local conditions. 
The moisture content of in-situ soils will be higher than the moisture content of excavated 
sediments, due to the natural process of evaporation and infiltration. 

Analysis of moisture content is required for Class III landfill acceptance for wet soils. In 
addition, it is necessary to measure the moisture content in order to determine the dry 
weight concentrations of constituents within the sediment. 

Selected Test Method and Frequency of Testing 

All samples except residual sediment samples shall be analyzed for moisture content 
by EPA Method 160.3 or the most current prescribed method. 

Toxicity 

Creek sediments may be toxic due to nonpoint source pollutants which may have been 
deposited into the creeks. Toxicity is of concern if the sediment is to be reused. 
Sediment toxicity test will be conducted only on composite samples from sites where the 
waters may not be controlled during sediment removal operations due to tidal action; 
therefore toxicity sampling shall only be conducted on sediment removal projects which 
would not divert the water around the project site during excavation. 

Selected Test Method and Frequency of Testing 

All samples in tidal areas only, except residual sediment samples, shall be tested for 
toxicity by means of a toxicity screening bioassay, by the test method specified in 
California Code of Regulations, Title 22. The samples will be tested using 
Eohaustorius estuarius species, unless otherwise specified by the EPA. 


Sediment Plan 


10 


November 2011 


Methyl-Mercury Testing 


Past mining operations allowed mining tailing and debris discharge to some creeks and 
this has increased mercury levels in sediments and soils in those watersheds, specifically 
the Guadalupe Watershed. 

Selected Test Method and Frequency of Testing 

Only the following creeks will be required to have the 
mercury be performed for all composite samples, in 

Guadalupe Creek 
Los Gatos Creek 
Alamitos Creek 
Randol Creek. 

Quality Control 

A OA/OC plan is an important component of a monitoring program involving extensive field 
sampling and laboratory analyses. The two objectives of the GA/GC plan are: 1) to provide a 
means of ongoing control and evaluation of the sampling and analysis procedures; and 2) to 
quantify data precision and accuracy for use in data interpretation. Duplicate samples are no 
longer required. The OA/OC plan will be followed in all phases of the monitoring program 
including sampling and validation reporting. GA/QC requirements are noted below. 

The District will utilize a sampling contractor or internal staff to conduct field sampling. The 
assigned field staff and/or contractor will be responsible for managing all field sampling 
equipment. The actual assignment of sampling areas and analysis are given to the sampling 
staff by the Stream Maintenance Program Project Manager (PM). Verification of equipment, 
analysis, chain of custodies, etc. will also be conducted by the PM. 

All equipment used for field sampling will be kept in good working order and if required will be 
tested and/or calibrated before leaving the office. Verification of working order/calibration (if 
necessary) should be re-verified, visually, upon arrival at the site to ensure the instruments are 
in proper working condition. 

Laboratory 

Whichever laboratory is used to perform analysis under this sediment sampling plan, they must 
be certified by the State of California Department of Health Services under the Environmental 
Laboratory Accreditation Program. For sub-labs that are out of state, they must hold current 
certification in their state’s accreditation program. Further, the contract lab is required to 
perform their own quality control tests with the results published in the final lab report. 

Reporting 

Upon receipt of the analytical results from the laboratory, the District will submit the results to 
the Regional Board for review and approval. This will happen in the following manner: 

The District shall attempt compile the results in 2 to 3 submittals to the Regional Board 



Sediment Plan 


11 


November 2011 


1. For ease of review, only the contaminants that test above the Regional Board’s Table 
4 detection limits will be reported to the reviewing staff member of the Regional 
Board 

2. The entirety of the results, for detected and non-detected, shall be maintained in the 
District’s database and made available upon request. Further, the signed lab copy 
of the results shall be maintained for no less than 3 years by the District 


3. The Regional Board shall review the detected contaminants and approve them for 
excavation and reuse. For project site sediments that are going to landfill, the 
Regional Board is only required to approve the removal of the material as the landfill 
will approve acceptance to their disposal facility. 



Sediment Plan 


12 


November 2011 


SEDIMENT CHARACTERIZATION PLAN 


FOR THE 

SANTA CLARA VALLEY WATER DISTRICT 
MULTI-YEAR STREAM MAINTENANCE PROGRAM 
-SAN FRANCISCO REGION- 


Revised by 


Ray Fields 
Project Manager 
Stream Stewardship Unit 


Shree Dharasker 
Engineering Unit Manager 
Stream Stewardship Unit 


Under the Direction of 


Ann Draper 

Assistant Operating Officer 
Watershed Stewardship Division 


November 2011 


_TABLE OF CONTENTS_ 

Page 

INTRODUCTION 4 

PURPOSE 4 

SCOPE 5 

OBJECTIVES 5 

SAMPLING METHODS 6 

SAMPLING PROCEDURES 8 

SAMPLE COLLECTION 8 

SAMPLE CONTAINERS AND SAMPLE VOLUMES 9 

DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES 9 

SAMPLE PRESERVATION 9 

CHAIN OF CUSTODY PROCEDURES 9 

SURVEY OF SAMPLING LOCATIONS 10 

ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES 10 

RATIONAL FOR ANALYTICAL TEST METHOD SELECTION 10 

QUALITY CONTROL 11 

LABORATORY 11 


Attachment A 




Introduction 


The Santa Clara Valley Water District (District) conducts sediment removal, vegetation 
management, bank protection repairs, minor maintenance, and canal maintenance activities in 
channels/creeks for the purpose of alleviating the potential for local flooding problems and to 
meet the requirements of the Federal Emergency Management Agency for flood protection. 
Under the aforementioned activities of the Multi-Year Stream Maintenance Program (SMP), 
channel/creek sediment is often removed as a result of these activities. In order to effectively 
manage the removal and disposal of the sediments removed as a result of these activities, it is 
necessary to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the sediments (or also 
known as creek material as some of the tested material is from the creek banks or stockpiles, 
etc.). This characterization allows the District to (1) effectively plan for disposal of the 
sediments and (2) assist with determining the best management practices (BMP) to implement 
in order to avoid and minimize impacts to water quality, aquatic life, and beneficial uses. The 
sediment characterization plan proposed for the District’s Multi-Year Stream Maintenance 
Program, as presented herein, is a result of the District’s sediment testing and evaluation 
effort, and continuous improvement process based on guidance from regulatory agencies and 
other stakeholders, since 1997. 

Purpose 

According to the Basin Plan, the Regional Board establishes and enforces Waste Discharge 
Requirements (WDR) for point and nonpoint source of pollutants at levels necessary to meet 
numerical and narrative water quality objectives. The sediment tests performed by the District 
each year, as part of its SMP are based on the historic occurrence of pollutants within Santa 
Clara Valley streams, in accordance with the Basin Plan water quality objectives, and the 
Regional Board’s WDR through a stakeholder process. The stakeholder process and lessons 
learned meetings involved participation of the Regional Board, the California State Department 
of Fish and Game (DFG), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Army 
Corps of Engineers (Corps), and various environmental organizations which assisted the 
District in continuous evaluation and improvement of the sediment characterization plan. 

There are four main reasons for characterizing the sediments described as follows: 

Landfill Acceptance 

Landfills require creek sediment to be characterized before they accept the material for 
disposal. 

Reuse Sites 

Reuse sites are considered places that are not within the immediate vicinity (within 500 
feet upstream or downstream) of the sediment excavation. These places can range from 
(but are not limited to) ponds, creek banks, or maintenance roads. These reuse 
sediments are approved by the Regional Board in advance of placement of the material. 
Material reused within the 500 feet upstream or downstream, and less than 500 cubic 
yards, is done without sediment testing. 


Draft Sediment Plan 


4 


November 2011 


The San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board 

The Regional Board has required characterization of the materials to determine if the 
proposed disposal method is acceptable. The Regional Board must ensure that the 
disposal of the material will not pose a threat to the waters of the state. The Regional 
Board is interested in determination of total mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls 
(PCB’s) in residual sediment after sediment removal. 

The California Department of Fish and Game 

DFG requests that the materials be characterized to determine if they will adversely 
impact fish and wildlife as the removal operations may cause sediments to be 
re-suspended and migrate downstream where it may have an impact on fish and wildlife. 
DFG defers to the Water Board for the determination of suitability for creek material 
removal. 

Scope 

Under the SMP, sediment will only be tested using the San Francisco Bay Regional Water 
Quality Control Board’s (Regional Board) Benificail Reuse of Dredged Materials: Sediment 
Screening and Testing Guidelines (May 2000) to facilitate any beneficial reuse of sediment 
generated by the District. The physical and chemical properties of sediments tested by the 
District include metals, pesticides and organophosphorous compounds, polychlorinated 
biphenyls, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, moisture content, chloride, pH, total sulfides, 
ammonia, and toxicity (in some cases). 

This sampling plan documents sampling and analytical procedures which will be utilized for the 
creek sites under the SMP. It is not intended to be a full characterization of all the stream 
sediments. The Sediment Characterization Plan is primarily designed to characterize 
sediment designated for removal (using composite, continuous core and residual sediment 
sampling methods). Residual sediment samples will only be collected in an attempt to 
characterize the sediment that may be subject to erosion and transport during flows. 

The Sediment Characterization Plan addresses the following sampling methods designed to 
meet the overall objectives of landfill acceptance, sediment reuse at alternative sites, water 
quality protection, and fish and wildlife protection: 

1. Composite sediment sampling 

2. Continuous Core sampling 

3. Residual sediment sampling 

Objectives 

The specific objectives of the Sediment Characterization Plan are as follows: 

1. Characterize the sediments for acceptance by landfills. 

2. Characterize the sediments to determine their suitability for reuse at alternative 
disposal sites (i.e., non-landfill reuse sites). 


Draft Sediment Plan 


5 


November 2011 


3. Compliance with regulatory requirements for the sediment removal activities. 

4. Provide data for evaluation of the feasibility of long-term disposal, reuse, and 
recycling opportunities for sediment generated by the District. 

Sampling Methods 

This section describes the frequency of sampling and the location of sample collection at 
the SMP sites involving sediment removal activities. From both the regulatory and scientific 
perspectives, the primary objectives of a sampling plan for a solid material are twofold: 
namely, (1) to collect samples that are representative samples as exhibiting average 
properties of the whole solid material and (2) to collect samples that will allow measurements 
of the chemical properties of the waste that are both accurate and precise. 

Sediment samples will be collected for characterization of sediment designated for removal 
and analyzed in accordance with the contaminants listed on Table 4 Recommended Sediment 
Chemistry Screening Guidelines for Beneficial Reuse of Dredged Material (Re-use Guidelines) 
from the Regional Boards Basin Plan. Sampling parameters/analytes listed in Table 4 may be 
modified after a history of sampling is obtained. This may result in not requiring monitoring for 
some of these contaminants under certain situations or at certain locations, or adding more 
parameters/analytes if deemed necessary by the Executive Officer of the Regional Board. 

Reliable information concerning the chemical properties of a solid waste is needed for the 
purpose of comparing chemical properties with applicable regulatory thresholds. For 
chemical information to be reliable, it must be accurate and precise. Accuracy is usually 
achieved by incorporating some form of randomness into the selection process for the samples 
that generate the data. Precision is most often obtained by selecting an appropriate number 
of samples. 

For this Sediment Characterization Plan, the District will utilize a systematic random sampling 
technique generated by the sediment sampling database, in which all sampling points from a 
population are randomly selected. The advantages of systematic random sampling over 
other sampling techniques are the ease with which samples are identified, and collected, an 
increase in precision, and to collect representative data on chemical properties. All samples 
shall be collected in accordance with the U.S. EPA Guidelines and sampling methodologies. 
The methods of analyses and detection limits must be appropriate for the expected 
concentrations. Specific methods of analyses must be identified. If methods other than U.S. 
EPA - approved methods of Standard Methods are used, the exact methodology must be 
submitted for review and approved by the Executive Officer of the Regional Board. 

Composite Sediment Samples 

The purpose of composite sediment sampling is to conduct the widest range of 
characterization along the project sites’ lengths and widths in order to capture the most 
variation of the area. This broader scope of randomly generated 4 point sampling will 
give a greater sense of the variability of the channel material than a specific sample point. 

Composite Sample Collection Frequency 

In order to characterize the sediment, one composite, which consists of 4 random 
samples, in-situ sample shall be collected and analyzed approximately every 4,000 
cys. Approximately one sample shall be collected every 1,000 cys. These 


Draft Sediment Plan 


6 


November 2011 


samples will be composited together by the laboratory. The length of the channel is 
also taken into consideration as the District’s database will generate sampling points 
based on the length of the project area. As such, projects with long project lengths 
will have sample points farther apart in order to better characterize the variability in 
sediment contaminants along the entire length of the worksite. 


Composite Sample Locations 

The location of each sample at the Sediment Removal Program sites must be 
selected in the following three dimensions: (1) the creek station, or the location 
along the length of the creek; (2) the location along the creek cross section; and (3) 
the depth below ground surface (bgs). With these parameters, a sample point is 
randomly generated. The rationale for selection of a sampling location in all three 
dimensions is described below: 

Composite Sample Depth 

The sampling depth of the composite samples are also randomly generated varied 
from surface sampling to maximum excavation depth of the proposed project. 

Continuous Core Sediment Samples 

The purpose of continuous core sampling is to take samples at selected locations (e.g. 
below outfalls, depression areas of the creek, likely contaminated areas) where the 
highest likelihood of contamination exists in the project site. This type of sample is not 
taken on the banks (above the toe of the channel) nor from stockpiles, only from within toe 
to toe of the channel. 

Continuous Core Sample Collection Frequency 

One continuous core sample is taken every 4000 cubic yards per project site. 
Continuous Core Sample Locations 

The location of the sample is determined in the field upon attempting to locate areas 
of depression or outfalls within the project site. As these features are not always 
apparent, the location will sometimes have to be placed in the most likely areas of 
these features. 

Continuous Core Sample Depth 

The depth of the sample is randomly generated by the District’s sediment sampling 
database and printed on the sediment sampling plan generated in the office and 
used out in the field. 

Residual Sediment Samples 

The purpose of residual sediment sampling is to conduct limited characterization of 
sediment left behind after sediment removal from earthen channels and creeks. The 
exposed sediment in the channel/creek bottom will be sampled and analyzed for total 
mercury and PCB. 


Draft Sediment Plan 


7 


November 2011 


Residual Sample Collection Frequency 

Residual sediment samples will be collected at one every 4000 cys on earthen 
channels. 

Residual Sample Locations 

This type of sample will be collected at each earthen channel/creek site. The 
location of the residual sample will coincide with the continuous core sample. 

Residual Sample Depth 

The samples will be collected from within 1 foot below the planned maximum depth 
of excavation for that project. 

Sampling Procedures 

This section describes the field sampling procedures. All samples shall be collected in 
accordance with U.S. EPA Guidelines and sampling methodologies. The methods of 
analyses and detection limits must be appropriate for expected concentrations. Specific 
methods of analyses must be identified. If methods other than U.S. EPA approved methods 
of Standard Methods are used, the exact methodology must be submitted for review and 
approved by the Executive Officer. 

Sample Collection 

All samples shall be collected by means of a hand trowel, a hand auger, or another sampling 
method approved by the regulatory agencies. The individual collecting the sample will have 
the discretion of choosing the sampling method which is the most efficient to perform. 

Sampling will be conducted in accordance with the methods described below: 

Hand Trowel Procedure 

1. Remove vegetation and woody debris from the ground surface. 

2. If collecting a subsurface sample, use a shovel to dig down to the desired 
sampling interval. 

3. Use a stainless-steel hand trowel to collect soil. 

4. Place soil in an appropriate sampling container. 

5. Replace all excavated soils to their original location (i.e., backfill the sampling 
hole). 


Hand Auger Procedure 

1. Remove vegetation and woody debris from the ground surface. 

2. Use the hand auger to advance down to the top of the sampling interval. 


Draft Sediment Plan 


November 2011 


3. Use a hand auger to collect soil from the desired depth. 

4. Use a clean (decontaminated) tool to scoop the soil out of the auger and place in 
an appropriate sampling container. 

5. Replace all excavated soils to their original location (i.e., backfill the sampling 
hole). 

6. If hand auger refusal is encountered, sample will be collected from an alternate 
location. 

Sample Containers and Sample Volumes 

All samples shall be collected using wide-mouthed glass jars or other sampling containers as 
directed or supplied by the laboratory. 

Sampling volume and number of containers necessary shall be specified by the District’s 
contract of internal laboratory. It is anticipated that multiple containers of sediment will need 
to be collected at each location. 

Decontamination Procedures 

All equipment used to collect soil samples (hand trowel or hand auger) shall be 
decontaminated prior to collecting each sample, on-site. Equipment shall be decontaminated 
by at least rinsing the equipment twice with water, drying and then visually inspecting to ensure 
that there are no residual particles from the previous sample. The final rinse shall be with 
de-ionized or distilled water. 

Sample Preservation 

All samples shall be immediately preserved in accordance with the EPA sampling and testing 
procedures. This is most commonly done by placing the samples in an insulated cooler with 
ice. Samples may also be stored in a refrigerator. 

The laboratory shall immediately record the temperature of the sample containers upon receipt 
of the samples, if required by the EPA sampling and testing procedures for the contaminants 
that are being analyzed. 

Chain of Custody Procedures 

Standard chain of custody procedures shall be used throughout the sampling collection 
procedures. A chain of custody shall be prepared for all samples. Each individual who has 
responsibility for the samples is required to sign the chain of custody upon relinquishing the 
samples to another party. The receiving party taking custody of samples shall also sign the 
chain of custody form. 

When in the field, samples shall always be in sight of the individual responsible for the 
samples, or the samples shall be stored within a locked vehicle. If the samples are stored in 
an office prior to delivery to the laboratory, the samples shall be stored in a secure location. 
Applicable sample storage and preservation procedures shall be followed. 


Draft Sediment Plan 


9 


November 2011 


Survey of Sampling Locations 

All sampling locations will be identified by Geographic Information Stationing. 

Analytical Procedures 

Every sediment sample location shall be sampled for the full list of parameters/analytes listed 
in Table 4 for the Reuse Guidelines. Sampling parameters/analytes listed in Table 4 may be 
modified after a history of sampling is obtained. This may result in not requiring monitoring for 
some of these contaminants under certain situations or at certain locations, or adding more 
parameters/analytes if deemed necessary by the Executive Officer. 

Rational for Analytical Test Method Selection 

The rationale used for selecting test methods is based largely on the laboratory’s ability to 
meet the detection limit requirements of the Table 4. All methods are EPA standards but may 
vary from time to time (based on changes from the EPA). Although, the driving force behind 
the selection of the test methods will be Regional Board’s Re-use Guidelines. 

Moisture Content 

Sediments in creeks naturally contain moisture; moisture content may fluctuate during the 
year and is dependent on creek flows, groundwater elevation, and other local conditions. 
The moisture content of in-situ soils will be higher than the moisture content of excavated 
sediments, due to the natural process of evaporation and infiltration. 

Analysis of moisture content is required for Class III landfill acceptance for wet soils. In 
addition, it is necessary to measure the moisture content in order to determine the dry 
weight concentrations of constituents within the sediment. 

Selected Test Method and Frequency of Testing 

All samples except residual sediment samples shall be analyzed for moisture content 
by EPA Method 160.3 or the most current prescribed method. 

Toxicity 

Creek sediments may be toxic due to nonpoint source pollutants which may have been 
deposited into the creeks. Toxicity is of concern if the sediment is to be reused. 
Sediment toxicity test will be conducted only on composite samples from sites where the 
waters may not be controlled during sediment removal operations due to tidal action; 
therefore toxicity sampling shall only be conducted on sediment removal projects which 
would not divert the water around the project site during excavation. 

Selected Test Method and Frequency of Testing 

All samples in tidal areas only, except residual sediment samples, shall be tested for 
toxicity by means of a toxicity screening bioassay, by the test method specified in 
California Code of Regulations, Title 22. The samples will be tested using 
Eohaustorius estuarius species, unless otherwise specified by the EPA. 


Draft Sediment Plan 


10 


November 2011 


Methyl-Mercury Testing 


Past mining operations allowed mining tailing and debris discharge to some creeks and 
this has increased mercury levels in sediments and soils in those watersheds, specifically 
the Guadalupe Watershed. 

Selected Test Method and Frequency of Testing 

Only the following creeks will be required to have the additional analysis of methyl 
mercury be performed for all composite samples, in accordance with EPA 1630: 

Guadalupe Creek 
Los Gatos Creek 
Alamitos Creek 
Randol Creek. 

Quality Control 

A OA/OC plan is an important component of a monitoring program involving extensive field 
sampling and laboratory analyses. The two objectives of the OA/OC plan are: 1) to provide a 
means of ongoing control and evaluation of the sampling and analysis procedures; and 2) to 
quantify data precision and accuracy for use in data interpretation. Duplicate samples are no 
longer required. The OA/OC plan will be followed in all phases of the monitoring program 
including sampling and validation reporting. OA/OC requirements are noted below. 

The District will utilize a sampling contractor or internal staff to conduct field sampling. The 
assigned field staff and/or contractor will be responsible for managing all field sampling 
equipment. The actual assignment of sampling areas and analysis are given to the sampling 
staff by the Stream Maintenance Program Project Manager (PM). Verification of equipment, 
analysis, chain of custodies, etc. will also be conducted by the PM. 

All equipment used for field sampling will be kept in good working order and if required will be 
tested and/or calibrated before leaving the office. Verification of working order/calibration (if 
necessary) should be re-verified, visually, upon arrival at the site to ensure the instruments are 
in proper working condition. 

Laboratory 

Whichever laboratory is used to perform analysis under this sediment sampling plan, they must 
be certified by the State of California Department of Health Services under the Environmental 
Laboratory Accreditation Program. For sub-labs that are out of state, they must hold current 
certification in their state’s accreditation program. Further, the contract lab is required to 
perform their own quality control tests with the results published in the final lab report. 

Reporting 

Upon receipt of the analytical results from the laboratory, the District will submit the results to 
the Regional Board for review and approval. This will happen in the following manner: 

The District shall attempt compile the results in 2 to 3 submittals to the Regional Board 


Draft Sediment Plan 


11 


November 2011 


1. For ease of review, only the contaminants that test above the Regional Board’s Table 
4 detection limits will be reported to the reviewing staff member of the Regional 
Board 

2. The entirety of the results, for detected and non-detected, shall be maintained in the 
District’s database and made available upon request. Further, the signed lab copy 
of the results shall be maintained for no less than 3 years by the District 

3. The Regional Board shall review the detected contaminants and approve them for 
excavation and reuse. For project site sediments that are going to landfill, the 
Regional Board is only required to approve the removal of the material as the landfill 
will approve acceptance to their disposal facility. 


Draft Sediment Plan 


12 


November 2011 


Attachment A 


Draft Sediment Plan 


13 


November 2011 


ATTACHMENT A 


Table 4: Recommended Sediment Chemistry Screening Guidelines for Beneficial Reuse of Dredged 


ANALYTE 

Wetland Surface Material 

Wetland Foundation Material 

Concentration 

Decision Basis 

Concentration 

Decision Basis 

METALS (mg/kg) 

Arsenic 

15.3 

Ambient Values 

70 

ER-M 

Cadmium 

0.33 

Ambient Values 

9.6 

ER-M 

Chromium 

112 

Ambient Values 

370 

ER-M 

Copper 

68.1 

Ambient Values 

270 

ER-M 

Lead 

43.2 

Ambient Values 

218 

ER-M 

Mercury 

0.43 

Ambient Values 

0.7 

ER-M 

Nickel 

112 

Ambient Values 

120 

ER-M 

Selenium 

0.64 

Ambient Values 



Silver 

0.58 

Ambient Values 

3.7 

ER-M 

Zinc 

158 

Ambient Values 

410 

ER-M 

ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES/PCBS (pg/kg) 

DDTS, sum 

7.0 

Ambient Values 

46.1 

ER-M 

Chlordanes, sum 

2.3 

TEL 

1 4.8 

PEL 

Dieldrin 

0.72 

TEL 

1 4.3 

PEL 

Hexachlorocyclohexane, sum 

0.78 

Ambient Values 



Hexachlorobenzene 

0.485 

Ambient Values 



PCBs, sum 

22.7 

ER-L 

| 180 

ER-M 

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (ng/kg) 

PAHs, total 

3,390 

Ambient Values 

44,792 

ER-M 

Low molecular weight PAHs, sum 

434 

Ambient Values 

■3,160 

ER-M 

High molecular weight PAHs, sum 

3,060 

Ambient Values 

9,600 

ER-M 

1 -Methylnaphthalene 

12.1 

Ambient Values 



1 -Methylphenanthrene 

31.7 

Ambient Values 



2,3,5-Trimethylnaphthalene 

9.8 

Ambient Values 



2,6-Dimethylnaphthalene 

12.1 

Ambient Values 



2-Methylnaphthalene 

19.4 

Ambient Values 

670 

ER-M 

2-Methylphenanthrene 


Ambient Values 



3 -Methylphenanthrene 


Ambient Values 



Acenaphthene 

26.0 

Ambient Values 

500 

ER-M 

Acenaphthylene 

88.0 

Ambient Values 

640 

ER-M 

Anthracene 

88.0 

Ambient Values 

1,100 

ER-M 

Benz(a)anthracene 

412 

Ambient Values 

1,600 

ER-M 

Benzo(a)pyrene 

371 

Ambient Values 

1,600 

ER-M 

Benzo(e)pyrene 

294 

Ambient Values 



Benzo(b)fluoranthene 

371 

Ambient Values 



Benzo(g,h,i)perylene 

310 

Ambient Values 



Benzo(k)fluoranthene 

258 

Ambient Values 



Biphenyl 

12.9 

Ambient Values 



Chrysene 

289 

Ambient Values 

2,800 

ER-M 

Dibenz(a,h)anthracene 

32.7 

Ambient Values 

260 

ER-M 

Fluoranthene 

514 

Ambient Values 

5,100 

ER-M 

Fluorene 

25.3 

Ambient Values 

540 

ER-M 

Indeno(l,2,3-c,d)pyrene 

382 

Ambient Values 



Naphthalene 

55.8 

Ambient Values 

2,100 

ER-M 

Perylene 

145 

Ambient Values 



Phenanthrene 

237 

Ambient Values 

1,500 

ER-M 

Pyrene 

665 

Ambient Values 

2,600 

ER-M 


Beneficial Reuse of Dredged Material 


May 25, 2000 


Page 23 





ATTACHMENT H 


Water Quality Monitoring Plans 
Regional Water Quality Control Boards 

Central Coast and 
San Francisco Bay 




WATER QUALITY MONITORING PLAN 


FOR THE 

SANTA CLARA VALLEY WATER DISTRICT 
MULTI-YEAR STREAM MAINTENANCE PROGRAM 
-CENTRAL COAST REGION- 


Revised by 


Ray Fields 
Project Manager 
Stream Stewardship Unit 



Shree Dharasker, P.E. 
Engineering Unit Manager 
Stream Stewardship Unit - 


Under the Direction of 


Ann Draper 

Assistant Operating Officer 
Watershed Stewardship Division 


November 2011 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Introduction 

Purpose 

Scope 



2 

2 

2 

2 

4 

8 

8 


R12480.docx 



Introduction 


The purpose of the Stream Maintenance Program (SMP) is to alleviate local flooding problems 
and to meet the requirements of the Federal Emergency Management Agency for flood 
protection. To ensure compliance with the Central Coast Bay Regional Water Quality Control 
Board’s (Regional Board) Waste Discharge Requirements (WDRs) field water quality 
parameters will be measured/observed by the Santa Clara Valley Water District (District) during 
SMP operations using active diversions, which include pH, turbidity, temperature and dissolved 
oxygen. This plan has been revised based on field conditions encountered during the years of 
operation of the SMP. 

Purpose 

The purpose of the Self-Monitoring Program is to verify compliance with the effluent and 
receiving water limitations issued under the WDRs by the Board. The plan also includes 
procedures for record keeping and reporting, to provide the documentation of compliance with 
receiving water requirements and prohibitions in the WDRs. This includes field/data reporting 
forms, sample collection, and formal annual reports to the Regional Board. A water quality 
monitoring report will be submitted to the Regional Board and other agencies/organizations (if 
requested) after the completion of each year’s active diversion operations, in accordance with 
the Regional Board’s WDRs. 

Scope 

The scope of this plan is to outline the process, means and verification of monitoring water 
quality during SMP projects that use active diversions for all 4 authorized types of construction 
(Bank Protection, Minor Maintenance, Vegetation Management and Sediment Removal). 

Definition of Terms 

Grab sample: an individual sample collected in a short period of time not exceeding 
15 minutes. They are to be used primarily in determining compliance with effluent and receiving 
water limits. Grab samples only represent the condition that exists at the time the water and 
effluent are collected. 

Point of discharge: the location point at which water diverted around the active site is 
discharged into non-tidal waters of the State. 

Active site: the confine of a SMP activity occurring on a waterway in which a pump is being 
used to divert water around the project site. 

Duly authorized representative: one who is 

a. Authorization is made in writing by a principal executive officer, or 

b. Authorization specifies either an individual or a position having responsibility for the 
overall operation of the regulated facility or activity (e.g., field supervisor, project 
manager, chief engineer). 


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2 



Downstream discharge/Effluent water: the water that flows out of a diversion, the discharged 
water (passive or active diversion) 

Upstream water: water from a river or stream that is being diverted around a project site, from 
the upper end of the project site 

Receiving water: any water body that actually or potentially receives surface or ground water at 
the point of discharge, which passes over, through, or under dredged sediment during 
placement, dewatering, settling/consolidation, and excavation/removai activities - the water 
body that receives the discharge 

Active diversion: any method of diverting water around a project site other than non¬ 
mechanical means. 

Passive diversion: the method of diverting water around a project site using no mechanical 
means. As well, working in channel where the project is being conducted outside of the live 
stream because of a natural buffer, such as excavating in pockets of sediment, will be 
considered a passive diversion. 



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3 



Specifications for Sampling and Analyses 


The District will perform sampling and analyses in accordance with the following conditions and 
requirements included in the WDRs issued by the Regional Board. Two types of data collection 
will be conducted at the sites - water quality observations and water quality analyses using field 
instruments. No laboratory analyses will be conducted. 

Water Quality Standard Observations: 

Standard observations of surface water conditions shall be conducted upstream and 
downstream of the active project area to visually detect impacts of the water diversion. 
The following standard observations of the receiving waters will be collected on every 
day of operation on the field reporting form (Appendix A): 

1. Floating and suspended materials of waste origin (to include oil, 
grease, or other material that may come from the diversion/project 
site) presence or absence and size of the affected area. Note what 
will be done if there is presence of material coming from or caused by 
the diversion. 

2. Discoloration and turbidity: description of color, source, distance of 
travel and wind direction 

3. Odor: presence or absence, characterization, source, distance of 
travel, and wind direction 

4. Hydrographic condition including: depth of water columns, sampling 
depths, time and height of corrected low and high tides 

5. Weather condition including: air temperature, wind direction and 
velocity (speed), and precipitation 

Water Quality Analysis using Field Instruments: 

Water Quality Testing: 

Water Quality data will be collected by direct immersion of the instrument 
probe into the water column, or directly immersed into collection 
apparatus. The sample will be immediately analyzed on site for 
constituents in Table 1. Samples shall be collected with accurately 
calibrated field measurement instrument(s) and the results logged. 


Table 1 


Constituents 

Type of Sample 

Units 

Turbidity 

Grab/Dip 

NTUs 

pH 

Grab/Dip 

Not Applicable 

Dissolved Oxygen 

Grab/Dip 

mg/I 

Temperature 

Grab/Dip 

Degrees Fahrenheit 


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4 




Water Quality Testing Locations 

Samples will be collected at a distance of 100 feet (or at a location that is most 
representative of the typical undisturbed condition) upstream of the beginning of the 
active diversion and 100 feet (or at a location that is most representative of surface 
water affected by the diversion) directly downstream from the point of discharge into the 
receiving water of the non-tidal sites. The samples will not be taken during a rainstorm 
event or subsequent runoff event. Samples of the discharge from temporary storage 
sites (if utilized) are to be collected as near as possible to the point of discharge without 
compromising the safety of personnel. Wherever possible, the probes will collect data 
from 1 foot below the surface. 

Water Quality Testing Frequency 

At every active diversion site, water quality samples shall be collected at least twice 
daily. Each sample set collected at the upstream and downstream locations must be 
taken within no more than a half an hour of each other (unless some outstanding 
circumstance exists). 

Background Sampling (pre-construction baseline sampling): 

Prior to the installation of an active diversion and/or its components, at 
least 1 day of background water samples (two samples per day evenly 
spaced during working hours) will be collected. If there is a change in 
stream conditions (eg. storm event) while there is a shutdown of the 
active diversion, new baseline sampling shall be conducted. 

Operational Sampling: 

Water quality samples will be collected at the active diversion sites, at 
least two samples per day, evenly spaced during the work hours, with the 
first sample collected no earlier than 1 hour after work has commenced 
each day. 

Background Sampling (post-construction baseline sampling): 

After the removal of an active diversion and/or its components (either/or 
when pumps are shutoff and water is reintroduced into the project site), at 
least 1 day of background water samples (two samples per day evenly 
spaced during working hours) will be collected at a minimum of 100 feet 
upstream of the planned placement of the active diversion. The samples 
will be representative of typical undisturbed conditions and will not be 
taken during a rainstorm or subsequent runoff event. 

Stock Pile Sampling 

Water draining from a temporary sediment stockpile will be sampled on every day that 
there is a discharge which enters into a live stream. Sampling will be conducted at all 
points of discharge/runoff. The sample will be immediately analyzed on site for 
constituents in Table 1. 


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5 



What is an Exceedance? 


An exceedance is where the receiving (downstream) water quality sample result for 
constituent(s) analyzed on site show an exceedance of the upstream water sample 
results, as specified in Table 2. 


TABLE 2 


Parameter 

Exceedance Limit 

pH 

>0.5 units deviation from background 
(upstream) 

Dissolved Oxygen 

minimum of 5.0 mg/I for tidal waters or non- 
tidal warm water 

Minimum 7.0 mg/I for non-tidal cold waters 
or no change if background <5.0 mg/I 

Turbidity 

Should not increase greater than 5 NTUs if 
background <50 NTUs and 10 percent if 
background >50 NTUs 

Temperature 

The temperature of any cold or warm 
freshwater habitat shall not be increased by 
more than 5°F (2.8°C) above the upstream 
temperature 


What to do if there is an Exceedance 

If any water quality monitoring sample results in an exceedance, then the District will 
implement the following process to correct the exceedance: 

1. Confirmation samples will be taken within 2 hours following the exceedance. 
Sampling every 2 hours will continue until the exceedance has been 
corrected. All constituents will continue to be monitored. 

2. Immediately implement procedures to identify the source of the exceedance. 

3. Once the source of the exceedance has been identified, immediately 
implement procedures to correct the source of the exceedance. 

Exceptions 

The Regional Board recognizes that even with BMPs and appropriate equipment and 
methods, turbidity levels may momentarily exceed the limitations defined in the WDRs 
during the initial stage of such activities as (a) culvert invert cleaning for panel 
placement; (b) streambed preparation for bladder dam placement; (c) initial flow 
discharge in constructed bypass channels; (d) removal of panels and bladder dams; 

(e) placement and removal of coffer dams; and (f) installation and removal of corrective 
action measures. The following describes specific activities and duration of exceedance 
allowances: 


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6 





According to the WDRs issued by the Regional Board, at any given site, an exceedance 
of the turbidity limit during an activity described in SMP activities (a) through (d) above, 
for a duration of not more than four (4) hours, will not be considered a “violation” in the 
context of enforcement or the need to take corrective action. The District will take all 
reasonable actions to limit the duration and magnitude of such exceedance events. 
Water quality impacts shall be avoided/minimized to the maximum extent practicable. 

According to the WDRs issued by the Regional Board, at any given site, an exceedance 
of the turbidity limit during an activity described in SMP activities (e) and (f) above will 
not be considered a “violation” in the context of enforcement or the need to take 
corrective action provided the duration of exceedance is: 

Not More Than For Channel Widths 

4 hours Less than 100 feet wide 

6 hours 100 to 150 feet wide 

8 hours More than 150 feet wide 

The District will take all reasonable actions to limit the duration and magnitude of such 
exceedance events. 

Violation Reporting 

If any receiving (downstream) water limit for a constituent(s) is exceeded as specified in 
Table 2 for more than a 2 hour period (after the first 2 hour confirmation sampling), then 
dredging will be terminated until the cause of the exceedance has been corrected. If 
after 6 hours the exceedance has not been alleviated, this will be considered a violation 
and must immediately be reported out to the Regional Board Executive Officer via the 
Regional Board case manager, by telephone. 

For any other violations, the District will notify the Regional Board immediately whenever 
violations are detected at which time flood control activities (SMP project) will be 
terminated and the activity will not resume until the District has provided the Regional 
Board with a corrective action plan, acceptable to the Executive Officer that provides 
alternative methods of compliance. 

Records to be Maintained 

Written reports, calibration and maintenance records, and other records shall be 
maintained by the District and accessible at all times. Records shall be kept at the 
District for a minimum of 3 years. Records shall include notes and observations for each 
sample as follows: 

a. Identification of sampling site by creek name, cross street, and item 
number (if available from the annual reports). 

b. Date and time of sampling. 


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c. Date and time analyses are started and completed and the name of 
person conducting analyses. 

f. Data and results of analyses and/or observations. 

Records shall include a map or maps of the site showing the location of the project(s) 
and water sampling locations, coffer dams, discharge pipes, access ramps, etc. 

Quality Assurance and Quality Control 

The QA/QC portion of the WDR is an important component of the monitoring program involving, 
at the core of compliance, quality assurance of field sampling. As such, this section describes 
the 2 major elements of the QA/QC plan which are (1) field sampling to ensure compliance with 
WDR criteria and (2) reporting of that compliance. 

District utilizes sampling contractors and/or internal staff to conduct water quality sampling for 
the SMP projects. These monitors will use District approved field sampling instruments and 
sampling equipment. As field sampling is the ultimate means of ensuring compliance with WDR 
requirements, it is imperative to have operating procedures that show the field sampling is being 
conducted in a manner that will collect analysis in an accurate way. In order to do this, the 
following criteria must be followed: 

1. All personnel conducting monitoring must read the relevant SMP best management 
practices, this WDR plan, the CCRWQCB Board Order, and manufacture 
calibration/instruction manuals for all sampling instruments used 

2. The SMP Project Manger must train personnel conducting this activity on all aspects 
of water quality monitoring 

3. Verification document signed that the relevant documents have been read and 
additional training has occurred 

All this documentation will be held with the SMP Project Manager, for a period of three years. 
Further, all equipment will be tested and calibrated, in accordance with the equipment’s 
manufacture requirements, at least once a week to ensure the instruments are in proper 
working condition. 

The reporting of the compliance/non-compliance of each project meeting the WDR criteria is 
captured in an end of season report that is submitted to the Regional Board, see “Final 
Monitoring Report”. 

Reporting 

Responsible Entity 

The SMP Project Manager (PM) is responsible for implementing this Plan as 
required in the WDRs issued by the Regional Board for the SMP. The PM will 
evaluate the data for compliance with the requirements of the WDR and will 
inform the Watershed Field Operations of any noncompliance event in order for 
them to take immediate corrective action. 


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Reports to the Regional Board 
Permit Violations 

The District shall notify the Regional Board staff in writing within five business 
days of all violations. Written reports shall include time and date of incident, 
duration, estimate of discharge or bypass volume, and documentation of 
sampling results/observations determining compliance status. The report shall 
also include detailed discussions of reasons for noncompliance and specific 
steps that were or will be taken to correct the failure and prevent it from re¬ 
occurring. 

Final Monitoring Report 

Upon completion of active diversion activities, a draft annual monitoring report 
will be filed with the Regional Board within 60 days of completion of all work, 
permitted activities end no later than October 30 th . 

The report will include: 

1. Certification Statement 

2. Introduction 

3. Compliance Summary 

4. Purpose and Scope 

5. Description of Work Performed 

6. Water Guality Sampling Data by Individual Site 

7. Maps - County level showing where monitoring activities occurred 

Embedded within these sections: 

1. A transmittal letter which includes a summary of all violations of 
WDRs, any changes to the project design, and any unplanned 
releases or failures that occurred during the active diversion 
operations 

2. The report shall provide: the magnitude of the releases or failures; any 
discharge limit exceedances; dates of all exceedances, cause of the 
failure, releases or other violations; any corrective actions taken or 
planned; and the dates of completion of corrective action 

Final Report 

Within 30 days after receipt of agency comments on the draft report, a 
final monitoring report will be filed with the Regional Board. The final 
report will be signed by the Chief Operating Officer of the Watersheds or 
a duly authorized representative of that person. 


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9 



WATER QUALITY MONITORING PLAN 


FOR THE 

SANTA CLARA VALLEY WATER DISTRICT 
MULTI-YEAR STREAM MAINTENANCE PROGRAM 
-SAN FRANCISCO REGION- 


Revised by 


Ray Fields 
Project Manager 
Stream Stewardship Unit 



Shree Dharasker, P.E. 
Engineering Unit Manager 
Stream Stewardship Unit - 


Under the Direction of 


Ann Draper 

Assistant Operating Officer 
Watershed Stewardship Division 


November 2011 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Introduction 

Purpose 

Scope 



2 

2 

2 

2 

4 

8 

8 


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Introduction 


The purpose of the Stream Maintenance Program (SMP) is to alleviate local flooding problems 
and to meet the requirements of the Federal Emergency Management Agency for flood 
protection. To ensure compliance with the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control 
Board’s (Regional Board) Waste Discharge Requirements (WDRs) field water quality 
parameters will be measured/observed by the Santa Clara Valley Water District (District) during 
SMP operations using active diversions, which include pH, turbidity, temperature and dissolved 
oxygen. This plan has been revised based on field conditions encountered during the years of 
operation of the SMP. 

Purpose 

The purpose of the Self-Monitoring Program is to verify compliance with the effluent and 
receiving water limitations issued under the WDRs by the Board. The plan also includes 
procedures for record keeping and reporting, to provide the documentation of compliance with 
receiving water requirements and prohibitions in the WDRs. This includes field/data reporting 
forms, sample collection, and formal annual reports to the Regional Board. A water quality 
monitoring report will be submitted to the Regional Board and other agencies/organizations (if 
requested) after the completion of each year’s active diversion operations, in accordance with 
the Regional Board’s WDRs. 

Scope 

The scope of this plan is to outline the process, means and verification of monitoring water 
quality during SMP projects that use active diversions for all 4 authorized types of construction 
(Bank Protection, Minor Maintenance, Vegetation Management and Sediment Removal). 

Definition of Terms 

Grab sample: an individual sample collected in a short period of time not exceeding 
15 minutes. They are to be used primarily in determining compliance with effluent and receiving 
water limits. Grab samples only represent the condition that exists at the time the water and 
effluent are collected. 

Point of discharge: the location point at which water diverted around the active site is 
discharged into tidal or non-tidal waters of the State. 

Active site: the confine of a SMP activity occurring on a waterway in which a pump is being 
used to divert water around the project site. 

Duly authorized representative: one who is 

a. Authorization is made in writing by a principal executive officer, or 

b. Authorization specifies either an individual or a position having responsibility for the 
overall operation of the regulated facility or activity (e.g., field supervisor, project 
manager, chief engineer). 


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2 



Downstream discharge/Effluent water: the water that flows out of a diversion, the discharged 
water (passive or active diversion) 

Upstream water: water from a river or stream that is being diverted around a project site, from 
the upper end of the project site 

Receiving water: any water body that actually or potentially receives surface or ground water at 
the point of discharge, which passes over, through, or under dredged sediment during 
placement, dewatering, settling/consolidation, and excavation/removai activities - the water 
body that receives the discharge 

Active diversion: any method of diverting water around a project site other than non¬ 
mechanical means. 

Passive diversion: the method of diverting water around a project site using no mechanical 
means. As well, working in channel where the project is being conducted outside of the live 
stream because of a natural buffer, such as excavating in pockets of sediment, will be 
considered a passive diversion. 



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3 



Specifications for Sampling and Analyses 


The District will perform sampling and analyses in accordance with the following conditions and 
requirements included in the WDRs issued by the Regional Board. Two types of data collection 
will be conducted at the sites - water quality observations and water quality analyses using field 
instruments. No laboratory analyses will be conducted. 

Water Quality Standard Observations: 

Standard observations of surface water conditions shall be conducted upstream and 
downstream of the active project area to visually detect impacts of the water diversion. 
The following standard observations of the receiving waters will be collected on every 
day of operation on the field reporting form (Appendix A): 

1. Floating and suspended materials of waste origin (to include oil, 
grease, or other material that may come from the diversion/project 
site) presence or absence and size of the affected area. Note what 
will be done if there is presence of material coming from or caused by 
the diversion. 

2. Discoloration and turbidity: description of color, source, distance of 
travel and wind direction 

3. Odor: presence or absence, characterization, source, distance of 
travel, and wind direction 

4. Hydrographic condition including: depth of water columns, sampling 
depths, time and height of corrected low and high tides 

5. Weather condition including: air temperature, wind direction and 
velocity (speed), and precipitation 

Water Quality Analysis using Field Instruments: 

Water Quality Testing: 

Water Quality data will be collected by direct immersion of the instrument 
probe into the water column, or directly immersed into collection 
apparatus. The sample will be immediately analyzed on site for 
constituents in Table 1. Samples shall be collected with accurately 
calibrated field measurement instrument(s) and the results logged. 


Table 1 


Constituents 

Type of Sample 

Units 

Turbidity 

Grab/Dip 

NTUs 

pH 

Grab/Dip 

Not Applicable 

Dissolved Oxygen 

Grab/Dip 

mg/I 

Temperature 

Grab/Dip 

Degrees Fahrenheit 


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4 




Water Quality Testing Locations 

Samples will be collected at a distance of 100 feet (or at a location that is most 
representative of the typical undisturbed condition) upstream of the beginning of the 
active diversion and 100 feet (or at a location that is most representative of surface 
water affected by the diversion) directly downstream from the point of discharge into the 
receiving water of the non-tidal sites. For tidal sites, water samples will be collected only 
at the point of discharge on the receiving waters (with no upstream collection). The 
samples will not be taken during a rainstorm event or subsequent runoff event. For sites 
that straddle both freshwater and tidal areas, tidal sampling protocol will be followed. 
Samples of the discharge from temporary storage sites (if utilized) are to be collected as 
near as possible to the point of discharge without compromising the safety of personnel. 
Wherever possible, the probes will collect data from 1 foot below the surface (tidal and 
non-tidal sites) 

Water Quality Testing Frequency 

At every active diversion site, water quality samples shall be collected at least twice 
daily. Each sample set collected at the upstream and downstream locations must be 
taken within no more than a half an hour of each other (unless some outstanding 
circumstance exists). 

Background Sampling (pre-construction baseline sampling): 

Prior to the installation of an active diversion and/or its components, at 
least 1 day of background water samples (two samples per day evenly 
spaced during working hours) will be collected. If there is a change in 
stream conditions (eg. storm event) while there is a shutdown of the 
active diversion, new baseline sampling shall be conducted. 

Operational Sampling: 

Water quality samples will be collected at the active diversion sites, at 
least two samples per day, evenly spaced during the work hours, with the 
first sample collected no earlier than 1 hour after work has commenced 
each day. 

Background Sampling (post-construction baseline sampling): 

After the removal of an active diversion and/or its components (either/or 
when pumps are shutoff and water is reintroduced into the project site), at 
least 1 day of background water samples (two samples per day evenly 
spaced during working hours) will be collected at a minimum of 100 feet 
upstream of the planned placement of the active diversion. The samples 
will be representative of typical undisturbed conditions and will not be 
taken during a rainstorm or subsequent runoff event. 


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5 



Stock Pile Sampling 

Water draining from a temporary sediment stockpile will be sampled on every day that 
there is a discharge which enters into a live stream. Sampling will be conducted at all 
points of discharge/runoff. Stockpile(s) must meet SMP Best Management Practice 1.8 
and San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board - Board Order Condition D.2 
standards. The sample will be immediately analyzed on site for constituents in Table 1. 

What is an Exceedance? 

An exceedance is where the receiving (downstream) water quality sample result for 
constituent(s) analyzed on site show an exceedance of the upstream water sample 
results, as specified in Table 2. 

TABLE 2 


Parameter 

Exceedance Limit 

pH 

>0.5 units deviation from background 
(upstream) 

Dissolved Oxygen 

minimum of 5.0 mg/I for tidal waters or non- 
tidal warm water 

Minimum 7.0 mg for non-tidal cold waters 
or no change if background <5.0 mg/I 

Turbidity 

Should not increase greater than 5 NTUs if 
background <50 NTUs and 10 percent if 
background >50 NTUs 

Temperature 

The temperature of any cold or warm 
freshwater habitat shall not be increased by 
more than 5°F (2.8°C) above the upstream 
temperature 


What to do if there is an Exceedance 

If any water quality monitoring sample results in an exceedance, then the District will 
implement the following process to correct the exceedance: 

1. Confirmation samples will be taken within 2 hours following the exceedance. 
Sampling every 2 hours will continue until the exceedance has been 
corrected. All constituents will continue to be monitored. 

2. Immediately implement procedures to identify the source of the exceedance. 

3. Once the source of the exceedance has been identified, immediately 
implement procedures to correct the source of the exceedance. 


Exceptions 

The Regional Board recognizes that even with BMPs and appropriate equipment and 
methods, turbidity levels may momentarily exceed the limitations defined in the WDRs 


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6 





during the initial stage of such activities as (a) culvert invert cleaning for panel 
placement; (b) streambed preparation for bladder dam placement; (c) initial flow 
discharge in constructed bypass channels; (d) removal of panels and bladder dams; 

(e) placement and removal of coffer dams; and (f) installation and removal of corrective 
action measures. The following describes specific activities and duration of exceedance 
allowances: 

According to the WDRs issued by the Regional Board, at any given site, an exceedance 
of the turbidity limit during an activity described in SMP activities (a) through (d) above, 
for a duration of not more than four (4) hours, will not be considered a “violation” in the 
context of enforcement or the need to take corrective action. The District will take all 
reasonable actions to limit the duration and magnitude of such exceedance events. 
Water quality impacts shall be avoided/minimized to the maximum extent practicable. 

According to the WDRs issued by the Regional Board, at any given site, an exceedance 
of the turbidity limit during an activity described in SMP activities (e) and (f) above will 
not be considered a “violation” in the context of enforcement or the need to take 
corrective action provided the duration of exceedance is: 

Not More Than For Channel Widths 

4 hours Less than 100 feet wide 

6 hours 100 to 150 feet wide 

8 hours More than 150 feet wide 

The District will take all reasonable actions to limit the duration and magnitude of such 
exceedance events. 

Violation Reporting 

If any receiving (downstream) water limit for a constituent(s) is exceeded as specified in 
Table 2 for more than a 2 hour period (after the first 2 hour confirmation sampling), then 
dredging will be terminated until the cause of the exceedance has been corrected. If 
after 6 hours the exceedance has not been alleviated, this will be considered a violation 
and must immediately be reported out to the Regional Board Executive Officer via the 
Regional Board case manager, by telephone. 

For any other violations, the District will notify the Regional Board immediately whenever 
violations are detected at which time flood control activities (SMP project) will be 
terminated and the activity will not resume until the District has provided the Regional 
Board with a corrective action plan, acceptable to the Executive Officer that provides 
alternative methods of compliance. 

Records to be Maintained 

Written reports, calibration and maintenance records, and other records shall be 
maintained by the District and accessible at all times. Records shall be kept at the 
District for a minimum of 3 years. Records shall include notes and observations for each 
sample as follows: 


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7 



a. Identification of sampling site by creek name, cross street, and item 
number (if available from the annual reports). 

b. Date and time of sampling. 

c. Date and time analyses are started and completed and the name of 
person conducting analyses. 

f. Data and results of analyses and/or observations. 

Records shall include a map or maps of the site showing the location of the project(s) 
and water sampling locations, coffer dams, discharge pipes, access ramps, etc. 

Quality Assurance and Quality Control 

The QA/QC portion of the WDR is an important component of the monitoring program involving, 
at the core of compliance, quality assurance of field sampling. As such, this section describes 
the 2 major elements of the QA/QC plan which are (1) field sampling to ensure compliance with 
WDR criteria and (2) reporting of that compliance. 

District utilizes sampling contractors and/or internal staff to conduct water quality sampling for 
the SMP projects. These monitors will use District approved field sampling instruments and 
sampling equipment. As field sampling is the ultimate means of ensuring compliance with WDR 
requirements, it is imperative to have operating procedures that show the field sampling is being 
conducted in a manner that will collect analysis in an accurate way. In order to do this, the 
following criteria must be followed: 

1. All personnel conducting monitoring must read the relevant SMP best management 
practices, this WDR plan, the SFRWQCB Board Order, and manufacture 
calibration/instruction manuals for all sampling instruments used 

2. The SMP Project Manger must train personnel conducting this activity on all aspects 
of water quality monitoring 

3. Verification document signed that the relevant documents have been read and 
additional training has occurred 

All this documentation will be held with the SMP Project Manager, for a period of three years. 
Further, all equipment will be tested and calibrated, in accordance with the equipment’s 
manufacture requirements, at least once a week to ensure the instruments are in proper 
working condition. 

The reporting of the compliance/non-compliance of each project meeting the WDR criteria is 
captured in an end of season report that is submitted to the Regional Board, see “Final 
Monitoring Report”. 

Reporting 

Responsible Entity 


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8 



The SMP Project Manager (PM) is responsible for implementing this Plan as 
required in the WDRs issued by the Regional Board for the SMP. The PM will 
evaluate the data for compliance with the requirements of the WDR and will 
inform the Watershed Field Operations of any noncompliance event in order for 
them to take immediate corrective action. 

Reports to the Regional Board 

Permit Violations 

The District shall notify the Regional Board staff in writing within five business 
days of all violations. Written reports shall include time and date of incident, 
duration, estimate of discharge or bypass volume, and documentation of 
sampling results/observations determining compliance status. The report shall 
also include detailed discussions of reasons for noncompliance and specific 
steps that were or will be taken to correct the failure and prevent it from re¬ 
occurring. 

Final Monitoring Report 

Upon completion of active diversion activities, a draft annual monitoring report 
will be filed with the Regional Board within 60 days of completion of all work, 
permitted activities end no later than October 30 th . 

The report will include: 

1. Certification Statement 

2. Introduction 

3. Compliance Summary 

4. Purpose and Scope 

5. Description of Work Performed 

6. Water Quality Sampling Data by Individual Site 

7. Maps - County level showing where monitoring activities occurred 

Embedded within these sections: 

1. A transmittal letter which includes a summary of all violations of 
WDRs, any changes to the project design, and any unplanned 
releases or failures that occurred during the active diversion 
operations 

2. The report shall provide: the magnitude of the releases or failures; any 
discharge limit exceedances; dates of all exceedances, cause of the 
failure, releases or other violations; any corrective actions taken or 
planned; and the dates of completion of corrective action 

Final Report 

Within 30 days after receipt of agency comments on the draft report, a 
final monitoring report will be filed with the Regional Board. The final 


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9 



report will be signed by the Chief Operating Officer of the Watersheds or 
a duly authorized representative of that person. 



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10 



Field Reporting Forms 
APPENDIX A 




Stream Maintenance Program Data Reporting Form 
















Stream Maintenance Program Calibration Form 


















Appendix B 

Notice of Preparation and Comments Received 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 




Notice of Preparation 


To: Responsible, Federal and Trustee A gencies From 
(Agency) 


(Address) 


San ta Clara Valley W ater District 
5750 Almaden Expressway 

San )ose, CA 95 J18 


Subject: Notice of Preparation of a Draft Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 

The Santa Clara Valley Water District ( District I is the lead agency and is preparing a subsequent 
environmental impact report (EIR) for the project identified below. The District would like input 
from your agency and interested members of the public regarding the scope and content of the 
environmental information that is germane to your agency's statutory responsibilities in 
connection with the proposed project. Your agency may need to use the subsequent EIR prepared 
by the District when considering any permit or other approval related to the proposed project. 

The project description, location, and potential environmental effects are contained in the attached 
materials. A copy of the initial study C] is ^ is not attached. 

Because of the time limits mandated by state law, your response must be sent at the earliest 
possible date but not later than 30 days after receipt of this notice. 

Please send your response to Sunny Williams at the address above. Please include your name or the 
name of a contact person in your agency. 

Project Title: Stream Maintenance Program Update 

Project Applicant, if any: n/a 

Date: __ Signature:__ 

Title: Chief Executive Officer _ 

Telephone: (408) 265-2600 _ 

Email: smp_update@valleywater.org _ 


Reference. Cal Code Regs., tit. 11 (CEQA Guidelines! Sections 15082, subd (a). 15103 15375. 



















Santa Clara Valley Water District 


Notice of Preparation 


1. Introduction 

Since the work season of 2002, the Santa Clara Valley Water District [SCVWD or District) 
has implemented the Stream Maintenance Program (SMP or Program) to guide routine 
flood protection maintenance activities within the District's creeks and canals. In 2009, the 
District initiated a Program update process to review and revise the Program manual, 
update the Program’s environmental compliance documentation, and renew necessary 
Program permits. While the SMP is an ongoing program [indefinite time horizon), the initial 
2001-02 SMP Manual and Final Environmental Impact Report used a 20-year planning 
horizon to forecast SMP activities and consider potential environmental effects. 

Due to proposed updates to the SMP, changed circumstances, and new information, the 
District will be preparing a Subsequent EIR for the Program, pursuant to CEQA Guidelines 
Section 15162. The proposed Program update [including the revised SMP manual and this 
CEQA document) is intended to cover the 10 year planning period beginning in 2012 
through 2022. These updated Program documents are intended to fully replace the original 
documents for the time period 2012-2022. 

The Santa Clara Valley Water District is preparing a Subsequent Environmental Impact 
Report (SEIR) to provide the District, public, responsible agencies, trustee agencies, and 
permitting agencies with information about the potential environmental effects associated 
with the adoption and implementation of the updated SMP for the 2012-2022 period. 

2. Project Area 

The District boundaries are the same as Santa Clara County [see attached figure). The 
District has been granted jurisdiction on all streams within Santa Clara County. Ail facilities 
requiring routine stream maintenance are below 1,000 feet in elevation. The District 
maintains only those sections of creeks and canals where it has fee title or maintenance 
easements or where the District Board has provided specific direction. The District is 
divided into two major hydrologic basins [watersheds); one drains to San Francisco Bay 
[Santa Clara Basin) and the second drains to Monterey Bay [Pajaro River Basin). 


3. Project Objectives 

The overall flood protection goals of the SMP are to maintain the design flow or appropriate 
conveyance capacity of District facilities, and to maintain the structural and functional 
integrity of District facilities. In order to meet these goals, the SMP prioritizes and 
administers maintenance activities to achieve the following objectives: 

• Remove sediment to maintain the hydraulic, safety, and habitat functions of the 
creek systems; 

• Manage vegetation to maintain the hydraulic, safety, and habitat functions of the 
creek systems, and to allow for levee inspections and maintenance access; 

• Conduct bank repairs on facilities that are not functioning appropriately; and 


Stream Maintenance Program Update 


1 


September 2010 



Santa Clara Valley Water District 


Notice of Preparation 


• Minimize impacts on the environment by incorporating stream stewardship 
principles into maintenance activities. 

The SMP also seeks to obtain and maintain multi-year programmatic permits that regulate 
program activities. 

4. Project Description 

The SMP involves five categories of work activities: bank stabilization, management of 
animal conflict, minor maintenance, sediment removal, and vegetation management. 

Bank Stabilization 

Stream bank stabilization activities involve actions by the District to repair stream banks, 
levees and beds that are eroding or are in need of preventative erosion protection. The 
District may implement stream bank stabilization when the problem: (1) causes or could 
cause significant damage to District property and/or adjacent property; (2) is a public 
safety concern; (3) negatively affects transportation and/or recreational use; (4) negatively 
affects water quality or beneficial uses; or (5) negatively affects riparian habitat. Bank 
stabilization also includes preventative maintenance to stream banks that are threatening 
or vulnerable to erosion or instability. By addressing such vulnerable stream banks 
proactively, prior to active bank failure, erosion, or other destabilization, the District can 
reduce other environmental impacts (including loss of riparian habitat, loss of vegetation) 
or prevent other adverse effects to beneficial uses (such as increased sediment, loss of 
recreation trail, etc.). 

Management of Animal Conflicts 

Within the vicinity of District facilities, animal presence can conflict with District activities 
or damage infrastructure. This includes reduced stability of banks and levees as a result of 
burrowing, foraging on mitigation sites, and interfering with work activities. To avoid 
compromising District facilities and to reduce conflicts with species living in sites where 
work is needed, the management ofanimal conflicts may be undertaken. 

Management of animal conflicts refers to the use of avoidance tactics, biological control, 
physical alterations, habitat alteration, and lethal control to reduce conflicts between 
District facilities and local species. 

Minor Maintenance 


Minor maintenance refers to those activities which are performed to make repairs and 
maintain District facility function. A minor maintenance activity is defined as work that 
results in the removal of less than 0.05 acres of wetland or riparian vegetation. The 
minimum reporting size for any vegetation work is 0.01 acres per project, which includes 
any vegetation work necessary for access or staging. 


Stream Maintenance Program Update 


2 


September 2010 



Santa Clara Valley Water District 


Notice of Preparation 


Sediment Removal 

Sediment removal is the act of mechanically removing sediment deposited within a stream. 
The District's need for sediment removal is indicated when an accumulation of sediment 
reduces a stream’s flow conveyance capacity, prevents facilities or appurtenant structures 
from functioning as intended, or impedes fish passage and access to fish ladders. Sediment 
is removed from District facilities to ensure that a stream will continue to provide flow. The 
SMP covers sediment removal within channels related to the need identified above; 
sediment removal under the SMP does not include increasing a channel’s flow conveyance 
capacity beyond the as-built design. 

Vegetation Management 

Vegetation management activities are intended to maintain the hydraulic and safety 
functions of the District’s creek systems through the control and management of vegetation. 
The methods of vegetation management included in the SMP are pruning, hand or 
mechanical removal, herbicide application, mowing, discing, flaming, and grazing. 

Vegetation management also includes large woody debris (LWD) and non-native invasive 
plant removal component to improve the ecological health of District facilities and promote 
stewardship. The LWD program is used to assess the geomorphic and hydraulic effects of 
LWD in streams and incorporate additional LWD as appropriate to improve biological 
processes. Non-native invasive plant removal is conducted to enhance the habitat quality of 
identified areas and to benefit the larger watershed landscape. 

Proposed Program Updates 


Proposed updates to the Program may include the following: 


Activity 

Proposed Update 

Bank Stabilization 

• 8 modified repair methods 

• Agency review and response period shortened 
from 45 days to 30 days 

Management of Animal Conflicts 

Updated and detailed section describing animal 
management, including: 

• Maintenance of sanitary conditions 

• Avoidance 

• Biological control 

• Physical alterations 

• Habitat alterations 

• Non-lethal trapping/relocation 


Stream Maintenance Program Update 


3 


September 2010 










Santa Clara Valley Water District 


Notice of Preparation 



• Lethal control 

Minor Maintenance 

• Cleaning and minor sediment removal 
activities at facilities/structures is limited to 

50 cubic yards 

• Minor sediment removal less than 10 cubic 
yards per site may be removed anywhere in- 
stream 

Sediment Removal 

• Extended work window 

• New work areas 

Vegetation Management 

• Use of flaming and grazing techniques 

• Tree removal (clarification) 

• Herbicide application in Uvas/Llagas creeks 
(Pajaro Basin) 

• Extended work window 

• New work areas 


5. CEQA Process 

5.1 Notice of Preparation 

This Notice of Preparation (NOP) presents general background information on the Program, 
the scoping and larger CEQA process, and the environmental issues to be addressed in the 
SEIR. The District has prepared this NOP pursuant to CEQA Guidelines section 15082. 

5.2 Scoping Meeting 

In order for the public and regulatory agencies to have an opportunity to ask questions and 
submit comments on the scope of the SEIR, a public scoping meeting will be held during the 
NOP review period. The scoping meeting will solicit input from the public and interested 
public agencies regarding the nature and scope of environmental impacts to be addressed in 
the Draft SEIR. 

At the meeting, a brief presentation will be made in order to provide an overview of the 
existing SMP and the CEQA process generally. Afterwards, an interactive session will follow 
where District staff will be available to answer questions and provide information about the 
Program. Prepared written comments will be accepted during the meetings, as well as 
during the 30-day NOP review period. Comment forms will also be available at the scoping 
meetings for those who wish to submit written comments during or at the meeting. Again, 
written comments may be submitted to the District at any time during the NOP review 
period. 


Stream Maintenance Program Update 


4 


September 2010 










Santa Clara Valley Water District 


Notice of Preparation 


The public scoping meeting is scheduled for Wednesday, September 22, 2010 from 6:30 
p.m. to 8 p.m. at the Santa Clara Valley Water District, Headquarters Board Room, 5700 
Almaden Expressway, San Jose. 

This scoping meeting information has also been published in local newspapers and the 
District’s website (www.valleywater.org). 

5.3 Draft SEIR 

The primary purpose of the SEIR is to analyze and disclose the reasonably foreseeable 
direct and indirect environmental impacts that may occur as a result of the Program. The 
Draft SEIR, as informed by public and agency input through the scoping period, will analyze 
and disclose the potentially significant environmental impacts associated with the Program 
and, where any such impacts are significant, identify potentially feasible mitigation 
measures and alternatives that substantially lessen or avoid such effects will be identified 
and discussed. 

Below is a preliminary list of potential environmental impacts to be addressed in detail in 
the SEIR. The analysis in the Draft SEIR ultimately will determine whether these impacts 
are reasonably foreseeable, whether they are significant based on identified thresholds of 
significance, and whether they can be avoided or substantially lessened by potentially 
feasible mitigation measures and alternatives. 

• Aesthetics 

• Air quality 

• Biological Resources 

• Climate Change 

• Cultural Resources 

• Geomorphology 

• Hazards and Hazardous 
Materials 

5.4 Public Review of the Draft SEIR 

Once the Draft SEIR is completed, it will undergo public review for a minimum of 45 days. 
The District is also planning to hold a public meeting. The meeting will begin with a brief 
overview of the analysis and conclusions set forth in the Draft SEIR. This introductory 
presentation will then be followed by the opportunity for interested members of the public 
to provide oral comments to the District regarding the Program under CEQA. The date, 
time, and exact location of the public meeting will be published in local newspapers prior to 
the event. 

5.5 Final SEIR 

Written and oral comments received in response to the Draft SEIR will be addressed in a 
Response to Comments document which together with the Draft SEIR will constitute the 
Final SEIR. The Final SEIR, in turn, will inform the District’s exercise of discretion as a lead 


Hydrology and Water Quality 
Land Use and Planning 
Noise 

Public Services and Utilities 
(including Recreation) 

Transportation and Traffic 

Cumulative Impacts 

Irreversible Impacts 


Stream Maintenance Program Update 


5 


September 2010 




Santa Clara Valley Water District 


Notice of Preparation 


agency under CEQA in deciding whether to approve the Program. The Final EIR will also be 
used by responsible agencies and other permitting agencies in their decision-making to 
renew the Program permits. 

6. Submittal of Scoping Comments 

This NOP is being circulated to local, state, and federal agencies, and to interested 
organizations and individuals who may wish to review and comment on the Program or the 
Draft EIR at this stage in the process. In addition, the NOP is available for review at the 
District's offices and on the District’s internet website (www.valleywater.org). Written 
comments concerning the scope and content of this SE1R are welcome. 

Consistent with the time prescribed by State law for public review of an NOP, your response 
to and input regarding the project should be sent at the earliest possible date, but not later 
than October 4, 2010. Please include your name, address, and contact number for your 
agency as applicable for all future correspondence related to the Program. Written 
comments may be sent via email or letter to: 

Santa Clara Valley Water District 
Attn: Sunny Williams 
SMP Update Comments 
5750 Almaden Expressway 
San jose, CA 95118 

Email: smp_update@valleywater.org 
Subject Line: SMP Update Comments 


Stream Maintenance Program Update 


6 


September 2010 



/2010/Hofizon/SCVWD/GlS/Layouts/Fiql ProqramArea mxd (08 25 10) mg 





SAN 

JOAQUIN 

COUNTY 


San 

Francisco 

Bay 


ALAMEDA 

COUNTY 


SAN ^ 

MATEO 

COUNTY 


Milpitas 


SANTA 

CLARA 

COUNTY 


STANISLAUS 

COUNTY 


Cupertino 


Campbell 


Saratoga 


SANTA 

CRUZ 

COUNTY 


SAN 

BENITO 

COUNTY 


MONTEREY 

COUNTY 


Detail Area 




Ciwa 


Owwi 


Elevation (feet) 

Hi Below Sea Level 

I'feSUl o-io 
2 10 -20 
j | 20 - 30 
'30-40 


| 1 40 - 50 


50-100 
100 - 250 
250 - 500 
500- 1,000 
1,000-1,500 
Above 1.500 


County Boundary 

- Major Hydrologic Features 

(#) Major Roads 

- Upper Elevation Boundary of SMP 

- Watershed Boundaries 


N 

1 inch = 7.75 miles 


I Miles 


OL Horizon 

^ "9 WA ! F ft .nrl FNVIltONR! 


Figure 1: Program Area 



























Linda Adams 

Agency Secretary 


California Regional Water Quality Control Board 

San Francisco Bay Region 



1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, California 94612 
(510) 622-2300 • Fax (510) 622-2460 
http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/sanfranciscobay 


September 30, 2010 

CIWQS Place No. 262259 (MB) 


Sent via electronic mail: No hardcopy to follow 

Santa Clara Valley Water District 
5750 Almaden Expressway 
San Jose, CA 95118-3686 

Attn: Ms. Ann Draper, Assistant Officer, Watershed Stewardship Division 

Email: ko ven (cv, vailev wa ter, org 

SUBJECT: Stream Maintenance Program, Notice of Preparation of a Draft 
Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 

Dear Ms. Draper: 

Water Board staff appreciates the opportunity to comment on the Notice of Preparation 
(NOP) of a draft subsequent environmental impact report for the renewal of the Santa Clara 
Valley Water District’s (District) Stream Maintenance Program (SMP). 

The District is preparing to apply for pennit re-issuance for the SMP as the existing permit 
expires February 2010. The SMP is in the ninth year of a ten year permit. The District has 
put forth a major effort in the implementation and continued management of the SMP, 
which provides a coordination between flood maintenance requirements and stream 
stewardship (i.e. preservation and enhancement of stream habitat functions and values). The 
District is taking this opportunity to revise the SMP to become more effective at achieving 
the SMP goals of maintaining conveyance capacity, design flows, and structural and 
functional integrity of District facilities. The proposed revisions include changes to the 
existing maintenance activities (sediment removal, vegetation management, ba nk 
stabilization and minor maintenance) with the addition of management of animal conflicts, 
which will be provided in full detail in the SEIR. 

Water Board staff has reviewed the NOP and provides the following comments. 

General Comments 


1. On May 14, 2001, Water Board staff provided written comments (SF Water Board 
2001 letter) on the draft environmental impact report (DEIR) for the first permit 
period for the SMP. Please provide an update on the efficacy of activities and/or 
management strategies the District had proposed to change and/or implement in 


Preserving, enhancing, and restoring the San Francisco Bay Area’s waters for over 50 years 


Recycled Paper 


in O 






Stream Maintenance Program 2 

Notice of Preparation - SEIR 

response to the comments provided by the Water Board. The District’s response to 
comments indicated various programs and strategies that could be effective and 
beneficial in achieving the Program goals and protecting water quality. For example, 
in the SF Water Board 2001 letter, comments related to sediment removal focused on 
sediment source management to reduce the sediment load into the creeks. The 
District responded with a strategy to manage the sediment source as part of the 
Clean, Safe Creeks and Natural Flood Protect 15-Year Plan and public outreach. 
Therefore, provide an update on whether such strategies were successful in sediment 
source management and other comments and District responses. 

2. Water Board staff strongly encourages the District to avoid and minimize impacts 
within the bed and bank and riparian corridor to the maximum extent practicable. 

3. The SEIR should include full disclosure of all impacts to water quality, existing and 
potential Beneficial Uses. 

4. To have a better understanding of the Program area, the SMP document and also the 
SEIR should include a characterization of all the watersheds and associated channels 
including an inventory of associated resources and beneficial uses where 
maintenance activities are projected for the permit period. 

5. How, if at all, will the maintenance activities change to accommodate the Guadalupe 
River Mercury TMDE? 

6. How, if at all, will the maintenance activities change to accommodate the Stream 
Protection Policy (scheduled for public review late 2010)? 

Specific Comments 

1. Bank Stabilization: The SEIR should clearly identify the following: 

a. Any changes to existing bank stabilization methods and proposed new 
methods, including impacts, avoidance/minimization measures, and how 
these changes and new methods protect/benefit the stream system including 
water quality. 

b. The criteria for the inspection and prioritization of ha nk stabilization projects. 

This should also include how the District determines the type of bank repair 
method. 

2. Sediment Removal: The SEIR should clearly identify the following: 

a. The sediment source, reason for sediment accumulation, and alternative 
source management strategies for all new projected locations of sediment 
removal. 

b. The process for sediment characterization including the types of testing for 
tidal and non-tidal locations. 

3. Vegetation Management: The SEIR should clearly identify the following: 


Preserving, enhancing, and restoring the San Francisco Bay Area’s waters for over 50 years 


Recycled Paper 




Stream Maintenance Program 
Notice of Preparation - SEIR 


3 


a. Flaming and Grazing Techniques: All impacts and avoidance measures 
associate with flaming and grazing, such as, fire control, runoff avoidance, 
animal waste runoff, animal access to water ways. 

b. Extended Work Windows: How will the District be prepared to protect the 
project site in the event of rain during the extended time. 

c. Herbicide Use: 

i. Impacts to water quality and beneficial uses including impacts from 
runoff, overspray, and drift. 

ii. Avoidance and minimization measures to ensure herbicide does not 
enter the creek. 

iii. Current Local, State and Federal regulations for herbicide use. 

iv. Water Quality monitoring. 

d. Justification and associated impacts for removing the vegetation versus 
limbing up. 

e. Types of vegetation to be managed (i.e. invasive versus native). 

4. Minor Maintenance: 

a. It is not clear how 50 cubic yards represents the extent of work for all minor 
maintenance activities. 

b. Identify all impacts to water quality and beneficial uses associated with 
minor sediment removal of less than 10 cubic yards per site including 
avoidance and minimization measures to protect water quality? 

5. Management of Animal Conflicts: Identify water quality impacts and 
avoidance/minimization measures associated with physical and habitat alterations, 
biological control, and non-lethal and lethal control. 


If you have any questions, please contact Maggie Beth of my staff at (510) 622-2338 or via 
email to mabeth@waterboards.ca.gov . 


Sincerely, 



Bruce H. Wolfe 
Executive Officer 


Preserving, enhancing, and restoring the San Francisco Bay Area’s waters for over 50 years 


Recycled Paper 




Stream Maintenance Program 
Notice of Preparation - SEIR 


4 


Cc: Bill Smith, SCVWD 
Shree D, SCVWD 
Kristen O’Kane, SCVWD 
Sunny Williams, SCVWD 
Ken Swartz, Horizon 
Luisa Valiela, US EPA 
Vincent Griego, US FWS 
Darren Howe, US NOAA 
Paula Gill, US Corps 
Cameron Johnson, US Corps 
Tami Schane, CDFG 


Preserving, enhancing, and restoring the San Francisco Bay Area’s waters for over 50 years 


Recycled Paper 



Comment on Scoping Received from Shaunn Mendrin, City 
of Sunnyvale by e-mail on 10/4/10. 

From: Shaunn Mendrin 

[SMTP: SMENDRIN@CI.SUNNYVALE.CA.US] 

Sent: Monday, October 04, 2010 3:15:36 PM 

To: smp_update 

Cc: Lorrie Gervin 

Subject: SMP Update NOP 

Auto forwarded by a Rule 

Hello Sunny, 

The City of Sunnyvale does not have comments at this time. 
However, the City would like to review the EIR once it is 
released. Please provide a copy of the EIR and supporting 
documentation to myself and Lorrie Gervin, Environmental 
Division Manager in the Public Works Department. Please feel 
free to contact me should you have any additional questions. 

Thank you, 

Shaunn 


Shaunn Mendrin, AICP 
Senior Planner 
Phone: (408) 730-7429 
Web Page: Planning Division 

City of Sunnyvale 

Department of Community Development 
Planning Division 
456 West Olive Avenue 
Sunnyvale, CA 94088 



Comment on Scoping Received from Trish Mulvey by 
e-mail on 10/4/10. 

my SMP comment is dreaming about busting out of silos (or at 
least "thinking outside the box") and hoping there might be 
consideration of looking inclusively at District mitigation needs 
during the life of the SMP and then putting together a 
package(s) that could be embraced by the community and the 
regulatory/resources agency staff and decision makers, my hope 
is to move beyond opportunistic property acquisition, and 
"postage-stamp" sized projects, to ideas that will have real 
benefit to stewardship of water and natural resources. 

i'm sure you will have other ideas to add, but the ones that come 
to my mind in addition to SMP would include the the bank 
stabilization work in los alamitos creek (and probably other 
places) for the guadalupe mercury TMDL, planning for in-stream 
work needed in FAHCE and the three-creeks HCP and santa clara 
county HCP, anything needed for the dam seismic safety 
remediation, clean-safe-creeks and other flood protection 
projects, whatever the santa clara county elements will be for the 
san francisquito sediment TMDL and the san francisquito flood 
damage reduction and ecosystem restoration projects and their 
future maintenance needs, i'm also guessing mitigation needs 
will be identified in the water supply and infrastructure master 
plan, etc. etc. etc. 

since some of these don't yet fall into the "known knowns" file, i 
also hope the approach to mitigation planning can be iterative 
and updated periodically - maybe at the 5-year point of the next 
SMP. 

please let me know if you have questions 

and thanks for your consideration of these suggestions 

as you'll see, i'm copying a few probably "interested parties" too 

trish 

Trish Mulvey 

527 Rhodes Drive, Palo Alto, CA 94303 
(650) 326-0252 or mulvev@ix.netcom.com 




Appendix C 

2012-2022 SMP Update Mitigation Approach 

Memorandum 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 




CL Horizon 

^^ WAItR and tNVIRONMENT 


Memorandum 


Project: 


Santa Clara Valley Water District - Stream Maintenance Program 


Subject: Mitigation Approach for 2012-2022 SMP Update 


Date: 


November 18, 2011 


To: 


Members of the SMP Inter Agency Working Group (IAWG) 


From: 


Kristen O'Kane (SCVWD) 


Sunny Williams (SCVWD) 

Bill Smith (SCVWD) 

Ken Schwarz (Horizon Water and Environment) 
Michael Stevenson (Horizon Water and Environment) 
Steve Rottenborn (H.T. Harvey and Associates) 


1. Purpose and Overview 

The Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD or District) implements its Stream Maintenance Program 
(SMP) to ensure that District streams and channels provide flood management functions. The District 
operates the SMP to balance flood management objectives while also seeking to protect and enhance 
natural resources. The purpose of this memorandum is to summarize the SMP's existing mitigation 
program and describe updates to the mitigation program that support the 2012 SMP Update process. 

As described in Sections 2 and 3 below, the existing SMP mitigation program was developed in 2002 to 
provide defined "up front" programmatic mitigation for sediment removal and vegetation management 
activities. This original mitigation continues to address SMP's impacts in perpetuity for maintenance 
activities and work areas identified in the 2002 program work projections. Sections 4 and 5 describe the 
proposed approach to address mitigation needs for sediment removal and vegetation management 
activities in "new" work areas, that is, locations where work was not projected or conducted during the 
2002-2011 period. Mitigation for potential impacts to special status species is described in Section 6. 
The mitigation approach for bank stabilization activities (Section 7) has not changed significantly since 
2002, but some treatment techniques have been refined based on implementation experience since 
2002. Mitigation monitoring and reporting requirements are summarized in Section 8. 

The organization of this memorandum is summarized as follows: 

Section 1 Purpose and Overview 

Section 2 Background 




SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 

Section 3 Summary of Existing SMP Programmatic Mitigation 
Section 4 2012 SMP Update and Mitigation Approach 

Section 5 Mitigation for New Sediment Removal and Vegetation Management Work Areas 

2012-2022 

Section 6 Species Targeted Habitat Mitigation 
Section 7 Bank Stabilization Mitigation 

Section 8 Mitigation Monitoring and Reporting 

The District remains committed to providing adequate and effective mitigation for SMP impacts. This 
memorandum includes some new approaches in how mitigation requirements are identified and 
tracked. However, all mitigation objectives and activities are consistent with the existing mitigation 
program that has been in operation since 2002. 

2. Background 

In 2002, the District initiated the SMP as a comprehensive multi-year effort to maintain its flood 
protection channels and associated facilities. Core SMP activities include sediment removal, vegetation 
management, bank stabilization, management of animal conflicts, and minor maintenance. The primary 
objective of sediment removal and vegetation management activities is to provide necessary flow 
conveyance capacity in the District's channels as well as to maintain the functional integrity of its stream 
facilities and provide ancillary protection such as fire protection. The primary objective of bank 
stabilization and management of animal conflicts activities is to repair or preserve stable streambanks 
and levees under the District's jurisdiction. As designed and implemented, the SMP also included 
several steps to protect and preserve natural resources along the riparian and stream corridors, 
including tidal reaches, in the program area. 

The District conducted CEQA analysis and compliance in 2001-02 and obtained long-term programmatic 
permits with the following resource and regulatory agencies: the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Regional Water 
Quality Control Board (RWQCB, San Francisco Bay and Central Coast Regions), California Department of 
Fish and Game (DFG), and the Bay Conservation and Development Commission (BCDC). 

Most of the permits authorizing SMP activities during the first decade of the program will expire in 2012. 
The SCVWD is currently reviewing SMP operations, updating the SMP program manual, conducting a 
complete CEQA review of the SMP, and renewing its long-term permits. 

For the SMP, compensatory mitigation is one element of a comprehensive impact avoidance, 
minimization, and compensation approach. Project planning, resource evaluations, and exclusionary 
practices are used to avoid impacts from maintenance activities. Best Management Practices (BMPs) 
are applied on-site to further minimize impacts. Residual impacts that are neither adequately avoided 
nor minimized may require compensatory mitigation depending upon the nature of the impact and the 
regulatory authority involved. In 2002 the District established the following goal for the SMP's 
compensatory mitigation program: 


2 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


"The Stream Maintenance Program compensatory mitigation program should establish an optimal set 
of mitigation strategies, a combination of components that best balance opportunity, feasibility, and 
cost to provide the maximum benefit to the natural functions of the watersheds and streams of Santa 
Clara County." (Source: SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Document, 2002) 


3. Summary of Existing SMP Programmatic Mitigation 

The SMP's existing programmatic mitigation for sediment removal and vegetation management is based 
on a comprehensive accounting in 2002 of the potential impacts from maintenance activities on in- 
stream wetlands, tidal wetlands, riparian vegetation, and other sensitive habitats in the program area. 
Table 1 summarizes the existing mitigation requirements for on-going SMP activities. The existing SMP 
mitigation program includes land acquisition, habitat protection and enhancement, and wetland 
restoration/creation to mitigate for maintenance activities. The mitigation elements shown in Table 1 
provide mitigation in perpetuity for projected SMP maintenance activities in the locations that were 
identified in the 2002 SMP. The SMP mitigation program provides compensatory mitigation for stream 
maintenance program activities solely, and does not provide mitigation for other capital or construction 
projects. However, the maintenance of capital projects, once constructed and operating, can be 
provided through the SMP and its mitigation program. 

Impacts from other non-projected maintenance activities such as bank stabilization projects are 
mitigated on an "as-needed" basis using defined mitigation ratios as maintenance projects occur. Bank 
stabilization mitigation is discussed below in Section 7. 

As shown in Table 1, to date not all of the SMP's mitigation requirements have been met. The District is 
committed to completing all remaining mitigation requirements. Appendix A includes a letter from the 
District to San Francisco Bay RWQCB that describes the current status of the SMP mitigation program 
and presents a plan to meet all of the District's SMP mitigation requirements identified in the 2002 SMP 
and the associated permits for the 2002-2012 program period. The District Board has recently approved 
the purchase of a property (known as the "Castle & Cooke property"). This acquisition will satisfy the 
final remaining acquisition requirements from the original SMP mitigation period 2002-2012 for 
California red-legged frog mitigation. The Castle and Cooke property will also complete a portion of the 
requirements for freshwater wetland mitigation. The District is actively working to acquire additional 
properties that would meet the District's remaining freshwater wetland mitigation obligation. 

While the District is in the process of completing all of the original mitigation requirements, it is 
important to acknowledge that the original SMP mitigation requirements were based on work estimates 
("projections"). 

Over the course of the 2002-2011 period, the District has worked in fewer areas than were originally 
projected in the 2002 EIR. SMP work activities to date, compared to the original 2002 work projections, 
are summarized in the SEIR Project Description (Chapter 2) and in Tables 2-1, 2-2, and 2-3 of the SEIR. 
Because the District has not conducted all of the work that was projected in 2002, it has not incurred all 
of the impacts projected in 2002. The estimated impacts from the 2002 projected work amounts were 
the basis of the mitigation requirements. 


3 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


As of the end of the 2010 work season (including years 2002-2009), the District has provided more 
mitigation in both the Santa Clara and Pajaro Basins than what was required, when compared to the 
actual work that was conducted and the impacts incurred. Table 2 provides a summary of sediment 
removal impacts incurred to date 2002-2010 and mitigation provided to date. Table 2 compares 
impacts to mitigation requirements by accounting for three work/projection situations: (1) where work 
was projected and done; (2) where work was not projected and done; and (3) where work was projected 
and not done. As shown in Table 2, mitigation accrues if the amount of work "projected and not done" 
is greater than the amount of work "done but not projected." In other words, if the District overall did 
less work then they projected, but provided mitigation for the entire projected amount, then there is 
mitigation provided without associated impacts as shown at the bottom of Table 2. As of the 2010 
maintenance season, the District has provided an additional 9.41 acres of freshwater wetland habitat 
and 21.35 acres of additional tidal wetland habitat in the Santa Clara Basin, and provided additional 
mitigation of 6.2 acres of freshwater wetland habitat in the Pajaro Basin. These additional mitigation 
acres that were provided are considered additional to the mitigation that was necessary based on the 
actual impacts from work activities that were performed. 

The additional mitigation is calculated based on work activities performed to date. In order to 
disassociate this additional mitigation from non-performed work activities, projected work that was not 
performed during the 2002-2012 period will be removed from the pool of channels where mitigation is 
provided in perpetuity for maintenance activities. Removing these channels from having perpetual 
mitigation status is necessary in order for the District to apply the additional mitigation toward other 
"new" channel areas. By removing the "projected but not done" channel areas (Table 2) from the pool 
of work areas that have perpetual mitigation status, the District is enabling other "new work areas" to 
be available to have the additional mitigation applied. 

The maintenance areas that would have dedicated mitigation provided in perpetuity will be referred as 
Permanent Mitigation Areas (PMA). This concept is described further below in Section 5.1. Any 
addition of work areas into the PMA pool of areas mitigated in perpetuity would be reviewed by 
participating regulatory agencies. It is recognized by the District that implementing and achieving this 
long-term vision may take several decades. Until such time that the District achieves developing a long¬ 
term mitigation pool that provides mitigation in perpetuity for all projected maintenance activities, the 
District will also use the "pay as you go" annual mitigation approaches described in Chapter 5, in 
combination with acquisition efforts, to provide suitable mitigation for the impacts of SMP activities. 

The District will complete its mitigation responsibilities as described in the 2002 EIR. As described 
above, because the original mitigation requirements out-paced the actual maintenance work conducted 
and related impacts, the District requests to apply the mitigation surplus as a credit toward future 
maintenance activities. The District is proposing to use the 21.35 acres of additional tidal habitat 
already provided as credit toward future tidal habitat impacts that are not yet identified or accounted 
for. Similarly, where applicable, the District would like to apply other habitat mitigation from the 2002- 
2012 program that has not yet been applied toward a performed work activity, to future habitat 
mitigation needs. When this is done, the projection of work from the 2002-2012 program will be 
removed from the Permanent Mitigation Areas. The application of removing 2002-2012 projections to 

4 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


be applied toward future maintenance needs would be evaluated on a case by case basis by regulatory 
staff. 

Section 5 below describes the approach to mitigate for impacts caused by maintenance activities in new 
work areas (i.e., areas where no maintenance has occurred during the period 2002-2011). The 
mitigation approach includes off-site land acquisition and restoration where possible, similar to the 
mitigation approach in the first ten years (2002-2012) of the program, with the additional option of on¬ 
site and off-site mitigation activities implemented yearly when acquisition-based mitigation is not 
available. This second category of mitigation would be based on the degree of actual maintenance work 
conducted ("pay as you go" type mitigation). 


5 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


Table 1. Existing SMP Mitigation Program 


Mitigation Type 

Mitigation Purpose 

Mitigation Requirement 

Mitigation 

Completed to Date 

Percent of 
Requirement 
Completed* 

Tidal Wetland Restoration 

Restore Bay salt ponds to tidal 
marsh conditions, provides 
mitigation for tidal wetland 
impacts. 

30 acres 

30 acres 

100% 

Freshwater Wetland 
Creation/ Restoration 

Convert or restore areas to 
seasonal or perennial wetlands, 
provides mitigation for non-tidal 
wetland impacts. 

10 ac Santa Clara Basin 

4 ac Pajaro Basin 

7ac Santa Clara Basin 

4ac Pajaro Basin 

70% Santa Clara Basin 

100% Pajaro Basin 

Stream and Watershed 

Protection 

Preserve, protect, and improve 
streams and associated 
watersheds, provides mitigation for 
non-tidal wetland and CRLF impacts 

Freshwater wetland habitat: 

■ 820-1080 ac acquired 

(81 ac credit) for Santa Clara 
Basin 

■ 11 ac credit for Pajaro Basin 

■ CRLF Habitat -108 ac credit 

District wide 

Freshwater wetland habitat: 

■ 10 ac credit (125 ac total) 
for Santa Clara Basin 

■ 11 ac credit (138 ac total) 
for Pajaro Basin 

■ CRLF Habitat - 56 ac credit 

Santa Clara Basin 

■ 12% Santa Clara 

Basin 

■ 100% Pajaro Basin 

■ 52% CRLF Habitat 

Giant reed ( Arundo donax) 
Control 

Control giant reed outbreaks; map, 
revegetate, educate, and 
coordinate reed control efforts in 
County. 

125 ac District wide 

116 ac District wide 

93% 

Invasive smooth cordgrass 
Control ( Spartina 
alterniflora) 

Control Invasive Cordgrass along 
tidal shorelines, provides mitigation 
for time lag until tidal wetland 
mitigation is established 

Up to 10 acres in tidal areas 

10 acres 

100% 

* Note: with the purchase ol 

F the Castle & Cooke property, the mitigation requirements not yet complete as shown above would be 


completed. This status summary does not include achievement of final success criteria at completion of the monitoring period. 


6 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


Table 2. Comparison of Projected Sediment Removal with Actual Work Performed (2002-2010) 


Watershed 

Vegetation Type 

(1) Projected and 
Done 

Impact 
Miles Acres 

(2) 

Miles 

Not Projected 
and Done 

Impact Acres 

(3) Projected 
and not Done 
Impact 
Miles Acres 

Lower 

Peninsula 

Freshwater 

wetland 

1.10 

2.40 

0.04 

0.03 

1.06 

0.99 


Tidal wetland 

0.50 

0.24 

0.07 

0.08 

0.06 

0.06 


Not wetland 

1.70 

0.00 

0.48 

0.00 

1.20 

0.00 

West Valley 

Freshwater 

wetland 

2.40 

9.00 

0.81 

1.09 

2.90 

2.80 


Tidal wetland 

1.50 

4.80 

0.00 

0.00 

3.50 

7.10 


Not wetland 

0.50 

0.00 

0.01 

0.00 

3.00 

0.00 

Guadalupe 

Freshwater 

wetland 

5.40 

14.70 

3.08 

1.96 

1.70 

4.90 


Tidal wetland 

0.00 

0.00 

0.00 

0.00 

1.45 

13.52 


Not wetland 

0.60 

0.00 

0.39 

0.00 

0.67 

0.00 

Coyote 

Freshwater 

wetland 

5.40 

19.75 

1.55 

2.80 

4.70 

6.60 


Tidal wetland 

1.30 

3.03 

0.08 

0.05 

0.22 

0.80 


Not wetland 

1.40 

0.00 

0.03 

0.00 

2.50 

0.00 

SF Bay Basin 

Freshwater 

wetland 

14.30 

45.85 

5.49 

5.88 

10.36 

15.29 

total 

Tidal wetland 

3.30 

8.07 

0.15 

0.13 

5.23 

21.48 


Not wetland 

4.20 

0.00 

0.91 

0.00 

7.37 

0.00 

Pajaro Basin 

Freshwater 

wetland 

7.31 

10.15 


1.50 

4.10 

7.70 

total 

Not wetland 

0.45 

0.00 

0.31 

0.00 

2.70 

0.00 

Whole 

Program 

Freshwater 

wetland 

21.61 

56.00 

5.49 

7.38 

14.46 

22.99 

total 

Tidal wetland 

3.30 

8.07 

0.15 

0.13 

5.23 

21.48 


Not wetland 

4.65 

0.00 

1.22 

0.00 

10.07 

0.00 


Overage SF Bay Mitigation: 

Freshwater wetland 

Tidal wetland 

9.41 

21.35 

acres 

acres 

Overage Pajaro Mitigation: 

Freshwater wetland 

6.20 

acres 


The overage mitigation is estimated by subtracting the "Done not Projected" impact from the "Projected not 
Done" impacts. 


7 









SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


4. 2012 SMP Update and Mitigation Approach 

4.1 New Work Areas for Sediment Removal and Vegetation Management 

The SMP employs a variety of impact avoidance and minimization steps to reduce the likelihood of 
impacts resulting from maintenance, and to avoid/reduce the magnitude or intensity of impacts if they 
should occur. The SMP also includes detailed Best Management Practices (BMPs) to further avoid and 
minimize potential impacts caused by maintenance activities. The program's impact avoidance, 
minimization, and BMP measures are described in the SMP Manual and the 2012 SMP Update SEIR. 
However, in some cases, there are residual impacts from maintenance activities that are not fully 
reduced through the application of avoidance, minimization, and BMP measures. Residual impacts are 
those impacts that may require compensatory mitigation, as guided upon regulatory agency jurisdiction 
and authority. 

The existing SMP mitigation approach began with projections of potential work activities for sediment 
removal and vegetation management; and on that basis, mitigation requirements were developed for 
anticipated impacts to sensitive communities and habitat for special status species (as shown in Table 
1 ). 

Additional description of program impacts, focused on conditions for special status species, is provided 
in the Biology section of the SEIR. The Biological Opinions (BOs) for the 2012 SMP Update to be issued 
by NMFS and USFWS, the USACE Section 404 permit, and the CDFG Section 2081 and streambed 
alteration agreement may result in refinements of some of the mitigation approaches described here, 
but any refinements will result in mitigation measures being equally or more effective. 

The 2012 SMP Update involves new maintenance work areas. These new maintenance areas are 
identified in the series of maps presented in Chapter 2 (Project Description) of the SMP Update SEIR. 
Table 3 lists the creeks where new maintenance work activities will occur. If a creek or activity is listed 
in Table 3, it does not mean that the whole creek is subject to maintenance activities, or that a given 
activity did not occur in some reach of that creek during the period 2002-2011, but that maintenance 
activities may occur in a new reach of the creek as indicated in the blue segments of the maps of 
Chapter 2 of the SEIR. Potential residual impacts from maintenance that require mitigation in new work 
areas are similar in nature to the potential impacts that were identified in the original SMP EIR (2002). 
While the existing SMP program mitigation will continue to serve as mitigation for work conducted in 
the same work category (e.g., sediment removal, vegetation management) for the original work areas 
identified in the 2002 SMP, additional mitigation is now required for the new work areas. 


8 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


Table 3. SMP 2012-2022 New Work Areas by Watershed and Creek 


Non- 

Instream Instream 

Other Herbicide Other 

Sediment Herbicide Vegetation Non- Vegetation 

Watershed Creek Removal Instream Removal Instream Removal 

Coyote Watershed 

BERRYESSA CREEK 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

CALERA CREEK 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

COCHRAN CHANNEL 




X 


COYOTE BYPASS 




X 

X 

COYOTE CREEK 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

COYOTE CREEK SECONDARY 

CHANNEL 




X 

X 

EVERGREEN CREEK 



X 

X 


FISHER CREEK 

X 

X 




FLINT CREEK 


X 


X 


LOS COCHES CREEK 

X 

X 


X 

X 

LOWER PENITENCIA CREEK 

X 

X 

X 


X 

LOWER PENITENCIA CREEK 

SECONDARY CHANNEL 

X 





LOWER SILVER CREEK 

X 

X 


X 


MIGUELITA CREEK 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

NORTH BABB CREEK 

X 

X 


X 


NORWOOD CREEK 

X 

X 


X 


PIEDMONT CREEK 


X 


X 


QUIMBY CREEK 

X 



X 


RUBY CREEK 


X 


X 


SIERRA CREEK 

X 

X 


X 


SOUTH BABB CREEK 


X 


X 


THOMPSON CREEK 


X 

X 

X 

X 

TULARCITOS CREEK 


X 


X 


UPPER PENITENCIA CREEK 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

UPPER SILVER CREEK 

X 



X 

X 

Guadalupe Watershed 

ALAMITOS CREEK 

X 

X 


X 

X 

ALAMITOS DIVERSION 

CHANNEL 

X 

X 


X 


CALERO CREEK 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

DAVES CREEK 


X 


X 


EAST ROSS CREEK 




X 


GOLF CREEK 

X 

X 


X 


GREYSTONE CREEK 




X 

X 

GUADALUPE BYPASS 2 

X 





GUADALUPE BYPASS 3 

X 





GUADALUPE BYPASS 4 

X 





GUADALUPE CREEK 

X 





GUADALUPE RIVER 

X 

X 


X 


GUADALUPE SECONDARY 

CHANNEL 

X 






9 







































































SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


Non- 

Instream Instream 

Other Herbicide Other 

Sediment Herbicide Vegetation Non- Vegetation 

Watershed Creek Removal Instream Removal Instream Removal 

KIRK DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 




X 


LOS GATOS CREEK 

X 

X 


X 

X 

LYNDON CANYON CREEK 






MCABEE CREEK 



X 


X 

PAGE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 

UPPER 




X 


RANDOLCREEK 


X 


X 


ROSS CREEK 

X 

X 


X 

X 

SANTA TERESA CREEK 




X 


WEST BRANCH RANDOL 

CREEK 


X 


X 


Lower Peninsula Watersheds 

ADOBE CREEK 

X 

X 




BARRON CREEK 

X 



X 


BARRON DIVERSION 

CHANNEL 





X 

DEER CREEK 


X 


X 


HALE CREEK 

X 



X 


HENEY CREEK 





X 

MATADERO CREEK 

X 

X 


X 


PERMANENTE CREEK 


X 


X 


PERMANENTE DIVERSION 

CHANNEL 


X 




PROSPECT CREEK 




X 


SAN FRANCISQUITO CREEK 

X 



X 

X 

STANFORD CHANNEL 






STEVENS CREEK 

X 

X 


X 


Uvas/Llagas Watersheds 

BODFISH CREEK 

X 


X 


X 

CORRALLITOS CREEK 


X 




EAST LITTLE LLAGAS CREEK 

X 

X 

X 

X 


EDMUNDSON CREEK 


X 




LIONS CREEK 


X 




LLAGAS CREEK 

X 

X 


X 


LOWER MILLER SLOUGH 


X 


X 


MADRONE CHANNEL 

X 

X 


X 


MATADERO CREEK 



X 



NORTH MOREY CHANNEL 


X 


X 


PAJARO RIVER 




X 


PRINCEVALLE DRAIN 


X 

X 

X 


SOUTH MOREY CHANNEL 

X 

X 


X 


TENNANT CREEK 




X 


UPPER MILLER SLOUGH 


X 


X 


UVAS CARNADERO CREEK 

X 

X 


X 


WEST BRANCH LLAGAS 




X 



10 




































































SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


Watershed Creek 

Sediment 

Removal 

Herbicide 

Instream 

Instream 

Other 

Vegetation 

Removal 

Herbicide 

Non- 

Instream 

Non- 

Instream 

Other 

Vegetation 

Removal 

CREEK 






WEST LITTLE LLAGAS CREEK 


X 


X 

X 


West Valley Watersheds 


CALABAZAS CREEK 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

DAVES CREEK 


X 


X 


GUADALUPE SLOUGH 




X 


MISTLETOE CREEK 




X 


PROSPECT CREEK 


X 


X 


REGNART CREEK 

X 

X 


X 


RODEO CREEK 




X 

X 

SAN TOMAS AQUINO CREEK 

X 

X 


X 

X 

SARATOGA CREEK 

X 

X 


X 

X 

SMITH CREEK 


X 




SUNNYVALE EAST CHANNEL 

X 

X 



X 

SUNNYVALE WEST CHANNEL 


X 


X 

X 

WILDCAT CREEK 

X 


X 

X 



Table 4 summarizes projected sediment removal maintenance activities for the 2012-2022 period. 
These sediment removal activities may include up to 43 miles of creeks and canals in the program area, 
with approximately 35.4 miles in the Santa Clara Basin and 7.4 miles in the Pajaro River Basin. For the 
2012-2022 work period, about 19 miles of new channel areas have projected sediment removal work 
where work was not previously projected during the 2002-2012 period. There is also about 15 miles of 
channel length where sediment removal work was previously conducted (2002-2012), but work is not 
projected in those locations for the 2012-2022 period. In sum, the 2012 SMP Update process is adding 
about 4.2 miles of channel length for sediment removal activities. 


Table 4. Estimated SMP Sediment Removal Activities (2012-2022) 


Watershed 

2012-2022 Projected 
Sediment Removal 

(miles) 

New Work Areas 

for 2012-2022 

(miles) 

Former Work Areas Not 
Projected for 2012-2022 

(miles) 

Santa Clara Basin 

Lower Peninsula 

3.9 

0.7 

2.6 

West Valley 

3.8 

0.9 

8.3 

Guadalupe 

11 

8.7 

0 

Coyote 

16.7 

5.9 

0.7 

Pajaro Basin 

Pajaro 

7.4 

3.1 

3.5 

Total 

42.8 

19.3 

15.1 


11 





























SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


4.2 Identifying Mitigation Based on Actual Work Conducted 

The District identified the 2012 new work areas based on its current understanding of maintenance 
needs for the coming 10-year period. However, as observed during the 2002-2012 work period (Table 
2), it is highly unlikely that all of the identified potential work areas will have actual work conducted. 
Because of this issue, and the potential inaccuracy of using projected work estimates developed in 2009- 
2011 as a basis for defining mitigation requirements until 2022, the District is now adjusting its approach 
in how mitigation requirements are identified. The District is shifting its approach towards using the 
actual work areas (versus work area projections) as the basis for identifying mitigation requirements in 
new work areas. 

The 2012-2022 maintenance work projections provided in the 2012 SMP Update SEIR remain reasonable 
and very useful estimates of where work will be conducted. The projections represent the District's best 
estimate of where work will occur. The work projections are "conservative" in that it is likely that work 
will not occur in all of the newly identified reaches shown in the maps of Chapter 2 of the SEIR. The 
work projections are therefore a good basis for considering a potential maximum impact to wetlands 
and other habitats to develop a suitable mitigation approach that can guide the next decade of the 
program. 

As a result of this revised approach, there are two primary changes to the existing mitigation program 
for sediment removal and vegetation management activities for the 2012 SMP Update: 

1. Ecologic Services. In addition to land acquisition-based mitigation projects that provide 
mitigation in perpetuity (i.e., mitigate for repeat impacts in the same work location), 
programmatic mitigation for sediment removal and vegetation management will now also 
include ecologic services-based mitigation projects for individual maintenance projects. 1 These 
approaches (described in Section 5 below) provide mitigation on a "pay as you go" or 
incremental basis. Ecologic services-type mitigation projects would only mitigate for an 
individual work activity, as opposed to mitigating for that type of work activity in that location in 
perpetuity. Service-based "pay as you go" mitigation would be identified annually based on 
the annual maintenance workplan (provided in the annual Notice of Proposed Work - NPW 2 ) 
and verified in the end of year annual Post Construction Report (PCR) 3 . 


1 "Ecologic services mitigation" refers to mitigation which is not based on land acquisition and management, but 
instead involves actions to improve the ecological and habitat quality at a given site -for instance, through invasive 
species removal or ecological restoration. 

2 The NPW is the document which the District submits annually to the various permitting agencies describing the 
annual work plan for that year. 

3 The PCR is the document which the District submits at the end of the year to the various permitting agencies 
describing the actual work which was completed during that year. 


12 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


2. Project Specific Accounting. Rather than identifying all the necessary mitigation areas 
(acreages) for impacts from sediment removal and vegetation management "up front" based on 
projections, mitigation criteria and metrics will be based on standard unit measures (typically 
acreages) and ratios, and the mitigation requirement will be identified annually based on the 
impacts anticipated in that year. This annual mitigation analysis will clearly distinguish mitigation 
requirements associated with new work areas from those locations where mitigation has 
already been complete because these areas were projected in 2002 and exist now in the 
Permanent Mitigation Areas (PMA). 

These two adjustments to the mitigation program are further described in Section 5 below. The District 
will be able to use "pay as you go" mitigation projects/services to provide incremental mitigation 
annually on an as-needed basis. The District can also continue to purchase lands to address longer-term 
mitigation needs. In this way, the District will now have more flexibility to pursue suitable mitigation 
opportunities through either long-term land acquisition or annual mitigation project approaches. It is 
also noted that additional mitigation from the 2002 SMP mitigation program associated with work that 
was projected, but never completed (Stream and Watershed Protection) may potentially be applied to 
new work areas in need of mitigation support. The District will work with the appropriate regulatory 
staff to identify, review, and approve the potential application of existing additional mitigation toward 
new SMP work areas, and removing the original 2002 projected area from the PMA. 

It is important to note that the location and extent of bank stabilization activities are difficult to predict 
and have never been projected work activities. Since 2002, bank stabilization projects that require 
mitigation have been mitigated using an annual assessment and "pay as you go" incremental mitigation 
process. For bank stabilization projects, identifying impacts and necessary mitigation will continue to 
occur annually depending on what bank work is needed. Section 7 of this memorandum describes bank 
stabilization mitigation in more detail. 

4.3 Procedure for Addressing Maintenance and Mitigation Requirements if Work Needs to 
Occur Outside of Projected Areas 

As described above, the 2012 SMP Update SEIR identifies projected work areas where it is anticipated 
that maintenance work may occur during the 2012-2022 period. However, it is possible that a 
maintenance location or activity could arise in this period that was not included in the projected work 
activities and locations described in the SEIR. The SEIR described such a possibility and evaluated 
impacts throughout the entire SMP area (i.e., all streams below the 1000-foot elevation contour) within 
which such non-projected activities could occur. As such, no impacts are anticipated to occur from work 
conducted outside of the projected work locations that have not already been considered in the SEIR's 
impact analysis and related mitigation strategies. That said, this section describes the procedure to 
identify, review, and confirm mitigation needs for such non-projected maintenance locations or 
activities, as they arise. 

A. Maintenance work locations and activities will be tracked and reported annually through two 
reports: the spring season NPW, which provides the specific locations and extent of proposed 
work during the upcoming maintenance season; and the end of year PCR, which will verify the 


13 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


B. Non-projected work areas and/or activities will be evaluated, tracked, and included or excluded 
from the annual SMP workplan as follows: 

1. Non-projected work areas or activities (in non-sensitive areas) that are similar and 
consistent with the Program Manual, SEIR, regulatory permits/approvals, and other 
environmental compliance documentation as relevant: The SMP is a long-standing 
program whose range of activities is now well understood. As such, the Program 
Manual, SEIR, permits and other regulatory approvals, and other program documents 
describe a range of activities and environments within the Program Area. If a non- 
projected work activity or maintenance location were to arise that were entirely 
consistent with the conditions and analyses provided by the Program's existing 
environmental compliance documentation, this would be identified in the annual NPW. 
The proposed maintenance activity or location would be evaluated for the application of 
standard SMP impact avoidance and minimization procedures, including the application 
of BMPs and other measures described in the SEIR and Biological Opinions. In the NPW, 
the District would describe the resource conditions at the proposed non-projected work 
location and describe how those conditions are consistent and adequately addressed by 
existing program documentation and measures. This site description would include a 
basic description of the site's physical setting including the primary physical processes at 
work, a basic description of the site's biological resources, site photo(s) as necessary, 
and a description of any site feature/characteristic that may require special attention in 
relation to maintenance. The District would confirm the consistency of the proposed 
activity or work location with regulators, and then conduct the maintenance work, track 
the work for the PCR, and provide necessary mitigation similar to any projected 
maintenance activity or location. 

2. Non-projected work areas or activities (in sensitive areas) that are similar and consistent 
with the Program Manual, SEIR, regulatory permits/approvals, and other environmental 
compliance documentation as relevant (and require no additional impact avoidance, 
minimization, or BMP measures): In this case the non-projected work is identified to 
occur in an area known for sensitive resource conditions. Similar to Case #1 above, the 
non-projected maintenance activity and location will be evaluated by the District for its 
consistency with the existing environmental protocols and impact avoidance and 
minimization approaches as described in the Program Manual, SEIR, regulatory 
permits/approvals, etc. If the application of standard SMP impact avoidance and 
minimization approaches would result in consistent impact findings with the SEIR, 
regulatory permits/approvals, then the non-projected work area or activity would be 
considered consistent with the existing Program documentation and the proposed work 

14 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


would be described as such in the NPW. In the NPW, the District would describe the 
resource conditions at the proposed non-projected work location and describe how 
those conditions are consistent and adequately addressed by existing program 
measures. Similar to what is described above for the general non-projected work site. 
The site description would include a basic description of the site's physical setting 
including the primary physical processes at work, a basic description of the site's 
biological resources, site photo(s) as necessary, and a description of any site 
feature/characteristic that may require special attention in relation to maintenance. 
What is different in this scenario is that for a particular reason, there is an increased 
awareness of the site's sensitivity. In this case, the site description might include how 
any existing BMP measures might be tailored to the specific work site to ensure an 
effective and more focused approach to impact avoidance or minimization. The District 
would confirm the consistency of the proposed activity or work location with regulators, 
and then conduct the maintenance work, track the work for the PCR, and provide 
necessary mitigation similar to any projected maintenance activity or location. 

3. Non-projected work areas or activities (in sensitive areas) that require additional impact 
avoidance, minimization, or BMPs to be consistent with terms and conditions of Program 
Manual, SEIR, regulatory permits/approvals, etc. In this case it would be concluded that 
potential impacts at the non-projected maintenance activity or work area cannot be 
avoided or minimized to a level consistent with the existing SEIR and regulatory 
permits/approvals, without application of additional measures not currently included in 
the Program's environmental compliance documentation. In this situation, the non- 
projected work areas are not suitable for inclusion in the NPW or to be maintained 
under the SMP authorizations. The District may pursue individual or supplemental 
environmental review and authorizations for such projects. 

4.4 Estimated Wetland and Riparian Habitat Impacts for Maintenance Areas 

Table 5 identifies all of the projected areas (not just the new areas) of impact for SMP activities in non- 
tidal areas to the following riparian vegetation and wetland habitats: woodlands, herbaceous (non¬ 
wetlands), wetlands (impacted by instream sediment removal), aquatic wetlands, herbaceous wetlands, 
shrubs, and other miscellaneous habitats. The District's vegetation based habitat classification system is 
summarized in Appendix B. The classification system is based on hydromorphic and mesomorphic 
classes, with sub-units depending on formation, macrogroup, alliance, and wetland presence. Table 6 is 
a similar estimate of projected impacts for work in tidal areas. For both Table 5 and Table 6, impacts are 
identified for the main SMP work activities, including: sediment removal, herbicide, hand removal, 
discing, mowing, and hand pruning activities. These activities are described in the revised 2012 SMP 
Manual. Potential impacts are also identified by the principal District watersheds: Lower Peninsula, 
West Valley, Guadalupe, Coyote, and Pajaro. These watersheds are identified in the maps of Chapter 2 
of the 2012 SMP Update SEIR. 


15 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


Table 5. Projected Impacts by Habitat Type and Activity, non-tidal reaches (acres) 


Habitat Type 


Watershed 

Activity Type 

Woodlands 

Herbaceous 

(non¬ 

wetland) 

Sediment 

Wetland 

Aquatic 

(wetland) 

Herbaceous 

(wetland) 

Shrub 

Misc. 

Sediment 

Lower Peninsula Removal 

3.587 

0.51 

2.200 

0.000 

0.625 

0.000 

4.084 


Herbicide 

6.52 

3.253 

na 

0.000 

0.209 

0.262 

7.765 


Hand Removal 

0.064 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.002 


Discing 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Mowing 

0.967 

2.659 

na 

0.000 

0.008 

0.025 

0.604 


Hand Pruning 

0.139 

0.011 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.084 

Lower Peninsula Subtotal 

11.277 

6.433 

2.200 

0.000 

0.842 

0.287 

12.539 

West Valley 

Sediment 

Removal 

2.065 

3.227 

8.530 

0.000 

0.798 

0.059 

1.426 


Herbicide 

22.639 

31.329 

na 

0.000 

2.066 

0.321 

25.161 


Hand Removal 

0.076 

0.01 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.005 

0.005 


Discing 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Mowing 

1.816 

7.644 

na 

0.000 

0.314 

0.000 

0.358 


Hand Pruning 

0.225 

0.056 

na 

0.000 

0 

0.001 

0.102 


West Valley Subtotal 

26.821 

42.266 

8.530 

0.000 

3.178 

0.386 

27.052 

Guadalupe 

Sediment 

Removal 

31.89 

5.199 

14.640 

0.000 

1.091 

2.405 

13.654 


Herbicide 

42.051 

65.511 

na 

0.000 

1.916 

1.782 

19.619 


Hand Removal 

0.237 

0.052 

na 

0.000 

0.001 

0.015 

0.004 


Discing 

0.071 

1.15 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Mowing 

25.006 

20.909 

na 

0.000 

1.242 

2.914 

15.517 


Hand Pruning 

0.221 

0.046 

na 

0.000 

0.001 

0.000 

0.003 


Guadalupe Subtotal 

99.476 

92.867 

14.640 

0.000 

4.251 

7.116 

48.797 

Coyote 

Sediment 

Removal 

45.564 

9.472 

28.090 

0.009 

0.786 

2.031 

4.702 


Herbicide 

30.24 

137.874 

na 

0.001 

34.432 

1.299 

33.286 


Hand Removal 

3.175 

0.993 

na 

0.000 

0.036 

0.069 

0.262 


Discing 

1.287 

5.199 

na 

0.000 

0.635 

0 

0.226 


16 




SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


Table 5. Projected Impacts by Habitat Type and Activity, non-tidal reaches (acres) 


Watershed 




Habitat Type 




Activity Type Woodlands 

Herbaceous 

(non¬ 

wetland) 

Sediment 

Wetland 

Aquatic Herbaceous 
(wetland) (wetland) 

Shrub 

Misc. 


Mowing 

8.151 

20.502 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.567 

1.776 


Hand Pruning 

11.27 

3.138 

na 

0.000 

0.045 

0.188 

0.586 


Coyote Subtotal 

99.687 

177.178 

28.090 

0.010 

35.934 

4.154 

40.838 


Sediment 








SF Basin Total 

Removal 

83.106 

18.408 

53.460 

0.009 

3.300 

4.495 

23.866 


Herbicide 

101.450 

237.967 

na 

0.001 

38.623 

3.664 

85.831 


Hand Removal 

3.552 

1.055 

na 

0.000 

0.037 

0.089 

0.273 


Discing 

1.358 

6.349 

na 

0.000 

0.635 

0.000 

0.226 


Mowing 

35.940 

51.714 

na 

0.000 

1.564 

3.506 

18.255 


Hand Pruning 

11.855 

3.251 

na 

0.000 

0.046 

0.189 

0.775 


SF Basin Total 

237.261 

318.744 

53.460 

0.010 

44.205 

11.943 

129.226 


Pajaro Basin 

Sediment 








Total 

Removal 

5.99 

10.763 

9.810 

0.000 

0.022 

0.038 

3.743 


Herbicide 

49.097 

86.642 

na 

0.268 

1.083 

0.579 

10.719 


Hand Removal 

4.173 

2.239 

na 

0.047 

0.276 

0.037 

0.442 


Discing 

1.731 

8.584 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

10.596 


Mowing 

12.865 

36.979 

na 


0.286 

0.000 

6.494 


Hand Pruning 

2.334 

4.007 

na 


0.005 

0.037 

0.111 


Pajaro Basin Total 

76.190 

149.214 

9.810 

0.315 

1.672 

0.691 

32.105 


Source: SCVWD, 2011 

Notes: 1 . Includes areas that were also projected for maintenance (and/or maintenance was conducted) during the 2002-2012 period 


2. Acreages are shown for the total projection of each work activity type, this includes acreages for overlapping work activities at the same location, so 

potential impacts are over represented. 

3. Acreages incorporate the work area percentage estimate to account for varying work amounts within a reach. 

4. Miscellaneous habitat type includes features/elements as shown in Appendix B (Vegetation Classification System) 

5. "Sediment wetland'' refers to wetland and aquatic habitats (combined) projected to be impacted by sediment removal, based on calculations performed 

by the SCVWD taking into account the length of reaches where sediment removal is projected and the approximate widths of the wetland/aquatic 
habitat within those reaches. The SCVWD then identified additional areas (i.e., outside the "sediment wetland" polygons) where the various SMP 
activities were projected in areas mapped by AIS as aquatic habitats (which are summarized in those tables as "aquatic (wetland)" impacts) and 
vegetation types that are considered herbaceous wetlands (summarized in those tables as "herbaceous (wetland)" impacts). 


17 









SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


Table 6. Projected Impacts by Habitat Type and Activity, tidal reaches (acres) 






Habitat Type 







Herbaceous 

Sediment 

Aquatic 

Herbaceous 



Watershed 

Activity Type 

Woodlands 

(non-wetland) 

Wetland 

(wetland) 

(wetland) 

Shrub 

Misc 


Sediment 








Lower Peninsula Removal 

3.704 

0.971 

0.370 

0.000 

0.316 

0.069 

2.539 


Herbicide 

0.000 

0.001 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.001 


Hand Removal 

0.139 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Discing 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Mowing 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Hand Pruning 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

Lower Peninsula Subtotal 

3.843 

0.972 

0.370 

0.000 

0.316 

0.069 

2.540 


Sediment 








West Valley 

Removal 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Herbicide 

0.048 

0.294 

na 

0.000 

0.337 

0.000 

0.57 


Hand Removal 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Discing 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Mowing 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Hand Pruning 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


West Valley Subtotal 

0.048 

0.294 

0.000 

0.000 

0.337 

0.000 

0.570 


Sediment 








Guadalupe 

Removal 

2.82 

17.302 

18.080 

0.000 

1.611 

0.069 

1.892 


Herbicide 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.021 

0.000 

0.000 


Hand Removal 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Discing 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Mowing 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Hand Pruning 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Guadalupe Subtotal 

2.820 

17.302 

18.080 

0.000 

1.632 

0.069 

1.892 


Sediment 








Coyote 

Removal 

0.127 

1.231 

3.050 

0.000 

0.541 

0.000 

2.053 


Herbicide 

0.000 

0.014 

na 

0.000 

0.18 

0.000 

0.098 


Hand Removal 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Discing 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


18 




SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


Table 6. Projected Impacts by Habitat Type and Activity, tidal reaches (acres) 


Watershed 

Activity Type 



Habitat Type 




Woodlands 

Herbaceous 

(non-wetland) 

Sediment 

Wetland 

Aquatic 

(wetland) 

Herbaceous 

(wetland) 

Shrub 

Misc 


Mowing 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Hand Pruning 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Coyote Subtotal 

0.127 

1.245 

3.050 

0.000 

0.721 

0.000 

2.151 


Sediment 








SF Basin 

Removal 

6.651 

19.504 

21.500 

0.000 

2.468 

0.138 

6.484 


Herbicide 

0.048 

0.309 

na 

0.000 

0.538 

0.000 

0.669 


Hand Removal 

0.139 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Discing 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Mowing 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


Hand Pruning 

0.000 

0.000 

na 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 

0.000 


SF Basin Total 

6.838 

19.813 

21.500 

0.000 

3.006 

0.138 

7.153 


Source: SCVWD, 2011 

Notes: 1 . Includes areas that were also projected for maintenance (and/or maintenance was conducted) during the 2002-2012 period 

2. Acreages are shown for the total projection of each work activity type, this includes acreages for overlapping work activities at the same location, so 

potential impacts are over represented. 

3. Acreages incorporate the work area percentage estimate to account for varying work amounts within a reach. 

4. Miscellaneous habitat type includes features/elements as shown in Appendix B (Vegetation Classification System) 

5. "Sediment wetland'' refers to wetland and aquatic habitats (combined) projected to be impacted by sediment removal, based on calculations performed 

by the SCVWD taking into account the length of reaches where sediment removal is projected and the approximate widths of the wetland/aquatic 
habitat within those reaches. The SCVWD then identified additional areas (i.e., outside the "sediment wetland" polygons) where the various SMP 
activities were projected in areas mapped by AIS as aquatic habitats (which are summarized in those tables as "aquatic (wetland)" impacts) and 
vegetation types that are considered herbaceous wetlands (summarized in those tables as "herbaceous (wetland)" impacts). 


19 





SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


5. Mitigation for New Sediment Removal and Vegetation Management Work 
Areas 2012-2022 

This section describes how mitigation will be provided for sediment removal and vegetation 
management activities at new channel locations not included in the existing SMP mitigation program. 
Within these areas, mitigation will be provided for impacts to the following vegetation types: riparian 
woodlands, sediment wetland, aquatic (wetland), herbaceous (wetland), and riparian shrub. 

This section of the memorandum includes the mitigation approaches listed below. These mitigation 
approaches address impacts as described in the Biological Resources chapter of the SEIR (relevant 
impact discussions are shown in parenthesis). 

Section 5.1 Acquisition and Restoration Program (Impact BIO-1: Loss or Disturbance of 
Wetlands and Other Waters; Impact BIO-2: Loss or Disturbance of Woody Riparian 
Vegetation) 

Section 5.2 Invasive Plant Management Program (Impact BIO-1: Loss or Disturbance of 
Wetlands and Other Waters; Impact BIO-2: Loss or Disturbance of Woody Riparian 
Vegetation) 

Section 5.3 Riparian Restoration and Planting Program (Impact BIO-1: Loss or Disturbance of 
Wetlands and Other Waters; Impact BIO-2: Loss or Disturbance of Woody Riparian 
Vegetation) 

Section 5.4 Application of Invasive Plant Management and Riparian Planting Programs 

Section 5.5 Mitigation for Tree and Shrub Removals 6-12 Inches (dbh) (Impact BIO-2: Loss or 

Disturbance of Woody Riparian Vegetation; Impact BIO-7: Loss of Ordinance 
Trees) 

Section 5.6 Instream Habitat Complexity Program (Impact BIO-8: Impacts on Steelhead) 

Section 5.7 Summary of Sediment Removal and Vegetation Management Mitigation 

As described in the sections above, the existing SMP mitigation program will continue to serve as 
mitigation for maintenance work during the 2012-2022 period for areas projected in the 2002-2012 
SMP. Using a variety of mitigation approaches, a mitigation “tool box," the District will provide suitable 
mitigation for impacts in new work areas. The mitigation programs described in this section are 
consistent with on-going District mitigation operations. The key addition for the SMP is to now provide 
both "acquisition" and "pay as you go" mitigation processes for the sediment and vegetation 
maintenance activities. Increasing mitigation opportunities increases the flexibility for finding suitable 
mitigation options in any given year. The District remains committed to finding suitable acquisition-type 
mitigation projects to support the SMP. The mitigation programs described in this section will provide 
mitigation specifically for the SMP and will not satisfy mitigation obligations for other District actions. 

Figure 1 illustrates the decision making process to identify and prioritize mitigation during the 2012- 
2022 program period. Starting in the upper left corner of Figure 1, maintenance work sites will first be 


20 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


identified as either being included in the 2002 mitigation program or not. If no "pay-as-you-go" 
mitigation had been conducted at the site in the last 5 years for vegetation management activities (as 
described below in Section 5.4), then mitigation will be required and the sequence along the right-hand 
side of Figure 1 is followed. For sites that require mitigation, a key distinction will be whether there an 
acquisition project available that can be applied to mitigate the maintenance work. If so, then an 
acquisition process will be conducted and the mitigation will be provided in perpetuity as described in 
Section 5.1 below. If not, then mitigation will be conducted on a "pay as you go" basis. On-site 
mitigation will be prioritized; if this is not feasible or if better opportunities exist off-site, then off-site 
locations would be pursued. 

The mitigation approaches described below in Sections 5.2 - 5.7 will be considered for on-site 
application based on an assessment of the maintenance site's existing ecologic functions and values and 
what are opportunities and constraints to applying the various mitigation approaches. A mitigation 
approach for the work site and reach will be developed which prioritizes habitat restoration and 
enhancement activities which best match existing functions (in-kind mitigation), but also have the 
highest likelihood for success, sustainability, and do not result in an increased maintenance effort. If 
there is not an opportunity to provide feasible mitigation on-site, then off-site opportunities would be 
evaluated with a similar priority of matching the off-site mitigation with in-kind functions/services as 
those that will be affected along the maintenance reach. 

5.1 Acquisition and Restoration Program 

Consistent with the existing SMP mitigation program, land acquisition and restoration projects can be 
developed to serve as suitable mitigation for SMP maintenance activities in new work areas. As 
described in Section 3 above, the existing SMP mitigation program includes several acquisition and 
restoration elements that provide mitigation in perpetuity for previously defined work areas. 

In developing the existing land acquisition and restoration mitigation programs, the District worked 
closely with regulatory staff and external stakeholders to develop the following guiding principles for 
mitigation options: 

1. Restoration or creation of larger, sustainable sites is preferable to smaller, fragmented sites. 

2. Compatible adjacent land uses, especially those in public ownership or other mitigation sites will 
be evaluated to determine sustainability and suitable size of a mitigation site. 

3. The conservation, protection from further degradation, and enhancement of existing habitats is 
preferable to the creation of artificially supported systems. 

4. A watershed-wide, programmatic approach is preferable to a project-by-project approach. 

5. Specific watersheds, streams, or stream reaches will be targeted for mitigation, restoration, and 
enhancement where the most ecological function will be obtained. When looking at ecological 
function, the net gain in function will be considered in addition to the existing functions. Areas 
outside of target streams and watersheds can also be considered. 

6. Mitigation will match impacts by basin (Santa Clara Basin versus Pajaro River Basin). 

7. In-kind mitigation opportunities are preferred over out-of-kind. 

21 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


8. Out-of-kind mitigation will be considered, however, if it benefits the overall health of streams 
and watersheds and has cost advantages. 

9. Technically and pragmatically feasible program elements, with a high probability of success, are 
preferable to those elements with a higher risk of failure or are based on speculative technology 
or feasibility. 

10. Proposal elements that can be scaled up or down in size, effort, and cost are preferred over those 
that are less flexible. 

11. Ecologic enhancement 4 and restoration 5 activities providing mitigation must result in a net 
improvement to the site's condition. 

12. Artificially supported mitigation approaches should be considered at a lower priority than self- 
reliant and sustainable systems. 

These guiding principles will continue to be applied to the identification and selection of potential land 
acquisition and restoration mitigation projects. 

While site-specific land acquisition and restoration mitigation projects are not yet identified to apply as 
specific mitigation for new work areas under the SMP Update 2012-2022, the general classes of such 
land acquisition mitigation projects are as follows: 

■ In-kind preservation and enhancement : The acquired lands provide similar ecologic functions 
and values to habitat areas impacted by SMP maintenance activities. Higher quality 
lands/habitats will be preserved. Ecologic enhancement activities may be applied to provide 
further lift in functions and values. The acquisition and preservation/enhancement of these 
higher quality lands will occur at a ratio of 3:1, meaning 3 acres of land shall be acquired, 
preserved, and/or enhanced for every 1 acre of impacted habitats due to SMP activities. For 
these lands, the District will prepare and implement a management and monitoring plan which 
identifies the ecological functions and values which are being preserved, and identifies the 
management measures that will be implemented to ensure those functions and values are 
maintained into the future. As a performance standard, the identified functions and values will 


4 Ecological enhancement activities recognize a site's existing physical and biological processes and seek to enhance 
or improve those processes which may be currently functioning at a less than optimal performance. Enhancement 
activities may also include improving the site's functions and values, either for the ecosystem as a whole or 
targeting a particular species or group of species. 

5 Ecological restoration activities evaluate a site's existing physical and biological processes and compare those 
conditions to either past on-site processes (or conditions at a suitable reference site) and seek to restore (or 
reintroduce) such processes and forms on-site that have been previously lost or degraded. While restoration 
activities may look to a site's past or to a suitable reference site, an effective restoration project must operate 
within the context of the current system and what processes the current system will support sustainably. Similar to 
enhancement activities, restoration activities may also include restoring the site's functions and values, either for 
the ecosystem as a whole or targeting a particular species or group of species. 


22 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


not be allowed to reduce in quality compared to their state at the time the lands began to 
function as mitigation. 

■ In-kind restoration : The acquired lands have good potential to provide similar ecologic functions 
and values to habitat areas impacted by SMP maintenance activities. However, restorative 
actions are necessary to lift the quality, functions, and values of the lands to provide a net 
improvement/benefit that can account as mitigation for SMP impacted habitats. Mitigation for 
acquisition and restoration lands will occur at a ratio of 1.5:1, meaning 1.5 acres of land shall be 
acquired and restored for every 1 acre of impacted habitats due to SMP activities. These lands 
would also have a management and monitoring plan developed that would describe the 
restoration activities, monitoring requirements, and performance standards. The performance 
standard for the restoration/replanting shall follow the mitigation feasibility assessment (MFA) 
approach described below in Section 7.3. 

■ Watershed lands (out-of-kind) : These are acquired lands that provide more general 
conservation, open space, and habitat values, but the acquired lands are not specifically tied or 
matched in-kind to wetland or riparian habitats impacted by SMP maintenance activities. 
Acquired watershed lands may include broader habitat communities such as woodland and 
grassland. Ecologic enhancement activities may be applied to provide further lift in functions 
and values. The acquisition of more general watershed conservation lands will occur at a ratio 
of 8:1, meaning 8 acres of land shall be acquired and restored for every 1 acre of impacted 
habitats due to SMP activities. For these lands, the District would prepare and implement a 
management and monitoring plan as described for the in-kind preservation and management 
lands, and would adhere to the same performance standards. 

■ Enhancement or management of land that is owned by other agencies . Under this option, the 
District would collaborate with owners of land that is currently managed for open space or 
passive recreation, and implement one of the three bulleted mitigation approaches above. In 
this situation, the District would not acquire the mitigation lands but would enter into an 
agreement with the landowners to provide management and financial support toward 
preserving or improving lands toward beneficial outcomes, including improved habitats. In 
these cases, a detailed management plan for species would be the responsibility of the District, 
and not necessarily be managed by the landowner. The mitigation accounting for such 
"partnership projects", and how much mitigation would be provided to account for SMP 
activities, would be reviewed and developed with regulatory staff on a case-by-case basis. 

By taking ownership of such mitigation lands, the District would commit these lands to 
conservation/preservation purposes in perpetuity (providing access and/or maintenance easements as 
necessary to support existing land functions). Because acquisition lands will be conserved in perpetuity, 
the mitigation they provide will also serve the SMP in perpetuity. The District shall identify funding 
mechanisms to support the long-term maintenance and conservation of such mitigation lands and 
projects 6 . As described above in Section 3, the District's long-term vision is to acquire enough land to 


6 Mitigation associated with the SMP is funded by the Watershed and Stream Stewardship Fund. The majority of 
the revenue for the Watershed and Stream Stewardship Fund is ad-valorem 1% property tax (an allocated share of 
countywide 1% ad valorem property tax receipts). The projected property tax revenue for fiscal year 2011-2012 is 
$45 million. 


23 





SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


provide all necessary mitigation for SMP vegetation management and sediment removal activities. 
More specifically, the long-term acquisition of suitable properties will provide mitigation in perpetuity 
for long-term temporary impacts associated with stream maintenance activities. 

In concept, a targeted land acquisition project will provide mitigation per the ratios identified above. 
Once mitigation lands are acquired, the District will identify which of the "new work areas" now 
identified under the 2012 SMP Update would be mitigated for (in perpetuity) by the acquired lands. 
The District will coordinate with regulatory agencies on this process as the need arises. Similar to 
providing mitigation for new work areas, this same process of acquiring lands to be applied as mitigation 
can be used to provide mitigation for other work areas that were not projected. Such "not projected 
but worked" areas from the 2002-2012 period can be added to the pool of Permanent Mitigation Areas 
(PMA), that are mitigated for in perpetuity if appropriate mitigation lands are acquired and they provide 
a good match for such lands. 

The PMAs will be a set of work areas that are mitigated for in perpetuity. These areas will grow as new 
work areas are mitigated through the land acquisition and enhancement process. Likewise, some areas 
may be removed from the PMA if work has never been performed in that area, and no need for future 
work in that area is anticipated. Under such a scenario, the projected work area (and its impacts) that 
are no longer necessary would be removed from the PMA program. The compensatory mitigation that 
had already been provided would remain, but would no longer be allocated towards a particular work 
activity/location. Work areas and activities that are not previously covered, as being included in the 
PMA, can be added to the PMA by applying this unallocated mitigation. In this way, unallocated 
mitigation-in-perpetuity from the 2002 program may now be applied to alternative work areas. As 
described above, any inclusion of such work areas into the PMA pool of work areas mitigated in 
perpetuity would be reviewed by participating regulatory agencies. 

In general, maintenance on acquired lands would be similar in nature to the various activities which are 
part of the SMP. To the extent that maintenance activities on acquired lands are consistent with SMP 
covered activities, they would not require additional permitting. In these cases, maintenance activities 
on acquired lands will comply with the parameters, limitations and requirements of the 2012 SMP 
Update. 

In summary, the SMP will account for mitigation needs for work activities by either 1) applying PMAs 
(mitigation in perpetuity); or 2) applying annual pay-as-you-go mitigation. 

The sections below describe the District's pay-as-you-go type mitigation that will be provided annually 
depending on specific mitigation needs. 

5.2 Invasive Plant Management Program 

The primary goal of the Invasive Plant Management Program (IPMP) element of the SMP's 
compensatory mitigation package is to preserve and improve habitat within Santa Clara County streams 
and riparian corridors by reducing the population of ecologically impacting invasive plant species. 
Controlling the spread of invasive plant species is a critical element in improving the ecological health of 


24 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


our streams and watersheds. Invasive plants thrive and spread aggressively, negatively altering resource 
allocation regimes, wildlife patterns, soil stability and water quality thus degrading habitat quality and 
the overall ecological value of a site. In addition, invasive plants can exacerbate flooding and fire 
danger, undermine structural assets, and impact access to roads, levees and trails. The IPMP will 
provide compensatory mitigation for SMP impacts to upland, riparian, freshwater and tidal wetlands by 
eliminating or significantly reducing the population of invasive plant species from these affected 
habitats. 

The IPMP will have a two-pronged approach: 

■ A systematic program with the longer term objective of identifying, prioritizing, and 
controlling invasive plants throughout the SMP area. 

■ An opportunistic, site-specific approach with the objective to remove invasive plants 
from individual SMP work sites. As mitigation for SMP activities, each of the SMP 
maintenance sites will be evaluated for on-site invasive plant removal and control. 

The intent is that these two approaches, operating at different yet complimentary spatial scales will 
enhance the overall ecological health of the SMP's creek ecosystems. 

At the systematic program-area scale, the IPMP will develop a priority matrix of invasive plant species 
that integrates a variety of factors including: the 2006 CAL-IPC ratings, the anticipated rate of spread 
without management intervention, the feasibility of effective control, impacts to fish and wildlife, 
impacts to sensitive plant communities, increases in flood threat, increases to fire danger, aggressive 
growth patterns known to cause structural damage, and impediments to maintenance access. Priority 
target species will be selected annually from this matrix. Following development of the matrix, the 
IPMP will then prioritize locations to implement plant control. High priority sites will include areas 
where: 

■ Targeted invasive species are degrading habitat for sensitive fish and/or wildlife species. 

■ Invasive plant removal and subsequent native habitat colonization will improve connectivity 
between existing patches of high-quality habitat. 

■ The upstream extents of invasive plant species distribution (within the SMP area) will reduce 
the potential for re-invasion of control sites via propagule dispersal from upstream source 
populations. 

■ Invasive plant control is technically feasible (e.g., given access constraints) and can be 
accomplished while minimizing impacts to adjacent aquatic, wetland, and riparian habitats 
as well as urban development. 

5.3 Riparian Planting Program 

The primary goal of the riparian planting component of the SMP mitigation package is to compensate 
for the loss of quality and quantity of native-dominated riparian habitat due to sediment removal and 


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SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
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vegetation management. Riparian planting will enhance habitat for birds, amphibians, and other wildlife 
using terrestrial riparian areas while providing shading, sources of organic matter and coarse woody 
debris, and water quality benefits to aquatic species. Restoration will be accomplished primarily via the 
revegetation of creek banks and floodplains within the SMP area where the existing physical conditions 
(i.e., topography, hydrology, and soils) are suitable for the establishment of native-dominated riparian 
habitat. The planting palette for the Riparian Planting Program is shown in Table 7. This list of species is 
not inclusive and each revegetation site will be assessed for ecologically appropriate native species. 
Riparian planting may also include site preparation, including minor grading and topsoil preparation, and 
incorporation of soil amendments. 

Opportunities for riparian planting and restoration will be evaluated at all SMP vegetation management 
and sediment removal maintenance locations. The District's preference will be to first prioritize riparian 
planting at maintenance sites, and in this way provide direct on-site mitigation for maintenance 
activities. Riparian planting and restoration will provide mitigation that directly addresses impacts 
associated with vegetation management activities as described in the 2012 SMP Update SEIR. 

Specific revegetation plan details are highly dependent on conditions at each restoration site, 
particularly with regard to hydrology and soils. Where opportunities for on-site riparian planting and 
restoration are unavailable or highly constrained, the District will identify off-site locations that can 
provide suitable mitigation opportunities. Off-site riparian planting restoration sites will be prioritized 
toward: 


■ Stream reaches with riparian restoration opportunities for sensitive fish and/or wildlife 
species. 

■ Stream reaches where riparian restoration of existing riparian canopy gaps will improve 
connectivity between existing patches of high-quality riparian habitat. 

■ Stream reaches with riparian habitat gaps where invasive plant species have been 
treated to accelerate native riparian plant establishment and inhibit re-colonization by 
invasive plant species. 


Table 7. Riparian Planting Palette for Mitigation Program 


Botanical Name 

Common Name 

TREES 

Acer n eg undo 

Box elder 

Aesculus californica 

Buckeye 

Alnus rhombifolia 

White alder 

Plateaus racemosa 

Western sycamore 

Populus fremontii 

Fremont cottonwood 

Populus trichocarpa 

Black cottonwood 

Quercus agrifolia 

Coast live oak 

Quercus douglasii 

Blue oak 

Quercus lobata 

Valley oak 

Salix laevigata 

Red willow 


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SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
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Salix lasiandra 

Arroyo willow 

Salix lucida 

Shining willow 

SHRUBS 

Baccharis salicifolia 

Mulefat 

Cornus glabrata 

Brown dogwood 

Heteromoles arbutifolia 

Toyon 

Rhamnus californicaCA 

Coffeeberry 

Salix exigua 

Sandbar willow 

Sambucus mexicana 

Elderberry 

LOW PLANTS 

Artemesia californica 

California sage 

Artemesia douglasiana 

Mugwort 

Aster chilensis 

Chilean aster 

Clematis ligusticifolia 

Virgin's Bower 

Eriogonum fasciculatum 

California Buckwheat 

Euthamia occidentalis 

Goldenrod 

Leymus triticoides 

Blue wild rye 

Mimulus aurantiacus 

monkeyflower 

Rosa californica 

California rose 

Rubus ursinus 

California blackberry 

Symphoricarpos laevigatus 

Snowberry 


The target species composition, location, and extent of riparian planting and restoration will be related 
to the ecological functions and values impacted from SMP maintenance activities, such as temporary 
impacts to riparian vegetation resulting from pruning and selective tree removal. In sum, the benefits of 
restoration will offset the adverse effects of temporary habitat loss. District staff will: (1) select the 
necessary area, (2) plant it with appropriate spacing for each species to achieve success, (3) determine 
whether excess is possible, and (4) decide whether to plant the excess or not. 

Riparian mitigation plantings are installed based on plant densities found in natural communities and 
factoring in the site's carrying capacity. For tree species (mature height and spread > 20'), plantings are 
installed at 12-15' on center (OC). For shrub species (mature height and spread < 20'), plants are 
installed at 6-8' OC. Using industry standard formulas, planting areas or quantities are calculated to 
provide mitigation based on area impacted or number of trees/plants impacted. Grasses, forbs, and 
herbaceous vegetation are not accounted for in the planting calculation, but in order to provide habitat 
complexity are typical components of planting projects. Any excess planted will be documented and 
used toward future impacts. 

The performance standard for the riparian planting program shall follow the mitigation feasibility 
assessment (MFA) approach described below in Section 7.3. 

5.4 Application of Invasive Plant Management and Riparian Planting Programs 

A mitigation ratio of 1.2:1 (area mitigated to area impacted) shall be applied for habitat impacts from 
sediment removal and vegetation management activities. A key determinant of setting the ratio at 1.2 
acres mitigated to every 1 acre of maintenance impacts is to recognize that the loss of instream wetland 

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SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


vegetation and habitat due to SMP maintenance activities would be temporary. District studies indicate 
that instream wetland vegetation and habitats impacted due to sediment removal and vegetation 
management activities recover on average within 1-2 years following maintenance activities (Rankin and 
Hillman, 2000). Because the impacts would be temporary and self-recovering, a mitigation ratio of 1:1 
might be appropriate. However, because there is a temporal loss of functions between the time when 
the habitat is impacted and when the mitigation is applied, an additional 20% mitigation requirement 
would be applied, resulting in a 1.2:1 mitigation ratio. This additional 20% is believed to be adequate to 
address the temporal loss of functions. The mitigation ratio is not higher than 1.2:1 to account for the 
temporary nature of impacts to which it applies (e.g., if the impacts stop, the wetland or riparian habitat 
in the impact area will become re-established). The 1.2:1 ratio is based on recent experience with other 
flood control channel maintenance programs, such as in Sonoma County where similar routine 
vegetation management and sediment removal activities are mitigated at a lower ratio of 1.1:1. The 
Sonoma County Stream Maintenance Program was approved by DFG and the other regulatory agencies 
that are authorizing the Santa Clara County SMP. 

The District can use either the invasive plant management program or the riparian planting program (or 
a combination of the programs) to achieve this net mitigation target for annual projects. Both of these 
programs direct address impacts by improving riparian habitat quality. 

Mitigation opportunities will be assessed annually at both on-site maintenance work locations and off¬ 
site locations within the SMP program area. Required mitigation acreages will be determined annually 
based on the annual maintenance workplan and its associated impacts to habitat types (i.e., upland, 
riparian, freshwater and tidal wetlands). 

In mitigating for vegetation management projects, invasive plant management or riparian planting 
mitigation projects shall have a "shelf life" or "warranty" for 5 years. This means that the mitigation 
required for impacts due to vegetation management activities provides 5 years of mitigation coverage 
for that maintenance site. In other words, once the invasive plant management or riparian planting 
mitigation is developed and applied for a specific maintenance project, the District can return to that 
maintenance site to conduct any vegetation management activity, any number of times, for up to 5 
years. The District shall monitor invasive plant management and riparian planting mitigation sites in 
years 1, 3, and 5 and maintain the mitigation site to meet success criteria as described in the mitigation 
monitoring section below (see Section 8.1). 

Invasive plant management activities often need to be repeated for maximum effectiveness. For 
repeated invasive plant management efforts at the same site (e.g. repeated arundo or blackberry 
removal), an individual mitigation project's (i.e. removal action) mitigation standing will last for two 
years. This means that if any repeated invasive treatments occur on that site within two years, it does 
not count as additional or new mitigation that can be applied toward other SMP impacts. However, 
after two years, any subsequent invasive plant management activity occurring at that site may be 
counted toward other SMP impacts, at a partial acreage credit (50% of patch size for credit). 

For riparian planting mitigation areas, the District commits to not impacting such areas for a minimum of 


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SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


10 years. If the District impacts riparian planting mitigation areas, the impacted mitigation area will be 
replaced in-kind, and the monitoring clock will be reset for those areas for another 5 years. 

This "shelf life" or "warranty" of 5 years does not apply to impacts caused by sediment removal 
activities. Impacts caused by sediment removal activities are mitigated on a "one time, pay as you go" 
basis. Repeated sediment removal work (if necessary) will require repeated mitigation, unless 
mitigation lands are acquired (per Section 5.1) that would enable the "new" maintenance area to be 
mitigated for in perpetuity. 

The District shall describe the targeted invasive plant management or riparian planting mitigation 
activities in the annual NPW and verify implementation of the mitigation in the annual PCR. Planned 
acreages for mitigation activities, targeted plant species for removal, or targeted species for planting will 
be described in the NPW. Annual monitoring data for the mitigation sites shall be submitted to 
overseeing agencies (including USACE, USFWS, NMFS, San Francisco Bay RWQCB, Central Coast RWQCB, 
DFG, and BCDC) with other SMP monitoring results. 

While both on-site and off-site opportunities will be considered, the District preference is to first apply 
invasive plant management and riparian planting activities on-site along stream channel reaches where 
other vegetation management maintenance or sediment removal activities are occurring. If on-site 
invasive plant management or riparian planting mitigation is not necessary at a particular maintenance 
reach, or there are other limits/constraints that prevent invasive plant management from being 
implemented, then the District will apply the mitigation at suitable off-site locations within the program 
area. The success criteria will be determined through the Mitigation Feasibility Assessment (MFA) 
process as described in Section 7.3 below. 

5.5 Mitigation for Tree and Shrub Removals 6-12 Inches 

Trees and shrubs less than 12" dbh may be removed under the SMP. The removal of trees and shrubs in 
new work areas, that are less than 6 inches dbh, is mitigated through the invasive plant management 
and riparian planting programs described above. Impacted maintenance areas from vegetation 
management and sediment removal activities (that include the removal of trees/shrubs less than 6" 
dbh) will be mitigated for according to the 1.2:1 ratio as described above. 

Removing trees sized 6-12 inches dbh will be mitigated through the individual planting of replacement 
trees. Appendix C (Tree Scoring for Removal of Trees and Shrubs 6 - 12"DBH - April, 2011) provides a 
specific tree appraisal and evaluation protocol to determine how replacement planting occurs. The 
protocol in Appendix C involves carefully assessing targeted tree removals for their existing conditions 
and functions, including their canopy cover, local area value, ecosystem benefits, and ecosystem 
detriments. Using a cumulative ranking method, tree replacement mitigation ratios for removed trees 
(6-12 inches dbh) occurs at either 1:1, 2:1, or 3:1 (replacement tree to removed tree) depending on the 
overall quality and function of the removed tree. These tree replacement ratios are consistent with 
other recent tree replacement ratios approved by regulatory agencies for the Sonoma County Stream 
Maintenance Program whereby removed native vegetation is replaced at 2:1 ratio, removed non-native 
vegetation that provides some benefits is replaced at a 1.5:1 ratio, and removed problematic non-native 

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SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
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vegetation does not require replacement mitigation. Chapter 2 of the SMP Manual describes the 
District's vegetation management and tree removal activities in detail. The performance standard for 
tree replacement shall follow the mitigation feasibility assessment (MFA) approach described below in 
Section 7.3. 

5.6 Instream Habitat Complexity Program 

The District will develop, enhance, or provide in-kind installation of instream habitat complexity features 
to mitigate for the loss of instream complexity due to annual sediment removal and vegetation 
management projects, including large woody debris removal activities. The instream habitat complexity 
mitigation described in this section may also be suitable for application to bank stabilization mitigation 
projects as described in Section 7 below. 

A complex instream and channel bed environment provides habitat heterogeneity, cover, and refugia 
during high flows. Prior to sediment removal, large woody debris removal, bank stabilization, or other 
maintenance activities, the affected work area will be surveyed by an SCVWD fisheries ecologist to 
identify any features that provide high-quality instream complexity for fish. The fisheries ecologist will 
determine whether such features are of "high quality" based on the presence of one or more of the 
following criteria: 

■ Large woody debris providing cover and refugia from high flow velocities 

■ Deep pools providing rearing habitat and refugia from high flow velocities 

■ Cobble/boulder features providing cover, refugia from high flow velocities, and 
velocities suitable for good invertebrate drift 

If such high-quality features must be removed during the proposed SMP activities, compensatory 
mitigation will be provided by the installation of instream complexity features at a ratio of 1:1 
(mitigation-to-impact) basis. The 1:1 ratio can be assessed to either the number of instream complexity 
features affected by the maintenance activity or to the area of impact due to the maintenance work. 
Similarly, the required mitigation can be provided either on a "number of projects" or "area" basis 
depending on which metric is most appropriate based on the habitat values to fish provided. A District 
fisheries ecologist will determine which approach to determining the required mitigation (number of 
projects or area) is the most suitable. 

In sum, either one instream complexity feature will be installed for each one that is removed (number 
approach); or, an instream complexity feature will be installed with a similar area as the impacted 
footprint (area approach). It is also acknowledged that erosion, deposition, tree-falls, and debris 
mobilization within a few years following the removal of an instream complexity feature will naturally 
reintroduce some complexity to the stream. 

As examples, enhancing instream complexity would include: 

■ enlarging an existing large woody debris feature 

■ geomorphically shaping an instream bar or bed feature for improved habitat 

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SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


■ enhancing a pool feature threatened by sedimentation 

■ enhancing streambed conditions to increase the range of flow velocity and habitat 
conditions. 

Priority for these mitigation activities will be given to SMP sites where instream features cannot be 
retained during construction due to conflicting objectives. For example, if a channel pool configuration 
cannot be retained during a bank protection job and the area is devoid of other complex bed or pool 
features, then this area will be evaluated for the addition of an instream complexity feature. 

In addition to enhancing existing features, new instream features may be developed to achieve several 
habitat objectives, including: increasing pool habitat in homogenized stream reaches, providing escape 
cover for rearing and spawning fish, deepening feeding areas in riffle habitat, creating a variety of 
stream flow velocities for cover, sorting gravel, and providing resting areas for upstream migration. 
Additionally, improving instream function can benefit other aquatic flora and fauna by improving the 
overall stream complexity for which these species depend upon for survival. If effective, such new 
instream complexity features (particularly in highly modified, urban streams) can augment or replace 
existing structural features required for successful reproduction and rearing of native fish and 
amphibians in the freshwater environment. 

Newly developed instream habitat improvements may use log structures, boulder structures, or a 
combination of both log and boulder structures to achieve more complex habitats. Possible 
configurations of boulders or logs include weirs, clusters, single and opposing wing deflectors, spider 
logs, and digger logs. The construction materials selected for each instream complexity feature would 
depend upon the target objective and site conditions. 

The selected mitigation site will be as close to the impacted reach as is technically feasible. For instream 
complexity features that are removed by sediment removal or bank stabilization projects, mitigation will 
be incorporated into the same reach where instream complexity was removed to the extent feasible. 
The site will be selected with input from the District fisheries ecologist, taking channel capacity and 
other SMP-related factors into account. The fisheries ecologist will prepare specifications for the 
mitigation, including size, type, and configuration of the feature. The mitigation will be implemented 
within one year following the impact. As a performance standard, instream habitat improvements shall 
be maintained to serve designed functions for at least five years, and will be monitored annually to 
ensure compliance. 

5.7 Summary of Mitigation for Sediment Removal and Vegetation Management Activities 

Working together, land acquisition and habitat restoration, invasive plant species management, riparian 
planting and restoration, tree planting to replace 6-12" tree removals, and developing instream habitat 
complexity projects provide a broad spectrum of natural system functions and values that mitigate 
impacts from vegetation management and sediment removal maintenance projects. Table 8 summarizes 
the key attributes of the updated mitigation approach for sediment removal and vegetation 
management activities. 


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SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


Table 8. Summary of Mitigation Approach for Sediment Removal and Vegetation Management Impacts in New Work Areas (2012-2022) 


Mitigation Type 

Mitigation Purpose 

Implemented: 

Annuall Program 

y Period 

Mitigation Location: 

Onsite Offsite 

Mitigation Amount or Ratio 

Land Acquisition (in-kind 

preservation/enhancement) 

Mitigates in perpetuity for repeat 
sediment removal and vegetation 
management activities 


X 


X 

3:1 

(acres acquired, preserved, 
enhanced: acres impacted) 

B Land Acquisition (in-kind restoration) 

Mitigates in perpetuity for repeat 
sediment removal and vegetation 
management activities 


X 


X 

1.5:1 

(acres acquired and restored: 
acres impacted) 

C Land Acquisition (watershed lands out-of-kind) 

Provides mitigation in perpetuity 
for repeat sediment removal and 
vegetation management activities 


X 


X 

8:1 

(acres acquired off-site: acres 
impacted) 

D Invasive Plant Management Program 

Mitigates for one-time sediment 
removal or 5 years of vegetation 
management activities to address 
temporary impacts to wetlands, 
instream vegetation, and riparian 
habitat 

X 


X 

X 

1.2:1 

(area treated: area impacted) 
(can occur in combination with 
Riparian Planting and 
Restoration) 

E Riparian Restoration and Planting Program 

Mitigates for one-time sediment 
removal or 5 years of vegetation 
management activities to address 
temporary impacts to native- 
dominated riparian habitat 

X 


X 

X 

1.2:1 

(area or # of plants planted: area 
or # of plants impacted) 

(can occur in combination with 
Invasive Species Management) 

F Tree and Shrub Plantings 

Mitigates for impacts due to 
removal of individual trees and 

shrubs 6-12" dbh 

X 


X 

X 

1:1, 2:1, 3:1 

(Trees planted: trees removed. 
Mitigation ratio determined by 
tree scoring protocol provided in 
Appendix C of Mitigation 
Memorandum) 

G Instream Complexity 

Mitigates for one-time removal of 
instream complexity features 
and/or one-time impacts to "high 
quality" instream habitat 

X 


X 

X 

1:1 

(area or # of features restored: 
area or # of features impacted) 

H Gravel Augmentation in Steelhead Creeks 

Mitigates for one-time removal of 
"high quality" gravels in an area 
greater than 100 sq-ft 

X 


X 

X 

1:1 

(acres or sq-ft restored: acres or 
sq-ft impacted) 

B| 

Species Targeted Restoration/Mitigation 

Mitigates for impacts to species 
and/or associated habitat. On a 
case-by-case basis, may also be 

X 

(as 

needed) 



X 

As needed, per permit 
requirements 


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SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


Table 8. Summary of Mitigation Approach for Sediment Removal and Vegetation Management Impacts in New Work Areas (2012-2022) 


Mitigation Type 

Mitigation Purpose 

Implemented: 

Annuall Program 

y Period 

Mitigation Location: 

Onsite Offsite 

Mitigation Amount or Ratio 


adequate to provide either one¬ 
time or perpetuity mitigation for 
non-species related habitat 

impacts (e.g., general impacts to 
wetlands, instream vegetation, and 
riparian habitat). 







Note (a) - because this mitigation is primarily species-targeted , it is described below in Section 6, rather than above in Section 5. However, it has been 
included in this table because of the general benefits it would provide to aquatic habitat in addition to steel head. 


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SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
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6. Species-Targeted Habitat Mitigation 

In addition to the mitigation described in Section 5 for sediment removal and vegetation management, 
mitigation will be provided to compensate for impacts to individual special-status species resulting from 
SMP activities. The species for which compensatory mitigation will be provided, and the form that this 
mitigation will take, is identified in the current 2012 SMP Update SEIR and will be further refined in BOs 
for the 2012 SMP Update to be issued by NMFS and USFWS and the ITP to be issued by DFG. 

Although SMP activities could result in adverse effects on both individuals and habitat of special status 
species, mitigation will focus on improvement and/or protection of habitat for these species with the 
goal of increasing the abundance, productivity, and/or survivorship of individuals, commensurate with 
the magnitude of the impact. For potential affected species, the type of mitigation sought will depend 
on the nature of the impacted habitat (e.g., whether it involves breeding or foraging habitat), the size of 
mitigation required, and suitable mitigation locations. The specific mitigation qualities will be linked 
closely to the functions and values of habitat that are impacted by SMP activities. The 2012 SMP Update 
SEIR, the BOs from NMFS and USFWS, and the ITP from DFG will be used to refine the criteria, metrics, 
and/or ratios necessary to provide mitigation, but any refinements will result in mitigation measures 
being equally or more effective. 

To the extent feasible, habitat mitigation for impacts to individual special-status species will dovetail 
with mitigation efforts to address impacts to wetlands and riparian habitats as described above. Ideally, 
a given set of mitigation actions can be performed and integrated to compensate for effects on multiple 
sensitive habitats and resources. Integrating mitigation solutions into joint projects is an efficient 
approach and provides multiple benefits. For example, riparian habitat restoration along a South 
County creek may provide compensation for temporary impacts to both riparian habitat and Least Bell's 
vireo habitat. Similarly, instream complexity or gravel augmentation (described below) activities along a 
steelhead creek may help address wetland impacts and/or temporary impacts to steelhead. In other 
instances, however, species-specific mitigation (such as compensatory mitigation for impacts to 
serpentine species) would not overlap with mitigation provided for impacts to regulated habitats such as 
wetlands and riparian habitats. In such cases, species targeted mitigation would be planned and 
implemented independently of other mitigation projects. 

The specific extent of species-targeted mitigation will be identified annually using the previously 
developed criteria, metrics and/or ratios, based on the annual workplan and the specific species and 
habitats that would be affected. Impacts to habitat of individual species, and appropriate mitigation, 
would be identified annually in the NPW. Mitigation would then occur within that maintenance year, to 
the extent feasible. The amount of mitigation provided would then be compared to the actual impacts 
and resulting mitigation requirements in the PCR to determine whether additional species-targeted 
mitigation would need to be provided the following year or whether there is excess mitigation that can 
be credited toward a subsequent year's impacts. Flowever, if mitigation requirements for special-status 
species can be estimated farther in advance, there is likely some economy of scale that would be 
realized from pursuit of species-targeted mitigation that would compensate for SMP impacts occurring 
over two or more years. For example, habitat acquisition, preservation, and/or enhancement may be 

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SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
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easier and less costly (on a per-acre basis) to plan and implement over a larger area than over a number 
of smaller areas. Using larger, consolidated mitigation areas may enable more efficient mitigation 
planning over several years. In these cases, either annual or multi-year mitigation activities would be 
identified. In this scenario, species-specific impacts and mitigation would still be tracked and accounted 
for annually. If a "mitigation credit" exists because the District previously purchased or established a 
larger mitigation area than previously needed, then the District will track the "mitigation account" 
through the annual SMP reporting processes (NPW and PCR) and relay this information to overseeing 
agencies. 

Also, note that the District may seek to include Almaden-Calero Canal maintenance as a covered activity 
in the Santa Clara Valley Habitat Plan (for terrestrial species) and the Three Creeks HCP (for aquatic 
species). These plans would include mitigation or conservation measures that are required by the 
federal and California Endangered Species Acts to minimize impacts of covered activities on covered 
species. If Almaden-Calero Canal maintenance is included as a covered activity in these habitat plans, 
once the plans are adopted, satisfaction of species-targeted mitigation via in-lieu-fee payments or other 
measures contained in these plans would be possible for maintenance work along the Almaden-Calero 
Canal. This may be the required approach to maintain consistency with those plans. It is anticipated 
that this approach be adequate to reduce biological impacts of Almaden-Calero Canal maintenance to 
less-than-significant levels. The District will finalize this approach if/when these other habitat plans are 
adopted. 

Gravel Augmentation in Steelhead Creeks 

Instream gravel and coarse sediment along a streambed can be a fundamental habitat element to a 
healthy functioning stream directly supporting life-cycle needs of fish (including steelhead), amphibians 
and other aquatic wildlife. Often, gravel and coarse streambed sediment supply is reduced due to dams 
or other upstream barriers that trap sand, gravel, and coarse bed materials upstream behind the barrier. 
In addition to curtailing sediment supply, dams, reservoirs, and other upstream barriers also moderate 
or reduce the magnitude of stream flows such that natural gravel mobilization and transport processes 
are diminished. Dams or other facilities reduce flow magnitude and duration resulting in less frequent 
(or non-occurrence) flows strong enough to mobilize sediments along the channel bed. 

The District actively removes sediment from stream channels when an accumulation of sediment 
reduces floodwater conveyance capacity or prevents a facility or structure from functioning as intended. 
Additionally, the District removes sediment to facilitate fish passage where sediment accretion has 
created passage impediments for migration or localized movements of fish. As a result of these efforts, 
general impacts to channel hydraulics, sediment transport and stream morphology may occur. To 
ameliorate those impacts and restore stream function, the District will implement projects to provide 
coarse substrate (sand and gravel) back into the creek. 

Gravel augmentation provides direct benefits for improving fish spawning and rearing habitat. Gravel 
augmentation will be applied to mitigate for instream impacts on spawning and rearing steelhead 
habitat due to sediment removal activities. The general goal of gravel augmentation projects is to 
improve fish spawning and rearing habitat by enhancing sedimentary materials within the channel bed. 


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SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
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Some minor and localized stream and riparian impacts are expected to occur when crews and 
equipment place the gravel back into the stream course. 

SCVWD can reuse watershed-specific gravels collected through sediment removal activities as a source 
for the gravel augmentation program. SCVWD would collect, sort, separate, and reuse clean, 
appropriately-sized gravel. When designing a gravel augmentation project, several factors will be 
considered, including: the existing channel conditions; the grain size distribution of the sediment to be 
added; the volume of gravel to deposit; the frequency of gravel addition that will be required in light of 
sediment transport; how the added gravel will interact with to the existing flow regime and/or channel 
geometry; and the extent of augmentation effects within the channel reach. 

Gravel Augmentation Mitigation Commitment 

Gravel augmentation may be provided as a mitigation approach for SMP impacts to Central California 
Coast steelhead (CCC) and South-Central California Coast steelhead (SCCC) spawning habitat. The 
approach to identifying high quality gravel sites slated for SMP sediment removal activities that would 
be potentially suitable for gravel augmentation (mitigation) is described below. This approach was 
developed in consultation with NMFS staff. 

■ A District biologist will review the sediment removal workplan and assess the footprint of 
work activities, identify whether or not the maintenance reach supports steelhead spawning 
habitat, and assess the texture and quality of the sediment to be removed. 

■ District biologists will visit SMP sediment removal sites (where more than 100 sq.-ft. of 
sediment are to be removed) to assess if high quality sediment suitable for augmentation 
projects is present. 

■ If the District biologist determines that as much as 100 sq.-ft. of "high quality" spawning 
gravel may be present throughout the sediment removal area (maintenance reach) as a 
whole, a grain size analysis will be conducted. 

■ The grain size analysis will be performed only for the areas that are thought to provide 
potential spawning gravel, and not averaged over the entire sediment removal area (e.g., 
maintenance reach areas that are clearly not suitable for spawning will not be included in 
the analysis). 

■ Sediment targeted for removal will be considered "high quality" spawning gravel according 
to the following criteria: 

o Gravel targeted for removal must have less than 25-30% fines that are less than 
6.35 mm in size (Kondolf 2000, Kondolf and Wolman 1993). 

o Gravel targeted for removal must have less than 12-14% fines less than 0.85 mm 
in size (Kondolf 2000). 

o Gravel targeted for removal must have median particle size (D50) of 12.5 to 22.0 
mm, based on D50 of preferred rainbow trout and steelhead gravel habitat, for 


36 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


fish 30 to 65 cm in length (Kondolf and Wolman 1993), corresponding to a range 
of 275 to 640 cm of steelhead adults recovered in streams of the San Francisco 
estuary (Leidy et al. 2005). 

o Minimum gravel evaluation patch size must be greater than 1.1 m 2 (Trush 1991). 

o High quality habitat supported by gravel needs to be accessible to fish under 
typical flows for when appropriate life stages are present. 

■ If less than 100 sq.-ft. of gravel qualifies as high quality, no mitigation is necessary. 

■ Spawning gravel mitigation is not required for projects where the primary objectives are to 
maintain or enhance fish passage and to remove sediment at all fish ladders and stream 
gages. 

If the targeted gravel for sediment removal maintenance along steelhead streams qualifies as "high 
quality" per these criteria, then compensatory gravel augmentation activities will be performed. 
Mitigation shall occur through the installation of suitable spawning gravel along the affected creek at a 
1:1 (mitigation-to-impact) ratio on a square footage or acreage basis. The mitigation site will be as close 
to the impacted reach as is feasible, and will be located within a steelhead-accessible reach of the same 
watershed. The site will be selected with input from the fisheries ecologist, taking channel capacity and 
other SMP-related factors into account. The fisheries ecologist will prepare specifications for the 
mitigation, including size, type, depth, and configuration of gravel. The mitigation will be implemented 
within one year following the impact. 


7. Bank Stabilization Mitigation 

7.1 General Approach 

Stabilizing and repairing eroding stream channel banks and levees is a routine SMP activity. Based on 
the maintenance work conducted from 2002-2010, the District stabilizes about 0.94 mi of stream 
channel banks or levees on average per year. While bank stabilization is routine and expected, the 
specific work locations are not certain until after each winter season. As a result, this type of 
maintenance (unlike sediment removal and vegetation management) is not a projected work activity. 
Rather, bank stabilization maintenance needs are assessed annually on an as-needed basis. Site- 
specific mitigation for bank stabilization projects is also determined on an annual basis depending on the 
identified work need. 

The 2002 SMP Manual included Appendix E Programmatic Impact Assessment and Mitigation for 
Routine Bank Protection Activities (July, 2001) that described the mitigation approach for bank 
stabilization used during the 2002-2012 program period. The 2002 mitigation approach identified 
revegetation mitigation ratios of 1:1, 2:1, or 3:1 for treatment impacts depending upon the bank repair 
technique and the resulting change to the creek ecosystem. Bank repair treatments that used more 
hardened materials resulted in higher mitigation ratios. 


37 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


For the 2012 SMP Update, the District has slightly revised and reorganized the list of suitable SMP bank 
stabilization treatments (Table 9). The general approach to bank stabilization and its mitigation is 
consistent with the 2002 program. Table 9 identifies the SMP's 13 bank stabilization treatments (and 
variations), shows mitigation ratios, describes whether the technique uses softscape or hardscape 
elements, and notes whether the technique requires review by regulatory agencies. The bank 
stabilization techniques shown in Table 9 are described in detail in the 2012 SMP Manual. 


Table 9. SMP Bank Stabilization Methods (2012 SMP Update ) 


I.D. No. 

Method 

Mitigation Ratio 

Hard-/Softscape 

Requires Plan 
Review by 
Agencies 

1 

Earth Repair 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

1A 

Earth Repair with Buried 
Rock 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

2 

Live Construction 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

2A 

Live Construction with 
Boulder Toe 

1:1 if boulder toe is 
vegetated 

1.5:1 if boulder toe is 
not vegetated 

Vegetated: 

hybrid 

Not vegetated: 
hard 

No 

2B 

Live Construction with Log 
Toe 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

3 

Contour Wattling 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

3A 

Contour Wattling with 

Boulder Toe 

1:1 if boulder toe is 
vegetated 

1.5:1 if boulder toe is 
not vegetated 

Soft 

No 

3B 

Contour Wattling with Log 
Toe 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

4 

Brush Mattress (Brush 
Layering) 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

4A 

Brush Mattress (Brush 
Layering) with Boulder Toe 

1:1 if boulder toe is 
vegetated 

1.5:1 if boulder toe is 
not vegetated 

Vegetated: 

hybrid 

Not vegetated: 
hard 

No 

4B 

Brush Mattress (Brush 
Layering) with Log Toe 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

5 

Surface Matting (Erosion 
Mats) 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

5A 

Surface Matting (Erosion 
Mats) with Boulder Toe 

1:1 if boulder toe is 
vegetated 

1.5:1 if boulder toe is 
not vegetated 

Vegetated: 

hybrid 

Not vegetated: 
hard 

No 


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SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


5B 

Surface Matting (Erosion 
Mats) with Log Toe 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

6 

Add Rock to Invert 

1:1 

hybrid 

No 

6A 

Rock Cross Vanes 

1:1 

hybrid 

No 

6B 

Root Wads and Boulders 

1:1 

hybrid 

No 

6C 

Live Log Crib Walls 

1:1 

Soft 

No 

6D 

Log Revetment 

1:1 

hybrid 

No 

7 

Cellular Confinement 

System 

2:1 

Hard 

Yes 

8 

Rock Blanket 

2:1 

Hard 

Yes 

8A 

Boulder Revetment 

2:1 

Hard 

Yes 

8B 

Boulder Revetment with Soil 
and Vegetation 

1:1 

hybrid 

Yes 

9 

Articulated Concrete Blocks 

3:1 

Hard 

Yes 

9A 

Articulated Concrete Blocks 
with Planted Areas 

2:1 

Hard 

Yes 

10 

Concrete Crib Walls 

3:1 

Hard 

Yes 

11 

Sacked Concrete 

3:1 

Hard 

Yes 

12 

Gunite Slope Protection 

3:1 

Hard 

Yes 

13 

Earth with Rock Toe on 

Grass Lined Channels 3 

2:1 s 

Soft/hybrid 

No 


(a) Grass lined channels are those where grass is the predominant or sole vegetation, and that contain no 
significant riparian structure. The NPW submittal will include photographs and descriptions to justify use of this 
line item. 


(b)- No mitigation is necessary if rock toe is placed below bankful I depth and the project includes some instream 
element of instream complexity. 


The District favors using biotechnical techniques (as appropriate for site conditions) that use soil, 
vegetation, or other organic materials as a softscape approach to stabilize eroding stream banks. As 
shown in Table 9, softscape approaches use willow plantings, contour wattling, brush mattresses, root 
wads, log crib walls, and earthen soil banks to provide the benefits of effective erosion control and 
natural resource enhancement. When implemented, these softscape approaches are combined with 
additional vegetation plantings (see Table 7 - riparian planting palette) to enhance the riparian habitat 
along the bank. 


Some of the mitigation ratios shown in Table 9 include lower ratios then the original mitigation ratios 

39 




SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


from the 2002 SMP EIR. The rationale for lowering some bank stabilization mitigation ratios is rooted in 
10 years' experience of the on-going SMP (2002-2011), where it has been observed that the resource 
values and functions of streambank sites requiring repair and stabilization is typically very low. Bank 
stabilization sites typically exhibit conditions of unstable earthen erosion, with no vegetation or 
vegetation of low value (such as early serai invasive vegetation colonizing the destabilized site). District 
biologists and geomorphologists have observed that historically, bank stabilization sites have had poor 
baseline conditions. Based on several years' observations of typically poor quality existing conditions at 
bank stabilization sites, the District is proposing to use mitigation ratios that more accurately represent 
the mitigation requirement for the loss of ecologic functions/values due to the maintenance activities. 
The District's primary concern is that the relative baseline of functions/values provided at eroded bank 
sites is lower than justified by the 3:1 mitigation ratios currently in use since 2002 for certain bank 
treatments. The proposed revised mitigation ratios, including ratios of 1:5 and 2:1 are more 
appropriate for the given baseline conditions. It is important to note that not all bank stabilization 
projects necessarily have negative impacts. Depending upon the situation, some bank stabilization 
projects result in a net environmental benefit when considering the functions and values of the existing 
bank condition (baseline) compared to the post project condition. Notably, if left untreated, eroding 
and destabilized streambanks will generally become progressively more severe with increased erosion 
and flooding risks. Beneficial bank stabilization projects, particularly approaches that use softscape or 
biotechnical techniques are typically "self mitigating" and do not require additional revegetation or 
other mitigation. 

Depending on the size, functions, and values of the natural resources developed at the bank repair site, 
beneficial bank stabilization projects may provide mitigation credit toward future bank protection 
activities, or if appropriate, provide mitigation for other types of maintenance impacts. The balance of 
mitigation credit for bank stabilization activities, including credit that has accumulated during the 
current program, will be reported by watershed every year in the PCR. 

As shown in Table 9, the District does retain hardscape bank stabilization treatments within the SMP for 
specific locations and conditions which require a higher level of resistance for erosive shear forces. For 
example, the softscape approaches shown in Table 9 can be combined with selective rock use (typically 
at the toe of the bank where erosive forces are greatest) to provide added shear strength. The outer 
bends of channels where flow velocities and shear stresses are greater are also common locations for 
using hardscape. 

The District also acknowledges that certain hardscape techniques shown in Table 9 such as 9 (articulated 
concrete blocks), 9A (articulated concrete blocks with planted areas), 10 (concrete crib walls), and 12 
(gunite slope protection) have had minimal or no application in the SMP since 2002. However, it is the 
preference of District staff engineers to retain such techniques in the Program in the event that specific 
hydraulic conditions at a bank stabilization site may require such hardscape approaches. 

As stated above, the District's preference and priority is to first consider use of softscape approaches, 
and only use hardscape where absolutely necessary. As Table 2-3 of the SEIR suggests, softscape or 
hybrid bank solutions were used by the about District 77% of the time during the 2002-2010 period. As 


40 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


evidenced by the District's past record of prioritizing softscape or hybrid approaches over full hardscape 
bank approaches (see Table 2-3), having such hardscape techniques available in the SMP does not 
necessarily lead the District to their use and application. 

The District will continue to track and monitor the use of both softscape and hardscape bank 
stabilization treatments as described below. To further refine the control on the use of hardscape, the 
program will not install more than 50% of the total area of bank stabilization projects with hardscape. 
This means that the total area of all hardscape elements divided by the total area of all bank 
stabilization projects will not exceed 50%. This calculation results in a percent of hard elements within 
all bank stabilization jobs, and accurately reflects the proportion of hard and soft methods overall. 
Calculated in this way, the program in 2002-2010 has installed roughly 20% hardscape. 

Where on-site mitigation is not feasible for bank stabilization projects, particularly for lower valued 
streams, mitigation will be targeted at higher valued streams. The Mitigation Feasibility Assessment 
(MFA) process is discussed below in Section 7.3. 

Where appropriate based on site conditions, the mitigation components described in Section 5 above 
for sediment removal and vegetation management activities will also be used to support mitigation 
activities at bank stabilization project sites. 

Through the SMP reporting process, the District has submitted annual PCRs to the overseeing permitting 
agencies since 2002, and this process will continue through 2022. These annual reports document 
where bank stabilization projects occur, their length, type, mitigation requirement, mitigation 
accounting balances, resource inventories conducted, and pre/post construction photographs. The 
District has also monitored and documented conditions at mitigation sites for bank stabilization projects 
and reported the quality and status of the mitigation sites. The District provides monitoring reports 
following years 1, 3, and 5 for selected bank stabilization projects (see Section 8.1 below for more 
detail). 

Mitigation credit from excess riparian planting in watersheds over the first part of the program (2002- 
2012) has been consistently reported in annual PCRs. This program of apportioning credit to the 
appropriate locations will continue. The previously accumulated credit will be carried forward into the 
new program. 

7.2 Mitigating for Hardscape 

As discussed above, some bank stabilization sites will require hardscape treatments. It is important to 
note that for the treatments listed in Table 9 with hardscape elements, there is a range of actual 
hardened features. Some treatments have bio-technical approaches on most of the bank slope, but 
include a limited amount of rock to protect the toe of the bank. This mixed approach is exemplified by 
techniques 2A (live construction with boulder toe), 3A (contour wattling with boulder toe), 4A (brush 
mattress with boulder toe), and 5A (surface matting with boulder toe). Mitigation ratios for softscape 
solutions that have boulder toe placement are higher if the rock placement does not include plantings 
between rocks. 


41 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


Mixed softscape/hardscape approaches enable bio-technical treatments and vegetation on most of the 
bank slope and are different than other more traditional hardscape approaches such as articulated 
concrete blocks (9), concrete crib walls (10), sacked concrete (11), gunite (12), and earth repair with 
buried rock (IB) which create a more uniformly hardened bank environment. 

The rock toe used in grass lined channels (13) is specifically intended to provide a more stable solution in 
grass lined channels with higher flow velocities. Earthen banked projects in grass lined channels have 
historically been prone to failure. The careful placement of rock at the toe of grass lined bank repairs is 
intended to make them more successful. Because these channels are often lower biological value, a 
lower mitigation ratio is proposed for the application of rock in grass lined channels. Application of this 
method is subject to annual approval. 

Revegetation will occur according to the mitigation ratios shown in Table 9. Revegetation 

requirements are calculated by the square footage of the bank stabilization project. Revegetation 
plantings will be incorporated into the site as appropriate to the stabilization design and the existing site 
conditions (see Mitigation Feasibility Assessment discussion in Section 7.3 below). While revegetation is 
currently used as the predominant mitigation method for bank stabilization sites, the other mitigation 
approaches described in this memo would also provide mitigation. For the hardened bank stabilization 
areas that cannot be directly planted, additional mitigation will be necessary. Additional mitigation may 
also be provided through installing instream complexity features in the channel adjacent to the bank 
stabilization project (see Section 5.6 above). 

Stream functions and habitat values that require mitigation due to hardscape include: 

■ Loss of instream escape cover provided by undercut banks, large boulders, tree roots, 
downed trees, and other structural elements; (instream complexity) 

■ Reduction in hydraulic variation and complexity due to flow interaction non-hardened 
banks; 

■ Loss of velocity refuge provided by earthen features along the bank; 

■ Loss of shading and water temperature moderation provided by mature riparian shrubs 
and trees; and/or 

■ Loss of overhanging escape cover provided by shrubs and grasses near the stream edge. 

Potential impacts to special status aquatic species are described in the SMP SEIR. As necessary, 
mitigation to these aquatic species due to bank stabilization projects will be provided through species 
specific mitigation that will be assessed annually (see Section 6 above). 

7.3 Mitigation Feasibility Assessment (MFA) - Revegetation Component 

One of the important lessons learned from implementing the SMP during 2002-2010 is that the success 
criteria for revegetation mitigation projects should carefully consider existing site conditions and 
constraints. The Mitigation Feasibility Assessment (MFA) process was designed to provide a consistent 
assessment methodology that can guide mitigation design and success criteria based on what type, 

42 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


degree, and quality of revegetation the site will support. 

The MFA process begins with a broad evaluation of the existing conditions at the mitigation site. 
Depending upon which bank treatment will be used, the target mitigation site may be at the same 
location where the bank stabilization work will occur, or it may occur at an off-site location. The MFA 
assessment includes evaluating site hydrology, flow velocity, soils and soil moisture, aspect, slope, 
adjacent land use, site access, presence of invasives, presence of rare/listed species, maintenance 
needs, animal damages, human activity, and the potential revegetation design. Based on this 
assessment the site is categorized as having either a high, medium, or low revegetation potential. Each 
of these categories is based on the presence or absence of existing opportunities and constraints at the 
site. Planting species appropriate to the site conditions can promote a more successful and efficient 
revegetation program. If a site is identified as having poor conditions yet is still desirable to plant, lower 
success criteria will be established to account for the poorer site conditions. This will enable some 
replanting prior to seeking off-site mitigation. If the MFA identifies the project location as a highly 
constrained site, then off-site mitigation will be considered to ensure greater revegetation success. 

The MFA process is designed to provide ecologically feasible mitigation success criteria, given site 
specific conditions and the proposed revegetation palette. The District may support revegetating a 
highly constrained creek bank that will rarely meet typical success criteria. Therefore, lower success 
criteria will be allowed to facilitate replanting on ecologically challenging sites. Project sites with fewer 
constraints will meet standard success measures more easily and will continue to be held to those 
higher standards. The MFA approach will be formalized to provide the District with flexibility to 
revegetate a broader range of sites without committing to futile replanting efforts. The MFA approach is 
based on the experience gained through planting several constrained bank stabilization sites during the 
2002-2012 period. 


8. Mitigation Monitoring and Reporting 

8.1 Monitoring 

This section describes monitoring approaches for the mitigation programs discussed above. The 
proposed mitigation monitoring and reporting program builds on the existing monitoring program. All 
monitoring programs are intended to be adaptively managed and implemented in conjunction with 
input and support from regulatory agencies. Monitoring reports will be provided to the resource 
agencies. 

Monitoring Protocols 

Since the SMP inception in 2002 the District has developed surveying and monitoring protocols as part 
of the routine implementation of the program. The District conducts annual field inspections of their 
streams to determine the needs for maintenance activities. They track all maintenance activities 
conducted by stream reach, and all restoration and mitigation efforts implemented to address 
maintenance impacts. The District maintains an extensive database, including a GIS mapping database, 
to document and track annual maintenance and mitigation activities. The District's existing monitoring 

43 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


protocols and corresponding databases will meet the monitoring needs of the updates to the mitigation 
program as described in this memorandum. For proposed new mitigation efforts not directly addressed 
by an existing monitoring protocol (or entry into the existing database system), the District will expand 
the database and develop monitoring protocols. 

Monitoring requirements for species-specific mitigation projects will be refined as directed by regulatory 
permit conditions and guidance. 

Bank Stabilization Monitoring 

Each year in the NPW, the District will identify bank stabilization sites to be monitored in years 1, 3, and 
5 after construction. The monitoring sites will include 50% of the bank stabilization sites implemented in 
the Pajaro Watershed (Central Coast Regional Board) and up to 10 other sites per year from the 4 other 
watersheds in the Santa Clara Basin (San Francisco Bay Regional Board). Monitoring reports for bank 
stabilization sites will be submitted for the duration of the program period (2012-2022) for a total of 60 
sites and 180 reports in the Santa Clara Basin. This monitoring will include a visual observation erosion 
conditions upstream and downstream of the site (i.e., 200 feet), conditions of the bank stabilization 
repair, and conditions of vegetation planting. In addition, 2 sites per year in the Santa Clara Basin will be 
selected for additional monitoring of peak flows and water levels during storm events. Bank 
stabilization monitoring reports will be submitted to resource agencies annually. 

Duration of Revegetation Mitigation Monitoring 

Monitoring revegetation mitigation project sites that involve restoration plantings will be conducted for 
five (5) years following planting, or until success criteria are met. Success criteria will be determined 
though the Mitigation Feasibility Assessment (MFA) as described above in Section 7.3. Information 
collected on restoration plantings will include the number and species planted at each site, square 
footage of area planted, estimated percent canopy cover, number or percent of planted trees and 
shrubs surviving, and observations on whether recolonization of invasives occurs after removal. Note 
that percent cover canopy will not be reported likely until year 5 or at which time canopy has developed 
significantly enough to describe. 

Instream complexity and gravel augmentation projects will be monitored annually up to five years, to 
evaluate and describe their functioning. 

Selected bank stabilization projects will be monitored following years 1, 3, and 5 and will be reported on 
annually. Post construction monitoring efforts will enable the District to evaluate the success of each 
bank stabilization project. 

Success Criteria for Plantings 

Success criteria for shrubs and trees planted in riparian areas above bank repair sites will be determined 
though the MFA process (Section 7.3). In the event of poor plant survival, corrective measures will 
include replanting to reach the pre-determined success criteria, via the MFA, as needed based on 
scheduled monitoring activities. Such remedial measures will be monitored for a 5-year period 
following implementation to ensure that the project is successful. For instance, if remedial activities 

44 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


were taken during the fifth year after project implementation, monitoring of these remedial measures 
would continue until year 10. If they did not meet success criteria at that point, additional measures 
would be required or new mitigation would be provided elsewhere should a project not be capable of 
meeting success criteria. 

Success criteria for bank stabilization and riparian planting and revegetation projects are described in 
the Mitigation Feasibility Assessment implementation document. 

Success Criteria for Invasive Plant Management 

In areas where the District conducts invasive plant management mitigation activities the District will 
monitor conditions in years 1, 3, and 5 following mitigation. The success criterion for invasive plant 
management mitigation will be species specific to ensure the appropriate control method, timing, and 
frequency. Control work for certain invasive species may require several years of treatment to be 
effective. Repeat invasive plant management mitigation activities, within a two-year period will be 
accounted toward the original mitigation requirement. Following two years, if additional repeat invasive 
removal work is necessary, then the site will become available to be counted as mitigation for new SMP 
maintenance activities (at a 50% rate for the patch area). 

Success criteria will be developed for each site based on site specific conditions and target species. 
Many interconnected factors go into determining the level of success that can be expected. Each 
proposal for invasive management will be negotiated annually and will include the following elements: 

1. Description of the target species including the suggestions for an optimal management 
approach based on the available published literature and local professional expertise. 

2. Discussion of site constraints as certain sites may have limitations in the techniques that can be 
used for invasive plant management due to regulatory and/or ESA concerns. 

3. Discussion of control timeframes and strategies. Different species require different repeat 
treatments to be effective. Therefore, the success strategy might be laid out over a period of 
time for difficult to control species. 

4. Discussion of site specific success strategies. Adjacent invasive plant populations will have a 
significant effect on individual site success. It might be desirable to manage an invasive plant at 
a particular site, but if there is an adjacent invasive population that is off of District property, the 
potential for success is less. Flowever, it might still be desirable to treat the invasive with a 
containment strategy. For example, maintaining a pickleweed population with lepidium all 
around it. 

8.2 Mitigation Reporting 

Mitigation planning, design, implementation, and monitoring activities will be notified and reported to 
the relevant permitting agencies through the course of the regular program communications, including 


45 



SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


submittal of the SMP annual Notice of Proposed Work (NPW) and Post-construction Report (PCR). 
These reports will include a discussion of mitigation activities associated with the SMP. The District will 
also annually complete a Wetland Tracker Form 7 to provide information on maintenance work in 
wetland locations. 

Mitigation information to be included in the NPW will include a description of mitigation activities 
planned for the coming year including locations, lengths, areas, and other project details. The NPW will 
also include a schedule for implementing mitigation activities and a statement describing the status of 
permit approvals necessary to perform the project (if applicable). As needed, reporting for land 
acquisition and restoration projects will include a description of how the proposed off-site mitigation 
will address SMP related impacts. Table 10 provides an example summary mitigation notification table 
that will be included in the annual NPW to identify, notify, and track the given year's proposed 
mitigation projects. 

Permitting agencies will have the opportunity to review and comment on the proposed annual 
mitigation approach. The annual mitigation activities will be consistent with the mitigation approaches 
and requirements described in this document and the SMP Manual. 

Each year, the District will submit a PCR on SMP activities including summary descriptions of the 
maintenance activities conducted in the past year. The annual report will also include status reporting 
on the program's mitigation activities, including the submittal of follow up monitoring reports from 
previous mitigation projects. Table 11 provides an example mitigation summary table that will be 
included with the annual PCR to identify and track the given year's mitigation projects, as well as the 
status of other mitigation projects that require on-going reporting. The mitigation activity section of the 
PCR will include a comparison with success criteria, and describe efforts to meet those criteria. 
Individual tree replacement planting for the removal of 6-12 inch dbh trees will be reported annually 
through the PCR. 

Reporting requirements will apply according to the duration of monitoring requirements, as described 
above. Once projects have fulfilled the 5-year monitoring requirement and meet the appropriate 
success criteria, they would no longer need to be reported in the annual PCR. 


7 The Wetland Tracker ( www.californiawetlands.net) provides free public access to information about the location, 
size, sponsors, habitats, contact persons, and status of wetland restoration, mitigation, creation, and enhancement 
projects in the San Francisco Bay Area. It also provides information on the location and condition of wetlands 
around the state. The San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board has integrated the Wetland Tracker into 
its regulatory process, and completion of the Wetland Tracker form is now a condition for 401 permitting. The 
Wetland Tracker has been integrated into the wetlands portion of the State Water Resources Control Board. 


46 




SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


Table 10. Example Mitigation Notification Provided in Annual Notice of Proposed Work (NPW) 


20XX Project List 

Total 

Project 

Length 

(ft) 

Total 

Project Area 

(ac) 

Potential Impact 
to Freshwater 
Wetlands 8 

(ac) 

Potential Impact to 
Tidal Wetlands 1 

(ac) 

Potential Impact to 
Riparian Habitat 9 

(ac) 

Potential Impact to 
Instream Features 10 

(ac) 

Impacts Covered by 2002 Mitigation Program, or 
through other land acquisition, or (for vegetation 
management activities) has location been previously 
mitigated in last 5 years? 

(Y/N) 

If NO, were Impacts 
Projected for 2012- 
2022? (Y/N) 

Onsite Mitigation 

(Type and area restored) 

Offsite Mitigation or Acquisition 

(Type and area restored) 

Sediment Removal 







Sed Project 1 


0.02 

0.02 


- 

N/A 

Y 




Sed Project 2 


1.0 

1.0 

- 

- 

N/A 

N 

Y 

Invasive Plant Management (1.2 ac 
treated at 1.2:1 ratio) 


Sed Project 3 


0.6 

0.3 


- 

- 

N 

N, however impacts 
consistent with 
CEQA/permit 
documents (an 
assessment would 
be attached for 

agency 

review/approval) 


Acquisition in-kind 

preservation/enhancement (0.9 ac at 3:1 
ratio) 

Sed Project 4 


0.75 

0.5 




N 

Y 


Acquisition In-kind restoration (0.75 ac 
acquired at 1.5:1 ratio) 

Sed Project 5 


0.52 

0.5 

- 


0.02 

N 

Y 

Riparian Planting 

(0.6 ac planted at 1.2:1 ratio) 

Instream new LWD feature (0.02 ac at 
1:1 ratio) 


Total 2002 Program 


0.02 

0.02 

- 

- 

- 

^--- "" 

^ 

- 

- 

Total 2012 Program 


2.87 

2.3 


- 

0.32 



Invasive Plant Management: 1.2 ac 
Riparian Planting: 0.6 ac 

Instream LWD: 0.02 ac 

Acquisition in-kind 

preservation/enhancement: 0.9 ac 

acquired 

Acquisition In-kind restoration: 0.525 ac 
acquired 

Vegetation Management 11 







Veg Project 1 


1.0 

0.2 


0.8 


Y 

- 

- 

- 

Veg Project 2 


2.5 

0.5 


2.0 


N 

Y 

Riparian Planting (3 ac at 1.2:1 ratio) 

Individual Tree Planting for removal of 
trees 6-12"dbh (15 trees planted 5 ) 


Veg Project 3 


1.54 

0.04 


1.5 


N 

Y 

Riparian Planting (1.5 ac at 1.2:1 ratio) 

Invasive Plant Management (0.348 ac 
treated at 1.2: ratio) 


Total 2002 Program 


1.0 

0.2 


0.8 


^----- 

^-- 

- 

- 

Total 2012 Program 


4.04 

0.54 


3.5 




Riparian Planting: 4.5 ac 

Invasive Plant Management: 0.6 ac 
treated 

Trees planted (15) 



8 Wetland Impacts include: Aquatic, Herbaceous, and Sediment wetlands, as projected in impact Tables 5 and 6 for tidal and non-tidal stream reaches. 

9 Riparian Habitat Impacts include: Woodland, Herbaceous (non-wetland), and Shrub impacts, as projected in impact Tables 5 and 6 for tidal and non-tidal stream reaches. 

10 Instream Features include presence of "high quality" large woody debris, deep pools, cobble/boulder features, and potential spawning gravel, as determined according to the protocols described in Section 5.6 and 6 (gravel augmentation discussion). 

11 Vegetation management activities requiring mitigation are: herbicide application, hand removal, discing, mowing, and hand pruning. 

5 Replacement tree planting based on mitigation requirements/ratios described in Appendix C, Tree Scoring for Removal of Trees and Shrubs 


47 






SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Update 
Mitigation Approach Memorandum: November 18, 2011 


Table 11. Example Annual Mitigation Tracking Provided in Annual Post Construction Report (PCR) 


20XX Mitigation Project Types 

Mitigation Project Name 

Description 

Total Onsite 
Mitigation 
Completed 

Total Offsite 
Mitigation Completed 

Land Acquisition (in-kind preservation/enhancement) 

Project 1 

Covers Stream Reaches A1 and A2 

.. 

0.9 ac 

Land Acquisition (in-kind restoration) 

Project 2 

Covers Stream Reach B3 

. 

0.525 ac 

Land Acquisition (watershed lands out-of-kind) 

NA 

NA 

. 


Invasive Plant Management Program 

Creeks X and Y 

Blackberry removal 

1.8 ac 


Riparian Planting and Restoration 

Creeks R and S 

Native XX species planted 

4.5 ac 


Tree Planting 

Creek M 

Native XX tree species planted 

15 trees 


Instream Complexity 

Creek T 

New LWD Structure 

0.2 ac 



Ongoing Monitoring of Mitigation Projects 
(2012 - current) 

Project Name 

Description 

Monitoring 

Year 

Comments 

Invasive Plant Management Program 

Creek X 

Blackberry removal and revegetation conducted in 
20XX 

1 of 5 


Creek XX 

Arundo removal and revegetation conducted in 2014 

3 of 5 

Site in good condition 

Creek XXX 

Blackberry removal and revegetation conducted in 
2012 

5 of 5 

Site meets success criteria 

Riparian Planting and Restoration 

Creek R 

Native XX species planted 

lof 5 


Creek S 

Native species planted at bank stabilization project XX 

1 of 5 


Creek XXX 

Native XX species planted 

3 of 5 

5 plants required 
replanting 

Tree and Shrub Planting 

Creek M 

Native XX tree species planted 

lof 5 


Instream Complexity 

Creek T 

New LWD Structure 

lof 5 



48 





OL Horizon 

WAI tR and ENVIRONMENT 


Figure 1 

SCVWD SMP Decision Making Process to Identify and Prioritize 
Mitigation During the 2012-2022 Program Period 

























































Appendix B: Vegetation Classification 


Formation Class 

Formation 

Macrogroup 

Alliance 

Id 

Wetland 

Alliance 

Hydromorphic 
Vegetation 
(Aquatic Vegetation) 

Freshwater Aquatic 
Vegetation 

8100 - Western 
North American 
Freshwater Aquatic 
Vegetation 

8100 

Y 

Naturalized Temperate Pacific Freshwater Vegetation 

Mesomorphic 
Forests & 
Woodlands 

Cool Temperate 
Forests 

Californian- 
Vancouverian 
Montane & Foothill 
Forest 

1200 

N 

Vancouverian Evergreen Broadleaf & Mixed Forests & 

1210 

N 

Arbutus menziesii 


1211 

N 

Lithocarpus densiflorus 



1212 

N 

Pseudotsuga menziesii - Lithocarpus densiflorus 




1300 

N 

Upland Vancouverian Mixed Woodland & Forests Group 




1310 

N 

Pseudotsuga menziesii 




1311 

N 

Acer macrophyllum 



Vancouverian 

1400 

N 

Vancouverian Hypermaritime Lowland Rainforest Group 



Rainforest 

1410 

N 

Sequoia sempervirens 


Exotic Woodland 

Exotic Woodland 

100 

N 

Exotic Trees Group 




101 

N 

Exotic Trees, Canopy Height < 2 Meters 




102 

N 

Exotic Trees, Canopy Height 2-15 Meters 




103 

N 

Exotic Trees, Canopy Height > 15 Meters 




110 

N 

Eucalyptus 


Temperate 
Flooded Forests 

Southwestern North 
American Riparian, 

3200 

N 

Southwestern North American Riparian Evergreen & 
Deciduous Woodlands Group 



Flooded, & Swamp 

3210 

N 

Populus fremontii 



Forest/Scrubland 

3211 

N 

Salix laevigata 




3212 

N 

Salix gooddingii 




3213 

N 

Platanus racemosa 




3214 

N 

Acer negundo 




3215 

N 

Juglans hindsii Semi-Natural Stands 



Western Cordilleran 
Montane-Boreal 
Riparian Scrub 

3100 

N 

Vancouverian Riparian Deciduous Forests Group 



3110 

N 

Alnus rhombifolia 


































Appendix B: Vegetation Classification 



Warm Temperate 
Forests 

California Forests & 
Woodlands 

1100 

N 

California Broadleaf Forests & Woodlands Group 

1110 

N 

Quercus chrysolepis 

1111 

N 

Umbellularia californica 

1112 

N 

Quercus agrifolia 

1113 

N 

Aesculus californica 

1114 

N 

Quercus kelloggii 

1115 

N 

Quercus lobata 

1116 

N 

Quercus douglasii 

Mesomorphic 

Herbaceous 

Vegetation 

Mediterranean 
Grassland & Forb 
Meadow 

California Perennial 
& Annual 
Grasslands 

7100 

N 

California Perennial & Annual Grasslands Mapping Unit 

Group (Native component) 

7110 

N 

Serpentine component mapping unit 

7200 

N 

Mediterranean California Naturalized Annual & Perennial 
Grassland Group (Weedy grasslands with no na) 

7201 

N 

Conium-Foeniculum patches 

Western North 
America Temperate 
Grassland & 
Meadow 

7300 

N 

Western Dry Upland Perennial Grassland Group 

7301 

N 

Lolium multiflorum 

Temperate & 
Boreal Freshwater 
Marsh 

North American 
Pacific Coastal Salt 
Marsh 

7800 

Y 

Temperate Pacific Tidal Salt and Brackish Meadow Group 

7801 

Y 

Salicornia 

7802 

Y 

Salicornia - Salt Grass - Jaumea 

7803 

Y 

Chord Grass 

7804 

Y 

Scirpus maritimus 

7805 

Y 

mixed bulrush spp. (Scirpus californicus and S. robustus) 

7806 

Y 

Scirpus robustus 

7807 

Y 

Scirpus californicus 

7808 

Y 

bulrush/cattail mix 

7810 

Y 

Typha (angustifolia, latifolia, domingensis) 

7820 

Y 

brackish/tidal bulrush spp. mapping unit 

7830 

Y 

brackish/tidal Bulrush-Cattail mapping unit 

7900 

Y 

Southwestern North American Salt Basin and High Marsh 
Group 

Western North 

7700 

Y 

Naturalized Warm-Temperate Riparian & Wetland Group 





































Appendix B: Vegetation Classification 




America Wet 
Meadow & Low 
Shrub Carr 

7701 

Y 

Lepidium latifolium 

Western North 
American 
Freshwater Marsh 

7400 

Y 

Freshwater Wet Meadow Mapping Unit Group (Meadow 
vegetation) 

7500 

Y 

Arid Freshwater Emergent Marsh Group (Marsh vegetation) 

7510 

Y 

Typha (angustifolia, latifolia, domingensis) 

7520 

Y 

Fresh or brackish bulrush spp. mapping unit 

7530 

Y 

Bulrush - Cattail mapping unit 

Western North 
American Vernal 
Pools 

7600 

Y 

Californian Mixed Annual/Perennial Freshwater Vernal 
Pool/Swale/Plain Bottomlands Group 

7601 

Y 

Eleocharis macrostachya, Downingia, Trifolium variegatum, 
Eryngium 

Mesomorphic Shrub 
Vegetation 

Mediterranean 

Scrub 

California Chaparral 

4100 

N 

Californian Xeric Chaparral Group 

4111 

N 

Arctostaphylos glauca 

4112 

N 

Adenostoma fasciculatum 

4200 

N 

Californian Mesic Chaparral Group 

California Coastal 
Scrub 

4300 

N 

Central & South Coastal Californian Coastal Sage Scrub 
Group 

4310 

N 

Artemisia californica 

Temperate & 
Boreal Scrub & 
Herb Coastal 
Vegetation 

Vancouverian 
Coastal Dune & 
Bluff 

4400 

N 

California Coastal Evergreen Bluff & Dune Scrub Group 

4410 

N 

Baccharis pilularis 

Vancouverian 
Lowland Grassland 
& Shrubland 

4500 

N 

Naturalized Non-native Deciduous Scrub Group 

4510 

N 

Rubus discolor 

4600 

N 

Vancouverian Coastal Deciduous Scrub Group 

4610 

N 

Toxicodendron diversilobum 

Temperate 
Flooded Scrubland 

Southwestern North 
American Riparian & 
Flooded Swamp 
Scrubland 

3300 

N 

Southwestern North American Riparian/Wash Scrub Group 

3310 

N 

Salix lasiolepis 

3311 

N 

Salix exigua 

3312 

N 

Baccharis salicifolia 

3313 

N 

Sambucus nigra (lumped with Mexican elderberry) 


































Appendix B: Vegetation Classification 





3400 

N 

Southwestern North American Introduced Riparian Scrub 
Group 




3401 

N 

Arundo donax 




3402 

N 

Tamarix 

Miscellaneous 

Class 

Lithomorphic, 
Anthropogenic & 

Lithomorphic, 
Anthropogenic & 

9200 

N 

Agriculture Group (Without fallow annual grasses 
dominating) 


Water 

Water 

9201 

N 

Row Crops 




9202 

N 

Vineyards 




9203 

N 

Orchards 




9204 

N 

Other Agriculture including related disturbance 




9300 

N 

Built up & Urban Disturbance Group 




9301 

N 

Roads 




9400 

N 

Areas of Little or No Vegetation Group 




9401 

N 

Cliffs & Rock Outcroppings 




9402 

N 

River & Lacustrine Flats & Streambeds 




9403 

N 

Earth Lined Channels 




9404 

N 

Concrete Lined Channels 




9405 

N 

Fence Row 




9406 

N 

Landscaping 




9800 

N 

Water Group 




9801 

N 

Perennial Stream Channel 




9802 

N 

Reservoirs 




9803 

N 

Small Earthen Dam Ponds and Natural Lakes 




9999 

N 

Unknown Type Group (flagged for field) 































Appendix C 


Tree Scoring for Removal of Trees and Shrubs < 12"DBH 
April 5, 2011 

Trees up to 12" dbh may be removed under the Stream Maintenance Program 2012-2022. The sum value from the 
assessment of four (4) attributes will provide a mitigation ratio for the trees/shrubs proposed for removal. Trees 
>12" dbh are not included as a part of this removal program. 

High scores equate to higher value trees, with greater potential impacts if they are removed; and therefore, will 
require more mitigation. Low scores equate to lower value trees, having fewer potential impacts if they are 
removed; and therefore, require lower mitigation. 

A. Approach 

Tree replacement would start with a baseline ratio of 1:1. Replacement ratios would increase or decrease based on 
specific ecological attributes of the individual(s) to be removed and the setting in which it is/they are located. 

Scoring would add to or subtract from the baseline ratio. Final ratios would be calculated using the methodology 
outlined below. 

B. Ranking 

1. Canopy cover 

a) Square footage of canopy is measured at the drip-line of the subject tree. 

b) Grouping or stands of trees are calculated as the summation of each individual tree canopy, even if 
the canopies overlap. Open space between the trees would not be factored into the square footage 
calculation. 

c) Calculations may be made on approximations (+/- 5 feet) with areas converted to measurable 
geometry. Width x length = square footage. (Estimating by a triangle or circle is also acceptable.) 

d) 0-100 sq. ft. is ranked 0 as the baseline from which mitigation starts is 1:1 



L 


Metric: Choose 1. Assess at widest dripline extension point and square that value. 


Attribute 

Score 

0-100 Square Feet of Canopy (< 10' diameter) 

0 points 

101-400 Square Feet of Canopy (10 - 20' 
diameter) 

+ 1 points 

>401 Square Feet (> 20' diameter) 

+ 2 points 


0-2 points 


2. Local Area Value 

a) Is the affected vegetation unique to its geographic location based on a measurable attribute 
(species, size, structure, absence of adjacent comparable vegetation). 

b) There is a 2000 sq ft maximum for removal of a stand of trees. 


Metric: Choose all that apply. Score = 0 if none of these apply. 


Attribute 

Score 

Native Species 

+1 point 

No similar vegetation within 500 feet radius 
(Size of canopy, height, or similar measurable 

+1 point 


SMP 2012-2022 Tree/Shrub Removal Assessment 


- 1 - 


12/6/2011 





criteria; even if non-native). 


Stand Reduction (Removal of target trees 
would reduce stand by more than...) 

+1 point for 20-50% reduction 
+2 points for greater than 50% reduction 


0-4 points 


3. Ecosystem Benefits (wildlife, fisheries, streams) 

a) Tree used by wildlife. Examples include: cavity nesting, nectar feeders, high wildlife food value 
(seeds, fruits, flowers), cavities and crevices for bats, dead wood for woodpeckers and insect 
feeders, perching, roosting, nesting, etc. This will rarely ever be zero. 

Supports macroinvertebrate and biomass decomposition processes. 

b) Provides structure/cover: Nurse tree, horizontal or vertical cover. 

c) Provides SRA: Shaded Riverine Aquatic, < 15 ft from the water's edge or overhangs water, shade, 
roots or branches in water providing habitat for fish and aquatic organisms, could contribute 
instream woody debris. 

d) Tree is 6-12" dbh, provides more mature structure and life form to the surrounding environment. 


Metric: Choose all that apply. 


Attribute 

Score 

Used by wildlife 

+ 1 point 

Structure/Cover (vertical, horizontal) 

+ 1 point 

SRA 

+ 1 point 

Tree is 6-12" dbh (life form) 

+ 1 point 


1-4 points 


4. Ecosystem Detriments 

a) Tree has ecologically undesirable attributes. 

b) Ecological arboriculture would include a tree failing to thrive with little or no hope of recovery. 

Note: this distinguishes between tree removals that may benefit the ecological setting versus hazard 
trees. 


Metric: Choose all that apply. Score = 0 if none of these apply. 


Attribute 

Score 

Significant structural defects 

-1 point 

Non-native species OR 

-1 point OR 

Invasive species 

-2 points 

Removal for ecological arboricultural reasons 

-1 point 

(diseased, infestation), excludes hazard trees 



-4-0 points 


C. Mitigation Calculation 

Baseline is 1:1 ratio for trees impacted in this size class. 

Point reductions could result in a final score that reduces the ratio to less than 1:1. 


Attributes_Min._Max. 

Vegetation Cover 0 2 

Local Area Value 0 4 

Ecosystems Benefits 1 4 

Ecosystems Detriments -4 _0_ 

Total Range -3 10 


Attribute Range 

Mitigation Ratio 

-3 - 2 

1:1 

3-5 

2:1 

6 -10 

3:1 


SMP 2012-2022 Tree/Shrub Removal Assessment 


-2- 


12/6/2011 























Appendix C 


SMP 2012-2022 Tree/Shrub Removal Assessment -1- 


12/6/2011 



Tree ScorinR for Removal of Trees and Shrubs < 12" dbh 


Site Location_ 

Assessors Name 

Date_ 

ESU # 


Species_ 

DBH_ 

Canopy Cover sq ft_ 
Reason for Removal 


1. Canopy cover 


Metric: Choose 1. Assess at widest dripline extension point. 


Attribute 

Score 

0-100 Square Feet of canopy cover (< 10' 
diameter) 

0 points 

101-400 Square Feet of canopy cover (10-20' 
diameter) 

+ 1 points 

>401 Square Feet ( > 20' diameter) 

+ 2 points 


0-2 


Stand maximum = 2000 sq ft 


Vegetation Cover 

Score:_ 


2. Local Area Value 


Metric: Choose all that apply. Score = 0 if none of these apply. 


Attribute 

Score 

Native Species 

+1 point 

No similar vegetation within 500 feet radius 
(Size of canopy, height, or similar measurable 
criteria; even if non-native). 

+1 point 

Stand Reduction (Removal of target trees 
would reduce stand by more than:.) 

+1 point for 20-50% 
reduction 

+2 points for greater than 

50% reduction 


Ecosystem Benefits (wildlife, fisheries, streams) 
Metric: Choose all that apply. 

0-4 

Attribute 

Score 

Used by wildlife 

+ 1 point 

Structure/Cover (vertical, horizontal) 

+ 1 point 

SRA 

+ 1 point 

Tree is 6-12" dbh (life form) 

+ 1 point 


1-4 


4. Ecosystem Detriments 

Metric: Choose all rows that apply. Score = 0 if none of these apply. 


Attribute 

Score 

Significant structural defects 

-1 point 

Non-native species or 

Invasive species 

-1 point or 
-2 points 

Removal for ecological arboricultural reasons 
(diseased, infestation) excludes Hazard trees 

-1 point 


-4-0 


Local Area Value 

Score: 


Ecosystem Benefit 

Score: 


Ecosystem Detriment 

Score: 


SMP 2012-2022 Tree/Shrub Removal Assessment 


-2- 


12/6/2011 










Appendix C 


C. Mitigation Calculation 


Attributes 

min 

max 

Vegetation Cover 

0 

2 

Local Area Value 

0 

4 

Ecosystems Benefits 

1 

4 

Ecosystems Detriments 

-4 

0 

Total Range 

-3 

10 


Total 4 Attributes 

Score: 


Attribute Range 

Mitigation Ratio 

-3 - 2 

1:1 

3-5 

2:1 

6 -10 

3:1 


Mitigation Ratio:_ 

Canopy Cover sq ft X Ratio quotient = Amount Owed 


SMP 2012-2022 Tree/Shrub Removal Assessment 


- 1 - 


12/6/2011 















Appendix D 

General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 




Appendix D 

General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


This appendix provides general plan policies and regulations, and public agency ordinances 
related to Santa Clara County and jurisdictions in the Project Area. 

Management of Open Space and Habitats 

The following resource management entities in Santa Clara County help govern the 
protection of open space and the habitats and species that occupy them: 

■ The Guadalupe-Coyote Resource Conservation District (GCRCD] is a public 
agency established by the state legislature and partially funded by property taxes 
collected within the agency's jurisdiction. The purpose of the GCRCD is to conserve 
resources by promoting sustainable agriculture including rangeland management 
practices for the preservation of species diversity and proper watershed 
management of wetlands and riparian corridors. 

■ The Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District (MPROSD] is an independent 
special district that works to form a continuous greenbelt of permanently preserved 
open space by linking its lands with other public parklands and establishing 
regional trail systems. 

■ The Santa Clara County Open Space Authority is an independent special district, 
whose jurisdiction is all of Santa Clara County with the exception of lands and 
communities within the boundaries of MPROSD and the City of Gilroy. 

■ The Santa Clara Valley Habitat Plan is a combination of a habitat conservation 
plan required under federal law and a natural community conservation plan 
required under state law. The purpose of the Habitat Plan is to obtain, for a 50-year 
period, permits from state and federal wildlife agencies for impacts to listed and 
potentially listed endangered species. More information also see Section 3.3, 
Biological Resources. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


D-1 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


General Plans 

General Plans are long-range comprehensive plans developed for cities and counties that 
govern growth and development (see Chapter 7, References, for all general plans, under 
Section 3.8 Land Use and Planning. The Project Area is located in Santa Clara County. 
Although Santa Clara County includes many cities and towns, this analysis focuses on those 
municipalities directly affected by Proposed Project activities. The following section 
reviews key land use policies in the General Plans of Santa Clara County as well as the cities 
of Campbell, Cupertino, Gilroy, Los Altos, Town of Los Altos Hills, Town of Los Gatos, 
Milpitas, Monte Sereno, Morgan Hill, Mountain View, Palo Alto, San Jose, Santa Clara, 
Saratoga, and Sunnyvale, all of which are relevant to the SMP Update. 

Santa Clara County (1994) 

Cultural Resources 

Definition of Heritage Resources 

Heritage resources are those particular types of resources, both natural and man-made, 
which due to their vulnerability or irreplaceable nature deserve special protection if they 
are to be preserved for current and future generations. 

The types of resources addressed as heritage resources include: 

• historical sites, structures, and areas; 

• archeological and paleontological sites and artifacts; and 

• historical and specimen trees. 

Policies 

C-RC 49 Cultural heritage resources within Santa Clara County should be preserved, 

restored wherever possible, and commemorated as appropriate for their 
scientific, cultural, historic and place values. 

C-RC 50 Countywide, the general approach to heritage resource protection should 

include the following strategies: 

1. Inventory and evaluate heritage resources. 

2. Prevent or minimize adverse impacts on heritage resources. 

3. Restore, enhance, and commemorate resources as appropriate. 

C-RC 51 Inventories of heritage resources should be maintained as the basis for local 

decision-making regarding such resources. 

C-RC 52 Prevention of unnecessary losses to heritage resources should be ensured 

as much as possible through adequate ordinances, regulations, and 
standard review procedures. Mitigation efforts, such as relocation of the 
resource, should be employed where feasible when projects will have 
significant adverse impact upon heritage resources. 

Implementation Recommendations 

C-RC(i]24 Update inventories and evaluations of heritage resources. Survey resources 
as necessary to augment existing inventories. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


D-2 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


Rural Unincorporated Area Policies 

R-RC 1 Natural and heritage resources shall be protected and conserved for their 

ecological, functional, economic, aesthetic, and recreational values. 

R-RC 2. Heritage resources shall be preserved to the maximum extent possible for 

their scientific, cultural, and "sense of place” values. 

R-RC 81 Heritage resources within the rural unincorporated areas of Santa Clara 

County shall be preserved, restored wherever possible, and commemorated 
as appropriate for their scientific, cultural, historic and place values. 

R-RC 85 No heritage resource shall knowingly be allowed to be destroyed or lost 

through a discretionary action (zoning, subdivision site approval, grading 
permit, building permit, etc.) of the County of Santa Clara unless: 

a. the site or resource has been reviewed by experts and the County 
Historic Heritage Commission and has been found to be of insignificant 
value; or 

b. there is an overriding public benefit from the project and compensating 
mitigation to offset the loss is made part of the project. 

R-RC 86 Projects in areas found to have heritage resources shall be conditioned and 

designed to avoid loss or degradation of the resources. Where conflict with 
the resource is unavoidable, mitigation measures that offset the impact may 
be imposed. 

R-RC 90 Heritage and old growth trees, particularly redwoods, should not be cut, 

except in instances where public safety is jeopardized. 


Parks and Recreation Chapter 


Trails and Pathway 


Strategy #4: Adequately Operate and Maintain Trails 

C-PR 30 Trails shall be temporarily closed when conditions become unsafe or 

environmental resources are severely impacted. Such conditions could 
include soil erosion, flooding, fire hazard, environmental damage, or failure 
to follow the specific trail management plan (see Countywide Trails Master 
Plan - Design and Management Guidelines). 


Strategy #6: Facilitate Inter-Jurisdictional Coordination 

C-PR 33.5 Public improvement projects, such as road widenings, bridge construction, 

and flood control projects that may impact existing or proposed trails 
should be designed to facilitate provision of shared use. 


Scenic Highway 


Strategy #2: Protect Scenic Highway Corridors 

C-PR 37 The natural scenery along many of Santa Clara County’s highways should be 

protected from land uses and other activities which would diminish its 
aesthetic beauty. 


Resource Conservation Chapter 

Overall Resource Management Strategies: 

Strategy #1: Improve and update current knowledge of resources 
Strategy #2: Emphasize pro-active, preventive measures 
Strategy #3: Minimize or compensate for adverse human impacts 
Strategy #4: Restore resources where possible. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


D-3 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 



Strategy #1: Reduce Non-Point Source Pollution 

C-RC 18 Water quality countywide should be maintained and improved where 

necessary to ensure the safety of water supply resources for the population 
and the preservation of important water environments and habitat areas. 


C-RC 19 The strategies for maintaining and improving water quality on a 

countywide basis, in addition to ongoing point source regulation, should 
include: 

b. restoration of wetlands, riparian areas, and other habitats which serve to 
improve Bay water quality; and 

c. comprehensive Watershed Management Plans and "best management 
practices” (BMPs). 


C-RC 20 Adequate safeguards for water resources and habitats should be developed 

and enforced to avoid or minimize water pollution of various kinds, 
including: 

a. erosion and sedimentation; 

b. organic matter and wastes; 

c. pesticides and herbicides; 

g. industrial wastewater discharges; 

h. hazardous wastes; and 

C-RC 21 Multi-jurisdictional, countywide programs and regulatory efforts to address 

water pollution problems should have the full support and participation of 
each jurisdiction within Santa Clara County, including cities, special 
districts, state and federal agencies, and County government. 

C-RC 22 Countywide, compliance should be achieved with the requirements of the 

National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for 
discharges into S.F. Bay, and to that end, the Countywide Nonpoint Source 
Pollution Control Program should receive the full support and participation 
of each member jurisdiction. 

Strategy #2: Restore Wetlands, Riparian Areas, and Other ffabitats That Improve Bay Water 
Quality 

C-RC 25 Wetlands restoration for the purpose of enhancing municipal wastewater 

treatment processes, improving habitat and passive recreational 
opportunities should be encouraged and developed where cost-effective 
and practical. 


Habitat and Biodiversity 


Strategy #1: Improve Current Knowledge and Awareness of Habitats and Natural Areas 

C-RC 27 Habitat types and biodiversity within Santa Clara County and the region 

should be maintained and enhanced for their ecological, functional, 
aesthetic, and recreational importance. 


C-RC 28 The general approach to preserving and enhancing habitat and biodiversity 

countywide should include the following strategies: 

1. Improve current knowledge and awareness of habitats and natural areas. 

2. Protect the biological integrity of critical habitat areas. 

3. Encourage habitat restoration. 

4. Evaluate the effectiveness of environmental mitigations. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


D-4 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


Strategy #2: Protect the Biological Integrity of Critical Habitat Areas 

C-RC 31 Areas of habitat richest in biodiversity and necessary for preserving 

threatened or endangered species should be formally designated to receive 
greatest priority for preservation, including baylands and riparian areas, 
serpentine areas, and other habitat types of major significance. 


Strategy #3: Encourage Habitat Restoration 

C-RC 34 Restoration of habitats should be encouraged and utilized where feasible, 

especially in cases where habitat preservation and flood control, water 
quality, or other objectives can be successfully combined. 

Strategy #4: Evaluate Effectiveness of Environmental Mitigations 

C-RC 36 Specific project mitigations for the purpose of preserving habitat should be 

monitored for a period of time to assure the likelihood of their 
effectiveness. 

Scenic Resources 

C-RC 57 The scenic and aesthetic qualities of both the natural and built 

environments should be preserved and enhanced for their importance to 
the overall quality of life for Santa Clara County. 


C-RC 58 The general approach to scenic resource preservation on a countywide 

basis should include the following strategy: 

c. maintaining and enhancing scenic urban settings, such as parks and open 
space, civic places, and major public commons areas. 

Strategy #2: Minimize Development Impacts on Significant Scenic Resources 

C-RC 61 Public and private development and infrastructure located in areas of 

special scenic significance should not create major, lasting adverse visual 
impacts. 

Strategy #3: Maintain and Enhance the Scenic Values of Urban Settings 

C-RC 62 Urban parks and open spaces, civic places, and public commons areas 

should be designed, developed and maintained such that the aesthetic 
qualities of urban settings are preserved and urban livability is enhanced. 
Natural resource features and functions within the urban environment 
should also be enhanced. 


Solids Waste Management 


C-RC 64 Countywide solid waste management efforts shall be guided by the 

hierarchy of strategies outlined below, emphasizing resource recovery in 
accordance with state law: 


a. Source reduction and reuse, 

b. Recycling and composting, 

c. Transformation, and 

d. Landfilling as final option. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


Health and Safety Chapter 
Hazardous Materials 

Strategy #1: Manage Hazardous Materials Safely and Efficiently 

C-HS 14 All feasible measures to safely and effectively manage hazardous materials 

and site hazardous materials treatment facilities should be used, including 
complying with all federal and state mandates. 


Emergency Preparedness 

Strategy #1: Plan for Immediate Disaster Response 

C-HS 19 The County and cities should comply with federal and state hazardous 

materials regulations and planning activities, including, the Countywide 
Hazardous Waste Management Plan, the Hazardous Materials Area Plan, 
and the Operations Section of the County Emergency Plan regarding a 
hazardous materials incident. 

Natural Hazards 

Strategy #4: Reduce the Magnitude of the Hazard, If Feasible 

C-HS 34 Flood control measures should be considered part of an overall community 

improvement program and advance the following goals, in addition to flood 
control: 

a. resource conservation; 

b. preservation of riparian vegetation and habitat; 

c. recreation; and 

d. scenic preservation of the County’s streams and creeks 

The Rural Unincorporated Areas Chapter of the County's General Plan - Book B (County of 
Santa Clara 1994] provides policies to preserve resources in the rural unincorporated areas 
of the county. Policies to preserves these resources that would be relevant to the Proposed 
Project include: 

Parks and Recreation Chapter 
Parks and Public Open Space Lands 

Strategy #1: Develop Parks and Public Open Space Lands 

NR-PR 5 Water resource facilities, utility corridors, abandoned railroad tracks, and 

reclaimed solid waste disposal sites should be used for compatible 
recreational uses, where feasible. 

Strategy #4: Adequately Operate and Maintain Trails 

R-PR32 Trails shall be temporarily closed when conditions become unsafe or 

environmental resources are severely impacted. Such conditions could 
include soil erosion, flooding, fire hazard, environmental damage, or failure 
to follow the specific trail management plan (see Countywide Trails Master 
Plan - Design and Management Guidelines], 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


Resource Conservation Chapter 


Water Sue 


& Watershed Management 


Strategy #2: Reduce Water Quality Impacts of Rural Land Use and Development 

R-RC 11 Areas with prime percolation capabilities shall be protected to the 

maximum extent possible, and placement of significant pollution sources 
within such areas shall be avoided. 


R-RC 14 Use and disposal of agricultural chemicals, such as fertilizers, pesticides and 

herbicides, shall be managed to minimize the threat of water pollution. 


Habitat & Biodiversity 


Strategy #1: Improve Current Knowledge and Awareness of Habitats and Natural Areas 

R-RC 19 Habitat types and biodiversity within Santa Clara County and the region 

should be maintained and enhanced for their ecological, functional, 
aesthetic, educational, medicinal, and recreational importance. 


Strategy #2: Protect the Biological Integrity of Critical Habitat Areas 

R-RC 25 Wetlands habitats of San Francisco Bay shall be preserved and enhanced. 


R-RC 31 Natural streams, riparian areas, and freshwater marshes shall be left in 

their natural state providing for percolation and water quality, fisheries, 
wildlife habitat, aesthetic relief, and educational or recreational uses that 
are environmentally compatible. Streams which may still provide spawning 
areas for anadromous fish species should be protected from pollution and 
development impacts which would degrade the quality of the stream 
environment. 


R-RC 32 Riparian and freshwater habitats shall be protected through the following 

general means: 

b. regulation of tree and vegetation removal; 

c. reducing or eliminating use of herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers by 
public agencies; 

e. protection of endemic, native vegetation. 

R-RC 35 Flood control modifications to be made in streams that have substantial 

existing natural areas should employ flood control designs which enhance 
riparian resources and avoid to the maximum extent possible significant 
alteration of the stream, its hydrology, and its environs. 

R-RC 37 Lands near creeks, streams, and freshwater marshes shall be considered to 

be in a protected buffer area, consisting of the following: 

1. 150 feet from the top bank on both sides where the creek or stream is 
predominantly in its natural state; 

2. 100 feet from the top bank on both sides of the waterway where the 
creek or stream has had major alterations; and 

3. In the case that neither (1) nor (2) are applicable, an area sufficient to 
protect the stream environment from adverse impacts of adjacent 
development, including impacts upon habitat, from sedimentation, 
biochemical, thermal and aesthetic impacts. 

R-RC 38 Within the aforementioned buffer areas, the following restrictions and 

requirements shall apply to public projects, residential subdivisions, and 
other private non-residential development: 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


a. No building, structure or parking lots are allowed, exceptions being those 
minor structures required as part of flood control projects. 

b. No despoiling or polluting actions shall be allowed, including grubbing, 
clearing, unrestricted grazing, tree cutting, grading, or debris or organic 
waste disposal, except for actions such as those necessary for fire 
suppression, maintenance of flood control channels, or removal of dead or 
diseased vegetation, so long as it will not adversely impact habitat value. 

c. Endangered plant and animal species shall be protected within the area. 


Strategy #3: Encourage Habitat Restoration Wherever Possible 

R-RC 53 Restoration of habitats should be encouraged and utilized wherever 

feasible, especially in cases where habitat preservation and flood control, 
water quality, or other objectives can be successfully combined. 

R-RC 54 Restoration of stream channels and riparian areas should be encouraged 

wherever feasible. Multiple uses, such as for recreational trails, should be 
considered so long as habitat and other ecological values are preserved. 


Scenic Resources 
R-RC 95 


R-RC 97 


R-RC 98 


The scenic and aesthetic qualities of both the natural and built 
environments should be preserved and enhanced for their importance to 
the overall quality of life for Santa Clara County. 

Scenic qualities of the rural areas of Santa Clara County shall be maintained 
and enhanced through existing land use and development policies. 
Development compatible with scenic resource conservation should be 
encouraged. 

Hillsides, ridgelines, scenic transportation corridors, major county 
entryways, stream environments, and other areas designated as being of 
special scenic significance should receive utmost consideration and 
protection due to their prominence, visibility, and overall contribution to 
the quality of life in Santa Clara County. 


Health and Safety Chapter 
Geologic and Seismic Hazards 

R-HS 19 In areas of high potential for activation of landslides, there shall be no 

avoidable alteration of the land or hydrology which is likely to increase the 
hazard potential, including: 

a. saturation due to drainage or septic systems; 

b. removal of vegetative cover; and 

c. steepening of slopes or undercutting the base of a slope. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


Land Use Policies Chapter 
Resource Conservation Areas 

R-LU 3 The general intent of each ‘Resource Conservation Area’ designation is to 

encourage land uses and densities appropriate to the rural unincorporated 
areas that also: 

a. help preserve rural character; 

b. conserve natural, scenic, and cultural resources; 

c. protect public health and safety from natural and man-made hazards; 

d. preserve agriculture and prime agricultural soils; 

e. protect watersheds and water quality; 

f. enhance air quality; and 

g. minimize the demand for and cost of public services and facilities. 

R-LU 5 The edges of the San Francisco Bay shall be preserved and restored as open 

space. Allowable uses shall include: 

a. bay waters and sloughs; 

b. marshes, wetlands and wetlands restoration; 

c. salt extraction; 

d. wildlife habitat; 

e. open space preserves; 

f. small piers and walkways; 

g. wildlife observation; and 

h. recreational uses, such as walking, horseback riding, bicycling, fishing, 
boating, education, swimming, limited hunting, aquaculture, and marinas. 

R-LU 125 In vicinity of Llagas Creek, particularly in the areas of highly permeable 

soils, commercial uses should be situated and designed to prevent any form 
of harmful waste discharge in the creek. The value of the riparian habitat 
and the beauty of the creek should be maintained and enhanced. 

South County Joint Area Plan (1994) 

The South County Joint Area Plan - Book B (County of Santa Clara 1994] provides policies to 
preserve resources in the southern portion of the county. Policies to preserves these 
resources that would be relevant to the SMP Update include: 

SC 12.9 Careful consideration should be given to the cumulative effects of 

development which would drain into the upper reaches of Llagas Creek and 
other creeks in order to avoid the need for channelization and consequent 
destruction of its riparian vegetation and natural habitat. 

SC 13.1 Since County maintenance is limited to maintaining local storm drainage 

facilities which may affect County roads, any additional storm drain-related 
maintenance beyond that which is currently provided will require 
additional funding from residents and/or developers. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


SC 15.8 Natural streamside and riparian areas should be left in their natural state, 

in order to preserve their value as percolation and recharge areas, natural 
habitat, scenic resources, recreation corridors and for bank stabilization. If 
flood control projects needed to protect presently existing development 
make this infeasible, disruption should be minimized, maintaining slow 
flow and stable banks through design and other appropriate mitigation 
measures. 

SC 15.9 Wildlife, rare and endangered plants and animals, and heritage resources 

should be identified and protected from loss and destruction. 

City of Campbell (2001) 

Open Space, Parks, and Public Facilities Element: 

Strategy OSP-l.la: Santa Clara County Parks and Trails: Work with Santa Clara County and the 
Santa Clara Valley Water District to renovate and improve access to the Los 
Gatos Creek Trail and Los Gatos County Park 

Strategy OSP-1.lb: Santa Clara Valley Water District: Work with the Santa Clara Valley Water 
District to provide public access and improvements to the Groundwater 
Recharge Facilities in the City and explore the possibility of a multiple-use 
recreational trail along San Tomas Aquino Creek. 

Policy OSP-1.3: Facilities Improvement, Maintenance and Use Agreements with Regional 
Agencies: Utilize a variety of techniques to increase, preserve or maintain 
regional open space facilities such as facilities improvement, joint 
maintenance or use agreements. 

Strategy OSP-1.3a: Facilities Improvement, Maintenance and Use Agreements: Enter into 
facilities improvement, maintenance and use agreements with the County 
of Santa Clara, the Santa Clara Valley Water District and other public 
agencies to improve, maintain and increase access to these open space, park 
lands and facilities. 

Goal OSP-2: Provide and maintain attractive, safe, clean and comfortable open space, park land 
and recreational facilities and programs for maximum community use, benefit and enjoyment. 

Policy OSP-9.1: Drainage Facilities: Ensure that drainage facilities convey storm runoff 
without polluting local watercourses. 

Strategy OSP-9.lb: Regional Storm Drainage Facilities: Cooperate with surrounding 
jurisdictions and Santa Clara County to provide adequate regional storm 
drainage facilities. 

Strategy OSP-9.lc: Urban Runoff Management Plan: Implement Urban Runoff Management 
Plan standards and programs to ensure to the maximum extent practicable 
that receiving waters and ground water recharge basins are not polluted. 

Strategy OSP-9.Id: New Construction: Require new construction to utilize site preparation, 
grading and foundation designs that provide erosion control to prevent 
sedimentation and contamination of streams. 

Strategy OSP-9.le: Post-construction Pollution Control Measures: Require new construction 
projects to include post-construction pollution control measures in site 
designs to prevent pollution. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


Conservation and Natural Resources Element: 

Strategy CNR-1.lb: Archaeological Resources: In accordance with CEQA and the State Public 
Resources Code, require the discontinuation of all work in the immediate 
vicinity and the preparation of a resource mitigation plan and monitoring 
program by a licensed archaeologist if archaeological resources are found 
on any sites within the City. 

Goal CNR-3: Protect and maintain animal and plant species and supporting habitats within 
Campbell. 

Policy CNR-3.1: Riparian Corridor Preservation: Preserve the aesthetic and habitat value of 

riparian corridors. 

Strategy CNR-3.lb: Santa Clara Valley Water District Activities: Work with Santa Clara Valley 
Water District to restrict future fencing, piping and channelization of creeks 
when flood control and public safety can be achieved through measures 
that preserve the natural environmental and habitat of riparian corridors. 

Strategy CNR-3.lc: Native Species Planting: Encourage the Santa Clara Valley Water District, 
County Parks Department, City, developers and private property owners to 
plant and maintain native trees and plants and replace invasive, non-native 
species with native ones along creek corridors. 

Strategy CNR-3.Id: Removal of Invasive Species: Institute an on-going program to remove 
invasive plant species and harmful insects from ecologically sensitive areas, 
primarily by means other than application of herbicides and pesticides. 

Strategy CNR-3.le: Concrete-lined Channels: Coordinate efforts with the Water District to 
revert some existing concrete-lined channels to more natural alternatives 
such as levees. 

Strategy CNR-3.If: Grading Ordinance: Develop and implement a Grading Ordinance that 
requires the use of erosion and sediment control measures and minimizes 
grading and vegetation removal near creeks to ensure that the creeks are 
protected from reduction in bank stability, erosion, downstream 
sedimentation and flooding. 

Strategy CNR-5.1d: Sediment Removal from Creeks: Work with Santa Clara Valley Water 
District on sediment management for the creeks. 

Strategy CNR-5.1e: Dumping into Waterways: Work with the Santa Clara Valley Water District 
to protect surface water quality by prohibiting the dumping of toxic 
chemical substances, debris and refuse in and near water ways and storm 
drains and adding signs with this information near these areas. 

Strategy CNR-11.2d: Construction Dust Control: Require dust control measures, including those 
included in the Santa Clara Valley Non-point Pollution Control Program, 
during construction. 

Strategy CNR-11.3b: Environmental Documents: Assess the adequacy of environmental 
documents for projects proposed in the City utilizing the thresholds 
established in the BAAQMD guidelines. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


City of Cupertino (2005) 

Cultural Resources Element 

Policy 2-63 Archaeologically Sensitive Areas. Protect archaeologically sensitive areas. 

Strategy Development Investigation. Require an investigation for development 

proposed in areas likely to be archaeologically sensitive, such as along 
stream courses and in oak groves, to determine if significant archaeological 
resources may be affected by the project. Also require appropriate 
mitigation measures in the project design. 

Policy 2-64 Native American Burials. Protect Native American burial sites. 

Strategy Upon discovery of such burials during construction, take action prescribed 

by State law, including stoppage of work in surrounding area, notification of 
appropriate authorities and reburial of remains in an appropriate manner. 

Policy 2-65 Heritage Trees. Protect and maintain heritage trees in a healthy state. 

Strategy fferitage Tree List. Establish and periodically revise a heritage tree list that 

includes trees of importance to the community. 

Environmental Resources/Sustainability Element 

Policy 5-4: Air Pollution Effects of New Development. Minimize the air quality impacts of new 
development projects and the impacts affecting new development. 

Strategies: 

1. Toxic Air Contaminants. Review projects for potential generation of toxic 
air contaminants at the time of approval and confer with BAAQMD on 
controls needed if impacts are uncertain. 

2. Dust Control. Require water application to non-polluting dust control 
measures during demolition and the duration of the construction period. 

3. Planning Decisions. Assess the potential for air pollution effects of future 
land use and transportation planning, and ensure that planning decisions 
support regional goals of improving air quality. 

4. Environmental Review. Evaluate the relationship of sensitive receptors, such 

as convalescent hospitals and residential uses, to pollution sources through 
the environmental assessment of new development. 

Policy 5-19: Natural Water Bodies and Drainage Systems. Require that site design respect the 
natural topography and drainages to the extent practicable to reduce the amount of 
grading necessary and limit disturbance to natural water bodies and natural 
drainage systems caused by development including roads, highways, and bridges. 

Policy 5-27: Natural Water Courses. Retain and restore creek beds, riparian corridors, 
watercourses and associated vegetation in their natural state to protect wildlife 
habitat and recreation potential and assist groundwater percolation. Encourage 
land acquisition or dedication of such areas. 

Strategy: Work with the Santa Clara Valley Water District and other relevant regional 
agencies to enhance riparian corridors and provide adequate flood control by use 
of flow increase mitigation measures. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


Policy 5-32: Urban Runoff Pollution Prevention Program. Support and participate in the Santa 
Clara Valley Urban Runoff Pollution Prevention Program (SCVURPPP) in order to 
work cooperatively with other cities to improve the quality of storm water runoff 
discharge into San Francisco Bay. 

Policy 5-33: Illicit Discharge into Storm Drains and Waterways. Prohibit the discharge of 
pollutants and the illicit dumping of wastes into the storm drains, creeks and 
waterways. 

Policy 5-34: Storm Water Runoff. Encourage the reduction of impervious surface areas and 
investigate opportunities to retain or detain storm runoff on new development. 

Health and Safety Element 

Policy 6-47: Dwellings in Natural Flood Plain. Regulate closely all types of habitable 
development in natural flood plains. This includes prohibiting fill materials and 
obstructions that may increase flood potential downstream or modify the natural 
riparian corridors. 

Policy 6-48: Hillside Grading. Restrict the extent and timing of hillside grading operation to 
April through October. Require performance bonds during the remaining time to 
guarantee the repair of any erosion damage. All graded slopes must be planted as 
soon as practical after grading is complete. 

Policy 6-28: Hazardous Materials Storage and Disposal. Require the proper storage and disposal 
of hazardous materials to prevent leakage, potential explosions, fire or the release 
of harmful fumes. 


City of Gilroy (2002) 


Preservation 

Goal: A strong sense of connection to Gilroy’s past through historical, archeological, and 

paleontological resources that are preserved, protected, enhanced, and 
commemorated for the benefit of current and future generations. 


Policy 5.01 


Policy 5.07 


Action 5.1 


Historic Preservation. Encourage public and private efforts for the 
preservation of historic and architecturally significant buildings, 
archeological sites, and other landmarks that give residents a tie with the 
past. 

Archeological Resources. If archeological resources or human remains are 
discovered during construction, work shall be halted within 50 meters (150 
feet] of the find until it can be evaluated by a qualified professional 
archeologist. If the find is determined to be significant, appropriate 
mitigation measures shall be formulated and implemented. 

Archeological Assessments. Require an archeological assessment for all 
CEQA projects (i.e., projects requiring an environmental assessment] in 
potentially sensitive archeological areas (as indicated on the City’s Historic 
and Cultural Resources Map], The assessment shall consist of a preliminary 
survey and, if evidence of sites is found, a test-level investigation. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


Cultural Resources Mitigation Measure 

MM 4.14-A In areas identified as archaeologically sensitive: A comprehensive cultural 
resource evaluation would be required at the time specific development 
projects are proposed. Unsurveyed areas would require a thorough field 
inspection to identify potential historic and prehistoric resources. After 
specific cultural surveys have been conducted, appropriate plans for 
evaluation and mitigation of impacted resources would be completed as 
necessary. The City shall exercise discretion in requiring project applicants 
to perform one or all of the following: 

• Planning construction to avoid archaeological sites. 

• "Capping" or covering the archaeological site with a layer of soil 
prior to construction. Capping may be used where serious soil 
compaction will not occur; the covering materials are not 
chemically active; and the site has been recorded. 

• Deeding the archaeological sites into permanent conservation 
easements. 

Community Design and Development Element 

Policy 5.07 Archeological Resources. If archeological resources or human remains are 
discovered during construction, work shall be halted within 50 meters (150 feet] of 
the find until it can be evaluated by a qualified professional archeologist. If the find 
is determined to be significant, appropriate mitigation measures shall be 
formulated and implemented. 

GOAL: Designation of Hecker Pass Highway, Santa Teresa Boulevard, and Pacheco Pass Highway 
as scenic highways, and long-term protection of their scenic qualities. 

Policy 6.01 Scenic Highways. Support the designation of Hecker Pass Highway, Santa Teresa 
Boulevard, and Pacheco Pass Highway as official State Scenic Highways, and 
establish appropriate development controls to ensure long-term protection of their 
scenic qualities. Controls should establish appropriate setbacks, sign controls, and 
other development regulations in keeping with State guidelines for the protection 
of scenic highway corridors. 

Policy 6.02 Other Scenic Roadways. Recognize and protect important scenic qualities and 
natural features on other roadways in the Planning Area, including Uvas Park Drive 
and Miller Avenue from First Street to Mesa Road. 

Community Resources and Potential Hazards Element 

GOAL: Preservation, protection, and maintenance of Gilroy’s natural open space resources 
(including creeks, meadows, hills, woodlands, and vistas] for their watershed protection, 
habitat preservation, recreation, and aesthetic value, ensuring that they retain their 
natural qualities and beauty in perpetuity. 

Policy 20.01 Open Space Areas. Preserve and protect the following open space areas: 

a] Natural resource and wildlife habitat areas, such as the Uvas Creek and Llagas 
Creek riparian communities; the heavily vegetated portions of the Santa Cruz 
mountains; steep hillsides and significant hillside features (such as serpentinite 
barrens]; and natural features of high community value (e.g., the stands of trees 
along Miller Avenue and cedar trees bordering Hecker Pass], 

b] Hazardous areas, such as fault zones, areas subject to strong groundshaking during 
earthquakes, and floodways. 

c] Lands around reservoirs. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


d) Lands which provide greenbelts for the South County cities. 

e) Recreational lands, including community, neighborhood, and linear parks; 
expanded linear parks along Uvas and Llagas Creek; and the Gilroy Municipal Golf 
Course. 

Policy 20.02 Creek Protection. Protect the ecological, aesthetic and recreational value of the 
creeks that flow through the Gilroy Planning Area from urban encroachment and 
degradation. Ensure that new development preserves the function of natural 
drainages, including small canyons and seasonal creeks. The easements and setbacks 
adjacent to these creeks shall be maintained in open space. Access to creeks should be 
of sufficient width to accommodate trails, flood control access, and protection of 
riparian habitat. 

Policy 20.03 Plant and Wildlife Habitats. Preserve important plant and wildlife habitats, 
including riparian communities, heavily vegetated hillside areas, unique hillside 
ecosystems (e.g., serpentinite barrens), creeks, and sensitive nesting sites. Loss of 
these habitats should be fully offset through creation of habitat of equal value, with the 
compensation rate for habitat creation determined by a qualified biologist. 

Policy 20.04 Rare and Endangered Species. Limit development in areas that support the 
California Tiger Salamander and other rare or endangered species. If development of 
these areas must occur, any loss of habitat should be fully compensated onsite. If off¬ 
site mitigation is necessary, it should occur within the Gilroy Planning Area whenever 
possible, and must be accompanied by plans and a monitoring program prepared by a 
qualified biologist. 

Policy 20.05 Greenbelts. Designate protected open space areas in conjunction with 
agricultural lands to create significant natural buffers, or "greenbelts,” between Gilroy 
and surrounding communities, helping to retain the city’s semi-rural, small town 
quality. Land uses within a greenbelt should be determined by joint planning activities 
of the South County cities and the County, but might include very low density 
residential development; public parks and recreation areas; privately operated 
recreation areas; and agriculture. Of special concern is the area separating the 
northern part of the Gilroy Planning Area from the community of San Martin. If an 
adequate greenbelt cannot be established in the area north of Masten and Fitzgerald 
Roads, then the Gilroy General Plan Land Use Map should be amended to include a 
greenbelt strip in the northern part of the Planning Area. 

Policy 20.06 Open Space Access and Management. Manage and maintain public open space 
areas and encourage the management and maintenance of private open space areas in 
a manner that ensures habitat protection, provides for public access, addresses public 
safety concerns, and meets low-impact recreation needs. 

Policy 21.02 Landscaping to Reduce Pollutants. Promote the use of trees and plants in 
landscaping to reduce air pollutant levels. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


GOAL: Protection of groundwater in the Llagas subbasin from contamination and a clean and 
healthy supply of potable water in compliance with State and Federal water quality 
standards. 

Policy 22.01 Inter-Agency Coordination. Maintain close coordination with the agencies and 
organizations that share jurisdiction and interest relative to South County’s water 
supply and water quality, including: the Regional Water Quality Control Board; Santa 
Clara Valley Water District; County Health Department; County Executive’s Office; 
County Planning Office; Morgan Hill Planning Department; and the San Martin 
Planning Committee. 

Policy 22.02 Compatible Ordinances, Standards, and Enforcement Procedures. Ensure 
compatible ordinances, standards, and enforcement procedures regarding water 
quality in all South County jurisdictions so that there is no advantage for a company to 
locate in an area with lower standards. Also, encourage the two Regional Water 
Quality Control Boards that have jurisdiction in South County to agree on compatible 
water quality standards for South County and consistent approaches to implementing 
the State Board’s non-degradation policy. 

Policy 22.03 Land Use Controls. Prohibit development of waste facilities, septic systems, and 
industries using toxic chemicals in areas where polluting substances may come in 
contact with groundwater, floodwaters, creeks, or reservoir waters. Within the Gilroy 
Planning Area, identify land uses that may contribute to the degradation of 
groundwater quality and ensure adequate monitoring, controls and enforcement to 
protect groundwater quality. 

Policy 25.17 Flood Control Coordination. Work closely with the Santa Clara Valley Water 
District to alleviate flooding and drainage problems in the Planning Area, ensuring 
that new flood control measures are designed and implemented in accordance "Best 
Management Practices (BMPs) and in keeping with the goals and policies of the 
General Plan. 

Policy 25.19 Floodway Use. Discourage the construction of expensive flood prevention 
facilities by leaving high-risk floodways in agricultural and recreational uses. 

Policy 25.20 Flood Control Costs and Impacts. Minimize the long-term public costs of flood 
control improvements and mitigate potential adverse environmental impacts. Also 
ensure that measures to reduce flood damage to individual properties do not increase 
erosion and/or flood hazards on other properties. 

Policy 25.21 Multiple Use of Flood Control Projects. Design flood control measures and 
drainage channel improvements as part of an overall community improvement 
program with provision for multiple use, including recreational open space, trails, 
bikeways, groundwater recharge, protection and restoration of riparian vegetation 
and wildlife habitats, and enhancement of scenic qualities. 

Policy 25.22 Drainage Channel Design. Design new drainage channels with gently sloping and 
curving banks to maximize safety, ease of maintenance, and natural appearance. To 
the greatest extent feasible, use riparian vegetation to stabilize the banks and to 
landscape the channels in a manner that is natural in character and easy to maintain, 
creating a scenic asset for the enjoyment of City residents. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


Policy 25.23 Green Areas and Permeable Surfaces for Runoff Reduction and Absorption. 
Require new development to include green areas for reducing runoff and increasing 
runoff absorption capacities. Similarly, encourage the removal of pavement that is not 
directly serve traffic parking needs; maintain unpaved parkways between sidewalks 
and streets; encourage the use of permeable paving materials; and require the use of 
landscaped strips and islands to break-up large paved areas. 

Policy 25.24 Flood Control Issues in Hillside Areas. Require new developments in hillside areas 
to retain and protect areas of native vegetation to help reduce erosion and slow the 
speed of rainfall runoff, thereby retaining the hillside areas’ natural flood control 
characteristics. Ensure that retention and protection of vegetated areas is also in 
keeping with fire hazard management goals. 

Policy 27.01 Hazardous Materials Inspections and Monitoring. Continue to provide 
inspections and monitoring to ensure compliance with local, state, and federal 
regulations and to reduce the risks associated with the use and handling of hazardous 
materials and wastes. 

Policy 27.02 Hazardous Waste Reduction. Minimize the potential hazards posed by the 
storage and transport of hazardous materials and waste by encouraging source 
reduction, waste minimization, and on-site pretreatment. 

Policy 27.04 Potential Hazardous Soils Conditions. Evaluate new development on sites that 
may have involved hazardous materials, to ensure there is no public health danger 
prior to granting development approvals. 

City of Los Altos (2002) 

Cultural Resources Element 

Goal 6 Preserve and enhance selected historic and cultural structures and resources within 

the community. 

Policy 6.4 Preserve archaeological artifacts and sites found in Los Altos or mitigate 

disturbances to them, consistent with their intrinsic value. 

Policy 6.5 Require an archaeological survey prior to the approval of significant 

development projects near creeksides or identified archaeological sites. 

Implementation Strategies 

CDHR13 Protect Significant Archaeological Resources. Assess development 

proposals for potential impacts to significant archaeological resources 
pursuant to Section 15064.5 of the CEQA Guidelines. Require a study 
conducted by a professional archaeologist for projects located near creeks 
or identified archaeological sites to determine if significant archaeological 
resources are potentially present and if the project will significantly impact 
the resources. If significant impacts are identified, either require the project 
to be modified to avoid the impacts, or require measures to mitigate the 
impacts. Mitigation may involve archeological investigation or recovery. 

Open Space, Conservation & Community Facilities Element 

Goal 2: Preserve and protect and provide for public enjoyment of natural areas (natural creek 

channels, topography, and vegetation), which are valuable natural resources. 

Policy 2.3: Protect creeks, creekside areas and riparian habitat in their natural state 

while ensuring public safety and preserving a valuable natural resource. 


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Policy 2.4: Take an active role in promoting the adoption of a regional stream 

management plan. 

Policy 2.5: Enforce local, state, and federal regulations addressing water quality and 

stormwater quality management. 

Policy 2.6: Adopt land use controls that prevent incompatible uses for parcels adjacent 

to existing open space lands and recreation areas. 

Policy 2.7: Establish buffers from adjoining land uses to protect the natural state of all 

creekside areas. 

Policy 2.8: Encourage access and improvements along the creeks on public property. 

Natural Environment and Hazards Element 

Goal 2: Reduce the potential for flooding along creeks that traverse Los Altos. 

Policy 2.1: Work with other jurisdictions to regulate land uses in flood-prone areas 

and allow development in those areas only with appropriate mitigation. 

Policy 2.2: Identify and seek sources of funding to be used toward the prevention of 

flooding. 

Policy 2.3: Continue to discourage concrete lining of creek beds, and encourage the 

Santa Clara Valley Water District to use environmentally sensitive solutions 
to control local erosion problems. 

Goal 3: Protect the community’s health, safety, welfare, natural resources, and property 

through regulation of use, storage, transport, and disposal of hazardous materials. 

Policy 3.1: Cooperate with and participate in development of the policies and future 

programs of the Santa Clara County Health Department and the California 
Legislature. 

Policy 3.2: Support the management of hazardous materials contamination and 

abatement by public and private agencies. 

Infrastructure & Waste Disposal Element 

Goal 3: Abate non-point source water pollution. 


Policy 3.1: 

Control surface runoff water discharges into the storm water system to 
comply with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit 
and the receiving water limitations assigned by the California Regional 
Water Quality Control Board. 

Policy 3.2: 

Establish non-point source pollution control measures and programs to 
attempt to reduce and control the discharge of pollutants into the City’s 
storm drains and local creeks. 

Policy 3.5: 

Preserve, and where possible, create or restore areas that provide 
important water quality benefits, such as riparian corridors, wetlands, and 
buffer zones. 

Policy 3.6: 

Limit disturbances of natural water bodies and natural drainage systems 
caused by development including roads, highways, and bridges. 

Policy 3.7: 

Avoid development of areas that are particularly susceptible to erosion and 
sediment loss; or establish development guidance that identifies these 
areas and protects them from erosion and sediment loss. 

The City of Los Altos has established a Watercourse Protection Ordinance to protect its 
watercourses by requiring the maintenance of waterways to keep them free of debris, 


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excessive vegetation and other obstacles that have the potential to pollute, contaminate, or 
significantly retard water flow. 

Los Altos also implements a tree removal permit program to retain as many trees within the 
city as possible. Trees that require a permit before being removed include: 

■ All trees with a circumference of 48 inches or greater measured at 48 inches above 

the ground. 

■ Any tree located within the public right-of-way. 

■ Any Canary Island Palm trees located on Rinconada Court. The Historical 

Commission has designated these particular trees as landmark trees. 

■ Any tree which was required to be saved or planted in conjunction with a 

development review application. 

Town of Los Altos Hills (2007) 

Cultural Resources Element 

GOAL 10 Encourage both public and private efforts to preserve and enhance historic resources. 

Policy 10.1 Preserve, protect and enhance the historic resources of the planning area 
because they are unique and valuable assets for the community and region. 

Conservation Element 

GOAL 1: Conserve creeks and riparian areas as open space amenities and natural habitat areas. 

Policy 1.1 Avoid fencing, piping, and channelization of creeks when flood control and 

public safety can be achieved through measures that preserve the natural 
environment and habitat of the creek. 

Policy 1.2 Work with the Santa Clara Valley Water District and other relevant regional 

agencies to enhance riparian corridors and provide adequate flood control 
by use of low impact restoration strategies. 

Policy 1.3 Preserve the integrity of riparian corridors as unique and environmentally 

sensitive resources. 

GOAL 2: Protect native and naturalized trees and plants. 

Policy 2.1 Minimize disturbance of the natural terrain and vegetation. 

Policy 2.2 Preserve and protect native and naturalized plants, with special attention to 

preservation of unique, rare or endangered species and plant communities 
such as oak woodlands. 

Policy 2.3 Preserve and protect Heritage Trees, including native oaks and other 

significant trees, on public and private property. 

Policy 2.4 Encourage the planting of native trees and shrubs to provide a substantial 

buffer between the roadways and adjoining properties in harmony with the 
general character of the Town. 


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Policy 2.5 Encourage the removal and prevention of the spreading of aggressive 

exotics such as Italian thistle, stinkweed, pampas grass, acacia, yellow star 
thistle, French broom, Scotch broom and eucalyptus. 

Policy 2.6 Encourage the removal of poison oak where allowed by law. 

Policy 2.7 Avoid the development of environmentally sensitive areas that are rich in 

wildlife or of a fragile ecological nature, such as areas of rare or endangered 
species of plants, or riparian areas. 

GOAL 3: Maintain and enhance the integrity of wildlife habitat. 

Policy 3.1 Maintain and protect creeks and riparian corridors for wildlife that use this 

resource for food, shelter, migration and breeding. 

GOAL 5: Protect and conserve water resources. 

Policy 5.1 Keep or restore major drainage courses in their natural condition insofar as 

possible because of their importance in supplying major vegetation, land 
forms and wildlife habitat, and storm drainage. 

Policy 5.2 Protect the Town’s groundwater from the adverse impacts of urban uses. 

Policy 5.3 Encourage the conservation and efficient use of water in new and existing 

residences. 

Policy 5.5 Reduce non-point source pollution in urban runoff. 

GOAL 6: Protect and conserve soil resources. 

Policy 6.1 Encourage soil stabilization measures that mitigate soil erosion and 

sedimentation. 

Policy 6.2 Ensure the proper use, storage and disposal of toxic chemicals to prevent 

soil contamination. 

Policy 6.3 Minimize the removal of vegetation and require replanting to maintain soil 

stability, prevent erosion, and retain the aesthetic quality of the community. 

GOAL 11: Promote and enhance the integrity of the natural environment. 

Policy 11.1 Develop and implement programs by which the natural environmental 
features of the planning area can be conserved to the maximum extent 
feasible and by which areas already unduly disturbed by man can be 
returned to a more natural condition. 

Policy 11.2 Ensure that in the planning, development and use of land, environmental 
impact is not overlooked, conservation actions are considered, and such 
evaluations and actions are sufficiently comprehensive and consistent with 
established guidelines. 

Policy 11.3 Conserve the natural character of the planning area in any land 
development project. 

Policy 11.4 Ensure that the scale of building, the siting of development, the design and 
the materials of construction are harmonious with the natural setting. 

Policy 11.5 Ensure that development projects are designed to conserve the natural 
slope, preserve existing native vegetation, limit invasive species, and 
conserve natural drainage channels and swales. 

Policy 11.6 Participate in and support the conservation efforts of other jurisdictions, 
agencies or organizations that are of mutual benefit to the Town. 


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Policy 11.7 Support conservation education programs in the local schools and, when 
necessary to respond to local problems, initiate and implement specific 
educational programs or campaigns. 

Safety Element 

GOAL 1: Protect the public from risk of personal injury and property damage due to natural 
safety hazards. 

Policy 1.2 Unstable terrain, active fault traces, water channels, flood plains, 

excessively steep slopes and other areas determined hazardous to public 
welfare and safety shall not be developed unless unobtrusive corrective 
measures can assure public safety. Minimize the risk of personal injury and 
property damage due to flooding. 

Policy 3.1 Leave natural channels and flood plains in a natural state, unencumbered 

by development to the maximum extent feasible. Exceptions shall be made 
only in situations where it is essential to protect established property 
values or for public safety. 

Open Space and Recreation Element 

GOAL 1: Protect and preserve open space lands for future generations. 

Policy 1.2 Protect and maintain those areas necessary to the integrity of natural 

resources and processes, with special emphasis on, but not limited to, the 
groundwater recharge and drainage system, open spaces vital for wildlife 
habitat, open spaces suitable for agriculture, and other areas of major or 
unique ecological significance. 

Policy 1.3 Provide open space for outdoor recreational needs and for the preservation 

of sites of historical and cultural significance. 

Policy 1.4 Preserve the natural beauty and minimize disturbance of the natural terrain 

and vegetation. 

Policy 1.5 Preserve the important vistas, such as Monte Bello, Kaiser, Neary and Ewing 

Hill Ridges, and the hillsides leading to these ridges. 

Policy 1.6 Preserve open space where necessary for the protection of public health 

and safety. 

Policy 1.7 To the extent possible, link open spaces together visually and physically to 

form a system of open spaces. 

Policy 1.8 Ensure that land uses and structures are compatible with the general open 

space quality of the planning area. 

Policy 1.11 Encourage the use of Murietta Ridge Preserve as a conservation area, rather 
than a recreation area, in order to protect the existing vegetation and 
wildlife habitat. 


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Policy 1.12 Ensure that open space lands achieve the following objectives: 

■ Preserve visually and environmentally significant open space 
resources; and 

■ Provide for recreation activities compatible with the enjoyment and 
preservation of each site’s natural resources, with pathway linkages to 
adjacent and nearby parks and open space preserves. 

Town of Los Gatos (2010) 

Cultural Resources Element 

Goal OSP-8 To protect Los Gatos’s archaeological and cultural resources to maintain and 
enhance a unique sense of place. 

Policies 

OSP-8.1 Evaluate archaeological and/or cultural resources early in the development 

review process through consultation with interested parties and the use of 
contemporary professional techniques in archaeology, ethnography and 
architectural history. 

OSP-8.2 Ensure the preservation, restoration and appropriate use of archaeological 

and/or culturally significant structures and sites. 

OSP-8.3 Treat with respect and dignity any human remains discovered during 

implementation of public and private projects within the Town and fully 
comply with California laws that address the identification and treatment of 
human remains. 

OSP-8.4 Require that if cultural resources, including archaeological or 

paleontological resources, are uncovered during grading or other on-site 
excavation activities, construction shall stop until appropriate mitigation is 
implemented. 

Actions 

OSP-8.1 Develop guidelines for project review to ensure that potential impacts to 

archaeological and/or cultural resources are minimized. 

Goal CD-12 To preserve significant historic and architectural features within the Town. 

Policies 

CD-12.7 All projects shall consider any adverse effect to historic landmarks and 

features on or in the vicinity of the proposed project. 

CD-12.8 Require any development having potential adverse impacts on historical 

sites and/or features on or in the vicinity of the site to: 

a. Accommodate the historical structure or feature; or 

b. Mitigate potential adverse impacts to a level acceptable to the Town; or 

c. Relocate the historical feature to an appropriate site. 


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Open Space Element 

Goal 0.G.1 .1: To acquire open space areas within the Town of Los Gatos, particularly lands 
which provide recreational uses and will protect the public health, welfare, and safety of 
residents and visitors (e.g.: lands in flood plains, watershed lands, or lands subject to fire 
or geologic hazards). 

Policy 0.P.1.5 Promote a system of Town parks and trails and maximize the use of public 

utility easements , flood control channels, school grounds, and other quasi¬ 
public areas for recreational uses and playfields. 

Conservation Element 

Goal C.G.2.2: To protect and preserve watersheds. 

Goal C.G.2.3: To minimize the amount of storm water runoff, as well as to protect and improve 
the quality of runoff. 

Goal C.G.2.5: To insure an adequate water supply for the Town’s plant and animal wildlife as 
well as human populations. 

Goal C.G.2.6: To protect riparian corridors including intermittent and ephemeral streams. 

Policy C.P.2.1 Apply land use regulations, scenic easements, or other appropriate 
measures to keep a maximum of the watershed and lands immediately 
contiguous to reservoirs and stream channels in an open, natural state. 

Policy C.P.2.3 Consider the single and cumulative impacts on water drainage (runoff) and 
contamination (water quality) in the environmental review process of 
development in all areas but particularly in or adjacent to hillsides, riparian 
lands or important undeveloped watershed areas. 

Policy C.P.2.4 Establish natural open space and recreation as the priority land use 
designation for lands immediately adjacent to reservoirs and streams. 

Policy C.P.2.5 Delineate and adopt designated floodways for all major streams utilizing 

the full flood plain concept as a first priority and the modified flood plain 
concept as a second priority for flood plain development. 

Policy C.P.2.7 Promote non-point source pollution control programs to reduce and control 
the discharge of non-point source pollutants into the storm drain system. 

Policy C.P.2.9 Cooperate with the Santa Clara Valley Water District and their agencies to 

protect watersheds and riparian habitats from degradation. 

Policy C.P.2.10 Retain creek beds, riparian corridors, water courses and associated 
vegetation in their natural state to assist groundwater percolation and 
prevent erosion and downstream sedimentation. 

Goal C.G.3.1: To conserve the air resources of the Town. 

Goal C.G.3.2: To maintain and improve acceptable air quality in Los Gatos. 

Policy C.P.3.4 Encourage reduction of air pollution by encouraging the use of the Route 85 
corridor for cross-town circulation. 

Policy C.P.3.5 Pursue reduction of individual auto use by requiring a plan for alternatives 
to auto use whenever the traffic generated by any development would 
result in an adverse increase in air and noise pollution. 


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Policy C.P.3.7 Maintain street trees, plant additional street trees and encourage 

preservation and planting of trees on private property. 

Goal C.G.4.1: To conserve and augment the plant life of the Town. 

Goal C.G.4.2: To prevent damage to plant life in the hillsides, watershed and riparian areas. 

Policy C.P.4.1 Use existing ordinances and enact any necessary others to preserve trees 
on public and private property. 

Policy C.P.4.2 Preserve heritage trees and specimen. 

Policy C.P.4.3 Preserve the habitat of species that are native, have special value to the 

Town or are threatened/endangered. 

Policy C.P.4.4 Preserve riparian corridors. 

Policy C.P.4.5 Preserve wetlands. 

Policy C.P.4.6 Preserve nesting sites. 

Policy C.P.4.7 Promote public and private projects that protect native plant species. 

Policy C.P.4.8 Prevent development that significantly depletes, damages or alters existing 
plant life, wildlife habitat or landscape vistas. 

Policy C.P.4.11 Encourage preservation and use of native plant species in hillside areas. 

Goal C.G.5.1: To conserve the wildlife populations. 

Policy C.P.5.1 Minimize, and where feasible, eliminate the use of herbicides and slowly 
bio-degrading pesticides to minimize potential damage to native plants, 
birds, and other wildlife. 

Policy C.P.5.3 Maintain open space and native plant communities that provide habitat and 
migration corridors for native and viable introduced species. 

Policy C.P.5.4 Establish sound land management practices that will improve wildlife 

habitats. 

Policy C.P.5.5 Identify and protect areas where there is a high degree of diversity in the 

types of habitat available for wildlife. 

Policy C.P.5.6 Promote the design of public and private projects that provide the 

maximum protection of wildlife populations. 

Policy C.P.5.7 Limit public access in areas where significant wildlife populations exist. 

Safety Element 

Goal S.G.1.1: To reduce the potential for injuries, damage to property, economic and social 
displacement, and loss of life resulting from earthquakes, and other various forms of 
geologic failures including mud flows and landslides. 

Goal S.G.1.2: To minimum exposure to geologic hazards, including slope instability, subsidence, 
and expansive soils, and to seismic hazards including groundshaking, fault rupture, 
liquefaction and landsliding. 

Policy S.P.1.1 Ensure that reliable evaluations are made of the geologic conditions 

existing at all sites proposed for development, especially where conditions 
indicate the possibility of weak supporting s oils or geologic structures. 


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Goal S.G.3.1: To reduce the potential for injuries, damage to property, economic and social 
displacement, and loss of life resulting from flood hazards. 

Policy S.P.3.1 Limit the intensity of land use in flood plain areas. 

Policy S.P.3.2 Require site planning and building design to address identified flood and 
inundation hazards. 

Policy S.P.3.3 Insure federal standards are met for development in designated flood 

plains along Los Gatos Creek and other creeks in the Planning Area. 

Goal S.G.5.1: To reduce the potential for injuries, damage to property, economic and social 
displacement, and loss of life resulting from hazards related to hazardous materials. 

Policy S.P.5.1 Work with public agencies and private organizations to prevent 

introduction of hazardous materials into the water and air supply. 

City of Milpitas (2002) 

Cultural Resources Element 

Chapter 4 of Code City's Zoning, Planning and Annexation Code 

XI-4-9.00 Permits. It is unlawful for any person to tear down, demolish, construct, alter, 
remove, or relocate any improvement, or any portion thereof, which has been 
designated a cultural resource or cultural resource site pursuant to the provisions of 
this Chapter, or which lies within an historic district so designated pursuant to the 
provisions of this Chapter, or to alter in any manner any exterior architectural 
feature of such a cultural resource, cultural resource site or improvement within 
such an historic district, or to place, erect, alter or relocate any sign within such an 
historic district or on such a cultural resource or cultural resource site, without first 
obtaining a permit to do so in the manner provided in this Chapter, nor shall the 
Building Department or Planning Commission grant any permit to carry out such 
work on a cultural resource or cultural resource site or within an historic district, 
except in conformity to the provisions of this Chapter. 

Open Space & Environmental Conservation Element 

Guiding Principle 4.a-G-2 Develop a diversified trail system along streamsides and other 

public rights of way to provide recreational opportunities and 
link facilities. 

Guiding Principle 4.a-G-3 Cooperate with other agencies, such as the County and MUSD, to 

provide recreational opportunities to residents. 

Implementing Policy 4.a-I-3 Provide a system of hiking and riding trails and pathways 

connecting the Valley Floor Area to Ed Levin Park. 

Implementing Policy 4.a-I-4 Explore the feasibility of a trail in the Hillside Area within the 

Crestline zone of protection connecting Ed Levin County Park to 
Alum Rock Park. 

Implementing Policy 4.a-I-5 Provide an extensive visually stimulating system of "people 

paths" by developing park chains along Coyote River and the 
Hetch Hetchy right-of-way. 

Implementing Policy 4.a-I-6 Develop the Coyote River area in cooperation with the County 

Park and Recreation Commission in a linear park chain which 
would connect with the Coyote Park Chain in San Jose and 


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provide a safe mechanism for undertaking flood-control 
measures. The trails along Coyote Creek should be part of the 
San Francisco Bay Trail, a regional network of trails used by 
hikers and bicyclists. 

Guiding Principle 4.b-G-l Protect and conserve open spaces which are necessary for 

wildlife habitats and unique ecological patterns. 

Guiding Principle 4.b-G-2 Preserve and protect populations and supporting habitat of 

special status species within the Planning Area, including 
species that are state or federally-listed as Rare, Threatened, or 
Endangered, all federal "candidate" species for listing and other 
species proposed for listing, and all California Species of Special 
Concern. 

Implementing Policy 4.b-I-l Strictly enforce grading regulations controlling removal of 

vegetative cover from hillside areas. 

Implementing Policy 4.b-I-2 Preserve remaining stands of trees. 

Implementing Policy 4.b-I-3 Recreation use of essentially virgin areas should be centered 

around activities which have a minimally disruptive effect on 
natural vegetation 

Implementing Policy 4.b-I-4 Require a biological assessment of any project site where 

sensitive species are present, or where habitats that support 
known sensitive species are present. 

Implementing Policy 4.b-I-5 Utilize sensitive species information acquired through biological 

assessments, project land use, planning and design. 

Guiding Principle 4.d-G-l Protect and enhance the quality of water resources in the 

Planning Area. 

Guiding Principle 4.f-G-l Preserve existing historical and cultural resources, especially 

those sites where an Historical Park may prove feasible. 

Guiding Principle 4.g-G-l Preserve and enhance the natural beauty of the Milpitas area. 

Guiding Principle 4.g-G-2 Establish a network of continuous and varied Scenic Routes that 

provide views of Scenic Resources and access from urban areas 
and the regular transportation network to parks, open spaces 
and cultural attractions. 

Guiding Principle 4.g-G-3 Enhance the visual impact of the gateways to Milpitas. 

Guiding Principle 4.g-G-4 Encourage a variety of recreational uses along Scenic Routes 

consistent with the concept of protecting visual resources. 

Guiding Principle 4.g-G-5 Provide for the inclusion of facilities and improvements (vista 

points, picnic areas, etc.) along Scenic Routes where 
appropriate. 

Guiding Principle 4.g-G-6 Design and site Scenic Routes to have a minimal adverse impact 

on the environment. 

Guiding Principle 4.g-G-7 Exempt all lands within the Valley Floor Planning Area from 

Scenic Corridor restrictions. 

Implementing Policy 4.g-I-13 Develop the section of Berryessa Creek which runs through the 

Town Center into a scenic as well as a recreation resource for 
the Town Center. 


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Seismic and Safety Element 

Guiding Principle 5.b-G-l Minimize threat to life and property from flooding and dam 

inundation. 

Implementing Policy 5.b-I-5 Seek construction of flood control channels to withstand 100- 

year floods along Coyote, Penitencia, Berryessa, Scott, Calera, 
and Los Coches creeks. 

City of Monte Sereno (2008) 

Cultural Resources Element 

Goal OSC-9 Preserve cultural resources in Monte Sereno. 

Policies 

OSC-9.2 Continue to enforce the City’s ffistoric Preservation Ordinance. 

Open Space and Conservation Element 

Goal OSC-4 Preserve and protect valuable biological resources. 

Policy OSC-4.1 Preserve and rehabilitate natural habitat areas that support wildlife, 
particularly large contiguous areas of open space and riparian habitat along 
creeks. 

Policy OSC-4.2 Preserve and protect rare, endangered and other sensitive species. 

Policy OSC-4.4 Require mitigation of potential impacts to special status plant and animal 
species based on a policy of no-net-loss of habitat value. Mitigation 
measures shall incorporate, as the City deems appropriate, the guidelines 
and recommendations of the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the California 
Department of Fish and Game. 

Policy OSC-4.5 To the extent possible, encourage the retention and reestablishment of 
native vegetation in all private development projects and public facility 
construction projects. 

Policy OSC-4.6 Use native plants for landscaping of all public projects to the extent 
possible. 

Goal OSC-5 Preserve and enhance the city’s urban tree canopy. 

Policy OSC-5.1 Continue to require that development proposals minimize the disturbance 
to or removal of existing trees to the extent possible. 

Policy OSC-5.2 Require that removed trees be replaced with at least a one-to-one ratio, 
unless prohibited by good forestry practices 

Policy OSC-5.3 Encourage the replacement of non-native trees with California native tree 
species. 

Policy OSC-5.4 Continue to preserve and protect California native trees while recognizing 
the need to allow for the gradual replacement of trees to provide for on¬ 
going natural renewal. 

Policy OSC-5.5 Continue to enforce the Tree Removal Ordinance and require development 
proposals to provide adequate information to City staff to assess the 
project’s impact on existing trees. 


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Policy OSC-5.6 Continue to preserve the quality of trees in public and private open space 
areas. 

Goal OSC-6 Maintain a high level of water quality. 

Policy OSC-6.1 Encourage the preservation of riparian habitat in a natural state by not 
allowing the culverting of existing creeks and requiring appropriate 
setbacks from creekbeds. 

Policy OSC-6.2 Require development projects to reduce, to the extent feasible, sediment 
discharge and erosion during construction and post-construction. Require 
projects to incorporate mitigation measures, such as Best Management 
Practices (BMPs) to address these water quality issues. 

Policy OSC-6.3 Reduce surface run-off by minimizing impervious surfaces associated with 
motor vehicles, as well as requiring projects to include site designs that 
minimize impervious surfaces and maximize on-site filtration. 

Policy OSC-6.4 Require property owners to work with the natural topography and 
drainage to the extent possible when designing development projects to 
reduce the amount of grading and limit disturbances to natural drainage 
systems. 

Health and Safety Element 

Goal HS-3 Minimize risk to lives, property and public liability due to landslides, soil erosion 
and flood. 

Policy ffS-3.4 Require re-vegetation where feasible to mitigate the appearance of 
engineered slopes and to control erosion contour grading. 

Policy ffS-3.5 Cooperate with County Flood Control to maintain a natural creek setting to 
the extent possible while providing for adequate drainage capacity. 

Policy ffS-3.6 Require, as appropriate, construction of storm drainage improvements 
prevent flooding during periods of heavy rainfall. 


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City of Morgan Hill (2001, updated through February 2010) 

Cultural Resources Element 

Goal 8. Preservation of the city's historic identity 

Action 8.2 Identify and protect heritage resources from loss and destruction. 

Community Development Element 

Goal 18. Useful, accessible and high-quality park, recreation and trail facilities and programs 

Policy 18k Encourage the development of trails along creeks and drainage channels, 
connecting parks, regional trails, schools, library, and other community 
facilities. 181. Coordinate trails, parks, and recreation facilities with a 
citywide bikeways system to include bicycle paths, lanes and routes. 

Policy 18u Trails and linear parkways along creeks and drainage ways shall be 
coordinated with development to ensure protection and restoration of 
natural resources. 

Action 18.5 Work in partnership with the Santa Clara Valley Water District to establish 
easements and develop trails and linear parks along creeks and drainage 
channels. 

Goal 21. Effective management of water resources 

Policy 21a Manage the supply and use of water more efficiently through appropriate 
means, such as watershed protection, percolation, conservation and 
reclamation. (SCJAP 7.00) 

Policy 2Id Encourage the Santa Clara Valley Water District to continue developing 
programs to assure effective management of water resources, such as well 
monitoring, percolation of imported water, reclamation and conservation. 
(SCJAP 7.07) 

Policy 2If Protect streambeds and other appropriate percolation areas from 
encroachment by urban development. (SCJAP 7.05) 

Open Space and Conservation Element 

Goal 5. Preservation and reclamation of streams and riparian areas as open space 

Policy 5a Encourage reclamation of degraded streams and riparian areas. 

Policy 5b Maintain riparian systems, stream banks and floodways in open space or 

related open space uses such as wildlife habitat, recreation or agriculture. 
(SCJAP 16.10) 

Policy 5c A proposed streamside park along West Little Llagas Creek should be 

actively implemented and connected to the County trail system. (SCJAP 
16.10 & 16.12) 

Policy 5d Retain natural streamside and riparian areas in their natural state in order 

to preserve their value as percolation and recharge areas, natural habitat, 
scenic resources, recreation corridors and for bank stabilization. (SCJAP 
15.08) 


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Policy 5e Where flood control projects are needed to protect existing development, 

minimize disruption of streams and riparian systems, maintaining slow 
flow and stable banks through design and other appropriate mitigation 
measures. (SCJAP 15.08) 

Goal 6. Protection of native plants and animals Policies 


Policy 6a 

Policy 6b 

Policy 6c 
Policy 6d 
Policy 6e 
Policy 6f 
Policy 6g 


Preserve all fish and wildlife habitats in their natural state whenever 
possible. Consider development impacts upon wildlife and utilize actions to 
mitigate those environmental impacts. 

Minimize impacts upon wildlife when considering extending annexations, 
urban service areas, and other governmental actions that permit urban 
development of previously undeveloped property. 

Preserve outstanding natural features, such as the skyline of a prominent 
hill, rock outcroppings, and native and/or historically significant trees. 

Development shall be designed to conserve soil and avoid erosion. (SCJAP 
13.06) 

Identify and protect wildlife, rare and endangered plants and animals and 
heritage resources from loss and destruction. (SCJAP 15.09) 

Access to creeks should be of sufficient width to accommodate trails, flood 
control access, and protection of riparian habitat. (SCJAP 16.11) 

Encourage use of native plants, especially drought-resistant species, in 
landscaping to the extent possible. 


Goal 4. The least possible damage to persons and property from flooding 


Policy 4b 


Policy 4e 


Policy 4f 


Policy 4p 


Prohibit development in floodways and regulate in floodplains to minimize 
flood damage and be consistent with the federal flood insurance program 
and Santa Clara Valley Water District regulations. (SCJAP 15.05) 

Natural streamside and riparian areas should be left in their natural state in 
order to preserve their value as percolation and recharge areas, natural 
habitat, scenic resources, recreation corridors and for bank stabilization. 
(SCJAP 15.08) 

Minimize disruption of natural riparian areas by flood control projects 
needed to protect presently existing development by maintaining slow flow 
and stable banks through design and other appropriate mitigation 
measures. (SCJAP 15.08) 

Require careful consideration of the cumulative effects of development 
which would drain into the upper reaches of Llagas Creek and other creeks, 
in order to avoid the need for channelization and consequent destruction of 
its riparian vegetation and natural habitat. (SCJAP 12.09) 


Goal 5. Protection of water quality from contamination associated with urbanization 

Policy 5a Protect water quality from contamination, and monitor it to assure that 

present policies and regulations are adequate. Prohibit such uses as waste 
facilities, septic systems and industries using toxic chemicals where 
polluting substances may come in contact with groundwater, floodwaters, 
and creeks or reservoir waters. (SCJAP 8.00) 

Policy 5f Encourage enhancement of sensitive wetlands as part of future 

development. 


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Goal 6. Cooperative efforts to ensure regional water quality 

Policy 6a Maintain close coordination with the following agencies and organizations 

which share jurisdiction and interest relative to South County's water 
supply and water quality: the Regional Water Quality Control Boards, Santa 
Clara Valley Water District, County Health Department, County Executive's 
Office, County Planning Office, Gilroy Planning Department, and San Martin 
Planning Committee. (SCJAP 10.02) 

Policy 6b Encourage the two Regional Water Quality Control Boards which have 

jurisdiction in South County to agree upon compatible water quality 
standards and consistent approaches to implementing the State Board's 
non-degradation policy, so as not to confuse developers and jurisdictions 
which must carry out the Board's regulations. (SCJAP 10.01) 

Policy 6e Where appropriate, the Regional Water Quality Boards, Cities, County and 

other local agencies should adopt compatible ordinances (i.e., HMSOs), 
standards (i.e., septic tank and alternative treatment and disposal 
methods), and enforcement procedures (i.e., implementing AB 2185, 
California Health and Safety Code Chapter 6.95, Division 20, Section 25500 
et seq.) regarding water quality so that there is no advantage for a company 
to locate in an area with lower standards. (SCJAP 10.03) 

Policy 6f Require the protection and/or replacement of essential habitat for rare, 

threatened, or endangered species and species of special concern as 
required by state and federal law. 

Policy 6g Encourage the protection, restoration, and enhancement of remaining 

native grasslands, oak woodlands, marshlands and riparian habitat. 

Policy 6h Preserve and protect mature, healthy trees whenever feasible, particularly 

native trees and other trees which are of significant size or of significant 
aesthetic value to immediate vicinity or to the community as a whole. 

City of Mountain View (1992) 

Community Development Chapter 

Policy 8 Promote the visibility of and safe physical access to San Francisco Bay, the 

baylands, Stevens Creek, and other natural resources in the city. 

Environmental Management and Community Development Chapter 

Policy 3 Develop a system of urban trails in Mountain View 

Policy 14 Improve and expand the city’s urban forest 

Policy 15 Encourage activities that maintain and improve drinking water quality 

Policy 16 Establish pollution control measures that keep pollutants from entering 

Mountain View’s storm drain system to protect the city’s surface water 
resources 

Policy 22 Encourage soil stabilization measures that prevent soil erosion and 

sedimentation 

Policy 23 Ensure the proper use, storage, and disposal of toxic chemicals to prevent 

soil contamination 

Policy 25 Protect and restore plant and wildlife habitats 


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Policy 26 Protect wildlife from the hazards of urbanization 

Policy 32 Protect residents and their property from flood hazards 

Policy 37 Prevent injuries and environmental contamination due to the uncontrolled 

release of hazardous materials 

Goal J Identify and preserve the city’s archaeological resources 

Action 27.b Developed standard practices or contingency plans for preserving 

archaeological materials that are unearthed during construction. 

City of Palo Alto (Comprehensive Plan 2007) 

Cultural Resources Chapter 

Policy L-51 Encourage public and private upkeep and preservation of resources that 
have historic merit, including residences listed in the Historic Inventory. 

Policy L-60 Protect Palo Alto’s archaeological resources. The Palo Alto area is known to 
have been inhabited by indigenous people for many centuries prior to the 
arrival of the first Europeans. Discoveries of the "Stanford Man” skeletons 
near San Francisquito Creek at Stanford indicate human presence as early 
as 7,600 years ago. Over 50 archaeological surveys have been conducted in 
Palo Alto in association with specific projects but no systematic citywide 
survey aimed at locating all sites has been undertaken. There may still be 
undiscovered archaeological resources in many parts of the City. Such 
resources are most likely to occur near the original locations of streams and 
springs and northeast of El Carnino Real near old tidelands. 

Program L-67 Using the archaeological sensitivity map in the Comprehensive Plan as a 
guide, continue to assess the need for archaeological surveys and mitigation 
plans on a project by project basis, consistent with the California 
Environmental Quality Act and the National Historic Preservation Act. 

Natural Environment Chapter 

Policy N-2: Support regional and sub-regional efforts to acquire, develop, operate, and 

maintain an open space system extending from Skyline Ridge to San 
Francisco Bay. 

Policy N-3: Protect sensitive plant species resources from the impacts of development. 

Policy N-4: Preserve the foothill area as predominantly open space. 

Policy N-8: Preserve and protect the Bay, marshlands, salt ponds, sloughs, creeks, and 

other natural water or wetland areas as open space. 

GOAL N-2: Conservation of Creeks and Riparian Areas as Open Space Amenities, Natural 
Habitat Areas, and Elements of Community Design. 

Policy N-9: Avoid fencing, piping, and channelization of creeks when flood control and 

public safety can be achieved through measures that preserve the natural 
environment and habitat of the creek. 

Policy N-10: Work with the Santa Clara Valley Water District and other relevant regional 

agencies to enhance riparian corridors and provide adequate flood control 
by use of low impact restoration strategies. 

Policy N-ll: Preserve the integrity of riparian corridors. 


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Policy N-12: Preserve the habitat value of creek corridors through the preservation of 

native plants and the replacement of invasive, non-native plants with native 
plants. 

Policy N-13: Discourage creek bank instability, erosion, downstream sedimentation, and 

flooding by minimizing site disturbance and vegetation removal on or near 
creeks and carefully reviewing grading and drainage plans for development 
near creeks and elsewhere in the watersheds of creeks. 

GOAL N-4: Water Resources that are Prudently Managed to Sustain Plant and Animal Life, 
Support Urban Activities, and Protect Public Health and Safety. 

Policy N-18: Protect Palo Alto’s groundwater from the adverse impacts of urban uses. 

Policy N-21: Reduce non-point source pollution in urban runoff from residential, 

commercial, industrial, municipal, and transportation land uses and 
activities. 

GOAL N-6: An Environment Free of the Damaging Effects of Biological and Chemical Hazardous 
Materials. 

Policy N-30: Minimize the use of toxic and hazardous materials. Encourage the use of 

alternative materials and practices that are environmentally benign. 

GOAL N-7: Reduced Volumes of Solid Waste; Solid Waste Disposed in an Environmentally Safe, 
Efficient, Manner. 

Policy N-34: Reduce the amount of solid waste disposed in the City’s landfill by reducing 

the amount of waste generated and promoting the cost-effective reuse of 
materials that would otherwise be placed in a landfill. 

Policy N-35: Reduce solid waste generation through salvage and reuse of building 

materials, including architecturally and historically significant materials. 

City of San Jose (2010) 

Historic, Archaeological and Cultural Resources Goal: 

Preservation of historically and archaeologically significant structures, sites, districts and artifacts in 
order to promote a greater sense of historic awareness and community identity and to enhance the 
quality of urban living. 

Policy 1. Because historically or archaeologically significant sites, structures and 

districts are irreplaceable resources, their preservation should be a key 
consideration in the development review process. 

Policy 2. The City should use the Area of Historic Sensitivity overlay and the 

landmark designation process of the Historical Preservation Ordinance to 
promote and enhance the preservation of historically or architecturally 
significant sites and structures. 

Policy 9. Recognizing that Native American burials may be encountered at 

unexpected locations, the City should impose a requirement on all 
development permits and tentative subdivision maps that upon discovery 
of such burials during construction, development activity will cease until 
professional archaeological examination and reburial in an appropriate 
manner is accomplished. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


Policy 10. Heritage trees should be maintained and protected in a healthy state. The 

heritage tree list, identifying trees of special significance to the community, 
should be periodically updated. 

Services and Facilities - Storm Drainage and Flood Protection Policies: 

13. In designing improvements to creeks and rivers, adjacent properties should 
be protected from flooding consistent with the best available information 
and standards from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 
and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR). 

14. The "modified floodplain design" is the preferred design for future flood 
protection facilities. The "widen-one-bank" and "trapezoidal channel" 
designs should only be used when funding or right-of-way limitations make 
the use of the modified floodplain design impractical. Future development 
should consider factors such as flooding risks, proximity to waterways, and 
the potential for implementing flood protection measures. 

15. The City should continue to cooperate with other public and private 
jurisdictions and agencies to coordinate emergency response and relief 
efforts in case of flooding. 

16. The City should encourage the use of flood protection guidelines in 
development, such as those recommended by the SCVWD, FEMA, and DWR. 

Aesthetic, Cultural, and Recreational Resources - Parks and Recreation Policies: 

6. In the design and maintenance of parks, consideration should be given to 
impacts on wildlife. In particular, it should be recognized that native plant 
species may be best suited for providing wildlife cover and food sources 
and that herbicides, pesticides and fungicides may be damaging to native 
plants and wildlife. 

7. The City encourages the Santa Clara Valley Water District, school districts, 
the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and other public agencies and utilities 
to provide for appropriate recreational uses of their respective properties 
and rights-of-way. Consideration should be given to cooperative efforts 
between these entities and the City to develop parks, pedestrian and bicycle 
trails, other open space areas, and recreational facilities and programs. 

14. Bikeways, hiking trails, equestrian trails, rest areas and picnicking 
accommodations should be provided, wherever feasible, within parks and 
trails corridors designated on the Scenic Routes and Trails Diagram, to 
access the hillsides, ridgelines, baylands, significant waterways, and other 
scenic areas. 


Scenic Routes Policies: 

2. The natural character of Rural Scenic Corridors should be preserved by 
incorporating mature stands of trees, rock outcroppings, streams, lakes and 
reservoirs and other such natural features into project designs. 


Natural Resources - Riparian Corridors and Upland Wetlands Policies: 

1. Creeks and natural riparian corridors and upland wetlands should be 
preserved whenever possible. 


5. When disturbances to riparian corridors and upland wetlands cannot be 
avoided, appropriate measures should be required to restore, or 
compensate for damage to, the creeks or riparian corridors 


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6. The City encourages appropriate native plant restoration projects along 
riparian corridors, upland wetlands, and in adjacent upland areas. 

7. The City should consider the preparation of a Riparian Restoration Action 
Plan to assess riparian conditions and identify potential riparian 
restoration programs and priorities. 

8. Natural riparian corridors outside the Urban Service Area should be 
protected from disturbance associated with development (such as 
structures, roadways, sewage disposal facilities and overhead utility lines, 
except those required for flood control or bridging) by a minimum 150 foot 
setback from the top bank line, wherever feasible. 

Species of Concern Policies: 

1. Consideration should be given to setting aside conservation areas in the Bay 
and baylands, along riparian corridors, upland wetlands, and hillside areas 
to protect habitats of unique, threatened and endangered species of plants 
and animals, and to provide areas for educational and research purposes. 

2. Habitat areas that support Species of Concern should be retained to the 
greatest extent feasible. 

3. Recreational uses in wildlife refuges, nature preserves and wilderness areas 
in parks should be limited to those activities which have minimal impact on 
sensitive habitats. 

4. New development on undeveloped properties throughout the City 
contributes to the regional loss of Burrowing Owl habitat. To offset this loss 
of habitat, the City should require either habitat preservation on or off site 
or other appropriate measures for habitat acquisition, habitat enhancement 
and maintenance of local habitat bank. 


Water Resources Policies: 

1. The City, in consultation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District, other 
public agencies and the SCVWD’s Water Resources Protection Guidelines 
and Standards (2006 or as amended), should restrict or carefully regulate 
public and private development in streamside areas so as to protect and 
preserve the health, functions and stability of streams and stream corridors. 

2. The City, in consultation with SCVWD, should restrict or carefully regulate 
public and private development in upland areas to prevent uncontrolled 
runoff that could impact the health and stability of streams. 

3. Water resources should be utilized in a manner which does not deplete the 
supply of surface or groundwater or cause overdrafting of the underground 
water basin. 


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4. The City should work with the Santa Clara Valley Water District to establish 
appropriate public access and recreational uses on land adjacent to rivers, 
creeks, wetlands, and other significant water courses when water quality 
will be preserved. 

6. The City should protect groundwater recharge areas, particularly creeks 
and riparian corridors. 

7. When new development is proposed in areas where storm runoff will be 
directed into creeks upstream from groundwater recharge facilities, the 
potential for surface water and groundwater contamination should be 
assessed and appropriate preventative measures should be recommended. 

8. The City shall require the proper construction and monitoring of facilities 
storing hazardous materials in order to prevent contamination of the 
surface water, groundwater and underlying aquifers. In furtherance of this 
policy, design standards for such facilities should consider high 
groundwater tables and/or the potential for freshwater or saltwater 
flooding. 

9. The City should establish policies, programs and guidelines to adequately 
control the discharge of urban runoff and other pollutants into the City's 
storm drains. 

10. The City should take a proactive role in the implementation of the Santa 
Clara Valley Urban Runoff Pollution Prevention Program. 

Soils and Geologic Conditions Policies: 

1. The City should require soils and geologic review of development proposals 
to assess such hazards as potential seismic hazards, surface ruptures, 
liquefaction, landholdings, mudsliding, erosion and sedimentation in order 
to determine if these hazards can be adequately mitigated. 

2. The City should not locate public improvements and utilities in areas with 
identified soils and/or geologic hazards to avoid any extraordinary 
maintenance and operating expenses. When the location of public 
improvements and utilities in such areas cannot be avoided, effective 
mitigation measures should be implemented. 

3. In areas susceptible to erosion, appropriate control measures should be 
required in conjunction with proposed development. 

4. In order to prevent undue erosion of creek banks, the City should seek to 
retain creek channels in their natural state, where appropriate. 

5. The Development Review process should consider the potential for any 
extraordinary expenditures of public resources to provide emergency 
services in the event of a man-made or natural disaster. 

6. Development in areas subject to soils and geologic hazards should 
incorporate adequate mitigation measures. 

7. The City should cooperate with the Santa Clara Valley Water District's 
efforts to prevent the recurrence of land subsidence. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


Flooding Policies: 

4. The City and the Santa Clara Valley Water District should cooperate to 
develop flood control facilities to protect areas from the occurrence of the 
"1%" or "100-year" flood or less frequent flood events when required by 
the State. 


8. The City should cooperate with the Santa Clara Valley Water District to 
develop additional flood control retention facilities in areas where existing 
facilities are nearing capacity. 

Fire Hazards Policies: 

1. "Controlled burning" programs, agricultural uses such as grazing and 
special planting, and maintenance programs to reduce potential fire 
hazards in the hills and wilderness areas should be encouraged where 
appropriate. 


Hazardous Materials Policies: 

1. The City should require proper storage and disposal of hazardous materials 
to prevent leakage, potential explosions, fires, or the escape of harmful 
gases, and to prevent individually innocuous materials from combining to 
form hazardous substances, especially at the time of disposal. 


Hazardous Waste Management Policies: 

6. Transportation of hazardous waste from the point of origin to the 
appropriate hazardous waste management facility shall be by the most 
direct legal route, utilizing state or interstate highways whenever feasible, 
and shall minimize distances along residential and other non-industrial 
frontages to the fullest extent feasible. 

9. Proper storage and disposal of hazardous wastes shall be required to 
prevent leaks, explosions, fires, or the escape of harmful gases, and to 
prevent materials from combining to form hazardous substances and 
wastes. 


City of Santa Clara (2010) 

The City of Santa Clara has prepared a Draft General Plan Update which covers the period 
from 2010 through 2035. As of the date of this document, the City's Planning Commission 
has not adopted the General Plan update. Therefore, relevant policies from the existing 
2000-2010 General Plan (City of Santa Clara 2002] are presented below. 

Archaeological and Cultural Resources Goals 

5.6.3- G1 Protection and preservation of cultural resources, as well as archaeological 

and paleontological sites. 

5.6.3- G2 Appropriate mitigation in the event that human remains, archaeological 

resources or paleontological resources are discovered during construction 
activities. 


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Archaeological and Cultural Resources Policies 


5.6.3-PI 

Require that new development avoid or reduce potential impacts to 
archaeological, paleontological and cultural resources. 

5.6.3-P2 

Encourage salvage and preservation of scientifically valuable 
paleontological or archaeological materials. 

5.6.3-P3 

Consult with California Native American tribes prior to considering 
amendments to the City’s General Plan. 

5.6.3-P4 

Require that a qualified paleontologist/archaeologist monitor all grading 
and/or excavation if there is a potential to affect archeological or 
paleontological resources, including sites within 500 feet of natural water 
courses and in the Old Quad neighborhood. 

5.6.3-P5 

In the event that archaeological/paleontological resources are discovered, 
require that work be suspended until the significance of the find and 
recommended actions are determined by a qualified 

archaeologist/paleontologist. 

5.6.3-P6 

In the event that human remains are discovered, work with the appropriate 
Native American representative and follow the procedures set forth in State 
law. 

Environmental Element 

Soils and Geoloe 

y Policies 


1. Continue efforts to conserve natural resources and lessen the dependency 
on sanitary landfill by maximizing reclamation and reuses of materials and 
energy. 


2. Support land reclamation in areas where erosion, landfill activities, 
hazardous materials storage or disposal, have occurred. 

Hazardous Materials Policies 

4. Regulate hazardous materials use, storage, disposal and clean-up to protect 
the health of humans and the environment within the City of Santa Clara. 

Flora and Fauna Policies 

6. Support programs for the protection of fish and wildlife and their habitats, 
including rare and endangered species. 

7. Support conservation of riparian vegetation and habitat. 

Water Resources Policies 

8. Provide a reliable, safe supply of potable water adequate to meet present 
and future needs. Support efforts by the Santa Clara Valley Water District to 
reduce subsidence. 

9. Promote conservation of water, water importation measures, and recharge 
of the aquifers, so to ensure an adequate water supply and remain within 
the allowable quantity of withdrawal or "safe yield" of the groundwater, so 
not to cause further compaction of aquifers and subsidence of land. 

13. Support flood control improvements that will reduce serious flood hazards 
in the City, through coordination with the Santa Clara Valley Water District. 

14. Regulate the type, location and intensity of land uses within flood-prone 
areas. 


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15. Identify and construct specific local storm drain facilities needed to 
accommodate a storm flow having a 10-year frequency. 

16. Participate on a regional basis in a Non-Point-Source Control Program in 
order to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff. 

17. Maximize water retention and reduce the quantity of water runoff. 

18. Encourage programs to improve the quality of storm water runoff. 

Air Quality Policies 

19. Protect the air quality of the City of Santa Clara and its sphere of influence. 
Promote land use and transportation policies which maintain air quality. 

Public Facilities and Services Element 
Stormwater Policies 

9. Maintain the integrity and capacity of the City's stormwater drain facilities. 

City of Saratoga (2007) 


Cultural Resources Element 

Goal OSC14 Through coordination with and implementation of other related General Plan Policies, 
encourage preservation of the City’s heritage by providing for the protection of 
irreplaceable historic and cultural resources representing significant elements of City 
and regional history. 

Goal LU12 Recognize the heritage of the City by seeking to protect historic and cultural resources, 
where feasible. 


Policy LU 12.9 Conduct reconnaissance level analyses of new development projects to 
ensure that no significant archeological, prehistoric, paleontological Native 
American resources would be disturbed. If such resources are found, 
appropriate steps shall be taken, consistent with CEQA requirements to 
protect these resources. 

Open Space and Conservation Element 
Watershed Protection and Water Quality: 

Goal OSC 9: Protect existing watercourses in the community and enhance water quality in 
surface and subsurface water sources. 

Policy OSC 9.1: Retain surface watercourses in their natural condition to the greatest extent 
possible. 

Policy OSC 9.2: Concentrate development in those portions of the community least 
susceptible to soil erosion and minimize grading and the introduction of 
impervious surfaces. Where appropriate, consider the use of on-site 
detention or retention basins to minimize stormwater runoff from sites. 

Policy OSC 9.3: Implement land use controls to protect watershed lands on the upper 
elevations of hillsides. 

Goal OSC 11: Protect and enhance sensitive vegetative and wildlife habitat in the Saratoga 
Planning area. 


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Policy OSC 11.1: Minimize development that would encroach into important wildlife 
habitats, limit or restrict normal range areas, or restrict access to water 
food or shelter. This includes limitations on the installation of barrier 
fencing in hillside areas. 

Policy OSC 11.5: Mature vegetation shall be preserved wherever possible. 

Arbor Resources: 

Goal OSC 12: Support appropriate management for sustaining the health and increasing the 
extent of arbor resources in the City. The specific vision is to increase overall tree cover, 
tree health and consequent tree benefits in an equitable, cost beneficial and sustainable 
manner. 

Policy OSC 12.1: Development projects should include the preservation of protected trees 
and other significant trees. Any adverse affect on the health and longevity 
of native oak trees, protected or other significant trees should be avoided 
through appropriate design measures and construction practices. When 
tree preservation is not feasible, individual development projects shall 
include appropriate tree replacement as approved by the City. 

Policy OSC 12.2: Trees used for new or replacement plantings should be selected primarily 
for low water use characteristics. 

Policy OSC 12.4: It is the City’s policy that forested lands in the City’s Sphere of Influence 
shall be managed to maximize environmental protection and to discourage 
logging to the maximum extent possible, consistent with proper fire 
protection standards and practices. 

Air Quality 

Goal OSC 15: Improve local and regional air quality by ensuring that all development projects 
incorporate ail feasible measures to reduce air pollutants. 

Policy OSC 15.1: Require development projects to comply with Bay Area Air Quality 
Management District (BAAQMD) measures to reduce dust emissions due 
to grading and construction activities. 

Safety Element 

Goal 3.0: To reduce the damage to public and private property resulting from flooding and 
flood induced hazards. 

Policy 3.1 The City shall continue to enforce its existing flood control regulations, and 

will cooperate with the Santa Clara Valley Water District when proposed 
projects will affect floodways in the City in order to prevent development 
activities from aggravating or causing potential flood problems. 


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City of Sunnyvale (2009) 

Cultural Resources Sub-Element 

Goal 6.3B To enhance, preserve and protect Sunnyvale’s heritage including natural features, the 

built environment, and significant artifacts. 

Policy 6.3B.1 Preserve existing landmarks and cultural resources and their 

environmental settings. 

Policy 6.3B.10 Archeological resources should be preserved whenever possible. 

Action Statements 

6.3B.10a Whenever construction is proposed in an area which may contain 

archeological resources, a condition of approval for the project should 
provide that construction should cease and a qualified archeologist be 
called in the event that evidence of archeological resource is found. 

Open Space and Recreation Sub-Element 


Policy A2 

Flood Hazards. Take measures to protect life and property from the effects 
of a 1% (100 year) flood. 

Key Incentives: 
A.2.1 

Encourage the Santa Clara Valley Water District to reevaluate the capacity 
of Stevens Creek, Calabazas Creek, Sunnyvale East, West and El Camino 
Flood Control Channels in relation to a 1% (100 year) flood. 

A.2.2 

Encourage and monitor the work of the Santa Clara Valley Water District 
(SCVWD) in maintaining all creeks and channels in Sunnyvale free of flow 
inhibiting vegetation, debris and silt. 

A.2.3 

Encourage SCVWD to maintain their dikes and levees at least 3 feet above 
the 1% flood level and to provide continued inspection and repair from 
damage caused by burrowing animals. 

A.2.4 

Maintain the flood plain management practices as outlined by the Federal 
Emergency Management Agency and the Army Corps of Engineers. 

Surface Runoff Sub-Element 

GOAL A: Assure the reasonable protection of Beneficial Uses of creeks and San Francisco Bay, 
established in the Regional Board’s Basin Plan, and protect environmentally sensitive 
areas. 

Policy A.l. 

Continue to support the identification and development of BMPs suitable 
for use in the City through participation in the SCV NPS Control Program, 
American Public Works Association's Stormwater Quality Task Force, the 
Bay Area Stormwater Management Agencies Association, and similar 
organizations. 

Policy A.2 

Comply with regulatory requirements and participate in processes which 
may result in modifications to regulatory requirements. 

Policy A.5 

Prevent accelerated soil erosion. 


GOAL B: Maintain storm drain system to prevent flooding 

Policy B.l Maintain and operate the storm drain system so that storm waters are 

drained from 95% of the streets within one hour after a storm stops. 


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GOAL C: Ensure that flood hazards are recognized 

Policy C.l Operate and maintain the storm drainage system at a level to minimize 

damages and ensure public safety. 

Policy C.2 Prevent flooding to protect life and property. 

Policy C.3 Monitor and plan for hydraulic changes due to global warming, earthquakes 

and/or subsidence. 

Ordinances 

Water Resources Protection Ordinance 06-1 

SCVWD manages water resources under Water Resource Protection Ordinance 06-1. This 
ordinance protects water resources managed by SCVWD by regulating modifications, entry, 
use or access to SCVWD facilities and/or SCVWD easements. The ordinance clarifies the 
governance of lands along and adjacent to streams, provides model Guidelines and 
Standards for management of these lands, and reinforces the role of local jurisdictions in 
regulating land use, but encouraging consultation with SCVWD regarding lands they 
manage. 

In an effort to clarify and streamline local permitting for streamside activities, 
representatives from SCVWD, cities, the County, and business, agriculture, streamside 
property owner, and environmental interests created a partnership known as the Water 
Resources Protection Collaborative. Together the collaborative developed a manual of 
model guideline and standards for land-use near streams. 

Santa Clara County Historic Preservation Ordinance 

The County adopted a Historic Preservation Ordinance, Ordinance NS-1100.96, in October, 
2006. Basic components included in the Historic Preservation Ordinance are: 1] purpose 
and intent; 2] definitions; 3] commission powers and duties (revision of Chapter 5, Division 
A6-60 through 65]; 4] landmark designation criteria and process (including a requirement 
for owner consent for designation]; 5] landmark design review process and findings; 6] 
appeals; 7] economic hardship; 8] maintenance; and 9] enforcement. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


Santa Clara County Noise Ordinance 

The Santa Clara County Noise Ordinance (Santa Clara County Ordinance Code Section Bll- 
150-158] contains the following restrictions on construction noise levels. 

Section Bll-154 [6] contains the following construction and demolition prohibitions: 

[a] Operating or causing the operation of any tools or equipment used in construction, 
drilling, repair, alteration or demolition work between weekdays and Saturday hours of 7:00 
p.m. and 7:00 a.m., or at any time on Sundays or holidays, such that the sound there from 
creates a noise disturbance across a residential or commercial real property line, except for 
emergency work of public service utilities or by variance. This section shall not apply to the 
use of domestic power tools as specified in section Bll-154 (11]. 

(b] Where technically and economically feasible, construction activities shall be conducted in 
such a manner that the maximum noise levels at affected properties will not exceed those 
listed in the following schedule: 

(i] Mobile equipment. Maximum noise levels for nonscheduled, intermittent, short-term 
operation (less than 10 days] of mobile equipment: 



Single- and Two- 
Family Dwelling 
Residential Area 

Multi-Family 
Dwelling 
Residential Area 

Commercial 

Area 

Daily, except Sundays and 
legal holidays 

7:00 a.m. - 7:00 p.m. 

75 dBA 

80 dBA 

85 dBA 

Daily, 7:00 p.m. to 7:00 
a.m. and all day Sunday 
and legal holidays 

50 dBA 

55 dBA 

60 dBA 


(ii] Stationary equipment. Maximum noise levels for repetitively scheduled and relatively 
long-term operation (periods of 10 days or more] of stationary equipment: 



Single- and Two- 
Family Dwelling 
Residential Area 

Multi-Family 
Dwelling 
Residential Area 

Commercial 

Area 

Daily, except Sundays and 
legal holidays 

7:00 a.m. - 7:00 p.m. 

60 dBA 

65 dBA 

70 dBA 

Daily, 7:00 p.m. to 7:00 
a.m. and all day Sunday 
and legal holidays 

50 dBA 

55 dBA 

60 dBA 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


City of Campbell 

The City of Campbell has a Historic Preservation Board that oversees the provisions of the 

Historic Preservation Ordinance and recommends measures to implement historic 

preservation to the City Council and City commissions. 

Goal LUTS Preservation of historic buildings, districts and cultural resources. 

Policy LUT-8.1 Historic Buildings, Landmarks and Districts and Cultural Resources: 

Preserve, rehabilitate or restore the City’s historic buildings, landmarks, 
districts and cultural resources and retain the architectural integrity of 
established building patterns within historic residential neighborhoods to 
preserve the cultural heritage of the community. 

Strategies 

LUT-8.1i Altering or Demolishing Historic Resources: Establish procedures, including 

identifying alternatives, for proposals that significantly alter or demolish 
historic resources. 

Goal CNR-1 A high level of community participation in historic preservation efforts to build a 
strong sense of community identity. 

Policy CNR-1.1 Historic Resource Preservation: Ensure that the City and its citizens 
preserve historic resources as much as possible. 

Strategies 

CNR-1.lb Archaeological Resources: In accordance with CEQA and the State Public 

Resources Code, require the discontinuation of all work in the immediate 
vicinity and the preparation of a resource mitigation plan and monitoring 
program by a licensed archaeologist if archaeological resources are found 
on any sites within the City. 

The city's municipal code contains the following relevant noise ordinances: 

21.16.070(G)(7): Powered equipment. Powered equipment shall be limited to the 

hours of eight a.m. and seven p.m. Monday through Friday, and 
between the hours of nine a.m. and six p.m. Saturday, Sunday and 
nationally recognized holidays. 

21.16.070(G)(8): City projects and activities. Noise from construction of public works 

projects and maintenance activities, or city-sponsored events, may 
be exempted from the provisions of the noise ordinance by the city 
manager or his designee should the public benefit of alternative 
work hours and or noise levels require such modification. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


City of Cupertino 

The city's municipal code contains the following relevant noise ordinances: 

10.48.031: Special Exceptions. 

A] The NCO [noise control officer] shall have the authority, consistent with this 
section, to grant special exceptions which may be requested. 

B] Any person seeking a special exception pursuant to this section shall file an 
application with the NCO. The application shall contain information which 
demonstrates that bringing the source of sound, or activity for which the 
special exception is sought, into compliance with this chapter would 
constitute an unreasonable hardship on the applicant, on the community, or 
on other persons. Prior to issuance of an exception, the NCO shall notify 
owners and/or occupants of nearby properties which may be affected by such 
exceptions. Any individual who claims to be adversely affected by allowance 
of the special exceptions may file a statement with the NCO containing any 
information to support his claim. If the NCO finds that a sufficient controversy 
exists regarding an application, a public hearing may be held. 

C] In determining whether to grant or deny the application, the NCO shall 
balance the hardship to the applicant, the community, and other persons of 
not granting the special exception against the adverse impact on the health, 
safety, and welfare of persons affected, the adverse impact on property 
affected, and any other adverse impacts of granting the special exception. 
Applicants for special exceptions and persons contesting special exceptions 
may be required to submit any information the NCO may reasonably require. 
In granting or denying an application, the NCO shall place on public file a copy 
of the decision and the reasons for denying or granting the special exception. 

D] Special exceptions shall be granted by notice to the applicant containing all 
necessary conditions, including a time limit on the permitted activity. The 
special exception shall not become effective until all conditions are agreed to 
by the applicant. Noncompliance with any condition of the special exception 
shall terminate it and subject the person holding it to those provisions of this 
chapter regulating the source of sound or activity for which the special 
exception was granted. 

E] Application for extension of time limits specified in special exceptions or for 
modification of other substantial conditions shall be treated like applications 
for initial special exceptions under subsection B of this section. 

10.48.053: Grading, Construction and Demolition. 

A] Grading, construction and demolition activities shall be allowed to exceed the 
noise limits of Section 10.48.040 [Daytime maximum defined as 60 dBA for 
residential and 65 dBA for non-residential; and nighttime maximum defined 
as 50 dBA for residential and 55 dBA for non-residential areas] during 
daytime hours; provided, that the equipment utilized has high-quality noise 
muffler and abatement devices installed and in good condition, and the 
activity meets one of the following two criteria: 

1. No individual device produced a noise level more than eighty-seven dBA 
at a distance of twenty-five feet (7.5 meters]; or 

2. The noise level on any nearby property does not exceed eighty dBA. 


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B) Notwithstanding Section 10.48. 053A, it is a violation of this chapter to engage 
in any grading, street construction demolition or underground utility work 
within seven hundred fifty feet of a residential area on Saturdays, Sundays, 
and holidays, and during the nighttime period [weekdays eight p.m. to seven 
a.m., and weekends from six p.m. to nine a.m.], except as provided in Section 
10.48.030. 

C) Construction, other than street construction, is prohibited on holidays, except 
as provided in Sections 10.48.029 and 10.48.030. 

D) Construction, other than street construction, is prohibited during nighttime 
periods unless it meets the nighttime standards of Section 10.48.040 [levels 
not exceeding 50 dBA for residential, 55 dBA for nonresidential areas]. 


City of Gilroy 

GOAL: Protection of Gilroy residents from exposure to excessive noise and its effects through 
appropriate mitigation measures and responsive land use planning, especially in regard to 
noise-sensitive land uses such as schools, hospitals, and housing for seniors. 

The city's municipal code contains the following relevant noise ordinances: 

16.38: Hours of Construction. 

[a] Unless otherwise provided for in a validly issued permit or approval, 
construction activities shall be limited to the hours of seven [7] a.m. and 
seven [7] p.m., Monday through Friday and nine [9] a.m. to seven [7] p.m. on 
Saturday. Construction activities shall not occur on Sundays or city holidays, 
which include: New Years Day, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, 
Thanksgiving Day and Christmas. "Construction activities” are defined as 
including but not limited to, excavation, grading, paving, demolitions, 
construction, alteration or repair of any building, site, street or highway, 
delivery or removal of construction material to a site, or movement of 
construction materials on a site. 


(b)In the event the chief building official or his or her designee determines that 
the public health and safety will not be impaired by the construction activities 
between the hours of seven [7] p.m. and seven [7] a.m., and that loss or 
inconvenience would result to any party in interest, the chief building official 
may grant permission for such work to be done between the hours of seven 
[7] p.m. and seven [7] a.m. upon an application being made at the time the 
permit for the work is issued or during the progress of the work. 


(d)No third person, including but not limited to, landowners, construction 
company owners, contractors, subcontractors, or employers, shall permit or 
allow any person working on construction activities, which are under their 
ownership, control or direction to violate this provision. The provisions 
prescribed herein may be enforced by the chief building official or his or her 
designee or the police department. Violation of this section shall be a 
misdemeanor and each day such violation is committed or permitted to 
continue constitutes a separate offense and shall be punishable as such. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


City of Los Altos 

Goal 7; Minimize the amount of noise to which the community is exposed and the amount of 

noise created by future development and urban activities. 

Policy 7.9: Minimize stationary noise sources and noise emanating from construction 

activities. 

The city's municipal code contains the following relevant noise ordinances: 

6.16.070(B)(6): Construction and demolition. 

a). i. Single-family zoning districts. Operating or causing the operation of 
any tools or equipment used in construction, drilling, repair, alteration, 
or demolition work on weekdays before 7:00 a.m. and after 5:30 p.m. 
and on Saturdays before 9:00 a.m. or after 3:00 p.m. or any time on 
Sundays or the city observed holidays of New Year's Day, Memorial Day, 
Independence Day, Labor Day, Veterans' Day, Thanksgiving Day and 
Christmas Day, such that the sound therefrom creates a noise 
disturbance across a residential or commercial real property line, except 
for emergency work of public utilities or by special exception. This 
section shall apply to operations on residentially zoned property only. 
This section shall not apply to the use of lawn or garden tools as 
specified in subsection (B)(ll) of this section; 
ii. All other zoning districts. Operating or causing the operation of any tools 
or equipment used in construction, drilling, repair, alteration, or 
demolition work on weekdays before 7:00 a.m. and after 7:00 p.m. and 
Saturdays before 9:00 a.m. or after 6:00 p.m. or any time on Sundays or 
the city observed holidays of New Year's Day, Memorial Day, 
Independence Day, Labor Day, Veterans' Day, Thanksgiving Day and 
Christmas Day, such that the sound therefrom creates a noise 
disturbance across a residential or commercial real property line, except 
for emergency work of public service utilities or by special exception. 
This section shall apply to operations on properties other than 
residentially zoned property. This section shall not apply to the use of 
lawn or garden tools as specified in subsection (B)(ll) of this section; 
b. Where technically and economically feasible, construction activities shall be 
conducted in such a manner that the maximum noise levels at affected 
properties will not exceed those listed in the following schedules: 
i. Mobile equipment. Maximum noise levels for the nonscheduled, 
intermittent, short-term operation (less than ten (10) days) of mobile 
equipment: 



All R1 

Zoning 

Districts 

All PCF and R3 
Zoning 

Districts 

All OA and C 
Zoning 

Districts 

Daily, except Sundays 
and legal holidays 7:00 
a.m.—7:00 p.m. 

75 dBA 

80 dBA 

85 dBA 

Daily, 7:00 p.m.—7:00 
a.m. and all day Sundays 
and legal holidays 

50 dBA 

55 dBA 

60 dBA 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


ii. Stationary equipment. Maximum noise levels for the respectively 
scheduled and relatively long-term operation (periods of ten (10) days 
or more) of stationary equipment [same as above.] 
c. Deliveries, start-up and closing down. The construction times above shall 
apply to deliveries of materials and equipment, and arrival of workers, start¬ 
up and closing down and departure activities on a job site. 

Town of Los Altos Hills 

GOAL 1: Minimize noise levels so that residents may enjoy the amenities of living in a quiet, 
semi-rural community. 

The town's municipal code contains the following relevant noise ordinances: 

5-6.02: Outside construction or repair work- when prohibited- Emergency work 
exception. 

It is unlawful for any person within a residential zone, or within a radius of five 
hundred (500) feet therefrom to do any of the following: 

(a) To operate equipment or perform any outside construction or repair work on 
any building, structure, project, or to use any pneumatic hammer, steam or 
electric hoist, backhoe, bulldozer or dump truck or other construction type 
device, between the hours of 5:30 p.m. of one day and 8:00 a.m. of the next 
succeeding day on any Monday through Saturday, or at any time on any 
Sunday, or at any time on any public holiday; or 

(b) To use any pneumatic hammer, steam or electric hoist, backhoe, bulldozer or 
dump truck or other construction type device, at any time on any Saturday, 
unless beforehand a permit therefore has been obtained in accordance with 
the provisions of this chapter. 

Nothing contained in this chapter shall prohibit the operation of any equipment 
other than that prohibited in subsection (b) of this section, or the performance of 
any outside construction or repair work on any building, structure or project 
between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 5:30 p.m. No permit shall be required to perform 
emergency work in the event of an emergency which imperils the public safety. This 
section shall not apply to the use of domestic power tools as specified in Section 5- 
6.03. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


Town of Los Gatos 

The town's municipal code contains the following relevant noise ordinances: 
16.20.035: Construction. 

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, between the hours of 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 
p.m., weekdays and 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. weekends and holidays, construction, alteration or 
repair activities which are authorized by a valid Town permit or as otherwise allowed by 
Town permit, shall be allowed if they meet at least one of the following noise limitations: 

(1] No individual piece of equipment shall produce a noise level exceeding 
eighty-five (85) dBA at twenty-five (25) feet. If the device is located within a 
structure on the property, the measurement shall be made at distances as 
close to twenty-five (25) feet from the device as possible. 

(2) The noise level at any point outside of the property plane shall not exceed 
eighty-five (85) dBA. 

16.20.060: Powered Equipment. 

a) Miscellaneous nonstationary noise sources such as; electric or gasoline lawn mowers, 
leafblowers, edge trimmers, hedge trimmers and other similar moveable noise sources shall 
be operated only during the hours of 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. weekdays and 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 
p.m. weekends and holidays in residential or noise sensitive zones. The use of powered 
equipment in commercial, industrial or public space shah not be time limited. Powered 
equipment shall be exempt from all other limitations and provisions of this chapter. 

City of Milpitas 

6-G-l Maintain land use compatibility with noise levels similar to those set by 

State guidelines. 

6-G-2 Minimize unnecessary, annoying, or injurious noise. 

6-1-13 Restrict the hours of operation, technique, and equipment used in all public 

and private construction activities to minimize noise impact. Include noise 
specifications in requests for bids and equipment information. 

The city's municipal code contains the following relevant noise ordinances: 
213-V-213-3: Unlawful to Create or Permit Disturbing Noise. 
a) Residential Zone Regulations. 

3.01 It shall be unlawful for any person in any district zoned for residential use (under 
the provisions of Chapter 10, Title XI of the Milpitas Municipal Code) to make, 
continue or cause to be made or continued any disturbing noise between the hours 
of 10:00 p.m. in the evening to 7:00 a.m. in the morning. 


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3.02 It shall be unlawful for any person owning, possessing or controlling any real 
property in any district zoned for residential use (under the provisions of Chapter 
10, Title XI of the Milpitas Municipal Code) to permit or allow the making, 
continuing or causing to be made or continued any disturbing noise upon said real 
property between the hours of 10:00 p.m. in the evening to 7:00 a.m. in the morning. 

3.03 The above prohibition against making, continuing or causing to be made or 
continued any disturbing noise in any district zoned for residential use shall not 
apply to the authorized collection of solid waste, recyclables, and/or yard trimmings 
by an authorized collector beginning at 6:00 a.m. 

b) Site Construction Regulations. 

No person shall engage or permit others to engage in construction of any 
building or related road or walkway, pool or landscape improvement or in 
the construction operations related thereto, including, delivery of 
construction materials, supplies, or improvements on or to a construction 
site except within the hours of 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. on weekdays and 
weekends. 

No construction work shall be conducted or performed on the holidays 
indicated in Section V-213-2-2.05 of this chapter. 

c) Exemption from Off-Site Construction Regulations. 

Exempt from the Off-Site Construction Regulations of this article are: 

(1) Emergency construction and repair that is necessary for 
protection of life and property, 

(2) Operation preempted from local regulation by state law, such as 
construction of public school buildings, 

(3) Furnishing utility-type service including construction and 
maintenance of utility facilities, 

(4) Any work on an existing single-family or duplex (two-family) 
dwelling undertaken by the property owner, 

(5) Operation to construct and maintain facilities within the public 
right-of-way as deemed necessary by the Public Works Director, and 

(6) Any other circumstances where the City Manager deems that an 
exemption would be appropriate. 


City of Monte Sereno 


Goal HS-6 Reduce noise levels within neighborhoods resulting from vehicular traffic and 

construction activity. 

Policy HS-6.1 Reduce noise levels in residential areas shall restricting truck traffic to 
designated routes and monitoring speed of local traffic. 


Policy HS-6.2 Encourage the use of the latest noise control technology to minimize noise 
in residential neighborhoods. 


Policy HS-6.3 Continue to enforce local and State noise regulations to minimize noise 

impacts associated with construction and public and private activities. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


Policy HS-6.5 Cooperate with Santa Clara County, State and federal agencies, private 
businesses and individuals to control and maintain an acceptable noise 
environment in Monte Sereno. 

The city's municipal code contains the following relevant noise ordinances: 

9.07.020: Outside construction or repair work-where prohibited, emergency work 
exception. 

It shall be unlawful for any person to operate equipment or perform any 
outside construction or repair work on any building, structure, project, or 
use any pneumatic hammer, steam or electric hoist, backhoe, bulldozer, or 
dump truck or other construction type device before the hour of 8:00 a.m. 
or after 8:00 p.m., on any Monday through Friday; or before the hours of 
9:00 a.m. or after the hour of 5:00 p.m., on any Saturday; or at any time on 
any Sunday or public holiday. For the purposes of this Chapter, "public 
holiday" shall mean each day designated by resolution of the Monte Sereno 
City Council as an official holiday. If the City Manager finds evidence that an 
emergency exists that imperils the public safety, the City Manager may 
direct the construction or maintenance work to proceed during such hours 
as may be necessary for the duration of the emergency. 

City of Morgan Hill 

The city's municipal code contains the following relevant noise ordinances: 

8.28.040: Enumeration of Unlawful Noises. 

C. Blowers, Fans, and Combustion Engines. The operation of any noise-creating 
blower, power fan or internal combustion engine, the operation of which causes 
noise due to the explosion of operating gases or fluids, unless the noise from such 
blower or fan is muffled and such engine is equipped with a muffler device to 
deaden such noise; 

D. l. Construction activities as limited below. "Construction activities" are defined as 

including but not limited to excavation, grading, paving, demolition, construction, 
alteration or repair of any building, site, street or highway, delivery or removal of 
construction material to a site, or movement of construction materials on a site. 
Construction activities are prohibited other than between the hours of seven a.m. 
and eight p.m., Monday through Friday and between the hours of nine a.m. to six 
p.m. on Saturday. Construction activities may not occur on Sundays or federal 
holidays. No third person, including but not limited to landowners, construction 
company owners, contractors, subcontractors, or employers, shall permit or allow 
any person working on construction activities that are under their ownership, 
control or direction to violate this provision. Construction activities may occur in 
the following cases without violation of this provision: 

a. In the event of urgent necessity in the interests of the public health and 
safety, and then only with a permit from the chief building official, which 
permit may be granted for a period of not to exceed three days or less 
while the emergency continues and which permit may be renewed for 
periods of three days or less while the emergency continues. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


b. If the chief building official determines that the public health and safety will 
not be impaired by the construction activities between the hours of eight 
p.m. and seven a.m., and that loss or inconvenience would result to any 
party in interest, the chief building official may grant permission for such 
work to be done between the hours of eight p.m. and seven a.m. upon an 
application being made at the time the permit for the work is issued or 
during the progress of the work. 

d. Public work projects are exempt from this section and the public works 
director shall determine the hours of construction for public works 
projects. 

City of Mountain View 

The city's municipal code contains the following relevant noise ordinances: 

SEC. 8.23. - Construction noise. 

a. Hours of construction. No construction activity shall commence prior to 7:00 a.m. 
nor continue later than 6:00 p.m., Monday through Friday, nor shall any work be 
permitted on Saturday or Sunday or holidays unless prior written approval is 
granted by the building official. The term "construction activity" shall include any 
physical activity on the construction site or in the staging area, including the 
delivery of materials. In approving modified hours, the building official may 
specifically designate and/or limit the activities permitted during the modified 
hours. 

b. Modification. At any time before commencement of or during construction activity, 
the building official may modify the permitted hours of construction upon twenty- 
four [24] hours written notice to the contractor, applicant, developer or owner. The 
building official can reduce the hours of construction activity below the 7:00 a.m. to 
6:00 p.m. time frame or increase the allowable hours. 

c. Sign required. If the hours of construction activity are modified then the general 
contractor, applicant, developer or owner shall erect a sign at a prominent location 
on the construction site to advise subcontractors and material suppliers of the 
working hours. The contractor, owner or applicant shall immediately produce upon 
request any written order or permit from the building official pursuant to this 
section upon the request of any member of the public, the police or city staff. 

d. Violation. Violation of the allowed hours of construction activity, the building 
official's order, required signage or this section shall be a violation of this code. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


City of Palo Alto 

The city's municipal code contains the following relevant noise ordinances: 

Noise Ordinance (Chapter 9.10). Chapter 9.10 describes the allowable noise limits for 
established land uses. In general noise limits on residential property is restricted to no 
greater than 6 dB above ambient while commercial and industrial property noise 
levels may not exceed 8 dB above ambient. Noise levels on public property are 
restricted to no more than 15 dB above ambient at a distance of 25 ft. More specific 
provisions of the ordinance which are relevant to the Proposed Project include: 
9.10.060 - Special provisions. 

(a) General Daytime Exception. Any noise source which does not produce a noise level 
exceeding seventy dBA at a distance of twenty-five feet under its most noisy 
condition of use shall be exempt from the provisions of Sections 
9.10.030(a)[Residential property noise limits], 9.10.040 [Commercial and industrial 
property noise limits] and 9.10.050(a)[Public property noise limits] between the 
hours of eight a.m. and eight p.m. Monday through Friday, nine a.m. and eight p.m. 
on Saturday, except Sundays and holidays, when the exemption herein shall apply 
between ten a.m. and six p.m. 

(b) Construction. Except for construction on residential property as described in 
subsection (c) of this section, construction, alteration and repair activities which are 
authorized by valid city building permit shall be prohibited on Sundays and holidays 
and shall be prohibited except between the hours of eight a.m. and six p.m. Monday 
through Friday, nine a.m. and six p.m. on Saturday provided that the construction, 
demolition or repair activities during those hours meet the following standards: 

(1) No individual piece of equipment shall produce a noise level exceeding one 
hundred ten dBA at a distance of twenty-five feet. If the device is housed 
within a structure on the property, the measurement shall be made out¬ 
side the structure at a distance as close to twenty-five feet from the 
equipment as possible. 

(2) The noise level at any point outside of the property plane of the project 
shall not exceed one hundred ten dBA. 

(3) The holder of a valid construction permit for a construction project in a 
non-residential zone shall post a sign at all entrances to the construction 
site upon commencement of construction, for the purpose of informing all 
contractors and subcontractors, their employees, agents, materialmen and 
all other persons at the construction site, of the basic requirements of this 
chapter. 

(A) Said sign(s) shall be posted at least five feet above ground level, 
and shall be of a white background, with black lettering, which 
lettering shall be a minimum of one and one-half inches in height. 


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Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


(B] said sign shall read as follows: 

CONSTRUCTION HOURS 
FOR NON-RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY 
(Includes Any and All Deliveries) 

MONDAY - FRIDAY.8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. 

SATURDAY.9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. 

SUNDAY/HOLIDAYS.Construction prohibited. 

Violation of this Ordinance is a misdemeanor punishable 
by a maximum of six months in jail, $1,000 fine, or both. 

Violators will be prosecuted. 

P.A.M.C. §9.10.060(b). 

(d) Other Equipment. Equipment used by city employees, city contractors, or public 
utility companies or their contractors, not covered by subsections (b) and (c) of this 
section, shall be allowed during the same hours as the exception set forth in 
subsection (b) of this section, providing no piece of equipment shall produce a noise 
level which exceeds one hundred ten dBA, measured at a distance of twenty-five feet 
from the equipment. 

City of San Jose 

Noise Policies: 

1. The City's acceptable noise level objectives are 55 DNL as the long-range exterior 
noise quality level, 60 DNL as the short-range exterior noise quality level, 45 DNL as 
the interior noise quality level, and 76 DNL as the maximum exterior noise level 
necessary to avoid significant adverse health effects. These objectives are 
established for the City, recognizing that the attainment of exterior noise quality 
levels in the environs of the San Jose International and Reid-Hillview airports, the 
Downtown Core Area, and along major roadways may not be achieved in the time 
frame of this Plan. To achieve the noise objectives, the City should require 
appropriate site and building design, building construction and noise attenuation 
techniques in new residential development. 

9. Construction operations should use available noise suppression devices and 
techniques. 

The city's municipal code identifies the legal hours of construction occurring within 500 feet 
of a residential unit as being limited to the hours of 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. on weekdays. Such 
hours' restriction is applicable only to construction activities requiring a development 
permit or other approval from the City's Planning Department. 


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City of Saratoga 

The city's municipal code contains the following relevant noise ordinances: 

Noise Control Ordinance (Article 7-30) describes the allowable noise limits for 
established land uses. Specific provisions of the ordinance relevant to the Proposed 
Project are: 

7-30.050 - General noise restriction. 

(a) No person shall cause, produce, or allow to be produced, in any residential zoning district, 
any single event noise more than six dBA above the ambient noise level at the location where 
the single event noise source is measured. 

(b) No person shall cause, produce or allow to be produced, in any office or commercial 
district, any single event noise more than eight dBA above the ambient noise level at the 
location where the single event noise source is measured. 

7-30.060 - Noise Control: Exceptions for specific activities. 

Exceptions for specific activities, so long as the noise level at any point twenty-five feet from 
the source of noise does not exceed 83 dBA, shall be permitted to exceed the standards set 
forth in Section 7-30.050 under the following conditions: 

a) Residential construction. Residential construction, alteration or repair activities 
which are authorized by a valid City permit, or do not require the issuance of a City 
permit, may be conducted between the hours of 7:30 A.M. and 6:00 P.M. Monday 
through Friday and between the hours of 9:00 AM. and 5:00 P.M. on Saturday. 
Residential construction shall be prohibited on Sunday and weekday holidays, with 
the exception of the following: 

(1) Construction, alteration or repair activities that do not require a City 
permit may be conducted between the hours of 9:00 A.M. and 5:00 P.M. on 
Sunday and weekday holidays. 

(2) Construction, alteration or repair activities which are authorized by a valid 
City permit and which do not exceed fifty percent of the existing main or 
accessory structure may be conducted between the hours of 9:00 A.M. and 
5:00 P.M. on Sunday and weekday holidays. 

(3) Temporary construction activities authorized by the Community 
Development Director upon his/her determination of an emergency. 

A notice of applicable construction hour restrictions shall be posted conspicuously 
on site at all times for ah exterior residential construction activity requiring a City 
permit. 

(b) Commercial construction. Construction, alteration or repair activities in Commercial 
and Professional and Administrative Office zoning districts which are authorized by 
a valid City permit, or do not require the issuance of a City permit, may be 
conducted between the hours of 7:30 A.M. and 6:00 P.M. Monday through Friday. 
Commercial construction shall be prohibited on Saturday, Sunday and other 
holidays. The Community Development Director may grant temporary exemptions 
upon his/her determination of an emergency. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


D-55 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


City of Santa Clara 

The city's municipal code contains the following relevant noise ordinances: 

Regulation of Noise and Vibration (Chapter 9.10) Specific provisions of the ordinance 
are: 

9.10.230 Off-Street Regulation of Certain Construction Sites-Regulation. 

No person shall engage or authorize others to engage in construction of any building or 
related road or walkway, pool or landscape improvement, or in construction operations 
related thereto, including delivery of construction materials, supplies, or improvements 
on or to a construction site within three hundred (300) feet of any residentially zoned 
property except within the hours of 7:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. following on weekdays other 
than holidays, Monday through Friday, inclusive; and within the hours of 9:00 A.M. to 
6:00 P.M. following, inclusive, on any Saturday which is not a holiday. A holiday, for the 
purpose of this section, is each day or part thereof upon which any of the following 
holidays are observed pursuant to California law: 

(a) January 1st. 

(b) The third Monday in January (Martin Luther King, Jr., Day). 

(c) The third Monday in February. 

(d) The last Monday in May. 

(e) July 4th. 

(f) The first Monday in September. 

(g) The Thursday in November appointed as Thanksgiving Day and the day 

immediately following. 

(h) December 25th. 

No such work is permitted on such holidays. (Ord. 1549 § 1, 7-15-86; Ord. 1556 § 1, 9-16- 
86. Formerly § 18-32.3). 

9.10.240- Exemption from regulation. 

Exempt from the regulations of this chapter are: 

(a) Emergency construction and repair that is necessary for protection of life and 

property; 

(b) Operation preempted from local regulation by State law, such as construction 

of public school buildings; 

(c) Furnishing utility-type services including construction and maintenance of 

utility facilities; 

(d) Public inspections; and 

(e) Any work on an existing single-family or duplex (two-family) dwelling 

undertaken by the property owner. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


D-56 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix D General Plan Policies and Ordinances 


City of Sunnyvale 

The city's municipal code contains the following relevant noise ordinances 
Title 16 Buildings and construction 

16.08.030: Hours of construction-Time and noise limitations. 

Construction activity shall be permitted between the hours of seven a.m. and six p.m. 
daily Mondays through Fridays. Saturday hours of operation shall be between eight a.m. 
and five p.m. There shall be no construction activity on Sundays or national holidays 
when city offices are closed. 

Exceptions: 

(b) As determined by the chief building official: 

(1) No loud environmentally disruptive noises, such as air compressors 
without mufflers, continuously running motors or generators, loud playing 
musical instruments, radios, etc., will be allowed where such noises may be 
a nuisance to adjacent properties. 

(2) Where emergency conditions exist, construction activity may be 
permitted at any hour or day of the week. Such emergencies shall be 
completed as rapidly as possible to prevent any disruption to other 
properties. 

(3) Where additional construction activity will not be a nuisance to 
surrounding properties, based on location and type of construction, a 
waiver may be granted to allow hours of construction other than as stated 
in this section. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


D-57 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 




Appendix E 

Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions 

Calculations 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 




Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Emission Calculations 


The tables shown below provide emission estimates associated with the SMP Update for two years: 
2012 and 2020. For each year, emissions are shown in pounds per day and tons per year. 

Emissions in pounds per day are shown for existing 2012 and existing 2020 conditions only. These 
existing condition emission estimates would not change under the Proposed Project conditions 
because the Proposed Project would not increase the amount of daily activity. 

However, the Proposed Project would increase the total number of activity days per year, resulting 
in an increase in the annual emissions as compared to existing emissions. SCVWD estimates that the 
SMP Update would result in a 25 percent increase in the number of activity days per year. 
Therefore, the following tables also show existing and existing plus project annual emissions (and 
the net emissions increase associated with the 25 percent increase in activity days per year.] 

The tables shown below include emission estimates for on-road vehicle travel, off-road vehicle 
travel, and pesticide use. The following procedures were used to estimate emissions for each of 
these three categories. 

Off-Road Emissions 

Off-road emissions were estimated using SCVWD's list of off-road SMP equipment. The California 
Air Resources Board’s OFFROAD2007 software was used to estimate two sets of emissions for each 
piece of SMP equipment, one for 2012 and one for 2020. Emission estimates for 2020 are lower 
than for 2012 because OFFROAD2007 generates emissions by assuming a turnover in the vehicle 
fleet that would occur as newer vehicles replace older, higher emitting ones. For example, the 
average NOx emission rate for bulldozers in 2020 is substantially lower than for bulldozers in 2012. 
This is because OFFROAD2007 accounts for this off-road equipment turnover, resulting in lower 
average vehicle emissions over time. 

The turnover rate assumes that SCVWD's off-road fleet turnover rate would be similar to the 
average turnover rate for Santa Clara County (as reflected in the OFFROAD2007 model]. The 
emission estimates do not reflect any acceleration in fleet turnover that SCVWD may initiate. 

Proposed SMP Update annual emissions for 2012 and 2020 are similar to existing SMP emissions, 
multiplied by 125 percent. This increase reflects a 25 percent increase in the number of annual 
operating days per year. 

On-Road Emissions 

Existing on-road vehicle emissions were based on SMP daily and annual vehicle miles traveled 
(VMT] estimates, as listed in Section 3.12, Traffic and Transportation. For existing conditions, the 
SMP generates 7,192 average VMT per day and 2,350,846 VMT per year. For the SMP Update, the 
Proposed Project would generate 7,192 VMT per day (unchanged from existing] and 2,478,547 
VMT per year. Section 3.12, Traffic and Transportation contains a detailed description of how VMT 
was estimated. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


E-1 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix E Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculations 


The VMT estimates were used to estimate on-road emissions using the Caltrans version of the 
California Air Resources Board's EMFAC2007 model (CT-EMFAC]. Separate CT-EMFAC modeling 
runs were made using the VMT estimates shown in the previous paragraph for the years 2012 and 
2020. The differences in 2012 versus 2020 existing conditions emissions (for the same VMT] is 
because of the turnover in the vehicle fleet that occurs each year as older, higher emitting vehicles 
are removed from the fleet and newer, lower-emitting vehicles are added to the fleet. This turnover 
results in lower average vehicle emissions and is captured by the CT-EMFAC model. The on-road 
emission estimates used for this analysis assume that the turnover in the SMP on-road vehicle fleet 
would be similar to that of the fleet turnover for Santa Clara County. 

Pesticide Emissions 

Pesticide emissions were estimated using several steps. In step one, the amount of pesticides used 
by SMP were identified for a 4-year period, from 2007 through 2010. In step two, the volatile 
organic compound [VOC] content of each pesticide was identified, using existing information on 
each pesticide. In step three, the average annual usage of each pesticide for 2007 through 2010 was 
calculated, and that quantity was multiplied by each pesticide's VOC content. In step four, the 
quantities were totaled to get total reactive organic compound (ROG] emissions for existing 
conditions (ROG is assumed equal to VOC for this analysis]. In step five, the quantity estimated in 
step four was multiplied by 125 percent to obtain the total pesticide-related ROG emissions for the 
Proposed Project. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


E-2 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix E Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculations 


2012 SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Air Emission Estimates 



ppd - pounds per day; tpy - tons per year 
Notes: 

No change would occur in daily emissions because the amount of daily activity would not change from 
existing conditions. Consequently, Proposed Project would not exceed BAAQMD's pounds per day 
significance thresholds. Off-road emissions were estimated using equipment data and the California Air 
Resources Board's OFFROAD 2007 model. On-road emissions were estimated using vehicle miles 
traveled data, supplied by Fehr and Peers and the California Air Resources Board's EMFAC 2007 model. 
Pesticide use was based on a 4 year average of SCVWD’s pesticide use (2007-2010) and the percentage 
of ROG in each pesticide, taken from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation's Pesticide VOC 
Emission Inventory. C02 emissions estimated using EMFAC 2007 and OFFROAD 2007 were converted to 
C02e using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Guidance (available: 

http://www.epa.gOv/OMS/climate/420f05004.htm#step4). CH4, N20, and HFCs account for 5 percent of 
emissions, and the C02 estimate was multiplied by 100/95 to incorporate the contribution of the other 
greenhouse gases. 

Source: Data compiled by Horizon Water and Environment in 2011 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


E-3 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix E Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculations 


Internal Draft—Not for Public Review 


2020 SCVWD Stream Maintenance Program Air Emission Estimates 


Existing (ppd) 

2020 

ROG 

2020 

NOx 

2020 

PM 10 

2020 

pm 25 

2020 

CO 2 G 

Off-Road 

25.7 

138.1 

5.4 

5.4 

41,824.0 

On-Road 

3.5 

20.0 

16.6 

3.6 

15,041.0 

Pesticide Use 

0.6 

- 

- 

- 

- 

Total 

29.7 

158.1 

22.0 

9.0 

56,865.0 


Existing (tpy) 

2020 

ROG 

2020 

NOx 

2020 

PM10 

2020 

PM2.5 

2020 

CO2C 

Off-Road 

1.1 

5.9 

0.2 

0.2 

1,613.0 

On-Road 

0.5 

2.6 

2.2 

0.5 

1,774.3 

Pesticide Use 

0.0 

- 

- 

- 

- 

Total 

1.6 

8.5 

2.4 

0.7 

3,387.3 


Existing + Project (tpy) 

2020 

2020 

2020 

2020 

2020 

ROG 

NOx 

PM 10 

PMz.5 

CO 2 C 

Off-Road 

1.4 

7.3 

0.3 

0.3 

2,016.2 

On-Road 

0.5 

2.8 

2.2 

0.5 

1,901.0 

Pesticide Use 

0.0 

- 

- 

- 

- 

Total 

1.9 

10.2 

2.5 

0.8 

3,917.3 


Net Change 

2020 

2020 

2020 

2020 

2020 

Project Increment (tpy) 

ROG 

NOx 

PM 10 

PM 2 .5 

CO 2 G 

Off-Road 

0.3 

1.5 

0.1 

0.1 

403.2 

On-Road 

0.0 

0.2 

0.0 

0.0 

126.7 

Pesticide Use 

0.0 

- 

- 

- 

- 

Total 

0.3 

1.7 

0.1 

0.1 

529.9 


ppd - pounds per day; tpy - tons per year 
Notes: 

No change would occur in daily emissions. Consequently, Proposed Project would not exceed BAAQMD's 
pounds per day significance thresholds. Off-road emissions were estimated using equipment data and 
the California Air Resources Board's OFFROAD 2007 model. On-road emissions were estimated using 
vehicle miles traveled data, supplied by Fehr and Peers and the California Air Resources Board's EMFAC 
2007 model. Pesticide use was based on a 4 year average of SCVWD's pesticide use (2007-2010) and the 
percentage of ROG in each pesticide, taken from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation's 
Pesticide VOC Emission Inventory. C02 emissions estimated using EMFAC 2007 and OFFROAD 2007 
were converted to C02e using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Guidance (available: 
http://www.epa.gOv/OMS/climate/420f05004.htm#step4). CH4, N20, and HFCs account for 5 percent of 
emissions, and the C02 estimate was multiplied by 100/95 to incorporate the contribution of the other 
greenhouse gases. 

Source: Data compiled by Horizon Water and Environment in 2011 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


E-4 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix F 

Taxonomic Crosswalk Between 
The Jepson Manual First Edition and Second Edition 

(Second Edition in Preparation) 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 




Appendix F Taxonomic Crosswalk between the Jepson Manual First Edition and Second Edition 


Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 

Aceraceae 

Acer macrophyllum 

Sapindaceae 

Acer macrophyllum 

Aceraceae 

Acer negundo 

Sapindaceae 

Acer negundo 

Aizoaceae 

Mesembryanthemum 

nodiflorum 

Aizoaceae 

Mesem bryan themum 
nodiflorum 

Aizoaceae 

Tetragonia 

tetragonioides 

Aizoaceae 

Tetragonia 

tetragonioides 

Anacardiaceae 

Toxicodendron 

diversilobum 

Anacardiaceae 

Toxicodendron 

diversilobum 

Apiaceae 

Conium maculatum 

Apiaceae 

Conium maculatum 

Apiaceae 

Eryngium 
aristulatum var. 
hooveri 

Apiaceae 

Eryngium 
aristulatum var. 
hooveri 

Apiaceae 

Foeniculum vulgare 

Apiaceae 

Foeniculum vulgare 

Apiaceae 

Lomatium 

observatorium 

Apiaceae 

Lomatium 

observatorium 

Apiaceae 

Perideridia gairdneri 

Apiaceae 

Perideridia gairdneri 

Apiaceae 

Sanicula saxatilis 

Apiaceae 

Sanicula saxatilis 

Apocynaceae 

Vinca major 

Apocynaceae 

Vinca major 

Araliaceae 

Hedera helix 

Araliaceae 

Hedera helix 

Asteraceae 

Artemisia californica 

Asteraceae 

Artemisia californica 

Asteraceae 

Baccharis pilularis 

Asteraceae 

Baccharis pilularis 

Asteraceae 

Baccharis salicifolia 

Asteraceae 

Baccharis salicifolia 

Asteraceae 

Balsamorhiza 
macrolepis var. 
macrolepis 

Asteraceae 

Balsamorhiza 

macrolepis 

Asteraceae 

Carduus 

pycnocephalus 

Asteraceae 

Carduus 

pycnocephalus ssp. 
pycnocephalus 

Asteraceae 

Cirsium fontinale var. 
campylon 

Asteraceae 

Cirsium fontinale var. 
campylon 

Asteraceae 

Cirsium praeteriens 

Asteraceae 

Cirsium praeteriens 

Asteraceae 

Coreopsis hamiltonii 

Asteraceae 

Leptosyne hamiltonii 

Asteraceae 

Eriophyllum jepsonii 

Asteraceae 

Eriophyllum jepsonii 

Asteraceae 

Grindelia stricta var. 
angustifolia 

Asteraceae 

Grindelia stricta var. 
angustifolia 

Asteraceae 

Helianthus bolanderi 

Asteraceae 

Helianthus exilis 

Asteraceae 

Hemizonia parryi 

Asteraceae 

Centromadia parryi 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


F-1 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix F Taxonomic Crosswalk between the Jepson Manual First Edition and Second Edition 


Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 


ssp. congdonii 


ssp. congdonii 

Asteraceae 

Isocoma menziesii 
var. diabolica 

Asteraceae 

Isocoma menziesii 
var. diabolica 

Asteraceae 

Jaumea carnosa 

Asteraceae 

Jaumea carnosa 

Asteraceae 

Lasthenia conjugens 

Asteraceae 

Lasthenia conjugens 

Asteraceae 

Layia 

chrysanthemoides 

Asteraceae 

Layia 

chrysanthemoides 

Asteraceae 

Layia platyglossa 

Asteraceae 

Layia platyglossa 

Asteraceae 

Lessingia hololeuca 

Asteraceae 

Lessingia hololeuca 

Asteraceae 

Lessingia micradenia 
var. glabrata 

Asteraceae 

Lessingia micradenia 
var. glabrata 

Asteraceae 

Lessingia tenuis 

Asteraceae 

Lessingia tenuis 

Asteraceae 

Malacothrix 

phaeocarpa 

Asteraceae 

Malacothrix 

phaeocarpa 

Asteraceae 

Micropus amphibolus 

Asteraceae 

Micropus amphibolus 

Asteraceae 

Microseris sylvatica 

Asteraceae 

Microseris sylvatica 

Asteraceae 

Pentachaeta exilis 
ssp. aeolica 

Asteraceae 

Pentachaeta exilis 
ssp. aeolica 

Asteraceae 

Picris echioides 

Asteraceae 

Helminthotheca 

echioides 

Asteraceae 

Psilocarphus 
brevissimus var. 
multiflorus 

Asteraceae 

Psilocarphus 
brevissimus var. 
multiflorus 

Asteraceae 

Senecio aphanactis 

Asteraceae 

Senecio aphanactis 

Azollaceae 

Azolla mexicana 

Azollaceae 

Azolla mexicana 

Betulaceae 

Alnus rhombifolia 

Betulaceae 

Alnus rhombifolia 

Boraginaceae 

Amsinckia lunaris 

Boraginaceae 

Amsinckia lunaris 

Boraginaceae 

Plagiobothrys 
chorisianus var. 
hickmanii 

Boraginaceae 

Plagiobothrys 
chorisianus var. 
hickmanii 

Boraginaceae 

Plagiobothrys glaber 

Boraginaceae 

Plagiobothrys glaber 

Boraginaceae 

Plagiobothrys 

myosotoides 

Boraginaceae 

Plagiobothrys 

verrucosus 

Boraginaceae 

Plagiobothrys 

uncinatus 

Boraginaceae 

Plagiobothrys 

uncinatus 

Brassicaceae 

Erysimum 

franciscanum 

Brassicaceae 

Erysimum 

franciscanum 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


F-2 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix F Taxonomic Crosswalk between the Jepson Manual First Edition and Second Edition 


Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 

Brassicaceae 

Lepidium latifolium 

Brassicaceae 

Lepidium latifolium 

Brassicaceae 

Streptanthus albidus 
ssp. albidus 

Brassicaceae 

Streptanthus 
glandulosus ssp. 
albidus 

Brassicaceae 

Streptanthus albidus 
ssp. peramoenus 

Brassicaceae 

Streptanthus 
glandulosus ssp. 
glandulosus 

Brassicaceae 

Streptanthus callistus 

Brassicaceae 

Streptanthus callistus 

Brassicaceae 

Tropidocarpum 

capparideum 

Brassicaceae 

Tropidocarpum 

capparideum 

Campanulaceae 

Campanula exigua 

Campanulaceae 

Campanula exigua 

Campanulaceae 

Campanula 

sharsmithiae 

Campanulaceae 

Campanula 

sharsmithiae 

Campanulaceae 

Downingia spp. 

Campanulaceae 

Downingia spp. 

Campanulaceae 

Legenere limosa 

Campanulaceae 

Legenere limosa 

Caprifoliaceae 

Sambucus nigra ssp. 
caerulea 

Adoxaceae 

Sambucus mexicana 

Caprifoliaceae 

Symphoricarpos 
albus var. laevigatus 

Caprifoliaceae 

Symphoricarpos 
albus var. laevigatus 

Caryophyllaceae 

Stellaria media 

Caryophyllaceae 

Stellaria media 

Chenopodiaceae 

Atriplex depressa 

Chenopodiaceae 

Atriplex depressa 

Chenopodiaceae 

Atriplex joaquiniana 

Chenopodiaceae 

Atriplex joaquiniana 

Chenopodiaceae 

Atriplex semibaccata 

Chenopodiaceae 

Atriplex semibaccata 

Chenopodiaceae 

Atriplex triangularis 

Chenopodiaceae 

Atriplex prostrata 

Chenopodiaceae 

Salicornia europaea 

Chenopodiaceae 

Salicornia depressa 

Chenopodiaceae 

Salicornia virginica 

Chenopodiaceae 

Salicornia pacifica 

Chenopodiaceae 

Salsola soda 

Chenopodiaceae 

Salsola soda 

Chenopodiaceae 

Suaeda californica 

Chenopodiaceae 

Suaeda californica 

Convolvulaceae 

Calystegia collina 
ssp. venusta 

Convolvulaceae 

Calystegia collina 
ssp. venusta 

Cornaceae 

Cornus sericea 

Cornaceae 

Cornus sericea 

Crassulaceae 

Dudleya setchellii 

Crassulaceae 

Dudleya abramsii 
ssp. setchellii 

Cuscutaceae 

Cuscuta salina 

Convolvulaceae 

Cuscuta salina 

Ericaceae 

Arctostaphylos 

andersonii 

Ericaceae 

Arctostaphylos 

andersonii 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


F-3 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix F Taxonomic Crosswalk between the Jepson Manual First Edition and Second Edition 


Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 

Ericaceae 

Arctostaphylos 

glauca 

Ericaceae 

Arctostaphylos 

glauca 

Ericaceae 

Arctostaphylos 

regismontana 

Ericaceae 

Arctostaphylos 

regismontana 

Fabaceae 

Astragalus tener var. 
tener 

Fabaceae 

Astragalus tener var. 
tener 

Fabaceae 

Hoita strobilina 

Fabaceae 

Hoita strobilina 

Fabaceae 

Lupinus spp. 

Fabaceae 

Lupinus spp. 

Fabaceae 

Melilotus alhus 

Fabaceae 

Melilotus albus 

Fabaceae 

Robinia pseudoacacia 

Fabaceae 

Robinia pseudoacacia 

Fabaceae 

Trifolium amoenum 

Fabaceae 

Trifolium amoenum 

Fabaceae 

Trifolium 

depauperatum var. 
hydrophilum 

Fabaceae 

Trifolium 

hydrophilum 

Fabaceae 

Trifolium variegatum 

Fabaceae 

Trifolium variegatum 

Fagaceae 

Quercus agrifolia 

Fagaceae 

Quercus agrifolia 

Fagaceae 

Quercus douglasii 

Fagaceae 

Quercus douglasii 

Fagaceae 

Quercus durata 

Fagaceae 

Quercus durata 

Fagaceae 

Quercus ilex 

Fagaceae 

Quercus ilex 

Fagaceae 

Quercus lobata 

Fagaceae 

Quercus lobata 

Frankeniaceae 

Frankenia salina 

Frankeniaceae 

Frankenia salina 

Garryaceae 

Garry a congdonii 

Garryaceae 

Garrya congdonii 

Geraniaceae 

Erodium 

macrophyllum 

Geraniaceae 

California 

macrophylla 

Geraniaceae 

Erodium spp. 

Geraniaceae 

Erodium spp. 

Hippocastanaceae 

Aesculus californica 

Sapindaceae 

Aesculus californica 

Hydrophyllaceae 

Phacelia phacelioides 

Boraginaceae 

Phacelia phacelioides 

Juglandaceae 

Juglans californica 
ssp. hindsii 

Juglandaceae 

Juglans hindsii 

Lamiaceae 

Acanthomintha 

lanceolata 

Lamiaceae 

Acanthomintha 

lanceolata 

Lamiaceae 

Monardella antonina 
ssp. antonina 

Lamiaceae 

Monardella villosa 
ssp. villosa 

Lamiaceae 

Monardella villosa 
ssp .globosa 

Lamiaceae 

Monardella villosa 
ssp. villosa 

Lamiaceae 

Salvia mellifera 

Lamiaceae 

Salvia mellifera 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


F-4 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix F Taxonomic Crosswalk between the Jepson Manual First Edition and Second Edition 


Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 

Lauraceae 

Umbellularia 

californica 

Lauraceae 

Umbellularia 

californica 

Lythraceae 

Lythrum hyssopifolia 

Lythraceae 

Lythrum hyssopifolia 

Malvaceae 

Malacothamnus 

arcuatus 

Malvaceae 

Malacothamnus 

fasciculatus 

Malvaceae 

Malacothamnus 

davidsonii 

Malvaceae 

Malacothamnus 

davidsonii 

Malvaceae 

Malacothamnus hallii 

Malvaceae 

Malacothamnus hallii 

Malvaceae 

Sidalcea 

malachroides 

Malvaceae 

Sidalcea 

malachroides 

Myrtaceae 

Eucalyptus spp. 

Myrtaceae 

Eucalyptus spp. 

Onagraceae 

Clarkia breweri 

Onagraceae 

Clarkia breweri 

Onagraceae 

Clarkia concinna ssp. 
automixa 

Onagraceae 

Clarkia concinna ssp. 
automixa 

Onagraceae 

Ludwigia spp. 

Onagraceae 

Ludwigia spp. 

Papaveraceae 

Eschscholzia 

californica 

Papaveraceae 

Eschscholzia 

californica 

Papaveraceae 

Meconella oregana 

Papaveraceae 

Meconella oregana 

Papaveraceae 

Platystemon 

californicus 

Papaveraceae 

Platystemon 

californicus 

Plantaginaceae 

Plantago erecta 

Plantaginaceae 

Plantago erecta 

Platanaceae 

Platanus racemosa 

Platanaceae 

Platanus racemosa 

Plumbaginaceae 

Limonium 

californicum 

Plumbaginaceae 

Limonium 

californicum 

Polemoniaceae 

Eriastrum 

hrandegeeae 

Polemoniaceae 

Eriastrum 

hrandegeeae 

Polemoniaceae 

Eriastrum 

hrandegeeae 

Polemoniaceae 

Eriastrum tracyi 

Polemoniaceae 

Linanthus acicularis 

Polemoniaceae 

Leptosiphon 

acicularis 

Polemoniaceae 

Linanthus ambiguus 

Polemoniaceae 

Leptosiphon 

ambiguus 

Polemoniaceae 

Linanthus 

grandiflorus 

Polemoniaceae 

Leptosiphon 

grandiflorus 

Polemoniaceae 

Navarretia cotulifolia 

Polemoniaceae 

Navarretia cotulifolia 

Polygonaceae 

Chorizanthe robusta 
ssp. robusta 

Polygonaceae 

Chorizanthe robusta 
ssp. robusta 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


F-5 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix F Taxonomic Crosswalk between the Jepson Manual First Edition and Second Edition 


Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 

Polygonaceae 

Eriogonum 

argillosum 

Polygonaceae 

Eriogonum 

argillosum 

Polygonaceae 

Eriogonum nudum 
var. decurrens 

Polygonaceae 

Eriogonum nudum 
var. decurrens 

Polygonaceae 

Eriogonum 
umbellatum var. 
bahiiforme 

Polygonaceae 

Eriogonum 
umbellatum var. 
bahiiforme 

Polygonaceae 

Persicaria spp. 

Polygonaceae 

Persicaria spp. 

Polygonaceae 

Polygonum spp. 

Polygonaceae 

Polygonum spp. 

Portulacaceae 

Calandrinia breweri 

Montiaceae 

Calandrinia breweri 

Portulacaceae 

Calyptridium parryi 
var. hesseae 

Montiaceae 

Calyptridium parryi 
var. hesseae 

Primulaceae 

Androsace elongata 
ssp. acuta 

Primulaceae 

Androsace elongata 
ssp. acuta 

Ranunculaceae 

Delphinium 
californicum ssp. 
interius 

Ranunculaceae 

Delphinium 
californicum ssp. 
interius 

Ranunculaceae 

Ranunculus 

californicus 

Ranunculaceae 

Ranunculus 

californicus 

Rhamnaceae 

Ceanothus ferrisiae 

Rhamnaceae 

Ceanothus ferrisiae 

Rhamnaceae 

Rhamnus californica 

Rhamnaceae 

Frangula californica 

Rosaceae 

Adenostoma 

fasciculatum 

Rosaceae 

Adenostoma 

fasciculatum 

Rosaceae 

Eleteromeles 

arbutifolia 

Rosaceae 

Eleteromeles 

arbutifolia 

Rosaceae 

Rosa californica 

Rosaceae 

Rosa californica 

Rosaceae 

Rubus discolor 

Rosaceae 

Rubus armeniacus 

Rubiaceae 

Galium andrewsii 

Rubiaceae 

Galium andrewsii 

Rubiaceae 

Galium aparine 

Rubiaceae 

Galium aparine 

Salicaceae 

Populus fremontii 
ssp. fremontii 

Salicaceae 

Populus fremontii 
ssp. fremontii 

Salicaceae 

Salix exigua 

Salicaceae 

Salix exigua 

Salicaceae 

Salix laevigata 

Salicaceae 

Salix laevigata 

Salicaceae 

Salix lasiolepis 

Salicaceae 

Salix lasiolepis 

Salicaceae 

Salix lucida ssp. 
lasiandra 

Salicaceae 

Salix lasiandra var. 
lasiandra 

Scrophulariaceae 

Castilleja affinis ssp. 

Orobanchaceae 

Castilleja affinis ssp. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


F-6 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix F Taxonomic Crosswalk between the Jepson Manual First Edition and Second Edition 


Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 


neglecta 


neglecta 

Scrophulariaceae 

Castilleja exserta 

Orobanchaceae 

Castilleja exserta 

Scrophulariaceae 

Castilleja 
rubicundula ssp. 
rubicundula 

Orobanchaceae 

Castilleja 
rubicundula ssp. 
rubicundula 

Scrophulariaceae 

Collinsia multicolor 

Plantaginaceae 

Collinsia multicolor 

Scrophulariaceae 

Cordylanthus 
maritimus ssp. 
palustris 

Orobanchaceae 

Chloropyron 
maritimum ssp. 
palustre 

Scrophulariaceae 

Orthocarpus spp. 

Orobanchaceae 

Orthocarpus spp. 

Scrophulariaceae 

Penstemon rattanii 
var. kleei 

Plantaginaceae 

Penstemon rattanii 
var. kleei 

Simaroubaceae 

Ailanthus altissima 

Simaroubaceae 

Ailanthus altissima 

Thymelaeaceae 

Dirca occidentalis 

Thymelaeaceae 

Dirca occidentalis 

Ulmaceae 

Ulmus spp. 

Ulmaceae 

Ulmus spp. 

Cyperaceae 

Eleocharis 

macrostachya 

Cyperaceae 

Eleocharis 

macrostachya 

Cyperaceae 

Scirpus maritimus 

Cyperaceae 

Bolboschoenus 
maritimus ssp. 
paludosis 

Cyperaceae 

Scirpus robustus 

Cyperaceae 

Bolboschoenus 

robustus 

Cyperaceae 

Cyperus eragrostis 

Cyperaceae 

Cyperus eragrostis 

Iridaceae 

Iris longipetala 

Iridaceae 

Iris longipetala 

Juncaceae 

Juncus spp. 

Juncaceae 

Juncus spp. 

Liliaceae 

Allium peninsulare 
var. franciscanum 

Alliaceae 

Allium peninsulare 
var. franciscanum 

Liliaceae 

Allium sharsmithiae 

Alliaceae 

Allium sharsmithiae 

Liliaceae 

Calochortus 

umbellatus 

Liliaceae 

Calochortus 

umbellatus 

Liliaceae 

Frittilaria agrestis 

Liliaceae 

Frittilaria agrestis 

Liliaceae 

Fritillaria falcata 

Liliaceae 

Fritillaria falcata 

Liliaceae 

Fritillaria liliacea 

Liliaceae 

Fritillaria liliacea 

Orchidaceae 

Cypripedium 

fasciculatum 

Orchidaceae 

Cypripedium 

fasciculatum 

Orchidaceae 

Piperia Candida 

Orchidaceae 

Piperia Candida 

Orchidaceae 

Piperia michaelii 

Orchidaceae 

Piperia michaelii 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


F-7 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix F Taxonomic Crosswalk between the Jepson Manual First Edition and Second Edition 


Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
First Edition 

Family Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 

Scientific Name, 
Jepson Manual 
Second Edition 

Orchidaceae 

Piperia leptopetala 

Orchidaceae 

Piperia leptopetala 

Poaceae 

Arundo donax 

Poaceae 

Arundo donax 

Poaceae 

Avena spp. 

Poaceae 

Avena spp. 

Poaceae 

Bromus diandrus 

Poaceae 

Bromus diandrus 

Poaceae 

Distichlis spicata 

Poaceae 

Distichlis spicata 

Poaceae 

Elymus multisetus 

Poaceae 

Elymus multisetus 

Poaceae 

Koeleria macrantha 

Poaceae 

Koeleria macrantha 

Poaceae 

Leymus triticoides 

Poaceae 

Eleymus triticoides 

Poaceae 

Lolium multiflorum 

Poaceae 

Festuca perennis 

Poaceae 

Nassella pulchra 

Poaceae 

Stipa pulchra 

Poaceae 

Polypogon 

monspeliensis 

Poaceae 

Polypogon 

monspeliensis 

Poaceae 

Spartina alterniflora 

Poaceae 

Spartina alterniflora 

Poaceae 

Spartina foliosa 

Poaceae 

Spartina foliosa 

Typhaceae 

Sparganium spp. 

Typhaceae 

Sparganium spp. 

Typhaceae 

Typha spp. 

Typhaceae 

Typha spp. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


F-8 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix G 

Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species 
Considered but Rejected for Occurrence 

in The Project Area 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 




Appendix G Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Considered but Rejected for Occurrence 


Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Considered but Rejected for Occurrence in the 
Project Area 


Scientific Name 

Common Name 

No suitable habitat 

Outside of the elevation 
range 

Believed to be extirpated 
from Santa Clara County 

Lack of associated species 

Widely distributed CNPS 
List 3 and 4 Species 

Acanthomintha lanceolata 

Santa Clara thornmint 





X 

Allium sharsmithiae 

Sharsmith's onion 

X 

X 




Androsace elongate ssp. acuta 

California androsace 





X 

Arctostaphylos regismontana 

Kings Mountain manzanita 




X 


Astragalus tener var. tener 

Alkali milk-vetch 



X 



Atriplex joaquiniana 

San Joaquin spearscale 



X 



Azolla mexicana 

Mexican mosquito fern 





X 

Calandrinia breweri 

Brewer’s calandrinia 





X 

Calochortus umbellatus 

Oakland star tulip 





X 

Calyptridium parryi var. hesseae 

Santa Cruz Mountains pussypaws 

X 





Calystegia collina ssp. venusta 

South Coast Range morning-glory 


X 




Campanula exigua 

Chaparral harebell 

X 

X 




Campanula sharsmithiae 

Sharsmith's harebell 

X 

X 




Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta 

Robust spineflower 



X 



Cirsium praeteriens 

Lost thistle 



X 



Clarkia breweri 

Brewer's clarkia 





X 

Cordylanthus maritimus ssp. palustris 

Point Reyes bird’s beak 



X 



Coreopsis hamiltonii 

Mt. ffamilton coreopsis 

X 

X 




Cypripedium fasciculatum 

Clustered lady’s-slipper 





X 

Eriastrum brandegeeae 

Brandegee’s eriastrum 

X 

X 




Eriastrum tracyi 

Tracy's eriastrum 


X 




Eriogonum argillosum 

Clay buckwheat 





X 

Eriogonum nudum var. decurrens 

Ben Lomond buckwheat 





X 

Eriogonum umbellatum var. bahiiforme 

Bay buckwheat 





X 

Eriophyllum jepsonii 

Jepson’s wooly sunflower 





X 

Erysimum franciscanum 

San Francisco wallflower 





X 

Frittiiaria agrestis 

Stinkbells 





X 

Galium andrewsii 

Phlox-leaf serpentine bedstraw 





X 

Heiianthus exiiis 

Serpentine sunflower 





X 

Iris long ip e tala 

Coast iris 





X 

Lasthenia conjugens 

Contra Costa goldfields 



X 



Legenere limosa 

Legenere 

X 






Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


G-1 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix G Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Considered but Rejected for Occurrence 


Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Considered but Rejected for Occurrence in the 
Project Area 


Scientific Name 

Common Name 

No suitable habitat 

Outside of the elevation 
range 

Believed to be extirpated 
from Santa Clara County 

Lack of associated species 

Widely distributed CNPS 
List 3 and 4 Species 

Leptosiphon acicularis 

Bristly leptosiphon 





X 

Leptosiphon ambiguus 

Serpentine leptosiphon 





X 

Leptosiphon grandiflorus 

Large-flowered leptosiphon 





X 

Lessingia tenuis 

Spring lessingia 





X 

Lomatium observatorium 

Mt. Hamilton lomatium 

X 

X 




Malacotrhix phaeocarpa 

Dusky-fruited malacothix 





X 

Micropus amphiboles 

Mt. Diablo cottonweed 





X 

Microserus sylvatica 

Sylvan microseris 





X 

Monardella antonina ssp. antonina 

San Antonio Hills monardella 

X 

X 




Navarretia cotulifolia 

Cotula navarretia 





X 

Penstemon rattanii var. kleei 

Santa Cruz Mountains 
beardtongue 

X 

X 




Pentachaeta exilis ssp. aeolica 

San Benito pentachaeta 

X 

X 




Perideridia gairdneri 

Gairdner’s yampah 





X 

Piperia Candida 

White-flowered rein orchid 





X 

Piperia michaelii 

Michael’s rein orchid 





X 

Phacelia phacelioides 

Mt. Diablo phacelia 

X 

X 




Piperia leptopetala 

Narrow-petaled rein orchid 

X 

X 




Plagiobothrys chorisianus var. hickmanii 

Hickman's popcorn flower 





X 

Plagiobothrys glaber 

Hairless popcorn-flower 



X 



Plagiobothrys myosotoides 

Forget-me-not popcorn-flower 

X 

X 




Psilocarphus brevissimus var. multiflorus 

Delta woolly-marbles 





X 

Sanicula saxatilis 

Rock sanicle 


X 




Senecio aphanactis 

Rayless ragwort 

X 





Sidalcea malachroides 

Maple-leaved checkerbloom 





X 

Streptanthus callistus 

Mt. Hamilton jewel-flower 

X 

X 




Suaeda californica 

California seablite 



X 



Trifolium amoenum 

Two-fork clover 



X 



Tropidocarpum capparideum 

Caper-fruited tropidocarpum 



X 




Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


G-2 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix H 

Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally 
Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring 

in The Project Area 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 




Appendix H Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


Federal or State Endangered or Threatened Species 

Tiburon Paintbrush (Castilleja affinis ssp. neglecta). Federal Listing Status: 
Endangered; State Listing Status: Threatened; CNPS List: 1B.2. Tiburon paintbrush is a 
perennial, hemiparasitic herb in the figwort family ( Scrophulariaceae ] that blooms from 
April to June and dies back to a woody base in July and August. Because of its hemiparasitic 
nature, habitat suitability may depend on the presence of certain host plant populations. 
This subspecies has been observed to occur in serpentinite soils in valley and foothill 
grassland habitats (a CDFG-designated sensitive habitat] from 197 to 1,312 feet in 
elevation. The yellow flowers are primarily bee-pollinated (USFWS 1998b], Associated 
species include dwarf plantain and purple needlegrass. 

Tiburon paintbrush is a California endemic with fewer than 10 known occurrences in four 
USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles in Marin, Napa, and Santa Clara counties (CNPS 2011], This 
relatively limited distribution is consistent with the conclusions reached in the Recovery 
Plan for Serpentine Soil Species of the San Francisco Bay Area (USFWS 1998b], which states 
that the species historically was never widespread. 

Two of the 10 known populations of Tiburon paintbrush are located in the Project Area, on 
southern Coyote Ridge, west of Anderson Reservoir. The largest population consists of 
approximately 1,000 individuals in the Kirby Canyon area of Coyote Ridge. Based on review 
of the specific environmental factors influencing the distribution of this species, including 
such items as elevation, soil type, slope, aspect, associate species, ecological condition, and 
proximity of documented populations to the current Project Area, habitat capable of 
supporting the Tiburon paintbrush likely also is present elsewhere in the Project Area. 
Suitable habitat includes serpentine bunchgrass grasslands, such as that elsewhere on 
Coyote Ridge as well as potentially in the Santa Teresa Hills. However, intensive surveys by 
SCVWD botanists of SCVWD canals on serpentine habitats in 2004 and 2008 did not detect 
this species, and there is a very low probability of its occurrence at Proposed Project work 
sites. 

Coyote Ceanothus (Ceanothus ferrisiae). Federal Listing Status: Endangered; State 
Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.1. Coyote ceanothus is an erect, stiffly branched 
evergreen shrub in the buckthorn family ( Rhamnaceae ] with small, dark green, shiny leaves. 
It blooms from January to May. This extremely rare species is distinguished from the 
common buckbrush ( Ceanothus cuneatus ] by the presence of short teeth along the margins 
of the leaves, tapered or rounded (not wedge-shaped] leaf bases, and wider seed capsules. 
The species has been observed to occur on serpentinite soils in chaparral, coastal scrub, and 
valley and foothill grasslands between 394 and 1,509 feet in elevation. Species commonly 
associated with Coyote ceanothus include foothill pine ( Pinus sabiniana ] and bigberry 
manzanita. 

Four occurrences of Coyote ceanothus are in the Project Area. Three are located in the 
Anderson Dam and the Kirby Canyon area of southern Coyote Ridge, and the fourth is north 
of Morgan Hill near Llagas Avenue. According to the Recovery Plan for Serpentine Soil Species 
of the San Francisco Bay Area (USFWS 1998b], little or no reproduction has been observed 
in known stands of this species, and remaining populations are composed of mature and 
senescent individuals only. However, SCVWD botanist J. Hillman has observed that after a 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


H-1 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix H Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


fire on Pigeon Point above Anderson Dam in 2003, many thousands of individuals 
germinated and have established themselves. 

Although the only known records of Coyote ceanothus from the Project Area are located in 
the Coyote Ridge/Anderson Reservoir areas and in Morgan Hill on the west side of the 
valley, complete surveys of suitable serpentine habitat in the Project Area have not been 
conducted. Similar serpentine soils as those that support the known populations likely 
occur in the Project Area in the Silver Creek area of northern Coyote Ridge and in the Santa 
Teresa Hills, and thus, serpentine bunchgrass grassland and mixed serpentine chaparral 
habitat in these areas also may support the species. However, intensive surveys by SCVWD 
botanists of SCVWD canals on serpentine habitats in 2004 and 2008 did not detect this 
species, and there is a very low probability of its occurrence at Proposed Project work sites. 

Santa Clara Valley Dudleya (Dudleya setchellii ). Federal Listing Status: Endangered; 
State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.1. Santa Clara Valley dudleya is a low-growing, 
succulent, perennial herb in the stonecrop family ( Crassulaceae ] that blooms during May 
and June, with a single plant often producing many flowering stems. Propagation occurs 
sexually via gravity/wind-dispersed seeds or vegetatively via rhizomes or horizontal stems. 
Individual plants may live more than 10 years. This dudleya is endemic to the ultramafic 
formations (serpentinite and peridotite] of the Santa Clara Valley, and is largely restricted 
to the serpentine areas surrounding Coyote Valley. Populations have been observed to 
occur on relatively barren rock outcrops and on serpentine balds within serpentine 
grasslands and cismontane woodlands from 197 to 1,493 feet in elevation. The species is 
characterized by a basal rosette of fleshy, glaucous leaves, which arise from a short, 
aboveground stem, and by ascending floral stems bearing pale yellow flowers. The roots of 
Santa Clara Valley dudleya can grow up to 12 inches long and typically extend into hairline 
fractures and rock crevices of serpentine outcrops. Associated species often include dwarf 
plantain, smooth lessingia ( Lessingia micradenia var. glabrata ), and both special-status 
jewel-flowers ( Streptanthus albidus ssp. albidus and S. albidus ssp. peramoenus] (CNDDB 
2011 ], 

This Santa Clara County endemic is documented in seven USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles, all 
in the area from southern San Jose south to San Martin (USFWS 1998b, CNPS 2011], 
Numerous documented occurrences are in the Project Area. In 2000, H. T. Harvey & 
Associates (2000] conducted a county-wide assessment of the occurrence of Santa Clara 
Valley dudleya, and since then, additional occurrences have been identified by SCVWD staff 
(unpublished data] and others (CNDDB 2011], Numerous documented occurrences of Santa 
Clara Valley dudleya are in the Project Area. These are on rock outcrops in serpentine 
habitat near Chesbro and Calero reservoirs, in numerous locations along Coyote Ridge from 
the Silver Creek Hills south to the Kirby Canyon area, on Communications Hill, near 
Monterey Road/Senter Road, in the upper Llagas Creek watershed, and in the Santa Teresa 
Hills. During SCVWD's 2004 and 2008 surveys of SMP channels within serpentine soils, the 
species was documented along the Coyote Alamitos Canal (two populations totaling 41 
plants in 2004 and one population of 1350 plants in 2008], the Almaden Calero Canal (one 
population of 75 plants in 2004 and 160 plants in 2008], and the Coyote Canal Extension 
(five populations totaling 791 plants in 2004 and six populations totaling 978 plants in 
2008], within the SCVWD canal easement. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


H-2 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix H Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


Serpentine soils similar to those that support the known populations occur in the Project 
Area throughout much of Coyote Ridge, on Tulare Hill, and in the Santa Teresa Hills, and 
thus, some potential exists that serpentine bunchgrass grassland and mixed serpentine 
chaparral habitat virtually anywhere in the Project Area may support the species. 

Metcalf Canyon Jewel-flower [Streptanthus albidus ssp. albidus ). Federal Listing 
Status: Endangered; State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.1. Metcalf Canyon jewel- 
flower is an annual herb in the mustard family ( Brassicaceae ] that blooms from April to July. 
It grows on serpentine soils in valley and foothill grassland habitat. It has been observed at 
elevations from 148 to 2,625 feet and can often be found on road cuts. Associated species 
include bird's foot lotus (Lotus humistratus), dwarf plantain, and Santa Clara Valley dudleya. 

Metcalf Canyon jewel-flower is documented from seven USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles in 
Santa Clara County. The species can be locally abundant, but its range is extremely limited. 
It is known from fewer than 20 occurrences (CNPS 2011], Fourteen extant records of 
Metcalf Canyon jewel-flower are in Santa Clara County and in the Project Area (CNDDB 
2011], The Consortium of California Herbaria [2011] lists seven records, all of which are 
from Santa Clara County, including records from the Silver Creek Hills of northern Coyote 
Ridge and from Communications Hill. Another large population is found on the southern 
boundary of the Project Area in Metcalf Canyon. During SCVWD’s 2004 survey of SMP 
channels within serpentine habitat, one population (27 plants] of this species was 
documented along the Coyote Canal Extension, within the SCVWD canal easement. This 
population numbered 1088 plants during the 2008 survey. The species also has been 
reported west of Monterey Highway near Tulare Hill (CNDDB 2011], and it thus may occur 
along the Coyote Alamitos Canal as well. Only the closely related most beautiful jewel- 
flower, not Metcalf Canyon jewelflower, has been reported in the vicinity of the Almaden 
Calero Canal. Nevertheless, within the Project Area, serpentine bunchgrass grassland 
habitat along the length of Coyote Ridge, on Tulare Hill, in the Santa Teresa Hills, and in the 
San Vicente area west of Calero Reservoir (including areas along the Almaden Calero Canal] 
provide potential habitat for this species. Thus, some potential exists that it would occur in 
locations in or near Proposed Project work sites, where it has not been previously recorded. 

California Native Plant Society-Listed Species 

Franciscan Onion (Allium peninsulare var. franciscanurri). Federal Listing Status: 
None; State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Franciscan onion is a bulbiferous herb 
in the lily family ( Liliaceae ] that blooms from May to June. It often occurs on serpentinite 
soils or on clay or volcanic soils in cismontane woodland and valley and foothill grassland 
habitats at elevations from 171 to 984 feet (CNPS 2011], The CNDDB (2011] lists the 
species as occurring in mixed hardwood forest habitat with California bay, California 
buckeye, and coast live oak on volcanic substrates in shade to part sun among large cobbles. 

Franciscan onion occurs in 10 USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles within Mendocino, Santa Clara, 
San Mateo, and Sonoma counties. No CNDDB records exist for this variety in the Project 
Area. The Consortium of California Herbaria (2011] lists two records of the variety in the 
mountains northwest of the Project Area, off Page Mill Road along its length to Black 
Mountain. 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


H-3 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix H Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


A known population is located along Page Mill Road from Palo Alto to the Los Altos Hills. It 
is possible that the species also is present elsewhere in the Project Area, as suitable habitat 
is present in the Santa Teresa and Almaden Hills, west of Calero Reservoir, east of Anderson 
Reservoir, near Llagas Creek, and within oak woodland habitats on clay soils and serpentine 
soils in the foothills of the Project Area. 

Bent-flowered Fiddleneck [Amsinckia lunaris). Federal Listing Status: None; State 
Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Bent-flowered fiddleneck is an annual herb in the 
forget-me-not family ( Boraginaceae ] that blooms from March to June. This species has been 
observed to occur in cismontane woodland, coastal bluff scrub, and valley and foothill 
grassland habitat at elevations of 10 to 1,640 feet (CNPS 2011], The CNDDB [2011] 
describes the species as occurring in grassland habitat with encroaching scrub and 
associated species such as whitehead mule ears (Wyethia helenioides) and cream cups. 

Bent-flowered fiddleneck occurs in Alameda, Contra Costa, Colusa, Lake, Marin, Napa, San 
Benito, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Mateo, and Yolo counties. It is known from fewer than 
35 occurrences in the North and Central Coast Ranges, many of which have not been 
observed in recent years (CNPS 2011], The CNDDB contains no records of bent-flowered 
fiddleneck within the Project Area, although one 1998 record exists, located approximately 
1.1 miles north of Mt. Hamilton Road on Kinkaid Road above 1,000 feet in elevation. 

Based on review of the specific environmental factors influencing the distribution of this 
species, portions of the Project Area likely contain habitat capable of supporting the bent- 
flowered fiddleneck. Suitable habitat is present below 1,000 feet elevation in chaparral and 
oak woodland habitats, particularly in the foothills of the Diablo Range. 

Anderson’s Manzanita (Arctostaphylos andersonii ). Federal Listing Status: None; State 
Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Anderson's manzanita is an evergreen shrub in the 
heath family ( Ericaceae ] that blooms from November to April. It has been observed to occur 
in openings and along the edges of broadleafed upland forest, chaparral, and North Coast 
coniferous forest habitats at elevations of 197 to 2,395 feet. It may be confused with other 
species of manzanita merged with it as varieties. 

Anderson's manzanita occurs in Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and San Mateo counties. Eight 
documented populations in Santa Clara County occur above 1,000 feet in elevation, and are, 
therefore, outside of the Project Area. Potential habitat occurs in chaparral and forest 
openings at the upper edges of the Project Area, such as around Lexington Reservoir and 
Guadalupe Reservoir. 


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Appendix H Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


Brittlescale (Atriplex depressa). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing Status: 
None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Brittlescale is an annual herb in the goosefoot family 
(Chenopodiaceae) that blooms from April to October. The species grows in relatively barren 
areas with alkaline clay soils within chenopod scrub, meadows and seeps, playas, vernal 
pools, valley and foothill grassland, and occasionally in riparian marshes (CNPS 2011], It 
has been observed to occur at elevations from 3 to 1,050 feet (CNPS 2011], Atriplex species 
are somewhat tolerant of disturbance. Associate species include alkaline-adapted, seasonal 
wetland species such as bush seepweed (Suaeda moquinii), common tarweed ( Centromadia 
pungens), and more common alkaline tolerant grasses such as Italian wild-rye. 

Brittlescale occurs in the Warm Springs Area of Fremont in Alameda County, approximately 
1.5 miles north of the Project Area, in alkaline depressional habitats very similar to those 
found in the lands immediately south of the San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control 
Plant (WPCP] in Alviso, as well as in Arzino Ranch to the southwest of the WPCP. As suitable 
habitat is present in the Project Area and nearby populations may provide a potential seed 
source, the species may occur in the Project Area near Alviso in alkaline seasonal wetlands 
south and southwest of the WPCP. 

Big-scale Balsamroot (Balsamorhiza macrolepis var. macrolepis ). Federal Listing 
Status: None; State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Big-scale balsamroot is a 
perennial herb belonging to the sunflower family ( Asteraceae ] that blooms from March to 
June. This plant has been observed to occur in chaparral, cismontane woodland, and valley 
and foothill grasslands, sometimes on serpentine, at elevations between 295 and 4,593 feet 
(Hickman 1993, CNPS 2011]. CNDDB (2011] describes the species as occurring locally on 
serpentine substrate in California annual grassland habitat on northwest facing slopes of 
50 percent. Associated species include phacelia ( Phacelia spp.], California beeplant, and 
Ithuriel's spear ( Triteleia laxa). 

Big-scale balsamroot is reported from Alameda, Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Lake, Mariposa, 
Napa, Placer, Santa Clara, Solano, Sonoma, and Tehama counties (CNPS 2011], One record 
exists of big-scale balsamroot in the Project Area, 0.85 mile southeast of the Capitol 
Expressway and Highway 101 interchange, but it has been extirpated because of 
development (CNDDB 2011]. Another record, believed to be extant, occurs at the north end 
of the Silver Creek Hills adjacent to development. 

Many of the key habitat characteristics believed to be responsible for influencing the 
distribution of this species are present elsewhere in the Project Area as well. Suitable 
habitat includes serpentine bunchgrass grassland, mixed serpentine chaparral, and oak 
woodland habitat types on Coyote Ridge, the Santa Teresa Hills, Communications Hill, near 
the Anderson Reservoir, and near Alum Rock. However, SCVWD surveys for special-status 
plants along all creeks and canals mapped on serpentine soils in 2004 and 2008 did not 
detect any occurrences of big-scale balsamroot. Therefore, this species is not expected to 
occur in or very near any Proposed Project work sites. 


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Appendix H Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


Round-leaved Filaree [Erodium macrophylluni). Federal Listing Status: None; State 
Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.1. Round-leaved filaree is an annual herb in the 
geranium family ( Geraniaceae ] that blooms from March to May. This species has been 
observed to occur on clay soils in valley and foothill grassland, and open cismontane 
woodland habitats at elevations from 49 to 3,937 feet. 

Round-leaved filaree occurs in 92 USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles in Alameda, Contra Costa, 
Colusa, Fresno, Glenn, Kings, Kern, Lake, Lassen, Los Angeles, Merced, Monterey, Napa, 
Riverside, Santa Barbara, San Benito, Santa Clara, San Diego, San Joaquin, San Luis Obispo, 
San Mateo, Solano, Sonoma, Stanislaus, Tehama, Ventura, and Yolo counties, and in habitats 
from Oregon to Baja California. Many collections of the species are historical (CNPS 2011], 

One historical record [1955] of round-leaved filaree is listed in the CNDDB [2011] as 
occurring in the Project Area in the Silver Creek Hills. Additional suitable habitat for the 
species occurs on clay soils in California annual grassland and oak woodland habitats such 
as those in the Santa Teresa and Almaden Hills. 

Pink Creamsacs (Castilleja rubicundula ssp. rubicundula). Federal Listing Status: 
None; State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Pink creamsacs is an annual herb in the 
figwort family ( Scrophulariaceae ] that blooms from April to June. This subspecies grows on 
serpentinite soils in openings in chaparral, cismontane woodland, meadows and seeps, and 
valley and foothill grassland habitats. It has been observed to occur from 66 to 2,953 feet in 
elevation. 

This California endemic occurs in 20 USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles in Butte, Colusa, Glenn, 
Lake, Napa, Santa Clara, and Shasta counties (CNPS 2011], One CNDDB record exists of pink 
creamsacs occurring in the Project Area, north of Tar Creek approximately 5.4 miles south 
of Gilroy within the Santa Cruz Mountains. 

Based on review of the specific environmental factors influencing the distribution of this 
species, habitat capable of supporting pink creamsacs likely is present elsewhere in the 
Project Area as well. Suitable habitat is present on serpentinite-derived soils, such as those 
on Coyote Ridge, within the Santa Teresa Hills, on Communications Hill, and near Alum 
Rock. Because not all of the serpentine soils have been mapped in the county, suitable 
habitat also could be found in portions of the eastern foothills of the Project Area. However, 
SCVWD surveys for special-status plants along all creeks and canals mapped on serpentine 
soils in 2004 and 2008 did not detect any occurrences of pink creamsacs. Therefore, this 
species is not expected to occur in or very near any Proposed Project work sites. 


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Appendix H Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


Congdon’s Tarplant ( Hemizonia parryi ssp. congdonii). Federal Listing Status: None; 
State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Congdon's tarplant is an annual herb in the 
composite family [Asteraceae) that has a variable blooming period extending from June 
through November. It occurs in valley and foothill grasslands, particularly those with 
alkaline substrates, and in slumps or disturbed areas where water collects in lower 
elevation wetlands below approximately 760 feet. The subspecies tolerates disturbance and 
often occurs in disked fields with non-native, California annual grassland habitat with 
Harding grass (Phalaris paradoxa) and alkali mallow (Malvella leprosa). 

Congdon's tarplant occurs in Alameda, Contra Costa, San Mateo, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, 
and Santa Clara counties, and it is presumed extirpated from its historical range in Solano 
and Santa Cruz counties (CNPS 2011], Several records of Congdon's tarplant are listed in the 
CNDDB [2011] as occurring near or in the Project Area. A population identified in 2002 is in 
Sunnyvale Baylands Park northeast of the junction of SR 237 and the Lawrence Expressway 
in Sunnyvale. Another population occurs in the Project Area near Alviso, located north of SR 
237 and east of North 1st Street in a field bounded by Grand Avenue, Wilson Way, Nortech 
Parkway, and Disk Drive (LSA Associates 1999], One historical reference is found from the 
Project Area in eastern San Jose, observed in 1908, but the habitat in that location no longer 
exists. In addition, the species has recently been detected at Mission College in Santa Clara 
(West Valley - Mission Community College District 2009], A population is located 
approximately 1.5 miles northeast of the Project Area in the Warm Springs District of 
Fremont in Alameda County. 

Aside from the recent record near Alviso, the species may be present in other locations 
where suitable habitat exists in the Project Area. This would be in disturbed California 
annual grassland habitat (with alkaline substrates], particularly near seasonal wetland, 
brackish marsh, and muted tidal marsh habitat in the northern portion of the Project Area. 

Mt. Hamilton Thistle [Cirsium fontinale var. campylori). Federal Listing Status: Species 
of Concern; State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Mt. Hamilton thistle is an erect, 
pale green, wooly perennial plant in the sunflower family ( Asteraceae ] that blooms from 
April to October, producing nodding white to pinkish flowering heads with spiny, reflexed 
flower bracts. Mt. Hamilton thistle is associated with seeps and streams, within chaparral, 
cismontane woodland, and valley and foothill grassland habitats on serpentine soils from 
328 to 2,920 feet elevation. Some special-status plants that may occur near Mt. Hamilton 
thistle on similar soils, although not in moist areas, include the Santa Clara Valley dudleya 
and the Metcalf Canyon jewel-flower. Mt. Hamilton thistle occurs in stands of a few plants to 
several thousand plants, almost always in seasonal or perennial wetlands. 

The range of Mt. Hamilton thistle includes 10 USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles in Santa Clara, 
Alameda, and Stanislaus counties. Twenty-five records are in the Project Area. Clusters of 
populations occur in the serpentine seeps and swales along the eastern and southwestern 
foothills of the Project Area. It is found in the Calero/Almaden Canal, Coyote Canal, Coyote 
Canal Extension, Silver Creek, Metcalf Canyon, Anderson Dam spillway, Coyote Creek 
tributaries, springs east of Coyote Creek, drainages between Kirby Canyon landfill, and 
Coyote Creek golf course, drainage near Almaden Research Center, north Calero Reservoir 
in a tributary to Arroyo Creek, and others. The species was detected on the Almaden Calero 
Canal and the Coyote Canal during SCVWD's 2004 survey and on the Coyote Canal and 


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Appendix H Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


Coyote Canal Extension in 2008. Suitable habitat elsewhere in the Project Area includes 
mesic serpentine habitats such as seeps and swales. Known serpentine habitat occurs 
elsewhere on Coyote Ridge and in the Santa Teresa Hills as well. 

Santa Clara Red Ribbons (Clarkia concinna ssp. automixa ). Federal Listing Status: 
None; State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 4.3. Santa Clara red ribbons is an annual herb 
in the evening-primrose family ( Onagraceae ] that blooms from May to June, and rarely as 
early as April or as late as July, depending on the microsite and annual climactic conditions. 
This species occurs in chaparral and cismontane woodland habitats in San Francisco Bay 
Area foothills at an elevational range of approximately 295 to 4,950 feet (CNPS 2011], The 
species has been observed growing on steep, rocky slopes surrounded by mixed evergreen 
forest near drainages. Commonly associated species include white fairy lantern 
{Calochortus albus) and yellow stonecrop ( Sedum spathulifolium ). 

This species has a very small endemic range and is known to occur only in Alameda and 
Santa Clara counties (CNPS 2011], although older records exist from surrounding counties 
such as Santa Cruz, and herbarium records indicate some populations occurring in the 
northern Coast Ranges (Consortium of California Herbaria 2010], Seventeen records of 
Santa Clara red ribbons are listed in Santa Clara County. The majority of these occurrences 
are above the 1,000 feet elevation contour. Three records are below 1,000 feet in elevation 
and within the Project Area. One was mapped just east of Alum Rock in 1922, and another 
was mapped in 1907 at Alma Soda Spring West of Lexington Reservoir. The third record 
was from 1985 near Stevens Creek Road and Redwood Gulch Road, west of Saratoga. 
Suitable chaparral and oak woodland habitat occurs elsewhere in the Project Area along 
slopes and drainages at higher elevations in the Diablo Range and Santa Cruz Mountains. 

San Francisco Collinsia (Collinsia multicolor ). Federal Listing Status: None; State 
Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. San Francisco collinsia is an annual herb in the 
figwort family ( [Scrophulariaceae ] that blooms from March to May (CNPS 2011], It has been 
observed to occur on serpentine soils in closed-cone coniferous forest and coastal scrub 
habitats at elevations from 98 to 820 feet. The CNDDB (2011] states that the species occurs 
in coastal scrub habitat on decomposed shale/mudstone mixed with humus in closed-cone 
coniferous forest habitat near coast live oak woodland habitat. Associated species include 
plectritis ( Plectritis spp.), woodland star ( Lithophragma spp.), fringe pod ( Thysanocarpus 
spp.), and shooting star ( Dodecatheon hendersonii). The San Francisco collinsia is considered 
a covered species by the draft Habitat Plan (ICF Jones & Stokes 2010], 

San Francisco collinsia is documented from 10 USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles in Monterey, 
Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Francisco, and San Mateo counties. There is one confirmed 
extant occurrence in Santa Clara County—a new population of the species was identified by 
SCVWD botanist J. Hillman in 2009 near the shoreline of Anderson Reservoir. Two older 
occurrences exist that are possibly not extant (Edenvale and Almaden Quicksilver], The 
Edenvale area is currently developed, and this occurrence may be extirpated, but focused 
surveys around Edenvale are planned for 2011 to verify the existence of this occurrence (J. 
Hillman pers comm.]. SCVWD surveys for special-status plants along all creeks and canals 
mapped on serpentine soils in the Project Area in 2004 and 2008 did not detect any 
occurrences of San Francisco collinsia. However, the majority of occurrences are not located 


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Appendix H Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


on serpentine soils. Thus, some potential exists for the species to occur in or near Proposed 
Project work sites, either on serpentine or non-serpentine soils. 

Hospital Canyon Larkspur (Delphinium californicum ssp. interius). Federal Listing 
Status: None; State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Hospital Canyon larkspur 
inhabits a small endemic range covering the mid- and upper elevations of the inner Coast 
Ranges along the San Francisco Bay Area and south towards Mount Hamilton. Records exist 
from Alameda, Contra Costa, Merced, San Benito, Santa Clara, San Joaquin, and Stanislaus 
counties (CNPS 2011]. The species is found in chaparral and cismontane woodland habitats 
at elevations of approximately 760 to 3,615 feet. CNDDB records indicate that microhabitat 
conditions for the species are wet, boggy meadows, openings in chaparral, and canyons. 
Hospital Canyon larkspur is a perennial herb in the buttercup ( Ranunculaceae ] family and 
blooms from April to June. 

Hospital Canyon larkspur inhabits a small endemic range covering the mid-and upper 
elevations of the inner Coast Ranges along the San Francisco Bay Area and south towards 
Mount Hamilton. It is found in seven counties within this range, including Santa Clara. The 
CNDDB [2011] documents three occurrences in Santa Clara County over 1,000 feet in 
elevation, outside of the Project Area. However, potential habitat exists in the Project Area 
in canyons, openings in chaparral, and wet boggy meadows, in the foothills of the Diablo 
Range above 760 feet in elevation, and the species potentially can occur in the Project Area. 

Western Leatherwood [Dirca occidentalism. Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing 
Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Western leatherwood is a deciduous shrub in the mezereum 
family ( Thymelaeaceae ] that blooms from January to April, and sometimes as late as May. It 
is endemic to California, and is the only species in its family found in the state. This shrub 
has been observed to occur in mesic broadleafed upland forest, closed-cone coniferous 
forest, chaparral, cismontane woodland, North Coast coniferous forest, riparian forest, and 
riparian woodland habitats from 164 to 1,296 feet in elevation. Road maintenance may 
affect the species; however, populations also generally are declining because of low 
reproductive rates (CNPS 2011]. 

Western leatherwood has been documented in 19 USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles in Santa 
Clara, Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, San Mateo, and Sonoma counties. Santa Clara County is 
at the southern edge of its range. Four documented populations are in the Project Area, 
primarily located in the northwestern corner of the county in the foothills near Palo Alto, 
including Los Trancos Creek, Palo Alto Foothills Park, and Permanente Creek near Mountain 
View. Beyond these documented occurrences, other potential habitat occurs in the foothills 
of the Santa Cruz Mountains in mesic sites, or brushy slopes in mixed evergreen and foothill 
woodland communities north of Highway 17. 


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Appendix H Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


Hoover’s Button Celery (Eryngium aristulatum var. hooveri) Federal Listing Status: 
None; State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.1. Hoover's button celery is an annual or 
perennial herb in the umbellifer ( Apiaceae ] family that blooms in July. It has been observed 
to occur in vernal pool habitats from 10 to 148 feet in elevation. This California endemic is 
documented in nine USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles in Alameda, San Benito, Santa Clara, San 
Diego, and San Luis Obispo counties (CNPS 2011], Associate species include calicoflower 
(Downingia spp.J, woolly marbles (Psilocarphus spp.J, and popcorn flower (Plagiobothrys 
spp.J. 

Six historical records of Hoover's button celery are in the Project Area. Five of these are 
thought to have been extirpated by development. Many of these historical occurrences 
(from 1902] were located in roadside ditches in the Project Area west of Alviso or in nearby 
baylands. One extant occurrence is located in the vicinity of San Felipe Lake near the 
southeastern border of the County. Another extant population occurs just north of the 
Project Area in the Warm Springs Area in Alameda County, in a disturbed alkaline wetland 
habitat very similar to those found southwest of the WPCP. Therefore, because suitable 
habitat occurs in the Project Area and nearby populations may provide a potential seed 
source, this species may still occur in alkaline-influenced or clayey depressional wetlands or 
possibly even agricultural ditches in the northern reaches of the Project Area near Alviso. 

Fragrant Fritillary [Fritillaria liliacea ). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing 
Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Fragrant fritillary is a bulbiferous herb in the lily family 
(Liliaceae ) that blooms from February through April. It has been observed to occur in 
cismontane woodland, coastal prairie, coastal scrub, and valley and foothill grassland 
habitats, often on areas with serpentine substrates at elevations of 10 to 1,345 feet (CNPS 
2011], The fragrant fritillary prefers relatively open grassland habitats underlain with 
heavy clay soils derived from serpentine bedrock in Santa Clara County. Some commonly 
associated species are purple needlegrass, pine bluegrass (Poa scabrella), Santa Clara Valley 
dudleya, and Metcalf Canyon jewel-flower. 

The species' range extends through Santa Clara, Alameda, Contra Costa, Monterey, Marin, 
San Benito, San Francisco, San Mateo, Solano, and Sonoma counties. Six records of fragrant 
fritillary are listed in the CNDDB (2011] as occurring within the Project Area. These are 
typically located on serpentine soils near the town of Evergreen in the Silver Creek Hills, 
north of Alum Rock, Metcalfe Canyon, Calero County Park, and Almaden/Quicksilver Park. 
Potential habitat in the Project Area includes serpentine or clay soils with bunchgrass 
grassland habitat and oak woodland habitat, such as those in the Silver Creek area; Santa 
Teresa Hills;; near Calero, Chesbro, and Anderson Reservoirs;; and on Communications Hill. 
However, SCVWD surveys for special-status plants along all creeks and canals mapped on 
serpentine soils in 2004 and 2008 did not detect any occurrences of fragrant fritillary. 
Therefore, this species is not expected to occur in or very near any Proposed Project work 
sites. 


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Appendix H Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


Loma Prieta Hoita [Hoita strobilina). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing Status: 
None; CNPS List: 1B.1. Loma Prieta hoita is a perennial herb in the legume family 
[Fabaceae] that blooms from May to October. It typically grows in mesic areas with 
serpentinite features in chaparral, cismontane woodlands, and riparian woodlands at 
elevations between 98 and 2,822 feet (CNPS 2011]. Commonly associated trees and shrubs 
include big leaf maple, mountain mahogany ( Cercocarpus betuloides), and California foothill 
pine. Some special-status plants also associated with Loma Prieta hoita include 
Mt. Hamilton thistle, smooth lessingia, and robust monardella ( Monardella villosa ssp. 
globosa). It often occurs in the understory of coast live oak woodland and forest. 

Loma Prieta hoita occurs in 12 USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles in Santa Clara, Contra Costa, 
and Santa Cruz counties, and is believed to be extirpated from Alameda County. Thirteen 
recorded occurrences of Loma Prieta Hoita are in the Project Area, found primarily in the 
Santa Cruz Mountains from Saratoga to Gilroy although it also occurs in the Diablo Range 
near Coyote Ridge. Suitable habitat for the species occurs in mesic, serpentine-influenced 
areas of coast live oak woodland and forest habitat, including riparian areas, in the Project 
Area, such as the Santa Teresa Hills and along Coyote Ridge. This species is known to occur 
along several streams in Santa Clara County, and it could potentially occur in Proposed 
Project work sites as well. 

Satan’s Goldenbush (Isocoma menziesii var. diabolica ). Federal Listing Status: None; 
State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 4.2. Satan's goldenbush is a California endemic, 
perennial shrub in the sunflower family ( Asteraceae ] that blooms from August to October. 
This variety has been observed to occur in cismontane woodland habitats, specifically open 
slopes and cliffs in foothill woodland habitat, from 49 to 1,312 feet in elevation. Associated 
species include naked buckwheat, yerba santa, and shrub live oak ( Quercus turbinella ] 
(Corelli and Chandik 1996], 

Satan's goldenbush is a CNPS list 4.2 species included for analysis based on its limited 
geographic range. It is a documented only in Santa Clara and San Benito counties (CNPS 
2011], The Consortium of California Herbaria (2011] lists three occurrences in Santa Clara 
County, all in Milpitas. Habitats known to support this species share many characteristics 
with some of the relatively undisturbed habitats in the Project Area. Suitable habitat 
includes oak woodlands, such as those in the Santa Teresa Hills, the Almaden Hills, and on 
Coyote Ridge. 

Woolly-headed Lessingia (Lessingia hololeuca). Federal Listing Status: None; State 
Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 3. Woolly-headed lessingia is an annual herb in the 
sunflower family ( Asteraceae ] that blooms from June to October. This species has been 
observed to occur in clay and serpentinite soils in broadleafed upland forest, coastal scrub, 
lower montane coniferous forest, and valley and foothill grassland habitats from 49 to 
1,000 feet. 


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Appendix H Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


Wooly-headed lessingia is a California endemic that is documented in 27 USGS 7.5-minute 
quadrangles in Alameda, Monterey, Marin, Napa, Santa Clara, San Mateo, Solano, Sonoma, 
and Yolo counties. The species is under consideration to be moved to CNPS List 4, but more 
study is needed to verify its range (CNPS 2011], Grazing may threaten the species (CNPS 
2011 ], 

The Consortium of California Herbaria (2011} has three documented occurrences of wooly- 
headed lessingia in Santa Clara County, located in the foothills around Los Gatos, and near 
Gilroy. Suitable habitat is present in the Project Area on serpentine and clay soils in the 
foothills of both the Santa Cruz Mountains and the Diablo Range. However, SCVWD surveys 
for special-status plants along all creeks and canals mapped on serpentine soils in 2004 and 
2008 did not detect any occurrences of wooly-headed lessingia. Therefore, this species is 
not expected to occur in or very near any Proposed Project work sites. 

Smooth Lessingia (Lessingia micradenia var. glabrata). Federal Listing Status: Species 
of Concern; State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Smooth lessingia is an erect 
annual herb in the sunflower family ( Asteraceae }. This species is a delicate, many-branched 
plant with thread-like leaves along the stem and small, white-to-lavender flowers that 
bloom from July through November. Smooth lessingia has been observed to occur in areas 
approximately 400 to 1,400 feet in elevation and it is endemic to serpentine outcrops in 
Santa Clara County. Most populations are associated with open oak woodland and 
chaparral, and it is sometimes found on roadsides and growing in SCVWD access roads 
adjacent to canals. On Coyote Ridge, however, populations are found in both serpentine 
grassland and various shrub associations, as well as on the edges of wetlands (CNPS 2011], 
Commonly associated species include big berry manzanita, California sagebrush, and toyon. 
Santa Clara Valley dudleya and the most beautiful jewel-flower (Streptanthus albidus ssp. 
peramoenus) also are known to occur with smooth lessingia. 

Twenty-seven documented occurrences of smooth lessingia are in the Project Area (CNDDB 
2011, CNPS 2011. These are scattered throughout the central and southern foothills of the 
Santa Cruz Mountains and the Diablo Range in Santa Clara County. Most of these 
occurrences are on slopes with serpentine soils such as the Santa Teresa Hills and south 
along Coyote Ridge, Llagas Creek, Almaden Reservoir and Almaden Quicksilver County Park, 
Chesbro Reservoir, Anderson Reservoir, and Calero Reservoir. Smooth lessingia also was 
observed on the Almaden Calero Canal, Coyote Alamitos Canal, Coyote Canal, and Coyote 
Canal Extension during SCVWD's 2004 and 2008 surveys. Additionally, suitable serpentine 
rock outcrop habitat occurs on roadsides and rocky slopes throughout these locations and 
the south central foothills of the Project Area. 

Showy Golden Madia (Madia radiata ). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing 
Status: Rare; CNPS List: 1B.1. Showy golden madia is an annual herb in the sunflower 
family ( Asteraceae } that blooms from March to May. This species has been observed to 
occur in cismontane woodland and valley and foothill grassland habitats from 82 to 2,953 
feet in elevation. The historical range of this California endemic includes 34 USGS 7.5- 
minute quadrangles in Contra Costa, Fresno, Kings, Kern, Monterey, Santa Barbaram San 
Benito, San Joaquin, San Luis Obispo, and Stanislaus counties. It now only occurs in 20 USGS 
7.5-minute quadrangles in Fresno, Kern, San Benito, San Luis Obispo, and Stanislaus 
counties. Grazing and non-native plants threaten the species (CNPS 2011], 


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Appendix H Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


One documented occurrence of showy golden madia is in Santa Clara County above 1,000 
feet in elevation, outside the Project Area. However, potential habitat exists in the foothills 
of both the Santa Cruz Mountains and the Diablo Range particularly on adobe clay soils, and 
the species potentially can occur in the Project Area. 

Davidson’s Bush-mallow (Malacothamnus davidsonii). Federal Listing Status: None; 
State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Davidson's bush mallow is a deciduous shrub 
in the mallow family ( Malvaceae ] that blooms from June to January. This species typically 
occurs on sandy washes and flats in coastal scrub, cismontane woodland, riparian 
woodland, and chaparral communities (CNPS 2011], and it is generally associated with 
disturbance (Hickman 1993], Associated species include California sagebrush, sticky 
snakeroot (Ageratina adenophora), and mulefat. 

Davidson's bush mallow occurs in disjunct populations in 21 USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles 
in Santa Clara, Los Angeles, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, and San Mateo counties at elevations 
of 600 to 2,800 feet (CNPS 2011], No records of the species in the Project Area are listed in 
the CNDDB (2011]. The Consortium of California Herbaria (2011] lists three records of the 
species collected from Santa Clara County in Los Altos and near Stanford. The record near 
Stanford, though, was previously thought to be arcuate bush mallow. Even though this 
species has not been reported as occurring in the Project Area, based on a review of the 
specific environmental factors influencing the distribution of this species, habitat capable of 
supporting the bush mallow likely occurs in the Project Area. Suitable habitat exists within 
chaparral, riparian, and oak woodland habitat in the Project Area in sandy washes and flats 
of streams and dams draining the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains and Diablo Range. 

Hall’s Bush-mallow (Malacothamnus hallii). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing 
Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Hall’s bush-mallow is an evergreen shrub in the mallow 
family ( Malvaceae ] that blooms from May to September, and sometimes in October. This 
shrub has been observed to occur in chaparral and coastal scrub habitats from 33 to 
2,493 feet in elevation. It is primarily found in mixed northern chaparral and chamise 
chaparral in grassy openings. Germination is fire-dependent. Associated species include 
chamise, California sagebrush, sticky monkey-flower and purple needlegrass. 

Hall’s bush-mallow is a California endemic documented in 19 USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles 
in Santa Clara, Contra Costa, Mendocino, Merced, San Mateo, and Stanislaus counties. 
Twenty records of Hall's bush-mallow from Santa Clara County are listed in the CNDDB 
(2011], 15 of these are in the Project Area, under 1,000 feet in elevation. Most occurrences 
are within the Santa Teresa Hills, Coyote Ridge, Anderson Dam County Park, near Almaden 
Reservoir, near Calero Reservoir and at the Santa Teresa County Park. Four populations 
totaling 55 individuals of Hall’s bush-mallow were observed on the Coyote Canal Extension 
during SCVWD's 2004 and 2008 botanical surveys. Additionally, potential chaparral habitat 
for Hall's bush-mallow in the Project Area may occur in the foothills of the Santa Cruz 
Mountains and the Diablo Range. 

Oregon Meconella (Meconella oreganci). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing 
Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.1. Oregon meconella is an annual herb in the poppy family 
( [Papaveraceae ] that blooms from March to April. This plant has been observed to occur in 
coastal prairie and coastal scrub communities at elevations between 820 and 2,034 feet 


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(CNPS 2011], Oregon meconella is known to occur in Contra Costa and Santa Clara counties 
in California, as well as Oregon and Washington. The species is known in California from 
only five occurrences, which are threatened by alteration of fire regimes (CNPS 2011], 

One 2005 occurrence of Oregon meconella within Santa Clara County is at 2,100 feet 
elevation, outside of the Project Area. This is located near the summit of Mt. Hamilton in 
open-moist habitat. Potential habitat occurs toward the upper elevations of the Project Area 
in the Diablo Range. 

Mount Diablo Cottonweed ( Micropus amphibolus ). Federal Listing Status: None; State 
Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 3.2. Mount Diablo cottonweed is an annual member of the 
sunflower family ( Asteraceae ] that blooms from March through May. It occurs on bare, 
grassy, or rocky slopes in broadleaved upland forest, chaparral, cismontane woodland, and 
valley and foothill grassland (Hickman 1993, CNPS 2011]. It is found over a wide elevation 
range, with populations recorded from approximately 145 to 2,725 feet. 

The range of Mount Diablo cottonweed includes Santa Clara, Alameda, Contra Costa, Colusa, 
Lake, Monterey, Marin, Napa, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Solano, and Sonoma counties. The 
Consortium of California Herbaria (2011] lists one record of the species collected in Santa 
Clara County near Mayfield, west of Campbell in the Project Area. Despite the lack of records 
for this species, after consideration of the species habitat preferences and environmental 
conditions present on several habitats in the Project Area, suitable habitat for the species 
likely occurs. Areas of potential occurrence include chaparral, California annual grassland, 
and oak woodland habitats within the foothills of the Diablo Range and the Santa Cruz 
Mountains. 

Robust Monardella [Monardella villosa ssp. globosci). Federal Listing Status: None; 
State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Robust monardella is a perennial, 
rhizomatous herb in the mint family ( Lamiaceae ] that blooms from June through July, and 
sometimes into August. It occurs in openings in broadleaf upland forests and chaparral, 
open oak woodlands, coastal scrub, and valley and foothill grasslands, and is found at mid 
elevations from approximately 330 to 3,020 feet. Associated species include California 
buckeye, California sagebrush, toyon, and various oaks, including coast live oak. 

Robust monardella's range includes Santa Clara, Alameda, Contra Costa, Humboldt, Lake, 
Mendocino, Napa, Santa Cruz, San Mateo, and Sonoma counties (CNPS 2011], Ten records of 
robust monardella are listed in the CNDDB (2011] as occurring in Santa Clara County. Of 
these, five are below the 1,000-foot elevation contour and within the Project Area. These are 
located around the Almaden Quicksilver Park, near Lexington Reservoir, and the Rancho 
San Antonio Open Space Preserve. Based on review of specific environmental factors 
influencing the distribution of this species, other habitat capable of supporting robust 
monardella likely occurs in the Project Area. Suitable habitat includes chaparral, oak 
woodland, and California annual grassland habitats in the foothills of the Santa Cruz 
Mountains and the Diablo Range. 

Hooked Popcorn-flower ( Plagiobothrys uncinatus). Federal Listing Status: None; State 
Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Hooked popcorn-flower is an annual herb in the 
borage family ( Boraginaceae ] that can bloom from April to May (CNPS 2011], This 


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Appendix H Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


California endemic occurs in valley and foothill grasslands, cismontane woodlands, and 
chaparral habitats at elevations of approximately 990 to 2,510 feet. In chaparral, hooked 
popcorn-flower requires sandy soils; and across all habitat types, it is often associated with 
canyon slopes (Hickman 1993, CNPS 2011], It is found in 18 USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles 
in Monterey, San Benito, Santa Clara, San Luis Obispo, and Stanislaus counties. However, 
more study is required in the Gabilan and Santa Lucia ranges to determine the true rarity 
and endangerment status of this species (CNPS 2011], 

In Santa Clara County, two historically documented populations from 1935 and 1963 are 
considered extant. These populations are both documented at elevations over 1,000 feet, 
and are found near Mt. Hamilton in the Diablo Range. Because the lower limit of hooked 
popcorn flower's elevation range is 990 feet, the likelihood of its occurrence in the Project 
Area is very low, and it potentially occurs only toward the edge of the Project Area in the 
upper foothills of the Diablo Range. 

Most Beautiful Jewel-flower [Streptanthus albidus ssp. peramoenus ). Federal Listing 
Status: None; State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Most beautiful jewel-flower is 
an annual herb in the mustard family ( Brassicaceae ] that can bloom from March to October, 
but usually blooms between April and September. This subspecies is indigenous to thin, 
rocky serpentine (Montara series] soils and serpentinite rock outcrops. Its germination and 
growth is greatly enhanced by disturbances such as wildfire and exposure of bare 
soil/bedrock resulting from road cuts. It occurs in chaparral, cismontane woodland, and 
valley and foothill grassland habitats at elevations from approximately 308 to 3,281 feet. It 
has been found along road cuts and in access roads along SCVWD's canal system. Associated 
species include purple needlegrass and dwarf plantain. This subspecies also occurs with the 
Santa Clara Valley dudleya and smooth lessingia. 

The known range of this California endemic is restricted to 29 USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles 
in Alameda, Contra Costa, Monterey, Santa Clara, and San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara 
counties. The taxonomic status of the species is under debate (USFWS 1998b], The range of 
the species is disjunct, with one range centered at the inner coast along San Francisco Bay, 
and the other in the outer coast in San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties. Further 
project work is needed to determine if the southern range represents a different species, 
which would indicate that the northern variety has a more tightly restricted, endemic range 
than previously thought (CNPS 2011], 

Twenty-six records of most beautiful jewel-flower are listed in the CNDDB (2011] as 
occurring in the Project Area. Most of these occurrences are scattered within the Almaden 
Quicksilver County Park, around Coyote Peak and the Calero Reservoir, and in the Santa 
Teresa Hills. Records also exist from the northwest flank of Tulare Hill, along Silver Creek 
Road, and along Coyote Ridge west of Anderson Reservoir to Kirby Canyon. The Consortium 
of California Herbaria (Consortium of California Herbaria 2010] lists seven specimens of the 
species collected from Santa Clara County in the Santa Teresa Hills, by the Lexington 
Reservoir, and near Morgan Hill. Most beautiful jewel-flower was observed on the Almaden 
Calero Canal and Coyote Canal during SCVWD’s 2004 and 2008 botanical surveys. Suitable 
habitat exists for the species in serpentine soils throughout the foothills of the Project Area. 


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Appendix H Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status and Locally Significant Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


Saline Clover [Trifolium depauperatum var. hydrophilum ). Federal Listing Status: 
None; State Listing Status: None; CNPS List: 1B.2. Saline clover is an annual herb in the 
legume family (Fabaceae] that has been observed to occur in mesic, alkaline, or saline sites 
in valley and foothill grassland habitat, in vernal pool habitat, or in marshes and swamps at 
elevations from 0 to 984 feet. Hickman (1993] specifically indicates that the species occurs 
in coastal salt marshes as well as inland marshes. The blooming period extends from April 
through June, although in salt marshes the species may flower slightly later than seen in 
alkaline grassland areas. The range of this species has been reduced to remaining alkaline 
grasslands in Alameda, Colusa, San Mateo, Monterey, Napa, San Luis Obispo, San Benito, 
Santa Clara, Solano, Sonoma, and Santa Cruz counties. The species is documented from 22 
USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles. Many occurrences of the species have likely been extirpated; 
the species is threatened by development, trampling, road construction, and vehicles (CNPS 
2011 ], 

One recorded occurrence is near the southern border of the County between Millers Canal 
and the Pajaro River. This species may occur in the Project Area in alkaline, mesic soils such 
as vernal pools, marshes and swamps, or grasslands, and it could possibly occur either near 
the Pajaro River or in the Alviso area. 


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Appendix I 

Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status Wildlife 
Species Potentially Occurring in The Project Area 


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Appendix I Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status Wildlife Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


Federal or State Endangered and Threatened Species 

Bay Checkerspot Butterfly [Euphydryas editha bayensis ). Federal Listing Status: Threatened; 
State Listing Status: None. The life cycle of the Bay checkerspot butterfly is closely tied to the 
biology of its primary larval host plant, the dwarf plantain. Secondary host plants, purple owl’s-clover 
and exserted paintbrush (CastiUejci exserta ), also are important sources of food for both larvae and 
adults (Black and Vaughn 2005], Populations of the Bay checkerspot butterfly are restricted to areas 
with shallow serpentine-derived or similar soils that have substantial populations of dwarf plantain, 
which are highly fragmented and isolated (USFWS 2008a). 

The Bay checkerspot butterfly formerly ranged around San Francisco Bay, from Twin Peaks and San 
Bruno Mountain in San Francisco east to Contra Costa County, and south to Santa Clara County 
(USFWS 1998b). However, the current known range has been reduced to Santa Clara County, where 
patches of the species’ habitat are still present (USFWS 2008a), and to San Mateo County, where it 
was extirpated but where reintroduction has recently been attempted. The Bay checkerspot butterfly 
was listed as threatened in September 1987 (USFWS 1987), and critical habitat was finalized in 
September 2008 (USFWS 2008a). Nine of this species’ critical habitat units occur within or adjacent 
to the Project Area. 

The distribution of the Bay checkerspot butterfly in and near the Project Area is fairly well 
represented by critical habitat, which was designated for the species by the USFWS in 2008 (USFWS 
2008a); this distribution and designated critical habitat are shown in Figure 3.3-5. The species and 
its habitat are known to be present along Coyote Ridge within the Metcalf and Kirby critical habitat 
units, in the Santa Teresa Hills within the Santa Teresa Hills critical habitat unit, on the northern half 
of Tulare Hill within the Tulare Hill critical habitat unit, on the northernmost of the two subunits of 
the Kalana Hills critical habitat unit on the west side of Coyote Valley, west of Calero Reservoir in the 
Calero Reservoir critical habitat unit, adjacent to Hale Avenue in the Hale critical habitat unit, in the 
western foothills of the Santa Clara Valley in the San Martin critical habitat unit, and in small patches 
of grassland just west of Coyote Reservoir in the Bear Ranch critical habitat unit (USFWS 2008a, ICF 
Jones & Stokes 2010). All of these areas contain serpentine grasslands that provide sufficient 
populations of host plant species. Given the intensive nature of research that has been conducted on 
this species, it is unlikely to occur in areas that are not currently known. 

Relative to Proposed Project work sites, the Bay checkerspot butterfly is known or expected to occur 
in the following locations, based on designated critical habitat: 

■ along the Coyote Canal, from the vicinity of the U.S. Highway 101 crossing of Coyote 
Creek (north of Morgan Hill) northwest to the point at which the canal crosses 
westward under U.S. Highway 101; in two limited areas just south of Bailey Avenue; 
and in a relatively limited area between Field Sports County Park and U.S. Highway 
101 north of Bailey Avenue—in these areas, Bay checkerspot is likely to occur very 
infrequently (e.g., only in or following years of high population size), if at all, given 
that these sites are located so low at the toe of the slope of Coyote Ridge; 

■ along the Coyote Canal Extension just northwest of Field Sports County Park—again, 

Bay checkerspot is likely to occur very infrequently (e.g., only in or following years 
of high population size), if at all, in this location because it is located so low at the 
toe of the slope of Coyote Ridge; 

■ along upper Silver Creek, near Yerba Buena Road, Proposed Project activities are 
projected in a few very limited areas that are designated as Bay checkerspot critical 
habitat but that likely do not support the species, given the riparian nature of the 
habitat present; 


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■ along Coyote Alamitos Canal along the northwestern edge of Tulare Hill, some 
potential exists for Bay checkerspot to occur along the canal, especially in years of 
high population size; 

■ along Coyote Alamitos Canal along the northern edge of the Santa Teresa Hills, a 
very low probability of occurrence of the butterfly exists in this area because of 
unsuitability of habitat; critical habitat actually ends just upslope from the canal in 
most of this area; and 

■ along Almaden Calero Canal in the San Vicente area west of Calero Reservoir, some 
potential exists for Bay checkerspot to occur along the canal. 

The following designated Bay checkerspot butterfly critical habitat units occur in the Project Area: 
Metcalf (Unit 5), Tulare Hill (Unit 6), Santa Teresa Hills (Unit 7), Calero Reservoir (Unit 8), Kalana 
Hills (Unit 9], Hale (Unit 10), Bear Ranch (Unit 11), San Martin (Unit 12), and Kirby (Unit 13) 

Green Sturgeon [Acipenser medirostris). Federal Listing Status: Threatened; State Listing 
Status: Species of Special Concern. The NMFS listed the southern Distinct Population Segment 
(DPS) of the green sturgeon as threatened on April 7, 2006 (NMFS 2006). Critical habitat for the 
southern DPS was designated on October 9, 2009 (NMFS 2009). All tidally influenced areas of San 
Francisco Bay in the Project Area, up to the elevation of mean higher high water have been 
designated as critical habitat. The range of the green sturgeon extends from Ensenada, Mexico, to the 
Bering Sea; the species occurs in coastal waters from the San Francisco Bay to Canada. 

Green sturgeon occur widely in accessible estuarine habitat and, in summer and fall, the species is 
found in estuaries not associated with known spawning activity and where no records exist of their 
occurrence farther up the river system. Spawning within the southern DPS occurs predominantly in 
the upper Sacramento River. (Adams et al. 2007) 

Green sturgeon juveniles are found throughout the Sacramento/San Joaquin River delta and portions 
of San Francisco Bay. Although little is known about the distribution and abundance of green 
sturgeon in South San Francisco Bay, the species appears to be relatively rare in the South Bay. The 
CDFG conducts monthly monitoring of fish assemblages at numerous sites in the San Francisco, San 
Pablo, and Suisun bays, using otter trawls and midwater trawls, of which 13 sites are in South San 
Francisco Bay. Between 1980 and 2006, 69 green sturgeon were captured in the San Francisco 
Estuary; however, only four green sturgeon were collected in the South Bay during this time, two at a 
main channel site near the Bay Bridge and two at a shoal site north of the San Mateo Bridge (R. 
Baxter, CDFG, unpublished data). According to NMFS (2009), a sport fishing group reported catches 
of two green sturgeon in Central San Francisco Bay, three in South-Central San Francisco Bay, and 
four in South San Francisco Bay in 2006. 

No evidence exists that the southern green sturgeon has ever spawned in any creeks in the Project 
Area or anywhere else in the South Bay. Based on this species’ preferences for streams having strong 
flow over large cobbles in deep pools, it is unlikely that South Bay tributaries historically provided 
suitable spawning habitat, and such habitat is certainly absent now. If the species occurs in lower 
portions of sloughs in the Project Area, it is not expected to swim far upstream because no spawning 
habitat exists to which such fish would be migrating. Thus, the species is likely to occur in the Project 
Area only irregularly and in low numbers because of the very limited abundance of the species in the 
vicinity. Furthermore, few encounters are expected because of the limited extent of SMP Update 
activities proposed in tidal habitats. 

Longfin Smelt (Spirinchus thaleichthys). Federal Listing Status: Proposed Endangered; State 
Listing Status: Threatened. This southernmost population of longfin smelt is found as far north as 
Prince William Sound, Alaska, and occurs in the San Francisco Bay. The longfin smelt was declared a 


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Appendix I Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status Wildlife Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


threatened species under the CESA in March 2009, and has been petitioned for listing as endangered 
under the FESA (USFWS 2008b). Suisun and San Pablo bays, where salinity generally ranges from 2 
to 20 parts per thousand, support the most abundant populations of non-breeding longfin smelt in 
the Bay area. Spawning occurs in fresh water in the upper end of the San Francisco Bay and in the 
Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Wernette 2000). Longfin smelt occur in the South Bay year-round, as 
pre-spawning adults and yearling juveniles (Wernette 2000), and the species has been collected in 
the Alviso area and in Alviso Slough (EDAW 2007). In 2010, this species also was collected within the 
Island Ponds (ffobbs 2011), located between Coyote Slough and Mud Slough, breached in June 2006 
for tidal marsh restoration. However, this species is not known to spawn in the Project Area, and the 
species is likely to occur in the Project Area infrequently and in low numbers because of the very 
limited abundance of the species in the vicinity. Furthermore, few encounters are expected because 
of the limited extent of Project activities proposed in tidal habitats. 

Central California Coast Steelhead (Oncorhynchus my kiss). Federal Listing Status: Threatened; 
State Listing Status: None. The steelhead is an anadromous form of rainbow trout that migrates 
upstream from the ocean to spawn in late fall or early winter, when flows are sufficient to allow it to 
reach suitable habitat in far upstream areas. In the Project Area, adults typically migrate to spawning 
areas from late December through early April, and both adults and smolts migrate downstream from 
February through May. Steelhead typically spawn in gravel substrates located in clear, cool, perennial 
sections of relatively undisturbed streams, with dense canopy cover that provides shade, woody 
debris, and organic matter. Steelhead usually cannot survive long in pools or streams with water 
temperatures above 70 °F; however, they can use warmer habitats if adequate food is available. 
Steelhead populations have declined because of degradation of spawning and rearing habitat, 
introduction of barriers to upstream migration, over-harvesting by recreational fisheries, and 
reduction in winter flows because of damming and spring flows caused by water diversion. 

The NMFS has categorized steelhead into DPS. The Central California Coast DPS consists of all runs 
from the Russian River in Sonoma County south to Aptos Creek in Santa Cruz County, including all 
steelhead spawning in streams that flow into the San Francisco Bay. In 1998, the NMFS published a 
final rule to list the Central California Coast DPS as threatened under the FESA (NMFS 1998). Critical 
habitat for this DPS was designated on September 2, 2005 (NMFS 2005). In the Project Area, 
designated critical habitat includes accessible reaches of Upper Penitencia, Coyote, Stevens, San 
Francisquito, and Los Trancos creeks, as well as the Arroyo Aguague and the Guadalupe River 
upstream nearly to its confluence with Los Gatos Creek (Figure 3.3-6). 

Steelhead historically have occurred more abundantly in streams throughout the Project Area, but it 
now is relatively rare because of urbanization, the presence of barriers to movement, and loss of 
spawning and rearing habitat (Leidy et al. 2005). In the Project Area, Central California Coast 
steelhead is known to occur in, and suitable spawning habitat is present in, Coyote Creek, Upper 
Penitencia Creek, Los Gatos Creek, Alamitos Creek, Calero Creek, Guadalupe Creek, Stevens Creek, 
San Francisquito Creek, and the Guadalupe River (Figure 3.3-6) (Leidy et al. 2005, NMFS 2005). This 
species also may be present in Calero Creek, though it does not appear to be present in Ross Creek 
(Leidy et al. 2005). Steelhead is absent from Lower Penitencia Creek, Calabazas Creek, the portion of 
Saratoga Creek that intersects the Project Area, San Tomas Aquino Creek, Thompson Creek, Canoas 
Creek, and Berryessa Creek, and it is unlikely to be present in Lower Silver Creek (Leidy et al. 2005). 
Steelhead potentially can spawn in virtually any reach of streams in the Project Area that offer 
suitable spawning habitat and lack downstream barriers to dispersal, and it likely occurs in all 
accessible portions of streams in the Project Area during migration between the ocean and upstream 
spawning and rearing areas. Tidal channels in brackish marshes, such as sloughs in the Alviso area, 
may provide habitat for juveniles during the process of smoltification (i.e., physiological adaptation 
to the saltwater environment). Table 1-1 presents the upper limits of Central California Coast 
steelhead distribution within creeks in the Project Area. 


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Appendix I Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status Wildlife Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


Table 1-1. Central California Coast Steelhead Distribution in the Project Area 


Creek/River 

Upper Limit of Steelhead Distribution 

Alamitos Creek 

Almaden Dam 

Arroyo Calero 

Calero Dam 

Arroyo Aguague 

Falls upstream from confluence with Upper Penitencia Creek 

Coyote Creek 

Leroy Anderson Dam/Anderson Lake 

Guadalupe River 

Guadalupe Dam 

Los Gatos Creek 

Camden Avenue Drop Structure 

Los Trancos Creek 

Approximately 0.4 mile north of headwaters 

San Francisquito Creek 

Searsville Dam 

Stevens Creek 

Stevens Creek Dam 

Upper Penitencia Creek 

Cherry Flat Dam (Cherry Flat Reservoir) 


Source: CalFish 2010 


South-Central California Coast Steelhead [Oncorhynchus my kiss). Federal Listing Status: 
Threatened; State Listing Status: None. The South-Central California Coast steelhead includes all 
steelhead spawning from the Pajaro River south to (but not including) the Santa Maria River. In 
1997, NMFS published a final rule to list the South-Central California Coast DPS of steelhead as 
threatened under the FESA. Critical habitat for this DPS was designated on September 2, 2005 (NMFS 
2005). In the Project Area, designated critical habitat includes accessible reaches of Pacheco, Cedar, 
Llagas, Uvas/Carnadero, Tar, Bodfish, Little Arthur, and Pescadero creeks, as well as the Pajaro River. 

In the Project Area, South-Central California Coast steelhead is known to occur in the Pajaro River 
watershed, including the streams listed in Table 1-2 (Figure 3.3-6). The majority of South-Central 
California Coast steelhead in the Project Area apparently breeds in Uvas Creek. Steelhead likely 
occurs in all accessible portions of these streams during migration between the ocean and upstream 
spawning and rearing areas. Steelhead is able to access Llagas Creek, although it is likely unable to 
reach suitable spawning habitat because of low flows in the lower reaches. Table 1-2 presents the 
upper limits of South-Central California Coast steelhead distribution within creeks in the Project 
Area. 


Table 1-2. South-Central California Coast Steelhead Distribution in the Project Area 


Creek/River 

Upper Limit of Steelhead Distribution 

Bodfish Creek 

Bodfish Creek Falls 

Cedar Creek 

Approx. 3 miles north of Cedar Creek Boulder Falls #2 

Little Arthur Creek 

Cement Dam (near Redwood Retreat Road crossing) 

Llagas Creek 

Chesbro Reservoir Dam 

Pacheco Creek 

North Fork Dam 

Pajaro River 

Steelhead occur in all portions of the creek within Santa Clara County 

Pescadero Creek 

Creek source 

South Fork Pacheco Creek 

South Fork Pacheco Creek Boulder Falls 

Tar Creek 

Southern end of Castro Valley approximately 1.8 river miles from source 

Uvas/Carnadero Creek 

Uvas Dam 


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Source: CalFish 2010 

California Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma californiense). Federal Listing Status: Threatened 
(Central Population); State Listing Status: Endangered. The California tiger salamander’s 
preferred breeding habitat consists of temporary (minimum of 3-4 months), ponded environments 
(e.g., vernal pool, ephemeral pool, or human-made ponds) surrounded by uplands that support small 
mammal burrows. California tiger salamander also will utilize permanent ponds provided aquatic, 
vertebrate predators are not present. Such ponds provide breeding and larval habitat, while burrows 
of small mammals such as California ground squirrels and valley pocket gophers in upland habitats 
provide refugia for juveniles and adults during the dry season. 

The range of the California tiger salamander is restricted to the Central Valley and the South Coast 
Range of California from Butte County south to Santa Barbara County. Tiger salamander has 
disappeared from a significant portion of its range because of habitat loss from agriculture and 
urbanization and the introduction of non-native aquatic predators. The California tiger salamander 
was listed as threatened in August 2004 (USFWS 2004a), and critical habitat was designated in 
August 2005 (USFWS 2005b). Designated critical habitat in the Project Area includes Unit 3 east of 
Calaveras Reservoir; Unit 5 northeast of Cherry Flat Reservoir; Unit 6 along Mt. Hamilton Road; Unit 
7 near the northwestern end of Anderson Reservoir; Unit 8 located around Calero Reservoir; Unit 9 
southwest of Coyote Reservoir; Units 10a and 10b west/southwest of San Martin; Unit 11 at the 
southern end of Henry Coe State Park; and Unit 12 along Highway 152 east of Gilroy (Figure 3.3-10). 
The California tiger salamander is considered a covered species by the draft Habitat Plan (ICF Jones & 
Stokes 2010). 

In 1999, H. T. Harvey & Associates (1999c) prepared a report and maps documenting the known 
occurrences of the California tiger salamander in Santa Clara County and predicting the expected 
distribution of the species based on known occurrences, habitat suitability, and available information 
on survey effort within areas where the species had not been recorded. In preparing the analysis for 
the DSEIR, H. T. Harvey & Associates updated the mapping of the species’ expected distribution, 
based on additional occurrences, additional information regarding this species’ movements (e.g., 
indicating the long-distance dispersal capabilities of the species), and changes in land use (such as 
new development) since 1999. The expected distribution of the species in Santa Clara County, based 
on this analysis, is shown in Figure 3.3-10. 

Historically, the California tiger salamander likely occurred in a number of locations in the Project 
Area. However, relatively few populations are still extant because filling or draining of ponds and 
development of upland habitat have restricted suitable habitat conditions to a few undeveloped 
areas. The species has been largely extirpated from the valley floor. As shown in Figure 3.3-10, 
California tiger salamander is absent from the majority of the urbanized valley floor in the northern 
part of the Project Area. The lone exception is a single population that is extant near Communications 
Hill in south San Jose. California tiger salamander also is considered extirpated from the majority of 
the valley floor south of the urban San Jose area, where intensive agricultural and urban 
development have eliminated breeding populations. Breeding sites are known at the edges of Coyote 
Valley (e.g., south of Bailey Avenue and west of Santa Teresa Boulevard), where ponds are located 
close to relatively undisturbed grasslands at the bases of the foothills. To account for the potential 
occurrence of California tiger salamander at similar locations elsewhere, the mapping that produced 
Figure 3.3-10 was done conservatively, including areas that maintained some relatively undisturbed 
grassland or pasture at the edges of the valley floor in the areas where the species was considered 
extant, even if no records of tiger salamander existed from those areas. However, tiger salamander 
was considered extirpated from intensively cultivated areas and areas of extensive development, 
especially areas lacking ponds or seasonal wetlands. 


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California tiger salamander is not known or expected to breed in streams such as those in the Project 
Area. If the species attempted to breed in such streams or even in SCVWD’s canals, flow would wash 
the eggs downstream, and successful breeding is not expected to occur in this lotic environment. As a 
result, California tiger salamander is expected to occur in Proposed Project work sites solely during 
upland dispersal or, possibly, within upland refugia such as small mammal burrows. Specific 
locations where Proposed Project activities would occur within the area where the California tiger 
salamander is considered extant are depicted in Figure 3.3-10 and discussed in detail in the effects 
analysis below. 

Currently, extant populations in the Project Area are now limited primarily to areas with seasonal 
pools and stock ponds around the periphery of the Project Area, particularly in the less heavily 
developed areas and areas that have not been heavily cultivated. 

Critical habitat for the California tiger salamander was designated by the USFWS in 2005 (USFWS 
2005b). The following designated California tiger salamander critical habitat units occur in or near 
the Project Area (Figure 3.3-10): Unit 3 east of Calaveras Reservoir, Unit 5 northeast of Cherry Flat 
Reservoir, Unit 6 along Mt. Hamilton Road, Unit 7 near the northwestern end of Anderson Reservoir, 
Unit 8 located around Calero Reservoir; Unit 9 southwest of Coyote Reservoir; Units 10a and 10b 
west/southwest of San Martin; Unit 11 at the southern end of Henry Coe State Park, and Unit 12 
along Highway 152 east of Gilroy. 

California Red-legged Frog (Rana draytonii). Federal Listing Status: Threatened; State Listing 
Status: Species of Special Concern. The California red-legged frog inhabits perennial freshwater 
pools, streams, and ponds throughout the Central California Coast Range and isolated portions of the 
western slope of the Sierra Nevada (Fellers 2005). Its preferred breeding habitat consists of deep 
perennial pools with emergent vegetation for attaching egg clusters (Fellers 2005), as well as shallow 
benches to act as nurseries for juveniles (Jennings and Hayes 1994). Non-breeding frogs may be 
found adjacent to streams and ponds in grasslands and woodlands, and may travel up to 2 miles from 
their breeding locations across a variety of upland habitats (Bulger and Scott 2003, Fellers and 
Kleeman 2007). 

The historic distribution of the California red-legged frog extended from the city of Redding in the 
Central Valley and Point Reyes National Seashore along the coast, south to Baja California, Mexico. 
The species’ current distribution includes isolated locations in the Sierra Nevada and the San 
Francisco Bay area, and along the central coast (USFWS 2002). The California red-legged frog was 
listed as threatened in June 1996 (USFWS 1996), based largely on a significant range reduction and 
continued threats to surviving populations (Miller 1994). Critical habitat was most recently 
designated in March 2010 (USFWS 2010b). Designated critical habitat in the Project Area includes 
portions of Units STC-1 and STC-2. These critical habitat units occur primarily east of (and outside) 
the Project Area, but portions are located in the Project Area near the northwestern end of Anderson 
Reservoir, along Highway 152 east of Gilroy, and elsewhere along the foothills of the Diablo Range. 

In 1997, H. T. Harvey & Associates (1997) prepared a report and maps documenting the known 
occurrences of the California red-legged frog in Santa Clara County and predicting the expected 
distribution of the species based on known occurrences, habitat suitability, and available information 
on survey effort in areas where the species had not been recorded. In preparing the analysis for this 
DSEIR, H. T. Harvey & Associates updated the mapping of the species’ expected distribution based on 
additional occurrences and changes in land use (such as new development) since 1999. The expected 
distribution of the species within Santa Clara County, based on this analysis, is shown in Figure 3.3- 
13. 


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The California red-legged frog presumably used to occur in pools and streams throughout the Project 
Area, but it was extirpated from the majority of the Project Area because of development, alteration 
of hydrology of its aquatic habitats, and introduction of non-native predators such as non-native fish 
and bullfrogs (Figure 3.3-13) (H. T. ffarvey & Associates 1997). California red-legged frog is entirely 
absent from the urbanized valley floor in the northern part of the Project Area. California red-legged 
frog also is considered extirpated from the majority of the valley floor south of the urban San Jose 
area, where intensive agricultural and urban development have eliminated breeding populations. 
Since 2004, SCVWD biologists have conducted pre-activity surveys for California red-legged frog 
along hundreds of miles of stream for SMP projects and capital projects in accordance with SCVWD's 
BMPs, and have never found a California red-legged frog within the area where the species is 
considered extirpated (Figure 3.3-13). Table 3.3-3 lists the locations of those surveys. Those survey 
results, coupled with the negative results of surveys by H. T. Harvey & Associates biologists on 
portions of the valley floor (including Coyote Valley) and the lack of any recent CNDDB records from 
those areas, support the mapping in Figure 3.3-13. 

A few breeding sites are known from the edges of the foothills, such as near Kirby Canyon Landfill 
(east of U.S. Highway 101). To account for the potential occurrence of the species in such areas, the 
mapping that produced Figure 3.3-13 was done conservatively, and red-legged frog was considered 
potentially extant in any areas that maintained some relatively undisturbed natural habitat at the 
edges of the valley floor, even if no records of the species existed from those areas. 

Any extant breeding population of red-legged frog likely is limited to the periphery of the Project 
Area. California red-legged frog also has been recorded in the upper reaches of several streams that 
flow into the Project Area, such as Saratoga, Calabazas, Guadalupe, and Upper Penitencia creeks. 
California red-legged frog from populations in streams located upstream from the Project Area may 
potentially disperse or be washed short distances down some of these streams, although it is not 
expected to occur on the valley floor. 

California red-legged frog potentially could breed in streams where SMP Update activities are 
projected. However, this species is known from very few locations below the reservoirs along the 
major SCVWD-maintained streams, and the abundance of non-native fish predators along these 
streams reaches likely limits the viability of red-legged frog breeding populations along them. 
Although California red-legged frog potentially could occur along a number of stream reaches where 
SMP Update activities are projected (as discussed in greater detail in the effects analysis below), the 
probability of breeding populations being located within areas of projected activities and the number 
of individuals that may be present in Proposed Project work sites are low. 

In Proposed Project work sites where California red-legged frog does occur, it is expected to make 
the greatest use of the aquatic channels and the riparian habitat immediately adjacent to the channel. 
It may forage or take refuge anywhere in the riparian habitats along these channels, but in areas with 
managed levees, use of drier, more open areas is expected to occur only during dispersal. 

Critical habitat for the California red-legged frog was most recently designated by the USFWS in 2010 
(USFWS 2010b). The following designated California red-legged frog critical habitat units occur in 
and near the Project Area (Figure 3.3-13): STC-1 and STC-2. These critical habitat units occur 
primarily east of (and outside) the Project Area, but portions are located within its boundaries near 
the northwestern end of Anderson Reservoir, along Highway 152 east of Gilroy, and elsewhere along 
the foothills of the Diablo Range. 

San Francisco Garter Snake [Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia ). Federal Listing Status: 
Endangered; State Listing Status: Endangered. The San Francisco garter snake was one of the first 
reptiles to be listed under the FESA by the USFWS in 1967. The San Francisco garter snake also was 


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listed under the CESA in 1971, and it is a fully protected species under the California Fish and Game 
Code. San Francisco garter snake remains threatened by continued habitat loss and degradation, as 
well as by illegal collecting by reptile fanciers. The San Francisco garter snake is a medium-sized (18- 
48 inches total length) snake with a wide dorsal stripe of greenish-yellow edged with black, bordered 
on each side by a broad red stripe followed by a black one, a belly that is a bright greenish-blue (often 
turquoise) and the top of the head is red. San Francisco garter snake has been observed in a number 
of aquatic and terrestrial habitats throughout its historic range, such as ponds, pools in or next to 
streams, streams, lakes, and reservoirs. The presence of adjacent upland areas with abundant small 
mammal burrows also is important as hibernation sites for snakes during the winter. The species 
prefers a dense cover of vegetation, such as willows, bulrushes, cattails, and tules. Adults mate during 
the spring and fall, and young are usually born alive during late July to early August. San Francisco 
garter snake depends on frogs, particularly the threatened California red-legged frog, for food. 

Garter snakes in the northwestern part of the Project Area (i.e., in the Palo Alto/Stanford area) fall 
within the intergrade zone between the San Francisco garter snake and the red-sided garter snake 
[Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis). This intergrade zone is located on the eastern flank of the Santa Cruz 
Mountains, extending approximately 12 miles from the vicinity of Boronda Lake in Palo Alto 
(Foothills Park) to Upper Crystal Springs Reservoir (Barry 1994, Fox 1951), with populations to the 
south of this zone (i.e., the majority of the Project Area) representing the red-sided garter snake and 
populations to the north representing the San Francisco garter snake. The intergrade populations do 
not belong exclusively to either subspecies; thus, no true San Francisco garter snake occurs in the 
Project Area. 

Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia ). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing Status: Threatened 
(Nesting). In the western hemisphere, the bank swallow is a neotropical migrant with a wide 
distribution, breeding locally in coastal and interior California as far south as Monterey County 
(Garrison et al. 1987, Roberson and Tenney 1993). Bank swallows are colonial nesters, excavating 
nesting burrows in vertical banks of streams, rivers, and ocean coasts. Nest sites in central California 
typically are composed of soft soils, with banks averaging at least 10 feet high and 0.25 mile long 
(Garrison et al. 1987). The historical range of the bank swallow in California has been dramatically 
reduced by streambed alterations, which have resulted in a widespread loss of nesting habitat. The 
nesting season for bank swallow begins in April and continues through July, when the species 
departs for its wintering grounds in Mexico and Central America. 

The only record of bank swallows breeding in Santa Clara County is from the Pajaro River, and this 
colony has not been active in decades (Bousman 2007i). No suitable nesting habitat is present in the 
Project Area, and the species is not expected to breed here. Bank swallows occur in the Project Area 
only as rare transients. 

California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus ). Federal Listing Status: Endangered; State Listing 
Status: Endangered. The California condor was listed as endangered by the USFWS in 1967 (USFWS 
1967) and by California in 1971. Critical habitat was designated for this species in 1976 (USFWS 
1976); but no portion of the Project Area is within designated critical habitat. Historically, the condor 
ranged from Baja California to British Columbia, and likely foraged throughout the Project Area. 
However, the condor was extirpated from its entire range, and in 1987, the last remaining wild birds 
were captured and kept in zoos as part of a comprehensive captive breeding program. Intensive 
recovery efforts have produced a managed population, currently numbering approximately 150 free- 
flying birds, which range along the central and southern Coast Ranges from Monterey Bay in the 
north to Los Angeles County in the south; and across the Transverse Ranges and up the western 
slope of the southern Sierra Nevada. (Snyder and Schmitt 2002) 


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California condors seek out caves in steep, isolated cliffs or cavities in mature redwood trees for 
nesting, and forage over grasslands, open woodlands, and along coastal beaches. Consistent air 
movements that support the extended soaring flight utilized by the condor are a critical component 
of suitable habitat. Condors nest between February and November, laying one egg every other year. 
Medium- to large-bodied carcasses appear to be the preferred food source for condors, but smaller 
carcasses are readily consumed as well. (Snyder and Schmitt 2002) 

The persistence of re-established condor populations is threatened primarily by lead contamination 
from spent ammunition, although habitat loss and collision with utility lines and towers also are 
important threats. (Meretsky et al. 2000, Cade 2007) 

No breeding habitat for this species is present in the Project Area. California condors have been 
reintroduced into the wild at Pinnacles National Monument in San Benito County and on the Big Sur 
coast in Monterey County. Individuals from these reintroduction efforts occasionally wander into 
Santa Clara County; five such birds were observed at the summit of Mt. Hamilton, east of San Jose and 
well above the 1,000-foot elevation contour that delineates the upper limits of the Project Area, in 
mid-June 2011. However, no records are known in or near the Project Area, and at most, condors are 
expected to occur as infrequent visitors that overfly portions of the Project Area. Nevertheless, 
reintroduced birds potentially could expand their movements and eventually occur more regularly in 
or near the Project Area, most likely in the southern part of the area (but only as non-breeders). 

Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing Status: 
Endangered, Fully Protected. Bald eagle populations exhibited precipitous declines in the early 
part of the twentieth century, primarily as a result of pesticide poisoning that severely affected 
reproductive rates. DDT was the most debilitating of these chemicals, and ever since its use was 
banned in the United States in 1972, eagle populations have recovered rapidly. (Buehler 2000) The 
bald eagle was removed from the federal endangered species list in 2008 (USFWS 2008c) but 
remains listed as both endangered and fully protected by California (CDFG 2008b). 

Currently, bald eagles are found throughout North America, along waterways and coasts (Buehler 
2000). In California, bald eagle populations remain low, although their numbers are increasing 
steadily (Peeters and Peeters 2005). Bald eagles can be found nesting in a number of locations in the 
Sierra Nevada range and southern California, and they nest in a few scattered locations in central 
California as well (Buehler 2000, CDFG 2008b). 

Ideal habitat for bald eagles is comprised of remote, forested landscape with old-growth or mature 
trees and easy access to an extensive and diverse prey base. Bald eagles forage in fresh and salt water 
where their prey species (fish) are abundant and diverse. They build nests in tall, sturdy trees at sites 
that are in relatively close proximity to aquatic foraging areas and isolated from human activities. 
The eagle breeding season extends from January through August. (Buehler 2000) 

Bald eagles are only known to nest in Santa Clara County in four locations—in a gray pine at Coyote 
Reservoir, at the eastern edge of the Project Area where a pair nested in 2010; in a gray pine at 
Anderson Reservoir, also at the eastern edge of the Project Area, where a pair nested successfully in 
2010 and may have nested in prior years; on an electrical transmission tower near Calaveras 
Reservoir, just outside the Project Area; and at San Felipe Lake along Highway 152, where a pair was 
sited nesting in 2011 (Bousman 2007e). Small numbers also occur as non-breeding visitors, typically 
at reservoirs on either side of the Santa Clara Valley but occasionally in Coyote Valley as well. 

Swainson’s Hawk (Buteo swainsoni ). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing Status: 
Threatened. Swainson’s hawk was listed as threatened by California in 1983 because of population 
declines likely precipitated by significant losses of riparian habitat and conversion of open foraging 


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habitats to developed lands (England et al. 1997, Woodbridge 1998). Swainson’s hawks are 
distributed throughout western North America during the breeding season, but in California they are 
primarily limited to the Central Valley and the southeastern Great Basin region (Woodbridge 1998). 
Swainson’s hawks in California are strongly associated with riparian habitats, although they also are 
found in oak woodlands and other open habitats (Smallwood 1995, England et al. 1997, Woodbridge 
1998). Prime breeding habitat for Swainson’s hawk encompasses riparian draws or clumps of trees 
surrounded by open grassland or oak savannah for foraging (England et al. 1997, Woodbridge 1998). 
They build sturdy stick nests in low willows, box elders, oaks, or other trees, breeding from early 
March though July (England et al. 1997). Swainson’s hawks are neotropical migratory birds, flying 
south after the breeding season to spend their winter months on the Pampas of Argentina (England 
et al. 1997, Canavelli et al. 2003). Stresses on winter populations, including pesticide poisoning, on 
the winter grounds have contributed to declines in North American breeding populations. 

Swainson’s hawks apparently nested in small numbers in Santa Clara County historically, and an 
1894 nest record exists from the Berryessa area (in eastern San Jose) (Bousman 2007g). Currently, 
this species is known to occur in the Project Area only as a very infrequent transient during 
migration. Although young, not long out of the nest have been recorded on several occasions in the 
Santa Clara Valley in recent years (Santa Clara County Bird Data, unpublished), more concrete 
evidence of nesting has not been documented, and this species is not currently known to breed in the 
Project Area. 

California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus). Federal Listing Status: Endangered; 
State Listing Status: Endangered and Fully Protected. The California clapper rail is a secretive 
marsh bird that is currently endemic to marshes of the San Francisco Bay. It formerly bred at several 
other locations, including Humboldt Bay (Humboldt County), Elkhorn Slough (Monterey County), and 
Morro Bay (San Luis Obispo County), but is now extirpated from all sites outside of the San Francisco 
Bay (Harding-Smith 1993). California clapper rails nest in salt and brackish marshes along the edge 
of the Bay, and are most abundant in extensive salt marshes and brackish marshes, dominated by 
Pacific cordgrass, pickleweed, and marsh gumplant, (Grindelia stricta ) and that contain complex 
networks of tidal channels (Harvey 1980). Shrubby areas adjacent to or within these marshes also 
are important for predator avoidance at high tides. 

Since the mid-1800s, about 90 percent of the San Francisco Bay’s marshlands have been eliminated 
through filling, diking, or conversion to salt evaporation ponds (Goals Project 1999). As a result, the 
California clapper rail lost most of its former habitat, and its population declined severely. The 
subspecies was listed as endangered by the USFWS in 1970 (USFWS 1970) and by California in 1971. 
The USFWS approved a joint recovery plan of the salt marsh harvest mouse and the California 
clapper rail in 1984 (USFWS 1984), and its updated Tidal Marsh Species Recovery Plan is currently 
under development. Critical habitat has not been proposed for the California clapper rail. 

California clapper rails breed from February through August within the salt marsh habitat along the 
lowermost, tidal reaches of creeks that flow into the South Bay. The species does not occur in muted 
tidal or diked salt marshes. However, they have been documented in brackish marshes in the South 
Bay. Surveys conducted during the 1990 breeding season (H. T. Harvey & Associates 1990b) and 
winter season (H. T. Harvey & Associates 1990a) found a number of California clapper rails 
occupying salt/brackish transitional marshes and several brackish, alkali bulrush-dominated 
marshes. In addition, California clapper rails were found in nearly pure stands of alkali bulrush along 
Guadalupe Slough in 1990 and 1991 (H. T. Harvey & Associates 1990a; H. T. Harvey & Associates 
1990b; H. T. Harvey & Associates 1991). 

Surveys by H. T. Harvey & Associates and others since the early 1990s, as well as observation by 
birders (including H. T. Harvey staff), have documented clapper rails in a number of areas near the 


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Project Area, including lower San Francisquito Creek; the Palo Alto Baylands; Hook’s Isle; the mouth 
of Charleston Slough; lower Permanent and Stevens creeks; Guadalupe Slough (primarily from its 
confluence with Moffett Channel downstream); Alviso Slough; a number of locations along Coyote 
Slough, extending upstream through South Coyote Slough; and in the Warm Springs marshes. 
Although site-specific surveys have not been conducted in all suitable habitats for clapper rails in the 
South Bay, this species is likely to occur in tidal salt marsh habitats in a number of additional areas as 
well (Figure 3.3-20). 

Occasional non-breeding individuals also may wander upstream along tidal sloughs from their 
typical salt marsh habitats into tidal brackish/freshwater marsh habitats. Such individuals have been 
recorded in the Project Area along upper Alviso Slough near the Gold Street Bridge and in the non- 
tidal freshwater marsh/ponds between Calabazas and San Tomas Aquino Creeks north of SR 237 (H. 
T. Harvey & Associates, unpublished data), but only during the non-breeding season. 

California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus ). Federal Listing Status; None; State 
Listing Status: Threatened, Fully Protected. The California black rail is a small rail that inhabits a 
variety of marsh types. California black rail is most abundant in extensive tidal marshes with some 
freshwater input (Evens et al. 1991). They nest primarily in pickleweed-dominated marshes with 
patches or borders of bulrushes, often near the mouths of creeks. The black rail builds nests in tall 
grasses or marsh vegetation during spring, and lays about six eggs. Nests are usually constructed of 
pickleweed and are placed directly on the ground or slightly above ground in vegetation. The black 
rail feeds on terrestrial insects, aquatic invertebrates, and possibly seeds (Trulio and Evens 2000). 

The California black rail reportedly bred in the Alviso area in the early 1900s (Wheelock 1916), but 
currently it is not known to breed in the South Bay. Black rails breed primarily in marshes in north 
San Francisco Bay (i.e., San Pablo Bay and Suisun Bay). Following breeding, some black rails disperse 
into the South Bay during the non-breeding season; however, their abundance is unknown. They are 
likely present in small numbers at scattered locations in the South Bay during the non-breeding 
season (e.g., unconfirmed reports exist from the Alviso Marina during high winter tides). 

The absence (or scarcity) of breeding black rails in the South Bay is presumably a result of habitat 
loss. Tidal marsh habitat has been lost, but perhaps more important to winter survival is loss of high- 
tide refugia habitat. Upland transition habitat, both on natural levees within marshes and on 
landward edges of marshes, has been lost as a result of fill for development, and reductions in marsh 
size and resulting reductions in natural levees along higher-order channels. Predation by egrets, 
herons, gulls, and harriers has been observed in these marshes during winter high tides, as black 
rails are forced into the open by rising water. The importance of this predation on a population level, 
especially in light of impacts to high tide refugia, is unknown, but it may be a significant factor in the 
extirpation of breeding populations of the species from the South Bay. 

Western Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus ). Federal Listing Status: Threatened; 
State Listing Status: Species of Special Concern. The snowy plover is a small shorebird that occurs 
on almost every continent. On the Pacific coast, snowy plovers nest on sandy beaches and salt panne 
habitat from Washington to Baja Mexico. Because they nest during the summer, primarily on beaches 
in a temperate climate, snowy plovers are susceptible to nest disturbance and other negative 
interactions with humans. Much of their nesting habitat, particularly in southern California, has been 
lost to development and high human use. In addition, introduced predators, especially the non-native 
red fox, have had dramatic effects on snowy plover nesting success (Neuman et al. 2004). In response 
to severe population declines, the USFWS listed the Pacific coast population of the western snowy 
plover as threatened in 1993. Critical habitat was designated for this population in 1999 (USFWS 
1999b), and a revised recovery plan was released in 2007 (USFWS 2007). None of the breeding sites 
within the San Francisco Bay are considered critical habitat. 


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In the South San Francisco Bay, snowy plovers nest on low, barren to sparsely vegetated saline 
managed pond levees and islands, at pond edges, and on salt panne areas of dry ponds (Page et al. 
2000), and preferentially use light-colored substrates such as salt flats (Feeney and Maffei 1991, 
Marriott 2003). Nesting areas are located near water, where prey (usually brine flies and other 
insects) are abundant. In some areas, snowy plovers nest within dry saline managed ponds; in other 
areas where ponds typically hold water through the summer, nests are located primarily on levees. 

In the South Bay, the highest numbers of nesting snowy plovers occur in portions of Alameda and San 
Mateo counties, outside the Project Area. Until recently, the area in Santa Clara County that 
consistently supported the highest numbers of nesting snowy plovers was Pond A8, located between 
Alviso and Guadalupe sloughs, just west of the town of Alviso (Ryan and Parkin 1998, Strong 2004). 
However, that pond has been flooded as part of Phase 1 of the South Bay Salt Ponds Restoration 
Project, and its managed depth will no longer allow for the exposure of salt panne and island habitat 
suitable for plover nesting. Similarly, Pond A6 (located between the mouths of Alviso and Guadalupe 
sloughs) previously supported low numbers of nesting snowy plovers, but it was recently breached 
as part of the South Bay Salt Ponds Restoration Project, and thus no longer provides suitable 
breeding habitat. 

The areas that have supported nesting snowy plovers in recent years and still provide suitable 
conditions for nesting are portions of New Chicago Marsh, providing salt panne habitat, and an 
impoundment between pond A12 and New Chicago Marsh. During the 2009 breeding season, seven 
western snowy plover nests were located in the Alviso complex, including one snowy plover nest in 
Pond A8, one in the impoundment, and five nests in New Chicago Marsh (SFBBO 2009). Snowy 
plovers also nested in the late 1990s in Pond A3N, on the southwest side of the mouth of Guadalupe 
Slough (S. Rottenborn, pers. obs.). To provide nesting habitat for snowy plovers and other pond- 
associated waterbirds, given the modifications that have been made to former nesting areas in Ponds 
A6 and A8, the Refuge has been maintaining low water levels in Pond A12 (immediately 
north/northwest of the Alviso Marina) to provide salt flats and islands, and plovers are likely to nest 
in this pond. Figure 3.3-20 depicts locations in the vicinity of the Project Area where suitable nesting 
habitat for snowy plover may occur. In all of these potential breeding locations, nesting may occur on 
extensive salt flats or islands. The large flood protection levees with extensive vegetation on their 
banks, such as the ones lining sloughs within the Project Area, are not used by snowy plover for 
nesting. 

Although snowy plovers in the South Bay do show seasonal variations in distribution and abundance, 
they are observed infrequently, away from nesting areas in Santa Clara County, primarily because 
nesting areas provide the most suitable foraging habitat for the species year-round. Snowy plovers 
are expected to forage a bit more widely than the nesting areas indicated in Figure 3.3-20, and it is 
possible that non-breeding individuals may occasionally forage in the San Jose-Santa Clara Water 
Pollution Control Plant sludge ponds, or possibly at the Coyote Creek Reach 1A waterbird pond, both 
of which would be very close to Proposed Project work sites. However, they are expected to do so 
infrequently and in low numbers, if at all. 

No SMP Update activities are projected to occur in or very close to areas that support nesting snowy 
plovers. However, this species can select breeding areas opportunistically, and it is possible that 
changes in habitat from 2012-2022 could result in use of new areas by breeding plovers. For 
example, if management of ponds adjacent to Proposed Project work sites (such as Pond A4 between 
Moffett Channel and Guadalupe Slough, or Pond A18 adjacent to South Coyote Slough) changed so 
that these ponds became suitable for nesting, plovers may nest in them. Likewise, if proposed 
activities such as vegetation management or management of animal conflicts needed to occur in non- 
projected areas, such as segments of Alviso Slough along Pond A12, then SMP Update activities could 
occur adjacent to snowy plover nesting and foraging habitat. 


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Final critical habitat for the western snowy plover was designated on September 29, 2005 (USFWS 
2005c). No designated critical habitat for this species is located in or adjacent to the Project Area. On 
March 22, 2011, the USFWS proposed a new critical habitat designation that would include 
additional critical habitat. Under this proposed rule, the closest area of proposed critical habitat to 
the Project Area would be located in the northeastern portions of Ponds A22 and A23, located in the 
Warm Springs area of Fremont, approximately 0.75 mile north of the Project Area. 

California Least Tern [Sterna antillarum brownii ). Federal Listing Status: Endangered; State 
Listing Status: Endangered, Fully Protected. California least tern nests in California during the 
breeding season, from April to September (Rigney and Granholm 1990, Baron and Takegawa 1994). 
Its nesting habitat consists of shallow depressions in sand or small gravel along large tracts of 
undisturbed beaches (Baron and Takegawa 1994, Marschalek 2008). The loss of available, high- 
quality nesting habitat for least terns resulted in a reduction in population size to only 600 known 
breeding pairs (Baron and Takegawa 1994). In response to severe population declines, the USFWS 
listed the California least tern as endangered in 1970 (USFWS 1970), and California listed the species 
as both endangered and fully protected in 1971. No critical habitat has been designated for this 
species. 

Habitat requirements for the California least tern typically consist of quiet, extensive beaches or tidal 
flats close to an abundance of small fish (Baron and Takegawa 1994, Rigney and Granholm 1990). In 
San Francisco Bay, this species’ largest colony is located on an old airport runway at the former 
Alameda Naval Air Station, although small numbers nest on islands and salt pannes in former saline 
managed ponds in a few areas. 

California least terns do not breed in or adjacent to the Project Area. However, the South Bay is an 
important post-breeding staging area, and California least terns forage in late summer and early fall 
in saline-managed ponds within and adjacent to the Alviso area. Both adult and juvenile least terns 
roost on saline-managed pond levees (both outboard levees and interior levees between ponds) and 
boardwalks, and forage both in the saline-managed ponds and over the open waters of the Bay. In 
recent years, the post-breeding (late summer/fall) staging area for least terns in the South Bay has 
been in the complex of saline-managed ponds immediately north of Moffett Field (Ponds AB1, A2E, 
and AB2). This site is used predictably for roosting and foraging by both adult and juvenile least terns 
in July and August each year, with typical counts of 20 to 100 birds. Least terns also have been 
recorded at a number of ponds in the Project Area, including A5, A7, A9, A10, All, and A14. (Hurt, 
pers. comm., 2004; Krause, pers. comm., 2005) 

Least BelFs Vireo [Vireo bellii pusillus ). Federal Listing Status: Endangered; State Listing 
Status: Endangered. The least Bell’s vireo is a small neotropical migratory songbird that is sparsely 
distributed along waterways in southern California and northern Baja California, Mexico (Brown 
1993). The least Bell’s vireo was historically distributed throughout much of California, including the 
Central Valley (Franzreb et al. 1994, Kus 2002). However, extensive habitat destruction and declines 
in nest survival caused by heavy parasitism by the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) resulted 
in severe population declines, and the species’ range decreased to a few small remnant populations 
in riparian drainages in the eight counties south of Santa Barbara, with the greatest abundance of the 
vireos occurring in San Diego County (Franzreb et al. 1994, Kus 2002). The least Bell’s vireo was 
listed as endangered by California in 1980, and by the USFWS in 1986 (USFWS 1986). No critical 
habitat for this species occurs in Santa Clara County (USFWS 1994). 

The least Bell’s vireo is a riparian-obligate breeder (Kus 1998), nesting in dense thickets of willows 
and other low bushes along perennial or ephemeral streams (Franzreb et al. 1994, Kus 2002). Prime 
least Bell’s vireo habitat can be described as a wide (greater than 825 feet) riparian corridor (Kus 
2002) with dense shrub growth extending vertically from 2 to 10 feet (Brown 1993), few trees 


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greater than 3 inches in diameter at breast height in the canopy, and an open canopy (Sharp and Kus 
2006). Upland vegetation adjacent to riparian habitats frequently is used for foraging, and sometimes 
nesting, by least Bell’s vireo (USFWS 1998c). Least Bell’s vireo arrives on its breeding grounds in 
mid-March, and its nesting season extends from early April through July (Brown 1993). The species 
exhibits high breeding site fidelity, returning to the same territory, and even nesting in the same 
shrub, over multiple years (Kus 2002). 

The coastal range of this species (i.e., west of the Central Valley) once extended north through the 
Salinas River valley, but apparently ended in extreme southern Santa Clara County, where the only 
record before 1997 was a nest collected at Sargent along the Pajaro River (on the Santa Clara/San 
Benito County line near the current location of U.S. Highway 101) in 1932 (Unglish 1937). 

By 1930, declines were widespread, mostly because of parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds. The 
least Bell’s vireo was thought to be extirpated from northern California by 1970. Isolated and 
infrequent sightings of singing males in northern and central California have suggested that the 
species may eventually recolonize historic habitat in northern California. In 1972, and again in 1982, 
lone singing males were found in riparian habitat in Pinnacles State Park, in San Benito County 
(Roberson 2002). In 1983, three singing males were found on the Salinas River in southern Monterey 
County, and a female was observed building a nest. 

In the past two decades, populations of least Bell’s vireos have begun to rebound because of intensive 
recovery efforts (Kus 2002, USFWS 2006). However, the species is still not known to have 
recolonized former breeding areas in southern Monterey County, and only three records have been 
made from Santa Clara County since 1932. Beginning in 1997, SCVWD has conducted least Bell’s 
vireo surveys almost annually along lower Llagas Creek, and occasionally along sections of Uvas 
Creek, during the breeding season (Padley 2010, H. T. Harvey & Associates 2010c). A pair was 
detected in April and May 1997, and two singing males were reported on May 17, 2001 (Rottenborn 
2007d); both of these records were from lower Llagas Creek between Highway 152 and the 
confluence with the Pajaro River, just east of Gilroy. A single male was heard singing along Coyote 
Creek near the Coyote Creek Golf Course on June 20, 2006 (H. T. Harvey & Associates, unpublished). 
This individual was sought but not relocated subsequently, and it is not likely to have bred in the 
vicinity. No other recent records of the least Bell’s vireo exist in Santa Clara County. 

Least Bell’s vireo numbers may increase in number and distribution as its core populations increase, 
but it is unlikely to ever be more than a rare and very locally occurring breeder along South County 
streams. In the Project Area, least Bell’s vireo is expected to breed only along streams in the Pajaro 
Basin, and even then only sporadically and in low numbers. Portions of lower Llagas Creek 
(downstream from Highway 152), the Pajaro River (from Llagas Creek downstream), and lower 
Uvas/Carnadeo Creek (downstream from Hecker Pass Road) provide suitable habitat for the species, 
and SMP Update activities are projected in these areas. However, protocol-level surveys for the 
species were conducted along Uvas Creek between Hecker Pass Road and Santa Teresa Boulevard in 
2006 (H. T. Harvey & Associates, unpublished data), and along portions of Uvas/Carnadero Creek, the 
Pajaro River, Tar Creek, and other waterways along U.S. Highway 101 south of Gilroy in 2007 (H. T. 
Harvey & Associates 2011), with negative results. Combined with the results of SCVWD’s recent 
surveys along lower Llagas Creek, these negative survey results suggest that this species likely is 
absent from the county in most years. Potential habitat for the species also is present in the Project 
Area along lower Pacheco Creek, although no SMP Update activities are projected in that area. 

Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris ). Federal Listing Status: Endangered; 
State Listing Status: Endangered, Fully Protected. The salt marsh harvest mouse is found only in 
saline wetlands of the San Francisco Bay and its tributaries. The southern subspecies raviventris is 
restricted to an area along both sides of San Francisco Bay, from San Mateo County and Alameda 


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County south to Santa Clara County. Although its primary habitat consists of pickleweed-dominated 
areas in the upper regions of tidal marshes, the salt marsh harvest mouse also is found in diked and 
muted tidal marshes dominated by pickleweed, and recently it has been found in dense vegetation 
within brackish marshes in the South Bay, specifically tri-corner bulrush marshes that are mature 
and have a thick, well-developed layer of thatch (H. T. Harvey & Associates 2006, 2010a). The salt 
marsh harvest mouse occurs with the closely related, ubiquitous, and abundant western harvest 
mouse [Reithrodontomys megalotis) at the upper edges of marshes and in marginal areas. Both 
animals occur in pickleweed, but the salt marsh harvest mouse replaces the western harvest mouse 
in denser areas of pickleweed. 

The salt marsh harvest mouse has declined substantially in recent decades. This decline has been 
primarily caused by the diking and filling of marshes, subsidence, and changes in salinity brought 
about by increasing volumes of fresh water discharge into the Bay. In response to habitat loss and 
population declines, the salt marsh harvest mouse was listed as endangered by the USFWS in 1970 
(USFWS 1970) and by California in 1971. Critical habitat has not been designated for this species. 

In the Project Area, salt marsh harvest mouse is known from a variety of locations in the South Bay, 
especially from the tidal salt marshes of the Bay, levees, and from a series of diked salt marshes (H. T. 
Harvey & Associates 2010a). Potential salt marsh harvest mouse habitat in the Project Area, mapped 
based on the assessment by H. T. Harvey & Associates, is depicted in Figure 3.3-22. 

San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis muticci). Federal Listing Status: Endangered; State Listing 
Status: Threatened. The San Joaquin kit fox is the largest subspecies of the kit fox, the smallest canid 
species in North America. The San Joaquin kit fox was listed as endangered by the USFWS in 1967 
and by California in 1971. Loss of habitat from urban, agricultural, and industrial development are 
the principal factors in the decline of the San Joaquin kit fox. Subpopulations of the San Joaquin kit 
fox appear to be increasingly isolated from one another because of development within its range 
(USFWS 1998a). Critical habitat has not been designated for this species. 

The San Joaquin kit fox is primarily nocturnal and typically occurs in annual grassland or mixed 
shrub/grassland habitats throughout low, rolling hills and in the valleys. It requires underground 
dens for temperature regulation, shelter, reproduction, and predator avoidance. Kit foxes commonly 
modify and use dens constructed by other animals and human-made structures (USFWS 1998a). 
Dens are usually located on loose-textured soils on slopes less than 40 degrees, but San Joaquin kit 
fox den characteristics vary across the fox’s geographic range, including the number of openings, 
shape, and slope of the ground on which they occur (USFWS 1998a). Kit foxes change dens 
frequently, often using numerous dens each year. 

San Joaquin kit foxes were infrequently sighted in San Benito County and southern Santa Clara 
County in the early 1970s. Morrell (1975) reported four sightings before 1972, and seven sightings 
between 1972 and 1975 in this region. These reports included nine sightings in San Benito County 
near Hollister and two sightings in Santa Clara County between Pacheco Pass and San Felipe Lake. 

Since 1975, two reports of kit foxes have been made in Santa Clara County. Two adults were reported 
near Coyote (Weslar 1987), and one adult was reported near Bell’s Station in an outlying portion of 
Henry Coe State Park in 2002 (CNDDB 2011). The Coyote report was not documented adequately to 
confirm that this species, which can be easily confused with other foxes or especially with young 
coyotes, was actually present. As a result, no firm records of the kit fox exist from the Project Area. 
Subsequent extensive surveys throughout the area have failed to detect any kit foxes, and kit foxes 
are now generally acknowledged to be extremely rare in Santa Clara County and found only in areas 
proximal to access from Central Valley population centers (e.g., near Highway 152 in the 
southeastern corner of the county). The species’ preferred habitat, extensive low-lying grasslands 


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with minimal topography, is not present in the Project Area. If San Joaquin kit foxes occur in the 
Project Area, they are expected to occur only in the southeastern portion along Pacheco Creek and 
the uppermost Pajaro River. Kit fox may occur here during dispersal between areas of known 
breeding activity outside the Project Area (i.e., the Central Valley to the east and San Benito County to 
the south], 

California Species of Special Concern 

Central Valley Fall-run Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytschci). Federal Listing Status: 
None; State Listing Status: Species of Special Concern. Like the steelhead, the Chinook salmon is 
an anadromous salmonid. Populations of Pacific salmon have been categorized into Evolutionarily 
Significant Units (ESUs) by the NMFS; an ESU represents a population of Pacific salmon that is 
reproductively isolated from other conspecific populations and is recognized as a distinct 
evolutionary component of the species (Waples 1991], The Central Valley Fall-run ESU represents a 
population of Chinook salmon that migrate from the ocean to spawning streams in late fall and begin 
spawning in beds of coarse river gravels between October and December. Populations of fall-run 
Chinook salmon have suffered the effects of over-fishing by commercial fisheries, degradation of 
spawning and rearing habitat, added barriers to upstream migration, and reductions in winter flows 
because of damming. Approximately 40-50 percent of its spawning and rearing habitats in Central 
Valley streams have been lost or degraded. Chinook salmon generally spawn in cool waters that 
provide incubation temperatures no warmer than 55°F. Compared to steelhead, Chinook salmon are 
more likely to spawn in coarse gravels located lower in the watershed. 

Chinook salmon historically did not spawn in streams flowing into South San Francisco Bay. Since the 
mid-1980s, however, small numbers of fall-run Chinook salmon have been found in several such 
streams, including Coyote Creek, Los Gatos Creek, and the Guadalupe River in the Project Area (Leidy 
et al. 2003], However, genetic analysis, timing of spawning, and the detection of coded wire-tagged 
hatchery fish in the Project Area suggest that these fish are derived from Central Valley fall-run stock 
(Garcia-Rossi and Hedgecock 2002], possibly hatchery releases. Conditions for successful spawning 
in the Project Area are marginal because these fish spawn during fall, when streamflow is at its 
lowest. Because these fish are not native to the South Bay and are apparently derived, at least in part, 
from hatchery stock, the NMFS does not consider the Chinook occurring in the South Bay to be a 
special-status species. 

Monterey Roach [Lavia symmetricus). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing Status: 
Species of Special Concern. The Monterey roach is a small minnow found primarily in small and 
intermittent tributaries in the San Lorenzo River, Pajaro River, and Salinas River watersheds. The 
Monterey roach forages primarily on algae, but juveniles often eat small invertebrates as an 
important part of their diet. Roaches can withstand extreme conditions found in late summer pools, 
such as high temperatures up to 95 °F and low oxygen levels down to 1 ppm. The Monterey roach is 
known to occur in Llagas and Uvas Creeks, and it likely is present in other Project Area creeks within 
the Pajaro River Basin. 

Foothill Yellow-legged Frog (Rana boylif). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing Status: 
Species of Special Concern. The foothill yellow-legged frog is a stream-breeding frog, historically 
found in most Pacific drainages from the Coast Ranges to the western Sierra Nevada and San Gabriel 
mountain foothills (Jennings and Hayes 1994, CaliforniaHerps.com 2010], Currently, the foothill 
yellow-legged frog may occupy only 55 percent of its historical range (CaliforniaHerps.com 2010], 
The main reason for the reduction in the species’ range apparently is the alteration of stream 
hydrology because of the presence of dams (Jennings and Hayes 1994, Wheeler et al. 2006], 

Ideal habitat for the foothill yellow-legged frog consists of streams with riffles and cobble-sized 
rocks, with slow water flow (Jennings and Hayes 1994], The breeding ecology of the foothill yellow- 


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legged frog requires consistently slow-moving flows, as well as the presence of upland areas 
surrounding the breeding locations for use as non-breeding habitat. 

In 1999, H. T. Harvey & Associates (1999b) prepared a report and maps that documented the known 
occurrences of the foothill yellow-legged frog in Santa Clara County and predicted the expected 
distribution of the species, based on known occurrences, habitat suitability, and available 
information on survey effort within areas where the species had not been recorded. In preparing the 
analysis for this DSEIR, H. T. Harvey & Associates updated the mapping of the species’ expected 
distribution, based on additional occurrences and changes in land use (such as new development) 
since 1999. The expected distribution of the species within Santa Clara County, based on this 
analysis, is shown in Figure 3.3-18. No recent records of foothill yellow-legged frog exists from the 
Santa Clara Valley floor, and although it still occurs in foothill streams in the Project Area, it is now 
presumed extirpated from the majority of the Project Area (Figure 3.3-18) (H. T. Harvey & Associates 
1999b). At the edges of the Project Area, foothill yellow-legged frog is known to occur in Guadalupe 
Creek downstream from Guadalupe Reservoir, in Llagas Creek south of Calero Reservoir, and along 
Rincon Creek (CNDDB 2011). The species also occurs (or formerly occurred) in Upper Penitencia 
Creek in Alum Rock Park in the Project Area and at other South Bay locations outside the Project 
Area (H. T. Harvey & Associates 1999b). 

Western Pond Turtle (Actinemys marmoratci). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing 
Status: Species of Special Concern. The western pond turtle occurs in ponds, streams, and other 
wetland habitats in the Pacific slope drainages of California and northern Baja California, Mexico 
(Bury and Germano 2008). The central California population historically was present in most 
drainages on the Pacific slope (Jennings and Hayes 1994), but streambed alterations and other 
sources of habitat destruction, exacerbated by frequent drought events, have caused substantial 
population declines throughout most of the species’ range (Stebbins 2003). Ponds or slack-water 
pools with suitable basking sites (such as logs) are an important habitat component for this species, 
and western pond turtles do not occur commonly along high-gradient streams. Females lay eggs in 
upland habitats, in clay or silty soils in unshaded (often south-facing) areas up to 0.25 mile from 
aquatic habitat (Jennings and Hayes 1994). Juveniles feed and grow in shallow aquatic habitats (often 
creeks) with emergent vegetation and ample invertebrate prey. Nesting habitat typically is found 
within 600 feet of aquatic habitat (Jennings and Hayes 1994), but if no suitable nesting habitat can be 
found close by, adults may travel overland considerable distances to nest. Threats to the western 
pond turtle include impacts to nesting habitat from agricultural and grazing activities, human 
development of habitat, and increased predation pressure from native and non-native predators as a 
result of human-induced landscape changes. 

Western pond turtles have been recorded recently along a number of streams and rivers, and within 
a number of ponds and lakes, throughout much of the Project Area away from northern, tidal stream 
reaches (Figure 3.3-19) (H. T. Harvey & Associates 1999a, CNDDB 2011, unpublished SCVWD data). 
All perennial creeks, many intermittent creeks, and most ponds that are not completely isolated by 
development have some potential to support this species. However, the cumulative stressors of 
urbanization, including release of non-native turtles, predation and harassment by pets and non¬ 
native mammals, capture by humans, degradation of water quality, loss of upland nesting habitat 
because of development, and the construction of barriers between creeks and nesting areas have 
reduced western pond turtle populations, and few areas exist where the species can be considered 
common. In particular, the scarcity of suitable expanses of nesting habitat makes the maintenance of 
viable populations unlikely along reaches of many creeks in the Project Area. Large numbers of 
different-aged individuals, suggesting the presence of successfully breeding turtles, have been 
observed in ponds near Coyote Ranch in the northern part of Coyote Valley, since the 1990s (S. 
Rottenborn, pers. obs.), but observations of such healthy breeding populations are relatively scarce 
in the Project Area. The most recent observations in the Project Area were small numbers of 


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primarily older individuals, suggesting low productivity and/or survival of western pond turtles in 
most of the Project Area. 

California Horned Lizard [Phrynosoma blainvillii ). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing 
Status: Species of Special Concern. The California horned lizard is a California endemic that is 
distributed along the coast from Contra Costa County in the north to San Diego County in the south, 
as well as in patches throughout the Central Valley. The breeding season for California horned lizards 
extends from April to August, after which individuals disperse to overwintering habitats where they 
hibernate from November through March. California horned lizards occupy a variety of open habitats 
characterized by sandy, loosely textured soils, such as chaparral, coastal scrub, annual grassland, and 
clearings in riparian woodlands. (Jennings and Hayes 1994) 

Horned lizards are most strongly associated with loose soils free of plant debris, and with the 
presence of native harvester ants [Pogonomyrmex barbatus), which comprise a primary part of their 
diet. California horned lizard populations have declined significantly because of loss of habitat and 
the influx of invasive invertebrate species. (Fisher et al. 2002) The introduction of Argentine ants 
(Linepithema humile) has displaced the harvester ant in California, reducing the range of the 
California horned lizard. 

Suitable loose-textured soils are relatively scarce, and Argentine ants are relatively common and 
widespread in the Project Area; therefore, the potential for California horned lizards to occur in the 
majority of the Project Area is extremely low. Additionally, pressure from domestic cat predation 
limits the populations of California horned lizards near urban areas. A single, recent record of the 
species exists in the Project Area, from Calero Reservoir (N. Merrill, pers. obs.) and some potential 
exists for the California horned lizard to occur in the Santa Teresa Hills, where the soils are more 
loosely textured. Locations of occurrence in the Project Area are shown in Figure 3.3-19. Potential 
habitat for this species also is in the vicinity of Alum Rock Park and possibly elsewhere, where 
suitable substrate and prey are present near the margins of the Project Area. 

Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing Status: Species of 
Special Concern (Nesting Colony). The black skimmer’s unique physiology, with its lower mandible 
longer than its upper mandible, allows this species to fly over the surface of the water, "skimming” 
for small fish. Nesting habitat for black skimmer occurs primarily on the coasts of the southeastern 
United States, the Gulf of California, and from the Pacific Coast of Baja, California, north to San Diego. 
In California, black skimmer is considered a species of special concern only when nesting. 

Black skimmers were first detected nesting in California in 1972. Since that time, their populations in 
California have increased considerably, to approximately 1,200 pairs in 1995 (Collins and Garrett 
1996). The black skimmer was considered a rare non-breeding visitor to the San Francisco Bay area 
until the mid-1990s. In 1994, one pair of black skimmers was documented nesting at saline-managed 
Pond AB2 in Santa Clara County, and a second pair nested at Hayward Regional Shoreline in Alameda 
County (Layne et al. 1996). Since 1994, black skimmers have occurred in the South Bay every year, 
nesting at several additional sites (Strong 2004). In the San Francisco Bay area, black skimmers 
typically nest among Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri ), on small dredge-spoil islands (including both 
bare islands and vegetated islands, sometimes heavily vegetated with pickleweed) in saline-managed 
ponds. Exact nesting locations vary from year to year. 

Since 1994, skimmer populations in the South Bay have slowly but steadily increased, although the 
extent to which this increase has resulted from local reproduction versus immigration from the 
increasing southern California population is unknown. In the Project Area, skimmers have bred at 
ponds AB1, AB2, Al, A2W, A7, A8, and A16, and Pond A12 and other managed ponds in Alviso may 
provide breeding and foraging habitat (Bousman 2007f). Although the species may forage in sloughs 


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in the Project Area, black skimmer is likely to occur infrequently in areas that would be affected by 
the SMP Update. 

Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus ). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing Status: Species of 
Special Concern (Nesting). The northern harrier nests in marshes and grasslands, usually those 
with tall vegetation and moisture sufficient to inhibit accessibility of nest sites to predators. This 
species forages, primarily on small mammals and birds, in a variety of open grassland, ruderal, and 
agricultural habitats. 

Northern harrier breeds in small numbers in more extensive patches of tidal marsh habitat close to 
San Francisco Bay, including marshes along the lower, tidal reaches of SCVWD-maintained streams. It 
is possible that this species nests in tall, dense, ruderal vegetation and grassland in San Jose/Santa 
Clara WPCP buffer lands (i.e., the formerly cultivated grassland/ruderal habitat surrounding the 
WPCP, bounded by SR 2376, Zanker Road, and Los Esteros Road in Alviso) or in diked/tidal marsh 
habitat in Alviso. Some potential also exists for harriers to nest in fallow fields in Coyote Valley, and 
along lower Llagas Creek, Carnadero Creek, and the Pajaro River. However, nest accessibility to 
predators limits the potential for, and likely the success of, the species’ nesting in the Project Area. 
Northern harrier forages in a variety of open habitats, especially during the non-breeding season, and 
the species is fairly widespread as a forager in grasslands, extensive wetlands, and agricultural areas 
in the Project Area during migration and winter. In some years, when vole populations are 
particularly high, high densities of harrier can be found in some areas (De Anza College Wildlife 
Corridor Steward Team 2009). 

Long-eared Owl (Asio otus ). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing Status: Species of 
Special Concern (Nesting). The long-eared owl is an uncommon, year-long resident throughout 
much of California. It frequents dense riparian and live oak thickets near meadow edges, and nearby 
woodland and forest habitats, but also may be found in dense conifer stands at higher elevations. 
This species forages over open areas, where it hunts for rodents and small birds. It breeds from 
valley foothill hardwood up to ponderosa pine habitats from early March to late July. This species is 
considered a California species of special concern only when breeding. 

No known nesting locations exist for the long-eared owl in the Project Area (Noble 2007), and the 
species likely occurs here only as a rare and irregular non-breeding visitor. However, the species has 
been recorded nesting just outside the Project Area in Ed Levin County Park, west of Calaveras 
Reservoir in 2001 (Noble 2007). Thus, because the long-eared owl is known to nest in a variety of 
wooded habitat types, it is possible that a few pairs occur in riparian, oak woodland, or mixed 
evergreen forest in the Project Area. 

Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing Status: Species of 
Special Concern (Nesting). Short-eared owl occurs in open habitats such as grasslands, wet 
meadows, and marshes. It requires tall, herbaceous vegetation for nesting or daytime refuge. Short¬ 
eared owl once bred much more widely in California, including the San Francisco Bay area. However, 
the species now occurs primarily as a migrant and winter visitor, and it is a rare and local breeder in 
the South Bay. The most recent nesting record in the South Bay was of three pairs, producing four 
fledglings at Bair Island in 1994 (Yee et al. 1994). Breeding-season records in the Project Area 
include a pair at the Palo Alto Baylands in 1966 (Chase and Chandik 1966) and two nests in the Palo 
Alto Flood Control Basin in 1972 (Gill 1977). A low probability exists that this species currently 
breeds in the Project Area, or that it would breed in the Project Area other than in the Palo Alto Flood 
Control Basin. During winter, the species is more widespread, although in low numbers, foraging in 
extensive marshes, grasslands, and agricultural areas. 


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Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing Status: Species 
of Special Concern. The burrowing owl is a small, terrestrial owl of the open country. This species 
prefers annual and perennial grasslands, typically with sparse or nonexistent tree or shrub canopies. 
In California, burrowing owls are found in close association with California ground squirrels; owls 
use the abandoned burrows of ground squirrels for shelter and nesting. The nesting season, as 
recognized by the CDFG (1995), runs from February 1 through August 31. After nesting is completed, 
adult owls may remain in their nesting burrows or in nearby burrows, or they may migrate 
(Rosenberg et al. 2007); young birds disperse across the landscape from 0.1 mile to 35 miles from 
their natal burrows (Rosier et al. 2006). Burrowing owl populations have declined substantially in 
the San Francisco Bay area in recent years, with declines estimated at 4-6 percent annually (DeSante 
et al. in press, in Rosenberg et al. 2007). 

Burrowing owl occurs year-round in the Santa Clara Valley (Trulio 2007), and is commonly present 
in open, agricultural, or grassland areas with active ground squirrel burrows. Burrowing owl also 
exhibits strong site fidelity, and may return to a nesting site and attempt to nest even after the site 
has been developed. In the Project Area, particular concentrations of burrowing owls occur at the 
WPCP and its buffer lands, at the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority’s Cerone operating 
division in the Alviso area, and at the San Jose International Airport and on undeveloped parcels east 
of U.S. ffighway 101 near the airport. However, this species is increasingly disappearing from "infill” 
locations on the urban valley floor. Burrowing owl was present in the Coyote Valley and Evergreen 
areas in the 1990s, but it has been infrequently recorded in either area in recent years. It still 
occasionally is recorded in Coyote Valley and in grasslands at higher elevations, such as on Coyote 
Ridge, but it seems to occur in such areas primarily during the non-breeding season. SCVWD 
performed surveys at 41 project sites throughout Santa Clara County in summer 1998, but the 
District detected no burrowing owls at any of these sites, nor in potential habitats adjacent to the 
project sites (SCVWD 1998). 

In 2007 and 2008, a habitat assessment, burrow mapping study, and standardized breeding-season, 
protocol surveys for the burrowing owl were conducted along sections of multiple SCVWD-managed 
waterways in Palo Alto, Mountain View, Sunnyvale, Santa Clara, San Jose, Alviso, Milpitas, and Gilroy 
(EDAW 2008). These surveys identified active breeding and overwintering burrowing owls at a few 
locations in or adjacent to the Project Area (Figure 3.3-21), and potential habitat for burrowing owl 
was determined to be present along a number of creeks in the Project Area (EDAW 2008). However, 
no burrowing owl was recorded using SCVWD facilities, such as levees, during either of the two 
surveys, and SCVWD levees did not appear to provide important burrowing owl nesting or roosting 
habitat (i.e., used regularly or by a sizeable proportion of the South Bay population). 

Vaux’s Swift (Chaetura vauxi ). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing Status: Species of 
Special Concern (Nesting). The Vaux’s swift is distributed throughout the Pacific Northwest, in 
close association with coniferous forests (Bull and Collins 2007). In California, the range of this small 
neotropical migratory bird is concurrent with the range of the coast redwood, which extends along 
the coast from Del Norte County in the north to Monterey County in the south (Hunter 2008). Vaux’s 
swifts also can be found in smaller numbers in other coniferous forest types across northern 
California and along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada (Hunter 2008). Vaux’s swifts nest both in 
small colonies and as single pairs, occupying cavities in redwoods and other trees (Hunter and 
Mazurek 2003). They will use both basal cavities and holes near the tops of trees, and once they have 
discovered a suitable tree, they will return to reuse the site in subsequent years (Hunter and 
Mazurek 2003). Swifts also occasionally use artificial cavities such as chimneys (Hunter 2008). They 
forage on flying insects in the air above a variety of habitats and can often be seen far from the 
nearest suitable breeding habitat (Hunter 2008). Swifts begin breeding in early May and continue 
until mid-August, when most individuals migrate to southern Mexico and Central America, although 
small numbers overwinter as far north as central California (Bull and Collins 2007). Loss of nest and 


Santa Clara Valley Water District 

Stream Maintenance Program Update 2012-2022 

Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report 


1-20 


December 2011 
Project 10.005 



Appendix I Detailed Descriptions of Special-Status Wildlife Species Potentially Occurring in the Project Area 


roost sites, particularly in old-growth and other mature forests, is a primary threat to this declining 
species (Hunter 2008). 

In the South Bay, Vaux’s swifts breed primarily in snags in the forests of the Santa Cruz Mountains 
(Rottenborn 2007d); suitable nest trees are absent from the Project Area. However, this species also 
breeds in residential chimneys in the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains and has most commonly 
been observed foraging over suburban areas having chimneys suitable for nesting, such as Los Gatos, 
Los Altos, Los Altos Hills, Cupertino, and Campbell (Rottenborn 2007d). Thus, it likely breeds more 
commonly than currently recorded (though still in small numbers) in residential areas in the western 
part of the Project Area. Vaux’s swifts are aerial foragers that forage in low numbers throughout the 
Project Area during migration. 

Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperf). Federal Listing Status: None; State Listing Status: 
Species of Special Concern (Nesting). In northern California, the olive-sided flycatcher is 
distributed along the Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada (Altman and Sallabanks 2000, Widdowson 
2008). Olive-sided flycatchers are associated with coniferous forest habitats and breed in mature 
forests with open canopies, along forest edges in more densely vegetated areas, in recently burned 
forest habitats, and in selectively harvested landscapes (Altman and Sallabanks 2000, Robertson and 
Hutto 2007). Olive-sided flycatchers nest in tall trees, bui