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The Ontario Institute 

for Studies in Education 

Toronto, Canada 

&. 9j/. (^u^AM, 






Vice-Principal of the Provincial Normal School, 
Winnipeg^ Manitoba. 


MAY i ] 1971 






Copyright, Canada, 1908, by Tor Copp, Clark Company, Liwtbd, 
Toronto, Ontario. 


. For several years, experiments have been made in the 
Provincial Normal School with the view of discovering 
a course in Educational History suitable to the needs of 
a session of four and one-half months. Various current 
texts have been tried only to be found wanting in the 
end in certain features considered essential. Finally a 
lecture course was outlined, and thoroughly tested from 
session to session until the materials found profitable to 
the students were obtained. This lecture course is now 
for the first time placed in book-form to meet the urgent 
demands of students who confessed their inability to 
make as much out of the lectures as they felt should be 

The course makes no pretence whatever at originality 
of thought. The only merit it has lies in the fact that 
it has grown out of the necessities of the class, and that 
it has been tested by several hundred students and 
found profitable. 

In order that the best results should follow the pre- 
sentation of this course, it is earnestly recommended 
that the students should make themselves familiar with 


the more complete accounts given in Monroe's History 
of Education, Davidson's Rousseau, Penloche's Pesta- 
lozzi, Spencer's Education, Laurie's Pre-Christian 
Education, The fimile and Leonard and Gertrude. 

The blank pages following each chapter are for class- 
room essays bearing on the work covered and also for 
recording material collected from sources of reference. 

The lecturer is deeply indebted to Dr. G. Stanley 
Hall, President of Clark University, Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts, for permission to add a digest of an article on 
" Moral Training in the School," by George Edmund 
Myers, in the Pedagogical Seminary of December, 1906, 
vol. XIII, No. 4. 

Winnipeg, June 15th, 1908. 



Education Among Savages i 

Education in the Far East 5 

Hebrew Education 9 

Greek Education 12 

Roman Education 29 

Education in the Middle Age. . . 34 

The Period of the Renascence 51 

The Reformation 60 

Realism 71 

Rousseau 88 

Pestalozzi, Herbart and Froebel 99 

Spencer and Huxley 120 

Industrial Education 131 

Moral Training in the Modern Schools. ........ 138 



(an education of use and wont.) 

Were the upward progress of the race from barbarism 
to civilization always even, the history of Education 
would have easily been told. Instead, however, of an 
even flow of current, we have here and there windings, 
advancings and retreats. Time and time again we have 
to record educational ideals and ideas insufficiently 
grasped, overworked, or not worked enough. Notwith- 
standing these hindrances, educational progress has been 
ever upward, a feature every student of educational 
history should endeavor to appreciate. 

Beginning then with man in the simplest of conditions, 
we shall not be disappointed if we shall find no school, 
no education as we understand education, and not even 
a teaching body. In such society, we may, therefore, 
more readily grasp the general nature, purpose, etc., of 

However different primitive nations or tribes may be, 
in general all believe in the presence of some super- 
natural power dwelling behind the rocks, streams, and 

other material features of the environment. The Indian 



apologizes to the beaver he has slain, and offers a 
sacrifice of tobacco or some other precious possession to 
the waterfall he has passed. The life of man in such 
conditions is occupied in the main in attending to two 
things, namely, work and worship. Man must secure 
food, clothing and shelter, but in securing these and 
other bodily necessities he must guard against incurring 
the displeasure of the spirits dwelling, or supposed to 
dwell, in these things. 

In securing the necessities of life, the savage under- 
stands the value of a simple division of labor. Hence, 
the hunting, the fishing and the fighting are recognized 
as duties pertaining to the fathers; while the preparation 
of the food, the clothing and the shelter constitute the 
business of the mothers. The games and amusements 
of savage children accord with the serious work of the 
elders. The boy learns how to make and use a bow ; 
how to handle a dug-out ; and how to read a meaning 
in the signs and sounds of the wild nature around. 
The girl imitates her mother after a similar fashion 
and for a similar end. 

Another phase of education is seen in the various 
dances and ceremonies preceding the hunt, to foray, the 
sowing of the grain, the harvest time, etc. All of these 
must be looked upon as the religious exercises of a 
simple people. 


The meaning of these ceremonies was usually made 
known during the period of adolescence and the method 
used was the method of initiation. The tribal secrets 
communicated at such times had to do with such 
things as the hunting of wild animals and the prepara- 
tion of the skins. They had also to do with inculcating 
the virtue of enduring hunger, pain, and thirst without 
complaint. Furthermore, these ceremonies prepared 
the young for citizenship, by emphasizing obedience, 
respect to elders, and faithfulness to the tribe as a 

Summing up the education of primitive man, we may 
say that it consisted largely in knowing what to do and 
how to do this. Such education had to do merely with 
the present adjustment of the tribe or the individual to 
the natural and supernatural environments. It, therefore, 
was wanting in the elements of progress, for the savage 
possessed no written record of the advance of his race, 
and no very clear thought of the meaning of the future. 
Savage knowledge was purely unscientific. The savage 
knew, it is true, the animal life which supplied him with 
food, or against which he waged an incessant warfare. 
He was acquainted with some of the food plants and 
also with those that were poisonous in the neighborhood. 
He knew something of the topography of his locality, 
and something too of the signs of weather and of season. 
He knew how to prepare the various utensils, imple- 
ments and weapons needed by his tribe. He appreciated 


the value of having a leader and of following him in 
times of danger. -He recognized the importance of a 
social life bound together by the blood tie. He knew 
these and many other matters, but he discovered them 
all by accident or by the impelling forces of food, 
clothing and shelter. 

In advancing from a stage where man was but little 
conscious of the past, and unable, except in a small way, 
to picture the future, it is needless to say that much of 
the progress made was due to mere accident. Geniuses 
have been present at all stages of the world's history, 
and the primitive genius who imagined cows, horses and 
sheep reared under the protecting hand of man, and who 
succeeded in establishing this idea, aided the race most 
emphatically in its rise from savagery to a higher phase 
of culture. As the tribe increased in numbers, and life 
in consequence became more complex, education would 
be gradually turned over to a special class of instructors, 
teachers or priests, and the tie of mere kinship would 
probably give place to a new and higher social bond. 


i. Compare as to purpose, method and results the work of the 
elementary school of Canada and the primitive school described in 
this chapter. 

2. Write a note on each of the following : — (a) The significance 
of Primitive Education, (b) Method of Primitive Education. 

In question 2, read Monroe, pages 1 and 10. 

3. Describe the education of the Pygmies of the Congo and c( 
the Eskimo in the Barren Lands. 


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(an education tending to conserve the past.) 

The change from a purely savage life to that of an 
early civilization is attended by a political organization 
instead of the tribal bond of blood, and also by a 
written literature, in place of the more than doubtful 
legends and traditions passed on from father to son. 

In China we find conservatism crystallized. As the 
Chinese are to-day, so were they a thousand years ago. 
Since the days of Confucius, the Chinese have deemed 
it a sacrilege to advance beyond the precepts of this 
sage, and have looked upon any movement away from 
the prescribed order as entirely " un-Chinese." In spite 
of this, the Chinese have stumbled upon a few of the 
greatest discoveries of modern times. In China gun- 
powder and the use of fire-arms were known when the 
people of Western Europe gloried in the bow and arrow, 
the spear and sword. Had China looked to the future 
instead of trying to repeat the past, the nation to-day 
might have been far in advance of what it is. 

Schools existed in China from time immemorial. 
The Chinese boy was early given a course of home 
training consisting of reverence for parents and an- 
cestors, moral precepts, counting, and a careful drill 
in the Chinese language. At the age of five or six, the 
boy entered a private elementary school where he 


learned to write the Chinese characters, receive some 
instruction in arithmetic, and some memory work in 
manners and morals. The higher courses were designed 
for the children of the nobles and the wealthy classes, 
and for such of the children of the poor as had shown 
marked ability in the lower schools. Promotion in 
every case was decided by written examinations, and 
the successful students were rewarded by being made 
government officers with power to direct the conduct of 
those under them, an extension of the civil service 
unknown to western nations surely. 

Long and severe as were the courses of study, they 
must have been practically useless in the end, for 
they contained little or no mathematics, no language 
excepting ancient Chinese, little history, unless it be a 
history saturated with the legendary and the fabulous, 
and a science that can only be characterized as utter 
nonsense. Looking, however, at the task set, it is little 
wonder that out of the millions who started the educa- 
tional race, but few succeeded in winning the prize. 
It is little wonder, too, that son, father, and even 
grandfather should be found occasionally toiling at the 
same examination. 

As the Chinese education was entirely literary in 
character it was necessary that students should be able 
to read and to write the Chinese characters. Chinese 
characters represent ideas, and there were something 


like 25,000 of these to master. Again, there were 
several types of writing which students were obliged to 
know to have even a chance of success. Furthermore, 
the Chinese verbs have neither voice, mood nor tense, 
and the nouns neither gender nor number. Add to 
these obstacles the fact that the language studied was 
to all intents and purposes a dead language, and some 
faint conception of the student's task may be conceived. 

The higher education of China concerns itself with 
the memorizing of the nine sacred classics and their 
many commentaries. Mastery of contents is necessary 
but the chief work is devoted to the appreciation of the 
literary structure. The examination test, a test looked 
after by the Chinese Government, is one of essay- 
writing, and the student able to dash off the best essay 
is considered as the only one who is worthy to stand 
before the greatest of the land. Such a student may be 
entirely ignorant of the many things a Canadian boy or 
girl should be ashamed not to know ; he does, however, 
know what right Chinese conduct is, and as an official 
of the government of China, he is placed where such 
conduct may be made possible. 

China has a system of schools and also a system of 
written examinations. Schools are found in every 
village, are supported by private means, and are 
taught by such students as failed to take the higher 
Chinese educational degrees. 


The method followed is that of exact imitation 
and memory is the mental faculty usually exercised. 
Knowing the aim of Chinese education it is not difficult 
to state the result. The work aimed at is fixed — 
and dynasty has followed dynasty — but the Chinese 
character has not changed. Nation after nation in other 
parts of the world have risen, grown and fallen, but China 
is still China. Chinese education has not developed the 
mind as a whole. The Chinese mind, however, while 
retentive, is wanting in initiatory power and adapta- 
bility, and is likely to remain so until new ideals of 
education shall replace the present ideals. In China, 
the individual has a place in society, but this place is 
fixed by custom, and education is but the process by 
means of which the individual is fitted into this 
predetermined place, a conception of education diametri- 
cally in opposition to that prevailing among western 



i. Discuss the educational value of essay writing in China. 

2. Compare the study of the Chinese classics and the more 
modern study of Latin and Greek. 

3. To what extent did Chinese education prepare for Chinese 
citizenship ? How is it with Canadian education ? 

4. Compare the educational systems of China and Persia. 
Books of reference to be used — Laurie's Pre-Christian Education 
and Painter's Educational Essays 

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(a religious education.) 

The ideal instilled into the Hebrew race by the 
great religious teachers, Amos, Isaiah, Jeremiah and 
others, was the ideal that personal righteousness was 
the sacrifice demanded of man by his Maker, and the 
result of the absorption of this ideal was the advance 
of the race from a stage of primitive culture to a 
stage higher than that of China, and equal if not 
superior in many particulars to that of the Greek and 
Roman worlds. Hebrew education had for its ground- 
work the Law, and Hebrew education set out with the 
supposition that all important truths had been divinely 
revealed in the Law, and had only to be understood 
in order to cope with all difficulties. Hence, every 
letter, word, line and sentence were subjected to the 
most rigorous examination in order to yield every 
grain of truth therein contained. 

Such an examination of subject-matter would neces- 
sarily result in developing a taste for close, critical 
study ; would increase the debating ability of the 
nation ; would encourage a due regard for law, there- 
fore desirable human conduct, and would be a 
very important means of binding the Hebrew people 



As text-books were not to be thought of at this 
early date, the memory was depended upon for the 
furnishing of texts for discussion, and it would seem 
that the Hebrew teachers understood in a very fair 
measure, the value of the psychology of the memory, 
for they sought to secure the greatest intensity for the 
impressions by the combined action of several senses. 
The words were not only heard, they were also spoken 
and read aloud. Great insistence was placed upon 
repetition and every device adopted for the purpose 
of securing the full concentration of the attention. 

Hebrew primary education was given by the head of 
the family in the home. After the destruction of 
Jerusalem, A.D. 70, schools for elementary education 
were established in every town and village, and attend- 
ance made compulsory. It was, therefore, no wonder 
that " they searched from Dan to Beersheba, and from 
Gabath to Antiphorus without discovering an illiterate 

Hebrew education being religious and moral, great 
emphasis was placed upon the character and the piety 
of the teachers, and upon the behavior of the pupils. 
The Hebrews had no place for quick-tempered, youthful 
nor unmarried teachers. It may be said that such a 
system of education was narrow. When we consider 
that it was this very education, formal and opposed to 
science as it may have been, that held the people 


together and enabled them to maintain a struggle of the 
greatest severity for upwards of two thousand years, and 
finally brought them forth conquerors, we cannot but 
accord it our heartiest admiration. 

One lesson Hebrew education has to teach us. It is 
this — "The most valuable element in all education is 
moral discipline." Our courses of study may be broad 
and our methods may be above criticism, but it will 
avail nothing if the disciplining of the children's morals 
be omitted. The Greek with his culture, and the 
Roman with his institutions, have passed away, but the 
Jew is with us still, as strong and as willing for life's 
battles as ever. 


i. Discuss the place of memory in the early Hebrew school; 
in the modern school. 

2. In what ways did the Hebrew people emphasize moral 
training ? 


(an education of progress.) 
The Greek ideal of education is contained in the word 
development. With the Greeks life meant progress and 
education, being the means of realizing life, also stood 
for advance. It was the Greek people who first fully 
and freely discussed such questions as — the public good, 
the rights of the individual, etc. It was in Greece 
where knowledge was first loved for its own sake, and 
where people first tried to live by reason. Had the 
Greeks discovered all that made life worth living, our 
part as teachers would simply be an endeavor to repeat 
the Greek life of the golden age of Greece, as the 
Chinese have been attempting to repeat that of the time 
of Confucius. Love and self-sacrifice, however, were 
ideals never fully grasped by the Greeks, an omission 
that weakened all their discussion on man as a moral 
being. Greek Education, however, stood for a most 
important thing, namely, a continual and conscious 
adjustment of the individual to his whole environment. 

Greek education is usually divided into two great 

periods, the Old and the New. The Old Greek period 

of history followed the still older period of primitive 

Greek life, and ended with the commencement of the 

Age of Pericles. The New Greek period commencing 

with the Age of Pericles, may be considered as falling 

into two parts, the first part ending with the Macedonian 



conquest, and the second, a period when Greek culture 
was being disseminated over the world. 

The period of primitive Greek life, the so-called 
Homeric times, contained the germs of all the higher 
Greek development. The education of these days was 
an education that consisted of a training in practical 
activities, with no place for instruction of a purely 
literary character. The training for the needs of life 
was given in the home, while the training for the public 
service was secured in the council and on the field of 
battle. The ideal of education may be summed up in 
the " man of wisdom and action," both of which qualities 
the Homeric Greeks attempted to secure in all their 
young men. Though there were no schools as such, 
still the primitive Greek world was a highly educated 
world. So true is this that we are perhaps much more 
at home with Priam and Hector, Agamemnon and 
Odysseus, Andromache and Penelope, than we are in 
the less remote Middle Age. Bravery, kindness, 
hospitality and loyalty, these and other virtues were 
admired and also practised by the earliest Greeks. 

When we come to speak of the historic period of 
Old Greek education, it is not of one nation under a 
single government, and with the same institutions and 
habits of life and of thought. Indeed, it would be 
difficult to conceive of any two civilized peoples 
springing from the same stock more unlike than were 


the Spartans and the Athenians. The educational 

system of the former was harsh, brutalizing and 

soulless, while that of the latter was refining and 

Spartan education pictures the Old Greek education 
in its most pronounced form. The aim was to give to 
each individual such physical perfection, courage, and 
habits of obedience that should make of him the ideal 
soldier, one in whom the individual was forgotten in the 
citizen. By the Rheira of Lycurgus, a system of regula- 
tions by which his countrymen were guided, a child was 
looked upon as belonging, not to its parents, but to 
the state. Such a child was to be inspected at birth, 
and if not strong and healthy, was to be destroyed. 
At the age of seven such children as were considered 
worth the rearing, were consigned to the care of 
public teachers in public barracks. They were allowed 
only the most scanty fare, and their physical education 
was of the severest kind. The intellectual education 
was very meagre, including in addition to reading and 
writing, only the rudiments of arithmetic and a drill 
in brevity in the expression of thought. At eighteen, 
the boy entered a class of cadets where he received a 
rigid military training for several years. At the age 
of thirty he became a full-fledged citizen, and the 
head of a family, yet he continued to reside in the 
public barracks, eat at the common table, serve as a 


soldier in the field and as a teacher of youth, faring 
the same as the humblest or the noblest in all the 
comforts and necessities of life. To a very great extent, 
training came through certain approved exercises in 
running, leaping, throwing the discus, wrestling, military 
drill, etc., such exercises were conducted apart from any 
idea of professionalism, and the elders were always 
present to approve or to disapprove of the behavior. 

Women in Sparta received practically the same kind 
of education as the men, but for no other purpose than 
that of training the mothers of future warriors. Such 
an education, while it no doubt developed the physical 
nature, surely did little toward the emphasizing of the 
womanly virtues. Much as the Spartan woman has 
been praised, it is not too much to say that she was 
in all probability one whose tongue would likely be 
less dreaded than her fist. To Spartan education can 
be attributed little that went to make Greece great. 
An education meant to make men subject to command, 
to" endure labor, to fight and to conquer, was not an 
education that could produce sculptors, poets, painters, 
and leave great ideals as the common heritage of the 

Save in the simplicity of aim and in the means 
adopted, the Old Greek education of Athens had little 
in common with that of Sparta. The organization of 
Athenian education, controlled as it was by a different 


conception of life from that which prevailed at Sparta, 
was radically different from that of the latter. The 
Athenian citizen guided his life by reason ; he was 
wise and judicious in the performance of his many 
public duties, yet free in the disposition of his 
leisure time and in his interpretation of social obliga- 
tions. He was also strong of body and brave in warfare. 
Such a citizen could not be produced by an education 
controlled by a despotic, socialistic regime as at Sparta. 

Athens aimed to preserve the family as a means 
of developing and shaping personality, and upon it 
placed the burden and the responsibility of education. 
All schools at Athens were private schools, the state 
providing only for that portion of education lying 
between the sixteenth and twentieth years, an education 
which was mainly physical and which served as a direct 
preparation for military service. 

The training of the Athenian child for the first seven 
years was wholly in the hands of the family. As at 
Sparta this training was chiefly physical, since the main 
concern was to secure a vigorous constitution and a well 
developed physique. A most interesting phase of child- 
life, before the regular school life was undertaken, is 
seen in the fact that Greek literature mentions and 
describes a very extensive list of children's games, 
including practically all that we have to-day that are 
really educative. 


School life began about the seventh year and con- 
tinued for eight or nine years. In two particulars 
Athenian education differed widely from modern 
practice. The Athenian boy attended two distinct 
types of school. Secondly, the character of the work 
done in these schools was different from the most of 
modern schools. Athenian education had for its aim 
individual worth, that is, perfection of body in strength 
and beauty, and perfection of mind in wisdom, fortitude, 
temperance and justice, an aim which was never 
separated from that of public usefulness. 

Such education naturally fell into two parts : — 
Gymnastics for the body and music or literary education 
for the soul. The former of these was taught in private 
schools and the latter in out of the way nooks, in 
temples and in public buildings. During all this period 
the Greek boy was in charge of a pedagogue \ a faithful 
slave or servant, who was intrusted with the moral 
oversight and general care of his charge. 

At the age of sixteen the boy, being freed from the 
care of the pedagogue, discontinued all literary or 
musical study and replaced the training of the private 
gymnasium by that of the state gymnasium where he 
associated most fully with the youth of his own age and 
with the Athenian adults. At the age of eighteen he 
reached his majority, became an independent citizen 
and had his name enrolled in the demos to which he 


belonged. He now cut his long hair, put on the dark 
garb of a citizen and was presented to the assembled 
people and made to take the oath of loyalty to the 
state. He was now a citizen novice with a noviate 
of two hard years of military service before him. The 
first of these he spent at Athens drilling and acquiring a 
knowledge of military tactics. At the close of this 
year he was examined, and if his examination had been 
successfully passed, he was drafted off to the frontier to 
act as a militia man. At the end of the second year he 
underwent his " manhood" examination, which entitled 
him to full citizen's rank. As a citizen he entered upon 
his university education which ended only with his 

Such was the old education of Athens, an education 
which produced Miltiades, Themistocles and Pericles, 
and made Marathon, Salamis and Plataea possible. It 
was an education for civic manhood, and it was 
gloriously successful. 

At the present time, when so much is being made of 
the constructive side of education, another phase of 
Greek method is of special importance. Greek educa- 
tion was first a doing ; only in the second place was it a 
learning process, the Greeks believing that if the work 
is done and well done the reason why it should be done 
in this or that way will surely follow. 

The old Greek education resulted during the fifth 
century before Christ in a remarkable period of national 


progress which has never been surpassed in history. 
The culmination of this period was the Age of Pericles. 
During and immediately preceding this period the 
highest products of Greek civilization were attained. 
Think of politics in the hands of a Themistocles and a 
Pericles ; art in the hands of Phidias ; history under 
Herodotus, and the drama in the hands of Sophocles ! 
The old education laid the foundation of all this glory, 
but the old education was not capable of meeting all the 
demands of the day and was entirely inadequate to cope 
with the needs of the future. Athens, no longer an 
obscure and conservative place, was now situated on the 
great high way of the world's trade, a gathering place, 
as it were, for all the new ideas of the times. People 
demanded an education that would fit the individual for 
taking full advantage of the many opportunities offered 
in the way of personal achievement. People likewise 
demanded greater freedom in thought and in action to 
correspond with the growth of freedom in the political 
and commercial spheres. These results were remedied 
in a measure by the Sophists, Greek teachers who saw 
the weakness of the old Athenian education, and offered 
the youth of Athens such a training as would equip 
them for sharing to the fullest extent in the political 
and social life of the day. 

" Man is the measure of all things" was the favorite 
dictum of these teachers, meaning thereby that the 


individual was the one to determine his ends in life, 
his standard of conduct in securing these ends, the 
extent of service to be rendered the state, and the 
extent of his sacrifice of energy, time, and wealth for 
the common good. The Sophists were students of 
affairs ; men who had travelled widely for their day ; 
men who had fairly up to-date ideas concerning political 
life and social institutions. Sometimes the work of the 
teacher ended by giving mere information ; sometimes 
set speeches were provided on numbers of timely topics ; 
and sometimes attention was given to the perfection of 
the debating power of the students. The Sophists, it is 
said, taught young men to " think, speak, and act " ; the 
Sophists, in a word, rendered general culture universal, 
surely no small service to the state. The presence of 
such teachers would naturally interfere with the old 
order of things, and especially with the period from the 
sixteenth to the eighteenth years. Henceforward, this 
period was devoted to a purely intellectual training, 
and much attention was placed upon the character of 
the instruction given. 

Socrates, the "arch-sophist," as he has been termed, 
took as his starting point the dictum of the Sophists. If 
this dictum be true, he argued, then must man's first 
duty be to knoiv himself. In other words, Socrates taught 
that the new moral standard, the standard which was to 
determine all the aims of life, was to be found within 


the consciousness of the individual, but never as mere 
opinion. Socrates held that real knowledge possessed 
universal validity, hence if conduct be guided by ideas 
possessing universal validity, instead of by mere opinion, 
then and then only is it possible for one to live the 
virtuous life. This being so, the aim of education is 
to give the individual knowledge by developing in him 
the power of thought, such a power being developed 
through a process of dialectics or logical discussion. 

The mode of instruction adopted by Socrates was 
wholly different from the pedantry and boastful ostenta- 
tion of the Sophists ; was altogether unconstrained, 
conversational, popular, starting from objects lying 
nearest at hand and most insignificant, and deriving 
the necessary proofs and illustrations from the most 
common matters of the every-day life ; in fact, Socrates 
was reproached by his contemporaries for speaking ever 
only of drudges, smiths, cobblers and tanners. It would 
seem then that Socrates would be found at the market, 
in the gymnasia, in the workshops, busy early and late, 
talking with youth, with young men and with old 
men, on the proper aim and business of life, convincing 
them of their ignorance and awakening in them the 
slumbering desire after knowledge. 

Philosophy before the time of Socrates had been to 
all intents and purposes an investigation of nature. 
But in Socrates, the human mind for the first time, 


turned in upon itself, upon its own being, and that 
too by conceiving itself as active, moral spirit. Self- 
knowledge appeared to Socrates the only worthy object 
of man's activity and the starting point of all true 
philosophy. Knowledge of every other kind, he pro- 
nounced as worthless, and he was wont to boast of 
his ignorance, and to declare that he excelled other 
men in wisdom only because he was conscious of his 
own ignorance. The great fundamental thought of the 
Sophistic philosophy, namely, that every moral act must 
be a conscious act, was also his. But while the Sophists 
made it their object to confuse and to break up all 
stable convictions and to make all objective standards 
impossible, Socrates had recognized thinking as the 
activity of the universal, and free objective thought as 
the measure of all things. Instead, therefore, of referring 
moral duties and all moral action to the fancy and the 
caprice of the individual, Socrates reduced all morality 
to accurate knowledge, and it was this idea of know- 
ledge that led him to seek, by the process of thought, 
an intelligible objective ground. 

The Socratic method had both a negative and a 
positive side. In the former the philosopher assumes 
the attitude of ignorance, and would apparently let 
himself be instructed by those with whom he converses, 
but through the questions which he puts, the unexpected 
consequences which he deduces, and the contradictions 


in which he involves the opposite party, he soon leads 
them to see that their supposed knowledge is only a 
source of confusion and contradiction. In the em- 
barrassment which follows, and in seeing that they do 
not know what they supposed they knew, this supposed 
knowledge completes its own destruction, and the in- 
dividual learns to distrust his previous opinions and 
firmly held notions. On the positive side, the philoso- 
pher starting from some individual, concrete case, and 
seizing hold of the most common notions concerning it, 
knew how to remove by his comparisons that which was 
individual, and by thus separating the accidental from 
the essential, could bring a universal truth and a univer- 
sal characteristic to consciousness. On this account we 
might characterize the JSocj;atic rrjeJJb^cLas^Jhe art by 
which, from a certain sum of homogenous and individual 
phenomena, the universal principle lying at this base, 
may be inductively found. 

The immediate influence of Socrates was two-fold. 
There was great stress placed upon knowledge, but, 
unfortunately, most of the people failed to make 
fine distinctions as to the validity of knowledge. In 
the second place, Socrates held that little mental 
improvement came from the direct impartation ' of 
knowledge. It was, therefore, necessary to create 
minds capable of reaching truth for themselves. To 
Socrates' immediate followers, a mastery of his method 


became the important thing, the result being that Greece 
literally became a nation of talkers, and not a nation 
where great deeds were done. At the same time, the 
acuteness and versatility of the Greek mind, features 
unequalled by any other peoples, were due, in a large 
measure to the influence of this sage. 

Plato was one of Socrates' pupils. After sitting for 
ten years at the feet of this philosopher, Plato travelled 
abroad, and on his return expounded in the gardens of 
Accidentia, the great principles of his master, with such 
improvements as his own genius had added. 

In his " Republic " and in his " Laws," he gives 
us his theory of education. He lays down rules for 
distinguishing good from bad teachers, and urges the 
state to select only the best. Though he believed in 
physical training, he very greatly modified the Spartan 
ideas of exercise and of diet, and he urged the value of 
music in its modern sense. In intellectual culture he 
would teach arithmetic, geometry and astronomy, and 
to such as would attain to eminence, philosophy. But 
while the influence of Plato upon educational theory has 
been undoubtedly great, his influence upon school 
practice has been comparatively slight. 

The problem discussed by Plato was the same as that 
which Socrates and the Sophists had endeavored to 
solve. This problem was the problem of harmonizing 
the individual and the state. In developing this, Plato 


recognized the importance of universal truth, or to use 
his favorite term, in recognizing the importance of ideas, 
the intelligence through which men were bound together 
by nature. 

In the matter of method, Plato elaborated upon the 
dialectic of Socrates, but he considered the acquisition 
of this power as beyond the reach of the mass of men. 
In his ideal republic, therefore, philosophers were to be 
the rulers, because philosophers alone are acquainted 
with the "highest good." Philosophers alone can de- 
termine that* " disposition of men and things which will 
result in the moral advancement and the ultimate 
perfection of the race." In his analysis of the human 
mind, Plato discovered an intellect whose virtue is 
prudence; passions, whose virtue is fortitude; and 
desires, whose virtue is temperance. As the state is but 
the individual enlarged, the state may also be divided 
into three classes : the philosophers devoted to the 
pursuit of knowledge ; the military class, devoted to 
warfare ; and the producing class, devoted to trades, etc. 
In the case of the individual, if the intellect were to 
restrain the passions, rule the desires and thereby 
control action, then would justice be maintained in the 
individual's life. In the case of the state, were the 
philosophers to rule, the military class to guard under 
the direction of the philosophers, and the artizan class 

*Monroe's History of Education, page 66. 


to obey and support the superior classes, then may 
justice be attained in the state. By a system of educa- 
tion it would be possible to discover the attainments of 
each individual and to develop them for the particular 
class which nature intended him to occupy. Such in 
a few words is Plato's ideal scheme of education ; a 
scheme providing for each individual the greatest 
freedom in the sphere of life for which his qualifications 
had prepared him, and a sphere, too, where he may be of 
the greatest service to his fellows. 

Aristotle, the master of those who know ; the man who 
by common consent bears the reputation of being the 
best educated man of any age was one of Plato's disciples. 
After an absence of some years, during four of which he 
was the tutor of Alexander the Great, he returned to 
Athens and established his Lyceum. Here for thirteen 
years he taught two classes daily, walking with his 
pupils in the groves. In the morning his lectures were 
to the more advanced of his pupils and were devoted 
to dialectics, to physical science, and to the more 
profound principles of philosophy. His afternoon walks 
and talks were with a larger company, and were devoted 
to the discussion of political, ethical and rhetorical 

With Plato, philosophy had been national in both its 
form and content, but with Aristotle it lost this pecu- 
liarity and became universal in scope and in meaning. 


Aristotle embraced with equal interest the /acts of 
nature, of history and of the inner life of man. Aristotle 
ever tends toward the individual ; he must ever have a 
fact given in order to develop his thought upon it ; it is 
always the empirical and the actual which solicits and 
guides his speculation ; his whole philosophy is a 
discription of the facts given, and only merits the name 
of a philosophy because it comprehends the empirical 
in its totality and synthesis, and because it has carried 
out its induction to the fullest extent. Because he is 
the absolute empiricist, he is also the truest philosopher. 
According to this it is clear that the method of Aristotle 
must be different from that of Plato. Aristotle pursues 
for the most part an analytic course, that is, he goes 
backward from the concrete to its ultimate ground. 
While Plato would take his standpoint on the idea in 
order to explain that which is given and empirical. 
Aristotle, on the other hand, would start with what is 
given in order to find the idea in it. His method is 
hence induction and his philosophy has the character 
and worth of a computation of probabilities, while his 
mode of exposition assumes not unfrequently the form 
of a hesitating deliberation. 

Aristotle was the first great scientist. Through the 
practical formulation of the induction method and 
the application of thought to new phases of reality, 
Aristotle became the author of physics, natural history, 


physiology and mechanics. Aristotle was also a great 
systemalist, such words as end, final cause, matter, form, 
principle and others being all of his coinage. 

Aristotle's immediate influence on Greek life was 
not great, but his writings were carried to Asia and 
subsequently to Northern Africa and to Europe. As 
Aristotle through his philosophy summed up the 
intellectual life of the past, and through his method 
laid the basis for all the intellectual life of the future, 
so through his great pupil, Alexander the Great, he was 
the means of spreading the culture of Greece throughout 
the then known world. Greek schools, Greek teachers, 
Greek institutions of every type were soon found in 
every great city of the East, and after the Roman 
conquest Greek culture was appropriated and became in 
the end the common culture of the modern world. 
Alexander's empire has passed away, but the sceptre 
of Aristotle is over us still. 


1. Give an account of the contributions of the Sophists, Socrates, 
Plato and Aristotle to Greek educational reform. 

2. Describe the education of Homeric times. 

3. Read the "Significance of Greek Education," Monroe, 
page 52. 

4. Criticize Plato's Republic. 

5. Is the Greek ideal of a " Strong mind in a strong body," a, 
worthy enough ideal for the modern school ? 

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(a utilitarian education.) 

About the year 753 B.C. a number of shepherds, 
driven by volcanic disturbances from their Alban hills, 
founded a new city on the Tiber, the city of Rome. 
After a period of four hundred years a few neighboring 
cities had been absorbed, and the memorable struggle 
between Patricians and Plebeians had ended in the 
complete victory of the commoners. With the comple- 
tion of this struggle Rome ceased to be an aristocracy 
and became a republic. She was still an obscure state 
with no learning, nor splendor, but with an unconquer- 
able spirit, a love of freedom and an energy capable of 
sustaining any scheme of conquest entered upon. In 
about four hundred years more the world had no power 
but Rome. Her eagles ranged from Britain to 
the Nile and the Euphrates ; her military highways 
threaded all her lands ; and her armies, everywhere 
present, saw that peace and good order were enforced. 
The early Romans had acquired by long years of 
frugal living, and of self denial for the common good, 
the strength that enabled them to conquer the world. 
But with ever-increasing conquest came wealth and 
power and a magnificence and luxury that sapped the 
nation's life and exposed the country to the invading 

hordes living outside the boundaries of the empire. 



In passing then from Athens to Rome, one passes 
from poetry to prose ; from a people seeking to make 
the present beautiful and enjoying it nobly and ration- 
ally, to a people disdaining present happiness for future 
good. Roman genius was ever practical, and it is to the 
Roman people we must go to find the means or institu- 
tions for the realization of the more practical Greek 
ideals. It was Rome that raised the Greek conception 
of a confederate government to that of a great empire. 
It was Rome, too, that took hold of the Greek ideal of 
law and made of it a system of legal principles which 
serve to this day as the basis of all national and inter- 
national law. It was Rome, moreover, that accepted 
the religion of the despised Nazarene, and made of it 
the religion of the enlightened world. 

The Roman father had the right of executing all law 
upon his children. He was also the priest of his own 
household. As a citizen of the state he had also certain 
political duties relating to the making of contracts, 
property, defence, etc. All these duties demanded an 
adequate training throughout the years of boyhood. A 
portion of this was provided by the home, the balance 
was furnished by the school. The virtues aimed at in 
this training were all of a practical character. The idea 
of manhood was illustrated by well-known Romans, 
either historical or actually living, and the youth of 
Rome were expected to emulate these in prudence, 


dignity, bravery, etc. The tendency of Greek life was 
to lose sight of the importance of the home. The 
home of the Roman was the centre from which every- 
thing good and great was to emanate. The father was 
responsible for the physical and moral training of his 
sons. The mother was the companion of her husband 
socially ; her throne was the home circle and her 
children were her greatest jewels. 

When the boys were somewhat grown they became 
their father's comrades, the father either educating them 
himself, or seeing that their education was properly 
attended to. Such a relation was good for the Roman 
boy. Such a responsibility would also be a good 
thing for the Roman father, and no doubt it had the 
result of emphasizing the rugged character which we are 
taught to attach to the old Roman people in general. 
The Romans had no idea of an education by the 
state. In their earlier years the children were taught at 
home, their mother teaching them to reverence the gods, 
reverence their elders and to obey. The father taught 
his boys reading, writing and a little arithmetic. Being 
his constant companions he also educated them in public 
business. Home influence was supplemented by that of 
concrete types of ideal Roman manhood, a study of 
biography which appears to have borne excellent fruit. 
The Roman boy was to become sedate, reverential, etc., 
by imitating his father and the old Roman heroes who 
found their way into Roman legends and Roman history. 


Roman education was divided into two periods. The 
first period covered the years when the ideals and prac- 
tices were thoroughly Roman in their character. The 
second period dates from the time that Roman education 
began to take on less or more of a Greek cultural caste. 
With the conquest of the Greek cities of Southern Italy 
about 270 B.C., and especially with the conquest of 
Greece itself a century later, Greek learning was intro- 
duced at Rome ; Greek teachers were imported ; schools 
were multiplied and the range of studies greatly in- 

Shortly before the beginning of the Christian era the 
old form of government fell. There was no longer a 
sufficiency of the old Roman virtue available to render a 
republican government possible, and the nation became 
the Roman Empire, ruled by the Caesars. The first 
two centuries of the Empire's existence was the time of 
Rome's greatest military power and splendor, and of the 
greatness of her literature and architecture. But moral 
decay was at work at the foundation of all this 
magnificence, and the Empire, a bankrupt in manhood, 
fell to the ground. 

During the Imperial period, that is from about 100 
B.C. to 200 A.D., Rome became completely Hellenized 
so far as the adoption of the Greek culture was con- 
cerned. Notwithstanding this, Rome never surrendered 
any of her distinctive characteristics, and never acquired 


the distinctive features of the Greeks, namely, versatility 
and originally. A prominent feature of the Imperial 
period was the place given oratory, a matter that was 
never of any very great moment to the Greeks. The 
great warriors were also great orators, and the orator 
summed up in himself the functions at present per- 
formed by bar, pulpit and press. To become an orator 
was, therefore, the ambition of every Roman, and to see 
her son an orator was the dream of every Roman 

One teacher of the day was Quintilian, the author of 
" Institutes . of Oratory," the only practical work- on 
education given to us by a Roman. In this work 
Quintilian shows the value of public school education 
over private instruction ; he condemns the use of 
physical force, remarkable ground to take at a time 
when one's proximity to a Roman school could always 
be ascertained by the cries of children undergoing the 
pedagogy of the rod ; he emphasizes the value of 
making subjects interesting, and indicates the gain that 
would follow a wise selection of teachers. 

i. Compare and contrast Roman and Athenian educational 
W- 2. To what extent did biography play a part in Roman 
education ? To what extent does it play a part in Canadian 
Elementary education? 
3. Criticize Seneca as a teacher. 

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^u^yuMpl <<^z+e -trie, ^M^o^£ ^Os ^tz^oz 

(an education of christian training.) 
During the long centuries of the Middle Age, in other 
words, from the decline of the Roman Empire to the 
middle of the fifteenth century, the light of learning 
glimmered only by fits and starts. But there was ever 
the pillar of fire before the advancing host and this fire 
was Christianity. 

It was natural at one time for the Jew to place 
himself above the Gentile ; the Greek himself above the 
Barbarian. The Roman citizen emphasized the same 
idea when he placed his hand on his heart and said : — 
" I am a Roman citizen." There was yet no recognition 
of a common humanity, a humanity that would help to 
remove the shackles of national prejudices and national 
limitations. With the advent of the Christ there came 
a new era in history. New truths were thrown into the 
world ; truths so far-reaching that the experiences of 
nearly two thousand years have not exhausted their 
force, nor discovered all their meaning. In teaching 
the " fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man," 
Christianity has helped to sweep away all distinctions 
of caste and class ; has elevated marriage into a divine 
rite and has caused children to be looked upon as the 
gifts of God. 

But Christianity did not secure a footing in Europe 

without a struggle, and a struggle, too, that will appear 



all the more remarkable as we view it from the vantage 
ground of the twentieth century. The wonder is, not 
that the Middle Age was dark, but that any ray of 
light had been allowed to live. It will be remembered 
that the eagles of Rome had spread their wings 
over the civilized and much of the barbarian worlds. 
Wherever the standards were planted, Roman institu- 
tions, the Latin tongue, and too often, the vices of 
a decaying Roman civilization were introduced. The 
Roman of this period was a proud creature, wanting 
in natural affection and caring little for anything 
outside of a love of Roman supremacy and the 
gratification of his own selfish ends. Recognizing 
no law of pity, nor compassion, what wonder is 
it that he found pleasure in looking at gladiatorial 
contests where men fought each other and where wild 
beasts were turned loose in the arena to devour men, 
women and helpless children. If such a person can 
be pictured and such scenes imagined, we may under- 
stand in a measure, the influence which emanated from 
Rome during the four or five hundred years of her 
slow, leprous death. If we can picture such a state 
of affairs we may furthermore understand something 
of the tremendous obstacles Christianity and the 
Christian education had to contend against during the 
earlier years of the struggle. But this was not all, 
nor was it perhaps the greatest obstacle in the path 
of progress. No sooner had Christianity gained an 


uncertain hold of the southern provinces than there 
poured in from the north and the east a vast horde 
of heathen conquerors, who not only destroyed much 
that had been done but also introduced their own 
heathen culture. In spite of all this, Christianity 
prevailed, the seed fell upon good ground for the 
Teutonic races possessed the very features which 
brought them into sympathy with the new religion. 
These invaders recognized in a high degree the worth 
of the individual and the value of personal freedom. 
They possessed a deep religious nature and a great 
reverence for and love of truth. In addition to these 
qualities they possessed rare physical and intellectual 
vigor ; qualities which enabled them to take up the 
problem of the world's development at a point where 
Rome, with strength exhausted, had left it. 

By the end of the second century, the old order of 
things was slowly going into decay before the uplifting 
power of Christianity. With the Christian church came 
the Christian schools, and for the first time in history the 
great moral force conserved in the Hebrew race for hun- 
dreds of years, was poured into the current of the world's 
life. Human equality and purity of life, both unknown 
to the Roman, but developed in the Jew through fifty 
generations, were now sent into the world with all the 
added spiritual force of Christianity. The poor and the 
lowly, women, children and slaves soon felt the power of 


the new religion. Christian schools multiplied, and their 
chief concern was to give religious instruction to the 
children. Children were made acquainted with the 
narratives relating to Abraham, Jacob, Joseph, Samuel, 
and the Holy Child. The history of the patriarchs, 
apostles and holy men were the nursery tales with 
which parents sought to mould the minds of the young. 
As the child grew it was the sacred duty of the parents 
to exercise it daily in the recital of select passages of 
scripture, relating to the doctrines and the duties of 
religion. The Bible was the entertainment of the fire- 
side, and the child's first and only text-book, while 
sacred songs were the only songs permitted to be heard. 
The heroine of Quo vadis is the type described. 

Such was the character of early Christian education. 
Narrow, but did it not produce an excellent type of 
character, and is character not the feature of greatest 
moment in any educational system ? Is character, the 
character that will stand firmly when disasters and 
dangers beset, not the feature faithful parents are most 
anxious to see in their children? Such an education 
as we have described, was an education in Christian 

The simple schools of the earlier Christian times 
could not always supply the educational needs. Cate- 
chumenal and catechetical schools sprang up naturally to 
prepare candidates in the doctrines of the Church and 


also for Christian baptism. In apostolic days, new 
converts were received after a very brief course of 
instruction and upon a very simple confession of their 
faith. As Christianity spread, and converts from among 
the Jews and the heathen became more numerous, it 
was found advisable for the sake of unity, purity and 
intelligence in the church, to give candidates a more 
extended course of instruction. This instruction, which 
extended from a few months to a few years, was given 
by special church officers, and covered the fundamental 
truths and doctrines of Christianity. 

The schools above referred to differed in the character 
of the work taken. The former were more elementary, 
were more for the common people anxious to unite with 
the Church, and were officered by men possessing a 
good deal of common sense, and enough learning to be 
able to make clear the truth to simple minds. In the 
catechetical schools the teachers were sufficiently versed 
in Christian philosophy and the various philosophies of 
the day to discuss religious questions with even the 
cultured heathen desirous of understanding or embracing 
the new creed. The catechetical schools were some- 
what of the character of our theological seminaries, 
the catechetical school at Alexandria standing to the 
Alexandrian University in much the same relation as 
denominational colleges sometimes stand to the modern 
university. Alexandria, indeed, was the birthplace of 
what may be termed scientific Christianity. 


One great hindrance to the cause of education in the 
Middle Age was the fact that all the learning of the 
past was locked up in the Latin, and this was so inter- 
woven with paganism that the Church feared the result 
on the popular mind, still holding more or less to 
its abandoned faith. This opposition of the Church, 
this conviction that Christianity was foreign to Roman 
culture, and the absorption of the intellectual interests 
in theological questions, contributed to destroy much 
of what had remained of sound scholarship in the last 
years of the Roman Empire. The task of the Church 
in the Middle Age was indeed, not so much to keep 
learning alive as it was to moralize the savage races 
who held Europe at their mercy. Even if the purest of 
Latin could have been instilled into the Northern 
nations the result would have been trifling in com- 
parison to a disciplining of these nations in manners 
and in morals. 

As time advanced and less danger of a return to 
paganism ensued, the Church began to feel the need of 
educating as well as humanizing society and looked to 
Latin for aid. Latin seemed necessary for ecclesiastical 
purposes, for the interpretation of the Fathers, and for 
the establishment of a common means of communication 
among a polyglot people. Grammar had, therefore, to 
be taught, and with the introduction of grammar came 
the introduction of some of the Latin authors. Hence, 


writers formerly condemned, were now adopted as a sort 
of necessary evil, but to render these as innocuous as 
possible, the scribes sought to make them edifying often 
at the sacrifice of their original meanings. 

It may, perhaps, give us a better insight into the 
education and the schools of the earlier part of the 
Middle Age were we to examine the course of studies 
then in vogue. This course was divided into two parts, 
the trivium and the quadrivium. The former, or 
theoretical division, included grammar, rhetoric and 
logic, and the latter, or practical division, music, as- 
tronomy, arithmetic and geometry. We shall err very 
greatly, however, if we should suppose that any of these 
subjects implied anything like what they do to-day, 
or that any considerable part of the common people 
came under their influence. 

It is necessary now to note a peculiar tendency of the 
Christian Church, and therefore of Christian education. 
This was a tendency to disdain the present world in the 
interest of the world to come ; and this tendency exerted 
a very great influence for upwards of ten centuries. 

Traces of the ascetic tendency, as it was named, were 
seen in the early Christian Church, but it was not until 
late in the fourth century that these culminated in 
asceticism as an important educative force. Whatever 
of good this tendency possessed, it failed to grasp the 


truth that human life is an organic whole and that 
eternal life is but a continuation of temporal life. 

The ascetic tendency had several effects. Religious 
doctrines and interests monopolized everything. Science 
was set aside for theology ; history for legends of the 
saints ; and the principle of authority assumed control 
of things secular and things sacred. Under the influence 
of asceticism, monasticism became a directive force of 
very great value. 

In the early days of Christianity society was divided 
into two classes — pagan and Christian. When the latter 
of these absorbed the former, it was necessary to 
distinguish those who directed the spiritual welfare of 
the people and those who simply concerned themselves 
in the common activities of life. As a result, clergy 
and laity were separated, while a part of the clergy 
wishing to secure themselves entirely from the common 
interests of life, sought the friendly shelter of the walls 
of the cloisters, where the monastic ideals of poverty, 
chastity, and obedience could be the better practised. 
As idleness was not a desirable condition of mind or 
body, rules relating to mental and bodily exercise were 
instituted. It was, therefore, expected that the monks 
should engage in manual labor for the space of seven or 
more hours, and in literary work for two or three hours 
daily. From these provisions much of the most valuable 
monastic contributions to the general welfare came. 


Manual employment, devoted as it was to all the 
activities of the farm, was the means of placing the 
monastery in the position of an agricultural college or 
experimental farm. Literary work preserved a love for 
letters, and made the monastery the sole teaching centre 
of the country. Men of a reflective turn of mind found 
here a congenial atmosphere, while those broken in 
body and in mind secured a comfortable asylum. 
Finally, the monastic ideals with their corresponding 
virtues emphasized the dignity of charity and humility, 
and taught a rude and semi-civilized people the meaning 
of a higher civilization. 

Besides the convent or monastic schools there were 
two other classes of schools which owed their origin to 
the Church. These were the cathedral and the parochial 
schools. The priests connected with each cathedral 
church were organized into a monastic brotherhood, one 
of whose chief duties it was to establish and conduct 
schools. These were intended primarily for the instruc- 
tion of candidates for the priesthood, but they were 
at the same time accessible to other students. The 
instruction given was similar to that given in the 
monastic schools with the addition of placing extra 
stress upon religious subjects. 

The parochial schools were established in the separate 
parishes and were placed under the supervision of the 
priests. These schools were intended to help the youth 


of the parish in the understanding of Christian doctrine, 
and to prepare them also to take a more acceptable 
part in the public worship. Ability to repeat and chant 
the Credo, the Pater Noster, Ave Maria y and a few 
Latin hymns, without much idea of their signification 
was, in too many instances, about the extent of the 

In the sixth and the seventh centuries, while learning 
was at its lowest ebb on the Continent, the Irish schools 
flourished and students from all ranks of society went 
by hundreds from England to attend them. A twelve 
years' course in Irish language and literature was given 
and the teaching body was not entirely drawn from the 
ranks of the clergy. 

The first decided move toward a higher intellectual 
education was made by Charlemagne about the close of 
the eighth century. Charlemagne's work was concerned 
with bringing about the union of the Roman and the 
Teuton and thereby transferring to the latter the task 
of building the superstructure of a modern society 
upon the foundation of the former. As the monasteries 
were the only educational machinery of the times, the 
monasteries were naturally used in the great Emperor's 
educational reforms. 

In a tour through Italy, Charlemagne fell in with 
Alcuin, the cultured head of a school established by 
the Archbishop of York. This able man was prevailed 


upon to make his home at the court of Charlemagne, 
who placed himself and his household under the tuition 
of the Englishman. The Emperor's example became 
more and more contagious ; the cathedral schools were 
reopened and improved ; the Roman literature was again 
brought to the light and the manuscripts paragraphed. 
Charlemagne, in an address to the priesthood, insisted 
upon a higher standard of education among the clergy, 
and also upon better instruction in the parish schools. 
Had the successors of the Emperor set equally good 
examples, there can be little doubt that the permanent 
revival of learning would not have been left to the 
fifteenth century. After the death of Charlemagne, the 
cause of education was abandoned in spite of the efforts 
of a few heroic men, and the old order of ignorance and 
of inefficiency was resumed. 

The next patron of learning was Alfred the Great 
(871-901). In the British Isles the cloistral schools of 
Ireland had been far in advance of most of those on the 
continent, but the masses were still illiterate. The civil 
disorders which preceded Alfred's reign, together with 
the Danish invasions and the consequent extinction of 
the convent schools and libraries both in Ireland and 
in England, had induced a state of ignorance and of 
wretchedness never before experienced in these countries. 

Up to this time there had been but few books written 
in the vulgar tongue of England, but the king, wisely 


judging that his people needed books in a language 
they could understand, translated with his own hand the 
works of Bcethius and others. Many were encouraged 
to engage in the same useful task. The monastic 
schools were reorganized and every effort made to 
place them in the charge of capable teachers 

Perhaps no single person exercised greater influence 
than Alfred the Great, in moulding the educational 
system of England. But here, as on the Continent, this 
revival of learning was but transient, and did not long 
survive its noble patron. 

Among the other lights which gleamed in the latter 
half of the Middle Age, mention may be made of a 
movement known as secular education. This assumed 
two directions, the one, " Knightly education," was an 
offspring of chivalry ; the other, " Burgher education, ' 
was an outgrowth of the commercial necessities of the 
day. These secular tendencies were in part a reaction 
or a protest against the one-sided religious character of 
the Church schools, and in part a natural product of 
peculiar social conditions. 

During the greater part of the Middle Age the Church 
had exercised dominion over the military and the pro- 
ducing classes. With the Crusades a change in the 
social relations of Europe commenced. The sphere of 
human knowledge was much enlarged. Foreign lands 
and new customs were introduced into the circle of 


popular thought. The knightly class was brought into 
greater prominence, was largely increased in numbers 
and ennobled in its aim. Commerce received an im- 
petus which reacted on the burgher class and extended 
the power and the influence of the cities. The subordi- 
nate classes attained to a feeling of independence. They 
wished to emancipate themselves in some measure from 
church tutelage, and this naturally led to the introduction 
of schools suited to the new order of things, i.e., schools, 
where more attention would be given to reading, writing, 
arithmetic, geography, etc., and less to purely religious 

Knightly education stood in bold contrast to that of 
the Church, by attaching importance to those things 
which the Church either neglected or condemned, viz., 
physical culture, polished manners, a love of glory, and 
a better conception of the worth of woman. The native 
tongue was not neglected, and nature was not made to 
stand any longer in unnatural opposition to spiritual 
interests. In a word, chivalry did for the lay-life the 
same kind of service that monasticism did for the 
religious life. Chivalry ennobled service by keeping 
the ideal of obedience to those in authority constantly 
before the minds of an uncultured people. 

The education of a knight included that of the page 
and that of the squire. The page spent that portion of 
his youth between the ages of seven and fourteen at the 


castle of a friendly nobleman. During this period he 
learned how to wait on the ladies, and how to wait 
at the table, and these duties he continued to perform as 
a squire ; he also rendered a great variety of personal 
services to his lord, an education well emphasized in the 
" White Company " by Conan Doyle. 

The page and the squire were supposed to learn the 
fundamentals of religion, war and love. The knightly 
service as a whole was a religious service. The elements 
of love were supposed to be acquired through the service 
rendered the ladies, and also through the teaching of 
the minstrels. The tournament was the principal 
preparation for war, and for this the young man was 
trained from childhood to ride a horse, handle a sword, 
and in fact to do everything of a military character. 
As the period of knighthood drew near the religious 
side of chivalry was duly emphasized. On the whole, 
this training, when " knighthood was in flower " was of a 
highly educative character, developing in the individual 
an ability to endure hardship, hunger and fatigue, and 
disposing him to look more sympathetically upon those 
not so favorably nourished. 

During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries there 
sprang up a new scholastic philosophy, the essence of 
which lay in subtle quibblings, and in the artful fence of 
logic. Amazing fabrics were woven out of such fine 
threads as : " Will one grain make a pile ? " " How 


many angels could stand on the point of a needle ? " etc. 
Yet, though some of the questions discussed seem to us 
to be utterly foolish, though their solutions added nothing 
to the progress of the day, they, nevertheless, awakened 
keen intellectual activity and prepared the way for the 
coming revival of learning. 

The attitude of the intellectual life of the first five 
hundred years of the Middle Age was an unquestioning 
obedience to authority. By the eleventh century a new 
position had to be taken. Heretical ideas had filtered 
in from the East. These had to be met by argument as 
well as by force, and the purpose of scholasticism was to 
aid faith by reason, and strengthen the religious life of 
the Church by the development of intellectual power. 

Church doctrines had been formulated for many 
generations. It was necessary now to analyze, define 
and systematize these doctrines. Scholasticism aimed 
at developing power to formulate beliefs into logical 
systems, so that these beliefs could not be set aside by 
any arguments which might be brought to bear against 
them. To secure this power it was necessary to train 
for it, and the child was now introduced to grammar as 
formal as would be studied by the adults of to-day. 

The schoolmen, it is true, never stopped to examine 
into the material dealt with in order to ascertain whether 
or not it was valid, nor whether sufficient data had been 
collected. Still this keen debating had one important 


result. It stimulated intellectual interests and added 
greatly to the number of those whom the world called 
the learned. 

The term " University'' as used in the Middle Age 
and even at a later date, was very different from the 
sense in which it is used to-day. The university usually 
consisted of a company of learned men who gave 
lectures to crowds of students on the various topics on 
the courses of studies. Often there was no building, 
nor anything else to mark the existence of such an 
institution save the faculty and the students, and it was 
no uncommon thing for a university to pick up bag and 
baggage and move to another city or town where 
the environment was more attractive. These early 
universities recognized four faculties, viz., theology, 
law, medicine and philosophy or arts. Politically 
and in other respects these institutions were looked 
upon as the centres of freedom during the years 
intervening between the close of the Middle Age and 
the dawn of the Reformation. However meagre and 
narrow the intellectual life of the universities was, it was 
in them, at any rate, that the spirit of inquiry was kept 

One other feature playing a very important place in 
later education, may now be mentioned. While Latin 
was the subject receiving the maximum of attention 
for the time, the day was coming when the mother- 


tongue of every country would have to be considered, 
and given a prominent place on the school programmes. 
To prepare for this it was necessary to polish and refine 
the various vulgar tongues so as to make them proper 
vehicles of expression. Besides writing one of the few 
master-pieces of all time, besides preserving for us in 
his imperishable pages both the soul and the form of 
the mediaeval world, Dante created the Italian tongue, 
and wrote in it his divine epic. Again, in the latter 
part of the same century, Chaucer (1340- 1400), rendered 
the same great service to his mother-tongue and created I 
out of a barbarous medley of Norman-French and Anglo- 
Saxon, the English language, so that when the English 
revival of learning came at last, its poets and writers 
found this magnificent instrument ready at hand. 


1. What obstacles had early Christianity to contend against? 
With what success? 

2. In what way were the Tutonic people worthy to take up the 
world's advancement where Rome had left it ? 

3. What contributions to educational and to social reform were 
made by monasticism and by chivalry ? 

4. What is meant by the "Age of the Schoolmen"? Account 
for the existence of this school of philosophy. 

5. State in a few words the place of the Middle Age in the 
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(a restoration of nature.) 

Day was breaking on the world. Light, hope and 
freedom were beginning to pierce the clouds that hung 
so thickly over the prostrate Middle Age. Kindled 
with new life, the nations of the North gave birth to 
a progeny of heroes, and the stormy glories of the 
sixteenth century rose on an awakening Europe and a 
modern world. 

Light had slowly been increasing by fits and starts 
during the later centuries of the Middle Age, and the 
past, with all its darkness, may have been the necessary 
preparation for the brighter days of the future. It 
must not be understood that the Middle Age had done 
nothing for human progress. The world had taken a 
long stride beyond paganism. The ideas of the peculiar 
worth and dignity of the human soul, and of man's 
accountability for his fellowman's spiritual welfare, were 
deep in the heart and in the conscience of the mediaeval 

The human mind, awakening from its dogmatic sleep, 
began to look about and to inquire, and the result were 
three very important discoveries and one important 
invention. Columbus had made known a new con- 
tinent ; Copernicus had practically created a new 

heaven and a new earth ; and the classical literatures 



of Greece and of Rome were re-discovered These 
discoveries, together with the fact that the invention 
of the printing press made books the common possession 
of the people, broke up the Middle Age and turned 
men's minds into entirely new channels. 

In the course of time the new movement resulted 
in two great historic events, viz., the Renascence, or 
the restoration of nature, and the Reformation, or the 
restoration of reason; both of which called for an 
education quite different from that of the Middle Age, 
an education which made the observation and the sifting 
of facts, and the drawing of proper conclusions from 
these a leading feature. 

But the transition from the old to the new was by 
no means as rapid and as marked as might have been 
expected. In departing from any settled groove of 
thought, the final break is usually made by some one 
individual, the " masterless man " of Kipling's splendid 
allegory, the man who sees with his own eyes, and with 
an instinct and a genius for truth, escapes from the 
routine in which his fellows flounder. Such a man 
usually pays dearly for his boldness, for the pain 
associated with a new idea is one of the greatest pains 
experienced by a human soul. Nevertheless, from the 
fifteenth century onward, there are to be observed 
several very important tendencies in education. Among 
these were the following : — An endeavor to make 


education natural and serviceable ; an endeavor to 
introduce more gentle and attractive methods ; and an 
endeavor to make education general. 

To the world of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
a double culture was offered, a culture along practical 
lines and a culture along literary lines. The age was 
one of marvellous activity on sea and land. The art of 
printing had been discovered ; Portugal found an ocean 
route to the East Indies, the old route by way of the 
Mediterranean having long ago been closed by the 
Mohammedan ; Spain added the Americas, and Co- 
pernicus proved to the world that the sun and not the 
earth was the real centre of our system. Such dis- 
coveries and inventions naturally pointed to a course 
of studies emphasizing the subjects of mathematics, 
geography, history and natural science. That this 
course did not materialize for many generations after- 
ward was due to the discovery of a second class of 
culture, the culture of the Greeco-Latin worlds, lost to 
western Europe for several centuries, but flourishing in 
the schools of Constantinople, the eastern capital of the 
old Roman empire. 

The revival of learning, or Renascence, was not merely 
progress along the old lines. The old foundation was 
entirely inadequate, for the interests of the Middle Age 
were interests more or less closely connected with the 
importance of a preparation for the life to come, and 


education was generally looked upon as a sort of 
discipline or schooling for this. The Renascence was 
the emancipation of thought. It was the revival of 
the lost sense of literary form and artistic beauty. 
It was an eager thirsting after learning ; an enthusiasm 
for literary form and literary achievements, kindled by 
a contact with the two great literatures of the ancient 
western world. The Southern Renascence began in 
Italy, and preceded the Northern or English Renascence 
by some two hundred years 

In its national character the Italy of this day was not 
a nation. The national idea had been gradually coming 
into being in some of the other countries of Europe, but 
Italy, like Greece, was made up of a number of brilliant, 
wealthy, independent cities in a condition of eager 
rivalry with one another. To such eager minds the 
dispersion of the Greek scholars, consequent to the 
imperilled state of the Eastern Empire, slowly falling 
piece by piece into the hands of the " terrible Turk," 
brought the very mental food needed 

Italy felt herself to be the heir of Roman greatness. 
Her eyes looked, it is true, not to a united Italy, but 
back to Rome, where she imagined she saw her true and 
only pathway to greatness in the revival of the glory 
of that ancient city. The Italian Renascence had 
neither the religious nor the nation-making forces of 
the subsequent English Renascence. The one great 


mission of the Italian revival appeared to have been to 
acquire and transmit to the rest of Europe a knowledge 
and an appreciation of the classics. The first duty, 
therefore, of the lovers of the new learning was to 
discover and restore the precious manuscripts lying 
neglected in many a convent library. Too often these 
manuscripts were found covered with rust and mould, 
but the search and the discovery were always labors of 
love. No journey was considered too great nor too 
perilous; no privation nor fatigue accounted worth the 
mention, and no price too extravagant for the sake of 
adding one more manuscript to the collection. No 
fevered rush of miners to a new field could have 
exceeded the enthusiasm of the scholars in their search 
for the old manuscripts. 

For nearly the whole of the fourteenth century Latin 
alone was studied. Finally the Republic of Florence 
invited Chrysoloras, a learned Greek, to a chair in its 
university. Thus, after being lost for upwards of seven 
hundred years, Greek learning returned again to Italy, 
and pupils from western Europe crowded to the lectures 
with an eagerness difficult for our age to conceive. 
So great was their enthusiasm that it was said — 
" Students dreamed all night of what they had heard 
during the day." Universities, generally, did not receive 
the new learning with the same degree of cordiality as 
Florence, and it is a curious thing to reflect that there 


ever was a time when classics were looked upon as 
an innovation and given a very subordinate place. 

Had the Italian Renascence any other result than 
that of simply recovering and transmitting classical 
learning? It produced no great literature like that of 
Spain and England. Italian literary capacity was over- 
burdened by scholarship and declined into mere 
elegance and correctness of manners. Indeed, in the 
fifteenth century the language created by Dante as a 
thing of power, polished by Petrach as a thing of 
beauty, and trained by Boccacio as an instrument of 
melodious prose, was set aside, because every Italian 
writer wished to write his essays and poems in elegant 
and classical Greek and Latin. 

The great work of the Italian Renascence, however, 
was seen in its contribution to the fine arts. In decor- 
ative art of all descriptions, in architecture and in 
sculpture the Italian masters showed their genius. But 
it was mainly in the art of painting that Italy won its 
special pre-eminence and stood then as it stands to-day 
unrivalled and unapproached. 

The light of the new learning had spread beyond 
the Alps, and because England was the only nation 
possessing what might be termed a stable government, 
it was consequently in England that the Northern 
Renascence reached its fullest development. With its 
transfer to the North, the spirit of the movement 


assumed a double tendency. In the North the revival 
of learning was bent toward religious and social reform 
and to the freeing of Church and State from the bonds 
of authority. 

At the dawn of the sixteenth century, England 
possessed her two famous Universities as well as a 
number of schools of lower rank, such as Winchester 
and Eton, but the learning acquired in all of these was 
about as lifeless as it was meagre. It was about this 
time that Grocyn, a fellow of Oxford, studied Greek in 
Italy, and coming back, taught it at Oxford. His 
example was followed by others, with the result that 
Oxford soon became a sort of Mecca of the new learning. 
Here Erasmus found what he had left his native 
Holland to secure. He remained in England and 
became one of the greatest leaders in the educational 
thought of his generation. As a teacher it was the aim 
of Erasmus to remove the general ignorance of his day, 
uproot the evils of Church and State, and banish 
self-seeking and hypocrisy wherever these were to be 
found. To bring these reforms into effect, he looked 
toward the efficacy of a broad general culture, a culture 
that considered the whole range of human activities : a 
culture that prepared people to live rationally and 
nobly in all things. The ideal of a liberal education was 
therefore revived. Unfortunately this ideal degenerated 
and the classical languages, instead of being studied for 


the purpose of securing a liberal culture, came to be 
studied entirely for literary appreciation and finally as 
a means of formal discipline. 

To the old scholastic curriculum of the English Uni- 
versities, there were added courses in mathematics and 
in Greek. Subsequently a Latin course was added, and 
once more, students came in crowds, many to watch and 
to toil for the sake of the Classics. More Grammar 
schools were founded in the space of a few years than 
had been founded during the previous two hundred 
years. But these were small things in comparison with 
the remarkable awakening of mental life which followed 
the burst of the two great classical literatures upon 
the English world. Men opened their eyes and saw 
life and reproduced it in the most splendid dramatic 
literature the world has ever produced. They saw 
nature, too, and reproduced it, and More saw in his 
Utopia, the solution of such modern matters as : capital 
and labor, the reformation of criminals, masses living 
under sanitary conditions, etc. 

When enthusiasm for the new learning was on the 
wane educational ideas were lowered, the ideal of an 
educated person becoming synonymous with that of the 
classical scholar. This ideal created several educative 
defects, among which we may mention the following : — 
The literature of the mother-tongue was not considered 
elegant enough to receive a place in the school pro- 


gramme. Students who excelled in learning the classics 
were looked upon as of much greater importance than 
the students who could "do" things. Little children 
were necessarily neglected, and only a very small 
proportion of those who spent several years at school 
were able to get beyond the Latin rudiments and 
appreciate the author. The Renascence, however, as 
a whole, was of tremendous value to the future, and 
the source of all that helps to make our present lot so 
superior to that of our ancestors may be found in the 
living seeds implanted by this movement. These 
seeds were, freedom of thought, the spirit of scientific 
research, and the ever extending leaven of Christianity. 


i. What is meant by the Renascence f 

2. What other revivals may be mentioned? 

3. What brought about the Renascence t 

4. Give reasons why a literary and not a practical course was 

5. State the results of the Italian Renascence. 

6. How did the Northern Renascence differ from the Southern 
and why? 

7. What is meant by a liberal education? 

8. State some of the results of the English Renascence. 


(a restoration of reason.) 

The Renascence had its origin in Italy, the Reforma- 
tion its source in Germany. German civilization had 
sprung from German Christianization, while Italian 
civilization was founded upon classical institutions 
whose influence was ever present. The German 
Renascence, too, was democratic as opposed to the 
aristocratic feature of the Italian Renascence. In a 
word, the Renascence of the north stood, not for 
individualism, but for social and general reform. The 
Renascence was a call to Nature, the Reformation a 
call to Reason. The Reformation was, therefore, the 
natural outgrowth of the underlying idea of the 

To understand the meaning of the movement known 
as the Reformation, it is necessary to state the two 
views held regarding the nature of religious truth in 
general. From one standpoint religion was looked 
upon as completed truth, revealed by divine means 
and entrusted to the custody of a Church, whose 
authority in turn was also received as divine. In the 
other case, religious truth, while recognized as of divine 
origin, was looked upon as undergoing completion in 
accord with the general progress of the intelligence of 
the human mind. Each man's mental outfit, such as 



it is, is the apparatus by which truth is arrived at. 
Those who held this view also maintained that the 
individual and not the authority of the Church had the 
right to interpret the original revelation which was 
primarily addressed to the individual. 

Such diverse positions could not be held in harmony 
at an age when the critical faculty had been carefully 
trained. The result was, therefore, a secession from the 
fold of the Mother-Church, and to this secession was 
given the name of the Reformation. 

The natural result of the views of the Reformation 
should have led to reforms in education. That these 
reforms were delayed was due to the fact that the 
reformers themselves were not sufficiently conscious of 
the meaning of the movement, and also from the fact 
that the old school curriculum could not be readily 
shaken off. The old literary (humanistic) course of 
studies was, therefore, accepted and modified as the 
influence of the reform movement gradually deepened. 
This influence was seen in the idea of a universal 
education which idea was a natural accompaniment of 
the larger idea that the welfare of the State depended 
upon the education of all its citizens. 

The leading spirits of the Reformation were Luther 
and Melancthon. Luther assumed the leadership of an 
educational movement having for its object the emanci- 
pation of education from the control of the Church, and 


the providing of greater opportunities for the education 
of the masses. Luther contended that schools should 
be placed within the reach of the people, old and young, 
rich and poor, and should be for the girls as well as for 
the boys. Luther also looked toward a state-supported 
and state-controlled education. 

As Luther's time was fully monopolized in directing 
the religious movement, he left these ideas to be worked 
out by his followers, chief among whom was Melancthon. 
At Melancthon's death there was scarcely a town or a 
city in Germany but had had its schools modified in line 
with his advice, and scarcely a school of any account 
but numbered some pupil of his among its teachers. 
Melancthon's contact with the individual scholar came 
mainly through his many text-books on rhetoric, ethics, 
physics and history. 

The Reformation, however, was so little conscious of 
what it implied that it remained without a philosophy 
for nearly a century. This was found at last in the 
works of Descartes (i 596-1650) and Locke (1632-1704). 
Different as these philosophers were in character, educa- 
tion and race, both agreed in looking for the guarantee 
of all truth in some form of experience. " I think, 
therefore, I am," " Thought and being are one," reasoned 
Descartes, and Locke practically said the same thing 
when he said — " Feeling and being are one, etc." 


In the general intellectual eagerness and activity of 
the Renascence and the Reformation times, attempts at 
reforming the old methods were to be expected. Accord- 
ingly, from the sixteenth century onward, we find a suc- 
cession of teachers and writers who laid down for the 
guidance of the profession, more excellent methods of 
teaching. Small effect had these voices in their own 
generation. But before considering the history and the 
theories of individual reformers, let us take a brief 
glance at the one systematic, thoroughly organized 
and wide-spread system of schools known to the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, that of the Jesuits. 

The Reformation-movement, as we have stated, was 
not at first conscious of its significance, and this 
ignorance left the field open to opposition move- 
ments having for their object the suppression of 
the current away from the Mother-Church. These 
counter-movements made use of education and the 
inquisition as their principal instruments, and were 
controlled for the most part, by the society already 
referred to. 

Founded for the purpose of strengthening the authority 
of the Church and extending her dominions, the Jesuit 
society was directed toward the conversion of the 
heathen and the combating of the so called Protestant 
heresies. The constitution of the order consisted of 
several parts, the fourth being the celebrated Ratio 
Studiorum or system of studies. This constitution took 


form about the year 1600, and remained practically 
unchanged until the society was abolished. The men 
who framed the Ratio, were among the brightest minds 
of the Church. These men had a fine appreciation of 
the value of education on its practical side, and the 
order possessed the advantage of being able to give to 
education a continuity of supervision, and the benefits 
arising from the observations of a great teaching body. 

The order had little interest in elementary education 
and therefore little interest in the education of the 
masses. It was devoted rather to the education of 
leaders, and as a consequence concerned itself mainly 
with secondary and with higher education generally. 
Usually no tuition fee was charged, a circumstance that 
gave the Jesuit schools an immense advantage over the 
corresponding Protestant schools. At the time of their 
suppression the order numbered some 22,000 members, 
the majority of whom were devoted to the work of 

Whatever may be said of the Jesuit schools this much 
at any rate may be emphasized — "they were very 
successful schools." The Jesuit schools were successful 
because of their completeness in organization and the 
continuity of their administration. What John Sturmius 
did for one protestant school at Strassburg, the Jesuit 
order did for a whole system of schools. At the head 
of the order stood the general, elected for life, and thus 


able to secure a stability and a unity of action and a 
perfection of system impossible to secure elsewhere. 
Under the general was the provincial who was respon- 
sible directly to the general and who was placed over 
one of the Jesuit provinces. Over the particular school 
was the rector, and under the rector the prefect of studies 
or educational supervisor and the various members of 
the teaching staff. 

The perfect character of the school supervision ; the 
constant check exercised on one officer by another and 
the non-professional and professional training of the 
teachers, prevented any departure from established 
methods of government and instruction through any 
peculiarities of teachers, and secured an adherence to 
the general system that have not been equalled in 
the schools of this or of any other age. 

Supervision, amounting almost to repression on the 
one hand and espionage on the other descended even 
into the classes. Students were divided into groups of 
two, each acting as a check upon the other. Discipline 
was secured through the ever-present evidence ol 
authority and through the aid of religious motives, 
and corporal punishment to excess was never used as 
an educational incentive and was practically eliminated. 
In place of resorting to physical force, the Jesuit 
teachers elaborated in their thorough way a system 
of rewards that made use of the motive of emulation 
to an extent never before nor since employed. 


Another cause of Jesuit educational success was due 
to the thoroughness of the teaching and to the careful 
preparation of selected teachers. The teaching force 
was made up for the most part of those who had passed 
through the heavy course of the lower school, and 
usually the still heavier course of the superior school, in 
other words, through the schools corresponding to our 
collegiate institute and university. To the scholastic 
culture was also added a long normal course in an 
approved school or under the direction of the masters of 
an ordinary Jesuit school. 

As the members were picked men, selected on 
account of intellectual ability and teaching power, the 
order obtained a body of teachers far superior to those 
of the secular schools, and this superiority was main- 
tained so long as there was no great change in either 
the subject-matter or the spirit of education. With the 
coming of the eighteenth century, with its movement 
away from the humanistic content of education and 
from the theological spirit of the day, the Jesuit schools 
began to lose their vantage ground and were finally 

The subject-matter of the courses may be referred to 
as belonging to the formal humanistic type. In this 
particular the Jesuit schools did not differ from the other 
schools of the time in either the scope of the material 
or the purpose such material was expected to achieve. 


There was the same study of form, beginning with the 
grammar and ending with dialectics. There was also 
the same effort made to give students such a grasp of 
Latin that it could be used as fluently as the mother- 
tongue. All these the Jesuit schools and the corre- 
sponding Protestant schools studied and taught, the 
only difference being that the Jesuit schools were much 
more uniform and a great deal more successful than 
were the Protestant schools. Besides, these schools 
gave more attention to mathematics and to the rudi- 
mentary sciences, as far as these could be gained 
through the classical texts, than was usually the 
case in the other schools. 

A most distinctive characteristic of the Jesuit schools 
was found in their method. This method was what 
might be called the oral or conversational method, and 
was no doubt instrumental in producing much of the 
personal contact which gave to these schools a power in 
moulding conduct beyond that of other schools. 

Next to this was the principle of thoroughness which 
characterized all the work of these teachers. Short 
lessons and frequent reviews were given. The entire 
work was based upon the principle that an intensive 
study is a better thing in the main than an extensive 
study. That a few lines perfectly understood is better 
than a page only grasped in part. Hence no single 
word was left without a thorough explanation. Each 


master, too, had the universal custom and the training 
of the order at the back of his method, a fact that 
was bound to add dignity to the school, for it gave 
confidence to the master and was not wasted on the 
student. This method, perfect as it was in its way, 
tended to check initiative, prevented freedom of opinion, 
and prepared for the subsequent decline of the schools. 

We may not agree with either the matter or the 
method of the Jesuit schools, but we are bound to 
recognize their remarkable success, a success due in the 
main to three conditions, viz., the devotion of the 
members of the order ; their clear grasp of the needs of 
their day ; and the completeness with which their course 
of studies was arranged with the view of realizing a 
well-defined end. 

These conditions have not changed, and they are as 
applicable to-day as they were in the old Jesuit days. 
We, therefore, require a body of teachers devoted heart 
and soul to the work of education. We require, likewise, 
a clearer insight into the nature and extent of education 
needed to-day by the youth of Canada. We, further- 
more, require such a completely graded course of 
studies or system of education as may assist all to 
realize the highest ideals of individual and of social 
life. If the Jesuits can leave us these three things, no 
one can say that the order has lived in vain. 


The educational system of the Jansenists, of Port 
Royal, near Paris, in 1 637-1661, connected with which 
are the names of Pascal and of F£nelon, attained their 
importance not from their number, nor yet from the 
length of time which they existed. The schools of 
Port Royal attained their importance from the fact 
that they represented in their conception of education 
and in their method a reaction against the dominant 
Jesuit education. 

In discipline they were harsher than were the Jesuits, 
believing that the child's nature was evil and that the 
work of education was to correct this condition. But 
this view led to a better conception of subject-matter 
and of method in education. Studies were simplified 
and methods of presentation made pleasant. The place 
of the mother-tongue was elevated. Memory was not 
placed above the understanding. Attention was paid 
to the body and the formation of character made a 
matter of serious care. 

The short life of these schools was due to the 
antagonism of their great rival against whom they had 
about as much chance of success as a birch-bark canoe 
would have against a modern battleship. 



1. What brought about the Reformation ? 

2. What reforms in education should have followed the 
inception of the Reformation ? 

3. Give a short account of Luther's educational views. 
Reference, Monroe. 

4. What motive prompted the Jesuits to take so active interest 
in education ? 

5. What excellencies characterized their schools ? 

6. Give reasons for their success. 

7. Criticize their views on thoroughness, emulation, and moral 

8. Give an account of the school of Sturmius at Strassburg. 

9. What did Fenelon say regarding the "Education of Girls"? 
Reference, Painter. 

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(an education by means of things.) 

While the Jesuits and other great teachers were 
thinking only of how Latin and Greek might best be 
taught, other thinkers were making those brilliant dis- 
coveries which constituted the beginning of modern 
natural science. The work of Copernicus was seconded 
by that of Galileo, in Italy. Galileo invented the 
refracting telescope and by its aid discovered the moons 
of Jupiter, the spots on the sun, and the rotation of the 
sun on its axis. Galileo also discovered the laws of the 
pendulum and the laws of falling bodies and thereby 
displaced forever Aristotle's crude ideas which had held 
the boards for some ten centuries. Kepler, the German, 
found that the planets moved about the sun in elliptical 
orbits, and geography advanced by leaps and bounds ; 
thanks to the activity of a series of explorers and 
adventurers on sea and on land. 

At such a time would it not be passing strange if 

some daring souls did not reflect upon the schools and 

the school subjects and suspect that there should be 

other things on the courses of studies than Latin and 

Greek ? Many there were of such, and it is now our 

purpose to mention the more important of these that 

we may ascertain what each stood for in the educational 




* As coming events cast their shadows before," we 
may expect to hear of men, who, in advance of their day 
made some study of nature and recorded their ex- 
periences of the same. Among these mention may be 
made of Roger Bacon (12 14-1294) and Leonardo da 
Vinci (1452-15 19). Bacon's efforts met with little 
response beyond causing him to be imprisoned as a 
disturber of the faith. Leonardo da Vinci was really 
the first man who committed himself to experience ; da 
Vinci practised the method of science but did not 
formulate science. This task was left to Francis Bacon, 
with whom book-science, which suppressed intelligence 
while pretending to cultivate it, came to an end and was 
slowly replaced by a direct study of nature, a view which 
was aided by the new conception of the universe, made 
possible by the discoveries of Copernicus, Columbus and 
others. From this time henceforth, we shall find a 
growing tendency to withdraw education from the hands 
of authority and to commit it to the care of science. 

Enough has been said to indicate the growing dis- 
content of the people with the narrow classical pro- 
gramme of the times. Men clamored for a study of 
things, real things in keeping with the spirit of the 
Renascence movement. The result of this dissatisfaction 
was Realism. 

Realism underwent various phases, each of which had 
many devotees. The phases we shall now consider have 


been styled by Mr. Monroe in his History of Education* 
as : — humanistic realism,, social realism and sense real- 
ism. Humanistic realism was a protest against the 
narrow view of the purpose of the classical studies in 
education. To study the classics for the purpose of 
rearing modern Ciceros was not making the best use of 
the experience of the past. The humanistic realist 
looked to the classics as the only means to an education. 
Had not the Greeks and the Romans mastered the 
realities of nature and recognized the worth of institu- 
tional life more completely than had any other nations, 
ancient or modern ? Were not the most satisfactory 
foundations in philosophy, agriculture, medicine, etc., to 
be found in the classics ? Hence, the object of study 
was to get a firm grasp of the meaning of life, a life in 
contact with nature, human life in institutions ; in a 
word to appreciate the life around by means of a knowl- 
edge of the broader life of the ancients. This phase of 
realism is illustrated by Rabelais (1483-1553). 

The educational importance of Rabelais comes not 
from any immediate and concrete influence on the 
schools, but from the influence his ideas exerted upon 
such educational reformers as Montaigne, Locke and 
Rousseau. We find in Rabelais an enthusiasm for 
learning and a tendency to verbal-realism ; in other 
words, we find him turning to the classics in order to 

♦Monroe, Chap. VIII. 


know things. So far he was a child of pure humanism. 
In other respects he advanced far beyond this, and the 
remarkable feature of the curriculum suggested by him 
is that it is mainly concerned with tilings. 

The effects of the later Renascence was to draw the 
attention away from arithmetic, music, geometry and 
astronomy, or the subjects of the quadrivium, and to 
centre the attention on grammar, rhetoric and logic, or 
the subjects of the trivimn. Rabelais would reverse this 
point of view by emphasizing again the practical subjects 
of the quadrivium. In certain particulars Rabelais 
was also in sympathy with what we now know as 
nature study and manual work, for he recommended 
that students should occasionally get up at four o'clock 
in the morning to make observations on the situations 
of the "dipper," and of other constellations. He also 
gave hints as to the value of hand-work as well as 
head-work, and suggested sawing wood and threshing 
sheaves of grain. To these he would add visits to 
various trades, that student life might be more closely 
connected with the general life of the world. 

Rabelais saw that the human being was more than 
intellect and that the intellectual life might be nourished 
by many other things than books, a feature of school 
work much in evidence to-day in our needle-work, 
domestic science, etc. Rabelais would also give 


attention to the needs of the body by encouraging 
physical culture. In this, he seems to have had 
the idea of physical culture as a preparation for a 
gentleman's pastime, war. The effect of this phase of 
realism upon the schools can not be easily estimated. 
Its direct influence was exerted by individual teachers 
and special programmes. It, however, helped to pre- 
pare the way to sense-realism which in turn found its 
place in modern natural science. 

Education to the social realists was to be made 
pleasant in its method, and its subject-matter was to be 
of use to man. Such an education was to furnish a 
practical judgment for the affairs of life and culture 
enough to enjoy life's leisure hours. This phase of 
realism is illustrated by Montaigne (i 533-1 592) and 
Locke (1632- 1 704). 

It may be unfair to include Montaigne, a mere gentle- 
man of leisure, among those strenuous souls of whom 
the world was not worthy; men who devoted themselves 
with unsparing enthusiasm to the work of educational 
reform. This, however, is the usual order of advance- 
ment. By and by the man of action, of conviction, of 
fanaticism it may be, comes and forces the world to 
consider, to combat and finally to accept ideas which 
other writers and thinkers had formulated and 
elaborated. Montaigne stands in the order of succes- 
sion, classed as a humanist, a social realist or a 


naturalist according as his educational outlook is 
conceived to be in line with Rabelais, with Locke or 
with Rousseau. 

Montaigne would discard grammatical teaching in 
language. He would have the child study things rather 
than words. He would teach the child to think ; to 
find out things for himself ; in a word, to educate 
himself. Montaigne would also, like Rabelais, pay- 
great attention to physical training. So entirely was 
Montaigne detached from the thought of the narrow 
humanistic culture that he scoffed at book-learning and 
declared that true learning had the present and not the 
past nor yet the future for its subject. 

Education, according to Locke is threefold — physical, 
intellectual and moral, in other words — vigor of body, 
knowledge and virtue. In physical education, a 
"sound mind in a sound body," is the character 
of the training desired. In short, open air, loose 
clothing, a hard bed, a simple diet and no 
medicine — -a hardening process from beginning to end. 
Intellectual education, according to Locke, is a 
formation of right habits of thought through exercise 
and discipline. Nothing learned should be imposed as 
a task. A knowledge of the world of men is more 
valuable than a knowledge of books, hence the child's 
tutor sh<"*Mld be more a man of the world than a good 
s'Hr tf the young man has a knowlci^? bf the 


world, virtue, industry and a love of reputation, he will 
very soon acquire all he needs of philosophy and 
mathematics. The languages studied should be the 
languages of his neighbors, and Latin, for Latin is a 
gentleman's language. With regard to recreation, 
Locke is no friend of unproductive amusement. He, 
therefore, advises every gentleman to learn a trade, 
and suggests painting, woodworking and gardening as 
suitable. Locke has little faith in what art, science and 
philosophy can do for a man. His aim is to discipline 
rather than to educate. He would give just as 
much instruction in accepted truth as would be 
necessary for good breeding, but he would make 
no effort to arouse original thought or induce young 
men to strike out along new trails for themselves. 
In moral education, virtue is to be obtained by the 
formation of good habits, through a long disciplining 
of the desires. With a view to this, discipline must 
begin early and parental authority must be firmly 
established. Cultivate the right disposition and then 
leave it to find its natural expression. Children should 
have all possible liberty but they should be guarded 
against bad company. For this reason, Locke thinks 
a tutor more desirable than the regular schoolmaster. 

Finally, by sense realism we mean that view of 
education growing out of the phases already referred 
to and containing the groundwork of the modern 


conception of education. Sense realism emphasized 
the fact that knowledge comes in the first place through 
the senses, and that education is, therefore, based upon a 
training in sense perception rather than, as heretofore, a 
training in mere memory. Education was looked upon 
as a natural and not as an artificial process ; and the 
principles upon which education was based were to be 
found in nature. Such a conception gave rise after a 
time to a science or philosophy of education based 
upon scientific investigation, and also to a modification 
of the course of studies by introducing materials chosen 
from the human and physical divisions of man's 
immediate environment. Among • the sense realists 
mention may be made of Mulcaster (1548-1611); 
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) ; Ratke (1 571-1670) ; and 
Comenius (1 592-1670). 

Richard Mulcaster was an English schoolmaster. He, 
therefore, comes to us with the double authority of one 
who knows the practical as well as the theoretical values 
of education. As the head of a humanistic school it is 
rather startling to know that Mulcaster placed more 
importance on a study of the mother-tongue than on a 
study of Latin ; that he held that education should not 
aim at forcing nor yet at repressing the individual ; and 
that education was needed to help nature to her per- 
fection. In all these particulars, Mulcaster emphasized 
the position of the sense realists. 


Highest among those who saw glimpses of the 
coming reforms in education, and above those who 
applied the new discoveries to education, stands Francis 
Bacon, a man who possessed but little knowledge and 
less interest in either educational questions or processes, 
and yet who gave to education a new basis and a new 

Why honor Bacon with the title " Father of inductive 
philosophy and of modern science/' when he made no 
scientific discovery himself, and when the particular 
form of induction developed by him has never been 
used, nor is it capable of practical use ? The inspiration 
came from him. He it was who taught that the true 
object of philosophy was to increase knowledge and add 
to power. Bacon said — "Let the wise men strive to 
gain knowledge helpful to their fellowmen. Let man 
the thinker aid man the laborer ; let him investigate the 
secrets of nature that nature's powers may be used." It 
is Bacon's glory, when the so-called learned world 
thought learning meant just so much Latin and Greek, 
that he, the wisest intellect of the day pointed out as the 
true field of study that which should subject the powers 
of nature to the use of man. The power-loom and the 
sewing machine ; the steam engine and the binder ; the 
locomotive and the ocean liner; the telegraph and the 
telephone, these are all alleviations of labor and of our 
common humanity, and all have been found along the 
path pointed out by Bacon. 


Bacon influenced education in its purpose, matter and 
method. The purpose of education must always be 
for sure human good. The matter is the whole 
environment of man. Many of the great discoveries 
of the past had been the result of mere accident. 
It was, therefore, Bacon's purpose to lessen the 
factor of chance, and to submit future inventions 
and discoveries to an orderly compliance with the 
laws of nature. Bacon held that power over nature 
was the end to be secured. A knowledge of nature 
was the only source of such power, and the only 
method of gaining this knowledge was along the 
line of observation, investigation, experimentation and 

In the earlier years of the seventeenth century a man, 
by name Ratke, travelled through Europe endeavoring 
to sell to princes and to universities the secret of an 
educational system or method whereby any person 
might learn with ease any language. Ratke was also 
willing to found a school wherein all the arts and 
sciences might be rapidly acquired and advanced. He 
even held himself ready to take a contract of intro- 
ducing and maintaining throughout Europe a uniform 
religion, speech and government. Archimedes' offer to 
move the earth, provided a suitable fulcrum were given, 
was but a mere bagatelle compared to what Ratke 
proposed to accomplish, and yet, though evidently some- 


what eccentric, Ratke was by no means an educational 
impostor. Indeed, many of the wisest men of his 
day were impressed by his arguments : the town of 
Augsburg employed him to reform its schools and two 
princes afterward united to give him a school of his own 
where everything in the way of buildings and general 
equipment were furnished. This experiment failed 
because Ratke's system and Ratke himself were not 
sufficiently practical. As Ratke anticipated, a few 
principles afterwards made use of by later reformers, 
he has a right to consideration here. Among his 
pedagogical maxims are the following : — " All unnatural 
and violent teaching and learning are harmful and 
weaken nature. One thing at a time. Each thing 
often repeated. The mother-tongue first and every- 
thing in the mother-tongue. First the thing itself: 
afterwards the sign of the thing. All things through 
investigation and experiment ; nothing should be 
received on mere authority ; the reason and evidence 
should be examined and apprehended." These prin- 
ciples are surely valuable contributions to pedagogy. 

There is no better testimony to the value of Bacon's 
method than its effect upon Comenius. Here was a 
man living under the shadow of mediaevalism as it 
were : a man who leaped at one bound to the freedom- 
giving education of modern times, and did this under 
the inspiration of Bacon's writings. Comenius saw and 


emphasized the need of universal education as essential 
to universal freedom, and he devoted the years of 
a long life to the instruction of the lower classes. 
Before his time no one had brought the mind of a 
philosopher and the experience of a schoolmaster 
directly upon the subject of education. It was the 
belief of Comenius that a better system of education 
than that in operation could be found were nature's 
laws but examined into. Children, he said, will learn if 
they are taught only what they desire to learn, due 
regard being paid to their age, the method of instruction, 
and especially when everything is first taught by means 
of the senses. On this Comenius laid great stress and he 
zvas the first to do so. Educate the senses first, then 
the memory, then the intellect, and finally the critical 
faculty. Keep to this order and the result will be that 
even young children will find the learning process a 
pleasant one. 

Comenius would even go further ; he would have the 
desire to learn fostered in many ways. Parents should 
speak well of the teacher and should see that the tone 
of the home was favorable to education. The teacher 
should be kind and fatherly ; should distribute praise 
and reward ; and should always see that the children 
had things to look at and to handle. The school 
buildings and grounds should be attractive, homelike 
and useful. Buildings should be light, airy and cheerful, 


and should be well supplied with materials for illus- 
trating the various lessons. The subjects taught should 
be interesting to the pupils, and the method should be a 
natural method. As Comenius' strength was rather in 
his formulation of educational principles, than in the 
reduction of these principles to adequate practice, much 
of this fine talk on school and home environment had 
to await more modern times for its correct expression. 

Comenius was a bishop administering to the spiritual 
needs of his Moravian co-religionists in exile in Poland. 
He would, therefore, naturally place the religious 
purpose of education well in the foreground. According 
to his views, man's ultimate end was eternal happiness 
with God. This end was to be secured by obtaining 
moral control of the se/f, and this control was to be 
realized by knowing all things, mastering all things, and 
referring everything to God. Within every human soul 
nature had implanted the seeds of learning, of virtue, 
and of ' piety y and it was the object of education to bring 
these seeds to full maturity. 

The method Comenius would follow is largely the 
method suggested by Bacon. Comenius, however, 
doubted the universal value of Bacon's method and 
looked upon it as incomplete in the determination of 
truth from error. Yet when he came to the practical 
problems of the schoolroom it was Bacon's method 
he employed. This is seen clearly in the following 


principles enunciated by Comenius : — (i) If we would 
teach or learn we must follow the order of nature. 

(2) Let everything be presented through the senses. 

(3) From the easy to the difficult ; from the general to 
the special ; from the known to the related unknown. 

(4) Fix firmly by frequent repetitions and drills. (5) 
Choose suitable material ; do not attempt too much ; 
make use of concrete examples ; and select that which 
will be useful. (6) Advance so that what is taught to- 
day may give firmness to that taught yesterday and 
prepare the way for what will be taught to-morrow. 
(7) Do not leave the subject until it is thoroughly 

Comenius was also a writer of school text-books. Of 
these the most important were the Didactica Magna y 
the Janua Linguarum Reserata and the Orbis Pictus. 
The first was a book of method and the last was the 
Janua illustrated. While engaged in working out his 
theory and method of education, Comenius had been 
searching for an elementary Latin reading-book. He 
found a suggestion in a Latin-Spanish book, published 
in Latin-English in London, in the year 161 5. Taking 
this as a model, Comenius then classified the whole 
universe of things in a manner suited to the capacity of 
boys. He then searched the lexicons and collected 
some 8,000 words which he arranged in 1,000 sentences, 
no important word being used more than once. In this 


work, which occupied him some three years in preparing, 
Comenius has endeavoured throughout to give equal 
attention to things and words, but it is the things that 
give the cue. The Orbis Pictus was the most widely 
used school book ever written, and the first book 
possessing really educative illustrations. 

The Jesuits had done something toward systema- 
tizing the secondary schools and the courses of 
studies of these schools. Comenius was the first to 
arrange a course of instruction extending from infancy 
to manhood. This course he divided among four classes 
of schools. The first, the school of the Mother's Breast, 
afterwards found its proper place in the kindergarten of 
Froebel. In this school, the child's experience as to 
locality, time and the causal relationship of many 
childish events should be made quite definite even 
before the sixth year, and independent of formal instruc- 
tion by means of books. In the Vernacular School, the 
school of the second six years of the child's life, instruc- 
tion and training for the masses should be provided, and 
such instruction should be given in the mother-tongue. 
The programme of this school covered the following 
subjects : — Reading and writing ; composition ; arith- 
metic ; measuring and weighing ; music ; memory work 
in the line of psalms and hymns ; catechism ; Bible 
history and texts ; moral rules with examples ; politics 
and economics ; history of the world ; astronomy, 
physics and geography ; knowledge of arts and crafts. 


Above the Vernacular or Elementary School, Was the 
Grammar School or Latin School, and above all was the 

The first school, Comenius said should be in every 
home ; the second in every village ; the third in every 
municipality ; and the fourth in every province. Each 
provided for a six years' course and represented a 
certain grade of general culture corresponding to a 
certain grade of vocation. The first and second schools 
were for every child ; the third and the fourth schools 
were to fit for the various learned professions. 

With Comenius the cause of truth and freedom in 
education were virtually won, but Comenius himself was 
practically forgotten until the last century. In spite of 
this he continued to influence such later reformers as 
* Locke, Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Froebel, some of 
whom may never have heard of him, but who are 
nevertheless, his pupils and continuators. The man 
who first demanded an education for every human being 
on the ground of a common humanity, must always be 
thought of with respect and gratitude. 

* Davidson's History of Education, page 196. 



1. Write a digest of Milton's tractate. Reference, Painter's 
Educational Essays. 

2. "Comenius is one of the most important representatives of 
the realistic movement as well as one of the leading characters 
in the history of education." Discuss this under a, purpose ; 
by content ; c, method. Reference, Monroe, page 480. 

3. In Locke's view what departments of education were most 
important ? 

4. What was realism ? Name and define the several views of 

5. With what educational movements were Francis Bacon, 
Ratke, and Montaigne interested ? State the contributions of each 
to educational reform. 

6. What views of education held by Comenius are now accepted? 

7. What new ideas are represented in the text-books of 
Comenius ? 

8. Give an account of Francke's work at Halle. Reference, 
Painter's History of Education. 

ROUSSEAU (1712-1778). 

(an education in accordance with nature.) 

Rousseau's importance in history is due to the fact 
that he expressed in his life and writings, and 
illustrated in his experience the leading tendencies 
which for many years had been stirring in a sub- 
conscious way in the heart of society. With Rousseau 
these attained to complete consciousness. When 
Rousseau began to write, people were concerned 
with the growing importance of nature^ and were also 
inclined to view man as the author of laws and the 
founder of institutions. In a word, people had begun to 
make distinctions between what was really of nature in 
civilization and what was purely the workmanship of 
man. It was when these ideas had about reached a 
white-heat that Rousseau came upon the scene. 

Jean Jacques Rousseau was born at Geneva in the 
year 17 12. At birth he was taken in charge by his 
aunt, a lady of a kindly nature, but a lady wanting in 
decision of character, a very great weakness when one 
considers the bringing up of a vivacious, precocious and 
very responsive child. Rousseau's winning ways excused 
him from many needed corrections, and prevented him 
from becoming aware of any moral principles and of 
running into contact with any disagreeable "ought!* 
No wonder that Rousseau's main guides to behavior were 

BOTJSSEAU {1712-1778). 89 

his feelings. No wonder that Rousseau afterwards 
acknowledged duty from dire necessity or for the 
purposes of rhetoric. 

Taught to read by his father, a man who assumed 
fatherhood but not its responsibilities, Rousseau was 
turned loose into a library whose principal feature was the 
sensational novels of a sensational day, a pitiful training 
for any child surely. Deserted at the age of eight, 
Rousseau was placed in the charge of a maternal uncle 
who sent him to be educated by a clergyman living near 
Rousseau's home. Here he had about the same kind of 
training as that previously given. So far he had had no 
preparation for a human life, and such a life involving 
regular habits, concentration, obedience and self-denial 
he was now called upon to live. He had to earn his 
own living. 

When scarcely twelve years of age he was placed in 
the office of a notary, where he found the work so 
tedious that he was dismissed. His experience at an 
engraver's was no better, and Rousseau, sick of what 
could only be drudgery to him, fled from the hateful 
locality under the shadow of the night after having 
endured that "coarse, violent man," the engraver, for 
about four years. Having resolved to see something of 
the world, Rousseau became a tramp, an occupation, by 
the way, that was certainly in the line of his previous 
training. He wished for freedom, and he could now 


realize his wish and flit here and there utterly uncon- 
scious of there being such things as duty and self-denial 
in the whole wide world. From this hobo-life, Rousseau 
learned that the courts and the camps of life were less 
interesting than those of the books. He also developed 
a passion for the country people and for country scenery, 
and all of these experiences told in the future. 

For the first thirty years of his life Rousseau was 
simply a bundle of desires, responding to outside stimuli 
in much the same manner as in the case of the lower 
animals. Toward the close of this period symptoms of 
a better nature appeared. Rousseau discovered that he 
could write, and in order to write he must have more 
congenial surroundings. 

It was about this time that he met his " Theresa," a 
woman of few charms but a woman who must have 
possessed that which was permanently congenial to a 
man of Rousseau's nature. Rousseau did not look for 
intellectual companionship, but he did want an inex- 
acting affection and a thousand and one little attentions 
quite in keeping with gross stupidity. These he found, 
and his loyalty to this serving maid is perhaps the 
noblest feature of an otherwise intensely selfish life. 
" I lived with my Theresa as agreeably as with the 
greatest genius of the land," is a perfect summary of 
this strange alliance. 

RO USSEA U (1712-1778). 91 

Rousseau wrote many treatises, but the work of most 
concern to us is the fimile, an education in accordance 
with nature. 

Rosseau's educational system, if it meant anything, 
meant a preparation for the sort of life that his own 
nature suggested as the happiest, namely, a quiet, 
uneventful life, free from all things of a serious nature. 
" How can a child, born in a civilized society, be so 
trained as to remain unaffected by the vices which are 
inseparable from civilization ? Rousseau's answer to this 
is the Emile. In this work education is viewed as a 
negative, protecting process ; a warding off of external 
evil that the good inherent in every child may have a 
chance to unfold itself. " Everything is good as it 
comes from the hand of the Author of things ; every- 
thing degenerates at the hands of man." This is the 
opening sentence of the Emile and the keynote of a 
tale purporting to be an account of the proper training 
of a youth taken from his parents and placed in the 
charge of an ideal tutor, who educates him in intimate 
contact with nature. 

According to Rousseau nature is merely habit, and 
education is nothing less. In acquiring an education 
Rousseau would make use of such equipment as was 
native to the child, viz., his natural interests, first im- 
pressions and instinctive feelings and judgments. These 
are more to be trusted than are the judgments and other 


second-hand experience coming from association with 

older people. In a word, Rousseau would have education 

based upon the true nature of man. The evil education 

of any association with man, Rousseau would counteract 

by exposing the child to a fearless and intimate contact 

with nature's phenomena. What Rousseau says of the 

wisdom of freeing children early by a careful habituation 

from such fears as toads, snakes, spiders, etc., is excellent. 

What a pity that any one should grow up and not see 


" Nothing useless is or low : 

Each thing in its place is best, 

And what seems but idle show, 

Strengthens and confirms the rest ! ° 

Much of that cruel want of sympathy for all things 
not considered sufficiently aesthetic, is due to a neglect 
of Rousseau's precepts. 

Again, human nature in Rousseau's time was looked 
upon as essentially depraved, and the purpose of religious 
training was to replace this characteristic by an opposite 
one shaped under the direction of man. Rousseau 
objected to this, and demanded that a child's first educa- 
tion should be purely negative, an education that simply 
guarded the heart from vice and the mind from error ; 
an education moreover, that looked first to the perfecting 
of the organs which were the means of knowledge, before 
furnishing the knowledge itself. In other words, Rous- 
seau would prepare the mind to think by first giving the 

RO USSEA U {1712-1778). 93 

senses their proper exercise ; he would also prepare the 
mind for receiving instruction on the duties of man 
before giving it that instruction. By so doing, Rousseau 
believed that the child should be so trained that when 
truth and beauty and goodness were presented, the mind 
would understand them and the heart appreciate them. 

Applying the principle of negative education, Rousseau 
recommended that the fullest freedom be given the child. 
Like Locke, he advocated a plain diet, loose clothing, no 
medicine, and a life in the open air. " Childhood is the 
sleep of reason," therefore the child should not be 
expected to reason, but to prepare for that time when 
the harvest of the reason should arrive. When applied 
to moral training, the doctrine of a negative education, 
advocated a discipline by natural consequences. If the 
child is slow in dressing for the walk, leave him at home; 
he will in all probability be on hand the next time. 

The educational life of the child as given in the fimile 
is divided into sharply defined periods, having little or 
no connection with each other. In the first period, or 
the first five years of the child's life, the father is the 
natural teacher and the mother the natural nurse. By 
these, the early training, largely physical, is to be given. 
In dealing with this stage, Rousseau lays down many 
negative but sensible rules. Do not swaddle the child. 
Do not rock him. Do not make a fuss when he falls, 
etc. In other words, the child is to be allowed the full 


freedom of limb and voice. He is also to be allowed a 
sufficient acquaintance with heat, cold, and risk, in order 
to make him robust and courageous. 

In the second stage, the stage from the sixth to the 
twelfth year, education is to be governed by two 
principles ; education must be negative, and moral 
training one of natural consequences. Instead of giving 
all sorts of ideas to the child, the mind should be left 
unforced. " Childhood is for its own sake. Exercise 
the body, the organs, the senses, but keep the mind 
lying fallow as long as you can." Here is where 
Rousseau protests most strongly against the dominant 
education. Learning from books is done away with 
and an education that trains the child to measure, 
weigh, compare, to draw conclusions, to test inferences, 
etc., substituted in its stead. Such an education is to 
be a training of the senses, gained by an intimate 
contact with the forces of nature. " Let childhood ripen 
in the children," is a summary of this period. 

In the third period, namely that from twelve to 
fifteen, Rousseau would educate the intellect. Rous- 
seau's solitary pupil at the age of twelve would have 
learned nothing more serious than play, but in playing, 
his muscles, nerves and senses would be trained. Emile 
would have no knowledge of man, but he is as supple, 
as alert and as healthy as a well-trained puppy. He 
must now get down to study, but he has not learned 

ROUSSEA U (1712-1778). 95 

how. Rousseau understands the situation and provides 
the programme. " After all," he concludes, " there are 
not many things to be known that are of any great 
use, and the test of everything is the practical test." 
Mathematics and science, just a little, but 6mile must 
invent both. Rousseau recommends Robinson Crusoe, 
as a study according to nature. Emile must also learn 
a trade ; not for the sake of knowing it, but because 
such work may help him to overcome any tendency to 
despise labor. At the end of this period, Emile had 
little knowledge, but what he had was really his own. 

Hitherto Smile's body, senses and mind have been 
looked after. It is now time that he should be educated 
for the social life he must soon live. His education is 
also to be strictly moral and religious. In discussing 
this period Rousseau seems to have the idea that the 
sentiments may be educated as the mind and that 
one may learn to love as he learns to work arithmetic. 
This is Rousseau's scheme in outline. What is its 
value ? Has it led to the results claimed for it ? 

The influence of Rousseau's ideas upon educational 
theory and practice was very great. His passionate 
appeals roused men from their slumber and forced them 
to reconsider all that had been hitherto taken for 
granted. His bitter condemnation of the corrupt 
fashionable life of his day with its dehumanizing notions 
of education, and his eloquent plea for a return to a life 


simply human, and to an education based upon the 
principles of human nature and calculated to prepare 
for such a life ; these were all timely and well taken. 
When Rousseau came to inform the world how all 
this was to be carried out he undertook a problem 
beyond his powers of solution. Rousseau, however, 
seems to have placed stress upon the following : — 
Education is not an artificial process ; education is a 
development, a development made possible through the 
working of the child's own interests and instincts. 

Previous to this time the child was viewed as a little 
man. He was supposed to think, feel and act as a little 
man. He studied the same subjects as his larger 
brethren and studied these by the same method, namely, 
through grammar of the most formal sort, and by means 
of the verbal memory. If this artificial view could be 
set aside it would also mean the abolition of all 
the artificial methods which such a view succeeded in 
collecting about itself. Education could then find its 
real purpose, process and method within the nature of 
the child's own life and experiences. In this we have 
the germ of modern educational thought and practice. 

In spite of his many defects, it has been given to but 
few men to exert an influence so deep as that of 
Rousseau, and this influence extended to all depart- 
ments of human activity. In philosophy, Kant has said 
that he was aroused from his dogmatic slumber by 

BO USSEA U {1712-1778). 97 

Hume, but after being aroused he drew his chief in- 
spiration from Rousseau. Growing out of Rousseau's 
conception that instruction should be based upon a study 
of the natural outfit of the child, there grew the edu- 
cational work of Pestalozzi, Herbart and Froebel. 
Rousseau's idea that the educational material should 
be the facts and the phenomena of nature led to the 
development of modern natural science. Rousseau's 
passionate love of natural scenery inspired many in the 
direction of art and literature. Indeed, modern art and 
literature with their fondness for the natural, the rural, 
the picturesque, their analysis of sentiment, etc., may 
almost be said to date from Rousseau. Finally, 
Rousseau influenced politics. The French Revolution 
was largely his work, and the war cry of that bloody 
time — " Liberty, Equality, Fraternity," were words 
borrowed from Rousseau. 

Basedow (1723- 1790), the next educator to be con- 
sidered, was a disciple of the great Rousseau. At his 
school at Dessau, known as the Philanthropinum, he 
attempted to work out some of the ideas of his master. 
Basedow's school appears to have been a sort of un- 
systematized kindergarten, where the children had a 
jolly time of it. They were not kindergarten babies but 
older children to whom it was above all things incum- 
bent, in their parents' opinion to learn Latin, and Latin 
they were taught in a series of hilarious games. 


The important feature of this innovation lies in the 
fact that here was an experiment where the needs of the 
children, as children, were taken into account. 

The experiment failed, but some of its fruits were 
afterwards seen in a stronger sense of the value of 
trained teachers, the introduction of the wood- work 
phase of manual training, the connection of the school 
work with the world outside, and the employment of the 
object-lesson as an important school feature. 

i. What does Nature mean in the £mile? 

2. What is the meaning of a negative education? 

3. Criticize Rousseau's conception of education. 

4. What kind of education did Rousseau consider suitable to 
children during the first six years of their lives ? During the next 
six years? During the next three years ? Point out in each case 
the strong and the weak points. 

5. What kind of education should be given to girls, according to 
Rousseau ? 

6. What did Rousseau say regarding the doctrines of interest 
and of self-activity ? 


(an education based on the nature of the child.) 

Before Rousseau's day it was customary to look upon 
education as a ^ort of artificial process by means of 
which formal knowledge came into the possession of the 
school children. Since then, education has come to be 
regarded as an evolution ; a growth from within ; an 
expansion of one's natural equipment. The efforts 
of Pestalozzi, Herbart and Froebel were directed 
toward the work of attempting to state the position of 
Rousseau positively and to secure the right practice for 
the same. Out of this there came a more kindly spirit 
in the schoolroom, better trained and better teachers, an 
education that included poor as well as rich, and an 
education founded on the nature of the child itself. 

When we consider the importance now attached to 

popular education, we may have some difficulty in 

understanding that it was not so even a hundred years 

ago. We may even declare that before the time of 

Pestalozzi popular education as such did not exist. In 

Germany, Luther had proclaimed the need for it, but 

the schools which he created were schools where the 

pupils' energy was exercised largely in learning the 

catechism. The children of the lower classes, if they 

went to school at all, learned a little reading and writing, 

and learned these in a very imperfect manner. Again 



and again the office of teacher was filled by some old: 
soldier, or by a servant out of a situation. Indeed, the 
trade of schoolmaster had become the refuge of all who 
could not secure any other employment. As the method 
used was on an equality with the teacher, the rod took 
the place of all pedagogy, and the verbal memory was 
the only faculty exercised. 

Comenius, it is true, had made some progress as early 
as the seventeenth century, and had indicated to a 
certain extent the road to be followed, by pointing out 
the value of direct observation as a means. Rousseau 
thought that the poor required no education, and even 
went so far as to say that he would not give himself any 
concern about the education of a delicate child, even 
should that child live to be three score years and ten. 

For Pestalozzi then, and for Pestalozzi alone, was 
reserved the fame of restoring to credit the pro- 
cesses of the method of sense-perception already 
known and in a measure applied, and of determining 
the social value of education as a whole, and the 
best method of determining the process. As Pestalozzi's 
life has been a source of much encouragement to many 
a despairing teacher, the facts of this life are given as 
follows : — 

Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746- 1827) was born at Zurich, 
Switzerland. The death of his father placed his child- 
hood in the care of a refined and sympathetic mother 


who did her best to provide the training that should 
have come from the manly virtues of a father. The 
hours spent by this spiritually minded boy about his 
mother's hearthstone were, however, the hours when the 
lad's soul drank in those things which he afterwards 
turned to account in helping to better the lot of his 
fellowman. As a boy at school he was noted for his 
supreme ignorance or innocence of the common affairs 
of boys. No wonder he was nick-named Harry Oddity, 
and loved, too, for his kindliness of heart. Later he 
read the Emile and became an ardent revolutionist. As 
a boy he spent his vacation with his grandfather, a 
clergyman, who did much to relieve the suffering 
and ignorant poor. Small wonder then that Pestalozzi 
should first attempt theology, which he gave up for 
law which he in turn set aside to become a farmer. 
If we understand Pestalozzi aright, all these changes 
were due to his desire to gain such a position as 
should help him best to realize the great desire of 
his heart, viz., to be the means of lifting the peasant 
class and the poor generally to a higher and happier 

Pestalozzi entered upon an agricultural life for the 
purpose of showing what a scientific farmer could do 
with a piece of land, the equal of which in infertility 
could not be found in the whole of Switzerland. He 
may also have chosen this occupation because in it he 


could have an opportunity of living, as Rousseau had 
commended, a life in accordance with nature. As a 
farmer, Pestalozzi was a complete failure. But this 
failure gave him an opportunity of trying an experiment 
much nearer his heart — the founding of an industrial 
school for destitute children. So Neuhof, the name he 
had given his farmhouse, became a refuge for a number 
of the children of the very lowest class. These children 
were fed and clothed at Pestalozzi's expense, in return 
for which they were set to work to raise various farm 
and garden products in the summer season, and at 
spinning and weaving cotton during the winter. While 
thus engaged they spent some time in reading ; in 
committing verses to memory, and in working arith- 
metical problems. Pestalozzi wished to help the 
peasant poor. The only help that would prove of value 
was education. In other words, he wished to place the 
children in a position where they could help themselves. 
As character is shaped to a considerable extent by 
environment, Pestalozzi surrounded the children by the 
best conditions he could command. But the combined 
responsibilities of manager, teacher, gardener, etc., were 
beyond one so impractical as Pestalozzi. The children 
experimented upon were the very refuse of society, 
while the people of the locality were entirely unappre- 
ciative of Pestalozzi's purpose. The experiment came 
to an end for want of funds but not before it had given 
the world an idea that modern times has turned to 


account in the many industrial institutions of this and of 
other lands. 

The next eighteen years Pestalozzi devoted in part 
to literary work and to the encouraging of the revolu- 
tionary movement that had arisen in France. Pestalozzi 
began to write at the suggestion of his friend, Iselin of 
Basel, and for the purpose of supplying himself and his 
family with the necessaries of life. Had Iselin hinted 
at catching mice for a livelihood, Pestalozzi would have 
followed the advice just the same. His most popular 
work, a work that exerted the greatest influence, was 
" Leonard and Gertrude." This work pictures the 
simple life of the people, and the changes brought 
about in a certain little village, by the wisdom and 
the devotion of a simple-minded woman. By her 
industry, and patience, her skill in training her children, 
Gertrude saved her husband Leonard from becoming a 
drunkard. Neighbor's children came within the sphere 
of influence and in the end, the whole village was 
improved. " Leonard and Gertrude " was an effort to 
popularize the new education of Pestalozzi, an education 
that was to consist in a moral and intellectual growth 
of the child, a development which would in turn affect 
a similar reform in society as a whole. To bring such 
a condition into realization was Pestalozzi's mission as 
an educator. 


In the year 1798, Pestalozzi set aside theory for 
practice. " I will turn schoolmaster so that practical 
demonstration may be given my theories. ,, No stronger 
testimony of the value of these ideas can be found than 
the fact that here was a man past his fiftieth year, a 
man who had little learning and no experience as a 
teacher, a man, too, who had made a failure of every- 
thing he tried ; yet this man has had more influence 
than any other person upon the educational reforms of 
the succeeding years. A reason for this is seen in 
Pestalozzi's tremendous enthusiasm and also in the 
fact that his ideas being founded upon experimentation 
were therefore incomplete, but suggestive to those who 
succeeded him and who endeavored to build upon the 
foundation laid by him. 

In the year above mentioned, Pestalozzi accepted the 
charge of an orphanage at Stanz, and his appointment 
came about in this manner. In 1798, Switzerland was 
overrun by the French and everything was remodelled 
after the approved pattern. Certain Roman Catholic 
people at Stanz, not willing to give up their local rights 
objected. The French troops thereupon slaughtered 
the fathers and mothers of the district and made 
orphans of their children. Pestalozzi was asked to 
become father, mother, nurse, doctor, teacher, etc., to 
these children. He repaired at once to Stanz, glad of 
having an opportunity of doing something. With these 


children he first worked out the germs of the new 
educational practices. Here, again, he combined hand 
and head work ; and here he found that the experience 
of most worth to mental development was the experience 
coming directly from those activities of greatest interest 
to the children. 

The experiment at Stanz, has often been alluded to 
as an educational miracle. Look at the difficulties of 
the situation ; more than forty children who had to be 
housed, fed, nursed and taught, a problem of itself 
surely difficult enough. Add to this the fact that few 
had books or slates ; that Pestalozzi was a Protestant 
appointed by a hated government to teach the children 
of Roman Catholic parents. Add further the success 
attending the efforts of a few short months : happy 
children, a school atmosphere where love prevailed, and 
wonderful progress made in reading, composition and 
arithmetic. Put all these together and say whether this 
experiment was or was not a miracle. But poor, old 
Pestalozzi could not stand the tremendous strain. His 
health failed and a period of rest had to ensue. On his 
recovery he found his children scattered and the convert 
utilized by the French for hospital purposes. 

At Burgdorf, in the following year, he was allowed to 
share the class of a shoemaker who taught some non- 
burgher children in a schoolroom in the loft of his 
shoeshop. As there was some danger that Pestalozzi's 


kindness of heart would win all the children, the shoe- 
maker grew anxious when he thought that such a 
condition might eventually lead to a financial loss on 
his part. He, therefore, worked upon the suspicions of 
the parents of the children by representing Pestalozzi as 
a faddist, in fact a dangerous man to intrust with 
the education of the children. To relieve matters, 
Pestalozzi was appointed to one of the village classes, 
where he worked out the meaning of the object-lesson 
as a means of mental development. A private school, 
partially endowed by the government, was subsequently 
opened in the old castle of Burgdorf, and here Pestalozzi, 
ably assisted by several teachers in sympathy with his 
ideals, conducted a series of educational experiments 
with teachers and pupils along the lines of the new 

The work at the institute of Burgdorf, directed as it 
was toward the education of the children and the 
training of teachers, was watched with very great interest 
and widely discussed through magazine and pamphlet 
controversy. But again Pestalozzi was forced to 
abandon his post and withdraw to Yverdun, where his 
last and longest experiment was conducted. Here, 
more than hitherto, the work was directed toward the 
training of teachers and in direct experimentation with 
the view of reforming existing methods. Text-books 
were prepared ; students from almost every country 


were trained ; and noble visitors welcomed almost every 
week. But the task of managing so large an institution, 
to say nothing of the labor of conducting a world 
reform, was too great for the old enthusiast, who was 
over sixty when the institute was organized, and who 
never possessed any ability for practical management. 
The following summary of Pestalozzi's life is found 
on his tombstone : — 

" Saviour of the poor at Neuhof; Preacher to the people 
in Leonard and Gertrude ; Father of the fatherless at 
Stanz ; Fotmder of the neiv Elementary School at 
Burgdorf ; Educator of humanity at Yverdun. Man — 
Christian — Citizen. Everything for others, — nothing for 
himself. Blessings be on his name." 

Having become acquainted with a few of the main 
features of Pestalozzi's life, in what particulars did 
he influence education in general ? To appreciate 
Pestalozzi's work properly, it is necessary to have some 
adequate conception of his time. Think of the unsettled 
condition of France and western Europe generally. 
The people felt that something was required, but what ? 
No wonder there were some who advocated a new 
religion, and others who advocated no religion ; some 
who looked to a settled government and _ others who 
looked to a reign of anarchy as being the safest road 
to social regeneration. Throughout these evil days, 
Pestalozzi stood like a prophet of old, and pointed to a 


new education as the surest means to social order. 
Think again of the old educational point of view : — An 
attempt to teach religion through the catechism ; an 
attempt to gain thought through an ability to read 
words, words, words. An attempt to study mathematics 
and natural science apart from practice. Think of these 
things, and try to answer how it was possible for such a 
conception of education to properly adjust the child to 
his environment ? In opposition to this attitude place 
the new idea, namely, that education should develop the 
elements of power implanted by nature, and should 
develop these by exercising the natural capacities 
on a properly selected and properly graded series of 
experiences. Again, think of a day when any idle 
person was not considered incompetent when teachers 
were wanted. Think of Pestalozzi's experience with the 
village shoemaker who made shoes as his business, but 
who also " kept school " on the side. It was Pestalozzi 
who emphasized the place of love in education. It was 
he also who demanded that the schoolhouse should 
embody the best home ideals of the district. 

In the matter of method, we may mention, that 
Pestalozzi placed the greatest stress upon mental, rather 
than upon written arithmetic. Instruction in primary 
number was connected with the concrete, and children 
were made to think. Geography was based upon the 
surroundings, the schoolyard or the village furnishing 


the simple elements which in turn expanded until a 
knowledge of the earth, as a whole, and its relation to 
man were developed. Music and gymnastics also 
formed important parts of his programme, the latter 
being a complete innovation, inasmuch as Pestalozzi 
made some attempt to treat the various school games 
from their educative standpoint. Again, with Pestalozzi, 
composition seemed to be of greater importance than 
formal grammar. These, however, are but a few of 
the many features of Pestalozzi's school. The great 
purpose of his efforts was to reform existing methods in 
the interests of the poor and the needy, and at this task 
he labored, forgetting himself because of his great love 
for the masses and because of his compassion for 
their often wretched condition. 

Herbart (i 776-1 841). The work of Herbart may be 
said to consist in an attempt to unify the work of 
Pestalozzi and that of the old education, and in recog- 
nizing the parts played by mental construction and 
memory in the act of acquiring knowledge. Herbart 
maintained that the mind acted as a unit, that it 
possessed no inherent faculties, but that it was capable 
of entering into relations with the external world through 
the medium of a nervous system, and that it was thus 
able to become mind. In other words, the mind is built 
up by the use made of its own experiences. Herbart 
argued that the mind was neither inherently good 


nor bad, but that it may develop either way according 
to the material received and the manner it assimilated 
this material. Indeed, the great feature of mind, as 
viewed by Herbart, is this very power of assimilation, 
therefore, education by determining what experiences 
the mind receives and the way these experiences 
are built up into the higher mental processes is 
the chief factor in estimating both the mind and 
the character. Herbart, furthermore, was of the opinion 
that the will should not be looked upon as an in- 
dependent faculty, a sort of autocrat of the mind, 
but rather as a functioning of mind growing out of 
and being dependent upon the mind's effective ex- 

As the process by means of which new experiences 
are assimilated, the process of apperception, is essential, 
such a process must be looked upon by the teacher as 
one of first magnitude, because, through this process the 
mind receives its ideas, ideas lead to action, and action 
determines conduct. If conduct, and therefore character, 
depend upon the experiences acquired, the method of 
acquisition can not be considered a matter of trivial 
importance. It is the teacher's business to know what 
experiences ought to be presented. It is also hi« 
business to know how these experiences slwuld be 
presented. We may, however, be able to lead the horse 
to the water-trough : how shall we make him drink ? 


Herbart recognizes this and supplies the remedy. As 
attention is based upon the ideas contained by the mind 
then is it the teacher's business to see that the children 
should be deeply interested in the various subjects of 
the programme of studies. To succeed in this, the 
teacher must see to the materials of instruction and also 
to the method. Out of these two features have grown 
the principle of the correlation of studies and the 
doctrine of method. By the former is meant such an 
harmonious organization of the school subjects as shall 
contribute in the best and most economic manner to the 
mental and moral growth of the children. Correlation 
of studies condemns any attempt to isolate a school 
subject ; school subjects should support each other 
whenever this is possible and desirable. Herbart also 
said a great deal regarding method. Indeed, the 
enthusiasm to-day for correct procedure in the presen- 
tation of the several school subjects is but an echo 
of Herbart. Herbart's influence is seen in the em- 
phasis placed upon the recitation rather than upon 
the general school spirit. His influence is also seen in 
emphasizing character as the goal of all educational 
effort. Herbart aided the cause of educational reform 
greatly in recognizing the importance of a psycho- 
logical basis of education. Herbart's psychology, faulty 
as it may be, has, nevertheless proven an excellent 
pedagogical incentive for upwards of half a century. 


Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852). In Froebel's day the 
child remained, except to fond parents, a supremely 
uninteresting being until he had made some progress at 
school and could show off the teacher's power to 
advantage. With all his enthusiasm for education and 
his desire to place it on a scientific foundation, 
Comenius had really very little scientific insight into 
child nature. It was Rousseau who pointed out where 
the Mundering occurred. He declared that teachers 
did lot understand children, and that a knowledge of 
chi f i nature and child mind was of first importance. 
R' isseau, however, failed when he tried to give practice 
t his views, but his work inspired Pestalozzi and 
persuaded him to base everything on an intelligent 
perception of things. What Pestalozzi failed to see was 
that before the period of sense-perception there is a 
period of confused emotions and sensations, a period 
during which the child's mind is struggling to work a 
way toward definiteness, and it was just in this period 
that the genius of Froebel was most in evidence. 

Pestalozzi, Herbart and Froebel all made moral 
character the end of education. Pestalozzi would secure 
this by external means, Herbart by instruction and 
Froebel by emphasizing the emotional side of child 
nature. Froebel's greatest service in the future will be 
in the reforms which his methods and principles will 
have forced upon the higher schools, colleges and even 


Froebel was born at Oberweissbach, a village in the 
beautiful Thuringian Forest of Germany. His mother 
he lost in his infancy ; his father, the village pastor, 
attended to his parish but not to his family. Froebel 
was, therefore, left in charge of the servants, who turned 
him over to his older brothers and sisters, who left him 
to get on as best he might. Matters were improved 
for a short time when a stepmother came to preside 
over the family, but in the end, Froebel was left to 
such consolation as a little child could gather from the 
rustling of the leaves, the whispering of birds and wind, 
and the hundred and one other sounds and stirrings 
of the neighboring woods. At school, Froebel's mind, 
busy with more important things than were on the 
programme, would not work along the lines of the dry, 
old course. As a result, Froebel was counted a dunce, 
and his father was advised of this when the time came to 
send the boys to the university. Froebel's brothers were, 
therefore, given a university education, while Froebel, 
himself, was apprenticed to a forester for a period of 
two years. On leaving the forester, at the age of seven- 
teen, Froebel appears to have caught the main idea which 
was to influence him during the remainder of his life. 
This idea, stated in a nutshell, he called the unity of 
nature. Thinking that a study of the natural sciences 
should aid in securing a full mastery of the idea so that 
it could be used as a basis of advance, Froebel with 
much difficulty found his way to the university, where 


he went from classroom to classroom in the hope of 
being able in a short time to gain what he so much 
desired. His money running short, his career at the 
university ended when he was placed in the university 
career for nine weeks, for having incurred a debt of a 
few shillings. 

For the next few years Froebel became in turn an 
accountant on large estates, a surveyor, a private 
secretary, in short, anything that could help him to 
earn an honest penny. At twenty-three he was per- 
suaded to enter a Pestalozzian school at Frankfort, where 
he found his true calling in life. Becoming dissatisfied 
with his professional standing after a couple of years, he 
was put into touch with Pestalozzianism, and even spent 
two years at Yverdun with Pestalozzi. From this 
experience came an enthusiasm for educational reform, 
for which he now prepared by completing his university 

In the year 1816, in the peasant village of Griesheim, 
Froebel opened his " Universal German Educational 
Institute," his pupils being his own nephews. Removing 
to Keilhau in the following year, Froebel gathered about 
him a competent staff, and worked along a line of 
educational improvement somewhat similar to that 
followed by Pestalozzi. Here, however, he soon met 
with the disfavor of the government at Berlin, and 
was suspected of being at the bottom of some of the 


socialistic literature which was being spread over the 
length and the breadth of Prussia. A government 
inspector was soon dispatched to Keilhau, and advised 
to make a diligent search into the whole institution. 
This inspector's report completely exonerated Froebel, 
and commended his school to such an extent that 
Froebel became a prominent figure in German school 
life. Not satisfied, however, the Government took no 
precaution to conceal its dislike, and the result was the 
closing of the institute for want of children to attend. 

Froebel was afterwards invited to Burgdorf, where 
Pestalozzi had formerly labored. Here he was asked 
to undertake the establishment of a public orphanage, 
and also to superintend a course for Swiss school 
teachers. In his conferences with these teachers, Froebel 
found that all the schools suffered from the unsatisfactory 
state of the raw material entering them. Until the 
school age was reached children were entirely neglected. 
Froebel seized upon this neglected period of child life, 
and when his ideas were fully matured he returned to 
Germany and opened the first kindergarten of history 
in the village of Blankenburg in 1837. 

Convinced of the importance of this school, Froebel 
described it in a weekly paper. He also lectured in 
the great towns and even went so far as to give a 
kindergarten course of instruction to the young teachers 
of Blankenburg. The first kindergarten, however, 


failed for want of financial support and Froebel devoted 
the remaining years of his life to an endeavor to educate 
Germany and the world in the matter of kindergarten 

While at Keilhau, Froebel wrote his " Education of 
Man," a book embodying, as one has said, " all the best 
tendencies of modern thought on education," but 
unfortunately a book so written that the real meaning 
of the author can not readily be grasped. " Centuries 
may yet elapse before my view of the human creature 
as manifested in the child, and of the educational 
treatment it requires, are universally received." If this 
is Froebel's own judgment, then there is no wonder 
that we have as yet made so little headway with 
the " Education of Man." Froebel's main idea may 
be stated somewhat as follows : — The process of 
education is the process of the evolution of man. To 
develop properly we must have exercise, and that 
exercise, too, which is in harmony with the nature of the 
thing and suited to the capacity of the thing. The best 
exercise comes through the child's own activity, hence 
self-activity is the first law of instruction. In a word 
the child must be looked upon as a creative and not as a 
receptive being, and education must at all times take as 
its starting point the natural desire of the child to 
express himself in action. The school to Froebel was 
the place where the child realized his own personality 
and developed his own independence of mind in associa- 


tion with children of his own age, and in exercises 
naturally interesting to all 

An account of the education of children between the 
third and seventh years is an account of the kindergarten. 
The kindergarten is a system of education intended to 
precede the regular elementary training, and to prepare 
for this by exercising all the powers of the child 
with the view of rendering him self-active. Froebel 
discovered many powers dwarfed in infancy and in 
early youth because of suitable mental and physical 
nourishment being withheld. He believed that every 
child might be developed all round, providing proper 
amusements were furnished. He, therefore, studied the 
games and plays of the children of modern and of 
ancient times, and tried to find out the special adaptation 
of each to mental and physical growth. By so doing he 
formed a system of culture adapted to very young 
children. This in its first stages was made up of ball 
games accompanied by songs, later with such geometric 
forms as the sphere, cylinder and cube, with which a 
variety of interesting exercises were associated, while all 
were intended to increase the attention and the initiative 
of the children. 

The exercises of the kindergarten are carried on now 
in a sitting posture, now standing ; now walking ; all 
this for the sake of variety. These exercises, moreover, 
are all such as may be successfully carried out by any 


person of ordinary ability and tact. They consist of 
easy ball games, inarching, singing, light gymnastics, 
reciting children's poetry, imitating the doings of 
animals and the occupations of men. The teacher is 
not to teach but to lead the pupils by conversation or 
questions, so that they may become inventive rather 
than dependent upon the teacher. The discipline, too, 
is never to be sought for by authority, nor by any 
mechanical means. If the child be kept profitably busy 
he will do nothing out of harmony with the school. If 
the right spirit be present all the moral influences which 
should spring from cheerful, self-active, happy children 
should not be wanting. Has the kindergarten anything 
to do with the work of the ordinary rural and village 
schools of Canada ? Much in many ways. First of all, 
the kindergarten illustrates the great principle of the 
necessity of making school work interesting to the little 
learners. If the kindergarten knowledge of normal 
school students will induce them to put just a little 
of the kindergarten spirit into the work of the primary 
grades it will repay a hundredfold. If it impresses the 
fact that the child-mind deals with the concrete rather 
than with the abstract, and if it induces teachers to 
conform their instruction to this principle, it will make 
them much better primary teachers than the great 
majority of their predecessors. If it finally succeeds 
in imparting the truth that activity is one of nature's 
own laws of child growth, and causes teachers to 


furnish employment to the smallest children, it will 
bring such a love of school that study will be a 
delight and teaching a pleasure. 

One of Froebel's strongest influences upon the 
practical work of the school is seen in the place he 
gave to play in the earlier stages of instruction. It is 
through play that the child first pictures the world to 
himself ; it is therefore through play that the instructor 
can give the interpretation of the life he wishes to im- 
part. Froebel also gave to manual training and to 
industrial education of every kind the place which these 
are so rapidly occupying at the present time. Finally it 
is from Froebel that some of the best suggestions in the 
field of nature study have come, and from him, too, 
the strongest guarantee of the sanity of the modern 
nature study movement. 


1. Compare the educational ideas of Rousseau and Pestalozzi ; 
of Rousseau and Froebel. 

2. What modern schoolroom practices can you trace to Herbart 
and to Froebel ? 

3. What did Froebel owe to Pestalozzi ? 

4. To what extent can the work of instruction be made to bear 
directly upon conduct according to Herbart ? 

5. Give an account of Pestalozzi's work at Stanz and Yverdun. 

6. Write an essay on the "Psychological Tendency in Educa- 
tion." Reference, Monroe's History of Education. 


(an education by means of the natural sciences.) 
Before the period of the Reformation, Latin was 
the subject par excellence on the various school pro- 
grammes. Since the Reformation, Latin ceased to 
be the religious language of a large portion of Europe. 
With the extension of the various modern literatures, 
Latin could not claim to be the sole means of literary 
culture. Still, Latin had several centuries back of 
it, and if ever a school subject had time to become 
systematized, that subject was Latin. What if Latin 
ceased to exert a living interest ? The world was 
not yet ready to set aside a subject upon which 
the greatest men of two centuries had fed. Notwith- 
standing all this, a new theory had to be devised 
for retaining Latin in its place, and this theory was 
soon forthcoming. It was this, the valuable thing in 
education is not the thing learned ; the really vital 
thing is the learning process. The argument resulting 
in this conclusion may run somewhat as follows : — 
" Latin has been tried and has not been found wanting. 
Latin was good enough for our fathers and our grand- 
fathers. Latin made them great and it will help 
to make us and our children great. The proposed 
change is radical. It will surely destroy our most 
cherished institutions, etc." The theory stated is an 

enunciation of what is called the doctrine of formal 



discipline \ a theory which posited that a few subjects 
thoroughly taught and mastered, would be of much 
greater educational value than half a dozen or more 
subjects demanding the same time and energy. 
Mathematics, the classics and logic train the various 
mental faculties so perfectly that the memory will. be 
developed, the reason strengthened and the mind as a 
whole so equipped that success will follow, no matter 
what the nature of the work of life might be. As 
there were none at hand at this time to urge the 
ground that since all mental exercise takes its rise 
in a special mental content, its character would be 
determined by its origin. In other words, it would be 
nonsense to assume that thinking power developed, say 
by the study of mathematics, would as such, have any 
value in the field of botany. Such thinking to be of 
use must spring from a biological content and from 
nothing else. 

As time went on the natural sciences gathered 
strength from several sources. Rousseau had mentioned 
the importance of nature-material. The sciences of 
physics and biology had grown apace. Extraordinary 
activity along the line of inventions had created a 
feeling in favor of science. All these helped, but the 
sciences had to fight every inch of the way before they 
were admitted to the universities and the schools. 
Some of the reasons advanced by the devotees of 


science are as follows : — The study of science furnishes a 
capital training for the observation. In other words, the 
use of the so-called laboratory-method furnishes an exer- 
cise not merely for the senses but also for the mind. A 
second reason is found in the consideration that a study 
of science should train a student in the organization of 
his experiences by comparison and induction, developed 
in a specially valuable field. The student of science 
experiments with the facts themselves and not with 
grammars and lexicons and the various other symbols 
of facts. Here the scientific method may be employed, 
and here, too, the principal value of the study of natural 
science is found. Again, the study of science disposes 
the mind to deal with all questions in a dispassionate 
way. The study of science should develop open-minded, 
cautious reasoners : persons who do not use their 
reason to find arguments to defend conclusions furnished 
from some external source, but who use reason to 
learn what is true. How many studies there are so 
filled with mere human opinion, and showing at every 
point the stamp of human workmanship, that an 
unprejudiced judgment is almost an impossible thing 
to attain. In the fourth place, the information which 
the study of natural science imparts, and the house- 
keeping ability which science laboratories foster, may 
be of no small value to the individual, and may be 
of immense value to the race. Final!)/, the method of 
scientific procedure is the inductive method, a method 


agreeing in every particular with the most approved 
psychological position, and attested by the remarkable 
effect of natural science on the character of school texts 
as a whole. 

The earlier campaigns of the struggle between the 
classics and the natural sciences were waged by en- 
thusiastic and well-meaning reformers ; men possessing, 
perhaps, more zeal than knowledge. Later, the struggle 
was continued by men of a broad and scientific spirit, 
such men as Herbert Spencer and Thomas Huxley. 

It may be well at this point to mention a few of the 
points emphasized by those who would like to see the 
classics retained on the courses of study of our secondary 
and higher schools. Much has been said and written 
within the last quarter of a century for and against the 
value of the study of the classical languages and 
literatures. Some there are who see in the humanistic 
school only a ruin standing in the midst of the many 
palaces of modern culture. There are those so infatuated 
with the material and the commercial that they decry 
the classical studies as useless because they do not teach 
students how best to utilize, e.g., the coalfields of Western 
Canada. Surely these are extreme views. " Is not the 
life more than meat, and the body than raiment " ? 
Surely history has shown that any nation aiming only 
at industrial and commercial expansion, and thereby 
neglecting the higher ideals of mankind, may flourish 


for a time, but in the end contribute but little to real 
civilization. Granting then that the classical studies 
possess a real and substantial place in general culture, 
what specific points are usually brought forward by the 
devotees of the classics ? In the first place the classics 
are not living languages to be learned without reflection 
and without effort. If properly learned the classics 
must be learned by system, rule and formula, a process 
requiring patience, developing concentration of mind 
and contributing in the end to clear thinking and to 
accurate reasoning. In the next place it is through a 
study of the literatures of Greece and Rome that a 
first-hand knowledge of all the great masterpieces of 
antiquity is acquired. To cut off this field would be to 
cut off many centuries of the world's experience. In 
the third place the classics provide the elements by 
means of which the aesthetic sense is gradually 
developed and taste acquired. In the fourth place a 
study of the classics is important to a scholarly under- 
standing of the English language. Finally, the classical 
studies possess a moral or ethical element in the many 
examples of natural virtues presented ; from that of 
chaste Penelope to that of Socrates dying in obedience 
to what he considered to be the voice of God. 

Herbert Spencer (1820- 1903). Spencer challenges 
the course of studies as he found it in operation in the 
schools of England. He then proceeds to lay down 
the principles by means of which a more rational course 


may be formulated. In general he adopts the basis of 
Rousseau and demands, not a " return to nature," but 
a "return to science." 

Spencer's educational theories are to be found in his 
book entitled " Education." In this book Spencer 
discusses four topics — What knowledge is of most 
worth? Intellectual education; Moral education; and 
Physical education. In his essay on " Intellectual 
education," Spencer practically makes a summary of the 
main principles agreed upon by the great educational 
writers since the time of Comenius. In " Moral 
education," Spencer anticipates a great deal from the 
general application of the discipline of consequences, 
while his chapter on " Physical education " condems the 
" hardening-process " plan, and prefers free and vigorous 
play to formal gymnastics. It is, however, in dealing 
with the first subject — "What knowledge is of most 
worth?" that Spencer has actually made a valuable 
contribution to educational literature. Every elementary 
school teacher needs to consider the relative values of 
arithmetic, geography, history, reading, etc., if these 
subjects are going to find their due allowance of time 
and place on the school time-table. 

In discussing the aforesaid question, Spencer, with a 
mere wave of the hand, sets aside the query — " Is that 
subject which contributes the most valuable information 
also the subject affording the best mental discipline ? " 


Spencer thinks it would be contrary to the beautiful 
economy of nature were it otherwise. Passing on, 
Spencer defines education as complete living, and 
endeavors to tabulate all the activities which subserve 
this. For complete living, we must know in what way 
to care for the body ; in what way to care for the mi7id ; 
in what way to manage our affairs ; in what way to 
bring up a family ; in what way to behave as a citizen ; 
and lastly, in what way to utilize the sources of happiness 
which nature supplies. 

" There are a number of sciences," says Spencer, 
" which would throw some light on these subjects, and it 
should be the business of education to impart these." 
An unqualified answer to the question here propounded 
can scarcely provide a satisfactory course of study, for we 
are bound at once to ask, to whom ? for what purpose ? 
under what conditions ? How can small children under- 
stand the sciences ? Science work is not for them. 
How would Spencer treat the body ? Physiology is 
suggested. Would a knowledge of this science, were 
it possible for children to acquire it, lead them to act 
when the occasion arose. Children should, doubtless, 
know something of the laws of health, but surely not by 
having them study physiology. 

How would Spencer have us care for the mind ? This 
has already been answered in what we have said on 
Intellectual Education. In summary it is this : The 


mind is an organism. An organism is governed by- 
laws. Discover these laws and educate accordingly. 

Next in importance comes the knowledge of aiding in 
direct preservation of self by assisting in the gaining of a 
livelihood. As such sciences as mathematics, physics 
and biology underlie all the practical arts and business 
of life, these must be known. Does this mean that the 
teacher should decide for each child what his particular 
money-making line should be, and instruct him upon 
this favorite line ? Surely every teacher should know 
the capabilities of the child and develop these, but to 
train a boy for a special calling in life ! Better follow 
the opinion of dear old Pestalozzi and place such a thing 
as of secondary consideration. Better send a child from 
school with a love of knowledge and a mind well dis- 
ciplined to acquire more knowledge. This will in all 
probability be the best asset that the schools can give. 

Mr. Spencer would also have teachers instruct children 
in the matter of rearing children. A very necessary 
thing, no doubt, but how can such knowledge be 
imparted to young children ? It would seem that this 
is a matter for parents and parents alone to consider. 

What about the knowledge which fits a man to 
discharge his duties as a citizen ? Spencer thinks 
naturally of history, but a history consisting of the 
reading of the fifteen decisive battles of history, would 
this be of any value ? Spencer thinks not, but is 


Spencer right? Should not a proper study of history 
widen one's mental vision and help to make him truly 
patriotic ? 

What has Spencer to say of human enjoyment, of art 
and literature, the "sources of happiness which nature 
supplies " ? These he would place in the leisure hours 
of school and also in the leisure hours of life. If this 
were done, how many persons, a generation or two 
hence, would be able even to play the simplest selection 
on the piano ? If Spencer means that these may be taught 
when the serious things of life have been attended to, it 
will mean that they can be no longer studied, for the 
programme of serious things will occupy the whole of 
life. If knowledge be estimated by its influence on 
action, we shall probably rank " mere accomplishments " 
much higher in our schemes of education than they have 
hitherto been placed. 

After establishing to his own satisfaction the pre- 
eminence of science as a means of preparation for the 
several activities mentioned, Spencer next proceeds to 
show that better than language, science trains the 
memory, the judgment and the reasoning. Moreover, it 
is not behindhand in affording a very excellent training 
in even morals and religion. 

As a special plea for a department of knowledge just 
entering upon a highly developed state, and largely 
neglected by the school, Spencer's work on education 


was most important. As a sufficient guide to the 
selection of subject-matter for schools it is not at all 
satisfactory, for it has neglected and undervalued the 
institutional side of modern life, and it has failed to 
discriminate between the individual and the professional 
need of science. We surely need bridges, but should all 
be bridge experts ? 

On the first reading of Spencer's famous chapter, one 
is apt to be carried away by the apparent philosophical 
soundness of its analysis, the convincing force of its 
arguments and the seeming plausibility of its conclusions. 
The critical reader, on second reading, is sure to find 
something wanting and this something is seen in 
Spencer's imperfect view of what constitutes complete 
living, and also in his use of a vague middle term, 
presenting thus a half-truth as if it were a whole truth, 
and leading thereby to error. That Spencer exerted a 
profound influence, however, on science teaching is 
evidenced by the fine physical and chemical laboratories 
of our high and technical schools. 

The views of Huxley (1825- 1895), on the purpose 
of education are contained in the following remarkable 
statement of the product of a liberal education. 

" That man, I think, has had a liberal education who 
has been so trained in youth that his body is the ready 
servant of his will, and does with ease and pleasure 
all the work that, as a mechanism it is capable of; whose 


intellect is a clear, cold logic engine, with all its parts of 
equal strength, and in smooth working order, ready, like 
a steam engine, to be turned to any kind of work, and 
spin the gossamers as well as forge the anchors of the 
mind ; whose mind is stored with a knowledge of the 
great and fundamental truths of nature, and of the laws 
of her operations ; one, who, no stunted ascetic, is full of 
life and fire, but whose passions are trained to come to 
heel by a vigorous will, the servant of a tender con- 
science, who has learned to love all beauty, whether of 
nature or of art, to hate all vileness and to respect others 
as himself. Such an one, and no other, I conceive has 
had a liberal education ; for he is, as completely as a 
man can be, in harmony with nature." 

i. State the line of argument used by Spencer in the discussion 
of—" What Knowledge is of Most Worth ? " 

2. To what extent is Spencer's argument concerning the value of 
scientific studies valid ? 

3. Mention other conceptions of culture and compare them with 
that given by Huxley. 

4. What is the educational value of Physics or of Botany ? 

5. State your position regarding the doctrine oi formal discipline. 


(an education for vocation.) 
Should the modern public school train for vocations ? 
Does the modern school give an adequate training to 
the boys and girls ? Much of the criticism of the school 
has had its foundation in a consideration of these two 
questions. Much interest has been taken in the general 
subject of industrial education by two different classes 
of people. The wage-earner and the manufacturer, on 
the one hand, have a particular interest in industrial 
education, for skilled workmen and industrial intelli- 
gence are factors in the processes of manufacturing 
and construction work. The interest of the student of 
social science, on the other hand, may be considered 
as general and theoretical in comparison to that already 
mentioned. Students of education, however, are coming 
more and more to feel that education is something 
far greater than mere schooling, and that the fullest 
development of the individual child must always take 
into account the fact that every child must live a 
social life. It is absolutely necessary, therefore, that 
children should become familiar with all the activities 
of the community ; should learn to give as well as 
receive, produce as well as consume, and do as well 
as learn. There seems to be a growing suspicion that 
the existing public school system does not meet all the 

demands of modern industrial and social conditions. 



There is a feeling that the schools are too literary in 
their spirit, scope and methods. People at any rate 
are inquiring whether some changes more favorable to 
modern needs may not be devised whereby the schools 
may reach the great body of children and youth in a 
more practical way. Such a modification of existing 
courses, it is thought, should stop the tremendous 
exodus of boys and girls before the high school stage 
has been reached. Now industrial and technical educa- 
tion have no place apart from the general school system 
out of which they must grow, and of which they must 
form an integral part. The purpose of the school is to fit 
boys and girls for intelligent citizenship and indirectly 
to prepare them for taking a successful place in 
the vocations beyond the school days. It must be 
remembered, however, that the day of regular appren- 
ticeship has gone by. At one time the lawyer and 
the doctor studied their professions in the offices of 
older practitioners. Farming was learned by working 
on the farm, housekeeping, by service in the home. 
Modern science, with its marvellous advancement, has 
gradually displaced this system of apprenticeship and 
has forced the work of learning a vocation upon special 
training schools, notably, schools where theology, law 
and medicine may be acquired. 

Again, life has become much more complex in the 
larger cities and towns. Great flats have set aside the 


homes where single families were sheltered. Many 
people have become wealthy, and various circumstances 
have combined to deprive children of those opportunities 
for industrial activity which formerly belonged to every 
home. People now complain that children have nothing 
to do ; that children nowadays receive but do not give. 
Food, clothing and shelter come to children as freely as 
the sunshine and the air, and as a consequence, their 
view of life is narrow and their attitude toward labor 
often wrong. Not having any share in productive labor, 
and out of sympathy with it, boys and girls have now no 
standards by which to measure time, amusements, 
possessions, etc., a state of affairs of very grave social 

A few years ago an attempt was made to recover 
some of the ground lost, and commercial courses were 
added to the existing courses of the high school. In 
permitting this innovation the whole question bearing 
on the right of the community to furnish special training 
for the vocations was practically acknowledged. Later 
courses in drawing and manual training were also added 
with the view of broadening still further the literary 
character of the schools. The results, however, in these 
lines, have not been entirely favorable. Drawing has 
become more and more cultural in its purpose and 
methods, and the original industrial purpose of this 
subject has been largely lost sight of. A similar result 


has attended the introduction of manual training courses 
in some of the high schools. 

All the callings in life for which children and youth 
need to be specially trained for may be considered as 
fa] ling into four classes, namely, professional, com- 
mercial, productive and domestic. The professional and 
commercial classes, the occupations permitting of good 
clothes and clean hands, are already fairly well provided 
for. Coming to the occupations engaged in production 
as distinguished from those of distribution, we find that 
these in their most advanced and scientific stages are 
also provided for. No instruction, however, is furnished 
at the public expense in the occupations of farming, 
dressmaking, market-gardening, printing, etc. Agricul- 
ture, it is true, is recognized by the state in its aid to 
agricultural schools, but there has been no very serious 
effort up to the present time to prepare for them by 
placing suitable courses in our elementary and high 
schools. Book agriculture has been tried, but book 
agriculture defeats the purpose for which it was 
intended. Efforts of a private or philanthropic character 
in the establishment of evening classes for arts and 
crafts serve only to show how great a need there is of 
adequate training schools for the ordinary vocations. 

Many children leave the elementary school at the end 
of grade five. A very small percentage of the pupils 
enrolled ever reach the high school stage. What 


becomes of the child who is no longer interested in 
school life, or who feels the stress of necessity for self- 
support, and is compelled to leave the school at an early 
age ? What provision is made for his apprenticeship ? 
No schools offer a practical training to boys below the 
sixteenth year. The doors of the great industries, where 
an opportunity for picking up a trade might be 
provided, are not open to him. The result is that he 
will drift into some unskilled industry, or into an 
industry undesirable to his taste. So far as the actual 
productive value of the child is concerned, and so far 
as increasing his industrial and productive efficiency is 
also considered the years between the fourteenth and 
the eighteenth are practically wasted years. The 
employments upon which such children enter are not 
employments which demand intelligence and manual 
skill ; such employments, therefore, are not educative in 
any sense. Children leaving school at a later period, 
and especially those who have completed a high school 
course, are more in demand, and moreover, are able to 
enter upon employments of a much higher grade. At 
the same time even these are wanting in manual skill 
and in industrial intelligence. 

Industries recruited from such sources can not com- 
pete with industries manned by operators technically 
trained. In the long run that industry which combines 
with general intelligence the broadest technical know- 


ledge and the highest technical skill will command the 
markets of the world. 

It would thus seem that every community has a right 
to demand the fullest results of the labor of all its 
operators. It would also appear that the individual has 
a perfect right to be so placed that advantage may be 
taken of all the institutions providing a training for his 
special vocation in life. How may these be effected ? 
There seem to be two lines along which industrial 
education may be advanced. First, through existing 
public school systems ; and secondly, through inde- 
pendent industrial and technical schools. What may be 
expected of the former? Elementary school work in 
cities and towns, in other words, schools in great 
industrial centres may be so modified as to include 
instruction and practice in the elements of productive 
industry. This would mean some modification of 
existing courses above, say grade six. Again, the work 
of the high school may be so arranged that the instruc- 
tion in science, mathematics, drawing, etc., shall show 
the application and use of these subjects in industrial 
life. High schools may furthermore provide industrial 
courses and furnish instruction along the lines of the 
principles of agriculture, domestic science, and the 
mechanical arts. What results should follow the insti- 
tution of such courses? All the results are not at 
present in evidence, for many still lie in the "lap of 


time." This much, however, may be said. Such 
courses should aid very materially in detaining boys 
and girls in the schools. Such courses should eventually 
produce young men and women of good judgment, 
men and women in sympathy with productive labor, 
and men and women whose value should be ultimately 
in evidence in the increasing industrial output of the 
community. Such courses, finally, should tend to 
leaven the older courses and help to connect these 
courses more intimately with the life outside of the 


1. Should the schools train for vocations ? Give reasons for and 

2. What do you conceive to be the positions taken by Rousseau, 
Pestalozzi and Froebel on lines similar to that of industrial training ? 

3. What are the purposes of manual training and of book-keeping 
in the schools ? 


* Lately there has arisen persistent, even urgent 
demands that more attention be given moral education 
in all the schools, from the elementary school to the 
university. It is evident that this demand has some- 
thing behind it, and that it is but the forerunner of a 
storm of protest against the absence of a regular in- 
struction in this the most important of all subjects. It 
is, perhaps, time that those responsible for the courses of 
study should appreciate the fact that moral training is 
a most vital problem before the schools of the present 
century. If we would have individuals possessing a 
noble character we must give instruction to the intellect 
by showing what is right. We must awaken the feelings 
that there may be a disposition to do the right. Through 
the feelings the will must be reached so that there may 
be that response that will lead to right action. What 
we would have in the man we must first have in the 
child, and what we would have in the nation we must 
first have in the schools which should be preparing boys 
and girls for active life. The moral influence of the 
school must be made a conscious rather than an in- 
cidental matter. System and method are as desirable 
here as in intellectual practice. Clear ideas of honesty 

*A digest of Moral Training in the School. A comparative study by George Edmund 
Myers, in the Pedagogical Seminary. Vol. XIII, No. 4, Deo., 1906. 



and honor are as appropriate for school lessons as are 
interest, spelling, or any other subject of the school 
programme, The home is not relieved of responsibility, 
but, having contributed to the support of the schools, 
and having delegated the necessary authority, the home 
has the right to expect that, by this division of labor, 
the work will be better performed by those specially 
fitted than if such work were attempted by the home. 

When so important a question as moral training is 
being considered by those most deeply interested in the 
future welfare of our common country, it may not be out 
of place to study the school systems of England, the 
United States, Germany and France, for the purpose of 
seeing how far each is contributing to moral training. 

ENGLAND. — Taking the English school-system of the 
twentieth century, we find two types of Elementary 
Schools, known as the provided and the non-provided 
schools. Board, or provided schools were established in 
1870, and were supported by local taxes and special 
grants. Voluntary, or non- provided schools were 
founded by religious denominations, or by the British 
and Foreign School Society, and were supported by 
denominational funds and by government grants. 
Since the law of 1903 these schools have been 
supported similar to the provided schools. The 
religious instruction of the provided schools is 
undenominational, while that of the other schools is 


About twenty-five per cent, of the elementary school 
teachers have had a two years' training course ; a course, 
however, more academic than professional. Twelve per 
cent, have been admitted to the profession without any 
special training. About twenty per cent, belong to the 
pupil teacher's class ; teaching-apprentices, in other words, 
engaged by the board on condition of teaching under 
the supervision of the headmaster, and .of receiving 
suitable instruction during their engagement. Separa- 
tion of the sexes is common in English elementary 
schools. Feminine influence is becoming predominant, 
and feminine moral qualities are being emphasized 
rather than masculine moral qualities. Games and 
plays occupy a very prominent place in the lives of 
English school children, and teachers are generally in 
sympathy and frequently take part with the pupils in 
these games and plays. 

Militarism and extreme centralization in educational 
management are absent, and the headmaster of the 
English school enjoys a great deal of freedom and 
initiative in the organization of his school and in the 
arrangement of his programme. The government 
requires that certain subjects be taught, but the govern- 
ment does not specify how extensively or in what 
manner those shall be taught. A list of optional 
subjects is also provided, and the master may select 
those of value to the school. In this way local needs 


are provided for and respect is shown the master's 
individuality and responsibility. A school atmosphere 
is thus created which stimulates a like feeling of 
responsibility and initiative in the children. Punish- 
ments are sometimes severe, but order and obedience 
are never of a military character. 

Little importance seems to be attached by some 
inspectors to reading lessons as forces for moral 
training. Other inspectors mention that the teachers 
are striving to direct the reading of the pupils along 
right lines. Most of the reports deal with enunciation, 
fluency, etc., with little regard to the moral possibilities 
of the reading lessons. Pupils are also required to 
memorize many literary selections and to give them 
as recitations. Several inspectors complain that these 
selections are given with no eye to their literary 
value. Nothing is said of their moral value, which 
may, neverthless, be considerable. 

The Act of 1870, establishing a system of elementary 
education in England, made important provisions con- 
cerning religious instruction. It is, therefore, almost a 
universal custom to open school with a hymn and a 
prayer, either the Lord's prayer or one or more of the 
short prayers from the book of common prayer. This 
was followed by a Scripture lesson which occupied 
about half-an-hour. Teachers were instructed to make 
this lesson as practical as possible. Examinations were 


held at regular intervals and reviews were frequent. 
The religious syllabus placed special emphasis on the 
moral teachings of the Bible and was arranged with due 
regard for the age of the children. Regarding the 
manner in which the Scripture lessons are taught it 
may be said that a reverent spirit is almost always 
present and that the lessons, are, on the whole, taught 
with as great care and thoroughness as any other 
lessons. It has been said that " no one who knows 
the schools can well doubt that religious and moral 
teaching of a very valuable kind is imparted in the 
schools, and that the influence of this instruction on 
the conduct and character of the children, and on the 
religious life of the nation, has been profoundly felt." 

Perhaps no one feature of English public school life, 
the school life of the great English public schools of 
Harrow, Eton, etc., has contributed more to moral 
training than the school games. No other schools 
have so fully recognized the culture value of games. 
Outdoor sports are graded and are made a regular part 
of the curriculum. Boys are excused from them only 
upon medical advice, and the masters not only oversee 
them but participate in them. Besides their physical 
effects which are no doubt great, there are other less 
obvious effects, but perhaps these are more important in 
the end. Some of these effects are promptness of action 
and prompt decision ; prompt command on the part of 


the captain and prompt obedience on the part of the 
team. These games teach self-restraint, control of 
temper, a sense of honor, the habits of co-operation and 
straight-forwardness, and they teach all of these in the 
line of the boys' own natural tastes and activities. The 
classical influence of these secondary schools is certainly 
largely offset by that of the " playing field." Still there 
are those who see too much athleticism in the English 
public schools, and who complain that " this absolute 
devotion to sports to the exclusion of almost all other 
interests is one of the weakest points of the English 
educational system." 

Still another feature of the public school which is 
important for moral training is the intimate relations of 
master and boys. The master is with the boys in their 
games and in their tramps. He lives in the same house 
with them ; dines at the same table and shares in their 
daily experiences. This greatly intensifies the influence 
of the master's personality, and contributes greatly to 
the cultivation of that school loyalty which is so marked 
a feature of the great English public schools. 

In the matter of discipline, the " public opinion," of 
the school is largely a public spirit emanating from the 
boys of the highest form. These boys are expected to 
show the highest example in industry, good conduct 
and public spirit. They are also responsible for the 
conduct at meals, in the halls, the studies, and the 


dormitories. The lack of professional training on the 
part of English public school teachers, however, has an 
important bearing on their efficiency in moral training 
and also in intellectual training. The notion that all 
that is needed in order to become a secondary school 
teacher is an adequate knowledge of the secondary 
school subjects is a notion that works evil wherever it is 

Again, the examination system has reached its limit 
in the English public schools and the usual accompani- 
ment of cramming for examinations of all descriptions 
is too frequently present and is even encouraged. 

Another feature having a signiflcent bearing on moral 
training is the class character of the English public 
schools. These are not schools for the children of the 
poor, and the result of educating boys under these 
conditions is likely to breed a spirit of contempt for 
the great mass not so well circumstanced. Close 
competition between classes and not co-operation lies at 
the root of English life, an evil the public school system of 
England tends to perpetuate rather than to discourage. 

Finally, it must not be forgotten that the English 
public schools are for boys and boys alone. Only at 
vacation periods are the boys permitted to enjoy the 
refining atmosphere of the home and the mother's and 
sisters' society. Such exclusion tends to emphasize the 
masculine qualities of personal courage^ sense of honor y 


hardiness \ self-assertiveness to a high degree, while 
sympathy, kindness, self-sacrifice, the higher altruistic 
virtues, are repressed, or at least are not encouraged. 

Such are a few of the features of the English 
elementary and public school systems which are most 
significant for moral training. A number of forces ate 
recognized. Much emphasis is placed upon the teacher's 
personality and, on the whole, the schools stand for a 
cultivation of individuality, self-expression, self-reliance, 
and initiative. On the other hand it must be acknowl- 
edged that the English teacher has but a very meagre 
professional preparation for his work ; that the separa- 
tion of the classes in school life interferes with the 
development of the broadest altruism ; that the moral 
discipline attending the school games may be vitiated 
by undue emphasis, and that the masculine atmosphere 
of the public schools and the feminine atmosphere of the 
elementary schools may not afford the best conditions 
for the moral development of the English boy. 

The United States. — The public education of the 
United States is largely a local matter. Several states 
have made legal provisions regarding moral education 
in their schools, but these provisions vary from a mere 
"encourage morality," requirement, to a mandate 
charging "all teachers, boards of education, etc., with 
the duty of providing that moral training for the youth 
which will contribute to securing good behavior and 


manners, and furnish the state with exemplary citizens." 
Several states have passed laws or made judicial 
decisions concerning Bible readings in the school, and 
all of the states affect to a slight degree, at all events, 
the moral training by demanding a certain standard of 
culture and a suitable character in their teachers. 
Aside from these very general limitations, each city, 
town and rural district is a law to itself in the matter 
of moral training in the schools. 

In a few cities, the schoolboard and superintendents 
provide for an extended, systematic course in moral 
instruction. In other cities the board calls the attention 
of the teacher to the importance of making each part of 
school life contribute to moral training and provides a 
syllabus on ethics suggesting how this may be done. 
Boards in other cities leave their superintendents to 
bring the subject of moral training before the teachers 
from time to time in teachers' meetings and by circular 
letter. In still other cities and in nearly all village and 
rural schools, the matter is entirely in the hands of the 
individual teacher, and whatever is done in moral 
training is done through the teacher's initiative. 

Consequently, direct moral instruction varies greatly. 
Nearly all teachers devote the first few minutes of the 
day to "opening exercises." About seventy-five per 
cent, use Bible readings, or the Lord's Prayer, or both. 
Some give short ethical talks or read stories containing 


moral lessons. Many have their pupils learn proverbs, 
precepts, or short selections from literature having a 
moral bearing. Some take advantage of every oppor- 
tunity which the regular lesson affords to point a moral. 
Others give a few earnest words of moral instruction 
whenever an incident of school life offers a favorable 
opportunity. In a word, direct moral instruction is 
nearly always incidental and unsystematic. 

The teachers of the schools of the United States, 
however, rely on indirect means for moral training. 
Among the first of these, we may mention the want of 
professionally trained teachers. This is the weak point 
in the school-system of the United States. Indeed, if 
we take the country as a whole, we shall find that less 
than one quarter of the city teachers have received an 
adequate professional training, while in many states 
where the rural population predominates, less than half 
have received any education whatever outside of the 
high school grade. Few high school teachers are 
professionally trained, and in many instances the 
so-called normal school course is more a course where 
teachers are prepared for non-professional than for 
professional work. Teachers' associations, institutes 
and summer schools have done much to supplement 
the work of normal schools. The short professional life 
of the school teacher in the United States ; the fact that 
some 80,000 teachers, or twenty per cent, of the whole 


teaching body, are leaving the profession annually, shows 
that the schools are largely in the hands of those wanting 
not only in normal school training but also in common 

A second feature bearing upon moral training is the 
predominance of female teachers. Nearly seventy-five 
per cent, of the public school teachers of the United 
States are women. Again, the organization and manage- 
ment of the schools of the United States must be con- 
sidered in obtaining an estimate of the extent of moral 
training in the school. In the main, the individual teacher 
has a considerable amount of independence, and has, 
therefore, the right sort of atmosphere where initiative 
and responsibility may be encouraged. In a few cities it 
is true that nearly everything is prescribed and outlined 
by the board or by the superintendent, a condition of 
affairs that can only make a teacher's work lifeless and 
mechanical. In most rural schools the teacher is his own 
master, and it may be said that wherever this condition is 
secured there is usually a favorable environment for the 
natural development of the moral nature. The relations 
between teachers and pupils are more cordial than in 
the schools of any other great nation. The children ask 
questions freely and are not slow in expressing their 
opinions. Discipline, too, is more incidental and is 
based upon the interest attached to the work of the 


Again the method of teaching places much responsi- 
bility on the pupil, leaves a great deal for him to work 
out for himself, and thus serves to develop self-reliance 
and initiative. In this particular these schools are far 
superior to the English schools, where too much is done 
by the teacher and too little by the pupil. Even if the 
method simply substitutes one authority for another, 
books instead of the teacher, the pupil learns to depend 
upon his own efforts to find out what these authorities 

The regular studies, especially reading, history, litera- 
ture, manual training and nature study, are generally 
looked upon as having an important bearing on moral 
training. In the school readers of America the heroes 
are always possible. The heroes of the American 
readers have risen from the common ranks and have 
lived recently enough to be emulated. In the case of 
other nations, there is a danger of taking heroes of noble 
blood and placing them too far in the past for school 

The value of games and plays is much less recognized 
in the United States than it is in England. In cities, 
school grounds are often far too small, and recess hours 
too short. Opportunities for spontaneous exercise are 
thus limited, and little is being done by teachers to 
improve this. High school students are, however, better 
circumstanced, and nearly every high school has its 


athletic team and inter-collegiate contests. But even 
here, principals and teachers are lukewarm, and are 
likely to be more interested in the success of the school 
team than in the moral effects of the games. In 
village and rural schools, school grounds are large 
and the children have time enough at noon and at 
recess hours to engage in group games. Teachers, too, 
encourage games by participating in them, though with 
no very great appreciation of the moral value which 
such games possess. Again, the schools of the United 
States are not class institutions, but institutions where 
the rich and the poor alike mingle. Such schools are, 
therefore, centres where the broadest altruism may be 

Germany. — No provision is made for formal instruc- 
tion in morals in the German schools. There is, however, 
in every grade below the university, very definite and 
very direct instruction in religion. But what are the 
indirect contributions of these schools to moral training ; 
in other words, what are the contributions arising through 
the school organization and the school routine? In 
Germany there is no national school system any more 
than there is in the United States. Each German state 
has a system of its own, and as Prussia is by far the 
largest state, and as its school system dominates other 
states, what is true of the Prussian school system is 
likely to be true of the school-systems of Germany as a 


There are in Prussia two classes of schools, namely, 
the people's schools and the higher schools. The former 
are free and are suited to the needs of the lower classes. 
Pupils are admitted to these schools at six, and a course 
covering eight years is supposed to fit for citizenship 
and for the commoner occupations of life. The courses 
of studies are prescribed by the state ; so also is 
the preparation required of the teachers. The higher 
schools charge a fee and are intended for the higher 
social classes. They receive pupils after these have 
covered a three years' preparatory course, and they give 
either a six or a nine years' course of training. This 
course, if of the real type prepares for the technical 
schools and for a commercial life ; if of the gymnasium 
type, for the university and the professions. Some 
of the higher schools are state schools ; others are 
established by cities and towns ; the remainder are 
private ventures. The courses of study in all are out- 
lined by the state, and are taught by state certificated 

Most of the boys and many of the girls of the German 
schools never come under the influence of lady teachers, 
and of those who do many are under their influence 
but a short time. In the higher schools for girls the 
teaching force is about equally divided between the 
sexes, the higher grades being officered by the men. In 
the higher schools for boys all the teachers are men 


The peoples' schools, wherever possible, are organized 
for boys and girls separately. There are, therefore, 
schools for boys only, schools for girls only, and mixed 
schools. Women are permitted to teach in girls' 
schools, in mixed schools and in the primary classes of 
the boys' schools. In 1901 about eighty-five per cent, 
of the Prussian teachers were men. The significance 
of this situation for moral education is open to 
debate, but there can be little doubt that the traits 
of character we designate masculine are unduly 
developed while those traits termed feminine are liable 
to be suppressed. In other words, the predominance of 
male teachers in the schools of Germany stands for the 
cultivation of egoism rather than altruism ; of selfishness 
rather than self-sacrifice. It emphasizes law y authority ', 
and force as motives of conduct rather than love> and 
the desire to please the one in authority. It stimulates 
independence and initiative rather than their opposites. 

Militarism, a marked feature of German character, 
exercises a profound influence on the schools. The 
whole system is pervaded by the military spirit from the 
bottom to the top. Many of the teachers are reserve 
officers ; most of the pupils hope to be ; and all know 
that service in the army awaits them at the end of their 
school days. In the higher schools this influence is 
especially marked and it has been said that " boys go to 
the higher schools, not to be educated, but to secure 


military privileges." The military training of the 
German teachers gives them a military attitude toward 
the work of the schoolroom ; and the home, on account 
of the fact that the fathers have served two years in the 
army, is in sympathy with this military attitude. 

Under these influences a precise military air pervades 
the entire school system and an exacting military 
discipline prevails. Prompt, unquestioning obedience is 
demanded. Strict attention to the task is expected. 
Such an atmosphere cultivates respect for authority ; 
magnifies the teacher's office and intensifies his official 
influence. On the other hand, teachers have not much 
sympathy with the weaknesses of child life. Perfection 
of organization rather than individual differences is 
emphasized. Moral independence and initiative are 
repressed rather than encouraged ; and amiable relations 
between teachers and pupils, relations which often have 
great moral value for the pupil, are looked upon as 
unworthy of schools presided over by men. 

Again, German teachers receive a most thorough 
professional training. Indeed, these teachers are said to 
be the "best trained teachers in the world." The 
German teacher's knowledge of the history and the 
philosophy of education is extensive and sound. In no 
country in the world is teaching on so sound and so 
philosophical a basis as it is in Germany. Teaching 
there is not a makeshift, but a profession. The German 


teacher prepares for his profession, and enters upon 
it as his life work, and the state sees to it that this 
preparation is long enough and thorough enough. If 
one would teach in the German higher schools, he must 
first complete one of the nine-year higher school courses. 
Next, he would spend at least three years in university 
study, largely special work. If successful in his final 
university examination, he would then enter upon a 
two year's pedagogical course, one year of which was 
theoretical and one year practice work. This completed, 
he would be ready for appointment to a regular 
position in a higher school, which appointment may 
come after having waited his turn for half-a-dozen long 
years, spent usually in substitute work or in tutoring. 
The teachers of the people's schools are required to have 
had six years of training, three of which is distinctly 
professional and the remainder special academic work 
related to the course which they are preparing them- 
selves to teach. All this means that German higher 
schools give a more rigorous and exact intellectual 
training than any other schools in the world. It also 
means that German teachers, as a body, make fewer 
mistakes in management, discipline and teaching, 
according to German pedagogical ideals and methods. 

Again, the German teacher instructs his pupils. 
There are no alternate periods of seat-work and 
recitation in the German schools. There is home- 


work in certain subjects. More in the higher than in 
the people's schools, but this work is looked more in 
the light oi fixing previous instruction than as a pre- 
paration for a recitation yet to come. This emphasizes 
the office of the teacher, and so bears upon moral 
training. It brings the pupil more into contact with 
the teacher and less into contact with the text-book, 
and thus makes him more dependent upon the teacher 
than upon the book, and less dependent too, upon 
his own efforts. It tends to weaken the pupils' self- 
reliance and initiative, moral as well as intellectual, or 
at least, to leave these undeveloped. 

Games and plays in the German schools occupy an 
extremely small place. The playgrounds are small, 
and the games played of no sort to induce generous 
perspiration. The fact is, there is no time for sports 
as we know them, and indoors the same criticism may 
be safely made. In the light of what is now known 
regarding the educative value of play, there can be 
little doubt that this lack of play in the German schools 
is a fact of very great significance. It is a failure to 
use one of the most powerful forces for the cultivation 
of elemental, social and personal virtues. School games, 
if properly played, stimulate respect for the rights of 
others, and co-operation and loyalty to the social group. 
Again, they may be used to develop courage, self- 
reliance, self-control, individual initiative and honesty, 


and it is the misfortune of Germany that she is only 
beginning to recognize the value of outdoor games and 
to introduce them into her schools. 

In Germany a sympathy with religious instruction has 
existed for centuries, first as a church institution and 
afterward, when the government assumed the responsi- 
bility of education in state and in city schools. In 
fact, German people have come to look upon religious 
instruction as a matter of course. 

In the Prussian higher schools the aim of this 
instruction is to develop Christian leadership. In the 
people's schools the aim is Christian citizenship. In 
both, faith and dogma are more emphasized than 
conduct, and the religious rather than the ethical 
elements of Christianity are kept in the foreground, 
though the ethical are not omitted. 

In the people's schools thirteen per cent, of the total 
school time is devoted to religious instruction, which is 
given by the regular teacher who has had special 
training for it in his three years' course in professional 
training. The most emphatic feature of the instruction 
is Bible study. For the first two years this is given 
in the form of stories narrated by the teacher ; then 
selected stories written in simple language are read by 
the children, and, finally, during the last four or five 
years, the entire Bible, or an expurgated edition of it 
is read in the class. Many hymns are committed to 


memory ; simple prayers are learned and used in the 
opening and closing exercises of the school ; the church 
calendar is studied and church history, particularly the 
period of the Reformation, is more or less thoroughly 

In the higher schools all pupils are required to study 
religion three hours per week the first year, and two 
hours per week each of the remaining eight years. 
In general culture the course of study used in the 
Prussian higher schools does not differ materially from 
that required in the people's schools. It is, however, 
much more comprehensive in character and includes 
advanced work in church history and in dogma. 

While there may be much in this course of study 
possessing little value for moral training, on the other 
hand, the course is rich in ethical content. It brings 
before the pupil the moral teachings of the entire Bible 
— the stern commands of the decalogue, the fervid 
exhortations and denunciations of the prophets, and the 
sublime moral principles of the Christ. It includes 
also numerous examples of moral heroism and moral 
cowardice, and frequent illustrations of rewarded virtue 
and punished wrong. Again, it brings under tribute the 
ethical content of church history, the significance of 
which is seen in the striking examples of such moral 
heroes as the German Luther, etc. 


Moreover, much of the religious teaching which this 
course affords is tremendously important for the moral 
life. Christianity is essentially an ethical religion. The 
belief that God knows the thoughts and motives of the 
human heart, and that He will punish vice and reward 
virtue are powerful factors in determining human 
character and conduct. As far as its content is con- 
cerned a course of study could hardly be conceived 
which would promise more for moral training. 

But the value of a course of study is not determined 
wholly by its content. Something comes out of the 
relation of this to the life of him who pursues it, and 
upon the manner of presenting it. There are many 
indications that this course in religious instruction is not 
closely related to the lives of the German pupils. Many 
of the clergy complain that there is a lack of vitality ; 
that the teaching fails to reach life, and without seeing 
the real cause of failure, these clergy are urging that 
more time be given, a remedy used only too frequently 
by those who do not understand the situation. 

Again, it can not be said that teachers, one and all, 
present the religious instruction effectively. Some treat 
it as an intellectual subject like arithmetic. Another 
class of teachers present it in an extremely devotional 
manner. Other teachers combine both treatments. 
Still other teachers are out of sympathy with religious 
truth and disbelieve much that they are asked to teach. 


On the other hand, many of the teachers, particularly 
those of the people's schools where the religious life and 
the religious ideals are more akin to those of the past, 
are in sympathy with the course of religious study and 
possess the necessary sense of responsibility for the 
moral and spiritual welfare of their pupils to make their 
religious teaching vital. Whatever may be said in 
criticism of the moral influence of the German schools, 
they stand pre-eminently for the inculcation of obedience 
and reverence. 

FRANCE. — Coming finally to a consideration of the 
schools of France, we find that the great majority of 
French school children are taught by teachers of their 
own sex, and that they associate in school with pupils 
of their own sex. At six the primary school is entered 
and a separation of the sexes begun. Every village 
with a population of over five hundred must have a 
primary school for boys and another for girls. In 
smaller districts both sexes may attend the same school. 
In the higher, or so-called secondary schools, the boys 
and the girls are separate. The boys' schools are taught 
by men ; the girls' schools by women and the mixed 
schools also by women. 

Militarism exercises a strong influence over school life 
in France. The entire school system is centralized, 
officered and controlled like a great army with the 
minister of education as commander-in-chief, and every 


school teacher a subordinate officer whose chief business 
is to carry into effect the orders of his superiors. 
Such a condition makes school discipline military in 
character ; crushes out originality in teacher and in 
pupil alike ; forbids development of moral self-hood ; 
and subordinates the interests of the individual child to 
the perfect working of the educational machine. To 
boast that he knew what was being done in every 
school in France at any particular school hour, was a 
boast that no minister of education should take pride in 
making, for it illustrated a condition of affairs where 
independence of action was not permitted. 

Again, an almost entire absence of games and plays 
from French schools must have a serious bearing on 
the growth of the moral habit. French teachers are not 
so thoroughly trained as are the teachers of Germany. 
Nearly all the primary teachers have had a three years' 
normal course, but this course is largely academic and is 
not based on any extensive scholarship as it is in 
Germany. Teachers in the secondary schools are 
practically untrained, a condition liable to produce 
pedagogical blundering of moral significance. 

The walls of French schools are adorned with 
patriotic mottoes and moral maxims, all of which may 
exercise an unconscious influence in favor of patriotism 
and morality. There is also posted in each schoolroom 
a copy of the law prohibiting corporal punishment, the 


punishments which the teacher may inflict being limited 
to " bad marks, reprimands, etc." One may be excused 
for concluding that the influence of the maxims and the 
mottoes may be more than offset by such a notice. 

Competition and rivalry are encouraged by the giving 
of medals and prizes, and self-emulation is stimulated 
by having each pupil place samples of his best work 
in an exercise book which is taken from grade to grade 
and which is often employed for the sake of testing the 
pupil's progress. 

France has made a more serious conscious effort than 
any other great nation to develop character through her 
schools, and the means chosen has been direct moral 
instruction on a secular basis. In 1882, a law was 
passed making moral instruction compulsory in all the 
public elementary schools, and within a few months this 
instruction was as truly a part of the regular work as 
reading or arithmetic. 

A large majority of primary teachers have received a 
normal school training. As this training includes two 
hours per week in morals, psychology and pedagogy, 
the teacher is provided with elaborate instructions and 
suggestions concerning the task of moral instruction. 

In the elementary programme, that is the programme 
for children from 7 to 9 years of age, the teacher is to 
engage in familiar conversations with the pupils and to 
read to them moral examples, parables, precepts and 


fables. Teachers are also to direct practical exercises 
tending to put morality into action in the class itself. 
The programme for the intermediate grades, that is 
for children from 9 to 1 1 years of age, is more definite 
and treats of — the child in the family, the child at school, 
our country, self-duties, duties towards others, and duties 
toward God. Finally, the programme for pupils from 1 1 
to 13 years of age may be described as a more com- 
prehensive treatment of family, social and national 

In criticizing these programmes, it may be said that 
the gentlemen who arranged them must have been 
thinking more of moral citizens than they were of moral 
children. There is a want of harmony between the 
most fundamental part of the course, the part dealing 
with the duties to self, and the organization and manage- 
ment of the French primary schools. The programme 
is adapted to a democracy, while the organization is 
better suited to an absolute monarchy. 

How are the programmes used by the teachers ? How 
are the many text-books on morals handled ? Is the 
teaching perfunctory and mechanical, or is it vital and 
stimulating. Judging from the evidence bearing on 
these questions we have reason to conclude that the 
course has not been a success : that the methods usually 
employed are most wooden and are not touched in any 
real way by the teacher's personality. It is, however, im- 


possible to determine and difficult to estimate the full 
result of such a course in moral instruction, and France 
must be given due credit for having made a beginning in 
moral training in the face of very great obstacles. 

Summary. — Having now reviewed the principal 
forces making for character in the school systems of 
four great nations, what seems to be the great out- 
standing truth resulting from this review ? Is it not 
this — the personality of the teacher is the ultimate source 
of power in the school? It is customary for us to attach 
certain emphasis to the moral value of history, literature, 
etc., and there can be no question that all these are 
rich in moral culture material. Their significance for 
character depends, however, in the main, upon the 
teacher. It is also sometimes said that the public 
opinion of the pupils has far more influence upon 
character than anything the teacher may do or say. 
But should not this public opinion be in a very 
great measure, the teacher's opinion, the expression 
of the teacher's personality crystallized in the minds 
of the pupils ? It has likewise been said that the child 
should literally breathe in a moral atmosphere at 
home and in school if the best character is to be 
attained. The character of the management will 
determine the atmosphere in which the child's life 
is to unfold. When a school is properly organized, 
the emotions and the will are as carefully exercised 


as the intellect. There are not two kinds of school 
management — one to secure instruction and the other 
to furnish adequate moral training. All things done 
right are in fundamental harmony and the best in- 
struction provides the best means of ethical training. 
In the pupil's little school world he is trained, or should 
be trained to the forms and habits of life which fit him 
for the larger social life in which he must some time 
participate. Human personality is a growth. It cannot 
unfold as it should in an atmosphere not suited to its 
development. Neither can it be manufactured. The 
moral atmosphere of the school is its routine and its 
discipline permeated by the teacher's personality. 

This comparison also emphasizes the immense number 
of means available for moral training. The advocates of 
a particular means, such as direct moral instruction, 
usually overlook or under estimate the many other forces 
making for character. Judging by the experience of 
France, the French must have expected from moral 
training a whole panacea for the moral ills of France. 
But the difference in children makes many ways of 
approach necessary and demands that all these be kept 

In the lower grades, stories and fables, and in the 
higher, history and literature furnish rich stores for the 
cultivation of the moral judgment and for fostering high 
ideals. But the teacher must usually allow the lesson to 


point its own moral. Among other school subjects, 
manual training, nature study and school gardens, all 
contribute to the development of moral character. 
Nature study, if genuine, is essentially a doing, and this 
is the basis of its value as a moral agent. The same 
may be said of manual training and of school gardening. 
Enough has been said regarding the moral worth of 
games and plays. Discipline and management are also 
immensely rich as forces in character-building. A badly 
organized school is, therefore, an educational crime. 
Self-emulation, encouraged by a comparison of the 
pupil's work from month to month with the same pupil's 
work of an earlier date, may supersede much of the 
vicious competition promoted by examinations and 
prizes. The routine of a well-managed school cultivates 
habits of punctuality, regularity, and system, features of 
character often too little recognized. 

The school, in consequence of the changed character 
of the home, has been obliged to concern itself more 
and more with the health, the nourishment, the environ- 
ment and the activities of the pupils during the many 
hours of the day when it does not have direct 
supervision over them. This is done usually by two 
methods. Mothers' meetings are held in the schools of 
many cities for the purpose of bringing home and school 
into mutual sympathy. Again, wherever the school is 
a living institution activities are aroused which possess 


such inherent force that they must work themselves out 
in the child's leisure and recreation. But only such as 
appeal strongly to the pupil and connect themselves 
readily with the home interests can ever acquire this 
momentum. Nature work, school and home gardening 
and manual training all possess this quality. Teachers 
may also influence the home-reading of their pupils, and 
this is a feature that is becoming more and more a 
factor in the school work of teachers. 

This comparison forces upon us the conclusion that 
special preparation of teachers for the work of moral 
training is the first requisite of increased efficiency. 
When all has been said and done the fact remains that 
the moral training of the modern school is haphazard, 
unsystematic and unscientific. Part of it is directed in 
an obscure sort of way by the teachers whose methods 
are chiefly the result of accident ; the greater part is left 
to chance. And yet we all agree that the fundamental 
aim of education is character. 

Now general professional training, and such special 
training as is given in the German, French and English 
schools is insufficient. Adequate training should be 
given in every normal school. Moral training should 
be treated as a separate subject and should be given by 
an expert. Such work should really become the very 
heart of the professional training of our teachers. 


Finally, the school must not merely represent the 
ideals of the community : it must go farther and take 
higher ground when necessary, and make clear and 
definite those points which are not clearly defined in 
the community. If the best ideals are selected and 
properly emphasized, they will remain as permanent 
and powerful factors in all after life. 

i . What direct and what indirect forces bear on moral education 
in a, England ; £, the United States ; c, in Germany ; and d y in 
France ? 

2. Make a summary of the forces which should count for 
effectual moral training in the Canadian schools. 

3. If we had more of that kind of training which would equip 
children for industrial efficiency through the more direct teaching 
of trades or the furnishing of some kind of a commercial training, 
it would make of the children surer bread-winners, and reduce the 
temptations to crime. Discuss this. 

370.9 M152SC.1 

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A short history of education