Skip to main content

Full text of "Report on the conservation status of Shoshonea pulvinata, a candidate threatened species"

See other formats


MONTANA 
STATE 




This <*cover" page added by the Internet Archive for formatting purposes 



REPORT ON THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF 
SHQSHONEA PULVINATA . A CANDIDATE THREATENED SPECIES 



Taxon Name: 

Common Name: 

Family: 

States Where Taxon Occurs: 

Current Federal Status: 

Recommended Federal Status: 

Authors of Report: 

Original Date of Report: 

Date of Most Recent Revision: 

Individual to Whom Further 
Information and Comments 
Should Be Sent: 



Shoshonea pulvinata Evert L Constanct 

Shoshonea 

Apiaceae (Umbel liferae) 

U.S.A., Montana, Wyoming 

USFWS Notice of Review, Category Z 

USFWS Notice of Review, Category 2 

Peter Lesica and J. Stephen Shelly 

27 April, 1988 

N/A 



J. Stephen Shelly 

Montana Natural Heritage Program 

State Library Building 

1515 E. 6th Avenue 

Helena, MT 59620 



STATE DOCUMENTS COLLECTION 
UM 1 Z 1993 



MONTANA STATE LIBRARY 

1515 E. 6th AVE. 
HELENA, MONTANA 59520 



2 '"• 






iitluHK 



This is an abridged report 



For the full report please contact: 



The Montana Natural Heritage Program 

1515 E Sixth Ave 

Helena, Montana 59620 

406-444-3009 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

I. SPECIES INFORMATION 

1. Classification and nomenclature I 

2. Present legal or other formal status 2 

3. Description 5 
^. Significance 7 

5. Geographical distribution 7 

6. General environment and habitat description 17 

7. Population biology of the taxon 21 

8. Population ecology of the taxon 25 

9. Current land ownership and management responsibility 26 

10. Management practices and experience 26 

11. Evidence of threats to survival 27 

II. ASSESSMENT AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

IS. General assessment of vigor» trendsi and status 28 

13. Recommendations for listing or status change 28 

1^. Recommended critical habitat 29 

15. Conservation/recovery recommendations 29 

16. Interested parties 30 

III. INFORMATION SOURCES 

17. Sources of information 31 

18. Summary of materials on file 32 

IV. AUTHORSHIP 

19. Initial authorship 33 

20. Maintenance of status report 33 

V. NEW INFORMATION 

21. Record of revisions 33 
LITERATURE CITED 3^ 



APPENDIX A: Letter from Crow Tribal Council 36 

APPENDIX B: Element occurrence print-outs: Montana 38 



I. SPECIES INFORMATION 

1. Classification and nomenclature. 

A. Species. 

I 

1. Scientific name. 

a. Binomial: Shoshonea pulvinata Evert & Constance. 

b. Full bibliographic citation: Evert, E.L., and L. 
Constance. 198B. Shoshonea pulvinata, a new genus and 
species of Umbelliferae from Wyoming. Systematic 
Botany 7: ^71-^75. 

c. Type specimens: United States, Wyoming, Park Co., 
Absaroka Range, SW side of Rattlesnake Mtn., about I'*. 5 
km W of Cody, T53N R103W S36 SWl/^, 2638 m, exposed 
limestone-derived soil, talus and crevices, growing 
with Arenaria hookeri. Astragalus kentrophyta , 
Castille.^ nivea , Eritrichium howardii, Oxytropis 
viscida, Pinus f lexilis , Pseudotsuqa menziesii, and 
Senecio canus , 6 Aug 1981, E.F. Evert 3^E^ . Holotype: 
RM; isotypes: MO, NY, UC. 

2. Pertinent synonyms: None. 

3. Common name: Shoshonea. 

^. Taxon codes: PDAPI2G010 (The Nature Conservancy); 3212, 
SHOPUL (U.S. Forest Service, Region 1). 

5. Size of genus: Monotypic genus. 

B. Family classification. 

1. Family name; Apiaceae. 

2. Pertinent family synonym: Umbelliferae. 

3. Common names for the family: Parsley Family, Carrot Family. 

C. Major plant group: Dicotyledoneae. 

D. History of knowledge of taxon: Shoshonea pulvinata was first 
collected in 1979 on the west side of Rattlesnake Mountain, Park 
County, Wyoming, by Erwin Evert ( Evert 1577, RM). Subsequent 
searching in 1980 and 1981 by Evert, Ronald Hartman, Robert 
Lichvar, Keith Deuholm, and others revealed additional 
populations in Park County. The genus and species were described 
by Evert and Constance (1982). The taxon is now also known to 
occur in the Owl Creek Mountains, Fremont County, Wyoming. 

Shoshonea pulvinata was first discovered in Montana by John 



Pierce in ITS^i, near Lost Water Canyon in the Pryor Mountains, 
Carbon County. In 1985, Peter Lesica located a population in the 
Beartooth Mountains, also in Carbon County (Lesica et al. 1986). 
Lesica, working under contract for The Nature Conservancy, and 
Steve Shelly of the Montana Natural Heritage Program, searched 
many areas of the Pryor and Beartooth mountains unsuccessfully in 
1986. During 1983, Lichvar et al. (1985) conducted a floristic 
study of Big Horn Canyon National Recreation Area, which includes 
the extreme east edge of the Pryor Mountains. They did not 
locate any populations of Shoshonea. 

In 1987, the Montana Natural Heritage Program was contracted by 
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to conduct a status survey of 
Shoshonea pulvinata in Montana (Project Agreement SE-3-P-1). In 
July, 1987, under subcontract, Lesica conducted additional field 
surveys of appropriate habitat in the Beartooth and Pryor 
mountains of Carbon County. In August, 1987, Lesica and Shelly 
were denied access to the Big Horn Mountains, on the Crow Indian 
Reservation in Big Horn County, by the Crow Tribal Council 
(Appendix A, p. 36). Although Shoshonea may be present on Crow 
tribal lands, no information is available for this area. 

Prior to 1987, the only two occurrences of Shoshonea pulvinata 
known in Montana were the Grove Creek Pinnacles (Beartooth 
Mountains) and Lost Water Canyon (Pryor Mountains)). The latter 
site could not be relocated by Lesica in 1985. During the 1987 
field surveys, Lesica did relocate this site, and discovered one 
additional population in the Pryor Mountains (Mystery Cave). No 
new populations were found in the Beartooth Mountains (Figs. 1, 
S, pp. 3-^). 

E. Comments on current alternative taxonomic treatments: There are 
no known current alternative taxonomic treatments. 

2. Present legal or other formal status. 

A. International: None 

B. National. 

1. United States. 

3r 



Present designated or proposed legal protection or 
regulation: Currently, Shoshonea pulvinata is under 
notice of review for potential listing as a threatened 
species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973 
(U.S. Department of Interior, 1985). Specifically, it 
is included in Category 2 (taxa for which information 
now in possession of the Service indicates that listing 
as a threatened or endangered species is possibly 
appropriate, but for which substantial data on 
biological vulnerability and threats are not currently 
known or on file to support listing). 






rS'-' 



W^KmmA 



i^ 




,-■?*- 











&^ 






^:£Mit|MV:i-i'1;y#%; 












\\^j,^-^^°t^^€r , 



^^^a43MiiN 



5?(^ 



cstev 



r,:i^^^l-^.^. 



-iw 




— . '''■'J ■' "^'^"' .^-^ '^^ ! BIG HORl 



\'. 






7 



--H-x:: 



. D»r wt* I 



^l.;C>' 






. .-0«l'l 0_c^i 

O Q ' 

,4 : « 

I Red.P£y^W _ Jl _ JV'^ 

I Mountain T^ j N. ^^< ^ 






^ 



J" 



<U9?1 



;/" 



/ " 



! ii^'^-^^'r^' 



--^"rrt-T-. 



I 



ive Cave ■ ♦, i. I it 



.♦, 



BIGHOR' 




'C -==hv f 't ' I.' 

' I V ll ^i-^v .+:;^''0-"^' ,^' a"ngI pf?yor 






'-^i/\A \ 









I .X '•/[ ^ \^r I ;:) 






I . 



I ^i 



\ \ ' 



^t.H 



1^2 6 E 



I ^ 






1 









>1 MOUNTAIN U 

'1^ : • ; 'I 



I tRJECREA -ilO 



;ll Cave,). I 



Four byi Four Cave 



* 



WILD HORSE 



I BijC»ve| f\ 



r^Ffe^r^ 






Figure 2. Areas searched for Shoshonea 
pulvinata in the Pryor Mtns . 

Q Areas searched unsuccessfully 

A Shoshonea populations 



\ 5 



b. Other current formal status recommendations: Shoshonea 
pulvinata is currently listed as "endangered or 
threatened throughout range" (global rank = G2G3) by 
the Wyoming Natural Heritage Program (Mollis Marriottf 
personal communication) and the Montana Natural 
Heritage Program (Shelly 1988). 

c. Review of past status: No previous history of legal or 
formal status. 



C. State. 

1. Montana. 

a. Present designated or proposed legal protection or 
regulation: None. 

b. Other current formal status recommendations: Shoshonea 
pulvinata is currently listed as "critically 
endangered" in Montana (state rank = SI) by the Montana 
Natural Heritage Program (Shelly 1988). 

c. Review of past status: No past status. 
S. Wyoming. 

a. Present designated or proposed legal protection or 
regulation: None. 

b. Other current formal status recommendations: Shoshonea 
pulvinata is currently listed as "endangered" in 
Wyoming (state rank = 52) by the Wyoming Natural 
Heritage Program (Hollis Marriott, personal 
communication) . 

c. Review of past status: No past status. 



3. Description. 



General nontechnical description: Shoshonea pulvinata is a low, 
mat-forming, herbaceous, long-lived perennial. The plants have a 
woody taproot and branching underground stems. The above-ground 
stems are 1-3 inches in length and usually clothed at the base 
with remnants of the previous year's leaf sheaths. The leaves 
are approximately 0.2-1.0 inches long and 0.2-0.8 inches wide, 
with a petiole approximately half the length of the leaf. The 
leaf blades are oddly pinnate with 5-11 divisions and oblong to 
oval in outline. The leaf petioles are swollen and papery at the 
base. The herbage is smooth to somewhat roughened. The 
inflorescence is a compound umbel approximately 1/2-3/^ inch in 
diameter. The flowers in these umbels are small (ca. 1/8 inch in 
diameter) and light yellow in color. The fruits are 
approximately 1/8 inch long, slightly roughened to the touch, and 
without wings. 



Shoshpnea forms dense cushions up to 1 1/S feet in diameter in 
open» exposed sites* but is usually smaller and more loosely 
branched in partially shaded* less exposed sites. Plants 
probably begin blooming in May in exposed habitats, and some 
plants can still be found in bloom in July in shaded sites. 

B. Technical description: The following description is taken from 
Evert and Constance (19BE). Plants low, acaulescent* caespitose- 
pulvinate, scaberulous, pleasantly aromatic, herbaceous, 
perennial, 2-8 cm tall, from a woody taproot and branching 
(underground) caudices that are clothed above with the petioles 
from previous years. Leaves petiolate, subcoriaceous, 
imparipinnate, the blades ovate or oblong in outline, 5-25 mm 
long, 3-20 mm wide, the 2-5 pairs of leaflets linear or 
oblanceolate, cuspidate, 2-10 mm long, 0.5-1.5 mm wide, the lower 
leaflets frequently S- or 3-lobed; petioles dilated and scarious- 
sheathing near the base, 5-20 mm long. Inflorescence of 
subcompact compound umbels 0.75-1.5 cm wide at anthesis; 
peduncles erect, 2-5 cm longf involucel dimidiate, the 5-8 
basally connate, entire bractlets linear or lanceolate, 2-6 mm 
long, slightly exceeding the flowers} umbellets of 1-5 sessile 
perfect flowers and 2-6 pedicillate staminate flowers, the 
pedicels up to ^ mm long; flowers yellow, the sepals 5 (or 
ocassionally ^), prominent, unequal, ovate-lanceolate, 1-1.5 mm 
long, the petals oblong-spatulate with a narrower inflexed apex, 
about 1.5 mm long, the stylopodium absent, the disk semicircular, 
the ovary densely scaberulous. Fruit sessile, scaberulous, 
oblong or ovoid-elliptic, subterete to slightly compressed 
laterally, not constricted at the commissure, 2-^ mm long, 1.5-3 
mm wide; ribs subequal, prominent to subprominent , obtuse, not 
winged, ovate in transection, up to 0.3 mm long, 0.3 mm wide; 
pericarp with lignified strengthening cells; carpophore absent or 
vestigial, bipartite, and usually falling with the mericarps; oil 
tubes small, 2-6 in the intervals, 2-6 on the commissure and 
frequently 1 in each rib; seed dorsally compressed, the face 
plane to concave. Chromosome number 2n=22 ( Evert 1772 ). 

C. Local field characters: In open habitats, the dense cushion-like 
habit of Shoshonea separates it from all other members of the 
Apiaceae with which it might co-occur. Vegetatively, Shoshonea 
might be confused with ftstraqalus kentrophyta , which is often 
found in similar habitats, but A. kentrophyta has three-parted 
leaflets. In more shaded habitats, Shoshonea might be confused 
with various species of Cymopterus , but the latter are generally 
more erect and have leaves which are either bipinnate or 
tripinnate. The leaves of Shoshonea are simply pinnate. 

Thus, the mat-forming habit, small yellow umbels of flowers, and 
pinnate leaves distinguish Shoshonea from all other species. 

D. Identifying characteristics of material which is in interstate or 
international commerce or trade: No interstate or international 
commerce or trade known. 



E. Photographs and line drawings: Figure 3 is a copy of the 

illustration which accompanied the publication of Shoshonea 
pulvinata (Evert and Constance 1982). The color slides (p. 9) 
are duplicates of those taken at the sites indicated. Additional 
slides of Shoshonea and its habitat are housed at the office of 
the Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 

i*. Significance. 

A. Natural: Shoshonea is a monotypic genus. Its taxonomic position 
indicates that it may contain a relatively large amount of 
unique genetic material. The species is adapted to shallow 
limestone soils in harsh windswept sites. It may be important in 
stabilizing limestone talus slopes in some instances. Obligate 
relationships with other species are unknown. 

B. Human; The Apiaceae is a taxonomically difficult family. The 
discovery of this genus may help to elucidate generic 
relationships within the Apiaceae. Shoshonea pulvinata may have 
horticultural potential as a rock garden plant. Otherwise, the 
species has no known agricultural, economic or other human uses 
or significance. 

5. Geographical distribution. 

A. Geographical range: Shoshonea pulvinata is currently known in 
Wyoming from the Absaroka Mountains, Park County, and the Owl 
Creek Mountains, Fremont County, and in Montana from the Pryor 
Mountains and Beartooth Mountains of Carbon County - 

B. Precise occurrences. 

1. Populations currently known to be extant. 

a. Montana: Populations are listed in Table 1, p. 10J 
exact locations are provided in Maps 1-3, pp. 11-13. 

b. Wyoming: Populations are listed in Table 2, pp. 1^-16. 
Since all of these populations have been discovered 
within the last ten years, they are presumed to be 
extant. 

S. Populations known or assumed extirpated: None. 

3. Historically known populations where current status is not 
known: Although populations in Wyoming are all presumed to 
be extant, survey work has not been completed in the last 
several years. The current status of these populations in 
terms of abundance and threats is not known. 

i*. Locations not yet investigated believed likely to support 
additional natural populations. 

a. Wyoming: Much of the appropriate habitat in Wyoming 




0.6 mm 



Shoihonea piilvmaUi. A. Habit. B. Leaf. C. Flowering unil)ellet. D. Fruit- 
ing umbellet. E. .Mature fruit, with vestigial carpophore. F. Fruit transection. G. 
Pericarp transection, showing lignified cells. \-C from Evert 1918; D-G from Evert 
2067. 



Figure 3. Line drawing of Shoshonea pulvinata . 

Taken from Evert and Constance (1982). 



10 



TABLE 1. Populations currently known extant, Carbon County, 
Montana. 

Occurrence number: 001 

Site name: GROVE CREEK PINNACLES (MEETEETSE SPIRES) 
Latitude: ^506S9 Longitude: 1071339 Elevation: 71^0' 
Township i Range: 85, 20E Sections: 26, N'iNW'^, E'iSW'-i 

23, Wi 
USGS Quad: TOLMAN FLAT 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1985 
Date of most recent observation: 1986-06-2^ 
Directions: BEARTOOTH MOUNTAINS, CA. 5 AIR MILES SSE. OF RED 

LODGE; HWY. 308 FROM BRID6ER TO BELFRY, THEN HWY. 

397 SOUTH ^.5 MI. TO GROVE CR. RD.; WEST 5 MI. TO 

RANCH, GO LEFT, THEN RT. AND CROSS SOUTH FORK GROVE 

CREEK. 



Occurrence number: 002 
Site name: LOST WATER CANYON 

Latitude: ^50800 Longitude: 1082113 Elevation: 7800' 
Township i Range: 8S, 27E Sections: 13, SP^ 

2^, NE^ 
8S, 28E Sections: IB, W^SW'/^ 

19, NW/4, NE'4SW'4 
USGS Quads: EAST PRYOR MOUNTAIN, MYSTERY CAVE 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 198^ 
Date of most recent observation: 1987-07-10 

Directions: PRYOR MOUNTAINS, ALONG RIDGES EAST OF LOST WATER 
CANYON, 0.95-1.1 AIR MILES SW. TO SOUTH OF LITTLE 
ICE CAVE. 



Occurrence number: 003 
Site name: MYSTERY CAVE 

Latitude: ^50715 Longitude: 1081901 Elevation: 7^80' 
Township & Range: 85, 28E Sections: 20, SE'-i 

21, SW'^ 
28, NW'/4 
USGS Quad: MYSTERY CAVE 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1987 
Date of most recent observation: 1987-07-13 

Directions: PRYOR MOUNTAINS, ALONG RIDGES EAST OF BIG COULEE, 
0.75-0.85 AIR MILES SSE. TO WSW. OF MYSTERY CAVE. 



14 



TABLE 5. Populations currently known extant, Wyoming. 



Occurrence number: 001 
Site name: SHEEP MOUNTAIN 
County: PARK 

Latitude: ^'»SB00 Longitude: 109E020 Elevation: 6800* 
Township i Range: 52N, 10^W Sections: 22, NE'4i 

S4, 5W/4 
USGS Quad: WAPITI 
Year of initial discovery: 

Date of most recent observation: 1981-07-12 

Directions: ABSAROKA RANGE; NW. CORNER OF SHEEP MT. ABOVE POST 
CREEK. 



Occurrence number: 002 
Site name: STAGNER MOUNTAIN 
County: FREMONT 

Latitude: ^32720 Longitude; 10815'»0 Elevation: 7500' 
Township & Range: 6N, 5E Section: 3^ 
USGS Quad: MORRISON CANYON 
Year of initial discovery: 1982 
Date of most recent observation: 1982-07-26 

Directions: WIND RIVER RESERVATION, OWL CREEK MOUNTAINS, STAGNER 
MTN. 



Occurrence number; 003 
Site name: RATTLESNAKE MOUNTAIN CREST 
County; PARK 

Latitude: ^^3330 Longitude: 1091615 Elevation: 8950' 
Township & Range: 53N, 103W Sections: 22, SE"/< TO 17, NW'/4i 
USGS Quads: PAT Q'HARA, CODY 
Year of initial discovery: 1980 
Date of most recent observation: 1980-06-25 

Directions: TWO MILE SEGMENT OF CREST OF RATTLESNAKE MTN., k 
MILES NORTH OF BUFFALO BILL RESERVOIR NEAR CODY. 



Occurrence number: 00'» 

Site name: SW. FLANK RATTLESNAKE MOUNTAIN 
County: PARK 

Latitude: ^+^3135 Longitude: 10912^0 Elevation: 8650' 
Township i Range: 53N, 103W Sections: 35, SW'/ii 

36, SW'^ 
USGS Quad: CODY 
Year of initial discovery: 1981 
Date of most recent observation: 1981-08-06 

Directions: SW. SIDE OF RATTLESNAKE MTN., AND NEAR SE. END, CA. 
9 MI. WEST OF CODY. 



15 



TABLE 2. (cont.). 



Occurrence number: 005 
Site name: LOGAN MOUNTAIN 
County: PABK 

Latitude: ^^2930 Longitude: 1091920 Elevation: 
Township & Range: 52N, 10^W Section: 11, 5E'^ 
USGS Quad: WAPITI 
Year of initial discovery: 1980 
Date of most recent observation: 1980-05-20 

Directions: SOUTH SIDE OF LOGAN MTN., CA. 13 MI. WEST OF CODY 
AND 3/(i MI. NORTH OF U.S. HWY. 1^, 16 & 20. 



Occurrence number: 006 

Site name: NW. FLANK RATTLESNAKE MOUNTAIN 
County: PARK 

Latitude: '♦^3635 Longitude: 1092110 Elevation: 
Township i Range: 5^N, 10^W Section: 35, SW^ 
USGS Quad: PAT O'HARA 
Year of initial discovery: 1979 
Date of most recent observation: 1981-06-19 

Directions: NW. SIDE OF RATTLESNAKE MOUNTAIN, CA. 16 MI. NW. OF 
CODY. 



Occurrence number: 007 
Site name: HEART MOUNTAIN 
County: PARK 

Latitude: ^^3955 Longitude: 1090735 Elevation: 7800' 
Township i Range: 54N, 102W Section: 15, NE'/4 
USGS Quad: CODY 
Year of initial discovery; 

Date of most recent observation: 1981-07-30 

Directions: NEAR TOP OF WEST SUMMIT OF HEART MTN., CA. 20 MI, 
NORTH OF CODY. 



Occurrence number: 008 
Site name: CEDAR MOUNTAIN 
County: PARK 

Latitude: ^^2940 Longitude: 1091015 Elevation: 7680' 
Township i Range: 52N, 102W Section: 8, NW'/^ 
USGS Quad: DEVILS TOOTH 
Year of initial discovery: 1981 
Date of most recent observation: 1981-08-03 

Directions: NEAR THE TOP OF CEDAR MTN., CA. 5.5 AIR MI. WSW. OF 
CODY. 



16 



Occurrence number: 009 
Site name: BALD RIDGE 
County: PARK 

Latitude: ^^'»800 Longitude: 1072000 Elevation: 
Township i Range: 56N, 10^W Section; 25, SE'4i 
uses Quad: -DEEP LAKE 
Year of initial discovery: 1986 
Date of most recent observation: 1986 

Directions: BALD RIDGE, CA. 2 MI. NORTH OF DEAD INDIAN PASS, SE. 
RIM OF CLARKS FORK YELLOWSTONE RIVER CANY0N. 



17 



has had recent floristic survey work. Erwin Evert has 
thoroughly surveyed the Absaroka Range in the drainage 
of the North Fork of the Shoshone River. Rob 
Kirkpatrick has surveyed the Absaroka Range from the 
North Fork of the Shoshone River south to the Owl Creek 
Range (M.S. Thesis, Department of Botany, University of 
Wyoming, Laramie). The Big Horn Mountains have been 
studied by B.E. Nelson and Ron Hartman (Nelson and 
Hartman 198^). Because of their location on the Wind 
River Indian Reservation (Arapaho and Shoshone tribes), 
the Owl Creek Mountains have not been thoroughly 
searched. In addition, the northeast corner of the Big 
Horn Mountains of Wyoming have not been surveyed as 
intensively as the rest of the range, and may harbor 
undiscovered populations (B.E. Nelson, Rocky Mountain 
Herbarium, University of Wyoming, personal 
communication) . 

b. Montana: There are two or three areas in the Big Horn 
Mountains in Big Horn County, on the Crow Indian 
Ressrvation, where Shoshonea might be expected to 
occur. These areas were not investigated, as the 
authors were denied access to the reservation by the 
Crow Tribal Council (Appendix A, p. 36). Also, Sheep 
Mountain, just south of Luther on the north side of the 
Beartooth Mountains (T7S R19E Sec 6), was not surveyed. 
Shoshonea might be expected to occur there; however, 
suitable sites both east and west of Sheep Mountain 
were searched without success. 

5. Reports having ambiguous or incomplete locality information: 
None known. 

6. Locations known or suspected to be erroneous reports: None. 

C. Biogeographical and phylogenetic history: Unknown. Shoshonea 
shares morphological charcteristics with many genera of North 
American Apiaceae, but the relationships are not clear (Evert and 
Constance 1982). Shoshonea pulvinata is one of several species 
endemic to calcareous soils in the area of the northern Big Horn 
Basin. Other such species include Pensteman caryi , Eriqeron 
allocotus, and Erioqonum laqopus . 

6. General environment and habitat description. 

A. Concise statement of general environment and habitat: Shoshonea 
pulvinata is restricted to shallow, stoney, calcareous soils 
associated with exposed limestone outcrops, ridgetops and talus 
slopes. The vegetation of Shoshonea sites is sparse and 
dominated by low herbaceous plants, many of which are also mat- 
forming. In Montana, Shoshonea occurs at elevations ranging from 
6,800-7,800 feet. At this elevation the dominant zonal 
vegetation is Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuqa menziesii ) forest. 
Shoshonea often occurs in windblast areas on the edges of these 



18 



forB5t5» or on exposed ridges surrounded by them. Other commonly 
lecies include limber pine ( Pinus flexilis ) 

__, _ t-me-i 

(Carex rupestris) , 



TOrBSv5» or on e«^»u3«rvi i lutji^a swiiuuhuew w^ ...w.... _ — , 

associated species include limber pine (Pinus flexilis ), Howard's 
alpine forget-me-not ( Eritrichium howardii) , and curly sedge 



B. Physical characteristics. 

1. Climate. 

a. Koppen climate classification: Type BSw, a steppe 
climate with a winter dry season east of the Rocky 
Mountains, where winter cold prevents appreciable 
precipitation; and type Dfb, the Canadian climate, with 
snowy winters and moderately warm summers (Visher, 
195^). 

b. Regional macroclimate: Red Lodge, at an elevation of 
5,250 feet, is approximately 5 miles northwest of the 
Beartooth Mountain site and ^0 miles west of the Pryor 
Mountain sites. For the thirty year period ending in 
19B0, mean July maximum and mean January minimum were 
79.3*F and 11.7«F, respectively. Mean annual 
precipitation was S5.0 inches (U.S. Department of 
Commerce 1988). 

c. Local microclimate: Shoshonea pulvinata generally 
occurs in areas which are exposed to full solar 
insolation, and in very windswept situations. 
Evapotranspiration and diurnal fluctuation in 
temperature is expected to be high. Snow accumulation 
in these areas is minimal, and sites are probably free 
of snow early in the spring. Although these areas 
appear dry, the soils beneath the stoney surface may 
hold moisture well into the summer. 

2. Air and water quality requirements: Unknown. 

3. Physiographic province: Fenneman (1931) places the range of 
Shoshonea pulvinata in the Middle Rocky Mountain Province, 
Hunt (197^) also classifies this area as part of the Middle 
Rocky Mountain Province, within the Rocky Mountain System. 

^. Physiographic and topographic characteristics: In Montana, 
Shoshonea pulvinata occurs on soils derived from limestones 
and dolomites of the Madison group of formations (Perry 
1962, Richards 1955). The Madison limestones lie on top of 
limestones of the Jefferson Formation. Although it is 
possible that Shoshonea occurs on soils derived from this 
latter formation also, it is believed to be mainly 
associated with the Madison formations. Perry (1962) 
indicates that both the Beartooth and Big Horn Mountains 
have been glaciated, while the Pryor Mountains have not. 

In Montana, known sites occur at elevations of 6, 800-7, '♦00 



19 



feet on the east slopes of the Beartooth Mountains and 
7,200-7,800 feet in the Pryor Mountains. In Wyoming, 
Shoshonea occurs at elevations of 5,800-9,000 feet (Evert 
and Constance 19821 Mollis Marriott, Wyoming Natural 
Heritage Program, pers. comm.). The species is found in 
mountainous terrain in areas of sharp relief. In Montana, 
Shoshonea generally occurs on level or gently sloping 
ridgetops, or on the shoulders of ridges. It is 
occasaionaly found on steeper slopes with a warm aspect. 
These habitats are very exposed to strong winds, and winter 
snow accumulation is assumed to be minimal. 

In Montana, Shoshonea is found at the north end of the Big 
Horn Basin in the drainages of the Big Horn River and the 
Clarks Fork of the Yellowstone River. 

5. Edaphic factors: Shoshonea pulvinata occurs in poorly 
developed soils derived from limestone and dolomite. 
Although analyses were not conducted, soils are probably 
highly calcareous. Veseth and Montagne (1980, p. 38) 
describe similar shallow soils derived from Madison 
Limestone in the Big Snowy Mountains of northcentral 
Montana. These soils are well drained, with moderately 
rapid runoff and moderate permeability. Soil cores have ^5- 
90X limestone cobbles and pebbles, and a fine fraction high 
in silt. These soils are slightly sticky and plastic when 
wet, friable to very friable when moist, and slightly hard 
when dry. The high stone and silt content may help retain 
moisture during the growing season. These higher elevation 
azonal soils have not been classified by the Soil 
Conservation Service. 

6. Dependence of this taxon on natural disturbance: Shoshonea 
appears to be confined to areas where exposure to the wind 
minimizes snow accumulation, and where subsequent soil and 
vegetation development are thus inhibited. Without the 
effects of wind, soils would presumably mature, and zonal 
vegetation (i.e., Douglas fir forest) could develop and 
shade out individuals of Shoshonea . 

7. Other unusual physical features: None observed. 

C. Biological characteristics. 

1. Vegetation physiognomy and community structure: In Montana, 
Shoshonea pulvinata occurs in relatively barren, fellfield- 
like communities amidst dry forests of Douglas fir and 
limber pine. In these communities, scattered, small 
individuals of these tree species, as well as shrubby 
cinquefoil ( Potentilla fruticosa ) and Wyoming ninebark 
( Phvsocarpus monoqynus ) , may also be present. Otherwise, 
the vegetation is dominated by herbaceous perennials, 
including graminoids such as spike fescue ( Hesperochloa 
k i nq i i ) and curly sedge ( Carex rupestris ) , and cushion- 



20 



forming plants such as Howard's forget-me-not ( Eritrichium 
howardii ) t stemless goldenweed ( Haplopappus acaulis )> 
SweetHater milkvetch ( Astragalus aretioides ) > rockmat 
( Petrophyton caespitosum ) , fragrant pussy-toes ( Antennaria 
aromatica ) > and kelseya ( Kelseya uniflora ). 

Regional vegetation types: For Montana* Ross and Hunter 
(1976) place the Pryor Mountain sites in the Douglas Fir 
Climax Forest Zone* and the Beartooth Mountain site in the 
Clayey and Shallow Clay Range Sites with bluebunch 
wheatgrassf Columbia needlegrass* and western and thick- 
spike wheatgrass (etc.) Zone. Kuchler (196^) places both 
the Pryor Mountain sites and the Beartooth Mountain site in 
the Douglas Fir Forest Zone. The forests which compose the 
zonal vegetation are best described as belonging to the 
Pseudotsuqa menziesii/Physocarpus malvaceus habitat type, 
possibly intergrading into the Pinus f lexil is/ Juniperus 
communis habitat type (Pfister et al. 1977). 

Frequently associated species: All of the species 
frequently associated with Shoshonea pulvinata in Montana 
are natives. These include: 

Pinus f lexilis James 
Pseudotsuqa menziesii (Mirb.) Franco 
Potent! 11a fruticosa L. 
Petrophyton caespitosum (Nutt.) Rydb. 
Eritrichium howardii (Gray) Rydb. 
Eriqeron ochroleucus Nutt. 
Astraqalus aretioides (Jones) Barneby 
Astragalus miser Douglas 
Haplopappus acaulis (Nutt.) Gray 
Carex rupestris Allioni 
Hesperochloa kinqii (Wats.) Rydb. 
Drab a oliqosperma Hooker 
Eriqeron compositus Pursh 
Potentilla diversifolia Lehm. 
Senecio canus Hooker 
Phlox hoodii Richards. 
Antennaria aromatica Evert 
Anemone nuttalliana DC. 

Dominance and frequency of the taxon: In the Pryor 
Mountains, Shoshonea pulvinata occurs in colonies of 
approximately 100-1,500 plants, in narrow belts of habitat 
on the rims above canyons. Although canopy cover of this 
species rarely exceeds 5-10X, total vegetation cover is 
low, and Shoshonea is often one of the dominant herbaceous 
species. In the Beartooth Mountains, Shoshonea occurs on 
relatively broad ridgetops, in colonies of 1,000-5,000 
plants. Again, although its canopy cover is usually less 
than 10X, it can be one of the dominant herbaceous species, 
as it is on the ridge north of the North Fork of Grove 
Creek . 



21 

5. Successional phenomena: Although Shoshonea pulvinata 
sometimes occurs in partial shade at the edges of forests* 
plants found in these areas appear to be less vigorous than 
those in full light. The vast majority of plants at any one 
site are found in open areas. These observations indicate 
that Shoshonea prefers full or nearly full sunlight. Forest 
encroachment of Shoshonea habitat would cause increased snow 
cover, slower warming in spring, and lower light 
intensities, which could, in turn, cause extirpation of the 
species. Sites where Shoshonea pulvinata occurs are on 
ridgetops, and on the rims above the windward side of deep 
canyons. These sites are apparently maintained in an early 
successional stage by their extreme exposure to wind. 

6. Dependence on dynamic aspects of biotic associations and 
ecosystem features: Unknown. 

7. Other endangered, threatened, rare, or vulnerable species 
occurring in habitat of this taxon: The following species 
have a limited distribution in Montana, but are more 
widespread elsewhere. 

Astragalus aretioides (Jones) Barneby - listed as rare 
by Lesica et al. (1984)| listed as "state endangered" 
(SB) by the Montana Natural Heritage Program (Shelly 
1988). 

Hymenoxys torreyana (Nutt.) Parker - listed as rare by 
Lesica et al. (198't); listed as "state endangered" (S2) 
by the Montana Natural Heritage Program (Shelly 1988). 

Townsendia spathulata Nutt. - listed as "state 
endangered" (S2) by the Montana Natural Heritage 
Program (Shelly 1988). 

Physocarpus monoqynus (Torr.) Coult. - listed as rare 
by Lesica et al . (198^); listed as "state status 
unknown, possibly threatened or endangered" (SU) by the 
Montana Natural Heritage Program (Shelly 1988). 

7. Population biology of the taxon. 

A. General summary: Known populations of Shoshonea pulvinata in 

Montana consist of three or four subpopulations separated by less 
than 1/2 mile. Subpopulations consist of 100-1,500 plants in the 
Pryor Mountains, and 1,000-5,000 plants in the Beartooth 
Mountains. Small, non-reproductive plants were present at all 
sites, indicating that successful recruitment is occurring. 
Areas of seemingly appropriate habitat were observed to be 
unoccupied by Shoshonea , which may indicate that the species is 
not completely competent at colonizing new sites. The breeding 
system of Shoshonea is unknown. On several occasions, flies in 
the Family Syrphidae were observed on the flowers. 



22 



B. Demography. 



Known populations! There are three known populations of 
Shoshonea pulvinata in Montana, one in the Beartooth 
Mountains and two in the Pryor Mountains. There are 
currently eight known populations in Wyoming. In Montana, 
population size ranges from 1,500 to 6,000 plants. Detailed 
demographic information is generally unknown for the Wyoming 
populations, but in one case (Rattlesnake Mountain Crest 
(003)) the species was described as "abundant." 

General demographic details (Montana): 

a. Grove Creek Pinnacles. 

1. Area occupied by population: ca. 70 acres in 
three subpopulations. 

2. Estimated number of individuals: ca. 6,000 
plants. 

3. Density: Scattered, ca. 1-2 plants/sq. yd. 
^. Presence of dispersed seeds: Unknown. 

5. Evidence of reproduction: Small, non- 
reproductive individuals observed, and presumed to 
be juveniles. No seedlings observed. 

6. Evidence of population expansion or decline: 
None, but possibly stable or increasing. 

b. Lost Water Canyon. 

1. Area occupied by population: ca. 25 acres in 
four subpopulations. 

2. Estimated number of individuals: ca. 3,000 
plants. 

3. Density: Unknown. 

^. Presence of dispersed seeds: Unknown. 

5. Evidence of reproduction: Small, non- 
reproductive individuals observed, and presumed to 
be juveniles. No seedlings observed. 

6. Evidence of population expansion or decline: 
None, but possibly stable or increasing. 

c. Mystery Cave. 

1. Area occupied by population: ca. 15 acres in 
three subpopulations. 

2. Estimated number of individuals: ca. 1,500 
plants. 

3. Density: Unknown. 

^. Presence of dispersed seeds: Unknown. 

5. Evidence of reproduction: Small, non- 
reproductive individuals observed, and presumed to 
be juveniles. No seedlings observed. 

6. Evidence of population expansion or decline: 
None, but possibly stable or increasing. 



23 



C. Phenology. 

1. Patterns: The first observations in Montana have been made 

in mid-June in the Beartooth Mountains. At this time, some 
of the Shoshonea plants were in flower, but most were 
already in fruit. In the Pryor Mountains in early July, 
most of the plants were in fruit, with seed dispersing, but 
a few plants growing in partial shade were still in flower. 
It is presumed that flowering on these exposed sites begins 
in May, and probably peaks during the latter part of that 
month or in early June. Fruit matures during June and early 
July, and dispersal probably begins in late June and 
continues through July and into early August. It is not 
known when Shoshonea becomes senescent, although it is 
suspected that the plants may be winter green, at least in 
part. The time of seed germination is unknown. 

Due to its unusual growth form and leaf morphology, 
Shoshonea pulvinata can be recognized in the field 
throughout the growing season. 

2. Relation to climate and microclimate: Details are unknown. 

D. Reproductive ecology. 

1. Types of reproduction: Details of the breeding system are 
unknown. Reproduction appears to be entirely by seed; no 
evidence of asexual reproduction was observed. 

2. Pollination. 

a. Mechanisms: Probably by insects. Faegri and van der 
Pijl (1971) state that members of the Apiaceae are 
adapted to pollination by a wide range of insects, 
including beetles, flies, and bees. 

b. Specific known pollinators: In several instances, 
flies of the Family Syrphidae were observed on the 
flowers of Shoshonea . Otherwise, specific pollinators 
are unknown. 

c. Other suspected pollinators: None known. 

d. Vulnerability of pollinators: Unknown. 

3. Seed dispersal. 

a. General mechanisms: Shoshonea pulvinata does not 

appear to have any specialized mechanisms for long- 
distance dispersal. Although not directly observed, it 
is presumed that the mericarps fall from the 
inflorescence in the vicinity of the parent plant. 
Dispersal away from the parent plant may involve 
movement by wind, or by animal vectors such as ants or 



24 



rodents. The mericarps do have oil tubes (Evert and 
Constance 1982), and the oil in the fruit may serve as 
an attractant to animal dispersers (van der Pijl 1982), 



b. Specific agents: None known. 



c. 



Vulnerability of dispersal agents and mechanisms: 
Unknown. 



d. Patterns of propagule dispersal: Unknown. 
It. Seed biology. 

a. Amount and variation of seed production: Details are 
unknown. Most plants that were observed produced some 
fruit, and most inflorescences examined had at least 
one maturing fruit. 

b. Seed viability and longevity: Unknown. 

c. Dormancy requirements: Unknown. 

d. Germination requirements: Unknown. 

e. Percent germination: Unknown. 

5. Seedling ecology: Details are unknown. Many species of 
windswept alpine fellfields require the ameliorated 
microclimate, and accumulations of organic matter, provided 
by "nurse plants" (Griggs 1956). Shoshonea pulvinata may 
have similar requirements. 

6. Survival and mortality: Details are unknown. Shoshonea 
will tolerate only partial shading, and occurs mainly in 
relatively open plant communities. These factors suggest 
that it is a stress tolerator species sensu Grime (1979), 
and is thus probably a poor competitor. 

7. Overall assessment of taxon's reproductive success: The 
presence of small non-reproductive plants, which are 
presumed to be juveniles, in all of the Montana Shoshonea 
pulvinata populations indicates that the species is 
reproducing successfully. The fact that no seedlings were 
observed during the 1986 and 1987 field seasons may be a 
result of the general drought conditions which have 
prevailed during that time. Judging from the large size of 
many of the plants, Shoshonea is a long-lived perennial. 
The relatively long life of individual plants probably 
compensates for sporadic seedling recruitment. There is 
unoccupied, apparently suitable habitat in both the Pryor 
and Beartooth mountains in Montana, perhaps indicating that 
Shoshonea does not readily establish new populations. 
Nevertheless, it appears that established populations are 
stable at this time. 



25 



8. Population ecology of the taxon. 

A. General summary: Shoshonea pulvinata occurs in sparse 
vegetation of open or occasionally partially shaded fellfield- 
like habitats. The species is probably intolerant of intense 
competition and full shade. In the Pryor Mountains in Montana, 
subpopulations occur in narrow belts along the windward rims of 
canyons. In the Beartooth Mountains, subpopulations occupy 
larger, windswept ridgetop areas. Although large grazing 
animals such as wild horses or mountain sheep may preferentially 
use these communities during the winter when they are more free 
of snow cover than adjacent areas, no evidence of grazing damage 
was observed. 

B. Positive and neutral interactions: None known. Most species of 
herbaceous vascular plants have mycorrhizal associations with 
fungi in the Family Endogonaceae (Gerdemann 1968). 

C. iviegative interactions. 

1. Herbivores, predators, pests parasites and diseases: None 
known. At the Grove Creek Pinnacles site in the Beartooth 
Mountains, at least two species of swallowtail butterflies 
(Family Papilionidae) were observed. Larvae of many 
butterflies in this family are specialized feeders on 
plants in the ApiaceaeJ however, no herbivore damage to 
Shoshonea plants was observed during the surveys. 

5. Competition. 

a. Intraspecif ic: In most cases, Shoshonea pulvinata 
plants are widely spaced. Although above-ground 
interference is probably not important, competition for 
nutrients and water may be occurring. 

b. Interspecific: Shoshonea occurs only in areas with 
relatively sparse vegetation cover and appears to be 
intolerant to shading, indicating that it is probably a 
poor competitor. Based on its growth form and habitat 
preferences, Shoshonea would probably be considered a 
stress tolerator, sensu Grime (1982). These species 
are generally poor competitors. The observations 
indicate that the shade and litter created by a forest 
overstory may also have a negative effect on Shoshonea 
plants. 

3. Hybridization. 

1. Naturally occurring: None known. 

2. Artificially induced: None known. 

3. Potential in cultivation: Unknown. 



26 



E. Other factors of population ecology: None known. 
?. Current land ownership and management responsibility. 

A. General nature of ownership: United States Government and 
private. 

B. Specific landowners (Montana): 

1. USDA Forest Service 

Custer National Forest 
P.O. Box 2556 
Billings, MT 59103 

E. USDI Bureau of Land Management 

Billings Resource Area Headquarters 
P.O. Box 2020 
Billings, MT 59101 

3. USDI National Park Service 

Big Horn Canyon National Recreation Area 

P.O. Box ^58 

Fort Smith, MT 59035 

^. To we Farms Inc. 

191 N. Frontage Rd. 
Deer Lodge, MT 59722 

5. Aetna Life & Casualty 

Aetna Realty Investors, Inc. 
YF 93, City Place 
Hartford, CT 06156 

C. Management responsibility: Same as ownership given above, except 
for Towe Farms land, which is managed by Waynard and Wylie 
Anderson, Belfry, MT. 

D. Easements, conservation restrictions, etc.: A portion of the 
Lost Water Canyon site in the Pryor Mountains is in a parcel 
proposed for designation as a research natural area by the U.S. 
Forest Service. The Mystery Cave site is on the Pryor Mountain 
Wild Horse Range, and one of the subpopulations is in Big Horn 
Canyon National Recreation Area. 

A private holding on the Grove Creek Pinnacles site in the 
Beartooth Mountains is owned by Aetna Life & Casualty (TSS, R20E, 
Section 23, NW/^NW^o S'^NW^, SW/<, 5W/4SE'/4). Negotiations for 
potential transfer of this parcel to the Montana/Wyoming Field 
Office of The Nature Conservancy are in progress (J. Bird, The 
Nature Conservancy, pers. comm.). 

10. Management practices and experience. 

A. Habitat management. 



27 



1. Review of past management and land use experiences. 

a. Shoshonea pulvinata ; At the Grove Creek Pinnacles site 

in the Beartooth Mountains, the surrounding land has 
been used for livestock grazing; however, the actual 
sites have received little or no grazing pressure. 
There are also mining claim markers on the site, but no 
mining activity has taken place. In the Pryor 
Mountains, the Lost Water Canyon site is on a livestock 
grazing allotment, and the Mystery Cave site is on the 
Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range. However, field 
observations indicate that grazing has had little 
impact on the Shoshonea populations. 

b. Related taxa: None known. 

c. Other ecologically similar taxa: Not reviewed. 

2. Performance under changed conditions: Not applicable. 

3. Current management policies and actions: Current management 
is the same as outlined under past management. To our 
knowledge the federal agencies have no intention of changing 
current management schemes. It is not known how the 
proposed designation of the Lost Water Canyon area as a 
research natural area will affect management. The Towe 
Farms owners have expressed an interest in subdividing some 
of their land for residential development (J. Bird, The 
Nature Conservancy, personal communication). 

^. Future land use: Present public land uses will probably 
continue. In addition, mining activity and residential 
development of private land may potentially occur in some 
areas. 

B. Cultivation. 

1. Controlled propagation techniques: None known. 

S. Ease of transplanting: Not known. 

3. Pertinent horticultural knowledge: Not reviewed. 

k. Status and location of presently cultivated material: None 
known. 

11. Evidence of threats to survival. 

A. Present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment 

of habitat or range: Shoshonea pulvinata occupies habitats which 
are little threatened by human activities. Timber harvesting in 
adjacent forest communities could adversely affect Shoshonea 
sites, but the timber in most adjacent areas has a low 
commercial value. The presence of mining claim markers at the 



28 

Grove Creek Pinnacles site indicates that mining activity is a 
possibility^ but the potential appears to be low. 

B. Overutilization for commercial, sporting, scientific, or 
educational purposes: No threats knonn. 

C. Disease, predation, or grazing: At the present time, populations 
of Shoshonea pulvinata do not appear to be threatened by 
livestock grazing. The sites are probably free of snow earlier 
in the year than surrounding areas, and may be favored by grazing 
animals in early spring. If grazing pressure from wild horses 
were to increase, Shoshonea populations might be adversely 
affected. In the Rocky Mountains, bighorn sheep use habitats 
similar to Shoshonea sites as winter range. If bighorn sheep 
were reintroduced in large numbers in the Pryor or Beartooth 
mountains, they might pose a threat to Shoshonea populations. 

D. Inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms: None known. 

E. Other natural or man-made factors: None known. 

II. ASSESSMENT AND RECOMENDATIONS 

IS. General assessment of vigor, trends, and status: In Montana, 

Shoshonea pulvinata is presently known from three sites in Carbon 
County. An estimated 10,500-15,500 plants occur at these three sites. 
Based on limited observations, Shoshonea populations appear to be 
stable. Currently there are no serious threats to these populations. 
The status of populations in Wyoming is currently unknown. 

13. Recommendations for listing or status change. 

A. Recommendation to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: On the basis 
of current information summarized in this status report, it is 
recommended that Shoshonea pulvinata be retained in Category 2. 
Although there are no apparent threats to populations of 
Shoshonea pulvinata in Montana, the species has few populations 
and a very localized distribution. The complete distribution, 
abundance, and condition of Shoshonea populations in Wyoming, 
which contains the main range of the species, are presently 
unknown. Final status recommendations should be made upon 
completion of survey work in Wyoming. 

B. Recommendations to other U.S. federal agencies: Shoshonea 
pulvinata has been placed on lists of sensitive plant species for 
Region One of the U.S. Forest Service, and for the Montana State 
Office of the U.S. D.I. Bureau of Land Management. Personnel 
charged with management of lands supporting populations of 
Shoshonea should be made aware of its presence and locations. 
The impacts of any change in management practices (i.e., timber 
harvesting, mining, increased stocking rates) on Shoshonea 
populations should be assessed before being implemented. 



29 



C. Other status reconunendations. 

1. Counties and local areas: No recommendations. 

2. States: Shoshonea pulvinata is currently listed as SI 

("critically state endangered") in Montana* by the Montana 
Natural Heritage Program (Shelly 1988). No change in 
status is recommended. 

3. Other nations: Not pertinent. 

^. International: No recommendations. 

1^. Recommended critical habitat: Because the status of Shoshonea 
pulvinata has not been determined for the part of its range in 
Wyoming, critical habitat is not being recommended at this time. 

15. Conservation/recovery recommendations. 

A. General conservation recommendations. 

1. Recommendations regarding present or anticipated activities: 
The effects of mining, logging, and increased grazing 
pressure in areas supporting Shoshonea populations should be 
assessed before any of these activities are implemented. 

2. Areas recommended for protection: The Grove Creek Pinnacles 
site in the Beartooth Mounatins contains the largest known 
population of Shoshonea in Montana, and was nominated as a 
potential natural area at the 1986 Montana Natural Areas 
Conference (Peterson et al. 1987). The Lost Water Canyon 
area has been proposed for designation a U.S. Forest 
Service research natural area (Habeck 1988). The lands 
supporting Shoshonea populations should be included in the 
proposed reserves. 

3. Habitat management recommendations: No recommendations are 
being made at this time. 

^. Publicity sensitivity: Low. 

5. Other recommendations: None. 

B. Monitoring activities and research needs: Demographic monitoring 
studies (Lesica 1987, Palmer 1987) should be initiiated at one 
subpopulation at the Grove Creek Pinnacles site in the Beartooth 
Mountains, and for one subpopulation in the Pryor Mountains. 
Data from these transects can be used to assess and predict the 
performance of Shoshonea populations (Menges 1986). Future 
management recommendations can then be made based on a more 
thorough knowledge of the population biology of Shoshonea 
pulvinata . Detailed field surveys are needeed in Wyoming, to 
further assess the known populations and any threats to them, and 
to locate any additional new sites. Field surveys on the 



30 



Shoshone National Forest are planned in 19B8 (Mollis Marriott, 
Wyoming Natural Heritage Program, pers. comm.). 

16. Interested parties: 

Office of Endangered Species 

ATTN: Dr. James Miller 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Region 6 

P.O. Box 25^86 

Denver Federal Center 

Denver, CO 80H25 

Endangered Species Field Office 

ATTN: Carol Taylor 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Federal Building, 301 S. Park 

P.O. Box 10023 

Helena, MT 59626 

Office of Endangered Species 
ATTN: Dr. John Fay 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington D.C. 202^0 

U.S. Forest Service, Region One 
ATTN: Angela Evenden 
Federal Building 
P.O. Box 7669 
Missoula, MT 59807 

The Nature Conservancy 
ATTN: Dr. Larry Morse 

1800 N. Kent Street 
Arlington, VA 22209 

Rocky Mountain Heritage Task Force 
ATTN: Dr. Ben Brown 
The Nature Conservancy 
13^ Union Blvd., Suite 125 
Lakewood, CO 80228 

The Nature Conservancy 
ATTN: Dr. Joan Bird 
Montana/Wyoming Field Office 
P.O. Box 258 
Helena, MT 59624 

Hollis Marriott 

Wyoming Natural Heritage Program 
3165 University Station 
Laramie, WY 82071 



31 



Dr. John Rumely 
Department of Biology 
Montana State University 
Bo reman, MT 59717 

Erwin Evert 
l'»76 Tyrell 
Park Ridge, IL 600B6 

James T. Peters 

USDI National Park Service 

Big Horn Canyon National Recreation Area 

P.O. Box ^58 

Fort Smith, MT 59035 

John Pierce 
737 Locust 
Missoula, MT 59802 

Peter Lesica 
P.O. Box 89^^ 
Missoula, MT 59807 

J. Stephen Shelly 

Montana Natural Heritage Program 

State Library Building 

1515 E. 6th Ave. 

Helena, MT 59620 



III. INFORMATION SOURCES 
17. Sources of Information. 
A. Publications. 



1. References cited in report: see Literature Cited (pp. B'*- 
35). 

2. Other publications/sources: None known. 

Museum collections: Specimens from all known Montana populations 
are deposited at the University of Montana Herbarium in Missoula 
(MONTU). Duplicates are deposited at CA, NY, and RM. Specimens 
from all known Wyoming populations are deposited at the Rocky 
Mountain Herbarium (RM), University of Wyoming, Laramie. 
Specimens from MONTU and RM were examined in this study. The 
following list of known herbarium specimens is organized by 
occurrence number, for Montana and Wyoming: 

Montana ; 001 - P. Lesica (3^17) . MONTU 

J. 5. Shelly (1162), MONTU 

002 - P. Lesica (^386. ^388. ^389) . MONTU 



32 

003 - P. Lesica (^391. ^39^) , MONTU 
Wyoming ; 001 - E.F. Evert (1775) . RM; (E113) . RM, UC; (3118) . RM 

002 - R.W. Lichvar (5385) . RM 

003 - D.L. nartin (143B) . RM 

00'* - E.F. Evert (3^E^) . RM 

R.L. Hartman et al. (1395^) . RM 

005 - E.F. Evert (1761) . RM; (19^6) . RM, UC; 5067 , UC; 

(3579). RM, UC 

006 - E.F. Evert (1577) . RM; (1918) . RM, UC; (5778) . RM 

007 - E.F. Evert (333^) . RM 

R.L. Hartman (13500). RM 

008 - E.F. Evert (339^) . RM 

R.L. Hartman & K. Deuholm (11<^18) . RM 
R.L. Hartman et al. (11^31). RM, UC 

009 - B.E. Nelson (1S506) . RM 
C. Fieldwork. 

1. Surveys by the authors; 

17-19 June 1985 (Lesica) 
5^-56 June 1986 (Shelly, Lesica) 
8-13 July 1987 (Lesica) 

Surveys were conducted in the Beartooth and Pryor mountains. 
Carbon and Stillwater counties; Natural Heritage field 
forms, photographs, and herbarium vouchers. 

D. Knowledgeable individuals: 

John Pierce 
737 Locust 
Missoula, MT 59805 

E. Other information sources: Color slides and field forms are on 
file at the office of the Montana Natural Heritage Program, and 
the Montana/Wyoming Field Office of The Nature Conservancy (see 
section 11.16. for addresses). 

18. Summary of materials on file: All detailed field forms, maps and 

color slides are on file at the office of the Montana Natural Heritage 
Program. Herbarium vouchers for Montana populations are deposited at 
the University of Montana Herbarium (MONTU). 



33 



IV. AUTHORSHIP 

19. Initial authorship: 

Peter Lesica 
P.O. Box 89'»^ 
Missoula, MT 59807 

J. Stephen Shelly 

Montana Natural Heritage Program 

State Library Building 

1515 E. 6th Avenue 

Helena, MT 596E0 

Phone: 't06-^4't-3009 

20. Maintanance of status report; The Montana Natural Heritage Program 
Hill maintain current information and update the status report as 
needed. Should the taxon be listed as an endangered or threatened 
species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Service, through 
its Office of Endangered Species (Region 6), should maintain the 
primary file of information, encourage others to provide new 
information, and distribute new findings, as received, to the 
interested parties (section 11.16.). 

V. NEW INFORMATION 

21. Record of revisions: Not currently applicable. 



34 



Literature Cited 

Evert» E.F.I and L. Constance. 1982. Shoshonea pulvinatai a new genus and 
species of Umbel 1 if erae from Wyoming. Systematic Botany 7: ^71-^75. 

Faegri, K., and L. van der Fiji. 1971. The principles of pollination 
ecology. Pergamon» Oxford. 291 pp. 

Fenneman, N.M. 1931. Physiography of the western United States. McBraw- 
Hill, NeH York. 53^ pp. 

Gerdemann, J.W. 1968. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae and plant growth. 
Annual Review of Phytopathology 6: 397-'»18. 

Griggs, R.F. 1956. Competition and succession on a Rocky Mountain fellfield. 
Ecology 37: 8-20. 

Grime, J. P. 1979. Plant strategies and vegetation processes. John Wiley and 
Sons, New York. 222 pp. 

Habeck, J.R. 1988. Research Natural Areas in the Northern Region: A 

guidebook for scientists and educators. U.S. Forest Service, Intermountain 
Research Station. Missoula, Montana. Review draft. 

Hunt, C.B. 197^. Natural regions of the United States and Canada. W.H. 
Freeman Co., San Francisco. 725 pp. 

Kuchler, A.W. 196^. Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United 
States. American Geographical Society, New York. 116 pp., map. 

Lesica, P. 1987. A technique for monitoring nonrhiromatous perennial plant 
species in permanent belt transects. Natural Areas Journal 7: 65-68. 

Lesica, P., G. Moore, K.M. Peterson, and J.H. Rumely. 198^. Vascular plants 
of limited distribution in Montana. Monograph No. 2, Montana Academy of 
Sciences, Supplement to the Proceedings, Vol. ^3. 61 pp. 

Lesica, P., K. Lackschewitz, J. Pierce, S. Gregory, and M. O'Brien. 1986, 
Noteworthy collections - Montana. Madrono 33: 310-312. 

Lichvar, R.W., E.I. Collins, and D.H. Knight. 1985. Checklist of vascular 
plants for the Big Horn Canyon National Recreation Area, Wyoming and 
Montana. Great Basin Naturalist ^5: 73^-7^6. 

Menges, E.S. 1986. Predicting the future of rare plant populations: 
demographic monitoring and modeling. Natural Areas Journal 6: 13-25. 

Nelson, B.E,, and R.L. Hartman. 198^. Flora of the Big Horn Mountains, 
checklist. University of Wyoming, Rocky Mountain Herbarium, Laramie. 
Unpublished report. 

Palmer, M.E. 1987. A critical look at rare plant monitoring in the United 
States. Biological Conservation 39: 113-127, 



35 

Perry, E.S. 1962. Montana in the geologic past. Montana Bureau of Mines and 
Geology, Bulletin 26. Montana College of Mineral Science and Technology, 
Butte. 78 pp. 

Peterson, K.M., P. Lesica, and J.S. Shelly. 1987. Rare plants: summary 
report. In: Proceedings of the 1986 Montana Natural Areas Conference. 
The Nature Eonservancy, Helena, Montana, pp. 97-113. 

Pfister, R.D., B.L. Kovalchik, S.F. Arno, and R.C. Presby. 1977. Forest 
habitat types of Montana. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report 
INT-B'*, Ogden, Utah. 17^ pp. 

Richards, P.W. 1955. Geology of the Bighorn Canyon-Hardin area, Montana and 
Wyoming. USD! Geological Survey Bulletin 1026, Washington D.C. 93 pp., 
maps. 

Ross, R.L., and H.E. Hunter. 1976. Climax vegetation of Montana based on 
soils and climate. USDA Soil Conservation Service, Bozeman, Montana. 6^ 
pp. 

Shelly, J.S. 1988. Plant species of special concern. Montana Natural 
Heritage Program, Helena. 12 pp., mimeo. 

U.S. Department of Commerce. 1982. Monthly normals of temperature, 

precipitation, and heating and cooling degree days, 1951-1980, Montana. 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, CI imatography of the 
United States No. 81. 23 pp. 

U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1985. Endangered and 
threatened wildlife and plants: review of plant taxa for listing as 
endangered or threatened species. Federal Register 50 (188): 39526-3958^. 

van der Pijl, L. 1982. Principles of dispersal in higher plants. Springer- 
Verlag, New York. 215 pp. 

Veseth, R., and C. Montagne. 1980. Geologic parent materials of Montana 

soils. Montana Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 721, Bozeman. 117 
pp. 



36 



APPENDIX A: Letter from Crow Tribal Council. 




CROW TRIBAL COUNCIL 



P.O. Box 159 
Crow Agency, MT 59022 



Crow Country 



RICHARD REAL BIRD, Chairman 
JEROME HUGS, Vice Chairman 
TRUMAN C. JEFFERSON, Secretary 
CARLTON NOMEE, SR., Vice Secretary 



August 26, 1987 



Mr. J. Stephen Shelly 

Botanist 

Montana Natural Heritage Program 

State of Montana 

Montana State Library Building 

1515 East 6th Avenue 

Helena, Montana 59620 

Dear Mr. Shelly: 

In response to your letter dated, August 18, 1987, please be advised that 
a Crow Tribal Botanist will conduct all future plant surveys within the 
exterior boundaries of the Crow Reservation. 

In the event that rare plant species, such as the Shoshonea Pulvinata are 
located, we will be pleased to inform you of the occurance. 




Richard Real Bird, Chairman 
Crow Tribal Council 



RRB:mjh 

cc: President, Little 
Botany Department 



Big Horn College 



38 



APPENDIX Bi Element occurrence print-outs; Montana. 



39 



ELEMENT OCCURRENCE RECORD 



1091^05 



EOCODE: PDAPI2G010.001 
NAME : SHOSHONEA PULVINATA 
COMNAME : SHOSHONEA 

MARGNUM: 2 TENTEN: 2,2 I DENT: Y EORANK: A 
EORANKCOMM: THREE LARGE, UNDISTURBED SUBPOPULATIONS. 

SURVEYDATE: 1986-06-2^ LASTOBS: 1986-06-2^ FIRSTOBS: 1985 GRANK 
SRANK: SI STATE: MT COUNTYNAME: MTCARB 
QUADCODE: ^510912 

QUADNAME: TOLMAN FLAT PRECISION: SC 

LAT: ^50629 LONG: 1091339 B: ^50541 N: ^50707 E: 109132'* W: 
TOWNRANGE: 008S020E SECTION: 26 MERIDIAN: PR 

TRSCOMM: N2NW'» , E2SW^ ; 23W2 PHYSPROV: MR WATERSHED: 10070006 
DIRECTIONS: CA. 5 AIR MILES SSE. OF RED LODGE; HWY. 308 FROM BRIDGER TO 
BELFRY, THEN HWY. 397 S. ^.5 MI. TO GROVE CR. RD.J WEST 5 
MI. TO RANCH, THEN LEFT, RT. AND ACROSS S. FORK GROVE CREEK. 
GRAVELLY LIMESTONE SOILS ON WINDBLOWN RIDGETOPS, AMONGST 
SCATTERED PINUS FLEXILIS i PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII; WITH 
ERITRICHIUM HOWARDII, CYMOPTERUS HENDERSONII, KELSEYA. 
71^0 SIZE: 50 

EST. 6000-8000 PLANTS; THREE VERY LARGE, VIGOROUS SUBPOPULA- 
TIONS, WITH THE ELEMENT AS THE DOMINANT GROUND SPECIES IN 
MANY PLACES; SITES ARE ALMOST COMPLETELY UNDISTURBED, WITH 
NO WEEDS; EST. 3000-^000 PLANTS IN SOUTH SUBPOPULAT I ON . 
; RECENTLY DESCRIBED GENUS AND SPECIES (SYST. BOT. (1982) 7: 

^♦71); LESICA, P. (3'»17), 1985, SPECIMEN #102363 MONTU. 
PRIVATEOWNMTUS CONTAINEDl : NMAC0DE2: FBLRABILLIMTUS C0NTAINED2: N 



GENDESC 



ELEV: 
EODATA: 



COMMENTS: 



MACQDEl ; 
MACQDE3: 
MOREMGMT; 
SITENAME; 



FBLDOMILEIMTUS C0NTAINED3 

B SITECODE: 

GROVE CREEK PINNACLES (MEETEETSE SPIRES) 
OWNER: AETNA LIFE & CASUALTY 
OWNERCOMM: AETNA REALTY INVESTORS 
PROTCOMM: 
MGMTCQMM: 
MONITOR: 
BESTSOURCE 



N ADLMAS: N MORELAN: 



YF 93, CITY PLACE, HARTFORD, CT. 



MONITORNUM: 
SHELLY, J.S. 1986. FIELD SURVEYS IN CARBON COUNTY OF 23-27 
JUNE; WITH P. LESICA. 

SOURCECODE: FB6SHE0^MTUS PNDSHE01MTUS PNDLES01MTUS S85LESUMMTUS AB2 
EVE01MTUS U85LES02MTUS S86SHEUMMTUS 

DATASENS: N BOUNDARIES: Y PHOTOS: Y OWNER INFO: N 

TRANSCRIBR: 86-01-23 JSS CDREV: Y MAPPER: 86-01-31 JSS QC: Y 

UPDATE: 88-0^-26 JSS 



40 



ELEMENT OCCURRENCE RECORD 

EOCGDE: PDAP I 26010.008 

NAME : SHOSHONEA . PULV I NATA 

COMNAME : SHOSHONEA 

MARGNUM: 9 TENTEN: 2,10 IDENT: Y EORANK: AB 

EORANKCOMM: EXCELLENT CONDITION HABITAT; SOME POPULATIONS FAIRLY SMALL. 

SURVEYDATE: 1987-07-10 LASTOBS: 1987-07-10 FIRSTGBS: 198't GRANK: GEG3 

SRANK: SI STATE: MT COUNTYNAME: MTCARB 

QUADCODE: ^510823 ^+510813 

QUADNAME: EAST PRYOR MOUNTAIN, MYSTERY CAVE PRECISION: SC 

LAT: ^50800 LONG: 1082113 S: ^50721 N: ^50811 E: 1082035 W: 1082123 

TOWNRANGE: 008S027E SECTION: 13 MERIDIAN: PR 

TRSCOMM: SE^ ,2^NE^ ;T8SR28E:+ PHYSPROV: MR WATERSHED: 10080010 

DIRECTIONS: ALSO 18W2SW^, 19NW'»,NE'»SW^. PRYOR MOUNTAINS, ALONG RIDGES 

EAST OF LOST WATER CANYON, 0.95-1.1 AIR MILES SW. TO SOUTH 
OF LITTLE ICE CAVE. 
GENDE5C: ON EDGES OR IN OPENINGS OF PINUS FLEXILIS-PSEUDOTSUGA 

MENZIESII FORESTS; WEST-FACING RIMS ABOVE CANYONS, IN STONEY 
LIMESTONE SOILS; WITH ASTRAGALUS ARETIOIDES (CONTINUED). 
ELEV: 7800 SIZE: 25 

EODATA: CA. 2900 PLANTS, IN ^ SUBPOPULATIONS (WEST-1500; NORTHEAST- 
800; CENTRAL- 100 J SOUTH-500); AREA IS LITTLE DISTURBED, AND 
PARTIALLY IN WILD HORSE RANGE; GENDESC (CONT.): ERITRICHIUM 
HOWARDII, HESPEROCHLOA KINGII, HAPLOPAPPUS ACAULIS. 
COMMENTS: VOUCHERS-LESICA, P. (^386, ^388, ^389), 1987, MONTU; 

PIERCE, J., 198^, MONTU. 
MACGDEl: FFSRPLOSTIMTUS CONTAINED!: NMAC0DE2: FBLHRPRYOIMTUS C0NTAINED2: N 
MACGDE3: FFSNFCUSTIMTUS C0NTAINED3: Y ADLMAS: N MQRELAN: MOREPROT: 
MOREMGMT: B SITECGDE: 
SITENAME: LOST WATER CANYON 
OWNER: CUSTER NATIONAL FOREST 
GWNERCGMM: 

PROTCOMM: PORTION OF SITE IS ON BOUNDARY OF A PROPOSED RNA. 
MGMTCGMM: 

MONITOR: MONITORNUM: 

BESTSOURCE: LESICA, P. 1987. FIELD SURVEYS IN CARBON COUNTY OF 8-13 

JULY. 
SGURCECODE: F87LES01MTUS PNDLES01MTUS 587LESUMMTUS PNDPIE01MTUS S8^ 

PIEUMMTUS A82EVE01MTUS U85LES02MTUS A86LES03 
DATASENS: N BOUNDARIES: Y PHOTOS: Y OWNERINFO: Y 
TRANSCRIBR: 87-12-18 JSS CDREV: Y MAPPER: 87-12-18 JSS QC: Y 
UPDATE: 88-0^-26 JSS 



41 



ELEMENT OCCURRENCE RECORD 



EGCODE: PDAPI2G010.003 

NAME: SHOSHONEA PULVINATA 

COMNAME : SHOSHONEA 

MARGNUM: 19 TENTEN: 5,1 I DENT: Y EORANK: B 

EORANKCOMM: REMOTE HABITAT IN GOOD CONDITION, MODERATE-SIZED POPULATION. 

SURVEYDATE: 1787-07-13 LASTOBS: 1987-07-13 FIRSTOBS: 1987 GRANK : G2G3 

SRANK: SI STATE: MT COUNTYNAME: MTCARB 

DUADCODE: ^510813 

QUADNAME: MYSTERY CAVE PRECISION: SC 

LAT: ^50715 LONG: 1081901 S: ^50650 N: ^50722 E: 108180^ W: 1081910 

TOWNRANGE: 008S028E SECTION: 20 MERIDIAN: PR 

TRSCOMM: SE'+,21SW4,28NW'» PHYSPROV: MR WATERSHED: 



DIRECTIONS: 



PRYDR MOUNTAINS, ALONG RIDGES EAST OF BIG COULEE, 
AIR MILES SSE TO WSW OF MYSTERY CAVE. 



10080010 
0.75-0.85 



GENDESC: ON EDGES OF PINUS FLEXILIS-PSEDOTSUGA MENZIESII FORESTS; ON 
WIND-BLASTED RIMS OF GRAVELLY, LIMESTONE-DERIVED SOILS, 
GENTLE NW-FACING SLOPES, WITH ASTRAGALUS ARETIDIDES, (CONT.) 
ELEV: 7^80 SIZE: 15 

EODATA: GENDESC (CONT.): ERITRICHIUM, ASTRAGALUS, ERIGERON. 

EODATA: CA. 1500 PLANTS IN 3 SUBPOPULAT I ONS (WEST- 1500 
PLANTS; CENTRAL-300 PLANTS; EAST-200 PLANTS); SITE IS LITTLE 
THREATENED; EVIDENCE OF PAST LIVESTOCK GRAZING. 
COMMENTS: VOUCHERS - LESICA, P. (^391, ^39'»), 1987, MONTU. 

MACODEl : FNPNRBIGHIMTUS CONTAINED 1 : N MAC0DE2: FBLHRPRYOIMTUS C0NTAINED2: Y 

MAC0DE3: FBLRAB I LL 1 MTUS C0NTAINED3: N ADLMAS: Y MORELAN: MOREPROT: 

MOREMGMT: B SITECODE: 

SITENAME: MYSTERY CAVE 

OWNER: U.S. BLM, NPS 

OWNERCOMM: 

PROTCOMM: PARTIALLY WITHIN BIGHORN CANYON NATIONAL RECREATION AREA. 

MGMTCOMM: 

MONITOR: MONITGRNUM: 

BESTSOURCE: LESICA, P. 1987. FIELD SURVEYS IN CARBON COUNTY OF 8-13 

JULY. 
SOURCECODE: F87LES01MTUS PNDLES01MTUS S87LESUMMTUS A82EVE01MTUS 



DATASENS: N BOUNDARIES: Y PHOTOS: 
TRANSCRIBR: 87-12-17 JSS CDREV: Y 
UPDATE: 8B-0't-26 JSS 



Y OWNER INFO: Y 
MAPPER: 87-12-18 JSS 



i