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February, 1936 















































CONTENTS 


ETHIOPIA IN ITS ECCLESIASTICAL ASPECTS 

The Rev. P. W. BROWNE, S.T.D., Ph.D., Washington, D. C. 
THE PRIEST’S STRUGGLE FOR SANCTITY 

The Rev. JOHN A. O’BRIEN, Ph.D., Champaign, Illinois. 
FRANZ CARDINAL EHRLE 

The Rev. GILBERT J. GARRAHAN, §.J., Rome, Italy. 
THE CATHOLIC CLERGY AND THE AMERICAN NEGRO 

The Rev. JOHN T. GILLARD, S.S.J., Baltimore, Maryland. 
PRIESTS BROADCASTING THE FAITH 

The Rev. DONALD HAYNE, Emmitsburg, Maryland. 
CHANGING THE CONSTITUTION 

The Rev. BASIL R. REUSS, O. Praem., West De Pere, Wisconsin. 
§0ME REFLEXIONS ON THE SACRAMENT OF EXTREME UNCTION 

The Rev. WILLIAM SCHAEFERS, Wichita, Kansas. 
1J0IN THE PARISH BOYS’ CLUB 

The Rev. DANIEL A. LORD, S.J., St. Louis, Missouri. 


ON OPT, Gig ns cc cakenwn sities ovesee cabanas doconss 186 
CONDITIONS FOR GAINING INDULGENCES 
RECENT THEOLOGY 
The Rev. FRANCIS J. CONNELL, C.SS.R., S.T.D., Esopus, New York. 
CONTENTS CONTINUED INSIDE 





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CONTENTS CONTINUED 


STUDIES AND CONFERENCES: 


Priests Broadcasting the Faith . 
The Rev. Donald Hayne, Emittsburg, Morviesd 
Changing the Constitution Chae ty 
The Rev. Basil R. Reuss, O. Ditaen m., West De Pere, Wisconsin. 
Scme Reflexions on the Sacrament of Extreme Unction 
The Rev. Wiiliam Schaefers, Wichita, Kansas. 
I Join the Parish Boys’ Club . i 
The Rev. Daniel A. Lord, S.J., St. Louis, Missouri. 
Seminarians on Vacation ... 
Seminarians in the C. M. T. C. 


The Ciborium Cover .... 


Exemption of “Ab Acatholicis Nati” under the Decree “ Ne Temere” 


Co-operation of Wife in Husband’s Sin . 
Conditions for Gaining Indulgences 
Benediction after Mass at Mission Church 


Pronunciation of “ Kyrie Eleison ” 


ECCLESIASTICAL LIBRARY TABLE: 


Recent Theology ... 
The Rev. Francis J. Connell, C.SS.R., S.T.D., E Wnad, New Y - 


BOOK REVIEWS: 
Varni: The Gospel according to St. Matthew ... 
Hudleston: The Spiritual Letters of Dom John alisaiia 
Attwater: The Eastern Catholic Churches . 
Simon-Prado: De Sacra Veteris Testamenti Historia 
Phelan: Arthur Lee 
Glody: A Shepherd of the Far North 
Walsh: Isabel the Crusader | 


Gerster a Zeil: Jesus in Ore Prophetarum 


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THE 
ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW 





TENTH SERIES.—VoL. IV.—(XCIV).—FeBruary, 1936.—No. 2. 





ETHIOPIA IN ITS ECCLESIASTICAL ASPECTS. 


ahaa occupies a prominent place in ecclesiastical annals, 

and we find numerous references to it in the pages of 
Holy Writ. Yet it is not easy to determine to what part of 
the eastern world the term “ Ethiopia” applies in the course 
of history. At one time there were two regions that bore the 
name: Eastern Ethiopia, including all the races dwelling to the 
east of the Red Sea as far as India; Western Ethiopia, stretch- 
ing from Egypt as far south as the southern boundary of 
Mauretania. The Ethiopia which is now so often discussed is 
a mountainous, volcanic country in Northeast Africa, bounded 
by Eritrea on the north, French Somaliland, and British Somali- 
land on the east, Italian Somaliland on the southeast, Kenya 
on the south, and by the Soudan on the west. 

There is some confusion as to whether the country now being 
invaded by the Italian army should be called Abyssinia, or 
Ethiopia. Dr. Gotthell, Professor of Semitic Languages at 
Columbia University, says: “‘ The plateau region which is the 
heart of modern Ethiopia and the stronghold of the present 
kingdom has been known to historians for a long time as 
Abyssinia. The name comes from the Arabic ‘ Habash’ or 
‘Habish’. Among the tribes of Semites from the Yemen, in 
South Arabia, who settled in this plateau region many centuries 
before the time of Christ were the ‘ Habishats ’, and their coun- 
try was called ‘Habish’. These Semitic immigrants are held 
to have founded the civilization from which that of Ethiopia 
derives.” Gotthell contends that the Gallas, Somalis, Danskils 











114 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


and other subject peoples of the lowlands and outlying provinces 
are to be distinguished from the “Abyssinians ” of the plateau 
region because these tribes are racially Hamitic rather than 
Semitic, and thus do not have the same culture. Budge? 
makes a similar distinction, and tells us that the name “Ethiopia” 
comes from the Greek, meaning “land of the burnt-faced men”. 
As used by early geographers, the term was applied to various 
unexplored regions of Asia and Africa. Until far into the last 
century, “Ethiopia” appeared on the maps as a vast region 
vaguely located in equatorial Africa, while “Abyssinia” was 
the name given to the heart of the country now officially known 
as Ethiopia. 

The natives have long insisted that their country is Ethiopia 
and not Abyssinia. For them the term “Abyssinia” and 
““Habish ” have a derogatory implication, and the Ethiopian 
is insulted if one calls him an “Abyssinian ” or “ Habishat ”. 
The words are the equivalent of the English “ mongrel” or 
“ outcast ” and are used by the Ethiopians themselves when they 
wish to express contempt for some inferior member of their race. 

Nothing of an accurate nature seems to be known of the 
political beginnings of Ethiopia. There is a legend that it 
dates politically from the time when the Queen of Sheba visited 
Solomon. This visit is recorded in the Book of Kings (3-10). 
It is possible that this queen made an alliance with Solomon. 
Legendary embellishments that seem to have begun in Hebrew 
antiquity have given rise to the story that the queen whom 
the Ethiopians call Makeda had a son, Ibn Hakin, of whom 
the paternity is ascribed to Solomon, and that he became a ruler 
in Ethiopia, and thus the kings of Ethiopia are descendants of 
Solomon. The legend is perpetuated in the title of the present 
ruler of Ethiopia, whose official designation is “ King of Kings, 
Lion of Judah, Defender of the Christian Faith, Haile Selassie, 
Emperor of the Ancient Kingdom of Ethiopia, the Chosen of 
God ”. 

Leaving the legendary, we are on firmer ground regarding 
the story of Ethiopia when we come to the Christian era. We 
read in the Acts of the Apostles: ““ Now an angel of the Lord 
spoke to Philip, saying; Arise, go toward the south, to the way 
that goeth down from Jerusalem into Gaza... . And rising 


1 History of Ethiopia. 











ETHIOPIA IN ITS ECCLESIASTICAL ASPECTS. 115 


up he went. And behold a man of Ethiopia, an eunuch, of 
great authority under Candace, the queen of the Ethiopians, 
who had charge over all her treasures, had come to Jerusalem 
to adore. And he was returning, sitting in his chariot, and 
reading Isaias the prophet. And the Spirit said to Philip: Go 
near, and join thyself to this chariot. And Philip running 
thither, heard him reading the prophet Isaias. . . . And the 
place of the Scripture which he was reading was this: He was 
led as a sheep to the slaughter; and like a lamb before his 
shearer, so openeth he not his mouth. . . . And the eunuch 
answering Philip, said: I beseech thee, of which does the prophet 
speak this? ... Then Philip . . . preached unto him Jesus. 
And as they went on their way, they came to a certain water; 
and the eunuch said: See, here is water: what doth hinder me 
from being baptized? . . . They went down into the water, 
both Philip and the eunuch; and he baptized him.” (Acts 
8: 26ff.) 

We are informed by reputable authorities that the name of 
the eunuch baptized by Philip was Judich, and that he brought 
the first seeds of Christianity to Ethiopia. But the real evan- 
gelization of the country took place at a much later date. 

The conversion of Ethiopia to Christianity actually began in 
the early part of the fourth century, during the reign of Con- 
stantine the Great, when two Tyrean Greeks, Edesius and 
Frumentius, possibly brothers, began to preach the Gospel there. 
As boys, Edesius and Frumentius had been taken by their uncle 
Metropius on a commercial voyage along the shores of the 
Red Sea. While coasting along its western side their vessel was 
captured by the natives, and all on board, excepting Edesius 
and Frumentius, were massacred. They were taken into slavery 
and later brought to the royal household. Here they gained 
the favor of the king and were kindly treated. Shortly before 
the king’s death they received their freedom. On the death of 
the king, the widowed queen appointed them teachers of the 
young prince, Erzanes, and they acquired great influence 
throughout Ethiopia. When the prince became of age, Edesius 
returned to his family at Tyre, but Frumentius remained in 
Ethiopia and became its Christian apostle. But being a layman 
he realized that he could accomplsh little. He went to 
Alexandria, where the great Athanasius occupied the patriarchal 











116 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


see, was ordained, consecrated bishop, and named head of the 
Ethiopian Church, under the title of Abba Salama (“‘ Father of 
Peace”). Thus the Ethiopian Church became identified with 
Alexandria, and the official Church of Ethiopia stands as a 
branch of the Church of Alexandria. Frumentius established 
his episcopal see at Axum, and from that time Axum has been 
known as the “ Holy City ” of Ethiopia. This recently was 
captured by the Italian invaders, and apparently they have 
spared it from destruction. 

After the passing of Frumentius, during the reign of the 
Emperor Constantius, who was an Aryan, heretical bishops and 
missionaries came to Ethiopia, and with them came Mono- 
physitism and persecution of those who had remained faithful 
to the doctrines taught by Frumentius and his disciples. About 
three centuries later monasticism came to Ethiopia, and it is 
said that the Ethiopic version of the Bible dates from this period. 
This, however, did not exercise any great influence on the Chris- 
tian growth of the people, as the Ethiopian language, known 
as Geez (“original speech”), was superseded by Ambhraic, a 
dialect which arose in Amraha, and is mixed up with African 
elements. At present Geez is a dead language, used only in 
the service of the Coptic Church. It is also used by priests of 
the Ethiopian rite who are in communion with Rome. I have 
been informed that Geez bears the same relationship to modern 
Ethiopian as, for example, Latin bears to French. 

As stated, the religious belief of the official Church in Ethiopia 
is Monophysitism; but it is said that its theologians do not seem 
to be agreed as to what this specifically teaches. Among other 
tenets the Ethiopian Church teaches that in the Incarnation there 
are three kinds of Birth: the first, the Word begotten of the 
Father; the second, Christ begotten of Mary; the third, the Son 
of Mary, begotten the Son of God the Father by adoption, or 
by His elevation to the divine dignity—the work of the Father 
anointing His Son with the Holy Spirit. 

Only the councils held before Chalcedon (451) are recog- 
nized, because at Chalcedon the monophysite heresy was con- 
demned. ‘The Apostles’ Creed is not used, and only the Nicene 
is part of the liturgy. The primate is called Abuna, who is 
metropolitan of Axum and is always a Coptic monk, appointed 
and consecrated by the Coptic patriarch of Alexandria. He 











ETHIOPIA IN ITS ECCLESIASTICAL ASPECTS. ti7 


is assisted by a Coptic metropolitan and four Ethiopian bishops. 
The Abuna alone has the right to anoint the king, and to ordain 
priests and deacons. He exercises considerable power, even in 
secular affairs. The Catholic Encyclopaedic Dictionary says: 
“The clergy are illiterate; the morality and observance of the 
fathful is bad, and grossly superstitious practices are alleged. 
The sacraments of Confirmation and Extreme Unction are 
taught but not administered, and Penance usually only at the 
hour of death. The church numbers about 8,000,000 mem- 
bers; from about 1558 to 1632 it was again in communion with 
the Holy See. . . . Catholics use the same eucharistic liturgy 
as the dissidents, with the anaphora of St. Basil, and the rest of 
the rite is in process of reform for Catholic use; Pope Pius XI 
ordered that this revision should be carried out with the best 
Abyssinian traditions; in the meantime the Roman Ritual, etc. 
are used, translated into Gheez. About 0.5% of the users of 
this rite are Catholics.” 

A college for seminarists of the Ethiopian rite was estab- 
lished in Rome by Pope Benedict XV, in 1919. Married men 
may be ordained to the priesthood, but in fact most of the 
clergy (in communion with Rome) are celibate. The 
Abyssinian Abba Michael Ghebre, martyred in 1855, was beati- 
fied in 1926. 

The Ethiopian College is the only institution of learning 
within the confines of Vatican City, and is known as the Pon- 
tifical Ethiopian College. Connected with it is the church of 
St. Stephen, where may be seen numerous inscriptions in the 
Ethiopian language. Shortly after the Vatican-Lateran Pact 
was signed, Pope Pius XI is said to have remarked: “‘A black spot 
on the white will never be amiss.” More recently, a new 
house was built for the college, while the church of St. Stephen 
was enriched with several recent Ethiopic discoveries. This 
college, by the way, cannot bring about complications at the 
present time, as the students there are all from the colony of 
Eritrea, and consequently Italian subjects by birth. 

In the Coptic Church of Ethiopia the duties of priests con- 
sist in celebrating the liturgy three or four times a day, purify- 
ing houses, utensils, tools, etc. Deacons bake the eucharistic 
bread, clean the church and sacred vessels, but they dare not 
enter the “ Holy of Holies” where the ark is preserved. This 











118 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


ark is a “‘ piece of liturgical furniture called taboot, and is held 
in great reverence, especially the taboot at Axum, the Ethiopians 
asserting that it is the Ark of the Covenant, “ brought thither 
by Menelik I, son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba; in other 
churches the ¢aboot is honored as a symbol of the title of the 
church.” The debteras or teachers, are not ordained; nor are 
the alakas, who take care of church temporalities. In addition 
to the secular priests in Ethiopia there is a large contingent of 
monastic clergy, under the headship of an official known as the 
Etsh’ égé who ranks next in importance to the Abuna. The 
monastic brethren need little education, and the requirements 
in the exercise of the ministry are apparently not very exacting. 
“There are no proper dioceses or parishes. On account of the 
carelessness with which ordinations are conducted it has been 
questioned whether (Ethiopian) orders, and consequently sacra- 
ments, are certainly valid.” 

Churches, such as they are, are numerous. In the north the 
churches are built square, but in the south they are circular, like 
those of the Templars. Men and women have separate en- 
trances. In the northwestern corner of each church is a room 
called the Beatalhem or “‘ House of Bread ”, where the bread for 
their liturgy is prepared and kept. Within the outer courtyard 
(Kunyaimalt) is a second courtyard, or Kudist, corresponding 
to the Holy Place in the Jewish Temple, and within this again, 
facing the east, is the makdas, or Holy of Holies, which none but 
priests may enter, and here is contained the ark of the covenant 
or taboot—a framework consisting of four upright posts sup- 
porting a transverse shelf for the Holy Books, sacramental 
vessels, processional crosses and censers. 

Both churches and monasteries are endowed with valuable 
landed estates and herds, and the priests (of the State Church) 
derive substantial incomes from fees and gifts, supplemented 
by emoluments accruing from their duties as registrars of sales 
and other secular transactions. The laity are not allowed to 
read the Gospels or writings of the Apostles but only the Psalter, 
which they are said “ to know by heart and sing on every pos- 
sible ceremonial occasion ”. 

The Ethiopians observe the Jewish Sabbath as well as the 
Christian Sunday, fast every Wednesday and Friday, have 
several Lents, and keep many festivals of the Orthodox and the 











ETHIOPIA IN ITS ECCLESIASTICAL ASPECTS. 119 


Catholic Church. They abstain from pork and other “ un- 
clean” food. Both sexes are circumcised, and every one who 
is a Christian receives at Baptism a cord of blue silk, called 
mateb, which he or she must wear around the neck as a badge 
of Christianity. “ Yet they all boast a descent from the holy 
seed of Israel and obey many prescriptions found in Deuter- 
onomy and Leviticus.” Not all of the inhabitants, however, 
belong to the State Church or to Christianity. Many of them 
are pagans, and celebrate many pagan rites. There is a con- 
siderable Jewish population—the Falashas—who are said to be 
“ spiritually forlorn ” 

For several centuries little is known of the Catholics in 
Ethiopia. In the thirteenth century Dominicans entered the 
province of Tigre and effected many conversions, but after a 
short period of success they were all massacred. Their con- 
verts fled to the mountains, and hid in caves until finally they 
died of starvation. They are known as the “ Holy Sleepers ”, 
and their memory is still venerated by Catholics in Ethiopia. 
Franciscans entered the country two centuries later, but they 
were obliged to retire after an heroic attempt to revive the 
faith there. Jesuits from Portugal began missionary work in 
Ethiopia in 1555, and labored there for nearly a century. They 
were then obliged to abandon the field owing to the fierce 
opposition of the Coptic clergy and the hostile attitude of the 
king. Then followed a series of persecutions during which 
many missionaries and native priests were massacred. After 
the destruction of the Jesut missions, French Capuchins from 
Cairo and Friars minor from Jerusalem made an unsuccessful 
effort to revive the Faith in Ethiopia: two Capuchins—Blessed 
Agathange of Vendéme, and Cassian of Nantes—were martyred 
in 1638. Then the Holy See decided to await a more favorable 
time to resume missions in “‘ the land of barbaric splendor ” 

Singularly enough, the mission field in Ethiopia was redpened 
largely as a result of the ethnological and geographical researches 
in Ethiopia by the brothers d’Abbadie, both of whom were born 
in Ireland. They published several important works regarding 
Ethiopia. Certain English travellers and Protestant missionaries 
declared that the d’Abbadie brothers “‘ were employed by the 
French Government for religious and political purposes”. 
Their researches and explorations revealed many interesting 











120 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


facts about Ethiopia, and, presumably as a result of the labors 
of the d’Abbadie brothers, two Italian missionaries—Fr. Justin 
de Jacobis (a Lazarist), and Fr. Massaia (a Capuchin) —ven- 
tured into the Ethiopian land. One of them entered it from 
the north, while the other entered it from the south, possibly 
from what is now Italian Somaliland. The story of these two 
missionaries reads like a romance. At first they disguised them- 
selves as traders, gained the good will of the natives, and finally 
revealed their purpose—to preach the Gospel of Christ. For 
some time they were faced with great opposition from local 
princes (ras), but they continued their work and in time estab- 
lished vicariates. As regards Fr. de Jacobis, the declaration of 
his virtues (first step toward beatification) has taken place. 
On the occasion of the promulgation of the decree that pro- 
claimed this heroism, the Holy Father “ invoked the protection 
of this great Italian and Ethiopian by adoption”. It is quite 
significant that this pronouncement was made almost on the eve 
of the Italo-Ethiopian conflict. 

At the present time, without reckoning the ecclesiastical 
jurisdictions within the Italian sections (Eritrea and Moga- 
discio) , the Catholic missions in Ethiopia include the Vicariate 
of Ethiopia, the Vicariate of Gallas, the Prefecture of Kaffa, 
and these are, in addition to Ogaden, which is under the juris- 
diction of the vicariate of Djibuti (French colony). 

The Vicariate of Ethiopia, in which Lazarists have been labor- 
ing since 1838, reckons but 5,000 Catholics, served by eleven 
Lazarist priests who are Europeans, thirteen native priests, four 
Sisters of Charity who are French, and twenty native Sisters. 
The paucity of Catholcs is explained by the fact that in 1849, 
when the Prefecture of Erythrea was established as a result of 
being occupied by the Italians, some 30,000 Ethiopian Catholics 
came under the jurisdiction of Italian Capuchins. 

The Vicariate of Gallas is served by Capuchins from the 
French Province of Toulouse, and numbers about 11,000 Catho- 
lics, served by seventeen French Capuchins, fifteen native priests, 
thirty-two European Sisters, twenty-nine native Sisters, six 
European lay brothers, and fourteen native lay brothers. 

The Prefecture of Kaffa, established in 1913, is served by 
Italian missionaries of the Consolata (Turin). ‘There are nine- 
teen missionaries, five lay brothers, and forty-seven Sisters, all 
of whom are Italians. 











ETHIOPIA IN ITS ECCLESIASTICAL ASPECTS. 121 


La Vie Catholique (Paris) tells us that according to the satis- 
tics of October 1931, the Lazarists have five churches, five 
chapels, and conduct a minor and a grand seminary. In addi- 
tion, by agreement with Monsignor Jarosseau, they have opened 
a school at Addis Ababa, where Sisters of Charity have been 
serving since 1927. Here they conduct a dispensary, a work- 
shop, and a school which had a hundred boarders in 1932. 
The Capuchins have been particularly active, and, according 
to a report for the year 1931, have established, in addition to 
many churches and chapels, ten dispensaries, three hospitals, 
ten orphanages (where some 500 children are cared for), forty 
primary schools, a high school, two colleges, and two seminaries. 
But their most appealing institution is the leprosarium at Harar. 
This institution is practically a small village, and was estab- 
lished some years ago by Fr. Marie-Bernard, who was aided in 
this undertaking by an Ethiopian prince, Ras Mekonnen. ‘The 
actual management of the institution is entrusted to the Fran- 
ciscan Sisters of Calais. 

The largest number of native Ethiopian Catholics is to be 
found in Eritrea, where there is a native ordinariate of the 
Ethiopian rite. This was erected in 1930, and the Ordinary is 
a native, Chidane Maryam Cassa. It has a Catholic population 
of some 30,000, with seventy-six secular priests, and seventy- 
eight regulars, all of whom are natives. ‘To aid this ordinariate 
the Pontifical Ethiopian College in Vatican City was established. 

Protestant missions do not seem to have had great success in 
Ethiopia. The first mission was initiated by Peter Heyling, of 
Liibeck, in the closing days of the seventeenth century. It was 
not attended by any results. At a later date the Anglican 
Missionary Society seems to have been more successful, and we 
are told that the “circumstance which gave occasion to the 
attempt was the translation into Amharic of the Bible (1808- 
18). The British and Foreign Bible Society bought and printed 
the translation, and in 1830 Gobat and Kugler were sent to 
Ethiopia. Others followed; but they seem to have accom- 
plished little. The latest Protestant effort was made apparently 
by the Seventh Day Adventist congregation of Tacoma Park, 
Washington, D. C. We have no data regarding the activities 
of the missionaries; and the only item we have seen regarding 
them is that some time ago they were advised by their sponsors 
to move out of the danger zone. Possibly they have done so. 











122 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


Many have wondered why the Church, despite its numerous 
educational and other activities, has not made greater progress 
in Ethiopia, and they contrast the progress made in other sec- 
tions of Africa with that made in Ethiopia. There are many 
reasons to account for this seeming lack of progress. The fact 
is that Catholicism is officially banned in Ethiopia. According 
to a law of the State, preaching of the Catholic religion is pro- 
hibited, and that consequently missions have no legal existence 
within its borders. Then again the all-powerful Coptic hier- 
archy is not favorably disposed toward the preaching of the 
doctrines of the Catholic Church. That it is enabled to make 
any progress at the present time is due to the fact that the Negus 
(Haile Selassie) is favorably disposed toward the Catholic 
clergy. Haile Selassie, so we are told, was brought up under 
the influence of Monsignor Jarosseau, the venerable prelate who 
is Vicar Apostolic of Gallas. There appears in a recent report 
of the French Capuchin missions a statement which I have 
clipped from La Vie Catholique: it is here offered in trans- 
lation: “ The Vicar Apostolic continues his plea (for recogni- 
tion). He has been able to secure the establishment of a Pre- 
fecture Apostolic of Somaliland, and urges Prince Taffan (the 
present Negus) to seek admission into the League of Nations. 
This move has been successfully carried out. . . . This makes 
Ethiopia an independent nation and assures it freedom from 
foreign aggression. . . . This is most important against Moslem 
extension.” Despite the kindly offices of Monsignor Jarosseau, 
he has not been permitted to reside in Addis Ababa, though 
it is said he comes to the capital occasionally. 

Possibly another reason for the conciliatory attitude of Haile 
Selassie may be found in a visit made to Ethiopia by a Ponti- 
fical Mission in 1929. This Mission was sent to Ethiopia by 
the Holy Father as an act of courtesy, in return for a visit 
made to the Vatican a short while before, by Ras Taffari. The 
Mission was headed by Monsignor Marchetti-Selvaggiani, then 
Secretary of the Propaganda, and now Cardinal Vicar of the 
Holy See. It is interesting to note that an American priest, a 
member of the Maryknoll Society for Foreign Missions, accom- 
panied Monsignor Marchetti-Selvaggiani, as secretary. Not- 
withstanding the favorable disposition of Haile Selassie there is 
much local opposition to Catholic activities in Ethiopia. In 











ETHIOPIA IN ITS ECCLESIASTICAL ASPECTS. 123 


addition to the antagonistic attitude of the Coptic clergy, local 
princes (they are numerous in Ethiopia) “ make continual re- 
quests for presents, either in money or in objects of value— 
a veritable system of extortion that sometimes threatens to 
strangle the missions ”. 

Since the outbreak of hostilities in Ethiopia many have ex- 
pressed anxiety regarding the missions. But evidently they have 
not suffered materially so far. It is said that the Missionaries 
of the Consolata have abandoned their procure in Addis Ababa 
and have retired to the prefecture in Kaffa. The Sacred Con- 
gregation of the Propaganda allowed half the personnel to re- 
turn to Italy, but all have refused to avail themselves of the 
permission. Only the Sisters who nursed in the Italian hospital 
at Addis Ababa have retired, and have gone to Djibuti on the 
Somaliland front, to aid in the hospitals there. 

It seems, if one can believe despatches, that many Ethiopian 
natives and some of the Coptic clergy have surrendered to the 
Italian forces, and it is significant that when the Italians took 
possession of Axum the Coptic Abuna said: ““ We know that 
Rome has always brought civilization in that which refers to 
our church and our religion. The law of Rome is a spiritual 
right which springs from goodness and force of its idea.” This 
is a remarkable pronouncement; but many express doubt of 
its sincerity. 

Despite missionary efforts and its vaunted “ civilization ”, 
Ethiopia abounds in barbaric customs. This is especially true as 
regards the care of the sick and infirm. This statement is based 
on a report made recently by Dr. Jean Martinie, a French 
physician, who for many years was attached to a hospital in 
Addis Ababa. Dr. Martinie states that the natives have more 
confidence in their own sorcerers than in the graduates of medical 
schools, and that “ the natives prefer witch doctors to iodine and 
bandages.” After discussing some of the prevailing diseases of 
the country—leprosy, typhus, hydrophobia, and others—he says 
that virtually every disease is treated with the “cure of dark- 
ness”, which means that the patient is placed in a room where 
no light can enter, and “a hot stove installed under the patient’s 
nose is supposed to drive out evil spirits and keep the soul 
warm”. The manner of the native doctor—the “ Ouoguicha ” 
—and the magician—the “ tanroe ”—is suggestive of much of 











124 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


the medical attention given to the sick. ‘‘ They shriekingly 
invoke all the spirits in creation, and then, in the presence of 
the patient, they sacrifice either a black or red goat: the sick 
person must then eat twelve different cuts of raw meat from 
the goat’s warm carcass.” Surgery, evidently, is extremely 
primitive. “If a leg cannot be cured it is cut off, and rusty 
hatchets are often used for the amputation.” 

Hence, we may justly conclude that prevailing customs in the 
“land of barbaric splendor ” do not indicate a high degree of 
civilization. 

P. W. BROWNE. 

Washington, D. C. 











THE PRIEST’S STRUGGLE FOR SANCTITY. 


Y/ITHOUT the achievement of personal sanctity the min- 


istry of a priest is likely to bear little fruit, and his life 
to be irksome and unhappy. His mission is to lift souls from 
the morass of sin to the solid ground of the friendship and love 
of God. But unless the shepherd of souls possesses sure footing 
in solid virtue, he cannot well lift others from the quicksands. 
“ Physician, heal thyself!” is the inevitable reaction of people 
to the doctor who prescribes a remedy for others but fails to 
apply it to himself. “I chastise my body, and bring it into 
subjection,” said the great Apostle to the Gentiles, “ lest perhaps, 
when I have preached to others, I myself should become a casta- 
way.” * Holiness of life is the first and the most indispensable 
requisite for the successful discharge of the duties of the priestly 
ministry. The priest’s whole life should be, therefore, a con- 
stant struggle for sanctity—a struggle against crafty foes and 
insidious dangers that ends only at death. 

The very nature of the sacerdotal life gives rise to distinctive 
dangers and temptations. The layman can find the satisfaction 
of much of his human yearnings through the establishment of 
a home and family and a normal social life. The building up 
of his business offers a legitimate means of gratification for his 
acquisitive instincts. ‘The priest, however, is deprived of these 
natural means for the satisfaction of those driving urges which 
shake the framework of every human being, as volcanic forces 
shake the structure of a mountain range. Denied these external 
means of satisfying inborn human yearnings the priest is thrown 
back upon himself. He experiences a void, an emptiness, a 
loneliness that is peculiar to the lot of one who is in the world 
and yet not of it. It is a life which, without supernatural aid, 
is impossible, because it goes directly against the grain of human 
nature and runs against the current of instinctive life which has 
grown powerful and almost irresistible through long centuries 
of operation and growth. 

As a consequence, the life of a priest much more than that 
of the layman is in very truth a constant warfare. “ The flesh 
lusteth against the spirit,” says St. Paul, “‘ and the spirit against 
the flesh.” Indeed, it is not too much to say that the whole 


1T Cor. 9: 27. 











126 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


spiritual life of man, and especially of the priest, consists of a 
struggle between the spirit and the flesh for the mastery of 
human life and conduct. Shall I follow the law in my mem- 
bers or the law in my mind? is the old question which confronts 
every man born into this world to-day as truly as it confronted 
and perplexed the Apostle to the Gentiles and his first father, 
Adam. 


If priests are to gain a victory for mind and conscience in this 
struggle with the flesh and its concupiscence, they must plan 
their warfare in a careful scientific manner. In modern war- 
fare the effort is always made to ascertain the chief fortress of 
the enemy. For if the main stronghold of the enemy can be 
conquered, the enemy will have been dealt a crushing blow and 
the remaining minor fortresses will be easy to overcome. 

Some miles east of Rheims in France there rises out of the 
level countryside a modest hill that was the scene of some of the 
most desperate fighting in the World War. It is known as 
Hill 101. Because it offered a splendid ‘place of vantage for 
the heavy guns trained on Rheims it was fought for desper- 
ately by the soldiers of Hindenburg. Realizing that if the 
Germans could be dislodged from this strategic location, their 
artillery would not reach Rheims, the French under Foch fought 
with equal vigor for the hill. More than half a dozen times 
it passed from the possession of the Germans into the French 
and back again. When finally forced to withdraw, Hinden- 
burg had huge quantities of explosives set off in a last desperate 
attempt to destroy the elevation. The grim scars on the muti- 
lated hill still visible to the traveller bear mute witness to the 
importance which these two great generals attached to the 
conquest of a strategic stronghold of the enemy. 

What is the chief stronghold of the enemy which the priest 
must overcome? What in other words is his predominant 
passion? What that is, each priest is to determine for himself. 
With some it may be the passion of anger; with others, the 
passion of avarice; with others, the passion of drink. But it 
may be safe to say that for the majority of priests, as for the 
generality of mankind, the predominant passion is that of lust. 
For this is not only the most universal passion, but, rooted deep 
in the biological history of the race, it fights for its gratification 











THE PRIEST’S STRUGGLE FOR SANCTITY. 127 


most fiercely and with a persistence that ceases only with death. 
“There was given me a sting of the flesh, an angel of Satan to 
buffet me,” are words which can be uttered by every human 
being born into this world as truly as they were uttered by St. 
Paul nineteen hundred years ago in distant Palestine. 

For the priest it is an especially insidious enemy. It dogs his 
footsteps at every turn. It tracks him down even in the divinely 
appointed task of pardoning sins. For in the confessional he 
has to expose his ear to frequent accusations of sins of lust. Here 
the confessor should bear in mind the wise counsel of St. 
Alphonsus: “ It is better to have a deficiency of detail concern- 
ing sins de sexto than to have an overabundance.” If the priest 
is indolent, thoughts of a lustful character, never very distant 
in the background of the mind, rush forward to claim the center 
of the stage. If it is conceded even a few crumbs, it develops 
the appetite of a gourmand. It is said that if wild beasts 
once taste human flesh and blood they develop an insatiable 
appetite and can never be trusted again. So it is with the 
passion of lust. The more it is yielded to, the more rapacious 
and insatiable becomes its appetite. 

Furthermore, it is crafty and insidious in its approach. Ex- 
plorers from Africa tell us that in certain parts of the jungle 
they have to be on their guard against certain large insects which 
attack people as they sleep. Before piercing the flesh they deposit 
a secretion which acts as an anesthetic, so that the person feels 
no pain while his blood is being sucked away. So it is with lust. 
It captivates and dulls the moral sensibility with the anesthetic 
of instinctve gratification. It is not until later that the gnaw- 
ings of remorse make themselves felt in the fulness of their 
anguish. 

“Be ye clean,” said the prophet Isaiah, “ you that carry the 
vessel of the Lord.” * If this obligation applied even to the 
priests of the Old Law, how much more strictly does it bind 
those of the New Law whose lips and tongue are daily purpled 
with the blood of the God-man, Jesus Christ. How chaste 
should be the conversation and speech of the minister of Christ! 

Gluttony and intemperance pave the way to sins of lust. 
They beget a spirit of self-indulgence, so that when the driving 


“Isaiah §2: 11. 











128 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


urge of lust is felt, the priest undisciplined in self-restrant and 
mortificaton falls a rather easy victim. ‘‘ Take heed to your- 
selves,” warned our Blessed Lord, “‘ lest perhaps your hearts be 
overcharged with surfeiting and drunkenness.” * Mortification 
and self-denial are indispensable requisites for the discipleship 
of Christ. It was this truth which our Divine Saviour ex- 
pressed when he said: “‘ If any man will come after me, let him 
deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow me.” + 
These words of the great High Priest every pastor is called upon 
to make the lodestar of his ministry and the rule of his daily life. 


“ Chastity,” it has been said, “is a fragrant flower that blooms 
only among the thorns of self-denial.” St. Matthew records 
that when our Lord had expelled the evil spirit from the body 
of the possessed man, the disciples inquired why they were un- 
able to exercise the same power. Our Saviour made the signi- 
ficant reply: “This kind is not cast out but by prayer and 
fasting.” ° If pastors cannot exorcise the demon of impurity 
from others save by prayer and mortification, it is obvious that 
they cannot fortify themselves against the onslaughts of this 
demon save by prayer and self-denial. When they prostrated 
themselves before the bishop on the eventful day of their or- 
dination, he uttered a warning to them that they should always 
carry in mind: “As you expel demons from the bodies of others, 
so will you endeavor to ward off all uncleanness and iniquity 
from your mind and body, lest you succumb to those whom you 
put to flight by your ministry.” ° 

Priests of the active ministry must be especially steeled and 
fortified against this vice. For they meet it in the confessional, 
on the sick-call, in the daily search for the wayward and lost 
sheep. Cardinal Mercier relates the case of a seminarian who, 
while possessing much piety and many virtues, did not evince 
quite the solid strength of character required for the pastoral 
ministry. Accordingly, the authorities of the seminary kindly 
advised the young man to go into the religious life where he 
would be more protected and sheltered from the onslaughts of 


3 Luke 21: 34. 

4 Luke 9: 23. 

5 Matt. 27: 20. 

6In Ordin. Exorcist. 














THE PRIEST’S STRUGGLE FOR SANCTITY. 129 


temptation to which the priest out on the firing-line is daily 
exposed. 

No amount of intellectual brilliance, no charm of personality 
can substitute for sanctity in the life of a priest. If he lacks 
holiness of life, his ministry is without zeal or relish, hollow 
and empty, a mockery and a sham. “ But if the salt shall lose 
its savor, wherewith shall it be seasoned? It is neither profit- 
able for the land nor for the dunghill, but shall be cast out.” 7 
What disaster in the whole range of human life can compare 
with the fall of a priest from the state of sacerdotal chastity 
to that of the moral leper—coated in mind, heart and soul with 
the leprosy of sin. Since the fall of Lucifer from heaven there 
has been no fall so great, so tragic as the fall of a priest into 
confirmed and unrepentant habits of mortal sin, the leprosy 
of the soul. 


What is the safeguard and the remedy? Our Divine Master 
has prescribed it for us: ‘“‘ Watch ye and pray that ye enter not 
into temptation.” First, there must be ceaseless vigilance against 
the approach of the temptation. Here as elsewhere eternal 
vigilance is the price of victory. As sentinels along the dykes 
of Holland keep ceaseless vigil to detect any crevice in the walls 
which would speedily enlarge and allow the waters of the 
tumultuous sea to flood the lowlands of the country, so pastors 
must exercise a ceaseless vigilance over the senses through which 
temptations enter, bringing ruin and destruction to their spirit- 
ual life. 

“Resist the beginnings,” warned Thomas 4 Kempis; “ after- 
remedies come too late.” Priests must shepherd their thoughts 
and imaginations that no wolf in sheep’s clothing be permitted 
to enter surreptitiously to work havoc and ruin when they are 
off guard. Priestly sanctity is safeguarded by the avoidance 
of unnecessary dangers. ‘‘ He that loveth danger,” says Holy 
Writ, “shall perish in it.” No man can play continually with 
fire and not be burnt. Pastors who can see that many of the 
sins of their penitents are directly traceable to their failure to 
avoid the near occasions, ought to perceive with a more pene- 
trating insight than the lay person the dire tragedies that result 
from negligence in complying with this divine admonition. 


TLuke 14: 34, 








130 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


They ought, therefore, to be scrupulously on their guard against 
occasions which have proved dangerous to them in the past. It 
is probably not too much to say that the malice of most sins 
consists not so much in the act itself when the passions are 
aroused and the will weakened as in the antecedents of the act, 
namely, the conscious, deliberate refusal to avoid the occasion 
which experience has proved to be gravely dangerous for us. 

Our vigilance can cease only with death. For neither length 
of years, great learning, nor eminent sanctity is proof against 
a fall. As Cardinal Gibbons points out: ‘“‘ We are neither 
stronger than Samson, nor holier than David, nor wiser than 
Solomon, and yet all these three yielded to the slippery path 
of lust. It was in his old age that the heart of Solomon became 
depraved.” * “Believe me,” says St. Augustine, “I speak the 
truth in Christ. I lie not. I have seen the cedars of Libanus, 
and the leaders of the flock fall, whose ruins I no more expected 
than I would that of Gregory Nazianen or of Ambrose.” 

The second safeguard against temptation is prayer. ‘‘ Watch 
ye and pray,” said our Divine Master to the Apostles whom He 
brought with Him to the Garden of Gethsemane. The result of 
their failure to do so is shown vividly in their desertion of the 
Master in the crisis that was then approaching. When St. Paul 
cried out for deliverance from the concupiscence and the weak- 
ness of the flesh, God answered him with the assuring words: 
““My grace is sufficient for thee, O Paul, for power is made 
perfect in infirmity.” This is the assurance that Christ gives 
to every priest who has recourse to this divinely appointed safe- 
guard against temptation: ‘“‘ Whatsoever you shall ask the Father 
in my nameit shall be given unto you. Ask and you shall receive, 
seek and you shall find, knock and it shall be opened unto you.” 


While the priest is deprived of many of the natural auxiliaries 
to virtue which the layman possesses in the form of a home and 
family, with the natural incentives to industry and goodness 
which spring from such a responsibility, this lack is more than 
counterbalanced by the abundance of the appointed means for 
priestly sanctity. First, there is the meditation with which he 
begins each day. Meditation is a form of prayer. No human 


8 Cardinal Gibbons, The Ambassador of Christ; John Murphy Co., Baltimore; 
p. 140. 














THE PRIEST’S STRUGGLE FOR SANCTITY. 131 


being can review in his mind day by day those divinely revealed 
truths which disclose to us the ultimate destiny of the human 
soul and the supernatural means established to attain it without 
being profoundly influenced by such truths. It is the heavenly 
manna which the busy layman scarcely tastes. ‘‘ With deso- 
lation is all the land made desolate,” said the prophet, ‘ because 
there is no one who thinketh in his heart.” Daily meditation 
gives us a grip on the great eternal verities and enables us to 
perceive the transiency and fugitiveness of all the allurements 
of this world and to set our hearts upon the heavenly prize that 
abideth forever: “ Remember thy last end and thou shalt never 
sin. 

Secondly there is the daily Mass. What a divine privilege 
it is for priests to bring Jesus down from heaven, to hold Him 
in their hands, and to offer Him anew as the eternal Victim for 
the sins of the world. With what care should they prepare 
themselves by prayer and meditation beforehand for the devout 
performance of this sublime office! How great should be their 
reverence, their absorption, their devotion, when alone of all 
mankind they are privileged to hold in their hands the Author 
of all grace and the Source of all good! It is the Mass which 
is their daily tonic, the divinely appointed means for their 
priestly sanctification, strengthening them to withstand the 
temptations of their own nature and of the world. 

Thirdly, there is the daily recitation of the Divine Office, the 
great universal prayer of the Church that rains down the bless- 
ings of God upon the ministry of His priests. It is conducive 
to reciting the holy office digne, attente ac devote to break it 
up into parts instead of saying it at one sitting where it might 
take on the appearance of a burden and prompt one to speed 
and heedlessness in its recitation. In addition, there should be 
the private visit of the priest to the Blessed Sacrament at an 
appointed time each day. This should be made with unfail- 
ing regularity. It rekindles the flame of love burning in the 
heart of the priest. It renews his zeal for his sacred ministry 
and makes Jesus the invisible companion throughout all the day 
—“ closer to us than breathing, nearer than hands or feet ”. 

Fourthly and lastly, there is mortification. “If any man 
will be my disciple, let him deny himself, take up his cross 
daily and follow me,” was the condition for discipleship laid 








132 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


down by our Divine Master nineteen hundred years ago and 
never revoked. By daily discipline and daily self-denial alone 
pastors attain that vigor and robustness of priestly character 
which will stand like a rock of adamant against the storms of 
all the passions that blow within the human heart. 

God does not command the impossible. That which would 
be impossible by nature alone comes easily within our range 
through the abundant torrents of supernatural grace which Al- 
mighty God never fails to pour upon his priests who hearken 
to His divine admonition: “‘ Watch ye and pray that ye enter 
not into temptation.” ‘The assurance of unfailing assistance 
from prayer is given to us in the words of our great High Priest, 
Jesus Christ: “‘ Whatsoever you ask the Father in my name it 
shall be given unto you.” Through the steady and persistent 
utilization of these appointed means of grace the priest can 
look forward with confidence in the promises of our Divine 
Redeemer of the successful issue of his life-long struggle for 
sanctity and closer union with the heart of Christ in an abiding 
and deathless love. 

JoHN A. O'BRIEN. 

Cham paign, Illinois. 














FRANZ CARDINAL EHRLE. 


ja 
tee THE APPIAN WAY, as probably nowhere else 


to-day, the antique and the modern come together in 
juxtaposition. Between the ruins of Roman tombs and the 
medieval churches that line the historic highway flows daily a 
picturesque tide of traffic and travel—peasant-carts from the 
Campagna, carozzas, taxis, smart-looking autobuses, ponderous 
motortrucks, pedestrian pilgrims and sightseers, the whole scene 
raised to the last degree of modernity by the din of auto-horns, 
which one finds to be the inevitable accompaniment of Roman 
trafic to-day. Going cityward along the storied road one has 
on the left, near St. Sebastian’s Gate, the rather forlorn-appear- 
ing church of San Cesario in Palatio. Not a great deal of 
historical or artistic interest invites the passer-by to enter, if 
indeed he find it open. Yet a circumstance there is which 
happened recently to draw attention to it. San Cesario in 
Palatio was the titular church of that very eminent scholar, the 
late Cardinal Ehrle. Not a little of adventitious interest gathers 
about the titular cardinalitial churches of Rome through the 
names of great ecclesiastics who were associated with them as 
patrons. Thus one links up San Giorgio in Velabro with 
Newman, Santa Pudenziana with Wiseman, Santa Maria in 
Trastevere with Gibbons. 

In Southeastern Wurtemberg in Germany, at no great dis- 
tance from the Bavarian Alps, nestles the inconspicuous little 
village of Isny. Here, in this corner of the Schwabenland, 
Franz Ehrle made entrance on the human scene, 17 October, 
1845, his parents, Dr. Franz Ehrle, a district physician, and 
Bertha von Froelich. From the popular Jesuit gymnasium of 
Feldkirch in the Austrian Vorarlberg, where he did his classics, 
he passed in 1861 to the novitiate of the Society of Jesus in 
Gorheim, Hohenzollern, being at the time not quite sixteen. 
Forced out of the Fatherland by the Kulturkampf, he and his 
confréres found a refuge in England, where the Jesuit superiors 
had succeeded in opening a house of studies at Ditton Hall near 
Liverpool. Here he made his theological studies and received 
the priesthood. The last period of Jesuit training, the “ third 
year of probation”, he spent at Portico in the neighborhood 











134 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


of Ditton Hall. While here he had the duty imposed upon him 
of attending in the capacity of chaplain a workhouse at Preston 
in Lancashire. The experience he gained in this trying post 
bore fruit. The first book which he produced, of date 1881, 
dealt with the history of public poor relief and its reform. 

What may be called the young priest’s formal entrance on 
a career of scholarship took place 1 October, 1878, on which 
day he became a member of the editorial staff of the Jesuit 
review, the Stimmen aus Maria Laach. Almost immediately 
he conceived the plan of what he fondly hoped was to be his 
lifework, an elaborate and authoritative history of the scholastic 
movement in philosophy and theology. The plan received a 
momentary check when he was despatched by his superiors to 
Rome in 1880 to undertake research in the newly opened 
Vatican Archives on the official correspondence of the papal 
nuncios in Germany during the Thirty Years War. The lack 
in Rome of the printed material needed to supplement the 
manuscript sources for this line of investigation led him to 
discontinue it and he returned to his original idea of a history of 
Scholasticism. To supply the proper research basis for the 
project he now made the rounds of the chief libraries of Western 
Europe. In 1881 he was at Naples, Assisi, Todi, Florence, in 
1882 at Paris, London, Oxford, Leipsic, Munich. He was amply 
rewarded for his pains, bringing to light a mass of hitherto un- 
known manuscript material bearing on his subject. 

Already in 1883 Father Ehrle was beginning the publication 
of a line of monographs dealing with Franciscan Scholasticism 
and the School of Salamanca. Two years later, in 1885, he was 
engaged in the publication of a series of select texts on Scholastic 
philosophy, founding at the same time in collaboration with 
the illustrious Dominican scholar, Father Henry Denifle, a re- 
view devoted to the history and literature of the medieval 
Church. The review, having run into seven imposing volumes, 
suspended publication in 1900, pressing personal engagements 
making it impracticable for the learned editors to continue it. 
The papers contributed to it by the Jesuit, all of them based on 
newly discovered manuscript material, indicate that other sub- 
jects besides Scholasticism were engaging his attention. They 
discuss such varied matters as, for example, the manuscripts of 
St. Francis at Assisi, the earliest redactions of the Franciscan 














FRANZ CARDINAL EHRLE. 135 


constitutions, the Fraticelli, the papal court-ceremonial in the 
fourteenth century, the acts of the Council of Vienne, the 
alleged “twenty-five millions” found in the coffers of Pope 
John XXII, the career of the Spanish anti-pope, Peter de Luna. 


II. 


In the Spring of 1890 Father Ehrle brought out a Latin his- 
tory, almost eight hundred pages in length, of the papal libraries 
in Rome and Avignon. It was probably this work which first 
drew the attention of the Holy See to the services which the 
Jesuit savant was in a position to render to the Vatican Library. 
In September of 1890 he was appointed a member of that 
library’s administrative board, in which capacity he was 
promptly entrusted with important commissions, such as the 
acquisition of the Borghese collection of codices and the collect- 
ing of printed books from every quarter of the world. Finally, 
in August, 1895, he was named by Leo XIII Prefect of the 
Vatican Library in succession to Monsignor Carini, who had 
unexpectedly died. ‘The years spent by him in this important 
office were the most significant period of his life. General 
training, philosophical and theological attainments, equipment 
of the languages, and mastery of paleography, diplomatics and 
the other auxiliary sciences of the historian, had prepared him 
to be what Pius XI said he was, “‘ the ideal Prefect of the most 
important and splendid library in the world ”. 

Two problems confronted Father Ehrle as he took up the 
duties of papal librarian. First, was the great collection now 
under his management to be organized and administered mainly 
as a body of printed books or mainly as a body of manuscripts? 
His decision was in favor of the manuscripts. Books were to 
be retained and even added to, but they were to be of secondary 
interest only and subsidiary to the exploitation of the manu- 
script treasurer in which the papal library is rich beyond any 
other collection in the world. Secondly, would the new prefect 
content himself with a merely general supervision of the library, 
carrying along at the same time his private literary ventures, 
especially his history of Scholasticism, or would he surrender 
himself to his new charge without reserve and at the sacrifice 
of personal plans? The decision was not for self. At fifty, 
with all his powers at full tide, Ehrle resolved to dedicate him- 











136 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


self wholeheartedly to the task of recreating the Vatican 
Library. Cardinal Mercier noted in him a more than ordinary 
talent for organization. This talent he could now put to 
account on a major scale. The vast manuscript material 
accumulated in the Vatican Library had indeed been thrown 
open to investigators by Leo XIII; but it was still largely un- 
ordered and otherwise not in a condition to be utilized with 
ease and profit. To make this material accessible, to bring it 
within convenient reach of the scholars of the world, in fine, 
to make of the Vatican Library a “‘ working-library ” in the 
best sense of the term, was the ideal which Ehrle set before 
him. The success with which he realized it was his great 
achievement in the cause of international scholarship and his 
chief title to the place of distinction assured him in its history. 

The task of reorganizing the Library was approached in vari- 
ous practical ways. Inventories and indexes were prepared and 
the immediate needs of students and researchers met by the in- 
stallation of a splendidly appointed consultation or work-room 
equipped with all the usual printed aids in paleography, diplo- 
matics, bibliography, and other pursuits bearing on the scientific 
study of manuscripts. Two problems, among others, engaged 
Ehrle’s attention from the start. These were the most recent 
and effective processes and methods involved in the photographic 
reproduction of documents and the restoration of old manu- 
scripts and their preservation against the further ravages of 
time. Photochromography and other up-to-date processes were 
put to account in the numerous volumes of Vatican codices 
issued by him in photostat. A students’ aid to Latin paleo- 
graphy, a joint production of his and Paul Liebaert’s (1912), 
consists of photostats of select Vatican manuscripts. As re- 
gards the preservation of manuscripts, he organized in 1898 an 
international conference of archivists and librarians, in which 
the whole pressing problem was subjected to earnest and 
thoroughgoing discussion. 

It was Father Ehrle’s practice to put himself in immediate 
personal touch with the patrons of the Library, thus placing 
at their disposal his own expert knowledge of its contents. 
The result was that he established a range of scholarly contacts 
for which it would be difficult to find a parallel. He once 
remarked to the author of this sketch that during his years in 











FRANZ CARDINAL EHRLE. 137 


the Vatican Library the scholarship of the world seemed to 
pass in review before him, so that he was enabled to recognize 
the varying levels reached by it from one country to another. 
To mention one name only, of Professor Haskins of Harvard, 
his appreciation was high and he spoke in terms of warm com- 
mendation of that eminent medievalist’s scholarly attainments. 
It is pleasant to be able to record that the Vatican librarian’s 
courtesies to visiting scholars brought him recognition and dis- 
tinction in academic circles throughout the world. In 1924 
he had already been named corresponding or honorary member 
of some nineteen learned societies and had received degrees 
honoris causa from eight of the leading universities of Europe. 
Oxford led off in 1899, followed by Cambridge, Louvain, Bonn, 
Munich, Cologne and Tiibingen. At the presentation of the 
Oxford degree Dr. Shadwell’s citation (in Latin) of Father 
Ehrle’s services to scholarship was charming. ‘‘ While not 
reared amongst us, nor a familiar figure in this domicile of the 
muses, he will not withal be reckoned a stranger to such of us 
as, having visited Rome for the sake of study, made experience 
of the kindness, the courtesy, the good humor of this most 
erudite man as he spread out his treasures before us.” 


III. 


Though Ehrle’s history of Scholasticism, the dream of his 
earlier years, never became a reality, he made notable contri- 
butions to the subject in a long succession of monographs, 
critically edited texts and other publications. His grasp of the 
entire Scholastc movement in its historical development was 
perhaps unrivalled and no one could be happier in interpreting 
its significance. This appeared in a remarkable address which 
he delivered 8 March, 1924, at a function in the Gregorian 
University, being at the time in his seventy-ninth year. Brief 
in compass, the address covers in lucid and orderly sequence all 
the substantial aspects of Scholasticism in its historical back- 
ground and growth, its inner spirit, its place in the present-day 
life of the Church. It is a masterpiece of compressed and 
luminous exposition. 

Ehrle’s scholarly preoccupations were by no means circum- 
scribed by the range, however sweeping, of the Scholastic move- 
ment. Versatility and a well-nigh kaleidoscopic variety of 











138 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


interests carried him into other and almost disparate fields of 
research. This is brought home to one as the eye scans the 
hundred and seventeen titles in the bibliography of his pub- 
lished works which appeared in 1925. Art and archeology in 
particular, especially when they bore on Rome of the medieval, 
Renaissance, and even later periods, had a fascination for him, 
eliciting from his pen numerous original studies of distinct 
importance. In collaboration with E. Stevenson he brought 
out in 1897 a volume of photographic reproductions of the 
famous Pinturicchio frescoes in the Borgia Apartments of the 
Vatican with accompanying critical commentary. The work 
met with instant and warm appreciation in scholarly circles 
and was promptly translated from its original Italian into 
French. 

The historical and artistic backgrounds, the topography and 
archaeology of the Borgo, the picturesque quarter of Rome in 
which St. Peter’s and the Vatican are located, were studied by 
Ehrle with a minuteness that made him in all probability the 
outstanding authority on the subject. When in 1924 the 
Knights of Columbus opened their children’s playground in the 
Borgo, known as the Oratorio di San Pietro, which occupies the 
site of the medieval Schola Francorum or Frankish Hospice, it 
was Ehrle who furnished the historical introduction to the 
memorial volume issued on the occasion. The following year, 
1925—he was eighty then—he published Virgilio Spada’s seven- 
teenth-century maps and plans bearing on the prolongation of 
the Piazza of St. Peter’s to the Castle of St. Angelo. This was 
apparently a problem that intrigued him greatly. It is still a 
live one in Rome. ‘The Piano Regolatore or official “ city- 
beautiful ” plan of the Italian capital calls for the eventual 
levelling of the unsightly structures that clutter up the strategic 
space between the world’s greatest house of worship and the 
towering mass of brick and stone officially labelled “Adrian’s 
Mole”. Spacious tomb of Roman emperors and dour medieval 
fortress, it still rises superbly over the Borgo and Prati quarters, 
seemingly made, like Francis Thompson’s yew-tree, 

to unedge the scythe of time 
And last with stateliest rhyme. 
A sort of preliminary step to the improvement referred to has 
just now been taken with the clearing away from the sides of 














FRANZ CARDINAL EHRLE. 139 


the castle of the accumulated debris of centuries and the con- 
version of the adjoining intramural grounds into a public park, 
a project which gave employment to hundreds of workmen, 
during the earlier months of 1934. 

Often Father Ehrle’s scientific activities went on quite behind 
doors and their results hardly came to a knowledge of even 
what one may call the academic public. Many of his reasearch 
studies were published anonymously. Thus the collection of 
documents from the Vatican Archives illustrating papal inter- 
est in the Americas, which he published on occasion of the 
Chicago World’s Fair of 1893, did not bear his name. It may 
be mentioned that in the same connexion he contributed to the 
Stimmen a twenty-seven page article on the historical back- 
ground of the Holy See’s participation in the Fair, an event 
which aroused much interest at the time. 

One of the most far-reaching services rendered by the Vatican 
librarian to critical scholarship received no publicity whatever 
in his lifetime and is here apparently mentioned for the first 
time in print. This was the aid lent by him to the well-known 
project of a series of histories of the Society of Jesus according 
to its assistencies or regional administrative units, which was 
initiated in the early nineties by the Father-General of the So- 
ciety, the Very Reverend Louis Martin. The scope, character 
and methods, the last especially, of the entire project were deter- 
mined by Father Ehrle under a commission from the General 
himself. The latter had originally conceived of the histories 
mainly as aids to Jesuit domestic edification and instruction, 
without being particularly concerned about their critical char- 
acter. It was Father Ehrle who impressed upon him the neces- 
sity of carrying out the plan according to the most rigorous 
demands of the modern scientific school in history and in the 
spirit of perfect candor and objectivity stressed by Leo XIII 
in his classic letter on historical studies addressed in 1883 to 
Cardinals de Luca, Hergenroether and Pitra. In pursuance of 
instructions Father Ehrle gathered the authors of the projected 
histories around him in Rome and in a series of conferences laid 
down before them the standards they were to be guided by and 
the lines along which they were to pursue their respective tasks. 
The foundations of a great codperative historical enterprise thus 
securely laid by the savant forty years ago now bear notable 











140 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


superstructures in the standard histories of the Jesuits that have 
since appeared under the names of Astrain, Tacchi-Venturi, 
Duhr, Fouqueray, Hughes, and others. 


IV. 


Already in 1911 Father Ehrle, then sixty-six, had petitioned 
Pius X to relieve him of the post of Vatican Librarian. While 
the petition was not granted, he succeeded in obtaining the 
appointment of a Vice-Prefect with the right of succession. 
He suggested as his aid and successor, the well-known Prefect 
of the Ambrosian Library in Milan, Msgr. Achille Ratti, to 
whom accordingly the appointment went. At length, in 1914 
Father Ehrle at his reiterated request was relieved of his charge 
by Pius X, Monsignor Ratti immediately succeeding him as Pre- 
fect of the Vatican Library. When Italy entered the World War 
in the Spring of 1915, Ehrle left Rome for Munich, where he 
took in hand the editorship of the Stimmen der Zeit, the review, 
under another name, with which he had been connected at the 
outset of his academic career thirty-seven years before. In 
1919 his superiors, at Pope Benedict XV’s express desire, re- 
called him to Rome, where among other activities he engaged 
in teaching, giving courses at the Biblical Institute in paleo- 
graphy and at the Gregorian University in the history of 
Scholasticism. 

The occurrence in 1921 of Ehrle’s sixtieth year as a Jesuit 
elicited from Benedict XV a most cordial letter of congratu- 
lation, in which the Pontiff commended in terms of high eulogy 
the aged scholar’s services to the Church. February of 1922 
saw his successor as head of the Vatican Library, Monsignor, 
later Cardinal Ratti, raised to the Chair of St. Peter as Pius XI. 
On 13 December of the same year the latter, eager to express 
in a substantial way the regard he entertained for his old-time 
friend and colleague, bestowed on him the Cardinal’s hat. 
Ehrle’s ineffectual attempts to declne the dignity are a whole 
story by themselves; but there is no space to rehearse them here. 
‘It is not easy,” said the Holy Father in installing the Jesuit 
in his new post of honor, “ to express in a few words the range 
of merits honored by the purple in the person of His Eminence 
Cardinal Ehrle; merits, we say, that have put under obligation 
to him the republic of the learned, religion, science, the Holy 





= - Sv Ss 











FRANZ CARDINAL EHRLE. 141 


See. Let it suffice to say that, thanks to the enlightened and 
munificent favor of Leo XIII of glorious memory, he has, in 
twenty years of marvellous reorganizing labor, made the Vatican 
Library the most attractive and distinguished rendezvous of 
scholarly investigators and students in all the world . . . seldom 
has the demonstration of the harmony between faith and science 
been translated into a fact of such large and imposing propor- 
tions, of such engaging and splendid evidence.” 

Not two years had elapsed since his promotion to the purple 
when Cardinal Ehrle became the recipient, 4 November, 1924, 
of a distinction that would seem to be unique in the history of 
the Church. It took the shape of a function in the Vatican 
presided over by His Holiness, Pius XI, with twenty-four Car- 
dinals and the intellectual élite of Rome in attendance, and was 
planned as an international tribute of esteem to His Eminence 
at the beginning of his eightieth year. A more distinguished 
setting for the function could scarcely be imagined. It was 
staged in the Braccio Nuovo, a wing of the Vatican Museum 
all aglow with precious Greek and Roman marbles. The exer- 
cises were featured by the presentation to the Cardinal at the 
hands of His Holiness of a five-volume festgabe which bore 
the title Miscellanea Ehrle. This was a spendid collection of 
specially contributed papers, most of them in paleography and 
diplomatics, from scholars of every land who had made the 
acquaintance of the one-time Vatican librarian during their re- 
searches in Rome and were glad to express in this manner their 
appreciation of the courtesies he had extended them. American 
scholarship was not unrepresented in this unique collection, 
the contributors including Haskins and Rand of Harvard and 
Beeson of Chicago. The testimonials to the Cardinal’s unique 
career which the occasion evoked came from every quarter. 
“An indefatigable champion of learning, he has written by the 
example of his life one of the finest of apologies on behalf of 
Mother Church,” wrote Cardinal Mercier, who signified regret- 
fully his inability through illness to participate personally in the 
affair. To his own cordial appreciation, Thomas Ashby, 
Director of the British School at Rome, added: “ We are certain 
that these few words are only an echo of what is felt by all 
British scholars who have known you.” But the most strik- 
ing expression of esteem tendered Cardinal Ehrle on the occasion 











142 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


came from the Holy Father himself. Speaking in Italian and 
referring his words to the festgabe which he had the pleasure 
of presenting to His Eminence, he developed charmingly the 
text of an old Latin dedicatory formula, tibi tui tua de tuis, 
the import of which may be paraphrased: “ Your friends dedi- 
cate to you these offerings, which are verily your own, for they 
have been drawn from your own treasure-house of the Vatican 
Library.” 


V. 


Prolonged research in libraries and archives, especially if 
carried beyond the years of normal bodily vigor, is not a pur- 
suit for a weakling. Much physical stamina, one is almost 
tempted to say muscular strength, would appear to be a requisite 
in one who looks to a career in this direction. In this regard 
nature dealt out her favors to Ehrle with liberal hand. Six 
feet and over in height and with a bodily frame in proportion, 
he stood erect and, except for a slight bend of the head when 
in his eighties, walked so. He enjoyed good health, being free, 
except in his very latest years, from any notable handicap of 
bodily infirmity or weakness. During his last three years un- 
successfully treated cataracts and failing memory debarred him 
from serious pursuit of his researches. But even with these 
grave checks to contend with he contrived to carry on in a 
fashion with his work. A history of the Vatican Palace, to 
which he had devoted much time and labor in his declining 
years, was left unfinished at his death. Up to within a few 
weeks of his passing he was a frequent visitor to the Vatican 
Library, to which he had again unrestricted entreé, having in 
1929 succeeded Cardinal Gasquet as Librarian and Archivist of 
the Holy See. These are largely honorary posts, the pertinent 
administrative duties being discharged by the Prefects of the 
Vatican Library and Archives respectively. And so the good 
Cardinal’s devotion to learning stayed with him to the end, 
suggesting in its persistence the scholarly zeal of Browning's 
Renaissance grammarian who 

‘ properly based oun, 


Settled the doctrine of the enclitic ne, 
Dead from the waist down. 














FRANZ CARDINAL EHRLE. 143 


From 1932 on, His Eminence had lodgings at the Jesuit 
general headquarters in Rome, where he kept the minimum of 
state that was compatible with his rank. Here, surrounded by 
his religious confréres, he passed away in pace Domini early on 
Holy Saturday morning, 31 March, 1934. Great numbers of 
the clergy and laity of all ranks, from seminarians and simple 
clerics to cardinals and papal diplomats, came to pay their re- 
spects to the distinguished dead, while the funeral service at 
Sant’Ignazio was, even for Roman ceremonies, one of rare im- 
pressiveness and grandeur, the papal choir, with Monsignor 
Perosi personally in charge, rendering the music. 

It is idle to add that this highly interesting figure in the world 
of letters was not engaged during long career in any futile 
pursuit of learning for its own sake. The author of the Imitation 
pointed out to the men of the Renaissance, who needed the lesson 
badly, the emptiness of all human knowledge that has not God 
for its object. Franz Ehrle was too supernaturally clear-sighted 
to see in scholarship anything else than an instrument where- 
with to compass the increasing glory of his Divine Master. A 
religious of the Society of Jesus, he lived seventy-three years 
under its obedience, loyal to its prescriptions and to the high 
ideals of personal virtue which it sets before its members. So 
to live was for him the thing that mattered most. The heaped- 
up treasures of erudition that he gathered in with the years had 
meaning for him only to the extent that they could be made 
subservient to the cause of God and Holy Church. Pius XI 
went to the heart of the matter when he pointed out as the 
distinctive achievement of Franz Cardinal Ehrle the eloquent 
demonstration he gave the world of the harmony between faith 
and science. 

GILBERT J. GARRAHAN, S.J. 

Rome, Italy. 











THE CATHOLIC CLERGY AND THE AMERICAN NEGRO. 


| awed TENTH PERSON in the United States is a Negro; 

yet only one out of every fifty Negroes is a Catholic. 
Twelve million citizens, marked by the color of their skin, 
have occasioned somewhat of a problem in this country; yet 
12,000,000 souls marked with the sign of the Cross could be 
the solution of this problem. America once shed its blood that 
the body of the Negro might be free; but Christ had already 
shed His blood that the soul of the Negro might be free. The 
Negro has been described as the white man’s burden; to-day 
the white man is the Negro’s burden, for in spite of the fact 
that the Negro has proved himself able and worthy to walk 
the streets of the new Jerusalem he is forced to be satisfied with 
the alleys of life and the rear entrance to Paradise. 

For a long time the geographic distribution of the Negro 
population made it possible for many priests to avoid the ques- 
tion of Negro evangelization. The bulk of the Negroes were 
in the South where the Church was weak and priests few. What 
mission work was done among the Negroes was done chiefly by 
missionary organizations against terrific odds. Then came the 
upheaval; and to some pastors the end of the world—of their 
own little world. Negroes were caught in the vortex of the 
World War unrest and scattered to the four corners of the 
country. White parishes which had been Gibraltars of faith 
fell before the rush of cheap labor from the South. 

New problems were created and some priestly hands were 
found which did not disdain to clasp black and brown hands 
in friendly greeting. ‘To-day the problems of the Negro are 
receiving intelligent consideration in an enlarged ecclesiastical 
circle. A discussion of the relations of the Catholic clergy with 
the American Negro might be helpful. 


I. 


To any one even slightly conversant with mission trends 
within the Catholic world there is evident a stirring up of in- 
terest in the Church’s opportunity and obligation toward the 
American Negro. Nearly every Catholic periodical is devot- 
ing some space to a discussion of the problems connected with 
the presence of millions of un-churched Negroes in our land; 











THE CATHOLIC CLERGY AND THE AMERICAN NEGRO. 145 


in fact some Catholic magazines are outstanding protagonists of 
the cause. Furthermore, news items of activity in the Colored 
Missions are more frequently seen in Catholic newspapers, and 
an increasing number of prominent clerics are lending their 
pens and their voices to the campaign to educate Catholic in- 
terest to be truly catholic in its range. 

Many factors have contributed to this awakening, but per- 
haps the primary cause is that since 1915 hundreds of thousands 
of Negroes have come to live in sections of the country where 
the Church is more powerful and Catholics are more numerous 
than in the South. For years the Church in the South has been 
appealing for a Catholic interest in the missionary problems of 
the Negro, but without many visible signs of success. The 
reason for this seeming lack of success is simple: it is difficult 
to engage interest in a cause which does not immediately affect 
the group appealed to. Furthermore, much adverse propaganda 
has given the average white person a rather low estimate of the 
Negro’s worth. But with large sections of northern and mid- 
western cities being taken over by Negro migrants the problem 
has been forced upon the country as a whole, so that no longer 
may the Negro be regarded solely as the concern of the south- 
ern bishops. To-day the national spotlight is on him. 

The Propagation of the Faith and the Catholic Students’ 
Mission Crusade deserve a large share of credit for developing a 
better mission-mindedness among Catholics. In the beginning 
this mission-mindedness was directed almost wholly toward 
foreign missions, a trend largely psychological and opportunistic, 
however, since the foreign mission field seemed to have a more 
effective emotional appeal. There were glamor and romance in 
far-away ports, and a sort of halo of heroism was placed upon 
the brow of the young priests or nuns who sailed away to a 
distant mission field. Preachers of mission appeals often found 
it easier to open purse strings if first they could open tear ducts 
—and tears flowed freer for African and Chinese babies than 
for little colored tatterdemalions in the back alleys of big 
American cities. 

Then came the depression when people felt the necessity of 
getting the most out of a nickel. Came too a narrowing of 
the horizon. What about the home missions? In the United 
States, with a total population of 123 millions, less than 55 











146 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


millions are listed in the latest government religious survey as 
having any church affiliation whatsoever, much less believing 
some definite creed or observing some definite moral code. Half 
the country might literally be called pagan. Immigration laws 
cut off the growth by accretion, with sight of which we had 
lulled ourselves into a smug complacency that the Church in 
this country was growing by leaps and bounds. Annual cen- 
suses began to show heretofore unperceived leakage, and we 
discovered that we were not growing at all, growth being from 
within, not from without. 

Coincident with this realization came the Negroes in large 
numbers to Catholic localities where for the first time Catholics 
were face to face with a problem which they had always con- 
sidered to be decidedly local to the South. Something had to 
be done about these millions, more alien in grace than in race. 
Twelve million souls wandering as sheep without a shepherd, 
less than half baptized, and less than 250,000 within the arms 
of the Catholic Church. Verily, here was a mission field suited 
to even a king’s taste, not to mention the King’s command. 

Perhaps all these varying circumstances of themselves would 
have conspired to set the wheels of Catholic action in motion 
toward the Negro. By way of climax, however, word was 
passed down the line that “ Rome hath spoken”. The eye of 
the Holy Father, Pope Pius XI, rightly called the Pope of the 
Missions, penetrated to the very heart of the American caste 
system. With the wisdom of his office he realized the difficulties 
of the problem and the delicacy of the situation. No blast, no 
publicity, no whirring attended the setting in motion of well- 
oiled machinery; but the effect was instantaneous. Let those 
who heard the voice tell what Rome hath said. 

An Associated Press dispatch, dated Vatican City, 27 October, 
1934, reported His Excellency the Most Rev. Emmet Walsh, 
Bishop of Charleston, N. Car., as having said after his visit 
with the Pope, ‘‘ The Holy Father was particularly interested in 
mission work in our diocese among colored people.” 

At the rededication of St. Joseph’s Church for Negroes, in 
Wilmington, Delaware, last year, His Excellency the Most Rev. 
Edmund Fitzmaurice told the congregation that “on his recent 
visit to the Holy Father in Rome the greater part of his audience 
with the Pope was taken up in discussing the condition of the 











THE CATHOLIC CLERGY AND THE AMERICAN NEGRO. 147 


Negroes in the diocese. Asa token of the Holy Father’s regard 
for the Negroes in the diocese of Wilmington the Bishop said 
that the Pope had empowered and instructed him to grant them 
the Apostolic Blessing.” * 

Not so long ago, His Excellency the Most Rev. Andrew 
Brennan, Bishop of Richmond, stated that, on the occasion of 
his last ad limina visit, three-quarters of the hour he had spent 
with the Holy Father were consumed in discussing the Negro 
situation in the diocese. 

When His Excellency the Most Rev. Amleto G. Cicognani, 
Apostolic Delegate to the United States, made his first visit to 
St. Joseph’s Seminary, Washington, D. C., on the feast of St. 
Joseph, 1934, he addressed the future Josephites and was quoted 
in The Colored Harvest as having said, “‘ The work you are doing 
is a work very precious to the Holy Father in Rome, who on 
every occasion manifests a keen interest in the problems of the 
American Negro.” 

How many other authorities might be quoted is not known. 
The foregoing were public statements, and suffice to indicate a 
papal interest which must necessarily be contagious. At any 
rate, during the past few years more than ever before has been 
written about the Negro, and that from highly respected, if at 
times unexpected, sources. If to the written word be added the 
spoken word, it would certainly seem to be true that whether 
we hate the Negro or whether we love the Negro, no longer 
may we ignore him. 

It is ardently to be desired that this vivification of interest in 
the home missions will not mean the loss of one iota of interest 
in foreign missions. Catholic charity and sacerdotal zeal must 
be as catholic as Christ Himself, and any advantage gained in 
one section of the mission field at the expense of another cannot 
possibly carry with it the blessing of the God of all. There 
must be one Christ, one faith, one charity for all souls regard- 
less of race, color or clime. 


II. 


The Negro is on the verge of being discovered by many of 
the American clergy; in fact, some priests outside of the South 
have had him forced upon their vision by what might be called 


’ The Colored Harvest. 











148 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


“an act of God ”—migratory movements within the past two 
decades. The reaction, generally speaking, has been threefold. 
There are pastors who recognize in the turn of events a God- 
given opportunity to reap a plenteous harvest of souls. These 
have expanded their energies in behalf of souls and are being 
rewarded by seeing their efforts blessed by God. Others, while 
feeling the pinch of dwindling collections, are seemingly un- 
aware of the changing situation in their parishes, and, although 
not antagonistic to the Negroes who surround them, are not 
inclined to do much for them. Some pastors, on the other hand, 
seeing their former white parishioners move to more suburban 
areas, their vacant houses to be occupied by incoming Negroes, 
have become resentful against the persons whom they conceive 
as being responsible for the disintegration of the parish. They 
live upon memories of crowded churches even while their pews 
are being emptied. 

Long before the dispersion of the Negroes, however, many 
priests were intensely interested in their evangelization. It is 
hardly necessary to mention the valiant band of priests, mission- 
ary and secular, who have given their all to the Colored Missions. 
Their story is yet to be written, and when it is it should be 
penned in letters of gold and with words of grandeur. In the 
meantime, the right hand of recognition should not forget the 
left hand of their humility. 

Other priests there are who, while assigned by duty to an 
office which precludes their giving full-time service to the 
Negroes, nevertheless are second to none in their interest in the 
salvation of America’s colored millions. These are the pastors 
and curates, mostly in the South, who have always demonstrated 
in their lives the universality of the priestly mission by minis- 
tering to all souls within their jurisdiction without regard to 
skin pigmentation. Notwithstanding social customs which 
make their position particularly difficult, they demonstrate the 
possibility of a Catholic priest being catholic. Their number 
is greater than may be realized, but the measure of their worth, 
fortunately, is not the measure of their recognition. 

Finally, there is a large group of priests, outside the South, 
who, while far removed from the scene of missionary labors for 
the Negroes, withal are impelled by deepest sympathy and most 
thoughtful zeal to codperate in the great work by financial 

















THE CATHOLIC CLERGY AND THE AMERICAN NEGRO. 149 


contributions, helpful suggestions, and constant encouragement. 
They find it easier and more helpful to write a check for the 
missions than to write a paean of praise for the missioners. One 
day these priests behind the lines who are supplying ammuni- 
tion to the priests on the line will be gold-starred. For the 
present, forgetfulness should not be the reward of namelessness. 

Any appeal for greater Catholic interest in the work of the 
Colored Missions which would give the impression that all priests 
have been renegade to their commission to teach all nations 
would be neither just nor true. Many a colored mission church, 
school, and institution owes its origin and maintenance in large 
part to interested and generous priests. At the same time, it 
must be acknowledged as true that some priests are harmful to 
the cause of Christ among the colored. These are they who 
from preconceived notions, an experience or two with Negroes, 
or a visit or short residence in the South, presume to express 
their partial views with a finality not justified by facts. 

First, there is the priest who has no esteem at all for the 
Negro. In spite of his priestly character as representative of 
an all-loving Christ who shed His blood without respect to race, 
such a priest has a dislike for the Negro. The wounds inflicted 
upon the Mystical Body of Christ by such representatives of 
the Church are innumerable and deep. Not a few Negroes 
have been deterred from embracing the faith, or have been 
weakened in the practice of their faith, by contact with priests 
who implicitly at least confine the channels of grace to the 
souls of more favored races. In this class belong some pastors 
of so-called white parishes which are turning colored, who, in- 
stead of stirring up the grace that is in them by the imposition 
of hands, let animosity dwell in their hearts. 

The largest group of priests are simply indifferent to the wel- 
fare of the Negroes. While ready to concede that something 
must be done for them, they are not inclined to take an active 
part in the doing. Others, in theory admitting the application 
of Catholic principles to the Negro, are obsessed with the notion 
that “he must be kept in his place”. Where is the place of 
the Negro in the Catholic Church when kneeling in the presence 
of the Eucharistic Christ? Certainly Christ does not rebuff 
him; and by the same token it is difficult to see why any of 
His ministers and representatives should. The parable of the 











150 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


pharisee and the publican who went up to the Temple to pray 
is applicable to some churches, as also the story of the good 
Samaritan who did what even a priest of the Old Law would 
not do. 

There is also a class of priests who, while interested after a 
fashion, cling to certain preconceived notions which are detri- 
mental to the full application of Catholic principles to the 
Negro, e. g., a priest who had labored among the Negroes of 
the Islands for several years, yet held that the color of the skin 
was “an essential accidental,” or the commentator on Canon 
Law in a clerical periodical who decided a question involving 
Negroes on the principle that prejudice against the Negroes is 
“ natural and instinctive”. The fact that this group actually 
is kindly disposed toward the Negro seems to argue that its 
attitudes are children of ignorance rather than of prejudice. 

Priests should judge the Negro by his character, not by his 
color. In the past an excuse was that the Negro was not ready 
for the Church; to-day the trouble is that so many priests are 
not ready for the Negro. It is strange that priests who ordin- 
arily put much stress upon spiritual values should be so blind to 
the vast reservoir of spiritual energy represented by millions of 
un-churched Negroes. This disposition on the part of some 
priests to begrudge religious succor to Negroes has led many to 
the conclusion that there is no difference between the Church 
on the Rock and the churches on the rocks. Psychologically, 
of course, a disposition to belittle the Negro is explainable. It 
is easier to justify continued neglect when the person sinned 
against is pictured as unworthy. In this respect American Cath- 
olicism is too American—in its effort to meet conditions of liv- 
ing it is sacrificing principles of life. 

The priest who grasps the significance of the Mystical Body 
of Christ must see in the Negro a member of that same Mystical 
Body of which he himself is a member and Christ the Head— 
““ Whatsoever you do to the least of these little ones you do to 
me.” As Father Daniel Lord wrote somewhere, 


I can see it [this doctrine of the Mystical Body of Christ] exploding 
with the flash of whip lightning and the rumble of terrifying thunder 
over men in the throes of class hatred or race prejudice. How can a 
white man look with dislike upon one who is black, how can the white 

















THE CATHOLIC CLERGY AND THE AMERICAN NEGRO. 151 


race disdain the yellow, how can the capitalist and laborer feel them- 
selves torn into warring camps when they know they are blood brothers, 
redeemed by the same Precious Blood of the Saviour? 


So far as the Negro is concerned, some priests treat this 
doctrine of the Mystical Body of Christ as an academic theory 
to be preached as an ideal, but impossible of realization in our 
everyday world. They remind one of Dickens’ picture of Mrs. 
Jelleby sitting in the midst of domestic chaos writing letters 
about plans for the redemption of Africa while Joe, the London 
street arab, sits on the doorsteps of the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, ragged and homeless, and 
munching a crust of bread. Joel Chandler Harris gives us a 
story of a church ladies’ sewing circle making clothing for poor 
little Greek children while a group of ragged colored children 
romp in their backyard. The implications are obvious: “‘ The 
Greeks are at your door! ” 


II. 


It is not surprising, albeit at times shocking, to find one 
school of clerical opinion opposed or indifferent to the Negro; 
but it is surprising, it must be confessed, that so many of the 
champions of the Negro’s cause should have consecrated their 
talents to emphasizing what the Church has not done for the 
Negro. In a laudable desire to arouse interest in the cause, 
novices are apt to rush in where even an angel might well tread 
warily. There is observable a real tendency to lean backward 
in pleading a cause which needs no exaggeration to be effective. 
While it is devoutly to be prayed for that the present agitation 
in behalf of a more Catholic interest in America’s 12,000,000 
Negroes will develop a more Catholic action toward these poten- 
tial children of the Church, it is more devoutly to be prayed 
for that there will be more adjutators than agitators. 

In the first place, the attitude too often assumed by some 
who have recently taken up the cudgels of warfare for the 
Negro is purely negative—a too ready disposition to blame. 
The delicacy of the situation is not that what is said is not true— 
often the tale is too tragically true; but danger lies in that what 
is said is said in the wrong manner, to the wrong people, by the 
wrong people, or with wrong emphasis on isolated facts. 











$2 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


A correct thought may be incorrectly stated. There is a 
vast difference, for instance, between saying that “ The Church 
did nothing to abolish slavery in this country,” and that “* The 
Church was not in a position to do much to abolish slavery in 
this country.” Both statements are true, but the thoughts con- 
veyed are vastly different; the former leaving the Church open 
to serious accusation and blame, while the latter indicates that 
there may have been extenuating circumstances which made it 
quite impossible for the Catholic Church to do much directly 
toward abolishing the evil of slavery. 

Furthermore, one will state one’s case quite differently as one 
addresses oneself to a white or to a colored audience. There is 
merit in hitting straight from the shoulder when addressing 
white audiences, for white people are they who are sinning 
against the Negro, and they alone are in a position to remedy 
matters. What is difficult to understand is why so many who 
address themselves to colored audiences must emphasize the 
obvious by stressing the evils in the Church of which Negroes 
are the victims, and earn their spurs by mauling the Bride of 
Christ before the very people whom missioners are trying to 
impress with the beauty of the Bride of Christ. 

Quite apart from the possibility that much of this negative, 
condemnatory attitude might be a sublimation of a sense of 
personal duty neglected, there are the inevitable limitations of 
the mind and of experience to be taken into consideration. 
These limitations may make a very worthy person the wrong 
person to speak with authority on a subject concerning which, 
as a matter of fact, he knows very little. It is a recurrence of 
the old danger that a qualified person who may rightly claim 
authority in one field will unconsciously slip into an assumption 
of authority in a foreign field. As regards the Negro it is 
perfectly true that he has been the victim of supine neglect and 
outright injustice. This is the vague, general impression which 
the mind gets when it first confronts the problem. Conse- 
gently, it might be expected that much of the ink used will be 
the black ink of blame and many of the words used will be the 
wild words of wormwood. 

But why should they who know so little of the extenuating 
circumstances of the past and the crippling conditions of the 
present (circumstances and conditions over which the Church 

















THE CATHOLIC CLERGY AND THE AMERICAN NEGRO. 153 


had or has little control) be so ready to admit Catholic culp- 
ability in sweeping condemnations? May not there be palliat- 
ing explanations, if not excuses, for certain seemingly historical 
sins? And may not there have been more effort in the past and 
a more pretentious program in the present than is generally 
known? Furthermore, the disabilities from which the Negroes 
suffer are not peculiarly Catholic, but rather national, social dis- 
abilities. Catholics are guilty of sins against the Negroes not so 
much because of their Catholicism as because of their American- 
ism. While Catholics may incur a greater culpability because 
their religion teaches them better, is it altogether fair to blame 
them as Catholics rather than as Americans living in a contam- 
inating milieu of prejudice which is Protestant in its inception 
and growth? 

Again, wrong emphasis may be placed upon isolated facts. 
It is far more important, for instance, to emphasize what is to 
be done about the disease than to emphasize blame for piccayune 
symptoms. It is incontrovertible that some individual Cath- 
olics indulge in scandalous discriminations, but it is just as in- 
controvertible that such individuals do not fairly represent the 
Catholic attitude, much less the Church’s position. There is a 
tremendous danger that a fault-finding attitude will be seized 
upon as an indication that the Catholic Church is no truer than 
any other Church: “ By their fruits ye shall know them.” 
Even if the Church were blameworthy, a public confession of 
sins may be the occasion of scandal to those who do not under- 
stand the exaggerations of humility—or of ignorance. 

No one more than they who are working on the Colored 
Missions knows the stimulation which comes from a vision of 
an awakened Catholic conscience; yet they cannot help but 
pray that the eyes of their colored Catholics will not be scan- 
dalized by the white glare of Catholic remorse. The gentle rain 
of gratitude for what the Church has done under difficulties 
which it did not create, and the warm sun of hope for the 
future, would be much more beneficial for the flowers of Negro 
faith which frequently are still damp with the dew of Baptism. 

There is a certain art in helping a cause. The priests and 
nuns who are giving their lives to the promotion of inter-racial 
good will and are silently, but none the less effectively, under- 
mining the walls of prejudice are everlastingly embarrassed by 








154 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


a literary and oratorical backwash which too often turns good 
Negro Catholics into bad Negro critics. An over-emphasizing 
to the Negro of what has not been done for him by the Church 
tends to metamorphose him from a simple Catholic into simply 
a critic. Because he is not given a sympathetic grasp of the 
difficulties which confront the Church, he often confuses the 
teachings of the Church with the beliefs of some non-Catholic 
Catholics and is unable to distinguish between Catholic prac- 
tices and the practices of some Catholics. In the midst of such 
confusion of thought it is easy to blame Catholic faith for un- 
Catholic practices. Consequently, from protesting Catholics 
some Negroes become Catholic Protestants. 

Many a prospective convert too has been shooed away from 
the Church by the impression that the Catholic Church does 
not give a hoot for his heart or a sigh for his soul. They have 
heard the Church accused of indifference by those who fail to 
distinguish between the mother and her children, between the 
Church and its members, between what the Church teaches and 
what some church-goers do. Yet this distinction between the 
Catholic Church and some Catholics is most important to bear 
in mind. At any rate, if the Bride of Christ must be painted 
it were better to do it with a blush that with a brush. Save the 
pyrotechnics for white audiences and let them be set off by 
experts. 

Every voice raised in behalf of the Negro is certainly wel- 
comed by those who for too long have been crying in the wil- 
derness of American prejudice. But protest is not enough. 
While it is perfectly safe, and probably popular, for any prom- 
inent priest to tell what the Church has not done for the Negro 
(and there is something to be said on that subject), at the same 
time the suspicion will not down that much of this castigation 
is due to an absence of positive information as to what the 
Church actually has done and is doing. It is an old saying that 
the pastor who scolds his congregation on Sunday morning is 
the priest who neglects to prepare his Sunday morning sermon. 

IV. 

A misunderstanding which might logically arise from a pic- 
turization of millions of Negroes clamoring at the doors of the 
Catholic Church for entrance is this: if the Negro is so “ natur- 
ally religious” and so easy to convert, (a favorite dictum of 























THE CATHOLIC CLERGY AND THE AMERICAN NEGRO. 155 


many who are not thoroughly conversant with the subject), 
then the priests and the sisters on the Colored Missions must be 
laggard in their calling and squandering the funds appropriated 
for their work, particularly if after all these years they are 
able to report less than 250,000 Negro Catholics. 

It is a fact that many of the Negro masses who practise some 
kind of religion are excitable and given to emotional outbursts, 
as witness the many store-front churches and the innumerable 
brands of shouting religion. But there is a vast difference be- 
tween such excrescences of the religious instinct in man and 
real religion, particularly of the more doctrinal and moral kind, 
as Catholicism. It is, moreover, difficult to see any justification 
for the assertion that the Negro is “ naturally religious” when 
more than half the race has no religious affiliation whatsoever, 
much less practises the precepts of a respectable religion. 

It is also a fact that the proportionate percentage of Negro 
converts is vastly greater than the number of converts among 
the white people of the country. But to say that the Negro 
is easy to convert is to state the case too simply. Why priests 
working among the colored are expected as a matter of routine 
annually to turn in a number of converts out of all proportion 
to the means at their command, the smallness of their numbers, 
and the difficulties of the work, is beyond comprehension. This 
is particularly true if thought be given to the relatively small 
number of converts made in the average white parish, well or- 
ganized, and with a plenteous supply of cash and priests laboring 
in a locality not anti-Catholic. That, as a matter of fact, the 
missioners do make so many converts among the Negroes is all 
to their credit; but that it should be looked for under penalty 
of being adjudged a failure is ludicrous. The fact of the matter 
is that Negro converts are no easier to make them any other 
kind. Missioners are, generally speaking, more convert-minded 
and work harder for converts than do other priests, but con- 
verts anywhere are made only after many a bead of sacerdotal 
sweat has been changed into a rosary of effort. 

Much is heard too about the “ poor Negroes,” in the sense of 
their being benighted creatures. In many an instance the work 
of the missioner would be simplified if the Negroes of this age 
were “poor.” But it should not be forgotten that they are 
being educated to a surprising degree, a fact which, within the 
past decade or two, has changed the whole mission approach. 








156 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


Many Negroes of to-day have pretentions to sophistication just 
like the rest of people, they are receiving essentially the same 
education, study the same text books and follow the same cur- 
ricula as white students, whence spring the same aspirations, the 
same prejudices, and the same reactions as might be expected 
from white pupils. Not at all immune to the prejudices of 
their non-Catholic neighbors, neither are they at all so sure 
about the necessity of being apologetic for the color of their 
skin, much less being disposed to take a back seat in a Catholic 
church because of it. It is certain too that they resent being 
referred to as “ poor Negroes.” 

Theoretically the situation is quite clear: ‘‘ By this shall all 
men know that you are my disciples, if you have love one for 
another.” The crux of the matter lies in the application of 
this simple formula. The North has always found it more con- 
genial to love the race rather than the individual, while the 
South has always loved the Negro and hated the Negroes. It 
would be, consequently, just as deceptive to confine one’s views 
on the Negro to a long range vision from a swivel chair in a 
Northern skyscraper as it would be for a missioner to limit his 
notions to the short range horizon viewed from the doorstep 
of his southern mission. 

Theory divorced from fact is too critical; fact separated from 
ideal becomes sordid. It is much easier to be romantic about 
the Colored Missions from afar than when pastoring a “ Jim 
Crow” congregation. Stars falling on Alabama may enthrall 
the soul—from a safe distance; but when one’s head is hit by a 
meteor of prejudice in Alabama, romance fades out of the pic- 
ture. Ideals must be emphasized and sins must be confessed, 
but each has its proper relation. God forbid that one fountain 
pen be allowed to dry up in defence of the Negro, or that even 
the smallest voice raised in his behalf be silenced, but let not the 
ink of defence be too black nor the voice of protest be too dole- 
ful. There is something to be said on both sides. 

For fifty years appeals and periodicals have been sent out 
over the country, thousands of priests and sisters have lived and 
died in the Colored Missions, and other thousands of a generous 
laity have been sacrificing their last dollar that the foundation 
work for a great superstructure might be well laid. The fact 
that heretofore much of the colored mission work has been of 
the prosaic, hard, underground variety does not make it less 











' ~ —_ ww Crt 


oOo ~ ~— 





THE CATHOLIC CLERGY AND THE AMERICAN NEGRO. 157 


deserving of notice. If the Colored Mission program is to-day 
ready for the rearing of a grand superstructure, it is precisely 
because of the unrecognized self-sacrifice of the missioners of 
yesteryear who did the underground pick and shovel work of 
the missions. 

Those who have spent the better part of half a century in 
watering the colored harvest with their sweat in a day when 
the friends of the Negro were few and despised, are pleased to 
see the dawn of a new day when his friends will be many and 
respected; yet, like the mother whose back is bent from leaning 
over a washtub, they do not relish being relegated to the kitchen 
of oblivion by classier champions who weave words in the parlor. 
It is quite possible that an army crossing a mountain encounters 
obstacles not noted on the maps studied by spick-and-span officers 
behind the lines. By the same token, those who are laboring 
among the Negroes are meeting situations which are not always 
perceived by well-meaning friends; nay, some of these very 
obstacles are created by such friends. The workers in the field 
do not crave pity; they should get a sympathetic understanding. 


V. 


The Catholic Church in most sections of the South is poor 
and Catholics are few. Wherefore, the Colored Mission work 
has had to look elsewhere for the means to sustain it. While in 
some instances the response has been generous, it is generally 
true that the means available have been woefully inadequate. 
As the last report of the Commission for Mission Work Among 
the Negroes and Indians points out, the average per-capita Cath- 
olic contribution toward its annual collection is one cent. The 
work of the missions is limited by the resources at the command 
of the missioners. His Excellency the Most Rev. William 
Hafey, Bishop of Raleigh, once observed: 


Having two hundred converts, two thousand, or twenty thousand 
a year depends on the number of workers in the field, sisters, as well 
as priests, and the financial means available for the erection of schools 
and chapels. That the bulk of the work is to be done in modern 
up-to-date communities only emphasizes the fact that a five-hundred- 
dollar chapel served by a priest allowed a dollar a day for his living 
expenses is going to be about as effective as trying to sink a dread- 
nought with a pea-shooter. 








158 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


Obviously the situation has its difficulties. White America 
must be hit hard enough to awaken it to a sense of its duty to- 
ward the Negro; at the same time care must be taken not to 
knock the Negro into a despair of finding Christ in the Catholic 
Church. Many Catholics are deserving of blame; but the 
Church must be preserved from censure. White friends must 
be won to the cause; but souls must not be lost to the Church. 
There is much to be confessed as regards the past; yet it is more 
important to utilize the present and prepare for the future. 

Light, not heat, is required. Prodding there must be, and 
at times irritation is effective; but it must be skilful and pur- 
poseful. While publicity and agitation must be employed to 
effect a change in age-old thought patterns, an unobtrusive 
piety which searches out the Negro and mingles its prayers with 
his tears will be more effective than harangues and halberds. 

In another day the Church abolished slavery. Her task 
to-day is to abolish caste. For this purpose it needs abolition- 
ists just as this country needed them a hundred years ago. But 
because there are many other Catholic interests to be safe- 
guarded, great care must be exercised to guard against the ex- 
cesses and exaggerations of the pre-Civil War abolitionists. A 
jejune zeal must not be allowed to work harm to a Church 
which, like its Founder, can stand before even the American 
Negroes and say, “ Which of you shall convince me of sin?” 
no matter what individual Catholics may be able to say in 
defence of defenceless actions. A saintly subtlety will accom- 
plish what a Protestant purge will not. While forcibly remind- 
ing Catholics of their duty toward those other sheep, let not the 
impression be given that for the Negro there is nothing but 
the carrion of neglect in the valley of Catholicism. 

Christ wants America’s 12,000,000 Negroes. America’s 
Negroes need Christ. Let the Catholic clergy be the instru- 
ments of bringing Christ to the Negroes and the Negroes will 
more easily be led to Christ. This can be accomplished by each 
priest who comes in contact with Negroes demonstrating in his 
kindly attitude that the Catholic Church is not solely a white 
man’s Church. Souls are for sale, but the price is priestliness. 
The American Negro is America’s responsibility and the Cath- 
olic clergy’s opportunity. 

Joun T. Gitxarp, S.S.J. 


Baltimore, Maryland. 

















Studies and Conferences 


Questions, the discussion of which is for the 
information of the general reader of the 
Department of Studies and Conferences, are 
answered in the order in which they reach us. 
The Editor cannot engage to reply to in- 
quiries by private letter. 





PRIESTS BROADCASTING THE FAITH. 


An interesting hour might be spent with The Catholic 
Directory in one hand and any one of the numerous radio 
“logs” in the other, counting the American cities which have 
both broadcasting stations and a sufficient number of priests 
to present worth-while Catholic programmes regularly from 
those stations. A little further research would reveal just how 
much we are making of our opportunities in this field of 
apologetics. It might be interesting to do, but (like many other 
research studies) it would simply tell us what we all know: 
that we are not doing as much as we might. 

The purpose of this paper is to outline what has been done 
in one fairly typical American city, by way of suggesting what 
might be done in others. 

Davenport, Iowa, is a city of some 65,000 people. It is the 
see-city of the Diocese of Davenport. In it there are seven 
churches and a small diocesan college, staffed principally by 
diocesan priests. In the autumn of 1934 the Central Broad- 
casting Company reéstablished in Davenport its station WOC, 
operating with 500 watts. As well as contracting with the 
Columbia System for the Church of the Air broadcast, the 
Company offered to the Bishop of Davenport, the Davenport 
Ministerial Association, the (undenominational) People’s Church, 
and the local rabbi, one half-hour each for weekly religious 
broadcasting. The various groups were given a wide range of 
hours to choose from and were left entirely free in respect of 
the content and arrangement of their programmes. 

After discussion of the matter at a dinner-meeting of the 
local parish clergy the Bishop accepted the Company’s offer 
and placed the general direction of the Catholic programme in 








160 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


the hands of an Executive Committee consisting of the four 
Monsignori then resident in Davenport, with the Vicar General 
as chairman. The Executive Committee, after selecting the 
time (Sunday afternoon at 4.30), deciding on a name (the 
WOC Catholic Programme), and laying down some general 
policies, elected one of its own members chairman of a Pro- 
gramme Committee, consisting of himself and five other priests 
of the city. The Programme Committee at its first meeting 
chose a vice-chairman, so that under no circumstances would 
it be without a responsible head, and a secretary, to handle 
routine details. ‘The set-up articulated thus: the chairman of 
the Programme Committee acted as a link with the Executive 
Committee and the Bishop; the secretary served as liaison officer 
between those in charge of the Programme on the one hand 
and the broadcasting station, the press, and the public on the 
other. 

The Programme Committee was in full charge of the actual 
broadcasts. It met three or four times a year to select the 
speakers and their subjects. The chairman carried out the Com- 
mittee’s directions between meetings, personally or through the 
secretary. With regard to the subjects, an effort was made to 
provide throughout the year a number of short courses. For 
example, the Advent and Lenten series, of a character appro- 
priate to those seasons, were each given by one priest; January 
was given over to a series on the missionary life of the Church, 
by a single priest; in February four different priests were 
invited to contribute to a loosely-connected series on various 
phases of the Church’s work in and for the world. Mere con- 
troversy was definitely avoided, the Committee’s plan being 
simply exposition—for the first year at least, largely in terms 
of Catholic life. No consistent attempt was made to direct 
the talks exclusively to either Catholics or non-Catholics, though 
the presence of non-Catholics in the audience was kept in mind. 

The principal address each Sunday was limited in length to 
approximately fifteen minutes. The speakers customarily have 
their addresses typewritten and read them before the micro- 
phone: they could thus easily gauge their time at the average 
speaking rate of 125 words a minute. It has been found that 
speeches much over fifteen minutes long pall upon the listeners. 














STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 161 


Approximately seven minutes were given to music. One 
member of the Programme Committee was the professor of 
music in the diocesan college: he was given full charge of this 
part of the Programme. He organized for the broadcast a 
mixed chorus of some twenty of the best voices from the parish 
and college choirs of the city. With one rehearsal a week, the 
choristers were able to prepare one number to be sung before 
the main address and one after. Some repetition was inevit- 
able, of course. For the most part, the numbers chosen were 
either of the classical polyphony or plain chant; very few Eng- 
lish hymns were sung. The idea behind this plan was to give 
listeners the best of the Church’s own music. Praetorius, “‘ Lo, 
how a rose e’er blooming ” was hummed as a theme melody at 
the beginning and end of each broadcast. 

A question period varying in length depending upon the 
amount of time used by the principal speaker came toward the 
end of each broadcast, except when the special nature of a par- 
ticular Programme precluded it. Questions concerning Cath- 
olic belief and practice were read by a staff announcer of WOC 
and prepared answers given by a priest, other than the prin- 
cipal speaker. The priest in charge of this period, generally 
one of the junior clergy, usually served for about a month. The 
public was invited to submit questions, all of which went 
through the secretary’s hands before reaching the priest who 
was to answer them. It was found necessary in the beginning, 
and occasionally since then, to “‘ prime the pump” with pre- 
pared questions as well as answers, but a fair number of actual 
questions from listeners was received, the majority apparently 
from Catholics. Listeners were not required to sign their ques- 
tions. When they were signed, the secretary wrote a personal 
note of acknowledgment and thanks. The question period 
enjoyed great popular favor. It gave variety to the Programme; 
and it proved a useful way of bringing before the microphone 
a greater number of priests, some of whom appeared later as 
principal speakers. It was found advisable to limit answers to 
a hundred words or less whenever possible. Simple, non- 
technical answers were kept in mind. Rarely a question came 
which it was felt better not to treat or to refer to the parish 
priest. 





162 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


During Lent the question period was temporarily discontinued 
for the sake of variety and a very brief talk on the Lenten 
liturgy substituted for it. This was considered advisable be- 
cause the Lenten course was more definitely devotional than 
apologetic; in fact, the Lenten broadcasts were deliberately 
modelled on the customary Lenten evening services and that fact 
was announced in an effort to draw interested listeners to the 
churches. 

The various features of the Programme were announced by 
one of WOC’s regular staff, except on vary rare occasions when 
the secretary of the Programme would make an announcement 
of special importance. It became customary also for the sec- 
retary to introduce the Bishop whenever His Excellency spoke. 
For the ordinary announcements, it was felt that having a trained 
announcer would assure a more finished performance. His 
script, however, was always prepared in advance by the secretary. 

By arrangement with the station the Programme Committee 
handled all publicity. Before the first broadcast the secretary 
sent letters to all the local pastors and chaplains or superiors of 
institutions, asking them to publicize the Programme in their 
Sunday announcements. The local press was generous with its 
space. Each week, several days before Sunday, the secretary 
sent each of the Davenport papers a press release about the next 
Programme, written in journalistic style and plainly marked 
with the date for publication—Thursday for the Catholic 
weekly, Saturday for the evening and Sunday for the morning 
secular paper. The diocesan paper, published every Thursday, 
was always given the first opportunity to publish news about 
the Programme. It very generously printed in full each dis- 
course the Thursday after its delivery, thus providing a per- 
manent record and bringing the Programme’s message to hun- 
dreds of readers outside the broadcasting area of WOC. When 
a new speaker was to go on the air, the press releases were marked 
with a request to print a cut of the speaker also and this was 
generally done when the paper had one on file. When a priest 
from another town was to speak, the local papers there also were 
supplied with copy. Since the Catholic Programme happened 
by pure chance to follow that of the Ministerial Association 
immediately, a journalistic tendency to treat the two as parts of 
a “union service ” was noted, but a courteous letter to the city 





Ss Fra Se Se, i ee 


STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 163 


editor in question moved hm thereafter to make clear their 
distinctness. 

Relations with the public were not entirely satisfactory, due 
to the Committee’s inability to obtain an accurate index of 
public opinion about the Programme. Although comments 
were publicly invited from time to time, very few people wrote 
in; and those who did were invariably complimentary. When 
such letters reached the secretary, he replied, thanking the 
writers for their interest and asking further comment. Valu- 
able criticisms often came by word of mouth from personal 
friends, but it is difficult to say how representative they were 
of the public at large. Taking an informal poll at meetings of 
Catholic societies might be a useful procedure; but that too 
leaves the non-Catholic listeners untouched. 

Nothing could be finer than the treatment received from 
the management and staff of station WOC. The best an- 
nouncers were assigned to the Catholic Programme. The studio 
furnishings were rearranged several times for the convenience 
of those appearing on it. For example, when some technical 
difficulties arose interfering with the tonal purity of the music, 
every expedient was cheerfully tried until a satisfactory result 
was achieved. ‘The real interest which the Central Broadcast- 
ing Company took in the WOC Catholic Programme is per- 
haps best evidenced by the fact that its president, not a Catholic 
and a busy executive of other enterprises as well as radio, was 
present in the announcer’s booth nearly every week when the 
Programme was broadcast. Not a little of the favor shown 
the Catholic Programme was of course due to the Committee’s 
effort to meet every requirement of the station’s standards and 
do a workmanlike job of broadcasting. The announcer’s script, 
typewritten by the secretary or his volunteer lay assistant, was 
in the studio director’s hands one full day before each broad- 
cast, unless something rose to make this impossible. Everyone 
going on the air was expected to be in the studio fifteen minutes 
before time, ready to start the second the monitor-light flashed. 
Typewritten copies of the speeches and questions were prepared, 
either by the speakers themselves or the secretary’s lay helper, 
for filing with the station as required by law. A priest repre- 
senting the Committee was always at hand to assume respon- 
sibility in emergencies and to keep the Programme within its 





164 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


limits so as not to impose upon the station beyond the allotted 
time. It was thought well for him to have in his pocket notes 
for an ex tempore general talk on Catholic doctrine, in case the 
principal speaker did not appear—though he was never called 
upon to substitute, for the speakers without exception were 
well prepared and on time. 

The WOC Catholic Programme set-up was undoubtedly not 
perfect. As time goes on, it will doubtless be improved. But 
it did work well—and that with a minimum of labor and ex- 
pense. There were only two priests who had assignments every 
week: the secretary and the musical director. An hour or two 
on Monday for the press releases and a half-hour on Friday 
for the script, with odd moments between for the correspond- 
ence and telephoning that were sometimes necessary, finished 
the secretary’s work, except for his presence in the studio. The 
musical director had probably not more than four or five hours 
a week of planning and rehearsing. The choristers sang for 
the love of it; the secretary’s lay helper was amiably ready for 
the drudgery of typewriting whenever needed — when time 
pressed or when a speaker was unable to prepare his two copies 
(for the station’s files and the diocesan weekly). The priests 
of the diocese were more than willing to speak on the Pro- 
gramme, and for the most part codperated exactly with the 
Committee’s desires. It is undeniable that having a diocesan 
college in the city is an advantage, but it is not to be thought 
that the Programme was predominantly a college enterprise: 
of the nine principal speakers who were heard between Thanks- 
giving of 1934, and Easter of 1935, only three were from the 
college faculty; and those three professors gave only seven of 
the twenty-one discourses delivered in that time. The only 
expenses have been for paper and stamps—and any priest can 
find those around his house. 

The point of all this is the ease with which the thing can 
be done. In its willingness to lend its facilities, the Central 
Broadcasting Company is probably typical of many companies 
and stations. ‘There is a little lesson, perhaps, in the fact that 
a rival station near Davenport made advances for another 
Catholic broadcast soon after the WOC Programme went on 
the air. There are in countless other American cities other 
radio stations, each with its own local following; and there are 





tell 


A, a ad 


























STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 





165 


willing and able priests, singers, and lay codperators there also. 

The materials are at hand: they need only to be brought to- 

gether. It may be that this dry account of how one group 

went about it may suggest ways and means to others. 
Donatp Hayne. 

Mount St. Mary’s College, 

Emmitsburg, Maryland. 


CHANGING THE CONSTITUTION. 


Enough advance warning has been given to enable even an 
amateur observer of politics to predict without rashness that 
“Save the Constitution ” will soon take its place with “ The 
Full Dinner-pail ” and “‘ He kept us out of war” as campaign 
shibboleths. A recent article in a Catholic magazine’ of de- 
servedly wide popular appeal recalls that American Catholics 
have much at stake in this issue and should be interested and 
alert to strive only for changes which are consonant with 
“genuine American principles”. Unfortunately, Catholic 
writers and patriotic speakers seem to limit their discussions of 
this “stake” to recitals of the glories of the Carrolls, Barrys, 
and “ Catholic France” in supplying arms and money to the 
Revolutionists. These tremendous services, it is true, ought 
never to be forgotten. Too often, however, they have been 
magnified at the expense of the more important fact that 
Catholic philosophy justified the colonists in their revolt, and 
that an understanding of it was and is essential to the funda- 
mental ideals of American constitutional government. An 
examination of some fundamentals may be of service in the 
problem of considering changes in the Constitution. 

To face this matter intelligently it is imperative that the 
precise and exact meaning of a constitution be thoroughly and 
definitely perceived. ‘‘ The principles, rules, forms, and usages 
which determine the structure of a government and define its 
powers are known as a constitution.” * A constitution, as dis- 
tinguished from a statute or judicial precedent, is the organic 
law of a nation, the body of provisions which determines the 
1 Joseph Gurn, ‘The Catholic Stake in the Constitutional Crisis”, The Sign, 
October, 1935, Vol. 15, p. 136. 

2 Ogg and Ray, Introduction to American Government (N. Y., 1925), p. 28. 








166 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


form, allots the powers and fixes the limitations of the govern- 
ing machinery which it sets up. ‘That these limits may not 
be mistaken or forgotten ”, Chief Justice Marshall said of our 
own Constitution, “the constitution is written”.® But a 
written document is not of the essence of a constitutional gov- 
ernment. The “constitution ” may consist of a series of cus- 
toms and laws, the product of slow growth, as is the British 
constitution; * it may be composed of a grant from the ruling 
prince, as was the Prussian constitution of 1850; or it may 
be the deliberate act of a sovereign people as the Constitution 
of the United States expressly purports to be.® Elementary 
though this is, it seems to need emphasizing in these days: 
whether the form of political organization of a nation be 
monarchy, aristocracy, or democracy; whether it provide a 
complicated bicameral system of government with elaborate 
divisions of power and jursdiction, or whether it entrust the 
entire executive, legislative and judicial functions in the hands 
of a single individual—if there be not a state of anarchy—a 
constitutional form of government exists. There is, therefore, 
nothing magic, nothing holy about a constitution as such. It 
is the principles behind the constitution which really count. 
The existing division into state and national governments 
is far more the result of experience than of logic. Established 
as commercial ventures, exploited by English monopolies, and 
left almost entirely to their own resources by the mother coun- 
try, from the very beginning, the colonies were familiar with 
the problems of government and enjoyed in practice almost 
complete self-government in matters affecting internal and 
purely local affairs. There was parliamentary action only in 
such legislation as concerned international or intercolonial 
commerce, money, and national defence. Not until Britain 
threatened and attempted to cut down that local control did 
the colonies begin to analyze and discuss the nature of their 
relationship to the empire. They argued then that they were 
part of a great commonwealth, united by allegiance to a com- 
mon sovereign, subject to legislation from that central au- 


3In Marbury vs. Madison, 1 Cranch, 137. 

4 Cf. Taswell-Langmead, English Constitutional History (8th Ed., Boston, 1919). 

5 Ogg and Ray, op. cit., Ch. III. Cf. Willoughby and Rogers, An Introduction to 
the Problem of Government (N. Y., 1924). 











STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 167 


thority only in matters affecting the general commonwealth, 
but entitled to organize and direct their own internal affairs. 
Some two hundred years of concrete practice supported their 
argument.° 

It is especially worthy of note that the American Revolution 
was not to destroy existing institutions but to conserve those 
rights which the colonists asserted and insisted were fundamental. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that during the sessions of the 
Constitutional Convention, which were conducted in strictest 
secrecy, rumors should spread and be given credence that the 
Convention proposed to invite a younger son of the King to 
come to Philadelphia and accept the throne.’ Neither is it 
surprising that when such a step was not found necessary, great 
care should have been taken to distinguish minutely the re- 
spective spheres of state and federal jurisdiction. This is a 
matter of the mechanics of government, not intimately bound 
up with basic principles. If, as seems highly probable, an ex- 
tension of federal authority be suggested in the near future, the 
only weight which may properly be attached to the present 
division is that which can be shown from its record. A de- 
parture from this feature of the Constitution involves no vio- 
lation of fundamental ideals whatsoever.® 

It is well known that to the attacks of heretics on particular 
points of Catholic dogma students owe a great many clarifying 
definitions and explanations. ‘This is true, likewise, in the field 
of political thought. Cujus regio ejus religio, and the theory 
of the “ divine right of kings ” were axiomatic in the ideology 
of the sixteenth century “reformer”. “By the teaching of 
the Reformers, the dignity of rulers and magistrates was put on 
the most explicit assertion of God’s sanction. . . . The most 
conspicuous result of the Reformers’ teaching, however, was the 


8A. C. McLaughlin, Constitutional History of the United States (N. Y., 1935). 
The first eight chapters of this work, the best study in this field yet to appear, are 
particularly pertinent. 

7 There is reason to believe that Prince Henry of Prussia was actually approached 
on the subject: Max Farrand, The Fathers of the Constitution (Yale, Chronicles of 
America Series), p. 134. 

8Surely this was the attitude of the Fathers themselves toward their “ Great 
Compromise”. None of them seems to have regarded the finished product as more 
than a temporary expedient: A. C. Mclaughlin, The Confederation and the Consti- 
tution (American Nation Series), has a critical chapter on the bibliography concern- 
ing this point. 











168 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


exalted conception of excellence bestowed by God upon the elect 
—upon those whom he had chosen froin all eternity to be his 
saints. This conception promoted diametrically opposite ten- 
dencies in Lutheran and in Calvinistic lands. In the former, 
which were mostly monarchic, it confirmed the practice of 
passive submission, by the emphasis which it laid on the ineffable 
bliss of salvation as compared with any superiority in the gross 
conditions of material life. In the latter, where aristocratic 
institutions commonly prevailed, the effect of the conception 
was to justify the utmost extension of political authority, on 
the ground that the divine inspiration of the elect gave absolute 
validity to any species of activity which they might direct, 
Thus in monarchic lands the tendency of the Reform was to 
enhance the hold of the monarchic principle and in aristocratic 
governments to confirm the principle of aristocracy. In both 
the effect was to strengthen absolutism in the political sover- 
eign.” *® Against this state absolutism the ablest minds of the 
Church directed their efforts, anxious, as always, to refute error, 
to teach, defend and propagate truth. 

A summary review of Catholic philosophy on this point may 
be excused—though it will unquestionably seem to some to be 
simply stating the obvious—since an understanding and appre- 
ciation of it is so sorely needed. There is a God, the Master and 
Ruler of the Universe, the First Cause and Final End of man. 
It is at this point that the beginning must be made. In creating 
man, in giving Himself to man as his destiny, God endowed His 
creature with certain inherent rights, as natural to man as flesh 
and bones. These rights come from God. This is the Natural 
Law. For the preservation of those rights, adjusting conflicts 
between individuals, providing sanctions, and so forth, some 
form of temporal social organism is necessary. This organi- 
zation is the state. It exists for man. ‘The state is “ natural ” 
to man, is itself a part of and subject to the Natural Law. But 
no particular form of government is devised by Almighty God. 
This is a matter for man to decide for himself—that is to say, 
sovereignty rests ultimately in the people. St. Robert Cardinal 
Bellarmine, the defender par excellence of Catholic doctrine on 
this point, in his controversy with James II brought this out 


9W. A. Dunning, A History of Political Theories (N. Y., 1921), Vol. Il, p. 36 


Italics mine. 











STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 169 


nicely. After explaining the divine institution of the Church, 
he writes: “ The Civil State, on the other hand, took its origin 
from human agreement; its purpose is temporal peace; its laws 
are the creation of human reason, and vary according to cir- 
cumstances; its rites and ceremonies are the result of custom, 
or of the ruler’s will.” *° Long implicitly contained in Catholic 
treatment of political questions,"' this fundamental analysis be- 
came more widely understood in the bitter debates which the 
Protestant kings and their defenders occasioned. 

Through Father Parsons’ Conference about the next succes- 
sion to the Crown of England, which is called “‘ the first defence 
of the rights of the people written in the English language ”,’® 
and through Hobbes as well as Milton, both of whom drew 
heavily on Parsons and the Jesuit political writers generally, 
these doctrines became well known to the thinking people of 
England. ‘Through Hooker, the favorite of subsequent English 
political writers, English theorists met St. Thomas, Alexander of 
Hales, Cajetan, St. Bonaventure, and other Schoolmen, for their 
workers are frequently cited in his Ecclesiastical Polity. Against 
Catholic doctrine—“ papistical tenets”—Sir Robert Filmer 
directed his famous Patriarcha, or the Natural Power of Kings 
wherein he undertook to refute Cardinal Bellarmine. Locke, the 
patron saint of the colonial philosopher, published the first of 
his Two Treatises on Government in answer to Filmer, and 


> 


Locke’s acknowledged master is “the judicious Hooker ”. 


10 James Broderick, S.J., The Life and Work of Blessed Robert Francis Cardinal 
Bellarmine, S.J. (London, 1928), Vol. Il, p. 136. Chapters XXII to XXV of this 
excellent biography are well worth reading in this connexion. 


11 The Scholastics, of course, did not separate political science as a separate field 
of inquiry, but St. Thomas’s treatment of law in Prima Secunda and of right and 
justice in Secunda Secundae constitutes a clear exposition of this philosophy: Grab- 
man-Zybura, Introduction to the Theological Summa of St. Thomas (Herder, 1930). 
On this, see Maurice de Wulf, Philosophy and Civilization in the Middle Ages 
(Princeton, 1922), particularly Chapter XI, “ The Theory of the State”, where it 
is pointed out that the doctrines of sovereignty of the people, universal suffrage, right 
to hold office, and representative government were explained and defended before 
1250—two hundred years before the discovery of America. M. F. X. Millar, S.J., 
has a very valuable essay on “‘Scholasticism and American Political Philosophy ” in 
Zybura, Present Day Thinkers and the New Scholasticism (Herder, 1927), p. 301, 
and another, ‘“ Scholasticism and American Political Theory” in Thought (1926), 
Vol. I, p. 112. See also Ryan and Millar, The State and the Church (N. Y., 1922); 
see also Leibel, J. F., Readings in Ethics (Loyola University Press, 1926), Sec. VIII; 
Lilly, W. S., First Principles in Politics (London, 1899). 

12. J. McNamara, American Democracy and Catholic Doctrine (Int. Cath. Truth 
Society Publication), p. 75. Very helpful. 











170 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


Sydney, second only to Locke in colonial influence, in his Dis- 
courses on Government, likewise attacked the Patriarcha, 
acknowledging his indebtedness and adherence to the funda- 
mental points made by St. Robert and other Catholic defen- 
ders of true liberty and sound government. How thoroughly 
these Catholic principles were absorbed by the colonists has 
frequently been observed by non-Catholic students.’* With- 
out becoming involved in the question as to whether there was 
a conscious adopton of Catholic principles, the fact remains 
that, to the Continental Congress the whole Catholic doctrine 
of political philosophy was “self-evident”, as appears from 
the preamble to the Declaration of Independence, as fine a 
summary of Catholic political theory as one could wish. 

It is to give effect to these principles that the Constitution 
exists. Before partisan bias dims, distorts and confuses the 
real issue, it might be well to make perfectly plain: (1) that 
the basic principles of the ultimate sovereignty of the people and 
the dignity and inherent rights of man are sound, that the state 
exists to put these principles into practice, that herein is the 
sum and substance of “ genuine Americanism ”; (2) that any 
proposed change in the present mechanism of government must 
demonstrate that it will sustain, preserve and protect these rights 
better than the present system, for otherwise there is no purpose 
in changing; (3) that if, as, and when such proof is convincing, 
there is nothing sacrosanct about the Constitution itself, as such, 
to prevent, impede or delay a wise improvement in the mechan- 
ism of government. 

It must be remembered not only that the Constitution of 
the United States was drafted by men thoroughly informed as 
to the true function and origin of government, but also that 
it has stood the severe test of time. In nearly a century and a 
half, it has proved itself sufficiently flexible to adapt the gov- 
ernmental institutions so as to meet rapidly changing conditions 
that only twenty-one formal amendments have been made,— 


13.C, E. Merriam, A History of American Political Theories (N. Y., 1926). J. L 
Bennett, The Essential American Tradition (N. Y., 1925) contains an interesting 
anthology of quotations from the Fathers. See also A. C. McLaughlin, op. cit., supra, 
note 6, especially Chapter X, ‘‘ The Philosophy of the Revolution ”. 

14 Those interested will find a helpful article in Gaillard Hunt’s “ The Virginia 
Declaration of Rights and Cardinal Bellarmine ”, American Catholic Historical Review 
(October, 1917), Vol. III, p. 276. 











STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 171 


the first ten almost part of the venerable document, and one 
made necessary in order to repeal a previous hasty change. It 
would be impossible either to over-estimate the reverence and 
respect to which it is entitled by thinking Americans familiar 
with its authorship and its record or to over-emphasize the 
tremendous role it has played in the great drama of American 
development. Great care and caution ought to attend even 
those changes which are apparently trivial and the party sug- 
gesting a change should be put on notice that the whole burden 
of proof rests with the proponent, that every presumption is 
and ought to be in favor of the Constitution. If this is kept 
firmly in mind, one can see how, without the slightest incon- 
sistency, it might logically be argued that an extension of fed- 
eral powers in the field of economics or social legislation is desir- 
able and in the same breath, by the same person, be argued that 
enlarged federal powers in the field of education is not. The 
point is that any change in the present constitutional arrange- 
ment ought to stand or fall on the merits of the case which is 
made for it. 

Whether the state can best reach a perfect functioning by 
leaving the individual as free as is consistent with domestic 
peace, or whether it best protects natural rights when it guides, 
directs and encourages man, is the old debate of the Jeffersonian 
and Hamiltonian schools. Back of both those schools, however, 
was a keen conception of the basic principles involved. Both 
understood and subscribed to the philosophy which fixed the 
end of the state as the welfare of the individual. They differed 
only in their ideas as to how that end might best be attained. 
To-day, it may well be doubted whether changes in the machin- 
ery of government will be of the slightest value. Under the 
present system of organization—not so many years ago—an at- 
tempt to reverse the process and make the state an end in itself 
by taking from parents their God-given right to direct the 
education of their children was happily frustrated. In language 
reminiscent of the Fathers, steeped in “‘ genuine Americanism ”, 
the Supreme Court spoke of “the fundamental theory of 
liberty ” and upheld rights which the state had not created and 
could not destroy.’® But that very same court also frustrated 

15 Pierce, Gov. of Oregon vs. Society of Sisters of the Holy Name of Jesus and 


Mary, 268 U. S. 510. See also Monsignor Ryan’s “ The Significance of the Oregon 
School Law Case”, Catholic Educational Review, Vol. XXIII, p. 585. 











172 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


an effort of Congress to give economic freedom (obviously 
closely tied up to the right to life itself) when it voided mini- 
mum wage legislation."® Indeed, on the whole, it may at least 
be questioned whether a general trend toward property rights 
and away from individual natural rights is not discernible.” 
It is surely significant that a tribunal which could see very 
clearly the right of an individual to educate his children saw 
nothing inconsistent in thereafter sustaining sterilization laws 
affecting not the family but the very person of the individual.” 
Is the significant distinction to be found in this—the latter case 
involved no “ taking of property ”’? 

For many years “ political science” texts’® and “ required 
readings ” have been at pains to explain that “ the Theory of 
Natural Rights is an exploded theory no longer believed in by 
any scholar of note ”,”° apologizing for mentioning such an out- 
moded ideology in the company of the modern intelligenzia.” 
From the ranks of men trained to look sneeringly upon Natural 
Rights as antiquated, the product of an obsolete superstition, 
American law schools and colleges are sending the judges and 
politicians who are to interpret and put into practice whatever 
mechanism of government may be devised. No change of con- 
stitution can automatically create the much-longed-for “ gov- 
ernment of laws and not of men”. The most perfect machin- 
ery needs some human operators. 

16 Adkins vs. Children’s Hospital, 261 U. S. 525. Cases such as Hammer vs. 
Dagenhart, 247 U. S. 251, and Bailey vs. Drexel Furniture Co., 259 U. S. 20, in 
which federal child labor laws were held unconstitutional, are not included. These 
cases turn on the question of a lack of jurisdiction in the federal congress to legis- 
late in this field. 

17 For an interesting illustration of this “tendency ”, see Truax vs. Corrigan, 


257 U. S. 312, where a divided Court held the labor injunction an essentia! to “ due 
process of law” for the employer. The dissenting opinions are masterpieces. 

18 Buck vs. Bell, 274 U. S. 200. 

19 See for instance, R. G. Gettell, Introduction to Political Science (N. Y., 1910), 
the most popular college text in this field and widely adopted even in Catholic insti- 
tutions. Yet he lays it down as basic, ‘* No law or rights existed before the state 
arose” (p. 87), and specifically says the whole theory of Natural Rights “is falla- 
cious” (p. 86). 

20G. L. Scherger, The Evolution of Modern Liberty (N. Y., 1904), p. 11. 

21 James Ritchie, Natural Rights, p. 3: “the theory is still, in a sense, alive or 
at least capable of mischief ”. For the general attitude of current teachers, see C. A. 
Beard, The Economic Basis of Politics (N. Y., 1922); and especially Merriam, Barnes 
and others, A History of Political Theories in Recent Times (N. Y., 1924); see also, 
Spahr, M., Readings in Recent Political Philosophy (N. Y., 1935). For that matter, 
a glance at the civics text in use in the local school wall probably reveal a clear 
departure from the old idea of Natural Rights and state for man, substituting in 1ts 
place something closely akin to state absolutism albeit in disguise. 











STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 173 


No longer, then, can it be safely assumed that these funda- 
mentals are truisms. To many they are of historical value only, 
having no present validity whatsoever. Would it be imperti- 
nent, under the circumstances, to suggest that occasionally, in 
the midst of patriotic demonstrations of the services rendered 
by Catholic arms and Catholic money during the Revolution, 
a few moments be spared to defend and, for that matter, to 
teach something of the principles for which they fought and 
spent? 

Basit R. Reuss, O. Praem. 

West De Pere, Wisconsin. 


SOME REFLEXIONS ON THE SACRAMENT OF EXTREME 
UNCTION. 


In a comparatively short time the chaplain of a hospital 
gains considerable experience in the administration of the Last 
Sacraments. Especially is this true of chaplains in large hospitals 
that serve a Catholic community. In these institutions the 
chaplain may administer Extreme Unction as often as five or 
six times a day. In the aggregate he will administer that sacra- 
ment many times oftener than the average pastor. 

In the hospital, where the sciences and the nursing profession 
concentrate their best efforts, there is a congregation of the sick 
and the dying. The hospital is a battle-ground, where science 
challenges death and illness. 

Every day priests see the faith and the confidence that 
Catholics have in Extrerne Unction. The mercy of Jesus comes 
to the dying by this sacrament. When a patient is sick unto 
death, speechless and prayerless, Extreme Unction is admin- 
istered hopefully; and even when conditionally given, with the 
gtim reaper standing by, scythe poised, and with every faculty 
of the recipient deadened and the waywardness of his life not 
forgotten, even then Extreme Unction is administered hopefully. 
What an appeal this is to the mercy of Jesus! 

Despite this blessed Catholic confidence, however, in the 
eficacy of Extreme Unction, and despite the fact that we have 
the right to petition the Divine Mercy in the face of the most 
helpless situation imaginable, a word of caution may not be out 











174 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


of order. The confidence of the laity in the sacrament must 
be guided by intelligence. That is to say that they should be 
cautioned against harboring the conviction that there is magic 
in the sacrament. ‘That is the extreme viewpoint, and it is 
harmful. We live in an age of extremes, and so far and wide 
has this spirit spread that many people are forgetting the warn- 
ing contained in that old proverb: ‘“‘ As you live, so shall you 
die.” It will never do to let the faithful grow sluggish in the 
practice of our holy religion, and to drive away all fear of 
damnation by simply relying on Extreme Unction to take 
care of everything in the last extremity. That is indeed 
presumption. 

We ought never to say anything in sermons that will weaken 
the beautiful faith and confidence which the laity have in 
Extreme Unction. But we should take pains to restrain the 
faithful from going too far, deter them from forming mistaken 
views. Wecan help in various ways. One way is to discourage 
dramatizing sick-calls. Who has not heard Catholics tell, with 
breathless excitement, of how they saw a priest hurry like the 
wind in answer to a sick-call; how, despite a bad night, he drove 
like a hurricane to the home, where he arrived “ just in the nick 
of time”. The dying person may have been a careless Catholic. 
But, even so, the priest got to him just in time. 

Dramatizing sick-calls may lead Catholics to imagine that a 
dying man’s eternity depends chiefly upon the speed with which 
the priest, carrying the holy oils, reaches his bedside. What 
about the chances of those who died before the age of auto- 
mobiles and good roads? Will one say that dying in those days 
was a much more hazardous matter simply because the speed 
with which a priest could answer a sick-call was by comparison 
a snail’s pace? 

Sick-calls in the hospital may be dramatized, too. There is 
excitement, anxiety lest the chaplain cannot be reached in time; 
but he does answer the call after what seemed like an hour of 
waiting; he rushes into the chapel, disturbs the nuns at prayer, 
makes haste at the tabernacle, then hurries through the corridors, 
surplice and stole flying, Sisters and nurses and visitors making 
way for him,—his dramatic entrance into the sick-room just 
as the patient is breathing his last. 

















STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 175 


It is better to minimize the need of all haste and hurry. It is 
far better to point out the terrible risks involved where the 
eternal welfare of a dying person depends so much upon the 
speed with which a priest can be brought to his bedside. It is 
better to discard the dramatic altogether and explain to our 
people that, though the Last Sacraments are a great joy and help, 
they are not absolutely necessary for salvation; that salvation 
depends mostly upon how we live; that the hurried anointing 
of an unconscious person is not nearly as satisfactory a prelude 
to his exit from this vale of tears as an anointing given in plenty 
of time, with the patient conscious and able to invoke the Lord’s 
pardon and grace. 

We should do all we can to get Catholics out of the notion 
that the anointing, no matter under what circumstances and 
conditions given, is it itself quite sufficient. 

Chaplains sometimes have strange experiences. A pastor, 
hearing that Mrs. James, a fallen-away parishioner of his, has 
been suddenly taken to a hospital for a serious operation, tele- 
phones to the chaplain, saying, “ Give Mrs. James everything ”. 
What an order this is! Mrs. James, a divorced woman, has been 
living in sin with a second husband for many years. But the 
pastor has always had the secret hope that in the end she would 
return to the Church. He believes that at heart she is a good 
woman, not a bad Catholic but an erring one. Now she faces 
death. The pastor has heard that the chaplain is a rigorist, 
and he has his doubts whether or not the woman will consent 
to leave her second husband. But the pastor argues with him- 
self, and decides she must not die without the Last Sacraments. 
So he rushes to the telephone and tells the chaplain: “ Go ahead; 
give her everything.” The chaplain is nettled. What chaplain 
wouldn’t be? He knows what he must do, what he can do and 
cannot do for Mrs. James. It is plain that she must promise to 
give up the second husband and dispose herself for 2 worthy 
reception of the sacraments. The chaplain knows, too, that 
some Catholics are reluctant to give up an unlawful mate. 
Often the Catholic party will say to the chaplain, ‘‘ No, Father, 
I will not do what you ask of me. And anyway, I think I will 
pull through.” In other words, if she can cheat death she 
intends to continue cheating the Lord. That is plain. But two 











176 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


hours later she drifts into unconsciousness: death is about to 
claim her. Will the chaplain hasten to give her “ everything ” ? 

As a class, chaplains are as fatherly and merciful as pastors, 
It is not true that chaplains have no feeling for the patients 
because they are not parishioners but only strangers. Chaplains 
are obliged in conscience to do all that they can to save souls. 
But a pastor’s determination never to let a parishioner die with- 
out the sacraments need not govern the chaplain. 

Let us consider another case. A sixteen-year old boy is 
brought to the hospital in a dying condition, apparently. The 
telephone rings. Father Smith, pastor of a parish church many 
miles distant from the hospital, is at the telephone. He tells the 
chaplain to baptize that boy. “He is all right. I instructed 
him sometime ago. Go right ahead.” The chaplain discovers 
that the boy had taken a few instructions two years before. His 
father was opposed to his baptism, and the father is still in the 
same frame of mind. Moreover, the chaplain discovers that the 
boy knows scarcely anything about the Catholic religion and 
that he is not concerned about being baptized. Also, the 
doctor tells the chaplain that the boy, though seriously sick, may 
recover. The chaplain decides, and rightly so, not to baptize 
the boy. 

A young convert on the very day of her conversion and 
baptism runs off with a fallen-away Catholic and is married to 
him by a probate judge. Six months later the miserable woman 
is rushed to the hospital, seriously sick, to undergo a treacherous 
operation. Father Smith, who instructed and baptized the 
woman, and who is intensely proud of all his converts, telephones 
to the chaplain, saying, “Do everything for her: she means 
well.” 

The phrase, ‘‘Sacramenta propter homines,” was coined by 
theologians. It is a pet saying of many priests. But is not the 
ground taken right out from under their feet by the words of 
Holy Writ: “‘ Give not that which is holy to dogs, neither cast 
ye your pearls before swine” ? I have heard priests argue the 
exegesis of that text, some declaring that it may be used as an 
argument against giving the sacraments freely, others denying 
that such is the meaning. But, no matter, the writer holds fast 
to his opinion that the text may be used as a weapon: that it 
challenges the soundness of the practice of giving the sacra- 











os 


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ct 








STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 177 


ments to any critically sick or dying Catholic, regardless of the 
circumstances governing the case. 

Theological principles ought never to be disregarded. We 
ought always be governed by them when trying to decide, in a 
given case, whether this or that person is entitled to receive the 
sacraments. It is as plain as can be that not all Catholics are 
entitled to the Last Sacraments, even when death is at hand. 
Good Catholics and repentant sinful Catholics may receive them. 
But sinful Catholics who stubbornly refuse to comply with the 
sine qua non conditions of the Church, the guardian of the 
sacred sacraments, may not receive them; and when such 
Catholics sink into unconsciousness, with their unholy stub- 
bornness unrepented of, then they may not be given the Last 
Sacraments. To argue that at that solemn moment, “If this 
patient could speak, I feel sure that any and all promises would 
be given,” and then on the strength of that proceed to give the 
last rites—— is to misunderstand the whole law of repentance. 
Mercy, indeed, is to be exercised, but it ought to be tempered 
with sound judgment. We must recognize the autocracy of 
plain duty; and duty obliges every priest to have due regard 
for the sacredness of the sacraments. 

Extreme ideas are too often associated with Extreme Unction. 
There is no magic in it. This is one extreme to guard against. 
But in doing so we must be careful not to weaken the confidence 
that the faithful have in Extreme Unction. That Extreme 
Unction may be given to any one is the other extreme viewpoint 
which we must guard against; but in doing so we must be care- 
ful never to cheat the sick and the dying, nor allow the cold 
touch of rigorism to blight mercy and kindness. 

In a word, the careful and devout administration of the 
sacrament of Extreme Unction is not always as easy a duty as it 
would seem to be. The approach of death and the awful judg- 
ment that follows in its wake, make the priest realize the 
importance of going the limit in giving the patient all the 
benefits of his priestly administrations and of the sacraments. 
The danger of the presence of mortal sin unforgiven makes the 
priest hesitate lest he become an unwilling party in a conspiracy 
against the sacredness of the sacraments. 

WILLiAM SCHAEFERS. 

Wichita, Kansas. 








178 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 
I JOIN THE PARISH BOYS’ CLUB. 


Perhaps it was because I had that kind of mother. Perhaps 
it was because I had a sense of duty. Or perhaps I was just 
plain gregarious. But when the pastor, whom we all devotedly 
loved, announced that on the next evening, which would be 
Monday, a boys’ club would be organized in the basement of 
the church, I accepted this as a call to arms. 

Now in one small point my conscience is clear. Whenever 
I hear it charged against the young people that they are not 
interested in their parish, I know that was not true of me. But 
then my parish was very much interested in me (not as a person 
but as one of its young people), and maybe that had something 
to do with it. I can’t remember a time when I was not doing 
something for the parish, or, so to speak, about the church, 
though I never served Mass until quite late in college days, and 
had not the slightest foresight of my final pathway to the 
sanctuary. 

My mother and I left our little suburban church following 
this important announcement, and mother said in a perfectly 
matter-of-fact tone, “Get your school work done early to- 
morrow evening so you can go to the meeting of the boys’ club.” 
That was all. We didn’t discuss whether I should or not. The 
fact that Monday night was a particularly bad night for me (a 
school night on which we held our school play rehearsals after 
class) didn’t enter the picture. The parish had issued a call. 
Our pastor wanted the boys to appear. I was going. 

My memories of parish societies up to that point were de- 
cidedly happy. In fact, I could look forward with real relish 
to a boys’ club. For in our old parish on the south side of 
Chicago, I had belonged to a bang-up boys’ Sodality. (This 
is not discussion of Sodalities, so you may safely continue.) It 
was run, this particular Sodality by a nun, who loved us boys 
and who in turn was devotedly adored by the lot of us. Oc- 
casionally she inveigled a priest into coming to talk to us. I 
remember that on one occasion she actually trapped the Bishop 
of Salt Lake City to make an appearance before us. But in the 
main, it was her own work, unassisted and, as far as I can make 
out from this angle, not particularly applauded. She gave up 
the visiting Sunday in her Mercy community to take care of us. 




















STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 179 


But we came; we said the office faithfully; we had our dues 
and our small charities; and through a library which she built 
up, she developed our literary tastes in a way we did not at the 
time appreciate. After we moved to a distant parish and I was 
a college student, I still continued to return for occasional meet- 
ings of our beloved Sister’s Sodality. It was that kind of or- 
ganization. Or shall I say she was that kind of moderator? 

So with the memory of this Sodality in mind, I hurried back 
Monday afternoon from high school, bolted my supper, and 
dashed to be on time for the first meeting of the boys’ club. I 
was fifteen, still a stranger in the parish, knowing very few 
and feeling pretty much the outsider. 

The basement of our church was the center of all parish 
social life. Conveniently large (though small indeed from 
the viewpoint of modern parishes), it served as our parish club- 
room, where were held the bazaars without which no parish of 
those days could subsist, where the card parties offered their 
simple euchres, the young people occasionally danced, the Ladies 
Guild met, men convened for an occasional smoker, the Knights 
of Columbus foregathered, and the older group of young people 
rehearsed the recurrent parish minstrels. It was dim, furnished 
only with folding chairs, cut up by four large columns which 
supported the upper church, but the important point lay in the 
fact that by afternoon and evening it was in constant use. 
Which is more than can be said for many an elaborately 
equipped parish auditorium. 

This Monday evening I was one of the early arrivals, so I 
unfolded a camp chair, murmured a greeting to such of the 
boys as I knew, and sat down to wait for the rest. By ones 
and twos they filtered in, the boys of the parish between the 
ages of twelve and seventeen, some of their own loyalty, some 
out of curiosity to find what it was all about, some obviously 
because their parents had packed them off, unwillingly enough. 

Thus far, no sight of the pastor. We sat around and kicked 
our heels, literally and figuratively, and wondered what it was 
all about. When our dear old pastor arrived, we still didn’t 
know. 

He said a prayer. He sat down. He said he was glad such 
a good number had turned out. (There were about thirty; 
I'm sure it represented a good half of the available bovs of that 








180 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


age in our small parish). He said that he thought a parish 
boys’ club was a good thing. He asked us if we thought so too. 
One or two of us coughed in answer. He said we’d meet about 
once every two weeks. He suggested that he could not always 
be with us, but we could get along nicely among ourselves. He 
then said we would meet two weeks from this evening, and 
asked us what we should like to do at the first meeting. 

Well, nobody had the faintest idea. Here we were, thirty 
assorted youngsters, some in high school, some working, some 
still in grammar school, scarcely knowing one another, regard- 
ing all strangers with the unfriendly eye of youth, gathered be- 
cause we wanted to be told what to do, not sure whether boys’ 
clubs sponsored ice-cream suppers, prize fights, vaudeville shows, 
holy hours, oratorical contests, horseshoe throwing or pretzel 
bending matches. So we all eyed the toes of our shoes and 
waited for him to make his suggestion. Most of us, I rather 
think, felt that he had something in mind anyhow, and we 
should be just as wise to let him tell us what it was. 

He looked from face to face, and each face went blank as his 
eyes reached it. Once on a time that dear old pastor had been a 
boy himself, but it was a long time before, and his memory of 
those days was surely very dim. 

“What would you think about starting off with a debate? ” 
he finally suggested. 

If he had suggested a tug-of-war or a pie-eating contest, it 
would have been more in the line of most of us. But since he 
wanted us to be in a debate, in a debate we would be. We all 
gulped to indicate approval, and he fished about for a subject. 

‘Has anyone a suggestion on what we might debate?” he 
asked. 

The one of the grammar school seniors who happened to be 
studying American history and who knew the pastor well from 
serving his mass, came to the rescue. ‘ Resolved ”: said he, all 
in a breath, “ that Grant was a greater general than Lee.” 

“Ah,” said the priest with a suspicious alacrity that indi- 
cated he and the young man might have had a word or two be- 
fore the meeting, “an excellent subject. We all know our 
American history, so that should be easy. Now, we need some 
volunteers. Three on each side will do. Who'll be the first?” 




















STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 181 


It was my turn. I belonged to the St. Ignatius High School 
Junior Debating Society and I loved debating. So I stood up. 
“Tl volunteer, Father.” 

“Very good. And what’s your name? ” 

At that point it may have occurred to him that he had never 
even found out the names of the boys attending this organiza- 
tion meeting. However, except for a new boy like myself, he 
probably knew the name of every boy in the meeting, as he 
surely knew all the parents and elder brothers and sisters of the 
solid, middle-class families from which they came. Anyway, 
the boys’ club was clearly going to be informal. 

I told him my name. 

“Which side do you want? ” he asked. 

I spouted my technical terms: “I'll take the negative. I'll 
defend Lee”. 

If I had spit on the stars and stripes the boys could not have 
looked more shocked. Defending Robert E. Lee was just this 
side of treason to country and flag, but from some source alien 
surely to my Yankee ancestry, I had developed a frank affection 
for Lee, so I stood my ground. 

“Very good,” said the pastor. ““Now, who'll defend Grant? ” 

His eye circled about until it lit upon the eldest boy in the 
group. Later I came to know him well, a sturdy, hard-work- 
ing lad, already helping to support his family; probably seven- 
teen, and seeming to most of the boys absurdly old. The pastor 
suggested that he take the affirmative. He nodded wanly. 

It took a little time to gather four more debaters, but even 
that task came to a dragging end, and, with a final prayer, and 
a reminder that we would convene in two weeks, we closed the 
organization meeting which had not organized and sauntered 
out vaguely into the night. 

Two weeks later we reassembled, augmented by perhaps an- 
other ten. Our dear old pastor smiled on us with that famous, 
fatherly smile, went through the opening prayer, an announce- 
ment or two, a congratulation to the club on its rapid growth, 
and introduced the subject of dues. As dues only meant asking 
an extra ten cents of fairly indulgent parents, they did not 
much trouble us; we let him tell us what to do about them, 
and then sat back for the business of the evening. 








182 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


“Now,” said he, smiling, “we shall have our debate: Re- 
solved: That Grant was a greater general than Lee.” We all 
squirmed. “ Let’s see; I think that Charlie is opening the de- 
bate for the affirmative.” 

And Charlie got to his feet. 

In all his life Charlie had never heard a debate, much less 
been in one. But with his plodding, workmanlike ways, he 
had dug up all the data he could get out of the encyclopedia on 
Grant, and in stumbling, halting fashion gave us not a defence 
of Grant as a tactician or aggressive fighter, but all the data of 
his life: when and where he was born, who his parents were, 
where he was trained, something about his presidency, the dates 
of his death and burial—with a casual reference to that trifling 
controversy known as the Civil War. Then he sat down. 

““Very good, Charlie,” said our pastor, “ Very good, indeed. 
Now, let’s see. We'll have the negative.” And he waved in 
my direction. 

It happened that of all the group I was the only trained de- 
bater. Already in my second year of high school, I had debated 
since I entered. An excellent debating coach (‘‘ Dad ” to every 
boy in the school) had trained me to keep on the subject, pound 
home facts and arguments, anticipate possible objections, and 
make a complete case for my side. So I rose and with practised 
ability built up Lee against the background of his small army, 
his impoverished conditions, his lack of equipment and arma- 
ment, and stressed his triumphs in spite of opposition to the 
northern armies, well fed, well armed, and apparently limitless 
in numbers. I finished and sat down like a cocky prosecuting 
attorney. 

** Well,” said our pastor, “ that was excellent. A good speech. 
Now we'll have the next speaker on the affirmative.” 

But we didn’t. Every boy in the hall was looking at me 
with mingled awe and loathing. It wasn’t fair. Nobody had 
a right to get up and act as if a debate were something like a 
sand-lot baseball game, the natural occupation of a boy. I sat 
circled by hatred and contempt mixed with reluctant admira- 
tion. But it was nine parts of the first two to a highly diluted 
tenth part of the last. 

And not a soul moved. For all they cared, the whole show 
was ended. Our director had mercifully lost the envelope on 














STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 183 


which he had jotted down the names of those volunteers and 
conscripts who two weeks before had been drafted into the 
armies of Grant and Lee. He called for the next; he begged 
and dared and challenged. Nobody stirred. They simply sat 
with their eyes glued to the floor, and their hot dislike surging 
up around me and my technical knowledge of debating. As 
far as they were concerned, the debate was over, and so was the 
boys’ club . . . or at least that meeting. 

It would probably have been the end of the boys’ club, except 
for the fact that our beloved pastor launched into one of his 
informal little fatherly talks, and ended by setting the next 
meeting for two weeks distance with the promise of ‘‘ some- 
thing different and very interesting”. It had just better be 
different! 

We left the hall, and I walked home alone with the bitter 
fruits of victory puckering my mouth. 

About twenty boys had already assembled when I arrived 
for the third meeting. They were not sitting down this time. 
The pastor had not arrived, so they were restlessly moving about 
the dim hall, pushing one another tentatively, engaging in little 
furtive spurts of tag, and being just plain boy. They had 
decided to ignore the debate, so my greeting was returned. 

Then we waited, with no sign of the director. Minutes 
dragged along as only minutes can when a meeting is scheduled 
to open and doesn’t. Finally one of the bigger boys suggested 
a few bouts of Indian wrestling. We all liked the idea, and 
soon three pairs were gripping hands, and toe to toe, struggling 
for a throw. We ran an impromptu elimination tournament 
which left as champion a stocky lad who spent his Saturdays in 
a grocery and his Sunday afternoons playing a kind of semi- 
pro baseball. 

By that time we were warmed up. Our eyes traveled the 
hall speculatively. Why not turn it into a gym? Excellent 
idea! The idea seemed to generate from the crowd as a whole. 
No one could claim it as his own. We ran a few rather list- 
less springs down the scant fifty feet of the hall. Then we 
complicated this by laying the folding chairs as hurdles at 
regular intervals. That was better. We even found that we 
could make a kind of track about the four sides of the hall 
for longer sporting events. We got a good run out of that. 








184 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


From somewhere, someone produced a softball, and we threw 
it about to the great peril of the high windows, but to the gen- 
eral satisfaction of the crowd. 

Then some genius for organization got an idea: We’d divide 
the whole twenty-odd of us up into two teams, and have a relay. 
None of those four or five men relays; but a relay that would 
count on one team or the other every boy in the hall. 

It was a great idea, and was greeted by loud shouts of ap- 
proval. Some violent bickering preceded the final selection of 
the teams, for we varied widely in size and age and known or 
unknown ability. But one young lad who later proved to be 
a really great athlete, professional in calibre though not in career, 
matched us into two fairly even teams, and our first two toed 
the line with the rest of us eagerly waiting to grab the broken 
chair legs (I forget whether we broke the chair or found one 
already broken) from the hands of the last runner. 

The first two were off, and with the rest of us yelling like 
mad, the lead runners circled the hall. ‘The second two grabbed 
the improvized baton, and continued their way to a crescendo of 
yelling, screaming, and exhortation. Without much stretch of 
imagination you can, I fancy, see and hear that rather small 
hall, with twenty or more boys all yelling like mad for the 
triumph of a team of which they were both members and audi- 
ence. I know that I myself was so breathless, less with running 
than with shouting, that I grabbed the baton when my time 
came, strained every muscle in an effort to prove that I could 
run as well as debate (which I couldn’t), and rejoined the spec- 
tators in an agonized cheering of my successor to better and 
braver venturing. 

Then suddenly, we sensed a presence. Four runners still had 
to do and dare. But they didn’t. Instead we turned, froze 
at attention, and stood, with a sudden and altogether unexpected 
sense of our guilt and crime, overwhelming us, as we looked 
up into the face of our pastor standing on the steps leading down 
into the hall. 

Our dear old pastor could grow angry. And now he was 
almost apoplectic. He looked at us as he might look at Ali 
Baba’s Forty Thieves splitting their thousand in his church base- 
ment. He lifted a hand with which he clearly meant to drive 
us in disgrace forever from his desecrated premises. 











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Se s =e Ws 





STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 185 


“What does this mean? ” he thundered. ‘“ How dare you? 
In all my life—This is the basement of a church, and you treat 
it like this! Our Blessed Lord is above you in the Blessed Sacra- 
ment, and you act like a lot of hoodlums. Out of here, all of 
you! I can’t trust you alone for a few minutes! Clear out! 
And don’t let me see you again. The boys’ club is disbanded! 
Out, the pack of you.” 

And we dodged and squirmed and winced and fled and bent 
and ran and backed and sidestepped under his elevated arm, 
up the stairs, and out into the street. 


The boys’ club was over. We never met again. I think we 
were all relieved. I know that I was. None of us had any 
consciousness of crime, yet we all felt horribly guilty. But we 
felt beyond that guilt a sense that, thanks be, we should never 
again have to come into the basement of the church to sit and 
squirm and wonder what it was all about and do things we 
didn’t care about doing or do nothing at all under even the 
mild eyes of our beloved pastor. 

Shortly after, I joined the ushers. Then I got to play the 
organ in our volunteer choir. Finally I moved up into our 
parish dramatic club, a delightful group of young people from 
seventeen to twenty-two—who met of their own accord under 
the supervision of a parish mother of dramatic ability. Out 
of that club I can recall five Catholic marriages culminating, 
endless hours of delightful and wholesome companionship. 

But never again, as far as I know, did the then authorities of 
our parish attempt to do anything for the boys. 


No, boys were and are a problem. It takes time and thought 
and tact and interest to make a boys’ club go. The boys know 
that. They know when the one directing them understands 
them and can lead them. 

And when he doesn’t and can’t, be he ever so zealous and kind, 
he ends by throwing them out of his hall, and they go with the 
utmost willingness. I did. So, I imagine, have thousands from 
my day to this. 


DANIEL A. Lorp, S.J. 
Saint Louis, Missouri. 








186 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 
SEMINARIANS ON VACATION. 


To the Editor, THe EccrestasticaL REVIEW. 


The following statement appeared in your November issue: 
“A custom seems to have sprung up in America according to 
which seminarians expect a set price for helping with vacation 
schools of Christian Doctrine.” 

I do not know how true this may be of seminarians in gen- 
eral; I can speak only for the students of my own seminary. 
During the past summer they worked in nineteen dioceses. | 
took the trouble to compare the statement with the truth re- 
garding these students and I found that 44% of them worked 
at their own expense, 28% received bare expenses, and 28% a 
little more than expenses. All of them said they would have 
worked for nothing. At the same time, many would have 
welcomed a certain compensation, as, naturally, they are under 
heavy expense all the time. Seldom have the families of semi- 
narians been in greater need of help than during this period 
of depression. I feel sure that the statement of your correspon- 
dent is too sweeping. From my own experience with fellow 
seminarians during more than five years, I know that there is 


a great spirit of zeal among them. 
BALTIMORA. 


SEMINARIANS IN THE C.M.T.C. 


Qu. Will you please answer the following question through the 
columns of the Review? It may have a practical interest for many 
clerics to-day. 

Does the prohibition in canon 141, concerning voluntary military 
service of clerics, include spending a few weeks of the summer vaca- 
tion in a Citizens’ Military Training Camp? Would membership in 
a C. M. T. C. be considered ‘ militia voluntaria ” and would it render 
a cleric in minor orders subject to the penalty in canon 141 § 2? 


Resp. What is meant by C.M.T.C.? It seems to be part 
of the regular army training given to young men to prepare 
them for possible military service. In this training various kinds 
of instruction are given, including the use of lethal weapons. 
However, it is improbable that registration in the C. M. T.C. 
can strictly be called registration in the regular army. It is not 











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STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 187 


the same as enlistment in the army. Through the C. M. T.C. a 
young man may acquire a knowledge of the method and dis- 
cipline of the army without actually enlisting as a soldier. It 
is true that citizens who are furnished with this training may 
constitute a reserve force; but it is not true that these young 
men are really and effectually enrolled in the army. 

Canon 141 § 1 forbids a cleric to enter the army voluntarily. 
This seems to indicate a prohibition to enroll oneself in the 
regular army, so that one would be subject to military discipline 
for a long period of time, and be liable to actual service at any 
time. Strictly speaking, then, for the reason given above, a 
short (few weeks) training, without enrollment in the regular 
army, would scarcely be comprehended in canon 141 § 1. This 
interpretation does not consider the incongruity of military 
training for clerics whose life hardly requires such instruction. 
It would certainly be incongruous for a seminarian to engage 
in training of this kind. 

In regard to the penalty stated in canon 141 § 2, there is little 
doubt that a cleric in minor orders who joins the C. M. T. C. 
would not lose his clerical status. It is at least doubtful 
whether the C. M. T. C. would be included in the first part of 
the canon, and since penalties are to be interpreted strictly, loss 
of clerical status would not be incurred. 





THE CIBORIUM COVER. 


Qu. The Roman Ritual (Tit. IV, Cap 1) states clearly: “ The 
ciborium containing the Sacred Particles reserved in the tabernacle 
must always be covered with a veil of white silk or of some other 
precious material.” 

One of our Monsignors (now dead) contended that if the taber- 
nacle is lined with silk inside, it is not required that the ciborium be 
covered with a veil. Not to cover the ciborium is an obvious con- 
venience and obviates the danger of brushing the Sacred Hosts from 
out the ciborium. 


Resp. Several decrees of the S. Congregation of Rites (viz. 
3254 ad 7; 3709; 4035 ad 4) require that the tabernacle in 
which the Blessed Sacrament is reserved, be lined inside with 
white silk, or be gold-plated. 








188 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


Moreover, canon 1270 of the Code and the rubrics of the 
Roman Ritual of 1925 (Tit. IV, cap. I, no. 5) demand that the 
ciborium, containing the Sacred Particles and reserved in the 
tabernacle, be covered with a veil of white silk. Let us quote 
in full this rubric of our Ritual: “Curare porrd debet 
(parochus) ut particulae consecratae, eo numero qui infirmorum 
et aliorum fidelium communioni satis esse possit, perpetuo con- 
serventur in pyxide ex solida decentique materia, eaque munda, 
et suo operculo bene clausa, cooperta albo velo serico et, quan- 
tum res feret, ornato, in tabernaculo inamovibili in media parte 
altaris posito et clave obserato.” 

In order to avoid the danger of brushing some of the Sacred 
Particles out of the ciborium, it is prudent to remove the silk 
veil of the ciborium before opening it. 


EXEMPTION OF “ AB ACATHOLICIS NATI” UNDER THE 
DECREE “NE TEMERE ”. 


Qu. Ambrose was born of a mixed marriage and baptized in the 
Catholic Church, but from infancy he received no Catholic education 
whatsoever. In 1916 he married a baptized non-Catholic without 
observing the canonical form of marriage prescribed by the decree Ne 
temere. Subsequently he obtained a divorce from her. 

Is Ambrose’s marriage recognized as a valid marriage in the eyes 
of the Church? Or must it be considered as invalid for lack of the 
canonical form, so that he could, upon returning to the Church, be 
permitted to marry? 


Resp. A marriage of this kind contracted after Pentecost 
of the year 1918 is fully covered by the three declarations 
concerning the phrase ab acatholicis nati in canon 1099 § 2, that 
have issued from the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic 
Interpretation of the Canons of the Code.’ A marriage con- 
tracted in these circumstances since the Code is not invalid, 
despite the neglect of the canonical form. 


120 July, 1929, ad Il—Acta Apostolicae Sedis, XXI (1929), 573; 17 February, 
1930, ad IV—op. cit., XXII (1930), 195; 25 July, 1931, ad Il—op. cit., XXIII 
(1931), 388. Cf. ‘An Exemption from the Canonical Form of Marriage”, EccLe- 
siasTICAL Review, LXXXIII (1930), 484-496; “Children of Apostates, and the 
Canonical Form of Marriage”’, op. cit., LXXXIV (1931), 522-524; “An Exemption 
from the Canonical Form of Marriage, a Further Declaration regarding Canon 1099", 
op. cit.. LKXXV (1931), 637-638. 











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STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 189 


But—and here is the present question—do these declarations 
apply to marriages contracted in the same circumstances while 
the decree Ne temere was in force, i. e., between Easter of 1908 
and Pentecost of 1918? To this phase of the question no 
authentic answer has been given by the Holy See. The relevant 
phrase of the decree Ne temere states that acatholici sive bap- 
tizati sive non baptizati were not bound to observe the canonical 
form of marriage laid down there,? whereas canon 1099 § 2, 
after repeating the above provision almost verbatim, adds the 
clause: “item nullibi tenentur ad catholicam matrimonii 
formam servandam ab acatholicis nati, etsi in Ecclesia catholica 
baptizati, qui ab infantili aetate in haeresi vel schismate aut 
infidelitate vel sine ulla religione adoleverunt, quoties cum 
parte acatholica contraxerint.” 

In other words, canon 1099 § 2 adds a provision that was not 
contained in the decree Ne temere. It would seem therefore 
that this exemption and the three declarations mentioned above 
cannot be applied to a marriage contracted between Easter of 
1908 and Pentecost of 1918. Such a marriage would therefore 
rather appear not to be valid.* This solution is not certain. To 
remove all doubt in a given case it will be necessary to follow 
the decree of the Holy Office of 31 March, 1911: recurrendum 
esse in singulis casibus.* 

VALENTINE T. SCHAAF, O.F.M. 


The Catholic University of America. 


CO-OPERATION BY WIFE IN HUSBAND’S SIN. 


Qu. Is a wife ever permitted to codperate materially in a condo- 
mistic copulation? I understand that the teaching of theologians is 
that such an act is intrinsically evil, and that a wife must resist it, 
as she would unjust aggression. I am asking about the case when 
the husband is a non-Catholic and the wife finds it difficult to impress 
on him this teaching of the Church. 


2 XI, 3—Fontes, n. 4340. 

’P. Gasparri, De Matrimonio, (ed. nova, Vatican City: Vatican Press, 1932), n. 
1024, seems to imply the same conclusion. Cf. J. J. Carberry, The Juridical Form 
of Marriage, The Catholic University of America, Canon Law Studies, n. 84, (Wash- 
ington, 1934), p. 129-130; J. Linneborn, Grundriss des Eherechts, (4.-5. ed., Pader- 
born: Ferdinand Schoningh, 1933), p. 376, footnote 5. 

_* Acta Apostolicae Sedis, III (1911), p. 163-164; M. Leitner, Lehrbuch des katho- 
lischen Eherechts (3. ed., Paderborn: Ferdinand SchOningh, 1920) p. 210, citing 
Il Monitore Ecclesiastico. 











190 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


Resp. According to the decision rendered by the Congre- 
gation of the Poenitentiaria, 13 April, 1916, the question asked 
above must be answered in the negative. Whatever our 
opinions may be as to the reasoning which supports this de- 
cision in the minds of the theologians, we must recognize the 
authoritative discipline as set forth by the Congregation in deal- 
ing with the matter practically. To be sure, the “ resistance ” 
which the wife is obliged to offer in such cases is not unto death, 
but resistance which involves grave or very grave inconvenience. 
It is likened by the theologians to the resistance which a maiden 
is obliged to oppose to rape (“‘ eam resistentiam opponere debet 
quam virgo invasori”’). The fact that the husband is a non- 
Catholic does not change the principle of the situation, although 
it might have some bearing on the degree of inconvenience in- 
volved in resistance. 


CONDITIONS FOR GAINING INDULGENCES. 


Qu. Will you please answer the following questions in the pages 
of the REviEw. 

I. The ¢oties quoties indulgence of All Souls’ Day can be gained by 
one who confesses, receives Holy Communion, and says the prescribed 
prayers at each visit. When one goes to confession within eight days 
previous to All Souls’ Day, must he intend to gain the ¢oties quoties 
indulgence on 2 November? Must he when going to confession at 
least have the general intention that canon 925, § 2 prescribes? 

II. To gain the “En Ego” indulgence after Holy Communion is it 
necessary to say the prayer flexis genibus, since the prayer itself reads: 
*“T cast myself upon my knees in Thy sight”? The sick can hardly 
fulfil this condition, if it is necessary for them to kneel. 

Il. Will you kindly state the conditions that are to be fulfilled for 
the gaining of a plenary indulgence? 


Resp. I. One who goes to confession before All Souls’ Day 
need not intend to gain especially the ¢oties quoties plenary 
indulgence of 2 November. Canon 925 § 2, speaking of in- 
dulgences in general, declares that a general intention of gain- 
ing them is sufficient: “ Ut subjectum capax eas (indulgentias) 
lucretur, debet habere intentionem saltem generalem eas ac- 
quirendi... ” 

Moreover, according to canon 931 § 3, no special confession 
is necessary for persons who go to confession twice a month; 











STUDIES AND CONFERENCES. 191 


or for those who receive Communion daily or at least five 
times a week. 

II. To gain the indulgence attached to the “ En Ego” prayer 
after Holy Communion, it is not necessary to kneel while re- 
citing it, though it is obviously proper to do so. The only 
conditions required by the official Raccolta are confession, 
Communion, and prayer for the Pope’s intentions. 

II]. An authentic Declaration of the Sacred Penitentiary, 
dated 20 September, 1933, solves the doubt as to what is meant 
by the following clauses, so often added in the grant of in- 
dulgences—‘‘ a visit to a church, public oratory, or, for those 
who may lawfully use it, semi-public oratory,” and “ prayers 
for the intentions of the Sovereign Pontiff.” * 

1. By a visit to a church is to be understood “ going to a 
church, public oratory or, for those lawfully using it, semi- 
public oratory, at least with some general or implicit intention 
of honoring God in Himself or in His Saints, and adding a 
prayer—in fact, the prescribed prayer, if any has been imposed 
by the grantor of the indulgence; otherwise any oral or even 
mental prayer in accordance with one’s piety and devotion.” 

2. The condition of praying for the Pope’s intention “is 
adequately fulfilled if to other prescribed works is added the 
recitation of one Pater, Ave and Gloria for that intention; 
although each person is left free, in view of canon 934 § 1, to 
say any other prayer in accordance with his piety and devotion 
toward the Roman Pontiff.” Canon 934 § 1 states that mental 
prayer does not here suffice, but that vocal prayers may be 
chosen at will, provided that in a particular case no special 
prayer has been assigned. This new ruling does not affect the 
toties quoties plenary indulgence attached to a visit to a church 
on the feast of Portiuncula or All Souls’ Day, for which six 
Paters, six Aves and six Glorias have been assigned in a recent 
decree. It will affect the ‘“‘ En ego” and similar prayers. 





BENEDICTION AFTER MASS IN MISSION CHURCH. 


Qu. A priest saying Mass at a mission church desires to give Bene- 
diction of Blessed Sacrament. As the Blessed Sacrament is not reserved 
at the church, this is not practical. He arranges to have two or three 


1A,AS., XXV, p. 446. 








192 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


persons receive Holy Communion after Mass; and after Benediction 
he gives the Benediction Host to them in Holy Communion. This 
seems to solve his difficulty; but, while it seems proper, there is a lurk- 
ing suspicion in his mind that it is not allowed. 


Resp. The practice of our inquirer is not opposed to any 
decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites. At the same time, 
it is not to be encouraged, because the two or three fragments 
into which the Benediction Host would be divided, would not 
have the regular form which long and general custom requires 
in the sacred particles destined for Communion of the faithful. 





THE PRONUNCIATION OF “ KYRIE ELEISON ”. 


Qu. Will you kindly indicate the proper pronunciation of the words 
“ Kyrie eleison ” as used in the Mass? I am perplexed by the variety 
that is to be noticed. 


Resp. The proper pronunciation of “‘ Kyrie eleison ” may be 


described phonetically as follows: Kiriay Elayison. 














Ecclesiastical Library Table 


RECENT THEOLOGY. 


In the Library Table of last August? we noted an article in 
the Clergy Review for the preceding April by the Rev. George 
Smith, Ph.D., entitled “‘ Must I Believe It?” In this article 
Dr. Smith stated that the authoritative, though non-infallible, 
teachings of the Church—such as may be found in papal en- 
cyclicals and the decisions of Roman Congregations—must be 
accepted by Catholics with religious assent, which is internal 
acquiescence with a high degree of moral certainty. This 
statement has given rise to two other articles in the same periodi- 
cal. In the August number the Rev. E. C. Messenger, Ph.D., 
takes exception to Dr. Smith’s statement, and contends that the 
intellectual attitude required of the faithful toward the non- 
infallible decrees of the Congregations is a prudential, condi- 
tioned and “ opinionative ” assent. That is, these decisions are 
to be accepted as, in the present state of knowledge, very prob- 
ably true, and as safe to hold and teach, as opinions. It would 
not be correct, he says, to assert that Catholics are bound to 
believe these decisions, unless we take “ belief ” to mean a widely 
held opinion. Furthermore, Dr. Messenger concludes, a person 
who is acquainted with the subject matter of a decree of this 
nature and has serious reasons for doubting its accuracy may 
suspend his assent. 

In the September issue, the Rev. J. Cartmell, D.D., objects 
to the conclusions of Dr. Messenger and supports the conten- 
tion of Dr. Smith, that the assent of moral certainty, and not 
of mere opinion, must be given the non-infallible decisions of 
the Roman Congregations. He stresses the point also, that the 
matter of a decree is in many instances known with absolute 
certainty from some other source. Dr. Cartmell admits that 
a person well versed in the subject that is involved may have 
reasons for dissenting and may accordingly suspend his assent; 
but he views this possibility as very rare, and objects to the 
manner in which Dr. Messenger states this point, as implying 
that it is a general principle that an intelligent Catholic may 
be much more chary of accepting decisions of Congregations 
than the ordinary member of the faithful may be. 


1 EcciesiasTICAL Review, August, 1935, p. 193. 











194 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


An outstanding contribution to apologetic theology, which 
we trust will soon be translated into English, is Die Kirche Un- 
seres Glaubens® by the Rev. L. Késters, S.J. The work is 
thorough, clear and perfectly adapted to the modern mind. 
The answers to objections are exact and complete; and many 
subsidiary questions are treated in small type. Besides present- 
ing the historical apologetic argument, Father Késters develops 
the argument from the internal perfection of the Church’s doc- 
trines and from the transcendent manner in which it reveals 
Christ to the world. Especially noteworthy is the exposition 
of the Church as the Mystic Body of Christ, whose chief func- 
tion is to continue the activity of Christ and to furnish men 
with the opportunity of attaining to communion of super- 
natural life with Christ. 


The Rev. William O’Connor, S.T.D., contributes to the Irish 
Ecclesiastical Record for August a paper entitled ‘‘ The Mys- 
tical Body of Christ; Reality or Metaphor?” He is especially 
happy in the introduction to his subject. It can be observed 
in history, he says, that whenever an abuse became general, 
Divine Providence soon furnished a remedy through the Church. 
Thus, the abuse of Jansenism found its corrective in the de- 
votion to the Sacred Heart. At the present day the greatest 
abuse is individualism; and the antidote is the doctrine of the 
Mystical Body, now coming to the fore. By this doctrine man 
is emphatically reminded that he cannot lead an independent 
existence, oblivious of the existence of the rest of mankind. 
Explaining the word “ mystical,” Dr. O’Connor asserts that it 
signifies that our union with Christ and with one another, while 
not truly physical, is something more than a merely moral union 
since it is constituted by a real entity, sanctifying grace. The 
word “ mystical,” he relates, was used in the early centuries to 
designate the body of our Lord in the Holy Eucharist, and it 
was only in the thirteenth century that it was applied to the 
Church by Alexander of Hales, William of Auvergne and 


Albert the Great. 


The papers of the Cambridge Summer School of Catholic 
Studies are always of deep interest, especially to English and 
American Catholics. Those which were read during the session 


2 Herder, Freiburg, 1935. 











ECCLESIASTICAL LIBRARY TABLE. 195 


of 1934 have now been published under the title The Pre- 
Nicene Church.’ Of course, many subjects could have been 
ranged under this general heading, but the choice of those 
which actually were considered was most fortunate. Dr. 
Barton wrote on “ The Witness of the Gospels,” Father Martin- 
dale, S.J., on ““ The Early Christian Writers,” Abbot Cabrol on 
“The Eucharist,” Father Leeming, S.J., on “ The Other Sacra- 
ments,” and Father Pope, O.P., on “The Origin of the 
Episcopate.” The published volume comprises also six other 
interesting papers. We can expect an equally valuable work 
when the papers of the Summer School of 1935, bearing on the 
relation between Church and State, are published. 


Cardinal Newman’s Development of Christian Doctrine, 
written just before his entrance into the Church, excited no 
little controversy in the theological world; and there were some 
who viewed his opinions as unorthodox. In order to find out 
how far his views were admissible from the Catholic standpoint, 
Newman in 1847 made a Latin summary of the chief points 
of his doctrine and submitted them to Father Perrone, S.J., 
professor of theology in the Roman College. Father Perrone 
wrote his comments opposite each paragraph, and returned the 
manuscript to Newman. These notes have now been published 
for the first time in Gregorianum, 1935, III, by the Rev. T. 
Lynch. When one peruses the forty pages of the periodical 
taken up by these notes, it will appear very evident that the 
numerous though brief corrections and suggestions of Perrone 
were concerned chiefly with Newman’s terminology and mode 
of expression. ‘The substance of the doctrine was for the greater 
part found fully acceptable, and at times warmly praised, by 
the Roman theologian. In an appendix Father Lynch publishes 
a letter written by Perrone to Newman some twenty years later, 
in which the former states that at times he has defended New- 
man, and is prepared to do the same in future. 


A series of articles in the Gregorianum by the Rev. T. 
Zapelena, S.J., on the teaching of St. Cyprian regarding the 
Primacy of St. Peter is worthy of notice. The author divides 
into three classes the various views as to the nature of the Pri- 
macy attributed by the illustrious African writer to Peter. The 


3 Burns, Oates and Washbourne, 1935. 











196 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


first opinion makes it a merely chronological and typical head- 
ship. That is, since Peter was the first of the Apostles to whom 
Christ gave the episcopal power—which He afterward gave in 
equal measure to all the others—Peter’s episcopal rank was a 
symbol of the unity that should prevail among all the bishops 
of the Church, who are, however, entirely equal in jurisdiction 
and mutually independent. The second view holds that Cyprian 
attributed to Peter a true primacy of jurisdiction over the en- 
tire Church, although Cyprian did not clearly perceive the full 
extent of this primatial jurisdiction. According to the third 
view, Cyprian recognized in Peter a real primacy but not one 
of jurisdiction. That is, the episcopate originated in Peter and 
flowed from Peter, and thus remained organically united to 
Peter, so that he possessed the plenitude, not of jurisdiction, 
but of ecclesiastical life and power, which was then derived 
from him to the other Apostles and to the bishops of the Church. 

Father Zapelena demonstrates that the first of these three 
views, whose chief defender in recent years is Hugo Koch, 
does not interpret correctly the mind of St. Cyprian, for the 
writings of the Saint clearly show that he recognized in Peter 
more than a primacy of a merely chronological and typical 
order. Thus, his statement in the 49th Letter that the Roman 
Church is “ Petri cathedra atque ecclesia principalis unde unitas 
sacerdotalis exorta est” surely designates some manner of real 
primacy. Father Zapelena reserves to a future article his own 
opinion as to whether the second or the third of the above 
mentioned views is preferable. 


The Rev. J. Maes, O.P., contributes to the Ephemerides 
T heologicae Lovanienses, 1935, IV, a clear and succinct account 
of the doctrine of Cardinal Cajetan on the power of the Pope. 
The teaching of the great commentator of St. Thomas on this 
point is found principally in his opusculum De Divina Institu- 
tione Pontificatus totius Ecclesiae in persona Petri Apostoli— 
a treatise written to refute the teaching of Luther, which has 
provided theologians since the sixteenth century with a model 
of the logical method of proving the Primacy of Peter and of 
his successors. It is interesting to note that Cajetan upheld the 
view that the primacy is inseparably joined to the Roman See 
by the law of Christ, consequently however on the choice of 
this particular see by Peter—a view which was controverted in 











ECCLESIASTICAL LIBRARY TABLE. 197 


the sixteenth century, but which has now become common. In 
developing his arguments for the primatial rank of the Roman 
See, Cajetan lays great stress on the fact that it has ever been 
known as the “Apostolic See ”. 


Several other excellent books and articles on apologetic sub- 
jects have also been published in recent months. Dealing with 
miracles are Canon Duplessy’s Attack on Lourdes,* with its 
bantering but trenchant refutation of those who deny the mar- 
velous occurrences at the celebrated shrine of Our Lady or try 
to explain them naturally—and Miracles and Critics® by Dr. 
H. S. Box (an Anglican clergyman), which is especially con- 
cerned with establishing the authenticity of the miracles nar- 
rated in the Gospel. The Faith and Modern Science * by R. J. 
Dingle treats of the relation between modern scientific theories 
—including those of Einstein, Eddington, Freud and Adler— 
and the doctrines of Christianity. ‘‘ Catholics and Biology ” 
by M. Taylor in The Month for August recommends the study 
of this branch of science by Catholics, both because of its in- 
trinsic importance, and because of its utility, negative and 
positive, in promoting the faith. 


% + + 


Non-Catholic theological writings to-day fall into one of 
two classes. The first is characterized by an unmistakable ten- 
dency toward rationalism. Such, for example, is Jesus, written 
by C. Guignebert, professor of the history of Christianity in the 
Sorbonne, and translated into English by $. H. Hooke.’ In ac- 
cordance with Modernistic principles, the author does not 
hesitate to reject those passages of the Gospel that are out of 
harmony with his preconceived notions—for instance, the con- 
fession of St. Peter in Matthew 16. Indeed, he regards the 
Gospels merely as “later expansions developed in relation to 
creedal considerations unconnected with historical facts ”. 

The other class of non-Catholic writings — happily on the 
increase—is expressive of an earnest desire for a return to super- 
natural Christianity. To this category belongs God’s Search 


* Burns, Oates and Washbourne, 1935. 
5 The Faith Press, London, 1935. 

® Burns, Oates and Washbourne, 1935. 
7 Kegan Paul, London, 1935. 








198 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


for Man *—a compilation of sermons from the German of Karl 
Barth and Edward Thurneysen. The underlying theological 
principle is that “‘ God is the Lord and Christ is His revelation ”, 
Somewhat along the same line is The Foundation of the Christian 
Faith® by Dr. A. L. Williams, having for its special object the 
presentation of the arguments for Christianity to Jews. How- 
ever, the author is not very effective in his demonstration of the 
Divinity of Christ. 

In Anglican works particularly does the yearning for some- 
thing more than Protestantism affords show itself. Thus, 
Christ for Us and in Us*® by Dr. C. N. Moody, treating of the 
redemption and of our incorporation in Christ, has a distinc- 
tively Catholic tone in parts, though it is uncertain whether the 
author believes in the Divinity of our Lord. An even more 
pronounced Catholic tendency is found in an article by the 
Rev. C. W. Coit in the September issue of Reunion. He un- 
equivocally advocates the union of the Anglican Church with 
Rome. “Since,” he says, “‘ the Holy See is the centre of unity 
of the Catholic Church, and since the Church of England was 
torn violently from that unity in the sixteenth century by 
selfish princes and unscrupulous politicians, the chief and most 
necessary aim of the entire Anglican communion of to-day must 
be to return to union with the Apostolic See.” And in refer- 
ence to his own Church he says: ‘‘ How can the claim to stability 
of Christian dogma be made good when such diversities of 
doctrine and practice are allowed to flourish in her midst? 
Anglo-Catholics hold to the Catholic faith as best they can, but 
Protestants in the same communion deny almost everything 
that a Catholic values.” I presume that Dr. Coit is of the num- 
ber of those who justify their remaining in Anglicanism on the 
ground that they can thus work more effectively for corporate 
union. At any rate, he optimistically visualizes the possibility 
of the whole Anglican episcopate kneeling before the Holy 
Father to ask him to receive the entire Anglican Church into 
communion with the Apostolic See. 

A collection of the sayings and writings of seventeenth cen- 
tury Anglican divines is Anglicanism," eight hundred pages in 

8 Clark, Edinburgh, 1935. 

® Heffer, Cambridge, 1935. 


10 Allen and Unwin, London, 1935. 
115, P. C. K., London, 1935. 














ECCLESIASTICAL LIBRARY TABLE. 199 


length, compiled by P. E. More and F. L. Cross. Since both 
compilers are of the High Church party, they naturally selected 
only those citations that favor the idea of the Anglican com- 
munion as a branch of the Catholic Church, retaining contin- 
uity with the pre-Reformation Church in England. At times 
indeed they are hard pressed to find authorities of that epoch 
to support essentially Catholic doctrines—for example, the con- 
cept of the sacerdotium as a true sacrificing priesthood. 

A paper of appreciation of the English jurist and historian, 
Dr. F. W. Maitland, is contributed by the Rev. A. Beck, A.A., 
to the Clergy Review for July. The paper gives an excellent 
summary of the valuable historical writings of Dr. Maitland, 
especially in the Cambridge Modern History, convincingly dis- 
proving the Anglican theory of “‘ continuity ”—the theory of 
those who held, as Maitland himself expressed it, that the Church 
of England was “ Protestant before the Reformation and Cath- 
olic afterwards ” and that the Reformation itself was “a mere 
episode in the history of the English Church ”. 

“The Problem of the Romanizing Anglican” by a convert, 
Thomas Whitton, in the Beda Review for September, shows that 
the chief error of the Anglo-Catholics, despite their protests to 
the contrary, is refusal to believe in the essential visibility of 
the Church of Christ. 

An anonymous article in Pax for July on western religious 
propaganda among Eastern (Orthodox) Christians points out 
the necessity of emphasizing, in dealing with the Oriental 
schismatics, that in coming into the Catholic Church they do 
not have to become Latin Catholics or adopt the Latin rite. 
Unfortunately, some of the Catholic missionaries in the East 
do not see the importance of this principle, and accordingly 
are erecting a barrier to the return of many Oriental Christians 
to the fold. Protestant missionaries however are quite success- 
ful in some parts of the East, for they leave the people externally 
members of their Oriental communions, while they imbue their 
religious ideas with a Protestant tone. 

Beginning its existence in 1936 is The Eastern Churches Quar- 
terly, devoted to the doctrinal, liturgical and historical aspects 
of Oriental Christianity, and taking the place of the quarterly 
numbers of Pax which have hitherto treated these subjects. The 
editor of this new periodical is Dom Bede Winslow, O.S.B., of 








200 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


St. Augustine’s Abbey, Ramsgate, England; and he will be 
assisted by Mr. Donald Attwater, an outstanding authority on 
Easter Christianity, as is especially attested by his recent work 
The Catholic Eastern Churches. It is to be hoped that this new 
periodical will foster an appreciation of Oriental Christianity 
in Catholics of the Latin rite, and be the means of the return 
of some of the separated brethren of the East to the fold 
of Peter. 

A good knowledge of some of the fundamental beliefs of 
the Russian schismatics seems to be provided in a Polish work 
by the Rev. A. Pawlowski, entitled Idea Kosciolaw ujeciu 
rosyjskiej teologji i historjofji— “‘ The Idea of the Church in 
Russian Theology and History ”.’? The author delineates vari- 
ous views concerning the nature of the Church which have pre- 
vailed, or still prevail, among the Orthodox Russians. The 
conservative view, which was commonly held fifty or sixty years 
ago, was quite similar to that of Catholics, apart from the doc- 
trine of the primacy of the Pope. This gave place to the 
rationalistic and ‘‘ democratic ” concepts of Khomiakov, which 
have developed into the “ progressive ” ecclesiology of the pres- 
ent day. However, it is consoling to note that the views of 
Solovieff, the ““ Russian Newman,” have made some impression 
on the Russian mind. Nevertheless, as Dr. Pawlowski points 
out, even Solovieff did not sufficiently grasp the inner life of 
the Catholic Church, and was too much inclined to stress its 
juridical and hierarchical character. 


*% % 


In some theological treatises on the Holy Trinity the Old 
Testament texts referring to Divine Wisdom—especially those 
found in the seventh and the eighth chapter of the Book of 
Wisdom — are interpreted as inspired allusions to the Second 
Person. Writing in Angelicum, 1933, III, the Rev. F. Ceuppens, 
O.P., discusses this question and concludes that these texts refer, 
not to the person of the Word, but to the divine attribute of 
wisdom metaphorically designated as a person. However, he 
adds, these texts may be regarded as a kind of preparation for 
the revelation of the doctrines of the distinction of persons in 
God and of the eternal generation of the Word. 


12 Theological Society, Warsaw, 1935. 




















ECCLESIASTICAL LIBRARY TABLE. 201 


The Rev. J. Filograssi, S.J., in Gregorianum, 1935, III, cites 
a number of passages from the Encyclical Divinum Illud Munus 
of Pope Leo XIII concerning the procession of the Holy Ghost 
from the Father and the Son, and complains that theologians 
seem to neglect this important document when they are demon- 
strating the theological conclusion that the Third Person pro- 
ceeds from the mutual love of the Father and the Son. 

Theologians are wont to teach that our Lord as man was 
very beautiful; and some adduce as an argument the text of 
the Psalms: ‘‘ Speciosus forma prae filiis hominum”. In the 
Australasian Catholic Record, 1935, Ill, the Rev. C. Roberts 
cites a number of the Fathers who held an opposite view. They 
did not indeed teach that He was ugly or repulsive of aspect: 
on the contrary, they believed that the beauty of His soul 
manifested itself outwardly in the nobility and grandeur of His 
countenance. But as far as physical lineaments are concerned, 
early tradition seems to favor the idea that He had a plain ap- 
pearance which neither attracted nor repelled. St. Thomas also 
seems to have held this view in his commentaries on Psalm 4 
and on Isaias 53. In reply to the argument from the text: 
“Speciosus forma, etc.”, Dr. Roberts cites St. Augustine, who 
referred these words to the beauty of Christ’s divine nature. 

In the same issue the Rev. T. Dunphy, C.SS.R., under the 
heading “‘ Quid mihi et tibi, Mulier? ” interprets this much dis- 
cussed remark of our Lord to His mother at the marriage feast 
of Cana as follows. The phrase, ““ Woman, what is that to me 
and to thee? ”, by collation with other texts of Scripture is 
shown to mean, “I cannot do what you wish”. Then our 
Lord added the reason for His refusal: “My hour [for the 
manifestation of my Messianic dignity by miracles] is not yet 
come”. Then there intervened words of affectionate pleading 
by Our Blessed Lady, not recorded by the Evangelist, which 
moved Christ to change His first decision and to work “ the 
beginning of miracles”. It was only when she perceived that 
her Son was going to accede to her prayers that Mary bade the 
waiters: ‘‘ Whatsoever He shall say to you, do ye.” The theo- 
logical difficulty presented by the modification of the divine 
decree establishing some subsequent occasion as the due time for 
the first manifestation of the Christ’s Messianic dignity can be 
solved by the distinction between an absolute decree of God, 








202 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


and one made conditionally on a creatural act. In this case the 
prayer of Our Lady was the creatural act determined by God 
as the circumstance on which the modification of the (condi- 
tional) divine decree would depend, and by virtue of which the 
absolute divine decree choosing the marriage feast as the proper 
time for Christ’s manifestation would be passed. 


Those who are interested in the question of Mary’s universal 
mediatorship will welcome a Mariological study based on the 
works of St. Albert the Great—Albert-le-Grand, Docteur de la 
Médiation Mariale** by the Rev. M. Desmarais, O.P. The au- 
thor explains the idea of mediation as expounded by St. Albert 
and shows how the Saint applied it to Our Lady, attributing to 
her a mediatorial power both efficacious and universal. Mary, 
he said, was both media and via—that is, in modern theological 
terminology, she possessed both an ontological and a moral 
mediatorship. 

A companion work to the preceding is Bible Mariale et 
Mariologie de Saint Albert-le-Grand ** by the Rev. M. Genevois, 
O.P. In this dissertation are contained all the citations from 
the writings of St. Albert in which the Saint applies a scriptural 
text to the Blessed Virgin. The work also contains an ex- 
position of St. Albert’s teachings regarding the Mother of God. 


Another volume of the monumental Dictionnaire de T héologie 
has been published. Doubtless the most interesting article in 
this second section of the twelfth tome is that dealing with the 
knotty question of Predestination. To insure a fair hearing for 
all schools, five different theologians have been invited to con- 
tribute their views to the composition of this article. The 
exposition of St. Augustine’s view is given by the Augustinian, 
Pére Saint-Martin, who notes that for the Doctor of grace the 
main problem was, not to reconcile free will with the efficacy 
of grace, but rather to explain why God has chosen some for 
salvation to the exclusion of others. The history of the doc- 
trine of predestination from the middle ages down to the present 
day is contributed by Pére Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P., who also 
gives a summary theological exposition, persuasively setting 
forth the Thomistic view, of which he is so capable a champion. 


13 Vrin, Paris, 1935. 
14 Saint Maximin, Warsaw, 1934. 




















ECCLESIASTICAL LIBRARY TABLE. 203 


Dr. Martin Schiiler, a Protestant scholar, has written a book 
entitled Pradestination, Siinde und Freiheit bei Gregor von 
Rimini,” treating of the teachings of Gregory of Rimini 
(+ 1358) concerning predestination, sin and free will. His 
purpose seems to be to stress the influence exerted by Gregory 
on the doctrines subsequently defended by Luther. In gen- 
eral, Dr. Schiiler’s treatment is fair, but at times he shows him- 
self too eager to discover points of identity between the views 
of Luther and the teachings of Gregory—and in fact, the teach- 
ings of even more celebrated Catholic theologians, including 
St. Thomas Aquinas. 

Mention was made in a previous “ Recent Theology ” article 
of a controversy centering about the nature of the grace of 
vocation to the religious life—whether it is to be regarded as 
a special divine call to the individual, or only a general in- 
vitation which all Catholics per se can accept with the assur- 
ance of receiving from God sufficient grace to be faithful to 
the duties of the religious state.“° In connexion with this 
question a reader in Australia has sent us a clipping from the 
magazine published there by the Irish Christian Brothers, in 
which a recent address of the Pope made to a body of the 
Brothers and of their pupils assembled in the Vatican is quite 
favorable to the idea of the “special vocation”. The Holy 
Father said: “So many vocations coming from the schools of 
the Christian Brothers is a magnificent sign, a clear proof that 
the hand of God is in their work; because a vocation can come 
only from God, and vocation is an election and each election is 
a predilection.” 


In a paper on “ The Essence of the Sacrifice of the Mass”, 
appearing in the Clergy Review for November, the Rev. B. 
Miller, D.D., first discusses the nature of sacrifice in general. 
This, he contends, is simply the offering of a victim by a priest. 
The destruction or immolation of the victim is not an essential 
element of the sacrifice; nevertheless it is required as a necessary 
condition to render the gift offered to God irrevocable. “ Un- 


15 Kohlmanner, Stuttgart, 1934. 

16 EcciesiasticaL Review, 1933, II, p. 305. 

17In the English summary of the Pope’s recent encyclical on the priesthood, which 
appeared as this article was being sent to press, the Holy Father is quoted as stating 
that vocation appears rather in fitness and will than in the devout attraction of the 
subjective feeling of “ being called ”. 








204 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


less such destruction take place, the manifestation of the 
internal act is not complete; without such destruction there 
would always be room for the withdrawal of the victim from 
full surrender.” Dr. Miller stresses the part of the internal acts 
of the offerer in the constitution of a sacrifice. Then turning 
to the sacrifices of the New Law, he lays down the principle that 
our Lord during His entire lifetime constantly made an offering 
of Himself to His Father. On various occassions He external- 
ized this internal offering—for example, at His circumcision, 
the flight into Egypt, His baptism by St. John—and all these 
acts possessed a true sacrificial character, provided He had the 
intention that they should be sacrificial. Some of them at least 
certainly seem to have had this character. However, the su- 
preme manifestation of His self-offering took place when He 
gave Himself into the hands of His enemies. The interior 
offering of Himself Christ still continues in heaven; and on 
earth it is externalized in the Mass. “In the Mass Christ ex- 
presses and symbolizes His self-offering unto the death that is 
now past, while at the same time He also expresses and symbol- 
izes the present and eternal continuation of that same irrevocable 
act of self-offering that still goes on in heaven.” The Mass, 
according to Dr. Miller, is to be regarded as the repetition of the 
Last Supper rather than of the Cross, although it is indeed the 
commemoration, representation and application of the sacrifice 
of Calvary. With the late Father de la Taille, he teaches that 
the Last Supper and the Cross were one numerical sacrifice, 
because they were both manifestations of Christ’s one act of 
self-offering, linked together by ritual codrdination.’™ 


Canon Lahitton, in Sanctum Sacrificium; Entretiens sur la 
Messe ** holds a similar view to that of Dr. Miller in regarding 
the Mass as the repetition of the Last Supper rather than of the 
Cross. However, he adheres to the view, which is becoming less 
common since Father de la Taille opposed it, that the essential 
element of the unbloody sacrifice of the New Law is the mystic 
immolation realized by the double consecration and giving to 
the Divine Victim the vivid appearance of death. 


178 Ty the January number of The Clergy Review Father Lattey, S.J., takes excep- 
tion to Dr. Miller’s view that Christ’s death on the Cross was only one of many 
sacrificial acts. In Scripture and Tradition, Father Lattey asserts, our Lord’s death on 
Calvary is regarded as the single redeeming sacrifice. 


18 Spes, Paris, 1934. 














P- 
ny 
on 











ECCLESIASTICAL LIBRARY TABLE. 205 


With the publication of De sacra Ordinatione,’® Father 
Capello, S.J., completes his treatises on the sacraments. Al- 
though primarily concerned with the moral and canonical 
aspects of Holy Orders, this latest volume discusses some im- 
portant dogmatic questions, such as the matter and form of this 
sacrament, the status of the deaconesses of the early Church, 
the rite of administration of the major and minor Orders in 
the various Oriental rites. He regards as more probable the 
opinion that Christ determined the matter and form of Holy 
Orders only in genere, leaving to the Church the right to select 
the specific elements. In the conferring of the priesthood he 
believes the essential rite to be only the first imposition of 
hands with the concomitant prayer of the bishop. 


Writing in the Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses, 1935, 
III, the Rev. L. Anné discusses the views prevailing in the first 
six centuries concerning the essence of marriage. Some of the 
Fathers, such as St. Peter Chrysologus, considered that a mar- 
riage was not really entered into until it had been consummated; 
however, after the fourth century the view which placed the 
essence of the marital contract in the mutual consent—a view 
which had always been held by some—began to be held more 
commonly. But the question might still be asked, when was 
this consent considered actually to take place. According to 
Von Hérmann in the Dictionnaire d’Archéologie, the espousals 
which preceded the nuptials were looked on as containing the 
true marital consent, and making the parties husbands and wife. 
Father Anné does not admit this view, and believes that the 
consent which was given at the time of the nuptials was always 
regarded as the essential constituent of the marital contract. 
He ascribes the ambiguity in the early writings about this matter 
to a change of terminology. Thus, desponsata, which at first 
meant one who had made an agreement to marry in future, 
subsequently meant a woman bound by a matrimonium ratum 
non consummatum; while nuptiae, instead of bearing the gen- 
eral sense of any true marriage, was taken to mean a consum- 
mated marriage. In this sense some of the Fathers designated 
Our Lady as desponsata but not nupta. 


19 Marietti, Turin, 1935. 



































206 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


Recently an Anglican writer, Dr. Cadoux, in a letter to an 
English newspaper charged that when Henry VIII was first 
seeking a divorce from Catherine of Aragon, Pope Clement VII 
suggested that, instead of a divorce, the king might be allowed 
to have two wives simultaneously. In fact, in Lindsay’s 
History of the Reformation *° it is stated that permission for 
bigamy had actually been granted by the Pope to King Henry 
IV of Spain. Writing in the Clergy Review for October, Dr. 
E. C. Messenger shows that the so-called dispensation for bigamy 
given to the Spanish king was only a declaration of nullity of 
his first marriage on the grounds of impotence. ‘This is con- 
firmed by a letter from Monsignor Henson of Valladolid, Spain, 
appearing in the Clergy Review for November. Dr. Messenger 
explains the case of Henry VIII as follows: Henry commissioned 
his envoy to the Pope to request permission for bigamy in case 
the petition for divorce was not granted. The Pope seems to 
have spoken of the possibility of a dispensation for bigamy, but 
with great hesitation, and only because one of the contemporary 
theologians—apparently Cajetan—thought this might be within 
the papal power in extraordinary cases, just as it was possible 
under the Old Law. But after discussing the matter with his 
counsellors, the Pope declared such a solution utterly impossible. 


% % % 


There seems to be a revival of interest in the writings of the 
medieval mystic, Master Eckhart. Several of his works have 
recently been published—some of them for the first time—and 
sympathetic appraisals of his views have been ventured by E. I. 
Watkin in the Dublin Review for July, by the Rev. H. Rahner, 
S.J. in Zeitschrift fiir Katholische Theologie, 1935, Il, and by 
Herma Piesch in Meister Eckharts Ethik.”* ‘These critics agree 
that although Eckhart was in some matters undoubtedly in 
error, certain others of his doctrines have perhaps been judged 
too harshly, since they admit of an orthodox interpretation. 

An excellent appreciation of the celebrated theologian 
Scheeben—the centenary of whose birth was observed in 1935 
—and a synthesis of the principal theological views he defended 
are contributed by the Rev. J. Wilms to Angelicum, 1935, IV. 


20 Vol. II, p. 324. 
21 Nova Vita Verlag, Lucerne, 1935. 

























ECCLESIASTICAL LIBRARY TABLE. 207 


Alpha et Omega* by the Rev. J. Moran, S.J., contains a 
number of theses from the treatises ‘“‘ De Deo Uno et Trino”, 
“De Deo Creante et Elevante” and ‘De Novissimis”. A 
Latin work from the pen of an American theologian is indeed 
as welcome as it is rare. The theses are expounded in a clear and 
concise manner, and the book is provided with copious refer- 
ences from recent sources, especially in the English language. 
Each thesis is followed by pertinent objections with their 
refutation. 

The excellent series of dogmatic treatises by the Rev. G. 
Van Noort, begun some twenty years ago, has at last been 
brought to a conclusion by the publication of the tract 
De Novissimis (Brand, Hilversum, 1935). The work has been 
edited by the Rev. J. P. Verhaar from the notes of Father 
Van Noort, as was the second volume on the Sacraments. A 
noteworthy feature is the extensive treatment of the doctrine 
of the communion of saints. 


Francis J. CONNELL, C.SS.R. 
Mount St. Alphonsus, Esopus, New York. 


22 Jesuit Scholasticate, Weston, Mass., 1935. 











Book Reviews 





THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MATTHEW. From the Clemen- 
tine Vulgate. By Jas. A. Varni. Bruce Publishing Co., 
Milwaukee. Pp. 112. 


This is an edition of the Latin (Vulgate) text of the Gospel, pre- 
ceded by a brief Introduction (pp. 7-12: St. Matthew; St. Jerome; 
the Latin Vulgate), and followed (pp. 79-85) by Notes, i. e. “‘ trans- 
lations of the few constructions that might hinder prompt under- 
standing of the text”, and by a Vocabulary (pp. 87-112). The 
booklet is intended for sight-reading in Latin class, not for Scriptural 
study. Hence it would be unfair to look for what was not meant to 
be given. Taken as the author has intended it, the work will doubtless 
be found useful and it may inspire the Latin student with a desire to 
read more of the official text of the Latin Church. It might have 
been advisable to give, in the margin, the usual verse numbers to 
facilitate the use of the text. Or at least, this could have been done 
in the headings of the chapters, as in the excellent Descleé “‘ Biblia 
Sacra” which the author has evidently used. 

Without going into exegesis, the Notes might have given more 
abundant explanation, especially of a grammatical character, so as to 
assist the student better than by a mere translation which he will easily 
find in the Douay Version; for the translation supplied in the Notes 
leaves the reader with all of his problems unexplained, for instance, on 
page 85 (ch. 28: “‘ quae lucescit in prima sabbati”). Not only be- 
ginners, but even scholars will be found easily who are puzzled by 
the construction and unable to give a satisfactory explanation. (Cf. 
Belser: Einleitung in das Neue Testament (1905), p. 44-46.) Again 
(p. 85) in chapter 27, the Note on the phrase; ‘‘ Eli, Eli lamma sab- 
achthani ” is not clear: “ Translate this just as it is. The rest of the 
sentence explains it”. The difficulty for the student whom the author 
has in view will be just to translate. What is meant is apparently 
transcribe or transliterate. 


THE SPIRITUAL LETTERS OF DOM JOHN CHAPMAN, FOURTH 
ABBOT OF DOWNSIDE. Edited with an Introductory Memoir 
by Dom Roger Hudleston, 0.8.B., of the same Abbey. New 
York, Sheed and Ward, Inc. 1935. Pp. xiv-+-330. 


This is a most difficult book on which to pass a judgment. The 
varying opinions of reviewers as already published confirm this con- 
clusion. The fact seems to be that this collection of letters has been 
published too soon after the death of their author to form a proper 











BOOK REVIEWS. 209 


estimate of them in their full historical setting. A full volume of 
intimate letters of a person, howsoever prominent and well beloved, 
published within a short time after death, is always in danger of mis- 
interpretation and misunderstanding; such early publicity is a practice 
scarcely to be commended. In this case, excellent as many of the 
letters are, the real contributions of Abbot Chapman are almost buried 
in a plethora of personal touches, keenly interesting to the parties who 
received the letters, but either commonplace or unintelligible to the 
general reader. Yet there are some who delight in these personal 
touches and find in them very often a correspondence to circum- 
stances of their own lives; these find themselves captivated by the 
very approach to the spiritual advice which Abbot Chapman was so 
ready to give and so capable of giving. 

Dom Roger Hudleston’s Memoir, which forms the introduction, is 
a very succinct and well-chosen narrative of the chief events in Abbot 
Chapman’s busy and unusual career. Some day perhaps it will be 
expanded into a real biography, in which we will not be left to make 
our own surmises about the reasons for and events leading up to the 
many startling changes which it chronicles. There are many places in 
it on which one would wish to linger: Oxford, St. Pancras, Dovercourt 
and the “ reconciliation ” to the Catholic Church, Manresa House, 
Maredsous, Erdington, Caldey, Rome, and Downside. 

Undoubtedly the reason for this volume was to give a spiritual 
insight into a truly spiritual soul as manifested in the letters. The 
letters are classified according to their recipients: layfolk, religious, a 
Jesuit. There are two appendices, dealing with contemplative prayer 
and mysticism. Sometimes we wish that the Abbot had received a 
genuine Scholastic training and had not been ordained priest two years 
after he had made his simple vows, for then he would have avoided 
some of the pitfalls which beset him, and which have caused some to 
be astonished at his apparent misapprehensions of ordinary text-book 
Scholasticism. But on the other hand it is useful to see the struggles 
of an earnest and keen mind, grounded in Catholic truth, yet grappling 
like a medieval with difficulties which have been pretty thoroughly 
threshed out. He does say some startling things: ‘‘ Scholastic phil- 
osophy makes theology the whole of life; with philosophy as something 
inferior to even a part,—only ancillary.” The insertion of the word 
“only ” is one of those evidences of zealotry which mark the Protes- 
tant mind turned Catholic. We are pleased with his paradox about 
mysticism: “‘ Bad people love bad Mysticism, because they think it is 
occultism or magic. Good people dislike it for almost the same 
reason.” Abbot Chapman is one of those writers on whose every page 
we find something to agree with and something with which to dis- 








210 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


agree. The reason for this, in his case, is because he so successfully 
proposes difficulties, and then, with the power of his Catholic faith, 
without appeal to any other force, he simply sweeps the difficulties out 
of court. ‘A Christian cannot live by philosophy. Only the light 
of Christian revelation gives the end as well as the means of life. It is 
the same for you as for me and the man in the street. If one has more 
learning, another has more grace, it is all one.” 

The letters to a Jesuit scholastic, written from Erdington Abbey, are 
vague and perhaps one might wrestle with them to his own destruc- 
tion. Perhaps, in the light of memories of Dom Chapman’s own 
spoken words, the gaps could be filled and the rough places made 
smooth. As they stand, they seem to be a towering maze, mighty but 
bewildering. Like many of other letters, they contain thoughts truly 
magnificent, which make it worth while to travel through the whole 
for the obtaining. Having found them, one can leave all the other 
matter, and make them one’s own. 


THE EASTERN CATHOLIC CHURCHES. By Donald Attwater. 
Bruce Publishing Co.: Milwaukee. 1935. Pp. xx-+308. 


The title of this book is sufficiently descriptive. It may help, how- 
ever, to add a list of the chapter headings, which show the content 
of the field covered: I, East and West before the Schism; II, East and 
West after the Schism; III, The Eastern Catholics; IV, The Byzantine 
Rite: Liturgy and Customs; V, The Catholic Churches of the Byzan- 
tine Rite; VI, The Alexandrine Rite; VII, The Antiochene Rite; VIII, 
The Armenian Rite; IX, The Chaldean Rite; X, Eastern Monasticism; 
XI, Reunion with the East. In the Appendix there is a statistical 
summary of the Eastern Churches, a general bibliography, a glossary, 
and the Index is very complete. Almost forty pages of illustrations 
show the variety in ecclesiastical vestments, in church appointments 
and in the manner of worship. 

The author gives a brief history of the adherents of each rite, and 
describes in some detail their liturgy and their customs. He also sets 
down the figures in the present number of adherents to the varieties 
in each rite. He decries the persistence of the “‘ Latins ” in attempt- 
ing to impose Latin customs. We also learn that in speaking of the 
Eastern Catholics we should say, ‘‘ Catholics of such and such a rite”, 
instead of employing the term ‘‘ Uniates” (p. xiv). We are staggered 
by the fact that the total of Catholics of the Eastern rite is not more 
than 8,200,000, while the total of non-Catholic Orientals is about 
154,120,000. We are made to feel that in many customs the East- 
erners enter more fully, and appreciate more deeply, their church 
services than do we of the West. 




















BOOK REVIEWS. 211 


Mr. Attwater has placed us under heavy obligation to himself by 
the patience of his researches and by his personal investigations in the 
countries concerned. The book will remain for years to come a stand- 
ard in its field and a source of enlightenment. Enlightenment is the 
right word in this case, for, to our shame, be it said that we have not 
been sympathetic to customs alien to our own. The author does not 
mince words in exposing the attitude of Europeans and Americans. 
Here in the United States we have not extended the right hand of 
fellowship to those Christians of the Eastern rites who came to our 
shores. The record of the Latins sometimes makes sad reading. The 
attempt to impose “ Latin ” customs on people peculiarly tenacious of 
their own customs has done untold harm. If the desire of the Holy 
Father is to bear fruit, there is a rich field for labor here in our own 
country. 

Priests in districts where Catholics of the Eastern rites reside should 
make themselves familiar with this lone work of its kind. It can also 
be recommended to the hierarchy as a valuable guide in approaching 
some of the problems of their dioceses. The reviewer feels that this 
is one of the really and permanently significant books produced by the 
Bruce Company in its Religion and Culture Series. 


PRAELECTIONES BIBLICAE: Vetus Testamentum. Liber Primus: 
DE SACRA VETERIS TESTAMENTI HISTORIA. By Simon- 
Prado, C.SS.R. Turin: Marietti. 1934. Pp. xx+546. Thirty- 
three maps and illustrations in the text, and a map of 
Palestine. 


This first volume of the Old Testament belongs to a large work, 
most of which has appeared already, viz., one volume of General In- 
troduction (Propaedeutica biblica) 1931; pp. xvi-416 p; two volumes 
of Special Introduction to the New Testament (the Gospels, in a 
fourth edition, 1930, pp. xxxii-652 and the Acts, Epistles and Apoca- 
lypse, in a third edition, 1930; pp. xxvii-528 pages). The present 
volume is the first of two volumes of Special Introduction to the Old 
Testament, the second volume on the Sapiential Books being destined to 
appear shortly. 

The present volume follows a way all its own. The very title, de 
Sacra Veteris Testamenti Historia, is rather unusual. From it one 
might expect a history of the Old Testament somewhat after the model 
of, for instance, Bishop Pelt’s Histoire de ? Ancien Testament. While 
there is, as there must be, some resemblance between the two works, 
the present volume is something rather different. A survey of the 
contents shows this more clearly. The matter is divided into four 
periods: (a) History of the Beginnings, which is in part a detailed 








212 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


analysis of Genesis 1-2 (p. 13-108); (b) Beginnings of the Hebrew 
People, viz., the Patriarchs, Moses, Josue and the Judges, the narratives 
of Genesis 2: 10ff and the rest of the Pentateuch, the Books of Josue, 
Judges and Ruth (pp. 109-255); (c) Hebrew Monarchy, viz., the 
Books of Samuel, Kings and Paralipomenon, and the Prophets of that 
period, Jonas, Amos, Osee, Isaias, Micheas, Nahum, Sophonias, Nabacuc, 
Jeremias and Baruch (pp. 257-424); (d) Exile and post-Exilic Period 
to the time of the Machabees. This section reviews the work of 
Ezechiel, Daniel, Esdras and Nehemias, Judith, Aggeus, Zacharias, 
Abdias, Job and Malachias; the Books of Tobias, Esther and the Macha- 
bees (pp. 425-516). This is followed (pp. 517ff) by an “ Index 
Exegeticus ” mentioning the texts that are explained more fully and 
by a very detailed and convenient “‘ Index Rerum Alphabeticus ”. 

The treatment of the topics is very different from that of the current 
books of Old Testament Introduction. Thus, instead of beginning 
with a discussion of the Pentateuch problem, the author first takes the 
student through the contents of the Pentateuch. The account of 
Creation is analyzed in detail (pp. 13-14); then the accounts of the 
Fall, etc., of the Patriarchs and the work of Moses (pp. 42-202). 
Then only is the question of the Pentateuch taken up (pp. 203-232), 
after the student has become familiar with the actual contents of the 
Pentateuch. There is no denying that such a procedure has much 
in its favor; the student is not studying problems about books with 
which he has had little or no acquaintance. But there is nothing rigid 
about this method. Elsewhere the author begins with the problems 
of Introduction, in the usual way. 

Among the good points of this work we would note the wealth of 
really up-to-date bibliographies mentioning the most important modern 
works in a great variety of languages (English, French, German, Ital- 
ian, Spanish, Dutch). And the notes frequently quote the texts in 
the original languages. One may, therefore, easily extend one’s in- 
formation with the help of these bibliographic indications. 

The spirit in which the questions are treated is as a rule generous, by 
no means narrow, even if the solution adopted in a number of cases 
may appear somewhat strict. But after all, in a text book, one natur- 
ally expects great prudence in the solution of the difficulties. 

A feature which will certainly appeal to many are the brief ‘* Adno- 
tationes practicae” which occur every now and then at the end of 
the sections. These notes point out the spiritual or religious lessons 
to be gathered from the text of the Old Testament. They contain 
good suggestions of the practical use which may be made of the Old 
Testament in instructions and meditations. 

The text is well printed and with very few mistakes, considering 
that so many languages are represented. The reader as a rule will 














BOOK REVIEWS. 213 


experience no difficulty in correcting the misprints (v. gr. p. 209; for 
Watke read Vatke; p. 418; for Sheane read Sreane). The illustrations 
and the maps are clear and will be found serviceable. It is to be 
hoped that this volume will meet with the same success as its pre- 
decessors, and that its companion volume on the Old Testament may 
appear soon. 


ARTHUR LEE. A Tale of Clerical Life. By the Rev. Thomas P. 
Phelan. P. J. Kenedy & Son: New York. Pp. 277. 


This picture of Arthur Lee might be termed a composite photo- 
graph. It is not a real biography in the sense that the hero was an 
American priest; it is an attempt to limn a portrait out of actual 
events in a real priest’s life. From the day of ordination to the death 
of the Monsignor the story flows entertainingly through the long years 
of priestly service. Since the incidents narrated have a basis in fact, 
each reader will seek to determine in how far his own experiences are 
a counterpart of the happenings that formed the groundwork of 
Arthur Lee’s career. 

The present tale bears comparison with Canon Sheehan’s, My New 
Curate, and Luke Delmege. Priests and people who remember the 
characterizations in those stories will welcome this delineation of the 
American priesthood. In fact, we need just such a work. There is, 
in the United States, no widely recognized sketching of ourselves as 
we really are. It is good for our souls, to see ourselves as others on 
the inside see us. The “us ”, of course, includes the bishop, the priest’s 
relatives with their family problems, his priestly confréres, the pillars 
of the parish, the cantankerous members of the fold, the housekeeper, 
the janitor. 

The author admits that some readers will argue that his hero is 
“merely academic, too solemn, too rigid, too spiritual, too effeminate, 
differing radically from the real priest ”. He does not answer his own 
objection. Perhaps it was his intention to overdraw the picture so 
that others might be raised to a higher conception of their vocation. 
The reviewer confesses that, in his estimation, Arthur is a trifle stiff; 
but that fact by no means destroy’s the solid merits of the story. The 
reviewer does not at all agree with the chapter on “‘ The New Curate ”. 
“The Rev. E. Reginald G. O’Malley-Yelverton, Jr., B.S.,” may have 
been an individual; he is not a type. Conceit in the younger group 
takes another direction in this country. The author admits chrono- 
logical discrepancies. He is allowed that liberty. But, while the Irish 
flavor and background were to be expected in the older generation, 
the transition to the recent years should be accompanied with that 
tone and background that the younger priests actually show. The 








244 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


young priests might feel that the author is slightly out of touch with 
the better yearnings of the newer generation, granting that he sees 
their faults. 

The style of the book is generally delightful, although here and there 
one notes an inclination to stereotyped expressions and stilted phrases. 
All in all, it is the best picture that we possess of the priest as he goes 
about his tasks. Priests should give a genuine welcome to Arthur Lee. 
They would do an excellent service by spreading it among the laity. 
It is joyful, not depressing, reading. It is an ideal gift for seminarians. 


A SHEPHERD OF THE FAR NORTH. By Robert Glody. Harr 
Wagner Co., 609 Mission St., San Francisco. Pp. 237. 


Briefly, this is the story of an American priest, removed all too soon, 
one is tempted to say, from his conquest of souls. Born in California 
in 1900, ordained in 1926, curate for two years in the San Francisco 
diocese, and then permitted to fulfil his life-long desire—a diocesan- 
priest missionary in the tundras of Alaska—Father William Francis 
Walsh was killed in Alaska in an airplane accident in 1930. 

Judged from the standpoint of time, there might seem little to 
recommend such a priest for a biography. And yet, seminarians 
would miss a glimpse of the possibilities in the American priesthood, 
were they to be deprived of this sketch of Father “ Bill”. The author 
has attempted to preserve something of his hero’s stalwart manhood, 
cheerful disposition, Christ-like unselfishness and ardent zeal. We 
need more of these sketches, for it is good to know that the American 
man of the collar can follow the Master so unswervingly. It is a 
source of inspiration to young levites to learn that the initiative, the 
energy, the affability of the American character can be combined with 
sanctity of no ordinary level. 

The author deserves the gratitude of a wide reading public for his 
efforts to make immortal this short career. It was not an easy task 
to gather material, since it was precisely in the personality of Father 
Walsh that the attraction was found. Hence we can forgive the 
author for devoting so much space to the trip to Europe. He would 
have done better to obtain more material on the spiritual side of his 
hero’s priestly career. But the reviewer hopes that no seminary, no 
Catholic college will be without this volume. May it stir many hearts 
to a realization that American traits can be spiritualized and used to 


great advantage. 














BOOK REVIEWS. 215 


ISABEL THE CRUSADER. By William Thomas Walsh. New 
York: Sheed and Ward. Pp. 308. 


Isabel the Crusader is presented as a condensation of a longer and 
more detailed study, Isabel of Spain, which Mr. Walsh gave us in 1931. 
Unfortunately, the original work was not particularly suited to being 
cut down, and the result of the process is a book which is in many 
ways incomplete and fragmentary. Isabel the Crusader will inevitably 
send the interested reader back to its source, Isabel of Spain, for a fuller 
and more complete record of the most famous of Spanish queens. Not 
that Isabel the Crusader is not an interesting book. Far from it. Any 
author with a subject as vital and many-sided as Isabella could hardly 
fail to produce an interesting work. And Mr. Walsh, in particular, 
has come well prepared to his task. In writing Isabel of Spain he 
consulted many original sources, discovered many “ strange spars of 
knowledge ” among the works of the old chroniclers of Castile. In 
fact, one of the distinctive features of this little book is that it is 
based, not on warmed-over, second-hand opinions, but on the chron- 
icles of Isabel’s own time. By consulting the bibliography of Isabel 
of Spain we find that the author drew on such sources as Bernaldez, 
the chaplain of the Archbishop of Seville, who knew Columbus and 
wrote interestingly of him in his Historia de los Reyes Catolicos; Diego 
Enrique del Castilo who had sharp eyes and a barbed pen and who 
used both of them in describing the vice and corruption of the court 
of King Enrique IV, el Impotente, popular poetry and ballads of the 
period such as the Mingo Revulgo Coplas; works such as Alonso de 
Palenia’s Tres decadas de las cosas de mi tiempo, and Hernando de 
Pulgar’s Cronica de los Reyes Catolicos. 

As a result of his intimate knowledge of these contemporary records, 
Mr. Walsh is able to give us sharp and definite pictures of the people, 
the social conditions, and the everyday life of the period of which he 
writes. For example, read the passage in which he presents a thumb- 
nail sketch of Enrique IV, the dissolute predecessor of Ferdinand and 
Isabel: ‘“ His eyes were blue and somewhat too large; his nose wide, 
flat and crooked. In his forehead were two vertical furrows into which 
his shaggy eyebrows curled. A flattering courtier wrote that the 
King’s ‘ aspect was fierce like that of a lion, which by its very look 
strikes terror to all its beholders’. But another chronicler of the 
time wrote that his eyes were restless, like those of a monkey.” 

In determining matters of this sort, contemporary records are un- 
doubtedly valuable. However, Mr. Walsh trusts them a bit too much 
when he goes to the extent of basing historical judgment on the un- 
questioning acceptance of their contents. In his defence of the 
Spanish Inquisition as an instrument of royal policy, he points out that 








216 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


Torquemada whenever mentioned by the chroniclers of the period, is 
described as a just and lovable character. However, contemporary 
records must be used critically by the historian, in determining how 
much is based on disinterested desire to record the facts and how much 
on prejudice, policy, or fear of the authorities in power. We know 
what a distorted picture the future historian would present of our 
civilization if he should base his account on an uncritical use of our 
daily papers. The same distortion of facts for reasons of policy was 
existent among the Spanish chroniclers of the fifteenth century, and 
the historian should use the information they offer very cautiously, 
especially in such controversal questions as the Spanish Inquisition, 
upon which a contemporary chronicler could scarcely afford to give 
a wholly frank opinion. 

Isabella lived in a period of high action, of great names. Her con- 
temporaries were some of the most distinguished figures of the early 
Renaissance—Alexander VJ, Lorenzo de Medici, Savonarola, Henry VII 
in England, Charles VIIJ. And in the midst of them Isabel, the Cath- 
olic Queen of Castile, moved as an equal, more than holding her own 
among powerful rulers and figures of her time. A shrewed diplomat, 
Isabel was in many ways a typical Renaissance personality, who could 
drive as sharp a bargain as any of her unscrupulous rivals. She was 
gifted with the amazing versatility of her period, which enabled her 
to do an amazing number of things and do them all well. Her energy, 
her inexhaustible vitality is one of her most striking qualities. She 
filled the fifty-three years of her life with constant activity. 

We identify her name with the unification of Spain, with the ex- 
pulsion of the Moors, with the setting up of the Inquisition, with the 
discovery of America by Columbus. The reign of Ferdinand and 
Isabel laid the foundations for the political glory that Spain was to 
enjoy throughout the next two centuries. Isabel took a personal part 
in the endless military operations that filled her reign. Yet she was 
a patron of the arts, learned Latin, pensioned musicians and writers, 
encouraged the foundation of universities. In her spare time she 
illuminated manuscripts, did embrodiery, and cultivated the household 
arts. And in the midst of it all, she was the mother of five children, 
all of whom she married into the royal houses of Europe. A remark- 
able woman, beside whom her husband Ferdinand fades into compara- 
tive insignificance. Christopher Columbus reflected the feelings of 
Spain when he wrote to his son upon her death: ‘‘ The principal thing 
is to commend affectionately and with great piety the soul of the 
Queen, our Lady, to God. Her life was always Catholic and holy and 
prompt in all things in His holy service; for this reason we may rest 
assured that she is received into His glory and beyond the care of this 
rough and weary world.” 














BOOK REVIEWS. 217 


It is difficult to understand why this condensation was prepared 
when the original work is so superior to it in every way. Isabel the 
Crusader, whether it was intended as a popular book or not, should have 
retained the index, the bibliography, the notes, and the illustrations 
which were so valuable in Isabel of Spain. Furthermore, one is always 
a bit irritated with a historical work which does not include a map of 
some sort. The condensation has resulted in a book less readable than 
its predecessor. Much that is interesting and much that is essential 
has been cut out. On the other hand, non-essential descriptive passages 
—the perfumed court of the Alhambra, the whiteness of the sunlight 
on the road to Segovia, etc.—which add nothing except a rather 
obvious prettiness are retained. Moreover, the process of condensa- 
tion has often led the writer into stylistic awkwardness. Transitions 
are sometimes clumsily effected and attempts at brevity and conciseness 
have often resulted in confused passages, such as: “On the left the 
Cardinal of Spain, his bishop’s richot torn and splattered with blood 
that looked almost black in the leaden dusk, fought with the fury of 
a tiger, laying men flat to the right and the left of him as he pressed 
forward through the ranks of the Portuguese, while the artillery of 
Dom Joao thundered on the right.” There is too much in that picture. 
The prose is not stripped, not limber enough for the swiftness of 
action that the author wanted to convey. 

In spite of the shortcomings of this condensation, Isabel the Crus- 
ader presents a convincing picture of the queen from her obscure, pov- 
erty-stricken girlhood at Arevalo, through a career full of tumult, 
of warfare, of vast responsibility and of vast accomplishment, until 
her death in 1504, a woman worn-out with overwork and personal 
sorrow. For the reader, however, who prefers a full-length portrait, 
more subtly finished, with greater richness and depth and a more 
complete illusion of reality, Isabel of Spain is the book to read. 


JESUS IN ORE PROPHETARUM: Tractatus de vaticiniis Messian- 
icis juxta S. Bonaventurae doctrinam. P. Villanova Gerster 
a Zeil, O.M.C. Marietti: Turin. Pp. 230. 


This short treatise on Messianic prophecy consists of a short Preface 
followed (pp. 7-8) by a brief general Introduction pointing out the 
importance of the argument from prophecy, and of two Parts: I. 
Vaticinia de Messia prolata, and \1. Adimpletio vaticiniorum in Christo 
Jesu. Thereupon come a few pages of Conclusio. 

Part I studies the texts grouped according to topics; the origin of 
the Messias in general, and the particulars of time, place, etc.; the 
Offices of the Messias (King, Doctor, Priest) ; His Passion and Death; 
His Glorification (Resurrection and Ascension); His Divine Nature; 











218 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


His Kingdom. Part II goes over the same ground to show that all 
these predictions have been fulfilled truly in Jesus. 

The reviewer finds the work quite disappointing. Judged as a con- 
tribution to Apologetics—which it is meant to be—the treatise misses 
the mark. One page of the Praenotamina by way of introduction to 
Messianic Prophecy is altogether insufficient and unsatisfactory. 
According to the author’s treatment, Messianic prophecy would seem 
to consist in the foretelling of a number of details scattered in different 
parts of the Old Testament. These the reader has merely to put to- 
gether under certain headings to obtain a practically complete picture 
of Him that was to come. To find Him in Jesus then becomes mere 
child’s play, if we may say so. If the author had been better acquainted 
with modern Catholic literature on Messianic prophecy, he would have 
seen that without sacrificing the prediction of particular facts, there 
is another way, more difficult no doubt, of presenting the argument 
from prophecy. 

In the treatment of the individual texts one will find much that is 
likewise unsatisfactory and unconvincing, at least in the form in which 
the evidence is studied. Thus on pp. 106f. (in Psalm 15, 9f), the 
author finds not only a clear statement of the Resurrection of the 
Messias, but also an implicit prediction of the Resurrection on the third 
day. Certainly the difficulties of the Psalm would demand a little 
more to satisfy the critical reader. The text of Isaias 7 is despatched 
briefly as having been already explained “ egregie et sufficienter” by 
many others. The fact is that Catholic scholars are far from agreeing 
on an explanation of the relation of Isaias 7: 14, to its historical con- 
tent, and it is hard to find a clear and fully satisfactory explanation. 
Regarding the felicity of the Messianic age, the author merely quotes 
the texts, and ignores the problems arising from the wording of the 
prophecies. It would have been better to say nothing of the Messianic 
views in the non-canonical Jewish literature, or in the pagan writings 
(Virgil’s IV Eclogue, etc.), than to give slightly over two pages to 
the subject. 





4\e 


we © 














Literary Chat 


A child was once brought for Bap- 
tism by her mother and grandmother. 
The priest was puzzled by two names 
suggested to him for the baptismal name 
of the girl. Further inquiry brought the 
answer from the mother that she was 
choosing two movie actresses as patron- 
esses for her daughter. It might be well, 
then, to have handy Baptismal and Con- 
firmation Names, by Edward F. Smith, 
published by Benziger Brothers. The list 
of names is sufficiently large, covering 
two hundred and fifty-seven pages. Each 
word is traced back to its origin; the 
Latin form is also given, as an aid for 
correct recording. Likewise one finds the 
reason for the fame attached to the 
original name. There is also a list of the 
patrons of countries and localities, and a 
list of saints invoked in trouble or sick- 
ness. Even the nightwatchman has his 
patron. And another reason for having 
this book is that some of us, who might 
smile when we hear the name Erasmus 
invoked as the patron of intestinal 
troubles, will have our ignorance removed 
when we get back to the original martyr. 
Again, it is nice to know that the postal 
employees have their Gabriel. 





Ius Religiosorum in Compendium re- 
dactum pro Juvenibus Religiosis, by 
Thomas Villanova Gerster a Zeil, O. M. 
Cap. Though intended, as its title indi- 
cates, as a manual for younger religious, 
this commentary does not enter into an 
intensive explanation of the canon law 
for religious. A brief introduction pre- 
sents the nature, essentials, origin, bene- 
fits of the religious state and the divers 
religious institutes. While in general it 
is satisfactory, the statement that divine 
institution requires the essential vows of 
obedience, poverty and chastity (p. 4) is 
open to challenge. The explanation of 
the prevailing law is, as a rule, reliable 
without entering into such details as will, 
not infrequently, raise difficulties. Most 
of the recent decrees and declarations 
emanating from the Holy See have been 
noted; yet the omission of some mars the 
book. Thus the funeral of postulants is 
reserved to the religious superior on page 
73, whereas on page 306 this is correctly 
denied them in view of the declaration 
of 20 July, 1929. So, too, neglect of 


the declaration of 13 July, 1930, leads 
the author to a faulty conclusion re- 
garding the interruption of the novitiate 
in case of transfer from one novitiate to 
another. It is not at all certain that 
minor violations of the vow of poverty 
coalesce (p. 172); the local Ordinary 
does not preside at the general chapter 
in diocesan institutes of men (p. 243), 
where the preceding sentence makes this 
depend upon the constitutions; the Code 
does not require the presence of a quo- 
rum of two-thirds of the vocals for the 
chapter (p. 244). Despite a few such 
minor defects this commentary will ren- 
der good service to those for whom it is 
destined. A relatively large alphabetical 
index adds to its usefulness. (Marietti, 
Turin; pp. xi -+ 324.) 


Le Tiers Ordre de Saint Francois 
d@’Assise: Conferences aux Novices, by a 
Novice-Master, comprises twelve confer- 
ences in which novices of the secular 
Third Order of St. Francis are instructed 
in the foundation and the nature of this 
great movement of Catholic Action and 
social reform, the conditions for admis- 
sion, the vocation, habit and novitiate, 
indulgences granted to it; profession in 
it, the Tertiaries’ manner of living, the 
government of confraternities, and fin- 
ally Franciscan spirituality. Besides the 
Immaculate Mother, the great Patroness 
of the three Orders of St. Francis, and 
several of the foremost saints of the 
First Order, such models are held up to 
the Tertiaries for imitation as St. Lushe- 
sius, the first Tertiary, St. Colette, at 
first a Tertiary, later a Poor Clare, the 
recently canonized Tertiary, St. Thomas 
More, St. Louis, King of France and St. 
Elizabeth of Hungary (or of Thuringia), 
patrons of the Third Order, and lastly 
that great Tertiary penitent, St. Mar- 
garet of Cortona. Directors of confra- 
ternities of Franciscan Tertiaries will find 
in these conferences valuable and diver- 
sified materials for the instruction not 
only of novices but also of professed 
Tertiaries. 


For five years Pax, the monthly 
organ of the Benedictines of Prinknash 
Priory (Gloucester, England) has had a 
quarterly issue devoted entirely to the 








220 


Eastern Churches. The October issue of 
this year was the last of such special 
numbers. The Eastern Churches Quar- 
terly will carry on their work in an 
independent quarterly commencing Jan- 
uary 1936. The subscription price will 
be the same, i. e. one dollar a year with 
postage free. 

All who are in any way interested in 
the Eastern Churches, especially the 
clergy, will find The Eastern Churches 
Quarterly an attractive, instructive and 
purposeful periodical. It is well to note 
that the new quarterly will be the only 
publication of its kind in the English 
language devoted exclusively to the treat- 
ment of the Eastern Churches. 

Dom Bede Winslow, O.S.B. and Don- 
ald Attwater are the editors. Sample 
copy may be obtained by addressing them 
at St. Augustine’s Abbey, Ramsgate, 
Kent, England; or by writing to James 
F. Kane, 804 West 180th Street, New 
York City. 





German scholarship at its best is repre- 
sented in the exhaustive treatise, Un- 
stindlichkeit und Befestigung in der 
Gnade, by Dr. Joseph Gummersbach, S.J. 
The book has been widely acclaimed in 
Germany as the first work of its -kind 
on the dogmatic teaching of Suarez and 
as the first full treatment of the ques- 
tions of impeccability and confirmation 
in grace. Dr. Karl Adam says of it: 
“Tt is not improbable that the author 
by his laborious research has linked him- 
self inseparably with his master Suarez.” 
The method of the author is at once 
speculative and historical. He divides 
the book into three sections, in which 
are considered: (1) God as the source of 
impeccability; (2) Christ as the exem- 
plar cause of impeccability, and (3) the 
participation of the Church in the im- 
peccability of Christ. The teaching of 
Suarez on each of these points is set 
forth with great care. Then, with equal 
care, the teachings of the other theo- 
logians from Thomas and Scotus to Pesch 
and Scheeben are expounded. The result 
is a synthesis that is comparable to 
Scheeben’s classic Natur und Gnade. 
(Frankfurt-am-Main: Carolus Druckerei, 
1933; pp. xvi + 352.) 





Father M. Mellet’s L’Itineraire et V’Idéal 
Monastique de S. Augustin represents in 
revised form a series of conférences 
given by the author in a Dominican 


THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


priory in 1930. The Augustinian char- 
acter of the Dominican Rule made these 
conférences on Augustinian monasticism 
a peculiarly appropriate tribute to the 
memory of the great Bishop of Hippo, 
and it was a happy thought to give them 
a more permanent form and a wider pub- 
licity by including them in the Biblio- 
theque Augustinienne. The author re- 
veals a thorough knowledge of his sub- 
ject on the historical side and, through 
being a monk himself, he is able to deal 
understandingly and sympathetically with 
his theme. 

The book falls into two main parts. 
Part I traces the successive stages in the 
development of St. Augustine’s monastic 
thought and experience. Part II is a sys- 
tematic exposition of the Augustinian 
monastic ideal and its practical applica- 
tion at Hippo. The bearing that the 
monastic teachings of St. Augustine have 
on the Dominican Rule and its working 
is stressed throughout. This feature gives 
the book an independent value in places 
where there is only question otherwise 
of well known facts. The volume gives 
a short bibliography but has no index. 
(Desclée de Brouwer et Cie, Paris; pp. 


x + 150.) 


Dieu, Soleil des Esprits is a revision of a 
study on the same theme contributed by 
Father Jolivet, Dean of the Faculty of 
Philosophy at Lyons, to the volume pub- 
lished by the Revue de Philosophie in 
1930 in honor of St. Augustine. St. 
Augustine’s theory of knowledge is as 
difficult to determine definitely as it is 
important in the history of Western phil- 
osophy; so this monograph is a welcome 
addition to our literature on the subject. 
All the works of St. Augustine have been 
combed for evidence and every statement 
made in the text is accompanied by a 
full citation from St. Augustine in a 
footnote. 

The kernel of the conclusion is this: 
Saint Augustine and St. Thomas are in 
accord on the essential principle that we 
can know truth with certitude only 
through a participation in the Divine 
Light, but they differ basically in the 
manner of participation. The core of 
the Thomistic psychology of knowledge 
is the doctrine of abstraction, a doctrine 
quite foreign to St. Augustine. St. 
Thomas derives the incelligibles from the 
sensible, while St. Augustine sees them in 
the illuminating light. The two leading 














eo vpw? © 














LITERARY CHAT. 221 


Christian philosophers, then, show unity, 
not in their psychological teachings as 
such, but rather in their identical sub- 
mission to the principle that for us there 
can be no truth except through partici- 
pation in the uncreated Reason. The 
Augustinian doctrine of participation has 
been misinterpreted by the ontologists, as 
there is question of a mediate rather 
than a direct participation. 

Father Jolivet’s systematic study has 
put the whole problem of Augustinian 
illumination in a clearer light, even if it 
has not solved it definitely. His mono- 
graph deserves careful study by students 
of Patristic and Scholastic philosophy. 

The book contains a valuable appendix 
on Augustinian terminology, a bibliog- 
raphy, and an index. (Desclée de Brou- 
wer et Cie, Paris.) 


Perhaps one of the most beautiful and 
inspiring accounts of sanctity and saint- 
hood to be found in the vast amount of 
material dealing with the lives of the 
saints is the little volume S#. Theresa 
Margaret. The life of the sweet ‘ Lily 
of Florence” is charmingly adapted from 
the Italian by Monsignor Newcomb. 
(Benziger Brothers, New York.) 

Born Anna Maria Redi, of a cultured 
and noble family of Italy, the young 
saint strove from her earliest days to per- 
fect herself in the love of God. She 
became a Discalced Carmelite at the 
monastery of Florence, and during her 
five remaining years of life devoted her- 
self with such zeal to the imitation of 
Christ that her sanctity and_ holiness 
were recognized by her Sisters and by 
the people of Florence during her life- 
time. She longed continually for death 
and complete union with Christ, and 
received this favor at the age of twenty- 
two, in 1770. She was canonized in 
1934. Many miracles have been per- 
formed through her intercessien, and her 
body is preserved incorrupt in Florence 
as a proof of God’s great love for her. 

Monsignor Newcomb has given us a 
beautifully written study of a saint. 
The sweetness and rare spirituality of 
Theresa Margaret breathe through the 
pages like the incense she made of her 


life to God. 


The Seal of Confession is a play writ- 
ten by Monsignor F. G. Holweck, and 
based upon an incident which is claimed 
to have actually occurred in France dur- 


ing the nineteenth century. It is the 
story of a pious French priest who is 
confronted not only with the problems 
of his parishioners but also with the 
treachery of the political officials who look 
with disfavor upon the Church. One of 
his kind benefactors is murdered and 
robbed by his unscrupulous servant. In 
a moment of terror the servant confesses 
his crime to the priest and then flees 
the country. All evidence is against the 
priest, and he is finally executed. Several 
years later the servant returns to prove 
the innocence of the priest. 

This story is universally known and 
for generations has inspired reverence 
and confidence in the secrecy which sur- 
rounds confession. 

The play is very well developed, and 
its semi-historical background gives it a 
charming setting. Although the chief 
interest lies in the development of the 
plot, the characters are very well por- 
trayed and demand dramatic ability from 
the actors. 





The new Encyclical Letter on the 
Catholic Priesthood, Ad Catholici Sacer- 
dotii Fastigium, which the Holy Father 
handed as a Christmas present to the 
members of the Sacred College of Car- 
dinals and Roman prelates, will be pub- 
lished in the ReviEW as soon as it is 
available. We shall print the English 
version of this memorable document in 
our March number. From information 
just received, it will occupy about thirty- 
two of our pages. 


In this connexion, our readers will be 
glad to know that the Dolphin Press has 
recently issued in pamphlet form The 
Exhortation to the Catholic Clergy which 
Pope Pius X gave to the priests of the 
world on the occasion of the golden 
jubilee of his own priesthood in 1908. 
(Pp. 29; ten cents a copy.) 


In a neat brochure of sixty-four pages, 
The Torch, 141 East 65th Street, New 
York, offers a sketch of the life of Blessed 
Martin de Porres, the saintly American 
Negro, who in a very short time has 
won favor with the faithful of the 
United States. The title of the booklet 
is Meet Brother Martin, who was a lay 
brother of the Dominican Order, and a 
most attractive and humanly understand- 
able personality and a religious of deep 
spirituality. 











Books Received 


THEOLOGICAL AND DEVOTIONAL. 


Rome FROM WirHIN. By Dr. Selden P. Delany. Bruce Publishing Company, 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 1935. Pp. xiv—289. Price, $2.00. 


CuHRIsTIANUS. Das BILD VOM KATHOLISCHEN MENSCHEN. Ausgar Vonier, O.S.B. 
Aus dem Englischen ubertragen von Albert Schmitt, Abt von Grussau. B. Herder 
Book Co., St. Louis, Mo. 1935. Pp. xii—190. Price, $1.00. 


Die PERSONLICHKEIT Curisti. Ausgar Vonier, O.S.B. Aus dem Englischen uber- 
tragen von Winfred Ellerhorst, O.S.B. B. Herder Book Co., St. Louis, Mo. 1935. 
Pp. vii—205. Price, $1.15. 


Die cuRisTLicHe Evie. Thr Wesen und ihre Wurde, ihre Gafahrdung und Rettung 
im Anschluss an das Rundschreiben Papst Pius’ XI. B. Herder Book Co., St. Louis, 
Mo. 1935. Pp xv—21. Price, 30c. 


THE CONSTITUTIONS OF CANON 1125. By the Rev. Francis F. Woods, Ph.D., 
S.T.D. Bruce Publishing Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 1935. Pp. 112. Price, $1.35. 


Jesuit Spiriruatity. By the Rev. H. V. Gill, S.J. M. H. Gill & Son, Ltd., 
Dublin, Ireland. 1935. Pp. viii—134. Price, 3/6 net. j 


THE SACRAMENT OF Duty. By the Rev. Joseph McSorley, C.S.P. Foreword by 
the Rev. James M. Gillis, C.S.P. P. J. Kenedy & Sons, New York City. 1935. 
Pp. xiv—308. Price, $1.00. 


St. VINCENT FERRIER (1350-1419). Par M. M. Gorce, O.P. Librairie Lecoffre J. 
Gabalda et Cie, Editeurs, Paris. 1935. Pp. 185. 


THE SuNDAY GosPELs FoR Priests AND Peopre. By the Rev. James A. Carey, 
M.A. P. J. Kenedy & Sons, New York City. 1935. Pp. x—532. Price, $3.00. 


EINFUHRUNG IN DIE THEOLOGIF. Dr. Jakob Bilz, Professor an der Universitat 
Freiburg. B. Herder Book Co., St. Louis, Mo. 1935. Pp. vi—167. Price, $1.35. 


THe Lire or Jesus Curist. By Dr. Franz Michel Willam. Translated and 
adapted into English from the Fourth Revised and Enlarged German Edition. Edited 
by the Rev. Newton Thompson, S.T.D. B. Herder Book Co., St. Louis, Mo. 1936. 
Pp. xi—488. Price, $4.00 net. 


Tue Mortner or Gop. By the Rev. R. Bakewell Morrison, S.J. The Queen’s 
Work, St. Louis, Mo. 1935. Pp. 36. Price, 10 cents. 


Les Exercices SpIRITUELS. Collection ‘‘ Cathedra Petri”. Par le Révérend Pére 
Albert Balensin, S.J. Desclée de Brouwer et Cie, Paris. 1935. Pp. xiv—192. Prix, 
10 fr. 


A LittLe Cnitp’s First COMMUNION. Books 5 and 6. By Mother Margaret 
Bolton, R.C. St. Anthony Guild Press, Paterson, N.J. 1935. Pp., Book 5, 555 
Book 6, 39. Price, 10 cents each. 


A Discrete oF Dom Marmion. By Dom Pius de Hemptinne. Letters and 
Spiritual Writings. Translated by the Benedictines of Teignmouth. B. Herder Book 
Co., St. Louis, Mo. 1935. Pp. xiii—277. Price, $2.75. 


St. Bonirace. By Godfrey Kurth. Translated by the Rt. Rev. Monsignor Victor 
Day with latest historical findings inserted by the Rev. Francis S. Betten, S.J. Bruce 
Publishing Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 1935. Pp. xiii—178. Price, $2.00. 








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BOOKS RECEIVED. 223 


Tuts Way To HEAVEN. By the Very Rev. James McGlinchey, P.P., V.F. M. H. 
Gill & Son, Ltd., Dublin, Ireland. 1935. Pp. vii—160. Price, 2/6. 


Jésus p—E Nazaretu, Ror pes Jurrs. Par Th. Salvagniac. Préface de Son Ex. 
Monsignor Duparc. P. Lethielleux, Paris. 1935. Pp. xi—532. Prix, 30 fr. 


PAIN AND THE PROVINCE OF Gop. By the Rev. M. C. D’Arcy, S.J. Bruce Pub- 
lishing Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 1935. Pp. ix—133. Price, 


THe New PsaLTER OF THE ROMAN Breviary. With interverse translation. 
Edited by the Rev. E. P. Graham, LL.D. Frederick Pustet Co., Inc., New York 
City. Pp. 576. Price, $2.50. 


PHILOSOPHICAL. 


Our Patace WonpDERFUL. By the Rev. Frederick A. Houck. Frederick Pustet 
Co., Inc., New York City. 1935. Pp. 180. Price, $1.25. 


In Quest oF BEAuTy. By Dom Willibrord Verkade, O.S.B. P. J. Kenedy & Sons, 
New York City. 1935. Pp. ix—292. Price, $2.00. 


Diz ARISTOTELISCH-THOMISTISCHE PHILOSOPHIE. II. METAPHYSIK UND ETHIK. 
Joseph Gredt. B. Herder Book Co., St. Louis, Mo. 1935. Pp. viii—373. Price, 
$3.00. 


EvoLuTION: THE Root or ALL Isms. By Dan Gilbert. The Danielle Publishers, 
San Diego, California. 1935. Pp. 94. Price, $0.50. 


ARTIFICIAL BirTH CONTROL. By the Most Rev. Robert E. Lucey, D.D., Bishop 
of Amarillo, Texas. International Catholic Truth Society, Brooklyn, N. Y. Pp. 32. 
Price, 10 cents. 


HISTORICAL. 


A Description oF PaTaGonta and the Adjoining Parts of South America. Fac- 
simile reprint of the original edition by the Rev. Thomas Falkner, S.J. 


MANUAL OF CHRISTIAN ARCHEOLOGY. By Orazio Marucchi. Revised by Guilio 
Illinois. 1935. Pp. viii—168. Price, $6.00. 


MANUAL OF CHRISTIAN ARCHEOLOGY. By Orazio Marucchi. Revised by Giulio 
Belvederi, D.D., Ph.D., translated and adapted by the Rev. Hubert Vecchierello, 
O.F.M., Ph.D. St. Anthony Guild Press, Paterson, N.J. 1935. Pp. xiv —448. 
Price, $3.50. 


ScHoots oF KILDARE AND LEIGHLIN. A. D. 1775-1835. By the Rev. Martin 
Brenan, M.A., B.D., Ph.D., Professor of Education, St. Patrick’s College, Maynooth. 
M. H. Gill & Son, Ltd., Dublin, Ireland. 1935. Pp. xxi—612. Price, 10/— net. 


THE ARK AND THE Dove. By J. Moss Ives. Longmans, Green & Co., New York 
City. 1936. Pp. 435. Price, $3.50. 


MISCELLANEOUS. 


Towarp THE ALTAR. Sketches and Stories of Priestly Vocations. (Third Edition.) 
By J. M. Lelen. St. Anthony Guild Press, Paterson, N. J. 1935. Pp. 111. Price, 
$1.00. 


CompiTi £ SPERANZE DELL’ UNIVERSITA CATTOLICA DEL SACRO CUORE NELL’ ORA 
PRESENTE. Fr. Agostino Gemelli, O.F.M. Societ& Editrice Vita e Pensiero, Milano, 
Italy. 1935. Pp. 44. 





224 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 


LEXIKON FUR THEOLOGIE UND KIRCHE: Zweite neubearbeitete Auflage des Kirch- 
lichen Handlexikons. In Verbindung mit Fachgelehrten und mit Dr. Konrad Hof- 
mann als Schriftleiter herausgegeben von Dr. Michael Buchberger, Bischof von Regens- 
burg. Siebter Band. Mauretanien bis Patrologie. Mit 8 Tafeln, 17 Kartenskizzen 
und 120 Textabbildungen. Vol. VII. 1935. B. Herder Book Co., St. Louis, Mo. 


Price, each volume, $7.75. 


MAN AND Beast. Poems by Theodore Maynard. Longmans, Green & Co., New 
York City. 1935. Pp. viii—86. Price, $1.50. 


MaryYKNOLL PampHtets: Ah Hoy! His Brother — His Boat. By the Rev. A. 
Paschang, M.M. Pp. 32. Forty-two Days among Chinese Outlaws. By the Rev. 
Harold Bush, M.M. Pp. 45. Novena to St. Francis Xavier the Missioner. By the 
Rev. R. E. Sheridan, M.M. Pp. 40. Secrets of Chinatown. By the Rev. John 
Martin, M.M. Pp. 30. Maryknoll Among Chinese Lepers. By the Rev. Joseph 
Sweeney, M.M. P. 22. Christ in Korea. By the Rev. Stephen Hannon, M.M. Pp. 
26. The Case for Catholic China. By the Rev. R. E. Sheridan, M.M. Pp. 32. 
The Chinese Seminarian. By the Rev Raymond P. Quinn, M.M. Pp. 31. Missions 
Medicine and Maryknoll. By the Rev. Robert E. Sheridan, M.M. Pp. 31. Shall I 
be a Maryknoll Sister? By the Rev. Robert E. Sheridan, M.M. Pp. 31. Shall I bea 
Maryknoller? By the Rev. Robert E. Sheridan, M.M. Pp. 32. Christ in China. 
By the Rev. Robert E. Sheridan, M.M. Pp. 30. Schools in China. By Rev. A. 
Paschang, M.M. Pp. 31. Ten Thousand Questions about China. By the Rev. Robert 
E. Sheridan, M.M. Pp. 31. Marriage in Manchu-Land. By the Rev. R. A. Lane, 
P.A.P. Pp. 32. Maryknoll on the March. By the Rev. Robert E. Sheridan, M.M. 
Pp. 31. The Maryknoll Missions, Maryknoll P.O., New York. 1935. Price, 5 cents 


each.