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he Eronowis 





WEEKLY COMMERCIAL TIMES 


Barkers’ 
A POLITICAL, ne, 


Vol. XIV. 


CONTENTS. 








THE ECONOMIST, 
The Income Tax woe oc cccece cocsese Cat'le Breeding eee 1439 
Insecurity of Warrants .. . | LITERATURE 
Criminal ty of the Desire of Wea th.. 1427 Letters from Head-Quarters.... .. 1432 
Property and Income. 1428 England and Rus-ia Natural Allies 1432 


Political Ecc many in Germany. « 1429 | 


County Education ..... cece ve ceee 1432 
AGRICULTURE: | Foreign Correspondence ......--.. 1433 
The Clos ing Year........ 1430 | News of the Week . 1434 


AND COMME RCIAL TIME S, 
1457 | Lonpon MARKETS :— 


THE BANKERS’ G VAZI ITE 
Bank Returns and Money Market .. 


Bankers’ Price Current .. ...see00. 1439 State of Corn Trade for the Week 1444 
Mails .. .c.-cccecccessceceescesess s441( Colonial & Foreign Produce Market | 444 
Corn Returns 2.662 cece eess .-. 1441; Additional Notices ........ceee+- 1445 
Commercial EpitOMe e+ +400 000000. 1441 | Gazette LS8Gs ww CR RECC ene ewes TORS 
Cotton..... teeeee soeeee 1442 | Price Curre nt ese soscescosocces | 1OGT 
Markets of Manufacturing Distrists 1443 ; Imports and Exp¢ rts coevecccccvces 1448 
THE RAILWAY MONITOR, 
Railway and Mining Share Market.. 144+ ; Share List and Traffic Returns.. ... 1449 








The Political Economist. | 


COMING DISCUSSIONS.—THE BANK ACTS OF 1844 AND 
1845.—THE BANK OF FRANCE.—SUPPLY OF GOLD. 
—DRAIN OF SILVER, &c. 

To our READERS.—A remarkable combination of circumstances 

makes it certain that one of the chief and most important subjects 

of discussion during the next year must be the financial and mo- 
netary arrangements of this country and of others. First, we 
have the consequences of the gold discoveries becoming developed 
more and more every day, but as yet only slightly indicating their 
ultimate effects;—next, we have the rapid displacement of the 
silver coinage of Europe by gold ;—then we have a continued drain 
of silver to the East, the shipments from Europe amounting im the 
past year to more than 14,000,000/, and as yet showing little 
symptom of abatement ;—and, lastly we have the fact announced 
that upon the meeting of Parliament there will be 

mittees appointed to examine the whole question of 
currency laws, which must necessarily involve our bank- 
ing institutions, including the recent cases of fraudulent de- 
falcations ; while, at the same time, it is understood that it is pro 
bable a similar inquiry will be proseeuted in France. ‘These are 
all-important topics, opening up the widest field for patient inves- 
tigation and calm discussion, and which will be neither promoted nor 
settled by vague and impassioned appeals to the public in favour of 
one view or another. In these discussionsthe provisions of the Bank 

Act of 1844 will necessarily take a prominent part. Hitherto we 


com- 
our 


have not been able to agree either with the supporters or with the | 


extreme opponents of that measure. We have treated it as an 
always regarded as the essential elements of banking and cur- 
rency :—1. Thata mixed circulation of paper and coin,in whatever 

proportions, should follow the same same rules, and be identical in 
value, with a currency purely metallic, and that in order to be so, 

the paper should be at all time and without delay convertible 
into the coin it represents ; and 2. That the obligations of bankers, 
consisting of the payment of their notes and deposits, can only be 
secured by maintaining a sufficient reserve of unemployed assets. 
But while the Act of 1844 has recognised these two cardinal prin- 
ciples, it has attempted to give effect to them by legislative regu- 
lations, applicable alike under all circumstances however different 
in their character, framed upon assumptions and theories which, 
in our opinion, every day’s experienee has falsified, and which, 

like all other legislative interference with the concerns of trade, 

weakens individual caution, discretion, and responsibility, and 
while it is sometimes inoperative for its object, is generally decep- 
tive and sometimes absolutely mischievous. But while we con- 
tinue more and more convinced of these objections to the Act of 
1844, they are very secondary and unimportant compared witli 
those which we entertain towards the views of that class who dis- 
regard the two points of principle and practice to which we have 
referred ; and whose objections apply with equal force to the Bill 


of 1819 as to that of 1844, even though they may not be aware 
of it. 





Gasette, and BRatlwav Monitor 
AND GENERAL NE 


SATURD AY, DE CE MB E R 27, , 1856. 


| can be gratified. But the object of taxation is the general security 


| tion of indirect taxes levied upon articles of necessary consumption 
Act which recognised the two most important and what we have 


EWSPAPER. 


= = = ———=_—= 


But if we are to have ‘inquiry let it be full, searching, and un- 
prejudiced, and above all dispassionate. So far as we shall follow 
those important topics, it shall be in that spirit. As a preliminary 
step, and in order to assist ourselves and our readers, we pro- 
pose to publish a Supplement on January 10, in order to bring 
together all the statistical facts, with such observations as may 
appear necessary to elucidate them, connected with the history of 
the Bank of England, of the private and joint stock banks of 
England, Scotland, and. Ireland, of the Bank of France, the supply 
of gold, the shipment of silver to the East, &c., Ke. 





THE INCOME TAX. 

IT is now upwards of seventy years since Burke exclaimed in the 
House of Commons—“ It is as difficult to tax and please, as it is 
| to love and be wise.’’ Another statesman of more modern times 

said that there was no tax against which, if taken abstractedly by 
| itself, a conclusive case might not be made out. All taxes are 
unpopular ; ; and it is, therefore, the easiest thing in the world to 

getupa popular agitation against any one tax, or ' against all taxes 
| if taken each in its turn, but most of all against those which are 
| imposed in the most direct, and therefore in. the least expensive 

and mischievous form. In theory, mest men are in favour of di- 
rect taxes; but in practice, it is unfortunately nearly as common 
to object to any and every application of the principle. It is true 
the objections are profe ssedly rather against the unequal incidence 
of a tax, than the tax itself. But if the absence of pe: fect equa- 
lity is to be a fatal objection to a tax, then they may all be re- 
pealed at once. What so unequal as the indirect taxes of Customs 
and Excise? Less than one-fourth of the population pay fire 
millions a year of taxes upon their luxury of tobacco for the benefit 
of the whole :—the consumers of wine, of beer, of tea, of spirits, 
each pay millions a year for their special habits, for the benefit of 
the whole. But it may be be said that all these are voluntary 
acts. But if this were so, which it certainly is not—inasmuch 
as men are dependent upon habits both for their comforts and 
their wants—still if it were so, is it a fair defence of a par- 
tial tax that the consumption of the article upon which it 
is levied is voluntary? One thing is certain, that it is not for the 
sake of paying the tax that the consumption takes place, but 
it is paid as the condition upon which only a luxury or a want 


and general good. That the means of supplying it should be 
optional, and ‘therefore partial, so far from being a recommendation 
toa system of taxation, is, in point of fact, oue of its greatest 
evils. Again, there can be no question that a much larger por- 


falls upon the masses with small incomes, than upon the com- 
np atively few with large incomes derived from property. But by 
far the most prejudical effects of indirect taxation, as has been 
clearly proved, are the serious restrictions which it imposes upon 
trade : first, upon the merchant; next, upon the dealers and shop- 
keepers, including clerks and others employed upon salaries ; and 
last, upon the labouring classes themselves. Compared with these 
disadvantages, the inequalities of any system of direct taxes fall 
into utter insignificance. This is now no longer a matter of 
theory ; the experience of our own times can be appealed to; and 
before the public hastily commit the fatal error of condemning 
the income tax, let them consider well what it has accomplished 
for all the great interests of the country, but for none so much as 
those whose sympathies are now being enlisted against it. 

That the income tax has proved the greatest and most success- 
ful engine for the conduct of great wars, no one will question. 
But it has proved even a more triumphant means of developing 
an improved commercial and financial policy during peace. Sir 
Robert Peel has left an imperishable name. England has become 
the wonder of the civilised world, in respect to the remarkable 
strides which her commerce has made during the last fifteen 
years. There is scarcely a human being that has not been less or 
more beneficially affected by the reforms which have taken place 
in that period, but most of all our own trading and industrious 
| classes. Weare not about to insist that the income tax has been 


A 








ele 


a 





| 
| 
| 
| 
| 


a 


nd 


——————O On a ee 


1426 


the cause of all this; but no one will doubt that it was the key to 
that great policy from which such remarkable consequences have 
resulted. ithout the income tax, since 1842, the great fiscal 
reforms, which have produced consequences so beneficial, would 
not have been possible. But before we refer to the more gencral 
and comprehensive advantages which the country has derived 
from that system, let us consider the income tax simply in its 
relation to the entire burdens which the State imposes upon the 
country—let us make a debit and credit calculation of the advan- 
tages and disadvantages in the mere amount of taxes which we 
pay, putting the income tax on the one side of the account, and 
the other taxes which it has enabled Parliament to repeal on the 
other. There isa Parliamentary return which shows for a num- 





THE ECONOMIST. 


ber of years the amount of taxes imposed on the one hand, and of 


taxes repealed on the other, from which we abstract the following 
details, Since 1842 the following taxes have been imposed :— 







£ 

15AD—-TNCOMMS TAX cccrcccccccccceccrcosccccccsocsc coseceses 5, 100,' 06 
— Export duty on coal (afterwards repea.ed) 14:,9 0 

— Spirits (Treland) ..... 0... ssce coscessecscecse 240,000 

— Stamps (Ireland)... 121,745 

—  Opher toXeS... ....-cecses. 26,341 

1845—Auctionee's’ licenses...... ...0. 53,720 
Is5t—Inhabited house GULLY os... ..coreevers oe eevee 600,000 
RN asks cccteeucreecesemescenncscngeces  _.GOeeD 
— Succession tax..... sees ss» seccsecceres 2,00°,000 

— Property tax, .. 00 cece seccceseccsese sence 750,000 

$640,219 


| Of this sum of 9,640,119/ of taxes imposed, 5,850,000/ con- 
sists of income tax, 600,000/ of house duty, and 2,000,0007 of a 
tax upon the succession to real property, making in all 8,450,000/ 
of direct taxation. 

Let us now turn to the other side of the account, and see what 
taxes, the imposition of those which we have enumerated has 
| enabled Parliament to repeal, and, above all, let us observe what 
the nature and character of those taxes were. The taxes repealed 
during the same period were :— 


1842—Customs Arte ceovoscesere 
age coaches, &c.. .... 
LBES—CUstOMS ccoccoce 00 00: 00. 
Excise, &C..0. +0. 
1-4t—Customs eovccccce 
Marine insurances........... 
Excise (rhicfiy glass) 


e 













1-45—Customs, including sugar, cotton, &c. 3,617,306 
—_— Auction duties 305,000 
— Excise (glass) 624,000 
$16—Custows ... 1,151,790 
1s4°—Customs (ti 344,886 
1S48—Customs ..-c00 ee. eo 585,968 
1*49—Cusioms ... .-.. ° 328,798 
1S50—CU-tOMs serccscesceees = 331,073 
— Stanps....... ceee 520,000 
— Excise (bri Ks) ........ os See se ceue 459,078 
1§51—Taxes (window duty) ........ desepsaee 4,876,860 
oe | GURUS v0ce cvgccos 00 00 00 00de 00.00 00 000g 80: 064 
EIGER 6b 00 doce co dd We ied biucs tin ct 95,928 
As5B—CUSIOMS 2.0. 00 eos cence crccccceccsecece 1,499,476 
0 re - 4,171,0.0 

ate” BETEEBO 00 oe 00 00 0+ 00 00 00 06 00 600m be 277,000 
ons! || Taman Gneseswed) oo da 06 00 00:00 00 00s 06080 06 300,0.0 
Total taxes repealed ............-. 16,918,154 


Thus, while in the twelve years from 1842 to 1853 taxes to 


16,918;1541 were repealed. But even these figures do not fully 
represent the advantage which has been hitherto gained. In the 
9,640,1192 of taxes imposed, we have included 2,000,0001 for the 
suecession tax upon real property. That was the sum that it was 
caleulated it would ultimately give ;—but it was also calculated 
that for some years it would yield only 500,0002. Up to this time 
about that amount only has been received from this source ;—so that 
the actual amount of taxes paid has been only 8,140,119, while the 
actual amount remitted has been 16,918,154/, leaving a clear 
balance in favour of the publie of 8,778,035. 

But it is even more important that we should call attention to 
the nature and character of the taxes which have been remitted, 
and to the indirect effects upon the prosperity of the country, than 
to the amount. If we go back twenty years, and examine the dis- 
cussions which took place, we shall find that there is, perhaps with 
the exception of the paper duty, not a single obnoxious tax 
that has not been repealed. The import duties on cotton, wool, and 
the raw materials of manufacture :-— the duty on colonial timber, 
and the high protective duty on foreign timber :—the high duties 
on coffee, sugar, and tea :—the protective or prohibiting duties on 
foreign sugar, corn, cattle, and provisions:—the duties on foreign 
manufactures:—the export duties on British produce :—the duty 
on marine, insurances :—the Excise duties on glass, on bricks, and 
on soap :—and the window duty, the most unpopular of all,—have 
all been either entirely repealed, or reduced to a mere nominal and 
imperceptible amount. But let us examine in what degree the 
interests of trade, and the development of commerce and industry, 
have shared in these great reductions. Of the entire amount 
of taxes repealed, the following may be said to have given direct 
encouragement to trade, while their removal afforded equal relief 
to all consumers :— 





£ 
Customs duties .....0 cesses coccvceee 20,720,894 
in. ines cone ene esececee 2,617,167 
Marine irsurances ddtied dome eeee 161,951 
Renate Gat ine coe on corseen on: pnencmpecas ome doce 605,000 
TE iss ctu snetiinne ed idee eoeseses 277,000 
14,021,932 


the amount of 9,640,119/ were imposed, others to the amount of 


a cc i tT CC CE 


“Dec. 27, 1856. ! 


— = } 


Thus, of the entire amount of 16,918,1547 of taxes repeulag 
during the period in question, no less than 14,021,9327 went to the 
direct relief of trade; while the only taxes repealed which direct}y 
affected real property were the window duty, and to some exteyt 
the stamp duties upon conveyances, Now, how can we best 
measure the consequences of these great reductions upon the 
interests and condition of the whole community considered as con. 
sumers? We might point tothe enlarged consumption of this 
article and of that. But the whole matter is best summed up iy 
a single sentence:—While the Customs duties produced a net re. 
venue of 21,898,0002 in 1841, after a reduction and repeal of duties 
as we have seen to the extent of 10,720,8141, the net revenue Pto- 
duced in 1853 was 20,902,734/; and while the Excise duties pro. 
duced in 1841 a net revenue of 13,678,000J, after a reduction and 
repeal of duties to the amount of 2,617,1672, they produced ip 1863 
anet revenue of 15,337,724/; or, putting the two together, the 
Customs and Excise produced in 181 a net revenue of 35,576,000] 
and after a reduction and repeal of Customs and Excise duties to 
the amount of 13,337,981/, the net revenue which those ‘two 
branches yielded to the State in 1853 was 36,240,458), showing 
that the command of the consumer over the luxuries: and neces. 
saries of life had increased so much as fully to compensate for a]} 
the reductions which had been made. 

Sut to turn from the direct effects upon the consumers at large, 
to the indirect consequences upon all classes by the enlargement 
of our commerce, we shall find results not less remarkable, 
Here, again, a single sentence will convey all that is necessary. 
Such has been the extension of our me by the removal of the 
restrictions to which we have adverted, that whereas in 1841 the 
value of our imports from the United Kingdom was 51,545,000), 
in 1853 it already reached to 98,933,000, and in the present 
year it will reach nearly 120,000,000. So again, while in 1841 
the entire amount of tonnage of ships, both British and foreign, 
which entered and cleared with cargoes at the ports of the 
United Kingdom was 7,525,585 8, in 1853 it had increased to 
9,064,000 tons of British shipping only, and including foreign ship- 
ping to no less than 15,381,000 tons, or more than double that of 
1841; and since 1853 the increase has steadily continued. But 
these facts, though stated shortly as broad and conclusive indica- 
tions of the results of a great and wise policy, imply, if pro- | 
perly considered in their more minute consequences upon the 
interests of our capitalists, the wealth of our merchants, the in- 
comes of the smaller traders, the employment and wages of the 
whole of our industrial classes, the general well-being and pros- 
perity of the whole community. 

| 
income tax and Customs duties:—the latter come into opefar 
tion at once; the former only yield to the full extent in the 
following year. What was to be done? The means for carrying 
on the war must be had without delay: the income tax would 
furnish them only in the following year. The Chancellor of the 
Exchequer accordingly issued bonds to the extent, in the whole, of 
8,000,000 in anticipation of the taxes in question; and these) 
bonds form as much part of the war expenditure, to be paid by the 
taxes then imposed, as any other cost already defrayed ; nor, untill) 
these bonds are provided for, can it be said that the purpose for) 
which the war taxes were granted has been accomplished. To tet) 
new bonds issued under such circumstances, and thus make then) 
part of the recognised unfunded debt to be continued floating nd 
definitely, and much less to fund them in the time of peace, would) 


be what Parliament will never submit to. To redeem them at 
maturity is the only course left open to the country, and thus t¢ 


| 
| 
| 





ton 
4Ual 





There are two classes of objectors to the income tax. There 
are those who object to the tax at all, whatever its amount may 
be. There are those who object not to the tax, but to a continus- 
tion of the double rate now that the war, for which it was im- 
posed, has been concluded. Of course these are two very different 
things. To the former we may say that the facts to which we 
have alluded, show that the income tax has been all pure gain and 
much more; that it has been the means of saving them in other 
ways double what it has taken from them. The latter, however, 
will very naturally say: Admitting all the benefits which have been 
derived from the income tax to the full, both direct and indirect, 
they were the result of the peace income tax, not of the war 
income tax :—with the former, we do not wish to interfere, but 
leave it to its good work: the latter only is what we seck t 
repeal. But with such the whole question is a matter of a year. 
Shall the tax be reduced on the Sth of April, 1857, or on 
that day in 1858? The grounds, however, upon which this 
question is to be considered, are not so different from those which 
determine the principle of an income tax at all, as at first sight 
may appear. When the war commenced in 1854, the means for 
conducting it were to be found. By common consent it was de 
termined that, as far as was practicable, the income of the year 
should bear the expenditure of the year, and that the old system 
of loans should be resorted to as little as possible. In accordance 
with this wise determination not to run into debt, it became the 
duty of Parliament to vote new taxes. The question then arose: 
Are we to have direct or indirect taxes? are we to resort to am 
income tax or Customs and Exise duties? With the experience 
of late years before us, the country had no hesitation in deciding 
that at Jeasta large portion should be supplied by means of an 
increased income tax. But there is this difference between an 


} 








' 


- 





nl 











Dee 2%» 1856.) 


o al 

rve in good faith the enlightened and just principles of finance 
Pr which the late war has been disting uished over all others; and 
in order to do so, we may be certain that the better judgment of 
all reflecting men will not attempt to interfere with the means 
which Parliament has already placed at the disposal of the 
Government, so far as they are required for this laudable purpose. 
There is a great principle at stake, which those who appreciate the 
benefits of the financial policy of late years will not be willing to 
hazard. 


INSECURITY OF WARRANTS. 


We have thought it our duty occasionally to defend commerce 
against many ettacks from various quarters, ascribing to trade 
and to competition a low morality and many of the crimes of 
society. We have contrasted it with the morality of the law, and 
have more than once insisted that our commercial readers, if they 
would be honest and do right, must not place their consciences, as 
they are too much in the habit of doing, in the keeping of solici- 
tors.’ To illustrate the low view which we have taken of the 
morality of the law, we must now refer to the case of Kingsford 
v. Merry, of which we copy the following fair abridgment from 
the Times :— 

At the end of 1853, a person named Anderson, then considered to bea 
man of respectability, procured from a Mr Kingsford a delivery order fora 
certain quantity of tartaric acid, upon which he afterwards borrowed 2,000/ 
of Messrs Merry and Son, handing them warrants as security. Anderson 
having shortly afterwards become bankrupt and been convicted of for- 
gery, the acid was sold by Messrs Merry, who then repaid themselves 
the 2,000 advanced, and handed over a surplus to the assignees. 
Meanwhile it had been discovered that Anderson had obtained the order 
for the acid under false pretences, and after having allowed a year to 
elapse during which no steps were taken Mr Kingsford brought a claim 
against Messrs Merry and Son for the entire proceeds. Messrs Merry 
answered that they had advanced the 2,0002 upon the warrants bona fide 
and without any knowledge of the circumstances under which Anderson 
had obtained them, which was fully admitted; and they also urged that 
if notice had been given them when the frauds of Anderson were first disco- 
vered both parties might have been protected, as they would notin that case 
have paid the balance to the assignees. An action was thereupon brought 
by Kingsford against Merry before Lord Chief Baron Pollock and a special 
jury, in which the fudge, immediately on hearing merely the plaintiff’s 
case, expressed his decided opinion that Merry was entitled to the verdict, 
and remarked that “if a bona side transaction like this was to be im- 
peached no man would be safe, and business could not be transacted in a 
great commercial city like London.’’ The verdict, with the unenimous 
consent of the jury, was entered accordingly, and a subsequent motion 
having been made against it, the full court pronounced that the Lord 
Chief Baron had decided correctly. Kingsford, however, then appealed 
to the Court of Exchequer Chamber, and that Court reversed the decision. 
This result is stated to have caused an extraordinary ferment among al] 
commercial persons here it has Become known, and Messrs Merry have 
felt it their duty to place a record of the facts before the public, content- 
ing themselves with the following remark:—** Any observations here on 
the case are deemed unnecessary. In consequence of no reguiar report 
of the trial having been published in the daily papers this epitome is 
merely circulated in order to place the facts fairly before the commercial 
community, to expose the insecurity in which all transactions are in- 
volved by the judgment of the Court of Error—to show that warrants 
and delivery or transfer orders, which have hitherto been considered and 
treated as valid instruments and securities, may be jeopardised; and, 
further, in the hope that the merchants and brokers may be induced to 
take the necessary steps to obtain an Act of Parliament to remedy the 
present frightful defects of the law.” 

We are quite in the dark as to the means which induced the 
Court of Exchequer Chamber to reverse the decision of the Court 
of Exchequer. We only know that in a plain ease, which appears 
not to have admitted a doubt on one side or the other—for either 
Merry or Kingsford was the legal holder of the tartaric acid— 
two Courts of Exchequer, under the decision of some of the same 
judges, advised probably by the same barristers, have pronounced 
two directly opposite decisions, thus confounding—on which great 
stress is now laid as the reason for punishing offences—right and 

g. But this seems to be the peculiar province of the law. 
Judges doubt on the plainest questions; barristers are paid to find 
out contradictory decisions and contradictory views ; the law itself 
is inaccurately worded,—intentions are imperfectly expressed; it 
Opens wide many doors to many doubts and contradictions ; it 
encourages disputes, and thus becomes a source of interminable 
moral confusion. Anarchy of thought is very much the conse- 
quence amongst us of anarchy in the statute book, and anarchy in 
what Mr Bentham was accustomed to vilify as judge-made law. 

The results of this anarchy are now likely to be deplorable for 
commerce. In fact, consternation prevails in the City. ‘The law 
has thrown discredit on commercial securities, and there being no 
report of the trial, mercantile men do not know the reasons of the 
decision. A tribunal which appears as if it were working in secret 
and darkness has struck down the instruments of trade; and as 
its decision is in opposition to the decision of a tribunal of which 
the reasons were known, those who have to use these instru- 
ments are at a loss what to do. No legal decision within our 
memory has had such an unpleasant effect as this, If security 
is not to be giyen by the law to the transactions of the 
open market untainted by fraud, there will be an end to 
confidence and an end to trade. Railway companies and various 
other persons necessarily employ numerous confidential servants, 








THE ECONOMIST. 


| stead of protecting them, it alters and violates them. 


| 








1427 


and they and all who deal with them must suffer amazing if 
all the bona fide transactions of these persons are not held to be 
valid by the law. Employers might, as it suited them, throw off 
responsibility for their agents, and coufusion and anarchy would 
ensue in the public, equal to the confusion and the anarchy which 
prevail in the law. Acontemporary says: —“ Several banking estab- 
‘“ lishments have determined to decline advances on sold notes, dock 
‘- tyarrants, or transfer orders. Brokers are bewildered, and talk 
“of a deputation tothe Board of Trade. It is suggested that 
“the only effectual extrication from the dilemma is to take com- 
“ mercial law out of the hands of lawyers, and place the adjudi- 
“ cation of questions between merchants in the hands of a Cham- 
“ber and Tribunal of Commerce, just as the Committee of the 
“ Stock Exchange compels obedience to its decrees inall differences 
‘* between its members.” 

A fortnight ago we showed that the rights of the merchants, 
brokers, and others—the respective shares, for example, of all and 
each of them in the value of the tartarie acid in question—was 
settled and determined by their bargaining and higgling. All 
which they require of the law at any time is, not to declare or 
settle their rights, but to enforce them against wrong-doers—those 
who break their bargains or do not keep faith with other men, 
They really settle their mutual rights themselves. The law has 
only to protect them, and it commits a double wrong, when, in- 

The moralit 
implied in their mutual higgling and contention, therefore, which 
settles rights, has a higher source—the laws of human nature and 
society—than the morality of laws, which are only at best the im- 





| perfect attempts of a few very ill-informed persons to settle and 


declare rights beforehand, which, in developing society, are con- 


| tinually subject to modification. 





CRIMINALITY “OF “THE DESIRE FOR WEALTH. 


WE stated last week, as we have stated before, that the bulk of 
the crimes committed in England are violations of the right of 
property. Crimes of personal violence are remarkably few, and 
most of them arise from the desire of gain. The furious passions 
—anger and revenge—which in other countries lead to murder, are 
little known here. Nationally speaking, we are not assassins but 
pilferers. Our crime results from an insane desire of gain. Can 
nothing be done to lessen it? The cases of Redpath and Robson, 
of the British Bank, and of the Messrs Cole, of Gordon and 
Davidson, of Paul and Strahan, of the Messrs Sadleir, with other 
jmilar cases, such as those of a Baron of the Exchequer and 
a King’s Counsel, alluded to by Lord Brougham in his letter 
to Lord Radnor*—many known, many hushed up, and more 
dreaded—convince us that the criminal insanity of the desire is 
not peculiar toa class. It pervades the community, and is a remark- 
able feature of the national mind. Is not this susceptible of being 
modified, assuaged, and reduced to a sane proportion? Is it an 
unalterable law of nature, that the English mind must un- 
righteously desire gain, which we can no more influence than we 
can melt the Polar ice ? 

Such is not the general belief. It is supposed to be a deviation 
from the normal condition, which we can rectify. We inflict, in 
fact, numerous punishments as a warning and example, ‘expecting 
that the exhibition of punishment for theft should lessen the de- 
sive, be a restraint on inclination, and lead to improved behaviour. 
Our great establishment for teaching religion, which we con- 
tinually increase, and our establishments for teaching morality 
and science, and all the exertions we have made and are making 
to extend education and improve the moral habits of the people, 
imply a settied conviction that mind is susceptible of modification ; 
that the desires, inclinations, and emotions are all under the in- 
fluence of knowledge and will; and resemble rather the trees 
which we train, from yieldng only the sour crab or the acrid sloe, 
to bear the sweet and juicy apple or the luseious plum, than the 
pular ice. Common sense or general opinion tells us that the in- 
sane desire of gain, which is now the source of such a vast and in- 
creasing number of crimes, can be lessened, modified, and restored 
to soundness and health. 

the fact, however, is, that it has continued to increase in 
strength. It seems to penetrate society more and more day after 
day. Vain are ull the best devised punishments—transportation, 
imprisonment, solitary confinement, working on highways—to pre- 
vent its disastrous effects. Hanging, too, has been tried; men and 
women were hanged in scores for forgery, and the greater the num- 
ber executed the more numerous were the forgeries, till despair and 
shame compelled society to try another method. Commitments 
and convictions have, as the rule, gone on increasing rather in 
proportion to the care taken by punishment and precautions to 
prevent crime than otherwise. In fact, when such a desire is 
created, no obstacle baulks it—no fear of detection, no terror of 
punishment, turns it aside. Every day the police reports contain 
marvellous tales of the ingenuity, skill, and perseverance which 
the swindler and the thiet employ to attain their ends. The 
combinations of an Agar and a Pierce with their confederates 
would do honour to the most profound strategist; and their un- 
swerving, unbafiled pursuit in a different course would have been 
worthy of success. Ihe bloodhound does not more certainly track 


* See “ Law Amendment Jcurna’,” Dec. 11, 1856. 











7425 


THE EC 


} 








his game than does this desire follow the gold bars or t 











ONOMIST. 


1e bankers’ | devices. 





a 
[Dec. 27, 1856. 


= Eo ‘oe Dee Se 
If we wish to lessen the desire for unlawful ; ain, a differ 





, 


be 5 

pareel, which is its appropriate grati 1 til lutches the | ent course must be adopted. ‘We must betray less anxiety to get 

nrize. Guardians are corrupted, the police get infected—amongst | rich and secure riches. 
; i ; 7" a * . . 4 4 ' } si i - .. . , Pk = . . . ‘ 
|| them are found burglars and thieves—officials are persuaded to Abstractedly and generally speaking, this desire is an essential 
|| enter into nefarious designs, and the very means of safety are | part of human nature, and can no more be generally productive 
|! turned to means of destruction. ‘Ihe present result of the all-per- | of criminality, or no more grow into general insanity, without 
{| vading desire is an alarming want of confidence in the usual means | some factitious or artificial causes and encouragement, than 
| > . . tT) } . . . : Rattam — taynal lo 1] » ives « s 
1! of re pressing crim Doubt and dismay begin to inquire, who patriotism or maternal lov All our desires and passions 

is to look alter the ] what other guardians and detectives | being essential 


¢ cy i 
can we employ to guard us against the guardians infected by the 


general plague? 


We have apparently reached a point where we must stop and 
turn into another direction. We cannot carry our present system 
any further. We are vacillating and dismayed. The expense 
of the police is already complained of. ‘To increase it and all the 
instruments of repression without some guarantee of their sound- 
seems useless. Even superintendents are not immaculate. 
If we have not hitherto gone wrong, and there be no other means 


1eSs, 


of lessening and curbing the desire for gain than those hitherto 
employed, there is no hope for us. We must continue a nation of 
pilferers—to feel, as at present, the insecurity of our condition and 
the shame of being the scorn of more honest people. May not 
the old maxims of penal jurisprudence, like the old maxims of 
commercial policy, be erroneous? May not the restrictive and 
protectionist theory, now ascertained to be very injurious when 
applied to food and drink and elothing—things which can be 


measured or weighed—be equally injurious when applied to our 
unseen, ill-understood, and inappreciable motives? {he great in- 


crease in the number of offences against property, and the in- 
crease which is always apprehended, indicate that 
wrong, and invite us, if we wish to lessen 
take another course. 


ve have gone 


Do not let us give way to the notion that 
great wealth are the causes of our pilfering habits. 
tioned last week, a similar insane desire exists in the United 
States, as the Schuylers, the Huntingdons, and others convince us, 
where there is no want of space and no great accumulations of 
wealth, and no such striking contrasts between riches and poverty 
ashere. “ ‘There are more cases of burglary, robbery, and murder 


in the suburbs of London, “than in any part of England. 
number of persons to be tried in New York, 5,389, at the pre- 
sent sessions, as mentioned last week, is greater than the whole 
| number committed in Middlesex 





, 1254 1104 
iN iOwd, 4,i07. 


ra 
= < 


Undoubtedly a difficulty of procuring an honest iivelihood has 
something to.do with the depredation of the comparatively poor, 
who in the main constitute among us the criminal class. But this 


bg 


political institutions. 


stitute at all times its actual boundaries. They are not 
the confines of physical space nor the laws of the material 


world. 


.1 92 


| a great diminution of commitments, from 31,309 in 1842, to 24,303 
in 1845, ensued. In the long period between 1815 and 1842 there 
is no equal, though there was a similar reduction in the cheap 
years 1821-3 and 1835-6. We should, therefore, commit 
| @ grievous error were we to ascribe the difficulties which 
undoubtedly stand in the way of procuring an honest livelihood 
to circumscribed physical space, or the laws of the material world, 
instead of ascribing them to political restrictions. 

Our increasing wealth is the necessary result of increasing skill 
and knowledge. It was promoted by the greater knowledge of 
free trade and by the improved commercial policy which began 
to be very conspicuousin 1842. tis promoted by every increase in 
productive power, whether in the agriculturist, the manufacturer, or 
the merchant. It is inereasec by the opening of new markets as 
well as by the taking new land into cultivation. Our wealth has 
increased faster than our population, and its increase facilitates 
further increase. It is now a worn-out error “ that the progress of 
“‘ society in one age impedes its progress in the succeeding age.” 
The reverse is the fact, and the progress of all Europe, especially 
of England, has latterly been in an accelerating, not a retarding 
ratio. ‘The progress in skill, and knowledge, and wealth, is what 
we emphatically call by one word civilisation, and it is a contradic- 
tionoran absurdity to regard this as a cause ofcriminality. We must 
go on in this career, it is obviously the ordained course of society, 
and with it increased criminality is incompatible. Let us, there- 
fore, dismiss from our minds the hackneyed and false creed that 
the multitude of people and the great amount of wealth within the 
physical confines of ingland are the causes of the intensity of the 
desire of gain, which leads to such an increase of criminality. 

_ When ging was inflicted for forging, bank notes were con- 
tinually forged; and, in like manner, the increase of erime which 
has followed on all our exertions—the establishment of a police, 
the improvement of the administration of the Jaw, the invention of 
new systems of torture—shows that we have acted oa some erro- 
neous principle. Nature does not, as a rule, mock all the efforts 
of men with such complete failure as have followed all our penal 


} 





nnn ee 


ee 


SEE ———————————— 


the criminal! desire, to | 


our limited space and 
As we men- | 


“in New York,” says the European, of the 6th inst., casting a | 
slur on the exaggeratiors of ourpress as to the prevalence of crime | 
The | 


difficulty is less the consequence of our limited space, than of our | 
We still maintain numerous artificial re- | 
strictions on enterprise and the progress of opulence which con- | 


After 1842, when some of these artificial restrictions were | 
| removed, agreat increase of wealth ensued in the next subsequent | 
| years; the means of getting an honest livelihood were easier, and | 


to the welfare of society, when one of them 
becomes so predominantly injurious as at present is the de. 


sire of wealth, it is the especial duty of those who suffer 
from its consequences and aspire to guide society, who 


have laboured in vain most unsuccessfully for a long period to 
correct its excesses, before they have recourse to additional coer. 
cion and more cruel punishments, to renewed transportation and 
perhaps hanging, to find out why this one desire leads to such 
continued, increasing, and enormous criminality. As long as it 
exists intensified as at present, it will be as impossible to prevent 
its illicit gratification as to stop the growth of pauperism when 
funds are provided for its maintenance, or to prevent marauding 
by soldiers trained to commit devastation. 





PROPERTY AND INCOME, 

WE are taught rather unpleasantly, by some comments on what 
we have written, that the term property is very differently under- 
stood by different persons. It has been inferred, apparently from 
no other reason than that the word has been supposed to mean 
only real estate, or vested and secured interests, that our state- 
ment of the chief crimes of the community being directed against 
property, implied that by them only capitalists and landowners 
were affected. On a similar principle or similar misapprehension 
of the term, persons speak and write of the property and income 
tax as if property and income were two distinct and almost con- 
tradictory things. We have before us, in fact, an elaborate 
pamphlet on the income tax, in which it is said that the tax on 
profits is nota tax on property. Profits, therefore, and income 
are, according to many writers and speakers, not property : the 
are something less sacred. | singular, however, that those 
who write thus are opposed toa tax on profits and incone, which 
they divest of sanctity and reverence from describing them as 
something which is not property. 

According to the origin of the word, proprius, and long usage, 
property means almost everything peculiar to and belonging 
to an individual, and we speak of the properties of his 
mind as well as his property in the funds or in an estate 
Property is a general term then describing all things belonging to 
an individual, from an old slipper to the county of Sutherland. 
Income is but one species of property, but when the means of at- 
taining it, such as honest industry, have the warrant of the com- 
munity, there is no species of property which more deserves 
respect. In fact, ‘income is the present daily produce of that 
living labour, which the chiefest of our moral and political phile- 
sophers—for Locke has not on the whole been surpassed by any 
successor—has justly described as the foundation of all property. 
It is equally injudicious and incorrect to speak of income as any 
thing but property of the most sacred character, and to speak of the 
humblest possessions ef the poor as essentially different in their 
nature from the property of the landowner and capitalist, and less 
deserving of the most profound respect. \ 

In fact, the property of the capitalist and the landowner is 
merely a title to receive so much income. If the Duke of Suther- 
land did not receive an income, paid aunuaily or half-yearly, from 
his estates, he would soon be glad to be exempt from the responsi- 
bility of possessing them, and to accept the humblest employment 
under the Government. 1f Lord Overstone did not receive an in- 
come, paid quarterly, or even at shorter intervals, from his 
property in the funds, he would very soon be glad to go back to 
banking, and even to accept a clerk’s place in the great establish- 
ment in Lothbury. Thus, income—whether profits, wages, sala- 
ries, or rents—instead of being in any degree inferior to real pro- 
perty or fixed property, is superior to it, inasmuch as it is the 
very thing—the pabulum of life—which the real or fixed pro- 
perty is preserved or acquired to command. — ; 

Fixed or real property being only useful to secure an in- 
come, and being subjected, as everybody knows, to fluctuations in 
value—Consols being sometimes at 190/and sometimes at 895i, and 
land sometimes yielding a crop and sometimes not—the whole in- 
come derived from both being dependent on labour like every other 
income, and the exigencies of the State being also fluctuating—one 
year requiring 90,000,000/ because it is at war, and at another 
paying its way with 50,000,0002 when at peace—it seems to be 
one of the most unjust plans which irritation or despair ever sug- 
gested, to tax the income derived from real estate or fixed pro- 
perty, year by year, ina greater ratio oc proportion than the 1n- 
come derived from trade, or salaries, or manufactures, or profes- 
sional and other daily labour. At present the income tax 1s com- 
plained of as requiring an inquisition into private affairs, and it § 
would be made thoroughly and deservedly hated were it to be 
imposed on income, according to the sources whence income 18 
derived. Into details we need not enter, as every one 18s In & | 
condition to sketch for himself the enormous interference which } 
would ensue, were the principle once to be introduced, that the 


18 


+ 
\ 


See uv 














—— nO 
Dec. 27 1856. | 


A - 
incomes of individuals were to be taxed differently as they arise 
from different sources We say nothing of the communistie con- 
sequences of the State beginning to tax the income of those who 
have realised property at a higher rate than the income of those 
of those who are labouring to acquire realised property. 


The history of modern times is full of instruction as to the 
danger of making distinctions, by taxation and otherwise, between 
different species of income. For the State, which above ail 
things bound to protect property of all kinds, to begin a course 
of confiseation of some particul: ir species of prope rty, or a disre- 
gard of any kind of property, is equally ruinous to the State and 
the community. A want of respect for property lies at the 
bottom of most of our social evils, and yet the importance of 
respect for it is not to be surpassed. 

To discover that absolute 
gary, acco wding to Locke, 
ef martial discipline; for the 





is 


power is not arbitrary, it is only neces- 


preservation of the army, 








THE ECONOMIST. 








1429 


tions with a conviction that they have entered the right path, and 
are destined to improve thei ir cour try 

Their language had somet e to ‘do with inducting them into 
error. V schaft signifies rather the manner in which people 
have cond acted 1 their affairs, than the manner in which they ought 





Y 


7, th 
CRSICUT TL 


v/ 


| to conduct them; while political economy—-misnamed though it be— 


, has for its ebject the natnral laws which have at all times deter- | 
| mined the welfare of societies, 


to look no further than the common practice | 


and in it of the | gathered, and the gatherer would have the right to feed himself 


whole cf the commonwealth, requires an absolute obedience to the commands | 


of every superior officer, and it is justly death to disobey or dispute the 
most dangerous or unreasonable of them; but yet we that neither 
sergeant that c yuld command a soldier to march up to the mouth of a can- 
non, or stand in a breach where he is almost sure to perish, can command 
that soldier to give him one penny of his money: ror the general that can 
condemn him to death for deserting his post, or for not obeying 
desperate orders, can yet, with all his absolute powers of life 
dispose of one farthing of that soldier’s estate or seize one jo 

Without noticing the reservation that the property of the soldier, 
like the property of others, and like his life, may be taken for the 
public good, which Locke kept in view, the doctrine seems car- 
ried too far. But with this just reservation, and confining the 
taking of the soldier’s property for the use of the sergeant or the 
officer and not for State necessities, the doctrine is true, and 
elucidates very clearly the sanctity due to property of all kinds. 
It would seem even to be more dese ‘rving of consideration than life 
| itself; for the life of the soldier may be destroyed, while his pro- 
| perty isto be held sacred by those who send him to destruction. 
| The reason, is apparent. Without property life cannot 
| 
| 
} 
| 


see the 


the most 
and death, 


f his goods, 


oo, ue be 
preserved, es life would be extinguished were property not re- 

| spected. Life, however, is abund: antly created 1 ry ni ifure, whe ther 
it be the life of fis} r or of plants, or of anim: ls, and to d stroy a single 
|| or several lives, for the purposes of preserving a greater number r, 


|is asmall evil compared to putting an end to property, which 





| would permanently destroy nearly all human life. At least, pro- 
|| perty must be respected for society to continue ; and it cannot, 
|| therefore, by any class or by all cla isses be held too sacred. 
' 
seagate teagan secon 

POLITICAL ECONOMY IN GERMANY. 


It is true in part of the Germans as of the French, that having 
been very much engaged since the great war in watching and 
counteracting their Governments—sutfcring, too, from the 
lutions of France, which have affected Europe,—they have not 
had as much time andinclination as the English to study politieal 
economy, and have not made in it equal progress, 
we gained over the other nations ot Europe by establishing at an 


| etables us to devote ourselves to more advanced and muc 
social investigations, and keeps usin the foremost place. Europe 
|| has been in advance of the rest of the world for ages, and Eng- 
'| land is in advance of the rest of Europe. 
fone; while her language and her arts are spreading over the 
|| pres at Western Continent and the further antipode s, she still 
“toteach the nations how tolive.” Much of our recent legislation, 
|} however, and much of the writing in our journals, make 
}} || observing g foreigners deny our claims to superior knowledge, and 
say, justifying their assertion by pointing to our banki 
|e aily arguments in favour of some old or for inflicting some 
| new restrictions, that our homage to free trade is mere iip service, 
and does not pervade our hearts and lives. We preach unre- 
stricted competition in the abstract, and live in apprehension of it 
in the concrete, trying perpetually to control and restrict it in some 
one business or another. Our avowed faith in division of 


h-needed 





’ 
Has 


} 1; 
ieadcinge 


os 


hour 
| and in the free exchange essential to it, does not prevent us from 
} continually making laws to dictate and restrain both. ‘The 


French have : already surpassed us in the neatness of their defini- 
tions and in the logical deductions from them ; 
| Writers are following their 
knowledge of the science 

Five and twenty years ago, there seemed no hop 
truths of politics al economy should ever find a cordial welcome 
amongst the thinkers of that country. ‘They were so preoccupied 
by mysticism or so devoted to Fatherl: land: that they 
their senses to observe what was going on around the 
liftthemselves above the all-sutficient example of their own dear 
rulers. The courtly Goethe had more influence over them than 
the popular Sc hiller, and they devoted themselves rather to find 
excuses for wrong in the sy stems that had long been, than find 
out the path to right. They were lost in wordy abstractions, or 
in admiration of ‘the middle ages. Their aim was to make the 
Batural laws which regulate the production and distribution of 
wealth subservient to their own or ganisation, and they started from 
the error that this was superior to those. Now, a more humble and 
& Wiser spirit animates them, and we can look at their lucubra- 


lead, and scem likely to diffuse the 
amongst the people of Germany. 


» that th 





wee ee 


Her destiny is a noodle | 


to which the actual systems of most 
Volk wirthshaft is an account of the 
errors of man; science is the truth of nature, which in the end 
all men acknowledge. Itisthesame in all times; the former are 
different amongst different people. In all places and at all times— 
whatever poets may fancy of a golden age—labour has been neces- 
sary to procure the means of subsistence. However abundant might 
have been at any time or place the spontateous productions of 
the earth, before they could be en joyed they must have been 


nations have been opposed. 
the 


with them. Some might be within reach, others might reqtire 


some skill or art to get at them; andthe f first man who climbed ap | 


a tree would be a le: ader in a new species of industry. So the first 
man who snared a wild animal or speared a fish would evolve the 
same principle and act on it, just as Watt acted in inventing and 
appropriating the invention of the steam engine to his own ad- 
vantage. pe abour has always been made additionally productive 
by skill. ‘Thus, from the very beginning, at all times and places, 


to the preset nt hour, men must labour to proeure subsistence, and | 


} 


their labour will be easy and productive in proportion as they are 
skilful ; i.e., as they have observed and learned the properties of all 
the atoms of the world in which they live, and have by their help 
attained their objects. But those who set out from the idea that 
the imperfect manner in which these laws have been known and 
acted on in past time was right in all time (which is presupposed 


by the term Volkswirthschaft), are not likely to extend their views 
to the laws which the nations should have acted on, and should } 
now act on. 


The rude events, however, of latter years, when Volkwirthschaft, 


| as we think it has hitherto been understood, has everywhere been 


shaken to pieces, ¢ and a different organiss ation—though, from igno- 


| rance, still imperfect and in progr ss—forced on the rulers of the 


| worl i, have le .d the Germans un 


revo- | 


The advantage | 


early period our constitutional freedom still te lls in our favour. It | 


ne laws | 


usciously to more rational opini- 


ons. ‘The minds of their le nena men too, from long custom, have 


been more influenced by French the - by English philosophy, and | 


they have more readily imbibed the truth from Say and Bastiat 
than from Adam Smith and M‘C ulloel 
therefore comprehend better the sy tomalie works of the French 
than the rather piecemeal works of the English. With us the 


science is so continually mixed up with our practices—our Volks- | 


virthschaft—that it has fewer attractions than the purer science, 


even if less well-grounded, of ‘the French. As’ France, how- 
ever, was the prey of disturbance and revolution while England 


was orderly and prosperous, the Germans, like ail other people, 
were forced to recognise the truth and do homage to the practice 
deduced from the science as it was taught in England. English 
Volkswirthschaft has long, on account of the prosperity of the 
people, been the cynosure of ali eyes ;—equally of Fre derick List in 
his hatred of the success of manufactures, and of Max Wirth in his 
love of free trade. We are told by the latter, and the passage 
gives, we think, a correct view both of the past and present con- 
dition of the science in Germany :— 

In order to make the science practical in Germany, people went to 
work on the bureaucratic principle, in consequence of the science being 
taught in the universities in branc as the bureaucracy actually 
divide the business of Government into finance, police, works, &c. The 
principles, however, of the forced ther way amongst the peo- 
ple earlier in England than in Germany, and only within the last seven 


nes, 


science, 


years has the German public begun to take au interest in the subject; 
| with such success, however, that we shall soon overtake the English, 
particularly in North Germany, where the whole press is now on the 


| 


| 


and now German | 


side of the true principles of political economy.* 

This writer is a follower of M. Bastiat, and is more of a clear 
compiler than a thinker, more an artist than a philosopher, and 
tells us better what other men have thought than fills 
with hi s own fertilising labour the spots they have left untilled. 
His work consists—first, of a definition : ani xplan: ation of the prin- 
ciples of political economy, as established by Bastiat, Say, Smith, 
M‘Culloch, and others ; s« condly, of an outline history of the ac- 


tual economy of ail nations, including a history of the progress | 


| of the science in the different nations of Europe in modern times ; 


e plain | 


could not use | 
em, or could not | 


and thirdly, a detailed explanation of the different parts of the 
science, including the laws 
capital, credit, competition, banking, &e., Xe. 
the author’s deficiencies are chietly exhibited. It includes all 
those matters in which the science is imperfeet, such as the 
natural laws which regulate credit—as much a necessary part of 
production as exchange ; and in this the author has not, we think, 
exhibited anv skill or capacity to sup; ily what previous writers 
have left incomplete. Nevertheless the book is first-rate of its 
kind, and will contribute to hasten the progress of the science in 
Germany. Our philosophical writers will have to look to their 
laurels: the suecess of the nation will not conceal from the in- 


In this latter part 


| vestigation of foreigners the defects of their systems and their 





rrr 


teaching. 


* Grundsuge der National-@konomie von Max Wirth. Koln (Cologne). 1856. 


They like system, and | 


of social progress, of property, of | 


ee eee sage oo eee caeemmienntdinnentinememnbeemnetiens <a te rE LL LLL LLL LLL LLL LLL LLL LL ALLL 


RT 











THE ECONOMIST. | 


Agriculture. 


THE CLOSING YEAR. 

Ir frequently happens that when severe frosts occur early in the 
season, the winter proves iess rigorous than when the first serious 
frosts commence at a later period. Now there appears every 
probability that the year will close with mild open weather—a 

} good hunting winter. 
revented any improvement in the quality of British wheat 
Sconpit to market, and continually drooping prices have been the 

| result. i 
samples have commanded high prices. Indeed so great has been 

| the differences of quality that while fine old Dantzic wheat has 
| sold for 90s per quarter, English red wheat has been selling for 


| 55s to 56s per quarter. Better prices are however obtained for | 
| cross, being used for breeding. This involves breeding in-and-in. We have 


well-conditioned English wheat, of which however the samples 
are not abundant. 
not occurred since 1816, and the losses sustained by the farmers 
will be very serious. Though the breadth of wheat grown in 
Scotland during the past year appears to have been greater than 
previously, that part of the kingdom will scarcely furnish its 
ordinary share of bread corn for the general use of the community. 
Large quantities of foreign wheat are being sent to the Peninsula, 
there being a scarcity of corn both in Spain and Portugal. 
The present mild weather is not unfavourable to the growing 
wheat, for much of it having been sown late the plant is only just 


above ground, and in a state in which frost, if very severe, would | 


| be likely to injure it. We have heard of little wheat which can 
be considered as too forward and requiring the check of sharp 
weather. Stock of all kindssell for high prices, and the consump- 
tion of meat seems likely to increase. On all sides farmers are 
congratulated on their prospects ; and farms, especially in districts 
where leases prevail, as in Scotland, are being relet at advanced 
rents. The subject of the rotation of crops, and incidentally the 
effect of culture stipulations, have been discussed with much intel- 
| ligence at the London Farmers’ Club, and the tendency of the 


remarks of most of the speakers was to discountenance that excess | 


of regulation by which so many landowners have of late years 
harassed their tenants. We shall, on another occasion, deal more 
fully with this discussion. 

Stock-breeders have a good prospect before them. Never were 
good Shorthorn cattle, horses and pigs in greater demand than at 


present, while Cotswold and Southdown sheep for breeding pur- | 


poses command unprecedented prices. The colonial and foreign 
demands for breeding stock are comparatively new elements in the 
breeder’s calculation. 


CATTLE BREEDING. 


NOTWITHSTANDING many farmers are fond of feeding cross-bred | 


stock, and some agricultural writers have advocated systematic cross- 
breeding, the good sense of the general body of agriculturists has 


led them to direct their efforts in the only safe direction,—the | 
Of this the | 


improvement ofthe pure breeds of domestic animals. 
progress of the Smithfield Club Show may be taken as an indica- 
tion. Originally thecattle there were classed according to age and 
sex only. " Next the three chief breeds, Shorthorns, Herefords, and 
Devons, were divided; prizes for various classes according to 
age and sex being offered for each race. Now the flourishing 
state of the Club fands has enabled the Committee to offer addi- 
tional prizes, and the plan adopted has very properly been to 
encourage the pure breeds. Thus we have a set of new classes 
for Welsh cattle; another set for horned Scotch; another for 
polio Scotch ; 
Norfolk polled gattle; another for Irish; and another for Long- 
| horned cattle, as well as a set of classes expressly for cross-bred 
cattle. This is as it should be. Nobody would think of placing 
Seotch Irish, Sussex, Welsh, and Longhorned cattle in 
division, who expected any real competition by such kinds of 
stock; but now the Smithfield Club offers prizes for all the pure 
breeds of this country except the cattle of the Channel Islands, 
which could scarcely be provided for in a fut cattle show. In 


cultivating our pure breeds of cattle. 
Farmers who keep what is called a flying stock of cattle, who buy 


nd sell off all their stock periodically, may do very well by breeding | 


and feeding cross-bred cattle ; but all such men, who act with judg- 
ment, take care to use pure-bred males, and seldom venture on a 
second cross. Yet we find agricultural writers who gravely propose 
cross-breeding as a means of improving our stock. ‘The columns of 
the North British Agriculturist recently contained an article of this 
kind, which, in such a quarter, we cannot allow to pass without 
a protest. The writer says “crossing may be resorted to for im- 
parting to a breed qualities in which it is deficient.” This is a 
complete misapprehension. Individual cross-bred animals wil 
robably partake more or less of the qualities of both parents of 
Sifferent races, but that a breed or race can have any permauent 
uality imparted to it by crossing is contradicted by experience. 
t is admitted that “ crossing two distinct breeds with the view of 
propagating from the progeny a new and distinct breed, is an under- 
taking demanding the combination of structural knowledge, judg- 
ment, perseverance, and unceasing attention, with facilities for the 


TN 


The moisture of the past three weeks has | 
Imports of foreign wheat have been large and good | 
In Scotland so bad a harvest as the last has | 


| appear a distinct, as itis, in fact, a new breed. 


| five pure Devons and the two half-bred heifers. 


| prevail. 


another for Sussex; another set for Suffolk and | 
one | 


| Ol 


| considerable a degree of perfection, it does appear to be the ex- | 

| 
*“,* . . . . 
these additions we have a clear recognition of the importance of | 


| exaggerating praise into flattery and partiality into injustice. 


[ Dee: 27; 1856, 


continued exercise of them......... Under the most favourable con. 
ditions, care in selection is essential to uphold and fix the idea] 
standard.” And it is also admitted that there is a great tendene 
to variation from the “ standard”, and that “ at whet period in 
created breed this tendency to variation is to cease, there are no 
known examples in this country”. 

The fact that the first cross is superior to any subsequent crosses 


| is attributed to the “almost general practice that when any 


crossing is attempted, the paternal is the line taken, not the 
maternal, and that inferior animals are those selected for crossing.” 
The writer then proceeds, at greater length than our limits wil] 
permit us to extrac’, to state how the cross-breeder shoud pro- 
ceed to establish a new breed. The following passage, however, || 
seems to contain the most practical part of the directions :— 

In propagating the race, the male—the result of the first cross—should 
be used, the original females, as well as the females the result of the first 


in the previous articles considered this point in its relation to breeding 
cattle generally. The blood of the first cross will be one-half of either 
parent; the succeeding crosses having gradually less of the blood of the 
original parents. The herd, if well managed, will be distinctly inter. 
mediate, and will differ in character from the original parents so as to 
The constitution and 
habits of the female still prevail, except these have been vigorously 
combated, although there is little certainty in the results, unless the 
origins! parents were without any admixture of blood, and equally pure 
bred with the characteristic type developed. The type of the parent 
which is of the purest breeding will very generally be conspicuous. 


Now, under this process—that is breeding entirely from the half- 


breeds except that (as we understand the passage) the original | 


pure-bred females being still used—despite all care in selection, a 
herd of thorough mongrels inferior to both the original races 
would be the result. The only chance of any other result is, 
that in the process decribed the pure breed of the females first 
used, and then continued in use, might ultimately prevail. Thus, 
take the case of five Devon cows put to a Shorthorn male, 
and that the produce be three male and two heifer calves. One 
of the half-bred males is to be used, the other two being ex- 
cluded, and the herd of cows wiil then consist of the original 
Now let the 
same process be continued, excluding all the males save the one 
selected, and eventually the blood of the Devons must largely 
Whether it would ever throw off the Shorthorn cross, or 
if so, how many generations might be required for that purpose, 
it is not easy to say ; but for allpractical purposes the rash breeder 
who attempted to create a new breed would soon find himself in 
possession of a herd of ill-shaped mongrels, which he would be 
glad enough to get rid of without delay. Indeed the process is 
radically erroneous, even as applied to a pure breed, the plan 
involving the use of males of inferior purity of blood. The op- 
posite course is the true road to improvement. 

The writer says :—‘ Colour is one of the most difficult points to 
combat For instance, a black strain of colour can be changed 
into a blue or grey, but it is extremely difficult, if not next to an 
impossibility, to change it into a rich roan, red, or brown. On the 
same principle it becomes just as difficult to change the esteemed 
characters in the Shorthorn, Hereford, and Devon into the present 
fancy colour of the Scotch polled breeds—black.” Here we find 
that when animals altogether dissimilar are crossed—making what 
are called violent crosses—nothing like a uniform character can 
be established, and the phantom of a new breed speedily vanishes. 

Let the attention to structure, to selection, and to exclusion of 
inferior animals, which the writer recommends as requisite to 
establish a new breed of cattle, be applied to any of our pure 
breeds, and a profitable result will be certain. Indeed, so well is 
this understood by all our successful breeders, that nothing is re- 
garded by them with such jealousy as any suggestion to introduee 
foreign blood into their herds. When we regard the numerous 
breeds we possess in this country. suited to every variety of soil 
and climate we have, and each of which has been brought to so 


tremest foily to waste time, money, and skill in crossing, instead 
f improving any one of the pure breeds which may be best 
adapted tothe soil and situation, or even the fancy of the breeder. | 


#iterature. 


TERS From Heap-QuarTers; or, The Realities of the War in the 
By An Orricer ON THE Starr. Loudon: Murray. 

A Boox published professedly fur a laudatory purpose, runs great risk of 
When we 
wiitten by a Staff Officer, and published con- 


Let 


Crimea. 


took up these “ Letters,” 
fessedly wit the object of defending the military reputation of Lord Raglan 
civilians and outside observers, we acknow- 


meet with something of the true military ring 


against the criticisms of 
ledge that we expectel to 
—something full of slashing contempt for all not of the noble profession of 
arms, and overflowing with the excesses of partisanship, We were agree- 
ably disappointed. Beyond a few contemptuous expressioas concerning 
“the blessings of a free press,’ and the anomaly of “ reporters in camp”— 
pardonable in an officer who regards men of letters generally, and men of 





Serre an 


———— 


ee a 


eee 
——— 


Dec. 27, 1586.) 


very little written in an aggressive or urgenerous tone, Defending and 
praising Lord Raglan too, as he does for every known human virtue, it is 
wonderful how he has managed to keep his evident affection for his chief 
untainted by flattery, It is more the honest tone and reverence of a son 
than the yervile |audation of a subordinate. 
and not overstrained, it gives a pleasant colouring to an otherwise not 
deeply interesting book; like a quiet home bit in a picture on war. 

Two assertions Our author makes broadly, distinctly, and repea‘edly ; 
and to insist on which, by every possible means and on every possible 
occasion, seems to have been the sole aim of the book. The first asser- 
tion is that, contrary to the private accounts sent home by some officers, 
contrary also to the reports of “ Our own Correspondent,’ Lord Rag!an was 


encouraging them ; and that he wasidolised by the army for the very abun- 
dance of that paternal quality, the smallest fragment of which was denied him 


’ 


by popular opinion athome, Troopsare for ever “ cheering him,” “ regiments 
saddle,” seeing personally to the comforts and arrangements of the men. This 
js our author’s first assertion ; ful] inthe teeth of those gentlemen who affirmed 
the contrary. The secon i—which is pretty generally believed now—is, that 
it was Lord Raglan who was daring, Lord Rag!an who was adventurous, 
bot that his bolder schemes were for ever frustrated by the French General ; 
so ‘that our Allies, so far from being held back by us, were lets and hin- 
drances in our wav. According to our Staff Officer, Sebastopo! won!d have 
been stormed two davs after the battle of Inkermann, while the Russians 


wee 


were still disheartened and demoralised at their loss, and before rein’ - 
ments had arrived from the north, had it not been for Canrobert and his 
objections. This was Lord Rag!an’s wish, and his proposal in the council 
held after the battle; but he was overruled by our Ally in this, as in the 
ill-fated expedition to Kertch: and with only 16.000 bayonets he could not 
attempt the assault single-handed. Indeed our author lays the 
perpetual and unceasing hindrance very heavily on Canrobert; and as we 
have reason to know now, he lays it justly.. One somewhat important in- 
stance, not generally known, occurred- immediately ‘after the battle of 
Inkermannr. While the Russians were retreating down the Inkermann 
road, Lord Raglan rode up to Canrobert, entreating him to purste them; 
thinking that “as almost the entire force retreat: d over the Tchernaya 
river by a single bridge, there was good reason to suppose that they must 


lame of 


” 


jn $0 narrow a epace, 
All had been engaged 


é 


No British infantry was available for this pursuit, 
; all had suffered severely ; and few of the men had 


pattle began early in the morning, the Russians stealing on the sleeping 
army by surprise. The French, on the contrary, had a brigade of 3,000 
men, and two batteries of artillery which had never been under fire at all; 
and these were the troops Lord Raglan asked for. but Canrobert refused 


to send them, unless Les Black Caps—the Guards—might go with them. 


The 


mere handful of exhausted men employed. in 


follow wherever these led. 
Guards were 
removing their wounded, and with even their indomitable pluck were 
| unequal to the 
E talk, Canrobert sent a bittalion of infantry and a battery of 


This of course was cut of the question, 


now a 


service, 


guns; but only to find that the enemy had effeeted his most masterly re- 
treat across the bridge, and was now almost out of range:—which, if it 


part; for by his indecision and procrastination the Allies lost the « pportu 
Accord- 
ing to our author, Lord Raglan’s idea well carried out would have been 


nity of striking a heavy and most fatal blow against the enemy, 


almost the annihilation of the Russian army. 
instances of what the British furces were prepared to do, and what the 
French General refused to stare in or to countenarce, People at home 
thought differently at the time; and the private letters of French officers 
gave quite opposite versions of the respective energy of the two armies, 


This is only one of the many 


Lord Raglan was blamed for want of activity; and we were sneered at 


abroad for want of the clan necessary to good soldiers: 





according tothe usual 
mode of judging by the outside appearance, and bu'lding false theories on 
absurd analogies, 

Is the following anecdote authentic? If so, it proves much:— 

“T was told this morning by Captain L——, R.N., that a day or two 
ago he met Admiral Bruat (Commander-in-Chief of the French fleet), who 
began by complimenting him on the adm‘rable manner in which the 
English sailors had behaved daring the siege. In the course of conversa- 
tion Captain L—— asked the Admiral wien the town was to be assaulted, 
and why it was not done at once? Admiral Bruat replied :—* 1 will tell 
you the reason why; the English have advanced their batteries to within 
600 yards of the town, and they and the’r General all want to goin. The 
Frénch have fot within 60 yards of the town, and their General don’t 
liké and won't go in.’” 

This‘was when Lord Raglan was again fur assaulting the town; and 
Canrobert and the French Generals were opposed to him. 
ourselves, too, were against the Commander-in-Chief; notably, Sir De 


Lacy Evans, who, in a moment of physical weakness and depression, 


Some amongst 


advised Lord Raglan to raise the siege and abandon the Crimea altogether ; 


_—SE——EeeeeEEEEEEEEEE——E—————EESESESS EEE ee 





Hearty, genuine, unaffected, | 


daily and continually among the troops, visiting, inspecting, caring for, and | 


After many precious moments wasted in | 


THE ECONOMIST. 


the newspaper press particularly, as of inferior calibre to himself—we find | for which advice our officer lays on him lustily, and not quite generously. 





| newspaper reader of those days may renember, were most of 


turning out to salute him ashe passes,” and he himse fis ‘continually ir bis | 


| of that terrible Crimean winter, when men were found frozen to death in the. | 


| neglect, mismanagement, and starvation. 


} rather than the man, the commandant rather than the comrade. 


; Nee ‘ : ever, here is an anecdote worth reporti 
have been in great confusion from the masses of, men who had to pass over, ; ‘ r : 


had anything to eat since the previous day;-fur it may be remembered the | 


| the other of his foes who carried the pouch as well as his own arms and |}} 


He said that his men had such admiration for Les Black Caps, they would | 


| picked up his cap, dusted it, and replaced i¢ on his \head, without the 


be as the Staff Ofticer gives it, was worse than a blunder on Canrobert’s | 


| went but seldom among his troops; asserting, in his turn, that the author 
| of this charge did not know his Commander-in-Chief by sight; for, though 
| his Lordship was constant and continual in 


} 


| 


} 
| in historic truth, to confess that at such and such times “ there was much 
| 
i 











































































1431 





Sir De Lacy Evans was a man not to be spoken of lightly by his juniors. } 
The administrative management, which called forth such a burst of | 


national feeling at home, is very lightly passed over. Our officer is obliged, 


confusion in disembarking and distributing men,” &c, and he is obliged — 
with evident re!uctance—to admit that there were shortcomings in the 
Commissariat department, and that when clothing was sent out from Eng- 
land it was found insufficient and ill-fitting. The shoes especially, as every 
them 
But, true to his 
profession, our au‘hor barely admits the fact, and utterly disclaims all in- | 
ferential cause for grambling, Or when obliged to chronicle disease and | 


for boys, and a great many all “ lefts” or all “rights.” 


distress, he tries to make our black marks lighter by painting the French 
ones darker. If we suffered, the French suffered ten times more. In cloth- 
ing, rations, accomm dation, and health, we were always in prime case | 
compared tothem, But then we exaggerated our disasters, and they con- | 
cealed theirs. The famous story of the great coats, given by the French | 
General to our shivering soldiers, which occasioned so many grand speeches | 


about “ pauperisation ” and “ degradation,’’ our author resolves into a pre- 
sent from Canrobert to Lord Raglan of two sheepskin coats, out of a cargo | 
just arrived, as specimens of the French ‘military winter coat; which, 
if that explanation be true, strongly reminds us of the “ Two Black Crows” | 
of immortal memory. Indeed, he found all so perfect that, in the depth 


trenches and on their posts, he asserts that some privates “ grumbled at the 


amount of clothing they were made to wear ;”—which somehow gives a dif. 
ferent reading to the “ Letters from our own Correspondent,” which rang 
through England with the eco of our perishing army’s death-wail under 
Perhaps the truth lies in the 
balance between both extremes: the civilian’s ignorance of difficulties 
leading him to exaggerate results, and the officer’s esprit de corps blinding 
him to defects. 


The book abounds with small anecdotes, generally of praiseworthy or 
heroic feats; for, excepting against civil critics, our author shows himself | 
almost uniformly appreciative and laudatory. He does not say much | 
thongh of the private soldiers. Here again you recognise the officer | 
How- 


ng, though we believe we have seen 


it in print b-fore :— 


* A few days ago a private of the 33rd (Duke of Wellington’s regiment) 
was surprised and made prisoner by two Russian soldiers when an advanced 
sentry. One of these worthies took possession of his musket, and the other 
of his pouch, and marched him between them towards Sevastopol. The 
Englishman kept wary watch, and when he fancied his captors off their | 
guard sprang on the one who carried his musket, seized it,"and shot dead 





accoutrements, Meanwhile the Ruskie from whom our fellow had taken 
his own musket, and who had then fallen to the ground, when rising from 
his recumbent position, fired, missed, and finally had his. brains knocked 
out by the butt-end of the Englishman’s musket ; after whieh. the man.|]} 
coolly proceeded to take off the Russian accoutrements, &c., with which he 
returned laden to the post where be had been surprised,’fired at by the {{| 
Russian sentries, and received with loud cheers by eur own pickets.” 
Another anecdote of a sergeant, whose foraging,cap was blown off his 
head by a shot, while he was speaking to Lord Raglan, and who quietly |}) 


smallest change of countenance, has also been published before; together | 
with small accounts of fraternisation over the snow, when Russians and 
English met to exchange pipe-lights, or to swop brushwood against biscuit, 
or to discuss the various degrees of onos due to the “English, BYskie, 
Francis, and Dslem.” 
Contemptuous towards the press, our author grows. angry when speak- 
ing of the letters written by officers, which appeared in some of the news- 
papers, and which gave an unfavourable account of the army and its 
management. Ile attempts to demolish their statements; not very effectu- 
ally; and looses his logic with his temper. As we have shown, he repels | 
with indignation the assertion (made also by officers), that Lord Riglan 


his visits to the different divi- 
sions, he always rode so unostentatiously that those “ not of the initated” 
And 
this is his solution of the report of neglect and seclusion that went forth 
against Lord Raglan. Saint Arnaud and Canrobert, on the contrary, went 
in great military pomp wherever they moved, with banners and escorts 
and Spahis and all sorts of dashing retainers about them. They could not, 
therefore, escape notice whenever they went out; and so, perhaps, the 
unostentation of the one and the parade of the others did at last grow 
into the false report of neglect and indifference on our side, with energy 
and activity on theirs, 


might easily have mistaken him for any simple general of a division, 















Our author’s aecount of Lord Raglan’s ordinary day’s work gives a 
large amount of business done and fatigue endured. Every hour, from 
early dawn to late at night, was employed in various harassing duties, 
never varied by repose or relaxation. So that, if all this be perfect trath, 


ee 






























| Crilici ni 1c¢ that itis s ¢ ni 
ee , 4} f, . | be tS 
i criticise the “ gent an’s profession” a ] in histo 
ality the army stands’ responsi tot i iS any : 
{ nal ag nd delegat A ting that the Press did exagg @ 
| ri Cri M — s ver. ny . that 
d —jt 4 was « valua service i posing ar alling 
uttention to the sufferings the army, which else might have deepened 
under the “ 1 shade’’ of official stupidity or neglect, Yet, injustice 


too surely done to Lord Raglan; but notin all things. He was not 


i wholly fit for his ; How charming svever in private life—how much 


> his virtues and amiable qualities to all who kuew him 


1 form great part of our author’s causes of commendation 


—yet he was none the jess unequai to th 


| 

| 

gallant soldier, 
| of his s 
| 


work he had todo. He wasa 





an amiable gentleman, an able comman der:—but neither a 
great genius nor a su fliciently severe disciplinarian. Peace be with his 
| ashes: —if } s not all t t sis demanded, he was far superior to 
A 1s ccessors, and p an) IT his ¢ i€ae s 
NGLAN Russia NATURAL ALLIES By BerNarp MoncriFr. 
inburgh: Jack. London: Hamilt and Co. 
ralities soever may belong, or be wanting, to our author, no one 





| can der m the possession of at least a larger share of moral courage than 
| falls to the lot of most men. For a British subject, in this liberal 
| nineteenth century, boldly to assert, among other ultra views, not only the 

| divine right, but the inborn fitness their cflice, of kings, and the neces- 


sary connection between slavery and civilisation, does require no little 


moral courage, read the phrase which way one will. It sounds strange to 


“ee 
“Tre most des 





hear tha le qualities of a ruler are independence and 





ty, a high sense of honour, and a profound religious and moral 


impartial 











sentiment, all of which mav be found combined onl a herei ng, 
with an ar revenue, transmitting independently and in per] his 
}i fortunes ar tions to his descendants, and his name and his deeds t 
history ( iry history is somewhat against Mr Moncriff’s un- 
|| inching eulog royalty. S§ and Naples scarcely bear out bis after- 
j| assertion, that “‘ the worst- king in any country, and at any period, is yet 
much bet man than by tar the greatest majority cf his subjects,” f 
i} we b in Spanish honour and Neapolitan humanity, neither « 
which vi any the throne of either cou try 
1) Nor x ve of tl las “ that fault mged 
1 thers, S I is own;’’ nor that “‘ na I i 
|| for i st place in the world;” nor that “his mag lity, 
i 1 thar g $e, 1 nin ¢t Lit l ed t 
se Of his g reign; tf frammaticaliy ) ** that every g¢ about 
i} him was a gz! man.” His “ kindness to a fault,” his “ grace and good 
ur, wond ymanity and g sit the ar to ou 





i I ssacre at ing< the indisputa that t J issians 
a vou , and, wounded thems s, assassinated when they 
ha I men who went to su ir them—a fact s atent as 
cal rth ¢ iai ietter ol remonstrance from the ail f a th‘ 
Russian comm r—the publishe l acccunts also of som ris rs, teliung 
j indignities anu arDarities—t ugh we Lonestiyv aun i trary | > 
|| ing of other accounts—all those oppos readings we in t scale 
egainst Mr Moncriff’s Philo-Russism, and ] t r s the task « 
| deciding which bas most weighi—testimony or enta S 
| 
Mr Monc AS writt | t ve the truth of its tit The 
} atural allianc of England and Russia is t Q E.D. « all iS pre. 
i} vieus proposi:ions We do not think his arguments verv conclusi One 


iran sSNA 
j} and not the partial report of a loving friend, whatever rightful charge « 
| incapacity there might be against our General, there could be none, 
| assur dly, want € gy, or of indifference to the army under his con 
and. But the tide has already turned in favour of | Ragla Irri- 
|; tated and excited by the det of horrible mismanagement brougl 

j ne by « pe tl nonu nm. as was tural, oi us 
inst t Comma -in-Cl With t indiess 1 ( 
| 4 } ; + ; 

| the i y 11S r ; € 1 nhea ( ° 


f 4 

{| ¥ corr Tl e was ss snanagement; there w v1 

; Se tae pe-goat from what flock we will, t ie the s 
j Ee 5 a ‘ lai 8 W with tf i0ad Din \ imat irn 

\ t nat | l T stige tarnisaed fora g ition t f 
j surely s ts on ¥ nation has er t S tl 


THE ECONOMIST. 





| 


! Russ 


——=== 
[Dee. 27, 1856. 


1 Government is as fully constituted, both with regard to the letter 





a 


and the spirit, as any that ever existed.........more than even the English 
true 
yp hal foe 


f the « lighten 1 and wealthy classes. A third re ason, that 


sense of the nation, that is, with the public 


WIth the 





it is “a wise policy of Russia not to increase this class (the middle 
and productive class) beyond certain limits, which would endanger the } 
t hap ta fthe country, and undermine the basis of her wealth, | 

ver, and t , namely, the servitude of the p isantry.”” England ' 


Russia” to 


lr} € that Inussla does all ie » er lrage native |i 





another 


a omparison 











vith the British, both as to mental and physical qualities. The English |] 
ple | ul 1 to be prou ot t acy ; Russians have 1 

ud 1 ( to f et it. In their per il appearance the flower of } 

h of the Engl ind the Russian aristocracy preseut tl lent (sic) | 
sensualism of the ox, beautifi by ali the graces oi | ty. rhe |] 
elegance of their manners, the refinement ef their t », and the vi our || 
and moral sentiments, are bel cons y refreshed and |} 


iugust 


irage in the field, their glowing patriotism, and their devoted attachment 
to the throne, are due to their wealth and education, as well as to a high 
ense of honour, k pt alive by the inheritance oi glo ious Names of ances- i 
tors. Theranks of the Ru iristocracy are open to professional merit || 
und commercial eminence in a still higher degree than is the case with the 
British aristocracy; and tl tant employment, both in the civil and |} 
military Gepartments, toget with wisely conceived laws, depriving des |] 
stitute nobles of their privileges, ensure to their body that possession of 


occupation of the min which are so 


natural aris- 


wealth and that vigorous exercise and 
requisite t 


tocracy.’ 


the station and the intelligent influe 


last that we shall extract:—the alliance is 


Again, another reason—thi 


: . : . aie 
naturel because both England and Russia subsist by servitude and serfdom, || 


’ . ~~ as . _ ; i 
For though “ in England itself,’’ says Mr Moncriff, ** ther indeed neither 
yet viewing the British empire asa }j 


ater extent thar in Russia and the 


a slave nor a serfto be met with; 


servitude exists there to a gre 





tocet I | 
ie 
litical exaggerations, Mr M« f forth other star- |} 


“ conditw sine que @ ol ve 1s Inie riority 





and that neither affection nor iriendship Can subsist | 





between eq In support of which he adduces the instinctive love of a | 


taken as the 


mother for her nursling, the 


love of a husband for his wife ( 


of united ine and the serving 
for their Moncriff’s 


| 
great bugbear seems to be liberty in any shape—his great idol, restraint, | 
| 


very types juality), and the love of the poor 


and the enslaved masters and superiors. Indeed, Mr 


The poor to the ricb, the woman to the man, the subject to the monarch, 


the workmar 





to the master, through all the varying gradations of society, | 


and inall the various relationships of humanity, Mr Moncriff, like the French 





engineer, Le Play, enshrines sub rdination as the Moloch before which every 
be sac rificed, | 


But we are glad he has spoken out; though his work is insignificant in |} 


natural instinct, as well as every element of progress, must 


itself, and without intrinsic worth. It is written with an assumption of | 


the forms, but without the essence, of logic ; moreover, it is ungrammatical | 


in many parts, and inco ulways. Lut it is noteworthy for its 


audacity ; and, if the mouth-pie of the Russian party, especially note- 


worthy for its sentiments. If there be really an English party - who | 








endorse t reasonings and the principles of this small octavo, we are glad | 
they have spoken « openly; but we cannot congratulate ourselves or 
them on the patriotism, ightenment, the | or the liberality of || 
their view 1] 
estima | 

Couxty Epvucatio? . Letter addres to the Right Hon, Earl |} 
Fortescue, by the Rev. J. L. BRurEroNn, Rector cf West Buckland, |! 


James Ridgway} 


| education |} 


THs pamphlet contains a proposal by w 1 1 ext 
would be secured to the midul 3 t C try Ir Brereton cone 
tends that whereas the parish s s suffice for the lower part of the worke || 
ng classes, and the i i of t é nerally avail them- |! 
selves of the instruct aftlorded by priva day-schools, a great want | 
exists for the higher poi he labouring classes and farmers, They || 
are willing to bestow a better education on tueir children than can be ob- || 
tai 1 at the villa s , a \ u le to send them toa boarding 
school, where liv as well a oling would have to be paid for. He 
proposes that two classes of self-supporting schools should be formed, one 
youths a girl twelve t een, the ot f *h as desire to 
continue af fifieen. O es shment of each k would suffice for 
ach =“‘hundre f that territorial division y adupted. Adarm would 
be attached to every s l-house and so many Lours devoted by the 
scholars to its cultivation. 1! would pay for their mstruction and work 
for their maintenance, | examinations in the n practical depart- 
ments of knowledge would be he'd, and county degiees, county honours, 
on t successful candidates. The following is Mr 










































































em ee 


Pee ces 


OTR S SEIN hee 


Dec. 27, 1856. 1856. ] 








OD 
«}, A system of self-supported public etiniaten starting with seat 
schools, and ending in a county degree. 
Money payments for tuition, and industrial labour for maintenance. 
«3, A classification of ages, limits of each class being the time at 
aes the education of a large class of society would naturally cease. 
«4, The efficiency of each subordinate school secured by the immediate 
demand created by a superior school or examination in the same system.” 


Mr Brereton is desirous to see all our schools self-supporting, and does 
not think we shall bave a secure and healthy basis for any system until 
that is the case. One advantage resulting from a county education would, 
he believes, be the relieving of the universities from the pressure to which 
they. ase now subject—a pressure which in a great degree comes from this 
large country-class, at present totally unprovided with the mears of a 
liberal education, 


“9 
- 


the 





A Manual of Domestic Economy. Suited to Families spending from 100] 
to 1,000/.a Year. By J. H. Walsh, F.R.C.S. G. Routledge and Co. 
Tue volume before us is the most compendious domestic manual that we 
remember to have seen. It begins with the building of a house, gives 
most detailed information on the construction of each part, and indi- 
cates the best methods of warming and ventilating. Equal care is 
bestowed on the furnishing, and a large portion is devoted to cookery, 
brewing, roasting, and every other domestic occupation attendant 
either on town or country life. The stables, the garden, the poultry- 

yard, and the nursery are treated at length, and a chapter devoted to 
Tqneral therapeutics, containing a list of the drugs suited to common 
use. The average price is given of such articles as can at all be fixed, 
as well as that of the different speciesof labour. As far as we have 
examined, the subjects are thoroughly and judiciously handled, and 
the arrangement of the work is good, It contains a considerable num- 
ber of illustrations. 


ee 


The Art-Journal. December, George Virtue and Co, 

Tue editor of this valuable periodical indicates in the present number the 
leading subjects that will be treated in the ensuing year. Our space 
will not permit us to enter into detail, but we can assure our readers 
that the programme is calculated to give general satisfaction, if carried 
out with the usual success of the Art’'Journal. The Manchester Exhi- 
bition will be a rich field for art-critics, and a subject of universal 
jnterest; we doubt not that it will, as the editor promises, be 
thoroughly handled. The December number contains engravings of 
two — in the Royal Collection : “ The Three Children of Charles 
I.,” by Van Dyck, and “Capri,” by 7 E. Hering, and of one piece 


of sculpture, *‘ The First C radle,” by A. H. Debay, which our readers 
will remember to have seen in es exhibition of 1851. The artist, 
a Frenchman, is both painter and sculptor, The three illustrated 


chapters are devoted to the “* Monks of th 
tal Palace, and Mr Black’s beautifully got-up “ Lord of the Isles,” 
one of the most elegant Christmas gift-books that has yet appeared. 
It is the fourth of Scott’s p oe - Mr Black has published in this 


e Middle Ages,” the Crys- 


style, the “‘ Lady of the Lake,” “Lay of the Last Minstrel,” and 
“ Marmion,” having preceded the present volume. 


The Golden A. B.C. Designed by Gustav Konig. Engraved by Julius 


Thater. Trbiiner and Co. 
a Christmas present from Gotha, is 
It contains a series of pretty dr awing 


by no means a 
s on the very 


Tus little book, 
children’s A. B. C. 


smallest scale, each drawing occupying the centre of one large letter, 
which letter forms the beginning of atext. Thus for C, we have 
“ Charity shall cover the multitude of sins,” with a drawing of Mary 


Magdalene washing the feet of our Saviour in the capital C. For N, 
‘* Now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of 
these is charity,” with the e of the good Samaritan. The en- 
gravings and texts are on tinted paper with a border of white. They 
are well done, and the letters and various devices elegant and in very 
good taste. The volume is an exceedingly pretty gift-book, and 
likely from its subjects to be popular, 


ee 


sce! 


Widows and Widowers. By Mrs Thomson. 

George Mayford, Adventures of an Emigrant. By Charles Rowcroft. 
Thomas Hodgson. 

TuESE two volumes are good average specimens of the “ Parlour Library” 


**Widows and Widowers,” without belonging to the higher 
is well-written, lively, andentertaining. For “ George 
Mayford” we predict a rapid sale, The subject is a popular one, and 
the book contains a good admixture of love and adventures. 
scenes of tle latter are Canada and New South Wales. 


series, 
class of fiction, 


mi 
ine 


BOOKS RECEIVED. 
Time and Faith. Two vols) Groombridge. 
The Ballot, a Con ervative Measure. Riduway. 
The Shade of Cocker and the Chancellor of the Exchequer. Effingt 
The Life Boat. No.23. Knight. 
Gibraltar; or, The Foreign Policy of England. 
The Royal Insurance Company’s Almanack. Lombard street. 
Tilustrated Almanack for 1857. Deane and Dray 
The Curious and Remarkable History of the Royal 
Rifle Practice. Smith and Elder. 
The History and Life of the Rev. Joho Tauler. 
Curiosities of History. By MrTimbs. Bogue. 





British Bank. Effingham Wilson. 


Smit ith and Elder. 











Horciqn Correspondence 


(FROM OUR CORRESPONDENT.) 


Paris, Thursday. 
The Board of Directors, or, as it is called, the General Council of the 
Bank of France, held a sitting to deliberate on the propriety of altering 
its conditions of disc: ount; but it was resolved to leave them unchanged. 
Yesterday a new deliberation was held, and the resolution was adopted 


—_——— 


THE ECONOMIST. 

















1438 


bills that. hawe 75 





to “accept for discount from to-morrow, the 
days to run.” This concession 


26th, 
has 


been, of course, favourably re- 
ceived by commerce; but it is held not to be sufficient, and it is alleged 
that the Bank has no real reason for not-being more indulgent, seeing 


that its metallic reserve is now admitted to exceed 8,000,000/ sterling. 
Sharp attacks are being made on the Bank just now from several quar- 
ters. It is asserted that its capital—between 3,000,000/ and 4,000,000 
English—though it may have teen amply sufficient | fifty years ago, when 
it was fixed at that amount, is nothing like what it ought to be, now that 
trade has taken a prodigious development, and that railways and other 
branches of industry that were then never thought of have sprung up. 
It is alleged that its system of management is characterised by such ex- 
treme timidity, that even in ordinary times it does not render that as- 
sistance to trade and enterprise which it might do, whilst, on the slightest 
appearance of a crisis, it adopts restrictive measures. It is asserted that 
almost all its transactions with regard to the procuring and distribution 


of the precious metals are marked with the grossest incapacity. It is 
asserted that it does not act in co-operation with the Bank of England 
and other great banks of Europe as it ought to do. It is asserted that 


it did not aid the Government in the late war as it was in duty bound to 
do, and that it is its timidity and bungling which are mainly responsible 
for the crisis through which France is now passing. Lastly, it is 
asserted, that its directors act, not as coadjutors of the State and the pub- 
lic, which they were meant to be, but as cautious traders, having no 


other thought on earth than their own interest, and that all thei r pro- 
ceedings are adopted from no higher or wiser motive than to swell their 
dividends and increase the value of their shares. In all these com- 


+ 


be some truth: but it is to be remembered that it is 
national bank, dowhat it will, to be abused, and that, 
after all, the loudest complaints made against the Bank of France come, 
not from the legitimate traders (though they complain too), but from the 


speculating fraternity. 


plaints there may 
the fate of a great 


The information which I was able to give you in my last relative to the 
financial schemes submitted to the Government, and by it referred to the 
Council of State, turns out to be correct, aud it has been confirmed by 
nearly all the newspapers. The demand of the Syndicate of Bankers, of 
which M. de Rothschild is the head, for authorisation to found a sort of 
railway and general bank with a capital of from 2,000,000/ to 4,000,000 
sterling, failed, as I told you, to obtain the approbation of the Council of 


State; but it seems that out of respect to M. de Rothschild and the great 
capitalists associated with him, the Council did not definitively “ reject” 
the demand, it only“ postponed” it. The creation of a sort of Inter- 


national Credit Mobilier or Bank, with a large capital, was, it appears, 
decidedly refused by the Couucil. On the other hand, the Council de- 
cided that the Société des sous Comptoir des Chemins de Fer (a bank 
which makes advances on railway securities), which expires in the early 
part of the ensuing year, shall be prolonged; it also decided the Comptoir 
d’Escompte (Discount Bank) shall be allowed to increase its capital from 
20,000,000f (800,000/), to 40,000,000F. 

Had the demand of de Rothschild and the Syndicate of Bankers 
been granted, it is evident that their bank would have been a formidable 
rival to the Bank if France. The postponement of that demand has 
caused considerable disappointment tothe holders of railway securities,— 
for they ot course looked to the projected bank for the advances which 
the Bank of France no longer grants on the scale they require, and 
which it even seems disposed to cease to make at all ;—it has also dis- 
appointed a large portion of the trading community, who expected to 
profit by the determination of the Bank to discount bills with two signa- 
tures instead of three, as required by the Bank of France. In declin- 
ing the demand submitted to it, the Council of State is lently afraid 


evi 
to encourage the speculating mania which now prevails so strongly in 





France;—and the creation of a bank of the kind projected by the 
Syndicate of Bankers, would of course have had that effect, —though not, 
perhaps, intended. But it is evident from what the Syndicate has 
done, from the attacks made on the Bank of France, and from what 
one hears on all sides, that the general opinion is, either that a new 
bank ona ae scale is necessary, or that the Bank of Franc must, by 
an increase of capital, be enabled to augment very censiderably its opera- 
tions. Aleeady, indeed, undeterred by the check of the Syndicate 
some financiers are projecting new schemes for the creation of a new 


bank, and one has already been formally submitted to the ¢ rnment ; 
but where the greatest bankers of the day have failed, smaller ones are 
not likely to succeed. The scheme submitted to the Government is 
much lauded by some persons; it is that the proposed bank shall have a 
capital of 200,000,000f (8,000,000), which, as soon as subscribed, shall 
be invested in the purchase of 3 per Cent Rentes; that the said Rentes 
shall be deposited in the Caisse des Depots et Consignations; and that, 
in return, the bank shall be authorised to issue notes of and 50f. 
Jut the advantages that are expected to be derived from this scheme 
are not set forth, and are arent; whilst the disadvantages 
seem both numerous and considerable. 


Or 2 


yt very app 
no very apt 





The Journal des Debats takes hold of a fact recorded in a recent num- 
ber of the Moniteur. to show ur the folly of the Protectionists in this 
country. The Joniteur mentioned that in the government Tver in 
Russia, a spinning factory is being constructed by private persons on 
such a gigantic scale, that it will consume six English tons of cotton a 
day. Now the duty imposed on cotton thread in Russia is,’says the Debats, 
lf 22c the French kilogramme, and as Russian manufacturers build 
gigantic establishments, they evidently think it amply sufficient But 
French manufacturers declare tl vithout the absolute _ bition of 
thread, they are in danger of being ruined, and they created a clamour 


to protect 
Thus the 
ward and 


cent Government 
from If 44¢ to u 
themselves to be 


bill proposin 
pwards of 8f. 
more back 


in the country against the re 
them with duties varying 
French manufacturers confess 
helpless than the Russians. 

M. Michael in an article explaining some singular circum- 
stances that have lately occurred in connection with the currency at 

Naples, mentions a fact which is not generally known; namely, that not 
a little of the silver which of late years has been drained from Western 











+ ee 


— 


nan 0 0O0OO SS 








eS 





1434 ; 


Europe, and particelarly from France, has gone to that country. From 
1818 to 1851, for example, the mint of Naples coined only about 
1,000,000 dacats a year on an average,—in a!! about 32,000,000; but 
from 1852 to the present time it has coined 30,000,000, and it is con- 
tinuing to coin at the rate of 60.000 a day. Yet on all the silver coined 
at the mint the Government imposes a duty not inferior to 9 per cent. 

The Bourse is closed to-day. Yesterday the Threesciosed at 66f 90c— 
a deciine of 5c compared with the closing prices of the preceding Wed- 
nesday; Bank of France shares closed at 4,075{—a decline of 25f ; Credit 
Mobiliers at 1,445f—a decline of 35f; Northern Railway, 942f 50c—no 
change; the other railways were some higher, some lower. 

It appears from a recent official return, that the charge made for con- 
veying passengers and goods on railways in this country is a shade more 
than 6c per head and rather more than 7c per ton the kilometre ; whilst 
on the ordinary roads passengers pay from 10c to 12c per kilometre, and 
goods 20c a ton,—and on rivers the charges 3c to 5c per head and 
per ton. 

The Moniteur has published this week a curious document—a report 
addressed to the Emperor by the Minister of State, setting forth that the 
“acts of liberality” of His Mejesty during the present year amounts to 
6,361,411f, and that His Majesty must “set limits to his munificence “6 
if he wishes to keep out of debt, as the report declares he has hitherto 
succeeded in doing. A sum of more than 6,361,000f (254,000/) is cer- 
tainly a stupendous one to be given in charity, and it proves beyond all 
question the extraordinary liberality of the Sovereign ; but a great many 












and, perhaps, ought not, to have provided for. Such are—the enormous 
sum of 40,0007 for the purchase of ground and for loans for building 
houses on the Boulevard Mazos, 25,000/ to the victims of the inunda- 
tions, nearly 9,000] for the repairs of churches, 8,600/ to wounded sol- 
diers, 12,4007 in pensions to amputated soldiers, 800? for the cultivation 
of cotton in Algeria, nearly 5,000/ for clubs of officers of She army, 
1,200/ for planting the downs of a village on the sea coast, and so on. 
The monthly Customs returns were pub'ished yesterday, but it is not 
necessary to analyse them at much length, as we shall very shortly have 
those of the whole year, which will be far more interesting. The import 
duties for the month of November last were 13,043,621f; whilst tho-e 
of the corresponding month of last year were 12,556,505f, and of the 
year before 13,235,13Uf. Coffee, wheat, iron in bars, cast iron, wool, lead, 
sheep, and meat, were more in quantity compared with Nevember, both 
of last year and the year befure; cotton and copper were more than they 


was in November 1855, but more than in Noyember 18é4, (that from 
England, however, was considerably more than it was in last November, 
which, in its turn, was more than in the November of the preceding 
year). Sugar, both from the French colonies and from foreign countries, 
were less than in the last two years. In exports, wine, brandy, machin- 
ery, glass, and crystal were less than in November of last year, but more 
than in the same month of 1854; wheat was more than in 1855, but con- 


salt were more than in the two preceding years; linen and hemp fabrics 
less. Taking the eleven months of each of the three years, the totals 
stand thus:—Import duties, 159,086,304f for 1856, 176,88%,053f for 
1855, and 134,062,050f for 1854:—the principal articles in each 
of these three periods being—coffee, 215,628 metrical quintals, 


cotton, 773,329 m gq, 724,294, and 653,287 ; copper, 81,728 m q, 
110,635, and 79,789; iron in bars, 562,685 m q, 465,293, and 89,385 ; 
cast iron, 1,178,167 m gq, 1,100,641, and 782,337 ,in 1856 and 1855 
moré than half and in 1854 nearly half the cast iron was from England) ; 
coal, 35,545,392 m gq, 35,261,939, and 29,931,143 (in these totals the 
imports from England were in the three periods 7,998,507, 6,858,'142, and 
5,419,091) ; wool, 349,522 m gq, 327,919, and 215,906 ; colonial sugar, 
889,438 m q, 842,353, and 747,821 ; foreign ditto, 293,841 m q, 574,552, 
and 340,656; fresh and salt meat, 56,656 m gq, 39,934. and 11,126. In 
the exports of the eleven months of each year, wines figure for 
1,180,918 hectolitres, 1,020,727, and 1,2)9,854; machinery, for 
3,499,846f, 3,469,895f, and 2,727,237f; modes, 7,449,802f 5,493,020f, and 
5,357,417f; salt, 1,406,053 m q, 1,057,408, and 790,200; cotton fabrics, 
11,991 m gq, 8,900, and 7,501); linen and hemp fabrics, 18,000 m q, 
21,000, and 14,000; silk fabrics, 26,591 m q, 23,800, and 20,483 ; wool- 
len fabrics, 7,400 m q, 4,200, and 4,500; glass and crystal, 84,661 m q, 
85,114, and 59,864. As to navigation, French vessels entered inwards 
were in the first elevenmonths of the present year 9,635 in number and 
1,346,239 in tonnage, and those that sailed 5,533 of 960,906 tons. 
The number and tonnage cf freight ships whs much greater. 

The new Spanish loan of 300,000,000 reals (3,000,000/ sterling), has 
been definitively adjudzed to M. Mires of this city, but at 42.56 per cent., 
instead of 41 as first proposed. According to accounts published in the 
newspapers, M. Mires only obtained the concession of the loan after a 
keen competition with several persons, one of them Messrs Rothschild ; 
but private letters hint that the competition was not so keen as it seemed. 
At all events, it is certain that the grant of the loan to the French 
capitalist, on the conditions that have been accepted, has created a very 
bad impression indeed in Madrid, and has caused some of the warmest 
supporters of the Government to blame the Ministers strongly, and even 
to refuse to hold office under them. 





Correspondence. 


CAUSE OF CRIME. 
To the Eaitor of the Economist. 
Siz,—I advert to your paragraph in Jast Saturday’s paper, in which 
you state your surprise that some inquiry is not instituted ‘‘as to the 
origin of the disposition to commit fraud.” 
One origin leading to this deplorable result is from the dispropor- 


tionate. pay received by the servants of public companies to the respon- 
sible work performed, 





were last year, but Jess than in November 1854; coal was less than it | 


THE ECONOMIST. 


of the items composing it are for objects that His Mejesty need not, | 


| age—no provision for sickness in after life. 





siderably less than in 1854; cotton, woollen, and silk fabrics, modes, and i 


254,691, and 197,214 ; wheat, 6,519,491 m q, 2,678,296, and 4,557,779; | 


| relaxation takes place trade will resume its accustomed activity. 


| honourable principles. 
| servitude—devote their whole time to their employers, be remunerated 
' 


<i f 

[Deeé.'27, 1 56, 
ca ee cinema 

Most of the men who have committed fraud appear to have possesseq 
more than average intellect, and, probably, would have been contenteg 
with their station had they not been straitened in their finances in early 
life, when in receipt of incomes not in any way proportionate to their re. 
sponsibilities. I offer no excuse—there is not any—for “abuse of 
trust”: I merely desire to point out that economy in public offices com. 
mences at the wrong end; and the consequence is that men of ability, 
were their position as responsible servants and private gentlemen con. 
sidered, would. instead of prostituting themselves to crime, devote their 
energies to the interests of their employers, not only for pecuniary ad- 
vancement, but in gratitude for the consideration shown them. It igs 





oa 





in 
true that the directors of companies have a set of shareholders to con- 
tend with, who would, if they could, work their own ruin. Instead of 
a large dividend at any cost, it woulc be as well if shareholders now and 
then looked after their interests more closely. I do not advocate a fre. 
quent interference with the managers’ or directors’ functions—it should 
not be necessary,—but I hold that it might do good if a shareholder of 
influence, or a body of shareholders, occasionally ascertained whether the 
servants—who transact the business of the company to which he or they 
may belong—-whose honour is tke only guarantee for the safety of the 
concern—whose bad faith might plunge hundreds of families in irrecover- 
able ruine=were paid well and well treated. I have known many young 
men disgusted with their employers, not only from the absence of a re- 
cognisable generosity, but from the want of a consideration for the 
employé, as a gentleman and as one fitted for the amenities of life. 
Clerks of adult age are generally intellectual and of scrupulously 
Should such men who—say in eight or ten years’ 


with salaries averaging from 100/ to 200/ per annum? Remember that 
for uninfluential clerks there is no after reward-—no recognition of old | 
And on what and how isa 
clerk to live in his declining years? Clearly not on the money he could 
have saved in his youth on a maximum salary of 200/ per annum, sup- 
posing he married at 24 or 25 years of age. 

Thus it is that educated men—men well formed for the social comforts | 
of a home—find insurmountable difficulties crowding on their path of | 
life, where the great stumbling-block, ‘a straitened income,” incurs 
debt—debt, despondency—and the result with men of weak minds is ob- 
vious.—I have the honour to remain, Sir, your obedient servant, 








Dec. 17, 1856. E. C. 
Hews of the Wieck. 
COURT AND ARISTOCRACY. 
The Court is still at Windsor. The usual distribution of Her 


Majesty’+ gifts to the poor has been made this week. 

The Queen has been pleased to approve of Don Jose Joaquin de Mora 
as Consu!-Generalin London ; of Don Lorenzo Juan Gutierrez as Con- 
sul at Hong Kong ; and of Don Manuel Gomez de Avallaneda as Consul 
at Malta, for Her Majesty the Queenof Spain. The Qeeen has been 
also pleased to approve of Mr Gideon S. Holmes as Consul at the Cape 
of Good Hope, for the United States of America. 


METROPOLIS 





HEALTH oF Li 
mortality, th 
character. 


)NDON DURING THE Weex.—After a sudden increase of 
weekly return again exhibits results of a very fevourable 
In the week that ended on Saturday the deaths registered in 
London decreased to 1,060. In the 10 corresponding weeks of the years 
1846-55 the average number of deaths was 1,269 ; but if the excess of 
deatsh in the fitty-first week of 1847, when influenza nearly doubled the 
mortality, be excluded from the caiculation, and the average, thus re- 
duced, be corrected for the inc:eased population of the present time, it 
will be found that the ordinary rate of mortality at this season would 
have produced 1,300 deaths last week, and therefore more by 240 than 
the number actually returned. Last week the births of 868 boys and 823 
girls, in ali 1,691 children, were registerad in London. Inthe 10 corre- 
sponding weeks of the years 1846-55 the average number was 1,465. At 
the Royal Observatory, Greeawich, the mean height of the barometer 
in the week was 30.128 in. ‘lhe mean daily reading was above 30 in. on 
five days. The barometer rose from 28.98 in. on Sanday, to 30.46 in. on 
Tuesday, the highest reading*attained in the week. The mean tempera- 
ture of the week was 38°8 deg., which is rather below the average of the 
same week in 38 years (as determined by Mr Giashier). The mean daily 
temperature was below the average on four days, and the extent of de- 
pression on Tuesday was 9 dez. The lowest reading in the week oc- 


| curred on Wednesday, and was 24 deg.; the highest reading occurred on 
| the following day, and was 48 deg. 


The range of temperature in the 
The mean dew-point temperature was 36°5 deg., 
and the difference between this and the mean air temperature was 2°3 
deg. The mean temperature of the water of the Thames was 43°7 deg. 
The highest temperature of the river was 48°3 deg. on Sunday; it de- 
clined till near the end of the week, and on Friday the lowest tempera: 
ture was 41'l deg. The wind, which blew from the north at the begin- 
ning Of the week, changed to south-west, and again veered to N.N.E- 
On Saturday it was in the west. The air was frequently calm. Scarcely 
any rain fell, but fog or haze prevailed on several days. 


week therefore 24 deg. 





FOREIGN AND COLONIAL, 


FRANCE. 
The merchants and manufacturers of Paris aré waiting with increased 
anxiety for the Bank of France to reduce its rate of interest and receive 
commercial bills at 90 days for discount. They expect that when this 
Many 
merchants are compelled to restrict their operations, in consequence of 
their having a large capital locked up in bills at from 60 to 90 days, 











ww ————————— 








| 
| 


ea 





ft 


ER EET IT EE Ee 


EE IME 


oa IORI TIE 


ae 











Se TR CY" RR SS OBES MRE om —_ 


the Spanish bankers, 





a 
sete 


Dec. 27, 1856 | 





which they find it difficult to negociate. The wholesale trade of of Paris 
was excessively dull last week, and the retail trade not much more active. 
Even the shops which are laid out with articles for new year’s gifts have 
found but few customers. The dullness of the home trade, however, has 
been in some degree relieved by orders from England, Germany, and 
South America. The accounts from the manufacturing departments are 
more favourable. The manufacturers of Lyons have sufficient orders on 
hand, but they find a difficulty in executing them in consequence of a 
scarcity of the raw material. Raw silk, however, is beginning to fall, in 
consequence of the large supplies arriving at Marseilles from the Levant, 
The manufacturers at Rouen and Mulhouse have likewise received many 
orders lately. All the accounts received of the growing crop of wheat 
| are excellent, and as yet appearances in every direction are in favour of 
an abundant harvest. The price of corn is gradually declining in the 
provincia | markets. Still the farmers with difficulty abandon the expec- 
tation they entertained of “obtaining an exorbitant price for their crops. 
The abundance of wheat, however, and flour renders buyers indifferent, 
and sales are with difficulty effected. All speculation has ceased on the 
Paris corn market, and the purchasers of flour at high rates are forced to 
hold it over, lest by offering it for sale they should produce a panic. The 
bakers find no difficulty in supplying themselves with flour at from 77f 
to 78f the 159 kilogrammes. The stock of flour in the Paris stores has 
increased, and is now estimated at 10,000 metrical quintals, and it is 
known that the millers are well supplied. There was a large quantity 
both of home-zrown and foreign wheat offered for saie at the last Paris 
market. The best quality fell 50 centimes the 150 litres, good quelity a 
franc, and inferior quality could find no buyers. The markets in the 
depart: nents have fallen 1f and 2f the hectolitre for wheat. The average 
price is from 24f to 25f the hectolitre. New wines continue to arrive at 
the market of Bercy. Prices are firm but they have not risen, Fabulous 
prices are said to be given for old wines of the first quality. Wines of 
the last vintage are to be had in the southern departments at from 45f 
to 70f the hectolitre. Pure spirits of wine from the south finds buyers 
atfrom 215f to 225f the hectolitre. Spirit distilled from beetroot is 
quoted at 140f. The German spirit is refused, on account of its bad 
quality, and the stores at Bercy are encumbered with it. Brandies main- 
tain their price in Paris, notwithstanding their decline in the south. 

The Moniteur has published the official return of the customs revenue 
for the last month, which amounted to 13,043,621f, being an increase of 
487,116f on the corresponding period of 1855. The receipts for the 11 
expired months of the present year amount to 159 086.304f, being a 
decrease of 17,796,749f as compared with the corresponding ‘period of 
last year. The items of revenue which»show the, principal falling off 
during the last 11 months are foreign -suzar,-16/686,663f; raw wool, 





6,052,945f; bar iron, 406,471f; coffee, 2,185,275f; brandy, 1,893,504f; 
copper, first fusion, 127,903f; olive oil, 494, 684f; oxen and bulls, 
13,307f. The articles which show the greatest improvement are raw 
cotton, 2,185,850f; coal, 604,045f; oleaginous seeds, 181,646f; flax, 
1 110,480% ; spirits of wine, 1,142,178f; French colonial sugar, 
4,431,983f, &c. 

BELGIUM. 


The discussion in the Belgian Chamber of Representatives on the 
bill relative to the exportation and importation of articles of food has 
terminated by a sort of compromise, the Government proposing to main- 
tain the present !aws in force until the 15th February, in order to allow 
the Senate to express its opinion on the question. That proposition 
was adopted by 5U votes to 31. 


SPAIN. 

The following, according to a letter from Madrid, is a detailed account 
of the biddings for the loan of 390,000,000 of reals :—* The adjudica- 
tion took piece at the Ministry of Finance. The proceedings commenced 
| by the Minister reading the official documents, and stating the proposi- 
| tion of M. Mista, and ‘then different tenders were opened. They were 
three in number. M. Mirés offered to take the loan at 41 per cent. 
represented by M. Mollinedo, at 41 15; and the 
Sociedad Espagnola y Mercantil (Crédit Mobilier, Rothschild) at 41 75 

he biddings were then called for, and continued for half an hour, The 
following shows the order of the biddings:—The Spasish bankers, 

41 80; Sociedad Espagnola, 41 90; the ayn bankers, 41 95; Socie- 
dad Espagnola, 41 97; the Spanish bankers, 42 10; M. Mires, 42 15; 
Spanish bankers, 42 20; M. Mires, 42 25; Sociedad Espagnola, 42 30; 
Spanish bankers, 42 35; Saciedad Espagnola, 42 36; Spanish bankers, 
42 40; M. Mires, 42 50; Sociedad Espagnola, 42 51; M. Mirés, 42 52; 
Sociedad Espagnola, 42 555 M. Mires, 42 56. The last offer of 42 56 
not being exceeded, and the time fixed for each bidding having expired, 
the Minister adjudged the loan to M. Mirds.” 

PRUSSIA AND SWITZERLAND. 
Bean, Dec. 21.—The orders and instructions f2r the commanders of 


| Corps to be employed in the expedition to Switzerland have all been 


completed, and are lying at the War-office ready signed, but it is now 
understood they will not be sent off till the 25th instant. The eight 
divisions to be employed are already placed on the war footing, ard are 
equal in numerical strength to 16 divisions on the peace establishment. 
Tue serious turn events are taking has created a great sensation amongst 
our diplomatists, who did not expect that Switzerland would take such 
4 decided course, and are, therefore, taken by surprise, and somewhat 
alarmed for the future. 

The Federal army has been distributed, says La Presse, into nine divi- 
sions, each of which comprises three brigades, and which make up al- 
together an effective force of 130,000 men. All the superior officers in 
command are already appointed, and it was decided at an extraor- 
dinary sitting of the Federal Council on the 20th inst. to set 
on foot immediately a corps d’armee of between twenty and thirty 
thousand men, to be composed of two divisions, one of which 
will be commanded by Colonel Ziegler, and the other by Colonel 
Bourgeois. This Tosca be os 08 ict wk eT OT Se eee ee me Sere eee ee ee @armee will be stationed en echelon along the 


1HE ECONOMIST 


Ae eee Sep eiereea teases lil cenmmremseencaremanctiinnnss * caneiiiimnenisiennciidint 


1435 


bender country, from Basle to Schauffhausen. A second corps d’armee 
will, without delay, come to reinforce this one. Independently of th ese 
forces, the Federal Government has determined to embody the whole of 
the federal contingent, both elite and reserve; and the men of whom it 
consists are ordered to keep themselves in readiness to march. These 
arrangements have been officially communicated to the Governments of 
the different cantons. It is moreover to be observed, that the military 
capitulations concluded in 1828 between the several cantons and the 
kingdom of the Two Sicilies, expressly provided for the event of a war 
between Switzerland and any foreign power; and in strict conformity 
with the terms of a clause introduced into those engagements, it js pro- 
bable that the four Swiss regiments at Naples, composing an effective 
force of more than ten thousand men, wi!l be recalled within a very 
few days, as well as the Swiss troops in the service of the Pope in the 
Roman States. 

The latest intelligence from Switxerland says the Charges d’ Affairs of 
America and England at Berne had endeavoured to bring about a good 
understanding between Switzerland and Prussia, but not being supported 
by the representatives of other Powers they had failed, No change has 
taken place in the war preparations of the Prassian Government or the 
Federal Council. General Dufour is engaged with a war committee in 
organising the various military depots, and preparing the points of de- 
fence. The veteran general declared the other day that he would not 
hesitate for an instant to enter on a campaign with his fellow- -citizens, 
and he added, ‘‘ we shall soon meet on the battle-field.” Indeed there 
seems to be but one feeling in Switzerland, and that is to resist. Swiss 
from all parts of Europe were arriving at their homes daily ; in addition, 
a number of foreigners had written to the Federal Government offering 
their services. 








ITALY. 

A letter from Rome of 16th inst. announces that the state of siege has 
been removed in the Legations and the Marches, with the exception of 
the provinces of Bologna and Ancona. It adds that a serious difference 
is said to have arisen between Cardinals Alfieri and Antonelli on the 
present high price of provisions. The former charged the latter with 
permit‘ing corn to be illegally exported from Terracina for the benefit of 
his family who reside there. 


oe 


*THE BALTIC. 

Hampure, Dec. 24.—Stocholm intelligence up to the 17th instant 
mentions that the Royal order relative to the permission granted during 
the present year, and terminating at the expiration of the same, for the 
free importation of sunary cereals, ground or otherwise, as well as pfro- 
visions fer general consumption throughout Sweden, has been renewed 
for the year 1857, and further articles added to those already well known, 
on payment of very moderate duties. St Petersburg accounts to the 
latest date state the mild temperature of 1 to 3 degrees, which had pre- 
vailed for some days past, was by no means welcome to people in 
business. The thaw had caused the transport of goods over the ice to 
become very difficult and dangerous, 31 ships had been enabied to re- 
turn into the harbours from various parts of the Neva, in consequence 
of the channel cut through the ice for their passage. 


THE DANUBIAN PRINCIPALITIES. 

A letter from Vienna says:—As the commission for the settlement of 
the affairs of the Danubian Principalities is likely to meet before the end of 
January, the more essential parts of a memorandum, which bas just beep 
pr sented by Prince Stirbey to one or more of the principal European Go- 
vernments, will be read with interest, In it, itis statel:— 

“The budget of 1856 presents a surplus of 4,995,328 pissters, which is 
about one-fourth of the whole expenditure. The outlay for 1856 was cal- 
culated at 20,398,767 piasters, and the revenue at 25 ,394,095 piasters. The 
same surplus in the receipts was secured for 1857, and if in the, budget of 
1636 it only figured as 2738,580 piasters, it was because the sum of 
56,748 piasters was intended to cover the deficit which in 1855 was 
caused by the war and the army of occupation. The sum of 2,738,580 pi- 
asters was considered sufficient for the extraordinary expenditure of the 
State up t@ the end of the present year. 

*- That the revenue of the State increased one-fourth, and that during 
a most calamitous period, without any augumentation of the taxes. 
The improvement in the revenue was caused by strict economy and order 
in all the pubiic departments, by the tax on diplomas of nobility, and by 
the tribute paid by the gipsies belonging to the State ( Buhemiens de I’ Etat), 

“ Tnat the average expenditure of Wallachia is only 21,000,000 piasters, 
and it is therefore “ridiculous to call its financial position, with a certain 
revenue of 25,000,000, ‘deplorab! e. 

“ The prosperous condition of the fin: nces enabled the Hospodariate to 
dcfray the expenses caused by the army of occupation in 1855 without 
having rec urse to extraordinary me: meee. 

“Tt was thou ght that the sum of 2,738,580 Pi asters would suffice to 
defray the extraordinary expenditure but ig the year 1856, as it was sup- 
posed the occup: ation w ould s00n cez ASE ‘and, in fact, the number of troops 
is now three-fourths less than it was.’ 

* Each of the public treasuries possesses a more or less considerable 
capital, which a been principilly formed by means of savings effected 
during the last seven years.” 


2,25 


UNITED STATES. 

Our advices from America arecheering. The money market continued 
easier, and a favourable view of future prospects is expressed. The 
weekly bank returns, compared with those of the previous week, exhibit 
the following variations in the aggregates :—Increase in loans and 
discounts, 1,362,058 dols; increase in specie, 167,513 dols; increase in 
circulation, 64,502 dols ; increase in deposits, nominally, 3,174,520 dols; 
increase in deposits, actually, 1,309,420 dois. The usual statistics relating 
to the progress of the trade of New York during the week ending the 5th 
inst. show the value of general merchandise imported to have reached 
1,951,426 dols; andof dry goods, 1,155,480 dols; making the total 











= . - 





1436 F 





importation, 3,106,906 dols. 
as follows :—General merehandise, ],903,268 dols; 
dols; together, 1,968,196 dols; 
exports of 1,137,710 dols. 





1856 :-— 





1855. 1856. 

dols do 
Cotton... «cannes ccccne..coees 0000 11,372 3768 so. 9,458,816 
DED a0. 0sebhe.bae« -gkneee® - 7,429,455 14,202,88% 
COPE MOR 20 wn 00 00 pc cnsesocen ee 275,742... 257,945 
WARE cccccccccccccvcce cscs BAIRBONS 0. 15,771,008 
a eee lll 2,922,283 
ME ccscccncscscscessvsenecce IB NEEE ce 971,792 
PEE kcnsecene6 000 00ecnsseen REO <= 2.163.496 
Total oc coc. cece 31,076,944 .. 43,743,248 


Net increase to 2,450,477 

We have received details of the failure of Mr Jacob Little, the largest 
operator at the Stock Board; but although his transactions were enor- 
mously heavy it does not appear that much mischief is likely to result, 
since he was able to propose a not unsatisfactory compromise. Accord- 
ing to some reports, he had speculative sales open to the extent of nearly 
2,000,000/, principally in Erie, New York Central, Reading, and other 
railway stocks; and on the arrival of advices from England of an improve- 
ment in the London money market, he was compelled at once to declare 
his inability to fulfil his contracts. He offered, however, to settle them 
at the prices of the previous day, and this proposal was likely to be ac- 
cepted. His total on the present occasion are estimeted at 
200,000. Simultaneously with the failure of Mr Little, ait New York, 
the stoppage was announced of Henshaw and Son, bankers ands 
dealers, at Boston, also with very heavy liabilities. 

The last report of Mr Pierce’s Secretary of the Treasury makes a good 
show for the country. The following are some of the most interesting 
results gathered from this document :— 

Gross EXCHANGES oF THE TREASURY YEAR. 


December 4, 1856. 


SSS 
SS 


losses 


tock 








dols 
Imported FOTEILN ZOOS ceccccceseceses eocccccee ecsove SLUG 20 
FOreign Specie ...cccceeccccccecccovcenccescossceetecsccscccossonice.cee 4207622 
P00Oe ree eeen eee © HHn ee Oe eee sere ss 008 FOE eee eee eee seres sence 31463 942 
dols 
orte produce of the United States 266458051 
n re-exnorted ...... 14781382 
Remitte American gol 4414827 
OTE ZN EPECIC .0eeeereeeee eee 1597206 





SS 
i tet 
oH 
4 a 
7 = 























Balance in favourof the United States ........ eucvccsannees 
The tota rt of foreign goode for the fiscal year, as 
BBOVS, WES ...ccnceocccece soncenasecncncssssccsnesennccoessaceesccscess SUOAS ZEN 
CE Witte we SPOTTING. cesnnccscncancesescncnnseneesecece: cocsssececces: oo 147 $1382 
AE Ot III cecimnmniccnrataittnwennenes Cagnincienidinenit 2 15650938 
Against Consumption Of 1855 0. ccrccececcereseeresssereseresece LI15E Saree 
a ce nsumption... +o eeeeereeeeee weree eee eee 6 (083160 
i rt of domestic produce of t U ‘ited St ites 
scal year, 88 AbOVE .........0008 occ ccccnce ose oo 38051 
SXDOTE OF 1BES. .coococccce cos ccescasessnoccosebonsecesee 51135 
Increased surplus production ......... eocerecccccccsesvecsece 873586916 
| The gold and other specie exchanges of the two years compare as 
follows :-— 
Gols 
n 1855 r tted in American 01d ...ccccccsesssercssccessesesse §=53957418 
AD in foreign SPECie accccccercovscecesss2s0-ce0senses ove ccccsesceens § 2289925 
Total specie sent abroad..... sccvccesecssccccccsosovosocscocs DO24I943 
Less foreign specie entered ......00...-ccecssees wens. co 50814 
Net specie remittances last year... ccocssrerssseseeeses. 52590529 
Tn 1856 remitt 1 American goit 7 
And@in f reign specic......ceses.+ 


Total specie sent ab 
Less foreign sp 


41526843 
country is singularly 
interesting from the magnitude of the great staples, and by comparison 
with the previous year :— ‘ 

: 18456 1” 
dels dols 
128382351 
77187301 


Net specie remittances this yeat...+-...cscse 
The classification of the domestic exports of the 



























3356787 
| om 10°94184 
al r miscellaneous... °2200352 
Tc ercecsescccsoccsocoseece 266438051 
TRADE WITH Britisq Nortu AMERICA. 
Exports. 
——— ee, 
i gn. Domestic Total. Imports 
os ls do's dols cols 
DBS 2ccrcreesecs 853919 GES5G9T sevoce 10509016 ccccee 6110209 
eB OSeooes 436555 7404087 ceecee 33140642 ... 06 7550718 
1B54.......2+000 352716 sesom 15204144 seveee 24566860  sseve . 8927560 
' 18 Dovcccces eos 1) 999378 » DBBZOGGE2 cecece 27806020  caccee 15136734 
oT cco G314652 ceeeee 22714697) ...000 29029349 ..e00e 21350421 
T . 7220 67784567 105051887 59035732 
Ja derive +} e . . =" 
We derive the above from official sources at Washingt: n, and the 
| figures may relied upon as exact. The result is, that while the whole 
i j Vv ner rt ‘ 1 a" . 
trade movement into Canada and the other British North American 
provinces was, 
dols 
In 1851. 0888+ 00 00 8m 900 ses ces serensens oes corececccces cee eveseoes: « 16619315 
It is now, under the reciprocity treaty ......c.ccscseorssveervee 50339770 
| oungunemnene 


Increase gir 
A rising of the slave 


C@ 1851....0 © ete ceccececeees 33720455 

r population in the South has been apprehended, 
and, in some instances, outbreaks, attendéd with violence, have actually 
taken place. The J Missouri Democrat observes :—For the past month the 
journals from different Southern States have been filled with numberless 


The value of exports in the seme time was 
and of specie, 64,928 
giving an excess of imports over 
The following is a comparative statement of 
the value of exports from the commencement of the year to December 4, 


THE E ECONO} LIST. 


ns 
| 


———— a 





‘Dec. 27, 1856, 


alarms respecting contemplated risings of the negro population. In Ten. 
nesseeé, in Missouri, in Virginia, and in Alabama, so imminent has been 
deemed the danger, that the most severe measures have been adopted to 
prevent their congregating or visiting after night, to suppress their cus. 
tomary attendance at neighbourhood preachings, and to keep a vigilant 
watch upon all their movements. by an efficient patrolling system, 

Later advices inform us that Walker has defeated the Costa Ricans 
with great slaughter. He afterwards removed the seat of government to 
Rivas,and burnt Grenada. A Costa Rican brig of war was blown up in 
an engagement with a Nicaraguan schooner. 











BIRTHS. 
On the 20th inst., at 21 Chester square, the wife of John George Philli- 
more, Esq., Q.C., M. P., of a son. 
On the 18th inst. ., at Melton Mowbray, 
daughter. 
On the 19th inst., at 
daughter. 


the Lady Francis Lloyd, of a 


144 Piccadilly, the Lady Margaret Beaumont, of qa 


MARRIAGES. 


On the 18th inst., at St Mary Abbotts, Kensington, Henry Trail Erskine, 
Esq., eldest son of the Right Hon. Thomas Erskine, to Eliza Sarah, only 
daughter of thelate Herbert William Hore, of Pole Hore, co. Wexford, Com- 
mander in the Royal Navy. 

On the 23d inst., at St. Mary’s church, Bryanstone square, 
lando, eldest son of the Hon. and Rev. Henry E. Bridgeman, to Sophia 
Caroline, eldest daughter of Lieut.-Colonel Close, of Montagu square, 

DEATHS. 

On the 15th inst., at Bishopsteignton, Devonshire, General the Hon. 
William Henry Gardner, Colonel-Commandant of the 10th Battalion Royal 
Artillery, aged 82. 

On the 19th inst., 
Marquis of Queeensberry, 

On the 16th inst., in Paris, 
Lancashire, aged 48. 

On the 18th inst., 
Hon. Lady Jane Sherard, 
borough, and sister of the present 


at Canaan house, Edinburgh, the Most Nobl 
in the 78th year of his age. 
the Hon. Gilbert Stapleton, of Ditton hall 


e John 


> 


at Leadenham, in the county of Lincoln, the 
fourth daughter of the late Phillip, Lar] of 
Earl. 


Right 
Har- 





COMMERCIAL AND MISCELLANEOUS NEWS, 





The following return shows the stete of the note circulation in the | 














United Kingdom, during the four weeks ending Nov. 22, compared with 
the previous month :— 
= Oct. 25, 1556. |Nov. 22, 1856, ; Increas Decrease. 
£ £ £ 
Bank Er 20774309 20962041 eee 712268 
Private Ba y ) 3855971 ' a 83080 
nt St 155106 SL 13886 ove 41220 
TR68475 27031898 836577 
- 4219079 1444702 a 
I 7241957 7425740 183783 so 
United K ee 5 Ll 38909340 ove 427171 





showing a decrease of 836,577/ in the circulation of notes in England 
and a decrease of 427,171/ in the circulation of the United Kingdom, 
when compared with the month ending the 25th of October 
compared with the month ending the 24th of November, 1855, the 
above returns show an increase of 346,216! in the circulation of notes in 
England, and an increase of 704, 2861 in the circulation of the United 
Kingdom. ‘The average stock of bullion held by the Bank of England in 





both departments during the month ending the 22nd November was 
9,677.0702, being a decrease of 403,530/ as compared with the previous 
month, and a decrease of 1,557,2387 when compared with the same 


The stock of specic held by the Scotch and Irish banks 
ending the 22nd November was 4,377,469!/, being an 
02 as compared with the previous return, and an 
5’ when compared with the corresponding period last 


period last year. 
during the month 
increase of 33 
increase of 161,76 
year. 

At the Court of Bankruptcy on Thursday, a first dividend of 5s 6d in 
the pound was declared under the estate of the Royal British 

Bank on debts amounting to 380,000/, and the assignees have not re- 
tained anything to meet legal or other expenses. lt is 
a further dividend will be declared in about six weeks. 

The Committee of the Privy Council for Trade and Plantations has re- 
ceived a copy ofa despatch from Her Majesty’s Consul at Warsaw, report- 
ing that the prohibition to export rye, barley, oats, meal, groats, and 
potatoes from Poland has been removed. The committee has also re- 
ceived a despatch from Her Majesty’s Consul at Madrid, reporting that 
the Spanish Government have fixed the import duty on floss silk as 
follows—viz., national flag, 18 reals per quintal; foreign flag, or by 
hand, 28 reals per quintal; spun or twisted, national t reals 70c 
per lb; foreign flag, or by hand, 4 reals 80c per |b. 

A letter from Marseilles, dated the 21st inst., says :—The corn market 
has been firm this week in consequence of the continued demand from 
Spain. The following sales have been made for immediate delivery:— 
12,000 hectolitres of wheat from Taganrog, at from 32f 96c to 33f 43c 
the hectolitre ; 9,000 hectolitres of Danubian, 26f 25c to 27f 34c; 4,000 
hectolitres of Roumelian, 25f 9 95c; 9,000 Alexandrian, 20f 3lc to 24f 25c 
9,000 American, 71f 56c to ¢ f 18¢. 

The St Petersburg Gazette of Commerce publishes the account of the St 
Petersburg Savings Bank for the year 1855. It appears from this that 
the amount of the deposits was, in 1855, 834,307 roubles 794 copecks; 
during the same period 590,830 roubles 64 copecks were reimbursed in 
the form of capital, and 36,959 roubles 77 copecks for interest. On the 
lst of January, the assets of the bank presented a total of 1,809,067 
roubles 804 copecks. 

The ironmasters at Wolverhampton have met this week, resolved 
to adhere to the prices declared 15 months ago, viz., bars, 9/ per ton, 
' hoops and sheets in proportion. The contemplated reduction in the 
wages of the thin coal and stone men has been abandoned. 


"792 


4so 


flag, 


and 


Henry Or. | 


And, as | 


expected that | 


—_———}$$ er 


ee 


ee 


— 


“e 
























a SIM 









annie 


a CLOT 


ee 


AP 
A REESE BIO SE, i 


. 


ey 





Dec. 27, 1856. | 


Total Quantity of S; 
the Pe oonase ar 


January aud 





e Shipped from England for the Year 1856, by {the Steamers of 
and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, commencing 4th 
idiug 20.h December. 





Gol4, Silver, 
£ £ 
P waieddscsGise%s SL4S2 coce 181516 
eee ce vece BATH 944319 
. ence ) 20008 #52618 
* 33855 ‘ 809862 
80131) www. )=—2152013 
POND dD Evcdcice 00 00 cs se cece 21349 © e80 658580 
Haslet, «seas -cpars atesende ok /ROES . cad ORES 
AUgUSt.. coves . 29869 1162103 
5 em be 35232 4.66 1245601 
12993 . .. 27850: 
09 sews 65335) ..06 1142271 
o00ee 00 13120) 4.6. 1286715 
I al 404749 - 12118985 
Total A int of Speci eft om 1G reat Britain to the East, for Six Years. 
| Gold. Silver. 
| £ £ 
& 162289 4... 1716100 
| is 92'739 2630238 
Is 880202 ..... 4710665 
I. » 1274299 serve 3132003 
185 948272 640988 5 
| 


Ob canis swe ncatieses ND 12118985 


| Total.. vos ccesesee 4431541 30717880 
Total from the Medi iterraneau Po rts to the East, for Four Years. 
Gold, Silver, 
£ £ 
1853. 93528 848362 
| 1854 4B45H  ccceee 451014 
VBS wee covcccccccccccccs S43209 wor. 1524240 
1856 eeecece evccese 74039 1989916 























THE ECONOMIST. 





on tal ° 459262 ..... 5813532 
Amount of Spec ipped from Marseille es, Malta, and Gibraltar, by the Steamers of 
the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, to Egypt, India, and | 
China, for the Year 1856. 
Gold. Silver, 
£ £ 
Mareeilles to Alexandria.... 62092 680 
AMON ce cccccecccccveces roe oe eee §©=— 45650 
Bombay coos sees 162545 
Ceylon cecccsscccecsersctees cee evens ° 3020 
Madras we... es sees eco cecce 827494 
| Calcutta oocccececsccsoce ose oe: 431824 
P@nANd occsccoes cove veces ce eens « 29852 
SimQapOre vee. eee covreeserece . 15792 
| Hong Kong..... eoeeeeee . ee 386655 
Canton .. 200 cevecccess ese ee esvcee «= 89243 
Shanghal .. «.cccces se esceseee s+  eseeee 400258 
Total scccce.cccce-oe sesercce 62092 ...006 1842016 
Malta to Alexandria.... SO47 cece ee 
Ceylon ooo cecces cosecccce sescsecce 8000 ~— 
| Calcutta ... 1479 
Hong Komg ccocccesscccccs 02 coves $945 
Canton ....-see 2283) 
Shanghai ...+0- see» ° ee 62010 
Total ... “TTT Ty 11947 95244 
Gibraitar to Bombay eecces erece 658 
BINQAPOTE coves seceees coreee eee 40833 
| EOut BORG cc cccmecansccese 00 e0ec0 8718 
| CANTON 24 ce we cece nes soreece 500 
Shang ial or oc cee escoree vee+e 1917 
Total 00 ccccocccsccs ss cove 52656 


The lines of railway from Adrianople is " ghont to be conceded to an 
Englishman named Wilkin, who represents a London company. The 
organisation of the Ottoman post office has been confided to an English- 
man, Mr Smith, who was postmaster-general of the British forces in the 
Crimean expedition. He will also have the direction of the principal 
| lines of telegraph. 

On Thursday next, the Ist January, one uniform rule throughout 
England and Wales is to prevail concerning the distribution of the per- 
sonal estates of persons dying intestate. The alteration is effected by an 
Act of last session (chapter 94) with respect to persons dying on and 
after the commencement of the new year, 
| About four years ago the Communal Council of Ambleteuse re- 
| solved, by way of experiment, to lease out about 50 hectares of unpro- 
ductive ground in small fractions at a very low price and for a long 
term. The Constitutionnel now gives a statement of the results, which 
are very extraordinary. The 50 hectares, divided into 110 lots, leased at 
836f collectively, produced 19,500f in 1854; 25,000f in 1855; and 
33,000f in 1856. Adding thereto the rent, taxes, and cost of clearage, 
| &c., these 50 hectares are found to have produced a total of 102,458f in 
three years. But this is not all; the new impulse given to agriculture 
in the commune has led to the erection of 16 new houses, representing 
an additional value of 50,000f. 

Our commercial report, says a New Orleans paper, notices the engage- 
| ment ofa ship of 800 tons to take a full cargo of cotton seed to Provi- 
| dence, Rhode Island, where the article is to be turned into oil and oil 
cake. An extensive factory for extracting oil from the seed of cotton is 
already in operation in Rhode Island, and we understand that one or two 
| Companies are forming in Boston with the object of getting up similar 
establishments there. This is an enterprise in which the South is deeply 
| interested, promising, as it does, to convert an article hitherto almost 
| Worse than useless, into one of great commercial value. 

Statement of business at the United States Assay cffice at New York, 
for the month ending November 29, 1856:— 









Deposits or GoLD. dols, dols. 
I I i ciate alia adr coosecee 3000 0 
NURI ci cscichicscse. « dnsetecibeetnsnvsencesse ae  h 
United States bullion “(in cluding California Branch Miat bars) 1515500 0 
eee 81520090 0 
Deposits oF SILVER. 
I UNIS ois. Litas ddncciwcecscttieemmeme ain See “O 
Foreign Dallion...s.cccccossosesececevoceosce 800 0 
United States butliou (contained in gola 12100 0 
TI ciucscuiccennhatenetaaennaumsstenedadinncmiaimniaiaces 600 0 
oe 16000 0 
Payable in bars .. .. ...es. ‘ 68 . 1510000 0 
ayable in coins..... obit aabiancn tae aoa on 26000 0 


1536000 0 
1760568 4 


ee eee eee ee eeee 


eee 
= ——— ee 
oe 


1437 


The following is a statement of the business at the Mint of the United 
States, Philadelphia, for the month of November :-— 


























DEPosITs. dols c 
Gold froma. California, oc oc ccc 0000 b0006p6s ccs cevecdicnd, Ree 6 
1d from Other SOUFCES ccoccocecoccccecceces oc cenecesscossee cccose 72924 0 
Tot: eccccccoesccccsenccccesecs 101980 0 
Silver dey 06 cee cose. 45600 0 
Total Geposits ...rccssseccceeesserecse -er-meeee ecsccsecsscesseesseee 447580 0 
COINAGE. Value. 
Gold. Pieces. dols 
UNO WEIR dintnsn seet bihene BO lnccccce cc csce 4702 40 
Dollar elivscad. WEE <cciiecscasy “Ee 
Tota ; 19887 eee 64569 40 
Silver. Pieces. dols c 
Dimes cecccce TOOOOD ae cecccecese 70000 
Coppe Pieces. dols 
Cents eee : G1U545 cece cocwes 6105 45 
“Rec APITULATION. Value. 
Pieces, dols c¢ 
Gol si BOONE ceccnciomusin ‘ORO 
Silver ... 700000 70000 0 
Copper.. GIOS4ES  cccoce eccoccece see 6105 45 
DORAL . caccantntiniensccertencce BERET: © ca cn tied ies 140674 85 
The amount of coins of ‘the several denominations on hand at the Mint 
were as follows :— 
GoLp. dols c SILVER. dols c¢ 
Fag coocece 950400 0} Fine bars ....cccseese 7175 67 
Dor 2 di tto. o ecccoce §«CRGBOD «OT DDGRIRES ccccccceetccce LOtae 8 
Half eag les seve cece 1!:015 0] Half dollars.......... 354378 0 
(Quartet eay +» 11/025 0 | Quarter dollars + 431257 75 
Three dollar pieces . 21042 Of Dimes . 24848 60 
Dollars .... 176328 Oj} Halfdimes .. ......... 27541 at 
FiM8 DOT s2ccce cove 3059 84) Three cent pieces .... 29663 7 
meme — me | COMES... prcctree ee oe ve cee 5 a 
Total...esecees 1088769 84 
Total ..cc ceceseee 886398 74 
Total amount balance on hand ..... eoee 1975168 58 
The operations of the United States Branch ‘Mint, at San Francisco, 
during the month of October, were as follow :-— 
Gotp DEposiTs, ounces 
From 6th to 3ist October ......scces ecccecscecccccoccoe BZLI12 69 
CoInaGe, dils c¢ 
Double eagles 2c cercsesersesee soreseeececcccesceececcccces § 940100 
Eagles 80060 0 
Half eagies...... tocescces concer cccsccsees s cosssscecsesceseccessccoccescs «8690000 0 
Total cocccccccscvccces covccessecsvcosccccsccescsocsococcocessece co 1090000 40 


We have advices from Colombo tothe 15th November, and from which 
we extract the following commercial items:—* The picking of the coffee 
crop is in full progress, and the outturn will be very large notwith- 
standing the losses on low estates. One estimate that has reached us 
since the fine weather has set in, puts down the probable crop of 1856- 
57 at nearly 100,000 cwts more than last season. The weather is very 


fine, and we have heard of no sickness in any part of the country. 
Coffee exported from 29th Octoher to 14th November 1856:— 
PLANTATION. 
Casks. Barrels. Bags. Cwrs. 
For London ... 1,217 ssececcs 302 coscscsee 1,172 covcereee 11,814 
France .. 150 cecepere 20 ccoceccce 172 cevvereee 1,482 
1,367 $22 1,344 13,246 
NatTIvr. 
po ee ee eae GBt acccce KID 
France eueae eve ewvcceve QUIT ccceee 1Q006 
1,367 322 11,512 24,840 


Coffee, Native, picked and dried—After the arrival of the mail there have 
been few transactions in this staple; at present we quote 40s per cwt. 
Coffee, Plantation—No transacitons. Cotton--Contracts have been made 
at 70 rupees per candy for first quality unscrewed; all the crop availableat 
Tutucoreen has been disposed of, and there will be no more to come for- 
ward for some time. Cinnamon—No transaction since last advice ; the 
next cutting is expected in December. Cocoa-nut Oil—A sale of 300 
leaguers are reported 13/ 15s to 14/ without casks. This is equal to 
15/ 15s to 1627 with casks. Freights—There is pienty of tonnage in the 
roads. The present rates are for coffee in casks, 42 to 4/5s ; bags, 2/ 10s, to 
3s 10s; cinnamon, 4/; cocoa-nut oil, 4/; broken stowages, 1! 10s to 2/. 
Exchanges are 10 per cent. discount for 6 months’ bills. Sovereigns, 
Queen’s, 20s 2d to 24d; dragons, 203 4d to 5d.” 








To Readers and Correspondents. 
<3” Communications must be authenticated by the name of the writer. 


G. G.—Thea Information you inquire abont appeared in the Economist of March 8. p»ge 
3, inthe present year. Your inquiry baving been limited to last year, we did 
not think of lookirg to our files for the present year. 


Che Bankers Gasette. 


BANK RETURNS AND MONE Y M ARKET. 
BANK OF ENGLAND. 
(From the GAZETTE.) 
An Account, pursuant to the Act 7th and 8th Victoria, cap. 32, forthe week end- 
ing on Saturday, the 20th day of December, 1856 :— 


ISSUE DEPARTMENT. 
£ 


-4 














£ 
11,015,100 
3,459,900 
9,201,950 


Notes Issued ..cccccccccesese 24,376,930) Government Debt ......+...+. 
| Other Securities mans 
Gold coin and Bullion. 


| Silver Bullion .......... ootk 





24,376,930 24,376,930 
BANKING DEPARTMENT. 
x £ 


z 
14,553,000 | Government Securities, includ- 
3,240,390 ing Dead Weight Annuity .. 10,87 
} Other Securities ............ 
| Notes eee oc eecee 
| Gold and Silver Coi a eee 


Proprietors Capital.. 

Rest .... eee 
Public Deposits (includin ng Ex- 
chequer, Savings Banks, Com- 


431 
17,454,460 


5,863,890 











missioners of National Debt, 611,893 
and Dividend Accounts) 6,891,949 
Other Deposits .... 9,493,093 
Seven Day and other Bills . $22,242 
35,000,674 35,900,674 


Dated the 24th December, 1856. M. MARSHALL, Chief Cashier. 





‘1428 


TRE OLD FoRM 
The above Bank accounts would, if made out in the old form 


present the following result :— 

Liabilities. = | 
Cirenlation, inc. Bankpost bills 19,335,282 Securities ....+. -...cseeee 
Public Deposits... .. 6.801,949 | Bullion . o0e 00 cece 08 00 00 ce 00 
Ocher or Private Deposits .... 9,493,093 


Assets, £ 
«+ 28,446,891 
10,513,823 


35,720,324 38,960,714 
The balance of assets above liabilities bein® 3,240,390/, as stated in the above account 
under the head Rest. 
FRIDAY NIGHT. 


The preceding accounts, compared with those of last weck 
exhibit— 


4 decrease of Circulation of .osesecssecececeveees 
Anincreas~ uf Public Deposits «fi... scecccesecccecscecees S934 
An increaseof Ocher Deposits of ..secececsescececececese 450,271 
4n increase of Securities of scecse cccceveceseresesececs 1,055,296 
A decrease of Bullion of 17%,703 
Anincrease of Rest of .. +04. 13,717 
An increase of R- serve of 2. cvecsesee oe 11,067 


The present returns show a decrease of circulation, 178,7191; 
an inerease of public deposits, 591,3241; an increase of private 
deposits, 450,2711 ; an increase of securities, 1,055,2961, of which 
229,564 are Government securities and the rest, 825,732/, are pri- 
vate securities ; a decrease of bullion, 178,7032; an increase of 
rest, 13,7171; and an increase of reserve, 11,067/. The gold 
has been taken away chiefly to send to Ireland, and no doubt the 
increase of Government securies is the result of an exchange of 
them on the part of the Irish banks for gold. ‘ihe increase of 
private securitics is not greater than usual at this period of the 
year. The total amount is now 17,654,460/, against 19,204,123 
in the corresponding week of 1855. Then the bullion was 
10,981,745/, now it is 10,513,8232; then the circulation was 
19,230,978/, now it is 19,335,2822. 

There has been in the week a great demand for money, and it 
continues tobe in demand. There is no alteration since last week 
in the terms, but those who expected to find money much 
easier before the close of the year are disappointed. 

In the exchanges there is no alteration, and no sign at present 
of gold flowing into this country from the Continent. Ourtrade, 
with its multifarious demands, seems to extend day by day, and. 
though in the end it adds to our capital, it creates at present a 
demand for all that is to be disposed of. 

Though the rates of discount continue very high on the Conti- 
nent—at Hamburg 7} per cent.—an additional evidence is to be 
found of increasing ease and confidence in the announcement 
made yesterday by the Bank of France, that from and 
after the 26th commercial bills will be admitted for discount 
having 75 days to run. 

The arrivals of the precious metals in the week are 224,000] 
from New York and 79,0002 silver from Antwerp. 

The tendency of the funds through the week has been upwards, 
with slight oscillations; but it is more a tendency than a very 
marked improvement. Consols, which closed last Friday at 932 
94 for the account, opened to-day at the same figures, and at the 
close‘they were 9445. Being a holiday week, very little business 
has been done, and that little shows no abundance of money for 
which an investment ie sought. Through the week the French 
funds have been depressed, but to-day they come improved. We 
subjoin our usual list :— 


occcece £178,719 


ee ee ee ee ee ee eens 


Comous. 
Acconnt, 
Lowest. Highest. 


Money. 
Lowest. Hizhest. 
Saturday .... SuUut -... shUt .... GBR cove, BAR .,0 par 5s pm 
Monday .«svoe <0) ushed tee cee | veee GSR wees pa 45 pin 


Exch. Bills, 


Tuesday...... «. os De coos GAR. woos 98h cooe par 4s pm 
Wednesduy «s . ‘ ' scam scpeee; PR havee1 whe ee 
Thursday - ooee 00 cooe ve 
Friday «.+.. > . earisteoson: oh 
Closing prices 
last Friday. 
3 per cent consols, acconmt «.) 98% 4 
money,... siiut 
New 3 per cents ».-+++,ee000 938g 4 
% per cent reduced ........5. Ydg z 
Exchequer bills ...... March 2s pm 5s pm 
— .se.+. June 2s pm 53 pm 
Bank stock... ...44-24+ 6 +e00 216 18 
East India stock .......2..ee shut 
Spanish 3 per cents.......... 423 
— S8percentsnew def.. 244 
* ortuguese, 1853.........0.. 446 
Mexican 3 per cents ..... 214 2 213 2 
Dutch 24 per cents........ 6416 covcce 65 6 
— 4percents.......... 95 7 coooee OS 
Russian 44 stock ..........2. 957 cocoee 967 
- 5 per cent........+. 106 8 166 8 
Sardinian stock ............ 88 90 88 .90 
PUTTER EE... csccpecccocses 166 76 8 
- Spercent ......00 546 55 7 
Venezuela..... . 346 ovee 38 9 
Spanish certificates.......... 5% 6 coccee SF GS 
Turkish loan, 6 percent .... 95g coccee SOS 
New ditto 4 percent........ 10zg 3 102g 
French Joan peecesecee ve pecs 00 
The railway market is also steady, with little business doing. 
The following is our usual railway share jist, corrected to the 
close of the market this day :— 
RalLwars. 
Closing prices 
ast Friday. this day. 
Bristol and Exeter .......... 935 oc oe) 98 § 
Caledonian sovccccegece 628 3h poo. spy) Oe 
Eastern Counties......,..... % } peed 9 
East Lancashire ............ 9 ¥I coopen: Ph 
Greai Northern; os....seeae. 88 § 
Great Western.,............ 69§ § 
Lancashire and Yorkshire..,. 97 
London and Blackwall ...... 63 7 


coos O4@ .... 2 dis 4s pm 

Closing prices 

this day, 

445% 

ccocee Shut 

coves 94) 9 
983 
Is dis 2s pm 
Is dis 2s pm 
216 1s 
shut 
423 
248 g 
45 6 


34 


Closing prices 


THE ECONOMIST. 


_ 
Na 
Closing prices Closing prices 
last Friday. this day, 
London, Brighton, & S. Coast 11:1 12 eveeee 1119 129 
London and North-Western.. 1054 6 eoceee 1059 6 
London and South-Western.. 107 8 1069 73 
Midland . ocdecvcecd edaceres . 82.8 acoso, Ga. 
North British coepgsye” tee on coon 
North Staffordshire.......... 54 5 da» . 53 é dis 
Oxford, Worcester, & Wolver. 29 30 7 
DO MER ccsoncteccsccs, 1008 
Sout) Walee.. occa debe os de'ce kof i 
North-Eastern, Berwick Stock &3 4 
North-Eastern, York Stock .. £94 604 
FOREIGN SHARES, 

Northern of France.......... 
Do. 20! per ct bonds (formerly 

Boulogne & Amiens shares) 
Eastern of France 0.0see 
Rouen ane Havre .......... 
Dutch Rhenish......eecesees 
Paris and Lyons ..0........- 
HASt TNGIAR 2 cc ceccccceccce 


13 8 


fi pm 
vdg g 
113 15 


Madras ..... er covevece cococe 204 
3 
4 


Paris and Orleans .. eacccese S13 socces 5) 
Western & Nth-WtnofFrance 3% csecee 3d 
Great India Peninsular...... 21% 21% 
Great Central ef France ... tl ccoce 49 -pu 
Gt Western of Canada 24 4 esccee 248 

The Stock Exchange are at issue with the Great Northern Rail- 
way Company. After due deliberation, the Committee of the 
Stock Exchange came to this resolution :— 

The Committee having received evidence that the Great Northern 
Railway Company have refused to register transfers of stock accom- 
panied by coupons officially signed by the registering clerk of the Com- 
pany and bythe secretary, and for which stock certificates of due regis- 
tration in the name of the sellers have been issued by the Company’s 
secretary, resolved unanimously—‘ That, there being no security to the 
public under these circumstances, the Committee will not recognise any 
further transactions in the Great Northern Railway Company’s stecks or [ 
shares, nor of the stocks or shares of those other companies connected 
therewith, and order that the came of the Great Northern Railway Com- 
pany, and of such other companies, be struck out of the official 
list of the Stock Exchange so long as such transfers shall remain unre- [ 
cognised,” 

To this the Company have replied, that 

Subsequent to the discovery of Redpath’s frauds, in those cases in 
which discrepancies fraught with suspicion are discovered in the accounts 
of the parties transferring, they or their brokers had been written to and 
the cause of delay in passing the transfers explained, and further time 
asked for, so as to afford opportunity for the thorough examination, 
necessary to decide whether such transfers were entitled to be registered, 
begetting, unavoidably, much delay, and that such explanation of the | 
delay generally satisfied the pariies interested. That it was only in 
such cases of considerable doubt and difficulty that the great de- |, 
lay alleged to have occurred had taken place, though, of course 
there was, inevijably, interruption in carrying on the current busi- 
ness, the books and documents, and the clerks conversant with them, 
being constantly required by the solicitors in preparing for the prosecu- 
tion of Redpath, but the ‘secretary is not aware of any ground for assert- 
ing that the Company intended, or even contemplated, refusing finally to 
acknowledge transfers when the parties were duly registered in the 
books, and had sent in, or lodged at the office, proper stock certificates 
with the transfer; that, on the contrary, in several instances when he 
(the secretary) had had the advan'age of personal explanation with pro- 
prietors, he impressed them with the opinion that all stock properly ac- 
qaired and duly registered must in good faith be recognised. 

And the Railway Board finally resolved :— 

That the Company have not refused to register the transfer of stock 
accompanied by coupons or certificates, officially signed by the registering 
clerk of the Company,and by the secretary; nor have they any intention 
to decline to register transfers of stock for which certificates of cue ree 
gistration in the names of the seller have been issued by the Company, 
unless there is ground to believe the holder of such stock has been party 
to any fraud in the manner of obtaining it. 

t is, however, reiterated that the Committee of the Stock Ex- 
change is in possession of evidence that the Great Northern Com- 
pany has, in twoinstances, where the parties are well known and 
thoroughly responsible aud respectable, refused to register the 
transfer, and has impounded the stock sought to betransferred ; and 
that the Committee is also in possession of evidence that the whole 
business of this department in the Grzat Northern has been con- 
ducted in a most unsatisfactory manner. Nevertheless the Com- 
mittee has, we believe, informed the Great Northern Directors that 
it will be happy to receive such evidence of their assertion that 
the Company has not refused to register the transfer of shares 
as will enable it to rescind its resolution not to recognise 
transactions in Great Northern shares. 

‘This, dispute which occupies a good deal of attention, is an illus- 
tration of the general quietness aud prosperity. Were a terrible 
crisis impending, did such bankruptcies as atteaded the convul- 
sions of 1847, 18, and 1793 now threaten us, the affair of the Great 
Northern would not be much thought of. In fact, all the alarm 
that has been lately generated has been in the main confined to 
parties connected with Stock Exchange operations and specular 
tions. Of late years the Steck Exchange, as we formerly remarked, 
has become a powerful auxiliary to production, coilecting the means 
for prosecuting, as it forraerly collected the means for carrying o® 
war, some of the noblest enterprises of modern times. But 
this function, though connected with speculation in shares and 
funds after companies are formed or debts contracted, is essete 
tially different from it ; and, whilethe former may not be impaired, 
the latter may lead to many disasters to individualswithout affecting 
the generalcommunity. ‘To us it appears that it is only the latter 





Dee. 27; Las. 

eS 

art of Stock! Exchange business which is anywhere deranged. 
On any suitable occasion it could still, no doubt, bring together al- 
most any amount of capital; but those who rather speculate in 
existing shares than provide capital for new undertakings, seem 
to have been subject toa derangement which has affected our Stock 
Exchange slightly, the New York Stock Exchange to some extent, 
and the stock exchanges or Bourses on the Continent very consi- 
derably. Speculations there, however, have no great effect 
on the general welfare, and we read or learn with something like 
contempt of the efforts said to be always making to influence the 
Bourse at Paris, at Berlin, at Vienna, or at Frankfort. ‘they may 
carry dismay and ruin into some families, but all these specula- 
tions have little influence over the great system of general pro- 
duction and distribution of wealth on which society depends for 
its welfare. We have not shared the alarm that some have enter- 
tained about the coming of a great crisis in industry, because there 
were bubbles in the Paris Bourse; and we have to state, at the 


close of the year, that our national business in all its branches is, | 


almost without exception, in a sound and flourishing condition. 
We look forward, therefore, to the year 1857, apart from politics 
—of which we can conjecture nothing—as promising great 
prosperity. 

A panic has prevailed in the South of Jreland during the pre- 
ser.t and some part of last week as to the stability of the banks 
there, anda great run has been made on the Tipperary branches 

the National Bank, on the banks of Nenagh, Clonmel, and other 
0. 5 ’ 
places. It is now at an end, having caused no more serious dis- 
aster than the transmission of gold from London to Dublin, and 
from Dublin to the banks run on. They have all stood their 
ground. 


A dividend of 5s 62 in the pound has at length deen paid to 
the creditors of the British Bank. But for the complicated and 
contradictory jurisdiction created by the Bankruptcy Laws 
and the Winding-up Act, and the readiness of the spirit of liti- 
gation to take advantage of every neglect or error of the law, a 
dividend might have been paid much earlier and double the 
amount, 


By a late arrival from Calcutta we learn that a new port on the | 


mouth of the Ganges is there attracting someattention. The 
monthly circular of Messrs Wienholt, Krusthausen, and Co. says : 
—‘“* ‘ihe Mutlah is decidedly atttracting more attention. Govern- 
ment are, we understand, clearing away the jungle and making 
preperations for accommodating a staff of Custom-house officials. 
Two cargoes with salt are coming out to the Mutlah direct from 
England, and we have had many inquiries from German, Dutch, 
and Belgian shipowners. Applications for grants from Calcutta 
houses have increased ; one of our builders intends, we ate given 
to understand, to make a dock. The Mutlah will be of import- 
ance principally as giting those ships which find no freight or 
cargo at the rice ports (Akyab, Rangoon, &c.), the chance of 
another cheap port, and from where not only rice, but also nearly 
every other produce (dead and light weight), can be obtained as 
easily as in Calcutta. 

Our latest money intelligence from the United States describes 
a rather more active demand for money, though with a pretty free 
supply of unemployed capital. Rates had not undergone: any 
material change, but long-dated paper did not pass so readily as 
in the previous week. The current quotations were 74 to 8 per 
cent. fur prime 30 to 60 days’ commercial notes, 8 to 9 per cent. 
for 3 to 6 months’ ditto, and 10 to 15 per cent. for single names 
and second-class bills. 

The stock market has ruled in favour of buyers, owing to the 
withdrawal of Mr Little, one of the leading buyers, who had 
become insolvent. State and bank stocks, and the generality of 
bonds, formed an exception, and were well held. Mr Little was a 
speculator to an enormous extent for a fall. He believed, in com- 
mon with many persons in Europe and America, that the financial 
crises in the former would be much more severe than it has turned 
out to be. A short time ago, however, Mr Little and all similar 
operators were warned that the financial crisis had not excited a 
npple in Wall street, but he believed in a storm, and was crushed 
by the effects of his own fancy. 

The New York Bank statement shows a smaller specie increase 
than was expected, The actual increase in the deposits, after 
allowing for the exchanges at the clearing house, was about 
1,300,000 dols. The discounts had again increased the aggregate 
expansion for the last four week, amounting to 4,390,895 dols, or 
an average of about 1,100,000 dols a week. 

The kading items of the Bank statement, with the Sub-Treasury 
balance, were as follows:— 

Dec. 8, 1855. 
dots 

93,189,808 

11,846,625 
7,861,741 


78,060,111 
22,585,977 


Nov. £9, 1856, 
dois 
eoevee 105,526,476 
12,110,834 
8,» 10,256 
88,524,264 
26,909,915 
5,474 184 61,614,349 6 -,913,969 
11,746,715 12,268,997 se.coo 11,944,414 


The following letter corrects whatever might have been erroneous 
in the statement ulluded to, which was not much :— 
Vo the Editor of the Economist, 
Sir,—In your valuable paper of Saturday, December 13, 1855, page 
1382, speaking of the Amsterdam (Netherland) Bank, you say—‘‘ Ihe 
Bank limits its accommodation ¢o very short-dated bills, and bills which 


Dec. 6, 1856. 
dols 
106,898,534 
12,278,347 
8 671,758 
91,698,784 


28,774,815 


LOBNG..c voces: avesereee 
Circulation  ...006- 
Gross deposits ...... 
Exchangred 
UNcrawn see. 
Sub-Treasury 


THE’ ECONOMIST. 


1439 


it supposes are sold to export the proceeds in silver, it refuses altogether 
to negociate.”” 


I beg to say this statement is not quite correct. The Netherland Bank 
continues to discount paper of long date, provided it is satisfied the bills 
are arising from real transactions of merchandise shipped, or of goods 
sold on credit. It takes these bills even when they have three months and 
ahalftorun. But the Bank refuses to discount bills supposed to be cir- 
culated for the purpose of taking silver from its vaults for exportation. 
No drawers, drawees, endorsers, or bearers of such bills, however respecta- 
ble in their persons or firms, make any exception to the rule above named. 
—I am, respectfully, your constant reader, R. A. M. 

Rotterdam, December 19, 1856. 


FOREIGN RATES OF EXCHANGE ON LONDON, 
Rate of Exchange 
on London, 

Paris... se cc ccce eee £.25 25 3 days’ sight 

- 24... {.24 85 3 months’ date 
Antwerp ...... oe 1.25 274 £.25 324 2 days’ sight 
Amsterdam.... 1) 169 11:47 3 _ 

-- 1) 13 2 months’ date 
Hamburg...... odie 13 if 3 days’ sight 

_ DD sas 12 144 eed % wonuths’ date 
St Petersburg... BD seve 3e coe «68 _ 
EASON 205% de ooee a esse 3 _ 
Gibraltar...... DB cece 50 eae 3 
New York .... or 1093 0 day’s sight 
Jamaica ...... ; es 13 per cent. pm cee 30 

_ b cece ] per cent. pm eee 60 

a § per cent. pm 90 
Havana cose 23 4 per cent. dis coe WO 
Rio de Janeiro.. Fe 274d ec o "@ 
Baeble «2a xs SB ase 274a ee 60 
Pernambuco .. — 274d cove 60 
Buenos Ayres... — fSs 6d eee 60 
Singupeore .... Oct. 4s 94d 
Ceylon.,....+. Nov. 10 per cent. dis 
Boinbay ...608 — 2s 24d §4 ee.00 
Calcutta ....6. — 2s 14d d eves - 
Sianghai...... — 
Hong Kong..... Oct 
Mauritius .... — 


t 


montirs’ s.ght 


6s 61 7d ee - 
24 per cent. dis days’ sight 

_ ose 2 per cent. dis - 
- Sept. 6 .... par to l pm : _ 

COMPARATIVE EXCHANGES. 

The quotation of gold at Paris is about 6 per mille premium, and the 
short exchange on London is 25°20 per 1! sterling. On comparing these 
rates with the English mint price of 3/ 17s 104d per ounce for stand- 


Sydney 


| ard gold, it appears that gold is nearly 5-10ths per cent. dearer in Paris 


than in London. 


By advices from Hamburg the rrice of gold is 423 per mark, and the 
short exchange on London is 13°24 per ld sterling. Standard gold, at the 
English mint price, is therefore about 8-10ths per cen:.dearer in 
Hamburg than in London, 

The course of exchange at New York on London for bills at 60 days’ 
sight is 1093 per cent., which, as compared with the mint par between 
the two countries, shows that the exchange is slightly against Eng- 
land ; and, after making allowance for charges of transport and difference 
of interest, the present rate leaves scarcely any profit on the importation 
of guid from the United States. 


INDIA EXCHANGES, 
Commercial bilis E. I. Company's 
at 60 days’ sight tills at 60 days’ siglt billy drawn trom 
Co.'s rupee. ¥ Co.'s rupee. Dec. 10 to 24, 

sdsa £ s 
Bengal sa sess {cidece ee coe 2 0-00 346,978, 0.10 
MOETES verccvccecee 9 Cecnwnek Ca Tore 17,004 10 @ 
Bombay cove cece oe 2 0} 0 0 5,688 2 6 


Amountot E.l.Com- 


Bi-mpathily 200 qd e.ac cscs cen cove cogecged beeeticoccegve ce §6908,670 19 -@ 


Total drafts from Jan. 9 fo Nec. 24, WB5G.5.....6 cece cece ee teeses 2,934,956 5 1 

Total drafts from Muy 9, 1856, to Pee. 24, 1856 (East, India Company's 

official year commencing from May 1) .. 0... cece decdeeeccececcess 1,688,888 13 0 

Annual sum required by Court of Jivectors in England, fiom May 1, 1856, to 30th 
April, 1857, 4,000,0008. 

N.B. Bills against indents from India and shipments to India vary according to the 
articles drawn against. 

PRICES OF BULLION. £ a 

Foreign gold in bars (standard) ......... .speronunce 317 9 

SECTS GeMRAG Osis <c- cocscecencasene * bccbo ete 0 0 

Silver in bars (staudard) 0 j 


COO ROe eee wenn eee eee nee tere ese Or eeeeee+s+ eee 


BANKERS’ PRICE CURRENT. 
PRICES OF ENGLISH STOCKS: 


Sat. Mon. Wed. 
Seinen hapten weonivautg. 
Pank Stock, div 9 per cent.../ .. «. {217% 216 
3 per Cent Reduced Anns. .. 93% 93§ | 938 F (935 4 
3 per Cent. Consols Anns. ../94 } $4 3 932 5 = 94 
New 3 per Cent, Annuities ...94 3 94 35 934 4 3 
New 34 per Cent. ‘a — i. a 
New 24 per Cent. ee of as ee 
5 per Cent. os ee ee ee 
Long Anns. Jan, 5, 1860 +-/2 15-16 
Anns. for 30 years,Oct. 10, 1859) ee 

Ditto Jan. 5, 1860) 

Litto Jan. 5, 1880) 

Ditto Apr. 5, 1885} 
India Stock, 103 per cent oes 

Do. Bonds, 4 per Cent. 1,000) ea os 2s d 

Ditto ucer 500i +-/2sd 2s p'2s d Li we 
Bank Stock fo: accent. Ja». 8} a } a | og de 
3 per Ct.Cons. for acct. Jan. 894 gxd 93% 3 xd/93§ J xd/93§ 4 xd 
Incia Stock for account Jan. § oe ee . ed ee 
Consol Serip.. ......... 
Exchequer Scrip...... 


Tues. hur. 


2 13-16 |2 15 6 


Excheq. Bills, 1,000 .. 2§d..|par 3s pi3s p par 

Ditto 500% 4s p | ar &s p/par oe 
Ditto Small = is p par|ds Isp (48 p pari2s a 
Ditto Bonds A1858..3dpc| «= 98G ee 

Ditto under 1,000! ..  — | | 


Ditto Bonds B 1859... — 98 
Ditto under 1,000 .. — (98 


aa 
988 
































COURSE OF EXCHANGE. 




















Time. Prices negotiated 
on ’Change. 















































Amsterdam . *- es ** short lt 134 li 1 
Ditto as oe oe os 3 ms. 11 27 11} 
Rotterdam . oe os oe _ 11 373 i j 
Antwerp ee ee oe - 2 ‘ 25 
Brussels - pe oe .. - 25 2 
Hamburg = os - oe _ ] 
Paris .. ; ° ee oe short 2 
Ditt ° se a oie 3 ms. 2 





Marseilles _ ab 0¢ _ 25 624 25 679 
4 ‘ 1 
Frankfort-on- . i . ba ~ M1 } 1194 
l ( 
' 
: 








Vienna -_ “ os = 
Triest } 
Petersburg ee - ee - 37, 37 
Maérid > . ; 
Cadiz .. - . ee _ 
Leghorn 
| Genoa .. ee ee ee _- 20 729 
Naples.. oe “ ee _ 424 423 
| Palermo oe ee os _ 128 129 
































eases 
. 
| ! I | 
' Poth se 2 
~ JF < S- OS uo & 
e - ~ 
ic ~~ S CO 
- —S woe 
oo 
' ot oo =} eo 
c S=1c 
res 
“1S -~ + He 
~_ “I<! ¥ 
aches 








Messina ‘ . ; 
Lisbon oa a ni . — 514 
Oporto . ** * . a ‘8 tg 
Rio Janeiro . - 60 ds st 





New Y 








FRENCH FUNDS. 


Prices negotiated 
on ’Change. 
ll 134 ll i44 
13 16%) 11 173 
1117 | 1) 174 
25 324; < 
25 324 2 3 
13 6F 13 
25 624 74 
118% — 

10 41 i 
l i 1 
aril 

49 4 

494 eos 
25 724| 2 
(2g | 423 
84 2 
oe 
12 is 








| 

| 3 | 

Bank Shares, div. 1 >) 4100 0 
| 

} 

| 

' 

{ 


and | Ju um ° 





Exchange on London 1 month| 25 25 ie 25 25 i. 











Ditte months; 24 824 ee 24 824 






































Ditto 44 ps , 1852 








Buenos Ayres 6 per cent ee 
| Cuba 6 per cent os os oe 
Ditto Matanza and Sabanilla 7 percent 
















































































































| 

| Austrian 5 rer cent, 10 gu, per & sterling 
Belgian 24 per cent oe e- ee ee 

| Ditto 44 percent. oe 964 

1] 


ee 
Dute.: 24 per ce t, Exchange 12 guilders 16 ee ca 5 
Ditto4 per cent Certificates -“ ee 97} oo 1973 











rOcKS. 





AMERICAN S 





ee io 0 ee i 


|] Chillian 6 percent .. ie - 1034 
i Ditto 3 per cent + ‘a se : a 
} Danish 3 per cent, 1825 ee ee o- [844 
1) Ditto 5 = cent - se i. 
Dutch 2 cent, Exchange 12 guilders x 
Equador in Consolidated .. oe cat GE oy as < 
| Grenada, New Active 2} per cent .. “ os oo 21% 
| Ditto Deferred oe eo - ea . “ 
Greek .. os ee oe ae a v . 
Guatemala me oe ee ee ois 2° 
Mexican 3 per « ee *- ** ee ooo ©2193 ee 
Peruvian 4} per cent... . ee -- (774 
| Ditto 3 per cent os oe . “ 
Portuguese 3 per cent 1853 .. oe 53 | 453 
Russian, 1822, 5 per cent, in £ sterling - 1107 108 7 
| Ditto 44 percent .. os Se 3 7” oo ee 
Sardinian 5 per « : an oo -» [888 ase 89 
Spanish 3 per cent ° . ee os | aene 
Ditto 3 per cent . . 243 2 (243 3 oe |24$ 
| as bi ee oe jn i bo 
{| Ditto Com. C . not funded 6% pe 64 ¥pc)5Z Gpc| .. 
| bentian 4 per cer sa ney o> a ae 4: ie 
|| Turkish 6 per cen ° $s ee 2 4 1958 5 (95 95 4 
1} _ Ditto 4 per cent cuaranteed - 102$ 3)102§ $193 = | 102g 
|| Venezuela 44 per cen a os es (13D 37 364 
i Ditto Deferr , 1} per cent e oe 143 ee ee 
Dividends cn tie above I ayableinL md 










Redeemable. 








to 








“kk 








- Kee oe ee ee es ee 1867-8 ) 





























i 
United States 6 per cent Stock ee oe oe 186 
| 


B ttm ts! 


wm 
? 
x 
x 


Alabam S percent .. ee oi és rl 
Linois 6 } re t oe os ° e° ee 1870 
Kentucky 6 per « 
Maryland 5 per cent .. . . 
Massachusetts 5 percent .. . -- Sterling 1sfis 

New York 5 per cent Stock .. = i oa 1858-60 


ee — §6per cent oe oe ° ee ee 1860-7 

Ohio 6 per cent Ms - ¥ 187 

Pennsy)vania 5 per ms ee ° 1854-70 
— Sper t i ° oe oe ee 1882 
arolina 5 per ce te oe oe 



































Ht 












































South C 
Tennessee 6 
Virginia 6 per 


= A ne! 



































ist mortgage a6 


Pennsylvan 3 
rling, 2nd mortgage .. ee ee 


~~ 6perc 
| 






































Shares. CANADIAN SECURITIES. 








100 .. WCansBe- ovi.se. ee ee 
Stock .. Canada Govramnt ¢ 6 p Cts eanans July 100 
Stock .. Ditto, @per Cent, February andAngust 100 .,. 
Stock .. Ditto, @per Cent, March and ‘September 100 .. 
















7 
- 


: 
PI ICES OF FORFIGN STOCKS 
Sat. | Mon. | Tues.| Wed. Thur. Y 
Austrian Bonds.. oe ae oe ai a a - oa ine 
Brazilian 5 per ¢ ent ee oe -- 939 1004 ee 2% os 
ce ** * 
Ditto New 5 pe r cent, 1829 and 18: 39 
Ditto New, 184 3 


; ott | is wa 
i 66 = Wes s | 
os ° © © Meee 6 6 eee > 
rrr teense” sss 





RRA 8 
ck 7 
aid 





NOMIST. 





INSURANCE CO 





[ Dec. 2 


MPANIES. 


io. of , Dividend 











shares. perannt Name Shar 
£ 
2000 77 per cent) Albion.. : : ee 50 
0000 7/ 148 6dpe Alliance British and Foreign 100 
10000 62 pe & t Do. Marine 100 
24000 15. & bs Atlas .. 0 
3000 4/7 per cent Ar Lift I 
12000 77 10s pr ct! British Commerci 0 
20000 7/7 10s pr ct: Church of England .. ) 


ity of L 
































ef 
} 2500 127 10s p ct Provident 100 
i 200000 7s Rock Life ) 
| 68922078/pe& bs Royal Exchange Stock 
| bgf pe & bs; Sun Fire ee ee 
4000 1 l4s p sh Do. Life e° ee oe 
25000 41 pc & bs United Kingdom oe 20 
5000 5/ p ¢ & bs’ Universal Life 100 
i 5/ pe & bs Victoria Life 
JOINT STOCK BANKS, 
| N Divider 
| shares. perannum Names. Shares 
& 
| 22500 20’/pr cent Australasia 40 
6000 42 per cent; Bank ot London ° ° LO 
| 20000 61 pc & bs! British North America 
| 40000 5] per cent, Chartered Bank of Asia. 
32200 4/ per cent; Chrtd Bk, India, Austra., & Cl 2 
| 30K per cent; City.. ee *e e+} 100 
| 2000 52 percent Colonial . ee . 100 
| 25000 10/ pr cent. Commercial of London . 100 
25000, 4: per cent) Eng. Scot. & Austral. Chrtd. .. 20 
25000 4/ per cent; London Chrt f 20 
0000 10 pe & bs’) London and Ce 50 
5000 6/ per cent, London and Easter: 100 
60000 124/ petbs,; London Joint Stock oe 50 
50000 16/ pr cent) London and Westminster --| 100 
10000167 pr cent) National Provincial of England 100 
80000 16/7 pr cent Ditto New ° 20 
20000 67 per cent) National of Ireland 50 
000 20/ pr cent New South Wales 20 
253 ro Ottoman Bank ee ° 20 
33873 102 pr cent’ Oriental Bank Corporation e. 25 
20000 87 p c & bs Provincial of Ireland 100 
12000 5/ per cent 25 
12000 10/7 pr cent 4 . ) 
32000 217 pr cent 4 25 
60000 10/px or 10 
DOCKS 
I t 
shares. |per Name Share 














£ _ £ 
1641 recent |( Stk 
4065668 r cent |I Indiz 4 Stk 
26383105 per cent London o. 
3939800 4 per cent St Katharine tk 
7000/34 per cent Southarspton ee ° 50 
10000015 per cent | Victoria oe oe ee 20 


7, 1856, 


ee 


P 


¢ 


t 


a 


sd 
0 0 
0 0 
) oO 
0 OU 
{ 0 
0 U 
0 0O 
0 0 
( 0 
0 YU 
0 0 
u U 
0 0 
0 O 
0 0 
0 0; 
10 O 
0 0 
0 O 
0 O 
0 0 
0 Y 


0 
0 


pershare 


90 





Price 
pershare 


l’rice 
r share, 


Che Comimerctal Times. 


REDUCTION OF PoSTAGE UPON LETTERS 
TERRANEAN, THE EAST INDIES, AND C 
the lst January, 1857, and thenceforward, 
eee amount of the French transit rate chargeable upon letters forwarded 
the East Indies, and China, in 
tters will be lial 
+ OZ, Od ; above 
ceeding OZ, 1 


by British p acket to the Mediterranean, 
the closed mails via Marseille s, and such le 
ing combined rates, viz. :—Not exceeding 
ceeding 4 0z, ls; above 4d oz and not ex 
and not exceeding 1 oz 2s 5 above 1 oz a 
above 1} oz and not 6 . 
1; 0z, 38 9d; above 1} oz and not excee 
scale of charge will apply to letters sent to 


the East India Company, Java; Borneo, Lal 


Bourbon (Reunion), Hong Kong, and Chi 
by th F h Medit 0 ack l] 
by the French editerranean packets wi 





Coin 
and not exceeding } 0z, 1ls6d; above4 oz 
above 3 oz and not exceeding 1 oz, 3s; abc 


os 3d; above 1{ oz, and not exceeding 


for any place in China (except Hong K: 


rr ee 


e xceeding 13 oz, 3s Gd; 








a reduction 


: 


FORWARDED 
1INA, VIA MAR 


I 


le to the 
; oz and not ex- 


9d; above 4 0Z 


nd not exceeding 


above 1h 
ling 2 ozs, 
Malta; Egypt 
juan, Sumatr: 





also be liable 


14 oz, 5s Gd; 


mg), for the lonian 


, is 3 


the 
the 


Alexandria), or 
Islands, or 


d ° 


) THI 


EILLES: 
will take 


lj 


po 


abov e 


Z, 


same 


MEDI- 
—On 
place in 


follow- 


3s 3d; 
and not exceeding 
The fore going 
S¢ ssions of 
Moluccas, the 
Philippine Islands (when specially addressed via India) ; Ceylon, Mauritius, 
na. Letters forwarded to Malta 
to the 
Upon letters addressed to the Ionian Islands via _ ur'se ei 
bined rates will be —— able :—Not exceeding 


rates. 
, the following 
i above 4 0z 
and not exceeding ; oz, 2s 9d; 
»ve loz and not exceeding 
14 


1} oz, 
oz and 
not exceeding 1$ oz, 5s 9d; above 14 oz and not exceeding 2 ozs, 6s. 
The postage on letters for any places in Egypt (e ees 

















aR een 













| 








Dec. 27. 1856 ] 


for Java, Bourbon, Borneo, Labuan, Sumatra, the Moluecas, or the Philip- 
pine Islands, must be paid in advance. Letters for the other places 
specified above may either be paid in advance or posted unpaid, at the 
option of the sender. 

LETTERS FOR DIEPPE MAY BE FORWARDED VIA NEWHAVEN.—On the 
1st January next and thenceforward, letters as well as newspapers or 
other printed papers, addressed to Dieppe, may be forwarded by the priv ate 
steamers sailing from Newhaven, provided they are specivlly directed ‘‘ via 
Newhaven,” but letters, &c., not so directed will continue to be forwarded 
by way of Calais and Paris. The postage chargeable upon these letters, 
newspapers, and printed papers, will be the same by whichever route they 
are transmitted. i, g 

ALTERED REGULATIONS FOR DESPATCHING Matis For INDIA, VIA 
MARSEILLES.—The mails for India, &c., via Marseilles, which are at pre- 
sent forwarded from London on the morning of the following day (Monday), 
whenever the LOth or 26th of the month falls on a Sunday will, infuture, on 
such occasions, be made up at this office, and despatched on the evening of 
Monday. 7 

POSTAGE UPON NEWSPAPERS FOR PRUSSIA, OR FoR COUNTRIES BEYOND 
PRUSSIA, SENT BY THE Route oF BELGIUM.—On the lst January next and 
thenceforward, Lritish newspapers, posted in conformity with the author- 
ised regulations, which newspapers, when sent by She route of Belgium to 
the undermentioned countries, have hitherto been exempt in the United 
Kingdom from any charge for postage, will be subject to a Brisish postage 
of one penny each, which must be paid in advance or the newspapers can- 
not be forwarded:—Austrian dominions, Baden, Bavaria, Bremen, Bruns- 
wick, Frankfort-on-the-Maine, Hamburg, Hanover, Hesse, Lippe Det- 
mold, Lubeck, Mecklenburg Schwerin, Me cklenbnrg Strelitz, Nassau, Nor- 
way, Oldenburg, Poland, Prussia, Reuss, Russia, Saxe Altenburg, Saxe 
Coburg Gotha, Saxe Meiningen, Saxe Weimar, Saxony, Schaumburg 
Lippe, Schwartzburg Rudolstadt, Schwartzburg Sonderhausen, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Wurtemburg. <A British rate of one penny each, in addition 
to the foreign rate to which they are liable, must also be paid in advance 
upon British newspapers posted in the United Kingdom, and forwarded, 

to tl rmentioned countries and places. The two charges 

















via Belgium, tothe und 
1) 


will be as follows :—_ 
















British Foreign Rate- 
Rate per Per Per Half- 
Country or Plie Newspaper. Newspaper, ounce. 
da. da. d. 
a Beyrout ecenene . = ; 1 
Butuschany ...... ] 
BUCHAre St ...ceeee } 


CROIG sccccrces cscs 
a Constantino; ° 
a Dardanelles ...... 

GB OED ccccdntisccncnistoute 
aGally 















NO 0-0-0 =F 





Jassy — 

Larnaca 000 +00 oes coeees se: sees 
a Modena ..... sevceee sace ° 

Moldavia (other than places specified) ..... ° os 

) 13 
a Mityleue... ls 
GB sactine cdnitnnsce ens . 
a Parma........ ¥ 
a Piacentia... ove 


aRhodes ,.. 


Rutschuk... Ls 








me et fe nme ee ee ee et fe fed peed Oe fe fed pee ee et eee et fed em ed 








THE ECONOMIST. 








t44] 


MEDITERRANEAN, Eorpt, INDIA, AND Catwa.--Tiie next mails for the Mediterra- 
nean, Egypt, India, &c., via Southampton, will be despatched on the evening of the 
3rd prox. —The Colombo for the mails of the evening of the 3rd prox 

West Inpigs, &c.—The Magdalena, fr the muils of the morning of the 2nd prox. 

Mapetra, Brazit, Buenos Ayres, &c.—The lamar, foc the mails of the morning 











by H. M. St. Satellite, whichis appointed to leave Devonport for the Pacificia the 
course of two or turee days. 
AvusTraLia.—The Columbian, for the mails of the morning of the 12th prox. 
America.—The America, to sail from Liverpool, for the mails of the evening of 
teo 2nd prex, to be conveyed to Boston. —The Washington, to sail from Southamp- 
tun, for the mails of the morning of the 31st inst. 


Mails Arrived. 
LATEST DATES. 
On the 19th, Usrrep States, pei steam ship Ericsson, via Southampton—New York, 
6th inst. 
On the 20th, 
10th inst 
On the 20th, Penrnsuna,"per steam ship Colombo, via Southampton—Alexandria, 
biec, 7th ; Malta, 10th ; Gibraltar, 15th. 
MAILS TELEGRAPHED. 
| On the 26th, West Inpres, per steam ship Dee, via Southampton—St SThomas, 


ofthe 9th prox. 
| FALKLAND Istes —A mail for the Falkland Isles will be male up for transmission 


United States, per steam ship Persia, via Liverpool—New York, 


WEEKLY CORN RETURNS. 
From the Gazette of last night. 


























Wheat. Barley.| Oats. | Rye. | Beans, Peus. 
| qrs qrs qrs qrs ars rs 
| Sold last week ....cccecece 108645 | 105088 20446 336 6710 7 
Corresponding week in 1855..| 108115 | 130121 26528 191 ) 767 
= -- 1854..| 118798 | 115744 21251 347 . 2945 
j -- -— 153... 71764 102148 20885 233 4700 sv 
| -- a 1852..| 114082 106531 25096 158 | 5854 2038 
s ad s a s ad s ad s a s d 

Weekly average,Dec. 20....| 60 5 42 10 49 6 40 2 42 58 i 9 

— am - Tixean 60 5 43 10 25 6 40 2 42 5 4 2 

— - 4} 60 il 43 10 25 0 38 11 44 5 ca J 

_— Nov. 29....} 61 11 44 11 24 8 42. 0 45 6 is 1 

— — 22....| 63 3 45 7 25 7 40 4 46 3 is 6 

— — 1I15.... 64 4 46 7 26 2 41 7 47 3 i3 2 

Six weeks’ average .....0+e+-| 61 10 44 8 5 1 40 10 44 11 423 

Same time last year ......../ 81 0 41 2 283 1 53 8 51 11 0 8 

Datieticce ove 66.66 6008 06 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 


GRAIN IMPORTED. 


An account of the total quantities of each kind of corn, distinguishing foreign and 














| : : ? : ; 
colonial, imported into the principal ports of Great Britain, viz:—London, Livers 
pool, Hull, Newcastle, Bristol, Gioucester, Plymouth, Leith, Glasgow, Dundee, 
and Perth. In the week ending Dee. 17, 1856. 
Wheat , Barley Indian | Buck- 
and and Beans ‘corn and wheat & 
| ’ Oats and! Rye and Peas and! » 
wheat | barley- at vd & bean-| Indian ickwht 
flour. meal, |oatmeal. ryemeal. peameal| meal. meal. meal, 
qrs qrs qrs qrs qrs qrs aqrs 1s 
| Foreign .. | 127613 | 22688 10400 | 2113 1224 3788 17927 5 
' Colonial .. 10274 eee 400 a $559 ee 309 ‘ 
Total .. L37887 22688 10800 2113 4783 3783 +8236 5 
| Imports OF hE WEEK ..... cececccccesececees £00,293 Qrs, 














Renin 14 COMMERCIAL EPITOME. 
| F ie FRIDAY NIGHT* 
} its This is a broken week, only half devoted to business, and m 
1} that half it is conducted in a holiday spirit. Our report will be 
if correspondingly short. 
| if The arrivals in Mark lane were large for the season, comprisin 
i | 14,110 qrs of foreign wheat and 1,920 qrs of home-grown, wit 
ae | 11,200 bris of foreign flour, and 990 sacks of home-made. The 
a 1} | business was, however, very limited, and yet there was a disposition 
Tt Sten ... ous 2 stalk Sean caitiaittk Mikeictin tn tin enesnnen aah? tO demand more money. Prices rather advaneed than receded. For 
|| places egainst which an qa is affixed, unless specially directed via Belgium. | Spainand Portugal the demand for wheat continues, and their wants 
— | arein part supplied from Alexandria and various other quarters, 
————— FOREIGN MAILS. | by means of orders transmitted through England. One of the 
em agua rt | effects of free trade and our great wealth is to make England the 
siecle. leepatched from expeaiai: entrepot and central point of ecommerce for all Europe. Hither 
, London. | is sent, as certain to find a market, everything which men wish 
te ee te ee ————— | to dispose of, and hither come or send, as certain to find what 
SOUTHAMPTON STATION. (By day mail.) | they want, men from all quarters of the world. So merchants at 
| Lisbon, Spain, and Gibraltar.........00.4 ty Vit and 27th Of Unor v9 | Trieste, finding an opening for wheat in Barcelona, telegraph to 
| Gibraltar, Malta, Egypt, Ceylon, and 1 aslan oe up etarate — | England to send a cargo thither from Alexandria, or some place 
Penang, Singapore, and China............ 4th of every month Jan. 4 - Egypt ; the order aversing two-thirds of Europe as the 
wa ; readiest means of attaining the object desired. On Monday, all 
Tannen i oe eo =) the English red wheat in the market was taken for Spain. 
inthe West Indies (except 2nd and 17th ot every Lyan 4 Our latest accounts from Hamburg state, that the corn markets 
ee ve oe mee a = a | month — | were dull, and prices declined. At ( ologne too, on the 22nd, the 
ered en wheat market declined from } to + of a thaler. At Stettin on the 
' 20th, the navigation was again open, and the market was well 
Mexico and Havana...... ++. s+e00s + 2nd of every month only Jan. 1 supplied. At Antwerp also, to the close of last week, the grain 
Honduras and Bahamas....... 19th of every een Jan. 16 markets continued to decline. We have, however, very few cir- 
ilies Sehehin teselt Sheen dent culars from the Continent this week, and generally the prices 
Falkland Isles ; le 9th of every month Jan. 16 there are declining. 
Australia oo cecccecccecececccecece(Morning ofthe 12th Dec. | Mincing lane markets were closed on Wednesday till Tuesday, 
DARTMOUTH STATION. January 6th. The business done is very limited. At the close of 
Cape of Good Hope, Mauritius, Ceylon, s ‘Evening of the 5th ofevery| J | the market sugar was dull, without any further decline. Coffee 
India, BC. sssscsesssssnecssecseersescsseesnersne | ee was firm. On Wednesday a mixed cargo of Rio (about 3,200 





| bags) was sold at 43s 6d for the Mediterranean, and two cargoes 
| of St Domingo for the same destination, viz., 3,469 bags Port-au- 
Prince, insured in Bremen, and 2,140 bags Jacmel, per Oberon, 
Hamburg insurance, both at 53s. 
For tea a speculative demand continues, and common congous 
are now 10d to,10id. “Some recently-imported parcels of Kaisow 
co - | congou, of fine quality, have been taken,” Messrs Corrie and Co. 


Vico, Oporto, Lisnox, Capiz, AND GIBRALTAR.—The Ma ‘id for the mails ot the | . } 
Morning of the 27th inst. i inform us, “on speculation at 1s 10d per lb. Duty was paid at 


a eae eertins ee 


So 


PLYMOUTH STATION. 
Madeira, Teneriffe, and West Coast 


f the 231 f : 
Sf | (ME odie ap dv beas'sedé’ ah Jan. 6 


month 





LIVERPOOL STATION, 


British North Amer ca and United States.. Evening of every Friday |Dec. 3! 
































































































































































































































































































































1442 R 





THE ECUNOMIST, | 


[ Dec. 27,1856, 





this port during the week ended 18th instant on 602,794 lbs, 
against 599,514 Ibs in the same period last year.” 

The weck’s transactions in the Liv erpool cotton market, which 
closed on Wednesday evening last till Monday next, and conse- 

uently embraced only five days of business, was on a very exten- 
sive scale, and resulted in large sales, to the extent of 95,000 bales. 
The trade bought with much spirit, their purchases amounting to 
60,000 bales ; 28,000 bales were taken on speculation, and the re- 
maining 7,000 bales for export. Prices were quoted fully td per 
lb dearer than on Friday last. The market closed on Wednesday 
with an upward tendency, the sales on that day being 30,000 bales. 
The accounts received from America on Saturday last per Persia 
were considered very favourable for, and gave great confidence to, 
holders of cotton; the receipts, although heavy, were below those 
of last year; the opinion is becoming quite general that the crop 
will not exceed three million bales, and the estimates are in ac- 
cordance thereto. Pric:s had undergone a further advance of {c 
per lb in all the American markets. Inthe London market, 4,900 
bales have been sold during the week. Surats are }d dearer ; 
Madras and Bengal have commanded very extreme rates. 

The wool market is very buoyant at the close of the year. 
Though the foreign and colonial supplies have not run short, our 
own market was bare at the commencement of the year, and the 
supply of wool from our own flocks is said to have been deficient 
this year. But though the price of the raw material is high, 
the woollen manufacturers are fully employed, and readily pay the 
high price. 

So we close our commercial reports for 1856, a year of unex- 
amplediy great trade, in spite of war, extraor dinary high rates of 
money, “deficient corn and wine and silk crops in Europe, and 
other circumstances tending to limit exchanges. What trade 
would become, how it would enrich all nations, how promote the 
rreatness of all, were it everywhere perfectly free, the mind may 
oes a faint image from the great extent of our trade under par- 
tial freedom. To form a full and complete image of it is as impossi- 
ble as for man to conceive what could be done to promote commu- 
nication between distant parts of the world before the telegraph 
was thought of. Perfect freedom of trade implies the full and 
free exercise of all the talent and industry of all the indivi- 
duals comprising the whole human family ; and the immense 
mental and productive power thus indicated is beyond the 
reckoning capability of statisticians, 











IMPORTS OF FOREIGN AND COLONIAL WOOL. 
CoLONIAL and ForEIGN W001 imported into London, Liverpool, and Hull 
from January 1 to November 30, 1855 and 1856, and the total imports 
including Bristol, Leith, and Grimsby. 


















| i Tetals 
| London Liverpool. Hull. IBristul,! eith, 
} & Grimsby. 
Colonial. 1855 | 185 1855 | 1856 | 1855 ) 1856 | 1855 | 1856 
| bales | bales | bales | bales | bales | bales | bales bales 
SYANOP ois iii. ce cesses coe | 44281) 55133) 629) .. iy) $4910 o31z3 
Port PRP... sesec0ees.se 00} 57236) 4992} 786) 2361) 2. | | 58205! 528 
Portland Bay .. «e-+se. ceee| $186, 5234 .. |} . | |} Sist $034 
Hobart Town ...........0+-| 9159) 9893 28 | | 9159 992) 
Lawn veston ©... .5...0......| 7786) 6940 | | 7786, 6960 
Port Adeiside, Port Fairy, & 1 | 
Moreton Bay .o+-<+r+ o«s+} 22304) 23251; ., | «» | se } 22308 23251 
Swan River Hire roe mor 1183, 1257 | + oe fee | 1483) 4267 
New Zealand ...... os seoetesh 2582| 6740 ae od. cm..4 R082). 604 
Cape of Good Hope:— 
ea Bay and Port Natal.| 23990 34049 } 217 ° | 34° 
Port Besufort..0...00002| 1375) 1754), 4. 4) 4» B+ j 1734 
Cape Town ...ccc0 socces| 6859 73% 64 77 ° 7467 
East Indies .. .. ....00.000.-} 2BISR 10212) 23939!" 32897; 43168 
Total Col tl. we eee ee £97374 2ILS35) 25S) 3558 248052 
Foreign ; 
Germany 56 est bdsies- 2582) 335'' 4. <. | 5415) 11196 
Spain and Portugal ........ 416° 433, 3748 7370) .. - 
BURA swice\cs 00h cone esenen)! | SIA}. 1M) ins § °° SBC} - 964) 292: 
South America errr? 9541, 6076 35747, 48949) .. | 1 7 
Barbary and T covec} Soelt 515 2865 1984 28 9 6454, 7146 
Syria and Eg Jon dive 654! 984' 2862) 3114) .. | 3516 4098 
Trieste, Legh , &e. 6 0408 416 627 672, 2810 .. ; 1088, 3437 
Denmark... os ...0 sececerece] ve 35 54 436 242 597 300 
CRISES 2c.ccccccccsccsese| 1906 424 103 . i409 424 
Sundry .. oo 1753) 3867) 1823) 2599 1665, 2925, 5230 7391 
Grand Total.......0e00 +. (228011231824) 74292|162942| 7808 16639 302297 354212 


SPIRIT OF THE TRADE CIRCULARS. 





(Faom Messrs M‘Natr, Grecnpow, anp Iavine’s CrrcvcaR.) 
Manchester, Dec. 23, 1856. 
A material check to business here to-day has followed, in consequence 

of both spinners and manufacturers having again been compelled to ask 
higher rates. As compared with those ruling on this day week, the 
advance demanded was equal, for example, to 14d to 3d per piece upon 
7-8th and 9-8th printers; 14d to 3d upon 9-8th shirtings, and about 3d 
upon 40-inch gold-end shirtings; and an $d to 3d per lb upon all de- 
scriptions of yarns; and under these quotations producers manifest no 
desire to sell, nearly all of them being so deeply engaged. 


(From Messxs Wepeus’ CisccLak, FORWARDED BY Ma Dickinson. 
Savannah, Dec. 5, 1856. 
The demend for cotton has been very brisk, and the offering stock 
being very smal] and inadequate to the wants of our buyers, prices have 
ruled in favour of sellers, and advanced §c to }c on our last quotations. 
The receipts have fallen off considerably, and we now notice a decrease 
in the same as compared with those of last year of 7,448 bales. In 
giving the following quotations, we would add that the better grades are 





a LT 


ee 





i aa 
very scarce and bring extreme prices:—Middling to strict middling, 
6 30-100d to 6 42-100d: good middling, 6 48-1004 ; middling fair, 
6 54-100d; fair, 6 60-100d to 6 66-100d, free on board, a)l charges in- 
cluded, freight $4; exchange 8% per cent. 


(Fac Mr WiILtLIam More's Crrccvar.) 
New Orleans, Dec. 1, 1856, 

In the early part of the week following my last, business continued 
somewhat active, but further advices from Liverpool seemed to depress 
buyers here, and the market closing languid, with sales of about 61,500 
bales. Prices seemed to partake of the inactivity although they were gene. 
rally without change except in the lowet qualities, caused mainly by the 
heavy receipts of those grades. The past week was characterised by a 
sti!l continued dullness, and a ‘decline in figures of about 3 #¢ took place, 
the middling quality being at 1l#c. But as “the Persia’s news came to be 
better known, buyers interpreted it more favourably, and on Friday the 
sales were about 19,000 bales. This has caused factors to advance their 
rates, and On Saturday with sales of 13,000 bales the previous decline was 
fully recovered. Today, thus far, {at 1 o’clock, p.m.) 10,000 bales have 
changed hands at still higher figures, and the following are therefore my | 
quotations, f.o.b. with freight at 9-16d per lb include sd, and exchange 

73 per cent. premium:—Good ordinary, 103¢ to 1 1c, equal to 6 11-32d to 
6 13-32d; low middling, 11jc, equal to 6 17-32d; middli Ll}cto llge, 
equal to 6 21-32d to 6 23-32d; good middl ing, 12c to 124c, equal to 
6 15-16d to 7 1-16d; middling fair, 12}c, equal to 7 3-16d. The trans. 
actions for the fortnight are as follows, viz:—Receipts, 114,122 bales; 
sales, 112,500 bales; exports, 72,984 bales, of which 30,471 bales were 
for Great Britain. Exchange is dull, and may be quoted :—Banikers, A l, 
7} per cent. pm; produce bills, 7} to 74 per cent.pm; francs, 5f 30c per 
dol.; New York, 60 days’ sight, 2 to 2} per cent. dis.; sight, $ to }? per 
cent, dis. 


n 
nz, 


—_——_——- 


(From Messrs Ki sne, Leuinc, anp Co.’s Crncvucar.) 
Havana, 22, 1 
Sugars—Tie favourable advices received from abroad at the commence. 
ment of this month, had at first but little effect on the mind of pur- 
chasers, owing principally to the very low state of our exchange mar- 
ket. However, those gond accounts from Englaud as well as the United 
States being confirmed by the next mail, more activity in this staple be- 
came visible, and an increase of business was produced soon after, with 
likewise more regularity in prices for the low and middling grades. Thus 
the transactions have been very fair of late, chiefly for the United 
States and Spain, and the inquiry continues good for all descriptions, but 
principally for the superior kinds, for which Spanish houses have to allow 
extravagant rates, and still thus cannot always satisfy their necessities, 
as but little is offering fur sale just now, our stock, reduced now to 
about 100,000 boxes, being all in second hands, who hold back and 
thereby often check operations. Molasses—Contracts at outports were, 
since our last, 4,000 hhds clayed, at 6rs per keg, and 2,500 hhds musco- 
vadoes, at 7 rs per keg, deliverable in Cardenas up to the 15th April, 
with moderate cash advances. Some 8,000 bhds clayed, advised in our 
last as contracted for at 53 rs per keg have been resold at 
63 rs per keg. Several cargoes of clayed of the first receipts (new 


Nov. 856. 


crop) have been engaged for at 8 to 8}rs per keg. Dealers are 
firm at these rates, and some refuse even to contract thereat. Con- 
tracts for concentrated molasses were closed at 6 rs to 64 rs per ar. Ex- 


changes have fluctuated a good deal; after being down to 2: to 2] per 
cent. prem. London, and 9} to 10 per cent. discount New York ; they 
have tisen again for this steamer, and we quote to-day by last transac- 
tions:—London, 34 to 4 per cent. prem. ; New York, 8 per cent, discount; 
Paris, 9 per cent. discount. Holders firm. 





COTTON. 


New York, Dec. 10. 

































COMPARATIVE STATEMENT 
Os Receirts, Exrorts, aND STocKS OF CoTTON 
New Orieans, or . Nov. 20 Charleston ...... Dec. 5 
M é $e 2 North Carolin 6 
EF ida 2! Virginia . N 1 
Texas 22 | New York Dec. 9 
Sat ‘ , | Other Ports ‘e 6 
1855 1855 Increase Decrease 
bales bales bales | bales 
On hand in the ports on Sept. 1........eeee sees 62590 141629 79239 
Received at the ports since ditt 94724 42 952886 os 15644 
Exporte Great Britain since « 717 327312 oe } 155545 
Ex} ee a ance since ditt RS 4¢ 113690 25230 } 
Exported t N rth of Enrope since ditt 1870¢t 35981 oe 17275 
Exported ¢ er foreign purts since ditto...... 23600 40000 -- | 16400 
T tal exp to foreign countries simce ditto...) 302533; 536983 ee } 214450 
Stock o st above dates, and on shipboard 
at these ER sc ca v0 06 on 00 ca 50 65:08 60.60.00 60 60 £18724) 431961 8576 os 
Stock or CoTTon In INTERIOR Towns, 
(Not included in Receipts.) 
1856. 1855. 
bales pee. 

At latest corresponding dates... - 123,673 .. 81,01 
COTTON TAKEN FOR CONSU MPTION IN THE U NITED ST ATES 
Fron » Sepr lto the above dates. 

| | 
1856 { 1855 
{ 
|} bules bales | bales bales 
Stack on hand, Sept. Boa ceic cies ccccsoccccce| ; 62390 oe 141629 
Received. RCO csise 00 0s ewe 56 ove 8s 06 v0 s000) be 947442 ! oe 952886 
Ce - 16 9682 | ie 1104516 
Deduct shipments.......s.sceseeeseeeee eve) 302533 516982 
Deduct stock jeft on hand .........ssec0ese) 519724 | 437961 
| ———ew 821257 a 948944 
Leaves for American consumption isnot 188375 | 155571 


| 
| 


Freight to ‘Liverpool, 5- 32d to 3-160 per rib. Exchange, 109 to 1094. 


ee ———— TE 


— —_—_—_—$_———— 


a 


SS a a 





Ln, 


Pec. 27, 1856.) 


Vessets LoapinG tn THE Unirep STares. 


























Ports. |For Gt. Britain| For France. |For other Ports. 
OD ee ee eee a 
AtNew Orleans....++++++ - Nov. 29) 29 18 16 
Mobile ....secececece ewes sens 29) 3 6 1 
— Florida... ve cecececevecteecess 29 oe ee ee 
— Savannah cocccecece ss DOC. 5) il 1 l4 
=— Charleston eG dG ae cctedccces G 15 4 4 
m— New York os seceeesereces + 9 35 10 81 
—GalvestOD «2+. eeee+ eee. NOV. 22) és $e 
caneaiy ee 
Total pal? Sanus or vie 93 39 116 





~The market has been rather quiet since our last, without any change 
in the quotations. The accounts per Atlantic, to hand yesterday, were 
rather unfavourably construed, and, with continued large receipts at the 
ports and some abatement in the demand, the market closed tamely, 
buyers having a slight advantage. 
New York CLASSIFICATION, 
New Orleans 


Upland, Florida. Mobile. & Texas. 
c c ¢c ¢c 
Ordinary .ocoseeee 104 ° 108. covonsn 2OR. acces 108 
Middling cocccce BRR veces 12 eoccee 19 125 
Middling fair ...... 124 SER escose “SS 134 
Fair coccccccccccce 128 «ROM, sevice ROM, eae -« ROR 
The arrivals have been trom Texas, 1.198 bales; Georgia, 1,554; 


South Carolina, 819; North Carolina, 637—total, 4,208 bales. 
import since Lst inst., 14,635 bales. 
5,477 bales, against 2,255 in 1855. 


Total 
Export from Ist to 5th December, 


LIVERPOOL MARKET.—Dec, 24, 
PRICES CURREN7. 





} 























| | 
ia | , | Good | —Same period 1855. 
| Ord. | Mid Fa'r, Fair. cooe. Fine. Ord. Pair. | Fine. 
stitial wants snntiaias | abate 
per f/per fh/per fh per Iblper Iiper tb lper fh per Mlper tb 
Upland ......se+0..| 6$d |7 3-16/7 7-16 78d | Bd | 8d Shi | 5$1) Gad 
New Orleans......+.|6 9-16] 72 7% 8 {8 9 5 5-16 of i 8 
Pernambuco... .++++| 7 7% 7 s | 8} 83 5} 6h | 74 
Egyptian ......+0+.| 6% 74 it & | +} | 10 | 54 6 9 
Suratand Madras ..) 44 5 53 5} 5! 6 34 4h 5 





IMPORTS, EXPORTS, CONSUMPTION, &C. 


Consumption, 
Jan, 1 to Dec, 24. 





~ ‘Kexports, 
Jan. 1 to Dee. 24. 


Computed Stock, 
Dec. 24. 


Whole import, 
Jan. 1 to Dec. 24. 





























} 





1856 1855 1856 1955 1856 1855 | 1856 1855 
bales bales bales bales | bales bales bales bales 
2304335 | 2121260 2143950 | 2020.10 | e6ti5o | 233310 | a312et0 $ 42916 


~ Since the arrival of the Persia on the 20th instant we Have had an excited 
cotton market. The trade have done an extensive business, and exporters 
have operated largely. Holders have, at the same time, raised their de- 
mands, and in all the current qualities of American have obtained an ad- 
vance of i per lb, andin the medium and lower qualities rather more. 
Brazil and Egyptian have been in extensive demand, and have realised an 
equal advance. East India are also fully 4d per lbhigher, Thesales to-day 
will not be less than 25,000 bales. Buyers have purchased eagerly at the 

uotations, and in many cases, higher. The reported export amounts to 

,070 bales, consisting of 4,310 American, 340 Egyptian, and 2,420 East 
India. 


MARKETS OF THE MANUFACTURING DISTRICTS. 
MANCHESTER, Tuvurspay Evenine, Dec. 24. 


COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF THE CoTron TRADE. 








' ; 
Price | Price Price | Price | Price ; Priee 











ec, 24,) Dec. | Dec. | Dec.) Dec.) Nec. 
1856 | 1855 | 1854 1853 | 1852 | 1851 
Raw Cotton :— } @ d-+ed}e-d/s djs dis a 
Upland fair cose .coccccessper | O 72 | 0 5} 0 6/0 63 0 60 § 
Ditto good fair.....cseercovececceeee | 0 3 0 6% 0 63/0 64,0 6§ 0 5% 
Pernambuco fair . sesessesseeseeeess| O 7310 6H O 6$10 73/0 7 O 54 
OO CP oa oe on v00s co cess came 0 8 +0 6f O 73/0 740 74 0 73 
No. 40 MoLe Yapn, fair, 2nd quality ..| 0 102 | 0 9 0 9/0 9 0 10g 0 83 
No. 30 WaTeR ditto ditto 0 10g 0 8 0 9/0 93 0 108 0 9 
26-in., 66 reed, Printer, 29 yds, 4lbs 20z; 4109/4 49 4 0/4 9/5 3 4 38 
27-in., 72 reed, ditto ditto, 5ibs20z' 6 0 15 6/5 14) 5 103'6 34 5 73 
39-in., 60 reed, Gold End Shirtings, 374) | | 
yards, lbs 402 cccccrccccsccssese| 8 3 | 7 317 1418 3/9 OFF 6 
40-in., 66 reed, ditto, ditto, Sibsl20z/ »9 3 | 8 3 8 44}9 3/10 9/8 6 
40-in., 72 reed, ditto, ditto, 9lbs 40z' 10 3 9 3 9 44:10 3 jli 3$\i9 6 
89-in., 48 reed, Red End Long Cloth, 36 | | | 
BONNE DLE. .ccnivccvescenssidedcns! 7 6 1% ANF MT FB T1087 Us 


The large business recently transacted here for various markets, has 
been made use of by our Liverpool neighbours for giving the last news 
| from America the most unfavourable interpretation they admit of, in 
order to raise the prices of cotton. Unfortunately our spinners and 
manufacturers are often their own worst enemies at such junctures, in 
going into the market at these very periods when there is a predisposition 
to rise, thus strengthening the mcvement against themselves. This has 
again been repeated this week, as the very considerable sales to the trade 
sufficiently prove ; and even the fact that the American speculators in 
Liverpool have thought proper to realise some of their considerable profits 
does not seem, thus far, to have created any suspicion in the stability of 
the present extraordinary high prices. 

The effect of the proceedings in Liverpool on our market is soon told. 
Spinners demanded an advance of td, $d, and even, in some instances, 
$d per Ib, and manufacturers of 144 to 3d per piece. This settled the 
buyers’ business at once. and yesterday passed off without any transactions 
Worth naming. Only the most diminutive orders were given out, and as 
miliowners, it must be admitted, are by no means wanting employment, 
there will, probably, be no revival of business for the remainder of the 
year at. all events, and we shall most likely close it with merely nominal 
quotations. 

The aspect of the Swiss question is beginning to attract the serious 
Rotice of the German houses, as a war on the part of Prussia would very 
unfavourably affect their yarn trade. 





BrapForp, ec, 24.—The market to-day was but thinly attended, the 
merchants and others being engaged in taking stock. Very little business 
has been done. The week has witnessed a very decided change with re, 


THE ECONOMIST. 


— CO 


1443 





spect to combing wool. For some time past the weekly reports have 
regularly notified an increasing advance in the price of al} descriptions 
of these wools. Buyers, however, are becoming very cautious, and pur- 
chase comparatively little beyond what is wanted to supply the most 
pressing wants. Holders, on the contrary, appear in some cases very 
anxious to realise. The changed tone in the market has not yet, how- 
ever, caused a change in prices. Noils and brokes are still in demand— 
the former at the old prices, and the latter at an advance of about 20s 
per pack. The advance recently obtained for yarns does not satify spin- 
ners, and as orders run out they seek for higher prices. It is expected 
that the contracts for January will be still more in their favour than 
were those for the closing month. The trade is liberally supplied 
with orders for goods both for home use and fcr exportation. Cotton 
yarns continue to be in demand in the market, at rather higher prices, 
There can be no doubt but that there is a decided improvement in the 
demand for worsted goods, and that the prospects of the manufacturers 
are much better than they were. They must, however, obtain a further 
advance in prices before their trade can be called profitable. Both 
fancies and plain goods are in demand. Not much business has been 
done to-day. 

NoTTINGHAM, Dec. 24.—There is full an average business doing in the 
lace trade, considering the late season of the year There has been a 
fair amount of transactions for the United States, and also for the con- 
tinent. In most branches, however, except plain goods, the business 
doing is limited. The manufacturers are engeged in stock taking, but 
we anticipate a busy season early in the new year. Sik keeps up in 
price. In hosiery we have had a tolerable demand, and the trade gene- 
rally is in a healthy state. There is a good trade doing for the American 
market. 

LEEDS, Nec. 23.—There has been agood demand for cloth in the 
public markets this morning, and, in proportion to the quantity offered 
for sale, more than an average quantity has been sold. The stocks in 
the halls are much lower than usual at this period of the year, and are 
not at all in excess of the demand. Prices continue very firm. 

HuppersFi#Lp, Dec. 23.—-The woollen market was scarcely so brisk 
to-day as it was last Tuesday, buyers acting with a good deal of caution, 
The demand for spring goods, however, is active, and the prospect of the 
trade generally is satisfactory. Prices of both cjoths aud wools remain 
steady. 

LeicEster, Dec. 23.—There is more demand for the country or home 
market, and some of the American houses are disposed to place orders 
for the spring trade. The spinners’ position, as regards prices, has not 
improved, for woo] has still an upward tendency, whilst the market for 
yarns is dull at the advance of 1d, which (the spinners state) is wholly 
inadequate to cover the increased cost of wool. The excitement in the 
wool market is rather less than it was a weekago, but the most advanced 
prices are fully supported. 

BrapFrorp, Dec. 22.-~There was a quiet business at to-day’s market 
in all branches of our trade. The principal transactions entered into 
were in medium and low worsted fabrics. Prices. for both pieces, yarns, 
and wool, underwent no noticeable alteration. Our next market will be 
keld on Wednesday. 

Ha.irax, Dec. 20.—From various causes the amount of business in 
our market was butsmall, Probably the high rates of woo} and the con- 
fident tone of dealers have something to do with this, and another cause 
may be found in the season—a slackness always being experienced at 
this part of the year. Nevertheless, wool merchants: manifested ‘the 
utmost firmness. Spinners are pretty well employed, but complain that 
though they have obtained advances for yarns, the ptic¢ does not hold 
a proper and remunerative correspondence with the raw-material. The 
piece department did not afford anything calling for comment, and general 
dullness prevailed throughout the day. 








CORN. 
AMERICAN GRAIN AND FLOUR MARKETS. 

New York, Dec. 10.—Ftovur anp Meau.—The market for State and 
Western flour opened very firm, with a rising tehdercy,and the buoyancy 
continued until] yesterday, when, with less, favourable accounts from 
Europe, per Atlantic, than was generally expected, a reaction ensued, and 
nearly all the improvement of the two preceding cays was lost. Our quo- 
tations now star.d nearly in the same position as at the date of our last, 
common brands of State only being about 5 cents dearer. The receipts 
have been quite free, and, with only a moderate busincss, the stock is 
quite as large as at the date of ourlast. Henceforth, during the 
winter months, we shall have to depend mainly upon the capacity of the 
railroads for supplies, which will be considerably reduced.. The 
market, nevertheless, closes tamely, in face declining rates of 
freights to Great Britain. Sales, for the three days, 32,000 brls, 
Canada flour remains dull, though prices are unchanged, with sales of 
1,500 bris at 6.50 dols to 7.75 dols. We quote:—State, common brands, 
6.20 dols to 6.25 dols; State, straight brands, 6.30 dols to 6.40 dols; 
State, extra brands, 6.50 dols to 6.70 dols; Michigan, fancy brands, 6.45 
dols to 6.65 dols; Ohio, common, 6.60 dols to 6.70 dois; Ohio, fancy 
brands, 6.75 dols to 6.85 dols; Ohio, fair extra, 6.95 dols to 7.90 
dols; Ohio, good and choice extra brands, 7.20 dols to 8 dols; 
Michigan and Indiana, extra do., 6.70 dols to 6.85 dols; Genesee, fancy 
brands, 6.80 dols to 7 dols; Genesee, extra brands, 7.10 dols to 8.75 
cols; Missouri, 6.80 dols to 9 dols; Canada, 6.59 dols to 7.75 dols. 
Southern flour has been in pretty good request, but prices are without 
important change. the low grades are a trifle higher, but the market 
closes in favour of the purchaser : sales, 5,200 bris, leaving off at 6.29 
dols to 7.20 dols for mixed to straight brands, 7.25 dols to 8 dols for low 
to good extra, and 8.25 dolsto 9 dols for favourite and choice do, Ex- 
port of wheat flour from Dec. 1 to De¢. 5, 1856, 36,716 busbels, against 
51,333 bushels in same time in 1855. 

Gratn.—The market for wheat opened buoyant, and some advance was 
established on the common and medium qualities; but inasmuch as the 


e 
ic 


or 


eee CL 


ngs meoenenennnny monn LL LLL LLL LLL LLL LLL LLL LLL 





ae 


$$$ I 


mena 




































































AES 


eto 





1444 . 


Atlantic’s advices did not meet the expectations of sellers, a reaction en™ 
sued, and our quotations stand about as they did on last Friday. The 
receipts have been quite large, but henceforth, during the winter, we shall 
have to depend mainly upon the supplies in store and receipts from the 
South. In face of these facts, the market closed weak. The demand hes 
been mainly for export to Great Britain, Spain, and Portugal. For France 
the demand—at no time during the season positively active=has lately 
materially abated: sales, 12,000 bushels White Southern, at 1.70 dols; 
45,200 White Canada, 1.65 dolsto 1 dols: 24,300 Canada Clizb, 1.50 
dol to 1.56 dol; 4,100 common to prime White Missouri, 1.67 dol to 
1.74 dol; 13,700 red winter Western, 1.56 dols; 32,700 Milwaukie Club, 
1.39 dol to 1.42 dol; 24,000 red Illinois, 1.55 dol to 1.5 8,700 white 


: 6 dol; 
ditto, 1.65 dol to 1.72 dol; 22,600 Chicago spring, 1.34 dol to 1.37 dol 








, 





7,000 red Wisconcian (Racine) 1.38 dol; and a small parcel (300 bushels) 
white Genesee, 1.75 dol. Rye isin good fair request, and the market i 
firm : sales 20,500 bushels prime Northern at 90c; and a small parcel of 
Southern (inferior), 75c. The corn market opened buoyant, but closed 


ata decline of about one cent onthe current qualities. The stock is 


moderate, and the market « ed with a firm tone: sales, 95,000 bushels, 





leaving off at 71c to 72)c for sound Western mixed, and 73c to 74c for 

yellow Sout! her kinds for the most part nominal. E os “ 

wheat, from Ist to 5th December, 1856, 466,954 bushels ; a 

bushels ; ditto of corn, 1855; 23,878 bushels, 1855, 76,254 t own 
Export of Breapstcrrs f the United States to Great Britain and Ireland, 


ORR] S538 » 615 


NTINENT. 


Wheat. Corn. Rye. 

ris bus! bush brs! 

New York, I 7487 1128100 see. 8648 104340 
Other Ports 3 7542 348134 .... G278 .... 13168 


BOR: as duced cdccccvacseccs BEBMIG: 20<c 1G0GIM nse 74926 .... D175 


SO69R8 


1101868 <... 26476 .... 1 





ARKETS 


TRADE FOR THE WEEK. 











Mark LANE, Fripay EvENNIG. 
As is invariably the case during a holiday week, the wheat trade has 
been in a depressed state here, since we last wrote. No quotable change 
has taken pi: im pric but to have effected sales of that grain here, 
on Monday, y rates must have been submitted to. Foreign wheat 
was offering on easier terms, but, so few transactions were reported, 
prices were nominally unaltered. rley was in active request, at ex- 





her spring corn, as 


In ot 


treme rates. w ell as flour, very little was doing, 


and the quotations were barely supportec. No market was held here on 
Wednesday. 

At the larze out ts, a specula > feeling has sprung up in favour of 
wheat, and, at Liverpool, rather more money has been realised for holding 
over. Fiour, wever, has met with very little attention. Barley, 
owing to the immense supplies now used in distilleries to meet the de- 


mand for spirit on continent al account, has sold briskly, he there is 
every prospect of this article very dear for a considerable period. 
The growers in the country markets have been firm for wheat, especiall; 
i the quotations nave been fairly supported. Other 


fine parcels, and the 
spring corn has commanded very little attention. 
nd, most kinds of prod 


In Ireland and Sc a 
and, in many the quotations have 
ments of grain to nd have fallen off. 
The arrivals of E sh wheat, this w 
riage, have been very m 


being 





instances, 





derate. To-day, 








comp sed of Monday’s unsold supply. Although y fe 

attendance, most of the supply was taken off, at the late in value. 
The imports of foreign w heat have been tolerab!y good. That grain met 
a dull inquiry, yet prices were supp orted. W e had a good show of barley ; 


the trade, how: ver, v 
place in the va 
supply, and fair rec 

Mr Edward Rainford 
trade:—‘‘Only three a 
viz.:—Of wheat, 1 carge 
of flour, 1 cargo from | 
few transactions si: 


took 


rat 


our were in moderate 


2s firm, at fully Monday’s price No change 
t. Oats, beans, peas, 
uest, at previous rates. 
furnishes the 
rrivals off coast arer Sth inst., 
from Alexandria ::of maize, 1 cargo from Galatza; 
In floating cargoes there have been 
week. The f have changed 


1e of ma and fi 





"1 . 1 +} finati 
folowing particulars of the lioating 


— ee } 
ported since the 1 


altimore. 


rce this day 


lowing 





owners : a cargo of soft Taganrog Ghirka wheat, condition not perfect, 
at 57s; another, with some slight warmth, at 57s 9d; a carg f Egyp- 
tian Behara wheat at 43s, and 1 of Egyptian Saide at dus; of maize, a 


1 of Odessa, part damaged, at 35s 6d; anda 
and barley, ex ship, at 37s and 27s, all arrived. A 
ze on passage has also been disposed of at 37s. 


n the subject of the demand for Spain, and the possi- 


cargo of Galatz, at 36s 6d; 
cargo of Odessa meize 
cargo of Galatz ma 


Writing up 


bility of loss to some of the speculators, Messrs Lucas and Sons ob- 
serve:—Purchases of eral n have been made on Spanish account for for- 
ward delivery. Unless the capabilities of those countries far surpass 


| 
| 
| 


| 
l 








THE ECONOMIST. 


[ Dec. 27, 1256. 








what is generally calculated, there is reason to fear that this business 
has been overdone. Lisbon, for instance, is receiving supplies at the 
same moment from London, Hull, Falmouth, other Channel ports, Bristol, 
Liverpool, Cork, Dublin, America, Marseilles, Egypt, the \zoff, and 
Amsterdam. Theactual wants of Spain and Portugal cannot at present 
ye ascertained with any degree of accuracy; but we may rest Satisfied 
that they will be met from abroad. 


The L 


\ 


ndon averages announced this day were as follows :— 
—. s @ 








Wl t e* . eee 3, at 65 
I cw cccecececes $6 06S 0060 6008 S60 2, 204 43 10 
Oats hme 0:06 Rs 46.00 0OH O04 66 6h100G0 00 SOOO 245 2u 4 
Beans ° 0 606000 cece 481 39 7 
Peas Sb de 0s ce cece 267 44 
ARRIVALS THIS WEEK. 
Wheat. Barley. Malt. Oat Flour, 
8 3 - qrs 
Englis ineeee BU coce 23000 coos BOCO 1,690 990 sacks 
6,980 . — 
g 4,110 720 18,2 - brie 
5 Sacks 
PRICES CURRENT OF CORN, &c. 
BRITISH AND IRISH. per qr per qr 
8s 8 8 8 
Wheat .. Ess Suffolk, red t 
} A aA 5 
Rye 
Ba P sal 3 
Ma .B 


\ 
| 


Cork, Waterford, and Yougha \ 


ee eovececece 22 25 il 
way —s —s, Di otat 





Flour 
TaflOB.ce 


1 


s 


FOREIGN, 
SOO RE TING oa dc 0 ce cecewsee ovens 7 





Wheat ..Danzig, Konigsberg, his 











































P \ n 52 
Sj ,r 70s 75s, white. mm 6 
I , Holstein, a lriesian 54 6 
Ditto ) tto 58 66 |} 
Polish O Cane 8 ie || 
| 
| 
i 
| 
Barley ..Grinding . paneihe dd-enwe tens wae 31 34 Malting .. 34 46'}| 
Beans ..Ticks 0 sh. at.en: obneecdececsescsecne Beye Smalil.... 38 at || 
Peas .. White 41s ‘44s, fine botlers..........0-006 44 47 Maple.... 39. 47 || 
Oats . Ow: amd Galek. . 00.0 oc cece 006) sdece ge cwoceacwecsececs Se SIT 
tus 23 32 |) 
Danis 22 82 | 
Flour ..Dan ; 34 "7 
Linsee , wing 62s 64s | 
anese é y . &8& 90] 
€ seed o TS oe | 
Canaryseed ct 40 44] 
Mustards ° 3 61 
Cloversee 64 75 
Trefoil 41 5! 
7 L i A ag | 
Linseed cake 


lol 





COLONIAL AND FOREIGN 


PRODUCE 


MARKET 


8, 
TRANSACTIONS OF THE WEER. 
For Repert of This Day's Markets, see “ Postscript.’’) 
Mincinc Lang, Fripay Mosgwine, 
The bu ss done in most of the leading articles has been unimpor- 
taut this week, and the market for colonial produce generally will be | 


closed until Friday the 6th proximo. 


on 


ScGAR.—The st quantity brought forward by auction found buyers 
at last week’s decline; but the market, as usual at this season, has been | 


q lite inac ive 
\ 


Strong refining st 
st India found 
by auction from 
sugarin London las 
7 tons in} 


igars are still compsratively scarce. About 
buyers to Wednesday afternoon, including 
54s for low to fine yellow. 
week amounted to 3,000 tons, 


stock on 20th was 39,909 


600 casks 
182 hhds Bart 
The deliveries 
against only 


yadoes 
of raw 


2 08 
“; 


als to 


+ 


Sve. ane inst. 


| 





ons, against 37,765 tons at same date in the preceding year. 
Mauritius.—Nothing has been done by private contract this week. On | 


' 


6d for grainy yellow; brown | 


ir 45s to 45s 6d per cwt. | 
Moa 


5ls 6d to 453s 


dung to ts 


Tuesday 415 bags sold at 





isuai Kind), mil 


By auction 825 bags realised 52s 6d for good | 


Mauritius kind out of last week’s sale 


2 ry yw; middling to fa iite Benares, 51s to 52s ner ct. 
Madras.—No sales have transpired by private treaty. , 
Foreign.——The transactions this week are confined to sma!! parcels on | 

the spot, without material change in prices. No public sales have oc- 

curred. | 
Refined.—T narket is steady, with a moderate supply of goods, and 


ners having t 


» pay full rates for 
maintained. 


trong raw sugars: the quotations of 

fine grocery, 60s 6d to 68s. 

een done for export, and present rates are almost numinal. 
41s to 43s per cwt 


last week are Lumps, low te 


thing has 





English cr 


Moxasses.—The sales are too limited to report. 


| 


Cocoa is very firm in the absence of public sales, and the stock con- | 
tinues low. 
Trea.—S lators and the trade have been large buyers since last 


Friday, and the demand app ! 


of congou closed rather 


ars to 
higher, not 


>more general, Most descriptions 
withstanding the excessive stock, 


eC LL Ltt 


ee 


SSS ee eee 


“nos perenne ces art 


eo 





' 
\ 








| for mouldy to common Coarse, sound. 


Dec.! 27): 1856. } 


Fine Kaisows brought Is 10d. Common has latterly sold at 103d, being 


about id to jd dearer. Green and scented teas are firm. 

CorFeE.—A steady inguiry has prevailed, the market closing with a 
firm appearance. 320 casks 70 barrels 540 bags plantation chiefly 
found buyers at fully last week’s rates, viz.,57s 6d to 65s for fine 
ordinary to middling; good marks, 64s to 68s; and pea berry as high as 
g4s 6d. 200 bags native growth sold at 53s for very good ordinary 
90 bales Alexancria Mocha, 56s 6d for ungerbled, Two cargoes St 

| Domingo have sold for the Mediterranean, together 5,bU0 bags, at 53s; 
also a cargo of Rio (3,200 bags), 43 |, for the same destination. 
Rum.—The market hes still sn upward tendency. Latest sales of 
proof Leewa rds were at 2s 5d to 2s 6d for pale to good. Good and fine 
| Jamaica are rather dearer. No sales reported in Demerara. 
Rick.—A steady business has been done since last Friday at previous 
| rates. 30 bags in public sale yesterday sold at 10s for Rangoon, 
mixed with paddy; damaged, 8s to 9s Gd. 1,600 bags peeled Mou!mein 


“~) 


brought 12s to lds. Privately the transactions are moderate in extent. 

Imports aud DELIVERIEs of ! Dec. 20, with Stocks on hand. 

] 1855 1854 1853 

t tons tons tons 
Imports ssnbotseoecen “Ore ° 670 35751 3125 
Deliver t home use 31527 21764 + 26314 .. :5162 
Ex} ee 25502 12769 19404 .. 9463 
BLOCK .c cc ccs c@ Bt 11.15 5556 ce 13460 


Saco.—527 boxes 220 bags pearl sold at 2s to 3s decline upon large 
| grain, ViZ., 26s to 28s 6d per cwt middling to good. 

Spices.—26 chests brown nutmegs went at last week’s rates, from 2s to 
2s 7d for smal! to good; low and shrivelled, 1s 6d to 1s 10d. 11 cases 
mace, 1s 10d; for middiing red chips, 1s 5d. The market for pepper con- 
| tinues freely supplied. 3,080 bags about one-fourth part sold: good 
| Sumatra, 4id; Penang, 44d per lb for fair common. No further sales of 
| cassia lignea have taken place. 300 pkgs cassia vera brought 13s to ]6s 
40 cases wild cassia buds, 173 6d 


| to 18s. 325 bags Bengal ginger found ready buyers at 21s to 223 for 
bold unscraped, and 390 bags African, 26s 6d to 27s for fair. 


Tarioca.—300 brls fine white Rio partly sold at 73d to 8d per Ib. 

SALTPETRE.—N othing has transpired in Bengal this week, the market 
being very dull. Owing to the probability of large receipts from America, 
prices must be considered quite nominal. 1,180 bags Bombay about 


one-third part sold at 33s for 274 to 33 per cent. refraction ; remainder 
bought in above the value. 
Imports and DELiIveRies of SALTPETRE from Ist January to Dec 











| 
: 


| is steady at the quotations. 


. 20, With 
STocks on hand, 
1856. 1855, 1854, 1853 
tons tons tons tons 
Imported 14985 7852 eee 18720 10233 
Delivered ..-....+2.20- 16421 15079 109038 L137 


BROGE. 20:cs-c000 —_ cove he acces. unt 
Deliveries last week 218 tons. 
NITRATE OF Sopa is dull. 


2333 .... 4155 


CocHINEAL.—The sales, comprising 510 bags, went off with less spirit 
than last week, and about two-thirds found buyers. Honduras silvers 
clean, 3s 8d to 4s Id; pasty, 2s 1Ud to 3s 7d; blacks, 4s 4d to 5s 4d for 
pasty to good; Teneriffe blacks,4s 3d to 4s 6d; silvers, 3s Lld to4s 1d; 
Mexican silvers, 3s 8d to 3s 9d; black, 4s 1d per lb. 

DygsTurrs.—<A few lots Bengal safflower realised previous rates, viz., 
6/ 2s 6d to 6/ 10s for middling. Gambier is dull at 17s to 17s 6d per 
cwt. Tartaric acid, 1s 33d to 1s 4d per lb. 

DyEwoops.—95 tons Campeachy logwood sold at 8/ 10s, and 19 tcns 
red Saunders, 7/ 12s 6d to 7/ 15s per ton. 

Dru@s.—Nothing of interest has transpired this week. 
dull, and quoted 7Cs to 72s 6d per cwt. 
dearer. 

SHELLS.—770 bags Cowries part sold at 78s 6d for live shells; dead, 
55s. Mother-o’-pearl brought steady rates: good Bombay, 51s; small, 
22s to 23s per cwt, 

METALS are firm, and the market has again shown an upward ten- 
dency. Railway bar i:on is now quoted 7/ 15s to 8/ at the works. Scotch 
pig inactive, at 72s 6d for mixed Nes. at Glasgow. Spelter has ruled firmer 
at 287 15s, and few parcels offer on the market. Another advance has 
been paid for foreign tin: Banca quoted 145s; Straits last sold at 144s. 
Copper firm at the recent advance. Other metals unaltered. 

Hemp.—A fair demand exists for ...sanilla at about late rates. 


Camphor is 
Gum olibanum went 3s to 5s 


Russian 
No public sales of jute have taken place 
this week. 

LinsEep.—Transactions in parcels here have been rather limited, but 
for distant arrival cargoes find buyers at fully last week’s rates, viz., 638 
to 64s for Odessa, &c. There has been more inquiry for linseed cakes at 
last week’s rates. 

TURPENTINE.—The extreme rates demanded for rough have checked 
business. Spirits continue to advance, American closing at 49s to 50s 
per cwt, 


Oits.—There is no material change in the value of common fish or 


olive. Linseed has been quiet, and receded to 37s 3d to 37s 6d on the 
spot. Palm, cocoa-nut, and other descriptions do not present any change 
to remark, 


TALLow.—The market has ruled inactive during the week, as usual at 
this period, and in the absence of speculative operations prices close to- 
day as follows :—Ilst sort Y C on the spot 57s 6d to 57s 9d; Spring 
delivery 57s 6d; last three months of 1857; about 53s to 53s 6d. 

PARTICULARS OF TALLOW —Monday, Dec. 


99 


1853 1854 1855 1856 

casks casks casks casks 
Stock this day....ceseeees 44,303 32,705 19,679 17,464 
Delivered last week ...... 2,289 1,647 1,507 2,336 
Ditto since Ist June ...... 61,625 . 47,179 . 76,246 7i,4l4 
Arrived last week ....... 404 1,465 2,045 1,224 
Ditto since Ist June ...... $2,613 43,884 .. 48,210 74,898 
Price of ¥ C on the spot .. 58/6 58/9 .. G4s 6d 68/0 ‘833d 
Ditto town .ccscee coccce S986d 65s6d . 67s os 60s 3d 


ADDITIONAL NOTICES. 


Rerinep SuGAr.—There is no alteration worth noticing this week. 
Green Fruit.—The Christmas demand has been more than usually 


tee CCC CC CCL A 


en 








THE BECONOMIST. 


ES 








ee 


~ 
1445 
good, and all descriptions have met with] a ready sale. 3,000 packages 
oranges, from St Michael, Seville, Portugal and Sicily, sold by Keeling 
and Hunt at public sale, were taken freely by the trade. Nuts of all 


kinds are in demand, and a more lively character exists in the trade than 
has been the case for some seasons past. 





Dry Fruit.—No arrivals this week, except of currants by rail from 
Liverpool. The market for currants and raisins is closed partially for 


the holidays, but clearances still proceed, showing that a large consump- | 


tion is still going on. Little fruit of any kind remains in first hand. 
ENGLISH Woot—The English wool trade continues very brisk, and 

almost every description is saleable at prices favourable to the seller. 
CoLontaL WooLt.—The wool market continues active, prices very 

firm, with rather an upward tendency, particularly for combing wool. 
Hemp.—A few more orders in town to-day for the cx 

market remains inactive. ; 
FLax.—Nothing doing. 


Corron.—Sales of cotton wool from Friday, 19th December, to 
Thursday, 25t 


25th, inclusive :—3,000 bales Surat, at 43d to 54d for ordinary 
to fully good fair; 1,300 bales Madras, at 43d to 54d for fair western to 
good Tinnivelly; 400 bales Bengal, at 45a to 4%d for fair to good fair; 
and 500 bales seedy Tinnivelly Madras, at 44d. The advices per Persia 
from America, received on Saturday last, being considered more favour- 
able to the holders of cotton, and confirming previous accounts that the 
estimates of the crop do not exceed 3,000,000 bales, added to the im- 
proved trade at Manchester, have produced an active demand, and a 
good business has been transacted at an advance of 4d per |b for Surat; 
prices of Madras and Bengal are well maintained, and the market closes 
with great firmness, and with an upward tendency. 

Sitk.—There is a large business doing in China silk, at an advance of 
ls per lb upon the lowest prices. 


Ur 


Topacco.—The market has not exhibited change. Sales of all sorts 
have been chiefly of a limited character, and confined; to the immediate 
wants of the trade. 


LEATHER AND HipEes.—The past week has witnessed a very different 
state of the leather trade from that which it usually presents so near the 
close of the year. The demand has been most active and of a Aery 
general character. At Leadenhall on Tuesday there was a marked 
diminution in the supply, and almost all articles realised a further im- 
provement in price. 
tirely cleared out at a‘most decided advance, the stocks in general were 
reduced to an extremely low point, and still{higher prices are confidently 
expected. 


MetTALs.—Copper—The demand continues good, and there are many 
inquiries which the makers cannot at present supply. Tin continues 
very firm, and orders are more plentiful ; after the turn of the yeara 
good trade is expected. Lead and spelter are both firmer, and prices 
have a tendency to advance. Tin is very firm at the advanced rates, and 
tin plates are wanted. 


TaLLow.—Ofificial market letter published this eveni: 





s a 
Town tallow .ncoccccesseces 60 3 
Fat by dittO....ccoccecccecccccccsccecccccsersees 3 23 
Russian candle .. 2... esc cese ceccseecess 60 3 
Moalted stuff... oc cccccs cc ccccsecccccecsccccccsecss 43 ¢ 
Rough ditto... cccccccecsccce ce ccesce a ae tS 
GORTES 0.64. 00 0gjsee0o: 46 cedcnees.coinssccqeemessiiasecent We’) @ 
GO0d Grogs oc ap cece ccceccccsccccccccscecsssscepooe 7 


METROPOLITAN CATTLE MARKET. 


Monpay, Dec. 22.—The arrivals of foreign stock into London, last week’ 
were very moderate, viz. 1,895 head. In the corresponding week in 1855’ 
we recieved 4,326; in 1854, 2,828 in 1853, 5,165; in 1852, 2,711; in 185)’ 
3,094 ; and in 1850, 1,325. 

From most of our grazing districts very favourable advices have come to 
hand respecting the health of the stock, for which the supply of food is 
abundant. The Norfolk ‘‘ season ” for beasts is now about to commence. 

There was a very small show of foreign stock here to-day, in middlin 
condition. 

With home-fed beasts we were very scantily supplied, and very few of 
them were above average quality. The attendance of butchers was limited, 
yet, for the time of year—especially as the great market was held on Mon- 
day last—the trade as tolerably steady. In prices no change took place, 
the top figure for beef being 5s per 8 lbs. ee 

The fresh supplies of beasts were about 300 from our own grazing districts, 
90 from Ireland, and 70 from Scotland. 

There were very few sheep in the market. For all breeds we had a brisk 
demand, at an advance in the currencies of 2d per 8 lbs, The primest 
Downs were worth 5s 6d per 8lbs. 


gy 
> 


Calves were in short supply, and active request,'at last Monday’s quota- | 


tions, being 2d higher than on Friday. 

The few pigs in the market realised extreme rates, with a fair demand, 
SUPPLIES. 

Dec. 25, 1854. Dec. 24 


, 1855. Dec. 23 


Demttecs ccs cscecscequccqecescese. 1,208 1,158 .c- 1,89 
Sheep and Lambs......-.e.ee+e+- 7,940 5,750 9 040 
Calves... ceccccee ° 94 A eee 81 
VAZS 0 cece cvccccecvccesccececces 212 130 cece 230 


FrIDAY, Dec. 26.—This being a holiday market very few beasts were on 
, . oD 7 7 ed ; z 2 
sale, and so little business was doing that prices were nominally unaltered. 
The supply of sheep was very limited, and the mutton trade ruled dull, 
at nominal quotations, The few calves in theamarket sold briskly, at fully 
Monday’s currencies. Pigs were dull. There were no sales effected in 
milch cows. 


Per § ibs to sink the offais. 

sds a4 sadsd 
Inferior beasts ........3 4 3 6 Southdowns vce ff 4. 6S 
Second quality ditto.... 3 8 4 0 Large coarsecalves .... 310 4 8 
Prime large oxen ...... 4 2 4 8 Prime sma)! ditto e 4 i0 5 6 
Prime Scots, &c. ee 410 5 0 | Large hogs............ 3 8 4 4 
Inferior sheep . ......4 0 4 4 Small porkers..........5 4 6 5 2 
Second quality ditto.... 4 6 4 10 } Suckling calves........24 0 30 0 
Prime coarse woolleddo.5 0 65 2 Quarter old pigs .: 23 0 28 0 
Total supply—-Beasts, 300; sheep, 700; calves, 56; pigs,40. Foreign supply-— 


Beasts, 20; calves, 56, 





TT 


I 


atry, but the | 


Light English butts and dressing hides were en- | 


| 


} 
| 
1 





a 





| Hartley 15s 6d—Tanfield Moor 15s 3d— Walker Primrose L5s. 
| —Acorn Close 17s—Gosforth 17s—Lawson 16s 6d—Wharncliffe 


lll TTT... »uhaHaaaw”Ww 


1446 . 


NEWGATE AND LEADENHALL. 
Monvay, Dec, 22.— Large supplies of each kind of meat were on sale to- 
day. Beef for Christmas consumption sold somewhat briskly at very full 
|| prices; otherwise the demand ruled steady at extreme rates. 
FripayY, Dec. 26.—The supplies were moderate, and the trade dull. 
- & lbs®by the carcase. 

§ € 
Inferior beef .......... 0 4 
Ditto middling 6 
Prime large .......... 4 
Prime small ........... 8 
SATS DOPE. 5 0c da cs0-0 4 


s 
Mutton inferior........ 3 

_ middling... .. 4 

_ PTIMC...---ccee 4 

| Vea... dt ccc cvccceccens 
{ Small pork..........0. 4 


HOP MARKET. 
K Borovcn, Monday, Dec. 22.—Our market continues tolerably active 
for this period of the year, with a moderate inquiry for fine samples, which 
have now become scarce, and choice qualities bring rather more money. 
Good yearlings are also in fair demand, and the general currency of last 
week is fully maintained. 
Fripay, Dec, 26.— Our market is but moderately supplied with both 
new and yearling hops, and the demand for them is steady, at full prices. 
| Mid and East Kent pockets, 3 5s to 5715s; Weald of Kent, 3/ 5s to 4/ 14s; 
Sussex, 3/ to 3/ 18s. 


POTATO MARKET. 
SoUTHWARK WATERSIDE, Monday, Dec. 22.—During the past week.the 
arrivals both coastwise and by rail have been greater than any week this 
season; and the demand being dull, prices have had a downward tendency. 
| The following are this day’s quotations:—York Regents, 100s to 120s; 
| Kent and Essex ditto, 90s to 120s; Lincolnshire ditto, 70s to 105s; East 
| Lothian ditto, 100s to 120s: ditto red, 95s to 105s; Perth, Forfar, and 

Fifeshire Regents, 90s to 105s; Irish whites, 80s to 85s; German ditto, 


80s to 85s, 


COAL MARKET. 
Monpay, Dec. 22.—Byass's Bebside Hartley 16s 3d—Holywell 17s 6d— 


|| Howard’s West Hartley Netherton 16s—Longridge’s West Hartley 16s 3d 


| —Tanfield Moor Butes 15s 94— Victoria Hartley 15s 6d— Walker Primrose 
15s 3d. Wall’s-end :—Gosforth 17s— Riddell 17s—Eden Main 17s 94d—Bel- 
mont 17s 64—Braddylls 18s —Lambton 18s 6d—Pensher 17s—Plummer 188 


i| Russell’s Hetton 18s—South Hetton 18s 94—Stewart’s 19s—South Kelloe 
18s 6d— Tees 19s—Evenwood 16s 6d. 


Ships at market, 68 ; sold, 46. 
WEDNESDAY, Dec. 24.—Byass’s Bebside Hartley 16s—Howard’s West 
Hartley Netherton 16s 3d—Longridge’s West Hartley 16s—North Percy 
Wall’s-end: 
17s— Eden 
| Main 17s 6d—Braddylls 18s—Hetton 19s—Pensher 17s—Stewart’s 19s— 
| Caradoc 17s {9d—Cassop 17s 94—Hartlepool 18s 6d—Evenwood 1%s 6d— 
West Garesfield 15s. Ships at market, 113: sold, 72. 
Fripay, Dec. 26.— The Exchange is closed to-day. 


LIVERPOOL MARKETS. 
WOOL. 
(From our own Correspondent.) 
WEDNESDAY, Dec. 24.—There is hardly so much doing this week, and 
} people are generally less inclined to increase their engagements at this 
period of the vear. Prices are however very firm, and there is every prospect 
of a brisk trade after the turn of the year. 


Che Gasette. 


TuEspay, Dec. 23. 
PARTNERSHIPS DISSOLVED. 
Blayney and Lister, Chertsey, plumbers—Higham and Holme, Black- 
burn, grocers— J. and G. Palmer Liverpool, and Ormskirk, tanners—A, F. 
and D, E, Timothy, Mermaid wharf, Shad Thames, wharfingers-- Fraser 


pee oe 


'| and Orr, yarn commission agents, Manchester—Bown, Brothers, Leaming- 


|| ton Priors and Low Harrowgate, Yorkshire, jewellers--Bywater and Pollard, 


} 


Birstal Smithies, Yorkshire, or elsewhere, blanket manufacturers—Jackson 
and Gray, Schofield place, West Brompton, and Lawrence lane, Cheapside, 


'| dyers—Crick and Beveredge, Susannah street, Popular New town, ship 


smiths—T. and J. Gry, Tottenham court road, wheelwrights—Gardener 
and Arthey, Kersey, Suffolk, farmers—Treadgcold and Son, Portsea, iron 
merchants— Norton and Co., Bristol, hat manufacturers—W. Mousley and 
Sons, Burton-upon-Trent, tailors, as far as regards W. Mousley—Drayner 
and Redman, Millwall and elsewhere, rope manufacturers—Taylor and 
Stevens, Arthur street weet, City, merchants—Weeks and Petman, Maid- 
stone, ironfounders— Fisher and Walker, Wolverhampton, hide brokers— 
Besch and Co., Hanover street, Hanover square, tailors, as far as regards 
F. Besch, sen. 
DECLARATIONS OF DIVIDENDS, 
J. Adams, Finsbury syuare, surgeon—first div 1s 4d on new proofs, on 


|| Thursday next, and three following Thursdays, at Mr Graham’s, Coleman 


rere vee seeeneeeneena 


street. ‘ 

W. Beardsall, Manchester, plumber—first div of 7s 6jd, any Tuesday, at 
Mr Hernaman’s, Manchester. 

A. Rogerson, Clifton, Lancashire, licensed vitualler—first div of 5s 33d, 
any Tuesday, at Mr Hernaman’s, Manchester. 

W. Hall, Durham, grocer—second div of 1s (in addition to ls &d pre- 
viously declared), any Saturday, at Mr Baker’s, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

J. Rock, jun., Birmingham, factor—first div of 12s, on Wednesday, 
Dec. 24, Friday, Dec. 26, and every succeeding alternate Thursday, at 
Mr Bittleston’s, Birmingham. 

B. Scott, Earlsheaton, blanket manufacturer-—first div of 3s 8d, any 
Friday on or after Jan. 9, at Mr Hope’s Leeds. 

T. Linfoot, York, builder—first div of 9s 10d, any Friday on or after 
Jan. 9. at Mr Hope’s, Leeds. 

T. Wright, sen., York, tailor—first div of 13s on the separate estate, 
any Friday on or after Jan 9, at Mr Hope’s,’ Leeds. 

D. Foster, Goole, ironmonger—second div of Is 1d, any Friday on or 
after Jan. 9, at Mr Hope’s, Leeds. 

P. Hewitt, Ossett Common, worsted spinner—first div of 6s 6d, any 
Friday, on or after Jan 9, at Mr Hope’s, Leeds. 

T. Wright and Son, York, tailors—first div of 28 10d; any Friday on or 
after Jan. 9, at Mr Hope’s, Leeds, 


THE ECONOMIST. 


[ Dee: 27, 1856, 


a 
W. Threlfall, Addingham, worsted spinner~ third div of lid, any Friday 
on or after Jan. 9, at Mr Hope’s, Leeds. 
C. Abson, Castleford, earthenware manufacturer —first div of 9s on the 
separate estate, any Friday on or after Jan. 9, at Mr Hope’s, Leeds, 
J. Swift, Staveley, grocer--second div of 6d, any Tuesday, at Mr Brewin’s, 


Sheffield. 
BANKRUPTS. 
J. P. Knight, Hibernia chambers, Southwark, and Kent Brewery, York 
street, Pentonville, hop merchant. 
J. P. M. Greig, Bartlett’s buildings, Holborn, and Wheatsheaf yard, Fay. 
ringdon street, cabinet maker. 
J. J. Tagg, Reading, innkeeper. 
J. Bishop, Crosby hall chambers, Bishopsgate, and Grosvenor lodge, High. 
gate, wine merchant. * 
H. J. Girdlestone, Brighton, Berlin wool dealer, 
B. Callaway, Southsea, Portsea, builder. 
W. Buckland, Ealing, corn merchant. 
E. Jenkins, Birmingham, draper. 
G. Gosling, Sidmouth, builder. 
A. Holden, Bury, paper manufacturer. 
G. Travis, Oldham, flour dealer. 
W. Pim, Kingston-upon-Hull, commission agent. 
CERTIFICATES to be granted unless cause be shown to the contrary on 
the day of meeting. 

Jan. 15, L. Cohen, Bishopsgate street within—Jan. 13, G. Stockbridge 
Oxford street, draper--Jan. 14, J. L. Harvey, Chichester place, King’s cross, 
draper—Jan. 14, C, H. Collins, Winchester buildings, Southwark, merchant 
--Jan. 14, L. Ensoll, Great Titchfield street, draper--Jan. 14, A. Page, Baker 
street, Portman square, boot manufacturer—Jan. 14, A. Hurst, Bull Head 
dock, ‘Rotherhithe, manure. manufacturer—Jan 14, — Woods, Weybridge, 
builder—Jan. 17, T. Nash, Leather lane and Kirby street, Hatton garden, 
carpenter—Jan. 14, R. Bell, Gracechurch street, contractor--Jan. 14, R. K, 
Lane, Argyle street, Regent street, and Union crescent, Wandsworth road, 
bill broker—Jan. 15, J. Wood, Wolverhampton, grocer—Jan, 15, T, 
Gibbs, Burslem, publican—Jan. 15, W. Humphries, Kingswinford, inn. 
keeper. 
SCOTCH SEQUESTRATIONS, 
D. Graham, Glasgow, commission merchants. 

J. M’Rostie, sen., lately of Crieff, writer, 
D. Stewart, Coupar Angus, shoemaker. 
W. Wallace, Forfar, mason, 
J. Campbell and J. Yuill, jun., bleachers, Glasgow. 
A. Campbell, Glasgow, coal agent. 
J. Fraser, Inverness, baker. 
Gazette of last Night. 

PARTNERSHIPS DISSOLVED. 

Champion and Hind; West Butterwick, spirit merchants, maltsters and 
brewers —Dimmack, Thompson, and Firmstone, Cornhill, iron merchants-— 
Dimmack and Thompson, Bilston, iron masters—Barker and Shipsides, 
Nottingham, lace dressers—Cotton ani Hopwood, South Mimms, carpen- 
ters and builders—Tootal and Browne, Gracechurch street, general com- 
mission merchants~Hancoeck and Harris, Bristol, commission agents— 
Parker and Dowler, Birmingham, brass founders—Appleton and Sons, 
Long acre, London; as regards W. Appleton only—Whitaker and Eccles, 
Rochdale, engineers—Friihling, Gischen, and Walbroth, Austen Friars, 
merchants—Rudland and Broad, Shoreditch, brush makers—Swaby and 
Elliott, Gateshead, varnish manufacturers—North and Tyler, Westmin- 
ster, builders—Spooner and Wilson, Talbot court, Gracechurch street, 
wine and spirit merchants— Thrackrah and Thrackrah, Leeds, woollen 


| merchants—Garbutt and Gallemore, Manchester, coal merchants— Fergn- 


son, Ferguson, and Ferguson, London—MaclIntosh and Fletcher, Liver. 
pool, school mistresses—Boden and Timperley, Manchester, smallware 
manufacturers—Hewett and Dodson, Fenchurch buildings, Russia mer- 


| chants—Wilson and Fisher, Silver street, Wood strect, warehousemen and 
| agents—Rickitt and Hayes. Wolverton, engineers. 


DIVIDENDS DECLARED. 

Colquhoun, Greenwich, money scrivener—fourth div of 4d, at Nichol- 
son’s, Basinghall street. 

Goodman, Hammersmith, varnish maker and colour merchant—first div 
of 23d, at Nicholson’s. 

Thoms, Warwick square, London, printer and [stereotyper— second’ div 
of 3id, at Nicholson’s. 

Deacon, Kilburn, butcher—first div of 3s, at Nicholson’s. 

Trowse, Leather lane, Holborn, coach and tyre smith and spring maker 
—first div of 3}d, at Nicholson’s, 

Brown and Burnham, Potton, bre«ers—first div of 4s 6d, at Nicholson’s, 

Roe, Brixton road, oil and colour man- second div of 33€, at Nicholson’s 

Ford, Hornsey proad, and Brick lane, brush manufacturer—first div of 
ls, at Nicholson’s. 

Hampton, Broadwater, corn and coal merchant—first div of 2s 2d, at 


Lee’s, Aldermanbury. 

Long, King street, Cheapside, warehouseman—first div of 2s]3d, at Lee’s, 
and Son, Huddersfield, merchants—second div of 1s 8d, at 
5, Park row, Leeds. 
and Cotton, Leeds, machine makers—first div of 5s, at 


Leadbeater 
Young’s, No. 

Mackenzie 
Young’s. 

Binns and Son, Cleckheaton, manufacturers— first div of 1s, at Young’s. 

Bapty, Leeds, yarn spinner—second div of 93d, at Young’s. 

Blyth and Goddard, Birmingham, merchants—-first div of 3s, at 
Christie’s, 37 Waterloo street, Birmingham. 

Travis and Kershaw, Shaw, cotton spinners—-first div of 2s 6d,° at 
Fraser’s. 

Dove, Manchester, builder—first divfof 64d, at Fraser’s. 

Mad+n, Bacup, cotton spinner—first divgof 4s 103d, at Fraser’s. 
Robinson, Manchester, silk manufacturer—first div uf 5s, at Fraser’s, 
BANKRUPTCY ANNULLED. 

T. F. Slater, Bradford, Yorkshire, grocer. 
BANKRUPTS. 
J. MacMillan, Liverpool, shipowner. 
J. Wood, Manchester, cheese factor. 
R. Ashworth, Rossendale, Lancashire, cottop spinner and manufacturer, 
F. Boyd, Tynemouth, Northumberland, grocer and flour dealer. 
G. W. Jones, Oxford street, williner. 
G. Gwilliam, Liverpool, wheelwright and blacksmith. 
T. Wells, Dorset place, Clapham road, grocer. 
F, R. Davies, Plymouth, auctioneer and forage dealer. 


East SuFFOLK ELECTION.—Yesterday, Lord Henneker, was returned 
for the Eastern division of Suffolk, without opposition. 





| 
| 
| 
| 


Deer 275 4856.) 







































Loawoop Camp CACHY woe 

Jamaica 
Nicaracva Woc > 
RED SAUCNDERS....-- 008 +es 
Saran Woop 


— 
SD ewweugawn wu 


' aad 
C@MM ERCIAL TIM E S Mides- On and Gov: zm : 4 . a4 feeds * s 4.8 4 | SUGAR—Rsr. continued s d 8s dad jj 
Weekly Price Current. Do &R. Gtahde, saltd’ 6°80 9 «|| (CCanary Swe Satdaed Titlers, 22 to 2816 ww 44 0 45 9 |} 
the prices in the following list are Brazil, GYY sisccssecsvssessee 0 9 1 1, | Clover, red vevees POF cwt 50 0 68 0 Suecken edetrtts =n ae peg | 
carefully revised every Friday ‘afternoon, 09 0 yf white ~ sevenaceee 60 0 70 0 | Bestar dan, ed 
by aa eminent house in each departnient. Se o..8 ©€ Coriander ...ccorccsceserece 28. .0. 32 0 hawt re acl oo = a 3 1 
_ 010 1 3 Linseed, foreign per qr 54 0 58 © | Dutch, refine: i . 
LONDON, Faipay Evento, Lima & Valparaiso, dry 00 06 English ..... 70 0 75 0 | Sib’ veree +0. be in in Holland 0 0 |! 
Add 5 per ce nt. to dutieson.currants, fiys, ape, salted ..... we O FT O OF Mustard, br ...... - bu sh 20 0 24 0 ete, ca 46 0 00 |! 
pepper,tobacco, wines, an dtimber, des ‘s, New South Wales... » ap le WHITE aeeeee 12 0 16 0} Supertine . oan 41 0 © 0 
wood, &c., from British Possessious. New Y ork + ees cone 0 6} 07 Rape, per last of 10 ¢ qr ts £42 0 44 0 Xx 1, Crushied sernenn 40 0 4 ; 6 |} 
Ashes duty ~_ , sd sda East India sesso. 8 11.43 |} Silkk duty free a 4. 20 No. 2 and 3.. 38 0 39 6 |! 
st aort Pot, y.S.pewt 50 0 O 0 Kips, Russia ....... G1lg 1 3 Surd 9 
Fir t 5 $ UEdAN....c006 sper Ib 29 © 30 0 | Belgian refined, f. o. “D. at. Antwerp. ; 
Montreal .... -50 0 O 0 S America Horse, P ‘hide 8 0 12 6 Cossimbuzar ... 15 6 25 0 8 tu 10 1b loaves 42 0 0 0 }} 
5 } ch ésnnen 
First sort Peat «4% 0 0 0 German... 4. wo 7 0 G 0 Gonatea .... ~15 © 2 oO Crushed, l and 2....... 39 0 40 6 || 
Montreal 49 0 00 Indigo duty er Comerco!l 19.0 27 © | Tallow—Duty B. P. 1d, Fer 1s 6dpew j 
gocoa duty = Ben gal .ccrccccccsces ve -_ te. e Bealeah, &c. - 0 0 00 N. Amer. melted, pewt 0 0 OQ 0 | 
West India ...... 6 0 75 (0 Oude idles cap bee , 3 's'9 China, Tsatlee .. 20 0 24 6 St Petersburg, Ist Y C58 6 58 § 
Goayaquil .. 65 0 67 0 MUdPAS  seeees ses 16 5 3 17 0 21 0/ N.S. Wales 57 0 389 0 
Brazil ..0.-ccccceesees 62 0 65 0 0 ebeee ~ 20 6 6 - 32 0 17 © | Tar—Stockholm, p bri. ~~ 18 0 8 3 |] 
Coffee duty ad Spani sh, Flores ueeecnen 6 3 6 2 Thrown ..... 17 0 22 6 Archangel .... secseee 18 0 18 6 Ih 
Jamaica, good im m * ating 65 0 85 0 Leather per Ib Raws—White Novi... 42 0 43 0 | Teaduty Is 94. per lb | 
. to Bn ene re a5 72 Crop hides... 30t0451b 1 2) 1 6} Fossombrone 33 0 41 0 | Congou, ord. tolow...bd 0 94 0 93 
fine ord tt mi ‘ . a 6 _ do tcanse 60 GS OE 6A IG Bologna ......4. 0 37 0 good ord. to but mid. 0 9¢ 0 10 | 
Seba l.. ; a3 ; English Butts 16 24 18 2 2 a 3. 0 38 0 ra, str. and str. bk, If, 0 10g 1 5 || 
garbled, com. do - e t' ge Be FENLO ..cccer0e 0 39 0 fine and Pekoekinds 1 6 2 4 || 
garbled, fine ‘ 7. 2 Foreign Butts 16 25 17 2 0 Milan 0 40 0 So 12 26 | 
Ceylon, _ do 8 216 3231 . : Pekve, Ss 2¢ 4 
—_ eel. 0 59 0 Calf Skins... 20 35 14 2 3 Piedmont, 22-24 9 45 0 Orauge a 
fine fine ord. to mid 59 6 65 0 a SS eS, 128 Mi a rgam, 18-33 9 43 0 ented | . ‘ aueeoh 
: do 80 100 1 3 2 2 lan & Bergam, 18 0 45 0 Scented Caper cesses ara i 
good mid. to fine....... & : - z Dressing Hides....ccc... 1 23 1 6 Do. 0 43 6 OdlONg -26 100 oe e00 010 20 | 
Java... . are egies ag ; ‘as 6 Shaved os . s 1 3 Do. 0 41 0 Hyson e 1 6 1 9 } 
Bamatra wnd Padang = “es Horse Hides, English... 10 1 2 Do. 28-32 33 0 39 0 Mid tO fINC....0.,.cereere 110 4 0 || 
Madras - ae ngage 3 az 4 ® Spanish, perhide li 0 16 6 TRamMs—Milan, 22-24 ... 40 0 43 ~0 Your menyen m,Cant ton. 0 9 1 90 j 
Malabar an YSOTO-ee eee * 5 53 0 Kips, Petersburg, perIb 1 7 2 1 Do 24-28 ... 35 0 36 O fresh: and Hy son kinds 010 29 
eet ees enna f a ° do East India .......0. 1 4 #2 O B Do. 28-36 .. 33 GO 34 O Gunpiwder;Cuntee. dine . O'S 1 6 
taz:l, washed ..... b sRuTIas—Short reel ... 18 0 19 6 . iHysonkinds 1 4 4 6 
goad and fine or . @ 52 0 enone Gee &e.lb 12 0 0 BIO OO cccuncctesesiemes 00 00 Imperial Rite eis : 10 20 
common to real o 38 0 44 6 Bi og ener he ee ee Demirdach ..o-eree eoeee 23 0 25 0 | Timber 
Costa Rica .... - 0 7 0 Old ue Pree qmons 1 0} 5 0 || Patent do 38 0 40 0 Duty foreign 7s 6d, B. P. 1s per load 
Havana and Cuba sresnree 52 0 = 0 Tanah cake, P ton £126 0 0 0 | PERSIANS ..... 1 6 17 9 Dantzic and Meme! fir... 67 6 85 0 
Porto Rico & La Guayra 54 0 65 0 Ti! itt as & & | Spices, in bon d—P EPPER, duty 6d Riga fir .. 75 0 77 0 
surat duty free meee Inow, per fom ae ie tua a ah | 0 45 0 {qj Swedish fir . ...... esores.-. 68 O 70 O 
TAt...c00+e00e Bere On | Britist ee astern 4g 0 4g Canada red pine 4.4... $80 0 90 0 |; 
SH 3] MEE S$ ah ‘nea eT neat mE ee Sotet 
o% aaa ) IMENTO, duty »ewt Brunswick do large90 0 95 0 
0 0 0 te se : 4. 7 | mid and good...perlb 0 4% 04} — do small 65 0 70 0 
Bowed Georgia ........0000 0 BRO) TA... QOCes nor 002 CINNAMON, duty 2d p 1b Quebee oak 130 0140 0 
New Orleans os. 0 0 0 Sah ge Ceylon, | 1 0 2 G6] Baltic Oak scccccuccoseoee, . 90 0130 0 
Demerara «...- .-00 00 71 0 Malabar & hery 010 1 € v f 
; Rail wie. ae Malab llie 6 Afric in oak duty ‘free. “200 0 230 0 
oe Doming an _ ae 2 00 p — No 1 Clyde 3 14 : 13 | Cassia Lignga, duty Indian teake duty free 0 0270 0 
rugs an ye luty fre « - = 9s 401 percwt 90 0 105 0 Wa tinseot logs is8ft ea te 6 0 9 0 
Swedish, ia bond .. o. 14 0 17 ¢ a each 65 
CocHINEAL L Fy ae : pig 22 0 os CLoves, « Deals, duty foreign 10s, B. P. 2s per load 
J rl 3 ¢:''@A Bab, per ton a g 22 23 1 } nd } 
_ ure perl "7 r ; sheet vu a 2315 24 0 Amb , 2 and port pe 3K, Norway, rn stan + is 0 
CXICAM serseseeee A ' oO COVEN sereeeees Lee ) 0 Swedis se 11 0 15 0 
TosMERIC + a int shot. mse 6 6°®@ GINGEE yb P er cwt For. 10s Finland «- 1010 1210 
Bengal wos. ewt 37 0 42 0 vitae off re East India com. > cwt 20 0 21 0 Canada | c 
Maidt 32 0 37 0 Spank: 1 phy, in b mi... 21 0 O 0 D Cochit “FF, 
Cit a5 ee s<en ne at ee Street, Swedishin kegs.. 20 10 21 10 C . —s 40 0 180 ¢ in 0 
eoree aie ” j inl fAGKVOLS sevecceee 2110 22 0 ; : : : 
Trnza Jaronica, Cuich 50 0 0 0 . @ Afr : 21 QO 22 4 
Gambier 18 6 0 0 — fo Gee AP W.1 [ack Is-1 &2plb 1 & 2.0 z 
1 orens LN, Guty free eee : - 
Dgewoods ‘i : + fon 0 tie 10 English blocks, ptonl4z 0 0 ee eee on ee : 
sibs ; 12/0 23 0 bars in barrels ......143 0 0 0 | Spirits Rum dyB. P.8s 2d p gal, For.15s ° 
en Neusaad iddled 15 5 Refined  ....ccccescosoree 49 0 0 0 Jumaica, 15 to 25 O P, sperib s d d 
we fi come 15 0 Banca, in bond .......144 0 0 0 per gal -» bond 3 6 3 8 b, bond ? 
Seranilla } 5 Straits, GO ssss1d3 0 0 9 BD £0 35 ssnrenreree #139 5.419 : 
tae 4 4 
+ 
0 3 
3 
2 
2 


Bi TAS co 


Fruit—Acmonpd 


Jordan, duty 10s p cwt 


NEW c00rerccceve sce covece 
old 


B: 





y sweet, in bnd 
Bitter’... cocsesseens free 
Currants, dit 
Zan + pntabeentogitcted 





old.. 


Su!tana, ney 
M at 
Osa: Gces, duty 
St Michael 
} iV 
L st Sc | 
Madeira .........p 
Sev sours 
Lemons 
Mes 


22 





Qvishor .. 
halt-ciean 
Riga, Riis 
Manilla, fr 
East Indian Sunn 
Jute 
Coir r ro} To] 
junk. 
bre ....... eee coveee 


37 
36 










— 
ePrnwoouwa® 


_ 


eoaueoonwgeo 


Gaenwnwo 
oCow, 


£ 


50 


o 


ecococse 





THE | ECONOMIST. 





























Tin PLATES, per box 8 
Charcoal, I C.. 
Coke, B Gnas 


Matannes duty Britis 
British best, d. p...pcwt 
P. seat o% y 
B. P. West Indies... ee 
Olls —Fish 
Seal pale, p 252 gal d.p 
veliiow 
Tr 


« o> 


34 


n¢ 
21 
19 
23 
















Phew ee eee eeeeeene 


$s 
H 
C 


South 


matter 








BUA cases 44 

Gallipoli.eper tun 57 
Spanish and Sicil 4 
Palin per ton 46 


oO 






c 





pale ‘foreig n) 53 
. 37 


Cc 

Kay 

Linseed vee ew ceepeces 
slack Sea 

Ss 


D 


4 


Petersbg Morshank 58 


Do Fureiz teseess 
Ra do 
| Provisions — All 





articles 


I 





15 


0 


cake (English) p ton 10/ 10s 
9} 


on 


o 
z 


21 ¢ 


6 
£8 
59 10 
4u ) 
99 0 
94 ) 
50 0 
5) «OO 
7 1 
65 10 
4) 10 
5] i 
0 
a8 


“par 61s Od 62s 6 


60 i 
Oa 0 
11 15 


raid. 


Butter-- Waterford Poe 103 Od112s Od 


wld 
110 


Carlow 





Fr riesland, “tr 

Kiel and Holstein 
Bacon, ed—Wi ate rf. 

Limerick .....ccccccccssseee 
3— Westphalia 
—Waterford & Li- 
erick bladder 
Cork and Belfast do 
Firkin and ke Iris 
At ican & Canadian 
Cask do do 78 
&Can p.b 80 
& Can. ptc!60 
12 


6 6 








a 
‘ 
‘ 


2 
4 
i 








erican 


Rice duty 4gd per cwt 


Carol 
Be 
Mudras .eccrece 00ers. coerce 
Java and Manilla ..... 
Sago duty 44d per cwt 
Pear eo «per cwt 
Saltpetre, Bengal,pewt 
English, refinedsecccesssees 
NITRATE OF SODA see -ceceseee 17 


-percwt 25 
u yellow & white 


25 
44 
2 


eens 


104 


0 
0 
0 
U 
0 
0 


118 O 
0 0 
0 0 


0 ¢ 





| 
| 
















































10t 


WOOP 


) 
t 


eS) 





Hn spirits 


G luty paid .. I! 
In). f.0.0. Exportation 3 
Malt spirits, duty paid 
Sugar — duty, Retine 


clayed, 17s 6d 






8 
w 35 
39 
34 
25 


intation,yel 





0d Yello ow 

35 
3) 
31 
24 
35 


3» Srey ik white 
ow and grey 
brown 

y and white 

wr and yellow 

Madras, grny yelxwhite 
brown and soft yell 

Siam and China white 
brown a vellow 

Manilla, clayed 

iw 

1 yellow.. 


a 


Bena 


easeteceoceo ees e N e a one eee * “ ‘ bat ty od ae 4 : . 5 hk pi + é f 
an ge eocepeeenens 0 sees ay | eal aati 3 ae » $ 7 _ — Th ex a 
sheer : uand g ‘ o} i j 
= . < . . ' . + 3 . " 
ay 3 I , ett eee 0 Peer eres eweeeece o 
; = ‘ oo har & slichery } . 
a “- . ‘ e " : lore a x 
eree « —- ae ‘ ve , 4 “ Sa 
see-eeees PO i? rt z t eac! ‘ - 
=) on it 3, dr } 22] : « 9 > 
t | } de atese 2 5 § Amboyn t Sorw: 0 
£ ne. . ur t 5 t 
ner ew } see somnges ) 
4 pe t 1 } ¥ «VU nada wf pine ¥ 
; t ee sal « 
¢ AfPicun  ccccces ; 2: ; n deck, e: eapee 26 
« ’ . eye , . - 
’ iu - . aes } " 
5 apt " ‘ 4 »a x aitic, per mile. 210% 5 
png ’ Q - 
‘ . i ul ty os pe i ‘ 
® 2" P rte 
cecee , s fine mark 5 strip 
*oreee * 1 "\ ®« . 7 a Lt 
. « « , . « - 
; . Tt al ; y STANGIA PTOOT ..cseree 2S 
wa 3 seecee 2 - ” 
+ 94 Qh 6 9 
lan, P - 23 0 es aes cal aoa J ‘ 
z£ Se icin 30 12 j sone 
vary sweet, in bnc rellow dace { . —— 
| + eninge ad mat s , if seeeeseecee |e “ i» aS se 
VU sawnwe wee cee : ppl re uty : 2 . a re an a 7 - . 
) eouti OR ceccce cde age sae . . . , . = 
ee lon = * abe it spirits, 3 z1 ‘ } B> <bppngres Toe 
ras, wee enee ll i . , Ye fetine d ‘ Ss : y * 9 
= eae . c . . a ‘ : ‘ ’ ; , . . ° 
U , nev . wrt eee nee oo sal - ' . ‘ . le > a 
ur i ee leni oe eee . aL } o . ri 
ms, duty 3 per , "OU ‘ eld tort la 33 r . . 
7 ate : 2 : = " , ‘ ee ee ee eee eeeeeeteree OS * « ? a seree8 
nperial cs ne wc geo} ) ! Mutritius, yellow ‘ . ombing —~We 2 
Le ae \ cake an dol 1 DOTOWT see «ae soees ‘ ° " 4 C 
entia, ne eecceesee } at eee ° a ae A syaAre ‘ a . y g 2 
y lack t ny ~ 
r » Vik “ . au A te ) , j - 
ol ; } y Si 
ed and kle eo ee ‘ i+ ana , . m > ty . 
S " W sesoce 5 oc cen cpaces 2 v. grey ¢ ch ; 
s3catel ..ccocs eee < : : ‘ Xork 3rea See ann ; 7 6 
ty eseeper OX ¢ ‘ ’ owe yrown and soft y ow 3 eee eee 
ya eresess 2 sees 24 Siam and Ching —_— : S _ eee 
mM gc ‘ 24 j r eves r na »} » ¢ * 
ay le . 55 > iv or > v « 4 
cee cecGh simeric 6 ‘ovado * G { XOr * oes 4 
ams — Westphal ava, grey an ite ... 3¢ ac al Cr is ‘ 
na ne | , rte ; © a: » . ; 
sing.........per case = ) 5 rd atert ai roWN al al) ~~ P fan. art . 8 
sees S ose ® Lil er eeee . 1 wile 4s 
{3 ‘ - ween . +8 ee eee ’ rk 3 slfas AWese \ ‘oO n n rel] | 2 : 3 5 
p : ny 7 
ut ln ~—e w ee i ‘ 
DT Bs ss... sasewoese cores OS 36 rk—Amer. ; ( 3 : Sline... 
ntt free vn oa . ‘ off . : a 7 2 ‘ 
ior A per wf ‘ ve IT am seeeeenne ces wee 0 { rowr alieaai ad ee , 
t Petersburg, ieaC 0 , dar ot 2 0 ‘ “or cons i 
t ! . l, J ton 37 5 Ds, 5 Ih : ~ ° 7 
. sens . ae ’ ‘ *t crushe g f Jombing andCilot 
CIOANL cercecscerce ce % 3% jen re rhiit q ) > 5 & qv ‘ 
’ 1G cee crccsccosce OF 3: lras ° ooo 8 ) 5 - { “ks and Piece 
i ee ' Vv Y i g aeee * } . » . ny. 
ov cee ved 3 or ort Pe i a r he re 
tee tee0 > > 1 swt O5 Yond r 2 } } 
seeesee . tees ar. +: ewes - ir loaves. t ] 5 f) > t 5 
. ; ix . » . ~ ei . 
or oe ‘ . sh, OZ ox ] 5 5 5 be Sg 
= . ‘ . oe ‘ Terenas ereneneneee . 
. oir 


ord at 





brown a 


} 


Havana 


wna 


w 
1 yellow 
y and whiz 





Pernum&Par -aiba, “white 
brown and yellow...... 2 
For.Mus.low ne grocy 34 
DIFOWN ..c.ccc0 eseecees US 
Rerinep—For consumption 
8 to 10 Lb LOaved..ccccccosce 64 
12 to 14 1b loaves 
Titlers, 22 to 24 1D ceccee 
Lumps, 45 1D ccoccesceseeses 
Wet crushed 
Pieces 
Bastards 
Trea 
For export, free on board 
rurkey loav Lto4l1b 
6 lb loaves we ae senses 
1D 1b dO, oes 
l4lb do 





53 










So errr ori) 





oS 


3 
9 


203 
brown c ayed 


a 
6 
0 


ob 


ocoeww 


12 


ecocoe. 


white 
1583 pot 
equal to brown, 138 9d; molasses, 4s 4d 


s 
39 
85 
3T 
34 


39 
3s 
36 
31 














Co! nm mba te af.. a 








Hav: 





SSeS 
1 



































chy leaf 
- ee 


eat 





Ci 24, bai Yar y 


See 


Eny 
t 


WoOol—Encuisa. —P¢ 
Fleeces § 

Half-bred 

Kent fleece 

. Dwn ewes wthrs 

Lal icest ter 

Sorts—Cl 


5aXO 


and 


Prussian 


reig 


} 
< 


Super 
Combing —Wethr mat 


P 


Common, 
TTog 
Pickh 


L 


Samusie 


Cc 


Seville. 
rerman, 


y 


: .percwt 
Spirits, wit ith out cKs 
rn « with casks 44 
pack 
£15 
18 
7 
lj 
16: 
19 
18 
16 


Down hog 
WORS evesis 


0 

thing, “pickick 
*rime and picklock 
hoice 


CeCe eee eeeceee 






ee 


icklock 


wenn tereeeees 





mit tching 
ck matching 19 
do 16 


0 
Foaniox—duty free.—Per lb 
Spenish:— 


uper 17 


eonesa, R’s,F nas 






aceres 
ia.. 


oocoo 


o 
&ooocoo 


ist & 2d Elect 
So: rima .. 
= unda 
tertia 


eee 


. 


—-NWOhROCSOSOCO 


~ hohe ww 


— ian and V.D. 


L ambs .. 
Locks and P ieces.. sess 
Gres aS8 ... oo 





( 


Lamt 
Locks an 
(rrease 
Wine duty 5s6d per gal 
Port eos 
Claret 
Sherry 
Madeira 


or 


C ym bin ound Clothing 
Lambs 
Locks and Piece s. 
Grease. 
Skin and Sr nipe . 
Cape—Average flocks. 


nbing and ee 






a= OCCOm= 
~ 

ree 

_— 8 BO 


oo 





bing and¢ hing 


Pieces 


Comer ee 


£ 


eoeoenes PED Pipe 35 
eons thd 15 
sw Dutt 23 
+ cererecereespipe 44 


BSS 2h 2 on em ww 








cocococeo ooo cops ere” 


coco 


19 


—_ - 
eosooco 


—hOnOCoCOoOSCSo 


@o— Pwo 
xo o 
Neen eee 


— 
Comet anm 


re 


~~ 


eococoe tv 


SS 





mow 


> 


oe 
sd 


ace 


Pe at 


ne eae at eee SS ea Se I NY 


Sener ee 


So eee SS LeR ree 


a ge ee er Sha TNA aaa ee 


; 
: 
’ 











1448 


ative Imports, 


Of compar: 





Exports, and Hor 














oot 
i 


THE ECONOMIST. 


STATEMENT 





! from Jan. | to Dec. 20, 1855-6, showing the Stock on hand on Dec, 20 in each 


F¢ 





articles d 
sumption. 





BS Of those 


| 
| 
| 
| 
| 





| East and West Indian Produce, &c. 









R THE PORT OF LONDON. 


SUGAR. 


Duty paid. 
























































I.u ported S 
n. 1855 1856 1855 1856 1855 1856 
tons tons tons tons tons t 
ilissen-ss o< 88753 §3208 92271 90476 13342 6064 
lia. 3139 40696 33766 33191 617 11698 
38542 51736 38532 40465 687 8208 
oe 57243 35699 
155434 175640 221812 199831 26389 25970 
Exported. 
116)2 5499 3904 600 4518 
94326 5761 6778 761 S183 
8573 186 333 2683 13¢ 
787 982 2987 I 18 
52381 12428 14952 2435 828 
( SUGARS, 
vado Sugar, exclusive of the duties. 
s ad 
rica 27 103 recwt 
} iene _— is . 33 7% 
i] — — Indies a7 4h - 
1| T t ‘ Dew 7 4 
MOLASSES. 
t= | Duty 5 p 
|| West India 7 6640 | 7466 54 1 
1 RUM. 
| Im ] livered to Vat.|Home Consumpt Stoc 
| i me is ion “ - 
/ 18 856 1855 1856 1855 185¢ Is 1856 
i g cals gals gals gals gals 
}| West! 4207 3457350, 25442 618 150489 19520, 17523 
|| East India 49572 7001 7 25¢ 159 14332 1524 
|| Foreign 17 34128 $ 904 12195. 1239 $27 
\) ; 
| Vatted .... 402 2039 5 5R05 7222 SOGS 16 
‘} a jm oma - — 
j 4 75 42 4738345 171013 f 40. 2267 2247 
‘ jA—Cwts 
|| B. Pia ‘ 2 S388 | 34342 | 27988 7 
| Foreign 7 12 15096 18 2¢42 693 
i as 2 net! diineanenuminanes Lanai a = aa " 
i 87 { 8 23484 3532 0 7s 
i} I Cwrs 
‘ 
i 7752 8342 ‘ 64) 1482s 7478 su 70 
i 272477 2 3 | 86518 | 83825 | 20208 200832 | 11787 8% 
> 4 257% ‘ 85489 °169]1 208 née 
Mocha...... ] 7 1480 2 4723 1937 ! 
|| Foreign E. I 1407 13649 259 41 11944 10727 77 
|| Malabar... 29 691 36 1087 ] i‘ 
{| St. Doming: . 481 8 3 7 V2 5 
i Hav.&P.Ri 6592 4395 75 6264 64 2905 2544 
|| Brazil......| 89788 | 100118 36798 50354 | 4812 48757 34294 4343 
|| American .. ) 4 199 3 38 i4 2 
jj Total Fren 12288 141274 43256 57187 } 9514 5 
j Grand Total; 413114 + 399069 | 134 142675 304151 | 287083 | 178764 
| t s fons s “ > & s 
|| RICE .... 70 | 97994 | 1276 5302 | 21764 | 31597 | 14 
283 4 23 278 4 
1494 4204 87 i 124 14 4 
gs pkes 2 s kes 
2021 . $ 7 ! 7 7 
i 23 244 9 7 
j 7494 ] 2 8 4 2 if 
\ a 238 s 7 7 9 
8s bacs t rs t ce t rs ag 
pIMENT 0 sts 727 sa 639 4467 C4 7 
i Raw Materiais, Dyestuffs, &c. 
»* s s 5 Ss Ss t sS 3s s s T 
COCHNEAL 870 127 1368 552 g 
; C ts ( es c sts | chests 
}; LAC DYE ° 4 148 $163 3638 % 
i tons t s s tons tons ns a tons 
LOGWOOD 6281 7324 81 10 3 { 
FUSTIC.. 1K21 2 244 1087 ) 
INDIGO 
i= 
sts | chests s | chests chests | chests sts 5 
East India 22380 023 ° ee 3003' 25538 731 2022 
= " = sadiasiiaiiiobaiasii eae oe aa 
serons ser s sé s serons sé s serons ser s ns 
Spanis 22 ‘ 2687 : 1277 74 
SALTPETI 
3 t Ons Lions 3 ons is 
7852 ‘ ee ° 7§ 16421 4155 2538 
diteieeeiaihamenensaiinentte bum gpnttincantitimiamiendneas | accsteamemen ‘ sonctitsiones henemceneecinteat 
1996 4393 : 418 44 11 
i . 
i] | bales Dales 41es baies va es Dales I es Lies 
j — can ..| 473 | 528 371 650 s 
i} Bragi; ... 206 2 a J 66 179 4 
| Bast Inui 93781 | 82970 od os 95638 89555 4252 


Livrpowl, | 
kinds... ..{2016550 |°268861 


Tctal ....j2111016 |2352380 





260500 |20352 


— 





O 2084540 














260500 [2131355 |2174924 














316880 


362975 








ne Consumption of the following articles» 
vear. 


y free, the deliveries for Exportation areincluded under the 


355790 








es 





' Dec. 27, 1856. 





Che Ratlwav Montt 


RAILWAY CALLS 
An 


FOR DECEMBER. 


int per Share, 


A 








0 es 


oe A, ; 
Date 4 y Number 
e ai Call. of Shares. Amount, 
€sa £sa £ 
( tr P I i L eee 1S ) een ~~ PP we 100 .. 40,000 
t ” ) 0 0. «a I 00. .. 550,000 
7 ew. 2 O48 ~w 20,000... 50 000 
be 1 :@ @ 250,000 - 250,000 
ooo 4 1 o ¢ « 27,500 ... 27,500 
a | 1 D9 O ses $3,000 .. 4,350 
O 0 «we 20,259 .. 81,088 
ah 410 O oes 52,562 ...236,599 
oe : a 8 @ Bra 5,000 .. 10,000 
19 O ... 237,000 .. 225,150 
an 310 © cco 2,000 .. 5,000 
oe ose 0 0 we 60,000 -- 120,000 
i » Vv 78,750 8,437 
. iat s -s 7 0 0 18,000 .. 36,900 
» Shares - 200 6,000 se. 12,009 
j tion, Pre- 
e, 18 . B be De <a 00 .. 1,50 
gud cacescanenesasdéosubes wcccscccese 1,749,508 


EPITOME OF 





RAILWAY NE 


Birmingham branch of the Great \ 
upon-Avon. They state thé 
the district, ar that 


1 


ita v 


therefore 


assent of th rity of the ] 
f shares has subscribed ( 
connect Stratford with Birming 


Stratford trade being transacted w 


HULL AND HoORNSEA.—-It is int 
session Tor powers to constr ri wa 
Hull, and eding thence by J 
Skirlaugh, Kiston, Catwick, ~ 
} 
pat 0 i ‘ l coa L 
construction is estimated to cost 5,( 


n the first insta 
mopany to add another 


will be laid down 





TRA RetcrNs.—The traffic 
dom published for the week endi: 


iding week of 1855 t 

f the eight 
polis amounted for the week end 
ponding week of last year to 17 
ithe Great Northe1 t 


the correspo 
The gross receipt 
ase o! 


o,oLD, 
Counties : 97/ on the Great We 





; : } 
Weatern ; 166/ on the Lor n 
Brighton nd South C t 1 
above 252/. The receipts on 
» 234.1437, and for the cor 
an increase of ¥,474/, from whi 
tropolitan li leavis 
corresponding week of 1&5. 
LYONS \ rail Ly is propos l¢ 
view toavand deep 


vradients, With a 


+ + + 


es anew system of cal 





y f yvorking 1 \ bre c pla 
a thir , } hen the train + 
s yt et t 
with great force t moment the i 
that a1 r of trials of the pl 
, } 
Chaussees, and that they sanctioné 


The Lyons journals state that the share 


capital to execute the line were 
WESTERN OF FRANCE.—The w 











Lisieux to H r aré pushed 
that bet“een the former place and Px 
Pont l’Eveqr to Hon t 

St Laurent to La Touq 

by the Mi t f Public V 


et 
la ©hunia, 


} 


cally 
i of a line of 
Railway at Hatt 

ne can be const 

to prove re 


oterested are ¢ 


ne object of the pr 
ccount of a gre 
es in Birminghai 


nded to apply to Parliament next 


mmencing near t} 
Sutton, Swine, 


horne, to Hornsea, a watering 


| be 15 miles in 


ile. Only asi 


land will be purchased to en- 


1 necessary. 

of railways in tl 
} amounted to 3! 
{/, showing an incr 







t d for the corre- 

‘ of 2527. The de- 
,ount i tl London 
to 1937; total, 


on the Lond 
nd 1.613! 


g 
to 1 


as com 


tructed near Lyons, on steep 

and embankment r tu 
nvented by M. Bourget, civil 

d under the carriage ho!ds on to 
when in motion the part which 
mward movement 5 

aes TO go forward. J ~ ted 
made by the Couneil of the Ponts 
1 the employment of the system. 


d in three days. 


munerative. 


on the 


ing 


lecrease 


s issued for raising the 1 


ndeavouring to 


ilway from the 


n to Stratford- 
ructed through 
The 


ers has been obtained, and a number 


8 to 
at deal of the 
n. 


yposed line 


1e N« rthbi idge, 
Benningholme, 


length, and its 


wile line of rails 


e United King- 
17, 5862, and for 
ease of {,222/, 
ini in the metro- 





Eastern 
and North 

London, 
the de CY@ase ¢ 
dom amvuunted 


on 


1.669’, shown 


on the 


pared with 


n the section of railw from 
n with great activity, part arly 
mt ’Eveque. On the portion from 


the tunnel from 
h tl urveys, have 


he mail from Con 
railway between \ 








the \ 


bee n a} nrove l 
ntir fur- 
arba a Ruts- 


RAILWAY AND MINING SHARE MARKET. 





LONDON, 

Monpay, Dec. 22.—The ra was unfavourably influenced 
by sales. The operations wer ive, and prices generally closed 

ver English and foreign wer2 principally affected, but Indian descrip- 
tions presented firmness. Joint stock bank and miscellaneous securities 
experienced little fluctuation. T: actions took place in Canada Land at 
130 and 128, and the final iotation was 127 to 130. 

'vESDAY, Dec. 23.—The railway market was quiet to-day wit] ny 

eat alteration in prices. Fe at s took place in foreign and Indian, 
but quotat res j int stock bank and mi+ce eous 









ecurities exhibitec 
and closed 128 to 1 
WEDNESDAY, Dec. 24. 
and purchases subsequently produced a 
French were also better. In Canad 
and the final quotation was 129 to 132. 
THURSDAY, Dec. 25.—Close holiday. 
Fripay, Dec. 26.—Te 








Land were dealt in 


The railway market opened with ste 


rise of from Fs to 


at 130 and 129, 


mess, 


15s per share. 


Land transactions took place at 130, 


railway share market continues very inactive 


but in several instance s a slight improvement in prices has taken place. 


——— 





the 


| 


| 
j 


| 


| 
| 


a 


Sl ee 














Dec. 27, 1856.) 








No, ot = 
shares v 
a — 
g4543) 124 


55500 2 
45000 
31000) 274 
1000 22 


Stock 100 
Stock 100 
Stock 100 
3201 50 
15300, 50 
Stock | 100 
Stock! 20 
Stock 100 
Stock 100 
3554, 25 
Stock |100 
Stock! 100 
Stock 
Stock / 100 
Stock |100 
Stock 100 
Stock |100 
18000, 50 
18000 164 
24000 164 
Stock 100 
§9545| 3 
111900! 114 
Stock | 100 
Stock | 100 
20259) 20 
52562) 10 
244000) 124 
Stock 100 
6700; 25 
4240) 25 
Stock 100 
100000 10 


Stock | 100 
Stock | 100 


20000) 50 
22220, 25 
Stock 100 
60000, 50 


Stock 100 


Stock! 100 
90036) 25 
64115, 25 
25601) 50 
Stock|100 
Stock'100 
5000) 10 


168500) 20 
Stock! 100 
Stock/100 
Stock |100 
Stock| 100 
Steck! 100 

2000) 50 
Stock !100 
Stock |100 





The ‘€ror 1omist 


x =. OR DINARY SHA 











oe 20 
o | 20 
7500! 20 


Capital 
and 
Loan, 


700,000 
3,150,000 
4,297,600 
8,859,400 
4,389,332 

320,000 


1,270,666 | 
670,000 | 
730,000 | 


355,600 
866,599 
1,706,000 


5,272,945 | 


20,436,299 
4,237,833 
7,320,500 

12,000,000 
1,407,440 
4,922,910 


| 23,000,000 


14,477,022 
2,500,000 
37,354,620 
1,900,933 
500,000 
7,800,000 
10,952,742 
9,309,532 
20,600,000 
2,596,666 
854,660 
2,000,000 
1,400 000 
4,350,000 
2,900,000 
1,628,000 
13,500,000 
2,583,166 
4,564,439 
2,200,000 
1,134,600 | 


Amount 


expended | 
| per mile. 


per last 
Report. 


£ 


604,600 | 


2,411,219 
3,645,387 
8,269,990 
4,338,909 

317,643 
1,014,976 

531,303 


| 


536,000 | 


307,981 


786,000 | 


1,641,100 
5,092,704 
17, 682,509 
3,833,597 
4,500,654 
11,668,938 
625,312 
4,225,591 
22.526, 878 
12,966,662 


2,271,022 | 


32,477,089 
1.707.569 
450,000 
7,784,661 


9,153,252 | 


8,743,626 
19,802,357 
2,420,032 
649,787 
1,903,223 
1,318,721 
3,747,792 


2,835,870 | 


1,689,309 
13,240,000 
2,101,563 
4,221,891 
| 2,142,125 
1,130,109 


23,017,593 120,903,879 | 


| 


Average 
cost 


£ 
15,911 
73,067 
Bi,157 
43,298 
46,152 
15,882 
16,238 
88,550 
33,560 
18,388 
24,355 
24,134 
39,786 
42,202 
41,22 
24,593 
41,586 
15,633 
20,815 
57, 761 
45,370 
25,233 
50,UR4 
296,453 
16,712 
42,308 
33,776 
61,132 
39,764 
13,672 
12,408 
24,400 
146,523 
39,870 
24,659 
34,476 





22,084 


28.252 


29,735 


RES AND | London. 











STOCKS ca 
= Name of Co: 7. Fr 
9; Ambergate, &c... ee a3 43 
- . Birmingham & St \ y } ew 
i Birkenhead, &c., Junction) 20$),, 
274 Do, Cheshire & Birknha,) 184 
po Do. BOvcncrs DAR) 600s 
199 |Bristol and Exeter 9 | 98 
199 (Caledonian 684, 634 
100 Chesterand Ho 39 | 383 
59 |Corkand Band e- e- a 
45 }Dublin and Belfast Ju OD) ...-]. 
190 |East Anglian...... 194) 194 
9) |Eastern Counties...... 9% 94 
190 |Eastern Union, ciass A . 40 | 38 
100 — class B seeee 23 260 
ee New Aa.lateE.U.Thirds|....|... 
100 |East Lancashire ‘ 91 | 92 
199 |Edinburgh and Glasgow 55 |... 
100 |Edinb., Perth, and Dundee) 363) 364 
Great Northern ....-...| 884) 904 
} _ A stock 75 76 
sad 1 - B stock..'125 |... 
100 |GtSouthern and West. (1.)1}2 |112 
100 |Great Western ........+++- 694 693 
i900 | — Stour Valley Guar.. 65 ‘ 
50 |Lancaster and Carlisie ....| 74 
144) — Thirds......seeereeees 912)... 
12 — New Thirds . . 184 173 
100 Lancashire and Yorkshire..| 97 | 974 
— West Riding Union....).... a 
114/London and Blackwall ....| 7 64 
100 |London, Bright n, and S. C.)11228 112 
190 |Londen and North-Western! 1053) 106 
16 | — Fifths ...0..cecececeee| 2) | 208 
10 — 10/ Shares M. & B.(C) 104 eees 
23; — Eighths ... .... coe} Ugl 
100 |London and South We astern 107 \i07, 
95 \Londonderry and Coleraine ....|.... 
95 |Londonderry & Enniskillen ....)... 
100 |Manchester, Sheffield,&Lin.| 34 |.... 
1 |Metropolitan.... o-ee} coos 
100 |Midland ......... 82 824 
1100 | — Birmingham and i Derby 55 | 54 
50 |Midland Great Western Oh also 
95 |Newport and Llereford ....| i144) 14 
“ Norfolk snot he oo) 52 | Sud 
Northern Counties U } Sl eoes 
100 North British ‘ oes a 40 
100 North«Eastern—Berwick R44 84 
238, — Extension ..........+. 194 193 
164; = G.N. E. Purchase 144 ne 
a am AEE ns ne 50. 4000480908 iS} ‘Tag 
100 | — York 00 cece coos ftOenl OO 
100 |North Lendon ............| 99 7 
10 jNth and South-West. June.) 11 |.... 
174, North Staffordshire ......) 12g, 124 
100 |Oxford, Wor'ste  & Wols 294) 284 
100 (Scott ish Ce ntral . 108 ia 
100 |Scottish N.EastnaAberdnStk 28 _ 
100 | — Scottish Midland Stock.| 72 |.. 
100 ‘Shropshire Union..........| 49 ah 
50 |South Devon cecccee| 1BQ).. 06 
100 |South-Eastern ............| 789) 73% 
100 |South Wales.............. aif R2 
15 |South Yorksh. & RiverDun' 12 
5 Do. ite nreé tonne D tenes 
20 'Vale of Neath Sin6 as 





_ THE ECONON LIST. 
























5 Railway 
verre care 
TH IEST PRICES OF THF DAY ARE GIVEN. 
No. of 2S\a= London. 
share +. Name of C ny. ies 
“Sis Gy ak 
12500, 20 | 20 Waterford and Kilkenny 
15000) At © |Waterford and Limeric ee 
16065} 20 | 20 |West Cornwall.. .. 2.00 0+ eelse ce 2 
5538| 20 © |Weat London ....cccccces 
LINES LE SED 
AT | 'IXE D REN TALS. 
Stock'100 |100 Buc kir msl 
Stock/100 |100 'Cly ee 
Stock'100 |100 E. Lincolns . 124 
10160 25 295 ‘Gloucester & Dean 
8000 50 | 50 |Hull and Selby 109 
8000 25 | 25 | — Halves 
8000 124 124 — (Quarters = . 
43077; 12%! 124 London and Greenwich,....) 13 
11136) 20 | 20 | — Preference ......00--| Q3ai.... 
Stock'100 |100 |London, iry, & Southend 414 {11 
82500 45 54\ Manchester, Buxtn, & Mtlock 24 
Stock|100 |100 |Midland Bradford ........! 93 Se 
16862) 50 | 50 |Northern & Eastern, 5 p ct. 58 
Stock!100 | 100 |Royston, Hitchin, and 
TGR cccncce oe occ  fSS 
78 750 12 10#'South Staffordshire....... 9} 
2186 25 | 25 |Wear Valley, guar. 6 pret. 34 in 
Stock!100 |100 | Wilts and Somerset 9] 
PREFER ENCE. SHARES 
Stock'100 |100 | Bristol & Exeter, 4 percent 
Stock!100 |100 |Caledor ian 107,43 r cent. }¢ 
15 | 15 |Chester and Holyhead, 55pce ..../1123 
7680) 64 64 Cork and Bandon, 5} p cent h PR 
18094, 64! 64 Dunde,Perth,&AberdnJd unc O4 
e 10 2 \East Anglian, Class Dhah ee cclacce 
Stock|/100 |100 | — Class B,» per eent..... 113 2 
Stock!109 |100 | — Class C,7 per cent. . BGO: Too. 
144000' 6%) 6 Eastern Counties Extension 
5 per cent., No 1........| 74) 7 
144000, 6% 6%| — No.2 ....-. cteevedt 2%: 
Stock; 10 | 10 | — New 6 per cent. 124). 
15000) 20 | 20 - astern Union, gr 6 pr cent. ec ests 
Stock/100 |100 |Edin., Prth, & Dunde, 4 pret.| 764 
Stock) 100 |100 |Great Northern, 5 per cent..119 
Stock|100 |100 | — 5 per cent. Redeemable 
at 10 per cent. pm....../111 
Stock 100 |}100 _ 43 per cent do —— ee 
Stock 100 |100 Great Southern & Western 
(Ireland) ... 
19000) 50 6 GIw en Hints: x yx 
Stock 100 |100 )Gt Western, red. 44 pr ct.. 
Stock' 100 }100 | — con. Aer r cent “se 
Stock|100 |100 | — irred, 4 per cent. ...... SB | cece 
43120) 20 6 |Lneshire and Yrkshire, F 20/ ....).... 
Stock 100 |100 — 6 PEF CONE. 0 00 00 00 v0 0) 13D jccorce 
Stock 100 |100 |London and Brighto: 1, New, 

j guar. 6 per cent. ......../142 
Stock|100 |100 |London and S.W.,late Thirds 159 
10310, 124) All |L'derry « Coleraine haives .... 

7540 i2e All |L’derry & Enniskillen halves 
Stock|100 100 |Manchester, Sheffield, and 
LARGEST cc ce ve 0 00 cose ee} ce 120 
172300, 6 GO! — GE. cc cccecceocccosces| 8 ° 
Stock|100 |100 MidinéConsolidated,6 pesStk ....) . . 
— Bristol and Birm, 6 p c..139 1383 
Stock|100 |100 | — 44 per cent. pref -. 100 
Stock,/100 }100 |Norfolk Extension, 5 p cent)... ° 
Stock 100 (100 Ni rt th Br ritish 104 


Dividend per cent. 


per annum 











on paid-up capital. Name of Railways. > ama | Merchandise, = Same 
’ ; Passengers, Total . 
are . ending. | \ orcels, &c minerals, Reauutn~*t week 
1853 , 1854 | 1855 | 1856 Parcels, SO: | cattle, ke. | “OR | 1008 
meee aimee sania sidaieae ; 
£ £ £ £ 1856 £ s ad £ s ad a4 «0 4{<2@ 

38 43 4 4 Belfast and Ballymena.. eo Dec 2 74 4 8 552 9 ©O/ 1126138 8/| 829 
24 lj 1 23 Birkenhd, Lancash, & Chesh. Bh) ces és 0] 40d 0s co akbar a) Oe 
43 4 4 44 Bristol and Exeter 3460 17 6 | 2118 1 3} 5578 19 9 6220) 
2 e aS l Caledonian 2 i4, 3572 7 8 | 8855 1) 8 )11927 19 41] 10153 
. ° Chester and Holyhead.. ee 2 afees ooee| 4458 0 0] 4356 
‘ Ri hae os Cork and Bandon ¥ “ 2 . ‘ ° 261 0 0} 280) 
663 4 4} 4} Dublin and Drogheda .. oe 2t be 1552 19 11 1739 
11 > 10 8 | Dublin and Kingstown.. v 2 1924 0 0| 962) 
on es | ow Dublin and Wicklow . 5 ee decocences| ee ® 863) 
34 33 34 + Dundee and Arbroath .. ee 21, 245 11 3 288 15 4 534 6 7| 454 
Je wo fe 13 Dundee, Perth, & Aberdeen 2 23 3 8 648 7 2 930 15 10} 920 
ee ee East Angliar ae +» |Nov 3 862 0 0} 840 

ie: ‘i 33 Edinburgh . Pert h, and Dundee |Dec 21).......-.0e0) 0.00 eoeee) 5186 5 7] FGS 
3 2 a 2 | E. Counties, Norfk, & E. Union | 7, 8825 0 0 !.760 9 © (20585 O 0} 20083 
3} 3 34 4 East Laneasiiire .. = 2/2540 16 0}! 401519 2) 6556 15 2] 5529 
3h 3 3 ‘ Glasgow, South-Western ‘ ssa dene 6161 0 0] 5662 
73gs 4 4 34 Gt Northern & East Lincolnsh. Base esee-- 26235 0 O | 25075 
aa a l Deg Great North of Scotland ° 13. 469 15 1 ( 14 2 1105 10 1 83° 
44 4a 6 Great Southern & Western (I. ) Q0' 4108 1 | 2150 1 3 5 a 6748 
4 3 2 23 Great Western aa 2 . 4 | 30309 
3} 3} | i ‘d Lancashire and Yorkshire 21 — 0 | 20633 
84 ig 7 72 Lancaster and Carlisie.. as a anual ame ee 0 5253 
5 ) 5 5 London & North-Western, &c. £1/28684 0 0 [51911 Oo ¢ 0 | 64995 
578 684s | 63s 535s | London and Blackwall 21 1123 16 § 8315 4 0 109 
6 6 6 London, Tilbury, & Southd E3 x i4. 651 O O 140 0 O 0 692 
F fd 5 5 London, Brighton, & §S. Coast sick ecto emnees 00 7 | 12705 
4} t 5 rd London and South-Western 2 ; casbn 00. 6608's 0 | 16597 
os 243 } 04 0 Man., Sheffid, and L'neoinshire 2 oh: 0d ease we caneesh Se 9519 
34 af 3 4 | Midland, Bristol, and Birm. lL: - 23501 0 0} 28010 
5 5 5 is Midland Gt Western (Irish) 21 ing Sl sca ne epee 3909 4 10 2477) 
3} 4} 6 64 | Monklands ee 13,. coccleoccccccccoe| 1402 18 10 1209 
5 5 5 Newcastle and Carlisle. Nov 29 ‘ coesee) S601 0 0 3514 
44 4 44 North London Dee 2i ee cooece| S143 1A AL 1666 
° oe oe os Oxford, Worcester and Ww wrt! n, 7 1443 0 0! 2893 0 0} 3836 O O 3470 
- - ee + | Scottish North Eastern 13 — «-| 3052 0 O; 812 
} 3 2% | 3 Shrewsbury and Chester on Shee cvececce| 2686 0. 0} S207 
668s otds 3g | 639s | South-Eastern .. ee ee Bie cence cece|socceecceeee/s0009 O 0 | 15305) 
22s 263 | 24s | 28s South Devon = . a 14) 1587 0 5 500 0 0} 2087 0 5 2421 
24 % | 3 34 | South Wales .. ee os BU cccccvecsse |soces conece| 1002 4 0 | GBD) 
3 4 | 24 | 14 | Sth. Yorkshire, Don., & Goole ;Nov 30 o eee eel sevecsccncce| 26038 0 @} 3170) 
7 7 4 i. © Taff Vale .. ee oe ce [DOC 2Opawicc cece cect|.cccccce cvs} 1453 18 4 3775) 
3 af 3g | 3% | North-Eastern .. ee ee 13 seseeeceeece ce eeeceee ee (28892 0 0 28746) 

5 | ; 








Week 





























~ 
~ 


and Min ing Share Lis 


1449 


t- 


wie 











oo 
» = Lond 
No 0 = S a N ne fC oe 
4242 Tr.) F. 
“ ——_—_—_—_ eee 
Stock 1 ) North-I n—Berwick, 4 | 
per cent. pref... .....+] 94 fecece 
143395) 17 8%; = - - Tf} .0 00 
60872! 25 | 10 | — York, H. and §. purcha) 10 |... 
58500, 20 | 20 |North Staffordshire........).-..lecee 
Steck 100 |100 |Oxford, Wor’ster, & Wolvn, 
© POT CENT. 2. oe ee ve we oe oe LOB foce oe 
1781< 8h 82) Scottish Central, New Pref éo-¢e 
Stock!100 |1 ScottishN.Eastern Aberdeen 
guaranteed 6 per cent 116 ae 
— >cent Fref. Stock..|110 |... 


3 
Stock!100 (100 





— er cent Pref. Stock.|....)...- 
20000 25 | 25 iSouth Devo ee eee 
Stock|190 |100 |S. Eastern 44 per cent. pref.|105 |... 
Stock/100 |100 |S. Yorkshire, 4 pr ct guar.|...-|..¢. 


FOREIGN RAILWAYS. 


50000 «+10 10 


Antwerp and R 


























tte 


rdam 








coem 
42500 Belgian Eastern Junction.. 14 ao ee 
82939 20 | 12 |Dutch Rhenish..........0+) 12g) .0 ee 
250000 20 | 20 |Eastern of France 32g ++ ee 
250000 20 19 — New... 29 |.cee 
Stock 100 |100 |East Indian cect ce cooe [hh Jocece 
110000 20 | 15 | — C share ee oo 174) 0 os 
100000; 20 | 20 ‘Great cashes "Pe ninsular 228) oe we 
100000! 20 | 16 |'Gt Luxembourg Constituted { 
shares 54 St 
13312) 4 4 — QObdligations . os ee 
25000 2 20 |Madras, guar. 44 per cent.. 204 "4 
26595, 20 | 20 [Namur & Liege (with int)..|... 7 
400000 If i6 |Northern of France 37 oes 
255000} 20 | 20 |Paris and Lyons ° 544) 543 
300000 20 | 20 |Parisand Orleans., BS lee cc 
27000 20 | 20 |Royal Danish ons qoeneses! ae lena 
83334) 5 5 {Royal Swedish .......... 13].. « 
31000 20 | 20 |Sambre and Meuse ces| Dbleoces 
10 | 10 — 54 per cent. Pref....... ; a 
26757, 8% 8% West Flanders ............ 47 «+20 
300000 20 | 20 | Western & N.-W. of France! 34 iv ee 
MINES. 
100000) 10s! 10s'*Anglo-Californian .. modienen 
20000; 20 | 7 |\*Australian oo cccccce| Bicece 
20000; 20 | 14 {*British Irom... .. .. se. see 8 lees 
10000) 35 | 264'"Brazil. Imp(issuedatSipm)| 2 |.... 
6000 30 3 — Cocaes and Cuiaba .... 4 | eee 
11000 20 | 15 | — St Jk Del Rey ......| 17 | 153 
12000 40 | 40 C sure Copper *- 5D jeece 
19000) .. 16 \Copiapo .... oe 15 ° 
350000'100 |100 *Copp er Miners of 35 {esee 
8000, 25 | 25 | — Pref. 7§ per ce 27 les 
20000) 20 | 20 (General ....cccccecceces : ee 
11000' 44) 4}'Great Polgooth..........+. BD) ccoee 
100000 1 | Liberty ee ee efee ce 
5051; 60 | 59 |Mexican & Sc ath Amer STICAN | .. ee jecce 
200000' 1 1 |Nouveau Monde .......... - 
150000) 5 1 |Port Philip .. 2.00 cccs cece ecleece 
10000 50 | 50 |*Rhymney Iron ..........| 25 [ewes 
10000) 15 | 15 '*— New D Yesed 
7000 30 | 15% Santiago de Cuba cocctece| Belov 
50000, 1 } (South Australian..........)ssee)seee 
ee l 1 | — Scrip ...... esleece 
6000, 10 | 9 {Tin Croft cctcecccee| Gtleneg 
43174 asd 284'*United Mexican. 4 lence 
100000 1 | West Mariposa. 2} .26 


OFFICIAL RAILWAY TRAFFIC RETURNS. 


RECEIPTS. 





























Traffic 
per 
mile 
per 
week. 


£ 
17 
79 
47 
63 
47 


24 
170 
29 
33 
3c 
13 
40 
49 
70 
34 
9% 
20 
30 
69 
78 
59 
95 
201 
26 
68 


j0 


24 
27 
46 
290 
41 
26 
54 
51 
36 
41 
24 
103 
4l 


*Trans’ble. by ste amp. ed « tee 














Miles 
open in 
1856 | 1855 
65 | 37 
1 33 | 8 
117 117 
| 1914 | 1918 
94 94 
20 | 20 
63 63 
6 We. 
| 344 }22 
|; 16 | 
31 31 
68 68 
128 128 
417 417 
93 | 89 
183 | 171 
283 | 283 
533 | 41 
| 203 | 203 
388 360 
286} — 

90 
| 637 ass 
6a | 58 
30 23 
} 183% | 181 
271 | 255 
1734 | 167 
505 498 
| 177 | 196 
52 | «2 
was 
9}; 9 
4 94 
115 115 
49 49 
2702 | 290 
58 5S 
| I71@ | 1623 
} 108 7 
' 40 40 
7034 7023 




















































































—————— 










a 


SL SARTRE SI 


BE 


ER PSS. 











RATES OF POSTAGE. 

The following is a revised list of the rates of postage 
commencing with the first proximo :-— 

a Signifies that the postage must be paid in advance. 


b Denotes that the rate includes British and Foreign 
postage combined. 


Under Under 
20Z t ey 4 
sd s d 


Aden and Arabia, via Marseilies .....-000. 60 11 1 
— via Southamptor....0.) eos ote b0 
Africa, West Coast. by packet... 
Alexandria, via Marseilles ..... 
— Via Southampton oeo-rere 
A Zeria 20. .cerseceecscesseeerer ee 











ASCENSION -oe.00002--> ° 
Australia, So uth, a tect tp acket .... 
— private Shipserees-o+eeeeeee 
— Victoria ...-00. 00+. 
_ — private ship. eoee 
— West, direct packet ..... 
— privateship..... 


: 

. 

. 

' 

. 

i 

Sal 

cS 
IDADBHAOCSCHAs 





: 
i 
: 
t 
>> 
oS 
Aa 


























Austria, via Belgium.. 60 8 
— via France .«... 1 6 
Azores, via Portugal ++... _ a 9 
— by Brazil packet . eee a1 10 
Baden, via France .-...00 b0 6 te 
— via Be! esses 08 
Barbadoes..... a 0 6 
Bavaria, via France . i 1 0 
— via Belgium ... ce) 
Belgium .. soe — = seeeenes - 60 6 OO 8 
Belgrade, via Belgium .... cos ad 8 
— via France ov. 61 1 2 2 
Berbice.......eccesses :* we 0 6 
Berea coc ccccepcce 000 cov cnscce ceccsses — bo 6 
Borneo, via Marseilles and India ......... a1 3 1 8 
— via el and India.. eo a0 10 
BeED + ons cccctabdndsdece cosets ccngeguacccoccees ces ene el oO 
Bremen, via Belgium | _ m mia tes be 60 8 
— VIA FLAnce oe oo. ceccsceesese sve 60 6 10 
Bucharest, via Belgium... i ad 8 
— via France ... ‘abl 7 Te? 
Buenos Ayres ...-00.02--+0 . cl 0 
Cadiz, via Southampton > ae a2 2 
— via France ......+.- - a0 10 1 3 
California and Oregon .. a2 4 
— via United States am b1 23 
Cape of Good Fyre - ar) al 0 
SNEED setntereiahanaite i ae 0 8 
— via Halifax, or ‘Canada packet eee one 60 6 
— United States pckt 2... seccscccoses ee | 
Ceylon, via Marseilles ....... » 50 11 ove 
— via Southampton .. ose bo 6 
ST dtestetinenentistnaaiehnaseusehde een’ “oes a2 0 
China, via Marseilles (Hong Kon; 1g g excp )a0 9 1 
— Via Scuthampton ..cccccorccccccesces cee aod 6 
Constantinople, via Belgium . pret? | aes 61 1 
== WIR FAne ... n.ccrscoveesecccsesceeees, 850 6 1 0 


— via Marseilles by French packeta+0 6 1 0 
— by British packet ....ccccsscceere @l 4 51 9 
Costa Rica 










Os one wee cee ces eee ee 





RID sneiaoconntabodiiedansenese cqnperepeqepees eco a2. 3 
— via United States .. oes al 2 
OB ods ceduseccccces évces coco ove al 56 
Dardanelles, via Belgium .. bee al 1} 
DQM erar a o.e... ese dor ces cee ceses eessece 808 60 6 
Denmark, via Belgium... soe «= 60:«108 
— viaFrance ...... bo 9 1 6 
Dominica see..+00. sce se eee eco b0 6 
Ecuador......... aidgedibes ese a2 0 
Egypt, via Marselites. dectessecresescese. ZOO 6 1 0 




















+ via Sputitampton ow a0 6 
— via Belgium ..... oe 41 0 
BERND oe. cepepapeqpege ab0 4 0 8 
Galatz, via Bélginm . ene B1 1 
— Via France ceosceses bl 7 8 2 
GIDTAILAT cexeorerep ences «coves ess senses eneees vee bo 6 
Greece, by Frengh Mediterravean packet 59 ‘ll 1 
VIA AUST IAs sepecrnssessonccerenee al 1 2 2 
— Via Belgium  ..-rroscceeseer coves ~ b1 24 
Hamburg, via Pelgium Ls osed somes on 60 8 


<== VIR FYEROD cccccccoc cco esses 


cossereee BO 6 1 0 
Hanover, via Belgium 4+... oe 


— via France... 60 8 1 4 
TEA VARA 000.00 ses ced senses deo a2 3 
— via United States bal eee al 23 
Heligoland. via Cuxhaven ose a0 6 
Holland, via Belgimn ... 00 8 
— via France ....... . 60. 8 1 4 
Honduras ........... oop 0 6 
Hong Kong, via Marseilles 60 11 * 
— via Southampton . ove bo 6 
Tbraili, via Beizgium ...... i ms 61 } 
— via France ..... 17 Sg 
India, via Marseilles ........ 011 1 4 


Ionian Islands, via Ostend.......... 
— via France and Austria ..... 
— via Marseilles, by British packet al 3 1 6 
FABER 00 000002 008 20 rese0cess 
— via Savanna, e Rivne 


~ via Sistas and Hol land 
Lombardy, via Fra ICO cevcesene cose 
—= Wis Belgiam co cooccoccccces 





+95 008 owe Onna wO ree eee eee 


Lubeck, via Beigium (closed mail). ia 60 8 

ee i - 60 6 1 6 
Laxemburg, via France...... oO 6 1 0 
SEMUMONIL  * Widcse chests dhepseciic ove al 10 





— via Seaimneunes wove ceececace 
— via Marseilles, by French packet 61 “1 1 y 
Mauritius, via Marseilles .. ........ seese0.e. @0 11 eee 
— via ee ose 
Mexico esecsnesese: 


Naples, see Sicily. 

Seer UO WOOE sicicbéthideeltbbbinienecedeeden ode 50 
— viathe United re eco 61 

SUT TINIE WUNOT enncricnnccentenniennmsenenn -. ent 0 


6 
3 
~ 
6 
OS VERCD. Sse ab actictitiitcs tocbereces «| ot al 0 
6 
2 
6 
Newfoundland ......... 6 


sdeeeneenrensese one 0 





S 


THE ECONOMIST. 


IPs KAHN’S ANATOMICAL 





MUSEUM, 4 Coventry street, Leicester square.— 
Open for centlemen only from ten till ten. Containing 
upwards of 1,000 models and preparations, illustrating 
every part of the human frame in health and disease, 
the race of men, &c, LECTURES delivered at twelve, 
two, fur, and half-past seven, by Dr G. SEXTON, 
and a new and highly interesting series of Lectures is 
now in course of delivery by Dr KAHN, at quarter past 
8 p.m. precisely. Admission, One Shilling. Catslogues 
containing Lectures as delivered by Dr Kahn, gratis. 


RUPTURES.—BY ROYAL LETTERS PATENT 


wo rr 

W HITE’S MOC-MAIN LEVER 

TRUSS is allowed by upwards of 200 Medical 
Gentlemen tu be the most effective invention in the cura- 
tive treatment of HERNIA, The use of the stee! spring, 
so often hurtful in its effects, is here avoide? -a sott 
bandage being worn round the body ; while the rcyaisite 
resisting power is supplied by the MOC-MAIN PAD 
and PATENT LEVER, fitting with so much ease and 
closeness that it cannot be detected, and may be worn 
during sleep. A descriptive circular may be had, and 
the Truss (which cannot fail to fit) forwarded by post, 
on the circumference of the body two inches below the 
hips being sent to the Manufacturer, 

Mr WHITE, 228 Piccadilly, London. 

Price of a Single Truss, !6s, 21s, 26s 6d, and 31s 6d; 
Postage, !s. Double ditto, 31s 6d, 42s, and 52s 6d; post- 
age, Is 8%. Post-office ordersto be made payableto John 
White. Post-office, Piccadilly. 


el "TXT r 

ELASTIC STOCKINGS, KNEE 
CAPS, &c., for VARICOSE VEINS, and all cases of 
WEAKNESS and SWELLING of the LEGS, SPRAINS, 
&c. They are porous, light of texture, and inexpensive, 
and are drawn on like an ordinary stocking. Price from 
7s 6d to 16s each; postage 6d. 

WHITE, Manvuractrurer, 228 Piccadilly, London. 





A NEW AND IMPORTANT DISCOVERY IN 
SCIENCE OF MEDICINE. 

Patent Office Seal of Great Britain. Diplome de Ecole 
de Pharmacie Pharmacien de Paris. Imperial College 
of Medicine, Vienna. 

r "s 

Do tna Fe eSneeMevoid ds tastcbe amet 
No. 1, 2, and 3, a Lozenge, devoid of taste or sme] 

and can be carried in the waistcoat pocket, »«s admin- 

istered by Valpeau, Lalleman, Roux, Ricord &c. &c. 

TRIESEMAR, No. 1,is aremedy for Relaxation, Sper- 
mutor:hea, and all the distressing consequences arising 
from early abuse, indiscriminate excesses, or too long 
residence in hot climates, It has restored bodily and 
sexual strength and vigour to thousands of Gebilitated 
individuals, who are now enjoying health and the 
functions gf manhood; disquatifications for marriage are 
effectually subdued by this wonderfu! discovery. 

TRIESEMAR, No. 2, effectually, in the short space of 
Three Days, eradicates al) traces of Gonorrhcea, both in 
its mild and «ggravated forms, Gleets, Strictures, irrita- 
tion of the Biadder, non-retention of the Urine, pains of 
the Loins and Kidneys, and those Disorders which 
Copaivi and Cubebs have so long been thought an 
antidote for. 

TRIESEMAR, No. 2, is the great Continental Remedy 
for Syphilis and secondary symptoms, It searches ont 
«nd purifies the diseased humours from the blood, and 
cleanses the system from a!! deteriorating causes; it 
constitutes a certain cure for Scurvy, Scrofula, and all 
Cutaneous Eruptions, and fs a never-failing remedy for 
that class of disorders which, unfortunately, the Engtish 
Physician treats with Mercury to the inevitable destruc. 
tion of the patient’s constitution, and which all the 
Sarsaparillain the world cannot restore. 

Price 11s, or four cases in one for 33s, which saves 
lis; and in £5 cases, a saving of £1 128. To be 
had wholesale and retafl in London of Darby and 
Gosden, 140 Leadenhall street; Prout, 249 Strand; 
Hannay and Co,, 63 Oxford street ; and Sanger, 150 
Oxford street. 


CURTIS ON NERVOU 8 AND GENERATIVE 
DISEASES.—SHILLING EDITION 
Just published, the 77th Thousand, with numerous 
plates, in a sealed envelope, price 1s, or sent, post- 
paid, by the Author, for 14 stamps, 


A MEDICAL TREATISE ON THE 


THE 





Cause and Cure of Premature Decline, with 
plain directions for perfect Restoration to Health and 
Vigour; beinga Medical Review of the various forms 
and modern treatment of nervous debility, impotency, 
loss of mental and physical capacity, whether resalting 
from youthful abuse, the follies of materity, the 
effects of climate or infection, &c., with observations 
on a new and successful mode of detecting pone a- 
torrhea, and other urethral discharges, by microscopic 
examination; to which are added, curious and interest. 
ing cases, with the Author’s recipe of a preventive 
otion. 

By J. L. CURTIS, Surgeon, 15 Albemarle street, 
Piccadilly, Lon‘on. At home for consultation daily, 
from 10 to 3, and 6 to 8. Sundays, from 10 to 1. 

REVIEWS OF THE WORK, 

**CurTis oN Mannoop.—Shilling Edition.—77th thou- 
sand.—This is a truly v a work, and should be in 
young and old. The profes-ional reputation 








| Dec. 27, 1856, 


+ le, 





; Just published, price 6d, 
THE LIFE AND TIMES OF SAINT 
By the Rev. EDWARD WHITE. 


A Story and # Moral. “ Asa story it is both interest. 
ing and instructive; it begins with the early career of 
Pancretius, detaiis the sufferings of the boy-martyr, and 
gives pithy and feeling reflections on his marty rdom. ae 
a moral it appeals to the hearts of the young, leayi 
sense of duty that should be cherished by them all—thet 
greatness is allied to religion, that its basis is founded 
on the union with the Infinite Spirit. 

London . James Nisbet. 


oust: ACHES. WHISKERS, AND 

EYEBROWS produced by using GRIMSTONE'S 
AROMATIC REGENERATOR.—What is the natura 
ornament of the human figure? A plentiful suppiyyo 
hair. The AROMATIC REGENERATOR is the omy 
article that will produce a new growth of its Tatuhy 
colour ; a few ap)lications will cure every disease to 
which the hamen hair is subject, producing a luxuriant 
growth, Sold, in triangular botties, at 4s, 7s, 11s (thi 
contains four of the 4s size), 128 through the post; tip 
case and Grimstone’s ‘‘ Three Minutes’ Advice upom the 
Growth and Cultivation of the Human Hair,” fullof 
testimoniais, t0. WM. GRIMSTONE, inventor of the 
celebrated Eye Snuff, 8s per Ib, in white stone jars, ang 
Herb Teneen 0, 3d per ounce. Herbary, Highgate. De. 
pot, 52 High street, New Oxford street. London. Agent 
for Scotland, Raimes and Co., Leith walk, Edinburgh, 
D. Wilson and Co., Ca/cutta. 















‘Now ready, Second Edition, !2mo, price 5s, 


HE HANDBOOK OF BRITISH 
RNS; comprising Scientific and Popular ) 
with Engravings of al! the Indigenous Spegig 
and Varieties, with Instructions ter their Cultivation 
By THOMAS MOORE, 2£.LS., &c., &c., 
Curator of the Botanic Garden of the Society of Apothe. 
caries, Chelsea; and Author of ‘‘The Popular H istey 
of British Ferne,” &c., &e. 
London: R. Groombridge and Sons, Paternoster row 
and W. Pamplin, Frith street, Soho. 


— ee 


A PRESENT. FOR ALL TIMES 


FROM A FATHER TO HISSON, OR A MOTHER 
TO HER DAUGHTER:— 


THE HEAD AND THE HEART, 


a Work in which is introduced a FATHER'S LEGACY, 
“THE HEART AND THE HEAD.” 


The volume consists of nearly 200 octavo pages, 
beautifully Illustrated, and comprises, besides the 
Leeacy, Topics of the Day, Moral Essays, Moral Tales, 
&c., &c. Containing unmistakeable advice to the youth 
of both sexes. [Only One SHILLING.] 


“Among the many cheap publications which now 
issue from the press, we are disposed to accord to 
Heap anp Heanta very high place. The somewhat 
quaint title is designed to indicate the object. which the 
editor has in view-—that no part of our mental faculties 
should be culti: ated at the expense of another; but that 
the education of the head and the heart, the intellect and 
the affections, should proceed hand in hand. To accom- 
plish this, this work contains a selection of essays, tates, 
anecdotes, scraps of poetry, original and selected, bio- 
graphical sket« hes ot os men, and comments upon 
the topics of the day, so far as they have a moral bear- 
ing on the social int soea of society. Here we meet 
with a father’s legacy to his children, full of wise and 
valuable counsels, couched in the most affectionate 
tale written to expose 








te ert 











spirit. There we stumt le on a 
one or other of the modern evils of society ; as. for in- 
stance, the interesting story of the ‘History of a Gown, 


designed apparently to illustrate the frivolit ies of fashion. 
able life. Anon we come upon a popular exposition of 
the principles of the French language, intended to faci- 
litate the progress of a self-taught student; this again 
s followed by a biography, generally se lected for the 
stimulus it contains to perseverance and industry, such 
as the life of Bevjamin Frauklin; and scattered over its 
pages are intere-ting anecdotes, laconic maxims, and 
poetical scraps, that may be expected to stick to the 
memory. As to the cheapness ot the publication, there 
can be but one opinion. Nearly 200 8vo pages, most of 
them filled with original matter, and containing 
numerous handsomely finished wood-engravings, all for 
the small charge of one shilling. 
Heart comes 10 be better known we cannot doubt that 
the sale will amply remunerate the benevoleut pro- 
prietors."—MORNING CHRONICLE. 


‘“*We have before 
serial introduced under the above title. De “cated to 
parents and guard jians, and to the youth of both sexes, 
its aim is so well carried out that there is not a page 
from which some valuable information may not be 
gathered; nor throughout the book is there a sentewce 
we could wish had been omitted. The revelations of 
wisdom are beautified by the gentle admonitions of affee- 
tion, and the volume will be a most acceptable at id ap- 









When HeaD anp | 


us the first volume ot an interesting | 




















































| 





| 












the hands ct ¢ ift to the 
of the author, combined th his twenty years’ experi- propriate mark of regard as a new year's gift | 
ence as medical referee in the treatment of nervous de- olive branches t! S should cluster round eve! ry? family . 
bility, &c., fully accou for the immense circulatior table.""—WEEKLY Times, . j 
sane this popular and ‘abi ¥ written medical treatise hi - Darton and Co., Holborn hill; and all booksellers \' 
aote ined."—SUNDAY Times, 23rd March, 1856, = a OG 
“Cu oe ON — oD. “ny is = a = all —s to Recently publisted, Third Edition, 8vo, price 68, 
Staly the laws o ir body, no less than those of their 
mind. In the pages ofthis work will be found paee n \N CUR v ATU R ES OF THE SPINE } 
rules for regulating the one and preserving the other.” lheir Causes and Treatment. ; 
Magx Lane Express, March 31, 1 56. By SAMU EL HARE, F.R.C.S., &c. | 
** We feel no hesitation in saying, that there is no mem- “The auth r has had much success in his plan of treat- 
ber of society by whom the book will not be found uses | ment, and we are of opinion that the principles upoa 
ful: ~hether such person hold the relation of a pareat,a | which he acts in the treatment of these aff-ctions of@ 
preceptor, or a clergyman.”—Sown, Evening Paper. correct.”—LaNcerT. ul 
Soild, in sesled envelopes, by the author; also by ** We unhesitatingly commend his work as a truthf 
Piper, and Co., 23 Paternoster row; Hannay, 63 Ox- } and trustworthy statement of the power of acieutifi¢ 
ford street ; Mann, 39 Cornhill. London ; Guzst, Bull | surgery and m+dicine over some of the most grievous 
street, Birmingham : Heywood, Oldham street, Man- | hindrances to human activity and industry.”—LomDos 
chester ; Howell, 6 Church street, Liverpool ; Camptell, MEDICAL GAZETTE, 
136 Argyle street, Glasgcw; Robinson, 11 Greenside “Mr Hare may take credit to himself for ane 
street, Edinburgh ; Powell, Worteneodant street, Dub- | effected much good in the treatment of the case 
Yin; and by all booksellers and chemists in the United | described.”—PRoviINctaL AssociaTION JOURNAL 
Kingécm. London: J, Churchill, and all booksellers. 
Ss sess‘ 
aaa STITT ee 












pee.'27, 1856.] 


ct gna isang ope 


° * rv 7 T 
ADIES VISITING LONDON WILL 
, and ut SOWERBY, TaTTON, aud CO.'S, Regent 
ects, Oxford street, every novelty of the season:— 

french Silks in checked and bared Glecés, wide width, 

ee 6d the dress. French Brocaded Silks, yard wide, 

a 48s 6d the robe. Rich French 3-flounced Silk Robes, 

; at 598 6d. Ditto, with Velvet, 98s 6d. Rich flounced 
French Merino Dresses, trimmed velvet and piush, at 

64. Flounced and double-skirt Tweed | Dresses, 

trimmed velvet and plush, at 18s 6d. Irish Poplin 
Dresses, in all the clans, at 24s 6d. Opera Cloaks and 
Bernouse Manties, in every shade of culour, at 18s 9d. 

Rich Beaver Cloths and Velvet Ma.t'es, at equally 
moderate prices. Paisley long wove Shawls, at 21s. 

French Cachmere ditte, at 31s 6d. Furs of every 
description. Tali and Evening Dresses, commencing at 

95 94 SOWERBY, TATTON, and CO, 


ae ee Ss FS 


gre recommended a trial of BEHNSEN’S MAK- 

OUS HERB TEA, which most excellent Medicine 

for thousands of Diseases has proved beneficial to every 
patient who has usec it. 

This Tea is a mixture of those wonderful herbs which 
have been known to us from all times as sure restorers 
and preservers 0! health, 

BEHNSEN’S MARVELLOUS TEA is at present ex- 
tensively exported to the Colonies, and still more used at 


, rs 
) 
; 


| MERCHANTS AND FAMILIES 


noni Chemists and Druggists will sell this herb tea at 
1s a packet of 12 doses, and to be had wholesale of 
J. F. MINCH, 19 Mincing lane, London, 
Agents wented in the country. 





entices. viii ssi 
,oea ’ 

EETH--MESSRS GABRIEL 

supply Complete Sets, without Springs, on the 
principle of capillary attraction, thereby avo:ding the 
necessity of extracting stnipps or causing any pain.— 
SILICIOUS ENAMELLED AMERICAN MINt.RAL 
TEETH, the best in Europe—guaranteed to answer 
every purpose of mastication or articulation—from 
3s 6d per tooth. Sets, £t 4s, Established 1504. Her 
Majesty’s Royal Letters Patent have been awarded for 
the production of a perfectly White Enamel, for decayed 
Front Teeth, which can only be obtained at Messrs 
Gabriel’s establisiiments, 33 Ludgate hill, five doors 
from the Old Bailey ; aud at 112 Duke street, Liverpool. 
Consultation and every information gratis. 





i sor y ‘ 
RAs AND DESTRUCTIVE 
ANIMALS.—How to puralyse, and render them im- 
moveable on the spot, though there be hundreds, so 
that they may be gathered with a shovel and finaly 
drowned. The effect warranted, and the cost to para- 
lyse one hundred will be 34d, Materials can be bouzbt 
in every town and village. The above astoundiug 
remedy sent posisfree, for eight stamps, to any address, 
by Fisher and sop, Priaters and Publ'shers, Kingsland, 
London, Established 1847. This certain remedy, the 
stupefying ef{.cts of which surpasses all conception, has 
obtained the approbation o: upwards of 700 persons— 
their testimonials sent first if des:red. 





7 * , " 
UPTURES EFFECTUALLY CURED 
WITHOUT a TK USS.,—Dr BAKKER’S celebrated 
Remedy is protected by three patents, of England, 
France, and Vienna; and from its great success in 
private practice is now made known as a public duty 
through the medium of the press, In every case of single 
or double rupture, in either sex, of any age, however bad 
or long standing, it isequally applicable, effecting a cure 
ina few days, without inconvenience, and will be hailed 
| as a boon by all who have been tortured with trusses. 
Sent post free to any part of the world, with instructions 





for use, on receipt of 10s 6d by post-office order, or 
stamps, by Charles Barker, M.D., 10 Brook street, 

1} Holborn, London.—Any infringement of this triple 
patent will be proceeded against, and restrained by in- 
junction of the Lord High Chancellor. 





raXG , ‘KY 
}obLoM AY’S OINTMENT AND 
FILLS peerless remedies for the cure of scurvy.— 
Henry Vaughan, of Portsea, respectfully and gratefully 
| informs Professor Holloway, that be was suffering for 
many years with inveterate scurvy; yellow spots appeared 
on the face and hands, accompenied with distressing 
languor, weakness of the legs, fetid breath,days with- 
out hope, nights without sleep, the cistemper only 
aggravated by medical advice, when provideutially he 
was induced to obtain Professor Holloway’s medicines, 
* by the aid of which he miraculously regained health and 
Strength in a very short time.—Sold by all mecicine 
|] vendors throughout the world; at Professor Holloway's 
|} establishments, 244 Strand, London, and «0 Malcen lane, 
|} New York ; by A. Stampa, Constantinople; A. Guidicy, 

{| Smyrna; and E. Muir, Malta, 


“Read ye that ran, the awful trath, 
With which I charge my page; 
A worm is in the bud of youth, 
And at the root of age."’—Cowpen. 


| Just published, New Edition, price 1s; free by post for 


14 stamps 
- , oO " r 
NERY OUS DEBILITY; ITS 
. Causes, Symptoms, and Cure. A complete Essay 
on Spermatorrhea, and on a new, safe, and speedy mode 
of treatment, showing the serious consequences resulting 
from the dangerous remedies commonly employed in 
this disease, . 

By SAML. LA MERT, M.D., 37 Bedford square, 

London. 

This work, emanating from a qualified member of the 
medical profession of many yeurs’ experience, is ad- 
‘dressed to these persons who suffer from the various 

8 acquired in early life, 
Also, by the same Author, price 1s; free by post for 13 
stamps, 

The SCIENCE OF LIFE; or, How to Ensure Moral 
and Physical Happiness. 

Sherwood and Co, 23 Paternoster row Hannay, 68 
xford street, London; or from the Author, who may 
| Consulted at his residence from 11 till 2 and 6 till 8. 


THE ECONOMIST. 
TRELOAR'S COCOA-NUT_ FIBRE 


ANUFACTURES consist of matting, door mats, 
mattresses, hassocks, netting, brushes, &c., and are 
disticguished for superiority and excellence of work- 
manship, combined with moderste charges. Prize 
medals awarded—London, Puris, and New York. Cata- 
logues, containing prices and «!] partienlars, post free, 

T. TRELOAR, Cocoa-Nut Fibre Manufacturer, 42 
Ludgate hill, London. 


Tr + rT 

VENTILATING STOVES 

» SUSPENSION STOVES! Approved by thousand- 
of purchasers, and recommended as the two best, cheap, 
est, most healthy, and economical fur Churches, Chapels 
Halls, Schools, Warehouses, Shops, Greenhouses, Bed- 
rooms, Libraries, &c. Prospectuses with “prices sent 
post free.--DEANE, DRAY, and CO., Stove Range, 
ees and Furnishing Warehouse, London 
ridge, 


A HAPPY NEW YEAR.— 
l Yes, a happy new year! And it is our determina- 
tion to make it a thoroughly happy one, if there is any 
possibility in the case. 

Wil! any one doubt the ability which is possessed by E. 
Moses and Son to render every advantage in busines« 
which advances the pleasure, satisfaction, and comfurt of 
thousands ? 

The changes mae in the progress ofa year are great 
and numerous, but the changers which E, Moses and Son 
have made in the Dress Lepartment surpass calculation. 
They change its fabrics—they institute new styles—they 
aim at perfection in everything, and their success is 
pleasing to their patrons and the public, as well as 
gratifying to themselves, 

The exit of the old year reminds E. Moses and Sow of 
many circumstauces which are pleasing to recollect. It 
calls for a cordial acknowle igment of patronage which has 
been bestowed on their Establishment and its Branches. 
T: ey would fail in a very important duty ifthey did not 
present their sinc re thanks for the liberal encourage- 
ment they have received from ladies and gentlemen in 
the metropolis, all purts of the country, and the 








h»bitable globe. They have pertormed the daty 
of active, enterprisinz, and industrious men of 
business, and have been well remunerated by the 
approval which their efforts have received and 


the satisfaction which a vast circle of pat-ons have ex- 
pressed. They thank them for their expressions of en- 
couragement and for the great increase of their orders. 
It was formerty the case that one business house fur- 
nished buc one cescription of goods, and those limited 
in kind; but the introduc:ion of every variety and styles 
to every taste has been the means of advancing the 
business of E. Moses and Son in generalestimation. It 
isin this way that they fornish such inducements for 
patronage, and experience such continued accessions to 
the numbers visiting and sending their orders to these 
well-kuown places of business. 

E, Moses and Son are well aware of the benefits of 
competition, and admire the spirit of the age which 
pushes on ‘he engines of trade. They have entered into 
the contest, and never wish to relinquish an engage- 
ment which yields so much public advantage. During 
the past year the have provided in a taagvificent manner, 


} and have selec‘ed from ail markets and mauutactories 


in the world such fabrics and materials as no other 
house could have ihe means, euergy, or perseverance to 
provide, 

Tavext, E. Moses and Sow have fostered and re- 
munerated ; its highest o;ders are employed by them in 
the separate branches of iiventing styles, cutting, and 
maki’ g the most elegant aud most useful Dress; so that 
the Besp: ke Department of their unrivalled Tailoring 
Business secuies the novelty of the season from the 
designs of Artists, Engisb, Freneh, and German, 

Tue Reavy-mMape CLotuINGe Department must be 
distinctly mentioned asthe greatest and most «dmired 
commercial enterprise of the age. Evi ry rank, condiion, 
and station can there find alternate and plea ing supplies, 


Specially for the liberal encotragement given te the ; 


Ready-made Branch during the past year EB. Moses and 
Son preset their earnest and warm-hearted thanks. 


Tne Ladms’ and Gexttemen’s Hosigny and Unper- 
CLOTHING sectiun at the City and West-end Estabiishment 
has had «n unprecedented degree of success, aud they 
must ttribute the vast amount of encouragement thus 
received to the very great atrention paid to the produc- 
tion of articles iu ail varieties, which refined taste and 
commercial progress has enabled them exclusively to 
submit to he a) proba‘ion cf their friends and the public ; 
and in giviog utterance to their thanks, they assure 
every oue who continae their esteewed orders, and those 
who are induced to commence their transactions in this 
departm. nt, that no talent, diligence, or capital shall be 
spared te perpetuate the attractions and benefits which 
this section has so largely contributed tosupply. It is 
impossible to particularise the instances of pubiic appro- 
bation which have been witnessed and practically ex- 
perienced in the Hat and Cap, in the Boot and Shoe, in the 
General Outtitting and Unequalled Wholesale Depart. 
ments: they have severally been amply and overwheim- 
ingly encouraged, and Merchants, Captains, Emigrants, 
and others have expressed their satisfaction in terms 
which E, Moses aud Sun have every desire to recipro- 
cate. 

One importent feature of business E. Mosgs and Son 
will never abancon—thatis, securing by (he most ener- 
getic exertions the best articles at the most reas nable 
prices; and though they have done so much during ‘he 
past year, they are determined to do much more during 


the present year, by turning every advantage 
to the benefit of their patrons and the public 
This principle has marked their career through 


muny eventfal years, and becomes more self-evident every 
season. Repeating their fervent and cordial thank» to 
every one who has patronised their Mstablishments iu 
London and their Branches in Sheffield and Bradford, 
Yorkshire, they again plecge themselves to their triende, 
patrons, and the public, that they wiil provide the most 
use/ul, elegant, seasonable, and se: viceable articles under 
li circumstances, and assume to themselves tlre pleasure 
of wishing everybody 
“A Harry New Year.” 

E. Moses and Son, corne*of \he Minories and Aldgate, 

opposite to he Church; West-end Branch, New Oxtord 


treetand Hart street; Sheffield and Bradford Yorkshire. 





1451 
LADIES—WOOLLEN CLOTH 


OR 
f MANTLES and JACKETS, richly trimmed, at 
half-8-guinea each. Also a variety of Mantles and 
Jackets for Young Ladies and Children at equally 
moderate prices.—The Ladies’ Cloth Warehouse, 142 
and 144 Regent street, and 29, 30, and 31 Warwick 
street. —H, J. and D. NICOLL. 

N.B.—Great bargains are now selling in Silkr, Fancy 
Drapery, &c., the warerooms being needed by the great 
demand for ladies’ cloths. 


y ~Y 
OR TRAVELLING, MESSRS 
NICOLL have recently reg‘stered an invention for a 
Railway Rog or Carriage Wrappe>, with the addition o f 
coverings for the feet, shaped as s'ippers—these parts 
being lined with fur, form a most effectual protection 
from cold, witheut acding maturially to the size of the 


weapper. 114, 116, 118, 120 Regent street, and 22 
Cornhill, London. 


—————————— , 











eS SS 


\ ARM AND FASHIONABLE 
OVER-COATS for Young Gentlemen, at prices 
according to size, commencing at haif-a-guinea each. — 
H. J. and D. NICOLL, 114, i16, 114, and !20 Regent 
Street, and 22 Cornhill, London. 
FOR GENTLEMEN, 
MES $8.88 NICOLL 
4 employ the best Talent and Materials te be met 
with in England, France, and Germany. 
ALLIED SLEEVE CAPE, Waterproof, yet evapo- 
rable, One Guinea. 
NICOLU’S well known PALETOT, Two Guineas. 
NICOLL’S Guinea TROUSERS and Half-guinea 
VESTS. 
Estimates given for Military Uniforms, Youths’ Cloth- 
ing, and Servants’ Liveries, 
114, 116, 118, 120 Regent street, and 22 Cornhill. 
ELLING OFF _ THE SILKS, 
DKESSES, KIBBONS, LACE, and LINENS, con- 
siderably under the cost price, to effect a clearance, as 
the premises known as Warwick House, i42 and 144 


Regent street, are required as a Warehouse for Ladies’ 
Cloths and ali kinds of Woollen Mantles, 


(Gj ENTLEMEN IN SEARCH OF A 
J VAILOR are directed to B, BENJAMIN, Merchant 
Tailor, 74 Rrgent street. The FORTY-SEVEN 
SHILLING SUIIS, made to order from Scotch, H eather, 
aud Cheviot Tweeas, all woo! and thoronghiy shrunk. 

The PELISSIER SACS, 21s, 25s, and 28a. 

Tie BENJAMIN, CLERICAL and PROFESSIONAL 
OVER or UNDER COAT, from 308, The ALBERT 
LONG FROCK or OVEK COAT, from 35s to 55s. 
The REVERSIBLE WAISTCOAT, buttoning four differ- 
ent sides, 14s, The TWO-GUINEA DRESS and 
FROCK COATS, the GUINEA DRESS TROUSERS, 
aud the HALF-GUINEA WAISTCOATS., 

N.B.—A perfect fit guaranteed. 


LLL ALLL LLL LE 








. mT . 

EGISTERED-—THE OUDE 
t WRAPPER, combining Coat, Cloak, and Sleeved 
Cape, by B. BENJAMIN, Merchant Tailor, 74 Regent 
street, reavy made or to order, in Autumn Waterproof 
Tweecs and Meitons, 25s; Winter Tweeds, Meltons, 
Pilots, and Witneys, 328; Cloths and Beavers, 35s to 42s, 
N. B,—All goods thoroughly shruok, 





THE ORNATUS CAPE. 


| EMMENT AND CO. 
late of 73 Cornhill, respectfully invite the attention 
of the Public to their ORNATUS CAPE. It possesses 
the following advanta es :-= 
IT 18 ALL WOOL. 
IT Is WATERPROOF AND EVAPORABLE ; and 
IT COSTS ONLY TWENTY-FIVE SHILLINGS. 
H. anc Co. recommend their Guinea-and-Half Coat, 
Gainea Trouser-, and Half-Guinea Vest. 
HEMMENT and CO., 18 Poultry, and 43 Lombard 
street, Loudon. 


ne 


T ‘ Tiny 
INING ROOM FURNITURE, 
Sidebo.ra:, Chairs, Vining Tables, Turkey Car- 
pets, &e., Kc., &c.—Purchasers are invited to view the 
most ex\ensive stock in Lonoon, ready to select from in 
the immense Furniture Galleries and Show-rooms of 
Messrs DRUCE and CQ., 68, 69, and 58 Baker street, 
The whole msnufactured by first-rate workmen, of the 
best-seasoned materia!s, with the price marked in plain 
figures.—N. B. a quantity of second hand furnimre 
always on sule. Excellent Dining Room Chairs, 19s 
ach. Down Quilts fro m 5s 6d each. 


¥ _ ~ 

HA R* EY’S SAUCE-- 

The admirers of this celebrated Fish Sauce are | 
particularly requested to observe, that none is genuine | 
but that which bears the pamwe of WILLIAM LazenBr 
on the back of each bottle, in addition to the front 
lubel used so many years, aud signed ELizaszru 
LazenBy, 6 Edwards street, Portman square, London. 


eee se titi ii DL 


oT ‘— ad canna REE neRpEREEEEnnennea pment ot r 





, T 90 

k RAMPTON’S PILL OF HEALTH 
Price 1s igd and vs 9d per box. 

This exceilent family pill is a medicine of long- 
tried efficacy for pu:ifying the blood, so very essential 
for the foundation of good health, and correcting all dis- 
orders of the stomach and bowels. Two or three doses 
wil: convince the afflicted of their salutary «ffects. The 
stomach wil! speedily regain its strength, a healthy 
action of the liver, bowels, and kidneys will rapidly take 
place; and renewed health will be the quick result of 
taking this medicine according to the directions accom- 
panying each vox. 

For females, these pil's are truly excellent, removing 
all obstructions, the distressing headache so very preva- 
lent with the sex; depresston of spirite, dulness of sight, 
nervous affections, tlotches, pimples, and sallowness of 
the kin, aud give a healthy juvenile bloom to the com- 
plexion. 

Sold by Prout and Harsant, 229 Strand, London, and 
by all venders of medicine, 


ey 


~—_—_—_— LS 


a i er 








| 
j 


i 


See eee ea eS 


1452 THE ECONOMIST. 
HUBBUCK’S PATENT WHITE ZINC PAINT, 


THE PERMANENT WHITE OF THE ANCIENT ARTIST. 


HUBBUCK and SON, the original manufacturers, are enabled by a process wh is patented, to supply thair 
Pure White Zinc Paint at the price of White Lead. For all decorative and sanitary purposes—Hussvuck’s 
Patent White Zinc Paint has proved to be superior to every other Paint, and equally adapted for all climates. 

CAUTION.—The officers of the H. E. I. Company are requested to observe that this is totally different 
from what has lately been sent out to them, that being the lowest contract quality that ained by public 
competition, and not the same they have formerly receive h Ho sbbuck’ an 

To prevent the prejudice against Zinc paint, which the adult i article 
sola by the wholesale paint dealers, in or 


iginal packages, 
PATENT ;’ 


ain 
uld be obt 
1 witl s br 
must otherwise produce, itis now 
cask stam»ed—* HUBBUCK—LONDON— 


IAS HUBBUCK and SON, Paint and Varnish 


e i 
and when so marked, the quality is guaranteed. THO) 
Works. Upper East Smithfield (opposite the London Docks). 

‘*For public schools, and all rooms occupied by children, there will be now no excuse for using poisonous 
paints. Parents have remarked that their children, on returning from the country to newly-painted houses, have 
suffered in health. The reason is evident: the breath extracts the poison frem the paint, even afier several months’ 
drying, and the lungs draw in the deadly vapour.” 

** Amongst other tests to which it has been subjected, has been that of painting the 
which after a voyage to St Kitt’s and back, is found as white as the first day the paint was applied. 
September 14, 1856. 


HF OLD ZINC AND ZINC CUTTINGS BOUGHT TO ANY EXTENT FOR REFINING. 


HUBBUCK’S Copper-colonr Enamel Paint, prepared expressly for the bottoms of iron and wooden steamships 
& protection from rust and incrastations. Timber coated with this enamel is neither attacked by the worm, nor do 
barnacies attach to it when immersed either in salt or fresh water. 


JT AMALGAMATIXG MACHIXE.— Nes 

SYMONDS, FELL, and CO.’S, Patent Amalgamater 
may be seen in daily operation, effectuelly extracting 
gold and silver from the ore. They are prepared to 
purchase any quantity of Gos Quartz and Auriferous 
Earths, or uncertake the reduction of ores, and supply 
their New Patent Machinery.—-Mill Wall General 
Crushing an? Grinding Mills, Smelting and Assay 
Works, Mill Wall, Poplar. 


YIPES FOR GAS AND 

Railway Chairs, and Castings of all kinds, 

by James Lawrie and Co., Ironfounders, Old 
street, London—Works, Glasgow. 

Fire Bricks, Retorts, Lumps, Tiles, and Clay. 
James Lawrie and Co., Old Broad street, London— 
Works, near Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Pig Iron (Summerlee), an American Brand, shipped 
at Giasgow, Portsmouth or Leith. Sole Agents, James 
| Lawrie and Co, Oid Broad stree!, London. 

Cannel Coals.—Bathville (same in quality as Bog- 
head or Bathgate) and Knightswood, shipped at Glas- 
gow, Grangemouth, or Leita. Sole Agents, James Lawiie 
and Co., Old Broad street, London, 


EANE’STWO-HOLE BLACK PENS, 


DEA are unequalled yor their durability and oa 
action, ate adopted by the gentlemen of the Stock Ex- 
change, and theprincipal bunkers, merchants, and public 
companies ofthe city of London, besides several of Her 
Majesty’s judges, the most eminent counsel, and the 


hold of a sugar vessel, 
"—JOHN BULL, 





t) BU RGUNDY POR T; AND SHL&RY 


The Prize Wines of t - Fann Exhibition of 1855, pa- 
tronised by the Nobility and Gentry, and highly recom- 
mended by Medical Men for their purity and freedom 
from acidity and brandy. Price 28s per dozen (bottles 
= to be had (for cash only) of 

F, W. SELLERS, ! Chapel place, C 
aes to be crossed to Sir'S. Scott, 


avendish seqnare.— 
Bart., and Co 


W A I ER, 


made 
Bioad 


TWENTY SHILLINGS PER DOZEN. 

v E T 
PURE AND WHOLESOME 
SOUTH AFRICAN PORT and SHERRY, re- 
and freedom from 
fur the use of tamilies, 
A call to taste is re- 
bottle forwarded on re- 


markable for their body, soft 
Acidity ; highly recommended 
iovalids, and charitable purposes. 
Spectfully solicited. A sample 
Ctipt of 24 postage stamps. 

Terms cash. Country or 
tance. 


ness, 


fers must contain a remit- 


5 Fenchureh street, London. 


J.-L DENM AN, 

A LLSOPP’S PALE  OR_ BITTER 
d ALE.—Messrs S. ALLSOPP and SONS beg to in- 
form the Trade, that they are now registering orders for 
the October Brewings of their Pale Ale in Casks of 18 
Gallons and upwards, at the Brewery, Burton-on-Trent, 
and at the undermentione? Branch Establishments :— 

LONDON. 
LIVERPVOL.. 
MANCHESTER.. 


cooe ce Ath Cook street. 
. At Ducie place. 





ay A, th tte titi 


i 


| 


| 


| 
= 
| 
| 
| 
| 
| 


i 


LUDLEY .... ° . At Burnt Tree. 
GLASGOW. - +. At 115 St Vincent stre 
DUBLIN. _ At 1 Crampton quay. 
BIRMINGH AM. . At Te =p le s'reet 
WOLVERH AMPTON - Exchange street. 
SOUTH WALES At 13 King street, Bristol 

Messrs AL LSOPP ¢ and SONS take the opportut nity of 
announcing to private families that their Ales, so strongly 
recommended by the medical profession, may be 
cured in Draught and Bottles g-nuine from allthe most 
respec:able wine and beer merchants and licensed vic- 
tuallers, on “*“ALLSOPP’S PALE ALE” being specially 
asked for. 

When in bottle, the genuineness of the lable can be 
ascertained by its having “‘ALLSOPP and SONS” 
written across it, upon red and white ground striped. 


A LLE N S 
HA CATALOGUE 
DESPATCH BOXES 


reverend tire clergy. Their cheapness aud populerity bas 
induce@ many unprincipled peopie to put forth imitations 
of the genuine article, which are equally usele 8 to the 
pur h sser, and disgraceful to the vendor. The public are 
therefore cautioned, and respectful'y requested not to pur- 
cha-e any as DEANE’S GENCINE FW HOLE 
BLACK PENS, unless each pen is stamped, 
“ G. and J. Deane, London bridge,” 
and the box, which cootains exectiy twelve dozen, ha 
the ereon a Veriously coloured -jabel, inscribed, 
‘G.and J. DEANE’S Two-Hole Black Pens, 46 King 
William street, London bridge.” 


AM SW. BENSON’ 

WATCH, CLOCK. and CHRONOMETER ane. 
FACTORY, 33 ana 3¢ Iudgate hill, London. Estab- 
lisheo 1749. —J. W. BENSON, Manufacturer of GOULD 
ana SILVER WATCHES of every deseription, con- 
struction, and pattern, invites attention to his magui- 
ficent and unprecedented display «f Watches, which 
is admitted to be the largest and best siected stock 
in London. It consists of Chrovometer, Duplex, Pa- 
tent, Detached Lever, Horizonta!, and Vertic?] move- 
mets, jewelled, &c., with all the latest improve- 
ments, mounted in superbly-finished engine-turned and 
| engraved Gold and SilverCases. The cesigns engraved 
upoo many of the cases are by eminent artists, and can 
ouly be obtained at this manufactory. If the important 
requisites, superiority of finish, combined with aceuracy 
of performance, sleganc-, durability, and reasonableness 
of price, are wishes for, ‘the intenaing purchaser should 
visit this manufactory, or send for the lilustrated Pam- 
phiet, publehed by J. W. BENSON (and sent post free on 
application), which contains sketches, prices, and direc- 
tions as to what Watch to buy, where to buy it, and how 
te use it. Several hundred letters have been received 
from persons who have buught Watches at this Manufec- 
tery, bearing testimony tothe correct periorm« ces of the 


same. 
OPINIINS OF THE PRESS. 


From the Mozrxinc Post, Oc’. 30, 1855.—“ Exhibits 
exquisite artistic feeling in ornamentatwn, amc perfee- 
tion of mecha\ism in structure.” From the Mornine 
Curonicte, Oct. 30.— ” Excel lence of design and per- 
fection in workmanship.” From the Monyine ADVER- 
Tistr, Nov. |.—‘' The high repute which Mr Benson 
has obtained for the qualities of his manufacture stands 
second tonone.” From the Morsinc Hekaxp, Nov. 3. 

“ The high standing of Mr Benson as a London manu- 
facturer must secure for him a large amount of public 
patronage."’ From the GLopz, Nov. 3-—* All that can 
be desired, in finish, taste, and de-ign.” 

GOLD W ATCHES Horizontal Movements, Je welled, 
\c., accurate time-keepers, £3 15s, £4 15s, £5 15s, to 
£15 15s each. Gold Lever Watenes, jewelled and 
highly-finished movements, £6 6s, £8 8s, £10 10s, 
| £12 128, £14 148, £16 16s, to 40 _ eas. 

SILVER WaTCHES, Horzont!l Movements, 
Jewelled, &c., exact ume-keepers, £1 28, £2 lis, £3 15-, 
wo £5 bs each. Silver Lever Watches, highly-finish+ -d, 
jewelled movements, £3 10s, £4 102, £5 10s, £7 10;, 
£8 lus, £10 14s, to 20 guineas. 

A Two Years’ Warranty given with every Watch, and 
seut, catriage paw, to Scotiauc, Ireiand, Wales, or avy 
part of the Kingdom, upon reeeivt of Post-office or 
temkers’ order, made payable tu J. W. BENSON, 33 and 
34 Ladgate bill, London. 

Merchants, Shippers, and Wateh Clubs supplied. Old 
W atches taken in exchange. 


pro- 


ILL US TR ATE D 
PATENT Pokimatr: TEAUS 
Dressing Cases, and Travelling 
Bags with square openings, with 300 other articles, 
forwarded upon receipt of two stamps. Also, their 
Catalogue of Portable Military Furni:ure for the barrack 
room, camp, or field.—J. W. and T. ALLEN, Manu- 
facturers, 18 and 22 Strand, London. 


TORD’S EURE KA “SHIRTS. 
“The * Pil is the most unique, and the we 
perfect fitting shirt maie.”—OssERVER. 
In t — of six ready made or to measure. 
quality, ; Second quality, 33s. 
CAU TIOm —Ford’s Eureka Shirts are stamped, 
Poultry, London,” without which none are genuine. 
*,* Catalogues with particulars post free. 
RICHARD FORD, Patentee, 38 cna London. 


BEDS MATTRESSES, AND 

BEDSTEAD». 
WILLIAM 8S. BURTON'S NEW LIST of BEDS, 
BEDDING, and BEDSTEADS is NOW READY, aud 
can be had gratis. 

The quality of beds, mattres<es, &c., of every descrip- 
tion he is able to guarantee ; they are made on the pre- 
mises, in the presence of customers; their prices are in 
harmony with those which have tended to make his 
house ironmongery eStablishment the most extensrve in 
the kingdom. d £s 4 

Feather bes -.from to 8 

German s.ring mattresses 

Horse hair mattresres ........ 

Woo! mattresses ...... 6 

Flock mattresses ° 6 

Best Alva and cotton di: to 

Sheets.. ... 7 6 

Bia. kets 0 0 

Toilet quilts... 0 6 

COBN'erpanes ...-0-e0e- coe 6 5 0 

Portable folding beds eads one 6 0 

Patent iron be steads, with 

dovetail joints 

Orwamental brass d ttu.. 

Children's cots.. 

Bed hangings,in every y variety 

per set 14 60 «10 0 

39 Oxford street; 1, la, 2, and 3 Newman street; aud 

4, 5, and 6 Perry's place, Oxford street, London. 


of 


Best 


“38 


0 
0 
0 


9 


“ 
0 
0 


Q 
0 
0 
a 
0 
0 
0 


0 
0 
0 


0 
0 
6 


10 
15 


= 
= 
= 
| 


ee eee eo eee 


seeceseee At 61 King William street, City. | 





(Dec. 27, 1856, 


DINNEFORD's 
FLUID MAGN 
many years sanct 


f ‘the Me Prot n, as an Me... 
ecidities, burn, hes jache, nee 


and indigestion. As a mil perient it Is 
adapted for delicate fem: ales, particularly during 
nancy; and it prevents the food of infants from preg. 
= ir during digestion. Combined with the ‘Acid 
4 on Syrup, it forme an effervescing aper 

is highly agreeable and effic aetens’ ‘ent dranght 
Prepared by DINNEFORD and CO., Dig 
remists (aus General Agents for the I: “broved Home 
noua 


yt 


UR 
pu NESTA 


38i 


Senet remedy 


w 


Hair Gloves and Brits), 172 New Bond street, 
and sold by all respectal le Chemists throughout 
empire 


TO INVALIDS, MOTHERS, AND FAMILIES, 
By ter Majesty's Roy al Letters Patent (the only patent 
existing for these preparations). 

Strongly recommended by the Medical Profession, 
{DNAM'S | IMPROVED’ PATENT 
Lf GROATS and BARLEY are manufactured bya 
process whick entirely removes the acidity and yy 
sant flavours ¢ uulversally found in similar preparations, 
They produ.c +s: and Barley Water in the 
perfection, and, being manuf .ctured perfectly pure, yield 
food of the most light and nourishing quality for the In. 
fant, the Invalid, and the Aged The Barley alsom 

a delicious Custard rudding, and is an excellent ingre. 
dient for thickening Soups, &c. 

The Patentees publish one only of the numerous 
Testimonials which they have received from eminent 
Medical Professors, relying more confidently on 
intrinsic quality of the articles: of which one trial will not 
fail to convince the must fastidious of their purity and 


excellence. [copy.] 
Chemical Laboratory, Guy’s Hospital, 
February lyth, 1555. 
Ihave submitted to a microscopical and chemical eg. 
amination the samples ot Barley and Groats whigk 


} have tower ded to me, and I beg to inform you that I 


find ia them only those prinesples which are found in 
good barley: there is no mimnerai or other impurity pte- 
sent, and, from the result of my investigation, I believe 
them to be genuine, and tv possess those nutritive pro. 
perties assigned by the late Dr Pereira to this description 
of food. (Signed) A.S. Tarnoa, 

Messrs Adnam and Co. 

CavtTion.—To prevent errors, the public are requested 
to observe that each package bears the Signature of tage 
Patentees, J.and J. C. ADNAM. 

To be obtained wholesale at the manufactory, Maiden 
lane, Queen street, London; ard retail in packetsa nd 
canisters at 6d and ts each, and in canisters for families 
2s, 53, and 10s each, of all respectacle grocers, drag. 


gists, a. . in town and country. 


DR DE JONGH'S 


~ TT TT 

IGHT-BROWN COD LIVER OIL 

has now, in consequence of its markeu superiority over 
every other variety, secured the entire confidence and 
almost universal preference cf the most eminent Medical 
Practitioners as the most speedy «nd effectual remedy for 
CONSUMPTION, BRONCHITIS, ASTHMA, GOUT, 
RHEUMATISM, SCIATICA, DIABETES, DISBASES 
OF THE SKIN, NEURALGIA, RICKETS, INFAN- 
TILE WASTING, GENERAL DEBILITY, and all 


| SCROFULOUS AFFECTIONS. 


Its leading distinctive characteristics are :— 
COMPLETE PRESERVATION OF ACTIVE AND ESSENTIAL 
PRINCIPLES. 

INVARIABLE PURITY AND UNIFORM STRENGTH. 
ENTIRE FREEDOM FROM NAUSEOUS FLAVOUR AND APTER- 
TASTE. 

RAPID CURATIVE EFFECTS, AND CONSEQUENT ECONOMY, 
OPINION of the LATE JONATHAN PEREIRA, 
M.D., F.R.S.&, F.L.S., 

Professor at the University of London, Author of “The 
Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics,” &c, 
&e. 

“It was fitting that the author of the best analysis 
ind investigations ito the properties of this Of] sheuld 
himse!f be the purveyor of this important medicine, I 
know that no one can be better, and few so well, 
ucquainted with the physical and chemical properties of 
this medicine as yourself, waom I REGARD «aS THE 
HIGHEST AUTH RITY ON THE SUBJECT, ‘ihe Qil which 
you gave me was of the very finest quality, whether 
coosidered with reference to its colour, flavour, or 
chemical properties; and I AM SATISFIED THAT, FOR 
MEDICINAL PURPOSES, NO FINER OIL CAN BE PROCURED.” 

Sold only in imperial Half-pints, 2s 6d; Pints, 459d; 
Quarts, 9s; capsuled and labelied with Dr De Jongh’s 
Stamp and Signature, without which none are Genuine, 
by most respectable Chemists throughout the United 
Kingdom. 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEPOT, 
ANSAR, HARFORD, and CO., 77 STRAND, 
LONDON, W. C 
DR DE JONGH'S SOLE BRITISH CONSIGNEES, 
By whom the Oil is daily forwarded to all parts of the 
Met: opolis, 


, KEATING’S COUGH LOZENGES. ‘ 
‘ nm 
’ A SLIGHT COLD: = 
i it its first symptoms are not arrested, too 
often lays the foundation of a variety of Pulmonar 
Complaints, including Winter Cough, Asthma, and 
other constitutionsl derangements, The evil con- 
sequences of these disorders muy be easily averted 
or subdurd by kee ping at band a supply of the above 
celebrated Lezesxces, which have now stood the'test of 
public expereuce for upwards of halfa century. The 
Testimonials to their efficacy have beeu volustarily 
given by the most eminent of the Faculty, as well as by 
all classes of private individuals, Containing neither 
opiates nor any injurious anodyne, they may be safely 
taken by the youngest child or the most delicate females. 
Prepared and sold in Boxes, 1s 14d, and Tins, 289d, 
4s 6", and 10s 6d each, by Tuomas Keatine, Chemists 
&c., 79 St Paul's Churchyard, London. Retail ‘by all 
Druggists and Patent Medicine Venders in the world. 
N.b.—-To prevent spurious imitations, please to 
observe that the words “KEATING'S COUGH LO- 
ZENGES” are engraven on the Government stamp of 
ach box, wituout which, none are genuine. 


|