The Result of the Election ^u>uld Mean Better Business—
Be on Your Guard Against the Rumor Factory—
Evidences of the Strength of Market.
The most important market happening of the week is per¬
fectly well known to every man, woman and child in'the country
and needs not be called to attention here. The Democrats were
railed at for inefficiency, reckless extravagance and waste, and
the Republicans were held up as the antithesis of all these crimes.
The public has accepted this version, and has turned the “whole
works” over to the Republicans to a greater extent than ever
before known, which gives them a free hand for the improvement
they promised, and the business world has a right to look to
them for it. Certainly they can offer no alibi for failure to de¬
liver, for they have everything their own way.
We expect they will deliver, not at once, because it will
take time to put in motion such an immense force, but the im¬
provements should begin to show at an early date, with a thor¬
oughly united country, all bent upon the one object, America
will not be herself if she fails to make good That should be con¬
sidered as cheerful market news. ,
As for this canning industry, as we point out in our Edi¬
torial this week, we can see nothing but the strongest kind of in¬
dications for the future. The market is dead at present, and Ayill
undoubtedly remain so until after the turn of the year, because no
considerable relief in financial circles can be looked for between
that time and the present, and moreover we .are approaching
the holiday season when canned foods always are .forced into a
back seat. These two conditions are always sufficient 'to keep
canned foods quiet at this season, and they will do so this year.
But once we turn into the new year, with the . retailors’ and
wholesalers’ floors and shelves practically empty—to an even
greater extent than ever before—and the holdings in canners’
hands, by no means excessive, if actually sufficient to meet
a normal demand, what is to stop a big and active demand for
canned foods? The market prices will have moved down in
the retailers’ hands, by that time, to proper figures at which the
public is always willing and anxous to use canned foods.
Last week we commented upon Mr. W. B, Timms' advice to
the retail grocers of the country to reprice their goods upon
the basis of replacement values, as the only way in which to
start the free movement of the goods, and writing us this week
be further explain.^ this, saying:
WARMINGTON, TIMMS & CO.
New York City, Nov. 3,vl920 * '
M*" A. I, Judge, Editor,^
The Canning Trade. . ., • •
Dear Mr. Judge: Thank you very much for yoiv comr '
ments on what I said at the Wilmington meeting in ybpf .*
JssHie of the first of November, xi. i'.
Your interpretation of my statement regarding the
effect of the Presidential election on the canned foods
business is correct. I understand, of course, that all busi¬
ness is affected more or less by political conditions, and,
now that we are assured of a new administration and new
policies, financial, manufacturing and mercantile interests
will look forward to different, and, as a rule, improved
As to its direct effect on the price of any variety of
canned goods, can only repeat what I meant to say at
Wilmington, that I do not believe that the election will
have any immediate or direct effect, and want to reiterate
what I have been trying to emphasize wherever the op¬
portunity has offered during the past few weeks, that until
the retailer, large and small, makes prices to the con¬
sumer that will interest them in canned foods, there can
be no material relief to packer or jobber. In other words,
canned foods must be consumed before market conditions
can materially improve.
This seems to be the general opinion in banking and
mercantile circles in all classes of staple necessities, as
well as foods.
W. B. TIMMS.
The market was somewhat disturbed by the report that
France was returning an immense amount of canned foods,
shipped there during the war, and that they would be offered
upon this market at low prices. In view ot our efforts to in¬
crease the export of canned foods this is a very sad commentary,
if true; because if we are to hope for such a trade it would seem
France and other foreign countries would willingly and gladly
keep the goods, then on hand, and which could be bought, un-
doubtely. at better prices than new goods shipped at this time.
But Mr. W. D. Breaker, of U. H. Dudley & Co., New York city, is
authority for the statement that he has investigated the matter
and finds, from the French Commercial Attache, that there will
be no canned foods offered in this country. Here is another
rumor ngjled for all time, and we warn our readers that the
rumor factory is working overtime and its product may be
taken with just as much confidence as this disproved specimen.
There are factors in canned- foods who seem to devote their
entire time to trying to tear down the market; never satisfied
how low prices go, but that they must try to get them lower.
In prlain terms, take an irresponsible broker and what does
he care about the price the canner receives, what difference is
ii to him whether the prices ruling are far below costs or not?
He makes his commission on the sales—if he can induce sales—
regardless of costs, and.so he will do anything to induce sales.
President Daily calls attention this week to one of the ways em-
' ployed, and he condems it, as do all reputable brokers, in very
‘ strong terms. But it is such rumors that are hurting the market
' t^ay, find the canner§ should know tfii$ and be on their guarejt
As Brokers View the Market
Baltimore, Md., November 6, 1920.
Are canned tomatoes about to reverse their position in the
market? The indications this week are not In the negative. What
goes up must come down, and the converse to that axiom is equally
true when applied to trafi9cing in staple commodities of any kind,
especially considering foods for human consumption. One does
not have to possess a long memory for happenings in the tomato
market, for instance, to dispute the correctness of that asserticm.
It has been one long, long trail of declining prices for that article,
without a single solitary rally at any stage of the downward move¬
ment, until today a dollar’s worth of them will fetdi only about
seventy cents in liquid cash in the open market. They still are a
staple article in any man’s business, jobber or retailer; they have
not gone or going out of fashion, and all that were canned in 1920
will be needed before next packing seascax rt^s around. If one
may judge by the character of the buying during this week, and
by the way the goods are being scattered to markets widely sep¬
arated, the basis of a feeling that the wwst has been reached and
passed is well grounded. It used to be the case some years ago
that three or four of the big cities of this country, by their heavy
buying, or not buying, could and did make or break the market, but
such is no longer a fact. Other big markets for tomatoes have
been developed in recent years with the growth of their local
p(H)ulation, and in normal times many of the so-called interior
jobbers purchased 10,000 cases to 25,000 cases of them at one time
and repeat their order before the following spring. To paraphrase
an old Scotch saying, “many a little bit makes much,” and one
must hand it to the Scotch for being far-sighted merchants. Buy
tomatoes at today’s prices and rest content, if you can spare the
Tlie canning season for spinach is rapidly drawing to a close
in Baltimore, next week will see the finish. For obvious reasons
the canners felt discouraged about stocking up for the winter and
spring trade, and, unless the consumption of it st(^8, there is likely
to be some improvement in prices by-and-by. There is as fine qual¬
ity spinach obtainable in Baltimore as can be made for particular
buyers, and there is some that was packed for sale at a price. We
have both kinds, the better quality for your private labels if you
like, and under factory labels.
Stringless beans are all in and done for this season, with the
October pack the lightest in a long time. The Baltimore canners
have not stocked them to anywhere near the usual expenses in
normal times, and the final outcome is not problematical as to
market prices unless the consumers substitute for them some other
article of green food. At present they are not active.
We have rather a ragged market on corn, so far as the prices
are concerned. The quotations range all the way from 82%c to
$1.00 dozen for the same quality of Maine style pack, according
to the ability of the owners to carry it. After Inventory time
with the jobbers is over and out of the way the situation is ex¬
pected to right itself. But why wait until then if you are in
position to buy now? Tliere was an improvement in demand
this week as compared with the previous week.
There was light buying this week of the other lines of vege¬
tables. The orders were for small quantities to fill out assorted
carload shipments or to fill up gaps in broken stocks. Sweet pota •
toes showed a little more life than any of the other articles, but
cprlot orders for them were scarce.
Canned fruits continue dull, with no developments of interest.
What few orders there were received this week would not fill
more than one or two cars altogether. Fortunately, the stocks of
them are so light that they will not bother the canners to carry
them until wanted.
Cove oysters show more life and the buying of them, at the
present attractive prices, increased largely over last week.
THOMAS J. MEEHAN & CO.
RADIUM—A NEW ELEMENT IN THE SAFETY MOVEMENT
Radium, the most mysterious and most powerful element
known to science, which has the greatest power of all discovered
oaorces of energy, has now been linked with the safety movement
and will lend its power to the prevention of avoidable accidents.
So great is its power that one gram is sufficient to raise a tcm
of water from the freezing to tie boiling point. If one ton of
It were harnessed to a ship equipped with 1600 H. P. engines, the
ship would be propelled at the rate of 15 knots an hour for thirty
Radium is best known to the world through its curative prop¬
erties in the treatment of cancer and through its commercial value
in making radium luminous material. The power of radiu was
made known only a few years ago through the efforts of a Polish
woan scientist, and a French and an American professor. Radium
now treats thousands of cases of cancer annually, preventing
death and eliminating a great deal of suffering. t
Radium’s role in industry as a life saver is less spectacular,
but perhaps even more important than it is as a thereapeutic
agent. The great mass of accidents in factories, in mines and in
other industrial institutions where darkness is a creator of
danger, are being eliminated through the newest invention of
science—radium luminous material. Radium illuminated watches
are familiar articles. The same material that illuminates these
Is now being employed in great factories on all power line switches
where fumbling might mean electrocution to the operator.
High pressure gauges, which are installed as an insurance
against dangers are deprived of a great deal of their safety value
through inconstant lifting. Hielr dependability as indicators
is increased tremendously through making them safe 24 hours
a day by the application of radium luminous material, which is
invariably luminous in the dark. Steam gauges and water gauges
of all sorts are making use of radium to increase safety.
Electric switches are often set in places which are unlit This
indndes electric lighting equipment whirii is usually visible only
after the light it controls has been turned on. A spot of radium
luminous material on the bottom or switch makes them easily
located in the dark, so that in emergency they maye quickly be
made use of.
Likewise, a fire alarm or a fire extinguisher is deprived of a
good deal of Its efficiency through being invisible in the dark.
Radium luminous material acts as a quick locater for them. Tele¬
phones which are often necessarily found quickly in the dark in
emergencies, various emergency call bells, and revolvers are made
more useful through the application of undark. Gun sights, illumi¬
nated, insure accuracy of aim in the dark. The need of laminating
poison bottles, so that they may stand out warnlngly in the dark
has been demonstrated too often to need further dwelling on. An
interesting safety device is the safe combination, whose dial is
radium laminated, so that no artificial light need be used for it
The industrial uses of radium luminous material are many.
Bolts that are necessarily attached to the dark under portions of
machines and equipped are being touched with dabs of this
luminous material with a consequent great saving of bloodshed.
In mines where the carrying of oil lamps or the placing of electric
lighting equipment is not feasible, radium has been found to be a
boon to humanity. There are dark comers In the dark under¬
ground channels which miners must traverse, comers! where
danger lurks—these are made safe through the unvarying lumi¬
nosity of radium.
The value of radium to mariners is commencing to be recog¬
nized. Not only the compass dials, but the steering wheels, the
gauges and other instraments which should be instantly and unin¬
terruptedly visible have been touched with radium. Motorists,
motorcyclists and the operators of any machinery which has in¬
dicating dials or gauges which tell of the speed of the motor or
the quantity and mixture of fuels and oils, are finding the solution
of their difficulties in radium luminous material. The hazard of
uncertainty has been reduced.
THE CANNING TRADE.
FIG. 2 SHOWS OPENING BE¬
TWEEN BUCKETS “X" AND
“Z" COVERED BY ROTARY^
APRON “D" SO PEAS WILL
NOT BE SPttliX).
FIG. 3 SHOWS POCKET •V*
EMPTYING INTO BUCKET “Z^
THERE IS NO CHANCE FOR PEAS
TO SPILL FOR APRON COVERSv
THE BUCKETS ON ENDS AS WELL
THIS SPACE NEVER LESS
THAN V SO PEAS WILL
NOT CUT OR CRUSH /
The Hansen Sanitary Conveyor Boot
“A DWARF IN SIZE BUT A GIANT FOR WORK”
Ned E. Fletcher, Secretary of the Hustisford Canning Co., Hustisford, Wis., Says:
“We are mighty glad that we threw out our old elevator boots and installed HANSEN BOOTS in their place
for it has cut our pea wtwte down to almost zero. As to sanitation, the easy accessibility of its parts made it possible
for us to keep them thoroughly clean at all times.”
Hundreds off Others are Equally Enthusiastic
You will be doing yourself an injustice if you do not investigate the merits of this machine by sending for catalc^ today
THE WISCONSIN CHAIR COMPANY
CUIIM HUaiKin NVISIWI PORT WASHIHQTON, WIS.
THE dAMKlKO TEADfi.
NEW YORK MARKET
Buyers Not In the Market This Week—Only Small Amounts
for Immediate Needs Being Taken—^Tomatoes Show Fur¬
ther Weakness—Some Offerings Continue to Be Made
—Com Should Be in Good Demand at Presmit
Prices—A Word About Each Article-
Picked Up in This Market
Reported bv Telegraph.
New York, November 5, 1920.
The Situation—With the week broken by the election holi¬
day the market has not been quite as brisk as it was the week
before, and that means rather dull. No buyer, so far as reported,
came into the market for large lots, and no buyer showed interesr
beyond obtaining the comparatively small lots wanted for Imme¬
diate use. Buying for the future seems to be no more and con¬
ditions hardly seem to warrant the expectatitm that mucn Im¬
provement can be expected in the near future. Where buyers do
take hold they take very little stock. With the approach of winter
canners are becoming somewhat alarmed. This is especially true
of canners who have insufficient or improper storage facilities for
holding tomatoes until a market develops. In former years coun¬
try canners have been able to ship their tomatoes to heated ware¬
houses in the large centers, but the situation this year is not so
simple and canners fear serious damage through freezing. Prob¬
ably in some degree this same condition holds goods of all articles.
The differences l)eing in the quantity which needs storage rather
than anything else. Buyers are not operating and until they do
the market will present nothing more than it does now. Circum¬
stances do not seem to favor holders and the tendency Is down¬
ward rather than upward. While no additional weakness of im¬
portance has developed during the week, the fact that no strength
has develoi)ed is at least a negative indication that the market is
not improvng. Sellers have ceased to seek buyers. They consder
the influence of such action is too dangerous and is more than
likely to result in a weaker market. It is certain that holders
would welcome some improvement, no matter how slight, which
might indicate that better times are coming.
Tomatoes—The week has shown increased weakness in
the market for Southern tomatoes. Prices have been quoted still
lower and one doesn’t like to estimate what price might be ob¬
tained if a buyer with cash sought supplies. Standard No. 2s are
still held at 70c, but it seemed certain that some reduction might
be obtained by a buyer with money who made a firm offer. Some
holders are clearly anxious to sell and rather than run the risk of
losing more they would let their stock go under the present market.
No. 3 standards were quoted at $1.05al.l0, but even this figure
could be shaded, it was said, by a purchaser who had money. No.
10s are quoted at f4.00 f. o. b. Baltimore, but the factory price
was given as $3.75. Standard No. Is are held at 55a57^c f. o. b.
cannery. Extra standard No. Ss are held at $1.20 Baltimore and
$1.15 cannery. So far as the spot market is concerned the quan¬
tity sold this week was too small to make much difference in the
situation and few showed any inclinatimi to even make inquiries.
Holders are still offering at reduced prices, individual sales count¬
ing for themselves alone, and exerting no influence whatever upon
the next sale. Canners are unable to dispose of their holdings and
some are not in position to store them through the cold weather.
It looks like a rather serious situation for some before the matter
is straightened out.
Corn—Buying is merely routine. Prices have reached
the point in declines where more attention Is given to Southern
and Western packs. Maine style standards have been quoted as
low as 85c factory, with extra standards at 95c. It would appear
as though these prices ought to create a healthy consuming de¬
ment seems to better, as yet it has been insufficient to remove
ment seems to be better as yet. It has been insufficient to remove
the undertone of weakness which has characterized the market
for weeks. In other varieties no change Is reported and It is only
the low figures named for these two padrs that is attracting buy¬
ers ; and even though these prices are the lowest this season, buy¬
ers are looking for still further reductions and refuse to buy free¬
ly because they appear to think that quotations; are likely to de¬
cline still more.
Peas—The situation has shown a shade of improvement,
and most varieties have been held at firm prices all the wedr. No
one variety appears to be more wanted than any other, all seem to
share to some extent in the improvement and are selling fairly well
in small lots. Holders are asking full outside prices and are refus¬
ing to make any change in their prices or to accept reductions on
lots either small'or large. ^
Spinach—A quiet market for Southern pack is reported,
with No. 3 new pack held unchanged at $1.50al.60 on spot. Buy¬
ers are not taking hold freely, but there'is ^some interest shown in
small lots. - '
Pumpkin—Southern pack has been a shade more active,
and sales have improved to some extent during the week. But
like everything else the buyer is looking only for small lots and
prices are made for each individual transaction.
Sweet Potatoes — Holders are urging sales somewhat,
though it cannot be learned that they are cutting prices to stimu¬
late movement. Perhaps it would make no difference if they did.
The market as a whole seems to be fair, but the general disposition
to buy in small lots only is manifest here as elsewhere.
Fruits—^The market has been apathetic all the week, and
this has followed other weeks in which the same conditions pre¬
vailed. Ix>cal resales of the new packs have been small and no
further cash buying has developed, making the market flat from
top to bottom. Old goods are being cleared up on the spot, but it
is rather difficult work as quality is lacking in most instances and
the buyer shows little desire to take on the stocks now available.
Pincnpple—-The market is about steady at opening prices
on all grades and <hi some of the better ones as much as 5a7% per
cent over. Buying at the moment is reduced to small lots.
Apples—The market ruled easy all the week, with demand
small and showing little increase. Early contracts covered most
anttcipated wants and buyers show an inclination to postpone ac-
ticHi in filling their future requirements, at least for a time.
Poaches—New pack are offered in some quantity, with a
little attention given to No. 3%s, but the buying is so small that
it doesn’t amount to much. Holders seem to be indifferent re¬
garding the probable future of the business, while buyers show
little indication of getting into action. The situation is practically
a deadlock at the moment, with little indication of a break. Near¬
ly all buyers profess themselves sufficiently stocked for the time,
and with retail trade as light as it is now the outlook for in¬
creased movement is not promising.
Salmon—The week has been quiet, the same as the previ¬
ous v/eek. Domestic trade channels have not yet broadened, but
there has l)een a little export inquiry for pinks. This inquiry has
not yet been translated into sales and some? profess to think it will
not be. Bed Alaska continues steady on the spot, with sales
mainly in small blocks out of stocks held this market Medium
red has been neglected, while pinks have been offered at irregular
prices for old stock. No demand exists at present for any grade
excepting what is wanted for immediate use, and obviously that
demand is light, with little signs of improvement
Sardines—Maine pack continue easy and weak. The situ¬
ation favors the buyers, but he is not anxious to increase his hold¬
ings and the mere fact that market conditions favor him means
nothing. Sales do not increase. No buyer wants to place orders
ahead and the export demand is insufficient to add tone to the
situation. 'The packing season is about over, but the buyer ex¬
presses no fear of a shortage, even though the pack has been
light. He expects to be able to secure all he wants just the same
as though the pack had been large. Other sardines are selling in
a routine way only.
'Tuna—No special feature has developed. Buying is in a
routine way and few purchasers show any important desire to add
to their holdings. Sufficient is held in local warehouses to satisfy
the present small requirements of the market.
PICKED UP IN PASSING
The same general conditions prevail in the retail end of the
business which have characterized the trade for a long time-
Consumers are not taking their usual quantities. Housewives
are confining their purchases to one can of one variety, where
heretofore they have bought a number of cans of different va¬
rieties. Retailers say that it seems! impossible to interest
them in any large purchases, even reduced prices having no
apparent influence upon them. With retail ditribution in such
position it is, of course, hard for jobbers to sell and the
stream of trade is dammed at the retail counter, as it is in other
Tnes. Sometimes it is price that does it, but more often it
seems to be the determination of the housewife not to buy be¬
yond actual requirements, and these she makes as light as cir¬
cumstances admit. She is showing no inclination to increase
her purchases and apparently has learned the lesson of thrift
rather more emphatically than sellers of various food commodi¬
ties wanted to have her. It will require time to re-educate her
up to the former liberal buying.
According to one letter from the Sobth a fair increase in
, orders for tomatoes has been noted during the past week- With
toipatoes selling below the cost of packing, and with the output
considerably below the average, some buyers are coming to con¬
sider them a good purchaser and are acting accordingly. But as
vet the action of these few' has not been contagious and most
buyers are still ipdifferent.
THE CANNING TRADE.
Frank C. Pearce and Charles Pearce, of Frank C. Pearce
& Co., Gloucester, Mass., have been trade visitors this week,
making headquarters with Warmington, Timms & Co.
The general slump in prices has turned the business world
of the country upside down during the past few weeks and
canned foods are suffering from the results, the same as many
other commodities. When the change will come no one can
With the closing of the large factory of the Booth Fisheries
Company, at Eastport, Me., four of the large independent sardine
canneries are idle and will be for the coming seven months. Be¬
fore the week is ended it is said that other canners will have
received their last supplies of fish for this season. Many workers
are idle because of the early closing of this important industry.
In past years conditions were such that the industry made
Eastport, but recent seasons the industry has flourished only a
few months in the year and the employes have been forced to
seek other work to carry them through the idle part of the
year. With the closing of the ten canneries and the other
shops which go with them not much more will be done this
season. The time for closing has( been toward the last of
November, but this year it is a full month earlier than that.
Japanese have organized two corporations to open can¬
neries near San Jose, Calif., and the American Legion has for¬
warded copies of the incorporation papers to Washington to
learn whether or not the action is legal under State and United
States laws. The two canneries will each have a capital stock
of $10,000, all of which has already been subscribed, but Cali¬
fornia is so sensitive about the Japanese that this proposition
will be subjected to the closest scrutiny before it is permitted
to go through.
The great quantity of fresh fruit available, and reduced prices
these last few weeks, is exerting some influence upon the sale
of canned sorts. Never before has the New York market been
so plentifully supplied with fresh fruits, and they are still coming
forward in unprecedented volume. While the disposition has
been to hold up prices, lately they have begun to come down,
and are now approaching what buyers believe to be normal
quotations. The effect upon the canned foods trade, especially
upon fruits, has been to retard movement considerably and
buyers have acted more conservatively than they probably would
have done if fresh fruit had not been so plentiful.
Warmington, Timms & Co., in a circular just sent to the
trade, say that if retailers price food products in accordance
with the views of the economic housewife, they will do much
to improve trade, and they point out that numerous items in the
canned foods list would be stimulated by such action.
Carl Weisl, of U. H. Dudley & Co., is back at his desk
after a brief visit to the sardine canning factories at East-
A slightly better feeling seems developing in the canned
foods situation, and more buying of small lots is in progress as
the week closes. Movement into consumption continues re¬
stricted, as it has been. “HUDSON.”
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- 8 L E 8 OFFICES
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» . ‘
I . . —— '
A Political Review—Some of the Reasons for the Election
Result—Some Business Showing — In dia n a Offering
Tomatoes—^Rumor of Large Cmn Pack-
Some Bargains to Be Found
Reported by Telegram
Chicago, Ill., November 5, 1920.
Well! Jerusalem crickets! They must have failed to
count my vote! Maybe they counted it for Harding. There
certainly ought to be a recount, as the country seems to be
What’s the matter? Just a few conditions, viz:
The countrj' was and is tired of war and its concomitant
greed and profiteering.
It was tired of being bothered about European and Asiatic
affairs, and of having to read in the newspapers daily and hourly
a lot of names that begin with a spit and end with a sneeze, and
which when bunched sound like a pack of fire crackers at work.
The pe<^le are tired of artificial conditions and want to get back to
normal. They are tired of tag days and importunities for money
from every source and for every cause that the ingenunity of
mendicancy can invent. They are tired of propagandists and pro-
motionists who are too strong for light work and too weak for
heavy work and therefore wont work as long as they can work
some one else.
They are tired of all the disturbances and distortions Russian,
Polish, German, Austrian, Greek, Turk, Irish, Czeck-Slovak, Jew¬
ish, Armenian and feel toward them like Horace Greeley did to¬
ward things when he was vexed and was asked to contribute to¬
ward building a church. He said that he did not think that there
were more than half the people in hell now that there should be.
They are tired of crime and criminals, which whiskey and
drunkenness have built up in our land, and they believed thfit
the infiuence of whiskey was supporting the Democratic ticket.
They w’ere tired of paternalism and the regulaticn of business
by a lot of political boobs who w’ere not competent to run a lemon¬
ade stand. They were tired of extravagance and waste of puolic
funds, and of the constant and stupid nagging and disagreement
between the legislative and the executive departments of our Gov¬
ernment, resulting in nothing being done toward the helpfulness
which the country now needs in readjusting its affairs. It was
tired of partisan politics and hungry for some unselfish, upbuilding,
co-ordinating and co-operating patriotism.
Therefore, it concluded to have but one party in executive,
legislative and other affairs in order to get things done. The
change was w’anted and came very nearly being unanimous.
This is an analysis of some of the causes, from my viewpoint,
and I have always voted the Democratic ticket. There is much,
very much to be said for the Democratic party, and its achieve¬
ments during four years past, but it is dead and its resurrection
is a long, long way in the future.
Changing Conditions—Now that the election is settled,
business seems to have taken on some speed. I sold today 2,000
cases canned com, 2,000 cases canned peas and a car of Cali¬
fornia fruit, not to mention a few smaller orders. Feels like old
times a little. Maybe it was a change of government the market
needed. If so, it got what it needed—some change! What?
Canned Tomatoes—Indiana is offering some nice toma¬
toes and her prices, freights comparatively considered, are about
as low as Eastern prices. I have seen some samples of Indiana
extra standard tomatoes today which looked fancy to me or
Canned Com—A rumor reports a big output of canned
corn and there is a strong pressure to sell, but no matter how low
a price one makes buyers will make lower offers. Wisconsin is
selling some standard com at 95c and extra standard at $1.00
f. o. b. cannery. Ohio is asking for offers on standard and extra
standard canned corn.
Canned Peas—^Wisconsin canners are putting what sur¬
plus they have left into winter storage. Some are shilling to
Chicago warehouses and are taking up about all the available
space to be had. which is small. Prices on canned peas are advanc¬
ing now that the lots that were badly stored are out of the way,
having mostly been sold or winter stored. The cheap lots of sub-
standards are about closed out. Some good bargains were had by
wholesalers during the pressure period, but only a few houses
were so situated as to take advantage of the opportunities, "nie
market has steadied and is stronger all along the line of grades
and qualities. WRANGLER
HOW MUCH IS A DOLLAR
We hear a great deal about “getting back to normal’’
but the trouble is thot no one knows just where normal
is. We don’t know just what the value of the dollar is
going to be. On the answer to that question hangs the
solution of the problem as to what is a fair price basis on
which this nation can conduct its business.
If we have reached a new standard of living, adding
enormously to the size and scope of the general buying
public, and if the old dollar has a new value, the quicker
w'e realize it, the sooner the wild goose chase “back to
normal’’ will be ended.
Whereas the dollar of yesterday was worth less than
50 cents, it is today approaching its full value. Now
is the time to build firmly and substantially. Practical
judgment, based on common sense, high ideals and faith
unimpaired by fear, will carry the business man of to¬
day ahead farther than ever before. We are reaching the
We believe that conditions justify the expectation
that the money situation will be greatly improved by
December; we believe that the cure of speculation is al¬
ready discounting the better conditions that will come in
1921 and that business men should now lay their plans
for increased activity and more aggressive policies next
ASSOCIATION MEETING DATES.
The time is approaching when the State and local associa¬
tions of canners will hold their fall or annual meetings. Notice
of these meetings will be given here, and we urge the secre¬
taries to send us announcement of such meetings promptly and
as far ahead of the meeting date as possible.
November 0, 10, 11, 1020—^Wisconsin Pea Packers’ Associa¬
tion, at Hotel Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Annual meeting.
In connection herewith the Vegetable and Fruit Packers’
Auxiliary of Wisconsin will meet at the same place on
November 16 to 17th—Indiana Canners at Indianapolis. An¬
nual meeting. Hotel to be named later.
November—Western Canners at Chicago, date and hotel to be
Illinois Canners Association to meet at same time and
place as Western.
December 1—Maine Canners’ Association, place of meeting an¬
December 1, 2 and 3—Minnesota Canners’ Association, approxi¬
mate dates, place of meeting announced later.
December 2 and 3, 1920—’Tri-State Canners, at Philadelphia,
Hotel Adelphia. Annual meeting.
December 6i—Michigan Canners’ Association, place of meeting
December 7 and 8 —Ohio Canners’ Association, place of meet¬
ing announced later.
December 8, 9, 1920—New York State Canners at Powers
Hotel, Rochester. Annual meeting.
January 12, 1921—Colorado Canners’ Association, Denver, Col.
January 14, 1921—Utah Canners’ Association, place of meeting
January 17 to 21, 1921—National Convention, Canners Mach¬
inery and Supply Men, Brokers, Machinery Exhibit at At¬
lantic City. No hotel headquarters. Meetings will be held
at all prominent hotels.
THE CANNING TRADE.
More and more shippers are discovering the
secret of real shipping economy.
Here’s the password—Embry—4—One Boxes.
Brickbats, beans, bananas and baby carriages
—practically everything that can be shipped at
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with the patented wirebound principle. Tough,
steel wire carries the peak of the load.
The boxes are therefore lighter in weight,
stronger in construction, easier to pack, easier
to close, easier to handle and practically pilfer-
Result: Saving of time, labor, money, goods,
freight and customers.
Write for further information today.
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Branch of Embry Box Ck).
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AT ACTUAL COST
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104 South Michigan Avenue
Officially endorsed by National Canners’ Association
1 When you think of seeds of any
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BUSINESS ESTABUSHED 1784
THE CANNING TRADE.
» I --—I I p
Some Improvement Noted in Demand—^Export Business Lack¬
ing—A Few Firms Still Parking Tomatoes—Farmers’
Convention Tliis Week—^Young Lady Wins Prize
Peach Contest—No Premiums on Pineapple
this Year—Coast Notes.
Reported by TeleKtabh.
San Francisco, November 6, 1920.
The Market—A slight improvement has been noted in de¬
mand for canned foods during the week, but this is still very
weak. The wholesale grocery trade, with heavy sugar losses
still fresh in its memory, is in no mood to make heavy pur¬
chases in anticipation of future business, and retailers are just
as conservative. The California canning trade did not make
preparations for much export business, but the little that was
in sight seems to have vanished, due to industrial troubles in
England and unsettled conditions in many other countries.
Some goods are being sent to the Orient, but the demand there
is still comparatively light, and will do little to relieve the
situation. In almost every line there has been a curtailed
pack this year, but it is also true that there is a holdover
of both fruits and vegetables from last season, with consump¬
tion restricted because of the high prices that are necessary.
Tomatoes—Tomato packing is still on, but Is being con¬
fined to a few firms, and these are operating on goods con¬
tracted for early in the season. As practically all of these
expired the first of November, but little canning will be done
from now on. Those who pack tomatoes in November will
doubtless pay a very low price for stock and confine their
output to puree. There are no changes in market fuotatlons
here for canned tomatoes, but the feeling seems to be general
that a stiffening may be expected as soon as full pack statistics
Farmers’ Convention—Charles H. Bentley, vice-president
and sales manager of the California Packing Corporation, has
accepted an invitation to address the California Fruit Growers’
and Farmers’ Convention, to be held at Fresno, November 9
to 12. He will speak on the problems confronting packers
and growers of fruits and vegetables, with special reference
to the need of extending existing markets to care for the great
increase to be expected in this State within the next few years.
Prize Peaches—The first annual contest among growers
of canning peaches, organized by the Sutter County Farm
Bureau last spring, came to a close recently, and prizes have
been awarded by the Canners’ League of California. The first
prize was won by Miss Lanie M. Wilbur, who also received
a number of awards in special competitions. The grand prize
was awarded for her orchard of Philips clings, and those who
saw it declare that this is undoubtedly the finest in the State,
if not in the world. So successful was the contest that plans
are now being made for making it of State-wide scope, instead
of sectional in character. The University Farm authorities
have offered to co-operate in interesting peach growers to sys¬
tematize their canning peach-growing methods, and a lively
contest is promised. Farm Adviser C. E. Sullivan Is in favor
of the State-wide contest, and has expressed the opinion that
canners will be glad to donate the cups and ribbons and other¬
wise promote the event. Robert Hofgson, farm adviser of
Los Angeles County, recently inspected the winning peach
orchards in Sutter County and stated that he would seek to
introduce new cultural methods in Southern California
The long-established plan of Los Angeles firms in pur¬
chasing and packing Northern California products and ship¬
ping them East under Southern California labels will come
to an end if the advice of the Sutter County Farm Bureau is
followed by growers. A special appeal is being made to have
all the products of that county go out under Northern Cali¬
fornia brands in order to secure rightful recognition.
Pineapple—While Hawaiian pineapple is not commanding
the premium over opening prices that prevailed a few months
ago, the demand for this fruit is keeping up well, and the
trade is accepting deliveries without question, something that
is not true in all lines. Every steamer coming from the
Islands is loaded to capacity, and it will be several months
before the entire pack can be moved to the mainland. Many
large tracts of land are now being planted to pineapples, can¬
neries are being enlarged, and the output will show an in¬
crease for several years to come.
Importers at San Francisco have been advised that the
Minister of Commerce at Melbourne, Australia, has decided to
institute a system of grading in the packing of Jams, fruits and
other goods, owing to complaints from other countries that
goods have arrived below sample and in a damaged condition.
A standard type of tin Is to be compulsory, the date of manu¬
facture is to be stamped on containers, and supervision will
be exercised over packing to secure a more uniform product.
The Olive growers of Tulare County, Cal., have organized
a permanent association, with W. B. Kiggens, president, and
R. M. Carr, secretary. The Tulare County crop is estimated
at about 5,500 tons, and a committee, consisting of C. W.
Bramswell, of Lindsay; B. J. Morey, of Strathmore and Por¬
terville; L. J. Williams, of Orosi, and A. E. Imber, of Delano,
have been named a committee to sell the output. The pre¬
vailing price is $160 a ton, but buyers seem disposed to make
offers for small quantities only. A large part of the crop
will doubtless be converted into oil. Unless a market de¬
velops at once, the plant of the California Co-operative Can¬
neries, at Visalia, will be converted into an oil manufacturing
Libby, McNeill & Libby has purchased 1,077 acres on
Tyler Island, in the Sacramento River delta, and will plant
this to asparagus to supply its plants in that section.
A new pineapple company, headed by C. H. Will, of Hilo,
T. H., has taken over land near that place, and plans to erect
The formal opening of hte new plant of the Ehmann Olive
Company, at Oroville, Cal., the largest olive-packing plant in
the world, will take place on November 15, which is also the
opening day of the Oroville Orange and Olive Exposition.
Work is being rushed on the erection of the new cannery
of the Hickmott Cannery Company, at Antioch, Cal. The plant
will be in a completed form well in advance of the opening
of the asparagus-packing season.
The San Leandro Canning Company, of San Leandro,
Cal., is making plans to dispose of $150,000 of its capital
stock to fruit and vegetable growers, and will devote the pro¬
ceeds to enlarging the capacity of the present cannery. About
50,000 cases of fruits were packed during the season just
The California Pacific Sea Food Company has been
granted a permit to dispose of an issue of capital stock and
to invest the proceeds in a fish cannery at San Diego, Cal.
W. J. English arrived at San Francisco from Honolulu.
T. H., a short time ago, and announces that the packing of
fish caught in Hawaiian waters will soon assume large propor¬
tions, packing facilities there having been greatly enlarged.
Canners doing an Export Business have found it
especially desirable to use Containers with their name
and Brand Lithographed on the Metal,—in place of paper
labels. Attractive containers of a similar style for
Domestic Distribution tend also to increased sales—par¬
ticularly is this true of canned foods prepared for an
Morever—the additional expense involved is not
as great as generally supposed.
Write us for particulars ,
Southern Can Company
THE PRE-WAR PACE WON’T DO
THINGS GO BY DOUBLES NOW
AND THE “DUPLEX”
KEEPS THE PACE
The No. 260 Automatic
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ends per minute.
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CAMEROM CAN MACHINERY CO.
SucccMon to TORRIS WOLD & CO.
No change of ownership, personnel or location
CHICAGO, U. S. A
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CREDif MEN CONDEMN CANCELLATION OF
The National Association of Credit Men recently
adopted by its Credit Co-operation and Credit Methods
Executive Committee an important resolution. . .
The members of the Credit Co-operation and Credit
Methods Executive Committee are as follows:
Mr. H. F. Barker, Belcher-Loois Hardware Com¬
pany, Providence, R. I., chairman; Mr. H. W. Utter,
Qaflins, Inc., New York City; Mr. H. W. Angevine.
Hyatt Roller Bearing Company, Newark; Mr. Stanley L.
Butler, Ajax Rubber Company, New York City; Mr. C.
D. Mixter Wickwire Spencer Steel Corporation Wor¬
cester Mass.; Mr. J. H. Roy, Sweet-Orr Company,, Inc.,
New York City; Mr. Frank H. Skinner, Janeway & Car¬
penter, New Brunswick, N. J.; Mr. William J. Leonard.
Gibson Snow & Co., Albany, N. Y.
The statement adopted by the Committee is as fol¬
“War not only destroys life and property, but fre¬
quently ideals. Unrest and discord have followed in the
wake of the Great War and the Committee at the outset
of its work emphasized the great need of co-operation in
all credit relations. The co-operative principle has per¬
formed wonders as an ally for the building up of stu¬
pendous commerce and disastrous results would follow
any diminution of this principle in the human relation¬
“Credit departments and credit grantors are urged
to defend the principle in their relations with others and
to make it a supreme guide in the nation’s commerce
and in the working out of its economic problems. No
time within the nation’s history demanded more largely
the control of co-operation, and the exercise of it will
assist largely in the bringing in of peace and rest.
Cancellation of Orders.
“One of the most serious questions in the commercial
field, and during recent days, was the enormous sum
of orders cancelled when they had been placed in good
faith and were accepted as legitimate business. Cancel¬
lations were a strong contributing cause to business hesi¬
tation. Cancellations have required the shutting down
of some industrial plants. The practice is not incident
to this nation alone, but reflects a certain human element
which is brought into play under conditions of fear and
alarm, and will destroy composure except where business
conscience and a common sense appreciation of causes
and effects are in control.
Speculation to Blame.
“A careful analysis of the causes leading to the
numerous and extravagant cancellations in recent months
leads us back into the period when equally extravagant
and specultive buying was causing many merchants to
lose their good sense and judgment. Commodities were
produced and bought on a rising market, with the ex¬
pectation that a resale of them would produce big profits,
and this was done without any thought of the future,
when conditions might change and alter the entire com¬
plexion of affairs.
“Prices reached their peak when stocks of commodities
had been accumulated beyond the average need of busi¬
ness. At this period cut price sales were featured in
some of the large retail stores, the newspapers featured
campaigns for lower prices, all of which aroused an un¬
warranted expectation with the consuming public of a
rapid decline in prices, imbued the merchant with a strong
feeling of fear, and resulted in a scramble to unload stocks
and the cancellation of unexecuted orders with the ex¬
pectation that the same commodities could be rebought
at lower prices.
Effect of Price Changes.
“The Committee was very strongly of the opinion
that much of the publicity given to anticipated lower
prices was injudicious and caused expectations that could
not be confirmed. The Committee regarded it as just,
however, to place certain responsibilities for cancella¬
tions on the selling houses. Salesmen urged merchants
to buy beyond their needs representing that commodities
would be difficult to get, that prices would not decline,
but probably have further rises and that provision should
be made against these contingencies. The reaction to
this unwise period, just as the Association anticipated
and endeavored to prevent, was cancellations of a seri¬
ous type and which interrupted the natural flow of busi¬
“To provide a remedy for cancellations the Com¬
mittee urges good sense and honesty in the sale and pur¬
chase of commodities. The buyer should not be urged
to purchase beyond his needs; he should be sold in gooQ
faith and buy in good faith. When the orders were placed
it were better to have it in an enforcible form, that is.
carry the written confirmation of the buyer, but even
better than this, the order should have the support of
a strong conscience which will confirm contracts no
matter what has happened or is anticipated.
Must Avoid Panic.
“The American temperament is of an easy-going
type. Abuses are not at all difficult to bring about in
American commerce because of this temperament. It is
time, however, as the Committee sizes up the situation
for the control of care and good business judgent in the
selling and buying of commodities. The entire business
community .should be gripped by a .strong business con¬
science which will not under any circumstances allow
actions that often approach business indecencies. The
impelling power of fear is difficult to overcome in eco¬
nomic crises, and nothing is more desirable in the opinion
of the Committee, than to broaden the knowledge of eco¬
nomic laws and urge merchants to understand and in¬
terpret conditions without fear or panic.
“The Committee urges wide publicity to this minute
on cancellations so that the entire nation may under¬
stand the ill effect and the waste which always attend a
declination to accept commodities bought in good faith.
The Publicity Department of the National and local
Associations are urged to assist in a thorough distribu¬
tion of these conclusions.
Should Observe Terms of Sale.
“Failure to conform with terms of sale, and espe¬
cially cash discount terms, is one of the nation’s biggest
and most expensive trade abuses. It were impossible to
calculate the annual cost to business for additional time
arbitrarily taken or conceded in the payment of accounts
and in the taking of discounts after the expiration of the
period in which they should properly be deducted.
“This is a subject also of deep interest to business
economy, and the proper treatment of it will react favor¬
ably on commerce and give greater stability to our credit
Terms and Discounts.
“At this period when business is marking time com¬
petition may lead to the selling of terms rather than to
the selling of commodities. Such a drift will be ex-
THE CANNING TRADE.
Stevenson Automatic Lock Seam
Body Forming Machine
This machine is adapted for Form¬
ing, Locking and Soldering the
Ix^iea of either round, sc^uare or ir¬
regular cans, and is furnished with
soldering attachment for soldering
the bodies, or without soldering at-
tachnent, also with or without notch¬
ing attachment for dry products.
The body blanks can be fed by hand
to the machine, or it can be equip¬
ped with a feeding attachment.
The machine is easy of adjustment,
and can be quickly changed for
various size cans; is constructed of
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and improved mechanical con¬
Prices and full information on
We Make the Following Sizes:
2^ to 4^ in. Diam. Leneth in.
4 “ 8 % •• " '• 10 *•
STEVENSON & CO., Inc.
601*7 S. Caroline SL
Evaporated and Coademed Milk CANS Fruit and Vegetable CANS Oyster and Shrimp CANS
RHEI-RS OAIM OOMRAIMY
Foot of Lawrence Street, Baltimore, Md.
Weirton, Hancock Co., Weat Va.
PMEUPS OAIN COMPANY
THE CANNING TRADE.
ceedingly unfortunate in the opinion of the Committee,
and it is strongly urged that competition should be con¬
fined to goods and prices and never to terms. Terms
shoould be brief, datings should be reasonable, and the
cash discount allowed for a short period and in a sum
conforming with the nation’s banking powers. The Com¬
mittee regards as very desirable the bringing about by
understanding and agreement of a close uniformity in
datings and cash discount terms.
“An emphatic attitude on these abuses must be taken
by credit grantors. Buyers of commodities must be made
to understand that where terms and not commodities are
bought, and where cash discounts are improperly taken,
that the costs eventually fall on them, and that it were
more economic in the long run to buy commodities and
observe sales terms, especially pash discount terms.”
WHAT DOES “DISCOUNT FOR CASH” MEAN?
The National Wholesale Grocers’ Association Issues a
Mr. B. D. Crane, Chairman of the Cash Discount
Committee of the National Wholesale Grocers’ Associa¬
tion, has just issued a pamphlet on the subject, treating
the matter much in the style of a catachism, with ques¬
tions and answers. Our readers will find this interest¬
ing. We give the pamphlet in full:
Q. What is cash discount?
A. The Century Dictionary calls it “An allowance or
deduction generally of so much per cent made for pre¬
payments or prompt payment of a bill or account; a sum-
deducted in consideration of cash payment from the price
of a thing usually sold on credit; any deduction from the
customary price, or from a sum due or to be due at a
Q. Are discounts customary in the wholesale gracery
A. Almost invariably so.
Q. Are they uniform ?
A. No. They vary and are matters of contract and
Q. Why does the seller offer a cash discount?
A. To induce the buyer to anticipate payment of bill.
Q. Is the seller released from terms of contract be¬
cause the buyer has anticipated payment?
A. Not unless so named in the contract or specifically
agreed to between buyer and seller.
Q. May the seller demand a lesser discount than
named in contract or invoice?
A. Only by consent of the buyer.
Q. What are some of the benefits accruing to the
seller from the cash discount practice?
A. Quicker possession and use of the money; more
rapid turnover of capital and stock; lessening of moral
and credit risk; insurance against bad debts; cultivation
of courtesy and good will, etc.
Q. Why does the buyer discount his bills in the
A. The discount allowed is usually greater than the
actual interest rate on money and the buyer is willing to
assume prepayment and risk on account of this difference.
Q. Has the buyer a right to take a greater discount
than named in the contract and invoice ?
A- Positively no,
Q. Has the buyer the right to take a discount after
the date of ejtpiration named in the contract and in¬
A. Again positively no.
Q. What is the meaning of 2 per cent, for cash in
ten days or thirty days net?
A. Payments must be made in ten days from date of
invoice, or the buyer may pay in thirty days and void the
Q. May the buyer take both time and discount?
A. Never except by voluntary consent of the seller.
Q. How should payment be made by buyer?
A. By cash, check or draft free of any exchange
collection charge to the seller.
Q. What is the buyer’s usual understanding of ten
A. That he has the privilege of making remittance
in ten days from date of invoice and he does not under¬
stand that remittance shall reach the seller in such time.
Q. Has the buyer a right to take a greater discount
than named in contract or invoice?
Q. Has the buyer a right to take a, or any discount
after the discount period has lapsed?
A. No. Except by agreement.
Q, Is the National Wholesale Grocers’ Association
pledged to the wisdom of the practice of cash discounts?
A. Yes, by custom, usage and resolution.
Q. What is the meaning of “usual terms”?
A. Terms fixed by custom or contract and considered
as well established and general in the trade.
Q. Give illustration.
A. Where a sale is made of California Evaporated
Fruits and terms are named “usual’’ this would mean that
the seller will allow such a discount as is allowed by the
shipper from California and the buyer accepts such terms
Q. Should manufacturers prepay freight when goods
are sold prepaid or delivered?
A. Because the buyer is entitled to discount the in¬
voice at the delivered price of the goods, and because
the buyeil will not be compelled to charge back the
freights and because it leaves no reason or excuse for
the buyer to wait beyond the usual ten-day period, and
because the buyer allows discount off the selling price.
Q. Should the bill of lading always accompany in¬
voice when and where goods are shipped open to buyers?
A. Because it is absolute proof of shipment; it will
enable the buyer to make claim in the event of shortage
or damage; it justifies the buyer in discounting invoice.
Q. What are the duties of the Cash Discount Com¬
A. To urge the value and importance to all con¬
cerned of discounts for cash between manufacturer and
wholesale grocers; to urge uniformity of discount for cash
practice in similar lines; to cultivate good will and
promote the interest of buyers and sellers alike through
this banking branch of merchandising.
Q. Are the services of the committee at the disposal
of manufacturer or wholesale grocer in the event of mis¬
A. Yes. Freely.
THE CANNING TRADE.
250 CANNERIES NOW USE TROYER-FOX CLOSING MACHINES
Due to spill, jammed cans and seam'leaks.
Stay in adjustment. Run all day with no stops for oiling. Sturdy
They keep going.
Hare ere (ome of the representetive uaera:
Libbj, McNeill & Libby Hunt Bros. H. G. Prince & C!o.
Geo. E. Herbert Packing Co. Shepparton Preserving Co.
Stanmore l7%eerving Co. Seattle Can Co. Alexander Molasses Co.
. American Packing Co. M. J. Brandenstein & Co.
Bristol Bay Packing Co. Carlisle Packing Co. Geo. T. Myers’A Co.
Northwestern Fisheries Co.
Let US book your order now for next season’s re¬
MACHINE, 76 Cans per minute
SEAniE-ASTORIA IRON WORKS
Builders of Troyer-Fox Can Making
and Canners’ Machinery
601 Myrtle Street. Seattle, Wash.
302 Santa Marina BMg.. San Francisco, CalH.
THE CANNING TRADE.
THE ETHICS OF THE BROKER
President H. A. N. Daily reminds the members of his
Association of their duty in a characteristic letter worthy of
reproduction. He says:
Philadelphia, November 1, 1920.
“BROKERS WEAKEN THE MARKET BY LOW OFFERS”
In the issue of October 22 the New York Journal of
Commerce used the above headlines in their daily report of
market prices and conditions covering canned vegetables. The
article reads, in part, as follows:
“Brokers who are overly anxious to make sales
of canned foods are a potent factor in keeping the
market weak—they attempt to spur him (the jobber)
to action by quoting low prices, generally fractionally
below the average low in any community. They do
this oftentimes without authority of the canner, but
with the hope that if the buyer accepts the quotation
that some weak packer will meet the prices named.”
Our Association has fully justified the best expectations
of its organizers by consistently insisting that its members
at all times maintain the very highest standard of ethics. In
paragraph two of our “Code of Ethics” we have proclaimed:
“Absolute fairness and honesty to both buyer
and seller is the best capital a broker can have.”
This principle must be and is scrupulously recognized and
maintained by every broker who would build his business upon
a foundation of self-respect and permanent success.
Probably there will never again be experienced a period
just like the one through which the industry is now passing.
Everyone is taking the “acid test.” Producer, distributor,
broker; all alike are experiencing the same unpleasant and
trying disappointments, amounting in many instances to down¬
It is but natural to expect, therefore, that our every
action will be the subject of the closest scrutiny. When con¬
ditions are not normal, when sales are hard to secure, when
broker is being urged by packer to produce results, and when
buyers have Intrenched themselves behind a firm resolve to
buy nothing, then, as at no other time, must the broker be on
his guard lest some slight infraction against our “Ethics”
be committed and immediately proclaimed to the business world
as a reaction against the entire profession.
Let us realize, therefore, the importance and absolute
necessity of so guarding the reputations of ourselves individ¬
ually, and our Association as a whole, that we will live up to
our highest ideals and always be in position to prove that
our members, one and all, are made of sterner stuff than
those who could be adversely infiuenced by circumstances, no
matter how trying they may be.
Very cordially yours,
H. A. N, DAILY, President.
NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS
Michigan Canners Meet December 14—Last-minute news
comes in the shape of a wire from H. K. Royal, secretary of the
Michigan Canners’ Association, to the effect that the fall meeting
of their association will be held at the Hotel Pintland, Grand
Rapids, Mich., on December 14th, instead of December 6th, as
scheduled elsewhere under Association Meeting Dates. Note the
change of date and place of meeting.
H. H. Monroe Now With Detroit Commerce Co.—The De¬
troit Commerce Co., we learn, has added H. H. Monroe, formerly of
Austin, Nichols & Co., New York, to their staff and he will have
charge of the Grand Rapids office.
An Interesting Pamphlet on the American Merchant Ma¬
rine—Mr. Charles H. Pietz, president of the Link-Belt Co.,
recently made an interesting and important address before the
National Marine League at Chicago on the American Merchant
Marine, and those interested in this subject will find it well worth
reading. It is in pamphlet form and can be secured by writing
to the Link-Belt Co., Chicago.
JAMES F. COLE
ATLANTIC CAN CO.
THE CANNING TRADE.
CARNAHAN. The Sigi
1 of Quality
IF IT IS THE BEST WE
The Carnahan Tin Plate & Sheet Oo.
BRANCH SALES OFFICES:
Carnahan Tin Plate & Sheet Co.
Jos. R. Martin &
Walter Q. Clark, Inc.
f San Francieco
Rolph, Mills & Co.
) Los Angeles
THE J. M. PAVER COMPANY
130 N. WELLS STREET
A Canned Foods Brokerage Organization—a
selling force of specially trained Canned Foods
Salesmen—working co-oi)eratively for the proper
interests of their Principals.
ZASTROW’S IMPROVED SQUARE OYSTER STEAM BOX
Used for Clama,
Sbrimp, Pumpldn, Sweot
_ Hinged Door Type
ZASTROW MACHINE COMPANY, Inc. ManufactHrers
Made square, when square
cars filled are run into it, will
fill Box as full as practical.
Made of % in. Plate Steel, tracks
securely fastened to heavy angles
forming comers of Box.
Made up to 25-ft. long.
Standard 8-ft. cars used.
FOOT THAMES STREET. BALTIMORE. MO.
IS THE HEART
OF THE MODERN
So important an item must be
right. There is one sure way to
make it right. Make it a Monitor.
It has a perfect record in every
State in the Union. Its friends
and endorsers are everywhere.
When You Buy Get The Most Value Obtainable.
Monitor Users Say “In Blanchers That is the Monitor.”
HUNTLEY MFC. CO.. Ltd.
HUNTLEY MFG. CO.
P. O. Drawer 25 SILVER CREEK, N. Y.
A. K. ROBINS Sc. CO.
BROWN. BOGGS CO.. Ltd.
Tfifi cakkikg trade.
BEAN SUPPLY SHORTAGE WORKED OUT
(From California Fruit News)
One of the principal dealers in beans in California has
worked out the following informaiton on bean supplies in
California for the coming year in several of the varieties,
which' shows quiet plainly the probable shortage as compared
with the recent season, and we reprint it as received:
The 1919 crop of Pinks was 600,000 bags. Our carry¬
over 1918 crop at the time our 1919 crop was harvested
about a year ago was 260,000 bags, making a total of 860,000
bags. Our 1920 crop of Pinks this year will be approximately
226,000 bags. Our carry-over of 1918 and 1919 crops is
190,000 bags, making a total of 416,000 bags.
Upon analyzing the above you will see that we had about
860,000 bags a year ago, and, inasmuch as we only have 190,-
000 bags carry-over today, it is obvious during the last twelve
months there were about 660,000 bags Pinks shipped out of
the State. Now, considering our anticipated crop for 1920 and
our present carry-over, a portion of which is unsuitable for
human consumption, we have only 416,000 bags of Pinks,
which is 246,000 bags less than were shipped out of the State
last year. This, in conjunction with the fact that Pink beans
are selling on lower levels than they have sold since the
period prior to the war, seems to be sufficient assurance that
the market will not go to lower levels. While we don't pre¬
dict a rapidly rising market, still we think nobody can examine
the above figures without appreciating the tendency will be
upward, provided we have anywhere near the demand which
we had last year, and you will recall we did not consider we
had a normal demand during that period.
Regaring Blackeyes, we believe the situation is even more
serious. We harvested 176,000 sacks in 1919 and carried over
about 60,000, which gave us about 226,000 sacks to work on.
The market started at about 6c last year and advanced con¬
tinually until the high point was reached Just before this
year’s crop came in. This high price was 8^c. Now, when
we look at this year’s figures, we find there was no carry-over
whatsoever, and the present crop will not yield over 160,000
bags. This is the maximum. We find in looking up the rail¬
road records practically 76 cars have already been shipped
out of the State. This means we have a tonnage available
in California today of about 100,000 bags Blackeyes. Does
it not seem as though we cannot help encounter a market
with rising tendency on this variety with only this quantity
available, when we moved 200,000 bags last year on a higher
level and on an extremely advancing market? To augment
this situation further, we find the crop of Cow Peas and locally
grown Southern Peas, which serve as a substitute for Black¬
eyes, is extremely light.
In regard to Cranberries, another variety which seems to
be statistically strong, we find the 1919 crop of Cranberries
86,000 bags; carry-over 1918 crop, 60,000 bags; a total of
136,000 bags. The 1920 crop we estimate at 33,000 bags,
and carry-over from 1918 and 1919, 46,000, making a total
of 78,000 bags.
By deducting our present carry-over, namely, 46,000 bags,
from the total we had on hand a year ago, 136,000 bags, you
will find we have used during the past twelve months 90,000
bags. Considering our carry-over at present and our antici¬
pated crop, we have 12,000 bags less than last year’s con¬
sumption. Last year Cranberries sold up to 7c, and were very
freely bought at this figure. It certainly looks as though we
are going to have a clean-up on Cranberries before the next
crop is harvested.
In the following we give you the statistical situation on
Small Whites. We submit these figures without comment,
inasmuch as the Small White situation is not by any means
controlled by California.
The 1919 crop of Small Whites was 676,000 bags; 1918
carry-over, 476,000 bags; a total of 1,160,000 bags. The 1920
crop of Small Whites we figure at 166,000 bags; 1918 and
1919 carry-over, 426,000 bags; a total of 690,000 bags.
An analysis of the above will show California shipped
726,000 bags, whereas the combined carry-over and antici¬
pated 1920 crop amounts to 690,000 bags.
Up to the present writing the growers on all varieties
of California beans have been comparatively free sellers. At
present, however, the dealers are beginning to realize the
shortage that exists and appreciate the fairly good demand
which we have been securing, and, naturally, the growers are
tightening up somewhat. The banks are also beginning to
appreciate a little better market may come about at a later
date, and are not urging the growers to sell to the extent that
they were two or three weeks ago.
PRUNE INDUSTRY IN JUGOSLAVIA
(Consul K. S. Patton, Belgrade)
The only dried fruit which is produced in commercial
quantity in Serbia is prunes. According to official statistics,
220,000 hectares (463,620 acres) are planted in prune orch¬
ards. The chief centers of production are Serbia and Bosnia.
The production in Serbia totals about 40,000 metric tons an¬
nually, and the total production of Bosnia about 23,000 metric
tons. Approximately 40 per cent of these prunes is used in
the manufacture of prune brandy (shljevovitza), 40 per cent
is dried, and the remainder is made into jam. The whole¬
sale price of dried prunes is now (September, 1920) about 60
rcowns (approximately 6 cents) per pound. At the present
time considerable difficulty is being experienced in drying the
prunes, owing to the bad condition of the ovens. However,
the Minister of Agriculture has opened a credit to be used
in repairing defective ovens, and has also purchased a certain
number of new ovens for use in the prune districts.
A NEW W'ATER AND RAIL LINE TO SOUTHERN POINTS
The Old Dominion Transportation Company, operating
since June 29, 1920, only as a port-to-port line between Nor¬
folk and New York, announces that it is now in a position
to handle through traffic between Pier No. 26, North River,
New York City, from and to the following described territory:
The line of the Norfolk and Western Railway from Norfolk
to Bristol, Tennessee; of the Southern Railway from Bristol
to Chattanooga, AGS Railroad; Chattanooga to Birmingham,
Ala. (including points in the Birmingham District), L. & N.
Railroad; Birmingham to Montgomery, ACL Railroad; Mont¬
gomery to Albany, Georgia, GSW&G Railway; Almany to Cor-
dele, Georgia, GS&F Railway; Cordele to Macon, Georgia Rail¬
road; Macon to Augusta, Georgia; thence via Southern Rail¬
way to Charleston.
Will Perform No Lighterage—The Old Dominion Trans¬
portation Company will operate only from and to its New York
pier, and will not perform any lighterage within free light¬
erage limits of New York harbor, and for the present will not
participate in any through rates, rail and water, from and to
interior Eastern or New England points.
The Old Dominion Transportation Company will operate
tri-weekly service between Norfolk and New York, with sail¬
ings Mondays, Wednesdays and Saturdays, and with the estab¬
lishment of through rates is in position to forward from New
York to Norfolk any traffic delivered them the day of sailing
from either port, and such shipments Intended for through
movement to Carolina and Southeastern points will be prompt¬
ly delivered to rail connections, giving the public the much-
needed dispatch line service between Southeastern and Caro¬
lina territory and New York.
(Continued on page 26'
THE CANNING TRADE.
Just Lrike Telegrams-
Are our messages to you each week in these ads. We can only give you the most import¬
ant facts—just a brief description perhaps, of one unit of a packaging line. But we want to im¬
press upon you that we build in our own factory complete filling and packaging equipments.
If you are interested in the machinery that has proven the best in hundreds of factories,
just drop us a line and one of our engineers will call.
Kl«fer B«lt Conveyor
We make complete packaging equipments for manufacturers of jelly, preserves, jam, salad
dressing, mustard, cider, vinegar, etc.
The Karl Kiefer Machine Co.
Printing ^ lithographs.
BALTIMORE - NEW YORK
Baltimore Office £rWorks-Cross,Covington £ Sander Sts.
Tttfi CAKKiKG TRADfi,
Tttfi CaNMiKG ttlAbE.
Why does a woman
rub and rinse clothes?
She can’t get the dirt out any other way.
You’ve got to have some action other than a stream of
water to get the dirt off corn. You must loosen it up first.
The Peerless Washer does just this by tumbling the ears
constantly in a revolving reel, causing them to rub against
each other vigorously, thoroughly loosening every bit of
dirt. Then the high pressure sprays carry it off.
Install this machine—-Keep all the dirt, silks, ribbons of
husks and smut out of your cans. Prepare now to put up
the cleanest and finest quality corn
in 1921 your cannery has ever turned
Peerless Husker Company
Dmwall Ave. Buffalo, New York
HUSKERS~REHUSKERS~MIXER SILKERS -SYRUPERS
THE CANNING TRADE,
M*lne Ixmks for Good Republican Business—Jobbera Report
Business Very Quiet—Canners Holding Their Goods—
Some Canners Have All the Apples They Want,
and Others Hare None—Apfde Sauce Be*
ing Packed—^No Holdings of
Portland, Me., November 5, 1920.
Having registered her desire by going 2 to 1 for the
Republican candidate, and being a part of the great majority,
Maine is now looking ahead to future business, with antici¬
pation of marked improvement. Our State election comes in
September, and on every year of presidential election we re¬
vive the old slogan, "As goes Maine, so goes the country."
And since we elected a Republican governor this year with the
largest plurality ever known, we were freed from any doubt
as to the outcome of our national election.
As yet it is rather too early to expect any change in
conditions. Local jobbers report that their business has grown
very quiet, due to the fact that retailers wish to clean up
present stocks before a general drop brings them a loss, and
are further reluctant to buy until the jobbers shall have low¬
ered their prices. Buying is very limited for replacing in
small amounts only.
Maine Canned Goods—In a dull season Maine canned
foods men are apt to .consider themselves in hard luck until
they come to compare their own situation with that of packers
in other parts of the country. Comparatively speaking, Maine
is much better fixed than many other sections; our packers
are unfortunate (?) in not being able to carry on the volume
of business that the Southern and Western packers do; there¬
fore, stocks are not so large nor the investment so heavy.
(Against this must be remembered the fact, however, that
our costs are comparatively very much greater than in any
other section.) Our work—from clams and sardines in the
early spring, lobsters in the early summer, blueberries, string¬
less beans, corn and apple—is distributed throughout the whole
"open” season; goods move gradually; one pack helps to pay
for another, and usually when one line is dull, others will
take care of them. Today there are large stocks on hand—
large stocks for Maine packers to carry. But, considered be¬
side the stocks of various lines of canned goods held in first
hands in other States, Maine is feeling the present depression
Maine Com—No doubt the above will explain to a great
extent why the present stocks of spot corn are not placed
upon the market at low prices. The majrlty of the packers
are either financially able in themselves, or so well estab¬
lished and well considered in their communities as to be able
to get financial assistance, to hold their stocks against the
inevitable recovery of the business, so that they are not urging
goods upon unwilling buyers and sacrificing more than their
profits to expediency. There are comparatively large blocks
of corn held by Maine packers. There are no quotations made
today upon Maine corn. No doubt a bona fide order at reason¬
able prices would produce goods for sale, especially in the
various standard grades. $1.60 is the only price heard on
fancy corn today.
Maine Apple—This article of food is having a checkered
career in Maine. Within a radius of fifty miles one packer
may be able to pick up all the apples he will take, and an¬
other cannot find enough to fill his needs. This condition has
THE CANNING TRADE.
Over Two Thousand
and Five Hundred
White Style Feeders
in use in the United States
These feeders do not tear the pods from the
vines as other feeders do.
For informatioc, write the
71 Eut Sute Street COLUMBUS, OHIO
*1t Sticks for Keeps"
GLUE AND PASTE
604-606 W. Pratt Street
CALDWELL “HELICOID” SCREW CONVEYOR with flight rolled from a single strip of metal, no laps or rivets to
catch or tear your product. Internal bushings permit interchange with corresponding sectional flight conveyor, the same
standards being preserved. From 3 inch to 16 inch diameter in black or galvanized steel.
STEEL CONVEYOR TROUGHS black or galvanized, plain or perforated bottoms.
Box ends, countershaft drive ends and conveyor hangers.
A complete line of ELEVATING, CONVEYING and POWER TRANSMITTING MACHINERY.
THE CANNING T&ADE.
resulted in fiuttaiiing tlie pack materially, only one or two
packers, fortunately located, being anxious to put up any
amount of No. 10 apple this year. $4.50 is the general and
only quotation heard. And at this low price and present high
costs it is reasonable to conclude that there will be no surplus
packed above current contracts.
Apple Sauce—Although a new departure in the canned
foods business, this is now recognized as staple, and some
excellent goods are being put up in Maine this season. The
Heart of Maine Packing Company are pioneers here in this
line, and continue to control the business. Their product can
certainly be said to sell “on merit.’’ $2.00 for No. 2s and
$10.00 fro No. 10s is the last quotation. Your correspondent
visited these people last week, and at a later time will give
you an item upon their interesting factory and business.
Stringless Beans—Thank goodness, there is at least one
line of canned foods upon which we can report “no hoidings.’’
And this is upon the one line that for two years has looked
a bit like a white elephant.
Sardines—Inquiry among local sardine men brings no
advices. Even the packers themselves say they don’t know
anything at all about the conditions. The pack is very much
lighter than for years, and stocks on hand are not large. The
only thing that could trouble the packer is that there is and
has been no demand, and that prices for the past few months
have been very low.
Clams—The pack of clams progresses, and all possible
goods will be put up. Prices advanced from $1.35 to $1.40,
and the packers do not seem concerned over the quiet market
of today. No 8 oz. goods will be packed except upon contract.
(Continued from page 20)
THE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL IN WASHINGTON
A site for the new building in Washington which is to
serve as a home for the National Academy of Sciences and
the National Research Council has recently been obtained.
It comprises the entire block bounded by B and C streets and
Twenty-first and Twenty-second streets, northwest, and faces
the Lincoln Memorial in Potomac Park. The Academy and
Council have been enabled to secure this admirable site, cost¬
ing about $200,000, through the generosity of the following
friends and supporters: Thomas D. Jones, Harold F. McCor¬
mick, Julius Rosenwald and Charles H. Swift, Chicago; Chas.
P. Brush, George W. Crile, John L. Severance and Ambrose
Swasey, Cleveland; Edward Daen Adams, Mrs. E. H. Harri-
man and the Commonwealth Fund, New York City; George
Eastman and Adolph Lomb, Rochester; E. A. Deeds and Chas.
F. Kettering, Dayton; Henry Ford, Detroit; Arthur H. Flem-
i ng.Pasadena; A. W. Mellon, Pittsburgh; Pierre S. du Pont,
Wilmington; Raphael Pumpelly, Newport; Mr. and Mrs. H. E.
Huntington, Los Angeles; Corning Glass Works, Corning, New
York. Funds for the erection of the building have been pro¬
vided by the Carnegie Corporation of New York.
HEAT PENETRATION IN PROCESSING CANNED POODS
Under the above title the Research Laboratory of the National
Canners Association recently issued a Bulletin of 128 pages, known
as Bulletin No. 16-L. Because of its size, and moreover because
not all canners might recognize the value and importance of the
bulletin, it was not sent out broad cast, as are all the usual bulle¬
tins. However, anyone Interested may .secure a copy by addressing
the Association at 1739 H street, northwest, Washington, D. C.
The question of Heat Penetration is an all-important one, as
upon it depends the keeping or the loss of all canned foods.
The introduction to the bulletin sets forth the whole subject
s*3 well that we reproduce it herewith. The bulletin is too large
to be reproduced, and is likewise filled with charts and illustra-
tif'Hs. The introduction says:
The processing of canned foods has as its object sterilization,
or the destruction of minute forms of life that otherwise would
As soon as possible after a can of food is sealed it is placed
in a sterilizer and heated by means of steam or hot water. Heat
enters the can from all sides and the coldest portion will always
be at the center. The temperature at the center of the can, there¬
fore, must be the basis of any study of processing.
In ail sterilizing operations time is ah essential element.
Sterilization is not necessarily complete if the center of the can
is brought to a certain temperature, and there is no definite tem-
l)erature that can be termed the sterilizing point All bacteria
will die if subjected long enough to temperatures too high fur
them to grow. As the temperature increases, however, the bacteria
are killed in less time. For example, some extremely resistant or¬
ganisms rquire one hundred times as long for their destruction
at the teperature of boiling water as they do at 250 degrees F. It
follows, therefore, that a can of food may be sterilized by a quick
cook at a high temperature, or by a protracted cook at a lower
In order to determine the most satisfactory processes for the
different foods, it is necessary first to discover the temperature
at the center of the can during the entire course of the operation
known as processing, then to ascertain the time that is necessary
to destroy the spores of the most resistant organisms, at various
temperatures and in different foods.
This bulletin presents the results of work thus far conducted
in the study of heat peentration. Subsequent bulletins will give
the thermal death points of the more resistant bacteria, and the
length of time necessary to destroy them at a given temperature
iu various foods. This information will be published during the
next few months, if possible. The data in this bulletin will then
be correlated with the results of the study of bacteria, and the
combined results of both investigations will be interpreted in terms
of retort maangement.
'This is by no means the first study of heat penetration in
canned foods. Much thought has been devoted to the subject, and
many experiments have been conducted to determine the tempera-
tur at the center of the can during processing. Nevertheless the
apparatus available did not give results sutflciently accurate or
complete for the work we had in view. The apparatus used in
the past either did not give the temperature close enough to the
center of the can, or could not be used in commercial retorts, or
gave only the maximum temperature without any indication of the
time necessary to attain it or any other degree of heat.
Before undertaking this work, it was necessary to devise new
apparatus. This in itself was a serious undertaking, as new prob¬
lems were involved in the construction of the instrument. Such
skill and care were required that it became necessary to manu¬
facture the apparatus and repair it in the laboratory.
The difficulties encountered in developing the apparatus have
now been overcome, and specifications for its construction are
given on page 21. The apparatus can be operated successfully
only by one whose training in physics enables him to understand
the instrument in all its details, and whose mechanical skill is
such that he can repair it Through its use it is now possible to
ascertain the temiierature at the center of a can that is being
processed under ordinary commercial conditions.
The subject of heat penetration is discussed in considerable
detail under the several headings of the text so that it may be
a\ailable to others who are working on the subject. Much of this
material is of an unusual nature and will be of value only to
one who is making a detailed study of some phase of the problem.
Those who are interested especially in the practical results thus
fai obtained may find the following brief statement sufficient for
their needs. The table of contents will be of service to those
who wish further details regarding any of the subjects discussed
or who desire to consult the discussion of heat penetration in any
of the products that have been studied.
Influence ol Retort Temperature on Heat Penetration
Everyone knows that large cans require longer to heat to the
center than small cans. This is due partly to the greater distance
between the center and the surface, and partly to the fact that
large cans have less surface than snmll ones in proportion to the
amount of contents.
A general rule may be applied to the heating of cans whose
length is greater than their diameter. The time necessary for
heat to penetrate to the center of cans of different size is approxl-
matly proportional to the squares of the radii of the cans. It
should be understood that this refers only to the time necessary
to bring tbe center of the cans to specified temperatures. It does
not refer to the length of process necessary to insure sterilization.
This is further discussed on page 37.
Influence of Initial Temperature on Heat Penetration
If two cans of the same size and containing the same sub¬
stance are heated to different temperatures and then placed in a
retort and processed together, the can with the lower initial tem¬
perature will heat faster than the other, so that the centers of the
two cans will reach retort temperature at the same time. Let us
suppose that the retort temperature is 250 degrees, that the con¬
tents of one can have been heated to 200 degrees and the other
to 150 degrees. If these cans are heated together in a 250-degree
retort the first one will be heated through 60 degrees and the
other through 100 degrees in the same length of time. The former
(Continued on Page 30)
Pulp Machines and Pulp Finishing Machines
Pulp and Catsup Makers
We also manufacture a general line of canning machinery, such
as pea graders, cranes, pineapple graters, pod pea hullers, paring
machines for pears and peaches, pitting spoons. Friction Clutch
The Sinclaii^Scott Company
Wells and Patapsco Streets BALTIMORE, MARYLAND
Agents for Ontario—The Brown, Boggs Co., Hamilton, Ontario
THE CANNING TRADE,
Tomato Season Comes to End—Frosts Put an End to Tomato
Plants—Farmers Worried Over the Falling Prices—
Pack of Com in This Section Good—Rasp¬
berries on the Market This Fall—
News of This Section.
Evansville, Ind., November 4, 1920.
Tomato Season About Over—Heavy frosts have fallen dur¬
ing the past week in all of Indiana and parts of Kentucky and
Southern Illinois, and practically all the tomato vines in those
States were killed, and this means the ending of the tomato
season. Most of the canneries have cleaned up on this year’s
tomato crop, and they are well pleased with the pack, which
in some instances broke all records. The crop was of unusually
fine quality this season, and the yield was splendid. Ideal
weather conditions existed last summer for the planting of
the crop, and good weather continued until the plants were
well developed and grown and ready to bear. The canneries
have been rushed with work, and many of the plants during
the busy season were forced to employ extra help. The farmers
have realized handsomely from this year’s crop, as pre-war
prices were paid for their crop, and in some cases the farmers
realized more from their ground than they did in the raising
of other farm products, such as wheat and oats. Many of the
canneries in Southern Indiana now are engaged in canning
pumpkins, and the crop in the Tri-State section is large and
the quality is reported as good, if not better, than in former
years. The canneries at Washington, Ind., and Elnora, Ind.,
are engaged in canning pumpkins, and the pack will be much
heavier than last year or the year before. Taken it all In all,
this has been a most successful season for the canneries of
Southern Indiana and the owners are mighty well pleased at
Fanners Blame Manipulation—A large number of farmers
of Vanderburg County met here last Saturday at the call of
Jacob L. Aleon, the president of the Vanderburg County Farm
Improvement Association, to discuss declining prices of farm
products. Mr. Aleon told the farmers that the continual drop
in price has been due to speculation and mianipulation and not
to underproduction. The farmers asked that the newspapers
publish government statistics which would tend to show that
the farmers of the Middle West have not been profiteering
as has been charged in some sections of the country. The
farmers also have decided to continue holding their wheat and
many other farm products until higher prices prevail. It was
suggested that a boycott be instigated against the farmers
who have been asked to Join the Farm Federation and who
have thus far refused or failed to do so.
Canned Tomatoes—The demand has been fair all season,
and wholesalers and retailers are predicting that the fall and
winter demand will be good and that the supply probably will
be equal to the demand.
Canned Com—The pack with some of the Indiana can¬
neries this year was much larger than it was last year, and
the demand is good and is expected to continue this way until
next spring. Prices are holding up fairly well.
Canned Peas—The demand for canned peas is expected to
continue good for the next year, and the prices are expected
to remain good. There has been a good deal of buying of
futures by the retailers of the country, according to the whole¬
salers of this city.
Canned Fruits—The demand is quiet, and, in fact, has
been all season, but prices have remained firm. There is an
ample amount, it is believed, to supply all demands.
Says Season Was Abundant—John C. Wallenmeyer, for¬
merly connected with the Sterling Products Company, of this
city, but who now travels for a large concern at Indianapolis,
was here a few days ago to visit his wife and son. Mr. Wal¬
lenmeyer reports that the canneries of Northern and Central
Indiana have had one of the best seasons on record, and that
they are highly elated over their success. Mr. Wallenmeyer
predicts that the canning industry in Indiana will get better
each year. He says that the indusrty is still in its infancy,
and that people are buying more and more of canned goods
from year to year. He believes that the farmers are alive
to their opportunity, and now that they realize what nice
profits there are in the cultivation of tomatoes, will plant a
much larger crop next season. Mr. Wallenmeyer says that
he has been informed there will be a good many new can¬
neries opened along Green and Barren Rivers, in Western
Kentucky, during the coming year to take care of the great
quantities of fruit that is raised in that section of the country.
Big Shipment of Tomatoes Here—The steamer Lena May
arrived in Evansville on Saturday, October 30th, with 4,000
cases of tomatoes from the plants of the Pocket Packet Com¬
pany, of this city, the plants being located at Calhoun, Ky.,
and other points. This was the first of 40,000 cases that were
put up by the company this year, and these will be disposed
of by Henry B. Walker, the receiver for the company, for the
benefit of the 1,600 creditors of the company. The company
a few weeks ago filed a petition in bankruptcy in the Federal
Court here, and Mr. Walker was appointed receiver to
straighten out the affairs of the company, which is composed
mostly of local capitalists. Most of the creditors of the con¬
cern are farmers who had contracted to raise tomatoes for the
company this year. The liabilities of the company are less
than the assets, and the company may be able to get on its
feet and start in business again by the beginning of next
spring. The company had planned to erect a number of can¬
neries in Southern Indiana and Western and Northern Ken¬
Mr. Persons Is Interested—B. F. Persons, of the Persons
& Scoville Company, wholesale grocers, of this city, and omiers
of the Sanitary Canning Company, at Petersburg, Ind., a few
miles north of here, has been elected president of the Finer
Spar Company, that is operating spar mines in Polk County,
Ill., a few miles west of Evansville.
Raspberries on the Market—The ideal Indian summer
weather that prevailed in most parts of Indiana until a few
days ago caused many berry vines to bear again, and raspberries
and strawberries, the second crop of this year, have been mar¬
keted in some sections of the State. Raspberries in the north¬
ern part of the State in October is a rare sight, according to
a report from South Bend, Ind., but a number of crops are
reported in that section of the State, and the quality of the
fruit was unusually fine. Some of the farmers in that section
have also been gathering strawberries during the past few
weeks. The cold weather that visited the State Tuesday of
this week, however, is believed to have killed the fruit. Sev¬
eral second crops of strawberries were reported from the farms
in Scott County, Ind. Raspberries also were reported last week
on several farms in Bartholomew County, Ind.
Embargo Placed on Railroad—Owing to the large number
of sugar beets that have been delivered at Decatur, Ind., for
the Holland-St. Louis Sugar Company, an embargo to Decatur
has been placed on the Pennsylvania Railroad. Farmers who
have raised beets are depositing them on the ground at the
Pennsylvania Railroad depot at Hartford City, Ind. The crop
raised in Blackford County is one of the largest in many years.
THE CANNING TRADE.
THE CANNING TRADE.
will therefore be heated half as rapidly as the latter. At every
moment while the cans are being heated, the temperature of the
former wiil be midway between the retort temperature and the
temperature of the iatter. The two cans reach retort temperature
at the same time, yet during the heating period the can with the
higher initial temperature is always the hotter.
With products such as peas, where heat passes quickly to the
center of the can, this makes little difference in the sterilizing
value of the process. Other products, such as corn, have exceed¬
ingly slow heat penetration, and do not reach retort temperature
during the entire process. In such cases, the initial temperature is
an immense factor in the sterilizing value of the process. For
example, if a No. 2 can of corn with an initial temperature of 180
degrees must be processed for 78 minutes to destroy the spores of
a certain organism, a process of 83 minutes is necessary to kill
the same organism with an initial temperature of 160 degrees.
The temperature finally secured at the center of the can is not
the first consideration; the time during which the can is at a high
temperature is what makes the process effective. If corn is filled
into the can at 195 degrees or 200 degrees and sealed and pro¬
cessed quickly, the process will be correspondingly effective. It is
e\i(lent, therefore, that the cans should be processed as quickly
as possible after they are filled and sealed. In case of a break¬
down that will cause more than momentary stoppage, the-partly
filled crate should be placed in the retort and processed imme¬
diately. If the cans are allowed to stand until the contents are
cooled appreciably, the sterilizing value of the process is materially
Influence of tlie Size of Can on Heat Penetration
If two cans of the same size are filled with the same product
at the same temi>eraj;ure and processed in separate retorts at
different temperatures, the centers of the two cans will reach the
temperatures of their respective retorts at the same time. Thus,
the can processed at the higher temperature will heat more rapidly
than the other. . The same relation exists here as in cans taken at
different initial temperatures and processed together in the same
Influence of Cooling Operation on Sterilizing Value of Process
Since steriiization is caused by heat and the length of heating
is an important factor, it follows that rapid cooling reduces the
sterilizing value of any particular process. Cooling in the industry
is rarely uniform. It depepds on the number of cans processed at
(Continued on page 35)
FOR SALE—To close an estate, the following Canning Ma¬
chinery guaranteed in first-class condition; prompt shipment.
Quotatiems promptly furnished.
1 Link Belt Tomato Table and Conveyor.
5 Hawkins Exhaust Boxes with copper body.
67 Process Crates.
76 Crate Tops.
10 Closed Process Kettles.
2 Open Process Kettles.
1 Smith Kraut Cutter.
2 Pulp Machines.
1 Sprague Catsup Finisher.
3 Monitor Bean Cutters.
2 Monitor Can Fillers.
1 6-pocket Corn Cooker-Filler.
2 Plunger Fillers for Tomato Paste, etc.
1 Kern Pulp Finisher.
2 Monitor Tomato Scalders.
2 Pea) Hullers.
A. K. Robins & Co., Baltimore, Md.
The Oaiy MbcIums That Tara Oat That Laaf, Fiat Cat Kraat
John E. Smith’s Sons Co.
50 Broadway Buffalo, N. Y.
THE STICKNEY FILLER FOR COND. MILK
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Wa W> BOYER & COa| InCa
•''iwir EDMUND C. WHITE, Prasidant
THE CAHKING TRADE,
PVBUSHSD SVBT MONDAY BY
THE TRADE COMPANY
▲. I. JxniQE,.Manager and Editor
Baltimore and Commerce Sta., Baltimore, Md.
Telephone St Paul 2698
The Canning Tbaoe Is the oviy paper published exclusiyely
in the interest of the Canned Food Packers of the United States
and Canada. Now in its 44th Year.
TEBHS OF BUBSCRlPnON.
Payable in advance, on receipt of bill. Sample <xvy free.
Extra copies, when <« hand, 10 Cents each.
Aovebtising Rates. —According to space and location.
Make all Drafts or Money Orders payable to The Trade Co.
Address all communications to The Trade Co., Baltimore, Md.
Packers are invited and requested to use the coiumns of The
C anning Trade for inquiries and discussions among themselves on
all matters pertaining to their business.
Business communications from all sections are desired, but
anonymous letters will be ignored. A. I. JUDGE, Slditor.
Entered at Postofflce, Baltimore, Md., as secondrclass mail matter
BALTIMORE. MONDAY, NOVEMBER 8, 1920
The answer on last Tuesday was certainly definite enough
—as definite as the political campaign had been indefinite and
unsatisfactory—so now let’s get down to business. If there is
anything in majorities, the business men of the country have
what they want, and we should now be able to breeze along
at full speed.
Yet there is a good deal of hesitation, doubt and actual
fear in the actions, if not the hearts, of business men. So
far as the canned foods industry is concerned, this should
all be cast aside. This industry has gone through its read¬
justment operations, and has the advantage, in that respect, of
all other lines. Two years ago the canners began to suffer
from low prices and the loss of profits; last yqar—that is,
the season just passed—the growers joined them in this un¬
happy condition, and at present the retailers, and, perhaps,
some of the wholesalers—speaking always of canned foods—
are now feeling the effects of these lowering prices and pos¬
sible loss of profits. So, we say, this industry, from the man¬
ufacturer to the retailer, has about completed its penetential
season, and we may, therefore, expect it to come out onto
the broad road of better conditions.
And everything is set for this considerable improvement
for the canners. The carry-over of old goods into the 1920
season has largely disappeared, or is so small as to be un¬
worthy of special notice. The packs of this season have not
been larger than needed for a normal demand at fair prices,
and some of them are far below normal. Fair prices are now
prevailing, and, left to its natural course, the market would
right itself and clean out before another packing season can
But it will not have to depend upon natural conditions
of demand for canned foods to remove this year’s packs. The
market will find two powerful allies this fall and winter in a
very much improved quality of goods, as a whole, and a big
advertising campaign urging greater consumption of this prod¬
uct. The good quality alone, added to the strong market con¬
dition and better retailing prices, would be more than suffi¬
cient to put the market back into good shape. When the
big advertising campaign to the consumers, urging the use
of canned foods and telling them how good they are and to
buy them, begins on January Ist, it will make practically cer¬
tain the best year the canners have ever faced. It will clean
off the market every case of worthy canned foods long before
another case can be packed, and before next spring’s planting
time comes around every canner will be aware of this—and do
you think any one of them will not be anxious to get his fac¬
tory into fine shape for the 1921 packing Leason? If you do,
you do not know the canners.
The lower prices for canned foods, coupled with the im¬
proved quality and backed by the advertising, means an abso¬
lutely clean market next spring. The one solitary cloud in
the horizon is the possible attitude of the growers. But by
the time spring comes around they will be in a very much
better frame of mind, and ready and willing to co-operate
with the canners, as their best allies and friends.
There is a boom year ahead of us, and the supply men
who are counting otherwise are making a serious error. They
have not studied the situation rightly. It will not be a year
of excessive profits, but it will be a year of good business;
and it will not be a year when the seller of canners’ supplies
can sit back and wait for the buyer to come to him. We have
passed the day, in every line of business, when the seller
could ignore the buyer, and we have come back to the time
when efforts to induce business must be used. It will take
more effort to get orders this ceason than for the past four
years, but the efforts, if properly directed, will produce en¬
tirely satisfactory results.
Possibly we can illustrate this best by saying that this
is the time to advertise, to push hard for business, to use every
ffeort, and decidedly not the time to relax selling efforts. The
inconsistencies of human nature are well shown in the fact
that when business is good, orders plentiful and easy to get,
men advertise most freely; whereas, common sense will surely
advise the greatest advertising effort when orders are scarce
and hard to get.
If other commercial lines were facing an immense adver¬
tising campaign such as the National Canners’ Association will
put on with the beginning of the new year, every individual
w^ould have his plans well laid to gather to himself a good
share of the big business that will be created. To do this
their campaigns of advertising would now be mapped out and
ready to launch; they would take every advantage of the gen¬
eral advertising to make business for themselves. And this
is as it should be, for it would assist the general campaign.
The public will look for just such advertising. But how many
canners have even given that a thought?
THE CANNING TRADE.
The Book You Need!
Thoroughly Revised and Up-to-date
PRICE $5.00 WITH THE OROER
OR AT ALL SUPPLYsHOUSES
A CANNER’S AND PRESERVER’S COOK BOOK
Factory Operations and Process Times
THE ONLY BOOK NOW USED
Learn How to Pack New Goods
THE CANNING TRADE
Baltimora & Commerea Sta.
and a Better Quality
T he test of a cooking coil comes with the report on a day’s
production and the grading of the product. Most any
coil will produce your product if given enough attention and
an indefinite allowance of cooking time. But quick cooking
and high grade product were never secured simultaneously
were perfected. There was always that sticking and scorching-
always that interminable scrubbing and cleaning of corners
and crevices, nipples and elbows-al ways, thru wasted cleaning
time and slower cooking capacity, the small daily output
and in many instances, a low grade of pulp.
Kook-More Koils eliminate all this lost motion and
wasted effort in cooking. They conserve time and labor
and increase production. They have practically doubled
the cooking capacity of dozens of canning plants without the
addition of a single tank.
The successful performance of KOOK-MORE-KOILS
are a result of a successful effort to combine simplicity and
efilciency in cooking equipment.
You should learn how Kook-More-Koils will help your
plant make more money next season. Write us today for
Other LANSENKAMP Products:—Copper Steam Jac¬
keted Kettles, Standard Continuous Agitating Cookers,
Rotary Washers, Tomato Crushers, Sanitary Desectiable
Pumps, Sorting Tables, Syrupers, Feed Water Heaters,
Steam Traps, Gasoline Fire Pots, Brass Handy Gate Valves
and Enameled Lined Pipe. A request will secure complete
information on your needs.
F. H. LANGSENKAMP
S. 0. RAHOALL’S SON
San Jose, Cal.
THE CANNING TRADE,
Let the first retailers wal^ into a wholesale grocer’s and
ask for canned foods with the Seal on them, and you will see
that wholesaler start at once to find out what canners are
packing goods under the Seal. There will be a rush to learn
who is in the inspection and advertising movement; who has
such goods. And where will they find the answer? In other
words, this advertising campaign will set the wholesalers after
certified goods—in answer to public demand—^and it remains
for the canners to tell them that they pack certified goods
and are able to supply spots if they have them, or to take
care of futures in the coming year. That demand is as cer¬
tain as that the months of 1921 will come, and the canners
must meet that demand, answer that Inquiry, by individually
advertising the fact that they are in the Inspection and Ad¬
vertising scheme. The National Canners’ Association merely
tells the consumers to eat more canned foods—but to eat Cer¬
tified canned foods. It cannot advertise the individual’s busi¬
ness. He must do that himself. But he ought to he glad to
do it. The Association does the bulk of the work—creates
the demand—and the canner merely has to indicate that he
is in position to fill it. The canner who cannot see his oppor¬
tunity in that is indeed blind.
This does not mean an extensive campaign of advertising
by the individual canner. He needs only tell the wholesaler
that he is a packer of Certified canned foods, to put his name
and brands permanently before all wholesalers; but he must
The question of advertising is new to most canners, and
they will do well to proceed carefully. The big campaign will
hardly be well under way before shrewd advertising agencies
will beset the canners with ways and means of advertising
their goods; but, as we have stated, for the average canner
there is no need of a big advertising campaign at heavy ex¬
pense. He can reach the wholesale grocers easily with a
statement of the goods he packs, the name of his brands and
the fact that the goods bear the Seal of Certification, and in
a permanent, lasting way, and at small expense, and that is
all that is necessary, at least for the present.
Label Pastes for Canners
TINNOL—The only strictly neutral Paste for labellntc on tin It
sticks on lacquered or plain tin. It prevents rust spots. It does not
affect the most delicate colors. It does not warp or wrinkle the paper.
It keeps sweet in any weather. All ready for use as we ship it.
Packed in SO-gal. bbls.; 25 gal. bbls.; 10 gal. kegs: 5 gal. kegs: 2
gal. pails: 1 gal pails.
ARABOL LABELING MACHINE PASTE—An adhesive of ex¬
traordinary merit. Much stronger than flour paste. Will keep in
sweet condition for more than three months. Made especially for the
KNAPP. BURT and MORRAL machines and ail machines using flour
Packed in SO-gal. bbls : 25-gal. bbls.: 10-gal. kegs: 5-gal kegs: 2-gal.
pails: 1-gal. pails.
LIQUID PICK-UP GLUE—A clean and hlghlr concentrated adhes¬
ive. ready for use on the BURT and KNAPP or similar machines for
difficult or varnished labels
Packed in SO-gal. bbls.: 25-gal. bbls : 10-gal. kegs: 5-gaI kegs: 2-gal.
pails: 1-gal. pails.
MACHINE GUM—For labeling on Glass and Wood. Will resist
moisture and keep your labels where you put them. Will not affect
gloss or stain delicate papers. All ready for use as we ship it.
Packed in '0-gal. bbls.: 25-gaI. bbls.: 10-gal. kegs: 5-gal kegs: 2-gaI.
pails: 1-gal. pails.
CONDENSED PASTE POWDER—One yound will make 2 gallons
or 16 pounds of pore white paste ready for use. Much better, stronger
and smoother than flour paste. Made in 2 minutes with boiling water
or live steam. Vq acids. Will not stain
the most delicate paper. Makes S times
as much paste, pound for pound, than so-
called cold water pastes. Can be used on
KN A PP or other labeling machines, made
up at the rate of 1 lb powder to 8 or 10
lbs. of water.
Packed in 2'0-lb bbls.: 150-lb. bbls.:
100-lb. drums: 50-lb. drums: 2^lb. drums:
AMERICAN GOLD WATER PASTE
POWDER—Made up in 2 minutes with
cold water. Three pounds make 2 gal¬
lons of thick paste.
Packed in 300-lb. bbls.: 100-lb. drums:
SO-lb. drums: 25-lb. drums: 10-lb. bags.
Largest Paste and Gum Manu¬
facturers in the World
The Arabol Manufacturing Co.
100 William St. Samples for Tests on Reuuest New York
LEONARD’S 1920 REPORT
CANNERS CONTRACTS FOR ALL VARIETIES OF
DELIVERED IN FULL
Our customers have received FULL DELIVERY on ALL their Pea contracts placed with
us this season. Many of them are writing us that our choice Wisconsin grown Alaska and
Sweets have yielded a larger and better pack than any stocks they have ever grown before. One
large Eastern Canner has written us that the farmers in his locality will not plant any Peas but
Leonard’s Wisconsin stock—they turned out so much better this year.
Be fair to your growers this spring. Give them Leonard’s carefully rogued Wisconsin
grown Seed Peas to grow for you.
We have a limited surplus of some varieties—write us for prices and samples and when
you are ready—place your growing contracts with us.
LEONARD SEED COMPANY Chicago, 111.
tHfe CANNING TRADE.
one time and on the amount of water run through the cooling tank.
Both of these conditions are likely to vary.
In air cooling, cans which are well ventilated cool mudi more
rapidly than those which are boxed up while hot or left in a large
pile. When cans are allowed to cool in a crate, the cans at the
bottom of the crate cool first, and a considerably longer time is
necessary to cool the'upper tier.
Variations in cooling are so great that it is best, when deciding
on the length of a process, to assume that the cans will be cooled
as rapidly as possible. It is not safe to shorten the cook and
count on cooling slowly enough to maintain a high temperature
and insure sterilization. When this is done an occasional crate
of cans may he cooled more rapidly than the others, and the pro¬
cess be Insufficient.
Influence of Ccmsistency on Heat Penetration
Heat penetration is most rapid in products that consist of or
are surrounde<l by water, or a thin syrup or brine. The addition
of products that form true solutions, such as sugar and salt, in
concentrations used in canned fruits and vegetables does not
greatly retard heat penetration. Products such as peas, which
consist of small round particles that are not cooked to pieces, per¬
mit the movement of heat by means of convection currents almost
as quickly as water.
Products that soften when heated sp that they pack together,
and products that are cooked to pieces during the process, make
the solution somewhat viscous and retard heat penetration. If
the pieces of insoluble material are somewhat larger, like beets
and large plums, they delay the heating of th eliquor, which does
not reach retort temperature until the pieces are heated to the
Products like spinacli pack together closely when the can is
well filled, and interfere with the movement of convection cur¬
rents. Increasing the fill of spinach greatly delays heat pene¬
tration and calls for an increase of process.
By reference to Figure 11 it is seen that an increase of the
amount of starch in solution retards heat penetration until a
solution of ab< ut 6 per cent is secured. Beyond that, increasing
the amount of starch does not materially infiuence heat penetra¬
The consistency of starchy products have no free liquor does
not greatly infiuence heat penetration. Corn of a very heavy body
beats to the center of the can as quickly as com of medium con¬
sistency. If the com were very sloppy, the heat penetration would
be somewhat more rapid, but it is not affected by variations
within the limits of gooid commercial practice.
The same is true with such products as pumpkin, squash and
tomato pulp, which are broken up by means of steam and by
mechanical appliances so that the insoluble matter is very finely
divided. These products act to some extent like starch, and their
consistency does not greatly influence heat penetration.
Processing in Dry Bteam and Under Water
There appears to be no appreciable difference in the heat pene¬
tration of cans processed under water and those processed in
dry steam if the conditions are otherwise the same. If the crates
of mus are lowered into a retort partially filled with cold water,
the temperature of the cans will be reduced and heat penetration
during subsequent processing will be retarded. On the other hand,
if the water into which the crates are lowered is boiling, the
temperature of those cans will be higher when the retort is closed
and heat penetration will be accelerated. The difference in the
temperature of the water in the retorts is probably responsible in
part for the divergence of opinion among canners regarding the
relative efficiency of processing in dry steam and under water.
The work done thus far by this laboratory would indicate there is
no appreciable difference in the efficiency of the two methods.
Temperature at Different Parte of tbe Retort
In working with a large sterilizer used for processing evapo¬
rated milk it was found that in processing with dry steam the
temperature at the bottom of the sterilizer was lower than in the
top of the sterilizer. When hot water was added to about two-
thirds the height of the sterilizer before processing, this difficulty
With the exception of the evaporated milk work, all experi¬
ments noted in this bulletin were made in the vertical retort com¬
monly used in the Fastern and Central States, and in all cases the
retorts were well bled. Under such circumstances no differences
could be detected in the temperature at different parte of the
retort. Even in sterilizing No. 1 cans of corn, the cans at the
center of the crate seem to beat as rapidly as the cans at the
outside, and no difference could be detected between cans that
were stacked solid and those thrown into the crate promiscuously.
This was true whether the processing was done in dry steam Or
submerged in water. With milk the case was somewhat different.
It Is the custom in processing evaporated milk to place each row
of cans in a metal tray so that a solid sheet of metal extends be¬
tween each two tiers of cans. This method of handling may pre¬
vent to some extent the penetration of heat to the center of the
cage, and may explain in, pert the necessity for hot water in milk
sterilizers, ^aporated milk is processed in a cage that is rotated
and thus mixes the water that surrounds the cans. The conditions
are consequently somewhat different from those that obtain in
the usual retort •
Influence of Rotatitm on Heat Penetration
Agitating cookers, in whicdi cans are rotated on their own
axes, are now largely used in the industry for processing some
pro«tucts. With some products they greatly increase heat pene¬
tration ; with others they do not Products that consist of a clear
liquor and solids whose interstices are filled with such a luiuor,
heat rapidly to the center of the can by reason of the free move¬
ment of convection currents. Where the insoluble matter is in
relatively small particles, as in the case of peas, beat penetration
is not greatly increased by the use of a rotating cooker. Such
products as whole grain corn behave very much like peas. Here
the free movement of convection currents is prevented by the
viscous nature of the com, but the grains of corn are of small
size and do not greatly assist in mixing when the can is rotated.
The development of a continuous agitating cooker that would work
under pressure would therefore be of little value in shortening
the process of sudi products as peas and whole grain com. Its
value with such products would be limited chiefly to the elimina¬
tion of labor in handling the cans.
With tomatoes the case is widely different. The tomatoes act
as baffie plates and greatly assist in the mixing of the contents
when the can is rotated even at a very slow rate of speed. With
spinach the same is trae. Spinach appears to cling together in
such a way as to act as bafile plates like tomatoes and thus assist
in mixing. Some preliminary work has been done on peaches cut
in halves, and it was found that rotation even at a low rate of
speed mixes the contents and hence increases heat penetration to a
Influence of Hent Penetntion cm Sterilization of Canned Foods
Bacteria are not necessarily destroyed by heating a can to a
specified temperature. We must also know how long that tempera¬
ture was maintained. In the case of products that heat slowly the
temperature of the center of the can during the entire processing
period most be known. The information thus secured is being
co-ordinated with the results of investigations of the time neces¬
sary at various temperatures to kill resistant bacteria, and also
with the acidity of various kinds of food. Data on these subjects
are being accumulated rapidly but it will be some time before a
comprehensive statement can be made. The preliminary method
of co-ordinating the results of our heat penetration studies with
the bacteriological studies just referred to is given on pages 119
Such methods of calculating are being applied to all kinds
of foods and process cmiditions as fast as the necessary informa¬
tion is developed. As the laboratory work is completed, it is
being confirmed by practical tests in commercial canning plants.
In the meantime the heat penetration curves which we present
should, be useful for purposes of comparison.
writer takes this occasion to express his appreciation to
his associates. Dr. O. S. Bohart and Messrs. A. C. Richardson and
G O. Ball, for their efficient and painstaking work in securing the
data on wbidi this bulletin is based, and also for the material con¬
tributions each made in develc^ing the apparatus.
Valuable suggestions were received from Dr. L. H. Adams
regarding the application of the theory of beat penetration and
the method of calculating lethality presented in the last chapter
of the bulletin.
Courtesies were extended to ns by several manufacturers of
apparatus, including Leeds & Northrup, who manufactured the
apparatus with which we started and made valuable suggestions
regarding its development; John A. Roebling’s Sons Co., who
enameled esi)ecially for ns the constantan wire used in one of
the leads; and the Miller Rubber Co., who, with Inconvenience to
themselves, made up in small quantities as needed the rubber
tubing that was found to give best results in protecting the wire
leads from the steam and water of the retort.
Finally, several canning plants in which the experiments were
made were always helpful, often at their inconvenience. Without
Kuch cf-operation the work could not have been.”
The work was done by Dr. W. D. Bigelow, head of the Re¬
search Laboratory, with the collaboration of G. S. Bohart, A. C.
Ridiardson and G. O. BalL
1920 APPLE CROP
Opening apple prices for 1920 were considerably below
those of 1919, but in line generally with prices in 1918. Con¬
ditions, also, are somewhat like those of two years ago with
a large Eastern, Middle Western and Southern crop and a
[Continned Next Week.]
Wanted and For Sale,
Thli la a page'that maat be read each week to be appreciated. Ton are unlikely to be Intereeted ^ery week, In
what ia offered here, but It la poaalble yon will be a doaen timee in the year. If you fall to aee and accept
your opportunity your time la loet, together with money. Ratea upon application.
For Sale—Miscellaneous. WANTED—^To buy, well located Tomato Cannery;
FOR SALE— 20,000 Five-eighths heavy brace baskets.
Price on application. Address W. E. Robinson & Co ,
FOR SALE—57,000 number three standard enamel
lined sanitary cans. If interested, wire for price. The
Van Camp Packing Co.,'Indianapolis, Ind.
FOR SALE—One Oyster or Sweet Potato Steam
Chest, 28 in. x 32 in. x 10 ft., with four cars, in good con¬
dition. North La. Cang. Co., Box 595 Shreveport, La.
FOR SALE—One complete set of canning machin¬
ery and equipment. Shall be glad to furnish buyers with
detailed list upon application. All equipment ready for
immediate delivery. Address Box A-820 care The Can¬
FOR SALE—Box Nailing Machines.
6— Track Doig No. 3 Nailing Machines (2), $475 each.
7— Track Doig No. 3 Nailing Machine, $500,
8— Track Doig No. 4 Nailing Machines (2), $550 each.
10—Track Morgan Nailing Machine, $700.
Chas. N. Braun Machinery Co., Ft. Wayne, Ind.
FOR SALE—For immediate shipment. One 110-gal¬
lon Copper Steam .Jacket Kettle with outlet and
Iron Stand; Two 60-gallon, with 2" outlet and Iron
Stand; One 5-gallon, One 3j^-gallon, One 2-gallon and
One 20-gallon Tilting Kettle, all tested to 175 lb. pressure.
Ahlers & Gregoire, Louisville, Ky.
FOR SALE — In stock for immediate shipment—
Boilers, Engines, Pumps, Tanks and Stacks; new and re¬
built. Address Louis A. Tarr, Inc., 203 W. Conway St.,
FOR SALE—One new Korn-N-Seal, type CK Semi-
Automatic Capping Machine for No. 1 and No. 2 size
seals, $150.00. One used 25-ft. Iron Tower (for 1000 gal.
tank), very good condition, $150. Both f.o.b. our factory.
Address Greenabaum Bros., Inc., Seaford, Del.
WANTED—To buy for prompt delivery, a No. 28
Victoria Potato Peeler. Box 1132 Richmond, Va.
WANTED—Several 100 gal. steam jacketed copper
kettles. Also power scrap metal baler. Blanke Baer
Ext. & Pres. Co., 1710 Morgan St., St. Louis, Mo.
WANTED—One second-hand Labeling Machine,
adjustable for No. 2, 2^^ and No. 3 cans. For immediate
shipment. Address Quitman Packing Co., Quitman, Ga.
Eastern Shore of Maryland or Delaware preferred. State
price, capacity and average acreage procurable during
past three years. Address Box A-815, care of The Can¬
FOR SALE—Canning Factory, Jessup, Maryland—
B. & O. R. R.; 15 miles from Baltimore—including large
two-story warehouse, good sheds, also two large houses
for employees. Two and one-quarter acres of ground,
wagon scale, two boilers, two engines, two good large
wells, water tanks, steam and water piping. Plant wired
for electric light. Attractive price. Tomatoes, stringless
beans, peas, sweet potatoes, etc., can be contracted for in
immediate neighborhood. Address Chas. G. Summers
& Co., Baltimore, Md.
FOR SALE—A well equipped cannery, favorably
situated. Capacity equal to thousand cases No. 2 cans
per day. Owners unable to give personal attention. Will
either sell their entire interest in the plant or one-half or
three-fourths interest, retaining one-fourth interest. Ad-
drss Box A-814, care of The Canning Trade.
WANTED—Position by married man, age 38 years. Has super¬
intended canning factory for past 5 years. Acted as Salesman
for 10 years. Open now for position. Can furnish good references.
Address Box B-817, care of The Canning Trade.
WANTED—Position as Manager for large canning com¬
pany. Toung man with eight years experience, now connected
with large cannery, hut desires a change. Open for employ¬
ment January 1. References exchanged. Address Box B-812
care The Canning Trade.
WANTED—Position as Sales Manager, with large canning
company or canned .foods department of up-to-date brokerage
house. At present sales manager of large canning company,
and desire change for personal reasons. All replies in strict
confidence. Must he worth while proposition or do not waste
time writing. 'Address Box B-803, care the Canning Trade.
WANTED—To get In touch with parties desiring the serv¬
ices of a suj;)erintendent; have had over 25 years’ experience
packing full line of canned fruits and vegetables, Jellies and
jams, marmalades. Capable of building and equipping and
remodeling plants to handle produce to best advantage. I am
open for engagement at once, with a* progressive company
where my ability and services will be appreciated. Permanent
position desired with growing plant. All replies treated con¬
fidentially. Best of references furnished. Address Box B-822,
care of The Canning Trade.
THE CANNING TltADfi.
“ WANTED—Position as'manager bf canning com¬
pany by young man now holding same position with
large company, but wishes to change. Seven years ex¬
perience managing plants packing a full line of fruits and
vegetables. Open for position early in new year. Refer¬
ences furnished. Address Box B-819 care The Canning
WANTED—Superintendent wanted for Can Making Plant.
One who thoroughly understands making of square double
seamed oil cans; state experience and salary desired. Address
Box B-823, care of The Canning Trade.
WANTED—Jan. 1, 1921. A flrst-class Man as Superintendent
of one of the largest and best located pea and com canning fac¬
tories in Wisconsin. Must be a proven executive and have record
as “Fancy” packer. Address Box B-816, care The Canning Trade.
WANTED—A young man experienced in packing peas,
corn, berries, Bartlett pears, etc., as superintendent. When
replying give age, whether married or single, number years
experience, references previous employer and salary desired.
Address Box B-818, care the Canning Trade.
WANTED—Food Chemist, executive experience in
analysis, research, formulating, factory control, installation of
machinery, calculation of costs in canning and preserving fac¬
tory. Correspondence solicited. Address Box B-281, care of
The Canning Trade.
WANTED—Mechanical man thoroughly familiar with all de¬
tails of can manufacturing, desires position as factory manager
or superintendent of can plant manufacturing Sanitary or Soldered
cans, also evaporated and condensed milk cans. Capable of in¬
stalling, organizing and operating successfully. Maximum produc¬
tion at minimum costs. Thirty-four years of age, married, willing
to locate anywhere 4n the United States or abroad.- Address Box
B-825, care of the Canning Trade.
WANTED—An experienced man as superintendent in a
Baltimore canning factory. Liberal pay to the right man.
Address Box B-824, care of The Canning Trade.
. WANTED—A thoroughly competent Process man, who Is
familiar with packing the Southern Sweet Potato. None other
need apply Must be on the ground ready for work by Septem¬
ber 18th. Address Quitman Packing Co., Quitman, Oa.
WANTED—High-class Representative for a large packing
bouse to co-operate with and handle wholesale grocery trade.
Man familiar with Canned Goods preferred. Corre^xmdence
treated strictly confidential. Permanent position. State age, ex¬
perience and salary to start. Address Box B-811, care the Can¬
WANTED—A man expert in the handling of all canning
machinery to go to South Africa. Also an expert can maker
who thoroughly understands the operation of a modem sani¬
tary can making plant. Good salary and one or two years con¬
tract to men furnishing satisfactory references. Apply prompt¬
ly, A Schlesinger & Son, 10 Wall St., New York City.
WANTED—A wide-awake man who, KNOWS how to set
up, operate and keep in good condition, body locker, double-
seamer, fioater, etc., set dies in presses and keep both dies and
presses in good condition. One who will appreciate a good
position and honest, man to man treatment, and will recipro¬
cate with faithful co-operation. A REAL MAN. If you fill
this description, write to David Stem, 38 Washington St.,
North Boxton 14, Mass., stating your experience in full, telling
why you ought to have this position.
JEROME B. RICE SEED CO.
CAMBRIDGE, N. Y.
- We are headquarters for the best of everything in
S - E - E - D - S
used by .Canners Everywhere
THE CANNING TRADE.
ifl that which gives many years of service. It should
be brought on this basis of service rather than the
price per gallon.
DIXON’S SIUCA-GRAPHITE PAINT
has an enviable reputation for long service and satis¬
fied users in ail parts of the world and on all types of
Because of its pigment, fiake silica-graphite com¬
bined by liature—it is better enabled to withstand
wear and deteriorating agents such as dampness, acids,
alkalies, etc. The vehicle is the best linseed oil ob¬
Yon will be interested in Booklet No. 131 B and our
new Color Chart. Write for them to-day.
JOSEPH DIXON CROCIOLE COMPANY
JERSEY CITY, N. J.
-- By W. a. HIBR
former chief chemist and district factory supervisorof the
T. A. Snider Preserve Go. of Chicago.
An up-to date book completely covering the manu¬
facture of whole tomato pulp, catsup, chili sauce, tomato
soup and trimming pulp.
ANEW, simple, eccnimte,
pulp testing mediod.
Tbe scientific preparation
of non-pras errative cat¬
BottHng the same with¬
out site steriliaatioa.
How to pack trimming
pulp the goremment will
Twelve chapters of solid
CASH WITH THE ORDER
ORDER THROUGH “Thn Canning Trade"
Eureka Soldering Flux
YOU DO NOT EXPERIMENT WHEN .
YOU USE THIS FLUX.
THE STANDARD FOR TWENTY YEARS.
MADE PROM BEST RAW MATERIALS
UNDER PROPER FORMULA.
QUALITY ALWAYS THE SAME.
— MAimrAorDau) only by —
THE QRASSELLI CHEMICAL COMPANY
M/UR OFFICS CLRVILAlfD. OHIO
foa BALK AY roLLOwnte BBAMonm axd AaaMoim
Boston, Msss. HUwsakss. Wise. 8. O. RandsU's Bon
Chieaco, 8t. Paul. Htim. BaMmots
Bt. Lonls, Mo. Phlladalphla. Pa. C. W. Pika Oomsanr
Msw Orlsans, La Fittshorfh, Fa. Baa lYansiaeo
II LB. CABS
THE OEABBKLU CHEMICAL CO., LTD.
Toronto, Ont. Moatraal, Qm.
Angelas Sanitaiy Can Mach. Co.
High Speed Automatic Can Making
and Canning Machinery
282 San Fernando Boulevard Los Angeles, Cal.
Prices i^en represent the lowest figure generally quoted for lots of wholesale size, usual terms f. o. b.
Baltimore (unless otherwise noted) and subject to the customary discount for cash. ****Many
canners get higher prices for their goods; some few may take-less for a personal reason, but these
prices reiN’esent the general market at this date.
Baltimore flturee oorreoted by thee# Broken: (t)Tboe. J. Meehan ft Go. (t)Joa. Zoller ft Co., Ine. (i)E. C. Shrlner ft Co.
(*)H, H. Taylmr ft Son. New York pricea corrected by our apodal Correapondent.
▲BPAKAeU8*-(OaUloniia) taNa i
No. White Mammoth-tOnt
" “ rooted, " .
** Oioon, ** ■
** White, Largo- Oat
•• rooted. " - Out
Oroon, " -
** White, Xodiom... -....
‘ Qtoon, .4Sa
White Bnall —.-
" Oioon '■
npo White 8q ...
" “ RikI..
** Oroon, 8a.... 4 75
“ “ '* ** Snd-... Oat
■AKZD BSANBt-No. 1. Piain-. «
" ” 1. In Sanaa-. »
" •• •• k Plain.1 10
” " “ In Sanaa.1»
" •• “8, ptein.1 40
'* 8. In Sanaa-.1 60
BBANBt~-No.S String, Standard Oroon S6
•• •• 10. ••
r 1 ;• ** Cat White 96
” ' ^ S StrlngloM, Std.110
M " 10, •• " 5 00
**1 White Wax Standard 1 00
. •• “ 10, ••
~ “1 Limao,>xtia.
“ •• •• Standard!_
- " 8, " Soakod.100
“ 8, Bod Xidnor. Stand... 1 36
BBBTSt—No. 8. Small, Whole.1 46
“ **8. Standard." ............ Ont
“ " Largo, "■ - —
" “8 Ont.-....186
OOBNt—No. 8. Std. Brgr- f .o.b. Balto. 96
" Std. Brgr.. f. a. b. Oo-.. 90
" Std. Shoapog f. o. b. Co. 1 16
" *' StdBhoopocf4>.bJBalto. 1 80
" XxBtd.8hoopoef.o.b.Co. 1 36
“ Std. Maine Stylo Balta 90
" Bx. Std. Maine Stylo_110
" " Poy.Mn. Style (jo.b.Bal. 1 80
" Paney f.o.b. Oonnty...... 1 SO
flOMINTt—No. 8. Lyo. Ont
" "8, Standard, Split-110
MIXXD VMBTA-l No.S-U ^do-... 1 06
BUBB FOBSODPIJ “10 ^ -... 6 00
OKBA AND)No. 1 Standard.Ont
TOMATOBSt; “8. Ont
PBASl 8|—No. 1, SieTO.f o b factory
“ „-No.8, “ .
“ ..-N0.8. “ .186
" ..—No. 4, “ . I 15
•• ..—No. 6 " .1 10
* ** Boeondo.-.
No.LBJStdf. No.48iaTe K
" " " Sifted "3 " 1 10
.■x.Bftd. “8 "
~ * Fancy Petit Pol!_Out
rUMPKlNt—No 8 Standard...1 85
* " 10. •• 8 76
" 8, SanwA_ 1 00
•• « |g_ •• ..._........ 4 00
dADUKEAUtt-No. t Standard. 36
" 8, " _180
" " 16. " _4 00
SPlNAOMt-^e. 8, Standard_1 OO
" f* 8. “ 1 16
“ "le. “ 4 76
" SH. CM. f.o.b‘ooa8t
.* 10 " ___
CANNED VBOITABLB PEICBS-Continaad.
SDCOOTASm-No. 8. Oroon Beano. 1 00 1 06
" " With Dry Boani 1 30 1 3P
" " XMno.Ont _
Now York State___ 1 45
SWEET FOTATOB8t-No. 8. Standard Out 1 86
" " No.3Btd.f.o.bJMto 1 50 160
" " " Bld.f.o.b.Oo. 1 40 Out
" « 0BtdJ.o.b 1 00 Ont
“ « - lS,Std.fn.b.Oo.6 06 ‘OCO
TOMATOBSt-No. 10, Fancy, Lo.b. Bal. Ont Out
“ " Jonoy. " Fac'y_ Out
" ” Stand- '* Balto 4 00 . 4 86
“ " Stand- " Co™. 3 78 ...
" " E Sanl. 5K In. oani ...„. Ont
jMOoy, f.o.b. Co-. Ont Ont
" " Bx. Std- " Balto. 1 30 .
" “ Stand., " " 1 10 1 86
Stand- " Co-. 1 05 __
" ' Sooondo, “ Balto. —_
" 8. Stand- " 80 86
" " Stand- " Co.. 70 .
“ Sooondi, " Balto.
"0. Stand., " " 67% __
" “ L Stand.. “ " 60
" Cal. 8%e. 1 30
“ Cal. lOo..... 6 OO
TOMATO PULPl-No. 10, Standard. 8 50 __
“ " “1 " .
“ " ” 1. " - 40 ......
APPLBS-No.lO./ Mo. \_
No. 10./ Mo. \_6 75
" 10.1 Mich. ).
" lO.V N. T. /,-,.
N0.ie./Md..\f.O.b. Oo_6 00
;; ^f.o.b. BMto... 6 00
APEICOTB-No. 8%. Cate. Stand_3 50
ELACKBBERlBSi—No. k Standard... 1 90
“ " 16. “ ...10 00
" " k " ... ....
“ k Proaorrad.- Ont
" " k In Symp.... 8 86
BLDBBBREIBfr-No. U. Malno...-
" “ 8. Malno-..
CHBEEIB8I—No. 8. Sooondo.Bod_8 15
" " " White— Out '
" Bad " Stand. Weter-.
" White “ “ Syrnp....... 3 00
" Bx. Prooarrod..Ont
• “ Bod Pitted.Ont
" Bod • IS. Boor..
aOOBBBBEETBSl—No. 8. Stand-.1 86
“ " 10. " _8 60
PBACHB8«-No. 8%, CM. Stand. L. 0... 4 00
" 8%, " Bx. Std. " 4 76
PBACHBSt^No. 1. Bx. Bliood ToUow 1 80
" " 8 Standard White-... Ont
“ " “ ToUow_
" " Bx." " - 8 76
" Sooond!, White ..... Ont
" " *■ ToUow-.
No. k Standard!, White. 3 00
" “ ToUow 8 85
" Bx. " White- 3 36
“ “ " ToUow 8 40
" " Solaated. ToUow-... 4 00
Sooondo, White._8 85
" ToUow.- 8 60
Piao Dnpooted....... l 50
" ~ ~ rooted._
No.lS, " Dnpooted-.4 00
" - " " rooted-..8 00
PBAESt—No. 8, Soeondo in Water—..
" ' Standard! “ _160
" *• Bx, " in Symp 8 00
** ** k Siege d! In Water..
CANNBD FRUIT PEICBS-Continnod.
PBAESt—No. k Standard! in Water-... 1 75
" “ Symp.... 3 00
" " Ex. " •• — 3 85
PINE- No. 8. Bahama Sliced Extra Ont
APPLE*- " " Grated " _
" ” SUood “ Std. Out
, " " “ Grated" " _
'8%. HawaU Sltood Extra_
" “ ” Stand.
* 8. “ " E x tra
10, " Stand.
" " 10, Shredded Syrap-.Ont
“ *' 10, Cmobed Extra.Ont
" 8, Baotem Pie Water— Ont
“ 10. “ " ■■ -,. Out
" “ 10, Porto Bieo .— 10 00
PLUMSt—No. 8, Water..
" " 8. Syrap.
" ” 10, Water...
” " 1, Black, Water.
“ " " Syrap-.
" •• Bad, “ -.
RASPBBRSIESf—No 8, Black Water.
" Black Syrnp.
" " Bod " .
" " 10, Red-.
STRAW. No. 8, Bx. Stan. Syrnp.... 3 50 3 75
BBRRIBSi— “ Praoerred 3 66 Ont
Extra Proaorrad.... 3 75 Ont
" “ Standard 8 50 Out
“ 1. Extra Pr oao r rad.... 8 00 Ont
“ 1. P rooorrod. 8 00 Ont
" “ 10, Standard Water 13 00 14 00
HERRING BOB*—No. 8. Standard.. .
LOBSTER*-Ub. Plate, t doc. lO M
“ H -lb Plate, 8 doc.. 4 75
%Plat . 8 60
OTSTBBSI— Boo. Standaidi-.—.1 65 1 60
" 4-00. " --— 140 1 60
10«x. “ _ 3 00 4 06
“ Sox. " - 8 76 8 80
6^>x. Soteeta- 8 86 Ont
SALMON* " 1. Bed Alaoka. TMl. 3 75
" " %. " Flat-. .
" "1 Cohoe, TaU. Ont
" " 1, Flat—.- 8 60
" " %. * " - 136
" " L Pink, TMl__ 1 60
" “ 1, Colombia, Tall... Ont
” " 1. “ Flat-. 4 75
" %. " "- 8 90
" Chnmo, TaUo..—. 1 36
" Medium Bed, IMlo.. 8 35
SHBIMPi—No. 1%, Wot or Dry.. 4 OO
" « 1 - ~ _
6to 10tone lie4tone
PIG TIN—BtrMto.-.. .
PIG LEAD—Omaha or FoderM... 8 00
%x% 9xlS 8x1
BOLDER-Drop and Bar-
TIN PLATES F.O.B. MILL
14x80,107 lbo..BaioO<Ao Tin Plate__
. 14x80, m bo, '* Coke Tin Plate.-—
American Can Company Can Prices
Owing to exiating railroad c<mditions
affecting supply of tin plate and de¬
livery of cans, adl prices fmr packers’
cans are hereby withdrawn by
AMERICAN CAN COMPANY.
HOT and COLD
PICK UP GUMS
Best of their kind on the market today.
Low Price Quick Service
The Commercial Paste Co.
Continental Can Company, Inc.
will quote prices on Cans upon
Fidelity Can Company
OYSTER STEAM BOX
With improved sliding doors,
doing away with the hinged
tracks, giving increased service
Edw. Renneburg & Sons Co.
MACHINE AND BOILER WORKS
2639 Boston Street Baltimore, Md.
ATLANTIC WHARF, BOSTON STREET* LAKEWOOD AVB.
BALTIMORE - MARYLAND
Prices Quoted on Request
WHERE TO BUY—
the Machinery and Supplies you need and the Leading Houses that supply them.
Consult the advertisements for details.
Apple PmriM MaeltliiM. See Partus liifWn aa
Automatic Canmaklns Machinery. See Cam-
BA8KBTS (wire). eeiUdins. pleUns, ete.
A. K. Boblne a Co., Baltimore.
BB1.TS. eaieier, mhber, wire, ete.
La Porte Mat & Mfg. Co., La Porte, Ind.
Bean Cleanera. See Cleanine & Grading Mchy.
Beana, Dried. See Pea ana Bean Seed.
Beltlnir. See Power Plant Banlpment.
Berry Boxes. See Baskets, wood.
BI.ANCHBB8, Tegetable and fmlt.
Ayars Machine Co., Salem, N. J.
Huntley Manfg. Co., Silver Creek, N. T.
A. K. Robins ft Co.. Baltimore.
Blowers, pressure. See Pumps.
Jos. Dixon Crucible Co., Jersey City. N. J.
Orasselli Chemical Co., Cleveland, Ohio.
BOILERS AND ENGINES, stetun.
H. W. Caldwell ft Sons Co., Chicago.
E'dw. Kenneburg ft Sons Co., Baltimore.
A. K. Robins ft Co.. Baltimore.
Bottle Capping Machines. See Bottlers’ Mchy.
Bottle Caps. See Caps. ^
Bottle Cases, wood. See Boxes, Crates, Shooks.
Bottle Corking Machines. See Bottlers Mchy.
Bottle Fillers. See See Bottlers’ Mchy.
Aysrs Machine Co., Salem, N. J.
Karl Kiefer Machine Co.. Cincinnati, O.
20th Century Mchy. Co., Milwaukee.
Karl Kiefer Mach. Co., (^clnnatl, Ohio.
Phoenix Hermetic Co., Chicago __
20th century Mchy. Co., Milwaukee, WIs.
Bottle Screw Caps. See Caps.
Box Nailing Machines.
BOXES, CRATES and Shooks, wood.
Baltimore Box ft Shook Co., Baltimore.
Canton Box Co., Baltimore.
H. D. Dreyer ft Co., Baltimore.
Embry Box Co., Louisville, Ky.
Rittler Box Co., ^Itlmore
Boxes, corrugated paper. See Corrogated Pa*
Boxing Machines, can. See Labeling Ma*
C. L. Jones ft Co., Chicago
J. M. Paver Co., Chicago.
J. M. Zoller Co., Baltimore, Md.
BockeU and Palls, fibre. See Fibre Con¬
tainers. . _ _ . ^ „
BuckeU and Palls, meUL See Enameled Bue-
Buckets, wood. See Cannery SuppUes.
BURNERS. oU, gas. gaaoUae, ete.
A. K. Robins ft Co., Baltimore.
Bdw. Kenneburg ft Sons Co., Baltimore.
Burning Brands. See Stencils.
Cabbage Macblnery. See Kraut Mactoery.
Can Conveyors. See Conveyors and Carriers.
Ayars Machine Co., Salem, N. J.
20th Century Mchy. Co., Milwaukee, WIs.
Can h'lllem. See FUling Machines.
Ams Machine Co., Max, New York (Tlty* ^ .
Angelus San. Can Mchy. Co.. lios Angeles, CaL
B. W. Bliss Co., Brooklyn, N. T.
Csmeron Can Mchy Co^ (Chicago.
John R. Mitchell Co.. BalUaore.
Seattle-Astoiia Iron Works, Seattle,* Wash.
Slaysman & Co., Baltimore.
.Stevenson A Co^ Baltimore.
Can Markers. See Stampers and Markers.
Can Lacquers. See Lacquer Manufacturers.
Ayars Machine Co., Salem, N. J.
The Qoodell Co., Antrim, N. H.
A K. Robins ft Co., Baltimore.
Slnclair-Scott Co., Baltimore.
Zastrow Machine Co., Baltimore.
Canning K'xperts. See Consisting Experts.
Qoodell Co., Antrim, N. H.
Can Stampers. See Stampers and Markers,
(^n Testers. See Canmeiers* Machinery.
CANS, tin, all kinds.
American Can Co., New York.
Atlantic Can Co., Baltimore.
W. W. Boyer ft Co., Baltimore.
Continental Can Co., Syracuse, N. Y.
Fidelity Can Co., Baltimore.
Heekln Can Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Phelps Can Co.. Baltimore.
Southern (Tan Co., Baltimore.
Wheeling (Tan Co.. Wheeling, W. Ta.
Cans, fibre. See Fibre (Tontalners.
Merral Bros., Morral, 0.
Capping Machines, bottle. See Bottlers’ Mchy.
CAPPING MACHINES, soldertng.
Ayars Machine Co., Salem, N. J.
Capping Machines, solderless. See Closing
Capping Steels, soldering. See Cannery Sopls.
CAPS, bottle. Jar, tnsahlsr. ete.
Phoenix Hermetic (To., Ch'cago
Unk-Belt Co.. (Thicago
Mathews Gravity Carrier Co., Elwood City. Pa,
20th Century Mchy. Co., Wilwaukee. Wla.
Cartons. See Corrugated Paper Products.
(Tatsnp Macblnery. For the prepartory work.
See Pulp Mcny; for bottung, see Bottlers’
(Thaln Belt Conveyors. See Conveyors.
(Thaln, for elevating, conveying. Sm Osa*
Checks, employees’ time. See Stencils.
Choppers, food, fruit, mincemeat, etc.
Chutes, Gravity SpiraL Sm (Tarriers.
CTlder and Vinegar Makers’ SuppUsa,
CLEANING ft GRADING MACHINERY,
Huntley Mfg. Co.. Silver Creek, N. Y,
CLEANING ft GRAOIINO MAOHINKBY,
D6M. bMUi. M#d. flte.
Huntley Mfg. Co., SUver Creek. N. Y.
Sinclair* Scott Co., BaKlmore.
(Tleanlng and Washing Machines, bottle.
See Bottlers’ Machinery.
(Tleaning Machines, can. Sm Washers.
(Tlocks, proesM time. Sm Controllers.
CLOSING MACHINES, open top eons.
Ams Machine (To.. Max, New York City.
Angelus San. (Tan Mche. Co., Los Angeles, CaL
B W. Bliss Co.. Brooklyn. N. Y.
Cameron Can Mchy Co., (Thicago, IIL
Seattle-Astoria Iron Works. Seattle. Wash.
Coated Nalls. Sm Nalls.
Coils copper. Sm Cooper Coils.
CondensM Milk (Tanning. Machinery. Sm
M ilk Condensing Mchy.
COLORS. Certified for foods
National Aniline ft Chemical Co., New York.
CONSULTING EXPERTS on eannlng.
National Canners’ Assn., Washington, D. C.
CONVEYORS ft CARRIERS, oanaars.
H. W. (Taldwell ft Son Co., Chicago.
La Porte Mat ft Mfg. Co., La Porto, Md.
Unk-Belt Co., Chicago
Mathews Gravity Carrier Co., Elwood City, Pa.
20th Century Mchy. Co.. Milwaukee. Wla.'
WIs. Chair (To.. Port Washington, Wis.
COOKERS, MBtinoons, agitating.
Ayars Machine Co., Salem, N. J.
Hnntley Mfg. Co^ Silver (Treek, N. Y.
A. K. Robins ft Co.. (Thicago.
Cookers* retors. Sm Kettles, process.
Cookers and Fillers, com. Sm Com Cook*
Coolers, vegetable and fmlt canners.
COPPER COILS for teaks.
F. H. LangMnkamp, Indianapolis.
Copper Jameted Kettles. Sm Kettles, copper.
Ayars Machine Co., Salem, N. J.
Morral Broa., Morral, Ohio.
A. R. Robins ft Co., Baltimore.
Wis. Chair Co., Port Washington, Wis.
Morral Bros., Morral, Ohio.
A. K. Robins ft Co., Baltimore.
CORN HUSKEES and SILKEES.
Hnntley Mfg. (To., Silver (Treek, N. Y.
Morral Bros., Morral, Ohio.
PMriMS Busker Co., Buffalo.
Com Mlxert and Agnators. Sm Com (Teokor*
CORN SHAKERS (te the ean).
Ayars Machine Co.. Salem, N. J.
CORN WASHING MACHINES.
PMrless Busker Co.. Buffalo.
CORRUGATED PAPER PRODUCTS.
(Bozm, Bottle Wrappers, ete,)
H'inde ft Dauch Paper (To., Sandusky, Okie
Steeber Litho Co., BoebMter, N. Y.
D. S. Ptg. ft Litho Co., Norwood. Okie.
Counters. Sm (Tan Counters.
(Tountershafts. Sm Speed Regulating DevlcM
CRANES and earrylag macihlaM.
A. K. Robins ft (To., Baltimore.
Suic)alr*Scott Co., Baltimore.
Zastrow Machine Co.. Baltimom
CRATES, Irea Pro mss.
Edw. Renneburg Sons Co., Baltimore.
Zastrow Machine Co., Baltimore.
(Tutters, com. Sm Com (Tutters.
(Tatters, kraut Sm Kraut Machinery.
(Tutters, string bmn. Sm String Bmn Mchy.
Dating Machine*. Sm Stampers and Markoss.
D^ORi^ED TIN (for Cans, Caps, ete.).
American Can Co., New York.
Southern Can Co„ Baltimore.
piM. can. Sm Ommakers’ Mchy.
DISTRIBUTING SYSTEMS, mra.
H. W. Caldwell ft Son Co., Chicago.
Double-Seaming Machines. Sm Closing Mcho.
Edw. Renneburg ft Sons Co., Baltimore.
Employms’ Time Cbrnks. Sm Stencils.
ENAME1.ED BUCKETS. PAILS, ete,
A. K. Robins ft Co., Balt&iora.
Enginm, Steam. Sm Boilers and ™-g«Tit
Enameled-lined kettim. Sm Tanks, glaaa-
Edw. Renneburg Sens (To., Baltimors.
Ayars Machine Co.. Saleim N. J.
PMrless Uusker Co.. Buffalo.
A. K. Robins ft Co.. Baltimer*.
Factory Stools. Sm Stools.
Factory Supplies. Sm (Tannery SuppUsK
FIBRE CONTAINERS for fSed (mS Mm-
American (in Co., New YortL
Hinde ft Dauch Paper Co., Sandusky, Okl*.
FlIiBE PRODUCTS, beoMO, bexbawd, ete.
Hinde ft Dauch Paper Co., Sandusky, Ohio.
Fillers and Cookers. Sm (Tom Cwshsrs*
Filling Mchm, bottle. Sm Bottlsrff Mshy.
FILLING MACHINES, euuu
Ayars Machine Co., Solsm. N. J.
HnntlM Mfg. Co., Silver CiiA, N. J,
Karl Kiefer Machine Co, (Tlnclnnati, Ohloi.
Morral Bros., MorraL Ohio.
A. K. Robins ft Co,, Baltimore.
Slnclair-Scott Co,, Baltlmora.
B. R. Stlckney, Portland, Ms-
20th Ontury Mc^. C«^ MUwaakee. Wis.
Wis. Chair Co., Port Washlngtsu. Wis.
Filllnr Machine, aymp. Sm Symping Ma¬
FINISHING MACHINES, eatoap, ste.
F. H. LangMnkamp, Indlanapella.
A. K. Robins Co., Baltimore.
Sinclair-Scott (To., BaltlmorsL
20th Century Mchy. Co., Mllwankoa.
FLUX, soldering. .
OrasMlli (Themlcal Co.,CIevSland, Ohio.
Food (Thonpers. Sm (ThMpers.
Friction Top (Tans. Sm (Tans, tin.
Fruit Graders. Sm CfiMning and Otadins
Fmit Paters. Sm Paring* Maehlnos.
FRUIT FITTERS and see d ers.
The Ooodell Co., Antrim, N. H.
Huntley Mfg. Co., Silver (Tresk. N. T.
Fkult Preaaes. Sm (Tlderitaksrff Mehs
Gasoline Flrepots. Sm (Tannery Supplim
Gauges, pressure, time, ste. Sm Puwsr riant
GEARS, sllant. _
H. W. (Taldwelt ft Son Oo.. CUesgSb
Sons Co., Baltimore.
WHERE TO BUY—Continued
GKMBBAI. AOKMTS tor MraMairx MlliM.
A. K. Bobins A Co., BaHiatoi*.
H. R. Stickney, PorUond, Me.
Oonontorm, oloctrie. 8 m moton.
OloM-lined TankA 8m Tanks, tlaM-ll—d,
OoTernors, steam. 8ee Power Plant Eonlp.
Oradinr Mcbes. See Cleaning and Or'd’s Mchy.
Oraelty Carriers. Sm Carrton and 0 »b*
Oreen Com Hnakera. 8 m Com Hnakan.
OiMn Pm Cleaners. 8 m Claanlns and Oiad-
Holstlnc and Carrying Mcbes. 8m Ccaaaa.
HOMINT MAKING mniihlaMj.
20tk Century Mchy. Co., MUwankan
HuUera and Vlners. Seo Pm HuUoca.
Hnakera and SUkers. 8m Com Hnakara.
Hydrometers (for determining the Denatty
of Syrupers, Brines, etc.) See Cannery Snppllea.
ink. can stamping. Sm Stencils.
C^annera' Exenanse, Lansinc
Jacketed Kettles. Sm Kettles, copper.
JACKETED FANS, oteaaa.
F. H. LancMnkamp, Indlanapells, lad.
Jars, fralt. Sm OIsh Bottles, etc.
Jolce Pnnms. 8m Pampa
Kerosene (Jil Burners. Sm Burners.
Ketchup Fillers. Sm Bottlers’ Mchy.
KETTliES, c^per, plain or Je eh s t ed.
F. H. LangMnkamp, Indianapolis, lad.
Kettles, enameled. 8m Tanks. dlass-Uned.
KETTIES. p r sMSS.
Ayars Machine Co., SaleuA N. J.
Eidw. Kenneburr A Sons Co., Baltimore.
A. K. Robins A (3e.. Baltimore.
Eestrew Mchy. Co., Baltimore.
GoodeH Co., Antrim, N. H.
A K. Robins A Co., Baltimore.
John B. Smith’s Sons Co., Buffalo, M. T.
(3alTert Lithograph Co.. Detroit.
H. OamM A Co.. Baltimore.
R. J. Klttredge A Co., Chicago.
Simpson A Doeller Co., Baltimore.
Stecher Lltbo. Co., Rochester, N. T.
O. S. Printing A LHho. Co., Norwood, Ohio.
lABEUNO MACHINES, sea.
Fred. H. Knapp Co., Baltlmecd MA
Morral Bros., Horrat Ohio.
LABOBATOEIES for nasals of g esd A sSa.
National Cannon Asm., Washlagten. D. C,
Markers, can. Sm Stampers and Markers.
Markin g Ink, pots, etc. 8m StoncOs.
Marmalade Machinery. Sm Pulp Machinery.
Meat Canning Machinery
MMt Choppers. Sm Choppers.
MIAK CONDENSING A CANNING MGMT.
Ayars Machine Co., Saleas, N. J.
H. R. SOckney. PortlmA Jto. .
2Mh Century Mchy. (to., Mllwaskas, WIs.
Wis. Chair Co.. Pmt Washington. WIs.
MUi. SCPPUES, PaJlsys, Eta.
H. W. Caldwell A Sons Co., Chicago,
link Belt Co., Chicago
MolassM Filling Machines. Sm FllUag Ms-
link Belt Co., Chicago
MolassM Filling Machines. Sm FllUag Ma¬
Nailing Machines. Sm Bex Nalllag MaehlsM
OYSTER CANNEES’ MACHINEET.
Edw. Bennebnrg A Sons Co., Bsitimers.
Packers’ (tonn Sm (tons.
Palis, tubs, etc., fibre. Sm Fibre Csatstasrs.
Jos. Dixon Cmdble Co., Jmoy City, M. J.
Paper Boxes. See Corrugated Paper Prsiasis.
Paper (tons and Contalnsra. Sm Fthrs Osa-
Parfaig Knlres. Sm Katves.
The Ooodell Co.. Antrim, N. H.
Sinclalr-Scott Co., Baltimore.
Arabol Hfg. Co.. New York City.
Adex Mfg. (to,, Baltimore
Commercial Paste (to., Coltanbns, O.
F. H. Knapp Co., Baltimore.
PEA end BEAN SEED.
D. Landreth Seed Co., Bristol, Pa.
Leonard Seed Co,, Chicago.
J. B. Rice Seed (to.. Osmbrldgm H. T.
PEA OANNBES' MAOUNEBT.
j^an Marine Ce.. Salsai. N. J.
Imatley Mfg. Ca., SUrer Crssk, N. T.
A K. Roblas A Ce.. Baltlmere.
aoth Chatum Mehy. (to.. MUwankmk Wis.
Wla. (toalr Co., Port Washington. Wis.
Pm HarTMtera. Sm Faraalng Machlaery.
Pm HnSers and VInsr s .
Chisholm Scott (to., (toinmbus, O.
Pm Vine Pesdsrs.
Chisholm Scott (to.. Columbus. O.
Ooodell Co., Antrim. N. H.
Peach and (toerry PlttMS. Sm Fralt Plttera.
Ctoodell Co., AntrinK N. H.
Sinclair Scott Co.. Baltimore.
PEELING TABLES, eentlneens.
Ayars Machine (to.. Salem. M. J.
Link-Belt Co.. Chicago
Perferatod Shoot MetaL Sm SIotm and
Picking Boxes. Baskets, etc. Sm Baskets.
Pick^^ Belts and Tablea Sm Pm Cannera'
John R. Mitchell Ca, BaltUnora
Zastrow Mchy. Co., Baltimora
Platform and Wagon Scalea Sm Scalaa
Picking Belts and Tablea Sm Pm Cannera’
POWER PLANT BQVIPMENT.
B. W. (toldwell A Son (to., ChlMgo.
JoMph Dixon (toaclble Ca, Jenmy CSty, N. J.
link Belt Co., ChlCMO
Power Pressaa Sm (tonmakers’ Machinery.
Power TraaamlMlon Mehy. Sm Power Plant
Karl KMsr Machine Ca, CladnnatL
20th Centnry Mchy. Co., lUwankM, Wia
F. H. Langssnkamp, Indlanapolla
A K. Robins A Ce.. Baltimora
Blnelalr-Scott (to.. Baltlmera
20th (toatnry Mchy. Co., MllwankM. Wla
PCMPS, air, wator. brlna syrap.
Ams Machine Ca. Max, New York (Bty.
Spaulding A Metcalf, Philadelphia.
Begulatero tor (tookera, eta Sm ControUera
Retwt (toatoa Sm Kettlea procaaa
Betorta, stoam. Sm Kettles, proessa
Rubber Stampa Sm Stella
Soceharometers ayrap teeters). See (tonnery
Sautary (Beaaer and Cleaner. Sm Cleaning
Sanitary (open top)
Sardine KnlTM and
Msa Sm (toaa
SctsMra Sm Knlvea
SOALDEBS. tsmuts, eto.
Ayars Machine Co., Salem, N. J.
Hnn^ Mfg. (to., SOvar Craak. N. T.
Edw. Renneburg A Sons Co., Baltimora
A Ki. Roblna A Ca, Baltimora
Scalding and Picking Baaketa Sm Baskets.
Scrap Balling Pram
Screw (tons, bottla Sm Capa
Sealing Machinoa bottla Sm Bottlers* Mchy.
SMllng MachlnM, sanitary cana Sm Closing
SEEDS, mnnsrsr. aU trarlatlaa
D. Landreth Seed Oa, Bristol, Pa
liMnard Seed (to., (tolcago.
J. B. Rice Seed Ce.. Oambridjn, N. T.
Separatera Sm Pm Canning Mmy.
SHEET METAL WORKING Machlnaey.
Cameron (ton Mehy. Co., (tolcago, IH.
Sbeoka Sm Bexea (toatea eto.
SIKTES AND SCEBRNS.
Huntley Mfg. Oa, Sllmr Qeak, N. T.
20th,(tontury Mchy. (to., MUwanl^ Wia
SILKING MACHINBSb eetn.
Huntley Mfg. (to.. SItoer (toeek, N. T.
SUeera fruit and esgotabla Sm Cerers and
Sertora. pea Sm Claaalng A Oradlng Mehy,
SPEED EEGCLATING DEVICES (for Me.
ehtoM. boM drtoee. eto.
Huntley Mfg. Ce.. Silver (toeek. N. T,
Sinclair Scett A (to.. Baltlmero,
STAMPERS AND MARKERS, onn.
Ams Machine Co.. Max, New lork Oty.
Steam Cookers, contlnuona Sm Cookera
Steam Jacketed Kettles. See Kettlea
StMm Pipe Covering. Sm Boiler and Pips
Steam Betorta Sm Kettlea procoaa
STENCILS, marking pets and braahaa
brass eheeka rubber and s t ee l typa
buralng brands, eto.
A K. Bobins A (to., Baltimora
STIBBEES FOB KETTLES.
F. H. LangMnkamp, Indlanapolla
STRING BEAN MACHINEET.
Huntley Mfg. Co., Silver CrMk, N. T.
E‘ J. Lewis, Mlddleport. N. Y.
A. K. Robins A Co., Baltimora
20th Ontnry Mchy. Co., MllwankM, Wla
SuppliM, engine room, line abaft, eto. Sw
Power Plant Equipment.
Supply Houm and General Agenta Sm Gen
Swltchboarda Sm Electrical Appllancea
Ayars Machine Co., Salem, N. J.
PMrless Husker Co., Buffalo.
A. K. Robins A Co.. Baltimora
20th Centnry Mchy. Co., Mllwankoa Wla
Syrup Testers (saccharometers). Sm Micro
TablM, picking. Sm Pm (tonners’ Mehy.
F. H. Langsenkamp, Indianapolla
Slaysmsn A Co., Baltimore. Md.
TANKS, gUss Uned stooL
F. H. Langsenkamp. IndlanapoUa. Ind.
W. E. Caldwell Co., LonlavUto, Ky.
’Temporatnro Oaugea Sm Rocording Instrn-
TomMratiire Regulating Apparatna Sm
TMters, can. Sm Canmakera’ Mchy.
Ticket Punchea Sm Stenclla
Time Controllers, proessa Sm Contrellara
Tin Lithographing. Sm Docorated Tin.
TIN PLATE, ranmaksrs’,
American SbMt and Tin Plate Co., Pttto-
Carnahan Tin-Plate and ShMt Co., Canton, O.
Tipping MachlnM. Sm (topping Maehlaea
TOMATO CANNING MACHINEET.
Ayara Machine Co., Salem. N. J.
Huntley Mfg. Co.. Silver CiMk, Ni T.
Link-Belt Co.. ( hicago
A. K. Roblna A Ca, Baltimora
Tomato Seed. Sm Seoda
Ayara Machine Co., Salem, N. J.
TransmlMlon Machinery. Sm Power Plant
Tracks, Platform, etc. Sm Factory Trneka
Tnmblera, glaM. Sm OIsm Bottlaa, ate.
TirrbInM. Me Electrical MaehiMry.
Variable Speed Coantonhafta Sm Speed
Vegetable Corars, etc. See (torers and SUcers.
Vegetable Parers. Sm Paring MachlnM.
Vlner Feedera Sm Vlnen and HuUsra
VINBRS AND HULLERS
Chisholm-Scott (to., Columbus. Ohio
WarehonsM. Sm Storsga
Washers, bottla See Bottlers’ Machinery.
Washers and Sealdera, fruit, eta SMSealdora
WASHEBS, earn uud Jac.
Ayara Machine (to., Salem, N. J.
A. K. Roblna A Co., Baltlmoxui
WASHING MACHINES, oosw.
PMrless Husker Co., Buffalo.
Washing and Scalding Baskets. Sm Baaketa
Windmllla and Water Supply fljstSMS Bm
Wiping MachlBM, can. Sm Canmakuraf Mehy.
Wire Bound Boxm. Sm Boxaa
Wire Scalding Baaketa Sm Baaketa
Wra^Mn^aper. Sm (torrugatafi Thpar
Wrapping Macklusa esM Iw IifiMBglishs,
To concerns who say they
can’t use Gravity Conveying
You say gravity conveying is impractical in your
plant because yours is not an all-down-hill layout?
Mathews Gravity Conveying Systems can solve the
problem nevertheless—as they have solved similar
problems in hundreds of other plants. Witness the
The Joseph Campbell Company’s conveying prob¬
lems involved street crossing, floor congestion and
other mountainous-looking difficulties.
The street was tunneled and a double - track
Mathews Gravity Roller Conveyer now carries
streams of can-laden cartons direct from the cars to
an inclined Mathews Automatic Lift. The Lift fur¬
nishes the needed elevation for a network of gravity
conveying lines throughout the factory.
A Mathews Belt-on-Rollers Conveyer carries the
output overhead across the street to giant ware¬
houses. Portable Mathews Roller Spirals and sec¬
tional straightaways bring the goods to any desired
loading or stacking point.
The power involved is negligible. The cost of
complicated all-power machinery and maintenance
saved is considerable. Human conveying labor is
reduced to the minimum. The floor space gained is
valuable. The Mathews system is paying for itself
hand over fist.
Mathews is the pioneer of ball-bearing roller grav¬
ity conveyers. Mathews facilities provide for the
handling of most every conveying need, in most
every sort of business, indoors or out—loading and
unloading, distribution and storage, feeding produc¬
tion and collecting output. Portable or permanent
An interesting story awaits you in the new
Mathews Catalog, profusely illustrated with a wide i
variety of actual Mathews Conveyer installations. '
Write for it. One of our nearby branch sales engi- -
neers is ready to discuss your conveying problems— .
all without obligation to you. Send fgr him. [
MATHEWS GRAVITY CARRIER CO.
123 Tentk Street, Ellwood City, Pa.
Branch FactoricM; Port Hope, Ontario—London, England '
Right—Mathews Inclined Automatic
Lift receiving from and delivering
to Mathews Gravity Roller Con¬
Middle—Main overhead Mathews
Belt-on-Rollers line to and through
Left—Portable Mathews Spiral
Gravity decline receiving from
overhead line shown in middle view.