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VOL. IV. JULY, 1880. NO. 3. 



James Orton, fresh from Andover, spent two years in European travel. In 
1866, while occupying the chair in Natural History in Vassar College, Pough- 
keepsie, he traveled the continent of South America from west to east, through 
Equador, by way of Guayaquil, Quito, the river Napo, and down the Amazon. 
He brought home a large and rare collection of objects in Natural History and 
from his note book wrote out, in glowing words, the story of his adventures un- 
der the title of ‘‘ The Andes and the Amazon.” 

Seven years later, in 1873, while the end of the Pacasmayo railroad track in 
northern Peru was near the 50th mile post, your speaker was standing on the 
tender of the locomotive which was drawing a train of flat cars loaded with rail- 
road iron to the track layers, when he saw on one of the loads of iron a long- 
haired, red shirted stranger, in conversation with a civil engineer—quite likely an 
Irishman asking for employment. Mr. Cartlan called and gave an introduction 
to Professor Orton. He had just arrived at the end of the track on his 
second trans-continental journey across South America. This acquaintance was 
most pleasant, and only ended with his untimely death on lake Titicaca, five years 
later. The notes of his second expedition were added to the revised edition of 
““The Andes and the Amazons. 

In the northeastern division of Bolivia—the Department of the Beni—there 
is a province embracing four times the area of the state of Kansas through which 




no white man has ever passed ; through this unknown region flow two rivers— 
the Beni and the Madre de Dios—of the size of the Mississippi and Missouri. 
To a scientific traveler who had already seen so much of South America as had 
Prof. Orton, this unexplored country was of peculiar interest. After four years 
of careful preparation he sailed for the west coast of South America from New 
York, in Oct., 1876, to explore the Beni River and country—and the brief story 
of this expedition is the subject of this address. 

Steaming out of Guayaquil Bay, latitude 2° south, the ship passes Tumbez, 
where Pizzaro effected his first landing for the conquest of Peru, and then out of 
the tropical heats, out of the great forests, out of the rains to the pleasant lands of 
the Children of the Sun. Now enjoy a temperate climate, cool breezes and 
fall clothing. From the ship’s deck one can see at the same time the wet forests 
of Equador and dry, rainless Peru. 

The officers of the English steamers which run along the South Pacific coast 
are very social and delight in making passengers their guests, from the very mo- 
ment of stepping on board to the hearty ‘‘good bye.”’ Captain Hall, of the 
Oroya, adroitly finds out what one knows of Peru; and, if itis the first voyage, 
kindly warns the ladies not to step upon the grass and the gentlemen from picking 
flowers, or stems off the trees if they go on shore at Payta. He assures them 
of speedy arrest by the police. The captain’s joke is quickly understood when 
they see not a shrub, not a leaf, not a blade of grass—the paved street of a great 
city is not more dry and barren than the country about Payta. Even the water 
they drink is brought seventeen miles by rail. 

Although the country at first sight so barren and uninteresting, the coast 
cities are the sea ports of interior valleys of surprising fertility, and even the 
desert pampas of the Peruvian coast have some time been cultivated, are to-day 
very fertile, and only need water to produce abundant harvests. Sugar, cotton, 
hides, sheep and alpaca wool, tobacco, Peruvian bark, freight many a ship. 
From the coast and plains below, lightning and fierce storms may be seen up ip 
the mountains. A multitude of streams running down from the rains and snows 
of the Cordillera, supply water for irrigation. 

Frequently divided by mountain spurs, the rainless portion of Peru, Boliv- 
ia, and part of Chile, consists of long narrow plains more than 2000 miles in 
length and twenty to sixty in breadth, beginning with a perpendicular ascent of 
eighty feet from the surf of the ocean and gradually rising up to the mountains. 
The explanation of the present rainless condition of this Pacific coast seems to be 
the strong trade winds and cold ocean current coming from the ice fields of the 
Antarctic Ocean, compressed against the lofty Andean chain of mountains into a 
chute or arch of moving cold, in which are wanting the atmospheric conditions 
for condensing of moisture and consequent rain fall. In Brazil, in eastern Peru 
and Bolivia, and upon the summits of the mountains, the rain fall is abundant. 

Many thousands of years ago, the atmospheric conditions of this Pacific coast 
were probably quite different—a fact indicated by numerous grooves and chan- 

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nels in the dry barren rock of the mountains nearest the coast. There are places 
in these rocks where water has worn ten, twenty and thirty feet deep, where in 
these days it does not rain in a lifetime. Besides this, these same mountains, 
dry, barren and without soil, have a series of stone terraces for hundreds and 
even thousands of feet up their sides. These terraces must have been constructed 
thousands of years ago when there was soil upon these rocks and when the rain 
fall was sufficient to produce vegetation. It is of course plain that in this present 
climate of no rain nor frost, monuments of man’s industry endure almost without 
change for long ages. When did the rain cease and what was the cause? I will 
offer that 40,000 years ago this vast mountain chain was 10,000 feet lower than it 
now is—that then there were soil, vegetation, trees, springs and abundant rain— 
that the inhabitants during succeeding ages cut down the forests—that the soil 
was worn off by cultivation and rains—that as the country gradually rose out of 
the ocean the people built terraces lower down until now the terraces are wanting 
in soil, in rain, in vegetation, and abandoned by man. 

Ruins of a very ancient civilization, probably much older than the Inca 
monarchy, abound all over Peru.—ruins of temples, roads, walls, acqueducts, 
foundations of extensive cities and hundreds of square miles of cemeteries. 
Near Pacasmayo, Trujillo and Lima, there are ruins of temples of adobe still 
eighty feet high and covering acres of ground, which from their very size and 
massiveness have defied the vandalic hand of the conqueror. There seems to 
have been various methods of burial, perhaps indicating the customs of different 
ages —some dead were buried in structures of adobe, others in the level lands of 
the plains without wrappings or casings, and others were carefully wrapped and 
embalmed. Inthe mouth of the dead is often found a peice of copper, and 
buried with them bits of gold and silver, and vessels of pottery of infinite variety 
of shape and design. The vessels probably contained some sacred liquid. Rel- 
ic hunters have exposed and scattered many miles of human bones. 

Our route to La Paz, the capital of Bolivia, was eastward from Mollendo 
latitude 17° south. Hereis one of Mr. Meigg’s ‘‘railroads in the clouds.” Mollen- 
do to Areguipa 107 miles; fare $8.00; daily trains. The track runs along the 
ocean beach nine miles with the salt spray of the surf dashing against the morn- 
ing train, and then begins its wonderful zig-zag course up the ravines and around 
the mountain spurs from whence are magnificent views of the ocean, of the sugar 
cane and alfaifa fields in the Tambo valley and of the many windings of the rail- 
road track over which we’ve passed. 

From Cachendo across the desert pampa of Islay—desert only from want of 
water—the snow-clad mountains of Pichupichu, Chachani and Misti, impress one 
by their massiveness and cold grandeur. At the stations of La Joya and Vitor, 
oranges, pears, grapes, watermelons and generous baskets of most delicious fresh 
figs were offered for sale. Here end tropical fruits. From Uchumayu, 7,000 
feet elevation, there is laid at a contract price of $3,000,000, a seven inch iron 
Pipe, eighty-four miles to Mollendo, giving water to all the stations, and from this 


abundant supply every station yard has become a beautiful oasis in the desert. 
. From Vitor to Arequipa the railway train is but a child’s toy in the midst of these 
volcanic mountains and gorges. Arequipa, 7560 feet elevation, is the second 
city of Peru—population, 60,000. Converging to this point descend the numer- 
merous herds of llama, laden with alpaca and sheep wool, gold, silver, copper and 
Peruvian bark. ‘The city is built of a white volcanic stone and situated upon the 
side of the volcano Misti, in the midst of extensive fields of corn and alfalfa, 
% wheat and barley and gardens of vegetables, and surrounded by barren hills 
powdered with volcanic dust. From the railway station American street cars 
convey passengers up to the hotels in the city. Streets are paved and well kept. 
Streams of clear cold water flow freely along side many streets, and plazas are or- 
namented with fountains and flowers. 

But Arequipa is only half way up. The ride from the ocean to this point, 
and thence to Vincocaya, ninety-six miles further, is well worth a voyage to South 
America if one would enjoy extremes in nature; a ride by rail from the tropics 
into the sleets and snows of the Andean heights. By the kindness of Col. Flint, 
manager, your speaker enjoyed the privilege of making this ascent on one of 
Roger’s locomotives, the Huallata. Standing on the locomotive we, in the after- 
noon, ran into clouds, then rain, then hail, and then into a blinding snow storm. 
The road climbs around to epposite side of Misti by a series of ‘‘ developments” 
wrought in the hard lava and dejecta from the volcano. Two other trains fol- 
lowed fifteen minutes apart and from different curves and elevations it was won- 
derful to see the other trains—mere toy trains—hundreds of feet below, worming 
their way over the same route we had just passed. At 10,000 feet elevation 
some few of the passengers began to feel the effects of rarefaction of the air of 
high altitudes—at 12,000 feet many bound cloths tightly about the head—at 14,- | 
ooo feet many suffered intense headache and sickness, while one or two bled 

from nose and ears. 
At Vincocaya, ninety-six miles from Arequipa and 203 from the ocean, in a 
sort of broad valley green with Alpine grasses and partly surrounded by movun- r 
tains of snow, all trains pass the night. The air is thin, cold, frosty; breathing , 
is laborious, head and stomach suffer, sleep is broken; and oh, for one good, sat- ‘ 
isfying inhalation of air! The highest elevation of the road is 14667 feet above . 
the ocean—more elevated than the highest of the peaks of Colorado. Now we’ve 
arrived where there are abundant rains and the surface of the country is grassy and k 
green up to the base of the eternal glaciers. Upon these bleak mountain pampas, . 
great herds of alpacas and llamas feed, guarded by their keepers the Quichua “ 
Indians. <A thousand feet lower sheep flourish and neat cattle graze. eo 
From the summit the train descends by easy grades over a comparatively level D: 
country ninety-eight miles to the city of Puno, on lake Titicaca, 326 miles from o 
the ocean. Puno, capital of the Department, is a city of 4500; building mate- th 
rial stone, roofs of tile and straw thatch, streets paved. There are two public 
plazas graced with iron fountains; one weekly newspaper; ‘‘ El Ciudadano.” th 


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ir -of 

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The merchants buy from the surrounding country, sheep and alpaca wool, hides 
and gold dust. Puno is the centre of a rich mineral region. Near by are the sil- 
ver mines of Maravillas, Santa Lucia, Manta, and the oil wells of Pusi. There are 
no trees nor wo. d for fuel within two hundred miles. Bosta—dried excrement of 
the alpaca and llama—supplies the place of wood and coal. Agriculture produces 
potatoes, Onions, quinua (mountain rice), oca and papaliz, (similar to the pota- 
toe), and barley. Upon the lake there are two elegant iron screw steamers, the 
Yapura and Yavar—fuel bosta. Fare to Chililaya, a Bolivian port, $16.40; 
ninety-six miles. , 

It is said that the great Andes have, at three different epochs, been sub- 
merged beneath the ocean wave; that since the conques in 1533, the rise has 
been eighty feet. Lake Titicaca, now shrunken to a trifle less than Lake Onta- 
rio, has been carried up to the enormous altitude of 12,548 feet. Ages 
ago it covered about seven times its present area. A great number of clear 
mountain streams from every side add to it volumes of fresh water, while the 
river Desaguadero empties its surplus waters into the salt marshes of Lake Aullaga. 
There is no other outlet. The cakes of salt from the dry beds of this lake sup- 
ply all Bolivia. The waters of the great lake are somewhat brackish near the 
shore, but away from land are remarkably clear, sweet and pure. Water birds 
and fish are abundant. 

Chililaya to La Paz, fifteen leagues by a Concord coach, drawn by six mules. 
All day long we enjoyed glorious views of the snow-covered peaks Illampu, Sora- 
ta, Huainapotosi, Illimani. The road passes through a well peopled country, and 
well cultivated fields, gradually rising out out of the Titicaca basin toward the 
base of the snow-filed central Cordillera of the Andes, until suddenly we gazed 
down upon the red tiled roofs, paved streets, and lovely gardens of the city of 
La Paz, 1500 feet below. We could hear the busy hum of industry and the 
striking of the city clocks. 

La Paz contains a population of 80,000, and is 12,000 feet above the ocean. 
There are two daily newspapers. Her merchants trade in wool, Peruvian bark, 
coffee, and do business with the gold mines of Tipuhuani and Carabaya, the 
silver mines of Oruro and Potosi, and with the agricultural districts of interior 

March 27, 1877, we set out on mules from La Paz for Cochabamba, 84 
leagues, by way of Oruro, sto; ping each night at government tambos. Each 
morning we found the roofs and surroundings white with frost. These tambos 
afford iree shelter for man and beast. All travelers carry their own bedding, 
and buy food and forage when needed. No wagon has ever passed, except on 
pack-mules, to La Paz nor to Cochabamba. We met numerous trains of mules 
and thousands of llamas loaded with flour and metals. In this route we crossed 
the second Cordillera. 

Cochabamba, latitude 1734° south, is a city of forty thousand inhabitants, in 
the midst of a valley of wondrous fertility; too elevated for any of the tropical 


fruits, but producing plentiful crops of wheat, corn, apples, grapes, peaches and 
pears. Cochabamba flour supplies the entire Republic. It is not so white as the 
celebrated Chile flour, but we pronounced it the richest flavored we had ever 
eaten in any country. In Cochabamba we spent ten days making collections and 
gathering information upon the character and productions of the country. Never 
will be forgotten the delightful climate, the warm hearted generous friends, and 
the pleasant days we spent in this charming city. 

Mules again for the port of Crimoré, on the Chimoré River. The hire of 
each mule for a journey of fifty leagues was equal to $9.60. We left Cochabam- 
ba April 12th, and passing through magnificent fields of ripening wheat, ascended 
the third and last cordillera. Amid cloud and storm and sleet we passed over 
the summit. Nothing could exceed the exquisite pleasure and absorbing interest 
of this descent—first shrubs, then trees, new and strange and of great variety, 
each mile becoming larger. With the Aneroid barometer in hand, we noted each 
elevatio : as we passed down to the potatoe, barley, corn, yucca, fern palm, plans 
tain, orange, coffee, coca, rice, sugar cane and cacao, (chocolate). The professor 
had been eager to press forward, so that in spite of the advice of friends, we f. und 
ourselves in the great forests of he lower mountains at least three weeks too early 
in the season. We encountered floods of rain and torrents of water. Our pack 
mules fell in the mud or roiled over down the slippery rocks. Professor Orton, 
mule and all, fell into the deep torrent of ariver. Gnats surrounded us in clouds. 
We were bitten by them until it was not possible to close the swelled hands. We' 
wore masks to protect the face. 

At Pachimoco, a place of a half dozen Indian cabins, on the river Chapare, 
we first met the Indian of the forests; painted, wearing feathers of the macaw and 
armed with bow and arrows of extraordinary size. ‘Their only covering a shirt 
prepared from the inner bark of a tree. The material is abundant, easily washed. 
and wears well. The Indians live upon plantains and yucca, fish and game of the 
forest. We were now in the great Madeira platte—the mountains were behind 
us. Elevation above the ocean by boiling point of water, 875 feet. 

It was necessary to travel ten leagues along the base of the mountains to 
reach the river Chimoré where we would find canoes. In the middle of the. af- 
ternoon we arrived at the Coni River, but finding it too deep to ford on account 
of rains of previous night, we camped in the dry bed of the river a mile from shore 
on a high sand bank near which grew a clump of willows and wild cane. Some 
Yuracare Indians whom the Cacique had sent with us from Pachimoco, with sur- 
prising skill constructed for us a perfect shelter out of the wild cane. They then 
swam the river, promising to return early next morning with canoes to ferry us 
over. ‘The night closed in dark and stormy. ‘There were with us the two mule- 
eteers from Cochabamba. They built bonfires to protect ourselves and mules 
from tigers. By ten o’clock the rain poured in torrents, the thunder was deafen- 
ing. ‘The lightning was continuous and of intense brilliancy. The river began 
to rise. In an hourit had risen fifteen feet; it was within a few inches of our 





, to 


shelter and still rising. There was danger. The water invaded our hut; it was 
eighteen inches deep. We were alarmed. It was time. We drew on our boots 
and stepped down into the water. We piled our eight trunks together and held 
them down with poles to keep them from floating away. Only two trunks were 
above water. The storm ceased—the darkness was intense. We stood in three 
feet of water. We looked death squarely in the face. We talked of home, fam- 
ily, friends. We gave up all for lost. Huge trees swept by us. The tigers 
growled, the tapirs bellowed, the monkies chattered, the birds uttered notes of 
alarm. From the opposite bank masses of earth with portions of the forest went 
down in the flood. After five hours daylight came. We could see no land. A 
shout was heard, another and another, but in what direction we could not tell. 
We answered at random. ‘Two hours later shouts were again heard, and this time 
from up the river, and in the distance among the floating debris could be seen the 
heads of swimming men. They touched bottom and waded to us—a score of 
Yuracare Indians, great powerful fellows. Never were happier men than ourselves. 
They were friends; we were saved. 

From the Coni to the Chimoré, Indian women carried our trunks, each 100 
pounds—nine miles for 20c each. 

May 3rd, 1877, We embarked on the Chimoré River in two canoes, paddled 
by thirteen Indians. Here the current was swift, with many rapids; banks four 
feet high and crowded to the very edge with the dense tropical forest, so that the 
river seemed hemmed in by two immense walls of living green. Silently each In- 
dian bid ‘‘ good bye” with a pressure of the hand, and took his seat in the ca- 
noe, placing his bow and bundle of arrows by hisside. The tears coursed down 
the cheek of more than one Indian wife; we pushed out into the stream; the 
paddlers bent to their work; the canoe rose and fell in rythmic response to each 
united pressure of the paddles; we moved almost with the speed of the arrow, 
and began our voyage of 300 miles. By two o’clock, not a mountain nor a hill 
was visible. Time down to Trinidad six days—time back up stream, twenty 
days. In four days we found the river as large as the Missouri, with soundings 
of thirty to seventy feet. We camped each night upon a sand bar to be safe from 
night attack of hostile indians—Los Salvajes, as our Yuracare captain told us in 

(Zo be continued.) 




The English expedition sent out by the Royal Geographical Society has so 
far been very successful. This expedition, it will be remembered, left the coast 
near Zanzibar in May, 1879, under the leadership of Keith Johnstone, Jr., after 
whose sad death his companion, Joseph Thomson, took command. After a 
march of 131 days he reached the north end of Lake Nyassa September 22. ‘The 
highest point passed by the expedition between the coast and the lake had 8,116 
feet elevation above the sea. After five days’ rest Thomson continued his march 
to the west, and in thirty-five days succeeded in accomplishing the chief object 
of his expedition by crossing the hitherto entirely unknown region between 
Nyassa and Tanganyika, which he found to be 250 miles broad between the two 
lakes, with mountain ranges 6,000 to 9,000 feet high and inhabited by numerous 
peaceable and friendly tribes. Having reached Pambete, near the southern end 
of Tanganyika, on the 5th of November, he then went on to Ujiji on the eastern 
shore, where he stayed till January 16, when he started on his return journey to 
the coast. He first crossed the lake to the western side, intending to explore the 
Lukuga Creek, passing down the river about thirty miles, in order to finally solve 
the questions raised by Cameron and Stanley regarding its character as to the 
lake’s outlet. He would then march south through the still unexplored region 
west of Tanganyika, and passing its southern end return to Kilwa on the east 
coast, which he hopes to reach in six months. Mr. Stewart, with the Livingstonia 
Mission, expedition also succeeded in crossing the country between Nyassa and 
Tan,anyika, reaching the latter one day after Thomson and by a different road. 
Thus another of the many white spots on the map of Africa has at last been 
filled in. 


The expedition which was sent out from Zanzibar by the International African 
Association, founded by the King of Belgium, has also attained some real suc- 
cesses after all its misfortunes. ‘The first expedition, commanded by Lieutenant 
Cambier, reached the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika in July last, being over 
one year on the march which Stanley, in 1871, accomplished in less than eight 
months. At Karema, in Ufipa, in latitude 7 degrees south, Cambier purchased 
a piece of land of 1,000 hectares from Masikamby, the chief of the district, and 
there established the first scientific and commercial station of the association in 
Africa. It was Stanley who pointed out this spot as the most suitable for the 




purpose. The station, which consists of several wooden houses, numerous huts 
for the negro followers and a magazine for the goods, is situated on a deep bay 
near the village of Karema, which lies some ten to twelve days by boat south of 
Ujiji, on a small promontory, elevated twenty feet above the lake. Ufipa is a 
fertile, well watered country, inhabited by quiet and friendly natives. It contains 
some coal beds, and seems fit for raising grain and wild rice. The Arabs also 
have a station near Karema, which consists of 150 grass huts, with 250 inhabit- 
ants. The second expedition, undér Captain Popelin, after combining with No. 
3, commanded by M. Cartier, at Mpwapwa last August, pushed on to the west, 
passed through the Arab capital, Tabora, in October, and by the last accounts 
had just arrived at Karema. Of the eight Belgian explorers who originally 
started for Tanganyika only three have thus succeeded in reaching the lake— 
three died on the road and two were forced to return as invalids. Of the four 
Indian elephants with which Cartier left the coast two have died on the way, but 
the other two reached Karema in good condition. ‘They are now entirely 
acclimated, and have proved of immense service to the expedition. When cross- 
ing the Mgunda-Mkali desert, carrying a load of twelve hundred weight each, 
they traveled consecutively for forty-two hours without food and thirty-five hours 
without water. In passing through the villages they naturally created great 
wonder and excitement among the natives, who only know the animal in its wild 
state. It is now proposed to establish a station near the lake for catching, taming 
and training the African elephant for transport service. For this purpose Mr. 
Sanderson, the noted elephant tamer, with a staff of experienced elephant catch- 
ers, will come from India to Zanzibar. While the expeditions now at Karema 
are solidly establishing themselves in that station, the basis of all future opera- 
tions, a fourth expediticn has organized at Zanzibar and started for the interior on 
January 25. Its leaders are two Belgians—Burdo, who has already traveled on 
the Niger, and Roger, and an Englishman, Cathneade. Their caravan is 150 
men strong, in light marching order, and takes along a number of donkeys asa 
new experiment in transport service, but the ¢se/se fly will probably prove fatal to 
these animals. The expedition, wh‘ch is expected to reach Karema in May, will 
pick up Dr. von Hemoel at Tabora, where he was left behind by the second 
expedition on account of ill health. After all these expeditions have assembled 
at Karema a fresh start will be made with a new expedition under Popelin, Cam- 
bier and Burdo, who will follow Cameron’s and Stanley’s road through Mamyu- 
ema to Nyangwe, the westernmost Arab trading post on the Lualaba Congo, 
where the second fixed station is to be established. Here they will await the 
arrival of Stanley’s expedition, which is at present engaged in pushing up the 
Congo from the west coast, as described furtheron. Ultimately a complete chain 
of stations is to be stretched across Africa from ocean to ocean. 


This grand project of the International Association at Brussels is, however, 
not to be executed solely by its own expedition, but the necessary funds have 
been assigned to the sub-committees in France and Germany for establishing 
their share of the explorers’ stations in Africa. The French committee, with a 
fund of $20,000, including a government grant, has appointed the noted traveler 
Count Savorgnan de Brazza as chief of the station which is to be formed near 
the French Gaboon colony on the .west cost, while the eastern station will be 
established at ‘Tabora, in Unyamwezi. The chief of the latter, who will also 
be a naval officer, has not yet been appointed. Count Brazza started for his 
post last December with his former companion, Dr. Ballay, with whom, after 
founding the station on the Gaboon, he will continue the exploration of the 
Ogoway river. The German Committee, having received a donation of $10,000 
from Brussels, has organized a new expedition, which started from Berlin a few 
days ago for Zanzibar. It consists of Captain von Schoeler, the chief of the 
station; Dr. Boehm, as naturalist; the Engineer Reichert and Dr. Fischer, who 
explored the Dana River with Denhardt in 1878 and has since resided at Zanzi- 
bar. They are instructed to go to the Tanganyika and establish the first German 
station near the southern end of that lake, as the above described expedition of 
Thomson has demonstrated the importance of the high road leading thence to 
Lake Nyassa, the Zambesi River and the coast. 

Three other German explorers, sent out previously by the Berlin society, 
have meanwhile continued their work. When Gerhard Rohlfs returned to Berlin 
after the complete failure of his expedition to Wadai and the Congo, having been 
robbed and nearly murdered by the fanatic inhabitants of the Kufarah oasis, he 
resigned the command, which was then transferred to his companion, Dr. Anton 
Stecker, who was instructed to make a new start for the interior by another road. 
Dr. Stecker left Tripolis last February, and now follows the great caravan route, 
due south, by way of Fezzan, to Kuka, the capitol of Bornu, on Lake Tsad. 
From there he will attempt to pass either south through Baghirmi or southeast 
through Adamowa, in order to reach the original goal of the expedition—the 
great unexplored region between the head waters of the Shary, Welle, Binne, 
Ogoway and the north bend of the Congo. Dr. Oscar Lenz, the second envoy 
of the society, arrived at Tangiers, in Morocco, November 13, and went on five 
days later by way of Tetuan to Fez, in the interior. In December last he started 
for the south, intending to cross the high Atlas range and reach the oasis of 
Tafilet, from where, if possible, he will push on to Timbuctoo, on the Niger. 
The third German explorer, Dr. Max Buchner, who started from Loanda, on the 
west coast, reached Malange, in the interior, July 22, with 130 followers, passed 
through Mutua Ngengo August ro, and was near the Lui River, north of Quim- 
bundu, in Sangoland, September 22, from where he dates his last letters. After 
crossing the Kwango he will follow the northern road to Quizimene, the 
Mwato Yanvo’s present capital, as the southern road is at present closed by a war 









among the natives. Having delivered the German Emperor’s presents to the 
Central African monarch he will attempt to penetrate north to the mysterious 
Sankowa Lake and thence to Nyangwe and the east coast. 


The Portuguese explorers Ivens and Capello returned to Loanda last Decem- 
ber, ill with fever, nearly destitute of clothing and deserted by. nearly all their 
followers. During their two years’ expedition in Angola they have pretty thor- 
oughly explored the interior of that colonial province, and especially the 
highlands of Bihe with its river sources. They also surveyed the regions of the 
Kwango and Kwanga rivers, and col ected many geographical, topographical and 
meteorological details. They descended the Kwango as far north as the bush of 
Iaca, which is a vast region south of the Congo between latitude 5° and 7° south, 
but were prevented from going on to the great river by the hostility of the 
natives. After recuperating their health for some months at Mossamedes they 
returned to Lisbon on the rst of March. Sefior Albergnes de Sosten, the leader 
of the first Spanish expedition in Africa, is now at Alexandria. After completing 
his outfit he will start for Massowah, on the Red Sea, and thence to Adowah, in 
Northern Abyssinia, from where he intends proceeding southward through 
Amhara ani Shoa and by way of Gur-gwe, south of the Blue Nile basin, through 
the wild Galla and Somali countries as far as the Juba River, on which he will 
descend to the Indian Ocean, where he expects to arrive in twelve months, if 
not detained by the hostile tribes, as is but too probable. The Italians are also 
taking an active share in African exploration. Their Commercial and Explora- 
tory Society has recently established stations at Massowah, Odeida and in the 
Abyssinian interior for the purpose of trade with the natives, and the dispatch 
boat Exploratore has hois.ed the Italian flag at Assab Bay, near the Straits of 
Babelmandel, and landed mechanics and artisans there to build a settlement, 
which is to serve as a starting point for Italian expeditions into the interior. In 
February last Prince Borghese and Dr. Matteucei began their new expedition. 
They intend to go from Chartum on the Upper Nile westward through Darfour 
and Wadaii to Bornu, and thence, according to circumstances, to the Guinea 
coast or northward to Tripolis. 


The Russian explorer, Dr. Junker, has again started for Central Africa. He 
left Cairo December 1, and goes by way of Suez and Snakin on the Red Sea to 
Chartum, his goal being the Monbuttu country beyond the Welle River, where 
he intends completing Schweinfurth’s researches among the Acka dwarfs and 
Niamniam cannibals, and if possible descend the river either to Lake Tsad or the 




Conyer, and thus establish its identity with either the Shary or Stanley’s Aruwimi. 
He is accompanied by Bohndorf, Gordon Pacha’s ex-valet, whose adventurous 
journey to Darbanda was described in the last letter. The Austrian traveller, R. 
Slatin, reached Dara, in Darfour, last September, and intends to go south to 
Kalakka end explore the unknown regions as far as the copper mines of H 2frat- 
el-Nahas and the Upper white Nile. Baron Muller-Oskon-Capitany has also 
started for the Egyptian Soudan and proposes to go by way of Kaffa, south of 
Abyssinia, to the sources of the Juba. Captain Revoil, formerly of the French 
army, has made a successful trip in the land of the Midjurten- Somalis, south of 
Cape Guardafni, where he was well received. He did not, however, go far into 
the interior, but succeeded in collecting much valuable information about the 
caravan routes, and also ascended several of the high mountains, as the Karomo 
(11,480 feet) and the Aisemat (7,080 feet). The German Baron Holzhausen and Dr. 
Moak. have made an expedition into the country of the Dabanja-Bedouins, on 
the Upper Atbara River, visiting Kassala and Tomad, the chief’s winter camp, 
last February. They report that complete anarchy prevails in that part of the 
Egyptian Soudan, robber bands infesting the whole country. The blame for 
this state of affairs is attributed to Gordon Pacha’s constantly changing policy 
and shifting projects, with spasmodic attempts at suppression of slavery, but 
without any definite plan-for the security and pacification of the country. 


In South Africa the conclusion of the Zulu and other Kaffir wars has per- 
mitted the resumption of explorations. F. C. Selous, who has lived many years 
on the Upper Zambesi and its tributaries, and has before attempted to reach 
Lake Bangwealo, the source of the Lualaba-Congo, is about to start from the 
Transvaal on another expedition with the same object, and thus span what has 
been called ‘‘the unconnected link between the Cape of Good Hope and the 
Mediterranean.” At Cape Tower two young Englishmen, Bagot and Beaver, 
are preparing an expedition at their own expense, with which they propose to 
explore and survey for four years the region between the Zambesi and the great 
lakes, traveling with two ox carts and native drivers and guides. Donald 
McKenzie has again returned to the settlement, which he has found near Cape 
Juby, on the west coast, and named Port Victoria. He will first replace the 
wooden houses of the colony by stone buildings, for which some quarries close 
at hand furnish good material, and then explore the neighboring country, especi- 
ally the ruins of a Portuguese fort of the fourteenth century not far distant. His 
chief object, however, remains to open up trading connections with the native 
chiefs in the interior as far as Timbuctoo. The Governor of the British colony 
at Sierra Leone also intends sending out an expedition to go from Bathurst, on 
the Gambia, by way of Segu, on the Upper Niger, to Timbuctoo by invitation 
of the Sultan, 


At the regular meeting of the Geographical Society of Berlin, April roth, 
1880, the President, Dr. Nachtigal, read a letter received from St. Petersbrug 
giving an account of the various attempts made in the course of the year 1879 
to establish reguiar intercourse by sea between the ports of Europe and the estu- 
aries of the great rivers of Siberia. In 1879 seven ships attempted to reach 
Siberia from Europe by the North Cape, but of these only one, the steamer 
Luise, was successful. With two barges in tow, this vessel left.Bremen on the 
8th July, arrived in the Yenissei on the 15th September, and returned in good 
condition to Bremerhaven on the 30th October. The cargo consisted of petro- 
leum, sugar, butter and tobacco, and the return freight of about 20,000 pounds 
of wheat which had been brought from the interior of Siberia to the mouth of the 
Yenisei in boats specially built for this purpose. All the other ventures were 
complete failures. The two Swedish vessels, the Samuel Owen and the Express, 
freighted by the well-known Moscow merchant, Sibiriakoff, endeavored in vain 
to force a passage through the masses of ice accumulated at the entrance of the 
Kara Sea, and were compelled to return. Still more unfortunate were the two 
steamers, Amy and Mizpah, bound for the Obi and chartered by the merchant 
Fund, as also ‘he Danish steamer Neptun, dispatched on account of the same 
firm, and which, as well as Mr. Ketley’s English steamer Brighton, came to 

grief in Baidarak Bav. A similar fate was in store for three sailing vessels which | 

after having been built in the dockyard of Trapesinkow at Tjumen (Government 
of Tobolsk), were laden with grain, tallow and spirits, and sailed for Europe. 
The Nadeshda and the Ok were shut in by the ice in Baidarak Bay, near 
the Tambata Rives, and lost their tackle as well as part of the cargo; the Tjumen 
and the steamer Luise (the latter had wintered in the Obi) ran on sand banks in 
the Gulf of Obi and were thus prevented from continuing their voyage. These 
shipping disasters have caused great surprise at St. Petersburg, where Professor 
Nordenskiold’s voyage had been hailed as the commencement of a new epoch in 
the Siberian trade. The advocates of communication by sea with Siberia point 
out that 1879 has been an exceptionally unfavorable year, and that most of the 
accidents were due not so much to the state of the ice in the Kara Sea, as to the 
want of charts, buoys, beacons, etc. It is also suggested that while there must 
have been in that year a great accumulation of ice in the Kara Sea, the sea 
round Novaya Zemlya just about the same time was free from ice, and we may 
conclude that in each year, according to the direction of the prevailing wind, 
one of these two routes will be open to navigation; an opinion to some extent 
confirmed by the voyage of the English Captain Markham, who at the end of 
September, having found the Kara Sea encumbered with ice, sailed without 
obstacle round the northern extremity of Novaya Zemlya. Unfortunately our 
experience does not date further back than the year 1875. It is possible that the 
year 1879 may have been exceptionally unfavorable, and its immediate prede- 
cessors exceptionally favorable to Arctic exploration, and as observation alone, 

La eae et Oe 


extended over a number of years, can prove the correctness of this assumption, 
it is recommended that scientific observing stations be established on the northern 
coasts of Europe. Matotschkin Schar in Novaya Zemlya and the island of Waaigat 
offer themselves as meteorological stations where exact observations might be 
made as to the direction of the wind which renders Kara Strait, or Jugor Strait, 
or the Matotschkin entrance, free from ice, and the results thus obtained might 
be communicated to approaching vessels. The letter went on to say that an 
examination of the difficult navigation of the Obi, and the discovery of a suitable 
harbor in the Gulf of Obi were also urgently required, as the conditions of the 
latter were much more unfavorable than those at the mouth of the Yenissei. As 
a matter of curiosity the suggestion was alluded to that the difficulties of navi 
gating the Obi might be altogether avoided by the construction of a railway 
connecting the Charua-Juga, a tributary of the Obi, with Khaipudirskaia Bay- 
(60° east long. of Greenwich). The President further announced that the expe- 
dition which purposes to found a station in East Central Africa, and which is 
composed of Captain von Schloer, the zoologist, Dr. Boehm, Dr. Kayser, for 
geodesy, and the civil engineer Mr. Reichard (the latter accompanying the expe- 
dition at his own expense) was about to start from Berlin, and would probably 
establish a station at the southeast end of Lake Tanganyika. H. M., the King of 
the Belgians, had contributed for this purpose 40,000 francs, and the German- 
African Society their subscriptions for the year 1880, which amount to 16,000 
marks. Dr. Boehm next addressed the meeting on the discovery of the sources 
of the Niger; and Dr. Stolze gave a description, based upon his own observa- 
tions, of Faristan, the cradle of the old Persian nation. 


The French project for building a railway from Algiers across the Sahara des- 
ert to the Niger and thence to their colony on the Senegal has caused the sending 
out of several expeditions for determining the most suitable line, for which pur- 
pose the Ministry of Public Works has received a grant of $120,000. A though 
the railroad may never be built, geographical science is sure to profit by these ex. 
plorations. Three separate expeditions have been organized in Algeria, of which 
the first will operate only in the colony, while the second explores the Algerian 
Sahara not beyond the oasis of El Goléa. Their leaders are M. M. Pouyanne 
and de Choisy. The third and chief expedition, which is under the command of 
Colonel Flatters, started from Ouargla oasis on the 5th of March. It consists of 
the leader, nine scientific companions, including Dr. Guyard, of the Anthropo- 
logical Society, and some engineers, surveyors, etc., an escort of twelve French 
and sixteen native soldiers, the later being frontier Arabs, and sixty-eight camel 
drivers and servants of the Chambaas tribe, a total of 106 persons. ‘Ihe mate- 
rials and supplies are transported by fifteen horses and 220 camels. Colonel Flat- 
ters intends reaching Temassauin, nearly three hundred miles due south of 


Ww = eet SS SS lUmlUmUD — SS oe 

> Ns 



Ouargla, in seventeen to eighteen days; then cross the Ahaggar plateau and push 
on through the desert to the Soudan. Meanwhile the noted traveler, Paul Soleil- 
let, has gone back again to Senegambia to make a survey for the Trans-Saharan 
Railroad in that direction. He feels confident of not only reaching Timbuctoo 
this time, but also of crossing the desert to Algeria. At the same time M. Le- 
carte has been sent out by the government to explore the regions between the 
Senegal and the Niger. In October last two Frenchmen, MM. Zweifel, and 
Moustier, starting from Treetown in Sierra Leone, succeeded in crossing the coast 
range and discovering the ultimate sources of the Djoliba branch of the upper 
Niger, near the village of Kulako. Many travelers, including Caillié Mage, 
Winwood Reade, Solleillet, etc., had previously attempted this feat, but all failed. 
The French also intend to explore the Gamba River thoroughly and open it for 
trade. For this purpose a river steamer is now being built in England, which is 
to be 105 feet long, sixteen broad and eight deep, with engines of thirty horse 
power and a speed of nine knots. As this boat is intended to carry sixty tons 
weight on five and one-half feet of water it will be able to ascend the river for 
nearly 200 miles from its mouth and open up the hitherto unexplored regions near 
its sources. 


The French and English missions in the lake regions must not be omitted in 
an account of African exploration. Advices received by the Archbishop of 
Algiers state that the Catholic mission under Father Livinhac, in Uganda, on the 
north shore of the Victoria Nyanza, still enjoys the protection of King Mtesa, 
but that the Church Missionary Society’s station at Rubaga, the capital, has been 
abandoned by the Rev. Mr. Wilson and his assistants on account of difficulties 
with the king. Two members of the second expedition of the London Mission- 
ary Society to Lake Tanganyika have reached the station at Ujiji, but the third 
had died ev route. They traveled on a new road from Mpwapwa to Urambo, the 
capital of King Miramboo, Stanley’s friend and the foe of the Arabs, whose death 
has been positively asserted recently. The English missionaries at Ujiji have ex- 
plored parts of the lake, and Mr. Hore, the scientific member, asserts that the 
Lukuga is the real outlet. The Jesuit missionaries to the Tanganyika have also 
arrived at Ujiji, where they were well received by the English and Arabs; their 
leader, M. P. Pascal,'however, died on the way. Their new superior, P. Deniand, 
has since circumnavigated the lake, and they have now gone on to Ulundi, 
on the north east shore, where the chief of Bikari has offered them land for a 
station. The reinforcements for this mission, comprising twelve missionaries 
from Algeirs and six former Papal Zouaves, have passed through Ugogo. 

a Sees tern 
SS ~ — 


pe ern ey ate Poses Ta aoe 



Stanley’s new expedition on the Congo, promises to become the greatest un- 
dertaking ever attempted in African exploration. Since his arrival at Banana, 
the Dutch station at the mouth of the Congo, Stanley has taken the entire expe- 
dition, with his fleet of five small steamers and several small boats, up the river 
as far as the first Yellala falls. At Vivi, opposite the second rapids, and 130 
miles from the coast, he has erected his first station on the right bank of the river. 
His camp, consisting of movable wooden houses, magazines, sheds, etc., stands 
on a small plateau surrounded by precipices, 200 feet above the river level. The 
expedition is very numerous, comprising about one hundred negroes from Zanzi- 
bar, Sierra Leone and the Congo, and some twenty whites of different nations— 
Belgians, Americans, English, Italians, Danes—and including a superintendent, a 
captain for the boats, engineers, surveyors, mechanics, carpenters, sailors, etc. 
Stanley and all his men are now hard at work building the road through the wild 
coast range of mountains to transport the boats and supplies overland past the 
terrible series of the thirty-two Livingstone Falls. As soon as Stanley Pool, which 
is above the last fall and 200 miles distant, has been reached, the second station 
will be established on its shores as a basis of supplies, and the fleet of steamers 
will be launched on the river. Nothing will then prevent Stanley from ascending 
the great river and its powerful tributaries and penetrating to the very heart of 


The German African Society, in the last number of its A/ittheilungen, pub- 
lishes a list of all the scientific expeditions sent out by the (former) German So- 
ciety for the investigation of Equatorial Africa, and by the new society (under its 
present title) during the years from 1873 to1879. All together there were no less 
than eight expeditions, viz :— 

1. The Loango Expedition, and to the Chinchoxo Station, 1873-1876 ; cost, 
10,532 1. less 1,133 1. realized from sale of specimens: leader, Dr. Paul Giissfeldt, 
not Prof. A. Bastian, (who took part at his own expense in the preparatory steps 
for the establishment of the Chinchoxo Station). 

2. The Ogowe Expedition of Dr. Oscar Lenz, 1874-1876; cost, 1,563 1. 

3. Cassange Expedition, 1874-1876; cost, 44571. Members: Capt. A. 
Von Homeyer, Dr. Paul Pogge, Herm. Loyaux, Lieut. A. Lux. 

4. Eduard Mohr’s Expedition, 1876; cost, 692 1. 

5. Engineer Schiitt’s Expedition, 1877-1879; cost, 2,590 1. 

eS ed 

Nae J 


6. Dr. Max Buchner’s Expedition, since 1878; cost, (till October, 1879,) 
1,523 1. 

7. Rohlfs’ Expedition, since 1878; cost, (till October, 1879,) 2,225 1. 
Members: Dr. Gerhard Rohlfs, Dr. Anton Stecker. 

8. Dr. Oscar Lenz’s Expedition to Warrocco, since the end of 1879. 


A letter has been received at St. Petersburg through Pekin from Col. Pre- 
jevalsky, dated from the town of Si-Ning, March z2oth, announcing that the 
expedition under his command is safe. He left the Nan Shian mountains in 
July, and entered Thibet through Shaidash. His party was attacked by ‘Tanguts, 
of whom they killed four and put the remainder to flight. The Thibetian troops 
stopped the progress of the expedition 250 versts from Hlassa, and a messenger 
from the Grand Lama of Thibet brought the refusal of the Thibetian authorities 
to allow the Russians to proceed. ‘The latter were therefore obliged to return, 
which they did with some difficulty through Northern Thibet, wintering at a 
height of 16,000 feet above the level of the sea. Col. Prejevalsky expects to 
reach Kiakhta in August by way of Alashan Urgu. 


The bulletin of the Italian Geographical Society for April contains full 
details of the proposed Antarctic Expedition under Lieut. Bove, with a carefully 
compiled map of the south polar regions so far as these have been hitherto 


The work of exploration has been carried forward to such an extent that few 
portions of our globe remain unknown to men In this work geographical socie- 
ties have vied with each other, and the various governments have been lavish in 
expenditure. The poles are still a ¢erva incognita, but under the plan of Capt. 
Howgate the North Pole will probably very soon give up its secrets. He is pre- 
paring to establish with his present expedition a colony, at a high latitude, at a 
point where they have recently discovered an immense bed of coal. This colony 
can be recruited with men, and supplied with provisions, and expeditions con. 
ducted with sledges over the ice, starting at such a latitude and taking advantage 
of the season, will have everything in their favor for reaching the pole. 

In South America there is also an unknown region. Much has been done 

on that portion of the American continent by Humboldt, Orton and others by the 

OURS as se 

Se ee 


way of exploration; still, on the upper waters of the Amazon, there is a vast re- 
gion of which our maps of that country are mere guesswork. ‘The best informed 
are in dispute in regard to the course of some of the large affluents of the Ama- 
zon, the animals and plants are entirely unknown, and the mineral resources of 
the country are unexplored. It was the cherished plan of Prof. Orton, in his 
last expedition to South America, to explore this unknown region so much 
dreaded by the natives, and open its secrets to the world. But, when he was on 
the very point of accomplishing his purpose, his guard, composed of native 
soldiers, suddenly, by concerted action, placed their bayonets at his breast, and 
marched back whence they came _ Baffled in his plans, worn out by travel and 
weakened by exposure and the rarified air of the elevated plateaux of South Amer- 
ica, he died without a struggle, a martyr to science, on the magical waters of lake 

Since his death, Dr. I. D. Heath, who was his assistant during his entire ex- 
pedition, and his brother, Dr. Edwin R. Heath, who has resided in South Amer. 
ica for many years, have proposed to complete Prof. Orton’s unfinished work. 
Recently a letter has been received from Dr. Edwin R. Heath, who, it will be re- 
membered, read a paper before the Kansas City Academy of Science two years 
ago, on Peruvian Antiquities, which was republished in Europe. Dr. Heath is at 
present located at Los Reyes, in eastern Bolivia. He is engaged in studies and in 

‘making collections in the interest of science, and in organizing his contemplated 
expedition to complete the work so suddenly terminated by the death of Prof. 
Ort n. His object is to explore the unknown countries drained by the waters of 
the Beni and Madre de Dios, an undertaking full of difficulty and danger, but for 
which he possesses the personal qualifications, many years of experience, and a 
thorough knowledge of the Spanish language and character. South America is a 
paradise’for scientific explorers, being rich in every possibility. Dr. Heath is full 
of enthusiasm in his work, and is confident in being successful in making known 
these unexplored regions. He hopes to achieve results adequate to the importance 
of the field in which he operates. He pays the expenses of this great work out 
of his own private funds, which are wholly inadequate to the scientific and com- 
mercial value of such an undertaking. If some geographical or scientific society, 
or well endowed institution of learning would unite with and assist him in bear- 
ing a portion of the expense of the expedition, and send two or three experts, 
perhaps post-graduate students, for a division of labor, it is believed that this por. 
tion of the world, now absolutely unknown, would furnish results in geographical 
knowledge, and scientific collections, of such great interest and value as many 
times to repay the expenditure.—Xansas City Daily Journal. 


Or | 






During a recent visit to Cincinnati the writer, in connection with several arch- 
zologists, had the pleasure of examining an engraved stone, taken from a mound 
in Brush Creek Township, Muskingum County, Ohio, by Dr. J. F. Everhart, of 
Zanesville. ‘The mound in which the stone was found measures sixty-four by 
thirty-five feet at the summit, gradually sloping in every direction, and is eight 
feet in height. The stone was found leaning against the head of a sort of clay 
coffin inclosing the skeleton of a woman measuring eight feet in length. Within 
this coffin was found the skeleton of a child about three and a half feet in length, 
and an image that crumbled when exposed to the atmosphere. In another grave 
was found the skeleton of a man and woman, the male skeleton measuring nine 
feet in length and the female eight. Ina third grave occured two other skeletons, 
male and female, measuring respectively nine feet four inches and eight feet. 
Seven other skeletons were found in the mound, the smallest of which measured 
eight feet, while others reached the enormous length of ten feet. They were 
buried singly, or each in separate graves. At one end of the mound was found 
a stone altar about twelve by four feet, containing portions of what seemed to 
be charred human bones. 

This mound was opened by the Brush Creek Township Historical Society, 
and under the immediate supervision of Dr. Everhart, who was present when 
the tablet was found, and who measured the skeletons in sefu. The Tablet is of 
unfinished sandstone, not quite square, the greater length being twelve and one- 
half inches and breadth eleven inches; thickness four inches. The stone has not 
been squared, nor the surface upon which the characters are engraved so much as 
leveled, nor is there any sign of tools having been used upon the stone except in 
cutting the hieroglyphics. There are two rows of these characters with a straight 
line about one eighth of an inch deep and wide, cut above and below each row, 
or parallel thereto. The characters are clearly and carefully engraved and are 
from one sixteenth to an eighth of an inch in depth and width, indicating no little 
skillin their execution. Between the rows of characters is a circular depression 
one and three-fourth inches in diameter and about five-eighths of an inch deep, 
with other but smaller depressions in the stone. 

It is not the purpose of the writer to speculate concerning this find nor even 
to attempt a description of the characters themselves, further than to say, that 
while two or three of these inscriptions indicate an acquaintance with the old 


Greek alphabet, others may probably be referred to Egyptian and Hetruscan., 
But while we found fair representations of Egyptian, Greek, Punic, and other char- 
acters, we risk no general interpretation of their writing. Mr. Everhart believes 
that the circular depressions refer to the heavenly bodies, and concludes that this 
giant race were sun worshipers, a not improbable conclusion. 

Were the writer to risk an opinion concerning the design of these inscriptions, | 
he would suggest that they refer solely to those buried in thismound. The tablet | 
contains three V shaped characters similar to those found in the Great Pyramid, ' 

and which Pro*. Piazzi Smith, and others, refer to as symbols of power or distinc- 
tion. Inthis case they may refer to the three important graves found in this 
mound. § 

As to the genuineness of the find there seems to be no room for doubt, as I 
Dr. Everhart, an intelligent explorer, took it out in the presence of a number of g 

witnesses. As to age, it bears the marks of antiquity. It is doubtless as old as j 

the mound from which it was exhumed. 
Messrs. Robert Clark, Charles L. Low and Dr. H. H. Hill, gentlemen of 

more than local celebrity in archeological science, to whom, with the writer, is 0 
was submitted for examination, gave Mr. Everhart a written statement of our t] 
views concerning this tablet, concluding as follows: ‘‘ We have examined this stone th 
very carefully after hearing Mr. Everhart’s statement concerning it, and we are 0! 
satisfied that it is not of recent procuction, but has every appearance of being a b 
veritable Mound Builder’s relic, and is well worthy a serious effort to unravel its W 
mysteries.” m 
Prof. Otis T. Mason in the American Naturalist for June, in commenting on Gi 
various anthropological papers in the Revue a’ Anthropologie says: The article of 
Mme Royer is designed to show that the human race is descended from a species 
of animal that never had any hair, in opposition to the generally received theory 
that our race has lost its hair in time. Following close after this domes Mr. 
Wake’s paper upon the beard, and on pages 170-175, a review, by M. Vars, upon 
Ecker’s ‘‘Systéme pileux et ses anomalies chez homme,” so that three-fourths of 
the original communications of the number relate to this external characteristic, 
After a very extended collation of authorities who have remarked upon the abun- 
dance or scarcity of hair upon tribes in all parts of the world, Mr. Wake con- 
cludes with Peschel that the beard is agood racial characteristic, and ‘‘ that there 
are races upon whom it is developed in all its exhuberances, while there are oth- 
ers in which this distinction appears to be incompletely produced.” The author 
then goes on to seek the causes of this difference. The growth of hair upon the si 
face cannot be attributed to such causes as alimentation and climate. Doubtless ; 
these have had their effects ; but the true cause must be sought in the sum total mi 
of all the influences, moral as well as physical, to which the organism has been Nor 


e of 
is of 
. the 



subjected. According to this theory, the most general and complete develop- 
ment of the beard should be sought among the races which have been most favor- 
ably situated or the longest exposed to the conditions favorable to its production. 
Beardless races, in this sense, may be compared to children, and those that are 
bearded to adults. If the beard be a social mark, we seem to be authorized to 
affirm that bearded races are more nearly related to one another than to those 
that are beardiess. 

He also refers as follows to the ‘‘ Essay on the Bible narrative of Creation,” 
by Prof. A. R. Grote, of Buffalo, N. Y.: ‘* Whatever opinion our readers may 
have as to the weight of authority quoted, or concerning Prof. Grote’s ability to 
guide us in this most intricate problem, no one will question his scientific attain- 
ments or his disposition to treat the subject fairlyand his opponents kindly. The 
gist of the treatis is best given in the author’s own words.” If there is one sub- 
ject which now seems to me more important than another, it is the bearing of our 
recognition of the process of evolution upon the existing state of our religious 
creed. It is not that the teachings of Christ are to be rejected, or the morality 
of the Hebrew Bible to be condemned, but that we are to correct our views as to 
the way in which existing plants and animals (including man) came to be what 
they are to-day. For Astronomy and Geology the struggle is nearly over. Out 
of this struggle has sprung the fatal error of believing that our knowledge in these 
branches does not contradict Genesis, or thata reconciliation is possible. But 
with biology the struggle is now going on. It is imagined that the six days 
mean really periods, although from the context the meaning is shown to 
clearly agree with the words, since the morning and evening are given to limit 
the term and decide the intention. It cannot, indeed, be too often remembered 
that people did not write in early times what they did not mean. The study of 
Genesis, or the origin of things, religion must surrender to the sciences. 



Let us inquire into the nature of undulatory movement. 

You have all seen the waving of grain fields when the wind was sweeping 
across them. 

Did you ever think of the steps necessary for the production of the waves 
which you saw? 

Let us follow one head of wheat in its movements and find out what it does. 
Now it is standing still and erect. Ina moment the wind comes in a gust and 



ee ee 


the head is bent far forward ; then by reaction like a pendulum it rises, swings 
back and passes beyond its original position to a point about as low as when bent 
farthest forward. The movement may be repeated many times, but we have 
seen all that that particular head does. When erect it is at its highest point and 
when bent farthest forward it is at its lowest point. We learn from this that the 
heads of grain are performing movements which are transverse to the line along 
which the wave is moving. In like manner do the particles of a rope move 
when you catch hold of one end of the rope and cause a wave motion along its 
entire length. And water waves are caused in the same way. 

Again, take an elastic wire, coil it into a spiral, support one end firmly, to 
the other end fasten a weight, and cause the weight to vibrate up and down by 
pulling it downward and then freeing it. Evidently the coils of the spiral are at 
one time stretched apart and at another time crowded together, as the weight 
vibrates up and down. ‘That is, the particles instead of moving ¢vamsverse to the 
line of wave motion are moving pavalle/ with it. 

To sum up, then, there are two classes of undulatory movements : 

1—Those in which the elements of the wave move transverse to the line of 
direction of the wave; and 

2—Those in which the elements of the wave move parallel with the line of 
direction of the wave, i. e. there is alternate cond: nsation and rarefaction among 
the elements of the wave. 

Now there are four classes of material substance with which we have to deal: 

1— Masses. 

4—Radiant matter, called ‘‘ Ether.” 

We look up to those great masses we call stars and learn that they are for- 
ever in motion. We explain the solid, the liquid and the gaseous conditions of 
matter by saying that the molecules are in motion and are only closer together in 
the solid than in the fluid. By analogy and by the researches of such men as 
Crookes and others, we reason that atoms and ether particles are likewise in con- 
tinual motion. Thus we are led to conclude that in matter nowhere ‘‘ can rest 
be found.” 

The constituent particles of all matter are forever unstilled. 

If Ihave made mvself understood thus far, I shall now proceed to use 
these facts in explanation of the actions of our various organs of sense. I shall 
try to demonstrate that these various organs of sense are so endowed that each 
takes cognizance of certain rates of undulatory motion and transmits its impres- 
sions to the brain. How these impressions are transmitted to the brain, I shall 
not pretend to say—that is beyond the scope of material science; but I do want 
to show that the nerves of these organs are affected by and receptive of undula- 
tory movements within limits ordained jor each particular organ. In the cases 
of the ear and the eye, this is already an accepted theory. Let us state the 
reasoning in the cases of these briefly. 









In the case of the ear it is generally agreed that two things are 
necessary for the production of physical sound, viz.: A vibrating mass of matter, 
and an elastic medium to transmit the vibrations to the organ of hearing. There 
can be no physical sound in a vacuum. ‘The undulatory motion in this case is 
composed of to-and-fro elements, i. e. there is alternate condensation and rare- 
faction among the particles of the transmitting medium. ‘The limits of rate of 
vibration are about 16 per second for lowest and about 40,000 for highest. Below 
16 per second the rate is so slow that the ear is not affected, and above 40,000 so 
fast that the ear fails to take cognizance of them. ‘The ear is the only one of the 
organs of sense that is a‘fected by aérial vibrations. 

It is well known that the earliest theory of vision was the cor- 
puscular. It was said that exceedingly small particles shot from the luminous 
body fell upon the eye and produced vision. Sir Isaac Newton and others were 
apostles of this theory. Nowadays we laugh at such an idea. Let us think of a 
particle sent from the sun. No matter how small it would be, it might acquire 
velocity enough to give it a momentum that would destroy the eye when it fell 
upon it. M dern science has adopted another theory known as the undulatory. 
This presupposes an exceedingly rare medium pervading all space and occupying 
the interstices between molecules and atoms. This medium is called ‘‘ Ether.” 
In the case of sound, the wave motion was the result of mass vibration upon the 
air; but in case of light, the wave motion is the result of mo/ecudar vibration upon 
this so-called ether. The elements of the undulatory motion have a transverse 
movement just as in the case of water waves or the waving of a field of grain. 
The effect produced upon the eye will vary with the number of waves entering 
itin a given time. It has been found by calculations based on observations 
made on soap bubbles, etc., that to produce the sensation we call 7d, over 400 
trillions of waves must enter the eye in one second. ‘Then as the numbers 
increase the impression experienced by the eye varies through all the colors of 
the rainbow until about 700 trillions per second are reached. Beyond that the 
eye fails to be affected and darkness reigns, just as it did before reaching the 400 
trillions just now mentioned. Now it is well known that light is usually the 
result of great heat. Hence we may naturally conclude that below 400 trillions 

and down to an unknown limit the effect of molecular movement is to produce 
waves in ‘‘ether”’ which affect the papillae of the skin and make the sensation 
we call heat. When two bodies are brought near each other, if we keep in mind 
that the molecules of each are in motion, then that will be the hot one whose 
molecules are moving the faster and producing the greater number of ethereal 
undulations in a second. But what shall we say of the effects of rates of vibra- 
tion beyond the highest extreme of impressions named light? We know not 
unless they are such as affect the motor nerves and the muscles and produce the 
sensations we ascribe to electricity. And were we incliued to materialism we 
might say that certain rates of inconceivable rapidity give rise to thought, spirit, 
life, etc. Be that as it may, let us now come back to our special organs of sense 


ee ee 


and see if we can explain the sensations of smell, taste and touch by use of 
molecular movements. 

The story is oft recited in our books of Natural Philosophy, under the head 
of the wonderful divisibility of matter, how a grain of musk was kept in a room 
scenting it for twenty years and yet at the end of that time had lost no weight. 
Now this is marvelous if we suppose infinitesimal particles to be continually pass- 
ing off, which falling upon the nerves of smell produce the sensation we call odor. 
Yes, very marvelous, that particles can be taken from a body through so many 
years and yet not affect the weight of that body; as much as to say that innumer- 
able infinitesimal particles weigh nothing. We must confess we do not like to be- 
ieve such a story. Surely itis more reasonable to think that certain rates of 
motion among the molecules of the musk impart like rates of undulation to the 
‘‘ether” and these ethereal waves reaching our nostrils produce the sensation 
called smell. As in the case of the eye, the senation is various according as the 
rate is various. Such a theory explains how the vulture scents its prey from afar. 
The molecules of the carrion impress their motion on the ‘‘ ether ” and the undula- 
tions go out and on until they fall upon and affect the keen nostrils of the bird 
quietly floating in the blue empyrean. Would a particle of the dead matter ever 
reach it, think you? 

If you ask how is it the vulture and the dog and other animals can scent 
things imperceptible to man, we reply because they are endowed with keener sen- 
sibilities in this respect. If you ask why so many vibrations do not get mixed up 
and produce confusion, we ask how is it in the great orchestra that you catch the 
peculiar tones of each particular instrument? In music we name the quality 
thus distinguishing instruments ¢mdre ; and so there may be ¢/¢mdre in all kinds of 
vibrations or undulations. An odorous object loses its odor as soon as its pe- 
culiar rate of vibration is varied or lost. As in sound waves and light waves, 
there may be inter erence, i.e., waves which puteach other out, so to speak, so in odoy 
waves there may be interference ; thus we might explain the action of disinfectants 
and deodorizers. As to the limits of the rates of vibration, we know nothing. 

Taste and touch are said to be produced by contact of substances with the 
nerves of the tongue and the skin. Yet perhaps the various peculiarities in taste 
and touch may be ascribed to peculiarities in rate of molecular motion. <A thing 
is sour or sweet, bitter or nauseous or acid, occording as its molecular vibrations 
affect the nerves of the different parts of the tongue adapted for the reception of 
rates producing such sensations. We have however no arguments in favor of 
this. As for touch, that requires contact also, just as does taste. 

Let us see how we would explain the various peculiarities of surface of bodies 
as learned by touch. 

As the finger is brought in contact with the fine point of a needle, for in- 
stance, the molecules of the papille in the finger end come in contact in their 
little osci/lation with the oscillating molecules of the needle. Of course there is 
resistance; but as this resistance occurs at but one point, we say the needle is 



sharp. It is like a single man meeting a phalanx. But if the finger comes in con- 
tact with a surface and finds even resistance at all points then we say it is smooth. 
That is like phalanx meeting phalanx. In like manner we may explain dullness, 
keenness, roughness, hardness, etc.—all properties which are learned by the 
sense of touch. 

Now, having gone thus far, let us tablulate our conclusions. Matter exists 
as masses, molecules, atoms and ether. ‘These are all continually in motion. 
Matter which produces wave motion must move in one or other of two phases— 
(1) parallel to or (2) transverse to the line of direction of wave. This much es- 
tablished, let us say: 

I. Masses vibrate: 
(a) There is undulatory movement in ar; 
(b) Elements move parallel to line of direction of wave; 
(c) Rate of vibration extending, for aught we know, from o to o per 
(d) Within the limits 16-40000 per second the ear is affected and we hear 
sound ; 
(e) Either side of these limits is silence so far as man is concerned. 
Il. Molecules vibrate: 
(a) There is undulatory movement in e¢her; 
(b) Elements move transverse to line of direction of wave; 
(c) Rate of vibration extending from o to oo per second. 
(d) Within the limits 400 trillions to 700 trillions per second the eye is 
affected and we can see light. 
(e) Either side of these limits is darkness so far as man is concerned. 
(f) Other senses affected in the same way are the nose, the skin and prob- 
ably the muscles, but by what rates of motion we do not know. 
Molecules vibrate : 
(a) In contact with the tongue—Taste ; 
(b) In contact with the hand—Touch, 
Now we hinted just now that possibly molecular vibration may result in 
thought. If this be true, and there is such a thing as sympathetic vibration 
among molecules as there is between musical strings, pendulums, etc., then is it 
strange that two persons should think the same thought at the same moment? 
Doubtless you have all had such experience. You have been surprised to hear a 
friend in your company speak of something which at the same moment was occu- 
pying your personal thought. Be it understood we do not say that thought can 
thus be explained, but the theory seems plausible to say the least of it. 

‘To go a little further in this theorizing, if the so-called ether does pervade all 
space, and if vibrations or undulations once started in this ether never cease, and 
if the human organs of us limited beings take cognizance of occurrences around 
us when undulations within certain limits fall upon our senses, then an omnipo- 
tent, omnipresent being with unlimited powers could experience absolutely and 



really any and every occurrence that ever took place. The wide realm of ether 
becomes God’s book of remembrance, and ‘‘the book shall be opened” to us 
when these limits that now enthrall us are laid aside and power and liberty is ours 
to go in space wheresoever we wish. 


Franklin’s contributions to science are not limited to his electric discoveries 
and inventions. Out of many such that might be mentioned there are two that 
deserve especial attention. They are (1) the course of storms over the North 
American continent; (2) the effects of the Gulf Stream. 

He relates the circumstances of his meteorological discovery in a letter dated 
February, 1749. ‘‘ You desire to know my thoughts concerning the northeast 
storms beginning to leeward. Some years ago there was an eclipse of the moon 
at nine o’clock in the evening, which I intended to observe, but before night a 
storm blew up at northeast, and continued violent all night and all the next day, the 
sky thick-clouded, dark, and rainy, so that neither moon nor stars could be seen. 
The storm did a great deal of damage all along the coast, for we had accounts of 
it in the newspapers from Boston, Newport, New York, Maryland, and Virginia. 
But what surprised me was to find in the Boston newspaper an account of an ob- 
servation of that eclipse made there, for I thought as the storm came from the 
northeast it must have begun sooner in Boston than with us, and consequently 

prevented such an observation. I wrote to my brother about it, and he informed | 

me that the eclipse was over there an hour before the storm began. Since which 
I have made inquiries from time to time of travelers and of my correspondents 
northeastward and southwestward, and observed in the accounts in the newspapers 
from New England, New York, Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina, and I 
find it to be a constant fact that northeast storms begin to leeward, and are often 
more violent there than to windward. Thus the last October storm, which was 
with you on the 8th, began on the 7th in Virginia and North Carolina, and was 
most violent there.” 

Of late years this observation of Franklin’s has been greatly extended. It 
now appears that almost all tlfe chief atmospheric disturbances of this continent 
pass in an easterly or northeasterly direction toward the Atlantic Ocean. Nor do 
they stop on gaining the sea coast. Why should they? In making their way 
over the ocean, though some may disappear, many reach Europe. It follows, 
then, that the approach of these storms, may be foretold by telegraph, and that not 
only in the case of the more intense atmospheric disturbances, but the coming of 
minor ones, such as are popularly designated waves of heat and cold, and varia- 
tions of atmospheric pressure, may be predicted. The introduction of the land 
and ocean telegraphs for this purpose constitutes an epoch in the science of 
meteorology. Ships about to cross the Atlantic may be forewarned as to the 
weather they may expect. An exhaustive examination of the whole subject was 

a a i 


made by Daniel Draper, director of the New York Meteorological Observatory 
in the Central Park, and published in his reports of that observatory for the years 

2d. Ofthe Gulf Stream. The existence of this current was long ago de- 
tected by the New England fishermen, but they had no idea of its magnificent 
proportions, its great geographical and climatological importance. These were 
first brought into view by Franklin. In a memoir read at a meeting of the 
American Philosophical Society, December, 1785, he states that while he was con- 
cerned in the management of the American Post-office an investigation was had 
respecting the cause of the long voyages made by the packet ships from England. 
The merchant ships made much shorter ones. ‘There happened to be then in 
London a Nantucket sea-captain of my acquaintance, Captain Folger, to whom I 
communicated the affair. He told me that the difference was owing to this, 
that the Rhode Island captains were acquainted with the Gulf Stream, while those 
of the Englizh packets were not. ‘In crossing it we have sometimes met and 
spoken with those packets, who were in the middle of it, and stemming it. We 
have informed them that they were stemming a current that was against them to 
the value of three miles an hour, and advised them to cross it and get out of it.’ 
I then observed it was a pity no notice was taken of this current upon the charts, 
and requested him to mark it out for me, which he readily complied with. I pro- 
cured it to be engraved, by order from the General Post-office on the old chart of 
the Atlantic, and copies were sent down to Falmouth for the captains of the pack- 
ets. Having since crossed the stream several times in passing between America 
and Europe, I have been attentive to sundry circumstances relating to it by which 
to know when one is init. I annex hereto observations made with the thermom- 
eter in two voyages. It will appear from them that a thermometer may be a use- 
ful instrument to a navigator, since currents coming from the northward into 
southern seas will probably be found colder than the waters of those seas, as the 
currents from southern seas into northern are found warmer.” 

Though Franklin was not the discoverer of the Gulf Stream, he was the first 
to bring it prominently into notice, to cause a chart of it to be published, to de- 
tect its most important characteristic—its high temperature—to introduce the use 
of the thermometer, and to point out the importance of that instrument in navi- 

In the short compass of this article I have not space to relate many of his 
minor experiments and observations. There is, however, one that deserves to be 
referred to, from the influence it has had in optical science. ‘‘I took,” says 
Franklin, ‘‘a number of little square pieces of broadcloth from a tailors pattern 
card, of various colors. ‘They were black, deep blue, lighter blue, green, pur- 
ple, red, yellow, white, and other colors or shades of colors. I laid them all out 
upon the snow on a bright sunshiny morning. Ina few hours (I can not now 
be exact as to the time) the black, being most warmed by the sun, was sunk so 
low as to be below the stroke of the sun’s rays; the dark blue almost as low; the 


lighter blue not quite so much as the dark; the other colors less as they were 
lighter; and the quite white remained on the surface of the snow, not having en- 
tered at all. What signifies philosophy that does not apply to some use? May 
we not learn from hence that black clothes are not so fit to wear in a hot, sunny 
climate as white ones ?” 

‘‘What signifies philosophy that does not apply te some use?” That is a 
sentiment characteristic of Franklin, characteristic of the age in which he lived. 
In truth, the entire scientific and industrial progress of that century is an example 
of it.—Dr. Joun W. Draper, in Harper's Magazine for July. 


( Concluded.) 

Says the Assistant Superintendent of the N. Y. schools (1874): ‘‘ Telling 
pupils facts about an object without the necessary observation on their part to 
clearly comprehend those facts, may possibly be called teaching science, but it is 
neither scientific teaching nor object teaching.” I do not understand how one 
can overlook the truth that the memorization of names of natural objects or the 
names of their qualities, or formule which express their relations, without an in- 
dividual appeal first of all to their perceptive faculties, carries with it neither 
science nor scientific method. As the educating process simulates original in- 
vestigation acquisition becomes more rapid, secure and intelligent. Strange it is 
that, at this late date, these principles, but little less than axiomatic, should be so 
disregarded, and demand explicit statement! The truth is, too many are en- 
gaged in this professional business of teaching without attempting to make it 
professional. A few give attention to the science of teaching ; the many engage 
in fiction, or other diverting literature, popular science, philosophy and society. 
The teacher’s preparation of a lesson which he is to hear recited to-morrow, has 
two phases; one, as to its contents and application; the other as to the exact 
method best calculated to arouse the mind, reach the understanding and adapt 
the subject at hand to the inherent and unchangeable laws of unfolding thought. 

This second phase of preparation is so rarely studied that he who would venture 
to present it at the usual teachers’ institute, would suddenly find himself accused 
of taking up valuable time with ‘‘ pet theories.’”’ May we not hope that the time 
is not far distant wheu a simple statement of the elemental principles of teach- ( 

ing, daily witnessed in the school room, will be distinguished from those baseless, 

ill-defined and whimsical notions which too often find vent from superheated im- 
aginations? A single illustration: A teacher writes me concerning these views: 
“How can a child get an idea of an isthmus and such things without learning 
the definition first and then applying them?” Evidently this teacher can not 
understand how knowledge can be gained without beginning with a definition, 
mastering it, then producing an example Suppose a pail of water be carefully 
poured out upon the school yard. Let the pupil see the little handful of dirt 
surrounded by water, then give ita name. All the other geographical facts may 
thus be beautifully experienced and made known to the pupil, after which the 
separate parts may receive their several names Thus do we advance from per- 
ceptions to abstract ideas. Then follows the question, ‘‘ How can children get 
an idea of the extent of land and water without learning the definition first?” 
After what has been said, this question is evidently an absurd one. Still, the 
question is a natural one, since the most of our school text-bo>ks, beginning as 
they do with definitions followed by illustrations (which are occasional), thus to- 
tally reversing the order of mental growth, are but splendid examples of human 
folly, which the next century will not tolerate. 

The character of so-called knowledge depends largely upon the condition of 
mind—whether active or passive—in its acquisition. The passive state receives 
information from the teacher or text-book carefully cut out and clearly sepa- 
rated from the many things with which it was in irregular and mixed contact. 
The child’s mental faculties, in committing this formulated knowledge to memory 
have been inactive save the effort to refer the several symbols back to former ex- 
periences. For a moment think of the obscurities, the opposing facts, the thread- 
like hints, the vague confirmations, the tentative efforts, the sudden checks, and 
the great discouragements, out of which have grown the finished educational 
products he so listlessly receives. The pupil knows nothing of those uniting, 
conflicting and jostling facts, but these very facts are the first things with which 
he will meet when he finally passes the threshhold of the school room, and in 
manhood’s prime, he sees and feels that the school has wholly failed in teaching 
him the process of knowing and the methods used, by which the finished forms 
of knowledge became known. 

In the active state of mind the pupil takes hold of the object, be it material 
or spiritual, and personally examines it, 7 ¢. he determines (if the object be for- 
mulated knowledge) whether the relations among his experiences are like those 
relations asserted in the text. If material objects are under examination he feels 
the spring of their substance then names it ‘ elasticity”; he breaks it then calls 
it Lrittle; his hand passes over it and he calls it rough; he lifts it, then calls it 
light ; and generally, he first experiences, then names those experiences. Names 
appear after experiences, numerous illustrations after the names, and definition 
after those illustrations—the definition being the finished product, the sign of 
previous investigation. In primary instruction, at least, knowing should ante- 
date the naming. In the active state the mind is not only discovering, but it is 

= 2 a rater = .- = 
a aE EE 



3's) niga teysansiee wip 


originally producing something, and this something is expressed in language from 
the securest date known to humanity. The mind is on the alert, inquisitive and 
determined, this active state securing many things entirely lost to the passive 
state. Not only does the mind fully realize the difficulties, individually knowing 
their exact character, but it is nerved to the effort which overcomes them. Ap- 
pearance are separated from realities, and reality-relations are sworn foes to a 
hazy, mental sky. Orders of dependence, fallacies of position and errors in ver- 
bal statement, are originally discovered by the faculties which are necessarily 
sharpened and made reliant by use. In this active, investigating state of mind, 
comparison goes on involuntarily, the judgment is exercised in a practical way 
that developes it, the discriminating faculty is engaged as it must work in future 
years, and when the investigation is completed, the thing known is thoroughly 
distinguishable from every other. While presenting this line of truth (of the last 
half page) I am certain that its full force will be appreciated only by those per- 
sons who have, during some period of their lives, actively and persistently en- 
gaged in some experimental investigations, or made some conquests in natural 
history, which enables them to know that it is to have the soul tried in its search 
for truth. He who has never had these experiences—but which lie within the 
reach of every person—need not hope for the possession of an opinion upon any 
educational, scientific or philosophic subject deserving the respect of others. 
Another phase of mental action, to which Leibnitz first drew attention, is 
not a little important to the teacher. Those who observe their own mental proc- 
esses know that the mind frequently arrives at conclusions, and. among other 
things, determines duties, which challenge conscious effort. ‘‘Just wait a mo- 
ment, let me see,” is often followed by a total inability to fix upon anything def- 
inite for the purpose. After a time the desired date, the wanted name, or the 
quoted sentence, flashes into the mind unbidden and unforewarned. How of 
ten we struggle to decide upon some course of action when the pros balance the 
cons, when the difficulties vie with the favoring circumstances, and all to no pur- 
pose. Now, throw away all care, turn the attention wholly to other subjects, 
and how frequently the dawn of morning brings the solution which we unhesi- 
tatingly adopt, although we are not conscious of having studied the matter at all. 



In his ‘‘ Psychological Inquiries,” Sir Benj. Brodie says: ‘‘ It has often happened 
to me to have been occupied by a particular subject of inquiry; to have accu- 
mulated a store of facts connected with it; but to have been able to proceed no ‘ 
further. Then, after an interval of time, without any addition to my stock of 

knowledge, I found the obscurity and confusion in which the subject was origin- 
ally enveloped, to have cleared away; the facts havé seemed all to settle them- f 
selves in their right places, and their mutual relations to have become apparent, : 
although I have not been sensible of having made any distinct effort for that 
purpose.” There is no question but that much of our thinking is automatic, and t! 

it is but little less certain that no small amount is unconscious except as seen in 
results. It matters not whether ‘‘ unconscious thinking” or ‘‘ unconscious cere- 





—_—~ hl .6hUm” 

vr ™ 

—_—  =— + 



bration ” be its technical expression, there still remains the striking fact that we 
are constantly using unpremeditated inferences and other like conclusions in 
practical life, the processes for deriving which we are profoundly ignorant. More 
than this, their certainty we do not for a moment call in question since all matters 
to which this conclusion applies, stand out in an orderly and bold relief. There 
is but one explanation of these phenomena possible; our minds are evolving the 
materials of former perceptions, balancing arguments, comparing data, and study- 
ing relations, when we do not know it, and in a similar manner to that employed 
when we voluntarily effect a solution of difficulties. Here, then,.is the evident 
necessity of making all our experiences and their symbols, clear, concise and sev- 
erally distinguished, since we are wholly unable, at the time in question, to sup- 
plement any deficiency by improving the perception or otherwise increasing the 
quantity of materials for the mind’s use. 

By such training, wherein the pupil knows from personal observation where- 
of he speaks, instead of relying upon his memory as to what some ‘‘ authority ” 
has said about it, the student is not only better enabled to encounter the prob- 
lems of life and to perform its common offices not meanly but well. 

‘*A great problem, ever pressing upon mankind, 
Is how to discover and apply 
The immense universe of ‘ruth unknown: 
* * * * ¥ * ® * * * 
The final end of all original research 
Is the improvement and perfection of mankind.”’* 

‘We are all blockheads in something” ¢ has reference more to special de- 
fects and special aptitudes in the mental constitution, but beneath this striking 
statement there lies the peculiarity, but little less than universal, commonly called 
dullnes. It is clear that, to the extent that original intuitions of the pupil have 
been confined within narrow limits, were incomplete from any cause, or are re- 
mote in time, their symbols will possess but a scanty meaning, and be unman. 
ageable through all the contrivances and ingenious methods which the teacher 
can devise, z. ¢. the pupil is dull; but, if the original experiences were ample 
and conclusive, were oft repeated and not distant in time while the native adhe- 
siveness of mind is fair or good, then the symbols as used in new relations, will 
possess a power which makes the eye twinkle, fills the face with enthusiasm, and 
begets a desire for continued progress, 7. ¢. the child is apt. ‘‘ The new state- 
ment principle, or truth is comprehended” means, that the pupil has marshaled 
the symbols into intelligible order by readily supporting them with original ex- 
periences. ‘‘ He does not understand” means, the pupil can not refer the sym- 
bols to their fundamental correlates, which, if they ever existed, have now 
faded away. We fail to reach this mind, because this mind fails to perform that 
act essential to every knowing. It must be noticed that these facts are not in- 
validated by that exceedingly important truth, that a good inheritance has every- 
thing to do with intellectual progress—‘‘ one must be well born”—as the same 

* Gore. 

} Senses and Intellect.—Bain. 

a tea al SSE aE 


laws of mental development obtain whether one’s capacity be remarkable or in- 

Such are the fundamental principles of mental development as I conceive 
them, and as such are they slowly coming into favor among those who strive to 
know the kind and direction of that current which forms the substratum of all 
our mental process. In conclusion, I know of no better instruction which will 
induce students to continue in improvement after graduation; none which will 
so much inspire the teacher to grow, after being well seated in his professional 
chair. Such teaching will best enable a person to withhold the expression of an 
opinion when he has none worth expressing; to rely somewhat upon his own ob- 
servation and judgment of men and things rather than upon some ‘‘ authority,” 
to form proportionate judgments when complete ones are impossible; to reserve 
judgments wholly when we have not heard both sides of a controversy; to stand 
aloof from the acceptation of any views whose details, bearings and history have 
not been faithfully examined; to feel security in honest convictions when formed 
upon the broadest foundation within the range of the individual; to rise and re- 
solve anew when misfortunes beset us, instead of weakening under a flood of 
tears; to unconditionally defend his right to reject or reserve judgment upon 
any beliefs which may be presented for his consideration if their data contradict 
the experiences of his short life time. 



The radiates are the lowest (excepting Protozoa), of the five great sub- 
kingdoms of animals. They do not appear with the first traces of life in the 
Lower Silurian, though they are found soon afterwards. Two of the higher 
sub-kingdoms, the Mollusks and Articulates, appear in the Acadiin and 
the Radiates not till the Potsdam. It is also a well settled fact that the lowest of 
the Radiates are not the first representatives of that sub-kingdom. Acalephs and 
Echinoderms appear at the opening of the Primoid, or first division of the Lower 
Silurian and Polyps, at the close of the Trenton, or after a period of one-fifteenth 
of the earth’s geological history. Dana says: ‘‘If we may trust the records, 
Echinoderms or the highest type of Radiates were represented by species 
(Crystids and Crinids) long before the inferior type of Polyps existed; this can 
hardly be accounted for satisfactorily on the supposition that the earliest Polyps 






eae eS lS eT OT ee eS. 


t of 


made no calcareous secretions, seeing that the ocean’s waters were then eminently 

Even the star-fishes are found nearly as early (in the Trenton) as the lowest 
forms. The Radiates then continue to the present time, running a parallel line 
of life with the Mollusks and Articulates, without ever crossing the lines of 
demarcation of these sub-kingdoms. The Oculinay (in Eocene) and Astreze (in 
Mesozoic) Tribes did not make their appearance till long after the Polaeozoic Age. 
So low forms of Radiates should, on all principles of development, have been 
seen at the dawn of life. 

Though there has been a great diversity in the various phases of the Radiates, 
in species, genera and even orders; yet so very slight has been the advancement, 
that if all the changes were proved to be an outgrowth by evolution, it would not 
prove that a high type of animal life could be derived from a low one. 

But there is one aspect of this question which appears to prove an insur- 
mountable objection to the passage of one type into another. It relates to the 
mathematical structure of the Radiates. On the first appearance of the Radiates 
they had the parts in multiples of four; but in the Mesozoic Age the Astra type 
came in with a multiple of parts in sixes. This is a mathematical change. 
Now, there can be no development of a triangle into a quadrilateral. When 
the figure ceases to have three sides it must have four. There can be no inter- 
mediate form. So of the earlier and later corals. The moment it ceases to be 
a radiation of fours, it becomes a radiation of sixes. The difference in structure 
is simply the crossing of two lines; in the one case, and of three lines, 
in the other. As each increases in age and maturity there is an additional 
cross line between each two of the first, crossing at the center, as before. and 
the four rays of the two lines become eight rays from the four lines in the first 
multiple of the old corals; and the six rays rays from the three lines 
become twelve rays; from the six lines in the multiples of the newer corals. 

There can be, from the mathematical construction, no intermediate 
(evolutionary) form. The geometrical structure forbids it. 

There is another plan of structure in some of the Radiates (Star-fish and 
Crinoids$) in which the rays are five in number or multiples of five. These are 
constructed on another plan, differing more from those above described than 
they from each other. The five rays are formed, not from lines crossing, but 
from five lines radiating from a common point, at equal angles. This is also a 
mathematical structure, and cannot be derived from either of the others any 
easier than a pentagon can be derived from a square or from a hexagon. 

All these forms have flourished in the same waters from the Mesozoic, and 
most of them from the Lower Silurian Age. 

The Star-fishes (Palzeaster, etc.), having five rays, possess little constructive 
resemblance to the five-armed Pentacrinus with its thousands of plates, though 
~ Manual, p. 598. 

+Two low forms of Corals. 
2Crinoids are sometimes called ‘Stone Lillies,” though they are not vegetable organisms. 


ere SONOS 

both are of the same mathematical rank. Nor Is there, among our earlist fossils, 
the slightest trace that one has been derived from the other, or both from a com- 
mon parentage. Both appear in the Trenton epoch with the same distinctive 
characteristics which they possess in any later period. 

It is a principle of evolution, that the influence of climate, food and other 
circumstances are largely, and, in the lower forms of organism, the entire cause 
of the variance of structure. In these low, radiate forms ‘natural selection ” 
can have noinfluence. With this principle before us, we would draw attention 
to the extremely monotonous surroundings in which the Radiates, particularly 
the Corals, have always existed. This can be clearly seen in the living species 
and genera. ‘They are nearly all confined within the twentieth degrees of latitude 
on both sides of the Equator. They are most abundant in the Pacific ocean. 
That body of water, even more than the other tropical oceans, is noted for its 
uniform temperature and the uniform proportion of saline elements held in 
solution. Many of the Pacific islands have a maximum range of less than 
15° Fahrenheit of extreme temperature in the year, and the adjoining waters 
have far less, at the depth of which most of the corals live. The zone of coral 
life is limited to one hundred feet in depth, and most genera are confined to a 
belt of twenty vertical feet. The variation of temperature in the year for the 
lower portion of this zone, is probable not over five degrees. This portion of 
the ocean, in which the corals live, is more uniform in its clearness and saltness 
than in its temporature, as when these vary the animals die. The food which 
most if not all of them eat is the same. Their chemical, coral, calcite structures 
are identical. 

Now with all these extremely monotonous conditions of the coral Polyps and 
other Radiates, why do we find so great a variety of species, genera and even 
orders flourishing on the same reef? If diversified conditions, according to Prof. 
Darwin and his associates, give new forms, why should circumstances, such as 
we have described, present us with such varied ones? Or if they owe their 
origin to diversified conditions which are lost to our knowledge by the ‘‘ imper- 
fection of the geological records,” why should not our monotonous and very 
uniform conditions of the age of man have reduced these numerous genera and 
sp-cies to a few forms? 

Geologists and palzontologists have clearly settled the question that in all ages 
of the globe, wherever corals have existed, the conditions of the ocean, in all 
respects, have been the same as that in which they now exist. In collecting our 
fossil Radiates from the oldest strata, though in certain localities some species 
may predominate, we always find associated others of very different generic 
affinities. Yet they must, like those of the present tropics, have lived in the 
same water under the same climatic conditions. 

Barrande classifies over thirteen hundred species of Radiates of the utmost 
extremes of genera from Star-fishes and Crinoids to Polyps, all gathered from 





_ all 




the Silurian deposits. These present a close resemblance to those now living. 
Prof. Huxley tells us* that only one order of the corals has become extinct, 

Any one looking over the beautiful volume of Zoophites, by Prof. J. D. Dana, 
compiled from his researches while connected with the Wilkes exploring expedi- 
tion in the Pacific, will be struck even more by the diversity of conformation than 
by the beauty of colors in this branch of animated nature. He describes over 
five hundred species (we quote from memory) and saw as many more which he 
had not time to classify. Agassiz in 1850 estimated that there were ten thousand 
living species of Radiates. 


The mineral matters which have proved useful to man form three categories : 
first, the earthy, as gypsum, clay, marble; second, carbonaceous, as coal, 
lignite, petroleum ; third, metallic, as iron, gold, silver. 

The metals occur rarely native, oftener as ores, that is, combined with sul- 
phur, silica, carbonic acid, etc. These form a series of deposits, of which the 
physical and chemical characters and history differ widely. They may be grouped 
into three classes, as follows: 

1. Superficial Deposits. 

2. Stratified Deposits. 

3. Onstratified Deposits. 


These include the accumulations of gold, stream-tin, platinum, gems, etc., 
which are obtained from the surface material, gravel, sand and clay, derived 
from the mechanical decomposition of rock masses through which metals or ores 
were sparsely distributed. Thus, gold usually occurs in small quantity in the 
quartz-veins of metamorphic rocks. By the erosion of these rocks, having been 
freed from its matrix, and that more or less perfectly removed, this gold is con- 
centrated by a natural washing process similar to that employed by man, but on 
a grander scale. Inthe same manner, the oxide of tin, which is hard, heavy 
and very resistant to chemical agents, is distributed sparsely through granitic 
rocks or vein-stones ; and where these have been eroded, the cassiterite remains 
in the alluvial deposits of streams, where it can be cheaply and easily collected. 

Superficial deposits have probably furnished nine-tenths of all the gold that 
has been obtained by man, the greater part of the tin, all the platinum and its 
associated metals (iridium, osmium, etc.), and all the gems except the emerald, 
which in South America is obtained by mining. Thus, it will be seen that the 
surface deposits are scarcely less important, economically, than the others. The 

*Lay Sermons, etc., X p. 216. 
tFrom the School of Mines Quarterly for March, 1880. 


superficial deposits of gold are for the most part confined to the foot-hills of 
mountain ranges, and are the products of the erosion effected by ages of frost, 
sun, rain and ice, which are continually wearing down all the more elevated por- 
tions of the earth’s surface. Shore-waves also, in some instances, have worn 
away the rocks against which they have beaten, and have produced accumulations 
of debris that contain gold, platinum, gems, etc., in sufficient quantity to be 
economically worked. When a beach deposit of this kind has been raised above 
the sea-level, it sometimes becomes convenient and profitable mining ground. 
On the coast of Oregon, at and above Port Orford, the beaches now yield gold, 
iridium and osmium in sufficient quantity to afford profitable employment to 
quite a mining population; and in the Black Hills, the old Potsdam sandstone 
beach, formed by the beating of the Silurian sea upon cliffs of Laurentian and 
Huronian rocks traversed by auriferous quartz-veins, now constitutes what is 
there known as the ‘‘cement deposits,” from which a considerable portion of the 
gold of this region is obtained. As has been mentioned, however, the chief 
supply of gold in all ages has come from the dedris that have accumulated at the 
foot of mountain slopes. All mountain chains are composed of metamorphic 
rocks, and nearly all the mountain ranges of the globe are traversed by quartz- 
veins, in which are concentrated much of the gold that was originally finely 
disseminated through the sedimentary strata—conglomerates, sandstones, shales, 
etc.—now granites, schists and slates. 

By the lateral pressure that has metamorphosed the sedimentary rocks, 
and produces the segregation of the quartz-veins, great folds and ridges were 
formed, which, rising high above the general surface, act as condensers of mois- 
ture and receive the most copious precipitation from the clouds. Hence on 
these mountain sides an enormous system of water-power is developed, which is 
spent in grinding up the rocks and transporting the dedris to the bottom of the 
slope. Here it is further washed, stored, and the gold locally concentrated to 
form the rich ‘‘ placer” diggings. As no great skill or expensive mining machin- 
ery is required to work placer deposits, every man with good health, a pick, 
shovel, pan and stock of provisions may go into the business. Gold washing is 
the simplest, as it was probably the earliest, of all mining enterprises, and has 
at different times employed nearly the entire population of a district or country. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that it has resulted in the production of an enor- 
mous quantity of gold. It is evident, however, that most of the placers of the 
world have been already exhausted, and while the little-known continent of 
Africa promises tu furnish a large amount of the precious metal from its ‘‘golden 
sands,” we can hardly expect that the production of California, Australia and 
New Zealand will ever be repeated in the world’s history. 


These may be subdivided into several groups, such as: 
1. Ore forming entire strata; for example beds of iron ore. 


2. Ore disseminated through strata; as copper in the schists of Mansfeldt 
and in the sandstones of Lake Superior. 

1. Segregated masses in strata; as sheets of copper in the Lake Superior 
sandstones; balls, kidneys and sheets of clay ironstone in the shales of the Coal 
measures, etc. 


These have been divided into: 

1. ruptive masses. 

2. Disseminated through eruptive rocks. 
3. Contact deposits. 

4.  Stockworks. 

5. Fahlbands. 

6. Lmpregnations. 

7. Chambers. 


. Mineral veins. 

Of Eruptive masses of metalliferous matter I must confess myself incredu- 
lous. Examples of these are cited in the crystalline iron ores of the island of 
Elba, those of Nijni, Tagilsk in Russia, and in Sweden, and even the iron ore- 
beds of Lake Superior and Missouri. As late as 1854, this was the view taken 
of our crystalline iron ores by Whitney in his Metallic Wealth; but great advances 
have since been made in our knowledge of these deposits, and it is now generally 
conceded that all our crystalline iron ores are simply metamorphosed sedimentary 
beds. The evidence is accumulating that those of the old world have the same 
character. Professor Otto Torell, the Director of the Geological Survey of 
Sweden, recently told me that he had visited all but one of the iron districts of 
Sweden, had found that in all these the iron ores were metamorphic, and he had 
no doubt that those yet unexamined were of similar nature. Where metamorphic 
action has been peculiarly violent, the beds of iron ore have been more or less 
disinembered, and perhaps in some instances have been actually fused; but that 
any bed of iron ore is the result of an eruption from the interior of the earth, 
is scarcely to be credited. 

The examples of the occurrence of metalliferous matter disseminated through 
eruptive rocks are by no means uncommon, and the amygdaloid traps of Lake 
Superior, in which the cavities formed by gases have been more or less perfectly 
filled with copper, suggest themselves at once. Pyrites, magnetic iron, and 
platinum are found sparsely diffused through trap-rocks, and are sometimes con- 
centrated in such a way as to form valuable deposits when the trap decomposes. 

Contact deposits are usually understood to be accumulations of metal or ore 
along the planes of contact between two strata; and the sheets and strings of 
copper which are concentrated at the junction of the trap and sandstone in some 
parts of the south shore of Lake Superior constitute illustrative examples of this 
class of mineral deposits. There is, however, considerable diversity in character 
among the deposits grouped under this head; the chief distinction being that 

sat ses ners nan eiitinns te 


in some cases the ore or metal has been segregated from one or the other of the 
strata at the time of their deposition, and in others it has come from a foreign 
source, and has been deposited in a more or less continuous sheet in cavities 
formed between the surfaces of the adjacent rock-beds. To the second of: these 
classes would seem to belong the argentiferous ores of Leadville, Colorado. 
These are deposited along the plane of junction between an underlying limestone 
and overlying porphyry, and undoubtedly accumulated in vacant spaces formed 
by the solution of the limestone. ‘These ore bodies have apparently much in 
common with the pockets and chambers excavated in certain limestone beds, 
and subsequently filled with ore, to be described farther on. ‘The true structure 
of these Leadville ore bodies can, however, only be accurately learned when 
they shall be peneirated below the zone of unchanged sulphurets into which they 
will undoubtedly merge in depth. 

The term Stockwork is applied in the old world to a mass of rock or vein- 
stone penetrated in all directions by small intersecting sheets or veins in such a 
way that the whole mass is mined out. Some examples of this kind of deposit 
may be found in most of our mining districts; but the most important which have 
come under my observation are in the Oquirrh Mountains, in Utah, and at Silver 
Cliff, Colorado. In the first of these localities, be is of quartzite—in the second, 
of porphyry, have been shattered, and the crevices between the fragments have 
been filled with ore deposited from solution. 

The name Fahlband, or rotten layer, originated in the silver mine of Kongs 
berg, in Norway, where there are parallel beds of rock impregnated with the 
sulphides of iron, copper, zinc, etc., which, by their decomposition, have rendered 
these beds so soft as easily to be removed. We occasionally meet with pyritous- 
rock in this country, which decomposes in the same way, but none yet known to 
me has any considerable importance as a metalliferous deposit. 

Impregnations may be defined to be saturations of porous rock with a 
mineral solution or vapor from which ore has been deposited. The cinnabar 
which is sometimes found impregnating unchanged or metamorphosed sandstone 
is generally cited as affording typical examples of impregnations. In such cases, 
which occur in California and South America, the deposit of ore has been 
ascribed by some writers to vapors, by others to solution, and it would seem that 
the latter is the more credible theory, although the vaporization of mercury is 
easily effected, and, like other metals, it may be transported by steam, as we 
have proof at the geysers in California. More familiar and satisfactory exhibi- 
tions of impregnation are, however, afforded by the copper-bearing sandstones of 
Lake Superior, New Jersey and New Mexico, and the silver-bearing sandstones 
of Silver Reef, in Southern Utah. In all these cases, it is evident that a porous 
rock was once saturated with a metalliferous solution, from which, in the Lake 
Superior region, metallic copper was precipitated; in New Jersey and New 
Mexico, sulphides of copper and iron; at Silver Reef, sulphide of silver. As 
such repositories of the metals are easily penetrated by surface water and air, we 


usually find the sulphides decomposed to a considerable depth; the copper ores 
converted into carbonate and silicate, the sulphide of silver into the chloride. 
Chambers or pockets in limestone form the receptacles of ore in many coun- 
tries; but nowhere else are such striking examples of this class of deposit as 
those found in our Western mining districts. From a study of these, I have been 
led to add them to the catalogue of forms of ore-deposit as a distinct and 
important addition to those given by other writers. The distinctive characters 
of these accumulations of ore in chambers and galleries has not been heretofore 
generally recognized, and a want of information in regard to their true nature 
has led to much litigation and heavy losses in mining. The best examples of 
chamber-mines are the Eureka Consolidated, Richmond, et .., of Eureka, 
Nevada ; the Emma, Flagstaff, Kessler, etc., in little Cottonwood District; and 
the Cave Mine, near Frisco, Utah. All these mines are alike in this, that the 
ore is found more or less completely filling irregular chambers in limestone. 
Some of these ore-bodies are of great size, and the aggregate product of these 
chamber-mines 1s so great as to make it necessary to record this as one of the 
most important forms of metalliferous deposit. From the Potts chamber in the 
Eureka Consolidated mine, it is said that ore of the value of a million dollars 
was taken, while a still larger amount was produced from the great chamber of 
the Emma. The origin of these chamber-deposits is, in my judgment, simply 
this: A stratum of limestone, more than usually soluble in atmospheric water, 
carrying carbonic acid—which dissolves all limestones—has at some time been 
honey-combed by chambers and galleries such as those which traverse the lime- 
stone plateau of Central Kentucky, of which the Mammoth Cave is an example. 
Subsequently this rock has been broken through and upheaved by the subterra- 
nean forces which have disturbed all our important mining districts; and through 
the fissures then formed mineral solutions ascended, flowing into any receptacle 
opened to them Where these fissures cut an insoluble rock, they became, when 
filled, simply fissure-veins; but where a cavernous limestone was broken into, 
such caverns and galleries as were opened were more or less filled with ore. It 
has been suggested that the caves now holding ore were excavated by the 
metalliferous solution; but we find some of them entirely empty, with their sides 
incrusted with spar, and having all the characters of ordinary limestone caves, 
and even where the ore occurs, the walls of the cavity have the same character, 
are hard and unimpregnated with ore. Hence we must conclude that the cham- 
bers were formed, like modern caves, by surface water; and when the country 
was uphcaved and the rock shattered, only part of them were opened, and that 
these received the solution and ore, while the unopened ones remained empty. 
The character of the ore contained in the chambers varies much, as it does in 
the fissure-veins of our mining districts; and the solution from which they were 
filed must have been different in the different localities where -they occur. 
Argentiferous galena was evidently the most abundant ore deposited in the 
chambers, as it is elsewhere; but in some cases, this is associated with a large 


amount of iron sulphide, in others very little; while the ratio of gold to silver 
is inconstant, and the aggregate of both varies from nothing to several hundred 
dollars to the ton. The ores of Eureka run high in lead, contain much iron, 
and about seventy doliars in the precious metals, half gold. half silver. The 
ores of the Emma mine carried less iron, more lead, much more silver, less gold; 
and a little copper; while those of the Cave mine, at Frisco, contain no lead, 
much iron, a little copper, and are sometimes exceedingly rich in both silver and 
gold. In all the chamber.mines yet worked in this country, the ore taken out 
is thoroughly oxidized ; but in the deeper workings of some neighboring fissure- 
veins, the soft, ochery ores of the chambers are found changed below into com- 
pact masses of galena and iron pyrites; the galena carrying the silver—the 
pyrites, the gold. Hence we may conclude that the ore originally deposited in 
the caves consisted of sulphides, and that, whenever these nines shall be worked 
below the water-level, ore of this character will be found. It should be said, 
however, that if the theory I have suggested of the formation of the limestone 
galleries and chambers is true, they will not be found to extend to so great a 
depth as the ore-bodies of fissure-veins, since the excavation of the limestone, if 
produced by atmospheric water, must be confined to the zone traversed by 
surface drainage. In a very dry and broken country, the line of permanent 
water-level may be very deep, as at Eureka, where the ore-bodies extend and are 
oxidized to a depth of at least 1400 feet. Such a condition of things could only 
exist in a very dry climate; but we have evidence that there have been great 
climatic changes in our western mining districts ; according to King and Gilbert, 
two wet periods having been succeeded by two dry ones, the last prevailing now. 
We may therefore find chambers wrought in the limestone in a dry period below 
the present or normal water-level. The enormous production of gold and silver 
from the chamber-mines already worked proves the great importance and value 
of this class of deposits; and while we may predict that they will be found to be 
more superficial than true fissure-veins, no limit can be fixed to the future yield 
of mines of this character, even though they should not be profitably worked 
below 1500 feet from the surface. 
( Zo be continued.) 


Every age of the word has its own mental habits, part of which are transient, 
passing away with the time that gave them birth; part are permanent, and are 
handed down to succeeding ages. It thus happens that every great permanent 
monument in the world, be it a mountain, a pyramid, or a divinely inspired book, 
is regarded with somewhat different eyes by the successive generations of men. 

The Book of Genesis is such a monument, reaching unchanged from the 




dawn of literature, teaching to each successive generation nearly all that it knows 
of the early history of the world and man. _ It has lasted through ages of primi- 
tive simplicity, of early civilization, of medizeval barbarism, of modern revival; 
and each as it passed away has glanced reverently at the old book which tells of 
the generations of the heavens and the earth What have the thought and the 
science of our age done with the old record? One thing is certain: that the 
present is a singular and special period, in its manner of treating ancient things. 
We have a way of keeping out side of us everything which went to the hearts of 
our fathers, of cutting everything to pieces to find what is within it, of coldly 
criticising objects of faith and veneration; and Genesis has received so much of 
this treatment that it is questionable if all even of those who have the firmest 
faith in revelation regard it exactly as they once did, or as their predecessors did. 
Perhaps it may be well to refresh our souls a little, in this matter, by a more 
kindly and loving glance at the Book of Genesis and its relations to our modern 
science and our modern lives. 

Modern historical research has given us new impressions as to the great an- 
tiquity of Genesis. A book which was translated into Greek three hundred 
years before Christ, which was accepted alike by Samaritans and Jews as a vener- 
able and sacred record at the time of their separation, about a thousand years be- 
fore Christ, the acceptance of which can be proved from the history of Israel to 
have extended almost as far back as the time of the reputed author, say 1400 or 
1500 years before Christ, is a very old book, if not the oldest of books. Nor has 
any success attended the efforts of modern criticism to show that this venerable 
record has been tampered with or re-edited at any later date. But the date of 
Moses, say 3300 years ago, does not really measure the actual antiquity of the 
contents of Genesis. If we were to pick out of the book all the passages that 
are either explicitly or by implication stated to have been revealed to or spoken 
by Adam, Noah, Abraham, and the other patriarchs, we should find that accord- 
ing to the showing of Moses himself, very much of the matter, and this of the 
most important, must have existed long before his time, and was merely collected 
and edited by him. This is the common sense aspect of that ‘‘ document hy- 
pothesis” on which so much learning has been expended, and which has per- 
plexed so many. Butthere are other passages, not thus indicated, which must 
have existed long before the time of Moses. Take, for example, the first chap- 
ter of Genesis. The contents of this chapter, relating as they do to matters which 
precede the advent of man, must have been just as much the result of direct in- 
spiration as if they had contained a prophecy of the distant future. But to whom 
were thyy revealed? It may have been to Moses; but there were inspired men 
before Moses, and it would seem strange that this initial part of revelation should 
have been withheld from the generations between Adam and Moses, and more es- 
pecially as the keeping of the Sabbath, which is directly based on it, was a lead- 
ing institute of pre-Mosaic religion. 

Recent researches in the monuments of Assyria now assure us that the an- 


cient Chaldeans possessed this revelation. It existed among them, it is true, in a 
corrupt form, mixed up with idolatrous ideas; but it can be traced back as far as 
to the time of Abraham. The Father of the faithful may indeed, when he left 
Chaldea, have possessed in a written form all that part of Genesis which relates 
to the creation and the deluge. Thus the substance of the first chapter of Gene- 
sis probably belongs to antediluvian times, was a very old book in the days of 
Moses, inay have been taught to him by his mother in the same form in which we 
now have it, and was a revelation to some antediluvian patriarch, perhaps to 
Adam himself. 

The questions raised by the first chapter of Genesis are, however, so many 
and complicated that they can not profitably be entered into in a short article. 
The more important of them may be included in the answers to two qestions: 
How was this revelation given? and why was it given? 

The first of these questions—the how of the revelation of creation—is an- 
swered by the form of the record. Its condensed, repetitive and rythmical form 
is evidently intended to facilitate remembrance and oral transmission. Its _picto- 
rial character and division into days suggest a succession of visions granted to 
the seer, and in which he saw, day by day, the work of creation proceeding 
from its beginning to its close. This is perhaps the most intelligible conception 
we can form of the nature of the revelation; and since it is the mode in which 
the future was presented to inspired prophets in later Biblical times, there can be 
no impropriety in supposing it to have been the means of communicating the 
knowledge of the unknown past. We may thus imagine the seer, wrapped in 
ecstatic vision, having his senses closed to all the impressions of the present world, 
and looking with inward eye at a moving procession of the events of the earth’s 
past history, presented to him in a succession of apparent days and nights. This 
view may relieve us from the difficulties which have arisen from what has been 
called the ‘‘literal day” theory of the creative week. Just as, in the visions of 
later prophets, a day may stand for a year, so in this ancient prophecy, the day 
of the seer may be an emblematic day of vision representing one of the long 
days of God’s creative working. 

This idea of long creative periods as represented by the days of creation is, 
however, too important, both in its relation to science and religion, to be lightly 
passed over. Three affirmations may be made respecting it. 

1. The doctrine of long creative periods is in harmony with the general tes- 
timony of Scripture. Many proofs of this might be given. The word ‘‘day” is 
used in Genesis 2 to denote the whole period of the creative work ‘‘in the day 
when Jehovah created the heavens and the earth.” In Psalm go, which is ‘‘a 
psalm of Moses,” one day is said to be with the Lord as a thousand years, in ref 
erence to the period of human history, and the expression ‘‘ from everlasting to 
everlasting,” literally from ‘‘ age to age,” refers to the great length of the crea- 
tive days. In Psalm 104, which is a poetical version of the account of creation, 
the tone of the references shows that the writer understood the creative work to 





have occupied a long time. While the six days are said to have had an evening 
and morning, this is not affirmed of the seventh day, which may, therefore, in the 
view of the writer, be still in progress. Our Lord in his reply to the Pharisees, 
who accused him of working on the Sabbath—‘‘ My Father worketh hitherto, 
and I work”—affirms his belief that God’s Sabbath lasted up to his time; and 
the Jews seem to have held the same opinion, since they did not object. The ar- 
gument relating to the Sabbatism of God’s people, in Hebrews 4, depends for its 
force on the idea that God’s creative Sabbath is still in progress, and that Christ’s 
Sabbatism, on which he has entered after finishing his work, is indefinite 
period. When, in Hebrews 1, Christ is said to have ‘‘ made the worlds,” the lit- 
eral meaning is ‘‘ constituted or determined the long ages of the worlds’ making,” 
—that is, of the creative days, and the expression ‘‘ eternal purpose,’’ used of 
Christ in Ephesians 3: t1, with reference to the creation, has the same reference. 
It means the purpose or design of the creative ages. The above are merely a few 
evidences which show that the doctrine of long créative periods was that held by 
Moses himself, by our Lord, and by the apostles; and after this it will be scarcely 
necessary to add that Augustine and other early fathers of the church understood 
the matter in the same way, and that many good and eminent men in later times 
have arrived at the same conclusion. The days of the first chapter of Genesis 
may be literal days of vision to the seer; but they are working days of God, and 
not of man; and we live in the seventh of them, which was intended to bea 
Sabbath of rest, but has failed of this, for the present, on account of the fall of 
man. . 

2. It may be affirmed that this doctrine of long creative days gives the only 
full and complete explanation of the institution and obligation of the Sabbath. 
If God made the world in six natural days, and rested on the seventh, then his 
example would have no force, unless it could be shown that, in some sense, he 
continues to work on six days, and rest on the seventh; but nature shows that this 
is not a fact, and our Lord’s expression, ‘‘ My Father worketh hitherto,’”’ agrees 
with this. Thus on the literal day theory, there would be a hidden fallacy implied 
in the reason annexed to the fourth commandment. But if Cod made the world 
in six long periods; if the seventh was not only this rest but that blessed Sabba- 
tism in which innocent man was to enjoy perpetual happiness; if this Sabbatism 
was lost by the fall, and if the weekly Sabbath is a memorial of this rest lost by 
the fall and the hopeful sign that it is to be restored by the Savior, then we have 
a substantial reason for the Sabbath day, a warrant for its being placed where it 
is in the ten commandments, and for the great importance attached to it through- 
out the Old Testament. The Sabbath then becomes to us an emblem at once of 
the paradise lost by the fall, and of the paradise to be regained in Christ. In- 
stead of appearing as piece of ritual misplaced in the moral law, it becomes that 
which gives life and significance to the whole decalogue. We have here also the 
true explanation of the change from the Jewish Sabbath to the Lord’s day ; for if 
the one was the reminder of the Sabbatism lost by the fall and to be restored, 



the day of its restoration necessarily becomes the true Sabbath, and it needed no 
argument or explanation to show to the first Christians their duty in this matter. 
This consideration is also inplied in the argument to Hebrews 4, already referred 

3. The long creative periods are in harmony with the records preserved i 
the rocks of the earth by the Creator himself. It is now generally admitted that 
the order of creation in the long geological epochs revealed by scientific investi- 
gation corresponds very closely with that in Genesis. Absolute agreement in de- 
tails is not to be expected in the present state of knowledge; but the general se- 
quence, in the primitive formless state, the development of the atmosphere, 
ocean, and dry land, the introduction first of swarms of lower marine animals, 
then of great reptiles (mistranslated ‘‘ whales” in our version), then of mamma- 
lia, and finally of man, is the same with that in the geological record. There are, 
besides, many other points of coincidence which cannot be detailed here, and 
which give the impression that the series of pictures presented to the inspired 
seer must have strikingly resembled those which might be devised to illustrate our 
geological chronology. It is certainly a remarkable fact that the old record of 
Genesis should thus give us a sequence similar to that arrived at independently 
by science in these last days. 

The second question above proposed, why this detailed revelation of creation 
should have been given, brings us to some practical applications. 

1. The first great object of that ‘‘ book of origins” which we have in Gen- 
esis, is to assure us of the reality of the creation, and of God asthe great First 
Cause. ‘The one utterance ‘‘in the beginning God created the heavens and the 
earth,” if received in faith, is subversive of atheism, materialism, pantheism, ag- 
nosticism, and a hundred other false doctrines which have afflicted humanity. ) 
The author of Genesis does not attempt to prove this great truth, but a moment’s ) 
consideration suffices to show that it needs no proof. The universe exists with all | 
its numerous and complex machinery. Either it must have existed eternally, | 
which is inconceivable, or it must have been produced. If produced, then it ( 
had a beginning, and could not have produced itself. But before it began there ( 
must have been a power capable of planning and producing it, and that power 
must have been God. The Hebrew writer calls him Z/ohim, a plural name—not 
merely a plural of dignity, but implying that plurality of person and action which ( 
he himself recognizes in the word of God and the Spirit of God, and implying | 
also, that all true godhead, by whatever names recognized in different tongues, is 
the one God, the Creator. 

2. The next object of the record of creation is to show us that all the details 
of nature are the work of one God, and parts of one plan. ‘The heathen nations 
recognized many local and partial gods, and they deified heavenly bodies, moun- 
tains, rivers, trees, and animals. The writer of Genesis grasps the whole of this 
material of ancient idolatry, and shows that it is the work of one God. Thus no 
room is left for polytheistic views of nature, nor for that superstition which re- 

po a a; 





1 it 
, is 



gards natural phenomena as the work of malignant beings. Here, again, he lays 
down a principle which commends itself at once to common sense, and which all 
science tends to support. Nothing can be a more assured result of scientific 
study than the unity of plan and operation in all nature, and the folly of these 
superstitions which refer natural events either to chance or to the conflict of sub- 
ordinate deities or demons. Thus the first chapter of Genesis, wherever re- 
ceived and believed, gives the death-blow to idolatry, and superstition. 

3. Another great use of the record of creation is the assertion 
of the truth that man is the child of God, created in his image and likeness. 
The first question in some of our catechisms for children, ‘‘ Who made you ?” 
points to this first and primitive doctrine of religion, on which the whole relation 
of man to God as a moral and responsible being is built. Here, again, Genesis 
is in accord with the best science and philosophy. It is true that there are theo- 
rists in our time who profess to believe that the human will and reason have in 
some way developed themselves from the instincts of lower animals. But these 
men can not but feel that they are maintaining a most improbable conclusion, 
for it is not in accordance with natural analogy that anything should rise above 
its own level, that any motive-power can put forth more or other than the energy 
that is init. ‘Thus an intelligence like man can not flow upward from lower 
sources, but must have relation to some higher creative intelligence. 

These thoughts carry us no farther than the first chapter of Genesis. The 
history of Eden and the Fall carry with them other truths. But I may now ask, 
are the truths above referred to of no practical value? They may appear too fa- 
miliar to us to need to be insisted on; but the practical, and even the open de- 
nial of them by so much of the infidelity of our time, shows that they still need 
to be enforced, and that they really lie at the foundations of our faith. The edi- 
fice of Christianity, as it now stands forth in all the grandeur of its New Testa- 
ment development, with Jesus Christ as its chief corner-stone, may well by its 
magnificent superstructure call our attention away from the rough stones laid 
down for its foundation in the old patriarchal days. But these were great and 

costly stones, and had they not been bedded on the rock in those primitive times, 
we could not now enjoy that which is built upon them. 

It is well that children should be taught the noble, though child-like theology 
of Genesis; and well also that it should be taught in its simplicity, and without 
the misconceptions which have been allowed to cling around it from those darker 
days when the Bible wasa sealed book, and when its place was taken by stories 
based on it, but mixed with much of superstition and misapprehension. I have 
found by experience that many of the objections to the truth of Genesis held as 
valid even by educated men, are not founded on the book itself, but on interpre- 
tations or distortions of it which have a nearer affinity with mere nursery tales 
than with the letter or spirit of God’s word. —Sunday School Times. 



In the ‘‘ Bad Lands” of Colorado over seventy new species of fossils have 
been discovered. They range in size from a mole to nearly that of an elephant. 
One of the largest species had a huge horn over each eye, while another had one 
on each side of the nose, and more than a foot in length resembling those on the 
back part of the head of the ox. A third one, a larger size than the last, had 
rudimental horns on the nose. Still another was about as large as the elephant. 
Its cheek bones were enormously expanded, and its horns were flat. A fifth 
species had triangular horns, turned upward. The most remarkable monsters 
of the past, whose existence has been disclosed by the present survey, are a 
series of horned species related to the rhinoceros, but possessing some features 
in which, according to Prof. Cope, they resembled the elephant. They stood 
high on the legs and had feet, but possessed osseous hornsin pairs on different 
parts of the head. 



On the authority of the Scientific American the cave of Cacahuamilpa in 
Mexico is the largest in the world. P. C. Bliss, who has twice explored it, 
describes it as being covered with a volcanic mountain, with an extinct crater. 
He, with a large party provided with the best lights and scientific implements 
the country afforded, made a partial exploration of this wonderful cave. After 
descending about fifty feet they reached the floor and proceeded nearly four 
miles. ‘‘The roof was so high—a succession of halls—that rockets often 
exploded before striking it. Labyrinthine passages leave the main hall in every 
direction. Stalagmites and stalactites are abundant. Below this cave, at its 
greatest depth, are two immense caves, from each of which issues a branch of a 
great river. This isin many respects the most wonderful cave in the world. 
About the only living creature mentioned by any explorers of this cave is the 
bat, which is numerous. 

As a striking instance of the vast beneficial results which sometimes spring 
from the working of one capable and active brain, it is stated that by the Bes- 
semer steel invention, the saving to England alone in the wear of rails has been 
$5,500,000 per annum. The saving is expected to be $20,000,000 annually 
when all iron rails are changed for steel. 








‘In the beginning there arose 
The source of golden light . 
There was then neither nonentity nor entity ; 
Neither atmosphere nor sky beyond . 
. The covered germ burs: forth 
By mental heat. 
The ray shot across them . 
. There were mighty productive powers, 
Nature beneath and energy above.” 
From Hindu Rig Veda, Ch. X, 121-129, Muller's Trans. 

‘All things which exist, are invisible in their primeval state; visible in 
their intermediate state, and again invisible in their final state.” From Hindu 
Bhagavad Gita, Ch. I. Thomson’s Trans. 

Motion is the second mode of force displayed by matter, gravity being the 
first. Attraction is the only force really inherent in matter, because all other 
modes of energy are drawn from it by conservation. Gravity is the only force 
which acts when matter rests, all others being evolved from motion. Attraction 
is the sole motive power in nature. Gravity cannot exist separate from matter; 
neither can matter cease attracting, but obeys this law: Every particle of matter 
in existence attracts every other particle, directly as to their combined masses, 
and inversely as their distance squared. ‘The first conservation of gravity is 
motion. Bodies attract and exert energy, but no work is performed unless the 
bodies move. Repulsion moves matter, but gravity brought atoms within its 
range. Matter in motion of necessity evolves all other modes of force. Atomic 
motion causes heat, electricity and light and cannot do otherwise. Matter at 
rest would not be endowed with any force but gravity, and other forms of energy 
would never develop unless it began to move. The only case in which matter 
would be unable to move, would be if the entire universe should be condensed 
into one absolutely solid globe. Molecules being as near as possible could not 
further approach, and gravity acting from the centre to periphery would not 
conserve energy, being unable to first cause motion. Matter will be eternally 
inert, unless separated by space sufficient to allow atoms to move. Motion 
once begun, all succeeding energies of nature follow, for by late philosophy all 
modes of force are forms of motion, heat, light, electricity and chemism are 
states of motion; but heat acts as repulsion, and as the only conservation of 


gravity is motion, and heat is motion, repulsion itself has origin in remote 

Since space is necessary to matter for its evolution of power, it follows that 
all matter has never been solidified, else it would be solid now, being unable to 
separate by heat as heat is motion of atoms, and cannot begin unless molecules 
can move. All atoms in existence must have been once dissociated, else matter 
would not have full ‘‘ potency ” for labor in building a universe. Mathematicians 
say that dissociated matter is many times less dense than hydrogen, and in this 
condition is subject to no force save its inherent gravity. Cosmic matter destined 
to become a universe obeyed attraction and moved. Cosmogony must begin 
with gaseous matter filling infinity. Cosmical evolution cannot open with matter 
solid for that would not be a beginning, as condensed matter is structural and 
shows itself to have been wrought by force. A fluid is also complex and implies 
work in formation. Gas is the simplest state of matter, it is without organization, 
and nature begins in simplicity and proceeds to complex conditions. Gravity 
began motion in the gaseous mass; but motion of atoms cannot long obtain 
without evolving heat, and heat soon allows chemism to appear. Chemical 
reactions in turn augment heat, electricity develops, and the delicate motion, 
light, awakens from the turmoil of infinitesimal oscillation. All these, however, 
are modes of motion, and all derive from gravity, the primordial store of cosmic 

Atoms coalesced into molecules, and these into countless millions of nuclei, 
each one a gravitation centre. These nuclei augmented in size by drawing in 
adjacent matter, thus clearing space. ‘This process went on until fluid balls 
separated by enormous distances condensed from the primitive cosmical mass of 
gas. These liquid globes were intensely hot, and all radiated light. As heat is 
a mode of motion, and cannot appear until motion of material atoms first begins, 
itis clear that primeval matter was absolutely cold; ‘‘fire-mist” never had a 
place in nature, for when matter is condensed by gravity and chemism, sufficient 
> to become heated, it is no longer gas, but fluid. If heat increases from conser- 
vation of accelerated motion, the liquid reverts to gas, and at the same instant 
loses all its heat, only to regain it on re-condensation. 

When after the lapse of vast cosmic periods, all matter had condensed into 
celestial spheres, some cooled to solids, others still liquid, a rigid analysis based 
on physics as at present understood, cannot detect the traces of action of any 
modes of force than these: gravity, motion, heat, chemism, electricity, mag- 
netism and light, all modes of motion save gravity their cause. Gravity made 
successive conservations, erected the universe from gaseity, performed all labor, 
yet lost none of its vigor and still wrought with unabated energy. Motion wanes 
and disappears, only to reappear in other forms, as heat, light and electricity, 
while gravity performs all work, but does not wane und fail. Then it is 

Molecular vibrations on all cosmic spheres were intense; chemism wrought 


av = 


MOTION. 179 

with inconceivable power, evolving vast quantities of heat and light. But these 
atomic oscillations in time weakened, the elements locked in compounds, affinity 
died away, heat waned, and light vanished from smaller orbs. Indeed, waning 
forces must harmonize, cosmic upheavals cease, quiet ensue, heat lose its 
intensity, crusts solidify, air appear and water form, that two refined and inscruta- 
ble modes of motion—life and mind, might develop by undisturbed processes of 
evolution from inorganic atoms. Cosmical motion on each planet must nearly 
stop; coarse chemical reactions cease agitating and jarring the elements with 
unrest, before the laboratory of nature can evolve life and mind from material 
elements. Mind only develops ina mature state matter; material structure is 
most complex before it produces its most refined property. ‘Then mind is of 
short duration on cosmic globes; as heat has nearly vanished before thought 
appears. Polar frigidity has already set in when mind awakens from unconsci- 
ous atoms; molecular vibratory motion is much less rapid when mind evolves 
than in previous cosmical history. Coarse movement in molecules must termin- 
ate; or that excessively delicate atomic vibration causing mind could not begin. 
Motion is of two kinds atomic and massive. Atomic motion is known in differ- 
ent modes, as heat, light, electricity, chemical affinity, life and mind, and 
constitutes the vitality of nature. They begin in gravity, pass many mutations, 
culminate in the evolution of mind, wane, become quiesceat, leaving lifeless and 
frigid worlds to roll without use in Arctic voids. All these will be dismissed and 
the remainder of this essay be devoted to massive motion or the movement of 
worlds themselves. 

MassivE Motion.—All cosmical bodies are in rapid motion. 

Arcturus moves fifty-four, 61 Cygni, forty, and Capella, thirty miles per 
second. Late sidereal astronomy is rich in results relating to binary systems of 
revolving suns. In 1823 one component of Delta Cygni occulted the other; and 
in 1836, 221 Ophiuchi hid its companion. In 1839 and again in 1873 Xi Urse 
Majoris were seen as one star, between these dates, double. In 1873 the double 
star Omega Leonis appeared as one; they are now separating. By an astonish- 
ing generalization of modern research made possible by the spectroscope, it can 
be said, the universe is a Unit. All suns within range of telescopes are composed 
of like material, as is shown by their spectra. Then they are dominated by the 
same laws. Gravity and motion are omnipresent. The motion of sidereal 
systems is observed with the telescope ; and the existence of gravity is demon- 
strated, for suns revolve on ellipses. When the primordial gas condensed into 
innumerable liquid balls, destined to be planets and suns, then to become solid, 
cold and dead, they moved by mutual gravity in all directions. They were of 
all sizes from asteroids to suns like Sirius. They had not assumed orbits, neither 
did the balls rotate on axes, because rotation is complex motion and cannot begin 
until planets commence orbital circuits. The spheres necessary to make up the 
universe were on hand, but the vast machine had not begun revolution. The 
sole motor to do the work was gravity, and its task was to project the smaller 

globes into orbits about the large ones. 


Before seeking the processes by which wandering orbs became reduced to 
orderly revolution in solar systems, the laws of motion will be given. 

First law. A mass of matter in space will move eternally in a straight line 
with uniform velocity, unless gravity turns it aside. 

Second. If a mass in space be attracted by another mass, its deviation from 
a right line will be in the direction of the attracting body, and proportional to 
the mutual gravity of the two masses. 

Third. Gravity and reaction caused by motion are equal and opposite. 

Fourth. If a mass in space be attracted by two or more bodies simultane- 
ously, it will not move towards either, but towards a vacant point between them, 
called their centre of gravity, and the motion is resultant. 

Fifth. All cosmical motion is resultant, and all paths traversed are 

The fourth and fifth are results of the three basic laws, and in a close 
train of reasoning might not be termed laws, but results. Their action is uni- 
versal and through them orbits of planets are formed. If the primeval gas had 
solidified into one rigid ball, nature would have suffered eternal death, no power 
being able to separate the atoms. If into two balls separated by space they would 
have fallen on a straight line to collision and nature would have expired. If into 
three spheres of exactly equal mass and distance, they would have crushed 
together destroying all potency of matter save gravity, and nature would have 
terminated. But if into three globes of unequal mass, or equal in mass and 
separated by unequal distances, then they would inevitably form a solar 
system in regular revolutions. And the same results would follow with any 
number of spheres greater than three, lying in space within the attraction of an 
adjacent sun. 

CENTRE OF GRAvITY.—When two bodies are joined by a rigid bar, there is 
always a point between them where they would balance if placed on a fulcrum. 
In space these are removed; but an imaginary bar and fulcrum have the same 
property, and the point is the centre of gravity. This vacant place has the 
remarkable attribute, that it attracts the third body with the same force as it 
would if the masses of both spheres were combined there. Therefore, if two 
globes attract another, the latter cannot fall toward either, but will move at once 
toward their centre of gravity by the law of resultant motion. 

FORMATION OF HELIOCENTRIC SysTEMS.—To begin a solar system of three 
members, a sun and two planets, the globe wandering in space and destined to 
become a sun, will be designated A, and the smaller spheres to be made planets, 
Band C. They form a triangle in space, and obeying the only force to which 
they are subject—gravity, begin draw nearer one another. Instead of moving 
precisely towards each other, however, each globe journeys towards the centre 
of gravity of the two others. C moves toward the weight centre between A and 
B; B falls towards the attracting point somewhere between A and C, while the 
great sphere A moves slowly in the direction of the gravitation centre between C. 


mana + eT h[ 

n C. 

MOTION. 181 
and B. But the three balls start on straight lines; how shall they be deflected 
aside into curves in order to traverse orbits? The reason why seems to be the 
arcanum of celestial dynanics, the secret of cosmic motion, and law upon which 
rests the structure of the universe. The great fact is this: The centres of 
gravity themselves are in motion! Thus, when B moves towards the centre of 
attraction between A and C, this centre of gravity is all the while approaching 
A, because A and C are nearer together. And B started originally towards this 
moving point. But when B first began to move, the objective point was station- 
ary, and afterwards began its motion. ‘The effect on B isthe key to the structure 
of all sidereal systems. The result is that B is turned aside from its straight path 
and follows a curve. Gravity has performed its most difficult task of causing 
worlds to move on curves, for once in motion on curved lines, orbits are 
inevitable. The intricate process is this: B started towards the centre of gravity 
of A and C on aright line, but in a unit of time this attracting centre moved a 
unit of space, which tended to project B on a new straight line towards it. B 
cannot take up this new rectilinear path, however, because it has acquired inertia 
of motion, tending to keep it on its original track by the first law of movement. 
B desires to move in two right lines at once, it can do neither, but obeying the 
law of resultant motion falls into a curve midway between the two straight lines. 
And the reason of B moving on a curve is because its objective point is moving 
and this deflection being a constant force, perpetually seeks to turn B into a 
new straight line, each infinitesimal interval of time, and a curve is made up of 
an infinite number of excessively short straight lines. If A and C were immov- 
able, their centre of gravity would be stationary, and B would move towards 
it on a right line, but being in motion, B must traverse a curve. Finally all 
becomes ready for the crowning act which will instantly convert B into a planet, 
when it will no more wander in frigid voids, but make regular circuits in the 
genial rays of A. During the long journey of B a time arrives when B seeks to 
pass A, ignore it entirely and fly away forever by reason of inertia gained in its 
flight from remote space, where it first condensed. It cannot pass because at 
the precise moment when the radius vector of A and B or the straight line 
joining their centres, forms a right angle with the direction of motion of B, then 
B loses its relative weight, becomes baianced between the opposing forces, solar 
attraction and inertia of motion, and at once becomes a planet. B can neither 
pass by on its original path nor fall to A, but deflects into a curve, a mean 
between both directions, and its future motion is resultant. The orbit is a curve 
at the proper distance between the paths sought to be traversed under the influ- 
ence of two energies, centripetal and tangential. While B was being made a 
planet C was passing through the same routine, and countless other heliocentric 
systems were in formation by the same laws. But B and C had set the sun A in 
new motion, hence it will continue in motion by its inertia on a curve having as a 
radius the distance to the nearest attracting centre, giving rise to the proper 
motion of the ‘‘ fixed” stars daily seem from observatories. If when C approached 


A and B, B in its revolution happened to lie near its line of motion so that the 
attraction of B on C was stronger than that of A on C, then C would fall into 
an orbit about B and become a satellite. 

If when B sought to pass A, the inertia of B had somewhat exceeded the 
attraction of A, then B would move on a little further than it would have 
moved had its inertia been less, and the effect will be to project the planet B into 
an ellipse. If its inertia was considerably in excess, the ellipse would be very 
eccentric like the orbits of Mercury and Mars, or of the binary sun Gamma 
Virginis. If inertia and attraction were equal, then orbits would be circles; 
and as circular orbits are unknown, all suns drew in planets from space, and the 
greater the distance, of course the more rapid the flight of planets, the greater 
their inertia of motion, and the greater the eccentricity of their elliptical orbits. 
The corollary is that the cosmogony wherein rotating cosmical spheres, whether 
gaseous, plastic or fluid, cast off from time to time concentric rings afterwards 
becoming planets, has no known law of nature in its support. 

Rotary motion is the most complex of massive movement. It is probable 
that for a long time after planets began orbital circuits, they did not turn on 
axes. There is a difference between the attraction of suns on the sides of 
planets nearest them, and on opposite sides. The excess is slight, yet in a thous- 
and revolutions, could not fail making its power felt. The effect is to retard 
somewhat the progressive orbital motion of the sides next suns; and permit the 
external sides to move with the same velocity they had when they fell from space, 
and had their paths changed from tangental lines to orbital curves. This differ- 
ence then in time would cause all planets to assume axial rotation. ‘The rate of 
this rotary motion would not be retarded at aphelion; nor accelerated in perihe- 
lion, because the difference of solar attraction on opposite sides of planets is a 
constant quantity depending solely on their diameters which are invariable. 
When all the primordial mass of dissociated matter shall have been formed into 
large and small globes; and when all the great spheres shall have converted all 
the smaller ones into planets, and when these flying orbs shall have drawn in all 
stray particles of matter as meteors, then the universe will be complete, and the 
cosmos finished. Massive motion will be at its maximum, while atomic motion 
will be on the decline. Molecular activity on all suns and planets will pass cul- 
mination and run down. Light will vanish first, then heat. Elements will be 
locked in cold compounds and affinity cease. Electricity will be no longer dy- 
namic but statical. Ages before this however, the vibrations life and mind will 
have disappeared, and at this epoch the only modes of force displayed by matter 
will be gravity and massive motion. Frigid globes will roll as perfectly on orbits 
as when mind existed to contemplate the scene. Nature will be as inert as it 
would have been if the cosmic gas had solidified into one inanimate ball, unless 
gravity can put a stop to the circuits of dead worlds. By the first law, all spheres 
must move forever on orbits by inertia, unless some resisting medium in space 
retards their motion. Gravity at this stage of the universe has one opponent,— 

MOTION, 183 

motion, a power derived from itself. Unless gravity can regain dominion over 
matter by destroying massive motion, and conserve it into atomic oscillations, 
lifeless worlds chained to darkened suns by attraction and inertia, will eternally 
make melancholy rounds, and count off useless years. A resisting medium, what- 
ever it may be is the ‘‘ potency and promise” of a new universe. Nothing else 
can stop stellar motion, and allow gravity to secure complete control. Gravity 
however regaining mastery, then planets will run down in spirals, and fall on 
suns; and suns will crush in ruin. Motion from being orbital and rotary, will 
become direct, and tumbling globes will collide with enormous momentum. 
Massive motion ends, when by the well-known law of conservation of force, 
wherein when one mode of energy vanishes, another takes its place of equal in- 
tensity, the falling motion terminates in collision, and atomic vibrations at once 
begin in that familiar mode of motion heat. The heat becomes most intense, 
acts as repulsion, separates matter into molecules and then atoms, and vanishes. 
Universal cold sets in at the moment when that repulsive motion—heat, ends, 
and gravity again begins its work, in the slow formation of another universe. 
Repulsion ends and gravity begins, but repulsion is motion, caused by another 
motion, heat, and gravity caused the heat, forming a never-ending series of muta- 
tions through which matter must pass. And in the midst of all the turbulence 
only one energy wrought—gravity ; and all that gravity did was to cause matter 
to move. ‘Then there was at the basis of all only one power, the omnipotent 
attraction of gravitation. The universe then is matter and motion. And the 
postulate of the resisting etherial medium itself is motion. All ideas derived 
from researches into the transmission of light, heat and chemical rays, cannot be 
dissociated from thoughts of motion. And the whole series of motions from the 
breaking up of primeval cosmic gas, is but one cycle of matter. During the en- 
tire turbulence it only assumed three forms, gaseous fluid and solid. These are 
deductions based upon the laws of nature as now known, but they do not seem 
to be very far in advance of the wisdom of our primitive Aryan ancestors at the 
base of the Hindu Kush, when they elaborated the remarkable sentence in the 
Bhagavad Gita, quoted at the beginning of this paper. In this it is said the 
structural or visible universe is but an intermediate state of matter, or a period 
during which it is in active motion. 

At near 12 o’clock, June 29, a meteor, as large as a barrel, starting from the 
zenith, plunged down north the eastern sky and exploded with a report that re- 
verberated for thirty seconds and shook the earth at Macon, Ga. The meteor 
was about five seconds falling, during which time the city was lit up as if by the 
electric light. The time between the disappearance of the meteor and the report, 
was about three minutes. 




It has long been known that certain drugs would produce insensibility, also 
that these drugs were often uncertain and unsafe in their action, amongst which 

are the poppy, mandragora, henbane, hemp, etc. Ice bags were used to produce 
local anzesthesia by its intense refrigerant effect while small operations were per- 
formed, such as opening felons, abcesses, etc. In China, haschisch was used to 
produce insensibility during operations, as far back as the year 220, the patient 
recovering after several days. Prior to 1846, opium was sometimes used to pro- 
duce insensibility to pain, but this agent was not safe and was uncertain in its de- 
sired results; certainty and safety being essential to the successful administration 
of anesthetics. The year 1846 opened a new era in the surgical world, and gave 
to man the priceless boon of anesthesia. On Dec. 11th, 1846, Dr. Horace 
Wells, of Conn., demonstrated the practicability of anzesthesia by having a sound 
tooth extracted while under the influence of Nitrous Oxide Gas. Then followed 
the discovery of Ether anzsthesia by Dr. Morton, of Mass, Simpson of Edin- 
burgh discovering Chloroform anesthesia soon after. .With these three anzsthet- 
ics we are all familiar, and their respective merits need not be discussed here. 
The substance, Bromide of Ethyl, is a new anesthetic, and one that bids fair 
to take its place amongst the others. Dr. R. J. Leois, of Phila., has used this 
new agent more than any one else, and with such success as to warrant its being 
subjected to a thorough trial. Dr. Laurence Turnbull, of Phila., has also used 
this agent, and he advises its use. This Bromide of Ethyl or Hydrobromic Ether, 
has an agreeable odor, and does not irritate the respiratory apparatus, a fact 
which is greatly in its favor. The nausea and vomiting which is associated with 
chloroform and ether, is not met with during Bromide of Ethyl anesthesia. It is 
administered by the same method as chloroform and ether, but has the advantage 
over the latter of being non-inflammable. According to Turnbull the first 
drachm must be crowded upon the patient; if not, it is apt to act slowly. Every 
new agent in medicine should, at first, be used with care and after close study. 
With Bromide of Ethyl, we have a comparatively new anesthetic, but the many 
successful operations under it, upon both animals and man, by men of known 
ability, will certainly commend it to the professions of medicine and dentistry. 
From its rapidity of action, and the short time in which consciousness returns; 
Bromide of Ethyl becomes peculiarly adapted to operations in the dental chair. 
Dr. J. Marion Sims narrated a case before the New York Academy of Medi- 








icine, in which Bromide of Ethyl was used with fatal results which he lays at the 
door of this anesthetic, and he expressed an opinion that Bromide of Ethyl was 
adapted to long operations, where there is renal disease. Dr. Sims not having 
investigated the matter, speaks very cautiously about this new agent. Dr. J. Ott, 
of New York says ‘‘ that the results of his experiments with Bromide of Ethyl, 
show that its action is upon the gray matter of the nerves, also that it decreases 
the frequency of respiration by acting upon the central nervous system while 
increasing the pulse rate and augmenting the blood by direct influence upon the 
heart. Out of several hundred administrations only one case was fatal, and that 
occurred during an operation of great magnitude. ‘This and the fact that the 
Bromide of Ethyl appears to be free from some of the objectionable characteristics 
of chloroform and ether, renders it worthy of thorough investigation. 


There was published in Zhe World a little while ago an interesting communi- 
cation from Dr. John W. Green on the subject of ‘‘ Hydrophobia and Woorara” 
—curare, in which he said that experiments had led him to the belief that the 
proper dose of the substances used hypodermically was about the thirteenth of a 
grain, a dose that was to be repeated often till the proper effects were produced. 
The woorara, he said, quieted spasms and reduced all nervous irritability, thus 
giving the system time to eliminate the hydrophobic virus, and as to its use, he 
added : 

During the past three years some of the physicians connected with the 
German hospitals have reported a few cases where this remedy has been tried. 
In all but one case complete recovery ensued, and in the case that ended fatally 
I imagine from the report of it that the woorara was not used faithfully and 
understandingly. If it will, however, save 50 per cent. of those attacked, it is 
better than losing all of the affected. In taking account of the cases reported 
which I have seen, making altogether four, there has been one death. This is a 
percentage of 75 in favor of woorara. 

More recently, an article in the same paper states that Dr. Etheridge, of 
Chicago, has been experimenting with curare—the secret of manufacturing which, 
by the way, Jovert bought last year from the Amazonas Indians—upon a hydro- 
phobic patient, with what success we are unable to say as yet. According to the 
German papers, Dr. Offenberg, of Dusseldorf, has cured a woman bitten by a 
mad dog by a hypodermic injection of twenty centigrammes of the agent; on 
the other hand a Russian experiment has failed almost signally. Nine persons 
were bitten by a rabid wolf in the hamlet of Bogoljubow, in the Wladimir dis- 
trict, and were taken to the hospital, where five of them died in dreadful agony 
soon after their admission. The doctors resolved to try curare in the other 
cases. This was administered at Wladimir to the remaining four persons who 
had been bitten by the wolf, and they all died, but without experiencing the 


preliminary torture of hydrophobia. This was, of course, something gained» 
though not much; in the absence of any details it is impossible to say to what 
cause the startling result was fairly to be attributed. Two other Russian physi- 
cians, Schmidt and Ledeben, are said to have cured the case of a little girl of 
twelve by causing her to inhale oxygen. Our old friend, the elecampane cure— 
a third of an ounce stewed in a third of a pint of milk and taken fasting every 
other day for eighteen days—has been going the round of the press, in company 
with the Russian broom-seed tea cure, and the madstone, which last proved con- 
spicuously u:eless in the case of the Hon. O. F. West, of Senatobia, Miss. 
Another treatment that has been recommended is bathing with warm vinegar and 
water, and then pouring a few drops of muriatic acid on the wound; still another 
is the application for from six to ten minutes of a sponge dipped in equal parts 
of chloroform and concentrated ammonia. ‘The case of Crosse has been revived, 
who, having been bitten severely by a cat that died the same day from hydro- 
phobia, cured himself by mere mental resolution after pains had reached his 
shoulder and spasms had shot through his throat at sight of water. The specific 
preventive of the pious peasants of the Ardennes is—for the dog a piece of 
bread blessed at mass on St. Hubert’s Day ; for the man wearing a ring or medal 
consecrated at St. Hubert’s shrine. It was to this same shrine of St. Hubert in 
Ardennes that, as Chapella tells us, the Princess of Vandémont, having been 
bitten by a mad dog, did make a pilgrimage in a green carriage, dressed all in 
green. At the spring, having put on a green stole and listened to a chapter of 
the Gospel according to St. John, she drank a glass of water and returned home 
to live fourteen years, while two less pious friends, bitten by the same dog, died 
of hydrophobia. Perhaps, however, the virus was still lurking undeveloped in 
her system, for in June last Mr. Samuel J. Culver died at New Haven, Conn., 
of a bite received twenty years before, a case even more terrible in some respects 
than that of Frank Shields, of Bloomington, Ind., who, on the 1st of November, 
was put in jail to prevent him from doing violence to himself and friends. He 
had been roaming the woods, yelping like a hound in the chase ; and on meeting 
teams on the road would seize the horses and bite them like a dog. He was 
said to have been bitten by a dog ten years ago. 

M. Galtier has recently made some valuable experiments from which he 
draws the conclusion that the saliva of a mad dog obtained from the living 
animal and kept in water, continues virulent five, fourteen, and even twenty-four 
hours; and as the saliva of a mad dog which has succumbed to the malady or 
has been killed does not lose its properties through mere cooling of the body, it 
is important in examining the cavities of the mouth and throat after death, to 
guard against the possible danger of inoculation. M. Galtier tested rabbits with 
regard to rabies, and found it transmissible to them from the dog; also, the 
rabbits’ rabies from them to animals of the same species. The chief symptoms 
are paralysis and convulsions. The animal may live from a few hours to four 
days after the disease has declared itself. M. Galtier found salicylic acid, injected 

SEN ll” 

ss = m Od we weer ns SS VS 8 


daily under the skin, powerless to prevent the development of the disorder in 

M. Raynaud, experimenting in the same direction, ascertained the effects 
of inoculation of the rabbit from man in the hydrophobic state. A man in that 
state was brought to the Lariboisiere Hospital, having been bitten in the upper 
lip by a dog forty days previously. He had had the wound cauterized two hours 
after the accident, and had thought himself quite safe till some of the usual 
hydrophobic symptoms appeared. ‘The day before his death, in a quiet interval, 
he yielded himself with the best grace to the experiments in inoculation which 
were made with his blood and his saliva. The result of inoculating the rabbit 
with the blood was negative (as in the great majority of previous cases of inocu- 
lation with blood of animals under rabies.) But with the saliva it was otherwise. 
A rabbit inoculated in the ear and abdomen, on October 11, began to show 
symptoms of rabies on the 15th, being much excited and damaging the walls of 
its cage, while it uttered loud cries and slavered at the mouth. Then it fell into 
collapse and died the following night. The rabbit’s body was not dissected till 
thirty-six hours after death, and further experiment was made by taking fragments 
of the right and left submaxillary glands, and introducing them under the skin of 
two other rabbits respectively. These two rapidly succumbed, one on the fifth, 
the other on the sixth day (becoming visibly ill on the third); neither passed 
through a furious stage, however, and the predominant feature was paraplegia 
(a form of paralysis). The important practical result is that human saliva, such 
as caused rabies in the rabbit, is necessarily virulent, and would probably have 
corresponding effects on man; so that it should be dealt with cautiously, and 
that not only during the life of the person furnishing it, but in post-mortem 


On the night of Tuesday, June 15, a remarkable epidemic fell upon several 
towns in western Massachusetts, the town of Adams suffering most severely, 
Out of a population of 6,000, several hundred—variously estimated from 600 to 
over 1,000—were prostrated by a disease resembling cholera morbus. The symp- 
toms were first dizziness, then great nausea, followed by vomiting and prolonged 
purging, and in some cases delirium. A belt of country two or three miles in 
width and several miles long was thus afflicted, beginning at the west, the whole 
number of victims being estimated at from 1,200 to 1,500. No deaths are repor- 

The cause of the epidemic is not known, but seems most likely to have been 
atmospheric. For some time the weather had been dry and hot. A heavy local 
rain fell during the evening, and was followed by or attended with a sudden and 
great lowering of the temperature. A chilly fog hung over the belt of country 
invaded by the disease, and a heavy ‘‘swampy” odor and taste were in the air. 


The malady reached its climax in about twenty four hours. It was first sus- 
suspected that the water supply had been somehow poisoned, but many people 
who had not used the water were prostrated, while others who used it freely escaped. 
Adams has hitherto been regarded as an exceptionally healthy town, and the sur- 
rounding country is high and wholesome.— Scientific American. 


In a recent communication to the French Academy, Professor Fort asserts 
that he was enabled to restore to life a child three years old, by practicing artifi- 
cial respiration on it four hours, commencing three hours and half after apparent 
death. He mentions also a case in which Dr. Fournol, of Billancourt, reanima- 
ted, in July, 1878, an apparently drowned person by four hours of artificial respi- 
ration begun one hour after the patient was taken from the water. At this season, 
when cases of drowning are apt to be frequent, the possible benefit that may 
come from a persevering effort to revive victims of drowning, should encourage 
friends not to despair of their resuscitation, even after several hours of seemingly 
fruitless labor. — Scientific American. 


A new test for chloral hydrate has been devised by Frank Ogston, namely, 
yellow sulphide of ammonia. On adding this reagent to a solution of chloral of 
moderate strength there is at first no change noticed, but in a short time the color- 
less solution acquires an orange yellow color, and on longer standing turns brown 
and evolves a gas of avery disagreeable odor. Ogston’s experiments show that 
a solution containing ten milligrammes turns brown in six hours, and gives the 
peculiar odor. With one milligramme the orange yellow color appears in twelve 
hours, but no odor. Croton chloral gives the same reaction, but chloroform, 
chloric ether, and formic acid do not. 


PREADAMITES, Or a Demonstration of the Existence of Man Before Adam, to; 
gether with a study of their condition, antiquity, racial affinities and pro- 
gressive dispersion over the earth. By Alexander Winchell, LL. D., etc., 
I Vol., 8 Vo., 1880. S. C. Griggs & Co., Chicago. $3. 

The origin of the human race, lost as it is in the night of antiquity, is a sub- 
ject of fascinating interest, and has been a theme of speculation from the earliest 
ages of history. When and where did man make his first appearance on earth is 
an oft recurring question. From the wild inhospitable wastes of the Polar re- 


Av — 


Oo wer 


gions to the tropical luxuriance of the equator traces of the occupation of ancient 
inhabitants are found, from the simple flint instrument of the savage barbarian to 
the stately palace and temple of hewn stone of the civilized and cultivated man 
—their name and history alike lost and unknown. And it is not only on the 
surface these relics are found, but deep down in the bowels of the earth in mines 
and caves, and under ‘‘cubic miles of basalt,” his remains have been exhumed, 
showing that vast geological changes have taken place on the earth since his first 
appearance. The difficulty of reconciling the Biblical history of man’s origin 
with the facts of geology and the diversities of the human race has induced the 
theory of a preadamite race or races. Prof. Winchell, the author of several pop- 
ular works on geology and kindred subjects, has collated the most trustworthy 
and authentic evidence on this subject and laid it before his readérs in his usual 
pleasing and practical style, and produced a work of great interest and value to 
the student. ‘The general reader will find much curious information in regard to 
the human race not generally accessible, but hidden away in great libraries and 
under a mass of Society transactions. The illustrations are good and useful, but 
one or two cases illustrated, we think, have been rather strained and exaggerated 
to make a point. L. 

THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY. Balfour Stewart, LL. D., F. R. S. Quarto 
pp. 27. J. Fitzgerald & Co., New York. 15c. For sale by the Kansas 
City Book & News Co. 

‘Cheap literature” has up to a very recent period been synonymous with the 
trash written by Ned Buntline and other writers of that ilk, but within the past 
two or three years the expression has been applicable to scientific, historical, and, 
in fact, all classes of the best works of the best authors by the best known pub- 
lishers of the country. 

As an example we have before us the above named work, with an appendix 
by Professor Alexander Bain, on the Correlation of Nervous and Mutual Forces, 
complete, for fifteen cents, being the seventh number of the Humboldt Library 
of Science. It is well printed and has all the illustrations of the original work, 
which could not be bought for less than about ten times as much. 

Of the work itself it is unnecessary to say anything, as it is widely known as 
an eminently popular standard treatise by one of the most able scientific writers 
of the time. 

Wricut’s New Map anp GuipE for Kansas City, Mo., Kansas City and Wy- 
andotte, Kansas. Pocket size, folded, 50c. Published by the Kansas City 
Book & News Co. 

This is an exceedingly complete and convenient map, one which all persons 
interested in the city will find quite useful, though it would have been an excel- 
lent idea to include the suburbs of Harlem, Rosedale, Armourville and River- 


view. It is folded and bound in paper so that it can readily be sent by mail or 
carried in the pocket. Mr. Wright is the pioneer in the kind of thing here for 
which he deserves credit. 


Programme of the International Congress to be held at Brussels, Belgium, 
August 22-29, translated by M. Maurice Defosse for Bureau of Education, De- 
partment of the Interior; Lists of Volumes and parts of volumes of educational 
periodicals wanted to complete the files in the library of the Bureau of Education, 
by Hon. Jno. Eaton, Commissioner; Seventh Annual Catalogue of Officers and 
Students of Hardin College, Mexico, Mo., 1880; Report of the Board of Com- 
missioners of the Seventh Cincinnati Industrial Exposition, 1879, pp. 400, octavo; 
Prospectus of the Monte Christo Gold Mining Co., of Chicago, with charter and 
by-laws, 1879 ; The Campaign in Missouri and the Battle of Wilson’s Creek, 1861, 
a paper read before the Missouri Historical Society of St. Louis, March, 1880, 
by Col. Wm. M. Wherry, U. S. A., pp. 18, 8vo.; Annual Report and Statistics 
of the Meteorology and Mortality of the City of Oakland, Cal., for the year 
1879, J. B. Trembley, M. D., pp. 14, 8vo.; The School Bulletin Year Book, for 
1880, an Educational Directory of the State of New York, compiled by C. W. 
Bardeen, with map of the State. Davis, Bardeen & Co., Syracuse, New York, 
$1; The Graphic, Eureka, Kansas, weekly, H. H. Clark, editor, $1.50 per an- 
num; The Jewell County Review, Mankato, Kansas, weekly, L. D. Reynolds, $1 
per annum; The Cotton Planters’ and Manufacturer's Journal, Little Rock, Ark., 
monthly, Coleman & Co., $1; The Wilmington, Ohio, Journal, weekly, Vernon 
& Tudor, $1.50 per annum. 



Leaving the Narrow Gauge at Alamosa, the terminus of the main line of the 
Denver and Rio Grande road, the tourist or miner can mount a ‘‘ burro” or 
take a stage to the various camps of Silver San Juan—to Lake City, 115 miles, 
or to Silverton, 140 miles, visiting Rio Grande, sixty-nine miles distant, by the 
way, and thence pursue his way across the Range to the Dolores River country, 
fifty or more miles beyond Silverton, and northward to Ouray. 

These names are all familiar to Colorado miners, and they have proved very 
attractive. A little less than a year ago, carbonate ore was discovered on the 
Dolores River, and that section has ever since been the goal of numerous pros- 
pectors. Poughkeepsie Gulch, Rico, the San Miguel, Animas Forks, and 
Mineral Point are also more or less famous; and the outlook for the coming year 

ee ee ce ie 

zs oaceo ~~ Db 

Se nn 




is that the narrow-gauge coaches of the Denver & Rio Grande will be taxed to 
their utmost in carrying prospectors and capitalists to the prospectively rich 
regions of southwestern Colorado. 

‘¢ The formation containing the lodes, and holding the greatest portion of 
the mineral belt,” says the Denver Mews, ‘‘is in and around San Juan County, 
and the formation, generally speaking, is eruptive or volcanic porphyry, with 
granite and occasionally sandstone and trachyte, as the country rock and vein 
walls. Silver predominates as a galena ore, carrying from ten to twenty per 
cent. of lead, and ranging from fifty ounces upward to the ton. Gray copper, 
ruby silver, wire and native silver, carbonates, sulphurets, chlorides and free gold 
are the other ores found throughout the district.” 

The Summit district, in Rio Grande County, is exclusively gold, free and in 
decomposed quartz, with stamps as the only process of treatment. Henson 
Creek and Sheffer’s Basin, in Hinsdale County, Uncompahgre and Poughkeepsie 
districts, with Mount Sneffles and a portion of the Upper Miguel and Silver Moun- 
tain, in Ouray County, forming a regular belt of mineral, have a high-grade gray 
copper ore, with ruby, wire, native and brittle silver, carrying little lead, and 
hence suitable for the leaching, or lixiviation process. The veins on Mounts 
Galena, Tower, Hazelton, Aulton, King Solomon and Kendall, in San Juan 
County, surrounding Silverton, are essentially galena ore bearing, averaging as 
much as fifty per cent. in lead. These ores are treated by reverberatory roasters 
and cupola blast furnaces. The main stream of the San Miguel, in Ouray 
County, and the La Plata River, in La Plata County, are altogether placer and 
gulch diggings, mined by sluice booming and hydraulics. The latest discovery 
on the Dolores, in Ouray County, properly called the Pioneer district, for it was 
worked years before the most of the San Juan Region was known, is now exclu- 
sively a carbonate camp, with the same formation and general characteristics as 
Leadville, except, perhaps, less lead, more iron, and an altitude 3,000 feet lower. 
The notable districts now are comparatively scattered, and there are forty miles 
square webbed with mineral veins, all, as yet, barely prospected. 

As nearly as can be estimated, the ore product of the mines in this district, 
last year, amounted to 9,075 tons, or $1,400,000. The present year a very great 
increase is confidently predicted. Smelting furnaces and reduction and sampling 
works will be erected at many points. The hundred or more mines discovered 
last year will be developed and worked this year. Capital is already seeking 
investment here, and the outlook for activity all along the line could not be 


The tourist will do well to make a visit to the famous mining camps, Rosita 
and Silver Cliff, before leaving this section of Colorado. Stages from Cafion 
City make daily trips to these points and enable sight-seers to see the two most 
populous as well as richest mining camps of southern Colorado. Rosita is eight 
miles beyond Silver Cliff and two years ago was the scene of a great rush. It 

holds its way with most Colorado camps still, but is left behind in the race by its 
more prosperous neighbor. Silver Cliff is a city of 5,000 people now, and con- 
fidently anticipates a population of double that number within six months. 

The most famous mines of this section are the Bull Domingo, Bassick, 
Silver Cliff, West Mountain, Plata Verde and Racine Boy. The first named is 
a Rosita mine and experts estimate the quantity of ore now in sight at $1,249,- 
440. The Bassick mine has been shipping $2,000 worth of ore daily to the 
Silver Cliff sampling works, and continues to show up fine bodies of high grade 
ore. The Bassick is believed by many miners to be one of the big bonanzas of 
the world. The Racine Boy, at Silver Cliff, is operating two tunnels, and its 
development promises to show better bodies of ore as the work continues. The 
company has taken more than $100,000 from the big tunnel. What is true of 
the above mines, is true of a hundred others in a limited degree. Some rich 
gold discovered have been recently made in several mining camps adjacent to 
Silver Cliff, and the little county of Custer, in which these mines are located, 
bids fair to become a rival even to Lake County. 


The first public trial of this remarkable line took place on the 6th inst. The 
time of ascent requires only eight minutes, on foot it takes an hour and a half. 
A correspondent of Zhe Zimes, who was present on the occasion, says:—‘‘ It must 
be admitted that on this, the first public experiment, the boldest among the many 
present confessed the necessity of screwing their courage up to the sticking po nt 
before making the railway journey along a road steep as a ladder or a fire-escape 
and 860 metres in length ; but as regards danger, it is reduced toa minimum. It 
is not a train in which one travels, but a single carriage, carrying ten persons only, 
and as the ascending carriage starts, another, counterbalancing it, comes down 
from the summit, the weight of each being five tons. The carriages are so con- 
structed that, rising or descending, the passenger sits on a level plane, and what- 
ever emotion or hesitation may be felt on starting, changes, before one has risen 
twenty metres, into a feeling of perfect security. The motion also is very gentle, 
and the effect is magnificent, if not, indeed, grandly awful, as, when hanging 
midway against the side of the cone, one looks, from the window directly upwards 
or downwards along the line, which, its slight incline alone excepted, is perfectly 
perpendicular. Dismounting at a little station at the summit, one can scarcely 
be said to clamber to the edge of the crater, for the company have cut a conveni- 
ent winding path, up which all, except the aged, heavy or feeble, can walk with 
ease. The upper station was gaily decked with a trophy of flags. Flags of all 
nations waved along each side of the line, and, after descending again to the base 
of the cone, we sat down, 120 in number, to a splendid banquet, spread in a spa- 

cious and well-appointed restaurant, established in a kind of Pompeian villa.”— 

~~ _—- 

7 we fA Pe 



DurinG a brief visit to Chicago we availed 
ourself of a long-standing invitation to visit 
the University and especially Dearborn Ob- 
servatory, where we found Professor Hughes 
and Mr, S. W. Burnham, the former teacher 
of Natural Science, and the latter so well 
known among astronomers as the discoverer 
of a great number of double stars. 

The University of Chicago is a handsome 
building, with ample grounds, well arranged 
and equipped for educational purposes and 
possessed of a faculty of finely educated and 
liberal minded men who are doing excellent 
work in their respective departments. 

The observatory is a model structure and 
has the good fortune to own one of the largest 
telescopes in the world, one originally con- 
structed for the State of Mississippi, which, 
owing to the outbreak of the late war was 
unable to take it. Mr. Burnham has the use 
of this instrument and is pushing his observa- 
tions and studies with great zeal and indus- 

He paid a handsome compliment to Profes- 
sor Pritchett of Glasgow, Mo., and was en- 
thusiastic in his praises of the atmosphere of 
our western or central region for astronomi- 
cal purposes. 

THE STEAMER Dessouk, with the obelisk on 
board, which was presented to the city of New 
York by the Egyptian Government, sailed 
from Alexandria June 12th, and from Gibral- 
tar, June 26th, for the United States. 

THE HEAT of the past few days has been 
quite universal. 

At Albany, at seven o’clock on the 26th ult. 
the thermometer recorded 79 degrees in the 
shade. At Washington it recorded 80, and at 
New Orleans, where one would, naturally ex. 
pect the temperature to be excessively warm, 

it registered but 77 degrees in the shade. At 
Duluth it was 60, at Philadelphia it reached 
71, and at San Francisco it only mounted 
among the fifties, while the city and bay were 
veiled by a fog. At St. Louis it was 75°, at 
Yankton 78°, at Chicago 77° and at Kansas 
City 70°. 

THE Lancet says it would be difficult to 
point toa more probable source of infection 
in the search for causes of disease in private 
families than the houses where the practical 
work of dress-making is performed. It re- 
commends, therefore, the erection of public 
work-rooms, well-arranged and under proper 
supervision, to which the poor might bring 
their work and finish it in cleanliness, comfort 
and peace. 

THE SIGNAL Service Department at Wash 
ington has established a central meteorolog. 
ical station at Washburne College, near To- 
peka, with auxiliary stations in each county 
in Kansas. The instruments are in place and 
the observations begin July 1st. Professor J. 
Lovewell! will have charge of the work. 

THE QUESTION of dispelling or illuminating 
fogs requires the attention of physicists and 
meteorologists at once. The number of ter- 
rible accidents occuring lately from collisions 
in fog-banks is discreditable to modern sci- 

DIPHTHERIA is raging with fearful fatality 
in Russia. Out of 46,136 persons attacked 
18,698 deaths ensued. 

A REPORT upon the paper carbon horseshoe 
lamp constructed by Mr. Edison, prepared 
and contributed to Van Nostrand’s LZugzineer- 


ing Magazine for July 1880, closes as follows: 
‘¢It is evident Mr. Edison’s lamp, as now 
made, does not escape the enormous loss 
which has heretofore been encountered by all 
forms of incandescent electric lamps.” 

Proressors Edward M, Shepard, of Drury 
College, Springfield, Mo,, and Charles H. 
Ford, of the State Normal School, Kirks- 
ville, Mo., have decided to hold a Summer 
School of Biology at Springfield, Mo., be- 
ginning the first day of July, and continuing 
not less than six weeks. 

Two Lectures will be given each day, 
accompanied by laboratory work in dissec- 
tion, use of microscope, etc. Occasional 
excursions will be made into the surrounding 
country and on the James River, which will 
afford fine opportunities for scientific re- 

By the kindness of the authorities of 
Drury College, the College building—includ- 
ing lecture rooms, laboratory and boarding 
hall, as well as the library, apparatus and 
collections—will be at the service of the 
students. Access will also be given to the 
collections of the Packard Natural History 
Society, and to the private libraries of the 

Mr. Shepard will instruct in the depart- 
ments of Invertebrate Zoology and Crypto- 
gamic Botany, 

Mr, Ford will have charge of Vetebrate 
and Phzenogamic Botany. 

ProFessors S. H. Trowbridge, H. S. 
Pritchett and T. Berry Smith have inaugu- 
rated a Summer School of Science in Pritchett 
Institute, Glasgow, Mo. The object of this 
School is to afford students of the State an 
opportunity of studying science by observing 
some of the facts and phenomena on which 
it rests, and by a free use of illustrative 
specimens and apparatus. The school com- 
menced on Monday, June 28th, and continues 
It will embrace three depart- 

1, Geology and Natural His- 
Chemistry and 

six weeks. 
2, Astronomy; 3, 



THE reader who is curious to obtain an 
inside view of Prince Bismarck’s character as 
the genius of Statecraft, will find much to 
interest him ina paper contributed to the 
North American Keview for July, by the 
great Chancellor’s Boswell, Moritz Busch, 
entitled, ‘‘ Bismarck as a Friend of America 
and asa Statesman.” Other articles in the 
same number of tie Review are ‘‘ Canada 
and the United States,” by Prof. Goldwin 
Smith: ‘The Exodus of Israel,’”’ by Presi- 
dent S. C. Bartlett,—a defense of the Penta- 
teuchal account in the light of modern 
research; ‘* The Exglish House of Lords,” 
by J. E. Thorold Rogers, M. P.; ‘The 
Ethics of Sex,” by Miss M. A. Hardaker,— 
a calm, philosophical study of the woman 
question ; ‘‘ The Panama Canal,” by Count 
de Lesseps; and ‘‘Profligacy in Fiction,” by 
A. K. Fiske, 

THE leading article in the Boston Journal 
of Chemistry for June is entitled ‘‘Shall we 
bolt our food,” and is a digest of the views of 
several physiologists, who argue in favor of 
swallowing our food whole, and in opposi- 
tion to the long-trusted theory of eating slow- 
ly and chewing the food thoroughly; on the 
ground that the finely masticated food passes 
out of the stomach before it is fully prepared 
for the next process in digestion. 

THE ‘Studies in Comparative Phrenolo- 
gy,” found in the Phrenological Journal for | 
July are very interesting and will repay care- 
ful reading. 

AN elaborate article in the London Zeé- 
graphic Journal upon the value and impor- 
tance of ‘‘ Varley’s Electric Time Ball” on 
the dome of the West Strand telegraph office 
prompts the enquiry what has become of the 
project of establishing a similar signal at the 
Kansas City Union Depot, as proposed by 
Prof. C. W. Pritchett, of the Morrison 
Observatory, last spring. 

THE Gardeners’ Monthly, edited by the 
well-known scientist, Thomas Meehan, is a 
periodical that every professional gardener 
and agriculturist needs, and all amateurs 

will find it of the greatest value.