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bjorth Carolina Sfats Library 




Ma^iaiFaii!L®»sf»© 



©©MMiPMa'ip'a' iFi^saa.a'iriiiEg i?il^! 



North Carolina State Library 



Raleigh Oo(. 






Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 witii funding from 
State Library of Nortii Carolina 



http://www.archive.org/details/smithfieldnccommOOnort 



PREPARED FOR THE TOWN OF SMITHFlELD, NORTH CAROLINA 



Joe Grimes, Mayor 

Robert H. Little, Town Manager 

James Wellons, Town Attorney 



TOWN COUNCIL 

John J. Dall, Mayor Pro Tem 

Kenneth B. Baker 

Robert E. Bell 

Jack M. Gardner 

C. L. Gurganus 

Dr. William Oliver 

Willard Stanley 



PLANNING BOARD 

Harry McGee , Chairman 

J . B • B owden 

Shelton Castleberry 

Reginald Ennis 

Ben F, Grimes 

Ray Knott 

William Ragsdale, Jr , 

Jame s Wh i 1 1 ey 

Lester Woodar d 

Br Ian Lang ley 

Delmer Brown, Secretary 



TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROVIDED BY: 

STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 

DIVISION OF COMMUNITY PLANNING 



George J. Monaghan, Administrator 

EASTERN AREA OFFICE 

James A. Ferguson, Director 

PROJECT STAFF 

Mack W. Churchill, Community Planner* 
Ralph Willoughby, Community Planner 
Dorothy Hutchinson, Secretary 
Ed Kivett, Draftsman 



'Responsible For Report 



March, 1967 



PRICE $1.00 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We wish to express our appreciation to the following individuals 
and their staffs. Without their help and cooperation, the con- 
tents of this study would not be possible. 



Joe Grimes, Mayor 

Robert H, Little, Town Manager 

Nuit G. Edgerton, Town Clerk 

H, C. Talton, Fire Chief 

Jack Ray, Police Chief 

Wayland Broadwell, Public Works Superintendent 

Badin Flowers, Public Utilities Superintendent 

Eric Faddis, Parks and Recreation Director 

Wilson Broadwell, Civil Defense Director 

John Herring, Johnston County Rescue Officer 

Mrs. Eleanor Hooks, Johnston County Librarian 

E. S. Simpson, Johnston County School Superintendent 

Lloyd Gilbert, Johnston Memorial Hospital Administrator 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

INTRODUCTION . 1 

METHODOLOGY 2 

POPULATION TRENDS 4 

ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION 7 

MUNICIPAL BUILDING 11 

TOWN GARAGE 15 

FIRE PROTECTION 17 

POLICE PROTECTION 31 

CIVIL DEFENSE AND RESCUE SQUAD 39 

STREET SYSTEM 43 

PUBLIC PARKING 49 

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 51 

STREET LIGHTING 55 

WATER SYSTEM 57 

SANITARY SEWERAGE SYSTEM 67 

STORM SEWER SYSTEM 73 

REFUSE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL 77 

PARKS AND RECREATION 81 

CEMETERIES 89 

SCHOOLS 91 

LIBRARY SYSTEM 97 

HOSPITAL 103 



LIST OF MAPS 



MAP 1 TOTAL PLANNING AREA 

MAP 2 FIRE STATIONS 

MAP 3 THOROUGHFARE PLAN 

MAP 4 MAJOR STREET PROBLEMS 

MAP 5 AREAS WITH INADEQUATE STREET LIGHTING 

MAP 6 WATER SYSTEM SERVICE AREA 

MAP 7 WATER SYSTEM - EXISTING AND PROPOSED LINES 

MAP 8 SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM 

MAP 9 SEWER SYSTEM - EXISTING AND PROPOSED LINES 

MAP 10 STORM SEWER SYSTEM 

MAP II PARKS - EXISTING AND PROPOSED 



Page 

3 
26 
44 
48 
54 
58 
64 
66 
71 
74 
86 



LIST OF TABLES 

TABLE 1 POPULATION OF SMITHFIELD, 1910-1960 

TABLE 2 POPULATION PROJECTIONS, 1965-1985 

TABLE 3 FIRE DEPARTMENT - 1965-1985 POTENTIAL GROWTH 

TABLE 4 POLICE DEPARTMENT - 1965-1985 POTENTIAL GROWTH 

TABLE 5 SMITHFIELD CEMETERIES 

TABLE 6 SMITHFIELD SCHOOLS 

TABLE 7 CLASSROOM NEEDS, 1965-1985 

TABLE 8 JOHNSTON COUNTY LIBRARY COMPARISONS 



4 
5 
30 
37 
89 
92 
94 



INTRODUCTION 

With the rapid rise in today's standard of living and the 
subsequent growth of urban development, there has been a 
corresponding growth in the demand placed on municipal govern- 
ments for more and better public services which the residents 
of these areas can no longer economically or efficiently provide 
for themselves. Not only has a high standard of l;"'.->g caused 
greater demands for such services, but a better educated public 
at large will not long tolerate temporary and substandard measures 
to meet every day needs of urban life. 

Knowledgeable people are aware that in urbanized areas septic 
tanks and wells are basically temporary measures and therefore, 
they demand the use of public water and sewer facilities. These 
people also realize that adequate drainage systems, adequate 
schools and recreation facilities, and adequate police and fire 
protection will increase property values and will help stem the 
tide of blight into a neighborhood. 

While most of the public services discussed In this study are 
provided solely by the municipal government, some are provided 
jointly or separately by Johnston Countyc Nevertheless, these 
services are provided for the benefit of every citizen within 
the particular political jurisdiction. They are located and 
operated on public property by personnel hired by and responsible 
to municipal or county governments Since the facilities are 
operated for the benefit of the citizens, the local government 
has a responsibility to the people to operate and expand these 
facilities to meet current and future demands in the most econo- 
mical manner. The expenditure of public money for community 
facilities is the greatest expenditure a municipality will make. 
Therefore, the facility should be carefully planned to insure 
that maximum benefit will be derived from such an expenditure. 

Pur pose 

This community facilities report Is an inventory and study 
of the existing public facilities in Smlthfield for the purpose 



1 - 



of determining the adequacy of the facilities in meeting present 
and future needs, with recommendations for Improving and correct- 
ing present deficiencies and for meeting future demands before 
the demand becomes acute. Hopefully, these finding and recom- 
mendations will be heeded by the officials of the municipality 
and sound action will result in wise investments for the future. 

The planning period, for purposes of this report, Is from 
1965 to 1985, Recommendations of this study are correlated with 
the goals and objectives set forth In the Land Development Plan , 
Smithfield, N. C . published in 1965, AlsO; consideration was 
given to the impact the urbanized areas outside the corporate 
limits would have on the adequacy of the facilities If these 
areas should become a part of the municipality; For the purposes 
of this report, the urbanized area and the planning area will 
include all areas within the corporate limits of Smithfield, 
plus all areas within a one mile radius of these limits- There 
is one exception which should be noted. The one mile limit does 
not completely encompass West Smithfield although this report 
does include all of it for planning purposes, {See Map Noo 1) 

Me thod ol ogy 

Each facility was evaluated by the four basic steps listed 
be 1 ow . 

1„ Information concerning the level of service, functions 
site, and location of each facility was collected by 
personal interview and f! eld survey. 

2, This information was evaluated artd analyzed by the 
officials in charge of each facility and by professional 
consu 1 tan ts o 

3, Standards,, some of which were tailored ': o meet the needs 
of the Smithfield urban area and some of which were 
national standards, were applied to the present level 

of service to determine the adequacy of each facility, 

4, Recommendations were set forth which would render each 
facility adequate throughout the planning period. Levels 



- 2 




I 



of service for each facility were e s cab 1 i shed to 
accommodate the projected needs of the 1985 population, 



FopuLation Trends 

In Smithfield's Land Development Plan , published in 1965, 
the past population growth was reviewed. The following statistics 
were listed for the population within the corporate limits. 



TABLE NO. 1 
POPULATION OF SMITHFIELD 1910 



Year 

1910 
1920 
1930 
1940 
1950 
1960 



Popu la t ion 

1347 
1895 
2543 
3678 
5574 
6117 



7o Change 

+40,7 
+34.2 

+ 44,6 

+ 5U6 

+ 9.7 



1960 

Numerical Change 

+ 548 

+ 648 
+ 1135 
+ 1896 

+ 543 



As shown above, Smithfleld experienced a healthy rate of 
growth from 1910 to 1950 but this growth rate dropped suddenly 
from 1950 to 1960. This sudden drop is explained by a lack of 
annexation and a general lack, of industrial expansion and re- 
location into the area which could provide jobs for :he 20 to 35 
year age group. The outmigratlon of this group is discussed m 
the Land Development Plan 

In December of 1965, a special census was conducted in 
Smithfleld, The total population had increased to 6,316 - a 
iotal increase of only 199 for five years If this growth rate 
continues, by 1970 an increase of 384 people can be expected. 
This is considerably less than the increase between 1950 and 1960. 

Yet, an examination of the urban areas adjacent to Smith- 
field's city limits reveals a dwelling unit count of 706,, five 
of which were vacant and not fit for hjraan habitation. If the 
average population per occupied dwelling unit for 1960 of the 
rural nonfarm dwellings in Smithfleld Township 13 used, f 3 . '7 1 
persons per dwelling), then the total fringe area population can 
be estimated at 2,601 persons If this fringe area population 
is added to the 1965 census population. Sraithfield s urban area 
can be said to contain 8,91" people as of December, 1965- 



If these figures are projected in a straight line, then the 
population of the Smithfield area should be as follows: 

TABLE NO. 2 
POPULATION PROJECTIONS 1965 - 1985 



Year 

1965 
1970 
1980 
1985 



Corporate Limits 

6,316 
6,501 
7,000 
7,300 



Urban Fringe 

2,601 
2,884 
3,230 
3,424 



Total 

8,917 

9,385 

10,230 

10,724 



These projections are based upon natural increase and a 
healthy growth rate as has been established according to past 
trends. However, they do not include the expected population 
increase brought on by industrial expansion in the planning area. 

In recent months it has been established by the construction 
of new plant facilities that approximately 1,350 new industrial 
jobs are to be created by 1970 in the Smithfield area. The 
establishment of these new jobs will create a much greater increase 
than was projected in the above tables. According to the "Nation's 
Business Magazine" 1962, for each 100 new industrial jobs that 
are created there are 65 more nonmanuf ac tur ing jobs created. If 
this holds true in Smithfield there will be 2,227 new jobs created 
by 1970. There were 252 persons in 1965 unemployed and approx- 
imately 76 will remain unemployed even under the best economic 
conditions for the area by 1970, If this Is true, then there 
will be 176 persons who will fill 176 of the new jobs created 
and the resultant number of new jobs will be 2,051 by 1970. 

This increase in new jobs will mean that many new families 
will be migrating into the area, and if we assume that they will 
1 oca te 1 wl th in the corporate limits of Smithfield, or within its 
fringe areas, then population projections can be made for the 
c omi ng decades. 

To estimate future populations by using industrial growth 
requires that work force ratios be used and that at least a two 
percent unemployment factor be used. Accordingly, we have the 



following statistics for Smithfield and its fringe area: 



1965 civilian work force 

Less 27o unemployment 

Total work force 

Additional new jobs by 1970 

Total civilian work force by 1970 



3,604 
72 
3,532 
2,051 
5,583 



In 1965, the total civilian work force represented 40.5% of 
the population of Smithfield and its fringe areas. If this ratio 
remains the same, then Smithfield and its fringe area will have 
an estimated population of 13,785 by 1970. The estimate for 
1980 and 1985 would be based upon the expected return of normal 
growth which is approximately 12 percent each decade. Thus, the 
estimate would be 15,439 for 1980 and 16,364 for 1985. These 
estimates will be used as a basis for all recommendations which 
concern the population within the Smithfield planning area. 

The growth of Smithfield itself is dependent upon annexation, 
as the majority of the above indicated growth is expected to take 
place within the adjoining fringe areas. 



- 6 



ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION 

Prior to July 1, 1966, Sraithfleld had a Mayor-Board of 
Commissioners government. On July 1 j the Town hired its first 
Town Manager and the Board of Commissioners changed their name 
to Town Council In order to comply with State Statutes. 

The Town Council is composed of 7 members, elected for two- 
year staggered terms. The Mayor is elected for a three-year term, 

An organizational chart of the town government after 
July 1, 1966 was as follows: 



Plants Su 



Electrical 



In the interest of Increased organization efficiency, an 
analysis of this chart was made by the Town Manager and consultants 
from the Institute of Government in Chapel Hill, The following 
chart of new organizational lines of authority was decided upon 
by the Town Manager as the best way to streamline the town 
government for a better chain of command and more efficient 
ope ration. 













May 


or 






























































Planning 
Board 




Board of 






Town 




Library 




Co^.r.ission 




















Town 
Manager 





I 1 III 


Town 
Clerk 




Parks and 
Recreation 




Bui Iding 
Inspector 




Police 
Dept. 




Fire 
Dept 



Public W 

Dep t . 













r t i 1 i c y Line 




Meter 








S ec 


ion 



It is felt by the Town Manager that this organizational 
method will be better able to handle the problems of Smithfleld 
for the duration of the planning period. The only problem hold- 
ing up the use of this organizational method is the hiring of a 
town engineer^ It is anticipated his salary will be appropriated 
in the 1967-1968 budget and it is recommended that a town engineer 
be employed as soon as feasible^ 



MUNICIPAL BUILDING 

Existing Fact 1 1 ties 

Smi thf ie Id ' s Municipal Building, located at the corner of 
Johnston and Fourth Streets, is a converted hotel which was built 
in 1935. While the building itself is relatively old, the three 
story, brick structure is in sound physical condition. In ad- 
dition to the three stories, there is a basement level. All four 
levels are served by an elevator. 

The Police Department occupies a large portion of the base- 
ment. There are four rooms used by the Police Department. One 
is an office for the police chief and one is a "booking" room. 
The communications center, the largest room, has recently been 
partitioned off, affording more privacy and a more businesslike 
appearance. To one side is a large open workroom used for re- 
facing the town's street signs and for repairing parking meters. 
The remainder of the basement is used for storage. 

The first floor is occupied by the offices of the Town Clerk, 
the Tax Collector, the water and light collections and clerical 
staff, and the public meeting hall used by the Town Council and 
Planning Board. The rear of the first floor is occupied by the 
County Health Center. 

The offices of the Mayor, the Town Manager, the Parks and 
Recreation Department, the Director of Public Utilities, the 
County TB Assocation, the American Cancer Society, and the Chamber 
of Commerce are all located on the second floor of the Municipal 
Building. 

At the present, most of the third floor is used for recreation. 
In the rear is a large room used for square dancing and for 
contract bridge. Arts and crafts classes are held in two smaller 
rooms. The remainder of the third floor is used for storage. 

No parking is provided for town employees. Most of them 
use the lot immediately around the Municipal Building, leaving 
no room for customers and visitors. 



- 11 



Re c ommenda t ions 

1 . Ba seme n t 

It is recommended that the Police Chief's office be 
moved to the first floor and his basement office be used 
by the police captains. With the increased population 
predicted by 1985, police personnel will also increase 
and need additional space. Therefore, locker rooms with 
showers should be installed in the basement floor and 
space for clerical workers should be provided. The 
space now used for storage should remain until such time 
when this space will be needed by the police department. 
It is hoped by then, that the town will have moved its 
storage and garage facilities to a new location near the 
sanitary land-fill- 

A retention cell should be built to house two prisoners 
while they are waiting to be processed and taken to 
the county jail. 

2. First Floor 



It is recommended that the County Health Department be 
moved to a new location In the vicinity of the Johnston 
Memorial Hospital. This vacated space should be used 
for the offices of the police and fire chiefs and the 
two detectives to be employed by 1985 Space should be 
made available for a large conference room to be used 
by all town departments 

At the rear of the clerk s office and in the vicinity 
of the vault, a lounge and canteen type room should be 
provided for the town employees. 

3 , Se cond Floor 



It is recommended that the offices of the American Cancer 
Society, the Chamber of Commerce and the TB Association 
be moved to a new location to make room for the offices 
of all town department heads. In this location, all 
department heads will be readily available Co the Mayor 
and Town Manager and communications will be simplified. 



12 



A, Third Floor 

It is recommended that the entire third floor be utilized 
for recreation purposes-. 

5, It is felt that the present Municipal Building will be 
adequate throughout the planning period, but by 1985, 
it is hoped that a new recreation facility will be 
provided and the third floor can thus be used for other 
town purposes. 

6. It is recommended that the town acquire additional park- 
ing space. As the population increases, the use of the 
Municipal Building will increase. The parking lot ad- 
jacent to the Municipal Building should be purchased or 
leased, if possible. 



13 



TOWN GARAGE 

Existing Facilities 

Smi thf ie Id ' s garage facilities are located behind the fire 
station on 4th Street. It occupies a lot approximately 100 by 
210 feet of which the town owns half, and leases half. The 
portion owned by the town is paved and Is occupied by a 36 by 40 
feet garage, which contains two stalls to house vehicles while 
they are being serviced. The remainder of the lot is used for 
parking of the town vehicles when they are not in use. The 
garage maintains all vehicular equipment owned by the town. 

The town garage is under the direction of the Superintendent 
of Public Works, who has his office in the garage. A mechanic 
and his helper are the only employees of the garage. 

Equipment used by the garage includes an air compressor, a 
drill press, an electric welder, a steam jinny, a chain hoist, 
and an acetylene torch. The service truck used by the garage is 
owned by the mechanic and subsidized by the town. 

Standards 

1. A town with a population in excess of 5,000 should 
provide a self-sufficient garage to take care of any 
type of ordinary repair in order to keep "down time" 
and repair costs to town-owned vehicles to a minimum. 

2. Parking areas utilized by town-owned vehicles and equip- 
ment should be paved, fenced, and protected from the 
elements. 

Recommendations 

1. Since the present town garage is located adjacent to the 
central business district, it is recommended that the 
entire garage facilities be moved to an area on the edge 
of town where traffic congestion is no problem. A site 
near the town's sanitary land-fill would be ideal and 
e conomlca 1 . 



15 



The new location should be fenced, lighted and paved. 
Sheltered space should be provided for street sweepers, 
street graders and other expensive equipment to protect 
it from the elements. The size of the site should take 
into consideration the new equipment which will be 
required by the increased population of 1985. 

It is recommended that the new facilities double its 
present working space for the repair and servicing of 
the town's vehicles to four working stalls. 

It is recommended that the personnel of the town garage 
be increased to two mechanics by 1970, and by 1985, three 
mechanics and three helpers should be employed to main- 
tain the town's vehicles. 

The town should provide a service truck. 



- li 



Worth Girolina Stale Library 
Raleigh 

FIRE PROTECTION 



The Stnithfield Volunteer Fire Department presently has a 
working agreement with Johnston County, whereby the county pays 
the Town of Smithfield, and all other rural and town fire depart- 
ments in the county $100 per month, for which all fire departments 
agree to cover the entire county as needed. 

In addition, the Fire Department provides fire protection to 
the West Smithfield Sanitary District on a contract basis of $100 
per month. The Sanitary District in turn charges each of its 
customers $.25 per month for this fire protection. 

In 1963, the Fire Department had 76 calls, of which 38 were 
outside of the town limits^ In 1964 and 1965, it answered 83 and 
102 calls respectively, with more than 507o being outside of the 
town limits. At the present, Smithfield has a fire rating of 7 - 
a good rating for a town of its size when compared with other towns 
and cities in the state. However, this rating is adversely affect- 
ed by the department's policy of answering calls outside of the 
t own limits. 

Since more than half of the calls answered were outside of 
the town limits, the $2400 received by Smithfield from the county 
and from the West Smithfield Sanitary District is not nearly 
enough to pay for its share of the cost of fire protection. With 
a budget of $14,475 for 1966-67, the town residents have to pay 
$12,075 or approximately $1000 a month for the same fire protection 
that the county gets for $200 a month, plus the fact that the 
town residents have higher insurance rates because of the fire 
department's policy of answering calls outside of the town. 

Despite what the cartoonists would have the public believe 
about firemen and their axes, fire fighting is a practical 
application of scientific knowledge. Even a small fire requires 
a smoothly operating team if property damage is to be kept to a 
minimum. Each man on the team has to know his part of the operation 
almost by rote. Fighting fires in areas where there is no water 
supply requires different tactics than used to fight fires where 



there are hydrants and a plentiful supply of water. To avoid the 
danger of confusion which may result in excessive property damage 
and even loss of life, a fire company should be trained to operate 
in only one situation; either with water supply or without. 
One of the most important responsibilities of any fire 
department is the prevention of fires through an organized fire 
hazard inspection program and through public awareness. The 
Smithfield Fire Department does not conduct fire hazard inspect- 
ions, except in the schools. During Fire Prevention Week, the 
department sponsors a poster contest within the schools to 
illustrate home fire hazards and their prevention. In the past, 
there has been no participation by the local newspaper on home 
fire prevention. 



Existing Facilities 

The two pumper companies are housed in the town's only fire 
station located on Fourth Street between Market and Johnston 
Streets shown on Map No. 2. The station Is a two story brick 
and concrete block structure. The entire upstairs is occupied by 
one full-time fireman and his family. The first floor houses 
the fire trucks and other miscellaneous fire fighting equipment. 
Located on the same lot Is the old Municipal Building which is 
presently used for storage. The town garage is located behind 
the station. 

The town's water system Is one of Its most important resources 
for fire fighting purposes; The operation arrangement of Smith- 
field's water system is fairly good yet there are many areas in 
which the system is deficient.., 

Many areas of the town do not have adequate water pressure 
and rates of flow for fire fightings According to measurements 
by the North Carolina Fire Rating Bureau, rates of flow near a 
cotton storage warehouse was less than 1,000 GPM at a residual 
pressure of 20 PSI. The minimum rate of flow requirement for such 
an area is 1,750 GPM at 20 PSI of residual pressure 



Water hydrants in Smithfield now cover an average area of 
300,000 square feet, but 120,000 to 200,000 square feet is con- 
sidered the maximum area by the Fire Rating Bureau- 
While Smithfield's raw water supply Is plentiful, water 
treatment facilities can only process 1,000,000 gallons dally. 
Present daily consumption is in excess of 900,000 gallons. 
Maximum capacity will be passed in the next five years if present 
growth trends continue. 

There are two water storage tanks, one with a 100,000 gallon 
capacity and another with a 300,000 gallon capacity - about 
enough water for a normal 12 hour period. 

Per s onne 1 



The Smithfield Fire Department has one full-time employee 
and 26 volunteer firemen organized into two fighting companies. 
The current staff is as follows: 

1 Chief 

2 Assistant Chiefs 
2 Captains 

2 Lieutenants 

3 Dr iver s 
1 7 Firemen 

Training is provided on a local basis at least once each 
month, at which time the firemen practice on old buildings donated 
to the department for destruction. 

Since 1962, the department has sent four men each year to 
the State Fire College In Winston -Salem for a week of intensive 
training, at a cost to Smithfield of $100 per man. This program 
is slated to be continued in the future- 

The volunteer firemen are paid $15 per month, and as volunteer 
firemen, they are eligible to join the North Carolina Firemen's 
Pension Fund by paying dues of $5, per months At the end of 30 
years service they are eligible for a pension of $50 per month 
for life. 

Equ ipme n t 

All fire department vehicles may be radio dispatched from 
the fire department, the police department, and the county sheriff's 



19 



office. The fire department is tied in with the Johnston County 

Fire Protection System, The Fire Chief and Assistant Fire Chiefs 

have radios in their personal cars, for the purpose of answering 

fire calls. 

A breakdown of present fire prevention vehicles follows: 

one 1938 500 GPM Oren Pumper (in reserve) 

one 1951 750 GPM Amer ican-La France Pumper 

one 1964 1000 GPM Amer ican-La France Pumper 

one 1956 Equipment Truck 

The fire alarm system is one by which the firemen are alerted 
by telephone. When a call comes into the station, the dispatcher 
picks up one of two telephones, and automatically all the tele- 
phones of one company of volunteer firemen ring.: If both companies 
are needed, both telephones are picked up. Normally, only one 
company responds to a call, leaving one company in reserve for 
protecting the remainder of the community.. There are no fire 
alarm boxes located within the town. A siren located at the fire 
station is sounded to alert all firemen who are away from their 
te le ph one s , 



Standards 

Exacting standards for the efficient operation of a volunteer 
fire department are difficult to establish since each community 
has various aspects that necessitate exceptions-. Therefore, the 
adequacy of the Smithfleld Fire Department's facilities shall be 
evaluated according to the criteria used by the N, C, Fire Insurance 
Rating Bureau and according to local needs ascertained from local 
officials : 

I , Water Supply 

A. Water treatment facilities should supply a minimum of 
140 gallons daily per capita. 

B. Treatment facilities should have an auxiliary power 
supply other than electricity, and the electric supply 
should be arranged so that a failure in any power line 
or other power device will not disable water service. 

C. Storage facilities should have the capacity to provide 
water for a 24 hour period if the treatment plant is dis- 
abled. 

- 20 - 



The distribution system should be such that all lines 

are interconnecting with few deadends, and mains be of 

sufficient size to handle adequate water transmission. 

The spacing of valves should be sufficient so that no 

breakage or repair will shut down a length of pipe 

greater than 500 feet in the high value districts or 

greater than 800 feet in other sections and will not 

result in shutting down an artery.* 

Fire hydrants should be distributed so that each hydrant 

covers an average area of 120,000 to 200,000 square feet 

and each hydrant should be able to deliver 250 GPM from 

a 2h inch outlet-* 

For the purpose of fire fighting, minimum fire flows 

should be available at a residual pressure of 20 PSI 

in the following sections of the town, according to the 

N. C. Fire Rating Bureau. 

1. Central business district 



2. Minor business areas, manu- 
facturing, wholesale, hospital, 
and school areas 

3. High density residential areas 

4. Low density residential areas 



2.500-3,000 GPM 

1,750-2,000 GEM 

1,000-1,250 GPM 

500-750 GPM 



II. Fire Department 

A. Location of Fire Station. 

1. The main station should be located in or adjacent to 
the central business district. 

2. Other stations should be located in relation to 
building and population density, construction types, 
and to the existing degree of fire hazards. 

3. A station should be located within one mile of 
industrial and commercial areas, and within one and 
three-quarter miles of residential districts- 



* Source: 



Municipal Fire Administration . International City 
Manager's Association, 



- 21 



4. The station should be located on streets close to 
and leading into major thoroughfares to permit 
quick and safe exit and entrance of fire equipment. 

5. Front and rear entrances should be provided for fire 
vehicles . 

6. The building site should allow future expansion. 
Fire Fighting Equipment 



No fire vehicle should be more than 20 years old, 
except those held for reserve use. 



2. If a town has as many as five buildings three or 
more stories high, at least one ladder truck should 
be pr ovlded . 

3, A minimum of 1,000 feet of 2\ inch hose should be 
carried on each pumper vehicle. 

C . Per s onne 1 

1. According to the American Insurance Association the 
number of pumper or engine companies in ratio to the 
popu lation is: 

Population Noo of Pumper Companies 

1,250 1 

9,580 2 

17,900 3 

26,300 4 

2. The minimum number of volunteer fire fighters should 
never be less than 10 per company and should pre- 
ferably be at least 25, according to Munic i pa 1 Fire 
Administration . 

3. The fire chief should be held responsible for the 
training of the firemen and the fire fighting equip- 
ment should be taken out at least once a month for 
practice . 

4. There should be only one head of the fire department, 
appointed and directly responsibile to the chief town 
official. In this way, responsibility can be fixed 
and a unified command will result, 

III . Fire Alarm 

There are two basic elements of communication within a 
modern fire department. 



- 22 - 



Devices used In reporting fires ". o the fire department. 

1. Municipal Fire Alarm System - alarm boxes are 
strategically located throughout a given area, 
ideally within a distance of 300 feet of all 
commercial and Industrial sites, and within 500 feet 
of all residential sites. 

2. Commercial Exchange Telephone - the alarm is called 

in from a location near the fire by a private citizen, 

The conclusions that can be drawn are that while the box 
alarm system would be the most desirable, a combination 
of both the telephone and box alarm systems is more 
practical from the financial standpoint, A box alarm 
system is a necessity in the heavy commercial a ad 
industrial areas where establishments are closed and 
telephones unanswered during much of the 24 hour period, 
and the telephone affords sufficient protection in 
residential areas and light commercial areas- It has 
been found that most residential fires were reported 
by telephone, even when fire alarm boxes were available. 
Effective and rapid communications between the operating 
units of the fire department of which there are two basic 
types : 

1. Radio - A two-way system by which the operator in 
the fire station radios an alarm to firemen, to 
fire trucks, or 'o other communitles: 

2. Telephone - This system, commonly used by volunteer 
fire departments connects the telephones of all 
volunteer fireme" with the telephone system in the 
fire station, 

Both systems have merit and. in most cases, both systems 
are used to some extent. All fire vehicles should be 
equipped with two-way radios and all firemen should have 
telephones- Thus, both systems should be used in modern 
fire departments 



23 



IV, 



Fire Prevention 



It Is estimated that 75 percent of all fire losses could be 
prevented if local fire protection codes were adopted by the town 
and rigidly enforced by the fire department. Fire prevention 
programs should be established as outlined in the following ways: 

1. All local, state, and federal fire prevention laws 
should be enforced through a frequent and thorough 
periodical Inspection program, 

2. Areas with a high fire potential rate would be inspected 
much more frequently than those having a low fire 
potential rate. 

3. There should be at least one full-time fireman in charge 
of the fire prevention program, 

4. A local fire prevention committee, possibly in association 
with the local chamber of commerce, should be establish- 
ed to provide for general fire prevention activities, 
such as sponsoring fire safety contests, preparing check 
list of procedures for home owners use in preventing 
fires, and warning of fire hazards through the local 
newspape r . 

V. Building Laws 

Without building laws, adequate fire prevention would be 
virtually impossible. To maintain an efficient fire prevention 
program, the construction of buildings should be regulated in 
the following ways: 

1. Building laws or codes should be updated at least once 
every three years in accordance with recommended build- 
ing codes sponsored by the American Society of Testing 
Materials and the National Fire Protection Association. 

2. There should be a local building inspector responsible 
for conformance of new construction with applicable 
building laws before occupancy takes place, 

3. The local codes should give the fire prevention enforc- 
ing officer summary power to abate a hazard or to secure 
the correction of an unsafe building- 



24 - 



4., Explanation of the codes of the community should be a 

part of the fire department's training program for fire 

inspectors, with emphasis on the importance of knowing 

the reasons behind the law as well as the law itself, 

VI . Structural Conditions 

Structural conditions within a community must be regulated 
in order to reduce fire hazards. Such regulation can be accomplish- 
ed in the following ways; 

1. A program of condemnation and demolition of dilapidated 
structures should be established and rigidly enforced. 

2. A zoning ordinance should be enacted to provide adequate 
fire breaks between buildings and to prevent narrow and 
inaccessible streets. 

3. When remodeling takes place in all older industrial and 
commercial structures and when new buildings are con- 
structed the installation of automatic sprinklers should 
be required. 



25 



RECOMMENDATIONS 

Facilities 

1. The present fire station facilities are adequate in size but 
modernization is needed to make the department more efficient. 
While the station has both front and rear entrances, only 

the front entrance is used, causing unnecessary backing into 
the fire station. In addition, the acquisition of a new 
ladder truck will create a need for more space in the station. 
Thus, modernization and enlargement is recommended. (See 
Map No. 2) . 

2. Annexation and new industrial employment will bring about 
the need for a new fire station in south Smithfield by 1980. 
By 1985, the need for an additional fire station in West 
Smithfield will be acute and should be provided. (See 
Table No, 3 and Map No. 2). 

3. Since water consumption nearly equals treatment capacity the 
town officials have seen a need for a new three million gallon 
capacity water treatment plant. When the study for this new 
plant is initiated, it should include a study of the water 
distribution system. Recommendations concerning ways and 
means of increasing water pressures, hydrant distribution 
needs, needs for replacing water lines of less than 6 inches 
in diameter, and the spacing of valves throughout the distri- 
bution system should be given special attention. The money for 
these improvements should be incorporated in the special bond 
issue for construction of the proposed water treatment plant. 

4. At the present, a four mile electric power line connects 
Carolina Power and Light Company's substation in S e Ima with 
Smithfield's substation. A break in this power line would 
hamper water and electric service in Smithfield, It is 

r e c o mm ended that another substation be provided to supply 
power in emergencies. 



- 27 



General Programs 

1. Providing fire protection for areas outside of the town limits 
cost the town residents too much in taxes and in higher 
insurance rates. Thus, it is recommended that the Smithfield 
Fire Department cease answering calls outside its corporate 

1 Imits . 

2. It is recommended that Smithfield adopt an updated fire pre- 
vention code to be enforced by the fire department staff 
through periodical inspection. 

3. Updated building laws should be adopted by the town to main- 
tain an efficient fire prevention program. These laws should 
be enforced by the town building inspector and the fire pre- 
vention officer. 

4. A program of condemnation and demolition of dilapidated 
structures should be established and rigidly enforced to 
reduce fire hazards. 

5. It is further recommended that the Smithfield Fire Depart- 
ment request recommendations from the North Carolina Fire 
Rating Bureau for a number 6 rating and then set its goals 
for attainment. This is very necessary because at the 
present growth rate vast improvement in fire prevention is 
needed in order to preserve the status quo. 

Pe r s onne 1 



By 1970 it is projected that the Smithfield planning area 

will have a population of 13,785 residing in 2614 dwelling 

units on 3,384 total acres of land. It is recommended that 

a full-time fire chief be employed to provide the necessary 

leadership for the Smithfield Fire Department 

Since it is estimated that 75 percent of all fire losses 

could be prevented if local fire protection codes were 

adopted and enforced, it is recommended that a full-time man 

be hired to administer the fire prevention program. 

In addition to the one full-time man presently employed, two 

full-time men should be employed to provide around the clock 



28 



duty at the fire station, each man working an eight hour 
shift. This is a minimum necessary by 1970. By 1980, an 
estimated population of 15,A39 will necessitate a new fire 
station and three additional full-time men to operate on a 
24 hour basis. A projected population of 16,364 by 1985 and 
widely expanding land uses will cause a need for one more 
fire station and three more full-time men. Thus, a total of 
8 new full-time men will be needed to operate the three fire 
stations. (See Table No. 3) 

4. Presently there are 26 volunteer firemen, barely the minimum 
required for 1 pumper company. Since Sraithfield has two 
pumper companies, an additional 14 volunteer firemen are 
needed. By 1980, this figure should be doubled to 80 and by 
1985, a total of 100 volunteer firemen should be deployed 

at the three fire stations. (See Table No. 3) 

5. It is recommended that a minimum of 207o of the volunteer 
firemen attend intensive training courses conducted by the 
state each year and that refresher courses be attended by 
other firemen as needed. Each man should attend training 
courses at least every five years. 

Equipme nt 

1. To Increase fire protection it is recommended that a fire 
alarm box system be purchased by the town and employed only 
in the heavy commercial and industrial areas of the town. 
Such a system should be the most up-to-date available — the 
electronic type if possible. 

2. The two present pumpers are adequate according to the stand- 
ards of this report, but by 1980 one additional pumper will 
be needed to provide adequate fire protection for Smithfield, 
(See Table No. 3) 

3. Since there are 7 buildings three or more stories high in 
Smithfield, a ladder truck Is a vital necessity and it is 
recommended that one truck be purchased by 1970. (See Table 
No. 3 ) 



- 29 



4, Equipment trucks should be Increased from one to two by 1980 
and to three by 1985 in order to provide one truck for each 
fire station, (See Table No. 3) 

TABLE NO. 3 

POTENTIAL GROWTH PROJECTED FOR 1965 - 1985 

RELATING TO THE FIRE DEPARTMENT 



7o 7. % 

1965 1970 Inc. 1980 Inc. 1985 Inc. 



Total Area Served 
(Acres) 1,875 3,384* 80 3,684* 9 3,804* 3 

Total Population 6,316 13,785* 118 15,439* 12 16,364* 6 

Number of Dwelling 
Units 1,890 2,614* 38 3,724* 42 3,994* 7 



Number of Fire 
S ta t i ons 

Number of Pumper 
C ompan ie s 

Number of Ladder 
C ompanie s 

Number of Full-Time 
Firemen 

Number of Volunteer 
Firemen 

Number of Pumper 
Trucks ( Pr imary ) 

Number of Pumper 
Trucks (Reserve) 

Number of Equipment 
Trucks 



1 


1 





2 


100 


3 


50 


2 


2 





3 


50 


3 








1 


100 


1 





1 




1 


3 


200 


6 


100 


9 


50 


6 


40 


53 


80 


100 


100 


25 


2 


2 





3 


50 


3 





1 


2 


100 


1 





1 





1 


1 





2 


100 


3 


50 



"^Annexation of adjacent exterior developed lands assumed. 



POLICE PROTECTION 

The Smithfield Police Department has the primary responsibi- 
lity of preventing crime, protecting life and property, and pre- 
serving the public peace. This protection is extended to all 
areas within the corporate limits and into the one mile limit 
for warrant purposes only. 

Other law enforcement officers in the area include the 
Johnston County Sheriff, an elected constable, and a force of 11 
State Patrolmen located between Smithfield and Four Oaks. 

The police department's budget for 1966-67 is $74,935 and 
is provided out of the general fund. 



Existing Facilities 

The Smithfield Police Department Is located In the basement 
of the Municipal Building at the corner of Fourth and Johnston 
Streets. While the space provided for the police department 
seems to be adequate, some modification to these accommodations 
is needed. A long counter divides the large single room which 
has recently been partitioned off. In this room is located the 
dispatcher and to the rear are two small open cubicles, one 
occupied by the chief and the other Is used as a "booking" room. 
Neither room provides any privacy. To one side is a large open 
space used by the department to reface street signs and for 
servicing the town's parking meters. 

All local detention quarters are in the County Courthouse. 
The town pays room and board for all of its prisoners housed by 
the County. Recorders Court is also held in the County Court- 
house. In the past, these two working agreements have been very 
satisfactory for both the cpunty and the town. 

Parking spaces for official vehicles is on the street in 
front of the police department, and on the side and at the rear 
of the Municipal Building. No off-street parking is provided 
for employees or the general public. 



Per s onne 1 

As of July 1, 1966 the police department had a staff of 15 
officers and one custodian. Each officer works an eight hour 
shift, six days a week. Following is the current staff: 

1 Chief 

1 Captain 

2 Sergeants 

1 Pol icewoman 
10 Pa tr o Imen 

Training for police personnel is only a "hit and miss" pro- 
position at the present. Four officers have completed a course 
in basic officer training and three are now attending. There is 
no incentive offered for completing any training. 

Two Clerks of Court serve as dispatchers and perform minor 
clerical duties for the department. These two Clerks of Court 
are not, of course, under the direct supervision of the police 
chief. By combining the two jobs, they are not able to render 
the police department sufficient time to provide the service the 
department needs. The problem Is often compounded by the fact 
that they are both former Smithfield Police Chiefs, and this 
often interfers with the operation of the department. 

During the school season, the only four officers on duty 
are stationed at the school crossings In the area served by the 
department. Thus the remainder of the community Is left un- 
protected for those time periodswhen the children are on their 
way to and from school. 

Equ ipme nt 

The police department operates three 1967 model automobiles 
which are to be replaced annually. At least one car is patrol- 
ling the town at all times, and all three cars are in operation 
from "dusk to dawn". 

The department is the communications center for police, fire 
rescue service and sheriff departments. 

Below is a list of miscellaneous equipment used by the 
police department at the present time: 

A. 1 Fingerprint Kit 



- 32 - 



B. 1 Polaroid Camera 

C. 1 Tear Gas Gun and Grenades 

D. 5 Sawed-off Shotguns 

E. 1 Speed Clock 

F. 2 Walkie-Talkies 

S tandar ds 

After a thorough analysis of all available standards that 
would apply to a community such as Smithfield, it was found 
necessary to set many of the standards found herein for the police 
department according to past experience of the department and 
projected trends observed within the community. In developing 
these standards it was assumed that the present police depart- 
ment was performing efficiently and was considered adequate for 
the c ommuni ty , 

At the present, Smithfield's Police Department operates 
three vehicles to patrol 42 miles of streets^ It is projected 
that by 1985, there will be 90 miles of streets, assuming that 
annexation of exterior developed areas occurs. Using the present 
police vehicles-street mileage relationship, one vehicle for each 
15 miles of streets, it can be assumed that by 1985 Smithfield 
will need 3 additional police vehicles. 

This ratio could also be applied to the present and future 
population. Based on past experience in Smithfield, it is 
assumed that one vehicle can adequately serve 2,200 people. 
Three police vehicles now serve 6,316 people. By 1985, with the 
addition of 3 vehicles, a total of six, would serve an estimated 
population of 14,428. 

In addition, small towns are generally considered to be 
adequately protected if: 

A, the police officer-population ratio is at least one 
officer for each 500 population; 

B. recruits are provided a minimum of 4 weeks training, 
regular officers a refresher course each year, and all 
sergeants trained as instructors so that patrolmen will 
receive some instruction each day; 



33 



C. part-time assistance Is provided by non-police personnel 
for such functions as providing protection at school 
crossings, mass public functions, and for emergency 
services ; 

D. all areas of the town are patrolled on a frequent basis; 

E. the police station is situated on a major thoroughfare 
for ease of access and unimpaired movement; 

F. the station is located adjacent to the central business 
district on a site which affords room for expansion; 

G. off-street parking is available and accessible; 

H. the police chief is appointed by, and directly responsi- 
ble to, the chief administrator of the town. 



- 34 



RECOMMENDATIONS 



FacH it ies 



While the space provided for the police department seems to 
be adequate, some modification Is needed to furnish privacy 
and a more businesslike atmosphere. A room should be pro- 
vided for the clerical workers. The present "booking" room 
should be enclosed to afford more privacy and security. An 
assembly room with locker facilities, where officers could 
meet and discuss official matters, would create a much 
smoother operating department. By 1985, the police depart- 
ment should employ a total of two captains and three ser- 
geants. A room should be provided for each captain, and one 
single room for all three sergeants. A separate room should 
be provided for the detective division when it is created. 
Separate locker facilities should be provided for the police- 
wome n . 

A practice firing range should be developed in cooperation 
with the other county police departments. 

An identification bureau should be set up by the police 
department and it should be correlated with other state 
bureaus . 



Pe r s onne 1 

1. At the present, Smithfield has a ratio of one police officer 
for each 421 population. This present ratio should be main- 
tained. It is projected that by 1970 the Smithfield planning 
area will have a population of 13,785 and police officers 
should increase to a total of 22. By 1980. a population of 
15,439 is projected and 33 police officers will be needed to 
maintain a proper ratio. By 1985, a total of 35 officers 
will be required for a projected population of 16,364. (See 
Table No. 4) 

2. Presently Smithfield employes no detectives. It is recom- 
mended that a minimum of one plain clothes detective be 
hired by 1970 and two by 1980. 

3. A merit system of pay raises should be set up to add incen- 
tive for each officer to acquire more training. Presently 

- 35 - 



there is no salary difference between equivalent positions 
for officers who have completed basic officer training and 
those who have had no training. 

4. The Wayne County Technical Institute in Goldsboro offers a 
basic police officers training course and it is recommended 
that the Smithfield police officers be required to take this 
training at the town's expense. Upon satisfactory completion, 
a salary increase should be granted. It is further recom- 
mended that all sergeants be trained as instructors In order 
that they may provide daily training for patrolmen. 

5. Part-time personnel should be hired to handle school cross- 
ings during the school year to allow regular police officers 
more time to patrol other parts of the towno A minimum of 
six is needed for the 1967-68 school year and none are 
employed. By 1985, the minimum required will be ten. 

6. It is recommended that the two Clerks of Court be removed or 
separated from the police department, and two full-time 
radio operators and dispatchers be hired. Also, one full- 
time clerical worker should be hired immediately to handle 
all departmental clerical duties. Both of these jobs will 
require additional employees by 1985. A minimum of three 
dispatchers and two clerical workers will be necessary if 
projected growth is attained.;. 

7. It is recommended that police personnel step up its present 
bicycle safety program in the schools c. Additional programs 
should be added on pedestrian hazards and other safety topics. 

E qu ipmen t 

1. It is recommended that the town continue its policy of re- 
placing police vehicles on a year to year basis. A minimum 
of six police cars will be needed to give adequate protect- 
ion over the 90 miles of streets expected by 1985. One 
motorcycle should be added to the police department by 1970 
and two by 1985. 

2. Police patrolling should be stepped up during daylight hours 



- 36 - 



and It is recommended that at least three police cars be 
patrolling at all tlmeso 

A "Black-Light" system (infrared detection system) should 
be purchased for the police departmento 

The town should purchase a new camera to be used in making 
mug shots. 

Ammunition reloading equipment should be purchased to pro- 
vide inexpensive practice ammunitlono 

TABLE NO. 4 

POTENTIAL GROWTH PROJECTED FOR 1965 - 1985 

RELATING TO POLICE DEPARTMENT 



1965 

Total Area Served 
in Acres 1,875 

Total Population 6,316 

Miles of Street 
Served 42 

Number of Dwelling 
Units 1,890 

Number of Pol ice 
Cars 3 

Number of Motor- 
cycles 

Number of Police 
Officers 



1970 



% 
Inc < 



1980 



Inc< 



1985 Inc, 



3,384* 80 
13,785* 118 



79,7* 
2,614* 
5 
1 



Other Police 
Emp I oy ee s 

Cus tod ians 
Clerical Workers 
Part-Time School 
Crossing Attend- 
ants 



90 

38 

67 

100 



3,684* 
15,439* 

85,6* 

3,724* 

6 



9 
12 

7 

42 

20 

100 



3,804* 
16,364* 

90* 

3,994* 

6 



Chief 


1 


1 





1 





1 





Cap ta ins 


I 


1 





2 


100 


2 





Sergeants 


2 


2 





3 


50 


3 





Patrolmen 


10 


15 


50 


22 


46 


24 


9 


Policewomen 


1 


2 


100 


3 


50 


3 





Detectives 





1 


100 


2 


100 


2 






1 


2 


100 


2 





2 








1 


100 


2 


100 


2 






100 



10 



*Annexation of Adjacent Exterior Developed Lands Assumed, 



CIVIL DEFENSE DEPARTMENT AND RESCUE SQUAD 

In Johnston County, the Civil Defense Department conducts 

its program from an office based in Selma. The county Is divided 

into ten zones, each supervised by a director. The Civil Defense 

Department also provides a Rescue Squad service for the county. 
It is based in Smithfield. 

Existing Facilities 



The civil defense headquarters for Johnston County is located 
in a leased building in Selma« An office, a storage room and a 
classroom is housed in this building. 

There is shelter space available for 1,962 people in the 
county with a protection factor of 40 or better. However, none 
of these shelters have been licensed and stocked because the 
various owners of these shelters want to reserve them for their 
own pur p OSes. 

Personnel - Civil Defense 

Civil defense in Johnston County is operated by volunteers 
except for a part-time director who is paid $100 per month and 
one full-time secretary. The volunteers Include 10 zone directors, 
22 chiefs-of-service, and 5 instructors. 

In addition, 18 volunteers graduated from 32 weeks of auxil- 
iary police school, 9 volunteers are certified radiological 
monitors, 21 volunteers are licensed amateur radio operators, 
1,492 volunteers are trained in medical self help, and 2 volun- 
teers have completed a management course of basic fundamentals of 
civil defense directorship in event of an emergency. 

All of the above training was given by the volunteer civil 
defense instructors. 

Equipment - Civil Defense 

An inventory of major equipment used by the civil defense is 
as foil ows : 

1 - 1 5 KW light generator, 



39 



1 - 200 bed hospital ready to be set up in an emergency. 
The only other equipment is that used for training purposes 



S tandar ds 

lo Civil defense operations for a county should warrant a full- 
time civil defense director and training officer. 

2. An emergency operating center should be established within 
the county to house the civil defense staff and the county 
government in times of an emergency. 

3. All possible shelters within the county should be properly 
marked and stocked for times of emergency. 

4o Training should be provided to as many people as possible 

in survival techniques. 
5. Police and fire departments should be coordinated to 

supplement civil defense operations In emergencies. 

Recommendations 

1. County government should study the feasibility of hiring 

a full-time civil defense director and a full time training 
officer. 

2. County government should establish an emergency operating 
center with a protection factor of 100 or more to house the 
civil defense staff and the county government in case of a 
national disaster, 

3. Available shelter spaces within the county should be fully 
utilized. They should be properly marked and stocked for 
public use in times of emergency. 



Personnel - Rescue Squad 

There are 26 volunteers on the Johnston County Rescue Squad, 
one of which is the Johnston County rescue officer^ He adminis- 
ters the rescue operations and is directly responsible to the 
Civil Defense Director, Also, there is one training officer who 
is responsible for all training of rescue squad members. These 
members also attend the various training sessions sponsored by 
the North Carolina Department of Insurance, 

- 40 - 



Equ Ipme n t 

Major equipment Includes two rescue trucks, one station 
wagon and one boato All of these vehicles are radio equipped and 
tied in with the county fire and police communication systems^ 
This equipment is housed In the Smithfield fire statlono This 
equipment was purchased with county and federal funds, but 
Smithfield and the county provides maintenance and upkeepo 

Recommendations 



1, Since there has been considerable delay In answering some 
emergency calls, it Is recommended that a committee composed 
of members of the Johnston County Rescue Squad contact the 
Goldsboro Rescue Squads A visit and study session should 

be scheduled to exchange ideas and experiences^ 

2. It is recommended that Johnston County provide shelter for 
rescue equipment to protect it from vandalism and the 
weather , 



- 41 



STREET SYSTEM 



The two major functions of streets are to provide traffic 
service and land service. While these two functions are basically 
incompatible, the conflict is not too serious when both traffic 
and land service demands are low. Since streets are permanent 
and expensive to build and maintain, they must be designed to 
perform specific functions in order to minimize traffic and land 
service conflict. 

In performing their functions, the streets in a town normally 
occupy from 25 to 30 percent of the total developed land. There 
are three basic types of streets that should provide area wide 
clr cu 1 a t i on . 

1. Minor streets which function primarily to provide access 
to abutting property, should be designed to discourage 
through vehicular traffic. Since traffic volume is 
light, the construction of these types of streets can be 
less expens ive . 

2. Collector streets normally channel traffic from the minor 
streets into the major thoroughfares and surface con- 
struction must be able to handle heavier traffic volumes. 

3. Major thoroughfares provide safe and convenient movement 
throughout the entire developed area, connecting major 
points within the town to provide easy access to and 
from these points. 

The effective use of these types of streets in proper re- 
lationship is needed to provide an effective transportation 
network in Smithfield. There are two major thoroughfares in 
Smithfield - U. S. 70 and U. S. 301. U. S, 70 runs through the 
CBD and carries 10,000 vehicles daily. U, S. 301 runs from 
north to south on the east side of town and carries approximately 
10,000 vehicles daily. U. S. 70 is four lane only through 
Smithfield and U. S. 301 is a two lane highway. Work is pro- 
ceeding rapidly on connecting Smithfield and Raleigh with a four 
lane highway, which will dump the four lanes of traffic into the 
Smithfield central business district. 



■^. 




? £ 5 £ 
£ X £ I 

I C I :; 



T >- I 



Collector streets, such as Wellons, Brogden, and Buffaloe, 
function fairly well but the volume of traffic on Third Street, 
going between North Street and U, S, 301, is too heavy for the 
design of that artery. 

Minor streets function well, but too often they are used as 
collector or even major thoroughfares. Hancock and Caswell 
Streets are good examples of this. 

Smlthfield's street system is basically the gridiron pattern, 
There are 41.98 miles of streets in the system, of which 28.78 
miles or 68.5 percent are paved and 13o2 miles or 31.5 percent 
are unpaved. Of the total paved streets, 7,16 miles are main- 
tained by the State of North Carolina. 

The average street life Is 10 years, therefore, each year 
10 percent of the town's streets should be resurfaced - approx- 
imately four miles each year for Smithfleld, 

Smlthfield's Street Section, a division of the Public 
Works Department, has a 1966-67 budget of $59,330 provided from 
the general fund and Powell Bill funds» 

Existing Facilities 

The Street Section Is maintained and housed by the town 
garage, where no facilities are provided to protect the equip- 
ment from the elements. 

Narrow streets in the older sections of Smlthfield need to 
be widened. In addition to being narrow, many of the street 
curbs are square and turning is very difficult. Inadequate sub- 
division regulations have caused many layout problems. An 
example of these may be found in the Woodall Heights Section 
where off-set street intersections do not connect and "Y " type 
intersections are formed. 

Pe r s onne 1 



The Street Section of the Public Works Department is re- 
sponsible for maintenance of the town streets and is adminis- 
tered by the Superintendent of Public Works. The staff of the 
Street Section Includes three heavy equipment operators, four 



- 45 - 



truck drivers, one brick and cement finisher and seven laborers. 
Each employee works a 45 hour week. No training is provided 
except on the job training. 

Equ ipme nt 

An inventory of the Street Section's major equipment 
inc 1 ude s : 

1 - 1962 tractor and back-hoe digger with front end loader 

4 - dump trucks (1959, 1960, 1961, 1962) 

1 - 1957 super A tractor mower 

1 - 1961 asphalt roller 

1 - 1960 utility pick-up truck 

1 - 1956 truck and leaf collecting machine 

1 - 1967 street sweeper 

1 - 1967 motor grader 



S tandar ds 



3. 



4. 



The town should have adequate subdivision regulations to 
insure that new subdivision street layouts will be co- 
ordinated with the town's thoroughfare plan and insure that 
subdivision streets will be constructed of quality materials, 
The following minimum rights-of-way should be adopted by the 
town for new streets and for upgrading substandard streets. 



Major Thoroughfares 
Collector Streets 
Minor Streets 
Cu 1-de-sa cs 



80 feet 

60 feet 

50 feet 

50 feet 



Curbing at street corners should have a minimum radius of 

15 feet to facilitate turning movementso 

New streets should be constructed for proper drainage and 

old streets should be reworked to prevent flooding. 

Since an average street's life expectancy is 10 years, 

approximately 10 percent of the town's streets should be 

resurfaced each year. 

Ninety percent of a town's streets should be paved and 

priorities should be set up to attain this goal. 



Re c omme ndatlons 

1. A better system of collector streets and major thoroughfares 
must be developed by the town in keeping with its Thorough- 
fare Plan, in order to accommodate Increased traffic flow 
expected to be generated by a 1985 population of 16,364. 
(See Map No. 3) 

2. Third Street, from the U. S, 301 intersection to Bridge 
Street, needs to be widened in order to accommodate existing 
and future traffic loads. The same is true of Johnston 
Street, from First to Fourth StreetSD Davis Street should 
be widened to allow ingress and egress of school buses with-r 
out requiring the street to be one-way during school hours. 
(See Map No, 4) 

3. Priorities should be established for paving or improving 
existing substandard streets until approximately 90 percent 
are pave d , 

4. Resurface 10 percent of the town's streets each year. 

5. The linking of Smithfield with Raleigh by a four-lane high- 
way should Increase the need of the one-way pair proposed 
by the Central Business District Study published in 1964, 
Johnston Street would be one-way east and Bridge Street 
would be one-way west, thereby re-routing through traffic 
around the central business dlstricto 

6. The street staff and equipment should at least be doubled 
by 1985, 

7. Adequate and modern Subdivision Regulations should be 
adopted by the town to insure proper street layouts 

8. Minimum rights-of-way should be adopted by the town for new 
streets and for upgrading existing substandard streets. 

9. Curbing at street corners should have a minimum radius of 
15 feeto Existing street corners which do not meet this 
standard should be recurbed, 

10. The intersection at U, S^ 301 and Third Street Is an ex- 
ample of a dangerous intersection. Accident records should 
be studied to determine other problem intersections and 
corrective measures should be undertaken, (See Map No. 3) 

- 47 - 




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PUBLIC PARKING 

In 1964, a Central Business District Study was completed by 
the Division of Community Planning for Smithfield. In this re- 
port it was pointed out that parking provided for employees was 
adequate but customer parking was deficient. Only 592 parking 
spaces were provided for customers. Of that total, 179 spaces 
were provided by the town. 

Since that time, 59 parking spaces have been added by the 
town in the form of on- the-s tr ee t metered parking spaces. The 
new Johnston County Library, however, has been located on a lot 
which formerly provided approximately 30 off-street parking 
spaces. Consequently, only 29 net spaces have been added for a 
total of 621 customer parking spaces In the core area- 

The Central Business District Study pointed out that a 
retail trade area of 12,000 population could be expected by 1980, 
and 218,000 square feet of retail sales floor area would be in 
Smithfield's CBD. Under these conditions, it was estimated that 
1300 parking spaces would be required, or approximately 12 park- 
ing spaces for each 100 population. 

Annexation and new industrial employment opportunities will 
Increase Smithfield's corporate limits population to 15,439 by 
1980. Therefore, the 1964 Central Business District Study 1980 
projections will be realized by 1970. 

By 1980s, it is now projected that there will be 15,439 
population in the Smithfield planning area. Using the 12 to 100 
ratio, as above, 1,848 parking spaces will be needed. By 1985, 
1,956 customer parking spaces will be needed to accommodate 
16,364 population in the planning area. Therefore, an additional 
1,335 parking spaces will be required between 1965 and 1985. 

Recommenda t i ons 



It is recommended that town officials and merchants pool 
their resources and energies together to seek a solution 
to the parking problem. As pointed out in the Central 



49 - 



Business District Study, if downtown parking is to be pro- 
vided by the town, the customers will have to bear most of 
the cost. Since local businessmen reap most of the benefits, 
they should bear most of the parking costs for their custom- 
ers. A possible solution would be for local businessmen to 
purchase or lease property for parking and the town maintain 
and supervise the lot. The City of Roanoke Rapids, North 
Carolina has an example of a successful parking arrangement 
as suggested above. 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 

The wide use of electricity has been spurred by the multitude 
of labor saving devices available. Add this to the high standard 
of living attained in the country, and electricity has become a 
vital necessity. 

The electrical distribution system in Smithfield is owned 
and operated by the town. Power is purchased from Carolina Power 
and Light Company at wholesale rates and resold to the town's 
cus t omer s . 

Existing Facilities 

The old Town Hall, located on Fourth Street, serves as 
storage for equipment and supplies. 

There are roughly 3300 electrical customers in Smithfield, 
of which approximately 80 percent are residential and 20 percent 
are commercial. In 1965, the town purchased 32,011,200 KW of 
electricity from Carolina Power and Light Company, Of this total, 
13,001,255 KW was used by commercial consumers, and 15,500,000 
KW was used by residential consumers. The town used 3,509,945 KVJ 
for street lighting and other town functions, or was lost in 
tr ansmi s s i on , 

Smithfield's substation Is located adjacent to the water 
treatment plant near the Neuse River, From here power is relayed 
through the distribution system, which consists of iJnes of two 
different voltages* Approximately one-half of the town has lines 
with a 4,160 voltage rating and one-half with 12,470 voltage 
rating. In 1965, the peak load delivered was 7,171 KW , with a 
possible peak, load of 7,500 KW ,,, The peak load of 5,000 KW was 
changed in 1962 to 7,500 KW . 

Electrical service is extended to all areas within the town 
limits and there are 15 miles of line outside the town limits 
which serves 388 customers-. There is no hard and fast policy of 
line extension inside or outside of the town. Carolina Power and 
Light Company allows Smithfield to extend service into some rural 
areas where they feel that extension is too costly. Generally, 



- 51 



Smithfield will extend service anywhere within the town, and in 
rural areas only where future development seems probable. 

Power lines are generally placed on the street, although 
recently some new lines have been Installed along rear lot lines. 
No action has been taken to promote underground wiring, 

Pe r s onne 1 



The Utility Line Section of the Public Works Department has 
the responsibility of the electrical distribution system in 
Smithfield. The staff consists of one foreman, three linemen, 
four laborers, and one meter and equipment tester. There are 
four vacancies which need to be filled to bring the department 
up to top efficiency - two linemen and two laborers. They also 
have the responsibility of maintenance of the town street lighting 
system. Employee training is on the job, with no prior experience 
ne ce s sar y . 

Equ ipme n t 

An inventory of major equipment Includes two line trucks, 
one ladder truck, two utility pick-up trucks, and one car, used 
by the foreman. With the purchase of a new line truck and a 
new hole-digging machine this year, the equipment is adequate. 



Standards 



3, 



In order to provide the best possible electrical service, 
an electrical engineer or a competent electrical consultant 
should be retained by the town. 

Personnel and equipment should be adequate to serve and 
maintain the power system in such a manner that failure 
would Interrupt service only for short periods of time. 
The entire electrical system should be able to handle peak 
loads with a fairly wide margin for future expansion. 
Major distribution lines should form loops to minimize 
variances in voltage flow to promote efficient operation of 
electrically powered machines and appliances.. 



- 52 



5. The electrical system should be 1 a ^ d out in a manner to pro- 
vide for economic future expansion and up-grading ^ 

Recommendations 

1. At the present there are approximately 3300 electrical 
customers in Smithfield. Proposed annexation would add 706 
residential users and 46 commercial users for a total of 
4,052 electrical customers. In addition, 1,350 new industri- 
al jobs will be available in Smithfield by 1970o Assuming 
that these jobs will be filled by people who will move to 
Smithfield, 1,350 new households will swell the numbers of 
electrical users to 5,402, In addition these 1,350 new 
industrial jobs will create 40 new retail es tab 1 1 s nmen ts , 
according to Nations Magazine statistics- for a total of 
5,442 electrical users by 1970 It Is recommended that the 
Smithfield Public Utilities Department increase its equip- 
ment and personnel to accommodate this 65 percent increase. 

Two linemen and two laborers are already needed to fill 
vacant positions and by 1970 five additional men should be 
employed! In addition, one line truck should be purchasedo 

2. It is recommended that the town hire a full-time electrical 
engineer or retain professional consultants In order that 
the best possible electrical service be afforded the people 
of Smithfleldo 

3. It is recommended that the 4,160 voltage lines be replaced 
with 12.470 voltage lines, 

4. Since the electrical system is near the peak load possible, 
an engineering study should be undertaken to determine when 
peak load will be surpassed and the mos >: economical method 
of raising the possible peak load. This is imperative if 
projected growth materializes. 

5. The town should adopt a policy on power line extensions to 
prevent unsound and uneconomical extensions 

6. A study to determine the feasibility of installing all new 
wiring underground should be initialed and put Into effect 
where practical. 



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STREET LIGHTING 

Town street lighting has undergone vast changes in recent 
years and new types of lujninaires have replaced Incandescent lamps 
where high intensity lighting Is desired. Even though street 
lighting produces no revenue, adequate street lighting reduces 
crime and driving hazards. Therefore, the distribution of 
adequate street lighting becomes a modern necessity. 

Existing Facilities 



Smithfield's street lighting system Is owned by the town. 
There are four types of street lights presently in use. There 
are 155 multiple incandescent 300 watt lights in use, mainly in 
the newer, low density residential areas. There are 200 series 
Incandescent lights rated at 2500 lumens, used mainly in the high 
density older residential areas. There are 20 mercury-vapor 
lights rated at 6,000 lumens located generally at dangerous inter- 
sections, at Smithfield High School and on the fringes of the 
CBD. There are 43 mercury-vapor lights rated at 20,000 lumens, 
located in the CBD and at one dangerous intersection on Highway 
301. 

The street lighting system is operated and maintained by the 
Utility Line Section of the Public Utilities Department. There 
is no set policy on when and where the Installation of new street 
lights are to be placed in the future. Generally, street lights 
are placed at all street intersections, with no regard to 
distances between lights. 

Standards 



Street lights should be Installed on all streets within the 
town limits at intervals of no more than 400' in the business 
district and along major thoroughfares, and at intervals of 
no more than 600' or at each street Intersection. 
The following rated lights should be placed in each of the 
following three areas: 



- 55 - 



A. 20,000 lumen lights should be used in the Central Business 
District; 

B. 6,000 lumen lights should be used along the major thorough- 
fares ; 

C. 2,500 lumen lights should be used in the residential 
areas . 



Recommendations 

1. A priority should be set up to give special consideration 
for the location of new street lights to hazardous areas 
such as dangerous railroad crossings, dangerous inter- 
sections, and high crime rate areas. 

2. A few areas of the town are without any type of street 
lighting and priority should be given to locate new lights 
in the following areas: 

A. Highway 301 North in the hospital and Burlington Park 
ar ea ; 

B. Highway 70 east of the railroad to the town limits; 

C. Third Street where Wilson, Stevens, and Holding Streets 
intersect; 

D. Chestnut Drive area. 
(See Map No. 5 ) 

3. Plans should be drawn up for a street lighting system for 
the proposed areas of annexation presently under study. 

4. Mercury-vapor lights with a rating of 20,000 lumens should 
be located along Market Street fnom Second Street to 
Highway 301 at intervals of no more than 400', 

5. A policy should be adopted by the town with regard to the 
location of future street lights using the guide of 
intervals of no more than 400' between street lights in the 
central business district and along major thoroughfares and 
of 600' intervals in residential sections of the town. 



WATER SYSTEM 

The need for water has caused some towns to bring water from 
hundreds of miles away In order to supply minimum needs for a 
safe and clean water supply. 

There are two primary sources of water - ground water and 
surface water^ Smithfield makes use of the latter, drawn from 
the Neuse River. The greatest advantage of using this surface 
water supply is that the quantity of raw water is almost un- 
limited. The principal drawback is that surface water requires 
more extensive treatment to make It potable. 

Existing Facilities 



The water treatment plan, which was expanded in 1954, is 
located at 300 N, First Street, This location is about 300 feet 
from the point on the Neuse River where the water pump is situ- 
ated. From here the raw water is pumped into the treatment plant 
where the processes of congulation, sedimentation, filtration, 
and chlorination takes place. Fluoride is also added to the water 
to help prevent tooth decay. This treated water is then pumped 
into the distribution system. 

The laboratory equipment used in the water treatment process 
Is the minimum required by the N, C, State Board of Health. In 
addition, the State Board of Health has requested that the town 
purchase some device to measure the amount of radiation In the 
wa ter , 

Water service extends to all areas within the corporate 
limits. The Pecan Grove section, which includes the new Sylvania 
Plant and a small section south of the town limits off U. S. 301 
are also servedo Smithfield also has a special agreement to 
serve the West Smithfield Sanitary District with water. The 
West Smithfield Sanitary District secured a federal grant of 
$350,000 to construct a water distribution system and the town of 
Smithfield supplies this water at wholesale rates of $.25 per 
1000 gallons- (See Map Noo 6) 



- 57 




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The water treatment plant presently has a total capacity of 
one million gallons per day, from which 2 ; 000 residential and 
small commercial water users are served. There are 15 large 
commercial water users, such as West Smithfleld Sanitary District 
and the large Industries, such as Sylvania and Fieldcrest. The 
highest peak demand has been 1,250,000 gallons in a 24 hour period. 
Average demand is around 900.000 gallons daily. Therefore, the 
present plant capacity of one million gallons per day is barely 
sufficient and has been taxed to its maximum capacity to meet 
pe ak demand s . 

Smithfleld employed William C, Olsen and Associates in 1960 
to do a study on providing an additional one million gallons of 
treated watero The study showed that a savings of $50,000 could 
be realized if the present water treatment plant were enlarged 
to treat two million gallons rather than build a new plant. 
This expansion would cost $550,000 and require no new personnel. 

Since that time? town officials have seen the need for a 
larger water treatment plant of three million gallon capacity 
which could economically be expanded to seven million gallons 
per day^ It is proposed that such a facility be built between 
Smithfleld and Selma™ Eventually it could also supply Selma's 
water needs: The cost of such a facility would be slightly in 
excess of $1 million and the bond election for this facility was 
set tentatively for February, 1967. 

It is estimated that If this water treatment plant bond 
issue is passed by the voters of Smithfield, construction would 
take AOO days« With the present treatment plant taxed to its 
maximum In the summer months, water supply in Smithfild could 
become acute by the summer of 19673 

Areas served outside of the corporate limits are charged 
an additional 50 percent of their water bill for the privilege 
of using the town-s water. In order for a new customer to be 
served by the town, he is required to pay all costs of water line 
extension and tap on In accordance with town policy. 

A good water distribution system should have as its two main 
goals the providing of an adequate quantity of water at an 
adequate water pressure. 



59 



The overall water pressures as measured by the N, C. Fire 
Insurance Rating Bureau are considered to be fair, but there are 
some areas that do not have adequate water for fire fighting. 
Much of the deficient water pressure is due to the use of two and 
four inch water lines, Smithfield's average water pressure 
throughout the town is 60 pounds per square inch. This is con- 
sidered adequate for fire fighting generally. But in high value 
districts, 75 pounds per square inch should be provided for fire 
fighting purposes. 

The treated water is distributed through a system of lines 
and mains which vary in size from 2 inches to 16 inches. An 
inventory of the lines includes the following footages: 



Less than 



line - 29,650 feet 

line - 127,300 feet 

line - 19,500 feet 

line - 11,700 feet 

line - 11,500 feet 

line - 10.400 feet 



These lines total 37,9 miles of water mains, and overall are 
considered to be adequate- Some problems are created by the use 
of 29,650 feet of lines that are less than 6" in diameter. Any- 
thing under 6 inches is considered to be Inadequate for fire 
fighting purposes. Included in this 29,650 feet of lines is a 
great number of feet of 2 inch lines. This is generally in the 
older sections of the town and should be replaced. No new lines 
under 6 Inches in diameter should be laid. Dead end lines do 
exist but the small number of them is of little consequence, 

in addition to the 37.9 miles of water lines, the town has 
two elevated storage tanks which serve two main purposes; One 
is to keep water pressures stable and the second is to provide 
a reserve water supply at times of peak demand. These storage 
tanks have capacities of 100,000 and 300,000 gallons.- (See Map 
No. 6 ) 

The West Smithfleld Sanitary District owns the following 
wa te r 1 ine s : 

Less than 6" line - 6,100 feet 

6" line - 34,900 feet 

8" line - 23,900 feet 

12" line - 4,700 feet 



- 60 - 



The main problems encountered with this distribution system 
is that 9 percent of the lines are less than 6" in diameter. This 
is particularly unjustified by the fact that these lines were 
put into use in the last three or four yearso The federal grant 
should have stipulated that no lines of less than 6" be laid. 
Also of Importance is the fact that there are two 8" lines that 
dead end. They should be looped to provide a better water flow 
and circulation. These two lines are located on N. C. 210, and 
on U, S. 70 to the Westview Subdivision. 

Personnel - Water Treatment Plant 

Smithfleld's water treatment plant is under the direction of 
the Water Plant Superintendent, The only other staff members 
Include two operatorso Each one of these operators works an 8 
hour shift 7 days a week. When someone needs a day off or takes 
a vacation, one of the other two operators must work a double 
shift and receive overtime pay. 

The Superintendent has a "" C " certificate from the State 
Board of Healths The other two operators have no formal training 
except on-the-job training supervised by the Superintendent. 



Per s onne 1 



Water Distribution 



The maintenance of water mains is handled by the Utility 
Line Section of the Public Utilities Department which employs 
three men to handle both water and sewer lineso These three 
men each work 46^ hours per week. 

S tandar ds 

lo Water treatment capacity should always be a minimum of 25 

percent more than the present consumption in order to allow 
time to study and to expand facilities for future require- 
ments- The average per capita consumption in the U, S. 
today is 140 gallons per day. Since industry is normally a 
large water consumer and since Smlthfleld is in the midst 
of an industrial boom. It would not be unreasonable for 
the town to maintain this standard as a minimum. By and 



- 61 - 



large, the availability of large quantities of water will 
enhance the chances of more and more industrial relocation 
there „ 

Water treatment facilities should be supplied with an 
auxiliary power source other than electricity to reduce the 
possibility of a disrupted supply of water. 
The distribution system should be engineered in a manner 
that will result in as few dead end lines as possible. The 
minimum size of line should be 6 inches in diameter. 
Storage facilities for the treated water supply should have 
enough capacity to provide stable water pressures through- 
out the system, to provide sufficient water at periods of 
peak demand, and to provide an emergency supply for fire 
fighting purposes^ Thus, it would seem reasonable that 
enough water should be stored to meet demand for a 24 hour 
per i od . 

Adequate water pressures should be maintained to meet 
emergencies for fire protection. According to the American 
Insurance Association (formerly the National Bureau of Fire 
Underwriters) 60 pounds per square inch would be sufficient 
for fire fighting purposes in a town with less than 10 build- 
ings which exceed three stories. 

Laboratory equipment used by the water plant in the treat- 
ment process should be sufficient to render the raw water 
completely safe for consumption and pleasing to the taste. 
This equipment should not be deemed adequate because it is 
the minimum required by the N, C^ Board of Health, 
PeTsonnel of both the water treatment plant and of the water 
distribution department would be adequately trained to 
operate the system efficiently. The water treatment plant 
should always have a minimum of two men on duty at all times 
in order to provide for a safe and dependable water supply. 



Re c o mm en da t i on s 

1. At the present Smithfield water users consume approximately 
one million gallons per day on a yearly average. This is 
112 gallons per day per capita. If this is projected into 
the future, by 1970 a projected population of 13,785 will 
consume 1,543,920 gallons per day. By 1980, a population of 
15,439 will consume 1,729,168 gallons per day, and by 1985, 
16,364 persons will consume 1,832,768 gallons per day, on 
the average. This does not account for the increased water 
consumption required by the droughts of the hot summer 
months when water consumption might rise as much as 25 per- 
cent. 

The 112 gallons per day per capita is far below the national 
average of 140 gallons per day. At this latter figure, by 
1985 a projected population of 16,364 will consume 2,290,960 
gallons per day on the average. Therefore, it is recommen- 
ded that 140 gallons per day per capita be the minimum goal 
for treated water and it is further recommended that Smithfield 
begin construction as soon as possible on the proposed three 
million gallon water treatment plant. 

In addition to the proposed treatment plant. Map number 7 
shows the areas of expected growth with an overlay of 
proposed water lines necessary to accommodate this develop- 
ment. The town and the growth areas designated by the 
Land Development Plan are looped by a trunk line which 
should be adequate through 1985. A looped trunk line is an 
asset to the town because it provides flow from two direc- 
tions and it stabilizes water pressures. 

2. It is recommended that the capacity of the water treatment 
plant should always be a minimum of 25 percent more than 
present consumption in order to allow time for study and 
expansion of facilities for future requirements. 



63 - 




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It is recommended that the power supply for the new treat- 
ment plant be from two sources to reduce the possibility of 
a failure in the water supply. 

It is recommended that new water lines be a minimum of six 
inches in diameter and that a program be started to replace 
old water lines of less than six inches in diameter, espe- 
cially where fire hydrants are located. 

The study for the new water treatment facilities should in- 
clude the needs of additional water storage facilities to 
provide adequate water pressures and reserve water for fire 
fighting purposes. 

Laboratory equipment for the new plant should include a 
device for measuring radiation in the water. Special treat- 
ment for removing manganese from the water, especially in 
the fall of the year when the water is often black, should 
be used. 

Smithfield should hire four additional operators for the 
water treatment plant. These additional men would provide 
personnel for double shift and also provide one man to 
relieve the other operators on their time off. 



- 65 




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III 



SANITARY SEWERAGE SYSTEM 

The collection, treatment, and disposal of a town's liquid 
waste is a service which, by and large, most people take for 
granted. Many people purchase homes or home sites and hava no 
idea how sewage disposal will be handled. Urban development has 
brought about the need for a publicly operated sewerage disposal 
system in order that the safety, morals, health and general 
welfare of the town be protected. 



Existing Facilities 

This public service is provided by the Town of Smithfield. 
The collection of the sewage is entirely by gravity flow, except 
for one lift station north of Buffalo Street. The collection 
system includes the following inventory of sewer mains: 
4" mains - 500 feet 
6" mains - 18,500 feet 
8" mains - 114,850 feet 
10" mains - 12,150 feet 
12" mains - 13,350 feet 
15" mains - 12,550 feet 
21" ma ins - 1,100 feet 
24" mains - 1,600 feet 
30" mains - 5,850 feet 

The service area of the sewerage system includes all areas 
within the corporate limits, plus the Sylvania and Fieldcrest 
plants (see Map number 8). There are still 50 or 60 residences 
which use the septic tank method of sewage disposal within the 
town. The town does not require these septic tank users to 
connect to the town system. 

Problems which the town has encountered with its sewage 
collection system are few. One is the infiltration of storm 
water caused by pipe leakage during prolonged periods of heavy 
rainfall and by old storm sewers connecting into the sanitary 
sewer mains. The end result is too much material to be processed 
at the treatment plant. This necessitates raw sewage to be 



occasionally dumped into the river. There is also the problem 
of blockage of sewer mains in areas where 4 inch and 6 inch 
mains were installed years ago in the older sections of the town. 

The raw sewage flows to the sewage treatment plant, which 
is located on the southwestern side of town near the Neuse River. 
This treatment facility was completed less than four years ago 
and has a total capacity to treat 1.5 million gallons of sewage 
per day. Presently, the plant is treating a little in excess of 
0.5 million gallons per day. (See Map number 8). 

Once the raw sewage reaches the plant, two pumps lift the 
sewage into the plant where the process known as the ''activated 
sludge process" removes 95 percent of the BOD (Biochemical 
Oxygen Demand). Primary treatment includes filtering and 
sedimentation and secondary treatment is accomplished through 
biological action and secondary sedimentation. The effluent is 
chlorinated and discharged into the Neuse River. The settled 
solids or sludge is dried and used for fertilizer or fill 
mat er i a 1 . 

Town residents are charged 30 percent of their water bill 
or $1.25 minimum for sewer service. Customers served outside of 
the corporate limits are charged 50 percent of their water bill 
for sewerage service. 

Per s onn el 



The sewage treatment plant is under the direction of the 
Sewer Plant Supervisor. Actual operation of the plant is carried 
on by the supervisor and two other operators. Each of these 
operators has been certified by the N. C. State Board of Health. 
Each operator works an 8 hour shift, 7 days a week. 

Service and maintenance of the sewage collection system is 
under the direction of the utility line foreman. This department 
employs three men who are used on both water and sewer mains. 

S t anda rds 

1. In order to insure that Smithfield will always have adequate 



- 68 - 



sewage treatment facilities, the maximum treatment capacity 
of the plant should always be 25 percent more than the 
normal demand for treatment. When 75 percent of treatment 
capacity Is reached, a study should be started in order to 
determine the most economical method and the most desirable 
time to expand treatment plant capacity. 

2. No septic tanks should be allowed within the corporate 
limits of the town. 

3. A sewerage system should not allow storm runoff water to 
Infiltrate the sanitary sewer lines. 

4. No sewer mains less than 8" in diameter should be laid by 
the town or by any builder. 

Recommend at ion s 

1. At the present, Smithfield's sewage treatment plant is 
handling approximately 85 gallons of sewage per day per 
capita for a population of 6,316. By 1970, 1,171,725 
gallons would be treated for a population of 13,785 if the 
per capita use of 85 gallons is maintained. By 1980, it 
is projected that Smithfleld will have a population of 
15,439 which should produce sewage at the rate of 1,312,313 
gallons per day, and 1,390,940 per day by 1985 for a popu- 
lation of 16,364. This is based on the assumption that 
these population projections are accurate and the 85 
gallons per capita per day will remain stable. 

However, increased industrialization of the area will in- 
crease the amount of waste that will need to be disposed 
of. Since the national per capita average of waste is 100 
gallons per day, it is assumed that Smithfield's per capita 
use will also rise. Therefore, a more realistic figure of 
100 gallons per capita per day should be assumed. Under 
these conditions, a projected population of 16,364 by 1985 
will produce 1,636,400 of sewage per day. Since this is 
the capacity of the treatment plant, a study to expand this 
facility should be initiated by 1980. 



69 




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The Land Development Plan , Stnl t hf i eld , North Carolina , pub- 
lished in 1965, designated a broad area north of the cor- 
porate limits for future urban development. Other growth 
areas designated included areas south and west to the Neuse 
River and between Interstate 95 and the railroad. Map 
number 9 shows these proposed areas with an overlay of 
existing and proposed sewer lines necessary to accommodate 
this development. 

Sewer lines for the area known as West Smithfield have been 
proposed and a lift station would be required to lift 
sewage across the Neuse River, These new lines would be 
8 inches in diameter, ex;ept for the trunk line which would 
be 12 or 15 inches. 

The areas north of the corporate limits could easily be 
served by the addition of an outfall line running parallel 
with the Neuse River and tying in with the trunk line 
serving Sylvania. A lift station would also be necessary 
near the river, 

Since the areas between Interstate 95 and the railroad are 
low, a lift station would be required when development 
occurs , 

It is recommended that the town pass an ordinance outlawing 
the use of septic tanks within the corporate limits, ex- 
cept in cases wh<^re -sxpense of sewer service is deemed too 
great to justify it 

The infiltration of storm runnoff water should be eliminated 
to prevent overloading of sewag'= treatment plant and to 
avoid the subsequent dumping of raw sewage into the Neuse 
River. The probable cause of this infiltration is that old 
storm sewer 1 ines connect into the sanitary sewer lines, 
and also, some eakage occurs through seepage of water 
into cracks in the sanitary sewer lines and through man-hole 
covers. The use of dyes have been successful in determining 
where infiltration or curs and should be used to help 
alleviate Smithfield s problem. 



- 71 



7. 



The town should adopt a policy to the effect that no new 
sewer lines laid within the sanitary sewer collection system 
will be less diameter than 8 inches. 

It is recommended that one additional man be employed by 
the sewage treatment plant to relieve the 8 hour, 7 days a 
week shift presently worked by the three plant operators. 
It is recommended that the town purchase a power driven 
sewer line cleaning apparatus. 

Some thought should be given to the idea of the town having 
an accurate and complete topographic map made of the entire 
planning area. Such a map would aid the town in the follow- 
i ng ways : 

A. Aid the town in studying drainage and sewerage problems. 

B. Aid land developers in laying out subdivisions. 



- 72 



STORM SEWER SYSTEM 



As urbanization occurs, problems with storm water runoff 
increase. Natural vegetation is destroyed by buildings and 
pavement, and natural drainage is prohibited from functioning 
properly. When this occurs a storm sewer system must be designed 
to cope with storm water runoff. 

The storm drainage system in Smithfield is maintained by 
the Department of Public Works. No personnel or equipment is 
specifically assigned the task of maintaining the system. Im- 
provements made and maintenance performed are done on the basis 
of need . 

Smithfield, located adjacent to a river, is blessed with 
several natural drainage channels. Two channels transverse the 
town from east to west and one, Buffalo Creek, is on the edge 
of the town. All of these channels remain essentially unimproved, 

In addition, there are approximately 26,000 feet of under- 
ground pipe laid to drain areas which are otherwise poorly 
drained. The size of these pipes ranges from six inches to six 
feet, depending on the amount of runoff water to be drained 
(see Map number 10). 

This natural and man-made system works very well overall, 
but several problems do exist that should be corrected. The 
railroad underpass at U.S. 70 is a menace to life and property. 
Four catch basins have been installed in the area, but drainage 
in a heavy rainfall is inadequate. Water has been as much as 10 
feet deep in this underpass, causing traffic to be rerouted to 
prevent damage, or even death. 

Moreover, as the town continues to expand southward towards 
the Neuse River, new drainage pipes must be laid to prevent 
flooding of these new areas. 

The natural drainage channels occasionally overflow due to 
trash build-up, creating breeding places for mosquitoes, and 
cause undue amounts of water to seep into the sanitary sewage 
system. Several bridges over these natural channels are very 
narrow and the pipe under the bridges are too small to accom- 
modate the runoff in heavy downpours. 

- 73 - 




CO 



CO 



S t andards 



1. 



2. 



3. 



4. 



A town's storm drainage system should have the capability 

of keeping all areas of the town well drained, even in the 

heaviest annual rainfall. The system should be designed to 

accommodate development for 25 years. 

If natural drainage channels form the basis of the drainage 

system, these channels should be Inspected annually for 

trash build-up, which may cause them to overflow. Every 

five years these ditches should be completely rechanneled 

or more often if needed. 

If natural drainage channels continue to overflow from 

heavy rainfall, a program of widening and stabilizing these 

channels should be initiated. 

Each new subdivision should be required to install proper 

storm drainage facilities. 



Recommend at ions 

1. It is recommended that Smithfield initiate a study of the 
adequacy of its present storm sewer system and the feasi- 
bility of widening and piping of the town's natural drainage 
channels. Special attention should be given to the rail- 
road underpass on U.S. 70. 

2. Narrow bridges which cross these channels should be 
widened and larger pipe laid to accommodate more runoff 
wa t er , 

3. A program of inspection should be begun in order to keep 
the natural channels open. This Inspection should be on 

a regular and continuing basis and complete cleaning should 
be done at least every five years. 

4. Subdivision regulations should be adopted and rigidly en- 
forced by the town to insure that developers install proper 
drainage facilities in new subdivisions. 



75 - 



REFUSE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL 

The collection and disposal of refuse is a process which 
must be carried out in such a manner to protect the public 
health of the community and to provide a means of keeping the 
community attractive to its residents and to the outside world. 
Such a service can be contracted to a private concern, but a 
town operated collection and disposal service gives the most 
satisfactory results, and is normally the most economical. 



Facilities and Services 

Collection service is provided to all areas within the 
corporate limits. The town is divided into 3 collection areas, 
each being served by one garbage collection truck and crew. 
An open body truck covers the entire town collecting trash. In 
residential areas, collection of garbage is made twice weekly 
from the rear of the homes, and trash is collected weekly from 
the street. Both trash and garbage are collected daily from 
businesses, industries, and institutions. 

The Town of Smithfield has an ordinance that requires 
garbage to be placed in covered metal or plastic containers. 
The ordinance is not enforced, thus creating a menace to public 
heal th . 

In addition to collecting refuse in residential and com- 
mercial areas, the Sanitation Section has the responsibility of 
sweeping the central business district. It also disposes of 
animals killed on the town streets. 

Smithfield employs a sanitary landfill for refuse disposal. 
The town owns 95 acres of floodplain land in southwest Smithfield 
adjacent to the Neuse River. Since 1951, when this landfill was 
started, approximately 15 acres have been filled, leaving 80 
acres, more than enough land to last throughout the planning 
period. 

While Smithfield's sanitary landfill has many merits, some 
problems are created by the fact that the area is not enclosed 



and anyone is free to dump their refuse in the area. Fires, 
insects and unsightly appearance have resulted. Private garbage 
collection agencies, operating in the county, are permitted to 
use the area for a fee charged by the town. 

Personne 1 



Refuse collection and disposal in Smithfield is adminis- 
tered by the Department of Public Works, Sanitation Section which 
has an annual budget of $70,920. 

In addition to the foreman, the Sanitation Section employs 
1 tractor operator who handles the sanitary landfill operation, 
4 garbage and trash truck drivers, and 15 collectors. Each of 
these employees work 48 hours per week. 

Equ i pmen t 

The equipment of the Sanitation Department is stored in the 
yard of the town garage which provides maintenance and necessary 
repairs . 

An inventory of the Sanitation Department's equipment in- 
cludes one 1959, one 1961, and one 1963 packer-type collection 
truck with 16 yard bodies and one 1957 two ton open body truck 
used in trash removal. There is one 1959 utility pick-up truck 
and one 1964 crawler tractor with 4 in 1 bucket used in the 
sanitary landfill operation. 



Standards 



Collection of refuse in commercial and industrial areas 
should be on a daily basis. In residential areas, garbage 
must be collected at least every four days, and trash must 
be collected at least once a week. 

While use of the landfill area for refuse disposal by 
private individuals and businesses may be allowed, rules 
and regulations should be established to control such 
disposal. 



3. Ordinances concerning the type of trash and garbage con- 
tainers used by the town's refuse customers should be 
rigidly enforced to protect the public well being. 

Recommend at ions 

1. The present personnel and equipment is adequate to serve 
the needs of the town, but annexation of the proposed ad- 
jacent areas will create the need of at least one more 
garbage collection truck and one more trash collection truck 
plus 3 new men for the garbage truck and 3 men for the 
trash collection truck by 1970. By 1985, it is projected 
that Smithfield will have a population of 15,439 or 3,994 
dwelling units, thus creating the need for two additional 
garbage collection trucks and appropriate crews. 

2. It is recommended that the town's ordinance requiring 
garbage to be placed in covered metal or plastic containers 
be rigidly enforced. 

3. Regulations should be established to control the use of the 
sanitary landfill by private individuals or concerns and 
they should be rigidly enforced. 



79 



PARKS AND RECREATION 

A park is usually a parcel of land, varying in size, ded- 
icated to recreation uses. Both passive and active recreation 
promote good physical and emotional health, sound social adjust- 
ment and intellectual growth through social interaction. 

The parks and recreation program in Smithfield is adminis- 
tered by a full-time recreation director directly responsible to 
the Recreation Commission. The Parks and Recreation Department 
has a 1965-67 budget of $16,500 provided from the general fund. 
There is no recreation tax levied in Smithfield. 

Existing Facilities 

There are five parks and recreational areas maintained by 
the Town of Smithfield. These parks and their facilities are as 
follows : 

1. Recreation Park - A ten acre tract owned by the town on 
Buffaloe Street between Fourth and Seventh Streets. This 
park has a lighted football and baseball field with 
bleachers, a concession stand, a field house and adequate 
dressing facilities. There is also a concrete outdoor 
basketball court, two lighted concrete tennis courts, two 
boy scout huts, a large picnic shelter and adequate play- 
ground equipment which includes swings, seesaws, and a 
merry-go-round . 

2. Johnston Central Park - A ten acre tract leased from a 
private citizen for a period of 20 years. It is located 

on Belmont Street across from Johnston Central High School, 
a predominately Negro School. This park also has a lighted 
football and Softball field, with a field house and a 
concession stand. Limited playground equipment is in use, 
and a new concrete basketball court has recently been com- 
pleted. 

3. Jaycee Kiddie Park - A two acre tract owned by the town at 
the corner of Church and Second Streets. This park contains 



11 - 



one lighted tennis court, a girl scout hut and various 
playground equipment. 

4. Burlington Mills Playground - A four acre tract located at 
Hancock and Eleventh Streets and leased from Burlington 
Industries. This is a new park with no facilities and only 
playground equipment is planned. Since the lease agreement 
of this park specifies that the leasor can terminate the 
lease at its discretion, the value of the park is slight 
and shall not be considered for this study. 

5. Little League Ball Park - A six acre tract owned and 
operated by the Civltan Club for the exclusive use of the 
Little League Baseball Club. 

In the above mentioned parks a supervised recreation program 
is provided for the summer months only. They operate six hours 
per day, five days a week. For the 1966 summer program, an 
average of 350 persons made use of the parks each day, or 
approximately 15,750 day participants took part in the supervised 
program . 

In addition to the five parks listed above, the Recreation 
Department makes use of part of the third floor of the Municipal 
Building which provides a large room for duplicate bridge and 
dancing. Also, one office is provided for the Recreation 
Director on the second floor. 

Limited use is made of the school facilities for recrea- 
tional purposes. During the summer, an arts and crafts workshop 
is held at the South Smithfield Elementary School. In the winter, 
the Smithfield High School gym is used twice weekly for adult 
basketball leagues and on Saturday mornings for a midget basket- 
ball program. Both of Smithfield's high schools use the 
Recreation Park for their football games. 

Personnel 

The only full-time employee of the Parks and Recreation 
Department is the recreation director. He has no clerical staff 
and his paper work is done by the secretary of the local Chamber 
of Commerce when her time permits. 



82 



However, eight employees are retained in the summer when 
the town's recreational service is in greatest demand. Three 
are playground directors, two are playground leaders, one is an 
aide at the most frequently used park and two are Youth Corps 
workers, used primarily for maintenance work. 

Equ i pmen t 

No maintenance or construction equipment is allotted to the 
Parks and Recreation Department. Upkeep of the parks is provided 
by the Department of Public Works. The only equipment allotted 
to the Parks and Recreation Department is the playground appa- 
ratus . 



Programs 

Smithfield's Parks and Recreation Department has a good 

program of active and passive recreation as follows: 
Ac t ive Passive 



Kick Ball 
Softball 

1 . Men's Leagu e 

2. Women's League 
Baseball 

1. Babe Ruth League 
Basketball 

1 . Men's Leagu e 

2. Women's League 

3. Midget League 



Arts and Crafts 

Mu sic Prog ram 

Drama and Public Shows 

Checker Tournaments 

Duplicate Bridge 

Art Guild 



S t and ar d s 

The standards used by most towns for parks and recreation 
have been based on those developed by the National Recreation 
Association and adapted to local conditions. Most of these 
standards have been developed for towns with much larger popu- 
lations than Smithfield. Therefore, the following standards set 
forth may vary from other national standards. 



S3 - 



The most generally accepted standard for total public 
recreation space Is one acre for every 100 population. Presently 
Smithfield has a total of 34 acres of usable park space, or 
approximately one acre for every 186 population^ It goes with- 
out saying that this ratio is entire. y too low and correction 
is needed immediately. To bring Smithfield's total public 
recreation space up to the national standard, an additional 29 
acres would have to be acquired. This seems somewhat high. A 
reasonable ratio would be one acre of space for 150 population 
or an additional 8 acres, provided that this additional space 
be situated to serve that part of the community that is pre- 
sently without access to proper recreation areas. 

Four basic types of recreation facilities shall be con- 
sidered here that when combined should make up Smithfield's 
total park system. 

1. Neighborhood Playground - A tract of land 2\ to 10 acres 
in size developed to provide recreation for children from 
5 to 15 years of age that should be located within \ mile 
of area to be served. The playground shouid contain play- 
ground apparatus, a wading pool, a shelter for passive 
recreation and lighted game fields for evening use. 
Supervision for all playground activities should be provided, 

2. Neighborhood Park - A tract of land usually from 5 to 7 
acres in size used primarily for passive recreation by all 
ages. Its service area should be no more than \ mile or 
within walking distance and should consist of sidewalks, 
trees, benches, statues, water fountains and play apparatus 
for small children. 

3. Neighborhood Park - School - Playground - - The ideal 
location of a neighborhood park is adjo.ining the elementary 
school site and comprising from 10 to 20 acres, including 
the school site. The service area should extend no more 
than 2 mile and recreation should be provided for all ages. 
Facilities should include playground equipment, turf field, 
open park, senior citizens area, tot-lot and game and picnic 
shelters. 



- 84 



General Recreation Building - A building that provides 
diversified facilities and is used for a wide range of 
activities and serves as a center for indoor recreation 
for the entire community. Size requirements will vary 
with population to be served, but generally there should 
be one community recreation center for every 12,000 to 
15,000 population. 



Per Sonne 1 



Supervision of all playground activities is essential and 
should be administered by the director of recreation. In 
addition to the recreation director, the following staff 
personnel should be provided for each park operated by the 
t own . 

1 playground director 

1 assistant playground director 

1 recreation leader 

1/3 special activity leader 




I 



RECOMMENDATIONS 



Facilities 



As previously determined, Smithfield is presently deficient 
approximately eight acres of park area, and since the area 
of south Smithfield lacks any public recreation facility, it 
is recommended that a neighborhood playground of that size 
be provided in that area. The location of the playground 
should be adjoining the South Smithfield Elementary School 
if land is available at a reasonable price. 

By 1970, it is projected that Smithfield will have a popu- 
lation of 13,785. If the ratio of one acre of park land 
per 150 population is to be attained, 51 more acres of land 
should be acquired. Since most of this new population 
growth will be through annexation of West Smithfield, 
recreation facilities should be provided for this area. By 
1985, a population of 16,364 is anticipated, which will 
cause a need of an additional 16 acres of public recreation 
area. According to the Land Development Plan for Smith- 
field published in 1965, a broad area north of the corpo- 
rate limits is designated for residential use. Thus, future 
park and recreation areas should be planned for this area. 
In addition, low lying swampy land along the Neuse River is 
designated as a natural land reserve. A large community 
park should be developed in the area with minimum expendi- 
ture and effort (see Map number 11). 

A program of land acquisition should be developed to obtain 
future needed park and recreation lands prior to develop- 
ment to hold land costs down. In addition, land acquisi- 
tion for schools and park areas should be coordinated to 
make full utilization of the school-park concept. 
The recreation department should explore the possibility 
of wider use of the school system's facilities. The school 
gym could be used for dances, mass meetings as well as for 
organized active sports. Presently the school facilities 
are only partially used. 



!7 - 



The Municipal Building could provide a broader winter 
program of indoor activities if available space is wisely 
used. There are several rooms in the Municipal Building 
that are now used for storage of Christmas decorations. 
These rooms could serve as space for special activities 
and other forms of passive recreation. 

At the present, the Municipal Building could serve as the 
center of indoor activities. By 1980 Smithfield's popu- 
lation is projected to be 15,439. This is a sufficient 
population to support a recreation building and it is 
recommended that plans be developed now to provide such a 
facility by 1980. Federal assistance is available and 
should be requested. 

The North Carolina Recreation Commission should be requested 
to assess the specific needs for a recreation program and 
means of implementation in face of the tremendous population 
gains anticipated for the planning period. 
The Recreation Director, in cooperation with the Police 
Chief, is in the process of establishing a practice firing 
range on a site adjacent to the water treatment plant, which 
could be used by the police department to provide training 
for officers and by the recreation department to provide 
recreation for gun enthusiasts. It is recommended that such 
a firing range be established. 



Personnel 



1. One playground director, one assistant, one recreation 
leader and 1/3 special activity leader should be provided 
on a part-time basis for each park operated by the town. 

2. Two full-time maintenance men and one full-time clerical 
worker should be provided for the Parks and Recreation 

D epar tmen t . 



CEMETERI ES 

Most towns provide cemeteries as a public service, but in 
view of rising costs the trend is toward commercial cemeteries. 
Smithfield is in a similar position. While it does provide this 
service, there are no plans for expanding the present facilities. 

Existing Facilities 

Smithfield operates three cemeteries, two of which are pre- 
dominate 1 y wh Ite and one which is predominately Negro. Lots In 
the white cemeteries, Riverside and Oakland, sell for $100. This 
is a 20 feet by 20 feet lot which contains enough room for four 
to six graves. The Rest Haven Cemetery lots sell for $50. 

The chart produced below will give some pertinent infor- 
mation as to size, past use and future adequacy of the public 
cemeteries in Smithfield. 

TABLE NO. 5 
SMITHFIELD CEMETERIES* 



N ame 



Lots Sold 7o 
or of 
Developed Total 



Vacant 
Uno p ene 
Lots 


o r 
id 


7„ 

of 

Total 


Total 
Lots 


Total 
Acres 


42 




10.7 


394 


10 


147 




31 .6 


466 


12 


37 




20.5 


181 


8 



Riverside 
Oakl and 
Rest Haven 

Total 



352 
319 
144 

815 



89 .3 
68.4 
79.5 

78.2 



226 



21.8 1041 



30 



As of August 1966. 

Over 78 percent of all cemetery space has been sold or de- 
veloped. Almost 90 percent of Riverside has been used. Rest 
Haven is almost 80 percent depleted and Oakland almost 70 percent 
depleted. 

After discussion with local funeral people and after calcu- 
lating the projected population increase and the death rate in 
the Smithfield planning area, it is estimated that 1,000 new 



(9 - 



cemetery lots will be needed by 1985- Since there are 226 
vacant lots in the three Smithfield cemeteries, approximately 
774 new lots must be provided to accommodate burial of the dead. 

Smithfield must decide whether to expand the present 
cemetery facilities, establish new ones, or retire from the field, 
Even if it does retire from the business, perpetual care will 
always be a tax supported service. 

Personnel and Equipment 

Two men, employed by the Public Works Department, maintain 
the three cemeteries in Smithfield. Two power mowers and one 
pick-up truck are used in maintenance work. 

S t andar ds 

1. Cemeteries should be located on high land to prevent prob- 
lems created by high water tables. 

2. Cemeteries should be located so that drainage will not en- 
danger the town's water supply. 

Recommend at i on s 

1. It is recommended that a citizen's committee be appointed 
to study the problem and to advise the best course of 
action to take. 



- 90 - 



A community's school system must prepare a child for adult 
life, thus making the system the most important and basic factor 
in the community's life» A good school system provides a commun- 
ity with many benefits, directly and indirectly. Industry seeks 
areas for location where a well rounded school system is provided 
and capable teachers are drawn to above average school systems. 

The public schools in Smithfield are a part of, and adminis- 
tered by, the County School System. There are two high schools 
and two elementary schools in Smithfield at the present. South 
Smithfield Elementary School and Smithfield High School are pre- 
dominately white, and South Campus Elementary School and Johnston 
Central High School are predominately nonwhite. 

Examining the table below, one may determine that there is 
an average of 25.4 students per classroom in the four schools 
located in Smithfield. This is an ideal situation for maximum 
teaching efficiency and maximum student participation. Also of 
interest is the fact that there are 24 students per teacher in 
these schools. 

Size of school sites leaves something to be desired. The 
sites of South Campus and South Smithfield Elementary Schools are 
near standard, but Johnston Central and Smithfield High sites are 
totally Inadequate. It should also be noted that these two schools 
are the oldest, being built in 1925 and 1911, respectively. This 
age, plus relatively small rooms and inadequately equipped rooms, 
has brought about the need for new facilities. 

The enrollment trends of these schools are not unique. Both 
predominately white schools are increasing, while the predominate- 
ly nonwhite school's enrollment is decreasing^ This is a direct 
result of the decline in the nonwhite population in the Smithfield 
Township and in Johnston County. 

Because of this decline in nonwhite enrollment, it is felt 

that the Johnston Central High School will be adequate for years 

to come. Also, the two elementary schools will be adequate for 

the next 20 years in face of the new high school that will be built 

north of Smithfield, which will replace the present Smithfield 

High School. 

- 91 - 



(/I en 
3 O 

^* c 



92 



On September 30, 1966, a $3 million bond issue was passed by 
the citizens of Johnston County, which will eventually consolidate 
the present ten high schools in the county into four larger and 
much improved high schools. Part of this money will finance a new 
high school between Smithfield and Selma on a 35 acre tract of 
land already purchased. The school will serve Smithfield, Selma, 
Wilson Mills, and Corinth-Holder areas. Thus, Smithfield High 
School will be replaced, leaving the old school for elementary and 
junior high school students, which will be greatly needed in the 
coming years to accommodate increased school enrollments. 

Because of this consolidation, an updating or remodeling of 
Smithfield High School has been set aside until future goals and 
needs can be carefully assessed. 

In 1960, Smithfield had a population of 6,117, of which 1,791 
or 29.2% were of school age. By 1965, Smithfield's population had 
grown to 6,316 and in the one mile area around the city the estima- 
ted population was 2,601 for a total of 8,917, Assuming that the 
1960 ratio would hold true, 29.2% of 8,917 is 2,604 school child- 
ren. In 1965, school enrollment in the four schools in Smithfield 
v;as 3,128, of which 2,604 are assumed to have resided in the urban 
area and 524 resided outside of the urban area. 

In 1965, 123 classrooms served 3,128 students in Smithfield's 
four schools. Of this enrollment, 83 %o of the students came from 
within the urban area and 17% outside of the urban area. Thus, 
83% of the total classrooms or 102 needed to serve students with- 
in the urban area and 21 classrooms are needed to serve the stu- 
dents coming from outside of the urban area. 

The urban area population is expected to increase rapidly, 
while the population in the remainder of the school's service 
area is expected to remain relatively stable. Therefore, the out- 
side service area will require very few additional classrooms by 
1985. 

Below, Table No. 7 lists the classroom needs of the Smithfield 
planning area. It should be explained that while 25 students per 
classroom is considered ideal, most educators feel that 30 stu- 
dents per classroom should be the maximum^ 



93 - 



N) r- 



1— O 



iH 


c 






D. 


K> 


33 


a 


Oi 


O 


3 




O 


rf 




9 


w 







D. 


LO 


PO 


re 


o 


o 


3 




o 


rr 




y 


01 





z da 



94 



If a ratio of 25 students per classroom Is to be maintained, 
161 classrooms, or 59 more than the present 102, will be needed 
to serve the urban area. The absolute minimum would be 134, or 
32 more than is presently used to serve the urban area-. The new 
high school that is to be built north of Smithfield will supply 
approximately 40 classrooms. It is impossible to know how many 
of these 40 classrooms will be used exclusively for the Smith- 
field planning area. However, it is assumed that all of these 
new rooms will be used for students from Smithfield. Therefore, 
classroom needs will be fulfilled until approximately 1975. 

By 1985, 191 classrooms will be needed to serve the urban 
area, or 89 more than the present 102 in order to maintain the 
25 students per classroom ratio. To maintain the 30 students 
per classroom ratio the minimum classrooms needed by 1985 will be 
159, or 57 more. 

Standards 



Schools should be located near the center of population and 
surrounding land uses should be compatible and conducive to 
good educational uses. 

Where feasible, integration with a park should be employed 
to prevent duplication of recreational facilities. 
According to the Division of School Planning, N, C. Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction, walking distances from the three 
types of schools should be: 
Ao Elementary - ^ mile to 3/4 mile maximum 

B. Junior High - 1 mile to 1^ miles maximum 

C, Senior High - 1^ mile to 2 miles maximum. 

School site sizes should meet the following standards:* 

A. Elementary - 5 acres plus 1 acre for each 100 

enroll me n t 

B. Junior High - 10 acres plus 1 acre for each 100 

enrollment 

C. Senior High - 20 acres plus 1 acre for each 100 

e nr ol 1 me n t . 



Guide For Planning School Plants (National Council on 
Schoolhouse Construction, 1958), p. 22, 



5. Student enrollments should conform to the following standards 
according to the Division of School Planning, N. C. Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction: 

A. Elementary (grades 1-6) - 400 to 600 pupils 

B. Junior High (grades 7-9) - 500 to 750 pupils 

C. Senior High - Rural (grades 10-12) - 750 to 1200 pupils 

D. Senior High - Urban (grades 10-12) - 750 to 1800 pupils. 

6. There should be between 25 and 30 students per classroom for 
maximum teaching efficiency. 

Recommendations 



It is recommended that the County School Board strive to 
maintain a maximum ratio of 30 students per classroom in 
order that maximum teaching efficiency will result. 
Future projected population by 1985 will greatly tax the 
present and future school capacities in the Smithfield area. 
Therefore, it is recommended that plans be made for another 
bond issue by 1970 to provide funds for an additional 50 to 
60 classrooms that will be needed between 1975 and 1985. 
Wherever possible, school sites should be unified with a 
par k . 



96 - 



LIBRARY SYSTEM 

According to Standards for N. C, Public Libraries , "the pub- 
lic library is an educational Institution which exists to provide 
people of all ages and all interests with the means of continuing 
educa t ion . " 

On July 1, 1966, the Smithfield Public Library and the 
Johnston County Library were combined to form a headquarters of 
the County Library System. This system will offer book-binding, 
book loaning, and other services to other libraries within the 
county. This headquarters will also provide library facilities 
for the entire county, through the bookmobile and through the new 
library in Smithfield. While the county system helps finance 
and provides special services to the other libraries within the 
county, the county does not control these libraries. 

This new library system will be housed in a new and modern 
building, with 19,041 square feet of floor space, on property in 
downtown Smithfield which was a gift to the county and town. This 
new library was financed by funds from the fe-tJeral government, by 
donations from the town and county governments and by private 
donations. A total of $450,000, which includes $403,000 for the 
construction of the building, and $47,000 for fixtures and equip- 
ment was raised. Included in this new facility Is a meeting room 
and exhibit area, increased reading and study space, a greatly 
expanded reference collection, a storage area for little used and 
duplicate materials, room for housing and sh owing .*yd 1 o-vls ua 1 
materials, and a local history room. It should be ready for 
occupancy by April 15, 1967. 

No off-street parking will be provided by this library but 
in the same block there is a public parking lot and one block 
away is a public parking lot. Since the new library will be 
located in the central business district, convenience to downtown 
shoppers should encourage more use of its facilities. 

The Johnston County Bookmobile, which operates from the 
Johnston County Library, had a circulation of 71,873 books for 



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the 1965-66 fiscal year. While the body of the Bookmobile was 
purchased in 1954, a new chassis was installed in 1966o 

Table No. 8 gives pertinent facts about the Johnston County 
Public Library System at the end of the fiscal year 1965-66. 

Benson's Library had 9.7 circulations per volume for the 
1965-66 fiscal year. Benson's Library was also the only library 
with more than two volumes per capita. The Pine Level Library 
had 0.6 circulations per volume, and the County averaged only 
2.9 circulations per volume and only 0.9 volumes per capita. From 
reviewing these comparisons, one may determine the main problem 
confronting the libraries of Johnston County. More books must be 
obtained and more people must be encouraged to use the library 
facilities . 



Per s onne 1 

The personnel staff includes a supervisor or head librarian, 
one bookmobile librarian, one circulation librarian, one book- 
keeper, two library assistants and one part-time library assistart. 
All of these are presently operating the two facilities now 
and when the new library is opened, one additional staff member 
will be -'hired. 

Hours of operation will be 9:00 a^m, to 9:00 p.m, Monday 
through Friday and 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p,m. on Saturday, for a total 
of 69 hours per week. It is presently anticipated that there 
will be a total of 59,290 books in the new library, after new 
purchases and donations^ 

In addition to the services provided by the new library 
mentioned above, more emphasis will be placed on extension ser- 
vices, adult education, and on preserving the history of Johnston 
County. 



OO >H U-) 

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standards 

Realizing that the library facilities in North Carolina as 
a whole, were deficient according to national standards, the 
North Carolina Library Association set about to establish standards 
for libraries in the state. These standards will be used, in part, 
for this s tudy . 

1. A library should be freely available to all the people, 
should be convenient, accessible and comfortably designed, 
and should provide a means of se 1 f -edu ca 1 1 on through 
guidance programsi 

2. A library should be open a minimum of 30 hours each week 
with a regular schedule of hours for some morning, after- 
noon and evening use. 

3. Bookmobiles should be provided for remote areas where 
demand for its use is warranted^ 

4. The collection should include a minimum of two books per 
capita. 

5. Four thousand to five thousand new titles should be added 
to the collection annually, of which 25% of these be 
alloted to books for children. 

6. There should be one full-time staff member for every 3,000 
population in the area served, and one-third of the staff 
should be professional librarians certified by the state. 

7. A library should provide approximately one-half square 
foot of floor space for each person m the service area, 
and no library should contain less than 1,500 square feet. 

Recommendations 



Some limited time parking should be made available near the 
entrance for people to drop off and pick up children and for 
picking up and returning books. A drive-in book depository 
would be a major Improvement. 

It is recommended that Johnston County and Smithfield 
initiate a drive to double the number of volumes in the 
county library system. 



3. Plans are to employ one additional staff member and It Is 
recommended that this member be a trained librarian. 

4. Circulation per capita and per volume Is generally low In 
the County Library System. Thus, a program should be 
launched to encourage greater use of the available facilities. 



101 - 



HOSPITALS 

Urban growth is affected by the presence of modern and 
efficient medical care services. This Is true of Smithfield, 
whose growth is projected to skyrocket by the recent influx of 
new industry into the area4 There is no doubt that the medical 
services which are offered in Smithfield played an important role 
in this industrial location. 

Medical services are provided to Smithfield and Johnston 
County by the Johnston Memorial Hospital which opened its doors 
in December, 1951. It provided 162 beds and 12 bassinets for 
5,912 patients in 1965-66. The hospital plant is situated on a 
31 acre tract of land located off of Highway 301 in northeast 
Smithfield. In addition to the hospital, the Johnston County 
Health Department, and a nurses home, which provides room for 30 
nurses, are located on the same site. 

The Hospital Board of Trustees is a nine member board ap- 
pointed by the County Commissioners. The Board appoints the 
hospital administrator. In addition to providing health services 
for in-patient care, Johnston Memorial also provides training for 
X-Ray Technicians and Laboratory Technicians. 

The service area of the hospital is Johnston County. From 
1952 through 1960, 91.17 percent of all patients were from within 
the county. The proximity of hospitals in Raleigh, Durham and 
Chapel Hill limit this service area, thereby, limiting the size 
of the existing hospital. 

Standards 

1. A general hospital should be located for easy access by its 
patrons, and in an area uncongested, free from noises and 
traffic problems. 

2. Site size should allow 100 percent expansion of the building 
without causing over-crowded conditions. 

3. Generally, 4.5 beds per 1,000 population is recommended by 
the American Public Health Association. 



103 



4. Parking provided for visitors should be at least one space 
for each four beds. One parking space for each active 
doctor and one space for each four employees. 

5. The power source for the hospital should come from two 
separate feeder circuits. 

Recommenda t i ons 

1. There were almost 63,000 people in Johnston County in 1960, 
Using the 4.5 beds per 1,000 population ratio, Johnston 
Memorial Hospital would need approximately 280 beds to meet 
the Americal Public Health Association standard. This figure 
is too high in light of two major factors: (1) Johnston 
County is going to lose approximately 10,000 people by 1980, 
according to past trends— and (2) the proximity of hospitals 
in Raleigh, Durham and Chapel Hill. Therefore, a standard 

of 3.5 beds per 1,000 population would seem to be more 
realistic, giving a desired and reasonable 220 bed hospital in 
Johnston County. The addition of these 58 new beds should 
be taken under consideration by the Hospital Board of Trust- 
ees and the County Commissioners. 

2. Parking facilities should be increased to meet the needs of 
these additional beds. There should be a minimum of 55 
spaces provided for visitors, 25 spaces for the active 
doctors on the staff, and 50 spaces for other hospital 

emp 1 oy e e s . 

3. It is recommended that the power source should come from two 
separate feeder circuits. This construction should be under- 
taken immediately. 



1/ 



1980 Population Projections for North Carolina Counties , Josef 
H. Ferry, Division of Community Planning, January, 1964. 



North Carolina braie Library - 10^ 
Raleigh 



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