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SMITHSONIAN 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE 



VOL. XXXIII 




EVERY MAN IS A VALUABLE MEMBER OF SOCIETY WHO, BY HIS OBSERVATIONS, RESEARCHES, AND BXPERIUKMTS, PBOClltES 

KNOWLEDGE FOR MEN.— SMITHSON. 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1904 



f:l',(i', 



ADVERTISEMENT 



This volume forms the thirty-third of a series, composed of original memoirs 
on .liffereut branches of knowledge, published at the expense and under the direc- 
tion of the Smithsonian Institution. The publication of this series forms part of a 
general plan adopted for carrying into effect the benevolent intentions of James 
Smithson, Esq., of England. This gentle.nan left his property m trust to the 
United States of America to found at Washington an institution which should 
bear his own name and have for its objects the increase and dijfmionoi knowl- 
edge among men." This trust was accepted by the Government of tbe United 
States, and acts of Congress were passed August 10, 1846 and March 12 1894 
constituting the President, the Vice-President, the Chief Justice of the United 
States and the heads of Executive Departments an establishment under the name 
of the'" Smithsonian Institution, for the increase and diffusion of knowledge 
AMONG MEN." The members of this establishment are to hold stated and special 
meetings for the supervision of the affairs of the Institution and for the advice 
and instruction of a Board of Regents to whom the financial and other affairs 

are ^^tru^^«^^^_^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^.^ ^^^^^ers ex officio of the establishment 

namely, the Vice-President of the United States and the Chief Justice o the United 
States! together with twelve other members, three of whom are appointed f,om the 
Senat; by^ its President, three from the House of Representatives by the Spe^ke 
and six persons appointed by a joint resolution of both Houses. To thi. Boaid is 
g^er the power l\ electing 'a Secretary and other officers for conducting the active 

ODerations of the Institution. , , <■ • (.:^„ 

"^ To carry i„to effect the purposes of tbe testate,-, the plan of -J!--^'- 
«houU evidently crab.aee two objects: one, the increase of knowledge by the .,d*- 
:o:" new fls to the existing stock; the other, the '^'^«^^^^^^ 
thns increased amoiK- men. No restriction is made in favor of any kind o knowl 
d" a 1 hence each braneli is entitled to and shonld receive a share of a tention^ 
-The .act of Congress establishing the Institution dire*, as a part „ t^e an 
of organization, the formation of a library, a mi.senin, and a «» " ? f •"j^f^*;^ 
with Drovisions for physical research and popular lectures, while it leaves to tUe 
Relrr ^wer li Adopting such other parts of an ot^anization .a,, they may 
deem best suited to promote the objects of the bequest. 

After much deliberation, the Regents resolved to apportion the .iiuual income 
specit^inVa >ng the different objects and operations of the Institution in sucdi 
Intent may, i^ the jodgment of ^^^^X^:^"^^^^^^' 

-"ir^f^xribX^^^^^^^^^^ 

provisionally adopted at the meeting of the Begents, Decembei 8, 184, . 



rV ADVERTISEMENT; 

DETAILS OF THE FIRST PART OF THE PLAN. 

I. To INCREASE Knowled(4e. — It '18 pwposed to stimnlate research by offering 

retoards foi' original memoirs on all subjects of investigation. 

\. Tbe memoirs thus obtained to be published in a series of volumes, in a 
quarto form, and entitled " Stnithsouiau Contributions to Knowledge." 

2. No memoir on subjects of physical science to be accepted for publication 
which does not furnish a positive addition to human knowledge, resting on original 
research; and all unverified speculations to l)e rejected. 

3. Each memoir presented to the Institution to be submitted for examination 
to a commissicm of persons of reputation for learning in tbe branch to which the 
memoir pertains, and to be accepted foi' publication only in case the report of this 
commission is favoral)le. 

4. The commission to be chosen by the officers of the Institution, and tbe 
name of the author, as far as practicable, concealed, unless a favoi'able decision be 
made. 

5. The volumes of the memoirs to be exchanged for the transactions of literary 
and scientific societies, and copies to be given to all the colleges and principal 
libraries in tiiis country. One part of the remaining copies may be offered for 
sale, and the other carefully preserved to form complete sets of tbe work to supply 
the demand frf)m new institutions. 

6. An abstract, or popular account, of the contents of these memoirs to be 
given to the public through the annual report of the Regents to Congress. 

II. To INCREASE Knowledge. — It is also proposed to appropriate a pm^tion of the 

income avnvaUy to special objects of research, under the direction of suitable 
persons. 

1. The objects and the amount apjiropriated to lie recommended by counsel- 
lors of the Institution. 

2. Appropriations in different years to different objects, so that in course of 
time each branch of knowledge may receive a share. 

3. The results obtained from these appropriations to be published, with the 
memoirs before mentioned, in the volumes of the Smithsonian Contributions to 
Knowledge. 

4. Examples of objects for which appropriations may be made : 

(1) System of extended meteorological observations for solving the problem 
of American storms. 

(2) Explorations in descriptive natural history, and geological, mathematical, 
and topographical surveys, to collect material for tbe formation of a physical atlas 
of the United States. 

(3) Solution of expei'imental problems, such as a new determination of tbe 
weight of the earth, of the velocity of electricity, and of light; chemical analyses 



ADVERTISEMENT. V 

of soils and plants ; collection and publication of scientific facts, accumulated in the 
offices of Government. 

(4) Institution of statistical inquiries with reference to physical, moral, and 
political subjects. 

(5) Historical researches and accurate surve)'s of places celebrated in Ameri- 
can history. 

(6) Ethnological researches, particularly with reference to the different races 
of men in North America; also explorations and accurate sui'veys of the mounds 
and other I'emains of the ancient people of our country. 

I. To DIFFUSE Knowledge. — It is proposed to jyMish a series of reports, giving an 
accoiint of tlie new discoveries in science, and of the changes made from year 
to year in all brandies of hnowledge not strictly professional. 

1. Some of these reports may be published annually, others at longer inter- 
vals, as the income of the Institution or the changes in the branches of knowledge 
may indicate. 

2. The repoi'ts are to be prepared by collaborators eminent in the different 
branches of knowledge. 

3. Each collaborator to be furnished with the journals and publications, 
domestic and foreign, necessary to the comi)ilation of his report : to be paid a 
certain sum for his labors, and to be named on the title-page of the I'eport. 

4. The reports to be pui)lislied in separate parts, so that persons interested in a 
particular branch can pi'ocure the parts relating to it without pui'chasing the whole. 

5. These reports may be jJresented to Congress for partial distribution, the 
remaining copies to be given to literary and scientific institutions and sold to indi- 
viduals for a moderate price. 

Tlie folknoiny are some of tlie siiljjects which may he embraced in the reports : 

I. PHYSICAL CLASS. 

1. Physics, including astronomy, natural philosophy, chemistry, and meteor- 
ology. 

2. Natural history, including botany, zoology, geology, etc. 

3. Agriculture. 

4. Application of science to arts, 

II. MORAL AND POLITICAL CLASS. 

5. Ethnology,includingparticular history,comparativephilology,autiquities,etc. 

6. Statistics and political economy. 

7. Mental and moral philosophy. 

8. A survey of the political events of the world ; penal reform, etc. 



VI ADVEKTISEMENT. 

III. LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 

9. Modern literature. 

10. The fine arts, and their application to the useful arts. 

11. Bibliography. 

12. Obituary notices of distinguished individuals. 



II. To DIFFUSE Knowledge. — It is proposed to publish occasionally separate treatises 

on subjects of general interest. 

1. These ti'eatises may occasionally consist of valuable memoirs translated from 
foreign languages, or of articles prepared under the direction of the Institution, or 
procured by offei'ing premiums for the best exposition of a given subject. 

2. The treatises to be submitted to a commission of competent Judges previous 
to their publication. 



DETAILS OF THE SECOND PART OF THE PLAN OF ORGANIZATION. 

This part contemplates the formation of a library, a museum, and a gallery 
of art. 

1. To carry out the plan before described a library will be required consisting, 
first, of a complete collection of the transactions and proceedings of all the learned 
societies of the world ; second, of the more important current periodical publica- 
tions and other works neeessaiy in preparing the periodical reports. 

2. The Institution should make special collections particularly of objects 
to illustrate and verify its own publications ; also a collection of instruments of 
research in all branches of experimental science. 

3. With reference to the collection of books other than those mentioned above, 
catalogues of all the different libraries in the United States should be procured, in 
order that the valuable books first purchased may be such as are not to be found 
elsewhere in the United States. 

4. Also catalogues of memoirs and of books in foreign libraries and other 
materials should be collected, for rendering the Institution a center of bibliographi- 
cal knowledge, whence the student may I)e directed to any work which he may 
require. 

5. It is believed that the collections in natural history will increase by dona- 
tion as rapidly as the income of the Institution can make provision for their recep- 
tion, and therefore it will seldom be necessary to purchase any article of this kind. 

6. Attempts should be made to procure for the galleiy of art, casts of the 
most celebrated articles of ancient and modei-n sculptui-e. 

7. The arts may be encouraged by providing a i-oom, free of expense, for the 
exhibition of the objects of the Art Union and other similar societies. 



ADVERTISEMENT. Vn 

8. A small appropriation should auimally be made for models of antiquities, 
such as those of the remains of ancient temples, etc. 

9. The Seci'etary and his assistants, dui'ing the session of Congi'ess, will be 
required to illustrate new discovei-ies in science and to exhibit new objects of art. 
Distinguished individuals should also be invited to give lectures on subjects of gen- 
eral interest. 



In accordance with the rules adopted in the programme of organization, the 
memoir in this volume has been favorably reported on by a commission appointed 
for its examination. It is, however, impossiljle, in most cases, to verify the state- 
ments of an author, and therefore neither the commission nor the Institution can 
be responsible for more than the general character of a memoir. 



OFFICERS 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



THEODORE ROOSEVELT, 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STA TES, 

EX OFFICIO PRESIDING OFFICER OF THE INSTITUTION. 

MELVILLE W. FULLER, 

CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE UNITED STA TES. 
CHANCELLOR OF THE INSTITUTION. 



SAMUEL P. LANGLEY, 



SECRETARY OF THE INSTITUTION. 

RICHARD RATHBUN, 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 



MEMBERS EX OFFICIO OF THE INSTITUTION 



Theodore Roosevelt President of the United States. 

(Vacancy) Vice-President of tlie United States. 

Melville W. Fuller '. . . Chief Justice of the United States. 

John Hay Secretary of State. 

Leslie M. Shaw Secfretary of the Treasury. 

WiLLiAJi H. Taft Secretary of War. 

William H. Moody Attorney-General. 

Henry C. Payne Postmaster- General. 

Paul Morton Secretary of the Navy. 

Ethan Allen Hitchcock Secretary of the Interior. 

James Wilson Seai^etary of Agriculture. 

Victor H. Metpalf Seei'etary of Commerce and Ldlmr. 



R E G E N T 8 



Melville W. Fuller .... Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor. 

WiLLLAM P. Feye . . President of the Senate pro tempore. 

Shelby M. Cullom Member of the Senate of the United States. 

Orville H. Platt Member of the Senate of the United States. 

Francis M. Cockrell .... Member of the Senate of the United States. 

Robert R. Hitt Member of the House of Representatives. 

Robert Adams, Jr Member of the House of Representatives. 

Hugh A. Dinsmore Member of the House of Representatives. 

James B. Angell Citizen of Michigan. 

Andrew D. White Citizen of New YorTc. 

Richard Olney Citizen of Massachusetts. 

John B. Henderson .... Citizen of Washington City. 

Alexander Grahaji Bell . . Citizen of Washington City. 

George Gray Citizen of Delaware. 



CONTENTS 



Advertisement ...••■•• 

List of Officers, Members, and Regents of the Smithsonian Institution .... vni 

The Whalebone Whales of the Western North Atlantic, Compared with those Occurring in 
European Waters; with some Observations on the Species of the North Pacific. 
By Frederick W. True. Published 1904. 4to, vii, 332 PP-, 5° P^^^'es. (Smith- 
sonian Publication No. 1414.) 



SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE 



VOL. XXXIII. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES 

OF THE 

WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC 

COMPARED WITH THOSE OCCURRING IN EUROPEAN WATERS 

WITH SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE SPECIES 

OF THE NORTH PACIFIC 



BY 



FREDERICK W. TRUE 

HEAD CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 




(No. 1414) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 
PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1904 



COMMISSION TO WHOM THIS MEMOIR HAS BEEN REFERRED : 

THEODORE GILL, 
J. A. ALLEN, 
LEONHARD STEJNEGER. 



ADVERTISEMENT 



Dr. Frederick W. True, the author of the present memoir, has here brought 
together extensive original data relative to the external and osteological characters 
oAhe large whales of the western North Atlantic, for the purpose of determining 
whether the species are the same on both sides of that ocean. The facts have 
been derived from a study of fresh specimens at the Newfoundland whaling 
stations, the collection of the United States National Museum, and the skeletons 
in other large museums of the United States. Special study was given to the 
type-specimens of American species proposed by Professor E. D. Cope and Captam 
C M Scammon, all of which, with one exception, were examined by the author. 

The investio-ation is preparatory to a study of the geographical distribution 
and migrations of the larger cetaceans in the North Atlantic, which could not be 
undertaken until the identity of the species themselves was determined. Numer- 
ous facts, however, relating to the occurrence of whales at different points off the 
coasts of North America, and the seasons of their appearance and disappearance, 

have been assembled. . 

The results of the investigation show that several American species which 
have been proposed are quite certainly nominal, and that, as a whole, the species 
of the Atlantic coast of North America cannot be distinguished from those of 

European waters. ^^ ,^ t> -a ti :„ 

Some attention has been paid to the whales of the North Pacific. The in- 
formation previously recorded has been brought together in orderly sequence and 
various new facts added, but the amount of material at present available is insuffi- 
cient to serve as a basis for discrimination of closely allied species. t ,s certain, 
however, that the whales of the North Pacific, with one exception bear an ex- 
tremely close resemblance to those of the North Atlantic. The Californui Gray 
whale, RhmManecUs glaucus, has no counterpart in the Atlantic 

One well-known European species, the Pollack whale, Bal.ru>ptera horeahs 
not previously known in North American waters, was observed at the Newfound- 
land whaling stations while this volume was passing through the press. 

The illustrations include views of the type-specimens of the species proposed 



IV ' ADVERTISEMENT. 

by Cope and Scamraon ; also numerous i-epresentations of the iliffereot individuals 
of the Common Finback and the Sulphurbottom, from photogi'aphs taken by the 
author at the Newfoundland whaling stations. The latter are of special value for 
the study of individual variation in these huge animals. 

In accordance with the rule of the Institution this paper has been referred to 
a committee consisting of Doctor Theodore Gill, Associate in Zoology, United 
States National Museum, Doctor J. A. Allen, Curator of Mammalogy in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, and Doctor Leonhard Stejueger, 
Curator in the Department of Biology, United States National Museum. 

S. p. LANGLEY, 

SECRETARY. 

Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, D. C, June, 1904. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

List of Text Figures vii 

Introduction 1 

CHAPTER I. 

The Earliest References to Whalebone "Whales in American Waters 6 

CHAPTER II. 

A Chronological Account of Important Contributions to the Natural History of North 

American Whalebone Whales 34 

CHAPTER III. 
A Review of Cope's and Scammon's Species 78 

CHAPTER IV. 

The Common Finback, Balcenoptera physalus (Linn.) 107 

CHAPTER V. 

The Sulphurbottom, Bal<Bnoi>tera musculus (Linn.) 149 

CHAPTER VL 

The Little Piked Whale, JialcenojHei-a acuto-rostrata Lacep^de 192 

CHAPTER VII. 
The Humpback, Megaptera nodosa (Bonnaterre) 211 

CHAPTER VIII. 
The North Atlantic Right Whale, Balcena glacialis Bonnaterre 244 

CHAPTER IX. 

Whalebone Whales of the Eastern North Pacific Ocean 269 

CHAPTER X. 
Conclusions 297 

Appendix 1 . List of Works Cited 303 

Appendix 2. American Specimens of Whalebone Whales in European Museums 308 

Explanation of Plates 311 

Index ^^^ 

V 



LIST OF TEXT FIGURES. 



PAGE 



140 
143 



FiaUEES 1 to 7. Dorsal Fin of Balcenoptera physalus 126 

Figures 8 to 32. Sternum of Balcenoptera physalus 

Figures 33 to 36. Scapula of Balcenoptera physalus 

Figures 37 to 44. Dorsal Fin of Balcenoptera musculus 1'- 

FiGUREs45 to 48. Scapula of Balcenoptera musculus ^^^ 

Figures 49 to 50. Sternum of Balcenoptera musculus 1°' 

Figures 51 to 52. Sketches of Balcenoptera aciito-rostrata. by Joseph P. Thompson 193 

Figures 53 to 56. Scapula of Balcenoptera acuto-rostrata -03 

Figures 57 to 66. Sternum of Balcenoptera acuto-rostrata ~05 

Figure 67. Pectoral Fin of Balcenoptera acuto-rostrata from Greenland 209 

Figures 68 to 72. Dorsal and Pectoral Fins of Megaptera nodosa 227 

Figures 73 to 78. Scapula of Megaptera nodosa ~ ' 

Figures 79 to 83. Sternum of Megaptera nodosa ~ 

252 



Figure 84. Nasal Bone of Type-skull of Balcena cisarctica 

259 



Figures 85 to 87. Sternum of Balcena glacudis - 



Figures 88 to 93. Scapula of Balcena ylaekdis 

Figures 94 to 96. Skeleton of Balcenoptera velifera (?), in the Wistar Institute. Philadelphia 281 

282 

Figure 97. Scapula of the same 

For Explanation of Plates 1 to 50, see page 311. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WEST- 
ERN NORTH ATLANTIC, COMPARED 
WITH THOSE OCCURRING IN EURO- 
PEAN WATERS; WITH SOME OBSER- 
VATIONS ON THE SPECIES OF THE 
NORTH PACIFIC. 



By Frederick W. True, 

HEAD CURATOR. DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY, U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Several yeai-s ago I began a study of the species of whalebone whales which 
frequent the western North Atlantic, with a view of ascertaining the facts i-egarding 
their distribution and migrations. I was confronted at once by the uncertainty 
in the nomenclature of the species frequenting European waters, with which the 
American forms were known to be closely allied, and my first undertaking was to 
ascertain the identity of the species described by Linua?us in the tenth edition of 
the Systenia Natur*. The results of this search for correct scientific names were 
published in 1898.' 

Ilaviug fixed the names of the European species as far as possible, I next 
endeavored to locate the matei'ial on wdiich the American species described by 
Cope and other cetologists had been based, and began a comparison of these types 
and of such othei' material as existed in the National Museum and other similar 
establishments in the United States witli the European forms. Foi' a considerable 
time I was so situated as to be unable to woi'k on specimens, and during this 
period I collected from every available source i-ecords of the occurrence of whale- 
bone whales on the Atlantic coast of North America, beginning with the very 

'On the nomenclature of the whalebone whales of the tenth edition of I.innaeus's Systema 
Natura;. Froc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 21, 1S98, pp. 617-635, No. 1163. 

1 



2 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

earliest litei'ature relating to the continent. It seemed probable that the investiga- 
tion of the species themselves and of the records of their distribution could be 
carried on together and the results in both directions made ready for publication 
in one work. In this I have been disappointed. The work on the species has 
occupied a much longer time than was anticipated, and has made it necessary to 
defer the intimate study of the I'ecords of geographical distribution. It has seemed 
to me desirable, however, to publish with the discussion of the species a summary 
of the distribution records, so that in case the work originally projected cannot be 
completed by myself, the time of any subsequent investigator in this field may 
be economized. 

It happened very opportunely while the study of the American species was in 
progress that a fishery for Finbacks and Humpbacks, simihir to that cai-ried on in 
Norway for many years, was established in Newfoundland. With the permission 
of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution I visited this fishery twice, and 
enjoyed the extraordinary facilities there afforded for the examination of fresh 
specimens of three species of baleen whales. No similar opportunity has, I believe, 
been o[)en to American naturalists in the past. 

Not only could the matter of species be investigated under favorable con- 
ditions, but a good opportunity was afforded for the study of individual variation 
among these huge animals, whereby the probabilities as to the validity of sundiy 
nominal species could be satisfactorily estimated. The [dates published herewith 
contain many photographic figures of different individuals of the same species, 
showing the extent of variation in color, form, etc. So far as I am aware, no 
similar figures from photographs have been published heretofore. 

As nearly every cetologist takes occasion to say, the investigation of animals 
so large as whales is surrounded with peculiar difliculties. The physical labor 
involved in examining and turning about the massive bones and other parts is 
veiy fatiguing, and the mere weight of the specimens often thwarts the investigator. 

In museums whale skeletons are commonly suspended fi'om the roof so as to 
be practically inaccessible without the use of ladders and other unwieldy appli- 
ances, or the bones are stored in dark and dusty corners where they can be studied 
only with much begriming of note-books, hands, and clothes. 

The size of the whalebone whales, the large expense involved in preparing 
specimens for scientific purposes, and the large amount of space such specimens 
occupy, render it improbable that extensive series of specimens will ever be as- 
sembled as is the practice nowadays witli small mammals. Even if skeletons and 
casts were so assembled, they could not be compared one with another without the 
greatest diflSculty. It follows that the methods of comparison which are employed 
advantageously in the case of small species can hardly be used here. Reliance 
must be placed instead on notes and photographs. So fai- as the exterior is con- 
cerned, there is a certain compensating advantage no doubt in the direct study of 
fresh specimens rather than of skins artificially prepared, though this applies only 
where conditions are at least approximately as good as they are at the Newfound- 
land stations. Many of the eri'ors with which cetology is encumbered ai'e due 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 3 

to the observation of strauded specimens in various stages of decomposition, in 
which the natural appearance and relationships of parts were partially or entirely 
obscured. 

Perhaps the greatest difficulty with which systematic cetology has to deal is 
the problem of individual variation. The extent to which individuals of the same 
species vaiy is enormous, and one unacquainted with this fact would be disposed 
to multiply species liberally, only to find after more extensive comparisons that the 
characters were slipping away. On account of the extraordinary individual varia- 
tion in this group of mammals, and the peculiar character of the material, it would 
seem the pait of wisdom to ti'eat the matter of species conservatively. To a 
certain extent the absence of definite barriers in the ocean perniits the wliales to 
range more widely than is usual with land mammals, and on this account geographi- 
cal races or sub-species ai'e less likely to be formed. Still, from the observations of 
Scammon and others, it seems probable that sjiecies may in some cases be repre- 
sented in the ocean by distinct herds, which are distinguishable by various peculi- 
arities of size, form, proportion, and color. It is not certain, however, that these 
peculiarities may not be due to difference in sex and age. 

In the study of these animals, the question obtrudes itself whether groups of 
individuals belonging to certain species when separated fi'om the remainder of the 
species by the width of a continent, can and do continue to reproduce their kind 
for an indefinite period without change. To decide the question negatively on a 
priori grounds, as is the tendency to-day, is, I think, unscientific. 

The pi-esent investigation, in so far as it reaches such questions, appeal's to 
support the view that detached groups of individuals of a species can perpetuate 
the characters of the species to which they belong for an indefinite period. 

To find a difference and erect upon it a species, is far easier than to prove that 
this difference is mei'ely an individual variation or age distinction. Furthermore, 
species once established, though based on very unsubstantial characters, often 
acquire a standing which no amount of criticism can affect. Such "species," it 
would seem, should have anothei- name and be placed in a separate category. On 
the other hand, reluctance to accept species because the}' add to the length of the 
list, or to reduce them to synonymy without an examination of the material on 
which they are based, is to be decried. Between these two erroneous courses I 
have endeavored to steer in the present work. 

I appreciate that the conclusions airived at here are little more than a confirm- 
ation of opinions held by Van Benedeu and some other masters of cetology, but 
with few exceptions these opinions regarding American whales were not based on 
the examination of American material. If I am not deceived, they proceeded rather 
from the a priori conclusion that it was not probaI)le that other species existed 
than those frequenting European waters. 

With the exception of the type of Balcena cisarciica, the types of the Ameri- 
can species of Cope and Scammon are figured hei-e from jihotographs for the first 
time. Cope intended to monograph his species, but never brought the work to 
completion. 



4 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

The National Museum lias iacurred no small expense in obtaining the photo- 
o-raphs of the types and other specimens, and I am also indebted to the following 
museum officials for coui'tesies, for which I desire to express my veiy sincere thanks : 
To Di'. S. G. Dixon, President of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, 
and Mr. Witmer Stone, for assistance in locating the types of Cope's species and 
other interesting specimens, and permission to study and photograph them; to the 
proprietor of the Niagara Falls Museum, for permission to photograph and study 
the type of Megaptent osphyia; to the director of the Field Columbian Mnseum 
and Dr. D. G. Elliot, for [)hotogra[ihs and measurements of the skeleton of Balcena 
in that museum ; to Mr. H. II. Brimley, Curator of the State Museum, Raleigh, 
N. C, for assistance in measuring the skeleton of Balama in that institution and for 
photographs; to the dii-ector of the American Museum of Natural History and Mr. 
Sherwood, for measuiements and photographs of the Balcena skeleton in that 
museum; to Dr. Horace Jayne and Dr. Greeimiau, for assistance in measui'ing the 
fine skeleton of Balcenopteni in the Wistar Institute, University of Pennsylvania, 
and permission to take photographs of it ; to the director of the Museum of Com- 
pai'ative Zoology and Mr. Outram Bangs, for photographs of Baliena, and for other 
aid ; to Prof. Geo. H. Ashley, for assistance in measuring the skeleton of Balcena 
in the Charleston College Museum, South Carolina ; to Mr. F. A. Ward of Ward's 
Natural Science Establishment, Rochestei', N. Y. 

I wish to express appreciation also especially for the opportunities afforded 
me by the Cabot Steam AVhaling Company of St. John's, Newfoundland, through 
the late Honorable A. W. Harvey, President of the Company, Mr. John Harvey, Sec- 
retary, Dr. A. Nielsen, Manager, and Captain Bull. Through the friendly co-opera- 
tion of these gentlemen I was enabled to pursue my investigations under conditions 
which were quite exceptional. I also owe to Dr. L. Rissmiiller a debt of gratitude 
for his enthusiastic forwarding of my desires in the matter of obtaining information 
and specimens. Mr. D. C. Beard permitted me to examine some interesting photo- 
graphs and sketches of the Balcena figured in Holder's article on that genus ; and 
Mrs. W. E. Crain allowed me to reproduce her valuable copyrighted photographs 
of a West Coast Huiupback. 

In regard to the system (jf measurements used in this work and the use of 
English rather than metric measures, a word is perhaps called foi\ In measuring 
whales at the Newfoundland stations, I adopted for the total length the distance 
from the tip of the uppei- jaw to the notch of the flukes, measured along the back. 
I adopted this for two reasons : first, because it gave rigid points from which to 
measure, and, second, because it is nearly impossible under ordinary circumstances 
to have a whale placed so as to be in exactly a straight line from head to flukes, 
and measuring between upi'ights is less expeditious than along the curves. Stranded 
whales are almost invariably measured in this way, and hence the measurements 
recorded in the literature can be more advantageously compared by employing the 
curvilinear total length rather than the rectilinear. The difference between the 
two is, in fact, much less than would be anticipated. In the tables included in 
this woi-k, I have been obliged in some cases to cite lengths without knowing what 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOUTH ATLANTIC. 5 

method was used. The difference is, I believe, immatei-ial wliere an average is 
drawn from a considerable number of specimens. It must be admitted that there 
is some uncertainty as to how to interpret the measurements of various observers, 
and I am fully conscious that the tables are not mathematically correct. Still, I 
am convinced that their inaccuracy is not such as to materially vitiate the result. 
The literature of cetology is in every language of western Europe, and the dimen- 
sions of specimens ai'e similarly recorded in every variety of measure, such as 
Rheiuland feet, old French feet, Spanish feet, Danish feet, Russian feet, and so 
forth. To avoid the great loss of time in converting all these measures to one 
system, I have reduced the dimensions in each instance to percentages of the total 
length. This has many advantages besides avoiding laborious calculations, which 
will be readily recognized. Where it has been necessary to cite actual measure- 
ments, I have reduced them all to English feet and inches, in the belief that for 
large dimensions this is preferable to employing the metric system. In the United 
States, at least, metric tapes for measui-emeiits up to 30 meters are not readily 
obtainable. All quoted matter is translated into English. 

No attention has been paid to the Greenland Right whale, or Bowhead, Balwna 
mysticetm, in this coimectiou, as no new material of value was available. The 
omission of this species is not especially important on account of the elaboi-ate 
researches of Eschricht and Reinhardt, with which every cetologist is familiar. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE EARLIEST REFERENCES TO WHALEBONE WHALES IN AMERICAN WATERS. 



The fii'st reference to cetaceans in American waters is in the Saga of Thorfinn 
Karlsefne, giving an account of his voyage to Vinland. DeCosta's translation 
contains the folh_)\\iiiir : 



" Afterward a wliale was cast ashore in that place [Stream Bay] ; and they 
assembled and cut it up, not knowing what kind of whale it was. They boiled it 
with water; and ate it, and were taken sick. Tlien Thorhall said 'Now you see 
tliat Thor is more prompt to give aid than your Christ. This was cast ashore as a 
reward for tlie hymn w iiich I composed to my pati'on Thor, who rarely forsakes nie.' 
When they knew this, they east all the remains of the whale into the sea and com- 
mended their affaii's to God. From that time there was an abundance of food ; and 
there were beasts on the land, eggs in the island, and fish in the sea." ' 

DeCosta gives this the date of 1008 a.d., and identifies Stream Bay with 
Buzzard's Bay, Mass. Beamish ^ has a note to the effect that " this whale was 
probabl}^ a species of the Balcena pJu/-mI/s of Linnjeus, which was not edible, and 
being rarely seen in the Greenland and Iceland seas, was unknown to the Northmen." 
This is hardly probaV^le as Balwna p7iy solus of Linnaeus is the common Finback of 
European waters and is edible. It may have been abottlenosed whale of the genus 
Hijperoddon, the fat of which is purgative. The fact that the Northmen could thi'ow 
the remains into the sea shows that it was not one of the large whales. 

GREENLAND, DAVIS STRAIT, AND BAFFIN BAY. 

The narrative of Iver Boty (or Burt), maUre cFhotel of the Bishop of Greenland, 
as quoted from the papers of Barents in Henry Hudson's possession, contains the 
following notice of whales : 

" Item, from Skagen Ford east lyeth a hauen called Beare Ford : it is not 
dwelt in. In the mouth thereof lyeth a riffe [reef], so that great ships can not 
harbour in it. 

"Item, there is great abundance of whales; and there is a great fi.shing for the 
killing of them theie, but not without the bishop's consent, which keepeth the same 

' DeCosta, B. F., The Pre-Columbian Discovery of .'\merica by the Northmen, 2d ed., 1890, 
pp. 125-126. 

" Beamish, N. L., Discovery of America by the Northmen, 1841, p. 91, foot-note. 

6 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 7 

for the benefit of tliu eathedmll cliuivL. In the baueu is a great swalth ' ; and 
when the tide doth runne out, all the whales doe runne into the sayd swaltli."- 

Boty's account is of coui'se pre-Columbian, and as it is suj)[)osed to relate to 
the most flourishing period of the Norse colonies in Greenland, we may properly 
consider that the events mentioned in it occurred in the 12th century. What- 
ever the fact as regards the date of this observation, we may well doubt that the 
whales referred to were whalebone whales. It is much more piobable that they 
weie white whales, DelpMnapteriis. 

Passing on to the times of Columbus and the great discoverers and explorers, 
the earliest bit of information about the larger whales of Greenland which I find is 
in Beste's narrative of Martin Frobisher's tliii-d voyage to Davis Strait in 1578. 
An odd accident happened to one of the vessels in his fleet, which is thus 
described : 

[1578. frouisher's third voyagf..] 

"On Monday, the laste of June [1578], wee mette with manye greate whales, 
as they hadde beene por[)oses. 

"This same day the Salamander being under both hir corses and bonets, 
hapned to strike a greate whale with hir full sterame, wyth such a blow, that the 
shijT stoode stil and stirred neither forwarde nor backwai'd. The Avhale thereat 
made a great and ugly noise, and caste up his body and tayle, and so went under 
water, and within two dayes after there was founde a greate whale dead, swinuning 
above water, which we supposed was that the Salamander stroke."* 

The place where this happened must have been just east of Frobisher Bay, the 
entrance to which (Queen Elizabeth's Foreland *) they sighted July 2d. 

It is somewhat singnhu" that thei'e is no vessel named Salamander in the roster 
of the fleet. As there is a Salomon or Sollomon, however, it is {)robab]e that the 
name is misspelt in the paragraph quoted above. 

From the expression "greate whales, as they hadde beene poi-jMses" in the first 
sentence, it might be inferred that the Salomon ran against an Orcinus ov Hyperoo- 
don, rather than a baleen whale, but it seems hardly probable that either of these 
could stop a vessel of above 130 tons under full sail. Furthermore, I presume it 

' An eddy, or whirlpool. 

' A Treatise of Iver Boty a Gronlander, etc. In Asher's Henry Hudson the Navigator 
(Hakluyt Society, 1S60, p. 231). From Purchas His Pilgrimes, v, 3, pp. 518-520. Writings of 
William Barentz in Hudson's possession. 

The complete heading of the narrative is as follows: " A Treatise of Iver Boty a Gronlander, 
translated out of the Norsh language into High Dutch, in the yeere 1560. And after out of High 
Dutch into Low Dulch, by William Barentson of Amsterdam, who was chiefe Pilot aforesaid [of the 
expedition of 1595 to the Northeast]. The same copie in High Dutch is in the hands of lodocvs 
Hondivs, which I haue scene. And this was translated out of Low Dutch by Master William 
Stere, Marchant, in the yeere 1608, for the vse of me Henrie Hudson. William Barentsons Booke 
is in the hands of Master Peter Plantivs, who lent the same vnto me." 

'The Three Voyages of Martin Frobisher. Ed. by R. Collinson. Hakluyt Soc, 1867, p. 
234. Reprinted from the ist ed. of Hakluyt's Voyages. 

* Or Cape Resolution, Resolution Island. 



8 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

is not necessary to suppose that the "greate whale" which was struck was of the 
same sort as those leferred to as reseinbliug porjjoises. These early narratives 
usually contain no more than a passing word regarding the animals observed 
and anything like satisfactory identifications are impossible. 

Fi'om the accounts of the voyages of John Davis to the strait which bears his 
name we are able to get a little better idea of the whales which were encountei'ed. 

In the nai rative of his first voyage to Greenland in 1585, is the following note : 

"Between the IG*."^ and the 18'!' [of July, 1585] great numbers of whales were 
also seen." ' 

This was just before Davis made a landfall at Cape Discord on the east coast 
of Greenland, which he sighted on July 20, 1585. Soon afterwards he passed into 
Davis Strait and crossed to the vicinity of Cumberland Sound, where, according to 
the narrative written by John Janes, the following incidents occurred : 

[1585. DAVIS'S FIRST VOYAGE.] 

"The 17 [of August, 1585] we went on shoare [in Cumberland Sound] . . . 
Our Captaine and master searched still for pi'obabilities of the [Northwest] passage, 
and fir.st found, that this place was all I^^lands, with great sounds passing betweene 
them. . . . Thirdly, we saw to the west of those Isles, three or foure Whales 
in a skill, which they judged to come from a westerly sea, because to the Eastward 
we saw not any whale. Also as we were I'owing into a very gi'eat sound lying 
southwest [Irvine Inlet ? — Ed.], upon a suddayne there came a violent counter 
checke of a tide from the southwest against the flood which we came with, not 
knowing fi'om whence it was maintayned."^ 

Davis was at this time, as the narrative shows, exploring Cumberland Sound 
with the hope of finding the much-sought Northwest Passage. We may sup[)ose 
that the whales seen thei'e were either Humpbacks or Finbacks; though from lack 
of a description it is impossible to determine which of the two they were. The 
Greenland whale is not in these parts in August. 

In the narratives of Davis's third voyage to Greenland in 1587 we find other 
allusions to whales, as follows: 

"The 24 [of June, 1587] being in 67 degrees and -40 minutes, we had great 
store of W^hales, and a kinde of sea birdes which the Mariners called Cortmous 
[probably a misprint. — Ed.]." ^ 

This was in Davis Strait opposite the Cumberland peninsula. The kind of 
whale, as before, is uncei'tain. It may have been the Beluga. 
Another allusion, about a month later, is as follows: 

"As we rode at anker [July 23, 1587, among the islands "in the bottome" 

'Voyages toward the Northwest. Ed. by Thos. Rundall. Hakluyt Society, 1849, p 36. 
"The Voyages and Works of John Davis the Navigator. Ed. by A. H. Markham. Hakluyt 
Soc, 1880, pp. 12-13. 
' Op. cit., p. 43. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 9 

of Cumberland Sound] a great whale passed by us, and swam west in among 

the isles."' 

Twenty years later Henry Hudson was in Greenland waters, seeking like his 
predecessors that ignis fatuus, the Noi-thwest Passage t(j Cathay. In the nariatives 
of his voyages there are occasional references to whales. The earliest of these, in 
the nari'ative of the fii'St voyage in 1G07, is as follows: 

[1607. Hudson's first voyaoe.] 

"Also wee saw [June 13*."] a whale close by the shoare. Wee called the 
headdand which we saw Youngs Cape; and neere it standeth a very high mount, 
like a round castle, which wee called the Mount of Gods Mercie.'"^ 

This place appeals to have been in Hudson Strait. A few days later we find 
another reference : 

"This day [June 18, 1C07] we saw three whales neere our ship, and having 
steered away northeast almost one watch, five leagues, the sea was giowne evei-y 
way. ^ 

This appears to have been on the east coast of Greenland. Finally, in that 
naiTative of Hudson's last voyage, by Prickett, which contains the tragic story of 
his fate, we find another mention of whales, as follows : 

[i6io. Hudson's fourth and last voyage.] 

" Our course [soon after the 4'."^ of June, 1610] for the most part was betweene 
the west and north-west, till we raysed the Desolations, which is a great iland in 
the west part of Groneland. On this coast we saw store of whales, and at one 
time three of them came close by us, so as wee could hai-dly shunne them : then two 
passing very neere, and the third going under our ship, wee received no harine by 
them, praysed be God."* 

This locality was in the vicinity of Cajse Farewell, the "Desolations" being 
on either side of that cape. In the perusal of this account one is I'eminded very 
forcibly of Scammon's description of the habits of the Common Finback of the North 
Pacific, Balcenoptera velifera Cope. " It frequently gambols about vessels at sea," 
he writes, " in mid-ocean as well as close in with the coast, darting under them or 
shooting swiftly through the water on either side, at one moment upon the sui'face, 
belching forth its quick ringing spout, and the next instant submei'ged deep 
beneath the waves." ^ 

Close after Hudson follows Bafiin, who was pilot of the ship Discovery for the 
company for the discoveiy of the Northwest Passage, and approached the Green- 

' Voyages toward the Northwest. Ed. by Thos. Rundall. Hakluyt Soc, 1849, p. 47. Davis's 
Traverse Book. From Hakluyt, 3, pp. 153, 154. 

'Henry Hudson, the Navigator. Ed. by Geo. Asher. Hakhiyt Soc, i860, p. 3. 
' Op. cit., p. 4. 
■ * Op cit., p. 99. 

" Froc. Acad. Nat. Set. Phila., 1869, p. 52. 



10 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

land coast in May, 1612. The record for the 12th day of that month contains the 
following note : 

[i6i2. Baffin's first recorded voyage.] 

"This day [May 12, 1612] the water changed of a blackish colour; also, we 
saw many whales and grampus's." ' 

This was near (and east of) Cape Farewell, which they sighted May 13th, and 
again May 14th. In 1616, in the same month, Baffin was once more in Greenland 
waters, and the narrative of that voyage contains an iutei-estiug account of the find- 
ing of a dead whale in Davis Strait somewhat north of Disco Island. Baffin 
records the incident thus : 

[i6i6. Baffin's second voyage to Greenland, (fifth recorded voyage.)] 

"The two and twentieth day [of May, 1616], at a noiih sunne, wee set saile 
and plyed still northward, the winde being right against vs as we stood off and 
on. Vpon the sixe and twentieth day, in the afternoone, we found a dead whale, 
about sixe and twentie leagues fiom shoare, hauing all her finnes [whalebone]. 
Then making our shi[) fast, wee vsed the best means wee could to get them, and 
with much toile got a hundred and sixtie that euening. The next morning the sea 
went uery high, and the winde arising, the whale broke from vs, and we were 
forced to leaue hei- and set saile, and hauing not stood past three or foure leagues 
noi'th-westward, came to tlie ice, then wee tacked and stood to the shoare-ward, a 
sore storme ensued."" 

This dead whale is mentioned asrain in a letter which Baffin ^v^ote to Sir John 
Wolstenholme, one of the principal promoters of the enterprise, in connection with 
quite extended remarks on the whales of Baffin Bay, so that we are enabled to 
identify it as a Greenland Right whale. The paragraphs which ai-e pertinent to 
our subject ai'e as follows : 

[i6i6. Baffin's letter to sir john wolstenholme.] 

"Now that the worst is knowne (concerning the j^'issage) it is necessarie and 
requisite your worshi[) should vnderstand what probaljilitie and hope of profit 
might here be made hereafter, if the voyage might bee attempted by fitting men. 
And first, for the killing of whales; certaine it is, that in this Bay [Baffin Bay] 
are great numVjei's of them, which the Biscayners call the Grand Bay tvhales, of 
the same kind as are killed at Greeneland, and as it seemeth to me, easie to be 
strooke, because they are not vsed to be chased or beaten. For we being but one 
day in Whale Sound (so called for the number of whales we saw there sleeping, 
and lying aloft on the water, not fearing our ship, or ought else) ; that if we had 
beene fitted with men and things necessaiie, it had beeue no hard matter to haue 
sti'ooke more then would have made three ships a sauing voyage ; and that it is of 
that sort of whale, theai'e is no feare ; I being twise at Greeneland, tooke sufficient 
notice to know them againe ; besides a dead whale we found at sea, hauing all her 

'The Voyages of William Baffin. Ed. by C. R. Markham. Hakluyt Soc, i88i, p. 7. From 
Churchill's Collection of Voyages and Travels, 6, 1732, pp. 241-251. Written by John Gatonbe. 
''Op. cit., pp. 139-140. From Purchas. Written by Baffin. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 11 

finnes (or rather fiU tlie rough of her mouth), of which witli nuieli lal)()ur we got 
one hundred and sixtie the same evening we found her; and if that foule wether 
and a storme the next day had not followed, we had no doubt but to haue had all, 
or the most part of them : but the winde and sea rising, shee broke from vs, and 
we were forced to leave hei-. Neither are they onely to be looked for in Whale 
Sound, but also in Smith's Sound, Wolstenholme's Soiuid, and othurs, eica.,'" 
(Pp. 146-147.) 

"As concerning what the shore will yeeld, as beach-finnes, morse-teeth, and 
such like, I can say little, because we came not on shore in any of the places where 
hope was of findiuge them. 

" But here som may object why we sought that coast no better? To this I 
answere, that while we were thei-eabout, the wether was so exceeding foule, we 
could not. . . . When we had coasted the land so farre to the southwai-d, that 
hope of passage was none, then the yeere was too faiTe spent [to seek a harboi'J, 
and many of our men very weake, and withall we hauing some beliefe that ships 
the next yeere would be sent for the killing of whales, which raicht doe better 
than we." (Pp. 147-148.) 

" And seeing I have briefly set doune what hope there is of making a profit- 
able voyage, it is not vnfit your worship should know what let or hindi-aiice might 
be to the same. The chiefest and greatest cause is, that som yeere it may happen by- 
reason of the ice lying betweene 72 and a halfe and 76 degrees, no minutes, that the 
ships cannot com into those places till toward the middest of July, so that want of 
time to stay in the countrey may be some let: yet they may well tai'iy till the last 
of August, in which space much businesse may be done, and good store of oile 
made. Neuerthelesse, if store of whales come in (as no feare to the contrarie) what 
cannot be made in oyle, may be brought home in blubber, and the finnes will arise 
to good profit. Another hinderance will be, because the bottome of the sounds 
will not be so sooue cleere as would bee wished ; by meanes whereof, now and then 
a whale may be lost. (The same case sometimes chanceth in Greeneland \i. e. 
Spitzbergen].) Yet, I am perswaded those sounds before named [Whale, Smith, and 
Wolstenholme] will all be cleere before the twentieth of July : for we, this yeere, 
were in Whale Sound the fourth day, amongst many whales, and might have 
strooke them without let of ice." ' 

This letter, which is undated, relates to the second voj'age, 1616. 

The use of the name " Grand Bay whale " in this letter for the Greenland 
Right whale attracted the attention of Eschricht and Reinhardt, and they enter 
into an elaborate discussion as to its significance in relation to the primitive distri- 
bution of the species in their exhaustive memoir.- 

Thomas Edge was in Spitzbergen at the same time as Baffin, and in the narra- 
tive of his "ten several voyages" thither he takes pains to insert a description of 
the various species of whales found in those waters. The description begins thus : 

[1610-1622. VOYAGES OF THOMAS EDGE TO SPITZBERGEN.] 

"There are eight sorts of whales: The first is called the Grand- Batj, from a 
place in New-foundland, where they were first killed ; he is black, with a smooth 

'Voyages towards the Northwest. Ed. by Thos. RundalL HakUiyt Soc, 1S49, pp. 146- 
149. From Purchas. 

' Om Nordhvalen. Vidcnsk. Sehk. Ski:, 5 Rickke, natuivid. og math. AfJ., Bd. 5, p. 459. 



12 THE WHALEBONE AVHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

Skin, and white underneath the Chaps: This Whale yields about 100 Hogsheads 

of dyl. , , J ■ ,, 

*' The second is called Sarda, of the same colour, but somewhat less, and yields 
about 70 or 80 Hogsheads; he hath white things growing on his Back like to 
Barnacles." * 

Edo-e thus coiToborates Baffin, and there can be no doubt that the name " Grand 
Bay whale " was in currency for BalcBna mysticetus at the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century and perhai)S earlier. 

Grand Bay, as the maps of that period show, was a name applied to that part of 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence immediately within the Strait of Belle Isle. It is to be 
found on Allefonsce's sketch, Champlain's maps (1612, 1613, and 1632), Jacobsz's 
map (1621), and othei's.*^ 

Now, although the latest writer on the Greenland whale places the southern 
limit of its range at about 58° n. lat., on the coast of Labrador,'' one would not be 
surprised to learn that in the winter months it followed the ice down to the Strait 
of Belle Isle, and became the object of a fisheiy there. But, as Eschiicht remarked, 
the Newfoundland whale fishery of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was 
cari'ied on exclusively in the summer months and on the theory that the Greenland 
whale was one of the species pursued, it is necessary to suppose that it remained 
after the ice had disappeared in these parts, which is entirely contrary to what is 
known of its habits. 

As a solution of the problem, Eschi'icht suggested that the Basques did not 
know of the visits of the Greenland whale to the Newfoundland coast until they 
had begun to establish settlements and wintei' there. In the insti'uctions given 
Edge by the Muscovy Company the s[)ecies is called the "Bearded whale"; while 
in his account of his voyages to Spitzbergen, 1612 to 1622, it is called " Grand Bay " 
whale. The natural inference is that soon after 1611 certain Basques had dis. 
covered that the Greenland whale occurred in Newfoundland waters, and had 
afterwards shipped with Edge for the Spitzbergen fishery and reported to him the 
name " Grand Bay " whale. The matter quoted is chiefly interesting in the present 
connection as the first attempt to identif}' the whales in American waters with 
those of Europe, and as an early (though not the earliest) mention of whales at 
Newfoundland. 

A little later in this same voyage which we have been discussing, Baffin 

' Harris's Voyages, i, p. 574. Purchas, His Pilgrimes, 3, 1625, pp. 462-473. 

Champlain has the following regarding the name of " Grand Baye " ; 

" II y a un lieu dans le golphe Sainct Laurent, qu'on nomme la grande baye, ])roche du passage 
du Nort de I'lsle de terre neufue, a cinquante deux degres, ou les Basques vont faire la pesche 
des balaines." 

(Laverdiere, Qiuvres de Champlain, 2d ed., 1870, 6, p. 1088. This is in the second part 
of Les Voyages de la Nouvelle France Occidentale, dicte Canada. Paris, 1632.) 

'See Justin Winsor's Cartier to Frontenac, 1894, pp. 42, 102, 107, 125, and 140, where 
these maps are reproduced. 

'Southwell, Thos., The Migration of the Right Whale {^Balana mysticetus). Nat. Sci., 12, 
1898, pL 12, 



THE WHALEBONE VYHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 13 

proceeded to very high latitudes and on July 3d, 1G16, was in Wolstenholrae Sound, 
to which he gave its present name. He writes thus of the whales : 

[July ?., 1616]: "This Sound wee called Wolstenholme Sound; it hath many 
inlets or smaller sounds in it, and is a fit place for the killing of whales."' 

The next day he explored and named Whale Sound, of which he writes : 

"In this Sound [July 4, 1616] we saw great luimbers of whales, therefore 
we called it Whale Sound, and doubtlesse, if we had beene provided for killing 
of them, we might have strooke very many. It lyeth in the latitude 77° 30'."^ 

HUDSON BAT. 

The narratives of Hudson's (1610), Baffin's (1612-1616), Button's (1612), and 
Munck's (1619) voyages contain nothing regarding whales in Hudson Bay and Strait. 
A passing reference is to be found in the account of Fox's voyage of 1631, as follows : 

[163I. CAPTAIN LUKE FOX IN HUDSON BAY.] 

"Fox obeyed his instructions, though he evidently entertained an opinion 
that this [/. ^., Roe's Welcome northward] was the fittest part to search for the 
passage ; ' being moved by the high flowing of the tyde and the tvhales, for all the 
tydes that floweth that bay [Hudson Bay], commeth (neei'e) from thence.' " * 

Captain Coats's Remarks on the Geography of Hudson's Bay, from voyages 
between 1727 and 1751, contains the following: 

" Near Whale Cove and Brook Col)ham, it is agreed on all hands, their are 
such sholes of whales and seales, as is no where else to be met with in the known 
world." * 

NEWFOUNDLAND AND THE GULF OF ST. LAWRENCE. 

It is sometimes asserted that the Basques, who undoubtedly hunted the Right 
whale, Balcpna hiscayensis, on the coasts of Europe in the Middle Ages, finally 
crossed to Newfoundland in pursuit of theii' quairy at a period antedating Colum- 
bus's discovery. Tims, P. Fischer in 1872, in his account of the Basque whale 
fishery, writes : "When the Basques had destroyed the whales which ari'ived in 

'The Voyages of William Baffin, 1612-1622. Ed. by C. R. Markham. Hakliiyt Soc, 1S81, 
p. 144. From Purchas. Written by Baffin. 

''Op. cit., p. 145. Ross also found whales in this vicinity in 1818, but Southwell regards both 
these instances as exceptional, and thinks it improbable that the Greenland whale {B. mysticetus) 
commonly passes beyond 75° n. lat. {Nat. Set., 12, 1898, p. 408.) 

' Voyages towards the Northwest. Ed. by Thomas Rundall. Hakluyt Soc, 1849, p. 177. Abst. 
from N. W. Foxe. 

' Hakluyt Soc, 1852, p. 29. 



14 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

winter in their parts, they sailed westward, and in 1372 reached the banks of 
Newfoundland, where they observed whales in abundance."' 

No authorities are cited by Fischer, and similar statements by other authors 
prove elusive. Justin Winsor summed up the evidence on this point in 1894 in the 
following language : 

"We need not confidently trust the professions of Michel and other advocates 
of the Basques, and believe that a century befoi'e Cabot their hardy fishermen dis- 
covered the banks of Newfoundland, and had even penetrated into the bays and 
inlets of the adjacent coasts. Theie seems, however, little doubt that very early in 
the sixteenth century tishing e(|ui[)ments for these I'egions were made by the Nor- 
mans, as Breard chronicles them in his Documents relatifs a la Normandy ~ 

Of [)ost-Coluvnbian explorers of Newfoundland and the St. Lawrence, the first 
to make mention of large whales is Cartier. Indeed, the allusions to cetaceans in 
his narrative of his second voyage to Canada appear to constitute the first authentic 
notice of whalebone whales on the east coast of North America. Cai'tier left 
St. Malo on his second voj^-age, May 19, 1535, and in July entered the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence. Soon afterwards he passed westward and proceeded to explore the 
St. Lawrence River. In his narrative of the Journey we find the following: 

[1535. cartier's second voyage.] 

" The said river [the St. Lawrence] beginueth beyond the Island of the Assump- 
tion, over ao;ainst the high mountains of Hognedo, and of the seven islands: the 
distance over from one side to the other is about 35 or 40 leagues : in the midst it 
is above 200 fathom deep. The surest way to sail ui)on it is upon the south side; 
and toward the noi'th, that is to say, from the said seven islands, from side to side 
there is seven leagues distance, where are also two great rivers that come down 
from the hills of Sagueuay, and make divers very dangerous shelves in the sea. 

" At the entrance of those two rivers, we saw many a great stoi-e of whales 
and sea-horses." ^ 

Exactly where these two rivers are is uncertain, but eaily maps show the 
' Land of the Seven Islands " to be on the north shore of the St. Lawrence, near 
its mouth. The whales mentioned were most [)i'obably whalebone whales, as 
mention is made soon afterwards of porpoises and the Beluga, thus: 

" All the said counti'y on both sides the [St. Lawrence] river, as far as Hochelay 
and beyond, is as fair and plain as ever was seen. . . . Thei'e ai'e also many 
whales, porpoises, seadioises, and adhothuis [Beluga], which is a kind of fish that 
we had never seen nor heard of befoi'e. 

'Fischer, P., Documents pour servir a I'Histoire de la Baleine des Basques (^(z/«/7a iJ?V- 
cayensis). Annal. Set. Nat., Zool., 15, 1872, art. 3, p. 15. 

Van Beneden repeats the statement in his Hist. Nat. des Cetaces des Mers d'Europe, 1889, p. 25. 

'Winsor, Justin, Cartier to Frontenac, 1894, pp. 9-10. 

' Narration of the Navigation to the Islands of Canada, etc. Pinkerton's Voyages, 12, p. 657. 
Cartier's Voyage, 1535. From Hakluyt, 3, p. 212. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 15 

"They are as great as porpoises, as white as any snow, tlieir body and head 
fashioned as a greyhound, they are wont always to abide between the fresh and 
salt water, which beginneth between the river of Saguenay and Canada."' 

At the date of Cartiei-'s explorations (and even somewhat before his time) 
whalei's are believed to have pursued the Biscay whale, Balwna biscayensis, in the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. The records of this industry are for the most part buried 
in obscurity, or have been desti'oyed, and such as are now known contain no 
desci'iptions of whales. Eugen Gelcich, in an article on Diiro's Discpiisiciones Nau- 
ticas, wiites : 

"The regular appearance of the whale in the Bay of Biscay at the beginning 
of autumn and its disappearance with the first breath of spring must have been 
noticed very early by the Gascognes. Whether it occurretl to any one, however, 
as eai'ly as the 10th century to follow the whale opportunely with its depaitui-e, 
in order to discover its summer station, is not denionstiable, although a tradition 
relative thereto existed in Spain, and peihaps still exists. Vargas Ponce [a cele- 
brated Spanish histoi'ian] in spite of the most diligent search found only records 
since the year 1530. These weie in the municipal and part)chial records of Brio. 
The names of the caiavels as well as of their commanders are given. The celebrated 
Spanish admiral, Juan de Urdaiie, began his maritime career in such voyages, 
which reached to the American coasts." ~ 

Later in the century we have the statement made by Anthony Pai'khurst in a 
letter to Hakluyt, in 1578, to the effect that at that time from 20 to 30 Basque 
whaling vessels repaired to Newfoundland " to kill whale for Traine." '' 

For the year 1587, we have the following reference in the nari'ative of Davis's 
third voyage : 

"The 17th [of August, 1587] we met a shippe at Sea, and, as farre as wee 
could judge, it was a Biskaine : wee thought she went a fishing foi- Whales, foi- in 52 
degrees or thereabout, we saw very many." ■* 

His Traverse Book at this date contains the following: 

"The true course, tfec. This day, upon the Banke [Grand Bank of Newfound- 
land] we met a Biscaine bound either for the Grand bay or for the passage. He 
chased us." ^ 

' Narration of the Navigation to the Islands of Canada, etc. Pinkerton's Voyages, 12, p. 658. 
"Aug. 18, 153s, the sailors saw more whales near Anticosti Id. than they could remember 
ever to have seen before." (Eschricht, from Marc Lescarbot's Histoire de la nouvelle France, 
4th ed., 1624, p. 2S5.) 

' Gf.lcich, E., Der Fischfang der Gascogner und die Entdeckung von Neufundland. Nach den 
" Disquisiciones Nauticas " von Caesaro Fernandez Duro bearbeitet. Zcit. Gcsell. Erdkunde, Berlin, 
18, 1883, p. 258. 

' Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations of the English Nation, 3, 1600, p. 132. 

' The Voyages and Works of John Davis. Ed. by A. H. Markham. Hakluyt Soc, 1880, p. 48. 

° Op.cii., p. 57. Davis started Aug. 15th at noon in lat. 52° 12' and 16 leagues from shore, and 
in the next 44 hours went 80 leagues about E. by S. 



16 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

Edward Haies, in his account of Sir Humphrey Gilbert's voyage to Newfound- 
land in 1583, includes among tlie "commodities" of the island "abundance of 
whales," " for which also," he writes, " is a verj' great trade in ye bayes of Placentia 
and Grand bay, where is made Trane oyles of the whale." ' 

Toward the close of the century, in 1594, the ship Grace of Bristoll made a 
trip to the Gulf of St. Lawrence for whales and reported finding some 700 or 800 
pieces of whalebone in two large Basque whaling vessels which had been wrecked in 
St. George's Bay, Newfoundland. The account, in Hakluyt's Voyages, is as follows : 

[1594. VOYAGE OF THE "GRACE OF BRISTOLL " TO THE BAY OF ST. LAWRENCE.] 

"In this bay of Saint Geoi'ge [Newfoundland, May, 1594] we found the 
wrackes of 2 great Biskaine ships, which had bene cast away three yeres before : 
where we had some seven or eight hundred whale finnes, and some yron bolts and 
chains of their mayne shrouds & fore shroudes: al their traine [oil] was beaten out 
with the weather but the caske remained still. Some part of the commodities were 
spoiled by tumbling downe of the cliffs of the hils, which covered pait of the caske, 
and crreater part of those wliale finnes, which we understood to be there by foure 
Spaniai'ds which escaped &, wei-e brought to S. John de Luz. . . . 

"Then being enformed, that the Whales which are deadly wounded in the 
grand Baye [near the Strait of Belle Isle], and yet escape the fisher for a time, are 
woont usually to shoot themselves on shore on the Isle of Assumption, or Natisco- 
tec, which lieth in the very mouth of the great river that runneth up to Canada, 
we shaped our course over to that long Isle of Natiscotec. 

"And after wee had searched two dayes and a night for the whales which \vere 
wounded which we hoped to have found there, and missed of our purpose we 
I'eturned backe to the Southwards" " 

In 1594 or 1595, Robert Dudley made a voyage to the West Indies, returning 
along the coast of the United States and Canada. On April 11, 1595, the following 
was recorded : 

" After wee weare past the meridian of the Bei'mudes our coui'ses brought us 
not far from the cost of Labradore or Nova Francia, which wee knew by the great 
aboundance of whalles."^ 

Lescarbot, who took part in the establishment of the French colonies in Acadia 
and Port Royal in 1605, published in 1609 a history of the region, in the course of 
which he describes the whale fishery in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, though he does 
not describe the whale itself. This, however, was doubtless the Right whale. He 
i-emarks : 

[1609. LESCARBOt's NARRATIVE.] 

"I leaue the maner of taking of her [Leviathan], described by Oppian and S. 
Basil for to come to our French-men, and chiefely the Basques, who doe goe euei-y 

' Hakluyt, R., The Principal Navigations of the English Nation, 1589, p. 689. 

^ Op. cit., 3, 1600, p. 194. The voyage of the Grace of Bristol of M. Hice J^ones, a Barke of 
thirty-five Tunnes, vp into the Bay of Saint Laure?ue to the Northwest of Newefotmdland, as 
farre as the Isle of Assumption or Natiscotec, for the barbes or fynnes of Whales and traine oyle, 
made by Silvester Wyet, Shipmaster of Bristoll. 

" The Voyage of Sir Robert Dudley to the West Indies, 1594-1595. Hakluyt Soc, 1899, p. 53. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 17 

yeare to the great liuer of Canada for tLe Whale. Commonly the fishing thereof 
is made in the riuer called Lei<qveinin toward Tadousmc. And for to doe it 
they goe by skowtes to make watch vpon the tops of rockes, to see if they may 
haue the sight of some one: and when they haiie discovered any, foorthwith 
they goe with fower shalonpes after it, and hauiug cunningly boided her, they 
strike her with a harping ii'on to the depth of her lard, and to the qnicke of the 
flesh. Then this creature feeling heiselfe rudely pricked, with a dreadful! boister- 
ousnesse casteth herselfe into the depth of the sea. The men in the meaue while 
are in their shiits, which vere out the cord whereunto the hai'ping iron is tied, 
which the whale carrieth away. But at the shaloupe side that hath giuen the blow 
there is a man redy with a hatchet in hand to cut the said cord, least pcichance 
some accident should happen that it were mingled, oi' that the Whales foice should 
be too violent: which uotwithstandiuir hauinsx found the bottorae, and beingf abh^ to 
goe no furthei', she mouuteth vp againe leasurely aljoue the water: and then againe 
she is set upon with glaue-staves, or pertuisanes, very sharp, so hotly that the salt- 
water ])ierceing within her flesh she looseth her force, and I'emaineth there. Then 
onetieth her to a cable at whose end is an ankei' which is cast into the sea, then at 
the end of six or eight (iaies they goe to fetch her, when time and opportunity per- 
mits it they cut her in peeces, and in great kettles doe seeth the fat which melteth 
it selfe into oile, wherewith they may fill 400 Hogs-heads, sometimes more, and 
sometimes lesse, according to the greatnesse of the beast, and of the tongue com- 
monly they draw fine, yea six hogs-heads full of traine." [Then follo\\ s quotation 
fi'om Acosta's account of Indians taking whales in Florida.]' 

When Champlain was returning from Tadoussac on the St. Lawrence River to 
France, 1610, his vessel ran into a whale and he takes the occasion to describe the 
whale fishery in detail, as follows : 

[1610. CHAMPLAIN's description of the whale fishery in new FRANCE, CHAPTER XII.] 

" It has seemed to me not to be inappi'opriate to give here a short description 
of the whale fishery, as many persons have never seen it and believe that they are 
taken by shooting "with guns, while there are liars so unblushing that they afiirni 
this to those whoknow nothing of it. From these false accounts many persons have 
obstinately disputed this with me. 

" Those then who ai'e most skilful at this fishery are the Basques, who in order 
to prosecute it, place their vessels in a safe harbor, near where they judge there are 
numbers of whales, and equip many boats filled with good men and lines, which are 
small ropes made of the best hemp obtainable, having a length of at least 150 
fathoms ; and have a great many lances of the length of a half-pike, which have the 
iron six inches broad,— of others a foot and a half or two feet long, very sharp. 
They have in each boat a harpooner, who is a man of the most agile and skilful 
amouij them, and draws the most pay after the masters, inasmuch as it is the most 
hazardous position. The boat above mentioned being outside the harbor, they look 
in all directions in order that they may if possible see and discover a whale feeding 
off one shore oi' the other ; and not seeing any, they return to land and ascend the 
highest promontory they find, for the [nu-pose of seeing as far as possible, and there 
they station a man as asentinel, who seeing a whale, which they discover as much 
by its size as by the water which it spouts out of its blowholes, which is more than 

' Lescarbot, Nova Francia, Or tlie Description of that part of New France which is one 
continent with Virginia, &c. Trans, by P. E. London, 1609, pp. 268-269. 



18 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

a barrel at a time, and to the height of two hioces ; and from this water which it 
spouts lip, they judge how much oil it will probably yield. There are some from 
which as much as 120 (six vingts) baiTcls may be obtained, from otliers less. 

" On seeing this huge fish, they embark promptly in theii' boats and b}' foi'ce of 
oars or wind, go as close as they ma}^ Seeing the whale between two waves, at 
the same instant the hai-pooner is at the front of the boat with a hai'poon, which is 
an ii'on 2 feet long and one half broad at the wings, hafted on a staff the length 
of a half-pike, at the middle of which there is a groove where the line is attached ; 
and as soon as the harpooner sees his chance, he throws his hai'poon at the whale, 
the same entering well forward. As soon as it (the whale) feels itself wounded, it 
goes to the bottom. And if by chance on returning a number of times, it assaults 
the boat or the men with its tail, it shatters them like a glass. 

"This is all the risk they run of being killed in hai-pooiiing it. But as soon as 
they have cast the har[)oon, they let their line run out, till the whnle is at the 
bottom ; and sometimes as it does not go down directly, it tows the boat more than 
eight or nine leagues, and goes as fast as a horse, and the men are very often com- 
pelled to cut their line, fearing that the whale may di-ag them under the watei-. 
But when it goes dii-eetly to the bottom it remains there a little time & then 
returns quietly to the surface ; and as fast as it rises, they take in their line little 
by little, and then when it is on top they place two or three boats around it with 
their lances, with which they give it many thrusts ; and feeling itself struck the 
whale descends directly below the surface, losing blood & becoming enfeebled in 
such a manner that it has no more strength nor vitality, and coming again to the 
suiface, they succeed in killing it. When it is dead, it does not go down to the 
bottom again ; and then they fasten to it good ropes and tow it ashore, in the place 
where they have their try works {degrat), which is the place where they boil the 
blubber of the whale in order to extract the oil. 

" Such is the manner in which they fish and not by shooting with guns, as 
many think, as I have said above." ' 

This is repeated fi'om Les Voyages du Sieur de Champlain, Paris, 1613, p. 226 
(Laverdiere, QEuvres de Champlain, 2d ed., 3, 1870, p. 374), where it occui's in 
connection with the voyage from Tadoussac to France in 1610; but in the lattei- 
place it is introduced thus: 

"On the 13'!' of the said month we departed from Tadoussac, and arrived at 
the Isle Percee the next day, where we found a number of vessels engaged in the 
fishery for dry and fresh fish. 

" On the 18"' of the said month we departed from Isle Percee and passed along 
the 42':' parallel of latitude without having any knowledge of the great bank where 
the fishery for fresh fish is carried on, for the said phice is too narrow on this 
parallel. 

"Being half across, we ran into a whale which was asleep and the vessel pass- 
ing above it made a very large opening in it neai' the tail, which caused it immedi- 
ately to wake (without our vessel being damaged) and shed a weat amount of 
blood. s o ^ ^, 

" It seems to me not inappropriate to give here a brief description of the whale 
fisheiy," etc. 

'Laverdiere, CEuvres de Champlain, 2d ed., 5, 1870, pp. 835-837. This is Chapter XII in 
Les Voyages de la Nouvelle France Occidentale, dicte Canada, fails par le Sr. de Champlain. Paris, 
1652. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 19 

At the close Champlaiu remarks as follows : 

"To take up again the thi-ead of my discourse, after the wounding of the 
whale, as aforesaid, we took numbers of poi'poises which our boatswain's mate 
harpooned, from which we received pleasure and satisfaction.'" 

From the fact that the whales mentioned by Champlain remained on the sur- 
face when killed it is evident that they were Eight whales, and not Finbacks, or 
Humpbacks, as indeed we know from other sources. 

The branch of the Franciscan monks of the Roman Catholic church known 
as the Recollets had mission establishments on the St. Lawrence from 1615 to 
1629. Sagard-Theodat, a monk of this order, published in 1632 an account of his 
observations in the country, in the course of which he makes some very interestino- 
observations on the whales of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, which are among the 
earliest sufficiently detailed to indicate the kind of whale referred to. He writes : 



[1615-1629. sagard-theodat's narrative.] 

" I anuised myself at times, when I felt so disposed, by watching the whales 
spout and the little whales play, and have seen an infinity of them, particulai'ly at 
Gaspe, where they disturbed our lepose by their puffing, and the divei-s cruisings 
of both Gibars and whales. The Gihar is a kind of whale, so called on account of 
a protuberance that it seems to have, having the back much raised, where it carries 
a fin. 

"It is not smaller than the whales, but is not so thick or corpulent, and has 
the snout longer and more pointed, and a blowhole on the forehead, through which 
it spouts water with gi'eat force. Some on this account call it the puffer. 

"All the whales cany and produce their young fully alive, nursing them, and 
covering and shielding them with theii' fins. The GiharH and other whales sleep 
holding their heads extended a little out of the water, so that this blowhole is 
exposed and at the surface. The whales are to be seen and discovered from afar 
by their tail, which they show frequently on diving into the sea, and also by the 
water which they throw out of their blowholes, which is more than a hogshead at 
a time, and to the height of two lances, and by this water which the whale throws 
up, one can judge how much oil it will furnish. 

"There are such as one may obtain more than 100 hogsheads (Jnirriques) from, 
and others less, and, fi'om the tongue one may ordinarily obtain five or six hogs- 
heads (and Pliny states that whales are found which are 600 feet long and 360 
bi'oad). There are some from which one may obtain moi-e. 

" On my return I saw very few whales at Gaspe, in comparison with the preced- 
ing year, and could not perceive the cause, nor the reason for it, if not that it might 
be in part the great abundance of blood which flowed from the wound of a large 
whale, that for pleasure one of our commissioners had given him with a shot of an 
arquel)us, double loaded. This is, however, not the way to capture them, for it 
requires quite other inventions, and artifices of which the Basques know very well 
how to make use, but since other authors have written of them, I will refrain from 
describins; them. 

' Laverdiere, Oiuvres de Champlain, 2d ed., 3, 1870, pp. 376-377. 



20 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

" The first whale that we saw at sea was asleep, and as we passed quite close 
the ship was tunied a little, for feai' that upon awaking it might do us some harm. 
I saw one among the othei's extraordinarily large, and such that the captain and 
those who went about there said assuredly they had never seen a larger one. 
That which enabled one the better to appreciate his bulk and size was that in 
throwing himself about and bearing up against the sea, he made visible a part 
of his huge body. I was very much astonished by a Gibar which with its fin 
or its tail ^for I could not well discern or recognize which it was) struck so terribly 
hard on the watei', that one could hear it for a long distance, and I was told that 
it was to surpi-ise and mass together the fish, in order afterwards to swallow 
them." ' 

He remarks also : 

" All this bay [of Gaspe] was so full of whales that at last they inconvenienced 
us veiy much, and disturbed our repose by their continual bustle, and the noise of 
their spoutiugs." ~ 

We have already seen that Baffin in his letter to Wolstenholme relative to his 
voyage of 1616 mentions the "Grand Bay" whale (or whale of the Strait of Belle 
Isle) which Eschi'icht believed to be Balijeiia myftticetus. (See p. 10.) 

Champlain's account of Canada, already cited, which was published in 1632, 
contains this note : 

"Codfish and whales are fished for alono- all the coasts of New France, in 
almost all seasons." ^ 

NEW ENGLAND COAST. 

None of the explorers of the 16th century make any reference, so far as 
I am aware, to the occurrence of whalebone whales in New England waters. In 
Brereton's account of Gosnold's voyage to Massachusetts in 1602, however, we find 
whales included in the list of "commodities" seen in the country, and the following 
remark : 

"On the north side of this island [Martha's Vineyard ? March, 1602] we found 
many huge bones and ribs of whales." ^ 

Wayraouth, who made a voyage to the coast of New England in 1605, remarks 
of the Indians : 

"One especial thing is their manner of killing the whale, which they call 
powdawe; and will describe his form ; how he bloweth up the water; and that he 
is twelve fathoms long ; and that they go in company of their king with a multi- 

' Sagard-Theodat, G., Le Grand Voyage au Pays des Hurons, 1632, pp. 24-27. 
'" Op. cif., p. 40. 

° Laverdiere, CEuvres de Champlain, 2d ed., 5, 1870, p. 663. 

* Brereton, John, A Brief and True Relation of the Discovery of the North Part of Virginia, 
Made this Present Year 1602. London, 1602. Mass. Hist. Coll. (3), 8, p. 87. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 21 

tude of their boats, and strike him with a bone made in fashion of a harpinf' iron 
fastened to a rope, which they make great and strong of the bark of trees, which 
they veer out after him : then all their boats come about him, and as he riseth 
above water, with their arrows they shoot him to death : when they have killed 
him and dragged him to shore, they call all their chief lords together, and sing 
a song of joy: and those chief lords, whom they call sjigamores, divide the spoil, 
and give to every man a share, which pieces so distributed, they hang up about 
their houses for provision : and when they boil them, they blow off the fat, and 
put to their pease, maize, and other pulse which they eat." ' 

His landfall seems to have been at Nantucket [Cuerno?] and be remarks: 

"Here [May 14, 1605] we found great store of excellent codfish, and saw 
many whales, as we had done two or three days before." [Somewhere near the 
Island of Cuerno in lat. 41° 20'.] ~ 

He also includes whales among the profitable things to be found in New 
England.^ 

These notes furnish no information as to the kind of whales obtained, but in 
John Smith's account of his voyage to New England in 1614 we find a definite 
allusion to the Finbacks. He writes : 

[1614. JOHN smith's voyage TO NEW ENGLAND.] 

"In the month of April, 1614, at the charge of Captain Marraaduke Roydon, 
Captain Geoi-ge Langam, Mi'. John Buley and Mr. "William Skelton, with two ships 
from London, I chanced to arrive at Monahigan [Monhegan] an isle of America, in 
434 [43° 40'] of northerly latitude: our plot was there to take whales, for which 
we had one Samuel Ciamtou and divers others expert in that faculty, and also to 
make trials of a mine of gold and copper ; if those failed, fish and furs were then 
our I'ef uge to make ourselves savers howsoever : we found this whale-fishing a 
costly conclusion, we saw many and spent much time in chasing them, but could 
not kill any, they being a kind of imbartes, and not the whale that yields fins and 
oil, as we expected ; for our gold it was rather the mastei-'s device to get a voyage 
that projected it, than any knowledge he had at all of any such matter; fish and 
furs weie now our guard, and by our late arrival and long lingering about the 
whale, the prime of both those seasons were past ere we perceived it, we thinking 
that their seasons served at all times, but we found it otherwise, for by the midst 
of June the fishing failed, yet in July and August some were taken, but not suf- 
ficient to defray so great a charge as our stay required : of dry fish we made about 
forty thousand, of cor-fish about seven thousand."^ 

' Waymouth's Voyage in the Discovery of the Land of Virginia, written by James Rosier. 
London, 1605. Mass. Hist. Coll. (3), 8, p. 156. 

^ Op. cit. p. 131. 

'Op. «•/., p. 157. 

* Smith, J., General History of New England. Pinkerton's Voyages, 13, 1S12, p. 207. 

Starbuck puts the matter in a somewhat different light, remarking that Smith " found whales 
so plentiful along the coast that he turned from the primary object of his voyage to pursue them." 
There appears to be nothing in the original narrative just quoted to justify this view.— Starbuck, 
History of the American Whale Fishery. Rcpt. U. S. Fish Com., pt. 4, 1878, p. 5, foot-note. 



22 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

lu Bradford's and Wiuslow's Journal of events in Plymouth Colony from 
1602 to 1625 we find the following under date of November 11, 1620 : 

[1620. CAPE COD. Bradford's and winslow's "journal."] 

[Nov. 11, 1620.] "And every day we saw whales playing hard by us; of 
which in that place, if we had instruments and means to take them, we might have 
made a very I'icli return ; which, to oui* gi-eat grief, we wanted. Oui' master and 
his mate, and others experienced in fishing, professed we might have made three or 
four thousand pounds' worth of oil. They preferred it before Greenland whale- 
fishing, and purpose the next winter to fish for whale here." ' 

lu the same Journal, among the arguments brought forward for the establish- 
ment of a settlement at Pamet River, on Cape Cod, is the following: 

[1620. cape cod, mass. Bradford's and winslow's "journal."] 

"Thii'dly, Cape Cod was like to be a place of good fishing; for we saw daily 
great whales, of the best kind for oil and bone, come close aboard our ship, and, in 
fair weather, swim and play about us. There was once one, when the sun shone 
warm, came and lay al)ove water, as if she had been dead, for a good while to- 
gethei', within half a musket shot of the ship; at which two were prepared to 
shoot, to see whether she would stir or no. He that gave fire first, his musket flew 
in pieces, both stock and barrel ; yet, thanks be to God, neither he nor any man 
else was liurt with it, though many were there about. But when the whale saw 
her time, she gave a snuff, and away."*^ 

An account of a voyage to New England in 1629 contains the following 
reference to whales : 

"This day [June 24] we had all a cleai'e and comfortable siglit of America, 
and of the Cape Sable that was over against us 7 or 8 leagues northward. Here 
we saw yellow gillifiowers on the sea. 

"Thursday [25* June] wind still N. E. a full and fresh gale. In the afternoon 
we had a cleare sight of many islands and hills Ijy the sea shoare. Now we saw 
abundance of mackrill, a great store of great whales puffing up water as they goe, 

'Young, Alex., Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers of the Colony of Plymouth from 1602 to 
1625, Boston, 1841, p. 119. Bradford's and Winslow's Journal. Young comments on this para- 
graph as follows; 

"Whales are frequently seen in Barnstable Bay and on the outside of the Cape, and are killed 
by boats from Provincetown. Occasionally, though more rarely of late, they come into the harbour ; 
at the beginning of the present century, two or three whales, producing about a hundred barrels of 
oil, were annually caught ; the last that was killed in the harbour was in Dec, 1840, a humpback, 
that made fifty barrels of oil. The appearance of a whale in the harbour is the signal for a general 
stir among the hundred graceful five-hand boats that line the circling shore of this beautiful bay. 
The American whale fishery commenced at Cape Cod, where it was carried on entirely in boats, 
which put off whenever a signal was given by persons on the look out from an elevated station, 
that a whale was seen to blow. In 1690 'one Ichabod Paddock ' went from the Cape to Nantucket 
to teach the inhabitants of that isle the art and mystery of catching whales. — See Mass. Hist. Coll. 
(1), III, 157-" 

' Op. cii., p. 146. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 23 

some of tbeni came ueere our ship]); this creature did ustonisli us that saw tliem 
uot before; their back appeared like a little island." — (P. 42.)' 

On another page" are again mentioned "hnge whales going by companies and 
puffing up watei'-streames." 

Richard Mather, iu his voyage to New England in 163.5, mentions seeing near 
that coast " mighty whales spewing up water in the air like the smoke of a chimney."'' 

In 163i), according to 8tarbuck, the Massachusetts colonies began to pass acts 
I'elating to the fisheries. The earliest paper relating to whales which he quotes is 
a [)ioposition of the general court of Plymouth Colony respecting "drift fish," dated 
October 1, IHGl.^ Neither this nor the later documents give any clue to the kind 
of whales })ursued, beyond passing I'eferences to whalebone and statements of the 
amount of oil obtained, but it is probable, judging from evidence of later date, that 
it was the Atlantic Right whale, Balcena glacialis. 

NEW YORK BAY. 

The only early historian of New York whose writings, so far as I have been 
able to ascertain, contain references to whales, is Adi'iaen Van der Donck. He 
came to New York about 1645, and about 1653 published the first edition of his 
Description of the New Netherlands. In this history he tuius aside to mention the 
appeai'ance of two whales in the Hudson River in 1647, and of four others which 
occurred thei-e the same year, as follows : 

[1656. VAN DER DONCK's "DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW NETHERLANDS."] 

" I cannot refi'ain, although somewhat out of place, to relate a very singular 
occurrence, which happened in the month of March, 1647, at the time of a great 
freshet caused by the fiesh water flcnving down from above, by which the water 
of the [Hudson] river became nearly fresh to the bay, when at ordinary seasons the 
salt water flows up from twenty to twenty-four miles fi'om the sea. At this season, 
two whales, of common size, swam up the liver foity miles, from which place one 
of them retui'ned and stranded about twelve miles fi'om the sea, near which place 
four others also stranded the same year. The other run farther np the river and 
gi-ounded near the gi'eat Chahoos falls, about foi-ty-tliree miles from the sea. This 
fish was tolerably fat, for although the citizens of Rensselaerwyck broiled out a 
great quantity of train oil, still the whole river (the current being still rapid) was 
oily foi' three weeks and covered with grease. As the fish lay rotting, the air was 
infected with its stench to such a degree that the smell was offensive and percepti- 
ble for two miles to leeward. For what purpose those whales ascended the rivei- 
so far, it being at the time full forty miles from all salt oi' brackish water, it is dif- 
ficult to say, unless their great desire for fish, which wei'e plenty at this season, led 
them onwaid." ^ 

' A True Relation of the Last Voyage to New England, begun the 25th of April, 1629, written 
from New England, July 24, 1629. Hutchinson's Coll. Orig. Papers on Hist. Mass. Bay, 1769. 
' Op. cit., p. 46. 
' See his Journal. Quoted by Starbuck, op. at., p. 5, foot-note. 
' Starbuck, op. cit., p. 7. 

'Van der Donck, A., .-V Description of the New Netherlands, 2d ed., 1656. 2 N. Y. Hist. 
Call., I, pp. 142-143. The first edition, according to the editor, was published about 1653. 



24 THE WJIALEBONE WIl2i.LES OF THE WESTERN WOETH ATLANTIC. 

Tliese whales were quite probably Finbacks, although there is nothing in the 
narrative whereby to identify theni beyond the statement that they were " of com- 
mon size," and that the one which stranded near "the great Chahoos falls" was 
"tolerably fat." Van der Donck intimates that there was no fishery here at this 
time. He writes: 

"There are [in the -waters of the New Netherlands] also poi'poises, herring- 
hogs, pot-heads or sharks, turtles, &e., and whales, of which there are none caught, 
but if preparations were made for the pui-pose, then it might be easily effected ; but 
our colonists have nut advanced far enough to pursue whaling. A lost bird, however, 
is frequently cast and stranded, which is cut up." ' 

This is more likely to refer to New York Bay (or North Bay, as it was called) 
than to the Delaware, or South Bay, for, as we shall see presently, there had been a 
fishery in the latter region some fourteen or fifteen years pi-eviously, which V^an der 
Donck mentions elsewhere. Furthermore, the context applies to New York rather 
than to Delaware, and Van der Donck's residence was on the Hudson River. By 
the expression "a lost bird," he seems to mean a stranded whale. 

LONG ISLAND. 

In 1G44, according to Starbuck, the town of Southampton, Long Island, ap- 
pointed persons to attend to "drift" whales, and in 1651 the town of Easthampton 
arranged for persons to " loke out for whale." These to^\ns and Southwold drew 
up a petition in 1672, in which it was stated that they had endeavored to establish a 
whale fishery for "about twenty years," but could not bring it to perfection until 
" within 2 or 3 years." 

DELAWABE BAY. 

Nothing regarding the occurrence of whales in Delaware Bay appeal's to have 
been })ut into pi-int until De Vries published his account of the attempt of a 
Dutch company to establish a fishery there in 1631. This undertaking does not 
seem to have been successful. The kind of whale sought for is not desciibed, but 
from the fact that De Vries remarks that they "come in winter and remain till 
Mai'ch," it was pi'esumably the Right whale. De Vries was employed as a patroon 
to plant a colony in the New Netherlands. The following references to this enter- 
prise are of much interest : 

[1631. DE VRIES'S NARRATIVE.] 

"We at the same time equipped a ship with a yacht for the purpose of prose- 
cuting the voyage, as well to carry on the whale fishery in that region, as to plant 
a colony for the cultivation of all sorts of grain, for which the country is very well 
adapted, and of tobacco. This ship with tlie yacht sailed from the Texel the 12th 
of December [1630], with a number of people and a large stock of cattle, to settle 
our colony upon the South Rivei- [Delaware River], which lies in the thirty-eighth 
and a half degree, and to conduct the whale fishery there, as Godyn represented 

' Van der Donck, A., A Description of the New Netherlands, 2d ed., 1656. 2 N. Y. Hist. 
Coll., i., p. 176. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 25 

that there were many whales which kept before tlie ])ay [Delaware Bay], and the 
oil, at sixty guilders a hogshead, he thought would realize a good profit, and con- 
sequently that fine country be cultivated. 

"The 20th of same month, we understood that our yacht was taken the day 
but one before as it was I'unning out the Texel, by the Dunkirkers, through the 
carelessness of the large ship. . . . (Pp. 15-16.) 

"Anno 1631. . . . The ship conveyed the rest [of a lot of emigrants] to 
the South River [Delaware River] in New Xetherland, and brought a sample of oil 
flora a dead whale found on the shore. . . . (P. 16.) 

"Anno 1632. The 12th of February we again entered into an agreement to 
equip a ship and yacht for the whale fishery, in which much profit had not been 
realized ; because we had had such a losing voyage, and no retui'ns from the whale 
fishery, and saw no prospect of any. But Samuel Godyn encouraged us to make 
another attempt. He said the Gi'eeuland Com[)any had two bad voyages with 
Willen Van Muyen, and aftei'wai'ds became a thi-ifty company. It was thei-efore 
again I'esolved to undertake a voyage for the whale fishery, a!id that T myself 
should go as pati'oon, and as commander of the ship and yacht, and should 
endeavor to be there in December, in order to conduct the whale fishing during the 
winter, as the whales come in tke winter and remain till March. (P. 16.) 

"The 12th of September [St. Martin's Id., West Indies], I let the ship have 
room, but the capture of a whale brought me to anchor. In New Netherland and 
in Patria [in Holland], this would have been a valuaVde pi'ize. (P. 20.) 

"The 5th [of Dec], the wind southwest, we weighed anchor, and sailed into 
the South bay [Delaware Bay], and lay, with our yacht, in four fathoms water, 
and saw immediately a whale near the ship. Thought this would be royal work — 
the whales so numei'ous — and the land so fine for cultivation. (P. 22.) 

"Anno 1633. The 1st of January . . . saw a whale at the mouth of the 
South I'iver [Delaware River] : 

"The 2d [Jan.], in the moi'ning, fine and pleasant, saw two large whales near 
the yacht. (P. 24.) 

"The 11th [Jan.]. Arrived about a half-a-mile above Minqua's kill, where 
we anchored, and saw a whale there that evening six or seven times. We were 
surprised to see a whale seven or eight miles up into fresh water. (P. 27.) 

"The 13th [Jan.]. Came to the ship at Swanendael, where our friends were 
rejoiced to see us. We found that they had shot two whales, liut they furnished 
little oil. (P. 27.) 

"The 29th [March], we arrived again in the South Bay [Delaware Bay], at 
Swanendael, at our ships, where we were very welcome. Found that our people 
had caught seven whales, but there were only thirty-two cartels of oil obtained, so 
that the whale-fishery is very expensive, when such meagre fish are caught. We 
could have done moi'e if we had had good harpooners, for they struck seventeen 
fish, and only secured seven, which is astonishing. They had always struck the 
whales in the tail. I afterwards undei'stood fiom some Basques, who were old 
whale-fishers, that they always struck the harpoon in the fore-part of the back. 
. . . Having put our oil in the ship, taken down our kettle, and hauled in 
wood and water, we cot ready to sail. (P. 38.) 

"The 16th [A [nil]. Arrived at noon before Fort Amsterdam [New York], 
and found a Company's ship there. She had biought a new governor, Wouter 
Van Twiller of Newkirk. ... I went ashore to the iovt, out of which he 
came to welcome me, and inquired of me also, how the whale-fishery succeeded. I 
answeivd him that I had a sample ; but that they were foolish who undertook the 



26 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

whale-fishery here at such great expense, when they could have readily ascertained 
with one, two, or three sloops in New Netherland, whether it was good fishing or 
not." (P. 39.)' 

This fisliery appears to have become somewhat more j^rosperous later, or at 
least to have been supplanted by another which was so, if we may credit Van der 
Donck, who writes in 1656, of events occurring between 1644 and 1653 as follows: 

[1656. A. VAN DER DONCk's "DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW NETHERLANDS."] 

"Here [Delaware Bay] also is a good whale fishery. Whales are numerous in 
the winter on the coast, and in the bay, where they frequently ground on the shoals 
and bars ; but they are not as fat as the Greenland whales. If, however, the fishery 
was well managed, it would be profitable." " 

And again : 

" Tiain oil can be made at the South bays [Delaware Bay], whei'e whales are 

plenty."'^ 

These statements may, I presume, be interpreted to mean either that a fishery 
was in operation, or that it could be established. The expression, " here is a good 
whale fishery," may pei'haps mean only that here is a good fishing ground. As the 
whales are said to come in winter, they were pi-esumably Right whales. 

According to the late Prof. E. D. Cope, a letter of Wm. Penn, dated 1683, 
states that eleven whales wei'e taken about the capes at the entrance to Delaware 
Bay that year."* T have not found the original of this statement, but in Penn's 
General Description of Pennsylvania, published in 1683, among the resources of 
the country is included " the whale for oil, of which we have good store ; and two 
companies of whalers, whose boats are built, will soon begin their work, which hath 
the appeai-ance of a considerable improvement." ^ 

VIRGINIA TO FLORIDA. 

I find no early references to the occurrence of whales on the Atlantic coast 
from the Chesapeake Bay to Florida. Mr. H. H. Biimley stated in 1894 that the 
Right whale fisheiy practised ai'ound Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, had " been 
in existence many years," ^ but does not give any details regarding its history. 
Lawson, in 1709, stated that no whales were killed on the coast of North Carolina 
at that time. (See the remark of Duhamel, quoted on p. 44.) 

' De Vries, D. p., Voyages from Holland to America, A.D. 1632 to 1644. Trans, by H. C. 
Murphy. 2 N. Y. Hist. Coll., 3, pt. i. 
'2 iV. Y. Hist. Coll., I, p. 139. 

' Op. cit., p. 235, in the Dialogue between a Patriot and a New Netherlander. 
^ Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 168. 
'Penn's Select Works, 4th ed., 3, 1825, p. 226. 
'Bull, of the N. C. Dept. of Ai^ric, 14, No. 7, 1894, p. 5. 



THE WHALKBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 27 

Luudoniiiere, who was on the coast of Florida in 156-i, in mentioning one of 
the rivers I'emarks : 

[June 22, 1564]. "Before departing I named this river the River of the 
Dolpliins, because on my arrival I saw there a lai-ge number of dolphins playing 
about in the mouth of it." ' 

A remarkable story of the whale fishery of the Indians of Florida was told by 
Joseph de Acosta in his History of the Indies, the fii'st edition of which ajtpeared 
in 1590. This story was repeated again and again by later writers, and in spite of 
its marvellous character it was long before it disap)peared from the histories. 

In the quaint translation of Grimston it is as follows : 

" But the combate which the Indians have with Whales is yet more admirable, 
wherein appeares the power and greatnesse of the Creator to give so base a Nation, 
as be the Indians, the industry and courage to incounter the most fierce and 
deformed beast in the worlde, and not only to fight with him, but also to vanquish 
him, and to triumph over him. Considering this, I have often remembred that 
place of the Psalnie, speaking of the Whale, Draco iste, quern for mast i ad illuden- 
dum eum. What greater mockerie can there be then to see an Indian leade a whale 
as bigge as a mountaine vanquished with a corde. The nianer the Indians of 
Florida vse (as some expert men have tolde me) to take these whales (whereof 
there is gi-eat store) is, they put themselves into a canoe, whicli is like a barke of a 
tree, and in swimming approach neere the whales side ; then with great dexteritie 
they leape to his necke, and there they ride as on horsebacke, expecting his time, 
then hee thi-ustes a sliarpe and strong stake, which hee cari-ies with him, into the 
whales nosthrill, for so they call the hole or vent by which they breathe; presently 
he beates it in with an other stake as forcibly as hee can ; in the meane space the 
whale dooth furiously beate the sea, and raiseth mountaines of water, I'unning into 
the deei)e with great violence, and presently riseth agaiue, not knowing what 
to doe for paine ; the Indian still sittes firme, and to give him full payment for this 
ti-ouble, he beates another stake into the other vent or nosthrill so as he stoppeth 
him quite, and takes away his breathing ; then hee betakes him to hiscanoe, which 
he holdes tied with a corde to the whales side, and goes to land, having first tied 
bis corde to the whale, the which hee lettes runue with the whale, who leapes from 
place to place whilest he finds water enough ; being troubled with paine, in the end 
hee comes neei-e the land, and I'emains on ground by the hugenesse of his body, 
vnable any more to moove ; then a great number of Indians come vnto the conquered 
beast to gather his sjioiles, they kill him, and cut his flesh in peeces, this do they drie 
and beate into powdei-, vsing" it for meate, it dooth last them long: wherein is 
fulfilled that which is spoken in another Psalme of the whale, Dedisti eum escam 
populis ^EtMopum.r ~ 

BERMUDA. 

In 1G65 we have iw the first time a short account of a whale fishery at 
the Bermudas (published anonymously in the first volume of the Philosophical 

' Laudonniere, R., Hist, de Florida. Bibl. Elznir, 1853, p. 68. 

' AcosTA, J., The Natural and Moral History of the Indies. Reprinted from the English 
translated edition of Edward Grimston, 1604, pp. 148-150 (revised by Clements R. Markham). 
Hakluyt Soc, London, 1880. 



28 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

Transdctioiis) wliicli is ex[)licit as to the size and shape of the whales, the mouths 
iu which they are found, and other matters.' The whales were Humpbacks. Two 
old females and three cubs were taken at first and afterwards 16 other individ- 
uals. One old female was 88 ft. long, the flukes 23 ft. broad, the flipper 26 ft. 
louo-, the baleen 3 ft. long. The other female was about 60 ft. long, and of the 
cubs one was 33 ft. long, and the remaining two 25 or 26 ft. The writer states that 
the whales occoired only from the beginning of March to the end of May (or of 
Api'il), after which they left the coast and were supposed to go to the Gulf 
of Mexico. 

In the second part of this article refei'ence is made to the stranding of a spei'm 
whale on the New England coast, — " of that sort which they call Tnimpo^'' and 
further that " these whales were to be met with, between the Coast of New- 
England and New-Netherland, where tliey might be caught eight or nine months 
in the year." 

This subject was taken up again in 1667 by Richard Norwood, an "intelli- 
gent gentleman living upon the place," but he seems to have had his infoi'matioii 
entii'ely at second-hand. 

"For the hilling of Whales, it hath been formerly attempted iu vain, but 
within these 2 or 3 years, in the Spring-time and fair weather, they take some- 
times one, or two, or three in a day. They are less, I hear, than those in Green- 
land, but more quick and lively. 

" . . . I have heai'd from credible persons that there is a kind of sucli 
as have the Spernut at Eleutlieria, and others of the Baliama Islands (\vhere also 
they find often quantities of Amher-greese) and that those have great teeth (which 
ours have not) and ai'e very sinewy." ^ 

The next yeai-, 1668, Noi'wood's friend, Richai'd Stafford, Sheriff of the 
Bermudas, \\\\o appears to have been a practical whaler, wrote a lettei' to the 
Royal Society iu which the whale fishery is again referred to. His statements, 
though erroneous in some particulars, are very interesting, and are, so far as I 
know, the first recorded observations of any person who was familiar with whales 
in American waters from having actually himself taken part in theii' captui'e. 
He wi'ites : 

" We have hereabout [the Bermudas] very many sorts of Fishes. There is 
amongst them great store of Whales, which in March, A[)ril and May use our 

'Anon., Of the New American Whale-fishing about the Bermudas. Philos. Trans., i, No. i, 
March 6, 1665, pp. 11-13. 

Anon., A Further Relation of the Whale-fishing about the Bermudas, and on the Coast of 
New-England and New-Netherland. Philos. Trans., 1, No. 8, Jan. 8, i66|, pp. 132, 133. 

This fishery was to be begun March 22, 1664, but it appears not to have been until April. (See 
Lefroy, Memorials of the Bermudas, 2, pp. 211 and 2(4.) 

' Norwood, Richard. An Extract of a Letter, written from the Bermudas, giving an account 
of . . . the Whale-fishing there practised anew, and of such Whales as have the Sperma Ceti in 
them. Philos. Trans., i, No. 30, 1667, pp. 565-567. Norwood made the first surveys of the 
islands and divided them into shares. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 29 

Coast. I have myself killed muuy of them. Their Females have ahundaiice of 
Milk, which their young oues suck out of the Teats, that grow l)y their Navell. 
They have no Teeth, but feed on Mosse, growing on the Rocks at the bottom 
during these thi'ee Moneths, and at no other season of the Yeai-. When that is 
consumed and gone, the Whales go away also. These we kill for tlieir Oyl. But 
here have l:)een Sperma-Ceti-Whaks driven upon the slu)re, which Spertna (as 
they call it) lies all over the Body of tliose Whales. These liave divers Teeth, 
which may be about as big as a Man's wrist; and I hope by the next opi^rtunity 
to send you one of them. I have been at the Bahama-Ulnmh, and there liave 
been found of this same sort of Whales dead on the shoi'e, with Spenna all over 
their Bodies. Myself with about 20 more have agreed to tr}', whether we can 
master and kill them, for I could never hear of any of that sort, that were kill'd 
by any man ; such is their fierceness and swiftness. One such Whale would be 
worth niany hundi'ed pounds. They are very strong, and inlay'd with sinews all 
over their Bod^^, which may be drawn out thiity fathom long." ' 



There are various statements regarding this fishery in the colonial records of 
the Bermudas, a large body of which was published in convenient form by Sir J. 
H. Lefroy in 1879.~ These include the papers of Norwood and Stafford already 
quoted, but are chiefly orders of the proprietors of the islands to the successive 
governors concerning the regulation of the fishery, reports of the governors to the 
pi'oprietors, and various proclamations and court decisions relating to the conduct 
of the industry. In these papers references ai'e occasionally made to the seasons 
in which the whales appear at the islands, and some other allusions to their habits, 
but very little is said regarding the whales themselves. 

While many complaints were made by the proprietors in London that whale 
oil was not sent them as it should have been, whalebone is seldom referred to. 
It is usually mentioned as something which might be expected to form a valuable 
product of the industry, but never as a product actually in hand. Fj'om this it 
would appear that to the close of the ITtli century at least, the Right whale 
was not taken at the islands, for it is not probable that the valuable whalebone of 
that species would have been ignoi'ed. 

We hear nothing of the Bermuda Hump back fi.sheiy again for a very long 
time. Mr. J. Matthew Jones, of Nova Scotia, stated in 1884, that it was "prose- 
cuted by the islanders witli more or less success from the earliest times until the 
present." ^ He seems to be of the opini(jn, however, that the Right whale was the 
species sought for, but there is very good reason to believe that the statements of 
Norwood and Stafford, in 1667 and 1668, relate to the same whale as that mentioned 
in the anonymous accounts of 1665, and the latter was undoubtedly the Hump- 
back. Later, the Right whale may have been captured, as it was on the coast 
of New England, and it is possible that at a comparatively early date attention 

' Stafford, Richard, An Extract of a Letter, written to the Pulilisher from the Bermudas by 
Mr. Richard Stafford ; concerning the Tydes there, as also whales, Spiima Ccti, (etc.). Bermuda, 
July i6, i668. P/iilos. Trans., 3, No. 40, 1668, pp. 792-794. 

" Lefroy, J. H., Memorials of the Discovery and Early Settlement of the Bermudas or Somers 
Islands, 1511-1687. 2 vols., London, 1877-79. 

' Bii/l. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 25, 1884, p. 148. 



30 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

was transfeiTed largely, if not wholly, from the Humpback to tlie Right whale, 
but of this there is no evidence. 

In 1902 Professor A. E. Verrill published a brief statement regarding whales 
at Bermuda, citing the early I'ecords and adding a few data of recent date. The 
baleen whales which he includes as having been seen or captured about the 
islands are a Humpback, a Finback, and a Right whale.' 

WEST INDIES. 

Two comparatively early explorers of the West Indies, Rochefort (1658) and 
Du Tetre (1667), have some little to say regarding the cetaceans of those waters. 
Rochefort in his History of the Antilles, after mentioning the marine monsters 
found in those parts, and describing two species of Marsouins or porpoises, has 
an article on "whales and other monsters of the sea," from which the following: 

" Those who travel about these islands sometimes see whales in their journey- 
ings, which throw up water fi-om their blowhole to the height of a pike, and 
which only show ordinarily a little of their back, which resembles a rock above 
water. 

" Ships are also sometimes accompanied for quite a long time by monsters 
which aie of the length and breadth of a boat (cltalouppe), and which seem to 
find pleasure in thus showing themselves. The sailors call them Morhous or 
Souffleurs (puffers), because that from time to time these prodigious fish put a 
part of their head out of water, to take breath, and then they blow and scattei- 
the water from in front of their pointed snouts. Some say that it is a species of 
large porpoise." '^ 

These whales would appear to be Finbacks, though it is possible, of course, 
that the reference is to some species of ziphioid wliale, perhaps ZipJiius cav- 
ii-ostris, or that various kinds of whales aie confounded. 

Du Tetre in his General History of the Antilles (1667-71) speaks first of the 
"great number of whales, of puffers (Souffleurs) and of porpoises" about Mar- 
tinique and then devotes a section of his work to whales. In this section he 
throws some light on the Souffleur, but haidly enough to make it certain what it 
really is. The matter is as follows : 

" Whales are seen about these islands [Antilles] from the month of March to 
the end of May more fi-equently than in all the rest of the year. They are in heat 
and copulate at this time, and one sees them roaming about pi'incipally in the 
morning, all along the coast, two, three or four, all in a school, blowing and as if 
syringing from their nostrils two little rivers of water, which they blow into the air 
to the height of two pikes, and in this effort they make a kind of bellowing {meu- 
glenunP) which may be heard for a good quarter of a league. When two males 
meet near one of the females they join battle and give themselves over to a danger- 
ous combat, striking the sea so hard with their fins and tail that it seems as if they 
were two ships engaged with cannon."^ 

'Verrill, A. E., The Bermuda Islands. Trans. Conn. Acad., w, 1902, pp. 682-688. 

' Rochefort, C. de, Hist. Nat. et Morale des Isles Antilles, ist ed., 1658, p. 179. 

" Du Tetre, J. B., Hist. Gen. des Antilles, Tom. 2, Traitd 4, " Des Poissons," 1667, p. 196. 



THE WIIALEIiONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 31 

Then follows a pai-agrapb as to the size being exaggerated by Ren6 Francois, 
and then the story of the Floiida Indians from Acosta, after which comes an 
account of an accident caused by a whale getting under a boat near Martinique. 
A little farther on the following important passages occur: 

"One sees more whales ai'ound Martinique than at Guadalou[)e, because the 
sea there is more channeled and deeper, from which it arises that they can frequent 
these shores with less danger than those of Guadaloupe, which are less steep, and 
where there are more keys and shallows, where they might more easily strand and 
pei'ish. 

"Of Souffleurs. — The Souffieur is a large fish, which one might with much 
reason consider a species of whale, supposing that one might enq)loy the word 
whale in a generic sense; for it has so much resemblance to that animal that it 
differs from it only in size ; it blows and syringes the water into the air through 
its nostrils, like the whale, although a much smaller quantity, so that many take 
them for small whale cubs, though it may be an entirely different kind of fish. 
They go in schools like the porpoises, and it is only necessaiy to whistle to make 
them turn suddenly and approach the ships, but it is not all play to capture them, 
for they are endowed with a force so extraordinary, that a captain of a ship assured 
me that one day having harpooned one, it made such a violent strain on the line 
attached to the harpoon that it broke the large yard of his mast where this line 
was fastened. They are in great numbers on all these coasts ; it seems as if they 
had a liking for men, for they follow the canoes and boats, as though it gave them 
pleasure to hear the noise that is made." ' 

PACIFIC COAST. 

Tiie earliest i-efei'ence to whales on the west coast of North America which I 
have found is in Oviedo's chapter "on the whales which are in the seas of the 
islands and mainland of the Indies," in Ramusio's Voyages. This relates to an 
incident which occurred in the year 152!>, a very early date, earlier indeed than 
that of the incident mentioned by Cartier as occurring in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
to which reference has already been made (p. 14). 

Oviedo's account is as follows : 

"I will relate what I myself with many others saw in the mouth of the Gulf 
of Oi'otigna, which is 200 leagues distant from the town of Panama toward the 
West. ... In 1529, going out of the Gulf into the open sea, to go to the town 
of Panama, we saw at the mouth of the Gulf a fish or marine animal extremely 
large, and which from time to time raised itself sti'aight out of the water. And 
that which was to be seen above the water, which was only the head and two arms, 
was considerably higher than our caravel with all its masts. And being elevated 
in that way it let itself fall and struck the water violently, and then after a little 
time i-eturned to repeat the act, but not, howevei", throwing up any water fi-om the 
mouth, although in falling down with the blow and the fall it made nuich water 
rise up into the air. And a cub of this animal, or •one like it but much smaller, did 
the same, deviating always somewhat from the lai'ger one. And from what the 
sailors and others who were in the caravel said they judged it to be a whale, and 
the smaller a whale's cub. The ai'ins which they showed were very large, and 
' Du Tetre, J. B., Hist. G^n. des Antilles, 2, 1667, pp. 196-197. 



32 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

some have said that the whale has no arms. But the one which I saw, was of the 
manner I have said, for I went with the others in the caravel, where came also 
Father Lorenzo Mai-tino, canon of the church of Castiglia delV Oro; and the pilot 
was John Cabezas ; and with us came also a gentleman named Sancio di Tudela, 
with many others, who are alive and can testify the same thing, because I would 
never wish to speak of such things without witnesses. By estimate, and as it 
seemed to me, each arm of this animal might be 25 feet long and as thick as a 
barrel and the head more than 14 or 15 feet long, and very much thicker and the 
i-est of the body more than as much again. 

"It raised itself up and tliat which it showed in height was more than five 
times the height of a middle-sized man, which makes 25 feet. And the fear was 
not a little that all had when with its leaps it came alongside our vessel, because 
our caravel was small. And from what we could surmise it seemed that this 
animal felt pleasure, and made holiday of the weather which was approaching ; for 
soon there arose in the sea a strong west wind, which was much to our advantage, 
for sailing along in a few days we reached the town of Panama." ' 

Fi'om the size and shape of this whale and especially from the length of its 
pectoral fins and its manner of putting its head out of water, there is strong prob- 
ability that it was a Humpback whale. 

In 1539 Francis Ulloa cruised along the Pacific coast of Central America, 
penetrated the Gulf of California, and passing out of it again proceeded to Cerros 
Island. In his passage around Cape St. Lucas he encountered a large school of 
whales, which he i-efers to as follows : 

" Before we came to this point of the haven of Santa Cruz [in the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia] by six or seven leagues, we saw on the shore between certaiu valleys divei'S 
great smokes. And having passed the point of this port our Captain thought 
it good to launch forth into the maine ocean, yet although we ran a swift course, 
about 500 whales came athwart of us in 2 or 3 skulles [schools] within one houre's 
space, which were so huge, as it was w^onderful, and some of them came so neere 
unto the ship, that they swam under the same fi'om one side to another, whereupon 
we were in great feare, lest they should doe us some hurt, but they could not 
because the ship had a prosperous and good winde, and maile much way, whereby 
it could I'eceive no harme, although they touched and strooke the saine."^ 

In the account of Viscaino's voyages along the outer coast of Lower California 
in 1603, given by Torquemada,' it is mentioned that the Baia de Ballenm, or Bay 
of Whales, was so named by the explorer on account of the numbers of whales 
seen there. This was in July, 1602. 

There are, according to H. H. Bancroft, but four voyages to be comprised 
under the title of early voyages for the discovery of California. These are Feri'elo's 
voyage, 1543; Drake's voyage, 1579; Gali's voyage, 1584; and Viscaino and Agui- 
lar's voyage, 1603. An exanjination of the accounts of the first three fails to reveal 
any mention of whales, but in Viscaino's voyage of 1603 these animals were en- 

' Ramusio, Navigationi et Viaggi, 3, p. 156. 

' Op. cit., pp. 353-354. Translation from Hakluyt, 3, pp. 423-424. 

■ ToRQUEMADA, Monarchia Indiana, i, 1723, p. 702. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 33 

countered. TLe ships which were to make this voj-age assembled in the harbor of 
Monterey, from which they started for Cape Mendocino, January 3, 1603. Tlie 
resources of the Monterey region are described and among otliei- things are men- 
tioned "seals, very large, and many whales.'" 

Alaska was discovered by Vitus Bering in 1740, and in the account of tlie 
memoiable and ill-starred expedition wliich Steller has given us we find several 
lefei'ences to whales, the first, so far as I know, for that [)art of America. After 
the landfall at Mt. St. Elias in July, 1740, Bering steered northward and en- 
countered the peninsula of Aliaska and the Aleutian Islands. It was while thread- 
ing their way through this archipelago that the voyagers noticed tlie larger 
cetaceans. 

Steller first remarks on them as follows : 

"From the 20th to the 23d [of August, 1740] we tacked along the Parallel of 
53°. I now saw whales very numerous, not singly any moie, but in pairs, and 
travelling in p:iirs with and behind one another and following one another, which 
pi'ovoked in me the thought that this must be the time fixed for their rut."~ 

This observation appears to have been made when the vessel was between the 
Aleutian and the Shumagin Islands. A little later Steller remarks again : 

"The wind was favorable for us so that toward 2 o'clock in the afternoon 
[Sept. 6, 1740] we lost sight of the mainland and islands. But the numerous 
whales which accompanied us, one of which thrust more than half its length up- 
I'ight out of the sea, made us understand that a storm was brewing."^ 

"The 13tli of September [1740] was a bright day. . . . Moreover, many 
whales were seen playing and we ex[)ected nothing good." * 

' ToRQUEMADA, Monarcliia Indiana, i, 1723, p. 717. 

' Steller, G. VV., Reise von Kamtschatka nach Ainerika, 1793, p. 42. 

' Oj>. cit., p. 76. 

* Op. cU., p. 78. 



CHAPTEK II. 

A CHRONOLOGICAL ACCOUNT OF IMPORTANT COxNTRIBUTIONS TO THE 
NATURAL HISTORY OF NORTH AMERICAN WHALEBONE WHALES. 

Knowledge of whales, as of other auimals, owes its priucipal advancement to 
the observations of three classes of persons, — the explorer and traveller, who 
notices them casually among the varied wonders of nature; the naturalist, amateur, 
or professional; and the person engaged in, or interested in, industrial pursuits. 

To the casual observations of the earliest discoverers and explorers of America 
we have already given attention, and in the whale fisheiy we have no direct interest 
at present. We shall present, therefoi'e, in this cliapter a brief account of Amei'ican 
and European writings, whether by naturalists or piactical whalemen, which have 
contributed to a considerable extent to the advancement of knowledge of the whale- 
bone whales found in North American waters. Writings on the Greenland whale, 
Bakena mysticetus, will be excepted, because the present woi'k does not covei- that 
species. This exception is an important one, involving a number of early treatises 
of much value, such as those of Zorgdrager, Scoresby, etc., which contain excellent 
accounts of the whale fisheries about Greenland and (if the habits of the Greenland 
whale. 

So far as writings of American zoologists are concerned, the number relating 
to baleen whales is surprisingly small, a fact due no doubt to the great difficulty 
of assembling and maintaining cetological collections, and the scarcity of opportu- 
nities for examining living or fresh specimens under favorable conditions. The 
cetological collections of Eui'ope are for the most part the accumulations of cen- 
tui'ies. In Amei'ica, even to-day, such collections are exceedingly meagi'e, and it is 
scarcely to be wondei'ed at, therefore, that so few American natuialists have had 
anything to say about this order of mammals. 

While, as above noted, the [^resent work does not deal with the whale fishery, 
it should be repeated that some of the most substantial contributions to the natural 
history of whales have been derived directly or indirectly from persons engaged in, 
or interested in, that industry, and, indeed, without these treatises cetology would 
be exceedingly deficient in certain directions. 

1. Natural Histories and Miscellaneous Contrihiitions. 

Seventeenth Century. 

The writings of naturalists covering the period between the middle of the 
sixteenth and the middle of the eighteenth centuries, beginning with the treatises of 
Rondelet (1554) and Olaus Magnus (1555) and ending with the tenth edition of 

34 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTEKN NOKIII ATLANTIC. 35 

Linuieus's Systema Natur*, may be couvenieiitly divided into three classes. lu the 
first class belong the general natural histoi'ies, commonly covering the whole field 
of geography, zoology, botany, anthropology, and often other branches of science 
as well. These works are descriptive rather than systematic, and frequently contain 
reflections on and discussions of philological, theological, and political sul)jects. 

The second class comprises works relating more strictly to animals, plants, and 
minerals, but in which little or no attempt is made to classify the various natural 
objects described. Finally, we have the formal natural histories, the precursoi-s of 
the systematic works of the present time. As zoologies of this third class do not 
make their appearance before the beginning of the eighteenth century, we shall look 
in vain for any systematic treatment of the subject under consideration iu advance 
of that time. 

In the two centuries, 1553-1758, the whale fishery received the largest share 
of attention. Discussions of the identity of the unicorn, involving descriptions 
of the Narwhal, occupy the next place, while little less extensive were the in- 
quiries regai'ding the origin of ambergris and the nature of the whale which 
swallowed Jonah. The industrial treatises cover neaily the whole period, but 
those on the unicorn seem to have had their origin about the middle of the seven- 
teenth ceutuiy, and those on ambergris and on Jonah's whale in the later decades 
of that century. 

None of the early naturalists, such as Rondelet (1554), Gesner (1551), or 
Belon (1551), made any reference to the observations of the American explorers 
or to American cetaceans in any wise. American cetology opens in 1590 with 
Acosta's fable of the Florida Indians, who, as he learned from "some expert men," 
captured whales by driving plugs into their blowholes.' This fable was repeated 
by De Bry in 1602, who published a plate showing the Indians engaged in this 
marvellous whale fisheiy.' Lescarbot quotes from Acosta in 1609^ and Nierem- 
berg also tells the story in 1635, but seems inclined to discredit it.'' Du Tetre 
also repeats it in 1667. 

Rochefort's Natural History of the Antilles, published in 1658, contains the 
next reference to baleen whales in North American waters. A translation of his 
lemarks has ali-eady been given on p. 30. Though his description is far from 
satisfactory, it seems to have reference to some species of Finback whale. This is 
the more probable as Du Tetre iu his History of the Antilles, published in 1667, 
has a fullei- description under the same heading, as -we have already seen in the 
preceding chapter, pp. 30, 31. 

Eighteenth Century. 

In 1703, La Hon tan, in his New Voyages to North America, enumerates 
(1) " Balenofs, or little whales"; (2) "a fish almost as big as a whale, called 

' Acosta, J., Hist. nat. y moral de las Indias, Seville, 1590, pp. 158-162. 

' DeBry, T., Idaea vera et genuina, Praecipuarum Historiariim omnium, ut et variorum Rituum, 
Ceremoniarum (etc.) gentis Indica;, Frankfort, 1602, pi. i. 
' Nova Francia. English ed., 1609, p. 269. 
* NiEREMBERG, J. E., Historia naturas, Antwerp, 1635, p. 261. 



36 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

SovMevr'''' ; .and (3) "white porpoises," among the fishes of the St. Lawrence River. 
His descriptions of these, which ai-e exti'emely unsatisfactory, ai-e as folhjws: 

" The BaJenot is a sort of a whale, only 't is less and more fleshy, and does not 
yield Oil in proportion to the Noi'tbern Whales. This Fish goes fifty or sixty 
Leagues up the River. 

" The Sonffieurs are much of the same size, only they are shorter and blacker, 
When they mean to take breath after diving, they squirt out the water through 
a hole behind their Head, after the same manner with the Whales. Commonly, 
they dog the Ships in the River of St. Laurence. 

"The White Porpoises are as big as Oxen. They always go along with the 
Current; and go up with the tide till they come at fi'esh water, upon which they 
retire with the ebb water. They are a ghastly sort of Animals, and are frequently 
taken befoi-e Quelfec." ' 

The "white porpoise" is, of course, the Beluga, or White whale, Delpkinap- 
terus, but the others are not cei'tainly recognizable. 

Charlevoix published a few notes on the wdiales found in the St. Lawrence in 
his History and General Descri[)tion of New France, the most important of which 
is the following: " I have I'emai'ked in my Journal that having been at anchor in 1705 
at the end of the month of August near Tadoussac, about 15 leagues above Matave, 
I have seen 4 of them [/. e., whales] at the same time })laying around our vessel, and 
approaching in such manner that one might have touched them with the oars; 
but it is principally on the coasts of Acadie that the fishing offers an inexhaustible 
fund foi' commerce." ~ 

Li 1709 Lawson, in his natural history of the Carolinas, makes mention for 
the first time of whales in those waters, but his account is vague and far from satis- 
factory. His list includes " whales, several sorts " ; " crampois [grampus] " ; " bottle- 
noses," and porpoises. He remai'ks : " Whales are very numerous on the coast of North 
Carolina, from which they make Oil, Bone, etc. to the great Advantage of those 
inhabiting the Sand Banks, along the Ocean, where these whales come ashoi-e, 
none being sti-uck or kill'd with a Harpoon in this Place, as they are to the North- 
ward, or elsewhere." ^ 

Lawson's descriptions of the various kinds of whales are uncritical and con- 
fused. He says : 

" Of these Monsters, there are four sorts ; the first, which is most choice and 
rich, is the SjJervia Cceti whale* from which the Sperma Cteti is taken. These are rich 
Prizes ; but I never heard but of one found on this Coast, which was neai- Currituch- 
Inlet [Noi'th Carolina]. 

"The other sorts are of a prodigious Bigness. Of these the Bone and Oil is 
made; the Oil being the Blubber, or oily Flesh, or Fat of that Fish boil'd. 
These diffei- not only in Colour, some being pied, others not, but very much in 

' La Hontan, New Voyages to North America, London, 1703, p. 244. 

"Charlevoix, P. F. X. de, Histoire et Description generale de la Nouvelle France, 2, 1744 
P- 389- 

^ Lawson, John, The History of Carolina, London, 1714, p. 153. This is the 2d ed. The 
first published in 1709, I have not seen. Allen states that the two editions are textuallv idenlical. 



THE WHALEBONE WJIAI.KS OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 37 

shape, one being cullVl a Bottle-Nosed Whale, the other a Shovel-Nose [shaik ?], 
which is as diffei'ent as a Salmon from a Sturgeon. 

"There is another sort of these Whales, or great Fish, though not common. I 
nevei- knew of above one of that soit, found on the Coast of North Carolina, and 
he was contraiy, in Shape, to all others ever found before him, being sixty Foot in 
Length, and not above thi'ee or four Foot Diameter [Finback ?]." ' 

Lawson includes, without comment, Acosta's story, published more than a 
century before, of the Florida Indians killing whales l)y di-iving plugs into tlieir 
blowholes. 

In Catesby's Natural History of Cai-olina, the first edition of which was })ub- 
lished in 1731-33, we read only that "whales of diffei'ent species are sometimes 
cast on shore, as are Grampus's, in storms and hurricanes." ~ 

Bi'ickell, in 1737, in his Natural History of North Carolina, rei)eats parts 
of Lawson (1709) woi'd for word, with some unimportant additions of his own.^ 

Li 1725 we meet with the first original account of the whales of New England 
by an American colonist. This contribution, entitled "An Essay upon the Natural 
Histoiy of Whales,"^ was written by Paul Dudley, Chief-Justice of Massachusetts, 
who was at once a jurist, a theologian, and a naturalist. He probably had little 
acquaintance with the subject from his own observation, and took his informa- 
tion at second or even at third hand. He tells us that he was infoi-med as 
regards ambergris by a Mr. Atkins of Boston, a pi-actical whaler, " one of the first 
that went out a fishing for the Sperina Ceti whales," and that on the other topics 
he had the assistance of Mr. J. Coffin of Nantucket and Rev. Mr. Greenleafe of 
Yarmouth. 

Dudley's essay, on account of the amount of original and generally accurate 
information it contains, desei'ves to take rank with those of Martens, Sibbald, 
Scoresby, and Zorgdrager. It is not a systematic treatise, but the several kinds of 
whales occurring on the New England coast are named and briefly described, with 
notes on their habits, reproduction, and other matters. The whales mentioned 
are: (1) "The Right, or Whalebone Whale" ; (2) "The Scrag Whale " ; (3) "The 
Finback Whale;" (4) "The Bunch, oi' Humpback Whale"; (5) "The Sperma Ceti 
Whale." 

All of these are recognizable and have been assigned to their proper places 
generically, except the "Scrag" whale, which is, and always has been, a stumbling- 
block to cetology. It was accepted, without criticism, as a separate species by 
Klein, Andei'son, and other writers. In 1869, Nathaniel E. Atwood, a practical 
fisheinian, and a well educated and observant man, who resided for many yeai-s at 
Provincetown, Mass., stated that the whalers tliere recognized a "Scrag" whale, 
but regarded it as the young of the Right whale.-' Scammon remarks; "Oui' 

' Oj>. cit., pp. 153-154. Lawson was Surveyor-General of North Carolin.i. 

" This is from the edition of 1743, vol. 2, p. xxxii, which, however, appears not to differ from 
the original edition. 

' Brickeli., J., The Natural History of North Carolina, 1737, pp. 215-226. 

* Phihs. Trans, t,t„ No. 387, Mch. and Apr., 1725, pp. 256-269. 

'Allen, J. A., Cat.-ilogue of the Mammals of Massachusett.s. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoo/., i. No. 8, 
1869, p. 203. 



38 THE AVHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

observations make it certain that there is a ' Scrag' Right whale in the North Pacific 
which corresponds very nearly to that of the southern ocean." ' Macy, in his His- 
tory of Nantucket, infoi'ms us that it was the appearance of "a whale of the kind 
called Scrai^f" in the harbor there which led to the establishment of the whale 
fishery on that island.- 

From these three observations it is evident that the term "scrag" is regularly 
included in the whaleman's vocabulary. That there is a separate species to which 
the name applies is impi'obable, but it is still uncertain whether it merely character- 
izes abnormal individuals of the various s[)ecies of Right whales, or definite vai'ieties 
of one or moi'e species of Right whales, or abnoi-mal individuals of the large whales 
generally. The word " scrag," of course, means emaciated, ill-favured, or rough and 
crooked. Further reference to this subject will be made latei' on. 

In 1741, we have for the first time, in Klein's Histoi'ia Piscium, a summing 
up by a systematist of the American observations prior to that date. His classifi- 
cation is somewhat artificial and his nomenclature rather unsystematic. His synoptic 
table, in so far as it applies to the large whales, is as follows ■': 

( I. In Dorso \xv\ apinnes. 
( ( I. Edentulre ■< 2. In Dorso gibbo apinnes. 

Physeteres ] I Balcense < ( 3. In Dorso pinnatK. 

II. Dentata; f i. Dorso Ijevi apinnes. 

2. Dorso Ijevi pinnatae. 

3. Dorso gibbo apinnes. 

4. Dorso gibbo pinnatai. 

The various species enumerated are as follows : 

BaL>EN;€ EdENTULjE. 

In Dorso laevi apinnes. 

1. Baht?ia vera Zorgdrageri. [ = Bowhead.] 

2. BalcBfia albicans; Weisfish Martensii &= Zorgdr. [ = White whale.] 

3. BalcEna glacialis; ita communiter: Eisfisch. 

a. Australis; Zud-Eisfisch; dorso valde depresso, Zorgdrageri. 

b. Occidentalis; West-Eisfisch; dorso minus depresso, Ejusdetn. 

c. Borealis; Nordkaper, Ejusdem. [= Atlantic Right whale.] 
In Dorso gibbo apinnes. 

1. Gibbo unico prope caudam. Anglis : The Bunch or Hunibak Whale . . . Fin- 
fisch. Vid. Transact Phil. Vol. XXXIII. No. 387. P. 258. [ = Hump- 
back whale of Dudley.] 

2. Gibbis vel Nodis sex. Balana macra. Anglis: Scrag- Whale. . . . Phil. 
Trans., ibid. [ = Scrag whale of Dudley]. 

In Dorso pinnatse. 

1. Ore Balance vulgaris, laminis corneis donato. 

a. Balsena edentula, corpoire strictiore, dorso pinnato Raji. Finfish Zorgdr. 
Physeter Gesn. Anglis. Finbak-Whale. . . . Phil. Trans, al. I. 
[Includes the Finback of Dudley.] 

b. Jubartes; Balaena novas Angliae. [The Bermuda Humpback of the anony- 
mous writer in /"///^.f. Trans., \, 1665, pp. 11-13.] 

2. Ore rostrato. [Not American.] 

' SCAMMON, C. M., Marine Mammals, 1874, p. 67. 

'Macy, O., History of Nantucket, 1835, p. 28. 

'Klein, J. T., Historite Piscium naturalis, pt. 2, 1741, pp. 9-16. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 39 

Bal/en^ Dentaive. 

Dorso laevi apinnes. 

1. Cete Cliisii Exot. [Not American.] 

2. Cachclot s. Potfish Zorgdrageri. [ = Sperm whale.] 
Dorso laevi pinnatse. 

1. BaliBtia major. [Not American.] 

2. Millar Nierembergii. [Do.] 

3. Litickii. [Do.] 
Dorso gibbo apinnes. 

Dudlcji Balana. [ = Sperma Ceti whale of Dudley.] 
Dorso gibbo pinnatse. 

Balmna, Tigridis inslar, variegata. 

lu 17-il appeared the first edition of Egede's Desci'iption of Greenland. Ecjede 
was for twenty-five years a missionary in that country and must have had many 
opportunities for obtaining information regarding whales. He mentions and briefly 
describes various cetaceans, including " the Whale " (Bowhead), the " Finned whale " 
or " Fin-Fish," the " Nord Caper," and the " Cachelot." The matter relating to the 
" Nord Caper" appears to have been extracted from some earlier author, but the 
remainder is original. It is for the most part accurate, and is of interest on account 
of the frequency with which it is quoted by later writers.' 

In 1746 Jolin Andei'son, burgomeister of Hamburg, a scholarly writer and 
painstaking natui-alist, published an excellent I'esume of what was then known of 
whales in northern waters, in his Nachrichten von Island, Grbuland und der 
Strasse Davis.~ He appears not to have acquired any knowledge of the natural his- 
torj^ of the cetaceans by direct observation, but diligently pursued inquiries among 
the whalers and fishermen who came to Hambiirg. He took every opportunity to 
examine the treasures in the various European museums then established, and as- 
sembled a natural history cabinet of his own. 

In the course of his essay on Greenland and Davis Strait, Anderson stops to 

consider the cetaceans. He includes and comments on the vai'ious species mentioned 

by Paul Dudley in 1725, and the earlier anonymous writer in the Philosophical 

Transadiom. His classification and the species of whalebone whales mentioned 

are as follows : 

Genus Ceiaceum. 



Or 



(i) Whales with blowholes. 
(2) Whales with nostrils.' 

(i) Whales with smooth backs. \^—Bal(eiii7ia?[ 

{a) The true whale, or Greenland Right whale. \=.Balana ?nysticetus.'\ 
{b) The Nordcaper. \ = B. glacialis ox biscaycnsis.'] 

(2) Whales with the back grown out. \ = Balanopterina:?^ 



' Egede, H., a Description of Greenland. Translated from the Danish. London, 1745, pp. 
65-82, pis. 5 and 6. I have not seen the original edition. ' Hamburg, \ 746, pp. 95-103, 185-230. 

' Anderson comments on the fact that the Greenland whalemen have not seen any of the 
second class, and states that he would disbelieve in their existence but for Sibbald's observations. 
Sibbald, however, while speaking of nostrils really describes the blowholes, having apparently be- 
come confused between the simple blowhole of the toothed whales and the double one of the whale- 
bone whales. 



40 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

(i) With a dorsal fin. {^^Balcenopiera^ 

{a) The Finfish. Y^Balanoptcra physahis^ 

{b) The Jupiter, or Jupiter-fish. [Includes (with a query) the Humpback of the 
Bermudas, and the BalcB7ia vera of Rondelet, and Balatwptera physalus^ 

(2) With one or more knobs \Puckelii\. 

{a) "The Svvordfish of our Greenland voyagers." [ = C>m;//«.] 

(Ij) The American " Pflockfisch." [=The Humpback of Dudley.] 

(f) The " Knotenfisch " or " Knobbelfisch." [=Scrag whale of Dudley.] 

On page 197, Andei'sou discusses the identity of the Jupiter-fisli and remarlis 
that he cannot state positively what it is. He gives, however, an excellent descrip- 
tion, derived from certain fishermen, of one killed in 1723, which is clearly Balcenop- 
tera physalus. He suspects that this is the same as the wliale occuri'ing in the 
Bermudas, described by the anonymous writer of 1665 in tlie Philosophical Trans- 
actions^ and there said to resemble the " Jubartes " ' ; but in this he was mistaken as 
the wliale thei'e described was the Humpback. He gives Latin polynomial names 
to Dudley's Humpback and Scrag whale, but adds nothing to their natural history. 

Anderson's classification is less formal than Klein's and is hardly an improve- 
ment upon it. The general accuracy of his natural histoiy notes, however, and his 
earnestness and instinct for suspecting erroi's, though he could not always prove 
them such, are especially noteworthy. His only contributions to the natural liistorj^ 
of species of whalebone whales occurring in American waters are the notes on the 
Greenland whale, B. myslicetus, which he had from the whalers, and possibly the 
description of B. physcdvs (?), under the name of Jupiter-tish. 

Brisson's Regne Animal, published in 1756, contains mention of the species 
described by earlier authors, but no new information. All the whalebone whales 
are included in the genus Balama. The species to which American localities are 
assigned are the " common Greeidand whale " (= Balama ')nysticetus), " the whale 
of New England" (^tlie Humpback of Dudley), and "the whale with six humps" 
(=: the Scrag whale of Dudley). To these is added " the Gibbar," which is " fre- 
quently found in India and in the New World." The synonymy given in connec- 
tion with this species includes most of the natural history writers who preceded 
Brisson, and it is not clear from which of them he derived the information that it 
occurred in America, though })robably he took it from Klein, who in turn refers 
back to Dudley's account of the Finback, in the Philosophical Transactions. 

The next work to be considered — the tenth edition of Linnaeus's Systema 
Naturae (1758)^ — ^ though it marks the beginning of a new period as I'egards 
zoological classification and nomenclature, is of very little importance in relation 
to American cetology. But four species of baleen whales are mentioned, and the 
statement that Balcena mysticetus " lives in the Greenland Ocean " is the sole allu- 
sion to anything American. Even this may refer to Spitzbei'gen rather than to 
Greenland proper, or "Old Greenland." The twelfth edition (1766) mentions 
that Balcena physalus "lives in the European and American Ocean,"" but nothing 

' Philos. Trans., i, 1665, No. i, p. 12. 'Page 106. 



THE WHALEBONE WIIALEH OK THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 41 

else of interest in the present connection. The various editions of the Systeraa 
after the twelfth, published in German, Dutch, English, etc., contain no original 
American matter on cetaceans, and, except Gmelin's (1788), no improvements as 
regai'ds classification. 

The earliest is Ilouttuyn's Dutch translation (1762), which appears to have no 
oriijiual information. All the baleen whales remain together under the head of 
JBal<ena\ The Liunsean species mysticetus, physalitfi, boops, and musculus, ai'e de- 
scribed and commented on under tlieir Latin names, after which occurs the "Neiuw 
Engelamlsche Penvisch" and the " Knobbel Visch." Tiiese are Dudley's IIuiui)- 
back and Sci-ag whales, but our author obtains his knowledge of them through 
Brissou and Anderson. Farther on we come upon Acosta's fable of the Indians 
killing whales by plugging their blowholes, which is inserted without comment or 
indication of its origin.' 

The only American I'eferences in Boddaert's edition (1772), are as follows: 
" Vinvisch " (a) with two blowholes, and a knob on the back. Lives in New Eng- 
land. " Kuobbelvisch " (i) whale, with two blowholes and six knobs on the back. 
These are, of course, Dudley's Humpback and Scrag whales.* 

In 1773 Miiller published an annotated edition of the Systema, based on the 
twelfth edition and the work of Houttuyn. He has the four Linntean species of 
whalebone whales, all in tlie genus Bah'iia, and adds three others (without Latin 
names) which he found in later authors. Two of these are Dudley's Humpback 
and Scrag whales, under the names of " Pflockfish " and " Knotenfish," which MiiUer 
doubtless knew only indirectly through Anderson, or some other writer.'' 

Gmelin's edition of 1788, or the thirteenth Latin edition, is consideivably fuller 
than the tenth or twelfth, but contains only one added species of whalebone whale, 
— Bakena gihhosa. This is made up of Dudley's Scrag whale and Humpback 
combined, though all the references are at second hand. The two forms are 
designated as a. and h., but not named as varieties. It is an interesting question 
whether the name gihhosa can be applied to the Humpback. Another nominal 
species included with the baleen whales is the Balwna rostmta of Miiller's Prodro- 
mus. This is, however, probably the Hyperoodon* The Nordcaper is included 
as "^," under Balama mysticetus, but without a Latin varietal name; and Egede, 
Anderson, and Cranz are quoted in the synonymy.^ 

In 1800 William Turton published an English translation of the Systema from 
Gmelin's edition of 1788. Only two baleen whales have American habitats assigned 
to them, B. physahis ("Fin-fish"), which inhabits " the American and European 
seas"; and B. gihhosa. This latter is called "Hump whale" l)y Turton and 
is said to inhabit the "coasts of New England." It is made by uniting Dudley's 

'Houttuyn, F., Natiuulyke Historic volgens LinnMus, i, pt. 3, 1762, pp. 441-500. 
'BoDDAERT, p., Kortbegrip van het zamenstel der Natuur, van den Hcer C. Linnasus, i, pt. i, 

1772. P- 93- 

'MOller, p. L. S., Des Ritters Carl von Linne vollstandiges Natursystem, i, T773, 

P- 493- 

'See Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus., 21, 1898, p. 633. 

'Gmelin, J. F., Systema NatutDs, 13th ed., Leipzig, i, 1788, pp. 223-226. 



42 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

Humpback and Scrag whales under cue name as in Gmelin's work. Turton omits 
all bibliographical references.' 

While these various editions and translations of Linngeus's works were in 
course of publication, numerous other systematic works on a more or less independent 
basis made tlieir appearance. One of the earliest of these was O. F. Miiller's Pro- 
droraus of the Zoology of Denmark (including Greenland), published in 1776." It 
is a list of species under Latin binomials and polynomials, or diagnoses, with the 
Norweeian, Icelandic, and Gi'eenlandic names added. The baleen whales are all 
included in the genus Ualana, and the following have Gieenlaudic names : B. 
mysticetus, Ai'bec or Arbavirksoak [Bowhead] ; B. physalus, Keporkak,'^ or 
Kepoi'kaisoak [Finback] ; B. aUncans, Killeliuak [White whale]. 

The next important systeinatist, Erxleben, prefaces the list of cetacea in his ex- 
cellent Systema Regni Animalis (1777)'* with the i-emark that the species are but 
imperfectly known. The baleen whales are all retained in the genus Baiama, 
and the species are the Linna3an ones with the addition of B. gibhosa. Of />'. 
mysticetus he gives the habitat as toward the North Pole, chiefly about Green- 
land and Spitzbergeu, and among his numerous authoiities cites Egede, Anderson, 
and Crauz. He is in doubt about the Nordcaper, and does not separate it for- 
mally from mysticetus. B. physalus is given as occurring " in the European and 
American Ocean," and the authorities cited include Egede (Finne-fiske), Anderson, 
and Cranz (Fiunfisch). Erxleben is in doubt about the Pflockfisch (Dudley's 
IIum[)back), but tliinks it may belong with ^y^y.sa/»s, which is, of course, incorrect. 
The habitat given is " about New Englaiul." He cites it at second hand from Klein, 
Anderson, and others. The habitat of B. hoops is in " the northern ocean." 
Anderson and Cranz (Jupiterfisch) are cited among the authorities. B. gibhosa is 
Dudley's Scrag whale, which he takes at second hand from Klein, Anderson, and 
other compilers. No habitat is given.^ 

Three years latei', in 1780, Otto Fabricius, who was for sevei'al years a 
missionary in Greenland, published his well-known Fauna Grcenlandica, a very 
concise and judicious work, and one whose influence on zoological nomenclature 
has continued to the present day. In treating of the cetaceans it is haixlly to 
be expected that he would escape errors entirely, especially considering the back- 
ward state of cetology at the time, but his descriptions are for the most part 
remarkably clear. 

'For Czenpinski's Totius Regni Animalis Genera in Classes et Ordines Linnsana methodo 
digesta, 1778, see Allen's Bibliography, p. 468, No. 346. 

'^ MuLi.ER, O. F., Zoologiae Danicre Prodroraus, 1776, pp. viii, 6-8. 

° On p. viii of the introduction Miiller transfers this name to B. hoops [Humpback] on the 
authority of Fabricius. 

*Pp. 601-611. 

' Dr. J. A. Allen in his Bibliography of Cetacea, p. 467, No. 341, remarks that B. gibhosa of 
Erxleben is not the Scrag whale of Dudley, " as usually stated, whicli is one of the ' species obscurae ' 
not formally recognized." This is an error. The only one of the " species obscurae " from Dudley 
cited by Erxleben, on p. 617 is the " Dudleji Balana Klein." This is Dudley's sperm whale. On 
the other hand, all the bibliographical citations under B. gihbosa and the diagnosis refer back to 
Dudley's Scrag whale. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OK THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 43 

Tlie whalebone vs^liales are brought together under the genus JJuldna as 
f(.)llows : liahina mij^ticetim [Bowhead], ]i. physidas [Common Finback], B. hoopn 
[Humpback], B. rostmta [Little Piked whale], and B. musculus. This last was 
not known to Faliricius iiiuiself, and he remarks regarding it : "A whale known 
under a Gi'eenlaudic name allied to the preceding [Z). boopH], and rarely seen, which 
indeed its name indicates. I am perplexed regarding the synonyms of it and the 
wondei-fid confusion of them among authors; aud being denied by fate to see one 
of them, I am able to determine nothing with certainty." 

In 1818 Fabiicius gave a further description of the Greenland Humpback, 
under the name of " Stub-Hval." ' He treats of its name, external chai-acteis and 
coloration, distribution and migrations, food, uses, enemies aud parasites, and syn- 
onymy. The figure which accompanies the article, though interesting, is grossly 
inaccurate in many particulars. It is quite as good, however, as many others of its 
time. That it was not made use of by compilers subsequently is somewhat 
singular. 

An important list of American cetaceans was published in 17S2 in a work 
whose title — Letters fiom an American Farmer — one would hai'dly expect to find 
in a bibliography of cetology." The author, Hector St. John de Ci-^vecoeur, seems 
to have had more or less knowledge of the whaling industiy from practical experi- 
ence, aud states that he was "well acquainted" with one kind of whale. His list 
purports to com[)rise the species known to the people of Nantucket, aud reflects 
an accuracy of knowledge which is remarkable for its time. 

" The river St. Laurence whale [he remarks] which is the only one I am 
well acquainted with, is seventy-five feet long, sixteen deep, twelve in the length 
of its bone (which commonly weighs 3000 lb.), twenty in the breadth of their tails, 
and produces 180 barrels of oik"^ 

This is, of course, the Bowhead, and its mention in this manner seems to sup- 
port the assertion made by Thomas Edge more than a century before (1625), that 
the Bowhead at a still earlier date was taken in the " Grand Bay of Newfoundland " 
[Strait of Belle Isle]. See page 11. 

De Crevecoeur proceeds : "The following are the names and principal character- 
istics of the various species of whales known to these foeople [of Nantucket and 
Martha's Vineyard] : 

"The River St. Laurence whale, just described. 
"The disko, or Greenland ditto. 

"The right whale, or seven feet bone, common on the coasts of this country, 
about sixty feet long. 

' Fabricius, O,, Zoologiske Bidrag. 2det Bidrag. Om Stub-Hvalen, Balmna Boops. K. 
Danske Videns. Schk. Skrivter, 6, i8i8, pp. 63-83, i pi. (unnumhered), fig. i. 

' Letters from an American P'armer describing the British Colonies in North America, London, 
1782, pp. 167-169. Allen (Bibliog.,p. 472), states that "In the French edition of 1767 [lege 1787], 
the letter about the whale-fishery is dated ' Nantucket, 17 Octobre, r772.' " 

^ Op. cit., p. 167. 



44 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

" The spermaceti whale, found all over the \\'orl(], and of all sizes ; the longest 
ai'e sixty feet, aud yield about 100 barrels of oil. 

"The hump-backs, on the coast of Newfoundland, from forty to seventy feet 
in length. 

"The finn-back, an American whale, never killed, as being too swift. 

"The sulphur-bottom, river St. Laurence, ninety feet long; they are but 
seldom killed, as being extremely swift. 

"The grampus, thirty feet long, never killed on the same account. 

"The killer or thrasher, about thirty feet; they often kill the other whales, 
with which they are at perpetual wai\ 

" The black fish whale, twenty feet, yields from eight to ten barrels. 

"The piirpoise, weighing about IGO pounds." 

In this same year, 1782, was published Duhamel's great Traite General des 
Peches. He also alludes to the occurrence of Bowheads in the temperate waters 
of Canada. 

"I know that some small whales [Nordcapers] are taken in Iceland, and that 
some lai'ge ones [Bowheads] ai-e found sometimes accidentally in the more temper- 
ate Provinces, es[)ecially in Canada, where the large whales [Bowheads] are for the 
most pai't wounded by harpoons ; some even ai'e dead, which leads one to believe 
that they are whales which, having been chased and wounded in the northei'n 
parts, have left their home to I'etire into other quarters.'" 

What led Duhamel to make this explanation is not evident, but if the Bow- 
head was really fished for in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, it seems unlikely that 
wounded and dead whales would be the object of pursuit. Refen-ing to the causes 
which induced the English to withdi'aw from the Greenland fishery, Duhamel 
remarks : 

"Others pi'etend that the Dutch having succeeded in carrying on the fisher}' 
[at Greenland] with more economy than the English, the latter have found it more 
convenient and advantageous to cai'iy on the fishery on the coasts of New England, 
New York, and Carolina, where they maintain many vessels, which carry the pro- 
duct of their fishery to England. The whales that are taken in these places are 
smaller than those found in the ice of the north; nevertheless, in pi'oportion to 
their size, they yield oil quite abundantly."* 

On page 28 he gives Acosta's story of the Floiida Indians, without referi'iug to 
the former, but remai'ks : "The ti'uth of this which we have said has been attested 
by many ocular witnesses, among othei's, by many officers, \vho. have been ready to 
establish these facts." This is the first time since 1590, I believe, that any one 
has been willing to vouch for the truth of Acosta's story. 

A writer of this period who labored earnestly, and with some measure of suc- 
cess, to abate the confusion existing in cetology, was the Abbe Bonnaterre, whose 
Tableau Encyclopedique was published as a supplement to the Encyclopaedia 

' Duhamel, Traite General des Peches, 4, p. 10. 
' Op. cit., 4, p. 28. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 45 

Methodique iu 1789.' He was well acquainted with the literature, conscious of the 
errors existing, and in his introduction endeavored to impress on his readers the 
necessity of more accuracy and detail in the descriptions of cetaceans. He seems, 
however, to have had little [)ersonal familiarity with the animals he treated of, and 
was thei'efore at a disadvantage iu estimating the accuracy or inaccuracy of the 
naturalists who preceded him. The matter relating to the whalebone whales is 
almost entirely a compilation, but the scientific names applied to the various 
species are of interest. 

All the whalebone whales are assembled in the genus Balwna. The species 
are as follows: 

1. B. mysUcetus. " Greenland Whale." (P. 1.) 

" This species is very common toward the Noi'th Pole, in the Greenland and 
Spitzbergen seas, chiefly beyond the 66th degree, north latitude." (P. 3.) 

An excellent geuei'al account is conqnled from vai'ious authors, including 
Fabricius, l)ut there is no new matter other than a table of measurements of a 
specimen 48 feet long, repoi'ted by Captain de Pages. 

2. B.glacialis. "The Nordcaper." (P. 3.) 

" Inhabits the northei-n seas, about Norway and Iceland." 

3. B.2)hysalm. "The Gibbar." (P. 4.) 

" Found in the seas of Greenland, the European Ocean, India, and the New 
World." 

The account of the species is compiled chiefly from Martens, liinnaeus, and 
Fabricius. 

4. B. nodosa. " The ' tampon ' whale." (P. 5.) 

" Found in New England." 

This is Dudley's Humpback. Bonnaterre quotes from Dudley's account, but 
does not realize that this is the sole original source, and that all the other authors 
he cites take their information from it. 

5. B. gillosa. " The whale with ' bosses.' " (P. 5.) 
" Inhabits the seas about New England." 

This is Dudley's Scrag whale, though Bonnaterre takes his information from 
Anderson and Klein, and is at a loss to understand why tlie foi-mer should assert 
that it yields as much oil as B. mysticetus, while the latter calls it meagre {B. 
macrci). This apparent contradiction is due, of course, to the fact that Dudley 
states that the Scrag whale is " nearest to the Right whale for quantity of oil," 
while Klein has translated the word "scrag" by macra. 

' Bonnaterre, Tableau Encyclopedique et Methodique des Trois Rognes de la Nature— 
Cetologie. Paris, 17S9. 4°. 



46 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

6. B. hoops. "The Jubarte." (P. 6.) 

"Found ordinarily in the Greenland seas, between the 61st and 65th degrees 
of latitude, about Paiuiuk and Pissukbik." 

Bounatei'ie paraphrases Fabiicius's account of 7>. loops, which relates, of 
course, to the Humpback. He closes with tlie naive remark: "Judging from the 
description of Otto Fabricius, it seems to me that there is a slight defectuosity in 
the fioui'e which we have given." As the figure given is from Sibbald and repre- 
sents a Finback rather than a Humpback, the " defectuosity " is not surprising. 
Bonnaterre also quotes in this place Sibbald's measurements of this same Finback 
which Linnteus called Bahvna hoops. By thus combining Linnanis's B. hoops 
(a Finback) and Fabiicius's B. hoops (a Humpback) Bonnaterre caused confusion 
which has lasted until the present time. In a recent [)aper I endeavored to point 
out the facts in the case.' It is somewhat singular that so critical a naturalist as 
Bonnaterre failed to discover that his B. nodosa (from Dudley) and his B. hoops 
(fiom Fabricius) wei'e very closely related, if not ideutical. 

7. B. musculus. " The Rorqual." (P. 7.) 

"In Iceland, called Steipe-Reydnsy 

Bonnaterie has the correct Icelandic name in this case. He quotes Sibbald's 
account and measurements. 

8. B. rostrata. " Beaked whale." (P. 8.) 

"Found in large numbers in the Greenland seas; it frequently visits the seas 
of Europe." 

Bonnaterre quotes Fabricius and Hunter. This is the Little Piked whale, 
Balcenoptera aciito-rostrata Lacep^de. 

Nineteenth Century. 

In the opening decades of the nineteenth century decided advances were made 
in the classification of whales, in the observation of their habits, and in the descrip- 
tion of their structure. Lacep^de, Scoresby, G. Cuvier, F. Cuvier, Desmarest, 
Home, Camper, Bi-andt and Ratzburg, and Fischer wei-e among the most important 
contributors to cetological literature at this period, but their work has little or 
nothing to do directly with American species or American observations. 

The narrative of Lewis and Clark's memorable expedition to the Pacific coast 
in 1804-06 contains a few references to whales, which are so brief that they may 
be quoted here in full. The earliest incident dates from January 4, 1806, when 

' Froc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 21, 1S98, p. 624. 

It is true that Fabricius himself adopted Linnjeus's names, and cited the Systema Naturae, 
but it is not likely that he had access to the sources from which the latter derived his facts, as 
Bonnaterre did. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 47 

the travellei's were on the Oregon coast near tlie mouth of the Cohinibia River, and 
is as follows : 

"Friday [January 4, 1806]. At eleven o'clock we were visited by our neigh- 
bor the Fia, or chief Comowool, who is also called Coone, and six Clatsops. Besides 
roots, and berries, they l>ix)Ught for sale three dogs and some fresh bhibbei-. . . . 
The blubber, which is esteemed by the Indians an excellent food, has been obtained, 
they tell us, fi'om their neighboi-s the Killamucks, a nation who live on the seacoast 
to the southeast, and near one of whose villages a whale had recently been thrown 
and foundered. 

"... We continued for two miles along the sand beacii [Jan. 8, 1806]; 
and after crossing a creek [Nehalem River, Oregon], eighty yards in width, near 
which ai'e five cabins, reached the place where the waves had thrown the whale on 
shore. The animal had been placed between two Killamuck villages, and such 
was their industry', that there now remained nothing more than the skeleton, which 
we found to be one huudi'ed and five feet in lensith."' 

The second note refers to the Oregon coast in general, and is as follows : 

"The whale is sometimes pursued, harpooned and taken by the Indians, 
although it is much more frequently killed by I'unning foul of the rocks in violent 
storms, and thrown on shore by the action of the wind and tide. In either case, 
the Indians preserve and eat the Idubber and oil ; the l)one they carefully extract 
and expose to sale." * 

The systematic treatises of Dr. J. E. Gi'ay, beginning with the Spicilegia 
Zoologica in 1828, and ending with the Su[)plement to the Catalogue of Seals and 
Whales in the British Museum in 1871,'^ cover all groups of cetaceans and include 
many species founded on American material and observations. Gray was accus- 
tomed to establish genera and species ou quite slight diiferences, real or fancied, and 
in so difficult a group as the Cetacea this tendency had full play. A large numl)er of 
the species which he I'ecognized wei'e rejected by the moi-e conservative cetologists 
who were contemporary with him, or followed him, but in the case of some genei-a 
there is no doulit that the condensation has been too great. Among the genera 
and species which Gi-ay recognized or established are some from American waters. 
In his Supplement, which contains his last [)ulilisiied views, they are as follows: 

Family i. Balsenidre. 

Balasna mysticetus. [Greenland Whale.] 
Eubalaena .? cisarctica. " Inhab. Atlantic." 

[From Cope. The Biscay whale he makes a separate species, Hunterius biscayensis^ 
Family 2. Agaphelids. Scrag Whales. 

Agaphelus gibbosus. " Inhab. North Atlantic." 

[From Cope and Dudley.] 
Rhachianectes glaucus. " Inhab. California, San Francisco." 
[From Cope.] 

' History of the E.\pedition of Captains Lewis and Clark, 2, 1814, pp. 104, iio-iii. Coues's 
edition has the following note (2, p. 750): "Clark I 99 erases ' 105 ' and gives no dimensions." 

" Op. cit., p. 196. 

° Gr.-\y, J. E., Supplement to the Catalogue of the Seals and Whales in the British Museum, 
8°, 1871. 



48 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

Family 3. Megapteridae. Humpbacked Whales. 
Megaptera americana. " Inhab. Bermuda." 

[From the anonymous writer of 1665 in the Philos. Transactions, Dudley, a tracing 

in the British Museum, and Hartt's Geology and Physical Geography of Brazil.] 
Megaptera osphyia. " Inhab. Atlantic." 

[From Cope.] 
Megaptera versabilis. " Inhab. North Pacific, California coast." 

[From Cope.] 
Eschrichtus robustus. " Inhab. North Sea, coast of Devonshire, Sweden, Atlantic." 

[The only American reference is Cope's statement that there is a ramus of an under jasv 

in the museum of Rutgers College.] 
Family 4. Physalidae. 

Physalus antiquorum. " Inhab. North Sea, Greenland, Hampshire, etc." 

Sibbaldius sulphureus. "Inhab. North Pacific, northwest coast of America, California." 

[From Cope.] 
Sibbaldius tectirostris. " Inhab. North Pacific " [really Atlantic]. 

[From Cope.] 
Sibbaldius tuberosus. "Inhab. northeast coast of America." 

[From Cope.] 
Balffinoptera velifera. " Inhab. Oregon, California, Queen Charlotte's Sound." 

[From Cope.] 

lu all this, it will be observed, thei'e is but oue si)ecies wLicli Gi-ay himself 
established, Megaptera americana. For this the only original material he had was a 
tracing of unknown origin. It is singular that he does not give M. lo/igimana an 
American habitat, as in the Catalogue of 1866 he mentioned four specimens from 
Greenland as beinsx in the British Mu.seum. They were from Eschricht's collection. 

In 1870 Di-. Gray jmblished an article entitled "Tlie Geographical Distribu- 
tion of the Cetacea,"' which is a kind of confession of faith as regards the discrimi- 
nation of species and allied matters. It presents in the clearest manner Dr. Gray's 
views on these subjects, and is accompanied by an extensive list of species, which 
latter are divided among three geographical areas : (1) the northern and temperate 
seas, (2) the tropical seas, and (3) the south, or southern temperate seas. The list 
contains no less than 50 species and varieties of baleen whales. It is fnll of 
errors and misconceptions, and is chiefly interesting as showing Dr. Gray's point 
of view at the time it was [)ublished. Much more can doubtless be said in favor 
of that part of the list which relates to the Delphinklw than that which includes 
the Bahenidce. 

In Feb., 1874, Dr. Gray published a brief note on the Megaptera hellicosa of 
Cope,^ in which he expressed the opinion that the species was a veiy distinct one, 
but that the name was a synonym of Megaptera americana Gray. 

Frederic Cuviei^'s Natural History of Cetaceans, published in 1836,^ contains 

'Gray, J. E., The Geographical Distribution of the Cetacea. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 
6, 1870, 387-394. 

' Gray, J. E., On the Bermuda Humpbacked Whale of Dudley (Baicena nodosa, Bonnaterre; 
Megaptera americana. Gray; and Megaptera bellicosa. Cope). Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 13, 
1874, p. 186. 

' CuviER, F., De r Histoire Naturelle des Cetac^s, 1836. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 49 

a few 1-efei-ences to Ameiican baleen whales. The work is a comprehensive one, 
and contains a summary of most of the impoitant obsei'vatioiis previously pub- 
lished. The treatment of species is conservative, but the conclusions reached have 
not all been confirmed by later i-esearches. The whalebone whales are placed in 
two genera, "the rorquals" and "the whales." For the former the new genus 
Borqualds is established, and tlie species recognized are li. boops, R. musculus, 
and Ji. antarcticus. 

Under Rorqiialus, Cuvier mentions the observations of Dudley, Egede, and 
Anderson, which have to do with American whales. Regarding Dudley he says: 

"Dudley speaks also of two whales with folds under the liody, and a dorsal 
protuberance: the 'Finback whale,' of which tlie dorsal fin is 2| feet long, and the 
pectoral fins from 6 to 7 feet; the 'Humpback whale,' which, in place ofa fin, has 
a simple hump a foot high and pointed behind. Its pectoral fins are sometimes 18 
feet long and very white. But tliese ideas, derived fiom Dudley, seem to have 
been poorly appreciated up to this time." ' 

This is an odd remark, as Cuvier himself seeuis not to have appreciated the 
singularity of a whale with pectoral fins "18 feet long and very white." He makes 
no further reference to it, except to remai'k that " the ' Humpback whale ' of the same 
author [Dudley] is not a whale, but a lorqual ; foi- he says, in e.^plicit terms, that 
this cetacean has longitudinal folds — like that of which he speaks immediately 
before (tlie ' Finback whale ') — on the belly and sides, from the head to the origin of 
the pectoral fins." * 

Regarding Dudley's description of the "Scrag whale" Cuvier remarks: 

" For ourselves, we only see in it a very insignificant note, which probably 
contains an error in citing the protuberances of the back as osseous; it only serves 
to arouse suspicions as to the value of the chai'acters drawn from these pi-otuber- 
ances, and further to make it doubtful whether this cetacean was not a roi'qual, for 
the 'Finback whale' to which Dudley compares his 'Sci'ag whale' is a genuine 
rorqual." " 

Cuvier rejects the Nordcaper as a separate species. 

The epoch-making woi'ks of Eschricht cover the period from 1840 to 1873. 
He investigated many phases of cetology beyond the scope of the present paper. 
On account of the diversity of the subjects treated of and the immense mass of 
facts accumulated, it is very difficult to summarize his work. The larger part of 
his investigations relate to baleen whales, and much of his material was American, 
having been obtained by Captain Holboll in Gi'eenland. This material consisted 
chiefly of specimens of the Greenland Humpback, both skeletons of adult individu- 
als, fcetuses, and anatomical i)reparations. Many of the skeletons were tiistributeil to 
other European museums beside those of Copenhagen, and the descriptions of the 
Humpback published by Van Beueden and other European writers are drawn fi-oiu 
these American specimens. 

The main body of Eschricht's woi'k is the series of si.x essays in the Royal 

'Cuvier, F., De I'Histoire Naturelle des Cetaces, 1836, p. 309. 
' Op. cit., p. 355. 



50 THE WHALEBONE W] TALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

DauLsli Scientific Society's Afhandlinger and Shrifter, 1845-184:9.' Being in the 
Danish hiuguage, they are a sealed book to many zoologists, who either lack the 
opportuuity, or have not the inclination, to acquire that tongue. For tliis reason 
they were not appreciated by Eschi'icht's contemporaries as they might have been. 
Feeling this himself, he undertook to republish the series in German with many 
changes and additions, but the German edition was never completed. More will be 
said of it latei-. The essays themselves were preceded by several short papers, begin- 
ning ita 1840, in which the sco[)e and objects of tlie investigations were described. 
The essays may be summarized as follows : 

Essay 1. — RemarTcs on the earlier and present phases of cetology. 

In this essay Eschi-icht treats chiefly of the history of different departments of 
cetology, beginning with the Delphinidce. The genus Hyperoodon is briefly consid- 
ered, and afterwards he treats of the sperm whale in much detail. Next follow 
the baleen whales, of which there are stated to be two grou{)s — Right whales and 
Finbacks. Regarding the former, Eschricht remarks : " Since Cuvier's time two 
kinds are usually distinguished, the northern Bakena mysticetus, and the southern, 
j8. australis.'''' At this date Eschricht seems not to have discovered that the Nord- 
caper was distinct from 7>. i/iysticetiis or even from the Humpback. 

He next takes up the question of geogi-aphical distribution, notes the reduction 
in nunibei's of whales in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, but combats the theory that the 
distribution area shrinks at any time. He refei's to the distribution of the Right 
whale in the South Atlantic, and quotes HolboU as to the migrations of the 
Greenland whale on the west coast of Greenland. He mentions Dudley and gives 
the seasons for the whale fishery and other details. 

Next come the Finbacks, including under that head the Humpbacks. He 
describes their distribution ; mentions Sibbald, the anonymous writer in the J^hil. 
Trans., etc. ; cites their use as a food resource by Greenlanders and Noi'wegians, 
and their relative value for oil, etc. He describes the early modes of fishing for 
lai'ge whales in Norway and elsewhere ; quotes Fabricius's account of the Humpback 
fishery in Greenland and also that of Holboll; states that the Greenlanders cared 
little for the Finbacks, but that Humpbacks have been taken regularly at Greenland 
and also at Bermuda. He then takes up the question as to whether the Basque 
fishery of the sixteenth and seventeenth century may not have been for Finbacks, 

' I. Bemaerkninger over Cetologiens tidligere og nservsrende Skjebne. Dansk. Vidcns. Selsk. 
natur. og math. Afhandl., ii, 1845, pp. 129-202. 

2. Anatomisk Beskrivelse af de ydre Fosterformer hos to nordiske Finhval-.\rter, med Anven- 
delse paa Physiologien og Zoologien. Do., pp. 203-279. 

3. Om Fosterformerne i Bardehvalernes Ernaerings- og Forplantelsesredskaber. Do., pp. 
281-320, pis. 1-4. 

4. Om Nffibhvalen. Do., pp. 321-378, pis. 5-8. 

5. Finhvalernes Osteologie og Artsadskillelse. Do., 12, 1846, pp. 225-396, pis. 9-16. 

6. Udbytte paa en Reise gjennem det nordvestlige Europa i Sommeren 1846, som Tiling til 
de foregaaende Afhandlinger. Dansk. Videns. Selsk. Skrifter, jte Rackke, natur. og math. Afd., t, 
1S49, pp. 85-138. 



THE WHALEBONlfi WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 51 

and leaves it with the remark that neither Right whales nor the Common Finback 
seem to fit the accouuts. He states that there was apparently no regular coast 
fishery formerly from which opportunity could be had to investigate the Finbacks, 
and hence knowledge of them depended on occasional strandings. He gives a brief 
account of specimens examined on various parts of the coast of Europe at different 
dates. He then takes up the history of the develo[)raeut of knowledge regarding 
Finbacks, citing Dudley, Sibbald, Cuvier, HolboU, etc. Eschricht concludes that 
one may be convinced that there are many species of Finbacks in the south seas and 
the north, and states that the characters of these will be ti'eated of in subsequent 
essays. 

He calls attention to the defects of anatomical descriptions, due to imperfect 
material, and to the use of fishery stations, especially in Greenland and near Bergen, 
and enumerates the advantages to be obtained. He then mentions the material 
obtained by hiin from HolboU and Christie (in Bergen). 

Essay 2. — Anatomical descnptions of the external form of thefcetuses of two 
species of Northern Finhachs, with application to phi/siologij and zoology. 

The two species of Finbacks are the Little Piked whale, Balcenoptera acuto- 
rostrata, and the Greenland Humpback. Though of much importance, the descrip- 
tions are not gei'uiane to the purpose of the present [)aper, but the essay ends with 
a section " on the use of whale fcetuses in the determination of species," in which the 
characters of Fabricius's B. boops and Rudolphi's B. longimana are carefully con- 
sidered, and the conclusion reached that "the B. longimana of Rudolphi and 
Brandt really is si)ecifically identical with Fabricius's B. boops.'' 

Essay 3. — On the fcetal forms of tlie alimentary and reproductive apparatus in 
the baleen whales. 

Essay 4. — On Beahed whales \_Byperoddon']. 

These two essays do not concern us in the present connection. Their contents 
are sufficiently indicated in the titles. 

Essay 5. — The osteology and discritnination of species of Finbach whales. 

In this lonf and important essay the skeletons of Balcenoptera acuto-rostrata 
and the Greenland Humpback are minutely described and many bones figured. 
Eschricht then takes up the question of the specific characters of the two whales 
above mentioned and enumerates them seriatim, after which he enumerates the dif- 
ferences which seem to separate the Little Piked whale, or Tikagulik of Greenland, 
from the Vaagehval {B. acuto-rostrata) of Norway. Regarding this he says that 
as to whether they are specifically identical he has many times changed his opinion. 
Later he remarks : " As the Vaagehval and Tihagulik agree fully, especially in 
reo-ard to the color of the baleen and the numbei- of vertebrae, as well as in the 
whole and eveiy part of the different sections of the vertebral column, I have not 
thought that the above-mentioned differences can be considered as sufficient ground 
on which to establish specific distinctness." He then describes a Common Finback 
which stranded on the coast of Norway in 1841, and discusses its affinities, and 
afterwards enumerates the kinds of whales found in Greenland waters and known 
to the Eskimos, and quotes a description and measurements by MoUer of a Finback 



52 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

stranded at Godhavn, Greenland, in IS-iS. He discusses Moller's data and describes 
and fio-uies one of the pectoi'al fins of this specimen which was sent to him, and 
connects the species with Holboll's " Kepokainak " and the Ostend Finback of 1827. 
He sums up the whole section as follows : That it is demonstrated that there are 
at least three different species of Finbacks in the northern seas : (1st) " In the long- 
handed group, the Greenland ' Keporkak,' B. longimana ; in the short-handed, (2d) 
the Norwegian ' Vaagehval,' B. minor, and (3d) the common, large short-handed Fin- 
back, B. hoaps^ That there are as good as certain (4th) a special large, short-handed 
species, B. muscidus, and at least highly probable (5th) the Greenland " Ke[)okar- 
nak," and not improbable (6th) the Greenland "Tikagulik" or B. rodrata Fabr., 
distinct from the Norwegian " Vaagehval." Finally, Eschricht passes in review all 
the principal observations on the geographical distribution of these supposed species, 
including Holboll's Greenland researches, and the early accounts concerning the 
Bermudas in the Philompliieal Transactions. 

Essay 6. — Results of a journey through northwestern Europe in the summer 
of 184-6, as a supplement to the preceding treatises. 

This essay is divided into three sections, one on the Beaked whales, anothei- 
on the Humpbacks, and a third, on short-handed, or true, Finbacks. Eschricht 
visited several of the more important museums of Europe, notably those of London, 
Paris, and Berlin, and examined many of the skeletons described by other authors, 
including the type of Megaptera longimana, and other very important specimens. 
He not only comments on these, but reviews and revises his earlier observations, 
and this essay may be considered as embodying his final views regarding the species 
of Humpbacks and Finbacks. The [)aper is of much impoitance in the present con- 
nection, as the Gieenland sj>ecies aie commented u^ion no less than the European 
ones, and at this time Eschricht had made actual comparisons of specimens of both. 

As ab'eady stated, Eschricht became apprehensive that his work would not 
receive the attention it deserved, on account of its publication in Danish, and hence 
resolved to republish it in German.' The German edition, he tells us, is not to be 
regaided as a translation, but as a new working over of the whole material, with a 
more orderly presentation of data and conclusions. Certain it is that the two 
editions differ widely, and much that is in the Danish is not in the German. This 
is due in part to the fact that the latter was never completed. Only the first 
volume of the three which Eschricht planned was completed as he intended. The 
second, fourth, and fifth Danish essays are the ones most nearly reproduced in the 
German edition. 

In the latter, as in the former, the principal data of importance in the present 
connection are the descriptions of the Finbacks and Humpbacks of Greenland, and 
the opinions of Eschricht based on his comparisons of Greenland and Eui'opean 
specimens of these whales. In addition to Eschricht's own researches, translations 
are given of two communications of Holboll on Greenland baleen whales, and one 
by Motzfeldt relating in [)art to the same subject. 

' Eschricht, D. F., Zoologisch-anatomisch-physiologische Untersuchungen liber die nordischen 
Wallthiere, ite Band, Leipzig, 1849. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 53 

The great work on the Greenland Right whale published by Eschricht and 
Reiuhardt in 1861 ' interests us chiefly on account of the discussion of the relation 
of £. mysticetns to the Nordcapej-, in the course of which numei'ous facts relatin*' to 
the Right whale of the east coast of temperate North America are commented upon. 

In 1858 Eschricht published an article on a new method of studying the 
Cetacea,^ in which he called attention to the desirability of making ol)servations 
at the various whale-fishing stations in different parts of the woi'ld. Araon" the 
stations mentioned ai-e those in Davis Strait, where Captain Holbiill obtained so 
much valuable material for Eschricht's researches. The manner in which this 
material was obtained is described, and a summary given of the species frequentino' 
Davis Strait, their migrations and other data. 

Eschricht's essay on the geographical distribution of the northern whales in 
eailier times and at present,^ which was published in 1849, relates chiefly to the 
Greenland whales. It is one of the earliest, as well as one of the best, treatises on 
the distribution of the cetaceans. His paper entitled "Researches on the Distri- 
bution of the Cetacea in the Northern Seas," ^ published in 1864, is also almost 
entirely devoted to the Greenland whales, and treats particularly of the migrations 
of Balcuna mysticetns in Davis Strait. 

In a work called "Newfoundland in 1842," Sir Richard Bonnycastle devoted a 
chapter to cetaceans, in which he calls attention to the whale fishery cariied on 
there, and notes various cetaceans he has observed about the island. The article 
is unfortunately largely taken up by citations from Scoresby, Dewhui-st, and other 
authors, and it is not ahvays clear whether the statements made are based on 
Bounycastle's own observations or derived from the works mentioned. Deprived 
of extraneous matter, the article, in so far as it relates to baleen whales, amounts 
to this — that Sir Arthur saw a " ^. acuto-rostrata, or sharp-nosed whale," within a 
day's sail of St. John in 1840 ; that the commonest sjtecies in Newfoundland waters, 
as he believes, is the '^ Ji.ji/hartes, or pike-headed finner," with a dorsal fin 2^ feet 
high, and which feeds upon capelin, etc. ; that whales of various sizes and kinds 
are common in the St. Lawrence, about Gaspe, and on the Labrador coast; that he 
repeatedly saw a " black and gi-ey " whale in the Bay of Seven Islands, St. Lawrence 
River, in 1831 ; that on the 23d of Jnly, 1840, at the entrance to Conception Bay, 
Newfoundland, he saw a " pipe-headed whale " about twenty-five feet long, with a 
brown back and white belly ; that on July 24, 1840, he saw " whales innumerable " 
in Conception Bay and continued to see some of them all the way to St. John's.* 

' Eschricht og Rkinhardt, Ora Nordhvalen. Dansk. Vid. Sels. Skrif., 5, 1S61, 433-589. 
Translation in Ray Society Publications, under the title of " Recent Memoirs on the Cetacea." 
Edited by Sir Wm. H. Flower. 

' Eschricht, D. F., Sur une nouvelle Methode de I'Etude des C^tac^s. Comptes Rendus Acad. 
Sci. Paris, 47, 1858, pp. 51-60. 

' Eschricht, D. F., Om de nordiske Hvaldyrs geographiske Udbredelse i ncervaerende og i 
tidligere Tid. Forhandl. Skand. JSTaturforsk. Ste Mode, 1849, pp. 103-118, pi. i. 

* Eschricht, D. F., Recherches sur la Distribution des C^taces dans les Mors Bor^ales. Ann. 
Sci. Nat., Zool., I, 1864, pp. 201-224. 

' BoNNVCASTLE, A., Newfoundland in 1842, i, pp. 239-255. 



54 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

Jouan's memoir ou the Eight whales and Sperm whales, 1859/ is an excellent 
summary of observations ou these forms, with some references to Finbacks, Hump- 
backs, Blackfish, etc. Though largely based on the data furnished by American 
whalers, it does not lelate especially to whales in American waters. Jouan discusses 
the different kinds of whales, but is not fortunate iu his discrimination of species. 
Of '' B. nodosa Lacep." he remarks : " This is a Humpback, or perhaps a whale that 
is found in California, which the whalers designate by the nauies of ' California 
Gre}',' or 'Califoinian Ranger.'" Of the Humpback, which he places among "les 
baleinojjteres," be remarks : 

" The Humpbacks are encountered in very great numbers in the same places 
as the Speim whales and Right whales; but it is especially on the coasts of Chili, 
Peru, California, and New Zealand that they are found most abundant. 

" We have seen the bay of San Carlos de Monterey, California, literally covered 
with these great cetaceans which swim like porpoises, going down head foremost, 
and elevatiuLT their broad tails in the air." 



o 



Pierre Fortin's report on the fisheries of the Gulf of St. Lawrence for 1861 
and 1862, jiublished in 1863 by the Fisheries Department of Canada, contains, at 
page 109, a list of cetacea, etc., of the Gulf. The species mentioned are the Right 
whale. Humpback, Common Finback, and Sulphurbottom. The notes ou these 
whales occupy two pages, the facts cited being of some interest, but hai'dly as 
definite as could be desired. His report for 1865 ([). 49) contains a note on the 
whale fishery, but veiy little regarding the whales. The Gulf fishery is also the 
subject of a few paragraphs in the report for 1867 (p. 24). 

The cetological writings of P.-J. Van Beneden, both in number aud in scope, 
greatly surpass those of any other zoologist, and in importance I'ank with those of 
Eschi'icht and Flower. Though he compiled much from the writings of others, 
and repeated the same matter many times iu different publications, the amount of 
original work he accomplished in cetology constitutes a monument of which any 
zoologist might be proud, and Van Beneden built himself many such. He had 
but little American material at command, but was familiar with the writings of 
American cetologists and included their observations in his summaries, frequently 
commenting on them at some length, and expressing opinions of his own regarding 
the facts brought foi'ward. 

His Natural History of the Cetaceans of the Seas of Europe, published in 1889," 
which is a combination of several papers on different groups, published between 
1886 and 1889, contains references to all of Cope's and Scammon's species of baleen 
whales, and to some American material iu European museums, but nothing not 
already in the Osteographie and other earlier puldications. In 1864, Van Beneden 
published the results of a comparison of the skeletons of the Humpback whales of 

' Jouan, H., Mdmoire sur les Baleines et les Cachalots. Afi'm. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 
6, i8S9. PP- I-40- 

' Van Beneden, P.-J., Histoire Naturelle des C(5tac6s des Mers d'Europe. Bruxelles, 
1889. 8" 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE AV^ESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 55 

the Cape of Good Hope and of Greenland.' He concludes that tliey represent two 
very distinct s[)ecies. The figures and much of the matter of this aiticle were after- 
wards re-pul)lifshed in his Histoire Naturelle des Cetaccs. In 1868, Van Beueden 
pul)lishe<l an essay on the geographical distril)ution of tlie Right whales,^ accom- 
panied l»y a chart on which are I'epresented the distril)ution areas of the various 
species of Bald'iia. Tlie chait shows tlie range of J3. hiscayensis as extendiu"- to 
the east coast of the United States. (See p. 50.) 

Dr. Gi*ay published'* criticisms of Van Beneden's map, contending that it was 
based on insufKcient material and thus of no profit to science. In sustaining this 
contention he referred to most of the earlier Ameiican observations, includino- those 
of Dudley, Maury, Cope, etc., and commented on them at some length. In the same 
year, 1868, Van Beneden I'eplied to the criticisms of Gi'ay. One of the points 
involved is the relation of B. biscayensis to B. cisarctica. Regarding this Van 
Beneden remarks : 

'•But the most important (juestiou, and that on which Dr. Gray and myself are 
not in accord, is that of knowing whether the Balcena biscayensis is the same as 
that which Piofessor E. D. Cope has made known undei' tlie name of Bahtna cis- 
arctica., from a skeleton preserved in the Phihide][>hia museum. Di'. Gray savs 
'Certainly not'; I, on the contrary, think it is. . . . Tlie reasons on wliich 
Dr. Gi'ay depends in saying 'Certainly not,' are, in my opinion, far fi'om having the 
importance which he would accord them. These reasons are: That the Bahtna 
cisarctica has 14 paii's of ribs and that the first is not bifid, — it is singleheaded." 
Van Beneden's conclusion is : "We shall continue to regard the Balcena cisarctica 
of Professor Cope as being a synonym of Balanm biscayensis^ * 

The monumental work of Van Beneden and Gervais on the Osteography of 
the Cetacea,'^ (text dated 1880, but began to appear in 1868), is based chiefly on Old- 
World material and observations, but some American specimens are mentioned and 
descri))ed and the species established by American zoologists are briefly discussed. 
The eai'-bone of a specimen of Balcena cisarctica Cope is described and figui'ed. 
Reference is made to the occuri'ence of several skeletons of Megajptera from Green- 
land in Eui'opean museums, and the figures of the skeleton of M. longiniana ai'e 
probably from this material, though it is not exi)licitly so stated. The same is 
true of the desciiption and of a part of the figures of B. acuto-rostrata. A brief com- 
parison is made between the various nominal species of baleen whales established 

' Van Beneden, P.-J., Le Rorqual du cap de Bonne-Esperance et le K^porkak des Groen- 
landais. Bull. Acad. Ji. Belg. (2), 18, 1S64, p. 389. 

' Van Beneden, P.-J., Les Baleines et leur Distribution Geographique. Bull. Acad. H. Belg. 
(2), 25, 1868, pp. 9-21. 

" On the Geographical Distribution of xhsBalcenida, or Right Whales. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(4), I, 1S68, p. 242; also (4), 6, 1870, pp. 193-204. 

' Van Beneden, P.-J., La Premiere Cote des Cetac(;s. Bull. Acad. R. Belg. (2), 26, 1868, 

pp. 7-16, pis. 1-2. 

' Van Beneden, P.-J., and Gervais, P., Ost^ographie des C^tacds, vivants et fossiles. Atlas, 
1868-1879. Text, 1880. 



56 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

by Europeau and Americau authoi's, and opinions expressed as to their identity. 
The text concludes with the chart previously mentioned, on which is indicated the 
disti'ibution of species of Balcena in North American waters. The portion of this 
work relating to the genus Bahena having been finished by 1870, Dr. J. E. Gray 
took occasion to criticise it severely,' and in the course of his remarks touched upon 
certain American species. He refei's to the objections which have been made to his 
own method of ti'eating s[)ecies and higher gi'oups, and cites arguments sustaining 
his position. He criticises the chart showing geogi'aphical distribution, above men- 
tioned, and comments on the meagreness of the material on which Van Beneden 
and Gervais based conclusions in some instances. He gives a list of North Atlan- 
tic species of Bahena which he considei'S valid, and mentions the species of the 
North Pacific wiiich have I'eceived names. Much of the criticism contained in this 
paper was doubtless just or at least useful, but later studies have not on the whole 
sustained Gray's contentions regarding species and other matters. The American 
species cited are those of Cope, both Atlantic and Pacific, special mention being 
made of Balceria cisarctica, Agaphelus gibbosiis, and Rliacliianectes glaucus. 

In the same year Van Beneden replied to the criticisms of Gray on the 
Bahnnidm of the Ostoographie des Cetaces*^ and in tliat connection made the 
followinii' I'emai'ks reirardinsr American material : 

"This whale [Nordcaper] which was hunted in the English Channel was the 
first destroyed, and if by hazard it presents itself still in Europe, it is always in the 
middle of winter. It was in February, 1854, that the last one made its appeai'ance. 
We cannot say positively at what time of the year the whale which Piof. A. 
Agassiz has prepared for the Cambridge museum was captui'ed, but we have 
reason to believe it was in summer. . . . AVe shall have therefoi-e for this 
second species, as for the first \B. mysticetKs], fixed winter and summer stations. 
. . . The whale captured on the coast of America and to which Prof. Cope has 
given the name of Balfpna cisarctica is, we believe, the same which foimerly 
made its regular winter station in Europe. J)v. Giay does not share this opinion. 
To solve this interesting question directly by observation we addressed ourselves 
to Prof. Cope, who has kindly sent us from Philadelphia one of the eai'-bones of 
his new species. We requested Prof. Reinhardt, of Copenhagen, to compai-e this 
ear-bone with that of the skeleton from Pampelune in his museum, the only one 
actually known in Europe. Although the fii'st bone belongs to an adult and the 
second to a young animal, which I'enders comparison difficult, it is, however, evident, 
according to Prof. Reinhardt, that there is nothing which would lead one to suppose 
that the bones belonged to distinct species." 

Van Beneden closes with four theses, of which three are as follows : 

(a) " Thei'e exist two species of true whales (Right whales) in the Noith 
Atlantic and on the coasts of Greenland, — one the common whale, called also the 
Greenland whale, and the other the Sarde or Nordcaper. 

' Gray, J. E., Observations on the Whales described in the Ostoographie des Cetaces of MM. 
Van Beneden and Gervais. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 6, 1870, pp. 193-204. 

''Van Beneden, P. -J., Observations sur I'Osteographie des Cetaces. Bull. Acad. R. Bclg. 
(2), 30, 1870, pp. 380-388. 



THE WJIALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOin'H All, ANTIC. 57 

(b) " Each of these two species has its stations ;it fixed times, and they do not 
frequent tlie same waters; the southeni limits of one are the northern limits of 
the other. 

((•) " It is the same species which visits the coasts of Europe in winter and the 
coasts of America in summer." 

In a paper entitled "A Word regarding the Whale of Jai)an," published by 
Van Beneden in 1875/ ai'e a few interesting comments on the whales of the North 
Pacific which may be supposed to visit the west coast of North America, and on a 
collection of whalebone made by Cai)t. Scammon and deposited in the Vienna 
museum by Dr. Steiiidachner. 

A ])aper published by Van Beneden in 1878 under the title of "The Geo- 
graphical Distribution of the Finbacks,"" contains numerous allusiims to American 
material and obsei'vations, and an ex[)ression of opinion regarding the identity of 
various species of the east and west coasts of America described by Cope, Scam- 
mon, and other American writers. 

In 1880 Van Beneden published a brief account of the Right whale taken in 
Charleston harbor on Jan. 7th of that year. He remarks concerning it: 



"We connect tliis whale, without liesitation, with the species which the 
Basques hunted for centui'ies in the English Channel, the North Sea, and the At- 
lantic, and of which only a few individuals remain ; the species is almost com- 
pletely exterminated. . . . We have been able to assure ourselves that the 
Balwna cisarctlca is the same which in winter visits the shores of Europe."^ 

In 1885 Van Beneden published a note on information he had obtained from 
Dr. Holder of a small school of Right whales which appeared on the Atlantic coast 
of the United States in the preceding winter. He states that the school consisted 
of 6 individuals, of which 4 wei'e captured, comju'ising 8 adults and one young, — 
the lai'gest 60 feet long. As before, he expressed the opinion that the species is 
the same as the Basque whale, Balmna biscayemis* 

In describing a barnacle believed to have been taken from a whale captured in 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence, or on the coast of Eurofje,"^ Van Beneden takes occasion 
to set forth a uumbei' of theses regarding the geographical distribution of certain 
species of Bahrna a.\\i\ Megaptera, and their parasites. The statements regarding the 
Atlantic Right whale and Humpback are of interest in the present connection. 

Prof. Cope's contributions to American cetology began in 1865, when he 
established the species Balcena cisarctica on the basis of a specimen obtained from 

' Van Beneden, P.-J., Un Mot sur la Baleine du Japon. Bull. Acad. Ji. Belg. {2), 41, 1875, 
p. 28. 

' Van Beneden, P.-J., La Distribution Geographique des Bal^nopteres. Bull. Acad. R. 
Belg. (2), 45, 1878, pp. 167-178. 

'Bull. Acad. R. Belg. (2), 49, 1880, pp. 313-315. 

* Van Beneden, P.-J., Sur rApparition d'une Petite Gamme de Vraie Baleines sur les Cotes 
des Etats Unis d'Am^rique. Bull. Acad. R. Belg. (3). 9, or 54, 18S5, p. 212. 

'Van Beneden, P.-J., Une Coronule de la Baie de Saint-Laurent. Bull. Acad. R. Belg. (3), 
20, 1890, pp. 49-54, I pl. 



58 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

the coast of New Jersey. Cope possessed a wider knowledge of the Cetacea thau 
any other American zoologist and he was very properly looked upon as the foi-emost 
exponent of cetology in America. On account of the impoi'tance of his work his publi- 
cations will be given special consideration in a separate chapter. (See pp. 78 et seq.). 

Reinhardt published in 1868 a supplement to Hallas's article on the Iceland 
Sulphurbottom, in which he described the skull and some other parts of the skeleton 
of one of the specimens examined by the latter.' He takes up the question of the 
identity of the Gi'eenland "Tunnolik," and concludes that it is the same species as 
the Iceland "Steypiredr" and the European Sulphurbottom, usually known as B. 
sibhaldil I = £. miisculus (L.)]. 

Dr. J. A. Allen published a catalogue of the mammals of Massachusetts in 
1869, in which was included a list of cetaceans, with notes by Capt. N. E. Atwood, 
and identifications by Cope. Capt. Atwood was a lifelong resident of Province- 
town and thoi'ougldy acquainted with matters pertaining to the fisheries, and his 
comments on the different species ai'e of much importance." 

In 1869 the name of Capt. C. M. Scaramon first became known to zoologists, 
through a remarkable contribution on the Cetaceans of the Western Coast of 
Noi'th America, published under the editoi'sliip of Prof. E. D. Cope.'' This papier 
was submitted to tlie Smithsonian Institution, and referred by the then Secretary, 
Joseph Heniy, to Prof. Cope, " wdtli a request to publish such parts as should be 
deemed valuable to zoology, and to add such elucidation and explanation as would 
contribute to the same end." As published, it really consists of two i>arts, a sys- 
tematic paper by Cope and a genei'al natural history essay by Scammon. The 
correspondence of Scammon indicates that he was not well satisfied with this 
an-angement, and would rather have named the species himself. At a latei- date 
he did name a species, which he discovered in Puget Sound. The [)roportion of 
original matter in the article of 1869 is seldom equalled in zoological writings. 
It forms the basis of our knowledge of the cetaceans of the west coast of North 
America, and, indeed, has been but little added to, except by Scammon himself, 
either directly or indirectly. Scammon sent many valuable specimens to the 
Smithsonian Institution, including most of the material mentioned in this article and 
in his later and larger work, entitled " Marine Mammals of the Northwestern Coast 
of North America" (1874). A large part of the natural history matter relating to 
the Right whales was reprinted by Capt. Scammon in the Overland Magazine in 
1871, with some slight modifications.'* 

In 1872 Scammon published a diagnosis of a small species of Balienoptera 

'Reinhardt, J., Nogle Bemsrkningen om Islsendernes "Steypiredr." Videns. Meddch. 
naturhist. Foren. Kjoben., Aar. 1867, 1S68, pp. 17S-201. 

'Allen, J. A., Catalogue of the Mammals of Massachusetts: With a Critical Revision of 
Species. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., i, No. 8, 1869, pp. 202-207. 

'Scammon, C. M., On the Cetaceans of the Western Coast of North America. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1869, pp. 13-63. 

* Anon., Northern Whaling. Overland Mag., June, 1871, pp. 548-554. Also in an earlier 
number. This information I have from Prof. Spencer F. Baird. 



TILE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 59 

which he called B. davidsoni, from a specimen ol)t;vined in Admiralty Inlet, 
Paget Sound.' He afterwards figured this species in his Marine Mammals. 

The larger work already meiitioueel — Scammon's Marine Mammals — aj)- 
peared in 1874.~ In this, the matter in the earlier article is repeated with various 
corrections and amplifications, and an extensive account of the American wliale 
fishery is added. The book is illustrated by figures of various species of whales 
and porpoises which are among the best found in cetological literature, although 
Dot all of them are above criticism in point of accui'acy. An appendix to the 
work was prepared by Mr. Wm. H. Dall, in which the Nortii Pacific species 
of Cope, Scammon, and other writers are arranged systematically, and elucidated 
by notes, measui'ements, etc. 

Dr. Moritz Lindeman published in 1869 a very comprehensive work on Arctic 
fisheries.'' Among the numerous subjects touched upon are the North Pacific 
Right-whale and Gray-whale fisheries, the Hum[)back fishery, etc. Relative to 
the North Pacific fisheries, Lindeman rpioted a long letter from M. E. Pechuel, 
who accompanied the New Bedford whaler Alasmcli iiaetts to Bering Sea in 1865. 
This letter contains much valuable information regarding the Right whale of the 
North Pacific. Lindeman also published a communication fi-om Captain Seabury of 
New Bedford on the principal whaling stations of the world, containing numerous 
facts relative to the geograpliical distribution of the Right whales, Humpbacks, 
and Gray whales. Coming from persons directly concei-ned in the whale fisheiy, 
these two communications are of special impoi'tance. Dr. Lindeman's article as 
a whole contains an immense amount of valuable information relative to the 
whale fishery. (See also p. 61.) 

The repoits of the fisheries branch of the Canadian Department of Mai'ine 
and Fisheries, beginning with 1870, contain a few notices of the whale fishery in 
in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, but very little indeed is said about the whales 
themselves.^ 

Pechuel in 1871 took up the subject of the whale fishery in a series of illus- 
trated articles published in the German periodical, Bas AuslandJ' The last article 
of the series is on the natural history of the whales, and is accompanied by original 

' Scammon, C. M., On a New Species of Balsenoptera. Proc. Calif. Acad. Set., 4, 1873, pp. 
269-270. Published in advance, Oct. 4, 1872. 

" Scammon, C. M., The Marine Mammals of the North-western Coast of North America, 
described and illustrated ; together with an account of the .\merican Whale-Fishery. San Fran- 
cisco, 1874. 4 . 

' Lindeman, M., Die Arktische Fischerei der Deutschen Seestadte, 1620-1868. Petermanns 
Geog. Mittheil. Ergaiizungs/ieft, No. 26, 1869, pp. 1-118, pis. 1-2. 

* The notices are in the following volumes: Annual Report Dept. Marine and Fish. Canada 
for 1870, appendix of Marine Branch, p. 232 ; Report for 1871, appendix. Fisheries Branch, p. 27; 
Report for 1872, appendix, do., p. 16; 6th Report for 1873, appendix, do., p. 18; 8th Report for 1875, 
Supplement 4, Reft. Comr. Fisheries, p. 49; P^/' Report for 1876, Supplement 4, Repi. Comr. Fisheries, 
p. 65; JOth Report for 1877, Supplements, Rept. Comr. Fisheries, p. 20; nth Report for 1878, Sup- 
plement 4, Rcpt. Comr. Fisheries, p. 49; ist Annual Rept. Dept. Fisheries for 1884, p. 171. 

" Pechuel-Loesche, M. E., Wale und Walfang. Das Ausland, 44, 187 1, Nos. 42-50. 



60 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTEEBf NORTH ATLANTIC. 

figures of specimens of differeut species examined by the author, measurements, 
descriptions, etc. These relate chiefly to the species of the North Pacific. The 
figures of the Right whale and Gray whale are intei'esting for comparison with 
those of Scanimon, though both are inaccui'ate to a certain degree. 

In 1871 P. Fischer published some brief notes on the Basque wbale (^Bahetia 
biscayensis) in which he refers to B. cisarctica and to the whale fishery of the 
Basques on the Newfoundland banks, which he asserts they I'eached in 1372.' 

Fischer's article on Documents relating to the Histoiy of the Basque Whale, 
1871," contains furthei- references to the Basque whale fishery in the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, and other matters concerning Right whales in the North Atlantic. 

Prof. A. W. Malm published in 1871 an annotated list of specimens oi ceta- 
ceans in Swedish museums,^ in which he mentioned a specimen of a Humpback 
from Greenland, and one from St. Bartholomew Id., West Indies. The former 
he places under Meyaptera longimana and for the latter he accepts the name M. 
americana fi'om Gray, with a query. He gives number of vertebrae, measurements, 
and other data. The West Indian specimen is especially interesting, as Cope got 
the type-specimen of his M. bellicosa from the same island and the same collector. 

Ml'. Henry Reeks published a series of articles on the zoology of Newfound- 
land in the Zoologist in 1871, among which is one on cetaceans.* An endeavor 
was made by Dr. Tbeo. Gill, at Mr. Reeks's request, to connect the common names 
current in the island for various species with scientific names, but on account of the 
vagueness of the information furnished this was not pai'ticularly successfuL 

Dr. Thos. Dwiglit published in 1872 a bi'ief description of a Common Finback 
\_BalceHoptera physalus (L.)^ which stranded at Point Shirley, Boston Harbor, Nov. 
25, 1871.* He gives measurements, color-description, and other data. In the same 
year he published a detailed description of the skeleton of a Common Finback cap- 
tured off Gloucester, Mass., in Oct., 1871. He gives measurements and five figures 
of the exterior, full descriptions and measurements of the skull, vertebife and other 
bones, and numerous figures of different parts of the skeleton, and discusses the 
relationships of the specimen and its probable specific identity.** The paper con- 
tains more detailed information and more and better figures than any other paper 
on Balamoptera hitherto published in America. 

In 1874 a brief note to the following effect appeared in the Pioceedings of 
the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences : 

' Fischer, P., Sur la Baleine des Basques (^Balana biscayensis). Comp. Rend., 72, 1871, p. 298. 

' Fischer, P., Documents pour servir a I'Histoire de la Baleine des Basques {Ba/cena biscayensis). 
Ann. de Sci. nat., 187 1, Art. 3, pp. 1-20. 

" Malm, A. W., Hvaldjur i Sveriges Museer, Ar 1S69. K. Si'ensk. Vetensk. Akad. Band/., 9, 
No. 2, 187 1, pp. 1-104, pis. 1-6. 

' Reeks, H., Notes on the Zoology of Newfoundland. Zoologist (2). 6, 187 1, pp. 2550-2553. 

' DwiGHT, Thos., jr., Description of the Whale (Balcenoptera muscuhts) that came ashore in 
Boston Harbor, Nov. 25, 187 i. Froc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 15, pp. 26-27. 

° Dwight, Thos., jr., Description of the Whale {Ba/a/ioptera miesciiius Auct.) in the possession 
of the [Boston] Society [of Natural History]: with remarks on the classification of Fin Whales. 
Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 2, pt. 2, 1872, pp. 203-230, pis. 6-7. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 61 

" Pi'of. Cope mentioned the captiu-e of a young Balwiia cimrdica, of 48 feet 
in length, in the Puiritan Rivei', near South Auibo}-, on May 30th. The skeleton 
was buned and would be preserved in some museum. He examined the whalebone, 
of which there are 245 laminje on each side of the mouth. The color is bla(;k and 
theiiair is fine, long, and has a brownish tinge; length of longest i)late with hair, 
48 inches. The gum is 116 inches long and 11 inches deep. He was informed 
that the whale was entirely black, and the dorsal line without irregularities." ' 

The Greenland Manual, edited by T. Rupert Jones, and publish.-d in 1875, 
contains a revised edition of Dr. Robert Brown's excellent paper on the Cetacea of 
Greenland." His remarks i-egarding the Finbacks and Humpback, thou<;h brief, 
are of considerable importance. 

Dr. Moritz Lindeman published in 1880 an excellent treatise on sea fisheries,'^ 
in which he gives a brief account of the whale fisheries carried on in various parts 
of the world. Especially interesting in the pi'esent connection are the statements 
regarding the Humpback fishery in the West Indies,^ and the Gray-whale fishery 
on the coast of California.'^ They may properly be presented here in translation : 

"Mr. Archer, who for 14 years fitted out boats for whale fishinf,^, leports as 
follows regarding the whale fishery about the Barbadoes: '1 find that heie the 
whales have not grown scarcer, and that they are not more shy and more difficult 
to catch than formerly. . . . Sperm whales are not found heie, but are some- 
times caught about the Leeward Islands. The baleen of the Humpback is from 
3 to 5 feet long. It is to be remarked that this year the cai-casses of the whales 
have begun to be used for manure. The capture of the 'Buckelwal' {Balcfna 
hoo2)s. English, Humpback) is carried on in the central part of the islands on the 
lee side, with boats sent out fi'om shoi-e, where the dead fish are drawn out and 
where the oil is extracted. The Humpback has a length of from 50 to 60 feet, 
and furnishes 50 to 70 barrels of oil. In the fishing season four boats go out 
whaling everyday, each with 7 men; two boats go toward the North and two 
toward the South. The whales appear in January, and leave in June; the fishing, 
howevei', begins generally in March, as they fiist appeal- in larger numbers at this 
time. The fishing is cpiite easy if only females with their young appear, more 
difficult if the males also come in, as the latter keep a good watch.' . . . The 
females nurse their young in quiet water on the coast and one can, according to Mr. 
Archer, observe the young nursing very well in clear, but not dee[>, watei-. 

"Fishing for Humj)backs takes place in the Grenada Ids. in spring and 
early summer, and 500-800 bai-rels of oil, worth £1500-2000, are obtained 
annually. 

"At Tobao-o the whale fishery is carried on by American vessels, with fair 
results. 

" The whale fishery [at Santa Lucia Iil] is carried on by 1 or 2 American 

' Froc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1874, p. 89. 

' Brown, Roht., On the History and Geographical Relations of the Cetacea frequenting Davis 
Strait and Balfin's Bay. Manual of Greenland, T. R. Jones, Editor, 1875, pp. 69-93. K-eprinted, 
with correclions and annotations, from Proc. Zodl. Soc. London, 1868, pp. 533-556. 

' Lindeman, M , Die Seefischereien. Petermanns Mittheil. Ergdnzungsheft, No. 60, 1880. 

' Op. cit., pp. S4-86. 

' Op. cit., pp. 66-67. 



62 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

schooners principally on the west and south coasts of the island, from March 

to July." 

" On the Californiau coast there are about a half dozen whaling stations. 
From these a constant watch is kept, and if a whale is in sight, row boats go out 
to fish. These stations are at Puuta Bauda and at Santo Tomas in Lower Cali- 
fornia, and in American territory at Ballast Point, at Monterey, at Pigeon Point, 
and 1 or 2 in Mendocino County. The whales caught on the Californian coast 
are mostly Gray whales (Graybacks), which ai'e difficult to cat(di and not very lich 
in oil ; often half of the whales killed aie lost. The best fishing is from Novem- 
ber to February, at the time when the whales approach the land at the south. 
From May to Octobei- their course is northward somewhat fuilher out at sea." 

In 1882 Di'. J. A. Allen published a valuable bibliography of cetology fi'om 
1495 to 1840,' with critical annotations, and references to the pages on which the 
names of species and general cetological matter occur. This important guide to 
cetological literature contains numerous titles of works whose subject-matter is 
lai'gely or wholly American. 

In 1883 Dr. J. B. Holder, of the American Museum of Natural History, })ub- 
lished a brief but important memoir on the Atlantic Right whales, containing 
measurements of four American specimens, descriptions of the skeletons and other 
data, together with several figures of the exterior, whalebone, skulls, vertebrae, etc. 
It contains also a summaiy of literature I'elating to the Right whales, a synopsis 
of American and European opinion regai'ding the various nominal species, and a 
brief bibliography. Too much space is devoted to matters of little consequence, 
and too small an amount to the descriptions of the specimens examined. In spite 
of these defects, its value is unquestionable, es})ecially as it is the on]j paper on 
Right whales from the east coast of the United States, with compaiative meas- 
urements and details, and good illustiations, which has thus far been pul)lished.'^ 
One of the specimens mentioned by Dr. Holder was a skeleton prepai'ed by Di-. G. 
E. Maiiigault, curator of the Charleston College Museum, Chai'leston, S. C. A 
little later, in 1885, Dr. Manigault gave a fuller description of this specimen in a 
paper entitled "The Black Whale Captured in Charleston Harbor, January, 1880." ^ 

Malm's account of bones of whales collected t»y the Veffa Expedition of 
1878-80^ contains numerous woodcuts of portions of skulls of Hhacldanectes and 
of other bones of the skeleton of that whale, with detailed descrij^tions. 

In 1884 Dr. G. Brown Goode summed up i)rietly the more important facts 
regarding baleen and other whales in American waters, adding some new data.^ 

Flower's list of Cetacea in the British Museum, published in 1885,'' contains 

' Allen, J. A., Preliminary List of Works and Papers relating to the Mammalian Orders Cete 
and Sirenia. Bui/. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Survey of the Territories, 6, No. 3, 1882, pp. 399-562. 

" Holder, J. B., The Atlantic Right Whales. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., i, 1883, pp. 99-137, 
pis. 10-13. ' Proc. Elliott Soc. 0/ South Carolina, 1885, pp. 98-104. 

' Malm, A. W., Skelettdelar af Hval insamlade under Expeditionen med Vega 1878- 1880. 
Bihang, Svensk. Vets. Akad. Handl., 8, No. 4, 1883. 

'Goode, G. B., The Whales and Porpoises. Fisheries and Fishery Indust. of the U. S., Sect, i, 
Te.xt, 1884, pp. 7-32. 

' Flower, W. H., List of the Specimens of Cetacea in the British Museum. 1885. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 63 

bis views regarding certain species treated of in the present connection. Under the 
lieading of Jjahcna anxtniUn he remarks : " Under this name are pi-ovisionally 
included various forms which have l)een specifically separated either according to 
locality or from trifling structural peculiarities. Possibly some are distinct, but 
a moi'e thorough study, with more ample materials than ai'e at present available, 
will be necessary before their chai'acters can be satisfactorily defined." Under this 
species he includes specimens from New Zealand, South Africa, Atlantic coast of 
Noi'th Ameiica (cast of ear-bones of type of Balmna elsarctica Cope), coast of Great 
Britain, North Pacific, South Seas, and Sandwich Islands. Under Mtgaptera boops 
he remarks : " It is uncertain whether all the following specimens of Mcgaptera 
should be referred to one species or to several. If more than one, their distinctive 
characters have not been as yet clearly defined." The specimens included are 
from Greenland, California, and New Zealand. \] nder J^alcenopte/rt rostrata (= />. 
acnto-rostrat(i) he includes specimens from Weymouth and the Thames River, Eng- 
land, and from Greenland. 

The American Field iov March 12, 1887, p. 246, contains the following note: 

" Several whales were sighted off Amagansett, L. I., Mai'ch 2, and several 
crews started in pursuit. A large cow whale was killed the same afternoon. . . . 
The whale, which is about 60 feet in length, will bring its captors about $1,200 
for oil and bone." 

Di'. H. Bolau [)ublished between 1885 and 1895 three excellent summaries of 
the natural histoiy and geogi'aphical distribution of the larger and more impoi'tant 
cetaceans of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans.' Though they do not contain 
much original mattei-, the best observations are condensed and brought together in 
a very convenient form, and the charts show careful study and a thorough undei-- 
standing of the subject and familiarity with the literature. American observations 
and American species I'eceive a lai'ge share of attention. 

The lieports and Bulletins of the United States Fish Commission contain 
numerous references to whales, many of which, though brief, are of considerable 
importance. As these references are scattered through a score of volumes, I have 
thought it desii-able to collect them here for convenience. The Bulletins contain 
the following : 

[finback whale at GLOUCESTER, MASS.] 

"Eecently a carcass of a Finback whale 55 feet long di'ifted ashore on Long 
Beach, some ten miles fi'om hei-e [Gloucester, Mass.], opposite Milk Island. (July 
23, 1880.)"' 

" Whales are close to the shore. [Gloucester, Mass., May 7, 1882.] "=" 

' BoLAU, H., Ueber die wichtigsten Wale des Atlantisclien Ozeans und ilire Verbreitung in 
demselben. Segdhaiidbuche fiir den Atlantischcn Ozean, Deutsche Seeicartc, 14 Kap., 1885. 

Ibid, Die geograpliische Verbreitung dcr wichtigsten Wale des Stillen Ozeans. Abhandl. Gebicte 
Naiurwis., 13, 1895. Also separate. 

'Clark, A. Howard, Notes on the Fisheries of Gloucester, Mass. Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 4, 

1884, p. 407- 

= Martin, S. J. Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 2, 1882, p. 17. 



64 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

[whales at GLOUCESTER, MASS., 1880.] 

" Whales have recently been uumerous iu this vicinity, and shore boats report 
many of them swimmina^ about. Four dead ones have been towed into this harbor ; 
the largest was 65 feet long. [Gloucester, Mass., May 13, 1880.]'" 

[whales on the new ENGLAND COAST, 1886.] 

" Whales have been numerous off the New England coast. [June, 1886.] 
Three steamers are engaged in taking them, being quite successful, although many 
that are shot and sink in deep water are not recovered."^ 

[whale fishery in the gulf OF MAINE, 18S5.] 

"Whale iishinfr off the New England coast by small steamers is getting to be 
quite a business. During the past two months [March and Apfil (?), 1885] four 
steamers have been engaged in this work, viz., Fannie Sprague, Mabel Bird, Hur- 
ricane, and Josepliine. 

" They cruise off the Maine and Massachusetts shores as far south as Cape Cod. 
A bomb-lance, fired from a gun held at the shoulder, is used foi' killing the whales. 
Uji to date about 40 whales have been captured. 

" As the men become expert in the manner of capture, the whales become shy 
and keep more in deep water. After being killed they usually sink, and it is 
doul)tful if the business, as at present conducted, will last if the whales are driven 
oft' fi'om near shoi'e, it being difficult to recovei' them in over 40 fathoms of water. 

"The whales captured the past few weeks average 60 feet long and weigh 
about 25 tons each ; they yield about 20 baiTels of oil, 2 bari'els of meat, 5 tons 
of dry chum, and two tons of bone, about $400 being realized fi-om each whale, 
on the average." ^ 

[whales off the MAINE COAST.] 

" The fishei-men [at Gloucester, Mass.] say that they have never seen whales 
so numerous on the eastern shore as at j)resent. The steamer Fannie Spraipie, of 
Booth Bay, formei'ly used in the porgy fisher}^, which has been fitted out as a 
whaler, shot six whales last week [March, 1885]. Two of them were safely towed 
to Booth Bay, but the other four, which sunk, are buoyed. [Gloucester, Mass., 
March 8, 1885.]"^ 

[stranding OF A FINBACK WHALE AT MT. DESERT LIGHT STATION, 1885.] 

"Writing under date of July 4, 1885, Thomas Milan, keeper, says: There was 
a male Finback whale came ashore at tliis station, July 3. He is 56 feet long, cir- 
cumference about 25 feet. The flukes have a breadth of 12 feet 1 inch; back fin, 
1 foot 3 inches ; depth of flukes, 3 feet 2 inches ; from snout to back fin, 40 feet ; 
length of mouth, 12 feet. The outside skin was nearly all stiijiped off, as he had 
been eaten considerably by the sharks. The coloi' of his back was a daik lead 
color or neai'ly black; flukes, upper side, same color; under side, grayish-white."^ 

'Clark, A. Howard. Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 4, 1884, p. 404. 

'Wilcox, W. A., New England Fisheries in June, 1886. Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 6, 18S6, 
p. 201. 

MVilcox, W. a,, New England Fisheries in April, 1885. Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 5, 18S5, 
p. i6g. 

* Martin, S. J. Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 5, 1885, p. 207. 

'Smiley, Charles W. Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 5, 1885, p. 337. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 65 

[wHAI.es off PLYMOUTH, MASS., 1885.] 

"Ml-. John F. Holnie.s, keeper of tlie Gurnet life-saving station [4| miles N. E. 
of Plymouth, Mass.], writing under date of July 8, 1885, says that on July 5th 
schools of vyhales and porpoises appealed neai- that station, and on July 7 quite a 
large quantity of mackerel was taken." ' 

[whales on the grand banks, 1885.] 

" It is worthy of note that swoidfish and Finback whales were seen in unusual 
abundance on July 13 [between Brown's Bank and N.E. extremity of George's 
Bank]. During the fiist part of the day as many as 20 swordfish were seen in from 
6 to 8 hours; frequently 2 or 3 were in sight at the same time. As many as 20 
whales were seen at one time during the morning, and a still greater number were 
seen during the afternoon. At station 2528 [lat. 41° 47' N. ; long. 65° 37' 30" W.l 
they were veiy numerous, apparently feeding on small Crustacea, probably from 40 
to 50 whales being in sight at one time. They weie all Finbacks, so far as I could 
tell. Their movements were sluggish, as they ' played ' back and forth in the 
tide rips, with their mouths open, the upper Jaw just at the surface, scoopinr-- in 
' feed.' They were joined by a school of porpoises (pi-obably Delphinus delphis), 
which di-ove in among the whales, their movements indicating that thev wei-e 
feedintr, but of this we could not be sure." ~ 



'&» 



[whale fishery in the gulf of MAINE, 1886.] 

"Thus fai' the ' kyacks ' have not been sufficiently abundant to wan-ant the 
factory men in devoting their attention exclusively to this species ; but the business 
is carried on profitably in connection with the shore-whaling for Finbacks, which 
has become important. Last yeai- five small steamers were engaged in this shore- 
whaling, the fleet landing part of the whales at Provincetown, Mass., and the 
remainder at the factories in Maine. About seventy-five whales were captured by 
this fleet last year, and the carcasses of some of them were boiled and made into 
sci-ap, which sells when dried at $22 a ton, the only objection to it being the large 
percentage of oil which it contains. That made to date averages about 25 per cent, 
of oil." (Extract from a letter of Mr. R. Edward Earll to Prof. 8. F. Baird, dated 
Gloucester, Mas.s., September 17, 1886.) ' 

In addition, the Bulletins contain translations of several important papers on 
Noi-wegian whale fisheries, and an article by Mr. Chas. H. Townsend on the California 
Gray whale, RhacManedes glaucus} This article specifies the number and location 
of the whaling stations on the California coast, the number of whales taken, their 
habits, food, etc., and is accompanied by four oi-iginal drawings of a foetal specimen 
17 ft. long observed at St. Simeon Bay, Cal. 

The Reports of the Commission contain the following : 

'Smiley, Charles W. Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 5, 1885, p. 347. 

' Collins, J. W., Notes on an investigation of the Great Fishing Banks of the Western .\thunic. 
Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 6, 1886, p. 381. 

^ Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 6, 1886, pp. 312-313. 

' Townsend, C. H., Present Condition of the California Gray-whale Fishery. Bull.U. S. Fish 
Com., 6, 1886, pp. 346-350, pis. 6-7. 



66 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

[whales observed about NEWFOUNDLAND AND IN THE GULF OF ST. LAWRENCE, 1887-S.] 

" On July 16 eight Humpback whales wei'e seen ; two of them to the south- 
west of Cape Pine [Newfoundland]; two between Cape Pine and Cape Race, and 
four others to the northeast of the latter point. Several whales were seen dff 
Canada Head [Newfoundland] on July 29. A small Finback came into the harbor 
near the vessel on several occasions while we lay in Canada Bay [Newfoundland], 
usually making its appearance near sunset. North of Groais Island and Cape Rouge 
[Newfoundland], on August 3, and between that point and Cape Bauld, Hump- 
back and Finback wiiales were seen in abundance. I)uring the afternoon of August 
10, while off Mingan [Quebec], a number of whales wei'e seen ; their appeai-ance 
being particulai'ly noticeable on account of their closeness inshore. A Pike whale 
(BaUvnoptei'a?) was feeding near the vessel in Mingan Harbor on August 14. An 
attempt was made to capture it ; a bombdance was tired at it, but going wide of its 
mark only frightened the animal so that it soon left the harbor." ^ 

[whales off SANTA BARBARA CO., CAL.] 

" Whales, chiefly the California Gray, are reported to be numerous off the coast 
of this county during the winter, when they frequently come close inshore. In 
summer they migrate northward. None have been captured, however, in recent 
years, but quite an important shore whale fishery could be prosecuted, as in foi'mer 
years, if the price of oil should advance sufficieutlj^ to make the business remunera- 
tive. The profits might now be mateiially enhanced by the utilization of the 
carcasses for the manufacture of fertilizer — a product that ought to find a I'eady sale 
at good prices." - 

[whales off the COAST OF SAN LUIS OlilSPO CO., CAL.] 

" Whales a[)pear chiefly in fall and winter, as on other parts of the coast south 
of San Francisco. Four species, the Humpback, California Gray, Finback, and 
Sulphurbottom, are said to occur, but only Gray whales were taken in 1888. These 
are about 35 to 40 feet in length, and yield about 25 or 30 barrels of oil."'^ 

" 21ie shore ivhale fishery. — San Simeon Bay and vicinity and about ' Whalers' 
Point,' near Port Haiiord, have been considered the best grounds in this count)^ 
for whaling. Whales ai'e said to be scarcer than formerly along this section of the 
coast. It is believed by some of tlie old fishermen that this scarcity is to some 
extent due to the presence of steamers on the coast. 

"From 1869 to 1887 a shore whaling station was maintained at Whalers' 
Point, where, it is said, as many as 30 or 40 whales were taken in the most prosper- 
ous seasons. But in 1887, the last year of the fishery at this place, only 5 whales 
wei'e ca[»tured. The scaix-ity of whales, togetlier with the low ])rice of oil, contrib- 
uted to the abandonment of the station. The whaling company here consisted of 

20 men, who operated 3 boats manned by 6 men each. In 1880 there were 

21 men. 

"A whaling station was established at San Simeon Bay in 1865 by a man who 
had formei'ly engaged in this fishery at Monterey, San Diego, and Poi'tuguese Bend. 

' Collins, J. W. and D. E., Report on tlie Operations of the Fish Com. Schooner Grampus, 
1887-8. Jiept. U. S. Fish Com., 15, 1891, pp. 525-526. 

"Collins, J. W., Report on Fisheries of Pacific Coast. Rcpt. U. S. Fish Com., 16, 1892, 

P- 45- 

' Op. cit., p. 50. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. (>7 

The business has been continued, with, [)eihaps, temporary intermissions, until the 
present time. Between '20 anil 30 wliales have often been taken in a season, and 
an average of 17 for the first 16 years. Tljis station, as well as the other shore 
Avhaling stations along the coast, was re[)orted as closed during tlie early part of 
1888, but was reopened in the fall, ancl up to March 9, 1889 (at which time the 
fishery was suspended), 14 whales had been taken, which yielded 440 barrels of oil, 
valued at $5,720. ... 

"The season is from November to the middle of March, after which date the 
whales have generally left the coast on their annual migration north. The species 
taken here is usually the Gray whale ; the Hum])bnck or ' summer whale' is rarely 
captured, and the same may be said of the Right whale. The best success is 
usually met with in the early part of the season, when the whales are going south, 
for in the late winter and spring, when returning, they keep farther off shore, and 
the prevailing northerly winds and rough sea often prevent their successful pursuit. 
Besides, as they are then in poor condition, tliere is not the same inducement to 
hunt them. ... 

"Alexander states that 'December, January, and February are the months in 
which whales frequent this locality ; sometimes, however, a few are seen as late as 
the middle of March. These months are called the down-run season ; the up- 
run is of short duration, which, as a rule, lasts from 4 to 6 weeks. Whales when 
migrating north are poor, but on their return south are invariably fat and contain 
about 50 per cent more oil than when on their northern passage.' " ' 

[whales off the coast of MONTEREY CO , CAL.] 

" Whales ai'e reported more numei'ous than they were a few years ago, but no 
attempt has been made to take them at Monterey Bay since 1881, and the shore 
whaling station at Carmel Bay was closed three years later." " 

[whales off CAPE FLATTERV, WASHINGTON.] 

"Whales, chiefly the small sharp-headed finner {BaUenoptera davidsoni Scam- 
mon), are found off Cape Flattery antl at the entrance of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, 
whei-e the Indians improve every opportunity to capture them." ^ 

[whales off the QUILLIHUTE R., WASHINGTON.] 

"These [Quillihute] Indians also engage in whaling during the summer; nine 
Finback whales were captured in 1888;'these were cut up and smoked for food. 
The catch is wholly for home consumption and has no commercial nnportance. 

[whales off the coast of CALIFORNIA, MARCH AND APRIL, 1890.] 

" Whales were very common and wei-e i-eported nearly every day, sometimes in 
larc^e numbers. On one occasion we steamed slowly into a school that_ were so 
busily engaged in feeding that they paid little attention to us. Upon invest^ga- 
tion it wal ascertained that they were devouring a small globular jellyhsh, half an 
inch in diameter, which could be seen in immense masses from 3 to 5 fathoms 

■Collins T W Report on Fisheries of Pacific Coast. Rept. U. S. Fish. Com., .6, .892, pp. 52- 
53, pi. 3. ■ =C/.«V.,p.58. 'OA«V.,p.245. '6)/../V.,p.243- 



68 THE WHALEBOlSrE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

beneath the surface. Thousands of sea birds were hovering over or around the 
busy scene." ' 

[finbacks at unalaska.] 

" There was a large school of Finback whales feeding in Broad Bay, during the 
day [August 21, 1890J, which paid but little attention to us, simply moving out of 
the way or diving under the ship when we approached them. On one occasion the 
same school was seen playing around a whaler, but no attention was paid to them. 
Nothino- but merchantable bone will tempt the modern whaleman. We returned 
to port the same evening."- 

[sAN SIMEON BAY WHALING STATION, CALIFORNIA.] 

"Seven whales were taken during each of the seasons 1888 and 1889. Those 
obtained in 1888 yielded 180 barrels of oil, while 260 barrels were taken from the 
catch of 1889. This diffei'ence was due to the larger size of the whales in the latter 
year. Whales fi'equent this region during the months of December, January, and Feb- 
ruary, but in some years a few are seen as late as the middle of Mai'ch. It is duiing 
these months that the 'down run' takes place. The 'up run' is of shorter dura- 
tion, lasting as a rule from four to six weeks. While moving south the wliales ai-e 
invariably fat, containing 50 per cent, moi-e oil than on the return north. Twenty- 
one men and nine boats are employed at tliis station during the whaling season. 
Only two men are retained in the summer, to look after the boats and Iniildings. 
The ciew I'eceives a lay of one-fiftieh, the hai-poouer or shooter (the harpoon being 
fired from a gun) one-sixteenth."^ 

2. Records of the Colonial Shore Whale-fishery. 

The available records of this fishery, which had foi' its object the capture of 
the Right whale, Balcena glackdis, are scattered through the publications of the 
historical societies of the several States, the published official archives, and various 
State and town histories. The items contained in these I'ecords are chiefly of an 
industrial nature, but among them are many bits of natural history. To pick these 
out f]-oni the great mass of other material is a time-consuming operation, but may 
on the whole be considered as repaying the effort required. A part of this matter 
has been referred to, or mentioned, in Starbuck's Histoiy of the American "Whale 
Fishery,'' and again in Clark's History of the Ameiican Whale Fisheiy,^ but both 
these works are concerned primarily with industrial matters, and only incidentally 
touch upon the natural history of the whales. The following items from Star- 
buck's histoiy are of intei-est in the present connection as indicating the seasons in 
which whales were captui'ed, etc. : 

' Tanner, Z. T.., Report on Investigations of the U. S. Fish Com. Steamer Albatross, 1889-91. 
Bept. U. S. Fish Com., 17, 1893, p. 226. 

' Op. cit., p. 245. ■ Op. cit., p. 279. 

' Starbuck, Alex., History of the American Whale Fishery, from its earliest inception to the 
year 1876. Kept. U. S. Fish Com., part 4, 1878 ; Appendix A, pp. 1-768, pis. 1-6. 

' Clark, A. Howard, History and Present Condition of the Fishery. Fisheries and Fishery 
Indiist. of the U. S., Sect. 5, vol. 2, 1887, 3-218. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 69 

" In April (4tli), 1656, the couucil of New York 'received a request of Hans 
Jongh, soldier and tanner, asking for a ton of train-oil, or some fat of the whale 
lately captured.' " ' 

"Francis Nicholson, writing from Fort James, December, 1688, says — 'Our 
whalers have had pretty good luck, killing about Graves End [Long Island] three 
large whales. On the Easte End abonte five or six small ones.' " ~ 

"In 1708, under Lord Coiiil)ury, an act was passed for the 'Encouragement 
of Whaling' [at Long Island], in which it was provided, 1st, that any Indian, who 
was bound to go to sea whale-fishing, should not ' at any time or times between 
the First Day of November and the Fifteenth Day of April following, yearly, be 
sued,'" etc.^ 

" ' In 1719, February 24, a [Long Island] whaleboat being alone, the men struck 
a whale, and she, coming up under ye boat, in part staved it.'"^ 

"Under date of March 20, 1727, the Boston News-Letter says: ' We hear from 
the Towns on the Cape [Cod] that the Whale Fishery among them has failed much 
this winter, as it has done for several Winters past, but having found out the way 
of going to Sea Upon that Business, and having had much Success in it, they are 
now fitting out sevei'al Vessels to sail with all Expedition upon that dangerous 
Design this Spring, more (its tho't) than have ever been out from among them.'"^ 

"The same paper in its issue of February 12, 1730, contains the following 
extract from a letter from Chatham [Mass.], dated 'February 6, 1729-30': 'There 
has been a remarkable Providence in the awful death of some of my neighbors; 
on the day commonly called New Year's Day, a whaleboat's Crew coming home 
from a Place called Hog's-Back, where they had been on a Whaling design, the 
Boat was overset, and all the Men lost, on a reaf of Sand that lies out against 
Billingsgate.' " ^ 

"In Mai'ch, 1736, the inhabitants of Provincetown captured a large whaleat 
sea, cut him up, and brought the blubber into that poi't. The estimated quantity 
of oil that this Idubber would produce was 100 barrels."' 

"The season of 1737-8 must have been an unfortunate one at Provincetown 
[Mass.], for up to January 5, 1738, the i^eople of that town had only killed two 
small whales, and some of the inhabitants took into serious consideration a change 
of i-esidence. In July, 1738, Cajttain Anthony Hough, master of a whaling vessel, 
took ' in the Straits ' [of Belle Isle] a large whale, and brought him to the vessel's side 
to cut in. ... In February, 1738, the Yarmouth [Mass.] whalemen had killed 
but one large whale dui'ing the season ; the bone of that one was from 8 to 9 feet 
lono-. Nor%vas the whaling-season of 1738-9 any more successful to the inhabit- 
ant! of the Cape [Cod]. Up to the 15th of February, 1739— the whaling-season 
being then over — there had been taken at Provincetown [Mass.] but six small and 
one Targe whale, and at Sandwich [Mass.] two more small ones."** 

"In Ausjust, 1723, a drift-whale is advertised in the Boston Newn-Letter as 
ashore at Marblehead [Mass.] " ^ 

"The Boston papers of December 12, 1707, state that a whale 40 feet long 
entered that harbor and several whale-boats pursued and killed her near the back 
of Noddle's Island."" 

"We find in the Neios-Letler of September 3, 1722, an advertisement of a 

■ Starbuck, p. II. From .V. Y. Coll. MSS., 6, p. 354- '^^''^■' PP- 3i-32- 

'/6/d., p. IS- From Mass. Coll. MSS., 6, p. 303. V/J/a', p. 32. 

VfoV., p. 25. From Bradford's Laws of New York, p. 72. 'Hid., pp. 3^-33- 

'Ibid., p. 30. From Hedges in N. V. Col. Rec, 5, p. 579- °^''"'"'' P- 34- 

^Ibid., p. 31. '°^'''''^- P- 34- 



70 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

court of admiralty to be held to adjudicate on a drift-whale found floating near 
Brewster's [Mass.], and towed ashore in August." ' 

" By the inhabitants of Martha's Vineyaid, in 1702-3, there appear to have 
been several whales killed. The following entry occurs under that date in the 
court records: 'The marks of the [3] whales killed by John Butler and Thomas 
Lathi-op. . . . These whales were all killed about the middle of February last past; 
all great whales, betwixt six and seven and eight foot bone, which ai-e all gone 
from us.'" -^ 

"In the Neivs-Letter [Boston] of August 8, 1765, is the following statement: 
'Tuesday one of the sloops which has been on the Whaling Business I'eturned 
here. We hear that the vessels employed in the Whale Fishery from this and the 
neighboring Maritime Towns, amounting to near 100 Sail, have been very success- 
ful this Season in the Gulph of St. Lawrence and Streights of Belle isle; having, 
'tis said, already made upwards of 9,000 Barrels of Oil.' " '^ 

On p. 47, Starbuck quotes the proclamation of Gov. Hugh Palliser, dated 
August 1, 1766, a part of which, is as follows: 

" Whei-eas ci'eat Numbers of the Whalinoj Crews ari'ivinff from the Plantations 
on the Coast of Labi-adore early in the Spring considering it as a lawless Country 
are guilty of all Sorts of Outrages before the arrival of the King's Ships. . . . For 
pi-eventing these Practices in future Notice is hei-ebj- given That the King's Officers 
stationed in those Parts, are authorized and strictly directed, to apprehend all such 
Offenders within this Government. . . . This Notification is to be put in the 
Harbours in Labradore, within my Government, and throiigh the Favour of His 
Excellency Governour Bernard, Copies thereof will be put up in the Ports within 
the Province of Massachusetts, where the Whalers mostly belong, for their In- 
formation before the next Fishin^ Season." 



o 



On p. 49, the follo\ving remarks are made: 

"It was currently I'epoited in the colonies, during the early part of 1767, that 
the irksome restrictions upon whaling were to be entirely removed ; petitions to 
that effect had been presented to the home government, and a favorable result was 
hoped for, and early in 1768 the straits of Davis and Belle Isle were again vexed 
by the keels of our [American] fishermen, as many as 50 or 60 anchoring in Canso 
Harbor in April of that year, a few of them bound for the former locality, but the 
majority of them cruising in the vicinity of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and New- 
foundland. (From a log-book kept by Isaiah Eldredge, of the Sloop Tyrall, of 
Dartmouth, which sailed April 25, 1768, for the straits of Belle Isle. She cleared 
from Nantucket, as Dartmouth w\as not then a port of entry. On Friday, April 
29, she was at anchor in Canso Harbor ; with 50 or 60 other whalemen. Satur- 
day, May 7, left Crow Harbor and at night anchored in Mau-of-War Cove, Canso 
Gut, ' with aI)out 60 sail of wailmen.' The vessels were continually beset with ice 
and on the 23d of May they cleared their decks of snow, which was 'almost over 
shoes deep.' They killed their first whale on the 22d of Jul}'. The larger num- 
ber of vessels were spoken in pairs, which was the usual manner of cruising. The 
sloop returned to Dartmouth on the 5th of November)." 

' Starbuck, p. 35. ' Ibid., pp. 35-36. ' Ibid., pp. 44-45- 



THE WHALEBOKE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 71 

In bis list of whaling vessels uiuler date of 1789, Starbuck notes tbat 8 vessels 
sailed from Cape Cod for the Strait of Belle Isle. One of these arrived in the 
home port October 6th, two others also in that month, and one in August.' 

In the Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society are various other 
refei-ences to the whale fishery, but very little regarding the whales themselves. 
The following are the most important : 

In an address to King James II. by tlie Colony of New Plymouth, signed by 
Thos. Hinckley, Octobei-, 1687, we find this note: 

"There are also some small whales, or part of them, sometimes in some 
winters cast on our shore — some whereof making, with much labor, seven or eight 
barrels of oil, and some between that and twenty, — which have been some lielp to 
the pool- of those poor towns planted on the Cape, being the barrenest part of the 
country." ^ 

A lettei' of Saml. Maverick to Sampson Bond (in the Wiuthrojj papers), 
dated from New York, May 30, 1669, states of New England : 

" Coddfish is found in abundance on this coast; above 20 whales gotten this 
Spring." -' 

The Winthrop papers also contain a letter from Wait Winthrop to Fitz-John 
Winthrop, dated Jannarj'^ 27, 1700, as follows: 

"The winter has bin so favorable that they have killed many whales in Cape 
Cod bay ; all the boates round the hay killed twenty nine whales in one day, as 
som that came this week report ; as I came by when I was there last one company 
had killed thre [3], two of which lay on Sandwich beach, which they kild the 
day before, and reckned they had kild another the same day, which they expected 
would drive on shore in the bay." * 

In 1749 was published a work entitled "A Summary Historical and Political 
of the British Settlements in North America," by Wm. Douglass,^ in which the 
author inserts two " digressions " concerning whales and the whale fishery. Though 
covering but a few pages and repeating one another to a considerable extent, they 
contain valuable data regarding the whales of the Atlantic Coast, and especially 
the Right whale. The matters touched upon are the number of kinds of whales 
recognized by New England whalers, the characters of the Greenland Right whale, 
New England Right whale. Finback, Humpback, and "Scrag" whales; the mi- 
grations and habits of different species; changes in habits due to excessive fishing 
and differences in temperature in different winters; fishing stations ; and kind of 

■ Starbuck, p. 187. ' //"■'/•(4). 7, P- 318- 

■' Mass. Hist. Coll. (4), S', P- 78 ' ' ^''"'"'- ^^^^ 5, P- 55- 

' Douglass, Wm., A Summary, Historical and Political ... of the British Settlements in 

North America. 2 vols. London, 1749-53- 8°. Published again in 1760. 

This work was originally published in 1747 in smaller form and much briefer. There was no 

cetological matter in the imperfect copy which I examined in the Library of Congress. Allen 

states that there appears to have been another edition in 1755. 



72 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

whales captured about Bermuda.' A number of the natural history observations 
appear to have been taken from Dudley, and paraj)hrased and much condensed, 
but the major pai't of the mattei' is original. 

Youuo-'s Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers, published in 1841," contains an 
interesting note by the authoi" relative to whales occurring about Cape Cod, Mass., 
which has already been quoted on p. 22, foot-note. 

The second edition of Felt's Annals of Salem, Mass., published in 1849,'' has 
several pages devoted to statements regarding the American whale fishery (includ- 
ino- a number of natural history notes) arranged chrouologicallj^ The following 
are the most impoi'tant : 

Mch. 12, 1692. John Higginsou and Timothy Lindall write to Nathaniel 
Thomas complaining that the whales were taken away from them, as follows : 

" Ye first was when Woodbury and company, in our boates, in the winter of 1G90, 
killed a large whale in Cajie Cod harbour. . . . The second case is this last 
wintei', 1691. William Edds and com[)aDy, in one of our boates, struck a whale, 
which came ashore dead, and by ye evidence of the people of Cape Cod, was the 
very whale they killed." (2, pp. 223, 4.) 

"1765, Aug. — The whale fishery from Boston and the neighboring ports 
amounts to 100 sail, which have been successful this season in the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence and Straits of Belle Isle, having taken upwards of 9,000 barrels of oil." 
(2, p. 225.)^ 

Winsor's History of Duxbury, Mass., has a few notes on the colonial whale 
fishery at that place,^ as follows : 

"1690. John Wadsworth was appointed to view whales, that may be cast 
ashore in the town." 

"1712. Marshfield, Nov. 28: On Tuesday, the 25tli current, six men going 
off the Gurnet Beach in a whale boat at Duxbury after a whale . . . were all 
drowned." 

"1724. Dec. 3d. A whale captured off the beach." 

"1770. A dead whale was found a quarter of a mile from the beach. . . . 
The whale washed ashore and made 15 barrels. 

Freeman's History of Cape Cod, 1858,® contains a letter from Wm. Clapp to 
Squire Dudley, dated Cape Cod, July 13, 1705, which states: 

" I have very often eveiy year seen that Her Majesty has been very much 
wronged of her dues by these country peojde and other whalemen as come here 
awhaling eveiy year which take up drift whales which were never killed by any 
man," etc. 

' Op. cit., I, pp. 56-60 and 296-298. 

'Young, Alex., Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers, 1602-25. Boston, 1841. 
' Felt, J. B., Annals of Salem, 2d ed., 1849, 2, pp. 223-226. I have not seen the ist edition. 
' The following note also occurs: 

" 1808. Off the Brimbles, a whale sixty feet long, is found dead by some men from Marble- 
head." (O/. cit., 2, p. 94.) 

' WiNSOR, J., History of Duxbury, 1849, p. 86. ° Vol. i, p. 342. Spelling corrected. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 73 

A history of New London, Connecticut, written by Frances IVI. Caulkins, the 
first edition of which appeared in 1852, has a chapter devoted to the whale fishery 
from that port.^ It treats chiefly of the period subsequent to the Revolution, and 
gives names of vessels, number of barrels of oil obtained, the grounds visited, and 
other details. In a foot-note to page 638 of the edition of 1895 is the following: 

"The following memorandum implies that such whaling trips [in boats] wei'e 
not unusual: January 13th, 1717-18. 'Comfort Davis hath liired my whaleboat 
to go awhaling to Fisher's Island, till the 20th of next month, to pay twenty shil- 
lings for her hire, and if he stays longer, thirty shillings. If she be lost, and they 
get nothing, he is to pay me £3, but if they get a fish, £3-10s.' " [Hempstead.] 

On page 639, is another important note, as follows: 

" We have no statistics to show that the whale fishery was ever cari'ied on excej>t 
in this small way, from any part of the Connecticut coast, before the Eevolutionaiy 
War. — Foot-note: In June, 1850, a whale 35 feet long, was captured in Peconic 
Bay, near Greenport." 

The records of the New London County Historical Society contain an article 
by C. A. Williams on whaling at New London. This is an important essay, beo-in- 
ning with a brief chronological history of the whale fishery, especially from 1718 
onward ; then follows an account of the conditions under which the New London 
fishery was conducted, the methods employed, the regions visited, etc. ; then a 
journal of Capt. James Davis of the ship Chelsea in a whaling voyage to the 
Pacific in 1831; incidents and accidents of the fishery; number of vessels 
employed, profits, etc. The article has as an appendix a letter from Wm. H. Alk-n 
to C. A. AVilliams, containing miscellaneous information relative to whales and 
whaling, kinds of whales pursued, size, yield of oil, whalebone, etc." 

O'Callaghau's Documents relating to the Colonial History of the State of New 
York, 14 volumes, contain a lai'ge number of important records regarding the whale 
fishery which was carried on on the south coast of Long Island for a century, 
beginning about 1652. These consist chiefly of licenses to carry on the fisheiy, 
orders of the court in disputes concerning " drift whales," the employment of 
Indians in the fishery, etc., but thei'e are also many references to the number and 
size of whales captured, the seasons for whaling, and other matters of interest in 
the present connection. The following are among the more important : 

A letter from Samuel Maverick to Colonel Nicholls, dateil fi-om New York, 
July 5, 1669, contains the following: 

". . . On ye East end of Long Island there was 12 or 13 whales taken 
befoi-e ye end of March, and what since wee heare not ; here are dayly some seen 
in the very harboui-, sometimes Avithin Nutt Island. Out of the Pinnace the other 

' Caulkins, Frances M., History of New London, Connecticut, from 1612 to i860, 1895, pp. 
638-647. 

"Williams, C. A., Early Whaling Industry of New London. Records and Papers of the New 
London County Hist. Sot:., pt. i, vol. 2, 1895, pj). 3-22. 



74 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OP" THE WESTERN NOKTH ATLANTIC. 

week they sti'iick two, but lost both, the iron bi'oke io one, the other broke the 
warpe. The Governour hath encouraged some to follow this designe. Two 
shallops made for itt, but as yett wee doe not heare of any they have gotten." ' 

In a letter from Lord Cornbury to the Lords of Trade, dated July 1, 1708, is 
the following : 

" . . . The quantity of Ti'ain Oyl made in Long Island is uncertain. Some 
years they have much more fish than others, for example last year they made foui- 
thousand Barrils of Oyl, and this last Season they have not made above Six 
hundred ; About the middle of October they begin to look out for fish, the Season 
lasts all Novembei-, Deceml>er, January, February and part of Mai'ch ; a Yearling 
will make about forty Bariils of Oyl, a Stunt or Whale of two j-ears old will make 
sometimes fifty, sometimes Sixty Barrils of Oyl, and the largest whale that I have 
heard of in these Parts, Yielded one hundred and ten barrils of Oyl, and twelve 
hundred Weight of bone." - 



•& 



In a warrant signed May 10, 1G72, is the following item : 

" Whereas I am given to understand that a Whale hath not long since been 
cast upon a parcell of Beach claymed to bee w'? in Jno Coopers Bounds or Pre- 
cincts, of the w*^.'* severall Indians have taken tfe carried away the Whale-Bone; 
These are to authorize the said Jno Cooper to make Enquiry into and to make 
seizure of such Whale-Bone."^ 

An order signed by Governor Andros, in November, 1675, reails thus: 

"Vpon the Peti^on and Desire of Jacob SclielUnger and Company of East- 

Hampton, who are joyutly concerned in carrying on a Designe of Whale Killing 

at the said Place ... I doe hereby give them Liberty to employ the said foure 

Indyans for this present whale flishing season. Given under my hand in New 

Yorhe this 18"' day of Novembei- 1675. E. Andros." * 

The petition which called forth this order several times alludes to " this whale 
season soe nigh at hand." ^ 

Thompson's History of Long Island, New York, [niblished originally in 1839, 
contains some notes on the colonial shcji'e fishery for Eight whales at Sag Harbor 
and Southampton, ^ and also the following : 

" Easthampton, Aprill 2'.\ 1668. Know all men by these presents, y' wee 
whose names are signed hereunto, being Indians of Montauket, do engage ourselves 
in a bond of ten pounds sterling for to goe to sea uppoii ye account of killing of 
whales, this next ensuing season, beginning at the P.' day of Noveml^er next, end- 
i'V? by ye first of Aprill ensuing; and that for ye ^Ji'oper account of Jacobus 
Skallenger and his partners of Easthampton ; and engage to attend dilligently with 
all opportunitie for ye killing of whales or other fish, for ye sum of three shillings 
a day for every Indian ; ye sayd Jacobus Skallenger and partners to furnish all 
necessarie craft and tackling convenient for ye designe." 

' O'Callaghan, E. B., Documents relating to the Colonial History of the State of New York, 
3, p. 183. The index to these volumes is in vol. 11. '' Op. cit., 5, p. 59. 

' Op. cit., 14, p. 665. ' Op. cit., 14, p. 707. " Op. cit., 14, pp. 708-709. 

'Thompson, Benj. F., History of Long Island, New York, ist ed., 1839, pp. 221-224. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF TlIK WESTERN NOimi ATLANTIC. 75 

" Agi-eeiueut made the 4"' of January, IGGi), between ye whale companies of 
East and Southampton. If any companie shall fiiide a dead whale uppon the 
shore, killed l)y ye other, a peison shall bee inunediately sent to give notice; and 
the person bringing the news to bee well rewarded. And if one companie shall 
finde any whale so killed at sea, they shall endeavor to secure them, and have one 
half for their pains, and any irons found in them to bee returned to ye owners.'" 

In the second edition of this work, i)ublished in 1843,- is the follo\vin<^: 

" As an evidence of the extent to which bo.at-whaling was carried, on this [)art 
of Long Island [Krookhaven], at the beginning of the eighteenth century, we 
present the following items from a manuscri[)t in the handwriting of Madam 
Martha, widow of Col. W"? Smith of St. George's Manor : 

" 'Jan. y^ 16, 1707 (she says) my company killed a yeai'ling whale, made 27 
barrels. Feb. y? 4, Indian Hairy, with his boat, struck a stunt whale and could 
not kill it — called for my boat to help him. I had l)nt a third, which was 4 
barrels. Feb. 22, my two boats, and my son's, and Floyd's boats, killed a yearling 
whale, of which I had half — made 36, my share 18 barrels. Feb. 24, my company 
killed a school whale, which made 35 barrels. March 13, my company killed a 
small yearling, made 30 barrels. March 17, mj^ company killed two yearlings in 
one day; one made 27, the other 14 barrels.' 

"The following is the receipt for duties: 'New York, this 5''' June, 1707, 
then received of Nathan Simson, y'' sume of fifteen pounds, fifteen shillings, for 
ace' of mad" Martha Smith, it being y" 20'*' part of her evle, by virtue of a war- 
rant from my Ld. Corubury, dated 25'*" of March, last past, 1707. Per me, Elias 
Boudinot.' " 

Hubbard's General History of New England contains the following: 

"The next place, on that called Long Island, is East Ham[iton, at the furthest 
end eastward ; then South Hampton ; next, Southhold, where the inhabitants of 
late [1635-1650?] have fallen upon the killing of whales, that frequent the south 
side of the island in the latter part of the winter, wherein they have a notable kind 
of dexterity ; and the trade that ariseth therefrom hath been very beneficial to all 
that end of the island." ^ 

"Upon the south side of Long Island, in the winter, lie store of whales and 
grampuses, which the inhabitants begin [1635-1650?] with small boats to make a 
trade of catching, to their no small benefit.'''' * 

It is by no means certain that the expression " of late " refers to the period 
1635-1650, the events of which were being chronicled. More probably it refers 
to the date at which the history was v/ritten. Shore whaling appears to have been 
begun on Long Island about 1652. 

Weeden's Economic and Social History of New England, 1890, contains a 
chapter on colonial whale fishery, in which some of the foregoing notices of whales 
and whaling seasons ai'e quoted or referred to, together with many relating to the 
fishery itself. ^ 

'Thompson, Benj. F., History of Long Island, New York, ist ed., 1839, p. 191. 
= Vol. I, p. 438, foot-note. ' V. 668. ' P. 673. 

' Weeden, Wm. B., Economic and Social History of New England, 1620-1789, 2 vols., Boston, 
1890. 



7(3 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

The Recoi'ds of the town of East Hampton, Long Island, published in 1887 
(4 vols.) contain many references to whales and all in wintei-. 

Notices of the shore whale fishing on the coast of New Jersey and in Delawaie 
Bay are contained in the published archives of the State of New Jersey, in the 
collections of the New Jersey Historical Society, in Hazard's Annals of Pennsyl- 
vania, in Acrelius's History of New Sweden, and other works, but such of them 
as I have examined contain no information regarding the whales or the seasons at 
which they frequented these waters.' 

The accounts of the establishment of a whale fishery in Delaware Bay given 
by De Vries and Van der Donck have been already quoted in the previous chajiter 

Watson's Annals of rhiladelj)hia contains a number of items relative to whales 
and whaling in Delaware Bay and River and along the coast of New Jersey, dating 
from 1683 to 1834, but they are hardly definite enough to be of much vahie. The 
work was originally published in 1830, but the following quotations, which include 
all the items of any importance, are from the revised edition of 1898." 

"In 1730, a cow whale, of 50 feet length is advertised as going ashoi'e to the 
noi'thwai'd of Cape May, dead. The harpoonei's are requested to go and claim it." 

" In 1733, month of April, 2 whales, supposed to be cow and calf, appeared in 
the [Delaware] river before the city." 

"In 1736, February, 'two whales are killed at Cape May, equal to forty 
barrels of oil, and several more are expected to be killed by the whalemen on the 
coast.' " 

"About the year 1809 ... a whale of pretty large dimensions was 
caught near Chester." 

"Two dead whales were driven on shore at Assateague beach, near Snowhill, 
Maryland, in December, 1833; one a hundred and seventeen feet in length, and 
the other eighty-seven feet in length." 

" It is a fact but little known, that, even now [1823 ?], there is a family on Long 
beach, New Jersey, who ai'e every winter seeking for, and sometimes capturing 
whales. In this business they have beeu engaged, the father and two sons, ever 
since the time of the Revolution." 

"In May, 1834, a young whale, of sixty feet, went into New Haven [N. J.?] 
harbour — was chased, grounded, and used up." 

The American whale fishery was the topic of an elaboi-ate article published 
by James H. Lanman in 1840.'^ 

' See Hazard, S., Annals of Pennsylvania, 1609-1682, 1850, pp. 31-32. 

Instructions to John Printz, Governor of New Sweden, August 15, 1642. In Acrelius's His- 
tory of New Sweden, Mem. Penn. Hist. Soc, 11, 1874, p. 38. 

Thomas, Gabriel, Historical Description of the Province and Country of West-New-Jersey, 
1698, p. 33. 

Whitehead, VV. A., East Jersey under the Proprietary Governments, Coll. N. jT. Hist. Soc, 
I, p. 174. 

Scot's Model of the Government of the Province of East-New-Jersey, 1685, op. cit., p. 282. 

Documents relating to the Revolutionary History of New Jersey, i, 1901, p. 437. 

" Watson, John F., Annals of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania, enlarged by Willis P. Hazard, 
3 vols., 189S. Vol. 2, pp. 428-429; 547. ' Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, 3, 1840, pp. 361-394. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 77 

It is entirely a compilation and deals principally with tlie indnstrial aspects of 
the fishery. The only paragraphs (pp. 370 and 380) which refer to the natural 
history of the baleen whales contain nothing of importance. 

The remark of Lawson in his Natural History of North Carolina regai-ding the 
absence of a regular whale fishery in these waters is appai'ently borne out by the 
colonial records and histories. Those which 1 have examined, such as Saunder's 
Colonial Recoids of North Carolina, Hawkes's History of North Carolina, and 
others, contain no mention of the matter. The same is true of South Carolina. 
Such works as Drayton's View of South Carolina, Mills's Statistics of South Caro- 
lina, Ramsay's History of South Carolina, etc., offer no information regarding 
whales or the whale fishery. 



CHAPTER III. 

A REVIEW OF COPE'S AND SCAMMON'S SPECIES. 

In the histoiy of American cetology two names will always stand out witL 
special prominence, — those of Professor E. D. Cope and Captain C. M. Scammon. 
Cope's observations on existing Balamidce cover a period extending from 1865 to 
1891. During this time he descril)ed as new four species and one genus from the 
east coast of the United States, one species from the West Indies, and four species 
and one genus from the west coast of North America. In the present chapter I 
propose to give a list of tliese various species, to indicate the nature and condition of 
the material on which the}^ are based, and to state the present whereabouts of the 
types. The original descriptions and measurements will be given in some cases and 
in others a summary of differentia] characters. The west coast species will be 
given further consideration in a separate chapter. 

Scammon described but a single species, Balcanoptera davidsoni, although, as 
already seen, he furnished the information and material on which Cope's various 
west coast species were based. 

Cope in his first essays gave scientific names to such stranded specimens of 
Atlantic whales as accidentally came under his observation. His intention was not 
to found species additional to those of which specimens ai'e commonly captured or cast 
up on our shoi'es, but to give these a place in zoological nomenclature. Thus he speaks 
of his Bahena cimrctica as " the Black whale of the whalers of our coast," etc. That 
these sevei'al species received new names was because he thought they wei'e distin- 
guishable from the species fiequentiug the coasts of Euro2:)e,and not because they were 
rare Amei'icau forms unknown to whalers and others whose business was with the sea. 
The same is largely true of tlie Pacific species. Cope's Megaptera versabilis was 
"The North Pacific hump-back." His Bahpnoptera velifera was "The Finner 
Whale of the Oregon coasts," his Sibbaldius sidfureus was "The Siilphui'-Bottom 
of the North-West Coast." On account of this circumstance I have not thought it 
necessary to present extended arguments to prove that the types of Cope's species 
were the same specifically as s^iecimens from our coast which have accumulated since 
the former were desci'ibed, except in cases in which, from an examination of the 
types, I have found that the species were not properly characterized at the start. 
In the subsequent chapters the types will be examined along with other specimens. 
It is obvious that if they do present special charactei's, these will make themselves 
noticeable. 

78 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOUTH ATLANTIC. 79 

Genus BAL^NA Linuasus. 

1. Bal/ENa cisarctica Cope. 1865. 

" The Black Whale of the Whalers of our Coast." 

Original description: Proceedings, Academy of Natui'al Sciences, Phila., 1865, 
No. 3, Jiily-Aug., pp. 168-169. Read Aug. 8, 1865. 

Type-local ittj and date: Opfiosite Philadelphia, on the coast of New Jei'sey, 
1862.1 

Type-specimen : Nearly complete skeleton of a half-grown individual, presented 
to the Philadelphia Academy by George Davidson. The whale had previously 
been exhibited for some time. 

Cope estimated that the length of the skeleton if complete would be 37 feet. It 
lacks the right nasal bone, the malars, the sternum, the carpal and pelvic bones, and all 
the chevrons. The ends of the maxillae are broken off, and probably the premaxillse 
lack about two inches of their original length anteriorly. The ribs and phalanges 
are not accurately mounted. Cope's description of the type is quite accurate, but 
contains one error, namely, the assertion that the sixteenth vertebra from the last 
pair of ribs is the first which has a perforated diapophysis. It is in fact the seven- 
teenth from the last pair of ribs, or the thirty-eighth vertebi'a in the series. Cope 
states that the total length of the skull axially is 101 inches. I am unable to make 
it more than 96J^ inches, but about 2 inches should be added foi' the breakage of the 
tip of the premaxillfe, making 98| inches in all. If Cope's measurement is correct, 
the skull must thei'efore have slii'unk about 1\ inches. This is quite possible, 
owing to the drying of the l)oiies and the bending down of the I'ostrum.* Cope's 
measurement of the breadth of the scapula is 29 inches. I make it 30 inches. 
The type-skeleton is figured on pi. 43. The following measurements of it were 
made by myself in May, 1900: 

Skull: ^'•'''" 

Total length (straight) 96-5 ' 

Greatest breadth (at orbits) 65.75 

Length of rostrum, least, straight • • • • 760 

Breadth " at middle, curved i7-75^ 

Length of nasals 

Breadth of the two nasals distally 7-5 

Breadth of orbit from point to ])oint, least o--5 

■ A note (by Cope?) in the Amer. Naturalist, 12, 1878, p. 750, refers to the type as captured 
" near Philadelphia." 

' In the table of measurements I have not used Cope's measurement, because the skull has 
doubtless shrunk in other directions as well. 

' One or two inches should, perhaps, be added. 

' Internal border; the external border is loi in. 

' Only the left nasal is preserved. This is 3! in. broad opposite distal end of inner border. 

Twice 3f = 75. 



80 THE -WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

Skull : Indus 

Length of mandible, straight 92.0 

" " " curved , 101.5 

Depth of mandible at the middle 7.0 

Skeleton : 

Greatest breadth of atlas 18.25 

" " ist lumbar 26.25 

Height of ist lumbar, measured posteriorly 16.00 

Depth of centrum of ist lumbar 7.0 

Greatest breadth of ist caudal 22.0 ' 

Height of ist caudal, measured posteriorly, and including process for chevron 19.5 

Depth of centrum of ist caudal 8.75 ' 

Breadth of scapula 30.0 

Depth of scapula 23.0 

Length of radius, with epiphyses 15.0 

without 14.0 

"ulna with " 135 

without 13.0 

Breadth of radius at distal end 10.5 

"ulna " " " 8.0 

Length of humerus, straight 14.0 

The first vertebra with a perforated diapophysis is the 38th. The neural 
spine disappears on the 45th vertebra. The diapophyses are reduced to a 
mere swelling on the 41st vertebra; as distinct pi'ocesses with concave anterior 
margins, the last are on the 37th vertebra. 

Genus RHACHIANECTES Cope. 1869. 
2. Agapheltjs glaucus Cope. 1868. 

"The California Gray Whale." 
Rhacldanectes glaucus (Cope). 1869. 

Original description : Proceedings, Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila., 1868, 
No. 3, June-Aug., p. 159. Read June 23, 1868. 

Type-locality : Coast of California. 

Type-specimen: " A full set of baleen of one side of the maxillary" in the 
mnsemn of Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. 

Cope's original description of the California Gray whale was appended to 
a notice of the mythical "Scrag whale," for both of which he established the genus 
Agaplielm. The description is so brief that it may be inserted here in full : 

"A second species of the genus \^Agapkelus\ was to be found in the 'gray 
whale' of the coasts of California. The baleen of this species, compared with that 

' Twice one half. 

''Anterior. Height of arch and spine of ist lumbar, gi in ; of ist caudal, 9I in. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 81 

of the A. gibhosus, was longer and had uarrower basis. The plates moderately and 
simply concave, while those of the latter are sigmoidal, most curved near the outer 
mai'gin in cross section. The bristles of the California sjoecies were very coarse, 
varying from one to three sei-ies between the enamel plates. The bristles of 
the A. glhbosus much finer, three series togethei'. Length of the latter 8.5 inches, 
width at base 4.4 inches. In the gray whale or Agaphelua glaucus Cope, 22 inches 
ill length, width at base 6 inches. In the former nearly 6 in an inch, in the latter 2J^. 
The baleen of the A. gibhosus belonged to an immature specimen of 35 feet in 
length." (^§,159-160.)* 

In the same year, Cope mentioned the species again under the name of 
Agaphelus glaucus in a list of the Cetacea of the coasts of North America 
{27, 193). 

A little later in the year 1868 he published a full description of two specimens 
observed at Monterey, Cal., Jan., 1866, by Mr. William H. Dall, and a set of whale- 
bone in the Essex Institute. This was in an article entitled, " On Agaphelus, 
a genus of toothless Cetacea " (26, 226-227). The whalebone was that described 
earlier in the year, and must be considered as constituting the type-specimen. The 
Monterey specimens consisted of a nearly complete skeleton, and a specimen in the 
flesh, " killed by Killers (Orca)," suflicieutly complete to allow of external measure- 
ments and notes on the external characters and coloration. Two skulls were 
obtained by Mr. Dall at Monterey, at a later date, one of which was deposited in 
the museum of the California Academy of Sciences, and the other in the National 
Museum (Cat. No. 13803, U. S. N. M.). 

In 1869, Cope erected the genus Rhachianectes for this species (83, 15). 

Genus BAL^NOPTERA Lacep^de. 

3. SiBBALDIUS TUBEEOSTJS Cope. 1869. 

Original description : Proceedings, Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila., 1869, 
p. 17. Presented for publication, March 9, 1869 ; published, July 20, 1869. 

Type-locality : Mobjack Bay, Virginia, near the entrance of Chesapeake Bay, 
between York River and Rappahannock River, Aug. 11, 1858. 

Type-specimen: Skeleton of "an adult male." Captured by Dr. P. A. 
Taliaferro and Prof. Edwin Taliaferro of William and Mary College, Williamsburg, 
Virginia, " and prepared and set up " — (where ?). 

A passing allusion to the specimen on which the species was founded was 
made by Cope in 1865 {22, 168). In 1866 he published a brief description of the 
specimen, drawn up by Prof. E. Taliaferro {23, 8), but referred it to his Megaptera 
ospltyia, which he had described a short time before. Later in the same year he 
concluded that it represented the Sihbaldius laticeps of Gray {24, 297). It was not 
until 1869 that he finally decided that the whale represented a new species, which 

' These numbers and all similar ones following refer to the bibliography at the end of the 
volume. The letters " sep." indicate that the paging is from a reprint or " separate." 



82 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOBTH ATLANTIC. 

he thereupon named Sibbaldius tuherosus. The account of it first given, in 1866, is 
as follows {23, 8) : 

"The whale alluded to {Proceedings, 1865, p. 168) as having been seen in 
Mobjuck Bay, Virginia, was stated to have been captured b}- Dr. P. A. Taliafei'ro, 
of William and Mary College, AVilliamsburg, and prepaied and set up. It is a 
short-finned Megaptera, probably of the species M. osphyia. Pi'of. T. has kindly 
furnished me with the following details as to its structure, carefully di'awn up by 
himself. 

"Length fiom end of muzzle over convexity of back, forty-three feet nine 
inches; cirth about nineteen feet; length from end of muzzle to axilla (external 
measurement), fifteen feet; breadth of head across inferior margin of jaws, eight 
feet. Length of the pectoial extremity, /b'Wr/lje^; greatest breadth fifteen inches; 
they were situated close behind the angle of the mouth. There were three hun- 
dred and sixty laminae of baleen, extending on either side of the mouth about six 
feet along the jaw, the longest about eighteen to twenty inches. The head was 
acute. The folds of the tlu'oat many and capacious. The dorsal fin was repre- 
sented by a conical mass covered by horny integument, without any membi-anous 
appendage, situated well posterioi'ly. The body neai- the tail very slendei'. The 
flukes suddenly expand to a breadth of ten feet. The cervical vertebra^ were all 
distinct. Color: jet black above, white on the belly; sides beautifully marbled by 
the combination of the two colors. 

"The most striking feature in this specimen is the shortness of the ])ectoral 
limbs, being relatively neaily half less than in the specimen of the usphyia at 
NiaiT-ara, one-half the length of the cranium, and only one-tenth the total. This is 
verj^ different from any of the hitherto known species, and without doubt distinct." 

Cope stated in 1866, as just quoted, that the skeleton had been prepared and 
set up, but did not say where, or by whom. Later in the same year he stated that 
the skeleton was in the museum of the Philadelphia Academy, but in 1869 remarked 
a^ain that the deposit of the specimen in the Academy had been delayed, but was 
expected in a short time. He left it uncertain, therefore, whether the skeleton of 
the type was or was not in Philadelphia. In 1899, and again in 1900,1 visited the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, and through the kindness of Dr. Dixon and Mr. 
Stone was enabled to look over all, or nearly all, the bones of ^vhales then in the 
museum. I did not find any coiTesponding to >S'. triberosiis, and it would seem 
probable that the skeleton never reached Philadelphia. This view is strengthened 
by the fact that a writer in the American Field in 1889,^ repeating the stoiy of the 
captui'e of the whale, as he had heard it fi'om the lips of Dr. Taliaferro, who 
pursued and killed the animal, proceeds as follows : 

" I [Di-. Taliaferro] took the whalebone out of liis mouth, and bade the servants 
help themselves to his blubber if they wanted to. , . . Although we got all 
the servants and dug huge holes and buried the carcass in sections, yet, like Ban- 
quo's ghost, it would not down. . . . His jawbones now ornament the dooi's 
of my [Dr. Taliaferro's f\ carriage-house and I have several of his vertebrae, which 
come in handy as footstools." 

•"Reynard," American Field, March 2, 1889, pp. 196-198. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOETH ATLANTIC. 83 

If the bones had ever been got together and sent to Philadelphia, it would 
seem very probable that Dr. Taliaferro would have mentioned the fact. On the 
other hand, it is extremely difBcult to understand how Pi'ofessor Cope could o-ive the 
detailed measurements and description of the skeleton, as published by him in 1866, 
unless he had had access to the specimen. They could, of coui-se, have been fur- 
nished him by Dr. Taliaferro, but their character is such as to render this veiy 
improbable. In 1869 Pi'ofessor Cope compared this whale with his S. tectirostris 
by external characters only, which characters he stated in 1866 were drawn up and 
furnished him by Dr. Taliaferro. He then remarked that as the specimen had not 
reached the Philadelphia museum, further comparison could not be made at that 
time (1869). It is certainly remai'kable that Cope does not refer here to his detailed 
measurements and description of the skeleton, published in 1866. He could not 
have forgotten their publication, and one is, therefore, led to believe that there was 
something about them that barred them out. The only supposition which seems 
reasonable is that they were not really from the Mobjack Bay whale, but from some 
other specimen. 

Considering the uncertainty i-egarding the skeleton, it may be best for the 
present purposes to rely entirely on the statements as to the external characters in 
our endeavor to ascertain the identity of S. tuberosus. Dr. Taliaferro's notes on the 
coloration, etc., published by Cope in 1866 (23, 8), furnish the following characters 
and measui-ements : Head acute. Pectoral ridges many and capacious. Dorsal fin 
represented by " a conical mass covered with horny integument, without any mem- 
branous appendage, situated well posteriorly." Body near tail very slender. 

Length from end of muzzle over convexity of back 43 ft. 9 in. 

Length from end of muzzle to axilla (external measurement) 15 " o " 

Breadth of head across inferior margin of jaws 8 " o " 

Length of pectoral 4 " o " 

Greatest breadth of do i " 3 " 

Breadth of flukes 10 " o " 

Color "jet black above, white on the belly; sides beautifully marbled by the 
combination of the two colors." 

"There were 360 laminae of baleen, the longest about 18 to 20 inches." 

In Dr. Taliaferro's story, as nan-ated by "Reynard" in the American Field m 
1889, the color is thus referred to : 

" For a half second that might}^ fish, with liack arched and immense fins quiver- 
ing straight out from its side, was hung in mid-air not fifteen feet from ine. I 
caught sight of him on the gleaming white of his side, just under his flipper, and 
fired. ... 

" As I said before, his immense flippers were quivering straight out from him, 
and there was a line of demarkation down his side where the gleaming white of his 
belly joined his mai-bled, grayish black back. ... 

"When I thought he ought to be aground, the first thing I saw was his white 
belly turned up." 



84 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF. THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

Upon reducing the foregoing measurements to percentages of the total length, 
we find that the distance from the end of the snout to the axilla is 34.3^. In 
Newfoundland specimens of the "Common Finback," which is closely allied to or 
identical with Balanoptera jjhysahis, as will be seen later, the average for this 
distance is 33.2 ^ of the total length. The length of the pectoral (presumably 
from the axilla) is 9.1^. In nine Newfoundland specimens of the Common Fin- 
back the average is 8.3^. The breadth of the pectoi'al is 2.7^ as against 2.9^ in 
Newfoundland specimens. 

The color of S. tuberosus is given in the original description as "jet black 
above, white on the belly ; sides beautifully marbled by the combination of the 
two colors." In the story in the American Field^ howevei', the color is thus 
described (see p. 83) : "There was a line of demarkatiou down his side where the 
gleaming white of his belly joined his marbled, grayish black back." The latter 
description was, of course, fi'om the fresh specimen while the former was probably 
from the dead whale. It is a well-known fact that the gray color in cetaceans 
changes very rapidly after death to black. Taking eithei- description, there is no 
reason for considering S. tuberosum to be other than the Common Finback of North 
American waters. 

Considering the external characters and proportions as a whole, it seems prob- 
able that the Mobjack Bay specimen was a Common Finback, which is the American 
representative of, or identical with, Balcencyptera physalus (L.). 

There is only one other well-known North Atlantic Finback with which the 
Mobjack Bay specimen can be associated. This is B. horealis. In this species, 
however, the dorsal fin is situated well forward, the pectoral fins are unusually 
small, and the amount of white on the belly is much restricted. None of these 
characters was present in the Mobjack Bay specimen, as far as can be ascertained 
from the published accounts. 

The question of the identity of 8. tuherosus cannot be positively decided until 
some of the more impoi'tant bones of the Mobjack Bay specimen ai-e found and 
examined. In the present article I shall consider it as belonging to the American 
form of B. 2>hysalus (L.). 

In order to present the matter fully and fairly, I would add the following: If 
all that Cope stated regarding the skeleton which he described in 1866 is taken 
as really applying to the Mobjack specimen, and all that was added to the original 
description of the exterior in the later pajjers is interpreted favorably, quite a 
strong case can be made out for identifying S. tuherosus with B. borealis, or at least 
associating it with that species. Thus, while the color of the baleen is not given in 
the original description, in the article of 1866 it is said to be black, which would 
indicate an ally of B. borealis, and exclude B. physalus (L-)- In the same 
article, the type of S. tuberosus is stated to be "entirely adult at a length of 
43 feet (axial)," which would exclude both B. musctdus (L.) and B. physalus 
(L.), but admit B. borealis. Again, in the description of the skeleton, it is stated 
that "the 2*?, 3*?, and 4** cervicals are with large completely united superior 
and inferior lateral processes." This would confirm the statement that the speci- 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 85 

men was adult. It can also be argued that tlie black color of the body was 
the living color and not due to change after death, which strengthens the case in 
favor of B. horealis. 

In spite of these apparent agreements with B. horealis, my own opinion, as 
already stated, is that S. tuherosus is to be associated with B. physalus. It was 
assigned by Van Beneden in 1889 (7, 205) to B. borealis, but his evidence was 
presumably derived entirely from Cope's description. 

4. SiBBALDlUS TECTIROSTRIS Cope. 1869. 

Original description: Proceedings, Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila., 
1869, p. 17. Presented for publication, March 9, 1869; iiublished, July 20, 1869. 

Type-locality: Near Si uepuxeut Bay, Maryland. Came ashore in the winter 
of 1868-69; had been dead some time. 

Type- specimen : Nearly complete skeleton of afyoung female between forty- 
seven and forty-eight feet long, preserved in the museum of the Philadelphia 
Academy of Natui'al Sciences. 

The histoiy of this species is, fortunately, quite clear. The individual which 
formed the type was a young female which came ashore near Sinepuxent Bay, 
Maryland, in the winter of 1868-69. It had been dead some time when found. 
The carcass was stripped by Joshua Carey. The skeleton is in the museum of the 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, where I saw and measured it in 1899. 
It is nearly complete. The characters given by Cope for the specimen (83, 16-20) 
are as follows : 

Dorsal fin of ordinary foi-m, compressed, with a long base, and situated two- 
thirds the length from the muzzle ; dorsal line behind it smooth. 

Coloi' above uniform black; exterior face of pectorals and "stripes along the 
gular plicte" also black. Belly white, separated abruptly from the l>lack, forming 
a " water line." Posterior (inner ?) face of pectorals in the distal half, and under 
surface of flukes white. 

Baleen short, of a dark lead color, the inner and shorter margin white for 
varying widths ; bristles fine. 

Skeleton. — "The individual is in the young stage, since not only are all the 
epiphyses of the vertebrae separated, but those of the humerus also." 

"The axis presents below no surface adapted to a tuberculum atlantis. The 
median portion of the anterior face of the centrum presents a low conic pi-ojection, 
i\xe processus odontoideus. The di- and parapophyses are united distally, embracing 
a large ring, whose outside longitudinal diameter is | the trausvei-se diameter of 
the centrum of the same. The neural arch presents no spine, but a pair of lateral 
prominences like rudimental zygapophyses. The parapophyses of the remaining 
cervicals are long, except on the seventh, where they are almost wanting. The dia- 
pophyses are long in all, longest and decurved on the seventh, where it stands 
above the parapophysis of the sixth. They are nearly united with the para- 
pophysis on the third cervical, and are no doubt fully so in mature age. The 
fourth cervical is lost, but it is scarcely probable that it presented a complete ring 
for the transmissal of the vertebral artery, etc. There are no rings attached to the 
vertebrae from the fifth inclusive. The centra are all transversely oval." 



86 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



"There is no neural spine on the second, third and fourth cervicals, and it is 
rudiniental and small on each of the remainder. Those of the dorsals and lumbais 
are not particularly elevated. 

"The humei'us is very shoi't and thick, and the hand remarkably small. 

"The scapula, as in other SihhaJdii, has a considerable autero-posterior extent, 
and well developed acromion and coracoid. The disk is divided into three areas 
on the inside by two slight ridges." 

"The muzzle is elongate, and ^vith a narrow acumination. Each nasal is as 
wide as long medially ; anteriorly concave above, the line of junction of the two in 
one plane, forming a median ridge, which is prolonged into a prominent median 
point. The otic bullae are slightly compressed and carinate below, and their sur- 
face is not markedly I'ugose. The malars ai'e in shape something like first ribs; 
that is, with an enlarged head, with prominences imitating capitulum and tubercle, 
a short narrowed shaft, and expanded distal exti'emity. The distal third is occu- 
pied by an ovate ? articular surface, thinning out the margin on one side. The 
shaft is thin and concave, both longitudinally and transversely, on one side. 

"The innei' margiu of the palatiue bones is regulai'ly continuous with the 
short pteiygoids, which are very short, and do not approach near the otic bullae; 
Rudolplii rejjresents the latter as prolonged to beyond the extremity of the bulla. 
The posterior plate of the vomer in S. tedirostris extends much further posterioily 
than Rudolphi represents for S. laticeps, and though there is no doubt some varia- 
tion in this respect in the same species, the difference here is cousidei'able. In 
S. laticeps it extends to a little behind the anterior margiu of the bulla; in S. 
tectirodri.s to behind the posterior margin, concealing much of the basioccipital. 

" The mandibular ramus is strongly curved, and very convex externally, less 
so internally. The vascular foramina are very large externally, and very much 
reduced in size on the inner face. The coracoid process is strongly elevated, curved 
outward, and acuminate. There is a distinct angular process below the condyle." 
{83, 17-19.) 

I have verified the majority of Cope's measurements, and give them below in 
the order in which they occur in the original, together with such differences as I 
noted. For purposes of comparison I shall repeat some of them later in a different 
order, with other measurements of my own taken in accordance with a particular 
system. 

SIBBALDIUS TECTIROSTRIS COPE. (TYPE.) 



Measurement. 



Total length of skeleton (restored) 

Length of cranium 

Height of centrum and arch of axis 

" centrum [do.] 

Transverse extent of axis 

" centrum of do 

" " " neural canal [of do.] 
" " "third cervical 



Cope's 

measurements, 
1869. 



45 ft- .7 in. 
120 in.'' 
12.25 

71 
25.0 

"•5 

5-75 
23.0 



My 

measurements, 

1899. 



121 in. 
12.25 
7.0 
25.0 
12.0 

S-75 
22.0 



' Not re-measured by myself. 



' Given in another place as 126 in. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTEEN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

SIBBALDIUS TECTIEOSTRIS COPE. (TYPE.) (Contiiiued.) 



87 



Measurement. 



Transverse extent of centrum do. [3d cervical] 

Length parapophysis si.xth cervical 

Vertical diameter centrum (5th ?) dorsal 

Length centrum do 

Vertical diameter centrum second caudal, with perforate dia- 

pophyses 

Length of centrum do 

Height, spine and arch, middle lumbosacral 

" from floor canal to top anterior zygapophysis 

Scapula, antero-posterior width 

" vertical width 

Length of acromion 

" " coracoid 

Diameter of glenoid cavity 

Length of cranium (axial) 

Greatest width of occipitals 

Width at supraorbital plate 

" of each maxillary at middle 

" of supraorbitals above orbit 

" (least) of frontal region 

" of nasals 

" intermaxillaries at middle 

Length, nasal 

" maxillary above 

" ramus mandibuli (in curve) . 

" " " to coronoid 

Depth " " at condyle 

" " " at coronoid 

at middle 

Lengih, otic bulla 

Length of longest plates of whalebone with gum 

Width do. at base 



Cope's 


My 


measurements, 


measurements. 


i86g. 


1899. 


I r.o 


II. 


S-O 


— ' 


7.0 


— ' 


6.0 


— ' 


lO-S 


1 


i°-5 


I 


145 


I 


6.0 




33-0 


330 


210 


20.0 


7-5 


8.0 


4-5 




8.0 


8-5 


126 in.' 


I2T,0 


430 


I 


52.0 


S2-5 


9-75 


9.75' 


13.0 


12.0* 


13-5 


14.0 


4-3 


6.25' 


5-3 


4-33 


6.0 


6.75 


90.0 


90.0 


120.0 


120.0 


19.0 




8.5 


I 


13.0 




9.0 


9-5 


5-2 


1 1 


15° 




lO.O 





It is, I think, proper to assume that the type of S. tectimstris is nothing more 
or less thau a specimen of the "common Finback" of the Atlantic coast of the 
United States. Cope, at the time of original publication, was probably not in posses- 
sion of the fact that the Finback wLich strands most frequently on our coast is of the 
fashion of B.phymlus (L.). He considered his specimen most closely allied to Sib- 
haldim laticeps of Gray {= B. horeaUs Lesson), but, as might be ex[>ected, he found 
numerous differences. At a later date, in consequence of his own more extended 
studies, and the progress of cetology, he perceived that tectirostris was properly to 
be associated with, or might even be identical with, B. physalus. Cope also con- 
sidered his S. tubero-vis allied to S. laticeps of Gray and for a time identified it with 
the latter species. But at the same time he pointed out two external characters 
by which he supposed it differed ivom tectirostris, — the form of the dorsal fin 

' Not re-measured by myself. ' Cope gives 120 in. on another page. 

' If the nasal process of the maxilla is taken into account ; otherwise, 9 in. 
' This is the greatest breadth ; the least is 8.75 in. , , , , , • , 

'This is the width at the distal end. Cope's measurement was probably taken at the proximal 
end, for which it is correct. 



The coracoid is broken. 



88 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

and the character of the dorsal line. He appears to have intended also to point 
out osteological differences between tectirostris and tuberosus, but the language 
employed is so ambiguous that this is uncertain. There is, furthermore, a doubt 
whethei- he ever- really examined the skeleton of tuberosus, as will be explained later. 

The position which I take regarding tectirostris is (1) that Cope at the time he 
first described it did not evince any knowledge of the fact that one kind of Finback 
is common on the east coast of the United States, and that (2) there is, therefore, no 
probability that he intended to establish a second species similar to, but somewhat 
different from, the common species ; consequently, that (3) the type-specimen of 
tectii'ostris does not merit any more attention than other specimens of the common 
Finback, unless on comparison of them all together the type of tectirostris seems to 
stand apart from the othei-s. As to whether the latter condition is found will be 
fully considered later. What we really wish to ascertain is whether the com- 
mon Finback of the Atlantic coast of the United States is the same as, or differ- 
ent from, B. physalus (L.) of Europe. The type-skeleton of B. tectirostris is 
figured on pis. 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6. 

The following measurements of the type-skeleton made by myself in 1900 
include those made uniformly for all the specimens examined, and othei's which 
appear to be of importance in this pai'ticular case : 

SIBBALDWS TECTIROSTRIS COPE. (TYPE.) 
Skull : Inches. 

Total length (straight) 1 2 1 .o 

Greatest breadth (squamosal) 54.0 

Breadth of orbital process of frontal at distal end 8.75 ' 

Length of rostrum (straight) 8o-75 

Breadth of rostrum at middle (curved) 26.5 ' 

Length of nasals in median line 7.5 

Breadth of the two nasals at the distal end 5.5 ° 

Length of mandible, straight iii.o 

" " " curved 1 20.0 

Depth of mandible at middle 9.5 

Skeleton : 

Greatest breadth of axis 25.0 

" height " " 13.25* 

Depth of centrum of axis 7.0 ' 

Greatest breadth of ist dorsal 22 75 

" height " " " 13.25 

Depth of centrum of ist dorsal 7.25 ' 

Greatest breadth of ist lumbar 32.0 

height " " " 21.5' 

Depth of centrum of ist lumbar 7.75 ' 

Greatest breadth of ist caudal 24.0 " 

height 21.0 -|- 

Depth of centrum of ist caudal 9.25 " 

Greatest breadth of scapula 32.75 

" depth " " 19.5 

Length of acromion, inside (straight) 7.0 

Length of radius, with epiphyses 24.0 

Length of radius, without epiphyses 23.0 

ulna, with epiphyses 22.2? 

« li " -.1, r • u 

without epiphyses 21.5 

" " humerus (straight) 15.0 

' Tip to tip, least. ' Median =: 12 25 in. ' Posterior. 

'As mounted. ' Median, posterior. 'Twice one half. 

'Opposite distal end of inner margin. ' Median, anterior. "Anterior. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



89 



Cope's description of the type-skull is accurate, except tliat the nasals are 
longer than wide. The two together are as wide distally as each is long. .The 
length of the maxilla from the tip to the end of the nasal process is 89 inches ; 
breadth across the frontal summit, 13|- inches; palatines, 21| inches long in the 
median line, measured in a straight line ; the glenoid fossa of the squamosal from 
tip to tip in a straight line, 22 inches. 

The atlas is wanting, also the 7th cervical, not the 4th, as stated by Cope. 
The processes of the axis form a complete bony ring, enclosing an oval foramen, 
the long axis of which measures 5 inches. The greatest width of the bony ring 
itself is 4 inches; distance from edge of anterior articular facet to outside of ring, 
8^ inches. The superior transverse processes of the 3d, 4th, and 5th cervicals are 
broken ; also, the inferior processes of the 5th cervical. The length of the pi'o- 
cesses in the cervical vertebrae present (in straight lines) is as follows : 

SIBBALDIUS TECTIROSTEIS COPE. (TYPE ) CERVICAL VERTEBR.E. 





Superior process. 


Inferior process. 


No. of cervical. 


Right. 


Left. 


Right. 


Left. 


3 

4 

5 
6 

7 


In. 
(broken) 

u 
(( 

6.5 


In. 

(broken) 

6.5 


In. 

6.25 

6.5 

(broken) 
1-5 


In. 

5-5 

5-5 

(broken) 

1-25' 



The breadth of the right radius at the distal end is 5|- in.; of the left, the same ; 
at the proximal end, 5| in. in both. Breadth of the right ulna at the distal end, 4 in. ; 
of the left, 4^ in. ; at the proximal end (including the olecranon), right, 5| in., 
left, 6 in. 

Not many months after Cope prepared the original description of S. tectirostris, 
he inserted in the American Naturalist the following brief notice of the type- 
specimen : 

"new finner whale. 

" {Sibbaldius tectirostris.) 

"The Academy of Natural Sciences has just obtained the perfect skeleton of 
a whale from the coast of Maiylaud. It is a finner, of the geiuis Sibbaldius Gray, 
and is half-grown and forty-seven feet in length. It is quite distinct from all 
known species, but is neai'est S. laticeps. Its characters are found in the nasal and 
phenygoid [sic] bones, and in the ceivical vertebra?, etc. I call it S. tectirostris. 
Two cervicals only have complete lateral canals ; the nasals are short,_ wide, con- 
cave in front, except a prolonged keel in the middle line above, and in front- 
Edward D. Cope, Philadelphia." - 



" (Broken) ? 



^ Amer. Nat., No. 5, July, 1869, pp. 277-278. 



90 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

5. Bal^noptera velifera Cope. 1869. 

" The Fiuuer Whale of the Oi-egon Coasts." 

Original deacripHon : Proceedings, Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila., 1869, 
p. 16. Presented for publication March 9, 1869; published July 20, 1869. 

Type-localitii : Oregon Coasts. No type. Described from Scammon's obser- 
vations and sketches. A northern and a southern form mentioned, but not de- 
scribed, or named. 

The original desciiptiou is as follows : 

" The Finner Whale of the Oregon coasts. 

"This species diffei'S from all that have been described in that respect, in the 
color of the baleen ; from the B. arctica of the Japanese Seas, the coloration of the 
body separates it ; in the latter the sides ai'e spotted black and white, in the pres- 
ent shaded fi'oni the brown of the uppei' to the white of the lower surfaces. The 
large size of the doi'sal lin and its aiitei'ior position are marked characters; the 
northern species, with larger fin, is still more different from the JB. arctica, the only 
one with which it would he probably identical. 

"The more southern form, with very small fin, may be another species — pos- 
sibly a Sibbaldivfi. The J^. velifera cannot, unfortunately, be compared with the 
£. swinJioei and I>. pafac/tonica, as no similar jiarts are figui'ed or desciibed. 

"The l)aleen, says Capt. Scammon, is of a light lead color, streaked with black, 
and its suiface is marked with transverse i-oughening. In the B.p>hysalus the 
whalebone is, according to Gi'ay, slate-coloi'ed on the inner side, white streaked; on 
the outer side nearly black, and with still darker streaks. In the H. rostrata it is 
nearly all white, with some black at the base." (83, 16.) 

In the list of cetacea by Mr. Wra. H. Dall, which is appended to Scammon's 
work (88, 303), it is stated that baleen of JR. velifera is in the museum of the 
Smithsonian Institution. I I'egret that I am unable to find any such specimens, or 
I'ecord of their receipt, though there are many specimens of whalebone of other 
species, received from Scammon. 

6. SiBBALDIUS SULFURETJS Cope. 1869. 

"The Sulphui'bottom of the Northwest Coast." 

Original descj'iption : Proceedings, Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila., 1869, 
p. 20. Presented for publication March 9, 1869; published July 20, 1869. 
No type. Desci'ibed from data furnished by Scammon, as follows: 

" The Sul[)hur-Bottom of the Noith AVest Coast. This immense whale is as yet 
too insuificiently known to be distinguished as fully as desirable, but the mai'ked 
peculiarity of coloration separates it from the only species with which a comparison 
is necessary- — the S. horealis or gigas of the North Atlantic. Capt. Scammon de- 
scribes it to be gray or brown above, })alei' than in BahenopAera velifera, and be- 
neath, a sulphur yellow. Length from 70 to 90 feet. The colors of the 8. horealis 
are described as polished black above, milky white beneath, by Dubar." 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 91 

7. Bal^enoptera davidsoni Scamnion. 1872. 

Original description : Proceedings, California Academy of Sciences, 4, No. 20, 
Jan., 1873, pp. 269-270. Printed in advance, Oct. 4, 1872. 

Type-locality: Admiralty Inlet, Washington, Oct., 1870. Female, 27 feet long, 
with fcetus, 5 ft. long. 

Type-specimen: Skull No. 12177, U. S. National Museum. (See pi. 23, fig. 1 ; 
pi. 25, fig. 1 ; pi. 26, fig. 1.) 

The original description is as follows : 

"Above, dull black; body, pectoral and caudal fins white below, with a white 
band aci-oss the upper surface of the pectorals near their bases. Gular folds, 
seventy in number; the interspaces having a pinkish cast, though the more prom- 
inent portions are of a milky white. Head pointed ; dorsal fin small, falcate, placed 
two-thirds the length of the body from the end of the beak. Pectorals small, 
narrow, placed one-third of the animal's length from the anterior extremity. Geni- 
talia opening below and slightly behind the anterior edge of the dorsal fin. Baleen 
2)ure white; lamin;e on each side, two hundred and seventy in number; the longest 
not exceeding ten inches. Total length of animal twenty-seven feet; pectorals foui- 
feet long, thirteen inches wide; spiracles three feet eight inches l^ehind the end of 
the beak ; pectorals, ditto, eight feet six inches; anterior edge of dorsal, ditto, fifteen 
feet six inches; posterior edge, ditto, eighteen feet. Height of dorsal, ten inches; 
bi'eadth of flukes, from point to ])oint, seven feet six inches; width of lobes of the 
same, twenty-five inches. From the fork of the caudal fin to the anus, eight feet 
four inches ; ditto to opening of vagina, nine and a half feet. Anterior end of 
snout to corner of mouth, four feet eight inches. 

" Distribution from Mexico to Bering Strait ; on the west coast of America. 

"The specimen from which this desci'iption was taken was obtained in Ad- 
miralty Inlet, Washington Territory, October, 1 870. It was a female, and con- 
tained a fcetus five feet long; thus correcting the error of the whalers, who com- 
monly regard this small species as the young of the 'finback ' of the coast. The 
skull has been deposited in the National Museum at Washington." {81, 269-270.) 

Genus MEGAPTERA. 

8. Megaptera osphyia Cope. 1865. 

" Hunchbacked Whale of our [Atlantic] Coast." 

Original description : Proceedings, Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila., 1865, 
p. 180. Offered for publication Sept. 19, 1865 ; published in 1865. 

Type-locality : Forty miles from Petit Manan lighthouse, Maine. 

Type-specimen: Skeleton from individual 50 ft. long, found dead at sea and 
towed to shore by Capt. Taylor. Skeleton mounted and preserved in museum at 
Niagara Falls, New York. 

This species was based on a skeleton of a Humpback found dead at sea,' 
40 miles from Petit Manan lighthouse, Maine, in July, 1844. It was mounted and 

' A printed label now (1900) on the skeleton reads: "Captured by Capt. J. Bickford, of the 

ship Fulton." 



92 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTEEN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

exhibited iu the popular museum at Niagai'a Falls, formerly on the Canadian side, 
but now located on the American side. Cope examined it at some time prior to 
1865, and iu that year described it as representing a new species. He recognized 
that it belonged to the genus Megaptera, but considei'ed that it diffei-ed in several 
important characters fi'om 31. longimana (Rudolphi). 

The original descriptiou, which is too long to quote in full in this place, ai)plies 
well, except in a few particulai's, to a skeleton 33 ft. 10 iu. long, iu the National 
Museum (No. 21492) from Cape Cod, Mass., which, as will be shown later, agrees 
closely with European speciuiens of M. longimana. One of the differences 
noted in the description is that in the type of M. onphyia the superior transverse 
processes of tbe cervical vertebrae increase in length from the 3d to the 5th, while 
in skeleton No. 21492, they rather decrease than increase. An examination of the 
type shows this distinction to be of little importance, as the processes ai'e shorter 
posteriorly on one side and longer on the other.' Cope wrote at a time when 
Gray's opinion that the differences in the length and shape of the processes of 
the cervical vertebrae furnished reliable specific chai'acters was generally accepted. 
Later researches have shown that these processes vary greatly in the same species. 

In the description of the type of M. osjyhyia well-developed inferior transverse 
processes are said to occur on the 3d, 4th, 5th, and 6th cervicals ; " that of the 
fifth, three-fifths the diameter of the centrum." An examination of the type bears 
out this statement. In skeleton No. 21492 there are inferior transverse processes 
on the right side of the 3d, 4th, and 5th cervicals, but none on the 6th ; and that on 
the 5th is not more than i the diameter of the centrum in length. That this differ- 
ence is unimportant, however, is shown by the fact that there are no infeiior 
processes whatever on the left side of the last five cervicals (3d to 7th) in this 
same skeleton. 

A most extraordinaiy statement in the description of the type of M. ospliyia is 
as follows: "The neural arches and spines are remarkably elevated on the dorsal 
and lumbar regions, somewhat as in the Catodoutidae ; e. g., in the 33d vertebra, 
the vertical diameter of the centrum is 9.75 inches, and the height of the arch and 
spine, 17.87 inches, or nearly double." Again, Cope remarks: "A most striking 
peculiarity of the species is the great elevation of the arches and spinous processes 
of the dorsal, and especially the lumbar vertebrae, reminding one of the structure in 
the toothed whales. The outline of the skeleton is thus somewhat humped behind, 
presenting a contrast to that represented by E,udol[)hi iu the type specimen of the 
longimana, where the elevation of the arches and spiues does not exceed the diametei' 
of the centrum, on the lumbar region at least." 

As I remarked in 1884 {80, 642), after having seen the type, these statements 
appear to have been due to a misapprehension. In the type the vertical diameter 

' The figures for the superior transverse processes in the type are as follows (see p. 96): 

Jitght. Left. 

3d cervical (broken) (broken) 

4th cervical 7^ in. i\ in. 

5th cervical 7|- in. ji in. 



THE WHAXEBOJTE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 93 

(posteriorly) of the centrum of the 33d vertebra is 12 inches, and the neural arch 
and spine 13^ inches, making a total of 25^ inches. The height of the arch 
and spine is, therefore, about equal to the depth of the centrum, and not "nearly- 
double," as stated in the original description. In skeleton No. 21492 the diameter 
of the centrum of the 34th vertebi'a ' is 9.75 inches, and with the neural arch and 
spine the total height of the vertebra is 18 inches. This character of the lumbar and 
caudal spines is clearly fictitious, and as it was really the principal one on which the 
species osphyia was based, we are justified in the assumption that the type repre- 
sents the ordinary Humpback of our Atlantic coast, and is to be so regarded unless 
other charactei-s than those enumerated by Cope can be detected. 

In 1884, Cope in reviewing my Catalogue of Aquatic Mammals, above 
mentioned (30, 1123-1124), took exception to this view, and accused me of 
inaccuracy in stating that the high neural spines had been put forward as the 
principal character of the species. He quoted from his original description, as fol- 
lows: "The shorter bead and fins, the peculiarly high neural spines'" and peculiari- 
ties of some of the cervical vertebrae, would seem to distinguish this [species] from the 
longimanaP As, however, a Megciftera with the skull "one-fifth, or less" the total 
length, and the flipper " one-fifth " the total length, as first reported by Cope, would 
be a decided anomaly, I regarded these dimensions with suspicion, and an examina- 
tion of the skeleton showed that they were due to the imperfection of the specimen. 
The characters of the cervicals mentioned by Cope, in so far as they differ from 
those of any specimen of Megaptera, seemed to be of little importance, as above 
noted. The supposed great elevation of the neural spines of the dorsal and lumbar 
vertebrae^ seemed possible, and hence the really important cluiracter ; and so, indeed, 
it would be, if established. 

In 1868 Cope (37, 194) made further reference to the type, stating that the 
skeleton (as it then was) measured 34 feet, but that as it lacked some of the caudal 
vertebrae and the intervertebral cartilages had shrunk, the proper length was perhaps 
42 feet. He describes several additional features of the skull and skeleton, all of 
which are to be found in the specimen in the National Museum, No. 21492, except 
that which relates to the union of the neural arches of the 3d and 4th cervical 
vertebrae. This is, however, an individual rathei- than a specific character. 

In 1871, in describing another species (29, 107), Cope makes a few additional 
comments on M. osphyia. He remarks that in this species " the head and fin are 
even shorter than in M. langimana, and the coronoid process equally rudimentary. 
. . . The width of the orbital plates [orbital process of the frontal] distally is 
.5 their length in the type of M. osphyia^ As regards the orbital process of the 
frontal it is to be remarked that the proportions given by Cope for M. osphyia are 
the same in the two skulls in the National Museum (Nos. 21492 and 16252) from 

' The 33d cannot be measured. 

" This refers to the spines of the dorsal and lumbar vertebr.ie, and not to those of the cervicals. 

F. W. T. 

" And also of the caudals, as Cope mentions particularly the 33d vertebra among them. It is 

really the 2d caudal. 



94 THE WHALEEOXE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

Cape Cod, Mass. The coronoid process of the mandible is prominent in both these 
specimens, and in No. 21492 increases the total depth of the jaw from 10 inches to 
12 inches, though as it is strongly inclined outward, the vertical height of the 
process itself exceeds 3 inches. In M. Iongiinana,h\vt]ievmove, if Struthers's speci- 
men is to be regarded as representing that species, the coronoid is not inconspicuous. 
Struthers's measurements are— anterior mai'gin H inches, posterior margin 3|. inches. 
As no measurements are given by Cope for M. ospliyla, it is difficult to estimate the 
exact import of the word "rudimentaiy " which he employs. An examination of 
the type shows that the corouoids have been cut off at the top. Whether they 
were in this condition when Cope saw tiiem is uncertain, but probable. The 
coronoid is, of course, less well developed in the Humpbacks than in the Finbacks. 

We have now reviewed all that has been recorded of the type of M. osphyia, 
and it will be conceded, I think, that there is no I'eason to suppose that it should 
be separated from other specimens from the Atlantic coast of the United States, as 
a distinct species. Whether the American species is different from the European 
longimana — the main question at issue — will be considered latei-. 

The type-skeleton of M. osi)hyia is figureil on pi. 36. As already stated, it 
was formerly in a small museum on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls, but has now 
been removed to a new museum building near the Catai'act Hotel on the American 
side. A wi'itten label on the skeleton reads : 

"Skeleton of a whale 50 ft. long. Caught by Capt. Bickford, of the ship 
Falton, near the Petit [Manan] Lighthouse, on the coast of Maine, July, 1844. It 
weighed about 70 tons. The jaw bones measured 12 feet. 18 people can sit in 
its mouth. It was towed into Birch Harbor, and there prepared for exhibition. It 
is the only specimen of its kind known." 

A printed label says : ". . . weighing about 70 tons, it was captured by 
Captain J. Bickfoi'd, of the ship Ftdton, on the coast of ^Nlaine, 40 miles at sea. 
Petit Manan Light House, Jul)^, 1844," etc. 

The skeleton is mounted with all the vertebrae, except the atlas, reversed. 
The curvature of the dorsal region is exaggei'ated. Each pectoral limb has three 
digits, and three phalanges in each digit (exclusive of metacarpals), an entirely 
artificial arrangement. 

Actual measurements of the skeleton, made by myself in 1900, are as follows : 

MEGAPTERA OSPHYIA COPE. (TYPE.) 

Skull : Inchn. 

Total length (straight) i35-o 

Greatest breadth (squamosal) 78.5 

Post-squatnosal breadth 66.0 

Breadth of orbital process of frontal at distal end, least 9.5 

" " " " " " greatest 14.0 

Length of rostrum (straight) 89.0 

" " at middle (curved) 31.5 

Length of mandible (straight) 1 29,0 

" " " (curved) 144.0 

Depth of mandible at middle 11.5 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 95 

Skeleton : 

Total length, as mounted, straight (35 ft., 5 in.) 42^ "" 

Greatest breadth of axis .' 

26.0 

Depth of centrum of axis 

^ 7.0 

Greatest breadth of ist dorsal. . . . 

24.0 

Depth of centrum of ist dorsal o > 

Greatest breadth of ist lumbar u ' 

300 

Depth of centrum of ist lumbar. . . ^ 

lO..' 

Greatest breadth of ist caudal (32d vertebra) ^a o 

Depth of centrum, ist caudal 

Breadth of right scapula 

■^ ^ 42.0 

Breadth of left scapula 

Depth of scapula 

Length of right radius along center, with proximal epiphyses 3^ c 

Length of left radius along center, with proximal epiphyses ^ . c 

right " " " without epiphyses ^2? 

" left " " " " " ■' 

^ 32.75 

" ulna with epiphyses , . ^ 

" " right ulna, without epiphyses 2g , 

'^" 28.5 

Length of humerus (straight) 2, ^ 

without epiphyses , , q 

Length of glenoid fossa of scapula j , q 

Breadth " " " " " .'.....'!.'! 9.5 

Length of longest rib go ^ 

In connection with his oi'iginal description of the type-skeleton, Cope recoided 
a number of measurements, some of which are taken from the same points as those 
above, and others from different points. Thus, the length of the fore-limb is <^iven 
as 9.05 feet, which is, of course, erroneous, and due to the incorrect mounting of the 
skeleton. The breadth of the cranium between the orbital pi-ocesses of the frontals 
is given as 6.41 feet, and the breadth between the coronoids of the mandil)le, 5.75 
feet. The height of the scapula is recorded as 29.6 inches, and its breadth, as 44.4 
inches, which, it will be seen, are close approximations to my own measurements as 
given above. 

In the type-skeleton of M. osphyia all the epiphyses are unattached. Those 
of the vertebrae are held together in pairs by the dried intervertebral cartilage. A 
few are wanting. The vertebrae present are as follows: C. 7, D. 14, L. 10, Ca. 17 
= 48. Fourteen ribs are present on the right side and thirteen on the left side. 
Cope mentioned fourteen pairs of ribs, so that it is possible that one rib has been 
lost since he examined the skeleton. 

Skull. — The nasal bones are wanting. The anterior border of the orbital 
process of the frontal is nearly straight. The breadth of the skull between the 
distal extremities of the orbital processes is six feet five and one-half inches. 
The occiput is swollen laterally, with a (piite deep central depression and a .small 
median ridge. The coronoid processes of the mandible are low and blunt, but the 
tips have, as already stated, apparently been cut o&. 

VertebrcB. — The antero-posterior length of the centra of the vertebra3 present, 
without the epiphyses, is as follows : 



96 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

MEQAPTERA OSPHYIA COPE. (TYPE.) LENGTH OF CENTRA OF VERTEBRAE. 



Vert. No. 


Inches. 


Vert. No. 


Inches. 


Vert. No. 


Inches. 


Vert. No. 


Inches. 


I 


4 


13 


4 


25 


6 


37 


62 


2 


2 


'4 


4^ 


26 


61 


.^,8 


■ 6| 


3 


a 


15 


4i 


27 


6 


39 


Si 


4 


I 


16 


4i 


28 


6 


40 


5i 


5 


il 


17 


5 


29 


H 


41 


5 


6 


a 


18 


5 


30 


6* 


42 


ih 


7 


4 


'9 


5 


31 


7 


43 


3 


8 


2 


20 


5 


32 


H 


44 


3 


9 


2i 


2 I 


S 


33 


7i 


45 


2| 


lO 


^1 


22 


5i 


34 


7t 


46 


H 


1 1 


3J- 


23 


5i 


35 


7l 


47 


2} 


12 


3l 


24 


5l 


36 


7 


48 


2i 



The iintero-posterior length of ;i pair of epiphyses, with the dried cai'tilage 
between, is If inches. 

The transverse process of the atlas is 6 in. deep, 4^ in. long. In the other 
cervical vertebrae from the third to the seventh inclusive, the length of the pro- 
cesses is as follows : 

MEQAPTERA OSPHYIA COPE. (TYPE.) LENGTH OF PROCESSES OF CERVICAL VERTEBKjE. 











Processes. 








Cervical No. 


Superior. 


Inferior. 




Right. 


Left. 


Right. 


Left. 




In. 






In. 






In. 






In. 


3 

4 

5 
6 

7 


(broken) 

H 

8 






(broken) 

7f 

8 

^ 






5l 

4i 

5 
, 3 
(none) 






6 

4i 
A\ 

(none) 



The lateral processes of the axis are long, but do not meet at the distal ends. 
The inferior processes are as long as those of the third cervical. The vertical 
diameter of the fifth cervical is 8^ in. 

The height of the neural arch and spine of the fii'st dorsal vertebra is 8^ in. ; 
of the seventh dorsal, 13 in. The depth of the centrnm in the latter vei'tebra is 8| in. 

The height of the neural arch and spine of the first ten lumbars, measured from 
the top of the centra posteriorly, is as follows : 

MEGAPTERA OSPHYIA COPE. (TYPE.) HEIGHT OF NEURAL ARCH AND SPINE OF LUMBAR VERTEBRA. 



Lumbar No. 


Inches. 


Lumbar No. 


Inches. 


I 


i6i 


6 


i7i 


2 


i6i 


7 


ni 


3 


17 


8 


^7i 


4 


18 


9 


i6i 


S 


i7i 


10 


16 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF TUE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 97 

The same measurement for the first lumbar, taken anteriorly, is 17^ in. ; for the 
tenth lumbar, 16 in. The depth of the centrum of the first lumbar (Veit. No. 22) 
is 9-|- in. ; of the tenth lumbar, 11^ in. 

The total height of the second caudal vertebra (Vert. No. 33), measured an- 
teriorly, is 2G in.; posteriorly, 2b\ in.; height of neural arch and spine, anterior, 
13|^ in. ; posterior, l'd\ in. ; top of zygapophysis above top of centrum, 5.1 in. 
Height of neural arch and spine of first caudal, 15 in. Diameter of last caudal in 
position, 4 in. in either direction. The caudal series is incomplete. The skeleton 
shows places for 10 chevi-ons. Seven are in position. 

As already stated, the skeleton, as at present mounted, has 14 right ribs and 13 
left i-ibs. The fii'st right rib has a length of 36 in., measured in a straight line from 
the center of the distal end ; greatest breadth at the distal end, 'J in. Length of 
first left rib, 37 in. ; breadth at distal end, 1\ in. 

The total length of the right pectoral limb as mounted is 106| in. ; of the left, 
107^ in. The breadth of the radius at the proximal end is 8^ in. ; at the distal 
end, 13 in.; breadth of the ulna at the proximal end, 7 in. (greatest), at the distal 
end, 8 in. - 

9. Meg AFTER A BELLICOSA Cope. 1871. 

Original description : Proceedings, American Philosophical Society, 12, 1873, 
pp. 103-107. Eead October 21, 1870; published October (?), 1871. 

Type-locality : Off the coast of Santo Domingo, Haiti, West Indies, or St. Bar- 
tholomew Island, West Indies. 

Type-specimen: Skeleton of an individual 32 ft. long, forwarded to Philadel- 
phia. Preserved in tlie museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

The skull and other poitions of the type-skeleton of M. bellicosa ai'e figured on 
plates 29, 30, 31, 34, and 35. 

This species was first described by Cope in 1871. It was based on a skeleton 
of an individual 32 feet long, obtained by Dr. A. Goes, colonial physician at St. 
Bartholomew Island, in the West Indies, either off Santo Domingo, Haiti, or at 
St. Bai'tholomew Island. Co[)e is not explicit on this point, but as Dr. Goes sent 
some parts of a Humpback skeleton to the Royal Museum, Stockholm, from St. 
Bartholomew Island in 1868, it is likely that the type of xM. bellicosa was also from 
that locality (see 66, 38). The skeleton was " forwarded to Philadelphia," but 
Cope does not state whether it went to the Academy of Natural Sciences, or not. 
At all events there is in the museum of the Academy a skeleton whose dimen- 
sions agree so closely with those given by Cope that there cannot be any reason- 
able doubt that it is the type of the species. 

Cope's description of this species is rather fuller than in previous cases. He 
states that the skeleton lacks "the sternum, pelvic bones, and perhaps four caudal 
vertebrae. Of the latter, one is a large anterior vertebra, two are median, and one 
betweeuy^e latter and the distal. The whole number thus restored will be Cerv. 7, 
D. 14, L:'10, Caud. 20 ; total, 51." 

As regards the number of dorsal and lumbar vertebryc this skeleton shows no 



98 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

difference from No. 21492, from Cape Cod, in the National Museum, while No. 
16252, also from Cape Cod, has D. 14, L. 11, a difference of one lumbar. Some 
European specimens of M. lonr/lmana have 10 lumbars and others 11, while the 
number of dorsals remains constantly at 14. 

Cope com})ares his M. hellicosa in many particulars with M. longimana, and 
also occasionally mentions M. osphyia. The differences which he finds between M. 
hellicosa and M. longimana are as follows : 

(1) The whole form of the nasals is different in hellicosa and "at once dis- 
tinguish it " from longimana. 

(2) The ramus of the mandible is more slender in hellicosa. 

(3) The elevated coroiioid of hellicosa at once distinguislies it from longimana. 

(4) The head bears a greater proportion to the length of the body in hellicosa 
than in longimana. 

(5) The orbital plates of the frontal are less concave anteriorly in hellicosa. 

(6) Tiie first rib is broadei' (if Rudolphi's' figures of longimana are correct). 

(7) The pectoral fin is black externally in hellicosa, but " entirely white in 
Arctic Megapterar 

We will take up these differences in the order in which they appear above, 
considering them, however, as far as possible, in connection with specimens fi'om 
the American side of the North Atlantic. As to whether these latter are identical 
with M. longimana has to be considered later. 

The nasals of M. hellicosa, as described and figured by Cope, though they may 
differ fi'om those of European specimens of longimana, are very similar to those of 
skeleton No. 21492 fi'om Cape Cod, Mass. The chief difference is that in the latter 
specimen they are only very imperfectly serrated proximally for articulation with 
the frontal. The nasals of hellicosa seem long as compared with those of No. 
21492, which is probably a skeleton of about equal size. They are 9 inches long in 
the foi'mer, 7|- inches in the lattei'. 

The importance of the slenderness of the ramus of the mandible in hellicosa I 
cannot estimate, as I have not seen that part of the skull. Cope's figures of the 
coronoid process indicate that that process is not larger than, or in any wise 
especially different from, the same part in the Cape Cod specimens. 

The next point of difference mentioned b}' Cope is that in hellicosa the head is 
longer in proportion to the body than in longimana. He gives the length of the 
cranium in the former as 9 feet and the total estimated length of the skeleton, 31 
feet 4 inches. This makes the skull 28.7 % of the total length. As the skull with 
the premaxillaries is undoubtedly some 6 inches longer, however, its proportion 
to the body would appear to be still greater. Skeleton No. 21492 from Cape Cod, 
Mass., is 33 ft. 10 in. long, and as it lacks probably the two final caudal vertebrae, 
about 7^ inches should be added, making a total of 34 ft. 5^ in. As the skull is 
but 9 ft. 5 in., its proportion to the body is but 27.3 %. It is to be observed, how- 
ever, that in the type of hellicosa the scapula, axis, and humerus indicate an indi- 
vidual at least as large as No. 21492, and hence it is open to question whether 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 99 

Cope's estimate of the total length may not have been considerably too small. At 
all events it is only an estimate, and heuce this particular relation is not a good one 
to employ as an aid in determining the identity of the species. 

In the skull of bellicosa, the anterior margin of the orbital plate of the frontal 
is nearl}' straight, as stated by Cope, and, hence, offei's a contrast to other Megap- 
tera skulls I have examined, in all of which the margin is (piite concave. 

In regard to the first rib of bellicosa Cope remarks: "If Rudolphi's figures [of 
M. longimand] are correct, the first rib is bi'oader in tlie present animal, but the 
figure may be inaccurate." The width at the distal end in bellicosa is given as 7 
inches. Sti'utliers gives 7| inches for the right rib in his skeleton of longimana, 
and only 5 inches for the left rib. In skeleton No. 21492, both ril)s of the first 
pair measure 5 inches at the distal end. It thus appears that thei'e may be equality 
or marked inecpiality in the same individual, and hence the width of the rib, unless 
a considerable number of individuals can be compared, is not a character to be 
relied upon. 

Finally, Cope states that the pectoral fin of lellicosa was black externally, but 
" entirely white in Arctic Megaptera^ This is not, of course, from his own obsei'va- 
tion. The "Arctic Megaptera^'' Cope had in mind is doubtless M. longimana, but 
Cocks has shown (^17^ that in the Humpbacks killed at the Norwegian whaling- 
stations the color of the outside of the pectoral varies greatly. It may be entirely 
black, or only the proximal fourth black, or "black for only a very short distance 
at the proximal end," etc. Of three fresh specimens examined at Snook's Arm, 
Newfoundland, Aug., 1899, two (a male and a female) had the upper surface of 
the pectoral entirely white, except for a small area proximally, and a naiTow poste- 
rior margin, where it was black. In the third specimen (a female), the proximal 
half was all black, and the distal half black and white mottled, the black predomi- 
nant. There is, therefoi'e, no constancy in the coloring of the pectoral, as, indeed, 
is the case also with the body, and the details of a single individual caimot be 
considered as having much importance. 

It appears from the foregoing i-eview that of the characters assigned by Cope 
to M. bellicosa, the shape of the anterior margin of the orbital ]ii'ocess of the frontal 
is the only one which merits consideration. That this is not likely to be of impor- 
tance seems probable from the fact that a fufther comparison of the type with 
specimens of the common Humpback of the Atlantic coast of North America, as 
detailed in a subsequent chapter, fails to disclose correlated distinguishing charac- 
ters, while the agreement extends to many parts not mentioned by Cope. I feel 
justified, therefore, in treating M. bellicosa as representing the common Humpback 
and not a distinct species. 

The following are actual measurements of the type-skeleton of M. bellicosa, 
according to Cope's system, made by me in 1900, to which are added Cope's 
original measurements : 



100 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



MEdAPTERA BELLICOSA COPE. (TYPE.) 



Measurement. 



Cope's 
Measure- 
ments. 



My 

Measure- 
ments. 
I goo. 



Total length of skull .... 

Length of maxilla 

" transverse, of orbital plate of frontal. ^ . 

" longitudinal " " " " 

Distal width over orbit " " '' " 

Length of nasals 

Width " " 

" " cranium behind orbits (greatest) 

muzzle ^ the distance to frontal plates. 
" maxilla f " " " " " . 

Length of mandible on curve 

First rib, on curve 

" " distal width 

Humerus, length 

Radius, " 

Scapula, height 

width 

glenoid length 

" widUi 



IDS. 

65- 

29. 

26. 

"•5 
9- 
1-5 

64. 

27-5 
lO-S 
118. 

37- 
7- 

21. 

2S-S 

39-5 

"5 

9- 



III. 

64-25' 

29.= 

26.= 

9-5'- 

1-25' 

67.S 
26.25' 
10. ' 



37- 

7.' 
20.5" 
29-5' 
26.5'^ 
38.- 
1 1. 

9- 



The following are actual measurements of the type-skeleton, made by me in 
accordance with the system I have applied to all the vai'ious species : 

MEGAPTERA BELLICOSA COPE. (TYPE.) 

SKULL — REGULAR MEASUREMENTS. 

Inc/lt's. 

Length (straight) 1 14.5 

Greatest breadth (squamosal) „ 67.5 

Breadth of orbital process of frontal at distal end — least — point to point. 8.25 

Length of rostrum (straight) 75. 

Breadth of rostrum at middle (curved) 26.25'" 

Length of nasals g." 

Breadth of nasals at distal end 8." 



SKELETON — REGULAR MEASUREMENTS. 

Length of skull (straight) 

Greatest breadth of axis 

Depth of centrum " " 3 POSt. 

\ ant. 

Greatest breadth of ist dorsal 

Depth of centrum " " " 

Greatest breadth of 1st lumbar 

Depth of centrum " " " 

Greatest breadth of ist caudal 

Depth of centrum " " " anterior 

Greatest length of scapula 

depth " " 

Length of radius, along middle, with proximal epiphysis 

without epiphyses 

ulna " " with proximal epiphysis , . . 

without epiphyses 



Inches, 
I [ I. 

21-5 

7- 
6.'^ 

'9-5 
7-5 

29-5 
8. 

26." 

10. 

38." 

26.5" 

295" 

25'" 
24." 



' The left maxilla. It is broken. About 3 in. should be added. '' Along post-margin. 

' Greatest, proximally. ' Greatest; the least is 8), in. ' Left nasal ; length of inner margin. 

" Left nasal at proximal end. ' As mounted. ' Right. The left is g\ in. 

" The other rib, ist pair, 7^ in. '".Straight, when standing on its head, without distal epiphysis. 

"Right. "Left. '= As mounted. "" Twice one. 

'^ Median. The long diameter of the surface articulating with atlas is (right) 9 in. ; (left) 8f in. 

'" Twice one half ; the left diapophysis is defective. 



THE WHALERONK WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

SKELETON— K.XTR A MEASUREMENTS. 

Inches. 

Greatest breadth of atlas , 

height " " ^''■^^.'''^'''^'''.^'^^^''^. i,'^ 

axis ,^^, 

breadth of ist dorsal ,„ ;. 

height ,^.. 

breadth of rst lumbar ,„ - 

height ,,■-• 

breadth of i st caudal 26 ' 

height " " " ^^.'^^'^^''''''^''''. 23.5' 



101 



LENGTH OF TRANSVERSE PROCESSES OF CF.RVICALS. 



Cervical No. 


Su|ierior. 


Inferior. 




Right. 


Left. 


Right. 


Left. 


3- 
4- 

5- 
6. 

7- 


In. 

(broken) 

4f 

Si 

Si 
si 


In. 

5 
(broken) 

5i 
5f 
Si 


In. 

3 

2i 

I 

(none) 
(none) 


In. 
3 

2i 

(none) 
(none) 
(none) 



lu the type-skull of M. hellieosa the anterior margin of the orbital plate of the 
frontal is nearly straight, as mentioned by Cope. The supraoccipitals are concave 
in the middle and bulbous on the sides, but the difference in this respect between 
this skull and No. 21492 U.S.N.M. from Cape Cod, Mass., is not great. There is 
a median ridge on the occipitals. The median inferior cre.st of the vomer termin- 
ates suddenly at the posterior end in M. hellieosa, while in No. 21492 U.S.N.M. it 
dies away gradually. The right nasal bone appears to have been lost. The left is 
preserved, and does not correspond with Cope's figures (all of which are very de- 
fective). It does agree with the nasals of skull No. 21492 U.S.N.M. The extreme 
length of the left nasal is 9|-in.; breadth opposite the distal end of the inner margin, 
4 in.; breadth of nasal orifice opposite extremity of outer margin of left nasal, 9-|- in.; 
depth of left nasal, 9^ in. 

The vertebi'fe preserved are cervicals, 17; dorsals, 14; lumbars, 10; candals, 
13; total, 44. The candals missing are probably the 4th, 17th, 15tli, I7th to 20th 
or 21st; in all 8 or 9, making a probable total for the skeleton of 52 or 53 ver- 
tebrae. The atlas has no distinct spine, but a crest about h inch high. The total 
height of the 32d vertebra is 22i in., of which the neural arch and spine comprise 
12^ in. and the centrum 10 in. The scapula has a rudiment of a coracoid process, 
as in other specimens of Megaptera. 



' Median. 
'Twice one half. 



' Posterior. 

* Including process for chevron ; posterior. 



102 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOETH ATLANTIC. 

10. Megaptera ^-ersabilis Cope. 1869. 
"The North Pacific Humpback." 

Original descrijytion : Proceedings, Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila., 1869, 
p. 15. Pi'eseiited for publication Mai'ch 9, 1869; published July 20, 1869. 

Type-locaUt;/ : Noith Pacific. 

No specimens. Named from Scammon's measurements and description. 

The original description is as follows : 

"The North Pacific hump-back. This species possesses pectoral fins, appar- 
ently intermediate in length between those of the M. longimana and the species 
with shortei' fins, as M. ospliyia and M. huzira. They are between one-third and 
one-foui'th the length ; in the two last mentioned, between one-fourth and one-fifth. 
It has 26 pectoial and gular folds. Siebold states that the M. huzira possesses but 
ten. In this animal the warts extend to the top of the front, a character not 
ascribed to any Atlantic Megaptera. It differs also fi'om M. longimana, and 
resembles M, lalandii and M. kuzira, m having the pectoral black on the external 
face ; in the Greenland species and in the model of the Aleutian Islanders, described 
by Chamisso, it is white. The characteristic color of the l)elly, in the most typical 
foi-m, is said to be entirely black. In this respect it difi;'ers from all other Megapterw, 
which pieseut more or less white, or grey, on the inferior surfaces at least." 

Note on Megaptera brasiliensis. 

Though the locality of the specimen to which Cope attached this name takes 
it somewhat out of our I'ange, I have thought it desirable to make reference to 
it here, in oi'dei' that comparisons might l)e instituted, if necessary, between it and 
Cope's West Indian species, J/, bellicosa, with which it might be supposed to be 
closely allied, if not identical. 

From the brief statement in the Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of 
Natural Sciences, 1867, in which this name appeal's it might at first be supposed 
that Cope intended to describe a new species. His commentary on the pai'agi-aph 
in 1871, however, leads one to infer that such was not the case, though the matter 
is left in a veiy unsatisfactoiy condition. As both recoi-ds are very brief, I will 
C|Uote them in full. The paragraph of 1867 is as follows: 

" Pi'of. Cope presented to the Academy a young specimen of the Avhale, known 
as the Bahia Finner, procured near Bahia, Brazil, the length of which was 21 feet. 
He said it belonged to the genus Megaptera, Gray, with the hunchback whales of 
sailors. The evidence consists in the veiy short di- and para])ophyses of the 
cervical vertebrae and the absence of all trace of acromion and coracoid processes. 
The orbital [ii'ocesses of the frontal are narrowed externally and the muzzle consid- 
erably narrowed. Judging from the name, it possesses a more fully developed 
doi'sal fin than the other Megaptera. It should be called Megaptera hraziliensisr 
{25, 32.) 

Cope's commentary on this, published in 1871, is as follows : 

"The species desci'ibed by Gray (Catal. B. Mus., 1866, 62) as PTiymhis hrasili- 
ensis, founded on some baleen of the ' Bahia Finnei',' has been supposed by me 



THE WHALEBONE WHiLES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 103 

(Proc. A. N. Sci., Phila., 1867, p. 32) to be a Megaptera. Certain it is that 
a Megaptera is found at Baliia, as I bave seen lai'gei- and smaller portions of two 
skeletons of one, but whether it be the ' Bahia Finner' and P. Immliensis, Gra_y, is 
quite doubtful. In the first place, fishermen and whalers never call a ' hump-bjick' 
(Mega2)te?u) a ' finner ' ; if they have done so in the case of this species, it evidently 
has a noticeable doi-sal fin, which is wanting in the present whale. In the next 
place, baleen of the 'Bahia Finner' has a commercial value, being exported to 
England, while that of Mega^ytera has none, being coarse and twisted." {29, 107.) 

From a comparison of these tv^'o paragraphs it would appear that Cope first 
brought forward his specimen as indicating that Gray's Balcenoptera brasiliensis, or 
" Bahia Fiunei-," was a Megaptera, but afterwards concluded that though a Megaptera 
unrpiestionably occurred in the vicinity of Bahia, it was " rpiite doubtful " whether 
the same was Gray's B. hrasiliensis after all. We may properly consider that 
Cope's remark that " it should be called Megaptera brasiliensis''^ means mei'ely that 
when he first wrote, in 1867, he thought Gray's Balcenoptera hrasiliensis shoidd be 
transfeired to the genus Megaptera. The Megaptera hrasiliensis is not, therefore, 
to be considered as one of Cope's new species, and the skeleton which he presented 
to the Philadelphia Academy is not a type. Disposed of in this way, as I believe 
it should be, there is still a matter of interest in determining what the skeleton was 
which Cope presented to the Academy. 

So little is left of the specimen and it is so young, that it is hardly worth con- 
sideration. The skull is veiy immature and lacks the right maxilla. The spines 
and processes of the vertebrae aie all sepai'ate, showing immaturity. I have found 
37 vertebrae in all, apparently without the atlas and axis, and numerous caudals are 
doubtless lacking. 

The skull, so far as can be judged, does not differ notably from that of 21. 
hellicosa. The breadth across the squamosals (greatest) is 38 in. ; the orbit, point 
to point, 6 in. What Cope means by saying that the " orbital processes of the 
frontal are nairowed extei-nally," is not evident. The orbits are very large rela- 
tively, as is to be expected in so immature an individual. Length of mandible, 
straight, 5 ft. l\ in. ; curved, 5 ft. 5 in. 

There are 14 pairs of ribs, all very fragile. The first is broad distally, as in 
M. hellicosa. Measurements of the limbs are as follows : 

Scapula: Breadth, i ft. lo in. 
Height, I " 3i " 
Humerus: Length, o " gi " without epiphyses (straight). 
Radius: Length, i " 8f " " 
Uhia: Length, i " si " " 

The total length of the skull (as well as can be made out) is 5 ft. 2 in. 
Leno-th of rostrum, 3 ft. 2^ iu. Breadth of rostrum at middle, estimated, 14 in. 
Depth of mandible at middle, 6-^ in. Nasals are lacking. 

Note on Agaphelus gibbosus (Ersleben) Cope. 

The first mention of this whale by Cope is in the Proceedings of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 18C7, p. 147, where he says in a foot-note: 



104 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

" A fine specimen of this species \Balmnoptera rostrata], over 30 feet long, went 
ashoi'e dining the autumn of 1866, on the Long Beach, N. J. It was much injured, 
probably by the killers. This species has not been before noticed on our coasts." 

It is evident that he thought the whale to be B. acuto-rostrata at this time, but 
in the same Proceedings, 1868, p. 159, he is quoted as making the following state- 
ment on June 23d, 1868: 

"He [Prof. Cope] mentioned that he had opportunity of examining a por- 
tion of a specimen of the Scrag AVhale of Dudley, Bidcena gihhosa of Erxleben, 
and ascertained that it represented a genus not previously known. It was a fin-back 
wliale, but without dorsal fin or throat folds, resembling superficially the genus 
Balmna. The baleen short and curved. The genus was called Agapiielths. 

"A second species of the genus was to be found in the 'gray whale' of the 
coasts of California. Tlie baleen of this species, compared witli that of the A. 
gihhosus, was longer and had narrower basis. The plates moderately and simply 
concave, while those of the latter are sigmoidal, most curved near the outer margin 
in cross section. The bristles of the California species were very coarse, vai-ying 
from one to three series between the enamel plates. The bristles of the A. gibhosris 
much finer, three series together. Length of the latter, 8.5 inches, width at base, 4.4 
inches. In the gray whale or Agiqthelus glavais Cope, 22 inches in length, width 
at base 6 inches. In the former nearly 6 in an inch, in tlie latter 2^. The baleen 
of the A. gibhofius belonged to an immature specimen of 35 feet in length." 

I understand this to be the specimen that Cope referred to in 1867 under the 
name of B. rostrata, as appears from the same Proceedings, 1868, p. 224, where he 
cites that reference in synonymy. He now calls it Agaplielus gibhosus Cope, and 
gives the estimated length of the specimen, which was young, as 43 feet. 

At the beginning of this article, on p. 221, he makes the following statement: 

"During the autumn of 1866 a whale was cast ashore on the Long Beach, 
Ocean Co., N. J., opp(isite Westecunk, on the other side of Little Egg Hai'bor. neai- 
the residence of Wm. A. Ci'aue. A recent visit to the spot furnished me with the 
means of determining the species to which this monster of tlie deep belonged, 
although not with the completeness desirable, as the tide had a short time previ- 
ously taken off the most bulky part of the carcass. Thus the ci'anium, cervical and 
dorsal vertebras, with the fii'st ribs, the most important portions for its identifica- 
tion, were lost. There were preserved, however, the mandibular aix-h, ear-l>one, one 
scapula and both fins, numerous ribs, many lumbar and caudal vertebne, with the 
baleen from one side of the maxilla. These portions, with a few prominent points 
dependent on the observations of Wm. A. Crane, serve to indicate a species not 
only new to our fauna, but new to modern science. The evidence of my informant, 
as that of au old and experienced coaster and waterman, and one familiar with the 
appearance of our cetaceans, confirmed b}^ his sons and by the specimens pi-eserved, 
so far as they went I consider reliable. 

" In general features this Cetacean seems to be an intermediate form of the 
toothless whales; and au additional feature, which depends on the observation of 
my friend AV. Crane, and in which I cannot conceive it possible that he should be 
mistaken, indicates still more conclusively that it pertains to a genus not before 
characterized. The whale was first driven on shore on its back, and the gular and 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 105 

thoracic regions were seen to be entirely without ridges or plic;c of any kind, but 
as smooth as any other part of the body, or as the tliroat of a riglit wliale, Balaena 
cisarctica Cope, which is not uncommon on the same coast." 

At the end of description, on page 225, he remarks : 

"The owner of the wliale tried out about one-fourth of the blubber, and pro- 
cured sixty-five gallons of oil, which would give about four hundred gallons for the 
whole ; the thickness of the adipose layer would not average 4: inches, the greatest 
thickness was 5 inches. 

"This species was black above and white below, the sides lead-colored, with 
longitudinal shades of the darker color ; fins, basal half white, tei-minal black." 

The genus and species are again commented upon by Cope in the same Pro- 
ceedings, 1869, pages 14-15, and were subsequently mentioned and <liscussed by 
various authors and still aj^pear in current lists of cetaceans. In 1884, howevei', 
in commenting in the American Naturalist, 18, p. 1128, on my list of cetaceans for 
the London Fisheries Exhibition, Cope remarks : 

"The AgapJielus gihhosus must be withdrawn from the list of authentic 
species. The bones which I referred to it are probably those of Balcenoptera 
rostrata. The characters of the animal in the flesh were given me by pei'sons 
whom I supposed to be trustworthy, but who may have been mistaken. The 
species may, however, be the Bakena gihhosa of the old authors." 

From the evidence it seems extremely probable that Cope was right in coming 
back to his original view that the specimen was one of B. rostrata. The color of 
the whalebone and of the pectoral fin would especially seem to indicate that species ; 
and the misstatement regarding the length of the animal, etc., may be explained on 
the ground that Cope examined only a portion of the skeleton. The chief circum- 
stance which led him to erect the genus Agaplielm seems to have been that the 
fishei-men who found the specimen on the beach affirmed that the throat was with- 
out folds and that thei-e was no fin on the back. The statements regai-ding these 
parts appear to have been made to Cope about two years after the animal was 
obsei-ved and there was abundant time for the real facts to have been foi'gotten. 

The matter was complicated by two other circumstances : First, that the 
fishermen have long recognized a whale called the Scrag whale, which is said 
to have the same characters which Cope's specimen was supposed to have ; and, 
second, that Cope at this time became acquainted with the fact that there was a 
whale on the Pacific coast which had the smooth throat and back, namely, the Gray 
whale {Rhachianectes). The existence of this whale on the Pacific coast made it 
probable that a similar species might be looked for on the Atlantic coast. 

In 1869, as already stated. Cope established the genus Rhachianectes (83, 15) 
for the California Gray whale, thus leaving the supposed Atlantic "Scrag whale" 
as the only representative of the genus Agaphelm. As the latter was founded 
on a Bakenoptera, the generic name Agaphelus should be expunged from the 
literature. 



106 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



Cope states, as noted above {26, 221), that the mandibular arch, an ear-bone, 
one scapula, both fins, numerous ribs, many lumbar and caudal vertebrae, and the 
baleen from one side of the maxilla were preserved. The whereabouts of this 
material could not be ascertained. It does not appear to be in the Philadelphia 
Academy. Cope (26, 22]) gives measurements of some of the parts, which may be 
compared with Turner's Grauton (Scotland) specimen {92, 68), as follows : 



Measurement. 


Balccnoptera acuto-rostrata. 
Granton, Scotland. 


" Agaphehis gibbosus." 


Length of mandibular ramus (in curve) 

Dei)th of mandible at coronoid 


6 ft. \\ in. 
9 in. 

I lA in. 
(nearly) i8 in.' 


6 ft. o in. 
§2 in 


Length of the humerus 


11^ in. 
17 in. 


" " " radius and ulna 





This correspondence of Cope's specimen with a well-authenticated B. acuto- 
rostrata is veiy interesting. 

'Ulna. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE COMMON FINBACK, BAL.ENOPTERA PHYSALUS (Linn.). 

This species is the " Common Finback " of European waters. Hundreds 
of individuals have been taken at the Finmark whaling stations since 1874, and 
scores have been I'ecorded as stranding at various points on the coasts of p]ur(>pe 
during the 18th and 19th centuries. The species has been, on tliis account, 
more carefully studied than any other Finback. Sars's diagnosis of the species, 
published in 1878 (75, 17), is as follows: 

" Length of full grown individuals reaching to 70 feet. 

"Body slender; the greatest height scarcely exceeding J- the leno-th ; behind 
the navel very much attenuated, the posterior half very narrow and maiutaininc 
almost the same depth throughout. 

" Color above and on the left side of the lower jaw dark gray, below white ; 
color of the back descending obliquely behind the pectoral fins so as to leave only 
a narrow median longitudinal area (below) along the posterior part of the body. 

" Mouth equalling al>out \ the length of the body; upper jaw seen from above 
very nari'ow, wedge shaped, gradually decreasing in width toward the apex. 

" Pectoral fins small, scarcely exceeding \ the length of the bod}^, narrowly 
lanceolate, with the posterior angle often but little distinct ; the external surface 
showing: the coloi- of the back, the internal surface and the whole anterior margin, 
white. 

"Dorsal fin quite high, ti'iangular, with the scarcely curved apex directed 
obliquely backward ; situated behind a vertical line drawn through the anal orifice. 

" Caudal fin uniformly white below, with the margins dusky. 

" Whalebone dull bluish, varied with lighter color; some near the apex [of the 
upper jaw] white." 

The admirable figure accompanying Sars's article ({ilate 2) agrees exactly with 
the diagnosis. It represents the right side of the whale, showing the lowei- jaw 
and the anterior whalebone white, a character of importance, as will appear later. 
Sars's diagnosis in Norwegian is somewhat fuller than that in Latin, which is 
translated above, and may be profitably included here : 

" Length of full-grown individuals reaches to 70 feet. 

" Body of especfally slender and attenuated foi'm, with the greatest height 
never exceeding \ the total length, back of the navel suddenly and strongly di- 
minishing, so that the whole of the posterior portion of the body becomes unusually 
small and almost eveiywhere of one height as far as the root of the flukes. 

107 



108 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTEKN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

" Color above and also on the left side of the under jaw quite light gray, 
brownish, or passing into sepia color. The color of the back, as in the Little Piked 
whale, descends obliquely from the pectoral fins across the sides of the body, and 
on the part lying behind the vent there is only a very narrow and sharply defined 
white stripe along the ventral side. 

" The length of the mouth is about equal to ^ the total length, and the upper 
jaw seen from above is quite narrow, conical, or uniformly decreasing in breadth 
toward the tip. 

" The pectoral fius are very small, scarcely exceeding ^ the total length, narrow, 
lanceolate, with the posterior angle unusually little prominent. On its outer side 
showing the color of the back, but the inner side and the whole of the anterior 
border pure white. 

" Doi-sal fin pi'oportionally rather high (at least in males) and of a triangular 
form, with the tip not strongly curved, and dii-ected obliquely backward. It lies 
rather far back, immediately behind a vertical line drawn through the anus. 

" Flukes, pui'e white on the lower sui'face, with dai-k margins. 

" Whalebone, dark bluish and somewhat variegated, but with the exception 
that some of the most anterior of it is yellowish white as in the Little Piked whale." 

In preparing for my first trip to the Newfoundland fishery at Snook's Arm, I 
brought together in abstract form all the piincipal external characters assigned to 
this species by the more recent European authorities, and for convenience of refer- 
ence they are given in brief form below : 

Average total length. 

81 males = 62 ft. 7 in. (Cocks, from whalers.) 
105 females = 64 ft. \\ in. (Cocks, from whalers.) 

Mean total length. 

60 to 70 ft. (GULDBERG.) 

Maximum total length. 
Male, 72 ft. 1 in. (Cocks.) 
Female (" bastard "), 80 ft. 6 in. (Cocks.) 

Proportion of length of jaivs to total length (average.) 

20.8 per cent. (f. w. t., compiled.) 

(Length of mouth from tip of lower jaw =^ ^ the total length = 20 per cent. 
Sars.) 

Variation: Length of mouth = 19.5 to 22,5 per cent. (f. w. t., compiled.) 

Proportion of length of pectoral (from axilla) to total length (averagt). 

10.5 per cent. (f. w. t., compiled.) 

tV to -^ = 10 per cent, to 11 per cent. (Guldberg.) 

■^ = 11.1 per cent. (Sars.) 

Variation: 9.9 to 11.3 per cent. (f. w. t., compiled.) 

(Flower gives 8.7 per cent, for the Portsmouth, England, specimen, 1869.) 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WKSTEKN NORTH ATLANTIC. 109 

Proportion of length of pectoral from head of humerus to total length (average). 

12.4 per cent. (f. av. t., compiled.) 

Variation : 11.8 to 13.3 per cent. (f. w. t., compiled.) 

Percentage of total length anterim- to tlie posterior margin of the doi'salfin (average). 

75 per cent. (f. w. t., compiled.) 

(The larger part of the doi'sal lies behind a vertical line drawn through the 
vent. Saes.) 

Variation: 72.9 per cent, to 77.7 per cent. (f. w. t., compiled.) 

Proportion of vertical height of dorsal to total length (average). 

2.3 per cent. (f. w. t., compiled.) 

Variation : 2.0 to 3.5 per cent. (f. w. t., compiled.) 

(Ravin gives 1.4 per cent, in one case.) 

Shape of pectoral fins. 

Anterior edge thick, posterior edge thin. 

Pectorals narrowly lanceolate, with the posterior angle generally but little 
pronounced. (Sars.) 

Color above (normal). 

Blackish, or gray-black. (Cocks.) 

Light browu-gray, or approaching sepia-color. (Sars.) 

Right lower lip white, left dark. 

Dark color extends obliquely down from behind the pectorals, leaving only a 
narrow white stripe below. (Sars.) 

Variation : Black when some time dead. (Murle, Ravin, etc.) 

Gray-blue. (Cooks.) 

Sars's Lofoten specimen had an irregular light patch between the root of the 
pectoral and the corner of the mouth. 

Color below (normal). 

White throue;hout. 

" With a grayish band passing over it." (Guldberg.) 

Variation: Tinged with yellowish, especially in oldish individuals. (Guld- 
berg). 

In a dead whale the posterior 12 feet of the "small," or caudal peduncle, gray 

black. (Cocks.) 

Yellowish white. (Murle. Specimen some time dead.) 

Marhings. 

Jaw and chin white, with black flecks. 

Variation: Left upper and lower lips Jet-black. Right lips enamel-, or milk- 
white. (Cocks. Dead whales.) 



110 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERS" NORTH ATLANTIC. 

Color of upper surface of pectorals (normal). 

Light slate-color, tipped with white at extreme distal edge. (Cooks.) 
Same dark color as the back. (Saes.) 

Variation: "Blue, with almost a brownish tinge at the proximal end." 
(Cocks, " Hybrid Whale.") 

Dingy black. (Mtjrie. Specimen some time dead.) 

Color of lower surface of pectorals (normal). 

White. 

Lower surface and whole anterior margin white. (Sars.) 
Variation: White running over the anterior margin, and the gray of the 
upper surface overspreading the under surface posteriorly and proxiraally. (Cocks.) 
Whitish. (Murie. Specimen some time dead.) 

Color of upper surface of fluhes (normal). 
Dull black. (Cocks.) 

Color of lower surface of fliikes (normal). 

White. 

Pure white ; with sharply defined dark margin. (Saes.) 

Variation : Shading through streaks of gray to a little white about the center 
of each lobe. (Cocks.) 

Average length of longest baleen, loithout bristles. 

Less than 3 feet. (Guldberg.) 
30 inches. (Murie.) 

Mean number of plates of baleen on one side. 
360. (Murie.) 

Color of baleen plates (normal). 

Black on the outer edge, then slate, gradually striping to yellow on the inner 
margin. (Cocks.) 

Blue-gray, with light stripes. (Guli:)Bp:rg.) 

Foremost blades yellow, or grayish white. (Guldberg.) 

(In Ravin's specimen the anterior third of the series all whitish, the remainder 
all slate-gray ; the transition abrupt.) 

Color of h'istles of baleen (normal). 
Yellow, almost buff. (Cocks.) 

It has been recognized for a long time that a species closely resembling B. 
physalus, if not identical with it, occurs on the east coast of America, from Green- 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. Ill 

land southward. Foi- many years it formed the object of a more or less irregular 
fishery in Massachusetts Bay, and considerable numbeivs of individuals have stranded 
at various points on the coast, the skeletons of some of which have been preserved 
in the museums of the United States. One of these skeletons was described by 
D wight in 1872 (35), and we have endeavored to show that the type of Cope's 
JB. tectirostris also belonged to this "Common Finback" of Ameiican waters 
(see p. 87). 

In 1899, having learned that a whaling company, known as the Cabot Steam 
Whaling Company, was engaged in fishing for Finbacks on the east coast of New- 
foundland, I obtained the permission of the Secretary of the Smitlisonian Institution 
to visit the island for the purpose of making observations on the various species 
captured. Through the kindness of Messrs. Harvey <fe Co., of St. John's, New- 
foundland, agents of the whaling company, I was given every facility for the study 
of the whales taken in Notre Dame Bay and brought into theii' station at Snook's 
Arm in that bay to be stripped of blubber and whalebone. I remained at the 
station three weeks, and examined with considerable care 25 whales which were 
brought in. The capture of the whales was prosecuted in the same manner as on 
the Norwegian coast, and indeed a large proportion of the stockholders in the com- 
pany were Norwegians, the steamer used in pursuing the whales was built in 
Norway, and the captain and a majority of the ciew were Norwegians. Through 
the courtesy of Captain Bull, who was in command of the steamer Cabot, I was 
permitted on sevei'al occasions to witness the chase from a favoi-able station on the 
bow of the boat, where I could observe the motions of the whales in the water, 
the effect of the bomb-harpoons, and the modus operandi of securing the dead 
whales to the steamer's side and towing them to the station. Capt. Bull did 
everything in his power to assist me in my work, and gave me much valuable 
information concerning whales in Amei'ican, Norwegian, and Japanese waters, from 
his own obsei'vations. 

An important part of the works at the Snook's Arm station was a laige 
inclined platform, or slip, upon which the whales were drawn up, one at a time, 
completely out of the watei', thus affording excellent oppoi-tunities for close 
inspection. 

I soon ascertained that all the whales taken at this station were of two kinds, 
a Finback and a Humpback. The Finback was much the more abundant at the 
time of my visit, in August, but I was informed by Capt. Bull that the Humpback 
arrived in large numbers later in the year. A Finback was already in the slip at 
the time of my arrival at the station, and I was not long in determining that I had 
to do with a species closely allied to, or identical with, Balanoptera physalas. As 
each individual was drawn up on the slip, I measured it, using a uniform schedule 
of measui'ements, and photographed it from one or moi'e points of view, and made 
as copious notes as circumstances would permit on its coloi- and other characters. 
As the whaling crew was eager to cut up the whales the moment they wei-e drawn 
out on the slip, observations had to be made with all celerity, especially as the men, 
by aid of a steam winch, stripped off the skin and blubber in an incredibly short 



112 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOKTH ATLANTIC. 



time, and when they had removed it and the whalebone, slid the carcass into the 
water again at once. In spite of these circumstances, I was able to make valuable 
observations on the external characters of the species and on individual variatiou. 
The skeletons, however, were not available for study. 

As the result of my observations of this Finback, I ascertained the following 
genei'al facts : 

(1) That the individuals captured varied considerably in size. 

(2) That both sexes were obtained, and that the females predominated. 

(3) That the females were in different stages and conditions as regards 
gestation. 

(4) That the color of the body was subject to considerable variation in diffei-- 
ent individuals. 

(5) That the coloration of the two sides of the body was asymmetrical, as in 
B. pliysalns. 

(6) That some individuals had a large amount of food in the stomach, while 
others had little, or none. 



SIZE. 



The total length and the sex of the several individuals examined are shown in 
the following table : 



BAL^NOPTERA PHYSALUS H..). SNOOK'S ARM, NEWFOUNDLAND. 



Capture Number. 



(l) 
(2) 

(3) 

(4) 
(S) 
(6) 
(7) 
(8) 

(9) 
(lo) 

(ii) 

(13) 
(14) 

(•5) 
(:6) 

(17) 
(18) 

(19) 
(20) 
{21) 
(22) 
(23) 
(24) 
(25) 



No. 



4- 
7- 
8. 

9- 
10. 
1 1. 
12. 
13- 
14- 

•5- 
16. 

17- 
18. 

19- 

20. 
22. 

23- 
24. 

25- 
26. 

27. 
28. 



Date of Capture. 



Alio. 



4 

5 
8 
8 
10 
10 
1 1 
1 1 
II 
12 
12 
15 
15 
15 
16 

17 
18 
18 
18 
21 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 



...5 

.... ? 

... 9 

... S 

.... ? 
.... ? 

.... i 
.... f, 
.... S 



Total 


Length 


55 ft 


2 in. 


63 " 


4 " 


63 " 


7 " 


61 " 


10 " 


50 " 


7 


57 " 


6 " 


59 '■ 


I 


53 " 


9 " 


70 " 


8 " 


54 " 


6 " 


61 " 


2 " 


67 - 


" 


62 " 


10 " 


(>?, " 


9 " 


65 " 


" 


62 " 


" 


62 " 


II " 


62 " 


8 " 


56 " 


I " 


66 " 


7 " 


62 " 


9 " 


59 " 


10 " 


59 " 


" 


65 " 


3 " 


54" 


" 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOUTII ATLANTIC. 



113 



The males and females in order of size wei'e as follows : 

BAL^NOPTERA PHYSATMS {L.). SNOOK'S ARM, NEWFOUNDLAiND. 





Males. 




Females. 


65 ft. in. 




59 fl. in. 


*7oft. 


8 in 






62 It. 9 in. 


62 " 10 " 




56 " . •■ 


*67 " 


" 






*62 • 


• 8 " 


61 '■ 2 " 




55 " 2 •' 


*66 " 


7 " 






62 ' 


" 


59 " 10 " 




54 " 6 " 


*65 " 


3 ■■ 






*6i • 


■ 10 " 


59 '• • " 




53 '■ 9 " 


*63 " 
*63 " 
*63 " 
*62 •• 


9 ■' 

7 " 

4 " 

1 1 " 






57 ' 
54 ' 
50 ' 


' 6 " 

" 

' 7 " 


Maximum. . 




6^ ft. in. 






70 ft. 

50 " 


8 


in. 




Minimum.. . . 




53 ■' 9 '■ 






7 






Average .... 


(10) 


5« " 7tV" 




(•5) 


62 '• 


3i 







Statistics of Norwegian J5. physahis, compiled from Cocks's observations, as 
already seen (p. 108), are as follows: 

BAL^NOPTERA PHYSALUS (L.). NORWAY. 



Males. 


Females. 


Maximum 




72 ft. I in, 
62 •' 7 " 


80 ft. 6 in. ("Bastard ") 

(105) 64 " a " 


Average 


(81) 



The Norwegian B. physalus appears, therefore, to be larger than the individuals 
taken at Snook's Arm. 

As I'egards the maxima, it should be obsei'ved that Cocks's figures are derived 
from a much larger number of individuals than mine, and the same is true as 
regards the averages. Cocks obtained the figui-es on which the averages are taken 
from the whalers and not from measurements made by himself. 

As regards minima, it should be kept in mind that the whalers at Snook's Arm 
avoided the smaller individuals since they were unprofitable for oil. There were 
undoubtedly many small, young whales in Notre Dame Bay at the time the larger 
ones above cited were obtained. They were distinguishable in the water and their 
spout was less dense and high than that of the adult. 

The females in the foregoing table marked thus (*) contained fcetuses, or were 
accompanied by young. Those of which I recorded the length of the fcetus were 
as follows : 

BAL.ENOPTEBA PHYSALUS (L.). SNOOK'S ARM, NEWFOUNDLAND. 



FCETUSES. 



Capture No. 


Date. 


Length of Adult. 


I ,-.wth 


of Foetus. 


Sex of Foetus. 


No. 2 


Aug. 5 


63 ft. 4 in. 


6 ft. 


5 in- 


6 


" 3 


8 


63 " 7 " 


12 " 


9 


9 


14 


" '5 


67 " " 


•5 


2 " 


S 


" 16 




63 " 9 


1 2 


8 " 


— 


" '9 


" 18 


62 " II 


6 " 


9 :: 


6 




" " 


62 '• 8 " 


II " 


4 


— 


" 27 


" 22 


65 " 3 '• 


6 " 


loi" 


$ 



114 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

Three foetuses found ou the days immediately preceding my arrival at the 
statiou wei'e as follows : 

Date. Levgih. Sex. 

Aug. 3 7 ft. II in. ? 

" " 9 " o " 3 

"4 6 " II " 3 

The smallest sexually-mature female taken at Snook's Aim in 1899, as 
indicated by the presence of a foitus, or of milk flowing from the mammae, was 
61 ft. 10 in. long, but as thej'e is an interval of 4 ft. 4 in. between this length and 
the length of the largest female without foetus (57 ft. 6 in.), it may be supposed that 
the real minimum of maturity is somewhat less than as above given. That this 
is quite surely ti'ue is indicated by the measurements of total length obtained by 
Cocks from the Norwegian whalers (i5, 9 sep.). Cocks cites 25 females as 
containing foetuses. These varied in length from 76 ft. 3 in. to 55 ft. 7 in.,' the latter, 
therefore, I'epreseuting the minimum. 

The next largest specimen containing a foetus was 57 ft. 8 in. long.' The mean 
length of the 25 specimens was between 67 ft. and 68 ft. and the average length 65 
ft. 11 in.3 

Revising the calculation of average length of females at Snook's Arm, by 
throwing out the two respectively 54 ft. and 50 ft. 7 in. long, as most certainly 
immature, we have 63 ft. 10 in. as the average for mature females. 

A second station of the Cabot Steam Whaling Company was established in 
the fall of 1899 on the south coast of Newfoundland in an arm of Hermitage Bay, 
recently named McCallum Bay. The statiou received the name of Balena. The 
records of this station, which were kindly placed at my disposal, show that 15 
Common Finbacks (all males but one) were taken there during the year 1900, and 
11 during the year 1901, to July 3d. Adding these 26 specimens to the 25 meas- 
ured at Snook's Arm in 1899, the average total length for the whole 51 sj^ecimens 
of both sexes is 59 ft. ly'„- in.* 

These various calculations are brought together on page 115 for comparison. 

' 74 to 54 feet, Norwegian. 
^ 56 feet, Norwegian. 

' The following are measurements of females stranded on the European coast, which according 
to the records contained foetuses: 

Date. Locality. Length. Authority. 

1878 Monte Rosso, Italy 22 m. Van Beneden 

1879 Groix Id., France 20.8 m. Pouchet 
1859 Port Vendres " 20 m. Van Beneden 
1863 Cape Creux, Spain 19.5 m. " " 

The smallest of these, 195- metres, or 63 ft. i iy\ in., is considerably larger than the Snook's Arm 
minimum. 

Out of 1 10 records of strandingson the coasts of Europe, which I have collected, the four cited 
above are the only ones in which the presence of a foetus is noted. 

* The average total length of the 14 males taken at Balena station in 1900 was 55 feet 7^^ in. 
The length of the single female was 59 feet. The sex of the specimens taken in 1901 was not 
recorded. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 
BAL^NOPTERA PHYSALUS O..). AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN. 



115 



Locality. 


Averageforall 
specimens of 
both sexes. 


Average 
for all 
females. 


Average 
for all 
males. 


Average for 
mature 
feni.iles.* 


Average for 
mature 
males.* 


Maximum 

for 
females." 


Maximum 

for 
males. 


Mini- 
mum for 
females 


Mini- 
mum for 
males. 




No. 


Length. No. 


Length. 


No. 


Length. 


No. 


Length. 


■No. 


Length. 


Length. 


Length. 


Length. 


Length. 


Newfotmdiand : 

Snook's Arm, iSgg. 
Balena, 1900. 
" igoi. 


25 
15 
II 


60' io|" 
55' io|" 
59' 7|" 


15 


62' 3i" 


10 

14 


58; 7A" 
55 7^ 


13 


63' 10" 


7 


6o' 5' 


70' 8" 


65' 0" 


so'?" 


53; 9" 






(ft^' *;PV ii»l-r./M.-«\ 


' ^4 - 

(48',sexunk*n) 
























All the foregoing New- 
foundland specimens. 


51 


59' It's" 


















70' 8" 


65' 0" 


50'/ 




















44 


Norway (Cocks). 


1S6 


63' 5i' 


105 


64' li" 


81 


62' 7" 


25 


65' 11" 


74 


66' 7' 


So' 6' 


72' 1° 


41 '2" 


43' 0" 


Europe generally 
(stranded, or captured 
on the coasts). 


53' 


57' 5 A" 


14' 


57' I Its" 


I7» 


62'6,V 


8 


66' 8i" 


14 


65' 9A" 


72' It\"^ 
(22 m.) 


Ss'iItV^ 
(2s. 6 m.) 













It appears from this table that both the maximum and the average total length 
of mature imlividuals of both sexes from Newfoundland waters are considerably less 
than for European specimens. The close approximation of the averages for mature 
individuals of both sexes, based on Cocks's observations at the Norwegian fisheries, 
with those for the various specimens stranded or captured at other points on the 
European coast is of much intei-est. Fui'ther, the table shows, as might be antici- 
pated, that averages which include many immature individuals are very unreliable. 
The reason why the avei'age for female European specimens of all ages is so much 
below that for the males is simply that the collected records on which the averages 
are based include many more immature females than males. 

PROPORTIONS. 

In comparing proportions it is desirable, in order to avoid misinterpi'etation, to 
select measurements which different observers are likely to take fi'om the same 
points and in the same manner. The following are among the best: Total length,^ 
tip of snout to eye, ditto to posterior margin of dorsal fin, breadth of flukes from 
tip to tip, notch of flukes to anus, dittn to navel. Such measurements as "length 
of base of dorsal fin " are of little value, as the fin rises from the back in a very 
gradual curve, and it is impossible to fix on any point of origin. Even the meas- 
urement of the length of the pectoral fin, though so important, is uncei-taiu. It 
may be taken from either the anterior or the posterior insertion (both points of in- 
definite location) or from the head of the humerus. The latter is alone satisfactory. 

In measuring a considerable number of whales it will be found impossible to 
follow any system rigorously or completely, as the different individuals cannot be 
turned about and handled at will, as in the case of small animals. In the follow- 
ing table a large variety of measurements is included, many of which are taken from 
but a single specimen. From this series will be selected such as are suitable for 
compai-ison with measurements of European specimens : 

' Specimens 55' 7" long and over. ' Everything below 41' S" thrown out to agree with other general averages. 

3 IVIonte Rosso, Italy, Oct., 1S78. ■i St. Cyprien, France, Nov. 27, 1S2S _ 

' A specimen stranded in 1879 at Soulac in an advanced state of decomposition, and varioiisly estimated as 27 m., 

24 m and 85 or 90 ft. long, is cited by Fischer (at. S. 0. Fyance. 18S1, p. 70) as belonging to this species. Also one at 

Dunquernue, 1863, 30 m. long, and the Ostend specimen, more than 30 m. long. 1 he latter is certainly B. viusculus, 

and Van Beneden is doubtless correct in including the others also under that species. bee p. 4. 



116 



rilE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



BALMNOPTERA PHYSALUS (L.). NEWFOUNDLAND. 





Snook's Arm, i8gg. 


Balena, 
1901. 


Measurement. 


- 4 




,00 

? 


s 


- d 
6 M 

50' 7" 


- d 
00 - 

6 ti 

s 


d,M 
d M 


0' M 

s 


9 


s 


z^ 
i 


^°2 


z< 
s 




Total length, tip of snout to notch 


55'2" 

in. 


63'4" 


63' 7" 


6i' 10" 


57'6' 


59' I" 


53'9" 


70' 8" 


54' 6" 


ill 2" 


62' 11" 


62'8" 


60' i[" 






Circumference opposite tip of pec- 
toral (laid back) 


in. 

■164 
138 


in. 

■^56 
140 

222 


in. 

163 
139 
240 


in. 

120 
107 


in. 
139 

204 


in. 

137 
122 
205 


in. 

133 
120 


in. 

169 

154 


in. 

304' 
128 
123 


in. 

352' 
I50i 
135 


in. 


in. 


in. 


149 


162 

148 


151 

134 


" " " " blowhole (center). 


123 


" " " *' ant. insertion of 
















Tip of snout to post, insertion of 












230 
509 

548 
204 


219 
456 

499 
197' 


285 
598 

642 

242 


219 

468 

504 
185' 


244 

526 

570 
204 


244 

221 

243 


260 

542 

576 
220 


244 


Tip of snout to ant base of dorsal 


484 


559 


588 
208 
233 


562 

593 
192 
219 


45S 
180 
200 


492 

535 
192 


Tip of snout to post, base of dorsal 
fin 


552 
209 






19S 
222 


" " orifice of vagina 




213 






269 






242 


230 


'* ' mammary slit. . 

" " " " center of orifice 




221 


















240 
312' 


382 


233' 
290' 


261 






















261 
331 








*' " *' " navel 












306 


319 


362 


354 




" *' " " post. ? insertion 




gSi 
23 


526 
540 

88 

20 

34 
II 


91J 

58^ 
20 


444 
450 

79i 

'isi 




Notch of flukes to head of humerus 


86 




















Length of pectoral, from tip to 
head of humerus 

Length of pectoral, from tip to 
post insertion 


S3 

56 
20 


59 
20 


72 

57 
20 


106 

72 
24 


80 

56 
20 


88 

60 
23 


92 

65 
24 


96 

66 
23 


89 

53 
21 


Greatest breadth of pectoral 

Head of humerus to post, insertion 
of pectoral 


32? 


Head of humerus to ant. insertion 
of pectoral 




























Height of dorsal (vertical) 




20 

45 

49 
29 

37 


20 


16 

33 


19 

38 


14 




21 




i8i 


24 


16 


16 


Length ot dorsal (longitudinal). . . 

Antero-post. breadth of flukes, from 

ant. insertion to post, margin.. . 

Depth of caudal peduncle at inser- 
































34 
41 


















Center of eye to center of auditory 
orifice 




36 


36^ 
19 

2 

8i 


32 


39 


30 


40 


35 


37i 


36 


36 


36 


Length of blowholes 




Distance apart of blowholes an- 
teriorly 




























Dibtance apart of blowholes pos- 
teriorly 
































4 


4 

20 
123 






















Anterior margin of anus to tip oi 
clitoris 






















































Length of mammary slit 




'4 




7i 








II 






io| 






Distance between mammce 










Length of white portion of row of 


49 
20 


82 

20 
16 


66 

23i 




















Length of longest plates of whale- 
bone (without bristles) 


22 










24 


I7i 






21^ 


16 


Lower jaw extends beyond upper 
iaw 












Tip of lower jaw to ant. end- of 
most anterior furrow 


16 


























Breadth of flukes 




154 


156 


140 


156 




144 


1S2 


132 


182 


186 


168 




Depth of caudal peduncle midway 






64 








' 























' Twice one half. 



Following curve of caudal peduncle. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERK NORTH ATLANTIC. 



117 



The following tal)le consists (1) of raeasnrements selected from the foregoing 
American sei'ies and reduced to percentages of the total length, and (2) similar 
measurements from European records, also reduced to percentages : 

BAL^NOPTERA PHY8ALUS CL.). NEWFOUNDLAND AND MASSACHUSETTS. 



Sex 

Age 

Total length 

Tip of snout to eye .... 
" '' "* to blowhole 

(center) 

Tip of snout to pectoral. 
" " " to back of 

dorsal 

Tip of lower jaw to navel 
Length of pectoral from 

head of humerus. . . 
Breadth of pectoral. . 

Height of dorsal 

Breadth of flukes, tip to 

tip 



70' 8" 



Snook's Arm, 1899. 



ad. 



9 
ad, 

&3'7" 



i 
20.0 



75-7 

12.5 
2.8 
2-5 

21-5 



No. 
3 



63' o" 



% 
20.4 



18.4 



77-0 



11-5 
2.6 
2.3 

20.2 



ad. 



21.6 
1S.2 



12. g 

3-0 
2.6 



No. 
19 



S 
ad. 



62' 11" 



62' 8" 



ig.7 



32.3 



52.1 = 

12.2 
3-2 

3-2 

24,6 



No. 



S 
ad. 



21.5 

ig.7 
34-5' 

76.6 
52.0' 

12.8 

3-1 
2. 1 

22.3 



No. 
4 



S 
ad. 



61' 10' 



% 
21. g 

18.7 



79S 



12.3 
2.7 
2.7 

21.0 



61' 2" 



No. 
13 



59 I 



% 
20.5 

1S.4 
33.2' 

77.6 
56.5' 

II. 9 

3-1 

2.5 

24.8 



No. 
9 



S 
57'6" 



i 
ig.3 

17.2 
32.4' 

77-3 
53-3' 



2.8 
2.0 



No. 



No. 



55 2 



77.5 
55-8'^ 

12.0 
30 

2.4 

22.6 



54' 6' 



18.6 



12. g 

4.8? 



No. 



53 9 



% 
19.6 

18.8 
33-5' 

77-1 
55.6-' 

12.2 
31 



No. 



i 
20.7 

18.6 

33-g' 

77-3 
5I.5- 

II. 2 
3-1 



No. 
7 



50 7 



i 
ig.8 

17.6 
75-5 



22.3 



13.1 
3.0 
2.6 

23.0 



Balena 

Station, 
1901. 
No. 16 



9 
ad. 



20.7 

18.3 
33-4 

75-5 



Gloucester, 
Mass. 
Dwight, 

.872. 



12.2 
2.9 



4- o 

% 
20.1 



33-8 



[56 



II. 8 
2.8 
2.4 



BAL^NOPTERA PHYSALVS (L.). EUROPE. 





hi) 

C 

w 
OS 

s| 


t=oo 

ll 


c 


C 

6 ^ 

- 

rt rt 


rt 

I 



^ Sg 

« f " 
£5;: 


H 


•0 

c 

u 

C 3 

M 


W .A 

M 


B 

•5 00 


T3^ 

It 

S =' 

J20 

33 £. 




i ad. 


& ad. 


i ad. 


2 


i ad. 


i ad. 


i ad. 


i ad. 


.5 


4 






/^t"! Total lencth 


65' 3" 


65' or 66' 


64' 0" 


64' 0" 


63' 4°' 


61' 8" 


60' 6" 


60' 0" 


59' 6"' 


57' 6" 








[23.0] 


% 


20.0 
33.6' 
19-5 


% 


% 
20.0 
15.6 


20.2* 
17.0 


i 


* 
193 


% 

20.2 
17.2* 
33.3' 
76.5 


i( 


(3) " " " " " blowhole 




32.2 
77.6 

[60:7] 
II. 5' 


'l^■^' 







.... 


(5) " " " *' " hind margin dorsal 

(6) Tip of lower jaw to corner of mouth. . . 




73.8 








[76.0J 
























12.0' 
2.5 
2.0 

21.9 

7-8 




lo.o' 

3-4 
30 

is.'s 
10.3 




II. 8« 


II. 8' 


9.0' 

2.6 

2.1 

18.5 


12.5 ' 




3-4 












2.1 
18.5 


2.3 




20.0 + 


23.1 + 




1S.2 


20.6 






(12) Height ot body at pectoral 

(13) '* " " midway between flukes 


7.0 

























' To posterior insertion of pectoral, or axilla. 

' From upper jaw, by subtracting flukes to navel from total length. 

■' All measurements from Sars's figure of 1881, which is excellent. 

' To center of blowhole = 18. i %. 

* Bones, from head of humerus. 



^ Straight. ' To border of flukes, straight. 
' From head of humerus. 



118 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



BALJENOPTEEA PHYSALUS (L.)- EUROPE.— (ConfmnctJ.) 





>, 








-a 


^ 


































>. 




1L> 








■2'S 


tSco 

o . 

i-s 

2^ 


11 
£3 


c 

n 

'CO 

H 3 


1 

It 


•a-g 


"be-- 

1.1 

is 


>> 

rt 

s 



z 

J- rt 


I 



«f 
5<5 


5! 

C 

pi's 

if 


n ^ 
a " 


V 


OS 




$ 


? 


3 


2 


^ 


4 


s 


2 jr. 


i jr. 


i jr. 


i jr. 


2 


9 


(l) 


57' o"' 


50' 0" 


49' 10" 


46' 6J" 


46' 0" 


45' 6" 


44' 0" 


43' S" 


42' 4" 


42' 0"* 


41' 8" 


38' 5" 


36' o"' 








^ 


% 


i 


% 


% 


% 


« 


% 


% 


% 


i 


% 


% 


(2) 


iS.o 


18.S 


19. 1 


iS-3 


I1S.5J 


17.9 




18.6 


18.9 




15.4' 


15.1" 


18-5 


(•3) 


i6.6» 


15-7 

28.7 
[72.0I 


16.0 
29.4* 
74-3' 


15. 8 

25.1' 

74.1 


14-5 

r29-4 

[So.o 


32.9 


.... 

24-5* 

r7s.oi 


14.7 
28.8 

72.9 


15.2 
28.9 
75-2 


II. I 
[77.71 


II.3* 
[25.0] 

74.0 


11.6 

[29.7] 

73-3 


14-3 


(a) 


29.1 


(5) 


r7s.1l 


(6) 




22.5 


20.5 




20.6 






20.3 


21.7 




,15-9.' 


19.9' 


lg.6 


(7) 




49.0 






53-3 




.... 


50.0 


52.3 




52.8 


.... 


54.6 


(8) 


II. 3 


I2.5'» 


11.9"' 


8.9" 


10.8 


12.2 


12.8 


10.5 


lO.I 


10.3 


[10.7 


6.8" 


lO.O 


(g) 




3-2 


2.7 


2.^ 


3.3 


2.2 


3-4 


2.8 


2.9 




2.7 


2.5 


2.6 


(lo) 


20.0 


3.5 
20.5 


2.3 
20.5 


2.7 

2';.8 


2.4 
20.7 


20.9 


2.3 
20.5 


2.2 
21. 1 


2.6 
20.9 


1.4 
19.8 


2.5 


2.4 
21.7 


2.0 


(II) 


1S.4 


(12) 


















I4.S 


16.6" 


15-4 


iS.o] 




(13) 




7.7? 













7-5 


8.6 




7.6" 


["•']'■ 





Leaving out of cousideratioii all imiuature specimens, or those below 56' 3", 
the following represent the average percentages for different dimensions in American 
and European specimens respectively : 

BAL^SOPTERA PHYSALUS (L.). AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN. 



Measurement. 



Tip of snout to eye 

" " blowholes (center) 

" " posterior root of pectoral, or axilla 
" " to posterior margin of dorsal 

Length of pectoral from head of humerus 

Breadth of pectoral 

Height of dorsal (vertical). . 

Breadth of flukes, tip to tip 



Per Cent, of Total Length. 



American. 


European. 


(10) 20.6 


(7) 


20.1 


(8) 18.4 


(2) 


18.1 


(5 33-2 
(8) 77.1" 


(3) 


33-4 


(4) 


76.0 


(9) 12-2 


(,S) 


12.5 


(10) 2.9 


(4) 


2.9 


(10) 2.4 


(S) 


2-3 


(7) 22.4 


(8) 


20. r'^ 



' Straight. - French measure. " To center of blowhole = i8.l!f. 

* The head measurements appear to have been taken from the plate, in which the head is too small. 

^ I suspect that measurements are from the plate {.Veil. Ncderl. J'fr/iatid!., i cl., 3, 1831, pi. i). The eye is 
obviously too far forward. ' To axilla = 33.5 %. ' From figure. * From tip of lower jaw. 

' To middle of fin. '" From head of humerus. " Probably from the plate. The pectoral is too small. 

" Back of pectorals. " At | the distance from back of dorsal to notch of flukes. 

"The anterior insertion of the dorsal (in in a foetus from Newfoundland (No. 14, 1901) is exactly opposite the 
posterior end of the centrum of the first caudal vertebra. 

'° More or less uncertain, as the measurements in two or three cases are not given with exactness. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



119 



The foregoing percentages indicate a remarkable confoi-niity between the 
American and European specimens in pi'oportions, and such as to be alone almost 
sufficient to settle once and for all the question of specific identity of this form of 
whale in the east and west Atlantic. The measurement of the flukes, however, 
shows a vai'iation of 2 per cent. The importance of this is doubtful, as the measure- 
ments given by several European observers are not exact. Furthermore, tlie 
American measurements were not made by myself in more than two or three in- 
stances, but by an officer on the whaling steamer, as the flukes were genei-ally cut 
off before the whales were towed into the station. 



COLOR. 



The descriptions of the color of B.phyHcdus given by European authoi's vary 
SO much among themselves that one might suppose that there was a most extraor- 
dinary individual variation in this species, as well as a subspecific variation. It 
is true that there is a considerable individual variation in color in all species of 
whales, and no doubt B. pliysalus exhibits this peculiarity, but the differences 
which have been cited by authoi's are largely illusive. The species in question is 
sometimes said to be black above, at other times gray, or even brown, as shown in 
the following table : 



BALMNOPTERA PHYSALUS (L.)- EUROPEAN. COLOR. 



Author. 


Date. 


Color. 


Remarks. 


Balfour 


1857"? 
1891 
1884 
1884 

1886 
1885 


Deep grayish-slate above ; white below 

All back gray-bluish ; all belly white 

Upper parts blackish-slate ; under parts white 

Gray-blue, or grayish slate-color on the back ; wliole 
underside white 




Van Beneden. . 

Crouch 

Cocks 


Found dead. Given 
at second hand. 

Seen two days after 
killed. 


Guldberg 

Cocks 

Delage 

Sars 


Above blackish, or else gray-black ; underneath 
white, with a grayish band passing over it 

Black above ; white below 

Black above ; white below 

Rather light gray-brownish, passing over into sepia- 
color 

Black on the back ; white on the belly 


" Now and then one 
meets with yellow- 
ish tinges." 

Dead. " Bastard." 

Dead. 




1884 




Struthers 


Nairn, Scotland. 



It is my opinion that B. physalm is never black when alive. The fact is well 
known, and is commented upon by some of the authors above cited, that whales 
rapidly turn dark after death, and that descriptions of the color of stranded speci- 
mens are, therefore, unreliable. In the Finback whales the epidermis consists of 
several layers, of which the sui)erficial one is the thickest. When one of these 
animals is killed and hauled out of the water, the superficial layer at once begins to 
grow darker, especially if the sun is shining. If a portion of this layer is peeled 
off, the lighter color of life is found again on the layer below, but in the course of 



120 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

fifteen minutes tills again becomes conspicuously darker tban the surrounding parts 
which are still protected by the superficial layer, as may be seen in a sti'iking 
manner by peeling off an additional piece of the upper layer, or removing a part of 
the second layer so as to expose the third. 

This deepening of tlie color goes on gradually in B. j^^iysalus, and other gray 
species, until the whole of the pigmented areas are black, and the rejected fragments 
of blubber from the dorsal region with the skin attached, which are fou?id around 
a whaling station, ai'e always of this coloi'. 

It is obvious that any specimen of JB. physalus which has been stranded and 
has lain in the sun for several days before coming to the attention of a naturalist 
will be described by him as black above. Specimens which liave fioated dead on 
the waves, with the back down, for some days, but are observed as soon as brought 
to land, are moi'e likely to have retained a semblance of their natural color. Such 
a specimen was described in his usual accurate manner by Sars in 1866 {77, 15-16, 
Sep.). With due allowance for the deepening of the tints, this is one of the best 
descriptions of the coloration of European B . physalus. The following is a transla- 
tion from the Norwegian original : 

" The color above in the median line is dai'k slate, or almost black, but passes on 
the sides of the body into a veiy light Isabelliue gray, which grades almost imper- 
ceptibly into the white of the belly. On the back part of the body (tail) the dark 
color reaches so deep down on the sides that thei'e remains in the middle (below) 
a very small white stripe. Directly under the doi'sal fin this stripe is smaller and 
is limited hei'e on both sides by a small, pointed, dark projection, which reaches 
forward to the anus, where it almost touches the corresponding one of the other 
side. The white color occupies the whole ventral surface on the most anterior 
part of the body, and stretches up to the pectorals, back of whose root, however, 
the dark color of the back sends down a small oval prolongation. Between the 
root of the pectoral and the corner of the mouth on each side a whitish (not pure 
white) mark shows itself, which sends out a number of small stri[)es, of which the 
most conspicuous are one passing forward in the direction of the eye, and another 
backward in the direction of the dorsal fin. 

"The pectorals are white on the inner surface, but with the ti[) and along the 
upper border somewhat dark streaked ; on the outer surface they are dark, but 
here also the white color is seen along the lower border, forming here a small pui'e 
white border, which widens out forwards [proximally] not so veiy insignificantly, 
until it is suddenly interrupted by a dark tongue-shaped mark passing over the lOot 
of the pectoral. The dorsal fin retains the dark color of the back throughout. The 
flukes are rather dai'k color on the upper surface, but on the under surface white, 
surrounded along the edges by a narrow dark border. Of the pectoi'al furi-ows, 
the upper are blue-black within, but the lower, pale flesh-color. The above- 
desciibed coloration is entirely alike on both sides of the body. 

"The most anteiior part of the head, or the facial part, however, is very notice- 
ably unequally colored on the two sides. On the left side, the upper jaw, as well 
as the whole of the upper part of the lower jaw, is dark, but on the right side, not 
alone the under jaw but the most anterior part of the upper jaw along the border 
is pure white ; but at the root of the lower jaw is an indistinctly defined grayish 
ahade. The dissimilarity in color reaches also to the whalebone. On the left side 



THE WHALEBOKE WHALES OF THE -WTESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 121 

it is all dark (blue-black), but on the right side, as Schlegel has stated, the foremost 
is of a light yellow-white color. 

"The bristle-like fibres, into which the whalebone resolves itself on the inner 
side, are uniform yellow-wliite on l)oth sides [of the mouth]." 

All these peculiarities of color were observed in specimens taken at Snook's 
Arm, Newfoundland, in 1899, namely (pis. 8 to 11), the narrow inferior white 
caudal maigiu, the antero-infei'iorly-directed, narrow, dark mark reaching forward 
to the anus, the areas of dark color below the root of the pectoral, the white mark 
anterior to the root of the pectoral, with its streaks directed forward and back- 
ward, the dark-streaked white anterior border of tlie pectoral, the white light 
lower and uppei- jaws, and whitish anterior right whalebone. In no two indivi<Iu- 
als, however, were the amount and disposition of the dark color precisely the same, 
while the want of uniformity of color on the two sides of the body was always 
conspicuous. As in land animals, there were veiy pale individuals and very dark 
individuals, and others which re[)i'esented neither extreme. In some the inferior 
caudal margin was entirely dark forward to the anus, and very large dark areas 
invaded the white of the belly, while the inferior surface and anterior white 
margin of the pectorals were streaked with dark color, and all light markings were 
restricted and obscured. In other specimens the white infei'ior caudal margin was 
broad and the postanal dark mai-ks indistinct; the dark color hardly passed below 
the level of the pectorals, leaving practically the whole belly white, and the white 
markings about the base of the pectorals were large and distinct. 

In the midst of these variations, however, the presence of a dark left lower 
lip (pi. 11, figs. 3 and 4), white right lower lip, and white anterior right whale- 
bone remained constant, and the right side of the body never carried so much 
dai-k color as the left. This peculiar asymmetry of color, or " pleuronectism," 
was first pointed out by Sars in 1878. Guldberg has more recently asserted that 
it is not exclusively confined to one side, or, in other words, that an individual 
miiiht be lio-ht on the left side and dark on the right side. My own observations 
on American specimens do not bear out this statement. The right side in these 
was always lighter than the left side, and I am disposed to think that this is a 
constant character of the species. (See pi. 9, fig. 3; pi. 10, figs. 1 and 3; pi. 12, 
figs. 1 and 2.) 

VARIATION IN COLOR OF BODY. 

The individual variation in the amount and disposition of the white and gray 
colors of the body has already been referred to. It may be of interest to enumerate 
the differences in some of the Newfoundland Finbacks, from notes made on fresh 
specimens. 

In ten specimens the variations were as follows : 

No. 2. Female. Length, 64 ft. 8 in. General color dark. Below the left 
pectoral 35 furi-ows in the direction of the median line are dark colored. The 
remaining median furrows are white, with a flesh-colored tinting. Left mandible 
and upper jaw dark gray. The former whitish internally. Beginning at the 



122 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

symphysis, the boundary of the dark gray of the left mandible runs obliquely to 
the left and goes into tlie foui'th left furrow, leaving the first three left ridges white. 
Below the center of length of left raandilile, we first find blackish, or dark gray, 
ridges, and furi'ows of the same color, then ridges mottled gi'ay and white, gradually 
changing toward the median line to all white ; then the dark gray of the furrows 
breaks up into detached blotches; finally both ridges and furrows are white. 
Opposite the auus the inferior boi'der of the gray of the sides is 16^ in. above the 
inferior median line of the body. A little behind the anus the gray comes forward 
and downward in a line. (See pi. 9, fig. 4.) 

On the left breast the gray of the sides extends down in broad arms or prolonga- 
tions. Opposite the middle of the left pectoral, when laid back, the gray extends 
down so far as to leave only four white ridges above the median line. 

The right mandible is all white externally, except that the superior maigin is 
streaked transversely with gray, ^vhich is continuous with the dark color of the 
interior. This dark color runs out at the coi'ner of the mouth and passes back 
below the eye toward the inferior insertion of the pectoral. From the ear to the 
head of the humerus is an ai'ea of gi-ay lighter than the surrounding color. Under 
the right pectoral the upper twenty furrows are dark entirely or partly ; they are 
all dark at their anterioi' ends. 

No. 3. Female. Length, 63ft. 7 in. General coloi- dark. Left mandible dai'k 
gray externally, right mandible white. Under the left pectoral the gray comes down 
over 27 abdominal ridges. The median ridge is streaked with gray about midway 
between the navel and the line of the extremity of the pectoral, as are also four or 
five ridges above it on the left side. All furrows at this point from the median line 
upward are entirely gray, or gray and white blotched. On the flanks the gray 
comes down to within 27 in. of the navel, to within 18 in. of the vagina, and to 
within 13 in. of the anus. Ou the caudal peduncle the gray comes downward and 
forwai'd in a line toward the anus, and. there is also a feather-like inferior median 
gray band extending backward from the anus. This is followed by gray streaks, 
so that there is no unmarked white on the inferior median line of the peduncle. 
The sides and anterior end of the sexual oi'ifice and the inside of the mammary slit 
are also gray. 

No. 4. Female. Length, 6 1 ft. 10 in. General color light. Eighteen furrows 
below the root of the pectoial are gray. Opposite the extremity of the pectoral, 
when laid back, the furrows are all dark, except the three nearest the median line. 
The white of the exterior of the right mandible occupies also the superior margin 
in the anterior half, and is continued backward as a nai'row light-gray line, which 
broadens out to a foot in width in front of the eye, and passes over and under it. 

Underneath the eye and at the corner of the mouth the color is very light. 
The inferior border of the gray of the sides is 18 in. above the anus and is without 
linear prolongations. The iufei'ior sui'face of the caudal peduncle is, therefoi'e, all 
white nearly to the flukes, where it is slightly streaked with gray. The anterior 
boundary of the dark color of the outside of the left mandible runs into the fourth left 
furrow. (See pi. 9, fig. 2.) 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 123 

No. 7. Female. Length, 50 ft. 7 in. General color dark. Tii) of upper jaw 
white iufei-iorly, with a dark median line. Right mandible entirely white. Left 
mandible dark gray, the anterior boundary of which runs into the fourth left furrow. 
Gray comes down on the I'idges under the left pectoral to within twelve ridges of 
the median line. Opposite the navel its inferior border is 32^ in. above the same ; 
opposite the anus it is 16 in. above the same. Inferior margin of caudal peduncle 
all white, with only a trace of the post-anal gray niai'k. (See pi. 8 fig. 1 • [)1 9 
fig. 1; pi. 11, fig. 4.) 

No. 8. Female. Length, 57 ft. 6 in. General color very dark. Below the 
left pectoi'al the gray runs across the breast to the third lidge above the median 
line. On the right side the gray runs across only a few ridges below the i-oot of 
the right pectoral, and below the exti'emity of the pectoral, when laid back, only four- 
teen ridges. The right breast, throat, and belly, therefore, are nearly all white. Left 
mandible very dark gray, as is the back. On the sides the gray comes down 
within 14 in. of the anus. A distinct inferior post-anal gray mark on the caudal 
peduncle, and the gray comes down so low that at the insertion of the flukes white 
is almost shut out out from its inferior edge. 

No. 9. Male. Length, 59 ft. 1 in. General color dark. The gray color 
under the pectoral on the left side comes down to within one lidge above the 
median line. Behind this the white of the belly I'uns up antero-snpeiioi'ly to the 
axilla. Then the gray comes down again to within eight I'idges of the median line. 
Opposite the anus the gray of the sides comes down to a line 15 in. above the 
median line. Post-anal gray mark distinct. (See pi. 8, fig. 3 ; pi. 10, figs. 2 and 5.) 

No. 10. Male. Length, 53 ft. 9 in. A very light individual, especially on the 
right side. On that side there is no gray on the ridges in front of the pectoral. 

The post-pectoral gray area comes down only to within seventeen ridges above 
the median line. The post-anal gray mark is distinct. 

No. 11. Female. Length, 70 ft. 8 in. General color dark. The gray of 
the left side comes down across the median line at a point about midway between 
the line of the navel and the tip of the pectoral, when laid back, and runs up on the 
right side on seven ridges, there meeting the dark furrows, and thus causing 
the appearance of a continuous dark band across the belly. Twenty-three furrows 
downward from the root of the right pectoi-al are gray. All the central part of 
the throat and breast from the mandible backward for 31 feet is white, botli ridges 
and furrows. White of the inferior mai-gin of the caudal peduncle veiy much 
restricted and clouded with gray streaks. Above the anus the gray of the sides 
comes down to within 17 inches. Post-anal gray mark very distinct. 

No. 12. Male. Length, 54 ft. 6 in. General color very light. No gi-ay on 
the right side of the belly. On the left side it comes down only to within sixteen 
ridges from the median line. The anterior boundary of the gray of the left mandible 
joins the seventh left furrow. The inferior boundary of the gray of the sides is 16 in. 
above the anus. The post-anal gray mark is very distinct and has a white line 
dividing it into two inferiorly. (See pi. 11, fig. 1.) 

No. 13. Male. Length, 61ft. 2 in. General color very dark. The gray of 



124 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

the left side crosses the median Hue and runs up on nine ridges on the right side. A 
feather-like gi'ay line fills up all of the inferior margin of the caudal peduncle from 
the anus to the flukes, leaving no pure white. The post-anal gray mark runs 
forward and downward on each side close to the median feather-like line, and 
almost reaches to the anus. (See pi. 8, fig. 4; pi. 11, fig. 2.) 

MARKINGS ABOUT THE EYE, AURICULAR ORIFICE, AND ROOT OF PECTORAL FIN. 

In B. pTiymhis, while the upper surfaces of the body are practically all of a 
uniform gray coloi-, the region between the eye and the pectoral fin is varied by 
markings of diifei'eut shades of gray, which are very conspicuous in some indi- 
viduals. These markings ai'e represented in a rather indifferent manner in Sars's 
figure of his Lofoten Ids. specimen (77 ; pi. 1, figs. 1 and 2; pi. 2, fig. 1), and are 
mentioned by him as follows : " Between the root of the pectoral fin and the corner 
of the mouth, on each side above, a whitish (not pure white) mark shows itself, 
which sends out above a number of small stripes, of which the most conspicuous 
are one passing forward in the direction of the eye, and another backward in the 
direction of the dorsal fin " (77, 15, Sep.). 

In the Newfoundland Finbacks (pi. 11, fig. 1) the most constant and notice- 
able marking of the region above mentioned is a whitish line which starts at the 
auricular orifice on the right side, curves strongly upward, then downward, and 
terminates at or above the anterior insertion of the pectoral fin. On the left side 
another light line usually starts at the eye, and may run under or through rather 
than over the ear, and terminate at the insertion of the pectoral. This line is 
usually much lighter than the surrounding surfaces, and is often bordered with 
dark gray. This light line in some cases broadens out at the posterior end and 
merges into a large white area of irregular shape and imperfectly defined borders 
above the root of the pectoral. This is the area mentioned by Sars. Besides 
these markings, in some individuals a distinct gray band, darker than the sur- 
rounding surfaces, and about as wide as the eye, starts just above that organ, and 
running obliquely upward and backward broadens out into a large ill-defined dark 
gi'ay area on the shoulder. This dark area is itself invaded by a large, V-shaped, 
double, Avhite marking, pixxlucing a very complicated succession of tints in this 
region. The white or whitish mark above the root of the pectoral sometimes 
extends backward and involves the basal poi'tion of the fin itself, and may be sepa- 
rated off from the color of the distal part of the pectoral by a very dai'k line. 
(See pi. 10, fig. 3.) 

These various markings are more distinct on the right side than the left, and 
a[)pear in different combinations, but the light line may almost invariably be 
detected, and is quite distinct in fcetal specimens. In a fi-eshly-obtained foetus, 
12 ft. 9 in. long, the back was of a beautiful cerulean blue, and a very light line 
began at the anterior corner of the eye and passed back over the eye (becoming 
there almost white) and thence backward Just above the auricular orifice. Then it 
curved upward and backward over the I'oot of the pectoral and was lost in the 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



125 



general color of the surroundiag parts. A light line began at the ear and curving 
in a semicircle was lost in the region above the root of the pectoral. 

In adults the side and top of the head below and in front of the dark oblique 
eye-line is usually lighter than the back. 

There is commonly a light gray, or whitish, mark under the eye, especially on 
the right side, and sometimes a similar mark around the risrht ear. 

HAIRS. 

In the Newfoundland Finbacks, at the tip of the mandible and following the 
line of the symphysis on each side, are two rows of thick but soft whitish bristle-like 
hairs, about ^ in. long. Thei-e are about fifteen haii's in each row. In a male fcetus 
6 ft. 5 in. long thei-e were nine hairs on the right side of the lower jaw, in a row 
running oblicpiely downward and backwaixl and terminating above the tenth right 
furrow. On the right upper jaw were twelve hairs, beginning about six inches from 
the top of the jaw and iri'egularly disposed. Around tlie root of each haii- was a 
light-colored ring. 

DORSAL ITN. 

The dorsal fin in the Newfoundland Finbacks showed a considei'able variation 
in size, as in European specimens. The following are the actual vertical heights 
in various Newfoundland specimens : 





BAL^NOPTERA PHYSALVS (L.)- SNOOK'S AEM, 


NEWFOUNDL.WD. DORSAL FIN. 


No. 


Sex. 


Length of Whale. 


Vertical Height of Dorsal. 


1 1 

2 

3 
'9 

20 

4 

13 

9 

8 

7 


9 
? 
? 
? 

9 
9 

6 

9 
9 


ft. in. 

■JO 8 


21 in 


64 


20 " 


6? 7 


,7.: " 




24 


62 S 


16 " 


61 11 


20 " 


61 2 


18.5 " 


CQ I 


.4 •' 


C7 6 


19 " 


CO 7 


16 " 







The doi-sal fin in these Finbacks is subject to a considerable variation in form, 
being normally falcate, but with tlie tip sometimes longer and moi-e acute, and 
sometimes shorter and more rounded; the posterior margin in some individuals 
moderately concave, in others strongly concave. (See text figs. 1-7 and pi. 11, fig. 
5.) The variation is, however, less marked and stiiking than is found in the 
Sulphurbottoms. The normal shape of tlie dorsal in European specimens of B. 
physalus is well shown in Sars's figure of his Lofoten Ids. specimen (77, pi. 2, fig. 
5). In color the dorsal fin agrees with the dark gray of the adjacent part of the 
back. In one instance (No. 2, Snook's Arm) there was an irregular, pure-white 
blotch close to the tip of the fin, on the right side. 



126 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 





Fig. I. 



Fig. 5. 





Fig. 3. 




Fig. 2. 



Fig. 6. 





Fig. 4. Fig- ^■ 

DORSAL FIN OF BAL^NOPTERA PHYSALVtS (L.). AMERIC.4.N AND EUROPEAN. 

Fig. I.— Snook's Arm, Newfoundland. Ad. S . No. 24. Fig. 2.— Snook's Arm, Newfoundland. Ad. 
?. No. 25. Fig. 3. — Snook's Arm, Newfoundland. Ad. 2 . No. 23. Fig. 4.— Gloucester, Mass., Im. S. 
(Fko.m DwiGHT.) Fig. 5.— Finmark, Norway. Ad. (From Malm.) Fig. 6.— Borselaer, Netherlands. Ad. 
i. (From Van Beneden.) Fig. 7— Lofoten Ids., Norway. Jr.,! (From Sars.) 

PECTORAL FIN. 

The shape of the i)ect()i'al fin in the European B. lyliyaaluH, accoi-ding to Sars 
is "narrowly lanceolate, with the posterior angle often but little distinct." This is 
true of the Newfoundland Finbacks. Tlie anterior border is much straighter than 
in the Sulphurbottoms, and the distal half of the posterior margin, which is quite 
strono-ly concave in the latter, is straight in the Finback. These straight contours 
and the small size give the pectoral of the Finback a tiiangular appearance, quite 
different from that of the Sulphurbottom, as will be seen by comparing pi. 11, 
fifi'S. 1, 2, and 4, and |)1. 21. The shape of the pectoral of B. physalus is not 
as well shown in Sars's figure {79, pi. 2) as in Delage's photographs {33). In the 
former the anterior margin is too much curved, especially in the proximal half, and 
the posterior margin is too convex near the axilla. Much better are Sars's litho- 
graphic figures of his Lofoten Ids. specimen {77, pi. 2, figs. 3 and 4), in which the 
triangular shape of the pectorals is admirably portrayed, though perhaps a little 
exaggerated. 

There is some variation in tlie relative length and width of the pectoral, as 
will be seen by consulting the table on p. 117, but it is not sufficient in any case to 
destroy the characteristic shape of the fin. 

In some Newfoundland specimens the contours are much more regular than 
in others, and in No. 17 there was a deep emargination at the tip anteriorly, due 
possibly to injury. In No. 3 the tip of the left pectoral was blunt and ii-regular, 
due to injuries. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE AVESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 127 

The color of the pectorals is normally gray on the external sui-face, like the 
back, and white on the internal surface and anterior border. 

In some Newfoundland specimens the dai'k-gray external sui'face was more 
or less marked with lighter gray, and the light-gray area at the root of the pec- 
toral, already described (see p. 121), sometimes invades the pectoral, so that the 
pi'oximal \ of tlie external surface may be abrui)tly and conspicuously lighter 
than the remainder. The light area may be defined posteriorly by a dark gray 
line i-unning acrt)ss the pectoral to the axilla and thence to the back. 

The antei'ior thick margin is always white, but this color in some instances 
extends much farther upon the external surface of the fin tlian in othei's, especially 
at the tip. The margin itself is usually moi'e or less streaked with gi'ay, and in 
some instances is entirely gi'ay for some distance from the root of the fin, or there 
may be a gray patch near the middle of the border. 

The internal surface of the fin is sometimes entirely white, or with but a narrow 
posterior border of gray, but in most cases the posterioi- two thirds shade more or 
less into gray, especially towai'd the tip. The tip underneath is commonly marked 
with gray lines, either parallel or leticulated. In the majority of cases there are 
one or two long giay lines running backwaid from the tip parallel with the long 
axis of the fin, and corresponding in position with the intervals between the digits. 
These lines are of so fi'equent occurrence as to be chaivacteristic of the species. 



FLUKES 

The flukes in the Newfoundland Finbacks (pi. 12, figs. 7-8) were long and 
slender, with acuminate and strongly recurved tips. The anterior border is convex, 
the posterior slightly convex near the median line, then nearly stiaight, and finally 
strongly concave at the ti[)s. The median notch was shallow and more or less 
open in different individuals. 

The flukes are gray on the superior surface, like the back. On the inferior 
suiface they are all white, excei)t on the margins. The posterior margin is gi'ay 
throughout; this color, howevei', having a wider extension distally than proximally. 
The anterior margin is gray distally, but the white usually invades this margin 
proximally. The tip is gray. Near the median line the [tostei'ior gray border is 
about 7 in. wide and the anterior 2 in. or less. The gray borders fade out into 
streaks which run transversely, or as if radiating from the end of the spine, and 
this ai'rangement doubtless gave rise to the erroneous fish-like tail, with rays, seen 
in some eai-ly figures. The transverse streaks on the anterior mai'gin are crossed 
by others running fore and aft, especially near the root of the flukes. (See also 
pi. 12, fig. 5.) 

WHALEBONE. 

One of the piincipal characters of B.phjsalvs, which \vas early recognized, 
is the party-colored whalebone. Later it was discovered by Sars and othei-s tliat 
the whalebone of the anterior end of the sei'ies of the right side is always white. 



128 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN" NORTH ATLANTIC. 



Some individuals, however, have a few white plates on the left side, in addition to 
the large sei'ies on the right side. 

In a whale 55 ft. 2 in. long (No. 1), the length of the white portion of the right 
whalebone series was 4 ft. 1 in., and comprised 166 plates. In No. 2, which was 
64 ft. 8 in. long, the white area had a length of about 6 ft., and comprised about 
200 plates. In No. 4, ?, 61 ft. 10 in., the white whalebone area was 4 ft. 2 in. 
long. No. 7, ? , 50 ft. 7 in. long, had 270 anterior white plates on the right side. 
No. 10, & , 53 ft. 9 in. long, had about one half the right whalebone, or about 210 
plates, white. Only a small number of the most anterior plates in this individual 
were entirely white, the other anterior ones being white externally, but gray 
internally. 

From the foregoing figures it will be evident that the extent of the white 
portion of the whalebone is not always the same, noi- is it [iropoitional to the 
length of the individual. (See also pi. 12, fig. 6.) 

The streaked whalebone shows the most extraoi'dinary variety as regards the 
width and number of light and dark sti'eaks. As a rule, however, the dark streaks 
prevail more and more toward the posterior end of the series, and the plates here 
are commonly quite uniform dai'k gray. The darkest color is on the exterior edge. 
The matted surface of bristles appears whitish when looked at in the direction of 
the roof of the mouth, with a rather broad margin of dull bi'own where the whale- 
bone plates are dark externally. The width of the throat is about 7 inches. The 
plates of whalebone ai'e I'educed to nothing posteriorly, the short, matted bristles 
being attached dii-ectly to the integuments of the mouth, the curly masses of the 
two sides approaching each other posteriorly within 5 inches. (See pi. 11, fig. 6; 
pi. 12, figs. 3 and 4.) 

The length of the longest whalebone in various European and American sjieci- 
mens is given in the following table : 



BALJSNOPTERA PHYSALVSi.'L). AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN. LENGTH OF WHALEBONE. 



Locality. 


Length c 


f Whale. 


Sex. 


Length of Longest 
W halebone. 


.\ulhor. 




ft. 


in. 




in. 




Crouch R., England 


46 


6i 


§ 


22" 


Crouch 


Pevensey Bay, " 


65 


3'" 


S 


23= 


Flower 


Portsmouth, " 


59 


6' 


s 


21 = 


ti 


Gravesend, " 


60 





s 


3°' 


Murie 


Wick, Scotland 


65 or 66 





s 


21* 


Struthers 


Stornovvay, Scotland 


60 


6 


s 


30' 


(1 


Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland 


70 


8 


2 


24' 


F. W. T. 


n it a .1 


64 


8 


? 


20' 


(( 


(( ii (( a 


63 


7 


? 


23.5^ 


it 


H 11 t( .( 


62 


8 


? 


2I-5' 


a 


i* il (( ti 


61 


10 


? 


20* 


a 


H 11 t( (( 


55 


2 


s 


20' 


il 


t( (( ti ({ 


54 


6 


s 


17.5^ 


il 



' Straight. " Whether includes bristles not slated. " Including the hairy ends. 

' Exclusive of bristles. ° From the surface of the gums and exclusive of the bristles. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 129 

ABDOMINAL RIDGES AND FURROWS. 

In B. 'phijsahis tlie abdominal ridges and fuiTows ai'e broader and less numer- 
ous than in B. acato-rostmta, much uari'ower and more numerous than in the Hump- 
back. They are parallel for the most part, but anastomose frequently at different 
lioints. Sars's desci'iption of the fui'i'ows in an European (Lofoten Ids.) specimen 18 
as follows {77, 13 and 14 sep.) : 

" The breast furrows, which are very chai'acteristic of the fin-whales, occupy 
the whole of the anterior half of the ventral side of the animal, from the tip of 
the mandible to the navel. In the present species they are quite numerous 
and extend well up on the sides of the body. In a straight line around the 
ventral surface about 70 furrows may be counted. The middle ones extend far 
backward to the very sides of the navel ; the others become little by little shorter 
upward, so that the posterior boundary of the furrowed area on the sides forms a 
line passing obliquely from the navel to the root of the pectoral fin. These fur- 
rows as a whole run nearly parallel with the long axis of the body and each other, 
but are often interrupted, so that a new one takes its origin a little in front 
of the place where another ends. On the sides of the neck, or between the 
corner of the mouth and the root of the pectoral, the furrows extend fai'thest up 
on the side of the body, and their course is here less I'egular. From the corner of 
the mouth, four short furi-ows run backward and are somewhat sigmoid, and one 
approaches near the root of the pectoral. From the root of the mandible run 8 
furrows of unequal length, which converge posteriorly without reaching the root of 
the pectoral ; they thus lie between the lowest of those from the corner of the 
mouth and the first which runs forward from the root of the pectoral, with which 
the fui'row following most closely takes a quite strongly curved course. At the 
root of the pectoral fins both above and below are a number of short sti'ongly 
curved furrows." 

In the Newfoundland specimens the arrangement of ridges and furrows was 
the same, as will be seen on examining pis. 8 and 9. The number and course of 
the furrows are, however, subject to considerable variation. In some cases the fui-- 
rows in the root of the mandible are continuous with those running forward from 
under the pectoral, and form one series with them. One or two pairs directly on 
the median line of the throat are shorter anteriorly than the lateral ones, so that 
there is quite a large plain area immediately under the tip of the mandible. 

The total number of furrows between the two pectoi-als varies considerably in 
different Newfoundland specimens, as follows: No. 1, about 80; No. 2, 62; No. 7, 
72 ; No. 13, 78 ; No. 4, 56 ; No. 9, 62 ; No. 20, 76. These totals were obtained by 
counting from the median line to the root of the pectoral on one side and multiply- 
ing by two. The avei'age is the same as in Sars's Lofoten Ids. specimen. 

The breadth of the ridges in the vicinity of the middle of their length in New- 
foundland specimens was 2 in. to 2| in., but at the posterior ends they inci'eased 
in breadth to 4 inches. The breadth of the furrows depends cliiefly on the pressure 
exerted from the interior of the body, though they do not always close together 
when this pressure is withdrawn. In the dead animal, the weight of the integu- 
ments which happen to be nearest the ground pulls the ridges which are higher up 



130 



THE WHALEBONE "WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



more or less apart. The furrows on the mandible appear to remain always open, 
and the skin at their base is smooth and hard, while that of the breast furrows is 
soft and obliquel_y wrinkled. 

The ridges, as already remarked, anastomose iri'egularly and to a varying degree 
in different individuals. Many pairs coalesce near the posterior end, so that the 
total number of ridges here is much less than on the breast. 

The color of the ridges and that of the intervening furrows do not always 
agree. Where there is a solid area of dark gray on the ridges, the furrows are also 
dark. Where the dark color of the ridges breaks up into blotches, that of the 
fuiTows commonly remains uniformly dai'k for a considerable distance farther 
toward the median line of the belly. Finally, however, it also breaks up into 
blotches ; and along the median line both furrows and ridges are pure white. In a 
few cases there are moderate-sized areas of gray on the ridges whei'e the furrows 
are entirely white, but this condition is of much less frequent occurrence than the 
opposite. 

AFRICULAR ORIFICE. 

As is ^vell known, the whales are without an external ear-couch. The external 
auj'icular orifice is in the form of a small oblong, or occasionally circular, opening, 
situated at a short distance behind the eye and nearly in the same horizontal plane. 
In the Newfoundland Finbacks the orifice is about 3 in. long and varies somewhat 
in position in different individuals, as will be evident from an inspection of the 
folio wiufj table : 

BAL^XOPTERA PHYSALUS (L.). NEWFOUNDLAND. 



No. 


Sex. 


Total Length. 


Distance from Center of Eye to 
Center of Ear. 






ft. in. 


in. 


II 


9 


70 8 


40 


3 


9 


63 7 


36 


19 


9 


62 1 1 


36 


20 


5 


62 8 


36 


4 


9 


61 10 


36.5 


B. 1 6 


? 


60 1 T 


36 


9 


5 


59 I 


39 


8 


9 


57 6 


41 


12 


$ 


54 6 


35 


lO 


$ 


S3 9 


30 


7 


9 


50 7 


32 



EYE. 



In the Newfoundland Finbacks there is always a ridge, bounded above and 
below by converging furrows, at the anterior commissure of the eyelids, and one or 
two short furrows both above and below the eye. (See pi. 9, fig. 5.) In No. 2, 
.9 , the orifice between the lids was 3| in. long, the long axis of the iris 2 in., the 
long axis of the pupil f in., and the diameter of the eyeball 5 in. In No. 16 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 131 

of 1901, the orifice between the lids was 4 in. long, the iris 2 in. in diameter 
longitudinally and 1^ in. vertically; pupil If in. by i in. 

The iris is brown, with a white border narrow and irregular. The pupil is 
elliptical, with the long axis fore and aft. 

OSTEOLOGY. 

The osteological characters of B.pMjsalus have been abundantly described by 
European authoi's, and especially by EschrichL, Van Beneden, Flower, Stiiithers, 
and Turner. The skull and other pai-ts of the skeleton have been figured sevei-al 
times by Van Beneden and Gervais, Esclirioht, and others. The American speci- 
mens allied to B. phf/salus which have fallen under my notice are the type of B. 
tectirostris (Cope), two skeletons in the U. S. National Museum, one in the State 
Museum, Albany, N. Y., one at Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Eochester, 
N. Y., one in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, and one 
in the museum of the Boston Society of Natural History. The last was desci'ibed 
by Dwight in 1872. The species was charactei'ized by Flower in 1864 {45, 392) 
as follows : 

"Total number of vertebrae 61-64. Ribs 15 pairs. Orbital process of frontal 
bone considerably narrowed at its outer end. Nasal bones short, broad, deeply 
hollowed on their superioi- surface and anterior border. Rami of the lower jaw 
massive, with a very considerable curve, and a high, pointed, curved coronoid pro- 
cess. Neural arches of the cervical vertebrae low ; spinous processes very slifjhtly 
developed. Transverse process of the atlas arising from the upper half of the side 
of the body, long, tapering, conical, pointed directly outwards. UiDi^er and lower 
transverse processes, from the second to the sixth vertebra, well developed, broad, 
flat (and united at the ends in the adult, foi-ming complete rings ?). Head of the 
first rib simple, articulating with the transverse process of the first dorsal vertebra. 
Second, third, and sometimes the fourth ribs with capitular processes, reaching 
nearly to the bodies of the vertebrae. Sternum broader than long, in the form of a 
short, broad cross, of which the posterior arm is very narrow; it might perhaps be 
compared to the heraldic trefoil; it is subject, however, to considerable individual 
modifications." 

SKULL. 

There appears to be no entirely satisfactory drawing of the skull of an Euro- 
pean specimen of B. i^hysalm. Lacepede's figure from the St. Marguerite Id. 
specimen (Hist. Nat. (Jet., 12°, 1, pi. 6) is quite imperfect and indistinct. Cuvier's 
figure from the same specimen {Om. Foss., 3d ed., 5, pi. 26, fig. 5) is better, but the 
muzzle is obviously too sharp. Eschricht's figure {Nordhvalen, pi. 3, fig. 3) is still 
better, and in many respects very satisfactory, but the frontals appear to be too 
narrow distally and the occipital region is too short. Van Beneden and Gervais's 
figure (8, pi. 12, fig. 12) is in many respects an improvement on Eschricht's, but 
the pei'spective and detail of the posterior portion leave much to be desii-ed. 
Sars's figure {77, pi. 3, figs. 1-2) of an adult skull in the Christiania Museum 
is on the whole the best. 

Better than all these hand-drawings is the set of photographs of the Danzig 
specimen published by Menge {69, photos.). Menge was under the impression 



132 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

that his specimen represented B. laticeps (rray, a synouyiu of B. horealis Lesson, 
but it is in reality B. phij.salus, as is indicated by the number of vertebrae, color of 
body, color of whalebone, etc. 

It must be admitted that the correspondence between Menge's figures and those 
of American specimens on pis. 1-4 is very close. The skull appears to differ less 
from the American specimens than they do from one another, except in one par- 
ticular. The width of the vertex appears to be less in Menge's photograph than in 
the American specimens, and the pioximal end of the nasal process of the maxilla 
narrower. This same feature is to be observed in the figures of Eschricht and 
of Van Beneden and Gervais, and may constitute a real difference between the 
American and European skulls. It is to be noted, however, that Dwight's figure 
of the Gloucester, Mass., skull has the vertex and maxilla even narrower than 
Menge's photograph, but this figure is not correct as regards the intermaxillse and 
may be otherwise inaccurate. 

In Sars's figure of an European skull, the width of the vertex is as great as in 
the American specimens, and the occipital border is straight as in the Rochester 
(New York) specimen. In the type of B. tectirostris (Cope), the margin of the 
supraoccipital is convex forward at the vertex (pi. 1, fig. 1). The breadth of the 
vertex is 13^ inches. 

As already mentioned, the American skulls differ veiy considerably among 
themselves. It will be noted, for example, that the Cape Cod specimen, No. 16039, 
U. S. N, M., agrees with the type of B. tectirostris (Cope) in having very sharp- 
pointed nasals (pi. 1, fig. 3), while the Cape Cod skull. No. 16045, U. S. N. M., agrees 
with the Rochester (New York) skull in having blunt nasals. (Compare pi. 1, fig. 
2 and pi. 3, fig. 1.) The form of these bones in No. 16045 is precisely that given 
by Flower for an European specimen in the Royal College of Surgeons, London 
i^P. Z. 8., 1864, p. 390, fig. 4). This Rochester skull is peculiar in having the antero- 
superior margin of the occipital quite square, while in the other skulls the margin 
is more or less semicircular. It is a mature specimen, while the others are immatui'e. 

The proportions of the skulls, as indicated by comparative measurements, would 
constitute an excellent criterion of likeness or unlikeness. Unfortunately, detailed 
measurements of skulls of European specimens have been published in but a few 
instances, and these are not always comparable. In the first table on page 133 
a number of such measurements, reduced to percentages of the total length, for both 
European and American specimens, ai-e brought together. 

As the American specimens at command ai'e all immature, it is necessaiy in 
instituting compai-isons to exclude all the mature European specimens. Unfortu- 
nately, this leaves but one Eui'opean specimen, that stranded at Nairn, Scotland, and 
reported by Prof. Struthers {88, 330). As Struthers's measurements can, howevei', 
be thoroughly relied upon, and as all of the American specimens except one were 
measured by a single observer (myself), this comparison may be regarded as of more 
value than would ordinai'ily be the case. The average percentages for the 
Araeiican specimens, including the type of B. tectirostris (Cope), and the percentages 
for the Nairn specimen are as indicated in the second table on page 133. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOKTH ATLANTIC. 

BALMNOPTEBA PHYSALUS (L.). EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. SKULL. 



Sex and age 

Total length of whale.. . 
" " skeleton 



Length of skull (straight). 



Greatest breadth (squa- 
mosal) 

Breadth of orbital process 
of frontal at distal end. . 

Length of beak (straight). . 

Breadth of beak at middle 
(curved) 

Length of nasals ... 

Breadth of 2 nasals at distal 
end 

Length of mandible 
(straight) 

Length of mandible 
(curved) 

Depth of mandible at mid- 
dle 



wi£f 



3 = 



i ad. 



66' o" 
straight 



i86" 



% 
46.2 

O.I 
71.0 

19 3 
3.8 

4.0 
95-2 



7.0 



M P. V 

■06S 

> 



S ad. 
72' 2" 
67' 6" 



184" 



52.2 ' 



bow -. 



OS 



S ad. 
60' o" 



168" 



448 

6g.o 

19.6 
4-9 

4.2 
92.S 



7-1 



a^ 



fbetw. 
50' o ■ 
and 
60' o" 



156" 



46.1 

69-3 
23.1 



z;a 



i 

50' o" 



145.0 



45.8 

10.7^ 
66.2 

T8.6 

5-2 

5.9 

93-1 

98.6 

6.2 



ad. 

68' 

62' 10' -|- 



194 



48.0 



10.3* 

6g.i' 


69.4 


21.4 


ig.4 
4.2 




6.6 


94.8 


95-4 


ior.5 





7.0 



48' o " 



144 



46-5 



6.9 






ti-3 



47 7 



125 



48.0 

10 4' 
672 

20.0 
50 

5-2 

94-4 

103.2 

6.4 



jr- 



44.6 

lO.O* 
66.1' 

21. 9 
5.6 

5-2 

gt.S 

lOO.O 

7.9 



133 



-ac/i 

'J 3 



1 10. 5 



47.0 

II. 3' 
65.2 

19.4 
5-4 

4.9 



BAL^NOPTERA PHYSALUS (L.). EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. SKULL. 



Measurement. 



American Speci- 
mens. 



Total length 

Greatest breadth 

Breadth of orbital border of frontal 

Length of beak 

Breadth of beak at middle 

Length of nasals | (4) 

Breadth of nasals | (4) 

Length of inandible in straight line 1 (3) 

Depth of mandible at the middle (2) 



(3) 
(3) 
(3) 
(3) 



lOO.O ^ 

47-1 
10.6 
67.2 
19.6 

5' 

5-5 
93-9 

6.7 



Nairn, Scotland. 



1 00.0 ! 

45-8 
10.7 
66.2 

i8.6 
5-2 
5-9 

93- ' 



The agi-eemeut shown in the foregoing measurements is verj'^ close except in the 
case of the breadth across the squamosals. In regard to this measurement, it must 
be said that in all specimens of the several species of Balcenoptera it exhibits a 
considerable range of variation, indicative in part of a real individual variation of 
considerable extent, and in part, no doubt, to changes in the skulls in drying. 



'7.5 in. added for premaxillae. ■* Least = 5.5 ^. 

' Squamosals pecidiarly broad. See Flower. ' " =7.2^. 

3 Least = 6.9^. ° " =7.2^- 



'Least = 7.2 if. 

'To post, curved margin of maxilla. 
' Number of specimens ; the California 
skull is not included. 



134 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



NUJIBER OF VERTEBRAE. 

Various European authors have recorded tlie number of vertebrae in specimens 
of B. physalus. These specimens were frequently not absolutely complete, and as 
there is some individual variation, the formulae of different observers show a certain 
lack of conformity. This affects particulai'ly the caudal vertebraj, the most poste- 
rior of which are genei'ally lacking in specimens preserved in museums. In the 
following table a number of records ai'e brought together foi- comparison in the 
original form, and on p. 137 the several vertebral formulae are modified in accord- 
ance with various indications which are discussed on a subsequent page. 

BALJENOPTEBA PHYSALUS (L.). EUROPEAN. VERTEBRAL FORMULA. 



Author. 


Locality. 


Date. 


C. 


D. 


L. 


Ca. 


TotaL 


Flower 


Vlieland Id. 


1851 




14- 


14 or 15 = 


23 or 24 


60' 


(t 


Katwijk 


1841 




15 


14 


24 


60 


ti 


Falmoutli 


1863 




15^ 


14^ 


25 


6l« 


Flower and Gray 


Isle of Wight 


1842 




14' 


15 


18 + ' 


54 + 


Van Beneden 


Borselaer 


1869 




14 


IS 


2S 


61 


Lilljeborg 


(Bergen Museum) 


(1862) 




15 


15 


25 


62 


Heddle 


Laman Id. 


1856 




15 


— 4 


— 


62 


Struthers 


Nairn 


1884 




15 


IS 


25 


62 


Delage 


Langrune 


1885 




14 


15 


26' 


62 


Fischer 


St. Vigor 


1847 




14'° 


16 


25 


62 


ti 


St. Cyprien 


1828 




14 


15 


24" 


60 


Menge 


Danzig 


1874 




14" 


15 


24 


60 



' " It is most probable that the 15th pair has been lost." (Flower, /'. Z. S., 1864, p. 415.) 

' " According to Van Beneden, fourteen or fifteen lumbar, though the place of attachment of 

the first chevron bone in the skeleton indicates but thirteen as belonging to this series." (Flower.) 
' " The number of vertebrre is 61, the last being modelled in wood; but from the character of 

the 60th I should say that there ought to be 2 below it." (Flower, /". Z. S., 1864, p. 414.) 

* "The last pair was quite rudimentary and unconnected with the spinal column." (Flower, 

P. Z. S., 1869, p. 609.) 

'"The chevron bones appear to be all present. There are 18." (Flower, P. Z. S., 1S69, p. 

608.) 

""There are 61 vertebras; but the last is elongated and constricted in the middle, as if it 

really consisted of 2 united." (Flower, /. r.) 

' "The last well developed. There may have been a 15th pair." (Flower, /. c, p. 610.) 
'"Caudal vertebra 18, exclusive of those contained in the fin of the tail, which is preserved 

entire." (Gray, Zoo/. Erehus and Terror, p. 50.) 

'"At the end of the 25th was found a little conical cartilage. ... It seems to me to 

represent a 26th caudal." (Delage.) 

'° " The last rib is more elongated than the preceding ribs." (Fischer, C//. .S'. O. France, p. 75.) 

" " It is probable that the last caudals were lost during dissection." {Ibid., \t. 79.) 

"" The 14th pair of ribs, as shown by the photograph, was as long as the preceding pair. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOKTU ATLANTIC. 



135 



Formulse for v.irious American specimens are as follows : 

BALJBNOPTEEA PHTSALVS (L.). AMERICAN. VERTEBRAL FORMULA. 



Museum. 



U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 160.15 
Albany State Mus. 
Ward's Estab., Rochester 
Mus. Comp. Zool., ) 

Cambridge, Mass. ) 
Mus. Boston Soc. Nat. ) 

Hist. f 

Mus. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
U. S. Nat. Mus.- 



Locality. 



(^ape Cod, Mass. 

ti (1 (( 

Provincetown, Mass. 

Gloucester, Mass. 

Sinepu.xent Bay, Md. 
Newfoundland. 



Date. 


C. 


D. 


L. 


Ca. 


1876? 7 


14' 


i.S^ 


22 (+3?) 


1880 7 


14' 


16 


25 


1893 


7 


15 


14 




1880 




15 


15 


26 


1870 




'5 = 


'5 


26 


1868-9 




. . 


'5 


.. 


1 90 1 




16 


14 


25 



Total. 



)s8(+3?)=c6i 
62 



63 
63 

62 



These various formuLTe exhibit a considerable divergence, with no special line 
of separation between the American and European specimens. As already re- 
marked, sevei'al of the formulae require a certain amount of modification because 
the specimens were somewhat defective, the number of ribs and chevron bones 
actually present probably being less than the original number. These modifica- 
tions will now be considered, and afterwards a revised table of formulae. 



ELBS. 

In skeletons of J5. physalus vphich have been examined under favorable condi- 
tions, it has been noted that the last pair of ribs is much shorter than the penultimate 
pair and is not attached to the vertebral column. In other -svords, the last rib is 
normally a "floating" rib. It has also been observed that the first chevron bone 
is smaller than the second. These facts and other indications lead to the belief 
that museum skeletons in which the last pair of ribs is as long as the preceding 
pair and the first chevron as large, or nearly as large, as the second are defective in 
these parts. Granting this assumption to be correct, we will consider the various 
formulae in the 2:)receding tables. 

Regarding the Vlieland Id. skeleton (1851) Flower remarks: "There are 1-t 
pairs of ribs present; but as the 14th has not the characters usually met with in 
the last rib, and as the 15th vertebra has the end of the transverse process tliick- 
ened and showing traces of an articular surface, it is most probable, as Van Beueden 
supposes, that the 15th pair has been lost." {P. Z. S., 1864, p. 414). Flower also 
remarks that though Van Beneden cites 14 or 15 as the correct number of lumbar 
vertebrae " the place of attachment of the first chevron bone in the skeleton indicates 
but 13 as belonging to this series." {Ibkl, p. 414). The formula for this skeleton 
with these corrections would be: V, 15, 13, 27 =: 62. 

' The 14th pair of ribs is as long as the preceding ones, and hence an additional pair is 
doubtless to be counted. 

'' As the first chevron in position is of large size, it is probable that an anterior one is wanting. 
The condition of the inferior carina of vertebra No. 36 indicates that such was the case. 

' The isth pair of ribs is as long as the preceding pair, and hence 16 pairs may have been 
present originally. Fcetal. 



136 THE WHALEBOXE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

For the Borselaei- skeleton (1869) Van Beneden gives 14 pairs of ribs, but as 
the last pair is as long as the preceding one probably another should be counted, so 
that the formula would stand 7, 15, 14, '25 = 61. For the same reason one doi'sal 
should be added in the case of the St. Vigor skeleton (1847), so that the formula 
would be 7, 15, 15, 25 = 62, and in the case of Menge's Danzig skeleton (1874), 
making the formula 7, 15, 14, 24 = 60. 

Some of the American specimens appear to require modification in the same 
manner. 

The Cape Cod skeleton. No. 16045, as mounted, has 14 pairs of ril)s and 15 
lumbar vertebrae. The 14th pair of ribs, however, is as long as the loth pair, and 
hence it is very probable that an additional pair, or 15 in all, should be counted. 

The inferior cariua of the vertebra immediately in front of the one to which 
the first chevron is attached is divided posteriorly, and it is probable that another 
chevron was originally attached thei'e. The first chevron in position is large. 
Such being the case, and considering the statement just made regarding the ribs, 
the number of lumbar vertebrae would be reduced to 13. The formula would then 
be 7, 15, 13, 23 + = 58 +. This formula appears exceptional in B.physahs unless 
such European authorities as Flower, Delage, Fischer, etc., have been mistaken. It 
will be noted, however, that Flower (4^, 414) proposes 13 lumbai's for the Vlie- 
land Id. skeleton. 

The formula given by Dwight {35, 212) for the Gloucester (Mass.) skeleton is 
7, 15, 15, 26 = 63. He states, however, that the inferior cai'ina of the 15th 
lumbar is bifurcated posteriorly, and hence it is possible that it belongs to the 
caudal series. His measurements show that the 15th pair of ribs is as long as the 
preceding ones, and it may be that a 16th "floating" pair originally existed. In 
case these conditions existed, the formula would be 7, 16, 13, 27 = 63. 

In the skeleton in the State Museum, Albany, N. Y., the 13th rib is 5 ft. 7 in. 
long, while the 14th and last rib is 5 ft. 2 in. long. It thus appears that at 
least one additional pair of libs was probably present oi'iginally. 

The first and second chevron bones in position are alike in size, from which it 
may be inferred that a smaller anterior one is missing. If these inferences are correct 
the vertebral formula for the skeleton- would be 7, 15, 14, 26 = 62. 

In the skeleton in the Museum of Compai'ative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., 
the 15th pair of libs is as long as the 14th pair, so that it is quite likely there was 
originally a 16th pair. As to the chevrons, the first in position is only about one 
fourth the size of the second, showing that no more are to be allowed foi- in that 
direction. With the modification indicated, the formula for this skeleton would be 
7, 16, 14, 26 = 63. 

The Newfoundland foetus which I carefully dissected had 16 pairs of ribs. 
This number was also found by Struthers in tlie Peterhead specimen {Journ. Anat. 
and Phys., 1871, p. 116). This 16th rib on the right side was 30 in. long, on the 
left side, 22 in.. The 15th pair of ribs was 72 in. long. Flower states that in the 
Margate skeleton the 15th pair of ribs was nearly as long as the 14th, so that 
there may have been a 16th pair in this skeleton also. {P. Z. S., 1869, p. 608.) 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTEIIN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



137 



It apjiears, therefoi-e, that in European specimens the number of ribs varies from 14 
to 16 pairs, and in American specimens, 15 to 16 pairs. 

With the modifications indicated above, the vaiious European and American 
formulae will stand as follows : 

BALMNOPTEEA PHYSALVS (L.). EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. VERTEBRAL FORMULA, REVISED. 



Author or Museum. 



Flower 



Flower and Gray 



Van Beneden 

Lilljeborg 

Heddle 

Struthers 
Delage 
Fischer 

u 

Menge 



Locality. 



Vlieland Id. 
Katwijk 
Falmouth 
Isle of Witiht 



Borselaer 

Coast of Norway 

Laman Id. 

Nairn 

Langrune 

St. Vigor 

St. Cyprien 

Danzig 



Date. 



C. 



Ca. 



Total 



Remarks. 



EUROPEAN. 



1851 


7 


i.S 


1,3 


27 


62 


I84I 


7 


i.S 


14 


24 


60 


1863 


7 


1.=; 


14 


26 


62 


1842 


7 


IS 


IS 


26 


63 


1869 


7 


15 


14 


25 


61 


.... 


7 


i.S 


IS 


25 


62 


1856 


7 


IS 


-4 


— 


62 


1884 


7 


IS 


IS 


2S 


62 


1885 


7 


14 


IS 


26 


62 


1847 


7 


IS 


IS 


2S 


62 


1828 


7 


14 


'S 


24 + 


60 + 


1874 


7 


IS 


14 


24 


60 



caudals added for the 
ninnber concealed in 
the flukes. 



" Absolutely correct ' 
(Heddle). 



(+ 2 = 62) 



U. S. N. M. 1604s 

Albany Mus. 

Rochester 

Cambridge Mus. 

Boston Mus. 

Phila. Mus. 

U. S. Nat. Mus. 



Cape Cod, Mass. 

Provincetown, " 

Gloucester " 

Sinepuxent Bay, Md. 

Newfoundland 



1876? 




IS 


1,1 


2,3 + 


58 + 


I8S0 




IS 


14 


26 


62 


i«9.? 




IS 


14 




. . 


1880 




16 


14 


26 


6,3 


1870 




16 


1,3 


27 


6.3 


1868-9 






15 






1901 




i6 


14 


25 


62 



(+ 3 = 61) 



Type of B. tectirostris. 
Foetus. 



The most frequent formulae for the cervical, dorsal, and hmibar vertebrae of 
European specimens shown by this revised table are: 7, 15, 14, and 7, 15, 15. A 
comparison with American specimens can scarcely be made with advantage as 
there are but six of these with complete foi'mul* as against eleven European speci- 
mens. The formulae of two of the American specimens, however, agree with one of the 
two most fiecpient European foimulaj above cited. In two other cases the Ameri- 
can foi'mula is 7,16,14. This might be considered as of some importance were it 
not that sixteen dorsals ai-e indicated in two European specimens, as already noted 
on p. 136. A fifth American formula — 7, 15, 13 — is repeated in the Vlieland 
Id. skeleton, according to the interpretation of Flower. 

On the wh(de, the facts regarding the vertebral formula do not appear to 
point to specific distinctness between European and American specimens, but the 
matter caimot be pronounced upon with entire satisfaction until more American 
specimens have been examined. 

In Struthei's's Nairn (Scotland) specimen the 2d and 3d pairs of ribs had 
capitular processe,s, or beaks; in Van Beneden's Borselaer specimen, the 1st and 
2d pairs; in Heddle's Lanian Id. .specimen, the 2d, 3d, and 4th i)airs. Other Euro- 
pean specimens present still different combinations. In the American specimen in 



138 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., the first three pairs of 
ribs liave capitular processes ; in the Gloucester (Mass.) specimen, the 2d aud 3d 
pairs; in No. 16045, U. S. N. M., Cape Cod, Mass., the 2d, 3d, and 4th pairs. 

In the type of B. tectirostris (Cope) the 1st rib is double-headed, as shown in 
pi. 4, fig. 4, aud pi. 6, fig. 3. The rib is 30| in. long (straight) to the middle point 
of the broad distal end ; the breadth at the distal end, 7i in. The supplementary 
head is 6^ in. long in a straight line, and 2^ in. broad at the free end. A pre- 
cisely similar first rib is described by Van Beneden as occurring in the Borselaer 
specimen (4, 27-30, fig.). This peculiarity was formerly considered of specific 
or even generic importance, but recent investigations, especially those of Sir Wm. 
Turnei', lead to the conclusion that this conformation is properly to be regai'ded as 
an individual variation (see Turner, Journ. Anat. and Phys.,^, 1871, pp. 348-361). 

CHARACTERS OF VERTEBRAE. 

The number of vei'tebne in B.physalus has already received attention ([>. 134). 
The characters of the cervical vertebra; given by Flower in the diagnosis cited in a 
previous page (p. 131) are found in American sitecimens (see Dwight, 35, 213-217, 
pi. 1, and this work, pi. 4, fig. 4, and pi. 5, fig. 1, type of 7i. tectirostris Co[)e). 
Struthers (86, 32) gives as characteristic of the 3d to the 7th cervicals of adult 
B. physahis the following : 

3d and 4th. Transverse processes slanting oldiquely backward. 

5th. Ti'ansverse processes directed horizontally outward. 

6th. Transverse process directed a little forward. Infei'ior transverse process 
usually moi-e or less incomplete. 

7th. Supeiior transverse process robust ; inferior transverse process almost 
entirely absent. 

These characters were found in the Gloucester (Mass.) specimen described by 
Dwight {35, 213, 217, figs. 5-7), and occur also in No. 16045, U. S. N. M., Cape 
Cod, Mass. 

Among the characters of the caudal vertebrae which may be considered impor- 
tant are the positions in which the foramina and processes ai)pear or disappear. 
Some of these points in European and American specimens are brought together in 
the following table : 

BAL^NOPTERA PHYSALVS iL,.) . EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. CHARACTERS OF VERTEBRA. 



Character. 


Falmouth, 
England, 

1863, 
Flower. 


St. Vigor, 
France, 

Fischer. 


Langrune, 
France, 

188s, 
Delage. 


Danzig' 
Ger- 
many, 

Menge. 


Gravesend, 
England, 

Mune. 


Nairn, 
Scotland, 

1884, 
Struthers. 


(Mus.Corap. 

Zoo)., 
Cambridge, 

Mass.) 


Gloucester, 

Mass., 

1870, 

Dwight. 


Cape Cod, 

Mass., 

1880 

(Albany). 


Cape Cod, 

Mass., 

No. 16045 

U.S. N. M. 


Neural spine appears ) 
last on vertebra No. ) 


— 


52 


51 


5i(?) 


51 


50 


51 or 52 


52 


51 


50 


Last distinct diapophy- 
sis on vertebra No. 


— 


50 


5I(?) 


49(?) 


51 


48 or 49 


49 


49 





48 


First perforated dia \ 
pophysis on vertebra j- 






















44 


42 


44(?) 


— 


44 


44 


44 


45 


— 


43 


First complete inferior 1 






















arterial foramen on • 
vertebra No 










49 


49 


50 


50 




50 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



139 



The European specimens show a substantial agreement in these characters 
with the American specimens and witli each othei', but in the case of the Borselaer 
skeleton, as reported by Van Beneden (4), tlie first vertebra with perfoi'ated 
transverse process is much farther back in the sei-ies than in other specimens. This 
striking peculiarity may perhaps be safely regarded as an individual variation. 

CHEVRON BONES. 

In Baloenoptera pTiy sains the series of chevrons l)egins anteriorly witli a small 
bone, followed by a very large one, after which the boues decrease gradually in 
size to the posterior end of the series. Van Beneden made the following signifi- 
cant remarks in connection with the Borselaer skeleton : " The chevron bones are 
21 in number ; the last three of the caudal vertebr;e ai-e alone without them. We 
count among these bones the osseous rudiments visible iu the cartilages, and which 
are very rarely preserved. Without particular attention, we should not have found 
in all but 15 of these bones " (4, 24.) There is little doubt that the series found 
in the majority of specimens in museums is incomplete, and the variations cannot, 
therefore, be relied upon in investigations of this kind. The numbers recorded in 
various Eui'opean and American specimens are as follows : 

BALMNOPTERA PHYSALUS (L.). EUROPEAN AND AMEKICAN. CHEVRONS. 



European Specimens. 


American Specimens. 


Locality. 


No. of Chevrons. 


Autliority. 


Locality. 


No. of Chevrons. 


Museum. 


Borselaer (1869) 
Falmouth (1863) 
Langrune (1885) 

Gravesend (1859) 

Nairn (1884) 


21 

18' 

16= 

15 
13 


Van Beneden 

Flower 

Delage 

Murie 

Struthers 


Cape Cod, Mass. 
Gloucester, " 
Cape Cod, " 


15 
16 

14' 


Cambridge, Mass. 
Boston, 
Albany, N. Y. 
(U.S. Nat. Mus., 
No. 16045. 



STERNLTJL 



In Flower's diagnosis quoted above (p. 131) the sternum is thus referi'cd to : 
" Sternum broader than long, in the foi-m of a short, broad cross, of which the pos- 
terior arm is very narrow ; it might perhaps be compared to the heraldic trefoil ; it 
is subject, however, to considerable individual variation." 

In comparing figures of the sternum of European specimens, the variation at 
first appears excessive, but one soon perceives that much of it is due to diflPerences 
in age. The figures brought together on pp. 140 and 141 show the sternum of 
various European and American specimens (See text figs. 8 to 32.) 

In the midst of this wide variation the sternum of immature individuals takes 
quite uniformly the form of a trefoil with short stem and wings, and deeply emar- 
ginate anterior border, as shown in the St. Vigor, Lofoten Ids., and Brussels Museum 
specimens. It also occurs iu the National Museum specimens Nos. 16039 and 

' " The chevron bones appear to be all present " (Flower). 

' Thirteen well developed, the first small, the last two cartilaginous. 

' The first large and hence probably preceded originally by a smaller one. 



140 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERK NORTH ATLANTIC. 




Fig. S. 



Fig. g. 



Fig. io. 






Fig. II. 



Fig. 12. 



Fig. 13. 






Fig. 14. 



Fig. 17. 



Fig. 16. 






Fig. iS. 



Fig. ig. 
STERNUM OF BAL^NOPTEEA PHYSALVS (L.). 



Fig. 20. 



Fig. 8. — Cape Cod, M.\ss. No. 16039 U. S. N. M. Im. Fig. 9. — Lofoten Ids., Norway. Im. (From 
Sars.) Fig. 10. — Cape Cod, Mass. No. 16045 U. S. N. M. Im. Fig. ri. — St. Vigor, France. Jr. (From Ger- 
vAis.) Fig. 12. — (Brussels Mus.) Jr. (From Van Beneden.) Fig. 13. — Finmark, Norway. Ad. (From Malm.) 
Fig. 14. — Abbeville, France. Ad. (From Gervais.) Fig. 15. — Cayeu.x, France. Jr. (From Fischer.) 
Fig. 16. — Rochester, N. Y. Ad. Fig. 17. — Groix Id., France. Ad. s (From Fischer.) Fig. 18. — Langrune, 
France. Ad. i (From Delage.) Fig. ig. — (Christiania Mus.) Ad. (From Sars.) Fig. 20. — (Albany Mus., 
N. Y.) Ad. 



THE 



WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



141 




Fig. 29. 



Fig. 30. 



Fig. 31. 



, ^,-/ij»rpp.f PHYSALUS (X-)- 
STEKNUM OF B.4r..^^0Pr£K.l ™ p^, ,,_HKRAULT. F.ANC.. 

VIIKLAND m NETHERLANDS. Ao. ^ ^^-'"'^ ^^''^tZ V^^ B^r<^r>E^-) y^-- ^^■-^^''■°''^^- 
FIG. ^^-^'-''';^";p' 2\-B0RSELAER,N«HKRI..^NDS. AD (FkO.. j..^^^,^,„„, ENGI-ASD. AD. 

AD. S (FROM GERVAIS.) F'0-23- „_(CaMBR.DOeMv;S.,MASS AD. tIG. g^_ CYPRIEN. 

KrA.CE.Ad. (■^-M^-;-^^ i;:;,^HEU SCOTLAND. AD. ^ ^^l ^7,™ M nWIOI.T.) FlO. 3O.-TKE 

^RA^crArT(VRr..rcHER.) .^ -irrHr,vr'AD.- (Uoerva.) .... ..-c... 

SAME. RKVERSED. (FROM A SKETCH.) FlO.^^^-^ 
KORNIA.AD. (W1ST..R INST., PH.LA., ^. 



142 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



16045 from Cape Cod, Mass. (See pi. 7, fig. 4.) Tbe Cayeux specimen, cited by 
Fischer as yoimg, appeal's to be exceptional in having the anterior border entire, 
with a vacuity below it, and the stem and wiugs scarcely differentiated. A close 
approximation to the normal form of the immature steriuim is perpetuated in the 
adult in Malm's Fiumark specimen, and Sars's Christiania Museum specimen. The 
latter leads to the moi-e extraordinary adult form exhibited by the Groix Id., Albany 
(N. Y.) museum, Rochester (N. Y.) museum, and Langruue specimens, in which 
the anterior emargination is generally pronounced and the wings long and pointed. 
A quite different adult foi-m is shown in the Vlieland Id., Herault, Borselaer 
(Scbelde E,.), Bayonne, and Cambi'idge (Mass.) museum specimens, in which the 
anterior border is convex, forming a foui'th projection and converting the ti'efoil 
into a quatrefoil. This is cari'ied to an extreme in Struthers's Peterhead specimen, 
in which the stem is aborted, and in the St. Cyprien specimen, in which the anterior 
portion is very large, with a straight mai'gin and a vacuity within it. Finally, we 
have a variation in which the anterior and lateral limbs are merged together, as 
shown in the Falmouth and Cambridge (Mass.) museum specimens. 

In all these variations the American specimens run parallel with the European 
ones. 





Fig. 33. 



Fio. 35. 





Fig. 34. Fig. 36. 

scapula of bal^soptera physalus (l.). american and european. 

Fig. 33. — Lofoten Ids., Norway. Jr. (From Sars.) Fig. 34.— Sinepuxent Bay, Maryland. Im. ? 
Type of B. tectirostns (Cope). Fig. 35.— Cape Cod, Mass. Im. No. 16039 U. S. N. M. Fig. 36.— Cape Cod, 
Mass. Im. No. 16045 U. S. N. M. 

PECTORAL LIMBS. 

The figures of the scapula of B. 2)^'ysalus published by Malm (65, pi. 3, fig. 
5) and Fischer (44, pi. 2, fig. 4) show the superior, or spinal, border quite evenly 
convex and the acromion low. These are probably incorrect, as Menge's photo- 



THE WHALEBONK WITALES OF THE WESTEItN NOKTH ATLANTIC. 



143 



graph (69) shows this bone as having the central part of the spinal border straight, 
the posterior part sharply bent downward, the antei'ior part somewhat so, and tlie 
acromion well raised above the level of the glenoid fossa. Sars's drawing (77, pi. 
3, fig. 10) of a Lofoten Ids. specimen is intermediate between Mange's and those of 
Fischer and Malm. (See text fig. 33, p. 142.) 

In the type of B. tectirostris (Cope) from Maryland (text fig. 35 ; pi. 6, fig. 2) the 
scapula is of the same foi'm as shown in Menge's photograph of the Danzig specimen, 
as is that of the Cape Cod (Mass.) adult in the Albany museum, and the National 
Museum specimens Nos. 16039 and 16045, also from Cape Cod (text figs. 35 and 
36 ; pi. 7, figs. 1 and 2). Dwight writes of the Gloucester (Mass.) specimen : "The 
superior border [of the scapula] is prett}' regularly curved, except that toioard the 
last fo^irth it inclines rather suddenly downivard'''' (35, 222). 

The greatest length of the scapula in three adult European specimens is 27.6 % 
of the length of the skull. In the Albany museum (N. Y.) adult it is 27.9 %, and 
in three immature American specimens 25.3 %■ In two European sjiecimens the 
radius is 17.2 % the length of the skull, and in two American specimens 17.5 fc. 

The number of phalanges found in specimens mounted in museums is commonly 
reduced from the natural number by the loss of one or more pieces in the process 
of maceration to I'emove the flesh. The numbers included in the following table 
are probably quite complete. Those quoted from Stiuthers and Dwight I'ejii-esent 
their own dissections. The metacarpals are excluded : 

BALMNOPTERA PHYSALUS (L.). EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. PHALANGES. 



Locality. 



St. Cyprien, France. . 

Wick, Scotland 

Peterhead, Scotland. . 
(Albany Mus., N. Y.). 
(Cambridge Mus 

Mass.) 

Stornoway, Scotland.. 
Borselaer, Netherl . . . 

Nairn, Scotland 

Gloucester, Mass 

Lofoten Ids., Norway. 

Capo Vado, Italy 

Langrune, France. . . . 



Authority. 



Fischer. 
Struthers. 

F. W. T. 

Lucas. 

Struthers. 

Van Beneden 

Struthers. 

Dwight. 

Sars. 

Weber. 

Macalister. 

Camerano. 

Delage. 
Kiikenthal. 



Length. 



ft. in. 
84 o 
65 to 66 
64 o 
63 o 



60 
55 
5° 
48 
40 



IIL 



IV 



4 (or 5] 
4 
3 
3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
2 

4 
3 
3 
3 
2' 

3 

3 
3 



Carpals. 



6' 

5 



Remarks 



Aged. 



Embryo, 38 cm. long. 

" 49 " " 
58 " '" 



' Doubtless includes the ossified pisiform cartilage. , , , . , ^, • , • . , , , 

' Includes the pisiform cartilage. The formula is for the left side. The right side had the 
following -11 4- 111,6; IV., 5 ; v., 2. ' Norwegian measure. 'Plusone encore cartilagineuse. 

' Kiikenthal's formute include one more phalanx in each digit than given above, but it is 
obvious from his figures that the metacarpals are included. His remark, that these s|.ecimens con- 
firm the law that more phalanges are present in the embryo than in the adult, does not, therefore, 
hold good when Struthers's Wick (Scotland) specimen is considered. {Ami/ow. A„zag.,s, iSgo, 

PP- 5o> 51-) 



144 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



The most frequent foi'inula for mature individuals, or those above sixty feet, 
appears to be— II., 4 ; III., 6 ; IV., 5 ; V., 3. The Albany (New Yoi-k) and Storno- 
way (Scotland) specimens have this formula. The Gloucestei- (Massachusetts) 
specimen is the same on the right side, except that the fifth finger has one less 
phahiux. There is, therefore, no ground for the specific separation of American 
and European specimens on the basis of the segmentation of the digits. 

PROPORTIONS OF THE SKELETON. 

The number of European skeletons of B. pliysalus of which thei'e are detailed 
measurements on record is not so lai'ge as one might expect, considering the numer- 
ous instances in which specimens have sti'anded on that side of the Atlantic. Com- 
panyo's Monographie Illustree is not acces,sible to me, but I have consulted the data 
furnished by Flowei-, Murie, Sars, Van Beneden, Struthers, Malm, and others. Such 
of the measurements of diffeient specimens as are compai-able are reduced to per- 
centages of the length of the skull, and brought together in the following table, 
with similar measurements of some American specimens, including the type of B. 
tectirostris (Cope) : 

BAL^NOPTERA PHYSALUS (L.). EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. SKELETON. 





Falmouth, Eng. 
Alexandra Park. 
(Klower, 18^9.) 


111 

III 
> 


c 
^^ 

en . 

ES 


Gravesend, Eng. 

Rosherville (lardens. 

(Muric, 1865.) 


■§3 

" 


Hi 

Pi 


Rochester, N. Y. 
Ward's Nat. Sci Estab. 


Gloucester, Mass. 
(Dwight, 1B72.) 


en .2 

.«.s 


1 
It 




S ad. 
66' 0" ' 


i ad. 
72' 2" 
67' 6" 


60' 10^" 


i ad. 
60' 0" 


i 
50' 0" 


ad. 

68 0" 

62' 10" + 


ad. 


48' 0" 


]■■• 

45' 7"^ 




Total length of whale 

" .skeleton . . 


47' 1048' 

45' 7" + 


Length of skull (straight), . 


1S6" 


1S4" 


I So" 


168" 


145.0" 


192.0" " 


'89.5" 

% 
23.2 

4.8 

17.4 
4-7 

22.2 

5.5 


144" 


125" 


121" 




23.1 


% 
24,0 


4-5 
23.9 

5-1 

16.4' 
6.4 

15-9 


25.0 

5-4 

ig.o 

4-4 

22.3 •* 
5.2^ 

16.6' 

6.8 

10. 1 

131 
27.9 
16. 1 


% 
20.5 

4-4 

1S.4 

5-2 

24.6^ 

a.o-" 

16.9 = 
7.0 

8.3 

12.6 
27.0 
15-5 
17-9 
18.6"' 


% 


% 

20.3 
4.6 

18.0 
5-2 

23-5 
£•9 

I6.I'' 
6.8 
8.9 

10.9' 

24.1 

14-3 
16.2 
iS.o 


% 
20.4 

4.8 

iS.i 
5.8 

25.6 

6.2 

I9.2» 

7.6 
7.2 
12.0 
25.6 
16.0 
17.6 
IS. 4 


% 

20.7 

5.8 

18. 8 


Depth of body of axis 

Greatest breadth 1st dor- 
sal 




Depth centrum ist dorsal. . 
Greatest breadth 1st lum- 




10.3 

I3-I 
28. 
16.S 
17-4 
19.6 


6.0 

26.5 

6.4 


Depth centrum 1st lum- 


Greatest bieadth 1st cau- 
dal 




Depth centrum ist caudal . . 
Greatest length of sternum. . 


II. 2 
13.0 
27.4 
15.6 
17.0 
19-3 


7.6 




8.9 

13.9 
27.9 
16.4 
17.4 
19.0 






" " scajiula. . 

" depth " " .. 

Len"tli of radius 


26.0 
16.1 

17-5 
1S.5 


27.1 
16. 1 
ig.g 
1S.4 


'* ulna [extre/ne). . . 



' Straight. 

- 7 inches are added for last 3 caudals, 

' 5j in. added for premaxillse. 

*2d lumbar. 

'Vert. No. 38. 



I'hich are probably missing. 



' This is tbe 38th vert. 

' This is the 3Sth vert. 

'Vert. No. 36. 

« Broken. 

'"21 inches added for olecranon. 



the 36th = 19.0 %. 
; the 36th = 18.4 %. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 145 

The agreement of the various measui'ements is, on the whole, a close one, and 
where discrepancies appear there is no evidence of a constant difference between 
European and American specimens. Dwight's specimen from Gloucester, Mass., 
according to his measurements, has a smaller scapula than any other specimen, 
while the type of B. tectirosfris has a longer radius. The same diffei-ences do not 
obtain in the other two American specimens. They may be individual or due to a 
difference in the manner of taking the measurements. In the case of Dwight's 
Gloucestei' (Mass.) specimen, the short radius indicated by the measurements is not 
found in figure 12, plate 6, of his article. 

Much more significant than these differences is the agreement l^etwcen Dwight's 
specimen and that from Nairn, Scotland, measured by Prof. Struthers {88, 830). 
The proportions of the vertebrae are practically identical ; the difference in the size 
of the scapula, as already stated, is not confirmed by the other American specimens. 

SUMMARY. 

The consideration of the various external and osteological characters of Ba- 
lamoptera pliysalus and of American specimens I'esembling that species has now 
been completed as far as cii'cumstances will permit. While numerous disci'ep- 
ancies have been detected in individual cases, the evidence as a whole points 
unmistakably, in my opinion, to the conclusion that the same species occurs on 
both sides of the Atlantic, and I believe that with further investigation and fuller 
data the discrepancies which have been pointed out will be found to rest on 
individual or sex variation, or lack of ct^iformity in measurements. 

One point, however, appears to me to be worthy of special attention : The 
maximum and average total length of both sexes is less for Newfoundland speci- 
mens than foi' those taken at the Norwegian whaling stations in Finmark, or 
captured or stranded on other pai'ts of the European coasts. 

It is somewhat difficult to determine the importance and real meaning of this 
apparent difference in size. Thi'ee alternatives suggest themselves. It may be 
(1) a real difference; or (2) it may be due to an exaggeration of the measure- 
ments by the Norwegian whalers ; or (3) it may arise from the fact that the 
Noi-wegian and Newfoundland whales belong to the same herds, and that the 
largest individuals have been killed. As to the second alternative, it has to be 
said that while the measurement may be exaggerated there is no evidence that 
such is the case. The third point is of more impoi'tance. The Norwegian meas- 
urements quoted from Cocks were for whales captured off Finmark between 
1885 and 1886, a decade before the Newfoundland fishery began. There was 
ample time for the largest individuals to be killed off. But it is necessary to 
prove that the herds of the eastern and western Atlantic mingle together. The 
present evidence of such a commingling cannot be considered conclusive. Hence, 
the difference in size between the Norwegian and American individuals still has 
validity. It cannot by itself, however, be considered as proof of specific distinctness, 
as it is quite allowable to suppose that there may be separate herds belonging 



146 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

to the same species io which the average of size is different. This view seems 
most reasonable in the case in question, considering the remarkable cori'espoud- 
euce in proportions and other characters. 

To my mind, the deraoustj'atioo of the specific identity of the " Common Fin- 
back " of the eastei-n and western Atlantic in the foregoing pages is practically 
complete. That the average size of the specimens taken on the two sides of the 
ocean does not agree, is a matter to be explained hereafter, but standing by 
itself it does not, I think, invalidate the demonstration. 

THE REPRESENTATIVE OF B. PHYSALUS IN GREENLAND. 

Robert Brown and others have stated that the Greenlauders recognize two 
oi' more species of large Finbacks under the name of Tunnolih. There appears 
not to have been as yet an opportunity for a zoologist to treat tlie matter 
critically on the basis of specimens of different kinds actually examined and com- 
pared, but cetological literature contains some few data bearing upon the subject. 

Scoresby gives a few measurements and a brief desciiption of a "Physalis 
found dead in Davis's Strait, 105 feet" long (S^, i., p. 481). This is more likely to 
have represented an American Sulphurbottora than B. pliysalvs (L.), althougli 
the lenirth is no doubt exagojerated. Eschricht gives measurements of a Tnn- 
nolik which H. P. C. Moller examined in 1843, but this was also probably a 
Sulphurbottom. 

In his Oversigt af Skandinavieus Hvaldjur, Lilljeboi'g {64, 47 and 55) gives a 
few measurements of, and some notes on, a skeleton from Gi'eenland in the Copen- 
Jiagen museum, which is probably to be regarded as i-epresenting JB. 2^^fy^cilus. 
The description is as follows : 

"The skeleton is from a young animal, with loose vertebral e|)iphyses and 
with the outer parts of the annular transverse processes of the 3d to the 6th 
cervical vertebra cartilaginous. The number of vertebr* is 61, of which 24 
are caudal vertebme. All the lumbars, as well as the posteiior dorsals, ai'e keeled 
alon"- the luider side of the body, though the keel is least marked anterioily. 
The 13 anterior caudals do not decrease largely in length backwai'd. The 
transvei'se processes of the most posterior dorsals ai'e with rounded terminations, 
and also that of tke 1st lumbar, and are also directed a little backward, whereas, 
on the contrary, the latter are dii'ected forward. The transvei'se processes of the 
6 anterior dorsals are directed foi-ward, the most anterior the most strongly, and 
that of the 6th little marked, but still so that the line drawn from the middle 
of the tip of one to the same place on the othei- lies in front of the middle of the 
body of the vertebra. The transverse processes oi the 7 posteiior dorsals are 
dii'ected backward, but of these the first and last less strongly. The transverse 
processes of the 7th and 8th dorsals are directed straight out on the sides. All the 
transverse processes of the lumbosacrals, with exception of the last, are, however, 
directed forward. Processus spinosi inferiores 18." 

The characters of the vertebrae above given agree with those of the Mas- 
sachusetts skeleton in the National Museum, but in the latter the anterior dorsals 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



147 



are only very slightly keeled below. The number of chevrons cited by Lilljeborg 
is two more than in any American specimen of B. x>hysalus I have examined, but 
Flower's Falmouth (Eug.) specimen had the same number as the Greenland 
skeleton, as will be seen by reference to p. 139. 
Lilljeboi'g's measurements are as follows : 

BAL^NOPTEBA FHYSALUS. GREENLAND. SKELETON. 



Measurement. 



Length of skeleton 

" " mandible 

Periphery of mandible at the middle 

Length of body of first lumbar 

Breadth of body of first lumbar 

Length of transverse process of first lumbar 

" " body of fifteenth lumbar 

Breadth of body of fifteenth lumbar 

Length of body of first caudal 

Breadth of body of first caudal 

Length of body of third caudal 

Breadth of body of third caudal 

Length of transverse process of third caudal 

Breadth of transverse process of third caudal 

Distance between outer angles of processus obliqui of third caudal 
Length of neural spine of third caudal 

" " body of fifth caudal 

Breadth of body of fifth caudal 

Length of last caudal 

" " sternum 

Breadth of sternum 

Length of first rib 

" " scapula from glenoid cavity to theopposite upper border 

Breadth ditto 

Length of acromion 

" " humerus 

" " ulna to tip of olecranon 

" radius 

" " one pectoral limb from head of humerus 



Greenland. 


(Copenhagen Mu 


seum.)' 


ft. 


in. 


53 





13' to 14' 


2 


3 





9 





"S 


I 


2i 


. 


i'4 


1 


o| 





1 1 


I 


1 





iij 


I 


oi 





5i 





6J 





4l 





loi 





ni 


I 


li 





I 


I 


3t 


I 


^ 


3 


9\ 


2 





3 


7i 





iii 


I 


7i 


2 


4J 


2 


3* 


6 


7} 



OPINIONS OF EUROPEAN CETOLOGISTS REGARDING THE OCCURRENCE OF D. PHYSALVS IN 

AMERICAN WATERS. 

In the Osteographie {8, 236) Van Beneden and Gervais express the opinion 
that Cope's Sihhaldim teciirostris is probably the same as B. physalm (for which 
they use the name B. musculus), but they had not seen the type, nor did they enter 
into any discussion of the subject. In 1889, again. Van Beneden includes Green- 
land in the range of this species, probably on the basis of the observations of Fa- 
bricius (7, 224), and remarks, " various authors have reported it at New England," 
referring doubtless to the observations of Dudley, Cope, and Allen. 

' Swedish measure. 



148 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

In the work previously cited (8, 171), Vau Beuedeu and Gervais seem to 
reo'ard the species described by Holboll under tlie Eskimo name Kijyorhaniah as 
probably representing this species, but Eschricht was in doubt as to this, and cer- 
tainly Holboll's description is not favorable to this view. It is in part as follows : 

" Above ou the head it had many rows of high tubercles of rounded form, 3 to 
■4 in. broad, and perhaps as high. They were located at equal distances from each 
other ; hence, in rows. . . . The furrows on the neck and breast reach about 
as far back as in B. longlmuna \_Megaptera\ but stand much wider apart. The 
peetoi-als, which must be regarded as h:>ng, were, howevei-, sliorter tlian in B. 
longimana. They aie cjuite narrow, and ha\'e some iiTegular emargiuations, one 
lai'ge emargination is to be seen about in the middle. . . . The coloi- is 
whale, — black on the back and on the sides, white on the belly ; the underside of 
the pectoials and flukes white, on the latter with a black band." (37, 197.) 

It is clear, I think, that this was a Humpback and not a Finljack whale. Es- 
chricht states that Holboll saw this whale only from the deck of a vessel, and asks 
very pertinently how he knew that it was the same as the KiforTmrnak of the Es- 
kimos. Fal>i'icius, dcMibtless, employed this native name correctly, and certainly 
for a very different animal from that described by Holboll, as above. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE SULPHURBOTTOM, BAL.^NOPTERA MUSCULUS (Linn.). 

The cliaracters of the Sulpburbottom or Blue whale, the largest of tlie Finbacks 
aud of all living animals, have been set forth with exactness ia the writino-s of 
Sars {78 and 79), Collett {20), Hallas {60), and Reinhardt {75). That a similar 
or identical species frequents the Atlantic coast of North America has been known 
for a long time, but specimens have very rarely found tlieir way into American 
museums, and exact observations ou its external characters are equally hard to find. 
Fortunately, at the new southern station of the Cabot Steam Whaling Company, 
Newfoundland, Sulphurbottoms are taken in large numbers, and I had opportunities 
in the summer of 1901 to make a careful examination of numerous specimens. 

The characters ascribed to B. musculus by Sars are as follows {79, 18) : 

"The length of full-grown individuals is 90 feet [Norwegian]; and it is not 
improbable that it may extend to 100 feet, so that this whale is to be regarded as 
the giant of all animals now living. 

"The body is less slender than in the ordinary Finbacks \_B. pJu)salits\, but not 
quite so thick-set as in the Little Piked ^vhale [i>. acuto-roHtrata\. The greatest 
depth is contained about 54 times in the total length, and the body behind the 
navel decreases in size gradually to the root of the flukes. 

"The color is everywhere, as well on the back as ou the belly, uniform gray- 
blue, sometimes lighter, sometimes darker. 

" On the pectoral region is generally found a larger or smaller number of small 
milk-white spots. 

"The length of the mouth is quite great, as in full-grown individuals it may 
be contained in the total length about 4i times. The upper jaw, seen from above, 
is proportionately much broader than in the two preceding species [^B. physalus 
and B. acuto-rosti-atio], as it begins first to decrease in breadth at the middle of the 
length, so that the mai'gins are quite strongly rounded and the snout rather blunt. 

" Pectoj'al fins proportionately larger than in the other species of the genus, but 
generally not more than \ the total length. Their form is somewhat different, 
in that they are more falcate, with the hind angle lying anterior to the middle 
of the length of the fin. On the outer side they are ofthe color of the body ; on 
the inner side aud along the whole anterior convex margin, pure white. 

"Dorsal fin extremely small and thin, triangular, and lies far back, at the 
beginning of the last fourth of the length of the body, and a good deal behind 
a vertical line drawn through the anus. 

"Flukes about the same color on the lower side as on the upper, or a little 
lighter. 

" Whalebone all dark blue-black." 

149 



150 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

SIZE. 

As we see above, Sars gives the length of B. muscnlus as 90 ft. (Norwegian)/ 
but expresses the opinion that it may extend to 100 ft. (Norwegian) ~ in some cases. 
In 1877, CoUett remarked of the species (20, 161) : 

"The usual length of the Blue whale is about 72 ft. 2 in. ■' (22 m.) ; while 
individuals are frequently caught that are barely 65 ft. 7 in. (20 m.), sometimes 
specimens are obtained which are between 81 ft. 8 in. and 91 ft. 10 in. (28 m.) 
in length. On a single occasion Foyn obsei'ved from liis boat an individual whose 
length he estimated at 132 ft. 10 in. (-10^ m.), but as he had another in tow at the 
time he could not attack this giant.* Three of the individuals investigated by me 
in 1874 had a length of between 72 ft. 2 in. and 81 ft. 8 in. The females appear 
as a rule to be larefer than the males." 



Sophus Hallas measured six specimens in Iceland in 1867 (60, 176), the 
largest of which, a male, was 80 feet (Danish) from the ti[) of the upper jaw 
to the notch of the flukes, measured along the curves. 

Cocks has given measurements of the total length of numerous specimens 
taken at the Finmark stations (iJ to 19). He remarks (15, 17, sep.) : 

"I was told, at third hand, of a Blue whale wliich measured 102 ft., and similar 
stories are numerous ; but I doul)t if the whales were in any case accurately meas- 
ured. Dr. Guldberg does not believe it ever attains a length of 100 ft.; a little 
over 80 ft. is, I believe, the longest that has been at all accurately measured at 
Vai-diJ, and whales of this length are the exception. Dr. Guldbei'g ( Vardo Posleti, 
Sei^t. 2, 1883) says of this species: 'Its length varies between 70 and 80 ft.; the 
individuals that are 70 ft. and under, I have always found to be rather young, and 
not full-grown. That it can attain to a length of over 80 ft. is certainly unquestion- 
able, although it may be very seldom. But the numerous measurements which 
have been taken of various individuals are not trustworthy, since they are not 
measured in a right line from the point of the under jaw to the cleft in the 
tailfln.'"^ 

In his reports on the fishery seasons of 1885 and 1886, Cocks gives measure- 
ments of numerous specimens of the Blue whale (17 and 18). The largest of these 
is 87 ft. 7 in. (85 feet, Noi'wegian). 

In 1886 Guldbeig, in a valuable paper on the biology of the North Atlantic 
Finback whales (51, 164), confirmed and extended his observations on the size of 

' Equals 92 ft. 8 in., English. 

' Equals 103 feet, English. 

' The measurements given in feet in the original I have translated into English feet and 
inches for convenience. — F. W. T. 

' The fact of having a whale in tow would not have hindered Captain Bull of the Newfound- 
land station from attacking a second individual, however large. He frequently brought in two at a 
time. 

'Guldberg's measurements are, no doubt, Norwegian, so that his statement should read: It 
varies between 72 ft. i in. and 82 ft. 5 in., English. Individuals 72 ft. i in., English, and under are 
young, etc. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 151 

B. museulus. His remarks are so impoi'taut in the present connection that a trans- 
lation of the pertinent pai-agraphs of liis article will be given. He writes : 

" It is well known that this whale grows to a great size. The excessive length 
of 102 ft. 8 in. ' and more has, indeed, been given. Collett states that Commander Bv. 
Foyn told him that he had once seen from his ship a gigantic examjjle, whose 
length he estimated at 132 ft. 10 in. (40A m.). I can not,"'however, refrain from 
expressing strong donbt that such large individuals exist. I shall not believe in 
such excessive size until I am convinced by correct measurements. Without wish- 
ing to decry the practical exercise of estimating with the eye the size of objects at 
sea, I have seen cases enough in which the most experienced seamen have at times 
been deceived, when observations at great distances were concerned. 

"During my last voyage to Finmark in 1883 a veiy accurate whaler men- 
tioned to me that he had seen a Blue whale 102 ft. 8 in. long which was driven to 
land on the Murman coast. He had not, however, measured the specimen ! Prof. 
Collett states that the usual length is 72 ft. 2 in. I believe, however, that this is 
estimated too low. 

" In his last article (in P. Z. S., April, 1886) he places the length between 70 
and 80 feet, which measure I can confirm. Prof. Sars (in Forli. Vid.-Sehk., 
Cliristiania, 1878) estimates the length of the full-grown animal at 92 ft. 8 in. This 
seems to me set too high. I have prepared the skeleton of many Blue whales. 
The first skeleton, a male neai'ly 78 ft. 9 in. (24 m.) long, was taken to the Uni- 
versity of Christiania in 1881 and later the fat was removed, at least from the ver- 
tebrae. It showed that all the epiphyses were anchylosed to the bodies of the 
veitebiag. In 1882 I directed the i)re]iai'ation of a Blue wliale (about 22 m.) which 
is in the Royal Museum at Brussels; in the year 1883 I pi-epared skeletons of two 
examples, which were somewhat smallei-, the one 22.27 m. and the other about 
21.17 m. A full growth was not shown here. I am on that account disposed to 
accept 77 ft. 1 in. (23-|^ m.) as a minimum for the adult animal. 

" As regards the maximum, it is, of course, impossible to say anything with cer- 
tainty. I will not dispute a length of 92 ft. 8 in., altliougli I believe that it very 
seldom occurs. The largest individual that I have measured was 84 Norwegian 
feet [= 86 ft. 6 in. English], or about 26* m., long; it was shot at sea under my 
eyes by the boat Jarj^jonl Prof. Aui'ivillius and Di\ Foi-stand of Upsala meas- 
ured in 1878 an example 86 ft. long," and Collett states that in 1868 a Blue whale 
96 feet long^ was found dead at sea and towed into Vardo. The Blue whales which 

I have seen varied mostly between 72 ft. 1 in. and 82 ft. 5 in. When an animal 
measured more than 77 ft. 3 in. oi' 78 ft. 3 in., it was considered quite lai'ge by 
the whalers." 

The largest recorded measurement for the species is that given ])y Dubar {34, 
17) for the^Ostend whale, namely, 31 meters, or 101 ft. 8 in. This is probably 
erroneous. In his introduction, Dubar {34-, 5) alludes to the same specimen as 
being 95 ft. long, while Van Bieda {11, 344) and Nyenhnis {71, 166) cite it as 25 
ells, or 80 ft. (Dutch) long. Van Beneden mentions the length in various places 

' In the translation the feet are reduced to feet and inches English measure. 

" Kind of feet not mentioned. If Norwegian, would equal 88 ft. 7 in. English. 

' Probably Norwegian feet (though Guldberg does not say so), in which case it equals 98 ft. 

II in., English. 



152 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

as between 80 ft. and 85 ft. In view of this uncertainty, to which Turner {91, 
244) has already called attention, the Ostend specimen can scarcely be cited as 
representing the maximum length, though there is no doubt it was a thoroughly 
adult, or old, individual. A specimen 30 meters long, or 98 ft. 4 in., is mentioned 
by Fischer (44, 72) as stranded at Dunquerque, in 1803. No particulars are given. 
The bibliographic i-eference is to Fredol's Le Monde de la Mer, a book with 
which I am not acquainted. Beauregard gives the same length, 30 m., for a male 
stranded at Oessant, France, in Feb., 1893 {Gomp. rend. 8oc. Biol. (9) 5, 1893, 274). 

Another veiy large measurement is that of Scoresby {84, i., p. 482), for a speci- 
men stranded in the Humber River, in 1750. The length recorded is 101 feet. So 
far as I am aware, this is not verified. The North Berwick specimen, described by 
Knox {62'), is said by him to have been 78 ft. in a sti-aight line from the snout to 
the notch of the flukes, but he adds that " if the line had been passed along the 
surface of the body, following its flexuosity, the whole length would have been 
from 90 to 95 feet," a statement which may perhaps be propeiiy questioned. 

Sai's I'emarked in 1874 {78, 7, sep.) : "The largest example I had opportunity 
to see was fully 80 feet' long in a straight line." This statement is indefinite. 
A specimen of this sjDecies, figured and described by Van Beneden (7, 257) from 
notes furnished by Dr. Otto Finsch, is given a length of 86 feet. It was a female, 
and was captured near Vadso, East Finniark, July 7, 1873. Whether the measure- 
ment is French or German is not stated ; if the lattei-, it would amount to 88 ft. 
7 in. English measure. 

The length of the Longniddry (ScotLuid) whale, according to Sir Wm. Turner 
{91, 199), was 78 ft. 9 in. "along the middle line of the back, from the tip of the 
lower jaw to the end of the tail." As the lower jaw projected 1|- ft. beyond the 
upper, the length from the tip of the snout woiild be 77 ft. 3 in. The expression 
" end of the tail," as shown by the context, means the notch of the flukes. 

From the foregoing records it apj^ears that the largest reliable measurements 
are those given by the Scandinavian zoologists and by Dr. Otto Finsch. The 
measurement by Aurivillius and Forstand, if in Norwegian feet, represents the 
maximum. This is 86 feet, whicli, if Norwegian, equals 88 ft. 7 in., English measure. 
Dr. Finsch's Vadsb specimen, if the measurement was in Rheinland feet, was of 
the same length, 88 ft. 7 in., English measure. Next follows Guldberg's speci- 
men — 84 feet Norwegian, which equals 86 ft. 6 in., English measure. The largest 
of the whaler's measurements cited by Cocks is 85 ft. Norwegian, which equals 
87 ft. 6^ in., English measure {17, 7, sep.). 

It has to be said of all these measurements that they can only be regarded as 
approximate, as it is not definitely stated whether they are from the tip of the 
upper or the lower jaw, from the notch or the border of the flukes, along the 
curves or in straight lines. 

The total length and the sex of specimens taken at Balena station, Newfound- 
land, in the summer of 1901, and measured by myself, with the assistance of Dr. 
D. W. Prentiss, were as follows : 

' Equals 82 ft. 5 in., English. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OE THE WESTEUN NORTH ATLANTIC. 
BALJENOPTEKA MUSCULUS (L.). BALBNA STATION, NEWFOUNDLAND. 



153 



Capture No. 



2 . 

3 
4- 

5- 
6, 

?■ 
8. 

9 

lO 

1 1 . 

12 . 

13- 
14- 
■5- 
•7- 

i8. 

19. 
20. 
21 . 

22 . 
23- 

24- 

25- 
26. 



Date of Capture. 



June 20 

2 t 

22 

t( t ( 

it. 

24 

" 26 

" 28 

29 



July 



Sex. 



Total Length. 



? 

? 
.•? 
<? 
6 
$ 
? 
<? 
,5 
? 

? 

S 
S 
? 
S 
? 
9 
S 
9 



72 ft. 

71 ■' 

73 " 

73 " 

68 " 

65 " 
67 " 
61 " 

72 " 
72 " 

71 " 

66 " 

65 " 
77 " 
63 " 

65 " 

72 " 

74 " 
70 " 

65 " 
61 " 

67 " 
6i " 

69 " 
65 " 



o in. 

o 

10 " 

6 " 

3 " 

o " 

o " 

o " 

H 

O 

7 " 
6 " 
6 " 

1 1 
2 

6 " 

8 " 

2 " 
6 " 

3 ^, 

2 

3 
3 

2 " 

6 " 

8 " 



The males and females in order of size were as follows : 

BALJENOPTERA MUSCULUS (L.). NEWFOUNDLAND. 



Males. 


Females. 




72 


ft. 


7 in. 




■'77 ft 


2 i 


n. 




72 


" 


2 " 




"74 " 


6 






7> 




6 " 




73 " 


10 ' 






71 




" 




73 " 


6 ' 






68 


" 


3 




-72 " 


' 






67 


" 







72 " 


' 






6S 


** 


1 1 " 




70 " 


3 ' 






6S 


il 


8 " 




69 •' 


6 ' 






6S 


" 


" 




67 " 


3 ' 






03 




6 " 




66 " 
65 " 
65 " 
61 " 
61 " 
61 " 


6 ' 
8 ' 

2 ' 

3 ' 

2 

' 




Maximum. . 








72 ft. 7 in. 


77 ft. 


2 in. 


Minimum . . 








63 " 6 " 


61 " 


" 


Average. . . 




... 


... (10) 


68 " 3 " 


{15) 68 " 


9 " 



'The total length is from the tip of the upper jaw to the notch of the flukes, measured along 
the curve of the back. ' Contained a foetus. 



154 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



From Cocks we obtain the following statistics of 36 specimens taken at the 

Norwegian stations (17 and IS) : 



BALMNOPTERA MUSCULUS (L.)- NORWAY. 





Males. 


Females. 




85 ft. in. 

51 " ° " 
(36) 74 " ° " 


87 ft. 6.1 in. 


Minimum - . 


52 " " 




(36) 75 " 8 " 







On comparing these figures with the previous ones, it will be observed that 
the Norwegian whales, both males and females, appear to attain a greater length 
than those of Newfoundland. The average length is also greater, though the com- 
putation includes individuals smaller than any of the Newfoundland specimens. 
Before my arrival at Baleua station, Newfoundland, in 1901, and also in the pre- 
ceding year, a number of Sulphurbottom whales had been taken. Adding such 
of the measurements of these as are available to my own, the following figures 
are obtained : 

BALMNOPTERA MUSCULUS (L.). NEWFOUNDLAND. 



Maximum. 
Minimum. 
Average. . . 




Females. 

79 ft. o in. 
55 " o " 
(35) 70 " o " 



Though a higher general average is obtained in this way, the maximum and 
averao-e for females are a little less than for males. This is due to the fact that 
many comparatively small females and few very large ones were taken in the 
summer of 1900. 

Averages obtained in this way, as already remarked in ti'eating of £. pliysalus, 
are not satisfactory on account of the inclusion of immature individuals. The best 
way to get lid of these, in the case of the females at least, will be to omit from 
consideration all specimens having a length less than that of such as are ascertained 
to be sexually mature. Guldbei'g, as we have seen (i5, 17, sep.), remarked of the 
Norwegian specimens, "the individuals that are 70 ft.' and under I have always 
found to be rather young and not full-grown." He also remarked (57, 164) : "It is 
not easy to fix the minimum for gravid females. I am, however, inclined to fix the 
minimum at 70 feet [= 72 ft. 1 in., English measure], and to estimate the average 
at about 75 feet [23|^ m.] ~ or more." Of the Norwegian females cited by Cocks as 
containing foetuses, or having milk running, the smallest is 74 feet 2 in. Of the 
females taken at Balena station, Newfoundland, 1901, the following females ob- 
served by myself contained foetuses : 



' Norwegian feet; equals 72 ft. i in., English measure. 



77 ft. I in., English measure. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE \rESTERN KORTH ATLANTIC. 

BALMNOPTERA MUSCnLVS (l,.). XF.WK. .rXDLAND. FCETUSES. '■"■■ 



155 



Capture No. 


Date. 


Length of Atlult. 


Length of Kortus. 


Sex 01 


Foetus. 


No. I 
No. 14 
No. 19 


June 20 

" " 29 
July 4 


1 72 ft. in. 
77 " 2 " 
74 " 6 " 


3 ft. I in. 

3 " Si " 
3 " 64 " 


S 



Of the specimens obtained at the same station iu 1900, the following females 
contained fcetuses: 

BALJENOPTERA MUSCULUS (hX NEWFOUNDLAND. FUOTUSES, l!H)n. 



Capture No. 


Date. 


Length of Adult. 


Length of Foetus. 


No. 54 
No. 99 


May 31 
July 10 


73 ft. 

73 " 


7 ft. 
■3 " 



From the foregoing data, it appears that the minimum length at maturity is 
72 feet for females. Excluding all below that length, the average for southei'n 
Newfoundland, fourteen specimens, is 74 ft. 8^ iu. 

For the Norwegian specimens, employing the same minimum, we obtain (24 
specimens) 79 ft. 3 in. as the average total length. 

It is to be observed in this connection that the Longniddry whale, which was 
78 ft. 9 iu. long from the tip of the lower jaw to the notch of the flukes, and 
contained a fcetus, is classed by Sir Wm. Turner (91, 203) as "adolescent," in ac- 
cordance with Flower's system (43, 385), based on the condition of the epiphy- 
ses of the bones. It is well known that in many species of mammals offspring 
are produced before the skeleton of the parent is completely ossified, but it may 
perhaps be questioned whether in whales the total length increases materially after 
sexual maturity. 

The condition of the bones cannot be ascertained usually at a whaling station, 
where the carcasses are towed away as soon as the blubber is stri{)ped off. It is 
probable, however, that the size at which sexual maturity is attained is quite as con- 
stant as the size at which the skeleton is completely ossified, so that averages based 
on specimens known to be sexually mature may be regarded as reliable and useful. 
Under the ordinary conditions of observation this is not as readily ascertained foi- 
males as for females. As the males in this genus are smaller than the females, we 
shall have too high an average for the former by excluding all individuals below 
the length of the latter at sexual maturity. The amount, however, is not likely to 
be large and may be neglected. 

For males 72 feet long and above, the average of the specimens measured by 
myself at Balena station, Newfoundland, in 1901, is 72 ft. 41 in. (2 specimens). 
Including the specimens taken the previous year at the same station, the average 
is 75 ft. 1 in. (19 specimens). For the Norwegian males cited by Cocks, the 
average is 77 ft. 7^ in. (27 specimens). The following table sums up these various 
statistics : 



156 



THE WHALEHOKE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



BAL^NnPTERA MlSCrhUS (L.). AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN. 



Locality. 


Average for 
all Specimens 
of both Se.xes. 


Average 

for all 
Females. 


Average 

for 
all Males. 


Average 
for Mature 
Fem.iles ' 


Aver.ige 

for Mature 

Males.' 


Maximum 

for 
Females. 


Maximum 

for 

Males. 


Minimum 

for 
Females. 


Minimum 

for 

Males. 




No. 


Length. 


No. 


Length. 


No. 


Length. 


No. 


Length. 


No. 


Length. 


Length. 


Length. 


Length. 


Length. 


Newfoundland 

(Balena station) 
Season of i got (my 

measurements) . 
Season of igoi, all 

specimens .... 
Season of igoo, all 

specimens 


25 
f>7 


68' 6" 
7t'3" 
71' 10" 


■5 


68' 9" 


10 


68' 3" 


6 


73' 10" 


2 


72' 5" 


77' 2" 72' 7" 

(82', sex unknown) 

79' 0" 81' 0" 


61' 0" 
61' 0" 

55' 0" 


63' 6" 
63' 6" 
63' 0" 


19 


70' 11" 


48 


71' 2" 


8 


75' 5" 


17 


75' 5" 


All the foregoing 
Newfoundland 
specimens .... 


138 


71' 7" 
















(82', sex 




55' 0' 


63' 0' 






36 
















Norway (Cocks) . . 


-2 


74' 10" 


36 


75' 8" 


74' 0" 


24 


7q' 3" 


27 


77' 8" 


87' 7" 85' 0" 


52' 0" 


51' o' 



The foregoing table shows that the average and the maximum length for both 
sexes is less iu the Newfoundland specimens than for those captured on the Nor- 
wegian coast, a result similar to that obtained in the case of J^. physalns. The 
measurements taken at the Newfoundland station other than my own cannot be 
considered accurate, though they are perhaps as accurate as those taken at the Nor- 
wegian stations. They both doubtless represent the largest possible measurements 
iu the majority of cases, while mine are for the distance from the end of the upper 
jaw to the notch of the flukes. My measurements between June 19 and 28, 1901, 
avei'age about thirteen inches less than those taken by the Newfoundland whalers 
from the same specimens. Even allowing for this circumstance, however, there is 
no doubt that larger whales are taken at the Newfoundland station earlier in the 
year than the time of my visit, and these are, or at least appear to be, smaller than 
those taken in former years at the Norwegian stations. 



PROPORTIONS. 



It will be oljserved that in Sars's diagnosis of J3. inusculus, quoted on p. 149, it 
is stated that the pectoral fin is "generally not more than \ the total length," and 
that the dorsal fin is extremely small and lies far back "at the beginning of the 
last fourth of the length of the body." During my sojourn at Balena station, 
Newfoundland, I made systematic measurements of specimens of Sulphurbottoms. 
Unfortunately, thei'e is no body of measurements of European specimens with 
which these can be compared. Of only five or six adults have we any measure- 
ments beyond the total length, and these for the most pai't unsuitable for com- 
parison. Such as they are, however, I have endeavored to use them in comparison 



with those iu the following table : 



Specimens 72 feet and over. 



THE WHALKHONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

BAL.-KNUPTEKA MUSUULUH (\..). BALEXA STATION, NEWFOUNDLAND. 1901. 



157 





No. 1. 
June 2o. 


No. 2. 
June 20. 


No. 3. 
June 21, 


No. 4. 

June 22. 


No. 5. 
June 22. 


No. 6. 
June 24. 


No. 7. No. 8. 
June 25, June 25. 


No. 9. 

June 26. 


No. 10. No. II. 
June 27. June 27. 


Sex 


s 


S 


9 


? 


S 


<S 




• 








* 






Total length, snout to notch 


72' 0" 


71' 0" 


73' 10" 


73' 6- 


68' 3" 


65' 0" 
13' 0" 


67' 0' 


61' 0' 


72' 0' 


72' 7' 


71' 6' 






15 I 


14' 6" 
12 6 
23 7 
55 2 
7 10 
10 7 

2 6 
9 

20 7 
20 7? 

3 10 
5 
<> 4i 
ij 
u 1} 


l6' o" 
14 

25 3 

56 9 

8 2 

II 5 
2 10' 
8^ 

20 8 

22 9 
4 2 


16' 3" 


14' 6" 


14' 6' 
12 8^ 
2 45^ 
51 7i 
7 2' 
10 8^ 

2 10 
7 

iS 10 
23 10 

3 S 
5 


13' g" 

12 3' 

22 8 

47 3 
6 9 
9 10 

2 6 
9| 

16 6 
18 

3 5 


15' 5V 
13 6 
25 6 
56 10 
7 q 
II 4 

2 8 
I 2 

19 9 
21 7 

3 9 


15' 3i' 

25 5 

7 10 
II 7 

3 

10 
20 8 
25 5 

3 loi 


14' 8' 
12 3' 

24 8 
56 I 

7 10 
10 II 

2 8 


" " *' blowhole 


" " *' " post, base of pectoral. 
" " *' '* *' " " dorsal . . . 


24 7 


25 6 
56 10 

7 7 
1 1 

2 8' 
li 

19 7 

21 9 

3 8 


24 2 

54 3 

7 4 

10 4 

2 8 
9 

18 2 
22 3 

3 S 


49 S 

7 5 

10 8 

2 8 
10 

20 0' 
24 10« 

3 8 


Length of pectoral from post. base.. . 
" headof humerm 


7 I 
9 10 
2 5 
8 
18 5 
20 4i 


Heiffht of dorsal 


I 2 










Eye to ear 


4 I 


Diameter of eyeball antero-post . . 




























li 








































5 .S 






2 8 








1 1 1 

I 10 


2 3 


2 








I 4 




I 3 








1 ' 















Sex. 



Total length, snout to notch . 



No. 12. 
June 28. 



Tip of snout to eye 

" " " " blowhole 

" " " " post, base pectoral. 
" " " " " " dorsal. . . 

Length of pectoral from ]>ost. base.. 
" " " " h'd of hum's 



Greatest breadth of pectoral 

Height of dorsal 

Notch to anus 

" " penis (or clitoris). . 
Kreadth of flukes, tip to tip. 
Breadth of caudal peduncle. 

Eye to ear 

Length, longest whalebone. 



No. 13. 
June 28. 



66' 6" 



65' II" 77' 2 



14 4 
23 7 



7 o 



2 9 

I 3^ 
19 ID 
21 5 



3 S 
r 8 



No. 14. 
June 29. 



No. 15. 
June2Q, 



14 I 
II 3* 
23 2 
51 3 
10 



9 

2 9 

o 6 

18 9 

23 7 



10 



3 S 



i6'io ' 



( 78M 
} 8 8'* 

(II 2« ) 

I124M 

3 2 

o 10 
22 o 
24 o 



2 4 



No. 17. 
July 2. 



No. 18. 
July 3- 



No. ig. 
July 4. 



63' 6" 



65' 8" ;72' 2' 



8" 

3' 
6 

3 

o 

o 

6 
7 
9 
4 



3 
II 



74' ('" 



No. 20. 
July 4. 



No. 21. No. 22. 
Julys. July 6. 



16' 2 



7 5 



2 9 

o 8i 



6" 
10 



o <)i 



3 7 3 9 \ 3 H 



4 2 
2 O 



14 3 
23 9 



6 4 

9 95 
2 6 
o 9 

19 I 

20 II 



No. 24. 
July 8. 



70' t" . A(;' 



5 8 
3 7 
2 o 



13 4 

II 3 

22 5 

49 2 

6' lo 

10 1 

2 6 

o 7 

ig 6 

21 4 



5 in 
3 4i 



13 


0" 


12 


5' 




2 








6 


9 


6 


8 


9 


9 


9 





2 


.5 


2 


6 





10 





Si 


18 


2 


18 


s 


ig 


6 


20 





13 


8? 


15 


8 


3 


5 








I 


7 


I 


b 



The foi-egoing measuiement.s i-etluced to percentages of the total length are 
given in the following table, the sexes being separated and the different individuals 
arranged in order of size : 



' Curved ; 2' 8" straight. ^ Center. 

' Curved ; 24' l" straight. * Exact. 



5 Center. ' Right. ' Along curve of peduncle, 2o'l'. 

« Left. ' Post, end of orifice of sheath. '"" Along curve,25' 



158 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



BALMNOPTERA MUSCULUS (h.). BALENA STATION, NEWFOUNDLAND. 1901. 





No. 
14 


No. 
19 


No. 
3 


No. 
4 


No. 
I 


No. 
9 


No. 
20 


No. 
12 

S 

66'6" 
798" 


No. 
21 

5 


No. 
22 

S 

6i'3' 
735" 

% 
21.2 


No. 
24 

S 

61 '2" 
734" 

% 
20.3 


No. 
S 


Sex 


$ 

77'2" 
926" 

% 
21.8 


S 


S 


S 


S 


S 


, „ 
703 

843" 

% 
20.3 

33'8 
27.0 

29.8 
9.0 

13-9 
3.6 
I.I 


? 






74'6" 
894" 


73'io" 
886" 


73'6" 
882' 


72'o" 

864" 


72'o" 

864" 


65'2" 
782" 


6i'o" 




732" 




% 
21.7 


% 

21.6 
18.9 

34.3 
76.9 
28.0 
30.8 
II. I 
15-4 
3.S 
0.96 


% 
22.1 

34.7 
77-3 
26.7 
29.6 
10.3 
14.9 
3-8 
0.S6 


% 
20.9 

34-1 

25.6 
28.3 


2), 5 

18.8 

35-4 
78.9 
27-4 
2g.S 
lo.S 
15.8 
3-7 
1.4 


% 
21.6 

35.5 

29.8 
32.2 
10.5 
15.3 
4-1 
1.9 


% 

20.5 
17.3 
34-4 
75-5 
29.9 
32.7 
lO.O 
15-5 
3.8 
0.9 


% 
22.5 


'* " " " blowhole 








36.2 

29.5 
31.8 
II. 

15-9 
3-9 
1.4 


10.9 

15. 8 

41 

1.2 


37-1 
77.5 
27.0 

29-5 

II. I 

l6.I 

4.1 

1-3 


" '* " " " " "dorsal 






Notch of flukes to anus 

' ' clitoris 

Length of pectoral from post, base 

" " " " head of humerus 

Height of dorsal (vertical) 

Breadth of flukes 


2S.2 

31.1 

to. 6' 

15.2' 

4.1 

I.I 


I.I 





























Sex. 



Total length ^g^'j," 



Tip of snout to eye 

" " " "blowhole 

" " " " post, base of pectoral . . . . 

" " " " " " " dorsal 

Notch of flukes to anus 

" " " " penis 

Length of pectoral from post, base 

" " " " head of humerus 

Greatest breadth of pectoral 

Height of dorsal (vertical) 

Breadth of flukes 



No, 
10 



35-2 



28.5 
35.2 
10.8 
15-9 
4-1 
I.I 



No. 
18 



72 2 
866" 



No. 
II 



No. 
2 



7i'6' 
858" 



20.5 
171' 

34-5 

78.4 
28.0 

36.5 
II. o 

15-3 
3-7 
1.5 



710 
852' 



20.4 

17.6 
33-2 
77-7 
28.5 

II. o 

14.9 
3-5 
i.o 



No 

5 



68 '3 
819' 



21.3 

35-4 
79-5 
26.6 

33-9 
10.7 

I5-I 
3.9 
I.I 



No. 
7 



67'o" 
804" 



21.6 
18.9' 
36-4 
77-1 
28.1 
35 6 
10.7 

'5-9 
4.2 
0.87 



No. 
13 



65'ii 
791" 



21.4 
17.I 
35.2 
77-7 
28.4 
35.8 
10.3 

14.9 
4.2 
0.76 



No, 
17 



65'8 



No 
6 



65'o' 
780' 



76.4 
30.8 
37-0 
11.4 
151 
4-1 
1-3 



No. 
15 



63'6" 
762" 



% 

21.5 
19.0 

35-4 
77.6 
27.9 
35-1 
II. o 

15-7 
3-9 
o.g 



As already stated, there is no considerable number of measurements of Euro- 
pean specimens \vith which the Newfoundland figures can be compared, and 
the.se show such discrepancies as to be of little use. Some well-known specimens, 
such as the Ostend whale of 1827, cannot be considered at all on account of the 
uncertainty as to their real length, etc. Great pains have been taken in the follow- 
ing table to harmonize the measurements of the different specimens with each 
other and with the Newfoundland series, but the results are entirely unsatisfac- 
tory. Measurements in bi'ackets are calculated from others given by the various 
observers. Eschiicht's Greenland specimen is included here for convenience. 



' Average of the two sides. 



'Center. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



159 



BALMNOPTERA MUSCULUS (L.). EUROPEAN. 



Sex. 



Total length . 



Tip of snout to eye 

" " " blowhole 

posterior base of pectoral . 
dorsal. . . 

Notch of flukes to anus 

" " " " clitoris (or penis) 

Length of pectoral from posterior base . . . 
head of humerus. 

Greatest lireadth of pectoral 

Height of dorsal (vertical) 

Breadth of flukes 




3-2 



:xi4 



78' o"^ 
936" 



26.9 



13.8' 
4.9 

25.6 



>^-0 CO 

3 - ^' 

M .• £ 






CXS, 



^^ «5 00 



'- — ** 



o p 



«-o ^- 



13 .-^ 



J3 .~ 



'JOC 



[7 7' 3 J 
927' 



.2°Sl 


[i7.oJ 


.43-9 


L76.8J 



27.1 

3°-9 



O.I o 

816" ' 



36.9 
78.9 



31-9 
"■3 

16.5 
5-0 

24.1 



irS4ni 

(S7'f) 
690' 



[16.4]' 



323 
35- 1 ' 

1 1.6 



3-0 
20.3 



52' 5" 
629" 



iS.o 

15-7' 

33-1 

72.7 

3°-4 



Si'7" 
6.9" 



Li4.7j 
'5-3' 

L32.5J 



'5-2 

3-2 



'4-3 
3-2 
I.I 



From the uncertainties and contradictions of this table it is refreshing to turn 
to the excellent figure of an European Blue whale published in 1874 by Sars (78), 
whose work is notable for its acciu'acy. Sars states that this figure, which is from 
an 80-foot (Norwegian) female taken at Foyn's Finnuirk station, was made by him 
"with the greatest care" after repeated measurements and observations, and with 
the aid df photographs (78, 232 ; 8 sep.). 

Measureiuents made on this figure, compared with those of the largest of the 
Newfoundland females of which I made full measurements, show an exti'cmely 
close correspondence, as indicated behnv : 

BALMNOPTERA MUSCULUS (L.). NEWFOUNDLAND AND NORWAY. 



Measurement. 



Total length. 



Tip of snout to eye 

" " " " blowhole ■•• 

" " " " posterior base of pectoral, or axilla. 
■' " '■ " " " " dorsal 

Length of pectoral from posterior base, or axilla 

Greatest breadth of pectoral 

Height of dorsal 



Nevvfoundlaml, lyoi. 
4 No. 3. 



73 "° 
per cent. 

21.6 

18.9 

343 
76.9 
II. 1 

3.8 
0.96 



Sars's figure. 
1874. 9 



So' o" (Norweg.) 

per cent. 

21.6 

18.S 

371 
77.0 
I I.O 

3-8 
0.96 



' Center. 
' Straight. 
' Skeleton. 



' Must be incorrect. ' From posterior margin of flukes. 

° Danish measure, in straight line from lower jaw. 
' " Longueur totale." 'B.caiolina. 



160 



THE WHALEBOITE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



The only real disci'epancy, it will be observed, is in the distance from the tip 
of the snout to the posterior base of the pectoial fin. A glance at the figure will 
show that the latter point is difficult to determine upon. 

In 1878 Sars published auothei' figure, based on a male having a length of 67 
ft., Norwegian (= 69 ft., English) — {79, 3 and 4, pi. 3). This is substantially the 
same as the figure of 1874, but differs a little in proportions. Compared with 
the ten Newfoundland males, which are of about the same size, the average per- 
centages are as follows : 

BALMSOPTEBA MUSCULUS (L.). NEWFOUNDLAND AND NOKWAT. 



Measurement. 



Total length. 



Tip of snout to eye 

" " " " blowhole (center) 

" " " posterior base of pectoral. 

" " " " " " dorsal.. 

Length of pectoral from posterior base. 

Greatest breadth of pectoral 

Height of dorsal 



Average of Ten 

Males. 
Newfoundland. 


Sars's Figure, 
1S78. S 


per cent 




69' 0" 
per cent. 


21. 1 




20.4 


17.9 

35-1 
77.8 

10.7 




18.4 

35-0 
75-4 
II. 2 


3.S 
i-°5 




4.9 
1-3 



It will be seen that the ])rincipal differences between Sars's figure and the 
Newfoundland s|)eciraens are in tlie moi'e forward position and greater height of the 
dorsal fin and the greater bieadth of the pectoral. It is exactly in these particu- 
lars that the figure of 1878 differs from that published in 1874. On the other 
hand, in so far as these two figures agree with each other they are hannonious 
with the average of the Newfoundland specimens. 

BAL^NOPTSRA MUSCULUS (L.). (STEYPIREYDR.) ICELAND. 



Sex 



Total length . 



Tip of snout to eye 

" " " " blowhole 

" " " " pectoral 

" " " " posterior margin of dorsal. 

Notch of flukes to anus 

" " " " penis 

Length of pectoral (from axilla ?) 

" " " from head of humerus. 

Greatest breadth of pectoral 

Height of dorsal 

Breadth of flukes 



t: o o 
to 3 ^ 



843" 



21.4 
19.4 

31.6 
76.5 



14.2 

2.7 
0.83 
20.4 



l-< > - 



864" 



22.2 
18.8 



13-9 
15-3 



960" 



% 
18.I 

15-5 



13.8 

3-1 
°-73 
19.6 



866" 



78.5 
25-4 
33-3 
13-8 
iS-4 
3-5 

19.6 



889" 



36 

13 

14 

3 






912 



151 
3-4 
0.77 



' Danish. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



IGl 



Soplius Hallas's excellent table of measurements of six Sulpburbottoms taken 
at Iceland in 1867 (60) affords means of comparing the Newfoundland and Nor- 
wegian specimens with Icelandic ones. His measurements reduced to percentages 
are given in the preceding table. 

The averages for these six Iceland specimens and foi- the ten Newfoundland 
males, ai'e as follows : 

BAL^NOPTERA MUSCULUS (L.). ICELAND AND NEWFOUNDLAND. 



Measurement. 



Tip of snout to eye 

" " " " blowhole 

'] '' ''^ " pectoral 

" " " " post, margin of dorsal . . . 

Notch of flukes to anus 

" " " " penis 

Length of pectoral 

" " " from head of humerus 

Greatest breadth of pectoral 

Height of dorsal 

Breadth of flukes 







Ten Newfoundland 


Iceland 


Specimens. 


Specimens. 
Males. 


pe 


- cent. 


per 


cent. 


(3) 


20.6 




21. 1 


15{ 


17.9 




17-9 


3I.6- 


(9) 


35.1' 


(2) 


77-5 


(9) 


77.8 


1:! 


25-4 




28.1 


34-7 


(9) 


35-2 


(6) 


.3.2' 




10.7' 


(6) 


I4-7 




15-3 


(5) 


3-2 




3-8 


(,s) 


0.78 




1-05 


(3) 


19.9 


(2) 


239 



The agreement of the Iceland and Newfoundland specimens in many propoi-- 
tions is very close. The principal discrepancies are in the distance from the notch 
of the flukes to the anus, in the height of the dorsal fin, and in the breadth of the 
flukes. The first measurement was made on only one Iceland specimen. As to the 
second — the height of the dorsal, — it can only be said that the individual measure- 
ments and the average are within the limits of valuation of the Newfoundland speci- 
mens in this particulai'. Still it would rather be expected that one of the three 
Iceland specimens measured by Hallas would have had a higher dorsal, if there is 
no constant difference between Iceland and Newfoundland Sul[)hurbottoms. Of 
the discrepancy in the breadth of the flukes little can be said, as the measurements 
are so few, and in the Newfoundland specimens so uncertain. 



COLOR. 



The best description of the color of European B. nntsadus with which I am 
acquainted is that given by Sars in 1874 (78, 233; 9, sep.), after he had seen ten 
specimens of the species at Foyn's whaling station in Fiumark. It is as follows : 

" In all the examples observed by me the whole body, as well on the back as 
on the belly, was of a uniform blue-gray or slate-gray color, somewhat dai;ker on 
the head and breast, and lightest along the sides, where there is found a quite hne 
and i^eculiar mottling of darker and lighter shades. The whole ground coin.' of the 
whale, seen at a dis^tance, has very distinctly a bluish cast, and that m a more 
' To anterior base ? ' To posterior base, or axilla. ' Points of measurement not stated. 



162 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOKTH ATLANTIC. 

conspicuous manner than in any other whale with which I am acquainted. 
The name ' Blue whale,' bestowed on this species by Foyii, seems to me very suit- 
able, and I will therefore propose that it be adopted for the species as the 
Norweo-ian common name. The [lectoral fins externally are of tbe color of the 
body, but on the inner surface and the whole lower convex l)order, shining white, 
which color at a long distance contrasts sharply with the dai-k tints of the rest of 
the body. Quite constantly there occur also below the {)ectorals on the fluted sides 
of the breast a number of small milk-white spots, whose number and distribution 
vaiy considerably in different individuals. In addition, I have found in all indi- 
viduals, more or less sti'ongly marked, a lighter mottling above the roots of the 
pectorals and between them and the region of the eye. The flukes, as well above 
as below, are of the color of the body, but on the lower sui-face a little lighter tban 
on the upper." 

The color of the 25 or 30 Newfoundland specimens which I observed agreed 
well with this description, though I found, as in the case of the Common Finback, 
that there was a large individual vai-iation, no two specimens being precisely alike. 

Neither Sars's figure nor his description gives an adequate idea of the compli- 
cated coloration of the species. It would be futile to attempt a detailed desci'iption 
of the markings, but some idea may be given of the general disposition of the lighter 
and darker tints. In the Sulphurbottonis of Newfoundland the head, chin, throat, 
and lips are dark bluish-gray, darker than the I'est of the body and uniform. All 
the remainder of the body is variously spotted, mottled, and lined with light gray, 
dark gray, and white. The shoulders, l>ack, and sides are mottled \vith large ii'regu- 
larly elliptical marks of dark gi-ay and light gray, the latter genei'ally predominating, 
and sometimes almost excluding the dark color, so that the whole animal behind 
the eyes appears light gray. Even in these cases, however, there are areas of nioi'e 
or less dark color above the pectoral fins (\vhen laid back) and the anus, and 
between the latter and the flukes. 

The long axes of the elliptical light-gray markings take different directions. 
They sweep up annmd the base of the pectoral fin and are then directed obliquely 
downward and backwai'd above the posteiior ends of the furrows. They then 
point directly backward, or those of the upper rows upward and backward toward 
the top of the caudal peduncle. 

The belly is invariably marked with distinct white spots, which, however, vary 
greatly in number. In some cases they are so numerous under the root of the 
pectoral fin as to produce a large white area, extending as a band backward toward 
the navel, and some spots are to be found down to the median line and scattered 
forward considerably in fi'ont of the pectoi'al fin, a few even invading the lips. In 
other cases the white spots run off the pectoral flutings posterioily on to the flanks, 
between the navel and the anus. In other cases again, there ai'e no white spots 
anterior to the base of the pectoral fin, and they only extend down to the median 
line at the posterior end of the pectoral flutings and there stop. 

The under surface of the flukes near the root, froui the anterior margin back- 
ward, is finely marked with alternating light and dark gray lines I'unning antero- 
posterioily, hut finally curving inward towai'd the median line. 



THE WHALEHONK WHALKS OK THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 163 

The central [)art of the surface of the dorsal fin is usually more oi- less white 
or whitish, streaked with vertical curved gray lines, but in soiue cases the light color 
is reduced to spots, or is altogether absent. 

The pectorals are gi-ay above and more or less distinctly mottled like the 
back. The under surface, anterior margin, and ti[) above and below are white. 

The median line of the body below is usually plain dark gray between the 
anus and the flukes, but commonly more or less mottled with light color from the aims 
to the navel by the joining of the light areas of the two sides of the body. There 
are usually white marks and dashes ai'ound the anus, sexual orifice, and navel. 

The variation in amount of white and gray on the pectorals of the New- 
foundland Sulphurbottoms was very considerable and merits special mention. 

The external, or upper, surface of the pectorals is gray proximally, and moi'e or 
less white distall}^ The gray may be like the darker color of the back and uniform, 
or may be varied with from one to six or seven blotches of lighter gray. The white 
of the tip vaiies in extent from a mere continuation of the anterior white border, to 
a solid white area havina; a lono^itudiual extent of from 6 inches to 2 feet. In some 
cases the white extends backward, foi-ming a nari'ow posterior border almost to the 
root of the pectoral. In other cases the backward extension takes the form of 
a succession of oblicpie white lines, rather than a continuous border of that color. 
In very light individuals white lines may run backward from the tip for neai'ly 
J the length of the pectoral. The white area of the tip is always more or less 
varied by dark lines, which may be long or short, parallel or reticulated. The 
anterior margin of the pectorals is normally white throughout, but in some instances 
the dark gray of the external face extends across the proximal half, or there may 
be various gray lines. In one instance there was a dark-gray patch on the antei'ior 
margin near the middle of its length. The limb appeared to have been injured at 
this point. 

The internal, or under, surface of the pectorals is normally white throughout, but 
there are almost always some gray lines and marks. These sometimes take the form 
of spots, but are usually lines, and may be fine or coarse, and either parallel with the 
axis of the pectoral, or oblique and reticulated. The single lines are sometimes 
quite long, reaching almost from the tip to the root of the pectoral. The shoi-ter 
dark lines are most abundant about the tii>, and those individuals in which the tips 
are malformed usually have the most mai'kings. 

The only important feature as regards coloration in which the Newfoundland 
Sulphurbottom a[)pears to differ from the Eniopean, as shown by the preceding 
description, is in the color of the dorsal tin. In the Newfoundland specimens this 
fin was usually more or less white oi' whitish, excei)t on the margins, with darker 
curved lines extending up vertically from its base. There is no mention of this 
peculiarity in the descriptions of European Suli)hurbottoms I have consulted, 
though it must be said that in most of the accounts the dorsal fin is scarcely 
described at all. Sir AVm. Turner remarks of the Longniddry whale {91, 202) that 
the dorsal fin was " steel-gray or l)lack, except neai' its posterior border, where it 
was a shade lighter and streaked with black lines." The introduction of black here 



164 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOKTH ATLANTIC. 

and elsewhere ia the description makes it probable that the Longniddiy whale was 
not in a fresh condition when observed by Turner, but otherwise the sentence 
quoted would appear to indicate that the dorsal was colored somewhat similarly to 
that of the Newfoundland specimens. 

INDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN COLOR. 

The following notes on the coloration of individual specimens were made by 
me immediately upon their being drawn out of the water. In most cases the whale 
had been brought in by the steamer a few hours previously, but occasionally one 
was brought in late at uiglit and was not drawn out on the slip and examined until 
the following morning : 

No. 1. Female. June 20, 1901. Total length, 72 feet. This whale was partly 
flensed when I examined it. Gray all over, and everywhere spotted except on 
the head, chin, throat, and bi'east. The spots on the sides and back are light 
gray, elliptical, with irregular margins ; those on the belly smaller and nearly pure 
white. Tlie dorsal fin has a light-gray, almost white, ground, with sinuous gray 
streaks running vertically, heaviest and darkest toward the tip, which is solid 
dark gray. Roof of mouth black ; tongue slate gray. Left pectoral white under- 
neath and on the anterior edge, with a few oblique sti-eaks and rows of blackish 
spots. Externally the pectoral is white at the tip for about one foot, with narrow 
gray streaks running from the general gray color at the proximal end. Under 
surface of flukes, proximally, uniform gray. 

No. 2. Male. June 20, 1901. Length, 71 feet. Head dark slate-color from 
opposite the base of the pectoral fin forward. The whole back gray, with large, 
irregular, elliptical light spots as far backward as a Hue midway between the dorsal 
fins and flukes, beyond which the spots are less numerous. Whitish along the 
base of the dorsal fin. On the abdominal ridges the amount of light and dark 
gray is about equally divided. The spots are smaller and whiter on the belly than 
on the flanks and back. The elliptical spots do not begin on the throat until about 
half-way from the snout to the pectoral fin. The majority are opposite the pecto- 
rals. From the posterior end of the abdominal lidges the spots of the sides come 
down and meet in the median line between the navel and the oi'itice of the penis. 
From the ear to the insertion of the pectoi-al fin, and again from the tip of that fin 
for a distance backward about equal to its length, tlie spots coalesce to form 
two large areas almost entirely light gray. The anterior portion of the under 
sui'face of the flukes jjroximally is streaked with light color. Anterior margin and 
whole underside of pectorals white ; tip white externally for about two feet, and 
the whitish color extends backwaixl along the lower external border nearly to the 
root of the fin. On the exterior of the left pectoral the white patches extend well 
beyond the base, and the white of the tip extends far toward the base, so that only 
the central area is uniform gray. An indefinite light line extends forward from the 
pectoral to the posterior angle of the eye and to the corner of the mouth. (See pi. 
13, fig. 1.) 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OK THE WESTERN NOR'I'H A'PLANTfC. 165 

No. 3. Bemale. Jtme 21, 1901. Total lengtb, 73 ft. 10 in. Superior sui-- 
face of the head to the eye, and as far back as the head of the humerus, uniform 
gray. The white spots of the belly are few and are confined to an area i-uuniiig 
obliquely from the base of the pectorals to the navel. Those of the two sides 
do not meet in the median line until nearly at the navel. From the navel to the 
clitoris the inferior median line is dark gray and without spots. On the sides of 
the body the light spots are exceedingly numerous and occupy a larger area tlian 
does the darker color. Their long axes have definite directions. They sweep 
around the base of the pectoral fin and are then directed obliquely downward and 
backward above the posterior ends of the abdominal ridges. They then point di- 
rectly backwai'd, or those of the upper rows upward and backward toward the toj) 
of the caudal peduncle. The sides of the caudal peduncle have more of the light 
color than the dark, and the same is true on the shoulder. The pectoral fins are 
white externally for about 6 inches from the tip, but the light gray spots do not 
extend foi'ward from the base as much as in No. 2. Tlie base of the flukes under- 
neath is light gray anteriorly, with darkish fine lines running fore and aft, growing 
darker toward the posterior margin of the flukes, which is quite dark gray. (See 
pi. 13, fig. 2.) 

No. 4. Female. June 22, 1901. Total length, 73 ft. 6 in. The sides of the 
body have more light color than dark, except above the pectoral fins (when 
laid back). The light color extends forward to a line drawn between the eye and 
the inferior median line opposite the head of the huraei'us. The inferior median 
line from the anus backward is plain gray. The spots of the two sides come to- 
gether in the median line between the navel and clitoris ; behind the anus tliey 
extend downward but do not meet in the median line. White spots on the breast 
vei'Y few, not reaching the median line. White dashes about the sides of the anus 
and pudendum. From the dorsal to the flukes, the sides of the caudal peduncle 
are nearly all light colored up to within about a foot of the superior edge, where 
the color is nearly all dark. Base of flukes below finely lined with darkish gray 
streaks running fore and aft, but curving inward toward the median line. 

No. 5. Male. Jtme 22, 1901. Total length, 68 ft. 3 in. A very light 
individual, light gray all over, the head alone being darker. The white blotches 
on the abdominal ridges are numerous and very white, and run ofl:" the 2)ostei'ioi- 
ends of the ridges along the flanks in the form of narrow elongated markings, quite 
unlike the elliptical gray blotches of some of the preceding specimens. Much white 
around the navel and some behind the anus. From a point about opposite the 
orifice of the penis, the white markings of the sides almost disappear, but they I'eap- 
[)ear in moderate abundance behind the line of the anus for a foot or two. This 
No. 5 has three large irregular white scars on the right side. The right pectoral 
has much of the posterior margin torn and irregular, and the tip broken. (See pi. 

18, fig. 1.) 

No. 6. Male. Jtme 24, 1901. Total length, 65 feet. The liglit blotches of 
the sides meet in the median line between the navel and orifice of the penis. They 
are especially numerous at the posterior end of the ridges and are whitest there. 



166 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

They cover the sides thickly as far back as the line of the anus, but grow gradu- 
ally less and less numerous posteriorly. The white spots of the abdominal ridges 
extend downward from the base of the pectorals about 18 inches, and I'un thence to 
the posterior end of the ridges, and join the larger but less whitish markings of the 
sides. All the median posterior area of the ridges is practically without spots, and 
there are very few anterior to the base of the pectorals. There are quite numerous 
white marks at the sides of and behind the orifice of the penis, and below the anus. 
A triangular area of whitish spots and lines extends from the eye to the ear, with 
the apex at tlie eye. The whole shoulder, to the line of the tip of the pectoral 
(when laid back), is light and nearly unifoi-m in coloi', breaking into large oblong 
spots, showing the darker ground-color between them as they approach the median 
line of the back. A long light area begins at the median line about opposite 
the tip of the pectoral and extends obliquely backward over the sides of the 
body, breaking into spots which extend in small numbers to the base of the flukes. 
Flukes streaked underneath (and indistinctly above) as in pi-evious specimens, and 
there are some broad and long marks like scratches. A little white at tlie tip of 
the pectorals externally. (See pi. 14, fig. 7.) 

No. 7. Male. June 25, 1901. Total length, 67 feet. This is a dark indi- 
vidual, but has much white on the abdominal ridges from the base of the pectorals 
obliquely downward and backward to the navel. The white here is in the form of 
continuous areas, with small elongated gray spots and dashes overlying them. The 
whole belly is mottled with lighter and dai-ker shades of gray. The white of the 
two sides meets in the median line considerably in front of the navel. Both pec- 
torals irregular at the tip, with dark longitudinal markings; also a darkish mark 
along the middle of the underside from the tip half-way to the root. Dorsal fin 
very white, i. e., with vertical gray and white lines alternating. (See pi. 19, fig. 1.) 

No. 8. Female. June 25, 1901. Total length, 61 feet. A moderately dark 
individual. Practically no white on the abdominal ridges anterior to the line of 
the base of the pectorals. Proximal half of anterior margin of pectorals gray, and 
irregular dark scratches at the tips. (See pi. 19, fig. 2.) 

No. 9. Female. June 26, 1901. Total length, 72 feet. A very white in- 
dividual, the whitest one seen. All white at the base of the pectorals, and about 
an equal mixture of white and gi'ay on the abdominal ridges from that point back- 
ward. The white of the two sets of ridges meets in the median line. Little white 
on the ridges anterior to the base of the pectorals. The sides of the body from some- 
what behind the tips of the pectorals (when laid back) nearly all light gray, with 
spots and areas of dai'ker gray between. Much of the latter color f i-om the dorsal fin 
backwai'd along the superior margin of the caudal peduncle, while light blotches 
more or less clouded and spotted with darker gray extend all over the sides of the 
peduncle to the insertion of the flukes. A very light gray area on the shoulder and 
above the ear, extending thence obliquely backward toward the median line. Above 
the pectorals the back is varied with the gray ground-color and larger light gray 
spots in about equal amounts. The light-gray mai'kings of the sides have a tend- 
ency to become whorls. From a distance, this whale seen from the dorsal aspect 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 167 

looks uniform gray on the head, coarsely mottled with lighter fi'om the shoulder to 
the middle of the length, thence practically all light gray to the flukes. The median 
line below, from the navel to the clitoris, is plain gray. Sides of pudendum below 
the mammary slits and around the anus nearly pure white. Underside and an- 
terior margin of pectoral very pure white. The fore-and-aft curved lines of altei-- 
nately gray and white very distinct on the underside of the flukes. Dorsal fin with 
a neai'ly pure white autei'ior basal area, with cui-ved vertical narrow gray lines. 
(See pi. 14, fig. 1 ; pi. 18, figs. 3 and 4.) 

No. 10. Male. June 27, 1901. A light individual. The back nearly all 
light gray, with dark blotches opposite the tip of the pectoi-al, opposite the anus, 
and adjoining the base of the flukes. Though light, the color is not white on the 
flukes, nor on the lower surface of the body, except on the ridges, and a dash or two 
about the penis and anus. The amount of white on the ridges very considerable. 
Median line between navel and anus mostly dark gray. But little light gray on 
the underside of the flukes. Pectorals blotched on the outside like the flanks 
vvith light gra}', and the tips with a mass of reticulated dark lines below. 

No. 11. Male. Jum 27, 1901. Total length, 71 ft. 6 in. A moderately light 
individual. Flanks mottled dark and light as in other specimens. From the 
dorsal fin half-way to the flukes the sides are nearly all light gray in continuous 
masses. The remainder of the sides toward the flukes nearly all dark gray. 
Flukes quite white underneath, with the usual fore-and-aft gray cui-ved lines. 
A dark patch ou the anterior margin of the pectoral just proximal to the middle 
of its length (perhaps due to injury). Sundry dark marks at the tip below. White 
dashes aix)Uiid the anus, penis orifice, and navel. Median line, from the navel to 
the penis orifice and around right] side of the latter, dark gray, without light 
blotches. Moi'e posteriorly, the light blotches of the flanks cross the median line. 
(See pi. 20, fig. 3.) 

No. 12. Female. June 28, 1901. Total length, G6 ft. in. About medium 
as regards color. Liglit spots run forward to the corner of the mouth. They 
do not extend to tlie eye, but stop about midway between it and the ear. On 
the top of the head, however, they extend forward to the line of the ear. The 
proximal half of the pectorals externally has several large light blotches, but they 
are not conspicuous. Tip of pectorals with very little white externally. 

No. 13. Male. June 28, 1901. Total length, 65 ft. 11 in. Very few 
white spots on the abdominal ridges, which are almost entirely plain gray, except 
for an indistinct mottling. A broad inferior median l)and of plain dark gray from 
the navel to the anus, with only a few dashes of light gray. The light spots in 
this whale show a sti-ong tendency to form whorls, especially on the flanks, where 
they nearly all assume this character. Pectorals externally all dark gray, with but 
one or two small light blotches about an inch in diameter at the posterior margin, 
where are also some vermifoi-m lightish marks. 

No. 14. Female. June 29, 1901. Total length, 77 ft. 2 in. A very 
light whale. A great deal of white on the abdominal ridges. The region under 
the base of the pectorals nearly solid white. The white spots on the ridges extend 



168 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESl'ERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

as far forward as the middle of the right lower lip, and thei-e are a few white 
dashes on the middle of the lip itself. Body veiy light around the head of the 
humerus. Flanks nearly solid light gray from the line of the pudendum to the 
flukes. Flukes very light nndei-neath, especially nearest the anterior margin. 
Dorsal fin almost white except at the tip and about the posterior free mai'gin. Tip 
of left pectoral white for about one foot or more externally, with lines and white 
markings running proximally nearly to the middle of the length, and considerable 
white along the posterior margin. No light blotches visible on the external face 
of the left pectoral, but thei'e are some on the right pectoral. 

The right side in this whale appears to be lighter than the left. 

No. 15. Male. June 29, 1901. Total length, 63 ft. 6 in. A darkish indi- 
vidual, with very little white on the I'idges, and there mostly close under the pec- 
torals, especially at their base. The inferior median line broadly plain gray as far 
back as the anus, though with occasional lighter blotches and marks. Dorsal fin 
with only a few vertical curved light lines on the darker ground-color. (See pi. 
20, fig. 4.) 

No. 17. Male. July 2, 1901. Total length, 65 ft. 8 in. A moderately light 
individual. A cousidei'able number of white spots at the posterior end of the ab- 
dominal ridges, but the clear white does not run on to the flanks. Posterior half 
of the ridges much and finely speckled with dark-gray mai"ks on a lighter ground. 
The belly and breast become darker anteriorly, and the navel region is, therefore, 
the lightest part of the under surface of the body. Some white dashes about the 
anus, but the median line posterior to the navel otherwise mostly dark and finely 
mottled and lined. Back plain dark gray throughout. The lightest part of the 
sides is midway between the line of the dorsal fin and the flukes. No white spots 
anterior to the base of the pectoi-als. Dorsal fin with a 'white antero-basal area, 
crossed by vertical curved gray lines. Flukes normal in coloi-, with fore-and-aft 
light lines, or rather a whitish ground-color, with gray lines crossing it. 

No. 18. Male. Jvly 3, 1901. Total length, 72 ft. 2 in. Not a very light 
individual. Flanks, from the line of the orifice of the penis backward, largely plain 
dark gray. A moderate number of white spots on the abdominal i'idges posterior 
to the pectorals, and these spots I'un off on to the flanks iuferiorly about as far as 
the orifice of the penis. Scattered white mai'ks are found as far back as the anus. 
Navel white. 

No. 19. Female. July 4, 1901. Total length, 74 ft. 6 in. Quite a light 
individual, the sides being nearly all light gray from the line of the anus nearly to 
the flukes. Shoulders the same. One or two light blotches on the right lip at 
the anterior ends of the furrows. 

N). 20. Female. July 4, 1901. Total length, 70 ft. 3 in. The inferior half 
of the sides of the body jiractically all light gray, thi'ongh the confluence of the 
light blotches. The middle of the sides (longitudinally) posterior to the line of the 
anus much blotched, and the blotches turn to streaks at the base of the flukes and 
run into the lines of the underside of the flukes. Inferior median line posterior to 
the navel blotched. A large amount of white on the abdominal ridges, especially 



THE WHALEBONE W:HALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 169 

at their posterior ends. Under the base of the pectorals a semicircular area of 
nearly pure white about two feet in diameter. Light (but not white) spots scattei-ed 
far forward and anterior to the line of the corner of the mouth. Navel white. 
Proximal half of the anterior margin of the light pectoral invaded by the dark 
color of the external face. Tip daik, with various dark lines extending backward 
on the inteinal face. Left pectoral all light gray at the base externally, and light 
blotches and marks extend nearly to the tip. (See pi. 17, figs. 2 and 4.) 

No. 21. Female. July 5, 1901. Total length, 65 ft. 2 in. A very light 
individual. The ground color light gray and the markings nearly white. Ou the 
abdominal ridges a broad band of white extends from the base of the pectorals 
(whei'e there is a laige white area) obliquely downward and backward to the pos- 
tei'ior end of the ridges, being produced by the coalescence of the white spots. 
Anteiiorly, white spots extend on the ridges far beyond the line of the eye. Light 
streaks above and below the eye, and some light blotches on the left jaw. An 
almost white line runs into the eye from behind and streaks of nearly pure white 
cover a triangular area between the eye and the ear. Inferior median line, from the 
navel to the pudendum, plain gray. Numerous white dashes around the anus and 
pudendum. Flukes with a white ground underneath anterioi-ly, overlaid with gray 
fore-and-aft lines. Tlie white of the underside of the left pectoral invades the 
external face at the tip, making the whole tip white externally; white lines run 
from the tip externally, nearly one-quarter the length of the fin. (See pi. 14, fig. 
2 ; pi. 18, fig. 2 ; pi. 20, fig. 2 ; pi. 21, fig. 3.) 

No. 25. Female. Jnly 8, 1901. Total length, 69 ft. 6 in. A light indi- 
vidual. Inferior median line blotched throughout. Much white on the abdominal 
ridges. Dorsal fin not light, nor white. 

No. 26. Female. JuUj 8, 1901. Total length, 65 ft. 8 in. A dark indi- 
vidual. The flanks show much more dark gray than light, the blotches of the 
latter color being distinct from each other and scattered. White sjiots on the 
abdominal i-idges clear, but scattered. At the head of the humerus the same, but 
above the pectoral fin the blotches on the sides of the body fuse together into a 
nearly solid light area. Light color extends forward to the eye and the corner of 
the mouth. Tip of the ])ectorals, externally, white for about a foot. (See pi. 17, 
figs. 1 and 3.) 

Hallas gave in 1868 {60, 162) most excellent data regarding the color of six 
Iceland Sulphurbottoms, which make it possible to institute detailed comparisons 
with the Newfoundland specimens. His notes on color reduced to tabular form 
are as follows : 

BALMNOPTEBA MUSCULUS (L.). ICELAND. 

Co/or of head and back. 

A. Tegarhorn, Beriifjord. <? . Dark gray, with single irregularly-distributed lighter dashes 

and spots. 

B. Vedfjord, in Nordfjord. ' . Uniform dark gray. 

C. Ditto, .f. . Dark gray, with lighter dashes, or spots. 

D. Ditto. I . Uniform dark gray. 

E. Ditto. ■' . Dark gray, without gradations. 

F. East of Seydifsjord. ? . Dark gray, with lighter dashes and spots. 



170 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



A. Tegarhorn, Berufjord. .? . 

B. Vedfjord, in Nordfjord. i . 

C. Ditto. $. . 
U. Ditto. <5 . 

E. Ditto. .1 . 

F. East of Seydisfjord. S . 



Co/or of sides of body. 

Dark gray, with lighter dashes. 

Grayish black. 

Grayish black. 

Grayish black. 

Grayish black. 

Grayish black, without gradations. 



A. Tegarhorn, Berufjord. 

B Vedfjord, in Fordfjord 

C. Ditto. $, . 

D. Ditto. <? . 



Color of inferior surfaces, behveen furroius and flukes 

6. 



E. Ditto. / . 

F. East of Seydisfjord. ? . 



A. Tegarhorn, Berufjord. 

B. Vedfjord, in Nordfjord. 

C. Ditto. 6 . 

D. Ditto. S . 

E. Ditto. ' . 

F. East of Seydisfjord. ? , 



A. Tegarhorn, Berufjord. $ 

B. Vedfjord, in Nordfjord. 

C. Ditto. i . 

D. Ditto. S . 

E. Ditto. / . 

F. East of Seydisfjord. ? . 



A. Tegarhorn, Berufjord. i 

B. Vedfjord, in Nordfjord. ( 

C. Ditto. $ . 

D. Ditto. S . 

E. Ditto. $ . 

F. East of Seydisfjord. ? . 



A. Tegarhorn, Berufjord. 6 . 

B. Vedfjord, in Nordfjord. $ , 

C. Ditto. ,' . 

D. Ditto. 6 . 

E. Ditto. S . 

F. East of Seydisfjord. ?. 



Uniform gray. 
Belly gray. 

Belly gray, with single dark gray dashes, irregularly placed. 
Belly grayish black, with single snow-white irregularly- 
placed spots. 
Belly gray, with a number of irregular, snow-white spots. 
Belly gray, with single snow-white spots disposed irregularly. 

Color of ridges from throat to belly. 

Dark gray ; on the whole belly a number of snow-white, 

irregularly-placed, mostly linear specks. 
Dark gray. 
Dark gray. 

Dark gray, with irregularly-strewn white spots. 
Grayish black. 
Dark gray, with snow-white spots strewn singly, — also in the 

furrows. 

Color of furroius. 

Light gray. 
! . Light gray. 

(Not given.) 
(Not given.) 
(Not given.) 
(Not given.) 

Color of pectoral fins above. 

Dark gray, with numerous lighter specks. 
) . Uniform dark gray. 

Dark gray, with lighter dashes. 
(Not given.) 
Dark gray. 
Uniform dark gray. 

Color of pectoral fins belotv. 

Entirely snow-white. 
White. 

Snow-white. A small portion against the body grayish- 
white. 
(Not given.) 
Snow-white. 
Snow-white. A distinct scar-like stripe on the border. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



171 



A. Tegarhorn, Berufjord. 

B. Vedfjord, in Nordfjord. 

C. Ditto. 6 . 

D. Ditto. S . 

E. Ditto. S . 

F. East of Seydisfjord. ? . 



Co/or of dorsal fin. 

$ . Dark gray, with lighter dashes. 

$ . Uniform dark gray. 

Uniform dark gray. 
Dark gray. 
Dark gray. 
(Not given.) 

Co/or of flukes above. 



A. 


Tegarhorn, Berufjord. $ . 


Dark gray, with lighter 


dashes. 


B. 


Vedfjord, in Nordfjord. S . 


Uniform dark gray. 




C. 


Ditto. :', . 


Dark gray, with lighter 


dashes. 


D. 


Ditto. ■ . 


Dark gray. 




E. 


Ditto. ■ . 


Dark gray. 




F. 


East of Seydisfjord. ? . 


Dark gray. 
Co/o/- of flukes beloii'. 




A. 


Tegarhorn, Berufjord. $ . 


Dark gray, with lighter 


dashes. 


B. 


Vedfjord, in Nordfjord. ' . 


Uniform dark gray. 




C. 


Ditto. ' . 


(Not given.) 




D. 


Ditto. ' . 


Dark gray. 




E. 


Ditto. ,' . 


Dark gray. 




F. 


East of Seydisfjord. $ . 


Dark gray. 
Color of whalebone. 




A. 


Tegarhorn, Berufjord. $ . 


All shining black. 




B. 


Vedfjord, in Nordfjord. ^ . 


All glistening black. 




C. 


Ditto. / . 


All shining black. 




D. 


Ditto. S . 


All shining black. 




E. 


Ditto. '> . 


Shining black. 




F. 


East of Seydisfjord. 2 . 


(Not given.) 





On eompariug the data in the foregoing table with the descriptions of the 
color of specimens of the Newfoundland Sulphurbottom, previously given, it will 
be seen that the coloration in both cases is the same, and that the range and charac- 
ter of variation in markings are likewise the same. Hallas's specimens were 
probably in some cases not so fi'esh as those I saw in Newfoundland ; lience the 
frequent use of the term "grayish black" (grumorte). 



DORSAL FIN. 



In Sars's account of the "Blaahval " the variations in the shape of the dorsal 
fin are described as follows: (78, 237; se[)., 13): 

"Not less characteristic of this species than the pectoral fins is the dorsal fin, 
which with its unusually small size and position far backward, or at the beginning 
of the last fourth of the total length and much back of the vertical line drawn 
through the anus, is at once distinguished from those of all other known whalebone 
whales. In its form it is at the same time the part which, as it appears, undergoes 



172 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



not SO unimportant variations. Its size also can diflPer in a high degree in different 
individuals. In some examples it was noticeably smaller in proportion than in 
Malm's specimen, so that it could be taken for an insignificant process or point pro- 
jecting from the dorsal keel. In other individuals it was more developed, now 
more erect, now more strongly curved backward, though without ever approaching 
near the size it has in the other Finbacks." 

The same range of variation of form was found in the dorsal fin of the New- 
foundland Sulphurbottom, as will be seen by consulting text figs. 37-42. The 
following vai'iations were observed : 

No. 1. Female. Dorsal strongly recurved ; tip I'egularly I'ounded ; posterior 
margin deeply concave. (Text fig. 39.) 

No. 2. Male. Dorsal erect, triangulai'; tip sharp; posterior margin straight. 
(Text fig. 42.) 

No. 3. Female. Dorsal intei-mediate in curvature between those of Nos. 1 
and 2; neither so recurved as in No. 1, nor so straight as in No. 2. 






Fig. 37. 



Fig. 33. 



Fk:. 3<j. 






F]G. 40. 



Fig. 41. 



Fig. 42. 





Fig. 43. 



Fig. 44. 



DORSAL FIN OF BALJENOPTERA MUSCULUS (L.) 



Fig. 37, — No. 14, s, E..\lena St.^tion, Newfou.ndland. Fig. 38. — No. 22, 'i , ditto. Fig. 39. — No. 1, 9, ditto. 

Fig. 40. — No. 7, ,? , ditto. Fig. 41. — No. 11, ,5 , ditto. Fig. 42. — No. 2, .» , ditto. Figs. 43 

AND 44. — Iceland. (From Hallas.) 



No. 4. Female. Dorsal almost exactly as in No. 1. 

No. 5. Male. Dorsal had been injui-ed and also had a semicircular piece 
missing from the posterior margin, as if cut out by a bullet. 

No. 7. Male. Dorsal moderately recurved; tip cpiite sharp; posterior margin 
deeply concave. (Text fig. 40.) 

No. 11. Male. Doi'sal large, ei'ect, I'ather sharp at the apex ; posterior margin 
moderately concave. (Text fig. 41.) 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE ^VESTERN KORTH ATLANTIC. 173 

No. 14. Female. Dorsal high and narrow, strongly recurved, and deeply 
concave i^osteriorly. (Text fig. 37.) 

No. 15. Male. Dorsal small, shai'p-i)ointed, and sti'ongly leclined. 

No. 20. Female. Dorsal falcate. 

No. 22. Female. Doisal moderately recurved; tip regularly rounded; pos- 
tei-ior margin moderately concave, with a small semicircular piece wanting near the 
middle. (Text fig. 38.) 

No. 24. Female. Dorsal very strongly recurved, long, and low ; the tip 
acuminate, and posterior margin very concave. 

No. 25. Female. Dorsal erect, triangular, and sharp-pointed; posterior 
mai'gin straight. 

Sars's remark, that in size the dorsal fin of the "Blaahval " varies considerably 
but does not reach that found in other Finbacks, is probably not strictly cori-ect as 
regards European B. muscvlus generally, and is not applicable to the Newfound- 
land Sulphurbottoms. In the lattei', according to my own observations, the largest 
dorsal had an actual vertical height of 15|- inches, while 14 inches was the hei<Tht of 
the smallest dorsal found in a Newfoundland B. physalm. The latter individual 
was, however, but 59 ft. 1 in. long, while the Sulphurbottom was 66 ft. 6 in. lonf, 
so that the fin though actually larger in the B. musenlus \v a,?, proportionally larger 
in the B. physalus. 

The greatest proportional height of dorsal in the Newfoundland Sulphurbot- 
toms was 1.9 fo of the total length, while the least proportional height in New- 
foundland B. physalus was 2.0 %. The extremes in the two species, therefore, 
tend to approach each other quite closely. On the other hand, it should be i-e- 
membered that the average proportional height of the dorsal in 21 Newfoundland 
Sulphurbottoms was 1.1 fo, while the average in 11 Newfoundland B. p>hy.salvs 
was 2.4 ^. 

PECTORAL FINS. 

Regai'ding the pectoral fins of European B. musculus, Sars remarks as fol- 
lows {78, 236) : 

" The outer parts, or hands, are considerably more elongated than in the Com- 
mon Finbacks and the whole pectoral fin more strongly curved, so that the lower 
convex margin is more distinctly arched, while the upper shai'p border, which in 
the Common Finbacks has in the middle a moi'e or less distinct angular projection, 
shows a more even curve. The breadth of the pectoral fins is about one quarter 
the length. For the rest, these organs appear to be subject to endless variations 
in different individuals, both in size and form, which, however, are confined within 
quite narrow limits. Very often I have found that they showed at the outer angle, 
near the tip, one or more deep angular emarginations, which always corresponded to 
the interval between the finj^ers, thoutjh I was not able to see any distinct trace of 
an external lesion." 

These remarks a|iply equally well to the Newfoundland Sulphurbottoms, as 
will be seen by comparing the plates, and especially pis. 21 and 13, except that 



174 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

the irregularity of the end of the pectorals which occurs in many individuals, ap- 
pears to me to be due in most cases to external injury. The normal, complete 
termination is shown in pi. 21, fig. 3. When the pectorals ai'e blunt, the softer 
parts are affected while the bones remain normal. This appears to indicate that 
the injuries are caused by contact with bodies harder than the skin and ligaments, 
but that the force of impact is not sufficient to fractui'e the bones of the digits. 
Such injuries might perhaps be caused by rubbing against rocks at the bottom 
of the bays which these animals frequent, but I suspect that they are sometimes 
caused by the bites of sharks and porpoises. The malformation of the pectoi-als is 
often accompanied by abnormalities elsewhere on the body. 

Of the Newfoundland Sulphurbottoms, No. 8, ? , had the tip of the pectorals 
blunted. In No. 4, S, the tip of the right pectoral was injured and apparently 
diseased, while the left was normal. In this individual, the inferior surface of the 
posterior end of the caudal peduncle also showed indications of injuries. In No. 
5, 3 , the I'iglit pectoral had much of the posterior margin torn and ii-regulai-, and 
the tip distorted, as if broken. In this individual the dorsal was also injured and 
had a semicircular piece lacking from the posterior margin, as if pierced by a bullet. 
In No. 7, <?, the tip of both pectorals was blunted and irregular. The whalebone 
was defective in this individual. In No. 8, ?, both pectorals were blunted and ir- 
regular, as in the preceding specimen. The tip of the left pectoral in No. 14, ?, 
was blunt. In No. 17, <^ , the tip of the left pectoral was remarkably blunted and 
serrated, with a prominent finger-like projection on the radial side. The right 
pectoral had a small hole in the posterior margin at a point distant from the 
axilla equal to one third the total length. No. 20, ?, had the tip of the right pec- 
toral ii'regular. 

SHAPE OF THE HEAD. 

The form of the head on the Newfoundland Sulphurbottoms is peculiar and 
characteristic. The blowholes are situated in a depression slightly below the gen- 
eral level of the top of the back. In front of them rises abruptly a strong median 
ridge, the top of which is somewhat above the level of the back. This ridge slopes 
down rapidly in front, but continues to the apex of the Jaw. On each side of the 
blowholes is a thick rounded eminence, the top of which is about on a level with 
the top of the median ridge. This eminence is prolonged anteriorly as a sloping, 
attenuated, and rounded lidge which lies close to the median ridge, and dies away 
without reaching the tip of the Jaw. External to this are the elevated, thick 
margins of the Jaw, which are especially heavy near the apex of the Jaw. Viewed 
from the side, the snout, or rostrum, presents a series of ridges and depressions, 
and from in fi'ont a mt)st striking rotundity, on account of its great breadth and 
thick integuments. These features are shown in pi. 15 and pi. 13, figs. 3 and 4. 

In No. 2, 3, 71 feet in length, the distance from eye to eye, across the I'egion 
of the blowholes, was 10 ft. 2 in. ; across the rostrum half-way between the apex 
and the blowholes, 5 ft. 5 in. In No. 9, ?, length 72 feet, the distance across the 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



175 



head from eye to eye was 11 ft. 2 in. In No. 15, 3, length 68 ft. 3 in., the length 
of the blowholes was 18i inches. 



EYE. 



The eyel)all in a male Newfoundland Sulphiirbottom 71 feet long, as shown in 
the table on p. 157, was 5 inches in antero-posterior diameter and 4-^ in. in vertical 
diameter. The iris was l-J inches autero-postei-iorly and 1^ inches vei'tically. The 
color of the iris is brown. The pupil is oblong with a straight superior margin. 

The eye in the Newfoundland Sulphurbottom is situated behind and a little 
above the corner of the mouth, and with the lids forms a semi-elliptical swelling 
on the side of the head, below which is a quite deep depression, or furrow, directed 
obliquely downward in front toward the corner of the mouth. On the uppei- and 
lower lids ai-e one or two shallow, carved furrows, and at the anterior commissure 
is a prominent ridge, bounded by a groove above and below, as in B. physalus. 
(PI. 16, figs. 1 and 2.) 

CIRCUMFERENCE AND DIAMETER OF BODY AND Df^PTH OF THE CAUDAL PEDUNCLE. 

The caudal peduncle, called "the small" by whalemen, is strongly compressed 
and ends abrupt at its union with the flukes, not gradually diminishing in breadth, 
as commonly represented in figures. In various specimens of Newfoundland 
Sulphurbottoms the vertical deptli of the caudal peduncle was as follows : 



BAL^NOPTERA MUSCULVS (L.). NEWFOUNDLAND. CAUDAL PEDUNCLE. 





Sex. 


Total Length. 


Depth of Caudal Peduncle. 


No. 


Midway between Anus 


Midway between Anus 


Midway between post. 








and Insertion of 


and Notch of 


Base of Dorsal and 








Flukes. 


Flukes. 


Insertion of Flukes. 


4 


? 


73' 6" 




.... 


5' 8" 


i8 


i 


72' 2" 


.... 


5' II" 




9 


$ 


73' o" 


.... 


6' 9 





II 


i 


7i'6" 


.... 




3' 6'' 


s 


f> 


68' 3" 




.... 


6' 8' 


'3 


5 


65'"" 


.... 


6' 0" 





I? 


^ 


65' 8" 


5' 8" 







IS 


^ 


63' 6" 


.... 


6' 0' 




8 


? 


61' 0" 


.... 


5' 1°' 


• • 4 • 



The greatest diameter of the body and largest semi-circumference of several of 
the Newfoundland Sulphurbottoms wei'e measured, with the following results : 



At insertion of flukes. 



176 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



BALjENOPTERA MVSCULUS (L.). NEWFOUNDLAND. GIETH. 





Sex. 


Length. 


.Semi-Circumference of Body. 


Transverse 
Diameter of Body. 


No. 


At Tip of 
Pectoral. 


At 
Navel. 


At 
.^.nus. 


At 
Penis. 


At Tip of 
Pectoral. 


At Head of 
Humerus. 


i8 
9 
5 

7 


6 
? 


72' 2" 
72' o" 

68' 3" 
67' 0" 


17' 2" 
18' 2" 
17' 0" 


■"3" 2" 


''.'". 


11' 0" 
.... 


7' 6" 


7' 6'' 



In Nos. 18, 9, 5, the girth at the ti[) of the pectorals, or the greatest girth, 
would be, by calculation, 34 ft. i in., 36 ft. 4 in., aud 34 ft., respectively. 



ABDOMINAL RIDGES AND FURROWS. 

The abdominal or thoi'acic ridges aud furrows in this species, as iu I^.jyhysali/.^, 
extend backward from the mandible to the navel, and between the pectoral fins and 
eye extend upward nearly to the level of the latter. The ridges also anastomose 
ii'regularly, and toward the posterior end many pairs unite, so that the total num- 
ber here is much less than it is farther forward, and the breadth of each much greater. 
The breadth of the largei' ridges between the pectoi-al fins in the Newfoundland 
Sulphurbottoms is about 2^ inches. (PI. 14, figs. 4-6.) 

In number the ridges vary as in B. physalus, and the totals do not differ ma- 
terially from those of that species. In different specimens of Newfoundland Sul- 
phurbottoms tbe totals were as follows, and were obtained by counting from the 
median line to the root of the pectoral and multiplying Vjy two : 



BAL.^XnPTERA MUSCUf.VS (I..). NEWFOUNDLAND. XUMBEK OK ABDOMINAL RIDGES. 



No. 


Se.x. 


Total Length. 


Number of Ridges. 


14 


5 


77' 2" 


66 


4 


? 


73' 6;; 


68 


18 


6 


72' 2" 


62 


9 


? 


72' 0" 


88 


II 


i 


71' 6" 


68 


2 


6 


71' 0" 


84 


20 


? 


70' 3" 


68 


7 


S 


67' 0" 


68 


17 


$ 


65' 8" 


62 


6 


s 


65' 0" 


5S 


8 


9 


61' 0" 


84 



The quite remarkable variation in number of ridges appears not to be corre- 
lated with sex or size. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOKTH ATLANTIC. 177 

NAVEL AND MAS[JIARY SLITS. 

The navel in the Newfoundland Sulpburbottoms is a more or less elongated 
scar, usually about 8 in. long, surrounded by the abdominal ridges and furrows, 
which are somewhat displaced and bent outward by it and usually extend some- 
what beyond it. (PI. 17, figs. 1 and 2 ; pi. 18, figs. 3 and 4; pi. 19, fig. 2.) 

The raamnife of the female are contained in londtudinal slits situated a little 
above the median line and opposite the end of the clitoris. Above and below 
these slits, or, in otlier words, nearer to and farthei' from the median line, are one or 
several furrows which are parallel with the slits. The largest of these furrows is 
commonly longer than the mammaiy slit and very deej). (See pi. 20, figs. 1 and 
2.) In No. 8, 61 feet long, the mammary slits were 15 inches long. 

The mammary slits and otlier parts surrounding the sexual orifice do not cause 
any marked convexity of the inferior outline of the body, but there is a slight de- 
pression posteriori}^ which marks the position of the anus. (See pi. 19, fig. 3.) 

The male Sulphurbottom has rudimentary mamniiP of consideral)le size con- 
cealed in slits like those of the female. (PI. 20, figs. 3 and 4.) These slits are 
situated about midway between the anus and penis orifice, and are unaccompanied 
by parallel furrows. In No. 2 (length 71 feet), the left slit was 16 inches long 
and the right 19 inches. The orifice of the sheath of the penis in No. 15 (length 
63 ft. 6 in.) was 3 feet long. The penis itself in No. 2 (length 71 feet) was 6 
feet long on the curve ; circumference of the glans at the base, 2 feet. Testicle 
in No. 13 (length 65 ft. 11 in.), 27 inches long, 10 inches broad. 



FLUKES. 

The flukes were invariably cut off the Newfoundland Sulphurbottoms before 
towing them in and I did not have an opportunity to see them in the adult. In a 
fcetus 12 feet long they had the form characteristic in the genus, convex anteriorly, 
slightly concave posteriorly, with moderately recurved tips, and a central notch. 
In No. 6, <^ , 65 feet long, the depth of the flukes from the notch to the line of the 
anterior base, or insertion, was 3 ft. 6 in.; in No. 11, 5, length 71 ft. 6 in., the 
depth of the flukes at the same place was 3 ft. 8 in.; in No. 14, ?, length 77 ft. 
2 in., the depth of flukes was 4 ft. 9^ in. The depth of the notch in this individual 
was 9 inches. It w%as very obtuse. 



WHALEBONE. 



The whalebone in the Newfoundland Sulphurbottoms (pi. 15, figs. 1 and 2; 
pi. 16, figs. 3 and 4) is thick and black throughout, including the bristles, as in the 
European specimens. In eleven specimens from the former locality, its length 
above the gum (without the bristles) was as follows : 



178 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



BALJENOPTERA MUSCULVS (L.). NEWFOUNDLAND. LENGTH OF WHALEBONE. 



No. 


Sex. 


Length of Whale. 


Length of Longest Whale- 
bone. 








Inches. 


14 


9 


77' 2" 


28 


19 


? 


74' 6" 


24 


10 


$ 


72' 7" 


27 


I 


9 


72' 0" 


32 


9 


9 


72' 0" 


23 


1 1 


6 


7.' 6" 


24 


20 


9 


70' 3" 


24 


5 


i 


68' 3" 


32 


12 


9 


66' 6" 


20 


22 


9 


6.' 3" 


'9 


24 


9 


61' 2" 


18 



Average 24.7 inches. 



The length 32 inches must be regarded as exceptioual. lu a lot of whalebone 
stoi'ed in the yard at the station, the longest I could find was 27 inches, above the 
gum, and without tbe bristles. As this was from a very large number of whales, 
probably between 40 and 50, it seems singular that I should have encountered 
longer whalebone in three instances in the whales I personally examined. I cannot 
account for this except on the theory that the \vhalebone shi-inks when exposed to 
the air for a considei'able time. 

In the Longniddry (Scotland) whale, the whalebone was reported by Turner 
as 33^ inches long, including the pai't imbedded in the gum, or about 29| inches 
without it. 

The length of the longest bristles in a Newfoundland Sulphurbottom (length 
77 ft. 2 in.) was 18 inches. 

HAIRS. 

The scattered hairs found on the head and mandible of fcetal whales are not 
always discoverable on the adults. In the majority of the Newfoundland Sulphur- 
bottoms they were not noticed, but on No. 9, 9 (length 72 ft.), there was a row of 
dirty white or yellowish hairs along the proximal half of the left ramus of the 
mandible, and on the head a row starting with two fi-om behind the blowholes, 
curving around them on a semicircle to their anterior end and running thence to 
the tip of the snout ; a second row of hairs was situated nearer the margin of the 
jaw. In No. 23, 9 (length 67 ft. 3 in.), a row of about 6 hairs, each in a raised 
tubercle, occurred at the proximal end of the right ramus of the mandible. In sev- 
ei'al specimens was to be noticed a vertical double row of yellowish hairs at the 
symphysis of the mandible, the haii's themselves being about 3 in. apart. 

OSTEOLOGY. 

The skeleton of Balmnoptera musoulus has been described by Flower (4.5, 
410-414) under the name of Physalus latirostris, and by Reinhardt (75), Van 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 179 

Benedeii and Gewais (8), and others. Unfoi-tunately, there is ahnost nothing in 
the way of American material which can be comi)ared with the European speci- 
mens. The only skeleton in any of the museums of the United States is that of 
the specimen stranded at Ocean City, New Jersey, in October, 1891, which is in 
the collection of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. This whale was 
examined and measuied by Mr. J. C. Ives and myself, and was afterward the sub- 
ject of an article by Cope (31).^ 

The length of this specimen as it lay on the beach was G6 ft. 2 in. The un- 
mounted skeleton at the Philadelphia Academy measures 52 ft. 2 in. as it lies, but 
lacks the piemaxilLie and one intei'raediate and probably three terminal caudal 
vertebras, and the bones are much too close together. 

Cope came to the conclusion that it combined the characters of JB. ^^hysalns 
and B. musculns, and remarked in closing his article : " It I'emainsto be ascertained 
whether these chai-acters indicate another species, and if so, whether the names 
dayuidii or tectirodris are applicable to it." The species called B. tectirosti-u by 
Cope is, as we have seen in a previous chapter, the Common Finback of the At- 
lantic coast of North America, and identical with ^. j97«/.s«/2/.s\ The nominal species 
known as B. diiguidii is also identical with B. 2)hl/.salus. The real question, there- 
fore, is whether the Ocean City whale is the Sulphurbottom of Newfoundland, oi- 
whether it represents B. phi/mlii-s, oi- belongs to an unknown species. 

Cope's summary is in three divisions, as follows: 

(1) "The Ocean City whale agrees with Bulmnoptera mvscrdi/s [= B. j)hysa- 
Ittv (L)] in the form of the head, number of vertebi'se and ribs, proportions of pectoral 
fin, and position of dorsal fin." 

(2) " It differs from this species [B. j^hysahis (L.)] and agrees with B. sibhaldll 
[= B. tnuscnlus (L.)] in the size, coloi-, and in structure of the cervical vertebrae." 

(3) " It is intermediate between the two, as described by authors, in the 
numbers of the phalanges of the manus." 

I shall endeavor to show that tlie points mentioned in the first division are 
erroneous. The skeleton, when I saw it in 1900, was unmounted and lying on the 
floor of one of the exhibition halls in the Philadelphia Academy. It was nearly 
complete, but lacked several caudal vertebrae, the nasal bones, etc. The maxillaj 
were sepai-ated fi'om the cranium. 

The first point made by Cope is that the form of the head agrees with B. 
pkymlus lather than with B. musculus. In the course of his description he re- 
marks {31} that the maxilhe " have the acuminate outline of those of B. musculus 
[= B. physalus (L.)] rather than that of B. sibbaldU \= B. musculus (L.)]." As 
a fact, exactly the opposite is ti-ue. The average breadth of the rostrum at the mid- 
dle in American specimens of B. physalus, as seen in a pi'evious chapter (p. 133), 
is 19.6 ^0 of the length of the skull. In the Ocean City skull the two maxilhie taken 
togetheV, wifJiout the pmnax like or viedian interspace, have a breadth at the middle 
of 19.2 % of the length of the skull. With a suitable allowance for the premaxilla^ 

' For a figure and brief description of this vvliale see Around the World, Jan., 1894, p. 40. 



180 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

and interspace, the breadth of the ]-ostruni is 28.8 %. It is obvious, therefore, that 
the rostrum is not acuminate as in B. physahis. 

The second point of agreement between the Ocean City whale and B. pTiysalus 
pointed out by Cope is in the number of vertebrae and ribs. He gives the follow- 
ino- formuLi for the vertebrae: C. 7, D. 15, L. 17, Ca. 23 = 62. So far as the total 
number is concerned, this is the average for B. physalus, but the formula does not 
correspond with that of any specimen of the species with which I am acquainted. 
The formula foi' the Ocean City skeleton which I found in 1900 was as follows: C. 
7, D. 15, L. 14, Ca. 24 + ^ 60 +. It was impossible to decide definitely as to 
the location of the first chevron, and fifteen lumbars should perhaps be counted, 
rather than fourteen. So far as it goes, this formula is not more characteristic of 
B. 2)^>l/scchts than of B. muscvlus, but as the last caudal vertebra found had a trans- 
verse diameter of Ai^ inches and an antero-posterior diameter of 2f inches, it is 
probable that as many as four caudals should be added, making the total twenty- 
eight, a number never found in B. pTiysalus. 

The next point of agreement with B. physalus mentioned by Cope is the pro- 
portional size of the pectoral fin. According to my measurements of the Ocean 
City whale, the length of the pectoral from the t\\) to the root, or insertion, was 99 
inches, while in a specimen of B. physalus 4|- feet longer than the Ocean City whale 
the same dimension was but 72 inches. 

As regards the position of the dorsal fin, I do not find any exact measurement 
either in ]\Ir. Ives's table (cited by Cope) or my own. The remark that the "dor- 
sal fin marks a point about one-fourth the length from the posterior border of the 
flukes to the end of the muzzle," would apply almost equally as well to B. physa- 
lus as to^. musculus. Indeed, as will be seen later, the relative position of the fin 
is so nearly the same in both species that it can scarcely be used as a diagnostic 
character. 

From the foregoing facts it will be seen that the association of the Ocean City 
whale with B. physalus does not receive support. On the other hand, the small 
size of the dorsal fin, and the mottled gray color of the body, the large pectoral 
fin, and the dark under-surface of the flukes ally it to the Sulphurbottoms of 
Newfoundland. 

I append the measurements of the Ocean City whale, made by myself, with 
those of Mr. Ives added. These measurements wei'e made ten years befoi'e those 
of the Newfoundland specimens, and without reference to any particular system. 
They are not, therefore, strictly comparable with the latter : 

BAL.^KOPTERA MUSCULUS (L.). OCEAN CITY, N. J., OCTOBER 8, 1891. FEMAXE. 

Total length along the middle of the body from snout to notch of 

flukes 66 ft. 2 in.' 

Length of pectoral in middle line 8 " 3 " ' 

' " To hinder border of the tail," 66 ft. n in. (Ives.) 

■ " From shoulder to the tip," 7 ft. 4 in.; " along the lower margin," 8 ft. 3 in.; " along the 
upper margin," 6 ft. (Ives.) 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



181 



Length of pectoral along anterior border 8 ft. 

to termination of white 

under-surface 8 " 

Greatest breadth of pectoral 2 " 

Breadth of flukes i ^ " 

Distance from flukes to anus 20 " 

Center of anus to center of navel 10 " 

Breadth of caudal peduncle at insertion of flukes i " 

Tip of mandible to corner of mouth (along the curves) 16 " 

Corner of mouth to auricular orifice 3 " 

Distance across the head 13 " 

Length of auricular orifice o " 

" " the dorsal fin (Ives) i " 

Height of the same (Ives) o " 



8 in. 

3 " 

2 " 

10 " 
o 

o " 

8 '• 

10 

6 " 

6 " 
2I " 

o " 

5 " 



It is an unfortunate fact that no complete reliable account of the osteology of 
jB. musculus has been published, unless it be that of Malm. His Alonognqjhie 
llludree is not accessible to me. Equally to be regretted is the fact that the meas- 
urements given by Flower {Ao), Reiuhardt (TJ), and Malm {66) are not in accord. 
On that account a thorough comparison of the proportions of the skeleton cannot 
be made. 

The osteological characters of B. muscidus are summarized by Van Beneden 
(7, 260) as follows : 

" This species is distinguished from other Bala3no|)teras by the beak, which is 
very broad, e.specially at the middle of its length ; by the nasal bones, truncated in 
front; and by the palatines, very broad. The upper jaw is exceeded by the 
lower, and the coronoid process is high and pointed ; the vertebrse number 63 or 
64; the ribs are 15 or 16 pairs in number; the sternum is broad and short; the 
metacarpals and phalanges are comparatively long." 



NUMBER OF VERTEBR.E. 

The vertebral formula given by various European authors for B. musculua 
are as follows : 

BALMXOPTERA MUSCULUS (L.). EUROPEAN. VERTEBRAL FORMULA. 



Author. 


Locality. 


Date. 


C. 


D. 


L. 


Ca. 


Total. 


Type of. 


Flower 


( Humber R., England [ 
'( (Hull Museum) ) 


1833 


7 


16 


— 4 


t ' — 


64' 


sibbaldii 


tt 


J Coast of Holland 1 
( (Utrecht Museum) j 


18— 


7' 


15 


— 4 


2'' " — 


64' 


latiroslris 


















Turner 


Longniddry, Scotland 


1869 




IS 


— 4 


I 


03 


(mature) 


(( 


ii ■' « 


(( 




15 


— 4 


I 


b3 


(foetus) 


Malm 


Gothenburg, Sweden 


1865 




15 


'5 


26 


63 


Carolina 


Knox 


North Berwick, Scotland 


1 83 1 




15 


— 4 


3' - 


^5 




Mobius 


Sylt Id., Germany 


1881 




16 


15 


26 


64 





' .-Vccording to Lahille, the formula for both is generally given as 7 + 16 -f 15 + 26 = 64 ; but 
Gervais says it should be 7 + 16 + 13 + 28 = 64. , , , • 

'"The two skeletons [Hull and Utrecht] agree in possessmg si.xty-four vertebrie, both being 
in this respect, fortunately complete " (Flower). ' Lumbars 15 or 16 (I- lower, ^5, 410). 

' Jardine, Nat. Library, Cetacea, has a figure of this skeleton on plate 6. I he lumbars appear 
to be 16. 



182 



THE WHALEBONE WHAXES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



The ouly two complete formulae are : 

C. 7, D. IS, L. 15, Ca. 26 = 63, — Gothenburg. 
C. 7, D. 16, L. 15, Ca. 26 = 64,— Kiel. 

H. P. Gervais, without explaiuiug bow he arrived at tiie fact, remarks {51, m. 23), 
that " the vertebral formula given hitherto by the authors who have had occasion 
to observe and describe skeletons belonging to the species which occupies us 
[i?. musculm (L.)] is the following : C. 7, D. 1 6, L. 15, Ca. 26 = 64." In conti-adic- 
tion it will be observed from the preceding table that the Hull Museum specimen, 
described by Flower, and the Sylt Id. specimen, described by Mobius, are the only 
ones reported as having sixteen pairs of ribs. Sir William Turner, than whom 
there is no more competent authority, reports fifteen paii's for both the adult and 
the foetal Longniddry specimens. 

Gervais, however, insists on sixteen pairs, and fui'ther states that the number 
of lumbai'S is thirteen, i-ather than fifteen. He bases this latter assertion on an 
examination of a skeleton from Cape Horn (which he assigns to this species) and 
two skeletons and a foetus fi-ora Lapouia. Gervais appears to have had in mind an 
ideal formula which he calls t\\e formvle generate, with which the various specimens 
would be found to agi-ee if studied with sufticient care. I am far from believing 
that such would be the case, as it seems to be demonsti-ated that in the majority 
of cetaceans the nunil)er of vertebra; and their division into dorsals, lumbars, and 
caudals is subject to a certain amount of variation. Even in the specimen from 
Cape Horn which Gervais assigns to B. musculus the vertebral foi'mula does not 
ao-ree as regards number of caudals \vith his formule generale. 

Supposing Turner, Flower, Gervais, Malm, and Mobius all to have been correct, 
we should have a variation for the European £. musculus, as follows : 

(1) C. 7, D. 16, L. 13, Ca. 28 = 64. 

(2) C. 7, L). 16, L. 15, Ca. 26 = 64. 

(3) C. 7, D. IS, L. 15, Ca. 26 = 63. 

So far as adult North American specimens are concerned, w^e have for com- 
parison only the Ocean City whale, but while at the Newfoundland Station I 
examined and counted the vertebras of thi-ee fcetal specimens. The foi'mulae for 
these and the Ocean City whale are given below. 

It \\\\\ be remarked that the three formulae fioni Newfoundland ftetuses ai'e 



BAL^NOPTERA MUSCULUS (L.). AMERICAN. VERTEBRAL FORMULA. 



No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


C. 


D. 


L. 


Ca. Total. 




1 


Balena, Newfoundland 


1901 


7 


16 


'5 


27 


65 


foetus 


? 


14 


It .. 


1901 


7 


>5 


14 


28 


64 


(i 


? 


19 




1901 


7 


15 


16 


26 


64- 




? 




Ocean City, New Jersey 


1891 


7 


IS 


"4' 


24(+4?) 


60 (+4?) 







Positively correct 



'Perhaps fifteen lumbars should be counted. It is uncertain. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERK NORTH ATLANTIC. 183 

all diffeient. I believe them all to be correct, but that for No. 19 is certainly so, 
as it was obtained by very careful dissection of the fretus, after I had obsei-ved 
that the formulae for the two preceding specimens did not ac-ree. 

It will be noted that the formula for No. 1 is the same as for the Kiel speci- 
men, except that the latter has one less caudal vertebra. The foi-mula of No. 14 
does not agree with any of the European specimens, but would accord with Gervais's 
formuh genemie, if one vertebra were taken from the luml)ar series and added to 
the dorsals. The formula of No. 19 is remarkable for the sixteen hunbars.' The 
formula for the Ocean City whale is based on my own observations, but, as already 
stated, one vertebra should perhaps be taken from the caudal series and added to 
the lumbars, making fifteen lumbars in all, in which case this specimen, in so far as 
it is complete, would agree with Malm's B. carolinoe. However this may be, as 
the last rib present is long, it is quite probable that one more pair, making sixteen 
in all, was present originally. In this case the number of lumbars might be con- 
sidered as reduced to thirteen, thus according with Gervais's views. The Ocean 
City skeleton probably lacks one caudal between the sixteenth and seventeenth 
(?'. e., between the fifty-second and fifty-third vertebrae as now placed), and probably 
the number of terminal caudals lacking is three. 

Until the limits of variation in the number and division of the vertebrae in 
B. mmcuhis are better determined, little reliance can be placed on the formulae for 
the discrimination of the species from its nearest allies. The present indications are 
that the amount of variation is considerable. 

In this connection, it is interesting to observe the lack of harmony in the 
vertebral formulae given for the South American Sulphurbottom. Gervais, who 
regards the southei'n species as the same as B. sihhaldii [= B. niusculiis (L.)] gives 
the formula C. 7, D. 16, L. 13, Ca. 29 (or 30) = 65 (or 66). Burmeister's B. inter- 
media, regarded the same as B. musculus both by Gervais {51, m. 6) and by Lahille 
{63, 35), has, according to the original describer, the formula C. 7, D. 15, L. 16, 
Ca. 27 =■ 65. Lahille's Sulphurbottom, which he regards as a separate species, 
B. miramaris, has the formula C. 7, D. 14, L. 14, Ca. 29 = 64. 

In the Ocean City skeleton the first vertebra in which the transverse process 
is perforated, or has a foi-amen at the base, is the forty-sixth (right side only). The 
trausvei'se processes are last distinguishable on the forty-eighth vei'tebi-a, and the 
neural arch is obsolete on the fifty-fifth vertebra. 



SKULL. 



For the reasons stated on p. 179, a complete comparison of measurements of the 
skulls of European and American specimens can not be made. The figure of the skull 
of the Iceland whale published by Reinhardt {75, 188) appears to be accurate, except 
that the maxillas have sprung apart. Measurements made on this figure compared 
with those from the skull of the Ocean City whale show a close agreement, as follows : 

' Van Beneden (7, 265) gives the formula of a skeleton at Edinburgh as 7, 15, 16, 25 = 63. He 
states in another place that there are bones of four individuals in Edinburgh, including the North 
Berwick whale (7, 280). 



184 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

BAL^NOPTEBA MUSCULUS (L.). NEW JERSEY AND ICELAND. SKULL. 



Measurement. 


Ocean City, New Jersey. 


Iceland. 




99.0 in. 
17.5 " 
II5-5 " 
18.0 " 


103.5 in- 
20.3 " 

130-5 " 
22.5 " 


Breadth of the maxilla; at the middle 

Length of the rostrum without preraaxillse 

Breadth of distal end of frontal over the orbit (greatest). 



The principal craiiial characters of JB. musculus, the broad maxillae and thick, 
obtuse nasals, are found iu the Ocean City wliale. The nasal bones were not in 
the skull when I examined it in 1900, but they are described by Cope as follows: 
"The nasal bones have a parallelogi'ammic superior outline, but are very convex in 
the fore-and-aft direction, the surface descending forward. They are flat posteri- 
orly ; at the middle the adjacent edges are raised, but at the distal end the extei'nal 
edges are raised, so that the superior surface is concave in the transverse dii'ection " 
(31). It will be observed that this agrees with the excellent figure of the nasals 
published by Reinhardt (76, 187). This figure is one-ninth natural size. The two 
nasals together are shown to be 7.9 in. wide at the proximal end, and 9.25 in. wide 
at the distal end. The nasals in a cranium at the Newfoundland station were 10 in. 
wide at the proximal end and 10.75 in. wide at the distal end. They are figured 
in pi. 7, fig. 10. In Miinter's Rligen Id. specimen they measured 6.9 in. at the prox- 
imal end and 7 iu. at the distal end. 

The breadth of one of the maxillae at the middle of its length, compared with the 
length of the same bone, is 12.7 % in the Iceland whale (Reinhardt), 12.8 % in the 
Hull whale (Flower), and 13.5 fo iu the Ocean City whale. Other measurements 
of the Ocean City whale are as follows : 

BALJEyOPTEBA MUSCULUS (L.). OCEAN OITY, X. J., OCTOBER 1891. 

Length of skull, straight 14 ft. 7^ in.' 

Greatest breadth, squamosal 7 " 3 

Breadth of orbital process of frontal at distal end o " i li " ° 

Length of rostrum, straight 9 " 7 J " ' 

Breadth of rostrum at middle, curved ... i " s|- " * 

Length of mandible, straight 15 " 2 

" " " curved 17" i 

Depth " " at middle 1 " i " 

Greatest breadth of axis 3 " o " 

Depth of centrum of axis o " 10 

Greatest breadth of ist dorsal 2 " 10 

Depth of centrum of " " o " loi " 

Greatest breadth of ist lumbar 3 " i r " 

Depth of centrum of " " o " 1 2 J " 

Greatest breadth of ist caudal 3 " o 

Depth of centrum of " " i " 2^ " 

Greatest breadth of scapula 4 " i\ " 

depth " " 2'^ 6 ]^ 

Length of radius, without epiphyses 2 " 8J- " 

" " ulna " " 2 ' '_ 6 '' ' 

Breadth of radius at distal end o " 10 

" ulna " " " o " 8 " 

' Estimated. Add 8^ in. for premaxilte. ' Without premaxillae. ^ The greatest =34^ in. 
' Least. The greatest is 18 in. * Breadth of maxilla only. 



THE "WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



185 



Vertebrae : 7, 1 5, 14, 24 + = 60 +; several lacking. The last present measures 
4^" X iy and is 2f " thick antero-posteriorly. Fifteen should perhaps be counted as 
lurabars. It is iincertain. 

RIBS.' 

The Ocean City whale has 15 pairs of ribs. The majority of specimens of B. 
musculus thus far described have this number, as will be seen by reference to the 
table on p. 181. Gervais, however, insists that the number should be 16 pairs, 
and that wheu less are reported it is because the last pair is overlooked. This 
hardly seems probable in view of the variability known to exist in all species of 
cetaceans. It was not the case in the Newfoundland foetuses which I examined, 
two of which had 15 pairs of ribs and one 16 pairs. 

In the Ocean City whale, the 2d, 3d, and 4th ribs have capitular processes. In 
B. musculus, according to Van Beneden and Gei'vais (5, 215), the 3d and 4th ribs 
are furnished with a neck (col). This information is probably from Malm. Of the 
Hull museum skeleton Flower remarks (45, 412) : "The 2d and 3d ribs have both 
well-developed capitular processes extending towards the bodies of the vertebrae, 
longer and more slender in the third. lu the 4th this process is nearly obsolete, 
and absent in all the succeeding ones." 

The 1st rib in the Ocean City whale, as normally in B. muscnhis, is single- 
headed. It is to be remarked, however, that the 1st rib in the Osteud, Belgium, 
skeleton, according to Dubar's figure and description, is double-headed (34, 38, pi. 8). 

The following table includes measurements of the I'ibs of various European 
specimens and of the Ocean City, New Jersey, skeleton : 

BAL^NOPTERA MUSCULUS (L.). EUEOPEAN AND AMBKICAN. EIBS. 





Length of 
Whale. 


Length of 
Skeleton. 


Length of 


Author. 


Locality. 


1st Rib. 


2d Rib. 


3d Rib. 


6th Rib. 


Ostend, Belgium 

N. Berwick, Scotland. 

Holland 

Baltic Sea (1862) 

Sylt Id., Germany. . . . 
Ocean City, N.J 


• 

So'±' 
Sl'8" 
so' 0" 
66' 2' 


78' 
46' ± 

43' o"' 


in. 

97.6 

(= 2.48 m.) 

40.0 
■'sro-^'" 


in. 
82.7 

( = 2.1 m.) 

49.0 


in. 
S9-0 


in. 
46 


Dubar 

Knox 

Flower 

Miinter 

Mobius 

Cope 



SCAPULA. 

The only illustrations of the scapula of the European Sulphin-bottom accessible 
are Dubar's (34, pi. 10), which is obviously inaccurate, and the figure copied by 
Van Beneden and Gervais from Malm's illustrations of "i?. carolime'' (8, pis. 12-13, 
fig. 33). Outlines of these figures and of one of the scapuhe of the Ocean City, N. 

■ No material is available for a comparison of the sternum of the European Sulphurbottom 
with American specimens. Text-figures 49 and 5° show the form in two European examples. 
' Breadth at distal end, 9I in. 



186 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTEEN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



J., specimen, and of a scapula which I photographed at Baleua whaling station, are 
shown in the accompanying text figures 45 to 48. See also pi. 7, figs. 5 and 6. 





Fig. 45. 



Fig. 46. 





Fig. 47. 



Fig. 4S. 



SCAPULA OF BAL^NOPTERA MUSCDLUS (L.). 

Fig. 45.— OsTEND, Belgium. Ad. s. (From Dubar.) Fig. 46.— Sweden. (From Van Beneden and Gervais.) 

Fig. 47. — Balena Station, Newfoundland. Ad. (From a pHOTonRAni.) Fig. 48. — Ocean City, 

New Jersey. Im. s . (From a photograph.) 



These figures show the strongly projecting anterior and posterior borders, 
evenly convex superior border, and large acromion, characteristic of the Sulphurbot- 
toms. What the range of variation in form may be in Eui'opean and Amei'ican 
specimens, and whether specific differences could be detected, cannot of course be 
determined at present for lack of material. It is to be expected that considerable 
individual vai'iation will be found, and this is indicated in the two figures of scapulae 
from American sp)ecimens, which while agreeing in general form, show differences 
iu detail. 

The dimensions of scapulae in different specimens and the proportion of the 
breadth to the height in the same are shown in the table on p. 187. The discrep- 
ancy in propoi'tions, amounting to about 4 per cent., I am unable to account for. It 
affects both the American and European specimens and is not, appai-ently, due to 
difference in age or sex. The diameter of the glenoid fossa in the scapula of the 
Ocean City skeleton is 13 in. by 9^ in. ; the greatest length of the acromion is 16 in. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

BALMNOPTERA MDSCULUS (L.). EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. SCAPULA. 



187 



Locality. 



Holland 

Baltic (1862) 

North Berwick, Scotland . . 

Gothenbura;, Sweden 



Sex. 



Sylt, Germany 

Ostend, Belgium 

Balena Station, Newfoundland,! .. 
Ocean City, N. J ? 



Total 
Length. 



ft. in. 
50 ± 



51 7 
50 o' 

66 "2 



Length of 
Skeleton. 



ft. in. 

46 + 

78 O 

49 7 

43 o 



Breadth. 



35-5 

3«.2S' 

60 



31 

693 

61 

495 



Scapula. 



Height. 



23-5 
38 



20 
42.1 

38.S 
30.0 



I'roportion 
of Height 
to Breadth. 



i 
60 
61.4 
633 
64.4 = 

64.4 
60.0 
63.1 
60.6 



Author. 



Flower. 

Miinter. 

Knox. 

Van Beneden 

and Gervais. 

Mobius. 

Dubar. 

F. W. T. 

F. VV. T. 





Fig. 49. Fig. 50. 

bal^noptera musculus (l.). european. sternusr. 

Fig. 49. — (Stockholm Museum. From Van Beneden.) Fig. 50. — Ostend, Belgium. V An. 
(From Fischer.) (See p. 185, foot-note.) 

RADIUS AND ULNA. 

The radius iu the Sulphurbottom is remarkable for its breadtb, and the ulna 
for its strong curvature. In Van Beneden and Gervais's copy of Malm's figure of the 
Gothenburg specimen (8, pi. 13, fig. 34) and in Dubar's figui'e (34, pi. 11) the ulna 
is represented as having a long olecranon process dir'ected downward instead of 
upward. If tbis were correct it would at once distinguish tbe European from the 
Newfoundland Sulphurbottom, wliich has an ei-ect or proximally-directed olecra- 
non, as in B.pliysalus. It would appear that the process shown in the figures 
above mentioned is the cartilage attached to the olecranon, Avhich may be ossified 
in such mature individuals as the Ostend specimen. Gervais's figure of the South 
American Sulphurbottom represents the process correctly as cartilage (51, pi. 1, 
fig. 3). With tbe exception mentioned, the figures of the arm-bones of European 
Sulphurbottoms agree well with those of the Ocean City, N. J., and Newfoundland 
specimens shown in pi. 7, figs. 7-9. 

The following actual measurements of the arm-bones are given by various 

o 

authors : 

' Rheinland measure. ' From Van Beneden and Gervais's copy of Malm's figure. 



1 88 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

BALMNOPTEBA MUSCULUS (L.). EUKOPEAN AND AMERICAN. UPPER ARM-BONES. 





Length 
of Whale. 


Length of 
Skeleton. 


Radius. 


Ulna. 




Locality. 




Breadth 


Breadth 




Breadth 


Breadth 


Author. 








Length. 


at Prox. 


at Distal 


Length. 


at Prox. 


at Distal 












End. 


End. 




End. 


End. 






ft. in. 


ft. in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 




Holland 


50 + 

51 8 


46 + 


27.0 


6.0 


7-5 


25.0 
28.6 


7.0 

7-7 


5-5 
6.2 


Flower 


Baltic (1862) 


Miinter 


N. Berwick, Scotland 




78 


46.0 






.... 






Knox 


Gothenburg, Sweden 


51 7 


49 7 


29.1 ' 


7-5 


8.7 


27.2- 


7-7^ 


6.8 


Malm 


Sylt Id., Germany. . . 


50 ■■ 


43 


.... 












Mobius 


Ostend, Beli^ium 






48.0 






48.0 




9-3° 


Dubar 


Ocean City, N. J 


66 2 




325 




10. 


34.5" 


9-3' 


8.0 


F. W. T. 


Newfoundland 












42.0 


12-5 


9-25 


F. W. T. 



PHALANGES. 



The number of phalanges in the European specimens of £. musculus de- 
scribed by various authors is as follows : 

BALMNOPTERA MUffCULUS (L.). EUR0PE.4N. PHALANGES. 



Locality. 


Author. 


Length. 


IL 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


Remarks. 


Gothenburg 

Ostend 

Iceland 


Malm 
Dulnir 
Reinhardt 
Weber 
Flower 


5'' 7" 
85' 0" + 



s'o''o""" 
50' 0" + 


4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 


7 
7 
6 

6 
6 

5 


7 
6 
6 
6 

5 
5 


3 
4 
3 

3 
3 
3 


Uncertain.' 

foetus, 2.27 m. 
Uncertain. " 


Humber River... . 
Coast of Holland. 



The Ocean City whale had the following formula, according to Cope (31) : 4, 
6, 5, 3. The phalanges in a Newfoundland foetus (from No. 14, left side) are as 
follows : 5, 8, 7, 4. 

SUMMARY. 

The results of the foregoing discussion of American and European Sulphur- 
bottoms may be summed up as follows : 

1. The average and maximum lengtlis of Norwegian specimens are greater than 
those of Newfoundland specimens, which may be an actual diffei'ence or may result 
from a difference in the system of measurements. As the same discrejoancy is 



' " In front." " Behind " = 26.2 in. 

' " Behind," inch olecranon, which is 6.9 in. 



' From Dubar's figure. 

" Including olecranon. 
" In front " = 25 in. ' From a photograph. 

' Including breadth of olecranon, which is 2.2 in. ° Exclusive of olecranon, which is about 7 in. 
' German measure. ' " De likaledes fullstandiga fingrarna." '° " Artificially articulated." 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 189 

found in the case of both B. physalus and Megaptera, the latter hypothesis appears 
more probable. 

2. In external proportions, so far as may be judged from the limited data 
available in the case of European specimens, there is a very close correspondence 
between the Sulphurbottoms of the Eastern and Western North Atlantic, amount- 
ing to identity. 

3. In coloration no important diflference is exhibited. 

4. The whalebone is of the same color in both American and European speci- 
mens and, so far as may be judged, of equal length. 

5. The lack of records and material precludes a judgment as to osteological 
characters, though in such matters as the total number of vertebras and ribs, general 
shape and size of the individual bones of the skull, shape of the scapula, etc., there 
is no clear indication of specific differences. Cope's suspicions that the Ocean City, 
New Jersey, specimen represented a species intermediate between B. physahis and 
B. musculus are not confirmed. 

Viewing the present evidence as a whole there appears to be no reason for 
separating the American Sulphurbottom from B. musculus (L.). 

THE REPRESENTATIVE OF B. MUSCULUS (l.) IN GREENLAND WATERS. 

As mentioned on a previous page, Robert Brown and others assert that the 
Gi'eeulanders recognize two or more species of large Finbacks under the name of 
TunnoUk. Fabricius (41, 35) identified the Tunnolih with B. physalus (L.) and 
gave a diagnosis and a few data regarding its habits and utilization. These stand- 
ing by themselves are insufficient for the determination of the species and of no 
value in a case where the discrimination of closely allied forms is involved. 

Scoresby (54, 1, p. 481) mentions a "Physalis found dead in Davis' Strait," 
which was 105 ft. long. Although the length is exaggerated, this specimen is prob- 
ably to be assigned to B. musculus, as he states that the color was "bluish-black 
on the back and bluish-gray on the belly." The data he gives are insufficient for 
a positive identification. 

In 1846 Eschricht {36, 373) published a description and measurements of a 
female lunnolik stranded at Godhavn, August 12, 1843, which account he obtained 
from H. P. C. Moller who examined the specimen. Holler's description contains 
the following data : 

Body more elongate than in Balmia mysiicetus, Megaptera longiviana, ov 
Balcenoptera acuto-rostrafa. 

Fore part of body thick and heavy ; hind part slender and thin, much com- 
pressed . 

Color black throughout, or possibly lighter under the posterior part of the 
body ; within folds of the skin, e.g., aljout mamma), or genitals, dark mouse-gray. 

Pectorals white below. 

Upper jaw a foot shorter than the lower. Lower jaw w Ith a rounded terminal 
protuberance and faint median keel. 

Baleen very short and proportionately very broad. 



190 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

Dorsal fin unusually small and thin and situated behind tbe line of the genital 
orifice. 

The dorsal fin of this specimen was sent to Eschricht in salt, and is described 
by him as follows (SG, 378) : 

" The fin itself, extremely small (4 inches high) and flat and naiTow, with the 
point curved backward, stood on a thick tuberous root, which apparently might 
be resjarded as the base of the fin." 

Eschricht also received from Moller one of the pectoral fins, of which he gives 
a description and figure (36, 379). He found that it was quite different in form 
from the pectorals of the Humpback and Little Piked whale, and that the pha- 
langes were 5, 5, 6, 3. Its length was ^ the total length of the whale. 

MoUer's measui-ements of the exterior were as follows : 

Ft. In. 

From tip of mandible to notch of flukes (straight) 68 o 

" genitalia 46 o 

navel 36 o 

From notch of flukes to dorsal fin 14 o 

" " " " " middle of genital slit 20 6 

" " " '■ " mammse , 21 6 

" " " " " navel 36 o 

" " "pectorals 42 o 

From genital slit to navel 15 o 

" " swollen part of body 12 o 

Length of genital slit i 6 

Distance between fore part of pectorals i o 

" " mammje i 7 

Length of pectorals 7 6 ' 

Greatest breadth of pectorals 3 4 

Distance between outermost points of flukes 16 o 

Flukes from notch to root 3 6 

Length of largest baleen (about) 4 o 

Breadth of largest baleen i ft. i in. to i 2 

Height of dorsal fin o 4 

AVhile considering that the identity of this specimen could not be positively 
determined, Eschricht, with his usual sagacity, reached the conclusion that it was 
probably, the same as the celebrated Ostend specimen. In this he was entirely 
Justified. The Ostend specimen is now known to have been a Sulphurbottora, B. 
musculvs (L.). 

Holler's measurements, reduced to percentages of the total length and compared 
with the average of the ten Newfoundland females of Ji. muscuhis, measured by 
myself, are as follows : 

'The pectoral preserved in the Copenhagen Museum measures ii^J^ ft. — Eschricht. 



THE WKALEBONE WHALES OF THE "WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

BALMNOPTERA MUSCULUS (L.). GREENLAND AND NEWFOUNDLAND. 



101 



Measurement. 



Total length 

Snout to posterior base of dorsal 

Notch of flukes to clitoris 

Length of pectoral from axilla 

" " " " head of humerus 

Greatest breadth of pectoral 

Height of dorsal 



Godhavn, 
Greenland. 



lo Newfoundland 
Females. 
Average. 



68" 




The coiTespondence between these measurements is sufficient to show that the 
Greenland specimen is at least very close to the Newfoundland Sulphurbottom, if 
not identical with it, which probability is strengthened by many points in Holler's 
description. The chief differences shown here and in the other data given by 
Moller are: (1) the dorsal fin is lower; (2) the color is black. 

Regarding these points it may be said, first, that in view of Eschricht's remarks 
regarding the dorsal fin, it is uncertain whether Moller measured the height in the 
same manner as myself ; second. Holler's specimen had been dead three days when 
he saw it and perhaps much longer, so that it is quite natural it should be described 
as black. It is to be noted that the parts protected from the light are described as 
gray. 

The case of this Greenland specimen (and the species it represents) remains, 
therefore, substantially as Eschricht left it, namely, wMth a very strong probability 
that it was identical with B. musculus (L.), but with positive determination impos- 
sible from lack of more extended data. 



' This length is from the tip of the mandible to the notch of the flukes. In computing the 
percentages here and on p. 159, eighteen inches were subtracted for the overhang of the lower jaw. 
' To the middle of the genital orifice. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE LITTLE PIKED WHALE, BAL.ENOPTERA ACUTO-ROSTRATA Lacepede. 

Sars's diagnosis of this species is as follows : 

1. Length of full-growu individuals 20 to 30 feet. (Maximum 36 feet — Van 
Beneden.) 

2. Body less slender than in the other species of the genus, the greatest depth 
equalling ;^ the leugtli ; behind the navel gradually naiTower; tail with a rather 
high crest above and below. 

3. Color above and on the sides of the lower jaw gray-black; below white; 
dark color of the back descending obliquely behind the pectoral fins and occupying 
the greater part of the tail. 

4. Length of the mouth exceeding i the total length ; upper jaw seen from 
above, becoming attenuated rapidly from the base, with the extremity acute, pale 
gray. 

5. Pectoral fins small, scarcely exceeding \ the total length, lanceolate, forming 
an obtuse angle posteriorly at about the middle of the length; the middle of the 
external surface with a broad transverse band of pine white, sharply defined 
proximally, less so distally ; base and tip black. 

6. Dorsal fin quite high, with the tip strongly curved backward, like a horn. 
It lies quite far forward with the anterior insertion at the commencement of the 
last third of the total length, and in advance of a vertical line drawn through the 
anus. 

7. Flukes below whitish, with iri-egular dark markings. 

8. Baleen entirely yellowish-white (75, 15). 

Plate 1 accompanying Sars's memoir represents a female 14^ ft. long, captured 
near Christiania, Norway, September, 1878. The original drawing was by Sars. 
It is an admirable figure in every respect, and coiTespouds exactly with the fore- 
going diagnosis. 

Dr. Collett added the following characters in the diagnosis of the species given 
by him in 1 886 : " Number of plates [of baleen] about 325 ; their greatest length 
about 200 mm., not including the bristles." " Inner side [of the flippers] quite 
white" {21, 264). Bocourt's figure of the Bretague specimen {A9, pi. 3), which is 
in most respects very satisfactory, shows a broader white band on the under surface 
of the pectoral than on the uppei' surface, with the margins nearly as well defined. 

As I am acquainted with but three specimens from the east coast of the 
United States which may be supposed to represent B. acuto-rodrata, I am unable 
to speak with any great degree of confidence regarding the matter of identity in 
this case. The three specimens referred to are as follows : 

192 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OK THE WESTEKN NORTH ATLANTIC. 193 

(1) A skeleton 16 ft. 5^ in. long from off Monomoy Pt. Lighthouse, Harwich- 
port, Massachusetts, in the U. S. National Museum. (No. 20931, from the U. S. 
Fish Commission, 1883.) 

(2) Measurements, description, and sketches of a female, 15 ft. 4 in., entangled 
in the nets of the fishermen near Portland, Maine, in July, 1893, and exhibited in 
that city. I owe the data relating to this specimen to Joseph P. Thompson, Esq., 
Vice-President of the Poitland Society of Natui'al History. 

(3) Two photographs of a female, 22 ft. 8 in. long, captured near Quoddy 
Head Life-saving Station, Maine, Sept. 6, 1889, and reported to the Smithsonian 
Institution by Capt. A. H. Myers, keeper of the station. 

An imperfect skull was dredged up near Pigeon Cove, Mass., in 1881, and 
sent to the National Museum, by Mr. Wm. H. Jackson. It is not now accessible. 
(No. 23025.) 

The sketch of the exterioi- of the Portland specimen (text fig. 51) shows that 




Fig. 51. 



Fig. 52. 

BALJENOPTERA ACUTO-ROSTRATA LAC. PORTLAND, MAINE. 

Fig. 51.— Female, i.engih 15 ft. 4 in. Fig. 52.— Left Pectoral Fin of the Same. External Surface. 

(From Sketches by Joseph P. Thompson, Esq.) 

it corresponds with the diagnosis of B. acuto-rostrata as regards the general form, and 
in the form of the dorsal and pectoral fins. The color markings on the external face 
of the pectoral fin are exactly as in that species, as is shown by Mr. Thompson's 
excellent figure (text fig. 52). His notes on this specimen are as follows: "The 
color of the body was an ashy black above, passing into a pure white on the belly, 
without any distinct demarkatioiis ; nor was there any apparent lateral line. The 
blowhole was in a sunken cavity. The eye was very near the corner of the mouth. 
The number of longitudinal furrows could not be accui'ately counted, though they 
were very strongly'uiarked, of a pinkish color within the folds, and white without. 
The baleen was°of a pinkish brown at the bases of the plates and fading in color 



19i THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

to a dirty white at the free, fringed extremities. The snout was quite pointed and 
evidently the upper jaw when dosed fitted into a deep groove in the lowei-, which 
was considerably longer and projected beyond the upper." The colors of the body 
and of the whalebone are those of B. acuto-rostrata. 

Mr. Thompson made the following measurements on the Portland specimen : 

Total length, end of snout to forking of the flukes 15 ft. 4 in. 

Approximate girth at deepest point (this could not be accurately taken). 9 " o " 

Pectoral fin (left side), length 2 " 2 

" " greatest width o " 7 

" " distant from corner of mouth , 2 " i 

Dorsal fin, length obliquely i " o " 

" " height approximately o " 8 

" " distant from fork of flukes 5 " i 

Caudal fin, extreme width, point to point 4 " 2 " 

" " from fork to anus 4 " 3 " 

End of snout to spiracles 2 " 6 

" " " " corner of mouth (upper jaw) 2 " 8 ' 

" " " " " " " (lower jaw) 3 " 3 " 

While these measurements show a reasonably close appi'oximation to those of 
B. acuto-rostrata given by various European authors, the latter unfortunately pre- 
sent so little unifoi'mity among themselves that they are hardly available for the 
discrimination of closely allied species. The measurements of ten s[)ecimens from 
the coasts of France and Great Britain, and those for the Portland specimen and 
the New York specimen cited by DeKay in 1842 (32, 130), are given below. For 
convenience of comparison they are all reduced to percentages of the total length. 

BALJENOPTERA ACUTO-ROSTRATA LAC. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. 











■8 

00 


rn 




































f*> 






























































CO 






01 














o>-. 




































« d 


W . 


















'1 

\T 

6 


> 




J^ 00 

Si 

1 


Sim 



rt-r' 

mi 


Q 


u 


-0 « 


C 

so. 

E 
>. 


id 


Oot 

to 1 

- X 

c 
v 

3 


^1 

CQ > 


•it 

si 

jp-; 

0. 




9 ad. 


S adol. 




J 


2 ir. 


9 ir. 


5 


9 ir. 






9' 


9' 


Total length 


2S'4"' 


24' 6" 


21' 8" 


17' 6" 


17' 0" 


. ■' v.. 

14 •* 


13' 11" 


13 5 ' 


11' It" 


9' ll" 


18' 0" 


15' 4" 






% 


% 


% 


% 


* 


■i 


i 


% 


% 


% 


i 


i 


Tip upper jaw to eye 






• ■ • • 


20.0 


19.I 


21.4 


15-3 


ig.6 










" " *' " blowhole 


13.3 


.... 




17.1 


(14.2) 






13.6 




13-5 






" " pectoral 








28.6 


35-5 


(32.1) 


27.8 


30.4 




27.7 




.... 


" " back of dorsal. 


70 


74.6 




(78.6) 


(72.6) 




(68.q) 


74.8 




71-5 




66.9 


Tip lower jaw to corner mouth. . 


16.S 








(20.7) 




17.6 








195? 


21.2 


" " " " navel 




.... 






50.0 
















Length of pectoral (from axilla ? 


15.3' 


9-3 




II. 5 


14.7 


14-3 


12.3^ 


(14.8) 


12.7 


12 6" 


II. 6 


14.1 


Greatest breadth of pectoral. 


3.8^ 






3-3 


3.0 


3.6 


3-4 






.... 




3-8 




3-5 
26.0' 


4-3 




7-1 




6.0 


3-3 
18. 2« 


3-7 
27.6 


5-3 
21.0 


7-1 
27-3 


5-5 
26.4 


4-4 + 
27.2 


Flukes from tip to tip . . . .... 


25-5 


29.4 





' Straight, to posterior margin of flukes. 

' Ant. border, curved. (From axilla, straight 

•Straight. 

^French measure. 

'Length " external to integuments." 



9-3?-) 



' This me.isiirement must be erroneous. 

'To "extremity of tail," straight; along curve of 

back = 13' 8y. 
^ Length of " inner side." 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTEEN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



195 



The most notable discrepancy between tlie Portland specimen and those from 
the European coasts is, perhai)s, that the distance from the snout to the posterior 
margin of the dorsal fiu in the former is but (56.9?^ of the total length, while 
with one exception this distance exceeds 70^ in the European specimens. It is 
true that this distance for the Drogheda, Ireland, specimen, computed from the 
measurements given by Carte and Macalister (U), is but 68.9^ of the total length, 
but too much reliance cannot be placed on the measurements of this specimen. 
That for the flukes is obviously inaccurate.' 

All that can be learned fi-om the foregoing table is that the proportions of the 
European and American specin)ens show an api)roxiniate ao-i'eement.- 

The photogi'aphs of the specimen from Quoddy Head, Maine, reproduced in 
plate 28, figs. 3 and 4, show in an admirable manner the stout body, prominent 
caudal I'idges, sharp head, and strongly curved dorsal fin characteristic of B. acuta- 
rostrata. They show also that the center of the pectoral fin above and the centei- 

' It is also to be observed that their figure of the exterior, stated to be " made to the scale of 
I inch to the foot," is not on that scale, and does not agree in proportions with their measurements. 
They were aware, however, of the discrepancies in the position of the dorsal fin as given by earlier 
authors. 

"Since the foregoing paragraphs were written, I have received from Mr. J. Henry Blake of 
Cambridge, Mass., some valuable notes on Cetacea observed on the New England coast, includin<i 
measurements of a young whale of the present species. These measurements, together with per- 
centages of the total length of such as are comparable with those of the foregoing table, are as 
follows : 



Measurement. 



Length from end of lower jaw to notch of flukes (upper jaw little shorter). 

End of jaw to center of eye 

Length of eye 

Eye to shoulder joint 

" " blowholes 



Ear to shoulder joint 

" " axilla 

End of upper jaw to hind [lart of blowholes 

Blowholes to dorsal fin 

Length of mouth from end of low^er jaw 

" pectoral from axilla to tip 

" " " " shoulder joint to tip. ..... . 

" " " " axilla to forward outer edge. 

Shoulder joint to forward part of flukes 

Median line of back to pectoral fin 

Width of pectoral fin 

Height of dorsal fin 

Length " " " 

Dorsal fin to forward part of flukes 

Forward to hind part of flukes at base 

Flukes from tip to tip 

Navel to forward part of flukes 

Genitals to " " " " 

Height of body at dorsal fin 

Greatest girth (just below pectoral fin) 

Tip of upper jaw to hind margin of dorsal fin 



Per cent. 



lOO.O 

i8.o 



13.8 
10.4 



4.0 
4.0 



8.0 
28.7 



71.8 



Blowholes situated 2 in. in front of a perpendicular line from the eye. 
Ear situated just above a line drawn from the eye to the pector.al fin. 
Number of abdominal folds, 50. 
Baleen pure white, 7 in. long. 



196 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

of the flukes below are white. The under surface of the body is also white, 
and the baleen is light-colored. The gular folds are about 60 in number, as in 
B. acuto-rostrata. 

The photographs agree well with the figure of £. acuto-rostrata (also from a 
photograph) published by Sir Wm. Turner (92, 41, fig. 1), though the latter is un- 
fortunately rather indistinct. The outward curve of the gular folds at the pos- 
terior end is, however, well shown in both. Sir Wm. Turner states that in the 
Granton specimen the white area of the upper surface of the pectoral was inter- 
spersed with black blotches (92, 49). This would appear to have been the case 
with the Quoddy Head specimen, but the photograph is unfortunately taken from 
such a point of view that the upper surface of the pectoral cannot be well seen. 
In Bocourt's figure the white is unspotted. 

SIZE. 

The maximum size of B. acuto-rostrata is given by various authors as 36 feet, 
but I am not certain that this rests on actual measurements of specimens. Esch- 
richt states that the Vaagelival may bear young when 23 ft. (Rheinland) long, and 
is certainly full-grown when 27 to 29 ft. long (37, 170), and again that the 
mature individuals, 24 to 29 or 30 ft. long, taken at the station near Bergen are as 
a rule pregnant. The largest with which he was acquainted was the one stranded 
in the Weser River, Germany, in 1669, which was 26| ft. long (Rheinland measure 
= 27 ft. 5^ in., Eng.), and Lesson's specimen found at the mouth of the Charente 
River, France, in 1835, which was 7.48 m., or 24 ft. 6 in. (Eng.) long. Turner's 
Granton, Scotland, female was 28 ft. 4 in. long, and appears to be, therefore, the 
largest recorded specimen. This was measured to the posterior margin of the 
flukes. 

No full-grown American specimens have been recorded. 

OSTEOLOGICAL CHARACTERS. 

The data for the comparison of osteological characters are fuller and more 
satisfactory. Van Beneden and Gervais (5), Van Bambeke (i), Carte and Mac- 
alister (14), and other writers have given detailed descriptions of the skeletons of 
Eui'opean specimens of B. acuto-rostrata, and Sir AVilliam Turner has published 
(92, 68) an admirable table of measurements of five skulls preserved in the Museum 
of the University of Edinburgh, and has corrected errors in the observations of 
earlier writers regarding these same specimens. 

SKULL. 

In comparing the dimensions of the skull of the Massachusetts sj^ecimen with 
those of European specimens, we have been able to make use of Turner's table and 
also to personally measure a skull (No. 13877) belonging to a skeleton in the Na- 
tional Museum, fi-om the coast of Norway. These measurements, with others, I 
have reduced to percentages of the total length, and brought together with those 
of the Massachusetts specimen, similarly treated, in the following table: 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 
BAL^NOPTERA ACUTO-ROSTRATA LAC. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. SKULL. 



197 





Hi 

WO" 

i-ij 


C C ri 

oW - 
Mo 6 


lis '2 

fy: 


00 

C 

8 

T3 

C 

c 

3 0" 0" 


00 

-a" 

c 

8 

Mi 

30'+ 


00 

s 

c 


1 

c 


. 3^ 
>-tr rs* 

c_rt.g 
CCS- 


tJi 


i3 


it- 

CUM 

= <-- 






>. . 

Ot/1 

II 




9 jr. 
9 II" 


jr. 


S jr. 
I8' 


I8' 


S ad. 
23' 4" 


23'o"' 




jr. 




ad.' 


Sad.' 


ad.» 


Total length of whale 


Total length of skeleton 




Length of skull (condylo-premax- 
illary, straight) 


32" 


40" 

% 
62.5 
69.4 
69.4 

102.5 
23.: 

31.9 
25.6 

45-0 

II. 9 

10. 
25.0 
99-4 

103.7 

8.7 

12.5 

5.6 


44^' ' 


46"' 


7IF' 


70" 


62^"'' 


49'^ 


43r 


48" 


61.25' 


61.5' 


60.5- 




% 
62.5 
67.2 
64.6 


i 
60.7 
68.0 
71.3' 

103.2' 
28.1 

51.7 
32.6 
22.5 

44.0 

41 .6 

II. 8 

10. 1 
29.2 
96.6 

103.4 

10.7 

12.3 

5.1 


i 
60.0 
70.1 
72.8' 

103.2' 
28.3 
50.0 
30.5 
21.8 

45.6 

10. 9 

8.7 
27-7 
98.9 

106.5 
9.8 

12.5 
4-3 


67.3 
72.7 

74-8' 

105.0' 
26.2 
54-6 
33-9 
23.1 

50.7 

49-7 

13 3 

10.5 
29.4 
100.7 

io8.o 

10.5 

12.9 

5.6 


f 
67.8 
73-2 
75-7 

106.4 
27.1 
55-4 
32.9 
24.3 

51.0 

49-3 

13.6 

10. 

30.0 

101.4 

109.3 
9-3 

12.8 

5-4 


% 

65.2 


62. o' 


61.5 

70.1 
71.9 

104.6 
29.3 
51. 1 
32.2 
19.8 

44-3 

45.0 

II. 3 

9.9 


* 

62.5 
68.7 

34-4' 
i8.8< 


f 

62. o> 


61.8 


% 

60.8 


" maxilla 


" '■ premaxilla 

From ant. border foramen mag. 

over vertex to tip of beak 

Ditto to upper border of occiput. . . 






75.9' 

102. i' 
25.3 
54.7 
32.7 
17.9 

50.0 

4S.2 

13.4 
9.8 


73.6 

104. 1 
27.6 
57-3 
35.0 
20.7 

53.3 

15.4 
10.6 


75-2 

104.1 
28 I 










Greatest breadth of skull 

Breadth at base of beak 

" middle of beak 

' " orbital borders 

of frontals 


50.0 

31-3 
21. Q 

46.9 

45-3 

9 4 

7.8 


56.6 
33.6 

21.2 


'3^-8 
20.4 

44-9 


57-2 
33-9 
20.7 

52. 1 

50.4 

13.6 
91 


Greatest breadth of maxilla behind 


Greatest breadth between outer bor- 
ders of both preniaxill3e. ...... 

Greatest breadth between inner bor- 
ders of both premaxill:e 














Length of mandible (straight) 

" " along outer 


93.8 

98.4 
10.2 
13.3 

5-5 






97.7 

103.4 

9-9 

12.6 

5-7 


97.9 






100 


105.0 









109.0 


Height of mandible at condyle. . . . 












12.5 






13. 1 


*' " '* " symphysis.. 























It will be fouud by examination of the foregoing table that the dimensions of 
the Massachusetts skull shows a surprisingly close approximation to those of the 
Scotch skulls of the same size, amounting indeed to identity. Tlie few points of 
disagreement are probably due to differences in the relative positions of the several 
bones of the skull arising from shi-inkage in drying, etc. These are as follows : (1) 
A very slight excess in the length of the skull measured over the occipital bone, 



' 2" added for breakage. 

' Swedish. In straight line. 

' From Zoiil. Erehus anJ Terror, p. 50 ; 2.4" added for preraaxillse. In P. Z. S., 1864, p. 399, Flower mentions 
two skulls in R. Coll. Surg., as follows: Adolescent; length, 65' ; breadth, 54^; breadth of beak at middle. 23 JT. The 
2d is young. Length, 48"; breadth, 50 :? ; breadth of beak at middle, zo'i. Also an iidolescent skull at Brussels. 
Length, 63" ; breadth', 54;*; breadth of beak at middle, 21 ^. 

■* Curved. 

' The measurements of these three specimens were taken by me at the same time by the same methcx] io straight 
lines, with calipers, and are strictly comparable. 



198 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

amounting in actual measurement to about -^-^ of an inch ; (2) a slight excess in 
the height of the occiput, amounting to -^^ of an inch ; (3) a decrease in the breadth 
of the beak at the middle. These can scarcely be regarded as having any consider- 
able impoi'tance. 

In comparing the young individuals of which Sir Wm. Turner has given meas- 
urements with the adult, it is interesting to observe that the beak increases decidedly 
in relative length in tbe latter, causing all the dimensions which include the beak 
to show an increased propoi'tion to the total length. The same is true also of the 
width of the skull across the squamosals and the orbital plates of the frontals, and 
the length of the mandible. On account of these changes in propoi'tions incident 
upon growth, it is necessary to compai'e skulls of the same age, — adults with 
adults, and immature specimens with immature specimens, — to arrive at correct 
conclusions. 

For comparison of details of structui'e I have had the use of the skull from 
Norway in the U. S. National Museum (No. 13877), and such figures as are found 
in the literature. The Massachusetts skull and the Norwegian one are figured on 
pis. 22, 24, and 26. The former is from a much younger individual than the 
latter. 

On comparing the figures it will be seen that in general the correspondence is 
very close, but that in a number of details the two skulls exhibit differences. For 
example, the nasals are longer and narrower in the American skull than in the 
Norwegian, the proximal ends of the nasal processes of the maxillae are narrower, 
and the anterior mai'gin of the supra-occipital is more rounded. To determine 
whether these and other minor differences are of importance, it is necessary, of 
course, to make further comparison with other skulls. This I am only able to do 
through the figures hitherto published by various, cetologists. 

So far as I am aware, no adequate figure of the skull of the European £. 
acuto-rosti'ata has been published hitherto. The drawings of the lateral surface 
and of one half the superior surface, reproduced by Capelliui (^12, pi. 1, fig. 1 ; pi. 
2, fig. 1) are on the whole the most satisfactory. Eschricht's figures (37, pi. 9) are 
excellent, but appear to be out of proportion in the posterior part, especially 
as regards the tympanies and nasals. Extended descriptions have been pub- 
lished by Carte and Macalister (i-4), Capelliui {12), and Van Beneden and 
Gervais (8). 

The Massachusetts skull agrees veiy closely with Capellini's figures, as will be 
seen by comparison of plates 22, 24, and 26. The descriptions also appear to agree 
well, as far as I have been able to interpret them. In one particulai', however. Carte 
and Macalister's account is not in accord. They state that the malar bone is broader 
behind than in front and that " its wider or posterior extremity was flattened and 
fitted in between the antei'ior border of the glenoid process of the squamous bone 
and the posterior angular process of the frontal, where a digital depression existed 
for the reception of the former" (i4, 213). No such shape or articulation is to 
be found in the Massachusetts skull, in which the anterior end of the malar is the 
broader, and the posteiior smaller end articulates, as would be expected, with the 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 199 

temporal. In these two particulars it agrees with Capellini's figures, and one is 
led to infer that in the skull examined by Carte and Macalister the malar was 
revei'sed and out of its natural position. Eschricht's figures (57, pi. 9) agrees with 
Capellini's and with the Massachusetts skull. In the latter the lachrymal is want- 
ing, but the malar has an anterior flat process which fits in between the maxillary 
and frontal, and may be supposed to represent the lachrymal, which has become 
fused with the malar. (See plate 26, fig. 2.) 

In the details mentioned above, — -the shape of the nasals, maxillae, etc. — Capel- 
lini's figure agrees ratlier with the American skull than with the Norwegian, while 
Eschricht's figure corresponds most closely with the latter. It should be remem- 
bered that the Massachusetts skull and that figured by Capellini are from young 
individuals, while the Norwegian skull in the National Museum and that figured by 
Eschricht are from adults. It is probable that some of the differences observable 
are due to age. 

On the whole, there is nothing tangible on which to base a distinction be- 
tween the American and European specimens, while in pi'oportions, as shown by Sir 
Wm. Turner's measureuients, there is the closest agreement, amounting to identity. 
A separation of American and European specimens on the basis of cranial characters 
does not, therefore, seem warranted. 

SKELETON. 

Of the descriptions of the skeleton of the European B. acuto-rostrata given by 
Van Beueden and Gervais, Van Bambeke, Carte and Macalister, and other writers, 
two, three, or all agree in assigning to B. acuto-rostrata the following characters: 
Neural spine of the atlas very short or rudimentary ; spine of the axis lai'ger, and 
its parapophyses and diapophyses united to form a bony ring ; diapophyses of the 
7th cervical next in size to those of the axis, and followed by those of the 6th cer- 
vical ; neural spines of the 3d to the 5th cervicals rudimentary; parapophysis of 
the 7th cervical reduced to a tubercle ; diapophyses of the 3d to the 5th cervicals 
directed backward, those of the 6th and 7th cervicals forward ; centra of the lum- 
bars increase in length from the beginning to the end of the series ; iuferioi- process 
on last lumbar strong; lumbar neural spines at the maximum as regards size ; lum- 
bar diapophyses equal to those of the last doi'sal ; caudal ceiiti-a not longer than 
those of the lumbars ; last caudal diapophysis and neural spine on the 36th verte- 
bra; neural spine replaced by a trough on the 39th vertebra; first vertebra with 
perforated diapophysis, the 35th ; chevrons, nine, decreasing in length from 2d to 
9th, the 1st small, 1|- times the length of the second, the 2d longest, and the 3d 
broadest antero-posteriorly ; ribs increasing in length from 1st to 4th, the firet short- 
est and widest; scapula with the acromion recurved. 

The skeleton from the coast of Massachusetts, No. 20931 (plate 27, fig. 2), pre- 
sents the majority of these characters, but shows the following slight variations: 
The diapophyses of the 3d to 5th cervicals are transverse rather than directed 
backward. The 4th, 5th, and Gth pairs of ribs are of the same length (26 inches in a 
straight line) and are the longest of the series. 



200 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

The description of Van Beneden and Gervais in the Osteographie (8, 157) 
is not taken into consideration in the foregoing analysis as it is based chiefly on 
a specimen fi-oni Greenland, which in the present work is not I'egarded as neces- 
sarily identical with £. aciito-rostrata, but as the description tallies very closely 
with that of European specimens, it lends strength to the conclusion that the 
Greenland form is not distinct. 

The following notes on the cervical vertebrae and other bones of the Massachu- 
setts skeleton (20931, U. S. N. M.) will be of interest : 

The spine of the axis is very thick at the base and divided or almost bifurcated 
in fi'ont; posteriorly, projecting out over the top of 3d cervical, to which it is anchy- 
losed on the left side. The real spine of the axis is a thin lidge about 2 in. 
long. 

The diapophyses of the 3d to the 6th cervicals are almost equal in development, 
transverse, and slender ; shorter than in the axis or in the 7th cervical. That on 
the right side of the 3d cervical is shortest, but that on the left side is loBger than 
in the 4th cervical. 

The diapophysis of the 7th cervical is much longer and thicker and inclines 
strongly foi'ward and also downward below the plane of the end of the parapophysis 
of the 6th cervical. 

The parapophyses of the 3d and 4th cervicals are short and thick, es- 
pecially distally, and nearly transverse, but strongly inclined downward. Those 
of the 5th and 6th cervicals are much longer and thinner, and are strongly 
bent upward and forward. The parapophysis of the 7th cervical is a mere 
tubercle. 

The neural arch of the 3d cervical is open above and anchylosed to the spine 
of the axis on the left side, as ali'eady stated. The spines of the 4th and 5th cer- 
vicals are mere rudiments; of the 6th, about a \ in. long; and of the 7th, about one 
inch long, conical and equal to the spine of the 1st dorsal. 

The last caudal vertebra is about as large as a pea. It seems probable that 
one is missing between it and the next one anteriorly, which is much larger, but 
such may not be the case. 

The 4th, 5th, and 6th ribs are of the same length (26 in., straight) and are 
the longest of the series. 

As regards the number of vertebrae, the various records are not entirely in 
accord, but such variation as there is rather accentuates the general agreement than 
otherwise. The enumeration of Sir Wm. Turner (92, 63) is pi'obably the most 
accurate, having been made under favorable circumstances, and with the intent of 
correcting previous errors. The majority of museum specimens, however, are not 
absolutely perfect as I'egards the final caudal vertebra?. The majority of European 
specimens have been found to have 48 vertebrae, including 12 lumbars. This is the 
number in the Massachusetts skeleton also, which may, however, possibly lack 
the penultimate caudal. The variations recorded by different observers are as 
follows : 



THE "WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



201 



BALMNOPTERA ACVTO-ROSTEATA LAC. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. VERTEBRAL FORMULA. 



Locality. 



Norway 

(Normal) 

(Bergen Mus.). 
( 



Dogger Bank 

North Cape 

(Cambridge Mus.) 

(Brussels Mus.) 

Cherbourg, France. . . 

Greenland 

Queensferry, Scotland. 

(Breslau Mus.) 

Granton, Scotland. . . . 
Drogheda, Ireland. . . . 
Cromer, England. ... 

Coast of Norway 

Bergen, Norway 



Vergeroux, France 

Bergen, (Paris Mus.) 

Mass. (20931, U. S. N. M.) 



Sex 
and 
Age. 



f, 



C. 



1 1 
II 



II 
I [ 



II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 



L. 



'3 
13 
12 
12 
12 
13 
13 
12 
12 



Ca. 



12 


18 


13 


17 


12 


is" 


12 


■■17 + 


12 




12 


19 



15 + 
20 

18 

i8 
(+ I or ! 
16 
18 
18 



Total. 



48 
48 

49 

46 
48 
47 
47 

47 + 
46 (+ ?) 



49 
48 
50 
46 + 

49 

48 

48 

46 (+ I or 2) 

47 
48 
48' 



Authority. 



Eschricht.' 

Van Bcneden. 

Van Beneden. 

Van Beneden. 

P'lower. 

Van Beneden. 

Van Beneden. 

Flower. 

Lacepede. 

Flower. 

(Knox). Corrected by Turner. 

Barkow. " " " 

Turner, i8q2. (Especially accurate.) 

Carte and Macalister. 

Flower. 

Malm. 

Malm. 

Malm. 

Fischer. 

Fischer. 

F. W. T. 



The agreement as regards number of dorsal vertebrae shown in the foregoing 
table is quite remarkable, and is in contrast with the variation found in other 
species of Balmnoptera, and among the Cetacea generally. It will be seen also that 
the lumbars show a variation of but one. The variation in number of caudals, ex- 
clusive of that due to defects, probably does not exceed two. Escbricht remarks 
as follows regarding the vertebral formula of the Norwegian Vaagehval (36, 322) : 

" In all the foetuses of the Vaagehval examined by me, I found, 48 vertebrae, of 
which 7 were cervicals, 11 dor.sals, 12 lumbars, and 18 caudals; furtliermore, this 
was exactly the number of vertebrae in the whole spine and in each of its different 
sections, not only in the complete Vaagehval skeleton from Bergen examined by me 
and the specimen examined in Christiania in 1844 (p. 304) as well as that sent 
from the west coast of Jylland in 1841 (Videns. Sets. Shr., 11, p. 175), but also 
in the three small finback skeletons sent down from Greenland. Likewise, accord- 
ing to both Governor Christie's written communication regarding those Bergen 
Vaagehval skeletons which did not come under my observations, and Dr. Kroyer's 
statements I'elative to the skeletons oiVaagehvaU preserved in the Bergen Museum 
{Naturh. Ticlsh'., 2, p. 634), this numerical proportion may be considered constant 
in the species." 

CHEVRONS. 

The number of chevrons in European specimens is usually nine, but some- 
times eight. The number in the Massachusetts specimen is nine. 

BALMNOPTEBA ACUTO-ROSTBATA LAC. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. NUMBER OF CHEVRONS. 



Locality. 


Number. 


Authority. 




Carte and Macalister. 


Ber?en Norwav 


8 

g 


Malm. 


(C a 


it 




Q 


i( 




Q 


Flower. 







Turner. 


Harwichport, Mass., No. 20931 .. 


9 


F. W. T. 



' " In all the foetuses of the Vaatr^/i-i'a/ examined by me, I found 48 vertebrae."— EscHRICHT. 
' Should probably add one for penultimate caudal. 



202 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



Foi' a comparison of the proportions of the vertebrae there are unfortunately 
no data of importance. The European skeletons of which measurements are avail- 
able are all adult, while the Massachusetts skeleton is quite young. I have, how- 
evei', assembled a number of measurements in the following table, both of the 
vertebrae and of other parts of the skeleton : 



BALMNOPTERA ACUTO-ROSTRATA LAC. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. SKELETON. 





Granton, Scotland. 
Edinburgh University. 
(Turner, l8g2.) 


Cromer, England. 

i860. 

(Flower, 1864.) 


Bergen, Norway. 
Upsala Univ. Museum. 
(Lilljeborg, 1862.) 


v'i - 


Norway. 

Carol. Inst., Stockholm. 

(Malm, 1869.) 


Drogheda, Ireland. 

1863. 

(Carte and Macalister, 1867.) 


Harwichport, Mass. 
20931, U. S. N. M. 




? ad. 


S ad. 




ad. 


jr- 


? Jr. 


jr- 




Total length of whale 


28' 4" 
70"- 


24''4"" 
65- 


23' 0"'* 
62.5'" 


60.5'"" 


48.8" 


13'"" 

■■37"" 




" skeleton 


16' sr 

43-5" 


Length of skull, straight 


Greatest breadth, axis 


28.9' 


% 
26.2' 


26.8' 


% 
26.8^ 

5-3' 
26.4 

5-8' 
41.4 

7-5 
28.2 

9-5' 
24.0 
12.8 
39-8 
22.8 
24.9' 
21.9' 


% 



22.9 


20.9' 
39-2 

'3'i'8' 
20.3 
23.0 
ig.6 


% 
24.7 

6.3 
22.4 

6.3 
37-0 

7-5 
253 

8.7 
14.4 
10.3 

33-9 
20.7 

25-3 
23.6 


Depth centrum, " 


Greatest breadth, ist dorsal 








Depth centrum " " 


S-4 






Greatest breadth, ist lumbar 


Depth centrum, " " 








Greatest breadth, ist caudal 


24-3 
10. 
27.9 
12.9 
42.9 
22.9 
26.4 
25-7 + 


22.3 

15 4 
40.8 

23-1 
24.6 


22.8 

15-2 
37-6 
22.4 
27.2 
24.4 


Depth centrum, " " 


Greatest length sternum 


breadth " 


scapula 

depth, " 


Length of radius 


" ulna 





In the foregoing table it will be seen that on account of difference of age only 
Carte and Macalister's specimen is compai'able with the Massachusetts skeleton. 
Of the former, the measurements which can be used are, unfortunately, veiy few, 
and these few do not all show agreement. The most notable discrepancy is in the 
length of the radius and ulna. Carte and Macalister do not explain whether the 



' Condylo-preniaxillary. 

" Atlas = 19.2 ^. 

° To condyles. 

* Swedish measure. In straight line. 

'Atlas — 18.7 ^. 



" Posterior median. 

' Anterior. 

'With proximal epiphysis. 

= Atlas. 



THE WHALEBONE WUALES OF THE W1ESTERN NOKTU ATLANTIC. 



203 



epiphyses were included in the measurement, and the importance of the difference 
cannot, thei'efore, be determined. Capelliiii's figure and measui'ements (which are 
not precisely stated) a{)pear to show that the length of the radius, with the epiphysis, 
was between 21.4^ and 21.8^ of the length of the skull in that specimen. 



SCAPULA. 



The scapula of B. acuto-ro^trata is not especially characteristic. It presents 
almost the same outlines as those of the scapula of B. musculus (L.), though of 
course it is much smaller. The posterior portion of the superior margin is some- 
what more sharply bent downward than in B. rmiaculas, and the acromion is long 
and somewhat recurved at the tip. Carte and Macalister's specimen fiom Di-o- 
gheda, Ireland, is the only one young enough for comparison with the Massachusetts 
skeleton. In the former the breadth of the scapula is 31.8^ the length of the 
skull, and its depth 20.3 ^, while in the latter the breadth is 33.9 % and the depth 
20.7 % 




Fig. 53. 




Fig. 54. 





FIG. 55. '''"• 56- 

BALMNOPTEBA ACUTO-ROSTKATA L.\C. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. SCAPULA. 

Fig. 53.— Norway. Ad. (From Eschricht.) Fig. 54.— Uarwichport. Mass. Im. (From a photo.) Fig. 
55.— Norway. Ad. (From a photo.) Fig. 56.— Norway. {From Van Beneden and Gervais.) 

If the various specimens in the foi-egoing table (p. 202) are arranged according 
to the length of the skull, it will be seen that the percentage of the breadth of the 
scapula rises as the size of the skull increases. This is, of course, to be expected, 
but it prevents direct comparison of young with adult specimens. The percentages 
are as follows : 



204 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

BALJKNOPTERA ACUTO-ROSTRATA LAC. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. SCAPULA. 



Locality. 


Length of Skull 
in Inches. 


Percentage of Breadth 
of Scapula. 


Percentage of Depth 
of Scapula. 


Drogheda, Ireland 

Mass. (U. S. N. M.) 

Norway (U. S. N. M.). . . 


37-0 
43-5 
60.5 

62.5 
65.0 
70.0 


31.8 
33-9 
39-8 

37-6 
40.8 
42.9 


20.3 
20.7 
22.8 
22.4 

231 
22.9 


Cromer, England 

Granton, Scotland 



The Norwegian skeleton in the National Museum is the only one which 
breaks the regular gradation. 

The scapula of B. acuto-rostrata appears to have been seldom figured. Esch- 
richt's figure, copied above, is not very satisfactoiy, and the figure in the Osteo- 
graphie appears distorted. Outlines of these figures and of the scapulae of the 
Massachusetts and Norway specimens in the National Museum are shown in text 
figs. 53 to 56. The scapulae of the last two are also figured on pi. 27, figs. 3 and 4. 

In respect of number of phalanges the skeletons preserved in museums are 
usually defective, and no accurate comparisons can be made. The numbers derived 
from examination of foetal sjDeciraens are far more satisfactory, but the two series 
are, of course, hardly comparable. The enumerations of various cetologists for B. 
acuto-rostrata are as follows : 

BAZiMNOPTERA ACUTO-ROSTRATA LAC. EUROPE.A.N. PHALANGES. 



Locality. 


Age. 


Phalanges. 


Authority. 


n. 


IIL 


IV. 


v. 


Bergen, Norway 


Ad. 

■■■jr."" 

Embryo 


4 
3 

4 

4(+0 
4 
4 
3 
3(4) 


7 

7 
6 
8 
8 
9 
9 
7 
7 


6 
6 

5 
7 
7 
8 

7(8) 

6 

6 


3 

3 
3 

4 

• (+ ?) 

4 

4 

3 

3 


Lilljeborg 

Fischer 

Malm 

Kukenthal 




it 




Eschricht 






Weber 









For the skeleton from the coast of Massachusetts, No. 20931, which is that of a 
young animal, the formula is as follaws : Left, 3. 6. 6. +• ; i"ight, 2 +. 7. 5 (+1). 1 +. 

STERNUM. 

The sternum of the Massachusetts skeleton has not at all the Latin-cross form 
characteristic of adult specimens of B. aeuto-rostrata, but it represents, doubtless, 
an immature stage leading up to that form. The anterior moiety is short and 
broad, with a rounded contour; on each side is a tubercle, or rudimentary arm; 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



205 



and behind is a narrow, and rather irregularly cylindrical prolongation. (See pi 27 
fig. 6 and text fig. 63.) 

Bambeke figures a quite similar sternum belonging to the skeleton in the 
Museum at Grand, which he describes as shaped like " a nail, with a conical head " 
{1, 61). Carte and Macalister's figure of the sternum of the Drogheda, Ireland, 






Fiu. 58. 



Fiu. 59. 






¥10. 60. 



Fn;. 6r. 



Fig. 62. 



Fig. 63. 






Fig. 64. 



Fig. 65. 



Fig. 66. 



BALMNOPTERA ACUTO-ROSTRATA LAC. EUROPEAN AND AJUERICAX. STERNUM. 

Fig. 57. — Norway. Ad. (From Gervais.) Fig. 5S. — Cromer, Eng. Ad. j. (From Flower.) Fig. 59. — 
Boulogne, France. Ad.? (From Fischer.) Fig. 60. — Norway. Ad. (From photo.) Fig. 61. — Norway? 
(From Eschricht.) Fig. 62. — Greenland. Im. ? (From Eschricht.) Fig. 63. — Harwichport, Mass. I.m. 
(From a photo.) Fig. 64. — Belgium. Jr. (From Van Bambeke.) Fig. 65. — Drogheda. Ireland. Jr. 9. 
(From Carte AND Macalister.) Fig. 66. — Bretagne, France. Jr. (From Gratiolet.) 

specimen (i^, pi. 6, fig. 1) shows it to be elongated heart-shape, with a posterior 
prolongation. This form is totally unlike that of any other specimen of the species 
hitherto figured, except the Bretagne specimen cited by Fischer {44, 87, pi. 3, fig. 
1). In the latter the sternum consists of an oblong ossified central portion sur- 
rounded by a somewhat cruciform cartilaginous poi'tion. The osseous part bears a 
resemblance to the sternum of the Drogheda specimen. (See text figs. 57-66.) 



206 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

As the sternum is to be regarded partially in the light of a rudimentary organ, 
it is not surprising that it varies widely, like all other ludimentary parts. In 
adults, however, the variation appears to be less than in othei- species of Balcenop- 
tera. Little stress can be laid upon the form of the sternum of the Massachusetts 
specimen from a systematic point of view, as there are no other American specimens 
with which to compare it, and it is not from an adult. 

The scale of Eschricht's figures, copied above, appeals to have been incoi'rectly 
given by him. 

As I I'emarked at the beginning of this chapter, the American material at 
command is so meagre as to be unsatisfactory for the solution of the questions 
at issue. Nevertheless, I think the remarkable correspondence between the careful 
measurements of Sir Wm. Turnei- on the Scotch skulls, and my measurements of 
the skull from the coast of Massachusetts, is a sufficient proof of the identity of the 
latter specimen with B. acuio-rostrata. It is my opinion that the lack of coi-re- 
spondence in other particulars between the American specimens and those from 
European waters is due partly to inaccuracies in descriptions, measurements, and 
drawings, and partly to age and individual variation. 

Regarding the identity of Greenland specimens with those from the United 
States, I am unable to offer any new proof, not having had any material from the 
former locality. The opinions of those who have compared Greenland and Euro- 
pean specimens in the various Eui'opean museums are cited below. 

OPINIONS OF EUROPEAN CETOLOGISTS REGARDING EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN SPECI- 
MENS OF B. ACVTO-ROSTRATA. 

Lacep^de (1803-4) treats Fabricius's Greenland B. rostrata and Hunter's North 
Sea specimen as one and the same species, but without critical remarks. It was 
not long afterward that the species itself all but dropped from view on account of 
Cuvier's destructive criticism of the species of Finback whales. 

In 1840 and the years immediately succeeding, Eschricht received thi-ee skele- 
tons of immature females of the small whalebone whale of Greenhind (the first of 
their kind to arrive in Europe), and as he already had a skeleton of a VaageTival 
from the coast of Norway, he was in a position to institute comparisons of value. 
He appears at first to have regarded the Greenland species as distinct, but in his 
Uutersuchungen (1849) he withdi'aws this opinion in favor of the view that it is 
the same as the European acnfo-rostrata, specifically if not subspecifieally. He 
remarks: "In consequence of the new light on the subject, I must, at all events, 
confine myself to the view that the Greenland and Norwegian dwarf-whales appear 
to show the same subordinate mutual variations which are found in many species 
of land-animals in their varied geographical distribution" (p. 174). 

This remark leads the way to considerations of the most fundamental im- 
portance from a taxonomic point of view. Many such minor geographical valua- 
tions as those alluded to by Eschricht are at this day commonly recognized as 
species and subspecies. That they exist among whales as among land animals is 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOIiTlI ATLANTIC. 207 

very probable, but on account of the great amount of individual variation among 
cetaceans it wouUl be an almost hopeless task to recognize and characterize them 
without a wealth of material which no museum in the world possesses to-day. 
To bring together a hundred or a thousand specimens of mice or sparrows side by 
side for comparison is au easy task, but to accomplish the same for the huge whale- 
bone whales is almost beyond the bounds of possibility. To say nothing of me- 
chanical difficulties, the expense involved would be prohibitive. 

The most that tlie cetologist can hope to do is by collating notes ujwn, and 
measurements, photographs, and drawings of, such specimens as can be found at the 
whaling stations and in museums, to detect constant differences of considerable 
magnitude. These differences will form the basis of his species. Beyond this he 
can scarcely go, with any feeling of cei'tainty. 

The importance of the bearing of these considerations on the questions of 
geographical disti'ibution cannot be ignored, and it may be thought that they im[)air 
the usefulness of the [)resent inquiry, for it is a well-known fact that among 
migratoiy species groups of individuals presenting but slight differences may follow 
quite dift'ei'ent routes of migration and occupy quite widely separated stations. 

There is no doubt much force in criticism along this line, and it should put the 
cetologist on his guard against relying too implicitly upon the results of the rather 
crude methods which alone are open to him in systematic woi'k. Nevertheless, 
conclusions as to geographical distribution based on such results, carefully worked 
out, must certainly have more value than opinions formed on a prk»'i grounds, with- 
out actual examination of specimens, of which cetology has not been free in times 
past. Furthermore, examination of even a small number of specimens may lead to 
the detection of large diffei-ences, and so put the question of close relationship out 
of court. 

The differences between the Greenland and Norwegian skeletons of B. acuto- 
rostrata which Eschricht finally thought might Ije of impoi-tance were as fol- 
lows: (1) A slight difference in the position of the dorsal fin, amounting to ^ the 
total length, as shown in a sketch i-eceived by him ; (2) union of the lateral 
processes of the 5th and 6th cervical vei'tebnie in the immature skeletons from 
Greenland, a condition not found by him in Norwegian specimens of more 
advanced age; (3) the coronoid process of the mandible "higher, smaller, and 
more strongly bent outward" in the Greenland skeletons; and (4) absence of 
obliquity of the upper jaw in the latter. 

As to the first point, the position of the dorsal fin, it may be said that a 
variation of ^^ of the total length, amounting actually in the case of the Greenland 
specimen to alaout 4 inches, is not greater than is found in other species of Bahvnop- 
tera. In this particular case, however, it is quite as likely that the sketch was 
slightly inaccurate, as that the variation actually existed. At all events, no stress 
can be laid on this point under the circumstances. 

The second point brought forward by Eschricht as possibly serving to dis- 
tinguish the Greenland species was that the specimens though immature and only 
about 17 or 18 feet long, had the processes of the 5th and 6th cervicals united, 



208 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OP THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



formiug complete bouy rings, a condition not found in the Norwegian Vaagehval. 
Van Beneden (8, 161) brought together some facts tending to show that this was 
not a matter of importance from a systematic point of view. His observations on 
the condition of the lateral processes of the cervicals in various specimens, with 
those quoted from Eschricht, Flower, and Grray, are as follows : 

BAL^NOPTBRA ACUTO-ROSTRATA LA.C. GREENLAND AND EUEOPE. CERVICAL VERTEBRA. 



Vertebra. 


Greenland. 
Louvain Museum. 


Greenland. 

British Museum. 

Skull, 46.6 in. long. 


Greenland. 
Copenhagen Mus. 
Length, 17-18 ft. 


Norway. 

Leiden Museum. 

Adolescent. 


Cromer, England. 

Mus. Coll. Surgeons. 

Length, 25 ft. 


Yarmouth, England. 
Length, 18 ft. $ 




L. 


R. 


L. 


R. 


L. 


R. 


L. 


R. 
X 
X 


L. 


R. 


L. 


R. 


Axis 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 

X 
X 


? 
X 

X 
X 


X 
X 


— 


X 


X 


X 


3d cervical 

4th cervical 


5th cervical 

6th cervical 


— 


7th cervical 









X = Complete ring formed by union of lateral processes. 
L. =: Left side. 
R. = Right side. 

Perhaps the most important of these specimens is the one in the British 
Museum. The skull of this, according to Gray, was 46.6 in. long, hence the whole 
animal was probably not far from 18 feet, the length of Eschricht's specimens. 
Yet only the axis had complete osseous rings. The same was the case with the 
Greenland specimen in the Louvain Museum, but the size of this is not given by 
Van Beneden. 

As Eschricht did not figure the coronoid process of his Greenland specimens, 
it is impossible to estimate the importance of the character drawn from its shape 
and size. Fortunately, Gray's figure of the skull of the Greenland form, in his 
Zoology of the Voyage of the Erebus and lerroi\ shows this part.' I am unable 
to see that it presents any characters of importance. It is about as high as in 
Norwegian specimens. 

The same is true as regards the lateral distortion of the maxillae. This does 
not appear to be more or less in the Greenland skull than in Norwegian skulls. 

The characters mentioned by Eschricht, taken as a whole, do not therefore 
appear of special importance. If the small Greenland Finback is to be distinguished 
it must be by means of other peculiarities. Eschricht himself mentions one several 
times, but does not appear to regard it as of any importance as a diagnostic charac- 

' PI. 2, p. SO- 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



209 



ter. This IS the color of the pectoral fin. In his figure of the lower side of a 
pectoral fin of the Greenland form {37, pi. 8, fig. 2), ^vhich was sent to him in salt 
in perfect condition, tlie black color is seen to occupy all but a small portion near 
the root, while in Bocourt's figure of the Bretagne specimen and other European 
specimens the broad white band is nearly as well marked on the lower side of the 
pectoral as on the upper. A copy of Eschricht's figure is here given, text fig. 67. Of 




BALJBNOPTERA ACUTO-BOSTRATA LAC. GEEEXLAND. PECTORAL FIX. 
Fig. 67. — (i) Anterior or outer surface. (2) Posterior or in.ner surface. (From Eschricht.) 



the Greenland [)ectoral, Eschricht remarks : " Undeniably the black color has on the 
side named [the under side] a wider distribution than appears to take place in 
theVaagehvaV {36, 347). This may of course be merely an individual variation, 
but it is at least a very striking difference. 

The Greenland skull figui'ed l)y Gray agrees well in proportions, as already 
stated, with European skulls of equal size. If Gray's figure is correct, however, it 
pi'esents some peculiarities of its own. The most striking of these is the shape of 
the pi-emaxillae which have considerably curved outer margins, and decrease in width 
gradually toward the proximal end, so that the nasal concavity is more elongated than 
in B. aouto-rodraia. The premaxillse are also much more closely approximated 
in the median line than in the latter species. This and the other charactei-s men- 
tioned may be due to defects in the drawing, but as the figures in the Zoology of 
the Voyage of the Erehus and Terror are quite accurate, they are woi-thy of fui-ther 
attention. 

Gray, who had access to the skeleton from Greenland in the British Museum, 
and who, as is well known, multiplied species without stint, remarks of this species : 
" Our Greenland skull does not appear to differ from that of the English skeleton " 
{53, 192). He combines American and European references in the same synonymy, 
and cites New York, Greenland, and Norway among the localities for the single 
species, "J?, rostrata'' {53, 188). 



210 THE -WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

Van Beneden and Gervais follow the same course in the Osteographie, adding 
Alaska to the list of Araei'ican localities on the authority of Chamisso. They notice 
the form from Greenland which Holboll pi-oposed to call microcephala, on 
account of its relatively small head, and remark: "As many skeletons are now 
known from these parts (Greenland), and since thus far no one has found any dif- 
ferences between them, there is every reason to suppose that in these BaUenoptero}, 
as in Bahena mysticetus, there are individuals with smaller heads" (S, 152). 

Van Beneden, in 1889, again expresses the opinion that the Greenland and 
European specimens are of the same species, and includes also Scammon's B. 
davidsoni, from tlie Noith Pacific. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE HUMPBACK, MFXrAPTEKA NODOSA (Bonnaterre). 

That a species of wliale with very long pectoral limbs and with abdominal 
ridges, or, iu other words, a Humjiback, occuri'ed in European waters, was not 
recognized by science until 1829, when Rudolphi read a paper before the Berlin 
Academy of Sciences in which he described a specimen stranded in November, 1824, 
at Vogelsand, at the mouth of the Elbe River {76). For this specimen Rudolphi 
proposed the name Balwna longimana} He was content to leave the species in 
the Linnean genus Balwna, and it was not until 1845 that the Humpbacks were 
regarded as constituting a separate group. In that year Brandt established for 
them the subgenus Hoops, distinguished by the single character — "jiectoral elon- 
gate."" This name is preoccupied by Boopn Cuvier, 1817 (fishes). In 1846 Gray 
renamed the genus Megaptera^ and enumerated its principal characters (56, 16). 

In Eschricht's list of whales stranded on the European coasts (37, 176) only 
two specimens are recorded between 1824 and 1846, a period of twenty-two years. 
Van Beneden (7) records very few others up to 1889. This is somewhat remarkable, 
as Cocks's statistics of the Finmark whaliuo- stations show a considerable number 
of Humpbacks captured, aggregating from 40 to 100 annually. 

Although the European Humpback was unknown to science until 1824, Ameri- 
can species were desciibed at a much earlier date and were introduced into zoological 
nomenclature by Fabricius under the name of Bahena bodps iu 1780,' and l)y Bon- 
naterre under the name Balcena 7wdosa in 1789. Bonnaterre's species was founded 
on Dudley's description of the Humpback whale of New England waters. Fabiicius's 
species was based on his own observations in Greenland. 

In this case, as the American species (or one of them, if there are several) was 
named first, the question to be considei'ed is whether the European species is to be 
regai'ded as a synonym. With the Finback whales the case is the reverse, the 
European species having been named first. 

Tlie fullest information regarding the European Humpback is to be found in 

'Van Beneden (-, 121) mentions one having been stranded near Greifswald, March, 1545, 
another on the coast of Courland in May, 1578, and a third near Stettin in 1628. I have not found 
the sources from which Van Beneden derived knowledge of these specimens. 

= Brandt in Tchihatcheff's Voyage Sci. dans 1' Altai Oriental. Paris, 1845. 4. 

'Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 17, Feb., 1846, p. S3. 

' Preoccupied by Balxna bodps Linnseus, 175S. 

2U 



212 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



Stnithers's elaborate monograph, published in 1889 (87) iu Sars's Fortsatte Bidrag, 
1881 {80), where there is an excellent figure of the exterior, iu Cocks's accounts of 
the Finmark fisheries (15-19), and in Van Beuedeu's works. 

For the Greenland species we have Fabricius's description (41, 36) and the 
extended discussion iu Eschricht's Untersuchungen ueber uordischen Wallthiere, 
1849 (37), and Van Beuedeu's comments on specimens distributed among various 
European museums by Eschricht. 

Specimens from the Atlantic coasts of the United States and southward are 
not common. There are two skeletons in the National Museum, one in the Phila- 
delphia Academy of Sciences (type of M. hellicosa, incomplete), one at Niagara, N. 
Y. (type of M. ospliyia), one in the Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wis. All these 
I have seen and examined. I also examined three fresh specimens at the Snook's 
Arm whaling station, Newfoundland, in 1899. 



SIZE. 



The most satisfactory data relating to the size of the European Humpback are 
the measui'ements obtained by Cocks from the whales at the Finmark whaling stations 
in 1885 and 1886 (17 and 18). These measurements are chiefly in Norwegian feet, 
without inches, and are probably taken around the curves. They are more likely to 
overstate than understate the actual length. To compare with these, the measure- 
ments made by the whalers at Balena Station, Newfoimdland, in 1900 and 1901, 
will be given. Iu addition, we have the measurements of various sjjecimens stranded 
on the coasts of Europe and the United States at different times. 

During my stay at the Snook's Arm Station, Newfoundland, in 1899, three 
Humpbacks were taken, having the following length from tip of snout to uotch of 
flukes along the curve of the back : 

MEGAPTERA NODOSA (BONNATERRE). SNOOK'S ARM, NEWFOUNDLAND. 1899. 



Capture No. 


Date. 


Sex. 


Total Length. 


5 
6 

2 r 


Aug. 9, 1899 
" 18 " 


2 

2 


42 ft. 2 in. 

45 " 5 " ' 

46 " 6 "-■ 



The following specimens were taken at Balena Station, Newfoundland, in 1900 
and 1901, and measured by the whalers. The measui'ement in each case is probably 
a maximum, along the curve of the back. 



' Contained a male foetus 3 ft. 3I- in. long. 



Contained a male fcetus 3 ft. 9 in. long. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 213 

MEGAPTERA NODOSA (BONNATEKRE). BALENA STATION. NEWFOUNDLAND. 1900 AND 1001. 



Date. 


Sex. 


Total 


Length. 


1900 










April 26 


6 


46 


ft. 


I 1 in. 


May 7 


& 


35 




6 " 




$ 


37 




3 " 


" 10 


i 


38 






" 1 2 


i 


38 






" 21 


9 


34 






" 22 


? 


40 






" 30 


6 


36 






June 7 


S 


32 






" 23 


6 


37 






July 6 


$ 


34 






1901 










May 7 


— 


27 






" 14 


— 


30 
















15 


— 


47 






" 16 


— 


26 




"calf 


" 20 


— 


46 






June 10 


— 


34 






" 17 


__ 


34 







In order of size, the males and females of these, and the three Snook's Arm 
specimens, and the specimens not having the sex recorded, are as follows ; 





MEGAPTERA 


NODOSA (BONNATERKE). 


NEWFOXJNDLAND. 






Mai 


es. 




Females. 


Sex not Recorded. 


46 ft. 


I I in. 






46 


ft 


6 in. 






47 


ft. 


42 


2 " 






45 


il 


5 •' 






46 




38 " 









40 




" 






34 




38 " 









34 




" 






34 




37 " 


3 
















30 




37 " 



















27 




36 " 



















26 




35 " 


6 " 




















34 " 























32 " 


" 




















Maximum 


46 ft. 


1 1 in. 




46 


ft. 


6 in. 




47 


ft. 


in. 


Minimum 


^2 " 







34 




" 




26 




" 


Averages (10 


37" 


6 " 


(4) 


4> 


li 


6 " 




(7)34 




10 " 



Cocks's statistics for the Finmark stations in 1885 and 1886 are as follows 

MEGAPTERA. NORWAY. 1885 AND 1886. 



Males. 



Females. 



Ma.ximum 
Minimum 20 
Average (25) 37 



53 ft- o in- 

7 



51 ft. 6 in. 
30 " «> " 
(6) 43 " 2 " 



' Contained a male foetus. 



214 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

It appears that the maximum for Newfouudland specimens, whether males or 
females, is considei-ably less than for those taken at the Fiumark fishery. The 
averao-e is slightly larger for the Newfoundland males and considerably smaller for 
the females. As the figures include iinmatui'e specimens these averages are of little 
value. 

The male taken by Capt. Horn in 1886, and included in Cocks's statistics above 
"■iven, is the largest North Atlantic Humpback of which there is a definite record. 
This was 53 ft. long, English measure. The largest female is that taken by Capt. 
Berg in 1885, which was 5li ft., English, in a straight line. Cocks says of this 
specimen : " Capt. Berg told me that he had this season captured the biggest Hump- 
back he has hitherto seen. It was a female, and measured 50 Norwegian feet (5H 
feet, English) in a sti'aight line (measured as Dr. Guldberg had directed) " (i7, 6, 
Sep.). None of the specimens which have stranded from time to time on the Eui-o- 
pean or American coasts equal these two in length. Rawitz measured for.i' Hump- 
backs at Bear Id. in 1899 (74, To). The lengths, from the tip of the mandible 
to the notch of the flukes, were as |follows: (1) ?, 34 ft. 5 in. (10.5 m.) ; (2) <^ , 
41 ft. (12.5 m.); (3) S, 41 ft. 8 in. (12.7 m.) ; (4) ?, 46 ft. 9 in. (14.25 m.) 
The mandible extended 10 cm. beyond the upper jaw. Rawitz remarks casually 
that all four were sexually mature, but this cannot be accepted as correct. He 
mentions no fretuses. 

There are numerous general statements in literature according to the American 
Hum[)back much greater size than is above given. Many of these have been 
collected by Van Beueden (7, 111) and commented on at some length, and have 
also attracted the attention of Prof. Struthers {87, 4, foot-note). Van Beueden was 
inclined to credit the larger size, but Struthei's appears sceptical. 

The largest measurement is that given by an anonymous writer in the Pliilo- 
sopliical Transactions for 1665 (Vol. i.. No. 1, March 6, 1665, pp. 11 and 13; No. 8, 
Jan. 8, 166|-, pp. 132-133), in an account of the whale fishery at the Bermudas. 
He states as follows: "Two old females and three cubs were taken at first and 
afterwards 16 other indivi<luals. One old female was 88 ft. long, the flukes 23 ft. 
broad, the flipper 26 ft. long, the baleen 3 ft. long. The other female was about 
60 ft. louir, and of the cubs one was 33 ft. loufr, and the remaininfr two 25 or 26 ft." 
The great length of the flipper proves that the 88-ft. specimen was really a 
Humpback, and the proportion to the total length is nearly the same as in smaller 
European and American specimens. 

In Hector St. John de Crevecoeur's Letters from an American Farmer, pub- 
lished in 1782, it is stated that the "Humpbacks on the coast of Newfoundland 
[are] fi'om 40 to 70 feet in length." This general statement may, of course, be set 
aside as merely an opinion, or impression, but the measurements given in the case 
of the Bermuda Humpback cannot be so treated. Regarding this. Van Beueden 
makes the following excellent remarks (7, 110-111) : 

" There is without doubt a little exaggeration, but to judge by many bones 
that we have seen at Paris, Stockholm, and Bordeaux, the exaggeration is not 
great. . . 



THE WHALEKONE WHALES OF THE WESTKHN NOR'l'll ATLANTIC. 215 

"It appeal's at all events that in the European seas this animal attains this 
size but rarely, and if we see in the museums of Paris and Stockliolm bones of extra- 
ordinary dimensions, we ought to believe that the sailors who liave collected these 
pieces have chosen the bones which wei-e the most remarkable on account of their 
size." 

The 88-foot Humpback of 1665 must have been considered as pi'esenting very 
e.xtiaordiuaiy proportions, first, because measurements were made of the flippei-s, 
flukes, and whalebone, which was unusual at that time, and second, because the 
other " old female " is recoixled as having a length of only 60 feet. 

The Greenland Humpback, called Kefporhak by the natives, was stated by 
Holboll to "reach a length of about 60 feet." (57, 196.)' This does not indicate 
a size much, if any, beyond that of the largest Norwegian specimens. 

A mucli more satisfactory idea of the real size of these whales will be obtained 
by ascertaining the average size of adults. Unfortunately, this cannot be done by 
averaging the total length of skeletons in which the condition of the bones indicates 
full maturity, for very few such skeletons are known. The most that can be done 
will be to obtain an average of the length of specimens of females obsei'ved to con- 
tain foetuses and hence at least sexually mature. No doubt the length may increase 
somewhat after sexual maturity is attained, but we shall have at least a convenient, 
and really significant mininuim, and will be enabled to throw out specimens which 
are in eveiy sense immature. 

As already noted on p. 212, two females containing foetuses captured at the 
Snook's Aim Station, Newfoundland, in 1899, were respectively 46 ft. 6 in. and 
45 ft. 5 in. long. The average of these two is 45 ft. Hi in. 

x\mong the Fiiimark specimens recorded by Cocks is one female (with foitus) of 
45 feet, English, a length nearly equal to that of the Snook's Arm specimens. Cocks 
records three other females of greater length, and therefore entitled to be considered 
mature. The average length of the four specimens is 48 ft., a considerable in- 
crease over the average for the two Snook's Arm specimens, but still more neai-ly 
comparable with it than with the extraordinary dimensions already considered. 

A female with young stranded between Fa and Karm Ids., Stavanger Amt, 
Norway, in 1846, and believed by Eschricht to have been a Humpback, measured 
45 feet, Norwegian, or 46 ft. 4 in., English, a very close approximation to the 
Snook's Arm females. 

The Finmark specimen described by Sars in 1881, wliich was a mature female 
(SO, 8), was 14.2 m., or 46 ft. 7 in. (English), long in a straight line from tip of 
lower jaw to notch of flukes. The figure, measured along the curve of the back 
from the tip of the ufper jaw to the notch, gives a length of 46 ft. 1 in., English. 
This is also very close to the larger of the Newfoundland specimens. 

These and other data are brought together for comparison in the following 
table : 

' Van Beneden interprets this statement incorrectly as follows : " Holboll va jusqu'a 6o pieds." 
(7, III.) The original is " Der Keporkak erreicht eine Grosse von gegen 60'." 



216 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 
MEGAPTERA NODOSA (BONNATERRE). AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN. SIZE. 



Locality. 


Average for all 
specimens of 
both sexes. 


Average for 
all females. 


Average for 
all males. 


Average for 
mature 
females. 


Average for 
mature males. 


Maximum* 

for 

females. 


Maximum' 

for 

males. 




No. 


Length. 


No. 


Length. 


No. 

I 
9 

10 

25 

2 


Length. 


No. 

2 
2 

4 
I 


Length. 


No. 

I 
1 
3 


Length. 


Length. 


Length. 


Newfoundland : 
.Snook's Arm Sta., iSgg. . . 
Balena Sta., igoo-igoi... 

All the foregoing New- 
foundland specimens 

Finmark Sta., (Cocks), 1885 
and 18S6 

Europe generally (stranded 
or captured on the coasts). . 


3 
IS 

21 

31 

7 


44' 8" 
36' 2" 

37' 4" 

38' 3^' 

39' 5" 


2 
2 

4 
6 
2 


45' "2" 

37' 0" 
41' 6" 
43' 2" 
38' 11" 


42' 2" 
36' 11" 

37' 6" 

37' 2" 

40' 6" 


45' Hi" 

45' Hi" 

48' 0" 

46' loi " 


46' II" 
46' II " 
58' 11" 


46' 6" 

51' 6" 

46' 10 J" 


46' II"'' 
53' 0" 

44' 3" 



It will be seen that the averages and maxima for the Norwegian specimens with 
one exception are larger than for the Newfoundland ones. Standing by itself this 
fact might be taken as an indication of specific distinctness. It will be remembered, 
howevei', that in both Bal(BnopUra pliymliL^ and B. muscidus the same relation pre- 
vailed, the Norwegian measurements exceeding the American. (See pp. 113 and 154.) 

That this should happen in all three cases arouses the suspicion that the Nor- 
wegian measurements are taken differently and probably include the projection of 
the lower jaw beyond the upper and the breadth of the flukes. A larger number 
of specimens was included in every case, giving better opportunity for the introduc- 
tion of one or two veiy large individuals, and thereby increasing the averages. In 
the case of the Humpback, the number of specimens is too small to be satisfactory. 

An Iceland specimen, male, described by Hallas in 1868 (60, 176), was 43 
feet, or 516 in. (Danish) long, from tip of upper jaw to notch of flukes. 

COLOR. 

Van Benedeu's description of the color of the Humpback is as follows (7, 113): 
" The color of the animal is black ; undei- the mandible in front it is entirely white, 
or mottled in the deej) layers (dans la profondeur^ ; between the ridges it is red- 
dish. The caudal fin is black above, white below, surrounded by a black border ; 
the margins are ordinarily scalloped. The pectoral fins are white on the two sides. 
The posterior part of the bosse (dorsal fin) is pui-e white." 

This is far from being a satisfactory description, and is probably compiled 
from various sources, and may include the Greenland Humpback, or KeporTcak. 

Cocks gives the color of several Norwegian Humpbacks obtained in 1884 
(itf, 10 Sep.). His notes, condensed, are as follows: 

In three specimens the whole upper side of the body, both upper and lower 
parts of the head, and underside of body toward the tail, black. Otherwise varied, 
as follows : 



' The minimums were as follows : 
Females. 
Newfoundland 
Finmark 
Europe generally 
' Also I specimen of 47 ft., sex undetermined. 



Males. 



34 


32 


30' 11" 


20' 7' 


31' 0" 


38' 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 217 

(1) Specimen ahont 40 ft. long. — Throat, with its furrows, and nearly all of its 
under side, white ; pait of under side of flukes white ; pectorals Idack above, white 
below, the black extending around the edge to the inner side, with an occasional 
blotch of black, and 2 or 'A black rings. 

(2) Specimen about 44 ft. long. — Under side entirely black, except two white 
or marbled patches on the chest, just behind the flippers, and one or two very 
small white spots on belly ; navel partly white; pectorals entirely white below, 
above with proximal quarter black, but black stopping short of antei'ior margin. 

(3) Specimen about 30 ft. long. — Almost entii'ely black on the under side of 
body; pectorals white below, and only black above a little distance from proximal end. 

Cocks gives additional notes on specimens captured in 1885, as follows (^17, 
4 sep.) : 

(1) Male, about 35 ft. long. — Entirely black on under side of tiie body except 
a not clearly-defined patch of white near each point of the under side of the flukes ; 
some very small spots of white on chin and belly (due to barnacles). Pectorals all 
white below; above, black for a very short distance at the proximal end. 

(2) Specimen 44 ft. long. — Pectorals above with the proximal quarter black, 
the black extending down the anterior edge, with a few small irregular black 
marks lower down. 

(3) Male, 43 ft. long. — Entirely black on the belly, l)ut nearly the whole 
chest and throat white; chin black, with a few small white flecks. Furrows on 
the belly light purplish flesh-color. A small white streak on the upper lip. Very 
little black on the outside of the pectorals, including a narrow rim along the 
hinder mai'gin. 

(4) Small male. — -Chin black; some white on lower jaw; throat and chest 
white as far as postei'ior end of furrows; remainder of under side black. 

Struthei's's notes on the color of the Humpback obtained in the Tay River, 
Scotland, in 1883, give the following points (57) : All black, except the snow- 
white under surface of the flukes and pectorals, and certain spots and streaks of 
white about the navel and genital orifice. (Color of the upper surface of the 
pectoral uncertain.) 

Sai'S, describing the Finniark Humpback {80, 14), states that the color on the 
head and lowej- jaw is black, in the middle of the throat and breast, white, and 
elsewhere on the pai-ts variegated white and black, with rings and spots. The 
back, sides, and the whole of the body behind the middle, black. Pectorals white 
on both sides thi-oughout, sharply defined from the black color of the body, but 
with an ill-defined dark shading on the upper sui-face at the base. Flukes black 
above and below, with white rings along the posterior border, on both sui-faces, but 
more numerous below. 

Eawitz furnishes the following data relative to the color <>f the four Hump- 
backs examined by him at Bear Id. in 1899 {74, 74) : 

Male; length, 12.7 m. — Back and sides black. Tip of mandible bjack, with 
lighter places only here and there about its base. The knot-like projection on the 
throat also black, but with linear transverse white flecks anteriorly. From the 
projection to the line of the corner of the mouth the color is almost entii-ely white, 
stretching only half as far back on the left side as on the right. Middle of thi-oat 



218 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF . THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

dark gray, in-egularly varied with white. The black of the sides extends further 
toward the mediau line of the throat on the left side than on the right. Breast 
white, iri'egularly varied with dark gray, the latter color gi'owiug less posteriorly. 
Pectoi-als entire)}' white ou both sides. Flukes variegated above, the black pre- 
dominating ; below white with some black flecks, the free border black. 

Female ; length, H.25 m. — Back and sides black. Chin, from tip to the knot- 
like projection, black, a little variegated ou the sides with small white flecks. Poste- 
I'ior to the projection, the throat and breast pure white, witli a black median 
streak, broad in fi-out and narrowing rapidly postei'iorly and eudiug about on line 
of the mamihi'ium sterni, with a few black flecks extending posteriorly. Some 
black spots on the white of the under jaw. All the remainder of the throat, the 
whole breast and a part of the belly and tail, white. Fi'om the axilla and shoulder 
the black extends backward and goes iuto the furrows, while the ridges ( Walk) 
remain white. The black shows itself in all the furrows back of the navel. The 
black of the sides extends downward with a convex l)order in front of the genital 
region, then I'ecedes again opposite the latter, and finally stretches " a short distance 
along the ventral side of the tail." The black does not reach the middle of the 
belly. The white posterior to the navel is overspread with black flecks, as if 
sprinkled from a brush. Pectoi'als white on both sides, with irregular black flecks 
only on the lai-ger protuberances. Flukes white on both sides, with some black 
flecks only on the free border. White rings, produced by barnacles, on the snout, 
mandible, belly, pectorals and flukes, in both this and the preceding specimen. 

Female; length, 10.5 m. — The whole ventral surface of the body without a 
trace of white flecks, but everywhere black. Pectorals black above, pure white 
below. Flukes black above, white below, with a variegated free bordei'. 

Male; length, 12.5 vi. — Body black, slightly variegated in the furrows. Pec- 
torals white on both sides. Flukes white below, variegated above and on the free 



margm. 



These and other reliable observations show (1) that the Eui'opean Humpback 
is normally black on the head, back, sides, and around the caudal peduncle; (2) 
that the thi-oat and chest, and the median line below, at least as fai- back as the 
anus, is varied to a greater or less extent with white spots, streaks, and larger areas ; 
(3) that the pectorals have the lower surface practically all white, but the upper 
surface varied white and black, in some cases almost entirely black, in other cases 
the distal three fourths or nearly the whole surface white; (4) that the flukes are 
largely black above, more or less white below. 

Exactly the same style of coloration and the same variations were found in 
three Humpbacks which I examined at the Snook's Arm Station, Newfoundland, in 
1899 (see pis. 37-39). These presented the following characteristics: 

No. 5. Male. Aug. 9, 1899. (Plate 37.) Upper jaw, back and sides, black. 
Part of the lower jaw, the throat, and chest to the line of the pectorals, with 
spots, rings, crescents, streaks, and larger ai-eas of white, the two largest areas being 
just below the middle of the right side of the lower jaw, and in the median line 
between the pectoi-al's. The streaks were chiefly in the furi'ows, while the rings 
and crescents were confined to the ridges and the jaw. These rings appeared to 
mark the location of barnacles. The mai'gins of the ridges posterioi'ly were also 
spotted with white, but less distinctly than in front. From the genital orifice to 
the insertion of the flukes, the inferior median line was thickly covered with round 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE AVESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 219 

white spots, also apparently due to I)ariiacles. These spots extended up a con- 
siderable distance on the sides of tiie caudal peduncle. 

The upper surface of the pectoi-als was entirely white, except for a short dis- 
tance at the root ; the [losterior margin was occupied by an irregular, interi'upted 
black line, consisting of round black spots thickly massed together; on the anterior 
margin the knobs or protuberances were black, and were occupied by clusters of 
barnacles. The lower surface of the pectorals was entirely white, except the pro- 
tuberances and a narrow, poorly defined posterior margin, and the tip, which were 
l)lack. 

The flakes were black above; below white, with a semicircular black area 
surrounding the mesial notch and a similar and laiger one invading the white fi-om 
the caudal peduncle. The extreme tips and the protuberances along the posterior 
margin wei-e also black, and the anterior margin for about 3 in. deep. The dorsal 
tin was black, with a few white spots on the free margin and sides. A white spot 
behind the eye, and another on the upper lip, near the apex of the jaw. 

iVa 6. Female. A ug. 6, 1899. (Plate 39, figs. 2, 3.) Similar to the last, but 
with much less white. U[)per jaw, back, and practically the whole of the body 
above and below, from the line of the pectorals backward, black. Throat and 
chest strongly varied with white spots, streaks, and blotches, the largest below the 
middle of the left side of the mandible. The posterior half of the pectoral ridges 
almost completely black, with only a few scattered white spots. Only a few white 
spots at the navel and around the genital orifice. Margin of lower jaw black. 
Upper jaw with a white spot near the anterior end. 

Upper surface of the pectorals almost entirely black in the proximal half, and 
in the distal half varied with white and black in equal proportions. Lower sur- 
face entirely Avhite. 

Flukes black above ; white below in the center of each lobe, with broad black 
anteio-posterior mesial band and maigins. 

Dorsal fin black, with a few white spots on the anterior margin. 

No. 21. Female. Aiuj. 18, 1899. (PI. 40, fig. 3.) Less white than in either 
of the preceding specimens. The white markings of the body confined almost en- 
tirely to the throat, and consisting chiefly of rings. A few white marks extending 
along the median line of the breast as far as the line of the pectorals. A few white 
spots about the genital orifice and on the inferior margin of the caudal peduncle. 

Upper surface of pectorals entirely white except at the root and along the 
posterior margin and on the protuberances; lower surface white, except for a 
nari'ow irregular posterior black margin, and black tip. 

A young female taken at Proviucetown, Mass., in 1879, as shown by photo- 
graphs and sketches in the National Museum (pi. 41, fig. 6), had the upper 
surface of the pectorals white, with a })lack mark extending along the axis from 
the root about half way to the tip, but not wide enough to reach the margins of 
the fin; the posterior margin with irregular black marks; anterior margin white, 
except on the larger protuberances; lower surface closely resembling the upper. 
Flukes black above ; below, with a large white central ai-ea on each lobe, surrounded 



220 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

by a broad black border, and se^jarated in the median line by a broad black band 
reaching forward from the notch to the caudal peduncle. 

It is evident, from a comparison of these several descriptions, that there is no im- 
portant diflference in coloration between the American and the European specimens. 
The principal one to be noticed is contained in Sars's statement that the flukes 
of the Finmark whale were black below, as well as above, with rings of white 
along the posterior margins. Cocks also describes one Finmark specimen as having 
the flukes black below. As he describes another having a pai't of the under side 
of the flukes white, and as the Tay whale (Scotland) had the flukes white below, 
it is not likely that this point is of importance. 

The color of the Greenland Humpback, or Keporhah, was desciibed by Esch- 
richt {37, 71, 146, and 198) from the data given by Fabricius, Holboll, and Motz- 
feldt. His statement is as follows : 

" In the Fmcna Groenlandica, Fabi-icius says of the Keporkak : ' Color of all 
the iijiper parts, black ; of the throat, pectorals and under side of the flukes, white ; 
bases of the abdominal folds blood-red, but the ridges between them, and even the 
whole abdomen and the flukes below, variegated black and white.' Somewhat briefer 
and clearer is his account in the Danish publication {Stnbhvcd, p. 10) : 'The color 
is l:)lack on the whole uppei' half; on the lower, ^vhite with black flecks, as if varie- 
gated ; but the chin and the pectorals entirely white, and the bottom of the furrows 
blood-red.' Still more definitely speaks Motzfeldt. ' The pectorals of the Keporkak 
are entirely white; the flukes white on the under surface, with a black border; 
both occupied by barnacles.' " 

From these descriptions it would appear that the KeporTcah does not differ in 
coloration from the Humpback of Newfoundland and Europe. The pectorals are 
said to be entirely white, whereas in the Newfoundland and European specimens 
thei'e was always more or less black at the I'oot. In the whiter specimens, how- 
ever, this would be overlooked in a general survey, and the pectorals would be 
cited as entirely white.' 

In 1868, Hallas described a male Humpback 43 ft. long, found dead and float- 
ing on the sea, between Ingolfshofde and Portland, on the south coast of Ice- 
land {60, 172). His description, which is brief and concise, may be presented in 
translation here : 

" The color of the head and back was everywhei'e shining black, as also the sides 
of the body. On the part of the belly between the penis and flukes, where the skin 
is smooth, the color was also black, with some irregulaily-placed white spots. The 
ridges on the throat, bi-east, and belly were black, but the color dull, and snow- 
white spots were found scattered irregularly here and there over the whole surface. 
The ridges in the median line of the belly appi'oached within 15 inches [Danish] 
of the penis and decreased in length on the sides; they divided many times. The 
breadth of the ridges was 2-2i inches [Danish], the depth of the furrows between 
was 1-1 s inches [Danish] ; their color light gray. 

"The pectoral fins in the upj)er third of their outer surface were shining black, 
in the middle third also shining black, but with irregularly placed snow-white spots, 
and in the lowest [distal] third entirely white. On the inner surface the upper 

' See Sars (cfo, 15). 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



221 



third was shining black, btit the remainder all snow-white. The anterior border 
was thick and nmnded, but irregularly eniarginated and covered with numerous 
examjiles of CoronuJa diadema ; the hind mai-gin sharp and entire. 

"The dorsal fin was shining black. 

"The flukes were black on the upper sui'face, with a number of scattered, 
irregular snow-white spots ; on the lower surface, the ground color of which was 
shining black, these snow-white spots were more numerous. The anterior boixler 
of the flukes was thick and rounded, the posterior mai'gin, strongly emarHnate and 
occupied by many examples of Goronida diadema. 

" The whalebone was all gray-black." 

Eawitz (7.^, 89) states that the whalers account for the variation in color on 
the basis of difference of age. "They say that young animals have a black ventral 
skin, and the old ones a white skin ; the formei' have little l)lubber and the latter 
much." He is inclined to accept this explanation, as the four specimens he exam- 
ined seem to support it. He remarks : " We should have then, were this explana- 
tion correct, the highly interesting physiological phenomenon before us, that with 
increasing fat in the corium (^itnterhavt), the pigment in the epidermal cells 
completely disappears." 

In order to test this theory I have arranged below the 13 specimens from dif- 
ferent parts of the Nt)rth Atlantic in the order of size, the smallest first. In the 
table, the letter W signifies that a part is white, V signifies that it is varied, part 
white and part black, and B signifies that it is entirely black, or substantially so. 



MEGAPTEBA 


MODOSA (BONNATERRE). EUROPEAN AND 


AMERICAN. COLORATION. 
















Color of Pectorals. 


Color of Flukes. 


. 


Sex. 


Total 
Length. 


Color of 
Throat. 


Color of 
Breast. 


Color of 
Belly. 






i\ i) I n o r , 






















Above. 


Below. 


Above. 


Below. 


Cocks 




30' 0" 


B 


B 


B 


w 


W 






Rawitz 


? 


34' s" 


B 


H 


B 


B 


W 


B 


\V 


Cocks 


<5 


35' 0" 


B 


B 


B 


\V 


w 


. . 


. . 


Struthers 


i 


38' 0" 


B 


B 


B 




w 




w 


Cocks 


.... 


' rr 
40 


W 






B 


^v 




part 

vv 


Rawitz 


6 


t n 
41 


B 


B 


B 


\\ 


w 


V 


vv 


" 


S 


4,' 8" 


V 


V 


V 


W 


w 


V 


vv 


Cocks 


$ 


42' 0" 


\v 


vv 


B 


W 




• • 




True 


S 


42' 2" 


V 


V 


B 


\M 


w 


B 


w 


Cocks 





44' 0" 


B 


V 


B 


iB 


^v 






True 


■5 ■ 


45' 5" 


V 


V 


B 


^B 


w 


B 


\v 


(t 


? 


46' 6" 


V 


I{ 


B 


W 


w 






Rawitz 


? 


46' 9" 


W 


w 


\V 


w 


vv 


W 


v\^ 



Assuming that the thirteen specimens belong to the same species, the fore- 
going table lends some support to Rawitz's theory, as the youngest specimens all 
have the throat, breast, and belly entirely black. It will be noticed, however, 'that 
my Newfoundland females, which were adults, were but little white, so that it 
would appear that whiteness is not invariably assumed by mature individuals, and 
may be rather a sign of senility. There is probably a considerable individual 
variation in this regard, as there certainly is in other genera. Rawitz's largest 



999 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



specimeus seem to Lave been rather unusually white. More evidence is required 
before Rawitz's tentative hypothesis can be accejited. 

In the majoi'ity of the descriptions of European Humpbacks the color of the 
dorsal iin is not specified. Van Benedeu states that the posterior part is white 
(7, 113). Sars represents it as dark like the back. In Newfoundland specimen 
No. 5, the dorsal was black with small irregular white marks ; in No. 6, the dorsal 
was blotched and spotted with white on the anterior niai'gin ; in No. 21 also there 
was some white on the anterior margin. 

PROPORTIONS. 

While at the Snook's Arm whaling station, Newfoundland, in 1899, I made 
measurements, as already stated, of three Hum[)ljacks, one male and two females. 
These measurements are given in the following table : 



MEGAPTERA NODOSA (BONNATERRE). NEWFOUNDLAND. 



Measurement. 



Total length from tip of snout to notch of flukes. 

Tip of snout to posterior insertion of dorsal fin. . . 

'; ;' " '] anterior " " " " .. 

" " " " eye (center) 

" '■ blowhole 

" " " " anterior insertion of pectorals. .. . 
axilla 

*l U U U 



Vertical height of dorsal fin 

Breadth of flukes 

From notch of flukes to anus 

" " " " " root of penis 

clitoris 

navel 

Length of pectoral from head of humerus 

" " " " posterior insertion, or axilla. 

Greatest breadth of pectoral fin 

Broadest pectoral ridge 

Depth of caudal peduncle at insertion of flukes 

" flukes at root (antero-posterior) 

Length of protuberances on upper jaw 

Breadth" " " " " 

Length of longest whalebone without the bristles. . . . 

" dorsal fin 

" orifice of the eye 

it tt ■ • 

ins 

Semi-circumference of body opposite navel 



o- c 
cy. 3 
CO o 






42 2 
28' 9 
24' 1 1 
10' 
8' 
13' 



6" 



o 12 

15; s;; 

10' 6" 

14' er 



ly'io^" 



12 2 
3' H" 

o' 8" 
3' '" 
3' 7" 
o' 4?/ 
o' I" 
I' 9" 



< i 

1/5 



45 5 
3°' 2" 



1 1 2 

8' 4" 

16' o" 

17' o" 



O 12 

'7' 4" 
10' ii" 



12 9 

19' o" 

12' 9" 

o' S" 

3' 4" 

■ 4' 3" 



I 10 

5' -" 
o' 3" 
o' if 



3 
CO--S 

- & 



Z in 



46' 6" 
32' fi- 



ll' 6" 



14 2 



13 7 
19' 8" 
14' i" 

■ 3' ■ 6'' 
o' 6" 



14 II 



' To head of humerus. 



Center. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTEKN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



223 



These measurements reduced to percentages of the total length, and accom- 
panied by similar ones for European specimens, including the type of M. longimana 
Rudolpbi, are given in the following table: 



MEGAPTERA NODOSA (BONNATERRE). EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. 





i i 

ocoS 


d 

- CO 

E t 

c rt 


B . — . 

E .A 




.5"S 


.1 § 


-a 
c 

s S 

Of 00 

S if 

r: 00 u 

H^2 


•a 
— 

c ^ 

c <» 

S . 

Mi 


•6 

6 " c 


■a 

c 

c 
3 

s 

f 

V 

55 


C 

c 

'i 
u 

z 

E 
< 

Ill 


13 
C 

a 
-0 

5 


1 

6 

< 

III 


a 




i 


9 


s 


s 




i 


38' 0" ' 


S jr. 




$ 


? 


i 


9 jr. 






51' 6" 


46' 7'^ 


44'* 


43'' 


42' 


40'* 


31' 4" 


29' i" 


46' 6' 


45' 5" 


42' 2" 


32' 5i- 




Tip of upper jaw to eve 


% 


25.4' 
18.3 


j; ; 


19.4 


i 


% 
23.3' 

17-3' 
3t.6» 

[67.5? 
24.6 


25-5 

35.1 
67.8 
25-5 


% 
15.8'° 

64.7 


247 

30- 5 
70.3 


24.6 
18.4 
35.2" 
66.4 


1. 
24.9 

19.4 

3J.6 

68.2 


1- 

21 ^ 


Tip of upper jawtoblow- 
hole 


25.8 


iS.o^ 


31.6 
67.5 
27.9 


18.7 
28.4 
70.6 


Tip of upper jaw to pec- 
toral 


Tipof upper jaw to back 




67.6 









Tip of lower jaw to cor- 




23.4' 




Notch of flukes to anus. 




25.8» 
44-4-' 

31.0 

7.0 
2.1 

34-5 
27-4 






24.5 
42-3 


24.0 
41.8 

28.1 
33-4 

2.2 
38.2 


22. 9 
42.4 

28.9 

33.6 

7.6 
2.4 

37-0 




'* " " " navel 




31.3^ 

34-1' 

S.I* 


[40- 7] 
30.3 

7.0 














Length of pectoral from 


29.1 

330 

7.0 
1.2 

30.0 






27.0 

31.6 

7-1 
2.4 

30.0 







28.4 
6.1 


Length of pectoral from 

head of humerus 

Greatest breadth of pec- 


30.8 


2S.3-' 
7-9^ 


32.0 


3t-5 


30.3 
7-5 


Height of dorsal 

Breadth of flukes, tip to 

tip 

Height of body at pec- 


35-1 


1.9 
30.9 


2.5 




32.6 
[29. 3l 
[9-3] 




37-5' 


27.1 


Height of body between 













































Note.— Rawitz's measuiements of four specimens observed by him at Bear Island, Norway, reduced to percentages 
of the total length, are as follows : 

I. 9 2. i 3. ?- 4. (?) 

Total length 46' 5 " 4l' 4" 4o' 8' 34' l" 

Tip of lower jaw to corner of mouth 29.7,'J 23.0^ 

Length of pectoral from head of humerus .. . 35-3^ 31-75^ 32-3 5? 35-7^ 

Height of dorsal 2. i JS 

' Danish measure. ' From measurements given on a photograph and in pamphlet " Story 

* Straight, from lower jaw. of the Whale." 

> From figure. " From " Story of the Whale,"— to shoulder. Struthers gives 34.2 %. 

* Approximate. ' " Story of the Whale" gives [71.3 %]. 

' Rheinland measure. '" Cannot account for this small measurement. 

» From upper jaw. " To head of humerus. 



224 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE AVESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

It will be seeu that there is a very close agreement between the pi'incipal 
measiiremeuts of the Newfouadland and European specimens, and especially be- 
tween the former and the Tay River (Scotland) specimen. The only departure of 
importance is in the breadth of the flukes, which are made to appear wider-spread 
in the Newfoundland specimens. In the case of No. 6 the flukes were cut oif before 
the whale was brou'^ht to shore, and I bad to rely on measurements not my own. 
It is quite likely that they were taken in some other manner than direct from tip 
to tip. In the case of No. 5, one of the flukes only was in position when the whale 
was drawn up on the slip. The measui'ement given is, thei'efore, really an estimate. 
The same lack of conformity will be found in the case of Bakenoptera physalus, and 
for the same reason. 

It is to be regretted that fuller measurements of European specimens are not 
obtainable, but as the species appears to strand but rarely on that side of the Atlantic, 
few observations have been recorded. 

ABDOMINAL RIDGES AND FtTRROWS. 

The system of abdominal ridges and fuiTows is simple in the posterior part, 
but complicated at the anterior end, and better undei'stood from illustrations than 
from descriptions (see plates 37-39). The description of the Tay River (Scotland) 
whale given by Struthers, and the description and figure of the Finmark whale 
given by Sars agree with the Newfoundland specimens. In the former the ridges 
•wrere 4i or 5 in. wide; in the three Newfoundland specimens the widest were 8, 5, 
and 6 inches respectively. In Hallas's Iceland Humpback (60, 172) the ridges were 
2-2^ in. (Danish) in l)readth, which, if coirect, is a notable difference. The ridges 
are not exactly symmetrical on the two sides of the body and the different ridges 
anastomose at different points. The ridges and furi'ows farthest from the median 
line run forward to the infei-ior margin of the mandible, but the median two or 
three pairs curve inwaixl at the anterior end and unite considerably farther back, 
forming a sort of median ridge, which Struthers likens to a " second chin." (See 
pi. 39, fig. 1.) This disposition of the ridges, and the other characteristics mentioned 
above, were found in the Tay whale. In the Newfoundland specimens many of 
the furrows were divided longitudinally by a narrow, central supplementaiy I'idge, 
triangular in section. Other furrows contained similar short ridges arranged 
diagonally. As already stated, the majority of the fui'i'ows terminate antei'iorly 
below the margin of the mandible, but those most distant from the median line 
extend on to the proximal end of the smooth surface of the mandible itself. 

In the three Newfoundland specimens there were 14, 20, and 22 ridges, respect- 
ively, on the breast between the pectoral fins. In the Tay River whale the number 
of ridges, according to Struthers, was about 24. Sars states that the number in the 
Finmark whale was between 20 and 30. Rawitz's largest specimen (14.25 m.) had 
22 furrows, while the smallest (10.5 m.) had 36 furrows. He does not state at what 
point or how the count was made. 

Besides the furrows, properly, so called, the Newfoundland specimens displayed 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 225 

one or two furrows running out of the corner of the mouth and passing backward 
across the root of the pectoi'al fin. (See pi. 37, fig. 3.) These were sometimes 
limited posteiiorly by two or three shoii furrows ininning transversely, so that the 
pectoral fin was marked off from the body by au almost continuous depression. In 
one instance there were five or six short furrows across the proximal end of the 
upper surface of the pectoral fin, and also a longitudinal furrow above the eye. 
(See pi. 39, fig. 2.) In uone of the five specimens examined (including two foetuses) 
were these lines exactly alike in detail. Similar lines about the pectoral are shown 
in Sars's figure of the Finraark specimen {80, pi. 2). 

DERMAL TUBERCLES. 

It is characteristic of the Humpback whales to have a number of hemispherical 
tubercles on the snout and mandible. Those on the snout are ari-ansred in three 
rows, one median and two lateral. The lateral rows are irregular and in each the 
tubercles are arranged somewhat in pairs. On the mandible there is a cluster of 
tubercles on each side of the symphysis and others scattered along the jaw in about 
three irregular rows.^ The tubercles are elongated. In the Newfoundland speci- 
men, No. 5, the larger ones were 4^ in. long, 2 in. broad. 

In the Tay River whale there were 1 tubercles in the median line of the snout, 
8 on the right lateral row, and 11 on the left lateral row; on the mandible, 6 on 
each side of the symphysis, and 6 more along each side of the Jaw ; in all, 26 on the 
upper jaw, 24 on the lower. 

In the Fiumark whale a similar arrangement of tubercles is described by Sars: 
a median row, and a double i-ow on each side. The number, size, and shape appear 
to be incorrectly given in his figure (80, pi. 2), which has been copied in the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed. (Art. Whale). 

Rawitz (74-) states that in the Bear Id. Humpbacks examined by him thei-e 
were 26 tubercles on the upper jaw and from 13-19 on the lower jaw. 

In the Newfoundland specimen No. 6 there wei'e 4 or 5 in the median row on 
the snout, one on the wall of the blowdiole, and from 10 to 13 in each lateral row; 
on the mandible, 5 on each side of the symphysis, and about 12 additional on each 
side of the jaw ; making in all from 24 to 31 on the upper jaw, and about 34 on 
the lower jaw. 

In No. 5 (pi. 37, fig. 3) there were about 24 on the upper jaw, and 28 on the 
lower jaw. In No. 21 (pi. 39, fig. 4) there were about 5 large tubercles on each 
side of the symphysis of the mandible, and about 5 smaller ones on each side of the 
jaw. The number on the upper jaw was not observed. 

Eschricht's figure of the foetal Greenland Humpback shows 5 tubercles in the 

' Rudolphi (7(5, 135) states that the type of B. longimana was without tubercles on the head, 
and the figure which he gives shows this condition. It is not certain by whom this supposed 
character was observed. Rudolphi does not state that he saw the exterior of the specimen. The 
figure was drawn by C. L. Muller, and shows numerous inaccuracies, among which are the large 
size of the dorsal fin, the curvature of the rostrum, the position of the eye, etc. 



226 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

median line of the snout, 4 about the blowhole, 9 in the right lateral row, and 8 in 
the left lateral row ; making a total of 26, the same number as in the Tay whale. 

In the Iceland Humpback examined by Hallas (60, 174) there were 24 dermal 
tubercles on the head, of which 5 stood in the median line, 10 on the right side, in 
two rows, and 9 on the left side, also in two rows. On the mandible wei'e 21 tuber- 
cles, of which 11 were on the right side in a single row, and 10 on the left side. 

From tliese observations it is evident that while the tubercles are indefinite in 
number and exact location, their general arrangement is the same in the Humpbacks 
of both sides of the Atlantic. 

DORSAL FIN. 

In the Newfoundland specimen. No. 5, the dorsal fin was erect and falcate, with 
a concave posterior margin. The upper part of the anterior margin was also con- 
cave, as if from an injury which had removed a portion of the fin and destroyed 
the regularly falcate shape. This may, however, be an individual variation. (See 
pi. 37, fig. 1.) In specimen No. 6, Newfoundland, the dorsal fin was similar to that 
of No. 5, but the anterior margin was regularly convex, and the posterior margin 
almost straight. There was nothing in the sha])e of the dorsal in these specimens 
suggesting a boss or knob. The fin was erect and prominent, like that of a dol- 
phin or Finback whale, but thicker at the base. 

In the foetus from Newfoundland specimen No. 6, the dorsal was somewhat 
falcate, the tip curved backward, the posterior mai'gin with a moderate concavity 
oi- rather S-shaped, on account of a convexity at the base. The tip was not 
thickened. 

The dorsal fin of the Tay River whale, as figured by Struthers (87, pi. 2, fig. 
2) was low, reclined, and rounded ; the anterior margin convex, and the posterior 
straight or slightly convex. (See text fig. 72.) The photograph of this whale in 
my possession, on the contrary, shows the fin prominent, erect, and somewhat 
falcate, exactly as in the Newfoundland specimens. 

Eschricht figured the dorsal fin of a Greenland Humpback, or Keporkah, which 
was sent him in salt by Capt. Holboll (37, pi. 5, fig. 1). This figure represents the 
fin as an obtuse, thick mass, with an irregularly convex posterior margin. I find it 
impossible to escape the feeling that this fin was impei'fect either from injury or 
imperfect preservation, or both. Sars has already expressed the same opinion (80, 
13).' Eschricht published two figures of a fcetal Keporhah (37, pi. 3, figs. 1, 2), 
neither of which is like the dorsal of the adult. One of these figures (fig. 2) is 
an enlargement of the dorsal of the foetus represented in the other (fig. 1). It is 

' Sars's comment is as follows: " The figure of the dorsal of a (ireenland specimen given by 
Eschricht from a preparation in salt is, as already said, quite essentially different [from the normal 
shape] and has rather the form of a low fatty lump than that of a real fin, which led Eschricht to give 
the whale the Danish common name ' Pukkelhval ' (Hump-whale). It is likely that the part under- 
goes important variation in different individuals. Yet I should be more inclined to the opinion that 
the example from which the dorsal described by Eschricht was derived had suffered some sort of 
injury in that part, whereby the dorsal became deformed." 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



227 



Jiofc exactly the same, having a much straighter posterior mai-giii and a knob-like 
tip jouied to it ill a manner which makes the figure appear diacrramraatic The 
dorsal on the fcetus itself {37, pi. 3, fig. 1) is short, erect, and lias a'slightly concave 




Fig. 70. 




Fio. 71. 




Fig. 68. 



Fig. 6y. 



Fig. 72. 



ilEGAPTERA NODOSA (bONNATEKBe). PECTORAL AND DORSAL FINS. 



Fig. 6S. — Tay River, Scotland. Bones of pectoral fin. (From Struthers.) Fig. 6g. — Provincetown, 
Mass. Exterior of pectoral fin. (From a photo.) Fig. 70. — Greenland. Dorsal fin of a f<etus. (From 
EscHRicHT.) Fig. 71. — The same, enlarged. Fig. 72. — Tay River, Scotland. Dorsal fin. (From Struthers.) 

posterior margin like adult Newfoundland specimens, but of course more unde- 
veloped. (See text figs. 70, 71.) 

Hoi boll describes the dorsal of the adult Keporhah (37, 76) as "low, broad on 
the side, cut o£E almost straight toward the tail ; in general, shaped like a broad 
lump of fat with a knob." Fabriciiis describes it as "compressed, with a broader 
base, the apex a little acute, in front sloping upward (sursum repandd), behind 
almost perpendicular," but adds " some are obtained, however, which have the apex 
equally curved, in some longer, in others shorter." Motzfeldt's description of the 
dorsal fin is as follows (37, 198) : "The dorsal fin of the Keporhak has as a very 
salient character a protuberance or knob on the anterior (upper) margin." 

Brandt describes the dorsal fin of the Humpback as having "a convex upper 
border, gradually rising, ending at its highest point behind and above in an obtuse 
backward-curved tip, below which is a considerable emargiiiation, . . . and 
then gradually merging into a ridge running forward from the tail." 

Sars's figure of a Fiumark Humpback {80, pi. 2) shows the dorsal fin strongly 
concave posteriorly. His description is as follows : 

"As in some species of the genus BalcenopUra, it is compressed like a scythe, 
with a rather thick and strongly convex anterior bordei', and a thin, sharp, and 



228 THE WHALEBONE "WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

evidently concave posterior border. The tip, which is rather obtuse, is strongly 
bent backward, so that the whole fin shows a considerable resemblance to that of 
the Vaagelwal [^Balcenoptera acuto-rostrata]." 

From the foregoing discussion it would appear that there is no constant differ- 
ence between the Newfoundland, Greenland, aad European Humpbacks as regards 
the shape of the doi'sal fin, unless it be that in the Greenland animal, or Keporlmk, 
the tip is thicker. As in the Finbacks, the shape of the dorsal appears to vary to 
a large extent in different individuals. 

Hallas figured the doi'sal of an Iceland Humpback (^0, 173) as sloping and 
convex or sti'aight posteriorly, much as in Escliricht's Greenland Keporhah. 

The diffei'ent American and European specimens show a remarkable uniformity 
in the height of the fin, which varies only between 1.9 % and 2.5 % of the total length 
of the body. As regards its po.sition, there is, on the utiier hand, a lack of uni- 
foi'mity. After making due allowance for difference in manner of taking measure- 
ments, etc., it still appears probable that the fin is not always situated at exactly 
the same relative distance from the head. No two observers ajrree as to the length 
of the base of the fin. This is because the margins pass by imperceptible gradations 
into the general contour of the back. 

Rawitz (74, 82) repudiates the idea that the dorsal resembles a bunch, and 
states that in the Bear Id. specimens which he examined the fin had a strongly 
convex anterior border bent backward, and the posterior border concave forwai'd. 
He asserts that the white color on the dorsal of the Greenland Keporhah described 
by Eschricht was probably due to post-moi'tem changes because his four Bear Id. 
specimens had entirely black dorsals. It is a fact, however, that the Newfound- 
land specimens had white marks on the dorsal fin. 

THE PECT0R.\L FIN. 

The foi'm of the pectoral is one of the most peculiar characters of the Hump- 
back, while in length it exceeds the pectorals of all other whales. The fin is 
long, narrow, and thin. On the anterior (upper, or radial) maigiu it presents 
a number of protuberances, which together with the emarginations between them, 
produce a seiTated outline. There are similar protuberances on the posterior (or 
ulnar) margin, especially at the distal end, but less in number, and much less promi- 
nent. In the fujtus the pi'otubei'ances are all very strongly maiked, and are made 
more striking (in Newfoundland specimens) on account of their being lighter in 
color than the general surface of the fin. In shajje and texture they remind one not 
a little of the tubercles on the head. 

Eschricht {37, 79) and Struthers {89, 5) by their descriptions and figures have 
made plain the connection of the anterior protuberances with the internal structure 
of the fin. Each protuberance marks the position of a cai'tilage of the manus. 

The two largest, namely, the one at the proximal end of the series, and one 
about midway, mark the position, respectivel}^, of the distal epiphysis of the radius, 
and the terminal cartilage of the anterior (2d) digit. The protuberances between 
these larger ones mark the position of the intermediate cartilages of the 2d digit, 
while those beyond mark the position of the cartilages of the 3d digit. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 229 

In both Escliricht's jBgure of the Greenland Humpback {37, pi. 3, fig. 4) and 
Struthers's figure of the Tay River whale (87, pi. 'i, fig. 6), there are 10 anterior 
tubercles, one for the carpus, or distal end of the radius, 3 for the 2d digit, and 
6 for the 3d diiiit. 

There were exactly the same number and the same arrangement in the New- 
foundland adults and in the foitus taken from Newfoundland specimen No. 21. 
In the foetus from Newfoundland specimen No. 6, there are 11 projections, with the 
same arrangement, — «". e., one large proximal one, then 2 moderate-sized, then one 
large, and finally 7 small, including the tip of the fin. 

Eschricht's figui'e of the fretus of the KeporhaTc, or Greenland Humpback, 
shows 8 small protubei'ances at the extreme distal end of the posterioi', oi' ulnar, 
margin of the pectoral. The fcetus of Newfoundland specimen No. 21 has the same 
number. In addition there are two large elevations near this margin (which can 
hardly be compared with those on the anterior margin), one opposite the pisiform 
cartilage, or the distal end of the ulna, and one at the distal end of the 5th digit. 
These are not represented in Eschricht's figure. 

The protuberances of the anterior, or radial, margin and those at the end of the 
ulnar margin are preserved in the adult, and give the fin its remarkable outline. In 
most specimens each protul^eranee is occupied by a cluster of barnacles. The clus- 
ters are often confluent on both sides of the distal exti'emity of the fin, forming a 
continuous edging. They are always surrounded by black. The proximal two 
thirds of the posterior margin of the fin is nearly free of barnacles. This margin 
presents a sigmoid curve, convex proximally, concave distally, with the tip directed 
backward. Except at the distal end, this margin is even and thin, contrasting 
strongly with the thick, sinuous anterior margin. 

The same peculiarities are seen in the Tay River (Scotland) whale, Sars's Fin- 
mark specimen, and Eschricht's Greenland specimen, and in the young female 
from Cape Cod, Mass., in the National Museum (pi. 41, fig. 6). 

In four European Humpbacks, as seen by examining the table on p. 223, the 
pectoral fin, measured from the head of the humei'us, bore the following propoi-tion 
to the total length : 

Finmark 2,0.9, i Cocks 

Ireland 3i-5 ^ Warren 

Tay River, Scotland 3i-6 % Struthers 

Dee River, England 32°^ Moore 

Rawitz gives the following as the relative length in four Humpbacks measured 
by him at Beai' Id. {74, 82) : 

(1) 35.7 %; (2) 32.3 %; (3) 31.7 %; (4) 35.3 %. 

In the three Newfoundland Humpbacks which I measured the proportion was 
as follows : 

(1) 30.3^; (2) 33.4^; (3) 33.6^. 

It thus appears that there is a very considerable variation in the length of the 
pectoral fin in both European and American Humpbacks. Rawitz's largest meas- 
urements are larger than any others I have found. 



230 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

THE CAUDAL FIN, OR FLUKES. 

The caudal fin in the Newfoundland Humpbacks has a regular, thick, convex 
anterior margin, and a thin, sinuate posterior margin, with numerous small finger- 
like processes, with deep emarginations between them. The tips are recurved. In 
the fcetuses of No. 21 and No. 6 the processes of the posterior margin were very 
numerous, prominent, and acuminate, producing a singular fringed appearance. It 
is evident that this appearance in the adult is not the result of injury, but a natural 
chai-acter. In the 30-foot specimen from Cape Cod, Mass., in the National Museum, 
these processes are very numerous and conspicuous (pi. 40, fig. 2). They were also 
found in the adult Newfoundland specimens. 

The same shapes and processes are seen in Struthers's figure of the flukes of the 
Tay River whale, in Sars's Finmark specimen, and in Eschricht's figure of a foetal 
Greenland Humpback. The tips of the flukes are commonly occupied by barnacles. 

OUTLINE OF THE CAUDAL PEDUNCLE. 

That portion of the body between the anus and flukes (called " the small " by 
whalers), which corresponds to the tail in land mammals, has a straight superior 
margin, but the inferior mai'gin is broken by depressions and elevations. 

In the Newfoundland female No. 21, the sexual orifice is surrounded by thick 
protuberant walls, causing a convexity in the inferior outline of the body. The 
orifice is preceded by a transverse groove, and terminates posteriorly in a hemi- 
spherical boss, behind which is a second transverse groove in which the anus is 
situated. Behind the auus is a rounded elevation, terminated by a third deep trans- 
verse groove and followed by a prominent compressed elevation or carina. The 
same arrangement of parts is found in female No. 6. (See pi. 39, fig. 3.) In male 
No. 5, the outline is similar. The penis is contained in a rounded elevation, and 
another keel-like, compressed elevation appeal's behind the anus. These elevations 
are also seen in a photograph in the National Museum representing a male Hump- 
back at Provincetown, Mass. (See pi. 40, fig. 1.) 

Exactly the same form is represented in Sars's figure of a Finmark female as 
occurred in the Newfoundland females. 

EYE. 

Rawitz (74, 79) states that in the Humpbacks examined by him at Bear Id. 
the iris of the eye was dark brown, the pupil kidney-shaped, with the long axis foi'e 
and aft. 

WHALEBONE. 

The whalebone of the European Humpback is described by Van Beneden as 
black, with black bristles; but this is not correct. Sars (50, 11) describes it as 
" all, as well on the upper as the lower side, of uniform gray-black color, with some 
lighter fibres." Struthers's description is more detailed, as follows (57, 13) : 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES 01<' THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



231 



"In colour, the wliiilebone on tlie outside was Ijlack, except along the front 12 
inches where it was partly- white, mottled, but differing in this respect on the right 
and left sides. On the left jaw here, at 6 inches from the mesial line, 15 plates are 
quite white on their anterior [outer] half Init black on the palatal half. Some near 
these, again, have the anterior edge black, and the rest of their surfaces white. 
Viewed from the palatal as{)ect, the whole matting of hairs was whitish. The 
words in my note-book are ' white, dirty-white, or j'ellow-white.' Now, in 1887, 
after 3 years' exposure, though washed clean, that description could not apjily. 
The colour of the hairy matting now is dirty-brown mixed with brown-black. The 
hairs are fully 4 inches in length, some 6 inches. The hairs of the fringe are thick 
and stiff, like bristles, compared with those of my 50-feet-loiig B. muaculus \j= B . 
physalus], but the much finer hairs of the matting on the palatal aspect do not differ 
in thickness in these two whales." 

This description applies well to the Newfoundland Hum[>backs which I ob- 
served in 1899. In No. 5, $ , the right whalebone was all grayish-black, except 
from the anterior end backward about one foot, where it was dull whitish. The 
bristles along the exterior were of the same grayish-black color, but their matted 
interior surface was lighter, with here and there a small area still much lighter. In 
No. 6, 2 , the most internal bristles were gray-brown, the next lot exteriorly, whitish, 
then a pale pink-gi'ay baud, and finally the exterior ones part whitish and part gray. 
The general effect in looking into the mouth was that of dark gray for 4 inches 
next to the roof of the mouth, succeeded by lighter coloi-. A few anterior blades 
of whalebone were white externally. In both specimens the extei-nal edge of the 
blades was veiy rough, much more so than in Balmnoptem 2>ltysahis. 

Eschricht describes the whalebone of the Greenland Humpback as " entirely 
dark in color, when dry black-brown or black, the bristles brownish " {37, 147). 
In another place he remarks : " I have received more or less complete sets of whale- 
bone of many young and old Kepoi'haks, part in brine, part dried. They were all 
dai'k colored, when di'ied almost black, when preserved moist in salt, the small internal 
plates {Nebenharten) more or less gray in part, the bristles almost always brown. 
On each side are about 400 plates. The length of the whalebone scarcely exceeds 
2 feet" (57, 93). 

The size of the whalebone in different European and American specimens is 

shown in the following table : 

BALMNOPTERA ACUTO-BOSTRATA LAC. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. WHALEBONE. 



Locality. 



Tay River, Scotland 

Norway 

Greenland ■ ■ • 

Dee River, England 

Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland. . . 



Length of 
Whale. 



40 o 



31 o 

42' 2" 
45' S" 



Length of 

Longest 

Whalebone. 



Length of 
Longest 
Bristles. 



20 

24 + 
24 + 

24' 
21 

22 



in. 

5 



Greatest 
Breadth. 



in. 

5 



Author. 



Struthers 
Guldberg 
Eschricht 

Moore 
F. W. T. 
F. W. T. 



' " Nearly 2 feet long.' 



232 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



OSTEOLOGY. 



Several skeletons of Humpbacks from the east coast of North America are 
preserved in the museums of the United States. I have examined the type of 
Megaptera osphyia Cope, taken off the Maine coast, the type of M. belUcosa from 
the West Indies, and two skeletons in the National Museum from Cape Cod, Mass., 
viz. : No. 16252, young female, and No. 21492. For the Greenland Humpback, 
we have Escliricht's description and figures (36 to 39). For the European Hump- 
back, the best descriptions are Rudolphi's account of the type of M. longimana 
(76), and Struthers's elaborate study of the Tay River, Scotland, whale (87). 
Flower's well-known paper on the skeletons in the museums of Holland and Bel- 
gium contains valuable information (45) ; also Van Beneden and Gervais's Oste- 
ographie (8), Fischer's Cetaces du Sud Quest de la France (44), and other woi'ks 
of European naturalists. (See pis. 29 to 36.) 



NUMBElt OF VERTEBRA. 



The various skeletons of Humjibacks from the North Atlantic, both European 
and Amei'ican, thus far examined present the following vertebral formulae: 

MEGAPTERA NODOSA (BONNATEREE). EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. VERTEBRAL FORMULA. 



Locality. 


Date. 


Sex 
and 
Age. 

s 
$ 

Vjr. 


C. 

_ 


D. 

14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 


L. 

II 
10 
10 
1 1 
10 
10 
1 1 

-3 

II 

11 


Ca. 


Total. 


Authority. 


Remarks. 


Vogelsand, Germany 

Tay River, Scotland 

Coast of Maine 

Provincetown, Mass., 16252. 

Cape Cod, Mass., 21492 

West Indies 


1824 
1883 
1844 
1879 
1S78? 


22 

21 

17 + 

19 

19+ 

20 

21 

2-' 
21 
21 


54 
52 

48 + 
5' 

5° + 
51 

5:i 

53 
53^ 

53 


Rudolphi 

Struthers 

True 

True 

True 

Cope 

Eschricht 

Fischer 

Lilljeborg 


Type of Af. longimana. 

Type of M. osphyia. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Type of M. bellicosa. 

[Restored. 


Greenland 






t( 






" 








" 






Lund Mus 











The agi-eement in number of dorsal vei'tebme is complete, of lumbars prac- 
tically so, and of caudals so nearly that the differences may be regarded as indi- 
vidual, or due to imperfection in the specimens. The normal formula would 
appear to be : 

C. r, D. 14, L. 11, Ca. 21 = 53. 

The following, howevei', is quite likely to occur as frequently, if a larger num- 
ber of specimens should be examined : 

C. 7, D. 14, L.IO, Ca. 21 = 52. 

' Flower {41') gives 31. 

"Van Beneden (tf, 126) also gives 53 as the total number of vertebrae in this specimen. My 
own notes on the skeleton, made in 1884, give 52 as the total, and this number is shown in the 
atlas of the Ost^ographie (pis. 10 and 11, fig. i), viz., C. 7, D. 14, L. 10, Ca. 21 = 52. It is No. 
269 in the Brussels Museum. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



233 



SKULL. 



Measurements of European skulls, wbicb can be compared with one another, 
have been recorded in the case of the type of M. longimana (by Rudolphi) and the 
Tay River whale (by Struthers). 

Measurements of the skull of the Greenland Humpback can be obtained from 
Eschricht's figure (39). Of American specimens, I have measured the skulls of the 
t3'pes of M. osphyui and M. helUcosa, and of two other specimens from Cape Cod, 
Mass. These various measurements are brouo-ht toijether in the foUowinsr table : 

MEOAPTERA NODOSA (BONNATEERE). EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. SKri.r,. 



Sex and age 






Total length of whale 


" " " skeleton 




I^en^th of skull (straiefht^ 





Greatest breadth (squamosal) 

Breadth of orbital process of frontal at distal end 

(supra-orbital border) 

Length of rostrum (straight) 

Breadth of rostrum at middle (curved) 

Length of nasals 

Breadth of 2 nasals at distal end 

Length of mandible (straight) 

(curved) 

Depth of mandible at middle 



:£. °'o 

MO.3 
>H5. 



43 

40' 



144 



90 
66.7 = 
17.2'' 



95-8 = 



1^" 

u if 

> u 



40' o" 

39' ^r' 



125" 



i 

57-0 

9.6 
67.6 
22.0 

7.6 

8.2 

96.6 

104.6 

8.0 



Sf 



O o 

" ?! 

a D. 

o >, 



35 5 



135 



58.1 

10.4 
66.0 
23-3 



95-5 
106.7 

8-5 






114 5 



58.8 

10.7 

66.4 

22.9 

7-8 



S CO 



Zi' io'+ 



113 



60. 1 



68 

22 

7 

7 

99 

108 

8 






?jr. 



27 o 



91 



58.2 

8.2 
68.1 
23.0 

7' 



96.6 

107.7 

s s 



It will be seen that there is no raai-ked difference in the proportions of the 
American and European specimens (including the type of AL loiigimana) except iu 
a few instances. The breadth of the rostnim in the type of M. longimana, meas- 
ured on Rudolphi's figure, and therefore liat or straight, is considerably less than 
in the American sjiecimens. That this is probably an error in the figure, rather 
than a real difference, appears from the fact that in the skull of the Tay River 
whale the rostrum is as broad as in the American specimens. 

The Greenland Humpback, from Eschricht's figure, would seem to have shorter 
and very much narrower nasal bones than the other specimens (pis. 29 and 32, figs. 
1 and 2). It is possible, of course, that this may be a character of the Greenland 



Rheinland feet. 
From figure. 
Straight. 



* Breadth across distal end of outer margins. 
"Straight, as mounted; is too much curved 
and lacks 4 or 5 caudal vertebra;. 



234 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



Humpback, but it is more likely that the figure is incorrect, as the nasals are made 
to end against the inferior margins of the premaxillse, which are inclined outward, 
so as to leave a much wider space between the superior margins. The distance be- 
tween the superior margins is about 7 %, which is a very close approximation to the 
breadth of the nasals in other specimens. The inclined position of the premaxillae 
in this figure causes the narial space to appear much shorter than in skulls I have 
examined. Another peculiarity of the figure is the very strong emargination of 
the orbital processes of the frontal anteriorly, and their emargination posterioi'ly 
also. This peculiarity may likewise be a characteiistic of the Greenland Hump- 
back, but may, on the other hand, be merely an inaccuracy in the figure. In the 
absence of any other figure of the upper surface of the skull of a Gi'eenland Hump- 
back it is difiicult to decide the points at issue. 

VERTEBRA. 

The proportions of the vertebrae in the Tay River whale, and of some Amer- 
ican specimens, including the type of M. osphyia, ai-e given in the following table : 

MEOAPTERA NODOSA (BONNATERKE). EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. SKELETON. 





Vogelsand, Germany. 

Type of AT. longimana. 

(Rudolphi, 1832.) 


c 

rt CO 
"^ 00 

iTi CO 

- a> 

as -S 
>, 5 


Coast of Maine. 

Type of M. osphyia. 

(Niagara Mus.) 


West Indies. 

Type of 3!. bellicosa. 

(Phila. Mus.) 


J, s 

a. « 


is 

■- in 


Greenland. 

Lund Mus. 

(Lilljeborg, 1862.) 




i, 


& 








? jr. 


jr. 










Total leno'th of whale 




40' 0" 
39' 2i" 












Total length of skeleton 


40" 


35' s" + 




33' I°" + 


27' 0" 


34' 6"" 


Length of skull (straight) 


144" 


12s" 


135" 


1 14-5" 


113-0" 


9'" 


123.5" " 


Cireatest breadth of axis 


% 


i 
,7.8 

4.8 
16.2 

5-7 
26.0 

6.6 
18.8 

7-9 


% 

5-2 
17.7 

5-9 (?) 
28.1 

7.4(?) 

21-5 

9-3 


% 
18.8 

6.1 • 
17.0 

6.6 

25-9 
7.0 

22.7 
8.7 


I8.I 


15-4 


% 


Denth of centrum ** ... 






Greatest breadth of ist dorsal. . . 




16.4 

6.4 

24.4 

6.7 

19-7 
8.4 


'5-7 




l~)pntb of rentnim ' 






Greatest breadth of ist lumbar.. 




22.0 

7-4 
20.3 

9-4 




Depth of centrum " " . . 






Greatest breadth of ist caudal.. . 


















Breadth " " 
















" scapula 


33-3 
22.3 

23-7' 


33-6 
23.2 

26.0' 

22.0* 


31-3 
21.9 

24.3' 
21. 1 


33-2 
231 

25.8 
21.0 


31.8 
22.6 

26.3' 

23.0' 


30-7 
23.1 

28.8' 

24.7'° 


31.6 
21.4 

25.2 

21.4 


Depth " " 


Length of radius (without epiphy- 
sis) 


Length of ulna (without epiphy- 
sis) 









' Rheinland measure. 
' From figure. 
° With epiphyses =28.8 fo. 
* " " =24.0 " 



' With epiphyses = 25.5 ^. 
' Posterior. 

' With epiphyses = 28.8 ^. 
" " " = 24.1 " 



'With epiphyses = 29.7 ^. 
■» " " = 25.5 " 

" Swedish; i ft. = 297 mm. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



235 



AVith the j^roper allowance for difference in age, the specimens show a corre- 
spondence indicative of specific identity. The positions in the column at which the 
various processes become obsolete and the arteiial foramina a[)pear are as follows: 

MEGAPTERA NODOSA (BONNATERRB). EUROPEAN AXD AMERICAN. CUEVRONS. 



Last neural spine is on vert. No 

Last transverse process is on vert. No. . 



Tay River, 
Scotland. 



41 
39 



Vogelsand, 

Germany. 

(Type.) 



42 
38 



Provincetown, 

Mass. 

U. S. N. M. 

No. 16252. 



40 
38 



Greenland. 

Brussels Mus. 

No. 269. 



42 
37 



CHEVRONS. 

My notes on No. 269 from Greenland, in the Brussels Museum, show that 9 
chevrons are in position. The figure of Megaptera in Van Beneden and Gervais's 
Osteographie (pis. 10, 11, fig. 1) shows 12 chevrons. The young specimen from 
Cape Cod, in the U. S. National Museum, No. 16252, has 9 chevrons. The Tay 
River (Scotland) specimen had 10 chevrons. 

SCAPULA. 

The scapula of Megaptera is peculiar on account of its evenly convex superior 
border and the rudimentary condition of the acromion and coracoid processes. 
(See text figs. 73-78 and pi. 34, fig. 4 ; pi. 36, figs. 3-5.) 

The percentages of the antero-posterior breadth and of the vertical height 
(from the margin of the glenoid cavity to the middle of the superior margin) to 
the length of the skull in various Eui-opean and American specimens are as 
follows : 



MEQAPTERA NODOSA (BONNATERRE). EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. SCAPULA. 



Locality. 



Vogelsand, Germany 

Tay River, Scotland 

Provincetown, Mass. (16252) 
Cape Cod, Mass. (21942).... 

Coast of Maine 

West Indies 

Greenland (Lund Mus.) 



Breadth. 



Height. 



% 


% 


33- ^ 


22.3 


32.8' 


23.2 


30-7 


23-' 


3. .8 


22.6 


31.2 


21.9 


31.2 


23.1 


31.6 


2'-4 



Remarks. 



Type of Af. longimana. 



Type of M. osphyia. 
Type of M. bellicosa. 



Arranging the measurements of breadth of scapula according to the length of 
the skull, without reference to locality, we have the following : 



' From Rudolphi's figure. Type of M. longimana. 



Left. The right = 33.6 %. 



236 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OP THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



MEGAPTEBA NODOSA (BONNATERRE). EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. SCAPULA. 



Locality. 



Vogelsand, Germany 

Coast of Maine 

Tay River, Scotland 

Greenland (Lund Museum) . 

West Indies 

Cape Cod, Mass. (21942) . . . . 
Provincetown, Mass. (16252) 




Per cent, of Breadth of 
Scapula. 



33-2 

32.8 
31.6 
31.2 
31.8 
30.7 



We find liere, beautifully brought out, a gradual increase in the relative 
breadth of the scapula, with the increase in the size of the skull. Unless the 
series represented one species, it is hai'dly likely that this gradation would be 
obtained. 

The scapulae of the types of J£ belUcosa and M. os])hyla, like that of the Tay 
River (Scotland) whale, show a low, blunt spine, a very narrow prescapular fossa, 
and a slight elevation on the anterior border (pi. 34, fig. 4 ; pi. 36, fig. 3). The 
anterioi' border is nearly straight, though somewhat irregular in the upper three 
quarters, while the postei'ior border is evenly concave. A rudimentary coracoid 
is discernible in the United States specimens, as in the Tay River (Scotland) 
whale, and in the Greenland skeleton No. 269 in the Brussels Museum. 

RADIUS AND ULNA. 

Struthers has published a figure (87, fig. 6) of the forearm of the Tay River 
whale, which shows well the shortness and strong curvature of the ulna and the 
expansion of the radius at the distal end, but hardly gives the impression of mas- 
siveness which these bones have. Malm published a figure (after a photograph) 
of the radius of a specimen in the Stockholm Royal Museum, received from St. 
Bartholomew Id., West Indies, where it was collected by Dr. Goes (66, fig. 4a). 

This last is comparable with the radius of the type of M. bellicosa, which was 
also from the West Indies, and probably from St. Bartholomew Id., and was col- 
lected by Dr. Goes (see p. 97). The two radii are exactly alike, except that the 
Stockholm specimen appeal's to be a little narrower at the proximal end. 

The proportion of the breadth of the I'adius at the distal end to its length in 
various American and European specimens of Megaptera is as follows : 

Type of M. bellicosa (Phila. Mus.) 41. i ^ 

St. Bartholomew Island (Stockholm Mus.) 41.0 ^ ' 

Type of M. hiigimana (Berlin Mus.) 40.9 % ' 

Greenland (Copenhagen Mus.) 40.3 fo 

Greenland ? (Brussels Mus.) 38.7 % '' 

Type of M. osphyia (Niagara Mus.) 3cS.2 ^ 

Tay River, Scotland (Dundee Mus.) 35-8^ ' 

' The measurements of this radius given by Malm {66, 38) make the breadth at the distal end 
only 33 ^ of the length, but it is obvious by examination of the figure that the measurements are 
incorrect. The above proportion is from the figure, which is after a photographic original. 

' From the figure. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



237 





Fiu. 73. 



Fig. 74. 





Fig. 75. 



Fio. 76. 





Fig. 77. 



Fig. 7S. 



MEOAPTERA. NODOSA (bONNATEREe). AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN. SCAPULA. 



F.G ■•, -GREENLAND. AD. (FROM V.O BENEDEN AND GeRV.MS.) F,G. 74.-TAV R.VER, SCOTLAND. S. 
(FROMSTRU'^ER^. F.G.75.-CAPE COD, MASS. (FROM A PHOTO.) ^^^ ^'-'^^;^^^^^-^^^, ], 
(FROM A PHOTO.) F.G. 77.-TVPE OF Af. OSPHVU. (FROM A PHOTO. OBLIQUE VIEW.) F.G. 7S.-TYPE OF JA 

BELLicosA. (From a photo.) 



238 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



The proportion for the Tay River whale is from Struthei's's figure (89, fig. 6). 
His measurements give only 32.7 ^. The cause of this discrepancy is not obvious. 
All the other specimens show a close agreement. 

The correspondence in the bones of the forearm between the types of M. 
osphyia and M. belUcosa are seen on comparing plate 34, fig. 4, and plate 36, fig. 3. 

The proportion of the length of the radius and ulna to the length of the skull 
in various American and European specimens is shown in the following table : 



MEGAPTERA NODOSA (BONNATERRE). EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. RADIUS AND ULNA. 



Locality. 



Vogelsand, Germany . . . 
Tay River, Scotland. . . . 
Provincetown, Mass. . . . 

Cape Cod, Mass 

Coast of Maine' 

West Indies' 

Greenland (Lund Mus.) 



Length of 
Skull. 



inches. 
148.2 
125.0 
91.0 
113. o 
1350 
'14-5 
121. 2 



Length of Radius. 



With 
Epiphyses. 



per cent. 

23-7' 

28.8 

29.7 

28.8 

25.6 



Without 
Epiphyses. 



per cent. 

26.0 
28.8 
26.1 

24-3 
25.8 
25.2 



Length of Ulna. 



With 
Epiphyses. 



per cent. 

24.0 

2S-5 
24.4 

21.9 



Without 
Epiphyses. 



per cent. 

22.0 
24.7 
22.7 
21. I 
21.0 
21.4 



PHALANGES. 



The number of ossified ^^halanges (exclusive of metacarpals) in the Eui'opean 
Humpback has been given by Struthers (87, 38), and of the Greenland Humpback 
by Eschricht (57), Van Beneden (8, 134), and others, as follows : 



MEGAPTERA NODOSA (BONNATERRE). EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. PHALANGES. 



Locality. 


Author. 


L 


IL 


in. 


IV. 


V. 


Vogelsand, Germany 

Tay River, Scotland 

Greenland 

Greenland 


Rudolphi 

Struthers 

Van Beneden and Gervais 

Eschricht 




2 
2 
2 
2 


8 
7 
7 
7 


6 
6 

7' 
7 


3* 
3 
3 
2' 



' From Rudolphi's figure — Type of M. longimana. 

' Type of M. osphyia. ' Type of M. bellicosa. 

* In d'Alton's Die Skelete der Cetaceen, 1827, pi. 3, fig. e, the hand of a Humpback whale, which 
from the text appears to be the type of B. longimana, is represented with the following phalangeal 
formula: 2, 7, 6, 2. 

'According to my own notes on this skeleton, there are 6 phalanges in the 4th digit. 

° In a foetus 45" long. Eschricht's figure of a foetus 35" long, from Greenland, appears to show 
the following ossified phalanges: 2, 8, 8, 3 ( J7, 79). Eschricht also gives the formula for the 
adult as 3, 9, 9, 3, but does not state from what specimen or specimens this was derived ( J7, 141). 
It appears to include the metacarpals. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



239 



The phalanges are incomplete in the type of M. osphyia. They are arranged 
on each pectoral in three series, or digits, each digit having 3 phalanges, exclusive 
of the metacai'pals. Each limb, therefoie, has but 9 phalanges in all, showing 
that many are lacking. Some of the pieces mounted as metacarpals are probably 
phalanges. 

The number of phalanges in the type of M. hellicosa is not given by Cope, and 
I was unable to find any considerable number of these bones, when examining the 
skeleton in the Philadelphia museum. Cope remarks that "the fore limbs are 
neither of them quite complete." (^5.) 

In the immature skeleton in the National Museum from Pi-ovincetown, Mass., 
(No. 16252 ?) the formula for the left side is 2, 6, 6, 2} In No. 21492, U. S. 
N. M., also from Cape Cod, Mass., the formula is 2, 7, 6, 1, as now mounted. 

From the emarginations and tubercles on the anterior border of the pectorals 
in the Newfoundland specimens (pis. 37-40), both adult and foetal, and in the 






Fig. 79 



Fig. So. 



Fig. 8i. 





Fig. 82 



Fig. 83. 



MEQAPTEBA NODOSA (bONNATERKe). ASIEBICAN AND EUROPEAN. STERNUM. 

Fig. 79.— St. Bartholomew Id., West Indies. (From Malm.) Fig. 8o.— <From Van Beneden. Local- 
ity NOT GIVEN.) Fig. 81.— Tay River, Scotland, i. (From Struthers.) Fig. 82.— Antilles. (From 
Fischer.) Fig. S3.— Type of Af. longima.va. (From Pander and d' Alton.) 

Cape Cod (Mass.) specimen (pi. 41, fig. 6), it is certain that the same number of 
phalanges may be counted for digit 2 in these specimens as in the Greenland 
Humpback and the European species, and for digit 3 the variation can hardly 
be more than one phalanx, with a probability that there is no difference. 

■ On the right side, the formula is actually 2, 5, 5, 2, but one phalanx has obviously been 
lost from digits 3 and 4, as the irons supirorling the bones project a considerable distance beyond 
the last phalanges now in position. Mr. F. A. Lucas has kindly given the formula for the fresh 
specimen, as recorded by him at the time it originally passed through his hands. It is the same 
as above, viz., 2, 6, 6, 2. 



240 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

The phalanges on digits 4 and 5 cannot, of course, be estimated in the same 
way, as they are not indicated on the posterior margin of the fin. 

STERNUM. 

The sternum has not been preserved in the American skeletons with which I 
am familiar. Fischer (44) has figured the sternum of a specimen from the Antilles, 
which should represent Cope's M. belUcosa, and Malm {66, pi. 1, fig. 4b) has also 
given a figure of a partially incomplete sternum from St. Bartholomew Island. 
These, with the sterna of two European specimens, are represented in the out- 
lines (text figs. 79 to 83) on p. 239. They show that there is no essential differ- 
ence in the pattern of the sternum in the American and European Humpbacks. 
From a systematic point of view the sternum is of little importance, on account of 
the large amount of individual variation to which it is subject. 

BIBS. 

The first rib in Megaptera is broad at the distal end. In the type of M. 
bellicosa it is cut off square (pi. 35, fig. 2), but in the Tay River whale, according 
to Struthei's's description and figure, the distal end is emarginated, more strongly 
on the right side than on the left, forming an anterior and posterior angle. 

The second rib in M. bellicosa has an oblong prolongation at the proximal end, 
with parallel margins, from the head to the angle. The second rib in the series of 
ribs from St. Bartholomew Island figured by Malm (66, pi. 1, fig. 4c) is club-like at 
the proximal end, without distinct processes, while the second rib in the Tay River 
whale " has a prominent tubercle, the end sloping obliquely downward and inward, 
giving a broad triangular beak." This is seen in the thiid rib of the type of M. 
bellicosa, but not in the second. In the Humpback described by Van Beneden and 
Gervais " the third, especially, and the fourth differ fi'om the others by possessing a 
distinct head " (8). 

It will be seen that no two skeletons agi'ee in the shape of the ribs, and these 
parts therefore do not aid in the discrimination of species. 

SUMMARY. 

From the foregoing presentation of the recorded data relative to the external 
and osteological characters of the Humpbacks of the coast of Europe, Gi'een- 
land, and the North American mainland, the following condensed statement may 
be drawn up: 

1. The average and maximum lengths for the Humpbacks taken at the Finmark 
whaling stations, according to Cocks's measurements, are lai-ger than the measure- 
ments of those taken at Newfoundland. On the other hand. Humpbacks from 
Bermuda and Greenland are cited as laiger than the Finmark specimens. 

2. The Humpbacks of both sides of the Atlantic have the same two colors — 



THE WHALEHONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 241 

black aiul white— and tlie iimomit and distiibutiou of these colors are variable to 
the same extent in specimens from the eastern and western Atlantic. 

3. The measurements of e.\tei-nal proportions of the body and fins show a 
substantial agreement, except as regards the spread of the flukes, in which theiv i< 
an unexplained variability. 

4. The abdominal folds agree in number, size, and especially in anangement. 

5. The dermal tubercles on the head agree well in number, size, an<l general 
ai'raugement, though there is a large individual vaiiation. 

G. Theie is no constant dilference in the shape of the dorsal fin Ix-tween the 
American and European Hiuupbacks, unless it be that the ti[) is tliicker in Green- 
land specimens. 

7. The pectoral fin agrees in length, breadth, and especially in the protuber- 
ances of the margins. 

8. The flukes are alike in form, with a possible difference in spread. 

9. The outline of the caudal i)e(luncle or " small " is alike in Newfoundland and 
Norwegian specimens. 

10. The skeleton agrees closely in the number of vertebr* and the formula for 
the same; in the pi'oportions of the skull and of the bones of the limbs. The 
Greenland Humjiback, howevei', appears from Eschriclit's figure to have smaller 
nasals than the othei's, and more deeply emai-ginated frontal orbital processes, but 
theie is a strong pi-esuuiption that the figure is inaccurate. 

Considering the difficulties encountered in instituting exact comparisons be- 
tween data recorded at different times by different observers, the agreement is 
sufficiently close to justify the opinion that the Humpback whales of the North 
Atlantic ai'e all referable to the same species. In other words, the differences between 
the nominal species M. 7iodosa, longimana, osphyia, helUcom, americaiia, etc., are not 
substantiated. 

Although the type-skeleton of M. osphyia Cope, which in the foregoing pages 
has been cunently treated as representing the common Humpback of the western 
North Atlantic, shows no differences which would render such treatment unwar- 
ranted, it seems to me desirable to consider a little further the differences by whicli 
Cope supposed it could be separated from M. longimana. 

Cope compares his species with M. longimana as described in the works of 
Rudolphi, Gray, and Flower, and concludes that it is different for the following 
reasons : 

1. M. osphyia has long inferior latei-al processes in the posterioi- cervical 
vertebras. 

2. The atlas is a parallelepiped in form, the transverse processes are elevated, 
and there is an "internal process." 

3. The ci-anium is broader in proportion to its length than in AI. longimana, 
and shorter in pi'opoition to the total length of the skeleton. 

4. The pectoral fins are shoi-tei'. 

5. The vei'tebne and chevrons aie less in number. 
(). The first jiair of rii)s is very broad. 

7. The spines of the lumbar vertebrae are much higher. 



242 THE WHAI.EBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

I have already shown that the 4th and 7th characters are fictitious, as advanced 
by Cope, and that the 1st is merely an individual variation. 

The width of the cranium of the type of M. osphyia (3d character) as com- 
pared with the length, differs from that in the Scotch skulls carefully measui-ed by 
Struthers by only 1.1 per cent., which in actual measurement amounts to only \^ 
inches. This is certainly not significant, and is within the limit of variation of 
different American specimens of the Humpback among themselves. 

The number of vertebi'ise (5th character) in the type-skeleton as mounted is 48, 
probably to be distributed as follows : C. 7, D. 1 4, L. 10, Ca. 1 7 (+) = (48 +). The 
last vertebra present is 4 in. square, and according to Struthers's measurements of 
M. longimana, about 4 more caudals must have been present originall}^ making 52 
fur the whole column, which is the average for M. longimana. Of chevrons there 
are 7 in position in the type of M. osphyia, with places for perhaps 10 in all. Van 
Benedeu and Gervais give 12 as the number foi' M. longimana, but it is to be 
remarked that Struthers's Tay Kiver (Scotland) specimen had but 10 chevrons, 
and the skeleton in the National Museum (No. 16252) from Cape Cod, Mass., but 
9, so that it would appear that the number is variable, and unreliable as a specific 
character. 

In the type of Al. OHphyia the breadth of the first rib on the left side is 9 in., 
and on the right 1\ in. In Struthers's Tay River specimen the right rib of the first 
pair has a maximum breadth of 8.6 in., and the left, 5.3 in. It is obvious that the 
breadth is so variable even on the two sides of the same skeleton that it is useless 
as a specific character, but in this instance, as the skull of Struthei's's specimen is but 
125 in. long, while that of M. osplnjia is 135 in. long, the maximum breadth of the 
first ribs in the two skeletons is practically the same relatively, with a little increase 
in favor of the European specimens. 

In 1868 Cope cited as an additional character of M. osphyia the conti-action of 
the orbital process of the frontal at the distal extremity (27, 194). He remai'ks : 
"The orbital processes of the frontal bone are not contracted at the extremities as 
in M. longimana, but are more as in Balmnopteroe ; entire width over and within 
edge of oi'bit, 15|- in." This measurement I make 14 in. instead of 15|- in. The 
former equals 10.4 % of the length of the skull. As shown in the table on p. 233, 
the same measurement from Rudolphi's figure of the type of M. longimana is 9.0 
%, and of Struthers's Tay River specimen 9.6 %, while the type of M. hellicosa gives 
10.7 %. This approximation shows that M. osphyia presents no great deviation in 
the breadth of the supraorbital edge of the frontal. It is true that in Rudolphi's 
figure of the whole skeleton of the type of M. longimana the orbit itself appears 
smaller, but in a general figure of this kind the proportions of the smaller parts are 
frequently inaccurate. The least longitudinal diameter of the orbit in Struthers's 
Tay River whale is, according to his measurements, the same as in the types of M. 
osphyia and M. hellicosa. As it is extremely unlikely that the two European skele- 
tons belong to different species, the probability that Rudolphi's figure is inaccurate 
as regards the orbit is strengthened by this circumstance. 

The Humpback appears to have been known to European zoologists only from 



THE WHALEBONE WEIALES OF THE "WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 243 

American sources, until the time of Rudol phi's description of M. longimana in 
1832. This author suspected that his species might be the same as Fabricius's 
hoojys, and Schlegel in 1844 was of the same opinion. 

In 1848 Eschricht ari'ived at the same conclusion fioni an opposite point of 
view, and in 1849 stated emphatically : " It is now raised beyond all doubt that the 
whale stranded in the mouth of the Elbe River in 1824, and described by Rudolphi 
as Balcena lom/hnaaa, is nothing more and nothing less than an individual of the 
commonest species of baleen whale on the Greenland coast, known to the Green- 
landei's as the KeporJcak / also mentioned by Anderson under the latter name and 
introduced into systematic zoology by Klein and Bonnaterre under the appropriate 
name Balcpva nodosa^'' {37, 57). As this latter name is derived from the descrip- 
tion of the New England Humpback, Eschricht combines not only the Greenland 
and European Humpbacks but those of the coast of the United States as well, in one 
species. Gray, however, was not content to have it so, and already, in 1846, sepa- 
rated the "Bermuda Humpback" under the name of Megaptera americana (56). 
In 1866 he still adhered to this arrangement, employing tlie name M. americana as 
before and citing Fabricius's Balmna hoops with a mark of interrogation, under M. 
longimana, with the comment: "Rudolphi, and after him Schlegel, refer B. loops, 
O. Fabricius, to tliis species ; and Professor Eschricht has no doubt that Balcena 
loops of O. Fabricius is intended for this species, as it is called Keporhah by the 
Greeulanders. If this be the case, Fabi'icius's description of the form and position 
of the dorsal fin and the position of the sexual organs is not correct" (55, 124), 
Gray seems not to have known at this time of Cope's description of M. osphyia, 
published in 1865. In the supplement to his catalogue he quotes Cope's description, 
but without comment. 

In 1869, Van Beneden and Gervais remark as regards osphyia and hoops (= 
longimana) : " We do not find any difference of value for separating them " (5, 236). 
and again in 1889 Van Beneden unites all the American Humpl)acks in one species. 

Fischer (44, 58), who studied the Humpback bones from Martinique Id. in 
the Bordeaux museum, which should presumably represent M. bellicosa, w-as unable 
to decide whether they should be assigned to the same species as the Greenland 
Humpback, and closes his investigation with the inquiry whether all the Humpbacks 
should not be regarded as belonging to a single species. 

Note. Two excellent illustrations of the Newfoundland Humpback, from negatives obtained by Mr. Wm. 

Palmer, of the U. S. National Museum, in igo3, are reproduced on plate 38, figs, i and 2. The individual represented 
in fig. I is unusually white and on that account especially interesting. 



CHAPTER YIII. 

THE NORTH ATLANTIC RIGHT WHALE, BAL.^NA GLACIALIS Bonnaterre. 

Since the seiiaration of the Right wliale of the temperate eastern Atlantic 
from tlie Ai'ctic Right whale by Eschricht, the validity of the former species has 
been universally accepted, though opinions have differed as to whetiier its American 
counterpart is identical \\\t\\ it. The European species, known as the Nordcaper 
or Sai'de, was named Balcemi glacialis by Bonnaterre (9, 3) and Balcena bis- 
cayensis by Eschriclit (1860). The latter name was not accompanied by a descrip- 
tion. Bonnaterre's diagnosis does not include a reference to a type-specimen. 
Unless there is more than one species on the European coasts, we may, thei'efore, 
draw characters from whatever specimens have been described. As would natur- 
ally be expected, the later accounts are generally fuller and more accurate than the 
earlier ones, but even tlie fullest descriptions are to a certain extent fi'agraentary 
and unsystematic and contain couti'adictory statements and measurements. To 
thread one's way through the maze requires a large amount of patience and con- 
sumes a great deal of time, and the results obtained ai'e not entirely satisfactory. 

My study of tlie literatui'e of the European Right whale, and of American 
specimens, leads me to believe that there is a greater amount of individual varia- 
tion as I'egards proportions in the genus Balcena than in Bahenopfera, and that we 
may not look for the same conformity in this respect in the former as in the latter. 
It is possible, of course, that thei'e may be several species of Balcena on the Euro- 
pean coasts and an equal number on the Atlantic coasts of North America, but 
there appears to be no real foundation for such an opinion. To a certain extent 
the variations in proportions observable among specimens hitherto described are, 
no doubt, due to differences in ao;e and to inaccurate measurements. It will be found 
that in general appearance, color, form of parts, etc., the European specimens agree 
well togethei'. 

The European specimens which have been described are few indeed. The 
most celebrated is that captured at San Sebastian, Spain, in 1854. It was a young 
individual 24 ft. 9-^ in. long. It enabled Eschricht to prove his assumption that 
the Right whale of the temperate eastern i\.tlantic was a different species from 
the Arctic Right whale. He intended to publish a detailed account of it, but died 
befoi'e the work was accomplished (Fischer, 44, 19). Dr. Monedero in San Sebastian 
published a lithographic flgui'e of this specimen, with measurements which have 
been copied b}' Fischer (44; 19), Gasco (^5, 587), etc. This figure has been highly 

244 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



245 



praised, and often c-()i)ie(l, hut it hui-dly seems possible that the remarkably short 
head can be correct. Tlie skeleton was very fully described by Gasco in 1879 (48). 

Fischer, in 1881, reprinted the description and measurements (44., 10) pub- 
lished in 1682 by Seguette of a specimen stranded on Re Id., France, in 1680. 

In 1877, a specimen was stranded at Taranto, Italy, of which descriptions and 
figures were published by Capellini in 1877 (13) and by Gasco in 1878 (47). It 
is an unfortunate circumstance that Gasco's measurements do not agree with Capel- 
lini's; nor do they agree with the figures in the plates accompanying his memoir, 
nor do the figures agree with each other. 

In 1889 Graells (52) published measurements and figures of a specimen cap- 
tured at Guetaria, Spain, in 1878, and preserved in the museum of the Institute of 
Secondary Instruction at San Sebastian. In the same memoir are included addi- 
tional facts regarding this specimen by Prof. Candido Rios y Rial (o2, 63-67, Sep.). 

In 1893, Prof. Guldberg published a very valuable article entitled /ur Kennt- 
niss des Nordkapeis (39), containing measurements of specimens taken at Iceland, 
together with three photographic figures of the exterior, and figures of the pelvic 
bones and sternum.' 

The foregoing memoirs contain practically all the data on the Nordcaper avail- 
able for use in com[)aring Furopean with American specimens. 

SIZE. 

The total length of the various recorded specimens of the European Nordcaper 
is as follows : 

BALJENA GLACIALIS BONNATERRE. EUROPEAN. TOTAL LENGTH. 





Date. 


Sex. 


Total Length. 


Age. 




Locality. 


English 
ft. and in. 


Original Measure. 


Authority. 




Meters. 


ft. and in.' 






1891 ? 

1680 

1852 

1891 

1 89 1 

1890 

1889 

1891 

1877 
1878 
1811 
1854 


2 

s 
? 


51' 8" 
5°'7"„ 

^9 -'!" ? 

47 7 
47' 7" ± 
46' 7" ± 
43' 3i" 

43 3V 

Sic 

32' 10" ± 
24 9J 


15-43 

i=;.o ? 


so' R.' 
47J' F. 




Guldberg 
Fischer 


Re Island, France 


^ 


Iceland 


'4-5 


'3-2 

12. 
10.46 

'7-56' 


46' R. 
46' ± R. 

45' ± R- 

42' R. 
42' R. 




Ouldberg 


it 




t( 


t' 




(( 


(( 




•• 




( " Not entirely 

i full-grown " 

adolescent. 


Gasco 


Guetaria, Spain 






Graells 


28' to 30' 1' 


Van Beneden 


San Sebastian, Spain 


26' 9" S 


young 


Gasco 



' These figures on a larger scale were also published by Buchet in 1895 in Afem. Soc. Zool., 
France, 8, 1895, 229-231, pis. 6-8. They bear here the legend " Phot, de M. Berg " — In Guldberg's 
paper the legend is " Guldberg phot." 

' Skeleton. Van Beneden cites this as 48 ft. long, which must be an error. 

' F.= French measure; R.=: Rheinland; S.= Spanish. I am not positive as to the Rheinland. 

' In a straight line. 

' Fischer states that this specimen was young, but there is no evidence that such was the case. 



246 



THK WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



It will be observed from the table that the largest European specimen is the 
Iceland one cited by Guldberg, which was 51' 8" long in a straight line. Guldberg's 
statement regarding it is as follows : " Captain Berg told me that the largest speci- 
men captui-ed by him measured 50 feet [Rheinlaud ?] long (in a straight line) and 
46 feet in maximum girth" {59, 15).' 

The next largest was that recorded by Segnette as stranded on the island of 
He, France, in 1680. It was a female and its length was 50 ft. 7 in. Fischer 
asserts that this individual was young {44, 16), but there is no evidence that this was 
the case. He was influenced by the measurements given by Rondelet and Pare for 
the whale of the Basques. According to these early zoologists, this whale readied 
a length of 36 cubits {coudees), or as Fischer has reckoned it, 23.4 m., or 76 ft. 9 in. 
There is no probability that the Nordcaper ever reached such dimensions. 

The American specimens hitherto recorded present the following lengths : 



Locality. 



Cape Lookout, N. C. 
Beaufort, N. C 

Long Island, N. Y 

Egg Harbor, N. J 

Cape Lookout, N . C . . - 

Long Island, N. V. . . . 

Cape Cod, Mass 

Charleston, S. C 

Long Island, N. Y 

Opposite Philadelphia' 
Cape Lookout, N. C. . 



Mch. 20, i8q4 
1874 



Spring, 1S82 
Feb. 15, 189S 

i888 

April, 1895 
Jan.. 1880 

18—? 

1S62 
Mch. 20, i8y4 



Total Length. 



Age. 



53 O 
50' O' + 
[Skeleton as mounted, 44 q"] 

Skeleton 44' 9" 

48' o' 
46' o" est. 

Skeleton 45' 3" ' 

42' 5" 
40' 4" 

Skeleton 35' o" + est. 

Skeleton 37' o" est. 
30' o" + 



Adult 



.\dol. or ad 
Adol. 

Adoi. 



Museum, 



( State .Museum, 
i Raleigh, N. C. 
J Field Col. Mus., 
( Chicago 

Not preserved 
Wis. Acad. Sci. 
\ U. S.Nat. Mus., 
\ No. 23077 

Charleston Col. 
( Am. Mus. Nat. 
( Hist., New York 
j Acad. Nat. Sci., 
( Philadelphia 
Not preserved 



Authority. 

Brimley 
Brimley 

Elliot 

Holder 
Brimley 

F. W. T. 

Blake 
.Vlanigault 

Holder 

Cope 
Brimley 



A comparison of the foregoing measurements of total length witli those pre- 
viously given for the European specimens shows that there is no considerable 
difference in size in individuals from the two sides of the Atlantic. 

The largest American specimen, as above indicated, was 53 ft. long. The 
largest European specimen (Iceland) was 51 ft. 8 in. The younger specimens 
show a parallel gradation in size. It may be stated, therefore, that European and 
American specimens cannot be differentiated by size. 

EXTERNAL PROPORTIONS. 

The exterioi- measurements recorded by those who have had an opportunity to 
examine the Atlantic Right whale in a fresh condition are so meagre and so little 
conformable that they give but scant assistance in determining the questions at 

' Guldberg's own measurements appear to be in Rheinland feet (12 in. Rheinl. = 12.357 Eng- 
lish), but he cited one measurement from Capt. Berg in English feet, which may be the kind 
intended here, in which case the Re Island specimen would be the longest one. 

' See Holder (j><5, 112,1 20). 

' The length of the skeleton as mounted is probably too great, on account of the exaggeration 
of the caudal intervertebral spaces. 

' Type of Balmna cisarctica Cope. 



THE WHALEBOJSTE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



247 



issue. Fnrthennore, the few measurements available for comparison show large 
discrepancies, as will be found upon examination of the following table: 

BAL^NA GLACIALIS BONNATERRE. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. 





o 

OO 

i s 


San Sebastian, Spain, 

1853. (Copenliagen Mus.) 

(Fischer, 1871.) 


East of Iceland, l88(). 
65° 7' N. 6°, 20" W. 
(Guldberg, 1891). 


•^ ^-, 

00 - 

. I - 

6 S 
« a 
H 


i 
Q a 

c 


§1 

'Z rt 


W 
00 

■—.CO 

. a; 

s'l' 

CO 


Cape Lookout, N. C, 

1894. 

(Brimley, 1894.) 


Sex 


? 




9 


? 




? 


? 






Age 




jr. 






— 






ad 








Length of whale 


47*" 


26' 9" ' 


42' 0"^ 


39' 4' 


39 V 


40' 4 -i8 u \x' 0' 


" skeleton 


35' 7" 







Tip of snout to eye 


% 
23.2 

h7.4] 
7-> + 
H.4 

4-3 

j'56.9" 

1 to 58.3 

42.8 

6.3 
29.8 
22.3 


% 
19 2 

140 

9-3 
33-6 

•1-5 


% 
30.0 

7-1 


% 

8.3 
29.2 



' 6.3' 


'5-4 

8.3 

29.2 

19.2 
9-3 

29.2 
6.6 


% 

25-5 
16.3 

27-3 
50.2 

159 
'0-3 


% 
25.0 

14.6 

8.0 

35-4 

14 

19.4 
1.2 
2.8 
5-° 

'3-9 
8-3 

20.8 
8.2 
2.1 
2.8 
2.8 
3-5 

11.9 


22.6 + 


" " " " pectoral 

Length of pectoral 




Breadth " " 




Flukes from tip to tip 


32. 1 


Girth in front of fore limbs 

Space between pectorals on abdo- 
men 

Breadth of margin of mandible, . . . 

From highest cranial eminence to 
orbit, axially 

Ear above horizon of eye 

" from vertical axis of eye 

Eye to anterior face of axilla 

Circumference of caudal terminus 
or " small " 

" Small " to caudal bifurcation . . . . 

Length of each fluke axially 

Breadth" " " " 

Length of blowhole, axially 

Divergence of blowholes posteriorly 

Nasal prominence, width 

height 

'Pntnl rimimft^rpiirp 


7-9 










Pudendum to extremity of tail. . . . 

Height at level of blowholes 

" of lower jaw at middle. . . . 

Circumference at middle of body . 

" " i)osterior third. . 


^3-5 









French measure. 
Norwegian measure. 



Id .,i.u;...i insertion (see Gasco, \n. y. 
* Along inner curve. 



•c- -•)• 



248 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



The first [)c)int that arrests one's attention in comparing these measurements is 
that the distance from the ti[) of the snout to the eye in the San Sebastian (Spain) 
whale is very short. This lias been insisted on in all the accounts of this whale 
and ap[»eai'S in Monedero's drawing, copied by Fischer (^44, 18, fig. 1), Van Benedeu 
and Gei'Viiis, and others. The appearance of the head in the figure is so peculiar 
as to lead one to think this young specimen was either abnormal, oi- that the draw- 
ing was inaccurate. Nothing is to be seen of this peculiarity in Guhlberg's photo- 
graphic figures of older individuals. The Re Island (France), Egg Harbor (New 
Jersey), and Cape Lookout (North Carolina) specimens show a i-easonable agree- 
ment as regards this measurement. 

In the length and Ijreadth of the pectoi-al limb the European and American 
specimens show a very close agreement, amounting to identity of proportions. 

In the measurement of the flukes, on the contrary, the European specimens 
neither agree with each other nor with the American specimens, nor do the lat- 
ter agree among themselves. In all species of whales the e.xpansion of the flukes 
appears subject to a considerable amount of individual variation, but this would 
not account for the marked discrepancies observable in the foregoing table. As 
regards the Taranto (Italy) whale, it would appear that the measui'emeut of the 
flukes from tip to tip is incorrect, because while this is much below that of most of 
the other specimens, the measurement of the length of one of the lobes of the 
flukes is only a trifle less than that of the American specimen having the widest 
spread flnkes; in other wa")rds, the length of one lobe of the flukes is recoi'ded as 
two thirds the distance from tip to tip, which is highly improbable. 

The measurement for the Charleston (South Carolina) whale is still smaller, 
27.3^ of the total length, while the Egg Harbor (New Jersey) whale has the 
maximum proportion of 35.4 fo. There appears to be no way in which to reconcile 
these differences. 

The length of the whalebone in the European and American specimens differs 
considerably. In the Taranto whale it was but 6.6^' of the total length of the 
whale, and in Guldberg's Iceland specimen of 188'J, 7.1 '/c. In the Charleston 
whale, which was 3 feet shorter tlian the last mentioned, tiie whalebone was 10.3^. 
The various absolute measurements ai'e as follows : 

BAL^NA GL4€7.-lLy.S BONNATEREE. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. WHALEBONE. 



Locality. 



Charleston, South Carolina 

Cape Cod, Mass 

Egg Harbor, New Jersey 

Cape Lookout, North Carolina, 1S74 .. 

1898 

Taranto, Italy 

Iceland 

(Guldberg's longest Iceland whalebone) 
(Berg's longest Iceland whalebone). . . . 



.Sex. 



Length of 
Whale. 



ft. 
40 

48 

53 
46 

39 

43 3i 



111. 

4 

5 
o 
o 
o est. 

4 

1 



Length of 
Whalebone. 



2 
6 
9 

4 
72 

I 

Si 
4 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH A'I'LANTIO. 249 

It will be observed that while in the young European specimens the pro- 
portional length of the whalebone falls below that of the American specimens, 
nevertheless, the largest Iceland whalebone equals or exceeds that of the laigest 
Araei'ican specimen. While the discrepancies above mentioned are not explainable 
at present, it appeals that adult European and American specimens have whale- 
bone of equal length. 

Although the largest whalebone cited in the preceding table is only 7 ft. 4 in. 
long, various writers on the Colonial Right whale fishery mention lengths for this 
species of 8 feet and 9 feet. This might he I'egarded an exaggei-ation, but there 
are slabs of whalebone from the Pacific Right whale in the National Museum 
which measure 8 ft. 2 in. and 8 ft. 6 in., I'espectively, and the whalebone of the 
Atlantic species may have formerly reached that length in some cases. 

COLOR. 

The Atlantic Right whale known to American whalers was called by them the 
Black whale, in allusion to its color. In the European Nordcaper the body in all 
recorded cases was black. The young San Sebastian whale, judged by the copy 
of Monedero's drawing given by Graells (52, pi. 1, fig. 2) ap[)ears to have been 
uniform black. The Taranto whale, according to Gasco (4-7, 14), was also uniform 
black, as was Segnette's specimen of 1680. Regarding the Iceland whales, Guld- 
bei'g I'emarks as follows (,-7,9, KV) : 

"The color of the skin is, as already known, deep black, sometimes with a 
tinge of blue (eiuem Stich, Iiih Blaue). This deep black color is spi'ead over 
the whole body. On this account, I was surprised that Capt. Lai'sen remarked 
that the young example caught by him was of a lighter color on the belly. This 
statement was, however, in j)art at least confirmed by the fi-agments of skin sent 
me, as many of these showed white epidei'mis layers {Ohcrluixtpartibii), which were 
sharply conti'asted from the 1 thick dermis layers {Ilautpartien) on the same pieces. 
In the pieces of skin preserved in alcohol, the unpiumented epidermis layers were 
yellowish-white, and the boundaries very sharply defined from the deep Idack ])ig- 
mented parts. By inquiry among the sailors and others, who iiad seen the freshly 
caught Nordcajier, as well as by direct communication by letter with Capt. Hei'g, 
it was, however, established that only single white sjjots appeared here and there 
on the othei'wise black body. The white s|)ots were found on the extreme tip and 
surface of the pectorals, on the tip of the flukes as well as in the 'bonnet' on the 
snout, — all places infested by parasites. The spots are small and can hardly be 
found in all examples. 

" In the specimen figured (59, pi. 1), judging from the photograph, white spots 
appear to occur ai'ound the genitals, but I can not affirm this with certainty." 

The foreo-oinw statements seem to confirm the idea that the European Nord- 
caper is normally black throughout. The white spots appear to be due to the 
alteration of the skin proiluced by i)arasitic cii'ripeds, as in the Humpback. The 
yellowish-white spots in the alcoholic specimens of skin might be attributed to a 
separation of the epidermis, and accumulation of air or alcohol below. 



250 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



Among the American specimens, we find that the Chai'leston whale was en- 
tirely black. The Egg Harbor, New Jersey, whale was also black. 

The Cape Lookout specimen, captured March 20, 1894, a female, was said to 
be a " white-bellied " one. The figure published in the Bulletin of the North 
Carolina Bept. of Agriculture (14, No. 7, April, 1894, p. 4) shows the whole under 
surface light colored, from a point in advance of the eye to the anus, the white 
area extending up to the base of the pectorals and having irregular margins. If 
the drawing was correctly made from the specimen itself, it indicates a remarkable 
color variation. In a letter Mr. H. H. Brimley remarks that this specimen had 
" a great deal of pure white on its under side." 

The foregoing facts may be summed up as follows : 

Three specimens of the European Nordcaper are recorded as being entirely 
black, and the Iceland specimens were also black, with the exception of one young 
one, which was reported to be lighter colored on the belly. Of three American 
specimens, two are recorded as entirely black, and one (adult female) as having " a 
great deal of pure white on its under side." (See })1. 46, figs. 1 and 2.) 



OSTEOLOGICAL CHARACTERS NUMBER OF VERTEBRA. 

The skeleton of the European Nordcaper has been described in detail and 
figured by Gasco {4-7 and 4-8), Graells {5^), Capellini {13), and Guldberg {59). 
The skeleton of American specimens has been described and illustrated by Holder 
{61) and Manigault (68). (See pis. 42-46.) 

The number of vertebrae has been given by these authors for several individ- 
uals, as follows : 

BALMNA GLACIALIti BONNATEREE. EUROPEAN. VERTEBRAL FORMULA. 



Locality. 



Taranto, Italy 



Spain. 



Sail Sebastian 
Iceland (I) ■ . 

" (11) 

" (III) 

(Guldberg's formula for the species) 



Sex. 




jr- 



Autlior. 



Gasco 

Capellini 

Gasco 

Guldberg 



D. 



14 

14 
13 
14 
14 
'4 
'4 



—3 

'3 

12 

3 
—3 
12 



Ca. 



23 

6— 

23 

21 (+3) 
5— 
5— 

23 



Total. 



56 

57 

56 

54 (+3) 

56 

56 

56 



BALMNA OLACIALIS BONNATERRE. AMERICAN. VERTEBRAL FORMULA. 



Locality. 



Lon^ Island, N. Y 



(I)^ 
(II) 



New Jersey ° 

Charleston, S. C 

Cape Lookout, N. C, 1874 

Provincetown, Cape Cod, Mass.' 
Long Island, N. ¥.(111)' 



Sex. 



Age 



jr. 
ad. 



C. 



D. 



14 
14 
'4 
14 
14 
14 
14 



L. 


Ca. 


10 


26 


T I * 


20 + 




24 




23 


I I 


224- 


J J 


24 




25 



Total. 



57 

52 + 
56 

55 

54+ 

56 

57 



' Gasco gives 13 pairs of ribs, but thinks there may have been 14 pairs. Hence, the formula 
was perhaps 7, 14, 12 (or 11), 23 (or 24) = 56. ' ' U. S. National Museum, No. 23077, 

'Amer. Mus. Nat. History. ' Holder states that the total is " probably 57." 'Or 12. 

' Possibly only 10 lumbars. " Type of £. cisarctica. ' Mus. Comp. Zoology. " Field Col. Mus., Chicago. 



THE WHALKHONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 251 

It will be obsei-ved from these tables that the mimbei- of dorsals in both Eu- 
ropean and American specimens is nniformly 14, the only exception being in the 
San Sebastian (Spain) skeleton. In this case, however, Gasco thinks there may 
have been 14 paiis of ribs. 

The number of lunibars is fixed by the position of the first chevron. As the 
series of chevrons is commoidy incomplete in museum specimens, and, furthei'more, 
as the transition from the quite sharp infei'ior carina of the lumbar vertebne to the 
paired inferior lidges of the caudals is not always abrupt, it is extremely difficult in 
many cases to determine correctly the number of lumbars. The widening of the 
[)Osterior end of the inferior carina may be more or less distinctly marked on the 
32d vertel)i'a, in which case there might be considered to be 10 lumbars. On 
the other hand, this thickening of the carina may not be pronounced until the 34th 
vertel)ra is reached, in which case, 12 lumbars might be counted. 

My own observations on Ameiican specimens lead me to believe that 11 lum- 
bars may be regarded as the normal number, varying from 10 to 12. Guldberg and 
Gasco, however, regard 12 lumbars as the normal numbei- for Euro[)ean specimens. 

The Guetai'ia (Spain) skeleton of 1878 appears from Graells's figure {52, pi. 3) 
to have but 8 lumbar vertebrae and about 26 caudals. I am unable to account for 
this discrepancy and Prof. Rios y Rial's description {52, 65-67) is unintelligible to 
me on account of the manner in which he divides the vertebral column. 

It would be possible to reduce the number of lumbar vertebriB to 8 in the 
Long Island (N. Y.) skeleton in the National Museum, No. 23077, if the first caudal 
were regarded as that in which a thickening of the posterior end of the inferior 
median carina first occui-s. It is obvious that the question of the real number of 
lumbars in the species cannot be authoritatively settled until the chevron bones 
are examined in dhi in a number of adult and foetal specimens. Gervais's views 
reffardins the number of lumbars in the Sultihurbottom whale are of interest in 
this connection. (See p. 182.) 



SKCLL. 



The best figures of the skull of the European Nordcaper ai'e those of Gasco 
{47, pis. 2-4) and Graells {52, pis. 3-4). While these agree in most particulars, 
they show a considerable divergence at certain points. The most striking differ- 
ence is in the direction of the orbital processes of the frontal. In Gasco's figure 
these processes lie entirely behind the line of the antero-superior end of the occip- 
ital, and are directed backward, while in Graells's figure the greater part of the 
frontal processes lies in front of the line of the occipital, and the processes are 
directed forward. This relation of the bones is shown especially in 52, pi. 4, fig. 2, 
but also in pi. 4, fig. 1, and in pi. 3, fig. 2. In the latter, which is a figure of the 
entire skeleton, the skull appears to be a reduced copy of pi. 4, fig. 2. In pi. 3, 
fig. 1, which is a view of the entire skeleton from the side, the orbital process of 
the frontal is represented more as if directed backward rather than forward, thus 



252 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTEBN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

agreeing better with Gasco's figures. Another important diffei'ence in Graells's 
fio^ures, as compared with those of Gasco, is that the anterior ends of the pre- 
maxillfe are represented as nai'row and acaminate. Graells's figures are reproduc- 
tions of di'awings by Sr. Jauer, while in Gasco's figures the outlines are taken 
from photographs, " to avoid inexactness." This latter may, therefore, be con- 
sidered the more reliable. 

Gasco's figures (47, pi. 2, figs. 1 and 2; pi. 3, fig. 1) of the Taranto (Italy) 
whale show a very close agreement witli the skull of the specimen from Long 
Island (New York) in the National Museum, No. 23077, pis. 42 and 43. The figures 
of the under surface of the skull especially (allowance being made for the slightly 
different point of view) show a veiy complete agreement. No one on comparing 
these several figures can, I think, fail to be convinced that they represent one and 
the same s[)ecies. This is a matter of great importance, because, as will be jiointed 
out presently, the measurements of the American and the European skulls vary 
considerably among themselves. The causes of this variation will be considered later. 
I personally compared the skull of the Long Island (N. Y.) specimen in 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York, with photographs of the 
Lonsx Island skull iu the National Museum, No. 23077, and was unable to discover 
any differences of importance. In Holder's figure of the former (61^ pi. 12) the 
superior outline of the rostrum does not descend rapidly enough anteriorly, due 
perhaps to the intermaxillse not being represented as thick at the middle as they 
really are. In most other respects the figure is a good representation of the skull. 
In one character Gasco's figure of the Taranto (Italy) skull differs from the 
American skulls I have examined. The premaxilk* extend so far back as to pre- 
vent the union of the maxillae with the median anterior prolongati()n of the frontal 
at the vertex. In the American skulls in the Washington, Philadel[)hia, and 
Raleigh museums the premaxill;« are shorter posteriorly and the maxilhe pi'oject 
inward toward the median line along the sides of the nasal process of the fi'ontal. 
This may, I think, be regarded rather as an individual variation than as a charactei- 
of specific importance. In Graells's figure (52, pi. 4, fig. 2) the relation of the parts, 
as represented, agrees with the American skulls above mentioned. 

The general shape of the nasals in the Taranto (Italy) and Gnetaria (Spain) 
skulls is the same as in the Long Island (N. Y.) skull in the National Museum, 
No. 23077, except that there is a difference in pi'oportions in the case 
of the Taranto specimen, as represented in Gasco's figure (J.7, pi. 4, fig. 9). 
Indeed, the nasals appear to differ in proportions in all the specimens, no 
two being exactly alike. In the type of B. cimrctica the nasals have the 
same emargination of the distal free border as in other Amei-ican and 
European specimens, as shown in text fig. 84. The convex exterior bor- 
FiG 84 *^®'' ^^ '" P^''^ overlaid by the intermaxilla when the nasal is in position, 
so that the latter then appears I'ectilinear in outline, as in other specimens. 
The vaiiation in length and bi'eadth in the dift'erent specimens is in part due to the un- 
equal development of the median portion of the frontal against which the nasals rest. 
The proportions of the various American and European skulls are indicated 
by the measurements given in the following table : 




THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE AVESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



253 



BALJENA GLACIALIS BONNATERRE. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. 



SKULL. 





M tB u:; 

m 


• *; Iceland, i8gi. 
'. • - Capt. Berg, I. 
: H (Guldberg, 1894.) 


Ma 


Iceland, i8gi. 
Capt. Berg, II. 
(Guldberg, 1894.) 


'5 <> 

0. . CO 

c/:oooo 

.2 - «• 

rt <>~ 
3-g'-': 


2 r.- t^ 
— 1^00 

£ " -•■ 


Dillo from Gasco's top 
and side figures. 


.ill 

a 


00 

5B 


'a 

,Rcooo 

J ^0 

«i49 


Sex and a^e 


f 



46' 4" + 




Sim. 






9 








jr. 


Total length of whale 


42' + 


34' 3" 


39' 4" 
37'9" 






24'io" 


" skeleton. 














150.7" 




II3.4" 










Letigth of skull (straight) 


154.3" 


153.9" 


133.0" 


89.3" 

% 
72.2 


87.1" 


go.o" 


6 






63.0 


Greatest breadth at orbits 


65.1 


62.9 
79.2 


65.3 
75.7' 


63.6 

74-9' 


69.7 


i 

70.7 

68.2* 

12.2' 

9.0 

9.7 


* 
68.9 


* 


64.4 


Length of rostrum (straight) 


Breadth of rostrum at middle 








10.6' 
8.1 
9.4 






Length of nasals 






9.2 

7-3 




6.7' 
7.7 » 
6.7' 

lOO.O 

102.5' 

7.1' 
S2.5' 


8.9 
8.9 


7.9 
9.2 




Breadth of 2 nasals distally 






7.5 

8.7 


" orbit, point to point 






Length of mandible (straight) 

" (on curve) 


97.5 
102.5 


98.5 
lOI.O 




94.3 
102.9 


97.0 
no. I 

7.5± 

78.0 


98.5 




102. 2 
1 10. 1 


88.1' 
92.2' 


Depth " " at middle 






End of nasals to end of rostrum (on 
curve) 










55.8' 






66.2 

















Sex and age. 



Total length of whale. . . 
" " " skeleton. 



Length of skull (straight) I 



Greatest breadth at orbits 

Length of rostrum (straighl ) 

Breadth of rostrum at middle 

Length of nasals 

Breadth of 2 nasals distally 

" " orbit, point to point 

Length of mandible (straight) 

" " " (on curve) 

Depth " " at middle 

End of nasals to end of rostrum (on curve) 



•J .if 






i ad. 



500 + 
44' 9^^ 



80.9 



5.1 

6.6 

5-4 
90.1 



44 9 



150.0 



% 

62.0 

79.0 

9.3 

7.8 

II. o 

4.8 
98.0 

[•17.0 
7.3 
14 






c E 



37'o"+ 



i 
66 
76, 
14 

7- 

7. 

5. 

96, 

108 

6. 

78, 



>'S 

e c o 

cam 



45 3 



124.0 



* 
68.5 
78.2 



7-3 

6.5 

106.0 

110.5 






40 4 

35' 7"» 



1145 



% 

64.6 

81.3 



7.4 

8.3 

5-7 

93.4 

101.3 

0.8 
■■0.0 



-■sjz 






jr- 



37 o 



96.5" 



68.1 

78.8" 



8.3 

7.8" 

6.4 

95.4 

105.7 

7-2 



■• !■ 



l.e.isl. iroiii ligure. 
'■ Straight. 



' From " hind angle," /. e., base of rostrum; hence smaller. = Imm uyiii-. 

' On comparing Cjasco's figures it will be seen that the rostrum in the top view is much toi> short. 

« Total length given only approximately l)y Capellini ; hence taken from Gasco, 2 27 m. 

' " Krom point of meeting of internal lateral margin with inferior margin of the condyle" ; hence, a smaller per cent. 

S fonrlalc cnari^rl fnn miirVi ^ Krfim Mflllifaillt. "* LcaSt. 



* Caudals spaced too much. 



" From Manigault. 



' Twice J^. 



254 THE WHALEBONE ^VHALER OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

There is, as already stated, considerable variation, the cause of which is not entirely 
clear. This variation affects the American specimens, which I have endeavored to 
measure in a uniform manner, nearly as much as the European specimens, the 
measui'eraents of which are collected from various sources. 

The measurements of the Taiauto (Italy) whale given by Gasco in the text of 
liis article (47) do not agree with measurements taken from his figures, and meas- 
urements from the different figures do uot agree with one another. Furthermore, 
Capellini's measurements of the same specimen do not altogether agree with Gasco's. 
Guldbei'g's measurements of the Iceland skulls also lack conformity to a consider- 
able degree. While these differences may be partiall}' due to different methods of 
measurement, it can hardly be supposed that they all arise in that way. This 
explanation does uot serve in the case of my own measurements. 

It seems probable that the discrepancies are in part due to the shrinking and 
warping of the various bones of the skull. The long, slender maxilhe and pre- 
maxillae, the long orbital processes of the frontals and maxillae, seem quite easily 
subject to such distortion, and in some skulls it can readily be seen that warping 
has taken place. Again, it should be observed that most of the skulls are those of 
young individuals, and probably exhibit diffei'euces of proportions correlated with 
different stages of growth. Aside from all this, however, it is undoubtedly true 
that the species shows a considerable individual variation in proportions. 

The measurements of the length of rostrum in Guldberg's skull, received from 
Capt. Amlie, and in Capt. Berg's No. 2, are from the base of the same and not from 
the posterioi' margin of the maxilla, as in other cases. This accounts for the 
diminished length. The measurement of the rostrum of the Taranto whale was 
taken fi'om Gasco's figure of the upper surface of the skull (47, pi. 2, fig. 1) ; Init 
it is obvious on comparing this figure with the side view that the rostrum is too 
short in the former. A measurement from the side view gives about 77.2 % for 
the length of the I'ostrum, which is no doubt more nearly cori-ect. 

Gasco's measurements of the mandible of the San Sebastian whale of 1854 
ai'e "from the point of meeting of the internal lateral margin with the inferior 
margin of the condyle?" which accounts in part at least for the much smaller 
proportion. 

The other disci'epancies, affecting the breadth of the skull across the orbits, the 
length of the mandible, and the distance along the curve of the premaxillse, from 
the tip of the nasals to the tip of the preraaxillse, cannot be so readily explained. 
As they occur in both the American and the European seiies, however, they caimot 
be regarded as indicating specific differences. Doubtless, many of them would dis- 
ai)pear if the various specimens could be brought together for actual comparison. 



CHARACTERS OF THE VERTEBRA. 

Measurements of the vertebrae and other parts of the skeleton in a few Euro- 
pean and Amei'ican specimens are given in the following table : 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 
BALJiNA QLACIALIS MONNATERRE. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. SKELETON. 



255 





Iceland, i8gi. 
Capt. Berg, III. 
• (Guldberg, 1894.) 


£ •■0 
.2c3£ 


.5 - « 


ccfS 


a. 

= 3S 
.2-8 

jr- 




i 1 
1 : 

u . V 

tSll 


2i = 

C— ■ 


: Long Island, N. Y. 

(Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.) 


rt/i 

Id 

fl - 


Charleston, S. C. 
Jan. 7, 1880. 
(Charl. Coll. Mus.) 


2 3-3 

m 




.5 


i 




9im. 


i ad. 




.. 1 i^ 






jf- 


Total length of whale 


47'?" + 


47' 7" 


34' 3" 


39' 4" 
37' 9" 
89-3" 

* 
21. 1 
17.2 

S.8 
26.8 

7-7- 


24' 10" 
63.0" 


500" 4- 

449'" 
152.0" 








40' 4' 

35' 7'' 
114.5" 






44' 9" 
150.0" 


37' 0'+ 

raS.o' 


45' 3''' 
124.0' 




Length of .skull (straight) 


154-3" 


I53-9" 

i 


1 13.4" 

% 

21.0' 
20.3' 

27.7' 


37 
96.5" 




% 


23.8 


% 

18.4 

17.8 

6.0« 

24.3 
5.6' 


17-8 

16.3 

5.8 

26.0 

5-8* 

21.5 

7.7^ 

9-3 

8.3 

23. 2 

22.7 

12.0 

13.S 


* 
18.8 
.6.4 

6.6 
25.0 

20.3 
8.2 


* 
19.0 
16.1 

27.0 
7-7' 

19.4 
9-3 


* 

16.6 

15-8 

70 

26. 2» 

6.1 
20.1 

8.7' 


* 

18.8 
18. 1 

8.0 
26.6 


" " 1st dorsal 












Greatest breadth, ist lumbar 

Depth of centrum " " 






Greatest breadth, 1st caudal 






25.2' 


22.3'" 
8.9* 


Depth of centrum " " 






10. 1'' 




7.0' 
7-3 
9-9 

12.2 
II. g 


Greatest length of sternum 




























Greatest breadth of scapula 

depth " 


31. g 
26.0 


3I-3 
27.6 


2S.9 
22.2 

15-3 
12.9 


309 
24.2 

16.3 
13.2 


30.6 
23.1 


28.1 
22.7 
14.1' 

12. t' 


30.2 
23.4 
137' 
12. i» 


31.4 
21.4 
15 3> 
13.1' 


30.4 
23.3 
15.2' 
137' 


" " idna 













G;isco lias given figures of many of the veitebne of the Taraiito (Italy) skele- 
ton (47, \>h. 3, 5, 7, 8), in which the outlines are taken from photographs. These 
figures I have compai'ed with the Long Island (N. Y.) skeleton in the National 
Museum, No. 23077, and find a most complete agreement, except in one or two' 
cases. In the figure of the 4th lumbar of the Taranto skeleton (vertebi'a No. 24) 
the anterior zygopophysis is much smaller than in the Long Island skeleton, and 
the posterior margin of the base of the neural arch is much more curved. In the 
side view of the 1st lumbar of the Taranto whale (vertebra No. 21) the trau.sverse 
process is represented as having a peculiar shape and direction whicli is not evident 
in the front view of the same vertebra, and is not found in the Long Island skele- 
ton. The sixth caudal (vert. No. 39) of the Taranto skeleton is represented as 
having only a shallow einargination infei-iorly, while in the Long Island and other 
specimens the einargination is very deep and the anterior and posteiior margins 
come close together, foreshadowing tlie formation of the foramen which is found in 
the posterior caudals. There is every probability that this figure is incorrect, or 
that the vertebra is imperfect below. All the vei'tebrae of the Taranto skeleton 
are figured without the epiphyses, and hence appear thinner tlian they otherwise 
would. 



' From figure. 

* 14th dorsal. 

' Probably 2d caudal. 



* Anterior. 

' With pro.ximal epiphysis. 

" Caudals too much spaced. 



' Posterior. 

* From Manigault. 

' Vertebra No. 22. 



'Twice }4- 



256 



THE WHALEBOKE WHALES OF THE AVESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



The points in the vertebral columu at which the several pi'ocesses and fora- 
mina appear or disappear furnish data of considerable inipoi'tance in the compari- 
son of species. These data are brought together in the following table ; 

balje:sa olacialis bonnaterre. American and European, vertebral characters. 





S 


•2 




















Z 


E 


u 




" 


=^ .-X) 




C 




i/i 






>i 


z 


^1 


s'^ 


S'-f rt 

'->s;z 


> 3 


2. 3 








z ^■ 


3 2; 
° 3 


^ . 


S3 


s-a-a 


^•^ 


§ = 


'rt ;d 


1 .2 




c c 






5'"° 

u5i 


- 

u5i 


Coast of N 
Type, B. c 
(Phila. Aca 


Long Id., 
(Field Col. 


San Sebasti 

1854. 

(Copenhage 


[« 

i: rt 
h2 


Guetaria, S 
1898. 
(San Sebas 


First vertebra with perfor- '\ 






















ated transverse process, V 


.36' 


.S8 


39 


3« 


38 


3« 


36^ 




3« 


37 


No ) 






















Transverse processes end 1 
on vertebra No \ 
















-> 


3 


41? 


40 


4i 


42 


43 




41 


42 


41 


Neural spine ends on ver- \ 
tebra No J 






46 
















43 


45 


45 


44 


45 


45 


44 


44 


43 



It is much to be regretted that so few data I'elative to European specimens 
have been recorded. In so far as they are available for comparison, the agreement 
with corj'esponding data from American speciinens is very close. 

CHEVRON BONES. 

The chevron bones are tigui'ed or described in the case of one or two European 
skeletons only. Graells's figure of the Guetai-ia skeleton {52^ shows 12 chevrons, 
the first smaller than the second and somewhat pointed. Gasco states that the 
Taranto skeleton has 10 chevi'ons, but that some were probably lost. 

Of the American skeletons, those in the Field Columbian Museum and in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, have 9 chevrons eacli. In both cases the first is 
attached to the posterior end of what is really the second caudal vertebra, so that 
the skeletons appear to have one more lumbar vertebra than they should. In the 
skeleton in the former museum the first chevron in position is small, but in the 
skeleton in Cambridge it is the largest of the series. In this case it is therefore 
probably the second chevron. The Charleston skeleton has 10 chevrons, but there 
were probably more oi'igiually. 

RIBS. 



The number of pairs of ribs is 14 in all European and American specimens, 
except the San Sebastian skeleton of 1854, and in this also, although 13 j^airs are 



Right side only. 



Left side only. 



'Or 42d. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



257 



assigned to it hy Gasco, he expresses the opinion that there may originally have 
been 14 pairs. 

In the majority of specimens the first rib is single-headed, but in the Guetaria 
(Spain) skeleton, that of the right side shows a small secondary process adjacent 
to the proximal end. The bifurcation is also found in the San Sebastian skeleton 
of 1854. Gasco's description of the first pair of ribs in tliis specimen is as follows : 

"No doubt the first pair of iil)s of the young wliale of San Sebastian, placed 
opposite the corresponding parts of the Taranto whale, exhibit certain singular 
differences, which though they do not surprise us at present, led J. E. Gray to 
create the genus Ilunterhis, a genus whicli no one now accepts. The superior or 
vertebi-al extremity of the first pair of ribs is bifurcated. In the right one the 
bifurcation extends 55 mm., but in the left does not surpass 15 mm. In the left, 
the part of the rib which thus separates, 15 mm. long, terminates acutely and may 
be compared to a little horn, wliich has the apex distant scai'cel}' 2 cm. from the 
internal bolder of the rest of the rib, and about 7 cm. from its superior extremity. 
Its circumference is 45 mm., and at the apex, 25 mm. On the other hand, on the 
right the portion of the rib which is separate is 55 mm. long. It is somewliat 
thicker, the termination obtuse, and it is distant its whole length only 3 or 4 mm. 
from the inner margin of the rest of the rib. So it may even be suspected that in 
the progress of time this portion might be completely fused with tlie rest of the 
rib. Its apex is distant from the superior extremity of the rib only 2 cm. Its 
circumference at the base is 8 cm., and 9 cm. near the apex. All these relative 
differences in the degree of bifurcation in the same individual indicate clearly how 
little of importance there is in the separation of a portion of the rib." ' 

The distal ends of the two ribs constituting the first pair are commonly unequal 
in breadth. In the different specimens the measurements ai-e as follows: 



BA-L^NA GLACIALIS BONNATERRE. E0ROPEAX AXD AMERICAN. BREADTH OF FIRST RIB. 



Locality. 


Left. 


Right. 




in. 

3-9 
6.6 


in, 
6.2 


Taranto, Ital)' 

San Sebastian, Spain 


5-9 


Long Id., N. Y. (Field Col. Mus) . . 

Gape Lookout, N. C. (Raleigh Mus.) 

Tr,nrrlrl N V(Anier Mus) 


S o 

6-5 

5-75 

45 
3-25 


8 75 
6.75 
6.5 


Amagansett, N. Y. (Natl. Mus.) 

r'Vnrlf'^tnn ^ C^ 


4-5 
6.0 




3-85 







The length of the first rib in a straight line is as follows : 
'Anuul. Mus. Civic. Geneva, 14, 1879, I'P- 606, 607. ' Type of B. cisarctica. 



258 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOKTH ATLANTIC. 



BAL^NA GLACIALIS BONNATEREE. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN. LENGTH OF FIRST RIB. 



Locality. 



Iceland, No. I 

Guetaria, Spain 

Taranto, Italy 

San Sebastian, Spain 

Long Id., N. Y. (Field Columb. Mus.) 
Cape Lookout, N. C. (Raleigh Mus.). 

Long Id., N. Y. ( Amer. Mus.) 

Amagansett, N. Y. (Natl. Mus.) 

Charleston, S. C 

Coast of New Jersey ' 



Length of Skull. 



153 

113 

89 

63 



152.0 
152.0 
128.0 
124.0 
I 145 
9fS 



Length of First Rib. 



Left. 



in. 

5°-4' 
327 

15-7 



48.0 
44 5 
33 5 

295 
28.75 



Right. 



38.2 
26.0 

iS-7 



49.0 
50-5 
35-0 
38-3 
29 5 
29 o 



In the majority of specimens the last pair of ribs is much shorter than the 
penultimate pair, but in the Raleigh Museum skeleton the last left rib is nearly as 
long as the rib which precedes it. The right rib is shorter. 

STERNUM. 

Among European specimens the sternum appears to have been figured only in 
the case of the Taranto skeleton and Guld berg's Iceland skeleton No. 1. These 






Fig. 85. 



Fig. 86. 



Fig. 87. 



balmna glacialis bonnaterre. sternum. 

Fig. 85.— Taranto, It.\ly. (From Gasco.) Fig. 86.— Iceland. (From Gul'dberg.) Fig. 87.— Long Id., 
New York. (Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.) (From a sketch.) 

two sterna (text figs. 85 and 86) show little resemblance to one another at first sight ; 
nevertheless, it will be perceived that if that of the Taranto skeleton were length- 
ened posteriorly it would approach that of the Iceland specimen, the form in both 
cases being rudely heart-shaped. 



' Whether right or left not specified. 



' Type of B. cisarctica. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



259 



The Cape Lookout (N. C.) skeleton, the Cape Cod (Mass.) skeleton in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, and that in the Field Columbian Museum, have 
sterna closely resembling that of the Taranto skeleton (pi. 46, figs. 3 and 4), or 
rudely heart-shaped, but the skeleton in the American Museum, New York, has the 
sternum quite different from any of the foregoing (text fig. 87), being cruciform, 
like the sterna of some specimens of Bahenoptera phijsalus L. One might almost 
believe that it did not belong to the skeleton to which it is attached. 

Considering the diversity of form in the sternum of the Finbacks, we need not 
be surprised at the lack of conformity among the various specimens of the Nord- 
caper. The sternum in these animals is of little service in discriminating closely 
allied species. 

In the Taranto (Italy) skeleton the sternum is 18 cm. high, 21 cm. wide ; in 
Guldberg's Iceland skeleton. No. 1, 46 cm. high, 37.5 cm. wide ; in the Cape Look- 
out (N. C.) skeleton at Raleigh, 30 cm. high, 38 cm. wide. 



SCAPULA. 



The scapula of the Nordcaper has a peculiar and characteristic shape, which is 
quite well shown in Gasco's figure of the Taranto whale (47, pi. G, fig. 8). The 
glenoid, or posterior border, is evenly concave from the glenoid fossa half-way to 




Fig. 88. 



Fig. 89. 



Fig. go. 






Fig. gi. 



Fig. 92. 



Fig. 93. 



SAL^NA GLACIAUS BONNATERRE. AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN. SCAPULA. 
Fig 88 -Long Id. New York. (Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.) (From a photo.) Fig. 8g.-Z),/fo. (Field 
CoLUMB.MusO FIG. 90.-/)///.. (U. S. NAT. MUS.) FIG. gr.-CHARLESTON S. C. (From A PHOTO.) F.G.gc. 
TVPEOF^ c/^^i^cr/c. (Oblique VIEW, FROM A PHOTO.) Fig. 93.-TARANTO, Italy. (From Gasco.) 



260 



THE WHAXEBONE WHAXES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



the suprascapular bordei", but distally becomes nearly straight. The suprascapular 
border is regularly convex; the coracoid, or anterior, border, is short and nearly 
straight, but presents near the juncture with the suprascapular border a tubercle 
which causes a convexity in the outline. The acromion is large, and directed out- 
ward or downward. The shape of the anterior and posterior borders is very char- 
acteristic of the species. Among American specimens this peculiar form is found 
well developed in the type of B. cisarctica Cope, at Philadelphia, in the Amagansett 
(N. Y.) skeleton in the National Museum (No. 23077), in the Charleston skeleton, 
in the skeleton in the Field Columbian Museum, Chicago ; and less well defined in 
the Long Id. (N. Y.) skeleton in the American Museum of Natural History. 
Holder's figure of the scapula of this skeleton is taken at an angle and does not, 
therefore, show the true shape. (See text figs. 88 to 93 ; also pi. 45, figs. 2-5.) 

The following ai'e actual measurements of the greatest breadth and height of 
the scapula in various American and European specimens : 

BAL^NA GLACIALIS BOXXATEERE. EUEOPEAN AXD AMERICAX. SCAPULA. 





Length of skull. 


Scapula. 




Greatest breadth. 


Greatest height. 


Christiania (Capt. Berg, III) 


in. 

154-3 

'53 9 

128.0 

124.0 

i'4-5 

••3-4 

96-5 

893 


in. 
49.2 
48.0 
36.0 

37-5 
36.0 

32-7 
30.0 
27.6 


in. 
41. 1 

42-5 
29.0 
29.0 

245 
25.2 
23 
21 6 


(Capt. Berg, I) 

New York 


Washington 


Charleston 

St. Sebastian (Guetaria) ... 

Philadelphia " 


Taranto 







A scapula from a partial skeleton found at Beaufort, North Carolina, has, accord- 
ing to Ml'. R. L. Garner, a breadth of 51 inches. The Raleigh Museum skeleton, 
which is as large as the Christiania skeleton No. 2, is, unfortunately, without the 
scapulae. Cope recorded in 1868 that there was in the museum of Rutgers College, 
New Brunswick, N. J., a scapula 48^ in. broad and 36 in. high. He estimated that 
this indicated an individual 57 feet long, but in view of the dimensions given in 
the foregoing table this appears improbable.^ 



PHALANGES. 

Gasco gives (47, 40) the following formula for the Taranto skeleton, I, ? ; U, 
4 ; HI, 5 ; IV, 3 ; V, 3. Professor Rios y Rial also gives a formula for the Guetaria 
skeleton, but it appears to be entii-ely hypothetical. 

' See table on p. 255. ' Type of B. cisarctica. 

' See Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.Phila., 1868, p. 194, where a few other remarks regarding the pres- 
ent species are made. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTEEN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



261 



In none of the American specimens do the phalanges appear to be in their 
natiu-al positions, and in several of the skeletons a considerable number are lost. 
It is impracticable, therefore, to give a reliable formula, but the following are 
taken from mounted specimens in the American museums : 

BAL^NA GLACIALIS BONNATERKE. AMERICAN. PHALANGES. 



Locality. 


Museum. 




Digits. 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


Provincetown, Mass 

Long Island, N. V 

Long Island, N. Y 

Amagansett, N. Y 


Mus. Comp. Zoology - 

Field Col. Mus I 

Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist 

U.S.Nat'l Mus., No. 23077 j 


Right 

Left 

Right 

Left 

Left 

Right 

Left 


I 
I 
2 
2 
2 
I 
1 


4 
4 
4 
4 

4 
4 
4 


5 
5 

\ 

5 
4 

4 


3 
3 

2 + 

4 
2 
2 


3 

3 

3 

3 

4 

3' 

3' 



SUMMARY. 



The foregoing discussion of European and American specimens of the Nord- 
caper, or Black whale, leads to the following general statements and conclusions : 

1. Specimens from the two sides of the Atlantic are alike in size. 

2. The external proportions, so far as can be ascertained from the scant data 
available, show very considerable variability, but the variations are indefinite and 
give no ground for separating the American from the European specimens. It is 
probable that much of the apparent variability is due to inaccurate measurements. 

3. The whalebone in the largest American specimen is of the same length 
as the larc^est Iceland whalebone. 

4. The majority of both European and American specimens are uniform 
black throughout. 

5. The number of ribs and vertebrae is the same in specimens from both sides 
of the Atlantic. The vertebral formula is the same, except that American speci- 
mens appear to have normally 1 1 lumbars, while European specimens, according to 
Guldberg and Gasco, have 12 lumbars normally. The reasons why this difference 
cannot be regarded as having the importance it would at first appear to have 
are given on page 251. 

6. The points in the vertebral column at which the processes of the vertebrae 
become obsolete are the same in both American and European specimens, but the 
data in relation to the latter are meagre. 

7. Photographs of the skull of the Long Id., New York, skeleton in the 
National Museum agree very closely indeed with Gasco's figures of the skull of 
the Taranto (Italy) skeleton, in which the outlines are also from photographs. On 

' There is no probability that this formula is correct. 



262 THE WHAXEBONE WHALES OF THE "WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

the other hand, the measurements of the various skulls show considerable dis- 
crepancies. These do not, however, tend to divide the skulls into two groups, 
according to locality. In this connection it is necessary to hold in mind that the 
majority of the skulls are those of young individuals. 

8. The length of the first rib is the same in European and American skele- 
tons of equal size. The breadth of the first rib at the distal end is variable in 
both series of specimens, and often differs much on the two sides of the body in 
the same specimen. 

9. The sternum is variable in shape, with no constant difference between 
European and American specimens. 

10. The scapula has the same characteristic form in both European and 
American specimens. 

While there ai-e many points regarding the Nordcaper that need to be further 
investigated, there is at present, so far as can be ascertained from the material 
available, no valid reason for separating the Amei-ican from the European specimens 
as distinct species. 

OPINIONS REGARDING THE IDENTITY OF THE RIGHT WHALES OF THE EASTERN AND 
WESTERN ATLANTIC (INCLUDING WITH THE LATTER COPe's B. CISARCTICA.') 

It has seemed to me desirable to sum up again, as did Holder in 1893, 
the opinions of cetologists regarding the relationship of " JS. biscayerisis'''' to 
B. cisarctica. 

It is well known that several systematic writers of the eighteenth century, fol- 
lowing for the most part the more or less indefinite statements of Zorgdrager and 
Martens, distinguished two species of northern Right whales, the Greenland or 
Spitzbergeu whale and the Nordcapei'. The story of the union of these species 
by Cuvier and their subsequent separation by Eschricht is familiar to every cetolo- 
gist. Cuvier was, of course, acquainted with the fact that the Basques pursued 
Right whales on both sides of the North Atlantic,' but as he regarded all whales 
of the genus Balcena m these waters as forming one species, any critical considera- 
tion on his part of differences between those of the western and those of the east- 
tern Atlantic was precluded. 

A principal object of the researches of Eschricht upon the northern Right whales 
was the demonstration of the correctness of the suspicions which he entertained as 
early as 1840 that the Nordcaper was specifically distinct from the Greenland Right 
whale,* but he did not have under special consideration at any time the question of 
the identity of American specimens of the former species with those from the Euro- 
pean coasts. Indeed, so far as I am aware, there were no Amei-ican specimens of 
B. biscayensis in European museums in his day. ^ Nevertheless, in the work Om 

'See Eschricht and Reinhardt, " Om Nordhvalen," Videns. Selsk. Skr.,j Rcekke, naturvidens. 
og math. Afd., 5 Bd., 1861, p. 479, foot-note 5. ' See Comptes Rendus, i860. Separate, p. 2. 

'See Gasco, " Intorno alia Balena presa in Taranto, Atti R. Ac ad. Napoli, 1877, p. 
Separate, 1878, pp. 12-13. 



THE "WHAJLEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 263 

Nordhvaleu, published in conjunction with Prof. Reinhardt in 1861, he men- 
tions the " Noi'dcaper " as " probably the same species as that from the coasts of 
Nantucket aud New England which the Anglo-Americans already call 'Ricrht 
whale.' " ' ^ = 

The question was first forced on the attention of cetologists in 1865, when 
Cope published the description of his B. cisarciica {22, 168). Cope did not examine 
the Sail Sebastian skeleton on which B. biscayensis was based, but remarks regai'd- 
ing his B. cisarctica as follows : " This species may readily occur on the European 
coasts, and is, no doubt, allied to, or the same as, the species pursued by the 
Biscay whalers, which Eschricht says is related to the australis. This does not 
appear to have been described, though catalogued without reference by Gray and 
Flower under the name of biscayensis {22, 1 69)." It is stated by Cope, however, 
that he did study the skeleton of B. australis in the Jardin des Flantes, and that 
his species is "strongly separated " from that form. 

Van Beneden in 1867 quotes Cope's opinion as to the probal)]e identity of the 
B. cisarctica with the Biscay whale, and remarks that Cope holds this view '' avec 
beaucoup de raison.r He also adds : " It is then from America that we should hear 
the facts regarding the history of this animal which during centuries visited our 
[European] coasts, and which has contributed largely to the prosperity of our 
hardy neighbors of the North [the Dutch, etc.] " {3, sep. 8). 

In his memoir on the Taranto whale, Gasco remarks in 1878 : " Although so 
brief, the summary reported by Prof. Cope on the whale captured opposite Phila- 
delphia in 1862 leaves no doubt as to the determination of the Taranto whale. 
Tbey ai'e counterparts {sorelle) ; both belong to Balmna biscayemis Eschricht " 
{47). The same statement is repeated in the Comptes liendns Acad. Paris, 87 
1887, p. 410. He also states that he compared a replica of a cast of the earbone of 
the type of B. cisarctica belonging to the Civic Museum of Milan with that of the 
Taranto whale and found that they vveie identical {4-7, 25). 

In 1879, Gasco published a desci'iption of the type of "J^. biscaye7isis." He 
appears to take for granted the identity of that species with B. cisarctica, and in 
the course of his article, (juotes a conversation with Cope, whom he met in Paris. 
Cope is repoi'ted as saying that the Philadelphia whale (type of B. cisarctica) 
exactly resembles that of Tarento {'' B. biscayensis'''') {48, 581, footnote 2). 

The Osteographie of Van Beneden and Gervais, which bears the date of 1880, 
does not contain as much original matter regarding the Atlantic Right whale as is 
the case with other species. The authors state that they examined neither the 
type of "^. biscayensis''^ nor that of B. cisarctica, but that they "do not doubt" 
that the two species are identical (5, 103). Later in the same work they remark : 
"This whale [B. cisarctica'] is no other than the Balcena biscayensis" {8, 236). 

In 1883, Holder summed up the opinions regarding the affinities of B. bis- 
cayensis and B. cisarctica {61, 117). He includes the opinions of most of the 
authors above cited and adds some independent testimony. Among these addi- 

' Page 469. 



264 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

tions is the opiuion of Flower after seeing the figure published by Holder, as 
follows : " As far as I can make out it is the same as " B. hisicayensis " ; also that of 
Dr. J. A. Allen : " Youi- drawing of the recent [New Jersey] specimen agrees well 
with the figure of B. biseayensis of southei'u Europe, which I believe to be identi- 
cal with Cope's B. cisarctieay 

In 1889, Van Benedeu stated explicitly his opinion that B. cisarctica was 
identical with B. biscayensis. He remarks: "The Balw?ia biscayensis of Eschricht 
is the Sletbag (whale with smooth back) of the ancient Icelandic whalers, the 
Nord-Gaper of the Dutch whalers, and the Sarde of the French whalers (Du 
Hamel). . . . It is the same animal as that to which Professor Cope of Phila- 
delphia has given the name of Balcena cisarctica, and Professor Capelliui that of 
Taranto whale, Balcena tarentina {Bakena Van Benediana). The Balwna Swe- 
denborgii [Lilljeborg ; subfossil in Sweden] is also a synonym of this species " 
(7, 15). Again: "Professor Cope has had the courtesy to send us from Phila- 
delphia an earbone of an adult animal, and by our invitation Prof. Reinhardt 
has compared it with that of the skeleton from Pampeluua [type of " B. bis- 
Gaye7isis''^'\ which is in Copenhagen. Although the former bone is from an adult 
animal and the second from a young animal, it is not doubtful, according to Prof. 
Reinhardt himself, that these bones only present such differences as depend upon 
age" (7, 17).' 

In an ai-ticle on B. biscayensis, published in 1891, Guldberg treats the descrip- 
tions of Cope, Gasco, etc., as referring to one and the same species, occurring on 
both sides of the Atlantic. This view was not, so far as I can ascertain, based on 
examination of specimens {58). The same opinion was again broached in 1893 (59). 

From the foregoing statements, it will be seen, as pointed out by Holdei-, that 
the opinions of those most competent to judge in the matter have leaned strongly 
toward the identification of B. biscayensis with B. cisarctica. Two important 
names, however, must be cited among those who take the opposite view, — Rein- 
hai-dt and Fischer. 

Although Reinhardt was joint author with Eschricht of the work Om Nord- 
hvalen, in which, as we have seen, the opinion is set down that the two species are 
identical, in the Osteographie of Van Beneden and Gervais we find in connec- 
tion with the account of Reinhardt's comparison of the ear bones of the type 
of B. biscayensis with one of B. cisarctica, the following: "Prof. Reinhardt 
does not believe, however, that the Bal<Bria biscayensis is a synonym of BaloBna 
cisarctica'''' (8, 107). If Reinhardt is correctly repoi-ted in this place, we must 
suppose that his opinion changed subsequent to the publication of the work Om 
Nordhvalen, or that the statement in the latter is to be credited to Eschricht alone. 
No explanation is given by Van Beneden and Gervais of the grounds of Reinhardt's 
opposition to the pi'evailiug view. 

The second cetologist who has dissented from the union of the Right 
whales of the European and United States coasts in one species is M. Paul Fischer. 

' It is difficult to harmonize this last remark with the statements in the Osteographie (see 
p. I07 of that work). 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 265 

In support of bis opinion, he brought forward in 1871 (42) two characters as 
distiiiguisliiug biscayensis not only from charctica but from atiMralis and an- 
tlpodarum. The first is drawn from a fragment of a I'ib found at Biarritz, which 
is "regularly oval, without appreciable angle, ridge, or crest." The fragment 
has a maximum diameter of 11 cm. and minimum diameter of 8^ cm. This rib, 
according to Fischer, is " infinitely more massive, more rounded, and thicker" than 
in BalcBiia mysticetus, amtraUs, or antipodarum, and lacks the crest found in those 
species. 

As a second distinguishing character of B. biscayensis, Fischer points to the 
bifid fiist rib of the type specimen from San Sebastian, not found in cisarctica or 
ausimlis. He remarks further : " As to the whale of the east coast of North 
America, nothing proves to me its identity with the Basque whale. The Basque 
whalers themselves, after having almost destroyed the whales of the Bay of Biscay, 
spread out westward and in 1372 leached the banks of Newfoundland,' where they 
saw a whale which they judged different, and called 'Sardaco Baleac' It was 
smaller than the Biscay wliale " (42, 299). 

As regards the size of the i-ib found at Biarritz, it is to be said that in the 
skeleton from Pt. Lookout, North Carolina, in the Raleigh museum, the largest rib 
has a maximum diameter of 12.7 cm., and two others a diameter of 10.2 cm. 
This was an adult male 50 ft. louo;. The largest ribs in the skeleton in the 
Amei'ican Museum, New York (which is about 40 ft. long), have a diameter of 
9.75 cm., and the maximum diameter of the 3d rib in the 39-foot Taranto specimen, 
as shown by Gasco's figures, is 10 cm. It will be seen, therefore, that Fischer's 
measurements of the Biarritz rib are not remarkably larsre. The smoothness of 
that fragment is hardly a reliable character, as it is well known that the shape of 
the ribs is quite variable, not only in the same species, but among the various pairs 
in a single skeleton. 

In considering the importance of the bifurcation of the proximal end of the 
first pair of ribs in the type of B. biscayensis, — the second character brought for- 
ward by Fischer as distinguishing that species from cisarctica, — it AArill be interest- 
ing to read Gasco's description, quoted on p. 257. This shows that the bifurcation 
occurs on both sides, but is of small extent and is unecjual on the two sides. As 
stated by Gasco, the Taranto whale is without this bifurcation of the first rib, and 
such is the case in all the American specimens of B. cisarctica 1 have examined. 
The B. biscayensis at San Sebastian (;not the type) has the bifurcation on one side 
only, and that but slightly developed.- 

lu another paper, published in 1872 (43, 19), Fischer again sums up his opin- 
ions regarding B. biscayensis and B. cisarctica, as follows : 

"The Baloena biscayensis, the l^ovdic&^ev of the Norwegians and Icelanders, 
and the Hunteriiis svedenborgi ought, it seems to me, to be assembled in the same 
genus, if not in the same species, very close to the Hunterius tefnmincki of the 

' Regarding this statement, see p. 267. 

' See Graells, Mem. R. Acad. Cien. Madrid, 13, pt. 3, 1889, pi. 4, fig. 6. 



266 THE WHALEBONE WHAXES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

Cape of Good Hope. These different whales have for common characters a 
very small head, a bifid first rib, the lower ends of the ribs very thick and almost 

round. 

"The Saide of the Newfoundland banks, and the Baliena cisarctica of the 
coast of North America, belong to a different group, veiy neai' to the Bahena aus- 
tralis of the Cape of Good Hope, and the B. antipodum of New Zealand. The 
head is comparatively longer than in Hunterkis ; the first rib is simple ; the lower 
extremities of the libs are compressed. 

" There exist then in our temperate regions of the Atlantic at least two species 
of Right whales." 

In 1881, Fischer again raised the question of the number of species of Right 
whales in the North Atlantic (44, 33-55), but by this time had somewhat modified 
his views. He reviews the literature of the subject, ancient and modern, and devotes 
two pages to conclusions. These are in brief as follows : 

1. That " it may be considered very probable that (a) the ' Nordcaper,' (h) the 
'Sletbag,' (c) Balcena tarentina of Capellini, and (d) Balaena biscayensis belong 
to the same species, as well as the fossil species B. lamanoni, glaciali% and 
svedenhorgi.'''' 

2. That " the ' Sarde ' and B. cimrctica of Cope are synonyms and (awaiting 
fuller information) distinct — at least as a race — from the whale of the Basques, by the 
longer head. The skeleton is otherwise similar." 

3. That Ilalihcdcena hritannica, B. vmibenedeniana, and B. mediterranea 
" have not sufiicient characters to be classified," and can be as well associated with 
the Nordcaper as Avith B. mysticetas. 

Fischer adds the following : " A species, among cetaceans, is perhaps what we 
call a genus ; and in that case, the Noi'dkaper would be a single one, with two or 
three races, with distinct geographical disti'ibution." 

The second of the foregoing opinions is that which is of most interest in the 
present connection. On page 41, Fischer makes the I'emarkable statement, already 
mentioned elsewhere (see p. 13), that armed with the compass and " balestrille" the 
Basques roamed westward in the Atlantic and in 1372 discovered the banks of 
Newfoundland, where they saw whales in abundance. This statement appears to 
rest on a memoir prepared by the merchants of St. Jean de Luz and Ciboun-e 
in 1710, and published in 1857.^ The whale which they first found here, accord- 
ing to Fischer, they considered different from the whale of the Bay of Biscay, 
and called Sardaco Baleac, or the whale which goes in herds or schools, in con- 
tradistinction to the formei', which appears singly. Continuing their explorations, 
they entered the Gulf of St. Lawrence where they found still another and better 
whale which they called Grand Bayaco Baleac or Grand Bay whale. They aftei'- 
wards recognized this as the same as the Gi'eenhind whale, B. myffticetus, found 
at Spitzbei'gen. 

The character of the evidence on which these statements rest is unknown to 

' " Memoire address^ en 1710 a M. de Planthion, syndic general du pays de Labourd, par les 
n^gociants de Saint-Jean-de-Luz et de Cibourre." (Journal La Gironde, 29 Avril, 1857.) 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OE THE WESTEKN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



267 



me, but it appears singular that tlie matter lias not attracted the attention of Ameri- 
can historians, considering its importance in connection with the history of the dis- 
covery of America. 

The " Sarde " should, of course, be the Kight whale of the Atlantic coast of the 
United States, Canada, and Newfoundland, B. cisarctica Cope. Fischer, even, 
seems to have little doubt of that fact. He recalls Givay's chiim that it is distinct 
because it has 14 pairs of ribs, while the San Sebastian wliale has 15 ' and further- 
more has the fii'st pair bifurcated, but is not impressed with the importance 
of tliese distinctions. He adds : 



" The notable difference which I find between the B. cisarctica and the Biscay 
whale is the greater relative length of the head of the former. According to the 
measurements given by Cope, the length of the head in B. cisarctica is to the total 
length as 1 to 3.69 ; in Segnette's whale the proportion is 1 to 4 ; in the young 
whale of San Sebastian the propoi'tiou is still less, and appi'oaches 1 to 5. We shall 
see further on that the whale stranded at Tarauto in 1877 has the head extremely 
small, 1 to 5."° 



What is meant by the " head " in this and other discussions of proportions by 
vai'ious Eui'opean authors is not clear. The length of the skull as compared 
with that of the skeleton is as follows in various American and European 
specimens : 

BAL^NA OLACIALIS BONNATERRE. AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN. LENGTH OF SKULL. 



Locality. 



Charleston, S. C 

San Sebastian, Spain 
Guetaria " 

Cape Lookout, N. C. 

New Jersey 

Taranto, Italy 



Sex. 



No. of times length of skull is con- 
tained in length of skeleton. 



3-73 
363 

3-74^ 
4-77' 



Authority 



F. W. T. 

Gasco 

Graells 

F. W. T. 

Cope 

Gasco 



It will be observed that the proportion is remarkably constant in both the 
American and the European specimens, considering the uncertainties involved 
in comparing measurements made by different observei's. The Taranto skeleton 
alone offers a marked depai'ture. Considering the whole series, it liai-dly seems 
probable that there is any real foundation for the character brought forward 
by Fischer. 



' Incorrect — Gasco gives 13 pairs, but considers that there may have been 14 pairs. 
'"From the animal in the flesh; but from the skeleton this proportion is not more than 
I to 3.98, or in round number, i to 4." (Foot-note by Fischer.) 

' Type of B. cisarctica. Cope's measurements. My own measurements give 3.84. 
* See Fischer's foot-note. 



268 THE WHALEBOIST; whales of the western north ATLANTIC. 

Note. — Since the foregoing account of Balana glacialis was written, I have received from Mr. 
J. Henry Blake of Cambridge, Mass., some measurements of the male specimen found dead off 
Highland, Cape Cod, Mass., April, 1895. These are as follows: 

ft. in. Per cent. 

Total length, tip of lower jaw to notch of flukes 42 5 loo.o 

Tip of lower jaw to ant. insertion of pectoral 17 o 40.0 

Upper jaw to blowhole 9 2 21.6 

" " " ant. insertion of pectoral 14 o 33.0 

Length of pectoral from anterior insertion 6 o 14.1 

Breadth of pectoral 2 9 6.5 

Breadth of flukes (tip to notch and notch to tip again) 13 6 31.8 

Length of blowholes o 8 .... 

Distance between blowholes anteriorly o 7 .... 

Longest whalebone 5 6 .... 

A large, flat knob, or "bonnet," near tip of upper jaw. 

Several large, long knobs on the median line of the caudal peduncle superiorly, near the flukes. 

Notch of flukes narrow and deep. 

Whalebone all black. 

This individual is figured on^plate 46, figs, i, 2. 



CHAPTER IX. 

WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE EASTERN NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 

Present kuowledge of the large whales of the west coast of North America 
rests almost exclusively on the observations of Capt. C. M. Scamraon, made more 
than thirty years ago. The record of these observations, together with some pieces 
of whalebone, bones, etc., was sent by Capt. Scammon to the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. The manuscript was placed by the secretary of the Institution in tlie 
hands of Professor E. D. Cope, who edited it and published it in the name of 
Capt. Scammon, and at the same time described a number of the species as 
new (83). 

Later, Capt. Scammon published his well-known work entitled Marine Mam- 
mals of the Northwestern Coast of North America (82), in which additional informa- 
tion was given regarding the various species, together^with more elaborate figures. 
This work was accompanied by an appendix by Mr. Wm. H. Dall, giving a list of 
species and valuable measurements, references to specimens, etc. 

In 1872 Capt. Scammon published a description of a small Balosnoptera, 
under the name of B. davidsoni, which had been omitted from the large work 
(81). Very little has been added since Capt. Scammon's time either in the 
way of new observations or specimens, and the present knowledge of these West 
Coast whales is still very incomplete. 

In 1893 the skeleton of a Humpback whale from the West Coast was exhib- 
ited in the World's Columbian Exposition. A few notes on it which I made 
at the exposition are given on a subsequent page. Photographs of a Hum[)back 
killed in Henderson Bay, Puget Sound, were obtained by the National Museum 
in 1896. In 1899 a fine adult skeleton of a West Coast Finback, which had been 
formerly the property of Prof. Cope, was mounted and exhibited in the Wistar In- 
stitute, Philadelphia. The greater part of the material sent to the Smithsonian 
Institution by Capt. Scammon in 1869 and subsequent years is still in the National 
Museum, and has been examined and verified by the writer. 

Observations of the large whales of the western shoi-es of the North Pacific have 
been recorded by Pallas (72, 286-288), Temmiuck and Schlegel, Gray (53, 96 ; 54, 
1 ; 55, 43), Mobius (70), and others. These observations, of course, throw light on 
the identity of the species of the American coasts and the scientific names in some 
instances doubtless have priority over those of Cope. While it is not possible 
at the present time to investigate the identity of the species in the same detail 
as in the case of the Atlantic species, it seems desii-able to review the subject in 
the present connection, and to add such new information as has accumulated. 

369 



270 THE WHALEBONE "WHAXES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

It is certain, as pointed out by Van Beneden (8, 234) and others, that the 
whales of the North Pacific bear a strong resemblance to those of the North 
Atlantic, so much so that the question of their identity with them may properly 
be raised. To this statement a notable exception must be made in the case of 
the Gray whale, Rliachianectes, which has no counterpart in the North Atlantic, 
since it is now certain that the genus Agaphelus of Cope, supposed to be based 
on an allied Atlantic species, is fictitious. There is no reasonable doubt that the 
following Atlantic and Pacific species are closely allied in the manner indicated : 

PACIFIC SPECIES. ATLANTIC SPECIES. 

"Cnllamach" whale allied to Balcena glaciaUs ^onn&t. 

Megaptera versahilis " " Megaptera nodosa " 

Bakenojytera velifera " " Balcenoptera phymlus (L.) 

Sibhaldius sidfureus " " Balmnoptera muscuhis (L.) 

Balcenoptera davidsoni " " BalcBnoptera acuto-rostrata (Lac.) 

BaloBTfioptera borealis of the eastern North Atlantic has no representative, so 
far as known at present, in the North Pacific, — an interesting circumstance. 

Baloena sieboldii Gray (?). 

The whale mentioned by Scammon under the name of the "Right whale of the 
Northwestern Coast," must be dismissed with a few words, as no new material is at 
command by means of which to determine its identity. Scammon {82, 66) 
states that " the color of tlie Right \vhale is generally black, yet there are many 
individuals with more or less white about the throat and pectorals, and sometimes 
they are pied all over. Its avei-age adult length may be calculated at 60 feet — it 
rarely attains to 70 feet, — and the two sexes vary but little in size. Its head is 
very nearly one third the length of the whole animal, and the upper intermediate 
portion, or the part between the spiracles and ' bonnet,' has not that even spherical 
form, or the smooth and glossy surface present with the Bowhead, but is more or 
less ridgy crosswise. Both lips and head have wart-like bunches modei'ately 
developed, and in some cases the upper surface of the head and fins is infested 
with parasitical crustaceans." 

Pechuel in 1871 {73, 1184) published a figure of a Right whale killed near the 
Aleutian Ids. durino; his exi)edition. It resembles Scammon's fisrui'e in a general 
way, but is entirely black. No measui'ements could be taken on account of stormy 
weather. 

The whalebone, as far as may be judged from pieces in the National Museum, 
is entirely black, occasionally with a bluish or greenish tinge, but without the dis- 
tinct whitish sti'ipes which occur in many specimens of the whalebone of B. mysti- 
cetus. The bristles are coarser than in the latter species. The following are the 
lengths of the pieces in the National Museum which may be assigned to this 
species : 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 271 

Length. 
No. 57,135- "Japan." Bought of Wm. Philips & Son, New Bedford, Mass., 1883. . . 8 ft. 6 in. 

" 13,990. Sea of Japan. Capt. C. M. Scammon, 1873 8" 2" 

13,988. N. W. coast of America. Capt. C. M. Scammon 8" 2" 

" 57,134- "Northwest." Bought of Wm. Philips & Son, New Bedford, Mass., 18S3 7" 2" 

Regarding this species, Van Beiiedeii remarked in 1875 (5, 37): "It seems to 
us demonstrated and confirmed to-day . . . that the whale of the coasts of Japan 
is a distinct species, and occurs in tlie North Pacific as the I>as(|ue whale occurs in 
the North Atlantic." 

Megaptera versahilis Cope. 

Cope described this species from the data furnished by Scammon (83, 15). 
These data include the following chai-acters : 

1. "A short body with immense bell}^ and frecpiently diminutive 'small'; 
inordinately large pectorals and flukes." 

2. "A protuberance, of variable shape and size in different individuals, placed 
on the back about one fourth the length from the flukes, is called the hump." 

3. "The top of the head is dotted with irregular rounded bunches, that project 
above the surface about a half inch, each covering about two inches of space." 

4. " Number of folds on the belly twenty-six, averaging in width from four to 
eight inches." 

5. " Color of body black, under side of pectorals white. Frequently the 
under side of the flukes is white likewise, and sometimes the greater portion of 
the belly." 

6. "The Humpback has also growing on its body what are termed barnacles, 
which appear to collect most on the fins, flukes, and head." 

"The following measurements and meraoi'anda were taken by Capt. F. S. 
Redfield, of the whaling and ti'ading brig Manuella, while cruising in Behring Sea, 
September 17th, 1866"': 

Ft. In. 

Extreme length 49 7 

Length of pectorals 13 7 

Breadth " " 3 2 

Distance from snout to pectorals 12 o 

" " corner of mouth to snout 9 6 

" " eye to snout 10 2 

" " spoutholes to snout 9 4 

Breadth of flukes • '5 7 

Depth " " 3 4 

Distance from anus to flukes 1 1 6 

" " genital slit to flukes 17 o 

Length of folds on belly ' (^ o 

Whole breadth of folds on belly 10 o 



' These measurements were corrected in the Marine Mammals, p. 39, and the later figures 
are given here. 



272 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OE THE WESTERN NOKTH ATLANTIC. 

Ft. In. 

Distance from flukes to hump 12 3 

Length of hump along the back 3 o 

Height " " I o 

Depth of small close to flukes 2 6 

Thickness of small close to flukes i 6 

Tlie characters included in the foregoing paragraphs are all identical with those 
of M. nodosa, except that relating to the position of the dorsal fin, which is said to 
be "about one fourth the length from the flukes," while in J/, nodosa the distance 
from the posterior margin of the flukes is almost exactly one third the total length. 
This character is undoubtedly di-awn from the measurements cited above. How 
far these measurements are reliable can not be exactly ascertained. As given in 
the Maiine Mammals, they are considei'ably changed from the figures of 1869. 
It will be seen later that in another specimen measured by Scainmon the distance 
from the posterior margin of the doi'sal fin to the snout was exactly two thirds the 
total length. 

The length of the pectorals, according to these measurements, is 27.4 fo the 
total length, as against 27.0 ^ to 31.0 ^>' in M. nodosa. The breadth of the pec- 
torals is 6A fc, against 6.1 ^ to 7.6 ^ in M. nodosa; height of dorsal fin, 2.0 «^ 
against 1.9 % to 2.5 %. The approximation must be regarded as very close. 

Professor Cope considered the presence of tubercles on top of the head as 
constituting a distinguishing character, but such is, of course, not the case. 

Scammon's observations in the Marine Mammals {82) include those employed 
by Cope in establishing the species M. versahilis, with others of equal importance. 
He gives notes on the color and some other features of three additional specimens 
from California. These are as follows : 

No. 1. Female. Color of body, black above, but more or less marbled with 
white below. Fins, black above, and dotted with white beneath. Number of 
folds on throat and bi'east, 21, the widest of which were 6 inches. 

No. 2. Female. Color of body black, with slight marks of white beneath. 
Color of pectorals, black above, white below. Color of flukes, black above and 
below. Gular folds, 18. Tubercles on lips, 9. 

No. 3. Female. Color of body black above, slightly mottled with white and 
gray below. Fins and flukes, black above, white beneath. Number of laminae of 
whalebone 540 ; black, streaked with white, or light lead color. 

Scammou remarks further : 

"The usual color of the Humpback is black above, a little lighter below, 
slightly marbled with white or gray; but sometimes the animal is of spotless 
white under the fins and about the abdomen. The posterior edge of the hump, in 
many examples, is tijjped with pui'e white" (82, 41). 

After leferring to the various normal species of Gray, Scammou adds : 

" We have frequently recognized, upon the California coast, every species here 



THE "WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 273 

described, and even in tlie same school or 'gam.' Moreover, we liave experienced 
the gi'eatest difficulty in finding any two of these strange animals externally alike, 
or possessing any marked generic or specific diflferences. If the differences pointed 
out as constitutint; different s})ecies aie maintained, we conclude tiiei'e must be a 
great number. We have observed, both in the dead and living animals, the follow- 
ing different external marks: 1st. Body black above, white beneath. 2d. Body 
black above and below, with more or less white mottling under the throat and above 
the abdomen ; pectoral and caudal fins white beneath, or slightly spotted with black. 
3d. Body black above, white beneath, with underside of pectoral and caudal fins of 
a dai'k ash-color. 4th. Body black above, with gray mottling beneath. In all of 
these varieties, both the caudal and pectoral fins differ in shape and size ; the latter 
in some individuals being exceedingly long, narrow, and pointed, while others are 
comparatively short and broad, as shown in the outline (page 47), which also shows 
the parasites, coujmouly called barnacles, adheiing to the throat, j)ectorals, and 
caudal fin. There are still others whose pectorals are of intermediate propoi'tions, 
but terminate abruptly, as seen on page 48, which also represents the scalloped 
flukes present in some of the individuals. Again, in other examples, the caudal fin 
is narrow, pointed, and lunate ; in others, still, it is bi'oad, and neaily straight on 
the posterior edge. All these varieties feed and associate together on the same 
gi-ound, and in every particular their habits ai'e the same, so far as we have been 
able to ascertain from careful observation ; all, likewise, are infested by the same 
parasites. As to the dorsal protuberance called the hump, it is, as has been 
previously stated, of no regular shape or size, but is nearly of a uniform height; 
the posterior edge is sometimes tipped with white. As to the tubercles on the 
head and lips, they were present on all we have examined, twenty or more speci- 
mens ; those about the head are always well-developed, while those upon the lips, 
in many individuals, are scarcely perceptible. In some instances, howevei-, they 
equal or exceed those which crown the skull. There is no I'egulai-ity in the number 
of gular folds, which, as far as observed, vary in number fi'om eighteen to twenty- 
six. In some cases they run parallel to each other ; but usually there are several 
that either cross or terminate near the pectorals. The animals are all described as 
being black above ; but in the examples which have been examined, there was not 
one when closely scrutinized, which did not reveal some light marks of white." 
{82, 43, 44, foot-note.) 

It will be seen that the range of color variation is about the same in the 
Pacific Humpback, as in the Atlantic species. The pectorals are perhaps more fre- 
quently black externally, but as they ai-e also pure white at times, as shown by 
the photographs above-mentioned, this can hardly be looked upon as indicating 
a specific difference. (See pi. 41, figs. 1, 2.) 

The number of abdominal ridges is not different from that found in M. 
nodosa. 

One peculiarity merits attention. Scammon states that some parts of the body 
in the Pacific Humpback are occasionally gray. The Newfoundland Humpbacks 
which I examined were all black and white, without gradation or intermingling so 
as to produce shades of gray, but Rawitz {74) has stated that one of the Humpbacks 
examined by him at Bear Id., Norway, was gray on the throat. 

Scammon gives measurements of the three specimens above mentioned, which, 
together with a part of the earlier ones, are as follows : 



274 



THE WHALEBOJSTE WHALES OF THE WESTEEN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



MEOAPTERA VERSABILIS COPE. CALIFORNIA AND BERING SEA. 



Measurement. 



Total length 

Snout to eye 

" " blowholes , 

" " corner of mouth 

" " pectorals .- . 

" dorsal fin 

Notch of flukes to anus 

" " " " genital slit 

Navel to genital slit 

Length of pectorals 

Breadth of pectorals 

Height of dorsal fin 

Length " " " 

Breadth of flukes from tip to tip 

Antero-posterior breadth of lobes of flukes 

Eye to ear 

Length of orifice of ear 

" " genital slit 

From pectorals to top of back 

" corner of mouth to top of head 

" eye to top of head 

Girth below pectorals 

Depth of caudal peduncle at insertion of flukes.. . 

Length of longest baleen 

Breadth" " " 

Length of fringe of baleen 



No. I. 

California. 
1S72. S 
Scammon. 



ft. 
48 
10 

8 
10 
16 
28 
12 
12 

5 
'3 

3 

o 

4 
18 

3 

2 



o 

4 
5 
4 

25 
I 



in. 

o 
10 

o 

o 

o 

o 

6 
1 1 

o 

o 

S 

10 
o 
o 
6 
o 

li 

6 
6 

4 
6 
o 
9 



No. 2. 
Ditto. 



ft. 
48 



16 



1 1 
12 



13 

3 



14 

4 



m. 
o 



No. 3. 
Ditto. 

S 



9 

ID 



ft. 

52 
I 2 
10 
I I 



m. 
o 

5' 
o ' 

9' 



12 o 
3 6 



Bering Sea. 
1S66. S 
.Scammon. 



ft. 

49 
10 

9 

9 

12 



1 1 

17 



in. 

7 
2 

4 
6 



t o 

3 o 

15 7 

3 4 



Reduced to percentages of the total length, these measurements are as follows 

MEGAPTERA VEBSABILIS COPE. CALIFORNIA AND BERING SEA. 



Sex and age 

Total length , 

Snout to eyes 

" " blowholes 

" " pectorals 

" " post, margin of dorsal fin 

Length of pectorals 

Breadth " " 

Height of dorsal fin 

Breadth of flukes 



No. I. 
California. 

1872. 
Scammon. 



48' o" 



% 
20.8 
16.6 

33-3., 
[66.6] 

27.1 
7-1 
1-7 

37-S 



No. 2. 
Ditto. 



48 o 



34.4 

27.1 
6.2 

30.0 



No. 3. 
Ditto. 



52' o" 



■a 

23-2 
18.6 



23-1 
7.0 



No. 4. 

Bering Sea. 

1S66. 



49 7 



20.5 
18.8 



27-5 
6.4 

2.0 
31-4 



' From lower jaw. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



275 



The averages of these several percentages, compared with tliose of the three 
Suook's Ann, Newfouiidhind, Humpbacks which I measured, are as follows: 

MEQAPTERA VEBSABILIS AND M. XOnns!.!. NOKTH PAril'ir WD NEWFOUNDLAND. 



Measurement. 



Snout to eye 

" " blowholes 
" " pectorals. 
Length of pectorals 
Breadth " " . 
Height of dorsal fin 
Breadth of flukes . . 



North Pacific. 


Newfoundland. 




^ 


(3) 2..5 
(3) i8-o 


247 
(2) 18.9 


(2) 33-9 
26.2 


, , 32.4 
(2 28.5 
(2) 7.6 
(2) 2.3 

(2) 37-6 


6.7 

(2) ..9 

(3) 33-° 



The agreement exhibited is quite close, except as regards the distance fi'oni 
the tip of the snout to the eye, and the breadth of the flukes. The reason for 
the discrepancy in the former measurement is not clear, as the photogi-aphs at 
command do not show any noticeable difference in the position of the eye. Though 
there is no doubt considerable variation in the actual breadth of the flukes, all 
measurements of this [tart both in the present and the Finbacks vary more than 
could be expected. There appears to be some difficulty in measuring the flukes 
accurately, or else different observers use different methods of measurement. 

The photograi)hs of the Ilumpltack taken in Henderson Bay, Puget Sound, 
Washington, Sejitember 5, 1896, reproduced in plate 41, figs. 1-4, confirm many of 
the characters given by ScamnK)n, and afford others showing that the species bears 
the strongest possible reseml)laiice to AI. nodosa. 

Thus, the dermal tubercles on the head are arranged in thi-ee i-ows, — a median 
one and a double one on each side. The median row has about 6 tubercles and 
each lateral one about 10, as in M. nodam. There is a cluster of tubercles at the 
symphysis of the mandible, and about 10 on each ramus. The dorsal fin is low, 
with a concave anteiior border, and a knob-like tip, as in one of the Newfound- 
land specimens.' A deep furrow extends backward from the mouth across the 
shoulder. The pectorals are white above with a median dark mark proximally ; 
below, entirely white. The flukes are undoubtedly more or less white below. 
Unfortunately, the pectorals are turned in such a position that the emarginations 
on the anterior border cannot be seen. This whale, according to an account pub- 
lished in the Nortlnoest Magazine May, 1897, was 45 ft. long; the pectoral fins 
about 9 ft. long; the flukes 13 ft. from tip to tip. 

In two photogi'aphs of California " sceneiy " presented to the National Museum 
by Mr. Chas. H. Townsend, Humpbacks are represented, showing the pectorals. 
(See pi. 40, fig. 4; pi. 41, fig. 5). One shows the under side of the left pectoral, 
which is white for the most part, but with black in the proximal fourth, and a nar- 
row black posterior border, and black on the tubercles of the anterior border. 

' This same form is shown in the photographic views of antarctic Humpbacks published by 
Racovitza in the cetology of the voyage of the Belgica, 1903. 



276 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

There are two emargi nations between the tubercle which marks the distal end of 
the radius and that which mai'ks the ends of digit 2, showing that there are three 
phalanges in this digit as there are in M. longimana. Beyond the second digit 
there are at least five emarginations, as in the Atlantic species. 

The second Califoinia photograph shows the upper side of the left pectoral of 
a Humpback and the flukes. The pectoral is nearly all black above, with irregular 
streaks of white distaliy and a white anterior border. There are two emarginations 
between the end of the radius and the end of digit 2, as in the last photograph and 
in M. nodosa, and about six emarginations beyond, as in that species. The flukes 
appear more or less white below. 

The first California photograph also shows the peculiar outline of the inferior 
surface of the caudal peduncle characteristic of M. nodosa. 

A skeleton from Pacific County, Washington, was exhibited in the World's 
Columbian Exposition in 1893. This specimen, according to a label attached to it, 
stranded at Long Beach, Pacific County, Washington, July 9, 1892. The length 
was 47-^ feet and the girth 48 feet. The skeleton had the following vertebral for- 
mula : C. 7, D. 14, L. 11, Ca. 20 = 52. This same formula occurs in many specimens 
of M. nodosa, except that the caudals ai'e usually 21. Seven chevron bones were 
present, and three more were apparently wanting to complete the series. The axis 
presented a complete ling on the right side, formed by the union of the diapophj-ses. 
The ring on the left side was nearly complete. The ribs were rounded on the outer 
edge distaliy and thin and sharp on the inner edge. The centra of the sixth and 
seventh dorsals were malformed and anchylosed together iuferiorly. 

There are in the National Museum several pieces of whalebone labelled as 
having been collected by Capt. Scammou on the Pacific coast. Two of these 
(No. 9791) were from a Humpback taken on the coast of California, November, 
1869. Their length, without the bristles, is 18^ in., and the width at the base, 
5^ in. The longest bristles measure 7|- in. The blades are dull black, and the bristles 
also blackish at the base, changing to a dull faded brown toward the tip. Nos. 
12263 and 12264 were obtained by Capt. Scammon at San Luis Obispo, California. 
These pieces are larger and thinner than the preceding and have a dull whitish 
surface with a metallic iridescence. I think there is no doubt they have been 
altered in color by immersion in poisonous fluid to destroy vermin. The lai-o-er 
plate, without the bristles, is 26 in. long, and 10^ in. wide at the base. 

Gray, in 1866, gave the name Megaptera huriza to the Humpback included 
by Temmiuck in the "Fauna Japonica" under the name of Balceaa antaretica 
(53, 131). This was based on a Japanese drawing, and not on a specimen, and 
therefore has no validity as a species. The di-awing is inaccurate in many par- 
ticulars, but undoubtedly represents a Megaptera. So far as specific characters ai-e 
concerned, it is not worthy of consideration. The matter is chiefly interesting as 
showing the occurrence of Megaptera on the coast of Japan. Of this Gervais, 
Mobius, and others have since given confirmation. 

Those authors who, like Van Beneden, regard all the Humpbacks as belong- 
ing to one species, naturally assign this whale to Megaptera longimana, or nodosa. 



THE WHAiEBOITE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 277 

Flower (1885) prefaces his list of specimens of Megaptera in the British 
Museum, which include a skull and other bones from California, with the following 
remark: "It is uncertain whether all the following specimens of Megcq^era should 
be referred to one species or to several. If more than one, their distinctive charac- 
ters have not been as yet clearly defined." {46, 5.) 

Bal^noptera velifera Cope. 1869. 

Cope had no specimens on which to base this species, and named it from 
Scammou's description and sketches. (See p. 90.) The description is probably 
that given by Scammou in the article to which Cope's systematic synopsis forms 
the introduction {83, 52-53, figs. 9-10). From this Cope extracted the following 
characters {83, 16): 

Color "shaded from the brown of the upper to the white of the lower 
surfaces." 

Dorsal tin large ; situated " at the commencement of the third fourth of the 
length from the head." 

Baleen light lead-color, streaked with black, and its surface marked with 
transvei'se roughening. 

The species is divided into two forms, a northern one with a large dorsal fin, 
and a southei'n cue with a "very small fin." These forms, however, are not 
named. 

Scammon's description is as follows : 

" One picked up by Capt. Poole, of the bark ' Sarah Warren,' of San Francisco 
affords us the following memoranda : Length sixty-five feet. Thickness of blubber 
seven to nine inches. Yield of oil seventy-five barrels. Color of blubber a clear 
white. Top of head tjuite as flat and straight as that of the Humpback. Baleen, 
the longest two feet four inches, greatest width thirteen inches, its color a light lead 
streaked with black, and its surface presents a ridgy appearance crosswise ; length 
of fringe to bone two to four inches, and in size this may be compared to a cambric 
needle. 

"Its side fins and flukes are in like proportion to the body as in the California 
Gray. Its throat and bi-east are mai'ked with deep creases or folds, like the Hump- 
back. Color of back and sides black or blackish-brown ; belly a milky white. Its 
back fin is placed nearer to the caudal than the hump on the Humpback, and in 
shape approaches to a right-angled triangle, but rounded on the forward edge, curved 
on the opposite one, and the longest side Joins the back in some individuals ; in 
others the anterior edge is the longest," (83, 52.) 

Later in the same account Scammon states regarding one shot with a bomb- 
lance : " We got quite a good look at the under side of the whale . . . and 
our observations agreed with those noted on boai'd the 'Sarah Warren' in I'elation 
to color of belly and the ci'eases on throat and breast. The under side of the fins 
was white also." 

Again he i-emarks : 



278 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



" On the northern coast [of North America] the Finbacks, in many instances, 
have a much larger fin than those in warmer latitudes, and I am fully satisfied that 
these ai'e a distinct species, coniiiied to the northern waters. . . . Several [Fin- 
backs] have been seen in May and June, on the coasts of California and Oregon, 
and in Fuca Sti'ait in June and July of the present year [1868 Q ; these observations 
satisfy me that the dorsal fin of this, the northern species refei'red to, is strikingly 
larger than in the more southern Finbacks. 

"Appended is a sketch of one individual of several seen in Queen Charlotte 
Sound in February, 1865, which is a fair representation of them all. Those I have 
noticed about Fuca Strait seem to have the back fin modified in size between the 
extremely small [one] found on [the coast of] Lower Califoi-nia and the one here 
represented." 

The figures (Nos. 9 and 10) accompanying the article are quite crude, and, while 
they represent a Finback whale fairly well, are unreliable for critical comparisons. 
For example, in figure 9, which i-epresents the £. velifera of the coast of California, 
the height of the dorsal fin is about 7 ^ of the total length. If this were coi-rect, it 
would indicate a species with an enormous fin as compared with JS.phijsalus of the 
North Atlantic, in which the height of the dorsal averages 2.3 ^of the total length. 

In fig. 10, which represents the northern form oiB. velifera, the dorsal is given 
the increased proportion of about 8|- % of the total length. 

In these figures, furthermore, the shape of the pectoral fins, flukes, and " small " 
(or caudal) peduncle is unnatural, judging from photographs taken from fresh 
specimens of Atlantic Finbacks. 

We hear no more of these Pacific Finbacks until Scammon published his great 
work on the Marine Mammals of the Noi'th western Coast, in 1874. In this the de- 
scription of 1869 is lepeated with practically no alteration, but with the addition of 
measurements of "a Balcenopiera which came on shore near the outer heads of the 
Golden Gate" (82, 34). Unfortunately these measui-ements are of very little im- 
portance, except that the total length — 60 feet — is given. Reduced to percentages 
of the total length, Scammon's measurements, compared with the averages for 
Newfoundland specimens of B. physalus, are as follows ' : 

BALJEyOPTEBA PHYSALUS (L.) AND B. VELIFERA COPE. 



Measurement. 


Newfoundland. 


California. 


Bering Id. 


Total length 


[average] 


60 ft. 


51.69 ft. 


Snout to eve 


% 
20.4 
18.3 
77.0 

2.4 
22.4 
28.0 


% 
20.8 

233 

32-5 


% 

27-3 
22.9 

72.0 

2.7 


" " blowhole 

" post, base of dorsal 

Height of dorsal 

Rreadth of flukes . . . 


Notch of flukes to vent 


30-3 





' Dr. L. Stejneger's measurements of a Finback found on Bering Id. are also included here for 
convenience. Further reference to them will be made later. 



THE W H ALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 279 

The agreement in two of tlie measurements is close, but the distance from the 
flukes to the vent is larger in Scammon's specimen. This may be a real diflference, 
or may be due to measuring around the curve of the lower border of the caudal 
peduncle. 

In connection with the text are given an outline figure of the northern Finback 
and a shaded figure of the southern form. The latter, with those of other species 
in the same woi'k, are among the most beautiful delineations of whales that have 
ever been published, and there is no doubt of their general accuracy, though they 
would admit of some correction in details. 

In the outline figure above mentioned, the dorsal fin is still represented as 
having a height of nearly 8 ^ of the total length, which must be regarded as an 
exaggeration. In the shaded figure of the southern Finback, the height of the dorsal 
fin is reduced to about 3 %, which is probably closer to the truth. On account of 
the discrepancies in these sketches and drawings, though produced by so competent 
an observer as Scammon, they can hardly be used in critical comparisons of species. 
Indeed, they can only serve to give us an approximate idea of the type of Finback 
Scammon had under observation. This is all the sketches profess to do. 

Putting together the information to be derived from the descriptions and 
figures of 1869 and 1874, we determine that the species of Finback which Cope 
called jB. velifera, is 60 to 65 feet long, black or blackish-brown on the back and 
sides, white on the belly and under side of tlie flippers; the dorsal fin falcate, 
moderately lai-ge, and situated at a point more than two thirds the distance from 
the end of the snout to the notch of the flukes; the whalebone short (longest 2 
ft. 4 in.), light lead color, streaked with black, with bristles 2 to 4 inches long and 
thick as a "cambric needle"; flippers about 15.5 % of the total length, flukes about 
23.3 % to 23.8 fo. 

If all these characters were to be considered as reliable, we might conclude that 
B. velifera represented a species intermediate between B. lyhysalus and B. muscidus 
of the North Atlantic. The moderate size, the white belly, the streaked whalebone, 
and anterior portion of the dorsal fin correspond with B. physalns ; the large 
pectorals and broad flukes ally it to B. musculus. As, however, the sketches show 
discrepancies, the descriptions and measurements are meagre and more or less indefi- 
nite, nothing whatever is recorded regarding the skeleton, and there is no type- 
specimen, it is necessary to hold that the species was not completely characterized 
by Scammon and Cope, and that its real characters and affinities still remain to be 
elucidated. We may properly consider that what Scammon had in mind under the 
name of "the Finback," was the common moderate-sized Finl)ack of the Pacific coast 
of the United States, and, if there are more than one, that which coi-responds most 
closely to the B. physalus of the North Atlantic. 

No material which passed through Scammon's hands, and which may be con- 
sidered to represent B. velifera, is in the National Museum, except two pieces 
of whalebone, Nos. 13981 and 13982 U. S. N. M. These, according to the record, 
were obtained by Q&.\^i. Scammon near Tres Marias Ids., Mexico, in 1873. They 
are entered as "baleen of humpback whale." This is rather unfortunate as it 



280 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOKTH ATLANTIC. 

throws doubt ou their authenticity, since they plainly belong to Baketiojptera and 
not to Megai^tera. However, the error is pi-obably a clerical one. 

The two pieces are thin and have the surface roughened by longitudinal and 
transverse raised lines. One piece (No. 13981) has a length of 23 in., and a breadth 
at the base of about 8.5 in. The second piece (No. 13982) is 28 in. long, with a 
breadth of 9.5 in. at the base. The former has two liijht-colored, translucent 
longitudinal bands, about ^ in. wide, near the outer margin. 

As no other material, representing this species, which passed through Scam- 
mon's hands, is now accessible, I have endeavored to find out what the " Common 
Finback " of the Pacific coast really is from other sources. The material at com- 
mand is meagre and consists only of (1) a skeleton formerly owned by Cope and 
now in the museum of the Wistar Institute, Philadelphia (see pi. 6, fig. 4 ; pi. 28, 
figs. 5, 6) ; (2) measurements of a specimen captured off San Clemente Id., Cal., in 
1895, and exhil)ited in Celoron, New York, in 1896.' 

The Wistar Institute skeleton is that of an adult animal, which, according to 
a record ou a piece of paper found in the box which contained the skeleton, was 68 
ft. long. The mounted skeleton is 62 ft. 10 in. long. It is a very fine and practi- 
cally pei'fect specimen. The whalebone is slate-colored, streaked longitudinally 
with whitish, and the right anterior 6 or 8 inches all white. This is characteristic 
oi B. physalus. The vertebral forinida is as follows: C. 7 ; D. 15 ; L. 15, Ca. 23 
-|- =: 60 +. The last caudal is about the size of an apple. There are fifteen 
chevron bones. Tlie following measurements were taken with the aid of Dr. Green- 
man, to whom my best thanks are due: 



SKELETON (MOUNTED I FROM WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA IN THE WISTAR INSTITUTE, PHILADELPHIA. 

(BELONGED TO COPE.) 

Total length of skeleton, mounted 62 ft. lo in. 

Length of skull, straight, without premaxilhv 15 " 61 " 

Breadth " " greatest 7 " 9 " 

Length of rostrum, without premaxillae. 10 " 61 " 

Breadth " " at middle 3 " Si " 

Length of mandible, straight 15 " 4 " 

" curved 1 6 " 5 " 

Breadth of orbit, least i of " 

" " " greatest 20 " 

Breadth of scapula 4 " 2 " 

Height " " 2" 7" 

Length of radius 2 " 9! " 

" ulna, least 2 " 6J " 

" " " greatest 2 "11^" 

Breadth of axis — 

Depth of mandible at middle i " 1 1 " 

Length of acromion of scapula, greatest 14 " 

" " coronoid 6|- " 



' For these measurements I am indebted to Prof. H. L. Osborn, St. Paul, Minn. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



281 



In the following table the measurements of the skull are reduced to percentages 
of its total length and compared with the average measurements of American 
B. physalus already given (p. 133) : 

BALMNOPTERA PHTSALVS AND B. VELIFERA T SKULL. 



Measurement. 


East Coast 
B. physalus. 


California 
skull. 


Total length of skull 


lOO % 


too '^ 




Greatest breadth 


i 

47' 
I0.6 
67.2 
19.6 

93-9 
6.7 


48.0 
10.3 
69.1 

21.4 




T.ent'th of rostrum 


Hreadth of rostrum at middle . . 


T.pncfth of mandible in strai<^ht line . 


94.8 
7.0 









The correspondence in ])roportions between the East and West Coast skulls is 
close, except that the Califoinia skull has a somewhat longer and broader beak than 
the averai^'-e East Coast specimen. In these respects it is, however, below the ma.xi- 
mum of B. j)Iiymlus, as will be seen by consulting the table on p. 133. 

It should be stated also that as the premaxillae were not in place in the Cali- 




^.i 




~z^ 




CS5' 






~v 


- -.— 


.'■^ 




Fig. g4. Fi^- 95- I''^- ^ft- 

BALMNOPTERA VELIFERA COPE? CALIFOKNIA. 
Fig. 94.-SKULL. Fig. qs.-Cervical ..\nd Dors.vl Vertebrae. Fig. 96.-LUMBAR Vertebrae. From 

BELOW. (WiSTAR INSTITUTE, PHILADELPHIA.) 

fornia skull when measured, an allowance Lad to be made for their extension beyond 
the maxillaj. This amount {1\ in.) may have been a trifle too great. 

By reference to the measurements of Atlantic skeletons of B. physahis given 
on paf'e 144, it will be found that the average breadth of the scai)ula is 26.4 % of 
the \encrth of the skull, while in the California skeleton it is 26.0^; the average 
depth of the scapula in the Atlantic skeletons is 15.9 fc and in the California specimen 



282 THE WHALEBONE "WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIO. 

16.1 %. The length of the radius shows an equally close agreement — 17.'dfo in the 
Atlantic specimens, 17.5 % in the California skeleton. 

All the bones of the California skeleton are rugged and massive, and there 
can be no doubt that it represents the adult state. The bony rings formed by the 
lateral processes of the a.xis are very broad ; its neural arch and spine are low, but 
thick and quadrate in form. The neui-al spines of the cervicals and the first two 
dorsals are low and ti'iangular, but farther back increase rapidly in size and become 
broad, high, and quadrate. The first four pairs of ribs are furnished with capitular 
processes, of which those of the second and third pairs are longest. The penulti- 
mate pair of ribs is shorter than the last pair, and both are much straighter than 
the preceding pairs. The first rib is short and flat, and broad at the free end. 

The form of the sternum (see text fig. 32), though resembling in a general way 
that of adults of i?. physalus, does not correspond exactly to the sternum of any 
specimen of that s^iecies thus far figured, as will be seen by consulting the figures 
on pages 140, 141. The anterior portion is broadly pentagonal, with an emar- 
ginate antei'ior border and a central vacuity. Attached posteriorly is a narrow 
segment, which near the middle of its lenofth diminishes again in width rather 
abruptly. 

The scapula has the outline characteristic of B. physalus, the superior margin 
quite straight, but bent down sharply behind, while the anterior margin makes an 

angle of about 45° with the plane of the 
edges of the glenoid fossa. The acromion is 
large and club-shaped (see text fig. 97 ; also 
pi. 7, fig. 3). 

This skeleton is more noticeable for its 
agreement with B. physalus than for any 
distinguishing chai'acters. The shape of the 
sternum, on the whole, presents the greatest 
difference, and in a part which varies so 
p,p much as this the importance of this differ- 

ence cannot be strongly insisted upon. 
The measurements of the San Clemente Id. specimen, given below, are not as 
trustworthy as could be wished for, since it appears probable that the fins and 
other parts were more or less distorted by drying and other post-mortem changes. 
They are as follows : 

Total length from tip of mandible to tip of flukes 55 ft- o i"- 

Tip of snout to blowhole 8 " 2 " 

Length of pectoral " from shoulder-joint " 5 " 4 " 

Height of dorsal fin o " 11 " 

Breadth of flukes 9 " 10 

Notch of flukes to posterior base of dorsal 10 " 8 " 

Tip of mandible to eye 12 " 6 

Professor Osborn states that the whale, as preserved, was black, and quotes 
Capt. J. H. Hoe, who captured the specimen, to the effect that " the whalebone 




THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 283 

was white in front and across the thi'oat, with a white fringe on the entire roof of 
the mouth — the rest was jet Mack." This List statement would indicate that the 
whale was allied to B. horealis, but coming to me at second-hand, I do not know 
how nuich reliance to place upon it. Reducing the measurements above given to 
percentages of the distance from the notch of the flukes to the posterior mai'gin of 
the dorsal fin, which seems likely to be the most reliable measnrement, we have 
the following as compared with the Newfoundland specimen of B. physalus No. 7, 
which was of about equal size : 

Newfoundland San Clemente 
specimen. Id. specimen. 

% i 

Distance from notch of lliikes to posterior base of dorsal. . . loo.o loo.o 

Tip of snout to blowhole 71.8 76.6 

Length of pectoral from shoulder 50.0 53.4 

Height of dorsal fin 8.6 10.8 

Breadth of flukes 92.2 93.2 

The approximation shown is interesting, but it is neither sufficiently close 
nor sufficiently remote to justify any positive assertions in the case. 

It remains to mention the specimen e.\amined by Dr. L. Stejneger on Bering 
Id. in 1882, which may be supposed to represent B. velifera. It was not a fresh 
specimen, having lain on the beach for a long time pi-ior to Dr. Stejneger's visit. His 
description and measurements are given in the Pr'oceedings of the National Museum 
(85, 74, 75). In a general way they agree with B. phi/sahi.% but the head is pro- 
portionately much shorter, and the dorsal fin farther forward (see p. 117). Dr. 
Stejneger remarks incidentally that the height of the dorsal fin was about -^-q the 
total length, which latter was 6^ times the length of the pectorals. This would 
make the dorsal a little higher and the pectorals much longer than in B. physalus. 
In these respects there is an ai)proach to the proportions of the San Clemente Id. 
specimen given above and to the proportions casually mentioned by Scammon, and 
it is possible that B. velifera is characterized by larger fins than B. physalus. A 
rigid comparison of measurements, however, is not feasible.' 

Dr. Stejneger brought back three pieces of the whalebone of the Bering Id. 
specimen (14504 U. S. N. M. ; original No. 1629). These are yellowish-white and 
grayish, and striped precisely as in B. physalus, from which they present no 
tangible differences. The three pieces are of the following dimensions respectively: 
(a) length, without bristles, 28 in., width at base 8^ in. ; (h) length 24 in., width 
7^ in. (probably nuich wider originally) ; (c) length 17 in., width 6 in. The smallest 
pfece is almost entirely translucent yellowish-white, with but two prominent dark 
stripes, while the largest piece is nearly all dark and opaque in the deeper layers, 
though in part superficially overlaid with translucent light-colored layers. 

In spite of various apparent deviations, I am of the opinion that the evidence 

' For example, Dr. Stejneger states, as just mentioned, that the height of the dorsal fin was 
about ^V the total length. In the table of measurements, however, the total length is given as 
51.69 ft., while the height of the dorsal is 1.37 ft. or about -jV- 



284 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

above given indicates tliat B. veli.fera does not differ at all from B. physalas, or in 
other words is identical with tliat species, except perhaps in the greatei' length of 
the pectorals. Even this difference is of doubtful validity as the remainder of the 
skeleton appears to coincide with £. pht/scdus. 

Much more matei'ial fit>m the West Coast must be examined before the ques- 
tion can be settled. 

Speaking of Scammou's woi'k, Van Beneden remarks in 1889 : "The Balamop- 
tera musculus [= ^. physalus (L.)] bears the name thei'ein of Balcenopteia 
velifera'''' (7, 155). He had probably never seen any specimens, however, and his 
opinion is no doubt based on the descriptions of Cope, Dall, and Scammoii. 

Bal^noptera sulfuretjs (Cope). 

This species was described by Cope in 1869 from data furnished by Scammon 
(see p. 90). His brief account was as follows : 

" Sibbaldius sulfureus Cope. 

" The Sulphur-Bottom of the North West Coast. 

"This immense whale is as yet too insufficiently known to be distinguished as 
fully as desii-able, but the marked peculiarity of coloration separates it from the 
only species with which a comparison is necessary — the S. borealis or gigas of the 
North Atlantic. Capt. Scammon describes it to be a gray or brown above, palei- 
than on the Balcenoptera velifera, and beneath, a sulphur yellow. Length from 
seventy to ninety feet. The colors of the 8. horecdis are described as polished 
black above, milky white beneath, by Dubar " {S3, 20). 

The characters given by Cope were undoubtedly drawn from the account 
given by Scammon in the latter part of the same article {S3, 51). In this account 
the following points were mentioned regarding the species : 

It is the largest whale on the coast of California. 

Length approximately 70 to 90 feet.. 

Body more slender than in the Califoinia Gray whale. 

Pectorals and flukes of the same proportions as in "the Finback" and the 
Gray whale. 

Color on the back and sides somewhat lighter than in "the Finback," beneath 
of a yellowish cast, or sulphur color. 

Doi-sal fin much smaller than in "the Finback," and a little nearer the flukes. 

Head, throat, and whalebone in shape like those of "the Finback." 

Occurs at all seasons on the coast of California. 

A specimen captured off St. Bartolme Bay in 1857 by the bark Lagrange, 
was 85 feet in length and yielded about 90 barrels of oil. 

In 1870, in his aiticle on Megaptera hellicosa, Prof. Cope added a description 
of the whalebone of the species, four lamime of which had been sent to the Smith- 
sonian Institution by Capt. Scammon. He summarizes the characters of the sjjecies 
as follows {29, 108) : 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOKTU ATLANTIC. 285 

"Dorsal fin small, conic, situated on the posterior fourth of the back. Form 
slender ; length 70 to 90 feet. Color, above, gray or brown ; below, sulphur yellow." 

The whalebone is described as follows : 

"Baleen black everywhere. Bristles intermediate in size between those of 
Sihbaldius tectirostris Cope (finei-), and Megaptera osphyia (coarser), in 6 or 8 rows, 
and 7 or 8 inches in length. Length of plate, without bristles, 2 ft. 8 inches; 
width of base 18 inches. Ijaminse with weak transverse rugosities" {29, 108). 

In the Marine Mammals, Scamraon did not add any information of importance, 
but changed the estimate of length from 70-90 ft. to 60-100 ft. He also in- 
cludes the following data, furnished by Capt. Roys of the bark Iceland, of a Sulphur- 
bottom, presumably this species, taken by him at some locality not stated: 

Length 95 ft. 

Girth 39 " 

Length of jawbone 21 " 

Longest whalebone 4 " 

Yield of whalebone 800 lbs. 

Yield of oil 1 1 o bbis. 

From these several records, it is evident that B. sulf areas is a species allied 
to the B. mmculus of the Atlantic. If there is any real basis for separation, it 
would appear to be in the coloi- of the body, and possibly in the greater length of 
the whalebone. The latter is given as 4 feet in Capt. Roys's 95 ft. Pacific speci- 
men, while the longest Newfoundland whalebone I could find was but 32 inches 
long, and the average only 24.7 in. It is possible of course that in the case of the 
Pacific specimen the bristles were included. As these are 1 ft. to 18 in. long they 
would make up a total length of 4 ft. or more. The total length of 95 feet is in 
excess of the largest reliable measurement for B. musculus, namely, 88 ft. 6 in., 
but taken alone this fact can not be given much weight. 

Scammon published two figures of B. sulfureus, one a crude outline, in the 
article edited by Cope (83, fig. U), and the other in the JNIarine Mammals (82, pi. 
13). The latter is a finely shaded figure, beautifully proportioned. If it is accu- 
rate, B. sidftireus, we must believe, is quite different from B. muscult/s in color 
and proportions. The pectoral fin is represented as very broad and blunt, with an 
iiregular anterior margin. The dorsal is veiy much reclined. The color is repre- 
sented as very dark or black on the back, and white or very light on the entire 
lower half of the body, with a quite sharp demarkation from the dark color of the 
back. The anterior margin of the pectoral is dark. The pectoral folds are narrow 
at the posterior end and broad at the anterior end, and reach up very close to the 
margin of the lower lip in an absolutely i-egular succession. The caudal peduncle is 
very narrow^ at the insertion of the flukes. 

In these particulars the figure is quite unlike B. muscidus. The coloration, as 
represented, is more like that of B. i)hysalus. The arrangement of the folds and 
the shape of the caudal peduncle are unlike any Finback whale with which I am 
acquainted. Unfortunately, the figure, like all the others in the book, appears to 



286 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

have been " improved " by the lithograpbei'S. Scammon's rough outliue figui-e does 
not help to uoderstaud the more elaborate one. While in general it resembles B. 
muSGulus, the folds, etc., are laid on iu a very indifferent maunei-, so tliat exact 
comparisons are out of the question. 

It is to be remarked that Scammou states that the color of tlie under surfaces 
of the body is "of a yellowish cast, or sulphur color." The Newfoundland Sulphur- 
bottoms which I examined were not of this color, though certain individuals, both 
of this species and of the common Finback, were more or less tinged with yellowish. 
This tinge was, however, purely an external manifestation, due either to an oily 
exudation from the skin, or to slime in the water or the oily matter in the food. 
The oily coating could be readily rubbed off, when the skin was seen to be gray. 
If the Pacific coast Suli)hurbottoms are really furnished with a yellow pigment 
under the epidermis, this constitutes a difference from their Athmtic ally. I can 
not help feeling that the name Sulphurbottom liad something to do with the 
assertion that the under surfaces of the Ijody were sulphur color. 

If Scammon really had an opportunity to see a specimen of J3. sulfareus close 
at band, it is very remarkable that he did not comment on the extraordinaiy mottled 
coloration, if the species is at all like B. museulus in that i-egaixl. We must believe, 
either that he never saw a specimen, or that the s[)ecies is very differently colored 
from B. museulus, and therefore quite distinct. Considering that the whalebone is 
precisely like that of B. museulus in color and foim, and that Scammon does not 
anywhere state definitely that he examined fresh specimens of the animal, the 
probabilities are in favor of a similarity rather than a divei'sity of color. 

The whalebone ^vhich Prof. Cope mentions as having been received by the 
Smithsonian Institution from Capt. Scammon is not now to be found. There are, 
however, in the National Museum two pieces (Nos. 13984-5 U. S. N. M.) labelled 
as having been obtained by Capt. Scammon at Monterey, Cal., in 1873, and 8 pieces 
(No. 72692 U. S. N. M., Eth.) obtained from the Makah Indians, Neah Bay, Wash- 
ington. These are all very thick and heavy, and entirely black, both blade and 
bristles. Of Capt. Scammon's specimens one. No. 13984, is 28^ in. long; the other, 
No. 13985, 27A in. long. The longest of the Neah Bay pieces, No. 72692, is 80 in. 
lone. The inner edires are broken and the width at the base in the original state 
cannot be given. There is no appreciable difference between this whalebone and 
that of the Sulphurbottoms taken at Newfoundland. 

Since nothing is known of the osteology of this species and the present material 
is so scant, the questions concerning its identity can not now be satisfactorily 
determined. 

Regarding this species Van Beneden wrote in 1889 (7, 259) : "The American 
and English whalers often speak of a BaloBnoptera under the name of Sulphurbottom. 
. , . We have many reasons to believe that this Sulphurbottom is also a synonym 
of B. SibbaMii [= B. museulus L.]. That which confirms us in this identification 
is the examination which we have had occasion to make at Vienna, of some baleen 
designated by this name by Capt. Charles Scammon and which Prof. Steindachner 
had himself brought from San Francisco." 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTir ATLANTIC, 287 

Pechuel (73, p. 1188, fig. A. 6) has a figure to which he gives the name Sib- 
bakhus sulfurevs, but it does not appear to have been based on the examination of 
specimens. He remaiks : 

"I saw it singly or iu pairs in the Pacific Ocean neai' the coast from Chili to 
Gahtoriua, but it is found also iu the North Atlantic Ocean. The wlialers are 
accustomed to hunt it under favorable conditions, but only a few proportionately 
are killed. We often gave chase to it but without any result, as the animals were 
too quick and too active." 

Rhachianectes GLAtTOTJS Cope. 

The California Gray whale, Grayback, or Devilfish, though known to whalers 
for a considerable time, was first introduced to science by Cope in 1868, undei' the 
name of Affaphehis glaucus, on the basis of a set of whalebone in the museum of the 
Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. (See p. 80.) Later in the same year he described 
the exterior of the animal and the skull and other parts of the skeleton from notes 
furnished by Mr. W. H. Dall. The genus Rluichianectes was established in 1869, 
with the following exceedingly brief diagnosis : 



Rhachianectes CojDe. 

"This genus is now first characterized. Its only known species I originally 
united with Agaplidm Cope, but the form of the scapula is so different that it must 
be distinguished. While that of Agaphelus is identical with that of Bal(siwptera, it 
is in the present genus like that of Balcena'''' (83, 15). 

Cope's second article, published in 1868 (26, 226), contains Mr. W. H. Dall's 
notes on two specimens observed at Monterey, California. The following external 
characters are given : 



o 



No. 2. — "The lower jaw is 4 inches longer than the upper; the blowdioles 
are entirely concealed by 4 dermal plictB. . . . On the vei'tebrai line, for 14 feet from 
the caudal flukes, is a series of 18 ridges, like the teeth of a saw, which ai'e altogether 
dermal in their character. . . . On each side of sulcus penis a mammary sulcus a 
few inches shorter. Color above and below, black, with a gray bloom like a plum." 

Cope remarks : 

"Two rough outlines accompany Cajit. Ball's notes. Both represent the pec- 
toral fin as rather elongate, not pointed, but rather broad at the extremity. A third 
sketch represents the inferior view, and in it we see two lines for grooves, one on 
each side of the median gular line. 'I'iiis feature, if existing, is interesting, as 
indicating a tendency to the plicae of the finback whales." 



288 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

The whalebone of specimen No. 1 is described as " light j-ellow." 
In Scammon's article, published in 1869, is a more extensive description of the 
external characters, as follows : 

" The Califoi'nia Gray is unlike other species of Balmna in its color, being of a 
mottled gray; some individuals, however, of both male and female, are nearly black. 
Tlie jaw is curved downward from near the spoutholes to the ' nil) end,' or snout, 
and is not so wide as that of the other species in pi'ojjortion to the size of body. 
The length of the female is from 40 to 44 feet,' the fully grown varying but little in 
size; its greatest circumference 28 to 30 feet, its 'flukes' 30 inches in depth and 10 
feet broad. It has no dorsal fin. Its pectorals ai-e 6^ feet in length, and 2| feet in 
width, tapering from neai- the middle towai'd the end, which is quite pointed." It 
has a succession of lidges, crosswise along the back, from opposite the vent to the 
flukes. 

"The coating of fat, or blubber, is 6 to 10 inches in thickness, and of a I'eddish 
cast. The average yield of oil of the female is 40 barrels. The wlialebone, or 
' baleen,' of which the longest is 14 to 16 inches, is of a light brown color, the grain 
very coarse ; the hair or fringe on the bone, likewise, is much coarser and not so 
even as that of the Right whale or Humpback. 

"The male may average 35 feet in length, but varies more in size than the 
female, and the average quantity of oil it produces maybe reckoned at 25 barrels." 
(S5, 40-41.) 

This description was accompanied by two ciude figures of the exterior, repre- 
senting the animal as black, with nearly regular blotches of gray all over the body, 
without a dorsal fin or furrows on the throat, and with the dorsal line near 
the flukes broken by a series of rounded sinuosities. 

The species was figured again by Scammon in liis Marine Mammals, in 
1874. Here it appears as gray, with a large amount of white irregularly scattered 
over the superior surfaces, as if snow had fallen on it. One short fui'row is shown- 
on the lowei- jaw and the dorsal outline is somewhat irregular. 

The description which accomj^anies this figure contains the following charac- 
ters, not given in the earlier one : " Under the thi'oat are two longitudinal folds, which 
are about 15 inches apart and 6 feet in length. The eye, the ball of which is at 
least 4 inches in diameter, is situated about 5 inclies above and 6 inches behind 
the angle of the mouth. The ear, which a[H)ears externally like a mere slit in the 
skin, 2^ inches in length, is about 18 inches behind the eye, and a little above it." 
{82, 20.) 

Ball's and Scammon's descriptions agree well together, except that according 

' " Forty-four feet, however, would be regarded as large, although some individuals have been 
taken that were much larger, and yielding sixty or seventy barrels of oil." (Note by Scammon.) 

'^ "The size of flukes and fins usually varies but little in proportion to the whole." (Note by 
Scammon.) 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 289 

to the former the baleen is "light yellow," while Scammon gives the color as 
"light brown." Van Beneden states that the baleen in the Vienna nmseuin is pale 
in color like tliat of B. acuto-roHtrata. Dall's sketch, according to Cope, showed 
the pectoral I'ouuded at the tip, while Scammon states that it is pointed. Pechuel 
(73, 1186) described the coloi' of this whale as vaiiegated gray, — remarking that 
" many are entirely l)lotched ; individuals entirely dark-colored are rarely seen." 
Pechuel's figure is very diffei'ent from Scammon's, having a much rounder and 
thicker head, and no ii'regularities on the median line of the back, and no fuirows 
on the throat. It is rather a crude figure, though interesting in many jjarticulars. 

Townsend's figure of a foetal specimen 17 ft. long, published in 1886 {90) 
shows a distinct crest on the back, extending from the flukes nearly half-way to 
the head. The free marsjin is irreo^ular in outline. Townsend remarks ivcrardiiM"- 
it: "The young Rhachianectes Just before birth has a naiTow, irregular longitudi- 
nal ridge along the posterior part of the back, which I did not observe in the 
adult. It extends from about opposite the vent to the flukes and is interrupted in 
many places. This ridge pi-obably corresponds to the series of transverse ridges 
along the back of the adult as described by Scammon." 

It is somewhat I'emarkable that the ridge was not seen in the adult. It is 
interesting to note that the Japanese, who appear to know this whale under the 
name of Kohujira, recognize two forms, one of which has the crenate ridge on the 
back, while the other has uot.^ Scammon's statement that the ridges are trans- 
verse is extremely interesting, and this character deserves further investigation, as it 
is quite unlike anything found in other whales. 

The two characteristic throat furrows are shown in Townsend's figure. 



SIZE. 

Dall calculated the length of the two specimens examined by him at Monterey at 
51 ft. and 48 ft. respectively; the latter a male. Scammon gave the length of the 
females as from 40 to 44 ft., but remarked that the latter would be considered large ; 
for the males he places the average at 35 ft., but states that they vary moi-e in size 
than the females. In 1873, he gave measurements of a male 42 ft. long and stated 
that four other individuals were measured, ranging from 35 to 40 ft. A young 
male measured by Pechuel was 32 ft. long. Townsend in 1886 (90) published, as 
already mentioned, a figure of a foetal specimen 17 ft. long, from a female " nearly 
40 feet lono-." It would seem that one or the other of these measurements must be 
incorrect. The dimensions of different specimens are given by Scammon, Dall, and 
Pechuel, as follows : 

' See MoBius, Ueber den Fang und die Verwerthung der Walfische in Japan. Beilage zu den 
Mitth. Sekt. Kiisten- ujid Hoc/isee-Fisc/ierei, No. 7, July, 1894. 



290 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



RHACllIANECTES GLAVCUS COPE. CALIFORNIA. 



Measurement. 



Total length 

Snout to blowholes 

" " corner of mouth 

" " eye 

" " pectorals 

Notch of flukes to anus 

" " " " genital orifice 

Length of pectorals 

Width " " 

" " flukes 

Circumference at point of pectorals 

Distance from pectorals to top of back - 

" corner of mouth to top of head 

Length of blowholes 

Antero-posterior breadth of flukes 

Thickness of each lobe of flukes 

Depth of caudal peduncle at junction with flukes. 

Lower jaw extends beyond the upper 

Length of genital slit 

From genital slit to Ime of pectorals 

" line of pectorals to end of mandible 

Length of exterior canthus of mouth 

" from eye to margin of canthus 

Width of mouth at canthus 

Longest baleen 

Width of largest baleen 

Length of largest bristles of baleen 




These measurements are so little in accord that new observations are very 
much to be desired. 

WHALEBONE. 

The larger poi'tiou of the whalebone of one side of the mouth, from a speci- 
men taken at San Luis Obispo, Cal. (No. 23306, U. S. N. M.) was sent to the National 
Museum by Mr. C. H. Townsend. This whalebone is entirely yellowish-white, 
both blades and bristles, except at one end of the series. Here for a distance of 
al)out 8 inches the blades and bristles are dull chocolate-brown. The end-blades 
are entirely brown, the next have some white on the inner side, then follow a 
number brown on the outer edge only, and finally all white, like the majority of 
the series. The blades are very thick on the outer margin, with a rounded edge. 
The largest plates measure 18 in. in length without the bristles, and 6 in. at the 
base. The longest bristles measure 9^ in., and were perhaps originally a little 
longer. 

OSTEOLOGICAL CHARACTERS. 



The skeleton of JchacManectes has been described in more or less detail by 
Dall {26, 226-227), Van Beneden (5), Malm {67) and Beddard {2, 168). 

There is a skull in the National Museum (No. 13803) which Mr. Dall obtained 



' From end of mandible. 



From length of mouth. 



From chin to eye. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESl-ERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



291 



at Moutei-ey, Cal., and which belongs to one of the specimens described in 1868 
{26, 226, 227) ; the British Museum contains a skeleton ; and there is a skull in 
the museum of the California Academy of Sciences. 

The vertebral formula in the British Museum skeleton, according to Beddard, 
is C. 7, D. 14, L. 14, Ca. 21 = 56. Ball's Monterey specimen No. \ had the fol- 
lowing: C. 7, D. 13, L. and Ca. 28 plus those concealed in the flukes. 



SKULL. 



The peculiarities of the skull can be best understood from the figures on pi. 47, 
which represent the Monterey specimen in the National Museum. This same skull 
was figured by Van Beneden in 1877 ((?, 96), fi-om photographs fui-nished him by 
the Museum. Most striking are the rugosities of the occipital, the large size of 
the nasals, the shortness of the nasal portion of the intermaxilhe, and their o-reat 
depth anteriorly, the overlapping of the orbital process of the frontal by the proxi- 
mal portion of the maxilla, and the strong tubercle on the postei'ior margin of the 
former. All these characters are seen equally as well developed in the skulls 
figured by Malm (67) as in the Monterey specimen. 

These and many other characters stamp it as a very distinct form, approaching 
closely neither Balcena nor Balcenoptera. 

The following measurements are from the Monterey skull in the National Mu- 
seum, and the data given by Malm {67, 17-37). I am not positive that I have 
interpreted all of Malm's measurements correctly. 



BHACHIANECTES OLAVCVS COPE. SKULL. 



Measurement. 



Total length from the tip of jireniaxilla to occipital 

condyle (straight) 

Greatest breadth 

Length of rostrum 

Breadth " " at base 

middle 

across premaxillse at same point 

Length of maxillfe from frontal border 

Greatest breadth across maxillse proximally 

Length of premaxilliE 

" " nasals in median line 

Breadth of nasals at anterior end 

Distance from anterior end of nasals to anterior end 

of supraoccipital 

Length of orbit, point to point (least) 

" " palatine bones .... 

Breadth across anterior and of zygomatic processes 

of squamosals 

Breadth across anterior angles of orbital processes of 

frontals 

Breadth across posterior angles of orbital processes 

of frontals 

' Straight. Around the curves = 866 mm. 



















■ ■r.U 


z£S g 


:i^ 


Z£- 


^o 








mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


2464 








1041 


1040 


820 


830 


1740 








5«4 









337' 








,84 








1651 






.... 


«5' 






.... 


2007 






.... 


305 










171 










375 


. • ■ ■ 






165 






.... 


394- 




330 




940 


1000 


79° 


75° 


889 





640 




991 


.... 


7 ' " 








S40 



SJ s 



300 

'55 



rilt: ex|K^^e^l portion. 



292 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTIf ATLANTIC. 

VERTEBRA. 

Of the vertebra?, Beddard remarks {2, 168): "The atlas was missing; the 
remaiuing [cervical] vertebrie are quite independent of each other as in the Rorquals ; 
and tliey have the wide latei'al foramina formed by the transverse processes, which 
is so conspicuous a feature of those vertebi'se in Balcenojytera and Megapteray 
Further than this the vertebrae have not been described. 

STERNUM AND LIMBS. 

The sternum is described by Beddard as " cross-shaped, but the arms of the 
cross very short, and the posterior termination almost a fine point." 

According to Dall's notes, the scapula was in " breadth and height not very 
different, with a short, broad coronoid pi-ocess, its head opposite first rib. Ap- 
parently only 4 fingers, of which the second is the longest." 

Van Beueden remarked I'egarding this species in 1875: "It appears to us 
demonstrated and confirmed to-day . . . that the Devilfish of the American 
whalers is allied to the true whales by the absence of folds on the throat and of a 
doi'sal fin, and by the presence of ciri'ipeds and Cyami on the skin ; and that it is 
allied to the Finbacks by the shortness of the baleen and the shape of the ros- 
tium." " It is neither a BaloBV-a, a BalmnopUra^ nor a Megaptera " {5, 36, 37). 

Bal^noptera davidsoni Scamraon. 

A nominal species which requires corapai'ison with B. acuto-rostrata is the B. 
davidsoni of 8cammon, described in 1872 (81). Scammon described this species 
again and figured it in his Marine Mammals (82, 49-51), and Mr. W. H. Dall 
noted it in the appendix to this work, and gave measurements of a skull in the 
museum of the California Academy of Sciences. Scammou's revised description is 
substantially the same as the original one. A comparison of this description with 
Sars's diagnosis and figure of B. acuio-rodrata indicates a close similarity. 

Scammon states, however, that in his species the white marking of the 
pectoral is near the base. This is hardly true of B. acuto-rostrata, in which it 
may he said to be near the middle. Scammon's figure corresponds with his descrip- 
tion in this particular, and shows the white l)and as very naiTow, while in B. acuto- 
rostrata, it occupies from one third to one half of the surface of the pectoral. If this 
distinction were constant it would, of course, have a certain importance. Unfortu- 
nately Scammon's description is not explicit on this point and his figure cannot be 
relied upon in detail. For example, the shape of the head is entirely unlike any Fin- 
back, and the lower lip is similarly incorrect. The same is true of the caudal region, 
the dorsal fin, and the flukes. If these characters wei'e really as represented in 
the figure, it would be necessary to remove the species from the genus Balcenoptera. 

The skull, however (of which more will be said later), is indistinguishable 
generically, if not specifically, from B. acuto-rostrata. Nearly all the figures of 
whales in Scammon's work were evidently "impi-oved" by the lithographers, with 
the result that they must be regarded as to a certain extent diagrammatic. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 293 

Scaramon's measurements of B. davidsatii, show a very close agreement with those 
of Sir Wm.Tuiner's specimen fiom Granton, Scotland, except in theposition of the dor- 
sal fin. In Scammon's specimen the distance from the tij) of the snout to the posterior 
margin of the dorsal fin is 66.6 'ji of the total length, while iu the Granton specimen it 
is 70 fo, and in other European specimens, from 71 % to 74^. This difference would 
be of importance if substantiated, but a study of Scammon's measurements shows 
that it is due to an error. He states that the genital opening is slightly behind the 
anterior edge of the dorsal fin. We may presume, thei-efore, that the latter is about 
6 in. in advance of the former, which is 9 ft. 6 in. from the notch of the flukes, or 17 
ft. 6 in. from the tip of the snout. The anterior edge of the dorsal fin is, therefore, 
17 feet from the tip of the snout, and as its base is 2 ft. 4 in. long, the posterior edge 
would be 19 ft. 4 in. from the tip of the snout, which is 71.6 % of the total length. 

That this calculation is substantial!)' correct is shown by the fact that in the 
ftetus from the same specimen, the measurements of which are given by Scammon, 
the distance of the posterior margin of the dorsal fi'om the tip of the snout is 71.2 % 
of the total length. The dorsal fin in B. davidmni, is, therefore, situated as in 
B. acuto-rostrata. 

Mr. W. H. Dall, in the appendix to the Marine Mammals {82, 304, 305) gave the 
following measurements of a skull of unknown locality, presented to the museum of 
the California Academy of Sciences, by Mr. Merrill : 

BAL^yOPTERA DA VrDSONT SCAMMON. SKULL. 

In. and looths. 

Length of skull in straight line 48.00 

Breadth of condyles 4.50 ? 

Breadth of ex-occipitals (to outer edge of suture) 17.00 

Breadth of squamosals 27.00 

Height of foramen magnum 2.00 

Length of supra-occipital 1300 

Length of articular process of squamosal, antero-posterior 8.00 

Length of orbital process of frontal, right to left 10.00 

Breadth of orbital from curved border of maxillary to hinder edge of orbital process of 

frontal 90° 

Breadth of orbital at upper surface of outer end 6.50 

Nasals, length 4-5° 

Nasals, breadth of the two at posterior end i.oo 

Nas.als, breadth of the two at anterior end 25° 

Length from curved border of maxillary to tip of beak 3°°° 

Length of maxillary 3j-°'^ 

Projection of premaxillary beyond maxillary '-5° 

Breadth of maxillaries at hinder end. 6.00 

Breadth of maxillaries across orbital processes i 2.50 

Breadth of beak at base (curved) 16.50 

Breadth of beak at ^ its length from base (curved) 1 200 

Breadth of maxillary at J its length from base (curved) 2.50 

Breadth of premaxillary at same point (curved) 100 

Breadth of beak at middle (curved) 9°° 

Breadth of maxillary at middle (curved) 2.50 

Breadth of premaxillary at middle (curved) '5° 



294 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTEKN NOETH ATLANTIC. 

In. and looths. 

Breadth of beak at f its length from base (curved) 6.00 

Breadth of maxillary at | its length from base (curved) 1.50 

Breadth of premaxillary at f its length from base (curved) 1.25 

Length of lower jaw in a straight line 47 00 

Height at coronoid process 6.00 

Length from posterior end of condyle to coronoid process 7.50 

Height of ramus at middle 4.00 

Amount of curve 6.50 

Length of otic bullae 3.50 

The osteological material of this species in the National Museum available for 
the study consists of (1) a skull from Pnget Sound (Cat. No. 12177, U. S. N. M.), 
presented by Ca[)t. C. M. Scammon about 1872, and ver}' probably belonging to 
the individual from which the original description was drawn, and hence the type 
of the species ; (2) a skull from St. Paul Id., Pribilof Group, Alaska (Cat. No. 61715, 
U. S. N. M.), collected by Mr. C. H. Townsend of the U. S. Fish Commission. 

Measurements of these skulls, reduced to percentages of the total length, are 
given on page 197, with those of specimens of B. acuto-rostrata. It will be observed 
by reference to the measurements that the Pacific specimens agree in all but one or 
two of the proportions given with those from the Atlantic in the closest possible 
manner. In each propoition in which one of the Pacific skulls differs from the 
Atlantic ones, the other harmonizes with the latter, so that there cannot be said to 
be a constant difference in any of the proportions between the specimens from the 
two oceans. For convenience, the actual measurements of the two Pacific skulls, 
and of the Norway skull, No. 13877, are given below : 

BAL^NOPTERA ACUTO-ROSTRATA LA.C. AND B. DAVIDSONI SCAMMON. SKULL. 



Mea.'iurement. 



Length of skull (condylo-premaxillary) 

" beak 

" maxilla 

premaxilla 

Ant. border foramen margin over vertex to tip of beak 

Ditto to upper border of occiput 

Greatest breadth of skull 

Breadth at base of beak 

" " middle of beak 

orbital border of frontals 

Greatest breadth of maxilla behind base of beak 

between outer borders of both premaxills 

" " ** i««»» ** ** *' ** 

mner 

From vomer at ant. end of palate through to vertex 

Inner margin nasal processes of max. to end of orbital process of max . . 

Outer edge of premaxilla to end of orbital process of maxilla 



) o 



in. 
60.5 

3^-75 

45-5 
63.0 

17.0 

34-5 
20.5 

12-5 

31-5 
3°-S 
8.25 

5-5 

13-75 

17-75 
16.0 



^1- 

►?• -2 -a 



6, .5 

38.0 

45-25 

64.0 

17.0 

35-25 

21-5 

12-75 
32-75 

9-5 

6-5 
15-S 
19-25 
16.0 



S 

z's' 



59-25' 
36.0^ 

44-5" 
60.5' 
16.0 

33-5 
20.0 

II. o 

3°-5 
29-5 

8.25 
6.0 

14-75 
17-75 
15-5 



' All straight, unless otherwise stated. 



' Add 2 in. for breakage. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



295 



In spite of the correspondence in general propoi-tions between two Pacific 
skulls and the Norway and Massachusetts skulls, ray associates, Dr. L. Stejneger 
and Mi-. G. S. Miller, Jr., who examined them with me, while side by side in one of 
the halls of the Museum, pointed out certain characters in which the two Atlantic 
skulls appeared to them to differ from the two Pacific skulls. The principal of 
these were (1) that the nasal processes of the maxillaj were bent toward the median 
line much more strongly in the Pacific than in the Atlantic skulls, and (2) that the 
orbital process of the maxillae was shorter and thicker in the former than in the 
latter. The characters will be seen by comparing the figures on plates 22 and 23. 
I also noted that in the Pacific skulls the vomer appeared to descend more opposite 
the anterior end of the palatines, giving a stronger curve to the inferior jirofile of 
the ci-anium, and that the palatines were broader posteriorly. I have endeavored 
to bring out some of these differences in the last three measurements of the fore- 
going table. These measurements reduced to percentages of the total length of 
the skull are repeated below : 

BALMNOPTEBA ACUTO-ROSTRATA LAC. AND B. DAVinSONl SCAMMON. SKtTLL. 



Measurement. 



Total length of skull, straight 

Distance from inferior surface of vomer at ant. end of palatines to 
vertex, straight 

Inner edge of proximal end of nasal process of maxilla to distal end 
of orbital process of maxilla, straight 

Outer edge of premaxilla to distal end of orbital process of maxilla, 
straight 



S - 



43-5 



23.6 
26.5 



o 



m. 
60.5 



22.7 

293 
26.5 



S". 
(/: o 



in. 

61.5 



25-1 

26.0 



Z2 - 

M 

o 



61.25 '^ 



24.1 

29.0 

253 



It would appear from the foregoing that the vomer is deeper in the Pacific 
skulls, but the proportional length of the orbital pi-ocess of the maxilla does not 
differ materially in the Norway and Pacific skidls. The breadth of this process, as 
shown by plates 22 and 23, is greater in the Pacific skulls than in the one from 
Norway. This greater breadth, however, is approximated in Eschi'icht's figure of 
an adult skull from Norway {37, pi. 9, fig. 1). 

If any of these differences prove constant on examination of a larger number 
of specimens, it will probably be the greater depth of the vomer and the bend- 
ing inward of the nasal pi'ocess of the maxilla. As regards the latter, Eschricht's 
and Capelliui's figures of European skulls present a substantial agreement with our 
skulls from Norway and Massachusetts. 

' Type of B. davidsoni. " 2 '"■ added for breakage. 



296 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

A series of vertebrae belonging to a small Finback whale were found by me 
on St. Paul Id., Pribilof Group, Bering Sea, July 30, 1895. They were 27 in 
number, and included the 7th cervical, 11 dorsals, and 15 lumbars and caudals. It 
will be observed that the number of doi'sals is the same as in B. acuto-rostrata. 

Of this species Van Beueden remarked in 1889 (7, 165) : " In our opinion it is 
a synonym of Balcenoptera rostrata'''' (= B. acutO'Vost/i'atd). 



CHAPTER X. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

The conclusions reached in the foregoing pages are : 

(1) That the sjiecies of whalebone whales occurring in the western North 
Atlantic Ocean are identical with those occurring in the eastern North Atlantic. 

(2) That these species are the Bowhead, or Greenland Right whale, Balcena 
mysticetus, the Black whale, Balwna glacialis, the Humpback, Megaptera nodosa, the 
Sulphurbottom, Baloenoptera musculus, the common Finback, Balcenoptera physalus, 
and the Little Piked whale, Balwnoptera acuto-rostrata, and probably the Pollack 
w^hale, Balcenoptera boreaUs. 

(3) That the range of one of these whales — the Humpback — extends south- 
ward at least as far as 1 8° North Lat. 

(4) That the probability of the identity of the North Pacific species with 
those of the North Atlantic is strengthened by the evidence herein collected. 

As modifications of the preceding statements, several particulars require to be 
brought forward. Both the Little Piked whale and the Humjjback of Greenland 
may possibly possess characters entitling them to be regarded as separate sub- 
species. These differences, however, are quite as likely to be due to inaccuracy of 
observation. As the species are migratory, it is probable that the Greenland indi- 
viduals rainsle with individuals from farther south and ai-e identical with them 
both specifically and subspecifically, but additional evidence is needed to prove 
this hypothesis. 

As no specimens of the Pollack whale, Balmnoptei'a borealis, from American 
waters have been examined, it is not certain that the species is really the same on 
both sides of the Atlantic. As the other species are the same, the presumption is, 
of course, that the Pollack whale also undergoes no modification. This, however, 
requires to be demonstrated. 

As evidence is strengthened regarding the specific identity of the whales of 
the North Atlantic and Noi-th Pacific, the belief that the same species of large 
whales range all over the globe is, of course, also strengthened. It is well-known 
that whales closely i-esembling Megaptera nodosa, B. cvcuto-rostrata, B. muscxdus, and 
B.pliysalus — to mention no others — occur in the South Atlantic and the Antarctic 
seas, and also — the second and last, at least — about New Zealand. 

Some competent zoologists have expressed the opinion that the species are 
cosmopolitan, but as already said in the case of the North American species, such 
opinions have not been based to any large extent on the critical examination of 

297 



298 THE WHALEBOTfE WHALES OE THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

considerable numbers of specimens from the I'egious mentioned. Such opinions 
have, of course, a cei'tain interest and value, but knowledge will not be greatly 
increased without the study of new material. 

Even should it be demonstrated that the species of large whalebone whales are 
cosmopolitan, it does not follow that the individuals constituting these several 
species range throughout the globe. The probabilities are much against such 
world-wide movements, and in the case of the Right whales it appears to have been 
demonstrated by Maury that individuals do not cross the equator. In this latter 
case, and perhaps in others, it would appear that the study of the migi'ations of 
sepai'ate groups of individuals, or schools, can be carried on profitably without 
regai'd to the general facts pertaining to the distribution of the species as a whole. 

The following diagnoses of North Atlantic species are intended to summarize 
the observations of earlier writers both American and European, as well as those 
detailed in the preceding pages. The diagnosis of Balcenoptera horealis is based on 
Collett's admirable account of that species (21). 

Bal^ena glaclalis Bonnaterre. 
Black whale, Nai'dcaper, or Biscay whale. Plate 50, fig. 2. 

Form massive. Head very large. Rostrum narrow and curved, with a pi'o- 
tuberance near the anterior end ("bonnet"). Blowholes elevated and followed by 
a distinct depression. Lower lip very large, oblong, the free margin more or less 
sinuous. 

Pectorals very broad, short, with a convex posterior margin and pointed tip. 

Color black throughout, or with more or less white on the throat and breast 
in some individuals. 

Rostrum of skull very long and narrow; the anterior half strongly curved. 
Intermaxillae broad, occupying nearly the whole upper surface of the rostrum. 
Nasals very large, broad, oblong. The free anterior border w-shaped. Orbital 
process of frontal very narrow, somewhat tubular, and only moderately bent back- 
ward, the orbital border very narrow, oblique. Occij^ut broad, with convex sides. 

Sternum broadly and irregularly triangular. Scapula broader than high ; 
broad near the base. Vertebral formula: C. 7, D. 14, L. 11 (10-12), Ca. 23 (-26). 
Total 55 (-57). 

Megaptera nodosa (Bonnaterre). 
Humpback. Plate 50, fig. 1. 

Form massive and peculiarly ungraceful, size moderate. Head flat and obtuse. 
Abdominal ridges few and broad, 14 to 30. Average total length, 48 feet ; 
maximum, 55 feet. 

Pectorals, from head of humerus, 32 per cent, of total length ; lanceolate, with 
extremity I'ecurved ; anterior margin with ten or eleven very prominent sinuosities 
corresponding to the joints of the manus; posterior margin convex proximally, 
concave distally, with several small sinuosities at the extremity. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOKTH ATLANTIC. 299 

Dorsal low, tliick at the base, erect or somewhat falcate, with the anteiior 
margin usually concave near the middle. 

Flukes bi'oad, witli convex anterior border, concave posterior border, and 
acuminate extremities ; posterior border crenate. 

Abdominal ridges converging in the median line below, anteriorly, forming an 
irregular projection below the symphysis of the mandible. 

Inferior outline of the body from the pudendum posteriorly broken by three 
convexities, of which the larorest and most salient is behind the anus. Head and 
lips with numerous low I'ounded tuberosities; three rows on the head, one median 
and two hitei-al ; a large irregular aggregation at the symphysis of the mandible 
and others scattered along the rami. A semi-elliptical furrow above the base of 
the pectoral. 

Color black, with white markings. Body black, with a varying number of 
white ai'eas and markings on the lower surface, especially on the mandible, the 
abdominal I'idges, and about the pudendum. Many of the smaller white markings, 
es[)ecially on the mandible, are in the form of complete or incomplete rings, or 
circular ai'eas, and are due to barnacles. White markings occasionally on the 
upper jaw, liehind the eye, and on the dorsal fin. Pectorals virtuall}^ all white on 
the upper surface, oi' with the l)asal one third to one half clouded with black ; a 
narrow, irregular posterior border and the larger anterior sinuosities, when occu- 
pied by barnacles, black. Under surface entirely white. Flukes black above, with 
some white markings near the extremities; below, usually with a large white area 
on each side of the median line, bordered anteriorly and posterioi'ly with black. 

Whalebone dull grayish black, with some more or less dull whitish plates on 
the i-ight side anteriorly. Bristles dull grayish black; the matted mass somewhat 
varied in tint. 

Skull very broad ; rostrum obtuse, sides slightly convex. Outer margin of 
intermaxillse sinuous. Nasals nai-row, the anterior free margin acutely pointed. 
Orbital process of frontal triangular, very broad transversely ; orbital margin 
narrow, oblicpie, the posterior angle extending out much farther than the anterior. 
Occiput narrow anteriorly. Coronoid process of mandible low. Vertebral for- 
mula: C. 7, D. 14, L. 11 (-10), Ca. 21. Total, 53 (-52). 

BaLjENOPTEEA musculus (L.). 
Sulphvrhottom. Plate 48, fig. •?. 

Form massive ; size veiy large. Head very broad and obtuse. 

Average total length, 76 ft. ; maximum, 89 feet. Pectorals, from head of 
humerus, 15 per cent, of the total length, falcate, obtusely pointed. Dorsal fin very 
small; its height about 1 per cent, of the total length; very variable in form, but 
usually more or less falcate; situated behind the line of the anus. 

Color of the body mottled gray throughout; the proportion of light and dark 
tints varying greatly in different individuals ; head a little darker and nearly uniform ; 
body usually lightest at the shoulder and between the pectoral and navel ; darkest 



300 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

between the navel and anus ; some entirely white spots on the posterior ends of the 
abdominal lidges. 

Pectorals ^ray on the upper surface except at the tij), usually with some 
lighter blotches ; white ou the lower surface, anterior margin, and tip. Dorsal fin 
dark gray, usually with whitish center crossed by light vertical, curvilinear markings. 
Flukes gray above and below ; the lower surface with fine light and dark gray lines 
running antero-posteriorly. 

Whalebone entirely black. 

Rostrum of the ci'aniuin very broad; free margin of maxillae convex ; nasals 
oblong, with ti'uncated anterior mai-giu. Vertebral formula: C. 7, D. 15 (-16), 
L. 14 (-16), Ca. 26 (-28). Total, 63-65. 

BALiENOPTERA PHYSALUS (L.). 

Common Finback. Plate 4-8, jig. 1. 

Form remarkably slender, size large. Head narrow and pointed. 

Average total length, 59 feet ; maximum, 81 or 84 feet (?). 

Pectorals, from head of humerus, 12 per cent, of the total length, lanceolate, 
pointed. Dorsal fin moderate; its height about 2-|^ per cent, of the total length; 
moi'e or less falcate ; situated just posterior to line of anus. 

Color of the body dark gray above, white below ; the two colors mei-ging by 
imperceptible gradations on the flanks. Coloration of the head not bilaterally 
symmetrical, there being more white on the i-ight side than on the left, at least as 
far back as the pectoral ; right ramus of the mandible white externally, and also 
the anterior third, or more, of the whalebone; left ramus of the mandible and left 
whalebone dark gray. Dorsal fin dark gray like the back. Pectorals gray on 
dorsal sui'face, white on ventral sui'face and antei-ior margin. Flukes dark gray 
above, white below, with gray posterior margin. Gray of the flanks extending 
obliquely downward and backwai'd from the pectorals toward the flukes, but not 
reaching the inferior margin of the caudal peduncle, where there is a narrow white 
edge, bounded anteriorly by a linear gray mai'k directed obliquely forward and 
downward toward the anus. 

Whalebone gray striped longitudinally with yellowish white in varying pro- 
portions; anterior whalebone on right side of body all yellowish white. 

Rostrum of the skull narrow and acuminate ; free mai-gius of maxillas nearly 
straight. Nasals narrow, and pointed anteiiorly in the median line. Vertebral 
formula: C. 7, D., 15 (-16), L. 14 (-15), Ca. 25 (-26). Total, 61-63. 

Balenoptera borealis Lesson. 

Pollack whale. Plate 49, Jig. S. 

Form moderately robust. Size moderate. Average total length, 46 to 47 feet ; 
maximum, 54 feet. Pectorals, from axilla, 11 per cent, of total length, slender and 
pointed. Dorsal large, high, and falcate ; vertical height about 4 [)er cent, of the 
total length ; situated just anterior to the line of the anus. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOKTH ATLANTIC. 301 

" Color bluish black above, with oblong light colored spots ; the underside as 
far as the genitalia more or less white. The whole of the tail, with the flukes and 
the flippers on both sides, is exactly similar to the back ia coloi-." 

Whalebone plates, black ; bristles, white. 

Rosti-uni of the skull elongated and triangular with straight sides, as in B. 
physalus. Orbit very large. Nasals ol)Iong and ti-uncated antei'ioi-ly. Coronoid 
process of mandible low. Vertebral formula: C. 7, D. 14 (-13), L. U (-15), 
Ca. 20 (-21). Total, 55 (-56). 

Bal^noptera acuto-rostrata Lac^pede. 
Little Piked whale, or Lesser Finner. Plate 49, fig 1. 

Form heavy, size small. Head narrow and pointed. Abdominal lidges 
numerous and narrow. 

Average total length, 26 feet (?) ; maximum, 30 feet. 

Pectorals, fiom axilla, 12.5 per cent, of total length, lanceolate, pointed. Dor- 
sal fin large; its height about 5 per cent, of the total length; situated just in 
advance of the line of the anus. 

Color of the body dai'k brownish gray above, white below, the two colors 
joining rather abruptly on the flanks ; inferior margin of caudal peduncle white. 
Mandible dark gray. Dorsal fin dark like the back. Pectoral fins above with the 
middle thii'd white, and tip and base dark gray ; below similar, but with more 
white. Flukes gray above, white below. More or less gray mottling on the white 
abdominal ridges (?). 

Whalebone all yellowish white. 

Rostrum of cranium triangular, pointed, with straight sides. Orbital process 
of frontal large and oblong; orbit very large. Nasals large and triangular, the 
apex directed backward, the anterior free margin transverse or slightly convex. 
Vertebral formula: C. 7, D. 11, L. 12 (-13), Ca. 18 (-20). Total, 48 (-50). 



APPENDIX I. 

LIST OF WORKS CITED. 

1. Bambeke (Van), C. Quelques rem.irqiies sur les stiiielettes de cetaces, conserves k la collec- 

tion d'anntomie coniparee de I'universite de Gand. 
£////. Acad. R. Belg. (2), 26, 1868, jip. 20-61. 

2. Beddard, W. S. a book of whales. 

London, 1900, 8°, pp. i-.w, 1-320, 21 pis. 

3. Beneden (Van), P.-J. Notice sur la decouverte d'un os de baleine a Furnes. 

Bu/l. Acad. R. Bclg. (2), 23, No. i, 1867, pp. 13-21. (Separate, pp. 8.) 

4. . Memoire sur une Bal^noptere capturee dans I'Escaut en 1869. 

M^m. Acad. R. Belg., 38, 187 1, pp. 1-36, pis. 1-2. 

5. . Un mot sur la baleine du Japon. 

Bidl. Acad. R. Belg. (2), 41, 1875, pp. 28-37. 

6. . \^e R/iac/iia>icctes glauctis At& cole^ dit Ca\\(oxmt. 

Bull. Acad. R. Belg. (2), 43, 1877, pp. 92-96, pi. i. 

7. . Histoire naturelle des cetaces des mers d'Europe. 

Brussels, 1889, 8°, pp. 1-664. 

8. , et Gervais, Paul. Osteographie des cetaces vivants et fossiles, comprenant la 

description et I'iconographie du squelette et du systeme dentaire de ces animaux, ainsi 
que des documents relatifs a leur histoire naturelle. 

Paris, 1880 (1868-1879), 4°, pp. i-viii, 1-634. Atlas, folio, pis. 1-64. 
9. Bonnaterre (Abb6). Tableau encyclop^dique et methodique des trois regnes de la nature, 
dedie et presente a M. Necker, Ministre d'etat, et Directeur General des Finances. — 
Cetologie. 

Paris, 1789, 4°, pp. i-.xlii, 1-28, pis. 1-12. 
10. Brandt, J. F., und Ratzeburg, J. T. C. Medizinische Zoologie oder getreue Darstelliing 
und Beschreibung der Thiere, die in der Arzneimittellehre in betracht konimen. 
Vol. I, Berlin, 1829, 4°, pp. i-iv, 1-198, 25 pis. 
ri. Breda (Van), J. G. S. Eenige bijzonderheden omtrent den Walvisch, die den 5den Novem- 
ber 1827 bij Oostende gestrand is. 

Algemeene Konst- en Letter-Bode, No. 48, Nov. 30, 1827, pp. 341-348. 
12. Capellini, G. Sulla balenottera di Mondini, rorqual de la mer Adriatique di G. Cuvier. 

Mem. R. Accad. Set. Bologna (3), 7, 1877, pp. 413-448, pis. 1-4. (Separate, 1877, pp. 
1-40, pis. 1-4.) 

13. •. Delia balena di Taranto, confrontata con quelle della Nuovo Zelanda e con 

talune fossili del Belgio e della Toscana. 

Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Bologna (3), 8, 1877, pp. 3-32, pis. 1-3. (Separate, 1877, pp. 1-34, 
pis. 1-3.) 

14. Carte, .\i.ex., and Macalister, Alex. On the anatomy of Balanoptera rostrata. 

Philos. Trans., 1868, pp. 201-261, pis 4-7. 

15. Cocks, Alf. H. The fin whale fishery on the coast of Finmarken. 

Zoologist (3), 8, 1884, pp. 366-370, 417-424, 455-465- (Separate, pp. 1-22.) 

303 



304 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

16. Cocks, Alf. H. Additional notes on the finwhale fishery on the North European coast. 

Zoologist {i), 9, 1885, pp. 134-143- (Separate, pp. i-io.) 
ly. . Tlie finwhale fishery of 1885 on the North European coast. 

Zoologist (t,), 10, 1886, pp. 121-136. (Separate, 1886, pp. 1-16.) 
18. . The finwhale fishery of 1886 on the Lapland coast. 

Zoologist [t,), II, 1887, pp. 207-222. (Separate, 1887, pp. 1-16.) 
19. . The finwhale fishery off the Lapland coast in 1888. 

Zoologist {t,), 13, 1889, pp. 281-290. (Separate, 1889, pp. i-to.) 
20. CoLLETT, RoET. Beniserkninger til Norges Pattedyrfauna. 

Nyt Mag. for Naturviilens., 22, 1877, pp. 54-168. 
21. . On the external characters of Rudolphi's Rorqual {Balcenoptera borealis). 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1886, pp. 243-265, pis. 25-26. 

22. Cope, E. D. Note on a species of whale occurring on the coasts of the United States. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, pp. 168-169. 

23. • . [Description of the cranium of a blackfisli from Delaware Bay, and note on a 

whale from Mobjack Bay, Virginia.] 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, pp. 7-8. 
24. . Third contribution to the history of the Balaenidse and Delphinidae. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, pp. 293-300. 
25. . [Note on a specimen of a young whale obtained near Bahia, Brazil.] 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1867, p. 32. 
26. . On Agaphalus, a genus of toothless cetacea. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1868, pp. 221-227. 

27. . Second contribution to the history of the vertebrata of the Miocene period of the 

United States. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1868. pp. 184-194. 
28. . [Notes on e.xtinct and recent cetacea.] 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1868, pp. 159-160. 
29. . On Megaptera hellicosa. 

Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, 12, 1873, pp. 103-108. 
30. . Catalogue of aquatic mammals of the United States, by F. W. True. (Review.) 

Amer. Nat., 18, 1884, pp. 1123-1124. 
3T. . A finback whale (Balanoptera) recently stranded on the New Jersey coast. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. (1891), 1892, ])p. 474-478. 

32. De Kay, J. E. Zoology of New York, pt. i. Mammalia, 1842, p. 130. 

33. Dei, AGE, Yves. Histoire du Balxnoptera musculus 6choue sur la plage de Langrune. 

Arch. Zool. Exper. et Gcfn. (2), 3 bis, suppl., 1885, mem. i, pp. 1-152, pis. 1-21. 

34. DuBAR, J. Ost^ographie de la baleine ^choude a I'Est du port d'Ostende, le 4 Novembre 

1827; preced^e d'une notice sur la decouverte et la dissection de ce cetac^e. 
Brussels, 1828, 8°, pp. 1-61, pis. 1-13. 

35. DwiGHT (Jr.), Thos. Description of the whale {Balanoptera musculus Auct.) in the possession 

of the Society: with remarks on the classification of finwhales. 
Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, 2, 1872, pp. 203-230, pis. 6-7. 

36. EscHRiCHT, D. F. Undersogelser over Hvaldyrene. Femte Afhandling. Finhvalernes 

Osteologie og Artadskillelse. 

Danske Videns. Selsk. natur. og math. Afhandl., 12, 1846, pp. 227-396, pis. 9-16. 

37- ■ Zoologisch-anatomisch-physiologische Untersuchungen fiber die Nordischen 

Wallthiere. 

Vol. I, Leipzig, 1849, 4°, pp. i-xvi, 1-206, pis. 1-14. 

38- . og Reinhardt, J. Om Nordhvalen {Balcena mysticetus L.) navnlig med Hensyn 

til dens Udbredning i Fortiden og Nutiden og til dens ydre og indre Saerkjender. 
Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. (5), natur. og math. Afd., 5, i86r, pp. 435-592, pis. i-6. 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 305 

39. EsCHRiCHT, D. F. On the Greenland Right whale {Balana mysticetus L.), with special refer- 
ence to its geographical distribution and migrations in times past and present, and 
to its external and internal characteristics. 
Ray Society publications, 1866. 

4°- • Recherches sur la distribution des Cetac^s dans les mers bor^ales. 

Ann. Set. Nat, Zool., i, 1864, pp. 201-224. 

41. Fabricius, O. Fauna grcenlandica. 

Stockholm & Leipzig, 1870, 8°. 

42. Fischer, P. Sur la baleine des Basques {Balana Biscayensis). 

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 72, 187 1, ])p 298-300, foot-note. 

43. . Documents pour servir a I'histoire de la baleine des Basques. 

Ann. Sci. Nat. (5), Zool., 15, 1872, Art. 3, pp. 1-20. 

44. . C^tacds du Sud-Ouest de la France. 

Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 35, 1881, pp. 5-220, pis. r-8. (Separate, Paris, 1881, 8°, 
pp. 1-220, pis. 1-8.) 
45. Flower, Wm. H. Notes on the skeletons of whales in the principal museums of Holland and 
Belgium, with descriptions of two species apparently new to science. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864, pp. 384-420. 

46. . List of the specimens of cetacea in the zoological department of the British 

Museum. 

London, 1885, 8°, pp. i-vi, 1-36. 
47. Gasco, F. Intorno alia balena presa in Taranto nel Febbrajo, 1877. 

At. R. Accad. Sci. Napol., 7, No. 16, 1878, pp. 1-47, pis. 1-9. (Separate, Naples, 1878, 
pp. 1-47, pis. 1-9.) 

48. . II balenotto catturato nel 1854 a San Sebastiano (Spagna) {Balcena biscayensis, 

Eschricht) per la prima volta descritto. 

An. Mus. Civ. Star. Nat. Genova, 14, 1879, pp. 573-608. 
49. Gervais, p. Remarques sur I'anatomie des c^tacds de la division des Bal^nides tir6es de 
I'examen des pieces relatives \ ces animaux qui sont conserv^es au Museum. 
Nouv. Archiv. du Mus. d'LIist. Nat. Paris, 7, 1871, pp. 65-146, pis. 3-10. 

50. . Sur la baleine de la Mediterranee. 

Bull. Acad. R. Belg. (2), 14, 1862, pp. 186-193. 

51. Gervais, H. P. M^moire sur deux squelettes de baleinopteres rapport^s du Cap Horn. 

Mission Sci. Cap Lforn, 6, Zool. i, 1891, pp. 1-62, pis. 1-4. 

52. Graells, M. p. Las ballenas en las costas oceanicas de Espafia. 

Mem. R. Acad. Cien. Madrid, 13, Pt. 3, 1889, pp. 1-115, pis. 1-9. 

53. Gray, J. E. Catalogue of seals and whales in the British Museum. 

2d ed., London, 1866, 8°, pp. i-viii, 1-402. 

^4. . Synopsis of the species of whales and dolphins in the collection of the British 

Museum. 

London, 1868, 4°, pp. i-io, pis. 1-37. 
55. . Supplement to the catalogue of seals and whales in the British Museum. 

London, 187 1, 8°, pp. i-vi, 1-103. 
56. . Zoology of the voyage of the Erebus and Terror. Cetacea. 

1846, 4°, pp. 13-53. pis- i-3°- 
57. Guldberg, G. Zur Biologic der nordatlantischen Finwalarten. 

Zool. Jahrb., Syst. Abth., 2, 1886, pp. 127-174. 

58, . Bidrag til noiere Kundskab om Atlanterhavets rethval {Evbalana biscayensis, 

Eschricht). 

Chris. Videns.-Selsk. Forhandl. for i8gi, 1891, No. 8; pp. 14. 
gg. . Zur Kenntniss des Nordkapers. {Eubalana biscayensis Eschr.). 

Zool. Jahrb., Syst. Abth., 7, 1893, pp. 1-22, pis. 1-2. 



306 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

60. Hallas, S. Optegnelser om nogle paa et Hvalfangst-Tog i Havet omkring Island iagttagne 

Hvaler. 

Videns. Aleddel. Naturh. Foren. Kjob., Aar iSdj, 1868, pp. 150-177. 

61. Holder, J. B. The Atlantic Right Whales: A contribution, embracing an examination of 

(i) the e.xterior characters and osteology of a cisarctic Right whale — male; (2) the ex- 
terior characters of a cisarctic Right whale — female; (3) the osteology of a cisarctic 
Right whale — sex not known. To which is added a concise resume of historical men- 
tion relating to the present and allied species. 

Bidl. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., i, 1883, pp. 99-137, pis. 10-13. 

62. Knox, F. J- Account of the Rorqual, the skeleton of which is now exhibiting in the great 

rooms of the Royal Institution, Princes Street. 
Edinburgh, 1835, 8°, pp. 1-16. 

63. Lahille, F. Osteologie de baleinoptere de Miramar. 

Revista Mus. de la Plata, 9, 1899, pp. 79-120, pis. i-ii. (Separate, La Plata, 1898, 
pp. 1-40, pis. I-II.) 

64. LiLLjEBORG, W. Ofversigt af de inom Skandinavien (Sverige och Norrige) antraffade Hval- 

artade Daggdjur (Cetacea). 

Upsala Univ. Arssk., 1861, Math, och Naturvct., pp. 1-38; 1862, pp. 1-80. (Separate, 
Upsala, 1862, pp. 1-118.) 

65. Malm, A. W. Om ett i zoologiska Riksmuseum befintligt skelett af Balanoptera musculits 

(Companyo) fr&n Finmarken. 

Oefvers. Vet. Akad. Forhandl., 1868, pp. 95-103, i pi. 
66. . Hvaldjur i Sveriges Museer, Ar 1869. 

Sveiis. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 9, No. 2, 1870, pp. 1-104, pis. 1-6. 
67. . Skelettdelar af Hval insamlade under Expeditionen med Vega, 1878-1880. 

Bihang K. Sven. Vet. Akad. Handl., 8, No. 4, 1883, pp. 1-114. 

68. Manigault, G. E. The Black whale captured in Charleston harbor. 

Froc. Elliott Soc, 1885, pp. 98-104. 

69. IMenge, a. Scelet des breitkopfigen Finnwals, Pterobalcena laticeps. 

Schrift. naturforsch. Gesell. Danzig, Neue Folge, 3, Heft 4, 1875, 29 pp., 4 photo, plates. 

70. MoBius, K. Ueber den Fang und die Verwerthung der Walfische in Japan. 

Sitzber. K. Preus. Akad. IViss. Berlin, 52, 1893 (1894), pp. 1053-1072. (Separate, 
pp. 1-20.) 

71. Nyenhuis, J. T. B. Over de walvischaardige Dieren, op de Kusten van Nederland van de 

vroegste Tijden af gestrand of gevangen. 

Algem. Konst- en Letterbode voor 1836, pp. 163-169. 

72. Pallas, P. S. Zoographia Rosso- Asiatica. 

I, (1811), 1831, pp. 286-288. 

73. Pechuel-Loesche, M. E. Wale und walfang. 

Aiisland, i,\, 1871, pp. 985-990, 1017-1021, 1043-1047, 1066-1070, 1108-1111,1131- 
1136, 1182-1188, 1230-1234; 45, 1872, pp. 6-11. 

74. Rawitz, B., Ueber norwegische Bartenwale. 

Sitz. Ber. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin, 1897, pp. 146-150. 

75. Reinhardt, J. Nogle Bemaerkninger om Islsendernes " Steypireydr," en Efterskrift til Hr. 

Hallas's Optegnelser om nogle paa et Hvalfangsttog i Havet omkring Island iagttagne 
Hvaler. 

Videns. Meddel. naturhist. Foren. Kjoben. for i86j, 1868, pp. 178-201. (Separate, 
Copenhagen, 1868, pp. 1-26.) 

76. RuDOLPHi, D. K. A. ijber Balcena longimana. 

Abhandl. K. Akad. Wissensch. Berlin, atis 182^, 1832, pp. 133-144, pis. 1-5. 

77. Sars, G. O. Beskrivelse af en ved Lofoten indbjerget Rorhval. 

Chris. Videns.-Selsk. Forhandl., Aar 186^, 1866, pp. 266-295, P^^- i~3- 



TIIE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 307 

78. Sars, G. O. Om. "Blaahvalen " {Balcenoptera sibbaldit. Gray), med Bemaerkninger omnogle 

andre ved Finmarkens Kyster forekommende Hvaldyr. 

Chris. Videns.-Selsk. For handl. for 1874, 1875, pp. 227-241, i pi. (Separate, pp. 1-17, 
I pi.) 

79. • . Bidrag til en noiere Characteristik af vore Bardehvaler. 

Chris. Vidensk.-Selsk. Forhandl., Aar 1S7S, No. 15, pp. 1-20, pis. 1-4. 

80. . Fortsatte Bidrag til Kundskaben om vore Bardehvaler, " Finhvalen " og 

" Knolhvalen." 

Chris. Videns.-Sclsk. Forhandl., Aar 1880, 1881, No. 12, pp. 1-20, pis. 1-3. 

81. SCAMMON, C. M. On a new species of Balanoptera. 

Free. Cal. Acad. Sci., 4, No. 20, Jan., 1873, pp. 269-270. (Printed in advance, Oct. 
4, 1872.) 

82. . The Marine Mammals of the north-western coast of North .America, described 

and illustrated: Together with an account of the American whale-fishery. 

San Francisco, 1874, 4°, pp. 1-320, i-v; pis. 1-27. 

83. , and Cope, E. D. On the cetaceans of the western coast of North America. By 

C. M. Scammon, United States [Revenue] Marine. Edited by Edward D. Cope. Part 
I. Systematic synopsis of the species of the cetaceans of the west coast of North 
America. By Prof. E. D. Cope. Part 2. Natural history of the cetaceans of the seas 
off the north-west coast of America, with an account of the elephant seal appended. 
[By Capt. C. M. Scammon.] 

Froc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Fhila., 1869, pp. 13-63, 8 pis. 

84. ScoRESBY, W., Jr. An account of the Arctic regions, with a history and description of the 

northern whale-fishery. 

Edinburgh, 1820, 2 vols., 8°. 

85. Stejneger, L. Contributions to the history of the Commander Islands. No. i. Notes on 

the natural history, including descriptions of new cetaceans. 
Froc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6, 1883, pp. 58-89. 

86. Struthers, J. On the cervical vertebrae and their articulations in fin-whales. 

yourn. Anat. and Fhys., 7, 1872, pp. 1-55, pis. 1-2. 

87. . On some points in the anatomy of a Megaptera longimatia. 

Joiiin. Anat. and Phys., 22, 1887, pp. 109-125; 1888, pp. 240-282, 441-460, 629-656; 
23, 1888, pp. 124-164, 308-335, 358-373. (Separate: Memoir on the anatomy of the 
Humpback whale, Megaptera longimana. Edinburgh, 1889, 8°, pp. 1-188, pis. 1-6.) 

88. . On the rudimentary hind-limb of a great Fin-whale {Balcenoptera musculus) in 

comparison with those of the Humpback whale and the Greenland Right whale. 
Journ. Anat. and Phys., 27, 1893, pp. 291-335, pis. 17-20. 

89. True, F. W. Annotated list of the aquatic mammals of North America, with catalogue of 

specimens exhibited at London. 

Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, 1884, pp. 634-644. 

90. Townsend, C. H. Present condition of the California Gray Whale fishery. 

Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 6, 1886, pp. 340-35°, P's- 6-7. 

9 1 . Turner, Wm. An account of the great finner whale {Balanoptera sibbaldii ) stranded at Long- 

niddry. Part i. The soft parts. 

Trans. R. Soc. Fdinburgh, 26, 1870, pp. 197-251, pis. 5-8. 
The lesser Rorqual {Balcetwptera rostrata) in the Scottish seas, with observations 



92. 



on its anatomy. 

Froc. F. Soc. Edinburgh, Sess. 1891-92, pp. 36-75. 



APPENDIX II. 

AMERICAN SPECIMENS OF WHALEBONE WHALES IN EUROPEAN MUSEUMS. 
(Chiefly from Van Beneden, Flower, and Gray). 



BAL.«N.\ MYSTICETUS L. 
Vienna, Austria. 

I. Baleen from Bering Strait, collected by Captain Scammon. (Van Beneden.) 

BALyENA GLACIALIS (Bonn.). 

Louvain, Belgium. (Museum of the University.) 

I. Ear-bone of an adult, presented by Cope. (Van Beneden.) 

Milan, Italy. (Civic Museum.) 

1. Cast of one ear-bone of the type of B. cisarctica. (Gasco.) 

MEGAPTERA NODOSA (Bonn.). 
Bordeaux, France. 

1. Fragments of skulls, jaws, pectoral elements, vertebra;, etc. From Martinique Id. (Van 

Beneden; see also Fischer, 7, 58.) 

2. Bones from Bermuda. (Van Beneden.) 

Copenhagen, Denmark. 

1. Skeletons of different ages from the East coast of Greenland, sent by HolboU to Eschricht. 

(Van Beneden.) (Many of these distributed to other European museums.) 

2. Other specimens, viscera, foetuses, etc. (Van Beneden.) 

Brussels, Belgium. (Royal Museum.) 

I. Skeleton from Greenland, received through Eschricht. (Van Beneden.) 

Louvain, Belgium. (Museum of the University.) 

I. Skeleton from Greenland, received through Eschricht. (Van Beneden.) 

London, England. (British Museum.) 

1. Complete skeleton, nearly adult, from Greenland. (Flower.) 

2. Skull, with baleen, from Greenland. (Flower.) 

3. Tympanic bones from Greenland. (Van Beneden.) 1 

4. Foetus from Greenland. (Flower.) 

5. Skull and various bones from California. (Flower.) 

Stockholm, Sweden. (Royal Museum.) 

I. Numerous bones from St. Bartholomew Id., West Indies; received from Dr. Goes. (Van 
Beneden.) 

Lund, Sweden. 

I. Skeleton from Greenland; obtained from Eschricht. (Van Beneden.) 

Leyden, Netherlands. 

I. Skeleton received from Eschricht. (Van Beneden and Gervais.) 

308 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NOKTH ATLANTIC. 309 

BAL^NOPTERA ACUTO-ROSTRATA LaC. 

Londott, England. (British Museum.) 

1. Skeleton from South Greenland. (Flower.) 

2. Stuffed specimen, very young, from Greenland. (Flower.) 

Louvain, Belgium. (Museum of the University.) 
I. Skeleton from Greenland. (Van Beneden.) 

Stultgart, Geniiafiy. 

I. Skeleton from Labrador. (Van Beneden.) 

Copenhagen, Denmark. 

1. (Eschricht states that Holboll transmitted three skeletons from Greenland. Anat. Unter- 

such., p. 173.) 

2. Seven foetuses in alcohol. (Van Beneden.) 

BAL^NOPTERA DAViDSONi Scammon. 

Vienna, Austria. 

I. Baleen from San Francisco, Cal. (Van Beneden.) 

BAL^NOPTERA PHYSALIS (L.). 

Stuttgart, Germany. 

I. Skull from the mouth of the Maroni River, Dutch Guiana; stranded in 1877. (Van 
Beneden.) 

Copenhagen, Denmark. 

I. Skeleton of an immature individual from Greenland, 53 ft. (N.) long. (Lilljeborg.) 

BAL^NOPTERA MUSCULUS (L.). 

Copenhagen, Denmark. 

I. Bones of a pectoral fin, from Baffin Bay; collected by Holboll. (Van Beneden.) 

St. Petersburg, Russia. 

I. Skeleton from the Arctic Ocean. Collected by Peter Kargin, 1740. (Pallas; Van Beneden.) 

This species. ? 

Vienna, Austria. 

I. Baleen collected by Capt. Scammon. (Van Beneden.) This species. ? 

RHACHIANECTE.S GLAUCUS CopC. 

Vienna, Austria. 

I. Baleen collected by Capt. Scammon. (Van Beneden.) 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



PLATE 1. 



Figure 1. Cranium of the type of Sibbaldius teetirostris Cope. Dorsal view. Philadelphia Academy of 

Natural Sciences. 
Figure 2. Cranium of Balnenoptera physahis (L.). Dorsal view. No. 16045, U. S. National Museum. Cape 

Cod, Mass. Collected by the U. S. Fish Commission. 
Figures. Cramum of BalceiiojAem physaliis (L,.). Dorsal view. No. 16039, U. S. National Museum. Cape 

Cod, Mass. Collected by tlie U. S. Fish Commission. 

PLATE 3. 

Figure 1. Cranium of the type of Sibbaldius teetirostris Cope. Ventral view. 

Figure 2. Cranium of Balcenoptera jjhysalns (L.). Ventral view. No. 16045, U. S. National Museum. Cape 

Cod, Mass. 
Figure 3. Cranium of Balcenoptera physahis (L.). Ventral view. No. 16039, U. S. National Museum. Cape 

Cod, Mass. 

PLATE 3. 

Figure 1. Cranium of Balcenoptera physalus (L.). Dorsal view. Cape Cod, Mass. Ward's Natural Science 

Establishment, Rochester, N. Y. 
Figure 2. The same. Ventral view. 
Figure 3. The same. Lateral view. 

PLATE 4. 

Figure 1. Cranium of the type of Sibbaldius teetirostris Cope. Lateral view. 

Figure 2. Cinnhim oi Balcenoptera physalus (L.). Lateral view. No. 1604,'), U. S. National Museum. Cape 

Cod, Mass. 
Figure 3. Cranium of Balcenoptera physahis (L.). Lateral view. No. 16039, U. S. National Museum. Cape 

Cod, Ma.ss. 
Figure 4. Bones from the type-skeleton of Sibbaldius teetirostris Cope. Right first rib (double-headed), first 

lumbar, first dorsal, and axis. 

PLATE 5. 

Figure 1. Cervical and dorsal vertebrse of the type-skeleton of Sibbaldius teetirostris Cope. 
Figure 2. Lumbar vertebrje of the same. 
Figures 3 and 4. Caudal vertebrae of the same. 

PLATE 6. 

Figure 1. Ribs of the type-skeleton of Sibbaldius teetirostris Cope. 
FIGURE 2. Left scapula and humerus of the same. 
Figure 3. Right first rib of the .same (double-headed). 

Figure 4. Anterior portion of tlie skeleton of Balcenoptera vclifera (?), from beliind, showing tlie ribs, 
sternum, etc., in position. Coast of California. Wistar Institute, University of Pennsylvania. 

311 



312 THE WHALEBOKE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

PLATE 7. 

Figure 1. Scapula of Balcenoptera physalus (L.) from skeleton No. 16039, U.S. National Museum. Cape 

Cod, Mass. 
Figure 2. The same from skeleton No. 16015, U. S. National Museum. Cape Cod, Mass. 
Figure 3. Scapula from skeleton of Balcenoptera velijera (?) in Wistar Institute. Coast of California. 
Figure 4. Sternum of Balwnoptera physalus (L.) from skeleton No. 16045, U. S. National Museum. 
Figure 5. Scapula of Bahenoptera musoulus (L.). Balena Station, Hermitage Bay, Newfoundland. 
Figure 6. Scapula from skeleton of Balcenoptera muscuhis (L.). Ocean City, N. J. Philadelphia Academy 

of Natural Sciences. 
Figure 7. Radius and ulna from the same. 
Figure 8. Humerus from the same. 

Figure 9. Ulna of Balcenoptera museulus (L.). Balena Station, Hermitage Bay, Newfoundland. 
Figure 10. Nasals of the same. 

PLATE 8. 

Figure 1. Balcenoptera physalus (L.). No. 7 S . Showing dark left lip and the pectoral ridges. (The dark line 
crossing the white ridges obliquely is due to slime from the surface of the water.) 

Figure 2. The same species. No. 18 9 . 

Figure 3. The same species. No. 9 <j . Showing greater extension of dark color on the left side than in the 
preceding specimens. 

Figure 4. The same species. No. 13 i . 

All specimens from Snook's Arm Station, Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland. 

PLATE 9. 

Figure 1. Balcenopitera physalus (L.). No. 7 ? . Ventral view. 

Figure 2. The same species. No. 4 S . Ventral view, showing the enlarged mammary glands which appear 

as large rounded eminences immediately in front of the pudendum. 
Figure 3. The same species. No. 20 ? . Ventral view, showing the white right lip. 
Figure 4. The same species. No. 2 ? . Anterior portion of ventral surface, showing large extension of 

dark color. 
Figures. The same species. No. 17 * . Dorsal view, showing right eye, auricular orifice, "corner of 

mouth," and pectoral. 

All specimens from Snook's Arm Station, Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland. 

PLATE 10. 

Figure 1. Balcenoptera physalus (Ij.). No. 20?. Head, showing white right mandible, anterior portion of 
upper jaw, and whalebone. 

Figure 2. The same species. No. 9 i . Head, showing dark left jaws and whalebone. 

Figure 3. The same species. No. 17 i . Lateral view of anterior portion of body, showing white right man- 
dible, and the peculiar markings above the eye and at the base of the pectoral. 

Figure 4. The same species. No. 18 s . Pudendum, mammary fossae, and anus. a. clitoris, 6. mammary 
fossae, c. vestibule, d. anus, e. gray anal lines. 

Figure 5. The same species. No. 9 t5 . Ventral view. 

All specimens from Snook's Arm Station, Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland. 

PLATE 11. 

Figure 1. Balcenoptera physalus (L.). No. 13 S . Dorsal view (head lying in the water). Showing the right 
white mandible, and the peculiar markings above the eye, auricular orifice, and base of pectoral. 

Figure 2. The same species. No. 13 S . Showing similar markings on the left side. 

Figure 3. The same species. No. 18 ? . Head. Dorsal view. 

Figure 4. The same species. No. 7 9 . Dorsal view. 

Figure 5. The same species. No. 18 9 . Dorsal fin. (The peculiar markings are due to abrasion by the cables.) 

Figure 6. The same species. No. 18 9 . Showing the whalebone in position and the "roof of the mouth." 
(The mandible has not been removed). 

All specimens from Snook's Arm Station, Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 313 

PLATE 12. 

FiouEE 1. Bahenoptera phynalus (L.). Proviucetown, Mass. Length reported as 65 ft. 4 in., and "the 

largest of the finback species ever taken here" (Provincetown). 
Figure 3. The same specimen. Ventral view. (The flukes are an addition by the photographer.) 
Figure 3. The same species. Showing the mouth. Provincetown, Mass. 
Figure 4. Another view of the same specimen. 

Figure 5. The same specimen as Figure 3, showing flukes, penis, etc. 
Figure 6. Stripping a carcass of Bahenoptera phymlus (L.) at Nantucket, Mass. Showing the white anterior 

right whalebone. 
Figure 7. Flukes of Balwnoptera jiht/salus (L.), No. 36 <? . Ventral surface. Snook's Arm Station, Notre 

Dame Bay, Newfoundland. 
Figures. Flukes of Batcviwptera physalus (L.), No. 35,5. Ventral surface. Snook's Arm Station, Notre 

Dame Bay, Newfoundland. 

PLATE 18. 

Figure 1. Balcenoptera musculus (L.), No. 3 S . Anterior portion of body. Dorsal view, showing broad head, 

light mottled color of shoulder, and white extremity of pectoral. 
Figure 2. The same species. No. 3 ¥ . Pectoral region, showing mottled coloration, auricular orifice, eye, 

and pectoral. 
Figure 3. The same species. No. 33 S . Lateral view of anterior half of body. 
Figure 4. The same species and specimen. Lateral view. 

All specimens from Balena Station, Hermitage Bay, Newfoundland. 

PLATE 14. 

Figure 1. Balcenoptera musculus (L.), No. 9 s . Dorsal view. 

Figure 3. The same species. No. 21 s . Lateral view. 

Figure 8. The same species. No. 10 S . Ventral view. 

Figure 4. The same species. No. 2 S . Ventral view. 

Figure 5. The same species. No. 8 ? . Ventral view. 

Figure 6. The same species. No. 31 S . Ventral view. 

Figure 7. The same species. No. 6 f . Dorsal view of anterior half of body. 

All specimens from Balena Station, Hermitage Bay, Newfoundland. 

PLATE 15. 

Figure 1. Bal(enoptera musculus (L.). No. 8 S . Head, showing tongue and whalebone in position. 

Figure 2. The same species. No. 6 i . Showing whalebone in position. 

Figure 8. The same species. No. 23 s . Lateral view of head. (The mandible is probably in the position 

it has in life.) 
Figure 4. The same species. No. 28 S . Anterior view of head. The blowhole appears at the summit of the 

broad head, and the eyes at the lateral extremities. (The mandible is out of position and exaggerated 

in size.) 

All specimens from Balena Station, Hermitage Bay, Newfoundland. 

PLATE 16. 

Figure 1. Bahenoptera musculus (L.). No. 23 S . Right eye and " corner of mouth." 
Figure 3. Left eye of the same specimen. 

Figure 3. The same species. No. 9 $ . Whalebone and " roof of mouth." 
Figure 4. The same species. No. 14 S . Left whalebone in position. 

All specimens from Balena Station, Hermitage Bay, Newfoundland. 

PLATE 17. 
Figure 1. Bahenoptera musculus (I,.). No. 26?. Ventral view, showing navel, pudendum, and scattered 

spots of light gray. 
Figure 3. The same species. No. 30 s . Ventral view, showing a large amount of light color at the posterior 

ends of the abdominal ridges. 
Figure 8. The same species. No. 26 9 (already shown in Figure 1). The dark coloration and paucity of spots 

are especiallj' noticeable. 
Figure 4. The same species, No. 30 9 (already shown in Figure 2). Shows the distinct white spots on the 

abdominal ridges and white area at base of pectoral. 

Both specimens are from Balena Station, Hermitage Bay, Newfoundland. 



314 THE WIIALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

PLATE 18. 

Figure 1. Balmwptera musculus (L.). No. 5 S . Ventral view, showing small amount of light color on the 
abdominal ridges. 

Figure 2. The same species. No. 21 i . Ventral view, showing large area of whitish color on the abdominal 
ridges. 

Figure 3. The same species. No. 9 S . Ventral view, showing large amount of light color on the abdomi- 
nal ridges. 

Figure 4. The same species. No. 9 $ . Showing the profuse light spots on the belly. 

All specimens from Balena Station, Hermitage Bay, Newfoundland. 

PLATE 19. 

Figure 1. Balcpnoptcra musculus (L.). No. 7 a . Ventral view, showing small amount of light color on the 

abdominal ridges. 
Figure 2. The same species. No. 8 ? . Navel region. 
Figure 3. The same species. No. 23 $ . Lateral view of the mammary fossa? and inidendum, showing the 

slight projection of these parts. 
Figure 4. The same species. Piece of skin from the flanks, showing mottled coloration. 
All specimens from Balena Station, Hermitage Bay, Newfoundland. 

PLATE 20. 

Figure 1. Balanoptera musculus (L.). No. 8 s . Pudendum, mammary fossae, and anus. (The mammas are 
in the furrows which are intermediate between tlie median line and the external furrows.) 

Figure 2. The same species. No. 21 9 . Pudendum, mammary fossse, and anus ; for comparison with pre- 
ceding figure. (The mammw are in the long furrow nearest the median line on each side) : a. clitoris ; 
h. mammary fossa ; c. orifice of vagina ; d. anus. 

Figure 3. The same species. No. 11 i . Orifice of penis sheath and mammary fossae containing rudimentary 
mammae : a. orifice of penis sheath ; h. mammary fossa?. 

Figure 4. The same species. No. 15 i . Ventral view, showing (a) penis sheath ; (h) mammary fossae, and 
(c) anus. 

All specimens from Balena Station, Hermitage Bay, Newfoundland. 

PLATE 21. 

Figure 1. Balcenoptei-a ?inisciihis (L.). No. 8 S . Pectoral fin, showing abnormal extremity. Dorsal view. 

Figure 2. The same. Ventral view. 

Figure 3. The same species. No. 21 s . Left pectoral. 

Figure 4. The same species. No. 7 .; . Left pectoral, showing incised extremity. 

Figure 5. The same species. No. 4 ? . Left pectoral. 

All specimens from Balena Station, Hermitage Bay, Newfoundland. 

PLATE 22. 

Figure 1. Bahcnoptera acuto-rostrata Lacepede. No. 20931, U. S. National Museum. Off Monomoy 

Point, Harwiohport, Mass. Young. Dorsal view. 
Figure 2. The same species. No. 13877, U. S. National Museum. Coast of Norway. Adult. Dorsal view. 

PLATE 23. 

Figure 1. Balcenojttera daridsoni Scammon. Type-skull. No. 12177, U. S. National Museum. Admiralty 

Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington. Dorsal view. 
Figure 2. The same species. No. 61715, U. S. National Museum. St. Paul Island, Pribilof Group, Bering 

Sea. Dorsal view. 

PLATE 24. 

FKiURE 1. Bakeiioptera acuto-rostrata Lacepede. No. 20931, U. S. National Museum. Off Monomoy 

Point, Harwichport, Mass. Young. Ventral view. 
Figure 2. The same species. No. 13877, U. S. National Museum. Coast of Norway. Adult. Ventral view. 

PLATE 2.5. 

Figure 1. Balcenoptera davidsoni Scammon. Type-skull. No. 12177, U. S. National Museum. Admiralty 

Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington. Ventral view. 
Figure 2. The same species. No. 61715, U. S. National Museum. St. Paul Island, Pribilof Group, Bering 

Sea. Ventral view. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 315 

PLATE 26. 

Figure 1. Baheno2)tera(lavidsoni HcAmmon. Type-skull. No. 12177, U. S. National Museum. Admiralty 

Inlet, Piiget Sound. Wasliington. Lateral view. 
Figure 2. Bahennpteva acitto-rostrata Lacepedo. No. 209.31, U. S. National Museum. Off Monomoy Point, 

Harwichport, Mass. Young. Lateral view. 
Figure 3. The same species. No. 13877, U. S. National Museum. Coast of Norway. Lateral view. 

PLATE 27. 

Figure 1. Balmnoptei-a dtnndxoni Scammon. No. 0171.5, U. S. National Museum. St. Paul Island. 

Pribilof Groui), Bering Sea. Lateral view. 
Figure 2. Bahrnoptcra acuio-rostrala Laoepede. No. 20931, U. S. National Museum. Off Monomoy Point, 

Harwichport, Mass. Young. Lateral view. 
Figure 3. The same species. Right scapula of skeleton No. 13877, U. S. National Museum. Coast of 

Norway. Adult. 
Figure 4. The same species. Scapula of skeleton No. 20931, U. S. National Museum. Off Monomoy Point, 

Harwichport, Mass. Young. 
Figure 5. The same species. Sternum of skeleton No. 13877, U. S. National Museum. Coast of Norway. 

Adult. 
Figure 6. The same species. Sternum of skeleton No. 20931, U. S. National Museum. Off Monomoy Point, 

Harwichport, Ma.ss. 

PLATE 28. 

Figure 1. Balcenoptera davidsoiii Scammon. Valdes, Alaska. Ventral view. Photographed by F. C. 
Schroeder, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Figure 2. The same specimen. Dorsal view. 

Figure 3. Bahenoptera acuto-rostrata Lacepede. Quoddy Head, Maine. Ventral view. 

Figure 4. The same specimen. Lateral view. 

Figure .5. Bahenoptei'a velifem, {'/). Anterior portion of skeleton in Wistar Institute, Univei-sity of Penn- 
sylvania. Coast of California. 

Figure 6. The same, showing cervical and anterior dorsal vertebras. 

PLATE 29. 

Figure 1. Megaptera belUcosa Cope. Type-skull. San Domingo or St. Barthlomew Island, West Indies. 

Philadelphia Academy of Natm-al Sciences. Dorsal view. 
Figure 2. Myapteni nodosa (Bonnaterre). No. 21492, U. S. National Museum. Cape Cod, Mass. Dorsal view. 

PLATE 30. 

FiGUKE 1. Megaptera hellicosa Cope. Type-skull. Ventral view. 

Figure 3. Megaptera nodosa (Bonnaterre). No. 21493, U. S. National Museum. Cape Cod, Mass. Ventral view. 

PLATE 81. 

Figure 1. Megaptera bellicosa Cope. Type-skull. Lateral view. 

Figure 2. 3Ie(japtera nodosa (BonnaUin-e). No. 31492, U. S. National Museum. Cape Cod, Mass. Lateral view. 

Figure 3. The same species. Cape Cod, Mass. Milwaukee Public Museum. Lateral view. 

PLATE 32. 

Figure 1. Megaptera nodosa (Bonnaterre). No. \Ulh S . U. S. National Museum. I'rovincetown, Mass. 

Young. Dorsal view. 
Figure 2. The same species. Cape Cod, JIass. Jlilwaukee Public Museum. Doi-sal view. (The figure is 

much distorted.) 

PLATE 33. 

Figure l. Megaptera nodosa (Bonnaterre). No. Uf ||, 9 , U. S. National Museum. Provincetown, Mass. 

Young. Ventral view. 
Figure 3. The same species. Cape Cod, Mass. Milwaukee Public Museum. Ventral view. 



316 THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 

PLATE 34. 

Figure 1. Megaptera heUicosa Cope. Type-skeleton. Cervical and dorsal vertebr*. 

Figure 2. The same specimen. Lumbar vertebras. 

Figure 3. The same specimen. Caudal vertebrae. 

Figure 4. The same specimen. Right scapula, humerus, radius, and ulna. 

PLATE 35. 

Figure 1. Megaptera heUicosa Cope. Type-skeleton. First lumbar, first dorsal, axis, and atlas. Anterior 

view. 
Figure 2. The same specimen. Ribs. 

PLATE 36. 

Figure 1. Megaptera osphyia Cope. Skull from the type-skeleton. Niagara Falls Museum, New York. (This 
type is in such a position in the museum that it is impossible to obtain an entirely satisfactory photo- 
graph. In this figure the anterior extremity of the rostrum and mandible liave been added in pencil.) 

Figure 2. The same specimen, showing artificial arrangement of phalanges. 

Figure 3. The same specimen. Pectoral region. The vertebras are mounted backwards. 

Figure 4. Megaptera nodosa (Bonnaterre). Right scapula of No. }||||, 9 , U. S. National Museum. Province- 
town, Mass. Young. Exterior view. 

Figure .5. The same species, No. 21492, U. S. National Museum. Cape Cod, Mass. Exterior view. 

PLATE 37. 

Figure 1. Megaptera nodosa (Bonnaterre). No. 5 S . Showing white pectorals and under surface of flukes. 

Snook's Arm Station, Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland. 
Figure 2. The same specimen. Ventral view. 
Figure 3. The same specimen. Head, showing white areas under the eye and at tip of snout, and white 

rings on the mandible caused by barnacles. 

PLATE 38. 
Figure 1. Megaptera nodosa (Bonnaterre). An unusually white specimen. 
Figure 2. The same species. 

From negatives taken by William Palmer at Balena Station, Newfoundland, 1901. 

PLATE 39. 

Figure 1. Megaptera nodosa (Bonnaterre). No. 5 i . Ventral view, showing characteristic arrangement of 
ridges anteriorly. 

Figure 2. The same species. No. 6 ? . Dorsal view. 

Figure 3. The same species and specimen. Ventral view, showing small amount of white on exterior sur- 
face of the pectoral, and on the belly. 

Figure 4. The same species. No. 21 s . Ventral view. 

All specimens from Snook's Arm Station, Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland. 

PLATE 40. 

Figure 1. Megaptera nodosa (Bonnaterre). Provincetown, Mass. Male. Ventral view. 

Figure 3. The same species. Flukes from No. 136.56, 9 , U. S. National Museum. Provincetown, Mass. 

Dorsal view. 
Figure 3. The same species. No. 21 S . Snook's Arm Station, Newfoundland. 
Figure 4. Megaptera versabilis Cope. Coast of California. Photograph obtained by Mr. C. H. Townsend. 

PLATE 41. 

Figure 1. Megaptera versabilis Cope. Henderson's Bay, Puget Sound, Washington, September .5, 1896. 

Shows the arrangement of dermal tubercles, shape of blowholes, color of pectoral fin. etc. 
Figure 2. The same specimen. 
Figure 3. The same specimen. Head and back, showing characteristic shape of dorsal fin, dermal 

tubercles, etc. 
Figure 4. The same specimen. Mouth. 

Figure .5. The same species. Coast of California. Photograph obtained by Mr. C. H. Townsend. 
Figure 6. Right pectoral of Megaptera nodosa. No. 13656, ? , U. S. National Museum. Provincetown, Mass. 

Exterior surface. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 317 

PLATE 43. 

FIOUKE 1. Balcena glacialis Bonnaterre. Skull from skeleton No. 23077, U. S. National Museum. Long 

Island, New York. Dorsal view. 
Figure 2. The same specimen. Ventral view. 

PLATE 43. 

Figure 1. Bala-ua iildcialia Bonnaterre. Skull from skeleton No. 23077, U. S. National Museum. Long 

Island, New York. Lateral view. 
Figure 2. Tlie same species. Skull from skeleton in State Museum, Raleigh, North Carolina. Cape Lookout, 

N. C. Lateral view. Photograph presented by Mr. II. II. Briiuley, Curator of the State Museum. 

PLATE 44. 

Figure 1. Bahciia cisarcUca Cope. Type-skeleton. Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. Lateral 

view of anterior portion, including the lumbar vertebra}. 
Figure 2. The same specimen. Lateral view of the caudal vertebrae. 

PLATE 4.5. 

Figure 1. Balana ijlacialis Bonnaterre. Skull from skeleton in Cliarleston College Museum, South Caro- 
lina. Charleston, S. C. Lateral view. 

Figure 2. The same species. Left scapula from the same skeleton. 

Figure 3. The same species. Left scapula from skeleton in American Museum of Natural History, New 
York. From Long Island (?), New York. Photograph presented by Dr. H. C. Bumpus, Director of 
the American Museum of Natural History. 

Figure 4. The same species. Left scapula from skeleton in Field Columbian Museum, Chicago. Long Island, 
New York. Photograph presented by Dr. D. G. Elliot, Curator of ManiTuals, Field Columbian Museum, 

Figure 5. The same species. Left scapula from skeleton No. 33077, U. S. National Museum. Long Island. 
New York. 

PLATE 46. 

Figure 1. Baliena glacialis Bonnaterre. Head of specimen found dead 28 miles off Highland, Cape Cod, 
April, 189.1. Photographed in Herring Cove, Provincetown, Mass. 

Figure 2. The same specimen. Lateral view. (The flukes are an addition by the photographer.) 

Figure 3. The same species. Stermim from skeleton in Field Columbian Museum, Chicago. Long Island. 
New York. Photograph presented by Dr. D. G. Elliot, Curator of Mammals, Field Columbian 
Museum. 

Figure 4. The same species. Sternum from skeleton in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard Uni- 
versity. Photograph presented by Mr. Outram Bangs, Curator of Mammals. 

PLATE 47. 

Figure 1. Rhachianectes glauciis Cope. No. 18803, U. S. National Museum. Monterey, Gal. Dorsal view. 
Figure 2. The same specimen. Ventral view. 
Figure 3. The same specimen. Lateral view. 

PLATE 48. 

Figure 1. Common Finback. Bahi'iioplera phi/salus (L.). Restoration, based on Sars's figures, amended 

from photograplis and sket<:hf'S of Newfoundland specimens. 
Figure 3. Sulphurbottom, Bahvuoptera musculus (L.). Restoration, prepared in tlie same manner as Figure 1. 

PLATE 49. 

Figure 1. Little Piked Whale. Bahvnoptera acuto-rostrata Lacepede. Restoration, based on the Quoddy 

Head. Maine, specimen. 
Figure 2. Pollack Wliale. BaUvuoptcra boivalig Lesson. After CoUett. 
Figure 3. Gray Whale, Rliuchiimecfes ytaucuH Cope. After Scanuuon. 

PLATE 50. 
Figure 1. Humpback. Megapteru jiodo.-fa (Bonnaterre). Restoration based on Sars's figures amended from 

Newfoundland specimens. 
Figure 3. North Atlantic Right Whale, Balcena glacialis BonnateiTC. Restoration based on photographs 

of Massachusetts and Long Island specimens. 



INDEX. 



Acosta, Joseph de, fable of Indians killing whak'.s, 37, 

31, 35, 87, 41, 43 
Agaphelidce, 47 

Agaphelus, 80, 104. 105, 370, 387 
Agaphelns gibbosus, 47, 56, 104, 105 

measurements of, 106 
note on, 103 
Agajilielus glaucus, 80, 81, 104 
Alaska, whales of, 83 
Aleutian Islands, whales at the. 33 
Allen, J. A., bibliography of cetology, 63 

list of cetaceans of JIassachusetts, 58 
opinion regarding Bahena cisarctica, 
364 
Amagansett, Long Island, whales sighted off. 63 
Ambergris. 85 

American cetaceans, first references to. 6 
American specimens of Bakenoptera physalus, 131 
American whale fishery, Clark's history of the, 68 

Douglass's remarks on the, 

71 
Felt's notes on the, 73 
Lanman on the, 76 
Stai'buck's history of the, 68 
American zoologists, writings of, on whalebone 

whales. 34 
Anderson, Jolin. resume on whales in northern 

waters, 39 
Arbavirksoak, 43 
Arbec, 43 

Arctic Afe.gaptera, 98. 99 
Ashley, George H.. 4 
Atlantic right whale, 33 

Holder's memoir on the, 63 
At wood. N. E.. notes on cetacea of Massachusetts, 
58 
on the scrag whale, 37 
AurivilUus, C. W. S., 153 

Baffin, William, first voyage of, 10 

in Wolstenholme Sound, 13 

letter of, to Sir John Wolstenholme, 

10 
second voyage of, 10 

Baffin Bay, whales of, 6, 10 

Bahama Islands, spermaceti whales at the, 39 

Bahia finner, 103 

Baia de Ballenas, whales seen in the, 33 

Balmia, 40, 43, 43, 79, 387 



Balcena 
Balcena 
BatcBua 
Balcena 
Balcena 



Bakena 
Balcena 



Balcena, Flower's remarks on, 63 

mentioned by Bonnaterre, 45 
Bris.son, 40 
Erxleben, 43 
species of, distribution of, 56 
Van Beneden on the geographical distribu- 
tion of, 57 
albicans, 43 
antipodarum, 265 
antlpodum, 266 
aiistrcdis, 50, 63, 363, 365, 266 
biseayensis, 15, 39, 55, 57, 60, 344, 263 
Basque fishery for, 13 
ribs, Gasco's description of, 357 
boaps, 41, 46, 51, 61, 243 
cisarctica, 3, 55, 56, 57, 60, 63, 78, 79, 263-267 
description of the type-skeleton 

of, 79 
measurements of the type-skele- 
ton of, 79 
note by Cope on, 61 
type-skull of, nasals in, 253 
Van Beneden's remarks on, 56 
Balana gibbosa, 41, 43, 45, 104, 105 
Balcena glacialis, 33, 39, 45, 68. 344, 266, 270, 297 

American specimens of, in Euro- 
pean museums, 308 
chevrons, 350 
color, 349 

Guldberg's remarks on, 349 
of American specimens of, 250 
diagnosis of, 398 

length of A nierican specimens of, 246 
European specimens of, 
245 
measurements of, 247, 268 
opinions of cetologists regarding, 

262 
phalanges, 360 

number of, 361 
proportions of, 246 
ribs, 256 

measurements of, 257, 258 
scapulii, '359 

proportions of, 260 
skeleton, measurements of, 355 
skull, 251 

length of, 267 
measurements of, 253 



319 



320 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



Balcena glacialis, sternum, 858 

summary of discussion of, 261 
vertebrae, cliaracters of, 254, 256 
vertebral formula, 350 
whalebone, 248 
Balcena glacialis in Cliarleston (S. C.) harbor, 62 
Balcena jubartes, 53 
Balcena lamanoni, 366 
Balcena longimana, 51, 225, 243 

type-specimen of, 211, 233 
Balcena mncrn, 45 
Balcena mediterranen, 366 
Balcena museulus, 41, 46 

Balcena mijsticetus, 5, 13, 30, 34, 40-43, 45, 47, 50, 53, 
56, 310. 265, 266. 270, 397 
American specimens of, in Euro- 
pean museums, 308 
range of, 13 
Balcena nodosa, 45, 46, 54, 211 
Balcena jjhysalis, 6, 41, 42, 45 
Balcena rostrata, 41, 46 
Balcena sieboldii, 270 

Van Beneden's opinion regarding, 

371 
whalebone of, 271 
Balcena svedenborgii, 264, 260 
Balcena tarentina, 266 
Balcena vanbenedeniana, 264, 266 
Balcena vera, 40 
Bcdcence, 41 
Balcenidce, 47, 48 
Balcenoptera, 81, 387 

Balcenoplera acuto-rostrata, 46, 51, 53, 55, 63, 104, 

105, 192. 370, 393, 397 
American specimens of, 

193 
American specimens 
of, in European mu- 
seums, 309 
cervical vertebra?, char- 
acters of, 208 
chevrons, 201 
CoUett's note on Bo- 
court's figure of. 192 
comparison of speci- 
mens from Greenland 
and Norway, 207 
diagnosis of, 301 
figures of, by Sir Wm. 

Turner, 196 
measurements of, 106, 

194 
measurements of a 
specimen from New 
England, 195 
measurements of a 
specimen from Port- 
land, Me.. 194 
opinions of European 
cetologists regarding 
European and Ameri- 
can specimens of, 206 



Balcenoptera acuto-rostrata, osteological characters 

of, 196 
pectorals, color of. 209 
phalanges, 204 
Portland (Me.) speci- 
men, description of, 
193 
Sars's diagnosis of, 192 
scapula, 203 

proportions of, 
204 
size of, 196 

skeleton, characters of, 
199 
measurements 
of, 202 
skull, 196 

characters of, 198 
Capellini's figures 

of, 198 
measurements of , 
197 
specimen of, from 
Quoddy Head, Me., 
195 
sternum, 304 
summary of discussion 

of, 206 
Van Beneden and Ger- 
vais's remarks on, 
210 
variety niicrocephala , 

210 
vertebral formula, 201 
Eschriclit's remarks 
on, 201 
whalebone, size of, 231 
aciifo-rosfrata from Greenland, color 
of pectorals in, 209 
Gray's remarks on, 
209 
borealis, 87, 132, 270, 297 
diagnosis of, 300 
bi'asiliensis, 103 
carolince, 183, 185 

davidsoni, 58, 78, 91. 210, 269, 370, 
392 
American specimens of, in 

European museums, 309 
found off Cape Flattery, 

67 
original description of, 91 
skull, characters of, 295 

measurements of, 293- 
295 
specimens of, 294 
type-specimen of, 91 
Van Beneden's opinion re- 
garding, 396 
Balcenoptera duguidii, 179 
Balcenoj)tera intei-media, 183 
Balcenoptera miramaris, 183 



Balcenoptera 



Balcenoptera 

Balcenoptera 
Balcenoptera 
Bcdcenoptera 



INDEX. 



321 



BcihriioptiTri iniinculiis. 58, 149, l.iO. 216, 270, 297 

abdoiniiuil ridges, cliaiacters 
of, 17G 

abdominal ridges, number of, 
176 

American specimens of, in 
European museums, 309 

caudal peduncle, measure- 
ments of, in Newfoundland 
specimens, 175 

Cocks's remarks on length of, 
150 

Cocks's statistics of length of 
Norwegian, 154 

color, Sars's description of, 
161 

color of Iceland specimens 
of, 169 

color of Newfoundland speci- 
mens of, 163 

comparative measurements 
of Greenland and New- 
foundland specimens of. 191 

comparative measurements 
of Iceland and Newfound- 
land specimens of, 161 

comparative measurements 
of Newfoundland and Nor- 
wegian specimens of, 159, 
160 

diagnosis of, 299 

b}' Sars, 149 

dorsal tin, 171 

shape of, 172 

eye, in Newfoundland speci- 
mens, 175 

flukes, 177 

foetuses of, atNewfuundland. 
155 

girth, in Newfoundland speci- 
mens. 176 

Guldberg's remarks on length 
of, 150, 151 

hairs, 178 

head, shape of. in Newfound- 
land specimens of. 174 

individual variation in color 
of Newfoundland speci- 
mens of, 164 

list of specimens taken at 
Balena station, Newfound- 
land, in 1901, 1.53 

mammary slits, 177 

measurements of Iceland 
specimens of, 160 

measurements of Newfound- 
land specimens of, 174 

navel, 177 

Ocean Citj- (N. J.) specimen 

of, 179 
Ocean City (N. J.) specimen of, 
measurements of 184, 189 



Bahenoptei-a musculiis, Ocean City (N. J.) specimen 
of, nasals of, 184 
Ocean City (N. J.) specimen 

of, phalanges of, 188 
Ocean City (N. J.) specimen 

of, ribs of, 185 
Ocean City (N. J.) specimen 

of, scapula of, 186 
osteological characters of, 
summarized by Van Ben- 
eden, 181 
pectoral fins, 173 
pectoral fins of Newfound- 
land specimens of, 173 
pectoral fins, Sars's descrip- 
tion of, 178 
lihalanges, 188 
proportions of, 156 
radius and ulna. 187 

mea-surements 
of, 188 
ribs, 185 

measurements of, 185 
scapula, 185 

figures of, 185 
measurements of, 187 
skeleton, 178 
skull, 183 

measurements of, 184 
Rheinhardt's figure of, 
183 
" small, ■■ shape of, 175 
statistics of length of New- 
foundlantl specimens of, 154 
sternum, figures of, 187 
summarj- of discussion of. 188 
table of measurements of 
European specimens of, 159 
table of measurements of 
Newfoundlanil specimens 
of, 157 
table of statistics of length 

of. 156 
vertebral formula of, 181, 182 
whalebone. 177 
Balanoptera iiiiixcnliix fromGreenland, description of, 

189 
measurements 
of, 190 
Balcenoptern phi/saliix. 6. 40. 43, 84. 107, 111, 216, 
270. 297 
abdominal ridges and fur- 
rows, 129 
American specimens of, 131 
American specimens of, in 

Eurojiean museums, 309 
auricidar orifice. 1.30 
captured t>tT Gloucester, 

Mass., 60 
chevron bones, 139 
color, asymmetry of, 121 
color of, described by Sars, 120 



322 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



Balmnoptera jihi/saluti, color of Eumpeaii specimens 
of, 119 
color of Newfounilland speci- 
mens of, 131 
color, variation in. 121 
comparative measurements 
of American and European 
specimens of, 118 
diagnosis of, 300 

by Sars, 107 
dorsal fin, 12o 

height of, 173 
measurements of, 
125 
eye, IHO, 17", 
flukes, color of, 127 
shape of, 127 
foetuses, size of, at Snook's 

Arm, Newfoundland, 113 
hairs, 125 

Lilljeborg's description of a 
skeleton of, from (Jreen- 
land, 140 
markings about tlie eye, etc., 

in, 12i 
measurements of distance 

from eye to ear in, 130 
opinions of European cetolo- 

gists regarding. 147 
osteological characters of, 131 
l)HCtoral fins, 142 

color of, 127 
shape of, 126 
phalanges, 143 
proportions of, 115 
representative of, in Green- 
land, 146 
ribs, 135 
scapula, 142 

skeleton, measurements of, 
144 

proportions of, 144 
skeleton from Greenland, 

measurements of, 147 
skull, 131 

figures of, 131 
measurements of, 133 
proportions of, 133 
size of, at Newfoundland. 
112, 113 
at Norway, 113 
specimen of, stranded in Bos- 
ton liarbor, 60 
sternum, 139 
summary of characters of, 

108 
summary of discussion of 

characters of, 145 

table of measurements of 

American specimens of , 117 

table of measui-ements of 

European specimens of, 117 



Btilcenopfera physulus, table of measurements of 
Newfoundland specimens 
of, 116 
table of statistics of length 

of, 115 
vertebrae, characters of, 138 

number of, 134,138 
vertebral formula of, 137 
vertebral formula of Ameri- 
can specimens of, 135 
vertebral formula of Euro- 
pean specimens of, 134 
whalebone, characters of, 127 
color of, 127 
measurements of, 
128 
Balcenoptera sibhaldii, 183 
Balcenuptera siilfitreits, 284 

characters of, furnished by 

Scammon, 284 
description of, 90 
measurements of, by Scam- 
mon, 285 
Pechuel's remarks on, 287 
Van Beneden's opinion re- 
garding, 386 
whalebone, 286 

described by Cope, 
285 
Biila-iioptera tectirostris, 85. Ill, 133, 179 
characters of, 85 
measurements of, 86 
radius, 145 

ribs, characters of, 138 
scapula, 143 

skeleton, measurements of, 
88 
Biihenoptera fubero.ius (Cope), 81 
Biihniopiera velifera, 48, 78, 90, 370, 383, 284 
charactej's of, 277 
habits of, 9 

measurements of a specimen 
from San Clemente Id., Cal., 
283 
measurements of. by Scam- 
mon, 278 
original description of, 90 
Scammon's description of, 277 
scapula, 282 
skeleton, 283 

measurements of, 280 
skull, measurements of, com- 
pared with Balcenoptera 
physalus, 381 
specimens of, 380 
sternum, 282 

Van Beneden's opinion regard- 
ing, 284 
whalebone, 279, 283 
Balena station. Newfoundland, 154 
Balenots, 35, 36 
Bancroft, H. H., 32 



INDEX. 



323 



Bangs, Outran! . 4 

Barbadoes, whale fisliery about tho, 61 

Basque whale, 57, 60 

Basque whale fisliery, 13, .50, 60 

Fischer's statements regarding 
the, 366 
Basques, acquaintance of, with the "Grand Baj- " 

whale, 13 
Beaked whale, 46 
Beard, D, C. 4 
Bearded whale, 13 
Beauregaid, H,, 153 
Belle Isle, Strait of, 43 

Cdldiiial wIkiIi' (ishery in, 7(1 
Belon, P., 35 
Beluga, 14. 36 

Beneden (Van). See \ai\ Hi-ni'ilrn. 
Bering Island, finback observed by Dr. L. Stejneger 

at, 383 
Bermuda, humpback whale of. 40 

hunipback-wjiale fisliery, 39 
Verrill's statement regarding whales at, 30 
whale fishery at, 37, 39 
whales of, 73 
Biekford, J., type of Meiidpteni osphyia captured 

by, 91 
Biscay whale, 15, 367. 398 
Blaahval, 171, 173 
Blackfish, 44, 54 
Black whale, 78, 79, 349, 397. 39.S 

captured in ( 'luirleslon (S. C.) harbor, 63 
Blake, J. H., 368 

notes on Baheiiopfera aciilo-rotstriilaAd') 
Blue whale, 149, 150, 163 

Cocks's measurements of, 150 
Bocourt's figure of Bahenoplevu acuto-rontrata, 193 
Boddajrts edition of Linna^us's Systema Natune, 

American species of whales mentionetl in, 41 
Bolau, H., summaries of natural history and geo- 
graphical distribution of cetaceans, 63 
Bonnaterre, Abbe, species of Bakena mentioned by, 45 

Tableau Encyclopedique of, 44 
Bonnycastle, Sir Richard, observations cju whales of 

Nevvfoundkmd, 53 
Boops. 311 

Boty, Iver, narrative of, 6 
Bowhead, 5, 39, 43-44 

Bradford's and Winsiow's Journal nf I'lyniDUth Col- 
ony, 33 
Briokell's natural history of North Carolina, 37 
Brimley, H. H., 4 

on right-whale fishery around Beau- 
fort Inlet, North Carolina, 36 
Brisson, M. J., species of Bahvna mentioned by, 40 
Regne Animal of, American species of 
whales mentioned in, 40 
British Museum, Flower's list of cetacea in the, 63 
Brookhaven, New York, colonial whaling at, 75 
Brown, Robert, on Greenland cetacea, 61 

on Greenland finbacks, 189 
Buckelwal, 61 
Bull, Captain, 4 



Bunch whale, 37 
Buzzard's Bay, Mass.. 6 

Cabot Steam Whaling Company, 4. Ill, 11 t. 1 19 
California finback, 66 
California gray whale, 54, 66, 80, 387 
California, gray-whale fishery of, 61 

Jouan's ob.servations on the whales of, 54 
whales at Monterey, 33 

San .Simeon Bay, 68 
whales off coast of, 67 

Monterey County, 67 
Santa Barbara County, 06 
S;ui l.iiis (Jbispo County, (id 
California ljum)iljarK'. (1(1 
California ranger, 54 
California sulphnrbottom, 66 
Californian whaling stations, 62 
Canada, Gaspe, whales at, 19, 20 

whales of, 20, 44 
Cape Cod, Mass., colonial whale fishery at, 6!) 
whales in Barnstable Ba}', 22 
whales of, 23 
Cape Farewell, whales near, 9, 10 
Cape May. N. J., whales killed at, 76 
Cape .Sable, whales seen near, 32 
Cape St. Lucas, whales at, 33 
Capellini's figures of skull of Balanoptera acutoros- 

trata, 198 
Carolina, Catesby's natural history of, 37 
Carolinas, Lawson's observations on whales of the, 36 
Cartier, allusions to cetaceans by, 14 

seconil voj'age of, 14 
Catesby's natural history of Carolina, 37 
Caulkins, Frances M., history of New London, Con- 
necticut, 73 
Central America, Cviedo's account of whales on 
Pacific coast of, 31 
Ulloa's lefercnce to whales on Pa- 
cific coast of, 32 
Cetacea, geographical distribution of, 207 

remarks regarding species among, 206 
Clianqilain, description of whale fishery in New 
France, 17 
voyages of, 18 
Charlevoi.x's history and general descrijition of New 

France. 30 
(/lark, A. Howard, history of American whale fish- 
ery, 68 
(classification of whales, Ander.son's, 39 

Klein's, 38 
Coat, Captain, remarks on geograiihy of Hud.son 

Bay, 13 
Cocks, A. H., 153 

notes on color of Norwegian liunip- 

backs, 316 
remarks on length of Balivtioptera 

iiiuaciitiis, 150 
statistics of length of Balcenoptera 
tiiiisculus taken at Norwegian sta- 
tions, 154 
statistics of length of Megaptera, 213 



324 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



Cocks, A. H., statistics of Norwegian Bakenojitera 

23h!/.'falus. 113 
Collett, Robert, note on Bakeiioptera aeuto-rostratu, 
192 
on length of Baki'iioptera musculns. 
150 
Colonial shore whale fishery, records of the. 68 
Common finback, 43, 54, 84, 107, 111. 114, 397 

diagnosis of, 300 
Connecticut whale fishery, Caulkins's note on, 73 

Williams's article on, 73 
Cope, E. D.. 269 

article on Agaphdus, 81 
cetological works of. 57, 78 
description of whalebone of Bakeiiop- 
tera sulfiiretis, 285 
diagnosis of Rhachianectes, 288 
list of cetacea of coasts of North Amer- 
ica, 81 
remarks on Bakvna cisarctica and hia- 

cayensis, 263 
types of his species of whales, 3, 78 
Grain. Mrs. W. E., 4 
Crevecteur, St. John de, letters from an American 

farmer, 214 
CuUamach whale, 270 
Cumberland Sound, whales in, 8, 9 
Cuvier, Frederic, natural history of cetaceans, refer- 
ences to American species of 
whales in, 48 
remarks on Dudley's species, 49 
Cuvier, G., 262 



Dall, Wm. IL, 290, 293 

list of North Pacific cetaceans, 59, 

90 
specimens of RhacUianectes observed 
by, 81 
Davis, John, first voyage of, to Greenland, 8 

third voyage of, to Greenland, 8, 15 
Davis Strait, colonial whale fisherj- in, 70 

whales in, 6. 8, 10 
De Bry, T., 35 

Delaware bay, Watson's notes on whales in, 76 
whale fishery in, 26, 76 
whales in, 24 
Delphinapterus, 7, 36 
Delpliinida;, 48 
Devilfish. 287, 293 

De Vries, D. P., on the occurrence of whales in Dela- 
ware Bay, 24 
Disko whale, 43 
Dixon, S. G., 4 
Douglass, Wm., summary of British settlements in 

North America, 71. 
Drake's voyage in 1579, 33 
Drift fish, 23 
Drift whales, 70, 73 
Dubar, J., 151 

Dudley, Paul, essaj' upon natural history of whales, 
37 



Dudley, Robert, voyage of, to West Indies, 16 
Dudley's humpback whale. 4. 40-12, 311 

scrag whale, 40-42. 45 
Duhamel's remarks on bowheads in temperate waters 
of Canada, 44 
remarks on Greenland fishery, 44 
Du Tetre, J. B.. general history of the Antilles, 30, 35 
remarks on whales among the An- 
tilles. 30 
remarks on w-hales at Guadaloupe, 31 
remarks on whales at Martinique. 31 
Dwight, Thos., description of a common finback, 60 



Earll, R. Edward, on whale fishery of Maine, 65 
Easthampton, New York, colonial whaling com- 
panies of, 75 
Edge, Thomas, voyages of, to Spitzbergen, 11 
Egede's description of Greenland, 39 
Elliot, D. G., 4 

Er.xleben's Systema Regni Animalis, American spe- 
cies of whales mentioned in, 42 
Eschricht, D. F., cetological works of, 49 

remarks on Greenland BaJKnoptera 

aciiio-rostrala, 206 
on the identity of the Vaagehval 

and Tikagulik, 51 
on the species of finbacks, 52 
Eschricht. D. F.. and Reinhardt. J., on the Greenland 

right whale. 53 
discussion of the 
"Gi-and Baj' 
whale," 11 
Eschrichlius robiiKtus, 48 
Eiibakena cisarctica. 47 



Fabricius, Otto, account of Greenland whales, 43 

Fauna Grcenlandica, 42 
Felt, J. B., annals of Salem, Mass., 73 
Ferrelo's voyage in 1543, 33 
Finback whale, 34, 37, 40, 42, 44, 46, 49, 54, 65 
Dudley's, 49 
at Gloucester, Mass., 63 
at Mt. Desert, Me., 64 
Finback whales of Newfoundland, 66, 111, 112 
of Unalaska, 68 
of Washington, 67 
of the West Indies, 30 
Van Beneden on the geographical 
distribution of, 57 
Finfish, 39, 40, 41 
Finne-fiske, 42 

Finner wliale of the Oregon coasts, 78, 90 
Finnfisch, 42 
Finsch, Otto, 152 
Fischer, P., 153 

account of Basque whale fishery, 13 

on the Basque wdiale, Bakena biscayen- 

sis, 60 
opinion regarding Megaptera bellicosa, 
243 



INDEX. 



825 



Fischer, P., oiniiion regarding species of Bakeita, 
264, 266 
views on extension of Basque wliale fish- 
er j', 266 
Florida, River of the Dolpliins, 27 

whales in, 27 
Flower, Sir Win. H., description of osteological char- 
acters of Balwnopteva phi/sa- 
lus, 131 
list of cetacea in I5ritish Mu- 
seum, 62 
on species of Balifiin. 6:5 
on species of Mcgaptera, 63, 

277 
opinion of, re<;;utiing Bakena 
cisarctica. 264 
Forstrand, Dr., 152 
Fortin, Pierre, reports on HsluTios of (iiilf of St. 

Lawrence, 54 
Fox, Luke, voyage of, to Hudson Bay, 13 
Foyn, Svend, 162 

Foyn's Finniark station, whales taken at, 15!) 
Freeman's history of Cape Cod. 72 
Frobisher Bay, whales in, 7 
Frobisher, Martin, third voyage of. to Davis Str.ait, 7 



Gall's voyage in l.j84, 32 

Gasco, F., description of the ribs of Bahinxi (jhicinlh, 
257 
formula for Taranto skeleton of JlaliciKi 

gktckilis, 260 
remarks on Bakvnu cisavctico and bixcai/- 
ensh, 263 
Gaspe, Canada, whales at, 19. 20 
Gelcich, Eugen. article on Duro's Disquisiciones 

Nauticas. 15 
Geographiral distribution of cetaceans, 48, 5S) 

Eschricht's es- 
say on, 53 
Geographical distribution of finbacks. Van Beneden's 

paper on, 57 
Geographical distribution of right whales. \'an Bene- 

den on. 55 
Gervais, H. P., on vertebral formula of lliiliriidjitfrii 

muscidun, 182 
Gervais, P. See Van Beneden and Gervais 
Gesner, Conrad, 35 
(;ibar, 19, 20 
Gibbar, 40, 45 
Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, voyage of, to Newfoundland 

in 1583, 16 
Gmelin's edition of Linn;eus's Systema NaturiE. 

American species of whales mentioned in. 41 
Goes, A., 236 

specimen of Mei/tijitcm bclUcoaa obtained 
by, 97 
Goode, G. Brown, on whales in American waters, 

62 
Gosnold's voyage to Massachusetts in 1602. 20 
Grace of Bristoll, voyage of. to tlw Bay of St. Law- 
rence, 16 



Grampus, 44, 75 

Grand Banks, whales on the, 05 

Grand Bay, Newfoundland, 43 

location of. 13 
Grand Bay whale, 10, 11, 12, 30, 266 
Grand Bayaco Baleac, 266 
Gray. J. E., classification of whales. 47 

criticisms of Van Beneden's map of dis- 
tribution of Btilicna. .55, 50 
note on Megaptera beUicosa, 48 
on Bal(tnoptera acuto-roslrata from 

Greenland. 209 
on geograph ical distribution of cetacea, 48 
supplement to catalogue of seals and 

whales in British Museum, 47 
systematic treatises of, on cetacea, 47 
Grayback, 62, 287 
Gray whale, 60, 62, 65, 66, 80 

geographical distribution of. .59 
off t'alifornia coast, 66 
Gray-whale fishery, 59, 61 
(iroenland, Bidd'noptevit miisodua in, 189 

Egede's account of whales of, 39 
meiisurements of Buhvnoptera pliysaliis 

from, 147 
representative of Bakvni)}itei-u ijliysulus 

in, 146 
specimens of Bakcnoptera iimti>-rostrat(i 

from, 206 
whales of, 6, 7 
Greenland Bakfnoplern iicnlo-roKtriild. tiiay's re- 
marks on, 209 
Greenland cetacea, Robi'rt Brown on, (il 
Greenland lunnpback, 49, 51, 229 

color of, 220 
dorsal fin of, 226 
length of, 215 
Greenland right whale. 5, 10. 34. 39. 40. 43. 45. 47. 

266, 297 
Greenland whale, Scoresby's note on a, 189 
Greenland whales mentioned in Fabricius's Fauna 

( Jrienlandica. 42 
in Jli'iller's Prodro- 
nuis. 42 
Greenman. Dr., 4 
Grenada Ids., fishery for humpback whales at the, 

61 
Guldberg, (i. A., 152 

on length of Balcenoptera imisculus, 
150, 151 



Ilalibalcena britannica, 266 

Hallas, Sophus, data regarding color of Iceland sul- 
phurbottom, 169 
descrii)tion of color of Iceland hunqi- 

back, 220 
measurements of sulphurbottoni 

taken at Iceland, 101 
on length of sidphurbottom in Ice- 
land. 1,50 
Harvev, A. AV., I 



326 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



Harvey, John. 4 

Harvey & Company, of St. John's. Newfoundland. Ill 

Henry, Joseph, secretary of Smithsonian Institution, 

58 
Hermitage Bay wlialing station, 11-t 
HolboU. Captain, 226 

Holder, J. B., memoir on Atlantic right whales, 4, 63 
remarks on Balcena cisarctica and bis- 
cayensis, 363 
Holmes, John F., on whales off Plymouth, Mass., 65 
Houttuyn's Dutch translation of Linneeus's Systema 
Naturae, American species of whales mentioned 
in, 41 
Hubbard's general history of New England, 75 
Hudson, Henry, first voyage of, 9 

in Greenland waters, 9 
last voyage of, 9 
Hudson Bay, whales in, 13 
Hudson River, whales in, 23 
Hudson Strait, whales iu, 9 

Humpback whale, 41, 44, 46, 49, 54, 311, 397, 398 
Dudley's, 40-43, 49 
of Greenland, 49. 51, 60 
of Newfoundland, 111 
Humpback-whale fishery, 59, 61 

at Grenada Ids, , 6 1 
in the West Indies, 61 
Humpback whales, 54 

at Bermuda, 38, 39 
geographical distribution of, 59 
near Newfoundland, 66 
on Pacific coast of Central Amer- 
ica, 33 
skeletons of, compared by Van 
Beneden. 54 
Hump whale, 41 

Hunchbacked whale of Atlantic coast, 91 
Huiitfrius, 366 
Hunferius biscayeiisin. 47 
Hunti'rins xri'denbordii. 365 
Hiiitten'iis temminckii. 365 
Hyperooduii, 6, 41, 51 

Iceland, measurements of specimens of Bakenojitera 

inusculus from, 160 
Iceland right whale, Guldberg's remarks on color of, 

249 
Iceland sulphurbottom, 58 

color of, 169 
Indians, whaling by, 67, 74, 75 
Ives, J. C, 179 

Jackson, Wm. H., 193 

Jaj'ne, Horace, 4 

Jones, J. Matthew, on Bermuda whale fishery, 29 

Jouan, H., memoir on right whales and sperm 

whales, 54 
Jubartes, 40, 46 
Jupiterfisch, 43 
Jupiter fish, 40 

Kepokai-nak, 53, 148 



Keporkak, 42, 215, 220, 226, 237, 239, 343 

Keporkarsoak, 42 

Killelluak, 42 

Killer, 44 

Klein, J. T., Historia Piscium Naturalis, classification 

of cetaceans in. 38 
Knobbelfisch, 40 
Knobbelvisch, 41 
Knotenfisch, 40, 41 
Knox, F. J., 152 
Kokujira, 389 

Labrador, colonial whale fishery at, 70 

whales of, 16 
La Hontan's new voyages to North America, 35 
Lauman, James H., article on American whale fish- 
ery, 76 
Laudonniere, on whales in Florida, 37 
Laverdiere, works of Champlaiu edited by, 18 
Lawson, J., on whales of the Carolinas, 36 
Leeward Islands, sperm whales caught about the, 61 
Lefroy, Sir J. H., colonial records of the Bermudas 

collected by, 29 
Lescarbot, 35 

description of whale fishery in Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, 16 
Lesser finner, 301 
Lewis and Clark's references to whales on the Oregon 

coast, 46 
Lilljeborg's description of skeleton of Balcenoptera 

jjhysalus from Greenland, 146 
Lindeman, Moritz, on Arctic fisheries, 59 
on sea fisheries, 61 
on whale fisheries, 59 
LinnsBUs's Systema Naturae, 1, 40 
List of works cited, 303 
Little piked whale. 46, 193 

iliaguosis of, 301 
Long Island, New York, colonial whale fishery of, 69, 
73, 75 
records of town of East 

Hampton, 76 
Thompson's history of, 74 
whales at, 24 

whales on south side of, 75 
Longniddiy (Scotland) whale, 153, 155 

Macy, Obed, on the scrag w-hale, 38 
Magnus, Olaus, 34 

Maine, finback whale at Mt. Desert, 64 
Monhegan, whales at, 21 
Quoddy Head, specimen of Balcenoptera acitto- 

rostrata from, 195 
whale fishery of, 64, 65 
whales off coast of, 64 
Malm, A. W., list of cetaceans in Swedish museums, 
60 
measurements of Rhachianectea gluu- 
cMS, 291 
Manigault.G. E., description of black whale captured 
in Charleston harbor, 63 



INDEX. 



327 



Martens, F., 363 

Martha's Vineyard, bones of wliales at, 30 

whales killed at, 70 
Martini(|iu', wliales about, HO 
Maryland, Assateague beach, whales driven on sliore 

at, 76 
Massachusetts, bones of whales found at Martha's 
Vineyard, 30 
cetaceans of, 58 

finback whale at Gloucester, 63 
whales at Cape Cod, 71, 73, 83 
at Duxbury, 73 
at Gloucester, 64 
at Nantucket. 31 
at Plymouth, 65 
Young's note on whales at Cape Cod, 
73 
Massachusetts Historical Society, collections of, ref- 
erences to whale fishery in, 73 
Mather, Richard, voyage to New England in 1635, 

33 
Measurements, system of, 4 
Megaptera, 83, 91, 3U 

American specimens of, 313 
Flower's remarks on species of, 63 
length of specimens of, at Norwegian 

whaling stations, 313 
Van Beneden on the geographical distri- 
bution of, 57 
Megapfera from Greenland in European museums, 55 
Megaptera amerieana, 48, 60, 341 
Megapfera bellicosa, 60, 97, 103, 103, 333, 339, 341, 343 
note on, by J. E. Gray, 48 
remarks on the original descrip- 

of, 97 
type-skeleton of, 97, 313, 333, 
336, 340, 343 

measurements 

of the. 100 
notes on the, 101 
Megaptera boops. 63 
Megaptera hrasiliensis, 103 

note on, 103 
Megaptera knzira. 103, 376 
Megaptera lalaiidii, 103 

Megaptera lorigimaiia. 48, 53, 55, 60, 93, 98, 99. 103. 
341, 343, 376 
type-specimen of, 336 
Megaptera nodosa, 311, 341, 370, 373, 376, 397 
abdominal ridges, 334 
American specimens of, in Euro- 
pean nniseums, 308 
at Bernuida, large specimens of, 

314 
caudal peduncle, 330 
chevrons. 335 
color, 316, 318, 331 

at .Snook's Arm Station, 

Newfoundland, 318 
Cocks's notes on, 316 
in Greenland specimens, 
330 



Megaptera nodosa, color in Iceland specimens, 320 
Rawitz's notes on, 317 
Rawitz's theory of, 331 
Sars's notes on, 317 
Strutliers's notes on, 317 
dermal tubercles, 325 
diagnosis of, 298 
dorsal fin, 336 

comparison of, in 
American and Euro- 
pean specimens, 338 
Sars's description of, 
337 
eye, 330 
flukes, 330 
length of specimens of, at Balena 

Station, Newfoundland, 313 
length of specimens of, at Snook's 

Arm, Newfoundland, 313 
measurements of, 323 
measurements of Newfoundland 

specimens of, 333 
pectoral tins, 338 

length of, 339 
shape of, 328 
phalanges, 338 
radius and ulna, 336 

measurements of, 
388 
ribs, 340 
scapula, 335, 337 

measurements of, 335 
proportions of, 236 
size, 313 
skeleton, 333 

measurements of, 334 
skull, 333 

measurements of, 333 
statistics of length of, 216 
sternum, 339, 340 
summary of discussion of. 340 
vertebrae 234 
vertebral fornmla. 333 
whalebone, 230 
Megaptera osplii/ia. iH. 82, 91. 98. 102, 232, 239, 241, 
285 
characters of, 341 
notes on, 94 
notes on the original description 

of, 92 
type-skeleton of, mea.surements 
of, 94. 96 
notes on, 95 
type-specimen of, 4, 91. 212, 333, 
" 336, 241 
Megaptera versahilis, 48, 78, 102. 270 

characters of. furnished by 

Scanuuon, 371 
color of, notes by Scammon 

on, 273 
comparison of , with Mrgnplirn 
nodosa, 372 



328 



THE WHALEBOliTE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



Megapiera versabilis, measurements of, by Scam- 
mon, 371, 274 
measurements of, compared 
with those of Megaptera no- 
dosa, 375 
original description of, 103 
pectorals, 275 
Scammon's figures of, 379 
skeleton of, from Washington, 

276 
tubercles, 375 
whalebone, 376 
MegaptericUv, 48 
Miller, Jr., G. S.. 295 
Mobjack Bay, Virginia. 84 
MoUer, H. P. C, description of Bahfiioptera muscu- 

lus in Greenland, 189 
Mi'iller, O. F. , Prodromus of Zocilog}' of Denmark, 

Greenland whales mentioned in. 42 
1\I tiller, P. L. S., annotated edition of Linnteus's 
Systema Natura?, American species of whales 
mentioned in, 41 
Myers, A. H., 193 

Nantucket, whales at, 21 
Narwhal, 35 

Natural liistories of the seventeenth century, 34 
eighteenth century, 35 
nineteenth century, 46 
Nieuw Engelandsche Penvisch, 41 
New England coast, whales of the, 30, 37, 64 
New England, colonial whale fishery of, 75 
New England finback, 71 
New England humpback, 71 
New England right whale, 71 

Newfoundland. Balena Station, length of Megaptera 
at, 213 
Bonnycastle's observations on the 

whales of, 53 
humpback whales of, 44 
length of specimens of Megaptera no- 
dosa at Snook's Arm, 313 
list of specimens of Bahenoptera 
musadus taken at Balena Station, 
1901, 153 
measurements of Bakeiioptera iiiiifi- 

eidus at Balena Station, 157 
Reeks's article on zoology of, 60 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert's voyage to, 

16 
whale fishery at, 3, 70, 111 
whales observed about, 11, 13, 66 
Newfoundland and Norwegian specimens of Balce- 
nopjteru mxseulus, comparative measurements of, 
159, 160 
Newfoundland finbacks, 66, 111, 112 
Newfoundland humpback, 66, 111, 373 
Newfoundland specimens of, common finback, 84 

Megaptera nodosa, 
measurements of, 223 
Newfoundland sulphurbottom, color of, 163 

dorsal fin of, 172 



Newfoundland whale fishery of the sixteenth and 

seventeenth centuries, 13 
Newfoundland whaling stations, 4 
New Jersey, Cape May, whales killed at, 76 

Watson's notes on whales on coast of, 76 
whale fishing on coast of, 76 
New London County Historical Society, 73 
New York, colonial whale fishery of, 73, 74 
Hudson River, whales in, 23 
Long Island, colonial whaling at, 75 

whale captured in Peconic 

Bay, 73 
whales at, 34, 75 
Thompson's history of Long Island, 74 
New York Bay, whales in, 33 
Niagara Falls Museum, 4 
Nielsen, A., 4 
Nieremherg, J. E., 35 
Nordcaper, 39, 41, 43, 44, 45, 49, .53, 50, 249, 2.50, 203, 

264, 298 
North American whalebone whales, chronological 
account of contributions to the natural history 
of, 34 
North Atlantic right whale, 244 

diagnosis of the, 298 
North Carolina, Beaufort, partial skeleton of Baki'tia 
glacialis found at. 360 
Brickell's natural history of, 37 
whale fishery on coast of, 36 
North Pacific, humpback of the, 78, 102 

Pechuel's observations on whales of 

the, 60 
right whale of the, 59 
North Pacific whales, comparison of, with those of 
the North Atlantic, 270 
Dall's list of, 59 
observations on, 269 
specimens of, 269 
Norwegian and Newfoundland specimens of Bake- 
noptem muscidns, comparative measurements 
of. 159, 160 
Norwegian Bakeiioptera phi/salus, size of, 113 
Norwood, Richard, observations on whales at Ber- 
muda, 28 
Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland, whales taken in, 

111 
Nyenhuis, J. T. B. , 151 

O'C^allaghan's documents relating to colonial history 

of State of New Y'ork, 73 
Ocean City (N. J.) whale. 179, 182, 183, 189 

measurements of, 184 
nasal bones, 184 
phalanges, 188 
ribs, 185 
scapula, 186 
Oregon, whales on the coast of, mentioned by Lewis 

and Clark, 47 
Ostend whale, 151, 153, 158, 190 

scapula of, 187 
Oviedo, on whales of Pacific coast of Central America, 
31 



INDEX. 



329 



Pacific Coast, whales of the, 3t 
Pacific Ocean, humpback wliale of, 273 

Jouan's observations on the whales of 
the, 54 
Palliser, Hugh, 70 

Parkhurst, Anthony, letter to Hakluyt, 15 
Pecliuel-Loesche, M. E.,on Briliriiopfem >mlfurenii,287 

on whale fishery, 59 
Penn, Wm., on whales in Delaware Bay, 2(i 
Pflockfisch, 40-42 
Physalidce, 48 
Physalus nntiquorum, 48 
Physalus brasiliensis, 103, 103 
Physalus latirostris, 178 
Pike-lieaded finner, 53 
Pike whale near Newfoundland, (5(1 
Pollack whale, 297 

diagnosis of, 300 
Porpoises, 44, 65 

Portland Society of Natural History, 193 
Prentiss, D. W., 153 



Rawitz's notes on color of humpback, 331 

Reeks, Henry, articles on zoology of Newfoundland, 

60 
Reinhardt, J., figure of skull of Balcenoptera miis- 
culus by, 183 
on the sulphurbottom of Iceland, 

58 
opinions regarding Balcena cisarctica 
and biscayensis, 364 
Shachianectes, 80, 81, 105, 270 

diagnosis of, by Cope, 387 
Van Beneden's opinion regarding the 
affinities of, 393 
Rhachianectes gluucus, 47, 56, 65, 80, 287 

American specimens of, in 

European museums, 309 
characters of, furnished by 

Scammon, 288 
figures of, by C. H. Townsend, 
289 
by Scammon, 288 
measurements of, 290 
original description of, 80 
pectorals, 293 
size, 389 
skeleton, 390 
skull, 391 

measurements of, 391 
specimens of, 290 
sternum, 293 
vertebrae, 393 
vertebral formula, 291 
whalebone, 287, 389, 390 
Right whale, 24, 39, 37, 88, 43, 54, 60, 68 
Right whale captured in Charleston harbor. Van 

Beneden's remarks on, 57 
Right whale of the Atlantic, 367 
Right whale of the North Atlantic, 344 

diagnosis of, 398 



Right whale of the North Pacific, 59 
Riglit whale of the Northwestern Coast, 270 
Right-whale fishery of North Pacific, .59 
Right whales, 19 

Right whales, Atlantic. Holder's memoir oh, 02 
geographical distribution of, 55, .59 
on Atlantic coast, Van Beneden's note 

on, .57 
opinions of cetologists regarding North 
Atlantic species of, 363 
Rios y Rial, Professor, 260 
Rissmiiller, L., 4 

Rochefort, C. de, natural history of the Antilirs, .30, 
35 
on wliales and other monsters of the 
sea, 30 
Rondelet, G., 34, 35 
Rorqual, 46, 49 
Rorqittiliis itiitarcticiis, 49 
Rurqiirtlus hoops, 49 
Rorqunliis iiiiiscnliis, 49 

Rutgers College, scapula of lioliviKi glncinlis in the 
museum of, 360 

Sagard-Theodat, (I., observations of, on whales of 

Gulf of St. Lawrence, 19 
St. Lawrence, Gulf of, colonial wliale fishery in, 73 

Duhamel's references to bow- 
heads in, 44 
fisheries of, .54 
Lescarbot's description of 

whale fishery in, 16 
Sagard-Theodat's observations 

on whales in, 19 
voyage of the Grace of Bris- 

toll to, 16 
whale fishery in, 59, 60, 70 
whales in, 13. 66 
St. Lawrence River, Cliarlevoix on whales found in, 
36 
sulphurbottom of. 44 
whales in, 14. 36 
Santa Lucia Id., whale fishery at, 61 
Sarda, 13 

Sardaco Baleac, 366 
Sarde, 56, 367 
Sars, (r. O., 1.52 

description of abdominal furrows of Ba- 
IfTHOjiti'ra jiliysaliis, 139 
color of Bahi'iioffi'ni mits- 
ciiliis. 161 
Baliviioptera phys- 
alus. 120 
dorsal fin of Bahenoptera 

musculus, 171 
dorsal fin of Norwegian 

humpback, 227 
pectoral fins of Balanipp- 
tera musculus, 173 
diagnosis of Balmioptera aeuto-rnstrata- 
193 
Balcenoptera musculus, 149 



330 



THE WHALEBONE WHALES OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



Scamiiion. C. M.. 369 

cetological works of. 58 
collection of whalebone by, 57 
description of Balcenoptera velif- 
" era, 277 

diagnosis of Balcenoptera david- 

soni, 58 
figures of Megaptera versabilis by, 
279 
Ehachianeetes glaucus 
by, 288 
measurements of a Balcenoptera 

sulfureus, 285 
Balcenoptera 

velifera, 278 
Megaptera ver- 
sabilis, 274 
notes on color of Megaptera versabil- 
is, 272 
on cliaracters of Balcenoptera sulfn- 
retis. 384 
Balcenoptera velif- 
era, 277 
Megaptera versabil- 
is, 271 
Rhachianectes glau- 
cus, 288 
on marine mammals of north- 
west coast of North America, 58, 
59, 369, 278 
on tlie scrag right whale in the 

North Pacific, 38 
on the sulphurbottom of the north- 
west coast, 90 
statements regarding Balcenoptera 
davidsoni, 293 
Scammon's species of whales, 78 

types of, 3 
Scoresby, Jr., W., 152 

note on the Greenland whale, 189 
Scrag whale, 37, 38, 41, 49, 71, 80 

Dudley's, 40-43, 45, 49, 104 
Sharp-nosed whale, 53 
Sherwood, Geo. H.. 4 

Shumagin Islands, Alaska, whales at the, 33 
Sibbaldius borealis, 90, 284 
Sibbaldius gigas, 90, 384 
Sibbcddius laticeps, 81, 87 
Sibbaldius sulfureus, 48, 78, 90, 370. 284 

original description of, 90 
Sibbaldius tectirostris. 48, 85, 147. 285 
characters of, 85 
Cope's notice of, in " American 

Naturali-st," 89 
identity of, 87 

type-skeleton of, measurements 
of, 86, 88 
measurements 
of the cervi- 
cal vertebrae 
of, 89 
ribs of, 138 



Sibbcdd i II sjccf irost ris, type-skeleton of, scapula of, 143 

type-specimen of. 85, 132 
Sibbaldius tii.berosus, 48, 81 

identity of. 84 

original description of, 82 

type-specimen of, 81 

account of the 
capture of 
the, 83 
Sletbag, 264 
Smith. John, allusion to finbacks on coast of Maine, 21 

voyage of, to New England, 31 
Smith's Sound, whales in, 11 

Snook's Arm. Newfoundland, list of finbacks taken 

at. 113 
whaling station at. 
Ill 
Souffleur. 30. 31. 36 
South American sulphurbottom, 183 
Southampton. New York, colonial whaling companies 

of. 75 
Species among cetaceans, 3 
Spermaceti. 36 
Spermaceti whale, 37 
Spermaceti whales at Bahama Islands, 39 
Stafford, Richard, letter on whale fishery at Bermuda, 

28 
Starbuck, Alex., history of American whale fishery. 
68 
on early fishery laws, 23 
Steipe-Reydus, 46 
Stejneger, L., 295 

account of a finback on Bering Island, 
283 
Steller, G. W. , observations on whales of Alaska, 33 
Steypiredr, 58 
Stone. Witmer. 4 

Strait of Belle Isle, whale fishery in the. 71, 73 
Struthers. J., monograph of Megaptera longimana, 

312 
Sulphurbottom whale, 44. 54. 58. 146, 149. 156, 161, 
397 
diagnosis of. 399 
South American, 183 
Sulphurbottom whale of Iceland. 58 
Sulphurbottom whale of Newfoundland, color of, 163 
Sulphurbottom whale of Northwest Coast, 78, 90, 

384 
Systema Naturae of Linnaaus, 1 



Taliaferro, Edwin, whale captured by. 81 
Taliaferro, P. A., account of the capture of the tjpe- 

specimen of Sibbcddius ttiberosiis, 81, 82 
Tampon whale, 45 
Thompson, Benj. F., history of Long Island, New 

York, 74 
Thompson. J. P., description of Balcenoptera acuto- 

rostrata from Portland, Me., 193 
Thorfinn Karlsefne, Saga of, 6 
Thraslier, 44 
Tikagulik, 51 



INDEX. 



331 



Tobago Id., whale fishery at, 61 

Torquetnada's account of Viscaino's voyages to Lower 

California. 33 
Towiisend, Clias. H., 27.^, 390, 294 

on California gray whale. 
RItiicIiiaiicvtes ijlaucus, (io 
Trumpo, 28 
Tunnolik, 58, 146. 189 
Turner. Sir Win., loi 

figure of Bahviiopfera acido-ros- 

trata by, 196 
on length of Longnld(h-y whale. 
152, 155 
Tm'ton's translation of Linna!us"s .Systetna Natura', 

American species of whales mentionetl in, 41 
Types of Cope's and Scammon's species, 3 

UUoa, Francis, on whales in the Gulf of California. 

32 
Unalaska, finback whales at. 68 
United States Fish Commission, 193 

reports and bulletins 
of, 63, 65 

Vaagehval, 51, 201 

Van Beneden. P. -J.. 3, 151. 153 

cetological writings of, 54 
comments on whales of west 

coast of North America, 57 
comparison of skeletons of 

humpback whales, 54 
natural history of cetaceans of 

seas of Europe, 54 
on BaUenoptera davidsoni, 396 
on Baketwptera stilfiireus, 286 
on Balifnoptera vi'lifem, 384 
on geographical distribution of 

Balcena and Megaph'ni. 57 
on geographical distribution of 

finbacks, 57 
on geographical distribution of 

right whales, 55 
on right whales on Atlantic coast 

of United States, 57 
on the affinities of Rhachian- 

ectes, 292 
remarks on Balivna cisarctica, 
56 

Bidu'na cinaivtica 
and hiscai/cnsis, 
55, 263, 264 
right whale taken 
in Charleston 
harbor, 57 
remarks on size of Mrgaptera, 

214 
summary of osteological charac- 
ters of Balcenoptera muscnliis. 
181 
Van Beneden, P.-J., and Gervais, P., osteography of 

cetacea, 55 



Van Beneden, P. J., and (:iiv:iis, I'., remarks re- 

giirding Me- 
(injilera os- 
pliijia and 
bovps, 243 
Van Breda, J. (i. S., 151 

Vati der Donck, A., description of the New Nether- 
lands, 23, 26 
note on whale fishery in Dela- 
ware Bay, 26 
Variation, individual, 3 

Verrill, A. E., statement regarding whales at Ber- 
muda, 30 
Vinvisch, 41 

Viscaino's note on whales at Monterey, California, 33 
Viscaino's voyages along coast of Lower California, 32 
Viscaino's and Aguilar's voyage in 1603, 33 

Ward. F. A.,4 

Washington, whales off Cai)e Mattery, 67 

whales off yuillihute River, 67 
Watson, John F., annals of Philadelphia, 76 
Waymouth, description of Indians' manner of killing 

whales, 20 
Weeden, Wm. B., on colonial whale fishery of New- 
England, 75 
West Coast whales, specimens of, 369 
West Indies, Du Tetre's remarks on whales at the, 31 
humpback-whale fishery in the, 61 
whales of the, 30 
Whalebone whales, American specimens of, in Euro- 
pean museums, 308 
first authentic notice of, on east 

coast of North America, 14 
nomenclature of the, 1 
Whale fishery, American, Douglass's remarks on the. 

71 
Felt's notes on the, 73 
history of the, 68 
Lanman on the. 76 
Basque, 60 

on Newfoundland banks, 60 
colonial, of Long Island. New York, 73 
of New England, 75 
of New York. 73, 74 
records of the, 68 
Douglass's remarks on the American, 

71 
Lindeman on the, 59 
North Pacific gray whale, 59 
North Pacific humpback whale, 59 
North Pacific right whale, 59 
of Bermuda, 37-29 
of Carolina, 44 
of Davis Strait, 70 
of Delaware Bay. 34, 36, 76 
of Gulf of St. Lawrence, 16, 59, 70, 73 
of Maine, 64, 65 
of New England, 44 
of Newfoundland, 3, 70 
of New France, Chainplain's descrip- 
tion of, 17 



332 



THE WHALEBONE "WHALES OP THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC. 



Whale fishery, of New Jersey, 76 

of New London, Conn., Caulkins's 

note on, 73 
of New London, Conn., Williams's ar- 
ticle on, 73 
of New York, 44 
of North Carolina, 26 
of Santa Lucia Id., 61 
of Strait of Belle Isle, 70-73 
of Tobago Id., 61 
Pechuel's articles on the, 59 
Whale skeletons in museums, 2 
Whale Sound,. 13 

whales in, 10 
Whales at Gloucester. Mass., 64 

at the Bahama Islands, 29 
Whales in American waters, first attempt to identify, 
12 
of the Pacific coast, 31 
on New England coast, 64 



Whaling station at San Simeon Bay, California, 68 

Snook's Arm, Newfoundland, 111 
Whaling stations, Californian, 62 
White porpoises, 36 
White whale, 7, 36, 42 

Williams, C. A., on whaling at New London, Conn., 73 
Winsor, J., history of Duxbury, 72 

remarks on fisheries of the Basques, 14 
Wistar Institute, skeleton of Bakcnoptera velifera in, 

280 
Wolstenholme Sound, 13 

whales in, 11 

Young, Alex., chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers, 72 
note on whales in Barnstable Bay, 
Cape Cod, 23 

Zorgdrager, C. G., 262 
Ziph ius cavirostris, 80 




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Plate 3. 




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Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol. xxxiii. 



Plate 4. 






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BALMNOPTERA PHYSALUS (L.), B. MUSCULUS (L.), AND B. VELIFERA CoPE (?). 
Fig. I.-/,.. f/,ysatus. Cape Cod, Mass.. No. 16039 U. S. N. M. Figs. 2 and 4.-/?'/'''. No. .6045 U. S. N. M. Fig. 3-5. >.'/</>« (?)• California. 

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Plate 28. 




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BALMNOPTERA DAVIDSONl, ACUTO-ROSTKATA. AND VEUFER.\ (?). 
Figs. , an<l 2.~B. davidsoni, Vil.ies, Alaska. Figs, 3 a.ul ^.-B. aculo-rostraU,, Qnoddy Head. M,.inc. Figs. 5 and 6.-5. tv///^™(?). Lahfornm. 




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Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol. xxxii 



Plate 31. 





Fig. I. 



Fir-.. 2. 




Fig. 3. 
Cranium of Megaptera NODOSA (Bonnatbrre). Lateral view. 
Fig. I. — Type of Af. bellicosa Cope. Fig. 2. — Cape Cod, Mass., No. 21492 U. S. N. M. 
Fig. 3. — Cape Cod, Mass. (Milwaukee rulilii- Miiscmn.l 







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Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. Vol. /xxiii. 



Plate 34. 






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Megaptera nodosa (BoNN.vrKRRE). [Type of M. BELUCOSA Cope.] 

Kig. I.- Cervical ami dorsal v.rtc-l,r.«. Kiy;. 2.-Lvn»bur v.rtcl.r.v. fig. 3.-Camlal vcrlcbr.c. 

Kis,, 4._Riglu sca|nila, luiiiidrus, aiul radius ami ulna. 





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SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE, VoL. XXXIll. 



Plate 37. 




Vi'.. 1 




Fiij. 3. 

Megaptera nodosa (Bonnaterre). 

Figs. r-3. — Snook's .Arm, Newfoiiiullaml. No. 5, .J . 



Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol. xxxii 



Plate 38. 




Fig. I. 




Megaptera nodosa (Bonnatkkuk). B.XLKNA St.\TION,<XbWFC)1'N'1)LAN'D. 
l-i^. , _,V very white incliu.lwal, i.io.;. !• iy. 2. — .Vnothcr s|)i-ciini-ii, n^>3. 



Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol. xxxiii. 



Plate 39. 




Fig. I. 




Fig. 2. 




Fig. 4. 



Megapter.\ nodosa (BoNNATiiRRE). Snook's Arm, Newkoundland. 
Fig. I.— No. 5, i . Figs. 2 and 3.— No. 6, S . Fig. 4.— No. 21. $ . 





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Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol. xxxii 



Plate 43. 




Fig. I. 




Fig. 2. 
Cranium op Bal^NA GLACIAUS Bonnaterre. Lateral view. 
Fig. I.— Long Id., New York, No. 23077 U. S. N. ^L Fig. 2.— Cape Lookout, North Carolina. (Stale .Museum, Raleiyh, N. C. 







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Smithsonian Contributions to Knowleoqe, Vol. xx 



Plate 49. 




Fig. I. 



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Fig. 3. 
Fig. I.— Little Piked \vh.\le, Bal.€Xuhtei<a ALiiui<ii>iKAiA L.\iEi'i;i>i-, 
Fig. 2.— Poll.\ck vvim.E, BaL.-E\'OPTERA BOREAUS (Lesson). 
Fig. 3.— C.\liforni.\ Gk.w wiule, Rhachiai^ECTES GLAUCUS Copk.