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The jjresent series, entitled " Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections," is intended to embrace all the publications issued di- 
rectly by the Smithsonian Institution in octavo form ; those in 
quarto constituting the " Smithsonian Contributions to Knowl- 
edge." The quarto series includes memoirs, embracing the 
records of extended original investigations and researches, re- 
sulting in what are believed to be new truths, and constituting 
positive additions to the sum of human knowledge. The octavo 
series is designed to contain reports on the present state of 
our knowledge of particular branches of science ; instructions for 
collecting and digesting facts and materials for research ; lists 
and synopses of species of the organic and inorganic world ; mu- 
seum catalogues ; reports of explorations ; aids to bibliographical 
investigations, etc., generally prepared at the express request of 
the Institution, and at its expense. 

In the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, as well as in 
the present series, each article is separately paged and indexed, 
and the actual date of its publication is that given on its special 
title-page, and not that of the volume in which it is placed. In 
many cases works have been published and largely distributed, 
years before their combination into volumes. 


Secretary S. I 


The following slip has been prepared for insertion 
in library catalogues: 

Smithsonian Institution. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Vol- 
ume xxxiv. Washington city, published by 
the Smithsonian Institution, 1893. 8vo. [1084 
pp.] (Number S49). 

Contents^- . j^^ture ix, mental overwork and 

premature disease among PuWic and professional 

?ne^ By Charles K. Mills, M,D. Washington 1885. 

Transactions of the Anthropological Society of Wash- 

" iugton, vol. iii. Washington, 1885. 

Index to the literature of columbium : 1801-1S87. By 
Frank W. Traphagen, Ph D. Washington 18SS 
^^^Bibliography of astronomy, for the year 1S87, By 
.^^"^^ William C. Winlock. Washington 1S88 

....--Bibliography of chemistry, for the year 1887. By H. 

^^^"-"^ Carriugton Bolton. Washington, 18S8. 

^"^ The Toner lectures : lecture x, a clinical study of the 

skull! By Harrison Allen, M. D. Washm^on 1890 

Index to the literature of thermodynamics. By Alfred 

Tnrkerman Ph.D. Washington, 1890. 
The lorreSSn of sextants, for errirs of eccentricity and 
graduation. By J.A.Rogers. Washin^on 1890. 
Biblio'-raphy of the chemical influence of light. By 
^'^ Affre^ -^uckerman, Ph. D Washington, 1891. 
^^The mechanics of the earth's atmosphere A ^llec 
^i^^-"'^ tion of translations. By Cleveland Abbe. Wash- 
ington, 1S91. 


Article I. 

Article II. 

Article III. 

Article IV. 

Article V. 

Article VI. 

Article VII. 

Article VIII. 

Article IX. (7 

Article X. 

(594:.) The Toner Lectures. Lecture IX. Men- 
tal Over-work and Premature Disease among 
Public and Professional Men. By Charles K. 
Mills, M. D. January. 1885. Pp. 34. 

(OHO) Transactions of the Anthropological So- 
ciety OF Washington. Volume III. November, 
6, 1883-May 19, 1885. 1886. Pp. 226. 

(663.) Index to the Lithrature of Columbium, 
1801-1887. By Frank W. Traphagen, Ph. D. 
1888. Pp. 27. 

(664.) Bibliography of Astronomy, for the year 
1887. By William C. WiNLocK. 1888. Pp.63. 

(665.) A Bibliography of Chemistry, for the year 
1887. By H. Carrington Bolton. 1888. Pp. 

(708.) The Toner Lectures. Lecture X. A Clin- 
ical Study of the Skull. By Harrison Allen, 
M. D. March, 1890. Pp. 79. 

(741.) Index to the Literature of Thkrmodynamics. 
By Alfred Tuckirman, Ph. D. 1890. Pp. 248. 

(764.) The Correction of Sextants for Errors of 
Eccentricity and Graduation. By Joseph A. 
Rogers. 1890. Pp. 33. 
785.) Bibliography of the Chemical Influence of 
Light. By Alfred Tuckerman, Ph. D. 1891. 
Pp. 22. 
(843.) The Mechanics of the Earths Atmosphere. 
A Collection of Translations. By Cleveland 
Abbe. 1891. Pp. 324. 








Lecture IX. 







JANUARY, 1885. 





The "Toner Lectures" have been instituted at Washington, 
D. C, by Joseph M. Toner, M. D., of this city, for the promotion 
of medical science. With this object the founder has jilaced in 
charge of a Board of Trustees, consisting of the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, the Surgeon-General of the United States 
Army, the Surgeon-General of the United States Navy, and the 
President of the Medical Society of the District of Columbia, a 
fund, " the interest of which is to be applied for memoirs or essays 
relative to some branch of medical science, and containing some 
new truth fully established by experiment or observation." 

The publication of these Lectures has been undertaken by the 
Smithsonian Institution, as falling legitimately within its funda- 
mental purpose, "the increase and diffusion of knowledge among 
men." The series of "Toner Lectures," published by the Institu- 
tion in pamphlet form, is as follows; and they are also included in 
the "Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections." 

I. "On the Structure of Cancerous Tumors and the mode in 
which adjacent parts are invaded." By Dr. J. J. WooDWAPa). De- 
livered March 28, 1873. Published November, 1873. 8vo., 42 pp. 

II. "Dual Character of the Brain." By Dr. C. E. Brown- 
Sequard. Delivered April 22, 1874. Published January, 1877. 
8vo., 23 pp. 

III. " On Strain and Over- Action of the Heart." By Dr. J. M. 
Da Costa. Delivered May 14, 1874. Published August, 1874. 
8vo., 30 pp. 

lY. "A Study of the Nature and Mechanism of Fever." By 
Dr. H. C. Wood. Delivered January 20, 1875. Published Feb- 
ruary, 1875. 8vo., 47 pp. 



V. " Oil the Surgical Cotiiplicatious and Sequels of the Continued 
Fevers." By Dr. William W. Keen. Delivered February 17, 
1876. Pul)lished March, 1877. 8vo., 70 pp. 

VI. "Sub-cutaneous Surgery." By Dr. William Adams. De- 
livered September 13, 1876. Published April, 1877. 8vo., 17 pp. 

Yll. "The Nature of Reparatory Inflammation in Arteries after 
Ligatures, Acupressure, and Torsion." By Edward O. Shake- 
speare. Delivered June 27, 1878. Published March, 1879. 8vo., 
70 pj). and 7 plates. 

VIII. "Suggestions for the Sanitary Drainage of Washington 
City." By George E. Waring, Jr. Delivered May 26, 1880. 
Published June, 1880. 8vo., 24 pp. 

IX. "Mental Over- Work and Premature Disease among Public 
and Professional Men." By Dr. Charles K. Mills. Delivered 
March 19, 1884. Published January, 1885. 8vo., 36 pp. 

As it has been found <|uite im2:)ossible to supply gratuitously the 
large demand from medical men and others for these Lectures, (in 
addition to the liberal grant to the leading public Lil)raries and 
other Institutions in this and foreign countries,) the uniform price 
of 25 cents has been fixed for each, by which probably their more 
equitable personal distribution is secured. 


Secretary Sinithsoniaa Institution. 

Smithsoxiax Institutiox, 

Washington, Jnnuanj, 1885 


Delivered March 19. 1804. 


By Charles K. 3Iills, M. D. 

For my subject this evening I am indebted to the suggestion of 
the public-spirited founder of the " Toner Lectures," who, during 
his long residence in Washington, having seen many striking in- 
stances of break-down among public and professional men, had 
been led to feel that a study of the causes and the earliest 
indications of over brain work in these walks of life might prove 
an interesting investigation, and assist in the development of some 
new facts. 

Extreme mental activity, overstrain, and excitement must be re- 
garded as characteristics of American civilization. In this country 
every one feels that he is an important possibility in politics, law, 
medicine, theology, business, science, or literature, so that our very 
liberties and opportunities become sources of peril to health and life. 
From the cradle to the grave the American too often lives in an 
atmosj)here of unnatural emulation, while, in other countries, the 
traditional usages and the more absolute divisions of society into 
grades and castes prevent so fierce a struggle among the many for 
high position. 

Mr. Herbert Spencer, whom all admit to be entitled to consid- 
eration as a close observer of human nature, during his visit to 
this country, was everywhere struck with the number of faces 
he met which spoke in strong lines of the burdens that had to 

1 (1) 


be borne. lu every circle he saw the sufferers from nervous col- 
lapse, or heard of the victims of over-work. Mitchell, Beard, 
Jewell, and others have dwelt upon the same fact, and have shown 
that brain work and brain strain are, in this country, the not in- 
frequent cause of the downfall of health. , 

That intellectual work -per se does not injure health or shorten 
life may, I think, at once be admitted. The longevity of intel- 
lectual workers is a subject that has frequently claimed the atten- 
tion of statisticians, psychologists, and alienists. Madden^ gives a 
series of tables showing the relative longevity of medical authors, 
philologists, authors on revealed and natural religion, and on law 
and jurisprudence, miscellaneous and novel writers, moral philoso- 
phers, dramatists, natural philosophei'S. poets, artists, and musical 
composers. The general average age at death for the whole list is 
66 years. 

Tuke^ has collected from various sources the ages at death of 
fifty-four men who were distinguished for intellectual achievements. 
These ages gave an average of 80 years. 

Caspar (quoted by Tuke) gives the average age of clergymen at 
65; merchants, 62; clerks and farmers, 61 each; military men, 59; 
lawyers, 58 ; artists, 57 ; medical men, o6. 

Beard'^ ascertained the longevity of five hundred of the greatest 
men of history — poets, philosophers, authors, scientists, lawyers, 
statesmen, generals, physicians, inventors, musicians, actors, orators, 
and philanthropists. His list was prepared impartially, and in- 
cluded those who, like Byron, Raphael, Pascal, Mozart, Keats, etc., 
died young. The average age was found to be 64.20 years. Sher- 
wood (quoted by Beard) ascertained at great labor the ages at death 
of ten thousand clergymen, the average being 64 years. The average 

^ Inilrmities of Genius. 

^ Illustrations of the Influence of the Mind upon the Body in Health and 
Disease. By Daniel Hack Tuke, M. D., etc. Second Edition. 1884. 

* A Practical Treatise on Nervous Exhaustion (Neurasthenia). By George 
M. Beard, A. M., M. D. Second and Revised Edition. 1880. 


age at death of all classes of those who live over twenty is about 
50 years. 

Statistics of this kind, which could be multiplied without limit, 
are decisive as to the beneficial rather than injurious effects of pure 
mental labor, conducted upon a proper basis, upon longevity. In 
our public and professional classes, nevertheless, every physician of 
experience has seen instances of premature bi-eak-down from causes 
peculiar to these largely intellectual vocations. Even if the in- 
stances were few, as claimed by some, their discussion would still 
be of interest, because any sources of peril to those in the front 
ranks of society must always demand earnest attention. 

In all I have collected a series of sixty cases in which loss of 
health or life has been largely attributable to excessive brain work 
and brain strain incident to the callings of those considered. These 
cases maybe arranged into two classes: (1,) Men in political and 
official life, including cabinet officers, senators, representatives, de- 
partment officials, governors, and candidates for office ; (2,) Pro- 
fessional men, including physiciaus, lawyers, clergymen, journalists, 
scientists, and teachers. I have drawn not alone from my own 
experience, but have obtained the records of cases and corrobora- 
tive facts from professional friends.^ The inferences and conclusions 
of this paper are largely based upon a study of these cases, although 
time will permit details to be given in but a few instances. 

With a subject go wide in scope, limitations must be set, in order 
to arrive at any practical conclusions in a single lecture. In the 
first place, then, will be considered some of the causes which lead 
to mental over-work and break-down in American public and pro- 
fessional life; and, secondly, the early warnings of such over-work, 
and the forms of disease most likely to result. 

Men engaged in commerce and speculation have not been in- 
cluded in the present study, although, by including them, the list 

^ Especial obligations are due to Drs. S. Weir Mitchell, "W. A. Hammond 
J. M. Toner, A. Y. P. Garnett, D. L. Huntington, J. H. Baxter, H. C. 
Yarrow, and J. T. Johnson. 


of cases could have been largely increased. Premature failure of 
health, and especially sudden and severe collapse are quite as likely 
to occur in business life as in any other sphere of action, owing to 
the protracted labors, and great anxieties and excitements attendant 
upon pursuits involving the getting and losing of wealth. Brain 
work and brain strain of a peculiarly destructive kind attend upon 
the devotees of the counting-house and the exchange; but our pres- 
ent design is to deal only with those whose vocations are in major 
part intellectual, in the higher meaning which is given to the word 
intellectual — the men of affairs, of books, arid of the laboratory. 

The actual occupations embraced within my study were cabinet 
officer, 1 ; senators, 8 ; representatives in Congress, 10 ; department 
officials, 5 ; governors, 2 ; candidates for important offices, 2 ; phy- 
sicians, 6 ; lawyers, 7; clergymen, 2; journalists, 4 ; scientists, 6 ; 
teachers, 7. 

Twenty-eight of the sixty, therefore, were men in political and 
official life, and eighteen of these were members of Congress. 

The average longevity of men in the higher walks of political 
life in this country is, I am inclined to believe, considerably below 
the average of those who occupy similar positions in England. 
Comparing, so far as information was available, the ages at death 
of United States Congressmen and members of the English Parlia- 
ment, who have died since 1860, I obtained the following results ■} 

Fifty-nine United States Senators gave an average of 61 years ; 
one hundred and forty-six United States Eepresentatives an aver- 
age of 55 years ; the average for both being, therefore, 58 years. 
One hundred and twenty-one members of Parliament gave the re- 
markable average age at death of 68 years. 

Taking twenty-five of those that might be regarded as the most 
eminent American statesmen of the last one hundred years and 

^ The sources of information for these statistics were chiefly, as follows : 
Lanman's Biographical Annals of the United States Civil Government ; Ben 
Perley Poore's Eegistry of the United States Government ; the Congres- 
sional Directories ; Foster's Collectanea Genealogica : the British Almanac 
and Companion ; and the Statesman's Year Book. 


comparing tlieir ages at death with those of the same number of 
the most distinguished English statesmen, the United States gave 
an average of 69 years, and Great Britain of 70 — no practical dif- 
ference. It is noticeable, however, that much of the best work of 
the great English statesmen — of Palmerston, Derby, and Beacons- 
field, for instance — has been done at an advanced age, when most of 
our American public men have ceased to do anything important. 

A little searching will show, in the first place, some general causes 
for these differences. While politics in America may, in the spoils- 
man's sense, be regarded by many as a business, it is not, as in 
England, a true vocation followed in the main by those prepared 
by inheritance, education, and training. 

In England we not infrequently see men entering on public 
careers, usually by a seat in the House of Commons, shortly after 
attaining their majority, or, at least, at a comparatively early age. 
Pitt, the elder, for instance, came into Parliament at 27, Pitt, the 
younger, at 21, Palmerston and Gladstone at 23, and Disraeli, after 
several attempts, at 32. They come, however, at these early ages 
to Parliament, usually well-endowed mentally, and as to a training 
school for their life work. By a gradual process they become ac- 
customed to their duties and their labors, and their responsibilities in- 
crease with their years and mental strength. Great responsibilities 
are not, as a rule, entrusted to them until their powers are matured. 
In the few instances in which English statesmen have assumed the 
highest positions early in life, as in the cases, for example, of the 
younger Pitt, and of Fox, they have usually paid the penalty of pre- 
mature death. An American, because of constitutional restrictions, 
cannot reach the lower house of Congress until twenty-five years old, 
and the Senate until thirty. This ought to be to our advantage, 
but there are many counterbalancing drawbacks. Many Americans 
who enter the public arena comparatively young have made and 
finished their public careers at an age when the British statesman 
is beginning to reap his reward. 

Others come to high political and oflicial position at or after the 


meridian of life, aud find themselves confronted with l^rain work, 
and with duties and responsibilities to which they are unequal, be- 
cause for them they have had no preparation at all. 

The occupations of the members of the Forty- Eighth Congress, 
as given by the Congressional Directory, were as follows : Lawyers, 
197 ; manufacturers, 24 ; journalists, 22 ; farmers or planters, 19 ; 
merchants, 16; bankers, 11; physicians, 6 ; mining capitalists, 5; 
mining engineers, 3; railroad managers, 3; clergymen, 2; army 
officers, 2 ; stenographers, 2 ; architect, 1 ; pharmacist, 1 ; railroad 
ticket agent, 1 ; hatter, 1 ; zoologist, 1 ; and unclassified, 8. 

The legal profession furnishes by far the largest number of Sen- 
ators and Representatives, and of others holding public i)Iaces ; and 
among these are to be found our brightest political luminaries. 
Even legal studies, however, do not necessarily fit men for public 
position ; in special instances, they rather unfit them. It must be 
borne in mind also that the terra " lawyer," as applied to those in 
political station, is often a mere fiction, those holding it often being 
men half-trained, or not trained at all, who have assumed the legal 
role by the easy methods which prevail throughout our land. A 
lawyer or editor, a banker or merchant, a farmer or planter, a manu- 
facturer or railway magnate, a physician or j? readier, finds himself 
in Congressional halls by virtue of wealth, or local fame, or fortuit- 
ous circumstances, and absolutely without any appreciation of or 
fitness for the labors and responsibilities of his new calling. Am- 
bition, self-esteem, and the instinct for praise impel him to strenuous 
exertion to compensate for his deficiencies, an effort which leaves 
him sometimes a mental and physical wreck. 

Whether they have entered public life in youth or middle age, 
and whether prepared or not, mental overwork is particularly dan- 
gerous to men beyond the prime of life. Of the sixty cases, break- 
down occurred between twenty-five and thirty years in 2 cases ; 
between thirty and forty in 14 cases; between forty and fifty in 
18 cases; between fifty and sixty in 17 cases; between sixty and 
seventv in 9 cases. 


Thirteen of the seventeen cases between fifty and sixty, and 
eight of the nine cases between sixty and seventy, were in political 
or official life. It is premature decay for the man who should live 
to eighty or ninety to die at seventy, or for one who should die at 
seventy to j^ass away at fifty-five or sixty. It is a question of po- 
tential longevity. In the cases before us, sudden or unusual brain 
work or strain terminated the careers of those destined apparently 
to live from five to twenty years longer. 

Vice-President Wilson died prematurely at sixty-three, without 
doubt the victim of extreme over-work. The death of a distin- 
guished Senator at the same age was precipitated by overwork both 
inside and outside of the Senate, and by Avorry and excitement grow- 
ing out of the opposition and censure of the Legislature of the State 
which he represented. A Representative in Congress, and one 
high in judicial position, subjected to special causes of work and 
worry, died at sixty-five of cerebral haemorrhage. Another Rep- 
resentative, overwhelmed with labors and anxieties of a peculiarly 
harassing character, contracted diabetes, of which he eventually 
died between sixty and seventy. 

Men may live for many years in comparative comfort, and 
able to do a reasonable amount of work, with organic disease of the 
kidneys, liver, heart, or other organs, as long as they are not sub- 
jected to any unusual physical or mental strain. One of America's 
most distinguished physicians died a few years ago at the age of 
eighty-two, and was found after death to have advanced disease of 
the kidneys which had not been suspected ; but the last twenty 
years of his life were free from strain. 

The history of many old hemiplegias is confirmative of this j^oint. 
At the Philadelphia Hospital, I usually have under observation a 
score or more of hemiplegies, the victims of thrombosis, embolism, 
or hsemorrhage. These cases, some advanced in years, with brittle, 
atheromatous vessels, and (as numerous autopsies show) with disease 
in almost every organ of the body, live on year after year without 

8 thp: toner lectures. 

change, because their absolute pauperism has its compensation in 
that they are no longer subjected to the strain and friction of life. 

The contrast to such cases is found in the histories of some of 
those who form the subject of the present study. 

One died at the age of sixty-six, holding a position of high rank 
and responsibility at the time of his death. He was of good hered- 
ity and physique, and had been thoroughly educated. In early life 
his habits of eating and drinking had been irregular, and at one 
period he suffered from gouty symptoms. For fifteen or twenty 
years before his death, however, he had been careful and systematic 
in his habits, mental and physical, and enjoyed fair health, Avhen 
suddenly he was subjected to unusual labor and anxiety, because of 
a great public catastrophe. He could not escape the suddenly- 
imposed strain. His health failed rapidly in a few months, and he 
died of Bright's disease. 

Another, also in high official position, died at fifty-eight He also 
was of good heredity, used alcohol moderately, and tobacco freely. 
Mentally he had been through life a fair but not unusual worker. 
Twenty-seven years before his decease he had suffered severely from 
scurvy. After this he was not sick until his fatal illness. Mental 
work, and cares and anxieties, to which he was unaccustomed, 
crowded upon him during the last three years of his life. Worn 
out, he took a sudden cold, was attacked with a local inflammatory 
trouble, and died. 

Some of those who have been lifted from the ordinary walks 
of life into high official position by appointment, find themselves 
entirely unfitted for the tasks before them, and yet from these 
tasks they are unable to escape. If too old, or without sufficient 
fundamental education to learn, and if unable to do their work 
by proxy, failure in health, as well as in reputation, is sometimes 
the result. In England, so severe are some of the competitive 
examinations for positions in the public service that many are 
injured in health by the strain Avhich they undergo in prepar- 
ing for these examinations. With us, it is often the other way; 


the strain and pressure come afterward. The positions acquired 
solely by favor are themselves the hard examiners. In one case, 
reported to me by a Washington physician, temporary glycosuria 
was developed in a man fifty-nine years old, largely as the result 
of anxiety induced by the fact that he was mentally unfit to make 
the annual report called for by his high position. 

If ambitious and conscientious, the real mental labor connected 
with the position of a man high in public position is often very 
great. Pressing and i:)erplexing committee work, attention to a 
large correspondence, the preparation of reports, bills, speeches, 
and points for debate, make incessant demands upon the time 
and strength of the Senator or Representative. A well-educated 
lawyer, coming to Congress at thirty-four, raj^idly rose to promi- 
nence. He did a prodigious amount of work on the floor of the 
House of Representatives, and by correspondence, but especially on 
committees. He was taken seriously ill at the close of a session 
during which his labors had been unusually great even for him, 
because of the excessive extra work thrown on him by the sickness 
of another member of one of the important committees on which he 
was serving. He died at the beginning of the next session of Con- 
gress. Another reached the speakership of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, only to succumb at forty-nine to the brain work and 
multifarious cares of his high position. An abstemious New Eng- 
land Senator, an indefatigable worker, after suffering for long time 
from dyspepsia, and from insomnia and other nervous symptoms, 
was suddenly taken down with enteritis, of which he died, 

A special cause of sudden failure in health among public men 
is the mental over-work, physical fatigue, and excessive emotional 
excitement attendant upon our political campaigns. In recent 
years a presidential aspirant was suddenly and seriously stricken 
during the meeting of the nominating convention. Horace Greeley 
died insane from brain disease at the conclusion of his unsuccessful 
campaign. A successful candidate for a high public position de- 


veloped pneumonia after a campaign of toil and excitement. Simi- 
lar instances could be given were it worth while. 

Although perhaps not as important a factor in the causation of 
disease in joolitical as in commercial life, the emotional element 
plays a large part. It is, as has just been shown, often a life of 
clamor and excitement. It is one too often of uncertainty, disap- 
pointment, and vain longing. Even to the man who is compara- 
tively well fitted for his work, the political vocation in this country 
is never assured. The new Representative, for instance, feels that 
it is imperative for him to speedily make a career. Others aspire 
to his place, which can only be held by hard work, and too often also 
by low arts. The faults and foibles of a public man are laid bare, 
his mistakes are magnified, and his best efforts are sometimes mis- 
interpreted by a thoughtless or merciless press. The tremendous 
sense of responsibility which important positions impose is a con- 
stant strain, particularly upon the higher orders of mind. This 
burden of responsibility, conjoined with Herculean labors, mental 
and physical, destroyed some of our greatest statesmen during "the 
Civil War. 

To such causes as these must be added the lack of recreation, and 
che excesses, excitements, and irregularities of social life at the 
National Capital, although it does not come within my purpose to 
consider either these, or the abuse of alcohol and tobacco, in the 
present jiaper. 

Leaving the political and official circles, let us next glance at 
some of the conditions which lead to mental over-work and its con- 
sequences among the professional classes. 

Defects in our system both of medical and legal education are 
at the root of failure in health, no less than of professional failure, 
in many cases. The physician or lawyer, half-educated and half- 
tr&ined in youth, and yet ambitious and naturally able, is com- 
pelled to put forth efforts doubly tasking and straining because his 
mind has not been systematically developed for his life-work. 

Physicians ordinarily do not afford many illustrations of pre- 


mature disease from mental overstrain and over-work. Some lose 
their health from broken rest, irregular meals, physical fatigue, and 
the continual incurrence of the responsibilities of life and death ; 
but the variety in their lives, the alternation between in-door and 
out-door existence, and the knowledge of health and disease which 
they are able to apply for their own behoof, serve in some measure 
to counterbalance these injurious influences. The physicians who 
succumb to mental over-work are usually those who, not content 
Avith the ordinary labors and rewards of an arduous profession, 
strive, in addition, for literary, scientific, or professorial honors. 
In this country it is the rule, rather than the exception, to find the 
professorships and the subordinate teaching positions in our medical 
colleges filled by men actively engaged in practice. We have not 
here, as abroad, scientific i:)hysicians in well-endowed professor- 
ships, or comfortably quartered on the Government in positions, the 
routine duties of which can be performed by deputy. The young 
American physician who, without means, influence, or friends, sets 
out for the high places of his profession, has before him a prospect 
Avhich only fails to appall, because it is veiled by his ambition. In- 
tellectual labor must be prolonged, encroaching upon intervals 
which should be given to rest or recreation ; special appointments 
must be kept, no matter what the cost ; the brain must be forced 
to constantly augmenting and multiplying tasks. Besides all this, 
he has, to a greater or less extent, the responsibility, the physical 
fatigue, and the irregularity in eating and sleeping, which belong 
to medical practice. Science and literature may be made instru- 
ments of health and happiness to the working physician ; but when 
turned to for the purposes of ambition by those already sufficiently 
taxed by practical work, great care must be taken, or they Avill 
assist in sowing the seeds of disease and death. Five of six physi- 
cians in my list w^ere engaged both in teaching and in literary or 
scientific work, besides attending to private and hospital practice. 
In the case of two of them, valuable contril^utions, the result of 
much labor, appeared about the time their health gave way. 


Many lawyers are among the cases collected from those in 
political and official life; but, in addition, three judges and four 
lawyers in active practice, and not in political careers, are included 
in my notes. The temporary but severe break-down of two judges 
was attributable to the habit long persisted in of examining papers, 
comparing authorities, and preparing opinions at night — a form of 
mental labor taxing to the highest powers. Successful lawyers are 
often subjected to sudden, prolonged, and severe mental work and 
strain. Cases must be prepared with great rapidity, important prin- 
ciples of law nuist be mastered in a short time, and exhausting efforts 
must be made in courts under conditions of excitement and bad 
hygiene. With lawyers, as w'ith physicians, self-imposed tasks, in 
addition to their necessary labors, are sometimes the cause of their 
downfall in health. A young lawyer, with a decided taste for philo- 
sophical pursuits, wrote an able scientific monograph, and developed 
insanity directly as the result of continuous mental work, legal and 
scientific. Another succumbed Avhile editing a legal work. 

Before success is assured the mental effects of pecuniary pressure 
are often felt with great force and intensity by men in the profes- 
sions of medicine and law. Such men, waiting for business until 
reputation is acquired, and, in the meantime, often doing unre- 
quited work that calls for an immense output of mental energy, 
have both their intellectual and emotional natures under constant 
tension. Both work and worry do their parts. 

In attributing impairment of health to w^orry rather than to 
work, it is sometimes forgotten that a man wuth an over-worked brain 
often worries about small matters which would otherwise be met 
Avith fortitude. Worry, in such cases, is begotten of over-work. 
"When," says Blaikie,^ "a celebrated editor complained of lieing— 

Over-worked, over-worried. 
Over-Croker'd, over-Murray "d, 

the first word of his lamentation explained all the rest." Worry, 
1 Macmillan's Masjazine. 


moreover, is in itself a form of braiii work ; to worry means to 
cerebrate intensely. 

Two clergymen, both of whom were compelled to do severe 
mental work, and at the same time sustain grave responsibilities, 
were the only representatives of theology in my list of cases. 
Chance may not have thrown a fair proportion of mentally over- 
worked clergymen within my reach, but this small number is prob- 
ably not entirely accidental. Many clergymen suffer from the 
symptoms of a mild but annoying form of neurasthenia, but com- 
paratively few succumb completely to mental over-work. Their un- 
usual longevity is well known. Sherwood's statistics have already 
been quoted. Their variety of toil, their comparative freedom from 
financial anxiety, their superior mental endowments, and their tem- 
perance and morality are the reasons assigned by Beard, and I 
believe correctly, for the greater longevity of clergymen than of 
other brain workers. 

Of the four journalists, three were engaged upon the highest 
order of journalistic work. The work done by editors and leader- 
writers often calls for the severest intellectual effort under pressure. 
The writer of leading articles will probably average two or more 
columns daily. His matter must be interesting and forcible ; facts 
must be rapidly obtained and marshalled; judgments on important 
topics must be formed instantaneously. Often the brain must be 
goaded to do work against the mental grain. The work must be done, 
and must be done on time ; there is no putting off to o. more convenient 
season. Editors, moreover, often do their work under bad hygienic 
conditions — at night, in the glare and heat of gas, sometimes in badly 
ventilated rooms. One of my patients suffered so much from in- 
somnia, cervico-occipital pain, nervous dyspepsia, and other symp- 
toms, distinctly traceable to his work and mode of life, that he 
finally left journalism entirely. Two others were forced tempo- 
rarily to quit their labors. 

Scientific work is, as a rule, conservative rather than destructive 
of health. The scientist, unlike the journalist, is not usually com- 


pellecl to do severe iutellectual work under pressure for time. His 
danger, as noted in the six cases that have come under ol)servation 
in the preparation of the pi-esent paper, is from sedentary hal^its, 
and from intense and prolonged activity of the mind in certain 
limited grooves. To some minds scientific work has a fascination 
which becomes a source of peril ; the worker l^ecomes a willing slave 
to tasks which are often of his own making. The six cases were all 
men who labored beyond the requirements of the positions held by 
them. Assiduous work with the microscope, steady concentration 
ui)on mathematical and engineering ])roblems, and the laborious 
collection and comparison of data, produced, after a time, states of 
mental and nervous hyperrcsthia and exhaustion, which led to 
albuminuria in one case, to insanity in two, and to temporary nerv- 
ous collapse in three cases. 

One of these cases, a man highly distinguished in the professional 
and scientific world, devoted himself with rare enthusiasm to scien- 
tific work under Governmental auspices. His method was simply 
one of intense and incessant applicati(jn by day and by night, 
Sunday and week-day. Warnings in the shape of insomnia, 
great irritability, mental and physical weariness, oxaluria, and 
marked loss of weight came and went unheeded. Melancholia de- 
veloped. Rest and travel twice restored him to mental health, but 
only to have the same history repeated, and to end with a third 
and complete mental collapse. Another, a young man who had 
educated himself scientifically, at the same time earning a living, 
frequently worked fourteen hours a day at tasks requiring close 
mental concentration. The tendency to over-work is greater among 
men who have, without the training of schools, raised themselves to 
honorable rank in science and literature than among those who 
have had the advantage of a systematic education. 

The teachers that have fallen under my notice have been, with 
one exception (a college professor), principals of male grammar 
.schools in Philadeli^hia. Five of them broke down completely 
from menial over-work, and the worrv which went with and grew 


out of this over-work. These cases were observed a few years ago 
when the system of competitive examinations prevailed in its worst 
form in Philadelphia public schools. The Boys' High School and 
Girls' Normal School had accommodations only for a fixed number 
of pupils. Any school of a certain grade could send pupils to the 
examinations ; but those to be admitted were selected from the com- 
petitors absolutely in the order of the averages obtained. Twenty- 
five might be accepted from the grammar school of one section, 
and only five, or perhaps not one, from another school of an equal 
grade. Cramming was at the highest premium. A teacher's repu- 
tation, and even his position sometimes, depended upon the success 
of liis pupils at these examinations. Teachers and pupils both fre- 
qucn.'Jy gave vray under the terrible mental pressure to which they 
were subjected. One grammar school principal, just before his last 
illness, succeeded hr extraordinary efforts in getting the highest 
general average of ;;ny school in the city, and also had in his suc- 
cessful class the boy who attained the highest average among all 
who competed. These were dearly bought honors. It was no un- 
common thing for teacher and pupil to begin wark at seven o'clock 
in the morning, to invade the dinner hour, and to continue their 
labors until ten or later in the evening. Happily, a quota system 
has taken the place of the murderous method here outlined — a 
method to which, I trust, Philadelphia will never return. 

Not long since, in some of our newspapers, was noted the case of 
a colored girl who was in attendance at the same school with white 
children, and who died from " brain fever " brought on by over- 
work, in her efforts to compete with her more favored schoolmates. 
Scores of children whose skins are fair, differ as widely from each 
other in capacity and helpful surroundings as she differed from 
those with whom she vainly endeavored to compete. 

Our children are too largely in the hands of those educationalists 
to whom Clouston^ refers, who go on the theory that there is an un- 

^ Clinical Lectures on Mental Diseases. 


limited capacity in every individual brain for education to any ex- 
tent, in any directic^n, and that after you have strained the power 
of the mental medium to its utmost there is plenty of energy left 
for growth, nutrition, and reproduction, w-hile nothing is more cer- 
tain than that every brain has at starting just a certain potentiality 
of education in any one direction and of power generally, and that 
it is far better not to exhaust that potentiality. 

Children varying in age and original capacity, in previous prepa- 
ration and in home surroundings, are forced to the same molds and 
grooves. The slow must keep pace with the fleet, the frail with the 
sturdy, the children of toil and deprivation with the sons and 
daughters of Avealth and luxury. 

A child is always liable to suffer from mental over-work when 
the effort is made to force its education beyond its receptive powers. 
Education is not individualized enough. The mind of the child is 
often confused by a multitude of ill-assorted studies. Recreation 
is neglected and unhealthy emulation is too much cultivated. Some 
account has been given of the method in vogue at one time in Phila- 
delphia, and wliich some are unwise enough to wish to revive. In 
many communities, outside of Philadelphia, admissions to the vari- 
ous grades of public schools are regulated entirely by the averages 
obtained at examinations, instead of on the general record of the 
pupils in connection with proper, but not too severe, examinations. 
In consequence, often after the campaign of over-work and confu- 
sion, called an examination, we see children developing serious dis- 
turbances of health, or even organic disease — paroxysmal fever, 
loss of appetite, headache or ncckache, disturbed sleep, temporary 
albuminuria, chorea, hysteria, and hystero-epilepsy. 

Premature disease, even in the medical profession, sometimes has 
its origin in student days. Such education as medical students re- 
ceive is often obtained under the most trying circumstances. In 
some of our most celebrated medical schools many of the students 
are expected to attend lectures or do laboratory work for seven 
hours in the day-time, and in addition to dissect in the evening. 


When to this is superadded attendance upon private examining 
associations and text-book cramming, the only wonder is that so 
many survive. Young men finish with credit and honor their 
medical course not unfrequently only to become invalids or to pass 
to their graves in a few months, victims of the mental over-work 
and bad hygiene of the colleges where they sought instruction in 
health and healing. 

The symptom-gi-oups and diseases represented by the series of 
sixty cases may be summarized as follows : Acute neurasthenia, 18 
cases ; insanity, 10 ; phthisis, 9 ; diabetes, 4 ; cerebral hemorrhage, 
4 ; Bright's disease, 3 : posterior spinal sclerosis, 3 ; pneumonia, 3 ; 
bulbar paralysis, 1 ; angina pectoris, 1 ; erysipelas, 1 ; hepatitis, 1 ; 
enteritis, 1 ; glossitis, 1. 

Beard^ makes the sweeping assertion that neurasthenia " is at 
once the most frequent, most interesting, and most neglected ner- 
vous disease of modern times." He holds that it is a chronic func- 
tional disease of the nervous system, the basis of which is impover- 
ishment of nervous force and waste of nerve-tissue in excess of re- 
pair. Professor Bartholow^ denies that neurasthenia is a primary 
nervous affection or a substantive disease, holding that it is always 
symptomatic and secondary, and defining it as " a disease usually 
functional, situated in one or more organs, during the course of 
which reflex disturbances of the brain occur, and numerous subjective 
sensations in all parts of the body are realized by consciousness." 

With reference to this difference of opinion, it may be said that, 
on the one hand, there is nothing either impossible or improbable 
in the assumption of a primary exhaustion of nerve-centres from 
over-work ; but, on the other hand, cause and effect are doubtless 
often confounded by those who fall back on " neurasthenia" to clear 
up the mystery of every half-understood nervous case. A chronic 
condition, known properly as neurasthenia, is often met with among 

1 Op. cit. 

2 The Polyclinic, January 15, 1884. A paper read before the Philadelphia 
County Medical Society. 



Americans in all walks of life, among women as often, or perhaps 
oftener, than men. These neurasthenics are commonly individuals 
who are careful rather than careless in their habits of living and 
W'orkiug, although sometimes the reverse is the case. They may be, 
and frequently are, of the nervous diathesis. If men, they are 
not those who come to the front in politics and in the professions, 
and who form the sul^ject of our study. They may be statesmen, 
or physicians, or lawyers, or journalists, but they do not represent 
the aggressive and successful elements in such careers. They are 
men who, having wet their feet in the ripples of endeavor, imagine 
that they have buffeted with great waves. 

Those who form the subject of this lecture, on the other hand, are, 
as a rule, men of great natural vigor, who have worked with more 
energy than discretion. They are the swift and strong, the fit in- 
tended to survive. Sadly enough the}' often live only to teach the 
truth that the race is not always to the swift, nor the battle to the 
strong. While scarcely ever belonging to the class of chronic 
neurasthenics, these men are sometimes the victims of a nervous pros- 
tration, which comes on acutely, or so insidiously that its early 
warnings are overlooked or brushed aside. This condition may be 
followed quickly by some serious organic disease, or, under fortu- 
nate circumstances, it may be recovered from by rest and proper 
treatment. The cases classed as acute neurasthenia were of this 

The condition of half-gout, or suppressed gout, named lithccmia 
by Murchison\ and also sometimes spoken of as lithuria or lithiasis, 
has attracted much attention during the last few years. In addi- 
tion to Murchison, the nervous symjjtoms of lithsemia have been 
ably discussed by Draper^ Russell Reynolds^ Dyce Duckworth^ 

1 The Croonian Lectures on Functional Derangements of the Liver. By 
Charles Murchison, 31. D., LL. D., etc. 

* Series of American Clinical Lectures, edited by E.G. Seguin, M. D., 
1875, and New York Medical Eecord, February 24, 1883 

* British Medical Journal, December 15, 1877. 
♦Brain, April, 1880. 


Da Costa', and Putuaiir, among others. A tendency is seen in 
some quarters to refer all the symptoms and disorders commonly 
classed as neurasthenic, and apparently resulting from mental 
strain and over-work, to a lithsemic state of the blood. Such 
symptoms are certainly sometimes thus best explained. For sev- 
eral years, and particularly since the appearance of Dr. Da Costa's 
paper, I have been on the alert for cases of lithramia, and in a few 
instances I have had brilliant successes from anti-lithsemic treat- 
ment. Lithffimia and neurasthenia, however, are not interchange- 
able terms. Such symptoms as mental distress, insomnia, head and 
neck pains, neuralgias, etc., are present when neither gout nor half- 
gout can be demonstrated by examinations of the urine or blood, 
or by any other known means. When lithsemia is present and can 
be demonstrated by treatment or otherwise, the disorders of assimi- 
lation which have led to it are often of primary nervous origin. 
While it may be entirely the result of inheritance, or errors of 
diet, in other cases it would seem to be induced by nervous strain, 
and is, therefore, likely to occur in those with whom we are 
now concerned. My experience coincides with that of Da Costa, 
who says : " Lithremia is much more common in men than in 
women. Its chief sufferers are men in the prime of life. It comes 
on in some who live luxuriously, eat largely, drink freely, take little 
exercise in the open air, and are indolent in their habits. But it is 
quite as often, or oftener, seen in the active brain workers of good 
habits, in the marked men in the community in which they live, 
and it is in them, too, that the nervous symptoms of lithoemia are 
most obvious. My list of lithsemic patients embraces many a 
name distinguished at the bar, in medicine, in the pulpit, in litera- 
ture, and in the world of finance. And it is not only brain work 
and all the habits this implies, but strain and worry which induce it." 
When vertigo is complained of by over-worked patients, I am 
particularly inclined to look into the question of lithremia. 

1 American Jom-nal of the Medical Sciences, October, 188L 

2 Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, December 13, 1883. 


It is almost imijossible to jireseut in orderly array all the symp- 
toms which may be regarded as the indications of nervous ex- 
haustion, and the probable precursors of premature disease from 
brain strain and over-work. These symptoms, indeed, will vary some- 
what with the individual — with his hereditary tendencies, his habits, 
and his surroundings. THere are, however, .certain common and 
positive evidences of existing or coming evil which are present in 
many cases. The most prominent of these early warnings, which 
are, at the same time, the symptoms of the affection or condition 
most conveniently termed acute neurasthenia, are as follows: 1. 
Certain i)sychical symptoms, such as excessive irritability of temper ; 
depression of spirits ; morbid impulses and fears ; constantly re- 
curring thoughts, phrases, or suspicions ; sense of effort ; impairment 
of memory and attention ; and change in habits and methods of 
mental work. 2. Laxity or immobility of countenance. 3. A dimi- 
nution or loss of physical resisting power. 4. Heart failure. 5. 
Sleeplessness. 6. Pain or distress in the back of the head and neck. 
7. Nervous dyspepsia. 

Excessive irritability of temper, a state of mental hypersesthesia, 
is certainly one of the earliest indications of brain over-work. This 
irritability is apt to alternate with feelings of exhaustion and de- 
pression, and is occasionally the only marked precursor of serious 
disease. The account given by one of my patients, a professional 
man thirty-seven years old, is practically that of many. With a 
large amount of work on hand, with exacting literary and teaching 
engagements, with financial anxieties, he was the victim of mental 
over-work and worry to an extreme degree. The veriest trifles be- 
gan to annoy him. He could scarcely endure the presence of his 
OAvn children ; their simple play and noise disquieted him and 
caused unw(mted ebullitions of temper. He was abrupt and im- 
patient in his business. He believed that his best friends were 
turning against him. He became unable attentively to follow a 
convei'sation. He would sit down at his desk to take up some pro- 
fessional or literary work, only before long to sink listlessly in his 


chair unable to arouse either memory or attention. He had fre- 
quent spells of profound dejiression ; and tinnitus aurium, a sense of 
weight in the head, disturbed sleep, and partial insomnia were symp- 
toms that came and went. After this condition had lasted for three or 
four months his urine was tested, and, to his surprise, A\'as found to 
contain sugar. 

In this case, as in many, mental irritability was an evidence of 
impairment of power. Weakening of the inhibitory mechanism of 
the brain is likely to be one of the first eifects of mental over-work. 
Perfect inhibition is the sign of perfect mental health. Owing to 
the sapping of inhibition, the man whose brain has been over- 
worked or overstrained sometimes shows a tendency to morbid im- 
pulses and morbid fears. One of my staid but greatly over-worked 
patients felt himself moved by a strange impulse to shout on the 
streets, another was impelled to steal umbrellas from a rack, another 
to hurl his child over a stairway, another to commit suicide. Again, 
a man who has steadily over-w^orked himself may find himself 
developing a state of general timidity, and, along with this, a 
tendency to perform foolish and indiscreet acts. Special morbid 
fears sometimes ai'ise ; but Beard, I think, makes neurasthenia 
play too important a role in the causation of these" fears — fears of 
open spaces and fears of closed sj^aces, of lightning, of disease, of 
defilement, and the like. These cases usually represent peculiar 
forms of inherited mental perversion rather than conditions of ner- 
vous exhaustion from brain work or strain. They are rather emo- 
tional monomanias, as held by Hammond and Ball. They are 
more likely to occur in those who never use their mental powers 
energetically than in the active brain-workers. 

The inability in waking hours to banish some phrase, or thought, 
or suspicion, that has somehow gained a foothold in the mind, has 
been experienced by many who have suflfered simply from tem- 
porary nervous depression. When mental conditions of this kind 
often recur, and increase in intensity, when associated with other 
morbid impressions and states, they are warning signs that ought 


not to be overlooked. The unfortunate possessor of these feelings 
and emotions is already on the danger line. 

A peculiar and unusual laxity or immobility of countenance is 
one of the minor and yet important early indications that a man's 
account of physical and mental vigor is being overdrawn. This 
takes the place of the firm lines and the quick and varied play of 
features so indicative of mental strength and acuteness. It is due 
to a loss of muscular tone which, in its turn, is dependent upon 
impairment of central nervous control. It is often present in the 
early stages of dementia of any form. . . 

Brain-fag shows itself again in the want of zest and sense of 
eftbrt which goes with every task. The desk-worker expects to 
accomplish some hours of useful labor; but, instead of his interest 
and enthusiasm awakening, as formerly happened, he becomes 
absent-minded, ideas fail to come to him, and he is unable to con- 
centrate his attention. By persistence he may be able to arouse for 
a short time some of his former energy, but long, continued effort 
becomes impossible. The life has gone out of his work. His 
habits and methods of work change almost without his knowing it. 
He is obliged to get more time that he may, to some extent, com- 
pensate for lessened powers. Minutes are stolen from his meals, 
hours from his family and from sleep, and Sunday's rest is in- 
vaded and violated. He ceases to know the meaning of recrea- 
tion, and becomes an abject slave to tasks which become every 
day more irksome and impossible of completion. 

A diminution or loss of power to resist exposure, fatigue, or 
slight deprivation of food and rest is one of the surest evidences 
of nervous decline. The man in this case is showing prematurely 
that lessened power of resistance which comes on physiologically 
Avith advancing years. His nerve-centres are exhausted, they are 
wearing out, and are no longer capable of sending forth those 
nerve-stimuli which are necessary to assimilation and repair. 

Heart failure Avas particularly observed* in two cases — both phy- 
sicians. In one, signs of a weak heart, with slow and sometimes 


intermittent pulse, and anginal attacks preceded the develoj^ment 
of phthisis. In the other, a similar condition of heart and pulse 
was present, with cardiac dyspnaa and vertiginous seizures. 

The fact that sleeplessness is one of the effects and early indica- 
tions of mental over-work is so well known that it is almost unnec- 
essary to dwell upon it. It was present in some degree in almost 
eveiy one of my cases in which the trouble from over-work did not 
come on suddenly. The progress towards complete insomnia is usu- 
ally gradual ; at first it. is likely to be fitful slumber broken by 
dreams. ^Vhat sleep is had is not refreshing. Soon the patient 
may not be able to sleejD for hours. The brain is harassed by the 
thoughts of the day, which can neither be downed nor dismissed. 
They sometimes almost madden by their sameness. Finally, if not 
remedied, the insomnia becomes as absolute as that present in some 
forms of insanity, which jDerchance it presages, and which yields 

not to 

"poppy, mandragora, 

ISTor all the drowsy syrups of the world." 

Pain, or a feeling of intolerable distress in the back of the head 
or neck, was complained of in twelve cases. It is undoubtedly 
a frequent symptom of acute neurasthenia, and also not rarely a 
prodrome of coming organic trouble. A judge resigned his posi- 
tion on the bench because of this distress, couj^led with insomnia ; 
and because of it also an over-worked young physician seriously 
considered abandoning his profession. Pain in the back of the 
head, as well as other forms of headache, may be due to eye-strain ; 
a cervico-occipital myalgia of rheumatic or lith^emic origin is often 
met with ; and chronic neurasthenics sufler from nape-aches which 
their habits of self-inspection and self-analysis magnify to undue 
proportions ; but over and above all these are cases in which this 
symptom can only be explained by extreme nervous exhaustion. 
Each patient complaining of this sensation should be carefully 
studied in order to determine whether it is a matter of trifling 
or serious import. 


One form of occipito-cervical pain is indicative of serious dis- 
ease of the kidneys, Seguin^ has reported two cases of occipito- 
cervical pain of a severe type. Both patients were adults and had 
suffered from chronic headache more or less of the migraine type. 
At a certain period this headache became transformed into a local- 
ized occipital pain, very different from that of the former attacks. 
The pain in one case extended down tlie cervical spine, and Avas 
much aggravated by movement. The peculiar headache was dis- 
tinctly i^aroxysmal and accompanied by. nausea. In both cases 
evidences of chronic Bright's disease, in the form of urine of low sj^e- 
cific gravity, and containing albumen and hyaline and granular 
casts. Convulsions were present in one case. One of the patients 
died, and the autopsy showed extensive disease of the kidney l)ut 
none of the brain. 

That disorders of digestion are sometimes early results of brain 
strain and over-work needs only to be recalled. A true nervous 
dyspepsia, associated with heart palpitations and coming and going 
diarrhoea, is often one of the first and most annoying evidences of 
nervous strain. A distinguished physician, when financially embar- 
rassed and working with great energy for recognition, suffered so 
severely with dyspeptic symptoms that cancer of the stomach was 
suspected by himself and by some of his i^rofessional friends. With 
professional success came relief to his gastric symptoms. 

Digestive disorders come early and late in the history of nervous 
break-down, but their true significance is often overlooked, and 
treatment is directed to the stomach when the over-worked brain is 
the organ really at fault. 

In not a few cases Avhich are supposed to be the result of over- 
work, and which are at first conveniently labelled as neurasthenia, 
the l)reak-down in health is really due to some special physical 
conditions which may or may not be serious. Headache, vertigo, 
and mental distress may arise from the eye-strain which is caused 
by optical defect ; and tinnitus and vertigo, which are regarded 

L\rchives of Medicine, August, 1880. 


with alarm, may be dependent on some easily remediable ear-aftec- 
tion. Our discussion would not be complete without a reference 
to such cases, which have received the fuller attention which they 
deserve from Mitchell, Thompson, Risley, and others. 

In five cases of cerebral syphilis, not included in the sixty cases, 
the symj^toms were at first attributed to worry and mental over- 
work. Two were men engaged in scientific work, one was in offi- 
cial position, one was a physician, and one a merchant. All were 
actively engaged intellectually, and were under pressure. The 
brain symptoms were relieved in four cases by potassium iodide ; 
the fifth, after three attacks of paralysis, died. Worry and brain 
work played an added part in this last case. 

Insanity in some fin-m was developed or jDrecipitated, apparently 
as the result of mental strain and over-work, in ten cases. In those 
cases in which the patient's condition could be traced for some time 
prior to the outbreak of recognizable insanity, indications of coming 
evil were present, but went unheeded. Investigation revealed a 
family history of insanity in three cases, and some transmitted 
neurotic vice may have been in existence in other cases, but this was 
not ascertained. The forms of insanity were melancholia in six 
cases, paretic dementia in three, and acute mania in one case. 
From the cases studied in the present connection, as well as from 
general observation, I should say that melancholia is the type of 
mental disease most apt to result from pure intellectual over-work ; 
that is, from tasking the highest cerebral centres beyond their in- 
herited or acquired powers. 

Paretic dementia is likely to occur among public and profes- 
sional men when to intellectual labor are added emotional strain 
or excesses. It is undoubtedly seen more frequently among men 
in business careers. My note-books contain many cases fairly at- 
tributable to business worry and excitement. Dr. H. M. Hurd^ 
believes that the disease has a direct relation to business reverses. 
He shows that since 1883, and the financial reverses which fol- 

1 Keport of the Pontiac Michigan Hospital for the Insane, 1881-82. 


lowed, there has been an increasing number admitted to the asy- 
lums until the present biennial period. He believes that the cases 
will decrease until a fresh financial revulsion occurs. Spitzka^ 
holds that paretic dementia is primarily a disease of the medulla 
oblongata, ultimately due to overstrain of the encephalic vaso- 
motor centre. The same author points out the striking analogies 
between this disease and posterio spinal sclerosis, of which latter 
affection my series furnishes three cases in terribly over-worked 
and greatly worried public men, without histories of syphilis, or 
of sexual or other excesses. 

Of the nine cases of phthisis three were members of the lower 
house of Congress, three were teachers, two were physicians, and 
one was a lawyer. In each case the history of mental over-work 
Avas clear, and in each to a large amount of real intellectual labor 
was added more or less emotional strain. Next to the possessors of 
the neurotic or insane diathesis, men of superior brain power in 
whose families phthisis is hereditary would seem to be most likely 
to over-work themselves mentally. 

The four cases of glycosuria furnish additional evidence of the 
correctness of the now generally conceded opinion that mental over- 
work and emotional strain are frequent causes of this disease. The 
influence of the nervous system in the production of saccharine 
urine has been shown by Bernard, SchifT, Pavy, Cyon and Aladoff", 
Eckhard, Brunton, and others.^ In the four cases studied the dis- 
ease came on insidiously, and not as the result of any sudden shock 
or emotion. 

That either mental over-work or mental anxiety may lead to some 
forms of Bright's disease, by impairing vaso-motor control, is highly 
probable. In two of three instances of this disorder the habits 
of the patient with reference to alcohol and other abuses usu- 

^ Insanity : Its Classifiation, Diagnosis, and Treatment. By E. C. Spitzka, 
M. D. Xew Tork. 1883. 

2 See Prof. James Tyson's Treatise on Bright's Disease and Diabetes for an 
admirable resume of these researches. 


ally assigned as causes were good, but both were hard intellectual 
workers. Temporary albuminuria was present in two othSr cases. 
Examinations of the urine were not made in many of the cases. 
In this connection, the report made by Dr. Andrew Clarke,^ a phy- 
sician connected with the Indian Civil Service, to Dr. Hack Tuke 
is interesting. He wrote that he was a witness to the grave, and 
sometimes irreparable, mischief done at schools and in working for 
competitive examinations. Of the young men passing the Civil 
Service examination for the Indian service, and afterwards sent to 
him for health certificates, ten per cent, had temporary albuminu- 
ria. Professor Tyson' says that it is certain that interstitial ne- 
phritis often exists for a long time undiscerned in business men who ■ 
have lived under a state of constant mental tension. He quotes 
Dr Clifford (from an article by Dr. Edes), who attributed twenty- 
four out of thirty-two cases iu private practice to some long-con- 
tinued anxiety oi* grief. When interstitial nephritis or some other 
form of chronic Bright's disease is in existence, but practically dor- 
mant, mental strain may spur it into dangerous activity and thus lead 
to premature death. One case of this kind has already been detailed, 
and reference has already been made to another in wdiich long- 
standing disease of the kidneys was not discovered until after 

In the case of bulbar paralysis and of angina pectoris post mor- 
tem examinations showed degenerative disease of the blood vessels ; 
and in four cases — the diagnosis in two confirmed by autopsy — 
cerebral haemorrhage resulted from a combination of excessive 
mental work and great responsibility. Two of these patients, how- 
ever, were between sixty and seventy, and two between fifty and 
sixty, but in all, a life and usefulness might have been prolonged 
if mental strain had been avoided. On the one hand, arterial 
degeneration may occur as tlie result of continued cerebral over-work 
and emotional strain, and on the other, such strain and over-work 

1 The .Journal of Mental Science, January, 1880. 
'^Op. cH. 


are particularly dangerous in those Avliose vessels are atheromatous 
or otherwise diseased from age or special cause. Over-work of the 
brain, for a time, at least, flushes it with blood and distends its 
vessels. Even a pure intellectual act can be shown to notably in- 
fluence the circulation, and change the temperature of the head. 

GkV has studied the influence of the intellectual act upon the 
circulation. He used a cardiograj^hic tambour on his own carotid. 
A philosophical lecture, a geometric demonstration, and an arith- 
metical operation were used to excite the activity of the brain. He 
observed during the intellectual work, 1, augmentation of the 
number of beats of the heart, which ai:)peared to be in direct ratio 
to the attention ; 2, dilatation of the carotid artery and most 
marked dicrotism of the carotid pulse ; 3, these characteristics per- 
sisted after cerebral activity had ceased. He concluded that these 
effects were neither cardiac nor respiratory, but vaso-motor changes. 

The experiments of Lombard on the effects of mental activity 
in increasing cerebral temperature are now well known. 

Frequent congestions of the Ijrain cause j^eculiar kinkings and 
tortuosities of the arteries, even of those of large calibre. I have 
seen many remarkable examples of this condition in the post- 
mortem room of the Philadelphia Hospital. The fact that the peri- 
vascular spaces in the brain allow these kinkings to take jjlace is, to 
a certain extent, conservative of the coats of the vessels ; but, in pro- 
cess of time, the arterial tunics will degenerate as the result of the 
strain to which they are frequently subjected. We speak some- 
times of cerebral centres and zones, referring to collections of 
nerve-cells which are supposed to have certain special functions ; 
but centres and zones are vascular as well as nervous. Instead 
of innervation preceding circulation, or circulation innervation, 
the two practically go hand in hand in l^rain activity. An 
area of blood supply was regarded by Laycock^ as indicative of an 

1 Kevue des Sciences 31edicales, quoted in the Journal of Xervous and 
Mental Disease for April, 1882. 

2 Medical Times and Gazette, August 10, 1871. 


area of cells and tissues in functional relation with each other, and 
with a common source of blood, and of regulative vis nervosa, both 
vaso-motor and trophic. The correlation between the distribution 
of the arteries and the physiological regions of the brain has been 
demonstrated by Duret, Heubner, Charcot, and others.' The bear- 
ing of these and similar researches on the subject in hand is simj^ly 
this, that it is certainly impossible to over-work any part of the 
brain without over-working the vessels going to that part ; and it 
is equally impossible to subject vessels anywhere frequently and re- 
peatedly to increased intravascular pressure without producing 
disease of these vessels, or exposing them to danger of rupture if 
already diseased. 

The occurrence of such acute diseases as pneumonia, erysipelas, 
hepatitis, enteritis, and glossitis in those mentally over-worked, 
helps to emphasize still further the fact, which I wish to bring 
out, that overtaxing the nervous system may be the exciting 
cause of almost any serious disorder to which chance, accident, 
imprudence, or infection exposes the individual. One of the three 
cases of pneumonia occurred in a successful candidate after a cam- 
paign of mental and physical excitement and toil ; the second came 
on after slight exposure in an overworked teacher ; the third in one 
who had for a long time been engaged in laborious literary work. 
The case of erysipelas occurred in an official after a winter of toil 
and anxiety, in which his mental powers Avere strained to the ut- 
most. The cases of hepatitis and enteritis were respectively an 
overdriven Representative and Senator ; that of glossitis an over- 
worked department official. 

Just how mental over-work brings about its disastrous effects is not 
easily explained. We recognize the symptoms of brain tire and brain 
exhaustion ; we see over-worked men falling by the wayside with this 
or with that well-known disease; but the exact process in the system 

^ Lectures on Localization of Diseases of the Brain. By J. M. Charcot. 
Edited by Bourneville, and translated by E. P. Fowler, M. D. W. Wood 
& Co. New York. 1878. 


by which these results are brought about must remain largely 
a matter of speculation. The eflect of emotion and intellectual ac- 
tion upon circulation and temjjerature can be, and have been, 
directly studied, but the intimate molecular changes which accom- 
pany such functioning cannot he directly determined. We know 
that an over-worked muscle will sometimes atrophy, and not only 
so, but also that the supplying nerves and their central nuclei will, 
in extreme cases, undergo degeneration. Every mental act is asso- 
ciated with some molecular change in the gray matter of the cere- 
bral convolutions. When mentalization proceeds beyond the limits 
which are practically fixed for every individual, exhaustion, defect- 
ive nutrition, and sometimes cell-atrophy result. Too prolonged 
drains upon energy will exhaust and saj) the nutrition of nerve- 
cells anywhere. In cases of mental over-work tissues fail to regene- 
rate as fast as they break down. "A thought," says Dr. H. C. "Wood,^ 
" is the index-hand that marks the death of a proto^Dlasmic mole- 
cule, or rather of protoplasmic molecules, for the production of a 
thought is usually a complex process involving many molecules. 
Normally, this molecule, or these molecules, are removed and re- 
placed by the processes of nutrition as fast as they are destroyed. 
If, however, thought folloW'S thought with such instant rapidity 
that no time is allowed for the reproduction of protoplasmic mole- 
cules, by and by so many molecules or working units will have 
been used up as to produce a constantly growing scarcity of those 
normal particles which are capable of building up the new working 
units that shall replace those which have been lost by continuous 
mental efforts." 

Many of the symptoms of nervous break-down, and many of the 
diseases induced by mental overstrain, are symptoms and diseases 
referable to the organic nervous system. These are doubtless pre- 
cipitated by exhaustion or direct lesion of the centres of the or- 
ganic functions situated in the medulla oblongata. It is to the im- 

1 Brain Work and Over-work. 


pairment of the restraining and regulating influence of these cen- 
tres that we must refer the origination of such serious organic dis- 
eases — not nervous in their manifestations, and yet evidently aris- 
ing from primary nervous disturbance — as phthisis, diabetes, Bright's 
disease, pneumonia, erysipelas, etc. I have already spoken of the 
probable method of origin of paretic dementia and posterior spinal 
sclerosis. The occurrence of heart failure, cardiac palpitation, and 
digestive disorders through the involvement of the pneumogastric 
centres is readily explicable. 

Even the cervico-occipital distress, which comes on as the result 
of over-work and overstrain, is probably to be attributed to exhaus- 
tion of the nerve-centres of the bulbar region. In some cases of 
organic disease with demonstral^le involvement of these centres this 
symptom is present. ■ It was prominent in the case of a man fifty 
years old, who was suddenly stricken in health as the result of 
overstrain in business, and died of acute bulbar paralysis. The 
succession of symptoms was facial paralysis, diplopia, difficulty in 
swallowing, muffled voice, laryngeal cough, ojDpressed breathing, 
nausea, vomiting, and fever with delirium. It was prominent also in 
the case of Vice-President Wilson, Avho had had a hemiplegic at- 
tack in 1874. When he last consulted Dr. Hammond,^ in Novem- 
ber, 1875, his marked symptoms were vertigo, thickness of speech, 
facial twitching, irregular respiration and heart action, slight diffi- 
culty of swallowing, extreme restlessness, sleeplessness, and intense 
pain in the back of the head and nape of the neck. His death 
was attributed by Hammond to plugging of one or more of the 
minute vessels of the nucleus of the pneumogastric. 

The higher cerebral centres certainly exercise a certain amount of 
what might be termed unconscious control over the organic centres. 
Mental overstrain from excessive intellectual work weakens the 
inhibitory mechanism of the brain. The organic functions — respi- 
ration, cardiac and vaso-motor control, etc. — must be maintained 

^ Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, December 16, 1875. 


uniformly in order that the iudividual shall exist iu good health. 
Their centres must be well nourished and their supply of blopd 
must be even and regular in order that their tone shall be well- 
preserved. The initial lesion in cases of the kind considered in the 
present connection may sometimes be a molecular or protoplasmic 
alteration unrecognizable by our j^resent .means of research, or it 
may be a vascular disturbance or lesion. 

Hypersemias and even minute hsemorrhages into the pons Varolii 
and medulla oblongata doubtless sometimes occur after severe mental 
work greatly prolonged under jiressure or excitement. Richardson^ 
records the case of a well-known English statesman who had risen 
to fame by working early and late. At last his acquired reputation 
was at stake on a momentous question. AVhile speaking in the 
great assembly of the nation he became faint, and was soon obliged 
to i-etire. From that moment he was stricken with dialjetes, of 
which he died. 

The cause of sudden disease in this instance, and the cause 
of sudden death in others, ai-e to be looked for in extravasa- 
tions, often minute, into vital regions of the medulla. In many 
cases of sclerosis, paretic dementia, and epilepsy, I have examined 
the medulla to discover the immediate cause of death, and have 
always found recent congestive and ha^morrhagic areas in the floor 
of the fourth ventricle. Widely dilated vessels are found contain- 
ing freshly coagulated blood and surrounded sometimes by extrava- 
sated blood. 

The most important conclusions to which our study has led may 
be summarized as follows : 

1. Intellectual work does not of itself injure health or shorten 
life, but mental over-work, particularly when associated with emo- 
tional strain, is a frequent cause of nervous break-down and pre- 
mature disease. 

2. The average longevity of men in the higher walks of public 

^ The Diseases of Modern Life. 


life is less in this country than in England. Politics here is not, 
as there, in the best sense a vocation ; and our public men in many 
cases succumb in health, or fail to attain long life, because they 
go into careers unprepared by inheritance, education, and training 
for the severe demands to be made upon their powers. 

3. Health and life are sometimes lost through forgetfulness of 
the fact that mental strain and over-work are particularly danger- 
ous to those in middle life or advanced in years who attempt brain 
work and responsibilities to which they have not been accustomed. 
The ejSects of suddenly-imposed mental strain upon these classes are 
especially disastrous. 

4. If not subjected to unusual mental or physical strain, public 
and professional men, as well as those in other walks of life, although 
afflicted with organic diseases, may live in comparative comfort, and 
be able to do a moderate amount of work for many years. 

5. Among special causes of premature disease in public life are 
onerous and perplexing duties on Congressional Committees, the 
uncertainties and disappointments attendant upon public positions, 
the great strain to which candidates are subjected during jwlitical 
campaigns, lack of recreation, and social excesses and abuses at 
the National Capital. 

6. Among physicians, lawyers, and journalists the performance 
of brain work under pressure for time, and under bad hygienic 
conditions, is a common cause of ill health. Defective education 
and p3cuniary harassments are also special causes of nervous l)reak- 
down and premature disease among physicians and lawyers. 

7. Compai'atively few clergymen succumb completely to mental 
over-work, although many suffer from a mild but annoying form of 

8. The danger to the scientific worker usually arises from too in- 
tense and too prolouged activity of the mind in one direction. It 
is a danger which springs largely from the fascination which such 
work has for its votaries. 

9. The system of severe competitive examinations in vogue in 


many communities saps the health both of teachers and pupils. In 
our schools generally educational methods are bad, recreation is 
too much neglected, and unhealthy emulation too much encour- 
aged. Education is not properly individualized. 

10. Chronic neurasthenia is not common among men prominent 
in public affairs and in the professions. Such men are, however, 
sometimes the victims of a severe acute nervous jDrostration, which 
may result in serious organic disease. 

11. Xervous strain is one of the causes of lithremia, which is of 
not infrequent occurrence among public and professsional men, but 
lithremia and neurasthenia are not interchangeable terms. 

12. The warnings of mental over- work and over-strain vary with 
individuals and circumstances, but certain psychical symptoms, and 
such physical symptoms as laxity or immobility of countenance, 
diminished resisting power, heart failure, sleeplessness, cervico- 
occipital pain or distress, and dyspepsia, are of most frequent oc- 

13. Insanity, particularly in the forms of melancholia and paretic 
dementia, is sometimes developed by brain strain and over-work. 
A family history of insanity is often present in such cases. 

14. Phthisis, diabetes, and Bright's disease — next to insanity — 
are among the diseases most likely to be developed by mental over- 
work. Men in whose families phthisis is hereditary should care- 
fully guard against such over-work. 

15. Over-taxing the mind and nervous system may be the excit- 
ing cause of almost any serious disorder to which chance, accident, 
imprudence, or infection exposes the individual. 

16. Many diseases, not nervous in their seat or manifestation, 
are developed directly or indirectly as the result of mental and 
nervous strain, through exhaustion, impairment, or lesion of the 
centres of the organic functions. 





Volume III. 

November 6, 1883 — May 19, i< 




Abstract of Transactions — i vol., 150 pp., includes a summary of Transac- 
lions of the Society from its first regular meeting, March 4, 1879, to Jan- 
uary 18, 1 88 1. 

Transactions Vol. I, 142 pp., includes transactions down to January 17, 1882. 

Transactions Vol. II, 211 pp., includes transactions to and including May, 

Communications for the Society should be addressed to Col. F. A. Seely, 
U. S. Patent Office. 

Exchanges and specimens should be sent to Dr. VV. J. Hoffman, Bureau of 




Anthropological Society of Washington 






^i^CTlo-a A, So/naiohgy ROBERT FLETCHER. 

Section B, Sociology, LESTER F. WARD. 

Section C, Philology, Philosophy, and Psychology, GARRICK MALLERY. 

Section D, Tech>wlogy OTIS T. MASON. 























Article I. — Name. 

The name of this Society shall be "The Anthropological 
Society of Washington." 

Article II. — Object. 

The object of this Society shall be to encourage the study of the 
Natural History of Man, especially with reference to America, and 
shall include Somatology, Sociology, Philology, Philosophy, Psy- 
chology, and Technology. 

Article III. — Mef?ibers. 

The members of this Society shall be persons who are interested 
in Anthropology, and shall be divided into three classes : Active, 
Corresponding, and Honorary. The active members shall be those 
who reside in Washington, or in its vicinity, and who shall pay the 
dues required by Article XV. Failure to comply with this pro- 
vision within two months after due notice of election, unless satisfac- 
torily explained to the Council, shall render the election void. 
Corresponding members shall be those who are engaged in an- 
thropological investigations in other localities ; honorary members 
shall be those who have contributed by authorship or patronage to 
the Advancement of Anthropology. Corresponding or honorary 
members may become active members by paying the fee required 
by Article XV. Any corresponding member from whom no scien- 
tific contribution is received for two years after his election may be 
dropped from the list of members by a vote of the Council, but 
when so dropped shall be eligible to reinstatement. 

All members shall be elected by the Council and by ballot, as fol- 
lows : The name of the candidate shall be recommended to the 
Council, in writing, by two members of the Society, and eight 
affirmative ballots shall be necessary to an election. 

No person shall be entitled to the privileges of active member- 
ship before paying the admission fee provided in Article XV. 



Article IV. — Officers. 

The officers of this Society shall be a President, four Vice-Presi- 
dents, a General Secretary, a Secretary to the Council, a Treasurer, 
and a Curator, all of whom, together with six other active members, 
shall constitute a Council, all to be elected by ballot at each annual 
meeting. The officers shall serve one year, or until their successors 
are elected. 

Article V. — The Cotincil. 

All business of the Society, except the election of officers at the 
annual meeting, shall be transacted by the Council, five members 
of which shall constitute a quorum. 

The Council shall meet one half-hour before the regular sessions 
of the Society, and at such other times as they may be called to- 
gether by the President. They may call special meetings of the 

Article VI. — The Sections. 

For active operations the Society shall be divided into four sec- 
tions, as follows : Section A, Somatology ; Section B, Sociology ; 
Section C, Philology, Philosophy, and Psychology; Section D, 
Technology. The Vice-Presidents of the Society shall be ex-officio 
chairmen of these sections respectively, and shall be designated by 
the President to their sections after their election. It shall be the 
duty of these sections to keep the Society informed upon the pro- 
gress of research in their respective fields, to make special investiga- 
tions when requested by the Council, to announce interesting dis- 
coveries, to collect specimens, manuscripts, publications, newspaper 
clippings, etc., and in every way to foster their divisions of the 

All papers presented to the sections shall be referred to the Coun- 
cil, and through it to the Society. 

Article VII. — Tiie President. 

The President, or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presidents, 
shall preside over the meetings of the Society and of the Council, 
and shall appoint all committees in the Council and in the Society. 

At the first meeting in February the retiring President shall de- 
liver an address to the Society. 


Article VIII. — The Vice-Presidents. 

The Vice-Presidents shall respectively preside over the sections 
to which they have been designated, and represent such sections in 
the Council and in the Society. 

Each of the Vice-Presidents shall deliver an address during the 
year upon such subject within his department as he may select. 

Article IX. — The General Secretary. 

It shall be the duty of the General Secretary to record the trans- 
actions and conduct the general correspondence of the Society. 

Article X. — The Secretary to the Council. 

The Secretary to the Council shall keep the minutes of the Coun- 
cil, shall keep a list of active, corresponding, and honorary mem- 
bers, with their residences, shall notify members of the time and 
place of all meetings of the Society, and shall perform such other 
duties as the Council may direct. 

Article XI. — The Treasurer. 

The Treasurer shall receive and have charge of all moneys ; he 
shall deposit the funds as directed by the Council, and shall not ex- 
pend any money except as ordered by the Council. He shall 
notify members in writing when their dues have remained unpaid 
for six months. 

Article XII. — The Curator. 

The Curator shall receive, acknowledge, and have charge of all 
books, pamphlets, photographs, clippings, and other anthropologi- 
cal material, and shall dispose of them in accordance with Article 
XVI, keeping a record of them in a book provided by the Society. 

Article XIII. — Meetings. 

The regular meetings of the Society shall be held on the first and 
the third Tuesday of each month from November to May, inclusive. 
An annual meeting for the election of officers shall be held on the 
third Tuesday of January in each year, a quorum to consist of 
twenty active members who are not in arrears for dues ; and visitors 
shall not be admitted. The Proceedings of the Society shall be 
conducted in accordance with the established rules of parliamentary 


practice. Papers read shall be limited to twenty minutes, after 
which the subject shall be thrown open for discussion, remarks 
thereon to be limited to five minutes for each speaker. 

Article XIV. — Publications. 

The address of the President, provided in Article VII, and the 
transactions of the Society, shall be printed and published annually 
or at such periods and in such form as may be determined by the 

Article XV. — Fees and Dues. 

The admission fee shall be five dollars, which shall exempt the 
member from the payment of dues during the year in which he is 
elected. The annual dues thereafter shall be three dollars, to be paid 
prior to the election in January. The names of members failing 
to pay their dues one month after written notice from the Treas- 
urer, as provided in Article XI, shall be dropped from the roll, 
unless from absence of the member from Washington or other satis- 
factory explanation, the Council shall otherwise determine. 

Article XVI.— 6^///^. 

It shall be the duty of all members to seek to increase and per- 
fect the materials of anthropological study in the national collec- 
tions at Washington. All gifts of specimens, books, pamphlets, 
maps, photographs, and newspaper clippings shall be received by 
the Curator, who shall exhibit them before the Society at the next 
regular meeting after their reception, and shall make such abstract 
or entry concerning them, m a book provided by the Society, as 
will secure their value as materials of research ; after which all 
archaeological and ethnological materials shall be deposited in the 
National Museum, in the name of the donor and of the Society ; 
all crania and somatic specimens, in the Army Medical Museum; 
all books, pamphlets, photographs, clii)pings, and abstracts, in the 
archives of the Society. 

Article XVII. — Amendinents. 

This constitution shall not be amended except by a three-fourths 
vote of the active members present at the annual meeting for the 
election of officers, and after notice of the proposed change shall 


have been given in writing at a regular meeting of the Society, at 
least one month previously. 

Article XVIII. — Order of Business. 

The order of business at each regular meeting shall be : 

1. Reading the minutes of the last meeting. 

2. Report of the Council upon membership. 

3. Report of the Curator. 

4. Reading the papers and discussions. 

5. Notes and queries. 




Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. 

Peabody Museum of American Archsologj' and Ethnology, Cambridge, Mass. 

Archaeological Institute of America, Boston, Mass. 

Numismatic and Antiquarian Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Library Company of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Buffalo Academy of Natural Sciences, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences, Davenport, Iowa. 

California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, Cal. 

Geographical Society of Hungary, Budapest, Austro- Hungary. 

Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences, Prague, Bohemia. 

Anthropological Society of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. 

Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Society of Archaeology, History, and Literature of the District of Beaune, Beaune, 

Society of Borda, Dax, France. 

Geographical Society of Lyons, Lyons, France. 

Geographical Society of Paris, Paris, France. 

Soci^te d' Anthropologic, Paris, France, 

Society of Antiquaries of the Morime, St. Omer, France. 

Italian Geographical Society, Rome, Italy. 

Italian Anthropological Society, Florence, Italy. 

Royal Academy of Belles Lettres, History, and Antiquities, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Royal Linceian Academy, Rome, Italy. 

Geographical Society of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal. 

Anthropological Society of Munich, Munich, Germany. 

Geographical and Statistical Society, Frankfort-a-M, Germany. 

Geographical Society of Dresden, Dresden, Germany. 

Anthropological Society, Leipzig, Germany. 

Imperial Society of the Friends of Natural History, Anthropology, and Ethnog- 
raphy, Moscow, Russia. 

Imperial Russian Geographical Society, St. Petersburg. 

Royal Norwegian Academy of Sciences, Troudhjem, Norway. 

Icelandic Archceological Society, Reykjavik, Iceland. 


Swedish Society of Geography and Anthropology, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Geographical Society of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 

Antiquarian Society, Zurich, Switzerland. 

Victoria Institute, London, England. 

Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society, Ramsey, Isle of Man. 

Archaeological Institute, Liege, Belgium. 

Archaeological Society of Athens, Greece 

Geographical Society of Halle, Germany. 

Vassar Brothers' Institute, N. Y. 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, Wilkes Barre, Pa. 

Philosophical Society of Washington, Washington, D. C. 

Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. 

Rhode Island Historical Society, Providence, R. I. 

Des Moines Academy of Sciences, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Technical Society of San Francisco, Cal. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

National Museum, Washington, D. C. 





Prof. Demetri Anoutchine, Moscow, Russia. 

Prof. Spencer ¥. Baird, Washington, D. C 

Prof. Adolf Bastian, Berlin, Prussia. 

Dr. John Beddoe, Bristol, England. 

Prof. George Busk, London, England. 

Prof. G. Capellini, Bologna, Italy. 

M. Emile Cartailhac, Toulouse, France. 

M. Ernest Chantre, Lyons, France. 

Mr. John Evans, London, England. 

Prof. H. Fischer, Freiburg, Baden. 

Rev. Lorimer Fison, Navuloa, Fiji. 

Prof. William H. Flower, London, England. 

Prof. Ernest Haeckel, Jena, Germany. 

Prof. W. His, Leipzig, Germany. 

Prof. Abel Hovelacque, Paris, France. 

Prof. Thomas H. Huxley, London, England. 

Sr. JoAQUiM Garcia Icazbalceta, Mexico, Mexico. 

Sir John Lubbock, London, England. 

Prof. Paolo Mantegazza, Florence, Italy. 

bir Henry S. Maine, London, England. 

Dr. Washington Matthews, U. S. A., Washington, D. C 

Dr. A. B. Meyer, Dresden, Germany. 

Prof. Gabriel de Mortillet, Paris, France. 

Dr. M. Much, Vienna, Austria. 

Prof. Frederick Muller, Vienna, Austria. 

Maj. Gen. Pitt-Rivers, London, England. 

Dr. Samuel Pozzi, Paris, France. 



Prof. A. DE QuATREFAGES, Paris, France. 

Prof. GuSTAv Retzius, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Prof. A, H. Sayce, Oxford, England. 

Dr. Emil Schmidt, Leipzig, Germany. 

Prof, Waldemar Schmidt, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Prof. Japetus Steenstrup, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Dr. Paul Topinard, Paris, France. 

Dr. Edward B. Tylor, Oxford, England. 

Prof, Rudolph Virchow, Berlin, Russia. 

Prof. Carl Vogt, Geneva, Switzerland. 


Dr. Charles C. Abbott, Trenton, N. J. 

Dr. H. B. Adams, Baltimore, Md. 

Rev. Joseph Anderson, Waterbury, Conn. 

Mr. Hubert H. Bancroft, San Francisco, Cal. 

Mr. Ad. F. Bandelier, Highland, 111. 

Mr. MORIZ Benedikt, Coblenz, Rhine-Prussia. 

Mr, A. F. Berlin, Allentown, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Geo. F. Black, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Prince Roland Bonaparte, St. Cloud, France. 

Dr. J. E. Bransford, U. S. Navy. 

Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Lucien Carr, Cambridge, Mass, 

Mr. Drake Carter, Versailles, Kentucky. 

Sr. Alfredo Chavero, Mexico, Mexico, 

Dr. Arthur Chervin, Paris, France. 

Dr. John Collett, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Mr. G. C. Comfort, Syracuse, New York. 

Mr. A. J. Conant, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mr. Frank Cowen, Greensburg, Pennsylvania, 

Prof, W, Boyd Dawkins, Manchester, England. 

Mr. George M. Dawson, Montreal, Canada. 

Prof, Alex, Ecker, Freiburg, Baden, 

Dr, George J. Engelmann, St. Louis, Mo. 

Gen. L. Faidherbe, Paris, France. 

Mr. M. F. Force, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


M. P. Cazalis de Fondouce, Montpellier, France. 

Mr. Francis Galton, London, England. 

Dr. Enrico H. Giglioli, Florence, Italy. 

Mr. Basil H. Gildersleeve, Baltimore, Md. 

Count G. GozzADiNi, Bologna, Italy. 

Mr. Horatio Hale, Clinton, Ontario, Canada. 

Prof. G. Stanley Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 

Major A. M. Hancock, Churchville, Maryland. 

Prof. Robert Hartmann, Berlin, Prussia. 

Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden, Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Frederick von Hellwald, Stuttgart, Wurtemberg. 

Col. H. H. Hilder, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mr. Alfred W. Howitt, Gippsland, Victoria. 

Dr. P. R. Hoy, Racine, Wisconsin. 

Col. C. C. Jones, Augusta, Ga. 

Prof. Augustus H. Keane, London, England. 

Hon. J. Warren Keifer, Springfield, Ohio. 

Prof. Washington C. Kerr, Raleigh, N. C. 

Dr. Friedrich S. Krauss, Vienna, Austria. 

Rev. Geo. A. Leakin, Baltimore, Md. 

Dr. GusTAVE Le Bon, Paris, France. 

Dr. Oscar Loew, Munich, Bavaria. 

Prof. Oscar Montelius, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Dr. John G. Morris, Baltimore, Md. 

Prof. Edward S. Morse, Salem, Mass. 

Marquis DE Nadaillac, Paris, France. 

Mr. E. W. Nelson, Colorado Springs, Col. 

Sr. Orozco y Berra, Mexico, Mexico. 

Mr. Ivan Petroff, , . 

M. Alphonse Pinart, Panama, United States of Colombia. 

Prof. I. PoMlALOWSKY, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

Prof. Raphael Pumpelly, Newport, R. I. 

Prof. Frederick W. Putnam, Cambridge, Mass. 

Prof. Johannes Ranke, Munich, Bavaria, 

M. Elis£e Reclus, Clarens, Vaux, Switzerland. 

Mr. H. Rivett-Carnac, Allahabad, India. 

Rev. Edmund S. Slafter, Boston, Mass. 

Dr. Ludwig Stieda, Dorpat, Russia. 

Dr. F. Techmer, Leipzig, Germany. 


Dr. Hermann Ten Kate, The Hague, Holland. 

Dr. Alton H. Thompson, Topeka, Kansas. 

Mr. Arni Thorsteinson, Reykjavik, Iceland. 

Dr. Aurele de TOrOk, Budapest, Hungary. 

Mr. E. P. Vining, Chicago, 111. 

Dr. H. Wankel, Blansko, Moravia. 

Mr. W. C. Whitford, Milton, Wisconsin. 

Rev. S. J. Whitmee, Dublin, Ireland. 

Col. Charles Whittlesey, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Pres't Daniel Wilson, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 

Mr. Thomas Wilson, U. S. Consul, Nantes, France. 

Prof. ALEX. Winchell, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Count G. Zaborowski, Paris, France. 


Dr. Geo. N. Acker, Demonstrator of Physiology, Nat. Med. Col. 

Mr. Charles F. Adams, U. S. Civil Service Commission. 

Dr. A. T. Augusta, Physician, 1319 L street N. W. 

Mr. Wm. H. Babcock, Solicitor of Patents, P. O. Box 220. 

Dr. Frank Baker, Professor of Anatomy, 326 C street N. W. 

Mr. Henry M. Baker, 1411 F street N. W. 

Mr. Henry H. Bates, Examiner-in-Chief, U. S. Patent Office. 

Prof. Alex. Graham Bell, Scott Circle. 

Dr. Emil Bessels, 1441 Massachusetts Avenue N. W. 

Dr. Horatio R. Bigelow, 1228 N street N. W. 

Mr. Otis Bigelow, Banker, 1501 i8th street N. W. 

Gen. Wm. Birney, Attorney, Le Droit Park. 

Mr. Jas. H. Blodgett, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Dr. J. F. Brandsford, U. S. Navy. 

Mr. J. Stanley Brown, 13 18 Massachusetts Avenue N. W. 

Mr. Edson a. Burdick, U. S. Pension Office. 

Prof. E. S. Burgess, Washington High School, 810 12th street N. W. 

Dr. Swan M. Burnett, Oculist, 121 5 I street N. W. 

Mr. Anton Carl, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Prof. J. W. Chickering, Jr., National Deaf-Mute College. 

Mr. Edwin Coombs, Sixth Auditor's Office. 


Mr. Frank II. Gushing, Bureau of Ethnology. 

Rev. J. Owen Dorsey, Bureau of Ethnology. 

Capt. C. E. DUTTON, U. S. A., U. S. Geological Survey. 

Hon. DoRMAN B. Eaton, U. S. Civil Service Commission. 

Prof. Edward Allen Fay, National Deaf-Mute College. 

Dr. Robert Fletcher, Editor of Index Mediacs, The Portland. 

Mr. Weston Flint, Librarian U. S. Patent Office. 

Prof. E. T. Fristoe, Columbian University. 

Dr. E. M. Gallaudet, President of th'e National Deaf-Mute College. 

Mr. Henry Gannett, U. S. Geological Survey, Le Droit Park. 

Mr. Albert S. Gatschet, Bureau of Ethnology. 

Mr. C. D. Gedney, U. S. Coast Survey Office. 

Mr. G. K. Gilbert, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Mr. G. Brown Goode, Assistant Director U. S. National Museum. 

Mr. J. King Goodrich, U. S. National Museum. 

Prof. J. Howard Gore, Columbian University. 

Mr. Elgin R. L. Gould, 1014 loth street N. W. 

Hon. J. M. Gregory, U. S. Civil Service Commission. 

Dr. Chas. E. Hagner, Physician, 1400 H street N. W. 

Mr. Amos W. Hart, Solicitor of Patents, Lock Box 13. 

Mr. L. J. Hatch, 1318 Massachusetts Avenue. 

Dr. Wm. H. Hawkes, Physician, 1330 N. Y. Avenue. 

Mr. H. W. Henshaw, Bureau of Ethnology. 

Mr. S. D. HiNMAN, Yankton, Dak. 

Dr. W. J. Hoffman, Bureau of Ethnology. 

Mr. Wm. H. Holmes, Bureau of Ethnology. 

Dr. D. L. Huntington, U. S. A., Surgeon General's Office. 

Mr. David Hutcheson, Library of Congress. 

Mr. John Irwin, Jr., City of Mexico, Mexico. 

Rear Adm. Thornton A. Jenkins, U. S. N., 2115 Pa. Ave. N. W. 

Dr. Jos. Taber Johnson, Physician, 937 New York Avenue N. W. 

Mr. S. H. Kauffmann, iooo M street N. W. 

Mr. George Kennan, Journalist, Lock Box 23. 

Mr. Mark B. Kerr, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Dr. A. F. A. King, Dean of the Nat. Med. Col., 726 13th street N. W. 

Hon. John J. Knox, New York, N. Y. 

Dr. William Lee, Physician, 2111 Pennsylvania Avenue. 

Mr. Daniel Leech, Smithsonian Institution. 

Mr. Joseph Libbey, Merchant, 3043 West street, Georgetown. 


Capt. E. P. Lull, U. S. N., Navy Department. 

Judge Arthur MacArthur, Supreme Court, D. C, 1201 N street N. \V. 

Mr. Henry B. F. Macfarland, 1727 F street N. W. 

Col. Garrick Mallery, U. S. A., Bureau of Ethnology. 

Prof. Otis T. Masox, U. S. National Museum, 1305 Q street N. W. 

Mr. J. J. McElhone, Reporter to Congress, 131 8 Vermont Avenue. 

Mr. W J McGee, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Mr. J. D. McGuiRE, Ellicott City, Maryland. 

Mr. Cosmos Mindeleff, Bureau of Ethnology. 

Mr. Victor Mindeleff, Bureau of Ethnology. 

Dr. James E. Morgan, Physician, 905 E street N. W. 

Mr. John Murdock, Smithsonian Institution. 

Dr. P. J. Murphy, in charge of Columbia Hospital. 

Ensign Albert Niblack, U. S. N., U. S. National Museum. 

Mr. J. A. NoRRis, 1236 13th street N. W. 

Mr. Edward T. Peters, 1225 F street N. W. 

Mr. Perry B. Pierce, Examiner, U. S. Patent Office. 

Mr. J. C. Pilling, Chief Clerk, Bureau of Ethnology. 

Mr. Wm. M. Poindexter, 807 17th street. 

Mr. John Addison Porter, Hillyer Place. 

Dr. John H. Porter, 2720 M street, Georgetown. 

Prof. Samuel Porter, National Deaf-Mute College. 

Maj. J. W. Powell, Director U. S. Geological Survey. 

Dr. D. Webster Prentiss, Physician, 1224 9th street N. W. 

Mr. S. V. Proudfit, Interior Department. 

Lieut. W. W. Reisinger, U. S. N. 

Mr. John H. Renshawe, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Dr. Elmer R. Reynolds, U. S. Pension Office. 

Mr. H. L. Reynolds, Jr., Bureau of Ethnology. 

Mr. Wm. J. Rhees, Chief Clerk Smithsonian Institution. 

Prof. C. V. Riley, Entomologist, U. S. Agricultural Department. 

Dr. Lewis W. Ritchie, Physician, 3259 N street N. W. 

Mr. Miles Rock, City of Guatemala, Guatemala. 

Mr. C. C. Royce, Bureau of Ethnology, 607 I street N. W. 

Mr. John Savary, Assistant, Library of Congress. 

Mr. Newton P. Scudder, Smithsonian Institution. 

Col. Franklin A. Seely, Examiner, U. S. Patent Office. 

Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, U. S. A., Smithsonian Institution. 

Hon. W. B. Snell, Justice Po'ice Court, D. C. 


Mr. Chas. W. Smiley, Statistician, U. S. Fish Commission. 

Mr. John D. Smith, U. S. Pension Office. 

Mr. Thorvald Solberg, Anacostia P. O., D. C. 

Dr. Z. T. Sowers, Physician, 1324 New York Avenue. 

Gen. Ellis Spear, Sohcitor of Patents, Lock Box i. 

Dr. J. O. Stanton, Physician, 1344 G street N. W. 

Mr. James Stevenson, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Rev. Benjamin Swallow, Washington, D. C. 

Prof. William B. Taylor, Smithsonian Institution. 

Prof. Cyrus Thomas, Bureau of Ethnology. 

Mr. A. H. Thompson, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Mr. Gilbert Thompson, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Dr. J. Ford Thompson, Surgeon, 1000 Ninth street N. W. 

Dr. J. M. Toner, Physician, 615 Louisiana Avenue. 

Mr. Frederick W. True, Smithsonian Institution. 

Mr. Lucien M. Turner, Smithsonian Institution. 

Mr. Lester F. Ward, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Dr. James C. Welling, Pres't of Columbian University, 1302 Conn. Ave. 

Dr. J. H. Yarnall, 3028 P street N. W. 

Dr. H. C. Yarrow, U. S. A., 814 Seventeenth street N. W, 


Stone Mounds and Graves in Hampshire county, W. Va. By L. A. Ken- 

GLA. [Abstract.] i 

An Osage Secret Society. By J. Owen Dorsey. [Abstract.] 3 

The Textile Fabrics of the Mound-builders. By Wm. H. Holmes. [Ab- 
stract.] 7 

The Census of Bengal. By James A. Blodgett. [Abstract.] 9 

The Houses of the Mound-builders. By Cyrus Thomas. [Abstract.]-- 13 
The Cherokees probably Mound builders. By Cyrus Thomas. [Ab- 
stract.] : 24 

Mind as a Social Factor. By Lester F. Ward. [Abstract.] 31 

The Smithsonian Anthropological Collections for 1883. By Albert 

NiBLACK 38-50 

Discontinuities in Nature's Method. By H. H. Bates 51-55 

Recent Graves in Kansas. By Alton H. Thompson. [Abstract.] . 56 

Elements of Modern Civilization. By J. M. Gregory 57-64 

Migrationsof the Siouan Tribes. By J. Owen Dorsey. [Abstract.] 65 

International Ethics. By E. M. Gallaudet. [Abstract.] 65 

Comparative frequency of certain eye diseases in the white and the colored 

race in the United *States. By Swan M. Burnett. [Abstract.] 67 

Collection of Antiquities from Vendome, Senlis, and the Cave Dwellings 

of France. By Elmer R. Reynolds. [Abstract.] 67 

Evidences of the Antiquity of Man on the site of the City of Mexico. 

By Wm. H. Holmes 68-81 

How the Problems o^ American Anthropology present themselves to the 

English Mind. Address, by E. B. Tylor 81-95 

Australian Group Relations. By Alfred W. Howitt. [No abstract.]. 95 

The Eskimo of Baffin Land. By Franz Boas 95-102 

Seal Catching at Point Barrow. By John Murdoch 102-108 

Origin and Development of Form and Ornament in Ceramic Art. By 

Wm. H. Holmes. [Abstract.] 112-115 

On the Probable Nationality of the Mound-Builders. By Daniel G. 

Brinton 116 

Moral and Material Progress Contrasted. By Lester F. Ward 120-136 

Study of the Circular Rooms in Ancient Pueblos. By Victor Mindeleff. 

[No abstract.] I37 

Circular Architecture Among the Ancient Peruvians. By W^L H. Holmes. 

[No abstract.] I37 

Mythological Dry Painting of the Navajos. By Washington Matthews. 

[Abstract.] I39> HO 




jSIedicine Stones. By H. W. Henshaw. [No abstract.] 142 

Mythological Painting of the Zufiis. By James .Stevenson. [No ab- 
stract.] 143-147 

The Chiricahua Apache "sun circle." By Albert S. G.vtschet 144-147 

The Genesis of Inventions. By F. A. Seely 147-168 

Sinew-backed Bow of the Eskimo. By John Murdoch 168-171 

The Cubature of the Skull. By Washington Matthews. [Ab- 
stract.] 171, 172 

From Savagery to Barbarism. Annual Address, by J. W. Powell, Presi- 
dent 173-196 


Seventy-Second Regular Meeting, November 6, 1883. 

Colonel Garrick Mallery, President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary reported for the Curator the receipt of fifty- 
three gifts of publications since the last meeting in May. 

On motion of Col. Seely, the Society passed a vote of thanks 
to the gentlemen who had donated the publications above referred 

The retiring President, Major J. W. Powell, then read his ad- 
dress entitled "Human Evolution."* 

Seventy-Third Regular Meeting, November 20, 1883. 

Colonel Garrick Mallery, President, in the Chair. 

The election of Dr. Charles Warren, of the Bureau of Education, 
and Mr. S. H. Knuffman, as active members, was announced.' 

In the absence of Mr. L. A. Kengla, his paper, entitled " Stone 
Mounds and Graves in Hampshire County, West Virginia," f 
was read by Prof. O. T. Mason. 


The mounds or graves described in this paper are found on 
the eastern side of the South Branch Mountain, Hampshire Co., 
W. Va., about one mile and a half from the mouth of the South 
Branch, on the property of Charles French. This entire region 
was once held by the Massawomec Indians, and the locality 
under consideration was the hunting ground of the Tamenents. 

* Published in Vol. 11, Transactions Anthropological Society, Washington, 
pp. 176-208. 

f Published in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 188.^, pp. 



The graves or mounds were of a very peculiar construction remind- 
ing one of the stone graves of Tennessee and yet possessing some 
specific characteristics. The most noticeable feature is the pres- 
ence of a rude stone cist completely covered with a huge pile of 
loose stones. In some cases these piles were of great extent. 


Major Powell said that as many were not personally familiar with 
the stone graves and mounds of the upper Mississippi and its many 
great tributaries, he would remark that these forms of receptacles 
for the dead consisted of stones placed edgewise so as to form an 
oblong space, the stones presenting an almost continuous shoulder, 
upon which was placed a stone slab as a cover. 

The discovery of articles of modern manufacture was not of rare 
occurrence, and the recent investigation by Mr. Carr, of the Peabody 
Museum at Cambridge, and the researches of the Bureau of Eth- 
nology combined to show that the " Mound-Builders" could not be 
classed as a people distinct from the historic Indians occupying 
those localities where such remains are still found. 

Prof. Mason stated that the paper just read was useful for the 
reason that the subject pertained to a region comparatively near to 
our city, which had not yet been investigated. Several years ago, 
a party consisting of Dr. Rau, Mr. Reynolds, and other gentlemen 
visited the Luray Cave for the purpose of investigation, and Mr. 
Reynolds subsequently opened some stone graves near that locality. 
These were really cairns. 

Major Powell said that in Kentucky and elsewhere stone graves 
are found by the hundred. He had opened great numbers of graves 
in the same mound, showing that people had buried bodies in 
diverse ways and at different times, the manner being that stone 
grave was added to stone grave until scores were erected. 

Prof. Mason inquired whether single stone graves had been dis- 
covered over which large heaps of stones had been erected, to which 
Major Powell replied that he had not, to his recollection, found 
single graves so covered, but where there were several together, 
many of the western tribes are said to cast stones upon the graves 
of their dead ; but more definite information as to their actual prac- 
tice was desirable. 

Prof. Gore said that during a recent visit to southwestern Vir- 


ginia he learned of quite a number of mounds, none of which had 
yet been opened, and suggesting that this would present a good 
field for future investigators. The large number of stones referred 
to in the paper seemed a curious coincidence with a discovery made 
in New Mexico, consisting of a large stone erected near one of the 
pueblos about which lie several wagon loads of stones, thrown there, 
it is said, by passers by for "good luck." 

Dr. Reynolds presented some facts referring to his examinations 
in various portions of the Potomac valley, and concluded by say- 
ing that at the site of an " ancient" burial ground at Front Royal, 
which had been partly washed down by high water at various times, 
he had found, among other things, medals, &c., of perhaps colo- 
nial times. 

Major Powell said that while in Minnesota last summer he in- 
quired of a Sioux Indian their reason why they buried upon 
scaffolds, and was informed that in ancient times the Sioux lived 
among the lakes of Minnesota, and buried their dead in mounds ; 
that when they left that country they expected some time to return, 
and so buried their dead on scaffolds, that they might gather the 
bones and bring them back and bury them in the grave mounds of 
their ancesters. 

Prof. Mason stated in conclusion that many stone graves have 
been found in localities which do not abound in stones, plainly in- 
dicating that a strong motive caused them to be brought from great 
distances. Probably the people had originally lived in a stony, 
country, and in new fields had clung to old usages. 

Rev. J. Owen Dorsey then read a paper entitled "An Osage 
Secret Society," which was further illustrated by a chart, enlarged 
from an original pictographic representation obtained from an Osage 


The writer has found traces of secret societies among the Omahas 
and cognate tribes of the Siouan family. Such a society is still in 
existence among the Osages. It must not be confounded with the_ 
secret societies of the Indian doctors. Each gens in the Osage 
tribe has a place in the order, the latter being the depository of the 


mythical accounts of the origin of the gentes. It takes four days 
to relate the tradition of any gens, making eighty-four days needed 
to hear all the traditions. The order consists of seven degrees : i. 
Songs of the Giving of Life. 2. Songs of the Bird (dove). 3. 
Songs of the Sacred Thing (bag). 4. Songs of the Pack-strap. 5. 
Songs of the Round Rush. 6. Songs of Fasting. 7. Songs of the 
Return from the Fight. Women are admitted to the order ; but 
none of the younger people are initiated. Extracts were made from 
the two versions of the tradition of the Tsi-shu wa-shta-ke or peace- 
making gens of the left side of the tribe. This tradition is entitled 
•'What is told of the old time (U-nu^ U-dha-ke)." 


Major Powell thought it probable that this society might be for 
the preparation of medicine, or for some mystic rite other than the 
perpetuation of mythic history. 

Mr. DoRSEY replied that there are other societies than the above 
mentioned, entirely distinct, and solely for the preparation of medi- 
cine, as he had been able to ascertain. From this society emanate 
the directions to heads of war parties, plans for erecting lodges, 
hanging the kettles, and laying the pieces of fire-wood ; also to 
the makers of the war drum, the stand, moccasins, and war bows, 
certain individuals being selected for each of these duties. Women 
belong to this society, and these have two small circles tattooed 
upon the forehead, one above the other. The crease or parting of 
tlie hair is painted to represent the path of the sun. In prayer 
they face the east at sunrise, and the west at sunset. The doors of 
the lodges are placed at the eastern side, and the dead are buried 
with their heads toward the east ; hence no one will ever sleep with 
his head pointing in that direction. 

Major Powell then stated that he had, during last winter, inves- 
tigated the organization of medicine societies among the Muskoki. 
According to this tribe diseases are caused by mythical animals, 
such as the bear, elk, deer, owl, spider, &c., and for each disease 
there is a distinct medicine society, the head personage of which in- 
itiates each year young men to cure the various forms of disease be- 
longing to his class. The traditions of the mythical origin of each 
disease is preserved by the different chiefs of the medicine societies. 

The neophyte is instructed through four different nights, through 


four different moons, and through four years to instruct him in the 
mythologic cause of disease. 

There are certain medicines employed for the various complaints 
composed in part of root decoctions. They are prepared by taking 
one root running from the trunk directly to the north, one to the 
east, one to the south, and one to the west. The preparation of the 
medicine require ceremonies which last during four nights each, of 
four moons, and of four years each. 

Mr. DoRSEY stated that part of the Osage ceremonies were strictly 
secret, though the latter portion was public. 

Prof. Mason inquired whether these ceremonies had in any way 
been influenced by contact with the whites, or whether they were a 
crystallized custom. 

Mr. DoRSEY replied that he had found recurrences of these cus- 
toms in other cognate tribes, and believed that this special cere- 
mony was original. 

Prof Mason desired to know of Mr. Dorsey whether it was not 
unusual to admit him to the secret meetings, to which the latter 
replied that it was only after the Indians had discovered that he 
was familiar with the ceremonies, learned of the northern tribes, 
that they imparted to him the fact. The speaker further stated that 
the recitations are also in an archaic form of the language. 

In general, all the points obtained from the Osages tally with the 
information obtained from other cognate tribes. 

Major Powell said that people on reservations may be classed in 
two divisions, those who are yet pagan and those who profess the 
Christian religion, but the latter take part in ancient religious rites. 

The people of Jemez, although Catholics, still visit the mountains 
once a month to perform their mystic rites. Some of the Iroquois 
also adhere to their ancient mystic ceremonies and practise them at 
stated times. 

The importance of a knowledge of Indian languages is illustrated 
by Mr. Dorsey' s paper for the collection of myths and facts per- 
taining to secret ceremonies, as is also the knowledge of similar 
customs among other tribes so as to know the method of approach 
and extraction. 

Mr. Dorsey replied that he usually gained the confidence of his 
hearers by first telling them the myths of other tribes. 


Seventy-Fourth Regular Meeting, December 4, r883. 

Col. GarRick Mallery, President, in the Chair. 

The Council, through its Secretary, reported the election of Mr. 
Amos W. Hart and Dr. Horatio R. Bigelow as active members. 

A letter was read from Mr. Gatschet giving information with 
respect to investigations in the folk-lore of the southern Sclavic 
peoples by j\Ir. Krause, one of the corresponding members of the 

The death of Sven Nilsson, of Lund, Sweden, an honorary mem- 
ber of the Society, was announced, whereupon the Secretary made 
brief reference to the labors of the deceased. 

Mr. William H. Holmes then read a paper on "Thf Textile 
Fabrics of the Mound-Builders."* 


It was stated that very few specimens of these fabrics are preserved 
in our museums. They are subject to rapid decay and as a rule fall 
to pieces on exposure to the air. 

Carbonization and contact with the salts of copper have been the 
most important means of perservation. 

It has occasionally been noticed that fabrics of various kinds have 
been used in the manufacture of pottery and that impressions of 
these have often been preserved. 

The writer conceived the idea of making casts in clay of these 
impressions and by this means restored many varieties of clotli 
heretofore unknown. 

The restoration is so complete that the whole fabric can, in many 
cases, be analyzed. 

It has been made of twisted cord and is seldom finer in texture 
than common coffee sacking. 

The fibre used has probably been obtained from bark, weeds, and 

* Published in the Third Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology with title 
" Prehistoric Textile Fabrics of the United States derived from impressions in 


The meshes are usually quite open, knotting and other methods 
of fixing the threads and spaces having been resorted to. 

The combinations of threads are much varied and are of such a 
character as to make it quite certain that the weaving was done by 
hand, the threads of the web and woof being attached to or wound 
about pins fixed in a frame or upon the ground. 

Specimens of the pottery and casts therefrom were shown and 
black board analyses of the fabrics were given. 


Prof. Mason inquired of Mr. Holmes whether he gave technical 
names to the various forms, to which Mr. Holmes replied that he 
found that impossible. 

Major Powell said the paper that had just been read by Mr. 
Holmes is of exceeding interest to all students of North American 
archaeology ; first, from the fact that his methods of research are 
unique; and, second, that the results of his investigations throw much 
light upon the status of culture reached by the people who con- 
structed the mounds and other burial places found so widely dis- 
tributed thoughout the eastern portion of the United States. The 
research sheds light both upon the textile and ceramic arts of these 
people, and in both departments they are shown to have been in no 
respect superior to the Indian tribes first discovered on the advent 
of the white man to this continent. 

It is interesting to notice, in this connection, that the early publi- 
cations in relation to the mounds and mound-builders of the valley 
of the Mississippi represent these people as having passed into a 
much higher culture than the North American Indians at large, 
and much has been written concerning a civilized people inhabit- 
ing this country anterior to its occupation by the Indians. In 
the light of the research which has been prosecuted during the past 
years in various quarters and by various persons, the manufactured 
evidence of the existence of such a people is rapidly vanishing, and 
this from many points of study. It is shown by a careful examina- 
tion of the early travels in this country, and accounts of missionaries 
and various historic records, that some of the early tribes discovered 
were themselves mound-builders. This is clearly shown in the late 
publication of Mr. Lucien Carr, Peabody Museum, and by the re- 
searches of Professor Thomas, of the Bureau of Ethnology. The 


researches of the Bureau of Ethnology also show that many of these 
mounds were constructed after the arrival of the white man on this 
continent, as works of art in iron, silver, rolled copper, &c., are 
found. Glass beads are also found, and many other articles mani- 
festly manufactured during the last few centuries, these usually be- 
ing such articles as are exchanged by traders to the Indians for their 

Mr. Henshaw, also of the Bureau of Ethnology, has made an in- 
teresting investigation of a subject which throws light upon this ques- 
tion. The early writers claimed that the stone carvings found in 
the mounds were often representations of birds, mammals, and other 
animals not now existing in the regions where these mounds were 
found, and that the mound-builders were thus shown to be familiar 
with the fauna of a tropical country. And they have even gone so 
far as to claim that they were familiar with the fauna of Asia, as it 
has been claimed that elephant carvings have been found. Now 
these carvings have all been carefully studied by Mr. Henshaw, and he 
discovers that it is only by the wildest imagination that they can be 
supposed to represent extra-limital animals ; that, in fact, they are all 
rude carvings of birds, such as eagles and hawks, or of mammals, 
such as beavers and otters ; and he has made new drawings of these 
various carvings, and will, in a publication which has gone to press, 
present them, together with the drawings originally published; and 
he makes a thorough discussion of the subject, being qualified 
thereto from the fact that he is himself a trained naturalist, familiar 
with these various forms by many years of field study. 

It will thus be seen that many lines of research are converging 
in the conclusion that the mound-builders of this country were, 
at least to a large extent, the Indian tribes found inhabiting this 
country on the advent of the white man, and that in none of the 
mounds do we discover works of art in any way superior to those of 
the North American Indians. 

I congratulate Mr. Holmes upon the skill with which he has 
prosecuted this work, and thank him for the clear exposition which 
he has given us this evening. 

Prof. Mason stated that from the organization of the Society he 
had been more and more confirmed in the idea that the only way 
in which the truths of anthropology could be brought oiit was by 
specialists, artists, physicians, patent examiners, etc. The paper 
just read is an excellent illustration of this opinion. 


Col. Seely expressed his interest in the illustrations given by 
Mr. Holmes of research into the state of an art of which none of 
the products exist. Though absolutely extinct their vestiges remain 
in other arts ; and to those able to read the record written in these 
vestiges they reveal facts as interesting as they are well ascertained. 
It takes the trained eye and skillful hand of an artist, supplemented 
by technical knowledge, to unravel these records. Without inti- 
mate acquaintance with the textile art and the structure of different 
fabrics, the impressions found by Mr. Holmes were hopelessly illeg- 
ible. This indicates the true method of research into primitive 
arts, and there should be more of it. 

Mr. Jaivies A. Blodgett, Special Agent of the U. S. Census, 
read a paper on" The Census of Bengal." 


The first attempt at a general censusof British India was in 1871-2 
and showed the population to be about 238,000,000. 

The report for the census of Bengal in 1881 has been lately re- 
ceived in this country. It includes the northeast part of India north 
of the 2oth parallel of latitude and west nearly to Benares. Here 
in an area of less than 200,000 square miles, a little above the joint 
area of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa, is concentrated a popu- 
lation of some 70,000,000 or two-fifths greater than that of the 
whole United States. 

The authorities took no account of resources or of any but per- 
sonal items. The preliminary arrangements were so completely ad- 
justed as to take on a single night not only the fixed population 
but generally all travelers and all vagrants. 

Almost two-thirds of the people are Hindoos, nearly one-third 
Mohammedans, about 158,000 Buddhists, and 128,000 Christians. 
The enumerated members of the Brahmo Somaj, the reform sect 
represented by the learned Hindoo who spoke in Washington a 
few weeks ago, were under 1,000, chiefly in the city of Calcutta. 

Child marrriages prevail to a considerable extent, the ceremony in 
a considerable per cent, of cases occurring before the tenth year of 
age. Although the parties may not at once live together, the death 
of one after the ceremony leaves the other legally widowed. 
Hindoo widowers marry again, but Hindoo widows do not. The 
ratio of child marriage is lowest among the Buddhists. 


There are 65 castes reported of 100,000 or more each, and 265 
lesser castes or tribes. Hindooism gradually absorbs the aboriginal 
tribes, and occupations mark castes something like guilds in west- 
e/rn countries, so that caste mingles questions of religion, race, and 

About twenty languages are spoken. Over half the people speak 
Bengali as their mother tongue, over one-third speak Hindoostani, 
and only about 36,000 speak English as their mother tongue. 

Education is low. The Hindoos are best educated of the great 
classes. In Calcutta the education of boys compares favorably with 
that in some western cities. The education of girls is scarcely 
secured at all, except among the Christians. 

Admirable maps and diagrams aid the presentation of the facts 
in the census. 

The digest of the census of Bombay has also been received here 
without the fullness of discussion or the maps of the Bengal report. 
The general relations of population and of customs are much the 
same as in Bengal. A new series of languages occurs, however, 
and 830 castes are reported, some of which are essentially identical 
with some of the Bengal castes, but many castes are intensely local 
in India. 

The reports do not follow a uniform spelling in anglicizing even 
so common words as Hindustani, Mahomedan, and Brahman. 


Major Powell said : I have been much interested in the paper 
read by our fellow-member, Mr. Blodgett, as a simple and lucid 
presentation of the more important facts presented in the Bengal 
census. One line of facts is of especial interest to me — namely, 
that relating to the census of the castes of Bengal. 

Two great plans for the organization of mankind into states, as 
tribes and nations, are known : Tribal states are organized on the 
basis of kinship; national states, on the basis of property, which in its 
last form appears as territorial organization. Yet from time to time 
there spring up incipient methods of organization of another class. 
Men are interrelated in respect to their wants, and ultimately or- 
ganized thereby through the organization of industries or callings — 
that is, organized on an operative basis through the division of labor. 
This method of organization appears in many ways, and in one form 


its ultimate outgrowth results in the organization of aristocracies in 
various grades, with subordinate classes, as serfs and slaves. Again 
it appears in the organization of guilds. This form of organization 
was well represented not many generations ago in England, and 
relics of it still exist among the English people. It appears again 
in another form in India by the differentiation of people into castes, 
each caste having a distinct calling or group of callings. 

In my studies of sociology it has often been a matter of surprise 
to me that the state has not oftener and to a larger extent been 
based upon an organization dependent upon callings, trades, or 
occupations — that is, that the state has not oftener been organized 
upon an operative or industrial basis. But when we accumulate the 
facts of history relating to castes, classes, guilds, &c., it appears 
that the method has been tried in many ways and it has never suc- 
ceeded in securing justice to that extent as to commend its adoption. 

A caste may be briefly described as a body of men constituting 
a unit or integral part in the state, and such a body of men are or- 
ganized upon the basis of the industries or callings which they pur- 
sue. Around this organization are centered many other institutional 
characteristics. Marriage within the group is prescribed, marriage 
without the group prohibited ; and many religious sanctions grow 
up around these institutions, and many social barriers to prevent 
escape from the body and entrance into another. 

Much has been written about these castes of India, sometimes 
from the standpoint of religion, sometimes from the standpoint of 
conquest, and sometimes from the standpoint of McClennan, erro- 
neous theories relating to exogamy and endogamy, names which he 
gave to correlative parts of the marriage institution found among 
most of the tribes of the world who are organized upon a kinship 
basis. It is true that the institution of caste exhibited in India may 
be profitably studied from each of these standpoints, but the essential 
characteristic of caste organization is this : That the people are 
thereby organized upon an operative basis, about which religious 
and social sanctions are gradually accumulated ; that such an or- 
ganization is in part the result of internal agencies arising from the 
differentiation of industries, or division of labor, as it is called in 
political economy, and in part by conquest, as the conquerors 
usually engage in those vocations deemed most honorable, and 
compel the conquered to engage in those considered least honorable. 
By such methods, i. e., the division of labor through the inherit- 


ance of callings from family to family, and through the further di- 
vision, through the selection of callings of conquerors and the im- 
position of others upon the conquered, castes are primarily estab- 
lished. In the process of this establishment, and subsequently, 
moral and social sanctions gather about these institutions, and castes 
are firmly established only to be overthrown by great social convul- 
sions, or, and chiefly, by the march of civilization and the concom- 
itant establishment of justice and those institutions designed to se- 
cure justice. 

All light thrown upon the institution of caste in India must be wel- 
comed by every scientific student of sociology, and this census of 
Bengal, as set forth by Mr. Blodgett, is a valuable contribution to 
this subject. 

Dr. Johnson inquired as to the effects of these early marriages 
upon the offspring ; whether the children were well developed or 
deformed; the effects upon health of the crowding of many indi- 
viduals ; whether syphilis prevailed and its general effects. 

Mr. Blodgett replied that the census officials were extremely 
careful not to push questions that might stir into opposition the 
prejudices of the people. Great difficulty arose as to the question 
of early cohabitation from the delicacy of the question and the great 
variance of English and other European customs ; but as the legal 
ceremony took place at betrothal, betrothal became the point at 
which to count marriage. 

Cohabitation was probably at an earlier average than among 
western nations, but statistics do not, in this census, help us beyond 
the general knowledge obtained by observant individuals. 

There seems to be a high vitality up to advanced maturity ; but 
after, say, forty-five years of age, the vitality seems to be in favor 
of the European. 

No statistics are recorded on syphilis. The vital statistics have 
considerable value, however, mdicating the predominance of pes- 
tilential diseases in districts badly drained, overcrowded, or with 
other adverse sanitary conditions, and special inquiry was made as 
to leprosy. 

As to guilds and castes, a trace of such tendency may be seen in 
the perpetuation as a civil corporation in the city of London of 
rnore than one society originally founded on the occupation of its 
members, and now retaining privileges then granted, although no 


longer constituted of persons following the employment for which 
they were founded. 

Dr. Fletcher said he inferred from Mr. Blodgett's remarks that 
cohabitation does not follow betrothal, and added that it is con- 
sidered a disgrace if a child is not betrothed when she arrives at 

Prof. Mason referred to similar kinds of legislation in this country, 
prohibiting marriage, especially the laws, in many states, against 
miscegenation. He also said that caste originated at a time when 
the conquering Aryans were in a great minority, and to preserve the 
purity of their stock they made stringent laws against intermarriages. 
The laws of Menu prohibit intermarriages. 

The President informed the members that the 2d volume of the 
Transactions was now ready for distribution, and copies could be 
obtained by calling upon the Secretary, at the May Building, 7th 
and E streets N. W. 

Seventy-Fifth Regular Meeting, December 19, 1883. 

President Col. Garrick Mallery in the Chair. 

The Council reported, through its Secretary, the election of Mr. 
Perry B. Pierce, of the U, S. Patent Office, as an active member. 

The Secretary of the Council read a letter from Mr. Wilson, U. 
S. Consul at Nantes, France, relating to his antiquarian researches 
in that country. 

Prof. Cyrus Thomas then read a paper entitled "The Houses of 

THE Mound-Builders,"* illustrated by diagrams and specimens of 

clay plastering. 


Prof. Thomas commenced by saying that while the ruins in Cen- 
tral America furnished abundant materials for judging the architect- 
ural skill of the ancient people of that region, no such opportunity 
was offered in regard to the mound-builders, all their buildings 
having crumbled to dust. Still we are not left wholly in the dark 
in regard to them. He then went on to show that they must have 

* Published in Magazine of Am. History, 1884, 110-116. 


been of perishable materials, and that the little circular depressions 
from fifteen to fifty feet in diameter surrounded by earthen rings 
are the sites of ancient dwellings. From the fact that the hearth 
is found in the center he inferred that they were much like the 
conical wigwams of the modern Indians. Remains of this kind 
are common in middle and west Tennessee and in southeastern 

Farther south, during the explorations carried on under the 
Bureau of Ethnology, there have been found in many of the mounds 
layers of burnt clay broken up into fragments. From numerous 
facts ascertained in regard to these remains, which cannot be given 
in this abstract, and the descriptions given by early explorers of 
the houses of the Indians of this section, he argued that these were 
the remains of the houses of the mound-builders. 


Mr. Jas. H. Blodgett said : I hope Prof. Thomas will heed the 
suggestion of Mr. Carr, whose recent work was referred to, and not 
suppress part of his own work because Mr.Ca'rr has anticipated him 
in his statements. The public has become so thoroughly trained 
into the idea of a mysterious lost race of mound-builders that it 
will be necessary for every one who knows of facts indicating the 
contrary to state them on all proper occasions. Lately seeing a 
reference to the mysterious lost mound-builders in the manuscript 
of a prominent writer, I suggested to him that it might expose 
him to criticism, and referred him to one or two eminent names that 
endorsed the view that our red Indians were competent to do like 
work. My suggestion was the first information received in this 
author's office that any such view was seriously held and I was re- 
ferred to an article in a standard Cyclopecedia some yearsold to in- 
form myself as to the true view. I trust Dr. Thomas will add his 
testimony in its due place. 

Prof. Mason said he had always wished to see this subject dis- 
cussed by gentlemen who had had as much experience in the matter 
as Major Powell and Prof. Thomas. It seems that doubts are 
thickening more rapidly than the proofs are forthcoming. In his 
own mind he had no doubts upon the subject, but took this antago- 
nistic stand for the purpose of drawing out such facts to enlighten 
others who were adherents of the belief that the mound-builders 


were a distinct race, and one of greater antiquity than is now known 
to be the case. 

Major Powell said the paper by Prof. Thomas is a valuable con- 
tribution to our knowledge of the North American Indians. It 
opportunely falls in with the present lines of research in two dis- 
tinct ways : First, as identifying the mound-builders with various 
tribes found on the discovery of this country ; second, as an addi- 
tion to our knowledge of the dwellings of the ancient inhabitants 
of this country. 

At our last meeting we had an interesting paper from Mr. Holmes, 
who, from his studies, concluded that the mound-builders were 
no other than the Indians inhabiting the country. Last year we 
had a paper from Mr. Henshaw arriving at the same conclusion 
from the facts discovered in another field of research. And now 
Prof. Thomas finds that some of the earth-works of this country 
are domiciliary mounds, as suggested long ago by Lewis H. Morgan, 
who was the great pioneer of anthropologic research in America ; 
and, further, that the houses found in ruins on the mounds are such 
as were built by the Indians, as recorded in the early history of the 
settlement of this country. 

Thus it is that from every hand we reach the conclusion that the 
Indians of North America, discovered at the advent of the white 
man to this continent, were mound-builders, and gradually the exag- 
gerated accounts of the state of arts represented by the relics dis- 
covered in these mounds are being dissipated, and the ancient 
civilization which has hitherto been supposed to be represented by 
the mounds is disappearing in the light of modern investigation. 

But Professor Thomas' paper is valuable from the fact that it 
gives us a clearer insight into the character of the habitations of 
these people. The Indians of North America made their dwellings 
in various forms and of various materials. The rudest dwellings 
found in the country are those made by some of the Indians of 
Utah and Nevada of the great Shoshonian family. These are 
simple shelters made of banks of brush and bark, especially the 
bark of the cedar, piled up so as to include a circular space, but 
open toward a fire. Boughs near the summit of the bark project 
over a portion of this space, and bark and boughs are piled indis- 
criminately on all. Such a shelter is good protection against wind, 
and, to some degree, against snow and rain. But these same people 
occasionally build larger habitations with small posts and cross- 


pieces, upon which wattles of willow withes are made, and the whole 
is covered with willows. I have known such a communal house 
to be built large enough to accommodate from seventy-five to one 
hundred and twenty-five persons — all the members of a little tribe — 
while at other times the same tribes have been found occupying the 
rude dwellings above mentioned. Nor have I been able to discover 
their reasons for changing from one to the other. This has been 
observed : that the communal houses are but rarely used. 

Many of the Indians of California build houses made of wind- 
riven slabs and poles inclined against a central ridge-pole and banked 
with earth, sometimes but part way up the sides of the inclined pole, 
sometimes quite over the top. At one end of such a dwelling an 
aperture is left for the escape of smoke. The Navajos often build 
similar lodges, except that they are conical in shape and have a 
peculiar entrance — a kind of booth like a porte cochere. In the 
eastern portion of the United States, as among the Iroquois, large 
oblong house were made of poles and slabs. Many of these houses 
were communal. Around Pyramid Lake, and in many other por- 
tions of the country their dwellings were made of reeds, called in 
the West tides. Sometimes these houses were made somewhat 
symmetrically of poles, into which the tules were woven as a kind 
of wattle. At other times they made fascines of the reeds and used 
them in the construction of their houses, and I have had described 
to me houses made of fascines and wattled tules on the shores of 
Pyramid Lake and other lakes of the West, and ofttimes built out 
over the water. In a large portion of the United States the climate 
is arid, and naked sandstone rocks appear in great abundance, 
while forests are very rare. In all of these regions the Indians built 
of stone. Sometimes they walled up the front of a cave, or built a 
house under an overhanging cliff, using the wall of rock behind as 
a part of the dwelling. Sometimes, where rocks were friable, they 
excavated chambers in the sides of the cliffs. The cliff dwellings 
and cavate dwellings are found in great abundance in New Mexico, 
Arizona, and some portions of Utah. Other dwellings have been 
discovered in certain hills of Arizona that are natural truncated 
cones. In such a case the summit of the hill is a volcanic breccia, 
exceedingly friable, through which shafts were sunk into a more 
friable breccia below. In this more friable rock extensive cham- 
bers were excavated, and the entrance to these chambers was 
through a shaft from above by means of a ladder. With the 


extensive pueblos of that region you are all quite familar. To 
a very large extent it is observed that the arrangement of dwellings 
in a village is significant. In very many cases they are arranged 
by clans and phratries. When such an arrangement does not exist 
there is usually some other device taking its place. For example, 
among Muskokis, or Creeks, near the centre of the village, there is 
a square laid out in a very systematic manner with seats, or rather 
spaces for sitting, on the ground relegated in a particular manner 
to phratries and clans, so that the tribe was arranged, in the coun- 
cil held from time to time in the square, in a systematic order. 
Usually over these sitting places booths were erected, and the posts 
that upheld the booths marked in a more specific way the seats of 
the officers of the village. In connection with these council squares 
a very interesting council lodge has bee« discovered. The booths 
of the square did not furnish ample protection at all seasons of the 
year, and in order to meet their wants on such occasions a huge 
conical lodge was constructed of the tall trees of that country. 
Slender trees 50 or 60 feet in height were cut down, trimmed, and 
inclined against a central, standing tree. Thus a huge conical 
lodge, 50 feet or more in height, was constructed, under which the 
whole village could take shelter. Under this they gathered in in- 
clement weather to conduct their dances. And just here it should 
be remarked that the Creek Indians have yet a tradition of a time 
when they built their houses with wattled walls, the interiors of 
which were plastered — exactly such houses as have been described 
by Prof. Thomas. 

The subject of house-building among the North American Indians 
is one of very great interest, as the various tribes exhibited much 
skill in utilizing the materials at hand, whatever they might be — 
bark, poles, slabs, tules, skins of animals, stone, etc. 

Prof. Mason further stated that he had handled thousands of 
Indian weapons, utensils, &c., and found that many objects occurred 
in the mounds for which no particular use could be now assigned. 

Major Powell replied that it was very doubtful, at this time, if 
anything existed that could not be explained through the survival 
of similar articles now in use among some of the more isolated tribes 
of Indians. 

Prof. ScuDDER referred to and reviewed some of Prof. Putnam's 
investigations and discoveries at Madisonville, and referred specially 


to the exhumation of figurhies, pearls, meteoric iron, and rude plating 
of hammered silver. 

Prof. Thomas, in reply to Prof. Scudder's statement of what had 
recently been found by Prof. Putnam in certain Ohio mounds, stated 
that all of the types mentioned, except one, had been obtained by 
the assistants of the Bureau of Ethnology. 

Major Powell said : The discussion this evening has brought out 
many interesting facts relating to the early inhabitants of this 
country, especially to the dwellings which they occupied and to the 
antiquity of the ruins which have been discovered. 

In 1856 or '7 I was making exploration of mounds on the shore 
of Peoria Lake, in Illinois, and I discovered in a mound a copper 
plate — a thin sheet of copper, cut in the form to represent an eagle. 
At the time I supposed it gave evidence of the superior civilization 
of the mound-builders. Some months after, in more carefully ex- 
amining this thin copper plate, I discovered that it had been rolled 
and cut by machinery, and this led me to believe that it was not the 
manufacture of Indians, but that it was probably manufactured by 
white men. If the supposition were true it is manifest that the 
mound had been erected subsequent to the association of these In- 
dians with white people. This was the first suggestion to my mind 
that the age of the mounds had been misinterpreted, and that the 
general conclusion that the mound-builders were not tribes found 
in this country on its discovery was erroneous. Since that time one 
line of evidence after another has led to the same conclusion. Some 
years ago I published this conclusion in general terms, and every 
year it is strengthened, and it may be fairly said at the present time 
that it rests on a sound inductive basis. 

But this conclusion does not overthrow the belief that many of the 
mounds are of great antiquity. Domiciliary mounds, burial mounds, 
and mounds for many other purposes are discovered everywhere 
throughout North America in vast numbers, and doubtless the in- 
ception of mound-building dates far back m remote' antiquity. The 
numbers of the mounds themselves testify to this conclusion, and the 
conditions under which many of them are found lead to the same 
opinion. To account for the great numbers of the mounds it is 
not necessary, but is in fact illogical, to assume a dense population. 
Length of time will give the same result ; and I think it has been 
clearly shown that the number of Indians inhabiting the country at 
the time of its discovery by Europeans has been by many writers 


enormously exaggerated. It is probable that at the present time the 
number of Indians in the country does not equal that of the time 
of the landing of Columbus. On the other hand, the disparity 
between the numbers of the two periods is not great. 

But here I must be permitted to remark that ofttimes the evidence 
adduced to prove the antiquity of the ancient works discovered 
throughout the country is unsound. There is abundant evidence 
of antiquity — good geologic evidence. Stone implements are found 
in geologic formations to such an extent as to leave no doubt that 
this continent was inhabited by man in early quaternary time; but 
sound evidence must be clearly discriminated from much of the 
evidence which is adduced. Travelers and scholars sometimes talk 
very loosely on this subject. Let me illustrate this. 

In the southwestern portion of the United States we discover in 
vast numbers the ruins of ancient stone villages. Often these ruins 
are found at sites where water is not now accessible, and hence it 
has been averred again and again that all this arid portion of the 
United States was at some early period densely inhabited, and that 
the country has been depopulated by increasing aridity. And this 
secular change of climate has been adduced as evidence of the great 
antiquity of these works. 

In 1S70 I discovered ruins on the Kanab Creek in Utah and 
some of its tributaries elsewhere in Utah and Arizona, away from 
the neighborhood of water, and, like many other travelers, it at 
first seemed to me that I had discovered evidence of change of 
climate. But my work in that region was that of the geologist 
rather than of the anthropologist, and I early discovered that such 
evidence is valueless. In that arid country years — perhaps tens or 
scores of years — will pass without great rains. During such times 
the larger valleys are filled with the materials brought down by the 
wash of rains and minor streams, and sucli accumulation in the 
valleys of this arid region is very often found. But there come at 
greater or less intervals storms of such magnitude, precipitating 
waters in such volume that the valleys themselves are cleared of the 
accumulated rands. When this is done streams flow through them for 
miles or scores of miles where they did not run before, and the few 
springs along the water courses are unmasked and yield a constant 
supply. And I have in my mind at the present time a ruin which 
I supposed to be far away from water, and which was far away from 
known water ten years ago, but at the foot of which to-day a beau- 


tiful stream is running, this valley having been cleared of its debris 
not more than eighteen months ago. Abundant instances of this 
kind can be brought up. 

Savage people abandon their homes for reasons not fully or easily 
appreciated by civilized men. Some disease carries off a great man 
or a number of persons in a tribe, and panic seizes the people and 
they leave their homes, perhaps burn them, under the belief that 
evil beings or evil influences have taken possession thereof. And 
this occurs very often. I have myself more than once witnessed the 
effect on a tribe of an epidemic or the mysterious death of a noted 
personage. For this reason the sites of Indian villages, even though 
dwellings may be erected of stone, are not very permanent; they are 
constantly changing. In the southwestern portion of the United 
States there are other causes for change, namely, those mentioned 
above — physical causes. A tribe settling on a flowing stream at 
one time may have that stream buried by drifting sands and the 
springs all masked and be compelled thereby to change their habi- 
tation. And such changes doubtless were frequent. 

Again, we know that a people living in a central village build 
small summer residences scattered about the country by the sites of 
springs, where they cultivate their little crops of grain and other 
vegetables; so that a large group of such dwellings may be ofund 
gathered about some central pueblo — not giving evidence of a dense 
population, but only of the habits and customs of a small body of 
people. In such manner it may be shown that the extensive popu- 
lation of the southwestern portion of the country, based upon the 
evidence of the ruins so abundantly found, does not hold. A few 
people moving here and there from spring to spring and from stream 
to stream as pestilence and superstition and physical changes de- 
manded would in many recurring centuries leave behind all the 
ruins now discovered. The antiquity of man widely scattered 
throughout this continent is firmly established on good geologic 
evidence, and it is not necessary to resort to evidence of doubtful 


Seventy-Sixth Regular and Sixth Annual Meeting, 
January 15, 1SS5. 

Col. Garrick Mallery, President, in the Chair. 

The Council reported, through its Secretary, the election of Mr. 
W J McGee, of the U. S. Geological Survey, as an active member, 
and Hon. Thomas Wilson, U. S. Consul at Nantes, France, as a 
corresponding member. 

The annual report of the Treasurer was then read and submitted 
to the Society. 

On motion of Major Powell, a committee was appointed, con- 
sisting of Messrs. Thomas, Dorsey, and Flint, to audit the report. 

The Society then proceeded to ballot for the officers of the ensuing 

The following is the result of the balloting : 

President J. W. POWELL, 


f GARRICK mallery. 

General Secretary . . . DAVID HUTCHESON. 
Secretary to the Council . . F. A. SEELY. 

Treasurer J. HOWARD GORE. 

Curator W. J. HOFFMAN. 






[ C. C. ROYCE. 

Council at Large 

The amendment which had been duly proposed to the Constitu- 
tion was then taken up and adopted as additional to Section I, 
Art. Ill, viz. : 

" Corresponding members from whom no scientific contribution 
is received for two years after their election may be dropped from 
the list of members by a vote of the Council, but when so dropped 
shall be eligible to reinstatement." 


Seventy-Seventh Regular Meeting, February 5, 1884. 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

The Council, through its Secretary, reported the election, as active 
members, of the following gentlemen : 

John Jay Knox, Dorman B. Eaton, John M. Gregory, Edward 
T. Peters, Herbert H. Bates, Anton Carl. 

The Curator read the following report of the publications received 
by the Society since the first meeting of the present session in Novem- 
ber : 

From the Society. — Bull. Buffalo Society Nat. History. Vol. IV. 
Nos. I, 2, 3, for 1881, '82. 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. Publication 

No. 7. 1883. Memorial. (Isaac Smith Osterhout ) 

Ymer. Bull, issued by the Swedish Anthropological and 

Geographical Soc'y. Stockholm. 1883. Parts i — 6. 

Bull. Anthropological Society of Paris. 6th vol., 3d Ser- 

Part 3. May and July, 1883. 

Archivio, etc., from the Italian Society of Anthropology, 

Ethnology and Comparative Psychology. XIII. 2nd fasci- 
cule, 1883. 

Annual Report of the Frankfort (Germany) Society of 

Geograpliy and Statistics. 18S1-1883 

Bull, of the Library Co., of Philada. Jan., 1884. 

From the Publishers. — Science and Nature. An International 
Illustrated Review of the Progress of Science and Industry. 
Paris. Balliere et Fils. Dec. 29, 1883. 

From the Author. — No. III. American Aboriginal Literature. 
Consisting of "The Giieglience ; A Comedy Ballet in the 
Nahuatl-Spanish Dialect of Nicaragua. Edited by Dr. D. 
G. Brinton. Philada. 1883. 8vo. Pp. 94. 

Aboriginal American Authors and their productions, especi- 
ally those in the native languages. By Dr. D. G. Brinton. 
Philada. 1883. Svo. Pp. 63. [This memoir is an en- 
largement of a paper laid before the last International Con- 
gress of Americanists, at Copenhagen, Aug., 1883.] 

A Brief Account of the More Important Public Collections of 

American Archceology in the United States. By Henry 
Phillips, Jr. Philada. 1883 8vo. Pp. 9. 


From the Author. — Micrometry. By D. S. Kellicott. (Sec. 
Buff. Acad. Sci.) Chicago. 1883. 8vo. Pp. 23. Re- 
printed from the Proc. Am. Soc'y of Microscopists. 

Der Bronze-Stier aus der Bijci Kala-H5hle. By Dr. Hein- 

rich Wankel. Wien. 1877. Svo. Pp. 32. Map and 

Ueber einen prahistorischen Schadel mit einer Resection 

des Hinterhauptes. By Dr. Heinrich Wankel. Wien. 
1882. 8vo. Pp. 19. 2 plates, 

Ueber die angeblich trepanirten Cranien des Beinhauses zu 

Sedlec inBohmen. By Dr. Heinrich Wankel. Wien. 1879. 
8vo. Pp. II. 

• Eine Opferstatte bei Raigern in Mahren. By Dr. Hein- 
rich Wankel. Wien. 1873. Pp. 22. 

PrahistorischeEisenschmelz-undSchmiedestatten in Mahren. 

By Dr. Heinrich Wankel. Wien. 1879. -Pp- 4°- ^ P^- 

Wo bleibt die Analogic? By Dr. Heinrich Wankel. Wien. 

i4topage. [On rock inscriptions, found in Smolensk, Rus- 
sia.] By Dr. Heinrich Wankel. Without date. 

Urgeschichtliche Ansiedelung auf dem Misskogel in Mahren. 

By Dr. Heinrich Wankel. Wien. W. d. 

Bilder aus der Mahrischen Schweiz, und ihrer Vergangenheit. 

Wien. 1882. 8vo. Pp. 422. 111. 

From Ernest Chantre. — Etudes Paleoethnologiques dans le Bassin 
du Rhone. Bronze Age. Paris. 1877. 8vo. Pp.8. 111. 
and chart. 

The Burial Places of the First Age of Iron of the French 

Alps. Lyon. 1878. 8vo. Pp. 15, 60 fig. 3 pi. 

Anthropologic. A Lecture. Lyon. 1881. Pp. 29. 

Paleoethnologic Researches in Southern Russia, especially 

in the Caucasus and the Crimea. Lyon. 1881. 8vo. Pp. 
27. PI. 12. 

Geologic Monograph on Ancient Glaciers, etc. MM. 

Fahan and Chantre. Lyon. 1880. 8vo. Vol. I. Pp. 
622. Vol. II. 572. 111. folio atlas. These volumes are 
replete with anthropologic material. 

The Bronze Age. Researches on the Origin of Metallurgy 

in France. Paris. 1875. 3 vols. Folio. Profusely illus- 

The First Age of Iron. Mounds and Burial Places. Lyon. 

1880. Folio. Pp. 60, and 50 lith. plates 


From Dr. Heinrich Fischer. — A Review of the II and III Parts 
of Trans. Royal Ethnographical Museum of Dresden; con- 
sisting of a work on objects of Jadite and Nephrite from 
various quarters of the globe. By Dr. A. B. Meyer. 4to. 
Pp. 9. 

On motion of Col. Seely a vote of thanks was passed to the 
donors of books and pamphlets mentioned in the Curator's report. 

Mr. Cyrus Thomas then read a paper entitled " Cherokees 
Probably Mound-Builders."* 


The speaker commenced by referring to some discoveries made 
by Prof. Lucien Carr in 1876 in Lee County, Virginia, which, taken 
together with the historical data, led him to the conclusion that 
some, at least, of the mounds of this region were the works of the 
Cherokees. The evidence in this case consisted of the remains of 
a building of some kind found in a mound which must have cor- 
responded very closely with the " Council House" observed by 
Bartram on a mound at the old Cheroke town of Cowe. 

He next referred to some mounds recently opened by the assist- 
ants of the Bureau of Ethnology in western North Carolina and 
East Tennessee, the contents of which, together with the history of 
the Cherokees, induced him to believe they were also built by them. 

Prof, Thomas then entered upon the discussion of the early his- 
tory of this people, the purport of which was to show that they had 
occupied this region at least as far back as 1540, the date of De 
Soto's expedition. 

He then referred to the specimens found in the mounds alluded 
to, which he contended indicated contact with Europeans, exhibit- 
ing some of the specimens to the Society as evidence of the correct- 
ness of his conclusion, maintaining that if the mounds were built 
after the appearance of the Europeans they must be the works of the 
Cherokees, as they were the only people known to have inhabitated 
this particular section from the time of De Soto's expedition until 
its settlement by the whites. 

As further proof of his position he referred to carved stone pipes, 
engraved shells, and copper ornaments found in these mounds pre- 
cisely like those described by early writers as made by and in use 
among the people of this tribe ; also to numerous articles of aborigi- 

* Published in Magazine of American History. 1S84. XI, 396-407. 


nal and European manufacture dug up from the site of an old Chero- 
kee town near the Hiavvassee river, the former being precisely of 
the same character as those found in the mounds alluded to. 

In order to show that these mounds could not have been built 
by the Creeks or more southern Indians he presented arguments to 
prove that the Etowah mounds in Bartow county, Georgia, were on 
the site of the town named by the chroniclers of De Soto's expedi- 
tion Guaxule, which evidently from the narrative could not have 
been in the territory of the " Chelaques " (Cherokees). He then 
alluded to the construction of the mounds of this group, and to 
specimens found in one of them, (exhibiting some of the speci- 
mens), which showed clearly that they were built by a different 
people from those who erected the mounds of North Carolina and 
East Tennessee. 


Major Powell said Prof. Thomas' paper furnished additional 
evidence that a number of our Indian tribes were primitive mound- 
builders. In relation to that part of the paper respecting the 
ancient habitat of the Cherokees, I have some curious evidence 
to offer. Some years ago I discovered that the Cherokees, Choctaws, 
Chickasaws, Muskokis, Natchez, Yuchis, and other tribes have 
among them the tradition of an ancient alliance for offensive and 
defensive purposes against the Indians to the west of the Mississippi 
river of the Siouan stock. In the grand council of the tribes men- 
tioned the terms of an alliance were under consideration, and from 
day to day the subject was considered without arriving at a conclu- 
sion. The relation of the tribes to each other could not be ad- 
justed satisfactorily to all, and it seemed likely that the council 
would break up without effecting an alliance. Now the savage 
state or body-politic is a kinship body ; the ties are of consanguinity 
and affinity ; and this is the only conception of a state possible to 
people in this grade of culture. So the disagreement arose about 
the terms of kinship by which the tribes should know one another, 
as this would establish their rank and authority in the alliance. 

After many days had passed in fruitless discussion a Cherokee 
orator proposed a plan of alliance that has given him renown among 
all the tribes interested down to the present time. To those who 
have studied Indian oratory and the reasoning of Indian minds his 
plan and the reasons therefor are of great interest. He commenced 


by describing the geography of the country inhabited by the several 
tribes in order from east, passing by the south to west, and passing 
by the north again to east. After describing all of this country — 
the mountains and valleys and rivers — he called attention to the 
fact that the rivers now known as the Savannah, the Altamaha, the 
Appalachicola, the Alabama, the Tombigbee, the Tennessee, and 
the Cumberland all head near one another in the mountain land 
occupied by the Cherokees ; that the Cherokees, therefore, drank 
first of the waters of all the rivers, and that the rivers then passed 
from the land of the Cherokees into the lands of the other tribes to 
be used by them, and that, therefore, mother earth had signified 
their precedence to all the other tribes. He therefore proposed 
that the Cherokees should be the father tribe, and that the various 
other tribes should take rank as sons in the order in which the sun 
rose upon their lands — the tribe farthest to the east to be the first 
son or elder brother, the second tribe the second son, and so on. 
This geographical argument was at once recognized by all the tribes 
as being invincible, and the plan was immediately adopted. 

Now this tradition serves us a double purpose. First, it exhibits 
the methods by which one tribe has called another, now here, now 
there, by terms of kinship, and that these terms of kinship do not 
signify that the people have traditions of formerly belonging to 
the same tribe, but that they give evidence of alliances having 
been formed by such tribes. The second point of interest, and 
that which bears upon the communication of Prof. Thomas, is 
this : That the traditions of all of these tribes place the Cherokees 
in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, about the sources of the 
rivers from the Savannah around to the Cumberland, this being the 
very territory which Prof. Thomas claims to have belonged to 
the Cherokees from historical evidence and evidence obtained from 
the mounds. 

Mr. Holmes exhibited and commented upon some delineations 
of the human figure in copper and on shell gorgets found in the 
mounds of Tennessee, remarking that the designs were not Euro- 
pean but resembled the art of Yucatan, and if manufactured in 
Spain were made from designs furnished by those who had been in 
Yucatan, and if they were of European manufacture they were 
of no great value except to prove the intrusion of Europeans. 

Col. Seely remarked that the opinion that was gaining ground 
among American students, and particularly among the members of 


this Society, as to tlie comparatively recent period in which mound- 
building was practiced, did not seem to be shared in Europe. He 
had just received from the Marquis de Nadaillac, one of our hon- 
orary members, and perhaps among Europeans the one person who 
kept himself best informed on all the developments of American ar- 
chaeology, the proof-sheets of an article in the Revue if Anthropo- 
logie, in which he presented to European readers a resume of Mr. 
Carr's recent work. While admitting the force of the facts set forth, 
the Marquis dissented from the conclusions, his particular reason for 
dissent being that the reversion to barbarism of tribes advanced in 
civilization was a thing unknown. He said a tribe or people par- 
tially civilized might be conquered by one more barbarous, and 
might become merged in it ; but it had never been known that such 
a people, after once having fixed homes, agriculture, and arts of 
domestic life, had lost all these and fallen back to the barbarous 
condition of their conquerors. On the contrary, experience shows 
that the effect of such a mixture of races is to elevate the conquerors 
by imparting to them the arts and habits of the conquered people. 

Col. Seely read brief extracts from M. de Nadaillac's article, 
which concluded with very complimentary mention of the work of 
American explorers and an expression of belief that they would 
before long lead to a solution of the mystery of the mound-builders. 

Major Powell said : The criticism which Colonel Seely has read 
for us is interesting in various respects, but it fails to be valid by reason 
of a curious error. It is a great mistake to suppose that the Indians 
of North America were nomads. All of our Indian tribes had fixed 
habitations. It is true they moved their villages from time to time, 
because of their superstitions and for other reasons, but to all intents 
and purposes they were sedentary, living in fixed habitations from 
year to year, though from generation to generation they might 
change the sites of their towns. But of many of our Indian tribes 
because partly nomadic shortly after the advent of the white man, 
from whom they obtained horses and fire-arms. With horses they 
could easily move from point to point, and with fire-arms they could 
obtain a larger share of their sustentation by hunting than they 
had previously done, and many tribes gave up agriculture on this 
account. Instead of living in houses of wood and stone and earth 
they came to live more or less in skin tents. 

If we attempt to mark off the progress of mankind in culture 
into stages, that which I shall call savagery is, in a general way, 


well differentiated from higlier stages. In this stage the state is or- 
ganized by kinship. Tribes are kinship bodies. In the main, de- 
scent is in the female line — that is, mother-right prevails. In gen- 
eral, too, these people are in the stone age. They have not yet 
learned to use bronze ; nor have they developed hieroglyphic writ- 
ing. People in this stage of culture are called savages. When 
such tribes have changed their social structure so that father-right 
prevails, then the patriarchy is established. At about the same 
period of culture animals are domesticated, and doubtless the do- 
mestication of animals and the necessity for nomadic life which re- 
sults therefrom is one of the most important agencies in breaking 
up mother-right and establishing father-right ; and when father- 
right is established the patriarchy speedily follows. Such peoples 
we call barbaric, and the stage of culture in which they live barbar- 
ism. Barbaric people may be nomads ; savage people are never 
nomadic. Some English anthropologists whose branch of investi- 
gation is confined chiefly to institutions, or, as we call it, "soci- 
ology," have traced back the history of Aryan civilization until 
they have discovered the patriarchy, until they find the early peo- 
ples from whom the present civilized States have descended in a 
state of nomadism — patriarchies with their great tribal families 
about them, together with their flocks and herds, all roaming from 
one district of country to another in search of pasturage and water. 
And they are accustomed to assume that this patriarchal condition, 
this nomadism, is the primitive form of society. Sir Henry Maine 
is one of the leading men of this school, and we are greatly indebted 
to his researches for the materials with which to trace the develop- 
ment of patriarchal institutions into national institutions. But 
there is abundant evidence to show that there are institutions more 
primitive than those of barbarism. The tribes of Australia and the 
tribes of North America and of South America are discovered to 
be in a state of culture lower and more primitive in structure than 
the peoples of early Aryan history. Herbert Spencer has in the 
same manner confounded tribal society, or savagery, with bar- 
barism, and has entirely failed to understand the structure of the 
hundreds of tribal States of North America and of many others 
elsewhere throughout the world ; and to him may be largely attrib- 
uted the erroneous habit of calling the tribes of North America 
nomads. It should be distinctly understood that the North Ameri- 
cans are not nomads, that they have not the partriarchal fo^m 


of government, and that they have not domesticated animals. 
From this statement I must except certain tribes of Mexico and 
Central America, whose exact state of culture has not yet been 
clearly discovered. The criticism of the eminent author from whom 
our Secretary has read therefore falls to the ground. 

Mr. Ward said he had looked up the exact meaning of nomadism 
under the impression that the term implied the state given by Major 
Powell. He had seen it used in the sense of a headless race, with 
no form of government, no arts, no domestic animals, therefore 
representing the lowest form of culture. The term was used in this 
sense by Mr. Herbert Spencer. There was some justification for the 
use of the term in this sense by European ethnologists. The mean- 
ing of the word does not involve domestic animals ; it simply means 
to wander. 

Prof. Mason said that the Cherokees might have been mound- 
builders, but the mound-builders were not all Cherokees. We can- 
not yet affirm that the ancestors of our modern Indians were the 
mound-builders of the Mississippi valley. He called attention to 
the fact that Dr. Brinton states that the mound-builders of the Mis- 
sippi valley were Choctaws, He also spoke of the delicate and 
strange forms of objects in stone found in Ohio mounds and in 
immense stone graves compared with forms of articles made by 
modern Indians. There are many types of these mound-objects 
for which we have no names, because modern savages use nothing 
like them. 

Major Powell said there is no whit of evidence to show that the 
mounds were built by a pre-Indian people. For a long time it has 
been assumed that a great race of people inhabited the valley of the 
Mississippi anterior to its occupation by the tribes of Indians dis- 
covered by early European explorers, and it was claimed that these 
people had erected great earthworks of such magnitude that they 
could not be attributed to the Indian tribes, but that they must have 
been the work of people more highly organized. This error arose 
from the fact that early writers had no adequate conception of the 
character of tribal organization, and that kinship society is as 
thoroughly bound together, and perhaps more thoroughly, than 
that based upon any other plan. They also assumed that the works 
of art found in these mounds, or associated therewith, gave evidence 
of superior art. A careful examination of this theory has proved 
its fallacy. On the other hand, it has been discovered that the 


works of art in the mounds are in no whit superior to the arts of 
the Indians discovered in this country. On the other hand, the 
Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Muskokis, Shawnees, Mandans, 
Wintuns, and Siouans, and probably many other tribes, are known 
to have built mounds for domiciliary and burial purposes. The 
earlier explorers found tribes of Indians occupying and using 
mounds — the Natchez, Cherokees, and others; and the result 
of the last few years of investigation is this : That there is no 
sufficient reason, and in fact no whit of evidence, to show 
that this continent was occupied by a people anterior to its occupa- 
tion by the Indian tribes, a people of a higher grade of cul- 
ture. On the other hand, some tribes of Indians are known to liave 
been mound-buiiders. We have not yet discovered what particular 
tribes built many of the mounds ; nor is it possible to discover 
when they were built — that is, to fix with acccuracy the date 
of their erection. Some of them have been built within the historic 
period — doubtless but very few compared with the whole number — • 
and some of them are doubtless of great antiquity. And during 
all the centuries of history when these mounds were erected some 
tribes may have been destroyed, and there may be mounds built 
by tribes whose history is lost. Some of the Indian tribes occupy- 
ing the continent at the advent of the white man were mound- 
builders and a few mounds have been built since that time. The 
great number were erected prior to that time by these tribes, and 
perhaps by others still existing, but of whose mound-building we 
have yet no knowledge, and still others may have been built by 
tribes that are lost. 

This seems to be the inevitable conclusion from the researches of 
the past few years, and the theory that a more highly cultured peo- 
ple inhabited this continent anterior to its occupation by the red 
Indian falls to the ground. 

Seventy-Eighth Regular Meeting, February 19th, 1884. 

Major J, W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Dorsey, in behalf of the committee appointed to audit the 
Treasurer's accounts, then reported that the accounts had been 
examined and found to be correct. The report was accepted by 
the Society 


The Secretary of the Council announced that the President had 
designated the Vice-Presidents to their several sections, as follows : 

Dr. Fletcher, Section of Somatology ; Mr. Ward, Section of 
Sociology; Col Mallery, Philology, Philosophy, and Psychology; 
Prof. Mason, Technology. 

Mr. Ward then read a paper entitled "Mind as a Social 
Factor." -'^ 


It was maintained that, notwithstanding the general disposition 
to exalt and deify the mind, still this had thus far amounted to little 
more than lip-service, and that the real power of human intellect as 
the lever of civilization was not merely ignored but practically 
denied. Touching lightly upon the metaphysical school of philos- 
ophy, of which this had always been true, he directed his main 
argument against the now far more powerful influence in the same 
direction which the most advanced scientific thinkers are exerting. 
The tendency of the evolutionists to contemplate man solely from 
the biological standpoint, and to treat society as a simple continua- 
tion of the series of results accomplished by evolution in the lower 
departments of being, was strongly condemned. Himself a con- 
sistent evolutionist, and firm believer in the doctrine of man's descent 
from humbler forms of existence, Mr. Ward still cogently main- 
tained that in studying development an entirely new set of canons 
must be adopted the moment the phenomena of the human intellect 
present themselves for consideration. Henceforth a new factor, 
wholly different from any before employed, enters into the problem, 
and correspondingly new and distinct methods of research must be 
adopted. Just as the biologist finds in the advent of life on the 
globe a new and enormous factor such as compels him to investigate 
the organic world with an entirely new set of principles and methods 
from those that are applicable to physics, chemistry, etc., so, Mr. 
Ward maintained, Avhen the developed psychic faculty appeared a 
second change of base in science, equally thorough and complete, 
was imperatively demanded. The failure of modern philosophers, 
headed by Mr. Herbert Spencer, to recognize this patent truth had 
led to the let-alone doctrine, which possesses a certain fascination 

* Published in full in "Mind" (London) for October, 1884, pp. 563-573. 


and justifies individual aggrandizement, and hence is making rapid 
inroads into the popular habit of thought. This /aissez /aire ^^hWos- 
ophy, which Mr. Ward characterized as the "gospel of inaction," 
is, in his opinion, distinctly negatived by the most advanced science, 
is contrary to the very law of evolution, and its legitmate workings 
almost justify Carlyle in denouncing the whole philosophy of science 
as the " gospel of dirt." 

As against such sordid teachings Mr. Ward held : That without 
apotheosizing the mind, without denying its humble origin and slow 
development, it is still the greatest fact in the universe, produces 
the grandest results achieved on the globe, and in and of itself 
makes man the supreme arbiter of his own destiny, the great in- 
dependent agency of the world and master of the planet. 


Prof. Thomas remarked that for a clear comprehension of the 
problem presented in Mr. Ward's paper a definition of what he 
meant by mind was necessary. He cited illustrations to show that 
animals and even insects have memory and reasoning powers — in 
short, mind. What then, he asked, is the human as distinguished 
from the brute mind? 

Prof. Ward, in reply, said that so far as the purposes of the 
present paper were concerned the only definition of mind necessary 
was the one given in the course of the paper, viz., that it was the 
inventive faculty of man. 

Mr. Welling expressed his general concurrence in so much of 
Mr. Ward's paper as might be said to convey the positive and affir- 
mative propositions of the writer, but intimated the opinion that on 
a deeper analysis and closer inspection it would be found that the 
dissidence between Mr. Ward and the scientific expositors of the 
naturalistic school was not so great as might be inferred from the 
terms of his negative criticism. That dissidence was perhaps formal 
rather than real, being, as between him and his opponents, a question 
of nomenclature rather than of substance — or, to speak more defi- 
nitely, a question as to the precise point in the evolutionary process 
where the logic and nomenclature of the naturalistic school might be 
held to apply to the facts of psychic activity in the figure of human 
society. In so far as mind might be said to have a physical basis, 
Mr. Welling said that he saw no reason why the human organism 
should be exempted from the law of a physical natural selection and 


survival, but at the same time it was very clear that we were not to 
look to man's physical organism for the highest expressions of 
that natural selection which was peculiar to him in the animal world. 
Regarded apart from all disputes as to their genesis, and considered 
simply in their functions, it might be said that a plant is a machine 
for coordinating a certain number of natural forces, and thereby 
lifting them above the realm of the inorganic nature which is below 
it; that the animal organism is a machine for coordinating another 
bundle of natural forces and thereby lifting them above the level of 
the plant world, and that man is an organism in which the vegeta- 
ble and animal constitution simply lays the basis of a higher series 
of activities, in proportion as the natural forces below him are . 
coordinated and transmuted by that which in him is highest — his 
tnind. It is, therefore, in the creations of the human mind that we 
would naturally look for the natural selections and survivals which 
are most distinctive of man and most descriptive of his place in 
nature. If the place of man in nature and the place of mind in 
man be so regarded, it does not seem necessary to assume that there 
is any reversal of the logic of evolution when we come to study the 
phenomena of human society. It is not a reversal of this logic and 
nomenclature, as Mr. Ward seems to think, but a transference of 
that logic and nomenclature to a higher sphere of action — the ac- 
tion of man in society under the forces of an expanding science and 
a growing morality. It is in these — that is, in the rational and moral 
forces, which are dynamic in society — that we must look for the natu- 
ral selections which are relatively the fittest to survive at any given 
stage of human history. And in properly co5rdinating the rational 
and moral forces by which he is lifted above the brutes of the field, 
it is just as important that man should act with the forces of nature 
below him and in him as that he should in a measure act above 
those lower forces by virtue of his mind — his "faculty of execution," 
as Mr. Ward calls it. And in making the purely artificial regula- 
tions which belong to him as "apolitical animal" he is perpetually 
in danger of making civil, political, and economical adjustments 
which sin against the laws of nature and against the natural rights of 
man. Against all adjustments which unduly restrict the natural 
freedom of man in his mind, his body, or his labor, we may there- 
fore justly hurl the doctrine oi laissez faire. 

Mr. Welling then proceeded to illustrate this point of view by 
citing the phenomena of political economy as presented to us in 


France during the reign of Louis IX, when every branch of industry 
in the kingdom was put under governmental regulation and restric- 
tion. These regulations and restrictions were imposed in the name 
of a state-craft which assumed to be wise above the laws of natural 
production. They were the expressions of an artificial selection 
working against the natural selections of supply and demand in the 
figure of political economy, and it was in opposition to the enormi- 
ties of this system that the school of political economists known in 
France as the physiocrats rose at the close of the i8th century to 
make their indignant protest in the name of laissezfaire. And in 
subsequent times as well as in other lands there had been abundant 
room to challenge the tariff regulations of any given epoch in the 
name of the same watchword. 

Shall we say, then, that the maxim of laissez faire is final in 
political economy? By no means. It is final as against the pre- 
tension that man, by legislative artifice, however ingeniously de- 
vised, can make any industry profitable to the commonwealth against 
the forces of natural production. But in so far as man has higher 
ends in society than the creation of wealth the maxim is «^/ final. 
If there be those who, in the name of a naturistic philosophy, would 
plead for the right to grind up the bodies and souls of men in the 
natural pursuit of wealth, it is easy to see that such a false and one- 
sided adjustment of economical relations would but call for a new 
evolution of public intelligence and public morality, as seen in the 
preventive justice which should be devised in order to guard the 
community from such excesses of the laissezfaire doctrine. But 
neither the public intelligence nor the public morality can have a 
full field for the exercise of their natural prerogatives in the sphere 
of public economy until laissezfaire has allowed the forces of natural 
production to exhibit the full measure of their strength, without let 
or hindrance, save such as may be neeeded to guard interests higher 
than the material wealth of a nation. 

Major Powell : The paper by Prof. Ward has been of great 
interest to me, as well as the discussion which it has elicited. In 
the progress of institutions it often becomes necessary that the old 
should be torn down in order that the new may be erected on the 
same ground ; and in every great civilized land there are those who 
devote themselves to destruction, while others engage in construc- 
tion. The theory of the destructionist has of late years obtained 
much vantage-ground from tlie doctrines of evolution, and the com- 


munication of this evening very clearly sets forth the improper use 
of the established doctrines of evolution by a class of philosophers 
who fail to appreciate fully the necessity for construction pari passu 
with destruction and who have lost faith in human institutions and 
neglect the teachings of all human history. 

The Lamarckian doctrine of evolution was that of adaptation by 
exercise. The hypothesis did not obtain wide acceptation until it 
was expanded more fully by Darwin and his contemporaries into 
the further doctrine of the survival of the fittest in the struggle for 
existence through competition in enormously overcrowded popula- 
tion. By this latter philosopher it was shown that competition 
performed an important part in evolution, and that the Lamarckian 
method gained its efficiency through the law established by Darwin. 
Among the lower animals species compete with species, and indi- 
viduals of the same species compete with one another, and as the 
number of individuals produced is greatly in excess of those which 
can obtain sustentation some must necessarily succumb, and in the 
grand average it is the unfit that yield their places to those better 
fitted to the conditions. With mankind this competition does not 
perform the same office that it does with the lower animals, and 
this by reason of the organization of society and of other human 
activities, whereby men, to a greater or less extent, become inter- 
dependent, so that the survival of one depends upon the survival 
of others, and the welfare of one upon the welfare of many. But 
competition still plays an important part in the life history of 
the human race. Man in his competition with the lower animals 
has so outstripped them in skill and power that he utilizes them for 
his wants. He destroys some, and others he domesticates for his 
purposes. It cannot properly be said that he longer competes with 
the lower animals — in fact, he utilizes them. 

But man competes with man, and this competition is expressed 
in warfare — public and private. In public warfare state competes 
with state, and the question arises, does this competition, this war- 
fare, ultimately result, in the average, in human progress? So far 
as it is a competition between states do the higher and better 
people survive, and the lower people succumb ? He would be a 
bold man, indeed, who would assert that the victor is always the 
superior man in culture, and who would divide and relegate the 
victories of the world to the good and the bad, the wise and the 
unwise, the just and the unjust. It is a task too delicate for any- 


thing but omniscience. But we may look upon it in another hght. 
In the grand average the individuals who engage in warfare are 
those who are ph3'sically strong, and, as judged by the standards 
obtaining among their own peoples, they are the patriotic and the 
noble, and it has usually happened that the flower of the state has 
been absorbed in its armies. This is less true in modern warfare, but 
is more true as we go farther backward in the history of mankind. 
The strong, the brave, and the patriotic have fallen in battle ; the 
weak, the cowardly, and the selfish have survived ; and thus war- 
fare has been a constant drain upon the best of all lands; and it 
may be confidently asserted that human competition by warfare has 
in this manner failed to be an agency for human progress. Often 
warfare has been the means of overthrowing unjust and unwise insti- 
tutions, and in this manner warfare has ofttimes resulted in good in 
human progress. On the other hand the period of warfare, the 
time in which peoples are engaged in warfare, is usually a time 
when the institutions of a people lapse from a higher to a lower 
condition. The necessities of war ofttimes furnish the excuse and 
justification for the establishment of institutions, or for modifications 
unjust and tyrannical in character. In the main war periods are 
times in which public morals lapse toward barbarism. 

If we turn to consider the effect of private warfare on the progress 
of mankind we again fail to discover an efficient agency in human 
culture. He would indeed be a bold man who should assert that it 
results in the survival of the fittest, and avIio would relegate mur- 
derers to the class called the best, and the murdered to the class 
called the worst. 

But mankind engage in another form of competition. They 
compete for welfare or "happiness ; and in so far as it is true com- 
petition, as distinguished from honorable rivalry — that is, in so far 
as one man succeeds at the expense of another — in just so far is in- 
justice done; for, by the establishment of interdependence among 
men, the welfare of one properly depends upon the welfare of others, 
and the essential characteristic of justice, for which all mankind 
have striven, is this: that no man sliall reap advantage to the in- 
jury of his neighbor. Competition for welfare, in the sense in 
which the term is here used, is the prosecution of injustice, and to 
the extent that justice is established competition is avoided. 

There is yet competition of a third class. Arts compete with 
arts, and in the average the best are selected, and the choice is 


made by men themselves. Men do not choose the best men but 
the best arts, and indirectly choose the men as best because they 
represent the best arts. So, institutions compete with institutions, 
and the best are chosen in the average. So, languages and methods 
of expressing thought compete with languages and methods of ex- 
pressing thought, and in the average the best are chosen. In like 
manner opinions compete with opinions, and in the grand average 
the best and the true are chosen. Now, arts, institutions, languages, 
and opinions are human inventions, and in every department of 
human activity, as thus represented, inventions compete with in- 
ventions, and as in the grand average the fittest are chosen, so those 
who represent the best, the fittest, achieve success as compared with 
others who represent inventions of less worth. In this field there 
is legitimate competition, and it is by this competition that man 
progresses in civilization; but it is the objective invention or activ- 
ity that survives, not the subject man. Now that class of sociolo- 
gists who appeal to the established facts of science relating to com- 
petition, and use the laws of competition as they are exhibited in 
the lower animals, as if they properly applied to man, use them for 
destructive purposes, to destroy institutions, and they use them 
illegitimately, for human progress is not made by competing for 
existence, or by directly competing for welfare, but only by in- 
directly competing for welfare through the direct competition of 
arts, institutions, languages, and opinions ; and in order that this 
indirect competition may be efficient all such competition must be 
in conformity with the principles of justice. Therefore, institutions 
designed to establish justice among mankind cannot properly be 
judged by the canons derived from the laws of competition, but 
only by the canons derived from the principles of justice, for the 
efficiency of competition itself in human progress depends primarily 
on pre-established justice. 

The destructionists who thus illegitimately use the doctrines of 
evolution in their warfare against all human institutions to a large 
extent deny the efficiency of altruistic motives. They do not clearly 
see that wise egoism is wise altruism, because they do not clearly 
understand the interdependence of mankind; and in denying the 
extent and efficiency of altruism they neglect the best side of human 
history. Man inherited altruism from the beast. The she bear 
loves her cubs, the lioness her whelps, and the eagless her eaglets, 
and beast, bird, and insect alike exhibit altruistic motives. Among 


the lower animals the group is very small indeed between the indi- 
viduals of which such sentiments prevail ; but steadily in their pro- 
gress from savagery to the highest stage of civilization men have 
enlarged the group, as the small kinship group has expanded into 
larger, the clan into the tribe, the tribe into the confederacy, and 
confederacies and confederated tribes into nations ; and altruism has 
expanded from smaller group to larger group, from family love to 
patriotism, and from patriotism to humanity ; and in the light of 
the past we may safely prophesy of the future that this altruism will 
improve in quality and expand m scope until every man shall 
recognize in every other a brother in whose welfare he has an interest 
as deep as in his own, and when the doctrine of /a/ssez /aire shaW be 
known no more forever. 

Seventy-Ninth Regular Meeting, March i, 1884. 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

The President announced the resignation of David Hutcheson, as 
General Secretary of the Society, and the election by the Council 
of S. V, Proudfit to fill the vacancy. 

Ensign Albert Niblack, U. S. N., read the following paper 
on "The Smithsonian Anthropological Collections for 1883." 

With the exception of the year 1876, when the material was re- 
ceived from the Centenial Exposition, the accessions for 1883 ex- 
ceed those of any other year both in number and value. As the 
annual appropriations are only made by the Government for the 
preservation of the collections in the National Museum, it is proper 
to refer most of the collections to the Smithsonian Institution, as the 
Museum is under the control of the latter. The sources of last 
year's receipts were as follows : 

Donations ; exchanges ; collections by Government expeditions, 
required by law to be turned over to the Museum ; purchases for the 
Fisheries Exhibition from a fund specially appropriated, and pur- 
chases from a fund of ^3,000 or more, which the Secretary has been 
able to save from various sources for this purpose. The last named 
has been so judiciously applied and combined with other Govern- 
ment work as to have enabled the Museum to acquire most valuable 
collections, of which this sum spent represents but a fraction of their 


real value. Various branches of the Government have contributed 
to this result by allowing their employes in the field to make collec- 
tions for the Institution in connection with their regular work. It is to 
be hoped that the valuable results attained with such a small additional 
outlay will induce Congress to make some of the annual appropri- 
ation for the Museum also available for the ^' tJicrease^' as well as 
the " preservation " of the collections. In fact, the Museum cannot 
grow in proportion to the demands of the public from the sources 
it now has to rely on. Those considerations which call for the ex- 
istence of the Museum at all also call for a liberal fund with which 
to send out collectors and purchase valuable material. 

The collections here considered are those entered in the catalogue 
during 1883. Some of the collections were actually made in pre- 
vious years, but they have been stored and are now heard from for 
the first time. 

In the organization of the National Museum, as outlined in the 
"Proceedings" for 1881, it is contemplated classifying the anthro- 
pological material under three departments: I, Antiquities; II, 
Races of Men; and III, Arts and Industries. The Assistant Director 
is Curator of the last named and Dr. Rau of the first ; but other- 
wise the work embraced under the second department, "Races of 
Men," is really carried on under Arts and Industries under the 
general supervision of the Assistant Director. 

The general routine work is as follows: 

Collections, on receipt at the Museum, are acknowledged and 
given an accession number by the Registrar, who files under this 
number all manuscript accompanying the various collections. Each 
collection is classified or divided up and the proper portions sent 
to the various departments or sections, where each specimen or lot 
of similar specimens is entered in the ethnological catalogue and 
given a Museum number, which is painted on the specimen for its 
future identification. The entry in this catalogue is briefly made 
under the following heads : 

Museum Number ; Collector's Number; Name; Locality; When 
Collected; Nature of Object; Accession Number; Measurements; 
Received from or Collected by ; Cost ; When Entered ; Number of 
Specimens ; Remarks. 

The descriptive cards to be printed to accompany each specimen 
are then written, access being had to the manuscript in the hands 
of the Registrar to get full data, and the collection is arranged and 
sent to the preparators for installation in the Museum. 



Five thousand three hundred and thirty-nine specimens were re- 
ceived, making a total now on hand of 40,491. Three thousand 
five hundred and fourteen different specimens were placed on exhi- 
bition, making a total display of 24,731. The purely ethnological 
material is being gradually taken over to the Museum building, and 
soon the entire main hall of the Smithsonian building will be devoted 
entirely to antiquities. The great bulk of the collections in this 
department are in storage, and of this the material on hand for 
exchange is very large. 

The greater part of the receipts this year are miscellaneous col- 
lections from all over the world (France, India, Alaska, Central 
America, and Mexico), but principally from our own country and 
presented by patrons of the Institution, 

The principal foreign collections are as follows : 

Two hundred specimens from Ometepec Island, Lake Nicaragua, 
by C. C. Nutting, who was sent out by the Institution. It embraces 
remains from graves, such as clay vessels, arrow-heads, and rude 
stone carvings. The collector only got these incidentally, as his 
principal collection was the birds of that region. 

A collection from Los Novillos, Costa Rica, by M. C. Keith, em- 
bracing about 15 rude stone images or carvings of human figures. 
These are now mounted in the National Museum. A collection of 
casts from the paper moulds received from the Trocadero Museum, 
Paris, made by M. Charnay and presented by Mr. Lorillard to the 
National Museum. The collection is too familar to all to need any 
comment at my hands. There are about 82 reproductions of inscrip- 
tions, carvings, temples, altars, door-posts, etc., from Palenquey 
Mexico, J/^r/V/rt;, Yucatan, Chicheni/za, Lorillard City, and other less 
important places. 

A small collection of about 15 specimens from Alaska, col- 
lected by McKay just before his death, which will be alluded to 
later. The collection embraces only a few Eskimo stone imple- 
ments and carvings. 

So far this year (1884) a collection has been received from J. J. 
McLean, of the Signal Service, from the shell heaps of Cape Men- 
docino, Cal., besides the usual number of miscellaneous articles 
donated to the Institution. 

In the Department of Arts and Industries the various sections have 


not as yet all been put in operation. The well-organized special 
sections are at present only two, materia Medica and Foods and Tex- 
tile Fabrics. The fisheries section is well-organized as a sub-section, 
so to speak, but it will be some time yet before hunting can be taken 
up in connection with it. 

Dr. Flint has the materia medica collection well in hand. In a 
general way it is intended to illustrate the medicines in use in 
highly civilized countries at the present day, as well as the collec- 
tions peculiar to certain countries. Of the latter the Museum has a 
small collection from Corea, one from China, and quite a complete 
one from India. (This India collection of course represents only 
native medicines.) To the collection in 1883 were added over 1,000 
specimens, the addition to the general collections being supplemental 
— /. <?., intended to fill out the present exhibit of the medicines of civ- 
ilized nations obtained from wholesale drug houses in this country. 
Quite a unique collection of mineral waters from all parts of the 
world is included in the latter. The additions to the special col- 
lections in 1883 "^^y t>e summed up as follows : 

1. About 275 specimens from the Kurrachee Museum, India. 

2. Fifty specimens or more from the Madras Museum. 

3. Ten specimens of Cinchona bark of different kinds from 
Ceylon, presented from the Government of India. 

4. Seventeen specimens presented by the Corean Embassy. 

5. no accessions from the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew. 
The Section of Foods and Textile Fabrics embraces more than 

the name implies — i. <?., food-stuffs, narcotics, distillations, drinks, 
furs and leathers, fibres, cordage, textile fabrics, needle-work, bas- 
ket-work, paper, etc. Mr. Hitchcock has been in charge only since 
November, last. The collection of textiles now on exhibition is 
not a very large one, and consists mainly of the raw materials used, 
such as wood, silk, cotton, jute, manilla, hemp, bark, grasses, etc. 
In mats, cloths, etc., little has been as yet installed. The reserve 
collection is a large and valuable one. The Zunians, Navajos, 
Indians of northwest coast, (particularly the Nootkas and Haidahs,) 
the South Sea Islanders, and the natives of the Phillipines, West 
Indies, Central America, and elsewhere are well represented, and 
when this collection is finally installed it will be a valuable addi- 
tion to the collections on exhibition. Little attempt has as yet been 
made to illustrate the fabrics of civilized nations, but these are easily 
obtained when desired by purchase in this and other countries. 


The collection of North American Indian foods, embracing over 
250 specimens, is classified and on exhibition. The descriptive 
cards are in the hands of the printer. There are small classified 
collections of foods from China, India, and other countries, but 
the miscellaneous collection has not as yet been classified. In rep- 
resenting the foods of civilized nations, specimens can be obtained 
very readily when desired. At present the principal collection of 
such foods is one prepared for the Fisheries Exhibition. It will 
form a part of that exhibit in the Museum, as only a few representa- 
tive specimens will be kept out to go with the food collection 

The large collections of the Bureau of Ethnology from Zuni and 
the Moquis and New Mexican pueblos were, last November, turned 
over to the National Museum for installation. On the publication 
of notes by the Bureau, and on the return of Mr. Gushing from 
Zuni, these collections will be written up. Not enough is known of 
the ceremonial material to attempt such a thing at present. The 
collection of pottery is simply exhaustive. It is now in the hands 
of Mr. Holmes, as is the entire pottery collection of North America. 
Incidentally, it may be mentioned here that a fine collection of pot- 
tery was also received from Chiriqui, and is now installed with the 
North American pottery. 

The general Zuni and Moqui collections comprise 6,370 entries 
for 1883, but as three or four specimens are sometimes entered under 
one number, this does not approximate to its real size. It embraces 
basket ware, pottery, gourds, grinding stones or mortars, weapons, 
and ceremonial, household, agricultural, and industrial implements. 

A large portion of the archaeological collections of the Bureau 
of Ethnology from the mounds of the United States was also turned 
over to the Department of Antiquities some months since. No 
mention of these specimens was made under that head. Prof. 
Cyrus Thomas has worked up these collections, and the results are 
published under the Bureau of Ethnology. Collections have been 
made under the Bureau, throughout all the important localities from 
Dakota Territory to Florida, and from Nevada to the New Eng- 
land States. These collections of aboriginal remains embrace skulls, 
bones, celts, fragments of pottery, and walls of dwellings, shells, 
copper and iron implements, flints, flakes, pipes, arrow-heads, per- 
forated tablets, stone discs, ceremonial stones, etc. 

The entries for 1883 comprise 3,544 numbers, which is much more 


than the accessions of the Department of Antiquities itself, when 
we consider that several of specimens are entered sometimes under 
one number. Four specimens of quartz celts from near Madras, 
India, are among the accessions from the Bureau. 

Among the most important collections made by employes of the 
Government, in connection with their regular work under other 
branches, and which were paid for out of the fund previously alluded 
to, may be mentioned : 

A collection from Wm. J. Fisher, the Coast Survey tidal observer on 
Kadiak Island, Alaska, who made several trips on the peninsula and 
mainland. It embraces about loo specimens, the most interesting 
being some heavy elaborate bead-work head-dresses, some of them 
weighing as much as 2^ pounds. 

The collections made by the United States Signal Service observers 
are as follows : 

1. One, by C. L. McKay, from in and around Bristol Bay, north 
of the Alaska peninsula, from the Nushagag-mut and Ogulmut 
Eskimos of that region, about 45 specimens in all, including a full 
outfit for a Beluga whale-hunter, which was exhibited in London 
last year. This outfit includes harpoons, lines, buoys, extra heads, 
killing lances, etc. A second collection of about 50 or 60 speci- 
mens, consisting of household utensils and articles of personal adorn- 
ment, were received after the death of McKay. He was drowned in 
April, 1883, while out in a kyak in Nushagak river in bad weather. 

2. One, by J. J. McLean, from around Sitka, which had been 
pretty well worked up by other collectors. Besides the usual lot of 
wooden carvings, kantags, or wooden dishes, etc., there are some 
fine specimens of native wicker and basket work in the collection 
(made from a species of plant. Iris tenax). 

3. A kyak, with complete fittings, from Greenland, deposited by 
the chief signal officer of the army. (It was exhibited in London.) 

4. The Point Barrow collection, which was brought down when 
the expedition returned recently. The collection is a good one, 
and embraces over 700 specimens. Mr. Murdock is now working 
up the collection, and I will not anticipate his report. Part of the 
earlier collection which came down on the " Corwin " went to 
London to the Fisheries Exhibit, 

5. Mr. Stejneger, of the Signal Service, made a small collection 
from the Aleuts on Behring Island, Commander group (off the coast 


of Kamschatka), There are some interesting models of fox and 
bear traps and boats, some seal-skin costumes worn in their native 
dances, besides some accessories of costumes peculiar to the Aleuts. 

6. A collection coming more properly under 1884 was received 
several weeks since from L. M. Turner, of the Signal Service, from 
the Eskimos of Ungava Bay, North Labrador. It is a fine one and 
embraces over 450 specimens. The articles have not the oily, used 
look that most Eskimo implements have, which indicates that other 
collectors have been among them recently, although a great many 
specimens are models of traps, snow-shoes, tobogans, and spears, 
and are necessarily new. There are some large tobogans and snow- 
shoes of a peculiar pattern that will be alluded to below. The cos- 
tumes are peculiarly handsome, and show the effects of contact 
with civilization. 

A second collection from Fisher, made in the Aleutian Archi- 
pelago and Alaska Peninsula, has just been received. It consists 
of about 120 specimens of costumes, peculiar Aleutian hats, house- 
hold utensils, accessories of costume, etc. 

Among the small purchased collections may be mentioned : A 
Zuni sacred blanket, one hundred Peruvian water-bottles or huacas, 
and some shoes, hats, dishes, baskets, etc., (from the La Costa 
Indians of South California.) woven of mescal fibre and palm-leaves. 

1. Among the principal donations are 40 musical instruments, 
supplemental to the set of American musical instruments, all pre- 
sented by M. J. Howard Foote, of 31 Maiden Lane, New York. 

2. The original Catlin collection of Indian portraits, etc., painted 
by him during his eight years amongst the 48 tribes, of which he has 
handed down to us these most valuable ethnological records. There 
are about 500 in the collection which Mrs. Harrison, of Philadel- 
phia, has so generously presented to the Institution. One hundred 
and fifty have been selected and placed on exhibition in the lecture 
room of the National Museum, and arrangements are being made 
to increase the exhibit. The selection now exhibited is one from 
each small tribe, two or more from the important tribes, and a set 
illustrating hunting scenes, ceremonial dances, etc. 

3. At the close of the Boston Exhibition recently some 50 musical 
instruments, numerous clay figures, and various other specimens 
were presented to the Institution by Surindro Mohun Tagore, Rajah 
of one of the provinces of India and president of the Bengal music 
school. The collection of musical instruments is accompanied by 


full notes, and the Museum is taking steps to obtain a supplemental 
collection to complete the series. This collection was installed a 
few days since and is now on exhibition. 

Among the principal exchange collections are : 

ist. Some miscellaneous weapons from Polynesia and South 
America, obtained at the Fisheries Exhibition. 

2d. Some 16 musical instruments and accessories from Tiflis, 
in the Caucasus, obtained through Mr. Engleman, of St. Louis. 

3d. About 40 specimens from the Leipzig Museum, consisting 
of knives, bows, arrows, baskets, mats, etc. , from Africa, particu- 
larly the Loango Coast and Gaboon river, on the west coast. The 
admirable native steel implements are well illustrated. This col- 
lection, combined with a few stray or miscellaneous articles and a 
small collection by Rev. Dr. Gurley, constitutes but a meagre 
African ethnological exhibit. 

The Museum has just sent to the Trocadero, at Paris, an ethno- 
logical collection selected from the material in its possession, and 
doubtless their exchange will embrace some additions to the abov(2. 

Mr. J. G. Swan, in addition to the regular collection which he 
sends in from time to time, made last summer a special trip for the 
Smithsonian Institution to the Queen Charlotte Islands, B. C, 
and the results have just been received. 

In the early part of the year he sent in some photographs and 
about 100 specimens supplemental to his series of collections illus- 
trating the fisheries of the Indians in and around Cape Flattery, 
W. I. (The complete collections went to London.) 

In the trip referred to above he started from Masset Sound (N. 
Graham Island) and coasted around the west side, then through 
Skidegate Channel to the southeast coast ; then home to Victoria. 
Now that he has partially carried out his long-cherished desire, it 
is to be hoped that his forthcoming notes will prove as valuable as 
his notes previously published. A better knowledge of the Haidah 
totems and totemic carvings is desired. The collection is rich in 
masks, wood-carvings, ladles, ancient stone implements, ropes, 
clubs, shaman's wands, ceremonial bows, whistles, rattles, fishing 
gear, etc., but particularly so in the slate carvings, of which he sends 
30 specimens — dishes, boxes, and models of totem posts. There 
was already on hand a sufficient number of specimens to illustrate 
the Haidah wood carvings and working in silver, but the additions 
to the slate carvings have made it appear desirable to install the 


latter as a monographic collection illustrating this art, which alone 
places the Haidahs at the head of the Indians of the northwest 

A comparison and study of all the carvings from the Haidahs is 
to be made, as it is difficult for the uninitiated to make out or dis- 
tinguish between the conventional representation of animals. The 
Haidah totemism and mythology offer a most promising field to 

Mr. Swan is anxious to make another trip, during the coming 
season, a attend to great celebration to be held in the fall. The 
Director has the matter now under consideration. 

The Fisheries Exhibit, having returned from London, is now 
turned over to the Museum, and will form a monographic collection. 
The Makah Exhibit, collected by Swan, and the Eskimo, whale, 
seal, and walrus hunting outfits are peculiarly interesting to anthro- 

In the matter of exchange, the Museum has recently sent to the 
Trocadero, at Paris, a small collection of models of ruins and cliff- 
dwellings, ethnological material from ZiiTu, Moqui, and our Western 
Indians. The Museum has available for exchange a great deal of 
material from the collections of the Bureau of Ethnology and the 
northwest coast and Alaska collections. 

In the matter of collecting every year increases the value of ethno- 
logical material. When Congress shall wake up to the necessities 
of making more liberal appropriations it will be found that it has 
been false economy to delay in the matter. A few thousand dollars 
now will represent a much greater outlay in future years. 

The outlook for anthropological collections for 1884 is not so 
encouraging. Fisher, McLean, and Swan will be the main sources. 
No one has yet taken McKay's place, and Nelson has permanently 
withdrawn. Greely's party must have abandoned their collections 
North, and the present relief expedition can hardly accomplish 
much. Foulk and Bernadon may be heard from in Corea. 

As stated originally the year 1883 has been a prosperous one for 
the Smithsonian and National Museum. 


As a rule the earlier collections have lost much of their value, 
both from the want of care in preserving the accompanying data, 


and from the absolute neglect of the collectors to forward any. A 
little preliminary experience of collectors in the Museum, before 
going into the field, would impress it forcibly on the minds of such 
that the descriptive cards should be practically written by the col- 
lectors in the field. Nelson and Swan have shown the best realiza- 
tion of this principle. The general form of the descriptive card 
adapted to the Museum, to accompany each specimen exhibited, is 
as follows : 

Object, (local or native name) Materials of which made ; 

brief description ; use. Tride or person by which used. 

Dimensions, length, , breadth, , etc. 

Exact locality, i8 — , (date of collection). Museum number. 

How and through whom acquired. 

Fuller and more special notes in smaller type are appended as to 
origin, special variation in form and use in various localities, notes 
on the general series of which the specimen is a representative. 

Each object or general series of objects is to be accompanied by 
such a label or card further supplemented by pictures or photographs 
when necessary to more clearly illustrate how the object is used or 
worn, or to show pattern where the object is folded or obscured. 
The cards are printed on herbarium board. Those on white paper 
are to send to other museums, preserve as records, and for use in 
making up the catalogues which will eventually be published. 

(Ed. : Specimens were here exhibited of cards and photographs 
taken from specimens already on exhibition in the Museum.) 

Cards are now being attached to the specimens already out, and 
a plan is under way to collect all the ethnological material not yet 
installed in one large store-room, where it is to be systematically 
classified. The incoming collections can be distributed according 
to the plan adopted, and duplicates can be selected before this tem- 
porary storage. This plan will greatly facilitate the routine work. 

Greater progress has not been made in installing and describing 
the specimens and collections for many reasons, but principally on 
account of the various exhibits prepared at the Museum, which have 
diverted a large part of the force from the regular work, and besides 
this experiments are being made as to cases and styles of mounting 


general and special exhibits. Moreover the force employed is not 
very large, but when the Fish Exhibit is permanently installed there 
will be more men available for the routine work. 

Recently published criticisms on the classification and method of 
arrangement now provisionally adopted in the Museum have shown 
to a certain extent that there is a misunderstanding as to just how 
far the Museum is committed to any definite plan. The adopted 
unit box, in which specimens from the same locality are mounted 
for exhibition, enables a provisional classification to be adopted. 
The boxes slide in and out of the cases, and the whole character of 
the present arrangement can be altered and radically changed in a 
day. By putting only a few specimens in each box, room is left 
for future collections supplemental to those now installed. 

Classification and method of installation depend upon various 
considerations. The material on hand determines the former, and 
experiment and trial the latter. Without going at all into the sub- 
ject of Museum classifications in general, or into the future arrange- 
ment of the National Museum, it seems that every immediate con- 
sideration demands something like the present one, however much 
it may be understood or misunderstood from the published bulletins 
to that effect. 

The broad aim of the present plan is a teleologic classification, 
one by use rather than by morphology. The comparative method 
has been adopted in preference to the ethnographic because it is 
demanded by the nature of the material on hand, and to a certain 
extent better suited to the American mental habit of analysis and 
comparison. I will try and illustrate these points by special ex- 

For a few tribes and regions an ethnographical arrangement 
would answer admirably, viz. , the Eskimos, Zufiians, Moquis, Hai- 
dahs, Makahs, and our Western and Alaska Indians, but such a 
general plan would be absurd and but show up the meagerness of 
our collections from every other region. Picture Corea with two 
small trays of stuff that can but be vaguely referred to it, Africa 
with three, and South America with only several cases ! Even our 
Japanese, Chinese, and Indian collections would hardly admit of 
such an arrangement. Should Congress become suddenly liberal 
and place a fund at the disposition of the Museum to enable it to 
send out intelligent collectors well informed as to the Museum's wants 
it would doubtless occur in the course of time that an ethnographic 


arrangement would be demanded as the only natural one (supple- 
mented of course by occasional and separate comparative collec- 
tions.) With the miscellaneous collections that are likely to come 
in, however, unless Congress does make special appropriations, the 
present arrangement is likely to be found the best one. A thorough 
and exhaustive ethnographic collection would show each product of 
a country's civilization in the different stages of its evolution and 
development, but with a miscellaneous and scattered collection we 
must draw on various countries to illustrate this development. 

A recent article on museum classification says "The comparative 
method necessarily cuts across the natural order of things in their 
relations to time; and this is an obvious defect, which, when ap- 
plied to anthropological collections, is destructive of all natural 
conceptions as to the way in which modifications and changes really 
arise or flow out of pre-existing, localized, or racial conditions." 
It seems to me, as far as I may express any opinion on the subject, 
that the question tends to settle itself thus. 

With exhaustive collections from representative tribes and with 
sufficient funds to fill out or supplement the collections the ethno- 
graphic plan is the most desirable one. 

With scattered and miscellaneous collections the comparative 
method makes the best use of the material. 

The Museum plan is an improvement on each of the above, as it 
combines the advantages of both. The classification provisionally 
adopted is a teleologic one, subject to special modifications to suit 
special cases. To illustrate this: 

In the Museum there is a collection of pipes from all parts of the 
world. The Haidah carved black slate pipe stands out as unique, 
and it might seem that the fault in this comparative method of ar- 
rangement is that it does not form a fair comparison of the intelli- 
gence or artistic tastes and abilities of the various tribes represented. 
It might be argued that possibly the pipe was the only thing they 
could carve or do carve. An ethnographic collection from this 
people would show that they carve equally surprisingly in wood, 
bone, etc., and have a great deal of artistic taste. The Museum, 
recognizing this, makes a separate monographic collection and ex- 
hibition of Haidah carvings, so we have one or two Haidah pipes 
in the pipe collection, and, besides this, one or two in a mono- 
graphic collection of Haidah carvings. 

It is aimed in all cases where such arrangement may seem to be 


desired to thus draw off certain small ethnographic and monographic 
collections to call attention to any instructive peculiarities of any 
tribe or race. It also happens at times that large objects have to 
be left out of a comparative collection. In fact, any classification 
must be based on compromise and must yield to exceptions. 

As an illustration of how we may show the development or evo- 
lution of any object with a widely scattered collection let us take 
the snow-shoe collection in the Museum. It is mounted on screens 
in the comparative style. If we had exhaustive collections from 
any one stock of Indians, say, we might show this development step 
by step (by the ethnographic method) from the time they borrowed 
or originated the idea up to its highest development, as shown. 
With the material at the Museum this evolution can only be sug- 
gested, as the steps are very wide, and intermediate ones are not at 
hand. We must in this adopt Mr. Spencer's plan of illustrating 
primitive man by our present savage tribe. 


Prof. Mason called attention to the advantages derived from a 
systematic classification and arrangement of the material in great 
collections like that of the Smithsonian Institution. He also said 
that an organized effort should be made looking toward a full utili- 
zation of the m.any resources afforded by the various departments of 
the Government for information valuable to the student of an- 
thropology, and that the attention of the scientific world should be 
directed to the scope and character of these resources. 

Mr. Flint spoke of the manner in which aboriginal ideas had 
been followed up and finally developed, illustrating his remarks by 
showing how a study of the possibilities of the arrow as a projectile 
had resulted in its use for throwing explosives under a heavy air 
pressure, for which^several patents have already issued. 

Eightieth Regular Meeting, March 15, 1884. 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 
The Secretary of the Council reported the election of the follow- 
ing-named gentlemen as corresponding members of the Society : 

Charles C. Abbott, Trenton, N. J. 
Henry B. Adams, Baltimore, Md. 


Rev. Joseph Anderson, Waterbuiy, (^onn. 

Mr. H. H. Bancroft, San Francisco, Cal. 

Mr. Ad. F. Bandelier, San Francisco, Cal, 

Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. LuciEN Carr, Cambridge, Mass. 

Mr. John Collett, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Mr. A. J. Conant, St. Louis, Mo. 

Dr. George J. Engelmann, St. Louis, Mo. 

Prof. Basil Gildersleeve, Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Horatio Hale, Clinton, Ontario, Canada. 

Prof. G. Stanley Hall, Baltimore, Md. 

Col. H. H. Hilder, St. Louis, Mo. 

Dr. C. C. Jones, Augusta, Ga. 

Rev. George A. Leakin, Baltimore, Md. 

Prof. E. S. Morse, Salem, Mass. 

Prof. Raphael Pumpelly, Newport, R. I. 

Prof. F. W. Putnam, Cambridge, Mass. 

Col. Charles Whittlesey, Cleveland, O. 

Dr. Daniel Wilson, Toronto, Canada. 

Mr. H. H, Bates read a paper entitled " Discontinuities in 
Nature's Methods," of which the following is a synopsis: 

The ingenious analogy drawn by Mr. Babbage, in the ninth 
Bridgewater treatise, from the operations of his calculating machine, 
to enforce an argument in favor of the conceivability of miracle, 
by bringing it under the domain of law, was cited as illustrating some 
of the discontinuities of evolution, confessedly the result of simi- 
lar complexities of natural law. 

The great discontinuity involved in the passage from inorganic 
to organic life, which we infer to have taken place under law, but 
do not understand, was adverted to. Also such apparent discon- 
tinuities as the passage from invertebrate to vertebrate life, or the 
introduction of mammalian life, from lower forms, with the obser- 
vation that wherever nature seems to have carried specialization to 
its full extent and to have exhausted the possibilities of structure 
by mere differentiation she is found to have laid the foundation for 
a new differentiation, and a new specialization, with higher possi- 
bilities, from a different stem low down in the scale, constituting an 
apparent discontinuity, on account of the obscurity and feebleness 
and instability of the first unspecialized departures, by which they 


were either unobserved or early obliterated through the operation 
of competition. 

Passing over the wide domain of biology, which affords so many 
instances of this complexity of natural action, illustrations of the 
same law were sought in the domain of anthropology. The ad- 
vent of man, and his means of progress, affords such examples. 
The development of the inventive faculty, as the distinguishing char- 
acteristic of mind, caused a modification of the old plan of pro- 
gress by natural selection. Instead of being himself modified by 
nature, as hitherto, man began to act upon nature, both organic 
and inorganic, and to modify it to his needs, as Mr. Ward has 
pointed out. Henceforth natural selection affected only mental 
and ethnic qualities, through modification of nervous structure. 
Physical modification ceased to any important extent. Instead of 
developing weapons, man constructed extraneous ones for his use. 
With these he conquered competition and removed the rivals 
most cognate to himself. Militarism ensued, and resulted in high 

Differentiation, however, soon reaches its highest results in this 
direction, and obstructs further progress. An apparent discon- 
tinuity occurred in the rise of industrialism out of the humbler ele- 
ments of society, through the germination of inventions, beginning 
with the rediscovery of gunpowder, which was the commence- 
ment of the downfall of militarism. The tool-making and tool- 
using faculty came into prominence. Peaceful arts began to flourish, 
man s condition became ameliorated, and a new progress supervened. 
The new direction of evolutionary development was adverted to. 
Man, having ceased to evolve by physical selection, evolves by ex- 
traneous organs. Weapons and tools were the beginning of these, 
but he has also now enormously developed his means of loco- 
motion, as well as his organs of special sense and expression. 
His eye is reinforced by the telescope and microscope and any op- 
tical device he needs ; his ear by the telephone. The products of 
artistic industry furnish him with means for unlimited gratification 
of the aesthetic faculty in decoration. The culinary art relieves 
him from some of the burdens of digestion and increases his 
range of nutriment. All these extraneous means constitute a de- 
parture from the old law of development of the individual by 

Moral and ethical development have not made a parallel advance 


since the dawn of history, on account of the lack hitherto of any 
discovery in that field commensurate with the important dis- 
coveries which modified his intellectual progress. Such a discovery 
would afford, by its results, an instance of a true and beneficent 
discontinuity. The necessity has always been recognized, and 
many theories broached which accomplished great temporary re- 
sults, but failed of permanent fruit for want of confirmation. 

The operation of discontinuities in the complex law of evolution 
is not always or necessarily beneficent. Nature is not optimistic 
and discontinuties are known to have occurred which were disastrous 
and retrograde, as geological history evinces. Dissolution is in- 
volved in evolution. 


Mr. Lester F. Ward said that he welcomed the term "discon- 
tinuity ' ' in this new sense as supplying a need in biology. Its old 
use to denote actual breaks in the series and the special creation 
and fixity of species was no longer believed to express a scientific 
truth. But a special term was needed to designate certain apparent 
breaks which occur at irregular intervals both in the development 
of life and of society. Among these he enumerated the origin of 
life through the introduction of the substance protoplasm, the com- 
paratively abrupt appearance of vertebrated animals which seem to 
have been developed from one of the lowest forms of invertebrate 
life, the equally radical change which resulted in the mammalian 
type, and the remarkable "short cut" by which man was reached 
through the lemurian and simian stem, leaving the other great 
branches, the carnivora, ungidata, etc., entirely out of his path. He 
had, in, a paper read at a previous meeting, laid special stress upon the 
similarly sudden introduction of the developed brain of man, with 
its momentous consequences, as the first and greatest of this series 
of anthropic and sociologic strides to which Mr. Bates' paper was 
chiefly devoted. 

In reply to remarks by Dr. Welling and Prof. Thomas inquiring 
how this kind of discontinuity was to be distinguished from the 
actual breaks postulated by the old school of biologists, Mr. Ward 
said that the reconciliation was effected through a recognition of 
the now well-established law of the ephemeral character of transi- 
tion forms. The variations of structure which are destined to re- 
sult in the dominant type take place at a point low down in the 


scale. The first modified forms are few and feeble and leave no 
permanent record of their existence. The modifications required 
to give them a firm foothold take place with rapidity and the inter- 
mediate gradations are lost. The first evidence the investigator has 
that a new departure has taken place is the appearance of the more 
or less completely modified type, and it seems as though there had 
been a fresh act of creation, or saltus. 

President Welling said he would like to have Mr. Bates ex- 
plain the precise sense in which he used the term "discontinuity" 
before conceding its necessity as an addition to scientific nomen- 
clature. Without such explanation it would perhaps be held by 
many that the facts and principles recited in the essay were suffici- 
ently covered by that law of succession, differentiation, and inte- 
gration which the reflective mind of man had spelled out from the 
ongoings of nature. In these ongoings there had been constant 
discontinuations as well of processes as of products, but no discoji- 
tinuity. If any actual discontinuity must be admitted then the 
whole doctrine of evolution, as commonly conceived, must fall to 
the ground, for that doctrine proceeds on the assumption of per- 
petual continuity amid perpetual discontinuations in natural pro- 
cesses. These perpetual discontinuations do but mark out the line of 
continuity along which nature has worked in the normal movement 
and projection of her processes and products. Discontinuations are 
matters of fact, but the principle which colligates them is continuity, 
not discontinuity. 

In illustration of this point of view Mr. Welling then cited that 
latest and most stupendous evolution of man in society, known as 
international law. This law was built on the perpetual discontinu- 
ation of customs, practices, and institutions dating from the most 
primitive forms of social organization down to the present time, 
but none the less had it been built without the slightest lesion of 
continuity in the process of its evolution, for each successive differ- 
entiation in social and national relations had only paved the way 
for a new integration in thought and action. 

Prof. Thomas said that he agreed with Mr. Bates and Prof. Ward 
in believing that the term "discontinuity" was properly applied 
in speaking of some of the processes of nature. In following up 
the line of progress in the development of animal life we observed 
branches shooting out on either hand. For illustration, in passing 
from the higher Annuloida, Huxley's Scolecida, we are led by one 


line, the Anniilosa, to the Arthropoda, cuhiiinating in the higher in- 
sects. Here this branch appears to cease and is wholly separated 
from any of the higher forms of animal life. Here Prof. Thomas 
believed was a true discontinuity. 

On the other hand, starting near the same point, was another 
branch embracing the mollusca. 

The great vertebrate line, instead of originating from any of the 
higher forms of either of these branches, was supposed to arise di- 
rectly or through a few transitional forms out of the Tunicata, the 
ascidian form. 

There are many diverging branches, and as it appeared to be a 
law that no diverging line ever returned to the main stem or co- 
alesced with another there must be discontinuities. No evolutionist 
can admit that there are any absolute gaps or breaks in the line of 
development, as this would be fatal to his theory. The line must 
be continous or the theory must fall to the ground. 

Mr. Mason said that phenomena might be associated in such 
groups as to be habitually observed together. Now, the mind be- 
ing turned for a while toward one part of a group, returns to find a 
great change. There has been a discontinuity. Let us further 
illustrate. If we were studying Indian pottery, we should want to 
investigate the material, the implements, the agent, the process, the 
finished product, and the design, or final cause. Here are six sets 
of entirely different observations, the discontinuance of any one of 
which would produce an apparent discontinuity in the final result. 
The material might give out ; it might be replaced by other material ; 
new tools might be invented or imparted. The change of social 
order might throw the industry into other hands, as for instance, 
potters might become men instead of women The introduction of 
varied processes, the multiplication of functions by the increase of 
wants would bring about the same result. The disconnections are 
apparent therefore, they are not real. In short, discontinuity any- 
where either in natural or social phenomena is impossible. 

Eighty-First Regular Meeting, April i, 1884. 

Dr. Robert Fletcher, Vice-President, in the Chair. 
The Secretary of the Council announced the election of the fol- 
lowing members : 


Prince Roland Bonaparte, St. Cloud, France; Prof. A. Ponia.. 
lovsky, Sec. Imperial Russian Archseol. Soc, St. Petersburg; Dr. 
Enrico Giglioli, V.-Pres., Anthropological Soc, Florence, Italy; 
Prof. Johannes Ranke, Editor Correspondenz-Blatt, German An- 
thropological Soc, and Sec. Anthropological Soc'., Munich. 

A paper entitled " Recent Indian Graves in Kansas," pre- 
pared by Dr. Alton H. Tho.mpson, of Topeka, Kansas, was read 
by Colonel Seely. 


The writer in 1879 assisted in the examination of four graves in 
an old burial ground connected with the mission to the Potta- 
wotomies, six miles west of Topeka. The ground appears to have 
been the site of a former Indian village, believed by some to have 
been occupied by Crows. Careful inquiry, however, makes the 
identity of these people with that tribe very doubtful. Three of 
the graves were accurately oriented, the fourth being much inclined, 
as if made when the sun was at its northern limit. Besides the 
bones the first grave yielded quite a number of metal ornaments, 
consisting of disks of rolled silver with stamped perforations and 
incised ornamentation, small silver buckles, and pieces of chains 
like cheap brass watch-chains, all evidently of white manufacture. 
The traders say that it was formerly common to receive designs 
from the Indians, from which ornaments were made and furnished 
to those who had ordered them. Sometimes they also procured 
sheets of brass and silver, which they worked according to their 
fancy. Silver coins, particularly the old Spanish dollars, were often 
beaten out by the Indians into disks, and ornamented. 

The condition of the remains in the first grave indicated it to be 
much more ancient than the others. No trace of clothing,or of any 
enclosure for the body appeared. In the second, a fracture in the 
skull showed that the person had probably met death by violence. 

The body had been enclosed in a hollow log or in bark. In this, 
and in the third and fourth graves, leather leggins, blankets of white 
manufacture, and a silk handkerchief were found, all much decom- 

The skulls were all of true Indian type. The writer proposes to 
continue his researches in this interesting locality. 



Prof. Thomas said that the paper was valuable as tending to throw 
light on the subject of intrusive burial and mentioned in connection 
therewith some recent finds in Wisconsin. 

Mr. Proudfet said that he had obtained from an Indian grave 
in Southwestern Iowa silver disks similar to those mentioned by 
Dr. Thompson. 

Dr. Fletcher, referring to the flattening noticed in certain skulls 
exhumed by Dr. Thompson, expressed the belief that such condition 
was probably not due to pressure in burial. 

Colonel Seely said that from what we now know it is evident that 
the savage was far more than a straggler in the wilderness. The 
remains of various ritualistic systems suggests a more elaborate con- 
ception in such matters than is consistent with notions previously 
entertained concerning the savage state. As illustrating this line 
of inquiry Col. Seely read an extract from the Gippsland Mercury, 
for January, 1884, giving an account of certain aboriginal ceremonies 
witnessed by A. W. Howitt on the occasion of admission of the 
youths of the Kurnai tribe to the dignity of manhood. 

Eighty-Second Regular Meeting, April 15, 1884. 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 
The Curator reported the following gift: Final report of the 
Anthropometric Committee of the British Association. 
A vote of thanks was passed to the donors. 

Dr. J. M. Gregory read a paper on the "Elements of Modern 

Civilization is the supreme fact in sociology. It is the compre- 
hensive name of all that marks progress and well-being in society 
and states. It is also the highest criterion by which to test the 
value of social institutions. Whatever promotes civilization we 
pronounce good and useful ; whatever abases or destroys it is bad. 

What is civilization ? What are the essential elements of which 
it is composed, and by which it may be described? These are ques- 
tions which confront the student of sociology at the outset of his 


To answer these questions properly drives us to a deeper analysis; 
it raises the profounder question, Is civilization external or internal? 
Is it in the man, or in his surroundings? In the general way, most 
of us will admit that it is in the man — in man and in society. 

Settling down then upon the clear truth that civilization is essen- 
tially internal, that it is of the mental man, though working out- 
wardly into necessary forms and movements, another question starts 
up to confront us. This question is as to the proper method and 
direction of our search. Shall we call to our aid our own conscious 
experience, and look to find what there is in man that impels him 
to outward action; or shall we neglect the mental forces and direct 
our study to external facts to ascertain their character, classes, and 
connections ? 

If we decide to confine our quest to the material and visible facts 
of social life, shall it be to the present or the past; shall we grope 
among the fossil remains of a paleozoic sociology, or shall we seek 
to analzye the phenomena of a living sociology? 

No science can dispense with the study of the past, and all true 
students must acknowledge the usefulness as well as the curious in- 
terest which attaches to the discoveries of the archaeologist and pale- 
ontologist, but Herbert Spencer says "it is hopeless to trace back 
the external factors of social phenomena to anything like their first 

We may without debate accept the doctrine of an evolution in 
civilization. All history implies development, or evolution, if the 
term is preferred. It exhibits the emergence of the new out of the 
old, the complex from the simple, the tribe from the family, the 
nation from the tribe, the civilized from the savage. But the evo- 
lution of society is not, as some represent it, a mere physical or 
biotic evolution. It is anthropic, and more, it is spiritual and 
volitional. Human passions, intellections, and volitions must be 
admitted as evolving forces. 

The under estimate of the value of consciousness as a source of 
definite knowledge, and the over estimate of the value of the archaic 
and savage social forms are both serious mistakes of social science. 

History rises out of the physical and the mechanical, and becomes 
human only by the introduction of the human intelligence among 
its causes and forces ; and to refuse the aid of consciousness in the 
study and interpretation of history is to place it among the physical 


sciences of geology and astronomy, or at best to rank it with the 
biological studies of botany and geology. Some have already taken 
this ground, driven, as they afifirm, by the stern logic of observed 
facts. Sentient being appears to them as one of the phases of evo- 
lution of physical nature, and subject to the same laws as other 
physical phenomena. Such a theory may seem delightfully simple, 
but it is fearfully suicidal, since it hopelessly invalidates all the acts 
of thought and intelligence by which this or any other truth can 
be known. 

Doubtless sociology and civilization have their laws of evolution 
as potential if not also as clear as those of the physical sciences ; 
and these laws may be studied in the savage and archaic stages of 
society as well as in the more recent and more complex. Some- 
times a law will be seen even more clearly in the earlier and 
simpler stages of evolution ; but the higher evolution ordinarily in- 
volves forms and functions wholly unknown to the lower; and the 
complex modern civilization exhibits classes of phenomena of which 
the savage gives no hint or promise, or gives it only in so rudi- 
mental a form as to be unrecognizable, except in the light of fuller 

If now, we accept the conclusions that civilization is essentially 
internal, that its external phenomena are the necessary outcome of 
the nature of man and of society ; if we further agree that our study 
of civilization must begin with it as it exists, here and now ; if we 
accept as a guiding truth that there is nothing in the essential 
nature and attributes of man which does not find its expression in 
history, and that there is nothing essential in history which does not 
find its root and explanation in the nature of man, then our search 
for the elements of civilization narrows its field to a study of those 
common and universal principles, or instinctive activities, in the 
human being which work outwardly into the facts and usages of 
society, meeting and modified as they must be by environment ; or, 
to state the same thing objectively, it is to select, classify, and study 
all common universal social phenomena in the light of our conscious 
instincts, needs, and activities. In physics we ascend from effects 
to causes ; from phenomena to forces ; in sociology the cause is a 
conscious one and we may safely descend from force to phenomena. 

Our method being explained and defended, we march to results. 



The commonest fact of human consciousness is the existence of 
the vital wants, hunger, thirst, and the desire of proper warmth. 
These act as a steady force compelling men to the efforts to secure 
their gratification. Out of these powerful and persistent appetites, 
spring through the slow round of the ages, what we call the useful 
arts, the food-producing, the cloth or clothes-making and the build- 
ing arts ; and ancillary to these, the arts of the tool-maker and 
machinist, and of those who collect, prepare or transport materials 
for the others. As the satisfaction of these wants is the vital con- 
dition of human existence, so these arts are the broadest funda- 
mental element of external civilization. They uphold and help on 
all the others; and their advancement at once measures and pro- 
motes the social progress of which they are most prominent factors. 

The vital wants of mankind are at first merely animal, and are 
as simple as they are savage ; but they steadily multiply, diversify, 
and refine with every advance in man's intellectual and social de- 
velopment, till they mingle and interlock with all the higher desires 
and artistic tastes of civilized men. Keeping pace with these, the 
rude efforts, scarcely to be called arts, which supply the low needs 
of the wild man, divide and differentiate into all the innumerable 
industries of the highest sociologic condition. Thus the craving of 
a present hunger which drives the savage to the chase widens out 
into the prudent care for all future hungers, and the food-producing 
arts grow with the variations of soil and climate into the enormous 
reach of agricultural industries and the hundred commercial, manu- 
facturing, chemic, and cooking arts till farms, forests, orchards, 
gardens, and breeding waters, with mills, and manufactories, cover 
the continents with their costly array to satisfy the needs of civilized 

So also the shivering desire for shelter and clothing which the 
savage satisfies with the tanned skin of his game, and with the cave, 
hut, wigwam or tent, grows into that broad economy with builds 
houses, palaces, and cities, and evolves the great family of building 
arts which occupy and enrich so many thousands of mankind. 

But however vast and varied these useful arts they all look back 
to the vital wants as their source and spring ; and as these wants 
are persistent, and press always with resistless force, the resulting 
phenomena must constitute a universal and essential element in all 



Next the vital wants, as a sociologic force, may be counted the 
group of social instincts. The sexual appetite which perpetuates 
the race and furnishes the basis of the family, the most natural and 
most persistent form of social organization, stands foremost of these, 
but it does not stand alone. Working with it is the love of off- 
spring, and next to this comes that desire of companionship which 
we may call the social instinct proper. 

To the student of modern civilization it matters little by what 
long evolutions these instincts gathered their present form and force ; 
they impel men to live in communities and support the complex 
structure of society. Acting among men in the savage state, they 
gather them into tribes with scarcely more of organization than the 
cattle that feed in herds or the birds that fly in flocks. But develop- 
ing with the advance of mankind in intelligence, by a process simi- 
lar to that noticed in the useful arts, they finally produce highly organ- 
ized society and states, with all their array of social and political 
interests and institutions. 

The social instinct is strengthened as men find that society affords 
additional safety against enemies and widens the field of their arts 
and co-operations. Self-interest acts in the same direction as the 
social feeling and doubles its effects ; but we may doubt whether 
these selfish advantages of safety and profit sufficiently account for 
the existence and power of the social instinct. 

I have grouped together the three facts of the sexual, the paren- 
tal, and the proper social desires; but each of these gives also its 
own peculiar results in our civilization. Out of the sexual desire 
grow all marriage institutions, and as the human species seem natur- 
ally to associate in pairs, all abnormal institutions, like polygamy 
and polyandrya, must result not from natural instinct but from some 
necessities of savage society. The strong feeling in favor of the 
monogamous family shows that the native disposition of mankind 
is towards pairs and not towards herds. 

The sexual instinct would give simply a married pair; the off- 
spring instinct builds the permanent family. The love of offspring 
is a sort of extension of self-love — the widening and perpetuation 
of name and of personal power and possessions. It thus tends to 
the creation of aristocracies and dynasties. 

The social instinct added causes the family to become persistent 


and widens it out into the patriarchate and tribe — the earliest and 
simplest forms of political society. 

Victor Cousin puts the sense of justice as the foundation principle 
of the state; but justice is simply regulative, and serves only for 
the organization and maintenance of a society already existent. It 
builds a government to protect those whom the social instincts have 
drawn together. 


Next to the vital wants, proceeding in the natural order, should 
come, perhaps, the aesthetic tastes — the love of the beautiful and of 
whatever inspires the higher emotions. The universality of the ses- 
thetic feeling is proved by the fact that it is found in early childhood 
and among savages as well as among the mature and the civilized. 
Out of these tastes come the fine and decorative arts, sculpture, paint- 
ing, architecture, landscape gardening, music and poetry, and all 
the ornamentation of dress or abode, with the graceful forms and 
bright coloring which men give to the commonest implements of 
life. Public amusements, in nearly all their forms, are but an ap- 
peal to some aesthetic principle, and what are known as the refine- 
ments of civilization are but applications of the same principle. As 
an element of civilization it is constant and often commanding, 
giving its chief coloring to some of the most noted civilizations of 
the world. 


Advancing another step in our search we find in man, as a native 
instinct, the love of knowledge or love of truth. It is the intellec- 
tual appetite. It is shown in the tireless curiosity of childhood and 
savages, and in the universal tendency of mankind to seek the 
causes of phenomena. 

Out of this intellectual appetite springs another group of facts in 
civilization — such as science, philosophy, literature, education, and 
language itself. 

Whatever may have been the genesis of this power of thought, or 
the steps in its evolution, it is one of the largest forces in civilization, 
and it rises by a natural gravitation to the summit and dominates 
and directs all others. It is by the aid of his intelligence that man 
emerges from savagery, and achieves civilization. With the birth 
of science, all arts, useful and fine, and all institutions, social and 
political, take on new forms and rise to higher power? 



There remains in man another power or instinct which works o-ut 
historical results, and is one of the elementary forces in civilization. 
It is the religious nature or faculty — that power within which pushes 
man to a recognition and worship of the divine. Efforts have been 
made to find the origin of this feeling in man in the reverence for 
great men, or in the superstitious fear of the powers of nature ; but 
our inquiry is not with the origin of the faculty. We find it in its 
full grown state, and gathered around it we find the various institu- 
tions of religion, the schemes of faith and of morals, and coming 
from these, the most important and influential body of usages and 
opinions known to civilization. Whatever philosophers and men 
of science may think of this element in civilization, few have the au- 
dacity to propose its overthrow without an effort to replace it with 
some substitute which may give to society the moral support and 
regulation that religion affords. 

This enumeration of the elements of modern civilization is ex- 
haustive. Under one or another of these five fundamental facts 
all constant phenomena of civilization may be classed. In no civ- 
ilization are they absent, though they enter into different civilizations 
not only in different forms but also in different degrees of strength 
and domination. 

Some of the results of these five primal factors become in time 
prominent forces or factors in civilization. Thus the wealth which 
comes from the arts becomes in turn a great economic power ; and 
the governments which arise out of the social needs end by becom- 
ing social forces of enormous strength. So to the external influences 
which press upon social growths — the physical environments and the 
political distributions and organizations to which they give rise, may 
easily be taken for new and independent factors, they are at most 
only secondary and modifying forces and not true original elements, 
at least in the restricted study of civilization as it presents itself in 
historic time. 


Mr. Ward remarked that he had long ago felt the need of a fresh 
method for the study of social science. The current method 
dealt with the facts objectively considered, whereas a truly scientific 
method must discover and recognize the forces by which social 


phenomena are operated, just as all true physical science concerns 
itself with physical forces. Perceiving this, he had recognized in 
the physical desires of the human body the true social forces, and 
he had formulated the distinction between the true scientific method 
and that which is commonly pursued as the distinction between the 
study of society from the standpoint of feeling and its study from 
the standpoint of function. The current method of studying social 
science was to study the acts themselves which the desires prompt 
and their functional consequences; whereas the new and true method 
would study only the desires themselves as social forces and the di- 
rect results "accomplished by the individuals thus actuated for the 
attainment of their satisfaction. The distinction is fundamental — 
the former method being properly designated as the statical, the 
latter as the dynamic method. 

Mr. Ward had drawn up a system of classification of the social 
forces according to the dynamic method which he presented, with 
suitable explanatory remarks, to the Anthropological Section of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science at its Boston 
meeting in 1880, only a brief abstract of which was then published.* 
The system thus sketched was more fully elaborated and in this 
form was presented to this Society in a paper read on May 2, and 
May 16, 1882, and illustrated by charts prepared by Dr. Frank 
Baker. "I" As it was then about to be published in permanent form 
it was not thought advisable to repeat it in the transactions of the 

Mr. Ward placed on the blackboard the outline of his classifi- 
cation of the social forces and showed that it coincided, with some 
slight exceptions, entirely with that which Prof. Gregory had pre- 

Eighty-Third Regular Meeting, May 6, 1884. 
Dr. Robert Fletcher, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

* Feeling and Function as Factors in Human Development. " Boston Adver- 
tiser," Sept. I, 1880, p. I ; Tlie same more in detail with table of classification. 
"Science," Oct. 23, 1880, p. 210. 

f Transactions of the Anthropological Society of Washington, Vol. II, pp. 11, 

+ See " Dynamic Sociology," New York, 1883, chapters VII and VIII. 


Rev. J. Owen Dorsey read a paper entitled, " Migrations of 
THE SiouAN Tribes."* 


Mr. Dorsey gave a classification of the Siouan tribes, including 
he Sioux proper, Assiniboin, Ponka, Omaha, Osages, Kansas, 
lowas, Otos, Missouris, Winnebagoes, Mandans, Minntarees, Crows, 
and Tutelos. The general impression seems to have been that this 
stock moved from the northwest. Mr. Dorsey took an opposing 
view and traced the tribes from the southeast, up the streams, and 
from the region of the lakes westward. 


Major Powell said that investigations like that of Mr. Dorsey 
were very valuable — serving to dispel popular myths as to the great 
number of tribes, and locating ancient villages so that the archaeo- 
logical material could be saved. 

Prof. Mason said that he had commenced to work out a synonymy 
of all the tribes of North America, four years ago, under the patron- 
age of Major Powell. Since then many others had participated in 
the work, and the whole body of American literature had been ran- 
sacked. It was quite possible that many tribal names and references 
have been overlooked. The members of the society, therefore, 
would confer a great favor by calling attention to such things 
occurring in out of the way places. 

Dr. E. M. Gallaudet read a paper on " International Ethics." 

There were in existence in Europe several societies whose object 
is to discuss the subject of international relations. The speaker 
took the ground that the proper basis of these relations should be 
ethical rather than legal. The law term for jus gentium was ob- 
jected to and the phrase international rights or international ethics 
suggested. While nations would not listen to absolute commands 
of law, they have ever shown some willingness to listen to ethical 
arguments on the justification of their foulest acts by appealing to 
the verdict of humanity as to the justice of their cause. If publicists 
should insist that no act of nations should be justified that are not 
right between individuals, the subject of international law would be 

* Printed in American Naturalist. V'ol. xix. 


settled on a firm basis, and Mirabeau's words, " Le droit est le sou- 
verain du monde," would become a fact. The substitution of arbi- 
tration for war would advance the reign of right, relieve the bur- 
dens of taxation, make commerce free, and establish a brotherhood 
of nations. 


Major Powell referred to the origin of the term '^jiis gentiufn,'' 
and pointed out the fact that it meant the law found among all 
nations, rather then international law. While law and rights are 
nearly synonymous, the history of law developes the difficulty 
attending the determination of what is right. When that is so found 
by the majority it then finds expression in law. As the people in a 
nation find it difficult to ascertain what is justice, so the same 
obstacle is met in determining international rights. Referring to 
certain publicists who sought to control the disposition of property 
pending wars, he said that it was apparent that mankind was 
becoming more belligerent, and that wars were more destructive of 
life and property than formerly, 

The result, however, of all this was to lessen the number of 
nations, and with fewer nations, organization with a view to per- 
manent peace became more probable. 

Mr. Otis Bigelow called attention to an extract taken from 
" Heber's Travels in India," (vol. 2, p. 28,) as follows: 

" The Braijarrees, or carriers of grain, a singular wandering race 
who pass their whole time in transporting grain from one part of 
India to the other — seldom on their own account but as agents for 
more wealthy dealers. They move about in large bodies with their 
wives and children, dogs and loaded bullocks. The men are all 
armed as a protection against petty thieves. From the sovereign 
and armies of Hindustan they have no apprehensions. Even con- 
tending armies allow them to pass and repass safely, never taking 
their goods without purchase or even preventing them if they choose 
from victualling their enemy's camp. Both sides wisely agree to 
respect and encourage a branch of industry, the interruption of 
which might be attended with fatal consequence to either." 


Eighty-Fourth Regular Meeting, May 20, 1884. 

Dr. Robert Fletcher, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Curator acknowledged the receipt of a series of photographs 
from Prince Roland Bonaparte, for which the thanks of the Society 
were voted. 

Dr. Swan M. Burnett read a paper on "Comparative Fre- 
quency OF Certain Eye Diseases in the White and the Colored 
Race in the United States." 


Dr. Burnett related briefly the history of the manner in which 
the colored race was suddenly transported from its old to its new 
environment. Now, physicians have been earnest in the inquiry 
how much this race has been affected by contact with the superior 
race. Dr. Burnett himself has made extensive researches on this 
question at the eye and ear dispensary, and his address was a repe- 
tition of his experience, 2,341 cases having been examined^i,530 
colored, 1,811 white. The statistics covered inquiries concerning 
constitutional diseases of the eye, as well as defects in the optical 
instrument itself. The most marked race difference is in the en- 
tire absence of granular lids in the blacks, while it forms quite a 
large per cent, of eye disease among the whites. In healing power 
the races are alike. 

Dr. Elmer Reynolds read a paper on a " Collection of 
Antiquities from Vendome, Senlis, and the Cave-Dwellings 
of France." 

Dr. Reynolds exhibited a beautiful collection of stone imple- 
ments sent to him by correspondents in France, and his paper was 
a narration of his story, reaching through the archseolithic, the 
neolithic, and the bronze age. The objects were sent by the Count 
de Maricourt and his brother, the Baron de Maricourt, as types of 
all the characteristic stone implements in France. Dr. Reynolds 
reviewed the collection in the light of his own experiences, and 
showed the method of manufacture and the uses of each. 


Mr. William H. Holmes read the following paper on 

"Evidences of the Antiquity of Man on the Site of the 
City of Mexico." 

Aboriginal art in Mexico seems, in a great measure, to have de- 
veloped and flourished within her own borders, and the story of her 
culture is, therefore, quite fully recorded in the superficial deposits of 
the country. The volcanic and lacustrine formations of the elevated 
valleys and the rich soil of the Tierra Caliente teem with relics of 
many human periodSj and the whole surface of the land is dotted 
with the ruins of temples and cities. Up to this time the efforts of 
investigators have been confined to the exploration of points of 
popular interest and in touching, somewhat superficially, upon the 
more glittering problems. Little attention has been given to classi- 
fying and describing the multitude of minor relics. The ceramic 
art, which was phenomenally developed, has received scarcely more 
than a passing notice. It is this condition of affairs that affords 
me an opportunity of presenting this paper, based as it is, upon a 
brief study of the contents of the soil within the limits of the City 
of Mexico. 

Incomplete as my observations were, they afforded me a most 
welcome opportunity of beginning the study of the ceramic art of 
Mexico from the standpoint of actual observation of relics in place. 
Superb as are the collections within the Mexican Museum, their 
study is rendered extremely unsatisfactory by the absence of detailed 
information in regard to their origin and chronology. Fortunately 
the section of deposits here presented reads with the readiness of 
an open book, giving not only the proper sequence to its own trea- 
sures, but, I doubt not, making clear the relative position of many 
other relics that would, otherwise, go unclaimed and unclassified. 

The site of the capital of the Montezumas is naturally a great re- 
pository of the ceramic remains of the pre-Columbian peoples. 
One has but to wander into almost any of the suburban villages, 
wherever excavations are going on, to witness the exhumation of 
multitudes of fragmentary utensils, many of which have been a 
second and a third time thrown up and rebuilt into the edifices and 
defences of successive cities. 

During the spring of 1884 I spent a few weeks at the Central 
Railway station, which is located in the outskirts of the city. The 
old walls and fortifications of the city, dating back perhaps to early 


Spanish times, lie just outside of the inclosure of the station, and 
the road has been cut through these leveled works, and through the 
accumulated refuse of a small suburban village, now represented by 
a dilapidated church and a few adobe hovels. 

The section exposed by the railway cuttings exhibits a curious 
agglomeration of the deposits of all past human periods. The re- 
mains of previous times and peoples — pottery, stone, and skeletons — 
have recently been redistributed by the greatest of all innovators, 
the spade of the Yankee. To those, therefore, who halt only to 
examine the deposits along the immediate line of the railway there 
is nothing visible but utter confusion, although a glance is sufficient 
to show that, in every spadeful, there is evidence of many widely 
separated stages of art. 

Just west of the line, however, and apparently outside of the old 
line of circumvallation is an area — an acre, more or less — on Avhich 
an extensive manufactory of adobe bricks has been established. 
Here excavations have been made exposing the heretofore undis- 
turbed accumulations of past ages to the depth often of eight or 
ten feet. 

The general surface of this area is perhaps from three to four feet 
below the broad masses of ancient ramparts, and is, at the same 
time, perceptibly elevated above the level of the lacustrine plain 
about it. It has been stated by a recent writer, that there is proba- 
bly no spot remaining about the city of Mexico that shows a trace 
of pre-Spanish structures, but I am convinced that here we have 
such a spot. The surface is humpy and uneven, the result probably 
of comparatively recent ditch-digging or house-building ; but there 
is a gentle arching of the whole area which, taken in connection 
with the fact that the entire mass is composed very greatly of rem- 
nants of aboriginal art, seems to warrant my conclusion. Across 
one side of this area the old Spanish walls were built and the adobe 
diggers are now encroaching upon the other. So full is the soil of 
relics, chiefly of pottery, that the workmen are greatly embarrassed 
in their labors, even to the depth of many feet, and by the side of 
each pit is a great heap, composed of fragments too large to be 
worked into the brick. In one place a section is exposed in a con- 
tinuous vertical wall nearly a hundred feet long and more than 
eight feet deep. The upper part bears evidence of more or less 
disturbance, but the greater part of the exposed deposits have re- 
mained absolutely undisturbed since the day of their deposition. 



This is made apparent by the very distinctly stratified character of 
the soil, which consists of dark loam with more or less sand, im- 
purities, and broken relics. 

It is difficult to say to what extent the stratification is aqueous, 
or to what extent" the result of periods of unequal artificial accumu- 
lation. The fact that the base of the exposed section is several 
feet lower than the present surface of the lake, suggests the possi- 
bility that its waters actually washed the walls of the ancient settle- 
ment. The level of the lake has, during historic times, undergone 
such diverse changes that it cannot be surmised what was its condi- 
tion at any particular period of the remote past. 

The accompanying section, figure i, although representing but a 
small part of the horizontal exposure, shows all the important fea- 
tures in their proper relations to one another. It is the result of a 
number of visits to the spot, most of which were made with the 
purpose of assuring myself of the accuracy of preceding observa- 
tions. The deposits of fragmentary pottery reach to the base of the 

Fig. I. — Section showing two periods of occupation. 

section, and are so arranged as to show beyond a doubt, that they 
accumulated with the soil and are not subsequent intrusions. This 
is apparent, not only from their deposition in more or less contin- 
uous horizontal layers, as shown in the section, but from the identi- 
cal character of fragments occurring at corresponding depths. 

The prevailing type of ware, throughout the lower part of the 
section, is very archaic and is to all appearences quite distinct from 
the handsome pottery characteristic of the upper half of the section. 

It was simple in form and rude in finish and little superior in any 
respect to the rudest products of the wild Indians of North America. 
At the base the fragments are small and much decayed; higher, they 


are larger and better preserved, although I was unable to secure a 
complete, unbroken vessel. 

The only form that came to my notice, although thousands of 
pieces were examined, is a kind of deep cup or bowl, not unlike 
our common flower pot, and having a flattish bottom and an ex- 
tremely uneven and ragged rim. In all cases the exterior surface 
is covered with impressions of coarse woven fabrics, the single indi- 
cation of advance toward better finish being a slight polishing of 
the interior surface, which was accomplished with a smooth imple- 
ment, such as a pebble or shell. Where well preserved, the paste 
is generally hard and fine grained, but shows in all cases a rather 
rough granular fracture. The character of the tempering material 
cannot be made out, but, in a number of cases, the texture indicates 
the former presence of fibrous particles like finely pulverized grass, 
leaves, or straw. The surface is of a pale, yellowish red or terra 
cotta color, the result of the baking, while the interior of the mass is 
generally a dark gray. 

In Fig. 2, I present an example of this pottery which is restored 
from fragments. These did not come from the wall of the section, 
but from a pit, a short distance away, where the pieces were larger 

Fig. 2. — Vessel of the most primitive style. 

and better preserved. In this example the rim is thick and slightly 
enlarged as if squeezed over the edge of a basket used as a mold. In 
most cases no attempt has been made to render the edge even or 
smooth, and the finger marks and the irregular partings of the mar- 
gin, which came from squeezing the clay into or over molds and 
expanding the edges to secure greater size, are all visible. 

It is difficult to find a well preserved and clearly defined impres- 


sion of the fabric employed in the manufacture of these vessels. 
The clay was probably not of a character to take a clear impression 
and the cloth was apparently of a ragged, irregular kind. The 
mesh was open and the thread coarse and slightly twisted. The 
finer .specimens show about eight intersections to the inch and the 
coarser probably six. In some cases one series of threads seem to 
have been large and the other small. These fabrics were applied to 
the entire exterior surface of the vessel, but not with much regu- 
larity. They may have served to facilitate the handling of the ware 
while in a plastic state. 

This pottery is distributed in horizontal layers throughout a ver- 
tical series more than six feet in thickness, and represents an early 
epoch of the art of Anahuac. 

In the upper portion of the lower group of beds we encounter 
two other varieties of ware. These may have been developed from 
the rude form in the natural course of progress but there are few 
indications of this growth here. They are much more nearly allied 
to the later than to the earlier stages of the art of the section. The 
transition is very abrupt. 

As a matter of course I can only present this order of occurrence 
as characteristic of this locality and of this section. There may be 
very different combinations in other places, but the order of sequence 
here indicated is, in the light of history, very suggestive. If the 
Aztecs, as tradition has it, were the first to settle on this margin of 
the swampy shore of the lake, then this cord-marked ware is the 
product of their ea? liest or savage period, and the finer wares occur- 
ing at first so sparingly indicate trade with the more advanced 
peoples of neighboring settlements. 

The variety of ware second to appear in the ascending scale is 
represented by fragments of large, round-bodied, symmetrical pots 
or casks, with gently constricted necks and thick rounded recurving 
rims. The paste is generally reddish upon the surface and gray in 
the mass, and there is a large percentage of silicious tempering 
material. The surface, exterior and interior, is painted a dark 
brownish red and has been evenly polished. Average specimens 
have been, perhaps, ten inches in diameter and a foot or more in 
height. The walls are always very thick. Fig. 3, is drawn from 
fragments sufficiently large to indicate the whole shape clearly. 
Pottery like this is found imbedded in the adobe bricks of the pyra- 


mid of Cholula, and is common in the ancient graves of Costa Rica 
and New Granada. Large vases recently brought from the province 
of Chiriqui are identical with these in every respect. 

Fig. 3. — Eartliern vessel from the lower series of deposits. 

Associated with this ware and beginning apparently a little higher 
in the section, we find the remains of the third variety. The ves- 
sels are mostly cup-shaped. They are well made, are simple in 
treatment, and exhibit a fair degree of symmetry. The prevailing 
color is a light yellowish terra-cotta tending toward orange. The 
surfaces are moderately well polished but rarely show attempts at 
ornamentation. The forms are repeated in the more elaborate 
wares that succeed it. This ware is identical in most respects with 
much of that found in the adobe mass of the pyramids of San Juan 
Teotihuacan, Texcoco, and Cholula, and upon the slopes of the hill 
of Texcocingo. It is, apparently, the forerunner of some of the 
more elegant wares of the surface deposits of the section. In 
the upper part of the lower series of deposits this ware predom- 
inates greatly over both the heavy ware and the archaic pottery 
already described. By reference to the section it will be seen 
that the surface of the lower series of beds has been much dis- 
turbed by the more recent occupants of the site at the beginning of 
the second epoch. Excavations have been made and afterwards 
filled up with gradually accumulating refuse, so that a series of im- 
perfect stratified deposits has been spread over all, at first following 
the curves of the disturbed surface. There is, however, no very 


well defined line of separation between the older and newer forma- 
tions. The distinction is rendered much clearer by the contents 
of the soil. There are occasional layers of stone and adobe bricks, 
representing the foundations of houses, as seen in the section. 
There are great quantities of fragmentary pottery, among which I 
find many of the artistic shapes and rich decorations characteristic 
of the surface deposits of Anahuac. Included I find also fragments 
of the two varieties last described. There are occasional stone im- 
plements and great quantities of obsidian knives, hundreds of which 
are as perfect as when first struck from the core. These are char- 
acteristic of the later Aztec period. Near the surface there are 
fragments of glazed ware indicating Spanish influence. It is not 
unusual to see in the shallow ditches of the suburban villages, frag- 
ments of vessels of aboriginal form and decoration, covered with 
Spanish glaze. Indeed such vessels can be seen in use by the Indians 
of to-day and are exposed for sale in the modern markets. 

The pottery of the upper division of the section presents great 
variety of form and Ornamentation, but in material and treatment it 
is extremely uniform. The paste is compact and heavy, and has a 
moderately even, finely granular fracture. In rare cases the fracture 
is smooth or conchoidal. The more common wares are lighter and 
more porous than those of finer finish. The whole mass is often of 
a pale brick-red color, the baking having been thorough ; but more 
frequently the interior is of a dark blue gray, indicating imperfect 
firing. The paste is generally hard and the ware has in' many cases 
a sonorous or metallic ring. The walls vary in thickness with the 
individual vessel. The tempering when distinguishable is always 

The method of finishing the surface is quite uniform although 
carried to very different degrees of perfection. Occasionally we 
find a piece without polish ; and figurines and elaborately modeled 
forms are generally quite plain. As a rule the vessels have been 
very carefully polished. In many examples the markings of the 
polishing implement are distinctly visible j indeed this is true of 
the unimportant parts of the majority of vessels of the most perfect 
finish. The polish of the finer examples is so perfect that it is diffi- 
cult to believe it the result of purely mechanical processes. The pol- 
ishing has generally been done after the application of the color 
and color-designs, but sometimes before. Unpolished surfaces show 
impressions of the potter's fingers. 


There are no indications of the use of a wheel. The vessels are 
seldom absolutely true in outline, but in a general way are remark- 
able for symmetry and grace. The colors employed in finishing and 
decorating are pleasing and often extremely rich. The reds predom- 
inate, the whole surface of the simple forms being frequently finished 
with it. Upon this the designs are painted in black, white, and 
different tones of red. In the more common utensils the figures are 
drawn, often carelessly, upon the plain untinted surface. The brush 
has been handled with freedom and the designs are often quite elabo- 
rate. Occasionally we find incised figures and stamped patterns. 

The various shapes of vessels obtained at this locality may be 
classified under a few heads. 

First, there are many cups and bowls ranging from a few inches 
to a foot in diameter, and generally quite shallow. The bottoms 
are usually flat and the walls expand regularly to the rim. Two 
examples varying from the rule are given in Figs. 4 and 5. Fig. 4 


Fig. 4. — Vessel from tlie upper deposits. 

shows a slightly polished, unpainted pan of dark, ochreous tint, 
with upright sides and flat bottom. The base, outside, is slightly 
convex next the circumference and concave at the center. It is 

Fig. 5. — Vessel from tlie upper deposits. 

eight inches in diameter. Fig. 5 illustrates a deep cup of similar 
color and finish ; a painted design consisting of parallel encircling 



lines occupies the exterior surface of the rim. The form is an un- 
usual one in Mexico. 

Most of the vessels obtained from the upper stratum are neatly 
finished and tastefully decorated. Some are polished like a mirror 
over the entire surface, exterior and interior. A favorite form is 
that of a shallow flat-bottomed cup of moderate size, Fig. 6. The 
designs are greatly varied and are painted in black or in black and 
white. The white pigment has been applied subsequently to the 

Fig. 6. — Vessel with figures in white upon a red ground, in U. S. National 


polishing of the surface and can be removed with ease. Vessels of 
this and similar forms are often furnished with tripod supports. 
One example of the latter variety is given in Fig. 7. The bowls 
are often very shallow. The designs are simple and occupy the in- 

FlG. 7. — Tripod dish with designs in black. 

terior surface. A curious device is shown in Fig. 8. The interior 
surface of the bottom is scoriated with deeply incised reticulated 
lines, a device probably intended for the grating of food or spices and 
one still employed by the present inhabitants. A few examples of 
this general class of ware show stamped decoration. In its manu- 
facture molds were probably used in which intaglio designs had 



been executed. Some fragments of cups exhibit figures formed of 
minute hemispherical nodes. They are further embellished by the 

Fig. 8. — Tripod dish with scoriated bottom 

addition of sharp conical nodes about the rim. A remarkable feature 
of these cups is the occurrence of groups of triangular perforations, 
cut with a sharp tool, and so arranged as to resemble a Maltese 
cross. These perforations are placed so low on the body as to 
make the vessel unfit for containing liquids. In the museum of 
Mexico there are a few examples extensively perforated, leaving 
about the middle zone of the body only a sort of lattice work of the 
original walls. The same style of work is elaborately practiced by , 
Oriental peoples. 

One large class of vessels resemble an hour-glass in shape. They 
are really double cups, one end being usually smaller than the other 
and serving as a foot, but both cups are equally well finished. The 
exterior surface is highly polished and colored a deep red, and 
painted with designs in black and white. The fragments are large 
and very numerous. Fig. 9 illustrates the prevailing form. The 

Fig. 9. Cup with designs in black and wliite upon a red ground, in Mexican 

National Museum. 



diameter ranges from three to six inches or more. Some of the 
most beautiful vessels in the Museum are of this general shape. 

It is but rarely that one comes upon fragments of the richly 
colored and highly finished wares characteristictic of the regions of 
Cholula and of the South. I was fortunate in securing a few small 
pieces. Two of these are shown in Figs. lo and ii. Their rarity 

Fig. io. — Meander design painted in rich colors. 

makes it probable that they came to this spot by trade. The first 
shows a fine strong treatment of the fret and the other of the scroll. 

Scroll ornament painted in rich colors. 

These forms are characteristic of the best period of art in both 
North and South America. The chief charm of this ware is its rich 
color — an orange ground with figures in red and black, the whole 
surface being polished like glass. 

I found no specimen exhibiting delicate green and pink decora- 
tions such as may be seen at San Juan Teotiahuacan, and such 
as are seen on some of the most beautiful vases in the Mexican 

In the upper series of deposits indicated in the section, I found 
a fragment of a very remarkable form of vase. It is represented by 
a number of examples in the Mexican Museum, one of which is 



shown in Fig. 12. It has been called a brasier and a censer, and 
is thought to have been employed in religious ceremonies, but its 

Fig. 12. — Ceremonial vase, in Mexican National Museum. 

true use is probably unknown. The shape is, however, suggestive 
of some especial ceremonial office. It resembles a short, upright 
cylinder, encircled midway by a groove. There are two massive, 
horizontally-looped handles attached to the sides a little below the 
middle. The bowl is rather shallow. The lower third of the vessel 
consists of a hollow foot resembling the bowl above, but open at 
the sides beneath the handles. The conformation is such that a 
heavy cord could be passed through the handles and across the 
doubly cloven foot for suspension as a swinging censer. The ex- 
posed surfaces are usually highly polished and the colors embrace 
black and many rich tones of red. 

It should be noted that no traces were found of the dark, highly 
ornate pottery so often seen in modern times and so frequently 
brought away by tourists. This ware may have a legitimate place 
in Aztec art, but does not occur among the ancient productions in 
any locality visited by me. It is absolutely certain that all the speci- 
mens now seen in the shops of Mexico and offered for sale by hawk- 
ers on the streets and at the stations — especially at San Juan — are 
modern products. They are, however, wonderfully well executed, 
and the appearance of antiquity given them is truly remarkable. 


I have, from the pits at the railway station, a number of miscel- 
laneous articles in clay, bits of images of men and animals, whistles, 
spindle-whorls, and the like. A portion of a curious head found is 
duplicated in a pipe preserved in the Museum and represented in 

Fig. 13. — Pipe with grotesque heads on the bowl, in the Mexican National 


Fig. 13. The whistles are generally of a very simple kind, and the 
spindle- whorls are not different from those of other parts of iVnahuac. 

In conclusion, I may recall in a very few words some of the more 
striking features of this section, calling attention to the order of 
events suggested by them. 

It may be affirmed with certainty that the site of the City of 
Mexico was at one time occupied 'by a people in a very primitive 
stage of art, the remains of which art, so far as found, include nothing 
but fragments of an extremely rude pottery. There are no traces ot 
tools and no indications of houses. This period of occupancy was a 
very long one, as it permitted the accumulation in nearly horizontal 
layers of at least eight feet of finely comminuted refuse. 

It is further seen that far along in this period of occupancy new 
forms of art appeared that do not look like the work of the proper 
occupants of the site produced by gradual improvement, but rather 
like intrusive products acquired by exchange or otherwise from 
more cultured tribes. Again, at the end of this first period there is 
a horizon, pretty well marked, above which primitive forms of art 
do not appear. 

Near the base of the deposits of the second period foundations 
of houses are discovered in which rubble, squared stones, and adobe 
bricks have been used. In this part of the section we find stone 
implements and ceramic products of a very high order of merit. 
With these, and especially near the surface, there is a layer abound- 
ing in obsidian implements. This marks the last and culminating 
stage of Aztec art, ending in the historic period proper. 


Speculation upon the period of time represented by this section 
would be useless, and an attempt to correlate the events recorded 
with those shadowed forth in tradition would be equally vain. The 
earliest period is probably beyond the ken of tradition, and the last 
marks the historic period of Aztec occupation. 

Special Session, October ii, 1884. 

In accordance with a call of the Council, the Society met in special 
session at Columbian University Hall, for the purpose of listening 
to an address from Prof. E. B. Tvlor, of Oxford University, Eng- 

Through invitation extended by. order of the council there were 
also present members of the Philosophical and Biological Societies, 
of the Cosmos Club, as well as officers, professors and students of 
Columbian University. 

The Society was called to order by President Powell, who in a 
few words introduced the speaker, who delivered the following ad- 
dress on — 


I have seldom, ladies and gentlemen, felt myself in a more diffi- 
cult position than I do at this moment. Yesterday morning, when 
we returned from an expedition out into the far west— an expedition 
which your President was to have joined, but which, to our, great 
regret, he was obliged to give up— I heard that at this meeting of 
the Anthropological Society of Washington I should be called upon 
to make, not merely a five-minutes' speech, but a subtantial address; 
and since that time my mind has been almost entirely full of the 
new things that I have been seeing and hearing in the domain of 
anthropology in this city. I have been seeing the working of that 
unexampled institution, the Bureau of Ethnology, and studying the 
collections which, in connection with the Smithsonian Institution, 
have been brought in from the most distant quarters of the conti- 
nent ; and, after that, in odd moments, I have turned it over in my 
mind, what can I possibly say to the Anthropological Society when 


I am called upon to face them at thirty-six hours' notice? I will 
not apologize; I will do the best I can. 

I quite understand that Major Powell, who is a man who gener- 
ally has a good reason for everything that he does, had a good 
reason for desiring that an anthropologist from England should say 
something as to the present state of the new and growing science 
in England as compared with its condition in America — for believ- 
ing that some communication would be acceptable between the old 
country and the new upon a subject where the inhabitants of both 
have so much interest in common, and can render to one another 
so much service in the direction of their work. And therefore I 
take it that I am to say before you this evening, without elaborate 
oratory and without even carefql language, how the problems of 
American anthropology present themselves to the English mind. 

Now, one of the things that Ixis struck me most in America, from 
the anthropological point of view, is a certain element of old- 
fashionedness. I mean old-fashionedness in the strictest sense of 
the word — an old-fashionedness which goes back to the time of the 
colonization of America. Since the Stuart time, though America, 
on the whole, has become a country of most rapid progress in 
development, as compared with other districts of the world, there 
has prevailed in certain parts of it a conservatism of even an intense 
character. In districts of the older States, away from the centres 
of population, things that are old-fashioned to modern Europe 
have held their own with a tenacity' somewhat surprising. If I 
ever become possessed of a spinning-wheel, an article of furniture 
now scarce in England, I can hardly get a specimen better than 
in Pennsylvania, where " my great-grandmother's spining-wheel" is 
shown — standing, perhaps, in the lumber-room, perhaps in an or- 
namental place in the drawing-room — oftener than in any other 
country that I ever visitied. 

In another respect Pennsylvania has shown itself to me fruitful of 
old-fashioned products. I was brought up among the Quakers — 
like so many, I dare say, who are present ; for the number of times 
in the week, or even in the day in which it occurs that those whom 
one meets prove to be at least of Quaker descent, represents a pro- 
portion which must be highly pleasant to the Quaker mind. In 
the history of the Society of the Friends there has recently come 
out a fact unknown, especially to the Friends themselves. Their 
opinion has always been that they came into existence in the neigh- 


borhood of 1600, by spontaneous generation, in an outburst of 
spiritual development in England. It has now been shown, especi- 
ally by the researches of Robert Barclay (not the old controversialist, 
but a modern historian,) that the Quakers were by no means the 
absolutely independent creation that they and others had supposed 
them to be ; that they were derived from earlier existing denomina- 
tions by a process which is strictly that of development. Their 
especial ancestors, so to speak, Avere a division of the early Dutch 
sect known as Mennonites. The Friends have undergone much 
modification as to theological doctrine ; but some of their most pro- 
nounced characteristics, such as the objection to war an oaths, and 
even details of costume, and the silent grace before meals, remain 
as proofs of Mennonite derivation. To find the Mennonites least 
changed from their original condition is now less easy in their old- 
homes in Europe than in their adopted homes in the United States 
and Canada, whither they have migrated from time to time up till 
quite recently in order to avoid being compelled to serve as soldiers. 
They have long been a large and prosperous body back in Pennsyl- 
vania. I went to see them; and they are a very striking instance 
of permanency of institutions, where an institution or a state of 
society can get into prosperous conditions in a secluded place, cut 
off from easy access of the world. Among them are those who dis- 
sent from modern alteration and changes by a fixed and unalterable 
resolution that they will not wear buttons, but will fasten their coats 
with hooks and eyes, as their forefathers did. And in this way 
they show with what tenacity custom holds when it has become 
matter of scrupple and religious sanction. Others have conformed 
more and more to the world ; and most of these whom I have seen 
"were gradually conforming \n their dress and habits, and showing 
symptons of melting into the general population. But, in the mean 
time, America does offer the spectacle of a phase of religious life, 
which, though dwindling away in the old world region where it 
arose, is quite well preserved in this newer country, for the edifica- 
tion of students of culture. These people, who show such plain 
traces of connection with the historical Anabaptists that they may 
be taken as their living representatives, still commemorate in their 
hymns their martyrs who fell in Switzerland for the Anabaptist faith. 
There was given me only a few days ago a copy of an old, scarce 
hymn-book, anterior to 1600, but still in use, in which is a hymn 
commemorative of the martyr Haslibach, beheaded for refusing to 


conform to the state religion, whose head laughed when it was cut off. 

Now, to find thus, in a secluded district, an old state of society 
resisting for a time the modifying influences which have already 
changed the world around, is no exceptional state of things. It 
shows the very processes of resisted but eventually prevailing altera- 
tion which anthropologists have to study over larger regions of 
space and time in the general development of the world. In visit- 
ing my Mennonite friends in Pennsylvania, I sometimes noticed 
that while they thought it nothing strange that I should come to 
study them and their history, yet when I was asked where I was 
going next, and confessed with some modesty that I was going with 
Major Powell to the far west to see the Zunis, this confession on my 
part was received with a look of amazement, not quite unmingled 
with kindly reproof; it seemed so strange to my friends that any 
person travelling about of his own will should deliberately go to 
look at Indians. I found it hard to refrain from pointing out that, 
after all, there is a community of purpose between studies of the 
course of civilization whether carried out among the colonists of 
Pennsylvania or among the Indians of New Mexico. Investigation 
of the lower races is made more obscure and difficult through the 
absence of the guidance of written history, but the principle is the 

A glance at the tribes whom Professor Mosely and I have seen in 
the far west during the last few weeks has shown one or two results 
which may be worth stating; and one, merely parenthetical, I 
think I must take leave to mention, though ir, lies outside the main 
current of my subject. 

Our look at North American Indians, of whom it has been my 
lot to write a good deal upon second-hand evidence, had, I am 
glad to say, a very encouraging effect ; because it showed that on 
the whole much of the writings of old travelers and missionaries 
have to be criticised, yet if, when carefully compared, they agree in 
a statement, personal inspection will generally verify that statement. 
One result of our visit has been, not a diminution, but an increase 
of the confidence with which both of us in future will receive the 
statements of travelers among the Indians, allowing for their often 
being based upon superficial observation. So long as we confine 
ourselves to things which the traveler says he saw and heard, we 
are, I believe, upon very solid ground. 

To turn to our actual experiences. The things that one sees 


among the Indian tribes who have not become so< "white ' as the 
Algonkins and the Iroquois, but who present a more genuine picture 
of old American life, do often, and in the most vivid way, present 
traces of the same phenomena with which one is so familiar in old- 
world life. Imagine us sitting in a house just inside California, 
engaged in what appeared to be a fruitless endeavor on the part 
of Professor Mosely to obtain a lock of hair of a Mojave to add 
to liis collection. The man objected utterly. He shook his head. 
When pressed, he gesticulated and talked. No ; if he gave up that 
bit of hair, he would become deaf, dumb, grow mad ; and, when the 
medicine man came to drive away the malady, it would be of no 
use, he would have to die. Now, all this represents a perfectly old- 
world group of ideas. If you tried to get a lock of hair in Italy 
or Spain, you might be met with precisely the same resistance; and 
you would find that the reason would be absolutely the same as that 
which the Mojave expressed, — that by means of that lock of hair 
one can be bewitched, the consequence being disease. And within 
the civilized world the old philosophy which accounts for disease in 
general as the intrusion of a malignant spirit still largely remains ; 
and the exorcising such a demon is practised by white men as a re- 
ligious rite, even including the act of exsufiflating it, or blowing it 
away, which our Mojave Indian illustrated by the gesture of blow- 
ing away an imaginary spirit, and which is well known as forming 
a part of the religious rites of both the Greek and Roman church. 
How is it that such correspondence with old-world ceremonies 
should be found among a tribe like the Mojaves, apparently Mongo- 
lian people, though separated geographically from the Mongolians 
of Asia? Why does the civilization, the general state of culture, of 
the world, present throughout the whole range, in time and space, 
phenomena so wonderfully similar and uniform ? This question is 
easy to ask; but it is the question which, in a few words, presents 
the problem which, to all anthropologists who occupy themselves 
with the history of culture, is a problem full of the most extreme 
difficulty, upon which they will have for years to work, collect- 
ing and classifying facts, in the hope that at some time the lucky 
touch will be made which will disclose the answer. At present 
there is none of an absolute character. There is no day in my life 
■when I am able to occupy myself with anthropological work, in 
which my mind does not swing like a pendulum between the two 
great possible answers to this question. Have the descendants of a 


small group of mankind gone on teaching their children the same 
set of ideas, carrying them on from generation to generation, from 
age to age, so that when they are found in distant regions, among 
tribes which have become different even in bodily formation, they 
represent the long-inherited traditions of a common ancestry ? Or 
is it that all over the world, man, being substantially similar in mind, 
has again and again, under similar circumstances of life, developed 
similar groups of ideas and customs? I cannot, I think, use the 
opportunity of standing at this table more profitably then by in- 
sisting, in the strongest manner whicn I can find words to express, 
on the fundamental importance of directing attention to this great 
problem, the solution of which will alone bring the study of civili- 
zation into its full development as a science. 

Let me put before you two or three cases, from examples which 
have been brought under my notice within the last few days, as 
illustrating the ways in which this problem comes before us in all 
its difficulty. 

This morning, being in the museum with Major Powell, Professor 
Mosely, and Mr. Holmes, looking at the products of Indian life in 
the far west, my attention was called to certain curious instruments 
hanging together in a case in which musical instruments are con- 
tained. These consisted simply of flat, oblong, or oval pieces of 
wood, fastened at the end to a thong, so as to be whirled round and 
round, causing a whirring or roaring noise. The instruments in 
question came, one from the Ute Indians, and one from the Zuhis. 
Now, if an Australian, finding himself inspecting the National muse- 
um, happened to stand in front of the case in question, he would 
stop with feelings not only of surprise, but probably of horror; for 
this is an instrument which to him represents, more intensely than 
anything else, a sense of mystery attached to his own most important 
religious ceremonies, especially those of the initiation of youths to 
the privileges of manhood, where an instrument quite similar in 
nature is used for the purpose of warning off women and children. 
If this Australian was from the south, near Bass Strait, his native law 
is, that, if any woman sees these instruments, she ought immediately 
to be put to death ; and the illustration which he would give is, 
that, in old times, Tasmania and Australia formed one continent, 
but that one unlucky day it so happened that certain boys found one 
of these instruments hidden in the bush, and showed it to their 
mothers, whereupon the sea burst up through the land in a deluge. 


which never entirely subsided, but still remains to separate Van 
Dieman's Land from Astralia. And, even if a Caffre from South 
Africa were to visit the collection, his attention would be drawn to 
the same instruments, and he would be able to tell that in this 
country they were used for the purpose of making loud sounds, and 
warning the women from the ceremonies attending the initiation of 
boys. How different the races and languages of Australia and 
Africa ! yet we have the same use cropping out in connection with 
the same instrument ; and to complete its history, it must be added 
that there are passages of Greek literature which show pretty plainly 
that an instrument quite similar was used in the mysteries of Bacchus. 
The last point is, that it is a toy well known to country-people, both 
in Germany and in England. Its English name is the "bull-roarer;" 
and, when the children play with it in the country villages, it is 
hardly possible (as I know by experience) to distinguish its sound 
from the bellowing of an angry bull. 

In endeavoring to ascertain whether the occurrence of the " bull- 
roarer," in so many regions is to be explained by historical con- 
nection, or by independent development, we have to take into con- 
sideration, first, that it is an apparatus so simple as possibly to have 
been found out many times ; next, that its power of emitting a 
sound audible at a great distance would suggest to Australians and 
Caffres alike its usefulness at religious ceremonies from which it was 
desired to exclude certain persons. Then we are led to another argu- 
ment, into which I will not enter now, as to the question why women 
are excluded in the most rigid manner from certain ceremonies. But 
in any event, if we work it out as a mere question of probabilities, 
the hypothesis of repeated reinvention under like circumstances can 
hold its own against the hypothesis of historical connection ; but 
which explanation is the true one, or whether both are partly true, 
I have no sufficient means to decide. Such questions as these being 
around us in every direction, there are only two or three ways 
known to me in which at preeent students can attack them with 
any reasonable prospect of success. May I briefly try to state, 
not so much by precept as by example, what the working of those 
methods is by which it is possible, at any rate, to make some en- 
croachments upon the great unsolved problem of anthropology. 

One of the ways in which it is possible to deal with such a group 
of facts may be called the argument from outlandishness. When 
a circumstance is so uncommon as to excite surprise, and to lead 


one to think with wonder why it should have come into existence, 
and when that thing appears in two different districts, we have more 
ground for saying that there is a certain historical connection be- 
tween the two cases of its appearance than in the comparison of 
more commonplace matters. Only this morning a case in point 
was brought rather strongly under my notice ; not that the facts were 
u/iknown, for we have been seeing them for days past at Zuni. 
The Indians of the north, and especially the Iroquois, were, as we 
know, apt to express their ideas by picture-writings, in the detailed 
study of which Col. Mallery is now engaged. One sign which 
habitually occurs is the picture of an animal in which a line is 
drawn from the throat, through the picture of the animal, termi- 
nating in the heart. Now, the North American Indians of the lake 
district have a distinct meaning attached to this peculiar heart-line, 
which does not attach to ordinary pictures of animals ; they mean 
some animal which is living, and whose life is affected in some way 
by a charm of some kind. 

It is expressly stated by Schoolcraft that a picture he gives of a 
wolf with such a heart-line means a wolf with a charmed heart. It 
is very remarkable to find, among the Zufiis, representations of deer 
and other animals drawn in the same manner; and the natural infer- 
ence is, that the magic of the Iroquois and the Zunis is connected, 
and of more or less common origin. I verified this supposition by 
asking Mr. Gushing, our authority on Zuni language and ideas, what 
idea was generally attached to this well-known symbol ; and his 
answer was, that it indicated a living animal on which magical influ- 
ence was being exerted. May we not, then, consider — leaving out 
of the question the point whether the Pueblo people invented the 
heart-line as a piece of their magic and the nomad tribes of the north 
picked it up from them, or whether it came down from the northern 
tribes and was adopted by the southern, or whether both had it from 
a common source — that, at any rate, there is some ground, upon the 
score of mere outlandishness, for supposing that such an idea could 
not occur without there being some educational connection between 
the two groups of tribes possessing it, and who could hardly have 
taken it by independent development. 

To mention an instance of the opposite kind ; I bought a few 
days ago, amonge the Mojaves, a singular article of dress, — a na- 
tive woman's girdle, with its long fringe of twisted bark. This or, 
rather two of these put on so as to form one complete skirt used to 


be her only garment ; and it is still worn from old custom, but now- 
covered b)^ a petticoat of cotton, generally made of several pocket- 
handkerchiefs in the piece, bought from the traders. Under these 
circumstances, it has become useless as a garment, only serving as 
what I understand is called in the civilized world "a dress-improver ;" 
the effect of which, indeed, the Mojave women perfectly understand, 
and avail themselves of in the most comic manner. Suppose, now, 
that we had no record of how this fantastic fashion came into use 
among them : It has only to be compared with the actual wearing 
of bark garments in Further Asia and tlie Pacific Islands in order 
to tell its own history, — that it is a remnant of the phase of culture 
where bark is the ordinary material for clothing. But the anthropo- 
logist could not be justified in arguing from this bark-wearing that 
the ancestors of the Mojaves had learned it from Asiatics. Inde- 
pendent development, actingnot only where men's minds, but their 
circumstances, are similar, must be credited with much of the simi- 
larity of customs. It is curious that the best illustrations of this 
do not come from customs which are alike in detail in two places, 
and so may be accounted for, like the last example, by emigration 
from one place to another. We find it much easier to deal with 
practices similar enough to show corresponding workings of the 
human mind, but also different enough to show separate formation. 
Only this morning I met with an excellent instance of this. Dr. 
Yarrow, your authority on the subject of funeral rites, described to 
me a custom of the Utes of disposing of the bodies of men they 
feared and hated by putting them under water in streams. After 
much inquiry, he found that the intention of this proceeding was to 
prevent their coming back to molest the survivors. Now, there is 
a passage in an old writer on West Africa where it is related, that, 
when a man died, his widow would have herself ducked in the rivei 
in order to get rid of his ghost, which would be hanging about her, 
especially if she were one of his most loved wives. Having thus 
drowned him of, she was free to marry again. Here, then, is the 
idea that water is impassable to spirits, worked out in different ways 
in Africa and America, but showing in both the same principle ; 
which, indeed, is manifested by so many peoples in the idea of 
bridges for the dead to pass real or imaginary streams, from the 
threads stretched across brooks in Burmah for the souls of friends 
to cross by, to Catlin's slippery pine-log for the Choctaw dead to 
pass the dreadful river. In such correspondences of principle we 


trace, more clearly than in mere repetition of a custom or belief, 
the community of human intellect. 

But I must not turn these remarks into what, under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, would be a lecture. I have been compelled to address 
myself, not so much to the statement in broad terms of general 
principles, as to points of detail of this kind, because it is almost 
impossible, in the present state of anthropology, to work by abstract 
terms ; and the best way of elucidating a working-principle is to 
discuss some actual case. There are now two or three practical 
points on which I may be allowed to say a few words. 

The principle of development in civilization, wliich represents 
one side of the great problem I have been speaking of, is now be- 
ginning to receive especial cultivation in England. While most 
museums have been at work, simply collecting objects and imple- 
ments, the museum of Gen. Pitt-Rivers, now about to be removed 
from London to Oxford, is entirely devoted to the working out of 
the development theory on a scale hardly attempted hitherto. In 
this museum are collected specimens of weapons and implements, 
so as to ascertain by what steps they may be considered to have 
arisen among mankind, and to arrange them in consecutive series. 
Development, however, is not always progress, but may work itself 
out into lines of degeneration. There are certain states of society 
in which the going-down of arts and sciences is as inevitable a state 
of things as progress is in the more fortunate regions in which we 
live. Anthropologists will watch with the greatest interest what 
effect this museum of development will have upon their science. 
Gen. Pitt-Rivers was led into the formation of the remarkable col- 
lection in question in an interesting manner. He did not begin 
life either as an evolutionist or as an anthropologist. He was a 
soldier. His business, at a particular time of his life, was to serve 
on a committee on small-arms, appointed to reform the armament of 
the British army, which at that time was to a great extent only pro- 
vided with the most untrustworthy of percussion-muskets. He then 
found that a rifle was an instrument of gradual growth ; for the new 
rifles which it was his duty to inspect had not 'come into existence 
at once and independently. When he came to look carefully into 
the history of his subject, it appeared that some one had improved 
the lock, then some one the rifling, and then others had made fur- 
ther improvements ; and this process had gone on until at last there 
came into existence a gun, which, thus perfected, was able to hold 


its own in a permanent form. He collected the intermediate stages 
through which a good rifle arose out of a bad one ; and the idea 
began to cross his mind that the course of change which happened 
to rifles was very much what ordinarily happens with other things. 

So he set about collecting, and filled his house from the cellar to 
the attic, hanging on his walls series of all kinds of weapons and 
other instruments which seemed to him to form links in a great 
chain of development. The principle that thus became visible to 
him in weapon-development is not less true through the whole range 
of civilization ; and we shall soon be able to show to every anthro- 
pologist who visits Oxford the results of that attempt. And when 
the development theory is seen in that way, explaining the nature 
and origin of our actual arts and customs and ideas, and their 
gradual growth from ruder and earlier states of culture, then an- 
thropology will come before the public mind as a new means of 
practical instruction in life. 

Speaking of this aspect of anthropology leads me to say a word 
on another hardly less important. On my first visit to this country, 
nearly thirty years ago, I made a journey in Mexico with the late 
Henry Christy, a man who impressed his personality very deeply 
on the science of man. He was led into this subject by his con- 
nection with Dr. Hodgkin ; the two being at first interested, from 
the philanthropist's point of view, in the preservation of the less 
favored races of man, and taking part in a society for this purpose 
known as the Aborigines' protection society. The observation of 
the indigenous tribes for philanthropic reasons brought the fact into 
view that such peoples of low culture were in themselves of the high- 
est interest as illustrating the whole problem of stages of civilization ; 
and this brought about the establishment of the Ethnological So- 
ciety in England, Henry Christy's connection with which origin- 
ated his plan of forming an ethnological museum. The foundations 
of the now celebrated Christy collection were laid on our Mexican 
journey; and I was witness to his extraordinary power of knowing, 
untaught, what it was the business of an anthropologist to collect, 
and what to leave uncollected : how very useless for anthropologic 
purposes mere curiosities are, and how priceless are every-day things. 
The two principles which tend most to the successful work of an- 
thropology — the systematic collection' of the products of each stage 
of civilization, and the arrangement of their sequence in develop- 
ment — are thus the leading motives of our two great anthropological 


To my mind, one of the most remarkable things I have seen in 
this country is the working of the bureau of ethnology as part of the 
general working of the Government department to which it belongs. 
It is not for me, on this occasion, to describe the working of the 
Smithsonian Institution, with its research and publications extend- 
ing almost through the whole realm of science; nor to speak of the 
services of that eminent investigator and organizer, Prof. Spencer 
F. Baird. It is the department occupied with the science of man 
of which I have experience; and I do not think that anywhere else 
in the world such an official body of skilled anthropologists, each 
knowing his own special work, and devoted to it, can be paralleled. 
The bureau of ethnology is at present devoting itself especially to 
the working-up of the United States, and to the American conti- 
nent in general, but not neglecting other parts of the world. And 
I must say that I have seen with the utmost interest the manner in 
which the central organism of the bureau of ethnology is perform- 
ing the functions of an amasser and collector of all that is worth 
knowing; how Major Powell is not only a great explorer and worker 
himself, but has the art of infusing his energy and enthusiastic spirit 
through the branches of an institution which stands almost alone, 
being, on the one hand, an institution doing the work of a scientific 
society, and, on the other hand, an institution doing that work with 
the power and leverage of a government department. If we talked 
of working a government institution in England for the progress of 
anthropology in the way in which it is being done here we should be 
met with — silence, or a civil answer, but with no practical result ; 
and any one venturing to make the suggestion might run the risk 
of being classed with that large body described here as "cranks." 
The only way in which the question can be settled, how far a gov- 
ernment may take up scientific research as a part of its legitimate 
functions, is by practical experiment; and somehow or other your 
president is engaged in getting that experiment tried, with an 
obvious success, which may have a great effect. If in future a prop- 
osition to ask for more government aid for anthropology is met with 
the reply that such ideas are fanatical, and that such schemes will 
produce no good results, we have a very good rejoinder in Wash- 
ington. The energy with which the Bureau of Ethnology works 
throughout its distant ramifications has been a matter of great in- 
terest. It is something like what one used to hear of the organiza- 
tion of the Jesuits, with their central authority in a room in a Roman 


palace, whence directions were sent out which there was some agent 
in every country town ready to carry out with skill and zeal. For 
instance, it was interesting at Zuni to follow the way in which Colonel 
and Mrs. Stevenson were working the pueblo, trading for speci- 
mens, and bringing together all that was most valuable and inter- 
esting in tracing the history of that remarkable people. Both man- 
aged to identify themselves with the Indian life. And one thing I 
particularly noticed was this, that to get at the confidence of a 
tribe, the man of the house, though he can do a great deal, cannot 
do all. If his wife sympathizes with his work, and is able to do it, 
really half of the work of investigation seems to me to fall to her, 
so much is to be learned through the women of the tribe which the 
men will not readily disclose. The experience seemed to me a 
lesson to anthropologists not to sound the "bull-roarer," and warn 
the ladies off from their proceedings, but rather to avail themselves 
thankfully of their help. 

Only one word more, and I will close. Years ago, when I first 
knew the position occupied by anthropology, this position was far 
inferior to that which it now holds. It was deemed, indeed, curious 
and amusing; and travelers had even, in an informal way, shown 
human nature as displayed among out-of-the-way tribes to be an 
instructive study. But one of the last things thought of in the early 
days of anthropology was that it should be of any practical use. 
The effect of a few years' work all over the world shows that it is 
not only to be an interesting theoretical science, but that it is to be 
an agent in altering the actual state of arts and beliefs and institu- 
tions in the world. For instance : look at the arguments on com- 
munism in the tenure of land in the hands of a writer who thinks 
how good it would be if every man always had his share of the land. 
The ideas and mental workings of such a philosopher are quite dif- 
ferent from those of an anthropologist, who knows land-communism 
is an old and still existing institution of the world, and can see 
exactly how, after the experience of ages, its disadvantages have 
been found to outweigh its advantages, so that it tends to fall out 
of use. In any new legislation on land, the information thus to be 
given by anthropology must take its place as an important factor. 

Again : when long ago I began to collect materials about old 
customs, nothing was farther from my thoughts than the idea that 
they would be useful. By and by it did become visible, that to 
show that a custom or institution which belonged to an early state 


of civilization had lasted on by mere conservatism into a newer 
civilization, to which it is unsuited, would somehow affect the pub- 
lic mind as to the question whether this custom or institution should 
be kept up, or done away with. Nothing has for months past given 
me more unfeigned delight than when I saw in the Times newspaper 
the corporation of the city of London spoken of as a -'survival." 
You have institutions even here which have outlived their original 
place and purpose ; and indeed it is evident, that when the course of 
civilization is thoroughly worked out from beginning to end, the 
description of it from beginning to end will have a very practical 
effect upon the domain of practical politics. Politicians have, it is 
true, little idea of this as yet. But it already imposes upon bodies 
like this Anthropological Society a burden of responsibility which 
was not at first thought of. We may hope, however, that under 
such leaders as we have here, the science of anthropology will be 
worked purely for its own sake ; for, the moment that anthropolo- 
gists take to cultivating their science as a party-weapon in politics 
and religion, this will vitiate their reasonings and arguments, and 
spoil the scientific character of their work. I have seen in England 
bad results follow from a premature attempt to work anthropology 
on such controversial lines, and can say that such an attempt is not 
only in the long-run harmful to the effect of anthropology in the 
world, but disastrous to its immediate position. My recommenda- 
tion to students is to go right forward, like a horse in blinkers, 
neither looking to the right hand nor to the left. Let us do our 
own work with a simple intention to find out what the principles 
and courses of events have been in the world, to collect all the facts, 
to work out all the inferences, to reduce the whole into a science ; 
and then let practical life take it and make the best it can of it. In 
this way the science of man, accepted as an arbiter, not by a party 
only, but by the public judgment, will have soonest and most per- 
manently its due effect on the habits and laws and thoughts of 

I am afraid I have not used well, under such short and difficult 
conditions, the opportunity which you have done me the great 
pleasure and honor of giving me here. I have tried, as I said I 
would, to put in the simplest way before you some considerations 
which appear to me as of present importance in our science, both 
in the old world and in the new, and I thank you in the heartiest 
way possible for the opportunity you have given me to do this. 


At the close of the address a vote of thanks was moved by Judge 
Arthur McArthur, of the Supreme bench of the District of Columbia, 
and passed unanimously. 

The President announced that by direction of the Council there 
would be no regular meeting of the Society until the third Tuesday 
in November. 

Eighty-Fifth Regular Meeting, November i8, 1884. 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

The President stated that by action of the Council a place for the 
future meetings of the Society had been secured at the Columbian 

The Secretary of the Council announced the election of Mr. M. 
D. Kerr, of the U. S. Geological Survey, as an active member of 
the Society. 

A paper entitled "Australian Group Relations," by Alfred 
W. Howitt of Gippsland, Australia, was then read by Col. Seely.* 

Eighty-Sixth Regular Meeting, December 2, 1884. 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary of the Council announced the election as active 
members of Messrs. Victor Mindeleff, Cosmos Mindeleff, Wm. M. 
Poindexter, and Wm. H. Babcock. 

Dr. Franz Boas read a paper on " The Eskimo of Baffin Land.' ' 

Although the shores of Baffin Land have been visited by whalers 
for a very long time, there was still little known about the Eskimo 
tribes inhabiting this tract of land. 

The southwesternmost region, the land about King's Cape, is 
called by the natives Sicosuilar, /. e., a land which has no fixed ice 
floe during the winter. It is inhabited by the Sicosuilarmiut, who 
go deer hunting in the low land farther north. They have inter- 
course with the natives of the north shore of Labrador, the Iglu- 

* Printed in the Smithsonian Report for 1883. 


mint, /. e., the inhabitants of the other side, crossing Hudson Strait 
from King's Cape to Cape Wolstenhohne. 

The middle region of the north shore of Hudson Strait is inhab- 
ited by the Akudliarmiut who go deer hunting to the large lake Ag- 
makdgua, where they meet with the Nugumiut, the inhabitants of 
the peninsula between Frobisher Bay and Cumberland Sound. The 
shore of Davis Strait is divided into three parts : — Oko, Akudnirn, 
and Aggo, /. c, the lee side, the centre, and the weather side. 
Oko, the land of the Cumberland Sound, is inhabited by the Okomiut 
who in olden times were divided into the Tellirpingmiut on the 
west shore of Cumberland Sound ; the Kinguamiut, at the head 
of it ; the Kignaitmiut on the high Cumberland peninsula, and 
finally the Saumingmiut on Davis Strait, as far as Exeter Bay 
and Cape Dier. As the number of the Okomiut has been greatly 
diminished there scarcely exists any difference between these tribes 

The inhabitants of Padli are nearer to the Akudnirmiut than to 
the Okomiut. The Aggomiut consist of two tribes : The Tudnu- 
mirmiut of Pond's Bay, and the Tudnunirossirmiut of Admiralty 
Inlet. Besides there are the Iglulingmiut of Fury and Hecla Strait, 
with whom we have been made acquainted by Parry and Hall. 

I have visited the different tribes of Cumberland Sound and 
Davis Strait as far as Akudnirn, and no settlement in this country 
escaped my notice. As there are quite a number of natives of differ- 
ent tribes settled among these I was able to gather a good deal of 
information about all the Eskimos from Sicosuilar to Tudnunirn. 

The most interesting tribe are the Tellirpingmiut, the inhab- 
itants of the west shore of Cumberland Sound, more particularly 
speaking, of Nettilling fiord. This is one of the few Eskimo tribes 
living inland. From former reports we only learned that the Kin- 
nepatu, the Eskimo of Chesterfield Inlet, on the west shore of 
Hudson Bay, live nearly all the year round on deer and musk oxen, 
which they hunt on the plains between Back River and Chesterfield 
Inlet, only coming down to the seaside during the winter. 

At the present time the Tellirpingmiut have the same custom. 
In the month of May they leave their winter settlement and travel 
with their dogs and sledges inland to the large lake Nettilling, 
(Lake Kennedy, of the old charts) and get to the place of their 
settlement, Tikerakdjuak, on the south shore of the lake, long 
before the ice breaks up. They take with them one or more bags 
of blubber for their lamps; but sometimes they do not even carry 


as much, as they are able to cook with the heather found in abun- 
dance on the vast plains of the lake, and burn deer marrow in their 

Now and then they secure a^eal in the lake, but they cannot rely 
on their hunt as these animals are too few in number. In the west- 
ern part of the lake they seem to be more plentiful; but in the east- 
ern portion their number has been greatly diminished. I suppose 
that this is principally the reason why the Tellirpingmiut do not 
any longer stay all the year round on the shores of the lake as many 
of them formerly did. They seem to have spent there the greater 
portion of their lives, occasionally visiting the seaside to provide 
themselves with skins of the young and old seals. It very seldom 
happens now that any men winter inland, as the number of seals 
is too small. In the spring of the year they live on deer and the 
innumerable birds which are caught while molting. The Eskimos 
return to the entrance of Neltilling fiord about the beginning of 
December, when the ice in the fiords is strong and well covered with 

The other Okomiut, who are settled in four places on the west 
shore, two on the east shore, and one between Cape Mercy and 
Cape Micklesham, never leave the coast for any length of time. 
Only a few go in their boats also to Lake Nettilling, as this is the 
best place for deer hunting. They leave after the breaking up of 
the ice in July and return during the first days of October. 

By far the most of them spend the summer at the head of the fiords 
whence they start deer hunting inland, returning after a few days' 
absence. The old men and tlie women meanwhile live on salmon 
which are caught in abundance in the small rivers emptying into 
the fiords. In winter they settle on the islands nearest to the open 
sea. Throughout the cold months until the sun rises higher they 
go sealing with the harpoon, watching the seal at its breathing hole. 
In March, while the seal brings forth its young, all the natives are 
eager to secure as large a number as possible of young seal skins, 
which are highly valued for the under jackets and winter pants for 
men and women. 

In the fall the inhabitants of Saumia and Padli secure a great 
number of walruses which supply them with food and blubber until 
late in the winter. They only go sealing in order to enjoy them- 
selves, as they generally have sufficient walrus meat to last them the 
whole year. 


Sometimes even there is some left in summer. In spring they 
go bear luinting. The skins of these animals are exchanged for 
guns and ammunition, when the whalers visit the coast returning 
from their hunting grounds off Lancaster Sound. 

The Tudnunirmiut hunt the white whale and the narwhal whose 
ivory is highly valued. 

Though the Eskimos shift their habitations according to the sea- 
sons from one place to another we must not consider them a people 
without stationary abodes, for at certain seasons they are always 
found at the same places. 

There are some doubts about the origin of the old stone founda- 
tions met with in every part of Arctic America, ev^en in countries 
not any longer inhabited by Eskimos, as the Parry Archipelago and 
the northern part of East Greenland. It was believed that the cen- 
tral Eskimos forgot the art of building stone houses and only lived 
in snow huts. 

In Baffin Land I found a great number of stone, turf, and sod 
foundations, apparently of very ancient origin. If the Eskimos come 
to a place where they know that stone houses exist they build these 
up into a comfortable home, covering the old walls with a double 
seal-skin roof and heather. In the settlement Anarnitung, near 
the head of Cumberland Sound, and at Okkiadliving, on Davis 
Strait, they frequently live in these houses which they call Kag- 

I found two different styles of construction, one with a very large 
floor and a remarkably short bed-place ; the other with both parts of 
about the same size. The former the Eskimos ascribe to the Tunnit, 
or as they are often called, Tudnikjuak, a people playing a great 
part in their tales and traditions. The latter are ascribed to their 
own ancestors, the ancient Eskimos. 

Indeed they do not build any stone houses now, as they always 
find in the places of their winter settlements the old structures wdiich 
are fully sufficient for the number of men inhabiting the country now, 
which is very small as compared with that of former times. From 
different reports I conclude that Cumberland Sound about fifty years 
ago was inhabited by 2,500 Eskimos who are now reduced to about 
300 souls. 

In winter time they mostly build snow houses consisting of a high 
dome with a few smaller vaults attached, used as entrances which 
keep the cold air out of the main room. The Okomiut and Akud- 


nirmiut cover the inside of the same with seal-skins ; while the 
Nugumiut and Akudlirmiut leave the walls bare. They cut the 
pieces of snow much thicker and bury the whole house in loose snow 
which they stamp down with their feet. 

In summer they live in tents made of seal-skin. The back part 
is formed by six poles, arranged in a semicircle and lashed together 
at their converging points. Two poles run from this junction to the 
entrance, which is also formed of two poles. The Okomiut build 
the back part of the tents much less steep than the Akudnirmiut. 
The Aggomiut use a tent with only one pole in the center, and 
one for the entrance. 

I have been informed tha' three different styles of clothing are 
used in Baffin Land, two o which I have seen myself. The Sicosu- 
ilarmiut are said to use jackets with a broad tail and a hood, which 
latter is not pointed. The Nugumiut and Okomiut are very well 
clad, having their garments neatly trimmed with skins of different 
color and adorned with skin straps. Their hoods are long pointed, 
and the tails of the women's jackets very narrow. The jackets of 
the men have either no tail whatever, or one that is very short. 
The women's pants consist of two parts, the leggins being fastened 
by a string to the short breechlets. 

The Akudnirmiut and Aggomiut use very large hooded jackets 
with a small point at the top. Their clothing is much inferior to 
that of the Okomiut. I have seen scarcely any attempt to adorn 
it in any way. The women wear very large boots which reach up 
to the hips. In Pond's Bay they are sometimes kept up by whale 
bone, and they are in the habit of carrying the young children in 

There exist only very slight differences in the dialects from Akud- 
liak to Pond's Bay, and those I found refer only to the vocabulary. 
However, in the most common phrases, the way of greeting, etc., 
every tribe has its own style. Nor could I find any differences with 
reference to their traditions. It is possible that a number of the 
Oko stories are unknown in Tudnunirn, and vice versa, but I am 
not sufficiently acquainted with the Tudnunirmiut to positively 
decide the question. 

There are some differences between the Okomiut and the Akud- 
nirmuit in the arrangement of feasts, which are repeated every fall, 
during which some natives make their appearance disguised and 
masked as representatives of a fabulous tribe. 


All the Eskimos of Baffin Land are fond of music and poetry. 
They sing the old songs of their people, and spend the long winter 
nights telling traditions and singing the old monotonous tunes of 
their songs or composing new ones. I made the acquaintance of 
a few poets whose songs were known in every place I visited. 

All their tales and the themes of the old songs are closely con- 
nected with their religious ideas. • Though there is a strong resem- 
blance between many of their own traditions and those of the Green- 
landers, I found quite a number of new tales and religious ideas 
hitherto unknown. They are familiar with the Erkilik of the 
Greenlanders, whom they mostly call Adlet, and the Tudnik, who, 
however, do not inhabit the interior but are said to have lived 
formerly with the Eskimos on the same shores and in the same 
settlements. According to their tradition, which is only preserved 
in parts in Greenland, the Adlet, Kodlunarn, (white men) and Innuit 
are the children of one mother and her husband, a red dog, who 
]ived at Igluling, in Fury and Hecla Strait. From there all the 
different tribes of Innuit are said to have spread over the country, 
now occupied by them. 

It is worth noticing that the Labrador Eskimos know the Adlat 
and the Tudnik too. In Erdmann's Worterbuch des Labrador 
Dialects, Adlat is explained as Indian of the Interior ; Tudnik as a 
Greenlander. I believe, however, that these meanings were given 
to these words by the missionaries, while in reality they signify the 
same as in Baffin Land and Greenland. To learn whether there 
are any traditions relating to the Adlat or Erkillek would be of 
special interest. 

The Eskimos of Baffin Land have no knowledge of the Supreme 
Being, Torngarsuk, whom the Greenlanders once considered to be 
superior to all the numerous lower spirits called the Torgnet. Of 
these there are a great many, but the most prominent ones ap- 
pear in the shape of a bear, a man, or a woman, inhabiting the 
large boulders, which are found in great numbers scattered over the 

These spirits act as genii of certain favored men who by their 
aid become great sorcerers. They are able to cure dieases, to de- 
tect offences, to give good luck in hunting, and they visit the spirits 
of the moon and of the stars. 

The Eskimos entertain a great fear of the Tupilat, the Spirits of 
the Dead, who kill every one daring to offend them. This is the 


reason why they are afraid to touch the corpse of the deceased, 
and why they destroy every object which once belonged to a dead 

The soul of the dead Innung goes to the land Adlivum, beneath 
the earth of which an evil spirit, Sedna, is mistress. In olden times 
she was an Eskimo woman herself, married to a fulmar who used 
her very badly. She escaped in the boat of her father who flung 
her overboard to save his own life from the wrath of the bird, after 
having detected the loss of his wife. While Sedna clung to the 
edge of the boat the father cut off her fingers which were changed 
into seals and whales. To revenge herself she caused two dogs to 
gnaw off her father's feet and hands. Then the earth opened and 
they went down to the land Adlivum. As the Eskimos kill the seals 
and whales that have risen from Sedna's fingers she hates and pur- 
sues them. Only those who come to an unnatural death escape her 
and ascend to Heaven to the land Kudlivum where innumerable 
deer are found, and where they are never troubled by either ice or 

Sedna is feared by the Eskimos even more than the Tupilat and 
the traditions about her have the greatest influence on their habits, 
manifesting itself mostly in laws about food and interdiction of 
labor on certain days. 

To compare the habits and traditions of the Eskimos of Baffin 
Land with those of the Smith Sound and Greenland will be of much 
interest, as these tribes connect the central with the eastern Eskimos. 

Tribes which may easily be. studied, and whose customs are of 
prime importance are the Sicosuilarmiut and Iglumiut, and their 
connections with the Labrador natives. It is a matter of regret 
that so little is known of the inhabitants of Southampton Island and 
of the west shore of Hudson's Bay, although Hall spent five winters 
in those regions. The researches of Mr. Turner in Ungava will 
fill a great gap in our knowledge of the central tribes. 

Another tribe of great importance are the inhabitants of Admi- 
ralty Inlet, who seem to be very numerous up to the present time. 

Even now it is possible to trace the connection between the tribes 
from King William's Land to Smith Sound and Labrador. The 
Netchillirmiut of Boothia Felix, who are now mixed with the Ugjulir- 
miut of King William's Land and Adelaide Peninsula most probably 
occupy part of the old country of the Ukusiksalingmiut of Back 
River. These natives, who live principally upon musk oxen, cross 


the land in visiting the shores of Wager River. The Netchillik 
Eskimos travel through the land of the Sinimiut of Pelly Bay to 
Eivillik (Repulse Bay). -The Eivillinmiut frequently have inter- 
course with the Igluling tribe, who formerly visited the Cumberland 
Sound Eskimos by the way of Majoraridjen, the country north of 
Lake Nettilling (Lake Kennedy). Three roads are used in travel- 
ing from Igluling to the west shore of Baffin Bay and to Lancaster 
Sound, the most western through the fiord Tessiujang, near Cape 
Kater, to Admiralty Inlet; the other to Ikalualuin (Arctic Sound) 
in Eclipse Bay and the third one to Anaulereelling (Dexterity 
Bay). The Tudnunirossirmiut sometimes cross Lancaster Sound, 
and were found on the western part of North Devon, which they 
call Tudjan. They cross this land and Jones Sound on sledges and 
have intercourse with a tribe on Ellesmere Land, which they call 
Umingmamnuna. From Bessels' researches Ave know that they 
cross Smith Sound, for he found amongst the Ita-Eskimos a man 
who had lived in former years amongst the Akudnimiut on the east 
coast of Baffin Land. I myself found a. native near Cape Kater, 
north of Home Bay, who had lived somewhere near Cape Isabella 
at the entrance of Smith Sound for several years. 

The questions which may be settled by a more thorough knowl- 
edge of the habits and traditions of all these and the more western 
tribes which have scarcely been seen by any white men, may prove 
of prime importance for the solution of the question relating to the 
origin and migrations of this people. 

Mr. John Murdoch read the following paper on " Se.<\l Catch- 
ing AT Point Barrow." 

The capture of seals is one of the most important of pursuits 
among the Eskimos of the two villages at Point Barrow. A failure 
of the seal harvest would be as disastrous to them as the failure of 
the potato crop to the Irish, or the rice crop in India. Not only 
does the flesh of the seal form the great staple of food, but its fat 
furnishes them with oil to light and warm their winter houses, to 
oil their water-proof boots and harpoon lines, and to keep the water 
out of their skin boats. The skin serves to make their water-proof 
boots and leggings, the soles of their winter boots, canteens, the 
covers of the kaiaks, or small skin canoes, and, rarely, their outer 
clothing; cut into thongs it furnishes a serviceable cord which they 
make into nets and harpoon lines, and employ for all the varied 


purposes for which we use cord. In former times and occasionally 
at present, the skin served to cover the summer tent, or tu p'ek. 
No part of the animal is wasted. Even the entrails are saved, and 
dressed, and made into water-proof frocks to wear over the fur cloth- 
ing in rainy and snowy weather. If their were no seals at Point 
Barrow there could be no Eskimos, barren as the country is of fish 
and reindeer. 

The following species are pursued : First, and most important, the 
Ringed Seal or Netyi (Phocafoctidn). This is i/ie seal par excellence, 
and the only one taken in any considerable numbers, by all the 
methods which will be described hereafter. Next in importance is 
the great Bearded Seal, ug'ru {Erignathus barbatus). This is com- 
paratively rare, though a good many are taken much in the same 
manner as the walrus with the heavy harpoon and rifle from the 
umiak. The skins are especially valued for covering the large skin 
boats, and for making heavy harpoon lines. The other two species 
are of extremely rare occurrence. The Harbor Seal, kasigia, 
{Phoca vitulina) is occasionally caught in summer in the nets at 
Elson Bay, and the rare and beautiful Ribbon Seal {Histriophoca 
fasciata), the kaixolin, is now and then taken in the early winter. 

When the ice-pack comes in in the autumn, and the sea is begin- 
ning to close, it may be about the middle of October, the natives 
who are now all back from their summer wanderings and settled 
for the winter, begin the pursuit of the ne'etye. At this season 
there are many open Holes in the pack to which the seals resort. 
Here they are taken by shooting them with the rifle as they show 
their heads above water, and securing them with the retrieving har- 
poon or nauligu. The line and harpoon-head belonging to this 
are generally carried attached to the gun-case which is slung across 
the shoulders, and the shaft serves as a staff for walking and climb- 
ing about the rough ice. A hunter is lucky if he secures more 
than one or two seals in this way in a day's tramp. He generally 
drags his game home by a line looped through a hole in the under 
jaw. Wherever ti.'^ sea is sheltered by grounded ice, i( will freeze 
on calm nights to the depth of tliree or four inches, and in these 
newly-formed fields of ice are soon to be found small round holes, 
which the seals have kept open for fresh air. The natives resort 
to these holes, provided with a rifle, a different form of harpoon, 
the una, with a long, slender, loose-shaft, fitted for thrusting through 
the small hole, and a little three-legged stool, nigawau'otin, just 


large enough for a man to stand upon, to keep the feet from 
getting chilled by the ice. A little rod of ivory is sometimes 
thrust down through the hole to indicate the approach of the seal, 
and the hunter standing or squatting on the stool with his rifle 
and spear in readiness, waits patiently for the seal to come. As soon 
as he comes to the surface he is shot through the head and the una 
is immediately thrust down through the hole to secure him. Tlie 
ivory icepick, tuu, serves to make the hole large enough to drag 
him through. Both these methods of hunting are pursued during 
the whole winter whenever there are open lioles or fields of newly- 
formed ice, and natives are continually scouring the ice-field armed 
with rifle and nauligu, in the hopes of finding open holes. The 
greatest catch of the year known takes place after Nov. 15th, when 
the sun has sunk below the horizon for his 72 days' absence, and 
the nights are long and dark, while the days are only a few hours' 
twilight. At this season, wide cracks frequently form in the pack, 
miles in length and a mile or two from the shore, and of course are 
a great resort for the seals. As soon as such a crack is discovered, 
and scouts are continually on the watch for them, the men turn out 
in force and skirt along the edge of the crack till they find a suita- 
ble place for setting their nets. A place is selected where the ice 
is level and not too thick for about 100 yards from the edge of. the 
crack, and the nets are set as follows: The net is made of seal- 
thong in large meshes, and is about 15 or 16 feet long by 10 deep. 
Two small holes are dug through the ice, about the length of the net 
apart, in a line parallel to the edge of the crack, and between them 
is cut a hole large enough to admit the passage of a seal. A long 
line with a plummet on the end is let down through one of the small 
holes and grappled and drawn up through the middle hole by a long, 
slender pole with a hook on the end of it. This is made fast to one 
upper corner of the net, and a similar line drawn through the other 
small hole and made fast to the other upper corner. By hauling on 
these lines the net is drawn down through the middle hole and hangs 
like a curtain under the ice. A line is also attached to it by which it 
can again be drawn up through the middle hole. The end lines 
are loosely made fast to lumps of ice and as darkness sets in the 
hunter stations himself near the hole and begins rattling gently on 
the ice with the butt of his spear, scraping v.- ith a tool made of seals' 
claws mounted on a wooden handle, or making any gentle monoto- 
nous noise. This excites the curiosity of the seals who are cruising 


around in the open water, and one will at last come swimming in 
under the ice towards the sound. Of course he strikes against the 
loose net, runs his head or flipper through it and his struggles to 
escape only serve to entangle him still more. The running out of 
the end lines informs the hunter that there is a seal in the net. He 
waits till he thinks that he is sufficiently entangled, and then hauls 
him up through the middle hole. If he is not already drowned, his 
neck is broken by bending the head back sharply, and he is disen- 
tangled from the net which is set again. Of course, he very soon 
freezes stiff, and if there is enough snow on the ice, he is stuck up 
'on his tail, so as not to be covered up and lost should a drifting 
snowstorm come on. One man has been known to take as many as 
thirty seals in this way in a single night. This method of fishing 
can only be practiced in the darkest nights. A bright moonlight, 
or even a bright aurora seriously interferes with success. The dark 
nights in December, when the moon is in southern declination and 
does not rise, are generally the times of a great catch. The dead 
seals are stacked up and brought in when convenient by the women 
and dogsleds. Any small crack in the ice'to which the seals resort 
is ihimediately surrounded by a cordon of nets which are visited 
every two or three days, and many seals are thus taken. About the 
end of February, when the sun is bright and the ice thick, the seals 
have formed permanent breathing-holes to which many resort. 
When such a hole is found, a net is set flat underneath it, by mak- 
ing four or five holes round it, drawing the net down through the 
main hole, and the corners out to these holes. One man, who has 
stayed at home from the spring deer-hunt, will generally have three 
or four nets set ip this way, which he visits every few days. This 
method of netting is kept up during the spring till the ice begins to 
melt on the surface and the seals come out on it, where they are 
sometimes shot. Many seals are killed with rifle and nauligu from 
the Miaks when whaling or hunting walrus in the spring and sum- 
mer, and they are also caught in nets set along shore in Elson Bay. 
There is still one more method of taking seals seldom practiced 
near the villages, and only in the summer. This is with the light 
darts, kukigu, from the kaiak. These darts are so arranged that the 
little barbed head is detachable and attached to the shaft by a line 
forming a bridle, which always pulls the shaft transversely through 
the water. Three of these darts are carried in the kaiak and darted 
into the seal with a hand board. The resistance of all three shafts 
wearies the seal out until he can be approached and despatched. 



Mr. Dall gave a description of Norton Sound, which is a shallow 
estuary subject to sudden changes in depth due to direction of wind. 
Seal fishing in winter is practiced on the edge of the ice about ten 
to twenty miles from shore, but is attended with much danger owing 
to the liability of the floe to break up and go to sea with a strong 
eastwardly wind. The best seasons are early autumn and spring. 
In summer short nets supported by three stakes driven in the mud 
in about one to two fathoms water where thereis current are used 
and take many seal. The upper edge of the net is taut, the lower 
part hangs nearly free, and about five feet in height. The seal are 
usually drowned in the net, but if living are killed with a club. If 
a seal is shot and then secured, a pin like a large nail with a broad 
head is fastened in the wound to prevent loss of blood which is 
much esteemed in the Innuit cuisine. 

A peculiar spear or lance is used by the Nunivak people, being a 
three-sided ivory point as large as the biggest walrus tusk will make, 
straight, mounted on a heavy wooden shaft. The head may be 
eighteen inches long, is drilled in the median line of each face to the 
center of the blade, and a slit is then sawed nearly the whole length, 
the three slits meet in the center which is entirely excavated, but 
without enlarging the slits which remain only as wide as the thick- 
ness of the saw. Pressure from behind springs out the thin walls 
of the lance head which has a sharp apex — on the removal of pressure 
the walls resume their position gripping firmly the tissues which 
have protruded into the slips. Pulling only tightens the grip. 
This style of lance has not as far as the speaker was aware been 
any where described, though the specimens which he saw in 1868 
were afterwards sent to one of the museums in Germany. 

Responding to a question, Mr. Dall said that he thought we 
were not at present in a position to adjudge whether the Eskimo were 
related to the cave dwellers as advocated by Dawkins, though their 
mode of life presents many similarities. 

Prof. Mason spoke of the richness of information now at our 
command in Washington, Greenland being represented by Dr. Bes- 
sels; Cumberband Gulf by Dr. Boas; Ungava Bay by Lucien M. 
Turner; Point Barrow by Mr. Murdock; and the Western Eskimos 
by Mr. Dall. He also called the attention of the Society to the 
great amount of invention wrapped up in an Eskimo harpoon. 
Hitherto students had been satisfied with speaking of harpoons with- 


out specifying the variety ; but Mr. Murdoch's own collection con- 
tained three types : lances, darts, and harpoons. Of lances there 
were three kinds, the whale, the walrus, and the deer lance. Of 
darts there were several varieties, all carried by the throwing stick, 
among them the bird or pronged dart (with or without side prongs), 
the feather dart, the float dart, the bridle or martingale dart, and 
the harpoon dart. Of harpoons Mr. Murdoch could exhibit several 
varieties. The most interesting was the retriever. The Eskimo 
standing on the edge near thin ice shoots the seal in the water, and 
after breaking a channel with the ice-pick on one end, launches 
the whole implement at the animal, holding on to a line attached to 
the harpoon. By this means he could draw the dead body to the 
thick ice.' 

Mr. Murdoch, in answer to a question of Dr. Bessels, said the 
seal-nets appear to have never been made from whalebone. Nets 
of this material with small mesh are used for taking whitefish, &c. 
The seal-net is a comparatively modern invention. Nikawaalu, an 
intelligent middle-aged native, full of tradition, says " Adrani (be- 
yond the memory of man now living) there were no nets and they 
killed seals with the spear (una) only." No work that requires 
hammering or pounding on wood must be done during the whaling 
season, and even rapping with the knuckles on wood is bad. They 
asked us to leave off work on our block-house in the spring of 1882, 
saying it would drive off the whales. The whaling was a failure 
that season. 

Mr. Murdoch also stated the following myths • 

A'selu, the mythical dog, was tied to a stake. He gnawed him- 
self loose, and went into the house where he found an Eskimo 
women, with whom he had sexual intercourse. From this woman 
sprang the human race. 

A "doctor" starting on a fishing trip in the fall gave tobacco to 
the dead man at the cemetery, breaking off tiny bits and throwing 
them into the air. When he arrived at the river he also gave to- 
bacco in the same way to the demon Ticun-a, saying "Tuuna, Tu- 
una, I give you tobacco ! Give me plenty offish." 

They said the aurora (kiolya) was bad, that there was danger of 
its striking a man in the back of the neck and killing him. Con- 
sequently, in coming to and fro from the village after dark in twos 
or threes (they never dare go alone), one carries a drawn knife or 
dagger to thrust at the Aurora and drive it away. Frozen dogs' 
excrement thrown at the aurora will also drive it off. 


During a bright aurora the children especially sing to it, some- 
times nearly all night, performing a stamping dance, with the fists 
clenched. The song has many verses, with the same refrain. The 
first verse, as follows : 

"Kiolyiike! Kiolyake! 
A yana, yana, ya! 
Hwi, hwi, hwi, hwi!" 

Eighty-Seventh Regular Meeting, Dec. i6, 1884. 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary of the Council announced the election of Admiral 
Thornton A. Jenkins, U. S. N. , Mr. John Murdock, and Mr. Lucien 
M. Turner as active members of the Society. 

The Curator presented a report showing the receipt of seventy- 
three gifts, comprising books, papers, and pamphlets, as follows : 


From the Director. — Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Eth- 
nology. 1880-81. Major J. W. Powell. Washington. 
1883. Pp. 487. 8°. Illustrations and plates. 

From Mr. Geo. F. Black. — British Antiquities; their present 
treatment and their real claim. By A. Henry Rhind. 
Edinburgh. 1885. Pp. 47. 8°. 

Notice of a collection of flint implements found in the neigh- 
borhood of Fordoun, Cincardineshire. Rev. James Brodie. 
Pp. 5- 

On certain beliefs and phrases of Shetland Fishermen. Arthur 

Laurenson. Pp. 6. 

Did the Northmen extirpate the Celtic inhabitants of the 

Hebrides in the 9th century ? Capt. F. W. L. Thomas, R. 
N. Pp.35. 

Notice of a collection of flint arrow-heads and bronze and 

iron relics from the site of an ancient settlement, recently 
discovered in the Culbin Islands, near Findhorn, Morayshire. 
Hercules Linton. Pp. 4. 

Notes respecting two bronze shields recently purchased for the 

museum of the Society, and other bronze shields. Wm. T. 
McCulloch. Pp. 4. 


From the Director. — Notes on Mediaeval "Kitchen Middens" 
recently discovered in the monastery and nunnery on the 
Island of lona. John Alexander Smith. Pp.14. 

Note of a fragment of a Rune-inscribed stone from Aith's Vol. 

Cummingsburgh, Shetland. George Stephens. Pp. 6. 

Letter to the Schoolmasters of Scotland, from the Society of 

Antiquaries. Edinburgh, i860. Pp. 13. 

Note on a cist, with an urn, discovered at Parkhill, near 

Aberdeen, in Oct., 1881. Wm. Ferguson. Pp. 4. 

Notes on some stone implements, &c., from Shetland. John 

Alexander Smith. Pp. 9. 

Notice of the discovery of a massive silver chain of plain 

double rings or links at Hardwell, Berwickshire. By the 
Hon. Lord Douglas. With notes of similar silver chains 
found in Scotland. By John Alex. Smith. Pp. 7. 

Notes on the Antiquities of the Island of Tiree. J. Sand. 

PP- 5 

Notice of a sculptured stone, bearing on one side an inscrip- 
tion in runes, from Kilbar, Island of Barra. Dr. Geo. Ste- 
phens. Pp. 4. 

Notice of a Cranium found in a short cist near Silvermoor, 

Carstairs Lanarkshire. D. R. Rankine. Pp. 3. 

Notice of an underground structure recently discovered on 

the farm of Mickle Kinord, Aberdeenshire. Rev. J. G. 
Michie. Pp. 3. 

Notice of shell-mounds at Lossiemouth. E. G. Duff. Pp. 2. 

Notice of urns in the museum that have been found with 

articles of use or ornament. Joseph Anderson. Pp. 16. 

Notice of a hoard of bronze weapons and other articles found 

at Monadh-Mor, Killin. Charles Stewart. Pp. 5. 

Notice of a flint arrow-head in the shaft, found in a moss at 

Fyvie, Aberdeenshire, with notes in illustration of the manu- 
facture of arrow shafts with flint tools. Joseph Anderson. 
Pp. 6. 

Notes on the character and contents of a large sepulchral 

cairn of the bronze age at Collessie, Fife, &c. Joseph 
Anderson. Pp. 23. 

— — ■ Notes on the contents of shell-heaps recently exposed in the 
Island of Coll. Donald Ross. Pp. 2. 

Notice of ancient graves at Doudan, near Ballantrae, Ayrshire. 

John Carrick Moore. Pp. 3 . 

Donations to the museum. Francis Abbott. Pp. 3. 

On the presentation of national antiquities and monuments 

in Denmark. J. J. A. Worsaae. Pp. 15. 


Fiom ihe Director. — Notes of some recent excavations in the 
Island of Unst, Shetland, and of the collections of stone 
vessels, implements, etc. Thomas Edmonston. Pp. 5. 

Note of a donation of four sculptured stones from Monifieth, 

Forfarshire. James Neish. Pp. 8. 

— Notes of the sculptured caves near Dysart, in Fife, &c. Miss 

C. Maclagan. Pp. 14. 

Notice of the discovery of two sculptured stones, with symbols, 

at Rhynie, Aberdeenshire. Miss C. Maclagan. Pp. 3. 

Notice of excavations in Cannis, in Strathnaver, Sutherland- 
shire, &c. John Stewart. Pp. 5. 

From Prof. L. Stieda. — Anthropologische Untersuchungen am 
Becken lebender Menschen. Paul Schroter. Dorpat. 1884. 
Pp. 83. 

From the Author. — H. Fischer. On stone implements in Asia. 
Worcester, Mass. 1884. 

From the Author. — Dr. H. F. C. Ten Kate. Quelques obser- 
vations sur les Indiens Iroquois. Pp. 5. From Revue 
d' Anfhrop., de Paris. 

Sur la synonymie ethnique et la Toponymie chez les Indiens 

de I'Amerique du Nord. Amsterdam. 1884. Pp. 11. 
[Reprinted from Trans. Roy. Acad. Sci. Amsterdam.] 
Varietes. Notes sur I'ethnographie des Zuni. Pp. 3. 

Quelques observations ethnographiques recueillies dans la 

presqu'ile Californienne et en Sonora. Pp. 6. 

Sur Quelques Cranes de I'Arizona et du Nouveau Mexique. 

Pp. 7- 
(Extrait de la Revue d'' Anthropologie.') 

Materiaux pour servir a 1' Anthropologie de la presqu'ile Cali- 
fornienne. Paris. 1884. Pp. 19. 
[From Bull. Soc. d'Anthrop.] 

From the Author. — Alph. de Candolle. Heredite de la couleur 
des yeux dans I'espece humaine. Geneva. 1884. Pp- 23. 
[•Ext. Arch, des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles.] 

From the Author. — Baron Joseph De Baye. Sujets decoratifs au 
Regne Animal dansl'industrieGauloise. Paris. 1884. Pp.8. 
[Ext. Mem. Nat. Soc. of Antiquaries of France.] 

From the Author. — Adrian de Mortillet. Premier decade pale- 
oethnologique. Paris. 1881. Pp. 11. 

Deuxieme decade paleoethnologique. Paris. 1882. Pp. 15. 


From the Author. — Heinrich Fisher. Le Precurseur de I'Homme. 
1884. (L'Homme, No. 13.) 

Evohition des especes, evohition des mots. (L'Homme, No. 20.) 

Further remarks on Nephrite. VerhandL BerHner Anthrop. 
Gesellschaft. 1884. Pp. 2. Correspondenz-Blatt. Tune, 
1884. Containing note on a Nephrite Axe, from Brazil. 

From the Author. — Ehner R. Reynolds. Memoir on the Pre- 
Columbian shell-mounds at Newburg, Md., and the aborigi- 
nal shell-fields of the Potomac and the Wicomico rivers. 
Copenhagen. 1884. Pp. 22. From Proc. Cong. Amer. 
Copenhagen. 1883.] 

From the Author. — Juan Ignacio de Armas. La Tabula de los 
Caribs. Estudios Americanistas, L Habana. 1884. Pp.31. 
[Read to the Soc. Anthrop. Havana.] 

From the Author. — Protass Chandra Roy. The Mahabharata. 
Calcutta. Parts 9-1 1, inclusive. 

From the Author. — A. B. Meyer. Ein Zvveiter Rohnephritfund 

in Steiermark. Vienna. Pp. 12. 
Uber Nephrite und ahnliches Material aus Alaska. Dresden. 

1884. Pp. 21. 
Ein neuer Fundort von Nephrit in Asien. Dresden. 1883. 

Pp. ID. 

Ueber die namen Papua, Dajak und Alfuren. Wien. 1882. 

Pp. 18. 

Bemerkungen liber Nephrit. Breslau. Dr. H. Traule. 

1884. Pp. I. 

From the Author. — Henry Phillips. On a supposed Runic inscrip- 
tion at Farmouth, Nova Scotia. Philada. 1884. [From 
Proc. Am. Phil. Soc'y.] 

From the Author. — Heinrich Fischer. Nephritfrage und sub- 
marginale (sub cutane) Durchbohrung von Steingerathen. 
Berlin. 1884. Pp. 4. [Verhandl. Berliner Anthrop. Ges- 

From the Author. — C. C. Jones. The Life and Services of ex- 
Governor Charles Jones Je»kins. Memorial Address. At- 
lanta. 1884. Pp. 56. 

From the Author. — G. A. Colini. Osservazioni etnografiche sui 
Givari. Rome. 1883. Pp. 47. [From Royal Lincean 

From the Institute. — Transactions of Vassar Brothers' Institute 
and its Scientific Section. Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 1883-84. 
Vol. 2. Pp. 166. 

From the Commission. — Bulletinodella Commissione Archaeologica 
Comunale di Roma. Rome. 1884. Pp. 138. 


From the Society. — Boletino da Sociedade de Geographia de Lis- 
boa. 1883. 4 ser, Nos. 8, 9. 

From the Committee. — Mittheilungen des Komite der Geographi- 
schen Gesellschaft von Bern. Oct., 1883. Pp. 8. 

From the Society. — VI. Jahresbericht der Geographischen Gesell- 
schaft von Bern. 1883-84. 

From the Institute. — Rep. of the Am. Archseol. Institute for 1884, 
at Boston. Cambridge. 1884. 

From the Company. — Bulletin of the Library Company of Phila- 
delphia, for July, 1884. 

From the Society. — Bulletins de la Societe d'Anthropologie de 
Paris. Jan. -Mar. , 1884. 

Proc. and Coll. Wyoming Hist, and Geol. Soc'y, Wilkes- 

Barre, Pa. 1858-S4. 

The Manuscripts of the Earl of Ashburnham. (Remarks of 

American Newspapers.) 1884. Pp- 23. 

From the Institute. — Bulletin of the Essex Institute. Vol. 15. 
Nos. 1-9, and Vol. 16, Nos. 1-6. 

From the Society. — Bull. Societe de Geographiede Paris, i, 2, 3 
Trimestre. 1884. 

Compte rendu of the Society. Nos. 10-13, i5~i7 of 1884. 

• Archivio per I'Anthropologia e la Etnologia. Firenze. 1884. 

XIV. Pt. 2. 

Publications of the Imper. Russian Geograph. Soc. St. Peters- 
burg. 1884. XX. Pts. 2, 4. 

Report Imper. Russ. Geograph. Soc. for 1883. St. Peters- 
burg, 1884. 

Bollettino della Societa Geografica Italiana. Roma. 1884. 

Pts. 1-7, 9-10, inclusive. 

From the Museum. — Sixteenth and Seventeenth Annual Report of 
the Peabody Museum. 1884. Vol. III. Nos. 3, 4. 

On motion of Prof. Ward, the thanks of the Society was voted 
for these valuable documents. , 

Mr. W. H. Holmes read a paper entitled " Origin and Devel- 
opment OF Form and Ornament in Ceramic Art." 


The material for this paper was derived chiefly from the native 
ceramic art of the United States. The advantages of this field, as 
compared with that of the classic Orient, is apparent when it is 
remembered that the dawn of that art lies hidden in impenetrable 


shadow, while ours is in the light of the very present. The princi- 
ples involved in this native art are applicable to all times and to all 
kinds of art, as they are based upon the laws of nature. 

Ceramic art presents two classes of phenomena of importance in 
the study of the evolution of aesthetic culture. These relate, first, 
to form, and, second, to ornamentation. 

Form in clay vessels embraces useful shapes, which may or may 
not be ornamental, and aesthetic shapes, which are ornamental and 
may be useful ; also grotesque and fanciful shapes, that may or may 
not be either useful or ornamental. The shapes first assumed by 
vessels in clay depend upon the shape of the vessels employed at the 
time of the introduction of the art, and ornament is subject to similar 

Form may have three origins : First, adventition or accident ; 
second, imitation of natural and artificial models ; third, invention. 
In the early stages of art the suggestions of accident are often 
adopted by men, and are thus fruitful sources of improvements and 
progress. By such means the use of clay was discovered and the 
ceramic art came into existence. The accidental indentation of a 
mass of clay by the foot or hand, or by a fruit or stone, while serv- 
ing as an auxiliary in some simple art, may have suggested the 
means of making a cup, the simplest form of a vessel. 

In time the potter learned to copy both natural and artificial 
models with facility. The range of models is at first, however, very 
limited. The primitive artist does not proceed by methods identi- 
cal with our own. He does not deliberately and freely examine 
all departments of nature or art and select for models those things 
most suitable to convenience or agreeable to fancy ; neither does 
he experiment with the view of inventing new forms. What he at- 
tempts depends almost absolutely upon what happens to be sug- 
gested by preceding forms, and so narrow and so natural are the 
processes of his mind that, knowing his resources, it would be easy 
to closely predict his results. 

The elements of ornamentation are derived chiefly from two 
sources — from the suggestions of incidents attending manufacture, 
and from objects, natural and artificial, associated with the arts. 
The first articles used by men in their simple arts have had in 
many cases decorative suggestions. Shells are exquisitely embel- 
lished with ribs, spines, nodes, and colors. The same is true to a 
somewhat limited extent of the hard cases of fruit, seeds, &c. These 


decorative features, though not essential to the vessel, are never- 
theless an inseparable part of it, and are cast or automatically copied 
by a very primitive people when similar articles are artificially pro- 
duced. In this way a vessel acquires ornamental characters long 
before the workman learns to take pleasure in such details or con- 
ceives a desire beyond that of simple utility. 

Artificial utensils have a still more decided influence upon ceramic 
decoration. The constructional features of textile vessels impress 
themselves upon the plastic clay in manufacture, and in time are 
repeated and copied for the pleasure they give. The simple ideas 
of embellishment thus acquired are constantly subject to modifica- 
tion. A single radical gives rise to a multitude of forms. The 
causes that tend to bring about these results are worthy of the closest 
study. They may be sought in the material, the form, and above 
all the constructional characters of the object decorated. 

Prof. Mason followed Mr. Holmes with a short i-esume of 
Prof. Hartt's theory of the rationale of ornament, published in 
the Popular Science Monthly, for January, 1884. Prof. Hartt 
maintains that the explanation of the shape and color of beautiful 
objects is to be found m the eye itself. We are pleased with certain 
lines because they bring the muscles of the eye into easy and health- 
ful play. 

Prof Mason said that there was in his mind no conflict between 
the methods pursued in Mr. Holmes' paper and Hartt's theory — 
a little differently stated and expanded. Mr. Holmes traces the 
outline of that natural movement which aboriginal potters had 
followed. Hartt sought to show the subjective side and how it was 
that the primitive artist had chosen some forms and rejected others. 
If we will examine our o\vn handwriting we shall find that the same 
two sets of facts present themselves. On the one hand we have 
books, papers, correspondence, copy-books, and many other printed 
and written things ever before our eyes. On the other hand there is 
the set of bones, muscles, and sinews, called the hand, with its great 
variety of lengths, thicknesses, flexibilities, so compounded in each 
as to give rise to a really individual hand. A man's handwriting is 
the movement of all these mobile parts in the lines of least resist- 
ance for each part, but always in the effort to conform to the 

Now the natural world, with its shells, horns, gourds, carapaces, 
reeds; the mechanical world, with its shapes in hard material; the 


curves and twists of spirals, cycloids, and circles innumerable, are 
all the patterns of things, the letters, the copy-book. Tlie clay 
and the potters' tools are pen, ink, and paper. The lines of least 
resistance are partly in the hand of the potter, indeed, as Mr. 
Holmes has shown ; they are partly in the muscles of the eye, as Mr. 
Hartt has said ; but further back than all this is the force of usage 
and inheritance. 

If we hang a hat intentionally on a peg eleven- times, the twelfth 
time it will hang itself up. This is the universal and beneficent 
law of the passage of painful voluntariness into semi-automa- 
tism which follows the frequent repetition of any act whatsoever. 
We are pleased with certain muscular movements which have been 
oft repeated. There is no doubt, therefore, that the eye accustomed 
to certain outlines, the brain accustomed to certain consecutive 
impressions, are pleased with that which has become semi-automatic 
and habitual. We know that such tendencies are strengthened by 
inheritance, for we have here the application of a universal law 
of heredity. 

Dr. Frank Baker said that Hartt seemed in some respects to ig- 
nore certain physiological laws in discussing the movements of the 
eye, and to have too little considered inventive geniuses. The 
source of art must be sought for in the brain that controls the eye ; 
in the association of nerve cells that prompt the movement of mus- 
cles. Taste may follow and accept suggestions from natural forms, 
but art is not imitative, for, having its source in invention, it gives 
something nature does not. 

Mr. Frank H. Gushing said that Hartt apparently did not try 
to ascertain what the eye might develop, but having certain forms 
at hand reasoned therefrom. The speaker had found in his studies 
of ceramic art in the southwest that decoration in basketry had 
long preceded that of pottery, and that the resulting forms might 
be generally attributed to adventition, and taste might have its 
principal source in the environment. 

Eighty-Eighth Regular Meeting, January 6, 1884. 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary of the Council made the following announcements : 

The election of Dr. J. H. Yarnall, as an active member of 


the Society ] and George H. Black, Edinboro', Scotland, and 
Hermann Ten Kate, The Hague, Holland, as corresponding 

Mr. H. N. Bates read a "Memorandum concerning certain 
Mounds in Pontotoc county, Mississippi," visited by J. M. Pollard, 
Esq., of Louisiana. No abstract. 

Mr. O. T. Mason read a paper prepared by Daniel G. Brinton, 

" On the Probable Nationality of the Mound-Builders." 

Dr. Brinton said : Further reading on the subject, and also the 
observations during a trip made to the principal monuments in 
Ohio, have confirmed me in the opinion that we need not go any 
farther than the Southern tribes to find the modern representatives 
of the mound-builders. Since I wrote the article on the mound- 
builders, Mr. Horatio Hale has published his suggestive paper, in 
which he adds strength to this position by linguistic evidence. 

It would probably be hasty to point to any one of the Southern 
tribes as being specifically the descendants of the nation who con- 
structed the great works in the Scioto and Miami Valleys. The 
evidence is ample that nearly all the tribes of the Gulf States and 
Lower Mississippi were accustomed to throw up works of similar 
character and often greater magnitude. They were of radically 
diverse languages, but nearly in the same plane of culture. The 
Natchez, the Taensas, the Chqctaws, the Creeks, the Cherokees, 
and others might put in equal claims. The last mentioned asserted 
that they once lived in the Upper Ohio Valley, and that they built 
the Grave Creek and other mounds, and they are borne out in such 
claims by various historic data. 

With regard to the Shawnees, it has not been sufficiently recog- 
nized by writers that their name in the Algonkin dialects is not a 
national appellation, but a geographical term. It means simply 
" Southerners," and in its earliest employment bore no special ref- 
erence to the tribe whom we call Shawnees. It first appears in a 
map drawn in 1614, intended to show the Dutch colony around 
New Amsterdam. In this the "Sawannew" are located as inhabit- 
ing the whole of Southern New Jersey ; whereas the Shawnees, as 
we understand the term first came to the notice of the New York 
colony in 1692. On this map it simply means " Southern rivers" 
with reference to the position of New York harbor. 


By dialect, tradition, and political affiliation the Shawnees were 
a northern tribe who moved south at no very remote period. Their 
language, according to the Moravian missionaries, was closer to the 
Mohegan than to the Delaware, Nanticoke, or other Southern Algon- 
kin dialects. By tradition they at one time were a branch of the 
Mohegans on the Hudson, and it was to them that they returned when 
driven from their towns in Carolina and on the Tennessee river. The 
name of their principal clan, the Pequa or Pick-e-weu, is said by 
Heckewelder to be the same as that of the Pequods, of Connecticut, 
and he relates that the Mohegans told him that the two were of the 
same family. 

If we can depend upon this evidence, and there is no reason why 
it should be rejected, the " Pre-historic Shawnees" are to be looked 
for in New York and New England. I have no idea whether this 
will correspond with Professor Thomas' views, but I should be 
gratified to hear that we had reached identical conclusions from in- 
dependent study of the subject. 

The four clans of the Shawnees were assembled in Ohio, but in 
Pennsylvania I have not found evidence of any but the Pequas, who 
lived in the valley that still bears their name in Lancaster county. 
Their state of culture was nowise ahead of that of the Delawares. 
They had one clan named Chilicothe, and three of their settlements 
in Ohio bore this name, but while there they had not the slightest 
knowledge or tradition about the ancient earthworks, as we are as- 
sured by the Rev. David Jones, who went out to teach them Christian- 
ity in 1772, and who, I think, is the earliest writer who calls 
attention to the remarkable remains in Southern Ohio. 

Prof. Cyrus Thomas read a paper entitled "Prehistoric Shawnes, 
from Mound Testimony." 

Before reading his paper. Prof. Thomas said, referruig to the pre- 
ceding paper, that he had recently written a letter with a view to 
procuring an exploration of Pontotoc county, Miss., without any 
positive knowledge that ancient remains existed there, and that the 
paper of Mr. Pollard was in verification of the speaker's assumption 
that such remains would be found in that vicinity. 

Mr. C. C. RoYCE, at the request of the Society, read an extract 
from a former paper of his on the origin of the " Shawnees." 

President Powell said that the papers read before the Society 
during the past two years seemed to establish the fact that the 


mound-builders were Indians, and that many Indians built mounds. 
While small burial mounds were frequent and widely distributed, 
the larger mounds and earthworks with circumvallation — once 
probably crowned with palisades — were confined to narrower limits. 
The old theory that attributed these remains to an extinct high 
grade of civilization seemed to be well nigh abandoned. 

Dr. Gregory said that he had held to the old theory until he had 
become convinced of its error, and described a large mound, some 
fifty feet high, that he visited in Minnesota, which gave conclusive 
evidence of its comparatively recent structure. Depressions were 
still to be seen close about the foot of the mound, from whence 
material had apparently been taken to aid in forming the mound. 

Seventh Annual and Eighty-Ninth Regular Meeting, 
January 20, 1885. 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary of the Council announced the electi(fn of John 
Addison Porter and H. L. Reynolds as active members of the 
Society, and advisee! the Society of the death of Dr. Henri Martin, 
of Paris, France, and Dr. R. J. Farquharson, of Des Moines, Iowa, 
corresponding members of th'i Society. 

The Treasurer then submitted his annual report. 

On the motion of Col. Mallery, the President appointed Messrs. 
Bates, Baker, and Holmes a committee (composed of members out- 
side the Council) to audit the accounts of the Treasurer. 

This session being the time for the annual election of officers, the 
balloting for officers resulted as follows : 

President T- W. POWELL, 

Vice-Presidents . . . . j gaRRICK RLVLLERY. 

General Secretary . . . S. V. PROUDFIT. 

Secretary to the Council . . F. A. SEELY. 


Treasurer . . . . . J. H. GORE. 
Curator W. J. HOFFMAN. 


Additional Members of the Council -| Yt ' tt ^P-}^^^' 

j H. H. BATES. 



The President announced that the next meeting would be public, 
to which the members of the Biological and Philosophical Societies 
were specially invited for the purpose of listening to the annual 
address of the President. 

Ninetieth Regular Meeting, February 3, 1885. 

In accordance with previous announcement the Society assembled 
in public session to listen to the annual address of the President, 
there being present on special invitation the members of the Bio- 
logical and Philosophical Societies and other friends of the Society. 

Dr. J. C. Welling introduced to the audience President J. W. 
Powell, who delivered an address entitled "From Savagery to 
Barbarism. ' ' 

At the close of the address, on motion of Mr. Mason, a vote of 
thanks to the speaker was unanimously passed. 

The Secretary of the Council announced that the Saturday 
course of lectures under the auspices of the Anthropological and 
Biological Societies had been arranged, and that programmes of the 
first part of the course were ready for distribution. 


Ninety-First Regular Meeting, February 17, 1885. 
Prof. Otis T. Mason, Vice President, in the Chair. 

A report from the Curator was then read, including a list of 
publications received since his last report : 

Bull. Library Co. Philada., No. 14. Jan., 1885. 

Bol. Soc. Geog. Ital. Ser. II, Vol. IX, Fac. 12. Dec. '84, '85. 

Mahabharata, Calcutta. Pt'. XII, XIII. 

Bui. Soc. Geog. de Paris. Vol. X, Tim. 4. 1884. 

Compte Rendu, de la Soc. de Geog. de Paris. Nos. 18, 19. 

Elements d' An thropologie. Par. Alphonse Cels. Bruxelles, vol. 
I, 1884. 8vo., pp. 202. 

Les Habitans de Suriname. Prince Roland Bonaparte. Paris. 
1S84. Royal 4to , pp. 227, pit. 60. 

Bull. Essex Institute. July-Dec, 1884. 

Bull. Soc. d'Anthrop. Paris. Fasc. 2, 3. 1884. 

Journal of Proc. of the Victoria Institute, London. XVIII, No. 
70. 1884. 

Grammaire Elementaire. Quichee, L. Aleman. Pamph. 

Quelques observations sur les ossements de notre musee. Mari- 
court et Vinet, Senlis, 1884. 

Ymer. Parts 5, 6. 1884. 

Bull. Soc. Geog. de Lyon. Sept. -Dec, 1884. 

On the Cuspidiform Petroglyphs, etc. Dr. D. G. Brinton. Pamph. 

Xinca Indians of Guatemala. ''' '' '■' 

Impressions of figures on a "Meday" stick. Dr. D. G. Brinton. 

Memoirs Soc Antiq. de la Morinie, St. Omer. i Vol. 1883. 

Bui. Russ. Geog. Soc. Also 2 pamphlets. 

Mem. Soc. d'Hist., etc. Beaune. 1883. 

Verein fur Erdkunde zu Halle a. S. Mittheilungen. 1884. 

Imp. Soc. of the Friends of Nat. Hist. Anthrop. and Eth. 
Muscar. 3 vols. 1884. 

Bull. Hungarian Geog. Soc. Budapest. Complete for 1884. 

On motion of Prof. Thomas, a vote of thanks was passed to the 
various authors and societies from which these gifts were received. 

Mr Bates, from Auditing Committee, reported that the com- 
mittee had duly examined the accounts of the Treasurer for the 
past year as reported at the annual meeting January 20, and had 
found the same correct. 


Prof. Ward read a paper entitled " Moral and Material 
Progress Contrasted." 

One of the most obvious and frequently observed ficts that lie 
upon the surface of modern society is the persistence of social evils 
in spite of the progress of discovery and invention brought about 
for the purpose of relieving them. 

The actual removal of social evils constitutes moral progress ; the 
discovery of principles and the invention of appliances calculated 
to remove them constitute material progress. It is these two forms 
of social progress which it is proposed to consider in this paper. 

As to the degree to which moral progress has taken place and is 
taking place in society, there are wide differences of opinion. Some 
sanguine minds imagine it to be very rapid, but this is generally 
due to a confusion of unrelated phenomena. They either confound 
material with moral progress directly, or they confound the pre- 
dominance of cherished religious beliefs with that of morality, 
or the establishment of favorite forms of government with that of 
justice and liberty. Others, and this is much the larger class, deny 
that any moral progress has ever taken place or is now taking place, 
and maintain, on the contrary, that there has been moral degener- 
acy, and that the world is growing constantly worse. In so far as 
these are merely influenced by the survival of a tradition very preva- 
lent among early races they may, perhaps, be left out ofthe account. 
Many of them, however, disclaim such influence and base their con- 
victions on the facts of history and the condition of society as it is. 
But such also must be set down as extremists, incapable of duly 
weighing the evidence from all sides of the question. 

A highly respectable class, embracing many of the finest minds 
of the present period, see no hope except in the gradual change of 
the constitution of the human mind, to be brought about through 
hereditary influences and the slow developmental laws by which 
man has been at length raised above the brute. They deny the 
power of intelligence to improve the moral condition of society, 
and regard the ethical faculty as entirely distinct from the intel- 
lectual. "It is," said Mr. Herbert Spencer to an American 
reporter, " essentially a question of character, and only in a sec- 
ondary degree a question of knowledge. But for the universal 
delusion about education as a panacea for political evils, this would 


have been made sufficiently clear by the evidence daily disclosed in 
your papers." And in a private letter received after his return to 
England, relative to views which I had expressed, he re-asserts this 
doctrine, and says: "As you are probably aware, and as, in fact, I 
said very emphatically when in America, I regard social progress as 
mainly a question of character and not of knowledge or enlighten- 

In the light of all these somewhat conflicting opinions, if we were 
to rest the case altogether upon authority, we should at least be 
compelled to admit that the real moral progress of the Avorld has 
been extremely slow, and that it is imperceptible even in the high- 
est stages of enlightenment. Such, too, seems to be the lesson of 
history and of observation. It is only when we contemplate long 
periods of history and contrast the present or the recent past with 
the remote past that an advance can be perceived in the moral con- 
dition of mankind. Yet, when such an historic parallax is once 
secured, the fact that moral progress actually has taken place is dis- 
tinctly seen. To read the history of England and compare the acts 
committed a few centuries ago by men of our own race, with what 
any one can see would be done now under like circumstances, is 
sufficient to demonstrate that improvement has been going on in 
both individual and public morals. Making every possible allow- 
ance for all that is bad in the present social system, no one could 
probably be found candidly to maintain that it is inferior, from the 
moral point of view, to that of the middle ages or even of the six- 
teenth century. Modern kings, bad as they are, no longer put their 
sons to death to prevent them from usurping their thrones, and the 
sons of kings, however profligate they may be, do not seek to 
dethrone their fathers. When Rome was at its zenith, it was no 
more than every one expected that the great armies of Caesar and 
Pompey, on their triumphal return from victorious fields, would 
turn their arms upon each other for the mastery of the empire. 
And I have heard those familiar with Roman history predict, at the 
time when the vast armies of Grant and Sherman, far outnumbering 
the Roman legions, were marching victoriously through different 
parts of the South, that the last grand struggle of the war would be 
between the Army of the Cumberland and that of the Potomac — 
forgetting that since the age of the Caesars there had been moral 
progress sufficient to render both the leaders and the soldiers incap- 
able of such an act. 


Political opponents are no longer beheaded on the accession of 
a new party to power ; neither are they thrust into dungeons nor 
exiled, as formerly. Persecution for opinion's sake has practically 
ceased. Scientific men are no longer burned at the stake, like Bruno 
and Servetus, nor made to recant, like Galileo and Buffon. Witch- 
craft has dwindled into innocent palmistry, and heresy is only pun- 
ished in a few backward communities by a mild form of social 
ostracism. Imprisonment for debt has been abolished, and the 
P'leet and the galleys are things of the past. Primogeniture and 
entail have disappeared from most codes of law, and trial by jury 
has been instituted in the most influential states. The slave trade 
has been suppressed wherever European powers have acquired su- 
premacy, and slavery has been abolished in all the most enlight- 
ened countries. Vast public and private charities have been insti- 
tuted, and societies for the prevention of cruelty to children and 
to animals receive the sanction of law. And finally a great moral 
crusade, with a display of far more zeal than knowledge, is being 
preached against the admitted evils of intemperance. 

There has, then, been some moral progress within the historic 
period, but, considering the amount of moral agitation, it has been 

It is the characteristic of moral progress that it takes place rhyth- 
mically. In the achievement of moral reforms there are always 
experienced partial and temporary failures, prolonged interruptions, 
serious reverses, and constantly recurring waves of reaction, so 
that at no time has it been possible for the candid observer to 
perceive that any certain advance was being made. The- ground 
continually being lost is never appreciably less then the ground 
gained, and none but the ignorant, the blinded, or the oversanguine 
see much cause for congratulation. In the great ocean of moral 
action so nearly equal are the tidal ebbs and flows that only the stoi- 
cal philosopher whose vision ranges back into the remotest past or 
forward unto the remotest future, with utter contempt for the 
transient present, can perceive the minute increments of secular 
change — much as the geologist, provided with his vast time- 
measures, perceives the changes that are slowly taking place on the 
coasts of continents washed by the tides and waves ot the appar- 
ently changeless ocean of waters. 

Such is moral progress in society. With it we may now compare, 
or rather contrast, the other form of social progress which we have 
distinguished as material. 


Material progress results entirely from mental and manual labor 
laid out on invention and construction. Moral progress is a pro- 
duct of feeling, material progress one of thought ; the action ac- 
companying the former is called conduct, that accompanying the 
latter is called lal^or. Conduct is confined to the avoidance of inter- 
ference with liberty of action in others. Labor is directed to the 
production and distribution of the objects of desire. Moral action 
aims at the restraint or control of the forces of society, of human 
desires, prejudices, and passions. Invention and labor aim at the 
control and utilization of physical and mechanical forces, and of such 
vital processes as underlie pastoral and agricultural pursuits. 

The contrast in the essential nature of these two classes of social 
phenomena is thus seen to be very wide, but it is not greater than 
is the difference in their mode of operating. We have seen that 
moral progress always takes place by rhythmic action, and that its 
secular slowness is not due to its own inherent sluggishness, but 
to the fact that only the algebraic sum, of its many fluxes and 
refluxes can be counted. In material development nothing of the 
kind is found. Every step is a permanent gain. Every mechani- 
cal invention is an inalienable contribution to the material pros- 
perity of society. If the particular device first produced becomes 
at length obsolete, as is usually the case, it is only because from it 
as a basis better devices, involving additional principles and doing 
more efficient service, have grown up. And such, in fact, is the 
nature of all inventions. 

But the machine is only the material embodiment of intellectual 
conceptions, and it is these that lie at the foundation of all material 
progress. Indeed, much of this progress has consisted of such 
conceptions without any definite materialization. Of this class is 
all real knowledge of nature, only part of which can be directly 
applied to man's material ameiioration. Every natural truth 
acquired proves advantageous, and the progress of pure science, 
like the progress of invention, has been steady though not uniform, 
never intermittent nor ryhthmical. The misguided forces of feeling 
which underlie the fluctuating moral activities of society have often 
resisted the progress of science, have seriously checked it, some- 
times apparently arrested it during long periods, but they have never 
succeeded in forcing it backwards. The same is true of art, espec- 
ially of practical or useful art. This fact is strikingly exemplified 
in the interest attaching to the few alleged "lost arts", as though 


it were next to impossible for a single art to be wholly lost. And 
so it is. Every age has known all that was known by the age that 
preceded it and has added something to this. Every age has pos- 
sessed all the arts of the age that preceded it, and has added some- 
thing to them. And this in spite of the most prolonged moral 
reactions, such, for example, as that of the middle ages. 

If we examine the arts, implements,- utensils, and weapons of any 
of the lower tribes, as, for example, the Esquimaux of the extreme 
north, we shall find that they represent a high degree of skill, a 
large amount of inventive thought, and a considerable real knowl- 
edge of the laws of nature and of physical forces. A comparison 
of many such tribes also shows that these devices represent, like 
those of the most enlightened peoples, a series of steps in invention 
answering to our improvements. But a better implement is never 
abandoned for a poorer one, and here, as in the higher races, pro- 
gress has been constant — always forward. We may therefore safely 
conclude that the present high state of material advancement in 
scientific nations is the result of a series of intellectual conceptions 
materially embodied in art, stretching back into that dim past when 
the club embodied the highest mechanical principles known to man. 

Such is material progress, and such are the essential particulars 
in which it so widely differs in nature and method from moral pro- 
gress. But, great as these differences seem and are, there is a point 
toward which they may be made, hypothetically at least, to con- 
verge. This point is where the human activities are conceived as 
natural phenomena, and their control through the normal inventive 
process is contemplated as a true art. If the power to do this shall 
ever be attained, there is no reason why morals may not progress 
in the same manner and at the same rate as material civilization. 
The true interpreters of human history now understand that it is to 
material progress, /. <?., to science and art, that what moral progress 
has actually taken place is indirectly due. It is knowledge of the 
universe enlarging the mental horizon that has dispelled the bigotry 
of pre-scientific ages and thrown the mantle of charity over indi- 
vidual conduct and. opinion. And it is the arts of intercommuni- 
cation that have really civilized the modern world, as compared with 
the world before their introduction. 

But since morals, from the point of view of social science, are 
concerned exclusively with the welfare of men, and since material 
progress, both physical and intellectual, is also directed exclusively 


toward this saii>e end, the question naturally arises, why does 
not the welfare of men advance pari passu with the progress of 
science and art? As already remarked, no thoughtful person 
will maintain that it does so advance, some insisting that the 
two are wholly independent, and others claiming that the moral 
condition of society is degenerating in spite of the brilliant material 
civilization of these later times. After conceding all that is possi- 
ble on the side of a real moral progress in society the case is bad 
enough, and the blunt comment of crude common sense naturally 
and properly is, of what use are science and art if they are incom- 
petent to add anything to the general welfare of mankind? And 
to this question the response of the highest science is that if they 
cannot do this they are of no use. The welfare of mankind is the 
ultimate test of utility, and whatever fails to withstand that test 
stands condemned. 

But admitting, as has already been done, that all the perceptible 
moral progress that has taken place has been due to that of intelli- 
gence in interaction with the practical arts which it necessarily 
creates, it may still be a question whether this trifling result is really 
worth the Titanic efforts which this teeming age puts forth. The 
attempt to answer this question would probably be attended with 
insuperable difficulties and need not be made. It will be more 
profitable to consider the far more important one whether, in the 
nature of things, this admitted slight influence of material upon 
moral progress could, even theoretically, be so far increased as to 
render them somewhat proportional in amount. 

Moral progress may be defined as embracing all those changes 
in man's social condition which actually enhance his general 
well-being; material progress may be defined as embracing those 
changes which give him power, if judiciously employed, to improve 
his condition, without implying such employment. If these defi- 
nitions are correct, it is evident that all that is needed to make moral 
progress depend quantitatively upon material progress is to secure 
the judicious employment of the modifications of crude nature which 
are produced by human thought and action. Knowledge, ingenuity, 
skill, and industry need to be applied to moral ends and directed to 
the attainment of the social well-being. At present science and 
art are only potential factors in civilization. The need is that they 
be converted into actual factors. They are well nigh omnipotent 
in the accomplishment of anything toward which they can be once 


fairly directed. The difficult}' is entirely that of securing for them 
the opportunity for free action. The power, for example, to pro- 
duce a large quantity of a useful commodity may exist, but the con- 
ditions be wanting for placing the product in the hands of those 
who want it. This checks the production without affecting the pro- 
ducing power. That lies latent, and such latent power is simply 
wasted. Nor is it altogether a discrepancy between production and 
distribution. The power to distribute exists as well as the power to 
produce, but the conditions are wanting which are necessary to call 
that power into exercise. And this is the actual industrial state of 

What is true of art is true of science. Intelligence, far more than 
necessity, is the mother of invention, and the influence of knowl- 
edge as a social factor, like that of wealth, is proportional to the 
extent of its. distribution. 

Society has always presented to the thoughtful student two great 
inequalities as the adequate explanation of nearly all its evils — in- 
equality of knowledge and inequality of possession. Moral progress, 
in so far as it has taken place at all, has consisted in the slight diminu- 
tion of one or both of these inequalities. This is always accomplished 
by the adoption of a better system of distribution. These two com- 
modities, information and possession, differ in the essential particu- 
lar that the latter is and the former is not destroyed in consumption. 
The existence of a supply of knowledge for distribution is therefore 
proved by the very fact of its inequality. But there is a sense in 
which the supply of wealth for distribution is also practically unlim- 
ited. Production never ceases from having reached a limit to the 
power to produce. It always ceases from having exceeded the 
power of the community to consume. But the limit of consump- 
tion is in turn never that of the desire to consume ; it is always that 
of the power to obtain. The power of both production and con- 
sumption is limited only by that of distribution — not the mechan- 
ical means of distribution, for these, too, are unlimited, but the 
conditions to the performance of the sociological function of dis- 
tribution. Could the distribution of knowledge and of physical 
necessities go on at a rate at all proportional to their possible crea- 
tion, the moral progress of society, /. e., the increase in its aggregate 
well-being or enjoyment, would not only be as rapid, but would 
also be as uniform and steady as its material progress. If the knowl- 
edge now in possession of the few were in the possession of all, its 


benefits would be far more than proportional to its universality, 
since inequality itself often renders knowledge positively injurious. 
Although it be true that if the actual wealth of the world were 
equally distributed the share of each individual would be a very 
small fortune, yet if the limitations to possible distribution were 
removed production would so far increase that almost any desired 
portion might foil to each and all. 

Wherein, then, consists this mysterious yet potent barrier to the 
distribution of wealth and wisdom : this practically prohibitory 
tariff upon the world's commerce in both thoughts and things? 

The answer is rather deep than difficult. The two processes as 
they go on in society belong to antithetically opposite categories 
of social phenomena. We have in them the ultimate kernel of that 
broad contrast which has just been drawn between moral and mate- 
rial progress. It is the great distinction between natural and arti- 
ficial processes, between genetic and teleologic activity, between 
growth and manufacture, between the method by which feeling works 
and that by which intellect works. The former is a method of 
direct effort, and fails in the great majority of cases to attain its end 
because of obstacles which are never taken into account. The lat- 
ter is a method of indirect calculation by which the obstacles are 
foreseen, and in one way or another provided against before the 
advance is attempted. Hence it is always successful if the phenom- 
ena and laws to be dealt with are really understood. This is why 
science and art, as already stated, move. ever forward, never back- 
ward. The discovery of truth on the one hand, and the invention 
of artificial appliances on the other, are always going on, multiply- 
ing the power of man to produce and distribute the objects of desire. 
Of the gain thus made nothing is ever lost. But when we come to 
the actual utilization of the products of discovery, invention, and 
handicraft, we find this under the control of the opposite class of 
forces. The power to produce either knowledge or wealth is con- 
trolled by man, exercised when it can serve his purposes, checked 
or arrested when it no longer does this. But the power to possess — 
the ability to obtain the truth discovered or the commodity wrought 
— is controlled by natural laws and depends upon the thousand acci- 
dents of life — the conflicting wills of men, the passions of avarice 
and ambition, the vicissitudes of fortune, the uncertainties of cli- 
mate and seasons, the circumstances of birth and social station, the 
interests and caprices of nations and rulers. Of what use is discov- 


ered truth to the millions whose minds it can never reach? Why 
produce useful commodities which those who need them are unable 
to obtain? For while all producers are also consumers, and nearly- 
all consumers are at the same time producers, yet few can satisfv 
their wants, however capable they may be of producing an equiva- 
lent in value of other forms. Inventions in the practical arts by 
which the power is acquired to multiply the products of labor, in- 
stead of working the rapid amelioration of the laboring classes, 
actually injure their prospects by throwing skilled artisans out of 
employment ; and instead of resulting in greatly increased pro- 
duction they do not appreciably affect production, but reduce 
the amount of labor to the disadvantage of the laborer. The 
plea of over-production in periods of financial depression is the 
sheerest mockery, since it is just at such times that the greatest 
want is felt. It may be true that more is produced than the 
consumers can obtain, but fer less is produced at all times than 
they actually need and are able to render a full equivalent for. The 
eager manner in which every demand for laborers is responded to 
sufficiently proves this. It proves also that the industrial system is 
out of order, and that we live in a pathological state of society. The 
vast accumulations of goods at the mills avail ^nothing to the half- 
clad men and women who are shivering by thousands in the streets 
while vainly watching for an opportunity to earn the wherewithal to 
be clothed. The storehouse of grain held by the speculator against 
a rise in prices has no value to the famished communities who would 
gladly pay for it in value of some form. 

Yet in all this the fault cannot fairly be said to lie with individ- 
uals nor with corporations, with manufacturer nor merchant, with 
producer nor consumer. These do but act the nature with Avhich 
they are endowed. This defective circulation of industrial pro- 
ducts is the result of the state of society. It is in one sense normal, 
since it is due to the operation of natural laws governing social 
phenomena. The enormous inequalities of both the classes named 
and the evils resulting, constituting the major part of the woes of 
mankind, are simply due to the fact that the agencies for distribu- 
ting knowledge and wealth dixefree in the politico-economic sense, 
/. e., not regulated nor controlled by intelligent foresight. The 
contrast between moral and material progress is the contrast be- 
tween Nature and Art. Nature is free. Art is caged. The forces 
of Nature play unbridled among themselves, until choked by 



their mutual friction, they are equilibrated and come to rest. Art 
commands them with tones of authority to pursue paths selected 
by intelligence and thus indefinitely to continue to exert their 
power. Under the dominion of Science, /. e., under the intelligent 
control of physical forces, man's i)ower to create the .objects of de- 
sire and to send them where he will, is practically unlimited. But 
under the dominion of Nature, /. e., under the free operation of the 
social forces, as yet beyond the reach of science, these objects of 
human necessity in seeking unaided their proper destination con- 
flict perpetually in their j)assage, dasliing against unseen obstruc- 
tions, forcing themselves into inextricable entanglements, polariz- 
ing themselves around powerful centers of attraction, heaping them- 
selves up in inaccessible " corners," or flying off on tangential lines 
to be lost forever. 

This is what in modern phrase is very properly denominated the 
"waste of competition." But it is far more than the mere waste 
of the wealth produced. It is the paralysis of the strong hands of 
science and art as they co-operate with labor in the creation of 
value. It is the stubborn, the protracted resistance which the moral 
forces of society offer to its material as well as to its moral progress. 

The statement of the problem is its theoretical solution, which 
can be nothing less than the conquest by science of the domain of 
the social as it has conquered that of the physical forces. 

But alas ! how wide is the difference between the theoretical and 
the practical solution of a problem to the bare statement of which 
the foremost thinkers of the age are as yet unwilling to listen. 


The paper was discussed at length by INIessrs. Powell, Welling, 
Thomas, Baker, Peters, Hart, and Ward. 

Major Powell maintained that there had been much moral prog- 
ress, and gave numerous illustrations of this among uncivilized races. 
He said that some of these races had elaborate codes of morals often 
worthy of imitation by civilized races, and that the work of devising * 
means of preventing and terminating controversy and securing jus- 
tice had engrossed the energies of all people from time immemorial, 
that it had been largely successful, and had resulted in great moral 
progress, as great as, or even greater, than the material progress 
achieved bv such races.. 


Mr. Welling, after paying a high tribute to Mr. Ward's paper, 
expressed the opinion that the complaint which it formulated, based 
on the assumed failure of moral progress to keep pace with material 
progress, was in itself the mark and the expression of growing moral 
aspirations, seeking more and more to realize themselves in the 
figure of society. It is a sign of intellectual growth when an age 
is working vehemently on unsolved problems along the converging 
lines of scientific inquiry; and it is an augury of moral progress 
Avhen an age has become impatient of existing social adjustments 
in their relation to public well-being, and is longing for a better 
co-ordination of social relations and a better distribution of social 
advantages. The unrest of such an epoch, he said, is the unrest 
incidental to all transition periods, and is a ground of congratula- 
tion rather than a source of lamentation. It is necessary that social 
wants and moral aspirations shall be distinctly articulated before 
they -can be properly embodied in institutions or in regulations; and 
this embodiment must needs be a slow process under the formula of 
social evolution, because social experiments are experiments made 
on the grandest of all living organisms — the body politic — and not 
in corpore vili. 

Nor is it enough that the co-ordination of society should be 
directed by the highest intelligence of the community, if that intel- 
ligence be congested in the head of the social organism. It is so 
in China to-day, and has there resulted in a stationary civilization. 
It had been so in the feudal system of the middle ages, and had 
there resulted in a cast-iron polity destructive of moral progress 
and of social well-being, until that cast-iron polity had been broken 
by the expansive force of a larger and more complex social life 
permeating the lower members of the body politic. True moral 
progress can take place only in asocial organism which is "vital in 
every part," for here the actions, reactions, and interactions of 
public opinions give the widest possible distribution to social 
thoughts, feelings, purposes, and aspirations. It is in such an 
organism that "discussion becomes the mould of measures," to use 
the fine phrase of Thucydides, and that the lines of safe social 
change can be soonest discovered and soonest followed. In such 
a community there will be a growing complexity and a growing 
difficulty in the problems to be solved by each generation, but the 
problems will not increase in difficulty or number beyond the grow- 
ing resources of civilization for coping with them. He illustrated 


this point by citing the new and difficult social problems created by 
the abolition of slavery, and by the removal of governmental restric- 
tions on the freedom of industry. 

Dr. Baker said that in estimating progress in the domain of 
morals we should be careful to consider the average state through- 
out a sufficiently wide area. Comparing the present state of the 
civilized world with that of ancient Greece and Rome, we do not 
at first see such a marked advance, but it should be remembered 
that at the time of Socrates and Seneca the greater part of Europe 
was living in a state of low barbarism, comparable to that of no- 
madic savage tribes, preying on each other like hawks and falcons, 
and it was not until after the Norman Conquest that life and prop- 
erty in the northern part of Europe were safe from ruthless marau- 
ders and sea-robbers. Respect for abstract right and justice were 
matters of late growth, clearly recognized, it is true, by the Greeks 
and Romans, especially by the latter. 

We may be in error in estimating the state of morals in any 
ancient nation, for we know that it is extremely difficult to correctly 
estimate our contemporaries. Thousands of Englishmen suppose 
to day that our late civil war was a mere struggle for supremacy, a 
conflict for territory, and it seems hopeless for an American to un- 
derstand French politics or French morality. According to the 
average French novel, infidelity to marital relations is the rule, yet 
all who have had access to French households agree that in no 
country are the family habits more sweet, affectionate, and fixed. I 
am sure that we would err grievously to take our view of French 
morals from Zola, Balzac, or Sue. In reading Plato I have been 
startled ac the mention of certain habits and practices in such a 
connection as to show that they were not regarded by the author as 
at all objectionable, practices which would to-day be considered in- 
famous. The collection at the Museo Borbonico at Naples, contains 
many articles of personal adornment and public exhibition from 
Pompeii which are so shocking to our ideas that they are not shown 
to the general public, and Terence, Plautus, Juvenal, and Rabelais 
abound in passages which show that they addressed an audience to 
whom gross and lascivious ideas gave a pleasure which to-day is 
usually replaced by disgust. Indeed this attitude of mind was so 
common that even the purest Greek and Roman authors are now 
read in our schools with expurgated editions. 

It seems to me clear that a certain unwritten code of morals not 


always easily defined has been growing throughout the historical 
period with a steady progress on the whole. I refer to that code 
which has for its basis the criticism of our fellows, and which we 
call the morals and manners of a gentleman. Obscured by many 
absurd and trivial details as to what clothing we shall wear and what 
corner of our cards we shall turn down, it has yet a very substantial 
moral basis, and there are evident signs of its advance. Time was 
when it was not considered necessary to adhere closely to the truth, 
and when the seduction of young girls was considered an accom- 
plishment. Our grandfathers reverenced a five-bottle man while 
we look rather askance at one who " tarrieth long at the wine." 
I believe that never in the world nas the standard of clean, healthy 
morality been as high as to-day, although I am aware that the eager 
scramble for money perverts and injures many features of the fair 

We do not always completely realize the Titanic task which this 
wonderful teeming nineteenth century has before it. The civiliza- 
tion of the past had for its object the training and enlightenment of 
the few; we are apt to judge of it by its results upon that few, and 
forget the countless miserable hordes of slaves and plebes that were 
little above cattle, and whose morals no one noted. These formed 
the armies that sacked and burned conquered cities, a proceeding that 
was once a matter of course, performing deeds of lust and rapine 
that are almost impossible to realize. The task to-day is to civilize 
a//, to give to all the opportunity to live healthful, active, lives of 
usefulness and enjoyment. It will take long, and we are in the 
throes of the conflict. Of all biological processes those that bring 
the passions under control are the slowest. The African whose 
grandfather was a cannibal will not at once conform to the moral 
attitude of the descendants of a long line of civilized ancestry, how- 
ever he may seem to do so. 

On the other hand, I cannot but note that any stride in material 
progress must ameliorate the general condition, and so foster moral 
progress. That morality has something to do with food supply is 
evident to us all, and it is a matter of daily observation that one is 
more ready to do a good deed after breakfast. The poor half- 
starved Irish peasant ready to shoot his landlord on trifling provo- 
cation is transformed in the course of a generation to a jovial, hard- 
working, and tolerably law-abiding citizen when transferred to a 
more genial environment. 


Mr. E. T. Peters said he had been deeply interested in listen- 
ing to the paper read by Prof. Ward. He thought that in some 
of the comments made in the course of the discussion it had been 
assumed that the term moral progress, as used in the paper, referred 
to improvement in public morals; but, as the essayist had defined 
it, it embraced not only this but everything else which advanced 
the happiness of man. The lack of progress which had been chiefly 
dwelt upon in the paper just read seemed to him to consist mainly 
in the tardy advance of political and social science. Between this 
and the marvelous advances which in modern times had been made 
in the physical sciences and in their application to the arts of life 
there was mdeed, a striking contrast. Referring to a remark which 
Major Powell had made as to the necessity for new adjust- 
ments in social organization arising from changes in the materia^ 
conditions under which a society existed, the speaker said, that 
was a pregnant thought. The changes of condition brought about 
within the last one hundred years through the introduction of 
labor-saving devices into the industries of the civilized world had 
alone amounted to an economic revolution, and a need had thus 
been created for changes correspondingly great in the social adjust- 
ments which relate to the production and distribution of wealth. 
The knowledge essential to the making of such changes as the best 
interests of society required had, however, not been in existence, 
and although vast social changes had occurred, they had come 
about not in pursuance of any wise and comprehensive plan, but 
through the blindly exerted pressure of changing circumstances, 
and in a large part they had been productive of great social misery 
and discontent. To take a single illustration, the introduction of 
the new industrial methods had given a powerful impetus to the 
growth of towns and cities, causing them to spread over large areas 
of suburban land, or to rise up on land where none had stood 
before. This had operated to the great enrichment of a few land- 
owners, at the expense of crushing rents and ruinous over-crowding 
to the poorer portions of the urban population. Society had no 
interest in this enrichment of a few land-owners, because it had 
occurred independent of the exercise on their part of any of those 
economic or social virtues which it is the policy of society to en- 
courage ; while on the other hand the most imperious considerations 
of public policy had demanded that the correlative over-crowding 
of the poor — unwholesome no less from a moral than a physical 


point of view, and tending to rapid social deterioration — should if 
possible have been prevented. A social adjustment adapted to that 
purpose might have been found in a land tax like that suggested 
by a very eminent English economist, the late John Stuart Mill, 
namely, a tax which as nearly as practicable should appropriate for 
public purposes the whole unearned increase in the rental value of 
land. But Mr. Mill's suggestion had not been made until about 
fifteen years ago, and the advanced public opinion necessary to the 
adoption of a plan involving some such principle did not exist 
even yet. That the situation created by the want of social and 
political adjustments adapted to modern industrial conditions was 
a very serious one was apparent from indications that might be seen 
on every hand. To close the great gap between social and physical 
science — between moral progress as defined in the paper just read 
and material progress as illustrated in the stupendous achievements 
of modern industrial art — was in the speaker's opinion the crying 
need of the time, and unless this need were supplied there would 
be imminent danger o'f a social catastrophe. In order tliat it 
might be supplied it was necessary that social questions should 
receive attention to a vastly increased extent. In particular should 
the most serious and unprejudiced consideration be given to the 
manifestations of discontent that came from the working people of 
every civilized nation. If they were not proposing the best remedies 
for tlie evils they complained of, so much the greater was the need 
that the deep sociological problems involved should be taken up in 
earnest by those who had more time and a better intellectual equip- 
ment for their study; and they must be taken up, not as it was to be 
feared they had been by some men rated high as political econo- 
mists, namely, in the spirit of an advocate retained for the defense 
of the existing state of things — but in the pure spirit of the man of 
science, ready to follow where the truth should lead, however 
great and radical the social changes which might be involved in 
doing so. 

There were very influential writers who would have us believe 
that the discontent of the poorer classes had no foundation miless it 
were in the mischievous meddling of governments with the natural 
course of affairs. The speaker believed that we should come much 
nearer the truth if we accepted the views advanced in the paper 
under discussion, which were directly the reverse of that just indi- 
cated, recognizing the necessity of social coordinations to which 


only governmental agencies could be adequate. There was doubt- 
less a field for legislative action in the repeal of bad existing laws, 
but there was a still wider one in the enactment of good ones 
adapted to the needs of society. 

Mr. Ward, in reply to numerous inquiries and objections made 
during the* discussion of the paper, explained that for the sake 
of brevity he had omitted any precise definition of the term 
Moral Progress as used in the paper. He said that the term 
was often employed in two quite distinct senses, and that much of 
the discussion had considered it in the other sense from that clearly 
implied in the paper. There is a subjective sense which relates to 
individual character and an objective sense which relates to col- 
lective well-being. The paper did not pretend to discuss the 
question whether human character had advanced, or how much it 
had advanced. It aimed only to consider the relation of material 
civilization to social well-being, the sole test of moral progress in 
this objective sense being the condition attained with respect to the 
enjoyment of life. This progress might be either positive, consist- 
ing in an increase in the pleasures of life; or it might be negative, 
and consist in the reduction of the pains of life. In fact this 
negative progress has been by far the most observable, the chief 
improvement in man's condition thus far being some slight mitiga- 
tion of the evils of existence. In view of this criterion of moral 
progress as measured by the degree of collective happiness, all that 
had been said respecting higher standards of taste in literature and 
social life was irrelevant to the discussion, since it simply con- 
founded refinement with enjoyment, which are two entirely distinct 
things. Admitting that finer sensibilities are capable of higher en- 
joyment, this is far from proving that they necessarily enjoy more, 
for they are also capable of more acute suffering, and the whole 
c|uestion originally was whether material civilization prevents more 
of the latter than it occasions. 

Mr. Ward in conclusion expressed surprise that Dr. Welling 
should have seemed to regard his paper at all in the light of a 
jeremiad. On the contrary, he tried to take such a view of the 
future as should be philosophic rather than either pessimistic or 
optimistic, but had sometimes been accused of expecting results 
that were not likely to be soon realized. 


Ninetv-Second Regular Meeting, March 3, 1885. 

Major J. W. Powell, the President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary being absent the minutes were not read. Tlie 
President announced that on account of the small attendance the 
Council had thought best to defer the regular program till another 
meeting, and that a portion of the time would be occupied by him- 
self. He then addressed the Society upon Patriarchy, and the 
conditions of savage society which preceded and led to it. 

He was followed by Mr. Gushing in some remarks upon artificial 
age and parentage among the Zunis, illustrated by his own experi- 

Ninety-Third Regular Meeting, March 17th, 1885. 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary of the Council announced the election of Prof. 
W. C. Kerr, of Raleigh, N. C, as a corresponding member, and 
Mr. E. R. L. Gould, of Washington, D. C, as an active member 
of the Society. 

The following papers were then read : 

" Study of the Circular Rooms in the Ancient Pueblos," 
by Mr. Victor Mindeleff. 

"Circular Architecture Among the Ancient Peruvians," 
by Mr. W. H. Holmes. 


Prof. Mason. A very interesting separation has been made by 
the speakers of the evening without design. The subject for discus- 
sion is " Circular Architecture of the American Aborigines." Now 
in discus ing this theme we may have regard either to structure or 
function. If Mr. Turner had not been called away he would have 
told us of the Eskimo igloo, or winter temporary hut of ice or snow; 
Mr. Mindeleff described at length the circular rooms in the pueblo 
structures of our southwest territory, and Mr. Holmes has dwelt 
upon the chulpas. Structurally we have the material at hand 


wrought into the most natural shape for a cist or cell, the most 
simple being that of the Eskimo, the most complex,^ the chulpa of 
dressed stone. Now as to function, they differ very curiously, the 
igloo teems with daily life, the estufa is open to ceremony and con- 
ventions, the chulpa is a sealed tomb. The Eskimo has a council 
chamber, a place of public meeting in the permanent undergound 
dwelling. The Chibchas and Peruvians had both dwelling and 
meeting places apart. Descending the continent from north to 
south it is curious to notice the transfer of function in circular 
architecture from dwelling place to meeting place, from meeting 
place to tomb. 

Mr. Arthur Mitchell, in his admirable work, "The Past in the 
Present," has shown us how old arts degenerate as new arts arise. 
The reason is not far to seek. When our Indians were brought face 
to face with the civilization of the whites, the bright, intelligent, 
susceptible individuals and tribes dropped at once their old arts 
and took on the new. The old, the dull, the conservative clung to 
former things, which degenerated in their hands. On the whole 
there was progress, but many things in the onward mass were mov- 
ing backward. 

So it is with civilization at large — families, gentes, tribes — whole 
nations and races disappear ; but new and better families — gentes, 
tribes, nations, and races take their places. 

Mr. J. H. Blodgett said the remarks as to a sinking class of 
persons in this city and elsewhere, call to mind an investigation 
carefully made and recorded about 1810 in the city of Glasgow in 
connection with some of the benevolent operations of the Church 
of Scotland. 

The classification then made was in these four groups: i. A 
wealthy class, able to select and carry out their own plans of life in 
the main independently — one-sixth of the people. 2. An uprising 
class, struggling for better advantages for themselves and their 
children — one-third of the people. 3. A sinking class, tending 
downward except for helpful influences brought to bear on them by 
others — one-third of the people. 4. A sunken class, confirmed 
criminals and paupers — one-sixth of the people. Such investiga- 
tions have a bearing upon discussions such as that of the Society 
recently upon our relative moral and physical progress. 


Ninety-Fourth Regular Meeting, April 7, 1885. 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 
Dr. Washington Matthews, U. S. A., read a paper entitled, 
" Mythological Dry-Painting of the Navajos." 


These are pictures of large size (10 to 12 feet in diameter) drawn 
in powdered substances on the sanded floors of the medicine lodges 
of the Navajo Indians of New Mexico and Arizona. They repre- 
sent various gods and other mythical conceptions of this tribe. 
The pigments used are five in number: white, made of powdered 
white sandstone; yellow, of yellow sandstone; red, of red sand- 
stone; black, of charcoal ; and a so-called blue^but really a gray 
— of black and white niLxed in proper proportions. To apply them 
the artist grasps a little in his hand and allows it to flow out between 
the thumb and the opposed fingers. When he makes a mistake he 
does not brush away the color, he obliterates it by pouring sand on 
it, and then draws the corrected design on the new surface. 

The drawings are begun as much towards the center as the nature 
of the picture will permit, due regard being paid to the precedence 
of the points of the compass, / e., the figure of the god in the east is 
begun first; that in the south, second; that in the west, third; 
that in the north, fourth. While the work is in progress the chief 
shaman does little more than direct and criticise ; a dozen or more 
young men, who have been initiated into the mysteries, perform the 
manual labor. The pictures are drawn in accordance with estab- 
lished rules, except in certain well-defined cases where the painter 
is allowed to indulge his fancy. This is the case with the embroi- 
dered pouches, which the gods are represented as carrying. On the 
other hand some parts are measured by palms and spans, and not 
a line of the sacred design can be varied in them. Straight and 
parallel lines are drawn on a tightened cord. The naked forms of 
the mythical persons are first drawn, then the clothing is put on. 

When the picture is finished it is the duty of the shaman to put 
corn-pollen on the lips and breast of each divine form and to set 
certain plumed wands around the picture. Then the sick person 
for whose benefit the whole ceremony is performed enters and has 
the colored dust from various parts of the pictured forms applied to 


corresponding parts of his person to remove disease, and to have 
many other rites performed over him. When the patient has de- 
parted many of the spectators pick up and preserve the sacred 
corn-pollen. Some take dust from the figures on their moistened 
palms and rub it over their own bodies. Then the shaman obliterates 
the picture with a slender wand while he sings a song appropriate 
to this part of the ceremony. Lastly, the assistants gather the sand 
in their blankets, carry it to a distance from the lodge and throw 
it away. Thus in half an hour from the completion of the picture 
not a trace of it is left. 

The lecturer has heard of seventeen great ceremonies of the 
Navajos in which pictures of this character are drawn. There are 
about four pictures to each ceremony — only one picture being 
painted in a day — and besides these great ceremonies there are 
minor rites with their appropriate pictures, smaller and less elab- 
orate. The medicine men aver that these pictures cTf the great 
ceremonies are transmitted unaltered from year to year, and from 
generation to generation. This is doubtful, as no permanent design 
is preserved for reference and there is no final authority in the 
tribe. Furthermore, as the majority of the rites can be performed 
only in the season when the snakes hibernate, the pictures are car 
ried from winter to winter in the fallible memories of men. It is 
probable, however, that innovations are unintentional and that 
changes are wrought slowly. 

The lecture was illustrated with seven large charts, representing 
some of the pictures which the lecturer had seen. Of their meaning 
and symbolism there was given a full explanation, which included 
the description of many of the rites and the narration of many of 
the myths and traditions of the tribe. -'"^ 

Following this paper Prof. Gilbert Thompson presented sketches 
of rude drawings, seen by him in a cave at San Antonio Springs, 
N. M. The walls of t'«e cave were smoke-covered, but the draw- 
ings were distinct and plainly marked, etched in the stone surface 
and brought out with various colored pigments. Certain points of 
resemblance were indicated between these figures and some de- 
scribed by Dr. Matthews. 

*A more extensive abstract appears in the "American Naturalist " for October, 



Mr. DoRSEY said, referring to the mystic qualities attributed to 
the number four among the Navajos, that among the northern Atha- 
bascans the number five held the place accorded to four by the 
Indians of the Missouri river and Southwest. 

Maj. Powell said that great elaboration was to be observed in 
the myths of the North American Indian. The speaker at one 
time witnessed a ceremony in a Moqui village that lasted four days, 
including one day of feasting. A constant succession of nude 
figures with highly colored faces formed a marked feature of all the 
ceremonies. He saw different colored sands, meal, corn, and peb- 
bles used in many ways in connection with the incantations of the 
Shaman, which were performed, as the speaker believed, to the end 
that rain and abundant crops might follow. The falling rain was 
represented by sprinkling the floor of the estufa. Among the 
Utes and Shoshones fully one-half of the nights, during six months 
of the year, is taken up with ceremonial gatherings and the rela- 
tion of myths. 

Col. Mallery said that he found in Thomas V. Keam's Cata- 
logue of Relics of the Ancient Builders of the Southwest Table 
Lands, a somewhat different arrangement of colors in symbolizing 
the cardinal points from that observed by Dr. Matthews : White, 
signified north ; yellow, the east ; red, the south ; and blue, the 

Ninety-Fifth Regular Meeting, April 21, 1885. 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary of the Council announced the election of Prof. A. 
H. Thompson, of the Geological Survey, and Mr. Charles N. 
Adams, of the Civil Service Commission, as active members of the 
Society ; and informed the Society of the death of Dr. Harrison 
Wright, on February 20, 1885, at Wilkes Barre, Pa., and Col. P. 
W. Norris, on Jan. 14, 1885, at Rockland, Ky., corresponding 
members of the Society. Appropriate remarks upon the death of 
Col. Norris were made by President Powell, followed by Col. Mal- 
lery, who delivered a brief eulogy upon Dr. Wright. 


Mr. H.W. Henshaw read a paper entitled "Medicine Stones." * 


Col. MALLEftY, referring to the evidence presented in the paper, 
that the objects generally classed as sinkers were used as ceremonial 
stones and amulets, remarked that amulets and fetiches had often 
been adopted from utensils and objects connected with daily life. 
He gave instances specially connected with the fish — commonly 
appearing towards the third century as an emblem of Christ, but 
derived from the worship of the Phoenician Dagon, and found still 
more anciently in Egypt, Nineveh, and India, with some relation 
to the productive powers of nature. The lingom stones were men- 
tioned in this connection, also the bulla and the form called from 
its shape vesica (bladder) suspended to the necks of Roman boys, 
which was succeeded by the Agnus Dei, used in the same manner. 
Witliout attempting to trace an immediate association between 
these objects and those presented by Mr. Henshaw, his views are 
corroborated by the fact that stones similar in shape and size have 
been employed from high antiquity in many parts of the world for 
superstitious purposes, and that therefore it is unphilosophical to 
insist upon their exclusive design for mechanical or industrial uses 
among the tribes of North America, which are known to have uni- 
versally been addicted to amuletism. Without any elaboration of 
symbolism the selection of the form might readily have been 
derived from the idea of "luck" connected with sinkers used on 
some special occasions. 

Mr. DoRSEY, referring to what Mr. Henshaw had said about the 
" Medicine Stones ' ' and the down from the breast of a white goose, 
remarked that he had noticed among the Omahas, Kansas, and cog- 
nate tribes, some of the uses of this down from the white goose, and 
that in the gens or clan of the Earth-lodge Makers in the Omaha 
and Kansas tribes there were " White Goose (or Swan) people." 
In the Omaha gens referred to there are also Keepers of the Sacred 
Stones (or Mysterious Stones.) 

He then gave a part of the traditon of the Sacred Pipes to the 
Omaha gentes : "The Earth-lodge people were visited by. the 
seven old men bearing the pipes. When the gentes were finally or- 
ganized half of these people were bad, and half were good. The 

* Pul^Iished in American Journal of Archaeology. I. Pp. 105-114. 


bad ones had some stones at the front of their lodge, and they 
colored them as well as their own hair, orange-red (zhee.) They 
wore the down of the white goose' (or swan) in their hair, and 
branches of cedar around their heads, being frightful to behold. 
So the old men passed to the good ones, to whom they gave one of 
the pipes." According to Joseph La Fleche and Two Crows, there 
are four of the sacred stones, their colors being black, red, yellow, 
and blue. (One tradition is that the stones were made by the 
Coyote in ancient times, to be used for conjuring enemies.) In 
the Osage tradition, the four kinds of stone found at the first, were 
white, black, red, and blue (or green.) 

In reply to a question put by the- President, Mr. Dorsey said that 
among the Dakotas, Ponkas, and other related tribes, there was a 
worship paid to boulders found on the prairies, these being regarded 
as representatives of the Earth-god. When an Indian met one of 
them, he addressed it as " Grandfather," the same term that is 
applied by many tribes to the President of the United States 
(wrongly translated the " Great Father.") This term, Grandfather, 
is applied to supernatural beings. On addressing such a boulder, 
the Indian laid on it a small quantity of tobacco wrapped in a 
piece of cloth or skin, and then he smoked his pipe toward it, 
asking the Grandfather to help him in his journey or undertakrng. 

Colonel James Stevenson read a paper on the " Mythological 
Painting of the Zunis." 


Col. Mallery presented the following account of Yuma cere- 
monies witnessed at Camp Verde, Atizona, as related by Dr. W. 
H. Corbusier, U. S. A. : "All the medicine-men meet occasion- 
ally, and with considerable ceremony make medicine. They went 
through the performance early in the summer of 1874, on the 
Reservation, for the purpose of averting the diseases with which 
the Indians vvere afflicted the summer previous. In the middle of 
one of the villages they made a round ramada — or house of boughs- 
some ten feet in diameter, and under it on the sand, illustrated the 
spirit-land, in a picture about seven feet across, made in colors by 
sprinkling powdered leaves and grass, red clay, charcoal, and ashes 
on the smoothed sand. In the centre was a round spot of red clay 
about ten inches in diameter, and around it several successive rings 


of green and red alternately, each ring being an inch and a half 
wide ; projecting from the outer ring, were four somewhat triangu- 
lar shaped figures, each one of which corresponded to one of the 
cardinal points of the compass, giving the whole the appearance of 
a Maltese cross. Around this cross and between its arms were the 
figures of men with their feet toward the center — some made of 
charcoal with ashes for eyes and hair, others of red clay and ashes, 
etc. These figures were eight or nine inches long, and nearly all 
of them lacked some part of the body — some an arm, others a leg 
or the head. The medicine-men seated themselves around the pic- 
ture, on the ground in a circle, and the Indians from the different 
bands crowded around them, the old men squatting close by, 
and the young men standing back of them. After they had in- 
voked the aid of the spirits, in a number of chants, one of their 
number, apparently the oldest, a toothless, gray-haired man, 
solemnly arose, and, carefully stepping between the figures of the 
men, dropped on each one a pinch of the yellow powder, which he 
took from a small buckskin bag which had been handed to him. 
He put the powder on the heads of some, on the chests of others, 
and on other parts of the body, one of the other men sometimes 
telling him where to put it. After going all around, skipping three 
figifres however, he put up the bag and then went around again, 
and took from each figure a large pinch of powder, taking up the 
yellow powder also, and in this way collected a heaping handful. 
After doing this he stepped back, and another medicine man col- 
lected a handful in the same way, others following him. Some of 
the laymen in their eagerness to get some pressed forward, but were 
ordered back. But after the medicine men had supplied themselves, 
the ramada was torn down, and a rush was made by men and boys, 
handfuls of the dirt were grabbed and rubbed on their bodies, or 
carried away. The women and children, who were waiting for an 
invitation, were then called. They rushed to the spot in a crowd, 
and grabbing handfuls of dirt tossed it up in the air so that it 
would fall on them, or they rubbed their bodies with it. Mothers 
throwing it over their children and rubbing it on their heads. 
This ended the performance. 

Mr. Gatschet said : The Chiricahua Apache "sun circle," or 
"magic circle," is constructed for the purpose of curing those who 
have been "sun-struck," or as they express it, those who have 
become sick from the sun. 


Conjurors will consent to construct a circle only when they are 
called upon by the sick person. The patient must indemnify the 
conjurors for the arrangements, and provide food for the Indians who 
congregate to witness the ceremony and participate in the dances. 
Frequently the sick person is compelled to borrow money to defray 
the expenses, and then he will kill his cattle to satisfy the appetite 
of the hungry crowd assisting in the great ceremony. 

The conjurors do not always make the magic circles with their 
own hands. When they have it drawn by others they walk around 
superintending the \vork. 

A few days before the time appointed for the ceremony the con- 
jurors in charge send out heralds, each provided with several sym- 
bols called "nadu 'hkada," or " God's messengers." One of these 
symbols is left Avith every head man or chief of an Apach-? tribe. 
Its purpose is to direct them to summon their men, women, and 
girls to appear and take part in the dances of the ceremony. 

When the invited arrive, the nadu 'hkiida are brought back by 
them and set up in or near the center of the circle during the per- 
formances. The symbol is in 'the shape of a cross. The four 
arms thus point to the four cardinal points, and the feathers at the 
ends of each arm represent the birds which convey to the con- 
jurors the dreams of the human figures set up within the circle. 

The magic ring is made on the ground in a place carefully screened 
from mortal eye, and sometimes covered by a shed made of bent 
willow rods (called in Spanish " ramada".) The circle is properly 
speaking two concentric rings, and is composed of colored substances 
of various shades. The diameter of the ring is ten or more feet. 
Dry leaves of various trees are mostly used in effecting the different 
shades of color, and, if the weather permits, the conjurors go into 
the mountains to collect earth, clay, and colored sand for the same 
purpose. The clay being the same as that used for body paint. 

The inner-ring of the circle is called bas or nibas (round). The 
rim of the circles does not follow the line of a true circle but shows 
sallies and angles. The spaces in the angles are frequently col- 
ored. These colors when not of mineral substance are made by 
drying leaves in the fire and grinding them to powder. The angles 
or corners in the circle represent rays of the sun and the whole cir- 
cle is an image of the sun. The effigies of four men, each painted 
with a different clay color are placed on the inside of the circle; 
they are called " God's people," or "divine people," and repre- 



sent genii that can only be seen by the conjurers in their dreams. 
They stand on one leg only, the other leg being wrapped around the 
one on which they stand. This helps, it is said, to remain on their 
legs longer than by standing in any other way, since one leg adds 
strength to the other. On their heads they carry an ornament re- 
sembling two horns, which are in fact, as the name has it, two hats. 
The men represented by these effigies are supposed to dream and to 
convey the import of their dreams to the conjurors by means of 
birds called " God's messengers," each bird having the same colors 
as the effigies. 

The effigy of the black man lies behind some black rays of the 
circle and is supposed to have charge of the whole ceremony. The 
efifigy of the blue man stands at the end of blue rays. The effigy 
of the yellow man is at the end of yellow rays; and the white 
efifigy at the end of white rays. 

Before each of these effigies a sort of standard (nada) is stuck 
up — about six feet high. They are carried about in the dances and 
their purpose is, as alleged, the same as our lightning-rods. They 
say the nadnai insure getting good health while dancing. The 
chief part of Indian religious ceremonies consist in dances which 
commence at sundown and continue till sunrise, with only three 
interruptions for meals. The dances take place at some distance 
from the magic circle and about a central fire. Near this fire may 
be seen the pile of firewood provided for the occasion, and on an- 
other side a group consisting of conjurors and men of the tribe. 
Close to the fire are the groups of dancers, male and female. In 
dancing they do not move about but skip up and down — a mode of 
dancing common to all Indians of North America. Smaller fires 
are blazing in a circle around and at some distance from the cen- 
tral fire. About these fires are gathered the people, old and young, 
while back of them are standing the horses that brought them to 
the ceremony. 

Dances begin when the leading conjuror begins a song. At each 
new song a girl starts from one of the fires and directs her steps 
towaiid the males standing in the central group. She gently touches 
one man's shoulder and then returns to her ftimily at the fire. This 
pantomime indicates a sentiment of love and is at the same time an 
invitation to the dance, which is responded to within a short time 
by the lucky young man, who is careful not to meet the looks of 
the girl's mother. 


The ending of the ceremony is similar to that described in the 
Yuma ceremonies. 

The cardinal points are sym-bolized among the Apaches thus: 
East — Black. 
South— White 
West — Yellow. 
North — Blue. 
The sun in the east is called the "black sun." A wind gust or 
tornado is also called " black." 

Ninety-Sixth Regular Meeting, May 5, 1885. 

Vice-President Col. Garrick Mallery, U. S. A., in the Chair. 

The Secretary of the Council announced the election of Hon. 
W. B. Snell, Justice of the Police Court, and Mr. L. J. Hatch, of 
the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, as active members of the 
Society, and informed the Society that the Council had determined 
to print Vol. HI of the Transactions of the Society. 

Col. F. A. Seely read a paper entitled "The Genesis of 


During the past few years unusual attention has been directed to 
the study of human inventions. The close relations between the 
amelioration of man's condition and the improvement of his me- 
chanic arts have led to the consideration of the subject as one in 
which social science is concerned. It has been observed that insti- 
tutions of every character — languages, laws, customs, philosophies, 
and beliefs — have been largely, if not wholly, the product of in- 
vention of somewhat the same character as that which has produced 
tools and machines. The term invention has acquired a broader 
scope, and includes every subject on which human thought and in- 
genuity and fancy may exercise themselves. Its study is therefore 
of no little consequence. It is no longer limited to the field of 
mere mechanics and physics, but embraces all that concerns what- 
ever has been devised by men to satisfy the material and moral 
needs, either of the individual or of the mass in their various social 
relations. I propose to inquire what are the processes by which in- 
ventions are produced ; what influences lead to them; what laws, 


if any, they follow ; and what results, immediate and ultimate, 
flow from them. I conceive that these inquiries are best pursued in 
connection with mechanical inventions. A parallel inquiry might 
be pursued in respect to inventions in the broader sense. In fact 
the study of savage society is, to a certain extent, such an inquiry. 

Before proceeding to the consideration of the subject, it is im- 
portant to call attention to the various meanings and shades of 
meaning of the word invention, which we have such constant occa- 
sion to employ. A late writer on Patent Law* refers to this in his 
opening chapter as a source of much confusion, since, as he remarks, 
it is not uncommon to find the word used in different senses in the 
same paragraph, even in the same sentence. He distinguishes four 
meanings of the word : 

(i) The mental act of inventing. 

(2) The thing invented. 

(3) The fact that an invention has been made. 

(4) The faculty or quality of invention. 

It is scarcely necessary to illustrate these significations, since on 
a little reflection they become apparent. We may say of the sew- 
ing machine, // was the invention of Hoive, referring to the mental 
process which produced it ; we may say it is a great or useful inven- 
tion, meaning the machine itself; we may say the invention of it 
revolutionized the manufacture of clothing, in which we mean the fact 
that it was made ; and we may say of any particular form presented 
to us, there is no invention in it over some earlier form, in which we 
refer to the quality of invention as distinguished alike from the 
mental act, the concrete product, and the historical fact. In view 
of all these uses of the word and not to overload it further, I shall 
venture to suggest a new one to designate the study of invention. 
This study has not yet perhaps developed itself as a true science, 
though it appears to possess all the elements of a science. As 
a study of growing interest it is worthy of a name of its own, 
and, with all deference, I submit to the Society, as an appro- 
priate name worthy of adoption the word Eurematics. f This 
should include the study not of arts, machines, laws or insti- 

*Merwin. Patentability of Inventions. Boston. 1883. 

■j' EoprjiiM, An invention. If the Greeks had been in the habit of philoso- 
phizing about inventions, they would have had an adjective, 'euprj/Marcxog, and 
the word would have found its place in English long ago, as has eureka. 



tutions in themselves, but of them all in respect to their methods 
of growth and the means by which they have been* developed 
and are still developing. This is a study which many are pur- 
suing with eagerness and delight ; and the need of a name for it 
clearly separating it from other kindred studies is every day more 

It is my purpose to present in this paper a brief chapter in this 
science, following out and perhaps to some extent repeating some of 
the thoughts expressed in a paper presented to the Society two years 
ago,^' in which I discussed the nature of the earliest human inven- 
tions, the original germs out of which they grew, and the steps and 
processes by which they were evolved or elaborated. Speculative 
as some of my suggestions may have been as to the nature of these 
primitive inventions, nevertheless the nature of the processes by 
which they were made is so inherent in all arts that it cannot 
be regarded as in any degree speculative. Possibly the inven- 
tions pointed out were not actually the first contrived by man, but 
whatever were the first, the way described is beyond doubt the way 
in which they were arrived at. 

I propose in the course of this paper to discuss the development 
of the stone hatchet in its most finished form; but before doing so 
it is necessary to inquire into the nature of invention and some of 
the general principles it follows. Lying absolutely at the bottom of 
such principles are the following postulates, the A B C of Eurematics : 
Given any artificial implement or product, we must assume — ist, 
that there was a time T.ohen it did not exist; 2d, that before it existed 
there must have been a creature capable of producini^ it ; and 3d, that 
such creature before producing it must have been conscious of needing 
it, or must have luxd for it. 

There can be no orderly discussion of the genesis of any art 
without recognizing the truth of these postulates at every step. 
Questions may arise upon resultant or collateral propositions, but, 
admitting all that can possibly be claimed for accident as an ele- 
ment in invention, these propositions are not to be questioned. 
They are fundamental, and no logical consequences that flow from 
them can be evaded. 

The first proposition, that before any artificial product existed 

*An Inquiry into the Origin of Invention. Vol. 11, Trans. Anthrop. Soc, 
Washington. 1883. 


there was a time when it did not exist, is not startling, and may be 
passed over for the second : before it existed there was a creature 
capable of producing it. This is as much as saying that no product 
of art came into existence simultaneously with its producer, and 
seems to be no more startling a proposition than the first ; and yet, 
if I rightly interpret the ideas of most writers, they have failed 
to grasp even so common -place a truth. 

The third proposition, that the producer must have been conscious 
of needing the product, or must have had for it before producing 
it, is not at first sight so obvious. In fact I believe the failure to 
grasp this truth is a great source of error and misconception among 
many writers. No one, however, who has given any thought to 
the nature of invention, has failed to observe that every step in the 
mechanic arts has grown out of a pre-existing want. Not neces- 
sarily out of a pressing need. Invention now-a-days does not wait 
for the call to be so urgent that waiting can be no longer. Long 
before this stage necessities are anticipated, and the means by which 
they are overcome often do not become indispensable till the very 
habits they engender make them so. Illustrations of this are all 
around us. The sewing machine, the reaper, the telephone — what 
could we do without them ? And yet in our own generation we 
have done without them all. They have themselves created the 
conditions which have made them indispensable. But none of them 
came by accident. They have been, every one, the fruit of years 
of toil and thought and anxiety on the part of those who saw, what 
few clearly comprehended, the imperfection of the means employed 
to do the daily work of mankind, and studied to produce better 
means. This is the history of steam, of electricity, of railroads, 
of metal working, of pottery, of every art that has a recorded his- 
tory. Prevision and calculation are so truly elements in the growth 
of all known arts that in asserting their universality we incur no 
more risk than did Newton in asserting the law of gravitation. 

What then, it may be asked,- is the place due to accident in inven- 
tion? Notwithstanding a popular belief that many if not most of 
the great inventions have been the fruit of accident, it may be 
asserted that the contrary is true. Fortuitous circumstances, trifling 
unforeseen incidents, have in many cases doubtless suggested expe- 
dients which have led to the consummation of great inventions. 
It was an accident — the result of his poverty — which led Senefelder 
to write on a stone slab his family wash-bill, and so led to the inven- 


tion of the lithographic process; but the accident did not occur, 
and could not, till long and persevering pursuit of a method of 
printing cheap music had brought together the polished stone, the 
ink, the acid, — all the materials necessary to accomplisli the result. 
Possibly it was an accident which led Goodyear to the use of sulphur 
for the vulcanization of India rubber; but the accident, if such it 
were, did not occur till years of expense and toil and experiment 
with a great variety of materials had led the way to it. And the 
rubber and the sulphur and all the appliances necessary for the ex- 
periment were ready to his hand, all accumulated in the pursuit of 
his lifelong purpose. Such experiences are common, and familiar 
illustrations of them are found, as for instance, in the lives of Pal- 
issy, the Huguenot potter, and William Lee, the inventor of the 
stocking loom. In these the element of accident enters in some 
degree into the consummation of the invention; but in every case it 
is such accident as might have occurred a thousand times over with- 
out result to other men whose minds were not intent upon the inven- 
tion. Lamps had swung for centuries in the Italian cathedrals, 
and men had idly counted their oscillations as they kept time to the 
tedious delivery of generations of dull sermons ; but the isochronism 
of their swing, if observed at all, was not regarded till Galileo 

The true and only field that philosophy can concede to accident 
in invention is that it supplements and sometimes abridges the 
labor, calculation, and time of the inventor. To a man filled with 
a steadfast purpose, all his senses alert to every means chance or 
calculation may present to accomplish it, the most trifling incident 
may furnish the clue, which has fled from him like an ignis fatuus. 
To another the same chances may come and go continually without 
result. And while it cannot be said that accident has no place in 
invention, it must be conceded that its place is completely subordi- 
nate to other elements. Great inventions have been the fruit 
of accident in the same sense and to the same degree that a 
ripened peach is the fruit of the rude blast that shakes it from the 

It is important in a discussion like this to keep clearly in mind 
the difference between invention proper and discovery. The 
function of the latter is to bring to light the material facts, and the 
natural laws, which the former applies to useful purposes ; and in 
respect to discovery, the element of chance, of accident, is im- 


portant. The progress of scientific discovery is marked at every 
milestone by the revelations of accidents, which the thoughtful 
mind of the inventor did not apply to practical ends till long after- 
wards, when the need had arisen. If it was an accident that led 
Galileo to the discovery of the isochronous oscillation of the pen- 
dulum, it was not till fifty years afterwards that this discovery was 
applied to regulate the movement of a clock. The phenomena of 
electricity that accident may have revealed to Galvani and Volta, 
are the basis of inventions that the most active minds of this decade 
are expending their best energies upon. It cannot be denied that 
in discovery accident has played an important part ; but the more 
this fact is considered, and the more we consider the true function 
of discovery, the more strongly do we find the proposition con- 
firmed that improvements in the arts are not the result of chance 
but of intelligent efforts to supply conscious needs. Hence I shall 
regard this proposition as conceded, and I pass to another. 

(4) Every human invention has sprung from some prior invention 
or from some prior known expedient. Inventions do not, like their 
protectress, Pallas Athene, spring forth full grown from the heads of 
their authors. This suggestion needs no argument when made re- 
garding any of the modern inventions. Every one of them is seen 
by the most superficial observer to be built upon or elaborated out 
of inventions and expedients previously in use. It is only when 
we go back of these and study the expedients and appliances out of 
which they have grown, and whose history is unrecorded, that the 
proposition I contend for is not obvious. And yet there is not a 
single one of them which does not when studied exhibit in itself 
the evidences of a similar substructure. In the process of elimina- 
tion we go back and back, and find no resting place till we reach 
the rude set of expedients, the original endowment of men and 
brutes alike. This is a truth which study more and more confirms, 
and from it the proposition stated may be deduced as one of the 
laws of invention. 

It may be deduced as a corollary to this proposition, but at the 
same time a fact determinable by independent observation, that the 
generation of one invention from another is not immediate but 
always through one or more intermediate steps. The effect of every 
invention fundamental in its character is first to generate wants be- 
fore unknown or unfelt. The effort to supply these wants leads to 


new inventions.* These may be quite distinct in their character 
from the original invention to which they indirectly owe their origin. 
They are related to it only as means to supply some want to which 
it has given birth. I shall not pursue this branch of the subject. 
Illustrations will occur to all. There is hardly a branch of industry 
that has not felt the effect of inventions based upon wants created 
by the introduction of petroleum, or the general use of the tele- 
phone. Wood-working, mining, transportation by land and sea — 
all the avocations of men — have felt their influence, have found 
wants engendered by their use, and improvements have been made 
to meet these wants. The wants of primitive man were limited, 
and his inventions were accordingly few. As wants increased in 
number and intensity, inventions multiplied, and the numberless 
wants of modern civilized life are only paralleled by its numberless 
arts and expedients. 

I set it down as a fifth proposition: I nveiitions always generate 
wants, and these wants generate other invetitions. 

A sixth proposition \?,t\\Viit\\Q invention of toots and implements pro- 
ceeds by specialization. This is true to a certain extent of all arts, 
though perhaps not a universal truth regarding all invention. It 
results, as will be apparent on reflection, from the last proposition. 
A single tool may have a great variety of uses, but, if there is a suffi- 
cient requirement, men will not long be contented with one tool for 
those uses for which it is least convenient. It will be reserved for 
that to which it is best adapted, and other forms will be devised 
better suited for special uses; possibly the parent type may be found 
inferior fo-r all uses to some of its modified forms, and it may, on 
the principle of the survival of the fittest, become obsolete. Look' 
at the variety of tools on a joiner's bench, chisels, planes, saws, 
each especially adapted for its particular work, but all pointing 
back to a time when there was but one form of chisel, or plane, or 
saw. The "jack-plane" and "long-jointer" may each be made to 
perform the work of the other, but they do it very imperfectly. 
The primitive bench plane was like neither, but was the type of 

* A curious instance of this is brought to my attention while writing this paper. 
In consequence of the expiration of the earlier patents on roller-skates, a great 
impetus has been given to their manufacture, the result being the exhaustion of 
the world's stock of boxwood of certain sizes used for rollers. And to supply 
the want so created hundreds of people are trying to invent a suitable and cheap 
substitute for boxwood for this purpose. 


both. There is nothhig more strikhig than the variety of cutlery 
on a well-furnished table. The time is not remote when one knife 
worn at the belt served the purpose of all these, so far as these pur- 
poses existed, and of many others; when the table knife was not 
differentiated from the dagger of the soldier or the tool of the 
artisan. A man then used one knife to cut out a leather sole, to shape 
his arrow, to carve his food, and to stab his enemy. Changes in 
modes of living have led first to the broader specializations ; fashion, 
caprice, and increasing refinement to others ; till one scarcely dares 
attempt to enumerate the various forms of carvers and table knives 
of various sorts differing in form and material, each adapted by 
some feature for its particular use, and each the result of some 
degree of invention, with which the tables of Europe and America 
are furnished. Undoubtedly this process has gone on ever since 
man became an inventor, and might be illustrated as perfectly, 
though not so profusely, in the implements and weapons of the 
savage as in those of civilized men. All study of invention must 
take account of it. As soon as men began to adapt sticks to their 
use by artificially pointing them they began to find in them various 
degrees of hardness, weight, length, and rigidity, qualities fitting 
them for diverse uses, and as skill and experience were acquired 
they fashioned them accordingly. Likewise when man had begun 
to employ flint flakes, and before he had learned to fashion them 
to his will, he selected from the splinters made by accident or by 
his own unskilled blovvs those which served best such diversified 
uses as he had found out. 

My seventh proposition, and final one so far as this paper is con- 
cerned, is that no art makes progress alone. I venture to assert the 
universality of this truth from what is seen in the recorded history 
of all inventions. In the development of the mechanic arts, two or 
more arts distinct in their nature but having close interdependence 
make advance pari passu. If one lags the other is necessarily 
retarded. If one makes rapid progress the other springs forward with 
quickened impulses. An improved utensil or article of manufacture 
may be the result of or may lead to improved processes and tools and 
machines for producing it, or to improved means for its employ- 
ment. The progress of the steam-engine was long retarded by the 
imperfection of iron-working machines, since perfect cylinders could 
not be produced. The progress of electrical invention has neces- 
sitated the invention of new machines and processes for insulating 


wire. The introduction of illuminating gas has created a demand 
for metal tubing, and machines for its rapid and perfect manufac- 
ture. And so every step in every art is marked by one or more 
corresponding steps in other arts. 

These general principles, imperfectly stated as they are, by no 
means exhaust the study of invention. . They only lie at its thresh- 
hold. They are among the more obvious laws which inventions 
follow as they are every day presented to the mind of those who deal 
with them: so obvious, that I have found myself hesitating as to the 
value of their presentation in this form ; a hesitation which is removed 
by observing that, so far as writers upon early inventions are con- 
cerned, they are unnoticed and apparently unknown. Further chap- 
ters in Eurematics might be devoted to the elucidation of other truths 
equally generic and universal, but more intricate and therefore less 
obvious. I might cite for instance the tendency of civilization to 
convert luxuries into necessaries, true not only of absolute civiliza- 
tion but of every stage of it or every step towards it. The effect 
of this tendency upon inventions is marked and positive. I might 
cite the fact that invention is stimulated by rewards and retarded 
by opposition, which history abundantly illustrates, — eminently the 
histories of France in the middle ages, of The Netherlands, of Great 
Britain, and of our own country. Another proposition might be 
that the truth regarding biologic evolution — that the type of any 
species which is to predominate is at its first appearance uncon- 
spicuous — applies equally to the evolution of arts. Many such propo- 
sitions more or less recondite might be stated, the adequate discus- 
sion of which would require a volume ; but I can afford to pass 
them by, as I have not set out upon an exhaustive study. The few 
propositions considered are enough for the present purpose. 

I shall now discuss the progress of invention in a single direction, 
partly as a study in itself, partly by way of illustration of the doc- 
trines I have enunciated. I have selected the stone hatchet for 
this purpose because in some of its ruder forms it represents the 
earliest human workmanship of which any knowledge has come to 
us, and also because in its rudest form it presents the evidences of 
being the fruit of long antecedent growth. Further than this I 
observe that primitive as it indeed is, and in its highest develop- 
ment rude and ineffective in comparison with the finished imple- 
ment of this age of steel, the thoughtful student of invention sees 
in it the culmination for the time being of human art rather than 


the beginning. For the purposes of this paper I regard nothing less 
than the hafted celt as the fini';hed implement whose genesis I shall 
attempt to indicate. 

I assume as the starting point the conclusion reached in my paper 
before referred to,-^ that the earliest mechanical process employed 
by man was the art of working wood by abrasion. This cannot be 
regarded as proven ; absolutely proven it can never be ; but it 
comes in as a link connecting what must have been in the history 
of primitive man with what is revealed to us regarding the man of 
the earliest stone age. This art, or something closely similar to it, 
appears as the immediate derivative of the original mechanical 
expedients of man in a state of nature, and of the wants engendered 
by his human characteristics. Tracing back the art of wood work- 
ing we find no resting place till we come to the art in this condition. 
In short the more the subject is contemplated, and from whatever 
point of view, the stronger appear the probabilities, so strong that 
to my own mind they are convincing. Starting from this basis, 
v/hat was the process, what the result sought, what the methods 
employed to produce it ? 

The object sought for was a pike, a strong, rigid, sharp-pointed 
stick or shaft adapted for use as an offensive and defensive weapon, 
a want early felt and hitherto imperfectly supplied by chance and 
nature. The means employed was a rough rock, a coarse sand- 
stone or mill-stone-grit upon whose exposed surface the wood was 
rubbed or drawn back and forth until reduced as desired. A tedious 
process, but not more so than many of those employed to this day 
in the arts of savage life. We can imagine men coming from great 
distances to the inventor of this art with poles on their shoulders to 
be prepared in the new style. It would not at once be perceived 
that no special properties attached to this particular rock, that rocks 
having similar properties and perhaps better suited to the purpose 
were every where. The mind was dull in grasping the essential fact 
of the art, and perhaps for ages superstition and fetichism may have 
been engendered by this very improvement. It is easy to see, 
however, that it had created a new want, or perhaps intensified the 
old one. Pikes were liable to be broken, were subject to natural 
decay. They must be replaced, and new ones were always in de- 
mand. Their artificial production had increased the number of their 

* An Inquiry into the Origni of Invention. Vol. II. Trans. Anthrop. Soc. 
Washington. 188^- 


possessors, and the want of a ready means for the replacement was 
more widely felt. To the majority it was a new want. Hence among 
people widely scattered, more convenient and accessible means were 
sought for supplying the demand ; and in answer to this want came 
the discovery, perhaps the result of similar experiences and obser- 
vations, that gritty rocks every where would yield the same results 
to similar manipulation by the hands of any one. And a further 
discovery followed close on the heels of this, that the jagged edges 
of flints and other hard rocks would by a manipulation but little 
varied perform the work better and faster than the gritty surface of 
the sand stones. A stick drawn forcibly over such a sharp edge 
has its surface scraped from it in thin shavings instead of being 
merely abraded as heretofore. This important step from abrasion 
to scraping, which is in fact cutting, was therefore reached before 
any cutting or abrading tool had been devised. Reached by slow 
steps, in answer to a felt want, but a want in no way pointing to it, 
it was actually the invention of another and quite distinct mechani- 
cal process. It was a better process, gave better results, and the 
weapon and the art of wood working made progress together. 

We have advanced one step, man now has the notion of the cut- 
ting edge and its use. But it is part of an immovable bowlder or 
ledge, not always accessible, and the want of a convenient means 
always at hand is but partially supplied. The long pilgrimages 
which had to be taken to the primitive pointer of pikes were at 
an end, but the journeys though shorter still have to be made. How 
was the next step, resulting in the production of a portable cut- 
ting implement, to be accomplished? 

It will be seen at once that in the use for a considerable period 
of the edge of a rock for cutting purposes it will become dulled. 
Other parts of the rock having exposed edges will be sought, and 
these will become dull in turn. This dulling process proceeds more 
or less rapidly according to the material applied to it ; and as the 
harder woods were found to be in all respects more serviceable they 
were more generally used. We may conceive that at some time by 
the violent application of a hard piece of timber to an edge some- 
what thinner tlian ordinary, the edge itself instead of being merely 
dulled is broken off, and to the pleasant surprise of the operator a 
new edge, sharp and clear, and better than the half-dulled one he 
had been using, makes its appearance. And he eventually learns 
that he can at any time produce a new edge by shivering off a piece 


of the rock with blows. He is not long in learning that the part 
broken off has similar edges. If it be large enough to lie firmly he 
can employ it as he does the parent rock. If smaller, he may hold 
it firmly with his feet while he manipulates the wood upon it with his 
hands. Perhaps he can carry it away and use it at the place most 
convenient to him; when dulled he can shiver it by a blow or two 
and it is sharp again. And then at last by slow degrees, requiring 
ages perhaps, one can hardly tell how, but by the continuance of this 
process, he observes that these splinters struck from the fragment, 
these fragments of fragments, possess the same cutting edges as the 
original rock, and in a bit of stone not larger than his hand or his 
finger he possesses an instrumentality capable of doing all that he 
and his ancestors have been laboriously doing on the parent rock 
or clumsy fragment. He learns also that instead of dragging the 
wood over the edge, he can, with a totally different manipulation, . 
hold the wood firmly and operate on it with the stone splinter, and 
the tool is invented.* 

When I tlxink of man in his primitive condition, as the logical 
necessities of this subject have compelled me to think of him, help- 
less, miserable, the prey of beasts,. without tools, withouc means of 
defense except such as he shared with the beasts, and then think of 
him in the condition to which he is brought in this outline of his 
inventions, I find it impossible to adequately express my sense of 
the progress he has made. One effective weapon, its structure im- 
proved, and skill in its use acquired by generations of experience, 
and one cutting tool, even in the rudimentary form of an unfash- 
ioned flake, have separated him incalculably from the condition of 
his ancestors. His knife or hatchet, as we may henceforth call it, 
contained within it all the possibilities of the future, but for the 
present — his present — its capabilities were learned by constant les- 
sons and with every new occasion. He had no want to which it 
did not minister. It not only served its first purpose to prepare his 
weapon, but it became itself a weapon. It served him to procure 
and prepare his food, both animal and vegetable, his shelter, his 
raiment, if he had reached the stage of wanting raiment. Its 

* It is only by a loose construction of language that this can be called the inven- 
tion of a tool. The tool, a mere flake of stone, had already long existed. The 
actual invention was an art or process quite distinct from any heretofore employed. 
The brief and more popular form of expression may be employed with this 


acquisition was the greatest step he had taken in invention; and 
when we regard what has grown out of it, the infinite variety of 
cutting tools, implements, and machines, whose origin we remotely 
trace to it, and the unnumbered needs they supply, we cannot 
hesitate to ascribe to it the highest place among all the inventions 
of all time. 

If the hafted celt was for the time the culmination of art, this is 
not less true, of its time, of the flint knife. As in man''s rudest 
estate he used the expedients with which nature endowed him, 
selecting those best adapted to his immediate purpose, so now out 
of the diverse forms assumed by flakes and chips, he selects those 
best adapted for particular purposes. He is repeating what occurred 
in his earliest period, but with new and diversified wants, wider 
intelligence, and a greater range of material out of which to select. 
He finds blunt edges give satisfactory results in the old process of 
scraping wood, but he finds that thinner and sharper edges pene- 
trate the wood deeper, and remove the superfluous material faster. 
He finds he can work more deftly, more conveniently, can put a 
finer point on his weapon, can apply the new tool to all parts of it, 
can reduce and trim the shaft as well as the point, can even sever 
the growing saplings to obtain his material. He finds that some 
forms can be made to penetrate and divide the tough skins of beasts, 
and carve their flesh. In fact, in whatever direction his necessities 
or inclinations lead him, he finds his knife in some form contribut- 
ing to his comfort, his protection, and the supply of his wants. 
The possession of the tool has wrought out his mastery over nature. 
This culmination in invention is but momentary. It is a mile- 
stone, a breathing place in the history of arts. But the march 
still goes on, and we find man still searching among fragments for 
forms adapted to his particular uses, but gradually learning by 
experience that by well-directed blows he can sometimes produce 
chips having special forms, and so fitted for special uses. But these 
are chips and flakes only. There is no attempt as yet at dressing 
or shaping stone. The rude forms they bear when shivered from 
the rock, are all that man has yet conceived in the structure of a 
stone implement. These rude forms seldom appear in our museums. 
They are the scoff of archaeologists. They are not distinguish- 
able from the work of the elements. In fact, the splinters thrown 
off by frost or fire may have been as readily selected for use as 
those formed by human agency. And as writers have agreed upon 


the name palaoUthic to indicate the age marked by the first 
traces of human workmanship in stone implements, we must recog- 
nize the protoUthic age, in which stone fragments showing no 
trace of such workmanship were the common implements of man- 
kind. Tlie earliest age of wrought implements could never have 
come but for such a precursor. The rudest wrought forms did not 
appear till something of the same nature and used for the same pur- 
poses, but imperfectly adapted for their performance, had created 
the need of them and led up to the means for its supply, and the 
one thing which bore these relations to the earliest recognizable 
forms of dressed-stone implements was the unformed flake. 

What were the steps from this form of flint knife, or scraper, or 
hatchet, to the hafted celt? 

I formerly reached the conclusion that the original endowment 
of man could include no less than the stick and stone for striking 
and hurling, and the string or withe for tying or binding. In the 
course of this paper I have traced the synchronous development of 
the art of dressing wood, and of stone appliances for the purpose. 
With the advancement of these it is not to be supposed any former 
art or expedient was lost. On the contrary it is to be presumed 
that progress in them had been made corresponding to that we have 
been following. The club was better fashioned ; approved forms 
of hurling-sticks may have been discovered and come into use. 
Greater skill may have been acquired in the use of the hammer-stone, 
and judgment in the selection of suitable forms either for crushing, 
or for splitting, and with more convenient hand-grasp. The flexi- 
ble vines and strips of bark, with which primitive man lashed his 
frail shelter, his successor may have improved by rudely twisting the 
fibres or strands, or have supplemented by other materials, notably, 
after he had acquired the use of the flint knife, by strips of skin and 
animal tendons. The inventory of his possessions then would 
embrace the club and pike, each clearly specialized, the hammer- 
stone, not formed by art but selected, the stone knife, and strings 
of various materials. The pike, the hammer stone and knife may 
have been of many forms. Now it will be seen that these elements 
may be brought together in various ways so as to accomplish a 
variety of results, the elements in every case being a stick, a stone, 
and a string to bind them together, and the difference in result de- 
pending on the particular form of stick and stone. For instance 
the heavy end of a club is made heavier by lashing to it a hammer 
stone — result the mace. The pike is improved by securing to it a 


pointed flake of flint. A flint flake too small for the hand is made 
effective by fixing it to a piece of wood, making a knife or dagger. 
A heavier sharp-edged fragment secured to a handle adapting it for 
striking, becomes the axe or hatchet. What immediate incidents 
or needs led to any of these combinations, I do not propose to 
guess. It is enough to have shown that at a period when man was 
as yet unlearned in respect to any dressing of stone beyond knock- 
ing off rude splinters from a rock, he may have had in his posses- 
sion the means to produce, and was fully capable of producing, such 
implements and weapons as I have named. This being true, the 
same wants which might at any period of his history have led to 
their production may without violence be presumed to have done so 
then. They are in the line of his acquired arts, and the necessary 
links between these and the arts he is yet to acquire. 

Whether these various combinations were made prior to actual 
working of flint it would be idle to speculate. It is more likely that 
neither preceded the other. While man was finding out how to use 
his possessions by bringing them together in new combinations, he 
was naturally improving them all. Having found the flint and 
other rocks of similar texture so far obedient to his power that they 
could be shattered, and new and useful forms produced, having ac- 
quired uses for these forms, having learned the purposes to which a 
sharp edge could be applied, and that a fresh one could be pro- 
duced by knocking off the dulled one — it followed in due course, 
from experience, to form the new edge with less violent blows, with 
more judgment and dexterity, and, as the advantage of special forms 
became apparent, with a view to bringing it as close as possible to 
such forms. And all this time the old art of reducing by abrasion 
had not been lost; applying it now to the stone as finer and finer 
chipping suggested and provoked the desire for a smoother edge, 
the celt appeared, polished at first on its edge only, afterwards on 
its entire surface. There was no dividing line between the pale- 
olithic and neolithic ages. If separated at all, it is by a broad zone 
through which the implements of both are found side by side. 
Neither was there any step from the finished celt to the hafted im- 
plement. The essential step, that of securing a stone in some form 
to a handle, had been taken long ago. 

Lest it might be suggested that in order to sustain a theory regard- 
ing the developement of the arts, I have myself been led to invent 
steps in art that were never known to man, it is worth while to remark 


that none of the steps I have set forth are imaginary. All of them 
are in existence and in use yet, in their appropriate places, often 
amidst the completes! appliances of modern mechanic arts. If the 
primitive man sharpened a stick by rubbing it over a rough grit, 
he used the same means an artist employs to-day to produce a fine 
point on his pencil, and the same by which we sharpen all cutting 
tools. The scraping tool is one of the ordinary provisions of a 
joiner's outfit : but the use of a bit of broken glass is more common 
still. As the edge becomes dulled by use, the glass is simply broken 
and two fresh edges are formed. This is universal in civilized life, 
and a curious instance of it in savage life has just been brought to 
light by the Rev. Lorimer Fison, in his pamphlet on the Nanga or 
Sacred Stone Inclosure of Fiji, in which he relates often having 
seen " a mother shaving her child's head with a bit of glass, and 
biting a new edge on the instrument when it became dull." These 
original arts have never been lost. Probably it is a general truth 
regarding mechanic arts that no one of them once commonly ac" 
quired is ever again lost. It may be laid aside for a time or sus- 
pended, but it revives in some form ; and I venture to think that 
much of the eloquence that has been expended upon the " The Lost 
Arts" has resulted from a very imperfect acquaintance with those 
that exist. 

It is apparent that every step in the progress that has been recited 
resulted in an improvement in man's condition. The first improved 
weapon, club or pike or missile, was equivalent to. so much greater 
strength of arm or length of reach. It augmented man's superior- 
ity over the brutes ; it made his life less precarious ; it put the 
means of securing food, shelter, and covering more fully within his 
power. His environment, to which he had in his primitive con- 
dition been completely subject, he now could to a certain extent 
control, could subject to liimself. The first improved means of 
fabricating a weapon, the first tool or mechanical process, accom- 
plished these results in an increased ratio. The step that made the 
cutting tool the possible possession of every man, which made the 
knife even in its clumsiest form a common tool, did for the whole 
race what the earliest steps did for a limited number, and made this 
amelioration general. The increased number of forms and varieties 
of tools and weapons, growing out of the diverse and manifold 
wants they were adapted to supply, were each steps in the better- 
ment of his material condition, each an indication of progress; 
man's advance towards civilization, slow as it must have been, was 


marked off step by step by the advances he made in his mechanic 
arts. The more he became independent of nature and capable of 
forcing her into his service the more time and inclination he found 
for the perfecting of his implements ; and the more he perfected 
his implements the more capable he became of subduing nature. 
And this interaction has never ceased, it goes on to-day. But the 
achievements of to-day are not the conquest of savage beasts, nor 
the solution of the problems of food and shelter and warmth. We 
are overcoming time and distance; we are conquering the barriers 
of sea and mountain ; we are finding out the more hidden forces of 
nature, and subjecting them. The fruit of our inventions is not seen 
in rough flakes of stone lashed by sinew to rude hafts, but in the 
mighty movement of the railway train thundering across the conti- 
nent, or the click of the telegraph as London talks with Calcutta. 
And every step in progress has been a step in the improvement of 
man's condition from the first to the last. And so it shall be in 
the future. 

Artists depict the genius of invention as a voluptuous female 
figure, in various stages of imperfect attire, attended by innocent 
boys in their primitive nudity, and with gear wheels and anvils and 
other rough equipments of the artisan in ill-assorted proximity. 
This is a feeble conception. The genius of invention is not a crea- 
ture of delicate mould, but one of brawn and sinew. His voice is 
no gentle song of lullaby, but comes to us in the deafening clatter 
of Lowell looms and the roar of Pittsburgh forges. Mighty and 
beneficent and responsive to human wants — this is the kind of song 
h'e sings in his rugged rhythm : 

" I am monarch of all the forges: 

I have solved the riddle of fire ; 
The amen of Nature to cry of man 

Answers at my desire. 
I grasp with the subtle soul of flame 

The heart of the rocky earth ; 
And hot from my anvils the prophecies 

Of the miracle years leap forth. 

I am swart with the soot of my furnace, 

I drip with the sweat of toil ; 
My fingers throttle the savage waste, 

I tear the curse from the soil ; 
I fling the bridges across the gulfs 

That hold us from the To-Be ; 
And build the roads for the bannered march 

Of crowned humanity." 



Mr. P. B. Pierce, discussing the paper, referred to some of the curi- 
osities or phenomena of invention ; for this science of ewematics, 
like every science, has its attendant phenomena. Indeed, that 
invention is a science is demonstrated by its attendant phenomena. 

Invention is not creation; the first deals with matter direct; the 
latter supplies that with which invention deals. The student of 
eurematics, giving heed to what the history of his science has to 
teach, soon discovers the principles of the great law of evolution. 
Let him inspect the almost humanized giant that bears its load of 
living freight daily from Washington to New York in less than six 
hours, and what does he find, except that since the days of Watt 
the process of selection or differentiation has been intelligently 
going on ! The clumsy, the crude, the ruder elements have been 
rejected; the harmonious, the simple, the efficient, and stronger 
have been utilized. Increment by increment complexity has given 
way to simplicity, until the perfected machine stands forth as we 
know it ; that is to say, the machine we are pleased to call perfect, 
the selected excellence, the suinmuin bonum, of all that experience 
and long use have taught to be best of those that have preceded it. 
Each inventor has contributed his mite, and lo ! the grand result ! 
And its maker, man, is he not perfecting himself along with that 
dull matter upon which he works and in which he achieves! Is he 
not, as described by the poet. 

The heir of all the ages in the foremost files of time ? 

Is not matter reflex? Is Frankenstein in reality the monster his 
author protrayed him to be? Will not the science of eurematics, 
when once fairly beset by the persistent inquisition of scientific 
study and investigation, open wide the door of the temple that is 
even now ajar, and permit its disciples to enter and make intelligent 
conquest, under a full knowledge of its laws, where until now they 
have only been permitted to make occasional, random captures from 
the vestibulum, as it were? 

The thousand forces of nature lie hidden within grasping distance ; 
but for lack of systematic study they elude our clutch, escaping from 
our wilieot approaches as the thistle down upon a puff of air. This 
may not always remain so. The Lilliputians bound Gulliver with 
straws ; let us ply Nature with pitiless interrogation till she yields 


US tlie fullest knowledge of all her laws. For this is eurematics in 
its broadest significance; it is encompassing the laws of nature with 
material form and compelling matter to do the bidding of psychi- 
cal energy. 

But evolution does not account for all. There is in invention a 
synchromism that is almost mysterious. The present is the grand 
harvest time of all the seed that has been planted by the generations 
that have preceded us; but why the thoughts of inventive minds 
appear to move in batallions, all aiming at some common objective, 
seems at first view almost inexplicable. A given function is demon- 
strably demanded; a hundred minds set themselves at once, in all 
parts of the world, to produce the means for its satisfaction. With 
the almost universal diffusion of information that has come about 
with the art of printing, even in all languages and tongues, aided 
by the telegraph and the telephone, who fails to know in all the 
broad earth to-morrow morning what the chiefest want of to-day 
has been? Within one month's time from the great flour-dust 
explosion in the mills of Minneapolis, in May, 1878, there were 
over thirty inventions made for preventmg the recurrence of such 
an accident, and all practically effective. Many of them were 
almost if not quite identical, although made by men having 
no knowledge even of each others' existence, and in all parts of 
the world ! So quickly, when a pressing want is known, is the 
means supplied for staying the same. When the -science of inven- 
tion has been perfected, and every want has been given a means for 
its satisfaction, will not the highest type of invention then be the 
discovery of a new want, latent in the human soul, but never before 
developed ? 

Another feature of invention noticeable to an attentive observer 
is the isolation in which an important discovery is often times set. 
The evolution of the automatic grain binder of this day, from the 
sickle of Egypt and the Orient, is plain and familiar. To one who 
has witnessed the devouring knives of this latest type of human 
genius, hungrily levelling the yellow harvests of the great northwest 
and tossing the bundled sheaves backward in serried rows upon the 
stubble, and contrasts its action with that of the reaper in tlie time 
of Eoaz, how far apart they seem separated ! And so they are, wide 
centuries apart. But the quick mind of invention anticipated the 
want almost in the earliest day of the reaper. In the year 1854 two 
men invented, perfected, reduced to practice, and patented the 


completed machine whose opportunity for use did not come until 
twenty-five years later. Like lonely islands arising out of the reced- 
ing waters of an ocean, such inventions, though they may after- 
wards be the highest lands of great and fundamental enterprise, are 
lost for want of use. Although pioneers their inventors are without 
remuneration because they are too far in front of the needs of the 
world. The world itself is ever unready; the lines of necessity are 
conservative and strenuously refuse to make room for the new appli- 
cant for favor, even though full of promise. 

Mr. Wm. H. Babcock said no one, on glancing over our patents, 
can fail to observe how many of the inventions covered by them 
are obviously outgrowths of those already in existence rather than 
contrivances adapted to meet any real want. A man sees a partic- 
ular machine, or a description of one, and forthwith proceeds to 
devise a similar but slightly different construction. Thus there are, 
for example, more than three thousand patents on car couplers, 
most of them varying from others in a trivial degree, very few of 
them being actually in use. A large class of our inventions are of 
this incidental kind. 

But another large class of inventions have grown mainly out of a 
distinct conception of a public demand, real, foreseen, or fancied, 
or of the practical needs of manufacture. Exclusive of certain spo- 
radic and eccentric instances, inventors are either manufacturers, 
the men employed by them, or who expect to sell to them. All 
these are on the alert to note the drift of public taste and practical 
requirements. A manufacturer sees, or thinks he sees, that a new 
article, or a change in an old one, would meet with or lead to a con- 
siderable sale; or that a simplification of his machinery would ena- 
ble him to reduce his force or his fuel ; a factory hand finds that 
the machine with which he works has some persistent, annoying 
defect which a slight alteration would avoid ; an outsider in a fac- 
tory village forms his own theory as to what would give one com- 
peting manufacturer an advantage over another and knows that it 
Avould be well paid for; in all these influences the exertion of inge- 
nuity is easily accounted for. 

The effect of the public demand is curiously illustrated in the 
synchronism of invention. It frequently happens that men widely 
separated territorially and having no discoverable communication 
with one another make the same invention at the sdme time, or so 
nearly at the same time that priority cannot easily be determined. 


The progress of a certain art has reached a point where a given step 
becomes inevitable, and like causes produce like results everywhere. 

This shows, further, that the individual man is of less importance 
as a factor in invention, than his environment. Indeed invention 
in the wide vague popular sense can hardly be said to exist. Even 
our greatest inventions have proceeded by a succession of small in- 
crements. Each man puts a round in the ladder, and the next climbs 
on it to put in his higher up. The one who puts in the last round 
steps from it to receive the crown of success, although his contribu- 
tion may have been the least of any ; and his even more meritorious 
predecessors who failed, but made that success possible, are gener- 
ally forgotten. 

Invention for the pleasure of inventing is of prime importance in 
literature and art, and cannot be wholly ignored even in treating 
of mechanical matters. Many men delight in experimenting Avith 
machinery, combining element with element, adapting every part 
with every other and to the end in view. They find invention ' ' its 
own exceeding great reward. ' ' Every one who deals with inventors 
can recall such enthusiasts, who are often men of notable if narrow 
ability, and, on the whole, the most interesting of their tribe. 

Mr. A. W. Hart said : I am very glad that, among other things 
he has done. Col. Seely has put his foot down on the theory that 
accident is the mother of invention. This is a popular error which 
most of us may have sometime shared — certainly, I must admit it 
was included once in my catalogue of sins. What are called acci- 
dents are in reality normal results of a search or inquiry, or series 
of experiments, such, for example, in the geographical field, as 
the discovery of America by Columbus, or in the healing art, the 
prevention of cholera by inoculation with cholera germs if that 
is the correct term. In the way of a homely illustration, I will 
relate a personal incident. A friend proposed a walk to Arlington, 
and said we would look on the way for Indian arrow-heads. I as- 
sented but said that I never found an arrow-head in my life. 
" That is merely because you never looked for them," replied my 
friend. We went, and sure enough, found the arrow-head, and I 
found another the next walk I took in search for one. Now, while 
in a certain sense I may call that finding an accident, in the true 
and proper sense, it was none at all. It was the regular legitimate 
result of the search instituted. But for the preparation or plan and 
its systematic execution, the "accident " of discovery would never 


liave occurred. So inventions come when we are ripe for them 
and look for and strive after them — and then they are not accidents, 
but logical endings of systematic beginnings — ^just as the solution of 
a mathematical problem follows its working. 

One may walk — as the savage does — over diamond or coal fields, 
rich bottom lands, or gold-bearing rocks, seeing nothing of their 
nature, contents or potentialities because intent on other things — 
of the hunt or war — and because not developed to any possible com- 
prehension of anything more. But the civilized and mentally and 
scientifically developed man, going over the same ground might 
make valuable discoveries, for good to himself and his fellows, while 
losing sight of the beasts or the signs of presence of others that the 
eye of the savage takes in. The latter is therefore not to be charged 
with negligence, nor the civilized man with being the victim of an 
accident. So inventions come when we are ready for and seek theai. 
— as apples fall into the basket we hold to catch them when ripe 
and ready to drop. 

Mr. Murdoch read a paper on the " Sinew-dacked Bow of the 

All the branches of the widely-distributed Eskimo race now live 
in regions which are either treeless or else deprived of the ash and 
other elastic woods fit for making bows. The fact that the bow was 
in general use among the Eskimo previous to the introduction of 
firearms is one of the arguments that they have not always lived in 
the regions which they now inhabit, but have moved on from places 
where wood suitable for the purpose was to be obtained. As they 
gradually became settled in their new homes, probably before the 
different branches were so widely separated from the original stock 
as they are now, and as the simple bows which they had brought 
with them from their old country became worn out and had to be 
replaced, it was necessary to find some means of giving the needful 
elasticity to the brittle spruce and fir, frequently rendered still 
more brittle by a long drift on river and sea, followed by exposure 
to sun and rain on the sea-beach. In some places even driftwood 
is so scarce that bows were made of no better material than dr}' 
antler. The elastic sinews of several animals, especially of the rein- 
deer, furnished the means desired of making an efficient weapon out 
of these poor materials. This is not employed in the way used b}- 
the Indians of the plains, who glue a broad strip of sinew along the 


back of the bow, but is braided or twisted into a cord the size of 
stout whip-cord, which is laid on in a continuous piece so that there 
are numerous strands of the elastic cord, running along the back of the 
bow so as to be stretched when the bow is drawn. The simplest or, so 
to speak, ancestral pattern of sinew-backed bow from which the types 
now in use are evidently derived is one in which there are a dozen 
or twenty of such plain strands along the back, running around 
the "nocks" and held down by knotting the end of the cord 
round the handle. Bows of this form, slightly modified by having 
the cords somewhat twisted from the middle, so as to increase their 
tension, are still to be found in Baffin Land, where many of the arts 
seem in a lower state of development than among the Greenlanders, 
on the one hand, or the Western Eskimos, on the other. Let us 
now consider how in course of time the different branches of the 
Eskimo race have improved upon this simple invention. Along the 
well-wooded shores of southern Alaska, from the island of Kadiak 
nearly to the mouth of the Yukon, where there is plenty of fresh, 
living spruce, they have chiefly increased the efficiency of the bow 
by lengthening and broadening it, and have paid but little atten- 
tion to the sinew backing, contenting themselves with slightly in- 
creasing the number of strands, wrapping them round with a spiral 
seizing, which prevents them from spreading, and occasionally add- 
ing a few more strands which only extend part way to the tips, 
being secured by hitches round the bow. This makes the bow a 
little stiffer in the middle than at the ends, where less strength is 
required. On the other hand, the people who live along the tree- 
I less shores of the Arctic Ocean, from the Mackenzie river to Ber- 
ing Strait, can obtain no wood better than the dead and weathered 
spruce which the sea casts upon the beach. Consequently, all im- 
provements in the weapon were of necessity confined to the sinew 
backing, which has developed into a marvel of craiplication and 
perfection, while the bow itself is rather short and not especially 
stout. Starting as before with a loop at one end of the cord strands 
are laid on from nock to nock until there are enough of them to 
give sufficient stiffness to the ends of the bow. Then the cord goes 
only to within 6 or 8 inches of the tip and is secured round the 
bow by hitches, sometimes a very complicated lashing of as many 
as a dozen half hitches alternately in opposite directions, and returns 
to a corresponding place at the other end, where it is similarly 
hitched. In this way strand after strand is laid on, each pair shorter 


than the preceding, and the backing constantly thickening towards 
the middle of the bow. When sufficient strands are laid on they 
are separated into two parcels, and with a pair of very ingenious 
little bone or ivory levers are twisted from the middle into two 
tight cables, so that the twist of the cords adds to the resistance to 
be overcome in drawing the bow. These are prevented from un- 
twisting by a lashing at the middle which runs through the cable 
and round the bow in a sort of figure of 8. The end of the cord 
then makes a tight spiral seizing round the bow which not only 
keeps the backing from slipping, but serves to distribute the strain 
evenly and keep the bow from breaking. This pattern is probably 
the ultimate development of the sinew-backed bow. Not only is 
it difficult to imagine making a more perfect weapon from the mate- 
rial, but attention will no longer be paid to possible improvements 
in a weapon which is rapidly falling into disuse. As would naturally 
be supposed the region about Norton Sound, where the tribes of the 
Arctic coast meet those of Bering Sea, is a debatable ground, where 
bows of the two types described are found side by side, along with 
others partaking of the characteristics of both. If now we cross to 
St. Lawrence Island, we find Eskimos depending solely on drift- 
wood, who employ another and most peculiar modification of the 
original type. They have lengthened the ends of the bow so that 
the original simple backing hardly reaches within a foot of either 
end, while these ends are bent up as in the Tartar bow, and separate 
backings are stretched across these bends. 

The Eskimos of the mainland of Siberia, who have long main- 
tained direct intercourse with the St. Lawrence Islanders and with 
the Eskimos of the Arctic coast by Avay of the Diomedes, show the 
evidence of this intercourse in the pattern of their bows, using either 
the peculiar St. Lawrence tpye, or purely American bows of the 
Arctic pattern, or weapons which curiously combine characteristic 
features of both. 


Mr. Bates said that the little blocks which are tied into the 
concave outer limb of several of Mr. Murdoch's bows are some- 
thing more than a mere stiffener of the wooden portion. It is a 
truly mechanical expedient, to give efficiency to the tension mem- 
ber of the combination, which is the sinew. It not only acts as 
a strut to increase the leverage of the tension member, which is the 


function of the strut in all combination trusses, but it shortens and 
straightens the line of the sinew, thus bringing its rigidity and 
elasticity into full play. In this, as in so many other instances of 
merely experimental evolution, the best results of abstract theory 
are arrived at. 

Ninety-Seventh Regular Meeting, May 19, 1885. 

Vice-President Dr. Robert Fletcher in the Chair. 

The Chair announced the death of Count Giovanni Battiste Erco- 
lani, of Bologna, Italy, a correaponding member, after which a 
memoir was read by Dr. E. R. Reynolds, who, in the course of his 
remarks, presented to the Society an embroidered Italian flag and 
a number of scarfs and mourning wreaths contributed by various 
scientific societies of Italy, of which Count Ercolani was a member. 
The Chair remarked that Count Ercolani would probably be remem- 
bered principally for his discovery that the circulation of the blood 
was known and promulgated prior to Harvey. 

Dr. Matthews then read a paper upon "The Cubature of the 
Skull," which was followed by some inquiries by Dr. Frank Baker 
and Mr. Bates, leading to further remarks by Dr. Matthews. 


The lecturer discussed briefly the various methods which have 
been employed in the volumetric measurement of the cranial con- 
tents and pointed out their various defects. He then described a 
method which he had recently devised and employed in the Army 
Medical Museum at Washington. 

After recording the weight of the skull it is varnished inside 
with thin shellac varnish, applied by means of a reversible spray 
apparatus. Artificial or accidental orifices are closed with India- 
rubber adhesive plaster. The foramena and fossae are filled with 
putty. The skull is wrapped in a coating of putty an inch 
or more in thickness, which renders it water-tight. It is filled 
with water by means of a special apparatus in forty-five seconds and 
emptied in fifteen seconds. The rapidity of this manipulation in 
conjunction with the varnishing prevents soaking into the sinuses 
and the undue measurement of water which does not pertain to the 


cranial cavity. The water is poured into a measuring glass of 
2,000 c. c. capacity, and lycopodium is scattered on the water to 
define the true surface. The putty is taken from the skull ; the 
latter is cleansed and placed in a dry, warm apartment until by slow 
evaporation it is reduced to its former weight and consequently to 
its former capacity. Then it is measured a second time to verify 
the results of the former measurement. 

Hitherto anthropologists have chiefly employed solid particles, 
such as shot or seeds, in the cubatu'-e of skulls. Water had been 
tried by former experimenters without success, and abandoned — the 
objections to its use being considered insuperable. The lecturer, 
however, considered that by his mi^thod he had overcome the chief 
difficulties. Although the method is new and still susceptible of 
improvement, it is thought that the results — an average of one cubic 
centimetre difference between the first and second measurements — 
have not been excelled. 

One of the bronze skulls of Professor J. Ranke, of Munich, was 
exhibited, and the claims of the inventor, as published in " Cor- 
respondenz-Blatt der Deutschen Gesellschaft flir Anthropologic 
Ethnologic und Urgeschichte," September, 1884, were quoted. 
The lecturer had found one difficulty in using the artificial 
skull which Prof. Rauke had not suggested. The cavity varied 
greatly in capacity with changes of temperature. For a perfect 
conformity of measurements not only was it necessary that the 
water used should be certain specified heat, but the bronze skull, 
the various vessels used, and the atmosphere of the apartment in 
which the experiments were made should be of a corresponding 
temperature. At 4° centigrade the lecturer obtained for the bronze 
skull, estimating both by weight and measure, a capacity of 1,220 c. c, 
while at 14° centigrade he obtained 1,240 c. c. In no case did he 
get a result as high as that engraved on the skull, viz: 1,255.6 c. c. 
The skull was presented by Prof. Rauke to the Army Medical 

A paper followed from Dr. Baker uj^on " The Principles of 
Interpretation of Brain, Mass, and Form." This paper was 
illustrated by numerous charts. 




J. W. Powell, 

Delivered February J, iS8j. 

It is a long way from savagery to civilization. In the attempt to 
delineate the progress of mankind through this long way, it would 
be a convenience if it could be divided into clearly defined stages. 
The course of culture, which may be defined as the development of 
mankind from savagery to civilization, is the evolution of the 
humanities — the five great classes of activities denominated arts, 
institutions, languages, opinions, and intellections. Now if this 
course of culture is to be divided into stages, the several stages 
should be represented in every one of the classes of activities. If 
there are three stages of culture there sho'iild be three stages of arts, 
three stages of institutions, three stages of language, three stages of 
opinions, and three stages of intellections. 

Three such culture stages have been recognized by anthropologists, 
denominated Savagery, Barbarism, and Civilization. But they 
have been vaguely characterized and demarcated. Savagery has 
been considered a low stage of culture, barbarism a middle stage of 
culture, and civilization a high stage of culture In a brief address 
it is not practicable to set forth the essential characteristics of the 
whole course of culture ; and it is intended on this occasion simply 
to characterize Savagery and Barbarism, and to define the epoch of 
transition. To this end it will be necessary to set forth the charac- 
teristics of savage art as distinct from barbaric art, and the nature 
of the change; to explain savage institutions and barbaric institu- 
tions, and how the lower class developed into the higher ; to set 
forth briefly the characteristics of savage language and barbaric 
language, and the origin of the change; to show the nature of the 
opinions held by savages and the opinions held by barbarians, and 
to explain the reason of the change from one to the other ; and 
finally to explain savage and barbaric intellections, and to show 


how savage methods of reasoning were transformed into barbaric 
methods of reasoning. 

The most noteworthy attempt hitherto made to distinguish and de- 
fine culture-stages is that of Lewis H. Morgan, in his great work enti- 
tled "Ancient Society." In it these three grand periods appear — 
Savagery, Barbarism, and Civilization — each with sub-divisions. 
Morgan recognized the importance of arts as the foundation of cult- 
ure, and his "ethnic periods," as he calls them, are based on art 
development. With him. Savagery embraces all that stage of human 
progress extending from the beginning of the history of man, as dis- 
tinguished from the lower animals, to the invention of pottery. 
Barbarism then succeeds and extends to the invention of the alpha- 
bet. He adds that among some peoples hieroglyphic writing takes 
the place of phonetic writing, and civilization begins at this time. 
He then divides each of these periods into epochs which need not 
here be considered. In some of Morgan's works he connects the 
evolution of institutions with the development of arts, but to an 
imperfect degree, and without explaining their interdependence. 
He also, at different times, hints at the relation of linguistic devel- 
opment to arts; but he considers mythology to be too vague to 
afford valuable data for this purpose. 

The scheme here presented differs from Morgan's in placing the 
epoch of demarcation between Savagery and Barbarism later on in 
the course of human culture ; and it is proposed to characterize the 
stages, not by arts alone, but by all the fundamental activities of 
man . 

The next most noteworthy attempt to define culture-periods is 
that by Lester F. Ward, one of the Vice-Presidents of this Society. 
In his scheme there are four stages of social progress, or social aggre- 
gation, viz: 

" ist. The solitary, or autarchic stage; 

2d. The constrained aggregate, or anarchic stage ; 
3d. The national, or politarchic stage; and, 
4th. The cosmopolitan, or pantarchic stage," 

Ward seeks to establish these as veritable stages on the basis of 
institutions alone. They are treated as stages of social aggregation, 
and not as culture-stages. The first, second, and fourth are purely 
hypothetic. I have elsewhere stated my reasons for not accepting 
the first and second stages; but, whether real or imaginary, they 
antedate all possible objective knowledge of the condition of man- 


kind. The fourth stage is a prophecy, and though I believe that 
his prophetic vision is clear and that he sees a true picture of the 
future, it need not be considered here. His politarchic stage em- 
braces all the course of human culture with which science may at 
present deal on a basis of observed fact, and it is this stage which 
is here divided into three parts — Savagery, Barbarism, and Civili- 

E. B. Tylor, also, has classified the stages of culture as Savage, 
Barbaric, and Civilized. The lowest or savage stage he defines "as 
that in which man subsists on wild pUnts and animals, neither till- 
ing the soil nor domesticating creatures for his food." He considers 
that men arrive at the barbaric stage when "they take to agricult- 
ure," and pass from the barbaric to the civilized stage by acquiring 
the art of writing. 

In relation to the epoch which separates Savagery from Barbar- 
ism, Tylor does not greatly disagree with Morgan. Morgan uses 
as a criterion of Barbarism as distinguished from Savagery the 
acquisition of the art of making pottery; Tylor, the acquisition 
of agriculture. But usually the two arts have been acquired at 
about the same time, and it seems probable that the conditions of 
life brought about by agriculture were necessary properly to develop 
ceramic art. If this is true, agriculture is the more fundamental. 
If stages of culture are to be established on conditions of art 
development alone, the invention of agriculture should doubtless 
be accepted as the plane of demarcation between the two lower 
stages ; but if the culture-stages are to be based upon characteristics 
derived from all the classes of human activities, the separation 
between Savagery and Barbarism must be placed somewhat later on. 
Such a plane of demarcation has been adopted by me for a number 
of years, both in my publications and in the discussions and exposi- 
tions informally presented to this Society from time to time ; and it 
is my purpose to make a somewhat fuller exposition of my 

All the grand classes of human activities are inter-related in such 
a manner that one presupposes another, and no one can exist with- 
out all the others. Arts are impossible without institutions, lan- 
guages, opinions, and reasoning; and in like manner every one is 
developed by aid of the others. If, then, all of the grand classes of 
human activities are interdependent, any great change in one muet ' 
effect corresponding changes in the others. The five classes of activi- 


ties must progress together. Art-stages must have corresponding 
institutional, linguistic, philosophic, and psychic stages. 

Stages of progress common to all the five grand classes of human 
activities may properly be denominated Culture-Stages, and such 
culture-stages should be defined by characterizing all these activi- 
ties in each stage. This I shall attempt to do, but in a brief way- 


The very early history of mankind is covered by obscurity, through 
which conjecture peers at undefined forms; but when that portion of 
human history which rests upon a solid basis of known facts is reached, 
a succession of arts is discovered, each of which challenges attention 
and admiration. In the lowest stage of culture which comes within 
human knowledge, men understand the use of fire, and we may 
pretty fairly guess how they have learned of its utility. This early 
man also uses tools and implements of stone, bone, horn, wood, and 
clay, and by them adds skill to his hands. It is the genius of savage 
intellect that makes the hand more than a paw, that makes it an 
organ for the fashioning and the use of tools and implements. At 
this earlier stage man also knows how to protect himself from winds 
and storms and the cruel changes of the seasons by providing him- 
self with clothing and shelter. He has also explored and experi- 
mented upon the whole realm of the vegetal world, and discov- 
ered in a more or less crude way the properties of plants, so that he 
knows those which are useful for food, the woods that are useful for 
fire, and the fibres that are useful for woven fabrics. In the same 
period of culture man has learned that the animals of the land and 
the waters are useful for food, and has discovered crude methods by 
which to kill and ensnare them, and has invented many simple 
instruments for hunting and fishing. Such is the state of the 
industrial arts in that stage of culture which we call Savagery. 


Institutions relate to the constitution of bodies politic, to forms 
of government, and to principles of law; and in describing Savag- 
ery we must charact-erize the constitutions of savage tribes, the 
forms of .savage government, and the principles of savage law. 

In Savagery the tribe is always a body of kindred — actual kindred 
in the main ; but, to a limited extent, artificial kinship obtains by 


methods of adoption. In this stage of society no method is con- 
ceived in the human mind by which a number of men can be held 
together in one common body except the bond of kinship — the ties 
of consanguinity and affinity. The savage thinks and says, " My 
kindred are my friends, and he who is not my kin is my enemy," 
and upon this theory he acts. 

The tribal state, therefore, is organized upon the basis of kinship. 
It is literally a bond of blood entwined in a bond of conjugal love, 
and the family organization thoroughly permeates the constitution 
of the tribal state. In this stage of culture the family, as under- 
stood in the civilized world, is unknown. The marriage of one 
man to the woman of his choice, and of one woman to the man 
of her choice, is unknown. The right of the father to his own 
children, is unknown. The husband does not take the wife to 
his own home ; the husband is but the guest of his wife, who re- 
mains with her own kindred; and the children of the union belong 
to her, and over her the husband has no authority. The tribe is 
always divided into kinship clans. Each clan of this character is 
a group of people related to one another through the female line, 
and children belong to the clan of the mother, and submit them- 
selves to the authority of the mother's brother or the mother's 
uncle. The husband of a woman is selected, not by herself but 
by' her clan, to be the guest of the clan and the father of additional 
members of the clan. In this form of society, then, a clan is a 
body of consanguineal kindred in the female line governed by some 
male member of the clan, usually the elder man. The clans con- 
stituting the tribe are bound together by ties of affinity. The 
methods by which they are thus bound vary from time to time and 
from tribe to tribe. In the simplest ^^ossible case a tribe is com- 
posed of two clans, each furnishing the other with husbands and 
fathers, and in such a case the men of the one clan are the guests 
of the other, are the husbands of the women and the fathers of 
the children of the other clan. In such a case the common gov- 
ernment is a council of the elder men of both clans, or of chosen 
or hereditary representatives of both clans, and the council chooses 
the tribal chief. Such is the simplest possible form of tribal society. 

This plan of the tribal state and form of government becomes 
very highly developed; there maybe three, four, twenty, or fifty 
clans, with many curious ties of affinity, with many curious re- 
lations arising from marriage laws. The clan A may furnish 



husbands to clan B, and clan B to clan C, and clan C to clan 
D, and clan D to clan A. It will be impossible to explain all the 
forms of kinship society in Savagery; but it is sufficient to say 
that everywhere the tribal state is organized on a kinship basis. 

If two tribes form an alliance for offensive and defensive purposes, 
an artificial kinship is always established. Under such circum- 
stances the tribes entering into the alliance make an agreement with 
one another what their relationship shall be. If two tribes are thus 
joined they may call each other brothers; then one will be the elder- 
brother tribe, the other the younger-brother tribe. Or they may 
assume the relationship of parent and child to each other, and the 
men of one tribe call the men of the other " fathers" and the women 
" mothers," &:c. But all clan relations and all tribal relations are 
really or theoretically kinship relations. In all such bodies poli- 
tic there is a perpetual conflict between tribal and clan prerogatives, 
and it is settled by different methods in different tribes and at dif- 
ferent times; but, in general, crimes are of two classes in this 
respect: those over which the tribe has jurisdiction, and those over 
which the clan has jurisdiction. Sometimes the clan assumes almost 
supreme jurisdiction ; at other times the tribe assumes almost supreme 
jurisdiction. All petty crimes, as they are considered in savage 
society, fall under the jurisdiction of the clan. It may be asked 
how a state of social organization so strange to us ever became estab- 
lished, and yet it may be easily seen that, anterior to the develop- 
ment of modern ideas and methods of government, it was the 
simplest way of settling difficulties, establishing peace, and con- 
solidating peoples into bodies-politic that could occur to a people. 

In the 34th chapter of Genesis there is recorded a proposition to 
organize a barbaric tribe : 

" And Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to commune with him. 

"And Hamor communed with them, saying, The soul of my son Shechem 
longeth for your daughter: I pray you give her him to wife. 

" And make ye marriages with us, and give your daughters unto us, and take 
our daughters unto you. 

"And ye shall dwell with us : and the land shall be before you; dwell and 
trade ye therein, and get you possessions therein." 

In all stages of society, laws regulate conduct in those particu- 
lars about which men disagree. Wherever there is universal agree- 
ment there is no need for law, and when men disagree about the 


actions of life, their actions must be regulated. Now, in early 
stages of society, the chief things about which men disagree are the 
relations of the sexes, personal authority, possession of property, 
and conduct relating to mythical beings. Their laws therefore 
relate, first, to marriage : and they avoid controversies in this re- 
spect by establishing the law that individuals themselves shall have 
no personal choice in the selection of mates, but that husbands shall 
be furnished to wives by legal appointment through the officers or 
rulers of the clan. Second, property rights are established by laws 
which make certain classes of the property belong to the tribes, 
other classes to the clans, and a very small part to individuals ; and 
the property held by individuals cannot descend to other persons; 
and to prevent controversy in relation to personal property, it is 
established by law that every man's personal property shall be placed 
with him in his grave. Third, personal authority is established on 
seniority. The elder always has authority over the younger; and as 
the people in this stage of society have not yet developed arithmetic 
and records to such an extent that the ages of individuals are known, 
a curious linguistic device is established by which relative age is 
always known. Every man, woman, and child addresses every other 
man, woman, and child by a kinship term which always indicates rela- 
tive age : thus, there is no term for brother, but a man in speaking to 
his brother always uses a term which signifies that he is an elder 
brother or a younger brother, as the case may be ; and thus, through 
the entire system of kinship terms in tribal society no man can speak 
to another without addressing him by a term which, in its very 
nature, claims or yields authority. The younger must always be 
obedient to the elder. Fourth, laws involving conduct relating to 
mythic beings are very diverse and multifarious, and cannot be fully 
characterized. But one of the most essential of those laws concerns 
behavior in relation to the tutelar deity. Each clan has its tutelar 
deity and defends its honor, and punishes all impious acts or words 
against its tutelar god. And in savage society no man may speak 
disrespectfully of his neighbor's god, but may praise or defame his 
own, as that god is propitious or angry. 

The general principle running through all these laws is this: 
That in order that men may live together in peace and render each 
other mutual assistance, controversy must be avoided ; and in con- 
nection with this first principle, a second arises and runs tlirough 
savage law, viz, when controversy has begun it must be terminated. 


The methods of terminating such controversy are various, and may 
not here be entered upon. But, in Savagery, the stj-uggle is for 
peace, and peace is secured by preventing and terminating contro- 
versy. Such are the institutions of Savagery. 


It is not easy to characterize savage languages in such a manner 
that the subject may be clearly understood by scholars who are not 
specialists in philology. This is due to the fact that a false stand- 
ard of linguistic excellence has been set up through the worship of 
Greek and Latin. These languages, at the time when they were 
taken as classical models, were very highly specialized, but not highly 
developed as compared with the languages of modern civilization. 
But having been taken as the models of excellence and the stand- 
ards of comparison, erroneous ideas of the course of linguistic 
growth and of the value or excellence of linguistic methods 
have obtained currency. In order to understand clearly what 
savage, barbaric, and civilized languages are, and how they rank, 
it becomes necessary to eradicate these preconceived ideas, and 
this cannot be attempted in a short address. It can only be 
stated in a general way, and without hope that the statement will 
be fully understood, that savage languages have the parts of speech 
very imperfectly differentiated, that the grammatic processes and 
methods are heterogeneous and inconsistent, and that the body of 
thought which they are competent to express is greatly limited. 
But there is one linguistic characteristic of Savagery that may be 
made very clear; it is this: That simple picture-writing is found 
among savage peoples as a linguistic art, and that in such picture- 
writing conventional characters are rarely used. Hieroglyphs are 
never found among savage peoples, and of course alphabets are un- 


It seems probable that, in the lowest stage of Savagery, all change, 
motion, or activity — in fact, all phenomena — are attributed to life 
supposed to exist in the objects exhibiting the phenomena. Thus, 
all things, animate and inanimate, are supposed to have life and to 
exercise will. But gradually, in the development of savagery it- 
self, the animate and the inanimate are distinguished ; and finally 
these ideas are usually woven into the grammatic structure of savage 


languages. Still, in this stage of culture, the animate is supposed to 
act on the inanimate ; so that while life is not attributed to all 
things, all a'ction is attributed to life — that is, unseen beings are 
supposed to actuate all nature and to produce all the phenomena 
of existence. Thus it is that the stars have spirits, the mountains 
have spirits, and all inanimate and vegetal nature, to a greater or 
less extent, is the abode of invisible beings. Superimposed on 
this is found an exalted conception of the wisdom, skill, and powers 
of the lower animals. In savagery the animals are considered to be 
the equals of man, and in some cases even his superiors. There 
is also a general belief that the form in which men and animals ap- 
pear is but transitory and that these forms may be changed. They 
believe not so much in traiismigration as in transformation. Then, 
through the principle of Ancientism, by which the remote past is 
exalted — in Savagery, Barbarism, and among the ignorant in Civili- 
zation alike — the ancients of the star, mountain, and river spirits, 
the ancients of the birds and beasts, are deified and worshiped. 
The most important characteristic of savage philosophy, then, is the 
exaltation of the lower animals, the worshiping of these animal gods, 
and the belief that they are the chief actors in the creation and his- 
tory of the universe. Savage philosophy is best characterized by 


Sensation is the recognition of external action upon the apparatus 
of the mind. When the olfactory nerves take cognizance of an 
odor, a sensation is received ; but when the mind associates that 
odor with previous sensations of odor, and recognizes it as of some 
quality, or as belonging to some known object, it performs an act 
of inductive reasoning, and pronounces judgment that the odor is 
sweet, or that it emanates from some pleasant substance. When, 
therefore, we say that the odor of the rose is perceived, we fairly 
affirm that in that perception a train of reasoning has been pursued 
and a judgment formed thereon. By long exercise of the individual 
in the cultivation of the faculties of inductive reasoning, and by 
the inheritance of such faculties from ancestors, trains of reasoning 
of this character gradually come to be so spontaneous and so appar- 
ently instantaneous that the course of inductive reasoning is not 
recognized. The judgment is instantly formed, and the inductive 
reasoning is unconscious induction upon the data of sensation. 
Induction is the composition of data. 


Again : a sound falls upon the ear; that is, many waves of sound 
beat upon the nervous receptacle which groups the sensations we 
call sound ; the mind recognizes qualities in the sounds, and at the 
same time compares them with the memories of other sounds having 
the same quality, and the ear thus recognizes the voice of a friend. 
But there may be something more recognized, such as characteristics 
that express joy or sorrow, and the mind recognizes not only the 
voice of the friend but the state of his emotions. Now this process 
is wholly inductive, both in the perception of a known voice and in 
the perception of a known emotion. It is all a complex course of in • 
ductive reasoning, but that reasoning is so instantaneous that the 
facts which lie at the basis of induction, and the methods of induction, 
are not discerned, and the unconscious induction is called perception. 
When the eye is turned to look upon a horse it is affected by certain 
conditions of light, transformed by reflection from the object upon 
which the eye is directed. The different rays of light coming to the 
eye are of a multiplicity of kinds, exhibiting different degrees of light 
and shade and different degrees in the analysis of light into its con- 
stituent colors; thus, chiaroscuro and color strike upon the eye, the 
vast multiplicity of minute effects upon the eye are composed in 
the mind by an inductive process, and the inductive process goes 
beyond the composition of these facts to infer others. Perhaps 
the left side of the horse is turned to the eye, and the mind infers 
that there is a right side, that the hither side of the ear has a farther 
side, that beyond there is a right ear, and a right side throughout, 
so that the conclusion is reached that the object is characterized by 
bilateral symmetry. Still more than that, through that profound 
principle known as the correlation of parts, internal organs are in- 
ferred; it is concluded that the animal has a backbone, a heart, and 
other parts. All these facts, observed and inferred, are combined 
into a general conclusion by the mind that the object seen is a 
horse, and we say that a horse is perceived. Now this process of 
perception differs in no wise from any long and patient course 
of reasoning except in one characteristic, namely, that the process 
of reasoning is so instantaneous that the steps and methods do not 
arise in consciousness. The individual facts upon which the reason- 
ing is based do not appear in severalty, but as forming integral 
parts of the whole; and the steps by which these observed facts are 
combined with previous knowledge, and reasoned upon from the 
basis of the principle of the correlation of parts, are unobserved. 


The mind is unconscious of the facts upon which reason is based, 
and of the process of reasoning, but instantaneously reaches a con- 
clusion. Thus perception is unconscious induction. 

This may be further illustrated by facts familiar to all. The 
untrained arithmetician, labors with a simple problem in addition; 
he steps slowly from one number to another with his eye and his 
mind's eye as he ascends the column ; but an expert accountant 
glances his eye up and down the column and instantaneously states 
the sum; and that which was a slow inductive problem in arith- 
metic for the child and the ordinary adult is performed as an instan- 
taneous process by the expert accountant ; and that which was 
conscious induction in the one was perception in the other. In 
many ways and on all hands this fact may be illustrated, that per- 
ception and induction (or reflection, as it is usually called) are one 
and the same process in kind, but differ only in degree. Perception 
is 1/iicoiiscioiis induction. 

It was necessary to explain this fundamental principle in psychol- 
ogy in order that we may properly characterize the psychic operations 
of Savagery. The psychic condition of a people can only be fully 
explained by setting forth fully the whole system of intellections, 
embracing perceptions, inductions, and inventions (or imagination, 
as the process of invention is more usually denominated in psychol- 
ogy), and also characterizing the emotions, the desires, and the 
purposes, so frequently denominated the "will." But it will be suf- 
ficient for our purposes here if we characterize the perceptions and 
inductions of Savagery; and it may be safely inferred that the 
imaginings, the emotions, the desires, and the purposes will corre- 
spond thereto. 

Now the perceptions of Savagery are of a very rudimentary char- 
acter and are greatly restricted. This can be shown in many ways, 
but two particulars will suffice for present purposes. The first is 
this, that the savage is unable to perceive a conventional meaning. 
He can perceive a horse, and he can even perceive the picture of a 
horse if its outlines are fairly drawn, but he cannot perceive a horse 
in a conventional character, like a hieroglyph or a written word. 

Again : the savage can perceive numbers but to a very limited 
extent, but cannot perceive the relations of numbers; for example, 
he cannot add groups of numbers, as 3 to 5 ; but wishing to add 3 
to 5, he first- counts off carefully 5, and then adds the 3, one at a 
time — that is, he counts his addition. To subtract 3 from 8, he 


subtracts one at a time until 3 are taken away, and subsequently 
counts the remainder to discover the 5. In like manner he cannot 
multiply, that is, add like groups to each other. Nor can he divide, 
that is, separate into like groups, but must in each case go through 
the process, not by considering abstract numbers, but by consider- 
ing individual things, one at a time. Thus it is that in Savagery a 
very large field is included in conscious induction which belongs to 
perception in a higher stage of culture. There are many other 
mental characteristics of Savagery, but those given are sufficient for 
present purposes. 

Savagery has been thus described with all the minuteness possible 
on such an occasion, and perhaps with sufficient thoroughness for 
present purposes. The savage has invented rude arts by which he 
obtains food, clothing, and shelter. He has invented a rude system 
of kinship society, with descent in the female line. He has 
spoken language, gesture-speech, and picture-writing, but is without 
hieroglyphic, syllabic, or alphabetic writing. He has a philosophy 
which informs conspicuous and important inanimate objects with 
spirit life, and which deifies the brute ; and a mind whose percep- 
tions are so slightly developed that conventional characters do not 
convey to him ideas, and his arithmetic is yet "counting." Such, 
in general, are the characteristics of all savage peoples that have been 
carefully studied by anthropologists. Now the question arises, how 
was this Savagery transformed into Barbarism ; and what is that 
Barbarism ? 

In the lower stages of culture all progress rests upon the arts of 
life. To discover any great change in the condition of mankind 
we must look for the art-invention which was the efficient agency 
in producing the change. 

If the early course of human progress be surveyed for the purpose 
of discovering the most important art-epochs, it will be safe to re- 
gard those of the greatest importance the effects of which are most 
clearly exhibited iij the concomitant activities — that is, institutions, 
languages, opinions, and psychic operations. If an invention has 
but slight influence on these correlative activities, its importance 
may be questioned. But if an art-invention is discovered to have 
worked radical changes in all other activital departments, such art 
must be of the highest importance. . 

There are two arts intimately associated the invention of which 
causes a radical change in all of the departments of humanity. 


viz, agriculture and the domestication of animals. Agriculture 
began in Savagery. Many savage tribes cultivate little patches 
of ground and thereby provide themselves with a part of their 
subsistence. This petty agriculture does not of itself result in 
any radical change ; but when the art has developed to such an 
extent that the people obtain their chief subsistence therefrom, and 
especially when it is connected with the domestication of animals, 
so that these are reared for food and used as beasts of burden, the 
change for which we seek is wrought. It seems that extensive agri- 
culture was first practiced in arid lands by means of artificial irriga- 
tion. In more humid lands the supply of food is more abundant, 
and the incentive to agriculture is less. On the other hand, agri- 
culture is more difficult in humid lands than in arid lands. The 
savage is provided with rude tools, and with them he can more 
easily train water upon desert soils than he can repress the growth 
of valueless plants as they compete for life wjth those which furnish 
food. The desert soil has no sod to be destroyed, no chapparal to 
be eradicated, no trees to be cut down, with their great stumps to 
be extracted from the earth. The soil is ready for the seed. Throw 
upon that soil a handful of seed and then sprinkle it Avith a few cal- 
abashes of water once or twice through the season, and the crop is 
raised ; or train upon a larger garden patch the water of a stream 
and let it flood the surface once or twice a year, and a harvest may 
be reaped. 

Petty agriculture, such as I have described as belonging properly 
to Savagery, has been widely practiced in the four quarters of the 
globe among savage peoples, quite as much in humid as in arid 
regions ; but the art seems not to have indigenously extended 
beyond that stage in any but arid regions. The earliest real agri- 
culture known to man was in the Valley of the Nile, an almost rain- 
less land; but the floods of the Nile were used to fertilize the soil. 
Again, in the land of Babylon, along the Tigris and the Euphrates, 
extensive agriculture grew up, but it was' dependent upon artificial 
irrigation. Still farther to the southeast, in the Punjab, another 
system of indigenous agriculture was developed by utilizing the 
waters of the five great rivers. Still farther to the east an indige- 
nous agriculture was developed on an extensive scale, all dependent 
upon artificial irrigation, as the Chinese use the waters of the Ho- 
ang-ho and the Yang-tse-Kiang. In South America the first system 
of agriculture was developed in Peru, all dependent uj^on artificial 


irrigation ; and finally, to the north of the Isthmus of Panama, in 
Central America and Mexico, agricultural arts were highly devel- 
oped, and here also they were dependent upon artificial irrigation. 
From these six examples of high agricultural art, all the agricult- 
ure of the world has been developed ; from these centers it has 
spread. The petty agriculture of humid lands never went beyond 
the utilization of little patches of ground in the forest glades until 
it was borrowed in a higher state from arid lands. Everywhere with 
the development of agriculture in the arid lands, the art of domes- 
ticating animals was associated, and everywhere such animals were 
raised for food, and to a large extent they were used as beasts of 

Now, it is to be noted that the animal industry eventually devel- 
oped beyond the vegetal industry, and spread more widely, and 
many tribal peoples became herdsmen and nomads before they came 
to be agriculturists. -The art of domesticating animals was more 
easily borrowed, especially in humid regions, than was the art of 

These industries enabled mankind to obtain a far more generous 
subsistence and more thorough protection from unfriendly nature. 
They thus caused a great increase in population. They also con- 
stituted the first great agency for the accumulation of wealth, by 
creating it in giving value to land, by creating it in flocks and 
herds, and by storing it through the discovery of methods by which 
the wants of the future could be met. By planting fields the wants 
of to-morrow and all the days of the year to come are served; and 
when the young of animals are reared, provision for future years is 
made, and thereby men learn to accumulate. 

This change in the arts of life, and the increase of population 
resulting therefrom, entirely changed the constitution of society. 
In savage society, when mother-right prevails, a tribe is a group of 
classes or clans living together in a village that is easily moved from 
time to time. If a colony departs from a tribe, a segment of two 
or more clans goes away and starts a new village, and the clans 
again live as a village community upon the same plan as the parent 

Now, let us suppose that a tribe separates by clans, so that each 
goes off by itself; a curious condition arises therefrom : first, it 
results in the divorce of all marriages, because husband and wife 
are always of different clans ; and for the same reason the father is 


separated from his children. In such communities there is often a 
partial separation by clans of this nature: in savage society the 
men of a clan often go off together on a hunting or fishing excur- 
sion. Sometimes these excursions or travels are prolonged for 
weeks or months. In such cases the men often take their wives 
with them, and under these circumstances the women are separated 
from their clan and kindred and- are not under the control of clan 
authority, but fall under the temporary control of their husbands 
and fathers. Now, if we could suppose a state of affairs where 
this separation of women and children from kindred and clan 
authority becomes permanent, it is manifest that the power of 
clan authority would wane, and the authority of the husband and 
father would grow. Such a condition of affixirs results from ex- 
tensive agriculture by irrigation and the care of extensive flocks. 
It must be remembered that in this stage of society property is 
communal; that is, property in the main belongs to the clan. A 
flock of sheep, a herd of cattle, a band of horses; is the property 
of the men of a clan. When such property becomes so large that 
it will occupy for its sustentation a large valley, the men to whom 
it belongs will necessarily be occupied all the time with its care 
and protection, and they must have their wives and children with 
them in order that domestic life may be possible. Under such 
circumstances it results that women and children are gradually taken 
from the control of those persons who had previously been supposed 
to be their natural protectors, their clan kindred, and fall under the 
control of their husbands and fathers, who are members of other 
clans. The same result has always been produced by the segrega- 
tion of the male members of the clan from the tribe through agri- 
culture by irrigation. The circumstances are these : In this early 
agriculture the agricultural implements are very crude, and great 
hydraulic works cannot be undertaken. It is thus necessary to 
attempt the control of only the small streams, and the men of each 
clan will therefore select some small stream and occupy the little 
valley through which it runs and upon which its waters are trained ; 
the men of one clan, witli their wives and children, occupy a dis- 
tinct valley, the male members of another clan another valley, and 
the tribe is thus segregated into groups, the male members of each 
group belonging to the same clan and having with them their wives 
and children. The women and children being thus severed from clan 
authority, fall under the authority of their husbands, and mother- 


right, or descent in the female line, is changed into father-right, or 
descent in the male line; and thus is established the patriarchy, a 
form of society with which we are all familiar, as it is very clearly 
set forth in the post-Noachian history of the Bible. 

Under this form of society kinship bonds are still preserved, but 
they are of a different nature. First, descent is transferred to the 
male line — that is, children belong to the clan of the father, and 
are controlled by him instead of by the mother's brother, or the 
mother's uncle; second, the husband is no longer the guest of the 
wife and her clan. At first the wife is the guest of the husband and 
his clan, but gradually this relationshij) of guest and host is changed 
to the relationship of master and owner, and the husband becomes 
the owner of his wife, and finally the owner of his children. They 
are considered to be his property; they are responsible to no one 
but himself — that is, the tribe does not hold the wife and children 
responsible for their acts, but holds the husband responsible for 
them. (It is impossible in an evening's address to characterize fully 
the causes and the consequences of the change from enatic to ag- 
natic descent, but the statement here given is perhaps sufficient for 
present purposes.) 

Another great change is effected, the increase of wealth which 
has been described multiplies the relations between men arising 
from the possession of property. And these are relations about 
which men disagree, and therefore they must be regulated by law. 
The state, therefore, comes to be organized in part on a property 
basis; hitherto it has been organized wholly upon a kinship basis. 
The plan of the structure of the state is thus changed. The laws, 
too, are enlarged to regulate the relations that arise out of owner- 

And yet another change is effected. Some clans prosper and 
increase in wealth ; other clans fall into poverty. With this increase 
of wealth and desire for wealth, labor becomes of value, because it 
can be converted into wealth, and the poor are employed by the 
rich, and the relations of the employer and the employed are estab- 
lished. Out of this grows the relationship of master and slave, and 
ranks or grades are established in society. With this grows ambi- 
tion for wealth and power, and tribe wars on tribe to drive away its 
herds and to take possession of its accumulated property, and cap- 
tured peoples become slaves, and the chiefs of conquering tribes 
extend their authority over conquered tribes, and gradually great 


chiefs become great leaders in war and gather their retainers about 
them, giving to .them jDrotection from without, and claiming in 
compensation for the same fealty, tribute, and service under arms. 
Such is a brief outline of the characteristics of tribal society in 
barbarism, brought about through the cultivation of the soil and 
the domestication of animals. 


The great changes wrought in arts and institutions which have 
been described doubtless had their influence on languages, as the 
new ideas required new means of expression. While in the present 
state of knowledge it is perhaps not possible to set forth clearly the 
resultant sematic and structural effects upon any language, in lin- 
guistic arts important effects are discovered. 

In the lower status of culture, here denominated savagery, picture- 
writing was highly developed ; but in the transition to barbarism, 
picture-writing was transformed into ideographic Avriting. In the 
earlier stage a slight tendency to conventionalism is discovered ; 
but in ideographic writing the original pictorial signs are conven- 
tionalized. to such a degree that it becomes an important linguistic 
art, by which ideas may be recorded and transmitted from person 
to person and from generation to generation. It must be under- 
stood that the evolution of picture-writing had all along been in 
the direction of ideographic writing, but a great impulse is given 
to this tendency by the enlargement of human activities in the arts 
of life and the institutions of society. This is discovered in many 
directions, the chief of which may be here enumerated. 

ist. The increase of property demands increase in the methods 
of identifying property and of substantiating ownership. 

2d. The separation of clans and the distribution of cognate 
peoples over large areas of territory demand means of intercom- 
munication other than that of direct oral conversation ; and 

3d. Nomadism, which is the direct result of the domestication of 
animals, makes men travelers, and so enlarges their horizon of 
observation that some method for the record of events becomes 
necessary. Under such stimulus, picture-writing speedily develops 
into ideographic writing. 


In savagery, mythology develops into a high form of zootheism. 


The beasts are not gods, but many of the gods are beasts — the 
ancients of beasts, the prototypes or progenitors of the living 
animals. The rudiments of physitheism also exist in the worship 
of the heavenly bodies, the winds, and other natural phenomena 

When animals become beasts of burden they are degraded ; they 
are discovered to be inferior beings, and the mysteries of animal 
life are largely dispelled ; and by the development of agriculture 
man becomes more dependent upon the sun, the seasons, and the 
weather. The heavenly bodies and meteorologic powers and 
phenomena grow in importance and become more and more the 
subject of interest and speculation, until the personifications of 
natural objects in the heavens and natural phenomena in the seasons 
and the weather are deified, and the tribal worship presided over 
by medicine-men and prophets becomes a religion based upon 
physitheism. The occult lore of the people is composed of stories 
of the sun, moon, and stars j of thunder, lightning, and the rain- 
bow: of the storms, clouds, and winds, and of dawn and gloaming. 

There is another important development in the religion of bar- 
baric peoples. With the establishment of the patriarchy the patri- 
arch comes gradually to be the great power, and worship of a clan 
tutelar deity is changed into ancestral worship — the worship of the 
ancient chiefs or patriarchs; ancestor gods and ancestral worship 
replace tutelar gods and tutelar worship. Barbarism, then, is prop- 
erly characterized by domestic ancestor worship and tribal nature 


The enlarged plane of human activities already outlined causes 
an important development in psychic activities. First, percep- 
tion is enlarged. This is seen in the fact that people at this 
stage are able to read hieroglyphs; they can perceive meanings 
in conventional characters. Again, stimulated by the accumu- 
lation of wealth, arithmetic is developed beyond the counting 
stage, and man can add a number of units to a number of units, 
and can subtract numbers from numbers, and divide numbers by 
numbers. In savagery, men learn to count; in barbarism, men 
learn arithmetic, and can at once perceive the simpler relations of 
numbers. The entire field of human thought is greatly enlarged, 
and with this enlargement there may be observed a nicer discrimi- 


nation of phenomena, and a grouping of phenomena on a new- 
system of analogies. 

From the foregoing brief characterization it will be seen that bar- 
baric culture implies a somewhat high state of agriculture and the 
domestication of animals, one or both. It implies that patri- 
archal institutions have been organized, that descent is in the 
male line, that ranks in society have been established, and that new 
laws regulating property have been enacted. It implies that the 
people use hieroglyphs. It implies that domestic worship is ances- 
tral worship, that tribal worship is based on physitheism, and 
that the phenomena of the universe are attributed to nature gods. 
And finally, it implies that men can perceive meanings in conven- 
tional signs, and that arithmetic has been invented. 

The statement I have hitherto made rests on the postulate that 
the progress of culture has been essentially along the same line in 
all times and places. The facts accumulated by the researches of 
modern anthropologists fairly establish this. It is true there has 
been much variation in the order and steps of culture, but this 
variation has been confined within certain limits. The chief 
variation lies in the fact that all races have not made progress to 
.the same extent. Some tribes are yet savages; other tribes are yet 
barbarians; and some peoples have attained civilization. 

The common origin of mankind, otherwise denominated the 
unity of the human race, is a conclusion to which the modern 
science of anthropology gives abundant evidence. Although the 
diversity among men is so great that no two are alike, yet this di- 
versity is restricted to narrow limits. The units of the mass of 
humanity are discovered to be homogeneous in essential endow- 
ments to such an extent as almost to startle the student who 
studies man in all lands and at all times. 

Primitive men had a common origin, but early in their history 
they differentiated into biotic varieties, characterized by the con- 
formation of the skull, the proportions of the skeleton, the color of 
the skin, the structure of the hair, the attitude of the eyes, and 
other biotic peculiarities. Had this tendency to differentiate con- 
tinued through the entire course of human culture, species would 
have been established, but early in the period of human history the 
tendency to differentiation was checked and a return to homogene- 
ity initiated. Thenceforth the progress of mankind has been by 
methods radically differing from the methods of biotic evolution as 
exhibited among plants and animals. 


This return to biotic homogeneity is due to the development of 
human activities, which make men depend one upon another in 
such a manner that the welfare of one involves the welfare of others, 
so that no man may claim the right to live for himself, but every man 
lives and labors for the good of his kind. The fundamental prin- 
ciple of animality is supreme selfishness ; the fundamental principle 
of humanity is mutual assistance. 

As man is an animal, in systematic biology he may be grouped 
with other animals as determined by morphologic characteristics. 
He has a head, body, and limbs ; he has organs which perform the 
functions of biotic life ; and when we consider man in this aspect 
the study is a part of biology. Man is more than animal by reason 
of his activities ; man is man by reason of his humanities ; and 
when we study him in this aspect the subject is anthropology. 

Henceforward human evolution differs radically from biotic evo- 
lution as exhibited among plants and animals. Animal evolution 
has been accomplished by the survival of the fittest in the struggle 
for existence. By this method animals were adapted to environ- 
ment, and in the course of this adaptation they differentiated into a 
multitude of species, genera, families, and orders. Animal evolu- 
tion, then, has these three characteristics : first, the agency of evolu- . 
tion was the survival of the fittest in the struggle for existence, 
brought about by over-population ; second, the fittest that survived 
were adapted to environment ; and third, progress resulted in im- 
measurable variety, carried to the utmost degree. In all of these 
characteristics human evolution differs radically from animal evolu- 

First, man has not progressed by the survival of the fittest in the 
struggle for existence. Man does not, to any important extent, 
compete with plants and the lower animals, but he utilizes them, 
developing such as he will in directions that best subserve his inter- 
ests, and gradually destroying others from the face of the .earth. 
Nor does man progress by reason of competition within the species. 
When the highwayman and the traveler meet, the robber is not 
always killed ; and when races battle with each other, the strongest 
and the best go-to die. In the course of human history, in a few 
localities and at a few times population has been overcrowded, but 
in the grand aggregate the world has never been fully peopled, and 
man has not crowded upon man for existence. 

While man has not progressed by the struggle for existence, he 


has progressed by his endeavor to secure happiness ; and in tliis en- 
deavor he has invented arts, institutions, languages, opinions, and 
methods of reasoning — that is, he has progressed by the development 
of five great classes of human activities. In the establishment of 
these activities, he transfers the struggle for existence from himself 
to his activities, from the subject, man, to the objects which he 
creates. Arts compete with one another, and progress in art is by 
the survival of the fittest in the struggle for existence. In like 
manner, institutions compete with institutions, languages with lan- 
guages, opinions with opinions, and reasoning with reasoning; and 
in each case we have the survival of the fittest in the struggle for 
existence. Man by his invention has transferred the brutal strug- 
gle for existence from himself to the works of his hand. 

Again, man has not been adapted to environment. There is no 
aquatic variety of man, no aerial variety, no tropical variety, no 
boreal variety, no herbivorous or carnivorous variety. On the other 
hand, man has adapted the environment to himself — that is, he has 
created for himself an artificial environment by means of his arts. 
He can sail upon the sea and live on the products of the sea, and 
he utilizes the denizens of the air and the plants and animals of the 
land. He protects himself from great heat and great cold and in 
a multitude of ways creates an artificial environment. And this he 
has done to such an extent that were he suddenly to lose his control 
over the environment gained through his arts, he would speedily 
perish from the earth. 

Again, among the lower plants and animals the course of adap- 
tation to environment led progressively to the differentiation of 
species, until a multiplicity of biotic forms covered the earth. The 
method of human evolution by endeavor to secure happiness through 
human activities, which resulted in the creation of an artificial en- 
vironment, checked the tendency of the animal man to differentiate 
into distinct sprcies, and the interdependence and solidarity that 
were established through these activities tend more and more to 
restore the units of mankind to pristine homogeneity. This is 
accomplished biotically by a constant interfusion of streams of 
blood, as men are commingled and intermarried throughout the 
world. When races of higher culture spread civilization over infe- 
rior races, the admixture goes on at an increased rate. The blood 
of the American Indian is to a large extent mixed with the blood 
of the European, and especially is this true where Latin peoples 


have established themselves. The African tribes transplanted in 
America are rapidly bleached by the synthetic chemistry of social 
life. When three generations more have passed, it may not be 
possible to find a drop of pure Indian or negro blood on this con- 
tinent. Civilization overwhelms Savagery, not so much by spilling 
blood as by mixing blood, but whether spilled or mixed, a greater 
homogeneity is secured. 

This return to homogeneity is accomplished by the spread of arts 
from their centers of invention to the circumference of their util- 
ities. As an art is expressed in material form, it is an object-lesson 
readily learned. It may be that the tongue of the inventor can be 
understood by no people but those of his own tribe, but his handi- 
work needs no interpreter; and so arts are spread from land to 
land, and those who engage in common arts are trained by homo- 
geneous methods. 

This return to homogeneity is accomplished by the spread of 
institutions from tribe to tribe and from nation to nation, for waves 
of conquest have rolled again and again over all lands, and when 
civilization is reached institutions and institutional devices are trans- 
planted, for civilized men are ever engaged in comparison and ever 
striving to select the best. 

This tendency to homogeneity is accomplished by linguistic com- 
munication, for with the progress of culture men come to speak 
more and more in synonyms, and dominant languages are spread 
far beyond the boundaries of their native lands; and thus there is a 
tendency to homogeneity of tongue. 

This return to homogeneity is accomplished by the spread of opin- 
ions, for the opinions that influence the highest of the race come 
ultimately to influence all ; and scientific philosophy is rapidly 
spreading to the uttermost parts of the earth. 

And finally this homogeneity is accomplished by the spread of 
the same methods of reasoning, the same psychic operations. Hom- 
ologic methods of reasoning, by which the truth is reached, are 
steadily replacing analogic methods, by which myths only are in- 
vented ; and as gradually the same facts are brought to the light of 
all mankind, and the same processes of reasoning are pursued, men 
are gradually becoming occupied in the same mental activities. 

Thus it is that if we consider man biologically, or man in relation 
to his activities, expressed in arts, institutions, languages, opinions, 
and reasoning, we discover that the tendency to the differentiation 


of species has been checked, and that a tendency to homogeneity 
has been established. 

To recapitulate : Human evolution has none of the characteristics 
of animal evolution. It is not " by the survival of the fittest " in the 
struggle for existence, but it is by human endeavor to secure happi- 
ness ; and in this endeavor man has transferred the struggle for 
existence from himself to the works of his hand and mind. It is 
not by adaptation to environment, but by the creation of an artifi- 
cial environment. It does not secure differentiation into varieties 
and species, but establishes a tendency toward homogeneity. 

By the division of labor men have become interdependent, so that 
every man works for some other man. To the extent that culture 
has progressed beyond the plane occupied by the brute, man has 
ceased to worked directly for himself and come to work directly for 
others and indirectly for himself. He struggles directly to benefit 
others, that he may indirectly but ultimately benefit himself. This 
principle of political economy is so thoroughly established that it 
needs no explication here ; but it must be fully appreciated before 
we can thoroughly understand the vast extent to which interdepend- 
ence haS' been established. For the glasses which I wear, mines 
were worked in California, and railroads constructed across the con- 
tinent to transport the product of those mines to the manufactories 
in the East. For the bits of steel on the bow, mines were worked 
in Michigan, smelting works were erected in Chicago, manufac- 
tories built in New Jersey, and railroads constructed to transport 
the material from one point to the other. Merchant-houses and 
banking-houses were rendered necessary. Many men were employed 
in producing and bringing that little instrument to me. As I sit in 
my library to read a book, I open the pages with a paper-cutter, 
the ivory of which was obtained through the employment of a tribe 
of African elephant-hunters. The paper on which my book is 
printed was made of the rags saved by the beggars of Italy. A 
watchman stands on guard in Hoosac Tunnel that I may some time 
ride through it in safety. If all the men who have worked for me, 
directly and indirectly, for the past ten years, and who are now 
scattered through the four quarters of the earth, were marshaled on 
the plain outside of the city, organized and equipped for war, I 
could march to the proudest capital of the world and the armies of 
Europe could not withstand me. I am the master of all the world. 
But during all my life I have worked for other men, and thus I am 


every man's servant; so are we all — servants to many masters and 
masters of many servants. It is thus that men are gradually becom- 
ing organized into one vast body-politic, every one striving to serve 
his fellow man and all working for the common welfare. Thus the 
enmity of man to man is appeased, and men live and labor for one 
another; individualism is transmuted into socialism, egoism into 
altruism, and man is lifted above the brute to an immeasurable 
height. Man inherited the body, instincts, and passions of the 
brute ; the nature thus inherited has survived in his constitution and 
is exhibited along all the course of his history. Injustice, fraud, 
and cruelty stain the pathway of culture from the earliest to the 
latest days. But man has not risen in culture by reason of his brutal 
nature. His method of evolution has not been the same as that of the 
lower animals; the evolution of man has been through the evolution 
of the humanities, the evolution of those things which distinguish 
him from the brute. The doctrines of evolution which biologists 
have clearly shown to apply to animals do not apply to man. Man 
has evolved because he has been emancipated from the cruel laws of 

The evolution of man is the evolution of the humaliities, by 
which he has become the master of the powers of the universe, by 
which he has made life beautiful with aesthetic art, by which he has 
established justice, by which he has invented means of communi- 
cation, so that mind speaks to mind even across the seas ; by which 
his philosophy is the truth of the universe. Man is man because of 
the humanities. 



Abandonment of homes by .savages 20 

Abbott, C. C, elected a corresponding 

member 50 

Aborigines Protection Society 91 

Accident in invention 150, 1G7 

Adams, C. N., Election of, to membership. 141 
Adams, Henry B., elected a corresponding 

member 50 

Adelaide Peninsula 101 

Adlet 100 

Admiralty Inlet 96 

Admixture of races 193 

Advance towards civilization marked by 

steps in mechanic arts 102 

.Esthetic taste as a sociologic force G2 

Aggo 96 

Aggomiut 96 

Agmakdgna, Lake 96 

Agriculture began in savagery 185 

Akudliarmiut 96 

Akudnirmiut 96 

Akudnirn 96 

Altruistic motives explained 37 

Amendment to the Constitution 21 

American aborigines, Circular architect- 
ure of 137 

Amulets and fetiches, Adoption of. 142 

Anabaptists 83 

Anahuac, Pottery from 72, 74 

Anaulereelling 102 

Ancestor worship 190 

Anderson, Joseph, elected a correspond- 
ing member 51 

Animal carvings of mound-builders 8 

— eVolution, Characteristics of 192 

Anthropic IS. biotic evolution 58 

Anthropology, Divisions of, in National 

Museum 39 

— , Practical utility of 93 

Anthropometric committee of the British 

Association, Report of the 57 

Antiquities from Vendome, Senlis, and the 

Cave-Dwellings of France 07 

Aniiquity of mounds 18, 19 

•Apaches, Ceremonies of the 145 

—.Dancing of 146 

— . their symbols of cardinal points 147 

Appetites as social forces 60 

Arbitration, Substitution of, for war 60 

Archfeological collections of Bureau of 

Ethnology 42 

Arithmetic acquired in barbarism 190 

Artificial environment of man 193 

— kinship in the tribal state 178 

— parentage among the Zufiis 137 

Arts, Competition of ,. . 36 

— , Independent progress of. 155- 

— of savagery 176 

Assiniboiiiff 05- 

Auditing committee appointed 118 

Aurora, how regarded by the Eskimo 107, lu8 

Authority of husband and father devel- 
oped 187 

Aztecs, Pottery of the 72 

Babcock, Wm. H., Election of, to member- 
ship 95 

— , Remarks by 106 

Back River 90 

Baffin Land, The Eskimo of 95-102 

Baird, Spencer F., complimented by Dr. 

Tylor 92 

Baker, Frank, Charts prepared by, to illus- 
trate classification of social forces 04 

— , Remarks by 115, 130, 132 

Bancroft, H. H., elected a corresponding 

member 51 

Bandelier, Ad. F., elected a corresponding 

member 51 

Barbaric origin of relations of employer 

and employed, master and slave 1S8 

Barbarism defined 28 

Barclay, Robert, on the origin of the 

Quakers 83 

Bates, Herbert H., Election of, to member- 
ship 22 

— , Papers read by 51, 116 

Bearded Seal 103 

Bengal, Census of 9 

Bessels, Emil, Arctic researches of. 102 

Bigelow, Horatio R., Election of, to mem- 
bership •> 

Bigelow, Otis, Remarks by 06 

Biotic vs. anthropic evolntiou 58- 

Black, Geo. F., Gifts from 10& 

— elected a corresponding member 110. 

Blodgett, James A., Paper read by » 

-, Remarks by 12, 14, 13S 





Boas, Franz, Paper read by 95, 102 

Bouaparte, Prince Roland, elected a corre- 
sponding member 50 

— , Gift from 07 

Boothia Felix 101 

Boulder- worship 143 

Braijarrees 06 

Brinton, Daniel G., elected a correspond- 
ing member 51 

—.Gifts from 22 

— , Paper by IIC 

Bull roarer, .Analogue of the, among sav- 
age tribes 87 

Bureau of Ethnology, Researches and col- 
lections of S, 24, 42 

, importance of its work 02 

Burnekt, Swan M., Paper read by C7 

Burnt clay in mounds 14 

California Indians, houses of 10 

Camp Verde, Arizona, Yuma ceremonies at 14:J 

Cape Dier 90 

— Isabella 102 

— Kater 102 

— Blercey 97 

— Micklesham 97 

— Wolstenholine 90 

Carl, Anton, Election of, to membership.... 22 

Carr, Lucien, quoted 2, 7, 11, 24 

— elected a corresponding member 51 

Caste in India and elsewhere 0-13 

Casts of mound-builders' textiles 

Catlin portraits 44 

Cave-dwellers, Relation of tlie Eskimo to.. IOC 
Cave-dwellings of France, Antiquities 

from the 07 

Census of Bengal 

Ceramic art, Origin and development of 

form and ornament in 112-114 

Ceremonial vase from Mexico, Figure 

of a 79 

Ceremonies of the Moquis 141 

Navdjos 139 

Utes and Slioshones 141 

— , Wide-spread similarity of 85 

Change from enatic to agnatic descent 188 

Chantrc, Ernest, Gifts from 23 

Charuay, Desire, explorations of 40 

Cherokees, mound builders 24, 110 

—, Ancient liome of. 25 

— , Priority of. 25 

Chesterfield Inlet 90 

Child-marriages in Bengal 9 

China, Stationary civilization of 131 

Chirieahua Apache sun circle 144 

Choctaws as mound builders 110 

Ciiolula, Pottery found imbedded in the 

pyramid of 73 

Christian ludian.s practice heathen rites... 5 


Christ.y, Henry , ;il 

Chulpa, igloo and estufa compared 138 

Circular architecture among ancient Peru- 
vians 137 

of American aborigines 137 

— rooms in Ancient Pueblos 137 

Civilization, Elements of modern r>7 

— internal 58, " i 

Clan relations 17^ 

Classification in museums is 

Clothing, The desire for, a social force in 

Cohabitation and child-marriages 12, l:; 

Collett, John, Election of, to membership.. 51 
Colored race in the United States, Compa- 
rative frequency of certain eye dis- 
eases of the 67 

Columbian University, Meetings of the 

Society to be held at the 95 

Communism a primitive institution 93 

Companionship, Desire for, the social in- 
stinct proper CI 

Competition in human society 35 

— for happiness 36 

— of arts 3G 

— — institutions and opinions 37 

Conant, A. J., elected a corresponding 

member gt 

Consciousness as a source of knowledge... 58 

Conservatism in America 82 

Conventional character not perceived Ijy 

the savage 183 

Co-ordinations of natural forces in the 

kingdoms of nature .33 

Copper as a preservative of mound relics.. 6 

— plate in mounds 18, 26 

Corbusier, W. H., .Account of Yuma cere- 
monies by 143 

Corresponding members. Election of. 50 

Council Hou=e, remains in mound 24 

Cousin, Victor, on the sense of justice G2 

Creeks as mound builders IIG 

— , Houses of the 17 

Cross symbol among Apaches 145 

Crows 65 

Culture stages. Various schemes of 173, 174' 

Cumberland Sound, Inhabitants of 96 ' 

Curator's report upon publications re- 
ceived 22 

Curiosities, Small scientific value of mere. 91 ' 

Cushing, Frank H., RemarliS by 115, 137 • 

Cutlery, Varieties of. 151 

Dall, Wm. H., Remarks by 100 

Davis Strait, Division of the shore of 90 i 

Dawkins, W. Boyd, on the relation of the 

E.skimo to the Cave-dwellers 100 i 

De Soto's expedition 25 

Destructionist theory of evolution imper- 
fect 35 1 



Dexterity P.ay 102 

[•isconiinuities in nature's methods, 51; 
in evolution, 51 ; in the domain of an- 
thropology, 52 ; not always beneficent. 53 
Liiscovery distinguished from invention... 151 

I>iseases, Jlj-thieal origin of 4 

Disks, Silver 57 

Distribution of knowledge and wealth, 

Barriers to the 127-120 

liivision of labor 195 

[lomestication of animals a step from Sav- 
agery to Barbarism 185 

Dorsey, J. O., Paper read by 15, 05 

— , Remarks by 1, 5, 141, 142 

Dress-improver 80 

Dynamic vs. Statical Sociology 04 

Early differentiation of primitive men 191 

Eaton, Dorman B., Election of, to mem- 
bership 22 

Eclipse Bay 102 

Education in India 10 

Eivillik 102 

Election of officers 21, 118 

Elements of Modern Civilization 57 

EUesmere Land 102 

Elson Bay 103 

Engelmann, George .J., elected a corres- 
ponding member : — 

Enjoyment not to be confounded with re- 
finement 136 

Erignathus barbatus •. 103 

Erkilik 100 

Eskimo, Myths of the 107 

— of Baffin Land 95-102 

, Houses of the 98 

, Clothing of the 99 

, Music, poetry, tales, and religion 

of the 100 

Estnfa, chulpa and igloo, compared 138 

Ethics, International 05 

Ethnographic classification condemned... 48 

Etowah mounds in Georgia 25 

Eurematics, Postulates in 149 

— , word proposed 148 

European objects fotind in mounds 24 

Evidences of the Antiquity of Man on the 

site of the city of Mexico 68 

Evolution, Canons of, respecting man 31 

— , Laws of, apply to mind and .'-ociety 33 

— of the humanities 173 

Exeter Bay 90 

Exsufflating evil spirits 85 

Extraneous instruments replacing per- 
fection of organism in man 52 

Eye diseases, Comparative frequency of 
certain, in the white and colored 

races 07 

I'amily, Origin of the 01 

Farquharson, R. J., Death of, announced... 118 

Feeling i«. Function as sociologic factors . C4 

Feudal system, Cast iron polity of the 131 

Fisher, Wm. J., Collections of, for National 

Museum 43, 44 

Fison, Lorimer, quoted 102 

Flattening in skulls 57 

Fletcher, Robert, Remarks by 13, 57 

Flint, Weston , Remarks by 50 

Flour-dust explosion in Minneapolis 105 

Food collection in the National Museum... 41 
Foote, J. Howard, musical instruments in 

the National Museum 44 

Forces of society 04 

, Classification of the 04 

Frobisher Bay, Inhabitants of 90 

From Savagery to Barbarism 173 

Function cs. Feeling as sociologic factors.. 04 

Fury Strait oo 

Gallaudet, E. M., Paper read by 05 

Gatschet, A. S., Letter from 

— , Remarks by 144 

Genesis of inventions 147, 103 

Gentes of Osages, their relation to the se- 
cret society 3 

Gifts reported by the Curator 1, 22, .57 

Giglioli, Enrico, elected a corresponding 

member .50 

Gildersleeve, Basil, elected a correspond- 
ing member 51 

Glasgow, Classes of society in 138 

Gore, T. H., Remarks by 2 

Gould, E. R. L., Election of, to membership 137 

Governmental scientific work in America. 92 

Grainbinder, Invention of the 105 

Cirave Creek mound IIG 

Graves in West Virgmia 1 

Gregorj', J. M., Election of, to member- 
ship 22 

— , Paper read by 57,118 

Habitations of the mound-builders and 

modern Indians 15 

Hafted celt. Origin of the 110 

Haida carvings, etc 4G 

Hair, Superstition about giving away a 

lock of 85 

Hale, Horatio, elected a corresponding 

member 51 

— on mound-builders 110 

Hall, G. Stanley, elected a corresponding 

member 51 

Hampshire County, W. \'a.. Mounds and 

graves in 1 

Happiness, Competition for 30 

Harbor Seal 103 

Harpoons of the Eskimo lOG 




Hart, Amos W., Election of, to membership G 

— , Remarks by 130, 1C7 

Hartt's theory of ornament 114 

Haslibach, the Martyr, Ilymn commemo- 
rative of. 8.'i 

Hatch, L. .J., Election of to membership... 147 

Heber's Travels in India, Quotation from.. 00 

Hecla Strait 00 

Henshaw, H. W., Paper by 142 

— quoted 8 

— Researches of, on mound-pipes 8 

Hilder, H. H., elected a corresponding 

member fil 

Histriophoca fasciata KXi 

Holmes, W. H., Papers read by 7, 08, 112, 1:^7 

— , Remarks by 20 

Home Bay 102 

Homogeneity, Tendency to, in human 

races 104 

Houses of the Mound-Builders ]:i 

modern Indians 10 

Howitt, A. W., on ceremonies of the Kur- 

nai tribe 57 

— , Paper read by 95 

Human evolution 1 

Hunger as a social force G(i 

Huteheson, David, Resignation of, jis 

Secretary 38 

Igloo, estufa, aiid chulpa, compared 138 

Iglulingmiut 90 

Iglumiut 95, 90 

Ikalualnin 102 

India, Collections from, in National ISIu- 

seum 41 

Indians, Number of, greatly overstated by 

early writers 19 

Industrialism as a discontinuity in nature. 52 

Institutions, Competi'ion of .37 

— of savagery 170 

Intellect as a power in civilization 31 

Intellectual appetite 02 

Interdependence of mankind 195 

International ethics 05 

Interrelation of human activities 175 

Intrusive burial 57 

Invention and discovery distinguished 151 

— by succession of increments 107 

— , different senses in which tlio word is 

used 148 

— generates wants 152 

— , Genesis of 147 

— , Place of accident in 150 

— proceeds by specialization 153 

— , Survival of the fittest 37 

— , Synchronism of. loo 

— , The genius of 103 

Inventory of man's possessions in the pro- 

tolithic age ico 


lowas 05 

Isochronous oscillation of pendulum. Dis- 
covery of 151 

Isolation of important inventions 105 

Jemez, practice mystic rites in 5 

Ita-Eskimo loj 

Jenkins, Thornton A., Election of, to mem- 
bership Ids 

Johnson, J. T.aber, Remarks by 12 

Jones, C. C, Elected a corresponding 

member 51 

Jones Sound 102 

Jus gentium 05, Oi; 

Justice, Efforts made by savages to attain, l.'.n 
— , The sense of, as the foundation princi- 
ple of the state 02 

Kaixolln i(« 

Kansas (Indian^) Oo 

Kasigiii lo:; 

Kauflfman, S. H., Election of, to member- 
ship 1 

Ream's catalogue of relics 141 

Kengia, L. A., Paper read t)y 1 

Kerr, M. D., Election of, to membership... 95 
Kerr, W. C, elected a cerresponding mem- 
ber 137 

Kignaitmiut or. 

Kinguamiut 90 

King Williiim's Land lot 

King's Cape 95, in, 

Knox, John Jay, Election of, to member- 
ship 22 

Kodlunarn 100 

Kurnai tribe. Ceremonies of the 57 

L.abor-saving devices, Indu.strial revolu- 
tion broughtabout by 134 

La Fleehe, Jo.seph 134 

Laissez faire philosophy condemned 32 

useful against harmful adjust- 
ments in mental and social life 33 

Lake Kennedy Ofi 

Lamarckian doctrine expanded by Dar- 
win .35 

Lancaster Sound 98 

Language of Barbarism 189 

savagery 180 

Languages, Competitions of 37 

Leakin, George, elected a corresponding 

member 51 

Legislation cannot controvert natural laws 3t 

Lithography, Origin of 151 

Lorillard Collection 40 

Los Novillos, Antiquities from 40 

Lost arts I62 




Love of knowledge as a sociologic force... C2 

offspring as a sociologic force CI 

an extension of self-love Gl 

McKay, C. L., Alaskan collection 40 

— , death of. 43 

McGee. W J, Election of, to membership.. 21, J. J., Collections of 40, 43 

McLennan quoted 11 

Madisonville, Mounds at 17 

Magic ring among Apaches 145 

Maine, Sir Henry, on patriarchy 28 

Majoraridjen 102 

Jlallery, G.arrick, Remarks by 141, 142, 143 

Man makes progress by his endeavor to 

secure happiness '..... 193 

Man's mastery of nature a re>ult of the pos- 
session of tools 159 

Maricourt, Count and Baron de. Antiqui- 
ties sent by 07 

Marriage institutions. Origin of- CI 

Martin, Henri, Death of, announced 118 

Mason, Otis T., Remarks by, 2, 3, ,5, 7, 8, 13, 14, 17 
29, 50, 55, 165, 106, 114, 137 

Massawomec Indians 1 

Material progress, how distinguished from 

moral progress 124 

Materia Medica section in the National 

Museum 41 

Matthews, Washington, Papers by 139, 171 

Meander design from Mexico, Figure of a 78 

Medicine Societies 4 

— stones _ 142 

Mennonites, Origin and customs of the.... 83 
Mexico, Evidences of the antiquity of man 

on the site of the city of. 68 

— , Pottery from the city of 71 

Migrations of the Siouan tribes 05 

Mind as a social factor 31 

new factor in biology 31 

— , Definition of 32 

—, Physical ba.sis of .■ 32 

Mindeleff, Victor and Cosmos, Election of, 

to membership 05 

—, Victor, Paper read bj' 137 

Minneapolis, Flour dust explosion in 1G5 

Minnetarees G5 

Missouris '. 65 

Mitchell, .\rthur, quoted 1.38 

Moki collections in National Museum 42 

— , Mystical ceremonies of 141 

Moral and esthetic development compared 

with material 53 

material progress contrasted 121 

— progress. Conflicting views respect- 
ing 121,122 

, Proofs of 122, 123 

, Fluctuating character of 123 

Moral progress, All, due to the progress of 

intelligence jog 

, The two kinds of y^r, 

Morality, Diverse standards of. 132 

— Relation of, to food supply x.33 

Morals, difflculty in estimating those of 

other ages and lands i.->2, 1.33 

Morgan's scheme of culture stages 174 

Morse, E. S., elected a corresponding 

member 51 

Mo.sely, Professor H. N §4 

Mound Builders, Antiquity of. ig 

, Cherokees were 24 

, Houses of X3 

, On the probable nationality of the.... 116 

, proof that they were Indians 7, 15, 18, 24 

29, lis 

, J^tatus of culture of. 7 15 

, Textiles of. ' g 

— building tribes no, 118 

Mounds in West Virginia 1-3 

— , High antiquity of some ig 

— , Vast numbersof xg 

Murdoch, John, Election of, to member- 
ship lOS 

— , Papers read by 102, 168 

Muskoki, Houses and villages of 17 

Mythological Dry Painting of the Navnjos. 139 

-— painting of the Zunis 143 

Myths of the Eskimo 107 

Nadaillao, Marquis de, on antiquity of the 

mounds 27 

Natchez as mound builders 116 

National Museum, .Anthropological collec- 
tions in the .* 3S 

methods of administration 33 

classification and organization... 46 

Natural selection as applied to mind 32 

Naullgu 103 

Navajos, of. 10 

— , Mythological dry painting of 139 

Neoph3'tes in Indian Medicine 4 

Netchillik 102 

Netehillirmiut ini 

Nettilling Fiord 96, 97 

NO'tyi 103 

Niblack, Albert, Paper read by 38 

NIgawai'iotIn 109 

Nillson, Sven, Death of, announced 6 

Nomads, .■Vmerican Indians, not 27 

Norris, P. W., Death of, announced 141 

North American Indians not nomads 28 

North Devon 102 

Norton Sound, Seal fishing in lOG 

Nugumiut 96 

Numbers perceived by savages to a limited 

degree 183 




Xumbers Mystic I'll 

Nunivak people, Spear used by the lOG 

Obsidian knives of the Aztecs 74 

Officers elected for 18S5 118 

Okkiadliving 98 

Oko 96 

Okomiut 'JG 

Old arts degenerate as new arise 138 

Old-fashionedness in America -. 82 

Onnaha Indians 65 

— tradition of sacred pipes 142 

Ometepec, Antiquities from 40 

Operative basis of dividing human society 10 

Opinions, Competitions of. 37 

Organizaiion of barbaric society on a prop- 
erly basis 1S8 

— of mankind 10, 11 

Orientation in building and in prayer 4 

Ornament, Harti's theory of 114 

Osages ''■"' 

Osage secret society 3 

Otos 65 

Padii 9(5. 07 

Painting, Mythological, of the Zunis 143 

Parentage, Artificial, among the Zunis 137 

Parental desire as a social force tU 

Patriarfhy in barbaric society 100 

— in savage society ^37 

Pelly Bay 102 

Pennsylvania, Old fashioned products of. 82 

Peoria Lake, Mounds on li^ 

Pequas, same as Pequods 117 

Perception of savagery 183 

— unconscious induction 183 

Peruvians, Circular architecture among... 137 
Peters, Edward T., Election of, to member- 
ship -' 

— , Remarks t)y 130,134 

Philosophy of barbarism 189 

— of savagery 180 

Phocafcetida .* 103 

— vitulina 103 

Physical basis of mind 32 

Physiocrats in France 34 

Physitheism in barbaric society 100 

Pictures in colored sands 130 

Picture writing developed in barbarism.... 189 

Pierce, P. B., Election of, to membership.. 13 

— , Remarks by 164 

Pike, Primitive, how made 150 

Pipe from Mexico Figure ol a SO 

Pitt-Rivers, Museum of General 90 

Poinde.xter, Wm. M., Election of, to mem- 
bership 95 

Point Barrow, Collections from 43 

, Sea! catchingat 102 

Pollard, J. M., on certain mounds iji Mis- 
sissippi 116 


Polyandry ci 

Polygamy (;i 

Pomialowsky, Prof. A., elected a corre- 
sponding member ,56 

Pond's Bay 95 

Ponka .'. G5 

Porter, John .\ddison. Election of, to mem- 
bership llg 

Pottery from Jlexico, Figures of 71, 73, 7.5, 76 

77, 78, 79 

Powell, J. W., .Vnnual .addresses of. 1, lin, 173 

— , Gift from 108 

— , Remarks by 2, 3, 4, .5, 10, 15, 17, 18, 25, 27, 29, 

05, GO, 117, 130, 141 
Prehistoric Shawnces, from mound testi- 
mony 117 

Promatu're inventions 165 

Primitive arts, Persistence of 163 

— man, effect of the possession of the tool 

ill ameliorating his condition 15S 

Problems of American .\nthropology SI 

Progress, Moral and material, contrasted.. 121 
defined 121, 124, 126 

— of culture along the same line in all 

times and places 191 

— of mankind by a method ditt'ercnt from 

biotie evolution 191 

Protolittiic age 160 

Proudfit, S. v.. Election of, as Secretary... 38 

— , Remarks by 57 

Psychic activities in barbarism 190 

— operations of savagery 181 

Pueblos, Study of circular rooms in 137 

Pumpelly, Raphael, elected a correspond- 
ing member 51 

Putnam, F. W., elected a corresponding 

member 51 

— , Investigations of 17 

PyraiTiids of San Juan Teotihuaean, Te.x- 
coco, and Cholula, Pottery found in 

the 73 ! 

Quakers, Origin of th.e 82,83 

Rational and moral forces subject to law 

of survival 33 

Ranke, Prof. Johannes, elected a corres- 
ponding member 156 

Recent Indian graves in Kansas 56 

Refinement not to be confounded with en- 
joyment 13C 

Regulation of social activities, Need of.. .129, 135 

Regulation-" and restrictions by the state... 34 

Religious faculty 6:J 

Repulse Bay 102 

Rever>ion of tribes to barbarism 27 

Reynolds, Elmer R., Paper read by CT 

— , Remarks by 3 

Reynolds, H. L., Election of, to member- 
ship 118 




Ribbon seal 103 

Rifle, Development of the.. 90 

Ringed seal 103 

Royce, C. C, Paper read by 117 

Sacred pipes, Omaha tradition of 142 

San .\ntonio, N. M., Indian drawings at 140 

San .Jnan, Pyramid of 73 

Saumia, Inhabitants of 97 

Saumingmiut 90 

Savagery, Arts of 176 

— defined 28 

— , Institutions of 170 

— , Language of 180 

— , Petty agriculture of 185 

— , Philosophy of 180 

—.Psychic operations of 181 

— io Barbarism, From 119 

Scientific research conducted by the Am- 
erican Government 92 

Si-raping wood. Origin of ir)7 

Scroll ornament from Mexico, Figure of a. 78 
s adder, Samuel H., on discoveries in the 

mounds 18 

— al catching at Point Barrow 102 

— .al-nets. Use of, by the Eskimos 107 

- -als hunted by the Eskimosof Point Bar- 
row 103 

Secret society of the Osages and other 

tribes 3 

Soely, F. A., Paper read by 147 

— , Remarks by 9, 20, 67 

Segregation of male members of a tribe 

through irrigational agriculture 187 

sp'f-interest as a soeiologic force 01 

ii-love as a social force 01 

lilis. Antiquities from 07 

.Separation of a tribe by clans. Results of.. 186 

Sexual appetite as a soeiologic force 61 

Shawnees, Origin of the 117 

name 116 

— , Dialect of the .'. 116 

Shell, Carvings on, in mounds 26 

Shelter, The desire for, a social force 00 

Sieosuilar 95 

Sicosuilarmiut 95 

Silver disks , 57 

Sinimiut 102 

Sinking class in Glasgow 138 

Siouan tribes, Migrations of the 65 

Classification of the C5 

Skulls, Flattening of. 57 

Smithsonian collections for 1883 38 

Smith Sound 101 

Snell, W. B., Election of, to member- 
ship 147 

Social forces. Classification of the 64 

— inequalities 127 

— instincts 61 


Southampton Island 101 

Spanish glaze 

Spencer, Herbert, on the conditions to 

moral progress 121, 122 

— , Opinion of, on tribal society 28 

— quoted 32, 58 

Statical and dynamic methods in sociol- 
ogy 64 

Stejneger, L. M., Collections of, from Beh- 

rin'g Island 43 

Stevenson, James, Paper read by 143 

— ,and Mrs., work of, among the Pueblos.... 93 

Stone carvings in the mounds 18 

— graves in West Virginia and the Missis- 

sippi Valley 1-1 

— hatchet, the culmination for the time 

of art 15.T 

Study of invention. Postulates in the 149 

Survival of the fittest does not obtain in 

human evolution 192 

in human society So 

— , The term, becoming popularly under- 
stood 94 

Swan, James G., Explorations of. 4.'i 

Synchronism of inventions 100 

Synonomy of tribes of North America 05 

Taensas as mound-builders 

Tagore, Surindro Blohun, Rajah, Donation 
of musical instruments by 

Tamenents Indian in West Virginia 


Temporary home of savages 

Ten Kate, Herm.ann, elected a correspond- 
ing member 

Teotihuacan, Pyramid of 

Tessiujang Fiord 

Texeocingo, Pottery from 

Texcoeo, Pyramid of 

Textile fabrics of mound-builders 

— section in National Museum 

Thirst as a social force 

Thomas, Cyrus, Papers read by 13, 21, 

— quoted 

— , Remarks by 18. 32, 53, 57, 117, 

Thompson, A. Harry, Election of to mem- 

Thompson, .\lton H., Paper read by 

Thompson, Gilbert, Remarks by 


Tools, Invention of 

Tradition, Cherokee, respecting tribal 


Travelers, Degree of confidence to be 

placed in the statements of. 

Tribal conduct relating to mythical beings 

— laws regarding marriage 


personal authority 


















Tribal laws to prevent and end controversy 179 

— peoples, herdsmen and nomads 186 

— priority 25 

— state, Nature of the 177 

— states, Organization of 10 

Tripod dishes from Mexico (figured) 76, 77 

Tudjan 102 

Tudnikjuak 98 

Tudnumirmiut 96 

Tudnunirossirmiut 90 

Tnnnit 98 

Tu pek 103 

Turner, Lucien M., Collection of, from 

Ungava Bay 44 

— ,'Eleetion of, to membership 108 

— , Researches of, in Ungava 101 

Tutelos 05 

Two Crows 143 

Tylor, E. B., Address of 81 

— , his scheme of culture stages 81 

Ugru 103 

Ukusiksalingmiut 101 

Umingmamnuna 102 

Unearned increase of land, John Stuart 
Mill's proposition to prevent, by taxa- 
tion 135 

Ungava, Turner's researches in 101 

Unity of the human race, Evidence of an- 
thropology upon 191 

Vendome, Collection of antiquities from... 07 

Vice-presidents' sections assigned 31 

Vulcanization of India rubber, Origin of... 151 

Wager River 102 

Wankel, Dr. Heinrich, Gifts from 23 

Wants generated by inventions 152 

— , Vital, as social forces CO, 61 

Ward, Lester F., Papers read by 31, 120 

— , Mind defined by 132 

— , Remarks by 29, 53, 64, 130, 136 

Page. , 
Ward, Lester F.. his scheme of culture 

stages 174 j 

Warfare the expression of public and pri- 
vate competition 35 

— the enemy of progress 36 

Warren, Charles, Election of, to member- 
ship 1 

Waste of competition 130 | 

Water impassable to spirits 39 

— supply of arid regions 19 . 

Wealth, Possibility of greatly increased 

production of 128 

Welling, J. C, Remarks by 32, 53, 130, 131 I 

West Virginia, Mounds and firaves in 1 

White goose, Mystic use of down of 142 

Whittlesey, Charles, elected a correspond- 
ing member 15I 

Wilson, Daniel, elected a corresponding 

member 51 

Wilson, Thomas, Letter from, on French 

archfeology IS 

— , Election of, to membership 21 

Winnebagos 65 

Women in Osage secret society 4 ' 

Wood-working by abrasion, earliest me- 
chanical process 156 

AVorship of animal gods cliaracterLstic of 

savage philosophy 181 

boulders idS 

Wright, Harrison, Death of, announced 141 

Yarnall, J. H., Election of, to member- 
ship 115 

Yucatan, Work from mounds resembling 
those of 

Yuma ceremonies 14$ 

Zootheism characteristic of savage philo.s- 

ophy 181 

— , High form of, in barbarism 189 

Zuni collections in National Museum 42 

Zuilis, .-^rtifieial age and parentage among 137 

— , Mythological painting of the 1431 


Smithsonian Institution, 

Washinutun Citv, 

May, 1891. 


(No. 663) 





















The following "Index to the Literature of Columbium" has been pub- 
lished upon the recommendation of the Committee on Indexing Chemical 
Literature, of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 
In its original draft the word " niobium " was used in place of " columbium ; " 
but upon suggestion from members of the Committee the author consented 
to a change. It is well known that the name columbium, originally given 
by Hatchett, has clear priority; while "niobium," and its supposed twin 
"pelopium," grew out of errors made by Rose, Although in European 
treatises the name "niobium" has generally been adopted, no good reason 
for the substitution has ever been offered, and all the accepted rules of 
nomenclature demand the retention of columbium. This note has been 
written at the request of Professor Traphagen. 

F. W. Clarke. 











Discovery of element- 

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, 1802, 

xcii 49 
Chem.'j.,' Crell, 1802, i, 197, 

257, 352. 
Ann. der Phys., Gren, x, 500; 

XI, 120. 
Nicholson's J., Jan., 1802, 32. 



Identity of columbium 

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, 1809, 

and tantalum. 

xcix, 246. 
J. fiir Chem., Schweigger, i, 520. 
Ann. der Phys., Gren, xlii, 50. 



Element .. 

Ann. der Phys., Gren, xxxvii, 



Identity of columbium 

Konigl. Acad, der Wiss., 1817. 


and tantalum. 


WOHLER . -. - 

Properties of oxide 

Researches . 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., xlviii, 

J. fiir Chem.. Schweigger, xxi, 


H. KosE 



H. KosE __ 


Ber. d. Chem. Ges., 1844. 

J. prakt. Chem., xxxiv, 36. 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., lxiii, 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., Lxix, 



H. Rose - 

Researches on com- 
pounds and miner- 


Berzelius' Jsb., 1846, xxv, 158. 




J. prakt. Chem., xxxviii, 91. 


H. Rose 

Acids in columbite 

Ann. der Phj-s., Pogg., 1847, 4. 
J. prakt. Chem., XLi, 219. 


H. Rose _ 

Effect of temperature 
on specific weight. 

J. prakt. Chem., XLiii, 254. 



Niobic and pelopic 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., lxxii. 

acids in Wohlerite. 

Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1203. 
Mineralog. Forsch., Kenn., 1849, 




Ilmenic, niobic, and 

J. prakt. Chem., xxxi, 94; XL, 

pelopic acids. 

Berzelius' Jsb., xxv, 375. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig, lxi, 264, 
Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1205. 












II. Rose -. 

H. Rose .. 

H. Rose .. 

H. Rose 




H. Rose 



Niobic and pelopic 

iicids in tantalic acid. 

Niobic and pelopic 

acids in euxenite 

and polycrase. 

Niobic, ihnenic, and 

peldpic acids. 

Niobic,. ilmenic, and 
pelopic acids. 

Ilmenic acid in pyro- 
chlore and coium- 

Identity of ilmenium 
and niobium. 

Properties metal and 




Crystals of niobic acid. 

Researcbes, identifica- 
tion, and compounds 
cblorides, etc. 


J. prakt. Cliem., XLIY, 207. 

Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1206. 

Ann. der Phvs., Fogij., l, 149: 

LXXii, 256," 568. 
Berzelius' Jsb., XXI, 179 ; xxvi, 

Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1206. 
Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1208. 

J. prakt. Ciiem., xxxvtii, 91, 

Ann. dor Phys., Pogg , i.xxi, 

Ber. d. Chem. Ges., 1847, 141. 
Rammels. Handw., 3d supp., 

105, 129. 
Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1209. 
J. prakt. Chem., XL, 475; XLii, 

129 ; XLiv, 216. 
Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1210. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., lxxi, 

157 ; Lxxrii, 449. 
Pharm. Centrbl., 1848, 169. 
Jsb. Chem., 1848, 404. 
Ann. der Phvs., Pogg., lxxiii, 

Ann. Chem., Liebig, lxviii, 

Pharm. Centrbl., 1848, 145. 
Jsb. Chem., 1848, 405. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., lx.xiv, 

Ann. Chem., Liebig, l.vxvui. 

Pharm. Centrbl., 1848, 439. 
J. prakt. Chem., xi.iv, 2i;0. 
Arch. ph. nat., viii. 205. 
Jsb. Chem., 1848, 405. 
J. prakt. Chem., i.. 164-17:i, 

Jsb. Chem., 1850, 748. 
C R., XXXII, 330, 713. 
Instit., 1851, 73, 180. 
Pharm. Centrbl , 1851, 293. 
Ann. cbim. phys., xxxiii, 34. 
J, prakt. Chem., liv, 143. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig, Lxxx, 205. 
Jsb. Chem., 1851, 14. 
Ann. der Phvs., Pogg., xc, 456. 
Ber., 1853, 604. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig, i.xxxvin, I 

J. prakt. Chem., lx, 468. 
Pharm. Centrbl., 1854, 11. 
Instit., 1854, 10. 
Jsb. Chem., 1853, 353. 
Phil. Mag. [4], vii, 461. 
Am. J. Sci. [2], XYiii, 892. 













H. Rose 





H. Rose 

H. Rose 

n. Rose 

H. Rose 


H. Rose 



Researches on ilme- 
nium, niobium, and 

Niobium, ilmcnium. 


Separation of niobic 
and tantalic acids. 

Remarks on pelopic 


Niobic and niobous 
acids, metallic nio- 
bium, chloride, etc. 


Niobium sulphide. 

Niobiumfluoride . 

Chlorides and fluorides- 



Jsb. Chem., 1854, 3S8. 
J. prakt. Chem., lxv, 54. 

J. prakt. Chem., lxviii, 65. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1856, 738. 
Chem. Gaz., 1857, 10. 
Ann. der Phvs., Pogsj., xcix, 

619 ; c, 340." 
J. prakt. Chem., lxx, 120. 
Jsb. Chem., 1856, 661. 
Ann. der Phys., Vogg., cm, 148. 
J. prakt. Chem., lxxiii, 377, 

Chem. Centrbl., 1858, 165. 
Jsb. Chem., 1858, 149. 
J. prakt. Chem., Lxxr, 397; 

Lxxv, 62. 
Ann. der Phvs., Pogs;., cm, 148. 
Ber., 1858, 338. 

J. prakt. Chem., Lxxiv, 458, 461. 
Ann der Phys., Pogg., civ, 310. 
Chem. Centrbl. J 1858, 598. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig, cvm, 230. 
Instit., 1858, 354. 
Ann. chim. phys. [3], Liv, 426. 
Cimento, viii,"275. 
Jsb. Chem., 1858, 151. 
Ber., 1858, 408. 
J. prakt. Chem., lxxiv, 461. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1858, 681. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig, cviii, 232. 
Instit., 1858, 370. 
Ann. der Phvs., Posrg., civ, 432. 
Jsb. Chem., "1858, 153. 
Ber., 1858, 445. 
J. prakt. Chem., lxxv, 69. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1858, 753. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig, cvm, 235. 
Instit., 1859, 5. 

Ann", der Phys., Pogg., cv, 424. 
Ber., 1858, 448. 
J. prakt. Chem., lxxv, 71. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1858, 754. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig, cvm, 234. 
Instit., 1859, 6. 

Ann. der Phvs., Pogg., civ, 581. 
Ber., 1859, 549. 

J. prakt. Chem., lxxviii, 183. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1859, 849 ; 1860, 

Ann. chim. phvs. [3]. LViii, 

Ann. der Phvs., Pogg., cvm, 

273, 465. 
Jsb. Chem., 1859, 158. 
Ber., 1859, 12. 
J. prakt. Chem., lxxvi, 245. 







H. EosE 

Nitrate - 

Chem. Centrbl., 1859, 204. 

Ann. Chem., Liebig, ex, 140. 
Ann. chim. phys. [3], LVI, 111. 
In.stit., 1859, 227. 
Ann. cler Phys., cvi, 141. 
Jsb. Chem., 1859, 156. 


H. Rose 

Niobic acid, chloride, 
sulphide, nitrate. 

Ber., 1859, 439. 

J. prakt. Chem., LXXViil, 98. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1859, 678. 

Ann. der Phys. Pogc;. cvii,409. 

Jsb. CheM., 1S59, 158. 


H Rose 


Ber., 1850 527. 

J. pralit. Chem., Lxxviri, 102. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1859, 749. 
Ann. fler Phys., Pogg., 506. 


Von Kobkll 

Dianium and dianic 

Bull. d. k. bayr. Acad. d. Wis- 


sensch., II Classe, Sitzung V, 

10, Mar., 1800. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig, cxiv, 337. 
J. prakt. Chem., lxxix, 291. 
Vierteljahrschr. pr. Pharm., ix, 

Chem. Centrbl., 1860, 695. 
Ann. chim. phys. [3], Lix, 477. 
Rep. chim. pure., ii, 360. 
Am. J. Sei. [2], xxx, 123. 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 150, 781. 


H. Rose . 

Compounds _ 

Ber. 1860, 281. 

J. prakt. Chem., Lxxxi, 221. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1860, 737. 
Ann. der Phvs., Pogg., cxi, 193. 
Jsb. Chem., 'i860, 145. 


H. Rose , 

Niobous acid 

Ber., 1860, 296. 

J. prakt. Chem., lxxxi, 212. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1860, 738. 
Rep. chim. pure., iii. 117. 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 148. 


H. Rose 

Niobates _ _. . 

Ber., 1860, 710. 

J. prakt. Chem., lxxxii, 365. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1861, 94. 
Rep. chim. pure., in, 117. 
Jsb. Chem., 1800, 148. 


H. Rose 

Nitrate . 

Ann. der Phys., Poerg., cxi, 426. 

Jsb. Chem., '1800, 149. 



Niobic acid 

Jsb. Chem., 1801, 184, 209. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., cxiv, 



Dianium ___..___ 

J. prakt. Chem., lxxxiii, 106, 


Rep. chim. pure., iv, 50. 

Jsb. Chem., 1861, 209. 


Von Kobell 

Dianium _ _ _ _ _ 

J. prakt. Chem., lxxxiii, 110, 
371, 449. 

Rep. chim. pure., iv, 51. 

Ann. Chem., Liebig, cxix, 283. 

Jsb. Chem., 1861, 209. 



Action of H P on co- 

Am. J. Sci. [2], xxxvii, 355. 

Chem. News, x, 37, 49. 












Marignac . 





Von Kobell. 


Deville and 


Delafontaine ... 

Action of H F on co- 

Chlorides and acids 

Niobic acid in tin ore 

Acids and salts. Ilmo- 
nic acid. 


Dianic acid 

Acids, formula, atomic 
weight, ilmenium. 

Vapor density of chlo- 


Zeitschr. Chein., 1865, 16. 
J. prakt. Chem., xciv. 121. 
Chem. Contrbl., 1864, 900. 
Zeit. Anal. Chem., in, ?,'M. 
Jsb. Chem., 1864. 685. 
Ofversightaf. Acad. Forh., 1864, 

XXI, 541. 
J. prakt. Chem., xcvii, 37. 
Ann. Chem., Licbig,' cxxxv, 

Zeitschr. Chem., 1865, 543. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., xxiii, 826. 
C. R., Lix, 852; LXi. 337. 
In.stit., 1864, 282. 
C. R., LXI, 1064. 
Instit., 1865, 395. 
Zeitschr. Choin., 1865, 747. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1866, 174. 
Phil. Mag. [4], xxxi, 142. 
Jsb. Chem., 1865, 197. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., xxiii, 167; 

XXV, 5. 
Ann. chim. phj-s. [4J, viii, 5, 

Zeitschr. Chem., 1865,654; 1866. 

C. R., LX, 234, 1355. 
Instit., 1865, 220. 
Bull. soc. chim. [2], in, 371; v, 

Ann. Chem., Liebig, cxxxv,49; 

cxxxvi, 295. 
J. prakt. Chem., xciv, 304. 
Phil Mag. [4], xxx, 445. 
Am. J. Sci. [2], XLi, 111. 
Jsb. Chem., 1865, 209. 
J. prakt. Chem., xciv, 433; 

xcvi, 249. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig, cxxxvi, 

Jsb. Chem., 1865, 208. 
J. prakt. Chem., xcv, 65. 
Zeitschr. Chem., 1865, 659. 
Zeitschr. Anal. Chem., iv, 268. 
Jsb. Chem., 1865, 209. 
C. R., Lvi, 891; LX. 1221. 
Instit., 1865, 185. 
Bull. soc. chim. [2], v, 119. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., xxiii, 222. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig, cxvii, 274; 

CXXXVI, 249. 
Zeitschr. Chem., 1865, 462. 
Jsb. Chem., 1865, 210. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., xxvii, 167. 
Zeitschr. Chem., 1866, 717. 
J. prakt. Chem., c, 117, 
Jsb. Chen:., 1866, 205. 









J. prakt. Chem., xcix, 21. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., xxvii, 373. 
Jsb. Chem., 18G6, 205. 




J. prakt. Chem., xcix, 30, 279, 
287, 290. 

Jsb. Chem., 1866, 205. 

Zeitschr. Chem., 1867, 124. 



Flame reactions 

Ann. Chim., Liebitr, cxxxviii. 

Zeitschr. Anal. Chem., v, 351. 

Phil. Mag. [4], xxxii, 81. 

N. Arch. ph. nat., xxvii, 25. 



Estimation. Ilmeni- 

N. Arch. ph. nat., xxix, 265. 

um, niobium. 

Ann. chim. phj's. [4], xiii, 5. 
J. prakt. Chem., ci, 459; cii, 

Zeitschr. Chem., 18G7, 721 ; 1868, 

Zeitschr. Anal. Chem., vrr, 106. 
Jsb. Chem., 1867, 210. 



Constitution of com- 

Bull, de la societe imperiale de 


Moscow, 1867, 270. 
J. prakt. Chem., c, 385 ; cii, 399. 
Zeitschr. Chem., 1867, 398. 
Bull. soc. chim. [2], viii, 171. 
Jsb. Chem., r867, 209. 



Niobium, ilmenium 

C. R., Lxvi, 180. 

Instit., 1868, 42. 

N. Arch. ph. nat., XXXI, 89. 

Bull. soc. chim. [2], ix, 465. 

Am. J. Sci. [2], XLV, 393. 

J. prakt. Chem., civ, 426. 

Zeitschr. Chem., 1868, 117. 

Jsb. Chem., 1868,212. 





Zeitschr. Chem., 1868, 178. 



J. prakt. Chem., cm, 128, 420; 

cv, 221. 

Zeitschr. Chem., 1869, 311. 

Jsb. Chem, 1868, 216. 



Compounds, atomic 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., cxxxvi, 


177-197, 352-372. " 
J. prakt. Chem , cvri, 334; 

cviii, 77. 
Jsb. Chem., 1869, 288. 



Constitution of miner- 

J. prakt. Chem., cvii, 139. 


Bull, de hi soc. imp. des Natu- 
ral istes de Moscow, 1869, 141. 
Chem. News, xx, 119. 
Jahrb. Min., 1870, 629. • 
Jsb. Chem., 1869, 1230. 


Hermann — j 

Separation of niobium 

J. prakt Chem. [21, ii, 108. 

from ilmenium. 

Zeitschr. Anal. Chem., x, 344. 
Jsb. Chem., 1870, 989. 




J. prakt. Chem. [2], iii, 373, 

427 ; XV, 178-211. 
Bull. Soc. Chim. [2], xvi, 256. 
Jsb. Chem., 1871, 287. 








Composition natural 

Ber., 1871, 157, 193, 406, 584, 

niobates and sepa- 


ration of meta lie 

Instit., 1872, 53, 302. 


Ann. der Phys., Pogg., cxliv, 

56, 191. 
J. Chem. Soc, xxv, 189. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1871, 511. 
Jsb. Chem., 1871, 1168. 


Eammellsberg ... 

Constitution of miner- 
Occurrence of minerals 

Ber., 1872, 17. 



Min. Mittheil., 1873,224. 

in granite. 

Jahrb. Min., 1874, 305. 



Salts, niobates of Mg 

C. R., Lxxxi, 266. 

Ca, Fe, Yt, Mn. 

J. Chem. Soc. (abs.), xxix, 46. 
Jsb. Chem., 1875, 222. 




C. R., LXXXI, 1266. 

J. Chem. Soc, xxix, 883. 




Hydrate, fluoniobates. 

13ull. Soc. Chim. [2], xxiv, 268. 
J. Chem. Soc, xxix, 45. 



niobates (K and Na), 

Ber., 1876, 854. 

fluoniobates of Zn, Chem., 1876, 280. 

Cd, Mn, C\), Ni, Cu, 

Fe, Hg. 



Acids, nitrides, and 

C. R., Lxxxii, 1195. 

Bull. Soc. Chim. [2], xv, 506. 

Jsb. Chem,, 1876, 279. 

Abs. J. Chem. Soc, xxx, 277. 


J. L. Smith 


Am. J. Sci. [3], XIII, 359; xiv, 

Ann. chim. phys. [5], xiij 255. 

Zeitschr. Kryst., i, 499. 

C. R., Lxxxiv, 1036. 

Abs. J. Chem. Soc, xxxii. 


J. L. Smith 


Ann. Ch. phvs. [5], xii, 2-33. 
Jsb. Chem., 1877, 288. 



Researches, neptunium 

J. prakt. Chem., [2], xv, 105. 


J. L. Smith 

Researches, mosandri- 

C. R., Lxxxvii, 146. 


Abs. J. Chem. Soc, xxxvi, 12, 



Metal and chlorides. _. 

Chem. News, xxxvii, 25. 
Abs. J. Chem. Soc, xxxvi, 1272. 
Jsb. Chem., 1878, 300. 



Action of hydrogen 

Ber., 1882, 2592. 

peroxide on oxides. 

Jsb. Chem., 1882, 1292. 



Method for anal3'sis — 

Amer. Chem. J., v, 44, 73. 
Chem. News, xlviii, 13, 29. 



Separation from galli- 

C. R., xcvi, 152; xcvii, 730. 


Chem. News, xlvii, 100. 
Jsb. Chem., 1883, 1574. 


Donath and May- 

Atomic volume and 

Ber., 1883, 1588. 



Jsb. Chem., 1883, 26. 



Analysis of a niobate.. 

Chem. News, XLVi, 205. 
Abs. J. Chem. Soc, xliv, 32. 



Microscopic analysis — 

Ber., 1884, 182. 

Sitzungsber. bair Akad., xiii, 

Jsb. Chem., 1884, 1551. 



Quantitative determi- 

Am. J. Sci. [3], xxx, 329-387. 








Color reaction 

Action of carbon te- 
trachloride upon ni- 
obic anhydride. 

Crystallization niobic 

C. K., cv, 1074. 




Ber., 1887, 24. 

Abs. J. Chem. Soc, 1887, 304. 

C. K., CTV, 111. 

Abs. J. Chem. Soc, 1887, 329. 

Zeitschr. Kryst. Min., xii, 610. 





1811 — 


1831 — 







Hatciiett , 







Thomson .. 
Hermann . 

H. Rose __ . 

Hermann . 

scheerer . 








Fergusonite and aeschy 


Columbite . 

Researches on miner- 

Researches on miner- 

Euxenite and poly- 

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, xcii,49. 

Chem. J., Crell, i, 197. 

Ann. der Phvs., Gren., x, 500; 

XI, 120. 
Nicholson's J., Jan., 1802, 32. 
Magazine Encyclop., Dec, 1805. 

Ann. der Phys., Gren., xxiv, 

Ann. der Phys., Gren., xxxvii. 

Phil. .Mag., I, 27. 
K. Vet. Acad. Handl., 1828, 167. 
Berzelius' Jsb., 1830, ix, 195. 
Ann . der Ph vs. , Pogg. , xvii, 483. 
Phil., Mag.^'x, 187. 
Ann. der Phvs., Pogg., xxiii, 

Records of General Science, iv, 

J. prakt. Chem., xiii, 221. 
J. prakt. Chem., xxxi, 89. 
Berzelius' Jfb., xxv, 371. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., lxix, 

Berzelius' Jsb., 1846, xxv, 158. 
J. prakt. Chem., xxxviii, 91. 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., lxxii, 

Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1203. 
Minera.log. Porsch., Kenn, 1849, 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., l, 149; 

Lxxii, 256, 568. 
Berzelius' Jsb., XXI, 179 ; xxvi, 

Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1206. 








Specific gravity and 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., LXX, 572. 

composition of 

Ber. d. Cliem. Ges.,'l847, 86. 

American colum- 

J. pralvt. Chem., XLI, 219 ; xm. 


Jsb. Chem.., 1848, 1207. 
C. li., XXV, 670. 



Composition of Sibe- 
rian columbite. 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., lxxi, 

Ptamm. Handw., 3d supp., 118. 

Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1207. 



Composition of colum- 

J. prakt. Chem., xliv, 207. 

bite from Middle- 

Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1207. 

town, Conn. 



Composition of colum- 
bite from Bavaria. 

Ann. dcs Minn. [4], xiii. 337; 
[4], XIV, 423. 


H. KosE 


Jsl). Chem., 1848, 1208. 
J. pnikt. Chem., xxxviii, 91, 





G. Kose 


Ann. der Phvs., Pogg., XLViii, 

Reise n. d. Ural, ir, 72. 

Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1209. 



Ytitroilmenite and sa- 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., lxxi, 



Ber. d. Chem. Ges., 1847, 141. 
Eammels. Handw., 3d supp., 

105, 129. 
Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1209. 



Pyrochlore and colum- 

J. prakt. Chem., XL, 475; xlii, 


129; XLIV, 216. 
Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1210. 



Aeschynite, columbite, 

J. prakt. Chem., l, 164-172, 

polycrase, pyro- 


chlore, etc. 

Jsb. Chem., 1850, 748. 




Correspondenz-blatt des zoolog- 
isch-mineralogischen Ve reins 

zu Regensburg, 1852, No. 3. 
J. prakt. Chem., 1853, Lxviii, 


Jahrb. Min., 1853, 367. 



Columbite and sampr- 

Am. J. Sci. [2], XIV, 340. 
Pharm. Centrbl., 1853, 341. 


Forbes and Dahll 

Bragite, Fergusonite, 

Nvt. Mag. fiir Naturvidensk, 

and euxonite. 

Viii, 3, 213. 
Jsb. Chem., 1855, 962. 
J. prakt. Chem., lxvi, 444, 446. 
Phil. Mag., 1855, 62. 
Pharm. Centrbl., 1855, 114. 




Ann. der Phys., Pogg., xcvii, 




Crystallization of co- 

Ann. Min. [5J, viii, 398. 



Samarskite and colum- 

Misc. Chem. Researches, Di.?ser- 


tation Gottingen, 1859. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., clxxi, 
157; CLXXii, 469; clxxiii, 










Bkeithaui't . 

Hugo Muller . 



Crystallization of co- 

Composition of coluni- 



Descloizeaux .-. 

H. Rose 





1863- - 

Deville and Da- 




H. Rose 


H. Rose 


MiCllAELSON .-- 

3Iineral from Yttei'by - 



Colunibite, samarskite, 
euxenite, Ferguson- 
ite, tvrite. 

Colunibite, euxenite — 
Columbite, samarskite. 


Colunibite, samarskite. 

SpeciUc gravit}- of aes- 

Columbite, samarskite, 
Fergusonite, tvrite. 

Ch-ystalline form of co- 
Bragite, tyritc 


Berg- und Hiittenmanischen 

Zeitung, xvii. 
Am. J. Sci. [2], XXVI, 349. 
Q. J. Chem. Soc, xi, 243. 

Oefversigt af. Konigl Yetcnscap 
Akademiens Forhandl., 1860, 
No. 1. 
Ann. der Phys., Togg., cxi, 278. 
J. prakt Chem., lxxxi, li)3. 
Jahrb. 3Iin., 1861, 329. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1860, 969. 
Rep. chim. pure., iii, 181. 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 778. 
Afhand. i Fisik, Kemi, och 

Miner., iv, 281. 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 780. 
Ann. Min. [oj, xvi, 229. 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 780. 
Materialien zur 3Iiner., Russ- 

lands, III, 384. 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 781. 
Ber., 1860, 296. 
J. prakt. Chem., lxxxi, 212. 
Chem. Ceiitrl., 1860, 738. 
Rep. chim. pure., iii, 116. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., cxii,468, 

482, 549. 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 146, 152. 
Instit., 1861, 152. 
Jsb. Chem., 1860. Note, page 

J. prakt. Chem., Lxxxin, 106, 

Rep. chim. pure., iv, 50. 
Jsb. Chem., 1861, 209. 
Wien. Akad. Ber., xi.iv, 2d 

Abth., 445. 
Jahrb. Min., 1862, 234 
Ber., 1862, 138, 166. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1862, 262. 
J. prakt. Chem., Lxxxv, 438. 
Rep. chim. pure., iv, 456. 
Am. J. Sci. [2], XXXV, 427. 
J.<b. chem., 1862, 753. 
Materialien zur Min. Rus.s., iv, 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., cxviii, 

339, 406, 497. 
Bull. Soc. Chim., v, 491. 
Jsb. Chem., 1863, 827. 
Phil. Mag. [2], xxv, 41. 
Jahr. Min., 1863, 594. 
J. prakt. Chem., xc, 108. 
Jahrb. Min., 1864, 236. 
Oefversigt af. K. Vetenscaps 
Acadeinien Verb., 1863, 433. 



















Finkener and Ste- 


Hermann ._. 

Shepard .. 


Hermann _ 



PniPsoN __ 

Rammellsberg __. 


1869_- Hermann 

Analysis of pyrochlore. 
Composition of samar- 

Action of hydrofluoric 

acid on columbite. 


Aeschynite, samar- 
skite, Fergu.sonite, 
pyrochlore, Wohler- 


Specific gravity of co- 

Analj'sis of columbite. 

Analysis of columbite 

and aeschynite. 
Analysis of euxenite _. 

Ilnienorutile, analysis. 

Analysis and specific 
gravity of aeschy- 
nite, euxenite. 


Yttrotantolite, pyro- 
chlore, euxenite. 


t y r i t e , 

Ann. der Phj's., Pogg., cxxil, 

Jahrb. Min., 1865, 86. 

J. prakt. Chem., xcv, 119. 

Jsb. Chom., 1864, 856. 

Jsb. Chem., 1863, 831. 

Verhandl. Min., St. Pet., 1863, 

Am. J. Sci. [2], XXXVII, 355. 
Chem. News, x, 37, 49. 
Zeilschr. Chem., 1865, 16. 
J. prakt. Chem., xciv, 121. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1864, 990. 
Zeit. Anal. Chem., iii, 399. 
Jsb. Chem., 1864, 685. 
Oefversigt af. Akad. Forh., 1864, 

XXI, 541. 
J. prakt Chem., xcvii, 46. 
J. prakt. Chem., xcv, 103, 108, 

123, 128. 
Jahrb. Min., 1866, 89. 
Jsb. Chem., 1865, 898. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., xxv, 24. 
Am. J. Sci. [2], XLii, 248. 
Jahrb. Miner., 1867, 198. 
Jsb. Chem., 1866, 944. 
Om tantalmetalliaiia, Lund.. 

J. prakt. Chem., xcix, 40. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., xxvi, 337. 
Jsb. Chem., 1866, 944. 
J. pri'kt. Chem., xcvii, 350. 
Jsb. Chem., 1866, 945. 
Bull. Soc. Chim. [2], vi, 433. 
Zeitschr. Chem., 1867, 94. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1867, 751. 
Jsb. Chem., 1866, 946. 
J. prakt. Chem., c, 100. 
Bull Soc. Chim. [2], viii. 42. Chem., 1867, 997. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., xxix, 282. 
Bull. Soc. Chim., viii, 178. 
Jsb. Chem., 1867, 998. 
C. R., Lxv, 419. 
J. prakt. Chem., cm, 448. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1868, 896. 
Bull. Soc. Chim. [2], viii, 333. 
Chem. News, xvi, 160. 
Jsb. Chem., 1867, 998. 
Ber., I, 224; ii, 87, 216. 
Zeitschr. Chem., xii, 442. 
Zeitschr. d. deutsch. geolog. Ges., 

XXI, 555. 
Jsb. Chem., 1869, 1229. 
J. prakt. Chem., cvii, 129. 
Bull, de la soc. imp. des. Natur- 

alistes de Moscow, 1869, 141. 
Chem. News, xx, 119. 










Fergusonite, tyrite, 

Jahrb. Min., 1870, 629. 


Jsb. Chem., 1869, 1230. 




J. prakt. Chem., cvii, 139. 



Aeschynite, euxenite, 

J. prakt. Chem., cvii, 153. 


Chem. News, xx, 119. 
Jsb, Chem., 1869,1230. 



Samarskite, columbite- 

J. prakt. Chem. [2], ii, 123. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1870, 551. 
Amer. Chemist [2], i, 236. 
Jsb. Chem., 1870, 1311. 




Am. J. Sci. [2], L, 90. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1870, 708. 

Jsb. Chem., 1870, 1312. 


Rammellsberg --. 

Fergusonite and tyrite_ 

Ber., 1870, 947. 




Ber., 1870, 926. 


Chem. Centrbl., 1870, 823. 

Jsb. Chem., 1870, 1313. 


Rammellsberg __- 


Ber., 1871, 157, 40G, 584, 874. 
Instit., 1872, 53, 302. 
Ann. der Phys., cxliv, 56, 191. 
J. Chem. Soc, xxv, 189. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1871, 511. 

1871 — 



Zeitschr. Geolog. Ges., xxiir, 

Jahrb. Min., 1872, 534. 
Jsb. Chem., 1872, 1166. 

1871 — 



Jenau Dissertation in Jahrb. 

Min., 1872, 319. 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., cxliv, 




Aeschynite and samar- 

Ber., 1872, 17. 


Jsb. Chem., 1872, 1128. 





Jahrb. Min., 1872, 535. 


Occurrence of minerals 

Min. Mittheil., 1873, 224. 

in granite. 

Jahrb. Min., 1874, 305. 



Crystalline form of co- 

Jahrb. Min., 1873, 421. 


Groth and Arz- 

Crystalline form of co- 

Ann. der Phvs., Pogg., c.XLix, 







Am. J. Sci. [3], XI, 140. 

Instit., 1876, 188. 

Jsb. Chem., 1876, 1257. 



Analysis of Hermann- 

J. prakt. Chem. [2], xiii, 386. 


Jahrb. Min., 1876, 662. 


E. S. Dana 

Crystalline form of sa- 

Am. J. Sci. [3], XI, 201. 


J. L. Smith 

Minerals, columbite, 

Am. J. Sci. [3], XIII, 359; xiv, 

samarskite, euxenite, 


Hatchettolite, Rog- 

Ann. chim. phys. [5], Xll, 255. 

ersite, Fergusonite. 

Zeitschr. Kryst., l, 499. 

Jahrb. Min., 1877, 728. 

C. R., Lxxxiv, 1036. 

Abs. J. Chem. Soc, xxxii, 576 



Analysis of Hatchett- 

Zeitschr. Kryst., i, 502. 

olite and samarskite. 

Jsb. Chem., 1877, 1343. 


Rammellsberg ___ 

Analysis of samarskite 

Ann. Phys. [2], ii, 658. 

and aeschynite. 

Ber., 1877, 656. 









1877 — 












Analysis of samarskite 
and aeschynite. 


Analysis of minerals 

Analysis of samarskite. 


Zeitschr. Geolog. Ges., xxix^ 

Jahrb. Min., 1878, 529. 
Jsb. Chem., 1877, 1344. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., lxix, 176. 
Am. J. Sci. [3], XIII, 390. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., i, 503. 
Jsb. Chem., '1877, 1346. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., i, 503. 
Jsb. Chem., 1877, 1346. 
N. Petersb. Acad. Bull., xxiii, 


Mallet _ . 

Zeitschr. Kryst., 1,284. 
Jahrb. Min., 1877, 647. 

Sipylite. _. _ 

Am. J. Sci. [3], XIV, 397. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., ii, 192. 
Jahrb. Min., 1878, 203. 
Chem. News, xxxvi, 158. 
Abs. J. Chem. Soc, xxxii, 853. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., lxix, 176. 
C. R., Lxxxvi, 933. 



BrOgger- _ _ __ 




Jsb. Chem., 1878, 261. 
Zeitschrift Kryst., in, 481. 
Jsb. Chem., 1879, 1238. 
Verhand. Geol. Reichs aust., 





1879, 243. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., iv, 633. 
Chem. News, xli, 244. 




Shepard _. 


Am. J. Sci. [3], XIX, 131. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., iv, 616. 
Wien. Acad. Ber., lxxx, 34 


Poly erase 

Zeitschr. Kryst., v, 400. 
Ber. XIII, 139. 

Min. Petr. Mitth. [2], iii, 94. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., iv, 524. 
Jsb. Chem., 1878. 
Am. J. Sci. [8], XX, 56. 
Am. J. Sci. [3], XX, 57. 
Am. J. Sci. [3], XX, 57. 
Am. J. Sci. [3], XXII, 23. 
Jsb. Chem., 1881, 1409. 
Am. J. Sci. [3], XXI, 412. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., vi, 208. 
Am. J. Sci., XII, 52. 

1880 _ 



Rutherfordite - _. 

Aescliynite- _ . _ 

1880 . 

Hidden _ _ 

1880 _ 





Hallock -- 




Sipylite _ . 

1881 . 


Hidden . ._ 


Zeitschr. Kryst., vi, 208. 
Am. Chem. J., in, 130. 

1882 . 


Zeitschr. Kryst., vi, 112. 
Am. J. Sci. [3], XXIV, 372. 
Jsb. Chem., 1882, 1573. 
Am. J. Sci. [3], XXIV, 475. 
Jsb. Chem., 1882, 1573. 
Chem. News, xlvi, 205. 


G. C. Hoffmann __ 
Seamon _ 







Abs. J. Chem. Soc, xliv, 32. 
Monit. Scientif. [3], xiii, 246. 
Jsb. Chem.; 1883, 361. 
Chem. News, xlix, 259. 

1884 . 


Samarskite _. 

Jsb. Chem., 1884, 1994. 







1884 . 

Blake _ . . - 

Coluinbite, occurrence. 

C'lluinbile, anah'sis 

Cdlumbite _ _ 

Am. J. Sci. [3], xxviii, 340. 
Am. J. Sci. [3], XXVIII, 340. 
Zeitschr. Krvst., xii. 266-274. 






Headdon.. . _ 

1887 - 

Columbite from Gra- 

Mineral associated with 

Columl)ite fi'om Colo- 

Abs. J. Chem. Soc, 1887, 20. 
Gazzetta, xvii, 31-37. 
Abs. J. Chem. Soc, 1887, 645. 
Zeitschr. Kryst. Min., xiii, 302. 
Abs. J. Chem. Soc, 1887, 1085. 
Zeitschr. Krvst. Min., xii, 513. 

Abs. J. Chem. Soc, 1887, 347. 


The numbers refer to the years, the part 18 being dropped, 

When preceded by M it refers to 





Blomstrand __. 



boisbaudran _. 


























Deville and Damour -. 

Deville and Troost 


DoNATHand Mayerhofer.' 



FiNKENER and Stephens 

Forbes and Dahll 




Analysis Hatchettolite and samarskite 

Mineral from Ytterby 

Occurrence of columbite 

Chlorides and acids 


Analysis columbite 


Separation from gallium 


Crystallization of columbite 


Composition Siberian columbite 


Flame reactions 

Niobic acid in tin ore 

Samarskite and columbite 

Analysis pyrochlore 

Analj'sis euxenite 



Columbite from Graveggia 

Composition of columbite from Bavaria 

Anal^^sis samarskite 

Crystalline form samarskite 






Action of carbon tetrachloride on niobic anhy- 

Crystallization of columbite 



Columbite and euxenite 

Vapor density of chloride 


Atomic volume and affinity 


Crystals of niobic acid 

Composition of samarskite 

Bragite, Fergusonite, and euxenite 

Action of hydrofluoric acid on columbite 


Specific gravity and composition American co- 






Groth and Arzruni , 
































Hoffmann, G. 




Jeremejew -_ 






Do ___ 



Crystalline form of columbite 


Fergusonite and aeschynite 

Discovery of element 


Microscopic analysis 

Columbite from Colorado 



Minerals, researches 

Ilraenic, niobic, and pelopic acids 

Composition of columbite from Middletown, 

Niobic and pelopic acids in fantalic acid 


Pyrochlore and columbite 


Aeschynite, columbite, polj-crase, pyrochlore, 

Kesearches on ilmenium, niobium, and tanta- 

Researches on niobium and ilmenium 

Separation of niobic and tantalic acids. Re- 
marks on pelopic acid. 


Columbite and samarskite 

Acids, formula, atomic weight, ilmenium 

Aeschynite, Fergusonite, samarskite, pyro- 
chlore, Wohlerite. 



Analysis aeschynite and columbite 

Constitution of compounds 

Analysis ilmenorutile 


Constitution of minerals 

Fergusonite, tyrite, and bragite 


Aeschynite, ouxenite, and polycrase 

Separation of niobium from ilmenium 

Analysis of samarskite and columbite 


Analysis of Hermannolite 

Researches, neptunium 

Fergusonite . 




Columbite and samarskite 



Crystalline form of columbite 

Salts, niobatcs 


Acids, nitrides, and carbides 





M., '73 
M., '81 
M., '28 

M., '01 

M., '87 

M., '46 

M., '48 






M., '65 


M., '66 

M., '67 



M., '70 

M., '76 


M., '8a 



M., '82 








M., '55. 

M., '71 









Leonhard and Vogel- 




Levy, L 


Marignac -_- 






Michaelson ._. 
















EosE, G. 
Rose, H. 








Crystallization niobic anhydride 


Specitlc gravity aeschynite 

Identity of columbium and tantalum 

Crystalline form of columbit • 



(!olor reaction 

Si py lite 

Acids and salts 


Estimation ilmeniuni and niobium ^ 

Analysis and specific gravitj^, aeschynite and 



Bragite and tyrite __. 


Composition of columbite 


Niobic acid 



Analysis minerals 

Researches ". 


Quantitative estimation 

Niobic, pelopic, and ilmenic acids 


Mineral associated with columbite 

Compounds, atomic weight 

Yttrotantalite, pyrochlore, and euxenite 


Fergusonite and tyrite 

Composition of natural niobates and separation 

of metallic acids. 


Aeschynite and samarskite 

Analysis samarskite and aeschynite 







Acids in columbite 

Effect of temperature on specific weight of 

compounds. ^ 

Niobic, ilmenic, and pelopic acids 

Identity of ilmeniuni and niobium 

Properties of metal and oxides 

Pel opium 


Researches, identification, compounds, etc. 

Niobic and niobous acids, metal, chlorides, etc._ 



Pluorides and chlorides 






, '62 



















, '63 































































KosE, H. 



Do. L- 
















Smith, J. L 






Thomson .. 

Troost. See Deville and 


VoGEL. See Leonhard und 

Von Kobell 








Niobic acid 



Niobous acid 


Columbite and samarskite 

Colurabite, samarskite, euxenite, Fergusonite, 


Hydrates, niobates, and fluoniobates 

Analysis columbite 


Metallic acids in minerals 

Woblerite, euxenite, and polycrase 


Analj'sis of a niobate 

Analysis of columbite 

Specific gravity columbite 



Rutherfordite and yttrotantalite 



Columbite, samarskite, euxenite, Hatchettolite, 

Eogersite, and Fergusonite. 

Researches. Mosandrium 

Method of analysis 

Occurrence of minerals in granite 



Dianium and dianic acid 


Dianic acid 

Action of hydrogen peroxide on oxides 

Properties of oxide 

Identity of columbium and tantalum 







M., '(32 



M., '84 


M., '82 
M., 'G6 
M., '7f5 

M., '77 



M., '73 










Levy _ _ _ 





Brooke .- 

















BrOgger _ _ 



" and specitic gravity 







Hidden _ _ _. 




Bromeis - -_ - 



Columbite from Middletown, Conn 

Columbite from Bavaria 

Hermann ._ __ 


Damour-- _ _ - 






li U (t 


Hermann _ 












Hermann - -_ 


Hatchettolite and Samarskite 

Allen _ 





Damour. -- 







Damour _ _ - 








Colorado, Columbite 




, '01 


" " 









Specific gravity and composition. American 













H. Rose — 


Hermann _ 




















Breithaupt _ 



Crystallization _ _ 












H. Rose 



Deville and 



H. Rose 













Lettson. _ 




GiBBS _ 



Action Hydrofluoric acid on. 




Marignac _ . _ 





Specific fi'ravitv __ . _ _ 








Analysis . . . _ _ - 








Jeremejkw ._ 
GROTH.-nd Akz 









comstook __. 








Breithaupt __ 









Occurrence _ . _ - _ _ 











on. See Analysis. 

ation, Columbite _ . . . 




Jeremejew _ 



GROTHand Arz 
Dana . __ 













Forbes and Dahll. 
H. Rose 








Deville and Da- 











Smith _ 





Specific sjravity 




te _ -- 


Forbes and Dahll_ 








H. Rose 
























Allen _ 



Smith . 



Shepard ... __ 







GiBBS _ 




Hermann . __ 



H. Rose 

Hermann . _. 














' ( ( 

Niobite. See Colunibite. 


Occurrence, Columbite 


Polycrase - _ -_ 





Pyrochlore _., _ -- 


Hermann - 














H. Rose . 



a It. 

Hermann _ 



Kutherfordite _ _ . _. _. 

Shepard _ 


Allen -_ 




li u 


FiNKENER and Ste- 


G-. RosK 


u u 









Hunt _ _ 





Hermann . __ 



H. Rose _ 




Hermann __ -_ __ 









" Crystalline form 











Saniarskite -- -- - 



M., '77 




Donald . 

M., '83 



Sinvlite - .. _. 

Mallet _ 








]\Iarignac - _ - 


(1 u u 


" " Ooliiiiibitfi - _ __ _ _ 





H. KosE 









U U 11 


" " Euxenite - _ _- 

M., '67 

Tvrite ._ - ----- 


M., '60 

M., '63 


M., '63 




W^ohleritft - . _ _ 

M., '48 


M., '65 


M., '48 

Berzklius. _ 




M., '69 





Acids in Columbite 

Acid, Ilmenic, in Columbite 

" Niobic, in Wohlerite 

" Niobic 

" " in Tantalic Acid 

" " in Euxenite 

Ilmenic and Pelopic. 



Acid, Pelopic 

" Niobic 

" Dianic 

" Niobous 

" Niobic 


Acid, Niobic, in tin ore 


Acid, Ilmenic 

" Dianic 


Ilmenic, in Pyrochlore and Columbite. 

Crystals of 

and Tantalic, separation of 

and Niobous 


Action of Hydrofluoric Acid on Columbite 

" " Hydrogen Peroxide on oxides 

" " Carbon Tetrachloride on Niobic Anhydride. 


Analysis of a Niobate 

" " Methods for 

" Separation 

" Estimation 

" Separation 

" " of Metallic Acid 

<i " from Gallium 

" " Microscopic 

" Quantitative determination 

" Color reaction 

" Flame " 

Anhydride, Niobic, action of Carbon Tetrachloride 
'1 Niobic, crystallization of 

Atomic Volume 

" Weight 

Cadmium Fluoniobate 
Calcium " 

RosK, H... 








Rose, H 


Rose, H 

Yon Kobell __ 

Rose, H 





Von Kobell 







DoNATH and May- 















Donath and May- 




. '84 









Cobalt Fluoniobate 

Copper " 

Calcium Niobate 


Carbon Tetrachloride, action on Niobic Anhydride. 

" Vapor density of 
Columbite, Acids in 

" Action of Hydrofluoric Acid upon. 

Color reaction 


" Constitution of 

Constitution of minerals 

Composition of natural Niobate 

Constitution of minerals 

Crystallization of niobic anhydride. 


Dt'termination, Quantitative 

Discovery of element 

Effect of temperature on specilic weight _ 


Euxenite, Niobic acid in 


Flame reaction 



Granite, occurence in 

Gallium, separation from _ 

Hydrofluoric Acid, Action uu Columbite 

Hydrogen peroxide, Action on oxides__ 
Identitv of Columbium and Tantalum. 

'' Ilnie'nium and Niobium, 


Ilmenic Acid 

" " in Pyrochlore and Columbite 
" Acid ....'- 


" Identity with Niobium 

" Researches 






Deville and Troost 

Rose, H 




Rose, H. 

Hermann :. 


Rammellsberg -_. 


Von Kobell 

Hermann _. 

Von Kobell 



Rose, H 





Rose, H 









Leonhard and Vo- 


Rose, H 

Hermann . 
Rose, H. _. 


Hermann . 
Marignac . 
Hermann . 
Rose, H. _. 




Ilmenium, Researches. 

" Separation from Niobium. 
Manganese fluoniobate 

" niobate 

Mercury fluoniobate 

Methods of analysis 

Metal - - -^- 

Microscopic analysis-. 
Minerals, constitution. 



in tin ore 

obic anhydride crystallization 

' Action of carbon tetrachloride upon 

obic acid in Wohlerite. 

obous acid. 

in Tantalic Acid 

Euxenite and Polvcrase 


Separation from Tantalic Acid 

obiura, Discovery 

Identit}- with Tantalum 

Identity with Tantalum . 

Identity with Ilmenium. 



Metallic ._. 

Atomic weight 

Separation from Ilmenium. 


Separation from Gallium. 








Rose, H. 











Rose, H. 




Rose, H. 







Rose, H. 



Rose, H. 

H atchett 



Leonhard and Vo- 


Rose, H. 

1 1 

Rose, H. 
















Niobium, Atomic volume and affinity - 



" Microscopic analysis 

" Quantitative determination 

" Color reaction 

" Flame reaction 

Nickel fluoniobate 




Occurrence in granite. 



" Action of hydrogen peroxide upon 
Pelopic acid 

Pelopium — 

Peroxide of hydrogen, Action on oxides 
Properties of oxide 

" " and metal ■. 

Polycrase, Acids in 

Pyrochlore, Acids in 

Quantitative determination 

Keaction, Color 

" Flame 

Keraarks on Pelopic Acid 



wSeparation niobic and tantalic acids 

" Niobium frtmi Ilmenium . 

" Metallic acids 

" from Gallium 

Sodium niobate 

Specific weight, ctlcct of temperature upon. 


DoxATH and May- 







EcsE, H 







Rose, H 

Delafontaink .. 





Rose, H. 



PvOSE, H. 










Rose, H. 


Hermann . 


Hermann . 


Rose, H 



Hermann . 

Tantalum, Identity with Niobium 

Rammellsberg . 


Rose, H 






Tantalum, Identity with Niobium 

Temperature, etieet of, upon specific weight 

Tin ore, niobium in 

Vapor density of chloride 

Volume, atomic 

Weight, atomic 

Weight, specific, eflect of temperature upon 

Wohlerite, Niobic acid in 

Yttrium niobate 

Zinc fluoniobate 

Leonhard and Vo- 


KosE, H 


DoNATH and May- 



EosE, H 
























The following subject-index of astronomy for 1887 was originally compiled as an 
appendix to a general review of the progress of astronomy during that year, and 
though not exhaustive, it may, perhaps, be found a useful reference list. Important 
contributions to astronomy published during 1887 in scientific journals and trans- 
actions of societies, as well as all more elaborate publications that have come to the 
compiler's notice, have been included — a few titles being taken from reviews, or book- 
catalogues. Observations of asteroids and comets, except those of the comets of 1887, 
have generally been omitted. 

The prices quoted are usually from Friedlander's Naturae Novltates, in German 
"marks" (1 Mark = 100 Pfennige = 1 franc 25 centimes = 25 cents, nearly.) 

The abbreviated titles will probably be readily understood by those familiar with 
scientific periodicals without special explanation, beyond the following list of less 
obvious contractions. 


= Abstract. 


z= Lieferung. 


= part. 


= American. 


= marks. 


= reale. 


^ Band. 

n. d. 

= no date. 


= review. 


= die, der, del, etc. 

n. p. 

= no page. 


= series. 


= edition. 

n. F. 

;= neue Folge. 


= science, scien 


.= Heft. 

n. s. 

= new series. 



= herausgegeben. 


= notices. 


= shilling, 


= illustrated. 


= observations. 


= supplement. 


= journal. 


= Observatory. 

v., vol. 

= volume. 

k. k. 

= kaiserlich konig- 


= page. 



= plates. 

In the references to journal articles the volume and page are simply separated by a 
colon, thus : "Bull, astron., 4 : 94-98," indicates volume 4, pages 94 to 98. 


MiCHELSox (A. A.) & MoRLEY (E. W.) Relative motion of the earth and 

the luminiferous aether, il. Am. j. sc, 134: 333-345. 
Thewis ( — .) Sur la theorie de Taberration de M. Seeliger. Bull, astron., 4 : 

Aberration (Constant of). 

CoMSTOCK (G. C.) New mode of determining the constants of refraction and 

aberration. Sid. mess., 6: 310-317. (Abstract of Loewy's method.) 
Note on the determination of the constant of aberration. Astron. jour., 

7: 157. 



Aberration (Constant of) — Continued. 

HouzEAU (J. C.) Note sur une mothode pour determiner la constante de I'aber- 
ration. 4 p. 8vo. Bruxelles, 1887. 

Bull, de I'acad. roy. de Belg., 3. s. 13, no. 2. 

Methode pour determiner la constante de I'aberration. Compt. Eend., 

104: 278. 

Note additionelle sur la mesure de 1 "aberration. Ibid., 563. 

LoEWY (M.) Nouvelle methode pour la determination de la constante de I'aber- 
ration. Compt. Kend., 104 : 18-26, .396. 

Determination de la constante de I'aberration. Premier precede d 'obser- 
vation. Ibid., 455-461. 

Same. Premier et seconde procede d'observation. Ibid., o'dS-oH. 

Same. Conclusions. Ibid., 61.5-621. 

Pieponse a la Note additionelle de M. Houzeau. Ibid., 727. 

Methode generale pour la determination de la constante de I'aberration. 

Ibid., 1207-1214, 1398-1405. 

Same. Calcul de I'azimut de la direction horizontale du mouvement ter- 

restre. Ibid., 1650-1656. 

Same. Procede particulier pour rendre la recherche independante du 

tour de vis, et conclusions. Ibid., 105: 11-17. 

Nouvelles methodes pour la determination de la constante de I'abernuion. 

57 p. 11. 4to. Paris, 1887. (i26;r/-. /mm.- Compt. Kend., 104, 105.) 
Loewy's method of determining the constant of aberration, il. Sc. Am. sup., 

Trepied (C.) Sur I'application de la photographie aux nouvelles methodes de 
M. Loewjr pour la determination des elements de la refraction et de I'aberra- 
tion. Compt. Ptend., 104: 414-417. 

Almanacs. See Ephemerides and almanacs. 


Chandler (S. C.) jr. The almucantar : an investigation made at the observatory 
[of Harvard college] in 1884 and 1885. 9 + 222 p., 1 pi. 4to. Cambridge, 

[Results of latitude work.] Sid. mess., 6: 87. 

American astronomical society. 

PajKTS . . . no. 2. 55 p. 8vo. Brooklyn, 1887. 
American ephenieris. 

American ephemeris and nautical almanac for . . . 1890. 1 ed. 6 + 521 + 8 p. 

4to. Washington, 1887. ($1.00.) 

Astronomical papers . . . Vol. 2, pts. 3 and 4. Velocity of light in air and. 

refracting media. 152 p., 8 pi. 4to. Washington, 1885. 

Sev. by Wagner (.\.) Vrtlj.«chr. d. astron. Ge.sellsch., 22: 2.36-247. 

Report of the superintendent of the nautical almanac for the year ending Juna- 
30, 1887. 7 p. 8vo. Washington, 1887. 


Armagh observatory. 

Dreyer (J. L. E.) Electric illumination of the Armagh refractor. Month. 

not., 47 : 117. 
[lleport for 1886.] Ibid., 151. 
Asteroid 5. 

Galle (A.) tjber die im September, 1888, .stattfindende Annaherung der Plan- 
eten (5) Astraea und (8) Flora. Astron. Nachr., 118: 78. 

Asteroid 17. 

Charlier (C. V. L.) Untersuchung iiber die allgemeinen Jupiter-Storungen 
des Planoten Thetis. 98 p. 4to. 

Kongl. svenska Vetens-Akad. handl. 22, no. 2. 
Asteroid 69. 

[Kreutz (H.)] Neuer Planet Luther vermuthlich identisch mit (69) Hesperia. 
Astron. Nachr., 116: 335, 365. 

Detected by Luther 18S7, Apr. 11, and by Coggia 18S7, Apr. IG, and announced as a 
new asteroid. 

Asteroid 80. 

Egberts (I.) Photographic search for the minor planet Sappho. Month, not., 
47: 265. 

Asteroid 181. 

DE Ball (L.) Eecherches sur I'orbit de la planete (181) Eucharis. 44 p. 4to. 
Bruxelles, 1887. (M. 2.50.) 

Asteroid 240. 

Saikt-Blancat (D.) [Elements from observations 1884-1886.] Bull, astron., 
4: 198. 
Asteroid 264. 

MiLLOSEVicn (E.) [Elements from normals 1886, Dec. 20; 1887, Jan. 22, and 
observation of Feb. 24.] Atti d. r. accad. d. Lincei, s. 4, Rend., 3: 476-480. 
Asteroid 265. Anna. 

Discovered by J. Palisa at Vienna, 1887, Feb. 25. Circ. Berl. astron. Jahrb., 

292. Also: Astron. Nachr., 116: 223. 
Knopf (O.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Feb. 25, Mar. 25, Apr. 17.] Circ. 

Berl. astron. Jahrb., 296. 
Lange (H.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Feb. 25, Mar. 11, 25.] Ibid , 294. 
MiLLOSEViCH (E.) Sul pianetino (265). Atti d. r. accad. d. Lincei, s. 4, Rend., 
3: 266. 
Asteroid 266. Aline. 

Discovered by J. Palisa at Vienna, 1887, May 17. Circ. Berl. astron. Jahrb., 

298. Also: Astron. Nachr., 117: 47. 
Lange (H.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, May 17, 29, June 11.] Circ. Berl. 
astron. Jahrb., 299. 
Asteroid 267. Tirza. 

Discovered by A. Charlois at Nice, 1887, May 27. Circ. Berl. astron. Jahrb., 
298. Also: Astron. Nachr., 117: 63. Also: Bull, astron., 4: 260. 



Asteroid 267. Tirza — Continued. 

Charlois (A.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, May 27, June 9, 22.] Giro. Bed. 
astron. Jahrb., 301. Also: Compt. Rend., 105: 53. 

[Elements from obsns. 1887, May 27, June 25, July 23. J Circ. Berl. 

astron. Jahrb., 303. 

Asteroid 268. Adorea. 

Discovered by A. Borrelly at Marseilles, 1887, June 9. Circ. Berl. astron. Jahrb., 

299. Also: Astron. Nachr., 117: 103. 
Lange (H.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, June 9, 23, July 13.] Circ. Berl. 

astron. Jahrb., 301. 

Asteroid 269. 

Discovered by J. Palisa at Vienna, 1887, Sept. 21. Circ. Berl. astron. Jahrb., 

305. Also: Astron. Nachr., 117: 359. 

Berberich (A.) [Elements from normals 1887, Sept. 23, Oct. 13, and observa- 
tion Nov. 12.] Circ. Berl. astron. Jahrb., 308. 

Asteroid 270. Anahita. 

Discovered by C. H. F. Peters at Clinton, 1887, Oct. 8. Circ. Berl. astron. Jahrb., 

306. Also: Astron. Nachr., 117: 15. 

Lange (H.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Oct. 11, 26, Nov. 13.] Circ. Berl. 

astron. Jahrb., 308. 
ViENNET (E.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Oct. 11, 18, 26.] Compt. Rend., 

105: 1002. 

[Elements from normals 1887, Oct. 12, 27, Nov. 16.] Ibid., 1234. 

Asteroid 271. Penthesilea. 

Discovered by V. Knorre at Berlin, 1887, Oct. 13. Circ. Berl. astron. Jahrb., 

306. Also: Astron. Nachr., 118: 31. 
Knopf (O.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Oct. 13, 25, Nov. 13.] Circ. Berl. 
astron. Jahrb., 308. 


[Asteroids discovered in 1886.] Month, not., -47: 172. Also: Bull, astron., 

4: 15. 
Glauser ( — .) Lage der Asteroiden-Bahnebenen. Astron. Nachr., 117: 153- 

KiRKWOOD (D.) The asteroids or minor planets between Mars and Jupiter. 

60 p. 12mo. Philadelphia, 1887. ($0.75.) 

Distribution of the minor planets. Sid. mess., 6: 116. 

Eccentricities and inclinations of the asteroidal orbits. Ibid.. 169. 

Lehmann (P.) Zusammenstellung der Planeten-Entdeckungen im Jahre 1886. 

Vrtljschn. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 9-14. 
Parkhurst (H. M.) Photometric observations of asteroids. Sid. mess. ,6: 353. 

Astronomische Gesellschaft. 

Bericht iiber die Versammlung . . . zu Kiel, 1887, Aug. 29 bis 31. Vrtljschr. 
d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 264-284. 


Astronomische Gesellschaft — Co7itinued. 

Berichte liber die Beobachtung der Sterne bis zur neunten Grosse am nordlichen 

Himrael. Ibid., 350-358. 
Berichte betreffend die Vorbereitungen der Zonen-Beobachtungen zwischen — 2° 

und — 23°10^ /5irf., 358-361. 
Kruger (A.) Zwolfte Versammlung der astronomischen Gesellschaft . . . 

Kiel, 1887, Aug. 29-31. Astron. Nachr., 117 : 199,297-306,391. See, also, 

Ibid., 116: 383. Also: Obsry., 10: 387-339. 
[Report of Kiel meeting, 1887, Aug. 29-31.] Obsry., 10: 337-339. 
Vierteljuhrsschrift der astronomischen Gesellschaft. Hrsg. von E. Schoenfeld und 

H.Seeliger 22. Jahrg., 1887. 417p., pi., por. 8vo. Leipzig, 1887. (M.S.) 


McFarland (R. W.) Astronomy and the ice-age. Sid. mess., 6: 117. 

Monk (W. H. S.) Astronomy and the ice-age. Ibid., bl, 194. 
Astronomy (Bibliographj' of). 

HouzEAU (J. C.) & Lakcasteb (A.) Bibliographie generale de I'astronomie. 
Tome premier. Ouvrages imprimes et manuscrits. Premiere partie. 7 + 
858 p. 4to. Bruxelles, 1887. (M. 25.) 

Rev. by Houzeau (J. C.) & Lancaster (A.), Ciel et terre, 8: 153-161, 187-193; Faye (H.), 
Compt. Rend., 105 : 923; Liagre (J.),Ciel et terre,8: 321; Maunder (E. W.), Obsry., 
10 : 421-423. See, also, L'Astron., 6 : 430-434. Also: Bull, astron., 4 : 4G8. 

Astronomy (Descriptive). 

Ball (R. S.) The story of the heavens. 2 ed., il. Bvo. London, 1887. (M. 

FOrster (W.) Sammlung von Vortrjigen und Abhandluhgen. 2 ed. 350 p. 

8vo. Berlin, 1887. (M. 6.) 

JocHMANN ( — ) & Hermes ( — .) Grundriss der Experimentalphysik und Ele- 

mente der Astronomie und mathematischen Geographic. 10. ed. 16 + 444 p. 

8vo. Berlin, 1887. (M. 5.80.) 

Lueders (F. G. J.) Memorial to the representatives of physical astronomy 

... 12 p. Bvo. Madison, 1887. 
Parkes (S. H.) Unfinished worlds : a study in astronomy, il. 8vo. London, 

1887. (M. -5.20.) 

Proctor (R. A.) Half hours with the stars. New ed. 12 pi. 4to. New York, 


Other suns than ours : series of essays on suns, old, young, and dead. 

428 p. Bvo. London, 1887. (M. 7.80.) 

Langley (S. P.) The new astronomy. The stars, il. Century, 33: 586-598. 
1887, Jan. 

Same. Comets and meteors, il. Ibid., 339-355. 1887, Feb. 

The new astronomy. 12 + 260 p. il. Bvo. Boston, 1888 [1887]. ($4.00.) 

Liagre (J.) Cosmographie stellaire. 278 p., 4 maps. 12mo. Bruxelles, 1887. 

(M. 3.) 

Lynn (W. T.) Celestial motions: handy book of astronomy. 5 ed. 12mo. 

London, 1887. (M. 2.20.) 


Astronomy (Descriptive)— Co?iz;mz<ef/. 

Meyer (M. W.) Die Lebonsseschichte der Gestirne: eine populiire Astmn- 

omie der Fixsterne. 8 + 224 p. il. 8vo. Jena, 1887. (M. 4.) 

NiESTEN (L.) Le ciel, son aspect, ses curiosites : atlas elementaire . . . avcc 

texte explicative . . . 4to. Bruxelles, 1887. (fi-. 5.) 

VON Seefeld (F. S.) Astronomische Aufsiitze eines Amateurs der Naturwis- 

senschaft. Hft. 1. 54 p. 8vo. Gratz, 1887. (M. 0.80.) 

Seryiss (G. p.) Astronomy with an opera glass, il. Pop. sc. month 30- 

743; /6«Z.,.31: 187,478; I/jid.,?,2: 5-3. 
VALENTrNER(W.) Der gestirnte Himmel : eine gemeinverstiindliche AstTun- 

omie. 7 + 327 p. il. 8vo. Stuttgart, 1887. (:H. 0.) 

Astronomy (History of). See, also, Astronomy (Progress of). 

BoNNEL (J. F.) Etude sur I'histoire de I 'astronomic : la decouverte du double 

mouvement de hi terre. 208 p. 8vo. Tours, 1887. 
Clerke (A. M.) History of astronomy during the 19th century. 2 ed., enl 

16 + 502 p. il. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1887. ' (m' 13 ) 

Homeric astronomy. Nature, 35 : 585, 607. 

LooFF (F. W.) Die Himmelskunde in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklun- und 

nach ihrem gegenwartigen Standpunkte. 8 + 132 p., 2 pi. 8vo. Lan-en- 

salza,1887. (,,j^2_^ 

Astronomy (Progress of). 

Allkn (Grant.) Progress of science from 1836 to 1886. Pop. sc month 31- 
505, 513-515. ■' 

Klein^ (H. J.) Fortschritte der Astronomic. Nr. 12, 1886. 112 p. 12mo. 

Leipzig, 1887. Repr.from: Kev. d. Naturwissensch., Nr. 71. 
Swift (L.) Astronomical progress and phenomena [18861. Appleton'^ -inn 

cycL, 1886. 24 (n. s. 11): 48-59. '^ ' 

Astronomy (Spherical and practical). See, also. Azimuth; Illumination- Navi- 
gation, etc. ' 

Goodwin (H. B.) Problems in navigation and nautical astronomy 86 p 8vo 
^^-^^^^^^^-^^ ' (M.'s.SO.) 

Herb (J. P.) & Tinter (W.) Lehrbuch der spharischen Astronomic in ihrer 
Anwendungaufgeographische Ortsbestimmung. 644 p il 8vo Wien 

, '^''- '(M.iG.; 

Jeans (H. W.) Problems in astronomy, surveying and naviijation 

Parti. 244 p. 8vo. London, 1887. (M. 2.70 ) 

Oliver (J. A. W.) & others. Astronomy for amateurs: practical manu'il of 
telescopic research . . . adapted to moderate . . . instruments 7 + 31G p 
il. 12mo. London, 1888 [18871. (M 7 80 ) 

Astronomy (Theoretical). See, also, Lunar theory; Mechanics (Celestial); Orbits. 

Israel-Holtzwart (K.) Supplement zu den Elementen der theoretischen \. 
tronomie. Insbesondere, analytische Theorie der Anziehung der Spharoide 
von^konstanter und veriinderlicher Dichtigkeit. 100 p. Svo. "Wiesb?den 
188/. ,-, __ 

(M. 1.60.) 


Auerbach (Curl Heinrich August) [1813-1886]. 

Weinek (L.) [ Biographical sketch.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 6-9. 


Clerke (A. M.) The auTora borealis. Nature, 35: 433-436. 

Lagrange (E.) Aurores boreales, cometes et etoiles lilantes. Ciol et terre, 7 : 

llENDALL (R.) Noises accompanying auror®. Ohsry., 10: 303. 
Webber (H. J.) Noises accompanying aurorse. Ibid., 10: 161. 


Craig (J. E.) Azimuth : a treatise on this subject, with a study of the astro- 
nomical triangle, and of the effect of errors in the data. 4 + 10. p. +. 
4to. New York, 1887. 

Bamberg observatory. _ ,. , , , n. 

Hartwig(E.) tjber die Bamberger Sternwarte. il. Yrtljschr. d. astron. Ge- 
sellsch., 22: 329-335. See, also, Obsry., 10: 279. 

Basel observatory. 

[Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 75. 

Baxendell (Joseph) [1815-1887]. 

Espik (T. E.) [Biographical notice.] Astron. Nachr., 118: \io. 
Stewart (B.) [Biographical notice.] Nature. 36 : 585. 

Berlin observatory. r. ^^ ^. 99 ■ 7^ «<-. 

F5RSTER (W.) [ Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 . lo-^o 

ITesse rO ) tJber die Biegung des Rohres und des Kroises des kleineren Mend- 
: ''"ian?instr!mentes der^Berliner Sternwarte, sowie uber dh. B.egung der e. 
dieser Bestimmung benutzten Collimatoren. Astron. Nachr., 11. . 33- 10, 
Bermerside observatory. 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 160. 

Bethlehem (Star of ). , c.-. a. 

Ellis (J. T.) [Hypotheses in regard to the star of Bethlehem.] Sid. mess., 6 . 

Payne (W W ) Star of Bethlehem. Sid. mess., 6 : 265-269. 
[Venus mistaken for] the star of Bethlehem. Nature, 37 : 169 ; Obsry., U : 96 ; 

Eng. mec, 46- 388, 390. 
Birr casile observatory. 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 160. 

Bonn observatory. 09. 80 09 

ISCHONFELB (E.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 . 89-92. 
Bordeaux observatory. 
\ Annalesdel'observatoirede Bordeaux, publirospnrG.Ravet. Tome 2. lo9-+- 



di Brera observatory. 

Pubblicazioni . . . No. 31. Azimut assoluto del segnule trigonoraetrico del 
monte Palanzone suU' orizzonte di Milano, determinato nell 1882 da M. 
Rajna. 12.5 p. 4to. Milano, 1887. 
Pubblicazioni . . . No. 32. Nuova triangolazione della citta di Milano eseguitu 
da F. Borletti. 15 p., 4 pi. 4to. Milano, 1887. 
Breslau observatory. 

Galle (J. G.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch,, T2: 92. 
Brussels observatory. 

FoLiE (F.) [Report for 1885 and 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 

[Removal to Uccle.] Nature, 36: 41. 

Abetti (A.) Nozioni sul calendario dei Cofti e degli Abissini cristiani. 9 p. 
4to. Roma, 1887. (M. 1.) 

Repr.from: Atti d. r. accad. d. Lincei, s. 4, Rendic, 3: 396-tOi. 
Gerigny (P.) Reforme du calendrier: rapport sur les projets presentes au con- 

cours. L'Astron., 6: 212, 260, 293, 339, 384. 
PoNCET (G.) Pourquoi I'annee eommence-t-elle le P"' Janvier? L'Astron., 6: 
Cambridge [Eng.] observatory. 

[Report for 1880.] Month, not., 47: 151. 
Cambridge [XJ. S.] observatory. See Harvard college observatory. 
Cape of Good Hope observatory. 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47: 164. 
Carleton college observatory. 

[Payne (W. W.) Description of the Repsold meridian circle, etc.] il. Sid. 
mess., 6: 302-306, 319. 
Chromosphere. See, also, Prominences (Solar). 

Perry (S. J.) [Observations of ] the chromosphere in 1886. Obsry., 10: 129. 

Verbesserung des Chronodeik. .Sirius, 20: 108-112. 

BucKNEY ( — ) & others. [Remarks on chronograph of Melbourne observa- 
tory.] Obsry., 10: 49. 
Herz (N.) Streifen-Ableseapparat. Astron. Nachr., 117: 263. 
VON Rebeur-Paschwitz (E.) Registrirapparat mit Centrlfugal-Regulirung. 
il. Ztschr. f. Instrmknd., 7: 171. 

Celi.erier (G.) Etude numerique des concours de compensation des chmnu- 
metres faits a I'observaloire de Geneve en 1884 et 1886. 45 p. 4to. Geneve, 
1887. (^lem. soc. phys. et d'hist. nat. Geneve, 29, no. 6.) 
Ellery (R. L. J.) [Break-circuit chronometer devised and used in Australia 
in I860.] Obsry., 10: 427. 



Chronometers — Continued. 

Gautier (E.) Kapport sur le concours pour le reglage des chronometres, 1886. 

[11] p. 8vo. [n. p., 1887.] 
HiRSCH (A.) Rapport du directeur de I'observatoire cantonal de Neiichatel 

. . . sur le concours des chronometres observes pendant I'annee 1886. 

28 + 12 p. 12mo. Locle, 1887. 
Peters (C. F. W.) Einfluss der Luftfeuchtigkeit auf den Gang der Chronome- 
ter. Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 284-292. 
Rates of chronometers on trial ... at the Royal observatory, Greenwich. 

7 p. 4to. [London, 1887.] 
In : Greenw. obsns. 1885. 
Recherches sur les chronometres etles instruments nautiques. 123 p. 8vo. Paris, 

1887. (M. 1..50.) 

Young (C. A.) [First use of] break-circuit chronometers. Obsry., 10: 140, 

Cincinnati observatory. 

Publications of the Cincinnati observatory, 9. Zone catalogue of 4,050 stars for 

the epoch 1885 ... by J. G. Porter. 104 p. 8vo. Cincinnati, 1887. 

Repsold (A.) Schreib-Apparat fiir Theilungs-Beyifferung il. Ztschr. f. In- 

strmknd., 7 : 396. 
Clark (Alvan) [1804-1887]. 

For Biography, see Am. j. sc, 134: 322. Also: Eng. mec.,45: 603. Also: Na- 
tion, 45: 149. Also: Nature, 36: 476. Also: Science, 10: 96. Also: Sc. 
"" Amer.,57: 145,213. Also: Sid. mess., 6: 250-253. Also: Sirius, 20: 241. 

For Portrait, see Science, 10: 96. Also: Sc. Amer., 57: 198. 

Appel (D.) Freie Schwerkraft-Hemraung der Normal-Stern-Uhr zu Princeton. 

Ztschr. f. Instrmknd., 7: 29. 
BucKNEY (T.) Note on the performance of the Westminster clock. Month. 

not., 47 : 519. 
Christie (W. H. M.) Method of regulating clocks. Obsry., 10: 326. 
Cornu (A.) Synchronisation des horloges de precision et la distribution de 

I'heure. Compt. Rend., 105: 1106-1112, 1209. 
FoLiE (F.) Sur renregistrement par microphone des battements d'line pendule. 

Bull, de I'acad. roy. de Belg. [1887?] Notice: Bull. asti*on., 4: 291. 
Gardner (H. D.) F^ifty years' progress in clocks and watches, il. Nature, 

36: 484. 
"Wolf (C.) Comparaison des divers systemes de synchronisation electrique des. 

t horloges astronomiques. Compt. Rend., 105: 1155-1159, 1211. 

Colored stars. 
Backhouse (T. W.) Proposed nomenclature for star-colors. Obsry., 10: 234. 
Chambers (G. F.) [Color of Achernar.] Obsry., 10, 301. 
Franks (W. S.) Proposed nomenclature for star-colors. Obsrv., 10: 275. 


Colored stars — Continued. 

Franks (W. S.) Eeport from colored star section. J. Liverp. astron. soc, 5: 

vox KOvESLiGETHY (E.) Neue Methode der Farbenbestimmung dor Sterno. 

Sirius, 20: 219, 271. vlZso, Eeprint. (M. 0.40.) 

MoiSTK (W. H. S.) Colors of the stars and solar heat. Obsry., 10: 1G4. 
Williams (A. S.) Color of Achernar. Obsry., 10 : 272, 334. 
■Comet Olbers = Comet 1887 Y (/). 

Detected by Brooks at Phelps, N. Y., 1887, Aug. 24. Astron. jour., 7: 127. 
Also: Astron. Naehr., 117: 279. Also: Sc. Amcr., 47: 181, 192. Also: 
Sid. mess., 6: 289. 

Comet Olbers (Elements of). 

Egbert (H. Y.) [From obsns. 1887, Aug. 26, 28, -30.] Astron. jour., 7: 128. 

Also: Sc. obsr. circ, 79. See, also, Sid. mess., 6 : 294. 
[Correcting Ginzel's elements by obsns. 1887, Aug. 27 to Sept. 23.] As- 
tron. jour., 7 : 13-5. 
Franz (J.) [From obsns. 1887, Aug. 27, 28, 29.] Astron. Nachr., 117 : 29-5. 
GiNZEL (F. K.) [Elements corrected by obsns. 1887, Aug. 27, Sept. 6, 14.] 

Astron. Nachr., 117: 390. 
Grust (L. J.) [From obsns. 1887, Aug, 27, 30, Sept. 2.] Astron. Nachr., 

117: 343. 
KrItger (A.) [Ginzel's elements corrected by obsns. 1887, Aug. 27.] Astron. 

Nachr., 117: 309. 
Lebeuf (A.) [From obsns. 1887, Aug. 27, 30, Sept. 2.] Astron. Nachr., 117 : 

343. ^?so.- Bull, astron., 4: 427. 
Eambaud (A. A.) & Sy (— .) [From obsns. 1887, Aug. 29, 31, Sept. 2.] 

Compt. Eend., 105: 487. 
Tetens (0.) [Ginzel's elements corrected by obsns. to Sept. 20.] Astron. 

Nachr., 117: 358. 

Comet Olbers (Observations of position of). 

Albany, Aug. 26-30; Astron. journ., 7 : 128. Sept. 23; Ibid., 136. Sept. 15, 

Nov. 1 ; Ibid., 152. 
Algiers, Aug. 29, 31, Sept. 2; Astron. Nachr., 117: 325. Aug. 29, 31 ; Compt. 

Eend., 105: 430. Sept. 10, 12, 13, 14, 16; Ibid., 511. Sept. 17, 19, 21, 

22; Bull, astron., 4: 466. 
BesanQon, Aug. 29, 30, Sept. 1 ; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 341. Also: Compt. Eend., 

105: 431. Sept. 14-17, 21, 22, 26, 30, Oct. 1 ; Compt. Eend., 105: 609. 
Bordeaux, Sept. 8, 9, 10; Compt. Eend., 105: 456. Sept. 8, 9, 10, 15, 18, 19, 21, 

23, 24, 25; Ibid., 1001. Also: Astron. Nachr., 118: 109. 
Bothkamp, Sept. 18, 20, 21, 23, 24; Astron. Nachr., 117:387. Oct. 21, 26; 

Ibid., 118: 105. 
Geneva, Aug. 29; Astron. Nachr., 117: 293. Sept. 6 ; Ibid., SOT. Oct. 1, 17, 

25, 27, Nov. 4; Ibid., 118: 109. 
Hamburg, Sept. 20; Astron. Nachr., 117: 355. Sept. 23, 24; Ibid., 387. 


Comet Olbers (Observations of position of) — Continued. 

Kiel, Sept. 14; Astron. Nachr., 117: 327. Sept. 15, 18; Ibid., 341. Sept. 20; 

Ibid., 355. 
Konigsberg, Aug. 27, 28, 29; Astron. Nachr., 117: 295. Aug. 27, 28, 29, Sept. 

10, 12; Ibid., 341. Sept. 21, 27; Ihid., 387. Oct. 8, 12, 14; Ibid., 118: 42. 

Oct. 26, 27, Nov. 11 ; Ibid., 118 : 94. 
Kremsmiinster, Aug. 28 ; Astron. Nachr., 117: 293. Aug. 28, 30, Sept. 6, 10, 

17; Ibid., 118: 107. 
Lyons, Aug. 30; Compt. Eend., 105: 432. Sept. 9, 10; Ibid., ^87. Sept. 13^ 

21,22; Ibid., 512. 
Marseilles, Aug. 27,29; Bull, astron., 4: 462. Aug. 29, 30, 31, Sept. 13, 15,. 

IG, 18, 20, 22, 23, 26; Ibid., 404. 
Milan, Aug. 30, 31; Astron. Nachr., 117: 307. 
Nashville, Aug. 27, 28; Astron. jour., 7 : 127. Also: Astron. Nachr., 117 : 327, 

Nice, Aug. 29-Sept. 2; Compt. Kend., 105: 4.56. Also: Bull, astron., 4: 467- 

Sept. 5, 6; Bull, astron., 4: 467. 
Padua, Sept. 13, 14, 15, 24; Astron. Nachr., 117: 390. 
Plonsk, Sept. 6 ; Ibid., 327, 391. 

Pulkowa, Sept. 25, 06t. 10, 15, 22, Nov. 13, 15; Ibid., 118: 109 
Kome, Aug. 27; Astron. Nachr., 117: 293. 

Strassburg, Aug. 27; Ibid., 293. Aug. 27, Sept. 14; Ibid., 341. 
Turin, Aug. 29; Ibid., 293. Aug. 29, 31; Ibid., 327. Sept. 10, 13, 1-5, 16, 17, 

20; Ibid., 118: 75. 
Vienna, Aug. 27; Ibid., 117: 294. Oct. 21 ; Ibid., 118: 42. 
Washington, Aug. 29, 30, 31, Sept. 16, 19; Astron. jour., 7: 134. 
Comet Olbers (Orbit of). See, also, Comet Olbers (Elements of). 

Kruger (A.) Wiederkehr des Olbers'schen Cometen. Astron. Nachr., 117: 


Searle (G. M.) Kecent approach of the Olbers comet to Mars. Astron. jour., 
7: 134. 
Comet Temple. See Comets and Meteors. 
Comet Winnecke. 

VON Hardtl (E.) Bestatigen die neuesten Beobachtungen das Eesultat Prof, 
von Oppolzer's : dass auch bei dem periodischen Cometen "Winnecke, Encke's 
Hypothese des Widerstand leistenden Mediums Geltung zu haben scheine? 
Vrtlischr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 313-319. 
Comet 890 and Comet 1075. 

GiNZEL (F. K.) [Apparition of two historical comets, 890, May 23, and 1075, 
.July-Aug.] Astron. Nachr., 118: 47. 
Comet 1457 I. 

ScHULiioF (L.) Orbites des cometes 1457 I et 1818 I. Bull, astron., 4: 51-54. 
Comet 1672. 

Berberich (A.) Der Comet des Jahres 1672. Astron. Nachr., 118 : 50-72. 


Comet 1680. 

Lynn (W. T.) Comet of 1680 and its supposed previous appearances. Obsry , 
10: 318. 
Comet 1780 II. 

Lynn (W. T.) The comet discovered by Montaigne and Olbers in 1780. Obsry., 
10: 355. 
Comet 1818 I. See Comet 1457 I. 
Comet 1825 IV. 

Lynn (W. T.) [Erratum in Carl's Kepertorium.] Obsry., 10: 232. 
Comet 1840 I. 

Galle (J. G.) Berichtigung zu den Angaben iiber die Zeit des Periheldurcli- 
ganges . . . Astron. Nachr., 117: 167. 
Comet 1846 IV. 

VON Hepperger (J.) Bahnbestimmung des Cometen 1846 IV. 42 p. 8vo. 
Wien, 1887. (M. 0.70.) 

AbstT. : Astron. Nachr., 117 : 240. 

Comet 1846 VI. 

Berberich (A.) Bahn des Cometen 1846 VI, Peters. Astron. Nachr., 117: 
Comet 1848 I. 

BiDSCHOF (F.) Bestimmungder Bahn des Cometen 1848 I. 17 p. 8vo. Wien, 
1887. {Abstr.: Astron. Nachr., 117 : 247.) (M. 0.40.) 

Comet 1863 IV. 

SvEDSTRUP (A.) Definitive Bahnbestimmung des Cometen 1863 IV. Astron. 
Nachr., 117: 222-242. 
Comet 1865 I. 

KOrber(F.) tJber den Cometen 1865 I. 58 p. 8vo. Breslau, 1887. (M.1.50.) 
Terbutt (J.) Note on the tail . . . Astron. Nachr., 117: 385. 
Comet 1877 VI. 

Larssen (R.) Bahn des Kometen 1877 VI. 24 p. 8vo. Stockholm, 1887. 
Bihang. till k. sveuska vet. akad. Handlingen. Bd. 12. Afd. I, No. 8. 
Comet 1882 I. 

VON Rebkur-Paschvititz (E.) tJber die Bahn des Cometen 1882 I. Astron. 
Nachr., 117: 281-287. Rev.: Bull, astron., 4 : 448. 
Sev. : Bull, astron., 4 : 448. 

Comet 1883 II. 

Bryant (R.) [Elliptic elements from normals 1884, Jan. 19, Jan. 25, Feb. 2.] 

Month, not., 47: 434. 
Tennant (J. F.) [Note on the orbit.] Ibid., 520. 

Comet 1884 III. 

Berberich (A.) Elemente . . . aus den Strassburger Beobachtungen . . , 
Astron. Nachr., 117: 251. 

Thraen (A.) Definitive Bahnbestimmung des Cometen 1884 III, Wolf. As- 
tron. Nachr., 117: 65-98. 


Comet 1886 I. 

Morrison (J.) [Hyperbolic elements from obsns. 1885, Dec. 7, to 1886, June 
6.] Month, not., 47: 437. 

Comet 1886 III. 

Celoria (G.) [Elements from normals 1886, May 4, 10, 22.] Astron. Nachr., 
117: 9. 

Comet 1886 V. 

Wilson (H. C.) The comets of De Vico, 1844 I, and Finlay, 1886 V. il. Sid. 
mess., 6: 121-126. 
Comet 1886 VII. 

Boss (L.) Orbit of the periodic comet 1886, e, Finlay. Astron. jour., 7 : 2-3, 43. 
See, also, Astron. jour., 7 : 7. 

Finlay (W. H.) [Elements from normals 1886, Sept. 28, Dec. 15, and observa- 
tions Oct. 21, Nov. 13, Dec. 27. Month, not., 47: 302. 

HoLETSCHEK (J.) [Elements from obsns. 1886, Sept. 26, Oct. 14, Oct. 29, Nov. 
28.] Astron. Nachr., 116: 47. 

KrVger (A.) [Elements from obsns. to 1887, Feb. 23.] Ibid., 33-5. 
See, also, Astron. Nachr., 116 : 77, 127. 

Monck (W. H. S.) [liesemblance of elements to those of comet of 1585.] Sid. 
mess., 6: 222. 

Oppenheim (H.) Elements from obsns. 1886, Oct. 1, Nov. 1, 7, 27.] Astron. 
Nachr., 116: 45. 

1^ Searle (G. M.) [Elements from obsns. 1886, Sept. 26, Oct. 16, Nov. 4.] As- 
Br tron. jour., 7 : 15. 

[Elements from obsns. 1886, Sept. 26, Nov. 4, Dec. 14.] Ibid., 52. 

Comet 1886 VIII ^ Comet 1887 c. 

Discovered by Barnard at Nashville, 1887, Jan. 23. Astron. jour., 7 : 56. Also: 
Astron. Nachr., 116, 143. Also: Sid. mess., 6: 114. 
Comet 1886 VIII (Elements of). 

Charlois (A.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Jan. 26, 29, Feb. 1.] Bull. 

astron., 4 : 58. 
Egbert (H. V.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Jan. 23, 24, 26.] Astron. jour., 
7: 64. 

[Elements from obsns. 1887, Jan. 23, 26, 30.] Ibid., 71. 

[Elements from obsns. 1887, Jan. 24, Feb. 18, Mar. 20.] Ibid., 87. 

Oppenheim (H.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Jan. 24, 29, Feb. 3.] Astron. 

Nachr., 116: 175. Also: Obsry., 10: 144. 
"Weiss (E.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Jan. 24, 26, 29.] Astron. Nachr., 
116: 159. 

[Elements from two normals 1887, Jan. 24-30, and observation Feb. ;j.] 

Ibid., 191. 

Comet 1886 IX. 

Allen (W. H.) [Elements from normals 1886, Oct. 8, Nov. 3, Dec. 2, Dec. 10.] 
Astron. jour., 7 : 55. 


Comet 1886 IX — Continued. 

Bredichin (T.) [Discussion of observations of the tail.] 7 p., 1 pi. 8vo. 

Moscou. 1887. 
Morrison (J.) [Elements from obsns. 1886, Oct. 7-Dec. 2.] Month, not., 47: 

SvEDSTRUP (A.) [Elements from normals 188G, Oct. 8, 28, Nov. 18.] Astron. 

Nachr., 110: 15. 
Wkndell (O. C.) [Elements from obsns. 1886, Oct. 7, Nov. 6, Dec. 10.] Ibid., 

117: 59. 
Comet 1887 I = 1887 a. 

Discovered by Thome at Cordoba, 1887, Jan. 18. Astron. jour., 7: 55. Also: 

Astron. Nachr., 116: 143. Also: Obsry., 10: 112. 

.sVf, aUo (independent discovery near Cape Town), Montli. not., 47 : 303. 
Comet 1887 I (Elements and Orbit of). 

Chandler (S. C.) jr. [Elements from obsns. 1887, Jan. 20-29.] Astron. jour., 

7: 93. 
[Elements from Cape and Adelaide obsns. combined into normals, 1887, 

Jan. 22, 25, 27.] Ibid., 100. 
FiNLAY (W. H.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Jan. 22, 25, 28.] Month, not., 

47: 304. 
OprENHEiiM (H.) tjber die Bahn des grossen Siidcometen 1887 I. Astron. 

Nachr., 117: 13. 
R. (A. W.) The present southern comet. Nature, 35: 438. 
Comet 1887 I (Observations of position of). 1887. 

Adelaide, Jan. 21, 22, 25, 26, 27; Month, not., 47: 305. 

Cape of Good Hope, Jan. 22-25, 27," 28; Ibid., 309. 

Cordoba, Jan. 21, 22, 24, 25, 27; Astron. jour., 7: 91. Also: Astron. Nachr., 

117: 250. 
MoLONY (E. J.) [Observatit>ns with sextant Jan. 21, 22, 25.] Month, not., 47: 

Comet 1887 I (Physical appearance of ). 

Biggs (A. B.) [General description.] Eng. mec, 45: 174. 

F[lammarion] (C.) La grande comete australe de 1887. il. L'Astron., 6: 

[Rio Janeiro observations, with sketch.] Rev. d. obsrio., 2: 17. 
Tebbutt (.J.) [Description of a large southern comet.] Obsry., 10: 166. 
Thome (J. M.) grande cometa austral. Rev. d. obsrio., 2: 35. 
Comet 1887 II = Comet 1887 b. 

Discovered by Brooks at Phelps, N. Y., 1887, .Jan. 22. Astron. jour., 7: o-S. 

Ah<>: Astron. Nachr., 116: 143. Also: Sid. mess., 6: 113. 
Comet 1887 II (Elements of). 

Bkkbkkich (A.) [From obsns. 1887, Jan. 25, 26,28.] Astron. Nachr., 116: 

Boss (L.) [From obsns. 1887, Jan. 24, 26, 29.] Ibid., 116: 160. 


Comet 1887 II (Elements of) — Continued. 

Boss (L.) [From obsns. 1887, Jan. 24, 29, Feb. 9.] Astron. jour., 7 : 03. 

[From obsn.s. 1887, Jan. 24, Feb. 15 (4 obsns.), Mar. 12.] Ibid., 8-"). 

Oppenheim (H.) [From obsns. 1887, Jan. 25, 27, 29.] Astron. Nachr., IKi: 

174. Also: Obsry., 10: 14o. 

[From obsns. 1887, Jan. 25, 27, 29, Feb. 11.] Astron. Nachr., IIG: 221. 

[From obsns. 1887, Jan. 25, Feb. 11, Mar. 11, 28.] Ihld., ?>\1. 

Sfitaleu (11.) [From obsns. 1887, Jan. 25, 27, 29.] Ibid., 173. 

[From obsns. 1887, Jan. 25, 26, Feb. 12.] Ibid., 206. 

[From normals 1887, Jan. 24, Feb. 11, and an observation Feb. 25.] 

1 bid., 2.53. 

Comet 1887 II (Observations of position of). 1887. 

Albany, Jan. 24, 26, 27, 29, Feb. 9 ; Astron. jour., 7 : 56, 61. Mar. 12 ; Ibid., 85. 
Algiers, Jan. 27, 28; Compt. Kend., 104: 348. Jan. 27, 28, Feb. 19, 21, 23, 

26, Mar. 14 ; Bull, astron., 4 : 13G. Mar. 18, 21-25, Apr. 13, 14 ; Ibid., 423. 
Berlin, Feb. 11; Astron. Nachr., 116: 189. 
Besanfjon, Feb. 24, 26, 28, Mar. 1, 2, 18, 29, Apr. 10, 18, 20; Compt. Rend., 105: 

Bethlehem, Feb. 9, 13, 19; Astron. jour., 7 : 80. 
Bordeaux, Jan. 29; Astron. Nachr., 116: 1-57. Also: Compt. Rend., 104: 277. 

Jan. 30, Feb. 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11 ; Compt. Rend., 104 ; 417. Jan. 29, 30, Feb. 

4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 24, 26, 27, Mar. 2, 3, 4, 7, 16, 17, 18, 25, 28, 

30; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 99. 

Bothkamp, Mar. 19, 20; Astron. Nachr, 118: 105. 

Cambridge (Harv. coll. obsry.), Jan. 24, 27; Ibid., 116 : 191. 

Copenhagen, Feb. 13, Mar. 16; Ibid., 118 : 73. 

Dresden, Feb. 15; Astron. Nachr., 116: 203. Feb. 19; Ibid., 249. Mar. 11; 

Ibid., 267. Mar. 24; Ibid., 317, 327. 
Geneva, Feb. 10, 11, 12, 14, 17, 18, 21-24, 26, 28, Mar. 18, 29-31; Astron. Nachr., 

116: 333. Apr. 18, 20; Ibid., 117: 55. 
Gottingen, Feb. 15; Astron. Nachr., 116: 203. Feb. 14, 17, 24; Ibid., 249. 

Mar. 11, 15; Ibid., 116: 267. Feb. 14-18, 24, 28, Mar. 1, 11, 15; Ibid., 

117: 149. 

Greenwich, Feb. 27, 28; Month, not., 47 : 275. Mar. 13, 16, 18, 23, 24, 27; 
Ibid., 392. 

Hamburg, Feb. 13, 15; A.stron. Nachr., 116: 203. 

Kiel, Jan. 27; Ibid., 157. Feb. 10, 11; Ibid., 189. Feb. 15; Ibid., 203. 

Kremsmiinster, Jan. 24-30; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 149. Feb. 12, 14, 15-18,24, 

Mar. 1, 2, 4, 21 ; Ibid., 118: 105. 
Milan, Jan. 27; Ibid., 116: 173. 

Nashville, Jan. 23; Astron. jour., 7 : 63. Also: Astron. Nachr., 116: 203 
Nice, Jan. 27-29; Bull, astron., 4 : 13-5. 
Orwell Park, Feb. 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 21, 24-28, Mar. 1, 2, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, 

23, 2.5, 27, 28, 30, Apr. 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 20, 23; Month, not., 48 : .58. 

2 B A 


Comet 1887 II (Observations of position of). 1887 — Continued. 
Padoa, Jan. 27-30; Astron. Nachr., 116: 171. 
Palermo, Jan. 29-31; Ihid., 219. Feb. 15, 24; Ibid., 265. 
Paris, Jan. 27 ; Astron. Nachr., 116 : 173. Jan. 27, 28, 29 ; Compt. Kend., LD4: 

Plonsk, Feb. 11, 14, 17, 20, 25; Astron. Nachr., 117 : .30-5. 
Strassburg, Jan. 25-28; Ibid., 116 : 143, 157. Feb. 11; Ibid., 203. 
Toulouse, Jan. 27-31, Feb. 4; Compt. Kend., 104 : 487. 
Vienna, Jan. 28, 29; Astron. Nachr., 116: 173. Ffeb. 12; Ibid., 20-5. Feb. 18: 

Ibid., 203. 
Washington, Jan. 24, 25; Astron. jour., 7: 62. Feb. 12, 16, 18; Ibid., 78. 

Mar. 11, 12; Ibid., 86. 

Comet 1887 III = Comet 1887 d. 

Discovered by Barnard at Nashville, 1887, Feb. 16. Astron. jour., 7 : 72. Also: 
Astron. Nachr., 116: 207, 251. See, also, Sid. mess., 6 : 161. 

Comet 1887 III (Elements of). 

Barnard (E. E.) [From obsns. 1887, Feb. 16, 18, 22.] Sid. mess., 6 : 161. 

[From obsns. 1887, Feb. 16, 28, Mar. 8.] Astron. jour., 7 : 95. 

[From obsns. 1887, Feb. 16, 28, Mar. 12.] Astron. Nachr., 117 : 59. 

Boss (L.) [From obsns. 1887, Feb. 16, 18, 20.] Astron. Nachr., 116: 207. 

Also: Obsry., 10: 144. 

[From obsns. 1887, Feb. 16, 19, 22.] Astron. jour., 7: 72. Also: As- 
tron. Nachr., 116: 223. 

Oppenheim (H.) [From obsns. 1887, Feb. 17, 23, 26.] Astron. Nachr., 116: 

[From obsns. 1887, Feb. 17, 28, Mar. 11.] Ibid., 271. 

Palisa (J.) [From obsns. 1887, Feb. 17, 23, 28.] Ibid., 256. 
Wendell (O. C.) [From obsns. 1887, Feb. 22, 25, 28.] Ibid., 317. 
Comet 1887 III (Observations of position of). 1887. 
Albany, Feb. 19, 22, 25 ; Astron. jour., 7 : 84. 
Algiers, Feb. 24,26; Compt. Kend., 104: 671. Feb. 24, 26, Mar. 12, 13, 14; 

Bull, astron., 4: 137. Mar. 21-25; Ibid., 42i. 
Berlin, Feb. 28; Astron. Nachr., 116: 251. 
Cambridge (Harv. coll. obsry.), Feb. 17, 19,25, 28; Astron. jour., 7: 72, 79. 

Also: Astron. Nachr., 116: 267. 
Copenhagen, Mar. 16; Astron. Nachr., 118: 73. 

Dresden, Feb. 24; Ibid., 116: 221. Mar. 11; Ibid., 267. Mar. 24; Ibid., 317. 
Geneva, Feb. 24, 26; Ibid., 116: 251. Mar. 18; Ibid., 815. 
Gottingen, Feb. 24; Ibid., 116: 221. 
Greenwich, Feb. 28; Month, not., 47 : 275. 
Hamburg, Feb. 26; Astron. Nachr., 116: 221. 
Kremsmiinster, Feb. 24, 25; Ibid., 117 : 149. 
Nashville, Feb. 16, 18, 22; Astron. jour., 7: 79. Also: Astron. Nachr., 116: 251. 


Comet 1887 III (Observations of position of ). 1887— Continued. 

Nice, Feb. 28, Mar. 1 ; Bull, astron., 4 : 194, 

Orwell Park, Feb. 28, Mar. 18, 14, 16, 18, 19, 28, 27, Apr. 10; Month, not., 48: 

Palermo, Feb. 27; Astron. Nacbr., 116: 267. 

Paris, Feb. 17; Astron. Nachr., 116: 207. Feb. 17, 24,27; Compt. Kend., 104: 

Rome, Feb. 24; Astron. Nachr., 116: 251. Feb. 25; Ibid., 117: 270. 

Strassburg, Feb. 23; Ibid., 116 : 221. Mar. 14; Ibid., 267. 

Vienna, Feb. 24 ; Ibid., 221. Feb. 28 ; Ibid., 251. 

Washington, Feb. 24; Astron. jour., 7 : 78. 

Comet 1887 IV = Comet 1887 e. 

Discovered by Barnard at Nashville, 1887, May 12. Astron. jour., 7 : 96. Also: 
Astron. Nachr., 117: 31. Also: Sid. mess., 6: 220. 

Comet 1887 IV (Elements of). 

Abetti (A.) [From obsns. 1887, May 14, 18, 21.] Astron. Nachr., 117: 102. 

BiGELOW (F. H.) [Three normals from obsns. 1887, June 12-22.] Sid. moss., 

6: 321. 
Boss (L.) [From obsns. 1887, May 12, 14, 15.] Astron. jour., 7 : 96. 
Chandler (S. C.) jr. [From normals 1887, May 14, 19, 24, SO.] Astron. jour , 

7: 104. 

[From normals 1887, May 14, 30, June 12, July 12.] Ibid., 121. 

[Elliptic elements from normals 1887, May 14, June 12, July 12.] Ibid., 


Lamp (E.) [From obsns. 1887, May 12, 14, 16.] Astron. Nachr., 117 : 31. 

Oppenheim (H.) [From obsns. 1887, May 12, 15, 17.] Ibid., 46. 

[From normals 1887, May 14, 19, and an observation May 23.] Ibid., 61. 

[From obsns. 1887, May 14, 19, 23, Jiine 16.] Ibid., 119. 

Oppenheim (S.) [From obsns. 1887, May 12, 14, 15, 17.] Astron. Nachr., 

117: 45. 

[From obsns. 1887, May 12, 17, 22, 29.] Ibid., 62. 

[From normals 1887, May 15, 22, 29, June 24.] Ibid., 165. 

Wendell (O. C.) [From obsns. 1887, May 13, 19, 25.] Ibid., 119. 
Comet 1887 IV (Observations of position of). 1887. 
Albany, May 13, 15, 18, 23; Astron. jour., 7 : 103. 
Algiers, May 16, 18-21, 23, 24; Astron. Nachr., 117: 57. Also: Compt. Rend.. 

104 : 1493. May 25, 26, 28, June 9, 10, 15, 16, 20, 22, 23 ; Bull, astron., 4 : 

424. Aug. 8, 9 ; Bull, astron., 4 : 465. 
Berlin, May 23; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 43. June 16, 24, 26; Ibid., 117 : 385. 
Besaneon, June 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20-24, July 8, 12, 16, 23; Compt. Rend., 105: 



Comet 1887 IV (Observations of position of ). 1887 — Continued. 

Bordeaux, May 22, 26, 27, June 8-18, 21, 22; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 151. Also: 
Compt. Kend,, 104: 1822. June 28-July 2, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 19, 22, 23, 24, 
27, 29, Aug. 6, 8, 10; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 307. Also: Compt. Eend., 10-5: 

Bothkamp, June 15, 16, 24 ; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 133. Juno 28, July 25 ; Ibid., 

Cambridge (Chandler), May 30, July 12; Astron. jour., 7 : 152. 

Cambridge (Harv. coll. obsry.). May 13, 14, 19, 25, 30; Astron. jour., 7: 111. 
Also: Astron. Nachr., 117 : 243. June 7,8, 13, 14, 15,25; Astron. jour., 
7: 119. Also: Astron. Nachr., 117: 243. 

Cape of Good Hope, May 19, 21, 23, 24, 27, June 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, IG, 17 ; Astron. 
Nachr., 117: 339. 

Dresden, May 19 ; Ibid., 43. May 22 ; Ibid., 59. June 13 ; Ibid., 133. July 16 ; 

Ibid., 215. 
Geneva, May 19; /iJG?., 43. 

Gohlis, June 13, 14, 16-19, 22, 25; Astron. Nachr., 117: 214. 
Gottingen, June 15-17, 22; Ibid., 133. 
Greenwich, June 12, 18, 19; Ibid., 215. 
Hamburg, June 16, 17, 19 ; Ibid., 119, 133. 
Harrow, June 12, 15, 17, 19, 22. Month, not., 47 : 550. 
Kiel, May 14; Astron. Nachr., 117: 31. May 16, 21 ; Ibid., 43. 
Kremsmiinster, May 15, 26, June 13, 15, 18, 19, 23, 24, 25, 27, July 12; Ibid., 

118: 107. 
Marseilles, May 14, 18, 22, 23, 24, 27, June 8-13, 15, 16, 17, 22, 28 ; Bull, astron., 

4: 462. 
Nashville, May 12, 13,14; Astron jour., 7: 99. Also: Astron. Nachr., 117: 57. 

May 12, 13, 14, 18, 24, 25, 26, 28, June 9, 10, 11, 16, 17, 18, 20, 23; Astron. 

jour., 7: 111. Also: Astron. Nachr., 117: 243. July 8, 9, 11, 13-16, 19, 

20, 26, Aug. 10, 11 ; Astron. jour., 7 : 126. Also: Astron. Nachr., 117 : 385. 
Nice, May 14; Astron. Nachr., 117: 43. May 14, 17, 18, 20-23; Bull, astron., 

4 : 225. May 27, July 7, 11, 18, 23 ; Ibid., 380. 
Nicolaief, May 14, 15, 17, 18, 21 ; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 55. 
Orwell Park, June 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 20, 22, July 11, 12, 13, 14, 18-21, 24, 

27, 28; Month, not., 48: 61. 
Padua, May 14; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 43. May 18, 21 ; Ibi^I., 101. 
Palermo, May 15, 21 ; Ibid., 31, 59. May 28, 30, 31 ; Ibid., 101. 
Paris, May 14; Astron. Nachr., 117: 43. Also: Compt. Rend., 104: 1360. 
Prague, May 27 ; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 59. 
Rome, May 14, 15; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 43. May 17, 19, 27, 30, June 7, 15, 18; 

Ibid., 270. May 14, 15, 17, 19, 27, 30, June 7; Atti. d. r. accad. d. Lincei, 

s. 4. Rendic, 3 : 481. July 8, 10-17, 21, 22, 24, Aug. 6, 7 ; Astron. Nachr., 

117: 275. 
Scarborough, May 20, 21, 29; Month, not., 47 : 498. 


Comet 1887 IV (Observations of position of). 1887 — Continued. 

Strassburg, May 15; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 31. 

Vienna, May 15, 17; Ibid., 43. 

Washington, May 14, 19, 21; Astron. jour., 7 : 101. 
Comet 1887 "7" = Comet 1887/. See Comet Olbers. 
Comets. See, also, Comets and meteors; Comets (Orbits of). 

Berberich (A.) Methode sonnennahe Cometen bei Tage aufzufinden. Astron. 
Nachr., 118 : 71. 

Clevinger (S. V.) Optical appearances of comets. Sid. mess., 6 : 89-95, 120. 

Delauney (J.) Sur les distances des planetes an soleil, et sur les distances des 
cometes periodiques. Abstr.: Compt. Rend., 105: 515. 

GuiLLEMiN (A.) Les cometes. 12 + 287 p. il. 8vo. Paris, 1887. (M. 1.20.) 

Holetschek (J.) tjber die Frage nach der existenz von Cometensystemen. 
Anzeiger der Wiener Akad. 1887, Nr. 15. 
Rev.: Astron. Nachr., 117 : .S59. 

KiRKWOOB (D.) Note on the origin of comets. Am. j. sc, 133: 60. Also: 
Sid. mess., 6 : 77. • 

MoNCK (W. H. S.) [Connection of comets and asteroids.] Obsry., 10: 230. 

Unterweger (J.) Zur Kometen-statistik. [Comets and the periodicity of sun- 
spots.] K. Akad. d. Wissensch. in Wien, sitzng. d. math.-naturwissen. CI. 
21 Julie 1887. 'Also: Mem. soc. spettroscp. ital., 16: 99-101. Also, abstr.: 
Sirius, 20 : 227. 

Williams (G. O.) [Cometary phenomena reproduced by reflections from spher- 
ical surfaces.] il. Sc. Am. sup., 9732. 
Comets and meteors. 

BuszczYNSKi (B.) Eine wahrscheinliche Periodicitiit von hellen Meteoren und 
ihr wahrscheinlicher Zusammenhang mitdem periodischen Cometen Tempel. 
Astron. Nachr., 115: 263, 309. See, also, Ibid., 116 : 101. 

HiRSCH (A.) Les meteores de Biela, 27 nov., 1885. Bull. soc. sc. nat. de Neu- 
chatel, 15 : 186-189. 

KiRKWOOD (D.) Biela's comet and the large meteors of Nov. 27-30. Proc. 
Am. phil. soc.,24: 242. 

Note on the possible existence cf fireballs and meteorites in the stream of 

Bielids. Ibid., 436. 

Lagrange (E.) Aurores bor^ales, cometes et etoiles filantes. Ciel et terre, 7: 

Meteoros de 13-14 de Novembro. il. Eev. d. obsrio., 2 : 168. 
VON NiESSL (G.) Uber die grossen Meteore im Juni und ihre vermuthete Bezie- 

hung zum periodischen Cometen Tempel. Astron. Nachr., 116: 97-102. 
Proctor (R. A.) Origin of comets and meteors. Knowl., 10: 64, 135. Also: 

Pop. sc. month., 31 : 50-60. 

Wendell (0. C.) [Radiants of the comets of 1886.] Astron. Nachr., 118 : 175. 
Also: Sid. mess., 6: 359. 

Comets of 1886. 

B[igotjrI)an] (G.) Cometes et planetes de 1886. Bull, astron., 4 : 15. 


Comets of 1886 — Continued. 

Kreutz (H.) Zusammenstellung der Cometen-Erscheinungen des Jahres 1886. 

Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 14-23. Also^ transL ; Sid. mess., 6 : 201- 

210. Also, Reprint. 
P. (W. E.) Comets of 1886. Month, not., 47 : 172. 
WiNLOCK (W. C.) [List of the] comets of 1886. Sid. mess., 6 : 112. 
Comets (Orbits of). See, also, Orbits. 

Evans (W. C.) Motion of a comet wlien perturbed and resisted. Obsry., 10: 

Harkness (W.) Representation of comets' orbits by models, il. Sid. mess., 

C: 329-349. 
HOLETSCHEK (J.) liichtungen der grossen Achsen der Kometbahnen. 29 p. 

8°. Wien, 1887. (M. 0.60.) 

Hoover (W.) Cometary perturbations. 18 p. 8vo. AVooster, Ohio, 1887. 
Kreutz (H.) Bericht iiber Cometen. Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 361- 

^ MoNCK (W. H. S.) Inclinations of cometary orbits. Month, not., 47: 433. 

Orbits of comets. Obsry., 10: 324. 

Searlk (G. M.) Method of computing an orbit from three observations. As- 
tron. jour., 7: 140-144, 153-155. 

Lynn (W. T.) [Babylonian origin of the constellations.] Obsry., 10: 162. 
Copenhagen observatory. 

Thikle (T. N.) Bestimmung der Langen-DifTerenz zwischen Lund und Kopen- 
hagen. 56 p. 4to. Lund, 1886. (M. 2.) 

Cordoba observatory. 

Gould (B. A.) Corrections to the Uranometria Argentina and the Cordi>ba 

catalogues. Astron. Nachr., 116: 379. 
Resultados del observatorio nacional Argentino en Cordoba bajo la direcciun del 
B. A. Gould. J. M. Thome, director. Vol. 5. Observaciones del arii) 1874. 
180 + 559 p. 4to. Buenos Aires, 1886. (M. 80.) 

Same. Vol.6. Observaciones del ano 1875. 44 + 649 p. 4to. Buenos 

Aires, 1887. 

Same. Vol. 9. Observaciones del ano 1876. ■ 22 -f 261 p. 4to. Buenos 

Aires, 1887. 
Corona (Solar). 

Ennis (J.) Colors in the solar corona. Sid. mess., 6: 273-281. 
Wesley (W. H.) The solar corona as shown in photographs taken during total 
eclipses. Month, not., 47: 499-510. 
Diseuesed : Obsry.. 10 : 251. 
Cosmogony, See, also, Nebular hypothesis. 

Braun (C.) Uber Cosmogonie vom Standpunkt christlicher Wissenschaft, mit 
einer Theorie der Si)nne. 167 p. 8vo. Munster, 1887. 

Rev. by Gierke (A. M.^ Nature. 36: 321, 341. See, also, Bull, astron., 4: 141-143. 
Aho: Obsry., 10: 201. 


Cosmogony — Continued. 

Flammarion (C.) L'univers anterieur. L'Astron., 6 : 41-48. 
Ganske (A.) Die Entstehung der Bewegung: eine Kosmogonie. 15 p. 8vo. 
Graz, 1887. (M. 1.) 

Lagrange (C.) Une reflexion au sujet de la conception purement mecanique do 

l'univers. Ciel et terre, 8 : 345-358. 
Zenger (C. V.) L'evolution siderale. Compt. Kend., 105 : 1289. 
Dearborn observatory. 

[Proposed transfer of instruments, etc.] Sid. mess., 6 : 81, 324. 
Reports (Annual) of the board of directors of the Chicago astronomical society, 
together with the report of the director of the Dearborn observatory for 1885 
and 1886. 50 p. il. 8vo. Chicago, 1887. 

Todd (D. P.) Best device for revolving a dome. il. Month, not., 47 : 272- 

Discussed : Obsry., 10 : 90. 
Dorna (Alessandro) '[1825-1886]. 

Siacci (F.) Alessandro Dorna. Commemorazioni e catalogo delle sue pubbli- 
cazioni. 8 p. 8vo. Torino, 1887. 
Dorpat observatory. 

Beobachtungen der kaiserlichen Universitats-Sternwarte Dorpat. 17. Bd. Redu- 
cirte Beobachtungen am Meridiankreise von Zonensternen und mittlere 
drter derselben fur 1875-6, . . . von L. Schwarz. 39 + 151 -}- 47 p. 4to. 
Dorpat, 1887. 

Double stars. 

Franks (W. S.) Magnitudes of double stars. J. Liverp. astron. soc, 5 : 44-47. 

Gore (J. E.) Masses and distances of the binary stars. Ibid., 47. 

Hall (A.) Nomenclature of double stars. Astron. jour., 7 : 120. 

Linou (B.) Moyen facile d'observer les etoiles doubles avec une grande ap- 
proximation sans equatorial ni micrometre. L'Astron., 6 : 187-191. 

Mache (J.) Nachtrag zu dem Artikel, " Die Auflosbarkeit der Doppelsterne in 
Fernrohren von verschiedener Grosse. " Sirius, 20 : 38-44. 

MoNCK (W. H. S.) Brightness and masses of binary stars. Obsr}^, 10 : 96. 

Further notes on binary stars. Obsry., 10 : 134. 

[Prize of the royal Danish academy.] Bull, astron., 4 : 164. 

TissERAND (F.) Sur la force qui produit les mouvements des etoiles doubles. 
Bull, astron., 4 : 5-15. 

Double stars (Measures of). 

Dembowski (E.) Misure micrometriche ... 2 v. Roma, 1883, 1884. 

Rev. by Schur (W.) Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 209-236. 
VON Enqelhardt (B.) Mikrometrische Beobachtungen von C Cancri. Astron. 
Nachr., 117 : 278. 

Mikrometrische Messungen von Struve'schen weiten Doppelsternen. 

Ibid., 1-6. 


Double stars (Measures of) — Continued. 

Engelmakn (R.) Doppelsternmessungen. Ibid., 17-30. 

Hough (G. W.) Catalogue of 209 new double stars discovered with the 18^-inch 

refractor of the Dearborn observatory. Astron. Nachr., IIG : 273-304. 

Also, Reprint. 
Jedrzejewicz (J.) Mesures micrometriques d'etoiles doubles, [1882-80.] As- 
tron. Nachr., 116: 177-186. 
Lamp (£.) tJber systematische Beobachtungsfehler bei der Bestimmuiig der 

Parallaxe der schwacheren Coinponente des Doppelsterns 2' 2398. Vrtljschr. 

d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 342-345. 
Leavenworth (F. P.) [Proper motion of Lai. 4219.] Sid. mess., 6 : 80. 
Leavenworth (F. P.) & Muller (F.) New double stars discovered at the 

Leander McCormick observatory. Astron. jour., 7 : 95. 
Russell (H. C.) Measures of southern double stars made at the observatory', 

Sydney, N. S. W. Month, not., 47 : 473-477. 
Tarrant (K. J.) Micrometrical measures of 25 double stars. J. Liverp. astron. 

soc, 5: 41, 166, 201,229. 

Double stars (Orbits of). 

Celoria (G.) Nuova determinazione dell'orbita della Stella doppia 2' 3121. 

Astron. Nachr., 117: 379. 
VON Glasenapp (S.) Bahn des Doppelsterns S Equuloi. Ibid., 116 : 169. 
Gore (J. E.) Orbit of 12 Lyncis {I 948). lOid., 117 : 290. 

Orbit of 14 (i) Orionis (O. Struve, 98). Month, not., 47 : 206. 

Orbit of 1 1757. Ibid., 478. 

Orbit of jo Eridani. Ibid., 48 : 26. 

Marth (A.) Formulae for correcting approximate elements of the orbits of 
binary stars. Ibid., 47 : 480-494. Also, Reprint. 

Dresden observatory (Engelhardt's). 

VON Engelhardt (B.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 

Dresden observatory (K. math. Salon). 

Drechsler (A.) [Report for 1886.] Ibid., 100. 
Dunecht observatory. 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 158. 
Dunsink observatory. 

Astronomical observations and researches ... Pt. 6. 99 p. 4to. Dublin, 
1887. (M. 10.) 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 153. 
Dusseldorf observatory. 

Luther (R.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 102. 

Ealing observatory (Common's). 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 158. 



Abney (W. de W.) Transmission of sunlight through the earth's atmosphere. 

33 p. 4to. London, 1887. (M. 1.30.) 

Akderson (A. A.) Terra: on a hitherto unsuspected second axial rotition of 

our earth. 8vo. London, 1887. (M. G.30.) 

LocKYER (J. N.) The movements of the earth. 130 p. 12mo. New York, 

1887. ($0.60.) 

Parkhtjrst (H. M.) The earth's temperature. Papers Am. astron. soc, 1 : 

ScHWAHN (P.) Anderungen der Lage der Figur-und der Rotations-Axe der 

Erde sowie einige mit dem" Rotationsproblem in Beziehung stehende geo- 

phj'siche Probleme. 51 p. 4to. Berlin, 1887. (M. 2.) 

WiLSiNG (J.) Mittheilung iiber die Resultate von Pendelbeobachtungen zur 

Bestimmung der mittleren Dichtigkeit der Erde. Sitzungsb. d. k. preuss. 

Akad. d. Wissensch. zu Berlin, 1887: 327-334. Also, Reprint. (M. 1.) 


Albrecht (T.) IJhereine durch Erdheben veranlasste Niveaustorung. Astron. 
Nachr., 116: 129-134. 

Lakenmacher (E.) Osterformeln. Astron. Nachr., 116 : 325-328 ; 117: 135. 

Schmidt (R.) Noch einige Bemerkungen zu den Lakenmacher'schen Oster- 
formeln. Ibid., 117: 51. 

ScHRAM (R.) Bemerkungen zu Herrn Lakenmacher's Osterformeln. Ibid., Il6: 

Eclipse of the moon 1887, Aug. 3. 

Bauschinger (J.) [Obsn. at Munich.] Astron. Nachr., 118 : 122. 

C. (M.) [Obsns. at La Tour de Peilz.] Nature, 36 : 413. 

H. (H.) [Peculiar distortion of earth's shadow observed.] Nature, 36 : 367. 

Johnson (S. J.) Color of eclipsed moon. Obsry.,10: 325. 

Klein (H. J.) [Obsns. at Cologne.] Sirius, 20 : 193. 

VON KoNKOLY (N.) [Obsns. at O'Gyalla.] Ibid., 235. 

Lescarbault (E.) Eclipse . . . visible a Orgeres. Compt. Rend., 105: 370. 

Malet (H. p.) [Obsns. at Killin.] Nature, 36 : 413. 

Rayet (G.) [Obsns. at Bordeaux.] Compt. Rend., 105 : 305. 

[Resume of observations.] il. L'Astron.,6: 348-351. 

ScHtiR (W.) [Obsns. at Gdttingen.] Astron. Nachr., 117 : 383. 

Weinek (L.) [Obsns. at Prague.] Astron. Nachr., 117 : 381. 
Eclipse of the sun 1884, Oct. 4. 

KtJSTNER (F.) Bestimmung der Orter der vom Monde wahrend der totalen Fin- 
sterniss 1884, Oct. 4, bedeckten Sterne am grossen Meridiankreise zu Berlin. 
Astron. Nachr., 116: 22-5-240. 

Eclipse of the sun 1886, Aug. 28-29. 

Johnson (S. J.) [Photographs of partial phase at sea.] Obsry., 10: 224. 


Eclipse of the sun 1886, Aug. 28-20— Conti7iued. 

Perry (S. J.) Report of the observation ... at Carriacou. Proc. roy. soc, 

47: 316. 
Pickering (W. H.) [Account of his observations.] Science, 10: 9. Also, 

abstr.: Obsry., 10: 306. Also, absir.: Bull, astron., 4: 403. 
[Schuster (A.) Preliminary account of observations.] Abstr.: Obsry., 10: 203. 
Stockweli, (J. N.) [Obsn. of last contact.] Astron. jour., 7 : 3. 
T[urner] (H. H.) [Results of the English expedition to Granada.] Month. 

not., 47 : 175. 

Eclipse of the sun 1887, Aug. 18. 

Albrecht (T.) Die totale Sonnenfinsterniss am 19. August, 1887, nebst tJber- 
sicht iiber die hervorragendsten Sonnenfinsternisse innerhalb Deutschlands 
im 19. u. 20. Jahrh. 32 p. 8vo. Berlin, 1887. (M. 0.50.) 

Darstellung der totalen Sonnenfinsterniss . . . auf carton mit verschiebbarer 
Mondscheibe. ' Berlin, 1887. (M. 0.50.) 

Ennis (J.) The total solar eclipse of August next. Sid. mess., 6 : 105-109. 

Flammarion (C.) L'eclipse totale de soleil du 19 aout 1887. il. L'Astron., 
6: 241-252. 

Garkier (P.) L'eclipse de soleil du 19 aout 1887. il. Ibid., 306. 

[List of stations and observers.] Obsry., 10: 207. 

Niesten (L.) [Circumstances, path, etc., of the eclipse.] Ciel et terre, 8 : 177. 

ScHURiG (R.) Karte der grossen Sonnenfinsterniss am Morgen des 19. Aug., 1887. 
fol. Leipzig, 1887. (M. 0.40.) 

Todd (D. P.) On observations of the eclipse of 1887, Aug. 18, in connection 
with the electric telegraph. Am. j. sc, 133 : 226. 

WoEiKOF (A.) [List of stations in Russia desirable for meteorological observa- 
tions.] Nature, 36; 77. 

Zenker (W.) Sichtbarkeitund Verlauf der totalen Sonnenfinsterniss in Deutsch- 
land. 29 p., 1 pi. 8vo. Berlin, 1887. (M. 1.20.) 

Eclipse of the sun 1887, Aug. 18. (Observations of.) 
Abetti (A.) at Padua. Astron. Nachr., 117: 279. 
Albrecht (T.) at Goldap. Ibid., 280. 
Belopolsky (A.) at Jurjewetz. Ibid., 118 : 45. 
DE Bohdanovithz (G.) at Irkoutsk. L'Astron., 6 : 425. 
Copeland (R.) & Perry (S. J.) near Kineshma. Month, not., 48: 48-54. 
DuNER (N. C.) at Lund. Astron. Nachr., 118 : 26. 
Galle (J. G.) [Report of observations at Breslau; also, at Frankfort by Lach- 

mann, and at Kolniar by Korber.] Astron. Nachr., 117 : 311. 
Garnier (P.) at Wilna. L'Astron., 6 : 354. 

Gourdet (P.) L'eclipse et le tremblement de terre en Russie. il. Ibid., 388. 
Herz (N.) at Wien-Ottakring. Astron. Nachr., 118: 26. 

Janssen (J.) Note sur l'eclipse du 19 aout dernier. Compt. Rend., 105: 365. 
Kononowitsch (A.) at Petrowsk. Astron. Nachr., 118: 24, 


Eclipse of the sun 1887, Aug. 18. (Observations of ) — Continued. 
VON KOtksligethy (R.) at Bromberg. Ibid.., 117 : 295. 
KRt'GKR (A.) at Kif^l. Ibid., 263. 
KtJSTNER (F.) at Berlin. Ibid., 263. 
Lamp (E.) at Goldap. Ibid., 263. 
Laschober (F.) at Pola. Ibid., 118 : 23. 
NiESTEN (L.) at Jurjewetz. Ciel et terre, 8: 297, 339. Also: L'Astron.,G: 

361-364. .4^80, transl.: Sid. mess., 6: 262-265. 
OsTi (H.) Die Sonnenfinsterniss am 19. Aug. beobachtet in Upsalu. Photo- 

graphische Aufnah*iie in 6 verschiedenen Momenten. 1 sheet, 2.5 X 15.5 cm. 

Upsala, 1887. (M. 1.) 

Parsehian (.J.) at Constantinople. L'Astron., G : 391. 
PoRRO (F.) at Turin. Astron. Nachr., 117 : 279. 

[Preliminary reports from various stations.] Nature, 36 : 398, 430, 432, 455. 
Report of the solar eclipse of 19th August, 1887. Naval observatory in the hy- 

drographic office, Toliio. No. 11. 38 p., 2 pi. 4to. Toldo, 1887. 
Japanese characters. 
VON Spiessen ( — ) near Berlin. Astron. Nachr., 117 : 295. 
SuGiYAMA (M.) Photographs taken at Yomeiji-yama, Echigo, Japan. 1 p. 

4to. Tokio [1887]. 
Summary of observations at various stations.] Sirius, 20 : 207, 229, 258. 
Todd (D. P.) [Account of the expedition to Japan.] Obsry., 10: 371-376. 
Todd (M. L.) The eclipse expedition to Japan. Nation, 45 : 137, 169, 229, 554. 
Urech (J.) at Elpatievo Narischlvine. L'Astron., 6 : 353. 
Weber (L.) Photometrische Beobachtungen wiihrend der Sonnenfinsterniss 

1877, Aug. 18-19 [Breslau]. Astron. Nachr., 118 : 17-22. 


Eclipses (Les) du dix-neuvieme siecle. il. L'Astron., 6: 252-260. 
Ginzel (F. K.) Uber einige von persischen und arabischen Schrifistellen er- 
wiihnte Sonnen-und Mondfinsternisse. Sitzungsb. d. k. preuss. Akad. d. 
Wissensch., 1887. Also, Reprint. (M. 0.-50.) 

k Johnson (S. J.) Notes on a manuscript eclipse volume. Month, not., 47 : 430. 
Eclipses in England A. D. 538— A. D. 2500. 

Remarks on the " Canon der Finsternisse." Obsry., 10: 302. 

Eclipses of the sun. 

ExNER (K.) Uber die bei totalen Sonnenfinsternissen auftretenden Erschein- 

ungen der " fliegenden Schatten " und der "Rally's beads" (Perlenreihe). 

Astron. Nachr., 116 : 321. 
GiNZEt (F. K.) Uber die geringsten Phase welche bei der Beobachtung von 

Sonnenfinsternissen mit freiem Auge noch gesehen werden kann. Astron. 

Nachr., 118: 119. 

Uber einige historische besonders in altspanischen Gesichtsquellen er- 

wiihnte Sonnenfinsternisse. Sitzungsb. d. k. preuss. Akad. d. WisFensch. zu 
Berlin, 1886: 96-3-980, 2 pi. Also, Reprint. (M. 1.-50.) 



Eclipses of the sun — Continued. 

Mahler (E.) £ine in einer syrischen Grabinschrift erwahnte Sonnenfinsterniss. 
8 p. 8vo. Wien, 1887. (M. 0.20.) 

Edinburgh observatory. 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 1.53. 
Ephemerides and almanacs. j 

Almanaque nautico para el afio 1889 ... 11 + 5-59 p. 4to. Madrid, 1887. 
American ephemeris and nautical almanac for . . . 1890. 1 ed. 6 -f- 521 -p 8 p. 

4to. Washington, 1887. (§1.00.) 

Annuaire de I'observatoire royal de Bruxelles. Annee.5.5. 1888. IGmo. [Brux- 

elles, 1887.] 
Annuaire pour I'an 1888, publie par le bureau des longitudes. 19 + 808 p. 16mo. 

[Paris, 1887.] (1 fr. 50 c.) 

Annuario del observatorio de La Plata para el ano 1887. 424 p. 8vo. Buenos 

Aires. (M. 8.) 

Annuario publicado pelo imperial observatorio do Rio de Janeiro para o anno de 

1888. 12mo. Rio Janeiro, 1887. 
Anuario del observatorio astronomico nacional de Tacubaya para el aiio 1888 

. . . Afio 8. 299 p. 16mo. Mexico, 1887. 
Astronomisch-nautische Ephemeriden fiirdas Jahr 1888. Hrsg. von astronomisch-j 

meteorologischen Observatorium der. k. k. Handels und nautischen Akad-i 

emie in Triest unter Redaction von F. Anton. Jahrg. 1. .38 -j- 256 p. 8vo. 1 

Triest, 1887. (M. 2.70.) 

Berliner astronomisches Jahrbuch fiir 1889. 8 -f •495 -f 36 + 25 p. 8vo. Berlin, 

1887. (M. 12.) 

Charrier (A.) Effemerdi del sole, della luna et dei principali pianetini . . . 

per I'anno 1888. 29 p. 8vo. Torino, 1887. 
Repr. from : Atti d. r. accad. d. sc. d. Torino, 22. 
Companion (Annual) to the Observatory. -Sop. 8vo. London, 1887. {ls.6d.) 

Repr. from: Obsry., 11 : l-.')5. 1888. 
Connaissance des temps pour I'an 1888, publiee par le bureau des longitudes.; 

5 + 829 + 126 p. 8vo. Paris, 1887. \ 
Same. Extrait a I'usage des ecoles d'hydrographie et des marins du com- 
merce. 100 p. 8vo. Paris, 1887. 
DOllen (W.) Stern-Ephemeriden auf das Jahr 1888 zur Bestimmung von Zeit 

und Azimut mittelst des tragbaren Durchgangsinstruments im Yerticale des 

Polarsterns. 24 + 27 p. 4to. St. Petersburg, 1887. 
Dubois (E.) Ephemerides astronomiques et annuaire des marees pour 1888. 

12mo. Paris, 1887. (M. 12.) 

Ephemerides astronomicas calculadas paro o meridiano do observatorio da univer- 

sidade de Coimbra . . . para o anno de 1888. 12 + 304 + 16 p. 8vo. 

Coimbra, 1887. 
Flammarion (C.) Annuaire astronomique pour 1887. L'Astron., 6 : 1-21. 
LoEWY (M.) Ephemerides des etoiles de culmination lunaire et de longitude 

pour 1888. 41 p. 4to. Paris, 1887. 


ijphemerides and almanacs — Continued. 

Nautical (The) almanac and astronomical ephemeris for tlic year 1891. 10 -f- 

514 + 16 p. 8vo. London, 1887. (2s. G(f.) 

Nautisches Jahrbuch oder Ephemeriden und Tafeln fiir das Jahr 1890 zur Bes- 

timmung der Zeit, Liinge und Breite zur See nach astronomischen Beobach- 

tungen. Hrsg. von Reichsamt des Innern. Berlin, 1887. (M. 1.50 ) 

equatorial. See, also, Illumination. 

Wolf (M.) Einfache Metliodo den Gang eines Triebwerks zu priifen. Astron. 

Nachr., 116 : 117. 
Brrors. See Observations (Erroi*s of). 

Ars astronomica, qualis in charta segyptica superest. Denuo edita a F. Bhiss. 

2-5 p. 4to. Kiliac, 1887. (M. 1.) 

Paculae, See, also. Sun (Statistics of faculaa, prominences, spots, etc., for 1886). 

Mascari (A.) Latitudine eliografiche e frequenza dei gruppi di facole brillanti 

durante il sessennio 1881-1886. Mem. soc. spettrscp. ital., 16 : 80-8.5. 
Measures of positions and areas of spots and faculie ... on photographs taken 

... at Greenwich, in India, and in the Mauritius. Greenw. spectrscp. 

obsns. 1885 : 34-104. 
Tacchini (P.) Facole solari osservate al regio osservatorio del collegio Romano 

nel 1886. Mem. soc. spettrscp. ital., 16 : 4-7. 

Observations solairesdudeuxiemeseraestre 1886. Compt. Rend., 104 : 216. 

Osservazioni di macchie e facole solari. [4« trimestre, 1886.] Atti d. r. 

accad. d. Lincei, s. 4. Rendic, 3 : 14. 

Same. 1* trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 265. 

Observations solaires faites a Rome pendant le premier trimestre de I'annee 

1887. Compt. Rend., 104 : 1082; 105: 210. 

Same. 2« trimestre. Ibid., 106 : 211. 

Same. 3® trimestre. Ibid., 1002. 

Macchie e facole solari osservate al regio osservatorio del collegio Romano 

nel 1« trimestre del 1887. Mem. soc. spettrscp. ital., 16 : 33-36, 54-57. 

Same. 2« trimestre. Ibid., 87-90. 

Same. 3« trimestre. Ibid., IIS. 

Fell (Charles). 

For Obituary, see L'Astron., 6 : 392. Also: Nature, 35 : 306 
Pelldcker (Siegmund) [18167-1887]. 

"Wagxer ( — ) Todes-Anzeige. Astron. Nachr., 117 : 391. 

ScHAEBERLE (J. M.) Horizontal flexure of vertical circles. Astron. Nachr., 
118: 147-152. 

Method for measuring the astronomical flexure in zenith di.stance for all 

positions of the instrument. Ibid., 147. 
Fraunhofer (Joseph) [1787-1826]. 

Bauernfeind (C. M.) Gedachtnissrede auf J. von Fraunhofer zur Feier seines 
100 Geburtstages. 30 p. 4to. Miinchen, 1887. (M. 0.80.) 


Praunhofer (Joseph) [1787-1826] — Continued. 

Pestbericht iiber die Gedenkfeier zur hundertjahrigen Wiederkehr des Geburt- 
stages Josef Fraunhofer's am 6. Marz, 1887, im Berliner Kathhause. Ztschr. 
f. Instrmknd., 7 : 114-128. [Portrait.] 
VoiT ( — ) [Biographical notice.] 20 p., portr. 8vo. Miinchen, 1887. 

(M. 1.50.) 
See, also, Obsry., 10: 239. Also: Sirius, 20: 49-54, 113. 

Geneva observatory. 

Gautier (E.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 102. 
Rapport sur le concours pour le reglage des chronometres pendant I'annee 1886 
... par E. Gautier. [11] p. 8vo. [n. p., 1887.] 

Glass (Optical). See, also, Objectives. 

Dallinqer (W. H.) Value of the new apochromatic lenses. Abstr.: Nature, 

35: 467. 
Gill (D.) [Remarks on the new optical glass.] Obsry., 10: 214. Also, abstr.: 

Bull, astron., 4: 301. 
NiKL.sKN (V.) Schott and Abbe's new optical glass. Eng. mec, 44: 564. S'ee, 

also, Ibid., 563. 
Tornow'(E.) Relative Preise der Rohglasplatten fiir Fernrohr-objective nebst 
einem Vorschlage zu deren systematischer Normirung. il. Ztschr. f. In- 
strmknd., 7: 247. 
Gotha observatory. 

Becker (E.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 110. 
GOttingen observatory. 

ScuuR (W.) Festlegung des siidlichen Endpunktes der Gauss'schen Gradmes- 
sung auf der Sternwarte in Gottingen. Astron. Nachr., 118 : 94. 

[Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 104-109. 

Gravitation. See, also. Mechanics (Celestial); Planets. 

Rethwisch (E.) Die Bewegung im "VVeltenraum. Kritik der Schwerkraft und 
Analyse der Axendrehung. 146 p. 8vo. Berlin, 1887. (M. 4.50.) 

Stekneck (R.) Untcrsuchungen iiber die Schwere im Innern der Erde. Mit- 
theil. d. k. k. militar-geogr. Inst. Wien, 1886. 
R(v.: Bull, astron., 4: 234. 

Greenvrich observatory. 

Astronomical and magnetical and meteorological observations made at the royal 

observatory, Greenwich, in the year 1885, under the direction of W. H. M. 

Christie. [965] p. 4to. London, 1887. (M. 22.) 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 148-151. 
Report of the astronomer royal . . . 4to. [London, 1887.] 
Turner (H. H.) Variations of level and azimuth of the transit circle. Month. 

not., 47; 325-333. 
Grignon observatory. 

Lamey (F. M.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 111- 




Harrow^ observatory (Tupman's). 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 161. 
Harvard college observatory. 

Annals . . . vol. 17. The almucantar: an investigation made at the observatory 
in 1884 and 1885, by S. C. Chandler, jr. 9 + 222 p., 1 pi. 4to. Cambridge, 
1887. (M. 18.) 

Annals . . . vol. 18, [nos. 1 and 2.] 27 p. 4to. [Cambridge, 1887.] 

No. 1 : Magnitudes of stars employed in various nautical almanacs. No. 2 : Discus- 
sion of the Uranometria Oxoniensis. 

Boyden fund [circular no, 1]. 3 p. 4to. [Cambridge, 1887.] 

Same. No. 2. Meteorological observations. 6 p. 4to. [Cambridge, 


Boyden fund and preliminary experiments in Colorado. Sc. Am. sup., 9715. 
[Description of the instruments and of the methods of astronomical photogmphy 

at Harvard college observatory.] il. Sc. Am., 57 : 239, 278. 
Draper (Henry) memorial. First annual report of the photographic study of 

stellar spectra . . . [by] E. C. Pickering. 10 p., 1 pi. Cambridge, 1887. 

^Zso.- Mem. soc.spettrscp. ital., IG: 93-98. Also, Bev.: Ohsry., 10 : 231. AUo : Nature, 
36: 31,41. 

Report (42d Annual) of the director . . . E. C. Pickering . . . Dec. 2, 1887- 
12 p. 8vo. Cambridge, 1887. 
Helsingfors observatory. 

DoNNER (A.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 115-117 
Hereny observatory. 

VON GOTHARD (E.) [Report for 1886.] Ibid., 118-120. 
Herschel (Sir William) [1738-1822]. 

Chambers (G. F.) [Note concerning his life at Bath.] Obsry., 10 : 166. 
Hong Kong observatory. 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 171. 

Dreyer (.J. L. E.) Electric illumination of the Armagh refraotor. Month, 
not, 47: 117. 

Stone (O.) Telescopic illumination. [Electric] Sid. mess., 6: 73. 
Instruments. See Chronometers ; Clocks ; Circle-divisions ; Equatorial ; Illumina- 
tion ; Objectives. 

Radau (R.) Sur un probleme d'interpolation. Bull, astron., 4 : 515-519. 

TniELE (T. N.) Ausgleichung und Interpolation von Zeitbestimmung. Vrtljschr. 
d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 302-313. 

Weyer (G. D. E.) Interpolation bei periodischen Functionen. Ibid., 292. 

Interpolation fiir die Mitte bei periodischen Functionen. Astron. Nachr., 

117: 31.3-322. 

lovya college observatory. 

[New observatory at Grinnell, Iowa.] Sid. mess., 6: 322. 


Journals (Astronomical). 

Astronomical (The) journal. Edited by B. A. Gould, Cambridge, Mass. [Semi- 
monthly.] V. 7. 4to. Boston. (§-5.00.) 

L'Astronomie. Eevue d'astronomie populaire . . . publiee par C. Flammarion. 
[Monthly.] 6. Annee, 1887. 488 p. 4to. Paris, 1886. (14 fr.) 

Astronomische Nachrichten. Hrsg von A. Kriiger. Bd. 116 [Nr. 2761-2784]. 
7 + 402 p. 4to. Kiel, 1887. (M. l-j.) 

Same. Bd. 117 [Nr. 278-5-2808]. 7 + 407 p. 4to. Kiel, 1887. (M. l-S.) 

Bulletin astronomique, publiee sous les auspices de I'observatoire de Paris par 
F. Tiiserand [and ot/iers]. [Monthly.] Tome 4, 1887. 557 p. 8vo. Paris, 

Bulletin des sciences mathematiques et astronomiques. Redigee par Darboux, 
Houel, et Tannery. Annee 1887. Serie 2. Tome 11. 8vo. Paris, 1887. 

(M. 18.) 

Cicl et terre. Revue populaire d'astronomie de moteorologie et de physique du 
globe. [Semi-monthly.] 2. serie, 2. annee (7. annee de la collection). 
8vo. Bruxelles, 1887. 

Memorie della societa degli spettroscopisti italiani, raccolte et pubblicate ... P. 
Tacchini. 6 + 220 p. 4to. Roma, 1888. 

Monthly notices of the royal astronomical society . . . Nov., 1886, to Nov., 
1887. Vol. 47. 8vo, London, 1887. 

Observatory (The); a monthly review of astronomy. Edited by E. "W. Maun- 
der, A. M. W. Downing, and T. Lewis. Vol. 10. 7 + 440 p. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1887. (14 s.) 

Revista do observatorio. Publicacjao mensal do imperial observatorio do Rio de 
Janeiro. Anno 2, 1887. Red. L. Cruls [and others]. 8 + 198 p. 4to. Rio 
de Janeiro, 1887. 

Sidereal (The) messenger ; a monthly review of astronomy. Conducted by W. 
W. Payne. Vol. 6. 368 p. 8vo. Northfield, 1887. (112.00.) 

Sirius. Zeitschrift fiir populare Astronomic . . . Hrsg. von H. J. Klein. 
[Monthly.] 20 Bd. oder n. F. 15 Bd. 288 p. 8vo. Leipzig, 1887. (M. 10.) 

Vierteljahrsschrift der astronomischen Gesellschaft. Hrsg. von . . . E. Schon- 
feld und H. Seeliger. 22. Jahrgang. 7 + 417 p., 2 pi., portrs. 8vo. Leip- 
zig, 1887. (M. 8.) 

Wochenschrift fur Astronomic, Meteorologie und Geographic. Hrsg. von H. J. 
Klein. Jahrgang 30. 8vo. Halle, 1887. (M. 10.) 


Denning (W. F.) La tache rougeatre de Jupiter, il. L'Astron., 6 : 330. 

Motion of Jupiter's red spot. Obsry., 10: 229. 

Lamey (F. M.) Periodicite moyenne des taches de Jupiter. Compt. Rend., 

104; 279. See, also, Ibid., 613. 
Lynn (W. T.) [Rotation time.] Obsry., 10: 431. 
Marth (A.) Ephemeris for physical observations of Jupiter, 1888. Month. 

not., 48: 68-76. vl/so. Reprint. 
Noble (W.) Engraving (An old) of Jupiter. Month, not., 47 : 515. 



Jupiter — Continued. 

Tarrant (K. J.) and others. [Observations of Jupiter, 1885-86.] J. Liverp. 

astron. soc, 5: 63-66. 
Tebbutt (J.) [Near approach to Lai. 25797, 1887, Apr. 21.] Obsry., 10: 273. 
Terby (F.) Tache rouge de Jupiter. Obsry., 10 : 107. 

[Obsn. of red spot, 1887, May 10.] Ibid., 231. 

Williams (A. S.) [Obsn. of red spot, 1886, Dec. 20.] J bid., 71. 

[Motion of red spot from obsns. 1886, Dec. 20, to 1887, Apr. 21.] I/,id., 


Jupiter (Satellites of). 

Backlund (0.) Sur la theorie des satellites de Jupiter. Bull, astron., 4 : 321- 

Ball (R. S.) Notes on Laplace's analytical theory of the perturbations of 

Jupiter's satellites. Proc. roy. Irish acad., 2 s., 4 : 557—567. 1886. 
SouiLLART ( — ) Theorie analytique des mouvements des satellites de Jupiter. 
Partie 2. Eeduction des formules en nombres. 200 p. 4to. Paris, 1887. 

(M. 12.) 
Spitta (E. J.) Appearances presented by the satellites of Jupiter during transit, 
with a photometric estimation of their relative albedos, and of the amount of 
light reflected from the different portions of an unpolished sphere. Month, 
not., 48 : 32-48. 
Troxjvelot (E. L.) Duplicite de I'ombre du premier satellite ... il. L 'As- 
tron., 6 : 414. 
Juvisy observatory, 

[Description of the observatory and instruments.] il. L'Astron., 6: 321-330. 
"Kevr observatory. 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 154. 
Kiel observatory. 

Kruger (A.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 120-122. 
Kirchhoff (Gustav Robert) [1824-1887]. 

Tait (P. G.) [Biographical sketch.] Nature, 36 : 606. 
VoGEL (H. C.) Todes-Anzeige. Astron. Nachr., 118 : 47. 
Kis Kartal observatory. 

VON KOvesligethy (R.) Sternwarte des Baron Geiza von Podmaniczky in 
Kis Kartal, Ungarn. il. Sirius, 20 : 145. 
Kremsmunster observatory. 

Wagner (C.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 122. 

Flint (A. S.) Most probable value of the latitude, and its theoretical weight 
from entangled observations occurring in the use of Talcott's method. Ann. 
math., 3: 172-185. ^iso. Reprint. 
Least squares. See, also. Latitude; Observations (Errors of). 

Gauss (C. F.) Abhandlungen zurMethode derkleinsten Quadrate. In deutscher 
Sprache hrsg. von A. Borsch und P. Simon. Berlin, 1887. 
3 B A 


Leipzig observatory. 

Bruns (H.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Ge.sellscli., 22: 123. 
Leipzig observatory (Engelmann's). 

Engelmann (R.) [Report for 1886.] Ibid., 124. 
Lenses. See Glass (Optical); Photography (Astronomical); Spherometer. 
Lick observatory. 

Appel (D.) Der grosse Refraktor der Lick-Sternwarte. Sirius, 20 : 54. 
[Description of instruments, progress of work, etc.] Eng. mec, 44: 149, 474, 
519; 46: 321. Also: Nation, 44: 233; 45: 506. Also: Obsry., 10: 110, 
168. Also: Sc. Am., 57 : 330. Also: Sid. mess., 6 : 86, 87, 157, 295. Also: 
Sirius, 20 . 285. 
Keeler(J. E.) Time service of the Lick observatory. 16 p. 8vo. [Northfield, 

Repr.frnm: Sid. mess., 6 : 233-248. 
Proctor (R. A.) The great Lick telescope. Know!., 10 : 205, 209. 
Publications of the Lick observatory of the university of California ... by E. 

S. Holden. Vol. 1, 1887. 3 + 312 p. il. 4to. Sacramento, 1887. 
Todd (D. P.) [Lecture on] the Lick observatory. Sc. Am., 56 : 73. 
Liege observatory (Ougree). 

PR Ball (L.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 125. 
Light. See, also, Earth ; Sky-glows ; Spectrum analysis. 

Bell (L.) Absolute wave-length of light. Am. j. sc, 133 : 167-182. 
MiCHELsoK (A, A.) Velocity of light in air and refracting media. Sc. Am. 

sup. 9331. 
MiCHELsoN (A. A.) & MoRLEY (E. W.) Relative motion of the earth and the 

luminiferous aether. Am. j. sc, 134 : 333-345. 
Method of making the wave-length of sodium light the actual and prac- 
tical standard of length. IbuL, 427-430. 
Liverpool observatory. 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 15-5. 
Louvain observatory (Terby's). 

Pauwels (C.) L'observatoire particulier de M. F. Terby a Louvain. Ciel et 
terre, 8 : 13-16. 
Lunar theory. 

Airt(G. B.) Numerical lunar theory. 10-f-178p. 4to. London, 1886. (I5s.) 
iZeu. by R[adau] (R.) Bull, astron., 4 : 275-286. ^; Obsry., 10 : 339, 377. See, also, 
Obsry., 10 : 175. 

Colbert (E.) Motion of the lunar apsides. Sid. mess., 6 : 49, 82. 

Glaisher (J. W. L.) Address ... on presenting the gold medal of the [royal 
astronomical] society to G. W. Hill, Month, not., 47 : 203, 220. 

Hall (A.) Ncrte on Mr. Stockwell's "Analytical determination of the inequali- 
ties in the motion of the moon arising from the oblateness of the earth." 
Astron. jour., 7 : 41. 

Nkison (E.) On G. W. Hill's paper on Delaunay's method. Month, not., 47: 


Lunar theory — Continued. 

Eadau (K.) Remarques complementaires relatives a la theorie de la lune. Bull. 

astron., 4 : 383. 
Stockwell (J. N.) Inequalities in the moon's motion produced by the oblute- 

ness of the earth. Astron. jour., 7 : 4, 17, 25, 35. 
Certain inequalities in the moon's motion arising from the action of the 

planets. Ibid., 105, 113. 

Inequalities of long period in the moon's motion arising from the action 

of Venus. 76irf., 145-150. 

Stone (E. J.) Observations of the moon made at the Radcliffe observatory, 
1886, and comparison of the results with the tabular places from Hansen's 
lunar tables. Month, not., 47 : 79-85. 

Lund observatory. 

[Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 127. 
Luther (Eduard) [1816-1887]. 

Franz (J.) Todes-Anzeige. Astron. Nachr., 118 : 31. 
Lyme Regis observatory (Peek's). 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 160. 
McCormick observatory. 

Report of the director . . . for the year ending June 1, 1887. 4 p. 4to. [n. p., 

n. d.] 
Maresfield observatory (Noble's). 

Noble (W.) Latitude and longitude of Maresfield observatory. Month, not., 

48: 67. 

Lohse (J. G.) [Observations 1886, Apr. 23, 26.] Month, not., 47: 496. 
Marth (A.) Ephemeris for physical observations of Mars. Ibid., 48: 78-83. 

Also, Reprint. 
Meunier (S.) Recent phenomena on the surface of Mars. il. Sc. Am. sup. 

9384. Also: Pop. sc. month., 31 : 532-534. 
PoRETZKi (P.) Mars-opposition im Jahre 1877 beobachtet . . . zu Kasan. 

Astron. Nachr., 116: 241-246. 

Same. 1879. Ibid., 369. 

Same. 1886. Ibid., 187. 

Mars (Satellites of). 

Morrison (J.) E^hemerides of the satellites of Mars during the oppositions of 
1888 and 1890. Month, not., 47 : 439-442. 

Mechanics (Celestial). See, also. Gravitation; Lunar theory; Orbits; Perturba- 
tions ; Planets. 

Bruhns (H.) Tiber die integrale des Vielkorper-Probleyns. Ber. u. d. Ver- 
handl. d. k. sach. Gesellsch. d. Wissensch. zu Leipz. Math.-phys. CI., 93: 
1, 55. 

Callandreatj (O.) Sur le calcul des integrates . . . Bull, astron., 4 : 192. 
Hall (A.) Special case of the Laplace coefficients 6'i'. Ann. math., 3: 1-11. 


Mechanics (Celestial) — Continued. 

Hill (G. "W.) Coplanar motion of two planets, one having a zero mass. Ann. 
math., 3 : 65-73. Also, Reprint. 

Differential equations with periodic integrals. Ann. math., 3 : 145-153. 

JouKOvsKY (N. E.) [Sur le mouvement d'un corps solide qui a des lacunes 

remplies par un liquide homogene.] 8vo. St. Petersbourg, 1885. 

Rev.: Bull, astron., 4: 429. 
Lange (L.) Die geschichtliche Entwickelung des Bewegungsbegriffes. 10 + 
141 p. 8vo. Leipzig, 1886. 

Rev. by Seeliger (H.) Vrtljsehr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 252-259. 

Uber das Beharrungsgesetz. Ber. u. d. Verhandl. d. k. sachs Gesellsch. 

d. Wissensch. zu Leipzig. Math.-phys. Kl., 1885: 333-351. 

Rev. by Seeliger (H.) Vrtljsehr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 252-259. 
TissERAND (F.) Note sur un passage de la " Mecanique celeste." Bull, astron., 
4: 457-462. 

Melbourne observatory. 

Report (22nd) of the board of visitors . . . with the annual report of the govern- 
ment astronomer. 12 p. 4to. Melbourne, [1887.] 

Meteors. See, also, Comets and meteors. 

Denning (W. F.) Determination of meteor-paths and radiants. Obsry., 10: 

[HiRN ( — )] Explosion of meteorites. Abstr. : Nature, 35 : 303. 
KiRKWOOD (D.) Relation of aerolites to shooting stars. Sid. mess., 6 : 248. 
Kleiber (J.) Les etoiles filantes et la temperature. Ciel et terre, 7 : 561-570. 
Lagrange (E.) L'origine des meteorites. Ibid., 8: 81-92. 
LocKYER (.7. N.) Researches on the spectra of meteorites. Proc. roy. astron. 
soc, 43: 117-155. 

Recherches sur les meteorites. Conclusions generales. Compt. Rend., 

105: 997-1001. 

MoNCK (W. H. S.) Meteors and meteorites. J. Liverp. astron. soe., 5 : 110, 

Prinz (W.) L'origine des meteorites. Ciel et terre, 8 : 133-137. 

Meteors (Observations of). 

Denning (W. F.) Meteors with curved paths. Month, not., 47 : 119 

[Observations of April meteors.] Nature, 35 : 606. 

The meteor of May 8, 1887. Ibid., 36 : 68. 

August meteors of 1887. Ibid., 407. 

October meteor shower of 1887. Ibid., S7 : 69. 

Meteor nptes. Obsry., 10 : 65, 102, 129, 1-59, 188, 227, 265, 299, 313, 331, 

384, 417. 

[Observations 1886, Nov. 17— Jan. 25.] Sid. mess., 6 : 160. 

[Observations 1887, Mar. 13— July 31.] Ibid., 287. 

Recent showers [1887, Aug. 6— Oct. 21.] Ibid., 356 



Meteors (Observations of) — Continued. 

Dennixg (W. F.) & others. [Observations during Jan., Feb., and Mar., 1887.] 
J. Liverp. see, 5: 103-196. 

[Observations 1887, Apr. 5.] Ibid., 228. 

Hall (A.) [Observations of] the Perseids, 1887. Astron, jour., 7: 126. 
Hopkins (B. J.) Note on an erratic meteor. Month, not., 47: 73. 
Kirk (E. B.) [Two meteors 1887, Jan. 13.] Obsry., 10 : 107. 
Laschober (F.) Sternschnuppenfallo am 10. und 11. Aug., 1885. Astron. 
■ Nachr., 118: 33-40. 

Beobachtung der Sternschnuppenfalle am 10. und 11. Aug., 1887. Ibid., 


Ranyard (A. C.) Evidence with respect to the form of the area in the heavens 
from which the meteors of Nov. 27, 1885, appeared to radiate. Month, not., 
47: 69-73. 

Eemarkable (A) meteor. Nature, 36 : 93. 

Meudon observatory. 

Janssen (J.) Note sur les travaux recents executes a I'observatoire de Meudon. 
Compt. Rend., 105: 325-328. 

Milan observatory. 

ScHiAPARELLi (G. Y.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 

Monrepos observatory (von Lade's). 

"VVoLF (M.) Privatsternvvarte Monrepos bei Geisenheim. 1 pi. Sirius, 20: 

Moon. See, also, Eclipse of the moon ; Lunar theory. 

Elger (T. G.) The moon surveyed in common telescopes. J. Liverp. astron. 
soc, 5: 18, 124, 155, 179, 212. 

Sflenographical notes. Obsry., 10 : 67, 100, 127, 157, 187, 226, 263, 298, 

316, 3.54, 386, 419. 

Elger (T. G.) & others. [Observations of lunar objects 1886-87.] J. Liverp. 
astron. soc, 5: 16, 60, 116, 221. 

F[lammarion] (C.) Grande vallee des Alpes lunaires. il. L'Astron., 6 : 448- 

Gaudibert (C. M.) Carte generale de la lune dressee sous la direction de C. 

Flammarion. Paris, 1887. (7fr. ) 

HouzEAU (J. C.) [Influence de la lune sur les elements meteorologiques.] Ciel 

et terre, 8 : 369-376. 

MoNCK (W. H. S.) Effect of terrestrial heat on the moon. J. Liverp. astron. 
soc, 5 : 52. 

Moon (The) and the weather. Eng. mec, 45 : 187. 
Spitaler (R.) Mondphotograpbie. Sirius, 20 : 75, 101. 

^VILLIAMS (A. S.) Account of further observations of the lunar crater Plato. 
Obsry., 10: 59, 345-351. 


Morrison observatory. 

Publications of the Morrison observatory, Glasgow, Missouri. No. 1 ... by 
Carr Waller Pritchett. 1885. 7 + 111 p., 6 pi. 4to. Lynn, 1887. 

Munich observatory. 

Seeliqkr (H.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 131- 

Natal observatory. 

Report of the superintendent, 1886. 26 p. 4to. [n. p., 1887.] 
Navigation. See, also, Astronomy (Spherical and practical); Sextant. 

Caillau (T.) Instrument servant a la determination de la position du navire 

par deux relevements d'un meme point et I'intervalles, et des problemes qui 

s'y rattachent. il. Rev. d. ohsrio., 2: 138-41. 
Types de calculs nautiques. Navigation par I'estime et navigation astronomique. 

fol. Paris, 1887. (M.-6.50.) 

Nebulae. See, also. Nova AndromediE. 

BlGOTJRDAN (G.) Nebuleuses nouvelles decouvertes a I'observatoire de Paris. 

Compt. Rend., 105: 926, 1116. 
Dreyer (J. L, E.) Some nebulas hitherto suspected of variability or proper 

motion. Month, not., 47 : 412-421. 
VON Engelhardt (B.) Relative E. B. des Nebels G. C. 3258 gegen einen be- 

nachbarten Stern 11. Grosse. Astron. Nachr., 117: 278. 
Harrington (M. W.) Structure of 13 M. Herculis. il. Astron. jour., 7 : 156. 
Ingall (H.) Notes on nebulae, il. Eng. mec, 46 : 313. 
Johnson (R. C.) Photography and 42 M. Obsry., 10 : 99. 
Leavenworth (F. P.) [Notes on nebul©.] Sid. mess., 6 : 293. 
Lynn (W. T.) First discovery of the great nebula in Orion. Obsry., 10: 232. 
MiLLOSEViCH (E.) & Barnard (E. E.) Uber Nr. 14 und 15 des Swift'schen 

Nebelcatalogs Nr. 6. Astron. Nachr., 118: 173. 
MoucHEZ (E.) Photographie de la nebuleuse 1180 du catalogue general d'Her- 

schel par MM. Paul et Prosper Henry. Compt. Rend., 104 : 394. 
MuLLER (F.) [Errata in Swift's catalogue no. 5.] Sid. mess., 6 : ^3. 

Corrections to catalogue no. 6 of new nebulae discovered at the Warner 

observatorj'. Ibid., 323 

[Method of observing nebul* at the ^McCormick observatory.] Ibld.y 

Roberts (I.) Photographs of nebulte in Orion and in the Pleiades. Month. 

not., 47 : 89-91. 

Photographs of the nebula; 57 M. Lyrce, 27 M. Vul|.ecui:e, the cluster 13 

M. Herculis, and of stars in Cygnus. Ibid., 48 : 29-31. 

Spitaler (R.) tj ber den Ringnebel in der Lever. Astron. Nachr., 117: 261. 
Sthuve (O.) La nebuleuse pres de c Ononis. 1 pi. Bull. d. I'acad. imp. d. sc. 

d. St. Petersb., 31 : 540-544. 
Swift (L.) Catalogue no. 6 of nebuls discovered at the Warner observatory. 

Astron. Nachr., 117: 217-222. 


Nebular hypothesis. See, also, Cosmogony. 

BiGELOW (F. H.) The phenomena of cooling envelopes. Sid. mess., 6 : 170- 

Kerz (F.) Weitere Ausbildung der Laplace'schen Nebularhypothese. 2. Aus- 
gabe der " Erinnerungen an Satze aus der Physik und der Mechanik des 
Himmels." 16 + 384 p. 8vo. Leipzig, 1886. (M. 12.) 

tJber die Entstehung der Korper welche sich um die Sonne bewegen. 

Auch als Nachtrag zu, " Weitere Ausbildung der Laplace'schen Nebular- 
hypothese. 8 + 79 p. 8vo. Leipzig, 1887. (M. 1.80.) 

Beitrag zur Nebularhypothese. Sirius, 20 : 265. 

Neptune (Satellite of). 

LoHSE (J. G.) [Observations 1885, Dec. 2—1886, Nov. 4.] Month, not., 47: 

Pebrotix (J.) [Observations 1886, Nov. 22—1887, Jan. 23.] Bull, astron. 4 : 
Neuchatel observatory. 

Kapport du directeur . . . 1886. 27 + 28 + 12 p. 12mo. Locle, 1887. 
Nice observatory. 

Annales de I'observatoire de Nice, publiees sous les auspices du Bureau des longi- 
tudes, par [J.] Perrotin. Tome II. [431] p., 7 pi. 4to. Paris, 1887. 

(M. 2.5.) 
Fate (H.) Note sur les premiers travaux de I'observatoire de Nice. Compt. 
Rend., 105: 7-10. 

[Inauguration de I'observatoire de Nice.] Ibid., 180-784. 

Nova Andromedae nebulae, 1885. 

Ball (R. S.) [Observations for parallax.] Proc. roy. Irish acad., 2. s. 4 : 641. 
CoPELAND (R.) On Hartwig's Nova Andromedae. [Complete series of observa- 
tions.] Month, not., 47: 49-Gl. 

Franz (J.) [Parallaxenbestimmung.] Astron. Nachr., 118 : 123. 

FoLiE (F.) Nutation diurne du globe terrestre. Compt. Rend., 104, 35-38. 

Praktischer Beweis der taglichen Nutation. Astron. Nachr., 116 : 113. 

tJber einige in den Peters'schen Formeln unberiicksichtigte Glieder der 

jiihrlichen Nutation. Ibid., 167. 

Stiindliche Nutation der Erdkruste. Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 


Lagrange (C). Nutation diurne. Ciel et terre, 7 : 489-494 

Objectives. See, also, Glass (Optical); Telescopes. 

Grubb (H.) & others. [Transforming an ordinary object-glass into a photo- 
graphic objective.] Obsry., 10: 253-2.56. 

MosER (C.) Fernrohrobjective. Ztschr. f. Instrmknd., 7 : 22-5-238,308-323. 
Pickering (E. C.) New form of construction of object-glasses intended for 
stellar photography. Nature, 36 : 562. 

Taylor (J. T.) Photographic lenses. Eng. mec, 44: 495, 517 


Observations (Errors of). -S'ce, also, Latitude ; Transit observations. 

Bertrand (J.) Surune loi singuliere de probabilitedes errours. Compt. Rend., 
lOo: 779. 

Thcoreme relatif aux erreurs d'ob.?ervation. lbid.,lQ\Z. 

Sur ce qu'on nomme le poids et la precision d'uno observation. Ibid, 


— Sur la loi des erreurs d'obser-vation. Ibid., 1147. 

— Sur les epreuves repet^es. Ibid., 1201. 

Hall (A.) Rejection of discordant observation-;. Sid. mess., 6 : 297-301. Aluo: 

Obsry., 10: 414-417. 
Lehmann-Filhes (R.) tjber abnorme Feblervertbeilung und yerwerfung 

zweifelhafter Beobachtungen. Astron. Nachr., 117 : 121-132. 

Stadthagen (E.) Zur zweiten Grundannabme der Fehlertbeorie von Laplace. 
Astron. Nachr., 118: 27. 


Lancaster (A.) Liste generale des observatories et des astrononies. des jocietos 

et des revues astronomiques. 2. ed. 114 p. 12mo. Bruxelles, 1887. 
LoEWY (M.) Rapport sur les observatoires de Province. 33 p. 8vo. Paris, 


O'Qyalla observatory. 

Beobachtungen augestellt am astrophysikalischen Observatorium in O'Gyalla. 
Hrsg. von N. von Konkoly. Bd. 8. Theil. 1. Beobachtungen vom Jabre 
1885. 68 p. 4to. Halle, 1887. (M. G..50.) 

Same. Theil 2. 5 + 41 p. 4to. Halle, 1887. (M. 4.) 

VON Konkolt (N.) Mittheilungen der Sternwarte zu O'Gyalla. Sirius, 20: 

15fi, 169. 

[Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 135-188. 

von Oppolzer (Theodor) [1841-1886]. 

LoKWY (M.) Notice sur la vie et les travaux de M. Oppolzer. Bull, astron., 

4: 42-48. 
[Obituary discourse, Vienna academy; with bibliography.] Obsry., 10: 309- 

Pasquier (E.) [Biographical notice.] Ciel et terre, 7 : 546-549. 
ScHRAM (R.) [Biographical notice, with bibliography and portrait.] Vrtlj-clir. 

d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 117-208, 266. 
TissKRAND (F.) Notice sur les travaux de M. Oppolzer. Compt. Rend., 104: 

Weiss (E.) Nekrolog iiber Theodor von Oppolzer. Astron. Nachr., 116: 95. 


Andoyer (H.) Remarques sur les equations differentielles que Ton rencontre 
dans la theorie des orbites intermediares. Bull, astron., 4 : 177-183. 

Gyld^n (H.) Determination of the radius vector in the absolute orbit of the 
planets. Month, not., 47 : 223-244. 




Orbits — Continued. 

Herz (N.) Geschichte der Bahnbestimmung von Planeten iind Coineten. I 
Theil. Die Theorien des Alterthums. 8vo. Leipzig, 1887. (>[. 5 ) 

Klinkerfues (W.) Bestimmung der inittleren Anomalie in Eliipsen und Hy- 
perbeln deren Excentricitat der Einhcit sehr nahe kommt. Astron. Naclir. , 
118: 165-172. 

Radau (E.) Calcul d'une orbite parabolique. Bull, astron., 4 : 409-422. 

Formulas differentielles pour la variation dos elements d'une orbite. 

Compt. Rend., 105 : 432-4-35. 

Calcul approximatif d'une orbite parabolique. Ibid., 457-460. 

Rush (H. G.) The true doctrine of orbits : an original treatise on central forces. 
7 + 133 p. 8vo. Lancaster, Ta., 1887. 

Searle (G. M.) Method of computing an orbit from three observations. As- 
tron. jour., 7 : 140-144,158-155. 

Orwell Park observatory (Tomline's). 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 161. 
Oxford university observatory. 

[Report for 1886.] Ibid., 156. 
Palermo observatory. 

Pubblicazioni del real osservatorio di Palermo. Anni 1883-85, vol. 3. G. Cac- 
ciatore, direttore. 420 p. 4to. Palermo, 1887. 

Cacciatore (G.) [Report for 1886.J Yrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 138- 
Parallax (Solar). See, also, Yenus (Transit of). 

Cruls (L.) Valeur de la parallaxe du soleil deduite des observations des mis- 
sions bresiliennes, a I'occasion du passage de Venus sur le soleil en 1882. 
Compt. Rend., 105: 1235-1237. 

Obrecht (J. A.) Sur une nouvelle methode permettant de determiner la paral- 
laxe du soleil a I'aide de I'observation photographique du passage de Venus. 
Ibid., 104: 560-563 

Parallax (Stellar). See, also, Nova Andromedae. 

DE Ball (L.) Determination de la parallaxe relative de I'etoile principale du 
couple optique - 1516 A B. 38 p. 4to. Bruxelles, 1887. (M. 2.) 

Hall (A.) Parallax of a Tauri. Astron. jour., 7 : 89. 

KtJMMELL (C. H.) Can the parallax of the fixed stars be made perceptible? 
Astron. Nachr., 117: 247. 

Lagrange (C.) Methode pour la determination des parallaxes par des observa- 
tions continues. 

Rev. : Ciel et terre, 7 : 507. 

Lamp (E.) Parallax von 2" 2398 (P. M. 2164). Astron. Nachr., 117: 361-380. 

Pritchard (C.) Application of photography to the determination of stellar 
parallax [of 61 Cygni]. Month, not., 47 : 87-89. 

Parallax of 61^ and 6P Cygni as obtained by the aid of photography. 

Ibid., 444. 



Parallax (Stellar) — Continued. 

Pritchard (C.) Further researches on stellar parallax by the photographic 
method. Ihid., 48: 27. 

Nature of the photographic star-disks, and the removal of a difficulty in 

measurements for parallax. Absir.: Nature, 36 : 523. 

Ranyard (A. C.) Photography and the determination of stellar parallax. 
Obsry., 10: 167. 

Paris — Ecole militaire. 

BiGOURDAN (G.) Histoire des observatoires de I'ecole militaire. Bull, astron., 
4: 497. 

Paris — Societe astronomique de France. See Societe. 

Paris observatory. See, also, Photographic congrese. 

Annales de I'observatoire de Paris publiees sous la direction de [E. A. B.] Mou- 

chez. Observations 1882. 1032 p. 4to. Paris, 1887. 
Catalogue de I'observatoire de Paris. Etoiles observees aux instruments merid- 

iens de 1837 a 1881. Tome 1. o^- a 6\ 7 + 112 + 295 p. 4to. Paris, 


Same. Positions observees des etoiles. 1837-1881. Tome 1. u'> a (j^. 

22 4- 336 p. 4to. Paris, 1887. 

LoEWY (M.) & others. Etude de la flexion horizontale de la lunette du cercle 
meridien Bischoflfsheim de I'observatoire de Paris. Compt. Rend., 104: 

Pearson {Rev. James) [1826-1886]. 

For Biography, see J. Liverp. astron. soc., 5: 26. Also: Month, not., 47: 139. 


VON Rebeur-Paschwitz (E.) tJber das Zollner'sche Horizontalpendel und 

neue Versuche mit demselben. 25 p. 8vo. [n. p., n. d.] 
■ Versuch die Veriinderungen der Horizontalebene mit Hiilfe eines Zoll- 

ner'schen Horizontalpendels photographisch zu registriren. Astron. Nachr., 

118: 10-16. 
VoGEL (H. C.) Isolirende Wirkung verscliiedener Substanzen gegen strahlende 

Warme. Ibid., 98-104. 

Personal equation. 

Christie (W. H. M.) Description of the personal equation machine of the royal 

observatory, Greenwich, il. Month, not., 48 : 1-4. 
HiLFiKER (J.) Uber eine personliche Gleichung bei Durchgangsbeobachtun- 

gen. Astron. Nachr., 118: 99-104. 
Seeliger (H.) tJber den Einfluss dioptrischer Fehler des Auges auf das Resul- 

tat astronomischer Messungen. Abhandl. d. math.-phys. CI. d. k. bayer. 

Akad. d. AVissensch. Miinchen, 15: 665-704, 1886. • 

Turner (H. H.) Results obtained with the personal equation machine at the 

royal observatory, Greenwich. 3Ionth. not., 48: 4-18. 
Discussed : Obsry., 10 : 408. 


Perturbations. See, also, Mechanics (Celestial). 

Baillaud (B.) Sur le calcul des fonctions R "• de M. TisserHnd. Bull, astron., 
4: 98. 

Gertz (J.) Allgemeine Methode zur Berechnung dor speciellen Elementenstor- 
ungen in Bahnen von beliebiger Excentricitat. 

Anzeiger der Wiener Akademie 1887, Nr. 19. Also, abstr. : Astron. Nachr., 117: 327. 
Herz (N.) Notiz zur Storungsrechung. Astron. Nachr., 118 : 118. 
Photographic congress, Paris, 1887. 

Congres astrophotographique international tenu a I'observatoire de Paris pour le 
leyede la carte du oiel, avril, 1887. 8 + 106 p. 4to. Paris, 1887. 

Flammarion (C.) Le congres astronomique pour la photographic du ciel. 
L'Astron., 6: 161-169. 

Knobkl (E. B.) & others. [Report to Royal astronomical society on the Paris 
congress.] Obsry., 10 : 210-218. 

MotrcHEZ (E.) La photographic astronomique a I'observatoire de Paris et la 

carte du ciel. il. Ann. de bur. d. long., 1887: 755-842. 
[Report of the proceedings of the Paris congress.] Bull, astron., 4: 129-134. 

Also: Nature, 35: 584; 36: 7, 54. 
[Resolutions adopted.] Astron. Nachr., 116 : 383. Also: Obsry., 10: 190. 
[Summary of resolutions and photograph of members of the congress.] Sc. Am. 

sup. 9621. 
Z. (K.) Beschliisse der astronomisch-photographischen Versammlung in Paris 
und deren Folgen. Sirius, 20 : 231-235. 
Photography (Astronomical). See, also, Aberration (Constant of): Nebulae; Ob- 
jectives; Photographic congress; Photography (Stellar); Spectra (Stellar); 
Abstey (W. de W.) Atmospheric transmission of visual and photographically 
a«tive light. Month, not., 47 : 260-265. 

Gill (D.) The applications of photography in astronomy. Obsry., 10: 267, 
283. Also, trans.: Bull, astron., 4: 361-380. 
Lecture before Royal institute, 1887, June 3. 

VON GoTHARD (E.) Uber Himmels-und Spectral-Photographie. Vrtljschr. d. 
astron. Gesellsch., 22: 336-341. 

VON KoNKOLY (E.) Praktischc Anleitung zur Himmelsphotographie nebst 
einer Anleitung zur Spectralphotographie. 8vo. Halle, 1887. (M. 12.) 

M. (L.) Ligeiro historico da photographia celeste. Rev. d. obsrio., 2: 87-92. 

MouCHEZ (E.) La photographic astronomique a I'observatoire de Paris et la 
carte du ciel. il. Ann. de bur. d. long. 1887 : 75-5-842. 

Prinz (W.) La photographic astronomique par les petits appareils. il. Ciel 
et terre, 8 : 201-208. 

Pritchard (C.) Remarks on some of the present aspects of celestial photog- 
raphy. Month, not., 47: 322-324. 

Rayet (G.) Notes sur I'histoire de la photographic astronomique. Bull, as- 
tron., 4: 165, 262, 307, 344, 449. Also, Reprint. (2 fr.) 


Photography (Astronomical) — Continued. 

Roberts (I.) Photographic search for the minor planet Sappho. Month, not., 

47: 265. 
Spitaler (R.) Jlondphotographie. Sirius, 20: T-j, 101. 
Taylor (J. T.) Photographic lenses. Eng. mec, 44: 495,517. 
Vai.entiner (W.) Entwicklung der Photographie in ihrer Anwendung aiif 

die Astronomie. 16 p. 8vo. [n. p., 1887.] 
Young (C. A.) Astronomical photography. New Princeton rev., 3 : 354-369. 

Also, abstr.: Obsry., 10: 239. Also, abstr. : Nature, 36: 113. 

Photography (Stellar). See, also, Parallax (Stellar); Spectra (Stellar). 

Backhouse (T. W.) Examination of stellar photographs [with a stereoscope]. 
Obsry., 10: 196. 

Barn'Ard (E. E.) Recent stellar photography. Sid. mess., 6 : 59-65. 

CRI^<WIC'K (G. S.) [Photographs of star groups taken at Greenwich for deter- 
mining distortion of the plate.] Abstr.: Obsry., 10: 407. 

Dreyer (J. L. E.) Effect of refraction in stellar photography. Month, not., 
47: 421. 

Espin (T. E.) Stellar photography: the Liverpool astronomical society's re- 
search . . . Eng. mec, 44: 475. 

Gbubb (H.) Choice of instruments for stellar photography. Month, not., 47: 
309-322. Also, abstr. : Nature, 36 : 523. 

Knobel (E. B.) Examination of stellar photographs [with a stereoscope], 
Obsry., 10: 231. 

MoucHEZ (E.) Preparatifs d'execution de la carte du ciel. Compt. Rend., 105 : 

Roberts (I.) Measurement of celestial photographs. Month, not., 48 : 31. 

Rogers (W. A.) Determination of the coefficients of expansion of the glass 
plates used for stellar photography at Cordoba in the years 1872 to 1876, and 
1880 to 1883. Astron. jour., 7 : 123. 

ScHEiNER (J.) Einfluss verschiedener Expositionszeiten auf die Exaktheit pho- 
tographischer Sternaufnahmen. Astron. Nachr., 118 : 153-156. 

Wolf (M.) Astrophotographischos Okular. il. Astron. Nachr., 118: 79. 


CoRNU (A.) Sur quelques dispositifs permettant de realiser sans polariser la 
lumiere des photometres birefringents. Bull, astron., 4: 89-94. 

VON GoTHARD (E.) Keilphotometcr mit Typendruck-Apparat. il. Ztschr. f. 
Instrmknd., 7 : 347-349. 

Langley (S. P.), Young (C. A.) & Pickering (E. C.) Pritchard's wedge- 
photometer. Mem. Am. acad. arts & sc, 11 : 301-324 (v. 11, pt. 5, no. 6). 
Also, Reprint. 

Spitta (E. J.) Pritchard's photometer. Obsry., 10: 389. 


Ceraski (W.) Photometrische Helligkeiten von 58 Sternen. Astron. Nachr.^ 
116: 363. 


Photometry — Continued. 

LiNDEMANN (E.) Grossenclassen der Boniier Durchmusterunf;. Astron. Nachr. , 

118: 126. 
Machk (J.) Abhiingigkeit der Helligkeit der Sterne von der Pupillendffnuiig. 

10 p. 8vo. HaWe, 1887. (M. 0.40.) 

Pickering (E. C.) Magnitudes of stars employed in various nautical almanacs. 

Ann. Harv. coll. obsry., 18: 1-13 (v. 18, no. 1). Also, Keprint. 
Discussion of the Uranometria Oxoniensis. Ann. Harv. coll. obsry., 18 : 

15-27 (v. 18, no. 2). Also, Reprint. 

Magnitudes of circumpolar stars determined at the observatories of Mos- 

cow and of Harvard college. Astron. Nachr., 117: 139. 

Safarik (A.) Lichtwechsel einer Anzahl von Sternen aus der Bonner Durch- 
musterung und aus den Katalogen rother Sterne von Sehjellerup und Bir- 
mingham. 16 p. 8vo. Prag, 1887. (M. 1.20.) 

ScHEiNER (J.) Vergleichung der Grossenangaben der siidlichen Durchmuster- 
ung mit denen anderer Cataloge. Astron. Nachr., IIG : 81-94. 

"VVoLFF (T.) Photometrische Arbeiten iiber die Sterne der Bonner Durchmus- 
terung. Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 366-386. 

Plana (Giovanni) [1781-1864]. 

Realis (S.) Giovanni Plana, no a Voghera le 8 novembre, 1781, mort a Turin 
le 20 Janvier, 1864. 10 p. 4to. Roma, 1887. 

Planets. See, also. Gravitation ; Solar system. 

Berberich (A.) SternbedeckUngen durch Planeten im Jahre 1888. Astron. 

Nachr., 118 : 81-90. 
Callandreau (O.) Sur la theorie de la figure des planetes. 84 p. 4to. 

[Paris, 1887?] 

Ann. d. I'obs. d. Paris. Mem. 19, E. Also, abstr.: Compt. Rend., 104 : 1600. 
Recherches sur la theorie de la figure des planetes; etude speciale des 

grosses planetes. Abstr.: Compt. Rend., 105 : 1171-1173. 
Dartvik (G. H.) Figures of equilibrium of rotating masses of fluid. Proc. roy. 

soc.,42: 359. Also, abstr.: Bull, astron., 4 : 524-526. 
Gerigny (P.) Comment on pese les mondes. il. L'Astron., 6: 81-92, 366- 

Hamy (M.) Etude sur la figure des corps celestes. Paris, 1887. 
MoNCK (W. H. S.) Periods of the planets and satellites. Obsry., 10: 322, 42-5. 
Seeliger (H.) Zur theorie der Beleuchtung der grossen Planeten insbesondere 

des Saturn. Abhandl. d. math.-phys. CI. d. k. bayer. Akad. d. Wissensch. 

Miinchen, 16: 405-516. 
Zenger (C. V.) Periods of the planets. Obsry., 10 : 391-395. 
Planets (Intra-Mercurial). 

Backhouse (T. W.) Search for Vulcan. J. Liverp. astron. soc, 5 : 8. 

Brown (E.) Search for Vulcan. Ibid., 146, 197. 

Colbert (E.) The Swift- Watson intra-Mercurial observations. Sid. mess., 

6: 84. 


Planets (Intra-Mercurial) — Contmued. 

[Review of orisjinal observations of Swift and Watson.] il. Ibid., 196. 

Young (C. A.) The Swift- Watson intra-Mercurial observations. Ibid., 617. 
Planets (Minor). See Asteroids. 
Planets (Ultra-Neptunian). 

Lynn (W. T.) Suggested mean distances of ultra-Neptunian planets. Obsry., 
10: 319. 


Fenet (L.) Planisphere celeste mobile donnant les etoiles visibles a toute heure 
audessus de nos tetes, dres&e sous la direction de C. Flammarion. Paris, 
1887. (8 fr.) 


DoRST ( — ) Bestimmung der Helligkeit der Plejaden nach den photograph- 

ischen Aufnahmen der Gebriider Henri in Paris. Sirius, 20: 83. 
Elkin (W. L.) Determination of the relative positions of the principal stars in 
the group of the Pleiades. 105 p. 4to. New Haven, 1887. 
Trans, astron. obsry. Yale univ. v. I pt. 1. 

[Remarks on his observations of the Pleiades.] Obsry., 10: 152. 

Hall (A.) Relative positions of 63 small stars in the Pleiades. Astron. jour., 

7 : 73-78. 
Wesley (W. H.) The nebuhe in the Pleiades, il. J. Liverp. astron. soc, 5: 

Pothenot's problem. 

OuDEMANS (J. A. C.) Losung des sog. Pothenot'schen, besser Snellius'schen 
Problems, von Ptolemaeus. Yrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 345-349. 

Potsdam observatory. 

Publicationen der astrophysikalischen Observatoriums zu Potsdam No. 17 (Bd. 
4. Stiick 4.) Beobachtungen von Sonnenflecken in den Jahren 1880-84 von 
G. Sporer. 4to. Leipzig, 1887. (M. 10.) 

Same. Nr. 21. (Bd. 6. Stiick 1), Bestimmung der Polhohe des astro- 
physikalischen Observatoriums zu Potsdam von P. Kempf. 4to. Leipzig, 
1887. (M. 2.) 

Same. Nr. 22 (Bd. 6. Stiick 2). Bestimmung des mittleren Dichtigkeit 

der Erde mit Hiilfe eines Pendelapparates von J. Wilsing. 4to. Leipzig, 
1887. (M. 5.) 

VoGEL (H. C.) [Report for 1886.] Yrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 140-151. 
Prague observatory. 

Safakik(A.) [Report for 1886.] Ibid., Vol. 
Precession. See, also. Star-places. 

Flammarion (C.) Movimento secular do polo e a translocjao do systema solar. 

il. Rev. d. obsrio., 2: 6-10. 
Kreutz (H.) HiilfsgrOssen zur Berechnung der Pracession nach Struve fiir 
mehrere ofters vorkommende Epochen. Astron. Nachr., 118: 91. Also, 



Precession — Cnntinued. 

S AFFORD (T. H.) Reduction of star-places by Bohnenberger's method. Month. 

not., 48: 20-26. 
Struve (L.) Bestimmung dei- Constante der Praecession, und der eigenen Be- 

v/egung des Sonnonsystems. 34 p. 4to. Leipzig, 1887. (M. 1.) 

Mem. acad. imp. d. sc. de St. Petersl). 7. s. 35, no. 3. 
Frizes (Astronomical). 

Danish academy. Prix de I'academie royale Danoise des sciences et des lettres. 

Astron. Nachr., 117 : 63. Also: Bull, astron., 4 : 163. 
Paris academy. Tableau des prix decornees. Annee 1887. Compt. Rend., 10-5: 

Royal astronomical society. Address by the president ... on presenting the 

gold medal to G. W. Hill. Month, not., 47 : 203-220. 
[Schubert'schen Preis der Akademie in St. Petersburg.] Astron. Nachr., 118 : 30. 
Warner (H. H.) Conditions of awarding the Warner comet prizes from Apr. 

1, 1887, to Apr. 1, 1888. Sid. mess., 6 : 225. 

Radau (R.) Sur une application de la projection stereographique [de la sphere]. 
Bull, astron., 4: 49. 

Prominences (Solar). See, also, Chromosphere; Sun (Statistics of faculse, promi- 
nences, spots, etc., for 1886). 
Fenyi (J.) Grande eruption solaire du P"" juillet 1887, ©"bservee a I'observatoire 
Haj'nald a Kalocsa. 1 pi. Mem. soc. spettrscp. ital., 16: 102-10.5. Also: 
L'Astron., 6 : 416-419. 
Ricco (A.) Protuberanze solari osservate nel regio osservatorio di Palermo nell' 

anno 1886. Mem. soc. spettrscp. ital., 16 : 65-79. 
Tacchini (P.) Sulle eruzioni metalliche solari osservate al regio osservatorio 
del collegio Romano nel 1886. Ibid., 8-10. 

Sui fenomeni della cromosfera solare osservati al r. osserv. del collegio 

Romano nel 4" trimestre, 1886. [Protuberanze.] Atti d. r. accad. d. Lincei, 
s. 4. Rendic, 3: 13. 

Same. P trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 265. 

Osservazioni spettroscopiche solari fatte nel regio osservatorio del collegio 

Romano nel 1" trimestre del 1887. Protuberanze. Mem. soc. spettrscp. 
ital., 16: 37, 51. 

Same. 2» trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 91, 111. 

Same. 3» trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 12^. 

Observations solaires du deuxieme semestre, 1886. Compt. Rend., 104 : 


Same. 1«'' trimestre, 1887. 76i<^., 104 : 1082 ; 105 : 210. 

Same. 2« trimestre, 1887. /6i(/., 105 : 211. 

Same. 3« trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 105 : 1002. 

Trouvelot (E. L.) Nouvelle eruption solaire [1887, June 24]. 3 p. 4to. 
[Paris, 1887.] 

Repr.from: Compt. Rend., 105: 610. 


Proper motion. See, also, Nebulae. 

Boss (L.) [Proper motion of Lai. 28551.] Astron. jour. , 7 : 103. 

Bo.'^sERT (J.) Determination des mouvements propres des etoile.s. [Explication 

des discordances trouvees dans la comparaison] dvi catalogua de Paris [av«c 

celui de Lalande.] Bull, ustron., 4: 509-515. 
Flammarion (C.) Mouvement propre d'une etoile observee a I'ceil nu. [61 

Virginis.] il. L' Astron., 6 : 441-448. 
Frisby (E.) [Approximate proper motion of Groombridge 3215.] Astron. 

jour., 7 : 78. 
Gore (J. E.) Proper motion of 40 (o*) Eridani. J. Liverp. astron. soc, 5: 140. 
VON GoTUARD (E.) & VoGEL (H. C.) Muthmassliche starke Eigenbewegung 

eines Sterns im Sternhaufen G. C. 4440. Astron. Nachr., 116: 258. 
Kam (N. M.) Eigenbewegung einiger Sterne aus den Helsingfurser Zonen-Beo- 

bachtungen der A. G., zwiscben 55° und 05° nordlicher Declination. Ibid., 

117: 349-356. 
Leavenworth (F. P.) [Proper motion of Lai. 4219.] Sid. mess., 6: 80. 
Lynn (W. T.) [Erroneous proper motion of ^ Tauri.] Obsr}-., 10: 367. 
Pomerantzeff (H.) [Proper motion of Lai. 30479. J Astron. Nachr., 116: 


[Proper motion of Lai. 30474.] Ibid., 359. 

VON PvEbeur-Paschwitz (E.) Verzeichnij^s einiger Sterne mit merklicher 

Eigenbewegung. Ibid., U7 : 291. 
Sadler (H.) Proper motion of the " Sidus Ludovicianura." J. Liverp. astron. 

soc, 198-200. 

Proper motion of Lai. 14551, U Puppis. Ibid., 142. 

• Proper motions of /3, y, 6, e, C,, Ursae Majoris, and Alcor. Eng. mec, 

45: 124. 
SvEDSTRTJP (A.) [Proper motion of stars used in determining the orbit of Comet 

1863 IV.] Astron. Nachr., 117: 232. 
WEIS.S (E.) [Proper motion of SD.— 3°, 5577.] Astron. Nachr., 116: 354. 

Eigenbewegung von Lai. 18009. Ibid., 259. 

Pulkowa observatory. 

Nyrkn (il.) Polhohenbestimmungen mit dem Ertel-Repsold'schen Vertical- 

kreise. Mel. math, astron., 6: 449-462, 

Punta Arenas. 

Cruls (L.) Longitude de Punta Arenas. Rev. d. obsrio., 2 : 18-20. Also: 
Corapt. Rend., 104: 346. 
Radcliffe observatory. 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47: 155. 

Results of astronomical and meteorological observations made at the Radcliffe 
observatory, Oxford, in . . . 1884, under the superintendence of E. J. Stone. 
Vol. 42. 290 p. 8vo. Oxford, 1887. 
Red stars. 

Chambers (G. F.) A working catalogue of red stars. Month, not., 47 : 348-387. 


Red stars — Continued. 

EspiN (T. E.) New red star near 26 Cygni. Astron. ISIachr., 110: 319. Also: 
Obsry., 10: 175. 

Unpublished red stars detected by Rev. T. W. Webb. J. Liverp. astron. 

soe., 5: 105. 

Sweeping for red stars and stars with remarkable spectra. Obsry. , 10 : 


MiLLOSEVicH (E.) Sulla nuova Stella rossa presso 26 Cygni. Astron. Nachr., 
116: 365; 117; 61. 

SchrOdkr (H. C.) Chambers' neues Verzeichniss von roten Sternen. Sirius, 
20 : 223, 256, 279. 


Chandler (S. C.) jr. Note on an inaccuracy in the development of a differen- 
tial refraction formula. [In Briinnow's astronomy.] Astron. jour., 7 : 53. 

CoMSTOCK (G. C.) New mode of determining the constants of refraction and 
aberration. Sid. mess., 6 : 310-317. 

[Eastman (J. R.)] Refraction tables, U. S. naval observatory, 1887. 37 p. 
4to. Washington, 1887. 

ScHAEBERLE (J. M.) Short method for computing astronomical refractions be- 
tween 0° and 45° zenith distance. Astron. Nachr., 116 : 115. 

Short method of computing with Bessel's constants the true refractions 

for all zenith distances. Ibid., 117 : 53. 

Trepied (C.) Sur I'application de la photographic aux nouvelles methodes de 
M. Loewy pour la determination des elements de la refraction et I'aberra- 
tion. Compt. Rend., 104: 414-417. 

Rigaud [1774-1839]. 

Lynn (W. T.) [Biographical note.] Obsry., 10: 69. 

Rio Janeiro observatory. 

Annales de I'observatoire de Rio Janeiro . . . par L. Oruls. Tome 3. Observa- 
tion du passage de Venus en 1882. il. 703 p. 4to. Rio de Janeiro, 1887. 

Crtjls (L.) Transferencia do observatorio. Rev, d. obsrio., 2 : 1. 
See, also. Nature, 35 : 593. 

Revista do observatorio. Publicagao mensal do imperial observatorio do Rio de 
Janeiro. Anno 2, 1887. Red. L. Cruls [& oifAers]. 8 + 198 p. 4to. Rio 
de Janeiro, 1887. 

Royal astronomical society. 

k Monthly notices . . . Nov., 1886, to Nov., 1887. Vol.47. 8vo. London, 1887. 
Report of the council to the 67th annual general meeting. Month, not., 47 : 


Noble (W.) Length of the Saros. Obsry., 10 : 423. 
Satellites (Formation of). See Planets. 
4 B A 


Satellites (Orbits of). 

Mabth (A.) Formulas for computing the apparent positions of a satellite, and 
for correcting the assumed elements of its orbit. Month, not., 47 : 333-346. 
Also, Keprint. 

Elger (T. G.) Physical observations of Saturn in 1887. il. Month, not., 47 : 

[Observations of] the darlc ring of Saturn, [1887, Feb.] Obsry., 10: 161. 

— — — [Physical appearance, 1887, Feb. and Mar.] il. J. Liverp. astron. soc, 

5: 196. 
Grben (N. E.) [Observations of] the outer ring of Saturn: Encke's division. 

Obsry., 10: 139. 
LOHSE (J. G.) [Observations 1885, Nov. 17—1886, Mar. 25.] Month, not., 47: 

VON Spiessen ( — ) Encke'sche Theilung des Saturnringes. Astron. Nachr., 

116: 245. 
STtrYVAERT (E.) Division de Struve dans I'anneau de Saturne. il. L'Astron., 

6: 207. 
Tebbutt (J.) Observations of Saturn and 6 Geminorutii. [1887, Jan. 30 — Feb. 

14.] Month, not., 47: 431. 
Terby (F.) Nouvelles observations sur Saturne. il. L'Astron., 6: 203-209. 

Observation de Saturne faite a Louvain [1886, Dec. 25.] 4 p. 8vo. 

[Bruxelles, 1887.] 

Bull. d. I'acftd. roy. d. Belg., 3. s. Vi. no. 2. 

Phenomenes observees sur Saturne [1887, Jan., Feb.] 8 p., 1 pi. 8vo. 

[Bruxelles, 1887.] 

Bull. d. I'acad. roy. d. Belg., 3. s. 13. no. 3. 

[Observation of Encke's division.] Obsry., 10: 107. 

[Observations of physical appearance 1886-87.] Ibid., 137. 

[Sketch 1887, Feb.] il. Astron. Nachr., 116: 327. ^iso.- Obsry., 10: 163. 

[Change in the ring.] Obsry., 10: 231. 

Williams (A. S.) Present aspect of the rings of Saturn, Ibid., 105. 

Saturn (Satellites of). 

VON ExGELHARDT (B.) Mikrometrische Beobachtungen der Saturnsatelliteu. 

Astron. Nachr., 117: 137. 
Pebrotin (J.) Observations des satellites Hyperion, Ariel, Umbriel. Bull. 

astron., 4 : 339. 

Sayre observatory. 

DooLiTTLE (C. L.) Latitude of the Sayre observatory. Astron. jour., 7 : 14. 
Scarborough observatory (Wigglesworth's). 

[Pveport for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 162. 
Schjellerup (H. C. F. C.) [1827-1887]. 

Dreter (J. L. E.) [Obituary notice.] Nature, 37: 154. 

Thiele (T. N.) Todes-Anzeige. Astron. Nachr., 118 : 95. 


Scholl observatory. 

Kkrshxer (J. E.) [Equipment of the Daniel Scholl observatory, Lancaster 
City, Penn.] Science, 9 : 462. 

ExNER (K.) tJber die Scintillation. Eepert. d. Phys., 23: 371, 426. Also 

tJber die AufstoUung grosser Instrumente. Astron. Nachr., 117 ; 105. 


CoRRiGAN (S. J.) Method of deriving the right ascension and declination of a 
heavenly body from sextant observations, and its application to the determi- 
nation of terrestrial longitude. Sid. mess., C: 175-188. Also,transl.: Eev. 
d. obsrio., 2: 122, 135. 

Fleuriais (G.) Gyroscope-collimateur : substitution d'un repere artificiel a 
I'horizon de la mer. il. 61 p. 8vo. Paris, 1887. 
Repr.from: Rev. marit. et colon., Dec, 1886. 
Thompson (C. W.) Manual of the sextant: containing instruction for its use 
in determining time, latitude, and longitude, and the variation of the com- 
pass'. 106 p. 8vo. London, 1887. (M. 6.30.) 

Lynx (W. T.) The alleged change in the color of Sirius. Obsry., 10: 104 
Sirius (Companion of). 

Hall (A.) Observations of the companion of Sirius, 1887. Astron. jour.. 7 : 99. 

Hough (G. W.) Observations . , . [1887]. Month, not., 47 : 478. 

Young (C. A.) [Observations 1887, Jan. 27 — Apr. 7.] Obsry., 10: 263. 

IAbercromby (R.) Upper wind currents near the equator, and the dilfusion of 
Krakatao dust. il. Nature, 36 : 85. 
BuscH (F.) ijber die Dammerung, insbesondere iiber die glanzenden Erschein- 
ungen des Winters 1883-84. 33 p. 4to. Arnsberg, 1887. (M. 1..50.) 

Fenomeni crepuscolari nel 1883 e 1884. Mem. soc. spettrscp. ital., 16 : 58-64. 
Ricco (A.) Sopra i fenomeni crepuscolari del 1883 e del 1884. Ibid., 106-109. 
Societe astronomique de France. 

[Constitution, by-laws, officers, etc.] L'Astron., 6 : 406-413, 462-468. Also: 
Nature, 37 : 66. 

Solar system. See, also, Planets. 

Delauney (J.) Sur les distances des planetes au soleil, et sur les distances des 

Icometes periodiques. Abstr.: Compt. Rend., 105: 515 
Ritter (A.) Untersuchungen iiber die Constitution gasformiger "VVeltkorper. 
Repert. d. Phys., 20: 379-412. 1884. 
Rev. by R. (R.) Bull, astron., 4: 199-206. 
Struve (L.) Bestimmung der Constante der Praecession und der eigenen Be- 
wegung des Sonnensystems. 34 p. 4to. Leipzig, [?] 1887. (M. 1.) 

M6m. acad. imp. d. sc. de St. Pfetersb. 7. s. 35, no. 3. 
TissERAND (F.) Commensurabilite des moyens movements dans le systeme 
solaire. Bull, astron., 4 : 183-192. Also: Compt. Rend., 104 : 259-205. 


Spectra (Stellar). 

CoPELAND (R.) Variability of the spectrum of y Cassiopeiae. Month, net., 

47: 92. 
EsPiN (T. E.) Sweeping for red stars and stars with remarkable spectra. Obsr}'., 

10: 258. 

Stars with remarkable spectra. Astron. Nachr., 117: 49. 

Maunder (E. W.) & others. [Remarks on Sherman's observations of bright 
lines in stellar spectra.] Obsry., 10: 51. 

Pickering (E. C.) Henry Draper memorial. First annual report of the photo- 
graphic study of stellar spectra conducted at the Harvard college observatory. 
10 p., 1 pi. 4to. Cambridge, 1887. (>!• ■'5 ) 

Sherman (0. T.) Stellar spectra of classes I c and II b. Astron. jour.. 7 : 53. 

Spectra of the new variable in Orion, of certain temporary stars, and of the 

nebulas. Ibid., 65-71. 

Short study upon the atmosphere of /3 Lyrte. Am. j. sc, 133 ; 126-129. 

Spektroskopische Beobachtung der Sterne bis zur 7.5 Gr. zwischen 0° und — 15" 
Deklination auf der Sternwarte zu O'Gyalla. Sirius, 20 : 252-255. 

Stars with remarkable spectra, il. Nature, 86 : 461. 

HuTCHiNS (C. C.) A new photographic spectroscope. Am. j. sc, 134 : 58. 
Spectrum analysis. See, also, Light. 

GrIJnwald (A.) tjber die merkwiirdigen Beziehungen zwischen dem Spektrum 
des Wasserdampfes und den Linienspectren des Wasserstoffs und Sauerstotfs, 
sowie viber die chemische Struktur der beiden letztern und ihre Dissociation 
in der Sonnenatmosphare. Astron. Nachr., 117: 201-214. Also, transl.: 
Phil, mag., 5. s. 24 : 354-367. 

VON KOvesligethy (R.) Mathematische Spektralanalyse. Abstr.: Astron. 
Nachr., 117: 329-338. 

Sherman (O. T.) A continuous spectrum from hydrogen. Astron. jour., 7: 95. 

Spectrum (Solar). See, also, Spectrum analysis. 

Abney (W. de W.) Solar spectrum from ;, 7150 to / 10000. Phil, trans, my. 

soc, 177 : 457-469. J^so, Reprint. (M. 3.30.) 

HuTCHiNs (C. C.) & HoLDEN (E. L.) Existence of certain elements, together 

with the discovery of platinum in the sun. Am. j. sc, 134 : 451-456. 
Mengarini (G.) II massimo d'intensita luminosa dello spettro solare. Atti d. 

r. accad. d. Lincei, s. 4. Rendic, 3 : 482-489. 
Pickering (E. C.) [Device for detecting atmospheric lines in the solar spec- 
trum.] Science, 9 : 13. 
Rowland (H. A.) Relative wave-length of the lines of the solar spectrum. 

Am. j. sc, 133 : 182-190. 
Trowbridge (J.) & Hutchins (C. C.) Existence of carbon in the sun. Am. 

j. sc, 134: 345-348. Also: Phil, mag., 5.s. 24: 310-313. 
Oxygen in the sun. Am. j. sc, 134: 203-270. Also: Phil, mag., 5. s. 

24: 302-310. 



CzjXPSki (S.) Neuere Sphiirometer zur Messung der Krummung von Linsen- 
fiiicheii. il. Ztschr. f. Instnnknd., 7 : 297-301. 

Star-catalogues. See, also, Star-places. 

AuwKRS (A.) A catalogue of 480 stars to be used as fundamental stars for ob- 
servations of zones between 20° and 80° south declination. Month, not., 47 : 

Backlund (O.) Studien iiber den Sterncatalog : positions moyennes de 3-542 
etoiles determinees a I'aide du cercle meridien de Poulkova . . . 1840-1869. 
Mel. math, astron., 6: — [avril et sept. 1887.] 

Pulkowaer Declinationsbestimraungen. Astron. Nachr., 118: 15.5-158. 

Bryaxt (R.) [Errata in Glasgow and Eomberg's catalogues.] Ibid., 111. 

[Cape catalogue, 1880 — errata.] Ibid., 117 : 47. 

Catalogue de I'observatoire de Paris. Positions observees des etoiles. 1837*1881. 
Tome 1.- O'' to 6''. 22 + 336 p. 4to. Paris, 1887. 

Chandler (S. C.) jr. Notes on some places of Auwers's fundamantal catalogue. 
Astron. jour., 7: 81. 

Downing (A. M. W.) Comparison of the star-places of the Argentine general 
catalogue for 1875 with those of the Cape catalogue for 1880 and with those 
of other southern catalogues. Month, not., 47 : 446-454. Also: Reprint. 

Probable errors of the star-places of the Argentine general catalogue for 

1875 and the Cape catalogue for 1880. Month, not., 48 : 19. 

Gould (B. A.) Corrections to the Uranometria argentina and the Cordoba cata- 
logues. Astron. Nachr., 116 : 379. 

Lamb (A. M.) Index to certain classes of stars contained in the Greenwich cata- 
logues, reduced to 1875.0. Pub. "VVashb. obsry., 5 : 116-230. 

LoKWY (M.) Determination des ascensions droites de 521 etoiles de culmination 
lunaire ou de longitude et d'un certain nombre de circumpolaires boreales 
basees sur 58860 observations effectuees entre les annees 1868 et 1881. 117 p. 
4to. Paris, 1887. 

MotrcHEZ (E.) [Notice of the Paris catalogue.] 4 p. 4to. Paris, 1887. 
Repr.from: Compt. Rend., 105 : 629-G31. 

Peters (C. H. F.) Flamsteed's stars ''observed but not existing." Mem. nat. 
acad. sc, 3: 69-83. Also, Reprint. 

Corrigenda in various star catalogues. Mem. nat. acad. sc, 3 : 87-97. 

Also, Reprint. 

O. Arg. S., Bonn VI, Wj, Wa, Riiniker, Schj., Baily's Lai. zones, Varn.all, Glasgow, 
Santiago, Geneva. 

[Progress of work upon a catalogue of 30,000 stars.] Sid. mess., 6 : 3-52. 

Porter (J. G.) Zone catalogue of 4,050 stars for the epoch 1885, observed with 

the 3-inch transit of the Cincinnati observatorv. 104 p. 8vo. Cincinnati, 

Seyboth (J.) Yergleichung des Pulkowaer Catalogs von 3542 Sternen fiir 1855 
mti dem Cap-Catalog fiir 1880. Astron. Nachr., 118 : 1-6. 


Star charts. 

Klein (H. J.) Stern-Atlas. Lfgn. 6, 7, 8. fol. Leipzig, 1887. 

(.Jede Lfg. M. 1.20.) 

SchOnfeld (E.) Bonner Sternkarten. Serie II. Atlas der Himmelszone zwis- 

chen 1° und 23° siidlicher Declination. Lfg. .3. -5 maps. fol. Bonn, 1887. 

(M. 12.) 
Weiss (E.) Bilderatlas der Sternenwelt. 5-4 p., 41 pi. 4to. Esslingen, 1887. 

(M. 12.) 

Gore (J. E.) Absolute dimensions of a star-cluster. J. Liverp. astron. soc, 5: 


BiGOURDAN (G.) Keduction de la distance apparente de deux astres voisins a 
leur distance moyenne d'une epoque donnee. Compt. Rend., 10-5: 606-608. 

Lefavour (H.) Right ascensions of certain stars within 10° of the pole. Re- 
duced from observations by F. G. W. Struve. Month, not., 47 : 423-426. 

Safford (T. H.) Observations of the mean right ascension of certain polar stars^ 
made at the Field memorial observatory . . . and reduced to . . . 1884.0. 
Proc. Am. acad. arts i: sc, 22: 1-13. 

Stone (E. J.) Mean right ascensions of Polaris, -51 (H) Cephei, 6 Urs. Min., and 
X Urs. Min. for 1887, from the Radcliffe observations 1880-86. Month, not., 
47: 85-87. 

Stars. See, also, Colored stars ; Double stars ; Nova Andromcdre ; Parallax (Stel- 
lar); Photometry; Proper motion ; Red stars ; Variable stars. 

Mahler (E.) Uber den Stern misri der Assyrer. 10 p. 8vo. Wion, 1887. 

(M. 0.20.) 
MoNCK (W. H. S.) Temperature of the stars. J. Liverp. astron. sue, o : 172, 

Stars (Motion of) in the line of sight. See, also, Solar, system. 

Seabroke (G. M.) Spectroscopic observations . . . made at the Temple observ- 
atory. Month, not., 47 : 93-100. 

Spectroscopic results . . . obtained at the Royal observatory, Greenwich, in 1886. 
Ibid., 101-108. 

Stockholm observatory. 

Gylden (H.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. GeselLsch., 22: 153. 
Stonyhurst college observatory. 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 157. 

Results of meteorological and magnetical observations by S. J. Perry, 1886. 
87 p. 12mo. Market Weigh ton, 1887. 

Strassburg observatory. 

KoBOLD (H.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 15.5-lGO. 
ScHXJR (W.) Geographische Lage der verschiedenen Beobachtungspunkte in 
Strassburg. Astron. Nachr,, 116: 133. 


Struve (O). 

Adresse der k. preuss. Akad. d. Wissensch. an flrn. Otto Struve zur Feier seines 
fiinfzigjahrigen Astronomenjubilaumsund fiinfundzwanzigjiihrigen Direktor- 
jubilaums am 20. Februar, 1887. Sirius, 20: 97-101. 
See, also, Nature, 35 : 422. 

San. See, also, Chromosphere; Corona; Eclipse; Faculte ; Prominences; ?[•.' ■ - 
trum (Solar); Sun (Diameter of ); Sun-spots; Sun (Statistics, etc.) 

Abnet (W. de W.) Sunlight colors. Nature, 35 : 498-501. 
BiGELOW (F. H.) PhenoniHiia of solar vortices. Abstr.: Proc. A.n. ass. adv. 
sc, 36:62. ^^so, Reprint. 

[Braun (P.)] Sunto della teoria solare del P. Braun. Mem. soc. spettrscp. 

ital., 16 : 43-50. 
Brothers (A.) Comparison of drawings and photographs of sun-spots and the 

sun's surface. Proc. Manchester lit. & phil. soc, 26 : 74-78. 
CoAKLEY (G. W.) Motion of the sun in reference to the centre of gravity of the 

solar system. Papers Am. astron. soc, 1 : 33-44. 
Crofton (W. J.) [Abstract of] Braun's theory of the sun. Obsry., 10: 295. 
FiLACHOU (J. E.) Principes de physique solaire. 106 p. 12mo. Montpellier. 

FrOlich (0.) Messungen der Sonnenwarme. 2. Abhandl. il. Ann. d. Phys. 

u. Chem., n. F. 30 : 582-620. 
Langley (S. p.) Sunlight colors. Nature, 36 : 76. 
Levison (W. G.) Note on periods of stationary temperature accordant witli a 

steadily cooling sun. Papers Am. astron. soc, 1 : 44-48. 
LocKYEB (J. N.) The chemistry of the sun. 19 + 457 p. 8vo. London, 1887. 

(M. 14.50.) 
SCHULZ (J. F. H.) Zur Sonnenphysik. Astron. Nachr., 118: 129-146. 
Stanoiewitch (G. M.) Photographie directe de I'etat barometrique de I'atmos- 

phere solaire. Compt. Rend., 104: 1263-1265. 
Thomson (W.) Probable origin, the total amount, and the possible duration of 

the sun's heat. Nature, 35 : 297-300. Also: Pop. sc. month., 31 : 19-29. 
Zenger (K. W.) Die Meteorologie der Sonne und die Wetterprognose des 

Jahres 1886. 63 p. 8vo. Prag, 1887. (M. 8.) 

Sun (Diameter of). 

ArwERs (A.) Neue Untersuchungen iiber den Durchmesser der Sonne, II. 

Sitzungsb. d. k. preuss. Akad. d. Wissensch. 1887 : 449-486. Also, Reprint. 

(M. 1.80.) 
Di Legge (A.) Sul diametro solare. Atti d. r. accad. d. Lincei, 1884-85, s. 4. 

Mem. d. cl. d. sc. fisich., 1 : 232-281. 

Sunshine recorder. 

Maxjrer (.T.) Neue einfache Form des photographischen Sonnenscheinauto- 
graphen. il. Ztschr. f. Instrmknd., 7 : 238. 

Sun-spots. See, also. Sun (Statistics of faculse, prominences, spots, etc., for 1886). 
BiGELOW (F. H.) Sun-spots as vortex rings. Sid. mess., 6 : 139-151. 


San<apot8 — Continued. 

Brothers (A.) Comparison of drawings and photographs of sun-spots and tho 
sun's surface. Proc. Manchester lit. & phil. soo., 26 : 74-78. 

Brotv-n (E.) Kemarkable sun-spots [1886, May], il. J. Liverp. astron. soc, 
5: 50. 

Jacquot (M.) & Bkugttiere ( — ). [Distinguished a group of 3(5 spots with the 
naked eye, 1887, Dec. 19.] L' Astron., 7 : 33. 

Landerer (J. J.) Grande tache solaire de Juin 1887. il. Ibid., 6 : 308. 
Markwick (E. E.) Some typical sun-spots, il. J. Livern. a>tr(Mi. soc, 5: 

Measures of positions and areas of spots and faculye ... on photographs taken 

... at Greenwich, in India, and in the Mauritius. Greenw. speetrosf. 

obsns. 1885 : 34-104. 
SpOrer (G. F. W.) Periodicitiit der Sonnenflecken scit dem Jahre 1618, vor- 

nehnilich in Bezug auf die heliographische Breite derselben, und Plinwt-is 

auf eine erhehliche Storung dieser Periodicitiit wiihrend eines langen Zeit- 

raumes. Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 323-329. 

Beobachtungen von Sonnenflecken in den Jahren 1880-84. Pub. d. as- 

trophys. Obs. zu Potsdam, 4 : 219-427 (Bd. 4, Stiick 4). Also: Pvcprint. 

(M. 10.) 
Tacchini (P.) Observations solaires du deuxieme seraestre, 1886. Compt. 
Pvend., 104: 216. 

Same, l^-" trimestre, 1887. Compt. Kend., 104 : 1082; 105: 210. 

Same. 2« trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 105: 211. 

Same. 3» trimestre, 1887. /6iV/., 105: 1002. 

Osservazioni di macchie e facole solari [4" trimestre, 1886]. Atti d. r. 

accad. d. Lincei, s. 4. Rendic, 3 : 14. 

Same. 1* trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 2Q5. 

Macchie solari osservate a Iloma nel 1886. Mem. soc. spettrscp. ital., 16: 


Macchie e facole solari osservate al regio osservatorio del coUegio Eomano 

nel 1» trimestre del 1887. Ibid., 33-36, 54-57. 

Same. 20 trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 87-90. 

Same. 3" trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 118. 

Taches solaires a colorations rouges. L'Astron., 6 : 59-62. 
Veeder (M. A.) [Spots visible 1886, Nov. and Dec] Nature, 35: 584. 
Wolf (Pv.) [Statistics for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 164 
Sun (Statistics of faculse, prominences, spots, etc., for 1886). 

Kicco (A.) Osservazioni astrofisiche solari eseguite nel regio osservatorio di 
Palermo: statistica delle macchie e delle facole nell' anno 1886. Mem. soc 
spettrscp. ital., 16: 11-16. 

Solar activity in 1886. Obsry., 10 : 197-199. 

Tacchini (P.) Distribuzione delle protuberanze idrogeniche alia superficie del 
sole durante I'anno 1886. Atti d. r. accad. d. Lincei, s. 4. Rendic, 3 : 117. 


Sun (Statistics of faciilse, prominences, spots, etc., for 1886) — Continued. 

Tacchixi (P.) Distribuzione in latitudine delle facole, maccliie ed eruzioni solari 
durante il 1886. Atti d. r. accad. d. Lincei, s. 4. Rendic, 8 : 185. 

Distribution en latitude des phenomenes ?oIaires pendant I 'an nee 1886. 

Corapt. Eend., 104 : 671. 

Macchie solari osservate a Roma nel 1886. Mem. soc. spettrscp. ital. 

16: 1-3. 
Wolf (R.) Sonnen-statistik fur 1886. Astron. Nachr., 116 : 259. f>ee, also, 

Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 164. 

Statistique solaire de I'annee 1886. Compt. Rend., 104 : 160. 

Tables (Logarithmic). 

August (E. F.) Vollstiindige logarithmische und trigonometrisoho Tafehi. 

15. ed. 6 + 204 p. Svo. Leipzig, 1887. (M. 1.60.) 

BouRGET (J.) Tables de logarithmes a 5 decimales des nombres et des lignes 

trigonoraetrique. 287 p. 16mo. Paris, 1887. 
Bremiker (C.) Logarithmisch-trigonometrische Tafeln mit 5 Decimalstellen. 

5. Aufl. von A. Kallius. 183 p. Svo. Berlin, 1887. (M. 1..50.) 

DuPUis (J.) Tables des logarithmes a 5 decimales d'apres J. de Lalande . . . 

4 + 230 p. 16mo. Paris, 1887. (M. 2.) 

Gauss (F. G.) Fiinfstellige vollstandige logarithmische und trigonometrische 

Tafeln. 26. ed. 162 + 34 p. 8vo. Halle, 1887. ^ (M. 2.) 

Gernerth (A.) Fiinfstellige gemeine Logarithmen der Zahlen und Wiukel- 

functionen von 10 zu 10 Secunden nebst den Proportiontheile ihrer Differ- 

enzen. 2. ed. 8+ 133 p. 8vo. Wien, 1886. (M. 3.40.) 

KOhler (H. G.) Logarithmisch-trigonometrisches Handbuch. 15. ed. 36 + 

388 p. Svo. Leipzig, 1887. (M. 3.) 

Rex (F. G.) Tables de logarithmes a cinq decimales. 17 + 174 -f- 8 p. 8vo. 

Stuttgart, 1887. 
SchrOn (L.) Tables de logarithmes a 7 decimales . . . precedees d'une intro- 
duction par J. Hoiiel. 2 V. 4to. Paris, 1887. (M. 0.) 
WiTTSTEiN (T.) Fiinfstellige logarithmisch-trigonometrische Tafeln. 12. ed. 

36 4- 136 p. Svo. Hannover, 1887. 
Woodward (C. J.) ABC five figure logarithms. Differences on a new and 

simple plan. 58 p. 16mo. London, 1887. (M. 2.70.) 

Tacubaya observatory. 

Pritchett (H. S.) Exchange of longitude-signals between St. Louis and Mex- 
ico. Astron. jour., 7 : 62. 

Talmage (Charles George) [1840-1886]. 

For Biography, see Month, not., 47 : 142. .4^60, Obsry., 9 : 175 

Taschkent observatory. 

PoMERANTZEFF (H.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 

Telescopes. See, also. Objectives. 

Anleitung zur Herstellung von Fernrohren. Sirius, 20: 275-279. 


Telescopes — Continued. 

Astronomical telescopes at the Manchester exhibition. Engineering, 44 : 630. 
Denning (W. F.) Telescopes and telescopic work. .J. Liverp. astron. soc. , 5: 

9, 57, 121, 1.53, 176, 211, 232. 
ExNER (K.) Aufstellung grosser Instrumente. Astron. Nachr., 117 : 105. 
Hiscox (G. D.) Limit of available power in great telescopes. Sc. Am., 56 : 

344. Also: Papers Am. astron. soc., 1 : 41-43. 

Astronomical telescopes : their object-glasses and reflectors, il. Sc. Am. 

sup. 9283, 9296, 9312. 

KozK (C.) Instruments a lunette fixe equivalents au cercle meridien ou a I'equa- 
torial. Compt. Rend., 104: 1090. 

Nouveaux moyens de reperer I'axe optique d'une lunette par rapport a la 

verticale. Ibid., 1260-1263. 

Young (C. A.) Great telescopes. Forum, 4 : 78-86. 
Telescopes (Reflecting). 

Crossley (E.) Centering tube for reflecting telescopes. Month, not., 47 : 274. 
McLaren ( — ) Images formed by reflecting mirrors, and their aberration, il. 
Month, not., 47: 395-412. 

Madsen (H. F.) Notes on the process of polishing and figuring 18-inch glass 
specula by hand, and experiments with flat surfaces. Eng. mec, 44: 515, 
Tennant (J. F.) Notes on reflecting telescopes, il. Month, not., 47 : 244. 
Temple observatory. 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 157. 
[Report for 1887.] 3 p. 8vo. [n. p., n. d.] 

PoRRO (F.) Determinazione della latitudine della stazione astronomica di 
Termoli ... 23 p. 8vo. Torino, 1887. 

Repr.from : Atti d. r. accad. d. se. d. Torino, 22. 
Thollon (L.) [ -1887]. 

Janssen (J.) [Obituary notice.] Compt. Rend., 104 : 1047. See, also, L'As- 
tron., 6 : 194. 
Three bodies (Problem of). See, also. Mechanics (Celestial). 

Brendel (M.) ijber einige in neuerer Zeit angewandte Formen fiir die Dift'er- 

entialgleichungen im Probleme der drei Korper. Astron. Nachr., 116: 


Harzer (P.) Untersuchungen iiber einen speciellen Fall des Problems der dr.?i 

Korper. 156 p., 1 pi. 4to. St. Petersburg, 1887. (M. 4. -50.) 


DuFouR (C.) Les courants de la mer et I'attraction de la lune. L"A!tron., 
6: 48. 
Time (Determination of). See, also. Interpolation. 

D'AiiBADiE (A.) Sur la maniere la plus commode de trouver I'heure. Compt. 
Rend., 104: 1214. 



Time-services. See, also, Clocks. 

Keeler (J. E.) Time-service of the Liclc observatory. 16 p. 8vo. [North- 
field, 1887.1 

Repr.from: Sid. mess., 6: 233-248. 

Time (Standard). 

[Adoption of even hours from Greenwich in America and Norway.] Ciel et 

terre, 8 : 55. 
[Allen (W. F.) & Fleming (S.) Keports on introduction of standard time, 

etc.] Science, 9 : 7. 
Fleming (S.) [Introduction of new system of time into Canada.] Obsry., 10: 


Transit observations. 

FiNLAY (W. H.) Probable errors of transit-observing. Month, not., 47 : 427. 

Tycho Brahe. 

BuRCKHARDT (F.) Aus Tycho Brahe's Briefwechsel. 28 p. 4to. Basel, 1887. 

(M. 1.60.) 
Ucole observatory. 

Vincent (J.) Le nouvel observatoire d'Uccle, pres Bruxelles. il. Ciel et 
terre, 8: 105-110. 

United States naval observatory. 

Laussedat (A.) Organisation des services astronomiques aux Etats-Unis. 
Compt. Kend., 105: 488-491. 

Observations made during the year 1883 at the United States naval observatorj', 
R. W. Shufeldt, superintendent. 483 p. 4to. Washington, 1887. 

Programme of work to be pursued . . . during the year 1887. 1 p. 22<=™x3o"=". 
[Washington, 1887.] 

Also : Sid. mess., 6 : 165. 

Eefraction tables, U. S. naval observatory, 1887. [Arranged by J. R. Eastman.] 
37 p. 4to. AVashington, 1887. 

Report of the superintendent ... for the year ending June 30 [Oct. 5], 1887. 
17 p. 8vo. Washington, 1887. 

Results of meteorological observations made at the IT. S. naval observatory dur- 
ing the year 1883. 21 p. 4to. Washington, 1887. 


Lamp (J.) [Observations of physical appearance in June, 1887.] Astron. 

Nachr., 118: 146. 
Valentiner (W.) Uber die Abplattung des Uranus. Astron. Nachr., 116: 


Variable star. Algol. 

Barr (J. M.) [Explanation of the variability of Algol.] Obsry., 10 : 320, 388, 

MoNCK (W. H. S.) [Cause of the variability of Algol.] Obsry., 10 : 357, 425. 
Parkhurst (H. M.) The variable star Algol. Sc. Am., 56 : 247. 


Variable star — Continued. 

Andromedce (Nova, 1885). See, No%'a Androinedae. 
28 Andromedce. 
Cackhouse (T. W.) [Variability of 28 Androraedse.] Obsry., 10: 143, 274. 

E Aquilce. 
Lynn (W. T.) Variability of e Aquilse. Obsry., 10: 194. 

50 Aquilce. 
Sawyer (E.F.) A new short-period variable in Aquila. Astron. jour., 7: 22,87. 

K Canis majoris. 
Chandler (S. C.) jr. On the two new Algol-type variables Y Cygni and R 
Canis majoris. Astron. jour., 7 : 144, 150. 

Sawyer (E. F.) On a new variable of the Algol type. Ibid., 119. 


E-SPIN (T. E.) New variable star in Cassiopeia. DM. + 47°, 194. Astron. 

Nachr., 116: 271, 319. 

P Cygni {Nova 1600). 

LoHSE (J. G.) [Observations of nova Cygni, 1885, Sept. 1 — 1886, Aug. 2.] 

Month, not., 47 : 494. 

X Cygni. 

Chandler (S. C.) jr. A new short-period variable in Cygnus. Astron. jour., 
7: 32. 

Observations of X Cygni. Ibid., 159. 

Y Cygni. 
Chandler (S. C.) jr. A new variable of the Algol type. Astron. jour., 7: 
40, 47. 

On the two new Algol-type variables Y Cygni and R Canis majoris. 

Ibid., 144, 150. 

Sawyer (E. F.) On the new Algol-type variable Y Cygni. Ibid., 116. 

Period of the Algol variable Y Cygni. Ibid., 133. 

EsPiN (T. E.) [New variable in Cygnus. DM. + 38°, 3957.] Astron. Nachr., 

117: 287. 

DM. -f 3°, 766. 

Boss (L.) Variability of DM. + 3°, 766. Astron. jour., 7 : 125. 

f Geminoruni. 
Reed (W. M.) [Observations 1887, Feb. 10— May 14.] Ibid., 127. 

U Geminorum. 
Baxkndell (J.) jr. Note on recent maxima of U Geminorum. J. Liverp. 

astron. soc, 5 : 114. 

S Hydrm. 

Sawyer (E. F.) [Observations 1887, Mar. 17— May 16.] Astron. jourr, 7:- 84 

BIBLIOGRAPHY- OF astronomy: 1887. 61 

Variable star — Contimced. 

Lalande 10063. 

Porter (J. G.) [Observations 1885, Feb. 2—1886, Feb. 8.] Obsry., 10: 2;:!3. 
White (E. J.) [Observations 1886, May 31— Nov. 22.] Ibid., 159. 

Bauschinger (J.) Neuer Veranderlicher in Libra. Astron. Nachr., 118: 27. 


Sawyer (E. F.) [Max. and min. of T and U Monocerotis observed in 1886.] 
Astron. jour., 7 : 109. 

U Ophiuchi. 

Chandler (S. C.) jr. Investigation of the light variations of U Ophiuchi. 
Ibid., 129, 137. 

Saavyer (E. F.) Observations 1885,, 1886. Ibid., 6, 32. 

Orionis {Nova, 1885). 

MoNCK (W. H. S.) [Possible explanation of variability.] Obsry., 10: 69. 

MtJLLER (G.) fiber den Gore'schen Stern bei x^ Orionis. Astron. Nachr., 116 : 

Parkhurst (H. M.) [Observations 1886, Oct. 22— Dec. 2.] Astron. jour., 7 : 30. 
Sawyer (E. F.) [Observations 1885, Dec. 19—1887, Jan. 27.] Ibid., 64. 
Stroobant (P.) [Observations . . . 1885, Dec. 19—1886, May 3.] Astron. 

Nachr., 116: 137. 


■ Williams (A. S.) A new variable in Puppis. Month, not., 47 : 91. 

10 Sagiitce. 

Gore (J. E.) [Observations 1886, Jan. 6— Sept. 27.] Month, not., 47: 267. 

Keed (W. M.) [Observations 1886, Oct. 20— Dec. 29.] Astron. jour., 7: 85. 

Sawyer (E. F.) On the variable star F. 10 Sagittae. Ibid., 102. 

57 SagiUarii. 

Sawyer (E. F.) A new variable of short period. Astron. jour., 7 : 3, 29. 

6' Tauri. 

Espin (T. E.) New variable star in Taurus. Astron. Nachr., 116 : 175. Also: 
Obsry., 10: 110. 

51 Vrsce majoris. 

Gemmill (S. M. B.) Suspected new variable in Ursa major. J. Liverp. astron. 
soc, 5 : 147. 

T Vulpeculce. 

Chandler (S. C.) jr. Light variations of Sawyer's variable in Vulpecula. 
Astron. jour., 7 : 1. 

Variable stars. 

Baxendell (J.) Maxima and minima of variable stars observed during the 
year 1886. Obsry., 10: 261. 

Chandler (S. C.) jr. On the methods of observing variable stars. 15 p. 12mo. 
[Cambridge, 1887.] 







THE YEA.R 1887. 







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Abbott, Helen C. DkS. — Plant Analysis as an Applied Science. A lecture deliv- 
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Plant Chemistry as Illustrated in the Production of Sugar from Sorghum. A 

lecture delivered before the Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of 

Pharmacy, Feb. 8th, 1887. Philadelphia, 1887. 
AiTKEN, W. — The Animal Alkaloids, Ptomaines, Leucomaines, and Extractives. 

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Alesandri e Maqgi. — Acque potabili, considerate come bevanda dell'Uomo e dei 

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Alkoholometrische Tafeln. — Sammlung von Alkoholometrischen Keductions- 

und Hilfstafeln herausgegeben von den. k. k. Normal-Aichungs-Commission. 

Wien, 1887. 
Ambuhl, G. — Das neue Kantonslaboratorium in St. Gallen. (St. Gallen, Ber. nat. 

Ges.) 1886. 
ANSCHtJTZ, EiCHARD. — Die Destination unter vermindertem Druck im Laboratorium. 

Bonn. 1887. 
Archiv for Pharmaci og teknisk Chemi med deres Grundvidenskaber, redig. af S. 

M. Trier. Kjobenhavn. Vol. 41. 1887. 
Arendt, K. — Grundzuge der Chemie. 2. Auflage. Hamburg, 1887. 

Methodischer Lehrgang der Chemie. Halle, 1887. 

Armstrong, H. E. — Electrolytic Conduction in Kelation to Molecular Composition 

and Chemical Change. London, Roy. Soc, 1886. 
Arnhold, M. — Zur Kenntniss des dreibasischen Ameisensaureathers und verschiede- 

ner Methylole. Jena, 1887. 
Arnold, C. — Kurze Anleitung zur qualitativen chemischen Analyse. 2. Aufl. 

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fBABCOCK, S. M. — Report of the Chemist to the New York Agricultural Experiment 

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Elmira, N. Y., 1887. 
[Battershall, Jesse P. — Food Adulteration and its Detection, with photomicro' 

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J3AUKR, J. — Ueber die Conservirung der Kohlensaurc des Bieres. Miinehen, 1887. 
Baumajjn, a. — Fehlergrenzen der aichpflichtigen Gegenstiinde und sonstigo Zahlen- 

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Bayley, T. — Pocket-Book for Chemists, Chemical Manufacturers, etc. 4. edit. New 

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Beilstkin, F. — Anleitung zur qualitativen chemischen Analyse. G. Umgearbeiteto 

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Handbuch der organischen Chemie. 2. Ganzlich umgearbeitete Auflage. 

Hamburg, Lieferungen 20-27. 188G-'87. 
Bergmann, J. G. — Farmaceutisk-kemiska Analys. Goteborg, 1887. 
Bericht iiber die fiinfte Versammlung der freien Vereinigung bayerischer Vertreter 

der angewandten Chemie zu Wiirzburg am 6 und 7 August, 1886. Herausgege- 

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iiber die sechste Versammlung der freien Vereinigung bayerischer Vertre- 
ter der angewandten Chemie zu Miinehen am 20 und 21 mai, 1887. Herausgege- 

ben von A. Hilger, K. Kayser, u. E. List. Berlin, 1887. 
Bernard, J. — Eepetitorium der Chemie. 3, verbess. u. vermehrte Aufl. v. J. Spenn- 

rath. Theil I. : Anorganische Chemie. Aachen, 1887. 
Berkthsen, a. — Kurzes Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie. Braunschweig, 1887. 
Berthelot, M. — Sur la force des matieres explosives d'apres la thermochimie. 3 

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Berthelot et Jungfleisch. — Traiteelementairede chimie organique. Sme. edition. 

Paris, 1887. 2 vols. 
BiECHELE, M. — Stochiometrie mit besonderer Beriiksichtigung der deutschen Phar- 

mukopoe sowie der massanalytischen Untersuchungen der Arzneistoife. Eich- 

stiitt, 1887. 
Biedermann, E.— Chemiker-Kalender, 1888. Ein Hulfsbuch fiir Chemiker, Phy- 

siker, Mineralogen, Industrielle, Pharmaceuten, Huttenmiinner, etc. Jahrgang 

IX. 2 Theile. Berlin, 1888. 
Blas, C. — Traite elementaire de chimie analytique. 2eme edition. Tome II ; Ana- 
lyse qualitative par la voie humide. Partie 1, Reactions et reactifs. Louvain, 

188G. [Tome I ; Analyse qualitative par la voie seche.] 
Block, J. — Ueber die aus Laevulinsaure mit Blausaure und Salzsiiure entstehenden 

JSJiuren ^'-Methylhydroxyglutarsiiure und Methylglutolactonsaure. Ueber einige 

Salze der Laevulinsaure. Gottingen, 1887. 
Blomstrand, C. W. — Ueber die Sauerstoffsiiuren des Jodes. (Lund, Acta Univers.) 

1887. 4to. 
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der Versuchsstationen und Handelslaboratorien. 2. Vermehrte u. umgearbeitete 

Auflage. 2 Biinde. Berlin, 1888. 
Boltzmann, L. — Neuer Beweiss zweier Siitze iiber das Warmegleichgewicht unter 

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Ueber die zum theoretischen Beweise des Avogadro'schen Gesetzes erforder- 

lichen Voraussetzungen. Wien, 1887. 
BoRUCKi, L. — Ueber den optisch aktiven Amylalkohol. Berlin, 1886. 
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BouTRON ET F. BouDET. — Ilydrotimetrio. Nouvelle methode pour determiner los pro- 
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Bkagard, M. — Beitrage zur Kenntniss der quantitativen Bestimmung des Zinks. 
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BrOmme, W. — Ueber die Cyanbenzoesauren. Gottingen, 1887. 

BuisiNE, A. — Kecherches sur la composition chimique du suint du mouton. Lille, 

Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Washington, No. 2. [Contains annual address of 
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BuxGE, G. — Lehrbuch der physiologischen u. pathologischen Chemie. Leipzig, 

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Vol. 2. London, 1887. Koy. 4to, 

Carnelley, HaTcDAKE, aud Andkrson. — The Carbonic Acid, Organic Matter, and 
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{^Eiopta?, ~/9o9 XP^i'^'-'' ^'^''' <p'^'~r]Tcov ruu ^dvcxotj 7:awe~'.(7zrj/i{ou. Mipix; 
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Mipoq II] MiraXXa. Mip(i<; III] opya-jur^ yrjiitia. ^E\> AfHfjai^^ 1887. 

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som ofverhufvud af uorganiska elementeri organiska foreningar. Ofver Klors 


invcrkan pa Kolsvavla och sarskildtofver Thiokarbonylklorid. Bidrag till kiin- 
nedomen om Metj^l- och Etylsulfhydrat. Oin syntcs och konstitution af Pseudo- 
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Clevk, p. T. — Om nagra Klornaftalinsulfonsyror. Stockholm, 1887. 
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1887. 12mo. 
Combes, A. — Nouvelle reaction du chlorure d'aluminium ; Syntheses dan? la Scrie 

grasse. Paris, 1887. 4to. 
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Gas Analysis. Glasgow, 1887. 
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tion. Theorie et pratique de la fabrication des bougies et des savons, fabrication 
des chandelles, parfumerie et savons de toilette. 2 edit., completement refondue 
de I'ouvrage de L. Droux: Les produits chimiques et la fabrication des savons, 
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Action de la lumiere solaire sur les substances hydrocarbonees. Nancy, 1887. 

DuRRANT, R. G. — Laws and Definitions Connected with Chemistry and Heat; with 

notes on physical and theoretical chemistry. London, 1887. 
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Ebert, H. — Anleitung zum Glas-Blasen. Fiir Physiker u. Chemikcr nach Shen- 
stone's " Methods of Glass-blowing " frei bearbeitet u. vcrmehrt. Leipzig, 1887. 
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graphischen Copirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positivprocess) auf Salz-, Starke- 
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Encyclopedic chimique, public sous la direction de Fremy : 
Tome III. Meiaux.- Cahier 2. Potassium, par Rousseau. 
Tome III. Cahier 10. Manganese, par Moissan. 
Tome VIII. Chimie organique. Section I : Alcalis organiquc artificicls. Partie 

2, Serie aromatique, par E. Bourgoin. 
Toine VIII. Fascicule 8 (Appcndice). Essai sur I'isomerie do position par xV. 

Tome X. Applications de chimie organique. Fasc. 4. Tcinturc et apprets des 
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Verbindungen, begonnen v. R. Meyer, fortgesetzt v. H. Goldscbmidt. Licfg. 0. 
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Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 10th edit., translated from the 15th German 

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Friedel. — Cours de Chimie organique, professe a la Faculte des Sciences de Paris 
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umgearbeitete Auflage, herausgegeben von K. Kraut. Band II, Abtheilung 1, 
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Gordon, J. H. — Aids to Practical Chemistry, especially arranged for the analysis of 
substances containing a single base and acid radicle. London, 1887. 12mo. 

Graham Otto's ausfiihrliches Lehrbucli der anorganischen Chemie. Neubearbeitet 
von A. Michaelis. Vierte Abtheilung. Braunschweig, 1887. 

Greville, H. L. — Student's Handbook of Chemistry. "With tables and chemical cal- 
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Hager's Untersuchungen. Ein Handbuch der Untersuchung, Priifung und Wert- 
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known by the name of Paracelsus, and the substance of his teachings concerning 
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Journal (The) of Analytical Chemistry. Edited by Edward Hart. Easton, Pa., 1887. 
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Om jordarterna och niobsyran i Fergusonit. (Ofv. Vet. Ak. Forh. 1887.) 

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Studier ofver sallsynta Jordarters Absorptionsspektra. (Stockholm, Ofv. Ak.) 


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DELIVERED MAY 29, 1889. 


MARCH, 1890. 




The " Toner Lectures " (of which the present issue is the tenth) 
have been instituted at Washington, D. C, by Joseph M. Toner, 
M. D., of this city, for the promotion of medical science. With this 
object the founder has placed in charge of a Board of Trustees, con- 
sisting of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, the Surgeon- 
General of the United States Army, the Surgeon-General of the 
United States Navy, and the President of the Medical Society of 
the District of Columbia, a fund, " the interest of which is to be 
applied for memoirs or essays relative to some branch of medical 
science, and containing some new truth fully established by experi- 
ment or observation." . 

The publication of these Lectures has been undertaken by the 
Smithsonian Institution, as falling legitimately within its funda- 
mental purpose, " the increase and diffusion of knowledge among 
men." The series of "Toner Lectures," published by the Institu- 
tion iu pamphlet form, is as follows : 

I. " On the Structure of Cancerous Tumors and the mode in 
which adjacent parts are invaded." By Dr. J. J. Woodward. De- 
livered March 28, 1873. Published November, 1873. 8vo., 42 pp. 

II. " Dual Character of the Brain." By Dr. C. E. Brown- 
Sequard. Delivered April 22, 1874. Published January, 1877. 
8vo., 23 pp. 

III. " On Strain and Over- Action of the Heart." By Dr. J. M. 
Da Costa. Delivered May 14, 1874. Published August, 1874. 
8vo., 30 pp. 

IV. " A Study of the Nature and Mechanism of Fever." By 
Dr. H. C. AVooD. Delivered January 20, 1875. Published Feb- 
ruary, 1875. 8vo., 47 pp. 



V. " On the Surgical Complications and Sequels of the Continued 
Fevers." By Dr. William W. Keen. Delivered Februar}' 17, 
187G. Published March, 1877. 8vo., 70 pp. 

VI. " Sub-cutaneous Surgery." By Dr. William Adams. De- 
livered September 13, 1876. Published April, 1877. 8vo., 17 pp. 

VII. "The Nature 'of Reparatory Inflammation in Arteries after 
Ligatures, Acupressure, and Torsion." By Edward O. Shake- 
speare. Delivered June 27, 1878. Published March, 1879. Svo., 
70 pp, and 7 plates. 

VIII. " Suggestions for the Sanitary Drainage of Washington 
City." By George E. Waring, Jr.' Delivered May 26, 1880. 
Published June, 1880. 8vo., 24 pp. 

IX. " Mental 0\^er-Work and Premature Disease among Public 
and Professional Meu." By Dr. Charles K. Mills. Delivered 
March 19, 1884. Published January, 1885. Svo., 36 pp. 

X. " A Clinical Study of the Skull." By Dr. Harrison Allen. 
Delivered May 29, 1889. Published March, 1890. 8vo., 79 pp. 
with 8 cuts. 

These Lectures, in addition to their first issues in pamphlet form, 
are republished and included in the " Smithsonian Miscellaneous 

As it has been found quite 'impossible to supply gratuitously the 
large demand from medical men and others for these Lectures (in 
addition to the liberal graut to the leading public Libraries and 
other Institutions in this and foreign countries), the uniform price 
of 25 cents has been fixed for each, by which probably their more 
equitable jjersonal distribution is secured. 

t^. P. LANGLEY, 

Secretury SiK.Uhsonlan Institiiiion. 
Smituson'ian Institution, 

Washington, March, 1890. 


It would be difficult to mention a single phase of the manifold 
expressions that belong to disease in which the study of the face 
and brain cannot enter ; but to the laryngologist and to the neurolo- 
gist many portions of the head must be of especial interest. The 
laryngologist can examine the mouth, nose, and the pharynx ; the 
neurologist the surfaces of the crown, which afford him guides to 
the peculiarities of the interior of the skull. Since much which 
pertains to both of these branches of medicine is of comparatively 
recent growth, a study of the osteology of the head cannot fail at 
the present time to be useful. 

An accurate impression of the superficial characters of the skull 
can be received from examination of the living subject. Reliance 
must be made upon these characters in fixing the relations of the 
soft parts; hence the ranges of variation in these characters 
should be known, and as full a knowledge as possible be obtained 
by study of the cranium. In the paper herewith submitted an at- 
tempt is made to treat of these relations and ranges of variation. 
The author's interest, at first, was confined to the diseased conditions 
of the facial region and of the vault of the pharynx, but the interest 
gradually widened and soon embraced the normal anatomy of the 
entire head. 

The method recommended by him is as follows : First, to study 
carefully a character as detected in the living subject, then to exam- 
ine all crania available and endeavor to ascertain in what guise the 
same structure may re-appear, and subsequently to formulate such 
descriptions as can be deduced from the data ; second, to bring 
together the material gleaned while examining crania, which ap- 
pears to be of interest, to illustrate the nutritive processes at work 


in forming or maintaining the different parts of the skull each to 
the others. 

Many of the charactei's obtained in this manner are of necessity 
minute ; so, indeed, are the distinctions upon which the anthro- 
pologist relies. The obliquity of the palpebral fissure, the color 
of the iris, the distribution of the hair, or the characters furnished 
by the individual hair may be mentioned in this connection. 

The significance which can be attached to the study of variation 
either in the study of race grade, or in the large question of evolu- 
tion of organic forms, is of course conceded. The last named 
cannot be determined until extended series of data have been col- 
lected. If, according to Engel (Untersuchungen iiber Schiidel- 
formen, p. 121), uncultivated primitive races exhibit few variations 
in the composition of the skull as compared with the more ad- 
vanced, we may be prepared to accept Retzius' dictum that indi- 
vidual differences become greater in proportion to the higher intel- 
lectual development of a nation. Preservation of such facts as the 
disposition of the minute plates and processes of the interior of the 
nasal chambers and of the base of the skull, the description of 
suture changes, of the depressions made by small veins, and of the 
minor deviations in size of paired structures may have an outcome 
as interesting as those derived by discovery of structures which 
exist on a larger scale. 

The lack of fixation of characters should not of necessity diminish 
their value. Beginnings of characters are always facile and inde- 
terminate. This is nature's process. 

The effects of diseased action, although their manifestations be 
apparently insignificant, are also worthy of study from the stand- 
point of the biologist as well as that of the pathologist. When pro- 
duced from other than traumatic causes, these effects have distinct 
value. They may indicate modifications of the processes of life, 
which are of the same kind as those furnished by the anatomy of 
normal parts. 


The extent to which variation in normal anatomy is an exciting 
cause of disease is difficult to determine. All things remaining the 
same, it may be said that the most variable parts are seen in the 
regions which are in extremes of specialization, as in the nasal 
chambers of man, and that these chambers are degenerate as com" 
pared to many mammals where tlie i-ange of variation is small. 
The pre-disposition of nasal disease in man cannot be rationally dis- 
associated from the proneness of the parts which enter into the com- 
position of the nose to vary. If this statement can be depended 
upon, the publication of all details of structure in the nasal cham- 
ber becomes essential. 

This essay is a contribution to the morphological study of dis- 
eased action. The writer trusts that increasing interest may be 
awakened in the proposition that medicine for the most part is a 
science based on biology. The study of biology should not be the 
preparatory work of the trio only, but should be the subject of un- 
ceasing assiduity in every phase of medical research. The study of 
anatomical variation in the human frame is a phase of biology, and 
it is held in this connection to be a subject as important as any other 
which may claim the attention of the student of etiology of disease. 

The materials upon which the essay is based were found in the 
collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and 
of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. The letter C, in 
absence of other signs, will indicate that a specimen so named is to 
be found in the College of Physicians (Hyrtl Collection); the re- 
mainder are in the Academy. (The last named are often indicated 
by the letters A. N. S.) 

The determination of percentage of frequency of any anatomical 
peculiarities has not been attempted. The writer has been con- 
tent to give the numbers and nationalities of the specimens re- 
ferred to. 

The entire number of specimens of crania in the Academy is 
1,750, and in the College of Physicians 156. 


The following exhibit the arrangement of the subject-matter of 
the essay : 

The malar bone. 

The lower jaw. 

The norma-basilaris. 

The basi-cranial angle. 

The posterula. 

The nasal chambers. 

The Vertex — its sutures, eminences, depressions, general shape, 

Remarks on the sutures other than those of the vertex. 
The foramina. 

The grooves caused by blood vessels. 
The cranial ridges, processes, etc. 


Delivered May 29, 1889. 




The malar bone is one of the most conspicuous of the superficial 
characters of the face. At the outer and lower margin of the orbit 
the external surface, as well as the posterior and zygomatic borders, 
can be separately distinguished. The bone as it enters into the 
composition of the lower border of the orbit is discussed elsewhere. 

The consideration of the external surface will be undertaken at 
this place. The chief points to consider are, first, its inequality, 
and, second, its obliquity. 

1st. The inequality of the surface is simple in character. It is 
comprised in the lower part, this being at times raised so as to form 
a rounded projected eminence. It is less pronounced in the negro 
than in the Caucasian, and is entirely absent in the child. When 
the cranium is examined the inequality is seen to answer to distinct 
differences in texture of the superficies — differences varying in indi- 
viduals, but never entirely absent. 

Throughout the series of examinations made with this object in 
view — vt^., of determining the variations in the upper and lower part 
of the bone — it was found that from simple differences in superficial 
texture it was an easy transition to the detection of differences in the 
deeper texture of the two parts ; that thence to attempts at the for- 



mation of suture-lines which extended along the boundaries of the 
parts to a groove along the entire length of the bone on the poste- 
rior surface ; and that finally the observer was led to the study of 
specimens which showed the separation of the bone by a perfect, 
open suture. The details of the description adopted will appear 
in the reverse order of the appearances as given above. 

The existence of a suture in the malar bone has been occasionally 
noted in the skulls of various races. J. B. Davis/ in 1872, con- 
tributed a short note on the subject, of which the following is an 
epitome: The author refers to the presence of the suture in nine skulls 
of Asiatics and negroes. The suture is often met with in the skulls 
of the Dyaks of Borneo. It is rarely met with in modern skulls, 
but more frequently in the skulls of ancient Europe. Prof Wenzel 
Gruber'- subsequently enumerated twenty-one examples and gave 
the literature of the subject. 

The collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences contains ten 
undescribed examples of a distinct bone occupying the lower part 
of the malar, or lying at the malo-squamosal suture. Seven skulls 
were found which exhibited these peculiarities. No. 1255, Ostrogoth, 
showed a separate malar bone on one side. No. 1442, Peruvian, ex- 
hibited a separate malar ossicle at the malo-zygomatic suture, on 
both right and left side of the skull. No. 1690, Peruvian, a dis- 
tinct transverse suture crossed the malar bone of the right side. 
No. 83 (Atacames), Peruvian, a transverse suture was seen on 
the left side; a less distinct one on the right side. No. 1305, 
Peruvian, a small ossicle was seen at the malo-zygomatic suture on 
both sides of the skull. No. 753, Seminole, and 540, Pawnee, a 
similar ossicle was noted on the right side. No. 4G0, Malay, exhib- 
ited an imperfect division of one of the malar bones into two parts. 
This specimen is not enumerated with the foregoing. In the United 

1 Journal of Anthropological Institute, vol. l,p. clvi. 
''Das Zwoigetheilte Jochbeine. Vienna, 1873. 



States Army Museum (No. 309, Chickasaw) the malar bone was 
double on both sides.^ 

Four examples were seen in which a suture began at the malo- 
zygomatic suture, and, advancing forward, was lost a short distance 
from the posterior end of the bone. These were No. 1424, Peru, 
on both right and left sides; No. 1506, ibid, on the right side, and 
No. 1434, ibid, on both right and left sides. 

In a single example. No. 1369, ibid, a skull of an old female, a 
foramen perforated the right malar bone a little in advance of the 
malo-zygomatic suture and appeared to be in the line of the trans- 
verse suture, though no trace of the line could be discerned either 
in front or back of the opening. 

Thus twelve examples can be cited, all of American origin, which 
exhibit transverse malar sutures more or less complete as seen from 
both the inner and outer surface of the bone, and two in which the 
bone was double. 

But when the inner side of the malar bone is examined a much 
larger number of skulls exhibit the transverse suture. No attempt 
was made to ascertain the entire number of examples last named. 
AVhile a search was instituted, with another object in view, the inner 
surface of the malar bone was at the same time examined, and out 
of the entire number examined, it was detected in fifty-one crania. 
In eight of these it existed on both right and left sides. 

The distribution of selected examples among the races was as 
follows : Nox'th American Indians, one each of Chinook,'' Lenape,^ 
Menominee,* Naas,^ Shawnee,^ California Indians,' one unnamed ; ® 
Peruvians, ten ; ® Anglo-American, one • '" Mexicans, three ; " negro, 
one;^^ Egyptians, five;'^ Circassians,^' Roman,^^ Arabian, '^'^ Nu- 
bian,^' one each. 

'I have since seen an additional example in a skull (No. 53) in the ana- 
tomical collection of the University of Pennsylvania. 

2 462. 3 40. *44. 5 213. 6 1210. M683. 8 204. 

9]Sros. 567, 1704, 1298, 1303, 1025, 941, 447, 11, 891, 1426. i" No. 17. 
" 1005, 1004, 1515. 1-^ 548. " 997, 778, 799, 814, 768. 

" No. 762. 15 No. 248. i^ No. 776. " No. 829. 


In all of these specimens a delicate line could be traced forward 
from the posterior to the antero-inferior portion of the bone. It 
was of precisely the same character in the examples in which the 
outer suture was distinct. 

The inner surface of the malar bone will not infrequently exhibit 
a concavity below the line of the suture. This concavity is distinct 
even in specimens in which the suture is nowhere evident. Such a 
peculiarity is well seen in a Peruvian skull (No. 1407). A similar 
disposition was noticed in the skull of the Hyrtl collection (No. 92). 

The small ossicles named above as occurring at themalo-zygomatic 
suture tend to break up the uniform smooth surface of the inner 
aspect of the malar bone — a disposition which may exist even in the 
absence of a separate ossicle. The squamosal element may be long 
and irregular and extend forward, along the line occasionally taken 
by the suture, nearly to the maxilla.^ This was seen in a Peruvian 
(No. 1506), which showed an incomplete sutux*e externally, and in 
the skulls of two Creek Indians (Nos. 652 and 75). 

The following measurements were made to indicate the propor- 
tionate size of the upper and lower parts of the malar bone. The 
numbers have been arranged in the order of the size of the upper 
part of the bone, this being the smallest in the first example named 
and the largest in the last : 

Upper . . 2 c. 8 m. 1 ^^. , 

T f\ u n a r Hindoo. 

Lower . . " 9 ' J 

3 " " 1 

Q u g » ( Tahitian. 

3 " 2 " 1 

A u Q a > Esquimaux, 1561. 

3 " 2 " 1 

-J <, r ,< /-Marquesas, 1531. 

3 " 8 " 1 . 

A <( p « f Esquimaux, 1559. 

^Wenzel Gruber (Archiv. f, Anat. u. Physiol., 1873) has given elaborate 
attention to this subject as studied in modern European crania. 


Upper . . 3 " 3 " \ Hindoo, 1047. 

Lower . . 0" 7 " /Lapp., 1551. 

O U O (< ^ 

^ ,, -. ,, y Chinese, 426. 

3 " 3 " 1 

^ ,, g ,, I Malay, 47. 

3 " 5 " I 

Q u g « (' Burmese. 

Upper . . 3 c. 8 ra. 1 - - . , 

T A u 1 A u r ^ett side. ^ 

Lower . 10 j f 

Upper . . 3 '.' 9 " \ . . j 

X n ii Q ,( r right side. J 

Lower . . " 8 " j ^ 

Cretin of Hyrtl col- 

The measurements were taken from the middle of the fronto- 
malar suture to a line indicating the boundary between the two 
parts of the bone as defined by the change in texture of the surface. 
No sutures existed in the specimens selected. 

In the Hyrtl collection of crania, in the College of Physicians 
of Philadelphia, a Chinese skull (No. 13) showed a complete ex- 
ternal suture on both right and left sides of body. A Cretin (No. 7) 
showed a complete suture in the bone of the left side and an incom- 
plete one on the right side. 

A Siamese skull (No. 39) retained an incomplete partial external 
suture on both bones, with entire posterior grooves. 

In No. 67 the malar and zygomatic processes nearly met on the 
posterior surfaces of both bones. A similar groove was seen in a 
Japanese skull (No. 50). 

Ill a skull (No. 77) a distinct posterior fissure was seen in both 

In a skull of a Hollander (No. 10) a foramen was noted in the 
maxillo-malar suture. 

The malar bone is thus found to exhibit a disposition for the 
lower part to become distinct from the upper. The disposition is 
more frequently seen on the inner than the outer surface, and in all 


instances is more pronounced posterioi'ly than anteriorly. The line 
of the suture when complete answers with an approach to accuracy 
to the attachment of the masseter muscle ; and the existence of the 
suture might in some instances be found associated Avith the traction 
of this muscle. 

In skulls which had been in a measure disintegrated by the 
action of the air, and sunlight and heat — in a word, which had been 
" weathered " — a distinct texturing was seen at the two parts of the 
bone. A beautiful instance of " weathering," demonstrating the 
texture of the bone, was seen in a skull of a California Indian (No. 
1683), as well as in a Peruvian (No. 939, A. N. S.) In like man- 
ner fractures of the bone as shown in a skull of a Tahitian (No. 
1016, A. N. S.), indicate the same difference in texture of the two 

This difference, in brief, is as follows : The superficial lines of the 
upper part are concentric, or nearly so, with the orbital margin, and 
the interior is composed of rounded cancelli, while the superficial 
lines of the lower part are parallel with the inferior free margin of 
the bone and the cancelli are coarsely laminated. 

2d. The obliquity of the malar bone depends more upon the lower 
border than the upper part, and is associated with a change in the 
zygomatic process of the squamosa. The arch being viewed from 
above, the entire inner contour of the process last named can be 
seen in skulls in which the malar ^especially at the lower jjart) 
is much deflected, as in Peruvians, while the posterior part only of 
the inner contour can be seen in skulls of low degree of malar 
deflection, as in negroes. 

The degree of obliquity is independent of size. It is marked in 
in a Tschutki skull, A. N. S., where the malar bone is small. 

In skulls of high degree of malar deflection, as in Malays and 
Chinese, the under surface of the zygomatic process of the squamosa 
is inclined inward from without and outward from below, while 
those in which the degree of deflection is small, as in negroes, it is 
nearly straight. 


Such data indicate that with the deflection outward of the lower 
part of the malar there are associated distinctive changes in the 
squamosal part of the zygoma. 

The malar bone of the fcetus at term shows all the essential pecu- 
liarities of the adult bone, (the swelling mentioned on p. 7 alone 
being absent,) even the minute spine at the posterior margin of the 
orbital process, (occasionally retained in the adult,) being present. 


The frequency with Avhich the malar bone may enter into the 
spheno-m axillary fissure (by the processus marginalis) is subject to 
much variation. Froment (quoted by Henle) found it to enter into 
the fissure in nearly one-fourth of all skulls observed by him. In 
the following skulls of immature subjects — i. e., below the age of 
sixteen years — forty-one in number, the association was present in 
thirty-one instances; hence I conclude that the exclusion of the malar 
bone from the fissure is more frequent in adult life than in youth. 

The skulls in which the process was excluded were distributed as 
follows : One each in a Utah, Sioux, Seminole Indian, Chinese, 
Caucassian, Egyptian, and a Sandwich Islander skull. The re- 
maining three skulls were unnamed. 


By careful inspection almost the entire outline of the lower jaw 
can be made out in the living subject. Even without preparation, 
the degree of projection of the chin can be seen in profile, as also 
the extent to which the angles are developed ; but careful exam- 
ination with the hand, especially when accompanied with oral in- 
spection, greatly aids the observer in determining the form of the 

The most marked variation in the form of the jaw is seen in the 
depression which lies in advance of the insertion of the masseter 



muscle. I have ventured to call this the mitegomwn. This depres- 
sion can be easily detected by the finger. When the antegonium is 
well defined the mentum is always high. In a word, the vertical 
measurement at the anterior end of the horizontal ramus being 
large, the measurement at the posterior end is small. In one ex- 
ample examined the anterior measurement was 3° 9"" and the pos- 
terior 2° .S""™. In another example the anterior measurement was 
3° and the posterior 2° 2°"°. 

Fig. 1. — The lower j;v\v, showini; the antegonivini, and high montum ; 
a, the antegonium. (No. 200, A. N. S.) 

This variation is often met with in patients and is generally seen 
in Cretins. It appears to be a result of rapid growth of the bone. 
To what extent the facial artery and vein may exert pressure on 
the bone to form the depression is not known. Tlie molar t'eeth 
are often tilted forward in specimens of the bone which exhibit the 
antegonium, and in some instances the teeth wear transversely in- 
stead of obliquely. 

The finger being placed in the interval between the tongue and the 
lower jaw-bone, one can detect with ease the mylo-hyoid ridge. The 



base of the coronoid process can be outlined in emaciated subjects. 
The condyles of the lower jaw are the most variable of any part of 
the bone. Of necessity the general shape of the articular surfaces 
cannot be made out in the living subject, but the tubercle to which 
is attached the external lateral ligament can easily be felt. When 
the lower jaw is depressed the finger can define the outer half 
(nearly) of the condylar surface. 

Fig. 2. — Lower jaw of an Esquimaux, showing hyperostosis on the lin- 
gual aspect of the horizontal ramus. (No. 173, A. N. S.) 

In the specimens of the lower jaw of the cranium of an Esqui- 
maux in the A. N. S. an elongated swelling was noted lying on the 


lino-ual aspect of the ramus from the first m.olar to the canine tooth. 
In the skull of a young adult the swelling was mammalated, each 
nodule answering to the socket of a tooth. In the remaining bones 
three in number, the swelling was uniformly convex, aud extended 
to a line which was nearly equal to that of the bottoms of the 
sockets. The bone constituting the swelling was firm in consist- 
ence, but did not appear to be the result of inflammation. Out of 
thirty-four Esquimaux crania in the Army Medical Museum the 
hyperostosis was absent in one only. 

In the living subject the distance from the angle of the bone to 
the firm muscle-mass about the cervical vertibrse often differs on 
the two sides. It is commonly greater on the left side. When sep- 
arated from the attachments and relations, the bone does not exhibit 
the degree of asymmetry, which corresponds to the peculiarity named. 
It is true the left ramus may be deflected slightly outward to corre- 
spond w'ith the increase of left-sided deviation of the superior dental 
arch, but no amount of dental variation could correlate with the 
apparently gross change at the angle as is seen during life. The 
explanation lies not in the maxillse, but in the cervical vertebrae, 
especially the atlas, the left transverse process of which is the 

The disposition for the left angle of the lower jaw to project to a 
degree much greater than the angle of the right side has been found 
by me to correspond also to the relation between the right and left 
sides of the hyoid bone. In a word, the entire left greater cornu 
deviates to a greater degree from the median line of the bone than 
does the right. The same remark is applicable to the two sides of 
the thyroid cartilage. These parts can be felt in the neck of the 
living subject. I have notes of several cases in which an irritation 
of the lower part of the pharynx appeared to be associated with the 
pressure of the posterior free end of the right great cornu against 
the mucous membrane. I have never detected similar points of 
irritation on the left side. The tentative conclusion I have drawn 


from the facts is that the right greater cornu of the hyoid bone has 
a tendency to be pressed in against the wall of the pharynx, while 
the left appears to have no such disposition. 


The norma basilaris embraces the skull when viewed from 
beneath. It is the least natural of any of the norrare, for the parts 
back of the foramen magnum are included in the region of the neck 
and are separated from the occiput by inconstant lines, while the 
facial parts are included in the mouth. The parts intermediate 
to the occiput and the face (the lower jaw will be considered as 
absent) -constitute the true " base of the skull" as limited by phy- 
sicians in studying the skull in the living individual. It includes 
studies of the important region of the pharyngeal vault. Varia- 
tions in the norma basilaris, as might be expected, are seen in the 
occipital, facial, and intermediate regions, which do not of necessity 
correlate with one another, but express oftentimes entirely distinct,^ 
if not opposing, tendencies. 

In order properly to consider the relations of the somewhat in- 
congruous elements of the norma basilaris it is important to recall 
the significance of the parts. 

Taking the union of the squamosal, tympanic, petrosal, and 
styloid elements to form the temporal bone as an illustration of the 
fact that early union between bones is an evidence of their affinity, 
then the following statements become tenable : 

The skull of the child at the sixth year exhibits the bones of the 
face united completely to one another and to the sphenoid and 
frontal bones. Thus, since they unite with the facial elements 
sooner than with the occipital, squamosal, or frontal, they may be 
said to have closer relations with them. The bones of the face 
(excepting, of course, the lower jaw) unite with the sphenoid and 
the frontal bones to form a single segment or piece, while the 
remaining bones — the parietals, temporals, and the occipital — are 


separate. The association of bones above named will receive in 
this connection the name of the anterior cranial segment. 

The squamosal portion of the temporal bone unites with the 
malar bone, while the element first named is in articular union 
with the lower jaw, thus a natural series on the side and the base 
of the skull is constituted. The most intimate relations of this series 
are with the bones of the anterior segment rather than with the 
parietal, and it may receive the name of the squamoso -malar series. 

The petrosal elements early unite with the squamosal, but never 
exhibit inclinations to unite with the occipital or sphenoid bones. 

The occipital and parietal elements are also distinct, and nothing 
can be claimed to show their disposition to unite in any definite 
manner to one another or to any of the groups above named of 
cranial bones. 

In reviewing the above facts it is seen that the sphenoid and 
frontal bones have facial affiuities ; that the squamosal and malar 
bones form a natural series, which tend to embrace the .lower jaw, 
but that nothing in the attempt to demonstrate affinities by their 
predilections in articulation can be shown for the parietal or occip- 
ital bones. 

Conceding that variations in bones are to be studied in connection 
with the changes in the groups to which they belong, it follows that 
the variations of the face should iuclude those of the sphenoid and 
frontal bones ; that the squamosal, malar, and inferior maxilla 
should be studied together, and that the remaining bones cannot be 
studied as a whole. 

The anterior segment can be easily separated from the parts lying 
back of it by the line of the occipito-sphenoid junction. When 
the junction is obliterated a hypothetical transverse line^ joining 

^ The transverse line answers necessarily to the place of the former su- 
ture which unites the sphenoid and occipital bones. Some writers assert 
that the transverse depression seen in the adult skull is not sutural, but 
muscular. This is not the case. The two lines are distinct. They are 
clearly seen as such in No. 87 Carniola (College of Physicians) and ob- 
scurely so in many specimens. 


the tips of the sphenoidal tongues can be substituted for it. The 
production of this line across the norma will traverse on either side 
the alisphenoid, at the region of the oval foramen, the articular 
eminence, and the root of the zygoma. 

The transvei'se line can be intersected at its centre by a hypo- 
thetical longitudinal line, which, passing through the mid-poin*^ of 
the basion, can be produced so as to divide the norma into a right 
and a left part. 

The points of the greatest interest in the region are the asymmetry 
of the sides of the superior dental arch, the relative positions of the 
oval foramina of the sphenoid bones, the position of the anterior 
border of the articular eminence in connection with the trans- 
verse line, the depth of the zygomatic fossa, the thickness of the 
malar bone, the size of the bulbo petrosus — /. e., the rounded swell- 
ing of the free part of the petrosa — and the angles formed by the 
axes of the tympanic bones and the petrosa with the longitudinal 

The left side of the dental arch has been found more frequently 
expanded (it embracing a larger curve at the position of the first 
and second molars) than is the right. With this expansion is 
associated a diminished depth of the zygomatic fossa, a weaker ar- 
ticular eminence, and a thinning of the zygomatic arch, as com- 
pared with the same parts on the right side. The temporal ridge is 
also the weaker on the expanded side. The significance of the 
above facts appears to be as follows : The side of least expansion of 
the dental arch is the stronger side ; hence a dental armature which 
IS straight, or nearly so, is stronger than one which is curved. 

The base of the alisphenoid on the stronger side inclines to be 
carried back farther than is the case on the weaker ; but this is 

The angles formed by the axis of the tympanic and the petrosal 
elements vary on the two sides, but appear to be independent of the 
changes in the anterior segment and the squamoso-malar series. 
The asymmetry in the sides of the foramen magnum, and in the 


distance from the basioii to the mastoid process, and to the trans- 
verse process, are also variable without reference to other basic 

In some specimens the differences between the measurements of 
the anterior cranial segment and those of the occipital bone suggest 
that the rates of growth in the two parts of the skull have been de- 
termined by independent causes. 

Thus, when the base of the skull (norma basilaris) is carefully 
inspected, it is evident that the parts on the sides of a median line 
are not always of equal value in size ; also that the parts of the ante- 
rior segment may vary in a manner different from those of the parts 
posterior to it. In a word, while the contrast of right and left meas- 
urements are often discernible, the preponderance is not always the 
same in the two parts. In some examples the left side of the norma 
is wider throughout, though this is infrequent. In others the left side 
of the structures posterior to the anterior cranial segment is the wider, 
while the right side of the anterior segment is best developed. This 
is a common disposition. In the group last named the increase of the 
base of the alisphenoid (especially in a backward direction) is associ- 
ated with a narrowing of the petrosal space — i. e , the space between 
the alisphenoid and the occipital bones. When this is seen the left side 
of the dental arch is often more deflected than the right, the right 
malar bone is the larger and encroaches to a greater degree on the 
inferior orbital margin, and the surfaces of origin of the right mas- 
seter and temporal muscles are the better marked. 

The ])roduction of the transverse line intersects the foramen ovale 
at a point near its posterior margin or at one entirely back of the 
opening. The left side of the incisive foramen is often the larger, 
and the suture between the palatal plates of the maxillae is not in 
line with the basion, but lies to the left. It appears to be probable 
that the muscles of mastication of the right side are more powerful 
than are those of the left. Hence the muscular impressions are 
here most marked and the malar bone is the more robust. The 
base of the right alisphenoid appears to be forced back, and by 


harmonious distribution of the blood-vessels is increased in its diam- 
eters, while the angular process becomes wider. 

That the left dental arch is more deflected may be the result of a 
diminished tonicity iu the masticatory and buccal muscles on this 
side. This hypothesis agrees with the fact that the left frontal 
eminence is commonly the smaller. 

The following measurements have been taken in illustration of 
the data as above stated. No one specimen illustrates all the 
points, nor is this to be expected in so variable a form as the human 
skull. When in a given example a measurement is omitted it may 
be understood that the result is negative, and not that the meas- 
urement conflicts with the views as alread}^ given. 

No. 916, negro, A. N. S., aged 16 years : 

Longitudinal line overlies median suture of hard palate. 

Transverse line lies back of oval foramen, left ; iu front of the 
foramen, right. The line is 4™" back of anterior border articular 
eminence, right, 8°"° left. 

Distance from longitudinal line to outer border first molar tooth, 
30°"" right, 28""" left. 

The left petrosal element has an angle of 60'', the vaginal process 
50°, and the tympanic bone 20°. The right petrosal element has 
an angle of 60°, the vaginal process 45°, and the tympanic bone 

Other peculiarities of this cranium included the lachrymal crest 
joining the maxilla ; the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone 
rudimental, with deep triangular notch reaching back to the second 
molar tooth; the longitudinal palatal suture straight — the atlas 
anchylosed to occiput. 

No. 917, negro, A. N. S,, aged 21 years : 

Longitudinal line overlies hard palate 2""" to left of longitudinal 
suture. Transverse line 2"™ behind anterior border articular emi- 
nence, right ; at level of border, left. 


Distance from longitudinal line to outer margin first molar, left, 
30°""; right, 28°"°; to outer margin 2d molar, left, 32"°'; right, 
30""° ; to outer margin 3d molar, 30 left, 30 right. 

Angle of left petrosal element, 50° ; left vaginal process, 50° ; left 
tympanic bone, 90°. Angle of right })etrosal element, 50° ; right 
vaginal process, 40° ; right tympanic bone, 90°. 

Left zygomatic fossa, 26"" deep ; right, 28°" deep. 

Left zygomatic arch at suture, 4"" wide ; right, 6"" wide. 

Other peculiarities : Large, thick perpendicular plate of ethmoid 
bone ; septum straight ; longitudinal palatal suture not straight ; 
jugular and carotid foramen smaller on left than right ; also the 
canal for tensor tympani muscle ; bregraal and post-bregraal por- 
tions of sagittal suture deflected, the latter about 60° ; lachrymal 
crest inferiorly produced, but not touching maxilla ; lingual process 
of sphenoid bone absent on right. 

Distance from middle point of tympanic bone to base of malar 
process of maxilla, 8" ; from alveolar process, left, 6", and alveolar 
process right. 

The following notes were takeu to iudicate au occasional character 
which varied in size on the two sides of the norma : 

No. 127, Turk (Col. of Physicians) : 
Left angular process, 8"" ; right, 10"™. 
Stephanion more interrupted on the right than the left side. 

No. 132 (Col. of Physicians) : 
Left side palate deflected. 
Right, depth of zygomatic fossa, 16""°; left, 17"". 

No. 92, Uskoke (Col. of Physicians) : 
Left, width from basion to outer border transverse process of 
occipital bone, 44"" ; right, 41"". 

Left, depth of zygomatic fossa, 20"" ; right, 23"". 
Left, width of malo-zygomatic suture,* 6""; right, 8"". 
Left, width of bulbo-petrosa narrower than on right. 
All parts of the right side of the vertex smaller than I^ft. 


No. 94 (Col. of Physicians) : 
Left basio-transverse (i. e., measurement from basiou to outer end 
of the transverse process of occipital bone), 40"" ; right, 4o°"". 
Left carotid foramen, 5°""; right, 6°"". 
Left supra orbital margin more inclined than on right. 
Left portion of incisive foramen the larger. 
Left side dental arch but slightly larger than ou right. 

No 114, Elba (Col. of Physicians): 
Left dental arch most expanded. 
Left basio-transverse, 41'"" ; right, 43'°'°. 
L/eft zygomatic fossa, 21°"° deep ; right, 24"" deep. 

No. 73 (Col. of Physicians) : 
Left dental arch most expanded. 

Left basio-transverse measurement, 41"" ; right, 40"". 
Left spinous process of sphenoid, 4""; right, 5"". 
Left angular process from base of lingualis to sphenoido-squa- 

mosal suture, 22"" ; right, 22"". 

No. 77 (Col. of Physicians) : 
Left dental arch most expanded. 
Left basib-traus verse, 36"" ; right, 40"". 
Left zygomatic fossa, 23°"° deep ; right, 25°" deep. 

No. 117: 
Left dental arch most expanded. 
Left zygomatic fossa, 17"" deep ; right, 21°"" deep. 
Temporal ridge greatly interrupted on right ; not interrupted on 

No. 34, Krim. (Col. of Physicians) : 

Right side dental arch expanded. Distance from base of lingual 
process to sphenoido-squamosal suture, left, 26"" ; right, 25"". 

Transverse line barely reaches back of the rounded form of fora- 
men ovale, or right, while lying well behind the forameu,or left. Left 


jugular aud carotid foramina smaller oa left than on right. Zygo- 
matic fossa, right, 24'"'° deep ; left, 25°"" deep. 
No. 6 (Col. of Physicians): 

Depth of zygomatic fossa, 15'"'" right, 17'"'" left. 

Width of anterior lacerated foramen, 10'"'" left, 6'"'" right. 

In cranium of giant in College of Physicians the zygomatic fossa 
is 30""° deep on right, 22'"'" on left. The malar bone lacks 2""™ 
of reaching infra-orbital foramen, right, and 5""^ oa left. 

No. 50, Japanese (Col. of Physicians): 
Base of alisphenoid, 21 j""" right, 20'"'" left; no asymmetry of 
dental arches. Transverse line 2'"'" back of foramen ovale, left ; 
crosses foramen at anterior third right. 

No. 545, Malay (A. N. S.) : 

The foramen ovale is crossed by the transverse line at the poste- 
rior margin on the right side, and at the middle, on the left, the 
line crosses the articular eminence 4"'"' back of anterior margin. 

The antero-posterior line answers to the middle of the socket of 
the left central incisor. 

Right spinous process, 5'"'". 

Left " " 5'""'. 

Right base of alisphenoid, back of foramen ovale, S"""", 

Left " ''• " " " 2'"'". 

Right from sjiinous foramen outward, 9""". 

Left " " " " 7'"™. 

Right width of zygoma at suture, 5'"'". 


Since the introduction of the rhinal mirror as an aid to the ex- 
amination of the pharynx, the region known as the naso-pharynx 
can be inspected with almost the same ease as any other portion 
of the body. Many of the features of interest which relate to this 
portion of the pharynx are of a character which can be analyzed 
only by reference to the cranium. In the naso-pharynx are de- 


tected the outlines of the delicate vertical plate of the vomer, the 
Sphenoidal surfaces of the internal pterygoid processes, the posterior 
ends of the middle and inferior turbinated bones, and the vault of 
the pharynx as defined for the most part by the alse of the vomer 
and the occipital process of the occipital bone. 

In a communication to the American Laryngological Association 
which I made in 1888 I called attention to a portion of this i-egion 
which extends from the plane of the posterior nares to the posterior 
limit of the vomerine al^e, and defined on the side by the internal 
pterygoid plates, and proposed for it the term posterida. Subse- 
quent study has confirmed me in the value of this portion of the 
naso-pharynx being restricted as a distinct clinical region, and I 
here venture to show the close relation which exists between it and 
the morbid condition of the interior of tha nasal chamber. I will, 
in addition, discuss the subject of the basio-cranial angle — that is 
to say, the clinical interest arising from the angle formed between 
the posterula on the one part and the inclination of the basilar 
process of the occipital bone on the other. The separate heads in 
the description of the posterula include the following: 

The under surfaces of the body of the sphenoid bone. 

The vomer as seen in articulation with the sphenoid and palatal 

The posterior nares or choame. (For note on Clioame see Nasal 

The region of the spheno-turbinals. 

In no other portion of the skull do so many elements combine as 
in the naso-pharynx. 

The basi-sphenoid and pre-spheuoid here unite. The spheno- 
turbinals lie in front of the under surface of the sphenoid elements 
and pass backward a variable distance above the palatals and vagi- 
nal processes, and forward along the sides of the meso-ethmoid. 
The vomer articulates with the body of the sphenoid bone. The 
borders of the alse unite in a variable manner with the sphenoidal 



of the region lies the basi-sphenoid juiictiou, which is tlie last of 
all the sutures in this region to close. 

The under surflice of the basi-sphenoid, up to the sixth year, is 
convex in the centre and grooved or fluted on the sides. The con- 
vexity serves to receive the concave surfacs of the vomer, and the 
flutings accommodate vessels and nerves. The vaginal jjrocesses, 
the body of the sphenoid bone, and the sphenoidal processes of the 
palatals, later in development, convert these grooves into canals. 

In some examples of crania^ the under surface of the sphenoid 
bone continues to be convex in adult life. 

In others (972, Negro; 1043, Pawnee; 726, Seminole; 1009, 

Fio. 3. — The posterula of n Gei-man (No. 1188, A. N. S.), showiriE: fail- 
ure of the vaginal process of the sphenoid bone and the palatal bono to reach 
the vomer. On the right side a fissure exists between the parts named. 

1. Lateral superior foramen. 

2. Vaginal process. 

t 3. Lateral inferior foramen. 

4. Pahital bone. 

5. Vomer. 

6. Interval between vomer and vaginal and palatal elements. 

iNos. 438, 912, 27, 69, Seminole; 732, Seminole; 951, 953, Narrag. ; 43, 
Menom. ; 118, Lenape ; 741, Mandan. 



Ottawa; 1188, 1063, German; 746, Minitari ; 947, Arauniau) the 
vaginals, aud sphenoidal processes of the palatal bones do not reach 
the vomer, or may be entirely absent. 

From this condition of retained juvenile feature the most char- 
acteristic departure is to have the under surface of the body of the 
sphenoid bone slightly rugose (757, Otoe; 1233, Miami; 19, Ben- 
galee; 693, Narragansett). 

A few examples may be named in which the surface is moder- 
ately convex. On the other hand, it may be flat. The variety last 
named includes a large number of examples which are of especial 
interest, since no civilized race is represented (53 ; 651, Arauca- 
nian; 1227, Blackfoot ; 1451, Australian; 1029, Fiji; 1342, bas- 
tard Malay ; 435, Malay; 990, Maya ; 1315, N. A. Indian; 730, 
Seminole; 935, Narragansett; 204, Chinook; 605 Sioux; 142, 905, 
^13, 973, 654, Negro). 


Fig. 4. — The posterula of an adult North American Indian (No. 1322, A. 
N. S.), showing a median vomero-basilur foramen, in addition to the two 
lateral foramina. 

1. Lateral superior vomero-basilar foramen. 

2. Vaginal process. 

3. Lateral inferior vomero-basilar foramen. 

4. Palatal bone. 

5. Vomer. 

6. Median vomero-basilar foramen. 


In one instance the surface is hyperostosed (No. 78, Menominee). 

In three examples the under surface is concave in the centre, and 
two large canals retained at the sides (1322, Potawatomie ; 1229, 
Upsala; 1228, Upsarooka). 

The vomer is more or less concave at the ujDper surface, and is 
adapted to the convex surface of the sphenoid bone; but the method 
of union of the two bones is not as simple as the above statement 
Avould imply. The posterior part of the vomer, including the wings, 
may be without union to the sphenoid bone. The two bones are 
thus separated by an interval, which is variable with the shape of 
the body of sphenoid itself. The arrangement suggests that during 
life either blood-vessels or indifferent tissue occupied the intervals, 
or that hyperostosis at the anterior part of the sphenoid — probably 
at the line of the pre-sphenoid — had forced the vomer down and 
thrown it off from attachment to the posterior part. In immature 
crania the vomer is very generally removed from the sphenoid pos- 
teriorly. The disposition seen in the adult skull may be a retention 
of a juvenile character. If it is not so it is remarkable that the 
region so commonly exhibits this retardation in nutrition, for it is 
comparatively rare to see any other arrangement of the ])arts. 

From among all the crania examined but 75 exhibit a departure 
from the above plan — i. e., in this number of specimens only did 
the vomer articulate directly with the sphenoid throughout. Is 
it not strange that tlie description of the union generally 
accepted should be that of the entire union ? Is it not suggest- 
ive that the retardation of the processes of development of the 
region should be greater in the crania of civilized races than among 
primitive people? The greater number of examples of entire union 
were found in the ethnological collection of the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences. 

While it is true that the lower animals uniformly exhibit the 
simple form of union, and on that account the plan may be con- 
sidered as an instance of reversion, it must be stated that in 65 im- 
mature skulls (none, however, of the negro or his congeners) exam- 


ined in the collection of the Academy not a single one was seen of 
such union, while all the examples showed by the extent of the 
groovings on the side of the body of the sphenoid bone, and by the 
degree of convexity of the central part of the surface, that the type 
was that of the variety described in my notes as " convex, hyper- 
ostosed," or "open posteriorly." 

If we accept the theory that the arrangement seen in primitive 
races is the same as in many lower animals, and therefore that the 
earlier races of men more readily resemble the skull of mammals 
generally, we are forced to conclude that development is more 
rapid in the primitive races than in civilized, and that a phase of 
development which is transient in savage races becomes permanent 
and fixed in the civilized. 

It is not unlikely that the retention of the juvenile characteris- 
tics in a large proportion of skulls of civilized man may be asso- 
ciated in some individuals with enlargement of the adenoid tissue 
at the roof of the pharynx, and that these characters of the sphe- 
noid bone and the vomer may be due to the veins which pass fi'om 
the mass, effecting anastomosis with the nasal venous sinuses and 
the spheno-palatine veins, and thus tending to keep up the large 
vascular tracks which lie between the body of the sphenoid bone, 
its internal pterygoid plate and the palatal bone. The size of the 
gaps left by failure of the pterygoid aud palatal plates to unite 
with the vomer, as compared to the width of the posterula, is not 
insignificant. (See Figs. 3, 4, 6, 7.) 

The primitive vomer is chiefly found, as above mentioned, in the 
crania of savages, while the hyperostosed vomer with incomplete 
sphenoidal union in those of civilized people. In addition it may 
be said that the last-named group includes a larger number of 
associated anatomical variations than is the case with the first 
named — a conclusion in harmony with the statement already 
quoted, which is attributed to Retzius, that individual differences be- 
come greater in proportion to the higher intellectual development. 

In illustration of the lack of uniformity of description of the 
region of the posterula the following citations are made : 



Quain's Anatomy (ed. 1876, p. ol) : " Tlie alse are lifted poste- 
riorly, aud articulate ed;^e to edge with the lamella projecting in- 
wards at the base of the internal pterygoid plate." 

L. Holden (Human Osteology, 1869, p. 101): "The diverging 
edges of the fissure, called the " wings," fit into the little furrows 
beneath the vaginal processes of the sphenoid bone." 

Ph. C Sappey (Traite d'Anatomie Descriptive, p. 214) describes 
the alaj as the borders of the groove by which the vomer articu- 
lates with the sphenoid bone, and further states that they are re- 
ceived in the groove on the internal surface of the base of the 
pterygoid process. 

F. O. Ward (Human Osteology, p. 89) describes two projecting 
larainse of the sphenoid bone overlapping and retaining the vome- 
rine alse. 

Fig. 5. — The posterula of a North American Indian (No. 951, Narra- 
gansett), showing entire union between the vomer with the sphenoid bone. 

1. Lateral superior foramen. 

2. Vaginal process. 

3. Lateral inferior foramina. 

4. Palatal bone. 

5. Vomer. 

At the risk of repeating a few phrases the following detailed 
statements are here made : The crania named below are examples of 


entire union of the vomer with the splienoid bone : Of North 
American Indians— 541, 542, 1054, 1233, 1056, 1052, Miami ; 44, 
563, 454, 747, Menominee ; 118, 876,40, Lenape; 739, 741,742, 
644, Mandan; 462, 457, Chinook ; 950, 951, Xarragansett ; 1227, 
Blackfoot; 897, Mohawk; 1730, Seminole; 91, Columbia R. Ind. ; 
1214, Ohio Ind.; 461, Chickasaw; 1006, Ottawa; 747, Minitari ; 
1210, Shawnee ; 1,315 unnamed. Of South American Indians — 
601, 652, Araucanian. Of Negroes— 1315, Golgon ; 549, 974, 913, 
967, 968, 648; "Oceanic Negro," 435. Of other races— 573, 
Kowalitsk; 94, Chinese; 1300, 572, Sandwich Islanders; 1342, 
Malay; 1244, Hottentot; 1029, Fiji Islanders, and 969, 1263, 563, 
142, 247, 400, 421, 1338, unnamed. 

The following embrace examples in which the sphenoid bone and 
the vomer are united, with the exception of a small portion of the 
vomerine wings and the space between this lifted part, and the flat, 
small sphenoid body. In essential features the group is the same 
as the foregoing: Of negroes— 905, 900, 904, 961, 968, 1102, 923, 
993,909,973, 971, 972, 927, 916, 909; two of the negro group 
marked 1093, Golah, and 580, Macua. Of North Americau In- 
dians — 708, Seminole; 954, Narragansett ; 1009, Ottawa. Of 
other races — 1311, Bengalee; 550, Chinese. 

From among 164 skulls examined complete apposition of the 
vomer to the sphenoid bone was found in 94 instances. In con- 
nection with the lack of union between the vomer and the sphe- 
noid bone may be named the frequent instances in which the parts 
of the region become hyperostosed. The vomer is often of great 
thickness at the alse and upper part of the posterior border.' 

The vaginals, as they extend medianly from the vertical plate, 
are often massive and present a marked contrast to the thin brittle 
plate commonly found in this situation.'^ 

^944, 746, Minitari ; 744, Blackfoot; 740, 3Iandan ; 977, Araucanian; 
204, Chinook; 60.5, Sioux; 407, Miami; 115, Lenape; 692, Carib ; 693, 
Narragansett ; 895, Mohawk. 

297, 960, Negro; 112, Naples, nine years (College of Physicians); 113, 
Genoa, ibid. 



They may overlap vomer as follows : 692, Carib ; 963, 903, Ne- 
gro ; 240, Australiau ; 87, Peruvian; 737, Otoe; 1281, Peruvian, 
12 years old ; 986, Irish, 16 years old. 

Fig. 6.— The posterula of an Irish girl, aged 16 years (No. 986, A. N. S.), 
showing an extensive fissure hetween the vaginal process of the sphenoid hone 
and the palate bone on the right side. Both these parts fail to join the 
vomer. On the left side the same processes not only join the vomer, but in 
one place tend to overlap. 

1. Vaginal pi'ocess. 

2. Palatal bone, a conspicuous interval is seen lying between this ele- 
ment and the vomer. 

3. Vomer. 

4. Process from vomer joining the vaginal process to form an irregular 

Open spaces indicate the failure of union between the vaginal and 
palatal elements and the vomer. 

The shaded space back of the vomer indicates the inequality of level be- 
tween the vomer and the body of the sphenoid bone. 

The vaginal and sphenoidal plates may be firmly united through- 
out, or permit a foramen of varying size to appear between them. 
The plates may be depressed below the plane of the vomerine alse.^ 

As a rule, the plates agree with the alse in general character — 
i. e., when the plates are hyperostosed the vomer is also; but the 
process may be reversed, and the plates be thin when the alse are 

1 572, Sandwich Islander. 


thick.' The plates as a rule conceal the backward exteusion of 
the spheno-turbiuals, and lie over and protect the veins and nerve 
of the canal. Thus they are apt to be pushed downward with the 
vomerine alie in instances of unusual imperfection of the sphenoido- 
vomerine union. 

When both the sphenoidal processes of the palatines and the vag- 
inal processes are defective, the spheno-turbinals are seen distinctly 
exposed, thus showing the value of the plates named in covering 
and in strengthening the body of the sphenoid.^ 

The vaginal processes rarely extend backward beyond the vomer, 
and evince a disjDosition to approach toward the median line.^ 

It is well to remember that it is possible to have the image of the 
choana as seen in the rhinal mirror narrowed by thickening of the 
internal pterygoid plate. 

The lower end of the vomer may exhibit the tendency, so com- 
monly seen in the lower animals, of joining the palatal bones in 
advance of the posterior nasal spine. The vomer may be fully two 
millimetres within the nasal chambers.* I have seen it recede still 
farther within the chambers in the living subject. The exact posi- 
tion of the vomer becomes a matter of importance in determining 
the degree to which the inferior turbinated bone projects from the 
nasal chamber into the naso-pharynx. 

The wings of the vomer may be united as the bone lies against 
the sphenoid, or a well-defined notch may be defined between them.^ 

A faint ridge is often seen extending vertically on the vomer. 
It answers to the line of union of the sphenoidal process of the pal- 

^ 120-5, Seminole. 

"^ Examples iire seen in No. 113, Genoa, 12 years old ; 19, Ruthene, 7 years 
old; American, No. 58, 6 years old (Col. of Phys.), and a Hindoo, aged 8 
years, No. 32, A. N. S. No. 89 (Col. of Phys.), an adult skull of an 
Adrian, shows the same peculiarity. 

3 No. GO, Austrian, 16 years old (Col. of Phys.). 

*13Io, Golgonda; 605, Sioux ; 1227, Blackfoot. 

544, 1220, Menominee; 106, 407, 522, 542, Miami; 952, 953, 733, Narra- 
gansett; 207, Puget Sound Indian; 604, Seminole; 436, Chetimache ; — , 
California Indian; 670, Chinese; and in 1205. 


atal bone and the vaginal process. The surface in front of this 
ridge divides the region of the sphenoid base into two portions; 
that in front of the crest is nasal and that back of the crest is pha- 
ryngeal. The relative size of the nasal and pharyngeal spaces is 
variable. In 47 examples the nasal part equalled the posterior in 
extent. In 15 examples' the nasal part equalled two-thirds of the 
entire region. In one specimen (No. 956} the nasal portion was 
little less than oae-half. In 971, 973, 974 (Negroes w'ithout local- 
ity), the nasal portion was one-third. It equalled one-fourth to 
one-fifth of the whole. In a fourth Negro (No. 983) the nasal 
portion was one-third on the left side and one-fourth on the right. 

In instances of absence of union of the sphenoidal process of the 
palatal bone with the vomerine ala in adult crania, the posterior 
end of the conch is seen lying upon the base of the sphenoid bone. 
In the skull of a male Australian in the American Museum of 
Natural History I have seen this process extend back to the suture 
between the defective sphenoidal process of the palatal bone and 
the vomer. I have in several instances seen the same disposition 
in the skull of the adult gorilla. 

An adult Esquimaux cranium, Army Medical Museum, exhibits 
the conchs entirely free from the sphenoid bone posteriorly, and 
the suture, which united them to the palatals, open. 

Is it not a tenable hypothesis that many of the unusual disposi- 
tions of the canales basis vomeres may be correlated with delayed 
union of the sphenoidal conchs? Is it not probably true that the 
defects of union between the vaginal and sphenoidal process and 
the vomer are associated with exceptionally large or numerous veins 
between the body of the s»phenoid bone and the processes named ? 
If this be conceded, but one step more is required to be taken to 
explain the frequency of congestions and hyperplasise in the nasal 

1975, 926, 1093, 913, 972, 928, 648, 433, 978, 916, negroes without locality; 
648, negro of Liberia; 423, negro of Mozambique; 707, Seminole; 1063, 
1064, German. 



chamber when there is a history of adenoid disease at the pharyn- 
geal vault. (See p. 27.) 

Fig. 7. The posterula of a North American Indian (Upsarooka, No. 

1228), showing large foramina for the transmission of veins. (See also 
Fig. 4.) 

1. Lateral superior foramen. 

2. Vaginal process. 

3. Lateral inferior foramen. 

4. Palatal bone. 

5. Vomer. 

In a well-defined group of cases characterized by excess of tena- 
cious mucus in the pharynx, a disposition to vascular obstruction in 
the nasal chambers, a sensation of weariness, if not of pain, in the 
sides of the neck (which is especially liable to ensue upon a moderate 
use of the voice, as in reading aloud and in singing), it is found that 
the roof of the pharynx is occupied by small growths which do 
not appear to differ, either in locality or consistency, from the 
adenoid growths found in the same locality in young persons. I 
have seen many instances in which the symptoms narrated had 
existed for many years entirely disappear twenty-four hours after 
the pharyngeal vault had been rasped by the finger nail, the vege- 
tations removed, and the surface subsequently entirely restored by 
the removal, with the forceps, of bits of remaining tissue. It is 
reasonable to suppose that the increase of nasal congestion in such 
cases is dependent upon unusual freedom of communication which 
3 T 


exists between the veins of the nasal chamber and those of the pha- 
rynx by means of defects of the cauales basis vomeres. Certainly 
it is a fact that no thickening of the walls of the choansB occurs in 
such cases, and that the communication between the nose and the 
pharynx, if it takes place at all, does so at planes below the mucous 
and sub-mucous tissues. 


In the living subject the augle at which the basilar process of 
the occipital bone joins the body of the sphenoid bone can be fre- 
quently detected by the finger being inserted in the naso-pharynx. 
An interruption of the contour-line between the two structures can 
be often detected. In individuals in whom the angle is high the 
entire region of the naso-pharynx is narrowed posteriorly, owing 
to the fact that the inclination of the basilar process renders it easy 
for the velum to ascend toward it. This is especially marked in 
subjects which exhibit prominences on the bodies of the second and 
third cervical vertebriB. 

The basi-vomerine angle, when high, places the parts to a great 
disadvantage should the naso-pharynx ba the seat of diseased action. 
Tenacious secretion forming, either in the nasal chambers or in the 
naso-pharynx, the material is apt to lodge at the apex of the nar- 
rowed space, to resist any effort on the part of the patient to dislodge 
it, and to make it difficult so to do on the part of the physician. 

A high angulation of the process in the living subject would 
predispose, a priori, the naso-pharynx to those distressing conditions 
which result from the contact of the velum to the posterior wall of 
the pharynx. 

It may be surmised that irregular union of the occipital and 
sphenoid bones or their separation by a wide interval will be found 
associated with adenoid growths on the pharyngeal vault. Clinical 
experience confirms this ; but, as far as I know, a careful dissection 
of a subject in which adenoid masses exist is yet lacking to com- 
plete our knowledge of their localization. 



The high inclination of the basilar process would be at first sight 
a condition which would correlate with other cranial structures, but 
I have not found this to be the case in the living subject or in the 
crania which I have examined. It is true that in some crania the 
high angulation is associated with an inclined vomer, as seen at its 
posterior free border, and a high palatal crest. At one time I was 
prepared to assert that the high angle of union of the basilar process 
with the sphenoid bone and the vomer was associated with certain 
changes in the nasal chambers and in the proportions of the face, 
but examinations of more extensive series of specimens than those 
at ray command will be required before any definite conclusions 
on this subject can be secured. To be enabled to harmonize the 
shape of the naso-pharyux with a series of fixed landmarks of the 
nose and face would be a most valuable desideratum and one to 
which I respectfully invite the attention of observers.^ (See re- 
marks at the end of the lecture on clinical measurements.) 

The existence of a high angle with a large conceptaculum cere- 
belli is sometimes noted, as well as a low angle with a small degree 
of convexity or descent of the conceptaculum f yet exceptions to the 
association can be found in sufiicieut numbers to forbid a correla- 
tion being established between the two. 

In the skull of Sandwich Islanders and some Esquimaux the 
basio-cranial angle is low. Since the human foetus at term exhibits 
uniformly a low angle or none, the adult crania which retain it may 
be said to be retarded in this particular. 

Lissauer^ has delineated and described the angle created by the 
union of the basilar process ai)id the vomer. In a Tartar this angle 

^ Dr. Jno. M. Mackenzie (Arch, of Laryngologj'-, iv, 164) describes ex- 
amples of obliquity of the plane of the posterior nares. No mention is mode 
of its correlation with peculiarities of oceipito-sphenoidal union. 

* The funnel-shaped chamber which lies within the embrace of the con- 
ceptaculum and is defined anteriorly bj'' a basilar process has been made the 
subject of special study by Lissauer. (Archiv. fiir Anthropologie, 1885, 16, 
Figs. 4 and 5.) 

' Log. cit. XV, Fig. 9, p. 18. 


is 74 degrees, in a Cassube 98 degrees, and in a Negro 136 degrees. 
The difficulty in making a rhinological examination with a mirror 
placed in the naso-pharynx where the angle is 74 degrees, or ap- 
proximately so, would evidently be much greater than when the 
angle is 136 degrees. Very commonly (as already remarked) a 
high degree ef angulation is associated with a large tubercle upon 
the body of the second cervical vertebra, which tends to diminish 
the diameter of the pharynx at the place at which the mirror is 



The study of the nasal chambers in the living subject presents 
facilities of determining by anterior and posterior inspection the 
following points: 

By anterior inspection, the floor of the chamber — the degree it is 
depressed below the plane of the lower margin of the nostril. 

The premaxilla — the degree it enters into the composition of the 
septum, and the size of the prominence it may make at the floor 
directly back of the plane of the lower margin of the nostril. 

The septum — how it may be deflected either to the right or to the 
left, and whether the entire septum, or a part only, be deflected. 

The inferior turbinal — the degree it may approach the floor and 
the septum ; the relation its superior border holds to the middle 

The middle turbinal — the contrast between the vertical edge at 
the anterior and the part back of this border — whether the ante- 
rior part is inflated or laminar ; Avhether the lower border is in- 
flected or straight. The posterior part of the median surface, 
whether it is concealed by the inequality of the septum, or whether 
it is outlined as far as can be seen. The lateral (external) part, 
whether it is concealed in the recess which lies back of the plane 
of the ascending process of the superior maxilla or is distinctly 
outlined. The uncinate process, whether it is placed parallel to 
the lateral wall of the chamber or transverse to it. The bulbous 
anterior border of the lateral mass of the ethmoid bone, whether 
it is or is not visible. 


By posterior inspection (by the rhiual mirror) — whether the choance 
are of unequal size; whether the left middle turbinal is more verti- 
cally disposed than is the right ; whether the vomer is distinctly 
contoured, or the contour is indistinct by reason of lateral swell- 
ings ; whether the inferior turbiuals are protruding into the naso- 
pharynx ; whether the superior turbinals are or are not visible ; 
whether the choansB and the septum at the choanre retain the em- 
bryonic form. 

From this loug list it may easily be inferred that the interior of 
the nasal chamber yields many points for elucidation. 

In the study of the nasal chambers of the cranium the parts, 
while assisting at every stage the demonstration as made in the liv- 
ing subject, soon awaken in the mind of the .observer separate lines 
of inquiry. It is not, therefore, desirable to confine observation to 
the clinical field, and I have arranged the results of my research 
under heads which appear to be more convenient. 

The bones of which the chambers are composed will be treated 
under diflferent heads. Many of the examples selected showed 
more than one peculiarity. In a Peruvian skull,^ for example, the 
middle turbinals, anteriorly, were small and primitive, the left bone 
being the smaller. The septum was deflected to the left along the 
entire length of the ethmo- vomerine suture. The left uncinate pro- 
cess was anchylosed to the ethmoid cells. 

Each of the points named in the foregoing description will appear 
under a distinct heading. The parts which have been made the 
subject of special inquiry are the following : 

1. The Middle Turbinated Bone. 

2. The Parts which enter into the Composition of the Septum. 

3. The Choante. 

4. The Floor of the Nasal Chamber. 

5. The Deviations of the Septum. 

6. The Region at which the Frontal Bone forms Part of the 

Nasal Chamber. 

7. The Anterior Part of the Lateral Mass of the Ethmoid Bone. 

iNo. 1705. 


1. The Middle Turbinated Bone. 

The middle turbinated bone is divided into two parts — an ante- 
rior one-tiiird and a posterior two-thirds, nearly. The anterior part 
is best seen when the nasal chamber is examined from in front, and 
the posterior part is best seen from behind. 

The anterior third. This portion is a plate of bone which I'anges 
parallel to the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone or is de- 
flected outward at an angle. The free lower border may be abruptly 
bent in or out. The entire anterior part may become inflated. It 
is often of greater density than the posterior part (is often covered 
with spines or is greatly roughened), and may be separated there- 
from by a decided change in the inferior contour-line. At times a 
groove cuts off" the anterior from the posterior part. This was well 
seen in the skull of an Ottawa Indian.^ 

In the infant the anterior part is always thin and compressed. 
It is parallel to the perpendicular plate, as above described. The 
same disposition exists in many of the skulls of later childhood and 
in those of adult life. Out of 188 skulls in which the anterior part 
was examined the plates were as given in 70. 

The inferior or free border may be flat and wide, so that the ap- 
pearance of the part might be compared to a w'edge whose apex is 
directed upward. Of this variety 60 examples were observed. 

Instead of being flat and wide the inferior free border may be 
bent abruptly upon itself or may present an acute projection which 
is directed either inward or outward. Eleven examples of such 
conformation can be cited. They were distributed among the races 
as follows : Seven of Peruvian^ one each of German^, ancient 
Roman\ Iroquois^ and Mexican'' origin. 

It is an interesting fact that no example of median inflection of 
the lower border was noticed in the examination made of 78 negro 

iNo. 1009. 2Nos. 957, 30, 228, 1432, 100, 1475, 631. ^^o. 1190. 
*No. 248. &No. 119. «No. 1015. 



The border may be inclined on both right and left sides, as was 
noticed in a Columbia River Indian^ and in a Peruvian.^ 

In a second Columbia River Indian* the deflection is seen to a 
marked degree on the left side, and in a Peruvian* on the right. 

Among other forms of inflated middle turbinals may be named 
one which resembles the terminal stroke of the German letter j^l t» 
In others the shape is the same, but the direction reversed.^ In yet 
another the bone is parallelogrammatic, and may be a centimetre in 
width." A symmetrical disposition of such a form of inflation 
is seen in the skull of a negro.' 

Infrequently the anterior portion is slightly though uniformly 
inflated, and is distorted in the shape of a crescent, or is even 
S-shaped.^ As a rule the inflation begins at the free anterior border 
and involves the entire portion ; but it is in some examples confined 
to the part immediately back of the anterior border, which remains 
narrowed and compressed, as in the infant* 

As already remarked, changes in the superficies are found confined 
to the anterior portion, for the posterior part is uniformly smooth 
or marked by vessel-grooves only. Numerous bristle-like j^rocesses 
are found occupying the surface in some instances.^" 

The inflected part may be seen at any section of the surface of 
the anterior portion. In a Madagascar" and a Peruvian^'^ skull a 
large spine with a broad base projects from the outer side. I have 
often met with a similar spine in the living subject. 

The flat interior border may even be inflated in common with the 

iNo. 578. 2 No. 13(36. ^o. 317. , ~ 

*No. 1447. ^No. 976. 

^The " bulbo-ethmoidalis," by which tftrm I embrace the inflation of 
the anterior limit to the ethmoidal mass, is distinct from a bulbous inflation 
of the pedicle of the middle turbinal, which is occasionally met with, but 
is not included in the description as given above. 

'No. 976. 

^For examples see Peruvians, 1490, 1462, 1458 ; Narragansett, 693 ; Naum- 
keag, 567; San Miguel, 1630; Nantucket, 104; Ancient Mexican, 1003. 

9 Peruvian, No. 84. i» Peruvian, No. 1460. 

"No. 1306. J^No. 1465. 


rest of the portion, and as a result the part be club-shaped, or, being 

flat ou the inner, become markedly convex on the outer surface. 


In the skull of a Mexican^ a spur on a deflected septum on the right 
side is firndy indented in a club-shaped right middle turbinal. In 
most examples, however, of inflated anterior portions with deflected 
septa the parts are conformed one to the other. 

With respect to the right and left disposition of the varieties 
named nothing can oe said. A compressed primitive form of the 
anterior portion may be associated with a fellow of the same kind 
or of any of the forms already given. 

In thirty examples of the anterior portion studied in skulls of 
children under eleven years of age the following disposition is 
noticed : 

In six the anterior portion is compressed and primitive; in 
eleven the plane is the same as above, but the lower border was 
abruptly inflected ; in ten the lower border is flat and the portion 
more or less wedge-shaped ; in two a moderate amount of diff*ased 
inflation, and in one a marked degree of the same is present. 

The extent to which the anterior portion may advance into the 
external nose varies greatly. In a Cimbrian and a Peruvian the 
bone is placed well within the region of the ascending process of 
the maxilla. I have observed the same peculiarity in the living 

Notwithstanding that the interior of the nose is ]>rotected by 
stout bony barriers, the parts may be distorted or destroyed b)^ 
a variety of circumstances. In the practice of preparing the body 
for burial adopted by the ancient Peruvians masses of woolen or vege- 
table fibre were used to plug the nasal chambers. Lateral distor- 
tions of the turbinals are occasionally seen to be due to this cause.'^ 

When bodies are left exposed to the air immediately after death 
dipterous insects deposit ova in and about the nostrils. The rav- 
ages made by the larvte of the insects often destroy the turbinals. 
In a specimen of a skull of a Mandan Indian the anterior half of 

' No. 1430, aged six years. ^ j^^ ggo 


the lateral mass of the ethmoid bone is eaten away, and the entire 
remaining portion of the bone is closely packed with the pupa cases. 

The Posterior Two-thirds. — While the anterior part of the middle 
urbinal is apt to be vertical and compressed, so the posterior part 
is often horizontal at its upper part.^ The scroll, indeed, may be 
said to be an inferior volute from a horizontal line, as in the scroll 
of the Ionic capital. Hence, the term turbinal is characteristic of 
a portion only of the bone. 

The outer border of the posterior end of the horizontal part is 
usually notched. It is probable that the notch is for the accommo- 
dation of a vessel which is in connection with the structures occu- 
pying the spheno-palatine foramen. Occasionally, as is seen in a 
Bengalese skull,^ a delicate bridge of bone converts the notch into a 

The ledge-like upper border of the middle turbinal may be in- 
clined or nearly vertical. These different shapes can be indicated 
(even when the turbinal is absent) by the direction taken by the 
upper crest on the palatal bone.' 

In the posterior nares the ends of the middle turbinated bones, 
in the great majority of instances, are symmetrical and more or less 
curved. In 150 out of 234 skulls of adults examined the parts 
are of the kind described. 

In 44 specimens the scroll presented a semicircular outline 
thus : )l(. The curved lines represent the middle turbiuals and the 
vertical line the vomer. Of this number, 3 exhibit the upper 
part of the middle turbinal horizontal, instead of curved. 

The varieties in which the middle turbinals were long and placed 
high up in the choanse are included in the list of the symmetrical 

^ The horizontal part is most likely homologous with the ledge of the 
nasal chambers of quadrupeds where it separates the olfactory from the re- 
spiratory tracts. 

2 No. 25. 

3 The middle turbinal may lie well within the nasal chamber, some dis- 
tance from the plane of the posterior end of the inferior turbinal. Example, 
No. 679, Esquimaux. 


forms above given. In 90 examples of all races the middle turbi- 
nals are thus placed. Of this number 78 were Negroes and 2 Hot- 

In 47 the left middle turbinals are smaller and more vertically- 
placed than the right, and exhibited a small horizontal upper bor- 
der. In 11 of these the left bone is compressed laterally and is 
straight. The left contour line of the septum is angulated in 
three of these examples. A similar peculiarity is met with in 4 
immature skulls. The remaining 36 crania show various degrees 
of increased obliquity and curvature of the left bone over the right, 
and in a number of ways a diminished surface. 

2. The Parts ivhich Enter Into the Composition of the Septum. 

The septum has been studied in the present paper for the most 
part in connection with its disposition to deviate from a vertical 

Several minor points were observed during the examination, 
which will be first recorded. 

The Perpendicular Plate. — The perpendicular plate advances for- 
ward to a variable degree. Even in the adult — it was seen in a 
Bengalese skulP — the anterior end of the plate may be placed as in 
the young subject. Yet in some specimens, as witnessed in a North 
American Indian,' the plate was in advance of the plane of the ante- 
rior nasal aperture. The nasal plate of the frontal bone may be 
concealed by the advancement of the perpendicular plate of the eth- 
moid boue beneath. This was note 1 in a Circassian skull.^ In a 
second skull of the same race the plate is also well advanced and 
of enormous thickness. 

The plate may reach the nasal bones by a small surface, or may 
touch the bones along their entire lengths. The latter disposition 
is well seen in a Negro* and a Peruvian skull.^ 

iNo. 25. 2Upgarook8, No. 1228. 

» No. 762. * No. 914. ^ TSfo. 413. 


lu the skull of an Araucanian^ a large opening is detected in 
the perpendicular plate at a point directly back of the nasal plate 
of the frontal bone. Openings elsewhere in the perpendicular plate 
are so common that no special mention of them need be made. 

The Vomer. — When the vomer at the posterior nares is not at 
the level of the openings, but lies at its lower part a little way 
within the chambers, the bone may be said to be recedent. It is a 
reversion eifect, since it is commonly seen in the skulls of carnivora 
and in important groups of ungulata. (See p. 31.) 

In a Peruvian ^ skull of five years and a Bengalese ^ skull of six 
years this recedence may be said to be present. The same pecu- 
liarity is seen in the aduit skull of a Narragansett Indian,* an 
Assiniboin,^ a Golgonda,*' a Sioux/ and a Blackfoot.^ 

Recedence is so marked in a Maltese^ skull that the bone unites 
with the maxillary crest at the raaxillo-palatal suture. There is no 
upward extension of the spine of the palatal bone. The exact 
position of the vomer at the choanse in determining the posterior 
projection of the infei'ior turbinated bone is of clinical importance. 

The vomer may have two grooves — one for the triangular cartillage 
(it may be so obliquely placed as to appear to belong to the parie- 
ties) anteriorly, and one for a vein placed far back on the side. 
Examples of the obliquely placed groove for the triangular carti- 
lage are seen in an Araucanian^" skull and in several skulls of 
North American Indians. 

3. The Choance. 
The choanse vary remarkably in form and dimensions. They may 
be as large as 23'"'" long by 13'"'" wide, or as small as 13'"'" long by 
6"""" wide. Usually wide and of a rectangular form inferiorly, as 
the borders join the transverse palatal process, they may ba oval. 
The larger varieties include the shape first named, and the smaller 
one the shape last named. 

iNo. 63. -^ No. 1492; M8 ; *9.3l; M554 ; M-SIS; ^605; 
8 1227. 9 No. 117 (Col. of Phys.). ^^ No. 651. 


The smaller varieties exhibit relatively long palatal crests when, 
indeed, they occupy one-third or one-half of the septum at the 
choanse plane. Since this arrangement is seen in the foetus at term, 
and the openings are oval or sub-rounded, it is fair to assume that 
the small oval variety is a form of arrested development. In a case 
of atresioe nasi seen in an adult I detected this variety of choanal 
shape. The small oval form is so often met with in clinical studies 
that the conclusion may be tentatively drawn that it aids in retain- 
ing mucus in the nasal chambers, and in this way an anatomical 
factor may materially aid in establishing a morbid state. For ex- 
amples in adult crania see a skull of a Miami Indian^ and a Me- 
nominee.^ In immature skulls, an Armenian,^ an Austrian,* a 
Czech,'^ a Genoese,** a Sandwich Islander,'' a Ruthene,* and a Nea- 

. It is well to remember, as already stated, p. 29, that it is possible 
to have the image of the choanse, as seen by the rhinal mirror, nar- 
rowed by thickening of the internal pterygoid process of the sphe- 
noid bone. 

4. The Floor of the Nasal Chamber. 
In many subjects the plane of the lower border of the nostril is 
higher than that of the floor of the chamber. The inferior turbi- 
nal lies a variable distance within this depression. The finger 
when inserted into the nostril will not, in such cases, enter the in- 
ferior meatus, but will pass into a space which is defined by the 
septum on the one hand and the upper part of the inferior turbi- 
uals on the other. An example of the skull showing the dej^ressed 
floor is seen in a Menominee^" Indian. 

5. Deviations of the Septum. 

When it is recalled that the bony septum is composed not only of 

the vomer and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, but 

1 No. 1052. 2 jfo_ 1222. 3 No. 53^ (j^i. ^f phyg., 6 years. 

* No. 60, Col. of Phys., 16 years. * " 80, " " 17 " 

6 u 213 u u 12 " 7 " 143 " " 1(3 " 

8 u 19^ <c u 7 u 9 u ]12_ u u 9 <i 

10 No. 44. 


of the frontal bone at the region of the vestibular roof, and small 
portions of the maxilla and of the palatal bones, it follows that if it 
is possible for defects to arise from faults of union, more than a 
single place for such defects must be sought for ; oi', if by mere dis- 
tortion any one of the parts may be found out of the straight line, 
the, localities at which such deviation may occur are many. 

In point of fact the consideration of some of the lines of suture 
and plates of bone need not be regarded. Deviations at the region 
of the frontal spine and at the region of the palatal bone almost 
never occur, but in the remaining component parts they are of fre- 
quent occurrence and are apt to occur are as follows : 
The perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. 
The perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone and the vomer 

acting as one factor. 
The vomer. 

The ethmoido-vomerine suture. 
The maxillary crest. 

As a rule, it may be said that deviations result from two struct- 
ures differ in nature uniting one with another under unfavorable 
conditions. The perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone may be 
bent on a broad curve, while all the remaining parts are normal. 
This is well seen in a Chilian skull,^ in a Hindoo," and in an Arab.^ 
In the skull last named the plate is bulged to the left. 

The perpendicular plate may be in the position described and the 
vomer be bent with it. No hyperostosis need exist at the suture. 
This is well seen in a Peruvian skull.* 

The perpendicular plate and the vomer may be straight, but not 
lie in the same vertical plane. In this way a " fault " is defined 
between the two. This peculiarity also is shown in a Peruvian 

The vomer may exhibit an angulation on the side, posteriorly — 
i. e., at a point near the choanise — and is, therefore, best seen from 

1 No. 1699. 2 No. 432. » j^o. 499. 

* No. 1465. 5 No. 403. 


behiud. The septum may be in other respects straight. The apex 
of the angulated part often presents a groove which closely resem- 
bles the sulcus found in localities marked by the course of vessels. 
In the skull of an Ottawa Indian^ the ethmoido-vomerinespur bears 
a groove which is continuous with a distinct canal posteriorly. 
The following specimens of skulls may be referred to, in each of 
which the groove is present on the left side : A Columbia River 
Indian,'^ two Peruvians,^ and an Anglo-American.* 

In one additional skull — that of a Peruvian^ — the angulation and 
groove are on the right side. 

That the chamber to which the septum inclines should be the 
smaller is shown by many examples.** 

Deviations to the right side are seen in two Peruvians/ an 
Afghan,* a Circassian,' an Armenian,'" a Finn," and a Utah Indian.'^ 

The disposition for the ethmoido-voraerine suture, as well as the 
maxillary crest at the triangular notch, to be hyperostosed and to 
present spur-like projections to the left side are such striking feat- 
ures in the majority of crania that no moi'e than a recognition ot 
their presence is here demanded.^' 

In a skull of a Ruthene (No. 19, Col. of Phys.) from a child seven 
years old the perpendicular plate and the vomer slip by one another, 
are not united, but are simply in apposition. The apposed surfaces 
are 3™" long. If the degree of variation had been expressed in re- 
sistance at the line of normal union, it is difficult to see how deflec- 
tion could have been avoided. Adult skulls not infrequently show 
the nasal surface of the frontal bone with the nasal process retaining 
the long plate of bone in place of the short, compressed spine, as is 
usually described. Examples of this conformation are seen in 
three Egyptians," two Peruvians,'^ and one each of Circassians,'® 

1 No. 573. 2 No. 1363 and 1407. » No. 62^ * No. 67. 

^Egyptian, No. 819; Circassian, 765, 498; and a Malay, 459. 
6 Nos. 412, 1407 ; ' 1333 ; « 762 ; » 790 ; i" 1543 ; " 140. 
^*See a paper by the writer, Ainer. Journ. Med. Sci., April, 1880, 70. 

" Nos. 799, 819, 804, aged 16 years. i* No. 432. 

15 "642,1137. i« " 25, aged 12 years. 



Hindoo/ Bengalese,^ a North American Indian (Lenape),an'^ Anglo- 
American lunatic, and one unnamed. 

Fig. 8. — View within the anterior nasal aperture of an adult negro (No. 
927, A. N. S.) 

1. Nasal bone. 

2. Frontal bone, forming at this place a keel instead of a spine. 

3. Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. 

4. Ascending process of the maxilla. 

5. Lateral mass of the ethmoid bone. 

6. Inferior turbinated bone. 

7. Alveolar process. 

Thus ten well-defined examples of the nasal plate of the frontal 
bone were met with. With reference to this conclusion it is stated 
I have met it in 56 out of 76 negro skulls, and it would appear that 
we have in the nasal plate a valuable guide to the identity of this 
race. These facts lead me to consider 

6. The Region at which the Frontal Bone Forms Part of the Nasal 


The frontal bone as it enters into the composition of the nasal 
chamber is usually described in forming a nasal spine.* 

I have found that in the child the nasal portion of the frontal 
bone is of a different form from that described, and that in the adult 

1 No. 763. 2 No. 40. 

'Hoffman's " Lehrbuchder Anatomie des Menschen : " describes the " pars 
nasalis " as yielding a sharp process of variable length — the spina nasalis supe- 
rior — which extends between the nasal bones and the perpendicular plate of 
the ethmoid bone. This description may be accepted as representative ot 
those found in the text-books. 


numbers of examples may be cited which do not answer to the ac- 
counts given by writers. 

In the child, from the fourth to the eighth year the nasal portion 
is never furnished with a spine, but, in its place, with a plate which 
extends the entire length of the iuterval between the nasal and 
ethmoid bones.^ The plate joins the perpendicular plate of the 
ethmoid bone inferiorly. A shallow groove on either side of the 
plate defines the roof of the nasal chamber at this place. 

The nasal plate of the frontal bone is very rarely united to the 
perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. That there exists in the 
nasal chamber, in the races other than the Negro, an occasional, 
and in the Negro a frequent, absence of bony union between the 
two component parts of the septum, is an interesting fact. 

Good examples of such apposition without union are seen in 
Nos. 951, 957 (Narragansett Indians), No. 651 (Araucanian), and 
No. 13 (Chinese). In the Army Medical Museum at Washing- 
ton out of twenty Negro crania the jmrts above named are open 
in fifteen. 

Care should be taken not to confound a fissure of absorption in 
the perpendicular plate with the form of retention as above de- 
scribed. A defect of this kind is noted in a Peruvian skull.^ 

Among the examples in ;ivhich the conversion of the nasal plate 
into the nasal spine takes place it is interesting to observe the 
great size which may be attained. In a Negro^ the spine was found 
to be nearly as large as the nasal bone. In two Araucanian* skulls 
the processes are also very large. 

The nasal spine is found in an Afghan" skull to form part of 
the periphery of the external nose where it was lodged between the 
nasal bones. 

Good examples are also seen in an Egyptian" and in a Nubian^ 

^ Good examples are presented in Nos. 426, 670, Chinese (A. N. S.). 
'No. 1705. sjsTo. 914. 

*Nos. 790, 792. ^No. 735. 

6 No. 1317. • ^No. 829. 


That deviations from the vertical plane, which so commonly occur 
in- the nasal septum, might be coimected in some Avay with the 
changes that take place in the region of the nasal plate is not im- 
probable. It is known that the parts at the root of the nose are 
exceedingly firm, and that the nasal bones vary greatly in diameter 
from the outer to the inner surface. It is also known that the per- 
pendicular plate of the ethmoid bone is of inconstant proportion, 
but on the whole tends to advance. Hence, the nasal plate of the 
frontal bone may be compressed between these opposed directions 
of growth ; but if the naso-frontal parts are preteruaturally fixed 
the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone may be deflected, or 
the entire septum be forced to expand in a region whose boundaries 
have been already fixed. 

The external nose during the period of transition from childhood 
to adult life changes greatly in shape. It is probable that at this 
time the substitution from the nasal plate to the nasal spine takes 
place, and that the deviation in some way correlates with the shape 
of the nasal bones in the adult. In the negroes, in whom the nasal 
bones are small and flattened, both at the root and the bridge (the 
juvenile shape), the process in question retains the plate-like form, 
while in other races the prominence of the root and bridge is asso- 
ciated with increased frequency of change of the nasal plate to the 
nasal spine ; but in the alteration last named the increase of sep- 
tal deviation is also to be noticed, and an obliteration of the har- 
monic apposition of the spine with the perpendicular plate of the 
ethmoid is likely to occur. 

Enough has been observed to warrant the tentative conclusion 
that a cause for deviation of the septum (especially in that portion of 
the septum into which the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid en- 
ters) exists at the junction of the nasal spine of the frontal bone 
and the ethmoid, together with the rate and character of the change 
in the forms of the nasal bones. 

While this is a conclusion which the premises in many instances 
validate, it is true that no one explanation suffices for the explana- 
tion of all deviations. (See p. 45.) 
4 T 


7. The Anterior Part of the Lateral Mass of the Ethmoid Bone. 

This region, as a rule, lias a narrow border. The superior 
border of the middle turbinal and the base of the uncinate process 
here unite. Occasionally, as is seen in a Peruvian skull,^ the three 
structures are separated by a large globose surface, which forms the 
boundary of the most advanced of the ethmoid cells. 

The Uncinate Process. — The uncinate process is flat and usually 
lies on the plane of the outer wall of the nose. In a low type 
of skull (this is well exemplified in a Hottentot,^ in which it is 
firmly united to the inferior turbinal) the process may be found 
lying transverse to the long diameter of the nasal chamber, and of 
such dimensions as almost entirely to conceal the large middle tur- 
binal. This disposition is seen in the left side of a skull of a 
Negro,^ and in a second from Santa Barbara, Cal. In two Peru- 
vian* skulls the uncinate process on the left side is united to the 
ethmoid cells. 

The degree to which the uucinate process extends in an antero- 
posterior direction is subject to considerable variation. It may be 
in contact anteriorly with the inferior turbinal, so that an opening 
on the lateral wall of the chamber alone exists between the pedicle 
of the uncinate and the ascending process of the superior maxilla. 
It may be entirely free from the inferior turbinal at this section of 
the chamber, so in place of a foramen a long interval is found between 
its antero-inferior limit and the maxilla and the inferior turbinal. 
The extent to which the opening into the maxillary sinus is nai'- 
rowed is also subject to variation. The opening appsars to be the 
smallest in the prognathic and the largest in the orthognathic form 

of crania. 


The sconce or crown constitutes in thelanguage of craniology the 
vertex. The main parts comprising it are so easily determined by 

iNo. 1432. 2 No. 1107. 

3 No. 964. ■'No. 1705, 1432. 


palpation that, so far as they are concerned, the clinical aud ana- 
tomical study can be pursued on identical lines. Respecting the 
details, especially such as are seen in the sutures, it is ouly neces- 
sary to say that the topography of the general surface has been 
based, by common consent, on the arrangement of the parts at 
or near the sutures, and I have concluded to give the details of such 
localization the first place. 

The names proposed for the suture-divisions, eminences, and de- 
pressions are easily adapted to the nomenclature of Broca. AVhile 
it is acknowledged that multiplicity of terms is undesirable, I see 
no way out of the difficulty in presenting new names, since accu- 
racy of description is impossible without them. 

It is hoped that by their aid not only the vertex, but the scalp as 
well, can oe mapped out for cliuical purposes. 

The sagittal, coronal, and lambdoidal sutures show peculiarities 
of the several parts entering into their composition which are 
worthy of special description. 

To speak first of the sagittal suture, it is found that the portion 
which answers to the parietal end of the anterior fontanel and to 
the suture a short distance back from this opening is simpler in 
composition than the adjacent part of the suture.^ It measures 1 
to 2 centimetres in length. It is convenient to call this the bregmal 

The second portion of the sagittal suture is the longest and con- 
tains, as a rule, the largest serrations. These are either denticulate 
or lobate. The line answers to the region of the parietal tubera, 
and measures from 4 to 6 centimetres in length. In the normal 
cranium it represents the highest portion of the glabello-inial curve, 
and may receive the name of the iiitertuberal j)ortion of the sagittal 

The part of the iutertuberal portion which lies back of the breg- 
mal for a distance of 1° to 1" o™'" is often of a distinct type of ser- 

^ Out of the 66 negroes' crania with open sutures examined 21 retained 
sinuate and 45 serrate bregmal portions. 


ration and may be deflected from the line of the intertuberal por- 
tion. It corresponds nearly to the position of a depression which 
is commonly symmetrical on either side of the suture as seen on the 
cndocranial surface. When well marked it may receive the name 
of the post-bregmal portion. In Negroes it is commonly merged in 
the intertuberal. 

The third portion of the sagittal suture is the obelion of Broca.' 
The parietal foramina lie on the sides and serve as guides to this 
the obellal portion. 

Broca describes the obelion as having a length of 2'^, measuring, 
as it does, 1" either way from the foramina. The suture is very 
commonly harmonic, while it may be sinuate, serrate,'^ or lobate, but 
rarely the last named. The vertex, as a rule, is rounded or ridged 
at the sides of the obelion, which thus appears to be depressed. 

The fourth and last portion of the sagittal suture also appears 
to be depressed. It extends from the obelial to the larabdoidal sut- 
ure. The serrations are coarse, and are often composed of denti- 
cles which exceed in length any seen in the foregoing divisions of 
the sagittal suture. In the growing subject it is often the thickest 
part of the suture. It measures from 1 to 2 centimeti-es in length 
and may be called the post-obelial portion. 

The coronal suture is constantly divided into three parts — the in- 
ternal or ental, which answers to the anterior fontanel ; the mid- 
dle or mesal, and the external or ectal. The internal is simple or 
wavy ; the middle is denticulate and extends from the internal third 
to the stephanion, while the external or ectal is again simple, and lies 
between the stephanion and the pterion. It is covered by the tem- 
poral muscle. The external or ectal may remain open while the 
remaining portion of the suture is obliterated (No. 38, Col. of 
Phys.). In some subjects, notably the Negro, the middle portion 

1 Instructions Craniologiques et Cmnioraetriques, Paris, 1875, p. 24. 

2 Out of the 55 crania of negroes in the collection of the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences 35 exhibited sinuate obelial portions and 20 serrate. 


becomes simple wheu it runs forward parallel to the temporal ridge 
for a short distance before crossing it at the stephaniou. 

In an Esquimaux skull (No. 200, A. N. S.) the line of the tem- 
poral fascia crosses an almost simple coronal suture 28'"™ from the 
bregma. The stephanion is practically unseen. 

Kuppfer und Bessel Hagen, in 281 skulls from East Prussia, found 
the coronal suture running along the temporal ridge a short dis- 
tance before crossing it in 5 per cent, males and 6 per cent, females. 
In the skulls of the insane these observers noted the disposition in 
40 per cent. W. Sommer (Virchow's Archiv., vol. 90) in a similar 
examination found this disposition in 17 per cent, of males and 7 
per cent, of females. 

The lamhdo'idal suture^ like the coronal, is divided also into three 
parts, which may be named, in a similar manner, the endal, mesal, 
and ectal. Of these the ectal is the simplest in composition, and 
the mesal the most denticulated. Wormian bones, when present, are 
■commonly situate in one or the other of these divisions, and not at 
their lines of juncture. The divisions appear to be subject to 
greater variation than in the cases of the sagittal and coronal su- 

W. Sommers (loc. cit.) found the lambdoidal suture conc.ive for- 
ward in 90 per cent, of skulls of the insane, and 10 p-'r ceat. con- 
vex. No mention is made of the eminence which I have named 
meso-lambdoidal. It is fair to assume that it was present in those 

^ Broca practically makes similar subdivisions of the coronal and lamb- 
doidal sutures in bis method of studying the relations which exist between 
the cranium and the cerebrum. (See Eevue de Anthropologie, v. 1, p. 30.) 

■-' In No. 461, Clickitat (Columbia river) and 730 (Seminole) the lam- 
bdoidal suture is completely occupied by a number of Wormian bones. 
The divisions of the sutures, as above named, are lost, -ind the entire re- 
gion presents an elliptical figure. In No. 208, Nisqually, A. N. S., the 
suture is nearly straight and with few serrations. Out of 60 negro crania 
examined the lambdoidal suture was straight, or nearly so, in 21, and arranged 
as described above in 39. In Esquimaux crania the outer part of the lamb- 
doidal is much smaller than is usually found in skulls of other races, and 
the meso-lambdoidal is less convex forward. 


in which the suture was convex, inasmuch as this convexity is most 
marked in, if not confined to, the mesal part of the suture. (See 


The eminences of the vertex which have been separately named 
are the frontal, the parietal or the tuberal, and the occipital. In 
addition, I venture to name five others, as follows : 

The meso-coronal. 
The metopic. 
The para- tuberal. 
The meso-lambdoidal. 

The meso-coromd emlnenee, lies on the frontal bone just in 
advance of the meso-coronal portion of the suture, about two 
centimetres above the stephanion. It may involve the suture 
itself, when thov corresponding part of the parietal bone is also 
elevated. It is marked in many Peruvian crania, but is often 
absent in the skulls of Negroes and Esquimaux. 

The metopic eminence is a median elevation of the frontal bone 
over the interfrontal suture. It is inconstant, but may amount to 
a conspicuous carinatiou which can be seen often in the living 

The para-taberal eminence is a rounded elevation which lies be- 
tween the parietal tuber at its posterior limit and the obelion. It 
is commonly present. It is least developed in the Esquimaux. 

The meso-lambdoidal eminence lies on the parietal bone in advance 
of the lambdoidal suture at its middle portion, or it may cross the 
suture and involve the occiput. It is marked in synostotic crauia 
of the criminal type. It is very well seen in a skull of a Krhn.^ 
In some crania it appears to be continuous with the tubera. 

In No. 1561, Esquimaux (A.. N. S.), the vertex is marked by a 
large adventitious but distinct swelling (measuring 2 centimetres 

1 Coll. Phys. 


long by 1 wide), which lies between the tnber and the lambdoidal 
suture. In No. 1562, of the same race, an elevation extends from 
the tuber to the sagittal suture. It limits the inclination of the 
parietal bone towards the occiput. 

The temporo-Jrnntal eminence. — Under this head may be men- 
tioned a swelling which is felt occasionally in the living subject 
directly to the outside of the temporal ridge as it is defined on the 
frontal bone. It forms a low obtuse prominence, measuring about 
3 centimetres in diameter. It is best discerned in young iudi- 
viduals, since in adults it is obscured by the massive temporal 
muscle. I have found the temporo-froutal eminence, so frequently 
in Peruvian crania that it may be included among the characters 
distinguishing them. In a Marquesas skull, in the A. N. S., a 
similar prominence is marked. 

The depressions which can be detected on the vertex are arranged 
as follows : In advance of the bregma ; this constitutes the pre-hreg- 
mal. At the centre of the fontanel, or embracing in a general 
way the region of the fontanel ; this is the bregmal. At the line 
of the coronal suture and the part directly back of it ; this is the 
coronal. At the broad interspace between the frontal bone and the 
tubera ; this is the post-coronal, and appears to be an extension of 
the foreo-oing. An apparent depression is defined at the obelion. 

The coronal depression has been described by Prof J. Cleland 
(Philosoph. Trans., vol. clx, 1870). It can be easily defined in the 
living subject. Abundant means are at hand for confirmation of 
this statement. Children exhibit the peculiarity as well as adults. 
It is generally seen in short high heads, which also retain a short 
sagittal suture and an abrupt curve to the mid-vertex. Rolleston 
(British Barrows, 1877) names skulls which show this peculiarity 
"cut off;" it appears to be the same variety as is described by 
Lissauer (Archiv. f. Anthropolpgie, 1885, p. 9) under the name of 
" sagittal Kriimmung," 

When the two coronal depressions are associated with large tu- 


bera aud para-tubera, and the iuterval between tbetn (viz., the obe- 
lion and the post-ebelion ) is on a lower plane than the occipital 
angle, the variety of skull named by Prof. Cleland, " trilobate," is 
defined. Trilobate skulls have been found by Prof. RoUeston ' in 
the barrows of England. In the College of Physicians, No. 87, 
Carniolian, and No. 10, Hollander, exhibit the peculiarity. I have 
detected one in a Peruvian, another in N. A. Indian (No. 7-47, 
A. N. S.), and a third in a Tschutchi Indian (No. 3, A. N. S.). An 
imperfectly developed form is seen in a Nantucket Indian child* 
aged 12 years. W. H. Flower gives an example in Catalogue Os- 
teol. Collection, Col. of Phys. and Surgeons, Lond., 1879, 172. The 
natiform skull of congenital syphilis appsars to hd of the same 
nature as the tribolate. 

The 2)ost-coro)ial depression is often associated with the general 
roundness and fullness of contour of the frontal bone just in front 
of the coronal suture. This is well seen in No. 1492, Peruvian 
(A. N. S.), aged five years, and in 890, Ibid. 

Instead of the coronal depression being marked the bregma may 
be greatly depressed, the sagitta shortened, and the occiput knobbed. 
Such crania are frequently seen, and in the liviag subject make it 
exceedingly difficult to determine accurate measurements from the 
line into which the bregma enters. The subjects are apt to exhibit 
hyperostosis of the sutures of the hard palate, and to have small 
choanse. Examples are seen in two Italiau skulls in the College of 
Physicians (Nos. 110 and 113). 

Occasionally a depression is seen above the temporal ridge and 
corresponds to the curve of this elevation. It is well seen in an 
Esquimaux cranium (No. 677, A. N. S.). 

The Ridges of the Vertex. — The ridges of the vertex are those at 
the sagittal suture, above the temporal ridge, and at the sides of the 
obelion and the post-obelion. 

The ridges of the sagittal suture constitute the carinations de- 

1 " The precipitous dip downward of the posterior half of the parietals 
which is so characteristic of brachycaphaly generally. — Ibid, p. 682. 


scribed by anthropologists. They may be restricted to the subdi- 
visions of the sagittal as above proposed. Thus the post-obelial 
aud the intertuberal parts are often separately and distinctly cari- 
nated. The bregmal and post-bregmal parts may be carinated, 
while the rest of the sagitta is normal. The post-obelial, obelial, 
and the posterior half of the intertuberal parts have been found to 
be carinated, together with the bregmal and post-bregmal, the ante- 
rior part of the intertuberal alone remaining normal. The cari- 
nated portion of the sagitta may extend the entire length of the 
suture, excepting only the post-obelial. This arrangement is ad. 
mirably seen in the figures of a woman's skull in Welcker's mono- 
graph (infra, xiii, Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4). 

The ridge which conforms to the temporal ridge is relatively in- 
frequent. It is found in heavy male skulls as far as ray observa- 
tions go. It should be easily felt in the head of the living subject. 
The enormous lateral ridges of Uiutatherium are probably develop- 
ments of the temporal ridges, thus showing the extraordinary influ- 
ence muscle-traction can exert over bony surfaces. If the exact 
■degree of influence of all the muscles having bony attachments 
<;ould be measured, osteology would be placed upon a philosophical . 

Instead of the sagittal suture at the obelion and the post-obelion 
being depressed it may remain unchanged. The margins of the 
pai'ietal bone remain also unchanged, while a ridge-like elevation 
of bone passes obliquely from the sagitta, at the end of the inter- 
tuberal portion, backward and outward to the meso-lambdoid 
eminence. Such conformation is well marked in the skull of 
a Chinese in the College of Physicians. In a living individual 
retaining such a peculiarity it is highly probable that a large tri- 
angular depression could be felt at the posterior part of the vertex. 


The interior or endo-cranial view of the vertex confirms the pro- 
posed division of the sagittal suture. The several parts are as dis- 


tinctly separated as ou the exterioi% and, as the interior plane of 
the sagittal suture tends to remain open when the exterior is closed, 
the evidence of the disposition is here often alone available. 

The side of least expansion of the j^arietal bones correlates with 
increase of thickness of the inner plate. The elevation of the 
inner plate of the unexpanded side is easily detected by the finger. 

In No. 24 of the College of Physicians the vertex-sutures are 
open, the bregmal, post-bregmal, obelial, and post-obelial parts are 
serrated, both exteriorly and interiorly, while the intertuberal (the 
post-bregmal portion being here counted a separate quantity) is 

In No. 50, of the same collection, the interior view of skull is har- 
monic throughout, the bregmal being alone distinguished by its 
obliquity to the rest of the sagittal suture. 

The relations of the depressions (presumably for the Pacchionian 
bodies) are, if of simple form, very commonly on either side of the 
intertuberal portion of the suture at the post-bregmal division. In 
thirty examinations of normal crania I have found but five where 
the depression was either absent or merged wdth a depression placed 
still farther back. 

When the vitreous plate is thickened at the region of the former 
anterior fontanel and extends along the lines of the sutures so as 
to form a lozenge-shape figure, depressions for the Pacchionian 
bodies are often seen at its sides. It is rare to see depressions at 
the obelial or the post-obelial parts, though they may be oftener 
found on the frontal bones below the frontal eminences.- Between 
the parietal tubera and the sagittal suture at the obelion an emi- 
nence is frequently found which almost equals the tuber in size. 
It is very commonly found in the skulls of Peruvians. 

As in all other anatomical quantities, the subdivisions of the 
sutures of the vertex are subject to variation. 

The simple statement upon which such subdivisions may be ren- 
dered tenable is one universally conceded, namely, that structures 
in their range of variation show traces of their origin and rates of 


growth. That the bregmal and post-obelial portions of the sagittal 
suture are distinct from the remaining portion is probable when it 
is recalled that both portions are completed after birth in the 
process of obliteration of the fontanels. That the post-bregmal 
portion may be a good subdivision is also probable, since it answers 
pretty nearly to the position of the Pacchionian bodies and from 
the fact that in the parietal bone of the young subject this portion 
is seen to be pectinated, while the intertuberal is nearly smooth. 
The intertuberal portion represents the shortest distance from the 
tuber to the suture. The obelial portion has an admirable raison 
d'etre in being the region of the parietal foramina. 

The following notes in illustration of the manner in which the 
foregoing statements may be employed in description of crania may 
be found useful : The specimens are all in the College of Phy- 

No. 114, native of Elba : 

Sutures open. 

Bregmal, 1" 5"""; post-bregmal, 1° 5™"; intertuberal, 4" 5™'" ; obe- 
lial, 2" ; post-obelial, 1'. 

No. 30 : 
Acrocephalic, synostotic. 
Bregmal and post-bregmal, 4*. 

Entire region elevated ; not carinate ; intertuberal, 4°, slightly 
carinate; obelial, 2° 5™"", flat; post-obelial, 2", carinate. 

No. 92, Uskoke : 
Left coronal suture closed ; obelial portion lobate ; post-bregmal 
with markedly oblique axes to the serrations, in contrast to the 
transversely disposed serrations of the intertuberal portions. 

No. 38, Kabardine : 
Both coronals obliterated ; no wisdom teeth, yet the basi-cranial 
suture is closed; bregmal, 1° 2""™; post-bregmal, 1° 2°""; intertu- 


beral, 5° 5°""; obelial, 2"; post-obelial, 2°. The obelial is serrate; 
post-bregmal depression is markedly developed. 

No. 34, Krira : 
Synostotic, forehead prominent; resembles skull of Pomeranian 
weaver described by B. Davis ; metopic eminence conspicuous. 
Entire region of bregmal, post-bregmal portions, and the anterior 
half of the intertuberal is elevated, but broadly carinate. The 
posterior half of the intertuberal is smooth ; the obelial and post- 
obelial portions carinate. 

No. 98, Gypsy : 
Vertex remarkably "cut off" posteriorly. Entire suture-line is 
carinate except the post-obelial portion. 

Australian skull (Col. of Phys.) : 

Sagittal suture open ; bregraal, 1" ; post-bregmal, 1" ; intertuberal, 
6" ; obelial, 2" ; post-obelial, 2^ 

In the skulls of Esquimaux, A. N. S., the vertex is "cut off;" 
the intertuberal, excepting the post-bregmal part, is carinate in 
No. 678. The entire intertuberal is carinate in No. 279 ; the 
para-obelial eminence continuous, with a smaller ridge which ex- 
tends one-half the length of the intertuberal portion of the sagittal 
suture in No. 677. 

The right and left sides of the vertex are almost always asym- 
metrical. The left side at the forehead is commonly more project- 
ing than the posterior part of the parietal bone of the same side. 
The reverse of these proportions is seen on the right. At the level 
of the occiput the left part may be projecting. Thus a circumfer- 
ential measurement of the left side at the level of the frontal emi- 
nence may show the curve exaggerated anteriorly while diminished 
posteriorly, and a similar measurement taken from frontal emi- 
nence, so as to include the occiput above the inion, will show both 
anterior and posterior parts exaggerated on the left side as com- 
pared with those on the right. 


Linear measurements taken in the median line from the glabella 
to the inion will represent more nearly the curve of the left side of 
the calvarium thau do those taken on the right. The measurements 
last named may differ so widely from those of the left side as to 
throw the point given by Thrane for the fissure of Rolando on the 
right side as much as one-half inch out from that of the left. 

The vertex in the space included at the sides by the temporal 
ridges — at the front by the corona and at the back by the 
lambda — is subject to local atrophic changes. Rounded depressions 
measuring one or two centimetres across and one to three millime- 
tres in depth are scattered irregularly over the surface. There is 
no diseased action elsewhere in the skulls showing this peculiarity, 
and no evidence can be presented that the depressions themselves 
are of morbid origin. They have been seen always in crania show- 
ing early signs of advanced age, and some of them are found in dis- 
tinctly senile skulls. Examples are seen in several of the skulls of 
Arabs (A. N. S.). A Narragansett ^ and a Chinese skull '^ also ex- 
hibit the depression. 

In a cranium in the possession of the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences the vertex has been mapped out and the localities named after 
the phrenological method of Gall and Spurzheim. It is interesting 
to note that a number of the enclosures which constitute what is 
known in the language of phrenology as the " organs " answer 
accurately to the eminences which I have named as above. Thus 
the para-tuberal eminence becomes the organ of " ambition," the 
raeso-lambdoidal eminence that of " friendship," etc. The "organ" 
of " philoprogenitiveness" appears to be always well developed in 
females, and frequently so in males. I find no reference to 
this association of parts in the writings of phrenology, and I am, 
therefore, led to infer that it is a co-incidence only that the emi- 
nences which I have named happened also to have attracted the 
attention of the phrenologist. 

iNo. 951. 2 No. 94. 


NoTK. — H. Welcker (Wachsthum und Bau des menschlichen Schiidels, 
1862, Fig. 7, p. 17) divides the sagittal suture into five parts. These divis- 
ions are the same as I suggest in the text. My attention was called to 
Welcker's work by Dr. Frank Baker after I had delivered the lecture. In- 
stead of naming the parts separately, Welcker includes them in the numbers 
1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. It will be noticed that this writer retains the post-bregmal 
division, which I have included with some doubt. The reference of 
Welcker to the entire subject is very brief and is embraced in the follow- 
ing language : " For more accurate examination of the shape of these su- 
tures I have illustrated (Plate iii, Fig. 7) five regions, of which Jfo. 1 is on 
the coronali ; No. -5 borders on the lambdoida, while No. 4, which lies be- 
tween the straight parts of the parietal foramina, is a trifle smaller than the 
other divisions." 

Rolleston (British Barrows, 1877, 02.3), probably influenced by the same 
authority, speaks of the sagittal suture as divided into fifths. The post- 
obelial is the " posterior fifth " of this writer, and the obelial the " penulti- 
mate fifth." 



Sutures often indicate the manner in which the bones have grown. 
As already stated, the comparatively deep serrations in the middle 
of the sagittal and coronal sutures correspond to the most preco- 
cious extensions of growth-force in those directions. Premature 
union of two opposed portions of bone, namely, at the surfaces of 
greatest acceleration, may lead to a suture at such portions, being 
raised above the plane of the adjacent surface. The carinated por- 
tion of the sagittal suture is an illustration of this peculiarity. A 
group of instructive examples is seen in the sutures between the 
maxilla aud the bones adjacent; thus the malo-maxiliary at its 
lower part, where two obtuse processes project, the process pertain- 
ing to the maxilla being the larger ; the inequality aud even rugosity 
of the same suture, as it aids in' defining the lower border of the orbit ; 
the union of the horizontal plates of the maxillae by means of which 
an upward extension results, aiding in the composition of the nasal 
septum ; a downward extension of the same in the form* of a thicken- 
ing and even of an exostosis, which lies upon the roof of the mouth ; 
and also in the nasal spine, which is formed at the intermaxillary 


suture and projects from the lower anterior margin of the nasal cham- 
ber. These changes on the line of union of the maxilla with the malar 
bone, and with its fellow of the op])osite side of the body, indicate that 
the direction of pressure during the growth of the bone has been 
greater at the sides toward the malar bone and at the median line of 
the face than elsewhere. It has been least between themaxillse and 
the nasal bones and between the maxillae and the palatals, which 
would indicate that the maxilla has grown forward and from side 
to side earlier and more aggressively than it has grown upward and 
backward. In this statement it is assumed that each nasal bone lies 
above the ascending process of the maxilla rather than in front of it. 
The backward extension of the maxilla against the palatal bone in 
the line of the dental ai'ch demands special consideration, since it 
belongs to the means of accommodation of the molar teeth. Such 
as it is, however, the pressure of the extending bone in this direc- 
tion leads to increased thickening of the palatal bone in all directions, 
and forms the pyramidal process. This process may be looked upon 
as an exemplification of an active suture-formation, which leads 
to hyperostosis of a part, although only one of the bones interested 
becomes entirely involved. 

The maxilla in two places shows the effects of nerves and vessels 
in modifying suture lines. The roof of the infra-orbital canal 
is closed in a variable manner by the approximation of two portions 
of the maxilla at the inferior border of the orbit. Very commonly 
the border is thickened and an additional element of roughness and 
unevenness presented to that already noticed in the malo-maxillary 
suture. In like manner the maxilla as it joins the malar bone at the 
orbito-temporal septum exhibits one to three fissures in the imma- 
ture bone (for the accommodation of minute vessels and nerves), 
which by the closure determine the positions of new grooves. Now, 
the growtli in the direction of the orbito-temporal septum is vari- 
able. The maxillary process may reach the sjjhenoid bone or it 
may terminate at the malar. If it attains the bone first named, 
the malar bone is excluded from the spheno-maxillary fissure. If it 


does not so attain, the malar eaters iuto the composition of the fis- 
sure. (See p. 11.) 

The connection which exists between nutritive processes and 
grooves caused by the positions of blood vessels is considered on 
page 70. It becomes difficult at times to decide which is the most 
effective in inducing the position of sutures. For example : While 
the masseteric ridge answers in position to the intermalar suture, it 
also corresponds to the position of a vessel groove. The groove is 
commonly seen in the immature skull. It is, however, conspicuous 
in the skull of an adult idiot.^ 

In ilhistration of the fad that nutrition of bone is apt to be in- 
fluenced by the position of sutures the following may be mentioned : 
Nodules of a size of a millimetre, sessile in form and of hard con- 
sistence, are occasionally seen on the frontal bone near the median 
line. They are to be attributed to localized hyperostoses in the 
neighborhood of the interfrontal suture.^ 

The frontal bone directly in advance of the coronal suture is 
often the seat of a convexity only secondary in height to the frontal 
eminence. It is especially well developed in Peruvian crania. A 
second eminence, more generally distributed, is seen on the same 
bone in the temporal fossa, directly below the temporal ridge.^ 

The coronal suture is deflected forward slightly as it is crossed 
by the temporal ridge. In 31 out of the 6-1 skulls of negroes ex- 
amined the suture extended parallel to the ridge for about two 
centimetres before it crossed it. In no other skull, save in a Semi- 
nole Indian* and a Carib,^ was a similar peculiarity noticed. It 
thus becomes a character which should be sought for in describing 
the cranium of the negro. (See Vertex, p. 53.) 

The borders of muscular impressions, such as the temporal ridge 
is to the impression for the temporal muscle, may be said to modify 

iNo. 1190, German, A. N. S. 

2 No. 10.35, Apache; 742, Mandan ; 647, and three Peruvians. 

=• This is well seen in 316, a young Malay ; 1029, Fiji ; and 44, Menominee. 

* No. 708, Academy of Natural Sciences. ^&92, ibid. 


the bone itself, and may even lead to the separation of the bone in 
two parts. This is apparently the case in the instance of a double 
parietal bone as figured by Professor Turner in the skull of an Ad- 
miralty Islander.^ The line of origin on the inner sui-face of the 
malar bone answers to the position of the suture in two instances of 
double malar bone which I have studied.^ In four crania'^ traces of 
a suture were seen on the maxillary portion of the hard palate ex- 
tending obliquely forward and outward at or near the maxillo-pal- 
atal junction. They may unite w'ith the junction last named at the 
median line or lie a little to the ectal side. 

The squamosal suture (pafieto-temporal) ends posteriorly at the 
mastoid process somewhat abruptly. A process of the suture is apt 
to be directed upward and backward from the hinder part of this 
suture on the level of the temporal vein-groove. Although small, 
the pi'ocess practically limits the squamosal region in this direction, 
since the curves which are continuous with the tuber of the parietal 
bone here begin. The slope from the side of the skull to the occi- 
put is also announced.* 


An interesting region for variation is seen in the inferior border 
of the orbit. The border may be said to lie below a curved line 
which is continued across the orbit along the upper limit of the 
zygoma. The bones which enter into the composition of the border 
are the malar and the superior maxilla. 

The malar comprises the outer half, nearly, of the border. As a 
rule, the anterior limit reaches a point about 4°^ from the infra- 
orbital canal, but in place of this it may end over the canal, or may 
reach the ascending process of the maxilla. 

1 The Challenger Rep. X, 57. « 1255, Ostrogoth; and 130, Chinese. 

3Nos. 20, 60, 80, 136, 139, College of Physicians. 
*See 1482 (A. N. S.), Peruvian, right side 

5 T 


The maxillary portiou is divided into the part over the infra- 
orbital foramen and the part answering to the base of the ascending 
process of the maxilla. 

The first of these divisions is exceedingly variable. The remains 
of the suture at the roof of the infra-orbital foramen, usually ending 
at the border, may extend to the malar.^ The entire sutural arc of 
the orbital border may be depressed below the rest of the curve, 
and a minute spicule on the median side appears to indicate that 
fibrous tissue had bridged or occupied the interval caused by the 

Negroes frequently exhibit the .above-named variety. The 
line of the suture over the foramen is often hyperostosed, so as 
to assume a rounded form which may be irregularly roughened. 
Such a variation is often found in large, heavy crania." The 
ascending process of the maxilla entering into the composition of 
the border may be sharply ridged and abruptly raised above the 
planes of the floor of the orbit.'* 

In No. 151G, Malay, the infra-orbital suture does not extend to 
the inferior border of the orbit, but reaches the malar bone. A 
well-defined groove is seen on the inferior orbital border in 1450, 
Australian; 44, Menominee; and 739, Mandan. 

In the same group, with the rugose suture over the infra-orbital 
foramen, may be placed the rather decided ledge-like hyperostosis 
which marks the maxilla directly above and in front of the palatal 
as it lies over the spheno-palatine foramen. 

1 1316, Malay (A. N. S.), aged eight years. 

^ "Well illustrated in a slvull of Lenape (North American Indian), No. 40, 
A. N. 8. 

^ The suture over the infra-orbital foramen is raised or rugose in many 
examples of crania. In this connection see 1451, 1202, Australian ; 747, 
Minitari ; 740, Mandan. The suture is often open. Examples are seen in 
Nos. 1300, 1342, Sandwich Islanders; Nos. 69, 708, 707, 733, and 720, Semi- 
nole; Nos. 951 and 955, Narragansett ; Nos. 1227, 745, 1233, B lack foot ; 
1322, Pottawatomie; and 739, Mandan. 



The foramina of the skull are chiefly of interest in exhibiting re- 
tentions of embryonic states. The most striking of these states are 
seen at the base of the skull, at the region of the union of the vomer 
with the sphenoid bone and the sjihenoidal processes of the palatal 
bone and pterygoid process, as ah-eady seen^ (page 23). 

The foramina may be asymmetrical ; the foramen ovale less so 
than the others. A second grou}) of retention — variations is seen at 
the surface of the sj^henoid bone, where it lies against the petrosal 
to form the petroso-sphenoidal suture. Along the lines of this 
suture are found the oval foramen, the spinous foramen, and the 
canalis innominata. The suture widens not infrequently at the outer 
end to form an opening, which may receive the name of the petroso- 
sphenoidal foramen. The oval, spinous, and petroso-sphenoidal 
foramina may be confluent, or the spinous and petroso-sphenoidal 
may alone unite, or the oval and the spinous. The canalis iunomi-- 
nata^ may be large or absent. In the skull up to the fourth year 
the spinous and petroso-sphenoidal openings are always united. I 
have often remarked that the spinous foramen may be entirely 
absent on one side.^ In some lower animals, as is seen in the Vir- 
ginian opossum, the foramina retain throughout life the type seen 
in this disposition to coalescence. 

The development of the tympanic bone is peculiar, for instead of 
uniformly extending in all its proportions a large foramen is always 
seen on the bone at its inferior surface. The significance of the 
opening is unknown. 

The foramen is very variable in form and position. As a rule, 
it recedes with age from the aperture of the meatus, so that in adult 
examples the retained foramen is almost always a centimetre or 
more from the outer free margin. Examples of the retention of the 

^ For a good example see No. 924, negro. 

' The foramina ovale are at times asymmetrical. 

' No. 142, Marquesas (A. N. S.), furnishes an example. 


foramen iu adult life are by no means infrequent. In fourteen 
skulls of Esquimaux examined eight showed the tympanic foramen 
of defect. I have never seen the foramen in a Sandwich Island or 
Tahitc cranium. Extended examinations might show variable per- 
centage of occurrences in the different races. That the foramina 
are factors in the distribution of pus in peri-meatal abscesses there 
can be no doubt. 

The oval foramina of the sphenoid bone are often unequal in 
size and of different shapes. The form may be so slightly changed 
from the circular that the term oval is scarcely applicable to it. 
This is often seen in Esquimaux crania. The rounded shape is 
frequently found associated with the short skull and the oval form 
with the long skull. When an asymmetry of the openings exists it 
is rational to entertain the opinion that the side of the skull w'hich 
show^s the greater elongation is also the side which will relain the 
most elliptical foramen. 

If the base of the skull were perfectly symmetrical the line of the 
basio-cranial suture, produced outward to the right and left, should 
intersect the oval foramina at a fixed point ; but, in fact, the inter- 
section is variable. This is in part owing to the differences in the 
shapes of the openings, as already noted, and in part to the torsion 
of the anterior segment of the skull. (See page 18.) 

The carotid canals may be asymmetrical. The left canal, when 
asymmetry is present, is ordinarily the smaller.^ 

The foramen lacerum medium may be entirely absent, as is the 
rule with the lower animals. The union of the apex of the petrosal 
element against the body of the sphenoid bone is more frequently 
seen in long, narrow skulls than in others, but may be seen inde- 
pendently of skull form. 

The foramina on the side of the skull are the familiar mastoid 
and the alisphenoid foramina. The latter are infrequently present. 
They are the orifices of small diploic veins which come to the sur- 

^ For good examples see 1548, Swede; 914, negro (A. N. S.). 


face, probably to unite with the deep temporal veins. The spheno- 
palatine foramina are relatively of large size in the skull of the 
young subject. In an adult Tchutchi skulP these foramina were 
G""" in diameter. 

The foramina of the vertex are few in number. The parietal 
foramina may be larger than usual, or they may disappear and 
abrupt openings may occur through the outer plate so as to expose 
the diploe along the line of the temporal ridge. They are more 
common on the frontal portion of the crest than elsewhere. 

The variations of the front of the skull pertain to the anterior 
lacerated foramina, the infra-orbital foramina, and the opening along 
the line of the frontal suture. The differences in the anterior lac- 
erated foramina are chiefly those of symmetry. The infra-orbital 
foramina vary chiefly in the manner by which the fissures of the 
maxilla close and the extent of the forward growth of the malar 
bone. Foramina occasionally appear at the median line, of the 
forehead, and are doubtless due to the partial failure of the two 
halves of the frontal bone entirely to unite. 

The foramina which transmit important structure are commonly 
modified from fissures, and in reversion easily assume again the 
stage of the fissure. Since they so originate, it is easy to account 
for their presence near the margins of fissures (as is seen in the for- 
amen ovale and foramen spinosum, near the fissure between the 
sphenoidal and petrosal elements). In like manner the parietal 
foramina appear at the side of the sagittal suture. Exceptions to 
this rule are seen in a small canal (occasionally present) which 
transmits a vein between the squamosal and parietal bones, and in 
a foramen in a Peruvian skull.^ 

1 No. 1030, A. N. S. 

'No. 17, from San Mateo, which exhibits an opening between the frontal 
and parietal bones. 



Inspection of the bones of the human subject sliows that the sur- 
faces are not infrequently marked by superficial grooves which 
appear to be the tracks of blood-vessels. Such markings are best 
seen in the long bones, which exhibit the usual appearances of 
chronic inflammation. Assuming that the impression made upon 
the bones are'proportionate to the amount of increase of volume of 
the bone, and that the vessels remain fixed, a simple problem is 
presented by means of which the observer can determine the signifi- 
cance of blood-vessel tracks in other than in inflammatory conditions. 

The vessel-grooves on the periphery. — The cranium yields a num- 
ber of examples of these grooves. In the forehead, especially of 
specimens in which the forehead is rounded, numbers of deep, 
narrow grooves an inch or more in length are seen extending up- 
ward and backward from near the supra-orbital foramen or from the 
outer side of the frontal eminence and in line with the supra-orbital 
foramen or supra-orbital notch. In rare instances a simple small- 
groove lies near the frontal portion of the temporal ridge.^ I have 
seen both the above-named grooves present in a child of nine months 
of age. They appear earlier than the grooves described in the suc- 
ceeding paragraphs. 

Good examples of the frontal vessel-grooves have been found in 
skulls of all nationalities. They are not uncommon in the negro, 
when the narrow, convex forehead appears to favor their appear- 

1 See No. 760, Copt, for a good example and many negro crania. 

2 For example see: Nos. 905, 912, negro; No. 438, Ohio Indian; No. 
1035, Apache; No. 87, Peruvian; No. 1024, Fiji; No. 1214, Hamilton, 
Ohio, Indian; No. 1043, Pawnee; Nos. 78, 44, 35, 1222, Menominee; 
Nos. 749, 650, Minitari ; Nos. 744, 745, Blackfoot ; No. 1057, Miami ; 
Nos. 644, 742, Mandan ; Nos. 39, 1333, 1233, unnamed. 


It has been found in one side of the skull only, as seen in the 
skull of a Sandwich Islander.' 

In a second skull of a Sandwich Islandet- (No. 695) the frontal 
grooves are absent, but a number of foramina perforating the outer 
plate of the bone are directed upward. It would appear that diploic 
veins had passed into the frontal veins, which had in their turu 
failed to make any impression upon the bone itself 

Many crania show a vertically placed groove, which is more oi 
less arborescent, and rather shallow as compared to the frontal, 
lying upon the squamosal, a short distance above the external audi- 
tory meatus and reaching as far as the upper limit of the bone, or 
even crossing the paricto-squamosal suture and describing a curve 
upward and forward over the parietal bone, a short distance below 
the temporal crest. In a few examples the track originates in the 
parieto-squaniosal when the squamosa itself is free. 

The grooves are absent on surfaces from which muscles arise, as 
is seen on the occiput.^ The squamosal groove is an apparent ex- 
ception to this conclusion. May it be said that the temporal muscle 
makes but little traction at the region of the groove '? 

The region of the asterion is quite commonly the seat of numerous 
closely disposed grooves which are deep and sharply defined. It 
will be observed that in the above examples the grooves are deepest 
where the skull is thick, as on the convex frontal bone and in the 
massive region of the asterion, and most shallow when the bone is 
the thinnest, as over the squamosal ; also that they may communi- 
cate with the diploic veins, as in the forehead, or even anastomose 
Avith an intra-cranial vein, as in the parieto-squamosal suture.^ 

1 No. 572. 

^ I have observed :i branched depression of unknown significance above 
the nucha-mark in the skull of a Hindoo child four years of age. 

^ For good examples of squamosal vessel-grooves see the following : 542, 
Miami ; 670, Chinese; 741, Mandan ; 1043, Pawnee; 1283, 1051, Hottentot; 
59, 987, 1283, 28, unnamed. 


Linear grooms of doubtful origin on the periphery. — A number of 
grooves are seen ou the superior maxilla as it enters into the com- 
position of the outer wall of the orbit and of the boundaries of the 
spheno-maxillary sinus which closely resemble those caused by ves- 
sels. They are seen as fissures in the skull of the child and as 
linear depression in the skull of older subjects. Should they be 
accepted as vessel-grooves, the interesting question is raised : j\Iay 
not such irregular fissures as are here seen on the maxilla as it ex- 
tends upward toward the orbital wall be caused by the presence of 
vessels, and may not the irregular sinuate edges on the margin of a 
growing bone of the flat class be generally associated with such 
modifying causes? 

The malar bone occasionally exhibits a transverse linear groove 
upon the middle of the inner (temporal) surface. (See page 8.) 
It corresponds to the division between the masseteric and the tem- 
poral surfaces as seen in the child at three years, and to the line of 
the suture which so rarely divides the malar into two parts. 

Vessel-grooves on the encranial surface. — Among the grooves on 
the endocranial surface of the parietal bone which are of undoubted 
influence, the form of the surrounding parts, is the conspicuously 
broad and deep depression which lies directly back of the coronal 
suture. The constriction so commonly seen in the periphery in 
this portion of the skull cannot be disassociated with the position 
of these vessels. The nutritive processes appear to be at first stim- 
ulated by the presence of this line of vessels, but after union with 
the frontal bone it remains stationary and permits the adjacent por- 
tion of the skull to rise above it. At the antero-inferior angle of 
the parietal bone the groove is converted into a canal and the inner 
layer of the bone notably thickened. In crania which exhibit a 
tendency to thickening of the vitreous plate the vessel -grooves are 
deep, sharply defined, and resemble the tracks made by insect-larvse 
in old wood and in neglected books. The diploe is often exposed 
at the bottom of these grooves. Doubtless the diploic vessels freely 
unite with the vessels. 


Vessel-grooves within the nasal chamber. — The nasal bone is often 
marked \Yitli a groove which extends the entire length of the sur- 
face within the nasal chamber and lies near the maxilla-nasal 
suture. A similar groove is often found on the ascending process 
of the maxilla near and parallel to the same suture. 

The temporal ridge, as it is crossed by the coronal suture, is occa- 
sionally depressed, or the line of the ridge may be said to exhibit a 
fault at the point of section of the coronal. This arrangement is 
seen oftener in the skulls of negroes than those of other races.^ 

The temporal ridges divide the dome of the cranium (t. e., the 
parts included in the sides and vertex of the brain case) into the 
natural divisions within which the characters of the minor details 
are distinctive. The vertex between the ridges is almost uniformly 
marked by more numerous diploic openings (aperturae emissarise). 
The vessel-grooves are absent. In some examples the strise which 
radiate from the tubera medianw^ard and backward are retained 
and distinguish the adult cranium." 

In narrow "ill-filled" skulls the temporal ridge may overlie the 
parietal tuber, as I have observed in a cranium of a convict, or 
greatly underlie it, as is seen in No. 77 of the College of Physicians 

Among the processes of bone which were noticed in the course of 
the examination may be mentioned the following : 

A number of small but stout spines, each measuring a millimetre 
or two millimetres in length, which were appended to the frontal 
portion of the temporal ridge and directed downward ; the spines 

^ The following are the numbers of negro crania in A. N. S. showing this 
peculiarity: No. 912, to a marked degree; also 975, 1102, 920, 994, 1094, 
918, 907, 902, 913. 

The ridge is well seen in No. 1300, Sandwich Islander ; 10G4, German ; 
207, Puget Sound ; 133, Cossack ; 89, Adrian ; 99, Armenian (the four 
last named are in the College of Physicians). 

^ The temporal ridges often limit the distribution of morbid processes and 
the changes due to old age. The diameter of the vertex measured between 
the two temporal ridges varies greatly in individuals. In tapeinocephalic 
and in all long, narrow crania the distance is smaller than in other types. 


were slightly curved. They were undoubtedly developed in the 
direction of the vertical fibres of the temporal muscle.^ 

The pneumatic process of the occijoital bone was met with in 
six' instances. In six of these the process was on the left side. 

The paroccipital process may be bent inward and flattened,'' and 
in one instance was found to articulate on the left side with the 

Rer/ions of great density of bone structure. — The disposition for 
some parts of the cranium to show dense ivory-like thickenings is 
very noticeable. The causes which induce the vascular cancellous 
tissue to assume greater density with diminution of blood-vessel 
supply would be interesting to trace. Four localities are named 
for the occurrence of this change — 1st, the petrous portion of the 
temporal bone; 2d, the inner or vitreous plate of the bones entering 
into the composition of the vertex;^ 3d, the margins of the jugular 
foramen, notably the anterior; 4th, occasionally in the interior 
of sinuses, as seen in the maxillary and ethmoid sinuses. 

The disposition to ivory-like density is often morbid (this prob- 
ably includes the third and fourth groups as given above), and 
may even be present in the vitreous plate of the vertex. Scarcely 
a cranium can be found in our dissecting-rooms in which solid 
nodules are not found in some part of the interior of the cal- 
varium, especially at the frontal jwrtion on either side of the me- 
topic line. Many individuals exhibit dense, white, low eminences 
of the general internal surface at the region of the bregma. They 
are lozenge-shaped and measure four to six centimetres in diameter. 

^ See No. 1271, ZSorth Americivn Indian; No. 742, Mandan ; No. 963, 

2 No. 1229, Upsarooka; 20, Bengalee; 78, 85, Menominee; 204, Che- 
nook; 707, Seminole. 

^ See skull of Alaskan in museum of Princeton College, N. J. 

* No. 706, German. 

^This is seen to be the case to a remarkable degree in the skull of an 
Esquimau.x (No. 1554) in the Army Medical ^luseum. 


The formations as they exist in the sinuses are nodular and appar- 
ently lead up by easy grades to the ivory-exostoses recognized by 
the physician as distinctly pathological/ 



It will be remembered that one of the objects in view in under- 
taking the study which is now completed was to ascertain the degree 
of correlation, if any existed, which could be traced between struct- 
ural peculiarities in the region of the mouth, of the nasal chamber, 
of the naso-pharynx, and other portions of the cranium. A laryn- 
gologist has an opportunity of taking measurements in the mouth, 
throat, and adjacent parts which is withheld from the general ob- 
server. It goes without saying that for general craniological pur- 
poses it will be impossible for measurements within the nose and 
throat to be made. The contrast between any of these regions in 
patients is so great it was suggested that a series of observations 
might be of some importance. The following is an example of the 
kind of measurements which can be secured in the living subject: 

In a woman aged twenty-six, suffering from chronic nasal catarrh, 
it was found that the distance from the axis tubercle (which is very 
plainly seen when the velum is lifted) to the cutting edge of the 
right superior incisor at the median line was 8° 1™""; the distance 
from the vault of the naso-pharynx to the lower border of the ante- 
rior nasal aperture, 7° 7™™ ; the distance from the glabella to the 
post-remal prominence, 18"; the circumference of the head taken 
on the line of the parietal tubera was 5^:". 

It will be noted in the above that the axo-incisorial measure- 
ment ends at the edge of the incisor. It is acknowledged that this 
is undesirable, since the inclination of the teeth is a variable quan- 
tity. Indeed, any point about the dental arches is subject to the 
same criticism, but does not apply with any greater force in this 

^ For a general essay on hyperostosis in man and animals see Gervais 
Journal de Zoologie, 1875, p. 421. 


measurement thau to other craniol