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Reprinted with additions from 

The Biblical World, Vol. XLIV, No. 2 

Chicago, 1 91 4 

Copyrighted 1914 by the University 0/ Chicago 


^be xanlversit^) ot Cbtcaoo 







(the graduate divinity school: religious education) 



Reprinted with additions from 

The Biblical World, Vol. XLIV, No. 2 

Chicago, 1 91 4 

Copyrighted 1914 by the University oj Chicago 


Composed and Printed By 

The University of Clilcaifo Press 

ChicuKO. UlUiols, U.S.A. 



I. The Essential Quality of Social Service 65 

II. Dangers in Social Service 73 

III. Types of Social Service 79 

§ I. Seasonal 79 

§ 2. Casual 79 

§ 3. Organized 81 

§4. Affiliated 84 

§ 5. Personal 85 

§ 6. Gifts 87 

IV. Significant Programs of Social Service 89 

§ I. Christ Church, Chicago 89 

§ 2. Hyde Park Baptist Church, Chicago 93 

§ 3. Church of the Disciples, Boston 96 

§ 4. First Presbyterian Church, Buffalo 97 

§ 5. Winnetka Congregational Church 99 

§ 6. The Protestant Episcopal Program ^ . . 102 

§ 7. Summary 103 

V. Education in Money-Giving 105 

§1. Educational Principles in Benevolence 105 

§ 2. Current Methods of Sunday-School Benevolence .... 108 

§3. Missionary Leaflets 113 

VI. Values in Social Service 118 

§1. Testimony of Sunday-School Workers ....... 118 

§ 2. A Study of Personal Reactions 121 

§ 3. The Popularity of Social Service 122 

§4. Motives in Social Service 125 

§ 5. Reflex Influence of Social Service 127 

§ 6. Social Service and the Emotions 130 

VII. A Suggested Curriculum of Social Service 133 

§1. Objects of Social Service i33 

§ 2. Social Service and Special Occasions i35 

§ 3. The Kindergarten Department 138 

§ 4. The Primary Department 138 

§ 5. The Junior Department 14° 

§ 6. The High-School Department I43 

§ 7. The Young People's Department 146 



Addams, Jane. Democracy and Social Ethics. New York: Macmillan, 1902. 

. Newer Ideals of Peace. New York: Macmillan, 1907. 

Ames, Edward Scribner. The Psychology of Religious Experience. Boston: 
Houghton Mifflin Co., 1910. 

. "Social Consciousness and Its Object," Psychological Bulletin, VIII, 

No. 12 (December 15, 191 1). 

Cooley, Charles Horton. Human Nature and the Social Order. New York: 
Scribner, 1902. 

. Social Organization: A Study of the Larger Mind. New York: 

Scribner, 1909. 

Elwood, Charles A. Sociology in Its Psychological Aspects. New York: 
D. Appleton & Co., 191 2. 

Hammond, Juliet. A Problem in the Psychology of Social Work. (Master's 
Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1911.) 

Mead, George H. "Social Psychology as Counterpart to Physiological Psy- 
chology," Psychological Bulletin, VI (December, 1909), 401-8. 

■ . "Social Consciousness and the Consciousness of Meaning," Psy- 
chological Bulletin, VII (December, 1910), 397-405. 
■ . "The Social Self," Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific 

Method, X, No. 14 (July 3, 1913). 




The purpose of this study is to present data concerning social 
service in the Sunday school. Moved ahke by the pervasive social 
spirit of the times and the long-recognized need of providing some 
expressive activities for their young people, religious leaders here 
and there throughout the country have been gradually introducing 
social service into the Sunday school as material for religious educa- 
tion. While the movement has awakened wide interest and kindled 
much enthusiasm, no one seems to know how far it has progressed, 
what it has accomplished, or what assured solutions it offers to the 
problem of religious education. As there has been no canvass of the 
situation, and consequently no assembling of experience, it has been 
necessary for each leader to work out his own program and develop 
his own technique, and while these good people have often felt that 
there were other forms of significant service in which their young 
people ought to engage, they have not known where to find them or 
to whom to turn for information. With the hope not only of secur- 
ing and presenting this desired information, but of accomplishing 
also the larger task of working out a curriculum of social service that 
might be experimentally tried out, this study was undertaken. Its 
specific aim was to ascertain what forms of service are in use, what 
technique is employed in carrying out a program of social service, 
what opportunity the average Sunday school has to engage in wel- 
fare efforts, what values have been discovered, what attitude the 
young people assume toward this new form of religious education, 
what motives are at work, what the reflex influence is, what means 
are taken to make benevolent offerings vital and significant, and 
how far it is possible to project a graded program of social service. 
The sources of this study, the technique employed, and the results 
obtained will be given in connection with each separate study. 

It is fairly well accepted that education is a social process, and 
needs to be interpreted by established facts regarding the inter- 
actions of mind with mind. Whenever this is recognized we see at 
once the significance of those units of society called primary groups. 



In primary' groups, like the family, the play group of children, 
and the neighborhood group, with their intimate association and 
co-operation, every member enters more or less completely into the 
life of every other member. Through constant intercourse in the 
various activities of life they acquire the imagery which enables 
them to assume each other's roles. This makes possible com- 
munion, insight, the sharing of the mental state of others. This 
does not mean that all the members of a primar}' group are just 
alike. In fact, the opposite seems to be nearer the truth. Were 
all the individuals precisely alike, the distinction between ego and 
alteri would never come to consciousness. The primar}-- group, as 
Professor Cooley says, "is always a differentiated and usually a 
competitive unity admitting of self-assertion, and various appro- 
priative passions, but these passions are socialized by synnpathy, 
and come, or tend to come, under the discipline of a common 
spirit."^ In the primary group differentiation is based on function. 
The various members of the group have different tasks to perform, 
but there is no definite conflict, for all the instincts, including those 
of hostility, are so organized that rivalry or competition is of value 
to the group. 

Now the socializing process is essentially the process of enlarging 
these primary groups so that we come into full human relations 
with a larger and larger number of persons. In his Human Nature 
and the Social Order, Professor Cooley has shown how the personal 
idea is the real person: 

The personality of a friend, as it lives in my mind and forms there a part 
of the society in which I live, is simply a group or system of thoughts associated 
with the symbols that stand for him. To think of him is to revive some part 
of the system — to have the old feeling along with the familiar symbol, though 
perhaps in a new connection with other ideas. The real and intimate thing 
in him is the thought to which he gives life, the feeling his presence or memory 
has the power to suggest. Thus the face of a friend has power over us in much 
the same way as the sight of a favorite book, of the Hag of one's country, or the 
refrain of an old song; it starts a train of thought, lifts the curtain from an 
intimate experience.^ 

The socializing process is, therefore, no mere matter of physical 
contacts, or the multiplying of acquaintances. It calls for social 

' C. H. Cooley, Social Organizalion, p. 23. 

' C. H. Cooley, Human Nature and the Social Order, p. 81. 


imagination. It is mediated by the insight which enables us to 
understand other persons, to enter into their systems of thought, 
to take up and share their sentiments and symbols. It involves 
appreciation, effective interpretation of other minds, and, not by 
any means the least, co-operation for a common end. 

Every agency, then, that facihtates s>Tnpathy, gives vividness 
to the imagination, and fosters co-operative endeavor, performs a 
socializing function. It is the unifying, fusing character of the 
family, with its fine insight and common purposes, that makes it an 
outstanding socializing force. 

A congenial family is the immemorial type of moral unity, and source of 
many terms — such as brotherhood, kindness, and the like — which describe it. 
The members become merged by intimate association into a whole wherein each 
age and sex participates in its own way. Each lives in imaginative contacts 
with the minds of the others, and finds in them the dwelling-place of the social 
self, of his affections, ambitions, resentments, and standards of right and wrong. 
Without uniformity, there is yet unity, a free, pleasant, wholesome, fruitful 
common life.^ 

So the school may be spoken of as a socializing agency, because it 
not only transmits to each succeeding generation the spiritual pos- 
sessions of the race, but through this heritage tends to enlist the 
sympathy and co-operation of people in worthy social ends. 
Geography, histor}% biography, literature, art, and science all help 
us to a fuller understanding and a more appreciative interpretation 
of other persons, and whenever the social values of the curriculum 
have been given efficient recognition the school has been a socializ- 
ing force. But the socializing process comes to its best, in the 
school, not through formal instruction, but through the develop- 
ment of a genuine community life, through the correlation of the 
didactic elements with vocational interests, the organization of 
play, and the establishment of self-government. The warm, inti- 
mate, vital association which develops in a neighborhood group 
has many illustrations, but no finer or more impressive one than 
is furnished by the immigrants in the poorer quarters of a cosmo- 
politan city. Reduced to the universal necessities and fundamental 
equalities of human life, hedged in by a life that is new, strange, 
perplexing in so many of its expressions, they draw the closer to 

' C. H. Cooley, Social Organization, p. 34. 


each other and fonn associations which call for the finest and high- 
est qualities of character. Knowing these groups as few others do 
and interpreting their significance as few others are able, Jane 
Addams has said: 

In the midst of the modern city which, at moments, seems to stand only 
for the triumph of the strongest, the successful exploitation of the weak, the 
ruthlessness and hidden crime which follow in the wake of the struggle for 
existence on its lowest terms, there come daily — at least to American cities — 
accretions of simple people, who carry in their hearts a desire for mere goodness. 
They regularly deplete their scanty livelihood in response to a primitive pity, 
and, independent of the religions thej^ have professed, of the wrongs they have 
sufTered, and of the fixed morality they have been taught, have an unquenchable 
desire that charity and simple justice shall regulate men's relations. It seems 
sometimes, to one who knows them, as if they continually sought for an outlet 
for more kindliness, and that they are not only willing and eager to do a favor 
for a friend, but that their kind-heartedness lies in ambush, as it were, for a 
chance to incorporate itself in our larger relations, that they persistently expect 
that it shall be given some form of governmental expression.' 

So ever}^ institution is a sociahzing institution that helps us to pass 
into the life of other persons, to regard them as full human beings, 
to, merge our energies and efforts for some commanding purpose. 

Now in this sense, and as one among many other institutions, 
the Sunday school has always promoted the socialization of its 
members. It has always been a place in which face-to-face asso- 
ciations have been cultivated and more or less definite social ends 
have been set before the group. Through its hymns, its stories, its 
great biographies, and its dramatization of significant events in the 
history of another people, it has fed the social imagination and made 
for breadth of vision and a fine enrichment of sentiments and ideals. 
While it may not be clearly apprehended by all who undertake its 
tasks, rehgious education is essentially a socializing process and 
therefore as an institution for furthering the process of religious 
education the Sunday school of necessity has exerted a socializing 

The introduction of social service into the Sunday school must, 
therefore, be regarded as an extension of a function which it has 
always performed. The aim of social service in the Sunday school 
is to socialize the young people, to de\Tlop their powers of sympa- 
thetic imagination and friendly co-operation, and this it does by 

' Jane Addams, New Ideals oj Peace, \)\^. 12, 13. 


promoting, enriching, vitalizing personal relations with other 
groups. The belief in the value of social service, therefore, rests 
upon a thoroughgoing belief in the social character of mind, and 
since the recognition of this fact is of the greatest importance we 
shall attempt to set it forth somewhat at length. 

The field of social psychology is "human conduct," conduct 
representing the reaction of a human being. Modern psychology 
starts with both the individual and his environment. It is regarded 
as necessary to determine what the environment is, in order to use 
that knowledge for interpreting the conduct of the individual. The 
physical environment is revealed to us through the senses; the 
immediate through contact, in part, and the distant through vision, 
hearing, smell, and the sensation of temperature. In all of an indi- 
vidual's movements reference to distant objects is implied. To aid 
his movements he makes use of the environment with which he is 
in contact. All movements of approach or withdrawal are made 
in anticipation of new contacts. The distant object always repre- 
sents a peculiar sort of contact, that of manipulation, and as a 
general abstract statement all physical conduct may be said to have 
as its goal manipulation. 

It is the social, not the physical, environment, however, which is 
of most significance. The objects of prime importance to the 
human animal are other animals of the same species. Some of 
these have a special attraction for him which is as marked as is the 
aversion with which lower animals view those forms which prey 
upon them. We are familiar with the conduct of the child with 
reference to the parent form. We know how it expresses itself in 
the cuddling response to the warmth of the parent's body. The 
attitude taken by one form is responded to immediately, instinc- 
tively, by the other form, and this is true whether the attitude be of 
a protective or of a v/arning nature. Here, then, we have a different 
set of stimuli and a different set of responses from those found in 
the field of "physical conduct," conduct with reference to "physical 
environment." The fact that they are animals of the same species 
gives peculiar value to these stimuli and responses. They mean 
more than mere physical stimuli or mere physical responses. They 
are attitudes. It is important to get this distinction between " physi- 
cal conduct" and "social conduct" clearly in mind. Physical 


stimuli are relatively stable, and so far as physical objects are 
concerned we usually act without awareness of the act. A reaction 
once set up can become habitual and sink below the threshold of 
consciousness just because the physical object is relatively stable. 
But the social object is continually changing and therefore stimula- 
tion and response are continually changing in social acts. It is in 
the field of "social conduct" that gesture plays its part. Gesture 
reveals what the other is going to do. When two animals or per- 
sons approach each other each controls his own conduct of offense 
or defense by the attitude of the other. A picturesque illustration 
of this "conversation of gestures," the parrying that goes on, is 
given by two men boxing or fencing. The same thing takes place 
in vocal conversation. By the expression of the face we know what 
the other person is going to say and our own response is immediate 
and instinctive. These gestures, whether facial or vocal, are the 
beginnings of social acts. 

Social conduct, as we have described it, does not of necessity 
involve consciousness of self. It is quite possible for the atten- 
tion to be centered upon the incipient acts of the other, without 
our being aware of their significance. Consciousness of meaning 
comes only from awareness of our response. But such gestures as 
are involved in bodily attitudes or expressions of the countenance 
we are not ordinarily aware of in ourselves. We are, however, 
aware of pantomimic and vocal gesture. When we shake our heads 
or double up our fists we see ourselves do it; when we shout we 
hear ourselves. Thus we become aware of what we are doing, and 
of ourselves. But this consciousness of self is first of all a con- 
sciousness of others as over against ourselves. In using social ges- 
tures, in the highly developed form of language, and in being aware 
of them we in a sense respond to them. We are aware of what we 
say and of what it means, and thus we are in the position of the 
other listening to ourselves. We are taking the role of the other. 
We are aware of the effect of our act upon him, and see ourselves 
from his point of view. In thus standing off and looking at our- 
selves the subjectivity has been transferred to the other. 

This possibility of taking the part of another has its basis pri- 
marily in the presence of simikir, if not identical, impulses in both 
the ego and the alteri. There is no innate tendenc}' to do what 


another person is doing, but there is a tendency for the individual 
to respond to his own stimuH as others do. Two men, for instance, 
have impulses to produce certain sounds. These sounds contain 
certain phonetic elements that are identical. In the conversation 
of vocal gestures those elements in A's response to B's stimulation 
which are like the phonetic elements in the latter are given promi- 
nence, emphasized, and gradually selected to, at least, the partial 
exclusion of non-identical elements. A similar process goes on with 
the pantomimic gestures and even with the bodily attitudes and 
expressions of countenance. In these processes an imagery is built 
up which enables us to assume the roles which others have taken in 
the past. The process, however, does not cease with recalling the 
past. On the basis of present stimuli we endeavor to imagine how 
the other person would act or what he would say under the given 
conditions. We indulge in an inner conversation, taking now the 
part associated with the self, and now the part of the alter, assuming 
his attitude and speaking for him. It is by some such process as 
this that we get acquainted with people, and also get acquainted 
with ourselves; that is, we become self-conscious. Only in taking 
the role of another do we set ourselves up as an object and only by 
this process do we enter into the life of our community. 

What does all this mean to our problem ? Much, indeed, which 
one hopes may be fully recognized. For if '^ our minds are fashioned 
in a social medium and our intellectual operations are conversations 
from first to last,"' then social service will take its place in the 
Sunday school as a socializing agency only as it is accompanied by 
an interplay of life that issues in establishing full human relations 
with other groups. Let it be said with all stress that social service in- 
volves infinitely more than merely engaging in desirable philanthropic 
endeavors. Worthy of our effort as they may be, serving the poor, 
taking flowers to the sick, making games for little children, are not 
the heart of social service. All such activities are only means to an 
end and only as they are directed to and realize that end, which is 
the socialization of those participating in them, may they be 
regarded as social service. The value of such activities is found in 
the fulness and wealth of experience which they mediate, in the 
intimate associations which they beget, in the clearer vision of the 

' E. S. Ames, Psychological Bulletin, VIII, No. 12 (December 15, 1911), 415. 


common needs and hopes and purposes and tasks which belong to 
our common human Hfe. Where these values are sought and in a 
measure, at least, attained, we have participation in social service, 
be the program of activities ever so meager, but where they do not 
enter into consideration and no provision is made for their realiza- 
tion there is no participation in social service, no matter how elabo- 
rate the round of worthy endeavor may be. To set young people 
at philanthropic tasks is not, by any means, the same as engaging 
them in social service, and this cannot be too strongly emphasized, 
for they are engaged in social service only when their social activities 
mediate the process of their own socialization. 

But has the task of religious education, as thus described, 
sufficient significance to make it a matter of vital importance 
whether its end is ever realized or not ? Suppose we put the ques- 
tion in another form. Is it worth while to nurture sympathy, to 
develop ability to assume the role of others, to deepen the desire 
to ally one's self with his fellows in a spirit of human comradeship, 
to make youth sensitive and responsive to the call for enlistment in 
the significant movements of the ever-enlarging social group? 
Throughout this discussion we have used the term sympathy, not 
for mere sensation or crude emotion, but for the understanding of, 
and the sharing in, the lives of others, and using the term in this 
sense Professor Cooley has shown that sympathy is the measure of 
one's personality, a requisite to social power, and underhes the 
moral rank of a man and goes to fix our estimate of his justice and 

What is it [he asks] to do good, in the ordinary sense? Is it not to help 
people to enjoy and to work, to fulfil the healthy and happy tendencies of 
human nature; to give play to children, education to youth, a career to men, 
a household to women, and peace to old age ? And it is sympathy that makes 
a man wish and need to do these things. One who is large enough to live the 
life of the race will feel the inifuilses of each class as his own, and do what he 
can to gratify them as naturally as he eats his dinner.' 

In making the complete socialization of the individual its end, 
religious education has set itself no light or easy task, for when that 
end is realized and every individual is living in reciprocal relations 
of sympathy with every other individual we shall no longer need to 
wait for that ideal kingdom which Jesus called the kingdom of God. 

' C. H. Cooley, Human Nature and the Social Order, p. loo- 


The best way to help another is to help that other to be his best. 
To assist anyone to realize his ideal self is not, however, an easy 
matter. To establish one's self in full social relations with an 
ever-enlarging group is likewise far from a simple process. But even 
more complicated and more difficult is the task of socializing the 
young people of the Sunday school so that while seeking to regard 
and carry themselves as children of the eternal Father they also 
make it their purpose to respect every other person as his child. 
Social service in the Sunday school is not be to entered into lightly. 
It is attended by serious problems. It is beset with difficulties and 
dangers that menace its success. As knowledge is power, it will 
be well to give some consideration to this phase of our problem. 

A prime danger in social service springs from its popularity. 
This is distinctively the social age, the age of the social problem 
and the social program. Humanity has heard the call of humanity. 
Men have suddenly become interested in men. In place of the old 
individualism there has developed a social idealism, inspiring men 
with the vision of a new democracy, and a social conscience, im- 
pressing them with the claims of a social obligation. Says Dr. 

The most remarkable discovery of the present generation — more character- 
istic of the present age than the telephone or the automobile or aerial naviga- 
tion — is the discovery of the social conscience; the unprecedented activity of 
social responsibility and social service, the new definition of duty in terms of 
social obUgation and social redemption. Never in human history were so many 
people, learned and ignorant, employers and employed, rich and poor, wdse and 
otherwise, so seriously concerned with the question of social justice, the ansv/er- 

ing of social problems, the realizing of social dreams Nowhere is 

this call of the social conscience more clearly heard than in organizations dedi- 
cated to religion. No church can justify its existence in the age of the social 
question without adding to its equipment for worship a further equipment for 
work. Behind the house of prayer rises the parish house, with its clubs and 
classes, its deaconesses and visitors, its gymnasiums and kindergartens, its 
social settlement and personal relief.' 

' F. G. Peabody, The Social Conscience and the Religious Life, pp. 1,2. 



And just because so many religious people are becoming sensitive 
to the claims of social obligation and are organizing their interest 
and effort for the promotion of the common welfare, these newer 
expressions of the social spirit are exposed to hasty adoption and 
crude imitation. Charity work has become the fashion if not a 
fad. To be interested in philanthropic endeavor is quite the proper 
thing. To go about doing good is to be up to date and progressive. 
In religious organizations as elsewhere there are always those whose 
sole and sufficient ideal is to be abreast of the times; and even a 
little observation is sufficient to convince one that some Sunday 
schools in their social activities are simply following the crowd 
without thinking of where the crowd is going. A campaign of 
social service has been introduced without knowing why it was 
undertaken, or what form it ought to assume, or what vital qualities 
were essential to the realization of its function. The issue of social 
service by such Sunday schools is not doubtful. Enthusiasm is not 
a substitute for knowledge. The desire to be modern will not take 
the place of trained intelligence. A religious attitude and skilful 
pedagogy are as necessary to the efficiency of a program of social 
service as they are to the didactic curriculum ; and until the officers 
and teachers of a Sunday school have thought their problem through 
and made themselves acquainted with the forms and methods and 
essential quahty of social service it would be better for them to 
hold in check the desire to be up to date. 

We face another danger in social service in the fact that the 
activities incident to it can so easily become an end in themselves. 
When this occurs social service degenerates into a form of social 
enjoyment and the fine enthusiasm enkindled for altruistic endeavor 
spends itself in the lust of pleasure. A strong plea for bringing 
social service into the Sunday school is based on the attraction 
which it has for all ages. It meets the call for expressive activities, 
supplies every department with a unifying interest, and furnishes the 
week-day gatherings of the class with a program of vital attractive 
quality. But this source of its strength is also a source of weakness, 
and unless wise care is exercised the interest of the young people 
will be quite absorbed by the pleasure which their work affords. 
A young ladies' class in a city Sunday school became interested in 


a home for dependent children and resolved to make a contribution 
to its funds. In order to raise the money they decided to give a little 
play, and many happy winter evenings were spent in rehearsals at 
the home of the teacher. In a conversation with an interested mem- 
ber of the class, after the season was over, I discovered that while she 
abounded in exclamations over the good times they had enjoyed, she 
could not recall the name of the institution for which her class was 
working, knew next to nothing of its work, its necessity, its char- 
acter, and had no personal relations whatever with the children 
who were the recipients of the beneficence of the class. Another 
active organization of this class was its sewing circle. Once a 
fortnight its meetings were held and while the rest sewed one read 
aloud, refreshments were served by the teacher before they parted, 
and a most delightful evening was spent. All this is very good. 
But what shall we say when it is learned that some of the class 
never knew the destination of the layettes which they cut out and 
made ? Given a leader of attractive personality and the making of 
scrapbooks, jelly, games, fireless cookers, and baby clothes may 
become a most delightful pastime, but the pleasure is dearly pur- 
chased when it dulls the sense of social obligation and reduces 
social service to common charity with its lack of human relationship 
to those who are served. 

Yet another danger in social service is the peril to which all 
philanthropy is exposed — the pauperization of the poor, the develop- 
ment of social parasites, the capitalization of fraud and deception. 
While social service is more than a synonym for philanthropy, it 
quite generally involves philanthropy and it is sure to issue in unde- 
sirable results unless it is safeguarded by a practical recognition of 
the established principles of human rehabilitation. As long as a 
Sunday school does its work through institutions and societies, 
its task is comparatively simple, but when it gives itself to the 
more personal ministry of assisting individuals and families, 
immediately the problem becomes more compKcated. The lazy, 
the designing, the unscrupulous, the vicious, as well as the poor, are 
always with us and an institution that enjoys the reputation of 
being a generous ''good fellow" can easily become their prey. 
Social service in the Sunday school must, therefore, be scientific 


in its methods as well as religious in its attitude. Indiscriminate 
giving should be avoided. Investigations should be made and 
records kept. Friendly \'isiting should constitute an integral part 
of the system and close relations should be maintained with the 
local charity organization. It is precisely in its neglect of scientific 
method that unregulated and undirected philanthropic impulse 
fails most grievously. It is supremely important, therefore, for 
social service in the Sunday school to be organized on the most 
approved basis and to avail itself of the enlightened, accumulated 
experience of social workers. 

Again, social service in the Sunday school may fail of its highest 
efficiency through ignoring its expressive character. Whenever 
this happens no relation is set up between what is taught and what 
is done. Instead of reinforcing and supplementing each other the 
truth is isolated from its expression and the expression remains 
ignorant of the truth that gave it birth. A certain teacher said to 
her class, "You have been learning long enough. It is time now 
for you to put in practice what you have been taught." Then she 
introduced a varied program of social activities and turned loose 
upon her class a series of speakers who talked upon a multiplicity 
of unconnected subjects. Only unsatisfactory results can issue from 
such a procedure. The educational justification and value of social 
service is found in its expressive character, but what does it express 
if it sustains no relation to the truths to which the attention of the 
children is being directed ? As truths become vital when they are 
embodied in significant expressions, so expressions become signifi- 
cant when they are made the embodiment of vital truths. A 
successful program of social service cannot be dropped down upon a 
school. It must grow out of the teaching which is given and be 
followed by more teaching, which in turn issues in more service, 
and so religious education becomes a real process of learning by 

Undoubtedly the most insidious danger attendant on social serv- 
ice is the patronizing spirit. Everyone who considers the problem 
recognizes this danger and it constitutes the chief reason for hesi- 
tancy among those of deep and genuine interest in programs of 
social amelioration. Snobbishness is detestable. To turn children 


into prigs is unpardonable. To cause young people to regard 
themselves as the generous dispensers of bounty to inferiors and 
unfortunates is to make their last state worse than the first. Yet 
the danger is a real one and certainly the most threatening one that 
confronts the Sunday school in its attempt at social service. Several 
facts conspire to produce this peril. It is more or less dijS&cult for 
children to understand the principles which preserve the purity of 
the social impulse. Moreover, the entire atmosphere of our social 
life is pervaded by class-consciousness. At the present stage of 
our social development very few adults are altogether free from the 
patronizing attitude. Often, too, the appeal for giving is so 
phrased as to suggest superiority. Why, then, should we wonder 
that it is so fatally easy for young people to play the role of Lady 
Bountiful ? 

No one will deny that welfare work exposes young people to the 
danger of developing a patronizing attitude, but in so far as this is 
true it argues for, instead of against, a definite program of social 
service. The philanthropic activities which spring from impulse 
are more Hable to produce priggishness than those which take place 
as the natural and culminating issue of a well-arranged system of 
instruction. Impulse is impulsive. It acts on the spur of the 
moment. It does not wait to establish personal relationships. 
Consequently it is more likely to treat those whom it serves as 
members of a class rather than full human beings. But in a well- 
arranged and carefully correlated program of service impulse is 
controlled, enlightened, and directed, and the service which follows 
is pervaded by fine human qualities. Patronizing is a child of 
charity work, not of social service. Organized social service 
wherever done is far less patronizing than charity work, and the 
reason for this is that while charity work is the response of impulse, 
social service is the reaction of a broad, intelligence, insight, expe- 
rience, and sympathy, and sets up genuine human relations. A 
kindergarten teacher of ripe experience, fine culture, and spiritual 
insight, whose little folks have been given many happy times in 
social service, was asked what results she had secured. She stated 
that in her own work she had seen no patronizing. She attributed 
patronizing to clumsy methods and a failure to give the children 


concrete objects for which to work. It should be remarked that 
this teacher precedes the social service of her class with prolonged 
preparatory measures and carefully correlates it with her instruc- 
tion. She never uses such terms as "orphans," "the poor." She 
has no classes in her vocabulary and hence her little folks have 
none in their spirit. It is classifying other folks that leads to the 
patronizing attitude and the best way to avoid classifying them is 
to make an intelligent and definite effort to establish personal 
relations with them. So we come back to our original proposition 
that the danger of developing little prigs through social effort 
furnishes an argument for, instead of against, a program of social 

The dangers which attend social service in the Sunday school 
arise from a failure to use a technique adequate to the task. If 
social service meant nothing more than relieving need and enter- 
taining young people it would call for little beyond routine and 
commonplace methods. The difficulties which are encountered 
are due to the loftiness of the ideal which social service sets itself 
and their solution lies in a full recognition of the essential nature of 
that end and in the employment of scientific methods by leaders 
who have been seized by the spirit of Jesus Christ. 


Social service, as we have seen, has one dominating end, the 
furtherance of the socializing process or the bringing-in of that ideal 
social order in which every person will treat every other person as a 
full human being. It does not follow, however, that social service 
will assume a single form or confine itself to one method of pro- 
cedure. Ideal personal relations may be brought about in various 
ways and while social service has one essential purpose and under 
wise leadership adopts the scientific principles of philanthropy and 
pedagogy, already the Sunday school has given rise to several types 
of social service. 


The seasonal type is a common one. In Sunday schools where 
this type prevails social service is practically confined to Thanks- 
giving and Christmas, when dinners are provided for the needy, 
Christmas trees are hung with gifts, festive gatherings are arranged, 
and worthy institutions are remembered. Even here there are 
wide variations, both in method and in spirit. While some schools 
are inspired by these seasons to service of a real socializing character, 
beautifully human and thoroughly expressive of the spirit of the 
occasion, others seem to miss the significance of their opportunity, 
and are satisfied if the conventions of the season are not externally 
ignored. When sufiicient care is taken to prevent the idea of 
charity from creeping in and every effort is made to bring about a 
genuine human feeling, Thanksgiving and Christmas readily lend 
themselves to fine forms of social service and afford an excellent 
opportunity for introducing it into schools which have not yet 
given themselves to this ministry. 

§ 2. CASUAL 

Another type is best described as casual. It is represented by 
those Sunday schools which do more or less social service through- 
out the year, but have no systematized program. Quantitatively 



and qualitatively there is a \\'ide variation in the work of these 
schools. Their common denominator is their lack of organization. 
Much of the social service of these schools is of a high order and with 
a little organization could be extended through the whole school and 
be made an integral feature of the program. A tabulation of all 
the social service done in quite a number of schools belonging to this 
group may be worth while : 

1. Every year the whole school unites to establish a new 
Sunday school in some part of the country. The denominational 
Sunday-school society is the agency through which this task is 
carried on. 

2. A kindergarten supports another kindergarten for Italian 
children in another part of the city. 

3. Boys and girls, six to nine years of age, send gifts to a home 
for crippled children. 

4. Girls of twelve to sixteen years, (a) sing at Old Folks' Home; 
(b) meet twice a month to make kimonos and scrapbooks for a 
children's isolation hospital. 

5. Boys, thirteen to eighteen years of age, (a) distribute 
church literature and printed matter; (b) boys' choir sings at 
various institutions; (c) boys have assumed responsibihty for 
raising $1,000 to pay a church mortgage; they solicit subscriptions 
and collect them under the direction of the superintendent of the 
Junior Brotherhood; (d) boys have assumed responsibility for 
expenses of a gymnasium. 

6. Young women, eighteen to twenty-one years of age, (a) 
friendly visiting; {b) furnish helpers for church nursery on Sunday 
morning during public worship; (c) entertain juniors on Sunday 
afternoon; (d) have assumed responsibility for the maintenance of 
a gild where young women meet once a week in educational classes 
and for recreation. This class has supplied the teachers. 

7. Young men, eighteen to twenty-one years of age, furnish 
helpers who assist in the gymnasium classes and with the games at 
a social center. 

8. Annual offering to the National Child Labor Committee by 
the school. 

9. Annual offering to the Red Cross Society by the school. 


The serious weakness in the work of this group of schools is 
their failure to organize their efforts into a graded program that 
would take in the whole school and cover the entire year. As our 
schedule shows, fine work is being done by these schools, but in 
every one of them the loss in efiiciency is so evident that one is 
amazed that they do not immediately abandon their chaotic method 
and grade their expressive as they do their didactic work. Without 
a graded program of social service there is, (i) no strong probability 
that all the classes will be enlisted in some form of worthy endeavor; 
(2) no assurance that each class or grade will be given the service 
best adapted to the age and capacity of the pupils; (3) no provision 
for arranging social service in respect both to objects and to form 
so as to provide an orderly and progressive course of endeavor; 
(4) no likehhood that social service will be correlated with the 
instructional and devotional elements so as to constitute an ade- 
quate expressive outlet for rehgious behef and feehng. 


The organized type of social service is not of uniform character. 
Indeed, at least three distinct forms of organization or stages of 
development may be discovered. 

First of all there are those Sunday schools which fully recognize 
the value of social service in religious education and are pro- 
gressively giving it a place in the regime of the school. Their 
programs are in course of evolution. The work of three schools 
will furnish an illustration. 

The first school has a regular calendar of worthy causes, in 
which the main school is interested as a unit. The classes are 
interested in all working together. Some of the organizations are 
local, others denominational. Speakers come once a month and 
address the school as a whole or the separate classes, just as seems 
best. Twice a year there is a united endeavor. At Christmas 
the school entertains poor children, everybody having his share to 
do, even the smallest, and about May i it gives a fair, in which all 
co-operate for a specific object. In November, various poor famihes 
are furnished with goodies. This is done entirely by classes, a 
family being found for each class, whose circumstances render it 


particularly appropriate for that group. Then the class has entire 
charge of collecting, arranging, and distributing its basket. 

During October, February, March, April, and May the following 
objects are assisted by the main school as a whole: October, East 
End Christian Union; January, Cambridge Hospital; February, 
Visiting Nurses' Association; March, Avon Home; April (Easter), 
children's missions; May, Floating Hospital. The pupils of the 
Primary Department buy the Christmas tree for the poor children's 
party at Christmas, otherwise their money always goes to the 
children's missions. 

The technique of another school may be outlined as follows: 

1. The entire school unites once a year, on the Sunday just 
before Christmas, in a "gift service," when each person brings a 
gift or gifts of food, clothing, books, games, etc., which are turned 
over to the District Nurses' Association and Salvation Army for 

2. The school as a whole gives all the offerings for one month 
to a near-by home for crippled children. 

3. The members of primary class (a) give a little play and Christ- 
mas tree for the entertainment of the Day Nursery; (b) keep a 
bank for their birthday money, which they call their "give-away 
money," all of which goes to the comfort of some needy person. 

4. During last summer a great many of the primary and junior 
children came to the church daily and prepared scrapbooks and 
convenient-sized cardboards by pasting pictures, stories, poems, 
Bible and other devotional thoughts upon them, and cut up puzzles 
for use in the hospitals. They also, under the direction of the 
director of religious education, made jelHes, fruit juices, and 
canned small jars of fruit, the children bringing the fruit and sugar 
to the church and doing most of the work themselves. These 
canned fruits and juices are given to the District Nurses' Associa- 
tion for distribution. 

This same group furnishes flowers for the pulpit on the last Sun- 
day of each month. After the service they carry them to sick and 
shut-in people. 

5. Various classes engage in the following activities: (a) provide 
Thanksgiving and Christmas dinners for poor people; (b) make 


garments for the Day Nursery; (c) send garments, books, and games 
to the southern mountaineers and negro schools in the South. 

Just before the vacation period, the weekly church calendar con- 
tained suggestions to the members of the school of "Things to Do" 
during the summer vacation of seventy days. These were the 
suggestions made: 

Things We Can Do for Others 

1. Carry flowers to sick and old people. 

2. Send postcards and letters to people who are kept at home. 

3. Provide a day's pleasure for a group of children, going with them and 
playing with them. 

4. Read, sing, and tell stories to children, sick people, and old people. 

5. Make a glass of jelly, put up a jar of fruit or a bottle of grape juice for 
use for sick next winter. 

6. Save pennies and nickels for paper drinking-cups for poor immigrants 
on trains. 

7. Make scrapbooks, give toys, knives, and dolls for immigrant children 
detained at Ellis Island with nothing to amuse them. 

The letter of a director of rehgious education gives such a 

vivid presentation of the constructive process in another school 

that we shall quote from it at length: 

The immediate ideal was to get every pupil interested in some concrete 
piece of social service, the satisfaction of some human need. This was accom- 
plished at first by the presentation of needs, which, after discussion, were 
satisfied by the voting of money from the school treasury. A threatening mort- 
gage of a home mission church opened the way to vital giving to home missions. 
A child in China without education was the concrete object which gathered 
many dollars from the Junior Department. Little children in the neighboring 
orphan asylum furnished occasion for an avalanche of toys, picture books, and 
eatables from the Primary Department. At Christmas giving to definite 
needy famiUes instead of to charity or charitable organizations was suggested. 
The Director obtained the names, addresses, with age, sex, and other informa- 
tion, of nearly a hundred needy individuals in the slums. These twenty or 
more families were given a good dinner and individual presents by the classes 
and members of the church school. These presents were given personally by 
individuals and class representatives. A class of young men as a result began 
to study social problems, using Dr. Henderson's book. A class of young ladies 
began to sew for the orphans. This class has organized a charity "shower," 
early in December of each year. This year they were " Santa " to scores of poor 
children. All of these, and many more, concrete problems aroused an interest 
in an organized work of some type. 


This letter is interesting because it indicates how social service 
in the Sunday school grows and calls for organization, and because 
it shows a program in course of evolution. 

Thus the common characteristic of these schools is the pro- 
gressive commitment of themselves to social service, growing out 
of their increasing vision of its vital qualities. 

A second form of organization is represented by those schools 
which have no graded program but in which all the grades do 
definite social service. Various methods of administration for this 
form of organization are possible and are in operation. Some 
schools commit its oversight to the superintendent; others hold the 
teachers responsible; while still others appoint a social service 
committee which seeks to direct every class in the selection of some 
suitable form of endeavor. The technique of one school was 
described as follows : 

Our social ideals begin and go out from the home. We are a large home 
group together; the importance of home is emphasized as a place for loving 
works of service. The city is a larger home, the nation, and the world, all 
growing out of the thought that we are at home best of all in the heart of God. 
We strive to avoid testing too pointedly for the "daily good turn," in order not 
to give the idea of acquiring merit and praise merely from such acts. Our 
school flag bears a seal representing the character of Christ as founded on 
relationships suggested in his confession, '"I must be about my Father's busi- 
ness." We build on this as the best social-service motto. It represents the 
duty, reason, love, and opportunity of life. 

A third form of organization is the completely graded program 
of social service. This is the ideal, and must ultimately become 
the universal, form of organization. It places the expressive 
activities on the same plane as the other educational factors. It 
recognizes the necessity of making sure that all the classes are 
enlisted in some form of worthy endeavor, adapted to their age 
and capacity, arranged in orderly and progressive sequence, and 
correlated with the instructional and devotional elements so as to 
present a vital and essential unity. A subsequent chapter will 
be devoted to such programs. 


To the fourth general type belong the Sunday schools whose 
social service is carried on through societies affiliated witli their 


respective departments. Each department has its corresponding 
society and all the social activities of the department, recreational 
or philanthropic, are under the direction of the society. The 
organization of one school will illustrate the method: 

Wee Folks' Band, kindergarten and primary. 

Lend-A-Hand Society, boys and girls, eight to fourteen years of age. 

Boys Scouts, twelve to fifteen years of age. 

Camp Fire Girls, twelve to sixteen years of age. 

Messenger Cadets, fourteen to eighteen years of age. 

Young People's Alliance, eighteen to twenty-four years of age. 

The advantages of this method are obvious. It secures a 
simple and effective organization for the expressive activities. It 
defines the specific function of the young people's societies and 
indicates their relation to the Sunday school. It provides more 
adequate time for discussing and planning social service than the 
regular sessions of the class allow. It fosters the inspiration and 
enthusiasm which belong to larger groups. 

There are, however, objections to this plan. In a small school 
to duplicate each department with a corresponding society would 
crush the school with the weight of its machinery. Teachers 
place a large emphasis on the unifying power which social service 
exerts over the class. With a society, which is not an integral part 
of the school, and which may not include all the class as the rally- 
ing center, this value is largely lost and the development of a class 
esprit de corps is made more difficult. The necessity of correlating 
social service with instruction also declares against the trans- 
ference of its welfare efforts from the immediate control of the 
class. Social service is an expressive activity. That is its function 
and therein is its value. But to perform that function and carry 
that value it must be so presented and given such a setting that those 
who engage in its activities regard them as the natural and fitting 
expression of the truths which they have made their own. 


Some Sunday schools confine themselves to personal service 
and eliminate social service in the form of gifts. Where this 
distinction obtains gifts are made by the school only at Thanks- 


giving and Christmas. Two forms of personal service, performed 
by a school of this type, seem significant enough to mention : 

A Craft Gild 

The program of this gild is set forth in the following announcement: 

Cooking. — Excellent and practical recipes taught by an experienced 
domestic-science teacher. All materials provided. 

Dressmaking. — You can bring materials for a dress or waist, cut it out, make 
and fit it yourself with the help of an expert dressmaker. 

Plain sewing. — Undergarments, aprons, and children's clothing are being 
made in this class. Machines are ready for your use. Mending is also taught. 

Embroidery. — French embroidery, eyelet work, punch work, cross-stitch, 
knitting, and Irish crocheting are taught. 

Art. — An interesting class in sketching, designing, and lettering. 

Millinery. — The teacher of this class will help you make and trim a hat 
for yourself or trim over an old one. 

Music. — The choral club is studying two-part songs. They have made 
one public appearance and expect to appear again soon. A limited number of 
private twenty-minute lessons on the piano are given. 

Story-telling. — This course teaches how to tell stories, what stories to tell, 
and to whom. 

English literature. — A study of a few of our English classics, as well as some 
practice in letter-writing. 

Gymnastics. — Various forms of Delsarte, breathing work, Indian clubs, etc., 
are being taken up in this class. 

Come Next Monday Night 

We have a branch of the Public Library, magazines, and games, a pleasant 
place to spend the evening if you don't want class work. Every Monday night 
at 9:00 there is a short program of music or an interesting talk and then a 
good social time over a cup of hot chocolate. This is all free, but 5 cents is 
charged for lessons in classes. All young women will receive a hearty welcome. 
The craft gild is for you. 

Every week three hundred and fifty young women take advan- 
tage of the privileges which the gild aftords. Responsibility for 
the management of this gild has been assumed by a young women's 
class with a membership of forty. Only two paid workers are 
employed by the gild, the others are supplied from or by the class. 
The program which follows the classes is also furnished by them. 
The members of the class attend the gild, cultivate the friend- 
ship of the young women present, invite them to their class, and 


find opportunity for the kindly personal relationships which such 
intimacy always affords. 

A second piece of personal service worthy of mention is that 
rendered by the mass club of this same church. The distinguishing 
characteristic of a mass club is well stated by Professor Fiske: "The 
mass club is wholesale work with boys, the group is retail work. 
The former is inclusive, democratic, free from castes or creedal 
tests. The latter is exclusive, reflective, homogeneous, and includes 
boys of the same age." The boys of this church were organized into 
a mass club. "Work for boys by boys" was their slogan, and 
they were scouring the community and bringing into their club 
boys of all nationalities and every social position. Great differ- 
ence of opinion prevails respecting the relative value of the mass 
club and the group club. Into this discussion we need not enter. 
All will agree that the boy who is trained to work for other boys, 
whether in a mass club or in a group club, will know better how to 
live with them and will more readily find and fill his useful place in 

§ 6. GIFTS 

The sixth type appears in those schools which restrict them- 
selves to gifts, mostly money, and refrain from personal service. 
Excellent service is being done by some schools which have adopted 
this type. Their work is well organized, and their classes are mak- 
ing regular contributions to a wide range of institutions with which 
they are intelKgently in touch. Their social spirit is marked, 
the young people are well informed regarding the philanthropic 
agencies and institutions of the city, and their offerings are generous. 
The giving of money, however, is a difficult form of effort by which 
to mediate the socializing process. With most children a gift of 
money is not their gift at all, and represents no socializing values. 
Giving money requires no immediate contact between the givers and 
the recipients. Such contact, of course, is not necessary, for social 
experience is a product of social imagination, and where there is 
social imagination there will be imaginative if not physical contact. 
Giving money, however, does not lend itself so readily to producing 
social imagination as other forms of effort, and where it alone obtains 
there is danger lest the group fail to realize the values of social 


service. Probably one of the best ways by which to mediate the 
socializing process through money-giving is to engender and direct 
discussion and then commit the givers to a selection of the objects 
of their gifts. 

The feature of primary importance in social service is not the 
system by which it is carried on, but the assertion of the social 
spirit, with its quick appreciation of the distinction between social 
service and charity work. Yet even if the attitude and spirit of 
the workers leave nothing to be desired, a better service will be 
rendered if the method of procedure be worthy the spiritual end of 
the task. 



The purpose of this chapter is to give a few completely graded 
programs of social service. As far as possible the technique is 
included with the program. As these programs are actually in use, 
they indicate what can be done, and may be useful as a guide to 
other schools in the formation of a program suitable to their 

Training Children to Serve 


Working For 

Form of Work 

Bible class (Young 

Visiting Nurses' Associa- 

Visiting shut-ins 



Young ladies 

Visiting Nurses' Associa- 

Visiting Nurses' Associa- 

Visiting Nurses' Associa- 

Tearing bandages 


Tearing bandages 

Teacher training 

Visiting shut-ins; tearing bandages 




Juvenile Protective Asso- 

Giving a play to raise money to help 


a girl or boy in school 

High school III . . . 

Juvenile Protective Asso- 

Giving a play to raise money to help 


a girl or boy in school 

High school II ... . 

Junior Auxiliary- 

Organizing the society in the church 
and carrying on its work 

High school II ... . 

Junior Auxiliary 

Organizing the society in the church 
and carrying on its work 

High school II ... . 

Junior Auxiliary- 

Organizing the society in the church 
and carr>ing on its work 

High school II ... . 

United Charities of 

Various kindnesses suggested by the 


Charities workers; sharing boys' 
magazines, etc. 

High school I 

United Charities of 

Various kindnesses suggested by the 


Charities workers; sharing boys' 
magazines, etc. 

Grade 8 

Chicago Home for the 

Making garments according to 


samples furnished 

Grade 8 

Chicago Home for the 

Home-made games; home-made 



Grade 7 

St. Mary's Home for 

[Making scrapbooks; sewing simple 



Grade 7 

St. Mary's Home for 

Making scrapbooks; sewing simple 



Grade 7 

Chicago Home for Boys 

Home-made games; home-made 


Grade 6 

Chicago Home for Boys 

Home-made games; home-made 





Training Children to Serve — Continued 


Working For 

Form of Work 

Grade 6 

Children's Hospital work, 
St. Luke's, Cook Co. 

Children's Hospital work, 
St. Luke's, Cook Co. 

Woman's Auxiliary (ele- 
mentary, Sunshine 
Workers) home and 
foreign missions 

Assist. Sunshine Workers 

Assist. Sunshine Workers 
Assist. Sunshine Workers 

Parish, diocesan, and for- 
eign missions 

Parish, diocesan, and for- 
eign missions 

Woman's Auxiliary, Sun- 
shine Workers, foreign 
and home missions 

Woman's Auxiliary, Sun- 
shine Workers, foreign 
and home missions 

Alaska, Japanese, and 
Home missions 

Boys' Home, Girls' Home, 

St. Mary's Orphanage 

of Holy Child 
Boys' Home, (iirls' Home, 

St. Mary's Orphanage 

of Holy Child 
Parish missions; Sunday 

school Home; St. 

Parish missions; Sunday 

school Home; St. 

Parish missions; Sunday 

school Home, St. 


Making surprise bags, dressing dolls. 

Grade 6 

bedroom slippers 
Making surprise bags, dressing dolls, 

Grade 5 

bedroom slippers 
Sewing; housekeepers; quilting for 

Grade "C 

Providence Nurser}-; screens 
Carpenter work; screens, quilting 

Grade 5 

frames; raising money 
Carpenter work; screens, quilting 

Grade 4 

frames; raising money 
Sewing; housekeepers; quilting; 

Grade 4. 

scrapbooksfor contagious patients; 
Alaska missions 
Raising money to buy materials, etc. ; 

Grade 4 

selling magazines, etc.; caring for 
prayer-books and hymnals 
Raising monev to buv materials, etc.; 

Grade 3 

selling magazines, etc.; caring for 
prayer-books and hymnals 
Sewing; housekeepers; scrapbooks 

Grade 3 

for shut-ins to send to Alaska 
Sewing; housekeepers; scrapbooks 

Grade ^ 

for shut-ins to send to Alaska 
Helping some child in each place; 

Grade 2 

parish activities — errands, circu- 
lating petitions 
Raise money, or bring things to help 

Grade 2 

some individual child in the home 
Raise money, or bring things to help 

Grade i 

some individual child in the home 
Ministering to sick; flowers, etc.; 

Grade i 

mail lessons to shut-ins; corre- 
spondence school 
Ministering to sick; flowers, etc.; 


mail lessons to shut-ins; corre- 
spondence school 
Ministering to sick; flowers, etc.; 
mail lessons to shut-ins; corre- 
spondence school 

The regular work of visiting sick classmates and looking up 
absentees is not included in this outline, for that is a part of the 
work of the entire school. For the same reason no mention is 
made of the Thanksgiving and Christmas baskets and gifts. The 
purpose of the plan is thus stated: 


I. To systematize the activities of the school and to assist each class in 
selecting definite work adapted to the capacity of its members. 

2. To make an impression strong, definite, and lasting of at least one 
of the good social agencies each year. 

3. To arouse a genuine social spirit in our young people based upon the 
desire to put into daily operation the fruit of their Christian knowledge. 

4. To assist busy teachers in securing a worthy and interesting purpose for 
their outside class meetings and to develop in the pupils a wholesome class 
spirit while they work together for the good of others. 

The work is in charge of a secretary of activities who meets, 
from time to time, the groups and grades doing the same work, to 
stimulate their interest and to discover the problems which have 
arisen. A special effort is made to obtain representatives of the 
various organizations and societies to visit the school and present 
their work. Short talks are given, circulars of information espe- 
cially prepared are distributed, and interesting pictures illustrating 
philanthropic enterprises and cut from annual reports are mounted 
on large cards and circulated among the classes. As a concrete 
illustration of one feature of their educational method we insert 
one of the circulars of information. 

The United Charities 

1. What it is: 

Society for organizing the charities of Chicago, and relief society. 

2. When founded: 

In March, 1908, the Relief and Aid Society, organized and chartered in 
1851, amalgamated with the Bureau of Charities, founded in 1893, and took 
the new name " United Charities of Chicago." 

3. Purpose: 

To provide for dependent families, in their homes, such personal service 
and relief service as will help them toward permanent self-support. 

4. How supported: 

By private subscription. 

5. Number of workers in Chicago and general methods of work: 

One hundred and fifty workers, nine district ofiicers, one general office. 
Personal investigation and supervision of all applications for help. Regis- 
tration Bureau a clearing-center for all social agencies in Chicago. 

6. Number of inmates, or estimate of number of people reached annually: 
Last year, October, 1911-October, 191 2, the Society helped 80,000 persons, 
in 18,889 families. 

7. Does it exist in other cities than Chicago? 


8. Greatest need of the organization at the present time: 

Informed and thinking friends willing to serve the society and the poor in 
lines of personal service and money service. 

9. How young people of Chicago can help the work: 

a) Personal service: Friendly visiting, clerical work in district office, accom- 
pany patients to clinics and friends of patients to visit them at Hospital, 
House of Correction, etc., tutor backward children, find proper work for 
fourteen- or fifteen-year-old child, take children to park or for regular 
fresh-air walk. 

b) Relief: Material or money. Supply milk for underfed and tubercular 
children, clothing for children, especially shoes, stockings, underclothing, 
night clothing, etc. Assist visiting housekeeper by making fireless 
cookers, furnishing kitchen utensils, extra bedding, face towels, tea 
towels, brooms, closet and cupboard fixtures, etc. 

An essential part of the plan is the report which must be made 
to the secretary of activities. This report makes it possible to keep 
a permanent record of all the endeavors of the school and to pre- 
vent any work being neglected through omission or oversight. 
Some four months after the program was inaugurated the following 
report appeared in the church calendar : 

Training the Children to Serve 

Some weeks ago we published our schedule of activities, by means of 
which we are training our boys and girls of the school of religious education to 
put into practical operation the good principles they learn from their books and 
teachers. A good deal of real work has been done. A definite work is assigned 
to each grade in the school. 

Some things accomplished are these: The third-year high-school pupils 
gave a play by which they earned money to help the Juvenile Protective Asso- 
ciation. The first- and second-year high-school grades have sent a box of gifts 
to an orphanage and are at work preparing a "Quarter Bazaar" for the benefit 
of a girls' school in the South. The boys of these grades have assisted the 
United Charities, and some of them are mailing their books and magazines to 
other boys. They have also made some fireless cookers for some of the pen- 
sioned families of the district. The eighth-grade boys have made popcorn balls 
and candy and have taken it to the Home for the Friendless. The seventh- 
grade girls have made scrapbooks and dressed dolls for the children at St. 
Mary's Home. The sixth- and sevenlh-grade boys have taken bundles of 
clothing to the Home for Boys. The sixth-grade girls have made little surprise 
bags, bedroom slippers, and paper dolls for the children of Cook County and 
St. Luke's hospitals. Throughout the entire school, and particularly in the 
junior and primary departments, special works of kindness are being done for 


absent members of the classes, such as visiting them when sick, carrying 
flowers, etc. At Thanksgiving and Christmas the boys and girls co-operated 
actively in providing baskets of provisions, games, books, etc., for needy people. 
A jolly Christmas party of children brought in by the United Charities workers 
was entertained by the Girls' Club during the holidays. 

This very brief report will show how directly the children are learning to 
take an active interest in others, and to share gladly with them as well as to 
do personal acts of kindness for them. They are learning the meaning of the 
words, "Inasmuch as you have done it unto one of the least of these, my 
brethren, you have done it unto me." 

While little more than a summary, this is an exceedingly valuable 
report, for it shows how completely the program of the school was 
carried out and estabHshes the feasibihty of making social service 
a regular feature in the program of a school. 


The technique of this school is quite different. With a graded 
program as its ideal and a full desire for its realization, instead of 
assigning special tasks it has encouraged each class to discover its 
own work and develop its own program. Suggestion and direction 
are not excluded. But no definite hne of endeavor is laid down and 
the work of one class is not specifically related to the others. A 
detailed description of the social service of this school is hardly 
necessary, as it is largely made up of the usual forms of work for 
famihes and institutions. As the work of the kindergarten, how- 
ever, is of a high order, and as many find it difficult to select tasks 
for the httle folks, it may be well to describe this work somewhat 

One of the impressive features in this kindergarten is the effort 
which is made to relate the activities of the children with the 
instruction which is given, and behind all the gifts they make for 
others and the Httle services which they do for one another there is 
a carefully thought out course of teaching which leads gradually 
and yet decidedly to the tasks which they undertake. We shall 
begin with the seasons, and the first is: 

Thanksgiving. — About six weeks are required to lead up nicely 
to Thanksgiving, and so for the six Sundays preceding Thanks- 
giving all the talks are planned in harmony with the ultimate end. 


The aim is to develop a spirit of gratitude which will express itself 
in giving. Much is made of Thanksgiving as the close of the 
harvest season. Then from this general thought of the harvest 
time a skilful transition is made to our individual and family 
preparations for the coming winter. The children are asked/' What 
is mother making and putting away for the winter?" Then the 
suggestion is made, "Suppose each of us brings something that we 
have stored away for the winter so that we may see what a lot of 
things we have." Then a specific article is named and each child 
is given a note to take home which explains the plan. When the 
articles are brought together still another efi"ort is made to deepen 
the sense of gratitude. Then comes the suggestion, ''Suppose 
we give these to some other people who have not as much as we 
have." It is always put in this comparative way and great care 
is exercised in the choice of words and in avoidance of class terms. 
In this description we have only the bare bones of a plan that a 
skilful teacher requires six weeks to develop. 

Christmas. — At Christmas the emphasis is on the side of giving 
and all the lessons are intended to bring out with increasing clear- 
ness that Christmas means giving. Last Christmas the suggestion 
of their giving was made in this form: "I know a place where they 
are going to have a Christmas tree for a great many children — 
let us help." Any questions that arise are answered ^ith great 
care and the need of help is explained in terms of their own expe- 

Easter. — The interest of children in Easter is small. It is too 
far away from children for them to celebrate and it is not possible 
to make a climax here with little children as at Thanksgiving and 
Christmas. This year bulbs were given to the little folks at the 
appropriate time and they were asked to plant them and care for 
them. Then on Palm Sunday reference was made to these bulbs, 
the coming Easter Sunday was spoken of, the children were told that 
all the churches were to be decorated with flowers, and they were 
asked to bring their flowering bulbs. 

Children's Day. — Children's Day was preceded by a number of 
talks about the church. The first talk was about the room itself; 
its largeness — there was room for all the people. Then they talked 


about the beautiful things they found there — the windows, the 
organ, the desk. Then the talk passed to making the church 
beautiful for a special day. Then all agreed to bring flowers- 
cut flowers prove most successful — on Children's Day. The flowers 
were afterward sent to a hospital for children. 

In addition to these seasonal gifts the children are interested 
in regular forms of benevolence and drop their pennies in four 
boxes of different colors and designated by terms which the children 

General expenses. — Their Sunday-school box: Whenever any- 
thing is brought in the teacher calls the children's attention to it 
and the question is raised, "Who is going to pay for it ? " 

Missions. — The teacher talks about the children's own Sunday 
school and how they come every Sunday and what they do. Then 
they are told that some children have no Sunday school and no 
stories. "What can we do?" the teacher asks them. Then she 
suggests making scrapbooks with pictures of stories which they have 
heard and can recall, and little books are made with such pictures 
as Moses, Joseph, Rebekah, and Samuel from the Old Testament 
and similar ones from the New Testament. 

Benevolence. — A little talk is given on hospitals — just enough 
to bring out the fact that sometimes when children are sick their 
mothers do not know how to take care of them. What will happen 
to them when the nurse is not with them ? What will they have to 
play with ? So arises the suggestion that they make scrapbooks. 

Special offerings. — These come occasionally, when something 
happens which people are talking about. Just recently the chil- 
dren gave money for the flood sufferers. One summer they gave to 
Jackson Park Sanitarium. Another time they bought chairs and 
tables for a kindergarten in the South. 

In addition to all this the children do much occasional social 
work. Last winter they folded papers and inclosed them in 
envelopes to be sent to their sick classmates, cut out pictures and 
made tiny scrapbooks for them, and sent out a number of valentines 
which they had made themselves. 

To one who is looking for something spectacular this statement 
of facts may not be very impressive. But in the lives of the little 



folks the work itself is most impressive, for it constitutes their own 
reaction to the lesson they are being taught and carries the full 
value of a free, expressive activity. 


The plan in use in this school has borne the test of several years 
of experience. It is described by Mrs, Clara Bancroft Beatley in 
Bulletin No. 21 of the "Social Service Series" issued by the Ameri- 
can Unitarian Association. 

Disciples' Plan for Social Service of Class Groups 

Kindergarten Department 

Ages four to five years 
Primary Department 

Ages five to seven years 

Grades i, 2 

Upper Primary Department 

Ages seven to nine years 

Grades 3, 4 
Junior Department 

Ages nine to eleven years 

Grades 5, 6 
Upper Junior Department 

Ages eleven to thirteen years 

Grades 7, 8 
Senior Department 

Ages thirteen to fifteen years 

Grades 9, 10 

Upper Senior Department 
Ages fifteen to seventeen years 
Grades 11, 12 

Advanced Department 
Ages seventeen to twenty-one 
and upward 

Adult Bible Class 
Ages twenty-one years and up- 

Gifts to Kindergarten for the 

Gifts to homes for crippled chil- 

Visits and gifts to home libraries 
established by the Children's 
Aid Society 

The Animal Rescue League, 
visits, membership, and con- 

The South End Industrial School, 
gifts and visits 

Visits and gifts to fraternity 

Elizabeth Peabody House; the 
Young Men's Christian Union, 
including Country Week; 
homes for the aged, visits to 
entertain, and gifts 

Gifts and visits to the grade 
schools for the adult blind 

° to 

c a, 




Z2 « 







Mrs. Beatley gives the following detailed account of the work: 

The Upper Primary and the Junior departments (Grades 3, 4, 5, 6) 
unite in a Ten Times One Club which meets at the church monthly, at five 
o'clock, for social purposes. This club may plan for a lecture to which parents 


and friends are invited; it may make scrapbooks for the "home libraries," 
or prepare bandages for suffering animals. The hour may be spent in reading 
a new book, especially one that is intimately associated with the work at hand. 
A visit is planned to a home library, with its need of collecting books for chil- 
dren. A notice is arranged for the Church Calendar which states that the 
Ten Times One Club will welcome the gift of children's books to distribute 
in the home Hbraries of the Children's Aid Society. An out-of-door day is 
plaimed in June when all are to visit the retreat in the country for aged horses 
to learn something of the humane care given to these dumb animals; gift 
books on animals are chosen for schools; a prize is offered for an essay upon 
kindness to animals, to be written by boys from twelve to fourteen. Is a fair 
in progress for the benefit of the Animal Rescue League ? Here is the oppor- 
tunity to» plan, in Ten Times One, what can be done. Shall the parents be 
asked to contribute to a table, or to visit the fair and purchase an article, or 
will someone make a cake for the food table ? The treasury of the club is made 
up of the class contributions taken on successive Sundays throughout the year. 

The Upper Junior grades are interested in the South End Industrial 
School, which it visits in groups and assists occasionally by giving time on 
Saturdays This class group of twelve members was able to con- 
tribute in two years thirty-four dollars to the work. 

"Fraternity chapels" claim the interest of the first and second years of 
the Senior Department, a part of the work being to understand something of 
the Benevolent Fraternity in Boston, and to help especially the work of the 
North End Union and the kindergarten of the Parker Memorial. Visits are 
made to the classes of the North End Union, books are given to its Hbrary, 
and such other aid rendered as the superintendent of the Union suggests. 

Other details are given by Mrs. Beatley, but we have quoted 
enough to show the working methods of this interesting program, 


Equally suggestive is the technique of this school, which issues 
a dainty and interesting brochure of twenty-one pages descriptive 
of its work as a church school. Four excerpts taken from the intro- 
ductory statement of this brochure will give a good idea of the ideals 
and methods of this school. 

Aim. — The aim of the Church School, as a whole, may be defined thus: 
To develop instructed and trained Christian lives consecrated to the realization 
of God's kingdom on earth. The kingdom of God is the comprehensive biblical 
term for all the good God desires for man. 

Organization. — The Church School is the name of the institution which is 
created to carry into effect the educational ministry of the church. It includes 
a school of worship (church service), a school of instruction (the Sunday school), 



and a school of training for service (the young people's societies). These 
should be properly correlated as integral factors in a unitary educational plan. 
It has a young people's division and an adult division. 

Method. — The method is the method of wise nurture. The Church School 
seeks the same general end as all the other major agencies of the church, but it 
seeks that end by an educational method, i.e., by instruction in Christian 
knowledge and by training for Christian' service. Both instruction and 
training should be carried on in the spirit of Christian worship. 

Instruction and training for service. — Training for service can best be given 
by actual service, but by service which awakens the interest and is within the 
power of the young people. Every relation in life opens up opportunities of 
Christian service, but these are sometimes not seen and therefore not seized. 
The characteristic environment of the primary child is the home; of the junior 
child, the play circle and the school; of the intermediate youth, entering upon a 
larger world, the church as a parish and the city; of the senior, the country and 
the world. Each of these should be studied with a view to discovering what 
each environment oflfers in the way of opportunity for service. 

With this interpretative word of introduction we shall find it 
easy to understand and to appreciate the following outline : 

Sunday School 

The Kindergarten 
Ages four, five years 

Primary Department 
Ages six, seven, eight years 

Junior Department 
Ages nine, ten, eleven, twelve 

Plan of Organization 
the young people's division 

Young People's Societies 

Mission Band 
Methods: Work for others under direc- 
tion. The home as a field of service 

Primary Society 
Ages six, seven, eight years 
Methods: Work for others under direc- 
tion; preparation of annual Christmas 
box for a colored school in the South; 
purchase and decoration of Christmas 
tree for some worthy and needy family 
in the city; the gift of one or more 
Thanksgiving dinners 

Junior Societies 

Ages nine, ten, eleven, twelve years 
Methods: The school and play circles as 
ik'lds of service. One chief duty of the 
four adult leaders will be to find work for 
the children to do that is on the plane of 
their interest and capacity 



Intermediate Department 
Ages thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, 
sixteen years 

Senior Department 
Ages seventeen, eighteen, nine- ■ 
teen, twenty years 

' Intermediate societies 

Ages thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen 
I. Intermediate Boys' Club. The Boy 
Scouts. Useful service to be sought and 
II. Intermediate Girls' Club. The parish 
and city as fields of service. Sewing 
once a month 

Senior Society 
Ages seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty 

Methods: Seminar, sociables, practical 
service, the country (home missions) , and 
the world (foreign missions) as fields 
of service. One feature of meetings 
presentation of plans of work and reports 
of work 


This church has a unique feature in its Sunday-school benevo- 
lence. The social service of the school consists largely in the giving 
of money, but a regulation of the school requires that all the money 
which is given either be earned or come out of the allowance of the 
giver. The first effect of this requirement was a decrease in the 
offerings, but recovery was rapid and the permanent result was 
increased generosity. We shall present this program in two distinct 



Our home church 
Our home city 


About church, Bible school, 
community house 

Stories of child life in Chi- 
cago through use of 
pictures of Gad's Hill 
Settlement, Chicago 
Commons, Children's 
Memorial Hospital 


A picture to Bible school 

Apples for Gad's Hill chil- 
dren Thanksgiving Day. 
Toys for Chicago Com- 
mons at Christmas. Toys 
and clothing — Margaret 
G. Scrapbooks for Chil- 
dren's Hospital as Christ- 
mas presents 



Children of other Stories of Chinese child life. Money to support a school 
schools (Chinese) Pictures of the same for Chinese children for 

one year 


October, Novem- 
ber: Our home 

December, Janu- 
ary: City mis- 

February, March: 
Home missions 

April, May: For- 
eign missions 

Primary Department 
missionary work 


About our pastors, choirs, 
clubs, through pictures of 
the church 

Stories of Chicago Com- 
mons. Pictures of Chi- 
cago Commons 

Story of Dr. Grenfell and 
his work. Pictures used 
to illustrate the work 

Stories of China's children. 
Pictures of Chinese child 


Money given to the church 

Christmas gifts and money 
sent to Chicago Com- 

Money for Dr. Grenfell 's 

Money sent to China for 
children's work 

Fourth Grade 
missionary work 


1. The home church: services and 

2. The city: its needs 

3. Work among negroes: Booker T. 

4. Work among Indians: Santee Mis- Seven weeks to Santee Indian Mis- 

Six weeks to home church 

Seven weeks to city work 

Seven weeks to Tuskegee Institute 


Eleven weeks to foreign work 

5. Foreign missions: J. G. Paton; 
Alexander Mackay 

The weeks refer to the length of time during which offerings were made for the respective 

Fifth Grade 
One aim of this grade is to stimulate an interest in Christian work both at 
home and abroad. With this in view the grade studies about: 

1. Joseph Hardy Ncesima. 

2. David Livingstone. 

3. Industrial School at Albuquerque, New Mexico. 

The offerings for the year were $23.50 and were apportioned as follows: 

1 . Home church $450 

2. Work in Japan 5 . 00 


3. Industrial School at Albuquerque $6 . 00 

4. Work in Africa 5 ■ 00 

5. Community House 3 . 00 

Sixth Grade 

The offerings for the year were allotted to the following objects: 

1. Tuskegee Institute. 

2. Girls' school in Turkey. 

3. Home church. 

4. Dr. Grenfell Association. 

Seventh Grade 

Gifts from this grade were sent to : 

1. The little children of Bulgaria. 

2. Gad's HiU. 

Eighth Grade 

Gifts Girls 

1. Little children of Bulgaria $10. 00 

2. Daily News Fresh Air Fund 12 . 10 

Gifts Boys 

Religious Education Association $10. 00 

High School 

The classes of the high-school grade adopt the benevolent scheme of the 
church and are supplied with envelopes on which all of the benevolent objects 
are named, together with the percentage which they receive. 

The program of this school has also been tabulated in the 
following interesting form: 

What We Do for Others 


1. To city needs: Pay rent of family; Da^Vy iVew5 Fresh Air Fund. 

2. To home missions: Indians; Santee; Dr. Grenfell. 

3. To foreign missions: Bulgarian and Chinese children; Japan; Africa. 

4. To flood sufferers. 

5. Educational: Tuskegee Institute; Industrial School, Albuquerque; 
Religious Education Association. 

Personal Service: 

1. Leadership of club. 

2. Teaching classes. 

3. Entertaining groups from the city: 

a) Neighborhood Club. This club entertains 100 girls from Association 


b) Camp Fire Girls. They entertain six little girls one day every week 
during the summer. 

4. Dress babies. A baby is chosen for whom the group becomes responsible. 

5. Dress dolls. 

6. Make scrapbooks. 

7. Make candy. 

1. Thanksgiving baskets and Christmas gifts. 

2. Summer — flowers. 

3. Lake Bluff Orphan Asylum — Dolls. 

4. Scrapbooks for hospital. 

5. Gifts— Children's Ward, City Hospital. 

6. Apples— Gad's HiU. 

7. Toys and clothing to Margaret G. 


This program is taken from the standard curriculum prepared by 
the General Board of Religious Education of the Protestant Episco- 
pal church. It designates *'the activities of the pupils in the 
parochial and social life of which they are a part, both as members 
of the congregation of a particular parish and as members of the 
city or town in which they hve." Training for these activities is 
correlated with ''church knowledge and the devotional." 

Primary Department 
kindergarten: ages four, five 
primary grades: ages six to eight 

1. Acts of loving kindness to people and animals, helpfulness to parents and 
teachers, and pleasantness in home life. 

2. Ministry to sick and needy. 

3. Interest in the font roll. 

Junior Department 
ages nine to thirteen 

1. Personal and social duties to God and our neighbors based upon Holy 
Scriptures and set forth in the catechism. 

2. Share in the corporate life of the parish, through the various parochial 
activities and gilds, e.g.. Junior auxiliary candidates for the Girls' Friendly 
Society, Boy Scouts, Knights of King Arthur, etc. 

3. Efforts to bring others to church and Sunday school. 

4. Gifts to missions based upon concrete information. 


5. Taking part in mission plays and making articles to be sold for the Lenten 

6. Collecting magazines for homes and hospitals. 

7. Giving to specific local needs. 

8. Making friends and being friendly to new boys and girls in the schools, 
playgrounds, and other social centers. 

9. Visiting the sick and needy and institutions as far as suitable. 

Senior Department 
ages fotjrteen to seventeen 

1. Encourage the pupils to fulfil their responsibility to other scholars as 
leaders, helpers, and examples, especially in bringing others to Church, 
confirmation, and holy communion; and to continue their share in the 
parochial and general activities of the church, such as membership in 
missionary societies and missionary study classes. 

2. Older scholars should be interested in matters pertaining to public welfare 
as expressions of their Christian faith and life. 

Graduate Department 

AGES eighteen AND OVER 

All members should be engaged in some definite active service in the 
church, and should prepare themselves to become teachers in the Sunday 


The formulation of a graded program of social service is not a 
forbidding task if we refuse to be carried away by the prevalent 
desire for something elaborate and imposing. A curriculum of 
social service may be very simple and yet very effective, for while 
it is simple it recognizes that everybody can do something and 
finds that something for everybody to do. 

But is a graded program feasible in all Sunday schools irrespec- 
tive of the economic character of the environing community? It 
is a prevalent idea, especially where there is a tendency to stress 
the idea of charity, that social service belongs to the institutional 
church whose neighborhood makes a large demand for assistance. 
A review of the situation, however, shows that the Sunday schools 
in which social service is highly organized are by no means restricted 
to downtown districts or areas contiguous to the slums. Nearly 
all of the schools whose programs we have given are located in 
good residential districts. A moment's reflection is sufficient to 


explain this fact. If a Sunday school is encompassed by human 
need it will, out of its own good impulses, spontaneously do much 
social ser\ace. The strong and repeated stimulus of its surround- 
ings will evoke an immediate response. The demand knocks at 
all hearts. The summons is insistent. No time is spent in waiting 
to organize. Things are done at once, and, often without much 
definite thought, social service comes to fill a large place in the hfe 
of the school. 

But when a Sunday school is more remote from human misery 
and its members do not assemble struggle, misfortune, or defeat 
into their own experience, any significant participation in social 
service is conditioned on an effective relating of the school to distant 
social conditions. Social service in such a school must be planned 
for and organized if it is to be done at all. The weak and fitful 
stimulus of unfamiliar and unappreciated social conditions, about 
which the glowing hght of the imagination does not play, cannot 
be relied upon to produce a worthy and substantial response. 
Interest in welfare work under such conditions is assured only when 
social service is given a definite and vital place in the formulated 
program of the school. So it comes to pass that the Sunday schools 
in residential districts which are doing significant social service are 
schools whose programs are more or less thoroughly organized, 
for the very fact that a school is situated in the midst of prosperity 
and happiness makes organization the more imperative. 


A foremost task of religious education is the culture of the 
benevolent spirit so as to insure a fine subjective effect as well as a 
worthy form of expression. As the term is used by the church, 
benevolence should certainly be benevolent in its reflex influence. 
Its educational returns should be unmistakable and of significant 
moral quaHty. Giving should be a training in giving, developing 
a generous, unselfish spirit, increasing the power of discriminating 
choice, adding to the wealth of life a wide range of superb human 
interests. It may be objected that this is to reduce benevolence to 
a refined form of selfishness. But to recognize the educational sig- 
nificance of benevolence is neither to deny it an ulterior purpose 
nor to depreciate the value of the same. Along with its objective 
aspects benevolence has its subjective phases and it certainly seems 
like a self-evident truth that the benevolent offerings of an educa- 
tional institution ought to carry educational values. 

It is a matter of prime importance to religious education to 
recognize that the development of benevolence is fundamentally 
an educational problem. This may sound exceedingly elementary, 
but it is not too elementary to be frequently overlooked. How 
often are the ways and means of giving determined in accordance 
with well-established principles of education and how often are 
they nothing more than mere devices ? Even the best devices are 
but poor substitutes for more effective principles, and their popu- 
larity and frequent use are convincing proof of a general failure to 
appreciate the educational principles which underlie the culture of 
a generous life. All education must be conducted in accordance 
with the general principles of education, and if the benevolence of 
young people is to fulfil its educational function it must be invested 
with the dignity of an educational problem. 


Education in benevolence must give proper recognition to the 
spontaneous interests of childhood and youth. "Interest," it has 



been said, "is the greatest word in education." Subjectively, inter- 
est is a feeling of the significance which an object has for the indi- 
vidual concerned. It represents the worth which it has for him. 
It is an expression of values and indicates the point of entry into 
his Hfe. When education aligns itself with the interests of child- 
hood and youth it has a clear path of approach, it can appeal to 
them on the plane of experience, and it is dehvered from the miser- 
able necessity of groping in the dark for a point of contact. Their 
interests reveal their point of contact, and when we discover this 
we know where to begin, whatever our specific educational problem 
may be. 

In applying this principle it will not be necessary for us to 
enumerate all the interests of the child. It will be sufl&cient for our 
purpose to emphasize the fact that they gather about activities and 
concrete objects. The child lives in the world of realities close at 
hand and therein finds the objects of worth to him. And this is 
the field in which reUgious education must work in its effort to 
deepen and enlarge the generous impulses of the child. "Foreign 
missions," "the salvation of the lost," "the evangehzation of the 
world," are abstract terms which carry no significance for childhood. 
But every child is interested in other children, their plays, their 
pets, their toys, the stories their mothers tell them, their food and 
clothing, the hardships they have to endure, the festivals and hoU- 
days which they enjoy, their life at home, in school, at work — all 
these never waver in their attractive power. The world of children 
is the children's world and when we estabhsh associations here we 
enlist their co-operation and their native interests stimulate and 
strengthen the appeal to their social and sympathetic instincts. 

Ideal educational material for developing benevolence in cliil- 
dren consists of all material which deals with children abroad or 
amid unfamiliar social conditions at home. Childhood speaks with 
a voice which childhood understands and can appreciate and there 
is no more natural or more effective way to create a genuine spirit 
of benevolence in children than to establish them in sympathetic 
relations with other children whose needs are obvious and within 
their comprehension. The child's plane of experience is in the 
simple, the concrete, the immediate, and direct. "Jesus," says 


Patterson du Bois, "went to the people at their point of contact 
with life, and, though a carpenter, he never drew a figure from his 
own calling, but from theirs."' In developing the religious im- 
pulses of childhood can we do better than to follow the example of 
our Master ? 

With the passage from childhood the character of interest 
changes. Life comes to have a broader outlook, the altruistic spirit 
emerges and the idealism of adolescence asserts itself. Great enter- 
prises, heroic endeavors, significant movements, these captivate the 
imagination of young people, and it is through these that the benevo- 
lence of youth is most readily reached and raised to worthy expres- 
sion. The commanding attraction which social service offers 
adolescents is the sense which it gives them of doing something. 
Nothing is too big, too daring, too idealistic for them to venture on. 
The call of the heroic is an appeal that stirs their hearts with irre- 
sistible force. Youth resents the suggestion of the paltry task and 
scorns to respond to the petty appeal. But present to it a task of 
heroic proportions, unfold before it the program of a religion which 
proposes to open kindergartens in Japan, schools in India, hospitals 
in China, neighborhood centers along the bleak coasts of Labrador, 
which aims to establish institutions of learning, of healing, of com- 
radeship and hope in all the dark places of the earth, and yours 
will never be a forlorn cause. 

No doubt there are prosaic causes which need help and humble 
movements for which religious education should develop an interest. 
But we must start with youth where we find it and lead it out as 
best we can, and finding our point of contact in its idealism and 
altruistic spirit seek to inspire it with a vision of the magnificent 
movements of the kingdom of heaven which will kindle its imagina- 
tion and set it on fire with a passion for great service and significant 

But there is another educational principle which is pertinent to 
our problem. We mean the principle of self-activity. Education 
is not a mere assimilative process. It is far more an expressive 
process, in which the child discovers and expresses himself. The 
application of this principle is obvious. As the child must be more 

' Patterson du Bois, The Point of Contact, p. 104. 


than a passive recipient of instruction if he is to enter upon the 
social inheritance of the race, so he must be more than a silent 
partner in generosity if he is to become a generous contributor to 
its future progress. 

Education in benevolence demands a real participation in the 
full ministry of giving, and the full ministry of giving includes the 
choice of an object as well as the bestowment of one's money. A 
Sunday school that merely collects the offerings of its pupils is not 
educating them in benevolence. Benevolence must be discriminat- 
ing as well as la\dsh, an expression of the judgment, not a mere out- 
burst of impulse, and religious education must make provision for 
the cultivation of a selective discrimination as well as of the habit 
of giving. Efficiency in choosing comes through practice in choos- 
ing, and to secure such practice it is necessary to arrange a series of 
concrete situations which call upon the children to decide upon the 
disposal of their gifts. 

In the primary department this may be accomplished by pro- 
viding three or four differently colored boxes into which the chil- 
dren put their offerings for objects designated by terms within the 
scope of their experience and with which they are made famiHar by 
frequent talks. Above the primary department each pupil should 
have his own envelope and each class its own treasurer. Once a 
month or at some other stated period the teacher should stimulate 
discussion concerning specific objects of benevolence and so guide 
the class in the disbursement of their offerings. As the pupils 
advance in maturity more and more freedom should be granted, 
but even the very youngest ought to be protected from exploitation 
and be given some opportunity for self-expression and choice. In 
the field of benevolence the task of religious education is to develop 
a generous spirit and the habit of selective choice in connection with 
a wide range of enriching human interests. The fundamental con- 
dition to the fulfdment of this function is the practical recognition 
of the two educational principles of self-activity and interest. 


A practical examination of the actual methods in use by Sunday 
schools will further illustrate these principles. The writer has made 


a canvass of seventy-five pastors or Sunday-school leaders with a 
view to securing representative testimony. About 25 per cent of 
those interviewed stated that nothing was done to make their 
benevolent offerings vital and significant. Two more might truth- 
fully have said the same. One method was described as follows: 
"Missionary offerings are taken once a month. An address is sup- 
posed to precede the offering but this is not regularly given. The 
discipline of the church calls for the distribution of literature but 
this requirement is not observed." Is it any wonder that this 
pastor pessimistically observed that it was impossible to approach 
men on the missionary question ? And what provision is he making 
for the dawning of a better day ? 

Another method was stated thus: "Ten per cent is given to 
benevolence from the offerings of the Sunday school. No regular 
instruction is given, but the school is always open to appeals. We 
wait the action of the boards." It is probably true, as was said, 
"our benevolence is not reduced to the level of a ritual or the 
mechanics of a program," but is it worth while to pay for such 
freedom the heavy price of dependence upon unregulated impulse ? 

Others gave the following accounts of their methods: 

"Representatives address the school on behalf of specific objects." 

"Speakers from various organizations; visits by older classes; letters of 
appreciation read." 

"Weekly talks are given on missionary subjects." 

"Instruction is given concerning the objects for which the offering is 

"Children are told of the projects to aid which their offerings go." 

"Letters from the field help." 

"We give information about the cause to which they are giving." 

"Keeping before the pupils the objects." 

"We get reports, pictures, letters, addresses, dramatic presentations of the 
work in which we are interested." 

"We keep in touch with objects and people helped." 

"Imparting of missionary intelligence." 

"The children are asked to give to concrete objects and these are intelli- 
gently set before them." 

"Special, specific, definite instruction is given in all departments (except 
beginners) before offering is taken." 

"They are made for specific objects each month and reports are made." 

"The grades give to special concrete objects in which an interest is created." 


"All offerings go to the support of our own Sunday-school missionary in 

"We give to concrete objects." 

"By making the contact between the giver and the one in need as close 
and vital as possible." 

"Twenty -five dollars is contributed monthly to specific causes and for that 
month that cause is made prominent." 

"Once a month the entire offering goes to missionary work. There is a 
Sunday-school missionary society and the president arranges for giving mis- 
sionary instruction on that day." 

"Twenty-five per cent of the offerings go to mission work. Very frequent 
ten-minute talks are given by competent people. The kindergarten of the 
school uses four boxes of different colors, each of which is set apart for a spe- 
cific object. The little folks drop their money in these boxes." 

"Pledge envelopes for offerings are supplied to the children and the total 
Sunday-school offering for the second Sunday of each month is given to some 
missionary or benevolent object." 

"We take up missionary offerings and have someone talk to the children 
so that they will give with more interest and intelligence." 

"Courses in senior classes; attractive general program; literature." 

"We seek to relate them to Christ and his religion in the individual life." 

"Our adult Bible classes have each a missionary committee which takes 
care of the benevolence work of the class." 

"All of the offerings raised by the school are used for benevolent purposes. 
The executive committee of the Sunday school decides upon their disposal. 
Freedom is allowed with regard to special gifts for philanthropic purposes. 
Speakers occasionally address the school. The birthday offerings always go 
to Jackson Park Sanitarium for Children." 

"The boys and girls do the work themselves under guidance, earn their 
own money, and deliver their gift in person if that is wise." 

"We have a philanthropic committee that seeks to direct every class in 
the choice of some benevolence, local or more remote. The class is directed 
to secure money for the help of the object or cause chosen, and is encouraged 
to study the character, work, and needs of the institution concerned." 

"Every child is given a package of fifty-two dated and numbered envelopes. 
A record is kept of each child's offering and a regular report is made to him. 
The beginners have a missionary society called the Busy Bees which meets two 
or three times a year. At these meetings the missionary pigs are broken and 
appropriate stories are told. A similar method is followed in the primary 
department. The entire offering of the Sunday school is given to missionary 
work, its distribution being decided by the Sunday-school management. The 
Sunday school has its own mission in Lahore. Incidental missionary instruc- 
tion is given every Sunday." 


"The denominational offering for foreign missions is taken at Easter. 
Beginning about Christmas time, a five-minute talk, accompanied by illustra- 
tions and curios, is given every Sunday. The chairman of the missionary 
committee is responsible for these talks and goes to each department. Mis- 
sionary leaflets are also distributed every week and envelopes are given to the 
children some time before their offering is to be made. The offering at Thanks- 
giving for home missions is preceded by the same systematic effort to awaken 
intelHgent interest. As a result of these efforts a large number in the school 
have given evidence of really getting to have a sympathetic interest in home 
and foreign missions." 

"Last summer the summer school had a special study — a tour around the 
world with the stereopticon. Two lectures were given on each country. The 
teachers were given the lectures several months before so that they could make 
themselves thoroughly familiar with them. The slides were put into their 
hands two or three weeks before they were needed. The immediate result of 
this venture was a better attendance at the Sunday school than ever before." 

"Each class from the primary up has its own envelopes for the individual 
members, elects its own treasurer, and disburses its own money. All funds are 
handed over to the general treasurer of the school and he in turn honors the 
checks of the class treasurers. The aim is to engender discussion under the 
guidance of the teacher with a view to securing the educational reaction. Once 
a month objects of benevolence are discussed, but the class is not restricted to 
any selected list. One Sunday the pastor happened to mention that the church 
had recently paid out an unusually large amount for postage. That day one 
class made an appropriation for church postage. A feature of the system is 
the addresses of representatives of institutions and boards who frequently visit 
the school." 

The infant class of one school with an average attendance of sixty has 
had a remarkable record in benevolence. For the last year its receipts were 
$2,440. II. The only explanation of this achievement which we could obtain, 
aside from the personality of the teacher, who has been at the head of the class 
for twenty-five years, is afforded by the treasurer's report, and we give it in 
full with respect to the receipts: 

Treasurer's Report 

MAY I, 1911, to APRIL 30, 1912 

Amount on hand May i, 1911 $ 63.94 

Pa3Tnents on loans 900 . 00 

From three friends 25 . 00 

Sunday offerings through the year 205 . 1 8 

Offerings in Christmas barrels 54 • 20 

By interest on farm mortgages 487 . 61 

From proceeds of Harvest Home play, Noah's Flood 253 . 54 

Proceeds of Easter eggs and play, David and Goliath 450.64 

Total receipts $2,440.11 


This class owns securities valued at $7,472.00, the result of the accumu- 
lated balances of a number of years. These securities are yielding the class 
good returns, but it is open to serious question whether a Sunday-school class 
should have large annual balances. 

"We are just adopting the system of having the classes keep their collec- 
tions in a class treasury; once a month or thereabout a cause is presented to 
them from the platform, that of a missionary or other benevolence, such as a 
New York settlement; they are told how much the apportionment of the 
school would be for that cause, on a basis arranged by the financial committee, 
and the classes are asked to vote from their treasuries such sums as they think 
their share of that apportionment demands." 

"First let me say that we talk far less about money than about the right 
attitude of the heart. We seek also to educate in every way that all action 
shall be intelligent. There are in the west end of the city nine schools, all of 
them being the output of our church. We are planning to start another. 
These schools are banded together for some definite work each year. This 
year it is to put up some buildings in India. Each class in our own school 
takes a collection for this every Sunday and this is placed in a separate bag or 
box where it remains until the end of the year, when the amount is counted and 
brought to the platform at the annual festival of that part of the school and 
the sum reported. The interest then is intense. Last year the children alone 
gave about $900 in our school. As to keeping up the interest and educating 
the children, we have three sets of lantern slides and two of our men are out 
every Sunday with lanterns giving addresses. We try to have at least one 
address a month at each Sunday school. We try to get as many schools as 
we can to take up the work themselves and we provide them with the slides 
if they have a machine, and if not, we have a lantern that we lend them as 
far as it will go. We have no difficulty in getting schools to join us. The 
superintendent of our school doubles whatever amount is raised. However, as 
I said, our children alone gave nearly a thousand dollars last year. We give 
our offerings to a different mission each year." 

What, then, are the findings of our study ? We shall summarize 
them under four heads: 

1 . In about 25 per cent of these schools no effort is made to make 
the offerings vital and significant. 

2. In most schools a more or less systematic effort is made to 
inform the children concerning the objects to which their offerings 
go. In some schools this instruction is extensive in scope and sys- 
tematic in character, but in too many it is scanty in its range and 
occasional in its impartation. 


3. A fair proportion of the schools give definite recognition to 
the value of concrete objects in stimulating benevolence, and some 
discriminating care is given to their selection. 

4. Only three, possibly four, schools give the pupils any respon- 
sibility in the disbursement of their gifts that calls for selective 

This analysis suggests the probable direction of advance and the 
ideals for which we ought immediately to work. It is not at all 
likely that any large number of schools will recognize, in the near 
future, their responsibility for training their young people in wise 
habits of choice and allow them to select the objects to which they 
will devote their offerings. But already many schools are giving 
systematic instruction in order to make their pupils intelligent 
givers and almost as many are recognizing the necessity of appeal- 
ing to the prime interest of children by giving them concrete objects 
of benevolence. Emphasizing these two elements, however, will 
almost inevitably result in a realization of the need of making the 
benevolence of young people still more vital by giving it the stand- 
ing and insuring for it the essential characteristics of an expressive 


The canvass of the methods of Sunday-school benevolence was 
supplemented by an examination of missionary leaflets. Leaflets 
were chosen because the specific function for which they are 
designed and the prevailing use to which they are put is to stimulate 

One hundred and twenty-five of these leaflets were examined, 
obtained from five denominations and issued by eight boards. It 
was encouraging to find that just about one hundred of these were 
admirably suited to their purpose and possessed real educative 
qualities. Most of them are graphic stories of child life, a few of 
them sound the heroic note, while a large number, especially the 
leaflets of the home-mission boards, contain picturesque descriptions 
of events and movements which arouse enthusiasm and enlist co- 


As many of them suggest their content by their title it may not 
be amiss to give the names of a few: When Father Is a Missionary, 
reproduced in the handwriting of a Httle nine-year-old girl and full 
of human interest for children; Homes of the Mountain Children; 
Children of the Hoga?t; Snow Children; Cuban Village Children; 
One Little Injun; America's Welcome; In Chicago^ s Ghetto; A Day 
with a Missionary Doctor; Kei San, the Child with No Hands; 
Igorrote Boys in the Philippines; The Children of Turkey; A Tokio 
Lily; Pak-Si-Mi-Do, or From Shadow to Sunshine; Ten Chinese 
Robbers. These leave no doubt as to the persons for whom they 
are intended. Livingstone Hero Stories; Our Call from Liberia; 
Heroes of the Island World, belong to the heroic type. The Outposts 
of the People; Creating a Frontier; The Puzzled Ranchfnan; Foreign 
Missions at Home; Foreign Missions under the Stars and Stripes; 
In the Land of Adobe; The Story of Pah-Ah-Wat; In the Detention 
Room; Is Alaska Part of Us ? The Empire of the East; and The 
Empire of the Pacific Northwest, are vivid stories of national prob- 
lems, events, and movements which easily capture the imagination 
and the interest. 

More stories of boy life, more leaflets which strike the heroic 
note, and more of the picturesque material which sets forth in a 
vivid and striking way the bigness of the foreign-missionar}^ enter- 
prise ought to be added to this leaflet literature, and instead of 
being sold the leaflets ought to be distributed without cost, so that 
every Sunday school could use them freely for their educational 
effects. Pictures, postal cards, posters, and curios are also supplied 
by the missionary boards and some societies indicate in their cata- 
logue the grade for which their material is suitable. 

Of the other twenty-five leaflets we cannot speak so favorably. 
Three mistakes are committed by their writers. The first mistake 
consists in making the needs of the society central instead of the 
needs of the children. In these leaflets procuring the children's 
money is the primary, and promoting the moral education of the 
children the subordinate, end. Invidious comparisons are made 
between what the children spend on themselves and what they 
give to missions. A boy, for instance, is told by his uncle: "Now, 
my young man, you know very well that a quarter for peanuts 


doesn't look any larger to you than a pin's head, and that a quarter 
for giving looks as big as a cart wheel — but that's got to stop." 

Instead of being given educative, constructive, and interesting 
stories the children are given a scolding. Instead of being inspired 
with a sense of the privilege of participating in a great human 
movement they are coaxed or cajoled or shamed into giving. Sup- 
plying neither information nor inspiration, these leaflets are an 
attempt to get something for nothing, and the children whom they 
dupe yield up their pennies and receive no enrichment of life in 
return. Of course there is bound to be a reaction, and the last state 
of these children is worse than the first. 

A second mistake consists in making too heavy demands on the 
social sympathy an'd unselfishness of children. The material pos- 
sessions of children are necessarily limited and they are not easily 
increased or replenished. It is almost impossible for the adult to 
realize how dearly the toys and keepsakes of a child are treasured. 
To stimulate the sacrifice of these is to assume a grave responsibility, 
and any impoverishment of the child is certainly immoral and the 
ultimate effects are sure to be unfortunate. It must further be 
borne in mind that the social experience of the child is naturally 
confined to a relatively small compass. Outside of its own encirc- 
ling group it has little knowledge and consequently small interest. 
Parents and teachers are often tempted to enlarge this circle by 
force, but the precocious development of any natural capacity or 
faculty is always unwise and hazardous, and in the end the best 
results are attained by assisting and directing, not by hastening, the 
natural processes of the developing organism. With the ripening 
of the sex impulse the social nature blossoms into fuller beauty and 
one may ask and expect an increasing recognition of social obhga- 
tions, but the social impulses of childhood lack both intensity and 
range and any strong and stirring call to sacrifice does violence to 
its undeveloped social nature. 

But the meagerness of the child's possessions and the narrowness 
of its social interests are frequently forgotten by the writers of mis- 
sionary leaflets and every effort is made to stimulate sacrifice which 
would be heroic enough in their fathers and mothers. Stories are 
told of little children set forth as ideals, who, after great struggle 


and triumphant effort, take their best-prized treasures and heroic- 
ally give them for the salvation of the heathen. • One little girl gives 
her cherished silk mitts, which her father was too poor to buy, but 
which her aunt had given her at Christmas; another gives her 
"darling dollie," "dearest one I ever loved"; while yet another, to 
obtain money for the missionary offering, sells her great shaggy 
Newfoundland dog, the pet of her life, who saved her from drown- 
ing when she was only three years old. 

Such productions are nothing short of a deliberate attempt at 
the exploitation of unprotected childhood. Deep and urgent social 
feeling issuing in costly sacrifice is not natural in a child, and the 
more one considers the child's highest welfare and greatest useful- 
ness the more one deprecates its premature development. Benevo- 
lence of a fine type and enduring character is a result of careful 
nurture and cannot be promoted by impoverishing the child or by 
violating the laws of his unfolding personality. 

A third mistake consists in the creation of little "improbables," 
whose amazing missionary zeal is expected to provoke a similar 
interest in others. The psychological blunder of this method of 
appeal is obvious. As is the case with all devices, these idealized 
children concentrate the attention upon themselves and absorb the 
interest while the real object of importance is forgotten. The 
more impressive these stories are the more deplorable is their eft'ect, 
for their very success signifies that these pious improbables have 
become focal, while the children abroad or in other social conditions, 
for whom an interest should have been aroused, have become 
merely marginal in consciousness. If these stories have any pur- 
pose it is to create a worthy interest in the missionary' enterprise; 
but instead of doing that they create an interest of no real worth 
in fictitious children and the missionary enterprise is side-tracked 
and forgotten. 

The moral blunder is also obvious. Sooner or later young 
people discover that they do not meet such children among their 
playmates, on the street, or in the schoolyard. The fiction is too 
palpable to deceive them long and the discovery of the deception is 
sure to react upon the missionary enterprise. Instead of looming up 
as a great human interest it becomes associated in Ihcir minds with 


pious fictions and sentimental unrealities, and a bias is created 
which in later life it is difficult to overcome. Fiction, when true 
to life, is almost invaluable and has proved its worth in more than 
one humanitarian cause, but when it descends to the grotesque and 
disregards the universal laws of human nature its effect is pernicious 
and the most worthy cause will suffer through its use. 

The missionary societies should eliminate these three t}^es of 
leaflets. They carry no educational values and it is only through 
education that any permanent and vital interest in missionary 
effort will be aroused. Concrete presentations of child life, stories 
of heroic endeavor, picturesque descriptions of vital and significant 
movements, these are rich material for the religious education of 
childhood and adolescence and the missionary enterprise has this 
material in abundance. 


The pragmatic spirit of our age is indisputable. The only 
standard it knows for estimating any institution or movement is 
its contribution to the common good. What credentials, then, 
can social service present ? What are its values ? In seeking an 
answer to that question it should be borne in mind that social 
service in the Sunday school is only in its infancy and most of the 
graded programs in use have been developed only within recent 
months. So far social service by young people is in its purely 
experimental stage, and, while good results have been obtained, a 
much more substantial body of objective, concrete evidence is 
needed before it can be claimed that social service has demon- 
strated its value in religious education. 

It is not the purpose of this chapter to present a theoretical dis- 
cussion of the value of social service for religious education. The 
pedagogical, psychological, and religious arguments are more or 
less familiar and need not be repeated. If we "learn by doing" 
and self-activity is essential to education, if conduct engenders 
emotion and emotion follows in the line of conduct, if religion is an 
affair of life and expresses itself in concrete forms of social 
experience, the significance of social service for religious education is 
beyond dispute. There are two sources, however, from which we 
may obtain definite, concrete evidence of the value of social service 
— the leaders who direct its activities and the young people who are 
engaged in its tasks. It is to these sources we shall look for the 
contents of this chapter. 


In seeking information from Sunday-school workers we are 
confronted by two difficulties. In the first place, with too many, 
personal opinion clothed in pedagogical phraseology or expressed in 
sociological terms is made to do duty for concrete facts. Familiar 
with the educational basis on which social service is admitted, 



these people take it for granted that the educational values will 
realize themselves. 

The second and more fundamental difl&culty grows out of the 
impossibility of tabulating spiritual results or showing moral 
growth by a schedule. Character is a product of slow develop- 
ment and it is not, easy to measure its progress or to indicate it in 
diagrammatic form. 

Yet notwithstanding these difficulties, and they are accentuated 
by the brief history which social service has behind it, a body of 
data has been accumulating. Sunday-school workers refer to such 
objective, concrete values as increased offerings, enlarged attend- 
ance, gratified parents, interested pupils, improved church workers, 
greater democracy of spirit, a more social attitude, and better knowl- 
edge of social conditions. From a large number of testimonies 
which have been secured it might be well to present those of half a 
dozen workers whose experience in social service makes their 
evidence significant. 

1. a) "It assists young people to apply the religious impulse to the prob- 
lems of their own life and to those of the community. 

b) "It promotes their recognition of the fact that each individual is per- 
sonally responsible for the social welfare of the community. The importance 
of this emerges when we realize that the individual conscience is the field of 
social control. 

c) "It improves the whole situation of the school. It increases the 
attendance, improves the quality of the work, and strengthens the hold of the 
school upon the pupils." 

2. a) "It is absolutely essential to the correct interpretation of the Chris- 
tian life. 

b) "It teaches the pupils to expect that impulse should bear fruit in 

c) "It trains the children in the habit of looking to religion as the source 
of motive for living. 

d) "It gives an immediate test of the reality and worth of religious expe- 

e) "It gives the sound ethical habit of putting all our love and testing 
all our impulse in the furnace of actual human conditions." 

3. "It provides definite, concrete, human ways of expressing the religious 
impulses. When free from the patronizing, Lady Bountiful spirit it generates 
the Christian spirit and carries its own inherent stimulus and motive. It 
often enables Sunday-school scholars to realize what religion is all about and 


to transfer it from the mysterious, sad-faced unreality in which it often lan- 
guishes to the living world of actual human relations." 

4. "I beUeve this work to be of the greatest value in teaching people to 
live happily and usefully together. It is an excellent cure for snobbishness, 
and for the teaching of some of the most valuable lessons of life it is unequaled." 
5. "The two most notable results of social service in the Sunday school, so 
far as I have seen it, have been the eager interest of the children and the pro- 
found gratitude of parents. Children bring to this a concentration of attention, 
an intensity of anticipation, a joy of sacrifice, and a persistence of human 
purpose that I have seen nowhere else in their life. If one may interpret the 
evident satisfaction that follows, from one's own experience, one would say that 
they have really learned that it is more blessed to give than to receive. 

"The thankfulness with which parents, in church relations and outside of 
church relations, see their children really interested in something that seems to 
them vital and at the same time connected with the church, and the interest 
which the parents themselves acquire or renew in these same things, is most 

6. "I was much pleased with one young girl's behavior last summer. 
For several weeks previous to the time when our Sunday-school closes for the 
summer I emphasized to the whole school the idea of doing for others while 
they were enjoying their seashore and mountain vacations. I learned at the 
end of the summer that a fifteen-year-old girl who had never known a hardship 
or deprivation herself nor, at that time, scarcely ever a disappointment or 
sorrow, chose as her regular deed of kindness to go every evening to see an old 
lady, tiresome and complaining, and listen to all her complainings and talk in a 
cheerful way to her." 

The testimonies of these workers are worthy of consideration. 
They indicate results which have already appeared and they sug- 
gest the direction from which others may be expected. Undoubt- 
edly some are getting more values out of social service than others, 
but then some are putting higher values into it. As in all education , 
so in social service used as material for religious education, the 
personaUty of the teacher is of supreme importance. A leader 
who does not distinguish between social service and charity work, 
who is indifferent to the necessity of establishing his young people 
in reciprocal relations with other persons, and who takes it for 
granted that the educational values of social service will realize 
themselves, has failed at the very outset. The letter killeth, the 
spirit maketh aHve, and for the attainment of the high values that 
belong to social service it is essential for the leader to be thoroughly 
possessed by the social spirit. 



An intensive study was made by the writer in order to obtain the 
reactions of young people who were participating in some form of 
social endeavor. Twenty-two young people contributed to the 
study, their ages ranging from six and a half years to twenty-one, 
with the number of males and females equal. The nature of the 
social service in which they participated varied somewhat, though 
most of them were interested in needy famiHes and nearly all were 
continuously engaged in activities for others. Except in one or two 
instances, where two pupils together described the work of the 
class, each pupil was seen alone, and as there was no opportunity for 
conference any similarity or agreement of expression cannot be 
ascribed to imitation or suggestion, but must be found in more 
fundamental causes. 

Every precaution was taken to guard the results from unreality. 
Embarrassment and awkwardness were carefully avoided. Definite 
information was sought in accordance with a formulated technique, 
but this technique was never exposed to the subject and he was 
never made to feel that he was being studied. The approach was 
always objective and attention was centered upon the concrete. 

The pupil was asked and encouraged to describe the social 
work the class was doing. Now and then, at opportune moments, 
questions were injected into the narrative, but these interrogations 
never induced self-consciousness and were never prolonged. Ques- 
tions introduced in this casual way brought unstudied answers and 
at the same time stimulated the interest of the subjects in the 
description and enabled them to continue their story. 

The objective approach had yet another value. For this de- 
scriptive method not only kept the pupils in close contact with 
the concrete, furnishing facts and preventing self -consciousness, 
but the rehearsal of their class activities in a measure repro- 
duced and disclosed their own emotional attitude to the work they 
were describing. The personal element could not be eliminated. 
The activities of the class were a part of themselves and the sig- 
nificance which they had for them was spontaneously revealed. 
What is set down in this study is based, therefore, not only on the 
direct response to questions, but also upon the emotional attitude 
which came out in the rehearsal of their activities. 



The popularity of social service in the Sunday school cannot be 
questioned. Without exception all the pupils, from the youngest 
to the oldest, talked of the work of their class with unconcealed 
delight. It lit up their faces, colored the tone of their voices, and 
gave vivacity and freedom to their manner. It was not necessary 
to ask the question, "Is social service popular in the class?" For 
the sake of making the evidence as clear and convincing as possible, 
however, the question was asked, and in every instance an affirma- 
tive answer was given with unhesitating decision. 

A little girl six and a half years old not only showed intense 
delight in filling a stocking for a kindergarten Christmas tree, but 
on her own initiative and entirely without suggestion she took 
money out of her own purse to pay for a present on another kinder- 
garten tree. The act was the more significant with her as she is not 
in the habit of using her own money except by the suggestion and 
under the direction of her parents. Some weeks later when a little 
friend became ill and was quarantined she took great pleasure in 
cutting out scrap pictures for him and in sending him picture post- 
cards and Sunday-school papers which she had saved. 

A boy (age of class eleven to thirteen) said of his class, "We 
would rather do it than not." A girl (age of class eleven to thir- 
teen) remarked, "It makes the class more interesting." A girl 
(age of class thirteen to fifteen) expressed her feeling somewhat 
decisively when she said, "We would not like to have it cut out." 
Another girl in the same class said, "Everybody responds to it." 
A boy (age of class fourteen to sixteen) put it this way: "It takes 
fine with the boys." A second boy of the same class said, "The 
boys are much interested in their work. Every Sunday school 
should do something of this kind. It is only right that they 
should." A third boy remarked, "Social work is very popular 
with the boys," and the tone was more significant than the words. 
He also added, "Every Sunday school should do it." A fourth boy 
of the same age declared, " The boys like to do social work. Every 
Sunday-school class should do more of it than they do." A young 
man (age of class seventeen to twenty) said with much spirit, 
"All the boys enjoy it and they are hustling. We feel like doing 
more of it." 


In the case of two young women, the members of a popular class, 
the enthusiasm for social service was especially suggestive. This 
class was taught by a teacher of good ability, unusual training, and 
ripe experience. Her methods were the best and the materials of 
her course had large values for the class. Yet when these two 
young women were asked if the class would not have been equally 
as popular without its social activities they immediately repHed, 
"It was the social service more than the lessons which made the 
class popular." The meaning of this for religious pedagogy Hes 
upon the surface. 

In social service we have discovered a real interest of youth and 
childhood and so a new clue to the educative process in its rehgious 
aspects. The history of education shows that wherever the child 
has been regarded and respected all forms of external stimulus 
were unnecessary'. The use of the rod, with its appeal to fear, and 
of prizes, with their appeal to rivalrj^, is the surest e\'idence that 
education has lost its way and is devoting its energies to an arti- 
ficial rather than a natural process. An intelligent recognition of 
the spontaneous interests of the pupils makes punishments and 
rewards unnecessary. The discovery of the interest which social 
service holds for the young people in the Sunday school is therefore 
of large significance. 

In the history of religious education hundreds of devices have 
been suggested and used to make the Sunday school more attractive 
and to increase its attendance. Giving no sympathetic or intelli- 
gent consideration to the natural interests of those most immediately 
concerned, the inventors of these devices have gone upon the 
assumption that the problem at hand was to make the Sunday 
school interesting; and, ignoring the interests already present — 
those of the pupils — their solution has uniformly taken the form of a 
pleasing novelty. But why resort to artificial interests when the 
natural are so much more effective and carry such large values ? 
A Sunday school with a program of social service is not only an 
interesting Sunday school, but, better by far, it is a Sunday school 
of interested pupils and teachers. Whenever the pupils were asked 
if they preferred a Sunday school with or without social service 
they promptly and decisively replied in favor of social service. 


Young people usually know what they want, and when given an 
opportunity to express their preference they seldom fail in frank- 
ness. The attraction, then, which social service possesses for them 
cannot easily be denied. 

There is good reason, too, for social service seizing young people 
as it does. It links itself with the elemental social instinct. It 
furnishes an attractive, expressive activity and deals decidedly 
with the concrete. The child's interest is primarily in activities 
and in concrete objects or experiences, and when religion is presented 
to him in a concrete and objective form it is not only more easily 
comprehended and more warmly appreciated, but its institutions 
become more real and its expressions more attractive to him. 

Then social service gives significance and strength to the group 
life of the class. Many in the Sunday school are under the domi- 
nance of the "gang impulse" and readily yield to any attractive 
unifying force. By making the class significant as a group, social 
service becomes such a force and pre-empts this social impulse for 
the larger socializing process of religion. With adolescence comes 
the larger social interest and the altruistic spirit. The appeal of 
social service to this period of idealism is irresistible. 

Compositions written by thousands of children in New York with reference 
to the vocations they desired to follow when they were grown up were collated 
by Dr. Thurber. The replies show that the desire for character increased 
somewhat throughout, but rapidly after twelve, and the impulse to do good in 
the world, which had risen slowly from nine, mounted sharply after thirteen.' 

With reference to the choice of ideals during childhood and 
youth. Dr. Hall summarizes his investigations with the conclusions: 

Civic virtues certainly rise; material and utilitarian considerations do not 
seem to much, if at all, at adolescence, and in some data decline. Position, 
fame, honor, and general greatness increase rapidly, but moral qualities rise 
highest and also fastest just before and near puberty, and continue to increase 
later yet. By these choices both sexes, but girls far most, show increasing 
admiration of ethical and social quahties.^ 

With adolescence comes the instinctive awakening of the larger 
social interests and to the idealism of )'outh the altruism of social 
service speaks with inherent strength. 

'G. S. Hall, Adolescence, II, 389. 
^Ibid., II, 390. 



"Children act morally," says Edgar James Swift, "long before 
they know why they do so. The discussion of principles of conduct 
comes later. Indeed, it is a mistake to make boys and girls over- 
conscious of ethical motives."^ After endeavoring to make one's 
way into the secret recesses in the moral life of young people, 
one finds it easy to indorse this statement. No feature in this 
intensive study presented more difficulty than the problem of obtain- 
ing a clue to the motives behind social service. The young people 
who furnished information were not strongly conscious of their 
motives. No doubt if a direct approach had been made and the 
question had been bluntly asked, "What is your motive in doing 
this work?" quite definite repHes would have been given. But 
the value in such answers would have been very slight, and it was 
felt, moreover, that we had no right to impair their moral Kfe by 
making them overconscious of their motives. Accordingly we were 
restricted to flank movements in our endeavor to bring out state- 
ments which would unconsciously expose their real motives, 
and all their statements must be estimated in the light of this 

With one exception all of the motives were entirely objective. 
A young man of twenty-one referred to the strong incentive to 
social service which he found in the comradeship with an older 
man which a certain work afforded him. Yet after emphasizing 
this subjective element he added, "I can remember of feeling that 
it seemed worth while doing it all just to see and to know of the 
joyful surprise and joy and happiness that this effort was bringing 
to others who except for that might not have a good time." 

As the motives were prevailingly objective, so they were uni- 
formly humanitarian and altruistic. A little girl six and a half 
years old showed great interest in the Christmas activities of her 
kindergarten. At home very little purposely was said about the 
work the class was doing. But some weeks later, when sufficient 
time had elapsed for the novelty to wear off and any excitement to 
subside, she was carefully drawn into a description of what they did. 
In the midst of the conversation, when she expressed a liking for 

' E. J. Swift, Youth and the Race, p. 234. 


doing such things, her father said to her, "What do you hke about 
it?" Instantly she replied, "I like to think they will be happ)'." 
Six weeks later she was artfully engaged in a similar conversation. 
This time when she referred to the children to whom the presents 
went she tarried longer over their personal condition— they were 
orphans — and she accordingly gave as her reason for liking to 
make them presents, "Because they cannot have their fathers and 

A girl (age of class eleven to thirteen) used the one word "sym- 
pathy" to indicate her motive. A girl (age of class thirteen to 
fifteen) said, "We like to make others happy," while another 
member of the same class said, "The circumstances of the family 
make us feel like doing something." A boy (age of class fourteen 
to sixteen) was very earnest in declaring, "We like to do good." 
A boy (age of class fourteen to sixteen) gave expression to his views 
by saying, "It is just the Christian spirit." He added the further 
statement, "It makes the class feel as if they were doing some- 
thing." A boy (age of class fourteen to sixteen) ver)' suggestively 
remarked, "It gives one something to think of besides himself." 

With two boys (age of class fourteen to sixteen) there was much 
in common in their thought. One was interested in the social 
work of the class because, "It gives us a chance to help others and 
we have not had much experience in that"; while the other found 
himself attracted to it because, "It is something out of the ordinary 
and it helps us to get into the spirit of giving." 

A boy (age of class fourteen to sixteen) who seemed very wise 
for his years observed, "If we help others they will see there is 
something in Christianity. They can see the brotherhood of man. 
It helps to make better citizens." 

A girl (age of class fifteen to seventeen) showed the weak spot 
in her heart when she expressed a preference for a family with 
children and referred to the children as the strong attraction for 
her class. 

A young woman (age of class sixteen to eighteen) made a prac- 
tical point when she said, "All classes should do some social service. 
It is an expression of what they are taught." She also added, 
"In social service one is doing something. You are making your- 
self felt." 


A young woman (age of class seventeen to twenty) whose class 
did continuous and significant service, made use of just a passing 
phrase, ''helping others," that revealed her motive; while another 
member of the same class substantiated her testimony by declaring, 
"We were interested in the families we were helping and wanted 
to do good." 

A young man (age of class seventeen to twenty), with a world 
of significance for religious education, gave as a reason for the 
activities of his class, "We like to help other people. We have 
been brought up in that way." 

This is certainly a very creditable exhibition of motives. The 
rehgion of these young people is one of vigor, healthy-mindedness, 
and human interest. It finds expression, not in pious platitudes 
nor sanctimonious reflections nor unnatural exhortations, but in 
activities which embody and reveal the living spirit of rehgion. 
Jesus proclaimed not merely a rule of his own faith, but a law 
of hfe itself, when he said, "He that would be greatest among 
you, let him be the servant of all." It is certainly very gratifying, 
therefore, to find a company of young people who are learning to 
identify religion with kindness, sympathy, and service, and who are 
doing religious work without ostentation and with no consciousness 
of merit. These young people, too, were not on dress parade. 
They were caught unawares, and what we are able to present is a 
snapshot of their motives actually at work. If a program of social 
service in the Sunday school will promote the development of such 
a t3pe of religious life it cannot too quickly be given a place. 


One of the first eft'ects of social service of which we shall take 
notice is its socializing character. The whole tendency of social 
service is to establish the participants in personal human relations 
with a wider and wider range of people— in other words, to socialize 
them. The contrast between living in full personal relations with 
other people and sustaining merely abstract relations with them is 
fundamental. When personal relations prevail all the members of 
the enlarging group are regarded as full human beings, whereas if 
abstract relations alone exist the various members of the group are 


arranged, labeled, and treated as belonging to a class. Reference 
has already been made to the essential difference between social 
service and charity work. The difference is due to the fact that 
each represents a distinctively different attitude toward the objects 
of its attention. The attitude of social service grows out of the 
perfectly definite human feehng which is cherished toward those 
whom it serves, while the attitude of charity work has its origin 
in the aristocratic caste spirit which thinks of those whom it helps 
as members of a class. The relations in social service are personal; 
the relations in charity work are abstract, and while charity work 
hinders, social service promotes the socializing process. 

The socializing character of social service came out clearly in 
our intensive study. Several of the older pupils made definite 
reference to the larger social vision which came to them through 
participation in social endeavors. A girl of thirteen beHeved that 
social work ''made them more appreciative of conditions in life." 
A boy of fourteen thought it was good to do social service because 
"we see conditions." A boy of fifteen was on the same trail when 
he remarked, "It helps one to realize conditions." With the mem- 
ory of a familiar saying in his mind a boy of sixteen pointed out as a 
chief effect of doing social service, "We realize what half of the 
people are doing and get a broader conception of life." A young 
woman of eighteen expressed satisfaction over the work her class 
did in a settlement because, "It brought us face to face with 
needs"; while another member of the same class gave as the 
source of her satisfaction, "It made us realize what was going on. 
It brought us in closer touch with other people and broadened us. 
We saw there was a lot to be done." A young man of twenty-one, 
who gave a somewhat fuller statement of the effect of social service 
on himself, very definitely declared its socializing value by saying, 
" I was led to think upon the unusual conditions of these people who 
were strangers to the common, matter-of-course joys that I had." 

Taken by themselves, isolated and fragmentary', these state- 
ments may not carry much value. But they cannot be taken by 
themselves, for what we see as a mere suggestion in these statements 
was a vital reality of large value in experience. With many of these 
twenty-two young people social service took the form of helping 
families, and in every instance they had a precise and intimate 


knowledge of the f amity. As often as a family was mentioned the 
pupil was asked to describe it, and not one ever failed to do so. 
They knew who was head of the household, they could give the 
relative ages of the children, and they were fully acquainted 
with the occasions for help. What does this signify ? Nothing or 
everything. Nothing as a collection of statistics; everything when 
the basis of this knowledge is, as it was with these young people, 
personal friendship for those whom they served. The spirit of 
these young people abounded in kindly human qualities, and with 
this attitude of personal interest it is no wonder that they came to 
know the families for whom they worked and to regard and treat 
them as friends. 

A young woman of eighteen described the work of her class as 
friendly visiting and referred to the visits which they frequently 
made as the most valuable service which they did for their family. 
Yet this class went a long way toward supporting this family during 
the illness of the husband and father, and when he died they 
rendered them much invaluable help. Through their counsel 
and assistance the mother made application for a widow's pension, 
a good position was obtained for one of the daughters, and the 
family was kept together and set on its feet. In describing their 
work for this family this young woman remarked, "We came to 
have a real friendship for these people and they were always so 
pleased to see us." Later when she was asked, "Was any feature 
of your work unsatisfactory?" she replied, "Yes; we should have 
followed up the family longer, but the class was broken up and 
we were not able to do so." We were told, however, by another 
member of the class that some of them were keeping in touch with 
the family; and as the need of help no longer existed, the relations, 
it is evident, were purely friendly. 

A boy of sixteen described a crippled lad whom his class visited. 
They took him books and papers, "told him what was going on out- 
side and tried to cheer him up." Could one ask from boys a more 
beautiful expression of the social spirit ? The crippled boy did not 
belong to their natural group. There were no common interests 
between their parents and his. But he was a boy, lonely and 
unfortunate, and that was enough to make these boys give him 
their friendship. 


A girl of fourteen afforded an opportunity for an interesting 
experiment. With the family her class was assisting the need for 
help was not so evident as in the other families described. There 
was no sickness in the family, the mother was able to be at home, 
and the father was working. A number of questions were therefore 
asked, which would bring this fact consciously before her, to see 
if she would criticize or blame them in any way. It was all in vain, 
and when she was asked outright, "Why do the family need help ? " 
"Well," she said, " the family is large, there are seven children, and 
the father is not able to earn enough." Her explanation was the 
real one, and she hit upon it when others would have missed it, 
because along with other members of the class she was a frequent 
visitor at the home and had entered into intimate relations with the 

So the closer one came to these young people the more he was 
convinced of the socializing character of social service. They 
themselves were conscious of it. It gave them a better knowledge 
of life, a fuller understanding of its struggles, and a truer apprecia- 
tion of the conditions in which many people are forced to live. 
Their spirit hkewise revealed its broadening influence. They 
were human, sjTnpathetic, kindly, free from all priggishness, and 
above harsh judgment. Beyond all, their attitude of personal 
interest and real friendliness showed how far they had traveled from 
the region of abstract relations and how completely they had come 
into full realization of the people of another group as full human 
beings. If participation in social service would do as much for all 
young people as it has evidently done for these, certainly its 
value in religious education is placed beyond all question. 


When we come to the emotional effects of participating in social 
service we find ourselves in possession of an equally decisive body 
of evidence. Doing for others enriches the emotional life. It 
stimulates and develops the higher feelings and worthier sentiments. 
It favors emotional attitudes of a social character and of the most 
desirable type. 

The testimony of the young people themselves is most con- 
vincing. A girl of twelve stated the case for social service with the 


remark, "It makes one more sympathetic. It adds more pleasure 
to life." A girl of fourteen added another item when she said, " We 
feel happier after doing such work. I think it makes girls more 
self-denying." Another girl of fourteen brought out still other ele- 
ments when she declared with some emphasis, "It makes one more 
thankful. One would like to do more. We do mighty little." A 
boy of fourteen thought the chief effect of working for others was the 
fact that, "It makes one feel as if he had done something." Another 
boy of fourteen who was enthusiastic over social service, remarked, 
"It stirs the heart to do more. It fills one with sympathy." A boy 
of fifteen in describing his visit to a family said, " I felt awful happy. 
I wished I could give a bunch of coal." When he was asked, "Was 
any feature of your work unsatisfactory?" he replied, "Yes; we 
could not do enough." Another boy of fifteen, with his eye on the 
future, said, "Work of this kind is just the beginning of a greater 
work," while yet another of the same age expressed a similar 
feeling by saying, "It makes one want to get more into it." A young 
man of eighteen gave as his testimony, "One feels better after- 
ward. He feels like doing more of it." A young woman of 
eighteen, whose class had done very significant work and at some 
financial outlay, when asked how they financed their work, answered, 
"We took the money from our allowance, but we did not feel it." 
We learned, however, from another source that this young woman's 
giving was of such extent that most people in her position would 
have felt it. Another member of the same class said, "It gives 
happiness to one's self to do for others. It tends to develop the 
self-sacrificing spirit." Speaking of his own experience, a young 
man of twenty-one confessed, "It developed a sympathy for those 
less fortunate or less favored than myself. It caused me to have 
more of a willingness to help them." 

These statements speak for themselves and any analysis of 
them is unnecessary. Sympathy, gratitude, benevolence, the joy of 
service, appreciation, contentment, all are here, and some qualities 
which it would be difficult to describe in a single word. We do not 
mean to say that these emotions or sentiments had ripened into 
their full, mellow beauty. Their development no doubt varied 
with the individual and varied greatly. But the fact that these 


feelings were aroused in these young people shows that we are 
on the right track when we adopt social service as material for 
rehgious education. The thesis of modern psycholog}^ that feehng 
is generated by conduct is true. Emotion accompanies conduct and 
conduct conditions emotion. What we feel depends upon what we 
do. To initiate and promote the higher forms of conduct is to 
induce emotional attitudes and dispositions equally commendable 
and worthy, and the value for rehgious education of a program of 
social service is that it provides selected forms of behavior wliich 
carry high emotional values. 

An impressive illustration of the rehgious value of social service 
was furnished by the experience of one young woman, a university 
student, whose story was told by her Sunday-school teacher. This 
young woman was brought up in a decidedly non-rehgious home. 
While her parents were respectable and cultured people they were 
utterly indififerent to religion in any of its forms or expressions and 
their daughter received no religious instruction and never attended 
church or Sunday school. When about seventeen she was invited 
by a teacher in a Baptist Sunday school, a friend of the family, 
to unite with her class and she received the proposal with favor. 
This class was known for its zeal in social work and she was ver}- 
quickly seized with its enthusiasm and became one of its foremost 
workers. Before uniting with this class she was self-centered and 
had no sense of responsibihty. It never occurred to her that she 
had any duties in life and she was quite regardless of the needs of 
others. But under the influence of her associations in this class 
and her participation in its social service a decided change came 
over her that was most evident to those who knew her. Her 
mother remarked repeatedly, "What a change has come over 

M . She is getting to have a sense of responsibihty 

Her work in that class has done more to develop her than any other 
factor that has come into her hfe." In a year or so she united with 
the church and she is now one of its valued Sunday-school teachers, 
a generous giver to all good causes, a devoted follower of Jesus 
Christ. She has learned that the joy and meaning of life arc found 
in service, and the appeal that reached and won her was the appeal 
that comes through personal participation in social service. 


The aim of this chapter is to suggest a program of social en- 
deavor which will exhibit forms of service suited to the developing 
capacities of young people. These forms of service, it must be said, 
are merely typical and are not presented as an exhaustive list of 
the activities which religious education may employ for its purposes. 
To formulate a program of social activities which would be adapted 
to all Sunday schools or to any single Sunday school all the time is 
not possible. Every community furnishes its own tasks and every 
Sunday school must largely construct its own program. 

One of the first duties of a Sunday school is to discover its oppor- 
tunities for service. It will facilitate this attainment to make a 
list of the organizations, in the immediate neighborhood or more 
remote, with which it can most naturally work, and then to ascer- 
tain what forms of service by young people these institutions and 
societies would most appreciate. When this is done any school can 
formulate a graded program of social service if it will recognize the 
gradations in interest and capacity in young people and if it will 
select forms of service in which all departments of the school can 
more or less constantly participate. 


The objects of social service suitable for young people may be 
arranged in five classes: 

1. Animals. — All children should be taught to enter into sym- 
pathetic relationship with all forms of life about them. They should 
study these manifestations of life from the artistic, economic, and 
sympathetic sides and should be vigilant in preventing, as far as 
they are able, suffering and wrong treatment to others. Such sym- 
pathy and interest can best be developed through kindly efforts for 
the welfare of animals. 

2. Babies and older children. — These may be either orphans or 
half-orphans, sick, dependent, or neglected. 



3. Unfortunate families. — Families overtaken by misfortune and 
in need of sympathy and friendliness appeal strongly to young 
people and call for forms of assistance quite within their powers. 
The more complex problems of relief which arise in connection with 
intemperance, vice, and habitual shiftlessness should not be intro- 
duced before the college years. Caring for needy families affords 
a fine opportunity to correlate the social service of children and 
parents and as far as possible advantage should be taken of this 
opportunity. When the parents and children co-operate in this 
way the social ministries of the family are unified, and through this 
unification the great end of social service is facihtated and it becomes 
possible for the family as a whole to ally itself with another family 
in reciprocal social relations. 

4. The aged.— In private homes, almshouses, old people's homes, 
and homes for incurables there are many old persons who need the 
light and cheer and good spirits which belong to the buoyancy of 

5. The local and missionary work of the church. — There is no bet- 
ter way to heighten their appreciation of the church as a social 
institution than to engage the young people, especially in their 
adolescent years, in appropriate efforts to promote its purposes. 
Through such participation in the life of the church there will come 
to them an enlarging sense of the multiplicity and variety of endeav- 
ors which make up the content of ordinary church work. Possibly 
many churches may experience more difficulty in discovering tasks 
which their young people can perform for them than in finding 
services with a philanthropic intention, but the problem is one to 
be vigorously and persistently attacked. It is likewise exceedingly 
important to enlist the young people in the missionary enterprises 
of the church, for this will constitute their affiliation with the dis- 
tinctively religious advance of the kingdom of God. 

The value of this analysis is that it sets forth in a systematized 
form the comprehensive field which solicits the energy and enthu- 
siasm of childhood and youth. It is not proposed that any group 
will be occupied with all of these interests at any one time. Great 
care must be taken not unduly to burden young people nor to make 
demands of them to which their developing natures are not ready 


to respond. A main purpose in formulating a program of social 
service is to secure an arrangement and distribution of activities 
which will assign appropriate tasks to each department and give 
the young people, as they pass through the successive grades of the 
school, a progressive knowledge of social needs. 

An effective program of social service demands both skilful peda- 
gogy and a reHgious attitude. No program will work itself. A 
program is a dead thing. If ever it throbs with life, it is with the 
life of a vitally contagious human spirit. To instal a program 
of social service and expect it to work automatically and produce 
religious results is a vain hope. The religious results of social 
service will be in direct proportion to the reHgious spirit of the 
directing forces. One of the first prerequisites to a satisfactory pro- 
gram of social service in the Sunday school is a church pervaded 
with the social spirit. The church and the Sunday school cannot 
be divorced. The relation between them is vital and inseparable. 
A church with an aristocratic temper cannot maintain a Sunday 
school with a democratic spirit and it is useless for a church to 
expect religious results from a program of social service if it assumes 
an irreligious attitude to the entire social situation. 

It is further essential to the effectiveness of social service in 
religious education that it should not be isolated from the didactic 
material of instruction. To generate religious emotion, to afford 
an adequate expressive outlet for reUgious beUef, to develop gen- 
uine human comradeship, it must be correlated with the instruc- 
tional and devotional elements with such intimacy and warmth of 
relationship that it becomes an integral, vital, and inevitable 
feature in the life of the school. 


Every Sunday school should provide some form of service for 
the four special occasions of the year — Thanksgiving, Christmas, 
Easter, and Children's Day. Indeed, a history of social service in 
the Sunday school would probably show that it was largely through 
an effort to make these occasions vital that social service first found 
its way into the Sunday school. Certainly these occasions afford 
an excellent opportunity for the introduction of social service into 


a school, and when it becomes fully organized around these days its 
expansion into a full program of graded endeavor will be a mere 
question of development. A brief reference to suitable forms of 
service for these occasions will be sufficient here. 

At Thanksgiving nothing better can be done than to provide 
good dinners for needy families. A whole department should act 
as a group, assuming responsibility for as many families as they 
can manage. As kindergarten children can hardly be asked to 
provide everything required for a complete dinner, it is wiser to ask 
them to bring one thing — apples, nuts, squash, pumpkins, etc., and 
then distribute these over the general offering. Let it be said again 
with all emphasis that no effort should be spared to bring the young 
people into some reciprocal social relation with the families. 

Christmas permits and calls for more personal forms of giving 
than Thanksgiving. So the Christmas gift should be a group gift 
to another group. Whether one or more classes compose this 
group circumstances must determine. Nothing is more interesting 
to kindergarten children than to provide and trim a Christmas tree 
for other httle folks. In order to secure uniformity in the character 
of the gifts and avoid unpleasant comparisons among those who 
receive them, it is well to ask each child to bring a stocking of 
mosquito netting, the size and contents of which have been some- 
what definitely specified. 

One year a class of boys spent the whole of Christmas afternoon 
playing with the boys to whom they had taken gifts. Tliis was a 
fine expression of the Christmas spirit, and the good time they had 
in making it a Merry Christmas for others has never been forgotten 
by those boys. Another class of boys gave vent to their love of 
adventure as well as their good will by going out beyond the city 
limits and gathering Christmas trees which they donated to a 
settlement. The beautiful appropriateness of this bit of social serv- 
ice makes one wonder that more boys' classes have not discovered 
and appropriated this form of Christmas giving. 

Easter suggests flowers and any special service ver}-^ naturally 
will take advantage of this suggestion. If plans are made in the 
fall, at the time for planting bulbs to blossom at Easter, this service 


may assume quite extensive proportions and be made a very beauti- 
ful expressive activity. The planting should be done by the chil- 
dren themselves and if the basement of the church is available, 
so much the better. Let the bulbs open in the spring in the 
kindergarten room, so as to be ready for Easter Sunday, and 
then be carried by the children to the Easter service and left 
on the pulpit, to be taken later to the aged or sick or to some 
appropriate institution. The possibilities of this service are really 
very l^rge. 

Children's Day should be devoted to some form of significant 
service for children. In one school the birthday money of all the 
members of the Sunday school is brought on this day and is used 
to give outings to children from the congested districts of the city. 
Whether this method be adopted or not, this is social service of the 
highest value, and might very fittingly be made a regular feature of 
Children's Day. 

Thus all the festival occasions should be given a touch of service, 
so that all the good times at the church are associated with giving 
happiness to others. As far as possible, too, the ministries of these 
special occasions should be made to fit into the regular program of 
social service. In the same way the money -giving should be cor- 
related with this program. Where each pupil has his own envelope 
and each class its own treasurer it will be an easy matter for the 
teacher to promote discussion concerning suitable objects of benevo- 
lence and so guide the class to an intelligent disbursement of its 

For our purposes we shall divide the school into the following 
five departments: 

Kindergarten, from three to five years. 

Primary, from six to nine years; Grades 1-4. 

Junior, from ten to thirteen years; Grades 5-8. 

High school, from fourteen to seventeen years; Grades 9-12. 

Young People, from eighteen to twenty-one years or farther. 

Inasmuch as the program is only suggestive, it would be very 
easy to adapt it to the six departments of the International 



Objects of Service 

Home church 

The community . 

The larger world 

Animals . 

Ages three to five 

Forms of Service 

Folding papers and inclosing them in envelopes to be 

sent to absent and sick classmates. 
Preparing pictures and small scrapbooks for members 

suffering from prolonged illness. 

Gift to a day nursery. 

Filling envelopes with beads, thread, and needle, and 
making small scrapbooks for children's hospital. 

Providing equipment or contributing to the support of 
a kindergarten. 

Making small scrapbooks with biblical pictures for chil- 
dren in a mission field. 

' Providing water and food for birds. When the kinder- 
garten meets through the week as well as on Sunday 
this can easily be done. 

Three sheets of manila paper 9X 15 will make scrapbooks large 
enough for the kindergarten. In some cases the pictures may be 
sent to be pasted in by the recipients. 

Objects of Service 

Home church 

The community . 


Ages six to nine; Grades 1-4 

Forms of Service 

I. Assisting kindergarten teacher in preparation of 
material (girls). 

Sunday-school messenger service (boys). 
Beautifying their room. 
Boys' choir. 

flaking paper houses, furniture, dolls, and doll 
dresses for a home for foundlings. 
Making scrapbooks for children's hospital. 
Utilization of postcards. 
Pooling toys for orphanage. 

5. Making May baskets to be sent to a home for 
crippled children. 

6. Occasional concerts by boys' choir at old people's 


Ages six to nine; Grades 1-4 — Continued 

Objects of Service Forms of Service 

1. Supporting a kindergarten in a mission field. 

2. Making collapsible paper houses and furniture and 
cutting out paper dolls and dresses to be sent to chil- 
dren in some mission field. 

3. Making scrapbooks to be sent abroad. 

4. Utilization of postcards. 

[ Preparation of bandages for injured animals, to be used 
\ by Humane Society. 

The larger world . 


A few words of explanation will be sufficient to clear up any 
obscurities in this program. 

Assisting kindergarten teacher. — Any kindergarten teacher will 
suggest to the superintendent of the elementary department plenty 
of work for her girls, such as folding paper, making collapsible 
furniture and houses. 

Sunday-school messenger service. — This service consists in carry- 
ing a message, signed by the superintendent, together with a copy 
of the Sunday-school paper, to each absent member of the depart- 
ment and in bringing back replies, so that the officers may know the 
cause of the absence and the condition where sickness prevails. 

Beautifying their room.—TYie gift of a picture chosen under the 
direction of the teacher would fulfil this suggestion. 

Boys^ choir. — Boys ranging in age from nine to twelve are the 
best with which to start. Boys of thirteen, fourteen, and fifteen 
have stronger voices, read better, have better breath control, but 
unless trained earlier they are low and coarse in voice, and habits 
are so firmly fijced that it takes the most strenuous coaching to get 
a pure head-tone and real singing out of such lads. Boys greatly 
enjoy chorus work under the right leadership and they can render 
the church valuable service. 

Scrapbooks. — The scrapbooks made by "this department should 
be larger than those made by the kindergarten. Four or five sheets 
of paper 11X17 inches folded through the center will make a very 
suitable size. It will be better to devote each book to a single 
topic, such as "A Day in the City," "Life in the Country," " Summer 
Pleasures," "Winter Scenes," "Life by the Seaside." Magazines 
furnish abundance of material. 



Utilization of old postcards. — Take a yard of narrow ribbon or 
wrapping tape and cut it in halves. Use postcards having writing 
only on the address side. String the cards together by pasting 
writing-face to writing-face with the ribbon between them width- 
wise of the cards and about one inch from the outer edge of the 
cards. One yard of ribbon will hold sLx pairs of cards. The dis- 
tance between each pair should be about one-sixteenth of an mch. 
When not in use the cards may be folded together or hung by a 
loop at the upper end of the top card. These postcards will be 
equally welcome at a children's hospital or a mission station. 

May baskets. — In some parts of the country- the pretty custom 
prevails of children leaving May baskets, made of tissue paper and 
filled with candy, at the doors of the homes of their Uttle friends. 
Similar May baskets could be made by the children of the elemen- 
tary department and be sent to a home for crippled children. 
Valentine's Day offers a similar opportunity. 

Ages ten to thirteen; Grades 5-8 

Forms of Service 

Looking after their own classmates. 
Beautifying their room by a gift. 
Mass club for boys. 
Girls' chorus choir. 

Making and securing illustrative objects for Sunday- 
school lessons. 
Assisting at church functions. 

Collecting and arranging duplicate stamps from their 
own collections for boys in a home for dependent 

Making games, puzzles, and reins for boys in orphan- 

Raising popcorn and gathering nuts for home for 
crippled children. 

Making candy and popcorn balls for orphanage or 

Making kimonos, surprise bags, and bedroom slippers 
for hospitals. 

Dressing dolls for orphanage. 
Crowing Oowers for llovver mission. 
Occasional concerts by girls' chorus choir. 
Selling Red Cross Christmas seals. 

Objects of Service 

Home church . 

The community. . 






Ages ten to thirteen; Grades 5-8— Continued 

Objects of Service Forms of Service 

1. Gifts of games and puzzles of own make to Grenfell 
mission or an Indian mission or southern moun- 

2. Dressing dolls to be used in the same way. 

3. Collecting Sunday-school papers and helps to be sent 

4. July Christmas tree. 

5. Making workbags and furnishing them with needles, 
thread, yarn, buttons, and other useful articles for 

6. Gift of money to a school like Tuskegee. 

/ I. Making birds' nests. 

\ 2. Gift of money to Humane Society. 

The larger world 


Classmates. — Pupils of this department should be given a large 
responsibility in looking up absent members. The sick should be 
remembered by frequent calls, or where this is impossible on account 
of the contagious nature of the illness, a systematic arrangement 
should be made for the regular forwarding of cards, papers, and 
other small remembrances. Members of the class might even offer 
to do errands for the mother. While not relaxing his own efforts 
a wise teacher can apparently give the responsibility of the absentees 
largely to the class. This is the "gang period" and its spirit should 
be utilized. 

Girls' chorus choir. — At this age girls read music very readily, 
their voices are exceedingly sweet, their articulation never better, 
and a girls' chorus choir offers a most attractive field of service. 

Illustrative material. — The value of objective teaching is well 
understood, but its value will be all the greater if the objects are 
made or secured by the pupils themselves. Experience proves this 
is quite within their abiHty. 

Assisting at church functions. — Almost every church function, 
such as a church supper or social, will call for work which the older 
members of this department can perform. Such services as gather- 
ing flowers, ferns, or evergreens for decorations, arranging chairs 
and tables, checking coats and hats, serve as illustrations. Care 


should be taken to give all such services a setting of dignity, so that 
the young people will feel that their contribution is worth while. 

Raising popcorn and gathering nuts. — This is a bit of service 
which is open to children in the country and which would bring 
great dehght to the group of children who received the popcorn and 
nuts. The mention of this opportunity for giving happiness will 
suggest others of a similar kind. 

Surprise bags. — These bags are so useful that they are warmly 
welcomed at a children's hospital. Hung over the bedpost a sur- 
prise bag provides a convenient receptacle for the child's little 
belongings for which there is no other place. Two or three httle 
"surprise" gifts should be placed in each bag. 

Growing flowers for a flower mission. — This is another piece of 
social service appropriate for schools in the country or smaller towns. 
A village Sunday school sent 150 large boxes last summer to the 
Chicago Flower Mission. The flowers should be gathered and 
packed on a stated day every week and shipped in cardboard boxes. 
Boxes shipped to Chicago bearing the label of the Chicago Flower 
Mission are carried free by the express companies. The seed 
should be bought by funds from the treasury of the class or depart- 
ment concerned and each member should be given a packet. 

Collecting Sunday-school papers and helps. — These are not in 
demand in all mission fields but there are special stations where 
they are very welcome. In the Philippines our International Uni- 
form Lessons are studied some months later than here. On this 
account undistributed clean quarterlies may be used to advantage. 
They may be forwarded to the Philippines as "second-class matter," 
at the rate of one cent for each four ounces. The department for 
utilizing waste material of the World's Sunday-School Association 
will gladly furnish information concerning the disposal of such 

July Christmas tree. — A July Christmas tree is a barrel or box 
packed in the summer with Christmas presents for children in some 
far-away land. Children always enjoy the preparation of sucli a 
"tree," and if they pack the barrel or box themselves under direc- 
tion their enjoyment will ])e all the greater. 



Objects of Service 

The community . 

The larger world 

Ages four ken lo seventeen; Grades g-12 

Forms of Service 

1. Looking after their own classmates. 

2. Interesting themselves in younger boys and girls of 
the school. 

3. Messenger cadets. 
Home church \ 4. Editing Sunday-school department of church paper. 

5. Beautifying their own room. 

6. Designing posters and place-cards for the church 

7. Contributions to current expenses of the church. 

1. Providing a scholarship for a boy or girl under the 
direction of the Juvenile Protective Association. 

2. Remailing Youth's Companion and other papers. 

3. Helping at social centers in games and gymnasium 

4. TeUing stories and directing appropriate games on 
Sunday at social center. 

5. Giving a picnic to a group of children. 

6. Providing a week in the country for a boy or girl. 

7. ]\Iaking fireless cookers and ice boxes and screens 
under the direction of the visiting housekeeper of 
the United Charities. 

8. Making jelly or grape juice as a class for District 
Nurses' Association. 

9. Tearing up bandages for District Nurses' Association. 
ID. Making simple garments according to patterns. 

11. Collecting magazines for almshouses or hospitals. 

12. Taking out patients from the home for incurables 
for a ride in a wheel chair. 

13. Kindnesses as Boy Scouts or Camp Fire Girls. 

14. Participation in civic improvements. 

1. Collecting papers to be sent abroad. 

2. Making sheets, pillowslips, quilts, and simple gar- 
ments for Grenfell Mission. 

3. Educating a boy or girl in some foreign country. 

4. Simple missionary plays. 

1. Reporting to Anti-Cruelty Society all stray dogs and 
Animals < cats. 

2. Furnishing a drinking fountain. 



Older boys working for younger boys. — "The leverage on ever}' 
epoch of boy life," says Fiske, "is the age next older; near enough 
to it to gain confidence and admiration, yet enough older to hold 
respect." Boys must be won by boys, and as its boys can do no 
better work for the church than to win the boys a httle younger, so 
the church can do no better work for its boys than to direct and 
guide and inspire them in this service. The boys to enlist in this 
service are third- and fourth-year high-school boys. 

Messenger cadets. — The function of this organization is the dis- 
tribution of printed matter of various kinds issued by the church. 
The value of this service will be realized when it is stated that 
pastors sometimes have more of this work than their cadets are 
able to handle. 

Beautifying their own room. — As the more the members of a 
class do for their room the more they will prize it, they should be 
encouraged as much as possible to decorate and beautify it. 
Recently a class, after prolonged discussion among its members 
concerning the color scheme of their room, spent a whole evening 
talking it over with a professor of aesthetic and industrial education 
in a neighboring university. Aside from the educational value of 
such an interest and effort, can there be any doubt of the larger 
attraction which their room will have for them when their deco- 
rative scheme has been carried into effect ? One valuable bit of 
service which is possible to young people at this age, who have been 
properly trained, is the designing of appropriate mottoes for the 
wall. Their manual training also quaHfies them for making useful 
and ornamental articles, not only for their own room but for other 
departments as well. 

Church functions. — The specific service which we have mentioned 
here is the designing of posters and place-cards. The interest 
awakened by a fine poster and the pleasure given by an appro- 
priate and dainty place-card make this service significant and 
desirable. To some this may seem too advanced a form of service 
to expect. But if the young people have been properly trained it 
is quite within their ability. Young people like to be honored by 
significant tasks that call for ability and ingenuity and there are 


few mistakes more fatal than a failure to appreciate this desire for 

A scholarship. — In the prosecution of its work the Juvenile Pro- 
tective Association frequently comes across a child who would like 
to continue his studies throughout the high-school course, but who 
is compelled to discontinue his work because of the financial con- 
dition of the family. One method of the association is to say to 
the parents, ''How much would the earnings of this child amount 
to in a year?" Then a class either alone or in combination with 
other classes undertakes to provide this amount of money. The 
designation of it as a scholarship places it upon a dignified basis. 
This is a task for boys of the third and fourth years in high school. 

A week in the country. — Mention of this is made here for the 
purpose of calling the attention of country Sunday schools to a very 
valuable and practicable service which lies at their door. It ought 
to be very easy for a Sunday-school class in the countr}^ to enter- 
tain one or two children for a week in the summer. 

Collection of papers. — English is spoken in many of the foreign 
mission fields. In these places such papers as Christian Endeavor 
World, Youth's Companion, Classmate, Forward, and illustrated 
papers are of special value. In the Philippines 600,000 public-school 
children and their 9,000 teachers are eager for papers in English. 

Reporting stray animals. — Besides suffering themselves from 
exposure and hunger stray dogs and cats are a social menace. It 
is therefore both an act of kindness and of social protection to 
report them to the Anti-Cruelty Society. 

Erection of a fountain. — In addition to being very ornamental, a 
fountain in front of a church constitutes a distinctive contribution 
to the social welfare. All too frequently watering-troughs are in 
front of saloons with the result that cartmen feel under obligation 
to patronize the saloon when watering their horses. A church 
fountain is, therefore, a fine piece of constructive social endeavor, 
as well as an act of humanity and thoughtfulness. 

Participation in civic improvement. — Many a town would be a 
far more desirable place in which to live if its streets were neater, 
its alleys cleaner, and its vacant lots more tidy and ornamental. 
That boys will respond to an appeal of this nature is abundantly 
demonstrated by the Garden Cities of Worcester. 



Objects of Senrice 

Home church , 

The community. 

The larger world , 



§ 7. YOUNG people's DEPARTMENT 
Ages eighteen to twenty-one 

Forms of Service 

1. Regular contributions to the current expenses of the 

2. Promotion of class welfare and friendly oversight of 
class members. 

3. Personal interest in boys and girls of the church. 

4. Conducting walks and talks on Sunday afternoon. 

5. Editing class paper. 

6. Ushering. 

7. Rallying of the young people to attend church func- 

I. Entertaining at the home church a group from a 
Friendly visiting. 

Making layettes for District Nurses' Association. 
Tutoring backward children. 
Outings and picnics for poor children. 

6. Ser\dng at social centers — teaching, conducting 
games, leading classes. 

7. Providing a pleasant Sunday afternoon for young 
men and women who live in boarding-houses. 

8. Reading to the sick, the aged, and the blind. 

9. Singing at Old People's Home. 
Giving entertainments at almshouses and asylums. 
Auto rides for shut-ins and convalescents. 
Disposing of work made by inmates of almshouse. 
Clerical work at district office of United Charities. 
Accompanying patients to clinics, and friends of 
patients to visit them at hospital, house of correc- 
tion, etc. 
Community survey. 

16. Co-operating with the United Charities in assisting 

Assisting in Sunday-evening chapel services at 
county hospital. 
Contributing to outgoing patient's wardrobe. 

1. Adoption of the church scheme of benevolence. 

2. More elaborate missionary plays. 

Co-operation with humane and anti-cruelty societies. 









Walks and talks. — In the modern city Sunday afternoon pre- 
sents a serious problem in the moral development of young people. 
What shall they do ? They cannot keep quiet and they will not 
remain by themselves. To the young man or woman who knows 
something of botany, ornithology, or geology this problem presents 
a rare opportunity. For in what better way could young folks 
spend a Sunday afternoon than in walking out into the country 
and in learning something of the birds, flowers, and stones they 
pass, while under the helpful influence of a strong young man or 
refined young woman ? 

Editing class papers. — ^A description of a class paper which is 
now in its third year, and has proved one of the most successful 
ventures of the class, may be worth while. This paper is issued 
every week and contains eight pages, 4iX5i- inches in size. The 
cover, a standard, is printed in quantities with the name and 
picture of the church on the front and a list of the class officers on 
the back. The inside pages are typewritten and multiplied by a 
duplicating process. Every week a new committee is appointed 
and this committee assumes full responsibihty both for the contents 
and for the cost of the paper. 

Disposing of work of almshouse inmates. — A paragraph from 
Dr. Henderson's Dependents, Defectives, and Delinquents will explain 
this form of service : 

A very needy and attractive field for private charity at the poorhouse is 
the provision of employment for aged women. A life of inactivity and aim- 
lessness is torture. A society of good women in a county, imitating the 
example of Lady Brabazon in England, could furnish materials for plain and 
fancy work, and aid in occasional bazaars for the benefit of the unfortunate 
and aged people. This would relieve the tedious and depressing monotony 
of the almshouse life, bring cheerful motives into the dull existence, and awaken 
sisterly interest for the desolate and friendless in the entire community. 

Here is a field in which a class of young women could do a fine piece 
of social service. 

Missionary plays. — The presentation of such plays as The Pil- 
grimage, Two Thousand Miles for a Book, Sunlight and Candlelight, 


Slave Girl and School Girl, is a field of endeavor that appeals to 
young people and is sure to issue in a more intelligent and more 
vital interest in the missionary enterprise. Several classes in a 
school or classes from several schools might unite their forces and 
by selecting those most gifted with dramatic powers give a really 
first-class presentation that would do the missionary cause good 

^s INITIAL nNE or ^^^f S 

DAY AND TO $10 __=.=